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Full text of "Gazetteer of the State of New York: embracing a comprehensive view of the geography, geology, and general history of the State, and a complete history and description of every county, city, town, village and locality. With full tables of statistics"

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GAZETTEEE 



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OF THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK: 



EMEKACING 



A COMPREHE:srSiyE VIEW 



OF TUB 



GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, AND GENERAL HISTORY OF THE STATE, 



AND 



A COMPLETE HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



OP 



(Bvm^ C^utttjjt Citjj, S0WW, T\\h^t, imA ^^atitjj* 



WITH FULL TABLES OF STATISTICS. 



BY 

J. H. FRENCH, LL.D., 

MEMBER OP THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANOEjrENT OP SCIENCE; CORRESPONDING MEJIBER OF THE KETV TOEX 

HISTORICAL SOCIEIT. OP THE ALBANY INSIIIL'TE, ETC. 



Illustrated by Original Steel Engravings, 

AND ACCOIIPANIED BY A NEW MAP OF THE STATE PROM ACCURATE SURVEYS. 

EIGHTH EDITION. 



SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION. 
1860. 



X 



LIST OF PERSONS EMPLOYED UPON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE STATE MP 
AND THE PREPARATION OF THE GAZETTEER. 



This list includes the names of those only who have been employed for considerable lengths oi time. 

GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT. 

J. H. French. ♦ 

foreman op draetins department. 
Francis Mahler. 

foremen of statistical department. 
Franklin B. Hough, M.D., James Johonnot. 



DRAFTSMEN. 



G. R. Bechler, 
S. Beeman, 
Silas N. Beers, 
H. P. Benton, 
LoEiN Blodget, 
P. J. Browne, 
L. H. Cheney, 
GuEDON Evans, 
Lawrence Fagan, 
Frank French, 
Cyrus Gates, 
John F. Geil, 
Samuel Geil, 
Franklin Gifford, 
Wm. T. Gibson, 



George Worlet, 
Wm. Bracher, 

J. Sartain, . 



Francis Mahler, 
Frank French, 



Wm. E. Wood, 
B. W. O'Grady. 



George N. Barnard, 



surveyors and statisticians. 
Jat Gould, 
H. W. Hardy, 
Franklin B. Hough, 
Chester Hull, 
Wm. Jay Hunt, 
J. W. Hurlbut, 
James Johonnot, 
Geo. p. Johonnot, 
D. J. Lake, 
A. D. Lampkins, 
Morris Levy, 
A. Ligowsky, 
Wm. Lorey, 
Horace C. Manning, 
David E. E. Mix, 

engravers. 

On Stone. 

Gustavus R. Bechler, 
Benj. Matthias, 

On steel. 

J. W. Steele, 

On Wood. 

H. Sebald. 

artists. 
B. W. O'Grady, 



Ebenezer Mix, 
J. B. Moore, 
Samuel M. Rea, 
Thomas W. Rhodes, 
A. E. Rogerson, 
Alphonsb Schoppe, 
J. C. Sidney, 
Stephen 0. 6lus»oa', 
Homer D. L. Sweet, 
A. V. Trimble, 
A. Van Nostrand, 
R. B. Van Petten, 
Charles M. Wilbur, 
Wm. E. Wood. 
S. K. Godshalk. 



Charles Reen. 



D. L. Glover. 



Wm. T. Richards. 



Entered according to Aajggcongreas, in the year 1859, by 

R. PllHsALL SMITH, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Northern District of New York. 



STEREOTIPED BT L. JOHNSON 4 CO. 

COLLINS, PRKTEK. 

PSSRY, BINDLE. 



PREFACE. 



The map of Westchester County which was commenced about ten years since, and soon 
after published by Robert Pearsall Smith, was probably the first map of any county in the 
State of New York published from actual survey of roads and boundaries. This was followed 
by maps of other counties on a similar plan ; and, about eight years since, Mr. Smith conceived 
the idea of publishing a series of maps from actual survey, embi'acing all the counties in the 
State, and, from these, of producing a State Map that should be more full, complete, and 
reliable than any ever before published. But, about four years since, upon careful trial, in 
reducing a large number of these county majis to a uniform scale, so many omissions and 
discrepancies were found in them, that a new survey of the State was deemed necessary to the 
construction of an accurate map of the State, An arrangement was accordingly made with 
the author to take the general superintendence of the new survey ; the general plan for the 
works to be prepared was fixed upon ; and the re-survey of the State and the collection of 
statistics were begun. 

At the commencement of the re-survey, maps of fifty-one counties had been completed 
and published ; six counties had been surveyed, but the maps were not yet published ; and 
three counties were still unsurveyed. Of the fifty-one published maps, twelve were found to 
be so deficient in matters essential to the completion of the State Map accoixiing to the plan 
fixed upon, as to render entire new surveys of these counties necessary. Surveyors were 
sent into the remaining counties, with copies of the published or manuscript maps in hand, 
with instructions to visit every town, to correct every error that should be found upon the 
maps, to make additions of new roads, note changes in boundaries, and, in short, to return 
the maps properly revised and corrected for use in the preparation of the State Map. In 
many instances new surveys of parts of towns, town lines, roads, and streams were found 
necessary, and also countless changes in the location of boundary lines, roads, streams and 
bodies of water, and in the representation of the topographical features of the country. The 
surveyors were instructed to obtain copies of manuscript and other local maps, as far as 
practicable, as these w^ere generally found to contain metes and bounds, and, being plotted to 
large scales, were of value in laying down boundary lines. Draftsmen were also sent to the 
several private Land Offices in the State, and to Albany, and all maps of any value in the offices 
of the State Engineer and Surveyor and the Secretary of State were copied, to be laid under 
contribution in the preparation of the State Map. The Superintendent of tae United States 
Coast Survey and the Secretary of the Interior also furnished copies of all the maps in their 
Departments pertaining to the State. The number and variety of maps and plots, printed and 
manuscript, that have thus been collected is very great, and probably embraces more valuable 
matter than any similar collection in the State. 

Not the least difficult part of the labor of constructing a map of a large extent of country 
is "making the projection." In surveys of small areas this difficulty does not occur, as the 
proportion of the curvature of the earth's surface to that part of its area contained in a rect- 
angle of thirty to fifty miles, is so small that, when reduced to the scale of even an inch to 
the mile, it is scarcely perceptible. But in projecting a map of territory of as great extent 
as the State of New York, the curvatui-e of the surface from a plane is so great as to make 
the departure of the lines of latitude and longitude from right lines plainly visible fipon a 
map even when plotted to a scale of less than one-fourth of an inch to a mile. 

The Flamstead Improved Projection, being the one best adapted to the correct representa- 
tion of a large extent of country, was adopted for the State Map. 

The maps of the State heretofore published embrace a large part of the New Englana 
States, Pennsylvania, and Canada. The space thus usually occupied is appropriated to jalans 
of the cities, and to smaller maps illustrating particular features of the State. These marginal 
maps, it is believed, add to the value of the work. By placing a map of Long Island by itself, — 
at the same time showing its relative position to the rest of the State, by retaining a map of 
nearly one-third of the island in its proper place, — the map of the entire State is constructed 



4 PEEFACE. 

on a scale about twenty per cent, (linear scale) larger than can be done on a sheet of the same 
size with all of Long Island projecting eastward of New York City. This increased scale will 
be found to fully compensate for the change of place of the eastern portion of Long Island, 
The map of the State is plotted to the scale of ij(yty!iJ55' which is j|| or a small fraction more 
than 4.7 miles to an inch ; and the city plans to the scale of zv,i^i5> which is f |f or a small 
fraction more than .78 of a mile to an inch. 

The longitude of several points in the eastern and western portions of the State having 
been accurately determined by the Coast Survey and the Department of the Interior, and 
the latitude of many points on the north and south borders and within the State from nume- 
rous and repeated observations, the projection of the parallels and meridians was first made 
with accurately constructed scales, using the most recent tables of latitude and longitude mea- 
surements as adopted by the Coast Survey and the U. S. Military Academy at West Point. 
The boundaries of the State were next projected, after which the lines of the counties were 
located on the map. The town lines were next laid out ; and finally the roads, bodies of 
water, streams, topography, and all other details were filled in. This course could not fail to 
secure accuracy in all parts of the work ; and, while the map does not agree, in many points, 
with previous maps of the State, the author feels confident that it will bear the closest 
scrutiny and criticism, 

A prominent and distinctive feature of the State Map is the representation of all the roads, 
railroads, canals, and routes of travel, every mile of each of which has been run and every 
angle measured. 

The city plans are all drawn to the same scale, thus presenting, at a glance, the comparative 
extent of the built-up portions of each. Albany, Brooklyn, and Buffalo have so great an 
extent of unoccupied or farm lands that it was not practicable to show the entire corporate 
limits of either on the city plans ; but no built-up part of either city has been omitted. The 
plans of the other cities embrace their entire area. 

In the construction of the Geological and Land Patent Map, the geology of the State 
according to the New York System has been followed ; but the different strata or formations 
are represented by a system of shading in the engraving, — instead of by color, as is usually 
done in geological maj^s. This plan was adopted, as it was desirable to present two distinct 
features in the one map ; and the engraved shading for the geology permits the use of colors 
for the land patents. The size of the map would not admit of the representation of tracts of 
land smaller than a township ; but a complete list of all the grants will be found in this work. 

In the year 1825 the Regents of the University established metfeorological stations in various 
parts of the State, and reports were required to be made from these stations annually to the 
Board of Regents. At the expiration of twenty-five years the Regents caused these reports 
to be digested ; and the mean averages of the summaries thus deduced — so far as relates to 
temperature, fall of rain, and direction of wind — are embraced in the Meteorological Map. 
On this map the several stations (including three established at military posts, and not subject 
to the direction of the Board of Regents) are at the centers of the small circles. In each of 
these circles are either two or three numbers : when two, the upper number is the mean 
annual temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, and the lower number is the mean annual fall of 
rain in inches ; and when three, the upper and lower numbers indicate, respectively, tem- 
perature and rain, and the middle one the elevation of the station above tide, in feet. The 
diagram at the right represents the mean annual direction of wind at the several stations, 
the index in any case denoting the point of compass, and its length the number of days, — 
one inch in length of radius representing five days. Thus, taking the index for Canandaigua, 
the direction is S. 63° 37^ W., and the length of the radius is 3.4 inches. This indicates that 
the mean annual direction of the wind at this station was from the w. s. w. for 17 days in the 
year more than from all other directions. For the isothermal lines, or lines of equal tempe- 
rature, and the shading representing the different depths of rain, we are indebted to Lorin 
Blodget, author of American Climatology. 

The Time Indicator has been prepared from minute calculations, and will be found correct 
in every case. 

The diagram showing the capacity of the church edifices is constructed to a scale, and 
correctly represents the proportion of each to the whole. 

An examination of the various Gazetteers heretofore published cannot fail to satisfy any 
one that a great part of the material from which they were compiled was furnished by corre- 



PREFACE. 5 

Bpondents. This plan seemed to be the one most likely to secure accuracy, and with some 
modifications it was at first adopted in collecting materials for this work. Agents were sent 
into some portions of the State, furnished with printed instructions, questions, and blanks, to 
obtain the desired information, either by personal research, or through the assistance of such 
competent persons in the various localities visited as would undertake to fill the flanks and 
return them to the general office. While a few persons promi^tly responded to the I'equcst 
thus made of them, others delayed giving it immediate attention, and still others neglected it 
altogether. A large proportion of the matter received from correspondents was found to be 
irrelevant, devoted to specialties, or unreliable, and therefore of little value. Much matter 
was received which possesses a greater or less amount of local interest, but which could not 
be admitted without giving undue prominence to some subjects or localities at the expense 
of others. After a fair trial of the plan first adopted, it was found subject to so many objec- 
tions that it was abandoned. The surveyors and agents were then instructed to visit every 
city, town, and village, to search records, examine documents, consult the best living, printed, 
and manuscript authorities, and to make returns to the general office of all the reliable 
matter and information obtained. They were instructed to take no statement on a single 
authority, and in cases where authorities were found to differ, to examine diligently and 
impartially, and report all the facts, so that in digesting and arranging them for the press, 
all the evidence might be at hand. They were particularly cautioned against taking mere 
hearsay or traditionary tales for truth, and not to seek wonders and marvels. A competent 
person was employed to examine records and documents in the State Library and State and 
other public offices at Albany and in New York City, for information that might be avail- 
able in the preparation of this work. The Documentary History and the State Geology of 
New York, general and local histories, biographies, sketches, essays, reports, newspapers, 
manuscripts, and all other available authorities that were likely to contain any information 
of value, were collected, and in turn consulted, and their accuracy and value tested as the 
work progressed. 

The plan for the work finally fixed upon, while it embraces a wider range than is usually 
taken by similar works, seems to be one that cannot fail to meet the wants and tastes of the 
people, as it presents the wealth, resources, present condition, and past history of the State 
in a form and style at once convenient, perspicuous, and concise. 

The details of description of each county, city, town, and village, have been arranged, as 
far as practicable, according to a uniform plan or outline ; as has been also the General 
Article embraced in the first 154 pages. The subjects embraced in this article seemed to 
cover all the ground that properly belongs to the work ; and they are treated at as great 
length as their proportional importance to the limits of the volume would permit. A 
Gazetteer of a State should not be expected to contain, in a connected form, a complete 
compendium of knowledge upon whatever pertains to a State. But present condition, brief 
and comprehensive statements, short historical sketches of general interest, tables, facts and 
figures as connected with the wealth, prosperity, and resources of a State, should be con- 
sidered to an extent sufficient for a work of reference, such as a Gazetteer is intended 
to be. 

The general outline of the county descriptions is as follows : 1st. Date of formation of the 
county, from what taken, subsequent changes in boundaries, location in the State, and aii'-line 
distance of geographical center from the Capitol at Albany. 2d. Geology, topography, and 
drainage ; embracing the general geological formations, general contour of the surface, lakes, 
rivers, and other watercourses. 3d. Soil, leading articles of pi'oduction, and occupation of the 
people. 4th. Works of internal improvement. 5th. County seat, names of first county officers, 
and description of county buildings and institutions. 6th. History of the newspaper press. 
7th. Brief historical sketch of the county from the date of first settlement to the present time. 
The descriptions of the towns are according to nearly the same general plan, and embrace, 
1st. Date of formation, from what taken, subsequent changes in boundaries, and location in 
the county. 2d. Peculiarities in geological formations not mentioned in county description. 
3d. Topography and drainage. 4th. Names and description of villages, hamlets, and local- 
ities, with their location in town, date of incorporation, institutions, leading branches of 
business, and population according to the most recent reliable enumeration. 5th. A brief 
historical sketch, embracing incidents of general and local interest, names of first settlers, 
first birth, marriage, and death, first church, school, mill, and factory, and number of churches 



6 PREFACE. 

in 1855. After the towns in each county is a table compiled from the last State census, 
except the valuation and statistics of schools, which are from the returns for the year 1858. 
In many cases, the population of villages and the number of churches given are from enu- 
merations taken since 1855 ; but the last State census has invariably been taken as authority 
on these tjvo points, except in cases where later reliable enumerations have been taken. The 
acres of land as given in the tables fall short of the area of the county as given at the com- 
mencement of each county description. The reason of this is obvious : the acres of land as 
shown by the tables are from the returns of assessors, which seldom embrace marsh, swamp, 
and unproductive lands, and lands under water ; while the area in square miles, as given in 
the county descriptions, has in every case been ascertained from actual measurements. 

The steel plate illustrations are principally from original views made expressly for this work. 
The map has been engraved on stone, at great expense, by the best artists, and the mechani- 
cal execution of both works is highly creditable to the publisher. 

The Index of Subjects at the commencement of the work, and the Index of Geographical 
Names at the close, cannot fail of being justly valued for their convenience. The uniform 
use of a bold-face letter for names of towns, villages, and hamlets will also be found to 
greatly facilitate rapid search for this class of geographical names. 

To many of the officers in the several State Departments, and to numerous county, town, 
and city officers, local surveyors, civil engineers, land agents, members of the press, and 
others, the author is indebted for furnishing valuable materials for these works. To them, 
and to all who have in any way rendered him assistance in the preparation of either Map or 
Gazetteer, he desires to acknowledge his obligations. Many persons may feel disaj^point- 
ment at finding that information furnished by them has not been used. An examination 
of the work, however, must convince them that nothing has been omitted which was essential 
to the general plan of the work, and that whatever did not come within this plan could not 
be introduced. 

The author would not be doing justice to himself nor to the public did he fail to acknow- 
ledge his obligations to those who have been associated with him in the preparation of these 
works. He desires to make particular mention of the valuable services of Lieut. Francis 
Mahler, Franklin B. Hough, M.D., and James Johonnot. Lieut. Mahler was educated in a 
European Military Academy for a Topographical Engineer. Ten years of subsequent practice 
rendered him eminently qualified for the position he has occupied on the Survey. Dr. Hough 
is well known to the people of the State as the Superintendent of the last State census and as 
the author of several histoi^cal and statistical works. His services in searching records and 
documents at Albany, in New Yoi'k City, and elsewhere, have been invaluable, and to his 
practical knowledge of the geology of the State the author is mainly indebted for whatever 
pertains to that subject in this work. Mr. Johonnot has devoted many years to the subject 
of Physical Geography. The topography of the State, its counties and towns, has been 
mainly written by him. 

The intelligent citizens of the State of New York cannot fail to appreciate the liberality 
of the publisher in the great expenditures he has made in bringing out these works. The 
cost of the original surveys for the county maps was about $48,000, and the expenditures on 
the works from the commencement of the re-survey to the date of publication have reached 
about $46,000 more, making a total investment of $94,000. The whole time spent in surveys, 
collection of materials, writing, engraving, proof-reading, &c., has been equal to the time of 
one person 125 years. It is believed that no similar enterprise of equal extent, and involving 
the outlay of so large a capital, has ever been undertaken at private expense in this or any 
other country. Time, talents, and money have alike been devoted to the production of a 
Map and Gazetteer that it is hoped will be found every way worthy of the Empire State. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Abeel, John, Inilian trader, 414. 

Abercrombie, Gen. Jaraes, 29S. 

Academies, general article on, 125. 
list of incorporated, 130. 
notices of, 48, 140, 160, 161, 169, 171, 172, 
173, 175, 176, 180, 1S4, 193,197, 200, 
201,202, 203, 205, 211, 212, 214, 216, 
220, 228, 229, 230, 235, 237, 239, 243, 
244, 246, 247, 248, 251, 252, 253, 259, 
260, 261, 203, 265, 270, 272, 275, 277, 
278, 282, 283, 286, 289, 300, 303. 305, 
311, 312, 317, 324, 326,327, 330, 331, 
332, 333, 343, 346, 349, 355, 356, 357, 
360, 361, 362, 363, 369, 372, 378, 383, 
384, 385, 390, 391, 392, 393, 398, 399, 
400, 401, 403, 405, 412, 414, 429,4.30, 
453, 456, 463, 404, 465, 4G6, 467, 468, 
409. 471, 482, 484, 485, 4S6, 489, 495, 
498, 505, 506, 508, 509, 510, 514, 615, 
516. 522, 527, 528, 632, 536, 638, 546, 
547, 548, 554, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 
661, 575, 577, 580, 582, 587, 688, 690, 
591, 592, 597, 598, 004, 606, 607, 616, 

617, 625, 627, 628, 634, 637, 638, 640, 
645, 647, 650, 652, 657, 658, 663, 665, 
666, 674, 675, 679, 680, 682, 683, 684, 
685, 686, 692, 694, 695, 698, 699, 700, 
701, 704, 705, 707, 708, 713, 714, 715, 
716. 

statistical summary of, 128. 

Academy of Music, 436. 

Accidents, steamboat, statistics, 115. 

Acid springs, 320, 324, 325, 456, 593. 

Acres of land, by coa., Ac, 108. 

by towns, 167, 177, 185, 196, 207, 217, 
222, 231, 240, 249, 256, 266, 278, 294, 
306, 313, 319, 328, 335, 339, 350, 364, 
373, 380, 387, 394, 406, 417, 457, 472, 
491, 500, 611, 516, 529, 539, 643, 551, 
562, 507, 571, 583, 594, 599, 608, 612, 

618, 630, 640, 648, 658, 659, 669, 676, 
687, 695, 709, 716, 721. 

Adgate's Patent, 48, 311, 349. 
Adjutant General, 43. 
Aftican Methodist Episcopal Church, 139. 
Agrarian movement. See Anti Rent. 
Agricultural College, 616. 
fairs, 101. 
Hall, 27, 160. 
Agricultural Implement manufactory, 160, 
166, 199, 200, 216, 244, 248, 260, 274, 
286, 312, 362, 368, 384, 387, 400, 401, 
405, 406, 407, 411, 416. 454, 466, 484, 
488, 495, 509, 510, 536, 556,559, 561, 
571, 675, 598, 611, 617, 665, 681, 691, 
693, 695, 699, 716. 
products, counties excelling in, 103. 
societies, town and county, 83, 102, 

10.3, 575. 
Society, 27, 101. 495. 
Agriculture, appropriations for, 106. 
statistics of. by cos., 104 to 107. 
Albany Institute. 101, 161. 
Aldermanic Districts. New York, 420. 
Aliens, statistics of, by counties, 150. 
Allen. Ebenezer, 384, i598, 402, 404, 406, 711. 
Capt. Ebenezer, 300, 301. 
Ethan, at Tioonderoga, 299, 305. 
family murdered, 679. 
Nathaniel, 498. 
Mmshouses, 161, 365, 393, 398, 422, 425, 

426. 509, 553. 
Ambuscade, 345. 411, 461, 604, 671, 672. 
American Anti Slavery Society, 146. 
and Foreign Christian Union, 146. 
Bethel Society, 146. 
Bible Society, 144. 

Board Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, 145. 
Colonization Society, 146. 
Home Missionary Society, 146. 
Institute, 435. 

Seamen's Friend Society, 146. 
Sunday School Union, 146. 
Tract Society. 145. 
Amherst. Sir Jeffrey, 49, 298, 337, 574, 

673, 674. 
Analyses of Mineral Waters, 248, 383, 394, 

470, 480, 497, 537, 592, 607. 
Anaquassacook Patent, 684. 
Anchor manufactory, 297. 508, 510, 681. 
Andre, Major J.. 504, 541, 670, 603, 699, 

700, 701, 703. 
Andrustown plundered, 342, 349. 



Angior, Siour, surveys by, 298. 

Anne, Queen, Germans settle under, 242, 

245. 
Anniversary Week, N. Y., 144. 
Anti masonic movement, 147, 323. 
Mission Baptists, 139. 
rent troubles, 157. 210. 242, 258, 259, 

209, 322, 360, 553. 602, 621, 643. 
Anti Slavery Society, 146. 
Antwerp Company, 353, 355, 375. 
Appel Patent, 585. 

Apples, statistics of, by counties, 105. 
Appling, Major D., 355, 358, 525. 
Appointing power, 31. 
Aqueducts, 60, 165, 275, 397, 418, 424, 

589, 597, 689, 714. 
Ararat, or resting place for Jews, 291. 
Arcade, 403. 
Architecture, 436, 437. 
Argylo Patent, 679. 
Armories, 44, 369, 437, 489, 580. 
Armstrong, Gen. John, 276. 
Arnold, Benedict, 299, 333, 335, 338, 342, 

410, 504. 541, 542, 570, 687, 699, 700. 
Arsenals, 44, 45, 165, 2S6, 312, 825, 362, 369, 

423, 437, 466, 495, 682, 602, 606. 
Artesian wells, 25, 362, 392, 424. 
Artillery Patent, 681. 
Asia, man-of-w.ar, 438. 
Asparagus culture. 544. 
Assay (JflSce. 122, 437. 
Assembly. 28. 

districts, 28. 
Assessments, power of Supervisors in, 30. 
Associate Presbyterians and Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterians, 139. 
Astor claim, Putnam co., 541. 

Library, 435. 
Astronomical Instrument manufactory, 

392. 
Observatories, 161, 423. 
Asylums, 42, 149, 198, 275, 276, 365, 370, 

396, 398, 403, 412, 419, 425, 432, 433, 

434. 468, 4S3, 488, 518, 524, 566. 
Atheneum, 368, 403. 
Attainder. See Forfeiture. 
Attorney General, 32. 
Auditor of Canal Department, 54. 
Auger manufactory, 593. 
Avenues, New York City, plan of, 422. 
Awl manufactory, 286. 
Ax factories. 166, 220, 235, 286, 368, 402, 

483, 484. 558, 593, 616, 668. 
Axle manufactory, 235, 277, 668, 699. 

Bakeries, statistics by counties, 109. 
Bank note engraving. 90. 
Banks, agencies of, 90. 

commissioners, 90. 

existing, list of, 90 to 95. 

general aiticle on, 89. 

individual, 89. 

obsolete and closing, 95 to 99. 

savings. 99. 

suspension of, 90. 

United States, 90. 
Baptists, 139, 140. 

Free Will. 140. 

Old School, 139. 

Seventh Day. 143. 
Barley, counties where most raised, 101. 

statistics by counties, 104. 

trade 159. 
Barracks,' 45, 239, 354, 358, 542, 555, 580. 
Barrel manufactory, 220, 402, 488, 509, 

518, 520. 522. 
Barytes. sulphate of, 352, 356, 577, 600, 

604. 698. 
Basket manufactory, 286. 
Batteries, 423, 437, 565. 
Batting manufactory, 464. 
Battles, 219, 233, 234, 297, 305, 316, 342, 
343, 345, 355, 368, 371, 410, 411,438, 
461, 478, 621, 525, 554, 556, 569, 574, 
675, 680, 586, 602, 604, 607, 633, 643, 
645, 661. 667, 671. 681, 698,701, 707. 
Baum, Col., defeated, 586. 
Bayard's Patent, 601. 
Bay of New York, 437. 
Beaches. 544, 547, 550, 631, 634, 635, 636, 

638, 639. 
Beacons. See I/ightJiouses. 
Beacraft. a tory, 602. 
Beans, statistics by counties, 105. 



Beardsley, Purchase, 210. 
Beck, Dr. T. Uumeyu, 156, 160. 
Becker's Patent, 603. 
Eediui, Cardinal, 287. 
Bedstead mauufactory, 166, 291. 
Beef, supply to Now York City, 427. 428. 
Beekman's Patent, 269. 270, 276, 277. 
Bell, attempt to steal, 343. 

fouuderies, 166, 561. 
Belletre, expedition of, 348. 
Bellevue Hospital, 425. 
Bellows manufiictorj', 286. 
Belting manufiictory, 199, 549. 
Bemis Heights, 580, 679. 
Benevolent Societies, 81, 144, 370, 371, 

403, 432. 
Bennington, battle of, 554, 556, 586, 680. 
Bethel Society, 146. 

Bible Societies, 144, 145, 370, 403, 434, 489. 
Big Tree Council, 322. 
Billiard Table manufactory, 286. 
Billop House. 565. 

Manor. .504. 
Bird, Col., 699. 

Bituminous springs, 168, 173 
Blackberry culture, 703. 
BUickin.; manufactory, 716. 
Black Lead, 302, 303, 304. 

manutiictory. 297, 304. 
Black Itiver Navigation Co., 60. 

Tract 375 
Black Rock Plat, 288. 
Blacksmith shops by counties, 109. 
Bliicksmiths, number by counties, 152. 
Blackwells Island, 419, 425. 
Blanchard. Col., 672. 
Blank Book manufactory, 286. 
Blenheim Patent, 602, 603. 
Blind, Institution for the, 432, 433. 

statistics by counties, 150. 
Blockhouses, 232, 297, 301, 310. 342, 343, 
346. 356, 359, 467, 469, 470, 511, 549, 
577, 582, 591, 596, 604, 646, 681, 682, 
687, 691. 
Block manufactory, 368. 
Bloomer costume, origin of. 617. 
Board of Agriculture, 102, 106. 

Education. New York, 430. 

Health, 116, 428. 
Boatbuilding, 367, 402, 419, 616, 618, 657, 

662, 6S6. 
Bog iron ore, 25. 

Boiler manufactory, 160, 286, 652. 
Bolt manufactory, 166. 
Bonaparte, .loseph, 363, 376. 
Bonded warehouses. 111, 113, 
Bone boiling, 372. 

manure. 368. 

pits, 361, 453, 522. 
Bony fish. 124, 6.31. 
Bookbinderies, 160, 246, 286. 
Book manufactory, 199. 
Boon, Gerrit, 462, 468. 
Boot and Shoe Makers, number by coun- 
ties, 152. 
Boot and Shoe manufac, 286, 402, 488, 596. 

statistics by counties, 109. 
Boroughs, 596, 698, 698, 706. 
Boston Cornel', 18. 

Ten Towns, 18, 180, 199, 479, 650. 
Botanical gardens, 370, 423, 430. 
Bouck's Patent, 605. 
Bouck, William C, 59. 
Boundaries, 17, 258, 290, 308. 418, 586. 
Boundary commissions, 18, 677. 

controversies, 603, 645, 651, 700, 706. 
Bourbon, repxited, 309. 
Box manufactory, 286. 
Boyd, Lieut. Wm., 384. 
Boylston Tract, 375. 
Braddock's defeat, 671. 
Bradford, William, 431. 
Bradstreet, Col., 519. 
Brantingham Tract, 375. 
Brant, Joseph, 219, 264, 265, 283. 315. 34'i, 
343, 349, 409, 410, 412, 414, 454, 478, 
503, 531, 538. 586. 604. 
Brass foundery. 166, 286. 
Breakwater, 280, 284. 
Breathing well, so called. 190. 
Breweries, 109, 160, 214, 2.'57, 241,275, 286, 
367, 368, 383, 385, 399. 402, 406, 419, 
468, 483, 488, 509, 566, 561, 563, 598, 
617, 657, 662, 691. 

7 



8 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



irick manufactory, by counties, 109. 

manufactory of, 110, 160, 246, 286, 330, 
331, S32. 39S, 505, 542, 550, 563, 566, 
568, 569, 598, C32, 639, 662, 666, 691, 
696, 698, 699. 
Brine springs, 26, 178, 181, 186, 197, 203, 
257,325, 327, 392, 395, 400, 449, 456, 
473, 474. 478, 479, 482, 483, 512, 514, 
515, 617, 522, 532, 619, 688. 
Britannia Ware manufactory, 163, 286. 
Brookville captured, 574. 
Brooklyn Institute, 369. 
Broom Corn, statistics by counties, 107. 

culture of, 101, 220, 381, 407, 413, 595, 
597, 600, 606. 
Broom Handle manufactory, 590, 597. 

manufactory, 243, 282, 413, 595, 597. 
Brotliertown Indians, 465. 
Brown, Col., 410. 416. 

Joiin, settlement of, 349. 
Brown's Tract, .341, 349, 375, 379. 
Brush manufactory, 286, 556. 

plains, 631, 636. 
Buckskin manufactory, 311, 317, 
Buckwheat, quantity raised, 101, 104. 
Building associations, 81, 366, 700. 
Building stone, 26. 

Buildings, public. New York City, 436, 437. 
Bull. William, surveys bv, 621. 
Eurgoyne, Gen,. 164, 166, 233, 299, 461, 
604, 554, 559, 586, 673, 679, 682, 685, 
687, 
Burial Case manufactory, 549. 
Burial Places, New York City, 428, 

See Rural Cemeteries. 
Burnetsfield Patent, 341, 344, 345, 346. 
Burning of jail, Delaware county, 258, 

of steamer Sir Robert Peel, 360, 

spi-ings, 208, 213, 214, 267, 491, 499, 
691, 
Burr. Aaron, 404. 
Bust!. Paul, 322, 
Butler, Col. John, 409, 410, 411, 415, 

Walter N,, 347, 409, 410, 411,415, 531. 
Butler's Patent, 317, 605, 
Butt and Hinge manufactory, 166 
Buttermilk Channel, 419. 

Falls, 505, 
Butter, product by counties, 106. 
BjTne's Patent, 605, 682. 

Cabinet Making shops, by counties, 109, 
Cabinet Ware manufactory, 203, 286, 368, 
390, 402, 514, 515, 522, 523, 598, 618, 
Cabinet of Natural History, 125, 126, 
Calcareous tufa, 391, 717. 
Calculating machine, 161. 
Calico Printing, '293. 
Cambridge Patent, OSO. 
Camden Tract, 6S5, 
Campbell's Patent, 679, 683. 
Camphene manufactory, 368. 
Canada, expeditions against, 246, 311, 358, 

4;08, 493, 081, 682. 
Canada, fortifications in, 45. 
Canadian canals, 119. 

railways. 119, 

trade, 117, 118, 
Canal Appraisers, 54. 

Black River, history of, 60, 61. 

Board, 54, 

boats. 58, 

Cayuga & Seneca, history of, 62. 

Celebration, .08, 59. 

Cbamplain, history of, 60. 

Chemung, history of, 62. 

Chenango, history of, 60, 61. 

Clearances, 56, 

Commissioners, 54, 59, 

Companies, 64, 356, 632, 642. 661. 

Crooked Lake, history of, 62, 

Delaware & Hudson, 63, 502, 506. 

Department, Auditor of, 54. 

distances. 50, 

enlargement, 59, 60. 

Erie, history of. 58. 

feeders, 201, 218, 321, 389, 482, 484, 
513, 620, 634, 645, 671. 

Fund, 54. 

general notice of, 54, 

Genesee A'alley, history of, 62, 63, 

hydraulic. 359, 454, 455, 484, 524. 593, 
637, 657. 

Manhattan Island, 418. 

natural, 575, 

Oneida Lake, history of, 61. 



Canal Oswego, history of 61, 62. 

reservoiis. 60, 61, 173, 389, 390, 393. 
statistics, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
structures, 58. 
tolls, 56, 57, 

Canals, notices of, 156, 169, 171, 173, 179, 
186, 187, 193, 198, 201, 203, 218,220, 
221, 224, 226, 228, 230, 279, 280, 288, 
293, 330, 341, 346, 375, 381, 384, 385, 
387,388, 395, 397, 398, 401, 402, 403, 
404, 407, 413, 420. 449, 451, 452, 455, 
459, 466, 468, 469, 475, 482, 484, 488, 
489, 492, 502, 491, 512, 513, 514, 515, 
518, 520; 523, 524, 526, 574, 581, 585, 
587, 593, 598, 609, 610, 611, 614, 617, 
642, 624, 654, 689, 690, 691, 693, 714, 
718, 

Canastota Tract, 47, 389. 

Capital, State, 26, 27, 

Car manufactory, 286, 395, 509, 571, 

Wheel manufactory, 160, 273, 286, 509. 
>mis, 462, 516, 608, 694, 695. 

Carding Machines introduced, 683. 

Card manufactory, 199, 

Carillon Fort, 298, 

Carleton, Major, 300, 

Caroline steamer destroyed, 453. 

Carpenters, by counties, 109, 152. 

Carpet Bag manufactory, 510. 

Carpet manufactory, 199, 244, 275, 402, 407, 
411, 468, 549, 686, 695, 707. 

Carriage manufactory, 109, 160, 166, 228, 
229, 237, 255, 275, 286, 346, 368, 399, 
401, 402, 405, 411, 419, 463, 484, 487, 
494, 496, 522, 548, 661, 575, 598, 657, 
658, 683, 716, 

Cartridge manufactory, 649. 

Gary, Trumbull, and others, purchase by, 
210, 

Cascades, 20, 21, 22, 165, 203, 210, 227, 
235, 239, 253, 255, 271, 300, 305, 310, 
312, 320, 324, 326, 328, 333, 346, 352, 

355, 360, 361, 374, 376, 377, 379, 383, 
386, 390, 395, 401, 402, 419, 467, 474, 
484, 486, 487, 505, 608, 614, 515, 517, 
521, 523, 524, 526, 527, 532, 558, 660, 
672, 579, 693, 697, 604, 605, 609, 611, 
613, 616, 617, 618, 646, 654, 656, 657, 
658, 664, 670, 674, 675, 715, 

Cases before Court of Sessions, N.Y., 421. 

Cassiltown Manor. 564. 

Castle Garden, 117, 427. 

Castles of the Mohawks. 408, 

Catholic Schools, New York, 431, See 

Itoman Catholics. 
Catskill Mountain House, 333. 

I'atent, 332, 
Cattle market, 427. 

statistics by counties, 106. 

trade, 428, 
Caughnawaga Indians 408. 
Caves, 26, 155. 162, 163, 164, 302, 328, 351, 

356, 360, 361, 362, 393, 416, 482,570, 
600, 604, 606, 607, 666, 674, 675, 684, 

Cayuga Bridge, 199, 200, 

Marshes, 63, 474, 
Cazenove, Theophilus, 322, 
Cement mauufactury, — See Waterlime. 
Central American Jiducational Society, 
146, 

Asylum for Deaf and Dumb, 412, 

Park, New York, 44, 423, 424, 
Chain across the Hudson, 604, 605, 508, 
509, 542, 

Lake Champlain, at Ticonderoga, 299, 
Chain Cable manufactory, 681, 
Chair manufactory, 275, 282, 286, 34.3, 402, 

462, 487, 627, 610, 
Chamber of Commerce, 116, 436. 
Chambers, Thomas, 061, 662, 664. 
Chambly Canal, 119. 
Champlain Lake, 297. 

grants on, 298. 
Champlain, Samuel. 233, 297, 477, 519, 
Chandleries, 109, 286, 368, 419, 563, 567. 
Channels of New York Harbor, 418, 
Chapel, Queen .June's, 413, 
Charitable societies, 144, 247, 287, 403, 433, 

434, 561, 
Charity schools, 370, 431, 
Charles III of Spain, grant to a New York 

church, 435, 
Charters, New York City, 418, 438. 

to academies, 127, 
Chase, Rev, Philander, 265. 
Chasm, remarkable, in Clinton cc, 238, 

in Lewis co,, 378, 



Chassanis, Peter, Purchase, 353, 375, 377. 
Cheesebox manuf;ictory, 343, 347, 348. 
Cheesecocks Patent, 503, 508, 568. 
Cheese manufactory, 175, 416, 637. 

product of, by counties, 107, 
Chemical works. See Laboratories. 
Chenango Tract, 47. 

Triangle, 224, 

Twenty Towns, 52, 224, 389. 
Cherry Valley massacre, 410, 631. 

Patent, 532, 
Chevaux de frise, 542, 
Children's Aid Society, 370, 403, 434. 

Hospital, 432. 
Chinese, early trade with, 162. 
Cholera, 308, 
Christian Association, 146, 

Connexion, 140, 

Unions, 146, 147. 
Cryslers Field, 311, 
Churches, general article on, 139 to 144, 

New York, 434, 435, 
Church, John B,, and Philip, 169. 

property controversy, 287. 

Tract, 321, 
Cider, product by counties, 105 
Cigar manufactories. See Tobacco. 
Cincinnati, Society of, 434. 
Ciscoes, fishery of, 359 
Cities. oflBcers of, 31. 
City Courts, 34. 

Halls, 156, 160, 246, 275, 365, 369,403, 
423, 436, 468, 488, 524. 

Inspector's Department, N. Y., 427. 

Park, Brooklyn. 369, 

Railroads, 367, 368, 429, 

Schools, 160, 199, 246, 275, 286, 369, 403, 
429, 430, 468, 488, 624, 560, 598. 
Clark, Rev, Thomas, 685, 686. 

Waiis and Lewis G,, 486. 
Clarke, Miss Sara J„ 487, 
Clans, Colonel Daniel, 315, 409, 412, 
Clearances on Northern lakes, 118. 
Clearing-House Association, N. Y,, 436. 
Clendening Valley Aqueduct, 424, 
Clergymen, number by counties, 151. 

property of, exempt from taxe.s, 48. 
Clerks' offices. See County Buildings. 
Clermont, steamboat, 162, 521. 
Clifton Park Patent, 685, 587. 

Mine, 572, 
Chnton, Charles, 510, 

College, Fairfield, ^i5. 
CImton, De Witt, 58. 59, 102, 481, 506, 549. 

George, 274, 276. 

Sir Henry, 504, 664, 699. 

Gener.al .lames, 410, 412, 531, 536. 

Prison, 41, 2.38 

Purchase, 224, 

Township, 47. 
Clock manufactory, 638. 
Clover mill, 350, 
Cloves of the Catskills, 329, 334, 
Coachmakers, number by counties, 151. 
Coal formations, 329, 619. 

mining for, 178, 407, 

Oil manufactory, 367. 

trade, 220, 488, 618, 624, 655, 657, 661, 
662, 663, 664. 
Coasting tiade, statistics of, 115, 116. 
Coast Survey, 23, 121, 
Coffee and Spice m.anuf;ictory, 368. 
Colden, Cadwallader. 508, 546, 

Tract, 341, 343, 344, 345, 348, 
Collar and Bosom manufactory, 657, 
Collection districts, coasting trade by, 115. 

general article on. 111, 

Northern frontier, 117, 118, 

ship building by, 115 

tonnage by, 112, 
Collectors on canals, 54, 
Collect Pond, N, Y., 418, 
Colleges, general article upon, 125. 

notices of, 48, 125, 126, 160, 161, 188. 
220, 252, 343, 384, 391, 403, 419, 4S0, 
431. 455, 404, 498, 546, 660, 564, 575, 
598, 610, 616, 657, 707. 

tabular list and statistics of, 126, 127 
Colonial history. 125, 
Colonization Society, 146. 
Colored Home, 425, 426. 

schools, 136, 

statistics of, by counties, 150, 
Color manufactory, 272, 373, 
Comb manufactory, 272, 286. 
Commerce, foreign. 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 
162, 247, 367, 418, 436, 438, 639. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Commerce, lake, 118, 119, 208, 214, 237, 239, 
2S0, 2S5, 352, 395, 399, 402, 403, 452, 
517, 618, 520, 524, 525, 5S0, 582, 657. 
river, 156, 240, 208, 274, 276, 285, 330, 
332, 502, 509, 561, 580, 581, 620, 652, 
661, 662, 663, 664, 666, 699. 
Commercial colleges, 287, 431, 489. 
Ojinmissioners of Canal Fund, 54. 

for taking acknowledgment of oeeds, 

35. 
of Emigration, 117, 419, 420, 427, 549. 
of Excise, 36. 
of Health, 110. 
of Hishwars, 39. 
of Lautl Office, 46, 53. 
Common Councils of cities, 31, 420. 
Communities, 293, 405. 
Comptroller, 32. 
Confectioneries, 286. 
Congregational Churches, 140. 

Methodist Church, 140. 
Congress, Continental, 565. 

first meeting in New York, 438. 
first Colonial, 162. 
Connecticut Tract, 321, 513. 
Constable's Towns, 375. 
Contracting Board, 54. 
Contributions to aid Schenectady, 599. 
Controversy in Dutch Church, 275. 
Convention for adopting U. S. Const., 276. 
Hartford, 48, 52. 
Hempstead, 544, 545. 
Kingston, 664. 
Provincial, 269, 272, 276. 
Conventions at Syracuse, 488. 
Convents, 419, 431, 4-34, 701. 
Convictions, statistics oii 36, 421. 
Cooper Institute, 435. 
Cooper, J. Fenimore, 536. 
Cooperages, 286, 514, 691. 
Coopers, number by counties, 151. 
Copperas, 305. 

manufactory, 575. 
Copper coinage, 509. 

ores, 25, 267, 340, 575, 577, 579, 660, 704. 
Corn, statistics of, 101, 104. 
Cornplanter. an Indian chie^ 410, 414. 
Cornwall county, 18. 
Coroners, 35, 427. 
Cortland Manor, 705, 706, 708. 
Corporations, general article on, 80. 
Cosby's Manor and Patent, 341, 344, 348, 

469. 
Cotringer Tract, 321. 

Cotton manufactory, 110, 166, 216, 228, 
241, 247, 248, 253, 271, 274, 276, 293, 
334, 346, 347, 348, 352, 356, 360, 362, 
368, 402, 464, 465, 466, 468, 471, 504, 
509, 510, 525, 527, 532, 533, 534, 535, 
536, 53S, 554, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561, 
569, 571, 584, 590, 591, 598, 605, 634, 
638, 662, 666, 682. 
Councils, Indian, 322, 344, 414. 
Council of Appointment, 31. 
of Revision, 31. 
of Safety, 601. 
Country Roads, Suffolk co., 632. 
Country seats, 272, 275, 276, 664, 696, 703, 

704, 707, 708. 
County buildings, 156, 160, 16S, 179, 186, 
198, 208, 218, 223, 232, 241, 251, 258, 
268, 280, 297, 307, 814, 320, 330, 337, 
341, 352, 365, 375, 381, 388, 396, 407, 
451, 458, 475, 492, 502, 512, 518, 530, 
540. 544, 553, 563, 568, 573, 584, 595, 
600, 609, 614, 620, 632, 642, 649, 654, 
661, 671, 678, 689, 697, 710, 717. 
Clerk, 35. 
courts, 34. 
Superintendent, 137. 
Treasurer, 36. 
Courts of admiralty, 117. 
of Appeals, 33. 

for Trial of Impeachments, 33. 
New York City, 428. 
of oyer and terminer, 35. 
of sessions, 35. 
State, 33. 
United States, 33. 
of WUtwyck, ancient, 663. 
Courtenay, E. H., 368. 
Coverlet manufactory, 695. 
Cowbell manufactory, 283. 
Cowboys, 333, 698. 
Cowen, Eseck., 592. 
Cows, number by counties, 106. 
Craigie Tract, 321. 
Cranberry swamp, 528, 613. 



Cratean lalces, Onon. CO., 26, 474, 482, 484. 
Cricket grounds, 423. 
Crime of New York City, 421. 
Criminal convictions, 35, 36. 

courts, 35. 

statistics, 425. 
Crosby, Enoch, 541. 

Croton Aqueduct, 418, 422, 424, 697, 706, 
707, 708. 

Valley surveyed, 424. 
Crown Point, fort at, 297, 298, 299, 673. 
Crumhorn Mountain Tract, 125. 
Crystal palace, 423, 424. 
Cuck, George, a tory, 414. 
Cumberland Bay, naval victory in. 234. 
Currents of rivers reversed, 304, 579. 
Customhouses, 119, 120, 239, 247, 286, 355, 

356, 436, 524, 580, 638. 
Cutlery manufactory, 246, 508. 

Dairying, product of. See Acra, dx. 

Dakin Ore Bed, 273. 

D'Alainville, seigniory of, 298 

Dam, State, 678. 

Deaf and dumb, statistics by counties, 150. 

Asylum, 419, 432, 433. 
Deane's Patent, 48, 235, 471. 
Deaths, New York, totals, 428. 

of Holland Co. proprietors, 322. 
Do Bruyn, John Hendrick, Patent of, 247. 
Debt of N. Y. to U. S., Revolutionary, 45. 
Debtors, imprisoned, 42. 
De Courcelles, expedition of, 408. 
Deep Spring, so called, 484. 
Deeds, acknowledgment of, 35. 
Degrees conferred by Regents, 125. 
De Lancey's corps, 551. 
De Lancey, James, 701, 705. 

Patent of, 413. 
De la Barre's expedition, 358. 
Delaware & Hudson Canal, 63, 642, 661, 

662, 664, 666, 668. 
Delliu's Patent, 682. 
De Nonville, expedition of, 493, 499. 
Dentists' Gold manufactory, 368. 
Denton, Rev. Richard, 547. 
Depots, 403, 561. 
Deserters executed, 412, 536. 
De Tracy's expedition, 408. 
De Teaux, Samuel, 455. 
Devendorf. Jacob, scalped, 416. 
Devil's Hole, event at, 452, 453. 
De Tries, D. P., 564. 
Dewitt, Simeon, 58, 657. 
Die manufactory, 593. 
Dieskau, Baron, 298, 671, 672. 
Dikes, 077. 
Diluvi:il valleys, 361. 
Dioceges of New Y'ork, 142. 143. 
Dionondahowa Falls, 680, 683. 
Disciples of Christ, 140. 
Dise's Manor, 604. 
Dispensaries, 287, 370, 432. 
Distances by canals, 59 to 64. 

by railroads, 66 to 73. 
Distilleries, 160, 198, 199, 201, 213, 214, 
286, 344, 367, 368, 384, 385, 391, 398, 
401, 406, 454, 462, 467, 483, 484, 4-S7, 
497, 515, 535, 561, 593, 617, 618, 691, 
693, 699. 
Distributing post ofBces, 123, 652. 
District attorneys, 35. 

libraries, 135. 

school meetings, 135. 
Districts, aldermanic, 420. 

Assembly, 28. 

collection. See Customhouses. 

judicial, 33, 34. 

military, 43. 

Senatorial, 28. 

of Tryon co., early, 409. 
Divisions. Colonial, Dutchess co., 269. 
Docks, 367. 

Dolomite, 41, 267, 699. 
Domestic manufactures by counties. See 

Acres, cfe. 
Dongan, Governor, 564. 
Dover Stone Church, so called, 271. 
Door factory, 188. 
Dorfs of Palatinates, 601. 
Downie, Commodore, 234. 
Do^vning, A. J., 708. 
Doxtader, Tory, 411, 4j.6, 602, 607. 
Dressmakers, number by counties, 151. 
Drouth, 352. 

Drowned Lands, 501, 506, 507, 510, 511. 
Drut; manuHictory, 275. 
Dry docks, 45, 368, 618. 



Dry goods, statistics of, 113. 

Duane, Colonel, 410. 

Dubois, Bishop, school founded by, 360. 

Colonel, 410. 
Dudley Observatory, 161. 
Duel. 3r.S. 

Duerville Patent, 235. 
Duke of Gloucester, 574. 
Dukes county, 18, 
Dutch, policv of, toward Indians, 408. 

settlemJnts by, 366, 408, 437, 503, 601, 
603, 667. 
Duties on salt, 54. 
Duties, receipts from. 111, 113, 114.' 
Dwellings, number and kind of, 108. 
Dwight, Francis, 137- 
Dyed Stuffs manufactory, 373, 563. 

works, 293,465, 5e5, 706. 

Earl of Molra, 574. 

Earthen Ware manufactory, 198, 286, 499, 

668. 
Easton's Patent, 466. 
Eaton, Amos, 24. 
Ebenezer Society, 293 
Edge Tool manufactory, 166, 235, 286. 300, 

347, 393, 395, 402, 486, 590. 
Edict of Nantes, Revocation of, 269, 564. 
Edmeston, Col., 533. 
Elections, New York, 420. 

canvass of, 30. 

Inspectors of, 40. 

military, 44. 
Electors, census of, 31. 
Elephant, fossil remains of, 163. 
Elevations above tide, 19 to 22. 

Delaware co., 257. 

Steuben CO., 619. 

■Washington co., 677. 
Elevators, 293, 356, 399, 525. 
Eleven Towns on Black River, so called, 

353, 355, 357, 358, 361, 362, 375. 
Elias, ofBcers of the ship, 564. 
Elk, domestication of, 192. 
Ellicott, Joseph, 322. 
Embargo, 2.33, 247, 356, 357, 643. 
Emery manufactory, 546. 
Emigration. See Commissioners of Emi- 
gration. 
Emigrant homes, 427. 
Emmons, E., analysis by. 324. 

geologist of Second District, 24. 
Encroachment upon N. Y. Harbor, 46. 
Endowment of Union College, 598. 
Engineers, Canal, 54. 
Engli.sh conquest, 438. 
Engraving, 286. 

Entries of vessels at New York, 112. 
Epidemic, 361, 679. 
Erie Canal. See Canals. 

Basin, 284. 
Escheats, 48. 

Esopus, enemy advance to, 504. 
Evacuation Day, 437, 438. 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, 140. 
Evans, David E., 322. 
Evans Patent. 503. 
Evans, William, bequest of, 393. 
Evening schools, 430, 
Exchange building, 160. 
Excise, Commissioners of, 36. 
Executive Department, N. Y. City, 420. 

State, 19. 
Expeditions against Canada. See Canada. 
Exports, Canadian, 118. 

total New York, since 1701, 112, 114. 
Eye and Ear Infirmaries, 370, 432. 

Fairs, Colonial, 101. 

State, and other, 102, 269, 706. 
Fall Hill Patent, 341, 343, 346. 
Families, number of, by counties. See 

Acres, tf-c. 
Fancy Goods manufactory, 455, 
Fanning Mill manufactory, 618, 691, 692. 
Farms, number of, by counties, 108, 151. 
Farrett, James, agent of Earl of Stirling, 

633, 635. 637, 639. 
Federalist (the) newspaper articles, 276. 
Feldspar, 267, 671, 674. 
Females, Asylum for, 433, 488. 
Female Guardian Society, 433. 

Seminaries. See Academies. 
Ferries, general act, and list of, 82. 

notices of, 200, 245, 249, 271, 272, 275, 
276, 277, 356, 367, 420, 428, 450, 509, 
546, 555, 563, 570, 580^ 636, 664, 666 
699, 700, 704. 



10 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Fertilizers, 631. 
Feudal privileges, 242. 
Fever, 425. 

Field notes of Holland Land Co., 322. 
File manufactory, 271. 275, 510, 571. 
Fillmore, Millard. 203, 206. 283. 
Finance Department New York City, 420. 
Fire arms first known to Indians in New 

York, 297. 
Fire Brick manufactory, 26, 468, 563, 567, 
699. 
Departments. 275. 369. 422. 423, 424. 
destnictive, 83, 162, 362, 438, 468, 561, 

575, 593, 652, 6S2. 
Engine manufactory, 402, 593, 617. 
Insurance, 83, 436. 
Wardens, 423. 
in the woods, 631. 
Fish Manures, 631, 632, 638, 639. 

preservation of, 124. 
Fisher, Col. Frederick, 415. 
Fisheries, 18, 46, 124, 232, 247. 357, 359, 
427, 520, 544, 550, 632, 634, 636, 637, 
641, 701. 
Fitch. Dr. Asa. 27. 
John, 82, '418. 
Five Dutch Towns of Kings co., 366. 
Flagg, Azariah C, 137. 
Flagging Stone, 26. 197, 204, 205, 223, 267, 
329, 332, 381, 385, 449, 454, 491, 612, 
515, 581, 660, 663. 664, 666, 717. 
Flax culture, 555, 558, 680, 686. 

statistics of lint and seed, by cos., 106. 
mills, 368, 558, 569. 
Floatin;? battery, 45. 

Flour manufactorv. 160, 169, 170, 172, 173, 
176, 193, 194, 199, 202, 203, 205. 211, 
212, 213, 214, 216, 220, 221, 222, 226, 
238, 246, 248, 259, 271, 272, 273, 274, 
276, 286, 324, 325, 328, 346, 352, 357, 
362, 385, 390, 392, 395, 400, 401, 402, 
405, 406, 413, 454, 465, 468, 481, 4S2, 
484, 497, 514, 516, 518, 520, 521, 522, 
524, 525, 527, 528, 534, 536, 537, 538, 
561, 622, 575, 593, 610, 611, 612, 617, 
618, 623, 625. 626, 627, 629, 634, 651, 
652, 655, 657, 658, 675, 682, 683, 685, 
690, 691, 694, 695, 712, 713, 715. 
Flower culture, 548, 549. 
Floyd. Col. Richard, 634. 

Gen. William, 463, 471, 6-34. 
Fonda. Douw, 415. 
Foote. Stillman, 271. 
Forrest. Edwin, 708. 
Forfeitures, 48, 314, 316, 342, 347, 348, 540, 

641, 602, 698, 700, 702, 704, 708. 
Forges, 25, 235, 238, 239, 240, 297, 349, 360, 
465, 482, 504, 508, 582, 681, 686, 
694. 
Fork manufactory, 229, 390, 416, 487, 535, 

536. .575, 617. 
Forman, Joshua, 58. 
Fortifications, general notice of, 45. 

tabular list of 45. 
Fort Brewerton, 481, 522. 
Clinton, 503, 504. 
Columbus. 419. 
Dayton, 342. 345. 
Diamond, 373. 
Edward, 298, 682. 
Frederick. 297. 
Gibson, 419. 
Hamilton, 373. 
Herkimer, 342, 345. 
House, 417. 
Hunter, 408, 413. 
Independence, 699. 
Jay, 419. 

Johnson, 315, 412. 
La Fayette, 373, 699. 
Levi. 574. 

LjTnan, 298, 671, 672. 
Miller, 591. 

Montgomery, 18, 45, 237, 503, 504, 505. 
Niagara, 452. 
Plain, 410, 414. 
Porter, 2S6. 
Putnam, 504, 505. 
Orange, 156. 
Richmond, 505. 
Schuyler, 345, 410, 461, 467, 469. 586, 

706. 
Slongo, 638. 
Stauwi.x, 1G6, 461, 467. 
Sullivan. 219. 
Tompkins, 565. 
Wood. 419. 
William Henry, 298, 672. 



Forts, Canadian, 45. 

notices of, 45,156.157, 162. 163, 166, 206, 
219, 220, 221, -231, 264,'274, 275, 277, 
286, 297, 298, 299, 301, 304, 305, 327, 
342, 344, 353, 356, 358, 373, 393, 408, 
409, 110, 412, 413, 414,415, 416, 417, 
419, 437, 452. 453, 460, 461, 467, 469, 
478, 499, 503, 504, 505, 519, 525, 542, 

546, 551, 559, 564, 565, 569, 574, 596, 
598, 599, 601, 602, 604, 605, 634, 664, 
673, 679, 681, 682, 700, 707. 

Forty Thousand Acre Tract, 321. 
Founderies, 160, 189, 193,201, 206, 227, 237, 
239, 240, 244, 246, 248, 272, 277, 286, 
344, 356, 367, 391, 400, 401, 405,454, 
465, 466, 470, 484, 487, 488, 506, 509, 
510, 515, 521, 525, 533, 534, 535, 536, 
542, 549, 556, 557,558, 569, 570, 591, 
593, 604, 605, 606, 607, 610, 611, 615, 
617, 618, 622, 625, 627, 647, 656, 657, 
694, 702, 705, 707, 708, 715. 
Fountains, 362, 423. 
Fowling, 544, 634. 
Fox, George, 546. 

Hall Manor, 49, 662, 663. 
Franciscan College, 188. 
Franklin Institute, Syracuse, 489. 
Frauds, 308, 311, 362. 
Free Academy, New I'ork, 429, 430. 
Freeholders, number of. See Acres, tfc. 
Free Masons, 147. 
Free Schools, 137, 138, 701, 708. 
Freestone, 568, 570. 

French cede Canada to Great Britain, 299. 
colonization, 353. 
colonies, 224. 
defeat of, 409. 
fortifications, 297, 519. 
grants on Lake Champlain, 233, 298. 
missions, 477, 580. 
posts, 298. 

Protestants, 371, 546. 
settlements, 264, 301, 363, 375, 376, 

377, 378, 454, 477, 478, 546. 
surrender. 574. 
traces of. 457, 477, 482. 
Tract, 224. 

War. See War, French. 
Freshets. 167. 162, 165, 302, 329, 558, 613, 

644, 682, 683. 
Friends, 142, 360. 
cemetery, 371. 

mission established by, 187, 195. 
Frigates on Lake Ontario, 358. 
Frisnell's Patent, 50. 
Frontiers, 297. 
Froutenac, expedition of, 408, 478. 

Fort, 619. 
Fruit culture, 198, 205, 327, 395, 402, 456, 
464, 481, 497, 512, 546, 569, 570, 609, 
661, 662, 688, 689, 696, 703, 706. 
Fur Company, North Western, 525. 
dressing. 368, 
trade, 232. 
Fulton, Robert, 83. 
Funds, lands belonging to, 46, 47. 
Furuiices, 109, 195, 198, 202, 211, 212, 214, 
226, 228, 235, 238, 244, 245, 247, 270, 
273, 282, 289, 291, 293, 325. 356, 360, 
36S, 382, 383. 385, 386, 390, 393, 398, 
399. 400, 402', 406, 408, 462, 466,471, 
484, 608, 514, 515, 522, 538, 577, 657, 
682, 690, 691, 692, 693. 695. 
Furniture, 109, 286, 291, 362,368, 402, 488, 
514, 515, 522, 523, 618. 
makers, by counties, 152. 

Gage's Patent, 50. 

Game, protection of, 30. 

Gananoqui, expedition against, 354. 

Gansevoort, Col. Peter, 401, 478, 614. 

Gardeau Tract, 711. 

Gardening, 101, 365, 398, 399, 501, .544, 546, 

547. 548, 549, 668, 671, 696, 706, 
Garden Seeds, 214, 243, 686. 
Gardner, Lyon, 635, 638. 

Garlock, John Christian, 409. 

Garnets 407. 

Gaslight manufactory, 80, 317, 368, 424, 

563, 693. 

springs. 26. 186, 203, 208, 213, 214, 236, 

267, 310, 325, 385, 386, 456, 462, 491, 

499, 555, 569, 592, 607, 615, 691. 720. 

Gate rights, so called, 550. 

Gauntli't, running of the, 452. 

Gavlord. Willis. 486. 

Geddes. James, 58, 59, 479, 483. 
George, 63, 474, 482. 



General Assembly, 698. 

Court, 635, 640. 
Genesee Falls Portage, 386, 710. 

Tariff, 322. 
Genet, Edmund C, 555. 
Geographical and Statistical Society, 438. 
Geological survey, 24. 

Hall, 27, 160. 
George III, statue of, 423, 438. 
Gei-man Flats, 342, 344, 410. 

Methodists. 141. 
Ghent, treaty of, 18. 
Gibbs, the pirate, 419. 
Gilliland, AVilliam, 299, 300, 301, 305. 
Ginseng trade, 415, 469. 
Glass manufactory, 164, 240, 291, 355, 368, 
462, 470, 517, 521, 549, 558, 589, 641, 
644. 668. 691. 
Glebes, 344, 566, 571, 607, 699. 
Glen's Purchase, 341, 343, 346, 346, 585. 
Glove and Mitten manufactory, 286. 311, 

314, 317, 318. 
Glue manufactory, 286, 368, 398. 
Goat Island, 455. 
Gold Beating, 286. 
Gold Pen manufactory, 368. 
Gold and Silver Refining, 368- 
Gore Tracts, 224, 263, 690. 
Gospel and School Lands, 47, 135, 250, 57 
Governor, powers, qualifications, &c., 31 
Governors Island, forts on, 419. 

Purchase. See Chenango. 
Grain, amount b}' towns. See Acres, &i 

cradle manufactory, 484, 510. 

destroyed, 264. 

excellence of the several counties in 
101. 

trade, Buffalo, 285. 
Grand Island Tract, 290. 
Granger, Gideon, 495. 
Grape culture, 101, 497, 628, 699. 
Graphite, 26, 267. 297, 300, 301, 302, 303, 
304, 337, 338, 340, 540, 670, 671^ 685. 
Grass Seed, Sullivan co., 641. 
Great Nine Partners' Tract, 269, 277. 
Green, Col., 708. 

Griffin, first vessel on upper lakes, 462, 455. 
Grindstone manufiictoiy, 168, 223, 471. 
Gristmills, number by counties, 109. 

See Flour manufactoi-y. 
Grocers, number by counties, 152. 
Guano manufactory, 637, 639. 
Gun manufactory, 246, 286, 699. 

barrel manufactory, 655. 
Gunpowder explosion, 489. 
Guthrie, Dr. Samuel, 359. 
Gutta Percha Belting manufactory, 549. 
Guy Park, 412. 

Gypsum, 26. 110, 197, 203, 320, 326,340, 388, 
392, 393, 394, 395, 398, 406, 458, 469, 
473, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485, 491, 497, 
613, 614, 617, 688, 690. 

Haile, Gen., 577. 
Haldeman, Gen., 300. 
Half-Moon Patent, 585. 

Point, 693. 

Orphan Asylum, N. Y., 433. 
Hall, James, Paleontologist and Geologist 

of the Fourth District, 24. 
Hall, N. K., 283. 
Hall of Records N. Y., 423, 437. 
Halls of Justice N. Y., 426, 437. 
Hanie manufactorv, 229. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 125, 276. 

College Telescope, 392. 
Hammer manufactory, 228. 
Hammond, Jabez D., 137. 
Hampton, Gen. Wade, 2.34, 310. 
Harbor at Black Rock, 288. 

Buffalo, 284. 

encroachment N. Y., 46, 418. 

Hill, Roslyn, 550. 

masters, 116. 

New York, 418. 
Harbors on the lakes, 22. 
Hardenburgh Patent, 258, 331, 600, 663. 
Hardware m.anufactory, 216, 286, 471, 488. 
Harlem Canal. 418. 

Harness manufactory, by counties, 109. 
Harper Patent. 60, 224. 
Harper, Col.. 316, 410, 624. 

Robert, 225. 
Harpersfield burned, 410. 
Harrisoff. Charles, 349. 
Harrison's Patent, 50. 
Hartford Convention. 18, 180. 
Uartiuau, John A., 345. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



11 



Ilaitwiek Pateot, 533. 
lliistuclevei's Pateut, 341, 345, 348. 
liat Manufactory, 100, 198, 1*47, 286, 36S, 
510, 707. 

by counties, 109. 
Hawley, Ci ideon, 137, 605. 

Jedse, 58. 
Hay, 101, 103, 241, 331, 332, 547, 554, 665. 

product by counties, 104. 
Head Quarters of Wastiingtou, Newburgh, 

509. 
Health Commissioner, 428. 

Olfict'r, 116, 42S. 

Public, 116, 427, 428. 
Heathcote, Caleb, 701, 702, 703. 
Height of mountains, table of, 19. 

lakes and rivers, 20, 22. 
Hellgate, 548, 549. 
Henderson's Patent, 341, 348. 
Hendrick, King, 298, 343, 671. 
Hennepin, Father, 452, 455. 
Henry Clay steamer burned, 70S. 
Herkimer, Gen. N., 264, 343, 345, 409, 410, 

461, 538. 
High Bridge, 424, 707. 
High Falls on Black River, 379. 
Highlanders, Scotch, 316. 
Highlands of the Hudson, 501, 542. 
High Kock Spring, Saratoga, 592. 
Highways, 39. 
Historical Society N. Y., 435. 
Hoe manufactory, 200, 229, 390, 537, 657, 

571, 575. 590. 
Hoffman, aged 118, 269. 
Holland Land Co., 52, 169, 187, 210, 280, 
288, 321, 322, 452, 468, 515, 516. 

agent of, 322, 390. 

CO. buildings erected by, 320. 

names of members, 321. 

Patent, 467. 

Purchase, 280, 468, 513. 
Holley, Myron, 59. 
iome Association. 488. 
Home Missions, 146. 
Homeopathic Medical Societies, 149. 
Homestead exemption, 4S. 
Honey, product by counties, 100. 
Hoosick Patent, 556. 

Hop cultme, lul, 223, 230, 340, 388, 412, 
414, 458, 530, 537, 600, 603, 606, 607 
Hops, product by counties, 1U». 
Horse mill, 373. 

races, colonial, 546. 

Kake manufiictory, 716. 

Shoe manufactory, 235, 300. 
Horses, association for improving breed of, 
83. 

killed by Sullivan, 221. 

statistics of, by counties, 107. 
Horticultural Society, Brooklyn, 370. 
Hosiery manufactory, 166, 561, 617. 
Hospitals, 120, 161, 287, 356, 365, 368, 370, 

404, 419, 420, 425, 426, 427, 432, 505, 

524, 555, 561, 565, 702. 
House of Industry, 433, 434. 

of Kefuge, 42, 404, 420, 425. 

Lord, death of, 298. 
Huddlestone executed as a spy, 276. 
Hudson, Hendrick, 156, 4.37, 5.59, 564. 
Huguenot settlements, 269, 503, 564, 661, 

663, 665, 703. 
Hunter Lodges, 354. 

Koad, 642. 

grounds, 232, 636. 
Huntersfield Patent, 607. 
Hurley Patent, 603. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. Anne, 704, 705. 
Hypersthene rock, 296, 346. 

Ice, 162, 180, 365, 419, 484, 569, 663, 703. 

Idiotic, statistics of, by counties, 150. 
Asylum for the, 483, 488. 

Illiterate, statistics of, by counties, 150. 

Immigration, general statistics of, 122. 

Impeachment, 33. 

Imports, Canadian, 118. 

total, since 1700, 112, 114. 

Inclined planes on rail roads, 67. 

Independence, Declaration of, 244, 697. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 149. 

India Itubber manufiictory, 419. 646, 708. 

Indian antiquities, l.SO, 181, 188, 194, 200, 
202, 203, 206, 220, 253, 260, 264, 283, 
293, 327, 355, 358, 359, 360, 361, 393, 
412, 414, 453, 458, 482, 493, 494, 498, 
499, 513, 510, .534, 551, 559, 5S8, 593, 
605, 616, 643, 644, 679, 7u4, 705. 



Indian disguise worn by anti-reuters, 256. 
hung for murder, 198. 
invasions, 165, ISO, 210, 260, 262, 2&t, 
297, 331. 334, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 
347, 349; 372, 408, 410, 411, 412, 414, 
415, 416, 417, 461, 467, 477,493, 503, 
531, 533, 535, 564, 596, 597, 602, 604, 
607, 608, 642, 661, 662,, 064 668, 679, 
705, 708. 
Indian Purchases, 46, 48, ISO, 187, 224, 
233, 242, 24;5, 258, 261, 270, 322, 332, 
389, 394, 398, 437, 478, 499, 545, 551, 
596, 634, 635, 638, 639, 698, 700, 701, 
703, 705, 707, 70S. 
reservations. 48, 53, 187, 280, 308, 309, 
311, 322, 324, 327, 353, 382, 384, 38.5, 
389, 393, 452, 462, 469, 478, 483, 485, 
680. 
Pass, 303. 

settlements, 180, 187, 210, 274, 287, 
308, 322, 382, 389, 393, 408, 415, 452, 
458, 405, 473, 476, 483, 493, 495, 498, 
499, 557, 559, 574, 580, 601, 632, 633, 
637, 638, 655, 678. 
statistics, 151. 

trade. 157. 162, 415, 452, 485, 682. 
tradition of, 458, 477, 482, 493. 
tribes on Long Island, 632, 634 
Indians at Moutauk, 635. 
Industrial schools, 161, 370, 404. 
Inebriate Asylum, 180. 
Infirmaries, 370. 
Ink manufactory, 593. 
Inland Steam Isav. Companies, list of, 82. 
Inman's Triangle, 375. 
Inn Keepers, by counties, 152. 
Insane, statistics of, by counties, 150. 
statistics of, 469. 
See Lunatic Asylum. 
Insects in grain, 320. 
Inspection of steamboats, 115. 

of vessels, 428. 
Inspector, City, 427. 
Insurance companies, 81, 83, 436. 
obsolete, hst, 85 to 89. 
rates lowered by Croton, 434. 
Intermittuii sprinij, 310. 
Invasions, hostile, ISO, 209, 232, 234, 236, 
200, 262, 264, 280, 288, 290, 297, 299, 
308, 310, 311, 312, 316, 331. 334, 342, 
344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 354, 355, 356, 
358, 359, 365, 372, 404, 408, 410, 411, 
412, 413, 414, 415, 410, 417, 452, 460, 
461, 467, 477, 478, 503, 504, 513, 519, 
525, 531, 554, 550, 504, 569, 574, 578, 
579, 580, 587, 596, 597, 599, 602, 604, 
607, 608, 624, 633, 634, 639, 642, 643, 
661, 662, 671, 679, 681, 682, 694. 
Iron bridge, 407. 

manutactory, 41, 110, 166, 220, 232, 235, 

236, 2:38, 241, 243, 245, 246, 261, 270, 

271, 273, 275, 276, 286, 296, 297, 300, 

301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 310, 349, 352, 

360, 361, 362, 363, 395, 419, 462, 464, 

471, 501, 508, 510, 521, 533, 535, 549, 

561, 573, 575, 577, 579, 580, 582, 617, 

652, 666, 668, 681, 699. 

ores, 19, 21, 25, 155, 165, 186, 218, 232, 

235, 236, 237, 241, 243, 245, 207, 270, 

271, 273, 277, 296, 297, 300, 301, §02, 

303, 304, 305, 307, 310, 311, 312, 337, 

348, 349, 352, 355, 360, 361, 374, 376, 

.377, 378, 388, 392, 395, 458, 464, 470, 

471, 501, 517, 521, 528, 540, 542, 543, 

563, 572, 575, 577, 581, 582, 589, 600, 

670, 674, 675, 680, 692, 693, 695, 717. 

Iron sand, 297, 340, 349, 374. 

Ives, L. S., 380. 

Ivory Black manufactory, 36S, 563. 

Jail limits, .Tefiferson co., 352. 
Jails. See County Buildinys. 
Japanned Cloth manufactory, 368. 

Ware manufactory, 286. 
Jay Ore Bed, 581. 

Treaty. 519. 
Jemison, Mary, the white woman. 711, 712. 
Jersey City, relations with New York, 429. 
Jerseyfield Patent. 341, 347, 348. 
Jervis, John B., 423. 
Jesuit missions, 408, 415, 477, 519. 
Jews, attempt to collect, 290. 
Jogues, Father, 435, 477. 
Johnson Hall, 316, 318, 409. 

Guy, 315, 341, 346, 409, 412. 

Sir John, 300, 315, 316, 409, 410, 413, 
415, 602, 605. 



Johnson, Sir William, 298, 315, 317, 318, 
343, 348, 409, 412, 462, 612, 592, 671, 
672. 

Indian children of, 315, 348. 
Johnston, Bill, 300. 

Joncaire. , French adventurer, 452. 

Jones, Samuel, charity fund, 549, 550. 
Judicial Department, 33, 428. 

districts, 34. 
Julia, encounter of the schooner, 574. 
Junction Canal Company, 218. 
Jurisdiction, 18, 33, 34, 418. 
Justices' courts, 34. 
Juvenile delinquents, 42, 420. 

Asylum, 433. 

Kakiate Patent, 568. 

Kane brothers, 412, 469. 

Kaolin, 301, 675, 567. 

Kast's Patent, 341, 348. 

Kayaderosseras Patent, 586, 587. 

Kidd, William, the pirate, 570. 

Kinderhook Patent, 247. 

Kingsborough Patent, 317, 318. 

Kingsbury Pateut, 685. 

King's College. See Columbia College. 

Kuig's District, 241, 243. 

King's Ferry, 569, 699. 

King's Garden. 356. 

Kirkland. Kev. Samuel, 461, 464, 485, 499 

Kirkwood. James P., 369. 

Klock's Field, battle of, 410, 417. 

Knapp, Uzal. 509. 

Knitting mills, 166, 558, 690. 

Kortrlght Patent, 262. 

Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 504, 586. 

Laboratories, 24S, 368, 419, 464, 505, 549. 

Laborers, number by counties, 152. 

La Cole surprised, 234. 

La Fayette, Marquis de, 27, 410, 467. 

La Hontan, Baron. 288, 404. 

Lakes, general sketch of, 20. 

Lake George Steamboat Companies, 82. 

Lake ridges, 351, 355, 301, 395, 449, 453, 

512, 514, 524, 688, 693. 
Lallemant, Father, 477, 479. 
Lamp and Lantern manulactory, 368. 
Lampblack manufactory, 593. 
Lancasterian schools, 125, 160, 246, 560, 

599, 657. 
Land Office, 322, 323. 

Commissioners of, 46, 494. 

attacked by a mob, 210, 322. 
Land patents, list of, 49. 
Landslides, 303, 413, 560. 
Land, State, how sold, 46. 

tenure and title of, 46 

under water, 46, 418, 419. 
Lansing's Patent, 341, 343, 348. 
Lantern manufactory, 286. 
La Salle, visits Niagara Falls, 452, 466. 
Last manufactory, 286, 705. 
Lath manufactory, 289. 
Law, George, 424, 684. 
Law Department, New York, 427. 

Library & Institute, 435. 

libraries, 287, 309. 

schools, 101, 275. 
Laws, 29, 30. 

Lawyers, number by counties, 153. 
Lay, Amos, 5S0. 

Lead ore, 25, 241, 243, 267, 340, 355, 374, 
378, 407, 506, 528, 573, 579, 581, 646, 
660, 686, 704. 

Pipe manufJictory, 362. 657 
Leake & Watts Asylum, 433. 
Lease, law respecting lands under, 46. 

tenure of, 273, 471. 

lands under, Delaware co., 258. 

Indian, 402. 
Ledyard Canal, 484. 
Legislature, 28. 

at Kingston, 662. 

at Poughkeepsie, 276. 

dispersed, 26. 

New York City, 420. 
Leisler, Jacob, 700, 703. 
Le Moyne, Father, 479. 
Lery, M. de, 460, 467. 
Le Roy's Patent, 003. 
Le Roy, Bayard & McEvers, 321, 468. 
Lewis, Governor Morgan, 272. 
L'Hommedieu, Ezra, 125. 

Patent, 341, .343, 348. 
Liancourt, Duke de. 498. 
Liberty poles cut down, 344, 438. 



12 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Libraries, 27, 48, 102, 125, 126. 127, 139, 
144, 145, 246, 287, 369, 383, 391, 403, 
432, 434, 454, 475, 488, 489, 505, 524. 
school district, 135, 137. 

License question, 147. 

Lieutenant Governor, powers and duties 
of, 32. 

Lifeboat manufactory, 367. 

stations, 121, 122, 365, 544, 550, 631. 

Life leases, 242. 

and health Insurance, 83. 

Lighthouses, 120. 216, 271, 280, 284, 297, 
355, 356, 358, 360, 399, 403, 419, 524, 
527. 550, 567, 569, 577, 634, 635, 636, 
638, 639, 662, 694, 706. 

Lime manufactory, 109, 110, 186, 197, 250, 
252, 279, 301, 305, 331, 346, 381, 383, 
391, 394, 395, 462, 474, 484, 485, 512, 
568, 569, 570, 590, 613, 61.5, 649, 654, 
662, 666, 670, 683, 690, 693, 700. 

Limestone terrace, 288, 292. 

Lincklaen Purchase. 389. 

Lincoln, General, 299. 

Lindsey's Patent, 341, 343, 531. 

Linen manuf;ictory, 237,559. 

Line of Property, 257, 462. 

Liquorice manufactory, 368. 

Lispenard's Patent, 341. 

Literary associations and societies, 144, 
a69, 385, 434, 4S9. 

Literature Fund, 46, 125, 126. 
lauds, 47. 

Lithography. 286. 

Little Beard, 384. 

Little Nine Partners' Tract, 269, 272, 273. 

Livingston Manor, 242. 247. 
Patent, 242. 244, 348, 603. 
Robert R., 82, S3, 147. 

Lloyds Neck Manor, 551. 

Loans. State, statistics of, 38. 

when lands are sold under, 46, 48. 

Lock manufactory, 286. 

navigation, 556, 579, 596. 

Locks, canal. 451, 454. 

Locomotive factory, 598. 

Logan, an Indian chief, 200, 

Log navigation, 297, 573. 

Lougee, a French partisan, 672. 

Long Island farms, (New York city poor,) 
549. 

Lotbiniere, grants to, 298. 

Lotteries. 125, 425, 556. 

Louis Philippe, travels in N. Y., 219, 404, 
498. 

Lovelace, Governor, 564. 

Lumber, 110. 160, 165, 166, 168, 170, 171, 
173, 176. 183, 186, 188, 189, 190, 193, 
194, 195, 211. 214, 215, 218, 220, 221, 
232, 235, 236. 238, 248, 257, 280, 262, 
263, 264, 265, 286, 290, 293, 296, 301, 
302, 303, 304, 305, 307, 309, 311, 312, 
314. 316, 317, 337, 338, 347, 349, 356, 
357, 360, 363. 367, 375, 377, 390. .392, 
.399. 402, 454, 468, 470, 502, 509, .518, 
521, 522, 52.3, 525, 526, 527, 529, 573, 
575, 576, 580, 581, 584, 588, 589, 590, 
591, 593, 018, 620, 623, 624, 625, 626, 
P29, 641, 643, 644. 645, 647, 648, 649, 
652, 061, 663, 665, 667, 668, 671, 675, 
680, 685, 686, 692, 693. 

Lunatic Asylums, 31. 42, 200, 247, 365, 396, 
398, 419, 425, 426, 432, 468, 495. 518. 

Lush's Patent, 347. 

Lyci'ums, 275, 369, 436. 

Jjying in Asylum, 432. 

Lyu js, Elani, 41, 704. 

McCiea, Jane, 682. 

McDonald, D.. 345. 

McDouough, Commodore, 234, 239. 

Machine shops. 109, 160, 166, 195, 199. 202, 
206, 214, 227, 235, 2.37, 238, 240, 244, 
246, 247, 248, 271, 272, 286, 289, 292, 
293, 317, 356, 367, 368, 383, 385, 387, 
390, 391, 400, 401, 402, 406, 462, 484, 
487, 488, 506, 509, 510, 515, 522, 525, 
536, 537, 548, 556, 557, 560, 569, 570, 
591, 593, 606, 615, 617, 618, 625, 656, 
657, 658, 682, 683, 685, 686, 691, 692, 
69S, 699. 

Machinery manufactory, 109, 300, 362, 395, 
411, 454, 465, 468. 488, 536, 556, 617, 
652, 681, 6S6. 

Machinists, number by counties, 153, 

Machin's Patent, 48, 341, 347, 413, 468, 
603. 

McNeil's Patent, 342, 348. 

Maoomb, Alexander, 352, 579. 



Macomb, General. 2.34. 

Macomb's Purchase, 48, 308, 375, 458, 572, 

574, 581. 
Magazines, military, 44. 
Magdalen Female Benevolent Society, 433. 
Maicnetic machine, 297. 
Mail routes bj- railroad and steamboat, 123. 

early, 469. 

ocean, 124. 
Mail service, general statistics, 122, 123. 
Malignant fever, 428. 
Malleable iron, 471. 

JIalt manufactory, 160, 166, 368, 618, 691. 
Manganese, 26, 241, 267, 600, 704. 
Manhattan Companv. 89, 424. 
Manor of Fox Hall,' 662. 

Wm. GilleUand attempts to found, 305. 

Staten Island, 564. 

Westchester co., 698, 703, 706, 707. 

Fordham, 707. 

P.ensselaerwyck. See Rensselaerwyck. 

Livingston. See Livingston. 

Cortland. See Cortland. 
Manors, list of Colonial. 49. 
Manual Labor Schools, 283. 
Manufactures, statistics of, 109, 286, 436. 
Maple sugar, 101. 

Marble, 26, 41, 109, 267, 271, 273, 274, 286, 
300, 301, 368, 376. 418, 577, 581, 590, 
670, 671, 696,699, 700, 702, 704, 708, 

cemeteries, 428, 
Marine barracks, 368. 

clay, 572. 573, 580. 

court. 35, 117, 428. 

Family Asylum, 566. 

Fund, 117. 

Hospital, 117, 120, 368. 

railways, 2S6, 368, 525, 581. 

Society. 4.34. 
Markets, 286, 427, 706. 
Marl, 1S6. 218, 241, 250, 252, 267, 273. 274, 
279, 292. 318, 320, 3S8, 391, 394, 395, 
458, 474, 540, 614, 619, 688, 690, 691, 
693, 710. 
Marthas Alneyard, 18, 49. 
iMartial law, Delaware CO., 410. 
Marvin's Patent, 347. 
Masons, number by counties, 1.53. 
Massachusetts, attempt to settle on the 
Hudson, 242. 

claims, 242, 494. 

lands, 52. 

pre-emption, 18, 48. 

Ten Towns, 48, 180. 
Massacre, Indian, 661, 664, 672, 685, 700. 
Mastodon, skeleton of, 501, 548. 
Matchbox manufactory, 377. 
Mayors, 39, 420. 

Mayville land office sacked, 322. 
Mechanics' Association, 403. 

Institute, 435. 
Mechanical trades, total mimber of per- 
sons engaged in, 153. 
Medical Colleges. 126, 287, 343, 430, 498. 

Societies, 126, 149, 150, 287, 431. 
Medicinal extracts, 241, 248. 
Meigs, Colonel, 639. 
Melodeon manufactory, 285. 
Menageries, 706. 

Mcnncnites. 141v [431, 489. 

Mercantile Coll. 139, 161, 180, 287, 403, 

Librarj', 435. 
Merchants, number by counties, 153. 
Merchants' Exchange, 436. 
Meteorological observations, 126. 
Methodist African Church, 139. 

Congregational Church. 140. 

Episcopal Church. 141. 

German Church, 141. 

Primitive Church, 142. 

Protestant Church, 141. 

Reformed, 143. 

Wcsleyan. 144. 
Metropolitan Police, 366, 420, 564. 
Midge, ravages by, 381, 383, 395, 512, 518, 

717. 
Millinery, by counties, 110. 
Mile Strip, Niagara, 48. 
Military Academy, 45, 505. 

districts, 43. 

organization, 43. 

Road, 45. 354. 

stntions. 419. 

Tract, 47. 180, 199, 224, 473, 478, 610, 
615, 655, 690. 691. 
Militia called out, 259, 259, 437. 

laws, 43, 44. 

officers, 43. 



Slilitia, services of, 565. 
Milk market, 101, 268, 273. 277. 501. 502, 
500, 510, 511. 540, 543, 544, 550'. 654, 
567, 568. 670, 696. 
Miller, David C, 323. 

Rev. Wm., 683. 
Millers, number of, by counties, 15-3. 
Milliners, number of, by counties, 153. 
Mill Iron manufactory, 297. 
Millstone manufactory, 286, 355. 468, 641, 

660. 
Millyard Tract, 398. 

Mineral localities. 26. 267, 296, 352. 361, 
302, 374, 378, 407, 540, 563, 572. 573, 
576, 577, 579, 582, 584, 600, 604, 606, 
675, 698. 
springs, 26, 155, 159, 163. 164,165, 168, 
170, 173, 175, 178, 186, 188, 195, 213, 
221, 229, 241, 244, 248, 257, 267, 279, 
282, 301, 302, 305, 312, 320, 324, 325, 
332, 343, 345, 347, 349, 355, 356. 357, 
359, 360. 361, 36,3, 375.377, 378, 379, 
382, 386, 392, 393, 394, 402, 413, 455, 
456, 458, 462, 463, 470, 481, 482,484, 
488, 491,497, 503, 515, 532, 5.34, 537, 
546, 552, 554, 557, 558, 579. 690, 591, 
592, 593. 607, 620, 650, 656, 664, 679, 
683, 688, 692, 696, 702, 704. 
Mines, 25, 570, 660. 
Road, 503, 642. 
Mining, Blechanical, & Chemical Cos., 80. 
Minisink, battle of, 503. 
massacre, 503. 
Patent, 503. 
Mint, 122, 509. 
Minuet, Peter, 437. 
Mirage. 352, 705, 

Missions, 139, 142. 146, 187, 195, 273, 274, 
308, 370, 393, 404, 431, 434, 477, 519. 
JlitcheH'a Cave, 416, 
Slobs, 210, 269, 322, 438, 549, 565, 601. 
IMohegans, 697, 704. 
Mohawk Indians, 408. 
River rifts, on, 23. 

settlements. See Herkimer and Mont- 
gomery COS. 
Molang, a French Partisan, 686. 
Molding mill, 707. 
Montauk, 632, 633, 635, 638. 
Montcalm, Marquis of, 298, 519, 672. 
Montgomery, Richard, 276, 299. 
Montour, Captain, 624. 
Montour, Catharine, 610. 
Montreal, expedition against, 408. 
Monument to Herkimer voted. 343. 

to martyrs of prison ships, talked of, 

372. 
to Paulding, 699. 

to Pike and others, disgraceful, 359. 
to shipwrecked persons, 547. 
to Van W.art, 700. 
to Washington, (corner stone,) 423. 
to Williams. 298. 
to Gen. Worth, 423. 
iWoody, Lady Deborah, 372. 
Moose River Tract, 342, 349. 
Moravian mission, 273, 274. 
Morgan, William, 323, 452, 495. 
Mormonism, 494, 497, 690, 693. 
Morris, Chief Justice, 705. 
Gouverneur, 58, 375. 
Honorary Creditor Tract, 321. 
Lewis, 702. 

Reserve. 169, 321, 382, 494. 
Robert, 321, 621. 
Roger, 640, 541. 
title of, 494. 
Morse, James 0., 210. 
Morse, S. F. B.. 274. 
Mosaic code. 640. 

Mounds, Indian, 200. See Indian Anti- 
quities. 
Mount, murder of, 347. 
Mountain Ridge, 395, 512. 

systems of the State, 19. 
Mowers and Reapers, 405. 
Muck, 186, 198, 279, 292, 320, 388, 394, 474, 
518, 590, 614, 617, 618, 628, 6S8, 692, 
683. 
Mules, number by counties, 107. 
Muller, Lewis A., 391. 
Munro, Major, attack by, 587. 

Colonel, 672. 
Museum, 27, 432. 
Musical Association, 287, 489. 
Mutual aid societies, 434. 
Mutual Insurance companies, 83. 
Myers Mine, 236. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



13 



Naa nianxifactory, 198, 235, 297, 300, 301, 

302, 501. 
Nantucket formerly in Xew York, 18. 
Narrows, 305, 373, 5G3. 
National societies, 434. 

Conip. Emancipation Society, 146. 
Natural Itridgo, 074, 704. 
Nautical society, 434. 
Navul Depot, 3ti8. 

Hospital, 45, 368. 

Lyceum, 309. 

stores, 245. 
Navigation, 22, 15G, 272, 279, 296, 297, 418. 

companies, 64, 82. 
Navy Yard, 368. 
Neander, Dr., library of, 403. 
Necks of land, 644, 549, 550, 551, 631, 638, 

703, 706. 
Needle manufactory, 570. 
Newburgh, discontent of troops at, 504. 

Patent, 509. 
New Dorlach Patent, 603. 
New England Alliance, L. I., 633. 
Newgale Prison, so called, 41. 
New Petersburgh Tract, 3S9. 
Newspaiiers, 157, 169, 178, 187, 198, 209, 21S, 
224, 233, 241, 251, 258, 268, 280, 297, 
307,315, 321, 330, 337, 341, 352, 366, 
375, 381, 3S9, 396, 407, 439, 451, 459, 
475, 492, 502, 513, 518, 530, 540, 545, 
553, 504, 568, 573, 585, 595, 602, 610, 
614, 620, 632, 642, 650, 655, C61, 671, 
678, 689, 697, 711, 718. 

discontinued, New York City, 442. 

New York, before Revolutiou, 431. 
New York State Agricultural College, 126. 

Harbor encroachment, 46, 418. 

Library Society, 435. 

Society, 101. 

system, geological, 24. 
Niagara River and Falls, 449, 450, 452, 455. 
Nickel, 26. 
NicoU's Patent, 637. 
Nitschman, bishop David, 274. 
Noah, Mordecai M., 290. 
Noble, Arthur, 337, 339, 349. 
Nobloboro' Patent, 342, 349. 
Noble's Patent, 48. 

Normal School, 125, 136, 137, 369, 429. 
Northern Inland Lock Nav. Co., 60. 
Notaries public, 35. 
Nott, Rev. Eliphalet, 532, 598. 
Noxious animals, 30. 
Nurseries, 398, 402, 498. 544, 546. 694, 703. 

for children, 420, 425, 426, 433, 549. 

Oakum manufactory, 286. 
Oats, statistics ot, 101, 104. 
Oblong Tract, 18, 209, 540, 703. 
Observatories, 423, 464, 505. 
Ocean steamers, 82. 

mails, 124. 
Ocher, 175, 377. 
Odeltown, affair at, 234. 
OfiBcers, State, county, and town, 40. 
Ogden Samuel, purchase by, 321. 

Tract, 321. 
Ogdensburgh taken, 574. 
Ohio Basin, 284. 
Oil cask manufactory, 638. 

cloth manufactory, 368, 468, 556, 590, 
657, 658. 

manufactory, 198, 286, 293, 357, 368, 
390, 402, 515, 532, 549, 556, 567, 618, 
632, 637, 639, 657, 691. 
Old Fort, so called, 327. 

Military Tract, 235, 237, 240. 

Pre-emption Line, 494. 

School Baptist Church, 139. 
Omnibus routes, New Y'ork City, 429. 
Oneida Community, 392. 

Indians, friendly, 410, 596. 

Reservation, 389. 

Kiver Improvement, 62. 

stone, 458. 
Oothoudt's Patent, 48, 468. 
Ophthalmic Hospital, 432. 
Optical Instrument manufactory, 392. 
Ordnance, summary of, 45. 
Organ manufactory, 286, 468. 
Oriskany, battle of, 3-12, 410. 412, 414, 461. 
Orphan Asylums, 161, 200, 247, 275, 370, 
403, 419, 425, 426, 433, 488, 518, 524, 
561. 
Oswegatchie District, 575. 
Overseers of Higliways, 39. 
Owasco Lake Improvement, 63. 
Oxen, statistics by counties, 106. 



Oysters, 46, 544, 549, 550, 663, 567, 632, 
636, 638, 704. 

Pago, David P., 137. 

PaU manufactory, 286, 297, 301, 385, 482, 
536, 570, 657. 

Paine, John, 242. 
Tliomas, 703. 

Paint man'y., 312, 368, 402, 419, 549, 555. 

Painted Post, 024. 

Painters, by counties, 153. 

Palatinates, 242, 245, 408, 409. 412, 415, 416, 
509, 601, 603, 605, 606, 667. 

Palisades, 21, 25. 

Palisades, (mUitary,) 372, 373, 437. 

Palmer, Edmund, tory spy, 699. 
Erastus D., 487 
Mine, 236. 
Purchase, 585. 

Paper Box manufactory, 317. 

manutactory, 110, 166, 199, 200, 215, 
228, 241, 243, 244, 247, 248, 274, 277, 
286, 297, 317, 330, 334, 345, 346, 352, 
362, 375, 377, 384, 385, 390, 402, 407, 
466, 4S4, 485, 487, 504, 510, 516, 527, 
538, 550, 556, 557, 558, 561, 570, 584, 
5S9, 590, 593, 605, 600, 610, 634, 657, 
666, 704. 

Pardoning power, 31. 

Pardons, statistics ot] 36. 

Parish, David, 580. 

Parker, Col., 260. 

Parks, 369, 422, 423. 

Parsonage, Queens, 413. 

Passengers, statistics of, 117, 122. 

tatchin. Gen., 603. 

Patent Leather manufactory, 286, 368. 

Patents, Land, 46, 48, 49. 53, 258, 341, 408. 

Pathological Society, New Y'ork, 431. 

Patriot " War," 235, 354, 357, 360, 452, 574, 
575. 

Patroon, title of, 159. 

Pauldiug, John, 099. 

Pauw, Michael, 504. 

Peaches, quantity by counties, 107. 

Pearling Mill, 593. 

Pearl barley, 482, 484. 

Pears, quantity by counties, 107. 

Peas, statistics by counties, 105. 

Peat, 232, 237, 241, 207, 337, 394, 458, 474, 
505, 540, 570, 629, 671. 

Peg manufactory, 317. 

Pelham Manor, 7o3, 704. 

Pell, Thomas, 700, 703, 704. 

Pemaquoit, 18. 

Pendergrast sentenced, 269. 

Penet Square, 48, 353, 357. 360. 

Penitentiaries, 156, 280, 365, 425, 475. 

Peppermint, 689. 

Oil manufactury, 691. 

Perache's Tract, 48. 

Percentage of population, 151. 

Perry, Commodore, gifts to, 423. 

Personal liabilities of stockholders, 80. 

Pestilence, 428, 601. 

Petrie's Purchase, 342. 

Petroleum springs, 168, 173, 186. 

Pharmacy, College of, 431. 

Phelps and Gorham Purchase, 321, 382, 398, 
494. 

Philippe, Louis, 404, 498. 

Philipsburgh Manor, 700, 702, 704, 708. 

Philipse Patent, 540, 541. 

Philosophical Instrument man'y., 286. 

Physicians, by counties, 153. 

Piano manufactory, 160, 228, 286, 468, 509, 
685. 

Pickle manufactory, 707. 

Picq uet, Francis, 574. 

Pictured Rocks, 380. 

Pierrepont Estate, 376, 378. 

Piers, 156, 280, 284, 356, 367, 419, 422, 524. 

Pike, Z. M., monument to, 359. 

Pilots, 115, 116. 

Pine plains, 156, 312, 351, 638. 

Pin manufactory, 275. 

Pipe clay, 26. 

Pistol manufactory, 699. 

Pitclier, Lieutenant Governor, 685. 

Pitt, statue of, 438. 

Plains, Hempstead, 544, 547, 548. 

Plane manufactory, 286. 

Plan of union proposed, 162. 

Planing mills, 160, 205, 220. 228, 235, 237, 
239, 286, 289, 292, 293, 317, 347, 367, 
308, 393, 399. 401, 402. 405, 406, 454, 
466, 506, 514, 546, 590, 598, 604, 610, 
617, 025. 



Plank roads, 39, 80, 159, 179, 235, 236, 258, 
284, 311, 321, 354, 459, 515, 518, 596, 
601, 642. 

Plaster mills. 110, 205, 221, 228, 229, 238, 
244, 247, 271, 274, 307, 385, 393, S98, 
400, 401, 400, 454, 468, 484, 559, 618, 
652, 057, 082, 6}i3. 

Plate of Johnson family, 316, 400, 410. 

Plattsburgh attacked, 234. 

Plow manufactory, 241, 454, 466, 515, 699. 

Plums, by counties. 107. 

Pocket Book manufactory, 286. 

Point an For, 233. 237. 

Police Department, 420. 

Political societies, 434. 

Poor, associations for relief of, 287,370. 
county and town, 101, 108, 179, 186, 
198, 208, 211, 218, 223, 233, 341, 251, 
258, 268, 280, 297, 307, 314, 320, 330, 
341, 352, 375, 381, 388, 390, 407, 425, 
427, 434, 451, 459, 475, 492, 602, 513, 
518, 530, 546, 550, 553, 595, 600, 614, 
634, 635, 630, 637, 638, 639, 642, 649, 
654, 661, 671, 678, 089, 696, 711, 718. 
statistics of, 37, 38. 
Superintendents of, 30, 36. 

Popham, Major Wm., 705. 

Population, total, by counties, 150. 
by towns. See Acres, dx. 
comparative, 151. 
of cities, 371, 404, 435, 436, 469, 599. 

Porcelain manufactory, 367, 308. 

Portages, 22, 23, 460, 466. 519, 628. 

Portage Falls, 386, 711, 713. 

Porter Road, 642. 

Port of New Y'ork, 438. 

Portrait gallery, 495. 

Portraits in Capitol, 27. 

Porta of entry. 111, 216, 399, 438, 638, 694. 

I'ort Wardens, 116. 

Postal arrangements, 122, 123. 

Post office, 123, 437. 

Potash, 415, 518. 

Potato culture, 101, 105, 6,39, 682. 

Potsdam sandstone quarries, 312. 

Potter, Rev. Alonzo, 137, 270. 

Potteries, 286, 46S, 691. 

Potters' Field, 420, 423, 425. 426, 428. 

Pouchot, M., surrender of, 574. 

Powder mills, 504, 559. 

Premiums for domestic manufacture, 102. 

Presbyterian Church, 141, 142. 
United, 139. 

Prevost Patent, 333. 

Prideaux, Gen., 452. 

Primitive Methodists, 142. 

Printers' Library, 435. 

number by counties, 153. 

Printing cloths. 509. 

offices by countie.s, 110. 

Print manufactory, 272, 563, 565, 570 

Prison Association of New York, 42, 426, 
433. 

Prisoners sold as slaves, 661. 

Prisons, 41, 200, 238, 425, 426, 427. 

Prison ships, 371, 372. 

Privateering on St. Lawrence, 355. 

Prize Jighting, Boston Corners, 243. 

Protestant Episcopal Church, 142. 

Provident and Mutual Aid Societies, 434. 

Provincial Congress, 662. 
Patent, 684. 

Provost, Sir George, 234. 

Public health, 427. 
Schools, 135. 
School Society of New York t30. 

Pulteney, Sir William, 321, 384, 404, 621, 
622. 

Pump manufactory, 286, 368, 400, 405, 463, 
598, 617. 

Putnam, Gen. Israel, 298, 371, 450, 504, 
540, 541, 672, 682, 685, 686. 

Puts Rock, 686. 

Pvroligneous Acid manufactory, 182. 

Pyrotcchny, 286. 

Quackenboss, John. 685. 

Quaker settlement, 366. 
Springs, 591. 

Quarantine, 18, 31, 116, 117, 419, 427, 42s, 
563, 565, 566. 

Quarries, 26. 41, 155, 165. 167, 168, 170, 172, 
173. 175, 190, 191, 192, 197, 201, 204, 
205, 208, 213, 214, 215, 218, 22.3, 243. 
245, 207, 270, 271, 279, 282, 284, 301, 
305,312, 314. 318, 320, 331, 332, 340, 
341, 343, 346. 347, 349, 359, 381, 383, 
385, 393, 395, 400, 407, 411, 449, 454, 



14 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Quarries, continued. 

458, 463, 464, 467, 470, 471, 473, 432, 
483, 484, 485, 491, 497. 512, 515, 517. 
52S, 530, 532, 540, 842, 5G6, 572, 577, 
581, 587, 590, 613, 615, 617, 660, 662, 
663, 664, 666, 688, 692, C93, 696, 699, 

700, 702, 704, 705, 708, 713, 714, 715. 
Quarter Sales, 157. 

Quartz crystals, 340, 343. 649. 
Queensborough Patent, 585. 
Quitman, General, 277. 
Quitrents, 46, 242, 258, 699, 701, 704. 
Quogue Purchase, 638. 

Race courses, 548, 549, 550. 

Kttfting, 265, 352. 

Kail Roads, Canadian, 119. 
Commissioners, 69. 
employees, by counties, 153. 
gauge, 74. 

general article on, 66. 
notices of, 71, 112, 156, 159, 169, 170, 
172, 173, 174, 179, 180, 182, 184, 186, 
187, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194, 201, 203, 
204, 205, 208, 209, 214, 218, 219, 220, 
224, 232, 235, 237, 238, 241, 244, 245, 
246, 247, 248, 258, 265, 268, 270, 271, 
276, 280, 282, 292, 293, 307, 310, 312, 
321, 324, 325, 337, .341, 345, 346, 354, 
356, 357, 366, 367, 381, 382, 383, 384, 
385, 388, 392, 395, 397, 398, 399, 400, 
401, 402, 403, 405, 407, 416, 451, 454, 
455, 459, 462, 466, 467, 468, 470, 471, 
475, 480, 482, 483, 484, 488, 495, 496, 
498, 500, 502, 504, 605, 506, 507, 508, 
510, 513, 514, 515, 518, 520, 521, 530, 
540, 542, 544, 545, 546, 548, 549, 650, 
552, 555, 657, 561, 563, 568, 569, 570, 
571, 573, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 
581, 582, 585, 587, 690, 693, 596, 598, 
600, 609, 610, 612, 614, 617, 618, 620, 
622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 632, 
636, 637, 639, 640, 641, 642, 650, 651, 
652, 653, 654, 656, 657, 678, 689, 690, 
691, 692, 693, 696, 697, 698, 699, 700, 

701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 
711. 

projects, &c., 76 to 79. 

statistics of, 74, 75. 
Rake manufactory, 260, 657. 
Kandall, Robert Richard. 566. 
Randalls Island. 42. 420, 425. 
Rangers, 242, 298, .305. 
Ra,nk of military officers, 43. 
Eapelje, Sarah, 371, 437. 
Raspberry culture, 498. 
Ratan manufactory, 546. 
Reaches on the Hudson, 542. 
Real, Count. 350. 
Reciprocity Treaty, 117. 524. 
Record Commissioners, 365. 
Recorder, 420, 428. 
Records, State, 26. 
Red Jacket, 615. 
Reformed Methodists, 143. 

Presbyterians, 143. 

Protestant Dutch, 143. 
Refugees, Canadian and Nova Scotian, 235, 

237. 
Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents, 432, 433. 
Regalia manufactory, 286. 
Regents of the University, 125, 126, 635. 
Registers of Deeds, 35, 365, 697. 
Registration of births, marriages, and 

deaths, 427. 
Religious societies, 100, 144. 
Remsenburgh Patent, 48, 342, 347, 349, 466. 
Rensselaerwyck Manor, 155, 156, 157, 165, 

553. 
Reservations, gold and silver mines, 26, 46. 

Salt Springs, 478, 479, 480. 

See Indian Meservations. 
Reservoirs. See Canal Reservoirs. 
Resident Physician, 116. 
Revenues, United States, 111. 
Revolution. See War of Revolution. 
Revolutionary claims, 419. 
lUuimensnyders Bush, attack upon, 346. 
I'.ic-hmoud College, 564. 
Rideau Canal, 119. 
i;idi;e Road. 512, 693. 
Rifle manufactory, 344, 402. 
Riots. See Mobs. 
Rivera, general sketch, 20. 
Roads, opening of, 39. 
Robberies, 242. 
Riibert, Louis J., grant to, 298. 



■Robinson, r>everlv, 540, 542, 699. 
Rock City, so called, 173, 192. 
Rocking stones, 701, 705. 
Rogers. Piatt. 300. 

Robert, 298. 674, 685, 701. 
Rolling mills. 199, 235, 297, 569, 571, 666, 

699, 708. 
Roman Catholic Church, 143. 
Roofing slates, 26, 243, 267, 555, 677, 682, 

684. 
Rope manufactory, 228. 286, 368, 376, 464, 

556, 558, 634, 693'. 
Rosin Oil manufactory, 368. 
Ross and Butler, 416. 
Ross, Major. 316. 
Rotunda, N.Y.. 423, 4.37. 
Royal Grant, 315, 342, 343, 345, 347,348. 
Rubber Toy manufactorv. 272. 
Rumbout's Patent, 269, 272. 
Rural cemeteries, 100, 166, 200, 275, 371, 

372. 373, 398, 404, 428, 549, 577, 599, 

703, 704. 
Eye, where most raised, 101. 
statistics of, 104. 



Sable Iron Co., 236. 
Sackets Harbor, 525. 
Sackett, Richard, 270. 
Sacondaga Patent, 317. 
Saddle & Harness manufactory, by cos., 
153. 

Tree manufactory, 691. 
Safe manufactory, 160, 368, 402, 561. 
Safety fund. 89. 
Sail manufactory, 286. 
Sailors' Snug Harbor, 566. 
St. Hilary, Count, 521. 
St. Lawrence Canal, 119. 
St. Leger, Gen., 166, 342, 410, 461, 467, 586. 
St. Regis Indians, 233, 308. 
Saleratus manufactory, 401. 
Salisbury, Aaron, 290. 
Salmon fisheries, 124, 520. 
Salometer, 480. 
Salt holes, so called, 488. 

manufactory, 110, 198. 203, 399, 405, 
479, 483, 487,488, 489, 512, 514, 515, 
522. 532, 632, 692, 693. 

marshes and meadows, 365, 372. 373, 
418, 544, 546, 547, 648, 650, 663; 566, 
631, 633, 636, 636, 638, 696, 706. 

Springs Lands. 47. 

springs. See Brine Springs. 

wells,"479, 480, 483. 
Salvage, ll7. 

Sandpaper manufactory, 546. 
Sand plain, 584. 
Sandstone terrace, 577. 
Sandy Creek battle, 525. 
Sandv Hook fort, 565. 

light, 419. 
Sanger, W. P. S., 368. 
Saratoga Patent, 585. 
Sargent, Henry G., 59. 
Sasii & Blind manufactory, 110, 188, 228, 
229, 244, 248, 255, 270, 286, 297, 301, 
862, 368, 385, 386, 393, 407, 413, 454, 
463. 484, 510, 516, 654, 575, 582, 590, 
596, 603, 652, 686, 716. 
Satinet manufactory, 261, 508. 
Savings banks, 99, 100, 166, 436, 640. 
Saw manufactery, 286, 506. 
Sawmills, by counties, 110. 
Saw Set manufactory, 348. 
Scale manufactory, 402, 693. 
Scarcity of provisions, 264. 
Schaghticoke Indians, 559. 
Schoharie invaded, 316. 
School Commissioners, 38, 135, 137, 139. 

Districts, 31, 135, 138. 

Fund, 46, 47, 135. 

General Article on, 135. 

house.s, 138. 

Indian. 412, 478. 

Lands. 47, 389. 

statistics, 138. See Acres, tfc. 
Schools, Common, 38, 135. 

See City Schnnh. 
Schuyler, Han Yost, 342. 

Patent, 269, 342. 

Peter, 408. 

Philip, 316. 410, 691,592. 
Scott's Patent, 413, 602, 603. 
Screw manufactory, 468. 
Scriba, George. 519. 520, 528. 
Scriba's Patent, 48, 519, 521. 



Scythe manufactory, 274, 312, 466, 483, 690, 

617. 
Sealer of Weights and Measures, 30, 38. 
Seal of Broome Co. presented, 178. 

Delaware Co. adopted, 2.57. 
Seamen's Friend Society, 146. 

employed, 113. 

Hospital, 120, 434. 

Retreat, 566. 

tax upon, 117, 120, 566. 
Seamless Bag manufactory, 590, 6S3. 

clothing, 271. 
Seat of Government, 26, 438. 
Secretary of State, 32, 125. 
Secret Societies, 147. 
Seigniories, French, 233, 298. 
Select schools under Regents. 125. 
Seminaries, 200, 453. 454, 498, 533, 602, 713. 

See also Academies. 
Senate, 28. 

Districts. 28. 
Seneca Indians, 397, 452, 493. 

Lock Navigation Company, 62. 

River Improvement, 61, 62. 

Turnpike, 469. 
Serpentine, 670, 675. 
Serpent, tradition of, 493. 
Ser^^s's Patent, 466, 468. 
Seventh D.ay Baptists, 143. 
Seward, 'VVilli.am H., 200, 510. 
Sewers, New York, 425. 
Shad fisheries, 124. 
Shakers, 143, 166, 243, 248, 384. 
Shannandhoi Patent, 585, 587. 
Shattuck, Artemas, 714. 
Shawl manufactory, 508, 598, 618. 
Shav, Daniel. 165, 603. 
Sheep husbandry, 107, 6.37, 686 
Shell, John Christian, 345. 
Sheriff murdered, 242. 

county, 35. 
Shingle manufactory. 110, 286, 290, 291, 
292, 293, 301, 338, 454, 470, 523, 526, 
527, 575, 580, 590, 611, 625, 667, 694. 
Shinnecock Indians, 638. 
Ship building, 115, 213, 286, 297, 352, 356, 
357, 358, 359, 367, 368, 399, 520, 525, 
549, 569, 570, 632, 633, 634, 636, 639, 
662, 686. 

canal, 284, 690. 

Timber Co., 291. 
Shipments. Buffalo, 285. 
Shoe manufactory, 346, 373, 402, 548, 568, 

570, 705. 
Shovel manufactory, 705. 
Showmen, 706. 
Sickness, 681. 

Silk manufactory, 275, 286, 391, 566,570,657. 
Silliman, Prof., analysis by, 324. 
Silurian rocks, 156. 
SUver Lake Tract, 711. 

mines, so called, 257, 337, 374. 

Plating, 286. 

traces of, 528. 

Ware manufectory, 110, 163, 368, 488, 
662. 
Simcoes Queen's Rangers, 551. 
Skanandoa, Indian chief, 469. 
Skene, Philip, 299, 686. 
Skinners, 698. 

Slack Water Navigation Co., 614. 
Slate, 26. 

Slate Cos., 267, 270, 273. 
Slave rescue, 489. 
Slaves, Indians sold as, 661. 
Small Pox Hospital, 425. 
Smallwood, Col., 701. 
Smith, Col., 452. 

Gerrit, 393. 524. 

Joe, 494, 467. 

Peter, lease of, 462. 

purchase of, 389, 393. 

William, H., 634. 
Smuggling. 233. 3.57. 
Snell and ZimnK^rman's Tract, 342. 
Soap manufactory, 109, 286, 368, 402, 509, 

598. 
Socialists, 392. 
Societies, Agricultural, 102. See New 

York State Agricultural Society. 
Society for Promoting Agricultural Arts 
and JIanufactures, 101, 161. 

Promoting Useful Arts, 101. 
Soda manufactory. 286. 
Solar works, 479, 480. 
Solitary confinement, 41. 
Sons of Liberty, 423, 438. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



15 



Sons of Malta, 148. 
Spanish Brown, 25. 
relic, 47". 
invasion, 478. 
Spaulding, Solomon, 532. 
Specie, 113, 122. 

payment suspended, 90. 
Speculations. 3GG. 
Spencer, John C, 137, 323. 
Spies, 412. 

Spiritual i-appings, 690. 
Spoke manulactorv, 277, 590, 667. 
Springs, copious, 205, 277, 522, 570, 615. 
SpiivtenduvTil Creek. 418. 
Squatters, 242, 243, 269, 290, 291, 358, 360, 

389, 394. 
Stage boat, 469. 
licensed, 553. 
rights, 469. 
routes, early, 496. 
Stair liuildinir, 110. 

Stalactites, 164, 416, 600, 604, 606, 607. 
Staley's Patent, 342, 344. 
Stamp Act, 438. 

Starch manufactory. 232, 237, 238, 240, 
286, 297, 307, 346, 468, 618, 521, 525, 
550, 581. 
Stark, Gen. John, 298, 556. 
State Engineer and Surveyor, 33, 54,[68, 69. 
Government, 28. 
Hall, 27. 
House, 26. 

Library, 27, 125, 126. 
Prisons, 36, 41, 42, 63, 200, 238, 704. 
ofiBcers, 41. 

reservations for villages, 288, 704. 
Roads, 322, 615, 656. 
Statue of George HI. and Pitt, 423, 438. 

Washington, 423. 
Stave manufactory, 238, 262, 286, 290. 292, 

363, 487, 514, 522, 526, 618. 
Steamboat Companies, 82. 
mail routes, 123. 
statistics of, 115. 
tax 54 
Steamboats', 115, 162, 200, 214, 247, 275, 286, 
288, 307, 354, 356, 360, 368, 375, 399, 
418, 429, 452, 489, 495, 526, 550, 551, 
561, 573, 579, 584, 611, 615. -616, 620, 
627, 628, 655, 657, 664, 673, 687, 696, 
697, 699, 700, 703, 705, 708. 
Steam Engine manufactory, 286, 525, 652, 

685. 
Stedman, William. 452, 455. 
Steele, 0. N., murder of, 259. 
Steel manufactory, 270, 311, 508, 510, 540, 

566, 571, 701. 
Sterritt Tract, 321. 
Steuben, Baron, 48, 467, 484. 
Stevens, Ebenezer, 549. 

John C, 418. ♦ 

Stewart, Alvan, 210. * 

StilwelUtes, 140. 

Stirling, Earl of, 18, 550, 633, 635, 639. 
Stirling, Lord, 510, 564, 637. 
Stock, breeding of, 277. 

amount of. See Acres, <£c. 
Stockade, 469. See Farts. 
Stone and Marble dressing, 153, 368, 663, 

666. 
Stone Arabia battle, 316. 
Patent, 317, 408, 416. 
Stone Heap Patent, 413, 603, 605. 
Stone heaps, 242, 605. 
Stone Ware manufactory, 286, 468. 
Stove manufactory, 160, 286, 561, 699. 
Strang, Daniel, execution of, 699. 
Straw, paper factory, 166. 
Streets, arrangement, New York, 422. 
Department, 422. 
inspection, 427. 
Stuart, Charles B., 368. 
Sturgeon fisheries, 124. 
Stuy vesant pear tree, 437. 

Peter G., 423. 
Suburban population, 429. 
Sugar Loaf Hill fortified, 299. 
Sugar refineries, 419. 
Sullivan. General, 219, 221, 371, 382, 410, 
478, 493, 531, 536, 564, 602, 609, 614, 
617. 
Sunday schools, 146. 
Superintendent Poor, 36. 
Superintendent Public Instruction, 125, 

135. 
Supervisors, 30, 39, 420. 
Tryon County, 410. 
Supreme Court, 34. 



Surrogate, 34. 

Survey Fifty, so called, 479. 

Surveyor General, 33. 

Surveys of Holland Land Co., 322. 

Surveys of Lake Champlaiii, 298. 

Suspension bridges, 235, 362, 412, 453, 455, 

663. 
Susquehanna Navigation, 619. 
Swallow, steamer, ^vrecked, 331. 
Swcdenborgian Church, 139. 
Swift, General John, 690. 
Swine, statistics by counties, 107. 

Taconic system, 24. 25. 

Tailors, by counties, 153. 
shops, by counties, 110. 

Tallmadge, Major, 034, 638, 701. 

Tammany Society, 434. 

Tanneries, 110, 153, 181, 183, 188, 193, 194, 
195, 198, 202, 205, 213, 219, 225, 22S, 
2-30, 238, 239, 244, 248, 257, 259, 260, 
262, 263, 265, 282, 283, 286, 2S9, 290, 
291, 292, 293, 297, 302, 304, 305, 311, 
314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 330, 331, 332, 
333, 334, 338, 339, 342, 343, 346. 347, 
348, 350, 352, 360, 362,363, 375, 377, 
385, 386, 390, 391, 392, 394, 400, 402, 
454. 462, 463, 465, 466, 468, 469, 470, 
4S3, 4S4, 505, 514, 515, 516, 520, 521, 
522, 523, 525, 526, 527, 529, 532, 5-33, 
634, 535, 536, 537, 538, 541, 554, 575, 
576, 584, 589, 590, 591, 598, 603, 604, 
605, 606, 607, 008, 610, 611, 612, 623, 
625, 627, 628, 641, 643. 644, 645, 647, 
649, 651, 652, 655, 657, 661, 663, 665, 
667, 668, 671, 675, 690, 691, 693, 695, 
699. 

Tivpe manufactory, 706. 

Tariffs, 111. 

Tarleton, Gen., 700. 

Tavern sign in verse, 222. 

Taxation, 48, 422. 

Tax sales, 48. 

Teachers' classes, 126, 138. 
institutes, 137. 
statistics of, by counties, 153. 

Tea destroyed in New York Harbor, 438. 

Teamsters, number, by counties, 153. 

Telegraph companies, list of, 81. 
Instrument manufactory. 

Temperance Society, New York State, 147. 

Ten Governors, 425. 

Ten Towns on St. Lawrence, 47, 572, 574, 
575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582. 

Tenure of lands, 46. 

Tertiary clays, 237, 296. 

Theater at Bath, 622. 

Theller, E. A., 405. 

Theological seminaries, 127, 200, 391, 403, 
430, 431, 533, 575, 707. 

Thermal springs, 26, 241, 247. 

Thermometer manufactory, 248. 

Thimble manufactory, 636. 

Thorburn, Grant, 549. 

Thousand Islands, 577. 

Thread manufactory, 593, 597. 

Threshing machine, 657. 

Ticonderoga, 298. 299, 305, 671, 672, 673. 

Tidal estuaries, 365, 367, 372, 544, 546, 547, 
563, 696, 706. 

Tide mills, 371, 544, 546, 640, 696, 701, 705. 

Tides, 23, 156, 419. 

Tile manufactory, 160, 398, 499, 691. 

Tillier, Rodolph, 375, 377, 378. 

Timber stealing, 309, 311, 360, 580. 

Tin manufactory, 368, 546, 618. 

Tinsmiths, by counties, 153. 

Tinware manufactory, by counties, 110. 

Titanium, 26. 

Title, controversy about, 299, 357. 

Tobacco and cigar manufactory, 110, 166, 
276, 286, 368, 468. 488, 693. 699. 

Tobacco culture, 101, 105, 219, 220, 221, 372, 
487, 689. 
Indian tradition, 482. 

Tompkins, Governor, 564, 705. 

Tonawanda Swamp, 450. 

Tonnage, American, compared with fo- 
reign, 112. 
Buffalo, 285. 

at different periods, 115, 116. 
by counties, 113. 
by districts, 112. 
coasting, 115. 
general article on, 115. 
on great lakes, 118. 
Oswego, 524. 
registered and enrolled, HI, 112, 115. 



Tool manury, 300, 391, 393, 527, 590, 598. 

Topographiail outli:ie of State, 19. 

Topping Purchase, 038. 

Tories. 103. ISO, 345, 346, 398, 602, 607, 636. 

Tornado, 310. 

Totten & Crossfield's Purchase, 47, 337, 

342, 349. 
Town Clock maTiufactory, 390. 

halls, 239, 700, 707. 

meeting days, 30. 

powers of people at, 31. 

officers, 30, 40. 

Purchase, 638. 
Townsend Fund, Jamaica, 548. 
Townships patented, Delaware county, 

258. 
Tract societies, 145, 404, 489. 
Trading posts, 452, 519, 661. 
Transit Line, 321, 322. 

storehouse, 322, 328. 
Trap rock. 501, 568. 
Treasure buried, 316. 
Treasurer, State. 32. 
Treaties. 18. 180, 224, 257, 290, 299, 344, 

382, 461, 478, 479, 661. 
Treaty, Keciprocitv, 524. 
Trial of Zenger, 431. 
Triangular Tract, .321. 326, 398. 
Tribunals of Conciliation, 34. 
Trinity Cemetery, 428. 

Church, 434. 
Triphammer manufactory, 347, 391, 393. 
Trombois Mine, 236. 
Trumbull, Col. John, 385. 
Trustees of Academies, 126. 

school districts, 39 
Trj'on, Governor, 26. 

county, ravages in, 411. 
Tub manufactory, 297, 466, 570, 590. 
Tufa, 26, 186, 395, 592. 
Tunnels, 68. 

Turkish present to Com. Perry, 423. 
Turner's Purchase, 705. 
Turning, by counties, 110. 
Turnpikes, 39. 182, 284, 001. 
Tuscarora Indians. 410, 452, 596. 
Twenty Towns on Chenango, 224 
Twine manufactory, 571, 593, 697, bo4. 
Type manufactory, 160, 286. 

Union College, 126, 549, 598. 

schools, 136, 138, 201, 214, 324, 346, 
359, 401, 405, 454, 483, 484, 487, 498, 
548, 580, 617, 618, 636, 691, 692, 712. 

Unitarians, 143. 

United Presbyterians, 139. 

United States Courts, 33. 
Deposit Fund, 125. 

Universal Friend, so called, 718, 719, 720, 
721. 

Universalists, 143. 

Universities. See Colleges. 

Upholstery, 286. 

Upton, Paul, letter from, 269. 

Vaccination, 432. 

Valuation by towns. See Acres, ax. 

Van Alstyne, Eva, 411. 

Van Buren, Ex-President, 247. 

Van Cortlandt, Jacob, 698. 

Stephen, 699. 
Vander Donk, 708. 
Vander Kemp, John J., 322. 
Van Driessen's Patent, 342. 
Van Home's Patent, 342, 343. 
Van Kleek House, 275, 276. 
Van Rensselaer, KUlian, 156. 

Patent, 603. 

Robert, 316, 41G, 417 

Stephen, 59, 157, 553. 
Van Schaick, Col., 478. 

Myndert, 424. 
Van Wart, Isaac, 700. 
Varnish manufiictory, 549. 
Vaughan, Gen., 664. 
Vaughan's Patent, 342, 343, 346, 348. 
Yerd Antique, 303. 
Vermont controversy, 18. 

militia at Plattsburgh, 234. 

negotiations with the enemy, 300. 

Sufferers' Tract, 224, 225. 
Verplancks Point, 504, 569. 
Veto power, 30. 31. 
Vice manufactory, 286, 598. 
Villages, officers of, 39. 
Vineyards, 205, 628, 699. 
Vlaie, Sacondaga, 814, 316, 318, 337. 
Voters, by counties, 150. 



16 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Vrooman's Land, 605. 

Patent, 48, 342, 343, 348, 349, 601. 

Wadsworth, James, 137, 382. 

Walk-in-the-Water, steamer, 288. 

Walloomsac Patent, 556, 686. 

Walloons, settlement of, 371, 437. 

Walton's Patent, 52, 265, 342, 348. 
Tract, 489. 

"VN'aiworth, Keuben H., 592. 

Wampum, 635. 

Wards, date of formation. New York, 420. 

Wards Island, 117, 419, 420, 427. 

War of 1812-15 noticed, 45, 233, 353, 354, 
355, 356, 358, 366, 372, 373, 398, 399, 
404, 437, 513, 520, 525, 655, 574, 579, 
581, 583, 633, 639, 687, 690, 694. 

Warren, Sir Peter, 315, 409, 419. 

Wars, French, 301, 305, 400, 461, 467, 503, 
519, 533, 554, 556, 558, 586, 672, 685, 
686. 
Indian, 408, 415, 416, 478, 493, 555, 556, 

559, 588, 597, 599, 661, 700. 
Revolutionary, 164, 180, 233, 242, 244, 
299, 331, 334, 366, 371, 415, 416, 531, 
437, 438, 461, 467, 503, 504, 508, 519, 
533, 535, 537, 538, 545, 548, 549, 550, 
551, 554, 586, 587, 601, 604, 624, 633, 
635, 636, 637, 638, 639, 642, 643, 646, 
662, 663, 664, 668, 698, 699, 701, 702, 
707, 708. 

Washington College, 564. 

Washington, General George, 273, 371, 467, 
503, 504, 509, 536, 570, 699, 700. 
inaugurated, 4i58. 

Washington monument proposed, 423. 

Water Cures, 180, 204, 220, 344, 385, 470, 
497, 498, 658. 

Waterlime, 24, 26, 155, 197, 199, 204, 207, 
279, 282, 292, 305, 320, 340, 357, 374, 
388, 390, 393, 394, 395, 454, 458, 469, 
473, 482, 484, 485, 491, 497, 512, 514, 
600, 613, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 666, 
717. 

Waterman's Society, 434. 

Waterspouts, 352. 

Waterworks, 160, 284. 312, 362, 363, 369, 
424, 4SS, 509, 548. 501. 697, 706. 

Watkins & Flint. 219, 010, 655. 

Watson's Tract, 342, 349, 375. 



Wawayauda Patent, 503, 506, 568. 

Wax, product by counties, 107. 

Wayne, Anthony, 569. 

Weavers, number by counties, 153. 

Webb, General, the coward, 461, 467, 672. 

Webster, Ephraim, 479, 485, 489. 

Weeds, noxious, 39. 

Weights and measures, 38. 39, 427. 

Welland Canal, 119, 520, 525. 

Well, remarkable, 271. 

Wells family murdered, 531. 

Wells in N. Y., 418, 424. 

Welsh settlement, 466. 

Wesleyan Methodists, 144. 

Western House of Kefiige, 42, 404. 

Inland Lock Navigation Co., 58, 346, 
461, 466, 596. 
West India Co., 437. 
West Patent, 702, 703. 
West Point, 504. 
Whalebone manufactory, 546. 
■Whale fisheries, 124, 247, 632,636, 638, 639. 
Whales, drift, 124, 635. 
Wharves, New York, 422. 
Wheat, statistics of, 101, 104. 
Wheelbarrow manufactory, 482, 484, 665. 
Wheeler, Silas, 629. 
Whetstones, 223. 
Whip manufactory. 286. 
Whitehouse, Rev. Dr., 137. 
White Lead manufactory, 286, 368, 663, 

566, 666. 
Whitiug manufactorv, 368. 
Wilbur, Hervey B., 488. 
WUkinson, General, expedition of, 310, 354, 
356, 357, 574. 

Jemima, 718, 719, 720, 7'21. 
Wilkins Point, 45. *> 

Willet's Patent, 345. -< 

AHUett, Colonel, 316, 411. 461, 607. 
AVilliaras College founded, 298. 
■Williams, David, 603, 700. 

Ephraim, 298, 671. 
WUUanison, Charles, 384, 621, 622, 690, 

692, 694. 
Willis, N. P., 652. 
Will of Sir Wm. Johnson, 315. 
Windmill, battle of, 575. 
Windmills, 635, 636, 637, 640. 
Window Shade manufactory, 368. 



Wire manufactory, 699, 708. 

Wolf, 580, 581. 

bounty frauds, 308. 

Woman's Hospital, 432. 

Wooden Ware manufac, 573, 580, 581, 591, 

Woodhull. General N., 371, 634. 

Woodworth, Lieutenant Solomon, 345. 

Woolen manufactory, 110, 166, 175, 194, 
199, 200, 2u3, 206, 212. 216, 220. 221, 
229. 244, 248, 255, 200 261. 263, 265, 
270, 272. 283, 289, 291, 292, 293, 301, 
332, 343, 344, 346, 356, 362, 379, 386, 
390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 400, 401, 402, 
406, 407, 411, 412, 413, 416, 454, 463, 
466, 468, 471, 485, 486, 487, 505, 510, 
514, 522, 535, 554, 5G1, 569, 584, 59.3, 
597, 610, 611, 617, 618, 636, 651, 655. 
658, 662, 663, 668, 681, 682, 683, 685J 
695, 703, 704, 713, 715. 

Wool grooving, 168, 178, 186, 198, 208, 218, 
223, 2S0, 320, 395,492, 498, 609, 620, 
628, 688, 710. 

Woolsey, Lieutenant 525. 

Wooster, Ebenezer, 258. 

Workhouses, 280, 398, 425, 426, 475. 

Worth, General, monument to, 423. 

Wreckmasters, 117, 544, 631. 

Wright, Benjamin, 59, 70, 519. 
Silas, 576, 685. 

Wyandauce, Montauk sachem, 633, 634, 
638. 

Wyoming massacre, 265, 410. 

Yarn manufactory, 276, 346, 505, 569. 
Yellow fever, 428. 
Yeo, Sir James, 399, 525, 694. 
Yorkshire, on Long Island, 365, 544, 545. 
Young, Brigham, 495. 

John, 326. 

Samuel, 59, 1.37, 481. 
Young Slen's Association, 147, 161, 275, 
287, 369. 

Christian Association, 146. 

Christian Union, 147, 287. 
Young's Patent, 342. 

Zenger, Peter, trial of, 431. 
Zinc ores, 26, 704. 
Zinzendorf, Count, 274. 
Zoological Garden, 423. 



\ 



/ 



GAZETTEEE 



OF THE 



STATE OF ISTEW YOEK. 



STATE BOUNDARIES. 




The State op New York is situated between 40° 29' 40^' and 
45° 0' 42'' N. latitude, and between 71° 51' and 79° 47' 25" 
longitude w. of Greenwich. It is bounded on the n. by 
Canada, e. by Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, s. by 
the ocean. New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and w. by Pennsyl- 
vania and Canada. 

The Northern Boundary, commencing in the middle jf Lake 
Ontario, N. of the mouth of Niagara River, extends eaotward 
through the lake, midway between the opposite shores, to its 
E. extremity, thence north-easterly through the St. Lawrence 
River to the 45 th parallel of n. latitude, and thence easterly 
in a gradually diverging line from the parallel, and terminating 
upon Lake Champlain 4,200 feet n. of it. 
The Eastern Boundary extends s. through Lake Champlain to its s. extremity, thence a short 
distance s. e. along Poultney River, and thence in an irregular line, but in a generally southerly 
direction, to Lyons Point, at the mouth of Byram River, on Long Island Sound. From this 
point the line extends eastward through the Sound, very near the Connecticut shore, to the e. 
extremity of Long Island, including within the limits of the State nearly all the islands in the 
Sound. 

The Southern Boundary extends from the e. extremity of Long Island along the ocean to the 
s. w. extremity of Staten Island, thence northward through the channel between Staten Island 
and New Jersey and through New York Bay and the Hudson to the 41st parallel of n. latitude, 
thence north-westerly to a point upon the Delaware at latitude 41° 20' n., thence north-westerly 
along Delaware River to latitude 42° n., and thence w. along the 42d parallel to a meridian passing 
through the w. extremity of Lake Ontario. 

The Western Boundary, commencing upon the 42d parallel, extends n. to the middle of Lake 
Erie, thence eastward to the e. extremity of the lake, and thence n. through Niagara River and 
to the middle of Lake Ontario.' 



1 The boundary through Lake Ontario is 175 mi.; throushthe 
?t. Lawrence, 108 mi. ; alonq; the Canada frontier, E. of the St. 
Lawrence, 62.75 mi.; through Lake Champlain, 105 mi. ; along 
Poultney River, 17.25 mi.; the Tt. line, s. »f that river, 54.06 
mi.; the Mass, line, .50.52 mi. ; the Conn, line, to Lyons Point, 
on Long Island Sound. 81.20 mi.; through the Sound, 96 mi.; 
along the ocean to the N. J. sliore, loO mi. ; through the Bay and 



Hudson Kiver, to latitude 41° N., 44 mi.; along the N. J. line, 
w. of the Hudson, 48.50 mi.; through Delaware Kiver, 78 mi.; 
along the Penn. line, on latftude 42°, 225.50 mi. ; on the me- 
ridian to Lake Erie, 18.75 mi., and upon the meridian in Lake 
Erie, 22 mi. ; through Lake Erie to Buti'alo. 60 mi. ; and through 
Niagara Kiver, 34 mi. 

! IT 



18 



NEW YORK GAZETTEER. 



The boundaries of the State have been settled from time to time by commissioners appointed 
by the several governments whose territories are contiguous. In several instances long and 
angry controversies have occurred, which have extended through many years and almost led to 
civil war. The boundaries are all now definitely fixed, except that of Conn., respecting which a 
controversy is now pending.^ 



1 Canada Boundary. — By royal proclamation, issued in Oct. 
1763, the line of 45° N. was fixed as the boundary between the 
provinces of Quebec and New York, and this was confirmed in 
council, August 12, 1768. The line was surveyed by Valentine 
and Collins, October 20, 1774. By the treaty of 1783 the 45th 
parallel was recognized as the N. boundary of the State from 
Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence. By the treaty of Ghent 
the same line was recognized as the boundary, and provisions 
were. made for a re-sui'vey. In 1818-19, Gov. Van Ness and Peter 
B. Porter on the part of the U. S., and John Ogilvie on the part 
of Great Britain, ran the line with great care; and it was found 
that the old line coincided with the parallel only at St. Regis, 
and that from that point E. it diverged, until at Lake Cham- 
plain it was 4,200 feet too far N. The deepest channel of the 
St. Lawrence was not always adopted, as a mutual exchange of 
islands was made satisfactory to both parties. Before the N. 
line was re-surveyed, in 1818, the U. S. Government had com- 
menced the erection of a fortress at Rouses Point, on Lake 
Champlain ; and this was found to be within the British terri- 
tory. By the treaty of August 9, 1842, the old line of Valentine 
and Collins was re.stored, and the strip of territory before taken 
off again came under the jurisdiction of the U. S. The com- 
missioners to run the line under the treaty of 1842 were Albert 
Smith on the part of the United States, and J. B. B. Estcourt 
on the part of Great Britain. 

Vtrnumt Boundary. — The territory of Vermont was originally 
claimed by both New York and New Hampshire, and conllicting 
grants were made by the two governments. Most of the actual 
settlers holding title under N. H. resisted the claims of N. Y'., 
" and many actual collisions occurred. Jan. 15, 1777, the settlers 
declared themselves independent, and laid claim to the territory 
w. to the Hudson, N. of Lansingburgh, and along the w. shore 
of Lake Champlain. By an act of Congress passed Aug. 20, 1781, 
they were required to recede from this claim. A final agree- 
ment was entered into between Vt. and N. Y., Oct. 7, 1790, by 
which N. Y. surrendered all her claim to jurisdiction to the 
present territory of Vt., and Vt. paid $30,000 to certain persons 
wlio hnd been deprived of lands granted by N. Y. The boundary 
line was run by Robert Yates, Robert R. Livingston, John Lan- 
eiag, jr., Gulian C. Verplanck, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Benson, 
Richard Sill, and Melancthon Smith on the part of N. Y'., and 
Isaac Tichenor, Stephen R. Bradley, Nathaniel Chipman, Elijah 
P.aine, Ira Allen, Stephen, Jacob, and Israel Smith on the part 
of Vt. The final line was established June 8, 1812. 

Massachusetts Boundary. — The charter of Massachusetts em- 
braced all the territory l)etween 44° and 48° N. latitude '-through- 
out the Maine lands from sea to sea." Grants made under this 
authority conflicted with those of N. Y., and angry controversies 
ensued, which in colonial times often resulted in violence and 
bloodshed. On the 18th of May, 1773, an agreement was en- 
tered into between John Watts, Wm. Smith, Robert R. Livings- 
ton, and Wm. Nicoll, commissioners on the part of N. Y., and 
AVni. Brattle, Joseph Hawley, and John Hancock, on that of 
Mass.; but the Revolution soon followed, and the line was never 
run. Commissioners appointed by both States in 1783 failed 
to agree ; and December 2, 1785, Congress appointed Tliomas 
Hutchins, John Ewing, and David Rittenhouse commissioners 
to run the line and finally end the controversy. The claims of 
Mass. to the lands westward were finally settled at Hartford, 
Conn., Dec. 16, 1786, by James Duane, Robert R. Livingston, 
Robert Yates, John Haring, Melancthon Smith, and Egliert 
Benson, commissioners on the part of N. Y., and .Tohn Lowell, 
James Sullivan, Theophilus Parsons, and Rufus King, on the 
part of Mass. By this agreement Mass. surrendered the sove- 
reignty of the whole disputed territory to N. Y'., and received in 
return the right of soil and pre-emptive right of Indian pur- 
chase w. of a meridian passing through the 82d milestone of the 
Penn. line, excepting certain reservations upon Niagara River. 
The title to a tract known as " The Boston Ten Towns," lying E. 
of this meridian, previously granted by Mass., was also con- 
firmed. Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, and the adjacent islands, 
were purchased from the Earl of Sterling by the Dnke of York, 
and civil jurisdiction was exercised over them, under the name 
of " Dukes Grunty," by the governors of N. Y., until it was an- 
nexed to Mass. by the provincial charter of 1692. "Pemaquid 
and its dependencies," comprising a considerable part of the 
coast of Maine, was also bought from the Earl of Sterling, and 
governed by N. Y., as " Cortncall County," until 1686, when it 
was transferred to Mass. Boston Corner, a small arable tract in 



the town of Mount Washington, separated by a rugged mountain 
from the convenient jurisdiction of Mass. was surrendered by 
that State May 14, 1858, accepted by N. Y. July 21, 1853, and 
the transfer was confirmed by Congress, Jan. 3, 1855. Russell 
Dorr was appointed on the part of N. Y., and John Z. Goodrich 
by Massachusetts, to run and mark the line. 

Connecticut Boundary. — By the charter of 1662 the territory 
of Conn, extended to the " South Sea;" and by patent granted 
in 1664 the territory of the Duke of Y'ork was bounded E. by 
Connecticut River. Commissioners sent over in 1664 settled 
upon a line 20 mi. E. of the Hudson as the boundary, fixing the 
starting point on Maniaroneck River. The decision proving 
grossly erroneous, the controversy was renewed, and in 1683 
another commissioner was appointed to settle the matter. It 
was finally agreed to allow Conn, to extend her boundaries w. 
along the Sound, and N. Y. to receive a compensation in the N. ; 
and the line was definitely established May, 1731. By this agree- 
ment a tract called the " Oblong," containing 61,440 acres, along 
the N. part of the w. border of Conn., was surrendered to N. Y. 
The exact line of Conn, has to the present day been a subject of 
controversy, and in 1856 commissioners were appointed by each 
State to eftect a settlement, but without success. N. Y. owns all 
the islands in the Sound to within a few rods of the Conn, shore. 

New Jersey Boundary. — The original patent of New Jersey 
was bounded n. by a line running directly from a point on the 
Delaware, latitude 41° 40', to a point on the Hudson, latitude 
41°, and e. by Hudson River. The N. line was run and marked in 
1774, and the E. was claimed by N. Y. as extending only to low- 
water mark on the adjacent waters. N. J. claimed " full right 
and lawful authority to exercise jurisdiction in and over the said 
Hudson River and the said main sea," including Staten Island, 
and, by an act of Nov. 2, 1806, appointed Aaron Ogden, Wm. S. 
Pennington, James Parker, Lewis Condict, and Alexander C. 
McWhorter commissioners to settle her claims. The New York 
Legislature, on the 3d of AprU, appointed Ezra L'Hommedieu, 
Samuel Jones, Egbert Benson, Simeon De Witt, and Joseph C. 
Yates to meet the commissioners of N. J. ; but their interviews 
led to no result. The question of jurisdiction was finally settled 
in 1833, by an agreement between Benj. F. Butler, Peter A. Gay, 
and Henry Seymour on the part of N. Y., and Theodore Freling- 
huyseu, James Parker, and Lucius Q. C. Elmer on the part of 
N. J. ; confirmed by N. Y. Feb. 5, by N. J. Feb. 26, and by Con- 
gress June 28, 1834. The right of each State to land underwater 
and to fisheries extends to the center of the channel. The State 
of N. Y'. has sole jurisdiction over all the waters of the bay and 
of the river w. of New York City to low-water mark on the 
Jersey shore, except to wharves and vessels attached thereto. 
This jurisdiction covers the water.s of Kil Van KuU and of 
Staten Island Sound to Woodbridge Creek, as for quarantine 
purposes. South of this, N. J. has exclusive jurisdiction over 
the waters of the Sound and of Raritan Bay westward of a line 
from Princes Bay Light to Manhattan Creek, subject to right 
of property in lands under water, of wharves, docks, and ves- 
sels aground or fastened to any wharf or dock, and the right of 
fishing to the center of the channel. 

Civil process in each State may be executed upon the waters 
of the river and bay, except on board of vessels aground or at- 
tached to wharves in the other State, or unless the person or 
property be under arrest or seizure by virtue of authority of 
the other State. By the late survey of N. J. the point of de- 
parture of the boundary from the Delaware is 41° 20'. 

Pennsylvania Boundaries. — The original boundary line be- 
tween New Y'ork and Pennsylvania extended from the N. w. 
corner of New Jersey along the center of Delaware River to 
42° N. latitude, and thence due w. to Lake Erie. Samuel Hol- 
land on the part of N. Y., and David Rittenhouse on the part 
of Penn., were appointed commissioners, Nov. 8, 1774, to run 
this boundary; but the Revolution soon after commenced, and 
nothing was done. In 1785-86 the line was run w. to the 90th 
milestone, and the survey was certified Oct. 12, 1786, by James 
Clinton and Simeon De Witt, of N, Y., and Andrew Elliott, of 
Penn. By authority of the State Legislature, the N. Y. delegates 
in Congress, March 1, 1781, released to the General Goveinment 
all the lands to which they had claim w. of a meridian extend- 
ing through the w. extremity of Lake Ontario. The trian- 
gular tract so surrendered was sold to Penn. for $151,640, and 
secured to that State 30 mi. of lake coast and an excellent 
harbor. The line was run by the U. S. Surveyor Geuer;d in 
1788-89. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



Surface. — Tbis State lies upon that portion of the Appalachian Mountain system whore the 
mountains generally assume the character of hills and finally sink to a level of the lowlands that 
Burround the great depression filled by Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Three distinct 
mountain masses or ranges enter the State from the s. and extend across it in a general n. e. direc- 
tion. The first or most easterly of these ranges — a continuation of the Blue Ridge of Va. — enters 
the State from N. J. and extends n. e. through Rockland and Orange cos. to the Hudson, appears 
on the E. side of that river, and forms the highlands of Putnam and Dutchess cos. A northerly 
extension of the same range passes into the Green Mts. of Western Mass. and Yt. This range 
culminates in the Ilighlands upon the Hudson. The highest peaks are 1,000 to 1,700 feet alx)ve 
tide. The rocks which compose these mountains are principally primitive or igneous, and the 
mountains themselves are rough, rocky, and precipitous, and unfit for cultivation. The deep 
gorge formed by the Hudson in passing through this range presents some of the finest scenery in 
America, and has often been compared to the celebrated valley of the Rhine. 

The second series of mountains enters the State from Penn. and extends n. e. throuaih Sullivan, 
Ulster, and Greene cos., terminating and culminating in the Catskill Mts. upon the Hudson. 
The highest peaks are 3,000 to 3,800 feet above tide. The Shawangunk Mts., a high and con- 
tinuous ridge extending between Sullivan and Orange cos. and into the s. part of Ulster, is the 
extreme e. range of this series. The Helderbergh and Hellibark Mts. are spurs extending n. 
from the main range into Albany and Schoharie cos. This whole mountain system is principally 
composed of the rocks of the New York system above the Medina sandstone. The summits are 
generally crovraed with old red sandstone and with the conglomerate of the coal measures. The 
declivities are steep and rocky; and a large share of the surface is too rough for cultivation. The 
highest peaks overlook the Hudson, and from their summits are obtained some of the finest views 
in Eastern New York. 

The third series of mountains enters the State from Penn. and extends n. e. through Broome, 
Delaware, Otsego, Schoharie, Montgomery, and Herkimer cos. to the Mohawk, appears upon the 
N. side of that river, and extends n. e., forming the whole series of highlands that occupy the n. e. 
part of the State and generally known as the Adirondack Mountain region. South of the Mohawk 
this mountain system assumes the form of broad, irregular hills, occupying a wide space of country. 
It is broken by the deep ravines of the streams, and in many places the hills are steep and nearly 
precipitous. The valley of the Mohawk breaks the continuity of the range, though the connec- 
tion is easily traced at Little Falls, The Noses, and other places. North of the Mohawk the high- 
lands extend n. e. in several distinct ranges, all terminating upon Lake Champlain. The cul- 
minating point of the whole system, and the highest mountain in the State, is Mt. Marcy, 5,467 
feet above tide. The rocks of all this region are principally of igneous origin, and the mountains 
are usually wild, rugged, and rocky. A large share of the surface is entirely unfit for cultiva- 
tion ; but the region is rich in minerals, and especially in an excellent variety of iron ore. West 
of these ranges, series of hills forming spurs of the AUeganies enter the State from Penn. and 
occupy the entire s. half of the w. part of the State. An irregular line extending through the 
southerly counties forms the watei'shed that separates the northern and southern drainage ; and 
from it the surface gradually declines northward until it finally terminates in the level of Lake 
Ontario.^ The portion of the State lying s. of this watershed and occupying the greater part of 





Of Heights of 


1 TABLE 
the Principal Summits in the State. 






NAME OF MOUNT. 


LOCATION. 


FEET. 


NAME OF MODNT. 


LOCATION. 


1 
FEET. 1 


Mount Marcy 


Essex CO . .. 


5,467 
5,200 
5,183 
5,000 
5,000 
4,900 
4.900 
4,500 
4..500 
5,100 
4,000 
3,000 
3.804 
3,718 


Pine Orchard 

Mount I'isgah 

Rockland Mount 


Greene co 


3.000 
3,400 
2.400 
l.fiK.'? 

l.flSIJ 

1.700 
1.743 
l.OSo 
1.471 
1,.5SC 
1,228 
1,529 
1,418 
1,3.50 


Dix Peak 


t£ (( 


Delaware " 


Mount McTntyre 


ii ti 


Sullivan " 


" McMartin 

" Sandanoni 

" Nipple Top 

" White Face 


li C£ 


Ripley Hill 


Onondaga " 

Sullivan " 


I< (I 


Walnut Hill 


U <f 




Cortland " 


ii a 


Pompev Hill 


Onondaua '* 


" Pharaoh 

« Taylor 

" Seward 

" Emmons 

" Crane 


ti a 


Be.icon Hill 


Dutchess " .... 






Franklin " . . 


Bull Hill 

Ant lion v's Nose 


a ti 


Hamilton " . 


a i. 


Warren '* 


Butter Hill 


Orange "" 


Round Top 

High Peak 




Crows Nest 


li li 


a t( 


li a 









19 



20 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



the two southerly tiers of counties is entirely occupied by these hills. Along the Penn. line they 
are usually abrupt and are separated by narrow ravines, but toward the N. their summits become 
broader and less broken. A considerable portion of the highland region is too steep for profitable 
cultivation and is best adapted to grazing. The highest summits in Allegany and Cattaraugus 
cos. are 2,000 to 3,000 feet above tide. 

From the summits of the watershed the highlands usually descend toward Lake Ontario in 
series of terraces, the edges of which are the outcrops of the different rocks which underlie the 
surface. These terraces are usually smooth, and, although inclined toward the n., the inclination 
is generally so slight that they appear to be level. Between the hills of the s. and the level land 
of the N. is a beautiful rolling region, the ridges gradually declining toward the n. In that part 
of the State s. of the most eastern mountain range the surface is generally level or broken by low 
hills. In New York and Westchester cos. these hills are principally composed of primitive rocks. 
The surface of Long Island is generally level or gently undulating. A ridge 150 to 200 feet high, 
composed of sand, gravel, and clay, extends e. and w. across the island n. of the center. 

Rivers and liaises. — The river system of the State has two general divisions, — the first 
comprising the streams tributary to the great lakes and the St. Lawrence, and the second those 
which flow in a general southerly direction. The watershed which separates these two systems 
extends in an irregular line eastward from Lake Erie through the southern tier of counties to near 
the N. E. corner of Chemung ; thence it turns N. E. to the Adirondack Mts. in Essex co., thence 
s. E. to the E. extremity of Lake George, and thence nearly due e. to the e. line of the State.^ 

The northerly division has 5 general subdivisions. The most westerly of these comprises all 
the streams flowing into Lake Erie and Niagara River and those flowing into Lake Ontario w. of 
Genesee R.iver. In Chautauqua co. the streams are short and rapid, as the watershed approaches 
within a few mi. of Lake Erie. Cattaraugus,. BuiFalo, Tonawanda, and Oak Orchard Creeks are 
the most important streams in this division. Buffalo Creek is chiefly noted for forming Buffalo 
Harbor at its mouth; and the Tonawanda for 12 miles from its mouth is used for canal navi- 
gation. Oak Orchard and other creeks flowing into Lake Ontario descend from the interior in a 
series of rapids, affording a large amount of water-power. 

The second subdivision comprises the Genesee River and its tributaries. The Genesee rlsea 
in the n. part of Penn. and flows in a generally northerly direction to Lake Ontario. Its upper 
course is tlirough a narrow valley bordered by steep, rocky hills. Upon the line of Wyoming and 
Livingston cos. it breaks through a mountain barrier in a deep gorge and forms the Portage Falls, 
— one of the finest waterfalls in the State. Below this point the course of the river is through a 
beavTtiful valley 1 to 2 mi. wide and bordered by banks 50 to 150 ft. high. At Rochester it flows 
over the precipitous edges of the Niagara limestone, forming the Upper Genesee Falls ; and 3 mi. 
below it flows over the edge of the Medina sandstone, forming the Lower Genesee Falls. The 
principal tributaries of this stream are Canaseraga, Iloneoye, and Conesus Creeks from the e., and 
Oatka and Black Creeks from the w. Iloneoye, Canadice, Hemlock, and Conesus Lakes lie within 
the Genesee Basin. 

The third subdivision Includes the Oswego River and its tributaries and the small streams flow- 
ing into Lake Ontario between Genesee and Oswego Rivers. The basin of the Oswego includes 
most of the inland lakes which form a peculiar feature of the landscape in the interior of the State. 
The principal of these lakes are Cayuga, Seneca, Canandaigua, Skaneateles, Crooked, and Owasco, — 
all occupying long, narrow valleys, and extending from the level land in the center far into the 
highland region of the s. The valleys which they occupy appear like immense ravines formed by 
some tremendous force, v/hicli has torn the solid rocks from their original beds, from the general 
level of the surrounding summits, down to the present bottoms of the lakes.^ Oneida and Onondaga 

1 TABLE 

Showing the height above tide of the pasnes helween the principal river basins of the State. 



BETWEEN 


AT 


FEET. 


BETWEEN 


AT 


FEET. 


Hudson River and Ramapo River 

" " '• Delaware River 


Moncey 


557 
900 

427 

557 

1,373 

1,127 

1,247 


Susquehanna River and Cayuga Lake 
" « " Seneca Lake. 
" " " Genesee Riv.. 

Genesee River and Allegany River.... 

Alleffanv River and Tj.ike Erie 


Ithaca Summit... 
Ilorseheads 


960 
884 
1,780 
1.699 
1,614 
536 
1.120 
1,060 


Otisville 


" " " Neversink River.... 
« « " Lake Ontario 


Wawarsing 


Alfred Summit... 
Cuha 




« « " Lake Erie 


Tonawanda 

Deposit Summit.. 
Couf'kville 


Little Val. Sum... 


Delaware River and Susqiiehanna Riv. 

Susquehanna River and Mohawk Riv. 

" " " Oneida Lake.. 


Mohawk River and Lake Ontario 

" " " Black River 

Lake Champlain and St. Lawrence... 


■Roonville 


Tully 


Chateaugay Sum. 





The most remarkable passes through the mountains are, first, 
that of the Hudson, through the eastern mountains; second, 
that of Wood Creek, from the Hudson to Lake Champlain ; and, 
tliiid, that of the Mohawk, tlirough the central mountains. 



2 The ravines of these lakes, and the streams which flow down 
parallel to them, are usually bordered by steep hill.?ideg, the 
strata of which lie in parallel layers nearly level E. and w., and 
slightly inclined toward the s. Upon the opposite banks th9 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



21 



Lakes occupy basins upon the level land in the n. e. part of the Oswego Basin. Mud Creek, the 
most westerly branch of Oswego River, takes its rise in Ontario co., flows n. e. into Wayne, where 
it unites with Canandaigua Outlet and takes the name of Clyde River; thence it flows e. to the 
w. line of Cayuga co., where it empties into Seneca River. This latter stream, made up of the 
outlets of Seneca and Cayuga Lakes, from this point flows in a n. e. course, and receives success- 
ively the outlets of Owasco, Skaneateles, Onondaga, and Oneida Lakes. From the mouth of the 
last-named stream it takes the name Oswego River, and its course is nearly due n. to Lake Ontario. 

The fourth subdivision includes the streams flowing into Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence e. of 
the mouth of the Oswego. The principal of these are Salmon, Black, Oswegatchie, Grasse, and 
Racket Rivers. These streams mostly take their rise upon the plateau of the great Northern 
wilderness, and in their course to the lowlands are frequently interrupted by falls, furnishing an 
abundance of water-power. The water is usually very dark, being colored with iron and the 
vegetation of swamps. 

The fifth subdivision includes all the streams flowing into Lakes George and Champlain. They 
are mostly mountain torrents, frequently interrupted by cascades. The principal streams are the 
Chazy, Saranac, and Au Sable Rivers, and Wood Creek. Deep strata of tertiary clay extend along 
the shores of Lake Champlain and Wood Creek. The water of most of the streams in this region 
is colored by the iron over which it flows. 

The second general division of the river-system of the State includes the basins of the Allegany, 
Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson. The Allegany Basin embraces the southerly half of Chau- 
tauqua and Cattaraugus cos. and the s. w. corner of Allegany. The Allegany River enters the 
State from the s. in the s. e. corner of Cattaraugus co., flows in nearly a semicircle, with its out- 
ward curve toward the N., and flows out of the State in the s. w. part of the same co. It receives 
several tributaries from tlie n. and E. These streams mostly flow in deep ravines bordered by 
steep, rocky hillsides. The watershed between this basin and Lake Erie approaches within a few 
miles of the lake, and is elevated 800 to 1,000 feet above it. 

The Susquehanna Basin occupies about one-third of the s. border of the State. The river takes 
its rise in Otsego Lake, and, flowing s. w. to the Penn. line, receives Charlotte River from the s. 
and the Unadilla from the n. After a course of a few miles in Penn. it again enters the State, and 
flows in a general westerly direction to near the w. border of Tioga co., whence it turns s. and 
again enters Penn. Its principal tributary from the n. is Chenango River. Tioga River enters 
the State from Penn. near the e. border of Steuben co., flows n., receives the Canisteo from the w. 
and the Conhocton from the n. From the mouth of the latter the stream takes the name Chemung 
River, and flows in a s. e. direction, into the Susquehanna in Penn., a few miles s. of the State 
line. The upper course of these streams is generally through deep ravines bordered by steep 
hillsides; but below they are bordered by wide and beautiful intervales. 

The Delaware Basin occupies Delaware and Sullivan and portions of several of the adjacent cos. 
The N. or principal branch of the river rises in the n. e. part of Delaware co. and flows s. w. to 
near the Penn. line; thence it turns s. e. and forms the boundary of the State to the line of N. J. 
Its principal branches are the Pepacton and Neversink Rivers. These streams all flow in deep, 
narrow ravines bordered by steep, rocky hills. 

The Basin of the Hudson occupies about two-thirds of the E. border of the State, and a large 
territory extending into the interior. The remote sources of the Hudson are among the highest 
peaks of the Adirondacks, more than 4,000 feet above tide. Several of the little lakes which form 
reservoirs of the Upper Hudson are 2,500 to 3,000 feet above tide. The stream rapidly descends 
through the narrow defiles into Warren co., where it receives from the e. the outlet of Schroon 
Lake, and Sacondaga River from the w. Below the mouth of the latter the river turns eastward, 
and breaks through the barrier of the Luzerne Mts. in a series of rapids and falls. At Fort Ed- 
ward it again turns s. and flows with a rapid current, frequently interrupted by falls, to Troy, 
160 miles from the ocean. At this place the river falls into an estuary, where its current is 
affected by the tide ; and from this place to its mouth it is a broad, deep, sluggish stream. About 
60 miles from its mouth the Hudson breaks through the rocky barrier of The Highlands, form- 
ing the most easterly of the Appalachian Mt. Ranges; and along its lower course it is bordered on 
the w. by a nearly perpendicular wall of basaltic rock 300 to 500 feet high, known as "The Pal 
isades." Above Troy the Hudson receives Hoosick River from the e. and the Mohawk from the 
w. The former stream rises in Western Mass. and Vt., and the latter near the center of the State. 



dissevered edges of the strata exactly correspond, showing tliat 
the intermediate portions have been torn away. The force that 
effected these immense changes was probably great currents of 



water from the N., — the direction being determined by the cha- 
racter of the boulders upon the hills, and by the peculiar nature 
of the drift deposits. 



22 



■Nl:^Y YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



At Little Falls and "The Noses" the Mohawk breaks through mountain barriers in a deep, rocky 
ravine ; and at Cohoes, about 1 mile from its mouth, it flows down a perpendicular precipice of 70 
feet, forming an excellent water-power. Below Troy the tributaries of the Hudson are all com- 
paratively small streams. South of the Highlands the river spreads out into a wide expanse known 
as "Tappan Bay." A few small streams upon the extreme e. border of the State flow eastward 
into the Housatonic ; and several small branches of Passaic River rise in the s. part of Rockland co. 

Lake Erie forms a portion of the w. boundary of the State, It is 240 miles long, with an average 
width of 38 miles, and it lies mostly w. of the bounds of the State. It is 334 feet above Lake On- 
tario, 565 feet above tide, and has an average depth of 120 feet. The greatest depth ever obtained 
by soundings is 270 feet. The harbors upon the lake are Buffalo, Silver Creek, Dunkirk, and 
Barcelona. 

Niagara River, forming the outlet of Lake Erie, is 34 miles long, and, on an average, more 
than a mile wide.^ About 20 miles below Lake Erie the rapids commence ; and 2 miles further 
below are Niagara Falls.'' For 7 miles below the falls the river has a rapid course between 
perpendicular, rocky banks, 200 to 300 feet high ; but below it emerges from the Highlands and 
flows 7 miles to Lake Ontario in a broad, deep, and majestic current. 

Lake Ontario forms a part of the N. boundary to the w. half of the State. Its greatest length is 
130 miles and its greatest width 55 miles. It is 232 feet above tide, and its greatest depth is 600 
feet. Its principal harbors on the American shore are LeWiston, Youngston, Port Genesee, Sodus 
and Little Sodus Bays, Oswego, Sackets Harbor, and Cape Vincent. St. Lawrence River forms 
the outlet of the lake and the n. boundary of the State to the e. line of St. Lawrence co. It is a 
broad, deep river, flowing with a strong yet sluggish current until it passes the limits of this 
State. In the upper part of its course it incloses a great number of small islands, known as 
" The Thousand Islands."* "■ 

The surfaces of the great lakes are subject to variations of level, — probably due to prevailing 
winds, unequal amounts of 'rain, and evaporation. The greatest difference known in Lake Erie ia 
7 feet, and in Lake Ontario 4| feet. The time of these variations is irregular ; and the interval- 
between the extremes often extends through several years. A sudden rise and fall, of several 
feet, has been noticed upon Lake Ontario at rare intervals, produced by some unknown cause. 

IVavig'able Waters. — The natural internal navigation of the State is very extensive. 
Before the commencement of internal improvements, the rivers and lakes formed the most easy 
means of communication between distant portions of the State ; and along these natural channels 
of commerce the early settlements were principally made.* The most important lines of early 



1 TABLE 

Of the heights above tide of the principal lakcs^in the State. 



. NAME OF LAKE. 


LOCATION. 


FEET. 






2,900 

2,861 

1,936 

1,826 

1,791 

1,776 

1,745 

1,704 

1,698 

1,665 

1,645 

1,575 

1,570 

1,567 

1,545 

1,545 

1,527 

1,500 

1,291 

1,200 

1.200 

1,193 

900 

860 

718 

670 

668 

447 

387 

369 

361 

232 
93 


Lake Golden 


it a 


'* Heiiderson 


a (( 


" Sandford 


a a 


" Eckford 


Ilaniilton '".... 


Fulton Lakes, (6,7, and 8)... 
Raoket Lake 


a a 


a a 


Forked " 


u a 




Essex " 






Fulton Lakes, (3, 4, and 5).. 
T.onc' Lake 




(( t( 






Upper Saranac Lake 


Franklin " 


TuDoers " 


11 (1 


Kioh " 


Essex " 




Franklin " 




Hamilton " 


Chautauqua Lake 


ChautauQUft '* 


TuUy " 




Schuyler " 




Otsego " 


ti a 


Ca'/f*novia " 


Madison ** 


Skaneateles " 




Crooked " 


Yates " 


Owasco " 


Cavuffft ** 


Canandaigua " 


Ontario *' 


Seneca " 








Oneida " 




Onondaga " 

Lake Erie 






*' Geor<'"0 




" Ontario 




'' Cbamplain 









2 For a more full d(?scription of Niagara Falls, see page 450. 
8 The river scenery upon the St. Lawrence is unsurpassed. The 
water is perfectly pure and nearly transparent. In consequonca 
of its being fed by the great lake reservoirs, it is never subject 
to sudden rises, but steadily pursues its majestic way to the 
ocean, unaffected by the changes of the seasons or other causes. 
*The navigable waters N. of the great watershed before the 
completion of the Erie Canal were as follows: — 
Cattaraiif/us Creek, about 1 mi. from its mouth. 
Buffalf) Creek, boatable 8 mi. from Lake Erie. 
TrtTiawanda Creek, boatable 30 mi. from its mouth. 
Niagara River, navigable for vessels of any size from Buffalo to 

Schlosser, at the head of the Rapids, — a distance of 22 mi.; 

also from Lewiston to Lake Ontario, a distance of 7 mi. 
Oak Orchard Creek, boatable 4 mi. from its mouth. 
Genesee River, to Carthage Landing, a distance of 5 mi.; and 

from Rochester to Mt. Morris for boats. 
Oswego River was navigated with great difficulty by bateaux, 

with a portage at Oswego Falls, now Fulton. 
Oneida Outlet and Lake were navigable for bateaux, and for 

many years constituted a portion of the great thoroughfare 

between the E. and w. 
Seneca River was boatable to Cayuga Lake, and to Seneca Lake 

with one portage at Seneca Falls ; Clyde River was boatable 

to Lyons. 
The Interior Lakes, including Seneca, Cayuga, Canandaigua, 

Onondaga, Owasco, Skaneateles, Crooked, Chautauqua, and 

Otsego, are all navigable. Steamers have plied upon each 

of them. 
Fish Creek was navigable to Rome with canoes. A portage of 

less than 1 mi. intervened between this stream and the Mo- 
hawk River. 
Salmon. River was navigable to Port Ontario. 
Salmon Creek was navigable on each branch, for small vessels, 

about 1 mi. from the lake. 
Black River was navigable for large vessels from the lake to 

Dexter, a distance of 6 mi., and for boats and small steamers 

from Carthage to Lyons Falls, a distance of 43 mi. 
Lake Ontario, with all its bays and inlets, is navigable for ve» 

sets of all sizes. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



23 



^ 



inland navigation were, first, n. from Albany, through the Hudson to Fort Edward, thence a 
portage to Fort Ann, and thence by Wood Creek to Lake Chaniplain ; and, second, w. from Alljany, 
by way of the Mohawk, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and Oswego River, to Lake Ontario. Upon the 
latter route were portages at several of the rifts of the Mohawk, from the Mohawk to Wood Creek, 
and at Oswego Falls. 

Tides. — The tides at New York Harbor and along the coast have been carefully observed, 
under the direction of the Coast Survey. The tidal wave from the Sound, as it moves forward 
in a wedge-shaped channel, becomes augmented, whilst that from Sandy Hook is slightly dimin- 
ished. These two waves meet in East River, at points between Hell Gate and Throggs Neck.^ 



Cranberry and French Creeks were boataWe about 2 mi. from 
their motitlis. 

Indian Siier and Btact Zkite were navigable from Rossie to the 
foot of the lake. 

Oiwegatckie River is navigable in high water for rafts from Ox 
Bow to Ogdensbiirgh. 

Socket River was formerly beatable about IS mi. from its moutli, 
but the navigation is now destroyed by dams. In the wil- 
derness near the headwaters of this river are several miles 
of slack water navigation. 

St. Regis River is navigable for steamboats 2 mi. from its mouth. 

Salmon River, navigable to Fort Covington. 

St. Lawrence River is navigable for vessels of any size from the 
lake to Ogdensburgh. Below that point rafts, arks, and 
boats could descend, but could ascend only by towing with 
horses and cattle up the principal rifts. Locks and canals 
have been constructed around the Rapids by the Canadian 
Government, so that the navigation for steamboats, sloops, 
and schooners is now uninterrupted from Lake Ontario to 
the ocean. 

Wood Creek was boatable from Fort Ann to Lake Champlain. 

Ijake Gerrrge is navigable for boats and steamers. 

Lake Champlain is navigable for all kinds of vessels. Rafts were 
formerly sent down to the St. Lawrence ; but vessels could 
not ascend the Richlieu until after the construction of a 
canal and locks around the Rapids. 

Chazy River is navigable to Champlain Landing. 
The navigable waters 8. of the great watershed wore as follows : 

jiUegan;/ River, in high water, is navigable for small steamers 
up to Olean. 

Omnewa7igo Creek and several of its tributaries are navigable for 
rafts in high water. 

Susriuehantia River was navigable for boats, in high water, to 
Otsego Lake. 

s. ITIBE 

The following table, prepared by A. D. Baclie, Superintendent 
Hudson. The time is tha^ after the last preceding transit of the 
is mean low tide. 



Unadilla River was also boatable for a considerable distance. 

Chenango River and several of its tributaries were boatable in 
high water. 

Chemung River was boatable and navigable for rafts in high 
water. 

Cimhoctnn River was boatable to Bath. 

Tioga River aud the Ca7iist^!o were also boatable a considerable 
distance. 

Delaware River is navigable for rafts in high water. Immense 
quantities of lumber have been floated down the Delaware 
and Susquehanna to the markets of Philadelphia and Balti- 
more. 

Hudson River is navigable for ships to Hudson, and by sloops 
and steamers to Troy. Boats formerly ascended to Fort Ed- 
ward, with portages around the Falls. 

Rondout and Wappinger Creeks are navigable each about 2 mi. 
from their mouths. 

Mohawk River was boatable from Schenectady to " Fori Stan- 
tvix," now Rome, with several interruptions. The principal 
obstructions were the " Six Flats Rift," 6 mi. above Sche- 
nectady; "Fort Hunter Rift;" "Caughnawaga Rift," at 
Canajoharie; "Ehles Rift," near Fort Plain; " Kneisherns 
Rift," near the Upper Indian Castle ; and the '■ Little Falls," 
which was a complete bar to upward navigation and re- 
quired a portage around it. 

SaconUaga Rix'er is navigable for small steamers from Iladley 
to Northampton — a distance of 20 mi. In and around New 
York and Long Island the bays, creeks, and inlets are nearly 
all navigable in high tide. 

Peconic River is navigable to Riverhe^d. 

Byram River is navigable to Port Chester. 

Bronx River is navigable to West Farms, a distance of 3 mi. 

Harlem River can be navigated by small craft from ij&st River 
to High Bridge. ^ 
TABLES. 

of the Coast Survey, shows the progress of the tidal, wdve up the 
moon across the meridian at Sandy Hook. The plane of reference 



^Time after last preceding transit at S. H. 
Rise of highest tide above plane of reference. 
Fall of lowest tide below '■ " ' 
Fall of mean low water of spring tides below 

plani.1 of reference 

Height of mean low water of neap tides 

above plane of reference 

Mean rise and fall of tides 

" " " " " spring tides 

« " " « " neap tides 



Mean duration, reckoning from ("of rise... 
the middle of one stand < of fall... 
to the middle of the next, (of stand. 



1 


i 




5 


■S 

o 









J? 




1 


11 

H. M. 


OS 


ri 


I 










H. M.- 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


7.29 


8.14 


9.24 


10.10 


11.5 


13.0 


13.50 


15.41 


16.54 


17.45 1 


7.1ft. 


6.1 ft. 


5.0 ft. 


4* ft. 


4.9 ft. 


5.6 ft. 


6.4 ft. 


r 6.0 ft. 


4.9 tt. 


6.4 ft. 


1.4 


2.2 


0.9 


0.8 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.6 


0.8 


1.7, 


0.5 


0.5 


0.3 


0.2 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.2 


0.3 


0.4 


0.5 


0.4 


0.5 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


0.4 


0.3 


0.3 


0:4 


4.8 


4.3 


3.59 


3.12 


2.71 


3.24 


3.95 


3.67 


2.66 


2.46 


5.6 


5.1 


4.5 


3.8 


3.4 


4.0 


4.8 


4.3 


3.3 


3.2 


4.0 


3.4 


2.7 


2.5 


2.0 


2.4 


3.0 


2.8 


1.8 


r.i 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


6.10 


6.0 


6.5 


5.25 


5.28 


5.41 


6.40 


5.18 


5.1 


4.26 


6.15 


6.25 


6.18 


7.12 


7.10 


6.44 


6.54 


7.02 


7JS 


8.4 


0.21 


0.28 



















THde table for the shores of Long Island and adjacent places in Nnu York. Timeafter moon'stransit andplaneof reference as above. 



Interval between time of moon's /Mean interval 

transit and time of high water. | Diflf. between greatest and least interval 



Rise and fall. 



f Spring tides., 
-; Nean ti 



-, Neap tides.. 
(_Mean 



(Flood tide., 

Mean duration. -; Ebb tide..., 

(Stand , 



~ 












.e 






..J 


«s 


Si 


ClH 


:s 




o 




!=; 


1 


Si 




ft. 


1 


OS 




s e 






s 


S. 


!| 


■^s 


^ 


<? 


^ 


g 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


n. M. 


8.20 


9. .38 


11.7 


11.13 


11.22 


11.20 


l.ll 


1.7 


0.51 


0.31 


0.32 


0.39 


2.4 ft 


2.3 ft. 


9.2 ft. 


8.9 ft- 


8.6 ft. 


9.2 ft. 


1.8 


2.9 


5.4 


6.4 


6.6 


6.1 


1.9 


2.5 


7.3 


7.7 


7.6 


7.3 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


6.7 


6.1 


6.8 


5.55 


5..51 


5.50 


6.7 
0.31 


6.21 
0.37 


6.24 


6.30 
0.14 


6.35 
0.12 


6.33 
0.43 





Repcn-t of Coast Survey, 1856,^. 122. 



GEOLOGY. 

Our knowledge of the geology of the State is derived from the STirvey made under State authority 
from 1836 to 1843, and from the investigations of several eminent geologists who have examined 
particular localities.^ 

Rocks. — The geological formations of the State include the igneous or primary rocks, and all 
the strata lying between them and the coal measures of Penn. The classification adopted by the 
State geologists, embracing all the rocks above the primary, is known as the " New York system," 
the rocks being analogous to the Silurian and Devonian system of the European geologists. The 
igneous or primary rocks, including granite, gneiss, and other varieties destitute of organic 
remains, occupy the greater part of the mountainous region in the n. e. part of the State, the 
Highlands upon the Hudson, and a considerable portion of the country below, including Man- 
hattan Island. Portions of these rocks are imperfectly stratified, and are generally found in 
broken and disrupted masses with the strata highly inclined. The remaining portions of the State 
are occupied by series of stratified rocks, generally extending e. and w. and varying in thickness 
from a few inches to several hundred feet. The strata overlie each other, and have a slight dip 
toward the s., so that a person in traveling from the N. border of the State to the Penn. line would 
successively pass over the exposed edges of the whole series. Toward the e. these strata all are 
bent, and appear to be arranged around the primitive region in the same order in which they lie 
elsewhere. The highest of the series of rocks found in the State forms the floor of the coal 
measures ; so that it is perfectly futile to search for coal within the limits of the State. The rocks 
are distinguished by their color, quality, and situation, and by the fossils which they contain. 
In many instances a stratum disappears entirely, and in others strata of several hundred feet in 
thickness in one place are but a few feet thick in another. In places where many strata are 
wanting and two rocks usually widely separated are found in contact, the geologist is obliged to 
depend entirely upon the fossils which they contain to determine their classification.'^ 



1 In 1799, Dr. Samuel L. Mitc}iill, under the auspices of the 
" Society for Promoting Agriculture, Arts, and Slanufactures," 
published an essay upon the rocks in the State. While the Erie 
Canal was in process of construction, Stephen Tan Rensselaer 
employed Prof. Amos Eaton to prepare an account of the rocks 
along the canal route. This was published in 1824. Prof. Eaton's 
work was one of great merit ; and to him we are indebted for the 
first accurate knowledge ever obtained of the general system of 
rocks in the State. 

On the 15th of April, 1836, an act was passed authorizing a 
geological survey of the State. The State was divided into four 
districts, to each of which were appointed a geologist and an 
assistant. A zoologist, botanist, mineralogist, and paleontologist 
were appointed for the whole State. 

The First District included the counties of Albany, Columbia, 
Delaware, Dutchess, Greene, Kings, New York, Orange. Putnam, 
Queens, Rensselaer, Richmond, Rockland. Saratoga, Schenectady, 
Schoharie, Suffolk, Sullivan, Ulster, Washington, and West- 
chester. Wm. W. Mather was appointed Principal Geologist, 

and Caleb Briggs, J. Lang Cassels. and Seymour, Assistants. 

The Report, in 1 vol. 4to, was published in 1843. 

The Second Districts consisting of the counties of Clinton, Es- 
SfX, Franklin, Jefferson, St. La^vrence, and Warren, was placed 
under the charge of Dr. Ebenezer Emmons, Principal, and Jas. 
Hall and E. Emmons, jr., Assistants. The Report, in 1 vol., was 
published in 1842. 

The Third District, consisting of the counties of Broome, 
Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Fulton, Herkimer, Lewis, Madison, 
Montgomery, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, Otsego, Tioga, and the 
E. half of Tompkins, was placed under charge of Lardner Van 
Uxem, Principal, and Jas. Eights and E. S. Can, Assistants. The 
Report, in 1 vol., was published in 1842. 

The Fourth District, consisting of the counties of Allegany, 
Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Chemung, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, 
Monroe, Is iagara, Ontario, Orleans, Seneca, Steuben, the w. half 
of Tompkins, Wayne, Wyoming, and Yates, was assigned to Jas. 
Hall, Principal, and J. W. Boyd and E. N. Horsford, Assistants. 
The Report was published in 1 vol. in 1843. 

The Mineralogical Department was assigned to Dr. Lewis C. 
Beck, Principal, and Wm. Horton and L. D. Gale, Assistants. 
The Report, in 1 vol., was published in 1842. 

The Zoological Department was assigned to Dr. Jas. E. De Kay, 
Principal, and .John W. Hill, Draftsman. The Report, in 5 vols., 
^&8 published in 1842^3 : — Vol. I, Mammalia, with General In- 
troduction by Gov. Seward ; Vol. II, Ornithology ; Vols. Ill and 
IV, Reptiles and Fishes ; Vol. V, Mollusca and Crustacea. 

The Botanical Department was assigned to Dr. John Torry. 
The Report, in 2 vols., was published in 1843. 

Ths Agricultural Department was assigned to Dr. Ebenezer 
■Emmons. The Report, in 5 vols., was published from 1846 to 
24 



1864, — Vol. I, Soils and Climate; Vol. II, Analysis and Results 
of Experiments; Vols. Ill and IV, Emits; Vol. V, Insects. 

The Pakontological Department was assigned to T. A. Conrad, 
In 1837. He resigned in 1843, and was succeeded by Prof. Jas. 
Hall. The Report, to consist of 6 vols., is in process of publica- 
tion. Two vols, are already issued ; and the third is in press. 
A geological map, accompanying the Reports, is issued with 
this work. 

2 The following is the classification of the New Y^ork system, 
with the position which the different strata occupy in the cla.s»i- 
flcation of English geologists. The order of the arrangen'ent 
is from below upward : — 

Primitive or Igneous Rocks. 

Taconic System. 

Potsdam Sandstone. 

Calciferous Sandstone. 

Chazy Limestone. 

Birdseye Limestone. 

Black Ri%'er Limestone. 

Trenton Limestone. 

Utica Slate. 

Hudson River Group, Lorraine Shales. 

Oneida Conglomerate, Shawangunk Grit. 

Medina Sandstone. 

Clinton Group. 

Niagara Group, Coraline Limestone in the east. 
("Red Shales. 

Onondaga Salt Group.-c Green Shales. 
(Gypsum. 

Waterlime Group. 

Pentamcrus Limestone. 

Delthyris Shaly Limestone. 

Upper Pentamerus Limestone. 

Oriskany Sandstone. 

Cauda Galli Grit. 

Schoharie Grit. 

Onondag.a Limestone. 

Corniferous Limestone. 

Marcellus Shales. 

("Ludlowville Shales. 

Hamilton Group. < Encrinal Limestone. 
(Moscow Shales. 

Tully Limestone. 

Genesee Slate. 

rCo.shaqua Shales. 

Portage Group.-; Gardeau Flag Stones. 
(Portage Sandstone. 

Chemung Group. 

Old Red Sandstone. 

Conglomerate of the Coal Measures. 



'.5 



o 



GEOLOGY. 



25 



The Catskill Mts. are composed principally of Old Red Sandstone ; and the tops of some of the 
higher peaks are covered with the conglomerate of the coal measures. Now lied Sandstone is 
found in a few localities along the Hudson, below the Highlands. Trap, a rock of volcanic origin, 
forms tlie Palisades upon the Hudson ; and trap dikes are common in the primitive region of 
the N. Tertiary clay, in deep strata, extends along the valleys of Lake Champlain and St. Law- 
rence River. Drift, including loose deposits of boulders, gravel, sand, and clay, is found in most 
parts of the State, in some places covering the rocks beneath to the depth of several hundred 
feet. The character of this drift, the peculiar forms which it has assumed, and the position which 
it occupies, all give evidence of some great general moving power which existed after the stratified 
rocks Avere lifted from their original beds, and ages before the present order of things was 
instituted. 

Within more recent periods, considerable changes have been wrought by the action of present 
streams of water and the wasting agencies of the atmosphere and frost. From these are derived 
marl, alluvium, and the greater part of the soils. The thickness of the rock strata is generally 
determined by its outcrop along the ravines of the streams, and by Artesian wells, which have 
been sunk to a great depth in different parts of the State.^ 

Metallic Minerals. — The principal metals in the State are iron and lead, the former 
only of which is found in sufficient quantity and purity to render its manufacture profitable. Iron 
ore is found in three distinct varieties, viz., magnetic oxide or magnetite, specular oxide or red 
hematite, and hydrous peroxide or limonite. Magnetic ore is widely diffused throughout the 
primitive region. It is usually found in beds between the rock strata, parallel to the mountain 
ranges ; and sometimes it is blended with the rock. The beds in many places are immense in 
extent, and the ore is 75 to 95 per cent, pure iron."'' Specular iron ore is found in narrow beds 
between the igneous and sedimentary rocks. It is principally found in St. Lawrence and Jeffer- 
son COS.* A variety of this ore, known as argillaceous iron ore or clay ironstone, is associated 
with the lower strata of the Clinton group, extending from Herkimer to Monroe co. It is 
found in beds 2J feet thick and about 20 feet apart, and its general form is that of flattened grains. 
Limonite is found also associated with the igneous rocks and in various other localities. It is 
usually in the form of shot or bog ore, or yellow ocher. It is wrought to a considerable extent 
in Richmond, Orange, Putnam, Dutchess, Columbia, Washington, Franklin, St. Lawrence, 
Jefferson, and Lewis cos. Bog ore is probably found, to a greater or less extent, in every co. in 
tlie State. The iron made from it is usually tough and soft.* 

Lead ore is found in St. Lawrence, Ulster, Dutchess, Westchester, Orange, Columbia, Lewis, 
Jefferson, and Sullivan cos. ; and in several of them the mines have been worked to some extent. 
The Rossie Mines, of St. Lawrence, are the only ones now wrought.^ Copper ore in the form of 



New Red Sandstone. 

Tertiary. 

Diluvial or Drift. 

Quaternary. 
The Tacouic system is claimed by some as corresponding to 
the Cambrian system of Mr. Sedgwick, and by others to be 
newer formations changed by heat. 

1 TABLE 
Sh(ywing tlie depths of the principal Artesian wdls in the Slate. 



CODNTY. 



Albany.. 



Cayuga 

Columbia.... 
Delaware.. .. 
Jefferson.... 
Livingston . 
New York- 



Oneida 

Onondaga. , 



Orleans.. 
Wayne .. 



LOCALITr. 



City 

Ferry St 

Montezuma 

Hudson 

Elk Brook 

Watertown 

York 

U.S. Hotel 

Bleeker St 

ByManhatfn co, 

Utica 

Syracuse 



Oak Orchard 

Savannah 

Little Sodus and 
Clyde 



Depth. 



128 
617 
200 
228 
394 
127 
50 
626 
448 
280 
314 
600 
400 
80 to 390 
140 
250 

400 



Pboduct. 



Fresh water. 
Mineral water. 
Brine. 

Fresh water. 
Weak brine. 
Fresh water. 
Weak brine and gas. 
Fresh water. 



Brine. 
Weak brine. 



and gas. 



The deepest Artesian well in the U. S. is at St. Louis, Mo., 
and is 2199 feet deep. A well at Louisville, Ky., is 2086 feet 
deep ; and another at Columbus, Ohio, 1900 fcet deep. 



2 The principal mines which have been worked in the northern 
primitive region are in AVarren, Essex, Clinton, St. Lawrence, 
and Franklin cos. So common are particles of iron in the rocks 
of this region that the iron sand upon tlie banks of tlie streams 
is sufficiently pure to repay the labor of collecting for the forge. 
Magnetic ores are also abundant in Orange co., and mines havo 
there been worked since the earliest periods. This ore has also 
been found among the igneous rocks of Kockland, Westchester, 
Putnam. Washington, Saratoga, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, 
and Lewis cos. 

3 The principal mines in St. Lawrence and Jefferson cos. yield 
this variety of ore. It is most abundant in the towns of Gouver- 
neur, Kossie, and Antwerp, and is there usually associated with 
crystaline Bulphuret of iron, spathic iron, and quartz. The ar- 
gillaceous ore supplies the furnaces in Oneida, Oswego, and Wayne 
cos. It is red. and imparts a dull red color to whatever it comes 
in contact with. In the region of mines and furnaces the clothing 
of the laborers, the trees, fences, and vehicles employed, are all 
colored by it. It is used as a paint, under the name of '• Spanish 
Brown." 

* Bog ore is deposited in swamps, the bottoms of which are 
clay, hardpan, or some otlier strata impervious to water. It is 
continually accumulating, so that it may be removed two or 
three times in a century. It has various shades of color, from 
yellow to a dark brown. In the primitive region it sometimes 
assumes a stalactital or botryoidal form, with a fibrous texture 
and a glossy black surface. A loamy variety, when used in high 
furnaces, is liable to blow up. This is caused by the mass melt- 
ing away below, leaving a crust above, and, as the support at last 
gives away, the moisture contained in the mass is siuldeuly con- 
verted into steam by the intense heat, and the liquid iron below 
is thrown out with great force, sometimes destroying the fur- 
nace. 

5 A vein has recently been opened in Orange co. that promise^* 
great richness. Lead ore is usually found in tlie form of sul- 
phurets, or galena. It is often associated with crystalizcd mine 
rals of great beauty. 



26 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



a sulphuret has been found in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence cos., but not in sufficient 
quantities to render mining profitable. Zinc ore in the form of a sulphuret, or blende, is found, 
associated with lead, in St. Lawrence co. Manganese, titanium, nickel, and several other metals, 
have been found in small quantities, though they have never been reduced except in the labora- 
tories of the chemist.^ 

IVon-MetalliC Minerals. — The most valuable non-metallic minerals in the State are 
limestone, gypsum, waterlime, pipeclay, clay and sand suitable for common and fire brick and 
pottery, graphite, talc, and slate. Nearly every part of the State is well supplied with building 
stone ; and in most of the counties extensive quarries have been worked. Lime, waterlime, and 
gypsum are also extensively quarried.* 

Mineral Springs are numerous, and are found in nearly every co. in the State,, The 
most celebrated of these are the salt springs of Onondaga, the medicinal springs of Saratoga, 
and the thermal springs of Columbia co. Sulphur and chalybeate springs are common, and many 
of them have considerable notoriety for medicinal properties.' In the w. part of the State 
springs emitting nitrogen and carburetted hydrogen gas are numerous. In the limestone regions 
of the State the water is generally more or less impregnated with carbonate and sulphate of 
lime ; and in many places tufa is deposited in large quantities by the water. The slow dissolving 
of the limestone rocks has given a cavernous structure to several localities, and in others it has 
formed deep holes in the ground. The caves of Albany, Schoharie, and Jefferson cos. are doubtless 
formed in this manner ; and the peculiar sink-holes and cratean lakes of Onondaga are probably 
formed by the breaking of the superincumbent mass into the caverns beneath. 



SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 



The Seat of Government was originally fixed at New York City, and remained there until the 
Revolution, with occasional adjournments of the General Assembly and Executive Department on 
account of prevailing sickness. Such of the public records as related to the immediate interests 
of the crown wore removed, by order of Gov. Tryon, in Dec. 1775, to the armed ship Duchess of 
Gordon, and remained on board till Nov. 1781, when most of them were returned to the city.* In 
June, 1776, the other public records were removed to Kingston, and, on the approach of the enemy 
in Oct. 1777, they were hastily taken to Rochester, Ulster county.* They were soon afterward taken to 
Poughkeepsie, and in 1784 to New York. In 1797, commissioners were appointed to erect a build- 
ing for the records in Albany, and an order dated July 31, 1798, authorized their removal thither* 
and the permanent location of the seat of Government at that place. 

The State House was begun in 1803 and finished in 1807, at the joint expense of the city and 
county of Albany and the State of New York. The original cost exceeded $120,000, of which 



1 In many of the original patents of the mountainous regions 
upon the Hudson, reservations were made of all the gold and 
silver that might be found. To this day, however, these metals 
have not been found ; though it is said that traces of silver have 
been discovered in several places. 

2 The following is a list of the most important quarries in the 
State :— 

Gypsum is found in Cayuga, Madison, Onondaga, Wayne, Or- 
leans, and Genesee. 

Limestone is quarried in most of the counties of the State ex- 
cept thosse along the Penn. line. 

WaUr-Limesirme is quarried in Erie, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, 
Montgomery, Niagara, Onondaga, and Ulster. 

Flagging is found in most of the southern counties, and in 
various other localities. The thin bedded sandstone of the 
Portage gi'oup furnishes the best varieties. 

Building stone of excellent quality is found in nearly every 
section of the State. Granite and gneiss are extensively 
quarried in New York and Westchester and in the N. E. cos. 
of the State. The Potsdam sandstone, Black River lime- 
stone, the gray and Medina sandstone, and the Onondaga 
limestone all furnish excellent building stone. Most of the 
locks upon the,Krie Canal are built of the last named stone. 
The shales of the Portage and Chemung group are sepa- 
rated into strata by hard, compact sandstone, excellent for 
building or flagging. 

Marble is found and quarried in Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, 
and Orange cos. 



Roofing slate is quarried in Washington, Rensselaer, Columbia, 
and Dutchess cos. 

8 The principal of these springs are those of Massena, St. 
Lawrence co. ; Richfield, Otsego co. ; Avon, Livingston co. ; 
Sharon. Schoharie co. ; New Lebanon and Stockport. Columbia 
CO. ; Chittenango, Madison co. ; and Alabama, Genesee co. 

* Six years' close confinement on shipboard damaged some 
of these records almost beyond remedy. The most valuable 
were transcribed in 1798, under the direction of commissioners 
appointed by law. 

" The first State Legislature, then in session, hastily adjoiu-ned 
and met in .Tan. at I'oughkeepsie. The citizens of Goshen 
tendered the hospitalities of their village and the use 'of rooms, 
if the Legislature chose to remove thither. In March, 1778, a 
concurrent resolution directed the Secretary of State and the 
clerks of counties to put their records into strong and light 
inclosures, to be ready for instant removal in case of danger. 
The Legislature held its sessiorts at Poughkeepsie, Kingston, or 
Albany, as suited convenience, until 1784, when it removed to 
New York. Two sessions were afterward held at Pouglikeepsie, 
and three at Albany, before the final removal to the latter place 
in 1797. 

6 Philip Schuyler, Abraham Ten Broeck, Jeremiah Tan Reng- 
seliier, Daniel Hale, and Tcunis T. Van Vechten were ajipointed 
commissioners. The edifice stood on the site of the present 
Geological and Agricultural Hall, and was torn down in 1855. 



SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 



27 



$34,200 was paid by the city and $3,000 by the county of Albany. It continued to be used for 
city, county, and State offices and courts until about 1832, when the State became the exclusive 
owner and the Capitol was fitted up for legislative and other public purposes. It stands at the 
head of State Street, 130 feet above the Hudson, and has in front a park of three acres inclosed by 
an iron fence. It is substantially built of stone faced with Nyack red freestone.^ 

Tbe State Liibrary is a fireproof building in the rear of the State House and connectwl 
with it by a long corridor. It is built of brick and iron and faced on its two fronts with brown 
freestone. It is already nearly filled with books, manuscripts, and maps, which the State has been 
collecting for many years.^ 

Tlie State Hall, situated upon Eagle Street, fronting the Academy Park, was finished in 1842. 
It is built of cut stone, with a colonnade in front, supported by six Ionic columns, and is surmounted 
by a dome.' It contains the offices of the Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Auditor of Canal 
Department, Canal Appraisers, Canal Commissioners, State Engineer and Surveyor, Division En- 
gineers, Clerk of Court of Appeals, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Superintendent of Bank 
Department, Attorney General, and State Sealer of Weights and Measures. 

Tlie State Geological and Agricultural Hall, corner of State and Lodge Sts., 
is the depository of the specimens collected during the geological survey, and also contains the 
cabinet of the State Agricultural Society.* 



I It is 90 feet broad, 50 high, and was originally 115 feet long. 
In 1854, 15 feet were added to the w. end. The eastern front 
ha-s an Ionic portico with four columns of Berkshire marble 
each 3 feet 8 inches in diameter and 33 feet high. The north 
and south fronts have each a pediment of 85 feet base ; and the 
doorwa3'S are decorated with columns and angular pediments 
of freestone. The entrance hall is 40 by 50 feet and 16 feet 
high, the ceiling of which is supported by a double row of 
reeded columns, and the floor is vaulted and laid with squares 
of Italian marble. Upon the north side of the hall are the 
office of Adjutant General and the Assembly Library, and on 
the south side the Executive Chambers. The remainder of the 
first story is devoted to the Assembly Chamber with its lobbies 
and postoffice. This chamber is now 56 by 65 feet and 28 feet 
high. The Speaker's desk is on the w. side, and the desks of the 
clerks are upon each side and in front of it. Desks of members 
are arranged in semi-circles in front. Upon the E. side is a 
gallery supiiorted by iron pillars. The ceiling is richly orna- 
mented in stucco. Over the Speaker's seat is a copy by Ames 
of a full length portrait of Stewart's Washington. In the 
second story, over the entrance hall, is the Senate chamber, 40 
by 50 feet and 22 feet high. The President's desk is upon the 
8. side, and the desks of the Senators are arranged in a circle in 
front. On the n. side are the library and cloak room of the 
Senate, and on the s. the postoffice and room of the Sergeant at 
Arms. Over the President's seat is a crimson canopy, and oppo- 
site are the portraits of Gov. Geo. Clinton and Columbus. The 
latter was presented to the Senate in 1784 by Mrs. Farmer, a 
grand-daughter of Gov. Leisler, and had been in her family 
150 years. Over the Assembly lobbies is the room of the 
Court of Appeals, and in the third story are the consultation 
rooms of this court, committee rooms of both houses, and part 
of the Senate Library. The courtroom of the Court of Appeals 
contains portraits of Chancellors Lansing, Sandford, Jones, and 
Walworth, Chief Justice Spencer, Abraham Van Vecliten, and 
Daniel Cady. The inner Executive Chamber has a full size 
portrait of Gen. La Fayette, painted when he was in the city in 
1825. 

The roof of the State house is pyramidal, and from the center 
rises a circular cupola 20 feet in diameter, supporting a hemi- 
spherical dome upon 8 insulated Ionic columns. Upon the 
dome stands a wooden statue of Themis, 11 feet high, holding 
in her right hand a sword and in her left a balance. 

2 The State Library was founded April 21, 1818, and for nearly 
forty years was kept in the upper rooms of the Capitol. Its growth 
was comparatively slow until 1844, when its supervision was 
transferred from the State officers who had been ex-officio trus- 
tees to the Regents of the University. Their Secretary, the late 
Dr. T. Romeyn Beck, was eminently fitted for the task of building 
up an institution of this character. The library at the time of 
the transfer contained about 10,000 volumes. The number 
has increased during the subsequent 15 years to about 53,000. 
The present building, erected in 1853-54, is 114 feet long by 45 
broad, was built at a cost of $91,900, and opened to the public 
Jan. 2, 1855. The first floor is supported by stone pillars and 
groined arches, and the second floor and galleries by arched 
spans of iron filled with concrete. The roof, rafters, trusses, 
pillars, shelves, and principal doors ai-e of iron, and the floors 
are paved with colored tile. The first story is devoted to the 
law department, and the second story to the general library, in- 
cluding a large number of costly presents from other Govern- 
ments, a valuable series of MSS. and parchments relating to 
our colonial and early State history, and an extensive collec- 
tion of medals and coins. The office of the Kegents of the Uni- 
versity is iu the library huilding. 

Th»» library, formerly known as the "Chancelhrs' Library," 



was divided in 1849, and, with additions since made, now forms 
two public libraries, called the " Libraries of the Court of Ap- 
peals," one of which is located at Syracuse and the other at 
Rochester. They consist chiefly of law books, and are in charge 
of librarians appointed by ihe Regents and paid by the State. 
There is also a small library, for reference, in the consultation 
room of the Court of Appeals. Each of the judges of the Su- 
preme Court and the Vice Chancellor of the Second District, 
under the late Constitution, held libraries owned by the State, 
which are for the use of the four judges of the Court of Appeals 
elected by the people of the State at large, and their successors 
in office. There is also a small library for the use of the At- 
torney General ; and means are annually provided for the in- 
crease of each of these collections, chiefly from the income of 
moneys known as the " Chancellors' Library Fund" and " Ir»- 
terest Fund," which are kept invested by the Clerk of the Court 
of Appeals for this purpose. 

8 This building is 138 by 88 feet and 65 feet high. The ceilings of 
the basement and of the two principal stories are groined arches, 
and all the rooms, excepting in the attic story, are fireproof. 
The basement and attic are each 19 feet, and the two principal 
stories each 22 feet, high. The building cost about $350,000. 

* In 1842 the old State Hall was converted into a geological 
hall, and rooms were assigned in the same building to the State 
Agricultural Society. The old buUding was torn down, and the 
present Geological and Agricultural Hall erected in its place, in 
the summer of 1855. The Agricultural Rooms were dedicated 
Feb. 12, 1857, and the Cabinet was opened to the public Feb. 22, 
1858. The present building is of brick, and is 4 stories high, 
besides the basement. In the rear is a spacious wing, of the same 
height as the main building. It contains a lecture room, the 
spacious geological cabinet, and the rooms of the State Geological 
Collectioa I'he basement is occupied by a taxidermist and a jani- 
tor. The building itself is subject to the order of the Commis- 
sioners of the Land Office. The Cabinet originated in the Geo- 
logical Survey, and in extent and value it ranks among the first 
in America. Within the past year a series of English Ibssils has 
been given to the State by the British Government ; and a valu- 
able collection of shells, embracing several thousand species, has 
been recently presented and arranged by Philip P. Carpenter, 
an English naturalist. The Museum is designed to embrace a 
complete representation of the geological formations of the State, 
with their accompanying minerals and fossils, and of its entire 
native flora and fauna. The birds and quadrupeds are preserved 
by a skilful taxidermist, with the attitudes and appearance of 
life; and the reptiles and fishes are principally preserved in al- 
cohol. Connected with this cabinet is a historical and anti- 
quarian department, embracing numerous aboriginal antiquities 
and specimens of modern Indian art, relics of battle fields, and 
other objects of historical interest. The whole is under the 
charge of a curator appointed by the Regents. The museum of 
the State Agricultural Society, in a separate department of the 
building, contains a large collection of obsolete and modern im- 
plements of husbandry, specimens of agricultural and mechanical 
products, models of fruits, samples of grains and soils, drawings 
illustrating subjects connected with the useful arts ; and it is 
designed to include an extensive collection of insects, made with 
especial reference to showing their influence upon the fruit and 
grain crops of the State. The entomological department is in 
charge of Dr. Asa Fitch, who has been for several years employed 
by the society in studying the habits of destructive insects, with 
the view to ascertaining the means of preventing their ravages. 
The whole of these collections are open to the public on every 
weekday except holidays. The meetings of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the State Agricultural Society, and the wiater fairs, 
are held in their rooms in this building. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 

The State Government consists of the Legislative, Executive, Judicial, and Administrative 
Departments ; the powers and duties of the several officers being defined by the Constitution and 
regulated by law. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 



The State I.ej 




islature is composed of a Senate and Assembly. 

The Senate consists of 32 members, chosen by single districts 
every two years, the whole number being chosen at once. The 
Lieut. Governor is ex officio President of the Senate, and has a cast- 
ing vote in case of a tie. The Senate appoints a President pro tern., 
who presides in the absence of the Lieut. Governor, and becomes 
ex officio Lieut. Governor in case of a vacancy in that office. The 
Senate with the Judges of the Court of Appeals forms a court 
for the trial of impeachments, and it ratifies or rejects the nomi- 
nations of the Governor to a great number of offices. 

The Senate elects the following officers : a clerk, sergeant-at- 
arms, assistant sergeant-at-arms, doorkeeper and assistants, libra- 
rian, and such other officers as may be deemed necessary.^ 

The Assembly consists of 128 members, elected annually by 
single districts. The districts are re-apportioned once in ten 
years, after the State census is taken. The Speaker, or Pre- 
siding Officer of the Assembly, is elected by the members from 
their number, and usually appoints all committees. All bills 
upon financial matters must originate in the Assembly. 

The Assembly elects the following officers : a Speaker, clerk, 
sergeant-at-arms, doorkeeper and two assistants. The Speaker 
appoints an assistant sergeant-at-arms, a postmaster and assist- 
ant, a janitor, keeper of the Assembly chamber, and several 
doorkeepers and pages.* 



1 The sergeant-at-arms is also librarian. The clerk appoints 
his deputies and assistants, and tlie President a{)points a janitor, 
Buperintendent of the Senate chamber, and pages. Committees 
are usually appointed by the Lieut. Gov. The appointments are 
made for two years. About half a dozen reporters are admitted 
to seats witliin the Senate chamber. Standing committees in 
the Senate consist of 3 members. 

SENATE DISTRICTS. 

1. Queens, Richmond, and Suffolk Counties. 

2. 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, and 19th Wards of 

Brooklyn. 

3. 6th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 14th, 15th. 16th, 17th, and 18th 

Wards of Brooklyn, and the towns of Kings County. 

4. 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 14th Wards of New 

York. 

5. 10th, 11th, 13th, and 17th Wards of New York. 

6. 9th, 15th, 16th, and 18th Wards of New Vork. 

7. 12th, 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22d Wards of New York. 

8. Putnam, Rockland, and Westchester Counties. 

9. Orange and Sullivan Counties. 

10. Greene and Ulster Counties. 

11. Columbia and Dutchess Counties. 

12. Rensselaer and Washington Counties. 

13. Albany County. 

14. Delaware, Schenectady, and Schoharie Counties. 

1 5. Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, and Saratoga Counties. 

16. Clinton, Essex, and Warren Counties. 

17. Franklin and St. Lawrence Counties. 

18. .Jefferson and Lewis Counties. 

19. Oneida County. 

20. Herkimer and Otsego Counties. 

21. Oswego County. 

22. Onondaga County. 

23. Chenango, Cortland, and Madison Counties. 

24. Broome, Tioga, and Tompkins Counties. 

25. Cayuga and Wayne Counties. 

26. Ontario, Seneca, and Yates Counties. 

27. Chemung, Schuyler, and Steuben Counties. 
''8. Monroe County. 

28 



29. Genesee, Niagara, and Orleans Counties. 

30. Allegany, Livingston, and Wyoming Counties. 

31. Erie County. 

32. Cattaraugus and Chautauqua Counties. 

* The clerk appoints his assistants and deputies, a librarian 
and assistant, a bank clerk, and a clerk's messenger. Tliese 
officers are appointed for the session, except pages, who are 
changed in the middle of each session. Standing committees of 
the Assembly consist of 5 members, except those upon Ways 
and Means, the Judiciary, and Canals, each of which has 7 
members. About 20 reporters are admitted and provided with 
seats within the bar. Tliey usually share with members in 
extra appropriations for books, and in the privilege of mailing 
documents at the public expense. 

ASSEMBLY DISTRICTS. 

[Those Counties not enumerated in this list form hut one 
District. Fulton and Hamilton form one District.] 

ALBANY COUNTY.— Four Districts. 

1. 1st Ward of Albany, Bethlehem, Coeymans, New Scotland, 

Rensselaerville, and Westerlo. 

2. 9th and 10th Wards of Albany, Bern, Guilderland, and Knox. 

3. 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Wards of Albany. 

4. 7 th Ward of Albany and Watervliet. 

ALLEGANY COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Allen, Almond, Angelica, Belfast, Birdsall, Burns, Caneadea, 

Centerville, Granger, Grove, Hume, New Hudson, Rushford, 
and West Almond. 

2. Alfred, Alma, Amity, Andover, Bolivar, Clarksville. Cuba, 

Friendshij), Genesee, Independence, Scio, Ward, Wellsville, 
Willing, and Wirt. 

CATTARAUGUS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Allegany, Ashford, Carrolton, Elgin, Farmersville, Franklin- 
ville, Freedom, Hinsdale, Humphrey, Ischua, Machias, 
Olean, Portville, and Yorkshire. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



29 



The sessiona of the Legislature commence on the first Tuesday in January, and members can 
only receive pay for 100 days. The business of each year begins de novo; but if an extra session 
is called by the Governor, bills are taken up where they were left at the last previous adjourn- 
ment. Each house decides upon the qualifications of its own members; and both houses must 
concur in the election of U. S. Senators, Regents of the University, and Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. Bills, except measures of finance, may originate in either house, and must be 



2. Bucktootli, Coldspring, Connewango, Dayton, Ellicottville, 
Kast Otto, Great Valley, Leon, Little Valley, .Mansfield, 
Napoli, New Albion, Otto, Perrysburgh, Persia, Kaudolpli, 
and South Valley. 

CAYUGA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Brutus, Cato, Conquest, Ira, Mentz, Montezuma, Sennett, 

Sterling, Throop, Victory, and the 1st and 4th Wards of 
Auburn. 

2. Aurelius, Fleming, Genoa, Ledyard, Locke, Moravia, Niles, 

Owasco, Scipio, Senipronins, Siiringport, Summer Uill, 
Venice, and the 2d and 3d Wards of Auburn. 

CHAUTAUQUA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Busti, Chautauqua, Clymer, EUery, French Creek, Harmony, 

Mina, Portland, Ripley, Sherman, Stockton, and Westfield. 

2. Arkwright, Carroll, Charlotte, Cherry Creek, EUicott, Elling- 

ton, Gerry, Hanover, Kiantone, Poland, Pomfrct, Sheridan, 
and Villcnova. 

CHENANGO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Columbus, Lincklaen, New Berlin, North Norwich, Norwich, 

Otselic, Pharsalia, Pitcher, Plymouth, Sherburne, and 
Smyrna. 

2. Afton, Bainhridge, Coventry, German, Guilford, Greene, Mc- 

Donough, Oxford, Preston, and Smithville. 

COLUMBIA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Ancram, Claverack, Clermont, Copake, Gallatin, German- 

town, Greenport, Hudson City, Livingston, and Tagh- 
kanick. 

2. Austcrlitz, Canaan, Chatham, Ghent, Hillsdale, Kinder- 

hook, New Lebanon, Stockport, and Stuyvesant. 

DELAWARE COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Colchester, Delhi, Franklin, Hamden, Hancock, MasonvUle, 

Sidney, Tou.pkins, and AValton. 

2. Andes, Bovina, Davenport, Uarpersfield, Kortright, Mere- 

dith, Middletown, Roxbury, and Stamford, 

DUTCHESS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Amenia, Beekman, Dover. East Fishkill, La Grange, North- 

east, Pawling, Pine Plains, Stanford, Union Vale, and 
Washington. 

2. Clinton, Hyde Park, Milan, Pleasant Valley, Poughkeepsie, 

City of Poughkeepsie, Red Hook, and Rhinebeck. 

ERIE COUNTY.— FoDR Districts. 

1. 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th. and 13th Wards of Buffalo. 

2. Gth, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Wards of Buffalo. 

3. Alden, Amherst, Chicktawauga, Clarence, Elma, Grand 

Island, Hamburgh, Lancaster, Marilla, Newstcad, Tona- 
wanda, and West Seneca. 

4. Aurora, Boston, Brandt, Colden, Collins, Concord, East 

Hamburgh, Eden, Evans, Holland, North Collins, Sardinia, 
and Wales. 

HERKIMER COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Fairfield, Herkimer, Little Falls, Manheim, Newport, Nor- 

way, Ohio, Russia, Salisbury, and Wilmurt. 

2. Columbia, Danube, Frankfort, German Flats, Litchfield, 

Schuyler, Stark, Warren, and Winfield. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY.— Thbee Districts. 

1. Adams, Brownville, Ellisburgh, Henderson, Hounsfield, Lor- 

raine, Rodman, and Worth. 

2. Antwerp, Champion, Le Ray, Philadelphia, Rutland, Water- 

town, and Wilna. 

3. Alexandria, Capo Vincent, Clayton, Lyme, Orleans, Pamelia, 

and Theresa. 

KINGS COUNTY.— Seven Districts. 

1. Platbush, Flatlands, Gravesend, New Lots, New Utrecht, and 

the Sth, 17th, and 18th Wards of Brooklyn. 

2. 1st, 6th, and 12th Wards of Brooklyn. 

3. 4th and 10th Wards of Brooklyn. 

4. 2d, 3d, and 5th Wards of Brooklyn. 

5. 9th and 11th Wards of Brooklyn. 

6. 13th, Uth, and part of 19th Wards of Brooklyn. 

7. 7th, 15th, 16th, and part of 19th Wards of Brooklyn. 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Avon, Caledonia, Conesus, Geneseo, Groveland, Leicester, 

Lima, Livonia, and York. 

2. Mouot Morris, North Dansville, Nunda, Ossian, Portage, 

Sparta, Springwater, and West Sparta. 



MADISON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Brookfield, Do Ruyter, Eaton, Georgetown, Hamilton, Leba/- 

non, Madison, and Nelson. 

2. Cazenovia, Fenner, Lenox, Smithtield, Stockbridgo, and 

Sullivan. 

MONROE COUNTY.— Three Disteicts. 

1. Brighton, Henrietta, Irondequoit, Mendon, Penfield, Perin- 

ton, Pittsford, Rush, and Webster. 

2. The City of Rochester. 

3. Chili, Clarkson, Gates, Greece, Ogden, Parma, Riga, Sweden, 

Union, and Wheatland. 

NEW YORK CITY AND COUNTY.— Seventeen Districts. 
17 districts, corresponding to Aldermanic districts. 
NI.iGARA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Lockport, Pendleton, Royalton, and Wheatfield. 

2. Cambria, Hartland, Lewiston, Nowfaue, Niagara, Porter, 

Somerset, and Wilson. 

ONEIDA COUNTY.— Fonii Distmcts. 

1. Deerfleld, City of Utica, and Whitestown. 

2. Augusta, Bridgewater, Kirkland, Marshall, New Hai'tford, 

Paris, Sangerfield, Vernon, and Westmoreland. 

3. Camden, Florence, Rome, Verona, and A'ienna. 

4. Amesville, Ava, Brownville, Floyd, Lee, Marcy, Remsen, 

Steuben, Trenton, and Western. 

ONONDAGA COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Camillus, Clay, Elbridge, Lysander, Marcellus, Skaneateles, 

Spafford, and Van Buren. 

2. Cicero, Salina, and Syracuse. 

3. De Witt, Fabius, Geddes, La Fayette, Manlius, Onondaga, 

Otisco, Pompey, and Tully. 

ONTARIO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Farmington, Gorham, Hopewell, Manchester, Phelps, and 

Seneca. 

2. Bristol, Canadice, Canandaigua, East Bloomficld, Naples, 

Richmond, South Bristol, Victor, and West Bloomfield. 

ORANGE COUNTY.— Two Distmcts. 

1. Blooming Grove, Chester, Cornwall, Monroe, Montgomery, 

Newburgh, and New Windsor. 

2. Cra%vford, Deerpark, Goshen, Greenville, Hamptonburgh, 

Minisink, Mount Hope, Walkill, Warwick, and Waway- 
anda. 

OSWEGO COUNTY.— Three Diotricts. 

1. City of Oswego, Hannibal, Oswego, and Scriba. 

2. Constantia, Granby, Hastings, Palermo, Schroeppel, Yolney, 

and West Monroe. 

3. Albion, Amboy, Boyleston, Mexico, Orwell, Parish, Redfield, 

Richland, Sandy Creek, New Haven, and Williamstown. 

OTSEGO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Cherry Valley, Decatur, Exeter, Maryland, Middlefield, 

Otsego, Plainfield, Richfield, Roseboom, Springfield, West- 
ford, and Worcester. 

2. Unadilla, Burlington, Butternuts, Edmeston, Hartwick, 

Laurens, Milford, Morris, New Lisbon, Otego, Oneonta, and 
Pittsfield. 

QUEENS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Flushing, North Hempstead, and Oyster Bay. 

2. Hempstead, Jamaica, and Newtown. 

RENSSELAER COUNTY.— Thkee Districts. 

1. City of Troy. 

2. Berlin, Grafton, Hoosick, Lansingburgh, Petersburgh, Pitts- 

town, and Schaghtiooke. 

3. Brunswick, Clinton, Greenbush, Nassau, North Greenbush, 

Poestenkill, Sand Lake, Schodack, and Stephentown. 

ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. De Kalb, Do Peyster, Fine, Fowler, Gouverneur, Macomb, 

Morristown, Oswegatchie, Pitcairn, and Rossie, 

2. Canton, Colton, Edwards, Hermon, Lisbon, Madrid, Norfolk, 

PieiTepont, and Russell. 

3. Brasher, Hopkinton, Lawrence, Louisville, Massena, Parish- 

ville, Potsdam, and Stockholm. 

SARATOGA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Ballston, Charlton, Clifton Park, Galway, Halfmoon, Malta, 

Milton, Stillwater, and Waterford. 

2. Corinth, Day, Edinburgh, Greenfield, Hadley, Moreau, Nortli- 

umberland, Providence, Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, and 
Wilton. 



30 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



passed by both, and receive the signature of the Governor, — or, if vetoed by him, the votes of two- 
thirds of both houses, — to become laws. The original laws of the Legislature, bearing the signa- 
tures of the presiding officer of each house and of the Governor and Secretary of State, are bound, 
and preserved in the Secretary's office. All general laws are published in such newspapers in each 
county as may be designated by the Board of Supervisors. 

Besides the State Legislature, a limited power of enacting laws is possessed by the boards of 
supervisors in the several counties, by the common councils of cities, and by citizens generally 
assembled in town and school district meetings. 

The Board of Supervisors meets annually at the county seat, on the week following the 
general election, to canvass the votes for State and county officers ; it may hold special meetings at 
any time. It has power to appoint a clerk of the board, a county sealer of weights and measures, 
special commissioners for laying out roads, printers for publishing the general laws, inspectors of turn- 
pike and plank roads, and, in some counties, the Superintendent of the Poor, and other officers, and to 
fix the salaries of the county Judge and Surrogate, and of School Commissioners, (above $500, allowed 
by law,) and, in some counties, the salary of the District Attorney ; to establish the bounds of assembly 
and school commissioner districts, to fix upon town meeting days,^ to make orders concerning property 
owned by the county, and to repair or rebuild the county buildings ; to audit and settle charges against 
the county, and the accounts of town officers ; to equalize assessments and levy taxes to meet county 
expenses, and for such special purposes as may be directed by law. It also has power to alter the 
bounds of towns, and to erect new towns ; to change the location of the county seat and purchase sites 
for the erection of new buildings ; and to examine annually the securities held by loan commis- 
sioners. It may pass laws for the preservation of game or fish, and for the destruction of noxious 
animals, and perform such other duties as may be from time to time authorized by law. 



STEUBEN COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Avooa, Bath, Bradford, Conhocton, Prattsburgh, Pulteney, 

Urbana, Wayne, and Wheeler. 

2. Addison, Cameron, Campbell, Caton. Corning. Erwin, Hornby, 

Lindley, Rathbone, Thurston, and WoodhuU. 

3. Canisteo, Dansville, Fremont, Greenwood, Homellsville, 

Howard. Hartsville, Jasper, Troupsburgh, West Union, and 
W'ayland. 

SUFFOLK COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. East Hampton, Riverhead, Shelter Island, Southampton, 

and Southold. 

2. Brookhaven, Huntington, Islip, and Smithtown. 

ULSTER COUNTY.— TnREE Districts. 

1. Hurley, Kingston, and Saugerties. 

2. Esopus, Gardiner, Lloyd, Marbletown, Marlborough, New 

Paltz, Plattekill. Rosendale, and Shawangunk. 

3. Denning, Hardenburgh, Olive, Rochester, Shandaken, Wa- 

warsing, and Woodstock. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Argylo, Cambridge. Easton, Fort Edward, Greenwich, Jack- 
son. Salem, and White Creek. 

2. Dre.sden, Fort Anu, Granville, Hampton, Hartford, H«broD, 
Kingsbury, Putnam, and Whitehall. 

WAYNE COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Butler, Galen, Huron, Lyons, Rose, Savannah, Sodos, and 
Wolcott. 

2. Arcadia, Macedon, Marion, Ontario, Palmyra, Walworth, 
and Williamson. 

WESTCHESTER COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. East Chester, Morrisania, Westchester, West Farms, and 
Yonkcrs. 

2. Greenburgh, Harrison, Mamaroneck, Mount Pleasant, New 
Rochelle, North Castle, Pelham, Poundridge, Rye, Scars- 
dale, and White Plains. 

3. Bedford, Cortlandt, Lewisboro, New Castle, North Salein, 
Ossining, Somers, and Yorktown. 

1 TOWN MEETINGS. 
Town meetings are held on the same day throughout the county ; and the time may be changed once in 3 years. The town 
meetings must come between the 1st day of Feb. and the Ist of May. They are at present all held on Tuesdays, as follows : — 



Counties. 


Tuesday s tipon wJiii-h Town 


Counties. 


Tuesdays upon which Tovm 


Counties. 


Tuesdaya upon which Town 




Meetings are held. 




Meetingn are held. 




Meetings are held. 


Albany 


2d in April. 


Herkimer.... 


1st in March. 


Richmond ... 


2d in Feb. 


Allegany. ... 


2d in March. 


Jefferson 


3d in Feb. 


Rockland 


2d in April. 


Broome 


2d in Feb. 


Kings 


1st in April. 


St. Lawrence 


2d in Feb. 


Cattaraugus 


Last in Feb. 


Lewis 


3d in Feb. 


Saratoga 


1st in March. 


Cayuga 


Ist after 1st Mon. in Mar. 


Livingston.. 


Ist in April. 


Schenectady 


1st in ApriL 


Chautauqua 


3d in Feb. 


Madison 


1st in March. 


Schoharie ... 


3d in Feb. 


Chemung.... 


2d after 1st Mon. in Feb. 


Monroe 


1st after 1st Mon. in Mar. 


Schuyler 


2d in Feb. 


Chenango... 


1st in March. 


Montgomery 


2d in Feb. 


Seneca 


2d in March. 


Clinton 


Ist in March. 


New York... 




Steuben 


2d in Feb. 


Columbia.... 


1st in March. 


Niagara 


2d in April. 


Suffolk 


1st in April. 


Cortland 


3d in Feb. 


Oneida 


1st in 5 arch. 


Sullivan 


1st after Ist Mon. in Miir. 


Delaware.... 


2d in Feb. 


Onondaga. ... 


3d in Feb. 


Tioga 


Ist in Feb. 


Dutchess 


2d in March. 


Ontario 


Ist after 1st Mon. in April. 


Tompkins ... 


1st in April. 


Erie 

Essex 


1st in March. 
Ist in March. 


Orange 

Orleans 


Ist in March. 
Ist in April. 


Ulster 


Ist in March. 
1st in April. 


Warren 


Franklin 


1st in Feb. 


Oswego 


1st in March. 


Washington 


1st in March. 


Fulton 


2d in Feb 


Otsego 


1st in March 


Wavne 


Ist in March. 


Genesee 


1st in March. 


Putnam 


1st after Ist Mon. in April. 


Westchester 


Last in March. 


Greene 


1st in Feb. 


Queens 


Ist in April. 


Wyoming.... 


Last in Feb. 


Hamilton ... 


1st in Feb. 


Rensselaer... 


1st in March. 




Last in Feb. 





At these meetings are elected, by ballot, a supervisor, town 
clerk. 4 justices, (with exceptions named on page 34, 3 assess- 
ors, (for 3 years. 1 annually.) a collector. 1 or 2 overseers of poor, 
(at the option of the town, excepting Montgomery and Kings 
cos. that are not included in the general law.) 1 or 3 com- 
missioners of highways, (if 3. one elected annually for 3 years.) 
Dot more than 5 constables aod 2 inspectors of election for 



each election district, a third being appointed by the pre- 
siding officer of the town meetings from the two having 
the next highest vote. The town of Manlius elects 7 con- 
stables. Each town at its annual meeting also elects by ayes 
and noes, or otherwise, as many overseers of highways as there 
are r(jad districts, and as many pound masters aa the electori 
may determine. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



31 



The Common Council in each of the cities has jurisdiction over municipal affairs within 
limits fixed by law, and observes the usual formalities of legislative bodies in its proceedings. Two 
aldermen are generally elected from each ward, who, with the mayor, constitute the Common 
Council ; but the organization of no two cities is in this respect exactly alike.^ The enactments 
of the Common Council are usually termed "ordinances," and have the force of law. The council 
usually has the appointment of a large class of minor city oflBcers, including the keepers of parks 
and public buildings, inspectors of various kinds, and in some instances the officers and members 
of the police and fire departments. These appointments are usually held at the pleasure of the 
appointing power. 

Tovrn 3IeetlngS may pass laws regulating roads and bridges, the height of fences, the support 
of the poor, the range of animals, the destruction of noxious weeds,, the preservation of town pro- 
perty, and for such other purposes as may be directed by special acts. Every town is a corporate 
body, may sue and be sued, may hold and convey lands within its limits for purposes specified 
by law, and may appropriate moneys for public objects within the town. 

School Districts, at regular meetings, may pass rules concerning the support of schools, 
employment of teachers, repairs, supplies, and similar affairs, which have the force of law. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

The Governor is elected once in two years.^ He is commander- 
in-chief of the military and naval forces of the State, and possesses 
the sole power of granting pardons and commutations of sentence 
after conviction.' He issues requisitions fur the return of crimi- 
nals in other States, and he is authorized to offer rewards for the 
arrest of criminals within this State. He annually communicates 
to the Legislature, at the commencement of each session, a state- 
ment of the condition of the public departments, and such other 
matters as he may deem necessary. On extraordinary occasions 
he may convene the Senate or Legislature.* Within ten days after 
its passage by the Legislature, he may veto any act, by returning it 
to the house in which it originated, with his objections; and such act 

can become a law only by the concurrence of two-thirds of both houses.* 

The Governor nominates, for appointment by the Senate, a large class of State and county and a 

few military officers,® and may fill vacancies occurring in these offices during the recess of the Senate. 

Some other classes of officers are appointed by the Governor alone, — generally for specific terms, 

but in some cases during pleasure. He may also fill vacancies occurring in elective offices, and 




1 In New York, the Common Council consists of two branches, — 
the Board of Aldermen, consisting of 17 members, chosen for 2 
years; and the Board of Councilmen, consisting of 24 members, 
chosen annually, 6 from each senatorial district. Each of these 
branches elects one of its own number president ; and the mayor 
possesses a veto power upon their laws analogous to that of the 
Governor upon those of the State Legislature. 

2 To be eligible to the office of Governor a person must be a 
citizen of the U. S., a resident of the State for the last 5 years 
previous to election, and must have attained the age of 30 years. 
The colonial governors of N.Y. were appointed by the crown. 
Under the Constitution of 1777 they were elected for 3 years and 
were required to be ireeholders. Under the Constitution of 1822, 
the governor was elected for 2 years, and, in addition to the pre- 
sent qualilications, was required to be a native of the U. S. and a 
freeholder. 

Under the first State Constitution electors were classified, apd 
only those owning freehold property worth $250 and upward 
were allowed to vote for Senators and Governor. The aggregate 
of the several classes at different periods has been as follows : — 



Years. 



1790. 
1795. 
1801. 
1807. 
1814. 
1R21. 



•e 


o 






a 




" Sio 




s 




.£ f^ 




g 


g 


■its 


,^ 


;i 






t-. 


41 








19.369 


23.425 


14.674 


138 


36.338 


4,838 


22,598 


243 


52,058 


5.264 


2S.522 


63 


71,159 


5,800 


44,330 


88 


87.491 


5,2,31 


59,104 


20 


100.490 


8,985 


93,035 


20 



Total 



67.608 

64.017 

85.907 

121.289 

151.846 

202,510 



3 In cases of treason and impeachment the Governor can only 
suspend sentence until the next session of the Legislature, that 
body alone possessing the pardoning power in such cases. Under 
the Constitution of 1777, the same restriction was appUed in cases 
of murder. 

* He also possessed under the Constitution of 1777 the power 
to prorogue the Legislature for a period not exceeding 60 days 
in one year. This was once done by Gov. Tompkins, to defeat 
the passage of a bank charter, but without success. 

6 The first court created a council of revision, consisting of 
the Governor, Chancellor, and judges of the Supreme Court, 
who sat with closed doors and observed the usual formalities 
of legislative proceedings. Buring the continuance of this 
council it rejected 144 bills, several of which became laws not- 
withstanding. 

6 The following officers are appointed by the Governor 
and Senate: — 1 Superintendent of Bank Department, 1 Au- 
ditor of Canal Department, 3 Canal Appraisers, 1 Superin- 
tendent pf Onondaga Salt Springs, 6 Conmiissioners of Emi- 
gration, 5 Commissioners of Metropolitan Police. 11 Harbor 
Masters, 9 Wardens of the Port of New York, 2 Special 
Wardens to reside at Quarantine, 1 Harbor Master at Al- 
bany, 1 Health Officer at Quarantine, 1 Physician of Marine 
Hospital. 1 Agent for the Onondaga Nation, 1 Attorney to 
Seneca Nation, directors in certain banks of which t!ie State 
holds stock according to the amount held, as many Hellgate 
pilots as the Board of W'ardens may recommend, 5 trustees of 
the Idiot Asylum, 9 trustees of State Lunatic Asylum, 2 com 
missioners in each co. for loaning moneys of the United States, 
as many notaries public as the law may allow or the (iovernoi 
determine, and such other officers and special commissioners as 
are required from time to time by law. He appoints field 
officers of regiments and generals of brigades, when such regi- 
ments and brigades are not fully organized. Under the first 
constitution, almost every civil and military office was filled by 
the Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and 4 
Senators, chosen aimually by the Assembly. In 1821, 8,287 



32 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 




may remove, under limitations prescribed by statute, most State and county officers.^ He has a 
private secretary, with a salary of $2000, a clerk and a doorkeeper. 

The liieutenant Governor is elected at the same time as the Governor, and must possess 
the same qualifications. He discharges the duties of Governor v^hen a vacancy occurs in that office. 
He is President of the Senate, having the casting vote in that body, a Commissioner of the Canal 
Fund and of the Land Office, a member of the Canal Board, a trustee of the Idiot Asylum and of 
Union College, a Regent of the University, and a trustee of the Capitol and State Hall. 

Thie Secretary of State^ is keeper of the State archives ; 
is a Regent of the University, a Commissioner of the Land Office 
and of the Canal Fund, a member of the Canal Board and of the 
Board of State Canvassers, a trustee of the State Idiot Asylum, 
of Union College, of the Capitol, and of the State Hall. He has 
specific duties in relation to the publication and distribution of 
the laws ; the issuing of patents for land, of commissions, par- 
dons, and peddlers' licenses ; the filing of the declarations of 
aliens, and the articles of association of companies under gene- 
ral laws ; issuing notices of elections, receiving and reporting 
statistics of pauperism and crime from sheriffs and county 
clerks, and furnishing certified copies of laws and other docu- 
ments in his office. He administers the oath of office to members of the Assembly, and other 
State officers. His deputy is ex officio Clerk of the Commissioners of the Land Office. 

The Comptroller^ is the auditor of the public accounts, 
excepting those payable from the Canal and Bank Funds ; a Com- 
missioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund ; a member of 
the Canal Board and of the Board of State Canvassers, and a 
trustee of the Idiot Asylum, of Union College, of the Capitol, and 
State Hall. He has responsible duties in relation t,o the payment 
of appropriations made by the Legislature, the collection of 
taxes, and sale of lands sold for taxes, the management of funds, 
supervision of fire and life insurance companies, loaning of 
moneys, and other duties connected with the finances of the State. 
He reports annually to the Legislature the condition of the public 
funds, the receipts and expenses of the State, the condition of 
insurance companies, and upon such other matters as he may from time to time be called upon by 
the Legislature for information. He has a deputy, an accountant, and about a dozen clerks. 

The Treasurer* receives all moneys paid into the treasury, and pays all warrants of the Comp- 
troller, Auditor of the Canal Department, Superintendent of the Bank Department, and Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. He is a Commissioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund, a member 
of the Canal Board and of the Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College. He has 
a deputy, and two or three clerks. 
The Attorney General^ is the legal prosecutor and adviser in behalf of the State. He is a 




military and 6,663 civil ofiScers held under this appointment, 
and most of them at will. From 1822 to 1846, the Governor and 
Senate appointed, in addition to most of those it now appoints, 
all judicial ofBcers, except justices. Masters and Examiners in 
Chancery, Supreme Court Commissioners, inspectors for com- 
mercial purposes. Commissioners of Deeds, several city officers, 
and State Prison Inspectors. 

1 Representatives in Congi-ess and members of the State Legis- 
lature can be elected only. The Governor appoints, on his own 
authority. Commissioners for taking acknowledgments of Deeds 
in other States and countries, wreck masters, and certain com- 
missioners directed to be appointed for special purposes. 

3 Tlie Secretary of State was formerly Clerk of the Council of 
Appointment and of the Council of Revision, and from 1823 to 
1854 was Superintendent of Schools. In colonial times he was 
appointed by the crown: from 1777 to 1S22, by the Council of 
Appointment ; and from 1822 to 1846, by the Legislature. 

8 This office was created in 1797, in place of Siat of Auditor 
General, formed by the Provincial Convention ; but it was not 
permanently organized until 1812. The Comptroller was ap- 
pointed by the Council of Appointment until 1822. when the 
appointing power was changed to the Legislature and the tenure 
of the office fixed at 3 years. 

* Tlie office of Treasurer, under the colonial government and 
early years of State government, was a very important one ; and 
for many years after 1777, the Treasurer was ajiiiointed by spe- 
euU act irum year to year. About the beginning of the present 



century, the defalcation of a Treasurer occasioned a revision of 
the law creating the department ; and, from his being the prin- 
cipal financial officer of the government, the Treasurer became 
the most unimportant, and his powers were narrowed down to 
the payment of the drafts of other officers. For many years 
previous to 1822 he was appointed by the CouncU of Revision ; 
and from 1822 to 1846. by the Legislature. The accounts of the 
Treasurer are annually compared with those of the Comptroller, 
Superintendent of Rank Department, and Auditor of the Canal 
Department, by a commissioner appointed for the purpose : and 
these officers thus become a check upon each other.. The Trear 
surer may be suspended for cause, by the Governor, in the recess 
of the Legislature. 

6 This office has existed almost from the beginning of the 
Colonial Government. It was filled by the Council of Appoint- 
ment from 1777 to 1822, and by the Legislature, with a term of 
3 years, from 1822 to 1846. The Attorney General originally 
attended the circuits of Oyer and Terminer, as prosecutor in 
criminal suits, until 1796,"when the State was divided into 8 
districts, to each of which an assistant Attorney General was 
appointed, except in New York, where the head officer 
officiated personally. In 1818 each co. was made a separate 
district, and a District Attorney was appointed in each. Th» 
Attorney General still occasionally attends upon important 
criminal trials ; but his time is chiefly occupied iu civil suits in 
which the State is a party. 



V- 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



33 



Commissioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund, a member of the Canal Board and of the 
Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College, of the Capitol, and State Hall. He has 
a deputy and a clerk. 

The State Engineer and Surveyor^ has charge of the engineering department of the 
canals and such land surveys as involve the interests of the State. He reports annually the statistics 
of these departments and of railroads. He is a Commissioner of the Land Office, a member of the 
Canal Board and Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College and the State Hall. 
He must be a practical engineer. He is assisted by a deputy and 3 clerks. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

United States Courts. — The second of the U. S. Courts comprises New York, Vermont, 
and Connecticut. A court is held twice a year in each State by a Justice of the Supreme Court 
and the District Judge of the district in which the court sits. 

The State of New York is divided into two Judicial Districts, in each of which is held a District 
Court.^ The officers of this court in each district are a District Judge, Attorney, Marshal, and 
Clerk. In the Southern District a term is held in each month, at New York; and in the Northern 
District one term is held each year at Albany, Utica, Auburn, and Buffalo, and one term annually 
in St. Lawrence, Clinton, or Franklin co., as the Judge may direct.* These courts have nearly 
concurrent original jurisdiction in all matters in which the United States is a party ; and they take 
cognizance of offenses against the laws of the U. S. An appeal lies from the District to the Circuit 
Court, and thence to the Supreme Court. 

State Courts. — The State Courts consist of a Court for ^q- 
Trial of Impeachments, tJie Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court 
and Court of Oyer and Terminer, the County Court and Couzfc of 
Sessions, Justices' Courts, and City Courts. 

Tlie Court for tlie Trial of Impeachments consists; 
of the Senate and the Judges of the Court of Appeals. Its judg- 
ments extend only to removal of officials and to disqualification for 
holding office.* Parties impeached are liable to all the peaalties. 
of the civil and criminal laws. This court is a court of recoed;: ita 
meetings are held at Albany. 




The Court of Appeals,^ instituted in 1847, is composed of 8 
judges, 4 of whom are elected, (one every 2 years,) and 4 of whom are 
the Judges of the Supreme Court having the shortest term to serve. 
The judge elected having the shortest term to serve is Chief Judge; 
and 6 judges constitute a quorum. This court has power to correct 
S^ttl and reverse all proceedings of the Supreme Court, or of the former 
^gl Supreme Court, and Court of Chancery. It holds 4 terms a year 
at the Capital; and every 2 years one term must be held in 
each Judicial District. Its clerk has an office in the State Hall, 
where the records of this and former State and Colonial Courts are 
preserved. The State Reporter prepares for the press and pub- 
lishes the decisions of the court, copies of which are sent to each 

county, and franked, under the Governor's hand, to each of the other States and Territories of the 

Union. 




1 This office takes the place of that of " Surveyor General," 
which existed under the colony. In the earlier years of the 
State Government, numerous and responsible duties were im- 
posed upon this officer, under acts for the sale and settlement 
of lands, the adjustment of disputed titles, boundaries, and In- 
dian claims, laying out roads, and business relating to the salt 
springs, reserved village pl.ats, and other State property. These 
duties vrere discharged from 1784 to 1834 by Simeon De Witt, 
with great integrity and success. 

Tlie Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney 
Goneral, and State Engineer are elected biennially at the same 
time, — their election occurring on alternate years from those 
of the election of the Governor and Lieut. Governor. 

2 Vhittd States District Courts. — There are two Districts within 
this State. The Southern District embraces Columbia, Greene, 



Ulster, Sullivan, and the counties South. The Northern Dis- 
trict embraces the remainder of the State. 

3 The United States has caused or ordered buildings to be 
erected in part for the accommodation of these courts at New 
York, Utica, Buffalo, Ogdensburgh, Canandaigua, and Platts- 
burgh. These edifices are of the most substantial kind, and 
generally fireproof. 

* This court has assembled but once. In 1853 it was con- 
vened for the trial of impeachment of John C. Mather, Canal 
Commissioner. He was acquitted. 

5 OmstUutimi, Art. VI, Sec. 2. This court takes the plnco 
of the former " Cmirt f<rr the Correction of Errors," and in some 
respects fills that of the old Supreme Court and Court of Chan- 
cery. 



3 



34 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tbe Supreme Court. — The State is divided into 8 Judicial Districts,^ in each of which, ex- 
cept the first, 4 justices are elected. The clerks of counties are clerks of this court. It has general 
jurisdiction in law and equity, and power to review the judgments of the County Courts and of 
the former Court of Common Pleas. This court has three distinct branches, — General Terms, 
Special Terms, and Circuits. The General Term held by three or more of the Supreme Judges, 
including the presiding judge, is an appellate court for the review of cases from the courts below, 
and for deciding solely upon questions of law. Special Terms are held by one Supreme Judge, 
without a jury, for the decision of equity cases; and Circuit Courts are held by one Supreme 
Judge, with a jury, for the trial of issues of fact. At least four general terms of this court are 
held in each district every year. Every county (except Hamilton) has at least one special and two 
circuit courts annually. A general term of the Supreme Court is held at the Capital in January of 
each alternate year, for the purpose of arranging the terms of all the Circuit Courts and Courts of 
Oyer and Terminer, of assigning the business and duties of the justices, and revising the rules of 
the court. 

County Courts are held by the County Judge,^ assisted by two justices of the peace elected 
annually for the purpose. The judge performs the duty of surrogate, except in counties where the 
population exceeds 40,000, in which the Legislature may provide for the election of a separate 
officer as surrogate.' The Legislature may direct the election of local officers, not exceeding two in 
any county, to discharge the duties of judge and surrogate in case of inability or vacancy in that office, 
and to exercise such other powers as may be provided by law.* Judges and surrogates receive a 
salary fixed by the Supervisors, and which cannot be increased during their term of office. 

County Courts have jurisdiction in civil cases when the real estate, or all the defendants, or all 
the parties interested are within the co., and where the action of debt,assumpsit,or covenant claimed 
is not above $2,000, or in actions for injury to the person, or trespass upon property, where the 
damage claimed does not exceed §500 ; or in replevin suits where the value claimed is not above 
$1,000. These courts have equity jurisdiction for the foreclosure of mortgages, the sale of the real 
estate of infants, the partition of lands, admeasurement of dower, the satisfaction of judgments 
over $75, and the care and custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. Surrogate's Courts are 
held by the County Judge or Surrogate, (in counties where the latter is elected,) and have the ordi- 
nary jurisdiction of Courts of Probate. 

Justices' Courts are held by justices of the peace, who have jurisdiction in civil suits where 
the sum claimed does not exceed $100 in value.* They have jurisdiction in criminal cases for im- 
posing fines to the amount of $50, and of inflicting imprisonment in the county jail for a term not 
exceeding 6 months.* 

Tribunals of Conciliation may be established, and their powers and duties prescribed 
bylaw; but their judgments are not obligatory unless the parties previously agree to abide by 
Buoh decision.'' 

City Courts. In each of the cities and in several of the larger villages are courts of local 
jurisdiction organized under special laws.® 



1 New Tcrk State Judicial Districts under the Act of May 8, 
1847 :— 

1. City and Connty of New York. 

2. Dutchess, Kings, Oranae, Putnam, Qoeens, Richmond, Rock- 

land, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties. 

3. Albany, Columbia, Greene, Rensselaer, Schoharie, Sullivan, 

and Ulster Counties. 

4. Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, 

St. Lawrence, Saratoga, Schenectady, Warren, and Wash- 
ington Counties. 

5. Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Oneida, Onondaga, and Oswego 

Counties. 

6. Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Madison, 

Otsego, Schuyler, Tioga, and Tompkins Counties. 

7. Cayuga, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Steuben,Wayne, 

and Yates Counties. 

8. Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, 

Orleans, and Wyoming Counties. 

s From 1777 to 1822 Judges were appointed by the Council of 
Appointment; and from 1822 to 1846, by the Governor and 
Senate. One in each co. was styled " FirH Judge ;" and a fixed 
Biunber (subsequently 4) of others were called Judges. 

s Surrogates are elected in Albany, Cayuga, Chautauqua, 
Columbia, Dutchess, Erie, Jefferson, Kings, Monroe, New York, 
Oneida. Onondaga. Ontario, Orange, Otsego. Rensselaer, St. Law- 
rence, Saratoga, Lister, Washington, Wyoming, and Yates cos. 

* Omstitutifin, Art.\X, &C.15. Special acts have been passed 
far this purpose, as follows : — Special Jitdge and Special Surro- 
ga te in Cayuga, Chautauqua, Jefferson, and Oswego, 1849; 
Waebington, 1855. Special Judge in Oneida, Orange, St. Iaw- 



rence, and Tioga. 1849 ; Ulster. 1850 ; Chenango, 1851 ; Sullivan, 
18.54 ; Essex, 1857 ; and Tompkins, 1858. The term for which 
these oflBcers are elected is 3 years, except in Chenango, Tomp- 
kins, and Ulster, in which it is 4 years. 

6 There are 4 justices elected in each town except Champlain, 
Ellisburgh, Fort Ann. Hanover. Harmony, Hector, Lenox. Niag- 
ara. Pomfret, and Potsdam, which have each 5, and Brook- 
haven, which has 8. .Justices were appointed by the Council of 
Appointment from 1777 to 1822, and by the Supervisors and 
Judges from 1824 to 1827. since which they have been elected. 
6 RevUed Statutes, Art. I. Title, 4, Chap. 2, Fart 3. 
' Cmstitutinn. Art. VI, See. 23. 
8 The principal City Courts are as follows : — 
In Albany. — A Mayor's Cburt, held by the Mayor, Recorder, 
and Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly, or either 
of them singly. It is practically held by the Recorder only ; 
a Omrt of Special Sessions, held by the Recorder or Connty 
Judge, with one or more Justices ; a Justice^ (hurt, held 
by 3 Justices elected for the purpose. Two Police Jastic^s 
elected. 
In Auburn.— Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of the 

Peace elected. 
In Brooklyn.— rha City Court, held by the City Judge: Po- 
lice Courts and Justices' Courts, for whose convenience 
the city is divided into 5 districts ; a Coui-t of Special Ses- 
sions, held by a Justice or Police Justice. 
In Buffalo.— X Superior Court, held by 3 Justices ; Justice^ 
and Police Courts. Eight Justices of the Peace and one 
Police Justice elected. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



35 



The officers in each county, auxiliary to the judiciary, are as follows: — 

Tbe District Attorney,^ who is the official prosecutor in all criminal cases coming before 
the county courts, and has general duties in relation to suits in which the county has an interest. 

Tbe SlieriflT,* who is charged with the preservation of the public peace and the execution of 
the orders of the courts. He has charge of the jail and prisoners, and appoints as many deputies as 
he may deem necessary. He can hold no other office, and is ineligible to the same office for the 
next 3 years after his term expires. He is required to give bonds, in default of which the office 
becomes vacant. 

Tbe County ClerU, who is made the keeper of the county records. He attends the courts and 
records their proceedings, records deeds and mortgages, files papers and documents required by 
law to be preserved in his office, and is the medium of communication between, State and town 
officers. He is the clerk of the Supreme Court for his county. He appoints a deputy, who, when 
duly sworn, may discharge all his duties. 

Four Coroners, who are charged with the duty of inquiring into the cause of sudden deaths. 
Upon being notified, it is their duty to attend at the place where a dead body is found, summon a 
jury and witnesses, examine into the causes, and make a written report to the county clerk. They 
also have the sole power of issuing writs against sherifi's. 

A Register, performing that part of the duties of county clerks relating to the recording of 
conveyances and mortgages, is elected in New York, Kings, and Westchester counties ; and each 
of these appoints a deputy. 

Commissioners of Deeds, to take acknowledgments of deeds and legal documents, are ap- 
pointed by the Common Councils of cities in such numbers as they may decide, except in New York, 
where the number is limited to 300, and in Syracuse to 12.^ 

nrotaries Public are appointed by the Governor and Senate for a term of 2 years, and have 
authority to demand and accept payment of foreign bills of exchange, and to protest the same for 
nonpayment, and to exercise the duties of Commissioners of Deeds. Their number is limited to 400 
in New York, 25 in Troy, and in other cities and towns as many as the Governor may deem proper. 

Criminal Courts. Courts for the trial of criminal cases consist of the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer connected with the circuit of the Supreme Court, the Court of Sessions connected with 
the County Court, City Criminal Courts, and Justices' Courts.* 

Courts of Oyer and Terminer consist of a Justice of the Supreme Court associated with 
the County Judge and two Justices of the Sessions, (except in New York City,) the Supreme Judge 
and two of the others constituting a quorum for trials. This court has original and general 
jurisdiction. 

Courts of Sessions are held by the County Judge and two Justices of Sessions. They have 
jurisdiction over cases in which the imprisonment in case of conviction is less than ten years. 
The inferior City Courts and Justices' Courts have jurisdiction over petty criminal cases. 



Jn Hudson. — A Mayor's Court, held by the Mayor, Recorder, 
and Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly or singly ; 
a Justice^ Court, held by 2 Justices. One Police Justice 
elected. 

In New York. — The Superior Court, consisting of a Chief 
Justice and 6 Justices ; the Court of Common PUas, com- 
posed of 3 Justices; the Marine Court, composed of 3 
Justices; the Court of Oyer and Terminer, held by a 
Justice of the Supreme Court; the Court of General Ses- 
sions, held by the Recorder or City Judge; the Court of 
Special Sessions, held by the Recorder or City Judge with- 
out a jury ; Police Ouurts, held by Special Justices in 4 
separate districts; and Justices' or district Courts, held 
in 6 separate districts. 

In Oswego. — A Recorder's Court, held by the Recorder, or, in 
his absence, by the Mayor or any two Aldermen ; a Court 
of Special Sessions, held by the Recorder. Two Justices 
elected. 

In Poughkeepsie. — Justices' and Police Courts. 

In Poche.'^ttr. — Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of 
the Peace and 1 Police Justice elected. 

In Schenectady. — Justices' and Police Courts. Four Justices 
elected. 

In Syracuse. — Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of 
the Peace and 1 Police Justice elected. 

In Troy. — A Mayor's Court, held by the Mayor, Recorder, and 
Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly, or either 
singly. Practically it is held by the Recorder ; a Justices' 
Court, held by 3 Justices elected for the purpose. 

In Utica. — A Recorder's Court, held by the Recorder; a Court 
of Special Sessions, held by the Recorder and 2 Aldermen. 
Four Justices and 1 Police Justice elected. 
1 By an act passed April 14, 1852, the supervisors may deter- 
mine whether this shall be a salaried oflBce, and may fix the com- 



pensation. In the absence of such action, the District Attorney 
is paid by fees. 

2 Constitution., Art. X, Sec. 1. From 1777 to 1822 sheriffs wore 
appointed annually by the Governor and Council, and could not 
hold the ofSce more than 4 successive years. They have bc«D 
elected since 1822. 

3 In towns the duties of the office are performed by justices of 
the peace. Special commissioners for this service were appointed 
in the several cos. by the Council of Appointment under the first 
Constitution, and by the Governor and Senate under the Constitu- 
tion of 1821. The Governor may appoint, for a term of 4 years, 
any number of persons not exceeding 5, in any city or co. of other 
States and of Canada, to take acknowledgments of instruments 
or conveyances to bo recorded in this State. The consuls, vice- 
consuls, and ministers of the U. S. in foreign countries, the 
mayors of London, Liverpool, and Dublin, the provost of Edin- 
burgh, and persons appointed by the Governor, not exceeding 
3 in each of the cities of London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Paris, and 
Marseilles, may also perform this duty, and administer oaths or 
affirmations substantiating proofs to documents requiring to bo 
recorded or to be produced in evidence within this State. 

* In 1829, CO. clerks were required to report to the Secretary 
of State a transcript of all convictions and the sentences thereon. 
The intention of this act was to establish evidence in case of the 
trial of the same person for a second offense, in which the punish- 
ment for the same crimes is enhanced in severity. In 1837, the 
Secretary of State was required to report a statement of all con- 
victions reported under this act, and annually afterward to lay 
before the Legislature a like summary. In 1839, sheriffs were 
also required to report the name, occupation, age. sex, and native 
country of every person convicted, and such other information 
as might indicate degree of education, the effect of home influ- 
ences, and such other details as might be required. Under the 
administration of E. W. Leavenworth, the statistica of crime 



36 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Under the head of the Administrative Department are classed the officers charged with the 
general administration of the affairs of canals, of State prisons, of the salt springs, of academic and 
common school education, and other public interests, each of which is particularly noticed elsewhere. 
It also includes a variety of other offices, the principal of which are as follows : — 

Tlic County Treasurer is charged with the duty of receiving all moneys collected by tax, or 
otherwise payable into the county treasury, of paying all orders issued by the Supervisors, and of 
accounting to the Comptroller of the State for such moneys as are due to the State treasury. He 
is required to give bonds ; and in case of vacancy the office is filled by appointment of the Super- 
visors until the January following the next general election. 

Superintendents of tlie Poor have charge of the county poor and of the poorhoiises, 
unless otherwise provided by law. The Supervisors may elect to have 1 or 3 superintendents. In 
several of the counties, special laws exist with regard to this office.^ 

Commissioners of Excise are appointed by the County Judge and the two Associate 
Justices, except in New York, where the Chief Justice of the Superior Court, the presiding Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, and the Recorder, have the appointing power. They meet annually on 
the third Tuesday of May, to grant licenses for selling liquors and keeping inns under restrictions 
fixed by law. This office was created April 16, 1857. Twenty freeholders must unite in a peti- 
tion for a license ; and the same person can sign but one petition. Licenses cost $30 to $250 
each. 



from the first reports to, and including, 1854 were pnbllshed, 
which gave the following results : — 

New Tork State Prismi received from 1798 to 1827 inclusive, 
8.879 prisoners : died, 765; escaped, 25; sentence expiated, 1.262; 
pardoned. 3.160; removed, 348 : natives of N.H., 99; Vt.,114; 
Mass.. 392; R.I., 110; Ct.,391; N.Y.. 2.426; N.J., 314; Penn., 
234; Del., 21; Md.,75; Va.,69; other States, 43 ; B.A.,87; W.I., 
141; S.A.,12; Eng.,247; Ire., 655; Scot, 79; Ger.,58; Hoi., 22; 



Fr., 49; Spain, 6; Italy, 13; Portugal, 6; Sweden, 10; Norway, 
2; other European countries, 18 ; Africa, 26; E. I., 8; unknown, 
152 : crimes against the person, 280 ; against property, with vio- 
lence, 291; without violence, 4,016; forgery, and against the cur- 
rency, 728. Sentence varied from 7 mo. to life, the most being 
as follows : 1 year, 242 ; 2 years, 259 ; 3 years, 581 ; 3 years 1 day, 
278; 4 years, 604: 5 years, 764; 7 years, 820; 10 years, 294; 14 
years, 239; life, 603. 



Convictions in Courts of Record from 1830 to 1856. 







S- 


S-^ 


•s 


i 








s. 


i.^ 


-3 


3 
































Years. 


2 e 

.2 O 




tot o 




1 




Yeaes. 




1-6 


II 1 


1ft 

^3.5 


1 


5 




-^tt, 


"^fe'S 


-'ife-S 


^5s 


o 




'^a. 


'^fe'S 


'^fcS 


-^Ctt, 


o 


K 


1830... 


237 


101 


502 


74 


144 


1,058 


1845... 


471 


177 


467 


54 


520 


1.689 


1831... 


243 


93 


464 


63 


94 


957 


1846... 


384 


138 


471 


38 


440 


1,471 


1832... 


289 


79 


440 


60 


98 


966 


1847... 


385 


132 


396 


24 


408 


1,295 


1833... 


362 


75 


462 


61 


153 


1,113 


1848... 


437 


120 


512 


33 


425 


1,527 


1834... 


217 


99 


355 


53 


148 


872 


1849... 


397 


150 


545 


44 


404 


1,540 


1835... 


287 


92 


426 


34 


237 


1,076 


1850... 


397 


199 


521 


36 


410 


1,563 


1836... 


316 


86 


379 


32 


150 


963 


1851... 


409 


148 


475 


49 


401 


1,482 


1837... 


393 


124 


477 


52 


145 


1,191 


1852... 


412 


228 


480 


48 


434 


1.602 


1838... 


296 


112 


472 


42 


164 


1,086 


1853... 


483 


185 


673 


52 


553 


1.846 


1839... 


287 


115 


479 


51 


186 


1.118 


1854... 


432 


189 


591 


75 


835 


2,122 


1840... 


463 


120 


437 


49 


274 


1,343 


1855... 


397 


278 


586 


37 


544 


1.842 


1841... 


458 


121 


460 


49 


427 


1.515 


1856... 


432 


248 


573 


49 


212 


1,514 


1842... 


484 


175 


504 


63 


376 


1,602 


1857... 


475 


350 


607 


&4 


158 


1,6.54 


1843... 


408 


244 


504 


78 


336 


1.570 


1858... 


436 


332 


617 


90 


237 


1,712 


1844... 


394 


172 


489 


60 


312 


1,427 

















Of the 1712 convicted in 1858, 1582 were males and 130 females. 
The number of convictions reported by sheriffs falls short of that 
by clerks for the obvious reason that many who are fined pay 
down their penalties and never come into the sheriff's hands. 
The excess reported by clerks from 1839 to 1854 varied from 172 
to 1.000 annually. Males form about 94 per cent, of all con- 
victions reported by clerks, 93^ per cent, of those reported by 
sheriffs, and 85 per cent, of those convicted in courts of special 
sessions. The results of trial compared with total indictments 
have varied In different years within the following limits : — 
Ratio of convictions to indictments 593 to 6S9. 

" acquittals " 249 to 380. 

" disagreement of juries " 013to.025. 

" convict'ns on confess'n " 182to.390. 

The least number of colivictions reported from 1829 to 1855, in 
proportion to population, was in 1834, when it was 1 to 2,444. 
The greatest number was in 1845, when it was 1 to 1,542. 

Pardons. — The number of pardons granted from 1778 to 1854 
inclusive, waa 8,793 ; of which 160 were from fines, 160 from fines 
and imprisonment, 1,285 from jails and local prisons, 5,747 from 
State prison for term of years, and 559 from State prison for Ufe. 
Of the whole number, 1,640 were conditioned mostly to leaving 
the State or U. S., 807 were restored to rights of citizens, 59 were 
respited from capital offenses. The pardoning power has been 
•xeicised as Ibllows : — 



Wm. I/. Marcy _ 834 

Wm. H. Seward 377 

Wm. C. Bouck 279 

Silas Wright 282 

John Young 268 

Hamilton Fish 97 

Washington Hunt 346 

Horatio Seymour 456 

Myron H.Clark 530 

John A. King 426 

where there is but onef in a 



George Clinton 308 

John Jay 160 

Morgan Lewis 213 

Daniel D. Tompkins 1,693 

John Taylor 223 

DeWittCUnton 2,289 

Joseph C.Yates 291 

Kathaniel Pitcher 228 

Martin Van Buren 34 

Enos T. Throop 415 

1 The salary of these officers, 
county, is fixed by the Supervisors ; but in those counties where 
there are 3 they are usually paid for the time employed. 
Albany has none. Chemung, Clinton, Dutchess, Essex, Frank- 
lin, Fulton, Genesee, Herkimer, Jefferson, Montgomery, Orange, 
Orleans, Otsego, Putnam, Schenectady, Schuyler, SulUvan, and 
Ulster, have each one ; and those In italic are appointed by 
Supervisors. In early times each town supported its own poor, 
and where persons who had not acquired residence became 
chargeable, they were sent from town to town back to the place 
where they had formerly resided. A very able report was pre- 
sented to the Senate by J. V. N. Yates, Secretary of State, Feb. 
9, 1824, upon the subject of the " laws for the relief and settle- 
ment of the poor," in which he advised the erection of one or 
more houses of employment in each co., in which paupers might 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



37 



State Assessors. — The object of the offi^^e is to collect the necessary statistics among the 
several counties to enable the Board of Equalization to equalize the State tax among the several 
counties, and fix the amount of real and personal estate upon which the State tax shall be levied. 
The Assessors are appointed by the Government and Senate, and hold ofiicc for three years. 

The Board of Equalization consists of the Commissioners of the Land Office, and the 
State Assessors. It meets at Albany on the first Tuesday of September of each year, for the pur- 
pose of equalizing the taxes, &c. 



be maintamed and employed at the county charge, and that 
children at suitable ages should be put out to some useful trade. 
An act was accordingly passed Nov. 27, 1S24, authorizing the 
establishment of county poorhouses. In most of the counties 
such institutions were established within a few years. They 
were located upon farms, which were designed to be worked, as 
far as practicable, by the Inmates. The towns in Queens and 
Suffolk counties have mostly town poorhouses, and in these there 
are no county establishments of this kind. The county of 
Albany supports its poor at the city almshouse. 



In most counties a distinction is made between town and 
county poor, the former including those who have gained a resi- 
dence; and this distinction may bo made or not, at the option of 
the Board of Supervisors. Temporary relief may be extended 
in cases where the pauper cannot be removed, or for other 
causes satisfactory to the Superintendents. Towns may vote at 
town meetings the sum estimated to be necessary for the support 
of their own poor. 

The following tables and summaries are from the last annual 
Report of the Secretary of State : — 



Statistics of Poorhouses and of the Support of the Poor, for the year ending Dec. 1, 1858. 



Counties. 



Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus .. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua... 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer.... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence . 

Saratoga 

Schenectady .. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester .. 

Wj'oming 

Yates 



is 

S"' 
^° 

sis 

lis 

183 
130 
200 

96 
171.8 
175 
172 

90 
204^ 
118 
200 
106 
154 
100 
162 

86 
134 
130 



65 
107 

"59 
118 
172 
134 
150 

'120' 
150 

36i 
212 
267 
107 

60 
170 
196 

"144" 
125 
47 
130 
200 
113 
110 

l'26i 
200 



100 
60 
100 
140 
200 
174 
193 
165 
111 
123 



■Sis 

g O «o 



$10,000 00 

8,000 00 

6.500 00 

20,000 00 

12,000 00 

13,000 00 

5,000 00 

3,000 00 

36,000 00 

6,800 00 

5,000 00 

15,000 00 

49,091 00 

4,500 00 

4,639 75 

8,000 00 

8,000 00 

10,000 00 

16,000 60 

14,000 00 

400,000 00 

3,500 00 
18,000 00 
16,500 00 
40,375 16 

7,500 00 

12,000 '60 
8,100 00 
16,000 00 
21,200 00 
25,000 00 
10,113 75 
4,350 00 
15.350 00 
10,000 00 

29,000 66 
21,000 00 
11,000 00 
7,200 00 
6,000 00 
8,000 00 
5,000 00 



16,000 00 
10,000 00 



1,500 00 
6,000 00 
6,000 00 
9,000 00 
2,500 00 

12,000 00 
7,620 00 

35.500 00 
5,000 00 
5,500 00 



I 



$250 
200 
200 
800 

2,524 



449 
250 
1,000 
180 
250 



3,500 
200 
200 



500 00 
600 00 



742 90 
500 00 
1,500 00 
200 00 
700 00 

"'35006 
400 00 



1,000 00 



1,380 00 
700 00 

1,500 00 
375 00 
500 00 



300 00 



600 00 
800 00 
700 00 
500 00 
300 00 
128 00 
100 00 



300 00 
275 00 



200 00 
7.50 00 
500 00 
600 00 
100 00 
755 00 
325 00 
1,150 00 
150 00 
200 00 



" a. 



$1 02 
59 

1 12 
83 
787 
894 
72 
89 

1 09 

" 72 

90 

1 00 
70 

1 00 
42 

""'662 
685 

'i'io" 

76 

2 22 
93 
74 

1 035 

70 

1 637 

""si" 

1 00 
915 



985 

07 

14 

42 

58 



48 

45 

805 

737 

94 

94 

77 



855 

00 

00 

83 

84 

72 

70 

49 

60 

275 

018 

801 

96 



§■-■8 

i. V. a. 



243 

1.335 

160 

2,778 

4,106 

246 

109 

2,738 

'665 

250 

136 

1,771 

1,292 

44 

84 

112 

175 

97 

21 

4,908 

1,464 

37,730 

126 

286 

'i's'ss 

1,063 

'3,986 

8,102 

2,460 

2,753 

1,679 

865 

747 

63 

'"555 

966 

1,881 

384 

2,931 

505 

403 

57 

144 

1.535 

1,175 

56 

350 

240 

99 

1,280 

82 

2,629 

1.335 

1.312 

170 

65 



1^ 

life 



223 
"219 

' "i'si 

"312 

'sjgis 

223 

66 

117 

48 

'2,817 

'i,'7'3'3 



2,830 
492 

""isi 

3,578 



Total 7,208.8 |$1,059,3.39 66 1$29,4S4 66 | $ 90.5 | 103,499 



449 



206 
359 
113 



453 

""417 

49 

1,191 



666 
61 
70 
66 



223 

1,178 

271 

'3J7'25 

""ioi 

2,585 



172 

386 

5,"9'l5 

136 

56 



66 

17 

4,656 

1.015 

29.881 

■ 70 



4,614 

li6,'822 
3,687 
7,062 
3,538 
2,402 
1,330 

510 
3,330 

342 

36 

3,986 

1,642 

636 

2,499 



23,205 



297 
160 

1,164 
870 
225 
296 
657 
148 

2,047 

'2.832 
1,163 

'""89 



207.207 






$5,879 68 
3,727 01 
2,725 44 
9,393 21 
5.094 65 
2,850 48 
3,997 33 
3,076 02 

12,158 15 
2.950 52 
3.096 93 

15,965 09 

35,028 73 
2,695 47 
1,316 79 

3.701 44 
3,079 68 
3,178 46 

400 00 

7.399 10 

6,440 95 

146,499 66 

3,564 41 

4,630 62 

6,954 37 

18,432 62 

9,680 76 

351,152 10 

5,322 80 

13,271 67 

10,1.59 82 

6,795 93 

9,288 35 

3,781 97 

5,126 74 

4.702 40 
1,388 84 

22..303 15 

16,172 00 
9,457 82 
• 3,099 07 
6,990 24 
7,460 42 
7,174 72 
2,471 70 
3.547 87 
3,918 89 
4,420 89 

12,00s 79 
3,357 03 
3,040 81 
3,271 15 
6.721 72 
1.241 75 
4.051 40 
8.887 78 

15.981 09 
3.416 02 
3.102 80 



$884,119 78 






■^S^ 



$2,675 41 
8,250 01 
6,136 14 

16,968 47 
6,846 58 
6.513 53 
1,078 19 
6,362 84 

"2.'422 "e'l 

2,94.8 62 

300 00 

20.474 90 

2,273 45 

1,489 11 

922 00 

2,192 46 

250 00 

100 00 

15.219 04 

11.960 67 

32,110 47 

561 26 

4,094 01 

11,781 2.3 

28,815 88 

13.3.30 00 

139,731 54 

7,552 98 

31,298 65 

40,384 84 

7,065 80 

10,755 09 

4,140 10 

43,199 99 

3.974 70 

2,590 53 

2.2S7 75 

30,754 00 

3.496 42 

2,417 21 

13,944 38 



2.156 49 

4,510 44 

1,400 00 

4,019 73 

5,729 07 

4,260 00 

4,132 93 

6,452 06 

647 5.1 

9,791 36 

2.368 92 

6.391 49 

8.280 36 

149 98 

620 22 

112 «9 



o'i'3 eje 
S £ S §,"2 

s°'ii'^ 

^ I ^ '^ 2--SO 

2 »<.« «-.SS 



$8,555 09 
11,977 02 

8,861 58 

26,361 68 

10,941 23 

9,364 01 

5,075 52 

9,438 86 

12,158 15 

5,373 13 

6,045 55 

16,265 09 

55,503 63 

4,968 92 

2,804 90 

4,623 44 

5,272 14 

3,428 46 

500 00 

22,618 14 

18,401 62 

178,610 13 

4,125 67 

8,724 63 

18,735 60 

47,248 60 

23,010 76 

490,883 64 

12.875 78 

44,570 32 

60,544 66 

13,861 73 

20,043 44 

7,922 07 

48,326 73 

8,677 10 

3.979 37 

24,590 90 

46,926 00 

12,954 24 

5,516 28 

20,943 62 

7,460 42 

9,331 21 

6.982 14 

4,947 87 

7.938 62 

10,149 96 

16,268 79 

7,489 96 

9,498 87 

3,918 66 

16,513 08 

3,610 67 

10,442 89 

17,168 14 

16,1,31 07 

4.036 24 

8,275 49 



$607,271 50 $1,491..391 28 



During the year 1858, 38,582 were admitted, 38,400 were dia- 
chaiged, 1,007 absconded, 849 were born, 2,584 died, and 646 were 
bound oat. 



Supported in Poorhouse. — Males, 6,219; Females, 7.203; total, 
13,422. Foreigners, 6,603; Lunatics, 1,838; Idiots, 4.37 ; Mutes, 
36. Temporarily Relieved. — Foreigners, 58,709 ; Limatics, 2,408 ; 
Idiots, 595 ; Mutea, 52. 



38 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



l<oan Commissioners' are appointed in each county by the Governor and Senate, except in 
Onondaga, where they are elected. They are paid J to f of one per cent, on all moneys loaned, 
and are obliged to give bonds and report annually to the Comptroller. 

Scliool Commissioners are elected one in each Assembly District, and under certain 
circumstances another may be added. They are required to examine and grant certificates to 
teachers, visit schools, apportion the public moneys, and report to the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. The Board of Supervisors in the counties have the power of arranging the several 
commissioner districts and of increasing the salary of the commissioners above $500. All cities, 
and many villages, are under special laws with regard to schools, and are more or less exempt 
from the jurisdiction of County School Commissioners.^ 

Sealers of Weiglits and Measures are appointed for the State and for each county and 
town. The State Superintendent has an office at Albany, and he furnishes to the several counties 
and towns standard sets of weights and measures.' The County Sealer keeps the Standards 



Children under 16,— Males, 2,776; Females, 3,045. Total, 5,821. 
Number of children instructed, 3,219. Arerage 8 months in 
the year. 



Nativities of Persons relieved in 1S5S. 

United States 

Ireland - 

Germaoy 

England 

Canada 

France 

Scotland „ 

Total 



Males. 



45,174 
42.212 
12,001 
4:i83 
1,995 
1.094 
1,268 



108,527 



Female'!. 



59,570 
50,504 
16,173 
3.371 
2,013 
1.995 
1,068 



134,694 



T'tal. 



104,744 
92,716 
28.774 
7,554 
4,008 
3,089 
2,336 



243,221 



Causes of Pauperism, as far as 
ascertained. 



Intemperance direct 

Children of intemperate parents.. 
Wives with intemperate hus- 
bands 



Total intemperance 

Debauchery 

Debauchery of parents.. 

Idleness 

Vagrancy 

Idiocy 

Lunacy 

Blindness 

Lameness 

Sickness 

Decrepitude 

Old age 



Total from all causes reported.. 



Males. 


FemaUs. 


16,669 


9.164 


5,133 


3,140 




3,140 


21,802 


15,444 


543 


622 


392 


375 


5.582 


4,080 


1,417 


904 


431 


441 


1.206 


1,533 


3.53 


165 


1.329 


662 


12.667 


10,167 


668 


447 


1,948 


2,077 


48.3.'38 


36.917 



Total. 



25,833 
8,273 

3,140 

37,246 
1,165 

767 
9.662 
2^321 

872 
2,730 

518 

1,991 

22,834 

1,115 

4,025 

85,255 



1 The first State loan was made by an act passed April 18, 
1786, creating bills of credit to the amount of $500,000, the 
most of wliich wa.s apportioned among the counties in propor- 
tion to their supposed wants, and loaned by officers appointed 
for the purpose. These bills were of convenient denominations 
and circulated as money. Thej' were receivable in pajTuent of 
taxes, and for some purposes wex-e legal tender. This" loan was 
distributed among the counties then existing, as follows : — 



Albany $55,000 

Dutchess 42,600 

Kings 11.250 

Montgomery 30,000 



Suffolk $25,000 

Ulster 31,000 

Washington 7.500 
Westchester 23,750 



New York.. $80,000 

Orange 25,000 

Queens 28,7.50 

Kichmond.. 11,250 

The sum of $79,447.53 remained due on the loan of 1786 at the 

beginning of 1810, and the whole was finally called in in 1830. 

By an act of March 14. 1792, another loan of $500,000 was 

made and distributed among the counties, as follows :• 



Albany $41,000 

CUnton 3,500 

Columbia 40,750 

Dutchess 68,000 

Herkimer 7,000 

Kings 4.750 

Montgomery..23,500 



Saratoga.... $26,000 

Suffolk 24.000 

Tioga 6,600 

Ulster 40,500 

Washington 33.500 
Westchester 35,250 



New York.. $48,250 

Ontario 3,000 

Orange 27.250 

Otsego 7.500 

Orleans 21..500 

Kensselaer. 33,500 

Richmond.. 4,750 
A third loan of $400,000 was authorized to the several counties, 
excepting New York. Kings. Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, and 
Westchester, in proportion to the number of their electors. In 
case the Supervisors of these counties applied for a share, a 
further sum of $50,000 was authorized to be issued. In 1819 
the above loan was transferred to the Common School Fund. 
In 1850 the office of Loan Commissioner for the loans of 1792 
and 1808 was abolished, and the loans remaining in their hands 
were transferred to the custody of the commissioners for loaning 
the U S. Deposit Fund. 



The V. S. Deposit Fund originated as follows : An Act of 
Congress, passed June 23, 1836, directed the surplus in the trea- 
sury on the 1st day of Jan. 1837, excepting $5,000,000, to be 
deposited with the several States in proportion to their repre- 
sentation. The amount thus deposited was $37,468,859.97, of 
which N. Y. received $5,352,694.28. This was apportioned to 
the several counties according to population, as follows : — 





$147,107.48 
86,681.22 
49,698.81 
61,504.43 

121.113.45 

110.447.63 
42.991.07 

100,337.93 
51,067.58 

100.298.54 
69.491.87 
84,165.51 

124.810.71 

141.770.83 
50,951.74 
30,771.91 

144.217.61 
74.272.51 
89.110.77 
18,921.82 
23.867.24 

103.501,02 
93,568.65 
39,951.05 
70,174.02 
55,697.62 

101,994.55 
69,598.02 




$33,858.70 
40,699.36 
93,558.80 


Allegany 

Broome 


Onondaga 

Ontario 


Cattaraugus .... 
Cavuga 


98,363.76 
29,622.36 


Orleans 


Chautaucjua 

Chemung 

Chenango 


96,803.13 
93,017.26 


Otsego 


Putnam 


95,483.74 




48,728.95 

130,679.06 

78,910.08 


Columbia 

Cortland 


Kensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland _. 

St. Lawrence.,. 

Saratoga 

Schenectady... 

Schoharie 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 


Delaware 


39,613.81 

76,534.68 

102.747.79 


Krie 


Essex 

Franklin 


142,979.45 
119,038.36 
664,839.06 




Greene 


65,200.61 


Herkimer 


190,814.86 




Sullivan 


149,928.42 
100,603.77 


Kings 

Le\vis _.. 

Livingston 

Madison 


Tioga 


Tompkins 

Ulster 


111,006.31 
56,352.39 


Warren 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester.... 
Y'ates 


94.142.19 




124,131.32 


Montgomery.... 
New York 


28,433.43 

61,858.89 

136,653.25 









2 In Utica and Schenectady the care of schools Is intrusted 
to " Commissioners of Common Schools ;" in Buffalo and Hudson 
the Common Councils are ex officio Commissioners of Schools; 
and in Albany, Astoria, Auburn, Brooklyn, Castleton, and 
Southfield, (Clifton,) College Point, East Chester, Flushing, 
Jamaica, Lockport, Medina, Newburgh, New York, Oswego, 
I'ort Byron, Poughkeepsie, Pulaski, Rochester, Salem, Syracuse, 
Troy, Waterford, Westfarms, and Whitestown, schools are 
under a Board of Education, usually elected, but in some of the 
cities appointed by the Common Council. In most cities a 
Superintendent, who is clerk of the Board, is appointed by the 
Board of Education for the more immediate supervision of 
schools and inspection of teachers. In Buffalo the Superin« 
tendent is elected. 

3 A County Standard consists of — 

1. A large balance, comprising a brass beam and scales, with 
stand and lever. 

2. A small balance, with a drawer stand for Kmall weights. 

3. A set of large brass weights, namely, 501b.. 201b., 101b., 51b. 

4. A set of small brass weights, avoirdupois, namely, 4Ib., 
21b., lib., Soz., 4oz., 2oz., loz., 4oz., Joz. 

5. A brass yard measure, graduated to feet and inches, and 
the first graduated to eighths of an inch, and also decimally ; with 
a graduation to cloth measure on the other side; in a case. 

6. A set of liquid measures made of copper, namely, 1 gallon, 
5 gallon, 1 quart, 1 pint, i pint, 1 gill; in a case. 

7. A set of dry measures of copper, namely, 5 bushel, 1 peck, 
J peck, 2 quarts, 1 quart; in a case. 

There are also cases to contain the large brass weights and 
the necessary packing boxes included, etc. The cost of the set 
is $300. 

A Town Standard differs in some particulars, as consisting 
of but one medium sized balance, the large weights being of 
iron in place of brass ; the yard measure being a cast metallic 
square rod, without decimal graduation, etc. ; and likewise with- 
out cases, in general. The cost of the set is $125. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



39 



furnished by the State, and is required to have them compared with the State Standard once in 3 
years. The Town Sealer is required to examine all weights and measures in use once a year.' 

Tlic Mayors of cities arc administrative officers i>f State laws and executive officers of city 
ordinances. They are elected annually, except in Albany and New York, where they hold their 
offices for two years. 

Tlie Supervisors of towns are administrators of the general laws relating to towns. 

Tlie President a.nd Trustees of villagreshaveoharge of every thing pertaining to the 
welfare of their respective localities within the limits of the charter of incorporation. 

Trustees of School I>istricts are the officers recognized by law to whom is intrusted 
the administration of the school laws within their districts. 

Turnpike Inspectors are appointed in every county in which there are turnpikes, the 
acts of incorporation of which do not require the appointment of special inspectors. They are 3 
to 5 in number, and must have no interest in any turnpike in the State. 

Plank Road Inspectors are appointed in every county having plank roads. Their duties 
are analogous to those of the inspectors of turnpikes ; and they are chiefly intended to protect 
the public against the collection of tolls when plank roads are unsafe or difficult to travel from 
neglect or other cause. 

Commissioners of Highways have the power of directing repairs, laying out and 
altering roads, discontinuing old roads, and of ordering new bridges to be built and kept in renair.^ 
They must annually divide the towns into road districts, and assign such inhabitants to vipork 
upon them as they may deem proper ; and they must deposit an accurate description of all new 
roads in the Town Clerk's office for record. 

Overseers of Highways, or " Pathmasters," have charge of road districts.' 



1 The statute defines the State Standard of Weights and Mea- 
sures to be the same as that approved bj- Congress June 14, 1836, 
and furnished by the U. S. to the States in 1842. The set fur- 
nished consisted of a yard, seta of Troy and avoirdupois weights, 
the wine gallon and the half bushel ami their subdivisions. 
The unit of length and sirrface, from -wliich all other measures 
of extension are derived, whether linear, superficial, or solid, is 
the yard, which is divided into 3 feet of 12 inches each, except 
for cloths or other articles sold by the yard, when it may be 
divided into halves, eighths, and sixteenths. The rod contains 
6i yards, and the mile 1,760 yards; the acre is 160 square rods; 
the chain for land surveying is 22 yards long and subdivided 
into 100 links; the Troy pound is to the avoirdupois as 5,760 to 
7,000, the one containing 12 and the other 16 ounces; lOOlbs. 
avoirdupois form a hundredweight, and 2,0001bs. a ton. All 
measures of capacity not liqmd are derived from the half bushel, 
the subdivisions of which are obtained by dividing repeatedly 
by 2. Coal, ashes, marl, manure, corn in the ear, fruit, and 
roots, are sold by heap measure. 

The Standards now in use do not vary essentially from those 
established by the State Government before standards were fur- 
nished by the U. S. As formerly defined, the unit of linear mea- 
sure was the yard, which bore the ratio of 1,000,000 to 1,086,140, 
to a pendulum beating seconds in a vacuum at the tempera- 
ture of melting ice at Columbia College. A cubic foot of water 
at its maximum density in vacuo was declared equal to 1000 
ounces avoirdupois. The liquid gallon to contain 81b3., and the 
dry gallon lOlbs., of distilled water at its greatest density and 
mean pressure at sea level. 

Weights of articles per bushel as fixed by Standard. 



ARTICLES. 


LBS. 


ARTICLES. 


LBS. 

55 
32 
60 
60 


ARTICLES. 


LBS. 

56 
56 
44 
60 




62 
60 
58 
4-8 
48 


Flaxseed 

Oats 


Kye 


Cloverseed. 


Salt 




Timothy 

■Wheat 


Buckwheat 


Potatoes 







2 Roads extending through several towns may be laid out by 
commissioners appointed by the Supervisors ; and those extend- 
ing through several counties are usually laid out by special com- 
missioners appointed by law. The commissioners of highways 
are required to report annually, at town meeting, their receipts 
and expenditures, and a statement of what improvements are 
necessary, and the cost of obtaining them. These estimates are 
referred to the Board of Supervisors, and assessed as other town 
charges. They may summon jurors and witnesses in opening 
and closing roads. Roads through improved lands must be cer- 
tified as necessary by the oath of twelve respectable freeholders ; 
and a like certificate to the contrary is required in closing roads. 
Every owner may obtain a road to his land. 

New roads cannot be laid through orchards or gardens of 
more than four years' growth or use, or through buildings or 
yards, and inclosures of mills and factories, without the owner's 
consent. The law requires the commissioners of highways to 
orect mileboards along the line, and guideboards at the crossing 
ctf post and such other important roads as they may deem 



proper; and the defacing of those is punishable as a misde- 
meanor. Every owner or occupant of lands in any town, and 
every male inliabitant above the age of 21, must be assessed for 
higfiway labor. The whole number of days' labor annually ex- 
pended in the town must bo at least three times the number of 
taxable inhabitants ; and every male inhabitant over 21, except 
ministers, paupers, idiots, and lunatics, must be assessed at 
least one day. The residue ia assessed upon the property of In- 
dividuals and corporations. Labor may be commuted at the 
rate of 62 J cts. per day ; and the moneys so paid must be ax- 
pended in the district. 

3 Overseers of Highways are required by law to warn out to 
work all persons assessed for highway labor in their respective 
districts ; keep their roads in order; superintend work; receive 
and apply commutation moneys ; cause the noxious weeds upon 
the wayside to be cut down or destroyed once before July and 
once before Sept. of each year ; remove obstructions ; and collect 
all fines, whether for neglect of work, idleness, or putting up 
of gates contrary to law. They may require additional labor, to 
the amount of one-third of the first tax. All roads must be 
fenced by the owners of adjacent lands, unless liable to be over- 
flowed by streams, when tiie overseers of highways must erect, 
and keep in repair, good swinging gates at the expense of the 
lands benefitted ; and persons leaving such gates open are liable 
to triple damages. All rivers where the tide ebbs and flows aro 
public highways, without special law. Many other streams have 
been so declared by acts, and obstructions in such streams and 
in highways are punished by fine, notwithstanding a plea of 
title. Such obstructions may be abated as nuisances ; and the 
persons causing them are liable to actions for damage. Persons 
owning lands upon roads 3 rods wide, or more, may plant trees 
on the roadside adjacent to their line, and may prosecute for 
damages to sucli trees. They may also construct a sidewalk, 
with a railing. Trees falling into the road from inclosed lands 
must be removed by the occupant within 2 days, after notice by 
any person, under a fine of 50 cts. a day. Assessors and com- 
missioners of highways are ex officio fence viewers in their sev- 
eral towns. In case of fires in the woods of any town, it is the 
duty of the supervisor, justices, and commissioners of highways 
to order such and so many inhabitants, liable to work upon the 
roads, as may be deemed necessary, and reside near, to assist ia 
checking the fires, under penalty of $50, and liability to prose- 
cution for misdemeanor, and further fine not over $100 or im- 
prisonment not more than 60 days. 

Persons aggrieved at the decision of commissioners may ap 
peal to referees appointed by the county judge or justices of 
sessions. Kings, Queens, and Suffolk cos. have from an early 
colonial period had a road law peculiar to themselves. It differs 
by fixing the number of days at twice the number of persons 
assessed, in granting private roads for limited periods, in allow 
ing roads through gardens and orchards of less than ten years' 
use or growth, by allowing appeals to the crmnty judge, and in 
a few otlier minor details. Richmond co. has also a special law, 
which requires assessments in money only, to be collected vrith 
the general tax, and the repairs of roads to be let out at public 
auction by districts from year to year and to the lowest bidder. 
There are many other special laws, chiefly applicable to citie* 
and villages, but too numerous to mention here. 



40 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



SUMMARY OF THE SEVERAL STATE, COUNTY, AND TOWN OFFICERS. 



United States Senators 

Representatives in Congress., 

STATE OFFICERS. 

Legislative — 

State Senators.. 

Members of Assembly 



Executive — 

Governor 

Lieutenant Governor 

Secretary of State 

Comptroller 

Treasurer 

Attorney General 

State Engineer and Surveyor... 

JCDICI-U, — 

Judges of tlie Court of Appeals'* 

Justices of the Supreme Court 
Clerk of the Court of Appeals.. 

State Reporter 



Administrative — 
fSupt. of Public Instruction... 
\ Regents of the University' ... 
Supt. of Banking Department.. 

Inspectors of State Prisons 

Canal Commissioners 

Auditor of Canal Department.. 
Canal Appraisers 

Supt. of Weights and Measures 

State Assessors 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 

County Judge 

Surrogate (in certain counties) 
Special Judges and Surrogates" 

Justices of Sessions 

District Attorney 

Sheriff 

Coroners 

Treasurer 

County Clerk 

Commissioners for loaning 

moneys of the U. S 

School Commissioners'* 

Superintendents of the Poor.... 

Commissioners of Excise 



County Sealer of Weights and 
Measures 

Notaries Public i 



Turnpike Inspectois'.... 
Plank Road Inspectors . 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



Supervisor 

Town Clerk 

Inspectors of Election/ 

Justices of the Peace 

Constables* 

Assessors' 

Collector 

Overseers of the Pooc 

Commissioners of Highways... 

Overseers of Highways ■! 

Pound Masters 

Town Sealer of Weights and 
Measures 



SCHOOL DIST. 

Trustees* 

District Clerk 

Collector 

Librarian 



OFFICERS. 



Total 
No. in 
State. 



33 



32 
128 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



33 
1 



1 
19 
1 
3 
3 
1 
3 



3 

No. in 
each Co. 

1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 

2 

1 or 3 

3 

1 

Fixed by 

Gov. 

3 

3 

No. in 

ea. tow7i. 

1 

1 

3 to 18 

is 

lto5 

3 

1 

lor 2 

1 or 3 

1 to each 

road dis. 

Indef. 



No. in 

each dist. 

lor 3 

1 

1 

1 



Tears 
in 

Office. 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

Indef. 



4 

4 

1 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

2 
3 
3 

6 

Indef. 

2 



Commence' 

ment of term, 

of Office. 



March 4. 



January 1. 



Date of appt. 



January 1. 
Date of appt. 



January 1. 



Ist Tues.Aug 
January 1. 

Date of Appt. 
January 1. 



Date of Appt. 



Date of Elec. 



1 


January 1. 


3 


Date of Elec 


1 


(( 




ti 


3 


a 


1 


a 


1 


" 



2d Tues. Oct. 



Hoicjilled. 



Legislature. 
Election. 



/Gov.. Lt. Gov., 
( & Atty. Gen. 

Legislature. 

Gov. & Senate. 
Election. 

Gov. & Senate. 

a 

/Gov., Lt.Gov., 
t& Sec. of State. 
Gov. & Senate. 



Election. 



Gov. & Senate. 
Election. 

/ Judges and 
\ Just, of Sess. 

Supervisors. 
Gov. & Senate. 
Supervisors. 



Election. 

See note >. 
Election. 



Superv. & j. p. 



Election. 



VacancieJi 
how Jilled. 



Governor. 
Special election. 



Lieut. Gov. 
Pres.jp. i. of Sen, 
Governor. 



Gov., Lt.Gov.,"> 
&, Atty. Gen. j 

Governor. 

Legislature. 

Governor. 



Gov., Lt. Gov., ) 
& Sec. of State. < 



Governor. 



Supervisors. 
Governor. 



County Judge. 

Supervisors. 

Judge & Justices 



Supervisors. 

Governor. 

Supervisors. 



Sped, town meet. 

/ Superv. town \ 
\ clerk, & jus. J 
Governor. 

Sped, to^vn meet. 
Superv. k 2 jus. 
Sped, town meet. 

Com. highways. 

Justices. 

Superv. & j. p. 



Supervisor. 
Ti-ustees. 



Compensation. 



$3,000 and mileage. 



$3 per day and mileage. 



$4,000 and house rent. 
$6 per day and mileage. 
$2,500. 



$2,000. 
$2,500. 

$2,500 before 1857 ; $3,500 

since. 
Ditto. 
$2,000. 



$2,500. 

None. 

$5,000. 

$1,600. 

$2,000. 

$2,500. 

$2,000. 

$500. 



Sal. fixed by Supervisors. 

Per diem. 
Fees or salary. 
Fees. 
Per diem. 

Percentage. 
Fees. 

Percentage. 

Not less than $500. 

Per diem or salary. 

Per diem. 

Fees. 
Fees. 
Per diem. 



Per diem. 

Fees and per diem. 

Per diem. 

Fees. 
Fees. 
Per diem. 
Percentage. 
Per diem. 



Fees. 
Fees. 



None. 



« 4 elected for 8 yrs., and 4 senior Justices of Supreme Court. 

' 4 others are ex officio'Regents. « Regulated by special acts. 

•i One in each Assembly district. « In certain counties. 

f2 inspectors are elected and 1 appointed fi-om the next high- 
est ticket, to each election dist. by the chauman of town meet- 
' ings. In cities there is 1 such dist. if under 500 inhabitants ; 
2, if from 500 to SOO ; and there may be more if above 800. In 
towns of over 500, the supervisor, assessors, and clerk meet 
annually to designate or change these districts. If vacancies of 
supervisors, assessors, commissioners of highways, or overseers 
of the poor are not filled within 15 days, the justices may ap- 
point ; and, if from any cause there be less than 3, they may asso- 



ciate justices of neighboring towns in making appointments. 
ff Towns in Sullivan co. may have 1 or 3 : and if 1, he is chosen 
annually. Oyster Bay, Oswegatchie, and Watervliet have 5, and 
Southold 6. 

* Towns may decide upon the number. Manlius has 7. 

* In Seneca co. 1 in each town. } See exceptions on p. 36. 

* Annual school meetings determine whether to elect 1 or 3. 
Among the officers of local jurisdiction, not included in the 

foregoing lists, are harbor masters, wardens, healtli officers, and 
others connected with sanitary supervision, pilots, wreck mas- 
cers, superintendent of Onondaga salt springs, and officer* 
charged with duties relating to Indian afl'airs. 



PRISONS. 

For a great number of offenses criminals are sentenced to be confined at \ahov for different 
periods of time, and the State has provided prisons at several places for the security of these 
offenders against law.^ The principal of these are the three State Prisons, an Asylum for Insane 
Convicts, two Houses of Refuge, and several penitentiaries and jails. 

The Auburn State Prison is located upon a lot of 10 acres near the center of the city of 
Auburn. It consists of the prison proper, containing 800 cells and a large number of workshops, 
all surrounded by a high and strong wall. Tlie Sins' Sing State Prison is located upon 
a lot of 130 acres upon the Hudson, in the village of Sing Sing. It contains a prison for males and 
another for females, the latter the only one in the State. It has an aggregate of 1,000 cells and a 
great variety of workshops.^ Tlie Clinton State Prison is situated upon a lot of 250 
acres in the town of Dannemora. About 25 acres are inclosed within the walls of the prison. It 
contains workshops, forges, and furnaces, and has an aggregate of 39G cells.' 

The general supervision of the State Prisons is intrusted to a Board of 3 Inspectors, one of 
whom is elected each year for a term of three years.* They appoint all the officers of the several 
prisons and renew them at pleasure.* The discipline of the several prisons is rigid and uniform, 
and all convicts are treated alike, irrespective of their former standing in society or of the crimes 
of which they are convicted. The rules for the general conduct of prisoners are rigidly enforced. 
In the administration of discipline a leading object is to secure the reform of the criminal and his 
return to society with regular and industrious habits and correct moral principles.® All convicts 
in health are required to labor in shops by day, under rigid supervision, and without exchanging 
words or looks with each other or with those who may visit the prison. They observe strict 
silence upon all occasions when not addressed by some person allowed the privilege. In passing 
to and from the cells, shops, and dining rooms, they march in close single columns, with their 



J- By an act of March 26, 1796, John Watts, Matthew Clarkson, 
leaac Sloatenburgh, Thomas Eddy, and John Murray, jr. were 
appointed commissioners to build a State prison in New York 
City. This prison, styled "Kewgate," was located on a lot of 9 
acres on the Hudson, at the foot of Amos St. with its principal 
front on Greenwich St. It was 204 feet long, and from each 
end a wing extended to the river. It had 54 rooms, each for 8 
persona, and cost 1208,846. It was opened Nov. 25, 1797, and 
continued in use until May, 1828, when it was sold. Convicts 
were employed in shoe and naU making and other work in 
leather and iron, and as carpenters, tailors, weavers, spinners, 
and gardeners. A second prison was ordered, in 1796, to be 
built at Albany, but the act was repealed in 1797. The limited 
accommodations and wretched moral influences of the New 
York prison led to the ordering of another prison, in 1816, wliich 
was located at Auburn. The south wing was completed in 
1818, and in 1819 the north wing was ordered to be fitted up 
with single cells. The prison was enlarged in 1824. 

2 An act passed March 7, 1824, ordered a prison to be erected 
at Sing Sing. Work was begun May 14, 1825, and the prison 
was finished in 1829, with 800 cells, to which 200 were added in 
1830. It was finally completed in 1831. The grounds here 
occupy 130 acres, and include marble quarries, upon which it 
was designed to employ the convicts. The State Hall at Albany 
is built of magnesian marble or dolomite quarried and dressed 
at this prison. The prison for females is built of rough marble 
in the Ionic style of architecture. It stands on elevated ground 
and is entirely distinct from the male prison in its offices and 
management. Previous to its erection, in 1835-40, female con- 
victs were kept by tlie city of New York at their prison at 
Bellevue, at an annual cost to the State of flOO each. 

8 Clinton Prison was built, in 1844-45, under the direction of 
Ransom Cook, with the design of employing convicts in iron 
mining and manufacture. 

* These Inspectors must visit all the State prisons four times 
a year, in company, inspect their management, discipline, and 
financial affairs, keep minutes of their proceedings, and report 
annually to the Legislature. They establish rules for the ob- 
servance of the officers of the prisons, and may examine 
witnesses. One prison is assigned to each Inspector for three 
months, and he is required to spend at least one week in each 
month at the prison in special charge, and to inform himself 
minutely concerning its details. The Inspectors are successively 
changed to other prisons. Inspectors can make no appoint- 
ments of relations within the 3d degree, and they can have no 
interest in contracts. Their salary is $1600. — Constitution, Art. 
V, &c. 4. 
6 The officers of each prison consist of the following: — 
1. An Agent, or Warden, who is the principal fiscal officer of 



the prison. He receives a salary of $1,250 to $1,500, and is re- 
quired to give a bond of $25,000. 

2. A Principal Keeper, who has charge of police regulations 
and discipline of the prison, and must live upon the premises. 
He keeps a journal of every infraction of rules, records, punish- 
ments, complaints, &c., and reports monthly to the Inspectors. 
Salary, $ . 

3. Keepers under the direction of the Principal are appointed, 
not to exceed 1 for every 25 prisoners. Salary, $ 

4. A Clerk, who records all commitments and discharges, 
keeps the accounts, and reports annually to the Secretary of 
State. Salary, S1,000 at Sing Sing and $900 at the other prisons. 

6. The Chaplain visits prisoners in their cells, devotes a stated 
time each Sabbath to religious services, keeps the prison library, 
and allows the use of books, under proper regulations, and is 
expected to counsel and assist convicts in the formation of 
settled resolutions for reform upon leaving the prison. Through 
him they may obtain whatever is allowed of correspondence 
with friends. Salary, $900. 

6. A Physician and Surgeon, who has charge of the Hospital 
and attends at all times when his services are required. Salary, 
$700 at Sing Sing and $600 at the other prisons. 

7. Instructors, of which there are 2 each at Auburn and Sing 
Sing, 1 at Clinton, and 1 at the Female Prison, who give all ne- 
cessary instruction to the prisoners in their several occupations. 

8. A Store Keeper, who has general charge of the provisions 
and clothing and other property belonging to the prison. 

9. A Guard, under the command of a sergeant, who are 
stationed in the prison and upon the walls to prevent escapes. 
The number of privates is 20 at Auburn, 25 at Clinton, and 30 
at Sing Sing. They are armed and equipped from the State 
arsenals, and are held legally justified if they ehoot down 
prisoners attempting to escape. 

10. A Matron, who has charge of the Female Prison. Assistant 
matrons are appointed, not to exceed 1 for every 25 prisoners. 

6 Solitary confinement without labor was tried at Auburn in 
1821, but with the most unhappy results, and in 1823 the 
present system was adopted upon the suggestion of Capt. Elam 
Lynds and John D. Cray. Capt. Lynds deserves particular 
notice from the energy and firmness ^vith which he brought 
his favorite system into successful operation and to a degree of 
perfection scarcely conceivable to one who had not witnessed it. 
This plan has been adopted in many prisons and has received 
the name of the "Auburn System." The labor not required in 
the domestic affairs of these prisons is hired upon contract to 
manufacturers, who put up the requisite machinery and employ 
agents and foremen to superintend the work. Willful violation 
of the rules is punished by the lash, ball and chain, yoke, 
strait jacket, shower bath, dark cell, and similar means. 

41 



42 



NEW YOKK STATE GAZETTEER. 



faces turned to the side on which their keeper walks. Their shops have narrow openings in 
the walls, through which they may be seen without the possibility of knowing it. They are con- 
fined at night in solitary cells ; and guards with woolen socks tread silently around their cells at 
all hours of the night. The fare is abundant, but coarse ; and all convicts are required to wear a 
costume peculiar to the prison.^ 

An Asylum for Insane Convicts is located at Auburn, in the rear of the prison. It is 
under the general charge of a medical superintendent.^ 

Tlie WevF York. House of Refuge, situated upon Randalls Island, near New York 
City, is an establishment for the reformation of juvenile offenders. It is partly a State and 
partly a city institution.' The Western House of Refuge, located upon a farm of 42J 
acres in Rochester, is another juvenile establishment of a similar kind. It is entirely under State 
patronage. These institutions are under rigid discipline ; and the inmates receive instruction in 
the elementary branches of education during certain hours of the day, and are required to labor 
during certain other hours. The New York institution was established in 1824, and receives both 
sexes. The Rochester institution was started in 1849, and receives boys only.* 

Tlie Prison Association of ]¥e^v York was formed Dec. 6, 1844, and incorporated May 9, 
1846. It has for its objects the amelioration of the condition of prisoners, whether detained for 
trial or finally convicted, or as witnesses; the improvement of prison discipline and of the govern- 
ment of prisons, whether for cities, counties, or States ; and the support and encouragement of 
reformed convicts after their discharge, by affording them the means of obtaining an honest liveli- 
hood and sustaining them in their efforts at reform.* The association is supported entirely by 
private contribution. The members pay $10 annually. The payment of $25 constitutes a member 



STATISTICS OF STATE PRISONS. 





AVERAGE NUMBER OP 






s 


CONVICTS. 


TOTAL TEARLT EARNDiaS. 


EXPENSES INCLUDINQ IMPROVEMENTS. 


si 


SingSing. 


1 


►J 


S 


1 
i3 


i 




£ 


r 
^ 


^ 


r« 




^ 


3 


•« 


rX 


1 


.s 


c 


1 


!> 


.s 


.g 


.o 


!> 


1 


1 


s 


'^ 


664 


80 


O 
146 


e 


'^ 


i? 


C 


g 


'^ 


iS 


s 


^ 


1848 


497 


1,387 


$53,456.71 


$51,652.77 


$5,549.46 


$110,658.94 


$68,960.41 


$97,221.41 


$39,900.98 


$204,082.80 


1849 


512 


637 


76 


157 


1,382 


63,021.64 


63,052.83 


13,210.97 


139,285.34 


56,777.99 


81,850.28 


50,126.47 


188,754.74 


1850 


601 


661 


84 


119 


1.525 


68,737.31 


71,178.99 


18,451.95 


158,368.25 


71,164.07 


95,828.64 


37,698.97 


204,686.68 


1851 


752 


723 


73 


114 


1,662 


73.494.91 


88,385.27 


17.664.10 


179,544.28 


88,546.25 


79,506.82 


37,958.13 


206,011.20 


1852 


759 


788 


81 


125 


1,753 


64,986.29 


99,380.12 


29,736.20 


194,102.61 


86,291.73 


85,414.42 


39,825.20 


211,531.35 


1853 


753 


865 


96 


186 


1,900 


81,150.24 


99,082.89 


37.207.77 


217,440.90 


80,516.37 


120,818.73 


49,483.14 


250,818.24 


1854 


747 


933 


110 


199 


1,989 


81.994.74 


95.345.34 


41,674.04 


219,014.12 


72,417.82 


136,142.24 


61,088.75 


269,648.81 


1855 


730 


915 


111 


249 


2,005 


74,948.53 


90,904.71 


32,372.19 


198,225.43 


67,783.15 


116,774.37 


48,832.42 


233,389.94 


1856 


686 


862 


101 


304 


1,953 


72,763.48 


86,440.89 


38,100.76 


197,305.13 


69.915.46 


100,523.39 


55,032.74 


225,471.57 


1857 


678 


976 


84 


278 


2,016 


69,954.08 


94,946.97 


26,882.58 


191,783.63 


74,180.35 


109,586.53 


47,947.29 


231,714.17 



TJie surplus expenses of the State prisons are paid from the general fund. For a fuller account of those institutions, see 

Jntroduction to Natural History of New York, Vol. I, pp. 181-188. 



2 Until 1859, persons charged with crime and proved insane 
were sent to the State Lunatic Asylum at Utica. An act for 
the erection of the present asylum was passed April 13, 1855, and 
the building was completed in 1858. 

3 The New York Asylum is conducted by a close corporation, 
sonsisting of 30 managers,who serve without pay and report annu- 
ally to the Common Council of New York and to the State Legis- 
lature. It is supported by the labor of its inmates, an annual 
appropriation from the Marine Hospital fund, theater and circus 
licenses, school moneys from the Board of Education, and grants 
from the City and State of New York. It can accommodate 
1,000 inmates. In 1858 there were received 378 ; of which num- 
ber 304 were boys and 74 were girls. The former are engaged 
in making shoes, chair-seats, wire cloth, weaving, &c.; and the 
latter in needlework. Each day 7 hours are devoted to labor, 
4i to school, 1^ to meals, 9i to sleep, and li to recreation. 

* Statistics of Houses of Refuge, for 1857. 



Cost per capita 

Officers employed 

Aggregate salaries 

Revenue from labor 

Per cent, reformed 

Average period of detention.... 
Deaths since opening 

" in last 12 months 

Escapes since opening 

" in last 12 months 

Average age of inmates 

Cost of location and buildings., 
Annual expenses 



New Yorh. Rochester. 



$85 


$96 


31 


22 


$9,119 


$8,345 


$13,414 


$12,000 


75 


75 


16 mo. 


24 mo. 


69 


14 


3 


1 


97 


9 


4 





131 


13^ 


$330,441 


$110,000 


$42,005 


30,000 



The Western House of B«fnge is supported by the labor of 
its inmates, the product of its farm, and an annual State appro- 
priation. Its managers are appointed for a term of 3 years by 
the Governor and Senate, and are so classified that 5 are ap- 
pointed annually. Its rules require half an hour more at labor 
and an hour less at school than is required at the New York 
Asylum ; and 10 hours are allowed for sleep. In 1859, 508 boys 
were received at this institution. Of these, 128 were employed 
in making chains, 171 in making shoes, 37 in making brushes, 
7 upon the farm, 20 in the sewing rooms, and 23 as domestics. 

B The condition of prisoners has from a remote period enlisted 
the sympathies of the benevolent and led to associated efforts 
for their relief. A society was formed in New York, soon after 
the Revolution, for the relief of imprisoned debtors. "The 
Philadelphia Society for alleviating the miseries of Public 
Prisons" was formed over 80 years since by the Friends; and 
the Prison Discipline Society of Boston is nearly 20 years older 
than that of similar objects in New York. The Prison Associa- 
tion of New York for some time issued a bulletin called the 
"Monthly Record." The female department for some years 
maintained a Home for the temporary residence of discharged 
female prisoners until other means of support could be foupd. 
This association haw for several years appointed committees for 
visiting county jails; and the lacts reported show abundant 
reason for continuing efforts for reform in their management. 
The aid furnished by this association to discharged convicts 
during the last three years reported has been as follows : — 
Number of discharged persons aided with 1854. 1855. 1866. 

money 230 439 282 

Number supplied with clothing 131 147 138 

Number provided with situations 52 155 112 



Total.. 



413 741 632 



MILITARY. 



43 



for life ; of $100, an honorary member of the Executive Committee for life, and $500 a life patron. 
A department, consisting of ladies, has in charge the interests of prisoners of their sex. The 
managers of the association receive no pay for their services. They usually report to the LegLsla- 
ture annually; but no reports were made in 1856 and 1858. Office, 15 Center Street, New York. 



"P 






MILITARY. 

The Governor is Commander-in- 
Chief of the land and naval forces 
of the State. In time of peace the 
supervision of the militia and mili- 
tary establishments is intrusted to 
the Adjutant General, who has 
an office of record at the capital, 
issues, under his seal, all military 
commissions, keeps a register of 
the names and residences of the 

officers of militia throughout the State, issues all orders on |j 

behalf of the Commander-in-Chief, prescribes the manner of 

reporting from the several subordinate divisions, and reports the 

statistics thus obtained — through the Governor — to the Legis- 
lature annually.^ He has the rank of brigadier general ; and 

his assistant has the rank of colonel. The militia of the State 

is composed of 8 divisions, 26 brigades, and 62 regiments, 

embracing 220 companies of infantry, 126 of artillery, 41 of 

cavalry, 37 of rifles, and a total of 18,107 officers and privates.* '^ 

All able-bodied white male citizens between the ages of 18 and 45, not exempt by law, are 





1 OFFICERS OF THE NEW YORK STATE MILITIA. 



O o 

&^ tn . 

< <! ei 

6- ts ■< 

3 M i 

5 Z w 



5 d s 

X -d 6S 

■/>«-< 

2 W ft. 
£ >^ W 
S W Q 

6^ 



a [^ 

< f^ t^ 

0. o « 

n '^ 

WHO. 
O l^ B 
O H Q 

^^ 

Z.-" • 

S J E- 

td <; « 

o 0^ "^ 

S H ft< 

p K « 

« m 

^ <J OJ 

CO M ^ 

^ Pi < 

H J EH 

S -f es 
•t n -^ 
a M 0- 

5 Z H 



Major Generals 

Brigadier Generals.. 



Adjutant General 

Assistant Adjutant General.... 
Division Inspectors (Colonels).. 
Brigade Inspectors (Majors).... 
Adjutants (Lieutenants).. 

Inspector General 



Commissary General 

Assistant Commissary General. 



Engineer-in-Chief 

Division Engineers (Colonels) 

Brigade Engineers (Majors) 

Regimental Engineers (Captains).. 



Judge Advocate General 

Division Judge Advocates (Colonels).. 
Brigade Judge Advocates (Majors)...., 



Surgeon General 

Hospital Surgeons (Colonels).... 

Surgeons (Captains) 

Surgeon's Mates (Lieutenants).. 



Quartermaster General 

Division Quartermasters (Lieut. Cols.) 

Brigade Quartermasters (Captains) 

Regimental Quartermasters (Lieutenants). 



PajTnaster General 

Division Paymasters (Majors) 

Brigade Paymasters (Captains) 

Regimental Paymasters (Lieutenants)., 

Aids-de-Camp - 



26 

1 
1 

8 
23 
57 

1 



1 

7 

25 
50 

1 

8 
25 

1 

7 

22 
52 

1 
5 

25 
38 

1 

5 

21 
54 

41 





Field 

Officers. 




r 


Z ■ 


Company 
Officers. 







Staff 
Corps. 



'Colonels 

Lieutenant Colonels.. 

Majors 

Captains 

Fii'st Lieutenants 



Second Lieutenants 

Non-Commissioned Staff 

Company Non-Commissioned Officers, Mu- 
sicians, and Privates 

{Sappers and Miners (attached to Engineer 
Department) 



Total 18,107 



60 

60 

58 
402 

379 

460 
143 

15,874 
108 



The office of the Adjutant General was- made an office of 
record in 1827, previous to which commissions were issued by 
the Secretary of State, under the privy seal of the Governor. 

2 In Jan., 1859, the division districts were as follows : — 

1. New York and Richmond cos. 

2. Kings, Orange, Putnam, Queens, Rockland, Suffolk, and 

Westcliester cos. 

3. Albany, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Rensselaer, Saratoga, 

Sullivan, Ulster, and Washington cos. 

4. Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, and 

Warren cos. 

5. Broome, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Fulton, Hamilton, 

Herkimer, Madison, Montgomery, Otsego, Schenectady, 
and Schoharie cos. 

6. Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, Schuyler, Seneca, Tioga, 

and Tompkins cos. 

7. Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Steuben, Wayne, and 

Yates COS. 

8. Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, 

Orleans, and Wyoming cos. 
The estimated number of enrolled militia, at the beginning 
of 1859, was 350,000. Those included in regiments were as 
follows : — 

Infantry 7.490 privates, and 8,094 including officers. 

Artillery ....5,365 « " 5,760 " " 

Cavalry 1.590 « « 1,733 « " 

Rifles 1,429 « « 1,528 " « 



44 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



liable to military duty. An enrolment is made annually by the assessors.^ Militia officers are 
chosen by election ;* excepting major generals and the Commissary General, who are appointed 
by the Governor and Senate. Staff officers are appointed by the commanding officer of the forces 
to which they are attached.^ The Adjutant General, Judge Advocate General, Quartermaster 
General, Paymaster General, Surgeon General, Engineer-in-Chief, and one Instructor of Artillery 
and one of Cavalry to each division, are appointed by the Governor.* 

Arsenals. An arsenal is provided for each division of the Militia, and an armory for each 
regiment. The general custody and supervision of the military property of the State is intrusted 
to the Commissary General, who has his office in New York, and reports annually through the 
Governor to the Legislature.* 



1 The laws of the V. S. exempt from military service the Vice 
President, the Judicial and Executive officers of the Govern- 
ment of the U. S., members and officers of both Houses of Con- 
gress, customhouse officers and clerks, post officers and stage 
drivers in charge of mails, ferrymen on post roads, inspectors 
of exports, pilots and mariners in actual sea service. The State 
exempts, besides the above, persons in the army and navy and 
those honorably discharged therefrom, preachers of every sect, 
commissioned officers and privates of uniformed companies who 
have resigned after seven years' service, and certain firemen. 
All others may commute by paying 50 cts. annually, except in 
Kings and New York cos. and the cities of Albany and Buffalo, 
where the commutation is fixed at "5 cts. 

These moneys are paid to the collectors of taxes and applied 
to the military fund,— from which the officers and men of regi- 
ments are paid, from $1.25 to $1, according to rank, for every 
day's military service. Persons going to, remaining at, or re- 
turning from military duty are exempt from arrest upon civil 
process. Previous to the act of 1846, the State contained 33 
divisions, 66 brigades, 272 regiments, and 1836 companies, and 
numbered 141.436 officers and ijaen. The number of enrolled 
militia had been as follows, at different periods : — 





£> 


5^ 

5.. 


»> 


^S' 










i;^ 










V 


S 




•3 


.^>3 


-£ 


Total. 










^^ 


lis 




1805 


74,429 


1,700 


1,852 






77,982 


1810 


86,673 


2,619 


3,385 







92.677 


1815 


90,383 


6,364 


2.158 







98,905 


1820 


112,760 


6,538 


3,132 


123 

Horse 
ArtilVy. 




122,553 


1825 


131,561 


4.432 


2.505 


646 




146.805 


1830 


166,514 


12,803 


5.814 


1,763 




188,610 


1835 


168,786 


11,698 


7.317 


1,174 




192,083 


1840 


163,300 


9,082 


7,336 






183,100 


1845 


141,433 


9,369 


3.849 




4,276 


162,427 



2 Under the Constitution of 1777, nearly every military as well 
as civil officer in the State received his appointment from the 
Councilof Appointment, and mostly held during their pleasure. 
The Constitution of 1822 introduced the following system, now 
in use : — " Militia officers shall be chosen or appointed, as fol- 
lows : Captains, subalterns, and non-commissioned officers shall 
be chosen by the written votes of the members of their re- 
spective companies ; field officers of regiments and separate 
battalions, by the written votes of the commissioned officers of 
the respective regiments and separate battalions; brigadier 
generals and brigade inspectors, by the field officers of their re- 
spective brigades ; major generals, brigadier generals, and com- 
manding officers of regiments or separate battalions shall ap- 
point the staff officers to their respective divisions, brigades, 
regiments, or separate battalions." — Constitution, 1822, Art. IV, 
Sec. 1 ; Constitution, Art. XI, Sec. 2. 

The above rule does not apply to regiments and brigades not 
folly organized. If the former contain less than 6 companies, 
the field officers are appointed by the Governor ; and if the 
brigades are not within the requirements of the law, the briga- 
dier generals are also appointed by the Governor. Const. 1S46. 

8 The staff of the Commander-in-Chief consists of the Adju- 
tant General, Inspector General, Commissary General, Engineer- 
In-Chief, Judge Advocate General, Surgeon General. Quarter- 
master General, Paymaster General, Aids-de-Camp, and Military 
Secretary, who severally rank in the order here given. The 
precedence and gradation of officers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers in the militia is as follows : — 



1. The Commander-in-Chief. 

2. Major General. 

3. Brigadier General. 

4. Colonel. 

5. Lieutenant Colonel. 

6. Major. 
T. Captain. 



8. First Lieutenant. 

9. Second Lieutenant. 

10. Sergeant-Major. 

11. Quartermaster Sergeant. 

12. First Sergeant. 

13. Sergeant. 

14. Corporal. 



In each grade precedence is given by priority in date of elec- 
tion, or appointment. 



* The instructors, with the rank of colonel, are attached to 
the headquarters of the division, and hold by the same tenure 
as commissioned officers of the line. Instructors and division 
engineers must pass an examination as to special qualification 
before a board of not less than five officers, convened by the 
Commander-in-Chief. Appointments to this office have hitherto 
been made entirely from among the graduates of West Point. 

6 The Constitution of 1777 ordained that a proper magazine 
of warlike stores, proportionate to the number of inhabitants, 
should be established in every county of the State ; but this pro- 
vision was never fully carried out. An arsenal was built at 
New York at an early period, and another at Albany soon after, 
the latter on the site purchased for a State prison. Under an 
act of Feb. 12, 1808, entitled " An Act for the defense of the 
northern and western frontiers," and by subsequent acts, arse- 
nals were erected at Canandaigua, Batavia, Onondaga Hollow, 
Eome, Watertown, Russell, Malone, Plattsburgh, and EUzabeth- 
town. 

The arsenal at Plattsburgh was burned in 1813 or '14, and the 
one at Rome, whicli occupied the present site of St. Peter's 
Church, was burned with its contents a few years since. Neither 
has been rebuilt. In 1844 the State leased of the city of Buffalo 
a market building on Batavia St. for an arsenal. Magazines 
were also located at New York, at Albany, and on Staten Island. 
In 1850 these arsenals were mostly ordered to be sold, together 
with such arms and other property as had become unserviceable 
for military purposes. An arsenal occupying the site of an old 
powder magazine of the Dutch, between Center, Elm, Franklin, 
and White Streets, New York, was authorized to be sold in 1844, 
and a new one was directed to be built. The site was purchased 
by the city for $30,000, and a new city armory was buUt, on the 
corner of White and Elm Streets. In 1808 the city of New 
York conveyed to the State a tract of ground upon Fifth Ave- 
nue, between Sixty-Third and Sixty-Fifth Sts., upon which a 
magazine was erected. In 1844 the Legislature authorized a 
new arsenal to be erected on these premises with such moneys 
as might be paid by the U. S. for the military works upon Staten 
Island. The sale was completed in April, 1847, for $37,284.87, 
of which $33,284.87 was applicable to the arsenal. The work 
was commenced, but in March, 1848, was suspended by the 
Commissioners of the Land Office, to whose charge and that of 
the Commissary General the work had been intrusted. It was 
alleged that the latter officer had expended moneys most un- 
warrantably; and subsequent observation has proved that the 
structure was unfit for this or, in fact, for any other purpose. — 
Assembly Doc. 1856, No. 141. Senate Doc. 1848, No. 54. 

In lajing out the Central Park, the premises consisting of 152 
building lots, valued in 1856 at $266,000, were included in the 
proposed improvement, and an act was passed, April 15, 18.'i7. 
under which this property, which the State purchased in 1808 
for $700, was conveyed back to the city for $275,000. Of this 
sum $100,000 was made applicable to the erection of an ar- 
senal at New York; $45,000 for an arsenal at Buffalo; $40,000 
for an arsenal in Brooklyn; $25,000 for the improvement of the 
arsenal at Albany and the erection of an armory ; $17,000 for the 
purchase of the U. S. arsenal at Rome; $14,000 for an arsenal at 
Corning, and for armories : $5,000 at Rochester, $5,000 at Troy, 
$4,000 at Auburn. $4,000 at Syracuse, $4,000 at Utica, .53,000 at 
Ballston Spa, $3,000 at Dunkirk, $3,000 at Ogdensburgh, $3,000 at 
Oswego, and $3,000 for the purchase of a stone fort in Schoharie 
for an armory. The arsenal in Albany, by act of April 17, 1858, 
was exchanged with the city for a site on Hudson and Eagle 
Streets, and $5,000 toward an arsenal and armory buildings, 
which were erected in 1858-59. During the summer of 1858, 
buildings at Albany, Auburn, Ballston Spa, Brooklyn, Corning, 
Dunkirk, New York, Ogdensburgh, and Syracuse were put under 
contract and finished, or far advanced, the same year. The stone 
fort or church at Schoharie was purchased, but no steps were 
taken for the erections authorized at Troy, Rochester, Oswego, 
and Utica. The new arsenal built at New York in 1858 was 
located on Seventh Avenue, corner of Thirty-Fifth St., and was 
nearly completed, when the roof fell, on the morning of Nov. 
13, 1858, greatly injuring the building. 

Most of the structures erected under this act are of substantial 
workmanship and elegant architectural style. Thf.y were built 
under tlie direction of commissioners appointed by law. When 
completed, they wUl be placed in charge of the Commissary 
General, who also attends to the safe keeping of arms and 



MILITARY. 



45 



Tbc fortifications '^Tithin the State are owned and supported by the United States 
although several of them were built by the State of New York under an arrangement for the settle 
ment of the Revolutionary debt.^ 



military equipments belonging to the State. 
in New York. 



He keeps his ofBce 



Summary of the ordnance arms in the hands of the troops and 
in the arsenals of the State on the 1st day of January, 1859. 



Six pounders 101 



Nine pounders 3 

Twelve pound howitzers 5 
Twenty-four pound how- 
itzers 7 

Mountain howitzers 13 

Flint muskets and bayo- 
nets 671 

Percussion muskets and 

bayonets 11,975 

Flint rifles 563 

Percussion rifles 1,365 

Flint pistols 114 

Percussion pistols 2,254 

1 In Feb. 1801, there was due 
tho United States, on account 



Musquetoous 222 

Carbines 340 

Cavalry sabres 1,337 

Artillery sabres 1,188 

Artillery swords 1,344 

Cartridge boxes and 

plates 10,744 

Cartridge box belts and 

plates 10,813 

Bayonet scabbard belts 

and plates 9,890 

Waist belts and plates... 9,258 

Cap pouches 7,155 

Pistol holsters 1,553 

from the State of New York to 
of Revolutionary expenses, the 



sum of S2.074,S46. An Act of Congress, passed February 15, 
1799, allowed any State to discharge its debt by payment into 
the treasury before April, 1800, or by expending a like amount 
mthin five years in the erection of fortifications. New York waa 
the only State that chose to extinguish its debt by erecting 
defenses upon its own soil ; and a committee of Congress reported 
in February, 1801, that no other States had shown any disposi- 
tion to pay the balances reported against them. The amount 
credited to New York was $891,129.31, and the remainder of 
the indebtedness was subsequently released. — Aitierican State 
Papers, Finance, I, 697. 

The amount of moneys reduced to specie value received by, or 
paid to, the State of New York from the beginning of the Kevo- 
iution to April, 1790, was as follows, in dollars : — 

Received fi-om State $1,545,889 

Paid to State 822,803 

A descriptive and historical notice is given of the several forti- 
fications in the localities where they occur. The latest official 
summary that has been published, dated in 1851, is given 
below : — 



United States Fortifications. 



Forts. 



Fort Schuyler 

Fort Columbus 

Castle Williams.... 

South Battery 

Fort Gibson 

Fort Wood 

Fort Richmond 

Fort Tompkins 

Battery, Hudson... 
Battery. Morton... 

Fort Lafayette 

Fort Hamilton 

Fort Montgomery. 

Fort Ontario 

Fort Niagara , 

Fort Porter 



Location. 



Throggs Neck 

Governors Island 

Eiiis Isiaiid. .'.'.'.'.".'.".'.'.'..'.'.. 

Bedloes Island 

Staten Island 

Reef, near Long Island.., 

Long Island 

Rouses Point , 

Oswego 

Mouth of Niagara River, 
Black Rock 



"2 




v: 


"^ 


"^g 


^•2 




g 


8 


a 


8 




Amount expen 
for construct 
or repair. 


5,^ 




s 

V 

1 


1 




•^ s: ^. 


Amoii 
to com 
struct 


1833 





1,250 


318 
105 

78 


$873,013 


$848,013 


$25,000 


1831 




y 800 


269,467 


259,467 


10,000 


1831 


i845 


i 


14 








1841 


1844 


80 


15 


5,096 


5,096 




1841 




350 


77 


245,689 


213,000 


32,689 


1847 






140 


505,808 


205,606 


300,202 


1841 
1841 
1812 


1846 
1846 


■1,000 
370 


64 

50 

9 

76 


""20,081 

3.508 

348,573 


""20.081 

3;508 

341,941 






6.632 


1824 




800 


118 


634,752 


614,752 


20,000 


1841 




500 


164 


411,497 


187,355 


224,142 


1839 




300 


30 


83,013 


78,013 


5,000 


1840 




300 


21 


84,027 


59,027 


25.000 


1842 




300 


64 


150,000 


116,500 


33,500 



^ 



f.-eS 






$225,040 
103,749 
79,332 
12,184 
18,672 
76,540 
124.302 
59,209 
57,060 
10,665 
75,778 
86,757 
132,384 
18,610 
12.961 
51,208 



The forts on Staten Island are being rebuilt on an extensive 
scale. Fort Schuyler, on Throggs Neck, has since been finished, 
a site purchased for a fort at Wilkins Point, directly opposite, 
and an immense fortress has been commenced on Sandy Hook, 
for the more effectual defense of New Y'ork Harbor. These 
works will effectually defend the approaches to New York by 
water, but would not prevent an attack by land should an 
enemy effect a landing upon Long Island. To guard against 
this, it has been proposed to erect a line of redoubts across the 
island from Wilkins Point to Fort Hamilton at such intervals 
as would secure this object. 

The General Government has appropriated large sums of 
money during many years to the constrtiction of afloating battery 
for the defense of New York Harbor. It is building at Hoboken, 
and is said to be nearly completed. It is of iron, of great strength 
and thickness, with its outer deck oval, and every part proof 
against cannon ball. It is to be mounted with heavy guns and 
propelled by steam. No official account of its construction has 
been published; and, for obvious reasons, the details of its plan 
are kept secret. It is reported that it has a capacity to accom- 
modate 3000 men, with the necessary supplies of fuel and 
military stores ; and it is thought that of itself it might oppose 
an etfectual barrier against the approach of a hostile fleet in any 
passage which it might be brought to defend. This mighty 
engine of war was planned by the late John C. Stevens. 

The other military establishments of the National Government 
in New York are, — 

The Military Academy at West Point. 



The Navy Yard, Dry Dock, Naval Hospital, and Labo- 
ratory at Brooklyn. 
The Arsenal at Watervliet for the manufacture of gun car- 
riages and other heavy furniture of artillery for the field 
and fort. 
The Arsenal of Deposit, at Rome. 
Plattsburgh Barracks. 
Madison Barracks, at Sockets Harbor. 
Buffalo Barracks. 
A few years after the last war with Great Britain, a military 
road was surveyed and partly opened by the United States from 
Plattsburgh to Sackets Harbor ; but this work from the first has 
been kept in repair by the towns as a common highway. 

Fort Montgomery is the only work now under construction 
on the northern frontier. The Canadians have the following 
fortifications adjacent to New York : — 
Fort Wellington, at Prescott, erected in 1812-15. 
Fort Henry, at Kingston, with several Martello towers and 
batteries, for the protection of the harbor and town and defense 
of the north channel of the St. La^v^ence. They were partly 
built in the War of 1812-15, and partly in 1837-40. Fort Carl- 
ton, now within the United States, commanded the south chan- 
nel, and portions of the work, executed a century ago, (and since 
the Revolution entirely neglected,) might still be made available 
upon short notice. 

Fort Massasauga, at Niagara, directly opposite the American 
fort, is of modern origin. 



Note.— By the Militia Regulations of this State, the device at the head of this article is borne upon buttons and other insignia 
worn by military ofBcers. 



LANDS. 



The absolute property of all the lands in the State is vested in the respective owners, liable only 
to escheat and to the reservation of gold and silver mines in such as derive title from Colonial 
patents.^ 

The law prohibits the leasing of agricultural lands for a longer period than twelve years.'* The care 
and sale of lands belonging to the State are intrusted to the Commissioners of the Land Office. 
These commissioners have also the sole right of dealing with the Indians for the sale and surrender 
of reservations, excepting within the territory whereof the pre-emptive right of purchase was ceded 
to Massachusetts and is now held by the Ogden Company. 

The Commissioners of the L<and Office were created by an act of May 11, 1784, 
to carry into execution the promises of bounty lands for Revolutionary services which had been 
made by the Legislature in 1780. As now formed, this Board consists of the Lieutenant Governor of 
the State, Speaker of Assembly, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney General, and 
State Engineer and Surveyor. The Deputy Secretary of State is ex officio Clerk of the Board, and 
the meetings are held in the Secretary's office, upon the call of the Secretary of State. 

When State lands are to be sold, they are first surveyed, appraised, and advertised for sale at 
auction, and their minimum bid affixed. The lots that remain without a bid are liable to be taken 
by the first applicant upon payment of one-fourth of the price and giving bonds for the residue. 
If they remain unsold any considerable time, they are re-appraised and offered at a lower rate.* 

The lands under water in the bays around Long Island are in most cases the property of the 
townships, by virtue of original patents ; and the privilege of fishing and taking oysters and clams 
is by some towns held as exclusively belonging to their inhabitants.* 



1 The Dutch Government sometimes granted lands in the 
Colony without the formalities of Indian purchase ; but it was 
the rule of the English to first extinguish the aboriginal title. 
It was customary to apply to the Governor and Council for 
leave to purchase. If granted, a treaty was held and an Indian 
deed obtained, a warrant was issued to the Surveyor General 
for a survey, and the map and field notes were reported. The 
Attorney General was then directed to prepare a draft of a 
patent, which Was submitted to the Governor and Council, and, 
if approved, was engrossed upon parchment, recorded, sealed, 
and issued. The fees incident to procuring a patent were im- 
• portant sources of revenue to the officers concerned. Only 1,000 
acri's could be granted to one person ; but this rule was evaded 
by associating great numbers of merely nominal parties ; and 
the officers through whose hands the papers passed were often 
largely interested in the grants. The Colonial Government in 
this respect became exceedingly corrupt, and stood greatly in 
need of a reform like that wrought by the Revolution. In a 
few isolated cases grants of land were made directly by the 
crown, and no records appear in our offices. Of tliis cla-ss was 
the Royal Grant to Sir Wm. Johnson, n. of the Mohawk. 
Patents for land were generally very formal, and abounded in 
repetitions. The grants were "in fee and common socage," as 
in the manor of East Greenwich, in the co. of Kent, and in- 
cluded with the laud all " houses, messuages, tenements, erec- 
tions, and buildings, mills, milldams, fences, inclosures, gardens, 
orchards, fields, pastures, common of pastures, meadows.marshes, 
Bwamps, plains, woods, underwoods, timber, trees, rivers, rivu- 
lets, runs, streams, water, lakes, ponds, pools, pits, brachen, 
quarries, mines, minerals, (gold and silver [wholly or in part] 
excepted,) creeks, harbors, highways, easements, fishing, hunt- 
ing, and fowling, and all other franchises, profits, commodities, 
and appurtenances whatsoever." This enumeration of rights, 
more or less varied, was embraced in all land patents. Colonial 
grants were usually conditioned to the annual payment of a 
guitrent, at a stated time and place named in the patent. This 
payment w.os sometimes due in money, and often in wheat or 
other commodity. Others were conditioned to the pajrment of 
the skins of animals or a merely nominal article, as simply an 
acknowledgment of the superior rights of the grantors. The 
quitrents formed an important source of revenue, and, after 
the Revolution, became due to the Stiite. In 1786 it was pro- 
vided that lands subject to these rents might be released upon 
payment of arrears, and 14 shillings to every shilling of the 
annual dues. Large amounts of land upon which arrears of 
quitrents had accumulated were sold from time to time ; and 
laws continued to be passed at frequent intervals for the regu- 
lation of these rents until 1824, when an act was p.ossed for the 
final sale of all lands which had not been released by commuta- 
tion or remitted by law. Such lands as then remained unre- 
deemed were allowed to be released by payment of $2.50 to each 
shilling sterling due. The last sale took place in March, 1826. 
The arrears for quitrents, then amounting to $53,380, were in 
1819 taken from the general fund and given in equal portions 
to the Literature and School Funds. 
16 



2 This feature was adopted to prevent the recurrence of anti- 
rent difficulties. The Legislature, in 1846, enacted a law pro- 
viding that all lands previously rented for a life or lives, or for 
more than 21 years, should be taxed as the personal property 
of the persons receiving the rents, to an extent equal to a sum 
that at legal interest would produce the annual rent. Such 
taxes were made payable in the cos. where the lands lay ; and 
this unpleasant encumbrance has largely contributed to reduce 
the amount of lands thus held. 

3 Unappropriated lands in the counties of Clinton, Essex, 
Franklin, Hamilton, Montgomery, Saratoga, St. Lawrence, 
Wasliington, and Warren may be sold by the commissioners in 
quantities of not less than 160 acres, if already surveyed, at such 
price as they may be found worth. If over 1,000 acres, they 
may be surveyed and sold for their value, and may not be 
assessed at a higher rate for five years. Lands sold under fore- 
closure of loan mortgages are bid in by the Loan Commissioners 
if liable to go for less than the sum due. They are then sold 
by auction, or otherwise, for the best interests of the State, 
under the regulations above stated. Land under water may be 
conveyed by the Commissioners of the Land Office, under regu- 
lations fixed by law. Notice of application for such grants 
must be advertised for six weeks in the co. newspaper where the 
lands lie, and posted on the courthouse door. These notices 
must describe the adjoining lands and give the names of their 
owners. Applicants must make affidavit that they intend to 
appropriate the lands applied for to commercial purposes. The 
CO. judge, or supervisor and town clerk, or two assessors of the 
town where the lands lie, must make affidavit that the land is 
not more than is necessary for the purposes of commerce, and 
that the persons applying arc believed to be bona fide applicants 
for the purposes stated. Applicants must also produce an accu- 
rate map of the proposed grant and the adjacent lands owned 
by them, certified by the oath of a surveyor; and also a correct 
description in writing, with courses and distances, and the 
soundings for every 50 feet on the exterior line. The map must 
show the general course of the shore for a mile each way, and 
the particular course at the point applied for, and include all 
docks, bulklieads, or other improvements, the names of owners 
of lands adjoining, and the width of the channel or ri.ver if less 
than two miles. The deduction of title and proof that the lands 
belong to the State must also be produced, with claim of owner 
ship by the applicant, or by himself and those under whom he 
claims. The patent is conditioned to occupation in the mode 

agreed upon within years, and the fees are $5.00. Grants 

under the waters of navigable rivers and lakes can only be made 
to the owners of the land along the shores; and the com- 
missioners are restricted in their powers so far as relates to 
New York City and the Hudson River R. R. 

* Around Staten Island the owners of the shores possess the 
right of using or leasing the adjacent lands under water for 
planting oysters. The custom of granting lands under water 
without the restrictions here enumerated has led to serious 
encroachments upon the harbor of New York, the details o* 
which &re stated on pa^es 418, 419. 



LANDS. 



47 



The public lands are greatly reduced in quantity, and belong to the several permanent funds to 
which they have from time to time been granted.^ 

Gospel and Scliool Liands. — Under an act of 1782, a lot of 400 acres was to be reserved 
in each township of the Military Tract for the support of the gospel, and two lots of 200 acres for 
schools.^ 

In each of the Twenty Towns of the Chenango Tract a lot of 250 acres (usually Lot 45) was 
reserved for the gospel, and another (Lot 46) of like extent for schools; but these lots were sold 
with the lands, and the Canastota Tract, in Sullivan and Lenox, adjoining Oneida Lake, was 
in 1805-08 given in lieu, and apportioned among the Twenty Towns.' 

In each of the Ten Towns on the St. Lawrence a mile square (usually Lot 55) was granted for 
gospel and schools, and in some towns was applied in early years to both these objects.* 

Besides these grants for schools by the State, land proprietors have in some instances conveyed 
certain lots for this purpose, to encourage settlement. In nearly every instance these lands have 
been applied for the benefit of the original townships within which they were granted, and in 
their subdivision the local school fund has been equitably divided. Other lands were subse- 
quently granted, as elsewhere noticed ; and in 1822 the Constitution gave all the public lands 
not specially appropriated to the school fund.* 



1 The quantity now owned forms about 4^ per cent, of that 

held in 1823, and compares between the two periods as 
follows : — 

Jan. 1, 1823. Jan. 1859. 

Lands belonging to the School Fund 991,659.4. 9.463A. 

" •' Literature Fund 17.946" 640" 

" « Canal " 129,769" " 

« " General " « 39,269" 

« « Salt " " 209" 



Total 1,139,374" 49,581" 

* These lots were designated by the supervisors of Onondaga 
and Seneca cos., under acts passed in 1796 and 1808, as follows : — 

Gospel and School Lands of the Military Tract. 



Oriqinal Town- 
ship AND ITS 

Numbers. 



1. Lysander.... 

2. Haanibal.... 

3. Cato 

4. Brutus 

5. Camillus.... 

6. Cicero 

7. Manlius 

8. Aurelius 

9. Marcellus... 

10. Pompey 

11. Romulus.... 

12. Scipio 

13. Sempronius 

14. TuUy 

15. Fabius 

16. Ovid 

17. Milton 

IS. Locke 

19. Homer 

20. Solon 

21. Hector 

22. Ulysses 

23. Dryden 

21. Virgil 

25. Cincinnatus 

26. Junius 

27. Galen 

28. Sterling 







9 


100 


5 


14 


25 


89 


87 


68 


72 


15 


14 


16 


74 


18 


60 


36 


22 


19 


67 


30 


50 


55 


1 


82 


52 


25 


76 


69 


3 


36 


30 


23 


24 


56 


15 


94 


34 


85 


22 


41 


1 


6 


5 


24 


29 


63 


36 


20 


53 


49 


78 


79 


45 


33 


73" 


88 



Present Towns sharing in Profits 
of School Lot. 



Lysander and part of Granby. 
Ilannibal, Cicero, parts of Os- 
wego City, and Granby. 
Victory, Ira, and parts of Con- 
quest and Cato. 
Brutus, and parts of Sennett, 

Mentz, Conquest, and Cato. 
Camillus, Elbridge, and Van 

Buren. 
Clay and Cicero. 
De Witt and Manlius. » 
Owasco, Fleming, Auburn, and 

parts of Aurelius, Sennett,and 

Mentz. 
Marcellus, Skaneateles, and parts 

of Spafford and Otisco. 
Pompey, Lafayette, and part of 

Otisco. 
Romulus, Tarick, Fayette, and 

parts of Seneca Falls. 
Scipio, Venice, and part of 

Niles. 
Sempronius, Moravia, and part 

of Niles. 
TuUy, Preble, Scott, and parts of 

Spafford and Otisco. 
Fabius and part of Truxton. 
Ovid, Lodi, and Covert. 
Genoa and part of L.ansing. 
Groton, Summer Hill, and Locke. 
Homer and Cortlandville. 
Solon and part of Tinixton. 
Hector. 
Ulysses, Enfield, Ithaca, and part 

of Lansing. 
Dryden. 
Virgil. 
Cincinnatus, Freetown, Mara- 

tlion, and Willet. 
Junius, Tyro, Waterloo, and part 

of Seneca Falls. 
Galen and Savannah. 
Sterling, Butler, Wolcott, Huron, 

and Rose. 



• Exchanged for No. 17 by Chap. 177, Laws of 1812. 



* In each of the following townships a lot of 640 acres was 
reserved for schools, viz.: — Fayette, now Guilford, and part of 
Oxford ; Clinton, now Bainbridge, Afton, and part of Coventry ; 
Greene, now parts of Greene, Smithville, and Coventry; Warren, 
now parts of Colesville, Sanford, and Windsor; Chenango, no-w 
parts of Port Crane, Conklin, Colesville, and VTindsor; Sidney, 
now parts of Binghamton and Vestal ; Randolph, now parts 
of Sanford, Windsor, and Conldin ; and Hambden, now parts 
of Vestal, Owego, and Nichols. 

* In Plattaburgb 640 acres was reserved for tho gospel, and 
460 for schools ; and in Totten and Crossfield's Purchase 16 lots 
of 640 acres each. The latter have been selected under the 
Sackets Harbor and Saratoga R. R. Grant. In Benson Town- 
ship (Hope and Lake Pleasant) 4 lots of 160 acres each were 
given for schools and literature. 

6 The lands of the school fund were, Jan. 1859, as follows : — 
4,270 acres in Hamilton, 2,861 in Essex, 1,680 in Clinton, 360 in 
Wayne, 105 in Schoharie, 75 in St. Lawrence, 30 in Washing- 
ton, 28 in Oneida, 25 in Fulton, 16 in Montgomery, 12 in Her- 
kimer, 6 in Dutchess, and 5 in Onondaga cos. 

lAteraiure Lands have been reserved as follows : — 1 mi. square 
in each of the townships of Fayette, Greene, Clinton, Chenango, 
Warren, Sidney, and Hamden. Townships 1, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 
17, 19, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41, in Totten and Crossfield's 
Purchase. Lot No. 56 in each of the Ten Towns of St. Law- 
rence CO. A lot of 550 acres (less 50 for survey) in each of th«i 
28 towns of the Military Tract. These lots were appropriated 
as follows : — 

Military JVac^.— Townships 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, and 

20, to Union College. 
Township 13, to Oxford Academy, Chap. 112, Laws of 1800. 



5, 


" Pompey " 


a 


119, 


a 


1813 


3, 


" Cayuga « 


it 


VI, 


it 


1814 


1. 


« Onondaga « 


u 


200, 


(( 


1814 


W, 


« Cortland « 


u 


10, 


(< 


1822 


28, 


« Auburn « 


a 


266, 


it 


1826 


22, 


" Ithaca « 


ti 


308, 


it 


1825 



The remainder were sold for the benefit of the Literature Fund. 

Clinton Township, granted to the town of Jericho, Chap. 3, 
Laws of 1822. All other townships in Broome and Che- 
nango cos. were sold for the benefit of the Literature Fund 

Ten Towns in St. Lawrence Co. — In Potsdam, granted to St. 
Lawrence Academy, Chap. 148, 1816. In Canton, granted 
to Lowville Academy, Chap. 134, Laws of 1818. The re- 
mainder was sold, and SljOOO given to Midulebnry Aca- 
demy in 1823; $1,000 to Redhook Academy in 1824; $2,500 
to St. Lawrence Academy in 1825; and the remainder 
passed to the Literature Fund. 

Totten and Crossfield's Purchase. — 10,240 acres absorbed by 
S. H. & S. R. k. In Benson Township, 4 lots of 160 acre* 
each remain unsold. Of the unsold lands of the State in 
Jan. 1859, there were 39,269 acres ; of which 19,020 are in 
Clinton, 5,133 in Hamilton, 5,111 in Essex, 4,728 in Frank- 
lin, 1,643 in Warren, 1,147 in Delaware, and the same in 
Erie, 780 in Herkimer, 212 in Cortland, 175 in Seneca, 116 
in Sullivan, and 57 in Washington cos. 

The Salt Springs Lands are, by Article 7, Sec. 7 of the Consti- 
tution of 1846, declared as belonging inalienably to the 
State, and comprise the grounds upon which salt is manu- 
factured, whether by solar evaporation or artificial heat. 
The Commissioners of the Land Office may sell, under au- 
thority of law, certain portions for the purpose of pur- 
chasing other lands, so that tho amount shall not be dimi 
nisbed. Since 1846, 114.85 acres have been sold, foi. 
$153,039.50, and 643.12 acres purchased, for $154,161.79. 



48 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



With certain exceptions^ all property, both real and personal, is liable to taxation whether 
owned by individuals or corporations. Real estate is taxed in the town where it lies, unless 
adjacent to lands of the same owner or occupant in another town where he resides. 

Personal property is taxed where the owner resides, and corporations in the towns where their 
property lies. Stocks of corporations are taxed to the company and not to the holders. Property 
may be sold for the payment of taxes, and lands upon which the taxes remain unpaid are returned 
by the co. treasurers to the comptroller, and so much of each parcel is sold at stated periods, as is 
necessary to pay the taxes, interest, and charges that accrue thereon.^ 

The pre-emptive title to the lands of the State w. of a meridian passing through the 82d mile- 
stone on the Penn. line, was conveyed to Massachusetts, (except a mile strip along the Niagara,) at 
a convention held at Hartford, Dec. 16, 1786. These lands amounted to about 6,000,000 acres. 
Ten towns of 234,400 acres, in Broome and Tioga cos., called " The Massachusetts Ten Towns," were 
also conveyed at the same time. 

Large tracts of land remained in possession of the government when it became a State. These 
and other portions derived from forfeitures, escheats, tax sales, Indian purchases, and foreclosure 
of loan mortgages, have been sold in small parcels, as parts of large tracts, having a general name 
and system of survey. Sometimes as many patents have been issued for these tracts as they had 
lots, and in others many lots have been conveyed to the same person. 

The largest grant ever made by the State to citizens was that of Macomb's Purchase, in Frank- 
lin, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Herkimer, and Oswego cos. It embraced 3,693,755 acres, and 
was patented to Daniel McCormick and Alexander Macomb in 1791-8. The State, in accordance 
with Indian treaties, has conveyed sundry tracts, the principal of which are Penet Square, (10 mi. 
sq.,) in Jefferson co.. and Perache's, Kirkland, and other minor tracts, in Oneida co. Others, for 
like cause, have been assigned for missions and other specific objects. The Legislature has also by 
acts directed the land commissioners to convey extensive tracts for the promotion of roads, rail- 
roads, and canals, colleges, academies, schools, and other institutions, and to reward military or 
other services to the State. Of the latter class was a grant of 16,000 acres in Oneida co. to Baron 
Steuben, in 1786. • 

Of patents to citizens not included in either of the preceding lists, the principal are Scriba's 
500,000 acres in Oswego and Oneida cos. ; Adgate's, Coxe's, Machin's, Oothoudt's, Remsen's, Dean's, 
and other tracts in Oneida ; Vrooman's, Noble's, &c. in Herkimer ; and Watkins & Flint's in Che- 
mung and adjoining counties. Numerous grants of land to communities, with privileges of gov- 
ernment, were made upon Long Island, and in the counties bordering upon the Hudson, which will 
be specially noticed in the localities to which they refer. 

Several of the cities have special laws for the sale of real estate for taxes, and such sales 
are made under the direction of the fiscal officer of the corporation. All other tax sales occur at 
Albany once in three years, and are duly advertised by the Comptroller and in each co. by such 
newspapers as are designated by the supervisors. 



1 The real estate not subject to taxation comprises property 
belonging to the State and United States; buildings and 
grounds for public uses owned by counties, cities, villages, 
and towns ; colleges, academies, and incorporated eeminarles ; 
churches, school houses, and the property of corporations for 
reform of offenders; public libraries; bank stock owned by 
State and by literary and charitable societies ; Indian reserva- 
tions, and the property of Indians living thereon; the property 
of clergymen to the extent of §1,500 each, and property not 
liable to sale under execution for debt. Tlie last named in- 
cludes (if owned by householders) a spinning wheel, a loom, 
stoves put up or in use. the family Bible, family pictures, and 
school books in use, books not exceeding SoO in value, a seat or 
pew in church, ten sheep with their fleeces, and the yarn or 
cloth made therefrom, one cow, two swine, and their necessary 
food, all necessary pork, beef, fish, flour, and vegetables pro- 
vided for family use, and fnel for 60 days, all necessary wearing 
apparel, beds, bedsteads, and bedding for the family, arms and 
accouterments required by law to he kept for service in the 
militia, necessary cooking utensils, one table, six chairs, table 
furniture for six persona, one crane and its appendages, one 
pair of andirons, a shovel and tongs, tools of mechanics to the 
value of S25, a team worth $150, and land set apart for a private 
burying ground not more than J acre. A building and lot 
worth $1,000 occupied as a dwelling by the owner and his family 
•nay be exempt by causing a description of the premises to be 



recorded in the co. clerk's ofiice, but such record does not ex- 
empt from sale for taxes, and property generally is liable for 
debts contracted in its purchase. Where a homestead is ex- 
empted the privilege continues for the benefit of the widow 
and family after the death of the head. Such of the above 
articles as are movable continue exempt while the family to 
whom they belong are removing from one place of residence to 
another. 

2 Each parcel is held up at auction, and those persons com- 
peting at the sale name the least amount of land in a 
square, usually in the n.w. corner, that they will accept, 
and pay the taxes and charges due. The sale is declared in 
favor of the person naming the least quantity, and the pur- 
chaser receives a certificate naming the time when a deed will 
be due. If not paid, the Comptroller may in 3 months cancel the 
certificate and give to another upon payment of the same 
amount, and any person may redeem within 2 years by pfvying 
the taxes, charges, and 10 per cent, in addition. Specific or 
undivided parts of tracts of land may be sold. If not redeemed 
in 2 years the Comptroller issues a full deed to the purchaser. 
The portion sold to pay taxes is designated by the comptroller 
and varies with circumstances. If a village lot, it is located so 
as to front upon a street, and in long narrow tracts it is taken 
off from one end. A tax sale takes place in 1859, and triennally 
thereafter. 



LANDS. 



49 



TABLES OF MANORS, COLONIAL PATENTS, PURCHASES, AND LAND GRANTS. 

Manors of the Colonial Period in New York and its Dependencies. 



NAME8. 


PATENTEES. 


DATES. 


LOCATION AM) KEM.UtKS. 


Bentloy 


Capt. rirr Hillop 


May 6, 1687 
Mar. 20,1687 
Juno 17, 1097 
Sept. 6,1694 
May 21, 1607 
Mar. 10, 1639 
Juno 22, 1668 
April 20, 1685 
May 9, 1697 
Oct. 25, 1687 
April 1, 1680 
April 2, 1675 
1630-37 

Oct. 5, 1093 
Mar. 21, 17<il 
July 25, 1672 

July 8,1761 


S. W. part of Staten Island, sometimes called "Billop Manor." 

N. part of Staten Island. 

N. part of Westchester Co., had 1 Rep. in Gen. Assembly. 

Canceled. 

Annexed to Kingston, Mar. 12, 1787. 

With full power as an independent town. 

Columbia CO., hud 1 Kep. iu (leu. Assembly. 

Since annexed to Massachusetts. 

S. point of Westchester co. 

S. E. border of Westchester co. 

Putnam co. 

Plum and Gull Islands. 

Fully organized ; represented in Gen. Assembly ; confirmed 

Oct. 17, 1685, May 20, 1704. 
In town of Brookhaven, Suffolk co. 
Westchester co. 
Prudence Island, R. I. Disallowed by R. I., and authority 

resisted. 
Marthas Aineyard, now a part of Massachusetts. 


CiVflSiltOWD .... . 


Jolin Palmer 


Cortlandt 


Col. Steplianus Cortlandt 
Capt. John Kvans 


Fletclu'r 


Fox Uall 

Gardners Island 

Livin"'8ton 


Capt. Thos. Chambers 

Earl of Stirling 


Rohert Livingston 


Marthas Vineyard.... 
Alorri-^ania . 


Matthew Ma.vhow 

Q\A. Lewis Morris 




John I'ell 






Pluiume Island 

Renasolaerwyck 

St GeorffO 


Samuel Willes 


Killian Van Rensselaer... 
Col. Wm. Smith 


Scftrsdalo 


Caleb Ileathcote 


Sophy 


John Paine 


Tysbury 


Thos. Mayhew 





SeTeral of these existed only in name; perhaps a few other patents boi'e the name of Manors, upon which active settlement 

was not begun under the Colonial Government. 



Table of the more important Patents 

Granted under the English Colonial Oovernment, in the eastern part of New York. 



Name op Patent. 



Adaquataugie Patent.... 

Amherst Tracts 

Anaquassacook Patent . 

Argyle Patent 

Arieslvill Patent 

Artillery Patent 

Babington's Patent 

Bagley's Patents 



Balfour's Patent., 
Banyar's Patent .. 
Batavia Patent... 
Bayard's Patent ., 



Becker''s Patent 

Bedlington Patent 

Beekman's Patent 

Beekmaiitown Patent.. 

Belvidere Patent 

Bishop's Patent 

Bleecker's Patent 

Blenheim Patent 

Bradshaw's Patent 

Bradt's Patent 



County. 



Otsego 

Hamilton 

■Washington . 



Montgomery , 

Washington 

Delaware 

Schenectady 

Montgomery 

Ham. & W'arren. 
Otsego & Scho.... 

Greene 

Oneida & Uerk... 



Schoharie 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Clinton 

Otsego & Scho.. 

Hamilton 

Montgomery ... 

Schoharie 

Washington ... 
Schenectady ... 



Buffington Patent 

Burnetsfield Patent 

Cambridge Patent ,„.„„,.,. 

Campbell's Patent 



Catskill Patent 

Caughnawaga Patent. 

Cl.irke's Patent '..... 

Claus's Patent 

Caterskill Patent 

Cheesecock's Patent..., 
Cherry Valley Patent . 
Clifton Park Patent.... 

Cobus Kill Patent 

Corry's Patent 

Cosby's Manor 

Co.sby's Patent 

Coxburgh & Carolina., 
Coxe's Patent 



Schoharie 

Herkimer 

Washington 

Essex 

Hamilton 

Greene 

Montgomery 

Delaware 

Fulton 

Greene 

Orange , 

Otsego 

Saratoga 

Schoharie 

Mont. & Scho...., 
Oneida & Herk., 

Schenectady 

Oneida 



Croghan's Patent 

Dartmouth Patent... 

Dean's Patent 

De Beniier" s Patent. 
De Lancey's Patent.. 



Edmeston'e Patent.. 



Franklin Patent., 



Otspgo 

Hamilton , 

Clinton 

Delaware 

Montgomery . 



Otsego., 
Otsego., 



Dale. 



May 

April 

May 

March 

Nov. 

Oct. 

May 

June 

Feb. 

March 

April 

April 

June 

March 

May 

June 

March 

July 

April 

Sept. 

Nov. 

May 

Feb. 

Dec. 

July 

April 

July 

July 

April 

July 

Nov. 

May 

Sept. 

Nov. 

March 

April 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Nov. 

June 

Feb. 

May 

May 

.Jan. 

June 

Oct. 

July 

May 

Nov. 

Aug. 

July 

Juiy 

June 



8, 1770 
6, 1774 

11, 1762 
1.3, 1764 

12, 1737 
24, 1764 
22, 1770 
17, 1737 

9, 1838 
6,1775 

14. 1753 

24, 17.36 
12, 1771 

19. 1754 
24, 1770 

25, 1703 
27, 1769 

6, 1769 
6, 1774 

22. 17-29 

28. 1769 
18, 1762 

14, 1738 
16, 1737 

13. 1770 
30, 1725 

21, 1761 
11. 1764 

5, 1784 

11, 1767 
4, 1714 

2-2, 1770 

29, 1770 
1, 1695 

25, 1707 
18, 1738 

23, 1708 

15. 1770 
19, 17.37 

2, 1734 

9, 17.38 

30, 17701 
30, 1770 

5, 1775 
29, 1770 

4, 1774 
11, 1769 

22, 1770 

12, 1737 
23, 1737 
21, 1770 
20, 1770 
20, 1770 



Extent 
in Acres. 



26,000 

40,000 

10,000 

47,450 

10.000 

24,000 

2,000 

4.000 

6,000 

5,000 

4,000 

4,200 

50,000 

6,000 
27,000 



30,000 
100.000 

14.000 
4.300 

40,000 

23.000 
4.000 
3.870 
4,000 
9.400 

31.500 
5.000 
4.000 

35.500 
2.000 
2,000 
3,000 



7,050 



40.000 

25,000 

22,000 

6,000 

47,000 

29.000 

18,000 

18,036 

30.000 

2,000 

10,000 

5.426 

5.000 

5.000 

9,000 



Patentees. 



Sir William Johnson and others. 

Sir Jeffery Amherst, (2 tracts.) 

R. J. F. & W. Schermerhorn and others. 

Duncan Reid and Others. 

James De Lancey. 

Joseph Walton and others. 

Charles Babington. 

Timothy Bagley and others. 

Henry Balfour, (Tottcn & Crossfleld's Pur.) 

Goldsbrow Banyar and others. 

Vincent Matthews .and others. 

Wm. & Rob. Bayard and others, (Freemasons' 

Patent.) 
Johannes Becker and others. 
John Leake and others. 
Henry Beekman. 
William H. Beekman. 
George Croghan and others, (2 tracts.) 
Wm. Bishop, (T. k C. Pur.) 
Kutger Bleecker and others. 
Johu Weatherhe.ad and others. 
James Bradshaw. 
Krent Bradt and others. 

(( a u 

David Buffington. 

John Joost Petrie and others. (German Flats.) 

Golden. Smith, Banyar, and others. 

Allen Campbell. 

Duncan Campbell, (T. & C. Pur.) 

Martin Garretson Van Bergen and others. 

.John & Margaret Collins. 

James Clarke. 

Daniel Claus. 

Jacob Lockerman. 

Ann Bridges and others. 

John Lindsley and others. 

N. Hermanse and others, (Shenoudehowa Pat.) 

Stephen Skinner and others. 

Wui. Corry and others. 

Joseph Worrell and others. 

Alex., Ph. & Wm. Cosby. 

Daniel Coxe and others, (s. w. of Mohawk.) 
•' " '' (E. of Susqucliamia.) 

Geo. Croghan and others, (s. of Mohawk.) 

Jereniiali Van Rensselaer. 

Elkanah Dean. 

Jolin De Bernier. 

James De Lancey and others, (s. of Mohawk.) 
" " " (N. of Mohawk.) 

Robert Edmeston. 

William Edmeston. 

Walter Franklin and others. 



50 



XEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



NAME OF PATENT. 



County. 



Date.. 



Extent 
in Acres. 



Franklin Township 

Frank's Patent 

Frazer's Patent 

Freeman's Patent 

Friswells Patent 

Gage's Patent 

Glazier's Patent 

Glens Purctiase 

Golfisborough Township . 

Grants Patent 

Greenwich Patent 

Guerin's Patent 

Half Moon Patent 

Hanson's Patent 

Hardenburgh Patent 

Harper's Patent 

Harrison's Patent 



Hartwick Patent 

Ilasenclever's Patent.. 
Henderson's Patent.... 

Herkimer's Patent 

Holland Patent 

Hoo.«ick Patent 

Huntersfield Patent... 

Hurley Patent 

Huyk Patent 

Hyde Township 

Ingoldsby's Patent 

Jerseyfield Patent 

Jessnps Purchase 



Johnson's Patent. 

Judds Patent 

Kakiate Patent.... 



Kayudirosseras Patent Saratoga & War. 



Delaware 

Herkimer 

Greene 

.Schenectady.. 

Clinton 

Oneida 

Schoharie 

Saratoga 

Delaware 

Essex 

Washington . 
Montgomery , 
Saratoga 



Delaware & Sull. 

Delaware 

Montgomery 



Otsego 

Herkimer.. 



Oneida 

Kens. & Wash 

Schoharie 

lister 

Colnrabia 

Warren 

Schenectady 

Herkimer & Fult. 
Warren 



Herkimer.. 

Essex 

Rockland , 



Reliefs Patent". 
Kenipe's Patent... 
Kennedy's Patent. 



Kinderhook Patent 

Kingsborough Patent.. 

Kingsbury Patent 

King^^fleld Manor" 

Kl. cks Patent 

Kortright Patent 

Lansing's Patent 

Lawyer's Patent 



Leake's Patent 

Legge's Patent 

Liudsley's Patent.. 



Lindsay & Livingston's Patent.'. 

Lispenard's Patent 

Livingston's Patent 



Essex . 
Wasliington .... 

Essex 

Warren 

Columbia 

Fulton 

Washington .... 



Montgomery ... 

Delaware 

Herkimer 

Schoharie 



Delaware . 

Essex 

Otsego 



Herkimer 

Otsego 

Herk. & Mont.. 
Fulton & Sara.. 
Fulton 



Lett's Patent 

Ludlow's Patent I Orange. 

Lyne's Patent I Herkimer...., 

" " [Montgomery 

McCullock's Patent Washington 

Mcintosh's Patent ! Essex 

McKee's Patent [Delaware 



McLeod's Patent.. 
McNeile's Patent.. 



Magin's Patent 

Markham's Patent... 
Matthews's Patent... 
Maunsells Patent.... 
Mawighunk Patent. 

Mayfield Patent 

Menzies's Patent 



Middlefield Patent.. 
Middleton's Patent .. 

Minisink Patent 

Montresor's Patent.. 

Mooney's Patent 

Morris's Patent 



Munroe'g Patent ... 
Nestigione Patent. 
Nettlefiald Patent.. 



Fulton 

Otsego 

Herkimer 

Fulton 

Hamilton 

Greene 

Washington 

Columbia, 

Fulton & Ham.. 
Washington 



Otsego., 



Sull. & Orange. 

Essex 

Washington 

Montgomery 



Schoharie 

Montgomery.. 

Otsego 

Washington... 

Saratoga 

Otsego 



11 



Feb. 26, 

Sept. 0, 

June 17 

July 3. 
May 
July 

Sept. 10. 

Aug. 24, 

June 1.5 

Aug. 1 
Xov. 

Aug. 29. 

Oct. 1.3 

Julv 17 

April 20. 

Dec. 8. 

Oct. 11 
March 18. 

April 22. 

Feb. 2' 

April 1.3. 
March 17 

June 3. 
Nov. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Sept. 10. 

July 20. 

April 12. 

March 21 

April 10. 

Sept ' 

April 16, 

June 25 

Nov. 2, 
Aug. 
May 
Aug. 
Aug. 

March 14. 

June 23 

May is: 

Dec. 12, 

Dec. 21 

Feb. 24, 

June 23 

Dec. 29, 

Feb.. 6, 

Aug. 14, 

May 22, 

June 26, 

Aug. 18, 

Aug. 18. 

Oct. 7 

Aug. 24, 

Sept. 6, 

Feb. 10. 
Nov 

Sept. 16. 



26, 



Oct. 
Jan. 



Aug. 12. 
May 
Aug. 

Jan. 16. 

April 30 

Sept. 29, 

April 5, 

Aug. 15 

March 31 

April 5, 

April 24, 

March 7 

Aug. 4 

June 25. 

Sept. 11 



AprU 18, 

Feb. 24, 

Aug. 

June 

Oct. 

Oct. 

.Tune 

May 



Sept. 23. 
April 22, 
March 31, 



1770 
1765 
1765 
:7.36 
1765 
1769 
1772 
1770 
1770 
1764 
1763 
1735 
1665 
1713 
170S 
1769 
17.35 
1722 
1761 
1769 
1739 
1752 
1769 
16.88 
1714 
1708 
17.31 
1774 
1737 
1770 
176S 
1772 
1765 
1765 
1696 
1708 
1764 
1764 
1761 
1774 
1686 
1753 
1762 
1695 
1754 
1770 
1753 
1768 
1753 
1761 
1770 
1769 
1738 
1738 
1741 
1730 
1770 
1762 
1760 
1761 
1731 
1754 
1736 
1765 
1765 
1770 
1770 
1770 
1769 
1761 
1761 
1774 
1736 
1771 
1743 
1703 
1764 

a 

1761 
1770 
1704 
1765 
1765 
17'22 
1723 
1726 

1769 
1764 
1708 
1770 



30.000 
5.000 
2.000 
5,000 
3,000 

18,000 
3,000 

45.000 
6.000 
3,000 

10,000 
4,000 



2,000 



22.000 

4.000 

,12.000 

21.500 

18.000 

6.000 

• 2.324 

20,000 



10,000 

'aooo 

40.000 

10.000 

94.000 

11.6.')(t 

2.000 

2.000 

2,000 



2.000 

10.200 

2 000 

2.000 



20.(M1() 

26,000 

16.000 

22.000 
6.000 

36.600 
2.640 
7,000 
5,000 
5.000 
7,050 
1.965 
2,000 
3.000 
9,000 

20.000 
4,000 

20.000 
4.000 

20.000 
2.000 
4.000 
3.000 

40.000 

18.000 
3,000 
5.928 
4.000 
6.000 
6,000 
4-200 
5,000 



2.000 

2.000 

29.000 

5.000 



3.000 
2.000 
6.000 
6.000 
3,500 
2.000 



2,000 



Patentees. 



13.000 



Thomas Wharton and others. 

Coenrudt Frank and others. 

Hugh Frazer. 

Thomas Freeman. 

John Friswell. 

Thomas Gage. 

Beamsley Glazier. 

John Glen. jr. 

Edward Tudor and others. 

Robert Grant. 

Donald Campbell. 

Maynard & Elizabeth Guerin. 

Petersen Philip Schuyler and others'. 

Hendrick Hansen and others. 

.Tohannes Hardenburgh and others. 

John Harper, jr. 

Edward Harrison and others. 

Francis Harrison and others. 

Christian John Hartwick. 

Peter Hasenclever. 

James Henderson and others. 

Joost Johan Herkimer and others. 

Lord Henry Holland. 

Maria "S'an Renssel.ier and others. 

Myndert Schuyler and others, (Schoharie Pat.) 

Cornelius Cool and others. 

Burgar Huyk. 

Edward Jessup & C. Hyde. 

Geo. Ingoldsby and others. 

Henry Glen and others. 

Ebenezer Jcssup and others, (2 tracts.) 

U .. U 

Guy .Tohnson. 

James Judd. 

Diiniel Honan and others, (Yachtaucke.) 

Nunning Hermanse and others, (Queensboro.) 

I'oger Kellet. 

John T.ibor Kempe. 

John Kennedy. 

Kobeit Kenned}'. 

.John Hendrik Dc Bruyn and others. 

.\rent Stevens and others. 

James Bradshaw and others. 

Georee Klock and others. 
Lawrence Kortright. 
.Tacob Lansing and others. 
Johannes Lawyer and others. 



Robert Leake. 
Francis Legge. 
John Lindsay and others. 



.John Lindsley & Ph. Livingston. 
Leonard Lispenard and others. 
Philip Livingston and others. 

Abr.ihflm Lott, jr., and others. 
Gabriel Ludlow. 
John Lj'ne and others. 

Nathaniel McCullock, (2 tracts.) 
Alexander Mcintosh. 
Alexander McKee and others. 

li ti u 

Norman McLeod. 
John McNeile. 

Sarah Magin and others. 

William Markham. 

A'incent Matthews and others, (3 tracts.) 

John Maunsell. 

Stephen Bayard and others. 

Alexander Menzies. 
Thomas Menzies. 
Godfrey Miller and others. 
Peter Middleton. 
Matthew Ling and others. 
John Montresor and others. 
David Mooney. 

Leiris Morris and others. 

(( ,( tt II 

" " Jr. and others. 

t( a a .i 

Staats Long Slorris. 
Harry Munroe. 
.John Rosie and others. 
Richard Loudon and others. 



<• Twenty-four miles above Schenectady. 



LANDS. 



51 



NAH£ OP PATENT. 



Nine Partners (Great, or Lower).. 

" " (Little, or Upper).. 

Northampton Patent 

Oblong Patent 

Oothoudt's Patent 

Orti's Patent 

Oriskany Patent 

OtBego Patent 



Otsquaga Patent- 
Palmer's Patent... 

Panton Tract 

Ptnefield Patent... 

Preston Patent 

Prevost Patent 



Provincial Patent 

Queensbury Patent 

Rhinebeck Patent 

Ri^htmeyer's Patent 

Roberts's Patent 

Rochester Patent 

Ross's Patent 

Royal Grant 

Rumbout's Patent 

Sacondaga Patent 

Sadachqueda or Saghquate Patent.. 

Salem Patent 

Saratoga Patent 

Sawyer's Patent 

Schaghticoke 

Schermerhorn's Patent., 

Schneider's Patent 



County. 



Dutchess.. 



Fulton' 

W. Chester, Put. 
& Dutch. 

Otsego 

lissex 

Oneida 

Otsego 



Montgomery- 
Richmond , 

Warren. 

Delaware 

Hamilton 

Greene 



Delaware., 
Orange 



Schuyler's Patent.. 
Schuyler's Patent- 



Scott's Patent 

Seaton's Patent 

Servis's Patent 

Sherriff's Patent......... 

Skenesboro' Patent.... 

Skene's Patent 

.Skene's Little Patent.. 

Skinner's Patent 

Small's Patent 

Spaight's Patent 

Spornheyer's Patent.... 

Springfield Patent 

Staley's Patents 

Stamberg's Patent 



'Warren 

Dutchess 

Scho. & Greene. 

Fulton 

Ulster 

Essex 

Herkimer.. 

Dutchess 

Fulton & Ham.., 

Oneida 

Washington 

Wash. & Sara.... 
Wash. & S.ara... 

Wash & Rens 

Washington 



Steward's Patent.. 
Stewart's Patent.. 



Stone Arabia Patent..., 

Stone Heap Patent 

Stmy Hill Tract 

Stony Point Tract 

Stoughton's Patent 

Strasburgh To wu ship. 

Stringer's Patent 

Sutherland's Patent.... 



Swallowfield Patent 

Ten Eyck's Patent 

Timberman's Patent _ ., 

Totten & Crossfield's Purchase".... | 

Turioch Patent 

Upton 6 Patent 

Van Bergen's Patent 

Van Dam's Patent 

Van Rensselaer Patent 

Van Slyck's Patent _ 

Vaughan's Patent- 

Wallace Patent 

Walloomsac Patent 

Walter's Patent 

Walton's Patent 



Ren!=selacr 

Ilerk. & Oneida., 
Wa.sh. & Hens,— 

Otse'.;o.-_ 

Washington 

Ivcns.selaer 

Sclioharie 

Greene 

Oneida 

Warren 

W.Mshington - 

Kssex.. 

Washington 

Schoharie 

Essex 



Schoharie.. 

Otsego 

Herkimer . 
Schoharie.. 



Clinton 

Hamilton 

Greene 

Mont& Fult 

Mont. & Scho 

.Schoharie 

Rockland 

Essex 

Delaware 

Schoharie 

Washington 

Essex 

Westchester 

Schoharie 

Herkimer 

Herk. Ham.Es-t 
sex, Warren./ 

Schoharie 

Otsego 



Greene 

Orange 

Sara. & Fult 

Montg imery 

Herkimer 

Hamilton 

Wa.shington 

Westchester 

Herkimer 

Del.aware 



Date. 



Jan. 

.\pril 

Feb. 

Nov. 

Sept. 



Jlay 27, 1G97 
AprU 10, 1706 
Oct. 17, 1741 
) Juno 8, 1731, 
J met se(f. 
Aug. 18, 174:1 
31, 1775 
18, 1705 
3, 1770 

30. 1769 
22, 1729 

March 31, 1687 
Oct. 18, 1775 
June 2-2, 1775 
Juno 27, 1770 
Aug. 15, 1765 
March 10, 1768 
1770 
18, 1775 
2,1764 
20, 1762 
8, 1703 
6, 1754 

29. 1770 
25, 1703 



Jan. 

May 
May 
June 
May 
Sept. 
June 



Extent 
in acres. 



.A.pra 16, 1765 



Oct. 

Dec. 

June 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

July 

May 

Aug. 

March 

May 

June 

July 

July 

Jan. 

July 

Feb. 

Oct. 

March 

July 

July 

Jan. 

April 

Nov. 

Aug. 

Nov. 

June 

Sept. 

March 

May 

May 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

March 

July 

July 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

April 

May 

May 



7,1685 

2. 1741 

25. 1736 

7.1764 

4, 1684 
29, 1708 
23, 1761 

11, 1762 

23, 1764 

24, 1762 
1755 

19, 1737 

3, 1765 
18, 1740 

29. 1737 

2. 1770 

18, 1767 
28, 1769 
18, 1775 
31, 1765 
30. 1771 

6, 1771 

15, 1770 

6. 1774 

6. 1767 
23. 1764 

4. 1741 

14. 1755 

30. 1769 

19. 1759 

7, 1765 
27. 1755 

7. 1771 
19, 1723 

15, 1770 

25, 1768 
13, 1743 
25. 1764 

4, 1770 

12, 1769 

5, 17f4 
7, 17ra 

22, 1708 
30. 17.39 
30, 1755 



Feb. 21, 
March 8. 
July 11, 
March 2.3, 
Oct. 4, 
Sept. 1, 
April 24, 
April 11, 
June 15, 
Feb. 14, 
Aug. 12, 
March 15, 



1752 
1770 
1767 
1709 
1774 
1716 
1770 
1770 
17.39 
1701 
1768 
1770 



6,000 

50,000 

13,000 
6,000 



69,000 

100,000 

4.300 

5.100 

2,000 

30.000 

14.000 

5,000 

5,000 



5,000 
26,000 
23,000 



8,000 
2,000 

2,000 
93,000 



28.000 

6.000 

25,000 



61.000 

10,000 

2,000 

10.000 

43.000 

11,2,50 

4;3,000 

12.000 

2000 

42.500 

3.000 

25,000 

4000 

25,000 

3,000 

9,000 

40.000 

5.000 

2.000 

2.000 

17,000 

34,000 

3.000 

3,000 

2.000 

24,000 

2.000 

12,700 

15,500 

18,000 



2,000 
37,000 
2.000 
2.000 
3,000 
7,630 
3..500 
3.000 



18.000 

20.000 

35.500 

3.000 

28.964 

2,000 

8.000 

6,365 

12,000 

5,000 

1-2,000 

20,000 



J^enleei. 



Caleb Heathcote and others. 
Sampson Bo)ighton and others. 
Jacob Maso and others. 

Thomas Hawley and others. 

Volkert Oothoudt and others. 

Thomas Ord. 

Thomas AVenham and others. 

Charles Read and others. 

Geo. Croglian and 09 others. 

Rutger Hleecker and others. 

Capt John Palmer. 

Francis Panton. 

John Kapalje and others. 

Acliilles I'restou and others. 

Augustine Prevost. 



James Prevost. 

William Cockroft and others. 

Daniel I'rindle and others. 

Henry ISeckman. 

Ury Kightnii yer and others. 

Bety'amin Roberts. 

James Ross. 

Sir John Johnson. 

Francis Rumbout. 

Lendert (ian.sevoort and others. 

Frederick Morris and others, 

Alexander and James Turner and otherg. 

Cornelius Van Dyck and others. 

Isaac Sawyer. 

Cornelius Van Dyck and others. 

Ryer Schermerhorn. 

George Schneider. 

Hendi'ick Solmeider. 

David ."-clmyler and others. 

Abm. David Schuvler and others. 

David Schuyler and others. 

John Schuyler and others. 

John Morin Scott and others. 

Sir Henry Seatm. 

Peter Servis and others. 

Charles Sherrift". 

I'hilip Skeene and others. 

Philip Skeene. 

Stephen Skinner and others. 

John Small. 

William Spaight. 

Ernst William Spornheyer and others. 

John Groesbeck and others. 

Rudolph Staley and others. 

Jacob Starnberg and others. 

Lambert Starnberg and others. 

Peter Steward. 

James Stewart and others. 

Walter Stewart. 

John Chr. Garlock and others. 

John Bowen and others. 

Michael Byrne and others. 

Richard Bradley and others. 

John Stoughton. 

John Butler and others. 

Samuel Stringer. 

Erick Sutherland. 

Nicholas Sutherland. 

Georse Booth. 

Hendrick Jacob Ten Eyck and others. 

Jacob Timberman and others. 



Jacob Borst and others. 

Clotworthy Upton and others. 

Martin Garretson Van Bergen and others 

Rip Van Dam. 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. 

Harman Van Slyck. 

.John Vaughan and others. 

Hugh Wallace and others. 

Edward Collins and others. 

Robert AVidters. 

William Walton and others. 



■■ This tract, embracing 50 townships, was surveyed just be- 
fire the Revolution, but small portions only were granted until 
after the war. Among those who received patents for large 
portions after that period were Robert G. Livingston, Isaac Nor- 
ton, John G.Leake, Abijah Himmond, Frederick Rylander, 
Philip Livingston, John Thurmau, Jacob Watiion, Alexander 



Macomb. Ph. Rockafeller, 'White Matlack, Enos Mead, Zephaniah 
Piatt, Goldsbrow Banyar, Peter V. B, Livineston, Joshua Mei'- 
sereau, Jonathan Lawrence, Thomas Franklin, EfiHngham Law- 
rence, Stephen Crossfield, and others. Extensive tracts liav* 
been repeatedly sold for taxes. 



52 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



Name of Patent. 


Coimty. 


Dat''. 


Extent 
in Acres. 


Patenteet. 


Watkins's Patent 


Wasliington 

Orange -. 

Columbia 


March 2, 1775 
April 29,1703 
Aug. 4, 1743 
Feb. 18, 1775 
April 15. 1765 
March 10, 1770 
Oct. 6. 1741 
Oct. 10, 1741 
Aug. 29, 1735 
Aug. 29. 1735 
Nov. 12, 1731 
Feb. 18, 1775 
Oct. 11, 1752 
Aug. 25, 1752 


2,000 

"4.3S6 
3.000 
3,000 

38.000 
2.000 
4,000 

14.000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 

20,000 

14,000 


John AVatkiuB 

Dr. John Bridgea. 

AVillinm and l^^tephen Bayard. 

Archibald Weir and others. 

John Wharton. 

Henry White and others. 

Peter Winne. 

Peter Winue and others. 

Charles Williams and others. 

Anne Wilmot. 

Hartraan Windecker. 

Daniel Wriesberg. 

Frederick Young. 

Theobald Young and others. 






Weir's Patent 




Essex 




Delaware 

Herkimer..- _. 

Montgomery 

a 
(t 

(C 

Essex... - 

Otsego & Scho 

Herkimer 




a a 


Williams Patent 


Wilmot Patent - 




Youner'a Patent 


a ii 



SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS PUECHASE 
Of about 6,000,000 acres of Lands ceded to Massachusetts by the State of JVew TorJr at the Hartford Convention, Dec. 16, 1786. 



Tracts. 



Phelps and Gorham" 

Morris Keserve 

Triangular Tract 

Connecticut Tract* 

Cragie Tract , 

Ogdcn Tract 

Cottinger Tract 

Forty Thousand Acre Tract 

Sterritt Tract 

Church Tract 

Morris Honorary Creditors' Tract 
Holland Co.'s Purchase , 

Boston Ten Towns 



Parties. 



Massachusetts to Phelps and Gorham... 



" to Robert Morris 

Morris to Le Roy, Bayard, & McEvers. 

" Watson, Cragie, & Greenleaf. 

" Andrew Cragie 

" Samuel Ogden 

" Gerrit Cottinger 

" Wilhelm and Jan Willink,.. 

" Samuel Sterritt 

« John B. Church 

" Creditors 

" Agents of Holland Co 



Massachusetts to Settlers Nov. 7,1787 



Date. 



Nov. 21, 1788 



May 11,1791 



1792-93 



Acres. 



2,600,000 



500.000 
87,000 

100,000 
50,000 
50,000 
50,000 
40,000 

150,000 

100,000 

58,570 

3,600,000 



230,400 



Ocntnties. 



Allegany, Livinsrston, 
Slonroe, Ontario. 
Schuyler, Steuben, 
Wayne, and Yates. 

Allegany. 

Monroe. 

Orleans and Genesee. 

Genesee. 

Wyoming. 

Wyoming and Allegany, 

Wyoming & Livingston 

Allegany. 

Allegany. 

Allegany & Livingston. 

Chautauqua, Cattarau- 
gus, Allegany. Wyo- 
ming, Erie. Genesee, 
Orleans, and Niagara. 

Broome and Tioga. 



« Phelps and Gorham originally contracted for the whole tract at $1,000,000. payable in a kind of scrip called "Consolidated 
Securities," then much below par. A rise to par prevented them from fulfilling the agreement. 

' In 1801, conveyed in undivided halves to the State of Conn, and Sir Wm.Pulteney, the former using part of her School Fund 
in the purchase. Dividi-d by alternate lots in 1811. 

' Conveyed in four tracts to the agents of the Holland Co.: viz., 1,500,000, Dec. 24, 1792. to Le Roy and Lincklaen; 1,000.000 
Feb. 27, 1793, to Le Roy, Lincklaen, and Boon; 800,000, July 20, 1793, to the same; and 300,000, same date, to Le Boy, Bayard, 
and Clarkson. 

SUBDIVISION OF MACOMB'S GR?AT PURCHASE 

In FranHin, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego, and Herkimer Counties. 



Tracts. 



Great Tract No. 1.. 

" " 2.. 



Remainder 



Chassanis Tract 

Black River Tract.. 




Boylston Tract 

Brantingham Tract.. 
Constable's Towns.... 

EUisburgh 

Inman's Triangle 

Watson's Tract 



Patentees. 



Daniel McCormick... 



Alexander Macomb ., 



Purchasers. 

Pierre Chassanis & Co.. 

{Harrison, HofTman, 
Lo " "" 



''I 
Low, & Henderson.../ 

Samuel Ward 

Wm. Inman 

James Constable 

Marvel Ellis 

Wm. Inman 

James Watson 



Date 
of Patent. 



May 17, 1798 
May 17, 1798 
March 3, 1795 

Jan. 10, 1792 

Date of Pur- 
chase, 
April 12, 1793 

July 15, 1795 

Dec. IS, 1792 
Feb. 20, 1793 



March 22, 1797 
Feb. 20, 1793 
April — , 1796 



Acres. 



821.879 
553,020 
640,000 
r 450,950 
J 26,2.50") 
j 74.400 V 
Ll,368,400j 



210,000 
290,376 

817,155 

74,400 



52.834 
25.000 
61,433 



Remarks. 



Twenty-seven towns, Franklin co. 
Eighteen towns, St. Lawrence co. 
Fifteen " " " 

Antwerp and Jefferson cos. 

Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego, and Herkimer cos. 



Jefferson and Lewis cos. 



Jefferson, Oswego, and Lewis, 13 towns. 

Greig, Lewis co. 

Five towns, Lewis co. 

Lewis CO. 

Leyden and Lewis, Lewis co. 

Lewis CO. 



Chenango Twenty Townships. 



Tp. 



Acres. 



1 
2 
3 

*i 
5 

6 

7 

ii 

9 

10 



2^,187 
28,245 
24,024 
24.400 
20.200 
24.384 
24,186 
25-780 
24.205 
24,200 



Date of 

Patent. 



June 14, 1793 
April 16, 1794 



March 2, 1793 
.Ian. :'.l. 1793 
April 16, 1794 

(& (i 

Jan. 13, 1793 



Piitentees. 



Alexander Webster. 
William S. Smith. 



Thos. Ludlow, jr. 
Hobert C. Livingston. 
William S. Smith. 

James Talmadge. 



Tp. 


Acres. 


11 


26,200 


12 


24,185 


13 


24,218 


14 


26.0.30 


15 


25.335 


16 


18.713 


17 


18.068 


18 


22,565 


19 


20.750 


20 


24.856 



Date of 

Paterft. 



Jan. 28,1793 
April 16, 1794 
March 2, 1793 
June 1. 1793 
Dec. 29,1792 
Feb. 14,1793 

May 3, 1793 



Patentees. 



Leonard M. Cutting. 

Wm. Matlack, sr. 

Thos. Ludlow and J. Shipperly. 

Leonard M. Cutting. 

John Taylor. 

John J. Morgan. 



LANDS. 



53 



Table of the Principal Tracts 

Which have been granted in smatt parcels by the State, under the Commissioners of the Land Office. 



Name op Tract. 



Adgate's 3,600 acre Tract.. 

Bedliiigton Tract 

Benaon Township 

Bergen's Purchase 

Bhick Rock A'illage 

Brant Lake Tract 

Bristol Tract 

Bulwa«ga Bay Tract 

Butlers Tract 

Canaatota Tract 

Chemung Township 



Chenango Township 

Chenango Twenty Towns -. 

Clinton Township 

Cookquago Tract 

Cowasselon Tract 

Crum Horn Mountain Tract 

Delaware Tract 

Essex Tract 

Fayette Township 

Fort Ann Tract 

Fort Covington Village 

French Mountain Tract 

Grand Island 

Greene co. Tract 

Greene Township 

Gore, Old Military, and Refugee 

Tract 

Gores, others in great number. 

Hamhden Township 

Hague Tract 

Iron Ore Tract 

Islands in great number. 

Jay Tract 

Lake George Tract 

Lewis (South) Tract 

Lewiston Village 

Long Sault Island 

Luzerne Tract 

Massena Township 

Maul's Patent 



Military Tract. 



•{ 



MUitary Tract (Old) 

Moose River Tract 

Niagara River Tract 

North River Head Tract., 
North 'PTest Bay Tract.... 

Oswego Falls Village 

Oswego Village 

Ox Bow Tract 

Palmer's Purchase 

Paradox Tract 

Perou Bay Tract 

Refugee Tract 

Reservations, Indian : 

Cayuga 

Oneida 



Onondaga.. 
St. Regis... 



Stockbridge. 



Roaring Brook Tract 

Saddle Mountain Tract., 
Salt Springs 



St. Lawrence Ten Towns., 



.Schroon Tract 

Sidney Township 

Split Rock Tract 

Stedman Farm 

Trembleau Tract 

Tongue Mountain Tract 

■Wairensburgh Tract 

■Warren Town.ship 

Watkins and Flint's Purchase. 

Westfield Tract 

West of Road Patent 

■White Face Mountain Tract.... 



County. 



Essex 

Delaware 

Hamilton 

Hamilton and Fulton., 

Erie 

Warren 

Schoharie 

Essex 

Delaware 

Madison 

Chemung 



Broome 

Madison, Chenango, Oneida 

Chenango 

Delaware and Broome 

Madison 

Otsego 

Broome 

Essex 

Chenango 

Washington 

Franklin 

Warren 

Erie 

Greene 

Chenango 



Clinton 



Tioga , 

WaiTen and Essex. 
Essex 



Essex and Clinton 

Warren , 

Essex 

Niagara 

St. Lawrence 

Warren 

St. Lawrence 

Essex 

Cayuga.Cortland, Onondaga, 
Osweffo, Schuyler, Seneca, 
Tompkins and Wayne. 

Clinton and Franklin 



Hamilton and Herkimer.... 

Erie and Niagara 

Essex 

Essex 

Oswego 

Oswego 

Hamilton 

Warren and s. ratoga... 

Essex 

Essex 

Clinton 



Caj-uga and Seneca.... 
Oneida and Madison.., 



Onondaga.., 
Franklin. .. 



Ea-ex 

Washington. 
Onondaga 



St. Lawrence.. 



No. of 
Lots 



7 

77 

383 

13 

233 

254 

62 

4 

7 

91 

205 



144 

25 
79 
19 
248 
100 
33 



48 
117 
108 



68 



62 
234 

160 
93 
33 

421 
38 

173 



} 



107 

140 

133 

52 

"304 

"42s 



130 



256 



Essex 

Broome 

Essex 

Niagara. 

p;ssex 

Warren 

Warren 

Broome 

Chemung Schuyler & Tioga 

Washington 

Essex 

Essex and Clinton. 



86 



10 mi. 

sq. 
each 



111 

162 

33 

17 

62 
22 



58 
174 



Remarks. 



West of Perou Bay. 
Escheat of John O. Leake. 
Named from Egbert Benson. 

Part of Niagara Mile Strip. 

Surveyed by Geo. Webster, 1803. 

■) Unappropriated lands remaining at close of Revol'j. 

/ tion. 

Part of Hardensburgh Patent. 

Gospel and Schools for Chenango Twenty To\vn8. 

f Laid out in 1788 by Jas. Clinton, J. Hathorn, and J. 

1 Cantine. 

49,710 acres to A. Hammond and others. 

Patented separately. See table preceding this. 

Given to the Vermont sufferers. 



Given to schools and literature. 

Town of Windsor. 

Unappropriated lands remaining after Revolution. 

Mile Square Reservation. 

Unappropriated lands remaining after Revolution. 

Given to Canal Fund. 

To Walter Livingston, M. West, and W. Morris. 

In quarters. 



Robert Morris and Alexander Macomb. 

House, out, and water lots. 

Small tracts upon Military Class rights. 

f Twenty eight townships — 1,680,000 aci-es to soldiers of 
\ the Revolution. 

/Ten townships, 640,000 acres set apart to soldiers, 
\ not conveyed. 

Nine townsliips, mostly of modern grant. 
Reserved in Massachusetts cession. 



Reserved by State in previous grants. 



State, Middle, Rear, and River Lots. 
Named from Paradox Lake. 

131,420 acres to Canada and Nova Scotia refugees. 

West, East, and Residence Tracts, Canoga Reservation 

Fish Creek, Oneida, Castleton, Oneida Creek, Otseqoet, 
Pagan Purchase, and Wood Creek Tracts of the pur- 
chases of 1798, 1802, 1815, 1824, 1826, 1829, 1830, 1834, 
1840, 1842. 

See page 478, note 4. 

Various, including lands at Fort Covington and IIo- 
g.'insburgh Village. 

Various purhases. including E. Hill Tract of fifty 
and W. Hill Tract of forty-two lots. 



Including plats of Salina, Geddes, Liverpool, Syra- 
cuse, kc. 

Sold at auction in \~ miles and mile squares., but bid 
in by a small number. Cambray, De Kalb, and 
Hague, each 92,720 acres: Lisbou, Louisville, and 
Stockholm, each a little less, were conveyed to Alex. 
Macomb, Dec. 17, 1787. 



61,440 acres to Robert Harper and others. 



Tables of many small grants, tracts, and purchases will be found in the descriptions of the counties in which such lands are 
located. 



ca:n^als. 




The Public Canals of the State are made, by the Constitution, 
inalienable. They were first constructed for the purpose of facile 
tating settlement and of opening an easy means of communication 
between the Atlantic and the great lakes. The canals are under 
the care of several State officers, the powers and duties of whom 
are as follows : — 

Tlie Canal Conaniissioners, three in number, are elected 
one each year and hold office for three years. They have the imme- 
diate supervision and management of the construction and repairs 
of canals, and are ex officio members of the Canal and Contracting 
Boards. They have their office in the State Hall, and report annually 
to the Legislature. The canals have three general divisions, each of which is under the special 
charge of a commissioner.^ 

Tlie State Engineer and Surveyor has general charge of the engineering department 
of the canals, and is a member of the Canal and Contracting Boards. He has an office in the State 
Hall, and reports annually to the Legislature.^ 

Tlie Canal Board consists of the Commissioners of the Canal Fund, the State Engineer, 
and the Canal Commissioners. It meets, during the session of the Legislature, at the office of the 
Canal Department, fixes the rates of toll, appoints collectors of tolls, their assistants and weigh- 
masters, directs extraordinary repairs ; hears appeals from the Canal Appraisers, remits penalties, 
and regulates the police of the canals.^ 

The Auditor of tlie Canal Department draws warrants on the Treasurer for all 
canal payments, audits accounts, instructs collecting and disbursing officers, and keeps account of 
canal receipts and expenditures. He is ex officio Secretary of the Commissioners of the Canal 
Fund and of the Canal Board, and a member of the Contracting Board. His office, known as the 
" Canal Department," is in the State Hall at Albany. 

Tlie Canal Appraisers, three in number, are appointed one each year, and hold office for 
three years. They appraise all damages arising from the canals, whether temporary or permanent 
in their nature. They have an office in the State Hall. 

Tlie Contracting JSSoard consists of the State Engineer, the Auditor of the Canal Depart- 
ment, and the Canal Commissioners. It appoints all division, resident, and first assistant engineers.* 
The Commissioners of tlie Canal Fund consist of the Lieutenant Governor, Secre- 
tary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, and Attorney General. The Auditor of the Canal Department 
is ex officio Secretary of the Board. They have the general management of the funds and debts of 
the canal.* 



1 'Hie. Eastern Divisinn embraces the Erie Ciinal as far vr. as 
Oneida Lake Canal. 136 miles ; Champlain Canal and Glens Falls 
Feeder, 78 miles: Pond above Troy Dam, 3 miles; Black Kiver 
Canal and Improvement, 9S miles; making a total of 315 miles. 
The Middle Division embraces the Erie Canal from the E. 
bank of Oneida Liike Canal to the E. line of Wayne CO.. includ- 
ing feeders and reservoirs, 76 miles; Chenango Canal, 97 miles; 
Oneida Lake Canal. 7 miles; Oswego Canal. 38 miles; Baldwins- 
ville Side Cut, 1 mile; Oneida Kiver Improvement, 20 mOes; 
Seneca River towing jiath, 5 J miles; Cayuga & Seneca Canal. 
23 miles; Crooked Lake Canal, 8 miles; Chemung Canal and 
Feeder. 39 miles : Oneida Creek Feeder. 2 miles ; Seneca Kiver 
Improvement, 12j miles ; making a total of 331 miles. 

y/te Western Divisinn embraces the remainder of the Erie 
Canal, 155 miles, and the Genesee Valley Canal and Dansville 
Side Cut. 118 miles, making a total of 273 miles. 

2 He prescribes the duties of engineers and assigns to them 
divisions, visits and inspects all the canals .at least once in each 
year, and prepares plans, surveys, maps, and estimates for con- 
struction or improvement. lie has other duties relating to rail- 
roads, lands belonging to the State; and other subjects are 
also assigned to him from time to time. 

In the tngineering Department are the following subordinate 
otiicers : — 

Division Enginfers. one to each division, are appointed by 
the Contracting Board with the consent of the State Engineer. 
They have special supervision of the sections of canals in their 
respective divisions, and are obliged to frequently pass over the 
canal; and t'l'v prepare all maps, plana, and specifications for 
work to be put iimler contract. They make full reports annually 
to the State Kngineer. The office o"f the I!esident Engineer of 
the Eastern Division is at Albany, of the Middle Division at 
Syracuse, and of the Westein Division at Kochester. 

Resident Engineers, 12 in number, have immediate charge of 
certain sections under the supervision of resident engineers. 
They are assisted by : 
54 



First Assistant Engineers, appointed by the Contracting 
Board, and 

Second AssiMcnit Engineers, appointed by Resident Engineers. 
The number of these assistants is regulated by the amount of 
labor in progress. Levelers, surveyors, draftsmen, clerks, &c. 
are employed as the Department may require, and are ap- 
pointed in the same manner as Second Assistant Engineers. 
No engineer or other public officer appointed upon the canals, 
or u clerk, foreman, or overseer of Laborers, is allowed to have 
an interest in the boarding of laborers, or in furnishing teams, 
materials, or any other thing belonging to himself, for the use 
of the public. 

3 There are 20 collectors of tolls on the Erie, 3 on the Cham- 
plain. 3 on the Oswego, 3 on the Seneca & CajTiga, 3 on the 
Chemung. 1 on the Crooked Lake, 3 on the Chenango, 5 on the 
Genesee Valley, 1 on the Black River, and 1 on the Oneida Lake 
Canal. There are also 41 assistant collectors. Collectors may 
be removed by the Canal Commissioners or the Auditor. 

* This Board was created April 15, 1854, and its powers were 
enlarged and deflued May 14, 1857. Until May 1. 1859, it appointed 
superintendents of repairs ; but since that time all repairs are 
■made by contract. Repairs were formerly made by laborers, 
hired by the day or month, under the direction of superin- 
tendents ; but in 1857 the Contracting Board was authorized 
to let the ordinary repairs upon contract for a term of years. 

6 The canal fund was derived from the following sources : — 
1817-35. Auction duties, (in part,) amounting in 

all to $.3,592,039.05 

" " Salt duties, amounting in all to 2,055,458.06 

In 1835, these revenues were restored to 
the general fund, by a popular vote of 
68,126 to 8,675. 
1817-23. Steamboat passenger tax, amounting in 

all to 73.509.99 



CANALS. 



55 



Reports are annually made to the Legislature by the heads of the various Canal Departments 
concerning every thing pertaining to the Canal interests. These reports, embodying voluminous 
details and summaries, are printed, and are easily accessible to all.' 



Loans for construction, at sundry times, secured 
by State stocks. The avails for Erie and Cliam- 
piain Canals, up to Sept. 30, 1858, amounted to $8,271,831.00 

Loans for enlargement, Ac 11.828,000.00 

Loans for deficiencies 10,203.844,10 

Loans for enlargement and completion 10,500,000.00 

Canal revenue certificates 1.512,390.75 

Temporary loans 1,700,000.00 

Tolls 64,429,475.41 

Tax (1S44, '45, '46, '47, 1864, '56, '56, '57, '68) 2,936,023,21 

Sale of lands for benefit of canal.s, viz. : 102,635 
acres in Cattaraugus co., given by the Holland 
Land Co. ; 3,000 acres, by John Hornby; 1,000 
acres, by Gideon Granger: Grand Island, 
(17,381 1-5 acres,)and 8 small islands, (502i acres.) 
given by the State fur benefit of canals: and a 
tract of land ou Wood Creek, bought with the 

rights of the Western Inland Lock N." Co 107.4.30.18 

Interest on investment and deposits 3.157,800.60 

Surplus toUs, from lateral canals 1,010.7.31.43 

Miscellaneous 1,101.123.43 

Total receipts Erie and Champlain Canals 123.043.734.84 

Keceipts upon all the State canals ...143,607,002.91 

Total payments upon the Erie and Champlain 

Canals 

Total pajTuents upon all the State canals 141,627,845.85 



The total premiums upon loans amounted to $2,298,744.12 

The total discount upon loans amounted to 290.508.04 

Special loans were made for most of the lateral canals. A 
tract of lanii from the Onondaga Salt Spritigs Reservation was 
sold for the benrfit of the Oswego Canal Euiid, and amounted to 
$160,000. Stock in the Western Inland Luck Navigation Co., 
amounting to $92,000, was canceled for the benefit of the canals, 
and the interests of individuals in that work were canceled by 
purchase. The amount ajipraised was $152,718.52. 

The Constitution provides (Art. VII) that, after paying the 
expenses of collection, superintendence, and rep.airs. the sum 
of $1,300,000, and after 1855, §1,700,000, shall he ap|jlied annu- 
ally, from the revenues of the canals, to a sinking fund, to pay 
the canal debt. In 1857, the surplus receipts of tolls failed, for 
the first time since 1846, to meet this, and it became necessary 
to raise by direct tiix the money required to \y,iy interest on tho 
stock. The clause in the Constitution prohiiiiting the creation 
of a debt for any public worl<, without imposing a direct tax 
for its payment and a submission to the po|iular vote, was sus- 
pended by an amendment adopted Eeb. 14, 1S54, to allow of the 
raising of $9,000,000, by the issue of State stock, for the more 
speedy enlargement and completion of the canals. A measure 
was introduced in the Legislatiue of 1859, for the loan of a fur- 
ther sum for this object, and the submission of the question to 
the decision of a popular vote. 



1 SUMMARIES OF THE PRINCIPAL REPORTS. 

Amount and value of property/ moved, and miles run, on all tJie State Canals, since 1835. 



1 

18.36 

1837 
1838 
1839 
1S40 
1S41 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1862 
1863 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 


ESTIM.iTED VALUE OP PRO- 
PERir TO AND FROM OTHER 

States, via Buffalo, 
Black Rock, Tona- 
■wanda, and Oswego. 


Total value of 
property moved 
on all the car 
nals. 


Cleared at New 
York, Albany, 
and West Troy. 


Cleared at 

Bufalo, 
Black Knclc, 
and ToTM- 
ivanda. 


Cleared at 
all other offi- 
ces. 


T>,taln tim- 
ber of tons 
moved 071 
all the ca- 
nals. 


Miles run in each tear 
by all the boats. 


Packets. 


Freight 
boats. 


Products 
coming from. 


Merchandise 
going to. 


$5,493,816 

4,813,626 

6,369.645 

7,258.968 

7,877..35S 

11,889.273 

9,215,808 

11,9.37,913 

15,875,558 

14,162.2.39 

20,471.9,39 

32.660,324 

23,245.353 

26.713,796 

25.539,605 

27,007,142 

37,041,380 

42.367,564 

39.346,283 

43,555,243 

38,043,813 

26,466,121 

36,182,405 


$9,723.2.50 
6,322,7-50 
8,657,250 
10259,100 
7,057,600 
11,174.400 
7,218.900 
13,067.2.50 
14.84.5.2.50 
17,366,300 
20,415,-500 
27,298.800 
30,553,920 
31,793,400 
4i;272,491 
63,659.440 
79,127,640 
94,230,720 
83,476,440 
79.879,680 
66,064,680 
42,525,360 
27,680,400 


$67,634,343 

65.809,288 

65.746,559 

73.399,764 

66.403.892 

92.202,929 

60,016,608 

76,276,909 

90.921,152 

100.629.859 

115.612,109 

1.51,563,428 

140.086,157 

144,732,285 

156.397,929 

159,881,801 

196,603,517 

207,179.570 

210,284,312 

204,390.147 

218.327,062 

136.997,018 

138,568,844 








1,310,807 
1,171,290 
l,a3.3,011 
1,4:35,713 
1,417,046 
1,521,661 
1,2.36,931 
1,51.3,4.39 
1,816.586 
2,977,665 
2,268,662 
2,869.810 
2,796,230 
2,894,732 
8,076,617 
3,582,733 
3.863.441 
4.247.852 
4,165.862 
4.022,617 
4,116,082 
3.344.061 
3,665,192 






$25,784,147 

33,062,858 

40,094.302 

36,398,039 

56,798,447 

32,314,998 

42.258,488 

53.142,403 

65,4.53.998 

64.628.474 

77.878.766 

77.477,781 

78,481,941 

74,826.999 

80,7.39,899 

121.087.312 

116.185..331 

116,772:966 

113.443.863 

134,131,707 

71.016,241 

57,983,123 


$3,286,128 
4.854.927 
5,222.756 

6,200.829 

9,607,924 

7,541,793 

9,732,616 

9,561,146 

10..351.749 

15,819,314 

28.503.745 

19,621,700 

20.647,562 

20,991.462 

24.54.3,286 

25,674,776 

28,866,951 

29,745.555 

31,403,640 

22,873,866 

17,567,181 

25,039,901 


$18,650,604 
19,209.858 
18.854,427 
15.204.936 
16,376,503 
12,466,736 
13.288,470 
15,822,504 
19,248,224 
18.815.639 
23.518,927 
11,544.421 
22,238,010 
31.335.526 
31.784,847 
22.219,066 
27,629,827 
30,613,260 
24,906,992 
21.749.502 
15,470,217 
20,570,577 


405,050 

400.250 

290.900 

258.880 

322,860 

354.300 

381.820 

427.740 

420.540 

414,.340 

443,080 

542,300 

305,760 

343,475 

206,150 

71,725 

40,650 

24.675 

28,875 

21,175 

16,9.50 

18,725 


5,556,950 

5,126,800 

6.785,850 

5,952.300 

7,103.580 

6,173,200 

6,586,700 

7.841,750 

7,924,250 

9,065,450 

11,7.33,260 

9,633,850 

10,153,360 

10.718,100 

11,926,950 

12,306,950 

12,327.050 

11,244.200 

9,671.460 

9,656.700' 

7,-374.8.50 

7,886,100 


Tot. 


$613,541,202 


$793,670,521 


$2,929,666,482 


$1,559,962,083 | $377,659,507 


$451,519,063 


59,647,996 


5,746,220 


191.739,6301 



Total amount per cent., and averages of different classes. 



Classes. 










Averages for periods or Seven Years. | 


Total foe twenty-three 
Years. 


Pbrcentaoe 

OF EACH. 


trom 1836 to 1842. 


From 1843 to 1849. 


From 1850 to 1856. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tms. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tans. 


Value. 


Products of forest 

Agriculture 

Manufactures 

Merchandise 

Other articles 

Total 


24.516.913 

17.238.941 

4,086,894 

5,233,933 

8,-571,265 


$207,472,053 
321,76,^,110 
167,860,314 

1,594,038,801 
137,726,204 


41.11 

28.89 
6.85 
8.78 

14..37 


7.08 
28.05 

5.73 
54.44 

4.70 


634.922 
306.004 
101.610 
119,108 
184,992 


$7.1-33,875 
18.400,404 

5.750.494 
34.6'i7.389 

2,772,607 


947.120 

765,948 
165,912 
189,170 
237,139 


$7,200,900 

36.326,168 

6,825.363 

61.888.015 
4,876,878 


1,549,378 

1,098,289 
240,790 
380,6-54 
598,775 


$12,619,591 

51,083.488 

8,720,900 

111.S62.9I54 

9.0(;7.96 


59,647,946 


$2,929,765,482 


100.00 


100.00 


1.346,636 


$68,744,769 


2,305,289 


$117,117,411 


3,867,886 


$193,294,905 



56 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tolls collected at each office on the New TorJc State Canals, from 1825 to 1858, 


both inclusive. 


OrriCES. 


1825. 


1830. 


1835. 


1840. 


1845. 


1850. 


1855. 


1856. 


1858. 




■$126,652 
37,181 

29,819 










$285,595 

312,654 

315:042 

9,312 

10.227 

9;382 

55.514 

46.283 

78,095 


$246,124 

253,234 

301.262 

21,705 

6.222 

5.967 

41,808 

52,427 

48,233 

56.470 

37,830 

10.553 

19,594 

101,087 

6,304 

25.899 

14,308 

23,467 

23,685 

97.679 

755,575 

8,556 

9.164 

10,568 

54,367 

21.184 

22.922 

271.159 

14.317 

27,765 


$290,280 

116,973 

349.517 

9,473 

5,015 

5;349 

37,159 

40,906 

35.162 

65,378 

29.740 

10.172 

12.357 

88.130 

18,180 

3,132 

9,556 

14,015 

84;901 

22,145 

783,906 

3,737 

8,806 

12,030 

55,364 

20,412 

22.241 

406,813 

13,399 

21,669 

13.079 

13,765 

30,272 

44,610 

3,238 

15,827 

5,658 

2,312 

8,033 

4,934 

16,542 

6,231 

11,290 

9,235 

18,664 

605 


$78,921 

67,966 

110.837 

6.173 

4.513 

6,028 

26,720 

31.638 

31,292 

38.464 

18,821 

9,898 

14,994 

86,204 

101,171 

14,378 

16,296 

30,503 

30,291 


Albany 

West Troy 


$212,045 

124.793 

37,806 


$357,595 

153.402 

64,973 


$295,563 
186,947 
23,670 
10,778 
16,505 
42,606 
36,063 
69,384 


$340,667 

386,915 

9,544 

17.653 

13.389 

63.507 

55.997 

119,229 


Schenectady 


Little Falls 

Utica... 

Uouie 


6.124 

46,.302 
21,060 
36,349 


8.772 
46,142 

28,835 
85,876 


16,840 
50,675 
36.456 
74,756 


Jordan 

Montezuma 

Lvon'5 .« 


a55,635 
11.197 
21,466 
88,494 
7.617 
>3,793 


82.611 
24.229 
48.338 
150.129 
12..314 
12,139 


93,809 
23,018 
40.180 
176,140 
24,982 
19,865 


86.581 
21.855 
6i;i99 
248,210 
7,587 
30,844 

""23,227 

64 

321,164 
,417 

14,820 
2,262 


103.826 
17,4.32 
58.021 

224,529 
10,897 
36,263 


77.837 
19:197 
63.798 
190,532 
65,932 
26,365 


Palmyra 

Rochester 

Brockport 

Albion 


Lockport 

Tonawanda 


10,514 


21,653 


62,129 


106,413 


181,973 

55,642 

68,456 

703,498 

7,012 

7,379 

8,955 

71,366 

44,665 


786 

1,671 

12,295 






56.583 

482.635 

9.085 

15,371 

""'55.911 
63,812 


Buffalo 

Wat<?rford 


48,959 
10,527 
11,766 


106,213 

8,065 

16,201 


719,683 

225 

37,494 

132,023 

8,923 

17,950 

5,626 

2,308 

16.831 

32,302 


Schuvlerville 

Glens Falls 

Whitehall 


<il7..318 
33,106 


41,062 
8,662 


63.924 
51,214 


48.160 
30,653 


Salina 




Oswego 




3,673 


46,850 


61,899 


138,704 


310,135 
"47,473 








36,701 


35,879 


33,360 


44,336 


Itbuca 

Havana 








. 6.256 
15,133 


6.574 
14;696 


16,132 
26,747 
82.466 

5.667 
26.734 

3,012 
10,415 
13.885 
21,147 

""18,605 


11,376 

32,853 

54,060 

9,566 

21,192 

3,177 

6,026 

7,189 

28,647 


14.485 

29,584 

65.860 

3,495 

15,376 

4,735 

2,553 

8,587 

5,985 

14,470 

6,665 

17,120 

12.285 

16,894 

548 


8,365 


Horseheads 












Dresden 

Penii Van 






4,096 
8,958 


5.696 
16,787 

2.767 
4.573 
2.721 
4,610 


1.029 
2,482 
4,594 
1,863 
7,703 
5,276 
4,460 






Hamilton 

Oxford 












Binshamton 

Prrjttsville 






















Dansville 

Oramel... 

Boonville 

Higginsville 

Baldwinsville 

Olean 










28,400 










20,383 






















652 


9,124 














































$566,279 


$1,066,922 


$1,648,109 


$1,775,967 


$2,646,181 


$3,273,899 


$2,805,077 


$2,748,212 


$1,838,836 



« Collected at Port Byron. » At Newport. « Office abolished in 1867. ^ At Saratoga, Ft. Miller, Ft. Edward, and Ft. Ann. 

Number of Clearances issued from 1833 to 1858, both inclusive, on the Several Canals. 











•8 




?3 




t 


^ 


.S 


ls«" 




Ye.ui. 


1 


•S 

t 


i 

1 


S 
O 

li 
II 


1 
1 


.3 
1 


i 

g 


iS 


.2 








18.33 


21,841 


5,938 


3,739 


1,086 


253 


1.53 












48,740 


1S34 


29.441 


7,159 


6,867 


1,891 


1,247 


896 












63,726 


1835 


30,963 


7,438 


7,763 


1,693 


1,802 


1,075 












69.078 


1836 


31,837 


6,752 


6,870 


1,730 


1,951 


1,179 












67.256 


1837 


29.511 


5.967 


6,651 


1,385 


1,704 


998 


617 











62.273 


1838 


30,282 


5.582 


7.864 


1.361 


1,629 


958 


1.069 










64.796 


1839 


33,454 


5.804 


8.456 


1,213 


1,624 


930 


880 










68.296 


1840 


35,231 


6.871 


7.472 


1,223 


1,553 


814 


762 


478 








69,133 


1841 


36,333 


6,067 


9.125 


1,421 


2.595 


890 


1,039 


1,096 




574 




76.990 


1842 


31,529 


4.709 


6,877 


1,397 


8.361 


7.31 


815 


1.595 




1,101 




67.516 


184:3 


32,529 


4.303 


7,948 


1,068 


2,469 


964 


968 


1.809 




1,250 




69.720 


1844 


32,216 


4.911 


10,204 


1,249 


3.050 


976 


1.128 


2.045 




1,2.37 




76,4(J9 


1845 


35,142 


5.128 


10.296 


1,449 


3,696 


1,495 


1,189 


3.223 




1.260 




81.629 


1846 


93.276 


6.606 


11.067 


1,881 


3.699 


1.278 


1,207 


2.366 




1,089 




89.936 


1S47 


46,255 


6,937 


12,838 


1,814 


4.440 


1.300 


1.477 


2.283 




1,307 




104.478 


1848 


43.829 


6.454 


12.406 


1,9-32 


4,669 


1,184 


1,545 


2.389 




1,677 




98.325 


1849 


37,507 


6.996 


7.861 


969 


3,843 


1.025 


989 


2,162 




2.034 




85,648 


1850 


39,116 


6.958 


7.751 


886 


3,839 


1.042 


1,295 


2.225 




393 




89,124 


1851 


41.563 


6.766 


8,071 ■ 


1,056 


3,828 


916 


907 


2,037 


530 


695 





92.926 


1852 


39.177 


7,714 


7,844 


954 


3,999 


827 


1,603 


2.014 


609 


1,187 




93,842 


1863 


39,621 


9,865 


9.129 


1.016 


5.019 


916 


1.762 


2,897 


674 


1.373 




100,148 


1854 


41,462 


7,781 


13,316 


1,857 


6.630 


705 


1,899 


2.968 


817 


2.563 


491 


104.902 


18.55 


40.850 


7,421 


12,248 


1,971 


5,267 


760 


1,954 


2,434 


933 


2.393 


470 


97.856 


1856 


35..514 


7.625 


14,827 


2,439 


6,982 


752 


1.923 


2,.333 


834 


3,177 


494 


98.214 


18.57 


31. .307 


7,754 


10.133 


2.097 


5,909 


261 


1,906 


2,405 


900 


1,289 




80,309 


1858 


28,849 


8,807 


13,538 


1.740 


5.105 


534 


1,532 


2,314 


808 


1.339 





80,985 



CANALS. 



57 



c« ij' i^ ui cr» CT :;i c^i cji ^ *- 4- 4- 4- 4- *- *- *- ** ii cc ^r M w cc i^ io CO w re ic 1^ ic i<i to lo 



w 



^ 



^M M to bO K3 to tC to to to to CO to to K> J 
C»"^ Ci U^ 4- a>^l o"cC O '^'CO V i^ "^ <» C7< OC tJi rfi. rfi. "iu. rfu. CO "»-* to O O CO -^-» — T 05 tpi. to w 

CO Cl O GC CJ W :0 '^ C'l O 4- CO *- Ci 'O oo c; ^-* CO to I-* fU 4- ^1 CO '.C oc o 4- o to --1 CC O O CD 
j» jD a> jc cr< w p ;*- cc lO 7-1 z: p ^ p p po^T^^-i 4^ 4- 057^0 p oij-* w^i;^i c;i 7-1^ 4- to 



Erie Canal. 



^* 



COOf-^OC>tO^-^05tO>-»tOO'-*^0:0-^Ot-'OCDi-'i-'i— 'CO'-'OOOCOOOC'-l-T*^ 

Oi^^pcs p ^ p C/. ^ -^ p y^ 'p p tz> O'' -^ tzt za f-- ^ ^ p.o^ t:;. p tz p ^i ^ z,:^ <^ z^ p 

'cj'co to cn"^ O C" CO '-0 V. en o o to ^ CO O 00 4^. ^ M 
CO X to 10 lO CD O CO r. -1 O '-O '^ — ' CO O C +- to en to to to W I-' -1 '^ CO en -1 C71 4- O I-* '-' 

O CO O *- to CC I— ' CO CD to O *J 4- O CO :X — I <-• — I CO en O; 0-« *-• I— ' to '-' CI CO »-» -I <-t (-• en *- 



— 10t-'3iGOOCJi-J*-Ca>CO'ri4i-COCJ'en'-»--^Cll-'COtO'-*0<-»CDtO~'000»-*tO 

cnco&t^Toocn»-''MCoa:>o:o-^tt.too»F*>i(^if^ovi>-i»^OOtocn&90ocooobooo 



Champlain Canal, 



OOOOOOOOSaJOOOCD?D-^*^Cr'C7:C;i03COCOtOCOIOK>COt3tOtO>-»l-»)-» 

_7» to p io^0 7^_co en 00 '-',5c' M 00 2opp ►-•pop rfi.*5j-'pjo tocopijr-jiop to : 

"" jt to --I 'cO '•-' CO '•-' to to to en 'H-»"co'o'4i>." 

o to CO 03 :« 4- ■* e to 4- to c: -1 o CI 

C C5 CO CO 'Cn -J 4- CO to 4- to 10 to to CD 



-^ en CD I-* --I to 

CO c; -x to CO CO '_ 

CO en CO h-* *- 7^" p p GO 

^T C; H-» en CO CD *- to *. CO to CO 



tOMO-»tOCO*.^T. 

o c: ►-* o^ --I CO CO en ; 
CO 00 en CO •-» en o — 1 • 



Oswego Canal. 




Cayuga <t Seneca Canal. 



Oicni-'-^i-'CiooencD-^i— 'ocn 

to I-* I-" C: ■:.n O 4- 

CO Ci -^ GO to CO X 



encD~^'-iOCn>f>-CO^l^COCOi-*CO>f-O^COCl 
Co CO CO CO — J O ** :» CI O CO en QC O CO Ci •-* ^I CD 
a; -^ h-* H-* — J CO *. en to to ~ X -:i 4* -- c; *- QO *- 



Cfiemung Canal, 



01 ci'o'o o'co'co'rf^^'^aj'co'co'cDrf*.^ to^o -^'--^'o en co oo 4^ to • 
cococoooencDCi~icDcot04^)-'encotoaoi-'tOfcOt--'toi-'co'-To: 
Coenjfi'OOS)— 'COCOOCiH-'CitOtO-^XCD-JCOi-'CiH-'J-'COCOO; 

>--'"cobociOOOQo^o^CTbo^boH-tcobou»wwT-*cx^4^bo: 

OiOiCTiCnrfi.CD-'l-'C^trf-.oOi-'COcDOOcDtOCOf-'toenoiCiO rf^-* 



Crooked Lake Canal. 




KMJ 03 to '.^ ui iv '-^ i.^ '_^ '^i^ -^ — -I ',:-; r-^ -~-i ^ H— •— ^_; — 1 L-J • 
p X it- p jp- GO p C» CO en to p to _*-' 3-1 4* en p ►-' 30 O I 
CO ^J CI Ci o v--» bo *4^ ^J 4^ CO CO CO ^ CD ^T CO t*. en CO X - 
«Di-»(-»oii-'ooocDtoenoooojenojenQooococo^^t 



Chenango Canal, 




Genesee VaXley Canal, 



J-* H* p^ CD ^ CO -^ CO : 

^ to Co'olC' en^o'tn'CJ QOCiOiCnC50iCn4^*»"* 
Ci'C:i-».-i*--^ococotocot0 4^cntoocio;; 

Cnp^XtOpH-i!DCOC0)-'X4i-t0C0j-*^tOtO; 

^bT4^to4^c^-'Taoccioo--^bien4^-^bso| 

OC0t0t-»Co-^G04^t0Cl-^4^C0C0en4^C0b0- 



Oneida Lake Canal, 




Seneca River Towing 
Path, 



Co to to CO to to 

"COh-icoO'^TencocD 



Oneida River Improve- 
ment. 



MCOCOCOCOtOtOI-'i-'tO' 

-J h-* cj» en to Ci — J -1 X C3 : 
--5cototooco*-.encoto* 



Cai/uga Inlet, 



^pjpp p rf^jP!.. CO JO : 

lo"*-" co^bo CO 'ai'ai'oi ci • 
cocococoxcotooto: 

jf-.r-'en-'IOOOCOj-tp; 

J-*enocoo*^TCicoco: 

en-^CntO-^i— '— ^MCO" 



Black River Canal. 



ti, v-t oi -^ cj p : 

O CO O t-* H-* 4- • 



Baldsioinsville Canal. 




CO O H-" p p-^ ^ ^ - 
CO^C1H-*COCOOO 

toc;»'^oe;»otoo 






? 



?5g 









o 



V 


w 


a 


t-* 




5^' 


H 


P 





*?- 


t^ 


« 




^^ 






H 


<*». 











t-i 





t-i 




M 






00 

10 

CO 



00 
ca 

o 



cs 



58 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie Erie Canal, connecting the Hudson with Lake Erie, was commenced at Rome, July 4, 

1817, and was completed Oct. 26, 1825. As first constructed, it was 363 mi. long, 28 ft. wide at 
the bottom, 40 ft. wide at the top, and 4 ft. deep. The locks were 90 ft. long between the gates, and 
15 ft. wide. The original cost of the whole was $7,143,789. 86.^ 



The numbei- of boats upon the canals at different periods has 
been— in 1843. 2.136; in 1844, 2,126; in 1847, 2,725; in 1853, 
3,401 ; and in 1859, about 3,500. The following numbers of new 
boats have been registered : — 



1S44. 37S 

1845, 297 

1846, 477 



1847, 1,466 

1848, 457 

1849, 215 



1S50, 152 

1851, 213 

1852, 271 



1853, 590 

1854, 760 

1855, 471 



1856, 364 

1857, 329 

1858, 255 



Some opinion may be formed of the class of boats used from 
the numbers built. These were, in 1857, of scows, 106; decked 
scows, 23; lake boats, 95; bullheads, 102; and packets, 
3. None of the last named were built in 1858 ; and the day for 
traveling upon tlie canals may be considered as virtually passed, 
-juless steam canal boats — now being introduced into use — prove 
successful competitors in speed with steam upon railroads. 



The largest boat registered in 1844 was 90 tons. In 1849, soma 
were as high as 135 tons; in 1850, 170 tons; in 1853, 250 tons; 
and in 1858, 300 tons. The aTerage tonnage of boats has bc«a 
as follows : — 

1849 76 

1850 80 

1851 87 

1852 88 

1853 97 

1854 105 

1855 102 

1856 107 

1857 114 

1858 109 

General average 100 



Structures upon the New 


York State Canals at the close of 


1857. 
















Black River 
Qmal and 
Improvement. 


-§•3 


s 

1 


s ? 


i^ i 

|i 

a & 


"S 

Is 


4 

11 

27 

1 

6 

2 

14 


11. 

53 
1 

4 

10 

2 

27 
16 
16 
50 
1 


— R..J 

113 
3 

17 

34 

103 

103 
102 

9 
214 

5 


Total. 




76 

4 

5 

35 

49 

243 

3 

509 
10 


39 
6 

4 
23 
27 

52 

75 

13 

140 

8 


116 
1 

19 
21 
52 

212 
12 


110 
1 

5 
12 
18 

36 

40 
1 

77 
1 


7 

2 

2 
1 

3 


18 
5 

5 
5 

11 

1 

11 
23 

8 


2 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 
3 

3 


12 

3 

13 
1 

27 

41 

5 


674 

23 

5 

84 

163 

455 

3 

1,296 
51 


Guard Locks«..... 




Aoueduf't? 


Wastf Weirs 


Culverts 


Ko;i(l Brid^tiS 


Farm Bridges 

Tow Bridges 

Total Brid'''es^ 


Dams" 



" Double locks, side by side, are counted as one. The numter 
upon the Erie Canal, when completed, will be two less, by dis- 
pensing with those now at Montezuma. 

' Farm bridge.s are gradually lessening in number, as the 
clainis of individuals are from time to time commuted, or the 



damages appraised from failure to rebuild them. The principal 
increase of bridges is in cities and villages, from the opening of 
new stieets; and in these localities permanent iron bridges are 
now generally built upon the principal thoroughfares. 
" Of the 10 dams in the first column, 8 are feeder dams. 



1 Plans for improving the navigation of the Mohawk were 
proposed in 1725, but nothing was done to this end till March 
30, 1792. when the "Western Inland Navigation Company" was 
incorporated, with, powers to improve the channel and build 
canals and locks to Lake Ontario and Seneca Lake. The cost to 
Oneida Lake was estimated at £39,500. This work consisted 
mainly of the following: — 

1st. A canal at Little Falls, 4,752 feet long, of which 2,550 feet 
were through solid rock. Upon it were 5 locks, with a total 
rise of 4-li feet. 2d. A canal 1^ miles long, with a lock, at Wolf 
Rift, CJermaii Flats, od. A canal, 1| miles long, at Home, con- 
necting the Mohawk with Wood Creek : and. 4th. four locks upon 
Wood Creek, with a total depth of 25 feet. The work was begun 
at Little Falls, in 1793. but the want of funds delayed the work 
until 1794, when a subscription of 200 shares was obtained from 
the State. Boats first passed the canal and locks at this place 
Nov. 17, 1795, and on that day and the next 8 large and 102 
small boats were passed, at a toll of £80 10s, exclusive of 9 that 
passed free the first day. The chambers of the locks were 74 
by 12 feet, and allowed boats of 32 tons to pass : but other im- 
pediments limited boats to a burden of 10 or 11 tons. Light 
boats could go from Sclienectady to Fort Stanwix and back in 9 
days : but the larger boats requii'ed 14 days to make the trip. In 
1793. AVood Creek was cleared out. and 13 isthmuses were cut 
across, shortening the channel 7 miles. In 1796, boats passed 
through to Oneida Lake; and the work, in 1797. had cost 
$400.000. of which the State paid $92,000. The great cost re- 
quired high tolls; and in 1812 but 300 boats passed, with 1,500 
tons, at Little Falls. The company gave up its rights west of 
Oneida Lake in 1808, and sold out to the State, in 1820. for 
$152.718.52.— /?(;;jo)-« of West<m, the E7win(er,l'tm; Stafford's 
GazetUrr. 1813; Hist. iV. Y. Canals, II. 40. 

It is entirely uncertain who originated the first idea of con- 
structing a chain of water communication through the State. 
All of the early efforts were directed to effecting a passage 
through the Mohawk. Wood Creek. Oneida Lake, and Oswego 
River to Lake Ontario. The Western connection was sought 
by locking around Niagara Falls. In ISOO. Gouverneur Morris 
first suggested the idea of a direct canal from I^ake Erie to the 
Hudson, throiigh the- center of the State. His plan was to tap 
Lak(! Erie, and have a continuous slope from the lake to the 
high land that borders upon the Hudson, and a series of locks 
thejice to the river. In 1803 he stated the outline of his jlan to 
the Surveyor-General, Simeon De Witt, who looked upon it as 



chimerical. The next year Mr. De Witt, in a conversation with 
James Geddes, then a land surveyor of Onondaga county, stated 
the plan of Mr. Morris as one of the impracticable schemes 
which had been advanced. Mr. Geddes, however, looked at the 
matter in a different light, and, after some little reflection, he 
concluded that the plan, with some modifications, was by far 
the best that had yet been suggested. He counseled with Jesse 
Ilawley upon the subject ; and the latter, convinced of the feasi- 
bility of the project, wrote a series of papers which were pub- 
lished in the Genesee Messenger from Oct. 1807, to March, 1808. 
These essays were signed '■ Hercules," and were the first ever 
printed in favor of the Erie Canal. In 1808, Joshua Forman, 
an intimate associate of Mr. Geddes. then a member of the As- 
sembly, introduced a resolution for the survey of a canal route, 
to the end that Congress might be led to grant moneys for the 
constniction of a canal. The sum erf $600 was granted for 
surveys under the direction of the Surveyor-General. James 
Geddes was intrusted with this service, and was directed to level 
down from Oneida Lake to the mouth of Salmon Creek, to ascer- 
tain wiiether a canal could be opened from Oswego Falls to Lake 
Ontario, and to survey the best route for a canal around Niagara 
Falls. He was also directed to survey a route eastward from 
Lake Erie to Genesee Kiver, and thence to the waters flowing 
east into Seneca Lake. He finished this work, and made a 
report showing the practicability of the last named route and 
its great superiority over the others which had been proposed. 
This report at once excited general attention, and secured the 
influence of De Witt Clinton, then a member of the Senate, and 
many other prominent men. In 1810, commissioners, at the 
head of whom was De Witt Clinton, were appointed to exjilore 
a canal mute through the center of the State. On the 8th of 
April, 1811. an act was passed to provide for the improvement 
of the internal navigation of the State, and efforts were made to 
obtain aid from the General Government, but without success. 
The report of the commissioners stated the importance of this 
measure ■nith such force and eloquence that a law was passed 
the next year continuing the commissioners, and authorizing 
them to borrow and deposit money, and take cessions of land, for 
the proposed canal: but the war suspended active operations. 
The project, however, continued to be discussed, and an act was 
passed on the 17thof April. 1816. providing for a definite sinrey. 
The canal was begun at Kome, July 4, 1SI7. and on the 22d of 
Octolior. ISIO. the first boat passed from Utica to Rome. 
The completion of the canal was celebrated by extraordinai-y 



CANALS. 



59 



The enlargement of this canal was ordered May 11, 1835, and has been going on more or lesa 
rapidly since, except during a few years of suspension commencing under Gov. Wright's adminis- 
tration. It was estimated by the State Engineer and Surveyor, in Jan., 1859, that $1,505,077.75 
would complete the enlargement upon the present plan, making the total cost of that work 
$23,000,000. The length of the Erie Canal when enlarged will be reduced to 349.74 mi. Its sec- 
tion gives a breadth of 70 ft. at the surface of the water, 52^ ft. at the bottom, and a depth of 7 ft. 



chic and military ceremonies throughout the State, and espe- 
cially in New York City, ou the 4th of Nov. 1S25. As the tirst 
bout, with (jovernor Clinton on brard. entered the canal, at 
Buffalo, at 10 o'clock, (Oct. 26,) a line of cannon, previously ar- 
ranged a few miles apart, jiassed a signal along to Albany, and 
down the Hudson to Sandy Hook, from whence it was returned 
in like manner. The signal was heard at New York, at 11.20. 
The flotilla with the Governor was everywhere greeted with en- 
thusia-tic rejoicing. Upon reaching New York it passed down 
to Sandy Hook, and the waters of the lake were mingled with 
those of the ocean with imposing ceremonies. 

The Canal Commissioners under whom the Erie and Cham- 
plain Canals were constructed were Stephen Van Rensselaer, De 
VVitt Clinton, Joseph Ellicott, Samuel Young, and Myron 



Holley. Henry Seymour was appointed in place of Ellicott in 
March, 1S19, and William C. Bouck was added to th? number in 
March, 1S21. The chief engineers were James Geddes, of Or.oii- 
daga CO., and Benjamin Wright, of Kome, neither of whom had 
ever seen a canal, or enjoyed means of acquiring a practical 
knowledge of engineering other than that obtained from survi y- 
ing land. The precision with which their canal surveys woro 
executed, under the circumstances, may be regarded as truly 

wonderful. Among the assistant engineers were Peacock, 

David Thomas. Nathan S. Roberts, David S. Rates, Canvass 
White, Davis Hurd, Noah Dennis, Charles T. Whippo, William 
Jerome, Henry ti. Sargent, Frederick C. Mills, Isaac J, Thomas, 
Henry Farnam. Alfred Barrett, John Bates, William H. Price, 
John Hopkins, and Seymour Skiff. 



The Canal Board have adopted the following table of distances from place to place upon the Erie Canal. The elevations 
above tide are those shown by the lockages, and do not take into account tlie descent given to cause a flow of water between 
locks, which does not vary much from an inch to a mile. The long level is supposed to be perfectly uniform in elevation above 
tide. 

Stations, Distances, and Elevations above Tide on the Erie Canal. 



Places. 



Albany 

West Troy 

Junction 

Cohoes 

Crescent 

Upper Aqueduct 

Schenectady 

Hoffmans Ferry 

Port Jackson 

Schoharie Creek 

Auriesville 

Fultonville 

Yatesvillo 

Sprakers 

Canajoharie 

FortPlain 

St. Johnsville 

Mindenville 

East Canada Creek... 

Little Falls 

Mohawk 

Ilinn 

Frankfort 

Fer'TUSons 

Utica 

York Mills 

Whitesboro 

Oriskauy 

Rome ., 

New London 

Higginsville 

Dunbarton 

Loomis 

Durhamville 

Lenox 

Canastota 

New Boston Landing. 
Canaseraga Landing. 

Chittenango 

Bolivar 

Pools Brook 

Kirkvillo 

Manlius 

Limestone Feeder 

Orville Feeder 

Lofli 

Syracuse 

Gerlrlcs 

Bellisle 

Nine Mile Creek 

Camillns 

Canton 

Peru 

Jorda \ 

Cold Spring 











It 


'^'f. 


1.^ 




«9 V 


» s 


«.o 


o » § 









115 





352 




7 


7 


345 







7 


345 




4 


11 


341 




3 


14 


338 




12 


26 


326 




4 


30 


322 


188 


10 


40 


312 




6 


46 


306 


209.5 


5 


51 


301 




2 


53 


299 




3 


56 


296 


295 


6 


62 


290 




3 


65 


287 




3 
3 


68 
71 


284 
281 


301 


5 

2 
4 


76 
78 
82 


276 
274 
270 


309 


5 


87 


265 


300 


8 
3 


95 

98 


257 
254 




3 
5 
4 
3 
1 
3 


101 
106 
110 
113 
114 
117 


251 
246 
242 
239 
238 
235 


403 
424 

427 


8 
6 
4 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
4 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
4 


125 
131 
135 
136 
1.37 
140 
143 
145 
149 
150 
1.51 
152 
154 
1.55 
1.58 
159 
161 
165 


227 
221 
217 
216 
215 
212 
209 
207 
203 
202 
201 
200 
19S 
197 
194 
193 
191 
187 


427 


1 


166 


186 


400 


2 
4 
2 
1 
5 
2 
3 
1 


168 
172 
174 
175 
180 
182 
185 
186 


184 
180 
178 
177 
172 
170 
167 
166 


407 



Places. 



Weedsport 

Centerport 

Port Byron 

Montezuma , 

Pitt Lock 

Clyde 

Lock Berlin 

Lyons 

East Arcadia , 

Lockville , 

Newark 

Port Gibson 

Palmyra _- 

Macedon 

Wayneport 

Knappville 

Fafrport 

FuUam's Basin 

Bushnell's Basin 

Cartersville 

Pittsford , 

Lock No. 65 , 

Brighton 

Rochester 

Greece (6-mile grocery).... 

Brockways 

Spencerport .... 

Adams Basin 

Cooleys Basin 

Brockport - 

Holley 

Hulberton 

Brockville 

Hindsburgh 

Albion 

Gaines Basin 

Eagle Harbor 

Knowlesville 

Medina 

Shelbys Basin.. 

Middleport — 

Reynales Basin » 

Mabees 

Gasport 

Orangpport 

Millards _ 

Lockport 

Sulphur Springs, G. Lock . 

Pendleton _ 

Piekardsville 

Martinsville 

Tonawanda 

Lower Black Rock 

Black Rock 

Buftalo 











?^ 


g 


g 








"i..2 


II., 


|§ 


14 


? « V 


4 


^^ 


^a? 


402 


190 


162 


2 


192 


160 




2 


194 


1.58 




5 


199 


153 


391 


6 


205 


147 




5 


210 


142 


397 


4 


214 


138 




3 


217 


1.35 


410 


3 


220 


132 




3 


223 


129 




1 


224 


128 




3 


227 


125 




5 


232 


120 


445 


4 


236 


116 




3 


239 


113 




2 


241 


111 




3 


244 


108 


462 


1 


245 


107 




3 


248 


104 




2 


250 


102 




1 


251 


101 




2 


253 


99 




3 


256 


96 


471 


8 


259 


93 


609 


7 


266 


86 




3 


269 


83 




2 


271 


81 




3 


274 


78 




3 


277 


75 




2 


279 


78 




5 


284 


68 




3 


287 


65 




1 


2S8 


64 




1 


289 


63 




4 


293 


59 




2 


295 


57 




i 


296 


56 




3 


299 


53 




4 


303 


49 




3 


306 


46 




3 


309 


43 




4 


313 


39 




1 


314 


38 




1 


315 


37 




1 


316 


36 




2 


318 


34 




3 


321 


31 


565 


5 


326 


26 




2 


328 


24 




5 


333 


19 




3 


336 


16 




4 


340 


12 




8 


348 


4 




1 


349 


3 




3 


352 








60 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The number of locks will be 74, or 10 less than the original number.^ The banks of the enlarged 
canal are protected from washing by slope walls, consisting of stone firmly packed upon the sloping 
eides. The canal will allow the passage of boats of 200 to 250 tons burden. Steam has been 
introduced to some extent in propelling boats, and the success of the experiment has been so great 
that probably steam power will ultimately supersede horse power. 

Tlie Clianiplalii Canal, extending from the Erie Canal, near Cohoes, to Lake Cham- 
plain, was begun June 10, 1818, finished to Waterford Nov. 28, 1822, and completed Sep. 10, 1823, 
at an original cost of $875,000, exclusive of the feeder to Glens Falls. It is 64 mi. long and has 
a navigable feeder of 7 mi. to Glens Falls, with a slackwater navigation 5 mi. further upon the 
Hudson.'' 

Tlie Clienangro Canal,' connecting the Erie Canal at Utica with the Susquehanna River 
at Biughamton, was authorized Feb. 23, 1833. It is 97 mi. long, exclusive of 13f mi. of feeders, 
none of which are navigable. 

Tlie Black River Canal and Erie Canal Feeder extends from Rome up the 
valley of the Mohawk and of Lansing Kil to Boonville, and thence it descends the valley of Black 
River to a point below the High Falls. From the latter point is a river navigation 422- mi. to Car- 



1 The chambers of the enlarged locks are 110 by 18 feet, and 
their lift varies from 3 to loj feet. Tlie canal leaves Lake Erie 
at Buffalo, follows the river bank to Bliick Itock, and communi- 
cates with the dam at that place. At a point 10 mi. below Buf- 
falo it enters Tonawanda Creek, follows Its channel 12 mi., and 
crosses thence, through a rock cutting, to the brow of the 
mountain ridge, at Lockport, where it descends 55.83 feet by 5 
combined locks. It continues thence, eastward, from 1 to 3 mi. 
8. of the ridge road, to Rochester, crosses the Genesee upon a stone 
aqueduct, makes a circuitous sweep across the Irondequoit valley, 
along the top of a n.atural range of hills, and finally delivers the 
waters of Lake Erie into Seueca River, after supplying 153 mi. 
of the Erie Canal, and affording a large amount of water-power 
at various points along its course. It then rises by 2 locks, 
descends into the Onondaga valley by 1 lock, and then rises by 
3 locks to the long level which extends from Syracuse to Utica, 
from whence it descends the Mohawk valley, mostly on its s. 
side, to the Hudson. Below Schenectady, it twice crosses the 
Jlohawk, upon stone aqueducts. It is continued down the 
bank of the Hudson to Albanj', where it terminates in a spa- 
cious basin. At West Troy it also opens into the Hudson. The 
total lockages going w. are 612.9 feet up, and 4.'5.5 feet down, or 
a total of 65fi.-t feet. The canal is fed by numerous streams 
along its course, and by 9 reservoirs, all of which, with a single 
exception, are upon the middle division. They are as follows : 



Reservoirs. 



Erieville« ». 

Hatchs Lake 

Eatons Brook 

Bradley Brook. 

Leland Pond 

Woodnians Lake... 

Madison Brook 

Skaneateles Lake . 
Cazenovia Lake.... 



Total 11,516 





^^ 






s § 


a 


Acres in 


■2 2 . 










area. 


8 « S-; 


s 




^ c ^ 


^?. 




c^'S-g 


^•^ 


340 


46 


211 


134 


15 


10 


254 


60 


50 


134 


30 


25 


173 


13 


8 


148 


18 


11 


235 


55 


45 


8..320 


6 




1,778 


... 


4^ 


11,516 







"t^: 






20 

es» 

8 
3" 

I 

if 

i 

4 

2 

9 

10 



150J 



o Built in 1857, at a cost of $10,884,73. In Nelson, Madison 

CO, 

' Leads to Bradley Brook reservoir. 
« Leads to Eaton Brook feeder. 

Besides these are the reservoirs upon the Black River Canal, 
which is itself but a feeder to the long level of the Erie Canal. 
Several of the feeders to the middle and western divisions of the 
Erie Canal are navigable for short distances. Connected with 
tlie canal at Buffalo are Main and Hamburg street canals, the 
Clark and Skinner Canal, the Ohio basin, and several slips con- 
nected with the canal, and a ship-lock channel at Black Rock. 
At Tonawanda is a side-cut for a river-lock. 

2 A company styled the "Northern Inland Navigation Co." 
was formed at the same time as the Western Co. ; but failed to 
raise funds to accomplish its objects. A natur.al water commu- 
nication, interrupted by portages, extended along the route of 
this canal, which was used by the natives with their canoes. 
The canal was built of the same dimensions as the Erie. It 
crosses the Mohawk in a pond formed by a dam 1.700 feet in 
length, and follows near the w. bank of the Hudson to Schuyler- 
vi;ie, wlicre it crosses into AVashington co. by another dam 700 
feet long, and continues near the east bank to Fort Edward. 



Here it leaves the river and crosses to the valley of Wood Creek, 
and thence, partly in the bed of that stream, to Whitehall. 
AVhen this canal was first opened slackwater navigation upon 
the Hudson was used 8 miles above and 3 miles below Fort 
Miller, with a short canal and 2 locks around the falls at that 
place. It was fed from the Hudson by means of a high and 
costly dam near Fort Edward. The use of the channel of the 
Hudson is now entirely superseded by a canal along its bank, 
built in 1826-27 ; and the high dam has given place to a feeder to a 
point above Glens Falls, where there is a dam 770 feet long and 
12 feet high. The feeder enters the canal at the summit level, 
1^ tailes N, E. from Fort Edward. The canal communicates 
with the Hudson above the State dam at Waterford by a side- 
cut with 3 locks. It has 7 locks between the lake and the sum- 
mit, with 54 feet total lift, and 14 locks, with a total of 134 feet, 
between the Summit and the Hudson at Waterford, The locks 
on this canal are being enlarged to a capacity of 16 J by 100 feet. 

Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Champlain Canal. 



Places. 



Albanv 

AVesttroy 

Junction 

W.aterford 

Meclianicsville 

Stillwater Village 

Bleeckers Basin 

Wilburs Basin 

Van Deusens Landing.. 

Schuylerville 

Saratoga Bridge 

Fort Miller 

Moses Kil 

Fort Edward 

Glens Falls Feeder... 

Bakers Basin 

Smiths Basin 

Fort Ann 

Comstocks Landing 

Whitehall 

















■a 


S^ 


g 


S-J 


« 




"Sg- 


■^1 


1 


Ig 


S § 


J5 


•S 


^i 


^=5 


^^ 


s; 








■ 71 




7 


7 


64 







7 


64 


25 


3 


10 


61 


55 


8 


18 


53 




4 


22 


49 




2 


24 


47 




2 


26 


45 




5 


31 


40 




3 


34 


37 


100 


2 


36 


35 


110 


3 


39 


32 


131 


3 


42 


29 




5 


47 


24 


140 


2 


49 


22 


150 


1 


50 


21 




5 


55 


16 




4 


59 


12 




4 


63 


8 




8 


71 





96 



Gleiis Falls Feeder. 
Places. 



Champlain Canal.,,. 

Sandy Hill 

Glens Falls , 

Head of the Feeder.. 
Head of the Pond,.. 



Total,, 



Miles from 
place to place. 

2 
'3 
2 
5 

12 



' This canal is supplied by Chenango River and 6 reservoirs, 
viz., — Madison Brook, Woodmans Pond, Lelands Poi.d. Bradleys 
Brook, Hatchs Lake, and Eaton Brook Reservoirs,— all of which 
ai-e in the south part of Madison co. The canal extends across 
to and up tlie valley of Oriskany Creek to the summit level, and 
down the vallev of Chenango River, It was begun in 1833 and 
finished in 1837. at a cost of $1,737,703. From Utica to the 
Summit it rises 706 feet by 76 locks, and from thence it descends 
303 fett bv 38 lucks to the Susquehanna, Of its 114 locks, 2 are 
stone and the nm.aindor composite. Upon the feeders are 12 
road and IS farm bridges. 



C A N A L S. 



61 



thage, on the line of Jefferson co. At Boonville the canal receives a navigable feeder 12 mi. long, 
which derives its water from Black River. Length of main canal 36.G2 mi., of feeders 12.48 mi., 
and of reservoirs 12.95 mi.^ 

Tfie Oueida liake Canal^ connects the Erie Canal at Higginsville {3| mi.) with "Wood 
Creek, and by slackwater, 2]^ mi. on that stream, with Oneida Lake, a total distance of G mi., and 
a descent of 56 ft. 

Tlie Os^vego Canal, extending from Syracuse to Oswego, was authorized Nov. 20, 1824. 
A loan of $160,000 was allowed April 20. 1825; it was begun in 1826, and was completed in 1828, 
at a cost of $525,115.' It is 38 mi. long,and includes 19 mi. of slackwater navigation in Oswego 
and Seneca Rivers, with a towing path on the e. bank. Connected with this work are the Oneida 
River Improvement, extending the whole length of that stream from Three River Point 
to Fort Brewerton, at the outlet of Oneida Lake; the Seneca River Improvement, ex- 
tending from Mud Lock, on the Oswego Canal, to Baldwinsville, by slackwater navigation ; and 



Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Chenango Canal. 



Places. 



Utica 

Road loading from New Hart- 
ford to Whitesboro 

Clinton 

Deansville 

Oriskfny Falls 

Solsville 

Boucl<\'ille 

Pecks Basin 

Hamilton 

Lebanon Factory 

Earlfville 

Sherburne 

North Norwich 

I'lastorville 

Norwich 

Oxford 

Haynes Mill 

Greene 

Forks 

Pond Brook 

Port Crane 

Crockers Mills 

Binghamton 



<u 






o 




s ■ 


S-2 


g 


ft ^ 


5 a, 






<5 


< 


<3 














97 


3 


3 


94 


6 


9 


88 


5 


14 


83 


5 


19 


78 


3 


22 


75 


2 


24 


73 


2 


26 


71 


4 


30 


67 


2 


32 


65 


4 


36 


61 


5 


41 


56 


4 


45 


52 


2 


47 


50 


4 


51 


46 


9 


60 


37 


10 


70 


27 


4 


74 


23 


8 


82 


15 


2 


84 


13 


5 


89 


8 


1 


90 


7 


7 


97 






427 



572 

775 

956 

1,109 

1,128 

1,112 

1,078 
1,033 
1,018 

996 
958 

924 

881 



814 



1 This canal was anthorized April 19, 1836, and began the next 
Bummer. The summit level is 693 feet above the canal at Rome, 
to which it descends by 70 locks. Northward the canal descends 
386 feet, hy 39 locks. The feeder has but one level. The State 
has caused resprvoirs to be formed by damming the outlet of 
Woodhull, Chub, Nortli and South Branch, and other lakes in 
Herkimer co. The Eight Lakes near the source of Moose River 
are available as reservoirs to supply Black River with water, 
withdrawn to feed the canal southward. 

Table of the principal Lakes which are used or availalle as 
reservoirs. 



Lakes. 


Area in 
acres. 


Feft above 
tide. 


Chub Lake „ 

Sand " 


530 

1.'236 
518 

423" 

'403 

175 

166 

1,979 

9 

53 

1,609 

309 


1.599 
1.793 


IVIud " 


1,799 


Woodhull Lake 

South Branch 


1,8.54 
2,019 


North " 


1,821 
2,188 


Jocks Lake 


Moose ** 


1,772 


First " 


1,684 
1,684 
1,684 
1,687 


Second "" 


Third " 


Fourth " 


Fifth " 


1,691 


Sixth " 


1 760 


Seventh " 


1 762 


Eighth " 


1 776 







In September, 18.57, the C.mal Board abandoned its plans for 
Improving tlie channel of Black River by win'jc-dams and piers, 
and ordered a dam and lock to be built at the mouth of Otter 



Creek. The river has no towing path, and boats are towed by 
steamers. The State has built a dam and bridge at Carthage, 
and the piers of two other bridges, of which the superstructure 
is built by the towns. 



Stations, Distances, and Elevations vpon the Black River 
Canal. 



Places. 



Rome 

Ridge Mills 

Lock No. 7 

Walworth's Storehouse 

Western ville , 

Wells Brook Aqueduct 

Stringers Creek _ 

Lansing Kil 

Lock No. 31 

Lansing Kil Dam or Feeder . 

Lower Falls, Lansing Kil 

Upper Falls, Lansing Kil .... 

Lock No. 70 

Boonville 

Sugar River 

Little Falls, Black River 

Port Lej'den 

Lock No. 97 

Lyons Falls 









Ss 


1 


II 


"^5 


"^ . 


^f^ 


S 8 


2s 


8 5 


is .3 

■^ Si, 


^(^ 


^4" 








35 


2 


2 


33 


3 


5 


30 


1 


6 


29 


3 


9 


26 


2 


11 


24 


2 


13 


*>2 


1 


14 


21 


2 


16 


19 


1 


17 


18 


2 


19 


16 


2 


21 


14 


2 


23 


12 


2 


25 


10 


3 


28 


7 


1 


29 


6 


3 


32 


3 


1 


33 


2 


2 


35 









427 



595 
643 

683 

783 



1,130 
1,120 

892 
734 



Boonville Feeder. 

Hawkinsville, on Feeder 3 miles from Boonville. 

A. Lee's, on " 5 " " " 

R. B. Miller's, on " 6 « " " 

State Dam, on « 10 " " " 

Head of Reservoir 12 " " " 



2 Tliis canal was completed in the fall of 1835 by a company 
incorporated March 22, 1832, as the "Oneida Lake Canal Co." 
The company having to use the waters of the Erie Canal from 
the long level, were required to supply an equivalent amount. 
A feeder was constructed 5 miles west, drawing its waters from 
Oneida Creek. It is 2 miles long, and not navigable. The 
company had authority to extend its improvements 4 mUes up 
Wood Creek, but nothing was ever done in that direction. By 
an act of May 11, 1840, the Canal Commissioners were authorized 
to purchase it at a cost not exceeding $50,000, which was done 
April 12, 1841, and State stock bearing 5 per cent, interest, and 
redeemable in 10 years, was issued in payment. The first cost 
of the canal and feeder was $78,824.85. 

This canal forms an important link in the internal water 
communication of the State, extending navigation from the 
Erie Canal to Oneida Lake, and by the Oneida Outlet to the 
Oswego Canal and River. Before the Erie Canal was built the 
Oneida Lake route was the great thoroughfare for the transporta- 
tion of goods westward. 

3 The act did not originally authorize a connection with the 
Erie Canal, but only a communication with Onondaga Lake. 
The connection was recommended by the commissioners in 1827, 
and it was authorized soon after. This canal has a fall of 123 
feet by 18 locks. 

The Oneida River Improvement has 2 steamboat locks, one 
of 3 and one of 3j feet lift, 120 feet long and 30 wide, pas.slng 
boats drawing 4 feet of water. Tt also h.as one dam and one 
draw bridge at Oak Orchard and Brewerton. 



62 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



thence by a canal three-fourths of a mile long, with one lift and one guard lock, and by slact- 
water on the Seneca River to Jacks Reef. 

Cayuga and Seneca Canal connects the Erie Canal at Montezuma with Cayuga Lake at 
East Cayuga and with Seneca Lake at Geneva. About half of the canal is formed by slackwater 
navigation upon Seneca River, and the remainder is a channel parallel to the river. As enlarged, 
this canal admits the passage of large boats from the Erie Canal to the head of Cayuga and Seneca 
Lakes.' 

Croolied lialie Canal connects Crooked Lake at Penn Yan with Seneca Lake at Dresden.'' 

Cliemung' Canal and Feeder connects Seneca Lake at Watkins with Chemung River 
at Elmira, with a navigable feeder from Knoxville on Chemung River to Horseheads, on the 
summit level of the Chemung Canal, including slackwater navigation from the dam and guard 
lock at Gibson to Knoxville.^ 

Tlie Genesee Talley Canal extends from Rochester up the Genesee Valley to Olean 
upon the Allegany. The summit level is 978 ft. above Rochester and 86 ft. above the Allegany 
River, at Olean, and from it 97 locks descend toward the n. and 9 toward the s.* 



stations, Distances, and Mevations upon the Oswego Canal. 



Places. 



Syracuse 

Salina 

Liverpool 

Mud Lock 

Cold Spring 

New Bridge 

Three Uiver Point 

Pluenix 

Sweet's Loclc 

Ox Creek 

Fulton 

Braddoclv's Rapid.. 
Tiffitnve Landing.. 

Ili-h Dam 

Oswego 



^■ 








s 


s 


s-s 


S ^ 


o 




IP 


ii 








38 


2 


o 


36 


3 


5 


3;j 


2 


7 


31 


1 


8 


30 


5 


13 


25 


2 


l.T 


23 


2 


17 


21 


3 


20 


18 


3 


2-3 


15 


4 


27 


11 


4 


31 


7 


4 


35 


3 


1 


36 


2 


2 


38 






r«-B 



400 
368 

358 

345 
306 
243 



Oneida River Improvement. 

Places. Miles from 
place to place. 

Tliree River Point 

Peter Scott Creek 4 

Oak Orchard 4 

Caughdenoy 7 

Brewerton.". 5 

Total 20 

Seneca River Improvement. 

Mnd Lock 

Bflldwinsville 6 

Jacks Reef. 12 

Total 18 

1 Cayuga and Seneca Canal— Stations and Distances. 

Places. Miles from 
place to place. 

Montezuma 

Seneca River _.. 5 

S. Dermont's _. 2 

Seneca Falls 3 

Chamberlain's Mills 2 

Waterloo 2 

Teal's 5 

Geneva 2 

Lateral Canal to East 

Cayuga 2 

Total 23 

The Seneca Lock Navigation Co. was incorporated April 6. 
1813, for the purpose of improving the outlet of Seneca and 
Cny\igii L.akes; and the Caynga and Seneca Canal Co. was char- 
tered April 20, 1815. Its capital was increased in 1816 to $60,000, 
and in 1817 a further call of 25 per cent, upon the original stock 
■was authorized, including a like extension of payment on stock 
lield by the State. The proposition for assumingthis work by the 
State was approved in 1S25. and the interest of the company was 
purchased for $.33,867.18, exclusive of the amount owned by the 
Ptate. The work waa begun in 1826, and finished In 1828, at a 



cost of $214,000. The Inlet to Cayuga Lake is navigable li 
miles to Ithaca. The locks of tliis canal are all enlarged, ex- 
cepting one at Chamberlain's Diim, which will be dispensed 
with so as to include the distance from Seneca Falls to Waterloo 
in one level. The descent from Geneva to Montezuma is 74 feet 
by 12 locks. 

2 The survey of this canal was authorized by the Legislature 
in 1828. The canal was ordeied to be built by an act of April 
11, 1829. It was begun in 1830 and finished iii 1833. It has a 
descent of 269 feet by 27 locks. It extends water commuuic* 
tion to the various ports upon Crooked Lake. 

Crooked Lake Canal — Stations and Distances. 

Places. Miles from 
place in plact. 

Dresden 

Mallory's 3 

Andrews and Ways 2 

Penn Yan 2 

Crooked Lake 1 

Total 8 

* This canal was authorized April 15, 1R29, and its constnic- 
tion was begun in that year and finished in 1833. The t0t.1l 
lockages on both the canal and feeder are 516 feet by .53 locks, and 
the original cost was $344,000. From Corning, the Blossburg & 
Corning R. R. ascends into the bituminous coal region of Tioga 
CO., Penn., and this article forms a very important item in the 
business of the canal. It also communicates with the Erie 
R. R. The Junction Canal, a private enterprise connecting tho 
Chemung Canal at Elmira with the North Branch Canal of 
Penn. at Athens, 19 mi. s., promises to become an important 
tributary to the trade of this canal by opening access to the 
coal region. The diversion of Chemung River into our canals 
has been made a subject of complaint and remonstrance by the 
State of Penn. Plans h.ave been proposed for using Mud Lake, 
(459 acres) and Little Lake. (708j acres.) in Tyrone, as reser- 
voirs to relieve this canal from the inconvenience felt in dry 
seasons from low water. 

Chemung Canal and Feeder — Stations ami Distances. 



PLACES. MILES. 

Seneca Lake 

Havana 4 

Millport 6 

Horseheads 7 

Elmira 6 

KnoxvUle 22 



Total.. 



47 



Feeder. 

PLACES. MILES. 

Horseheads 

Miller's Basin 7 

Dam at head of Feeder.. 7 

Knoxville 2 

Total 16 



* This canal was authorized by act of May 6, 18.36, and was 
begun the s*ne year. The portion from the Junction to 
Rochester and the Dansville side-cut, in all 52 miles, waa 
finished in 1840; to Oramel, 36 miles further, with the Genesee 
Feeder at that place, in 1851; to Belfast, 2 miles, in 1853; to 
Rockville, 3 miles, in 1854. and to Olean, 24 mile.x, in 1856. A 
section of one mile, with 2 lift locks and 2 bridges, still remains 
to be finished. 

The repairs of the first and second sections of this canal were 
put under contract for five years in Dec. 1855. the former for 
|^=!,440 and the latter for $13,900 per annum. In consequence 
of heavy freshets and unexpected damages, the contractor on 
the first section abandoned his contract in June, 1857. 

An act passed, 1857, authorized the extension of this canal 
from Olean eastward across Olean Creek and the bottom lands 
along the N. bank of the Allegany to its entrance into Mill QroTe 
Pond, 6.52 miles. 



CANALS. 



63 



. Besides the foregoing navigable improvements by the State, the following have been placed 
under the direction of the Canal Commissioner for construction : 

Tlie O^vasco L.ake Improvement, ordered in 1852, and designed to make this lake a 
reservoir for supplying a vrater power for the machinery in Auburn State Prison.' 

The draining of Cayug'a Marslies, for reclaiming a large amount of land, estimated 
at 40,000 acres, at the outlet of Cayuga Lake and along Seneca River. By an act of April 12, 
1853, the channel of the river was ordered to be lowered, and the lands benefitted to be taxed for 
the expense. Surveys have been made and the work partly accomplished under the direction of 
the Canal Commissioners.'* 

Several companies have been incorporated for the purpose of constructing navigable canals, but, 
with two or three exceptions, none of these have at present a corporate existence. 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal, extending from Rondout on the Hudson to Ilones- 
dale, Penn., is the most important of these. It is connected with the Lackawanna coal region by a 
R. R. 16 mi. long, and is one of the principal routes by which coal is brought to the market upon 
the Hudson.' 



Stafiims, Distances, and Etevations upon the Genesee VaUey Canal. 



Places. 



Rochester ■ 

Rapids (Lock No. 1) 

Tone's Basin 

Scottsville - 

Canawaugus (Avon road) 

Sackett's Basin 

Fowlerville Road. 

Barclay's Mill 

Piffiirdinia — 

Spencers Basin...- 

Tracy's Basin 

Cuylerville -„ — 

Leicester, Moscow Landing 

Genesee River Dam 

Mount Morris - 

Shaker Settlement - 

Brushville - 

Nunda - 

Messenger's Hollow _ 

Genesee Falls (Tunnel section) 

Portageville 

Lock No. 61 

Mixville Landing, Wiscoy Feeder. 

Fillmore 

Burrville 

Caneadea Center 

Oramel 

Belfast 

Rockville 

Caseville — 

Black Creek Corners 

Cuba 

Ischua Feeder 

Hinsdale .„ 

Olean -... 



DansviUe Branch. 
Pieces. 



Shaker Settlement.-.. 

Fitzhugh's Basin 

Kysorville 

Rock Spring 

Sherwoods Landing.. 

Steam Sawmill 

McNnirs Landing 

Woodville 

Commonsville 

DansviUe 








K S 





107 


2 


2 


105 


fi 


8 


99 


4 


12 


95 


8 


20 


87 


2 


22 


85 


2 


24 


83 


2 


26 


81 


3 


29 


78 


1 


30 


77 


2 


32 


75 


1 


33 


74 


1 


34 


73 


2 


36 


71 


1 


37 


70 


4 


41 


66 


fi 


46 


61 


6 


61 


56 


2 


53 


54 


4 


57 


50 


2 


59 


48 


.I 


64 


43 


1 


65 


42 


4 


69 


38 


6 


75 


32 


1 


76 


31 


2 


78 


29 


2 


80 


27 


3 


83 


24 


1 


84 


23 


4 


88 


19 


5 


93 


14 


6 


99 


8 


1 


100 


7 


7 


107 






507 

537 
557 



564 

5S9 
600 

796 
947 



1,132 

1,152 
1,222 



1,315 
1,410 



1,485 
1,399 



MUfsfrom 

place to place. 





Total. 



2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

11 



1 This work was 2 years in charge of the Agent of the State 
Prison and the Mayor of Auburn, but in 1855 it was placed in 
the hands of the c;anal Coniniissinners. The work, up to 1857, 
was greatly injured by a Spring flood. From 1852 to 1857 in- 
clusive, $'!3.4S5 had been apinoprlated for this worli;. 

- In 1824, and several times afterward, the drainage of these 
marshes was made the subject of legislative enactment, but 
without other results than surveys. A concise history of this 
movement is given in Senate Doc. 35, 1853. The work was 
placed in 1853 under the direction of George Gediios, and up to 
1858, $175,000 had been appropriated and mostly expended. — 
Report Canal Commissioners, 1868, p. 110. 

8 The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company was incorporated 
April 23, 1823, with a cai^ital of $1,500,000, with the right of 
usingS500,000 in banking until 1844. The credit of the State 
was loaned for $800,000, in stock, bearing interest of 4^ or 5 per 
cent. The canal was begun in July, 1825, and opened for use in 
Oct. 1S28. Its length from Rondout to Port .Tervis, on the Dela- 
ware, is 59 miles; and from Port Jervis, up the Delaware to the 
mouth of the Lakawaxen, 24 miles. It crosses the river at tbo 
latter place, and extends 20 miles further to Honesdale. Its 
highest summit between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers is 585 
feet above tide. Its descent to the Delaware is 80 feet; its li^e 
along the Delaware is 148 feet ; and its rise between the Delaware 
and Honesdale 187 feet. The aggregate number of locks is 109. 
and the total rise and fall is 960 feet. The railroad to the coal 
mines is also owned by the Canal Company. The original cost 
of the New York section of the canal was $1,424,994, and of tlio 
Penn. section $612,123. The company own most of the boats 
used upon the canal, and conduct the mining operations at Car- 
bondale. Present capital, $7,500,000. The canal was originally 
constructed to afford 4 feet of depth, and to accommodate boats 
of 30 tons. In Sept., 1842. a plan of enlargement was adopted, 
and 5 feet of water was obtained, accommodating boats of 40 tona 
each. In 1851 a further enlargement was completed, obtaining 
6 feet of water, and accommodating boats of 120 tons. The 
locks are now constructed with a single gate at the upper end, 
which turns down upon hinges like a door. It is found to be 
very serviceable, and much quicker to operate than the double 
gate. 

Annual Receipts of Tolls on the Delaware and Hudson Canal 

since its completion. 



1830. 
1831. 
1832, 
1833. 
1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
18.39. 
1840. 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 



$16,422,44 
20,554,64 
28.717,51 
37,004,58 
36,946.07 
41.154.73 
45,154.73 
44.832.42 
40,328.38 
40,095.26 
35,450.46 
39.388.19 
33,894.93 
30,996.53 
33,525.61 



1846 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1863 

1854 

1856 

1856 

1857 

1858 



$25,880, 

26,068, 

38.971 

46,548, 

34,817, 

97.999 

158.441 

293.174, 

378,479, 

587,349, 

652,362 

583.737, 

435^98 



64 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Distances on the Delaware and Hudson Canal. 



Names of Placks. 



Eddyville 

Greenkill 

Hornbeck'B Bridge 

Head of Pond 

Hai-denburgh's Basin 

Le Fever's Falls 

Rosendale 

Lawrence's Mills 

Marble Quarries 

High Falls 

Hasbrouck's Basin 

Philip Hasbrouck's 

Clove Church 

AUigerville 

John S. Depuy's Basin... 

Enoch Freelaiid's , 

■Stony Hill Aqueduct 

Port .Jackson 

David Venooy's 

C. P. Hornbeck's 

Mountain Brook 

Middleport 

Bruyn's Basin 

j'oit Hyxson 

I'ort Benjamin - 

Heirstard's Bridge 

Southwick's Brick Yard 

Terwilliger's Feeder 

Ellenville 

Cutler's Basin 

Broadhead's Biickhill.... 

Jared Ritche's 

Peiiney's Basin 

Red Bridge 

Phillipsport 

Davis — Summit Level.... 

Beatysburgh , 

Log House in Swamp.... 
South 8ide of Swamp.... 

Gumares Brook 

Wurtsboro' 

Sneed's Basin 



^4 



No. 1 



to 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 and 9 

10 and 11 

12 to 19 

20 and 21 



22 
2.3 



24 



26 



28 
29 and 30 
31 and 32 
33 
24 
3.5 and 36 
37 and 38 
39 to 41 
42 to 51 
52 to 54 





Miles from 
Honendale. 





108 


1 


107 


2 


106 


3 


lOo 


4 


104 


5 


103 


• 6 


102 


7 


101 


8 


100 


9 


99 


10 


98 


11 


97 


12 


96 


13 


95 


14 


94 


15 


93 


16 


92 


17 


91 


18 


90 


19 


89 


20 


88 


21 


87 


22 


86 


23 


85 


24 


84 


25 


83 


26 


82 


27 


81 


28 


80 


29 


79 


30 


78 


31 


77 


32 


76 


33 


75 


34 


74 


35 


73 


30 


72 


37 


71 


38 


70 


39 


69 


40 


68 


41 


67 



Names or Places. 



Graham's Basin 

Manerza Smith's 

Brown Haven 

Oak Brook Aqueduct 

Indian Spring 

Tunnel Hill 

Westbrookville 

Samuel Staunten's 

Tan Inweigen's Basin 

Cuddebackville 

Neversink Aqueduct 

Piersonville 

Solomon Van Etten's Bridge 

Canal Store 

Hornbeck's Culvert 

Bird's Nest Rock 

Stop Gate — Pine Woods 

Benjamin Cuddebacks 

Port Jervis 

Stop Gate— Westfall's Basin. 

Sparrow Bush Brook 

Honesville 

Bolton 

Butler's Falls 

Mongaup 

Dickerson's Eddy 

Stairway Brook 

Vanaukin's Bridge 

Fish Cabin Brook 

Tucker's Aqueduct 

Pond Eddy 

Van Tuyl's Brook 

Van Tuyl's Basin 

Craigsville 

Buttermilk Falls 

Handsome Eddy 

David Johnston's 

Barry svi lie 

Panther Brook 

Beaver Brook 

Stop Lock 

Delaware Dam 



•s. 



<k) 



55 to 59 
60 



61 
62 and 63 



64 
65 
66 



67 



69 and 70 

71 

72"and73 



G'nd L'k. 



Il 


S« 1 

II 


42 


66 


43 


65 


44 


64 


45 


63 


46 


62 


47 


61 


48 


60 


49 


59 


50 


58 


51 


57 


52 


56 


53 


55 


54 


54 


55 


53 


56 


52 


57 


51 


58 


50 1 


59 


49 


60 


48 


61 


47 


62 


46 


63 


45 


64 


44 


65 


43 


66 


42 


67 


41 


68 


40 


69 


39 


70 


38 


71 


37 


72 


36 


73 


35 


74 


34 


75 


33 


76 


32 


77 


31 


78 


30 


79 


29 


80 


28 


81 


27 


82 


20 


83 


25 



Table of Companies which have been organized for Constructing Canals and Extending Navigation 

in the State. 



Names of Canals. 



Allegany River Slackwater Na- 
vigation Co. 

Auburn Canal and R. R. Co 

Auburn & Owasco Canal Co 

Binghamton, Owego, & Penn. 
Slackwater Navigation Co. 

Black River Canal Co 

Black River Navigation Co 

Cassadaga Navigation Co 



Catatunk Dock Navigation Co.. 



Cayuga & Seneca Canal Co 

Chenango Junclion Canal Co.... 
Chittenango Canal Co 



Delaware & Susquehanna Na- 
vigation Co. 

Ellicotts Creek Slackwater Na- 
vigation Co. 

Gowanus Bay & East River 

Great Chazy Navigation Co 

Granville Canal Co 

Harlem Canal Co 

Harlem River Canal Co 

Hudson River & Channel Co 

Jefferson County Canal Co 

Junction Canal Co 



Date, of 
Organization. 



April 



1S57 



April 24,1832 
April 21, 1828 

April 9, 1855 

March 20, 1828 
April 5, 1810 
April 16, 1827 

March 3, 1815 



April 20, 1815 
May 12, 1846 
March 1, ISIS 



April 20, 

April 23, 

April 24, 

May 11, 

AprU 18, 

April 18, 

April 16, 



1825 

1829 

183' 

1836 

1825 

1826 
1827 



Capital. 



April 4, 1806 



, 1S2S 



$30,000 

150,000 
100,000 

100,000 

400,000 
10.000 
20,000 

70,000 



April 15, 

April 21, 182S , lUO,000 



5,000 



5,000 



550,000 
500,000 

3,500 

300,000 



Connections. 



Auburn and Erie Canal 

Auburn and Owasco Lake 

Erie Canal .and Black River 

Brownville and Lake Ontario.... 

Montezuma and Seneca Lake.... 

Binghamton to State line 

Chittenango Village and Erie 
Canal. 

Delaware and Susquehanna 
River. 



City of Brooklyn may cause to 
be constrticted. 

Lake and Lower Bridge at 
Cham plain. 

Chaniplain Canal and Bishops 
Corners. 

East Kivor and Manhattanville. 

Spuyten Duyvil Creek and Har- 
lem River. 

For raft navigation on upper 
water. 

Carthage and Sackets Harbor.... 

From Erie Canal near Cham- 
plain Junction to Hudson 
River. 



Hemarks 



To improve Allegany River be- 
low Olean. 

Nothing done. 

Charter renewed in 1834; not 
finished. 

Act amended in 1857. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 

To improve Cassadaga Creek; not 

completed. 
To improve Cattafuuk Creek 

from its moulh to n. w. 

branch. Nothing done. 
Rights purchased by the State. 
Nothing done. 
Assumed by the State, and used 

as a navigable feeder to Erie 

Canal. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partially improved. 



Nothing done. 

P.artly done and abandoned. 
Surveyed but not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 



CANALS. 



65 



Table of Companies wTiich Jiave been organized for Constructing Canals and Extending Navigation 

in the State, continued. 



Names of Canals. 


Date of 
Organization. 


Capital. 


Connection. 


lieinarks. 


Junction Canal Co 

Long Island Canal Co 

Long Island Canal & Navignr 

tion Co. 
Manlius Canal Co 

Mohawk & Hudson Lock 

Navisation Co. 
Neversink Navigation Co 

New York cS; Sharon 

Niagara Canal Co 

Northern Inland Lock Naviga- 
tiou Co. 

Northern Slackwater & Rail- 
way Co. 

Oneida Lake Canal Co 


May 11, 1845 

AprU 15,1828 

AprU 8, 1848 
AprU 15,1828 
AprU 17,1816 
AprU 16,1816 

AprU 19,1823 

AprU 5, 1798 
March 30, 1792 

May 13, 1846 

March 22, 1832 

Nov. 25, 1824 

March 31, 1821 

AprU 11,1825 

AprU 25,1831 

May 1, 1829 
AprU 8, 1808 

March 26, 1831 
AprU 1, 1808 

May 16, 1837 
AprU 30,1829 
April 6, 1813 

March 31, 1815 
March 19, 1829 

May 20, 1836 
AprU 9, 1828 

AprU 18,1838 

March 30, 1792 


$200,000 

300,000 
50,000 

500,000 
50,000 


From Chemung Caual at Elmira 
to State line to connect with 
North Braucli Canal. 

To connect Bays on s. side and 
to cross Caiioe Place to Peco- 
nic Bay. 


Completed lu 1858. 

Nothing done but survey. 

Nothing done. 
State Canal Feeder. 
Nothing done. 

The project failed. The State 
loaned its credit for $10,000 
and lost the whole sum. 

Surveyed nearly on the present 
lino of the ilarleui R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Work commenced but no part 

completed. 
, Nothing done. 

Finished in 1835, and purchased 

by the State in 1841. 
Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

The right granted in 1828 to 
build a R. R. on the line. 
Nothing done on oitlier. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Railroad only constructed. 
Locks completed but too small 

for general use. 
Never completed. 

Merged in Cayuga & Seneca 
Canal. 

Nothing done. 

Partly constructed, but never 
used. 

Not constructed. 

Completed to Oneida Lake in 
1797. The rights were after- 
ward vested in the State, 
and such as were available 
were used for the Erie Caual. 


Erie Canal and Manlius Slack- 
water Navii;ation. 
Cohoes Falls and Schenectady... 


From Sharon, Conn., to tide 
water to any point on the 
Hudson or in the City of 
New York. 

Lake Erie and Lake Ontario 

Hudson River and Lake Cham- 
plain. 


40,000 
100,000 




Erie Canal and Onondaga 
Hollow. 

Canandaigua Tiake and Erie 
Canal. 

From Columbia, on the Dela- 
ware, through Orange CO., to 
the Hudson. 

From the St. Lawrence to Black 
Lake and Canton. 

Owasco Lake and Erie Canal 

To construct Locks and Dams 
in Peconic River. 

Rochester and Lake Ontario 

For building Locks at Isle an 
Rajiid. 

Lake Ontario and Port Ontario.. 

Scottsville and Genesee River. 

For improving navigation 
between Seneca and Cayuga 
Lakes. 

From Seneca Lake to Chemung 
River near Elmira. 

From Seneca River or Canan- 
daigua outlet to Great Sodus 
Bay. 

From river to Chenango Canal. 

Wallabout Bay and Tillory St. 
Brooklyn. 

Wallabout Bay to Kent Avenue, 
Brooklyn. 

To open navigation on the Mo- 
hawk, Wood Creek, Oneida, 
and Oswego Rivers to Lake 
Ontario. 


Ontario Canal Co 


Orancre & Snssez Canal Co 


Oswegatchie Navigation Co 


150,000 

30,000 

350,000 
15,000 
50,000 

300,000 
200,000 

"2o',o66 

25,000 


Peconic River Lock Navigation 
Co. 

Rochester Canal & R.R. Co 

St. Lawrence Lock Co 


Salmon River Harbor Canal Co.. 
Scottsville Canal Co 


Seneca Lock Navigation Co 

Seneca & Susquehanna Lock 
Navigation Co. 


Susquehanna & Chenango 


Wallabout Canal Co 


Western Inland Lock Naviga- 
tion Co. 





EAIL ROADS. 

The first rail road in the State, and the second in the U. S., "svas opened from Albany to 
Schenectady in 1831. Although rudely constructed, at great and much needless expense, the 
advantages of this means of communication became so apparent that within 3 years rail roads, 
duly chartered by law, were projected in every part of the State.^ These early grants were gene- 
rally limited to 50 years, and work was required to be commenced within 3 years, the State being 
allowed to become purchaser at the expiration of the charter. The charters contained the neces- 
sary provisions for the taking of property by appraisements, named the commissioners for opening 
subscriptions, and sometimes for locating and surveying the road, which in a few instances was 
done at the expense of the State. 

At an early period the aid of the General Government was solicited, in view of the utility of these 
roads in the transportation of the mails, and, in case of war, of military supplies ; but, with the 
exception of surveys made in two instances, no aid was obtained from this source. The State has 



1 Albany, Vermont, &, Canada Rail Road, for- 
merly the Albany Northern R. R. Company organized 
Feb. 12, 1851. Connects Albany and Eagle Bridge. Road 
opened through about the 1st of July, 1853. It was sold 
under foreclosure of mortgage Oct. 16, 1856, and assumed 
its present name Nov. 7, following. 

Albany, Vermont, and Canada Sail Mood. 

Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



r 



Albany - 

Cemetery.... 

West Troy._ 

Cohoes 

Waterford 

Saratoga Junction 

Schaghticoke 

Pittstown 

Johnsonville 

Buskirks 

Eagle Bridge 



Distances in Mi 


Bf.tween 


From 


Stations. 


Albany. 








4 


4 


2 


6 


3 


9 


o 


11 


1 


12 


10 


22 


1 


2.3 


3 


26 


5 


31 


2 


33 



From 
EagUB'dg. 



33 
29 
27 
24 
22 
21 
11 
10 
7 
2 



Albany &. "West Stockbridge Rail Road, for- 
merly Castleton & West Stockbridge R. R. Company or- 
ganized April 19, 1830, but nothing was done under the first 
name. Present name assumed May 5, 1836. Road opened 
ftom Greenbush to Chatham Dec. 21. 1841, and to the State 
line Sept. 12, 1842. It was leased to the Western (Mtiss.) 
R. R. Nov. 18, 1841, for the term of its charter; and has 
since been operated as a part of that road, includiui; the 
ferry at Albany. The city of Albany, at different times, 
issued its bonds for $1,000,000, to aid in building the road, 
the lessees paying the interest and $10,000 annually toward 
the sinking fund. It connects Albany with Springfield and 
Boston. 

Western Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 


Distances in Miles. 


Between 
Stations. 


From 

Albany. 


From 
Boston. 


Albany 




1 

7 

8 

3 

4 

5 

6 

5 

11 

53 

54 

44 


? 

8 

16 

19 

23 

28 

33 

38 

49 

102 

156 

200 


200 


firpenbush 


199 




192 


Kinderhook — «.._ « 

Chathtini Center 


184 
181 


Chatham Four Comere 


177 
172 




167 


St^tf* Liiie.^ 


162 


Pitt^fiold Mass 


151 


Springfield, '' 

Worcester, " 


98 

44 









Atlantic &, Great "Western Rail Road Co. was 

formed Dec. 9. IS.'iS. The line extends from the New York 
& Erie R. K. at Little A"alley to the S. line of Chautauqua 
county. 
66 



Attica <£ Bomellsville Rail Road. Companv incorporated May 
14,1845; capital $750,000. Time extended April 11,1849. 
Other roads allowed to take stock April 9, 1S51. C.ipital in- 
creased and company allowed to purchase the Buffalo & 
Rochester R. R., from Attica to Buffalo, and to change its 
name March 3, 1851. Name changed to Buffalo & New 
York City R. R., April 16, 1851. 

Black River & Utica Rail Road. Company 
formed Jan. 29, 1853. Road opened to Trenton Jan. 1, 1855, 
and to Boonville Dec. 18. 1S55. The city of Utica has is- 
sued its bonds for $250,000, to aid in the construction of the 
road. It is designed to connect Utica and Clayton. 

Black River <£: Utica Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Utica. 

Marcy 

I'lovd Road 

Stitts\ille 

Holland Patent. 

Trenton.- _. 

Trenton Falls.... 

Prospect 

Remsen 

Alder Creek 

Boonville 



Distances in Miles. 


Between 


From, 


From 


Stations. 


Utica. 


Boonville. 








35 


6 


6 


29 


2 


8 


27 


2 


10 


25 


2 


12 


23 


4 


16 


19 


U 


Hi 


17f 


1 


18i 


11* 


2| 


21 


14 


I 


28 


7 


7 


35 






Blossburg ifc Corning Rail Road, formeily the 
Corning A: Blossburg R. R.. and previously the Tioga Coal, 
Iron Siining, & JIanufucturing Co. R. R. Was leased for a 
term of years to the Tioga (Pa.) R.R.Co. In 1854 it was 
sold for ^250,000, subject to a mortgage of $245,000 and a 
ten years lease to the Tioga Co. It is operated at present 
by the lessees. 

Blossburg and Coming Railroad. 



Stations. 



Coming 

Erwln Center.. 
Lindley Town 
LawrencevUle 



Distances in SIiles. 



Between 
Statimis. 



15 



From 
Corning. 



From 

Zawrencev. 



21 

36 



36 
27i 
15 




Brooklyn City Rail Road. Company formed D«c. 16, 

1853. Opened as follows : 

flushing Avenue Route. Fulton St. to Throop 

Avenue in July, 1854 

Fulton Avenue Route. Ferry to Washington 

Avenue in July, 1854 

Myrtle Avenue Route. Fulton St. to Nortram 

Avenue in July, 1854 

Greenwood Route. Fulton St. to Gowanus Creek 

in Aug. 1854 

Washington Avenue to Brooklyn Avenue in Sept. 1854 

Kent Avenue to Bushwick Creek in Oct. 18.54 

Gowanus Creek to 36th St. in Nov. 1854 

Nortram Avenue to Division Avenue in Not. 1S54 



KAIL ROADS. 



67 



upou several occasions loaned its credit to r. r. companies by issuing stock and retaining a lien 
upon the roads, which in some cases was afterward relinquished, and in others sacrificed by sale 
at nominal prices. 



Throop Avenue to Division^Avenue in April, 1855 

Hamilton Avenue Kouto, Court St. to Ferry in May, 1855 

This road is used for passengers only, and 

horse power is exclusively employed. 

S6th St. to City Line July, 1R55 

Bushwick Creek to Kent St. in Oct. 18.55 

Kent St. to Furman St. in Dec. 1865 

City Line to Yellow Hookland in July, 185t) 

Brooklyn & Jamaica Rail Road. Con pany formed 
April 25, 1832. In 183(i the roiiJ was leased to the Long 
Island R. R. Co. for the term of its charter. The lessees 
built a tunnel 2.550 feet loUj? under Atlantic St., bought 
access to the river, erected buildings and docks at a co.st of 
over $300,000, and have since maintained and operat<>d the 
road in connection with the Long Island R. K., of which it 
is virtually a part. 

Baffalo, Bradford, & Plttsburgli Rail Road 

Co. was formed lSr)9, bv the cunsulidution of the 

Buffalo & Bradford and Buffalo &. httsburgb U. K's. 

Buffalo (6 New i'ork Oily Bail Road, formerly Attica & Ilornells- 
Tille R. R. Articles filed Jan. 22, 1S51. .31 mi. sold to Buf- 
falo, New York, & Erie K. R. Oct. 31, 1857, and name 
changed to 

Buffalo, New York, &, Erie Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Buffalo (& Corning. 

Buffalo 

Junction , 

Lancaster 

Town Line 

Alden 



Attica 

Alexander 

Batavia 

Stafford 

Le Roy 

Caledonia 

Avon 

llamiltons 

Livonia 

South Livonia . 

Couesus 

Springwater ... 

Wayltnd 

Bloods 

Liberty 

Wallaces 

Avoca 

Kanona - 

Bath 

Savona 

Campbell , 

Curtis 

Coopers 

Painted Post... 
Corning 

New York 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



45 
05 

,95 
,47 
14 
,40 
,20 
,60 
32 
,31 
,93 
,05 
.56 
.64 
,71 
.65 
.76 
.91 
.36 
.87 
.88 
.64 
.77 
.15 
.71 
.67 
.60 
.22 

m 



From 
Buffalo. 





1 

10.45 

14.5 

19.45 

24.92 

31.06 

34.46 

41.66 

47.26 

.51.58 

58.89 

65.82 

74.87 

77.43 

81.07 

84.78 

91.43 

96.19 

102.1 

10646 

111.33 

114.21 

117.85 

121.62 

127.77 

1.32.48 

134.15 

136.75 

139.97 

141.57 



From 
Corning. 



141.57 

140.57 

131.12 

127.07 

122.12 

116.65 

110.51 

107.11 

99.91 

94.31 

89.99 

82.68 

75.75 

66.7 

64.14 

60.5 

56.79 

50.14 

45.3S 

39.47 

35.11 

30.24 

27.-56 

23.72 

19.95 

13.8 

9.09 

7.42 

4.82 

1.6 





432.63 



291.06 



Rochester Division. 



Rochester .. 
Henrietta.. 
■Scottsville . 

Rush 

Avon , 





8.45 

3.27 

2.27 

4.26 



Frmn, 
Rochester. 





845 
11.72 
13.99 
18.25 



From 
Avon. 



18.25 
9.8 
6.53 
4.26 




BbrneUsville Division. 



Attica 

Linden 

.Middlehury 

Warsaw 

Gainesville 

Castile 

Portage 

Hunts Hollow . 

Nunda 

Swainville 

Can.aseraga 

Burns 

Hornellsville ... 





6.87 

4..33 

5.78 

6.77 

2.76 

3.61 

4.07 

2.07 

7.17 

443 

4.10 

8.30 



Prom 

Attica. 





6.87 
11.2 
16.98 
23.75 
26.51 
30.12 
34.19 
36.26 
43.43 
47.86 
51.96 
60.26 



From 
Hornells- 
ville. 



60.26 

53.39 

49.06 

43.28 

36.51 

33.75 

30.14 

26.07 

24 

16.83 

12.4 

8.3 





Buffalo <£ State Line Rail Rmul. Company formed Juno 6, 
1849. Road opened from Dunkirk to the State Line Jan. 1, 
1852, and to Buffalo Feb. 22 fuUovving. The Company pur- 
chased the North East (Penu.) K. R. under act of April 13, 
1857, and now form one company from Butlalo to Erie, i'eua. 
It is now operated under the name of 

Buflalo and Erie Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Buffido 

Hamlmrg 

18 Mile Creek . 
Evans Center.. 

Saw Mill 

Irving 

Silver Creek.... 

Dunkirk 

Salem 

Portland 

Westfield 

Ripley 

Quincy 

State Line 

Erie, Penn 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 


From 


From 


Stations. 


Buffalo. 


Erie,Penn. 








88 


10 


10 


78 


5 


15 


73 


6 


21 


67 


5 


26 


62 


3 


29 


59 


2 


31 


57 


7 


40 


48 


8 


48 


40 


2 


50 


38 


7 


67 


31 


5 


62 


26 


3 


65 


23 


3 


68 


20 


20 


88 






Canandaigiia <£ Oirning Rail Road. Company incorporated May 
11, 1845; capital Sl,600,000 Time extended April 15, 1847, 
and again March 24, 1849. Surveys were begun June, 1845, 
and the construction in Aug. 1850. Road opened from 
Canandaigua to '■^Jefferson'" (now Watkins) 46j''o^ mi., Sept. 
15, 1851, the New York & ErieR. R. furnishing engines, cars, 
&c., for a specilic rate per mile. The road was allowed to con- 
nect with the Chemung R. R. at Jefferson, and to change 
name Sept. 11, 1852, to Canandaigua and Elmira R. R. 

Canandaigua <& Elmira Rait Road, changed from Canandaigua 
& Corning R. R. Sept. 11, 1852. Leased the Chemung R. R. 
11 -^§0 mi. and 4 mi. of Erie R. R. Sold to parties in Elmira, 
Penn Yan,and Providence, R. I. April 23, 1857, and possession 
given May 1. Price .S35.000, subject to $500,000 due bond- 
holders, and name changed to the Elmira, Canandaigua, <fe 
Niagara Falls R.R. the next day. 

Canandaigua <& Niagara Foils Rail Road. Company incorporated 
Dec. 10, 1850; capital $1,000,000. Road open"ed to Batavia, 
60 mi., Jan. 1, 185.3, to Niagara Falls 47 mi. July 1, 1853, and 
to Suspension Bridge li mi. .'Vpiil 1, 1854. Sold March 22, 
1857, to Jas. M. Brown and others, and name changed to 
Niagara Bridge & Canandaigua R. R. Now leased and run 
by New York Central R. R. 

Cayuga &> Susquehanna Rail Road, formerly 
the Ithaca & Owego R. R., was chartered Jan. 28, 1828, — the 
second R.R. charter granted in the State. The road was opened 
in April, 18.34. An inclined plane at Ithaca rose 1 foot in 
■^itjo ^t- *"'' stationary horse power was used for drawing 
up the cars. Above this was another inclined plane, that 
rose one foot in 21 ft., on which horse power was used. The 
road was subsequently sold by the Comptroller on stock 
issued by (he State, on which the company had failed to pay 
interest. A ni>w company was organized and the present 
name assumed April 18, 1843; the road was reconstructed, 
the inclined planes were done away with, and .Jan. 1, 1855, it 
was leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R R. 
Co., and is operated by them as the Cayuga Division. Ttiig 
is an important route from the coal mines of Penn., and coal 
forms the principal item of business. 

Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Ithaca Pier.. 

Ithaca 

Pug.sleys 

Wiilseyville , 

Candor 

Catatunk.... 
Owego.. 



Distances in Miles, 



Betiveen 
Stations. 




2 
13 
6 
4 
6 
4 



From 
Ithaca 
Pier. 




2 
15 
21 
25 
31 
35 



From, 
Owego. 



35 
33 
20 
14 
10 
4 




Cliamplain & St. Lawrence Rail Road. Com- 
pany formed Feb. 26, 1851. The Road extends trom Rouses 
Point to tlie Canada line 2i miles, and is leased to a load m 
Canada of the same name, which extends to St. Johns auU 
La Prairie opposite Montreal. 



68 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



By resolution of Assembly of Feb. 2, 1843, r. k. companies were required to report annually to 
the Secretary of State; and by an act of April 11, 18-49, to the State Engineer and Surveyor; a 



Cb«iiiuiig Rail Road. CompaDy formed May 14. 1845. 
The road extends from Watkins, at the head of Seneca 
Lake, to the New York & Erie R. R., 4 mi. N. w. of Elmira. 
It was opened in Dec. 1S49 ; leased to the New York & Erie 
B. R. Co. for ten years from Jan. 1, 1850, for $36,000 per an- 
num ; and suh-let to the Canandaigna and Elmira R. R. Co., 
for the same. It is now operated by the New Y'ork & Erie 
&. R. Co. 

Chemung Hail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Jefferson (Watkins) 

Havana 

Cxroton Corners 

Millport 

Pine Valley 

Horseheads , 

Junction 

Elmira 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





3.2 
3.7 
2 

2.8 
4.4 
1.2 
4.3 



From 

Watkins. 






21.6 


3.2 


18.4 


6.9 


14.7 


8.9 


12.7 


11.7 


9.9 


16.1 


5.5 


17.3 


4.3 


21.6 






From, 
Elmira. 



Elmirn, Canandaigria & Niagara Falls Bail Rood. Changed 
from Canandaigna & Niagara Falls R. R. April 24, 1857. 
The name was changed to 

Elmira, Jefferson & Canaiiclalgiia Rail 
Road Co. I'eb. 18, 18.59. The road is now leased and 
run by the New York & Erie R. R. Co. 

Elmira, Jefferson c£- Canandaigna Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Canandaigna 

Hopewell 

Goiham 

Halls Corners 

Bellona 

Benton Center 

Penn Yan 

Milo Center 

Himrods 

Starkey 

Big Stream 

Rock Stream 

Jefferson (Watkins) 

Elmira 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





6.4 

5.3 

2.8 

3.8 

1.9 

4 

4.1 

3.6 

3.9 

2.6 

1.9 



21.6 



From 
Canartr 
daigua. 





G.4 
11.7 
14.5 
18.3 
20.2 
24.2 
28.3 
31.9 
35.8 
38.4 
40.3 
46.9 



68.5 



From 

WatHns, 
{Jefferson 
Station.) 



46.9 

40.5 

35.2 

32.4 

28.6 

26.7 

22.7 

18.6 

15 

11.1 

8.5 

6.6 





21.6 



Flusliliig Rail Road. Company formed Feb. 24, 1852. 
(Jpened J une 26, 1«54. The road extends from Flushing to 
Hunters Creek, and the Co. runs a steamer to Fulton street. 
New York. 

Flushing Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 


Distances in Miles. 


Between 
Stations. 


F^-om 
New York. 


From 

Flushing. 


New York" 



4 
1 

2i 

1 

n 

2 




4 

5 

7^ 

8^ 
10 
12 


12 

8 
7 

H 

3i 

2 




Hunters Point 


Penny Bridge 


Wiusfield 


Newtown 


National Race Course 

Flushing 





" By steamboat between New York and Hunters Point. 

HichsviUe <& Cold Spring Branch Rail Road. Company formed 
June 28, 1851, and organized Nov. 3, 1853. The road was 
to extend from Hicksville to Cold Spring Harbor. It was 
opened to Syosset, July 3, 18.54. Nothing has been done 
beyond there. It ha.s been leased to the Long Island R. R. 
0>., and is operated by them. 



Hudson & Boston Rail Road. Company allowed 

to organize Feb. 22, 1855 ; the organization took place Dec. 
1, li?55. The company o^vn and operate the road from Hud- 
sou to Chatham Four Corners, with a leased right to West 
Stockbridge. 



Hudson <6 Boston Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (OfBcial.) 





Distances in Wiles. 


Stations. 


Between 
Stations. 


From, 
Hudson. 


From, 
Chatham 
4 Corners. 


Hudson 



1 
3 
5 
3 
3 
2 



1 

4 

9 

12 

15 

17 


17 
16 
13 
8 
5 
2 



" Upper Station 

Claverack 


Mellenville 


Pulvers 


Ghent 


Chatham Four Corners 



Hudson River Rail Road. Company formed May 
12, 1846. Opened fi-om New York to Peekskill Sept. 29, 
1849 ; to Hamburgh, Dec. 6, 1849 ; to Poughkeepsie. Dec. 31, 
1849 ; from Albany to Hudson, June 1(3, 1851 ; to Tivoli, 
Aug. i ; and through, Oct. 1, 1851. The road extends from 
Albany to New York, along the east b.ank of the river. It 
has tuimels of 226, 60, 70, 358, 600, 518, 835, 124, 145, and 
82 feet; in the whole S,018 feet. 

Hudson River Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Chambers Street, N.Y 

3l8t Street 

52d Street 

Burnhanis 

Strykers Bay 

Manhattan 

152d Street 

Fort Wa.sliington 

Tubby Hook 

Spuyten Duyvil , 

Riverdale 

Y'onkers 

Glenwood 

Hastings 

Dobb's Jt'erry 

Irvington 

Tarry town 

Scarborough , 

Sing Sing , 

Croton 

Crugers 

A'erplancks 

Peekskill 

Fort Montgomery 

Garrisons : 

Cold Spring 

Cornwall 

Fishldll 

Carthage 

New Hamburgh 

Milton Ferry 

Poughkeepsie 

Hyde Park 

Staatsburgh 

Rhinebeck 

Barrytown 

Tivoli 

Germantown 

Oak Hill 

Hudson 

Stockport 

Coxsackie 

Stuyvesant 

Schod.ack 

Castleton 

East Albany 

Troy 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




2i 
1 
1 

1* 
1 

n 

li 

* 

1* 

•* 
3i 

2 

2^ 

4i 

H 

H 

3i 

1* 

2 

3* 

4* 

2i 

2J 

3i 

3i 

2i 

4 
6 
4 

5* 

5i 

4 

41 

5i 

6| 

5 

2i 

2i 

6* 

3* 

li 



From, 
New York. 





2^ 
3i 
4i 
5* 



10 

lU 

12i 

14 

16i 

17 

20i 

21* 

23f 

26i 

30i 

32 

35A 

38* 

m 

42i 

46i 

51 

53i 

56i 

59J 

63i 

65* 

lOi 

74i 

80i 

Sii 

90 

95i 

99i 

104i 

109i 

115i 

120i 

122* 

125A 

132 

135* 

143i 



From 
Albany. 



im 



143^ 

141 

140 

139 

137* 

136 

135 

133i 

132 

13H 

129i 

127i 

126i 

123 

121* 

119* 

117A 

113 

nu 

108A 

104* 

103 

101 
97i 
92i 
90 
87i 
83* 
80i 
77* 
78i 
69i 
63A 
59A 
53i 
48 
44 
39i 
34 
2Si 
23i 
20* 
ISi 

m 

7* 




6 



RAIL ROADS. 



69 



custom that has since been continued, except during the short period in which the office of R. R. 
Commissioners was in existence. This Board was created April 14, 1855, and abolished April 16, 
1857. The expenses of the State Engineer and Surveyor's office chargeable to rail roads are assessed 
upon the several companies in proportion to their earnings. The general act to authorize the for- 
mation of R. R. companies was passed March 27, 1848. There are at present within the State 2,554i 
mi. of R. R., besides double tracks and turn outs. The rail roads give employment to about 18,000 



Longf Island Rail Road« Company organized June 15, 
1835. Opened through in July, 1844. The road extends 
from Brooklyn to Greenport ; $100,000 in State stocks was 
issued to aid in the construction. The company have leased 
the Brooklyn & Jamaica and the Hicksville & Cold Spring 
Branch R. Roads, which they operate as a part of this road. 

Lonff Island RaU Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



South Ferry _.., 

Bedford 

East New York 

Cypress Avenue 

Union Course 

Woodhaven 

Jamaica , 

Willow Tree , 

Queens (Brushville) 

Hyde Park 

Hempstead Branch., 

Hempstead'. , 

Westbury 

Hicksville 

Syosset 

Jerusalem 

Farmingdale 

Deer Park 

Thompson 

N. Islip (Suffolk).... 

Lakeland 

Waverly 

Medford 

Bellport 

Yaphank 

Manor 

Riverhead 

Jamesport 

JIattituck. 

Cutchogue 

Hermitage 

Southold 

Greenport 



Distances in Mr 


Between 


Frnm 


Stations. 


Brooklyn. 








2i 


2i 


3 


6i 


li 


7 


i 


7i 


« 


8i 


2* 


11 


1 


12 


2 


14 


Zk 


lU 


Ik 


20 


2i 


2J 


3 


23 


3 


26 


4 


4 


3 


29 


2 


31 


6 


37 


4 


41 


2J 


43^ 


5i 


49 


4 


53 


2 


55 


2J 


57i 


2i 


61) 


6 


66 


8 


74 


5 


79 


4 


S3 


3 


86 


3 


89 


2 


91 


4 


95 



From 
Greenport. 



95 

92A 

89i 

88 

87J 

86J 

84 

83 

81 

77J 

75 

2i 
72 
69 

4 
66 
64 
58 
54 
51 J 
46 
42 
40 

3j a" 

35 
29 

21 * 
16 
12 

9 

6 

4 





NetvlJiirgh. Brauch of New YorU &, Erie 
Rail Road. Branch allowed to Newburgh April 8, 
1845. Opened Jan. 8, 1850. 

New York Central Rail Road. Company formed 
by consolidating the several roads in operation, and some 
projected roads between Albany, Troy and Buffalo, and 
Niagara Falls. The act allowing the consolidation was 
passed April 2, 1853, and was carried into effect the 17th 
of May following. The consolidated capital amounted to 
$23,085,600, and debts were assumed to the amount of 
$1,947,815.72. The stock of the several companies was re- 
ceived at the following rates, viz. : — 



Rochester & Syracuse .130 

Rochester, Lockport & Ni- 
agara Falls 125 

Buffalo & Rochester.- .140 

Buffalo & Lockport 125 



Albany & Schenectady .117 

Syracuse & TJtica Direct 150 

Schenectady & Troy 75 

Utica & Schenectady 115 

Mohawk Valley 155 

Syracuse & Utica 160 

Each stockholder received a like amount of stock of the new 
company, at par, (the Troy & Schenectady upon payment of 
$25 per share.) and for the differences, certificates or premium 
bonds bearing six per cent, interest, semi-annually, and pay- 
able May 1, 1883. These certificates amounted to $8,892,600. 
The Rochester & Lake Ontario R. R., and the Buffalo & Niagara 
Falls R. R., have since been merged in this road. 

Daie of opening the several roads now forming the New Tork 
Central Rail Road. 



Albany & Schenectady 1831 

Schenectady & Troy 1843 

Utica & Schenectady 1835 

Syracuse & Utica 1839 

Rochester & Syracuse 18.53 

Auburn & Syracuse 1836 

Auburn & Rochester 1840 

Tonawanda -.1836 



Batavia & Attica 1843 

Attica & Buffalo 1S4.5 

Rochester & Buffalo 1852 

Rochester, Lockport & Nia- 
gara Falls 1852 

Niagara Falls & Lewiston...l8.54 

Lockport & Touawanda 1853 

Rochester & Charlotte 1853 



Kew Tork Central Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Albany <£■ Buffalo. 

Albany 

West Albany 

Center 

Schenectady 

Hoffmans 

Cranes Village 

Amsterdam 

Tribes Hill 

Fonda 

Yosts 

Sprakers 

Palatine Bridge 

Fort Plain 

Palatine Church 

St. Johnsville 

East Creek 

Little Falls 

Herkimer 

Ilion 

Frankfort - _.. 

Utica 

Whitesboro 

Oriskany 

Rome 

Greens Comers 

Verona 

Oneida 

Wampsville 

Canastota 

Canaseraga 

Chittenango 

Kirkville 

Manlius 

Syracuse 

Warners 

Canton 

Jordan 

Weedsport 

Port Byron 

Savannah , 

Clyde 

Lyons 

Newark , 

East Palmyra 

Palmyra 

Macedon , 

Fairport 

Rochester 

Coldwater 

Chili 

Churchville 

Bergen '. 

West Bergen. 

Byron 

Batavia 

Crofts 

Pembroke 

Alden 

Wende 

Town Line 

Lancaster 

Forks 

Buffalo 



Troy <£■ Schenectady 
Branch. 



Troy 

Cohoes 

Summit Bridge 

Niskayuna 

Aqueduct 

Schenectady 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





6 

8* 

H 

3i 
Si 
5i 
6 

Si 
3 
3 
2* 
3 
Si 
6i 
7i 
2i 
2i 
9i 
3* 
3 

74 
4i 
4i 
4i 
Si 
2 
Si 
2i 
4 
2J 
7» 
94 
24 
5i 
44 
Si 
7 
6 

7i 
54 
34 
S» 
5 

7* 
lOi 
6i 
4 
4i 

OX 

^* 

3i 
34 



5i 

44 

2* 

1* 

5 

2* 



From, 
Albany. 





Si 

8i 

17 

26i 

29J 

33 

384 

434 

52 
55 
58 

m 

63J 
67 
734 
80J 
83 
85i 
94f 
984 
1014 
109 
113i 
1174 
121J 
125 
127 
130f 
133i 
137i 
139* 
1474 
157 
1594 
164* 
169i 
1724 
1794 
1854 
192f 
19Si 
201* 
2054 
2104 
218i 
2284 
234* 
238* 
243 
2464 
2494 
253 
2604 
266* 
271* 
2764 
279 
280* 
285* 
2SSi 
296i 



From 
Buffalo. 



296i 

293 

288 

279i 

270 

260i 

26.^i 

257* 

252* 

2474 

244i 

241i 

238i 

2354 

232i 

229i 

222* 

215i 

213i 

211 

2014 

197* 

194* 

187i 

183 

178* 

174i 

171i 

169i 

165A 

163 

159 

156i 

148* 

139i 

136* 

131i 

127 

123* 

116* 

110* 

103i 

98 

944 

■ 90* 

85* 

78 

67* 

614 

574 

53i 

50 

46* 

43i 

35* 

29* 

244 

20 

17i 

Ibi 

104 

7* 







From 


Frimi 

Schenec- 





Troy. 


tady. 





21i 


34 


34 


17* 


24 


6 


164 


54 


114 


9* 


6 


ITi 


3* 


3* 


21i 






ro 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



men, and have an aggregate of $74,634,954.76 of stock paid in, and a capital of stocks and debta 
amounting to $149,202,311.81, or more than one-tenth of the total valuation of the property of the 
State. 



Syracuse & Hochester, 
via Auburn. 



Syracuse 

Camillus 

Marcellus 

Halfway 

Skaneateles Junction 

Sennett 

Auburn 

Cayuga 

Seneca Falls 

Waterloo 

Geneva 

Oaks Corners 

Phelps 

Clifton Springs 

Shortsville 

Canaudaigua 

Milk Station 

Victor 

Fishers 

Pittsford 

Rochester 



Between 
Stations. 





8i 

2^ 
-^ 

3 

3* 
3i 

51 

4* 
3i 
6i 

4J 

D J 

4i 

4^ 

6 

6 

of 

3f 

ei 
H 



From 
Syracuse. 





lOf 
13f 
IVi 
20} 
261 
37 
41} 
45 
Sli 
5f)i 
59i 
63} 
6Si 
V4i 
80i 
84 
87} 
941 
102} 



Frmn, 
Rochester. 



102} 
94i 
92 

89 

85i 

82 

76i 

65} 

61 

57} 

5U 

46i 

43i 

39 

34i 

24 

18} 
15 





Rochester, Lnckport, db Ni- 
agara FaUs Branch. 



P.ochester 

Spencerport 

Adams Basin 

Brockport 

Holley 

Murray 

Albion 

Knowlesville 

Medina 

Middleport 

Gasport 

Lockport 

Lockport Junction 

Pekiu 

Suspension Bridge. 
Niagara Falls , 



n 

10 

oi 

—■J 

^ 

4} 

ii 

4J- 

5 

6 

Si 

6} 

9 

1* 



From 
Rochester. 





10 

loi 

17 

21} 

25i 

30} 

40i 

45 

60 

56 

59i 

0('i 



From 

Niagara 
Falls. 



77 

67 

64^ 

60 

55i 

51} 

4'IA 

40} 

36i 

32 

27 

21 

17i 

10} 





Attica Branch. 



LocVport Junction to 
Tonawanda. 



Lockport Junction 

Halls Station 

Tonawanda 




5 



From 
Locppryrt 
Junction. 







From, 
Tona- 
wanda. 



5 




Buffalo (6 Lewiston. 



Buffalo 

Black Bock 

Tonawanda 

I.a Salle 

Niagara Falls , 

Suspension Bridge 
Lewiston 




4 

H 

6 
5 

1} 
4i 



From 
Buffalo. 





4 

101 

2U 
23 
27 i 



From 
Lewiston. 



271 

23i 

IVi 

lU 

6i 

4i 





Canandaigua <£• Niagara 
Bridge Branch. 



Canandaigua 

Gunns Crossing 

East Bloomiield 

Millers Corners 

West Bloomfield 

Honeoye Falls 

West Rush 

Genesee Valley R. R. June 

Canal 

Caledonia 

Be Roy 

Stafford 

Batavia 

East Pembroke 

Bichville 

Akron 

Clarence Center 

Transit 

Getzville 

A'iucent 

Tonawanda 





4.2 

3.S 

46 

3 

3.1 

6.2 

1.1 

1.2 

5.8 

7.1 

4.1 

5.9 

6.2 

6.6 

3.4 

7 

O.J 



3.1 



From 
Oinan- 
daigua. 



From 

Tona- 
wanda. 





4.2 

8 
12.6 
15.6 
18.7 
24.9 
26 
27.2 
33 
40.1 
44.2 
50.1 
56.3 
62.9 
66.3 
73.3 
76.5 
79.5 
82.5 



85.6 
81.4 
77.6 
73 
70 
66.9 
60.7 
59.6 
58.4 
52.6 
45.5 
41.4 
35.5 
29.3 
22.7 
19.3 
12.3 
9.1 
6.1 
3.1 




Batavia.... 
Alexander 
Attica 



Between 
Stations. 



From 
Batavia. 





8 

11 



From 

Attica. 



11 
3 




Charlotte Branch. 



Rochester . 
Charlotte .. 





=■5 



From, 

Rochester. 







From 
Charlotte. 







Jfevr York and Erie Rail Road. Company organ- 
ized in July, 1833. The act autliorizin;^ the road was passed 
April 24. 1832. The first preliminary survey was made in 
1832, by De Witt Clinton, jr., by order of the government. 
In 1834 the Governor appointed Benj. W^right to survey the 
route ; who, assisted by Jas. Seymour and Charles Ellett, 
began the survey May 23d, and finished it the same year. 
In 1835 the Co. was reorganized, and 40 mi. were put under 
contract. In 1836 the Comptroller was directed to issue 
$3,000,000 State stock to aid in constructing the road. In 
1845 the State released its lien on the road, and authorized 
the original stockholders to surrender two shares of old 
stock, and receive one share of new. April 8, 1845, a branch 
was allowed to be built from Chester to Ncwburgh, 19 mi. 
The road was opened as follows : from Piermont to Goshen, 
Sept. 22, 1841; to Middletown, June 7, 1843; to Port Jervis, 
Jan. 6, 1848 ; to Binghamton, Dec. 28, 1848 ; to Owego, June 
1, 1849 ; to Elmira, (Jet. 1849 ; to Corning, Jan, 1. 1850 ; and 
to Dunkirk, May 14, 1851. The Newburgh Branch opened 
Jan. 8, 1850. The ro.id is compelled to pay a bonus of 
$10,000 annually to the State of Pennsylvania for tlie priv- 
ilege of passing a short distance in that State. Ample details 
will be found in The New York & Erie R. R. Guide, the annual 
and special reports of the company, and especially that of 
Nov. 1853, and in the following documents of the New York 
Legislature: Senate Doc, No. 12, of 1836; Nos, 37, 38, of 
1839; Nos, 18, 58, of 1842. Assem. Docs, Nos, 27, 171 of 
1838; No, 47, of 1839; No, 215, of 1840; Nos, 113, 297, of 
1841 ; and No. 50, of 1842. The Patterson & Ramapo (N. 
J.) R. R., 2'.H mi., and the Union R. R., ,'0*^ mi., the Che- 
mung R. R., and the Elmira, Jefferson, & Canandaigua R. R. 
are leased and operated by the this company. 

Neiv TorJc d- Erie Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances, (Official,) 



Statioxs. 



New York 

Pier 

Piermont 

Blauveltville 

Clarkstown 

Spring Valley 

Monsey 

15 Mile Turnout 

.Tersey City 

Bergen 

Gerniantown 

Hackensack Br 

Boiling Spring 

Passaic Bridge 

Huylers 

Paterson 

Gravel Switch 

Godwinville 

Hohokus 

Allendale 

Ramseys 

Sufferns 

Ramapo 

Sloatsburg 

SouthfieUls 

Greenwood 

Turners 

Monroe 

O.\ford 

East Junction, N, B.. 
West " " . 



Distances in Miles. 






t^i^a; 



24,00 



1.00 

4.48 

8.73 

11.30 

12.60 

15.07 



17.90 
19.85 
21.55 
28.08 
30.29 
33.48 
35.63 
38.25 
89.83 
40.29 






1.00 



.00 
2.47 

4.75 

6.24 
9.29 
11.09 
11.92 
16.50 
19.71 
21.62 
23.30 
25.50 
27.44 
31.67 
33.62 
35.32 
41.85 
44.06 
47.25 
49.40 
52.02 
53.60 
54.06 



s3 
S s 

^4 



460,72 
445,95 
444.95 
441.47 
4.37.22 
434.65 
433,35 
430.88 
459.72 
457.25 
454.97 
453.48 
4.10.43 
44S.63 
447.80 
443.22 
• 440.01 
4.38.10 
436.42 
434.22 
432.28 
428.05 
426.10 
424.40 
417.87 
415.66 
412.47 
410.32 
407.70 
406.12 
405.66 



RAIL ROADS. 



71 



New VorJc d Erie Rail Ttnad, cnnfinwd. 



Stations. 



Chester 

Goshen 

Hampton 

SIiiUlleto\vn 

Howells 

Otisville 

Shin Hollow 

Port Jcrvis 

MoC;uers Turnout 

Rosa Switch 

Pond Eddy 

Middaugha 

Shohola 

Lacka waxen 

Mast Hope 

Narrowsburg 

Nobodys 

Cochecton 

Callicoon 

Hankins 

Basket 

Lordville , 

Stockport 

Hancock 

Dickinsons 

Hales Eddy 

Deposit 

Gulf Summit 

Cascade Bridge 

Canewacta Bridge 

Susquehanna 

Great Bend 

Kirk wood 

Binghamton 

Union 

Campville 

Owego 

Tioga 

Smithboro' 

Barton 

Waverly 

Chemung 

Wellsburgh 

Elmira 

Junction Chemung Br 

Big Flats 

Noyes Switch 

Corning 

Painted Post 

Addison 

RathbonevUle 

Cameron 

Crosby vi lie 

Canisteo 

Hornellsville , 

Almond 

Alfred 

Tip Top Summit 

Andover 

Elm Valley 

Genesee 

Scio 

Phillipsville 

Belvidere 

Friendship 

Cuba Summit 

Cuba 

Hinsdale 

Olean 

Allegany ,.... 

Tunungwant...- 

Great Valley 

Bncktooth 

Little Valley 

Cattaraugus 

Persia Turnout 

Dayton 

Perrysburgh 

Smiths Mills 

Forest ville 

Sheridan 

Dunkirk 



Distances in Miles. 



(^65 

.97 
4.43 
4.no 
3.37 
3.88 
4.69 
6.40 
6.31 
3.S3 
f..70 
1.S6 
2.07 
5.21 
3.9S 
5.35 
6.01 
3.74 
4.76 
5.19 
6.92 
3.r>5 
6.92 
5.76 
4.58 
5.61 
2.53 
4.91 
7.28 
4.03 
2.81 
1.38 
8.28 
5.61 
8.64 
8..55 
6.57 
6.82 
5.43 
4.42 
2.42 
6.91 
4.78 
5.77 
7.00 
4.09 
5.98 
1.84 
5.76 
1.55 
9.21 
5.11 
7.63 
8.19 
4.92 
4.21 
4.94 
4.17 
3.55 
4.80 
2.08 
6.01 
3.72 
4.14 
3.55 
4.43 
4.04 
4.81 
6.82 
5.55 
3.41 
7.20 
5.36 
3.81 
6.27 
7.31 
6.11 
3.29 
2.93 
6.92 
3..S7 
3.49 
4.06 






41.26 
45.09 
49.69 
53.06 
66.94 
61.63 
68.03 
74.34 
78.17 
83.87 
85.73 
S7.S0 
93.01 
90.99 
102.34 
108.35 
112.09 
116.85 
122.04 
128.96 
132.61 
139..53 
145.29 
149.87 
155.48 
158.01 
102.92 
170.20 
174.23 
177.04 
178.42 
186.70 
192.31 
200.95 
209.50 
216.07 
222.89 
228.32 
232.74 
235.16 
242.07 
246.85 
252.62 
2.59.62 
263.71 
269.69 
271.53 
277.29 
278.84 
288.05 
293.16 
300.79 
308.98 
313.90 
318.11 
323.05 
327.22 
3.30.77 
335. .57 
338.25 
344.26 
347.98 
352.12 
355.67 
360.10 
d64.14 
368.95 
375.77 
381.32 
384.73 
391.93 
397.29 
401.10 
407.37 
414.68 
420.79 
424.08 
427.01 
433.9.3 
437.80 
441.29 
445.95 



§25' 



55.03 

59.46 
63.46 
66.S3 
70.71 
75.40 
81. SO 
88.11 
91.94 
97. (>4 
99..50 
101.57 
106.78 
110.76 
116.11 
122.12 
125.86 
130.62 
135.81 
142.73 
146.38 
153.30 
159.06 
163.G4 
169.25 
171.78 
176.69 
18.3.97 
188.00 
190.81 
192.19 
200.47 
206.08 
214.72 
228.27 
229.84 
236.66 
242.09 
246.51 
24S.93 
255.84 
260.02 
266.39 
273.39 
277.48 
283.46 
285.30 
291.06 
292.61 
301.82 
300.93 
314.56 
322.75 
327.67 
331.88 
336.82 
340.99 
344.54 
349.34 
352.02 
358.03 
361.75 
365.89 
269.44 
373.87 
377.91 
382.72 
389.54 
39r,.(l9 
398.50 
405.70 
411.06 
414.87 
421.14 
42S.45 
434.56 
437.85 
440.78 
447.70 
451.57 
455.06 
459.72 



^4 



404.69 
400.26 
396.26 
392.89 
389.01 
384.32 
377.92 
371.61 
367.78 
362.08 

358.15 

352.94 

348.96 

343.61 

337.60 

333.86 

329.10 

323.91 

316.99 

313.34 

306.42 

300.66 

296.08 

290.47 

287.94 

283.03 

275.75 

271.72 

268.91 

267.53 

259.25 

253.64 

245.00 

236.45 

229.88 

223.06 

217.63 

213.21 

210.79 

203.88 

199.10 

193.33 

186.33 

182.24 

176.26 

174.42 

168.66 

167.11 

157.90 

152.79 

145.16 

136.97 

132.05 

127.84 

122.90 

118.73 

115.18 

110.38 

107.70 

101.69 

97.97 

93.83 

90.28 

85.85 

81.81 

77.00 

70.18 

64.63 

61.22 

54.02 

48.66 

44.85 

38.58 

31.27 

2.5.16 

21.87 

18.94 

12.02 

8.15 

4.66 



he agreed upon, in May, 1840; and to continue to Albany, 
May 14, 1845. The ro.ad was opened to Chatham 4 Corners 
Jan. 19, 1852, connecting at that place with the Albany & 
West Stockbridge R. R. 

Ifew Tork <£ Harlem Mail Jinad. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Wew York <fc Harlem Rail Road. Company formed 
April 2. 1831. Work was coiiiiiiciicimI Feb. 24. l.S32,"and the 
first mile opened in Oct. fullowing. The company was 
allowed to extend the road north of Harlem Ttiver, to meet 
the New York k Albany R. R. at such point as might 



White and Center Sts., N.Y. 

26th Street 

York ville 

Harlem 

Mott Haven 

Melro.se 

Morrisania 

Tremont 

Fordham 

Williams Bridge 

West Mt. Aernon 

Bronxville 

Tuckahoe 

Scarsdale 

Harts Corners 

White Plains 

Washingtons Quarters 

Kensico 

TJnionvillo 

Pleasantville 

Chappaqiia 

Mount Kisko 

Bedford 

Whitlockville 

Goldens Bridge 

Pnrdys 

Croton Falls 

Brewsters.. 

Dykeraans 

Towners 

Paterson 

Pawlings 

South Dover 

Dover Furnace 

Dover Plains 

Wassaic 

Anienia 

Sharon Station 

Millerton 

Mount Riga 

Boston Corners 

Copake 

Hillsdale 

Bains 

Martind.ale 

Philniont 

Ghent 

Chatham Four Corners 

Ea.st Albany 



Distances in Milks. 



Between 
Stations. 





n 

X 

1" 

i 
H 

li 
2* 

2 

3 

2 
2 

* 
3 

2i 
2 

H 

Oi. 
■^* 

2* 
2 



2i 



6 

2* 

H 

4i 

3i 

3i 

4* 

3i- 

8* 

5i 

4 

21 

3* 

3i 

6 

2i 



23 



Frnm 
New York. 





2* 
5i 
7* 
H 
H 
10 

lU 

12i 

14 

lOf 

ISf 

Ifli 

24 

26 

28 

28J 

31J 

34 

36 

40i 

42i 

45i 

47i 

49i 

5H 

553 

5Si 

61i 

63J 

67i 

"m 

76 

80i 

84J 

88 

91i 

96 

99i 

103 

lOSi 

112i 

115 

118J 

]22i 

12SA 

1301 



153J 



From 
Ciialhum 
4 Corners. 



128 
125i 
123 
122i 

12U 
1-JOJ 

H9i 

llSi: 
lltij 
114 
112 

HU 

lOSi 

106J 

104| 

102J 

102 

99 

96 

94f 

9ui 

8Si 

85i 

83^ 

81^ 

79i 



69i 

67 

C3i 

.57i 

54^ 

50i 

46 

42f 

39i 

34* 

3U 

27* 

ooi. 

isl 

15* 
12 
8i 

Oi 
•-a 





23 



Mevr Yorlt &■ 'Heyx Haven Railroad. This com- 
pany was allowed to extend their road from the State 
line to the Harlem R. R. near Williams Bridge. The com- 
pany run their trains 15 miles on the Harlem track for 
which they pay that company the net profits. The road 
was opened Dec. 28, 1848. 

New York <£• New Haven Railroad. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Twenty-seventh St., New 

York 

Thirty-second St 

Harlem 

Williams Bridge 

Mount Vernon 

New Rochelle 

Mamaroneck 

Rye 

Port Chester 

Greenwich 

Cos Cob 

Stamford (Conn.) 

Norwalk " 

Bridgeport " 

New Haven " 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



14 
18 



From 


From New 


New Yf/rk. 


Haven. 





76 


3 


73 


7 


69 


13 


63 


17 


59 


20 


56 


23 


53 


27 


49 


29 


47 


31 


45 


33 


43 


36 


40 


44 


32 


68 


18 


76 






72 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Ogdensburgli Railroad. This company -was formed 
by the second mortgage bondholders of the Xorthern K. R., 
from wliich its name was changed. The road extends from 
Osfdensbnrgh to Rouses Point, and includes a branch to 
Champlain Landing. 

Ogdensburgh {Northern) Eailrnad. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Ogdenshurgh 

Lisbon 

Madrid 

Potsdam 

Knapps 

Brasher Falls & Stockholm.. 

Lawrence 

Moira 

Brush's Jlills. 

Bangor 

Malone 

Burke 

Chateaugay 

Summit 

Brandy Brook 

EUenburgh 

Chazy 

Centerville 

Mooers 

Perrys Mills 

Ch.implain 

Bouses Point 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





8J 



3 

7* 
5* 
5* 
2i 
5J 
6 

' a 

4-S- 

7^ 

74 

1 

8 

54 

S4 

7J 
44 



lYom Orj- 
densburgh. 





8* 

m 

27* 
3.54 
41A 

47 

494 

55A 

68J 

804 

8SA 

89i 

97A 

1024 

106i 

11.34 
118 



-From 
Houses 
Point. 



118 
1091 
lOOJ 
93i 
90i 
824 
76* 
71 
6S4 
624 
564 
49i 
444 

294 
284 
204 
ISA 
11» 

44 




Oswego <& Syractise Railroad. Company formed 
A])ril 29. 1839. Route surveyed during the summer of that 
year. The company was fully organized March 25, 1847, and 
the Road was opened in Oct. 1848. 

Oswego <£ Syracuse Railroad. 
Stations and Distances. (OilScial.) 



Stations. 



Oswego 

Minetto 

Fulton 

South Granby 

Lamsons 

Baldwinsville 
Syracuse 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



From, 
Oswego. 





44 
61 
44 
2| 
44 
124 





44 

114 

154 

ISA 

23 
354 



From 
Syracuse. 



354 
31 

24| 
19i 
174 
12A 




&> Montreal Railroad. Company 
formed Feb. 25, 1850. Road commenced in Aug. 1851, and 
opened July 20, 1852. It connects with the Lake, St. Louis, 
& Province Line R. R. It crosses the Ogdensburgh R. R. at 
Mooers Junction. 

Flatlsburgh and Montreal Railroad. 

Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Plattshurgh 

Beekmantown 

West Chazy 

Sciota 

Mooers 

Montreal (Canada) 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 


From 


From 


Stations. 


Plattshurgh. 


ifontrpjH 








62 


5 


5 


67 


5 


10 


52 


5 


15 


47 


5 


20 


42 


42 


62 






Sackets Harbor &, Ellisburgh Rail Road. 

Company formed May 23, 1850. Road opened June 1. 1853. 
It connects with W. R. k C. V. B. R. at Pierrepont Manor. 

Sackets Harbor <£ ElHsburgh Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Sackets Harbor.... 

SmitliTille 

Henderson 

Belleville. 

Pierrepont Manor 



Distances rs Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




j 
4 

4 
5 



From 
Sackets 
Harbor. 





5 

9 

13 

18 



From 

Pierrepont 

Manor. 



18 

13 

9 

5 





Potsdam & WatertOTvn Railroad. Company formed 
Jan. 8, 1852. Road opened through in Jan., 1857, and ope- 
rated by contractors for construction to April 1 following. 
Potsdam c£ Wafertmvn Railroad. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Watertown Junction 

Watertown 

Sanfords Corners 

Evans Mills 

Philadelphia. 

Antwei-p , 

Keene , 

Gouverneur 

Richville 

De Kalb 

Herman 

Canton 

Potsdam 

Potsdam Junction 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




1 

5 
44 

7 

5 
7 

74 
4 

44 
74 

104 

64 



FroTn 
Watertown. 





1 

6 
104 
17* 
24 
29 
36 
434 
474 
52 
594 
70 
76A 



From 
Potsdam. 



764 
754 
704 
654 
584 

524 
474 
404 
324 
284 
244 
17 

64 




Rensselaer & Saratoga Rail Road. Company 
formed April 14, 1832. Fully organized in May, 1833, and 
Burvevs commenced the same year. Opened from Waterford 
to Bailston Aug 19, 1835, and to Troy in the spring of 1836. 
The Co. leases and runs the Saratoga and Schenectady R. B. 
Rensselaer <£ Saratoga Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Troy Union Depot 

Green Island 

Waterford 

A. Junction 

Mechanicsville 

Bailston 

S.aratoga 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





.877 
3.676 
1.402 
6..530 
13.108 
6.707 



From 
[Troy. 





.877 

4.553 

5.955 

12.485 

25..593 

32.3 



From 
Saratoga. 



32.3 

31.423 

27.747 

26.345 

19.815 

6.707 





Rochester &> Genesee Valley Rail Road. Com- 
pany formed June 7, 1851; allowed to extend their road to 
Portage. Work was commenced in 1852, and the road 
opened to Avon in 1S54. It connects at Avon with the 
Buffalo, Xew York & Erie R. R. 

Rutland &> Washington Rail Road extends from 
Rutland to Eagle Bridge, 63 mi. AVe have not been able to 
obtain statistics of this road, as it has made no report for seve- 
ral years. 

Rutland <£ WashiTigton Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Albany 

Troy 

Eagle Bridge 

Cambridge 

Shushiin 

Salem 

Granville , 

Middle Granville 

Poultnev, Vt 

Castleton « 

Rutland " 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




10 
23 
6 
5 
7 

18 

2 

6 

7 

11 



From 

Eagle 
Bridge. 




10 
33 
39 
44 
51 
69 
71 
77 
84 
95 



From, 
Rutland. 



95 
85 
62 
56 
51 
44 
26 
24 
18 
11 




Saratoga & Schenectady Rail Road. Company 
formed Feb. 16, 1831. Work commenced in Sept. 1831'. Road 
opened to Bailston July 12, 1832, and to Saratoga Springs 
in 1833. The road is leased and operated by the Rensselaer 
& Saratoga R. R. Co. 

Saratoga <£ Schenectady Rail Road, 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Schenectady .... 
Halfway House 

Bailston 

Saratoga 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



74 
64 



From 

Schenec- 
tady. 





8 
154 
22 



From 
Saratoga. 



22 
14 

64 





RAIL ROADS. 



73 



Saratoga <6 Washington Rail Road. Chartered May 2, 1834. 
Capital. $600,000. Company organized April 20, 1835. The 
work was begun and over §60,000 expended, when it was 
stopped in 18SG. The time was extended Aprd 13, 1840, May 
i, 1844, and April 4, 1850, and the stock was increased §250,000 
April 7, 1847. Company allowed to extend the road east to 
Vt., March 7, 1S4S. A new route was in part adopted upon 
resuming work. Began laying rails April 10, 1S48. Koad 
opened to G.msevoort Aug. 15, 1S4S, to Whitehall Dec. 10, 
1848. and to Lake Station April 9, 1851. i'oUl Feb. 27, 1S55, 
on t'ori'ilosuri^ of second mortgage, and name changed to 

Saratoga &, "Wliiteliall RallRoail. Company formed 

June 8, 1855. Capital SoUO.OOO. This company leases and 

runs the Rutland and Whitehall R. R. to CastletOn, \t. 

Saratoga (£• WldtehaU Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. 



Troy <C- Bennington Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Saratoga 

Gansevoort 

Moreau 

Fort Edward 

Dunham's Basin 

Smith's Basin 

Fort Ann 

Comstocks 

Whitehall Junction. 

Lake Station 

State Line 

Fair Haven, Vt 

Hydeville " 

Castleton " 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





10.66 
6.3 
.8 
3..32 
4.5 
3.91 
3.91 
6.6 
l.SS 
6.62 
1.85 
1.75 
3.28 



Prom 
Saratoga. 




10.66 
15.96 
16.76 
20.08 
24.58 
28.49 
32.4 
39 

40.88 
45.62 
47.47 
49.22 
52.5 



From 
Whitehall. 



39 

28.34 
23.04 
22.24 
18!92 
14.42 
10.51 
6.6 


1.88 

6.62 

8.47 

10.22 

13.5 



Second Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of 
^ew York was formed Jan. 19, 1853. Road to extend from 
Harlem River to Peck Slip. In 1855 the company were 
allowed to bridge Harlem and Bronx Rivers, to discon- 
tinue the road from Chatham St. through Oliver and South 
Sts., and to lay a new track on Bowery to Pearl St. 

Sixth Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of New 
York was formed Dec. 7, 1851. The road extends from 
Chambers St. to Central Park and was opened from Broad- 
way to Fortv-Fourth St. Aug. 19, 1852. 

Syrac\ise, Binghamton, &. Ne^v YorU Rail 
Road. Company originally formed July 2, 1851, as the 
Syracuse & Binghamton R. R. Road opened through 
Oct. 23, 1854. It was sold Oct. 13, 1856, on foreclosure of 
mortgage, and name changed to the Syracuse & Southern 
K. R. Its present name was assumed under act of March 
31, 1857. In 1858 the company were authorized to purchase 
the Union R. R. to the canal at Geddes. 

Syracuse, Binghamton, <&New Tiyrh Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Syracuse 

Jamesville 

La Fayette 

Apulia 

TuUy 

Preble 

Little York 

Homer 

Cortland 

Blodgets Mills 

State Bridge 

Marathon 

Killawog 

Lisle 

Whitneys Point.., 
Chenango Forks., 

Chenango 

Binghamton....... 



Distances in Miles. 



Betiveen 
Stations. 





6.69 
7.67 
5.10 
1.97 
5.-33 
2.71 
4.26 
2.67 
3.54 
6.25 
3.90 
2.90 
3.65 
2.14 
9.28 
6.14 
5.13 



From 
Si/ranise. 





6.69 
14.36 
19.46 
21.43 

26.76 

29.47 

33.73 

36.4 

39.94 

46.19 

50.09 

62.99 

56.64 

58.78 

68.06 

74.2 

79.33 



From 

Bingham^ 

ton. 



79.33 

72.64 

64.97 

59.87 

57.9 

52.57 

49.86 

45.6 

42.93 

39.39 

33.14 

29.24 

26.34 

22.69 

20.55 

11.27 

5.13 





Third Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of 
New York was formed Oct. 6, 1853. The road extends from 
the intersection of Park Row and Broadway through Park 
Row, Chatham St., Bowery, and Third Avenue to Harlem 
Kiver. It was opened from Ann to Sixty-First St. in 1853, 
to Ei"-hty-Sixth St. July 4, 1854, and to Uarlem in 1859. 

Troy & Bennington Kail Road. Company formed 
May 15, 1851. Workcommencedin June, 1851. Road opened 
Aui:. 1. 1S52. Connects the Troy & Boston R.R. with the 
Western Vt. R.R. Tt is leased to the Troy & Boston R. R.Co. 

Troy &, Boston Rail Road. Company formed Nov. 20, 
1S49. Work coiiniieiic(«i in June, 1860. Road opened from 
Troy tn llonsick Falls in Aug. 1853. Most of tlie remainder 
to the State Line is graded. The company leases tlie Troy & 
Bennington 1!. R. and 7 mi. of the Vermont Western R. R. 



Stations. 



Distances in Mile.^. 



Troy 

Lansingburgh 

Junction 

Schaghticoke 

Piltstown 

Johnsonville 

Buskirks Bridge 

Eagle Bridge 

Hoosick Falls Junction 

Hoosick Falls 

Hoosick Corners 

Petersburgh 

North Adams, Mass 



Between 
Stations. 




3 
5 
4 
2 
2 
5 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
15 



From 

Troy. 





3 
8 
12 
14 
16 
21 
23 
25 
27 
30 
32 
47 



From 



Western Vermont Rail Road. 



Stations. 



North Hoosick 

W.alloomsac 

North Bennington, Vt 
Rutland ".. 





2 

4 

64 



From 

North 
Hoosick. 




2 

6 

60 



From 



Troy & Greenbiisli Rail Road. Company organized 
May 14, 1845 under a lease from the New York & Albany 
R. R. The road had been commenced about 1842, and opera- 
tions suspended. It was opened in June, 1845. It is 
operated by the Hudson River R. R. Co. under a lease. 

Troy &. Rutland Rail Road. Company formed March 
6, 1851. The road extends from Hoosick near Eagle Bridge 
to Salem. It was opened June 28, 1852, and leased to the 
Rutland & Washington (Vt.) R. R., until March. 1855, when 
it was placed in the hands of a receiver, and run by the 
Albany Northern R.R. 

Troy Union Rail Road. Company formed .July 21, 1851. 
Road commenced in Feb. 1853, and opened Feb. 22. 1854. It 
is owned by parties representing the intercuts of the Troy 
& Greenbush, Troy & Boston, Rensselaer & Saratoga, and 
New York Central R. Roads, and is used by the above com- 
panies in common. 

Union Rail Road. Company formed Jan. 10, 1851. The 
road extends from Patterson and Ramapo (N. J.) to the New 
York & Erie R. R. at Sufferns. It ia operated by the latter 
road under a lease. 

Union Rail Road. Company formed Nov. 13, 1856. The road 
extends from the 6th Ward in Syracuse to the Erie Canal in 
Geddes. By an act of April 16. 1858, the Co. were authorized 
to sell the road to the Syracuse. Binghamton, & N. Y. R. R. Co. 

■WatertOTvn &, Rome Rail Road. Company formed 
April 17, 1832. W'ork commenced at Rome in Nov. 1848. 
Road opened to Camden in 1849, to Pierrepont Manor in Blay, 
1851, to Watertown in Sept. 1851, to Chaumont in Nov. 1851, 
and to Cape Vincent May 1, 1852. 

Watertmvn, Rome, d- Cape Vincent Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Cape Vincent 

Three Mile Bay 

Chaumont 

Limerick 

Brownville 

Watertown 

Adams Center 

Adams 

Pierrepont Manor., 

Mannsville 

Sandy Creek 

Richland 

Albion 

Kasoag 

Williamstown 

West Camden 

Camden 

McConnelsville 

Taberg 

Rome 



Distances in Miles. 


Between 
Stations. 


From 
Cape Vin- 
cent. 


From, 
Rome. 








97 


8 


8 


89 


3 


11 


86 


6 


17 


80 


4 


21 


76 


4 


25 


72 


10 


35 


62 


3 


38 


89 


5 


43 


54 


2 


45 


53 


5 


50 


47 


6 


55 


42 


5 


60 


37 


6 


66 


31 


3 


69 


28 


6 


74 


23 


5 


79 


18 


5 


84 


13 


2 


86 


11 


11 


97 






WiUiamsport &, Elmira Rail Road. Incorporated 
bv I'enn.April 9, 1850, and allowed to extend the road to the 
New York & Erie R. R. at Elmira. The village of Elniira was 
authorized to loan its credit for $100,000 toward the con- 
struction. Eight m-les of the road are m this State. 



74 



NEA\' YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

Official Summai-y of Bail Road Statistics 



Nahes. 



Albany, Vermont & Canada 

Albany & West Stockbridge 

Black River & Utica 

Blossliurg & Corning 

Brooklyn City 

Buffalo, Xew York & Erie 

Buffalo & State Line 

Cayuga & Susquehanna 

Chemung 

Eighth Avenue 

Eluiira, Canandaigua & Niagara Falls.. 

Flushing 

Hudson & Boston 

Hudson Kiver 

Long Island 

New York Centi'al 

New York & Erie 

New York & Harlem 

New York & New Haven 

Ogdonsburgh 

Oswego & Syracuse 

Potsdam & Wntertown 

Rensselaer & Saratoga 

Itochester & Genesee Valley 

Sackets Harbor & Ellisburgh , 

Saratoga & Schenectady , 

Saratoga & 'Whitehall 

Second Avenue 

Sixth Avenue 

Syracuse, Binghamton & New York..., 

Third Avenue 

Troy & Bennington 

Troy & Boston 

Troy & Greenbush 

Troy & Rutland 

Troy Union 

Watertown & Rome 



•8 


s i 


i.1 


^ 


"^ 








c S: 




•'^ 


■^"^ 


if 


5.3 .W 


^S2 








•«.s 


« a 


£ o s> 


5 3 


CB 


c-^-g 


g^-«- 


!■§« 




§ a, 


= i 


lit 


S.S 


»^i:§ 


'^•■s-a 


^1 


^< 


g<l 


32.95 


3.39 


$ 600,000 


$ 439,004.97 


$ 1,575,098.79 


$ 1,625,098.79 


38 


34 


1,0110,000 


1,000,000.00 


1,289,9:33.98 


1,289.933.98 


3-t.94 




1,500,000 
250.000 


804,647.99 


662,500.00 


715,070.60 


14.81 


1.60 


250,000.00 


220,000.00 


220,000.00 


2U.15 


19.95 


1,000,000 


1,000,000.00 
680.000.00 






142 


11.33 


1,500.000 


2,409.593.88 


2,574,5.'32.19 


68.34 


18 


1,300,000 


1.913,000.00 


1,049.000.00 


1,221,378.49 


34.61 


3.49 


1,500,000 


687,000.00 


473,000.00 


480,402.28 


17.36 


2.06 


380,000 


380,000.00 


70,000.00 


70,000.00 


5 




800,000 


800,000.00 






46.84 


2.90 


300,000 






7.80 


.39 


200,000 


131.339.90 


236.500.00 


269,913.32 


17.33 
144 


.50 
106.50 


175.000 
4.000,000 


175,000.00 
3,758,466,59 






8.842.000.00 


9,297,003.04 


9.5 


10.08 


3,000,000 


1,852,715.79 


639.497.67 


653,263.02 


55.5.88 


311.80 


24,182,4(10 


24,182,400.00 


14,402,634.69 


14.402.634.69 


446 


282..50 


10,500,000 


11.000.000.00 


26,438,01 6..55 


27,170.274.41 


130.75 


28.84 


8,000,000 


5,717,100.00 


5,151,287.21 


5,298,927.88 


62.25 


63.82 


3,000.000 


2,980,839.33 


2,163,500.00 


2,194,051.07 


118 


17.75 


4,571,900 
350,000 








35.91 


2.21 


396,340.00 


197,6o6.00 


213,414.94 


75.36 


2 


2,000,000 


633,077.15 


818,500.00 


998,6.38.47 


25.22 


2.01 


610.000 


610,000.00 


140,000.00 


140,000.00 


18.45 


1.25 


8110.000 


555.4.50.10 


150,000.00 


180,417.13 


18 


1 


175.000 


167,485.89 


278,400.00 


306,810.47 


21 


1.57 


300.000 


300,000.00 


86,500.00 


86,500.00 


40.86 


3.87 


500,000 


500,000.00 


395,000.00 


400,455.94 


8 


8 


800,000 


627,200.00 


350,000.00 


380,000.00 


4 


4..38 


750.000 


750,000.00 
1,200,130.00 






81 


7.09 


1,201. .'500 


1,500.000.00 


1,763.486.80 


6 


6.50 


1,170,000 


1,170,000.00 


50.000.60 


90,600.00 


5.38 


.28 


80,000 


75.,35S.00 


171,200.110 


172.295..S7 


27.23 


3.23 


1,000,000 


568,297.22 


797,500.00 


1,028,582.99 


6 


.04 


275,000 


275 000 00 






17.27 


2.75 


325,000 


249,939.50 






2.14 


2.14 


30,000 


311000.00 


680,000.00 


680,000.00 


96.76 


11 


1,500,000 


1,498,400.00 


688.500.00 


769,250.76 


2,520.59 


978.12 


$79,625,600 


$67,358,192.43 


$71,925,162.77 


$74,692,936.03 



Tlie Plattsburgh & Montreal R. R., 23.17 mi.; Champlain & St. Lawrence R. R., 2.5 mi. to Canada line; and Williamsport & 
Elniira R. R., 8 mi. to Pennsylvania line, are not included in the above table, from default in reports. The gauge of the New 
York & Erie R. R. and of the connecting roads is 6 ft., the same as that of several roads in Penn. The New York Central R. R. 



General Summarij of Bail Boacl Statistics for 
the year ending September 30, 1858. 

Length of roads in miles 3.124.71 

Length of roads laid 2.442.91 

Length of roads in operation, e.xchiding city roads 2,397.62 

Length of double track, including sidings 970.48 

Lenu'th of branches owned by company and laid 373.44 

Length of double track on same 6.37 

Length of equivalent single track, exclusive of city 

roads 3,709.08 

Number of engine houses and shops 183 

Number of engines 738 

Number of first-class passenger cars, rated iw eight- 
wheeled 1,071 

Number of second-class and emigrjint cars \~f, 

Number of baggage, mail, and express cars 239 

Number of freight cars 9,014 

Excluding City Roads. Miles. 
Average rate of speed of ordinary passenger trains, inclu- 
ding stops 20.72 

Average rate of same when in motion 25.53 

Average rate of speed of e.xpress passenger trains, including 

stops „ 25.44 

Aver.age rate of same when in motion 29.39 

Average rate of speed of freight trains, including stops 10.09 

Average rate of same when in motion 13.95 

Tons. 
Average weight in tons of passenger trains, exclusive of 

passengers and baggage 73.09 

Average weight in tons of freight trains, exclusive of 

freight 129.27 

Miles run by pa.ssenger trains 11,578,745 

The same, excluding city roads 6,145,862 

Number of p-assengers of all classes carried in cars... 43,786,579 

The same, excluding city roads 11,250,073 

Number of miles traveled by passengers, or number 
of passengers carried one mile, city roads n<jt in- 
. eluded 373,159,179 



Miles run by freight trains 5,417,456 

Number of tons carried ou freight trains 3,47.3,725 

Total movement of freight, or number of tons carried 

one mile 420,604,609 

Classification of Freight. 

Tons. 

Products of the forest 303,236 

Products of animals 734,995 

Vegetable food '. 914,206 

Other agricultural products 77,174 

Manufactures 325.596 

Merchandise 562,378 

Other articles 556,140 

Total tonnage 3,473,725 

Costs. 

Repairs of road bed $2,282,807.73 

Cost of iron for repair 464.712.95 

Repairs of Iniildings 207,846.56 

Repairs of fences and gates 48,660.35 

Taxes on real estate 290,771.47 

Other road e.xpen.ses 398,329.66 

Total road expenses $3,693,129.72 

Repairs of engines $ 930,627.16 

Repairs of cars 1,00.3,906.26 

Repairs of tools 82.975.15 

Oil, waste, &c 112,518.64 

Other costs 4.3.759 29 

Total cost of repairs of machinery $2,173,786 .69 

Office expenses, stationery, &c $ 86,427.81 

Agents and clerks 622,981.68 

Labor, loading and unloading freight 449,060.96 

Porters, watchmen, and switchmen attendance.... 420,180.66 

^oodand water station attendance. 96,958.14 



RAIL ROADS. 



for the year ending Sept. 30, 1858. 



1, 






$ 2,010,6a4.64 

i.2;54,:)ii.M 

406,i",01.2S 

1.03'<,S39.97 

2,975,325.06 

2.772,987.09 

1,183.012.71 

400,000.00 

833,642.87 

200,000.00 

308 891.33 

175,000,00 

11,328.989.96 

2,566.270.07 

80.732.517 ..54 

34.058,632.63 

7,948,116.35 

6.3-24.527.09 

4.788.791.26 

761,380.11 

1.587,028.08 

9*30,550.58 

653,539.64 

389,170.84 

480,684.15 

903.890.92 

1,005.403.71 

855,957.22 

2.837.607.66 

1,378.090.74 

253.931.19 

1,422,188.86 

294,731,43 

338,688.87 

732,114.72 

2,159,295.04 



$129,621,542.88 






^ 



$ 84,119.86 

'"60.524.33 

23.554.24 

395.026.80 

429,753.89 

840.116.71 

97,151.08 

338.410.16 

17.989.46 

40,072.52 

58.207.21 

7, 6:36,412 28 

320,588.93 

6,528.412.70 

5,151,610.43 

975.853.86 

8.36,612.14 

41O.SOli.00 

115996.C8 

94..385.03 

208.222.86 

37.280.57 

48.358.60 

30.150.00 

1,39.388.67 

227,457.70 

280,617.86 

177,027.85 

403,055.08 

3,164.88 

125,042.55 



391.973.40 



S20,527 ,951.53 



I . 
P 

bo S 

II 



72,904.83 

28,09i'.92 

""2.S8.'77i.22 

301,6:32.09 

480.507.05 

77,285.40 

177.753.91 

11.947.28 

41.50(>.29 

47,307.60 

1,041,773.43 

174.215.05 

3,487,292.67 

3,791.4.57.62 

617.001.47 

5.32.477.85 

283.79:!.93 

54,640.63 

49.672.54 

110,982.77 

3,514.02 

'ih.T^'.ih 

n9.7ii4.:;7 
178.220.24 
100,700.61 
242,811.53 

71,753.69 



232.607.41 



$12,716,305.68 



a 
-§ 

<5 



$ 12.500.00 
80,000.00 

'"io8,ooo.o6 

96,000.00 



10,500.00 
'l,'9i'9,564.()6 



2,108.75 
37,097.93 

'l8,3o6!66 



7,500.00 

i 2,544.00 
75,000.00 

'93,6b6!o6 



44,952.00 



$2,517,667,08 



Passenger Transporta- 
tion. 



Niimher. 



196,911 

171,0-16 

53.647 

9,364 

7,505,859 

185,876 

296,194 

26,253 

6,768,203 

15.8.52 

220.779 

:;7.iio 

1,415.3.39 

3r«.i:!0 

2.124.4.">9 

793.602 

720,070 

9.53.819 

71,764 

92,492 

71.850 

151,576 

43.948 

7,340 

93,035 

4,504.645 

5,612,3.57 

107.504 

7,945,462 

87,432 



127.285 



40.977,229 



Mileage. 



1,864,210 

5,094.681 

1,121.012 

103,847 

""8,192,0(10 

17,854,082 

623,885 



479,841 

1,483.464 

413,;!56 

56.658,109 

7,380.760 

1.36,091.023 

64,931,450 

17,940.971 

32.908.957 

2,707.920 

2,i:il.9r,2 

1,72.-|.177 

3,662,026 

703,184 

08,913 

2,452,281 



2,753,962 
1,798,203 

"4,100,132 



Freight Transporta- 
tion, UN To.vs. 



Number. 



375,335,441 



.34.918 

220.035 
]:3.1.30 
73,908 

"I'iijo'g 

290.532 
85,556 



4,293 

1,400 

50,806 

100,197 

89,480 

765,407 

81<i,905 

122,.371 

04,058 

160,4.32 

42.810 

21,142 

69,903 

27,700 

8,342 

62,868 



73,410 



56,049 



123,599 



Mileage. 



3,569,082 



698,300 

7,511,.341 

316,600 

831,679 

14,360,006 

19,809,225 

2,074,375 



175,969 

8,356 

880,466 

18,416,865 

2,230.990 

142.091,178 

165.895.636 

7.440,561 

3.715,.364 

13.210.357 

1,375,657 

699,023 

1,580,757 

470,900 

74,692 

1,871,411 



5,058,890 
1,482,292 

'9,899"i28 



Acci- 

DKNT3. 



1 


•1 
1 


1 




3 


1 




3 




5 


3 


1 


4 


14 


... 


2 


2 






1 


14 


4 


7 


2 


33 


87 


25 


63 


6 


5 


11 


4 


1 


2 


2 






1 



423.362.032 



117 



2 
8 

204 



and its connecting roadshaveagaugeof 4.71 ft., the same as New England roads generally. The Buffalo & State Line R. E, has 
a gauge of 4.83 feet, like the Ohio roads ; and a few tracks near Suspension Bridge hare a gauge of 5.5 feet, like that of the 
principal roads in Canada. 



Conductors, haggagemen, and brakesmen 553,122.23 

Enginemen and firemen 552,985.29 

Fuel and cost of labor in preparing for use 1,.598,250.16 

Oil and waste for engines. and tenders 204.078.43 

Oil and waste for cars 64.202.29 

Loss and damage to goods and baggage 98,939.98 

Damages for injuries to persons 135,214.26 

Damages for property and for cattle killed 18,519.15 

General superintendence 203,.301.81 

Contingencies 545,259.03 

Other costs 900,669.45 

Total cost of operating roads $0,636,0.51.33 

Earnings. 

Frem passenger business $ 9,016,747.50 

From freight business, city roads excluded 10,532,714.97 

From other sources 759,591.38 

Total earnings for all roads $20,309,053. S5 

Payments for transportation expenses $12,8.30,526.87 

Payments for interest 4,156,997.05 

Payments for dividends on stock 2,503,013.93 

Amount carried to surplus fund 218,541.42 

Total payment for all roads $19,709,079.27 

Accidents. 

Number of passengers killed 20 

Number of passengers injured .142 

Number of employees killed 29 

Number of employees injured 24 

Number of others killed 68 

Number of others injured ; 36 

Total number killed 117 

Total number injured 202 

Total number killed, excluding city roads 114 

Total number injured, excluding city roads 191 



Cost of Cbnstruction and of Equipment. 

Grading and masonry..... $58,355,306.85 

Bridges 2,396,300.42 

Superstructure, including iron 28,165,443.55 

Pas.=engeraud freight stations, buildings and fix- 
tures 4,777,786.65 

Engine and car houses, machine shops, ma- 
chinery and fixtures 1,920,498.40 

Land damages, and fences 9,047,417.34 

Locomotives and fixtures and snow plows 6,884,506.70 

Passenger and baggage cars 2,070,501.01 

Freight and other cars 5,586,736.19 

Engineering and agencies 12,102,948.10 

Total cost of construction and equipment 1.31,907,445.21 

Total cost of same, excluding city roads 126,873,010.70 

Excluding City Rail Roads, the following deductions per Mile. 

Average cost per mile $52,916.23 

Average cost single track per mile 34,206.05 

Average number of miles traveled by each passenger 33.17 

Average number of passengers to each train 60.72 

Average distance each ton of freight is transported 

in miles. 120.91 

Average number of tons in each freight train 77.54 

Average number of trains over each track daily. ... 8.54 
Average Cost per Mile of Road. 

For maintaining of road way $1,511.70 

For repairs of machinery 892.47 

For operating road 2,415.49 

Average Cost per Mile of Single Track. 

For maintaining of roadway * ^tl'^'^ 

For repairs of machinery 577.45 

For operating road 1,561.42 

Average amount received for passengers per mile, 1.98 cts. 
Proportion of passengers killed to miles traveled, 1 to 18,057,959. 
Proportion of passengers killed to passengers traveling, 1 to 

562,504. 
Proportion of expenses to earnings, 63 to 100.32. 



76 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

Bail Roads Projected, Abandoned, or merged in otlier Roads. 



Najies of Rail Roads. 



Adirondack 

Albany, Bennington & Rutland 
Albany Northern 



Albany & Cohoea 

Albany & Saratoga 

Albany & Saratoga Springs.. 

Albany &, Schenectady 



Albany & Susquehanna 

Albion & Tonawanda 

Atlantic &, Great Western.. 

Attica & Allegany Valley... 
Attica & Buffalo 



Attica &. HomellsvUle . 



Attica & Sheldon 

Auburn & Canal 

Auburn & Ithaca 

Auburn & Rochester. 

Auburn & Syracuse- 



Aurora & Buffalo 

Batavia & Chicktawauga 

Bath & Coney Island. 

Bath & Crooked Lake 

Binghamton & Susquehanna.. 

Black River 



BK-ick River 

Black River 

iBrewerton & Syracuse 

Broadway B. R. Co. of Brooklyn 
Brooklyn, Fort Hamilton 

Buffalo International 



DaU of 
Organization. 



Capital. 



April 1, 1839 $100,000 
400,000 
335,000 



April 23,1850 

Feb. 12, 1851 

Co. not organ'd 
June 28, 1852 

Sept. 20,1852 

April 19,18-17 



April 2. 1851 
AprU 17,1832 

Dec. 



1, 1858 

Sept. 16, 1852 
May 3, 1830 



May 14, 1845 



May 21, 18.36 

AprU 24.18.32 

May 21, 1836 

May 13, 1836 

May 1, 1834 



April 
Aug. 

Jlarch 
April 

April 

May 
Jan. 

May 

Aug. 
May 



BiJfalo, New York k Erie... 



Buffalo i Allegany Valley 

Buffalo & Batavia. 

Buffalo & Black Rock 

Buffalo & Conhocton Valley... 
Buffalo, Corning & New York., 



Buffalo & Erie 

Buffalo & Hinsdale 

Buffalo & Lake Huron (Canada) 



14. 1832 
17, 1850 

24. 1831 

29. 1833 

17. 1832 

21. 1836 

27, 1853 

1, 1830 

11, 1858 
12, 1836 



Feb. 25, 1857 



Sept. 1,1857 1,500,000 



300,000 
200,000 



4,000,000 
200,000 

150,000 

1,000,000 
350,000 



750,000 

50,000 

150,000 

500,000 

2,000,000 

400,000 

300,000 
300,000 

20,000 
150,000 

900,000 

200,000 
120,000 

80,000 

200,000 
160,000 

150,000 



May 21, 1853 
AprU 18,1838 

April 29,1833 
June 26, 1850 
March 18, 1852 

April 14.18.32 
May 12, 1846 



Buffalo & Lockport.... 
Buffalo & New York... 



Buffalo & New York Qty ...... 



Buffalo, Tonawanda & Niagara 

Falls 

Buffalo & Niagara Falls 

Buffalo & Pittsburg 

Buffalo, Pittsburg & St. Louis.... 
Buffalo & Rochester 

Canandaigua Railway & Trans- "I 

portation Co / 

Canandaigua & Corning 

Canandaigua & Elmira. 



April 27,1852 



Jan. 


16, 1851 


Apra 


8, 1851 


.June 
May 


2.3. 18.53 
3,1834 


Oct. 


7, 1852 


Oct. 
Oct. 


11, 1S52 
8, 1850 


April 


12, 1828 


Jlay 


11, 1845 


Sept. 


11, 1852 



300,000 
500,000 

100,000 
1,400,000 



650.000 
500,000 



600,000 
350,000 



Connicticms. 



Adirondack Iron Works and 1 

Clear Pond j 

Albany, Bennington, and \ 

Rutland ) 

Albany and Troy, and Rutland 
R. R. at Eagle Bridge. 

Albany and Cohoes 

Albany and Green Island 

{Albany Northern R. R. and \ 
Saratoga Springs J 

Albany and Schenectady. 



Remarks. 



250,000 
110,000 

750,000 

i,825,'600 

50,000 
1,600,000 



Albany and Binghamton 

Albion and Batavia 

f Buffalo & New York Central \ 
\ R. R. and Penn. State Line J 

Attica to Penn. State Line 

Attica and Buffalo 



Attica and Hornellsville.. 



Attica and Sheldon 

Auburn and Canal 

Auburn and Ithaca. 

Auburn and Rochester.. 



Auburn and Syracuse.. 



Aurora and Buffalo 

Batavia and Attica & Buffalo R.R 



Bath and Crooked L<ake 

Binghamton and Peun. S. Line 
f Rome or Herkimer and River 1 
\ St. Lawrence J 

Clayton and Carthage 

Clayton and Mohawk Village.... 
f Outlet of Oneida Lake and \ 
1 Syracuse J 

Through a part of Brooklyn 



("Buffalo and proposed inter- ~j 
-^ national bridge, opposite > 
( Squaw Island ) 

/Buffalo, New York & Erie I 
I R. R. at Corning j 

(Buffalo and Attica & Alle-") 

t g-inyR. R | 

Buffalo and Batavi.a. 



New York Cen- 



Buffalo and Black Rock 

f Buffalo, New York & Erie R. R. 
\ at Corning. 



Buffalo and Erie, Penn.. 
Buffalo and Hinsdale — 



Buffalo and Lockport.. 
Buffalo and Attica. 



Buffalo and Hornellsville.. 



Tonawanda and Black Rock.. 
Buffalo and Niagara Falls 



{Buffalo and State Line near "I 
Olean J 



Buffalo and Rochester.. 



Canandaigua and Watson., 
Canandaigua and Elmira... 



Canandaigua and Niagara Edge 



Nothing done. 

Merged in Albany Northern R.R. 

Sold, and succeeded bj' Albany, 

Vermont, & Canada R. R. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Changed from Mohawk & Hud- 
son, and merged in the New 
York Central R. R., May 17. 
18.53. 

Partly graded. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. 

Consolidated as Buffalo & Roches- 
ter, afterward as Buffalo &, N 
York City R. B., at present 
as Buffalo, New York, & Erie. 

Consolidated, and is now the Buf- 
falo & New York City R. R, 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Consolidated in 
tral R. R. 

Consolidated in New York Cen- 
tral R. R. 

Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done, 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

i Consolidation of the Buffalo, 
Corning, and New York K. H. 
and part of Buffalo & New 
York City R. R. 

Partly done. 

Not constructed by this organi- 
zation. 

Horse-power. Since abandoned. 

Now the Buffalo, New York &. 
Erie R. R. 

Name changed from Buffalo k 
Conhocton Valley R. R. 

Surveyed and located. 

Notbiug done. 

Allowed to purchase real estate 
in 18.57. 

Constjlidated with New York Cen- 
tral R. R., 1853. , 

Connected with Attica k Hornells- 
ville R. K., and name changed 
to Buffalo & New York City 
R.R. 

Consolidation of Attica k Buffalo 
R . R. and Buffalo k New York 
B. R. 

Not constructed. 

Leased to New York Central R. R 

Co. in 1853. 
Reorganized as the Buffalo, Pitts- 
burg & St. Louis R.R. 
Partly graded. 
Formed by union of Tonawanda 

and Attica & Buffalo R. Roads 
f Connected with Chemung R. R, 
\ to Elmira. 
Formed from Canandaigua iCorn- 

ing and Chemung R. Roads. 

Leased to New York & Erie 

R. R. Co. 
Leased to New York Central R. R 

Co. in 1858. 



RAIL llOADS. 
Bail Boads Projected, Abandoned, or merged in other Eoads, continued. 



77 



Names of RiiL Roads. 



Caniwidaigua & Niagara Falls.... 
Canaiidai^ua & Syracuse 

Cassadaga & Erie 

Castleton & West Stockbridgo... 



Catskill & Canajoharie. 

Catskill & Ithaca 

Chautauqua County 

Chemung & Ithaca 

Cherry Valley & Susquehanna... 

Clifton & South aifton 

Clyde & Sodus Bay 

Coeymans 

Cold Spring 



Cooperstown & Clicrry Valley. 

Corning & Blossburg 

Corning & Olean 

Cuxsackie&Sclicnectady. 

DansviUe & Rochester 

Delaware ■ 

Division Avenue 

Dunkirk & State Line 

Dutchess 

Dutchess 



Dale of 
Organizalion. 



Dec. 
Nov. 

May 

May 

April 

April 
July 
May 
May 

March 

Jan. 
May 
April 

May 

April 

Feb. 

May 

March 

May 

March 

April 

March 



Capital. 



Elmira, Canandaigua k Nia-"| 
gara Falls J 



Elmira & Williamsport., 
Erie & Cattaraugus 



Erie & New York City 

Fishhouse & Amsterdam 

Fishkill Landing & State Line. 

Fredonia & Van Buren 

Genesee Valley 



Genesee & Cattaraugus.... 

Genesee & Hudson River.. 

Geneseo 

Geneseo & Pittsford 

Geneva &, Canandaigua.... 

Gilboa 

Goslien & Albany 

Goshen & New York 

Great Ausable 



Greene- 



Harlem & High Bridge.. 

Herkimer & Trenton 

Honeoye 

Hudson & Berkshii-e , 



Hudson & Delaware.. 

Ithaca & Geneva 

Ithaca & Owego 



Ithaca & Port Renwick.. 
Jamesville 

Johnstown 



10,1850 
26, 1853 

21. 1836 
5, 1834 

19, 1830 

21, 1828 
23, 1851 

16. 1837 
10, 1830 

8, 1853 

22, 1S53 
21, 183ti 
30, 1839 

15, 1837 

6, 1851 

5, 1853 
15, 18.37 
22, 1S3; 
21, 1830 

1, 1853 
15, 18.50 
28, 1832 

May 25, 1836 



$1,000,000 
1,000,000 

250,000 

300,000 

600,000 

1,500,000 

60,000 

200,000 

500,000 

350,000 

150.000 

75,OiX) 

2,500 

150,000 



April 24, 1857 

April 21,1832 

May 15, 1837 

July 11,1851 

April 20,1832 

AprU 12, 184S 

May 21, 1836 

June 2, 1856 

May 15, 1837 



Jordan & Skaneateles 

Kingston Turnpike & R. R 

Lake Champlain & Ogdensburgli 
Lake Ontario, Auburn & New) 

York j 

Lake Ontario, Auburn & New 1 

York ...J 

Lake Ontario & Hudson River... 



Lake Ontario & New York . 

Lansingburgh & Troy 

Lansingburgh & Troy 

Lebanon Springs 



Lewiston.. 



Dec. 

April 

May 

April 

April 

Api'il 

May 

April 

April 

Aug. 
May 
May 
April 



11, 1852 
11, 1848 
11, 1836 
21, 1828 
15, 1839 

12, 1842 

13, 1837 
17, 1828 

18, 1838 

25, 1R53 
13, 1836 
21, 1836 
21, 1858 



April 19,1830 
April 9, 1832 
Jan. 2S, 1828 



16, 1834 
21, 1836 



April 
May 

May 13, 1836 



May 

April 
April 

AprU 

May 
April 

Aug. 

May 
Nov. 
Dec. 



6, 1837 

23, 1835 
20, 1832 

15, 1851 

9. 1856 

6. 1857 



20, 1852 

19, 1R36 

13, 1853 

1, 1S51 



May 6, 1836 



Connections. 



Canandaigua and Erie Canal 

Canandaigua and Syracuse 

( Cassadaga Creek and Penn. ) 
\ State Line j 

Castleton and West Stockbridge 



Catskill and Canajoharie.. 



Catskill and Ithaca , 

J New York & Krie R. R. and 1 
( Penn. State Line j 

Head of Cayuga and Penn. Line 

iUtica & Syracuse R. U. and' 
New York & Erie R. R 
Clifton and Vreeland Farm, 
on Lower Bay 

Clyde and L.ak(( Ontario 

Landing and Moss Hill Quarries 
In Cattaraugus co 



Remarks. 



850,000 
500.000 
300.000 
400,000 
5(K).000 
5O0.(K)0 
600,000 

1,000,000 



75,000 
200,000 

750,000 
250,000 

""i"2,6<)6 

300,000 
400,000 

7,000,000 

15,000 

150,000 

100,000 

150,000 

1,500,000 
150,000 
150,000 

20,000 

150,000 
200,000 
250,000 
350,000 

500,000 
800,000 
150,000 

15,000 
25,000 

75,000 

20,000 

20,000 
3,000,000 

1,500000 
1,500,000 



150,000 

40,000 

10,000 

500,000 

200,000 



Cooperstown and Canandai-I 

gua k Syracuse R. R J 

Coming and Blossburg Coal 
Region in Penn. 

Corning and Olean 

Coxsackie and Schenectady 

DansviUe and Rochester 

Delhi and Deposit 

Brooklyn 

Dunkirk and State Line 

Pouirlikeepsie and State Line 

f Pougbkeopsio and Mass. or 1 
\ Conn, line J 

Elmira and Suspension Bridge... 

Elmira and Willlamsport, Penn. 

! Attica & Butliilo R. K. and ) 
Genesee & Cattaraugus H.R. f 
Little Valley Creek andj 
Penn. State Line J 

Fishhouse and Amsterdam 



&1 



Fredonia and Vau Buren... 

Avon and Mount Morris.... 
f Attica and New York 
\ ErieR. R 

Rochester and Albany 

Geneseo and Canal in York 

Geneseo and Pittsford 

Geneva and Canandaigua... 

Gilboa to Canajoharie 

Albany and .jHoshen 

Goshen to New Jersey State line 

Port Kent and Ausable Forks... 
(Greene and New York &) 
\ ErieR, R J 

East River and High Bridge 

Herkimer and Trenton , 

Erie Canal and Honeoye Lake.. 

Hudson and Berkshire 



Newburgh and Delaware River, 
f Ithaca and Geneva & Canau- ) 
\ daigua R. R / 

Ithaca and Owego 



Ithaca and Cayuga Lake 

Jamesville to Erie Canal 

(■Johnstown and Utica & Sy-1 

1 racuse R. R f 

/Jordan and terminus Sksrl 
( neatelesB. R j 

Esopus Creek and Kingston 

Ogdensburgh and L. Champlain. 

{Little Sodus Bay and Cayuga 
and Susquehanna R. R. 

The same 



Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done under this organi- 
zation. 

Partly constmcted, and ofter- 
wards abandoned. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done but survey. 
iNotliiiig done. 

Nothing done. Intended for lum- 
bering purposes. 

Nothing done. 

Changed in 1854 to Blossburg & 

Corning R. R. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Surveyed. Nothing further done 
Nothing done. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Formed by connection of Ca- 
nandaigua & Elmira and Ca- 
nandaigua & Niagara Falls 
,^ R. Roads. 
Nothing done by this Corporation. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. 

Nothing dAe. 

Company never organized. 

Nothing done. 

Trains commenced in March 1859. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Notliing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Not constmcted. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Merged in Hudson and Boston 

R. R, 
Graded, but nothing further done. 

Not constructed. 

Changed to Cayuga and Susque- 
hanna R. R. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 



/Lewiston and mouth of Ni-\ 
( agara River J 

Lansingburgh and Troy 

The same 

Lebanon Springs and Chatham.. 

Lewiston and Niagara Falls 



Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 

Grading commenced, but no part 
completed. 

/Work resumed, but no part 
( completed. 

Name changed from Sackets Har- 
bor & Saratoga R. R. No part 
completed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Grading commenced, but no part 

completed. 
Leased to the New York Central 
R. R. Co. 



78 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Rail Roads Projected, Abandoned, or merged in oilier Roads, continued. 



Names op Rail Roads. 



Date of 
Orgatiization. 



Gipilal. 



Lockport & Batavia May 21, 1S36! 

Lockport & Niagara Falls AprH 24, 18U^$ 175,000 



Lockport & Youngstown.. 
Madiijon Couaty 



Maiden . 



Manhattan 

MaulieimA Salisbury. 



Mayville & Portland. 

Meiliua & Darieu 

Medina & Lake Ontario.... 

Mohawk Valley 

Mohawk & Hudson 



Mohawk & Moose River., 



.Mohawk & St. Lawrence R. R. 

& Navigation Co 

Newark 



New York City 

New York & Albany.. 



May 
Ma'y 

May 

April 

May 
March 

Feb. 

Jan. 

New York & Western June 

New York & Jamaica .\iig. 

Niagara Bridge & Canandaigua.. Aug. 



Niagara Falls, Buffilo & N. Y.... .Tune 
Niagara Falls & Lake tetario ... Sept. 

Niagara Falls & Lewistown Sept. 

Niagara Kiver July 

Northern May 



New York & Connecticut 

New York & Newbuigh 

New York &, New Eochelle 

New York & Troy 



May 21, 1836 350,000 
AprU 17,1829 70,000 



May 13, 1837 

Nov. 28, 1853 

April 28,1834 

March 29, 1832 

May 15, 1834 

M.iy 13, 18.36 

Jan. 11, 1851 

April 17,1826 



April 14,1857 



Northern (N.J.)., 



Northern Slackwater & Railway 

Co :. 



Ogdensburgh 

Ogdensburgh, Clayton & Rome. 
Orange & Sussex Canal Co 



OBwego,Binghamton & New York 

Oswego Northern & Eastern 

Oswego & Troy 

Oswego & TJtica 

Otsego 

Owego & Cortland 

Penfield & Canal 



Piermont West Shore.. 



Plattsburgh & Rouses Point... 

Port ByroQ & Auburn 

Rochester, Lockport & Niagara 
Falls 



Rochester & Canal Rail Road.. 

Rochester & Lake Ontario 

Rochester & Lockport 



11, 1837 
21, 1836 

12, 18.51 
17, 1832 

12, 1846 
27, 1854 

18, 1852 

30. 1852 

10. 1853 

1S59 
23, 1858 



4. 1852 
3, 1862 
1. 1S47 
3. 1852 
14, 1845 



April 15,1858 



May 13, 1846 



Dec. 
Feb. 
April 



31. 1857 

19, 1853 

9, 1829 



350,000 

310.000 
75,000 

150,000 
100,000 
200.000 
2,000,000 
300,000 



1,000,000 
100,000 

120,000 

3,000,000 

150,000 
500,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

12,000,000 

150,000 
1,000,000 



250,000 
100,000 
150,000 
175,000 
2,000,000 



2,000,000 

1,538,500 
2,000,000 



Aug. 14, 1855 

Jan. 12, 1853 

Feb. 21, 1854 

May 13, 1836 

AprU 26, 18.'52 

May 21, 1836 

May 6, 1837 

Dec. 4, 1857 

March 17, 1851 

AprU 17, 1829 

Dec. 10, 1850 

March 26, 1831 

May 3, 1852 

May 15, 1837 



Rochester & Pittsburgh., 

Rochester & Southern 

Rochester & Syracuse 



Rome & Port Ontario , 

Rutland & Whitehall , 

Sackets Harbor & Saratoga. , 



Sackets Harbor & Watertown.. 



July 

Dec. 
Aug. 



18, 1853 

27, 1852 
1, 1850 



May 13, 18.37 
May 21, 1836 
AprU 10,1848 



Aug. 25, 1855 



400,000 

'400,000 

2,000.000 

750.000 

200,000 

500,000 

12,000 

40,000 

500,000 
50,000 



30,000 
100,000 
400,000 

1,000,000 

200,000 
4,200,000 

350,000 

100.000 

2,000,000 

110,000 



Connections. 



Lockport and Batavia 

Lockpoi-t and Niagara Falls., 



Lockport and Youngstown... 
Chittenango and Cazenovia.. 



TMalden and junction o: 
-< Ismithbush and Esopus 
(^ Roads 

Manhattanvilleand South Ferry 
Little Falls and NicholviUe 



Mayville and Portland 

Medina and .Alexander..... 

Medina and Carlton. 

TJtica and Schenectady.... 
Albany and Schenectady.. 



{ 



New York Central R. R. in^ 
Montgomery county and > 
Moose River Lakes J 



NicholviUe and Piseco Lake 

Vienna and Lake Ontario 

J Lower part of the city and 1 
( Macombs Bridge J 

New York and Albany 



Remarhs. 



Ridgefield, Conn., and Harlem.. 
Newburgh and New Jersey \ 

State line J 

New Rochelle and New York \ 

City ; 

New York & Harlem R. R. I 

in Ghent and Troy | 

State Line in Rockland Co. ) 

and Canandaigua ) 

Jamaica and Hunters Point 

Niagara Bridge and Canandaigua 



Suspension Bridge and Buffalo... 
Niagara Falls and Youngstown.. 

Niagara Falls and Lewiston. 

Niagara Falls and Lewiston 

Rouses Point and Ogdensburgh. 



Piermont and Jersey City- 



Port Kent and BoonvUle.. 
Ogdensburgh and Rome., 



Oswego and Syracuse 

f Oswego andWhitehall & Rut- \ 

\ landR.R J 

Oswego and Troy 

Oswego and Utica 

Cooperstown and Milford 

Owego and Cortland or Homer... 
Penfield and Erie Canal 

(■ Piermont and terminus 
J Northern R. R. (N. J.) 

I State Line 

Plattsburgh and Rouses Point. 
Auburn and Port Byron, 



of-j 
at V 



Rochester and Niagara Falls., 
Rochester and Lake Ontario.. 



Rochester and Charlotte., 
Rochester and Lockport.. 



f Genesee Valley R. R. and) 
\ Allegany Valley R. R J 

Rochester and Meudon 

Rochester and Syracuse 



Rome and Port Ontario 

Whitehall and Itutland 

Sackets Harbor and Saratoga. . 



Sackets Harbor and Watertown 



Nothing done. 

Merged in the New York Central 
R.R. 

Nothing done. 

Preliminary surveys made. Noth- 
ing else done. 

Nothing done. 

Notliing done. 

Name changed to Mohawk & St. 
Lawrence R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 

Name changed to Albany & Sche- 
nectady R. R. First R. R. in 
the State. 

Nothing done. 



Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

No part of the road completed 

by this Company. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

No part constructed.. 

Nothing done. 

Surveyed, nothing further done. 

In progress of construction. 
Changed from Canandaigua & 

Niagara Falls R. K. Leased to 

New York Central R. R. 
Nothing done. 
Graded and rails laid, but not used. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. | 

Since changed to Ogdensburgh I 

R.R. I 

Allowed to extend from State Line ' 

to Piermont. Constructed. I 

Route explored, nothing fiirther 

done. 
Name changed from Northern. 
Partly graded, and abandoned. 
Allowed to build a K. E. on the 

line of their route. Nothing 

done. 
Nothing done beyond surveys. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done but survey. 
Nothing done but survey. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Superseded by extension of North- 
ern R. R. to Piermont. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Consolidated in New York Cen- 
tral R.R. 

Completed to near the Landing 
in 1832. 

Le.-wed to New York Central R. R. 
Co. on consolidation. 

Nothing done under this organi- 
zation. 

Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral in 1855. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. Name changed 
to Lake Ontario and Hudson 
K. R. 

Surveyed, but nothing further 
done. 



KAIL ROADS. 



Hail Hoads Projected, Abandoned, or merged in other Roads, continued. 



Names of Bail Roads. 



Dale of 
Organization. 



Salina k Port Watson April 

Saratoga Springs k S-'cImvlcrville April 



Saratoga k Fort Edwanl 

Saratoga & Montgomery 

Saratoga & Washington 

Schenectady & Catskill 

Schenectady & Susquehanna . 
Schenectady & Troy 



Schoharie & Otsego 

Scottsville & Canandaigua.. 
Scottsville k LeKoy 



Sharon & Root.. 



Skaneateles . 



Skaneateles & Jordan 

Sodus Point k Southern . 



Staten Island 

Staten Island 

Syracuse, Cortland & Bing- 

hamton 

Syracuse Stone 

Syracuse & Binghamton 



Syracuse & Southern. 



Syracuse k TItiea.. 



Syracuse k Utica Direct 

Tioga Coal, Iron Mining 
ManufacturLne Co 



Tonawanda.. 



Trenton & Sackets Harbor.... 
Troy Turnpike k Rail Road., 

Troy & Utica 

Troy & West Stockbridge 

Tyrone & Geneva 



Ulster County . 



Unadilla & Schoharie.. 

Utica & Binghamton... 
Utica & Schenectady... 



Utica k Susquehanna 

Utica & Syracuse Straight Line.. 

Utica & Waterville ,. 

Warren County 

Warsaw k LeRoy 



Warwick 

Washington County Central., 

Watertown & Cape Vincent... 



Watervliet k Schenectady.. 

Westchester County 

West Side 

Whitehall & Plattsburgh... 
Whitehall & Rutland , 



Willianisburgh, Brooklyn, 
Bushwick k New Lots 



April 

May 

May 

May 
May 
May 



27, 1829 
6, 1832 

17, 1832 
6, 1836 
2,1834 

13, 1846 
13, 1846 
21, 1836 



April 25, 1832 



April 
May 



12, 1838 
21, 1836 



April 18, 1S3S 

May 19, 1836 

March 13, 1838 
March 8, 1852 



May 

Aug. 

May 

May 
July 



21, 1836 

2, 1851 

21, 1836 

13, 1836 
2, 1851 



Oct. 13, 1856 

May 11, 1836 

Jan. 20, 1853 

1841 

April 14,1832 



May 
April 
Feb. 
May 

May 
May 



15, 1837 
18, 1831 
10, 1853 
10, 1836 

16, 1837 
21, 1836 



May 9, 1836 

May 18, 1853 
April 29,1833 



April 

Sept. 
June 
April 
May 

May 

Dec. 



25, 1832 
18, 1852 
26, 1854 
17, 1832 
5, 1834 

13, 1837 

8, 1853 



May 13, 1836 



May 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
April 

June 



21, 1836 

7, 1856 

1854 

15, 1852 

26, 1833 

29, 1853 



Capital. 



% 375,000 
100,000 
200,000 
150,000 
600,000 

1,000,000 

1,500,000 

500,000 

300,000 

100.000 
200,000 

50,000 

25,000 

350,000 

250,000 

300,000 

500,000 

75,000 
1,200,000 

1,201,300 



1,000,000 
600,000 



500,000 

500,000 

100,000 

2,500,000 

600,000 

500,000 
500,000 

600,000 

1,000,000 
2,000,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

300.000 

250,000 

100,000 

100,000 

200,000 

50,000 

500,000 

500.000 

6,000,000 

1,000,000 

100,000 



Cunnedjions. 



Syracuse and Port Watson 

f Saratoga Springs and Schuy- ) 
( lervillo j 

Saratotra and Fort Edward 

f Ballstuu Spa and W. branch \ 
\ ■ of North Uiver ( 

Saratoga and Vt. State Line...... 



Schenectady and Catsk ill 

f Schenectady and New York ) 
\ k Erie R. K / 

Schenectady and Troy 



f Catskill & Central R.R. and) 
( Susiiuehanna j 

Scottsville and Can.andaigua 

Scottsville and LeRoy 



/Branch of Catskill k Cana-I 

\ joharieR. R j 

f Skaneateles and some pointl 
-; on Skaneateles & Jordan > 

I R-R J 

Skaneateles and Jordan 

i Sodus Point and Catskill & 
Ithaca R.R. 
From near Quarantine to) 
opposite Amboy J 

Clifton and Tottenville 



Syracuse and Binghamton 

Syracuse and Stone quarries.. 
Syracuse and Binghamton 

Syracuse and Binghamton 



Syracuse and Utica., 
Syracuse and Utica.. 



f Bituminous coal region and ) 
\ Chemung Canal j 



Rochester and Attica.. 



Semarki. 



Trenton and Sackets Harbor...., 

Troy and Bennington, Vt , 

Troy and Utica 

Troy and West Stockbridge 

/Geneva and New York k] 

1 Erie R.R I 

I Kingston and New York k ] 

\ Erie R.R J 

TMouth of Unadilla River^l 
< and New York & Erie 
i RR J 

utica and Binghamton , 

Utica and Schenectady , 



Utica and Susquehanna 

Utica and Syracuse 

Utica and Waterville 

Glens Falls and Caldwell 

Warsaw and LeRoy 

/ Branch of New York & Erie ) 

\ near Chester j 

Pittstown and Greenwich 



Watertown and Cape Vincent..., 

West Troy and Schenectady 

Harbor River and New Roihelle. 

Albany and Sufferns. , 

Whitehall and Plattsburgh , 

Whitehall and Rutland, Vt 

WUliamsburgh and New Lots..., 



Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done by this company. 

Nothing done. 

Name changed to Saratoga k 

Wliiteliall R.R. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral R. R. in 1853. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly constructed but afterwards 
abandoned. 

Nothing done. 

Constructed, but since abandoned. 

Changed from Skaneateles R.R. 
Partly graded; work stopped in 
1854. 

Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Surveyed. Nothing further done. 

Nothing done. 

Opened in 1854. Name changed 
to Syracuse k Southern R. R, 

Successor of Syracuse k Bing- 
hamton R. R. Name changed 
to Syracuse, Binghamton k 
New York R.R. 

Consolidated witli New York Cen- 
tral R.R. in 1863. 

Not constructed. 
( Sold iu 1852, and name changed 

■< to Corning & Blossburg 
(_ R. R. 

Consolidated with Attica k Bufifalo 
R. R. in 1850. 

Nothing dene. 

Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 



Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Consolidated with New 
Central R. R. in 1853. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 



York 



Nothing done. 

Surveyed and nothing further 



nothing 
nothing 



further 



done 
Surveyed and 

done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 
Not constructed by this company. 

Allowed to build Horse R. Road, 
for 21 years. 



CORPORATIOI^S. 



Corporations were generally formed under special acts until the adoption of the Constitution of 
1846, which directed that general laws should be passed for this purpose, and forbade special legis- 
lation, except for municipal purposes and in cases where the purpose to be attained could not other- 
wise be effected. The Legislature has power to alter and repeal the powers of any corporation 
formed under the general laws. The articles of association or declaration of intention must in all 
cases be filed in some office of record specified in the general acts ; and limitations of time, capital, 
and location must be specified. The stockholders of the more important classes of corporations 
are personally liable to an extent equal to the amount of stock owned. Under the present Con- 
stitution, general acts of incorporation have been passed for a variety of purposes, all of which 
belong to one of 4 general classes.^ 

Class I. includes those whose articles are filed in the office of the Secretary of State. 

1. "An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Companies to construct Plamli. Koa.dS and 
TurnpiBtes."^ 

2. " An Act to authorize the formation of Companies for Mining, Mecliaiiical, and 
Chemical Purposes" was passed Feb. 8, 1848.' 

3. " An Act to authorize the formation of Gas L.lgbt Companies" was passed Feb. 16, 1848.* 



1 ConsUiiitinn, Art. VIII, Revised Statutes. Previous to lSi6, 
general laws existed for the organization of religious societies, 
(1784:) colleges and academies, (1787 ;) public libraries, (1796 ;i 
medical societies, (1806:) manufacturing companies, (1811;) 
banks, (1838:) and agricultural societies, (1819, 1841.) 

2 Several hundred of these corporations were formed and 
several thousand mUes of plank road built in 1848-52. It is 
probable that less than 5 per cent, of these are now in use. 



having mostly been abandoned and divided into road districts 
as public highways. The companies were required to report, 
but generally neglected to do so; and few general statistics are 
preserved concerning them. 

3 These companies, though quite numerous, were not required 
to report; and statistics concerning them cannot be obtained. 
Many companies that filed their articles never went into 
operation. 



* Gas Light Companies. 

A * indicates companies not in operation. 



Names of Companies. 



Albany Gas Light Consumers' Co.* , 

Albion Gas Light Co.* , 

Albion Gas Light Co 

Astoria Gas Co 

Auburn Gas Light Co 

Eatavia Gas Light Co 

Binghamton Gas Light Co 

Brockport Gas Light Co 

Brooklyn Gas Co.* 

Brooklju Consolidated Gas Light Co 

Buffalo City Gas Light Co 

Buffalo Gas Light Co 

Canandaigua Gas Light Co 

Catskill Gas Light Co 

Citizens' Gas Light Co. Brooklyn < 

Citizens" Gas Light Co. of the City of Rochester. 

Citizens' Independent Gas Co 

Cohoes Gas Light Co 

Elmira Gas Light Co 

Fishkill Gas Light Co 

Flushing Gas Light Co 

Fulton Gas Light Co 

Gas Light Co. of Syracuse 

Geneva Gas Light Co 

Glens Falls Gas Light Co 

Green Point Gas Light Co 

Harlem Gas Light Co 

Hempstead Gas Light Co „ 

Hempstead Gas Light Co 

Hudson Gas Co = 

Hudson Gas Light Co.* 

Ithaca Gas Light Co 

Jamaica Gas Light Co 

Johnstown Gas Light Co 

Lansingburgh Gas Light Co 

Lockport Gas Light Co 

Lyons Gas Light Co 

Manhattan Gas Light Co 

Metropolitan Gas Light Co 

Morrisania Gas Light Co 

Newburgh Gas Light Co 

New York Gas Light Co 

New York Mutual Saving Gas Light Co.* 

Otrdensburgh Gas Co , 

Ogdensburgh Gas Light Co 

Ogdensburgh Gas Light & Coke Co 

Oswego Gas Light Co 

Owego Gas Light Co.- 

80 



Date of Organization. 


OriginaZ Capital. 


Present Capital. 


Feb. 


18, 1856 


$75,000 


$75,000 


March 13, 1856 


20,000 


20,000 


May 


13, 1868 


30,000 


30,000 


Dec. 


1, 1853 


20,000 


20,000 


Jan. 


29, 1850 


20,000 


60,000 


Juno 


11, 1855 


32,000 


32,000 


June 


25, 1853 


60,000 


60,000 


.Tan. 


17, 1S59 






Oct. 


21, 1848 


200,000 


200,000 


Oct. 


24, 1856 


500,000 


600,000 


March 12, 1853 


150,000 


150,000 


Feb. 


29, 1848 


150.000 


750,000 


Aug. 


3, 1853 


50,000 


60.000 


July 


13, 1855 


40.000 


40,000 


Oct. 


26, 1858 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


Jan. 


22, 1852 


50,000 


50,000 


June 


13. 18.59 






Sept. 


13, 18.52 


50,000 


60,000 


May 


8, 1852 


60,000 


60.000 


July 


20, 1858 


15,000 


15,000 


July 


18, 1855 


40,000 


61,000 


June 


12, 1858 


12,000 


12.000 


Feb. 


9, 1849 


100,000 


100.000 


Nov. 


24, 1852 


75,000 


75.000 


June 


17, 1854 


35,000 


35.000 


Nov. 


29, 1853 


100,000 


40.000 


Feb. 


5, 1855 


120.000 


350.000 


April 


18. 1857 


15,000 


15,000 


April 


9, 1859 






Feb. 


23, 1853 


50,000 


60,000 


May 


22, 1852 


60.000 


50.000 


Oct. 


28, 1852 


75,000 


75.000 


June 


2, 1856 


30,000 


20,000 


March 16, 1857 


18,000 


1^.000 


Feb. 


28, 1853 


100,000 


100,000 


March 17, 1851 


17,000 


40,000 


Jan. 


25, 1859 


600,000 


400,000 


Feb. 


26, 1830 


500,000 


2,000,000 


April 


17, 1855 


2,500,000 


2,500,000 


Oct. 


28, 1852 


200,000 


200.000 


May 


17, 1852 


00,000 


70,000 


March 26, 1823 


500,000 


500,000 


Sept. 


20, 1852 


1,500,000 


1,500,000 


Aug. 


23, 18.54 


75,000 


75.000 


June 


15, 1853 


100,000 


100.000 


June 


11, 1854 


75,000 


75.000 


April 


22, 1852 


65,000 


15.000 


March 24, 1856 


40,000 


40,000 



CORPORATIONS. 



81 



4. "Jn Act for the incorporation 0/ Benevolent, Cliarilable, ScientiOc, and mis- 
sionary Societies" was passed April 12, 1848.^ 

5. "An Ad to provide for the incorporation and regulation 0/ Telegrapli Companies" 

was passed April 12, 1848, and amended June 24, 1853.^ 

0. ''An Act for the incorporation of 'Stnixaitys^ Mutnal Loan, and Accumulating 
Fund Associations" was passed April 10, 1851.^ 

7. " An Act to provide for the formation of Insurance Companies" was passed April 
10, 1849.* 

Gas Light Companies, continued. 



Names of Companies. 



Palmyra Gas Light Co 

Peckskill Gas Light Co 

Plattshurgh Gas Light Co 

Poughkeepsie Gas Light Co 

Richmond County Gas Light Co 

Rochester Gas Liglit Co 

Rome Gas Light Co 

Rondout & Kingston Gas Light Co.> 

Sa:ratoga (ias Light Co 

Schenectady Gas Light Co 

Seneca Falls Gas Light Co.* 

Seneca Falls & Waterloo Gas Light Co 

Ping Sing lias Light Co 

Sing Sing Gas Manufacturing Co 

Staten Island Gas Light Co 

Syracuse Gas Light Co 

Tarrytown and Irvington Union Gas Light Co 

The Consumers' Gas Light Co. of Saratoga Springs.. 

Troy Gas Light Co 

Utica Gas Light Co 

Watorford Gas Light Co 

WatcrtowTi Gas Light Co — 

West Farms Gas Light Co '. 

West Troy Gas Light Co 

Williamsburgh Gas Light Co .". 

Yonkers Gas Light Co 



Date of Organization. 



Oct. 

July 

July 

Dec. 

April 

May 

Dec. 

May 

Aug. 

June 

July 

Dec. 

May 

July 

March 

Nov. 

March 

Aug. 

April 

Nov. 

Oct. 

I'eb. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

July 

May 



29, 1856 

18. 1855 
5, 1859 

IS, 1850 
26, 1856 
12, 18-48 
28, 1850 

27. 1854 
4, 1853 

19, 1849 
17, 1856 

24. 1856 
3, 1854 

25. 1855 
14, 1856 
30, 1848 

4, 1859 
23, 1858 

6,1848 
23, 1848 

4, 1858 
28, 1852 

18. 1852 

31. 1853 
5, 1850 

12, 1854 



Original Capital. 



12,500 
40,000 

70,000 

200,000 

100,000 

20,000 

65.000 

75,000 

50,000 

60,000 

80,000 

80,000 

35,000 

150,000 

100,000 

30,000 

100,000 

100,000 

12,000 

20,000 

2tX),000 

100,000 

80,000 
70,000 



Present Capital. 



12,500 
31,000 

70,000 

350,000 

200,000 

30,000 

C5,0U0 

75.000 

70,000 

60.01)0 

80,000 

80.000 

35.000 

150,000 

100,000 

30,000 

200.000 

80,000 

12,000 

20,000 

200,000 

100,000 

449,500 

70,000 



1 These companies are not required to report. 

2 Tliese companies make no report ; and there is no official 
knowledge concerning those now existing. Several of those 
formed never went into operation, and others have been con- 



solidated. The N. y. & Erie R. R. have a telegraph for regu- 
lating the trains upon that road. The N. Y. Central and some 
other roads have the exclusive or preferred use of telegraph 
wires along their route for like purposes. 



Telegraph Companies. 
A * indicates companies not in operation. 



Name. 



Date of 
Organization. 



Albany, Springfield & Boston Di- 
rect Telegraph Co 

American Telegraph Co.* 

Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co.*. 

Baldwinsville Electro Magnetic 
Telegraph Co.* 

Buffalo, Corning & New York 
Telegraph Co 

Central & Southern Telegraph Co.* 

Eastern & Western Telegraph Co.* 

Erie & Central .Tunction Tel. Co.* .. 

Erie & Central Junction Tel Co 

Genesee Valley Turnpike Co 

Long Island, Marine & Inland 
Telegraph Co 

.Merchants' Telegraph Co.* 

New York, Albany & Buffalo Elec- 
tro Magnetic Telegraph Co 

New York, Albany & Buffalo Tele- 
graph Co., incorp. by special act* 

New York & Canada House's Print- 
ing Telegraph Co 

New Y'ork & Mississippi Tel. Co.* 

New York & Mississippi Valley 
Printing Telegraph Co.* 

New York & Montreal Printing 
Telegraph Co.* 



May 
Dec. 
June 



19. 1854 

12. 1855 
15, 1857 



Dec. 4, 1852 



Jan. 

Nov. 

May 

April 

July 

April 

March 

Sept. 

May 

Jan. 

Nov. 
April 

Feb. 

Sept. 



Capital. 



25. 1856 
13, 1864 
SO, 1855 
24, 1862 
19, 1853 

10. 1857 

24, 1858 
23, 1852 

31, 1848 

25, 1856 

19, 1855 
8, 1851 

21, 1854 

15, 1853 



S 35,000 
200.000 
300,000 

400 

16,000 
11.250 
20,000 
11.250 
11.260 
80,000 

40.000 
40,000 



250,000 

40.000 
360,000 

170,000 

60,000 



Name. 



New York & Montreal Telegraph Co.* 

New Y'ork & New England Tel. Co.*.. 

New Y'ork & New England Tel. Co 

New York & Philadelphia Branch 
Telegraph Co 

New York & Sandy Hook Telegraph 
Co 

New York & Washington Printing 
Telegraph Co 

New York & Western Union Tele- 
graph Co 

New York, St. Louis & New Orleans 
Junction Telegi-aph Co 

New York State Printing Telegraph 
Co.* 

New York State Telegraph Co.*... 

Otsego Telegraph Co 

Syriicuse, Oswego & Ogdensburgh 
Telegraph Co 

Transatlantic Telegraph Co.* 

iTransatlantic & Submarine Tele- 
graph Co 

Troy, Albany & Boston Telegraph Co.. 

Utica & Oxford Magnetic Telegraph 
Co 

West Troy, LansingburghjWaterford 
& Cohoes Telegraph Co 



^ate of 
Organization. 



Oct. 

April 

July 

April 

Aug. 

May 

Dec. 

Aug. 

July 
May 
Sept. 

Sept. 
May. 

Jan. 
July 

Aug. 

July 



23, 1852 

26. 1849 
3, 1852 

24, 1848 

13, 1852 

26, 1852 

22, 1852 

26. 1850 

15, 1850 
15, 1850 
30, 1851 

22, 1855 
19,1857 

18, 1858 
25, 1857 

2, 1852 

14, 1855 



Capital. 



$ 40.000 
42,.30O 
30,000 

15,000 

25,000 

200,000 
10,000 

200,000 

200.000 

25,000 

4,000 

20.000 
100,000 

100,000 
50,000 

6,400 

3.000 



* These associations were chiefly limited to the vicinity of New 
York, numbering 72 in New York co., about 40 in Kings co., 
with a few in Queens, Richmond, and Westchester. Their- ope- 
rations consisted in raising money by subscription of the mem- 
bers, to be loaned to that member who would allow the highest 
premium,— the avowed intention being to afford to people of hum- 
ble means the opportunity of securing for each a home. This 
absurd fallacy found multitudes of dupes ; and in tlie competition 
for loans the premiums paid in some instances ran as high as 
one half of the amount loaned. The mode of appropriating 
lo.ans varied. It appeared in evidence before the legislative 
committee of 1856 that in one instance it was as follows : — ■' The 



names of all the shareholders who are not more than four weeks 
in arrear are put in the end of a quill, and all put into a bottle; 
the whole is then shaken, and the name which first conies out 
on reversing the bottle has the right to the appropriation." 
Nearly or quite all of these associations have been abandoned, 
a few only being kept together by the complexity of their inter- 
ests and obligations, which are not readily adjusted. A statement 
showing the operation of these associations was reported by a spe- 
cial legislative committee in 1866.— ^sse?n. Doc, 1S5R, JS'o. i>';p. 16. 
* This act relates to Jlarine Insurance Companies which make 
no report. A list of them will be found in the general list of 
Insurance Companies, pp. 83 to 89. 



6 



82 



NEW YOKK STATE GAZETTEER. 



8. " An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to JVavigate the Ocean by 
Steauisbips" -was passed April 12, 1852. ^ 

9. "An Act to authorize the formation of Companies for Ferry Purposes" was passed 
April 9, 1853.=^ 

10. '" An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to ]VaTig°ate tlie Waters of 
L<ake George by Steamboats" was passed January 14, 1854.^ 

11. " An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to IVavig'ate tbe Lakes and 
Rivers" was passed April 15, 1854. Cos. report annually to the State Engineer and Surveyor.* 

1 Previous to 1852, Steamship Cos. were incorp. by special acts ; since th,at time they have organized under the general act. 

Ocean Steam Kavigation Companies. 



Names of Companies. 


Date of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 


Names op Compajjies. 


Date of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 


Amazon Steamship Co..._ 

Amer. Atlantic Steam Nav. Co.... 


Dec. 26. 1853 
/Feb. 23, 18.39,1 
t& May 8, 1845/ 
Jan. 6, 1854 
May 26, 1855 
Oct. 1, 1858 
Oct. 1, 18.59 
July 7, 1852 
Jan. 25, 1853 
Oct. 27, 1852 
April 19,1828 
March 15, 1853 
Sept. 6, 1853 
March 11, 1853 
Jan. 14, 1859 


$55,000 

2,000,000 

300,000 
686.000 
500,000 

400,000 
1,500.000 

120.000 

150,000 
1,500.000 
1,000,000 

100,000 


N. Y. & Havre Steamship Co 


Jan. 13, 1855 
Jan. 15, 1859 
Sept. 12, 1854 
AprQ 14,1827 
Sept. 29, 1853 
April 10,1850 
May 1, 1839 
May 8, 1846 
May 6, 1839 
Apra 7, 1819 
Dec, 26, 1853 
March 17, 1853 
June 25, 18.59 
JIarch 13, 1854 
March 8, 1856 


$700,000 

360,000 

100.000 

500.000 

300,000 

1,500,000 

1.000,000 

1,000,000 

250,000 

1,000.000 

50,000 

100,000 
150,000 


jN. Y. & Matanzas Steamship Co.... 
N. Y'. & New Orleans Steamship Co. 
N. Y. South American Steamboat Co 

iX. Y. &, Southern Steamship Co 

N. Y. & A'irginia Steamship Co 

North American Steam Nav. Co.... 


Atlantic Steamship Co 


Cal., N.Y., &. Europ. Steamship Co. 
Cal., N.Y., & Europ. Steamship Co. 
Cent. Amer. & Cal. Steamship Co.. 
Mexican Oc.^an Mail & Inland Co. 
N. Y., Bait. & Alex. Steamship Co.. 

N. Y. & Boston Steamboat Co 

N. Y. & California Steamship Co... 
N. Y. & Galway Steamship Co.... 
N. Y. Harbor Steam Freight Co... 
N. Y. & Havana Steamship Co 




Ocean Steamship Co 




Staten Island & N.J. Steam Nav. Co. 
TJ. S. & Cent. American Transit Co. 


W. India & Venezuela Steamship Co 



8 The Ferry Companies are required to report annually to the Secretary of State ; but the reports are not published. 

Ferry Companies formed imder the General Act. 



Names of Compajoes. 


Datf. of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 


Names of Companies. 


Date of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 




Feb. 26, 1855 
Nov. 7, 18.54 
AprU 19,1853 

June 29, 1859 
Jan. 21, 1854 

Blay 9, 1859 
June 20, 1859 


$100,000 

3,000 

500,000 

12,000 


People's Ferry Co. (N. Y. to Wil- 
liamsburgh) 

Piermont & Dearman Ferry Co 

Rhinebeck & Kingston Ferry Co... 

Rosevelt & Bridge St. Ferry Co. 
(N. Y. to Brooklyn) 


April 21,1853 
Sept. 5, 1853 
May 7, 1853 

April 26,1853 
April 25,1855 
Oct. 26, 1S53 
Nov. 9, 1854 


$300,000 

50.000 

8.000 

250,000 
100 

900.000 
800.000 


Esopiis & Hydo Park Ferry Co... 

Fort Montgomery Ferry Co 

Flushing. College Point & N. Y. 
Steam Ferry Co 


Oarrison & West Point Ferry Co. 

Long Island Ferry Co. (N. Y. & 

Brooklyn) 


Sidnev & Unadilla Ferrv Co 


istaten Island & N. Y. Ferry Co 

lUnion Ferry Co. of Brooklyn 


Navy Yard Ferry Co 









8 The only Company formed under this act is the Lake George Steamboat Co., incorp. Jan. 20, 1854. It has a capital of $20,000. 

* Inland Steam Navigation Companies. 



Names of Compa>te8. 



.\merican Steamboat Co 

,A.mencan Transportation Co." 

Ardiimodean Propeller Co 

Black Kiver Steamboat Co 

Black P.iver Steamboat Co 

Blauchard Steamboat Co 

Buffalo & Toledo Transportation Co. 
Catskill Steamboat Transport. Co.. 
Cayuga Lake & Inlet Steamboat Co. 

Chautauqua Steambo.at Co 

Crooked Lake Steamboat Co 

Dutchess & Orange Steamboat Co.. 

Essex Steam Navigation Co 

Flushing Steamboat Co 

Fulton Steamboat Co 

Harlem & New York Nav. Co. 

Hudson River Steamboat Co 

Hudson River Steamboat Co 

Lake Champlaln Steamboat Co.'... 
Lake Champlain Steamboat Navi- 
gation Co 

Lake Erie Steamboat Co 

Lake Erie Transportation Co 

Lake Erie & Buffalo Steamboat Co. 
Lake Ontario Steamboat Co« 



Date of 
Organization. 



Feb. 

Jan. 

June 

.\pril 

April 

Feb. 

May 

Aug. 

Feb. 

May 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

Jan. 

.\pril 

Sept. 

March 



3, 1858 

11, 1855 
1, 1859 

12, 1848 
2t, 1856 
25, 1856 

6, 1856 
15, 1854 
25, 1828 

4, 1829 
18, 1826 

20, 1825 
24, 1829 

21, 1829 
18, 1815 
14, 1856 
20, 1825 
15, 1856 
12, 1813 



May 11. 1835 
March 10, 1820 
Nov. 20, 1856 
March 23, 1859 
Jan. 28, 1831 



Capital. 



$80,000 

540.000 

200,000 
25,000 
10,000 
25.000 

120.000 
20.000 
50.000 

,10,000 
5.000 

100,000 
20.000 
15,000 

250.000 
27.000 

200.000 
20,000 

200,000 

100.000 
114.000 
100.000 
50.000 
100,000 



Names op Companies. 



LaJ<e Navigation Co 

New York Transportation Co 

New York & Albany Propeller Line 

New York & We.stern Towing Co... 

Niagara Falls Steambo.at Assoc 

Northern Transportation Co 

Northern Transportation Line 

North River Steamboat Co.'' 

Old Oswego Line 

Oneida Lake & River Steamboat 
Co.« 

Ontario Steam & Canal Boat Co/.... 

Ontario Steamboat Co 

Ontario & St. Lawrence Steam- 
boat Co.!? 

Orangetown Point Steamboat Co... 

Poughkeepsie Steamboat Co 

St. Lawrence Steamboat Co 

Seneca Lake Steamboat Co. 

Suffolk Steamboat Co 

! Susquehanna Steam Navigation Co. 

I Troy Steamboat Co 

I United St.ates Mail Steamship Co... 
I Western Transportation Co 



Date of 
Organization. 



Feb. 

April 

Dec. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

April 

March 

May 



20, 1856 
15, 1854 

1, 1856 

21, 18.57 
2, 1854 
6, 1855 
6, 1857 

10, 1820 
2, 1856 



April 2, 1838 

1842 

May 12, 1869 



April 
March 

April 

March 

May 

March 

April 

Dec. 



1848 
16, 1830 
30, 1827 
1842 
6, 1825 
25, 1829 
11, 1835 
31, 1825 

5, 

8, 1855 



Capital. 



500,000 

100,000 

40.000 

55.000 

50,000 

300,000 

59,500 

600,000 

300,000 

10,000 

100,000 

10.000 
50,000 

20,000 

8,000 

50,000 

80,000 

1,500.000 

800,000 



a Capital reduced to $270,000 Jan. 15, 1859. 
i> Charter expired April 11, 1838. The first steamboat on 
Lake Champlain was in 1810. 
« Merged in the Ontario & St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. in 1848. 

Exclusive individual and corporate rights for steam naviga- 
tion upon the waters of this State have been granted under 
special acts, as follows: — An act was passed March 19,1797, 
erautiiig to .Fohn Fitch the sole right of steam navigation in 
the waters of the State for a period of fourteen years. Having 



d Charter expired April 11, 1838. 

e Charter limited to 20 years. Reincorporated April 12, 1842. 
/ Merged in the Ontario"& St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. in 1848. 
9 Merged in the American Steamboat Co. in 1858. 

done nothing for ten years, this act was repealed in 1798. An 
act was passed March' 27, 1798, granting to Robert R. Livingston 
tlie sole right of navigating by steam for twenty years, con- 
ditioned to building a boat of at leapt 20 tons, capable of moving 
four miles p<.r hour against the current of Hudson River, This 



CORPORATIONS. 



83 



12. "An Act for tie Incorporation of AssociaUous for Improving lite Breed of 

Horses" was passed April 15, 1854.^ 

13. " An Act to facilitate the formation o/ Agricultural and Horticultural Socle* 

ties" was passed June 8, 1853, and amended April 15, 1855.^ 

Class II. includes all those whose certificates are required to be filed in the Comptroller's office 

1. " An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Ijite and Ilealtli Insurance Com- 
panies, and in relation to Agencies of such Companies," was passed June 24, 1853.^ 

2. " An Act to provide for the Incoiporation of Fire Insurance Companies" was passed 
June 25, 1853.* 

1 The following conipaniea hare been formed under this act : — 



Names. 



Place. 



Fashion Association 

National Association 

Orange County Central Uorse Co.. 
Union Association 



Newtowu.. 
Xewtown.. 

Goshen 

Jamaica... 



When formed. 



Nov. 26, 1856 

iMav 29, 1864 

July 31, 1855 

July 31, 1858 



* For Tahle of Agricultural Societies, see pp. 102, 103. 



privilege was extended two years, March 29, 1799, to enable 
Nicholas J. Rosevclt to complete experiments. By act passed 
in 1798, Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton secured the 
exclusive right of navigating by steam for a period of twenty 
years ; and by an act passed April 11, 1808. an extension of five 
years was granted for each new boat — the whole time, however, 
not to exceed thirty years. This monopoly was contested in 
the State and Federal Courts, in a suit begun in 1819, and 
finally decided in the Supreme Court of the U. S. in Feb. 1824, 
as repugnant to the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to 
regulate commerce. So far as these acts prohibited vessels 
licensed by the haws of the United States from carrying on a 
coasting trade, they were void. — JoltTison's Reports, IV, 148 ; 
Cojoen'i Reports, III, 713 ; WheatnrVs Reports. IX, 1. 

3 These companies report annually to the Comptroller. A list 
of them is given in the general list of Insurance Companies. 

■* These companies were formerly created by special acts, 
— generally for periods of 20, 21, or 30 years. Until about 1834 
tJiey wore almost inviu-iably upon the joint stock principle. For 
many years this class of investments was considered extremely 
reliable, and large dividends were often paid to the stock- 
holders. The great fire in New York in Dec. 1836, proved a 
heavy disaster to almost all the Insurance companies then 
formed, and many of them were prostrated by it. This event 
srKju led to the formation of JIutual Insurance Companies in 
almost every county in the State : most of these companies have 
since become insolvent. A graphic and truthful statement of 
the operations that ruined these companies is given in the Comp- 
troller's Report on Fire Insurance Cos. of 1854. A general law, 
passed April 10, 1849, provided for the incorporation of these 
companies, under which risks of every kind might be taken. 
The frauds perpetrated under this system rendered a revision 
indispensable; and in 1853 two general laws were enacted. — one 
for the formation of companies for insurance of life and health, 
and the other against loss by fire, or inland navigation, and 
transportation. The articles of association (under the law of 
1849, required to be filed in the Secretary's office) were, by 



these acts, filed iu the Comptroller's ofBce. and general powers 
were conferred upon the Comptroller, with the view of protecting 
the public from any frauds that might be attempted, and te 
secure the equal and uniform operation of the laws relating to 
insurance. Annual reports are made to the Comptroller, and by 
him to the Legislature, under each of these Laws. Marine In- 
surance companies are still filed in the Secretary's oflice, but 
are required to make no report. 

Insurance companies formed under the laws of other States 
or countries cannot establish agencies in this State without 
first depositing with the Comptroller a certified copy of their 
charters, and of the vote or resolution creating the agency, a 
statement of their condition, and proof that their capital is 
equal to that recjulred by the laws of this State, and, if a 
Life Insurance company, securities to the amount of $100,000, 
for the benefit of policy holders. Foreign Marine Insurance 
companies are required to pay 2 per cent, upon all premiums 
received by any agent: and a bond in the penal sum of $1,000 
is required of every agent of such companies for the pay- 
meut of this tax. This tax was first collected in 1858, and 
amounted to .§3,742.55. Several companies are not required to 
report their statistics to the Legislature. The aggregate reports 
of F'ire Insurance Companies for 1857 show the following 
results : — 

Capital invested $16,731,010.00 

Cash premiums received 6,051,304.87 

Gross amoimt of income 7.577,872.62 

Losses paid 2.898,166.11 

Dividends paid 2,240,434.72 

Taxes paid 24.3,062.79 

Gross expenditures 6,855,953.88 

Unpaid claims 968,083.00 

The following tables comprise the companies which have 
been incorporated under special acts or the geuer.al laws of the 
State. Foreign companies authorized to transact business in 
the State are not included in the list : — 



Insurance Companies in the State on 1st day of Jan. 1858. 



Name. 



.aitna Fire Insurance Co. of New York.".... 

Adriatic Fire Insurance Co 

Airricultural Mutual Insurance Co.* 

Albany Insurance Co." 

American Fire Insurance Co 

Arctic Fire Insurance Co 

Astor Fire Insurance Co 

Astor Mutual Insurance Co 

Atlantic Fire Insurance Co 

Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co 

Beekman Fire Insurance Co 

Brevoort Fire Insurance Co 

Broadway Insurance Co 

Brooklyn Fire Insurance Co 

Chautauqua County Mutual Insurailce Co.. 

Citizens' Fire Insurance Co.<^ 

City Fire Insurance Co 



Location. 



New York.... 
New York.... 
Watertown . 

Albany ._ 

New York.... 
New York... 
New York... 
New York.... 

Brooklyn 

New Yoi'k.... 
New York... 
New York... 
New York... 

Brooklyn 

Fredonia 

New York.... 
New Y'ork... 



Date of Act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles if associ- 
ation. 



March 

Nov. 

Sept. 

March 

April 

July 

June 

April 

Feb. 

April 

March 

Feb. 

Oct. 

April 

April 

April 

April 



31, 1824 

24, 1S58 

25, 18.51 

8, 1811 

21, 1857 

16, 1863 

11, 1851 

18, 1843 

20, 1851 

11, 1S42 

4, 1863 

4, 1867 

2, 1849 

3, 1824 
1, 1836 

28, 1836 
26, 1833 



Expiration 
of charter. 



March 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

April 

July 

June 



81, 1878 
24, 1888 
25. 1881 
18, 1881 
21, 1887 
16, 1883 
11, 1881 



Feb. 

April 

March 

Feb. 

Oct. 

April 

April 

April 

April 



20, 1881 

11, 1872 

4, 18S3 

4, 1887 

2, 1879 

3, 1866 
1, 1876 

28, 1866 
26, 1863 



?^.- 


<».£-: 


.. 3 


?;-g S 


.1: 3 




s. 


f. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


m. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


m. n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f. 


s. 


f. 



Present 
capital of 

stock- 
companies. 



$200,000 
150,000 

125,000 
200.000 
250.000 
150,000 

150,000 

200.000 
150,000 
200,000 
102,000 

1.50,000 
210.000 



" Reorganized Feb. 12. ISS*!. under act of Feb. 12, 1836. 
' Removed from Evans Mills Ajiril 10, 1855. 
« Reorganized Feb. 18, 1851. Capital, $100,000. Originally 
Albany Fire Insurance Co. Capital, $100,000, and allowed to 



take fire, marine, and life risks. Once extended. Expired 
June 1, 1851. 
<* Changed to Citizens' Fire Insurance Co. April 5, 1849. 



84 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Existing Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



Clinton Fire Insurance Co 

Columbia Fire Insurance Co 

Cohimbian Insurance Go 

Commercial Insurance Co 

Commercial Fire Insurance Co 

Commonwealth Fire Insurance Co 

Continental Fire Insurance Co 

Corn Exchange Fire & Inland Nav. Ins. Co 

Dividend Mutual Insurance Co 

Dutchess Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Eagle Fire Company of New York." 

East River Insurance Co.* 

Empire City Insurance Co 

Empire Insurance Co 

Everett Fire Insurance Co 

Excelsior Fire Insurance Co 

Exchange Fire Insurance Co 

Farmers' Fire Insurance Co 

Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co 

Firemen's Fund Insurance Co 

Firemen's Insurance Co." 

Franklin Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Fulton Fire Insurance Co.<'..__ 

(iallatin Fire Insurance Co 

Gebbard Fire Insurance Co 

Glen Cove Mutual Insurance Co 

Globe Mutual Insurance Co 

Goodhue Fire lusuranceTo 

Great Western Marine Insurance Co 

Greenwich Insurance Co 

Grocers' Fire Insurance Co 

Hamilton Fire Insurance Co.» 

Hanover Fire Insur.ance Co 

Haruiony Fire Insurance Co 

Home Fire Insurance Co 

Homestead Fire Insurance Co 

Hope Fire Insurance Co. (The) 

Howard Insurance Co./. 

Humboldt Fire Insurance Co 

Huntington Mutual Fire Insurance Co.» 

Income Insurance Co 

Indemnity Fire Insurance Co 

Irviug Fire Insurance Co 

Jamestown Farmers' Fire Insurance Co 

Jefferson Insurance Co 

Kings County Fue Insurance Co 

Kingston Mutual Insurance Co 

Knickerbocker Life Insurance Co.- 

Knickerbocker Fire Insurance Co. of N.T.* 

Lafarge Fire Insurance Co 

La Fayette Fire Insurance Co 

Laman Fire Insurance Co 

Lenox Fire Insurance Co 

Long Island Insurance Co , 

Ltjrillard Fire Insurance Co , 

Alanhattan Life Insurance Co 

Manhattan Fire Insurance Co.* 

Market Fire Insurance Co , 

Mechanics' Mutual Insurance Co 

Mechanics' Fire Insur.ance Co 

Mechanics' & Traders' Fire Insurance Co 

Mercantile Fire Insurance Co 

Mercantile Mutual Insurance Co 

Merchants' Insurance Co 

Metropolitan Fire Insurance Co 

Monroe Co. Mutual In.surance Co 

Montauk Fire Insurance Co 

Montgomery Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Mutual Ins. Co. of the City and Co. of Albany.. 

Mutual Life Insurance Co 

Nassau Fire Insurance Co 

National Fire Insurance Co.i 

New Amsterdam Fire Insurance Co 

New World Fire Insurance Co 

New York Bowery Fire Insurance Co 

New York Equitable Insurance Co.* 



Location. 



New York 

New York 

New York 

Albany 

New York 

New York 

New Y'ork„_ 

New York 

Glens Falls 

Poughkeepsie 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Union Springs 

Cayuga co. N. Y... 

New York 

New York..™ 

Meridian 

Buffalo 

New York 

New York..„ 

Malone 

New Y'ork... 

New York..- 

New York..- 

Glen Cove 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York..- 

New York..- 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York..- 

New York-- 

New York 

Huntington 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Jamestown 

New York 

New York 

Kingston 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Troy 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New Y'ork 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New York 

Rochester 

Brooklyn 

C.anajoharie 

Albany 

New Y'ork 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York , 

New York 

New York , 

New York 



Date of Act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles of associa- 
tion. 



July 

March 

Aug. 

May 

March 

Feb. 

April 

April 

April 

April 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

May 

April 

May 

May 

April 

May 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

March 

March 

Aug. 

Aug. 

May 

Jan. 

May 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Dec. 

June 

March 

May 

April 

April 

April 

Jan. 

Aug. 

March 

Oct. 

March 

March 

March 

May 

Dec. 

Dec. 

April 

April 

Jan. 

May 

March 

Jan. 

May 

May 

Feb. 

Dec. 

April 

Feb. 

Oct. 

March 

May 

March 

May 

April 

Oct. 

April 

Feb. 

Oct. 

April 

April 



9, 1850 
9, 1853 

8, 1857 
1858 

14, 1850 
1853 

9, 1853 
16, 1853 

15, 1S50 
12, 1836 

4, 1806 
24. 1833 
17, 1850 

22. 1851 

15, 1858 
25, 1853 
20, 1853 

28, 1853 

14, 1845 
1, 18.58 

18, 1825 
12, 1836 

23, 1853 
11, 1857 

6, 1857 

29, 1857 
22, 1855 
29, 1857 
29, 1855 

5,1834 

16, 1850 

22, 1852 

1, 1852 
1853 

11, 1853 

15, 1858 

16, 1856 
9, 1825 
5, 1857 

2, 1838 

17, 1858 

11, 1856 

9. 1852 

25, 1851 

4, 1824 
19, 1858 

12, 1836 

29, 1853 

23, 1798 

9. 1853 
2.3, 1856 
10, 1856 

1, 1853 

26, 1833 

16. 1852 

17. 1850 

23, 1821 
26, 1853 
14, 1836 

5, 1857 
4, 1853 

24. 1851 
12, 1842 
20, 1850 

1, 1852 
21, 1836 

19, 1857 

30, 1836 

3, 1836 
12, 1842 

31, 1851 
9, 1838 

28. 1853 
13, 1856 

24, 1833 
23, 1823 



Expiration 
of charter. 



July 9, 1880 
March 9, 18S3 
Aug. 8, 1887 

March 14, 1880 
1883 
March 9,1883 
Feb. 16, 1883 
April 1.5,1880 
April 12,1876 
Unlimited. 



Sept. 17, 1880 
Dec. 22, 1881 
15, 1888 
25, 1883 
20, 1883 
April 28, 1883 
May 14, 1865 
May 1, 1888 



Deo. 
July 
May 



May 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

March 

March 

Aug. 

Aug. 

May 

Jan. 

May 

April 

Dec. 

Api-il 

Dec. 

June 

June 

May 

April 



12. 1876 
23, 1883 
11, 1887 

6, 1887 

29. 1877 
22, 1885 
29, 1887 
29, 1885 

5,1864 
16, 1880 
22, 1882 

1, 1882 
1883 

11, 1883 

15, 1888 

16, 1886 
16, 1866 

5, 1887 

2, 1858 



April 11,1886 
Jan. 9, 1882 
Aug. 25, 1881 



March 12, 1876 
March 29, 1883 



9, 1883 

3, 1886 
10, 1886 

1, 18R3 

April 26, 1863 

Jan. 16, 1882 

17, 1880 

1866 

26, 1883 

14, 1876 

5, 1887 

4, 1883 
24, 1881 

April 12,1872 
Feb. 20, 1880 
Oct. 1, 1882 
March 21, 1876 
May 19, 1887 
March 30, 1876 
May 3, 1886 
Till repealed. 
Oct. 31, 1881 

Feb. ""28,1883 

Oct. 13, 1886 

April 24, 1863 

1866 



May 
Dec. 
Dec. 
April 



May 

Jan. 
May 
May 
Feb. 
Dec. 



1^ 



s. 

s. 
s. 

s. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 

M. 

S. 
S. 

s. 

M. 

s. 

s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 

M. 
S. 

s. 

s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 

M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 
S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 



Pi 



f.n. 
f.n. 
m. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 

f. 

f. 



f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

f. 

f. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
m. 
f.n. 
m. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f.n. 
f n. 
f. n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

"f'n." 

f.n. 

f.n. 

f. 

f.n. 

1. 

f.n.' 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

1. 

f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
m. n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

f. 

f. 

1. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.L 



Present 
capital of 

stock 
companies. 



5250,000 
200,000 
500,000 

200,000 
250,000 
200.000 
200,000 



300,000 
150,000 
200,000 

1.50,000 
200,000 
150,000 



150.000 
204,000 

150.000 
150,000 
200,000 

300.000 
200.000 
1,000,000 
200.000 
200.000 
150.000 
200,000 
150.000 
500.000 
l.'iO.OOO 
150,000 
250,000 
200,000 

100.000 
1.50,000 
200,000 

200.000 
150,000 

100.000 
280.000 
150.000 
150.000 
200,000 
150.000 
200,000 
200.000 
112.000 
250,000 
200,000 

150.000 
200,000 
200,000 

200,000 
300,000 

150,000 



135,000 
150,000 
200.000 
200,000 
200.000 
300,000 
210,000 



u Original capital S500,000. Special relief on account of fire 
of July 19, 1845, granted by act of M.ay 12. 1846. 

t> Organized March, 1835. Allowed to take inland transporta- 
tion risks April 29, 1840. Changed to East River Mutual In- 
surance Co. April 12, 1842. 

Original capital $300,000, reduced May 12, 1846, by the fire 
of July, 1845. 

<* Allowed to remove from 'Williamsburgh April 13, 1855. 
Changed from Williamsburgh City Fire Insurance Co. 

« Changed from Building Association Fire Insurance Co. 
March 8, 1853. 



/ Reorganized 1836. Original capital $300,000. 

e Organized March, 1840, under act March 12, 1840. 

'i Changed from Mutual Insurance Co. of the City of New 
York, May 12, 1846, having been twice extended. Originally 
named the Mutual Insurance Co. of New York. 

* Reorganized June 7, 1836. 

i Changed May 24, 1841, from Seventeenth Ward Fire In- 
surance Co. Amended charter March, 1857. 

* Reduced from $300,000 Feb. 18, 1848. 



C R P O K A T I ON S. 

Existing Insurance Companies, continued. 



85 



NA3CE. 



New York Fire and Marine Insurance Co." 

New York Indemnity Insurance Co.' 

New Yiirk Life Insurance Co.!: 

New York Life Insurance & Trust Co 

New York Mutual Insurance Co 

New York & Krio Insurance Co.— 

Niagara Fire Insurance Co 

North American Insurance Co 

Northern New York Mutual Insurance Co 

North River Insurance Co."* ■ 

North Western Insurance Co.' 

Ocean Insurance Co/..- 

Ocean Insurance Co 

Ontario & Liringston Co. Mutual Insurance Co.. 

Orange Co. Mutu;il Insurance Co — , 

Orient Mutual Insurance Co , 

Pacific Fire Insurance Co 

Pacific Mutual Insurance Co , 

Park Fire Insurance Co - , 

People's Fire Insurance Co , 

Peter Cooper Fire Insurance Co , 

Phoeni.x Fire Insurance Co , 

Pou'.'hkeepsie Mutual Fire Insurance Co , 

Relief Fire Insurance Co.-. , 

Republic Fire Insurance Co 

Resolute Fire Insurance Co 

Richmond County Mutual Insurance Co. , 

Rutgers Fire Insurance Co , 

St. Lawrence Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

St. Marks Fire Insurance Co — , 

St. Nicholas Insurance Co 

Sehenei'tady Insurance Co.? 

Security Fire Insurance Co 

Star Insurance Co 

Stuyvesaut Insurance Co 

Suflulk County Mutual Insurance Co...., 

Sun Mutual Insurance Co 

Tradesmen's Fire Insurance Co 

Union Mutual Insurance Co 

United States Fire Insurance Co 

United States Life Insurance Co 

Wall St. Fire Insurance Co 

Washington Insurance Co - 

Waterville Protection Insurance Co 

Wayne County Mutual Insurance Co 

W^estchester County Mutual Insurance Co 

Western Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co 

Williamsburgh City Fire Insurance Co.- 

Wyoming County Mutual Insurance Co 



Location, 



New York 

Albany 

New York 

New York 

New Y'ork 

Middletown 

New Y'ork 

Nev.' York 

Plattsburgh 

New York 

Oswego 

New York 

New York 

West Bloomfleld. 

Goshen 

New York 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn 

Poughkeepsie 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Richmond 

New York 

Ogdensburgh 

New York 

New York 

Schenectady 

New York 

Ogdensburgh 

New York 

Southold 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New Y'ork 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New York 

Waterville 

Newark 

New Hochelle 

Batavia. 

Williamsburgh..., 
Warsaw 



Date of act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles of associa- 
tion. 



April 18, 
July 29, 
May 21, 
March 9, 
March, 
Nov. 29, 
June 22, 
Jan. 1, 
Sept. 18, 
Feb. 6, 
April 26, 
Jan. 29, 
April 3, 
March 21, 
March 15, 
Jan. 18. 
AprU 17, 
Dee. 18, 
Feb. 1, 
April 22, 
March 30, 
March 14, 
July 30, 
Dec. 17, 
March 22, 
July 10, 
March 30, 
Sept. 12. 
May 12, 
July 14, 
July 23, 
May 26, 
June 20, 
Nov. 30, 
Jan. 7, 
AprU 30, 
May 22, 
Dec. 20, 
May 14, 
March 31, 
Jan. 26, 
Oct. 19, 
Feb. 11, 
Feb. 3, 
April 1, 
March 14, 
April 23, 
Dec. 13, 
Nov. 25, 



Expiration 
of charter. 



1832 April 18, 1862 
18611 July 29.1881 
1841 Unlimited 
1830 Unlimited 

1851 March, 18S1 

1852 Nov. 29, 1882 
18.50 'June 22,1880 
1836 
1852 
1822 
1832 
1853 
18.55 
1836 
1837 
18.59 
1851 
1854 
18.53 
1851 
1853 
1853 
18.50 
1855 
1852 
1857 
1836 



Sept, 
Feb. 
Jan. 
.Tan. 
.\pril 



.April 
Dec. 
Feb. 
April 



18,53! Sept 
1836 May 



18.53 
1852 
1S41 
18.56 
1853 
1851 
1836 
1841 
1858 
1845 
1824 
1850 
1858 
1860 
18.51 
1853 
1K37 
1844 
1852 
1861 



18. 1882 
6, 1862 
1, 1877 

29. 1883 
3, 1885 

March 20, 1876 

March 15, 1877 

Jan. 18, 1889 

7, 18,81 

18. 1884 
1, 1883 

11, 18.81 
.March 30, 1883 
March 14, 1883 
July 80, 1880 
Dec. 17, 1885 
March 22, 1882 
July 10, 1887 
March 30, 1876 
12, 1883 
12. 1876 
14, 1883 
23, 1882 
26, 1891 
20, 1886 
30, 1883 
7, l.SSl 
30, 1876 
22, 1861 
20, 1888 
14, 1875 
1, 1884 
26, 1880 
19, 1888 
11, 1880 
3, 1881 
1, 1883 
March 14, 1877 
April 23,1864 
Dec. 12, 1882 
Nov. 25, 1881 



July 

July 

May 

June 

Nov. 

Jan. 

.Vpril 

M.ay 

Dec. 

May 

April 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

.\pril 





Nature 
of risks 
allowed. 


s. 


f.m. 


M. 


f.n. 




1. 


M. 


m. n. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


m. 


^ 


f. ni. n. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


S. 


m n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


m.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


8. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. m. n. 


S. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. m. 


S. 


f. 


S. 


1. 


s. 


f.n. 


8. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f. 


M. 


f. 



Present 
capital of 

stock 
companies. 



$200,000 

108,800 
100,000 



200.000 
250,000 

3.50.000 
150,000 
300.000 
300,000 



200,000 

200.000 
150,000 
150.000 
200.000 
100,000 
150,000 
150,000 
200,000 

200,000 

150,000 
150,000 

200.000 

1,50,000 
200,000 



150,000 

250.000 
100,000 
200.000 
200,000 



150,000 



« Changed from New York Fire Insurance Co. May 10, 1847, 
and allowed to take marine risks. 

i Removed from Broadalbin April 15, 1857. 

' Changed from Nautilus Insurance Co. April 5, 1849, and 
limited to life risks. First organized April 12, 1845, and allowed 
m. n. and f. risks. Capital, $200,000. 



'^ Reorganized July 18, 1852. Originally allowed marine risks. 

« Organized Jan. 1834. 

/Enjoinder. 

a Changed from Schenectady County Mutual Insurance Co, 

April 7, 1858. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies 


in the State, 


Ja7i. 1, 1859. 


Name. 


Location, 


Date of act of 

incfu-pnration 

or of filing 

articles. 


35^ 


Remarks. 


TFtna. TTmnriripp Co of TJtica 


Utica. 


March 14, 1851 
May 3, 1836 
April 13,1857 
April —,1857 
April 30,18.^9 
April 10, 1843 
April 18,1825 

June 18,1812 

June 12, 1856 
Sept. 6, 1852 

March 30, 1832 
April 23,1850 
April 1, 1843 
AprU 5, 1826 

Feb. 27, 1824 


M. 

M. 
M. 

M. 
S. 
M. 

S. 

s. 



M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 


f.m. 
f.n. 

m. 

f. 
f.m. 

m. 


Receiver appointed Jan. 1854. 

Closed. 

Closing business. No receiver. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $300.000. 21 years ; April 20, 1832, 

$200,000, 30 years. 
Successor to Marine Ins. Co., 15 years, 

from May 12 ; cap. $250,000. In 1814, 

marine, not exceedin? $1,000,000. 

Extended to May 12, 1867. Closed 

in 1845. 

Receiver appointed April, 1865. 

Receiver appointed Dec. 1854. 

Changed from La Fayette Ins. Co. of 
the City of New York. 

Cap. $500,000. Discon. in 1828; al- 
lowed to close up and reorganize 
new company. 


Albany County Mutual Ins. Co 

Allegany Mutual Insurance Co 

Allegany County Mutual Ins. Co 






A ngel ica 








American Fire Ins. Co. of New York.. 
American Ins. Co. of New York 

American Insurance Co. of the City 


New York 


New York 


New York 




utica. 


American Manufacturers' Mutual 




American Mutual Insurance Co 

American Mutual Insurance Co 


Amsterdam 

New York 




Atlantic Insurance Co. of New York.. 


New York 





86 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



1 

Name. 


Location. 


Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 


II 


ReMarki. 


Atlns Insurance Co. of New York.... 


New York 


April 8, 1825 
April 14, 1836 
AprU 10,1843 
IMarch 14, 1825 
AprU 24,1833 
AprU 10.1887 
May 25, 1836 
April 3, 1844 
AprU 1, 1830 
March 17, 1837 
May 3, 1852 

March 14, 1825 

May 25, 1836 
>Iay 17, 1837 
March 20, 1837 

AprU 16,1822 
April 29, 1839 
Apiil 2, 1838 
May 3, 1838 
AprU 12,1842 

AprU 26,1831 

May 4, 1829 
May 12, 1836 
May 12, 1836 

May 25, 1836 

March 21, 1801 
.Tune 4, 1851 
April 4, 1805 

AprU 12,1842 

May 12, 1836 
AprU 10, 1849 
AprU 10,1843 
May 9, 1837 
April 15, 1814 
AprU 25,1836 

April 30, 1836 
AprU 6, 1839 
Dec. 8, 1849 
Aug. — , 1855 

Feb. 28, 1822 
Juue 26, 1851 

Oct. 29, 1850 

May 13, 1845 
April 13,1836 

AprU 3, 1831 
AprU 29,1833 

March 13, 1818 

April 2, 1819 
March 5,1851 

AprU 12,1852 

AprU 2, 1819 
May 14, 1840 
May 25, 1S41 
May 3, 1836 

March 4,1839 
May 2, 1837 

March 18, 1814 

June 5, 18.52 
Oct. 21, 1852 

March 30, 1836 
March 31, 1.S24 
April 25, 1852 
AprU 24,1833 

AprU 25,1836 


S. 

s. 

M. 

S. 

s. 

M. 

s. 

s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 

M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

S. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

S. 

"s." 

s. 

M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 

s. 

M. 

s. 

M. 

S. 

M. 

S. 

s. 

s. 

s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 

s. 


m. 
m. 
m. 
f. n. 
f. 

f. 

f. m. n. 

f.n. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

ff. 

f. 1. m. 
f. 1. n. 
f. m. n. 

f m. n. 
m. 

f. 
f. 

{ 

f. 1. ann. 

f. m. n. 
f.n. 

m. 
f. 

f. 


Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $350,000. Revived AprU 14, 183ii. 

Cap. S150,000. 
Cap. $300,0u0. 

Cap. $150,000. 
Cap. S150.000. 
Cap. $100,000. 

Changed March 8, 1853, to HamUton 

Fire Insurance Co. 
Cap. .5300.000. Revived AprU 21, 182S, 

cap. $150,000. 
Cap. $3U0,000. 

Closed business in 1S53. 

Cap. $400,000. 
Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $300,000; time extended 1832-33. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1854. 

Cap. $300,000. Revived April 5, 1839, 

cap. $250,000. 
Cap. S500.0U0. 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1853. 
Cap. $250,000. Extended 21 years 

April 3. 1811. 
Changed June 16, 1853, to Commercial 

Mutual Insurance Co. 
Closed about 1852. 

Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $200,000. 

Original cap. $300,000. Changed to 
Trust Fire Ins. Co. AprU 25, 1839. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed June 1855. 

Enjoined Dec. 28, 1855; injunction re- 
moved Jan. 31, 1856. Closing. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed Nov. 1854. 

Changed to Rochester Insurance Co. 
March 20, 1852. 

Receiver appointed. 

Cap. $500,000; reduced to $200,000 

April 21, 1837. 
Cap. S150,000. M. risks allowed AprU 

20, 1X32. To expire June, 1801. 
Cap. $150,000. Changed to Brooklyn 

Firemen's Ins. Co. Slay 25, 1836. 
Cap. .$.500,000. Reduced one-half 1S28. 

Continued in 1835 to '56. Reduced 

by the great fire of 1835. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed June, 1855. 

Receiver appointed Sept. 1854. 

Cap. $500,000. 
Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed Oct. 1851. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $500,000. Companv of like name 
incorp. July 24, 1851, cap. $200,000. 

Cap. $1,000,000. Reduced one-half 
March 17, 1836. 

Receiver appointed August, 1S55. 

Removed from Utica April, 1859. Re- 
ceiver appointed Feb. 1856. 

Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $500,000. 


New York 








An burn 


Rnwprv Firo Insurance Co 


New York_ 


Broome County Mutual Ins. Co 


Brooklyn Firemen's Insurance Co... 


Brooklyn 




Buffalo Fire & Marine Insurance Co. 
Buffalo Mutual Insurance Co 


Buft'alo 


Buffalo 


Building ABSociation Fire Ins. Co 

Oanfil Insurance Co 




New York 


Canal Ins. Co. of the City of NewYork 
Cattaraugus County Mutual Ins. Co. 

Cayuga County Mutual Ins. Co 

Chatham Fire Insurance Co. of the 
City of New York 




EUicottville 


New York 


Chelsea Insurance Co 


New York 


Chemung County Mutual Ins. Co 




Chenango County Mutual Ins. Co.... 






Cherry Yalley.... 


Clinton Fire Insurance Co. of the 


Clinton Insurance Co. in the City of 
Albany 


Albany 

Keeseville 


Clinton & Essex Mutual Ins. Co 

Columbia County Mutu.al Ins. Co 

Columbian Fire Insurance Co. of \ 
the City of New York J 




New York 


New York 

Amsterdam 

New York 




Commercial Insurance Co 


Commercial Insurance Co 


New York 


Cortland County Mutual Ins. Co 

Croton Insurance Co 


Cortlandville 

New York 






Dunkirk Marine Insurance Co 

Dutchess County Insurance Co 

Eighth Ward Fire Insurance Co 

Eighth Ward Mutual Insurance Co.. 


Dunkirk 


Poughkeepsie 

New York 


New York 




Empire State Mutual Insurance Co.. 
Enterprise Insurance Co 


Saratoga Springs 
New York. . . 


Farmers' Fire Ins. & Loan Co 


New York.. . 


Farmers' Ins. Co. of Oneida County.. 
Farmers and Merchants' Ins. > 

Co. of Western New York j 

Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co. of 


Utica 


Rochester 




Fifth Ward Fire Insurance Co. of 1 

thf> Pitv nf NpTV Ynrlr 1 


New York 


Firemen's Insurance Co. of tbel 


Albany 


Firemen's Insurance Co 


Brooklyn 


Franklin Fire Insurance Co 


New York 


Franklin Fire Insur.ance Co. in the 
City of New York 




Franklin Fire Ins. Co. of New York.. 

Franklin Marine & Fire Insurance 

Co. of New York 


Saratoga Springs 
Saratoga Springs 


Fulton Fire Insurance Co. in the 


Fulton Fire Insurance Co... 


New York. 


General Mutu.al Insur.ance Co 


New York 




Girard Fire Insurance Co. of the 
City of Now York 


New York 






'Globe Insurance Co 


New York 




Utica 






Greene County Mutual Insurance Co. 
Greenwich Fire Insurance Co 


Catskill 


New York 


Good Hope Ins. Co. of New York 






Hamilton Fire Insurance Co. of the 
City of New York 


New York 



CORPORATIONS. 



87 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Namb. 



Iliirailton Marino Insurance Co.. 
Harmony Fire Insuiance Co 



Harmony Fire & Marine Ins. Co., 



Jackson Marine Ins. Co. of the City \ 
of New York J 

Jefferson County Mutual Ins. Co 

Kinga County Mutual Insurance Co. 

Knickerbocker Insurance Co 



Henry Clay Fire Insurance Co 

Herkimer County Mutual Ins. Co.. 
Hope Insurance Co 



Householders' Mutual Insurance Co. 



Howard Life Insurance Co.. 



Hudson Fire Insurance Co.. 



Hudson Insurance Co 

Hudson Insurance Co. of the City of 

New York 

Hudson River Marine & Fire Ins. Co. 
Hudson River Mutual Insurance ) 

Co. at Waterford J 

Indemnity Fire Insurance Co. of the 

City of New York 

Insurance Company of Firemen... 
International Insurance Co 



La Fayette Ins. Co. of the City of) 
New York J 

Lewis County Mutual Insurance Co. 

Long Island Farmers' Ins. Co. in the 
Co. of Queens 

Long Island Mutual Insurance Co... 

Madison Co. Mutual Ins. Co 

Madison Marine Ins. Co. of the City 
of New York 

Marine Insurance Co. of New York.. 



Location. 



New York.. 
New York.. 

New York.. 



New York... 
Little Falls.. 
New York... 



New York.. 



New York.. 

New York.. 

New York.. 

New York.. 
Crescent.... 

Waterford.. 



New York- 
New York.. 



New York.. 



Watertown . 
Brooklyn.... 



Waterford., 
New York.. 



Hempstead . 
Brooklyn .... 
Cazenovia .. 



New York.. 
New York.. 



Mechanics'Tire Ins. Co. of the City "I 

of New York J 

Merchants' Fire Insurance Co 

Merchants' Mutual Ins. Co. of Buffalo 
Merchants & Householders'Mutual 1 

Ins. Co J 

Merchants' Ins. Co. in the City of 

Albany 

Merchants' Insurance Co 

Merchants' Marine Insurance Co 

Merchants' Mutual In.surance Co 

Metropolis Ins. Co. of the City of ) 

New York j 

Metropolis Insurance Co 

Metropolitan Insurance Co 

Mohawk Insurance Co. of New York 
Mohawk Valley Farmers' Ins. Co.... 

Mohawk Valley Insurance Co 

Monroe Fire Insurance Co 

Mutual Assurance Co. of New York. 



Mutual Insurance Co. of Buffalo 

Mutual Protection Insurance Co 

Mutual Protection Ins. Co. of Roches- 
ter 

Mutual Safety Insurance Co 

National Exchange Insurance Co 

National Insurance Co 

National Insurance Co 

National Protection Insurance Co 

Nautilus Insurance Co 



New York Central Insurance Co 

New York City Insurance Co 

New York City Insurance Co 

New York Contributionsliip Ins. Co." 



New York.. 

New York.. 
Buffalo 



New York.. 



Albany 

Buffalo 

New York.. 
New York. 

New York.. 



New York.... 
New York.... 
New York.... 

Scotia 

Amsterdam 
Rochester.... 
New York.... 



Buffalo 

New York.. 



Rochester 

New York 

New York 

New York , 

New York 

Saratoga Springs. 
New York 



Cherry Valley.. 

New York 

New York 

New York 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



April 4, 1838 



Dec. 29, 18.')5 

.April 28. 1.S36 

Jan. 2G, 1821 

May 25, 1841 



June 29, 1852 

April 6, 1838 

April 4, 1811 

April 8, 1825 

June 1, 1852 

Aug. 8, 1850 



AprU l.-?, lS.3fi 
May 2, ISIO 
Apfa 11,1855 



April 23,1831 

March 8, 1836 
AprU 15,184-1 

May 15, 1852 

AprU 8, 1825 

Feb. 27, 1837 



April 29,1833 
April 30, 1836 
March 23, 1836 

April 8, 1825 
March 16, 1802 



April 

April 
Feb. 

April 



April 
Feb. 
April 
April 

Jan. 

April 

Oct. 

April 

June 

June 

March 

March 



April 
May 

May 

April 

May, 

April 

April 

Feb. 



7, 1819 

2, 1819 

4. 1850 

17, 1843 

7, 1824 

4, 18.ll 

26, 1830 

10, 1843 

29, 1853 

29, 1839 
2, 1852 

3, 1824 
27, 1851 

6. 1851 
9, 1825 

23, 179S 



IS, 1843 
25, 1841 

7,1844 

17, 1838 

1855 

14. 1815 

9, 18.38 
22, 1851 



Jan. 16, 1851 
Nov. 1.3, 1852 
March 22, 1825 
April 5, 1624 



c 3 

S5^ 



s. 

M. 

S. 

M. 



S. 
S. 

s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 



M. 

M. 

M. 

S. 
M. 



S. 
M. 
M. 



M. 
M. 

S. 

"s." 

M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 
M. 



M. 

S. 



Remarks. 



f. m. Cap. $250,000. 

f. Changed to Harmony Fire & Marine 

Insurance Co. April 17, 1S5S. 

f. m. n. Changed from Harmoily Fire Insu- 
rance Co. April 17, 1^0^. 
Receiver ai)pointed Dee. 1S55. 
Receiver appointed 1853. 
Changed from New York Firemen's 
Insurance Co. Cap. $300,000. 

f. (Pictures, furniture, &c.) Repealed April 17, 
1S43. Changed to Mercliaiits & 
Householders' Mutual Ins. Co. 

1. Discontinued issuing pulicies 1S56 or 

'57. See Comp. Rey 1859. p. 53. 

f. n. Cap. $200,000. Reducoi to $150,000 

April 17, 1S43. 

f. Cap. $200,000. 



m. 
f m. 



m. 
m. 



f. L 



f. m. n. 

f. m. 
f. m. n. 



f. m. n. 
f. m. n. 

f. n. 
f. m. 

1. m. n. 



f. n. 



Cap. .?300,000. 

Receiver appointed Aug. 1854. 
Business tran.sferred to Hudson River 
Marine & Fire Insui'ance Co. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Changed from Kings County Mutual 

Ins. Co. 
Cap. $400,000. Reduced to $300,000 

April 24, 1840. Reduced to $200,000 

and fire risks allowed. 

Changed to International Ins. Co. 

April 11, 1845. 
Receiver appointed July, 1855. 
Cap. $300,000. Changed to Anchor 

Ins. Co. of the City of New York, 

April 8, 1826. 
look but one insurance. Never fully 

organized. 

Cap. $50,000. Revived May 2, 1835. 
Closed under act of Jan. 25, 1854. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Closed up under act of 
•June 18, 1812, by the American Ins. 
Co. of New York having become in- 
solvent. 

Original cap. $500,000. Reduced to 
$300,000 Jan. 12, 1828. 

Cap. $300,000. Reduced to $250,000. 

Made assignment and diss. .Tan. 1852. 

Changed from Householders' Mutual 
Ins. Co. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Closed. 

Cap. $400,000. 

Changed to Ocean Ins. Co. of the City 
of New York April 3, 1855. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $500,000. Never organized. 

Cap. .$500,000. 

Receiver appointed Oct. 1854. 

Receiver avipointed Jan. 1865. 

Cap. $250,000. Revived April 17. 1826. 

Renewed 1808 a3 Mutual Ins. Co. of 
New York. Cap. $350,000. To con- 
tinue till repealed. Changed to 
Knickerbocker Fire Ins. Co. of New 
York May 12, 1846. 

Cap. $200,000. 



Extended April 12, 1843. 
Receiver appointed Sept. 1855. 
Original cup. $100,000. 
Cap. .$150,000. 

Receiver appointed Aug. 1855. 
April 5, 1849, changed to New York 
Life Ins. Co. and limited to life risks. 
Closing up. No new policies issued. 
Receiver appointed Sept. 1855. 
Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $300,000. Similar act May 6, 1844. 



I The New York Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses & Property fi-om Loss by Fire, incorp. AprU 6, 1822. Changed 

to above. 



88 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



New York Fire Ins. Co. of the City | 

of New York / 

New York Protection Insurance Co.. 



Neiv York State Mutual Ins. Co... 
New York Union Mutual Ins. Co- 
New York i'iremen Insurance Co., 



New York Guardian Insurance Co... 

New York Insurance Co 

New York La Fayette Ins. Co 

New York Marine Insurance Co 

New York Mechanics' Lite Ins. & ) 

Coal Co ]■ 

New York Mutual Insurance Co 

New York Northern fire Ins. Co.... 



New York State Marine Ins. Co 

New York Union Mutual Ins. Co 

Neptune Ins. Co. of the City of New \ 
York j" 

Neptune Bell Marine Ins. Co. of) 

New York J 

Niagara County Mutual Ins. Co 

North American Fire Insurance Co.. 



North American Insurance Co 

North American Mutual Ins. Co 

Northern New York Live Stock Ins.Co 
Northern New York Mutual Ins. Co. 
Northern Protection Insurance Co... 
Ocean Insurance Co 



Oneida County Mutual Ins. Co 

Oneida Insurance Co 

Oneida Lake Mutual Insurance Co.. 
Onondaga County Mutual Ins. Co.... 

Ontario Insurance Co 

Orange Fire In.siurance Co 

Orleans In.surauce Co 

Oswego County Mutual Ins. Co 

Pacific Insurance Co. of New York.. 
Palladium Fire Insurance Co 



Pelican Mutual In.surance Co 

Phoenix Insurance Co. of New York 
Phoenix Fire Insurance Co 



People's Ins. Co. of the State of N. Y. 

PouLihkeepsie Insurance Co 

Protection Fire Insurance Co 

Renovation Fire Insurance of the 

City of New York 

Rensselaer County Mutual Ins. Co.... 



Rensselaer Insurance Co 

Rensselaer & Saratoga Ins. Co.".. 
Rochester Insurance Co 



Saratoga County Mutual Fire Ins. Co. 

Salem Fire Insurance Co 

Schenectady & Saratoga Ins. Co... 



Schenectady County Mutual Ins. Co. 



Schoharie Mutual Insurance Co.... 
Schoharie County Mutual Ins. Co.. 
Sea Insurance Co 



Seneca County Mutual Ins. Co 

Seventh Ward Fire Insurance Co.. 
Seventeenth Ward Fire Ins. Co 



Steuben County Mutual Ins. Co... 
Steuhen Farmers & Merchants' In- 
surance Co 

Susquehanna Fire Insurance Co.^ 



Syracuse Insurance Co 

Tioga County Mutual Insurance Co.. 



Location. 



New York., 
Rome , 



Newark 

Johnstown . 
New York.. 



New York.. 
New York.. 
New York., 
New York.. 

New York.. 

New York., 



New York.. 
Johnstown. 
New York.. 



New York.. 

Lockport .. 
New York.. 



New York 

Brasher Falls., 
Plattsburgh.... 
Plattsburgh.... 

Camden 

New York 



Utica 

Utica 

Cleveland 

Baldwinsville. 

Geneva 

Newburgh 

Albion 

Mexico 

New York 

New York 



New York.. 
New York.. 
New York.. 



Kingston 

Poughkeepsie.. 
New York , 



New York 

Lansingburgh ... 

Lansingburgh ... 

Troy 

Rochester 

Saratoga Springs 
Salem 



Schenectady., 



Schoharie... 
Coble.'ikill... 
New York.. 



Waterloo.... 
New York.. 
New York.. 



Bath 

Albany , 



Syracuse . 
Owego 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or offilivg 

articles. 



July 23, 1849 

Oct. 31, 1849 
May 9, 1850 
March 2,1810 



April 6, 1838 

April 2, 1798 

April 14, 1825 

AprU 2, 1798 

Feb. 28, 1822 

March 28, 1809 

May i, 1829 

April 8, 1825 

May 9, 1850 

April 11,1825 

AprU 22,1831 

April 13,1837 

AprU 8, 1836 



April 

May 

July 

Sept. 

Nov. 

March 

April 

March 

March 

April 

JIarch 

April 

June 

April 

April 

April 



13, 1826 
26, 1851 

8, 1851 
17, 1852 
14, 1851 

2, 1810 

28, 1836 

23, 1832 

8, 1853 

13, 1836 

21, 1825 

7, 1819 

1, 1850 

28, 1836 

14, 1815 

20, 1832 



April 10,1843 
Feb. 20, 1807 
March 29, 1823 



May 14, 1851 
April 8, 1825 
April 7, 1824 

March 31, 183R 
April 29, 1836 

April 15,1852 
April 15, 1819 
March 20, 1852 

May 5, 1834 
July, 1852 

May 6, 1834 

May 26, 1841 



April 22,1831 

Dec. 3, 1850 

May 5, 1834 

April 12, 18.39 

April 29, 1839 

April 9, 1838 

March 29, 1837 

Sept. 29, 1851 

Aug. 1854 



April 
April 



26, 1833 
1, 1837 



£5^ 



M. 

M. 
S. 



S. 

"s." 



M. 



M. 

S. 



s. 



M. 

S. 

M. 

S. 
M. 

M. 

S. 
S. 

M.' 

S. 

s. 



s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 



M. 

"s!" 

M. 



M. 

s. 

M. 

S. 

s. 



s. 

M. 



EemarJcs. 



f. n. 



{'■ 



Changed May 10, 1847, to New York 

Fire & Marine Ins. Co. 
Made assignment Jan. 1852, and closed 

up. 
Receiver appointed. 
Receiver appointed July, 1855. 
Cap. .$500,000. Closed by losses 1818 

and reorganized. Changed to Hope 

Ins. Co. Jan. 26, 1821. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Expired 1820. Extended to Jan. 1860. 
Cap. $200,000. 
Cap. $.500,000. 
Cap. $600,000. 



to Life & Fire Ins. Co. 



Changed April 15, 1823, 



Cap. 



Changed from Sun Fire Ins. Co. 

$240,000. 

Cap. $400,000. Revived April 25, 1831. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Changed to Neptune 
Bell Mutual Ins. Co. of New York, 
April 22, 1831. 

Changed from Neptune Ins. Co. Cap. 
$250,000. Revived AprU, 1832. 

Cap. $250,000. Changed from Phceuix 
Fire Ins. Co. Allowed to take inland 
navigation risks May 7, 1845. 

Cap. $:300,000. 

Receiver appointed June, 1855. 



Receiver appointed Oct. 1854. 

Cap. $500,000. Extended to Jan. 1860. 

XJapital reduced to $350,000. 
Closed. 

Cap. $250,000. 
Closed. 
Closing up. 
Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $400,000. 
Receiver appointed March, 1852. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Cap. $300,000. Reincorporated May 
3, 1839. Cap. $250,000. 



f. 1. m. n. Cap. $500,000. 

Original cap. $250,000. Changed to 
North America Fire Insurance Co. 
AprU 8, 1836. 
Receiver appointed March, 1854. 
f. n. Cap. $100,000. 



Cap. $300,000. 

Reorganized Oct. 11, 1851. Receiver 

appointed Feb. 1855. 
Cap. $50,000. 

Cap. originally, $500,000. Closed up. 
Changed from Farmers & Merchants' 

Insurance Co. of Western N. Y.. 



m. n. 
f.n. 
f. n. 



f. 1. n. 
f. 

f. 
f. 
f.n. 



f. 
f. 
f.n. 



Receiver appointed Jan. 1857. 

Cap. $100,000. Stopped issuing poli- 
cies by act May 25, 1841. 

Changed by dropping " County Mu- 
tual" April 7, 1858. Extended 30 
years. 

Revived May 9, 1836. 

Receiver appointed. 

Cap. $250,000. Time for final divi- 
dend extended 1840 to June 28, 1841. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $200,000. Changed to National 
Fire Insurance Co. May 24, 1841. 



Receiver appointed Nov. 1856. 
Changed irom Cooperstown Feb. 1855. 

Receiver appointed. 
Cap. $100,000. 



» Capital reduced from $199,880.90 to $87,536.45 by the great Troy fire of 1820. Life insurance taken away in 1831. 
♦o close up l)y act of April 18, 1843. 6 See Comptroller's Report, 1858, p. 46. 



Directed 



CORPORATIONS. 



89 



Class III. includes those whose certificates are filed in the Banking Department. 

"An Act to authorize the Business or Hanking" was 

passed April 18, 1838, and was modified April 12, 1851, upon 
the creation of a Bank Department. Reports previously 
made to the Comptroller are now made to this Department. la 
1853 the articles of association previously filed in the Secre- 
tary's office were transferred to this department.^ 

Individuals or copartners may obtain bills from the depart- 
ment for circulation as individual bankers, and are liable to 
the full extent of their property for the redemption of the 
notes and the payment of the debts of such private banks. 
The name of individual banks must now be that of their 
owners; and the privilege cannot be sold, or the bills be signed by an agent." It may, however, be 

Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 




Nahx. 



Tompkins County Mutual Ins. Co.... 
Traders' Ins. Co. in the City of N. Y. 
Tradesmen's Insurance Co. in the 

City of New York 

Triton Insurance Co 



Tontine Fire Insurance Co.. 
Troy Insurance Co 



Troy Mutual Safety Insurance Co.... 

Trust Fire Insurance Co 

Tempest Insurance Co 



Trust Fire Insurance Co. 



UnadiUa Mutual Insurance Co 

Union Fire Insurance Co. of the City 

of NewY'ork 

Union Insurance Co 



Union Mutual Ins. Co. at Fort Plain 



United Insurance Co 

United Ins. Co. in the City of N. Y... 
United States Insurance Co. of the 1 

City of New York j 

United States Mutual Insurance Co. 

United States Insurance Co 

Utica Insurance Co 



Utica Live Stock Insurance Co 

Washington County Mutual Ins. Co 



Washington Insurance Co 

Washington County Insurance Co... 

Washington Marine Insurance Co. \ 
of the City of New York j" 



Washington Mutual Assurance Co. 

of the City of New York 

Wasliington Mutual Insurance Co.. 

Wayne County Mutual Ins. Co 

Webster Fire Insurance Co 

Western Fire Insurance Co 

Western Insurance Co. of Olean 

Western Insurance Co. of the vUlage 

of Buffalo 

Western New York Agricultural 

Live Stock Insurance Co. 
Williamsburgh Fire Insurance Co... 
Yates County Mutual Insurance Co. 



Locatum. 



Ithaca 

New Y^ork.. 

New Y'ork.. 
New York.. 

New York.. 
Troy 



Troy 

New York.. 
Meridian „.. 



New York.. 



Unadilla., 



New York.. 
New York.. 



Fort Plain . 

New York.. 
New York.. 

New York- 



West Potsdam... 
Saratoga Springs 
Utica 



Utica 

Granville. 



New York., 



New York.. 



New York.. 
New York.. 



New York 

Canandaigua.. 
Olean 



Buffalo 

Cleveland, Oswe- 
go CO 

Williamsburgh.. 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



April 25, 1S40 
March 9, 1825 

March 14, 1825 
AprU 4, 1838 



May, 
April 



1855 
6, 1831 



Mav 7, 1844 
AprU 25, 1830 
Jan. 29, 1853 



April 25,1839 

May 12, 1836 

April 24,1833 
March 18, 1818 

May 21, 1850 

May 14, 1840 
March 10, 1798 

March 31, 1837 

Nov. 8, 1850 
Feb. 22, 18.51 
March 29, 1816 

April 12,1852 
April 22, 1837 

April 29,1839 
AprU 24,1832 

April 27,1883 



March 30, 1S02 
AprU 11,1842 
May 12, 1836 
March, 1855 
AprU 3, 1824 
Jan. 22, 1853 

AprU 7, 1817 

April 15,1852 
AprU 17,1843 
March 9, 1837 



!» .^• 






M. 

S. 

s. 

S. 



s. 

M. 

S. 

s. 

M. 

S. 
S. 

s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 
M. 

S. 
S. 

s. 



S. 
M. 



s. 

M. 



Remarks. 



f n. 
f. m. n. 



f. m. n. 



f.n. 
f. 



Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. §200,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Reduced to $150,000 

May 26, 1841. 
Kecciver appointed Oct. 1856. 
Cap. $200,000. Directed to close up by 

act of AprU 21, 1840. 

Cap. $150,000. 

A committee appointed in 1855 could 

not find the books or Secretary of 

this Co. 
Changed from Eighth Ward Fire Ins. 

Co. Cap. may increase $200,000. 



In 1837 extended to 



f. Cap. $400,000. 

1. ann. Cap. $500,000. 
Jan. 1, 1862. 
Changed to Union Insurance Co. July 
8, 1851. 
m. n. Cap. $500,000. 

f. 1. m. Cap. $500,000. Twice extended. 
■) Cap. $1,000,000. Fire risks allowed 

J ™' May 5, 1840. 

Receiver appointed Feb. 1855. 
Receiver appointed Feb. 1869. 
f. m. n. Receiver to be appointed by ait of 

May 26, 1841. 
(insured live stock.) Cap. $25,000. 

Reorganized Dec. 13, 1849. Receiver 

appointed Sept. 1856. 
Cap. $250,000. 
f. Cap. $50,000. 

iCap. $300,000. Reduced to $100,000, 
1833, and changed to Marine Mutual 
Fire Insurance Co. Allowed to take 
fire risks AprU 27 1833. 



Referee appointed Sept. 1855, 
f Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed Dec. 1855. 

f. m. n. Cap. not over $400,000. 



1 The first bank organized in the State was the Bank of New 
York, which had existed several years previously as a private 
partnership. In many of the earlier banks the State reserved 
the right of subscribing stock, and of appointing directors to 
represent their interest in proportion to the amount held. Bank- 
ing powers could only be enjoyed by special act of the Legisla- 
ture, and were commonly limited to a period of 30 years. In 
1838 a general law was enacted, allowing the organization of as- 
sociations for banking, upon depositing the requisite securities 
with the Comptroller and filing articles of association in the 
Secretary's Office. Up to the d:ito of the general law, 106 banks 
had been created, — of which 31 are still in existence, 36 have 



reorganized, and 39 have failed, closed, or changed tlieirnames. 
The Manhattan Co., created " for supplying the city of New 
York with pure and wholesome water," and the New York Dry 
Dock Co. possess perpetual banking powers. Other corporations 
for manufiicturing or commercial purposes were allowed like 
privileges for limited periods, all of which have expired. In 
1829 a " safety fund" was created, by requiring an annual con- 
tribution of i per cent, of its capital paid in from each bank 
formed or extended after that time, untU each had paid 3 per 
cent. This fund was placed in charge of the Comptroller, and 
applied to the redemption of the bills of insolvent banks con- 
tributing to this fund, after their other means had been ex- 



90 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



bequeathed. All banks, excepting those in New York, Brooklyn, Albany, and Troy, must have 
an agency in New York, Albany, or Troy, for the redemption of their bills within one-fourth of 
one per cent, of par. 



hausted. The bank fund has long since been exhansted, the 
draft upon it far exceeding the income. In 1848, 11 insolvent 
banks, that had contributed but §86.282 to this fund, had drawn 
from it §2,577,927. — Comptroller's Report, 1848, p. 55. 

The same law provided for the appointment of 3 Bank Com- 
mis.sioners, who were required to visit the banks thrice annually, 
to ascertain their condition, take measures to secure the public 
against fraud or loss, and report annually to the Legislature. 
This office was abolished April 18, 1S43, and the Comptroller 
was invested with general powers relating to banks, from which 
he was relieved by the creation of a special Bank Department in 
1851. This department is under a superintendent appointed by 
the Governor and Senate for 3 years. It has the custody of all 
plates for printing bank "bills ; registers, numbers, and issues to 
banks such bills as their charters and securities entitle them 
to; destroys the same when withdrawn from circulation; and 
destroys the plates when the bank is closed. It appoints special 
ageutf for examining the condition of doubtful banks, directs 
prosecutions in behalf of the State, sells the securities of broken 
banks to redeem their circulation, and reports the condition of 
banks to the Legislature annually. Banks can only obtain bills 
for circulation by depositing New York State or United States 
stocks bearing interest equivalent to 6 per cent., or bonds and 
mortgages of not over S5,000 each upon unincumbered improved 
lands at two-fifths value, exclusive of buildings, and bearing 7 per 
cent, interest. Closing banks, after calling in 9U per cent, of their 



circulation, may withdraw their stocks or mortgages, and substi- 
tute cash for the ledemption of the remaining 10 per cent, of 
circulation. Stockholders of banking associations are personally 
liable to an extent equal to their capital stock. Experience has 
shown that under our free bank system bonds and mortgages 
have realized but about 88 per cent, on the sum for which notes 
were issued, while the aggregate securities, including stocks, 
have almost always sold for more than enough to redeem the 
circulation based upon them. — Report. 1859, p. 8. 

Bank Note Engraving is now done by a company, formed in 
1858 by the union of most of the establishments previously ex- 
isting. 

The Bank of the United States had branches for discount and 
deposit at New York, Utica. and Buffalo, in this State, 

Specie payment has been generally suspended three times by 
the banks of New York State. In the fall of 1814 all the banks 
of the Union, except those of New England, suspended until the 
spring of 1817. In May, 1837, there was a second susi)ensiou, 
which continued until the spring of 1838, On the 13th of Oct. 
1857, a third suspension took place in all the banks of New 
York City, with one exception, (Chemical Bank,) and this was 
soon followed liy the banks of the State generally; but specie 
payment was resumed in about 60 days. 

The following tables, derived from returns in the Bank De- 
partment, are corrected up to Jan, 1, 1859, The amount of 
capital is reported for Dec. 18, 1868 : 



Existing Banks in the State, Jan. 1, 1859. 



Corporate Name. 



Addison Bank 

Albany City Bank 

Albany Exchange Bank 

American Exchange Bank,, 

Artisans' Bank" 

Atlantic Bank 

Atlantic Bank of the City 
of Xew York 

Auburn City Bank _, 

Auburn Exchange Bank.... 

Ballston Spa Bank 

Bank of Albany' 

Bank of AlWon 

Bank of America" 

Bank of Attica 

Bank of Auburn'* 

Bank of Bath 

Bank of Binghaniton 

Bank of Cauandaigua 

Bank of the Capitol 

Bank of Cayuga Lake" 

Bank of Cazenovia 

Bank of Central New York 

Bank of Chemung 

Bank of Chenango/. 

Banlc of Cohoes 

Bank of Commerce in New 
York 

Bank of Commerce of Put- 
nam County 

Banlv of Cooperstown 

Bank of the Commonwealth 

Bank of Corning 

Hank of Coxsackie 

Bank of Dansville 

Hank of Favetteville 

Bank of Eishldll 

Bank of Fort Edward 

Bank of Geneseeff 



Location. 



Addison 

Albany 

Albany 

New York 

New Y'ork 

Brooklyn 

New York 

Auburn 

Auburn 

Ballston Spa. 

Albany 

.Mliion 

New York 

Buffalo 

.\uburn 

Bath 

Binghaniton.. 
Canandaigua 

Albany 

Painted Post. 

Cazenovia 

Utica 

Elniira 

Norwich 

Cohoes 

New York 

Carmel 

Cooperstown 

New York 

Corning 

Coxsackie .,., 

Dansville 

Fayette ville.. 

FishkiU 

Fort Edward 
Batavia 






I. 
c. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

A. 
A, 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I, 
A. 
I. 
A, 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A, 
A. 
A, 
A, 
A, 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Dec. 12, 1838 
Oct. 1, 1838 
Aug. 22, 1856 



May 

July 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

April 

Jan. 



27. 1853 
6, 18.53 
16, 1856 
31, 1839 
15, 1854 
16, 1839 
30, 1852 
24, 1850 
2, 1850 



Nov. 17, 1852 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Sept. 
Deo. 
Dec, 



3, 1853 
1847 
28, 1856 
17, 1838 
11, 1852 
28, 1855 



March 18, 1859 
Feb. 15, 1839 



Feb, 1. 1853 
March 22, 1853 
Jan. 17, 18:39 
March 14. 1853 
June 10, 1839 
19, 1854 
28, 1S50 
3, 1851 
22, 1851 



•Tan. 
Feb. 
Oct. 
Dec. 



Of beginning 
busitirss or of 
act of incorpo- 
ration. 



May 

April 

Jan. 

Sept. 

July 



17, 1856 
30, 1834 
1, 1839 
14, 1838 
10, 1856 



March 10, 183G 



July 

July 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

Dec, 

March 

Dec. 

April 

July 

April 

Feb. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

.Tan. 

Dec. 

May 



2, 1853 

2.5, 1853 

1, 1856 

10, 1838 

30, 1854 
15, 1839 

1. 1852 
1, 1850 

31, 1849 

11, 1854 
29, 1852 

4, 1854 

1,1853 

1847 

21, 1856 

8, 1838 

1. 1853 

31, 1855 
1859 



Jan. 1, 1839 



April, 
Jan, 1, 
March 1, 
Jan, 12, 
March 4, 
June 10, 
Jan. 9, 
June 1, 
Oct. 1, 
Dec. 1, 



1853 
1853 
1853 
1839 
1853 
1839 
1854 
1850 
1851 
1851 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



•Tan. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

July 

Jan. 

July 
July 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan, 
Jan. 
Jan. 
.Tan. 
Jan. 



1, 1864 

1, 2500 

14, 1938 

1, 1956 

1, 1866 

2, 1953 
5, 19.53 
1, 1956 

10, 1938 
1,1904 
2, 2039 
1, 1953 
1, 2000 
1, 1960 



Jan. 



Jan. 

Jan, 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 2000 
"'l,'26o6 

'i,'i9o6 

15, 1889 
1, 1893 
1, 1956 



Jan. 1, 1889 



Jan, 1, 1953 
March 1, 1953 
Jan, 12, 19.39 
1, 1900 
10, 1G39 
9, 1954 
31, 1899 
In year 1951 
Dec, 31, 1951 



.Tan, 
•Tune 
Jan. 
Dec. 



^1 



o S 



500 
100 
500 
600 
500 

400 
200 
150 
100 
360 
100 
2,000 
160 
200 

150 

150 

"126 
100 
100 
120 



5,000 



150 
750 
117 
120 
100 
110 
120 
100 
100 



Present 
capital. 



$ 50,000 
600,000 
311,100 
4,999,550 
600,000 
500,000 

400,000 
200,000 
200,000 
125,000 
500,340 
100,000 
3,000,000 
250,000 
200,000 

50,000 
200.000 

26,000 
519,600 

10,000 
120,000 
110,200 

60,000 
150,000 
100,000 

8,851,760 

63,012 
200,000 
750,000 

78,500 
142,000 
150,250 
115,400 
150,000 
200,000 
150.000 



"J 
.■Sfe; s 



S. E. 

S. E. 

S. 

s. 



s. 

s. 
s. 

S. E. 
S. 

S, E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S, 

S, E. 
S, E. 
S. E. 
S. 

s. 

S, E. 
S, E. 
S, E. 
S. E. 



S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S, E. 
S. 

S, E. 
8, E, 



» Articles amended May 11, 1867. 

' First incorp. April 10, 1792; cap, $40,000; allowed to reduce 
two-nfths April 4, 1820, and shares reduced from S400 to $30 
April 17, 1830; twice extended; expired Jan, 1, 1855; State ro- 
Berved right to subscribe stock at first, 

° First incorp, June 2, 1812; cap, $6,000,000, and late United 
States B.ank allowed to take five-sixths of the stock; reduced to 
W,000,000 March 20, 1813 ; once extended. 



•^ First incorp. March 31, 1817 ; cap. $400,000 ; once extended ; 
expired Jan, 1, 1850, 

® PttirtGd a,t Itliucn. 

/ First incorp. April 21,1818; cap. $200,000; once extended; 
expired Jan. 1, 1856. 

ff First incorp, April 29, 1829; cap, $100,000; expired Jan. 1, 
1852, 



CORPORATIONS. 



91 



Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Name. 



Bank of Geneva" 

Bank of Iltivana , 

Bank of the Interior 

Bank of Kent 

Bank of Kinderhook 

Bank of Lansingburgh' 

Bank of Lima 

Bank of Lowville 

Bank of Malone 

Bank of Newark 

Bank of Xewburgh' 

Bank of Newport 

Bank of New York** 

Bank of North America'... 

Bank of Norwieli 

Bank of Old Saratoga/. 

Bank of Orange CountyJ'.... 

Bank of Owego 

Bank of Pawling 

Bank of Port Jervis 

Bank of Poughkeepsie/ 

Bank of the Kepublic- 

Bank of Rhinebeck.... 

Bank of Rome 

Bank of Rondout 

Bank of Salem 

Bank of Salina. 

Bank of Saratoga Springs*. 

Bank of Seneca Falls 

Bank of Silver Creek. 

Bank of Sing Sing 

Bank of the State of New 

York 

Bank of Syracuse 

Bank of Tioga 

Bank of Troy* 

Bank of Ulster. 

Bank of UtiCia 

Bank of Vernon 

Bank of Watertown 

Bank of Watei-riUe 

Bank of Westtield 

Bank of West Trov 

Bank of Whitehall* 

Bank of WUitestown 

Bank of Y'onkers 

Black River Bank 

Briggs Bank of Clyde 

Broadway Bank 

Brockport Exchange Bank.. 

Brooklyn Bank 

Broome County Bank' 

Buffalo City Bank 

Bull's Head Bank of the 

City of New Y^ork 

Burnet Bank 

Butchers & Drovers' Bank 

in the City of New York™ 
Cambridge Valley Bank at 

North White Creek 

Canajoharie Bank 

Canastota Bank 

Catnract Bank 

Cat^kill Bank" 

Cayuga County Bank 



Location. 






Geneva 

Havana 

.Albany 

Ludingtonville... 

Kinderhook 

Laiisiugburgh.... 

Lima 

Lowville 

Malone 

Newark 

Newburgh 

Ne'wport 

New York 

New York 

Norwich 

Schuj'lerville 

Goshen 

Owego _. 

Pawling 

Port .Tervis 

Poughkeepsie 

New Y'ork 

Rhinebeck 

Rome 

Rondout 

Salem 

Syracuse 

Saratoga Springs 

Seneca Falls 

Silver Creek 

Sing Sing 

New York 

Syracuse 

Owego 

Troy 

Ulster Village 

Utica 

Vernon 

Watertown. 

Waterville 

Westtield 

West Trov 

Whitehall 

Whitesboro 

Yonkers 

Watertown 

Clyde 

New York 

Brockport 

Brooklyn 

Binghamton 

Buffalo 

New York 

Syracuse 

Nev? York 

White Creek 

Canajoharie 

Canastota 

Lockport 

Catskill 

Auburn 



A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

C. 

0. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

C. 

A. 

A. 

C. 

A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 



D.\TE3 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Nov. 20, 1852 



June 
March 
Dec. 
Juno 



4, 1857 
15, 1856 
19, 1S3S 
22, 1855 



Of heginnirtg 
husiniiss or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



Dec. 

Aug. 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Feb. 

Jan. 



26, 1838 
IS, 1S51 

6, 1854 
17, 18.50 

2, 1S58 
21, 18.52 
11. 1K51 
21, 1856 
23, 1858 



April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

June 



4, 1849 

4, 1853 

31, 18.57 

25, 1850 

1, 1853 



Oct. 
May 


5, 1848 
17, 1853 


May 


11, 1852 


Oct. 
July 


25, 18.39 
13, 1853 



Sept. 

June 

Nov. 

June 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Dec. 



26, 1838 
20. 1856 
6, 1852 
17, 1S52 
18, 1849 
14, 1839 
26, 1839 
10, 1838 



April 

June 

Feb. 

June 

June 



26, 1852 
14, 1859 
28, 1839 
26, 1854 
16, 1851 



Aug. 15, 1849 



Dec. 
Feb. 

July 



17, 1854 
22, 1853 



Nov. 

April 

June 

Feb. 

Dec. 

June 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Aug. 

April 

Jan. 

March 

Dec. 

April 

July 

Jan. 

April 

Jlay 

Sept. 

March 

Dec. 

Feb. 

June 

April 

Sept. 

May 

April 

May 

May, 

Oct. 

Aug. 

May 

Sept. 

June 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

April 

May 

June 

Feb. 

July 

June 

Sept. 

Aug. 

July, 

Feb. 

Dec. 

March 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

priviUge. 



15. 1852 
4, 18.51 
1, 18.57 

27, 1856 
1.5. 1838 

1, 1S55 

6,1867 

18, 1838 

6. 1851 
1,1854 
1, 1851 

28, 1858 
22, 1852 
10. 1851 

15, 1856 
1, 1856 
6, 1813 

21, 1836 
3, 1849 
1, 1853 

31, 1857 
1, 1851 
1, 18.53 

16, 1832 
1, 1848 

10, 1853 
20, 1832 

1. 1852 
1854 

15, 1839 
1, 1853 



Jan. 



1, 1900 



May 1, 1957 

(Feb. 27,19,55 

iJan. 2, 18.39 

[July 1, 1955 



Not. 1, 2301 
Jan. 1, 1900 
Dec. 31, 1900 
Jan. 1, 1951 
March 25, 1908 



Ian 
! Jan. 
July 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Sept. 
March 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Sept. 
Jan. 
.Tan. 
May 



1, 1953 
1, 19.51 
1, 2056 
1, 1958 
1. 1862 
1, 1866 
3, 1899 
1, 1953 
1, 1958 
1, 19.51 
31. 1899 
1, 1862 
5, 1898 
1, 1950 
1, 1862 
1, 1952 



In year 2500 
Dec. 31, 1953 



18, 1836 Jan. 
15. 1838! Sept. 
14, 1856 j June 
1, 1852 1 Jan. 



June 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Oct. 



6, 1852 

1, 1849 

1, 1839 
17, 1839 

1, 1838 
12, 1848 

1, 1852 May 

20, 1859 ~ 
25, 18.39 
10, 1854 

1, 1851 

21, 1855 
9, 1849 

1852 

24, 1832 

31, 1854 

1, 1853 



1, 1866 

15, 2.338 

14, 1956 

1, 1952 

1, 1950 

1. 1950 

1, 19.39 

17,2340 

1,2838 



Dec. 

June 

Nov. 
Feb. 
Sept. 
Dec. 



18, 1854 

16, 1852 Dec. 22, 1852 



1854 
Oct.- 12, 1852 



June 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



1, 1900 

8, 1909 

25, 2839 

31, 1953 

1, 1890 



Aug. 9, 1950 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



20, 1855 
SO, 1855 
28, 1856 
16, 1858 
28, 1852 



Sept. 
April 
April 
Sept. 
Dec. 



3, 1855 

3, 1855 

1, 1856 

20, 1858 

31, 1852 



March 14, 1833 



Dec. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

April 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1, 1860 
1, 1954 
1, 2000 

31, 1953 



31, 1953 

1, 1905 
3, 1955 
1, 2000 
1, 1958 
1, 1899 
1, 1863 



:2£ 



205 

"700 
100 
125 
120 

"ioo 

100 
100 
200 
100 
2,000 
1,000 
125 
110 
« 

200 
125 
120 
200 
1,000 
125 
100 
100 
100 
150 
100 



100 
125 

2,000 
100 
100 
440 
100 
600 
100 
100 
100 

"200 
100 
100 
150 
100 



500 

"200 
100 
100 

300 



600 

115 
100 
110 
100 

t 

250 



Present 
capital. 



$205,000 

50,000 

251,550 

111,940 

250,000 

150,000 

60,000 

102.450 

196,800 

100.000 

300,000 

60,025 

2,838.975 

1,000,000 
125,000 
105,850 
105,660 
200.000 
175.000 
130,000 
200,000 

2,000,000 
125,000 
100,000 
150,000 
138,000 
150,000 . 
100.000 
80.000 
100,800 
150,000 

2,000,000 
200,000 
100,000 
440,000 
150,000 
600,000 
100,000 

47,779 
120,000 

60.000 
250,000 
100,000 
120.000 
150,000 
100,000 

62,611 
1,000,000 

50.000 
150,000 
100,000 
277,700 

173.300 
93,400 

800,000 

168,339 
125,000 
110,000 
40,000 
128,962 
250,000 



S5 I 



I 



S. K. 
S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E, 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. 

s. 

S.E. 



s. 
s. 
s. 

s. ; 

s. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S.E. 
S. 



S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S. E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 



S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S. 



J 



<• First incorp. March 28, 1817 ; cap. $400,000 ; once extended ; 
expired Jan 1, 1853. 

b First incorp. March 19, 1813; cap. $200,000 ; once extended; 
expired July 1, 1855. 

e First incorp. March 22, 1811. 

•i First bank in State; incorp. March 22, 1791; cap. $900,000; 
thrice extended; expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

' A bank of simUar name filed Jan. 7, 1839 ; cap. $100,000 ; 
did not oiganize. 

/ Begun as an individual bank. 

9 Onci' extended. 

* Individual bank of this title begun 1847. 

* First incorp. March 22, 1811 ; cap. $500,000; allowed to open 

* $105,660. 



offices of discount and deposit at Waterford and Lansinburgh , 
once extended ; expired Jan. 1, 1853 ; State reserved right tu 
take stock. 

y First incorp. June 1, 1812 ; cap. $1,000,000 ; once extended ; 
allowed to open a branch at Canandaigua April 10, 1815; State 
reserved right to take stock. 

* Organized in place of Safety Fund Bank of same name 
whose charter expired June 13, 1859. 

I First incorp. Apr. 18, 1831 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 1856. 

"Butchers & Drovers' Bank incorp. April 8, 1830; cap. 
$300,000, increased to $500,000 : expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

" First incorp. March 26, 1813; cap. $400,000; once extended! 
expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

t $110,007. 



92 



NEW TOEK STATE GAZETTEEK, 

Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Name. 



Central Bank of Brooklyn.. 

Central Bank at Cherry 
Yalley" 

Central Bank of Troy 

Central City Bank*. 

Chatham Bank 

Chautauciua County Bank.. 

Chemical Bank.. 

Chemung Canal Bank. 

Chester Bank 

Chittenango Bank 

Citiztns' Bank" 

Citizens" Bank 

City Bank of Brooklyn 

City Bank of New Yorki* ... 

Oity Bank 

Clinton Bank of Buffalo 

Commercial Bank of Al- 
bany' 

Commercial Bank of Clyde. 

Commercial Bank of Glens 
Falls 

Commercial Bank of Roch- 



ester. 

Commercial Bank of Sara- 
toga Springs 

Commercial Bank of Troy.. 

Commercial Bank of White- 
hall 

Continental Bank 

Com Exchange Bank. 

Croton Kiver Bank 

Cuha Bank 

Cuyler's Bank 

Delaware Bank 

Deposit Bank/. 

Dover Plains Bank. 

East River Bankc 

Eknira Bank 

Essex County Bank* 

Exchange Bank at Lock- 
port 

Fallkill Banlc 

Farmers' Bank of Amster- 
dam 

Farmers' Bank of Attica... 

Farmers' Bank of Hudson.. 

Farmers' Bank of Lansing- 
burgh^ 

Farmers Bank of Saratoga 
County 

Farmers' Bank of the City 
of Troy* 

Farmers' Bank of Washing 
ton County 

Farmers & Citizens' Bank 
of Long Island^ 

Farmers &, Drovers' Bank.. 

Farmers & Manufacturers' 
Bank 

Farmers & Mechanics' Bank 
of Genesee* 

Farmers k Mechanics' Bank 
of Rochester 

Flour City Bank 

Fort Plain Bank , 

Fort Stauwix Bank. 

Frankfort Bank 

Kredonia Bank 

Frontier Bank 



Location. 



Brooklyn.. 



Cherry Valley., 

Troy 

Syracuse 

New York 

Jamestown 

New York 

Elmira 

East Chester... 
Chittenango.... 

Fulton 

New Y'ork 

Brooklyn 

New Y'ork 

Oswego 

Buffalo 



Albany . 
Clyde 



Glens Falls. 



Rochester.. 



Saratoga Springs 
Troy 



Whitehall 

New York 

New Y'ork 

Brewster Station 

Cuba 

Palmyra 

Delhi 

Deposit 

Dover 

New York 

Elmira 

Keeseville 



Lockport 

Poughkeepsie.. 



Amsterdam . 

.\ttica 

Iludson 



Lansingburgh . 



Troy 

Fort Edward. 



Williamsburgh., 
Somers 



Poughkeepsie. 
Buffalo 



Rochester... 
Rochester... 
Fort Plain . 

Rome 

Frankfort.. 
Fredonia.... 
Potsdam.... 



I I 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 



A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
I. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

C. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Dates 



Of jiling arti- 
cles. 



April 9, 1853 



Dec. 
Feb. 
May 
Feb. 



13, 1S54 

5, 1853 
12, 1852 

6, 1851 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



Aug. 1, 1853 



Feb. 5, 1844 



May 

Feb. 

Sept. 

May 

Nov. 

May 

Dec. 

July 

July 



11, 1846 

4, 1853 

8, 1853 

3, 1851 

6, 1850 
26, 1852 
17, 1849] Nov. 

3, 1856 Aug. 



Dec. 

May 

May 

Feb. 

April 

Feb. 

April 

May 

April 

Aug. 

May 

Dec. 

July 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



July 31, 1953 



3, 1847 July 
Nov. 



April 28, 1853 



14, 1854 

1, 1853! 

12, 1852 

20, 1851 

18, 1831 

24,1844 

9,1833 

1,1846 

1. 1853 

20, 1853 

1, 18.51 

14, 1S50 

1, 1852 

1, 1849 

1, 1856 

1, 1847 
1850 



Jan. 
May 
May 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1955 
1, 2353 
12, 1952 
1, 1899 
1, 1860 
1, 1899 



AprU 28,1853 



AprU 8, 1839 Nov. 7, 1838 



Feb. 
Jan. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

March 

June 

April 

March 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

April 



18, 1856 
8,1839 

5, 1849 
24. 1853 
21. 1852 
21, 1856 

20, 1855 
9, 1853 

21, 1839 
12; 1856 
12, 1857 
11, 1852 

22, 1854 



Feb. 
Jan. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

March 

June 

April 

Jan. 

Oct. 

March 

Sept. 

Nov. 

AprE 



1, 1856 
5, 1839 

15, 1849 

24, 1853 
1, 1853 

15, 1856 
1, 1855 

15; 1853 
1, 1839 
1, 1856 

15, 1858 
8, 1852 
1, 1853 

25, 1832 



May 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
July 



1,2500 
1,2000 
31, 1953 
1, 1951 
1, 1950 
1, 19.52 
1, 2049 
1, 2000 



Jan. 1, 2000 



Jan. 1, 1954 

Nov. 7, 1938 

Feb. 1, 1956 
In year 2000 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
March 
June 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
March 
,Sept. 
I Jan. 
j Jan. 



Nov. 12, 1851 July 1, 1851 
June 17, 1852 AprU 1,1852 



1, 2500 
1, 19.53 
1, 1950 

15, 1956 
1, 1900 
1, 1900 
1, 1939 
1, 1959 
1, 2000 

18, 1952 
1, 1953 
1, 1862 



In year 2000 
July 1, 1952 



April 26, 1839 April 10,1839 
May 7. 1856 
Feb. 7, 1839 1 March 1, 1839, Dec. 31,1900 



April 10, 1939 
Dec. di, 1900 
March 31, 1854 1 A prU 1, 1854 1 AprU 1, 1954 



Nov. 13, 1852 Dec. 1,1852 

June 30, 1856 Jan. 1,1856 

Juno 21, 18.52' July 3,1852 
July 16, 1839 March 16, 1839 

AprU 26, 1834 

Nov. 1, 183S 

Feb. 12, 1839 
March 1, 1856 



Dec. 13, 1838 

March 15, 1839 
March 4,1856 
2, 1839 
5, 1847 
6, lSi.54 
2. 1856 
29, 1854 



Jan. 
Nov. 
Feb. 
JtUy 

April 



Jan. 1, 1950 

Jan. 1, 1956 

July 3, 2000 
In year 1950 



Jan. 
Nov. 
M.ay 

-■Vug. 
April 



1, 1839 
6, 1847 

1.5, 1854 
1, 1S56 

30, 1854 



Jan, 

Nov. 

Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
May 
May 
Jan. 



1, 1864 

1, 2000 

1, 3838 
1, 1956 
1, 2001 
3, 2347 
15, 2354 
1,2000 
1, 1899 



"II 
"■a 

2'^ 






200 

200 
200 
110 
300 
100 
300 
200 
100 
105 
125 
300 
150 
800 
125 
250 

300 



150 

400 

125 
100 

* 
1,500 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
125 
100 
300 
200 
100 

150 

150 

100 



100 
200 

350 

200 

200 
t 

300 

100 

100 
200 

100 

no 

105 

100 
100 



Present 
capital. 



?200,000 

200.000 
300,000 
125,200 
450,000 
100,000 
300,000 
200,000 
125,500 
150,000 
166.100 
400.000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
276,400 
250,000 

500.000 
25,000 

136,400 

500,000 

125,000 
300,000 

108,200 

2,000,000 

1,000,000 

107,500 

100,000 

74,000 

150.000 

125,000 

100,000 

206,525 

100,000 

100,000 

150.000 

2uu,ooo 

118.000 

54.533 

300,000 

171,300 

200,000 

350,000 

168,650 

200,000 
111,150 

300,000 

150,000 

125,000 
300,000 
150,000 
150,000 
105,000 
100,000 
100,000 






■2 I 

>< I. 



S. 

S. E. 

S. E. 
S. E. 

S. 

s. 

S.E. 

S. E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 

S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 



B. 



S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. 
S. 

s. 

S.E. 



S.E, 
S.E 
S. 
S. E 

S. 

s. 

S. E 



S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. E. 

S. 
S.E. 



S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 

S.E. 



« Cherry Valley Bank incorp. April 21, 1818 ; cap. $200.000 ; 
changed to Central Bank ; once extended : expired Jan. 1, 1855. 

* Changed from Crouse Bank Feb. 3, 1857. 
e Removed from Ogdensburgh. 

d City Bank incorp. June 16, 1812 ; cap. $2,000,000 ; twice ex- 
tended; expired July 1. 18.52: ciip. reduced one half March 24, 
1820, and afterward to .§720,000. 

• Commercial Bank incorp. AprU 12, 1825; cap. $300,000 ; once 
e:vtended ; expired July 1, 1847. 

* $108,200. 



/ .\n individual bank merged in association. 

B Allowed to reduce cap. to $;313.91S March 7, 1836. 

A Allowed to increase cap. to $400,000 May 10, 1836. 

< Farmers' Bank incorp. March 31, 1801 ; cap. $250,000 ; State 
reserved right to take stock; twice extended; expired Jan. 1, 
18.53. 

j Increased to $.300,000 March 9, 1854 : afterward reduced. 

* Removed from Batavia June 3, 1852 

t $111,150. 



CORPORxiTIONS. 



93 



Existing Banks, continued. 



CoKPORATE Name. 



Fulton ]!ank, in the City of 
New York" 

fulton County Bank 

Genesee County Bank. 

Genesee Itiver Bank 

Genesee Valley Bank 

Geo. Washington Bank 

(ilcns Fallji Bank 

Goshen Bank 

Greenwich Bank ot the City 
of New York' 

Grocers' Bank in the City 
of New York 

Hamilt"D Bank 

Hanover Bank 

Ileikimer County Bank..... 

llighlanil Bank 

H..I. Miner & Co.'sBank... 

U. JIiner"8 Bank of Uticjv... 

Hudson Kiver Bank" 

Huguenot Bk. of NewPaltz 

Hungerford"s Bank"* 

Ilion Bank 

Importers & Traders' Bank 

International Bunk 

Iron Bank 

Irvini; Bank in the City of 
New Y'ork 

Jamestown Bank 

Jefferson County Bauk« 

J. N. Ilungerforii's Bank... 

J. T. Kaplees Bank 

Judson Bank"* 

Kingston Bank 

Lake Mahopac Bank 

Lake Ontario Bank 

Lake Shore Bank 

Leather Manufacturers' Bk 

Leonaidsville Bank 

Lockport City Bank/. 

Long Island Bank? 

Lyons Bank* 

Manhattan Company' 

Manufacturers' Bank of 
Brooklyn^ 

Manufacturers' Bank of 
Troy 

Manufacturers & Traders' 
Bank 

Marine Bank of Buffalo 

Marine Bank, at Oswego.... 

Marine Bank of the City of 
New York 

Market Bank 

Market Bank of Troy 

Mechanics' Bank of Brook- 
lyn 

Mechanics' Bank of the City 
of New York* 

Mechanics' Banking Asso- 
ciation' 



Syra- 



Mechanlcs' Bank of S; 

cuse 

Mechanics & Farmers' 

Bank of Albany™ 

Mechanics & Traders' Bank 
in the City of New York. 



Location. 



New York 

Gloversville 

LeKoy 

Mount Morris.. 

Geneseo 

Corning 

Glens Falls 

Goshen 



New York. 



New York.... 

Hamilton , 

New Y'ork 

Little Falls... 
Newburgh.... 

Dunkirk 

Fredonia 

Hudson 

New Paltz... 

Adams 

Ilion 

New Y'ork 

Buffalo 

Plattshurgh. 



New York 

Jamestown 

Watei'town 

Corning 

Penn Y'an 

Ogdensburgh.. 

Kingston 

Mahopac 

Oswego 

Dunkirk 

New Y'ork , 

Leonards ville.. 

Lockport 

Brooklyn 

Lyons 

New York 



Brooklyn . 
Troy 



Buffalo.. 
Buffalo . 
Oswego., 



New Y'ork., 
New York.. 
Troy 



Brooklyn... 
New York., 
New York.. 
Syracuse.-. 
Albany 



gl.. 

-Sis 

lit 



New York., 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
C. 
I. 
1. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 

A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
I. 
A. 
0. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
C. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cUs. 



Jan. 

April 

Dec. 

Oct. 
May 



15, 1844 

2S, 1852 

19, 1838 

1, 1853 

6, 1851 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



March 1, 1844 
March 23, 1852 



Oct. 31, 1851 
Sept. 25, 1850 

May 30, 1855 



Aug. 
Feb. 
April 



15, 1851 

19, 1853 

2, 1851 



Jan. 
Oct. 
May 

Oct. 
Nov. 

June 



1, 1839 
6, 1853 

10, 1851 
18.54 

31, 1851 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1899 
March 23, 1952 
Jan. 1, 2000 
Oct. 5, 1919 
Jan. 1, 2000 



Sept. 



1, 1851! Nov. 



Aug. 

March 

April 



4, 1855 
1, 1851 



1, 1952 
1, 1951 



^une 7, 1954 



Jan. 



April 23, 1855 

April 2.5, 18.53 

Sept. 17, 1853 

Feb. 6, 1852 

Nov. 2-8, 1855 

May 11, 1854 



1, 18,53, Jan. 

2, 1851 1 April 
March 14, 1833 Jan. 
April 26, 1834, Jan. 
Feb. 25, 1859 



1, 1950 

1, 2053 

2, 1951 
1, 1863 
1,1864 



-March 29, 


1851 


Oct, 21, 
Feb. 9, 


1853 
1859 


Aug. 1, 


1854 




March 17, 


1857 





April 25, 
May 13, 
June 16, 


1856 
1859 
1845 





April 19,1853 

Aug. 12, 1852 

June 26, 1856 

.July 15, 1850 

June 25, 1856 

Jlarch 23, 1853 

Oct. 19, 1852 

July 5, 1853 

Aug. 12, 1852 

Dec. 18, 1854 

Aug. 1, 1838 

Sept. 29, 1851 

Nov. 4, 1852 

Dec. 30, 1856 



May 
June 

Sept. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
June 
July, 

March 

Feb. 

Dec. 

March 

July 

July 

May 

April 

March 

Jan. 

April 

Feb. 



8, 1855! May 
1,1853 July 

1.1853 [July 
2. 1852 1 Feb. 
1,18.55 Jan. 

1. 1854 Jan. 
1853 



31, 1851 

1853 

31, 1853 

16, 1859 

15, 1858 

1,1854 

18, 1836 

15, 1854 

12, 1857 

1855 

23, 1832 

27, 1866 



June 16, 1845 

Dec. 1843 

April 2, 1799 

March 6,1853 

AprU 22,1852 

July 1, 1856 

Aug. 1, 1850 

Aug. 20, 1856 

Jan. 1, 1853 

Aug. 30, 1852 

Sept. 2, 1853 

Aug. 10, 1852 

Jan. 1, 1855 

Aug. 1, 1838 

Aug. 28, 1851 

Dec. 1, 1852 

Jan. 2, 1857 



10, 1955 
1, 1953 
1, 1953 
3, 2352 
1, 1955 
1, 1954 



Jan. 


1, 


1950 


Jan. 


1, 


1900 


July 
Jan. 


1, 
1, 


1904 
1866 


March 12, 


1957 



June 1, 1862 
Feb. 27, 2356 

July 1, 1890 



Unlimited 

May 1, 1903 

July 1, 1952 

Jan. 1, 2000 

Jan. 1, 2000 

Aug. 20, 2856 

Jan. 1, 1953 

Aug. 30, 1951 

Jan. 1, 1953 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1952 
1, 1955 
1, 1938 
1, 1950 
1, 1950 
1, 1957 



II 



600 
150 
100 
130 
120 

150 
110 

200 

150 
110 
500 
200 
200 



200 
125 
125 

100 

1,000 

400 



600 
"206 

132 
200 

"256 

"eoo 

100 
200 

2,006 

250 

200 

200 
170 
125 

500 
650 
200 

200 

2,000 



140 
J50 
400 





^^ 




^8 




fes 


Present 
capital. 


■■£"^5 




S ?• 5J 




!%'5^ 




25 1. 




|W 




mm 


$600,000 


S. E. 


150,000 


S. E. 


200,000 


S. E. 


130,000 


S. E. 


150,000 


S. E. 


50,000 




112,000 


S. E. 


110,000 


S. 


200,000 


S.E. 


240,000 


S. 


110,000 


S.E. 


1,000,000 


s. 


200,000 




200,000 




25,000 


s. 


250,000 


s. 


125,000 


S. E. 


125,000 


S.E. 


100,000 


S.E. 


1,600,000 


S.E. 


400,000 


S.E. 


50,000 


S.E. 


500.000 


S.E. 


92.915 


S.E. 


2,000,000 


S.E. 


50,000 


S.E. 


122,000 


S. E. 


200,000 




40,850 


S.E. 


325,000 


S.E. 


39,200 


S.E. 


600,000 




100,000 


S.E. 


400,000 


S.E. 


4,'<,G09 


S.E. 


2,050,000 




150,000 




250,000 


S.E. 


495,000 


S.E. 


300,000 


S.E. 


186,000 


S.E. 


659,100 


S. 


1,000,000 


S. 


300,000 


S.E. 


300,000 


ri. 


2,000,000 


S. 


316,000 


s. 


140,000 


S.E. 


350,000 


S.E. 


400,000 


S. 



« Fulton Bank incorp. April 1, 1824; cap. $500,000; increased 
to $750,000 March 16, 1827 ; expired .March 1, 1844. 

i Greenwich Bank incorp. April 17, 1830 ; cap. $200,000 ; ex- 
pired June 6, 1853. 

e First incorp. March 29, 1830 ; cap. $100,000 ; increased to 
$150,000 April 16, 1832 ; e.xpired June 12, 1855. 

i Originally an individual bank. 

'First incorp. April 17, 1816; cap. $400,000, and located at 
Adams ; failed ; removed to Utica Nov. 19, 1824, and cap. re- 
duced to $100,000; increased to $200,000 May 19, 1836; once ex- 
tended ; expired Jan. 1, 1854. 

/Niagara River Bank, Buffalo, removed to Lockport, and 
name changed May 13, 1859. 



B First incorp. April 1, 1824; cap. $300,000; once extended; 
expired July 1, 1845. 

'' Begun under the name of Palmyra Bank; changed name 
March 31, 1857. 

* Chartered for supplying city with water, with perpetual 
banking privileges. 

3 Changed from Mechanics' Bank of Willittmsburgh, and cap. 
reduced April 15, 1858. 

* Mechanics' Bank first incorp. March 23, 1810 ; cap. $1,500,000 ; 
reduced to $1,440,000; once extended; expired Jan 1, 1865; 
State reserved right to take stock. 

J Under Chap. 183, laws of 1858 ; original cap. $128,175. 
"• First Incorp. March 22, 1811 ; cap. $600,000 ; reduced one- 
fourth April 4, 1820; once extended; expired Jan. \, 1853. 



94 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 
Existing Banks, continued. 



CoKPORATE Name. 



Medina Bank 

Mercantile Bank" 

Mercantile Bank of Platts- 

burgh 

Mercliants' Bank of Albany. 
Merchants' Bank of Erie 

County 

Merchants' Bank in the City 

of New York 

Merchants' Bank in Pough- 

keepsie 

Merchants' Bank 

Merchants' Bank of West- 
field 

Merchants' Exchange Bank 

in the City of New York' 
Merchants &Farmers"Bank 
Merchants & Mechanics" 

Bank of Troy 

Metropolitan Bank 

Middletown Bank 

Mohawk Bank of Scheuec- 

tady^ 

Mohawk River Bank 

Mohawk Valley Bank. 

Monroe County Bank 

Montgomery County Bank** 

Mutuil Bank 

Nassau Bank 

Nassau Bank of Brooklyn.. 
National Bank of "Albany... 
National Bank in the City 

of New York* 

New York County Bank of 

the City of New York 

New York Dry Dock Com- 
pany/. 

New York & Erie Banki'... 
New York Exchange Bank 

in the City of New York. 

New York State Bank* 

Niaffira County Bank. 

North River Bank in the 

City of New York* 

Ocean Bank in the City of 

New York 

Ogdensburgh Bank. 

Oneida Bank 

Oneida Central Bank 

Oneida County Bank 

Oneida Vallej' Bank 

Onondaga Bank 

Onondaga County Bank 

Oriental Bank 

Oswegatchie Bank 

Oswego Bank. 

Oswego River Bank 

Otsego County Bank> 

Pacific Bank 

Park Bank 

People's Bank of the City 

of New York 

Perrin Bank 

Phoenix Bank of the City 

of New York* 

Pulaski Bank , 

Quassaicli Bank 

Randall Bank 



Location. 



Medina , 

New York.. 



Plattsburgh . 
Albany 



Lancaster. , 



New York., 



Poughkeepsie.. 
Syracuse 



Westfield . 



New York.. 
Ithaca 



Troy 

New York 

S. Middletown.. 



Schenectady.. 

Fonda 

Mohav.'k 

Rochester 

Johnstown..., 

Troy 

New York 

Brooklyn 

Albany 



New York.. 

New York., 

New York., 
Buffalo 



New York., 

Albany 

Lockport..., 



New York.. 



New York 

Ogdensburgh., 

Utica 

Rome 

Utica 

Oneida 

Syracuse 

Syractise 

New York 

Ogdensburgh . 

Oswego 

Fulton 

Cooperstown ., 

New \''ork 

New York 



New York., 
Rochester.., 



New York , 

Pulaski 

Newburgh 

Cortlandville. 



t; w w 



1.1 



I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 



A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

0. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 



D.ATES 



Of heginning 
Of filing arti- i business or of 



cles. 



Jan. 8, 1850 

Jan. 24, 1S56 
Jan. 22, 1853 



Dec. 24, 1856 

Jan. 19, 1845 
Feb. 21, 1851 



.April 24,1849 
Oct. 24, 1838 

Dec. 15, 1853 
April 10. 1851 
May 17, 1839 

•Oct. 13, 1852 
Jan. 2. 1856 
ilarch 28, 1839 
May 26, 1857 
30, 1856 
3, 1853 
28. 1852 
28, 1859 
8. 1856 



act of incor- 
poration. 



May, 1854 

Jan. 8, 1850 

Jan. 1, 1856 
March 21, 1853 



May, 
Jan. 



1844 
2, 1857 



July 2. 1845 
Dec. 31, 1850 



April, 

June 
Oct. 



1853 

1, 1849 
15, 1838 



Dec. 15. 1853 
April 10; 1850 
July 1, 1839 



Dee. 
.Tan. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



Dec. 22, 1856 
June 25, 1855 



Jan. 
Jan. 
July 
May 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Jan. 

Jan. 

June 



1, 1853 

1, 1856 

1. 1S39 

23, 1857 

31, 1856 

1. 1853 

1, 1S52 

1'2, 1859 

16, 1856 

2, 1857 

1, 1855 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1950 

Jan. 1, 1956 
March 1, 1953 



Jan. 1, 1957 

July 1, 1895 
Dec. 31, 1950 



Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1899 
1, 2040 



.Tan. 1, 19.54 
Jan. 1, 1950 
May 1, 2130 



Aug. 12, 1852 



April 14,1851 

Oct. 

May 



April 12,1825 
Sept. 1, 1852 



April 21,1851 

26. 1850 Dec. 31, 18,50 

May 



7, 1856 
July 1, 1842 
Dec. 22, 1849 



Oct. 29, 1853 

May 2, 1853 

Sept. 27, 1852 

May 1, 1854 



July 
Oct. 



June 

Dec. 

April 

May 

Sept. 

May 

Sept. 

May 



1, 1856 

1,1842 

10, 1849 
30, 1829 
14, 1836 
19, 1853 
10, 1853 
22, 1852 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 

Sept. 
Jan. 
Sept. 
1, 1854 j May 



Jan. 

.Tan. . 

.Tan. 

May 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Nov. 



1, 1952 
1, 1956 
1, 2839 
23, 2557 
1, 1956 
1, 1953 
1, 1952 



Jan. 16, 1956 

Jan. 1, 1957 

June 1, 1955 

Unlimited 
Jan. 1, 2000 

Jan. 1, 1900 
Jan. 1, 19.50 
Before 2500 

Jan. 1, 1899 



1, 1950 
1, 1859 

1, 1866 
19, 2000 

2, 2500 
2, 1902 
1, 1954 



6, 1853 July 11, 1853 
3, 1854 1 Oct. 10,1854 
'March 14,1831 
Jan. 1, 1856 
Dec. 31, 1853 
June • 17, 1850 
March 1,1856 



Oct. 3, 1855 
Dec. 30, 1853 
Oct. 8, 1850 
March 12, 1856 

Feb. 27, 1851 



Dec. 27, 
Sept. 16, 
March 19, 



April 

Sept. 



1. 1851 
29, 1855 



18-53 Jan 

1853 

1852 



2, 1854 
Sept. 1, 1853 
March 19, 1852 
Aug. 1853 



July 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



11, 1953 
1, 1954 
1, 1859 

31, 1955 
1, 1954 
1, 1950 



March 1, 1956 
April 1, 1950 



Jan. 2, 1954 
Dec. 31, 1899 
Jan. 1, 1952 



.Ci"'3 

O g 



200 

100 
250 



1,500 

110 
135 



1,000 
150 

300 
250 
100 

125 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
500 

600 

1,500 

200 

200 
120 

250 
250 
200 

500 

500 
100 
400 
150 
125 
105 
150 

"306 
200 
150 
125 
200 
500 
2,000 

250 



1,200 
100 
130 



Present 
capital. 



$ 50,000 
1,000,000 

100,000 
400,000 

50,000 

2,638,975 

150,000 
180,000 

40,000 

1,235.000 
80,000 

300,000 

4,000,000 

125,000 

200,000 
100.000 
150,000 
100,000 
100,000 
234,500 
979,200 

600,000 

1,500,000 

200,000 

200,000 
300,000 

130,000 
350,000 
100,000 

316,000 

1,000,000 
100,000 
400,000 
173,500 
125,000 
105,000 
96,200 
150,000 
300,000 
200,000 
150,000 
114.500 
200,000 
422,700 

2,000,000 

412.500 
43,620 

1,800.000 

100,000 

300,000 

50,000 



aJM 



S.E. 
S. 

S. 

s. 

S.E. 

s. 
s. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. 

s. 

S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 

S.E. 
S. 



S. 
S. 

S.E. 

S. 

s. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 



S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 

s. 

S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 
S. 
S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 



« Successor to Bank of Ithaca. 

6 First incorp. April 29, 1829 : cap. S750,000. 

' Mohawk Bank incorp. March 13, 1807 ; cap. ,$200,000 ; allowed 
to reduce April 4, 1820 ; twice extended ; expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

<tjnat incorp. March 15, 1831 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 
1857. 

e National Bank incorp. April 30, 1829; cap. $1,000,000; ex- 
pired Jan. 1, 1857. 

/ Dock Co., with perpetual banking powers. 

f Removed from Dunkirk March, lS,i4. 

* First incorp. March 19, 1803: cap. .* 160.000; once extended; 
expired Jan. 1, 1851 ; State reserved right to take stock. 



•North River Bank incorp. March 23, 1821; cap. $500,000; 
expired July 1, 1842 ; judgment dissolving an injunction filed 
Sept. 25, 1858. 

'First incorp. April 8, 1830; cap. $100,000; expired Jan. 1, 
1854. 

* Incorp. June 15, 1812, cap. $1,000,000, as New' York Manu- 
facturing Co., for making wire and cards; amended Sept. 26, 
1814, with banking privileges to extent of $150,000 besides 
S.350.000 in manufecturing: changed to Phoenix Bank, Feb. 
2. 1817 ; once extended ; "expired Jan. 1, 1854 ; increased to 
$1,000,000 April 29, 1834, and reduced May 7, 1841. 



CORPORATIONS. 



95 



Existing Banks, continued. 



CoBPORATE Name. 



Rensselaer County Bank .... 

K.M.Goddard & Co.'s Bank 

Kocbester Bank 

Rochester City Bank 

Rome Exchange Bank 

St. Nicholas Bank 

Salt Spiinjis Bank 

Saratoga County Bank" 

Schenectady Bank 

Schoharie County Bank 

Seneca County Bank 

.Seventh Ward Bank 

Shoe & Leather Bank 

Smith's Bank of Perry 

Spraker Bank 

State Bank of Troy 

State of New York Bank.... 

Steuben County Bank 

Stissing Bank* 

Suffolk County Bank 

Susquehanna Valley Bank.. 

Syracuse City Bank 

Tanners' Bank 

Tompkins County Bank 

Tradesmen's Bank of the 
City of New York" 

Trailers' Bank of Rochester"* 

Troy City Bank 

Ulster County Bank 

Unadilla Bank 

Union Bank of Albany 

Union Bank of Kinder- 
hook 

Union Bank of the City of 
New York" 

Union Bank of Rochester... 

Union Bank of Sullivan 
County 

Union Bank of Troy 

Union Bank of Watertown.. 

Utica City Bank 

Wallkill Bank 

Washington County Bank.. 

Watertown Bank & Loan 
Company 

Waverly Bank 

Weedsport Bank 

Westchester County Bank.. 

West Winfield Bank 

White's Bank of Buffalo.... 

Williamsburgh City Bank.. 

Wooster Sherman's Bank... 

Worthington Bank 

Wyoming County Bank 



Location. 



•S « e 

lit 



Lansingburgh.. 

Canton 

Rochester 

Rochester 

Rome 

New Y'ork 

Syracuse 

Waterford 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Waterloo 

New Y'ork 

New York 

Perry 

Canajoharie 

Troy 

Kingston 

Bath 

Pine Plains 

Sag Harbor 

Binghamton.... 

Syracuse 

Catskill 

Ithaca 



New York.. 
Rochester .. 

Troy 

Kingston.... 
Una^iilla..., 
Albany 



Kinderhook.. 



New York., 
Rochester.., 



Monticello 

Troy 

Watertown 

Utica 

Middletown 

Union Village.. 



Watertown 

Waverly 

Weedsport 

PeeksklU 

West Winfield..., 

Buffalo 

Williamsbui'gh.. 

Watertown 

Cooperstown 

Warsaw 



A. 
I. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
I. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
C. 



C. 
C. 
I. 
A. 



A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
I. 
I. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 

cks. 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



Dec. 7, 1852 
March 31, 1854 



Feb. 18, 1851 

Nov. 25, 1852 

Feb. 4, 1852 

Nov. 28, 1856 



Dec. 30, 1852 



May 31, 1863 
May 20, 1852 
July 9, 1853 



June 8, 1858 



Jan. 
Dec. 



31, 1855 
21, 1849 



Dec. 2-8, 1854 
June 1, 1869 



June 8, 1863 
June 23, 1853 



Dec. 
Jan. 



21, 1852 
20, 1863 



March 3, 1851 
Jan. 20. 1851 
14, 1852 
30, 184S 
9, 1857 



Jan. 
April 
April 
[May 
Feb. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
April 
April, 
March 12 
April 30, 
Dec. 3 
Sept. 
June 
April 
Sept. 
March 
May 
April, 
Jan. 
Oct. 
March 14, 
May 14 

Jan. 

April 19. 
March 14 
July, 
July 4, 

June 23, 

Dec. 22. 
March 1 

March 1 



June 
Aug. 
June 



March 8,1839 

Jan. 21, 1839 
Aug. 20, 1855 
July 12, 1854 



March 10, 1854 
April 9, 1853 
Feb. 25, 1852 



Jan. 

July, 

Sept. 

Aug. 

July 

Jan. 

Aug. 

July 

March 

Feb. 

April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Nov. 



1853 
1859 
1854 
1836 
1851 
1852 
1852 



Of expiration 
of charter 
privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1953 



Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Nov. 

Jan. 
1855 1 Dec. 
18.'?2|jan. 

18621 

18.33 Jan. 
1833 Jan. 
1852! Dec. 

1858 

1853 'June 

1852 [Jan. 

1853 [Sept. 
1832 1 Jan. 
1858 i Jan. 
1844 
1855 
1849 
1831 
1836 



1, 19,')4 
1, 1866 
1, 1951 
16, 1952 
3, 1952 
1, 1956 
1, 1862 



1. 1863 

1, 1863 

2, 1952 



1, 1953 
1, 2000 
5, 1893 
1, 1862 
1, 1900 



1855 

1833 
1831 
1844 
1853 

1853 

1852 
1853 



Jan. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



9. 1955 

26, 1949 

1,1860 

1, 1866 



Jan. 1, 1950 



Jan. 
June 



1, 1863 
1, 1861 



July 

Jan. 

.T.in. 
Jan. 



1851 Jan. 
1851 'Jan. 



2852 
1848 
1857 
1839 



1839 
1855 
1854 
1833 
18.i4 
1853 
4,1852 
1841 
1854 
1851 



July 
Jan. 
Aug. 
lu year 



4, 1953 

1, 1900 

1, 1952 
1, 1953 

1, 1899 

1. 1951 

1. 1952 
1, 1898 
3, 1957 

2050 



Jan. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



1, 2839 
6, 1955 
1, 1954 
1, 1863 
16, 2354 
In year 2000 
Feb. 4, 1952 



5£ 

H 

•O eg 



200 

100 
400 
100 
500 
125 
100 
160 

"206 
500 
600 

"166 
250 
100 
150 
120 

"106 
100 
100 
250 

800 

300 
100 

'256 

125 

1,000 
400 

110 
250 
100 
125 
125 
100 

100 
100 
100 
200 
100 
100 
200 





OS'S 




li'S 




^■5 




^; "- 


Present 


CO'* 


capital. 




•C ?=S 




?S^ 




^.y 1 




|K 




oioi 


) 200,000 


S.E. 


200,000 


S.E. 


400,000 




100,000 


S.E. 


750,000 


S. 


200.000 


S.E. 


160,000 


S.E. 


150,000 




100,000 


S.E. 


200,000 




500,000 




1,600,000 


S. 


50,000 


S.E. 


100,000 


S.E. 


250,000 


S.E. 


125,000 


S. 


150,000 




60,000 


S.E. 


20,000 


S. 


100,000 


S.E. 


160,250 


S.E. 


100,000 




250,000 




800,000 


S. 


300,000 




100.000 




125,650 


S E. 


500,000 


S. 


200,000 


S.E. 


1,500,000 


S. 


600,000 


S.E. 


150,000 


S.E. 


300,000 


S.E. 


187,900 


S.E. 


200,000 


S.E. 


126,000 


S. 


200,000 


S.E. 


100.000 


S.E. 


106,100 


S.E. 


100,000 


S.E. 


200,000 




125.000 


S.E. 


200.000 


S.E. 


600,000 


S. 


50.000 


S.E. 


50,000 


S.E. 


50,000 


S.E. 



a First incorp. March 29, 1830 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 
1857. 

' Successor to Pine Plains Bank. 

« Tradesmen's Bank incorp. March 29, 1823 ; cap. §600,000 ; re- 
duced to $400,000 March 26, 1827 ; once ext. ; exp. Jan. 1, 1865. 



^ Formed by the consolidation of the Manufacturers' Bank 
and the Eagle Bank by special act of 1S59. 

"Union Bank incorp. March 8, 1811; cap. $1,800,000; ones 
extended ; expired Jan. 1, 1853 ; successor to Jersey Bank, in- 
corp. by State of New Jersey. 



Obsolete and Closing Banks. 

(Those marked with a * are redeemed by the Banking Department.) 



Naue. 



Adams Bank. 



Bank 



.?} 



♦Agricultural 
1 Herkimer... 

Allegany County Bank 

[Aqueduct Association in I 
[ Tillage of Catskill / 



Location, 



Ashford., 



Herkimer . 

Angelica..., 
Catskill .... 



•S'« 
S'g 



<^<\-i 



A. 

I. 
C. 



Date of charter 
(tr beginning 
of business. 



Aug. 



1860 



Jan. 11, 1839 

May 13, 1840 
April 21,1818 



Capital. 



$ 100,000 






iS 2 



Par .. 

S. 36 



Eemarks. 



Redemption expires June 2, 1860. 
Geo. Jones, N. Y. 

(Failed Jure 4, 1858. Red. at 
■} New York State Bank, Al- 

( bany. 

/Changed to Greene County 
\ Bank Feb 5, 1819. 



96 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 


Location. 


G.— Chartered. 
A. — Associate. 
1. — Individual. 


Date of charier 
or beginning 
of business. 


Capital. 


*i S S aj 1 2 


Hemarks. 






I. 

A. 
I. 
I. 

A. 
I. 

A, 
C. 
I. 
C. 

A. 
I. 
A. 
C. 

I. 

A. 
C. 
A. 

C. 
I. 

C. 

C. 
A. 
C. 

I 

C. 
A. 
I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 

A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 

A. 

A. 
C. 
I. 

A. 
C. 

A. 
A. 

C. 

C. 

C. 
A. 
1. 
A. 

I. 
1. 


June, 1847 

June 2, 1852 

June, 1847 

1844 

Sept. 26, 1839 
April, 1847 

Nov. 13, 1839 
March 14, 1831 
July, 1852 
March 6,1793 

Aug. 27, 1839 
June, 1848 
March 1, 1856 
March 25, 1808 

Sept. 1847 

Jan. 8. 1839 
May 14, 1836 
March 31, 1851 

April 22,1829 
Jan. 1846 

April 29,1829 

April 17,1816 
Feb, 13, 1840 
April 30,1834 
Sept. 1852 
April 7, 1817 
Feb. 19, 1824 
Dec. 15, 1838 
March, 1852 

May 25, 1853 

Aug. 13, 1838 
Jan. 1, 1839 

April 7, 1817 
Jan. 1, 18.39 
July 4, 18.38 
AprU 30,1829 
Dec. 26, 1838 

Aug. 16. 1847 
Jan. 27, 1848 

May 2, 1829 
Apnl 10,1839 

Jan. 23, 1840 

Jan. 17, 1853 
AprU 21,1824 
Sept. 14,1855 

Jan. 8, 1839 
May 21, 1836 

March 10, 1839 
Feb. 10, 1840 

AprU 26,1834 

April 28,1834 

May 19, 1836 
Sept. 30, 18.39 
Sept. 1848 
May 12, 1852 

Oct 1846 
Aug. 1847 


$ 200,000 
100,000 


Par 


Closing. Red. by Henry Keep 

unta Nov. 16, 1861. 
Closing. 
Failed 1847. 
Red. by Geo. Jones. N. Y., until 

Sept. 14, 1861. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red. by H. B. Bennett 

untU March 26, 1863. 
Failed. 
Failed. 

Closed. Red. untU April 29. 1863. 
FaUed 1829. Twice extended. 

F.aUed. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 7, 1862. 
Closing. Originally individual. 
Failed 1820. Allowed office of 

discount at CatskUl. 
Closing. Red. untU March 21, 

1S62. 
Failed. 
Failed. 
Scarcely began business. Got 

one plate engraved. 
Charter expired Jan. 1, 1850. 
Failed Oct. 1, 1851. Time expired 

for redemp. Jan. 8, 1859. 
Charter expired Jan. 1, 1850. 

Removed to N. Y., and now 

Mercantile Bank of New York. 
FaUed 1825. 
Failed. 

Failed. Elizur Hart receiver. 
Closing. Red. untU Oct. 28, 1862. 
Failed 1825. 

Charter expired July 1847. 
Failed 184U. 
Closing. Red. untU June 2, 1864. 

Closing. 

Closed 1843. 

Failed 1825. 

FaUed. 

Failed. 

Charter expired June 13, 1859. 

FaUed. 

Failed. Jno. A. Stewart receiver. 

Closing. Red. by Edwin Rock- 
well unta Jan. 1. 1864. 

FaUed July 11, 1848. 

Closing. (See Rep. Comp. 1848. 
p. 70.) 

FaUed. 

Failed. 

Charter expired. Merged in 
Chemical Bank. 
Failed March 23, 1858. Red. by 

Bank Dept. until Sept. 23, 

1864. 
Failed in 1840. 
Failed 1839. (See Comp. Rep. 

1848, p. 75.) 
Closed 1841. 
FaUed 1844. 

Failed. 

FaUed. 

FaUed. 

Closing. Red. untU Dec. 2, 1859. 
Changed to Central City Bank 

Feb. 3, 1857. 
Closing. (See Rep. Comp. 1848, 

p. 75.) Red. untU Nov. 16, 

1861. 
Closing. Red. until Aug. 25, 

1861. 






Atlas Bank of New York... 




S. 97, S. ^. 75 
Par 




Bank of America at Buffalo . 
Rank of Bainbridsre 


Buffalo 


S.76, S. E.78 


Peun Yan >.. 




150.000 
200,000 

"160,000 

100,000 


80 

P.-ir 


Bank of Buffalo 


Buffalo 






Bank of Columbia 




Bank of Commerce of Buf- 
falo 


Buffalo .. 


S.76 


Bank of the Empire State.. 
"i-Bank of Ilornellsville 






Hornellsville 


100,000 
300,000 

100.000 
200.000 
100,000 

300,000 

200,000 

400,000 
100,000 
200,000 


Par 






Buffalo 




Bank of Lodi 


Lodi, (Seneca CO.,) 
Lyons 


S. 8.3, S. E. 97 
Par 


Bank of Lvons 


Bank of the Metropolia 








Par 

S.par,S.E.81 

Par 


Bank of New Rochelle 






Bank of Niagara 


Buffalo 




Bank of Olean 


Olean 


S.87, S. E.74 


Bank of Orleans 








Par 


Bank of Plattfiburo-h 


Plattsburgh 


300,000 
250.000 
100,000 




Bank of Rochester 


Par 




Wheaffield 


S. 68 


Bank of the Union 


Bplfa«it 


Par 


*Bank of the Union in the 
City of New York 




300,000 

200.000 
100,000 

400,000 
100.000 
180.000 
100,000 
100,000 

300.000 
112,650 

300.000 
200,000 

100,000 

300,000 
400,000 

1,000,000 
400,000 

100,000 
100,000 

400,000 

500,000 

250.000 
100,000 


Par 


Bank of the United States 




Par 


Bank of Warsaw 






Bank of Washington & 
Warren 


SflTidv TTill 


Bank of Waterford 






Bank of Western New York. 
Bank of Whitehall 




S. 75 


Whitehall 




Binghamton Bank 


Bingbamton 


S. 75, S. E.74 
Par 




Camden Bank 




Par 


Canal Bank 




40 


*Ganal Bank of Lockport... 

Cattaraugus County Bank. 

*Central Bank of the City 

of New York 


Locknort . 


Par 


Randolph 


S. 84, S. E. 77 
Par 


New York 


Chemical Manufacturing 1 

Co J 

Chemung County Bank 

Chelsea Bank. 


New York 


Par 


Horseheads 

New York 


Par 


25 


City Bank of Buffalo 


Buffalo 




City Trust & Banking Co... 




Par 






Commercial Bank of Buf- 
falo 


Buffalo 




Commercial Bank of New 
York 


New York 




Commercial Bank of Os- 

VPecro 


Osweffo 


Par 


Cortland County Bank 

Cortland County Bank 

Crouse Bank. 


'Truxton 


Cincinnatus 

Svracus© 


100,000 


Par . 




EUenburgh 

Lockport 


Par 


Commercial Bank 


Par 











CORPORATIONS. 



97 



Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



N&ME. 



Commercial Bank, Al!e-1 

gany County / 

Clinton County Bank 

*Dairymen'8 Bank 

Delaware k Hudson Canal ) 

Co j 

Dutchess County Bank 

Dutchess County Bank 

Drovers' Bank of St. Law- 1 

renceCounty J 

Dunkirk Bank 

Eagle Bank 

Eagle Bank of Kochester... 

Eighth Avenue Bank 

♦Empire City Bank. 

Erie County Bank 

Excelsior Bank 

♦Exchange Bank of Buffalo. 

•Exchange Bank of Genesee 

Exchange Bank of Roches- 
ter 

Farmers' Bank of Ovid 

Farmers' Bank of Hamilton 
County 

Farmers" Bank of Geneva.. 

Farmers' Bank of Malone.. 

Farmers' Bank of Mina 

*F<ti mers' Bank of Onon- \ 
daga J 

Farmers' Bank of Orange ) 
Countj' J 

Farmers' Bank of Orleans.. 

Farmers' Bank of Penn 
Van 

Farmers' Bank of Seneca 
County 

Farmers & Drovers' Bank 
of Erie County 

Farmers & Mechanics' 
Bank of Ogdensburgh 

Farmers & Mechanics' 
Bank of Onondaga 

Franklin Bank of Chau- 
tauqua County 

Franklin Bank 

Franklin County Bank 

Farmers' Bank of Saratoga 
County 

Freemen's Bank of Wash- 
ington County 

Genesee Central Bank 

Globe Bank 

Globe Bank in the City of 
New York 

Greene County Bank 

'''Hamilton Exchange \ 
Bank of Greene J 

Hartford Bank 

II. J. Miner's Sank of Utica. 

Henry Keep's Bank 

*Hollister Bank of Buffalo.. 

Howard Trust & Banking 

Co 

Hudson River Bank 

♦Island City Bank 

Ithaca Bank 

James Bank 

Kinderhook Bank 

Knickerbocker Bank 

Knickerbocker Bank of| 
the City of New York / 

Kirkland Bank 

'.a Favette Bank 



Location. 



Friendship... 

Plattsburgh 
Newport 



New York , 

Poughkeepsie.. 
Amenia 



Ogdensburgh., 

Dunkirk 

New York 

Rochester 



New York . 
New York . 



Buffalo 

Meridian.., 
Buffalo.... 



Batavia.. 



Rochester , 
Ovid 



Arietta. 
Geneva . 
Malone . 
Mina — 



Onondaga Valley, 



Warwick.. 
Gaines .... 



Penn Y^an 

Romulus 

Buffalo 

Ogdensburgh , 
Fayetteville.... 



French Creek . 

New York 

Malone 



Crescent. 



Hebron 

Attica 

Seneca Falls.. 



New York., 
Catskill...., 

Greene 



Hartford . 
Fredonia... 



Watertown.. 
Buffalo , 



Troy 

New York . 
New York.. 



Ithaca 

Jamesville... 
Kinderhook. 
Genoa 

New York ... 

Clinton 

New York ... 



V c s- 

1.1.7 



I. 

c. 

A. 



C. 

C. 
I. 



I. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
I. 
I 



I. 
A. 

I. 
A. 
I. 
I. 

I. 

I. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

I. 
C. 
I. 



I. 
A. 
I. 

A. 
C. 



I. 
I. 

I. 

A. 



A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
I. 
I. 



I. 
0. 



Date nf Charter 
or beginning 
of business. 



July, 

May 

Nov. 



1847 

18. 1836 
1,1855 



Nov. 19, 1824 



April 
Aug. 

Dec. 

July, 
April 
March 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Sept. 
Feb. 
April, 



12, 1825 
1849 

1843 

1851 

5, 1839 

27, 1852 

1, 1853 

1, 1852 

1, 18.18 
1851 
1844 



Jan. 8, 1849 



Oct. 
Oct. 

April, 
July 
Oct. 
May, 

July, 

Aug. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

April 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Aug. 



April 

Aug. 



31, 1839 
6, 1838 

1850 

18, 18.39 

1844 

1847 

1852 



1842 
29, 1838 

20, 1839 

20, 1839 

1843 

28, 1843 

24, 1839 

1847 

21, 1818 

1846 



April 1, 1851 



Oct. 
Dec. 
Dec. 

April 
Feb. 

Aug. 

.Tune, 
Feb. 

Sept. 

Feb. 



1850 
11, 1838 
23, 1839 

11, 1840 
5, 1819 

1850 

1849 
1850 

1847 

1, 1850 



April 16,1839 
Dec. 6, 1S38 
June 1, 1854 



31, 1838 

7, 1839 

25, 1839 

1848 

1, 1851 



Dec. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Sept. 

Oct. 

Dec. 1845 

April 18,1834 



Capital. 



$200,000 
100,000 



600,000 
150,000 



100.000 
200,000 

100,000 

500,000 

100,000 

100,000 

160,006 
166,666 



200,000 
100,000 
100,000 

100,000 
250,000 

'566,666 
200,000 

"166,606 
100,000 



25,000 



100,000 



100,000 
100,000 
300,000 

250,000 
106,000 



200,000 

"566,'666 



ill 



S5 g c t 

*c '.Is. 
a; s -3 05 g 3 



Par , 



Par. 



Par . 

Par . 
Par , 



S. E. 94... 
Par 



S.62,8.E.72 

Par 

Par 



Par , 



Par , 



Par , 



Par , 
85..., 



Par 

S.par,S.E.74 



Par . 
Par , 
Par , 



Par , 



84..., 

Par , 
Par , 

Par , 

Par , 

Par , 
Par. 



91. 



Par , 
Par , 
Par , 



Semarks. 



(Closing. Red. until July 2 

\ 1862. 

Failed. 

Failed May 1858. Red. at New 

York State Bank at Albany 

until Nov 6, 18G4. 
f Banking privilege expired 
t Nov. 19, 1844. 
Charter expired July 1, 1845. 
Closing. Ked.untirNov.6,1863 
j Closed. Removed from Catta- 
\ raugus CO. 
Closed. 
Failed. 
Merged in the Traders' Bank of 

Rochester June, 1859. 
Failed Nov. 1854. Red. at Bank 

Dept. 
Failed. Red. at North River 

Bank. 
Failed. 

Closing. Red.untilNov.16,1861. 
Failed. Red. at Albany City 

Bank. 
Closing. Removed from Alex- 
ander June 24, 1860. 

Closed. 



Closing. Red. until July 16, 1863. 

Closed. Worthless. 

Closing. Red. until Mar. 9, 1864. 

Failed May 18.53. Red. at 

Bank Dept. at 85 until Nov. 

12, 1859. 

f' Closed 184.3.. Worthless. (See 

1 Comp. Rep. 1844, p. 01.) 

Failed. Worthless. 

Closed 1843. 

Failed 1840. 

Failed 1846. Worthless. 

Closed. 

Closed 1841. 

Closing. Red. until Aug.25, 1861. 
Failed 18.30. 
Closed 1852. 

Still redeeming its own notes. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 2, 1861, 

Failed. 



FaUed 1826. 
f Redeemed at Bank Dept. at 84 
I until June 23, 1864. 
Closing. Red.untilJulyl4,1862. 
Closing. Still redeems its own 

notes. 
Closing. Red. until Sept. 17, 

1859. 
Failed. Red. at Commercial 

Bank at Albany. 

Closed 1844. 

Failed Oct. 1857. Red. at Man- 
hattan Co. until April 22, 1864. 

Failed Oct. 1, 1851. Wo rthless. 

Closing. Red.untaNov.16,1861. 

J Failed. Red. at North River 

t Bank. 

Closing. Red. until June 3, 1863. 

Failed. 



98 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Leland Bank 

Le Roy Bank of Genesee ... 

Lewis County Bank 

Livingston County Bank... 

Lockport Bank 

Lockport Bank & Trust Co. 

Lumberman's Bank 

*Luther Wright's Bank 

Mclntyre Bank 

Madison Co. Bank 

Manliattan Exchange Bank 

Manufacturers' Bank of 
Ulster Co 

Manufacturers' Bank of 1 
Rochester / 

Mechanics' Bank 

Mechanics' Bank of Buffalo 

Mechanics' Bank of 
liamsburgh . 

Mechanics & Farmers' Bank 

Mercantile Bank of Schenec- 
tady 

Merchants' Bank 

Merchants' Bank of Ontario 
County 

Merchants' Banking Co 

Merchants' Exchange Bank 
of Buffalo 

Merchants & Farmers'Bank 

♦Merchants & Mechanics' 
Bank of Oswego 



New Lebanon... 

Le Roy 

Martinsburgh.. 

Geueseo 

Lockport , 

Lockport 

Wilmurt 

Oswego 

Adirondac 

C'azenovia 

New York 



Wil-) 



Location. 



Sangerties... 

Rochester... 

Watertown. 
Buffalo 



Williamsburgb. 
Ithaca 



Schenectady . 
Mina 



Naples 

New York.. 



Buffalo. 
Carmel. 



North Granville. 



New York Manufacturing \ 

Co ; 

New York City Trust & 
Banking Co 

New Yorlc Security Banlc 

New York Stock Bank 

*New York State Stock) 
Security Bank / 

*Now York Traders" Bank \ 
of Washington Co J 

Niagara River Bank" 



North American Bank.... 
North American Trust 

Banking Co 

Northern Bank of New 

York 

Nortliern Exchange Bank.. 

Northern Canal Bank 

North River Banking Co... 
*01iver Leo & Company's \ 

Bank j 

Onondaga County Bank 

Ontario Bank 



Middle District Bank [ Ponghkeepsie . 

Millers' Bank of New YorkCIyde 

*Monro6 Bank of Rochester Cuba.. 

New York Banking Co 

New York Bank of Saratoga 
New York City Bank 



J- o .^ 
0-<i-i 



New York.. 

Hadley 

New Y'ork.. 

New York.. 



New York.., 
Hope Falls.. 
Durham 

New York.., 



North Granville. 
Buffalo , 



New York., 
New Y'ork., 



Ontario Bank, (President 

and Directors of) 

♦Ontario County Bank... 



Oswego County Bank. 



Madrid 

Brasher Falls. 

Fort Ann 

New York 

Buff'alo 

Syracuse 



Canandaigua . 



Utica..., 
Phelps . 



Palmyra Bank of Wayne ') 

County J 

Pachiu iBank 



Phoenix Bank 

Phoenix Bank at Buffalo., 
♦Pine Plains Bank 



Meridian , 

Palmyra.. 
Buffalo... 



Bainbridge .. 

Buffalo 

Pine Plains., 



I. 
A. 
C. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 

I. 

A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 

I. 

A. 

A. 
I. 



C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
A. 



I. 
I. 
I. 



I. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 
I. 
I. 
A. 



A. 
C. 



Date of charter 
or beginning 
of business. 



July, 

Jan. 

April 

April 

April 

Oct. 

March. 

March 

Sept. 

March 

April 



1S52 
1, 1839 

30, 1833 
7, 1830 

22, 1829 

31, 1838 
1851 

28, 1846 

1847 

14, 1831 

1, 1839 



Sept. 10, 1840 

July 28, 1856 

Sept. 1851 

Jan. 25, 1839 

March 1,1853 

Oct. 24, 1838 



March 26, 
Feb. 

March 
Sept. 4. 

Sept. 20, 
Oct. 



July 

March 22. 
Dec. 1, 
Oct. 

March 23, 
Feb. 
May 6, 



1839 

1847 

1846 
1839 

1838 
1845 

1852 

1811 
1838 
1852 
1839 
1851 
1840 



Sept. 26, 1814 



Aug. 
June 



1848 
1846 



Nov. 30, 1838 

Sept. 18.51 

March 16, 1853 

Oct. 21, 1839 
Nov. 6, 1838 



Fob. 
July 
Aug. 
Dec. 



1847 

1847 

1848 

4, 1839 



Jan. 1, 1844 



.Tan. 



A. 

I. 



I. 
A. 

I. 
A. 

A. 



1, 1854 



March 12, 1813 



Dec. 

Nov. 



Oct. 

Dec. 
Oct. 



29, 1855 
1855 



1849 

1843 
1, 1847 



Capital. 



June 1850 

Oct. 30, 1839 
March 9, 1839 



i 100.000 
100.000 
100,000 
100,000 
500,000 

'360,606 
"i6o,'6o6 

300,000 



200,000 

i6'6,'6o6 



100,000 
100,000 

1,006,666 

200,000 



200,000 
300,000 

166,666 
'260,666 

150,000 



?1- 



s 



« = I. I. 

^■2-2 • 



104,000 

100,000 
2,000,000 



100,000 

100,000 

150,000 
500,000 



500,000 






Par , 



Par , 



Par , 
Par , 
Par , 
Par , 
Par , 



Par 



Par 

S. E. 63. 



Par , 
Par 



S. 81,S. E.65 
Par 



S. Par, S.E.94 

Par , 

S. 42 

Par 



Remarks. 



Par 



100,000 



500,000 
100,000 



Par , 
Par , 
Par , 

Par 



Par 



Par 
Par 



Closing. Red. untU July 16, 1864. 

Failed Nov. 4, 1854. 

Charter expired July 1, 1855. 

Charter repealed Mav 15, 1837. 

Closing. Red. until Nov. 12, 1863, 

Closing. Red. untU Oct. 24, 1861, 

Closing. 

Clo.sing. Red. until Feb. 27, 1861, 

Charter expired Jan. 1, 1858. 



Closed. 

f Merged in The Traders' Bank 
I of Rochester June, 1859. 

Closing. Red. until Sept. 2.3, 1861. 

FaUed. 

f Changed to Manufacturers' 
\ Bank of Brooklyn, 1858. 



Closed 1844. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 17, 1861, 

Closed. 
Closed. 

Failed 1840. 

Closing. Red. until May 30, 1862 
Failed March 1854. Red. at 

Bank Dept. at 77 until Sept. 

28, 1860. 
Failed 1829. 
Failed 1840. 
Closing. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red. until April 1,1862. 

(Merged in Phcenix Bank Feb. 
21, 1817. Incorp. June 15, 
1812, for manufacturing 
cards and wire. 

Closed 1840. 

Closing. Red. until Aug. 16, 1864, 

Closing. Red. until July 19, 1862. 
f Closing. Red. at New Y'ork 
1 State Bank, Albany. 
/Closing. Red. at New Y^ork 
\ State Bank, Albany. 

Removed to Lockport May 13. 
1859, and name changed to 
Lockport City Bank. 

Closed 1841. 

Failed. 

Closing. Red. until Nov. 1,1860 
Closing. Red. until March 1,1862 



Par Closing. Red. untU Oct. 13, 1862 



Par , 



Par 



Par 



Par 



S. E. 73., 
Par 



/Failed. Red. ot Albany City 

I Bank. 

Closed. 

Charter expired Jan. 1, 1856. 
Allowed to establish Branch 
at Utica AprillO, 1815, and this 
continued until charter ex- 
pired as Ontario Branch Bank 
of Utica. 

Failed. E. A. Wotmore, receiver. 
Failed March, 1858. "Red. at 

Union Bank, Albany, until 

Aug. 11, 1864. 
Closing. (1854.) Red. until Sept 

5, 1860. 
/Changed to Lyons Bank March 
1 31, 1867. 
Closed. Red. by A. D. Patchm 

until Feb. 28, 1862. 
Closed. 

Failed. Red. until Sept. 2, 1863. 
Failed April 1858. Reorganized 

as Stissing Baivk. 



" Removed from Tonawanda, Sept. 24, 1857. 



CORPORATIONS. 



99 



Savings Ilauks arc institutions intended to receive in trust small sums of money, generally 
the surplus earnings of the laboring classes, and to return the same with moderate interest at a future 
time. They are banks of deposit only ; their officers serve without pay, and the money received 
on deposit can be invested only in mortgages upon real estate, public stocks, or such other securities 

Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Powell Bank 

*Pratt Bank of Buffalo 



Prattsville Bank 

Putnam County Bank.. 



Pntnam Valley Bank. 

Queen City Bank 

Reciprocity Bank 



Sacketa Harbor Bank . 



St. Lawrence Bank 

State Bank of New York... 
Silyer Lake Bank of Genesee 

*State Bank at Sacketa \ 
Harbor j 

*State Bank at Saiigerties.. 

Staten Island Bank 

♦Suffolk Bank 

Sullivan County Bank 

Tenth Ward Bank 

Troy Exchange Bank 

Union Bank at Buff;ilo 

United States Bk. at Buffalo 
Valley Bank of Boonville... 



Valley Bank of Lowrille., 



Village Bank 

♦Walter Joy's Bank.. 



Warren County Bank.. 

Washington Bank in 

City of New York .... 

Water vliet Bank 



the 



Wavne County Bank 

*White Plains Bank 

Western Bank of Suffolk 

County 

Williamsburgh Bank .... 

Willoughby IJank 

Wool Growers' Bank of the 

State of New York 

Yates County Bank 



Location. 



Newburgh . 
Buffalo 



Prattsville 

Farmers' Mills . 

Putnam Valley.. 

Buff.ilo 

Buffalo 



Buffalo., 



Ogdensbnrgh . 

Buffalo 

Perry 



Sackets Harbor... 



Saugerties 

Port Hichmond. 

New York 

Monticello 

New York 

Troy 

Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Boonville 



Lowville.. 



Randolph. 
Buffalo 



Johnsburgh.. 



New York.. 
West Troy . 



Palmyra.. 

Naples.... 



S. Huntington... 
Williamsburgh.. 
Brooklyn 



New York. 
Penn Yan. 



fc-2:a 
2 g-S 
111 



A. 
1. 

I. 
A. 

I. 
I. 
C. 



A. 
A. 
A. 

I. 

I. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 



I. 

I. 
I. 



A. 
C. 

C. 
I. 

I. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
C. 



Date nf charter 
or beginning 
of business. 



Dec. 

Oct. 

Aug. 
Nov. 



27,1838 

1847 

184,3 

22, 1848 



May, 1849 

Sept. 1853 

March 6, 1857 



April, 28,1834 



.Tan. 
Oct. 
Jan. 

May, 

April, 

Oct. 

July 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Dec. 



8, 18,39 

15, 1839 

5, 1839 

1852 

1817 

29, 1838 

1, 18.'i2 

18.50 

1, 1838 

1, 1838 

10, 1839 

13, 1838 



Aug. 

Juno, 
Fib. 

Dec. 

July 
May 

April 
June, 

.Tune, 

Jan. 

Nov. 

Jan. 
April 



1851 

1848 
1848 

1845 

18, 18.",9 
21, 1836 

30, 1829 
1844 

18.50 

12, 1839 

1, 1839 

12, 1839 
2, 1831 



Capital. 



$130,000 

"100,006 

200,000 
200,000 



100,000 
100.000 
100,000 



100.000 
100,000 

io'o'.ooo 

100,000 
100.000 
100,000 



125,000 
250,000 

100,000 



100,000 
100,000 

100,000 
100,000 



s 5 y a i' 
5 a S » e 

~ 'c I .a 3 

r^ l.l.^ 

(^ C -.S C5 S S 



Par 
94.... 



Par . 
Par . 

Par 
Par 



S.32, S.E.50 
S. 31 



Par 



Par 

S. E. 50., 

Par 

Par 

S. 94 



S. 81 

S. E. 77. 
Par 



Par 

Par 
Par 

Par 



65, 35, & Par. 



Par 

Par 
Par 
Par 



Remarlct. 



Closing. Red. its own notes. 
Failed Feb. 1858. Red. at Bank 

Dept. at 94. 
Closing. Red. until Dec. 1.5, 1860. 
Closing. Red. by David Kent 

until Oct. 1863. 
Closing. 

Closing. Red. until Feb. 10, 1863. 
Changed from Sackets Harbor 

Bank March 6, 1851. Failed. 

Receiver app. Aug. 27, 1857. 
Removed from SacUeLs Harbor 

March 25, 1862. Changed to 

Reciprocity Bank 1857. 
Failed Dec. 3, 1841. 
Failed. 

("Failed Nov. 1, 1856. Red. at 
< Union Bank, Albany, until 

{ Nov. 11, 1802. 
Closing. 
Failed. 
Closing. 

Closing. Red. until Aug. 21, 1860. 
Failed 1840. 

Failed. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red.by E. N. Merriam 

of Ogdensburgh, until March 

20, 1863. 
Removed to Boonville. See 

above. 
Closing. Red. until June 3, 1859. 
Failed 1850. Red. at Mechanics 

& B'armers' Bank, Albany. 
Closing, lied, until Nov. 12, 1859. 

Failed 1843. 

Failed. (See Comp. Rep. 1848, p. 

77. 
Closed. 
Closing. 

Closing. Red. until June 17, 1862. 

Closed. 

Closed 1840. 



Par Closed 1841. 

Failed 184S. (See Comp. Rep. 
1S49, p. 35.) 



Savings Banks in the State, Jan. 1, 1859. 



Name. 



Albany City Savings Institution 

Albany Exchange Savings Bank 

Albany Savings Bank 

Auburn Savings Institution 

Bank fur Savings in the City of New York 

Bloomingdale Savings Bank 

Bowery Savings Bank 

Broaflway Savings Institution 

Brockport Savings Bank 

Brooklyn Savings Bank 

Buffalo Savings Bank 

Central City Savings Institution 

Central Savings Bank of Troy 

Cohoes Savings Institution 

Commercial Savings Bank of Troy 

Dry Dock Savings Institution 

East River Savings Institution 

Elmira Savings Bank 

Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank 



Location. 



Albany 

Albany 

Albany 

Auburn.... 
New York,. 
New Yorlc. 
New York.. 
New Y^ork.. 
Brockport . 
Brooklyn... 

Buffalo 

Utisa 

Troy 

Cohoes 

Troy 

New York., 
New York. 

Elmira 

New York.. 



Date nf 
incorporation. 



March 

April 

March 

March 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

April 

May 

June 

April 

April 

April 

April 



29. 1850 
18, 1856 
24, 1820 
12, 1S49 
26, 1819 
17, 1854 
1, 1.S.34 
20, 1851 
18, 1853 
7, 1827 
9, 1.S46 
20, 1851 
15, 1857 
11, 1851 
12, 1.S55 
12, 1848 



Amount 

due. 
depositors. 



April 
April 



17. 1854 
10, 1850 



I 168,181 

27,987 

998,924 

71,235 

8,701,923 

56,300 

7,818,143 

841,346 

2,439 

2,660,981 

872,081 

28,431 

25.712 

34.734 

60.031 

1,11.S,876 

785,782 

1.973 

1.628.754 



Resources. 



$ 168,181 

27,987 

1,049,804 

71,415 

9,259.996 

57,599 

8.274,445 

872,967 

2,511 

2,816,817 

924,863 

30,658 

25.712 

34,734 

60,031 

1,169,401 

829,669 

2,107 

1,695,951 



100 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



as may be approved by law. They can be organized by special act of the Legislature, and their 
charters are perpetual. The total number of savings institutions incorp. prior to 1859 was 75, of 
which 57 reported their statistics in 1858. They are placed under the care of the Superintendent 
of the Banking Department, who has general powers for the protection of the interests of deposi- 
tors, and is required to report their condition annually to the Legislature. Most of these institu- 
tions bear names closely resembling those of banks of discount and circulation, and are kept in 
the same building and have the same persons as officers of both.^ 

Class IV includes those whose certificates are filed in the County Clerks' offices. Most of th 
corporations already described are required to file their articles in the clerk's office of their respect- 
ive counties, in addition to depositing them in the departments of the State Government. 

" An Act to provide for the Incorporation o/" Religious Societies" was passed April 6, 
1784.=' 

" An Act authorizing the Incorporation of Rural Cemetery Associations" was passed 
April 27, 1847. 

"An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Villages" was passed Dec. 7, 1847.* 

Savings Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Emigrant Savings Bank of Buffalo 

Erie County Savings Bank 

Fishkill Savings Institute 

Greenwich Savings Bank 

Hudson City Savings Institution 

InstitutioD for the Savings of Merchants' ClerkS.. 

Irving Savings Institution 

Manhattan Savings Institution 

Maniifacturers' Savings Bank of Troy 

Mariners' Savings Institution 

Mechanics & Farmers' Savings Bank of Albany... 

Mechanics & Traders' Savings Institution 

Monroe County Savings Institution 

Mutual Savings Bank of Troy 

Newburgh Savings Bank 

Niagara County Savings Bank 

Onondaga County Savings Bank 

Poughkeepsie Savings Bank 

Rochester Savings Bank 

Rome Savings Bank 

Rose Hill Savings Bank 

Savings Bank of Utica 

Schenectady Savings Bank 

Seamen's Bank for Savings 

Sing Sing Savings Bank 

Sixpenny Savings Bank of Albany 

Sixpenny Savings Bank of the City of New York, 

South Brooklyn Savings Institute 

Southold Savings Bank 

State Savings Bank of Troy 

Syracuse Savings Bank 

Troy Savings Bank 

Ulster County Savings Institution 

Union Savings Bank of Albany 

Westchester County Savings Bank 

Western Savings Bank 

Williamsburgh Savings Bank 

Yonkers Savings Bank 



Location. 



Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Fishkill 

New York 

Hudson 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Troy 

New York 

Albany 

New York 

Rochester 

Troy 

Newburgh 

Lockport 

Syracuse 

Poughkeepsie. 

Rochester 

Rome 

New York. 

Utica 

Schenectady .. 

New York. 

Sing Sing 

Albany 

New York. 

Brooklyn 

Southold 

Troy 

Syracuse 

Troy 

Kingston 

Albany 

Tarrytown 

Buffalo 

Brooklyn 

Yonkers 



Date of 
incorporation. 



April 

April 

Feb. 

April 

April 

April 

July 

April 

April 

AprU 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

June 

April 

April 

April 

Jan. 

March 

April 

June 

April 

April 

April 

March 

April 

April 

.\pril 

Julv 

July 

April 

April 



17, 18.'>8 
10, 1851 
25, 1857 
24, 1833 
4, 1850 

12, 1848 
1, 1851 

10, 1850 

15, 1857 

16, 1852 

12. 1855 
16, 1852 

8, 18.50 

15, 1857 

13, 1852 
10, 1851 
10, 1855 

16, 1830 
21, 1831 
80, 1851 

17, 1854 
26, 1839 

29, 18.-34 
31, 1829 

9, 1854 

17, 1854 
4, 1853 

10, 1850 
7, 1858 

18. 1856 

30, 1849 
23, 1823 

18, 1851 
13, 1854 
21, 1853 

9, 1851 
9, 1851 
3, 1854 



Amount 




due 


Resources. 


depositors. 




$ 5,490 


$ 4,218 


542,641 


649,722 


21,497 


21.705 


3,528,851 


3,678,180 


44,010 


45,206 


1,509,889 


1,629,810 


719,498 


730,323 


1,782,067 


1,8.39,785 


51,988 


51,988 


419,689 


430,141 


179,049 


179,049 


361,612 


372,417 


250,679 


259,.341 


23,637 


23,637 


91,188 


92,993 


1,509 


1,636 


129,601 


1.30,262 


247,505 


263,619 


1,.371,911 


1,476,425 


33,621 


36,289 


71,854 


72,285 


334.202 


368,499 


211,886 


227,559 


7,349,474 


7,825,443 


35,410 


35,711 


10.001 


10,601 


112,861 


113,548 


622.350 


638,664 


6.970 


7,001 


47,479 


47,479 


237,680 


238,619 


634,904 


671,716 


62.435 


63,622 


15,187 


16,187 


103,734 


108,729 


77,048 


77,048 


1,086.882 


1,119,001 


47,405 


48,069 



1 The first savings bank in England was formed in 1804, and 
the first in New York in 1819, under the auspices of the " So- 
ciety for Prevention of Pauperism." A public meeting was 
called and the plan discussed and approved Nov. 29, 1816. The 
first deposits were made July 3, 1819, and $2,807 were received 
the first evening from 80 depositors, in sums of from $2 to $300. 
Within 6 mo., $153,378.31 had been deposited, by 1,527 persons, 
and but $6,606 had been withdrawn. Up to 1867, $47,530,067.61 
had been intrusted to the care of this institution. — Common 
Council Manual, 1868, p. 623. 

The first savings bank in Albany was established in 1820 ; 
in Troy, in 1823 ; in Brooklyn, in 1827 ; and in Buffalo, in 1836. 
Most of these banks were originally required to report to the 
Legislature ; but their returns were seldom published. Under 
the act of March 20, 1857, they are required to report to the 



Superintendent of the Banking Department. Sixteen savings 
banks have been incorp. that never organized. Only two of 
the whole number chartered have ever failed. The " Knicker- 
bocker Savings Institution," of N. Y., incorp. April 8, 1851, 
failed and went into the hands of a receiver in 1854; and the 
" Sixpenny Savings Bank of Rochester," incorp. July 13, 1854, 
failed. 

2 This act was amended, so far as it related to the Ref. Prot. 
D. Societies, March 7, 1788. Other amendments were made in 
1801, 1813, and 1828. For statistics see p. 139. 

5 Previous to this act, villages were incorp. by special acts of 
the Legislature, and the articles were filed in the State Depart- 
ment: but since, the filing of articles has become a mere local 
affair ; and it is extremely difficult to obtain a complete list of 
the incorporated villages of the State. 



AGRICULTURE. 



The climate of the State is adapted to the cultivation of most of the crops and fruits of the 
temperate zone. The improved lands comprise a little more than one-half of the entire area of the 
State, and of these 37 per cent, is devoted to pasturage and 25 per cent, is occupied by meadow 
lands. The principal crops, in the order of relative amount, are oats, corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye, 
and barley, together occupying 37 per cent, of the cultivated lands, — leaving 1 per cent, for 
the minor crops and gardens. The northern cos. of the State and the highland regions along the 
s. border and upon the Hudson are much better adapted to pasturage than tillage ; and the people 
in these sections are almost exclusively engaged in stock and sheep raising and in dairying. 
Little more grain is raised than is strictly necessary for a proper rotation of crops ; and the greater 
part of the grain for home consumption is imported from other sections of the country. The low 
lands that surround the great lakes and occupy the greater portion of the surface in the w. part of 
the State are best adapted to grain growing. Several sections of the State are found peculiarly 
adapted to particular products. The Mohawk Valley intervales have been long almost exclusively 
devoted to the cultivation of broom corn. The Chemung Valley, parts of Onondaga co. and 
several other sections are becoming known as tobacco raising districts. Hops are extensively 
cultivated in Madison, Oneida, Otsego, and Schoharie cos. The Hudson Valley below the High- 
lands, the N. shore of Long Island, and the s. extremity of several of the lake valleys in the cen- 
tral portion of the State are well adapted to the culture of grapes. Maple sugar is largely pro- 
duced in the northern cos. and in the central highland districts. Upon Long Island and in West- 
chester large sections are devoted to the cultivation of vegetables for the New York market. The 
people of Orange, Rockland, Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess cos. are largely engaged in fur- 
nishing the city of New York with milk.^ 

The lie^w York State Agricultural Society was formed by a convention held at Al- 
bany in Feb. 1832 ; but for several years it received no support from the State and held no regular 
fairs. In 1841 the society was re-organized, and measures were adopted for raising funds and hold- 
ing annual fairs. On May 5 of that year, an act was passed by the Legislature, appropriating $8,000 
for the encouragement of agriculture, $700 of which was to go to the State Society, and the re- 
mainder was to be divided among the co. societies in the ratio of Assembly representation. This 
appropriation has been continued until the present time. The society is required annually to re- 
port to the Legislature a full account of its proceedings, and such facts concerning the agricul- 
tural condition of the State as may be of general interest. The volumes of Transactions are 
published by the State, and are widely distributed among the farming population. The annual 
fairs are held in different parts of the State, and are largely attended.'* They usually succeed in 



1 Hay is most largely produced in St. Lawrence, Oneida, Che- 
nango, Otsego, Chautauqua, Delaware, and Orange counties; 
■wheat, in Livingston, Monroe, Genesee, >;iagara,Ontario, and Jef- 
ferson counties ; oats, in Onondaga, Montgomery, Oneida, Cayuga, 
and Otsego; rye, in Columbia, Itensselaer, Ulster, Orange, 
Albany, Saratoga, and Washington ; barley, in Jefferson, Onon- 
daga. Ontario, Cayuga, and Wayne; buckwheat, in Schoharie, 
Montgomery, Otsego, Saratoga, and Tioga ; corn, in Onondaga, 
Cayuga, Monroe. Wayne, Oneida, and Ontario; and potatoes, in 
Washington. Monroe, Oneida, St. Lawrence, Rensselaer, and 
Franklin. The counties having the greatest number of cows 
are St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Oneida, Orange, Chenango, Her- 
kimer, and Chautauqua; and the greatest number of sheep, 
Ontario, Livingston. Steuben, Cayuga, Washington, Wyoming, 
Monroe, and Genesee. The counties that produce the greatest 
quantity of butter are St. Lawrence, Delaware, Chenango. Jef- 
ferson, Chautauqua. Orange, and Otsego ; and the greatest 
amount of cheese, Herkimer, Oneida, Jefferson, Madison, Erie, 
Cattaraugus, St. Lawrence, and Otsego. 

2 The earliest agricultural exhibition on record within the 
present limits of the State was a cattle fair, hold at New Am- 
sterdam, Oct. 1.5. 1641. An act passed Nov. 11, 1692, entitled 
"An act for settling fairs and markets in each respective city 
and CO. throughout this province," remained in force until re- 
pealed by the State Legislature, March 12. 1788. A special act 
was passed fir the fairs of Albany, Cumberland, and Tryon cos., 
March 8. 1773. but scarcely took effect before the Revolution. 
Acts applying to particular towns were passed by the earlier 
State Legislatures; but the custom of holding fairs soon fell into 
disuse. These fairs wero more properly market days; no pre- 
miums were offered, and no inducements to competition existed 
beyond the ordinary stimulus of trade. The products of farm 
culture being placed side by side, their comparative excellence 
was left to the decision of the purchaser, which doubtless contri- 



buted to excite emulation among the producers. These fairs 
were generally held semi-annually, upon fixed days, under the 
direction of "Governors and Rulers," appointed in colonial 
times by the Governor, and afterward by the judges of the co. 
courts. The expenses were defrayed by tolls, usually 1 per 
cent., upon the commodities sold, half of which was p;ud by the 
buyer and half by the seller. 

The Society for the Pi omotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manu- 
factures was instituted Feb. 26, 1791, and incorp. March 12, 
1793. For more efficient action, it in 1801 divided the State into 
as many agricultural districts as there were cos., in each of 
which a secretary was appointed, to convene the members of the 
society within his district, inquire into the state of agriculture 
and manufactures, receive communications and arrange and 
transmit them to the President of the society. The transactions 
of this body were printed by the State, and the society numbered 
among its members nearly every person of eminence throughout 
the State. Its charter expired in 1804 ; and its corporate powers 
were revived and continued April 2 of that year, under the 
name of the Society for the Promotion of the Useful Arts. The 
affairs of the new body were managed by a council of 9 members, 
and State patronage was continued in the printing of its Trans- 
actions, in 1808-12 liberal premiums were offered for the best 
cloths of household manuf;w;ture, a part of which were awarded 
by the co. judge and a part by this society. The samples, upon 
which $10,000 were thus paid, are still preserved in the library 
of the Albany Institute. After being once extended, the Society 
for Promoting Agricultural Arts was superseded, in part, by a 
Board of Agriculture, but continued as a local institution of 
Albany until merged, with the "Albany Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory,"'iu the "Albany Institute," in 1829. The latter has most 
of the books, papers, and effects of its predece.-sors ; and tracing 
back through its change it is the oldest scientific society in the 
State. "An act to improve the agriculture of this State," 

101 



102 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



awakening a great local interest in agricultural matters. The office of the society is kept at the 
Agricultural Rooms, corner of State and Lodge Sts., Albany, where it has a museum and library. 

County and ToTvn Societies. — The act of 1853 allows county agricultural societies to 
purchase and hold real estate to an amount not exceeding $25,000 and personal property not ex- 
ceeding $1,000, for the purposes set forth in their articles of incorporation, and for no other pur- 
poses. Town and other societies may hold real estate to the amount of §10,000 and personal 
property to the amount of $3,000. Each county or union society must have at least one director 
or manager for each town ; and each town, village, or city society must have not less than 10 
directors, who are elected annually by ballot. Upon application of two-thirds of their members to 
the Supreme Court of the district in which they are located, these societies may obtain an order 
for the sale of a part or the whole of their property. An amendment to the act was passed April 
13, 1855, by the provisions of which the number of directors was changed to 6, 2 of whom are 
elected each year for a term of three years. Any person may become a life member by the pay- 
ment of a sum not exceeding $10 ; and the officers are jointly and severally liable for all debts 
due from the society contracted while they are in office, if suit be commenced within one year 



passed April 7, 1S19, created a board of agriculture and appro- 
priated $10,000 annually for 2 years, to be distributed for the pro- 
motion of agriculture and family domestic manufactures in the 
several cos., on condition that a similar sum should he subscribed 
by the co. societies formed under this act, A board, formed of 
the president, or a delegate chosen from each co. society, met 
annually at Albany, elected officers, examined reports, and 
selected for publication such returns as they deemed proper. 
These were published by the State. Three volumes of Memoirs 
were issued, and the board continued in existence but little longer 
than the appropriation was continued. County societies, on 
the plan of the Berkshire Co. Agricultural Society, began to be 
formed in 1817 ; and, by the exertions of Do Witt Clinton, El- 
kanah Watson, and other friends of the measure, they were 
extended to most of the cos. These societies, after a brief 
period, fell into disuse ; and that of Jefferson co. is the only 
one of this class that can trace an unbroken descent from that 
period. 

The first oflScers of the present State Agricultural Society, 
formed in 1832, were Le Ray de Chanmont, President ; E. P. 
Livingston, Jacob Morris, and Robert L. Rose, Vice Presidents; 
P. S. Van Rensselaer, Recording Secretary ; Jesse Buel, Corre- 
sponding Secretary ; Charles R. Webster, Treasurer ; and H. W. 
Delavan, John Townsend. and H. Hickox, Executive Committee. 
County societies were again instituted in many of the cos. under 
the influence of this society; but most of them were short lived. 
The "Cultivator" was begun in March, 1834, by Jesse Buel, 
under the guarantee of Stephen Van Rensselaer and James 
Wadsworth, as the organ of the society and medium of commu- 
nication between the friends of agriculture ; and it has been con- 
tinued ever since, under private auspices, but entirely devoted 
to the interests of agriculture. It has for many years been pub- 
lished by Luther Tucker, of Albany. 

Any person a citizen of the State may become a member of 
the State Society upon payment of $1 annually, or a life mem- 
ber by payment of $10 at one time. Presidents of co. societies 
and one delegate from each are ex officio members. The officers 
of the society are elected annually in I'eb., and consist of a 



President, one Vice President from each of the Judicial Districts, 
a Recording and a Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, and an 
Executive Committee, consisting of the above and 5 others 
chosen for the purpose. 

Premiums are awarded in money, plate, medals, books, and 
diplomas ; and the society embraces within the field of its patron- 
age not only stock, farm, and garden products aud implements 
of husbandry, but a wide ranjie of useful aud ornamental m.iuu- 
factures, particularly those which are the products of home in- 
dustry. The places and times of holding the State fairs, names 
of Presidents, and total receipts of the State society have been 
as follows : — 



1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
18.51 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 

1856 

1857 
1858 
1859 



Phce of 
holding fair. 



Syracuse 

All)any 

Rochester 

Poughkeepsie.. 

Utica 

Auburn 

Saratoga Sp'gs 

Buffalo 

Syracuse 

Albany 

Rochester 

Utica 

Saratoga Spgs 

New York 

Elmira 



Watertowu., 

Buffalo 

Syracuse .... 
Albany 



Time of 
liolding fair. 



Sept. 29, 30 
Sept. 27, 29 
Sept. 20, 22 
Sept. IS, 19 
Sept. 17, 19 
Sept. 15, 17 
Sept. 14, 16 
Sept. 5, 7 
Sept. 11, 13 
Sept. 3, 6 
Sept. 16, 19 
Sept. 7, 10 
Sept. 20, 23 
Oct. 3, 6 
Oct. 2, 5 
Sept. 30, \ 
Oct. 3/ 
Oct. 6, 9 
Oct. 6, 8 
Oct. 4, 7 



{i 



Presidents. 



Joel B. Nott 

Jas. S. Wadsworth 
Jas. S. Wadsworth 

J. B. Bcekman 

B. P.Johnston. 

J. M. Sherwood..-. 

George Vail 

Lewis F. Allen 

John A.King 

Ezra P. Prcutice... 

John Delafield 

Henry Wager 

Lewis G. Morris.... 

William Kelly 

Samuel Cheever... 

Theod'reS.Eaxton 

Alonzo S. Upham. 
Wm. T. McCoun... 
A. B. Cruger 



Receipts. 



(Free.) 

$1,296.10 

3,000.00 

3,650.00 

4,370.18 

4,333.17 

4,034.22 

6,272.86 

8,144.55 

10.465.61 

11,956.25 

8,125.41 

6,009.90 

9,248.70 

11,527.25 

8,010.00 

15.073.89 
10,815.81 



Town and Union Agricultural Societies. 

(For County Societies see p. 103.) 



Name. 



Bainbridge Agricultural Society 

Brookfield Agricultural Society 

Canasei-aga Agi"icultural & Mechanical Society, 
Dansville 

Cliautauqua Farmers' & Mechanics" Union at 
Fredonia 

Connewango Agricultural, Horticultural, & Me- 
chanical Society 

Connewango Union Agricultural & Horticultu- 
ral Society 

Constantia Town Agricultural Society 

Coventry Agricultural Society 

Dryden Agricultural Society 

Ellisburgh, Adams, & Henderson Agricultural 
Society 

Farmers' Club, of Little Falls 

Farmers' & Mechanics' Association of Cazenovia 

Farmers' & Mechanics' Association of Tenner... 

Galen Agricultural Society 

Gorham Agricultural Society 

Gouverneur Agricultural & Mechanical Society 

Hamilton Agricultural & Horticultural Associa- 
tion of 

HarpersfieUi Union Agricultural Society 

Ilartland Agricultural Society 

HorneUsville Agricultural Society 



Date of 
organization. 



Sept. 
Oct. 
March 
Aug. 

Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



4, 
19, 

2.3, 
16, 

28, 
8, 

12, 
3, 
3, 

13, 
9, 

22, 
5, 
2, 

31, 



1858 
18.57 

1857 
1856 

1855 
1858 
1859 
1857 
1857 



Name. 



Jan. 3, 1857 Jefferson Agi-icultural Society, Schoharie Co... 
March 5, 1866 Lebanon Agricultural Society 

Leon Agricultural Society, 
March 10, 1858 Lodi Agricultural Society, of. 

Nelson Farmers & Mechanics'Association 
March 14, 1859 Oswego City Agricultural Society, 

Otselic, Pitcher, Pharsalia, & Lincklaen Agricul- 
May 13, 1856 tural Society 

Rushville Union Agricultural Society 

St. Lawrence International Agricultural & 
Mechanical Society. Ogdensburgh 

Sandy Creek, Richland, Orwell, & Boylston Agri- 
cultural Society 

Sangerfield & Marshall Town Agricultural So- 
ciety 

Somerset Agricultural Society 

[Susquehanna Valley Agricultur.al & Horticul- 

I tural Society 

lUnion Agricultur.al Society, (Broome and Dela- 

1857 1 1 ware cos.) 

1859 Union Agricultural Society, of Palmyra 

|Virgil Agricultural Society 

Aug. 22, 1857 ^Wilson Agricultural Society 

April 5, 1859 Winfield Union Agricultural Society 

Feb. 2, 1856 jWiskoy Agricultural Society, Genesee Falls, 
March 31,1856 | Pike,& Eagle 



Date of 
organization. 



Feb. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Aug. 
June 



23, 1858 

19. 1856 
15, 1856 

22. 1857 
5, 1858 



March 19, 1859 

June 27, 1857 
Feb. 9, 1855 

June 21, 1856 

March 20, 1859 

Nov. 10, 1857 
Jan. 27, 1857 

AprU 4, 1857 



March 29, 1859 
June 26, 1856 

26, 1857 
10, 1859 
18, 1859 



Feb. 
June 
April 



Dec. 6, 1855 



AGRICULTURE. 



103 



of the time when due. Each society formed under these acts is obliged to report annually to the 
State Society.^ 

An examination of the returns of the census of 1855 shows that Cattaraugus excels all other 
counties in the production of millet ; Columbia in pears, rye, garden seeds, and onions ; Ihitchess 
in plums and quinces, and in number of swine ; Herkimer in cheese ; Jefferson in spring wheat 
and barley ; Livingston in fallow lands, in winter wheat, and in wool ; Monroe in value of farms 
and nurseries ; Montgomery in lint ; Oneida in value of stock and amount of apples and honey ; 
Onondaga in acres plowed and quantity of oats, corn, tobacco, and cider ; Ontario in sheep ; 
Orange in milk ; Orleans in beans ; Otsego in hops and in domestic linen ; Queens in garden seeds 
and strawberries ; Rensselaer in flaxseed ; St. Lawrence in pasture and meadow lands, quantity of 
peas, sugar and butter, number of horses and cows, and yards of fulled cloth, flannel and other 



Summary of County Agricultural Societies. 

(For Town and Union Societies see p. 102.) 



Counties. 



Albany " 

Allegany. 

Broome 

Cattaraugus . 
Cayuga 



Chautauqua.... 



Chemung.. 
Chenango- 
Clinton. 

Columbia.. 



CortUnd , 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fult. & Uam... 

Genesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jefftrson 

Lewis 



Dale of present 
organization. 



Aug. 9, 1853 



April 

Jan. 

June 



Livingston 

Madison 

JSLmroe 

Montgomery... 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onrmdaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsfgo 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond. 

Kockland 

St. Lawrence.. 

Saratoga 

Ir'chenectady. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca , 

Steuben 

."Suffolk. 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ul'!ter. 

Warren 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester. 

Wyoming 

Tales 



27, 1858 
28, 1855 
21, 1856 

1836 

1851 
1845 



March 8, 1856 



Oct. 

July, 

Oct. 

June 

Dec. 

July 

Oct. 

May 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Dec. 



.Tune 

Feb. 

March 

Oct. 

Dec. 

-ipril, 

Jan. 

May 

Oct. 
Dec. 
Jan. 

Nov. 
Jan. 

June 
June 
June 

Oct. 
March 
Jan. 
June 

Nov. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

March 

Aug. 



FirU President. 



James W. Jolly.. 



P. Ten Broeck.. 
U. Uowland..... 



T. B. Campbell., 



Simeon L. Rood... 
Abram Perlee 



1838 

1841 

16, 1841 

2, 1856 

1850 

30, 1856 

18, 1838 

26. ISS" 
11, 1856 

4, 1841 

7, 1854 

1841 

30, 1855 

8, 1856 
19, 1856 
13, 1841 

2, 1858 

1841 

25, 1856 

18, 1854 

1841 

17, 1856 

27, 1855 

22. 1856 
1851 

30. 1857 
7, 1855 

29, 1844 

21, 1856 
24, 1841 

26, 1841 
14, 1855 
24, l'-56 

22, 1853 

9, 1847 
11, 1855 
8, 1858 
7, 1858 
5, 1857 
4, 1841 

May 5, 1855 

July 20, 1856 
Jau. 13, 1855 



E. Livingston...., 

W. Be wry 

Samuel A. Law., 
Henry Staats.... 
Lewis F. Allen.. 
W. C. Watson.... 

S. Lawrence 

Elia.s Prindle 

T. C Peters 

Lewis SherriU... 

A. Loomis , 

J.D.LeRay 

E. Merriam 

Aaron Barber... 
.J.D. Ledyard.... 
Willard Hodges, 
T.J.VanDeville.. 



Pomeroy Jones... 



Wm. Hildreth.. 



First Secretary. 



Joseph Warren.. 



D. E. WTieeler 

Wm. Kichardson, 



A. J. Wynkoop., 
A. Sanford 



Jas. M.Gifford... 



D.McFarland.... 
Geo. Kneeland... 
Warren Bryant.. 

R. S. Hale 

Harry S. House.. 

T. S. Persse 

C. P. Turner 

H. L.Day 

Aaron Petrie 

E.TenEyck 



Jos. Kershner.., 

A. S. Sloan 

D. D. T. Moore., 
John Frey 



B. P.Johnston.... 



J. S. Bates . 



T. C. Bailey.. 



D. n. Little 

T. B. Aiden 

E. Lawrence... 
Jos. Hastings.. 



Hiram Goff.., 



Chas. McLean.... 
Hugh C. Wilson. 

A. G. Corn 

Luther D. Eddy.. 



Present place 

of luilding 

annual fair. 



Albany. 



Little Valley., 
Auburn , 



Migratory.. 



Horseheads.. 
Norwich 



\ Corners . 



Wa.sh. Hollow..., 

Bufl'alo 

Eliz.ibethtown. 

Malone , 

Johnstown , 

Batavia. 



Ilion 

Watertown 

f Turin and 

\ Lowville. 

Geneseo 

Morrisville 

Brighton 

Fonda. 

U tica and Rome. 
Syracuse. 
Canandaigua 



Albion 

Cooperstown . 






*^ - S 

« i 



$5,500 



(■ 2,000 

\ per 

( ann. 

1,836 

13,000 

11,625 

10,000 
6.215 

10,800 
7,050 



2,368 
10,113 



30,000 
12,000 



Abrams Stevens.. iN. C. Blauvelt... 
H.VanKensselaer Henry G. Foote.. 
H. Gardner John A. Corey... 

Ralph Brewster. 



Wm.C.Bouck. 



G. Denniston., 



Lotan Smith ... 
Henry Corgell., 



Peter Crispell 

B. C. Butler 

Henry Holmes ... 
/Do Witt C. 1 
\ VanSlyck../ 



.Tas. C. Ferris 

John Hatmaker.. 



George S. Ellas.... 



J. 0. Dunning.. 
Wm. Smythe... 



C. H. SkiUraan . 
Asa Fitch, Jr.... 

P. P. Bradish.... 



L. W. Thayer 

Darius A. Ogden. 



Lansingburgh.. 



New City. 

Canton. 

Mechauicsville. 



Bath., 



Monticello. 
Owego. 



Luzerne. 



Lyons . 



Warsaw.... 
Penn Yan. 



20,836 
6,500 

8,035 

9.590 
30,385 



Fair Grodnds. 






1856 
1856 



1856 
1858 



1856 



1851 



1853 



1854-5 
1857 



6,120 
4,239 

4,356 
6,520 



1857 



1854 



15i 
15 

7 
52 

10 



12 



17 



10 

3i 



"5^'? 






Leased. 

$2,850 



Leased. 
2,600 



Leased. 
Leased. 

1,000 



Leased 
1,600 



Leased. 
3,500 
4,000 



2,4ol 
1,600 



LeabfcJ. 



2,500 






$5,850 



1,000 

6,400 
6,500 

2,100 
1,400 



1,000 

4,000 
15,926,95 

13,160 
3,350 



» Societies in italics were organized under acts of 1853 and i « Fairs held alternately in different parts of the county, and 
1855. Most of them had been in existence many years under generally at the place that contributes most toward expenses. 
a previous organization. d Fair held alternately at Janiiiica, Flushing, and Hempstead. 

» Fairs in the town that will give most to pay expenses. I Receipts the first 10 years, $3,532. 



104 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



domestic cloths ; Schenectady in broom corn ; Schoharie in buckwheat, and about equal with Mont- 
gomery in clover ; Washington in potatoes ; and Warjne in peaches and dried fruits. 

In connection with the table of agricultural products, it should be remembered that these 



Agricultural Products of the several Counties in the State 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus.., 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua... 

Chemung 

Chenango ...., 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex , 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson , 

Kings 

Lewis 

Living.ston..., 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery. 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga , 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego , 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer.... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga , 

Schenectady . 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suff'olk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins .... 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.. 

Wayne 

Westchester.. 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 



I 



R5 



7,424 
82.929 
ll,927i 
21,721 
193.729i 
6l5.249i 
63.754 
4..5t30i 
2,43Si 
7,y72i 
4,69Ci 
9.5.5i 
54.470i 
238.812J 
2.484 

3,644i 
760,461 
7,346 
6 
.'>,904i 
70.509i 
18.086 
3.84.5i 
1,094,779 
29.320i 
810.363 
23,904i 
30 
589.911 
20.439J 
97.0.5SJ 
528,488 
43.363i 
376.949 
12.596 
5.678 
3,550f 
402.169i 
2.058 
11..33.5I 
2.945J 
24.780i 
14.82Gi 
5,165i 
18.645 
80.4.31 i 
151.721 
219,590 
151,5201 
1.472i 
19,355 
84,395i 
19.370i 
1.212 
8,387 
282,474? 

.S3,7.5H 
3S2,498i 
168,9091 



7,054,0491 



!5l 



sg* 



cq 



6.9271 
56,4221 

8,1211 
57.2781 
27.327 
78,6.361 
18.024 
20.2831 
67,1721 
5S7i 
24.361 

8.538J 

250 

46.913 

44.0091 

69.5591 

7.5001 
11.1.54 

3,1751 
245 
38,149 
428,6721 

'59.946 

18.025 

52.777 

2.620 

18,9781 

"5,386" 
41.8831 
85.148 
27,659 
32 
2,206 
44,300J 
53,4461 

48" 

13.3831 
575 
6 
295,464 
8,074 
6.3774 
23.074J 
33.139J 
11.379 
82,014 
1291 
98 
ll,93Si 
32,642f 
815 
4,2S5 
23.854 
2.687 
1.497 
37.4971 
18,063 






s 



54,5791 

54.637f 

5.3,685 

(52,54GJ 

57,7.32 

105.672 
24.941 

117,.370| 
48.241 
65.103 
56.7691 

103.89(51 
83.8781 
98.0111 
39.139f 
37.5941 
33.903 
41.39SJ 
58.5241 

4,274 
78.254J 
98,575 
6,183 
51.802 
39,187? 
6S.2ti3i 
58.73Sf 
44,5321 

1.57 
41.1171 

124,9.331 
G3.246i 
42.4481 

103.2111 
34.0201 
58,138 

108.069J 
27,756f 
51.395 
58,557? 
7,032 
14.828 

139.400 
52.743? 
16,1851 
48.774? 
17,9061 
20,879? 
58.7491 
41.505? 
40.7161 
38.401? 
38.14.3? 
64.795 
22.08S? 
69.881 
45.2711 
90.4961 
58,4211 
15,8501 



O 



495.1771 

665.490 

466,8701 

697,6701 

956,636 

539,765 

473,469 

564.242 

276,0801 

543.034 

382.7 SO 

416,6591 

626..347 

734.7471 

2.34.946 

144.617 

355,855 

299.809 

160,907 J 

16.701 
724,585 
456,230? 

11,679 
295,4451 
261,990 
571.6.37 
792,370 
997,605 
435 
353,398 
975,8001 
1,015.2271 
525.9.37 i 
291,111 
229,731 
535,4321 
903,647 

66,922 
199,518 
558.377 

15.991 i 

28.168 
437.041 
744.220 
293,768 
490,0631 
357.247 
566.238 
7 11, .307 
262.067J 
109,883 
452,978 
812383 
278,105 
120,347 
798,321 
875.0241 
204.759 
496.837 
160,457? 









186,567 

2,834 
20.546 

2.3731 

6,331? 

2,808 

3,558 

14.329 

13.073 

445.036 

4,172 
50.5274 
239.063 
24.9794 
I.3..3574 
20.1914 
22.3834 

1.149 

72,232 

277 

17.550 

99..3914 

4,860 
11. .3834 

4.118 

1,477 

9,1664 
39,1124 
25 

1.014 
24.121 

5.3404 
16.002 
202..301 

2.777 
45.5574 
34,218j- 
228904 
71.019 
299.864 

3.1314 
31.6004 
25.725 
132.774? 
44.7.524 
87,5924 

6,168 

7,862 
10.212 
62,2124 
75.153 
25.8844 
17,521 
2.35.9934 
10.9524 
121,967 

7,2591 
51.404 

2,7774 
24.517 



2,033,353 3,256,948f 



27,015,296 



3,039,438 






I 



9.1264 
28.4,544 

2.337 

14.095 

308.3034 

19.6561 

23.862 

22,229 

6.877 

3.801 

45,6654 

2.219 

2.818 

57.2561 

1.1181 

6.188? 

14,704 

59,819 

1,7874 

42 

51,4394 

392,6844 



37.5134 
123.2554 
197.231 
179,755 

39,2524 

'79.593 

137,430 

371,7854 

320.375 

179 

36.071 

28.054 

43,889 

"2,'769 

12,807 

627 

14 

28.187 

9.624 

5.5694 

44.136 

60,507 

104,856 

78.873 

10,974 

1,0534 

5.925 

65.295 

130 

39 

12 9441 

229,495 

645 

68.267 

152.134 



3,563,540 



«1 



3 



84.812? 

39.29S4 

73,2141 

26,183 

54,0764 

9.664? 
69.0464 
50.3044 
30.6511 
54.3.341 
28.1154 
86.3.30 
43.1241 
24 h.hH 
13.701? 
13.6251 
69.759 
14.9134 
33.9134 

2.91.3? 
42.875? 

5,909? 
235 
10,4431 
13.8361 
13.85.34 
22,62,3? 
141,6774 



29.1514 

64.7071 

32.453? 

18.325? 

23,023? 

12,903 

31.605? 

112.732? 
10.7181 
21.2244 
52,821 
1.325 
8,7221 
12,9124 

108,8824 
41.8.-8 

169,078 
67,523 
21.4-364 
89.9904 
18.8564 
655714 
91,4024 
'74..305 
70.676 
19.214? 
40.6584 
39,7661 
20,890? 
20,277? 
24.0071 






s 
«5 



193,6914 

189.6884 

214.998 

309,762 

868,543 

658.5074 

239.2854 

354.480 

92,567? 
383.3394 
240,7034 
119,.383 
558.308 
483.228 
105.369 

83,615 
165,733 
437,0524 

99,204 

7,151 

283.748 

321,779 

54,179 

92.3981 
431,4644 
419,583 
805,811 
247.5164 

1,180 
509.505 
732.2944 
907.453 
617,4851 
357,4904 
436.975 
503,812 
340,1704 
119,9194 
337,685 
393,4134 

43.0.374 

51.873 
220.593 
479.449 

92.279 
161.1534 
160,7804 
387,9984 
292,6894 
504.767 
102,594 
260.074 
372.202 
242,2294 
123,817 
589.6784 
756.677i 
402.2384 
234.006 
174,181 



2,481,0791 



19,290,6914 



Items not included in the above Tables. 



Cash value of farms $799,355,367 

" " stock $103,776,053 

" " tools and implements $26,927,502 

Acres plowed the year jirevious 3.377.471 

Acres in fallow the year previous 506,0.30} 

^ Acres in pasture the year previous 4,984.1144 

'Bushels of turnips harvested 985,5224 

Pounds of tobacco harvested 946.5024 

Value products market gardens $1,138,682 

Pounds of maple sugar made _ 4,935,815? 

'Gallons of maple molasses made ' 85,0914 



Gallons of wine made 

Pounds of cocoons 

Value of other textile fabrics 

Bushels of beets 

Value of cabbages 

Bushels of carrots 

Bushels of cherries 

Bushels of cranberries 

A'alue of cucumbers 

Bushels of currants 

Bushels of fruits (not specified)., 



18,181 

2674 
13.824 
29.3;32i 
$18,668 
478.277 
3,7871 
87 
$9,619 
506J 
43,074 



AGRICULTURE. 



105 



numbers refer to the yield of 1854, which was distinguished by a severe and prevalent drought. 
From 20 to 50 per cent, should be added to obtain the proximate results of years of ordinary pro- 
duction. 



of New York, as reported by the State Census of 1855. 



5 

42 



375,654J 
206,258 
160.42LH 
300,2451 
251,718i 
282.451 
131,291 
270,542 
385,492 
259,419i 
155,389 
209.667J 
205,498 
445,350i 
318,021 
484,425 
182,9fU 
167,274 
116,871 
25,257 
257,875 
289,031 
308,243 
243.841 
132.256^ 
224.278i 
654,551 
145.154 
1,808 
275.448 
624,648 
380,1411 
188,900 
123.5511 
171.867 
391.912i 
412,703i 
64.504 
291,135 
596,559 
21,739 
47,2231 
604,023 
487,672 
105.132 
190.4321 
81,106 
72.544 
255,938 
304,063 
103,1881 
150,5181 
111,106 
134.5391 
173,328 
767,285 
261,403 
286,249 
203,932 
67,9121 



15,191,8521 






K| 



15.9891 
22,8441 
9321 
14,4921 
6,565 
7,003 
1,3601 
4,0181 
14.545 
l,.336f 
9.527 
2.2291 
670 
15.3211 
ll,625f 
12,0741 
14.202 
8,7971 
1.5321 
140 
27,864 
63,338 
16,9.30 
12,9781 
6,.3981 
20,9731 
16,0281 
22.8551 

250 

15.981 

12,9121 

34.9151 

115,2971 

2.30 

5,471 

11,1161 

29,935J 

48 
33.444 
1,574 
410 
49 
69,016 
6,466 
5,551|- 
33,4821 
\ 1,7101 
" 6401 
25,0061 
142 
1681 
3.9921 
4,6591 
2961 
2,2701 
14.2101 
8,4551 
230 
13,3261 
1,444 



705,9674 



c 
ft) 






2.306 
3,174J 

9491 
4.4961 
5.6381 
4,038 
1,8591 
2.7631 
6,9931 

739 
1.7261 
2,1281 

7881 
6.124 
2.818 
1,8391 

7611 
8,5691 

6931 

1541 
1.616 
4,2811 
7,042 
1,0301 
1.0031 
4.8361 
14.342J 
3.941 

'645 
9.2561 
7,770J 
8,984 
2,404? 

3481 
40,185J 
4,326 
2,8111 

2101 
22.2821 
5.979 

1661 
63 
5.131 

972f 

7141 
1,6501 
1.9.31 

5731 
2,6861 
1,3821 

6981 
2,4951 
2,1001 

534 

915J 
5,0751 
5,S6fiJ 

2781 
8,2321 

745* 



244,079 



Flax. 



.8 
M 
*&> 

to 

S 
3 



2,675 

879 

478 

2,738 

18,385 

4,584 

130 

16,636 

7,700 

1.128 

58,209 

1,477 

557 

5,026 

195 

704 

223.005 

118.500 

10,620 

6,000 

308,050 

12,066 

""65JS2 

90 

102.581 

1,000 

1,016,929 

380 

6,635 
57.287 

2,070 

30 

19,030 

37,109 

98,504f 

300 

672,780 



1.2061 

15,125 

206.200 

13,916 

8,058 

529.811 

1,777 

92 

712 

79,932 
2,017 

"839.'426 
23,260 

"" '6,630 
245,000 



4,907,5561 






2101 

2051 

351 

5S| 

1,160 

3021 

601 

2031 

2301 

54J 

2,17.3J 

25* 

15 

2761 

61 

01 

1,2151 

6951 

141 



4,241 

700* 



1,566 
131 
7351 
601 

7,740* 



322 
1,2331 

2,044* 
1991 

*"2S5 
749 
1,4241 



1 

19,2061 



4 
515* 

2,346 
520* 
4201 

7,035 
306 



1401 
1,706 
78 



23,003 

5271 



5181 
1,850 



87,0931 



I 

a 
s 



7,440 

2,708 

21,808 

488 

2,640 

2,416 

102 

163.332 

1,014 



2.037 

69.0281 

3.104 

2,862 

9 

231,217 



12,007 
26 

610,033 
28,995 

"8,870 

14.255 

1,312,308 

44.010 

241,603 



« 616,054 

13,427 

32,751 

39 

16 

29,206 

3,122,2581 

20 

25 

1,615 



3 

197,875 

18.364 

2.600 

440,754 

730 



8.649 

304 

176 

1.200 

1,138 

2,735 

7 

62 

737 

5 

17,526 

1,605 



7,192,254 



•S> 



1281 

23.650 

1.770 

3.300 

1.390 

33,507 

550 

20 

418 

40 

18,507 
50 



153 



4,130 
75 

"li's 

3,691 



10 

13.680 

80,520 

249 

13,'6l6 

39,220 

554.987 

9,180 

800 

22,871 

15 

543 



200 

150 

15 

30 

16,500 

16,950 

1,000 

52 

160 

27,090 

2,524 

20 

2.390 

38,432 

2,202 

115 

6,003 



946,5021 



.2J 

I 



Kl 



234.251 

214.136 

224,463 

177,1731 

522.751 

308,115 

107,304 

553,554 

76,9361 
210,342 
351,975 
259.100 
210,503 
200,195 

64,2001 

20.273 
100.142 
290,121 
192,8141 

3,459 

333.91)1 

215,431 

54 

72,198 
242.200 
531,077 
491,491 
165,861 



255,997 
634,262 
624,5451 
397,098 

80.1801 
281,7811 
425,916 
601,196 

27,158 

3,346 

131,241 

28 

3.253 

90.497 
289.478 
106.551 
222,182 
143,229 
175.278 
297,289 

27,799 

73.298 
169,183 
417,757 
397,754 

68.772* 
189,103 
509,626 

60,1371 
323,290 
143,773 



13,668,830* 



.a 

c 



6,038 

2,983 

4.7471 

1.2.57 

10..3i;21 

4.5241 

2,901 

7,5591 

8521 

9,480 

3.738 

5.9181 

8.247* 

0.084* 

9091 

3771 

2.0701 

5,707 

3,9541 

IS 
6,440 
3,4591 

1,451 

5,9281 
7,4171 
10.312 

5,0081 

4,4611 
12,735 
13,7251 
8.044 
3,18S1 
4,534 
8,1051 
8,880 
8141 
29 
4,364 

47 
719 

11..3S61 
2.8481 
3.0891 
3,212 
4,029 
4,580 

4271 
1,6991 
4.359 
6,172 
5,0061 
1,002 
6,8091 
8,8931 
2.32;-l 
4,5171 
3,7001 



273,039 



Value of garden seeds $40,889 

Bushels of grapes 1,010* 

Value of melons $4,682 

Bushels of millet 6.4531 

Bushels of onions 15.0261 

Value of osier willow. $251 

Bushels of quinces 2.0.351 

Value of root crops (miscellaneous) $10,703 

Bushels of rutabaga 3,111 

Pound.-! of s.iffron 1,798 

Bushels of strawberries 371 

Value of fruit and ornamental trees $142,328 

Miscellaneous $611,397 



Neat cattle under one year old 311,474 

Neat cattle over one year, exclusive of working 

oxen and cows 677,887 

Number of cattle killed for beef. 225,3.38 

Gallons of milk sold 20,965.861 

Pounds of wool 9,231,9591 

Value of poultry sold. $1,070,598 

Value of eggs sold $1,300,673 

Yards of fulled cloth made 198.203 

Yards of flannel made 379.9221 

Ycirds of linen made 105,086 

Yards of cotton and mixed cloths 245,464 

Yards of carpeting 213,6171 



106 



NEW YOKK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The State appropriations for the promotion of agriculture, in 1819, through the Board of Agri- 
culture, and, since 1841, through the State and County Agricultural Societies, have been as 
shown in the table commencing at the foot of this page. 

Agricultural Products of the several 



ConuTiES. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus.. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer .... 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery , 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga .... 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer.... 
Richmond.... 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca , 

Steuben , 

Suffolk. 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins ... 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington. 

Wayne 

Westchester. 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 



3 



53,650 
68.998 
47.380 
62,486 
83,o53i 
53,465 
39.191 
48.702 
51,459 
31,618 
56.148 
101,571 
38.503 
59,6.59 
27,342 
19,622 
23,761 
32.359 
32.940 
5.610 
3S,S47 
18,444 



11,912 
26.693 
55,615 
46.038 
58,571 

27,205 
138,475 
81.575 
53,135 
25.111 
23,113 
47,700 
93.020 
13,2.371 

5,989 
33,684i 
475 
8,667 
51,614 
45.202J 
12.688 
89.676 
52,167 
37.549 
11.3.653 
6.087 
40.946 
38,378 
83,627 
49.898 
20.062 
30.000 
58.204 
17,592 
36.248 
29,260 



2,557,876 



I 



3.436i 

3,321 i 

2.11.3i 

3,.378 

4,165i 

4,142 

l,670i 

3,451 

2,2.3Si 

1.466 

3,619i 

5,285i 

1,830 

3.220 

1,419 

919 
1.300 
1.568 
2.202i 

401i 
2.927i 
l,290i 

"ssi" 

l,950i 
3.366J 
li842* 
3,544 

i.-ieb" 

3,455i 
3,857* 
2,458i 
2,128i 
l,151i 
2,142i 
4,065J 

459 

276 
l,840i 
22 

174i 
2,814i 
2,499 

782i 
4,496i 
2,076 
l,609i 
5,4291 

414 
2,39** 
1.012i 
4,075f 
3.125 
1.061J 
1.945 
2,820i 
6..370i 
2,000 
1,510J 



138,033i 



"is 



66 



23.247 
47,332 
37,544 
58,489 
46,178 
76,890 
20.899 
68.391 
25.555 
27^676 
37.671 
65;i81 
44,126 
55,439 
23.567 
23,677 
19.922 
24,785 
25,239 

2.456 
49.820 
79,249 

3.204 
29,748 
29,383 
44,924 
39,545 
30.502 

3.323 
28.238 
77.832 
50.228 
33,962 
57,602 
23.412 
42,172 
63.798 
15.507 
14,326 
29,601 

2,250 

7,198 
96.408 
34.769 

8,614 
38,771 
19.004 
16,996 
52.4S3 
24,215 
27,346 
29,664 
3n..e47 
34,140 
14,2.s2 
40.410 
3S.4t>4 
33,132 
39,048 
16,784 



2,105,465 



o 






1,813 
3,392 
3.531 
4,137 
2..506 
4.515 
1..510 
3.887 
1,484 
3,701 
1,709 
4,780 
6,263 
3.794 
2,081 
1.8.59 
1,173 
1,417 
2,349 
360 
785 
2,522 
41 
2.423 
i;7.51 
1,874 
1,944 
1,046 



2,058 
3,476 
2,454 
2,113 
3,4.S9 
1,164 
3,093 
2,942 
3,200 
1,926 
2,704 

400 

573 
5,.576 
2,625 

597 
2,440 
1,128 

577 
4,351 
2,006 
4,265 
2,323 
1,666 
4,671 
1.423 
2,100 
1,762 
5,427 
2,674 

747 



144,597 



6 



13,332 
19,009 
17,116 
23,633 
19.822 
36,046 

9.690 
36,939 
11,284 
14,500 
21,668 
34.484 
24;5S4 
29,831 

8,749 
10.919 
10,268 
10.541 
12,592 
8.52 
36,653 
49,472 

2.834 
19.151 
10,980 
24.067 
17,504 
16,801 
719 
11,708 
47,794 
24,801 
14.202 
40,187 

8,921 
21,983 
34,713 

7,851 

9,240 
16,864 

1,189 

4,708 
52,161 
16,778 

.5,768 
18,213 

7,676 

7.136 
20,284 
10,833 
10,775 
12,954 
14,572 
17;o32 

6,161 
18,689 
16,769 
20,078 
16,737 

7,250 



1,008,427 



3 



"3 

3 



1,173,527 
1,700,775 
1,753,417 
1,957,183 
2,082,022 
3,389,837 

924,645 
3,990,564 

891 ,431 J 
1,347,428 
2.379,257 
4,026,575 
1,681,-595 
1,866,132 

625,542 
1,050,040 

840,397 

919,130 
1,191,930 
83,282 
1,305,377 
3,949,608 
17,425 
1,575,515 
1,045,591 
1,840,298 
1,643,515 
1,211,385 

1,038^367' 

2,912,176 

2,294,287 

1,223,097 

3,285,587* 

912,013 
2,036,174 
3,075,206 

493,696 

441,983i 
1,291,738 
24,365 

266,006 
4,268,809 
1,468,1361 

515,662 
1,832,257 

798,953 

705,574 
1,976,129 

634,405 

931,927 
1,365,783 
1,645,947 
1,669,631 

482,786 
1,625,138 
1,446.080 
1,116,-589 
1,333,948 

717;259i 



90,293,0731 



Appropriations for the Promotion of Agriculture. 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus.... 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua 

Chemung 



1819. 



$350 


$205 


75 


123 


100 


67 




86 


250 


151 


50 


143 




62 



1841. 



Counties. 



Chenango 
Clinton.... 
Columbia. 
Cortland.. 
Delaware. 
Dutchess.. 
Erie 



1819. 


1841. 


2 years. 




S200 


$122 


125 


84 


300 


133 


125 


75 


200 


106 


400 


1.57 

186 



Counties. 



Essex 

Franklin 

Fult. & Ham 

Geriesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 



1819. 


1841. 


2 years. 




S125 


$71 


100 


50 




60 


250 


179 


200 


91 


200 


112 


200 


183 



Counties. 



Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery 
New York.... 



1819. 
2 years 



$75 
100 

250 

400 
650 



1841. 



$143 
53 
117 
120 
194 
107 
950 



AGRICULTURE. 



107 



By an act of April 11, 1842, Genesee receives $92 and Wyoming $87 annually ; and by another 
tf April 13, 1855, the co. of Schuyler was allowed to receive a proportional share from the moneys 
previously belonging to Chemung, Steuben, and Tompkins cos. 



Counties in 


the State of New York, continued. 










, 














C 


•0 

S 


1 


i 


5 


& 




1 


3 




s^ 


s" 






"5. 


1 




























<^ 


^ 


^ 




< 


^ 


^ 


a 


^ 


36.520 


10.954 


31 


37.054 


24,035 


127 


834^ 


334i 


359 


1,044,978 


11,223 


36 


104,799 


13,148 




147 


52 


l,592i 


40.896 


6,998 


7 


40,894 


12,251 


13i 


137 J 


11 


14 


1.717,484 


9.497 


11 


59,725 


13,834 


2i 


647 i 


39 


146 


199,333 


15,405 


4 


103.631 


29,081 




5.041 


395 


15 


1,198,361 


13,047 


15 


90,154 


21,105 


62 


4,742 


149 


135i 


7,861 


4,856 


6 


21.364 


9,853 


i 


924 


27 


190 


1.212.5-14 


10,971 


10 


85,923 


18,092 






55 




105,906 


8,«4 


36 


38.351 


7,868 








25 


87.167 


9,103 


211 


87,549 


32.508 


4i 


i,999 


759 


313 


708,679 


7,410 


27 


41,821 


12,302 


1 


65 


43 


11 


61,185 


9,140 


5 


71,315 


15,870 




3Si 


11 


5 


54,119 


10,829 


29 


73,687 


42.986 




1,072 


278 


1,780 


2,038,392 


16,983 


10 


65,085 


24,791 




2,616 


139 


207 


93,594 


6.149 


43 


47,654 


6,504 








23 


143.916 


6,029 


3 


23.958 


7,5:55 










579.079 


5,829 


1 


16,969 


10.514 


H 




6 




105,873 


11.395 


13 


100,391 


10,273 




3,506 


267 




21,317 


6,203 


23 


19,382 


14,074 


i 


140 


232 




2,670 


338 




1,481 


510 










9,068,519 


9,098 


10 


17,706 


18.227 


251 




48 


10 


2,819,459 


17,059 


20 


63,401 


2:3.327 








121 




6,314 


122 


2 


3 904 




15 


iis 




1,896,741 


5,097 


9 


10.086 


8.353 






1 


1^ 


79,346i 


12,502 


47 


112,502 


19.275 


701 


618 


38 


24 


2,087,594 


11.753 


32 


66,547 


16.794 


5 




4S5 


21 


131.253 


18,913 


16 


116.817 


34.727 




22,134 


240 


4 


1,538,654 


8,836 
14,099 


3 

256 


29,661 


18,834 
1 249 


'256i 




77 


125 


71,443 


14.334 


5 


78,359 


21,765 


4* 


12,378 


47 


87 


3,311,114 


17.398 


34 


50.841 


31,228 


14* 




468J 


27 


860.644 


17.330 


8 


94,202 


31 ,.5.39 




1,165 


376 


201 


205,921 


13,660 


159 


132,725 


26,419 




3,073 


699 


265 


80.660 


9,986 


74 


21.377 


40,684 




2.705 


69 


146 


110,298 


9,640 


2 


91,285 


15,692 





4,031 


l;36 


100 


975,461 


12,.398 


23 


36,088 


21.836 




2,244 


400 


129i 


1,638,493 


14,652 


17 


109.937 


22.368 




8^ 


62J 


82 


3.475 


1,938 


1 


6,804 


6.997 


i 








765 


7,954 


178 


9.714 


14,228 




111 


60 




538,462 


10,184 

845 


10 
26 


64,609 
57 


2.i,007 
1 726 


48 


392 


341 


341 


2500 


3,715 


170 


926 


3."l85 




8 




5 


1,672,999 


20,261 


20 


86.454 


24.2S6 








5 


152.901f 


11,293 


2 


46,018 


26.003 






94 




72.019 


4.219 


4 


10.759 


7.727 


727 




• •• . 


312 


71,016 


9.682 


2 


45.596 


18,804 


134f 


28 


8 




32,168 


5,700 


4 


48.918 


9.451 




3,195 




630 


13.812 


7.497 


6 


47,534 


17,5;J2 


k 


5,777 


378 




203,329 


13.899 


40 


111,353 


24,154 




1,148 


4 


397 


1.580 


7.111 


163 


28,016 


19.727 


i 


1,330 


91 


8 


4.598 


3,092 


87 


12,591 


8,231 


1 
4 


568 


134 




50.357 


5,678 


13 


36,152 


11,248 




586 


31 


22 


60,128 


9,443 


3 


61.036 


14,358 




1,919 


127 


4 


520 


9,893 


58 


29,841 


34,025 




1,721 


111 


3 


64,6.34 


3,341 


6 


16,472 


5,703 








144 


r34.491 


11,707 


11 


118.533 


30,305 


2^ 






76 


163.76.3i 


14,928 


5 


104.845 


29.799 


7i 


25,394 


ise 


5 


2.180 


7,332 


73 


11,321 


20.861 




895 






823,105 


10.358 


6 


93.365 


11.674 




397 


70 


212 


59,972 


6,773 


8 


64,827 


12,586 





1,689 


15 


281 


38,944,249J 


579,715 


2,254 


3,217,024 


1,069,792 


1,509^ 


115,410i 


7,6291 


8,604 



Appropriations for the Promotion of Agriculture, continued. 



Counties. 


1819. 
2yars. 


1841. 


Counties. 


1819. 
2 years. 


1841. 


Niagara 


$400 
300 
500 
300 

400 


$93 
255 
204 
130 
152 
75 
131 
148 


Putnam 


$100 
200 
350 
75 
100 
100 
300 
100 


$38 
91 

18C 
34 
36 

170 

121 
51 


Oneida . . 


Quepns 


Onondaga 


Kensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 


Orange 


Orleans 

Oswego 


St. Lawrence.... 
Saratoga 




Schenectady.... 





Counties. 


1819. 

2 years. 


1841. 


Counties. 


1819. 
2 years. 


1841. 


Schoharie 


$200 
150 
150 
200 
100 
150 
150 


$97 
74 

138 
97 
47 
61 

114 


Ulster 


$250 
100 
350 

250 


$137 
40 
123 
126 
146 
61 
700 






Steuben 


Washington.... 


Suffolk 


Sullivan 


Westchester.... 
Yates 


Tioga 


Tonijikins 


State Ag. Soc... 



108 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



County societies usually require the payment of $1 annually from each member, or $10 for life 
membership without further payment. It is customary to restrict competition for premiums to 
members of the society, and to collect of all others an entrance fee to the exhibition grounds. 

Dwellings, Area, and Products. 



COCSTIES. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus . 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua- 
Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia - 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin , 

Fulton , 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston. ... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery., 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer.... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady . 

Schoharie 

Schuyler , 

Seneca , 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster , 

Warren 

Washington.. 

Wayne 

Westchester . 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 



NuMBEB OF Dwellings. 



83 



13 

4 

5 

73 

14 

1 

20 

163 

52 

9 

44 

177 

111 

30 

88 

2 

60 

100 

2 

62 

429 

515 

34 

57 

50 

301 

59 

1,617 

348 

59 

60 

120 

232 

182 

67 

84 

1 

21 

16 

74 

251 

312 

32 

15 

13 

2 

41 

12 

9 

15 

5 

9 

903 

6 

23 

250 

158 

11 

25 



7.536 






3,769 

29 

82 

9 

325 

113 

47 

21 

460 

3&8 

45 

8 

434 

2.427 

168 

71 

53 

107 

163 

' 165 

208 

8,061 

18 

113 

95 

1,760 

147 

29,977 

299 

623 

762 

516 

474 

133 

131 

50 

47 

70 

1,559 

122 

106 

176 

343 

605 

31 

13 

267 

57 

56 



35 

77 

329 

90 

321 

323 

470 

50 

52 



57.450 



9,385 
6.287 
5,529 
4.942 
9.620 
8..314 
3.2&i 
7.226 
3.959 
6.665 
4.276 
6,040 
8.947 

12.834 
4.176 
2 545 
3,817 
4.976 
4;964 
273 
6.332 
9,5.34 

14.901 
3.193 
5,787 
7.6S8 

13.713 
4,700 

10.595 
5,361 

16,062 

13,175 
6,591 
8,162 
4.119 

10.516 
8,837 
2,270 
7.071 
9.719 
3.018 
2.775 
8^427 
7.944 
2.449 
5.333 
2.634 
3,924 
8,042 
7,089 
4,2.30 
4.3.51 
4,871 
9.028 
2,524 
7.243 
6.889 

12.044 
5.181 
3,275 



397,638 



?> 

M 



19 
966 
560 

1.252 
475 
639 
616 
240 

1,988 

29 

295 

888 

58 

1,638 
663 

1,353 
238 
408 
145 
147 
191 

1,369 

1,094 

608 

173 

650 

23 

1,525 
496 
498 
513 
405 
346 
821 
287 
63 

"263 

"'"40 

3,443 

163 

14 

435 

405 

254 

1,938 

7 
757 
483 
287 
582 
461 
124 
859 

3 
603 
452 



33.092 



S 



13.591 
8.192 
6.436 
7.515 

10.916 
9.9SS 
4,837 
7.602 
6,994 
7,287 
4.727 
7,238 
9,705 

21,674 
5,227 
4.444 
4,179 
5.753 
5,419 
461 
6,898 

11,975 

23.970 
4,707 
6,990 
8,221 

16,916 
4,960 

42.668 
8.698 

17.782 

15,215 
7.828 
9^582 
5,299 

12,649 
9,324 
2,405 
7,896 

11,683 
3,220 
3,188 

13,191 
8,631 
3,105 
5,846 
3,582 
4,069 

11,.351 
7,2-11 
5,403 
5.049 
6,051 

11.008 
3,614 
7,875 
8,708 

12,758 
6.041 
3,873 



,3 

4 



3.539 

5.392 
3,925 
5,441 
4,299 
6,547 
1.948 
5.203 
3.351 
3,242 
3,388 
6,458 
3.797 
7.257 
2.715 
3.247 
2.2S8 
3.003 
3,145 

404 
3.447 
6,992 

398 
3,945 
3,375 
4,680 
4.879 
2,852 
48 
3.968 
8.315 
6.336 
3.943 
3,982 
2.454 
6.720 
6,109 
1.368 
3.113 
3,869 

876 
1,221 
8,946 
4,208 
1,328 
4,011 
2,446 
2,238 
7,042 
4.338 
3,683 
3.088 
3,623 
4.851 
2,145 
4,192 
4.767 
3,722 
4.131 
2,242 



522.325 231,740 13,657,490f 



Number of Acres. 



Improved. 



242,735 

280,863 
198,8391 
266,435J 
315.795f 
360.110 
120,219f 
347.8281 
168,9321 
304.2771 
194.736} 
304.400i 
360,3591 
340,307^ 
185,443f 
144,627 i 
133.415J 
219.012A 
212,223} 
16.675* 
267,414i 
465.222 

15.S7U 
184.540i 
262,462i 
277,3931 
210.840A 
194.4571 
1,150J 
207,043} 
435.8001 
344,528 
290,639* 
308,599} 
181,9481 
244.120 
428.9321 

94.205} 
119,549 
292,212} 

15,072} 

46.481* 
499.554 
315,7281 

93.448} 
227,904} 
134,.336i 
151.949* 
361.450 
163.818} 
125,489^ 
154.894} 
205,61 0| 
240,041 
111,202} 
333.0.30i 
254,451} 
209,146* 
241.654} 
155,542} 



Total. 



313,512} 

635,132} 
404,048} 
699,056} 
503,032} 
654,255} 
230,605 
530.764} 
570.018} 
373,532} 
308,399* 
802,852} 
464,464} 
593,651} 
959,638} 
979,092 
280,486} 
294,744} 
362,828} 
783,154} 
773,072 
716.513 
21,466 
681,686} 
358,840* 
388,898* 
295,022} 
241,178} 
1:974} 
308,153} 
722,394} 
459,229} 
387,748} 
498,214} 
244,275} 
572.173} 
608,491} 
138.653} 
176,753 
393.215} 
22,674} 
97,334} 
1,385,085 
455,577} 
126,131* 
359,950} 
197,335} 
197,886} 
799,700} 
424.389* 
620,318} 
293.317} 
290.580} 
618,843* 
442,543} 
476,585 
356,513} 
291,094} 
364,418* 
206,676} 



26,758,183} 



1 This column includes the four preceding ones, and also a miscellaneous class reported as "Planks," "Boards," ".Shanties," 
&c. Of 4,196 dwellings, the material and value were not given. The value, so far as reported, waa as follows: — 



Stone.. 
Brick.. 
Frame. 

Log 

Total.. 



Numher. 



7,172 

56.752 
378.967 

28,831 
487,904 



Total Value. 



$49,184,819 
312.151,135 
297.453.492 
1.330,168 
664,899,967 



Average Value. 



$6,857.89 

5.500.26 

784.90 

46.13 

1.362.76 



MANUFACTURES. 

The manufactures of the State are very extensive, embracing an almost endless variety of articles. 
In many sections the manufacturing interests surpass those of agriculture or commerce. The lines 
of internal communioation through the State have greatly facilitated the spread of manufactures ; 
and now flourishing establishments are found in nearly every part of the State.^ The most im- 



Manufacturinq Establishments in the several Counties, as reported by the State Census 

0/1855. 



Counties. 


1 

•-< 

<^ 

15 
1 

2 

"2 

6 
16 

"2 

"2 

"3 

4 
9 
1 

2 

1 

8 

2 

54 

"9 

1 

"i 
2 

3 

"5 
9 
2 

1 
1 
4 

"i 

2 

1 

"3 
4 
3 

"1 

6 

2 


1 

1 
1 


to 

1 


1 


1 

f 
S 
g 

1 


to 

■s 

1 

C 

B 




1. 
II 

It 


t 

s 




s 



1: 

1-1 


a 

6s 


1 


60 

25 
4 
2 
4 

10 
7 
7 

15 
6 
4 
1 
3 
9 
9 
2 
1 

"4 
4 

"4 

10 

15 
1 

13 
9 

12 
3 

37 
4 

21 

11 
8 
4 
5 
9 
9 
1 
1 
7 

"3 
8 
3 
3 
4 
2 
5 
9 
1 
1 
2 
9 
5 

"5 

10 
5 
6 
6 




■St; 

It 

it 
?-= 

II 


6 

§ 

S 

1 

Is 

^1 

8 
2 
1 

"i 
"3 

"4 

1 

"3 

"5 

"2 

2 

"3 
1 

2 

51 

1 
5 
4 
1 
1 

"2 
1 

2 
1 
1 

1 

"3 

"2 
1 

"2 
1 

"2 
2 
1 

1 

124 


i 

s 

g 
3 

"i 

1 
2 

"2 
2 
4 

"3 

"3 

1 

"5 
2 
4 

2 

2 
3 
2 

"2 
5 

"4 
5 
5 

8 
1 

"i 

1 

4 
2 
1 

1 

"2 

1 

"2 
3 
2 

1 

4 

1 

"i 

101 


1 

S 

2 
2 
5 
1 

3 
5 

"i 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
1 
1 

1 
2 

5 

6 
11 

1 

4 
11 

36 
4 
7 
9 
3 
3 
2 
4 
5 

"7 

4 
4 
8 
3 
2 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

4 
2 

2 
2 

187 


2 

1 

c 

s 
,S 
t 

1 

8 
2 



2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
1 
3 

1 
3 

3 
5 
7 

3 
3 

4 

21 
32 
2 
9 

2 i 

1 

2 

1 
2 

2 
3 

2 
3 

1 

2 
2 

1 
2 

1 
1 
2 
7 
4 

138 


Albany 

AUeffanv 


27 
37 
23 
32 
59 
43 
19 
41 
22 
47 
26 
31 
44 
29 
28 
15 
12 
33 
19 

36 

52 
11 

9 
35 
27 
69 
44 
53 
32 
65 
53 
40 
37 
38 
26 
66 

6 
14 
43 

6 

7 

47 
47 

8 
34 
23 
23 
49 
22 
29 
20 
45 
37 
U 
40 
49 
27 
37 
14 


27 

23 

16 

16 

36 

37 

15 

28 

15 

29 

26 

26 

35 

31 

8 

7 

7 

36 

6 

34 
42 
10 

7 
30 
30 
34 
20 
71 
24 
72 
53 
29 
20 
26 
29 
54 
12 

8 
25 

5 

5 
37 
29 

9 
21 
16 
13 
28 
18 
10 
17 
34 

9 

7 
24 
22 
52 
34 
15 


9 

"i 

1 

"4 
2 

"i 

"i 

18 

"i 
1 

"i 
1 

12 

"4 
1 

16 

19 
1 
8 
5 
1 
2 

"i 

"8 
1 
1 
1 

"i 
"i 

"i 

1 
2 


11 

1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
9 
2 

2 

13 
11 

"i 

1 

2 

22 

"i 
4 

i 
1 

"3 

2 

5 
5 
9 
3 

14 

"9 

2 
2 
2 
7 
1 
33 
6 
4 
1 

"4 
3 

7 

"i 

1 

11 

1 

2 

2 

38 


8 

13 

5 

15 

11 

13 

6 

7 

6 

5 

7 

9 

9 

19 

5 

5 

2 

6 

5 

1 

10 

17 

10 

5 

11 

12 

15 

9 

98 

6 

21 

15 

8 

9 

8 

13 

15 

2 

4 

10 

1 

i'2 
7 
5 
5 
4 
5 

16 
5 
7 
5 

16 
8 
2 
9 
8 
7 

17 
6 


3 

2 
4 
3 
3 
3 

"s 

3 

1 

"5 

1 
2 
1 
1 

"2 
1 

"2 

7 

"i 

1 
1 
3 
3 

"4 
2 
1 
1 

2 
4 
4 

"i 

"5 

"5 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 

i 


9 
2 

"i 
7 
3 
4 

i 

7 

1 

"3 
3 

7 

"3 

"5 
3 

10 

1 

10 

ii 

76 

1 
1 

12 
1 
2 
1 
1 

11 
1 
2 

"3 
1 

3 
2 

1 

io 
12 


5 

"i 

"3 

1 
2 

"2 
1 

"3 
9 

"i 

"i 

"i 
1 

2 

"2 

6 
3 

31 

is 

2 

1 
5 

"i 

4 
1 

"2 
1 

"3 
1 

1 

"2 

1 
1 

"i 

1 
2 


29 
24 
15 
18 
32 
31 

9 
21 
20 
34 
15 
25 
40 
26 
15 

8 

6 
25 

8 

1 
27 
33 
14 
12 
26 
21 
48 
21 
59 
24 
61 
45 
19 
33 
21 
21 
55 

2 
26 
20 

2 

7 
26 
29 

7 
27 
15 
19 
36 
16 
13 
16 
26 
29 

6 
25 
29 
28 
30 
15 


12 
3 

7 
8 
9 

22 
7 

16 
4 
1 

10 

10 
7 

15 
4 
3 

10 

16 
4 

'ii 
10 

6 

1 

13 
9 

52 
5 

59 
10 
19 
38 
13 
8 
10 
48 
17 

12 

"i 

8 
11 

14 
7 
7 

12 
2 
1 
10 
15 
29 

"s 

17 
1 
6 
8 


23 
23 

27 
20 
30 
31 
17 
28 
19 
43 
23 
26 
39 
43 
16 
11 

9 
22 
27 

1 
18 
48 

5 
10 
29 
22 
54 
24 

8 
17 
42 
36 
40 
38 
26 
42 
39 

7 

24 
34 

2 
13 
36 
33 

5 
27 
15 
15 
42 
29 
16 
17 
28 
42 

5 
15 
25 
29 
30 
15 


7 

13 
6 

10 

13 

11 
3 

10 
9 
6 
8 

10 
9 

14 
4 
3 
5 

15 
3 

10 

17 

5 

6 

11 

16 

27 

9 

32 

10 

26 

26 

10 

15 

7 

12 

20 

1 

7 

8 

"i 

14 

12 

8 

7 

6 

8 

15 

6 

5 

8 

14 

8 

3 

13 

15 

7 

9 

6 






Oavuffft 






ChenaDfiTO 






Cortland ■ 






Erio , 


Essex 


Franklin 


Fulton 


Geueaee 




1 Hamilton 


Herkinifr 








Livingston 


Madison 






New York 


NiaGrnra 






Ontario 






Oswego 


Otsego 




Queens 








St. Lawrence 




Schenectady 


Schoharie 








Suffolk 


Sullivan 






Ulster 


Warren 






Westchester 


Wyoming 




Total 


196 


1,921 


1,467 


128 


269 


616 


114 


232 


111 


1,397 


666 


388 


1,476 


595 





109 



110 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



portanfc and extensive manufactories are those of iron and machinery, leather, articles of wood, 
and cotton and woolen goods. Such articles as relate to the professions and fine arts, to books, 
maps, and engravings, and to the heavy machinery used in ocean steamships, are principally manu- 
factured in New York City and its suburbs. Immense quantities of brick are manufactured on 
the Hudson for the New York and Southern markets. Lime, waterlime, and gypsum are largely 
manufactured on the Hudson and through the center of the State ; and iron ware is produced in 
large quantities in the iron districts of Essex, Clinton, Dutchess, Orange, and Oneida counties. De- 
tails of the principal manufacturing establishments are given in the statistics of the cities or towns 
in which they are located.^ 



^ Manufacturing Establishments in the several Counties, continued. 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus... 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua ... 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer. 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston..... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 

New York 

Niagara , 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange , 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence.. 

Saratoga 

Schenectady. ., 

Schoharie 

Schuyler , 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sulliyan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster - 

Warren-. 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester... 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 













1 






rfi 


i 














8 


































!^ 












i 


5 








■1 






S 


!~ 




>> 














R 




Co 


^ 


s 








CS 




■e 




1 


f? 


s 






1 




1 

29 


!> 

■§ 










s 


i 


a 

8 


a 


s 

1 


g 


s 


1 

s 

Is 
3 




"2 3 


.2 

s 
s 


3 


i 
6 


k 

i 

25 


s 


el 


if 




II 


S 

s 


3 


3 


3 


10 


43 


10 


5 


8 


1 


1 


131 


1 


1 


2 


... 


... 




183 


... 


4 


1 


2 


17 


8 






2 


315 


2 


1 


2 


... 




... 


159 




4 






20 


8 




1 




22 


1 






1 


i 


1 


169 


is 


3 




6 


15 


6 




1 


1 


25 


7 


1 


4 


7 




4 


79 




3 


3 


6 


18 


8 


4 




6 


54 


3 


3 


... 


3 




1 


184 


10 


7 


1 


8 


25 


11 


1 


7 


3 


40 


1 


... 


2 


3 


... 


• .. 


99 


4 


2 




7 


11 


10 


1 


4 


2 


20 


3 


1 


6 






3 


110 




5 




2 


17 


7 


... 


5 


4 


30 


..* 




1 


... 




1 


110 


2 


1 




... 


13 


5 


... 


... 


1 


73 




15 


6 


... 


• •• 


4 


21 


2 


2 


2 


13 


8 


12 


1 




6 


49 


• •• 


1 






... 




68 


... 


2 


1 


5 


13 


6 


... 


3 


2 


29 


2 


1 




1 


... 




224 


2 


2 


... 


5 


24 


5 


... 


1 


4 


8 


7 


1 


7 


4 




2 


12 


1 


6 


5 


23 


8 


18 


13 


2 


6 


72 


3 




1 


1 


... 


10 


151 


11 


7 


2 


i 


134 


13 


5 


6 


9 


164 




1 


1 




... 


1 


73 


5 


2 


... 


2 


10 


3 


... 


... 


5 


62 


1 




1 




■ •• 


2 


85 


4 


3 






4 


6 


5 






2 


34 


2 


3 


1 


... 


... 


1 


90 


5 


... 






1 


25 


1 


1 


5 


2 


81 


5 


.. 


7 




... 


4 


4(5 


3 


3 






8 


9 


5 


• •• 


1 


3 


38 


2 


4 


4 


... 




4 


62 
23 




1 






1 


9 
3 


4 


1 


8 

1 


5 


36 


3 


5 


6 


1 


... 


2 


94 




4 






14 


21 


8 


... 


6 


3 


80 


5 


2 


1 


1 




2 


101 


12 


4 


1 


17 


25 


19 


1 




3 


119 


... 


1 


1 


... 




... 


2 


1 


11 


2 


... 


4 


5 


9 


1 




221 


... 


1 






... 


2 


95 


2 


1 


... 


2 


15 


4 


... 


2 


3 


29 


4 


3 






... 


... 


35 




•2 


... 


8 


7 


6 


1 


2 


1 


34 


2 


*> 


4 


'7 




4 


75 


1 


4 


... 


7 


22 


10 


• .. 


2 


6 


54 




1 


6 




... 


4 


55 


2 


11 


2 


8 


15 


12 


4 


2 


3 


158 


... 




5 


1 


... 


1 


43 


2 


2 




3 


15 


7 


1 


4 


3 


38 


12 


... 


5 


53 


1 


... 


13 


... 


21 


83 


126 


14 


54 


36 


8 




1248 


2 


1 


1 




• •• 


6 


41 


9 


3 


... 


8 


4 


5 


1 


... 


2 


30 


15 


3 


6 


6 




58 


238 


17 


5 


4 


28 


38 


21 


6 


2 


13 


185 


1 


6 


12 


."> 


190 


4 


81 




6 


3 


10 


19 


17 


5 


4 


6 


121 


... 


2 


7 




... 




64 


1 


1 


... 


14 


6 


13 


• •■ 


1 


4 


46 


6 


3 


4 






2 


21 


• .. 


4 


4 


9 


12 


9 


6 


... 


8 


51 


4 


1 


1 




... 


6 


33 


3 


2 


... 


2 


10 


6 


■ •• 


... 




13 


6 


2 


1 






... 


218 


22 


3 




10 


38 


10 


2 


2 


6 


48 


5 


2 


... 








142 


2 


8 


2 


17 


24 


10 


... 


6 


6 


59 


1 


1 








1 


2 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


2 




... 




7 


2 


6 




2 




... 


7 




3 


2 


4 


2 


9 


... 


1 


3 


40 


1 


8 


5 




... 


6 


91 


... 


"i 


2 

"i 


15 
1 


13 
"2 


13 

2 

1 


3 
1 
3 


6 


4 
"2 


76 
26 
24 


i 


2 


3 


2 




2 


138 


36 


12 


2 


12 


25 


14 


1 


... 


7 


70 




t 


4 


1 


i 


1 


80 


5 


7 




4 


9 


6 


1 


5 


4 


53 


4 


1 


... 






1 


13 


... 


... 


... 


9 


1 


2 


... 


1 


2 


29 




3 


... 


... 


... 


1 


118 


1 


1 


... 


4 


17 


5 




7 


• •• 


23 


2 


... 


2 




... 




84 


10 


3 


... 


6 


13 




... 


... 


2 


10 




... 


2 


... 




4 


15 




3 


1 


6 


5 


.5 


• .. 


1 


2 


34 


4 


... 


3 


2 




1 


238 


15 


4 


3 


9 


19 


7 


2 


2 


• •• 


28 


3 


... 


... 


*.. 






11 


... 


5 


1 


3 


4 


5 


2 


1 


2 


77 


2 


... 




... 




... 


145 




1 




... 


39 


3 


2 


12. 


1 


18 


1 


... 


o 


... 




... 


146 


7 




3 


27 


12 


3 


2 




1 


16 


6 


2 


4 


... 


... 


... 


97 


7 


2 


3 


15 


14 


2 


6 


1 


3 


31 


2 


3 


3 


1 


... 


40 


95 




3 




9 


30 


5 


3 


5 


4 


40 


2 


... 






... 


... 


68 








1 


14 


2 


• •• 


1 


1 


13 


1 


3 


3 






3 


49 


2 


3 


... 


3 


13 


4 


1 


... 


8 


36 


5 




1 


... 






86 


... 


1 


2 


11 


14 


11 


... 


1 


1 


42 




2 


3 


... 




i 


31 


1 


7 


1 


2 


9 


10 


4 


1 


3 


94 


i 




... 




... 




77 


10 


3 


... 


5 


16 


8 


1 


2 


3 


29 


5 
1.51 


109 


4 
144 


2 
161 




... 


19 


1 


1 


... 


7 
660 


5 


6 


... 




2 


17 


193 


200 


4,948 


262 


212 


143 


863 


480 


139 


136 


184 


4,458 



The returns of manufacturing establishments from many counties are qnite unsatisfactory, as an examination of the table will 
show. It is to be hoped that the next census will be more complete in this particular. 



COMMERCE. 

The position of New York in the confederacy of States gives it peculiar facilities for maritime 
affairs, and through its various ports a large proportion of the foreign and internal commerce of 
the nation is carried on. This commerce extends to every accessible port in the world, and in 
amount and variety excels that of all the other States of the Union. It is regulated by acts of 
Congress ; and the revenues arising from duties upon articles imported are collected by ofScers ap- 
pointed by the President and Senate, or subordinate to those thus appointed. These officers are 
accountable to the U. S. Treasury Department. 

Collection Districts. — The Federal Government has established 11 Collection Districts 
within this State for the collection of these revenues. Each of these has one port of entry, in charge 
of a collector, and several ports of delivery, at which one or more deputy collectors, inspectors, or 
other officers reside.^ The number of officers employed in collecting these revenues in New York 
City and its dependencies is nearly 800. Duties on foreign importations form much the largest 
item of revenue for the support of the General Government, and those collected at the port of New 
York form the largest part of the whole amount. The absolute and relative amounts of moneys 
collected from this source in the United States and State of New York have been steadily increasing, 
except as influenced by pecuniary embarrassments ; and now the former amount to about $60,000,000 
annually.^ 



^ Collection Districts in New York. 



District. 


Date of 
Establishment. 


Principal 

Office. 


Subordinate Offices. 




July 31, 1789 
July 31, 1789 
Mar. 2, 1793 

Mar. 2, 1811 
April 18, 1818 

Mar. 3, 1803 
Mar. 2, 1799 
Mar. 3, 1805 
Mar. 2, 1799 

Mar. 3, 1805 
July 27, 1854 


Sag Harbor 


Greenport. 

Albany, Troy, Cold Spring Harbor, Port Jeffer-son. 

Whitehall, Roiises I'oint, Champlain, Perrysville, Mooers, Centerrille, 

Chateaugay, Burke, Trout Kiver, WestvUle, Fort Covington, Hogans- 

burgh, Malone. 
Hammond, Morristown, Lisbon, Waddington, Louisville, Massena. 
Alexandria Bay, Millens Bay, Clayton, Chaumont, Three Mile Bay, Point 

Peninsula. 
Dexter, Henderson, Sandy Creek. 
Big Sodus, Little Sod us, Texas, Port Ontario. 
Carthage Landing, Kelsey Landing, I'ultneyville, Charlotte. 
Niagara Falls, Niagara Bridge, Youngstown, Wilson, Eighteen Mile Creek, 

Oak Orchard. 
Black Rock, Black Rock Dam, Tonawanda, Schlosser. 
Barcelona, Irving, Cattaraugus Creek, Silver Creek. 


New York City... 




Plattsburgh 

Ogdensburgh 

CapeA'incent 

Sackets Harbor.. 


Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Harbor... 

Oswego 

Genesee 


Rochester 


Niaarara. 


Lewis ton 


Buffiilo Creek 


Buffiilo 




1 





Albany was made a port of delivery in N. Y. Dist. July 31, 1789. 

Cape Vincent was made a port of delivery in Sackets Harbor 
Dist. Mar. 2, 1811. 

Hudson was made a port of delivery in N. Y. Dist. July 31, 
1789, and a district and port of entry Feb. 26, 1795. Annexed 
to N. Y. Dist. May 7, 1822. 

Catskill and Kinderhook were made ports of delivery from 
Feb. 26, 1795, to May 27, 1796. 

New Windsor. Nervhurgh, Poughhetpsie, and .EsopMS were made 
ports of delivery July 31, 1789. 

Niagara. —Of&CQ removed from Ft. Niagara to Lewiston 
Mar. 2, 1811. 

1 The following table exhibits the receipts for customs for the 
ports of the U.S. and N. Y. for a series of years : — 

Receipts into United Slates Treasury. 


Y'ears. 


Total from all 
sources. 


From Customs. 


Utiited States. 


New Fork. 


1795 
1800 
1805 
1810 
1815 
1820 
1825 
1830 
1835 
1840 
1845 
1850 
1855 
1857 
1868 


$9,419,802.79 
12.451,184.14 
13,689,508.14 
12,144,206.53 
50,961,237.60 
20.881,493.08 
26,840,858.02 
24,844.116.51 
35,4.30,087.10 
25,032,193.59 
29,941,853.90 
47,649,388.88 
65,351,374.68 
68.969,212.57 
70;273.869.69 


15,588,461.26 
9,080,932.73 
12,936,487.04 
8,583,309..31 
7.282,942.22 
15.005.612.15 
20,098,713.45 
21,922,391 ..39 
19,391.310.59 
1.3,499.502.17 
27,688,112.70 
39,668.686.42 
53,025,794.21 
63.875,905.05 
41.789,620.96 


$2,717,361 

3.611,588 

6,968,008 

5,223,696 

14,646,816 

5,.506,516 

15,702,142 

15,031,003 

14,568,660 

7,557,441 

21,318,408 

24,487,610 

42,510,753.79 



The amount of revonue from duties varies with the amount 
of tiiriff, and the sum thus collected becomes a very uncertain 
measure of the amount of commerce. The present tariff wa« 
adopted March 3, 1857, and admits a large class of goods free of 
duty. The system of bonding, introduced in 1846, permits goods 
to be stored in Government warehouses until re-exported or sold, 
before the payment of duties is required. The State Govern- 
ment took early measures for establishing custom houses and 
regulating duties upon foreign importations. By an act of Nov. 
18, 1784, Sag Harbor and New York were made ports of entiy 
and delivery, and officers were appointed by the Governor and 
Council of Appointment at each. The reluctance of New York 
to part with these revenues led to much delay in her ratifying 
the Constitution of the U.S., by which her revenues were sur- 
rendered to the General Government. 

Registered and enrolled tonnage of the port of New York and of 
the United States at different periods. 





Registered 
Tonnage. 


Enroiled 
Tonnage. 


Total Tonnage. 




Unit-d 


New 


United 


New 


United 


New 




Stat'S. 


York. 


States. 


York. 


States. 


York. 
280.594 


1825 


700,788 


136,384 


800 213 


144.210 


1,423.112 


1830 


576,475 


92,361 


615.301 


167,922 


1,191,776 


200.283 


1835 


885.821 


162,874 


9.39,119 


196,483 


1.824,940 


359,357 


1840 


899,765 


184,542 


1,280,999 


244,774 


2,180,764 


429.316 


1.845 


1,095,172 


217,089 


1,321,830 


288,187 


2,417,002 


505.276 


1850 


1,585,711 


388,438 


1,949,743 


391,380 


3,.535,454 


779,818 


1855 


2,.535,]36 


7.37,509 


2,676,805 


538,162 


5,212,001 


1.276.671 


1858 


2,577,769 


841.686 


3,201,430 


580,488 


5,049,808 


1,422,174 



111 



112 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie Foreign Trade of New York from 1700, although fluctuating considerably, has 
exhibited a general progressive increase. The commerce of the country was suspended during the 
Revolution ; and no statistics of its amount have been preserved during the period in which the 
States formed each an independent sovereignty under the Confederation. The amount of imports 
has been reported separately by States only since 1821.^ 

Amount of American as compared with Foreign Tannage at 
different periods in tlie District of New York. 



Years. 


Tonnage Entered. 










U.S. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


1825 


259,524i 


20,655i 


280,179J 


1830 


280,918 


33.79-J 


314,715* 


1835 


373,465 


90.999 


464,464 


1840 


409,458 


118.136 


527,594 


1845 


472,491J 


140.8.58i 


613,350 


1850 


807,580i 


441,756 


1,249.337 


1854 


1,442,2781 


477,0341 


l,919,.313i 


1858 


2,411,087 


1,124.020 


3,535,107 


Years. 


Tonnage Cleared. 










V.S. 


Foreign. 


TotdL 


1825 


245,512 


17.9141 


263,430f 


18.30 


209,598^ 


33,686i 


273.285 


1835 


289,55U 


80,038i- 


369,590 


1840 


275.393A 


117,204 


392,;i97i 


1845 


377,16.3A 


140.2221 


517,385J 


1850 


705,162 


4o7.0.i4 


1,112,216 


1855 


l,0S2,799f 


445,305 


1,528.104J 


1858 


2,152,835 


1.132,568 


3,285,403 



Anwunt of Registered, Enrolled, and Licensed Tonnage in the 
several Collection Districts, June 30, 1858. 



Districts. 



Sag Harbor 

New York 

Champlain 

Osweg,atchie 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Harbor., 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek 

Dunkirk 



Registered. 



7,408.72 
841,685.35 



Enrolled 

and 
Licensed. 



7.0.57.94 

593,599.73 

888.02 

11,866.60 
6.129.88 
1,321.22 

40,420.19 
3.704..31 
1.272..31 

73.478.80 
5.382.50 



Amount of Registered and Enrolkd Tonnage of thn United States 
and District of New York- at different periods. 



Years. 


Registered. 


Enrolled and Li- 
censed. 


U. States. 


N. York. 


U. States. 


N. York. 


1827 


747.170 

686,990 

810.447 

975.359 

1.241,313 

i;899,44.8 

2,499,550 


133,403 
116,395 
169.050 
193,911 
254,541 
496,507 
841,6851 


873,438 
752,460 
1,086.2.37 
1,117,035 
1,597.733 
2,23^.992 
2.550,742 


165..542 
162.419 
216..351 
247.023 
337.381 
445.674 
593.600 


1832 


1837 


1842 


1847 


1852 


1858 





Number of Entries of Merchandise at the Port of New York for 
10 years, ending June 30, 1856. 



1847 40,418 

1848 53,949 

1849 54.506 

1850 61,752 

1851 71,068 



1852 68,967 

1853 83.470 

1854 93.282 

1855 76.448 

1856 89,377 



General Statistics for 1858. 





American 

Vessels. 


Foreign 

Vessels. 


Exports of American produce.... 

" foreign " 
Imports 


$ 65.0.37.159 

12,430,450 

123,928,283 

4,471 

67.240 

4,976 

73,866 


$24,002,631 

6.870,684 

54,547,453 

4 4*^6 


Number of vessels cleared 


Crews « " 


55 757 


Number of vessels entered 


4 510 


Crews " " 


55,903 







1 Trade 


of New York from 


1700 to 1776 




Years. 


Total Value. 


Years. 


Total Value. 












Imports. 


Exports. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


1700 


$247,050 


$ 87,835 


1739 


$ 530,3.50 


$ 92.295 


1701 


159,550 


92,735 


1740 


598.885 


107,490 


1702 


149.955 


39.825 


1741 


602.150 


105,710 


1703 


87,810 


37,355 


1742 


837.955 


67,680 


1704 


111,470 


52.700 


1743 


672.4.35 


75,335 


1705 


139,510 


36,965 


1744 


599,600 


72,635 


1706 


157,940 


14,245 


1745 


274,785 


70.415 


1707 


149,275 


71,415 


1746 


433,560 


44,206 


1708 


134,495 


64,235 


1747 


689,940 


74,960 


1709 


172,885 


61,295 


1748 


716,555 


61.790 


1710 


157..375 


91,015 


1749 


1,328,865 


117,065 


1711 


144.280 


00,965 


1750 


1,335,650 


178,160 


1712 


92.620 


62,330 


1751 


1,244,705 


211,815 


1713 


232.350 


72.140 


1752 


970,150 


203.290 


1714 


223.215 


149,050 


1753 


1,389,320 


202,765 


1715 


273.195 


106,580 


1754 


637,485 


133,315 


1716 


260.865 


109,855 


1755 


755.355 


145,275 


1717 


220,700 


122,670 


1756 


1,252,125 


120,365 


1718 


314,830 


135,655 


1757 


1,766,555 


95.840 


1719 


281,785 


97,980 


1758 


1,782.775 


71,300 


1720 


181.9^5 


84,180 


1759 


3,153.925 


108,420 


1721 


253.770 


78.405 


1760 


2.400,530 


105,625 


1722 


287,390 


100,590 


1761 


1,447.850 


243,240 


1723 


265,065 


139,960 


1762 


1,440,230 


294.410 


1724 


315,100 


105,955 


1763 


1,192,800 


264.990 


1725 


353,250 


124,880 


1764 


2,577,080 


268,485 


1726 


424,.330 


191,535 


1765 


1,911.745 


274,795 


1727 


337,260 


158,085 


1766 


1.864,145 


335,100 


1728 


408,170 


105,710 


1767 


2.089,785 


307,110 


1729 


323,800 


79,165 


1708 


2.414,660 


435,575 


1730 


321,780 


43,700 


1769 


374.690 


367,430 


1731 


830.580 


103,780 


1770 


2,379.955 


349,410 


1732 


327.700 


47,055 


1771 


3,268,105 


479,375 


17.33 


327,085 


68,130 


1772 


1,719,850 


413,535 


17.34 


408,790 


76,535 


1773 


1.446.070 


381,230 


1735 


402,025 


70,775 


1774 


2,189.685 


400,040 


1736 


4.30,000 


89,720 


1775 


6,140 


935,090 


1737 


629 165 


84165 


1776 




11,590 


1738 


667.190 


81,140 







Trade of New York since the adoption of Federal Constitution. 



Years. Imports. Exports. Years. Imports. Exports. 



1791 
1792 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1S07 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 



$23,629,246 
35,445,628 
23,421,349 
36,113,723 



$ 2,505,465 

2,536.790 

2.932.370 

6,442,183 

10.304,581 

12.208,027 

13,308,064 

14,300,892 

18.719,52' 

14.045,079 

19,851,136 

13,792.276 

10,818,387 

16.081,281 

23,482,943 

21,762,845 

26,357,963 

5,606,058 

12,581,562 

17,242,3.30 

12,266,215 

8.961,922 

8,185,494 

209.670 

10.67 5,.373 

19.690.031 

18,707,4.33 

17,872,261 

1.3,587,378 

13,163,244 

1.3,162.918 

17,100,482 

19,038,990 

22,897,134 



1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

184.3* 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

18.53 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1888 



$49,639,174 

38,115,630 

38,719,644 

41,927,792 

34,743..307 

35,624,070 

57,077,417 

53,214,402 

55,918,449 

73,188,694 

88,191,305 

118,253.416 

79.301,722 

6S.453.206 

99.8.'2,438 

60,440.750 

75,713.426 

67,875,604 

31,356,540 

66.079.516 

70,909.085 

74.254.283 

84,167.352 

94,525,141 

92.567.369 

111,123.524 

141,546.5.38 

132,329,306 

178,270,999 

195,427.933 

164,776,511 

210,160,454 

236,493.485 

178,475,736 



$35,259,261 
21,947,791 
23,834,137 
22,777,649 
20,119,011 
19,697.983 
25.535,144 
26,000,946 
25,396,117 
13,849,469 
30,345,264 
28,920,638 
27,338,419 
23.008,471 
33,268,099 
34,264,080 
33,139,833 
27,576,778 
16,762,664 
32,861,540 
36,176,298 
36,935,413 
49,844,368 
53,351,157 
45,963,100 
52,712,789 
86,007,019 
87,484,466 
78,206,290 
122,634,640 
113,731.2,38 
119,111.500 
134,80.3,298 
108,340,924 



* From Oct. 1, 1842, to June 30, 1843. The fiscal year wa* 
changed at Uiis time, and now begins July 1. 



COMMERCE. 



113 



The reports of commerce and navigation do not specify the amount imported and exported 
in each collection district. The relative amount of the port as compared with the State of 
New York has been as follows at different periods : — 



o3 

a 

•< 
a 


Imports. 1 


Exports. 


Importation of Dry Goods. 


FortofN.T. 


State of N.T. 


Port of N.T. 


State of N.T. 


Entered for Con- 
sumption. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1S40 
1845 
1848 
1855 
1868 


$50,845,924 

68.032,207 

89,815.068 

152,539,783 

171,473,336 


$60,440,750 

70,909,085 

94,525.141 

164.776,511 

178,475,736 


$30,186,470 
34.196,184 
45.863,916 
62,918,442 

100,667,890 


$34,264,080 

36.175,298 

53.351,157 

113,731,238 

108,350,924 


Manufactures of wool. 

" cotton. 

" silk. 

" flax. 
Miscell. dry goods 

Total 


$22,671,010 

1.3.225.234 

27.738,090 

7,760.145 

6,575,816 


$20,261,826 

16,813,299 

25,192,465 

6,857,433 

6,709,004 


$17,036,032 

9.012,911 

17,581.099 

3.701,555 

3,701,788 


. ... 


$77,970,295 


$74,833,527 


$51,092,385 


Trade of New York far the Three Tears ending June 30, 1858. 




Imports. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


Withdrawn from 

Warehouse. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 




$150,088,112 

29.568.397 

17.432.112 

1,126,097 


$141,430,109 

62.276,673 

16,036.530 

6,441,855 


$ 04.019,659 

44.4a3.8O6 

23.666.487 

9,324,384 


Ent. fo """ 
u 


r conaumpoion 
warehousing 


Manufactures of wool. 

" cotton. 

« silk. 

« flax. 
Miscell. dry goods 

Total 


$2,025,697 

1.888,578 

2,241,785 

1,131,408 

507,675 


$2,929,179 

2,492.516 

2,004,190 

1,100,183 

601,035 


$6,369,11? 
4,018.693 
5.394,970 
2,215.427 
1,385,173 


Specie 


and bullion.... 
tal 


To 


$198,214,718 

21,934,130 

86,898,690 

112,316,028 


$226,184,167 

27,950,212 

92.699,088 

133,485,079 


$171,473,336 

49,.376.593 

67.317.736 

104,155,600 


Withdi 


awn from 
house 


$7,890,143 
1856. 


$9,127,103 


$19,383,381 


Dry go 
Genera 




Entered foe Ware- 
house. 


1857. 


1858. 


1 merchandise. 


EXP0ET3. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


Manufactures of wool. 

" cotton. 

« silk. 

« flax. 
Miscell. dry goods 

T0t.1l 


$2,184,687 

2,006,493 

2,225.515 

861,667 

650,113 


$6,081,505 
3,780,715 
4.497,447 
2.228,768 
1,247.126 


$.'),028.533 
4.U4.'^.530 
3,007.521 
1,964,891 
1,515,876 


Domestic produce 

Foreign mdse. free ... 

" " dutiable 

Specie and bullion.... 


$75,026,244 

1,268.914 

3,691,600 

22,280,991 


$76,928,942 
2.396.903 
3,932,370 

44,348,468 


$55,9.31,987 

3,104.160 

7,309.672 

34,322,071 


To 




$102,267,749 


$126,606,683 


$100,667,800 


$7,929,495 


$17,835,561 


$16,225,351 











Commerce of New Tork with Foreign Countries for the year ending June 30, 1858. 



FOREION CODNTRIES. 



England 

Cuba 

France 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

British North America 

New Grenada , 

British West Indies 

Porto Rico 

Scotland 

Brazil 

China 

Peru 

Belgium 

British East Indies 

Hayti 

Two SicUiea 

Spain 

Venezuela 

Holland 

Mexico 

Tuscany 

Philippine Islands 

Russia 

Buenos Byres 

Central Republic 

Dutch West Indies 

British fluiana 

Danl.sh West Indies 

Africa (except Egypt and British 

Possessions) 

British Honduras 

Sardinia 

British Possessions, Africa 

Austria 

Portugal 

St. Domingo 

Sweden and Norway 

Turkey in Asia 

Egypt 

Uruguay 

Ireland 

French West Indies ., 

British Australia 

Canary Islands 

Swedish West Indies 

ChUi 

French North American Possessions.. 



ENTERED. 



American. 



390 

634 

131 

14 

8 
44 
80 

153 

162 
15 

101 
37 
24 
25 
29 

111 
37 
50 
58 
14 
33 
17 
10 
10 
22 
14 
24 
17 
20 

19 

15 
2 

14 
2 
4 

14 
2 
6 



Tms. 



441.043 

227,453 

136.408 

21,965 

5,122 

7.315 

48,990 

32,335 

35,590 

9,289 

29,997 

33,554 

28,910 

23,140 

23,912 

20,849 

13.258 

13.870 

13,956 

8,721 

14 622 

10,743 

9,410 

6,333 

7,436 

5, ".33 

5,1.33 

4.881 

4,226 

4,176 
3,829 

859 
2,833 

794 
1,590 
2,227 
1,073 
2,036 

"'l,767 

'"1,9.87 

1.557 

1,542 

1,293 

750 



Crews. 



11,313 

7,626 
4,542 
809 
125 
284 
2,704 
1,206 
1,338 
226 
1,0C4 
923 
696 
592 
646 
840 
412 
480 
511 
229 
441 
277 
242 
170 
237 
155 
193 
171 
152 

168 
141 
25 
110 
26 
44 
94 
31 
68 



63 



43 
45 
51 
54 
19 



FOREION. 



80 

40 

11 

86 

56 

279 

3 

118 

30 

24 

28 

6 

1 

3 

5 

8 

22 

26 

14 

11 

"4 
1 
5 
1 
4 
1 



Tons. 



130,016 

11,288 

3,926 

58,664 

52.797 

43,869 

819 

17,321 

5.715 

31,231 

7,811 

3,464 

503 

4.195 

2.807 

1,717 

6.tl6 

6.741 

2.935 

7,657 

"l,3i5 

200 
2.235 
261 
740 
ISl 

315 

167 

1.30 
2,383 

331 
2.065 
1.313 

560 
1.644 

335 
2,317 

350 
2,116 

250 



380 
1,005 



Crews. 



5,959 

445 

163 

1,993 

2,057 

1,746 

27 

748 

227 

1.409 

284 

109 

16 

193 

87 

70 

216 

231 

120 

214 

""47 

8 

65 

10 

30 



13 

7 
5 
86 
14 
70 
49 
26 
56 
10 
80 
12 
64 



12 

68 



CLEARED. 



American. 



276 

442 

58 

15 



86 
142 
73 
43 
58 
19 

3 
21 
18 
53 

6 
70 
31 
11 
24 

2 
5 
26 
7 
37 
23 
36 

13 
12 

3 
16 

2 
13 
13 



Tons. 



333.165 

179,940 

74,938 

21,856 

"41, '830 

54,766 

28.919 

14,492 

23.360 

15,585 

18,127 

9.-449 

10.429 

14.041 

8,926 

1,347 

20,054 

6,810 

6,.565 

8,932 

755 
3,188 
10,272 
2.301 
7.897 
6,180 
8,452 

3,022 
3,353 

982 
6,079 

821 
5.148 
1,619 



405 

4.694 

2,525 

4,629 

27,975 

257 

263 

11,224 

120 



Crews. 



8,732 
6,647 
2,784 



1,139 

2,727 

1,091 

562 

629 

590 

528 

76 

459 

386 

392 

45 

665 

278 

165 

291 

24 
85 
333 
80 
314 
218 
326 

121 
119 

35 
204 

25 
154 

76 



13 
149 

72 

193 

717 

8 

12 
282 



Foreign. 



116 

11 

9 

51 

42 

400 

3 



Tons. 



146,347 

6.040 

2.743 

39,759 

47,257 

80,216 

863 

16,549 

1,557 

31.492 

1,079 

369 

4.195 
6,406 
1,167 
2,077 
6,902 
413 
11.525 
1,068 



1,715 

636 
425 
116 



247 



360 

987 

1.3G9 

1.137 

1,021 

467 



382 
3,868 

905 
4,762 
2,051 

346 
813 



Oi-ews. 



6.436 

227 

122 

1,542 

1,878 

2,806 

84 

744 

67 

1,250 

51 

14 

192 
198 

50 

77 
256 

19 
353 

49 



23 

25 

9 



10 
32 
48 
44 
18 
17 



15 
138 

45 
133 

83 

12 
46 



114 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



statistics of American and Foreign Trade. 





Exports. 


Tonnage Cleared. 


American 


Foreign 


American 


Foreign 




Produce. 


Produce. 


Vessels. 


Vessels. 


1821 


$ 7,896.605 


S 5.264.313 


$ 158,174 


$ 10.720 


1825 


20.651.558 


14,607.703 


255,878 


19.8.51 


1830 


13,618.278 


6.079,705 


229..341 


36.574 


1835 


21.707.867 


8,637.397 


5S9,S55 


343.078 


1840 


22.676.609 


11.587.471 


518,202 


343,114 


1845 


25.929.904 


10,245,394 


926,280 


414.688 


1850 


41,502.800 


11.209,989 


1,411.657 


7.37.539 


1855 


96.414.808 


17.316,430 


1.861.682 


1.140.197 


1858 


89.039.790 


19,301,134 


.2,152.835 


1,132.568 



Value of Articles Imported for the year ending June 30, 1858. 



Articles. 



Dutyfree. 
Articles from B. A., duty fi-ee. 
Produce U. S. brought back... 

Bullion, gold 

" silver 

Coffee 

Tea 

Coin, gold. 

" silver 

Dye stuffs 

Linseed 

Ground madder 

Guano 

Painting and statuarj- 

Rajis, cotton and linen 

Seeds, trees, and plants 

Silks, raw or reeled 

Tin, blocks 

" pigs 

Wool 



Total duty free 

Paying duty ad valorem. 

Coal 

Cotton, piece goods, plain 

" hosiery 

" thread, twist, and yarn... 
" m.tnufactured, not speci- 
fied 

" bleached or dyed 

Feathers and flowers 

Linens, bleached or unbleached... 
" manufectured, not speci- 
fied 

Currants 

Raisins 

Furs, undressed 

" hatters' 

Glass, plate 

" window 

Gems, not set 

Jewelry, real or imitation 

Goats hair. Angora, and other 

I piece goods 

! Hats and bonnets, straw 

Hemp, manufact'd, not specified.. 
I India rubber, not manufactured 

I Indigo 

Iron, bar 

Cutlery 

Fire arms 

Iron, pig 

" rail road 

" rod 

" sheet 

Steel, shear, cast, and German.... 

« other 

Iron and steel, other manufac- 
tures 

Jute and sisal grass 

Laces, embroidery 

" cotton 

Lead 

Gloves 

Skins, dressed 

Leather, sole and upper 

" other manufactured 

Liquorice paste 

Molasses 

Musical instruments 

Opium 

Paper, writing 

I Printed books, English 



ValiK of Articles Imported, continued. 



Articles. 



Values. 



Xeiu Tori: 



Tj. States. 



$ 624.060 

1,024,992 

269,833 

271.027 

6,730,168 

6.414.700 

8,096,a51 

689.533 

5.59,635 

940.077 

477.087 

242.&48 

389,519 

696,399 

276,030 

1.293.921 

463.067 

327,207 

1,173,075 



$33,072,680 

521,774 

430.948 

1,625,833 

751,429 

399,425 
8,383.552 

549.894 
4.308,238 

511,276 

272,469 
762.568 
247.510 
870,336 
388,211 
454,344 
332,503 
332,097 

488.741 

1,128.6.51 

332,821 

567,061 

467.379 

1.610.970 

1,155,761 

281,963 

329.785 

1,556,538 

324.897 

677,6.59 

702.595 

546,596 

817,687 
970,723 

2,274.0.33 
2S5.183 

1,&38,0S7 

1,362.096 
437,268 

1,205.714 
248,815 
4.52,723 

1,414,168 
247,233 
309,415 
238,402 
354,973 



$14,754,255 

1.244.692 

2,286,099 

408.879 

18.341.081 

6.777,295 

9,279,969 

7,299.549 

887.486 

3,243.174 

643.642 

525.376 

504,634 

971.126 

392.440 

1,.300.065 

470,023 

594.258 

3.843,320 



$80,319,255 

772.925 

741,077 

2,120.868 

1,080,671 

966.017 

12,391.713 

654.452 

5,.598..571 

953,436 

342,869 
1.441,471 
321.935 
876,156 
397,310 
626,744 
329.241 
385,945 

515,641 

1,182,837 

520.029 

666.583 

467,379 

3,318,913 

1,489,054 

382,610 

739,949 

2,987,576 

426,499 

945,073 

1,147,773 

725,338 

970.133 

2,298.709 

2,845,029 

405.4:39 

1,972.243 

1.449,672 

806,412 

1,259,711 

278,946 

477,995 

4,116,759 

378.928 

447.534 

256.322 

456,450 



Eaw hides and skins 

Salt 

Silk, hosiery 

" piece goods 

" and worsted piece goods 

" raw 

" manufactured, not specified. 

Soda, ash 

" carb 

Spices, cassia. 

" nutmegs 

" black pepper 

Spirits, brandy 

" from grain 

Sugars, brown 

Tea and coffee from places not 

free by treaty 

Tin plates 

Tobacco, cigars 

" unmanufactured 

Porcelain, earthen, and stone 

ware 

Wine, sherry and St. Lucien 

" white, not enumerated 

" champagne 

Wool, blankets 

" carpeting 

" hosiery 

" piece goods 

'•■ worsted 

" shawls 

" manufact'd, not specified .. 
Vnenumerated articles. 

At 4 per cent 

At 15 per cent 

At 24 per cent 



Values. 



New York. U. States. 



Total ad valorem.. 



Total imports S170,280,8S7 



5,629,029 

282.644 

341,528 

15.304,255 

l,l'-3,788 
240.501 

2.0.32,614 
515.700 
267,097 
323.041 
235,168 
269,486 

1,410,426 

706.945 

13,514,098 

442.910 
3.042.152 

2,040.898 
1,078,666 

1.755,011 

286,954 

2.37,710 

679,421 

976,018 

1,195,004 

1,378,660 

0,719,713 

9,192.641 

1,742,396 

494,915 

908,789 

1,046.608 

836,423 



$137,208,207 



9,884.358 

1,124,920 

417,168 

16,121.395 

1.249.385 

242,130 

3.207,043 

1,211,305 

373,599 

350,614 

378,2.57 

631,723 

2,232,452 

1,158,517 

23,317,435 

484,520 
3,842,968 
4,123,208 
1,255,831 

3,215,236 

343,100 

285,125 

860.942 

1,574,716 

1,542,600 

1.837,561 

7,626,830 

10,780,379 

2,002,653 

663,373 

1,367.425 
2,314.065 
1,465,074 



$202,293,875 



$282,613,150 



Value of TJ. S. products exported during the year ending Jun« 
30, 1858. 



Articles. 



Ashes, pot and pearl 

Beef. 

Boards, planks, and scantling 

Butter 

Carriages and rail road cars, &c 

Cheese 

Cloverseed 

Copper and brass manufactures.. 

Cotton 

Drugs and medicines 

Gold and silver coin 

" " " bullion 

Hams and bacon 

Hides 

Household furniture 

Indian corn 

Indian meal 

Iron castings 

" manufactures 

Lard 

Leather 

Manufactured tobacco 

" cotton (wliite) 

« '■ other 

" wood 

Oil, spermaceti 

" whale 

Whalebone 

Pork 

Rice ' 

Rosin and turpentine 

Skins and furs 

Spirits from grain 

" " molasises 

" of turpentine 

Staves and heading 

Sugars (brown) 

Tallow 

Tobacco (leaf) 

Wheat 

" flour 



Total of exports $83,403,564 



Talues. 



N. Y. 



$ 527.867 

1,312,957 

751,334 

236,928 

526,831 

. 561.451 

232.764 

1.705,426 

8.368.500 

452.929 

14,917.585 

12,456,256 

1,485,958 

39.3^58 

331,281 

1,3.31,570 

234.945 

314,936 

1,922,7.34 

1.172,950 

303.579 

1,113,428 

473,838 

1,358,779 

413,806 

1,046,453 

412,999 

1,105,223 

1,169,707 

664,969 

1,219,553 

822.986 

243,118 

387.084 

904.242 

9t3O.390 

2,31,879 

258.226 

1,482.970 

5,451.491 

7,017,790 



U.S 



% 554.744 

2.081.856 

3,428.530 

541,863 

777,921 

731,910 

332.250 

1,985,223 

131,386,661 

681.278 

19,474.040 

22,933,206 

1,957,423 

875,753 

932,499 

3,259,039 

877.692 

464,415 

4,059,528 

3,809.501 

606.689 

2,400,115 

1,598,136 

1,800,285 

2,234.678 

1,097,503 

597,107 

1,105,223 

2,852,942 

1,870,578 

1,464,210 

1,002,378 

476,722 

1,267,691 

1,089.282 

1,975,852 

375,062 

824.970 

17,009,767 

9,061,604 

19,328,884 



$293,758,279 



COMMERCE. 



116 



Tonnage. — The size of registered American vessels engaged in foreign trade has been steadily 
increasing, and has more than doubled within twenty years. Steam vessels were first enrolled in 
1823 and first registered in 1830. They now form 12 to 15 per cent, of the total amount of tonnage.^ 

Steamboats applying for registry, enrolment, or license must be inspected under the direc- 
tion of a Board of Supervising Inspectors. The United States is divided into 9 Supervising Dis- 
tricts, 'the 2d of which includes the seaboard and the 9th the lakes of New York. Steamboats are 
required to be well guarded against fire, to have suitable pumps worked by hand and by steam, 
at least two boats, and large steamers more, in proportion to their tonnage, (except upon rivers,) one 
life preserver to every passenger, and a certain number of floats, and fire buckets and axes. Their 
boilers, engines, and hull must be examined and approved by inspectors appointed by the Col- 
lector, the Super\'ising Inspector for the district, and the Judge of the U. S. District Court ; and 
every requirement of the law must be found complied with. Pilots and engineers on steamers 
must be examined and licensed by the Inspectors. The present steamboat law was passed Aug. 
30, 1852.^ 

Tlie Coasting Trade of the United States is entirely restricted to American vessels, and 
the share belonging to New York is very great ; but from the want of official returns it cannot be 
definitely ascertained. Unless carrying distilled spirits or foreign goods, these vessels are not re- 
quired to report their entrance and clearance ; and, as they oftener leave than arrive with these 
articles, the number of clearances reported is disproportionately high.* 

The affairs of commerce relating to police, sanitary, and municipal regulations are governed by 



1 Average tonnage of vessels at different periods arriving at New 
York. 



Yes. 


American. 


Fiircign. 


Yrs. 


American. 


Foreign. 


1835 
1S40 
1845 


245 
280 
319 


103 
253 
267 


1850 
1855 
1858 


427 
527 
530 


3.38 
223 
452 



Vessels built in New Tnrk for 1858. 



Districts. 



Sag Harbor 

New York 

OswegatcMe 

Cape Vincent 

Oawego 

Niagara 

Buttalo Creek.... 
Dunkirlt ... 





Class 


































i 


■s,2 


g 


s 
s 














■S-2- 


•^ 


^ 


k^§ 


S 


5g 


^'.5 


^ 


Ss 


S5S 
2 


^ 


&*i p 






2 


4 


7 


2 


22 


84 

1 


26 
3 


141 
1 
3 


... 




6 


2 


2 


10 




... 


3 




... 


3 


... 


1 


10 


4 


14 


39 




... 


1 


1 


... 


2 



Tonnage. 



536.58 

6,093.75 

26.74 

468.78 
1,990.79 

601.05 
7,215.77 

252.26 



Amount of registered and enrolled steam, tonnage of XT. S. at 
different periods. 



Years. 


Registered. 


Enrolled. 


Total. 


1825 
1830 
1835 
1840 
1845 
1850 
1855 
1858 




23,061 
63,063 
122,474 
319,527 
481,005 
655,240 
651,363 


23,061 


1,419 

340 

4,155 

6,492 

44,942 

115,045 

78,027 


64,472 
122,814 
202,339 
525,947 
770,947 
970,890 





Vessels built 


in the XT. S. at different periods 




CO 


Classes op Vessels. 








•1 


1 


§ s 




Ibnnage. 




^^ 


Kl 


^ 


EqS 


^ 


1.315 




1815 


136 


226 


681 


274 




154.624.39 


1820 


21 


60 


301 


152 




524 


47,784.01 


1825 


56 


197 


538 


168 


36 


994 


114,997.25 


1830 


25 


56 


403 


116 


37 


637 


58,094.24 


1835 


25 


50 


301 


100 


30 


507 


46,238.52 


1840 


97 


109 


878 


224 


64 


872 


118,309.23 


1845 


124 


87 


322 


342 


163 


1,038 


146,018.02 


1850 


247 


117 


547 


290 


159 


1,360 


272,218.54 


1855 


381 


126 


605 


669 


253 


2,034 


583,450.04 


1858 


122 


46 


4.31 


400 


220 


1,225 


242,286.69 



2 Statistics of Steamers for 1858. 



No. of steamers in- 
spected and ap- 
proved 

Tonnage of steamers 
inspected 

Pilots originally li- 
censed within the 
year 

Pilots whose licenses 
were renewed 

Engineers and assist- 
ants originally li- 
censed within the 
year 

Engineers and assist 
ants whose licenses 
were renewed 

Lives lost from acci- 
dents during tlie 
year 



Second 

DiST. 

N.Y. 


Ninth District. 


Total. 
U.S. 


t 


i 


i 

1 


1 

124 


47 


8 


8 


839 


79,065 


38,314 


5,465 


3,565 


325,202 


21 


40 






364 


104 


87 


21 


13 


1,540 


90 


35 






435 


302 


87 


18 


13 


1,809 


2 


26 




5 


126 



8 statistics of the Coasting Trade of the Port of JVew York. 



Years. 


En 




Vessels. 


1849 


1.855 


1850 


1,928 


1851 


1,768 


1852 


1,766 


1853 


1,733 


1854 


1,880 


1855 


1,966 


1856 


1,669 



Tons. 



424.976 

489,395i 

455,542 

497,840 

507,531 

543,452 

614,045 

539,461 



Cleared. 



Vessels. 



3,994 
4,719 
4,803 
4.680 
4.789 
4.779 
4,563 
4,696 



Tons. 



895589 
1,020,070 
1,214.942 
1,173,762 
1,310,697 
1,499,969 
1,378.888 
1,482,310 



Tonnage of Vessels engaged in the Coasting Trade, June 30, 1858- 



District, 

Sag Harbor 

New York.i , 

Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Harbor.. 



Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek. 
Dunkirk 



Tonnage. 

7,057.91 

580,487.32 

888.02 

11,866,60 
1,312.16 
1,321.22 

46,420.19 
3,704.31 
1,272.31 

73,478.80 
5,383.50 



Total in N. Y 733,192.62 



Total in U. S 2,361,595.72 



116 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



the laws of the State, and their care is intrusted to officers appointed under its authority. These 
officers are divided into several classes, each of which has charge of a particular department. 

1. The Board of Commissioners of Pilots consists of 5 persons, — 3 elected for 2 
years by the Chamber of Commerce, and 2 for a like term by the presidents and vice-presidents 
of the marine insurance companies of N. Y., composing or representing the Board of Underwriters 
in that city. This Board appoints a secretary, has an office, meets once a month or oftener, and 
1 icenses, for such term as it may think proper, as many pilots as may be deemed necessary for the 
port of New York.' 

2. The Board of Health of ^ew York is composed of the Mayor and Common 
Council of the city.^ 

3. The Commissioners of Health are the President of the Board of Aldermen, the 
Health Officer, the Resident Physician, the Health Commissioner, and the City Inspector. 

4. The Health Officer, appointed by the Governor and Senate, is required to board every 
vessel subject to quarantine or visitation, upon its arrival, to ascertain whether infectious diseases 
are present, and to obtain, in such case, the facts necessary to determine the period that such 
vessel must be detained.' 

•5. The Physician of the Marine Hospital is appointed by the Governor and 
Senate. He appoints as many assistants as he may find necessary. His salary is $5,000, and is 
paid by the Commissioners of Emigration. 

6. The Resident Physician for the city and county of New York is appointed by the 
Mayor and Common Council. He is required to visit all sick persons reported to the Board of 
Health, or to the Mayor and Commissioners of Health, and to perform such other professional 
duties as the Board may require. 

7. The Health Commissioner, appointed in like manner, is required to assist the 
Resident Physician.* 

8. The Quarantine Hospital is located in the town of Castleton, in Richmond co. ; and 
vessels detained on account of infectious diseases are anchored in the adjacent waters, or, in 
sickly seasons, in the lower bay.* 

9. Harbor Masters are appointed by the Governor and Senate, for the purpose of assign- 
ing piers and other stations for landing and receiving cargoes.® 

10. The Port Wardens of the Port of New York are appointed by the Governor 
and Senate, for the purpose of inspecting vessels and 'the stowage of cargoes and of estimating all 
damages to the same. They consist of a Board of 9 members, one of whom must reside in Brook- 



Enrolkd Tonnage nf the U. S. engaged in the Coasting Trade for 
different periods. 



Tears. 


Tqnnage. 


Tears. 


Tonnage. 


Tears. 


Tonnage. 


1815 
1S20 
1825 
1830 


435,066.87 
639,080.46 
587,273.07 
516,978.18 


1835 
1840 
1845 


792,301.20 
1,176,694.46 
1,190,898.27 


1850 
1855 
1858 


1.730,410.84 
2,491,108.00 
2,301,595.72 



In June, 1858, there were, of small vessels under 20 tons 
licensed for the coasting trade, 189.21 tons at Sag Harbor and 
71.25 tons at Greenport. 

■ 1 The licenses thus granted may express different degrees of 
qualification, appropriate to different branches of duty, and may 
be revoked at pleasure. Candidates must sustain a satisfactory 
cxamiuation aud be found of good character and temperate 
habits. They must also give bonds for the faithful discharge of 
their duties. The board has power to regulate piloLage ; and the 
fees of pilots are fixed by law. The masters of vessels of under 
3U0 tons, owned by a citizen of the TJ. S. and licensed in the 
coasting trade, need not employ a pilot unless they prefer. If 
the master of a vessel of from 150 to 300 tons, owned and 
licensed as above, be desirous of piloting his own vessel, he 
n):3y obtain a license from the Commissioners of Pilots for such 
jnirposii. All masters of foreign vessels and vessels from a 
foreign port, and all vessels sailing under register by way of 
J^andy Hook, are required to take a licensed pilot, ol, if they re- 
fuse, they must pay the pilotage to the pilot first offering his 
services. Pilots licensed by other States have no privileges in 
this. Candidates for recommendation as Hellgate pilots must 
litve served an apprenticeship of 3 years, and until they attain 
till- aize of 21 years, must have served 2 years after as deputy 
pilots and sustained repeated examinations before the Board of 
V ardens in the presence of at least 2 Hellgate pilots. 

The first act regulating the pilotage of New York was passed 
in 17:U; and since that period this service has been conducted 
nuder rules and penalties established by the Colony or State of 
Kew York. All special laws concerning pilotage by the way 
of Sandy Hook were repealed in 1845. The present law was 
enacted in 1853 and amended in 1864-57. The pilots belonging 



upon steamboats are licensed hy inspectors appointed under the 
Treasury Department of the U. S. Those employed in conduct- 
ing vessels by way of Sandy Hook are licensed by the Board of 
Commissioners of Pilots ; and those by way of Hellgate, by the 
Governor and Senate, upon recommendation of the Board of 
Wardens. 

2 Boards of Health are by law created in every city, incor- 
porated village, and town, under an act of 1S50; but the greater 
number of these have never acted officially. In towns the 
Supervisor and Justices of the Peace are a Board of Health, and 
may appoint a physician as health officer. — Revised Statutes, bth 
Editiim, II, p. 53. 

8 The Health Officer resides at quarantine, has general direc- 
tion of the location of vessels detained, their purification, and 
the dischaige of their cargoes, and other duties connected with 
the health of vessels in quarantine. He is paid by fees, and re- 
ports to the Mayor or Commissioners of Health. 

* This officer receives all moneys applied to the Marine Hos- 
pital, and pays all demands against the same that shall have 
been approved by a majority of the Commissioners of Health. 
He reports his accounts monthly to the Board of Health, gives a 
bond of $20,000 for the faithful discharge of his duties, and re- 
ceives a salary of $3,600, to be paid by the Commissioners of 
Emigration. The Board of Health may firom time to time ap- 
point as many visiting, hospital, and consulting physicians as 
may be deemed proper, and may also fix their duties and com- 
pensation. 

6 The Hospital buildings, destroyed Sept. 1-2, 1858, (see page 
565,) have been temporarily rebuilt. 

The removal of quarantine to some place less dangerous to 
the public health has been fully shown to be riecessary ; but the 
final disposition of the important question as to whither, is not 
settled. The only available place for the construction of build- 
ings seem to be upon some of the shoals in the lower bay. Old 
Orchard Shoal, on which the water is from 1 to 3 fathoms deep 
at mean low tide, has been proposed for this purpose. The East 
Bank and Dry Komer Shoals have about the same depth, but 
are more e-xposed to the open sea. 

« There are 9 Harbor Masters in New York, 2 in Brooklyn, 
and 1 in Albany. They enforce the regulations of the city 
authorities relative to clearing docks and preventing nui.sances 
or obstructions. They are paid by fees and report the amount 
thereof annually to the Governor. 



COMMERCE. 



117 



lyn, and 3 must be nautical men. They choose one of their number President, appoint a Secretary, 
use a seal, and keep an office. They are exclusive surveyors of vessels damaged or wrecked, or 
arriving in distress, and, when called upon, judge of the fitness of vessels to depart upon voyages. 
They are also, upon application, required to estimate the value or measurement of vessels when 
the same is in dispute or libeled ; and they may examine goods in warehouses that have been 
damaged on shipboard. The Board, or some member thereof, must attend all sales of vessels or 
their cargoes condemned and in a damaged state ; and such sales by auction must be made under 
the direction and by order of the Wardens, and are exempt from auction duties.* 

The Commissioners of Health are authorized to collect of the masters of every vessel entering 
the port of New York a certain tax, for the benefit of the Health Office.^ 

Tlie Board of Comniissioners of Emigration, consisting of the Mayors of New 
York and Brooklyn, the Presidents of the German Society and Irish Emigrant Society, and 6 Com- 
missioners appointed by the Governor and Senate, have charge of the interests of immigrants 
when they first arrive at New York.' 

The Marine Court of the City of A^ew Yorfc. has jurisdiction in civil cases arising 
between persons engaged in maritime affairs, where the sum in dispute does not exceed $500.* 

Canadian Trade. — The revenues collected on the Canada frontier, in some periods, have 
fallen short of the cost of collecting them. The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 admits the greater part 
of articles the produce of the U. S. and B. A. into each country respectively free of duty.* 



1 The Wardens are paid by fees and percentages upon sales. 
Special Wardens are appointed to reside at quarantine. They 
report to the Board of Wardens of N. Y., and have jurisdiction 
as wai-deus over vessels detained in quarantine. The Board 
of Port Wardens reports annually to the Comptroller a state- 
ment of its receipts and expenses, with an affidavit of each 
member and of the Secretary that they have not received 
directly or indirectly any moneys except their legal fee.s. 

2 Under an act passed in March, ISUl. the amount of this tax 
was fixed at $1.5U for every cabin and 75 cts. for every steerage 
passenger, mate, and mariner. In 1813 the tax was fixed at 
$1.50 for every captain and cabin passenger; $1.00 for every 
steerage passenger and mariner of foreign vessels ; and 25 cts. 
for master, mate, and sailor of every coasting vessel. The 
moneys thus paid, after supporting the Marine Uospital at Quar- 
antine and contingencies and yielding $8,000 annually to the 
Society for the Reform of Juvenile Delinquents, was invested by 
the Comptroller as the " Marine Fund." In 1831 the Board of 
Trustees of the Seamen's Fund and Retreat was created, under 
^hose direction the present establishment known as the " Sear 
jien's Retreat," on Staten Island, more particularly described 
)n page 566, has since been managed. Of the 44,932 admitted 
np to Jan. 1, 1859, 80 per cent, were discharged cured, 8J per 
sent, were relieved, 3 per cent, were discharged by request, and 
4} per cent. died. 

3 The master of every vessel bringing passengers from foreign 
countries must give a bond of $300, conditioned that such per- 
sons .shall not become chargeable for support within 5 years. 
They may commute this bond by paying $2 upon each passenger, 
of which sum ^ is set apart for the counties other than N. Y. 
toward the support of emigrants in the several counties. For 
every lunatic, idiot, deaf and dumb, blind, maimed, or infirm 
person, and every widow with children, or person over 60 years 
of age, and liable to become a public charge, a bond of $500 is 
required. 

The Commissioners of Emigration have a large establish- 
ment on W'ards Island for the support of the sick, infirm, 
and destitute, and have leased Castle Garden as a general land- 
ing place. Emigrants may here purchase tickets for any part 
of the Union, and procure such articles as they may stand in 
need of, without encountering the horde of faithless agents and 
mercenary runners that formerly proved the scourge of immigra- 
tion and the disgrace of the city. The Marine Uospital at 



Quarantine was placed under these Commissioners in 1847. See 
pages 116, 427, 565. 

* These actions may be for compensation for the performance, 
or damages for the violation, of a contract for services on board 
a vessel during a voyage performed In whole or in part, or in- 
tended to be performed, by the vessel ; or for assault and battery, 
false Imprisonment, or other injury committed on board a ve.-<- 
sel upon the high seas, and not coming within the jurisdiction 
of the U. S. District Courts. The Marine Court is held daily, 
except on Sundays and holidays; and its Justices, three in iiuni- 
her, are elected for a term of 4 years, and enter upon their 
duties on the second Tuesday of May after their election. Tlicir 
Clerk Is appointed by the Supervisors, and their salary is fixed 
by the Common Council and cannot be increased during their 
term of office. 

The State Government, before the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution, had Instituted a court of Admiralty: but in 1789 
It surrendered these powers to the General Government, and 
they have since been exercised by the District Court of the U. S. 
Suits for salvage, and other questions arising in the sale of 
wrecked property, are decided in this court. 

The Governor appoints 15 Wreck Masters in Suffolk, 12 in 
Queens. 3 in Kings, 2 in Richmond, and 2 in Westchester cos. 
These officers have, with coroners and sheriffs, the custody of 
wrecks and property cast ashore by the sea. Such property 
belongs to the owners, and may be recovered by paying reas'>ii- 
able salvage and in d-ie course of law. 

6 Imports from Canada duty free for the year ending June 30, 
1858. 

District. Value. 

Champlain $1,499,819 

Oswegatchie 934.708 

Cape Vincent 1,210.351 

Sackets Harbor 2.892 

Oswego 1,859.798 

Genesee 26,T574 

Niagara 780.070 

Buffalo Creek 1,336,820 

New York 624,060 

Total In New York 7,918,092 

Total In United States 14,752,255 



Statistics of the several Collection Districts upon the Canada Frontier for different periods. 



CoLLBCTioN District. 



Champlain , 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent.... 
Sackets Harbor, 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Ni.igara. 

Buffalo 



1830 to 1843, (19 years.) 



Groxs 
Revenue. 



$192,877.80 

63.201.74 

21.649.98 

l.'5.9S.'5.(l4 

20C.7.'i9.8t 

l:!.3,l>19.97 

53.527.07 

150.437.60 



Expenses nf 
(XiUection. 



$130,938.86 
116.874.47 

78,4.37.26 
106,492.84 
157,619.67 

80.954 47 
117,94.'^.82 
197,653.80 



1848 to 1851, (3 years.) 



Gross 
Revenue. 



$133,326.68 
42,842.41 
22.410.78 
16.603 54 

273,173.92 
45.324.66 
44,076.44 

14s.740.03 



Expenses of 
Collection. 



$22,965.22 
16.002.22 
14.222.58 
27.000.95 
38.210.43 
13..36S.47 
21.277.69 
49,601.19 



1851 to 1854, (3 years.) 



Gross 
Revenue. 



$297,601.76 
98.754.11 
84,.577.74 
21.204.23 

389.711.03 
29.4.30.52 
74,641.59 

263.222.58 



Exjjenses of 
Collection. 



$32,267.44 
21,446.80 
22.9.35.52 
22.164.23 
48.211.98 
21,860.28 
25,618.04 
49,473.89 



118 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



As the only avenue to the sea which Canada possesses is closed by ice during about five months 
in the year, the foreign trade of that country in winter must seek other avenues ; and, from the 
acknowledged superiority of Xew York as a commercial point, a large part of the trade is through 
that port. Over half the vessels that arrive in Quebec come in ballast ; while none leave port 
without cargoes of timber or other commodities of the country. This renders the outward freights 
disproportionately high ; and, although vessels may load in the upper lakes and pass without tran- 
shipment down the St. Lawrence, the difference of ocean freights makes it cheaper to send by the 
canals to New York. 

The number of vessels and amount of tonnage employed upon the great lakes have been 
rapidly increasing for the last 10 years. In the several collection districts of this State, the 
ratio of increase has been much greater in ports where railroads terminate.^ 



1 Arrivals and Tonnage of the several Districts bordering upon Canada during a series of 

nine years. 



District. 



Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent 

Jackets Harbor.. 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek.... 
Dunkirk , 



1850. 











1 


s 



689 
380 
281 
279 
1,657 
215 
981 
722 



107,957 
196,915 
156,351 
153.169 
195.793 
40.077 
17-3.286 
108,337 



1851. 



CO 




QJ 




CO 


8 


t^: 


e 




89,842 
250,492 
208,186 
166,748 
216,444 

46,924 
220.528 

96.290 



1852. 



I 



340 
798 
197 
218 
1,731 
264 
691 
759 



K 



22,538 
341,188 

95.548 
145,169 
234.625 

38,903 
213,613 
106,464 



1853. 



so 








^ 




« 


g 


^ 


e 



563 

1.001 

959 

139 

2.243 

295 

696 

1,037 



31,836 
701,.560 
451.587 

87,758 
274,307 

53.660 
219,241 
149,356 



1854. 



I 



585 
482 
1,034 
77 
593 
285 
584 
792 



67,721 

273,272 

471,577 

54.670 

65,213 

51.571 

236,051 

137,088 



District. 



Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Harbor., 

Oswego , 

Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek...., 
Dunkirk 



1S55. 



397 
500 

1,278 
209 

1.517 

286 

536 

816 

2 



25,129 
249,009 
5.57.840 
125,496 
166,641 

85.063 

209,646 

152,540 

476 



1856. 



852 
636 

1,240 
193 

1,866 
338 
563 

1,002 






54.367 
320.834 
749J87 
135.442 
314.6.57 
lu9,8Sl 
166,893 
166,020 



1857. 



















ts 


s 



1.053 
644 

1,128 
174 

1.815 

363 

671 

837 

3 



74.710 
320,505 
601,025 
128,685 
263,007 
116.411 
238,019 
118.377 
300 



1858. 



1,100 
398 

1,018 
110 

1,543 
208 
616 

1,153 



s 



78.256 
170,667 
555.408 

80.417 
193.091 

57.330 

254,195 

448,786 

1,180 



Omimerce of Canada with the. United States since 1850, as slwwn 
by the Canadian Official Reports. 



Xears 


Value of Exports from 


Valw of Imports into 




Canada. 


Canada. 


In 1850 


^,951,159.58 


$6,694,860.49 


« 1851 


4,071.544.65 


8.365.766.25 


« 1852 


6,284..521.75 


8,457.693.27 


« 1853 


10.725,455.15 


11.782.147.40 


" 1864 


10.418,880.69 


16.533.097.94 


" 1855 


20.002.290.95 


20.825.432.44 


« 1856 


20,218,652.66 


22,704.509.05 


« 1857 


13,206.4.36.10 


20,2it.650.97 



Commerce of United States with Canada for a series of years, as 
shown by the U. S. Official Reports. 



Years. 


Exports. 


Imports. 










Foreign. 


Domestic. 


Total. 




1862 


$3,853,919 


$6,655,097 


$10,509,016 


$6,110,299 


1853 


5,736,565 


7,404,087 


13.140.642 


7,550.718 


18.54 


9,362.716 


15.204,144 


24.566,860 


8.927.560 


18.55 


11.999,378 


15.806,642 


27,806,020 


15,136.734 


1856 


6.314.652 


22.714.697 


29.029.349 


21.310.421 


1857 


4.326,369 


19,936,113 


24,262.482 


22.124.296 


1858 


4,012.768 


19,638,959 


23,651,727 


15,806,519 



Arrivals and Clearances for the several Collection Districts for 1858. 




District. 


NUMBER OF VESSELS. 


TONNAGE. 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


S 


t 


1 


t 


1 


1 
1 


8 

S 

s 


' .1 


Champlain 


623 
150 
439 
110 
410 
31 
128 
680 
1 


477 
248 
579 

1,133 
177 

488 

473 

5 


623 
153 
4.34 
106 
382 
39 
104 
721 
2 


477 
248 
579 

1,129 

175 

488 

450 

3 


44.590 

119,649 

356,972 

80,417 

60,367 

3,207 

101,817 

369,433 

80 


33,666 

51.018 

198,436 


44.590 

131.727 

354,943 

75.191 

60.999 

8,602 

77.440 

375.432 

117 


a3.666 

51.U18 

198,436 

132,065 
52,826 

152..318 

77,44S 

1.000 


Oswegatchie 




Sackets Harbor 


Oswego , 


133,324 
54.123 

152.378 

79.353 

1,100 


Geneseo . .. . 




Buffalo Creek 


Dunkirk 



The above indicates but a part of the commerce of these dis- 1 not entered upon the custom house books is much larger in 
tricts. It is probable that the amount of coasting trade which is [ each district than that here given. 



COMMERCE. 



119 



The canals and rail roads of Canada terminating upon our frontiers are intimately connected 
with the commercial prosperity of this State ; and a notice of their extent and capacity is necessary 
to a full understanding of our commercial possibilities.^ 

Cu»itom Houses have been erected by the General Government at Now York, Plattsburgh, 
Oswego, and Buffalo ; and a site has been purchased at Ogdensburgh. These edifices are built of 
stone, fireproof, and are generally fine specimens of architecture. Efforts have been made to 
secure the erection of similar buildings at Rochester, Sackets Harbor, Albany, Brooklyn, and 
Sag Harbor, but so far without success.^ 



1. The Wellanrl Canal extends from Port Colborne, on Lake 
Erie, to Port Dalhousie, on Lake Ontario. 1 1 ha.s a feeder branch 
lo Dunnsville, on Grand River, and another from the feeder to 
Port JIaitland. It passes sloops, schooners, and propellers of a 
capacity of 400 tons. In 1856 its tulls amounted to $2(31,568.13; 
in 1857 to $232,437.38; and in 1858 to $207,771.52. 

37(6 Ruleau Canal was built as a military work by the Home 
Government and transferred some years since to the Province. 
It extends from Kingston to Ottawa, most of the way along the 
channel of rivers. Its total lenjith is 126 miles. It rises from 
Kingston to the summit 165 feet by 13 locks, and descends to 
the Ottawa 292 feet by 34 locks. Its total cost was §3,860,000. 
37(6 Galoppe, Puint Troqiwis, Rapid Ptat. Farrans Point, Corn- 
wall. Beau/iamois, and Lachine Canals extend around the rapids 
on the St. Lawrence. Steamers usually pass down the rapids, but 
must return by the canals and pay toll both ways. Sail vessels 



pass both up and down by canal. Tliese canals afford naviga- 
tion down to Montreal, to which point ships come up from the 
sea. The totiil full by river without locks is 204J feet to MoiUnul 
and 13J feet tht-nce to tide water at Three Rivers. The rapids 
of the St. Lawrence have been surveyed with the design of 
deepening them to afford a channel 200 feet wide and 10 fiet 
deep, but nothing further has been done. These surveys mako 
Lake Erie 5.34J feet above tide. 

Chamhhj Canal extends from tlie foot of navigation on Lake 
Champlain to Chambly Basin, and with a lock at St. Ours, upon 
Richlieu River, completes the line of navigation from the lake 
to the St. Lawrence. A sliip canal has recently been proposed 
between these important navigable waters. 

The amount of tonnage on tlieso canals, in which this State 
is interested, is very large ; and in the Welland Canal more than 
half the duties are paid by American vessels. 



Statistics of Vie Business of the. Canadian Canals for two years. 



Total tons passing up 

" " " down 

Canadian to American ports, up 

" " " down. 
American to Canadian ports, up 

" " " down. 
American to American ports, up 

« " " down. 

Kevenues from tolls on property 

" '■ vessels 

" " passengers 

« « fines 

" " rents.- 



Wellaxd Casal. 



1856. 


276,919 


699,637 


31,334 


52,100 


34,716 


116,582 


200,373 


341,225 


£ s. d. 


59,408 10 7 


6,108 3 11 


88 7 6 


440 1 3 


1.967 4 4 



1857. 



245,256 
655,816 
67,476 
29,128 
137,574 
163.217 
280,546 
245,256 



£ s. d. 

52,239 16 6 

5,919 9 7 

82 3 2 

1.55 

1,504 5 7 



St. Lawkence Canai. 



1856. 



131,430 
503,106 

ij,2"'4 

33,888 

6.380 

15,612 

213 

306 



£ .5. d. 
16,813 13 5 

1.978 6 5 
688 16 4 
910 7 10 

1,042 10 



1857. 



134..382 

459,270 

4,493 

30,366 

9,328 

3,765 

17 

30 



£ s. 

13,741 10 

1,898 8 

579 10 

203 10 



1,503 19 10 



Chamclt Canal. 



1856. 



107,878 
21,788 
96,868 



16.741 
725 



1857. 



112.6,34 

21.053 

107,925 



18,272 
156 



£ s. d. 

2,467 9 9 

432 16 1 

6 18 4 



£ s. 

2,577 6 

443 19 

10 11 

60 10 

28 5 



Statistics of the Canadian Canals. 



Cakals. 



Welland 

Feeder. 

Broad Creek 
Branch ... 

Rideau 

Galoppe 

Point Iroquois 

Rapid Plat 

Farrans 
Point 

Cornwall 

Bcauharuois. 

.Lachine 

(Chambly 

\ St. Ours (lock) 



,8 . 
■^1 



28 1 
21 



126i 
2 
3 
4 



Hi 

8i 

Hi 



■fe^ 






■330 I 
8 

8 

457 

8 

6 

m 

4 

48 

82i 

44* 

n 

5 



Size op Locks. 






'fe.; 



^ 2 



1.50 
200 
150 

200 
134 
200 
200 
200 

200 
200 
200 
200 
120 
200 



26i 

45 

26i 

45 
33 
45 
45 
45 

45 
45 
45 
45 
'U 
45 






Width of 
Canal. 



U5 
35 

45 



60 
50 
50 

50 
100 
80 
80 
36 



S 



( 81 

171 

85 

75 
90 
90 
90 
90 

90 
150 
120 
120 

60 



It has been proposed to build a ship canal from Lake Huron 
to Lake Ontario at Toronto, by way of Lake Simcoe, 80 mi. A 
cutting to allow Lake Simcoe to pass southward would not ex- 
ceed 175 ft. in depth; and in the 8 mi. surveyed the principal 
obstacles would not average over 40 ft. It has been estimated 
that the C(5st for a canal 120 ft. wide at bottom, and 136 ft. at 
surface, 12 ft. deep, with 64 double locks 60 ft. wide, and 250 ft. 
long, would be $20,051,000, and that it could be constructed in 
6 years. 

Great Western Railway of Canada, from Suspension Bridge to 
Windsor, 229 mi., and thence by ferry to Detroit, was opened 
Jan. 27, 18.54. Branches extend from Hamilton to Toronto, 38 
mi.; from Harrisburgb to Guelph, 23J mi.; from Preston to 
Berlin, 10^ mi. ; and from Kamoka, near London, to Port Sar- 
nia, 60 mi. 



Buffalo (k Lake Huron Railway extends from Fort Erie, op- 
posite Buffalo, to Godeiich Harbor, on Lake Huron, 165 mi. 

Erie & Ontario Railway extends from Chippewa to Niagara, 
17 mUes. 

Welland Railway, from Fort Dalhousie to Port Colborne, 27 
mi„ is on the eve of completion. 

Grand Trunk Railway of OmofZa extends from Portland, Me., 
and Quebec to Richmond, and thence to Montreal, Toronto, and 
Port Sarnia, at the foot of Lake Huron. More than 700 mi. of 
this road are finished. A branch extends from Belleville to 
Peterborough, 50 mi., and others are proposed. 

Ontario, Simcoe <£- Hurim. Railway extends from Toronto to 
Collingwood, on Georgian Bay, 95 mi. 

Cohurg <£• Peterborour/h Railway is 28i mi. long, with privi- 
lege of extending to Marmora Iron Works. 

Ottawa (£: Prescott Railway extends from Prescott to Ottawa 
City, 54 mi. 

Montreal c£ New Tork R. R. extends from Montreal to La- 
chine, 8 mi., and thence by ferry. 2 mi., always open, to Caugh- 
nawaga, the terminus of a road leading to Plattsburgh, 52 mi. 
This line is now united with the Champlain d- St. Lawrence R. 
R., from St. Lambert, opposite Montreal, to Rouses Point, 44 
mi. ; and the consolidated company is known as the Montreal d: 
Cham-plain Rail Road Co. 

2 Custom Houses of New York. 


Place. 


Total appro- 
priation. 


Cost 


Of site. 


Total. 


New Tork 

Plattsburgh 

Ogdensburgh 

Oswego 


$1,068,743 

90,!H)0 

118,000 

131,100 

290 000 


$270,000 

5,000 

8,000 

12.000 

40.000 


$1,105.313..57 
80,443.73 


121.002.89 
191,680.08 


Buffalo 


Total New York... 
Total U. States 


$1,707,743 


$335,000 


$1,504,530.27 


$24,104,799 


$.3,388,827 


$10,529,951.72 



120 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



marine Hospitals. — Since 1778, every American seaman has been taxed 20 cents per 
month for a Hospital Fund ; and in return he is entitled in case of sickness to assistance and support 
from the revenues thus collected. This fund is in charge of the U. S. Government, and is entirely 
independent of the various State and private hospital funds of New York City.^ 

Lii^bt Houses. — The United States Government has erected 62 light houses, lighted beacons, 
and floating lights vrithin the State of New York, for the benefit of navigation. Of these, 3 are 
upon the seacoast, 15 upon Long Island Sound, 4 within the Harbor of New York, 16 upon Hudson 
River, 3 upon Lake Champlain, 14 upon Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River, and 7 upon Lake 
Erie. The Government has also erected buoys, spindles, beacons, and other signals to indicate 
channels or to point out dangerous localities.^ 



The site for the New York Custom House was purchased Jan. 
9. 1833, the building was completed Feb. 22. 1842 : it is used for 
a custom house only. The site for the Plattsburgh Custom 
House was purchased Nov. 22, 1856, the building was completed 
May 19, 1858 : it is used for a custom house, post office, and 
courthouse. The site for the Ogdensburgh Custom House was 
purchased Jan. 20, 1857, the building has not been commenced : 
it is designed to be used for a custom house, post office, and 
courthouse. The site for the Oswego Custom House was pur- 
chased Dec. 15, 1854, the buUding was completed Sept. 1, 1858 : 
it is used for a custom house and post office. The site for the 
Buffalo Custom House was purchased Jan. 26, 1855, the building 
was completed July 12, 1858 : it is used for a custom house, post 
office, and courthouse. 

The Custom House in New York occupied before the present 
one was finished was erected in 1816, at a cost of $928,312.96. 
In 1850 the only custom house building in the State belonging 
to the United States was at New Yoris City. On the 19th of 
Feb. 1857, the Federal Government purchased a site for stores 
at Atlantic docks, Brooklyn, for $100,000 ; but as yet no use has 
been made of it. 

1 The Federal Government has built 34 marine hospitals, 
none of which are in this State. Those entitled to aid are 
supported in this State in private families or local hospitals. 
The nvimber of seamen relieved and supported in the several 



collection districts in the year ending June 30, 

follows : — 


1858, waa as 


Collection Dis- 

TKICT. 




13 



i5 


Total ex- 
penditures. 


SbspUat 
money col- 
lect. 


Sag Harbor 

New York. 

Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent... 
Sackets Harbor 


"824 

"io 

86 

■■■■4 
76 


"92^ 

"12 

98 

86 


"2 

"i 
3 


$ 19.19 

22,485.94 

403.81 

15.15 


$ 289.63 

42,576.78 

412.60 

544.93 

253.50 

60.70 

975.42 

98.00 

92.19 

2,320.50 

269.88 


142.15 
3,632.21 






183.86 
3,770.92 


Buffalo Creek... 
Dunkirk 


Total New York 
Total U. States.. 




1,000 


1,123 


$30,653.23 


$47,894.13 


10,703 


9,444 


381 1 $358,020.53 


$161,161.82 



Li(/Jit Houses. 



Name. 



Montauk 

North Dumpling 

Little Gull Island... 

Gardners Island 

Plum Island 

Cedar Island 



Hortons Point 

Stratford Pt. Vessel... 

Oldfield Point 

Eatons Neck 

Lloyds Harbor 

Great Captains Island 

Execution Rocks 

Sands Point 

Throggs Neck 



Location. 



f E. point of S-Branch, 1 

I L-I I 

Fishers Island Sound... 
(a. side main en-l 

\ trance Sound J 

N. point Island 

w. end Plum Island 

Entrance Sag Harbor... 



Great West Bay.. 
Fire Island 



Swash Channel 
con. 

Princess Bay 

Fort Tompkins.. 
Bobbins Keef .... 



Boa- 



Stony Point 

West Point 

Esopns Meadows.- 



Rondout . 



Saugerties . 



N. side of Southold 

(Middle ground ofl 
\ Stratford Shoals., f 

Brookhaven 

B. of Huntington Bay... 

Entrance of harbor 

Near Greenwich Point. 

Off Sands Point 

E. of Cow Bay 

N.E.side of Fort Schuyler 

fPonquogne Point 
-: N. of Shinnecock 

[ Bay _ , 

E. of Fire Island Inlet 



Staten Island, near I 
Elm Tree Station./ 

8. of Staten Island 

w. of Narrows 

Off Tompkinsville , 

f w. side entrance \ 
\ Narrows J 

Gees Point, w. side 

Opposite Esopus, w. side 
TMudflat. s. of N.en-" 

-; trance creek w. 

I of river 

Jw. of river, N. of 
\ Saugerties 



.S 



c^i 



20 
12 

13 

6 
12 
10 

18 

10 

13 
17 
10 
12 
12 
15 
10 

20 
15 

14 

16 
15 
13 

20 

10 
10 

10 
10 






Flashing . 
Fixed 



Revolving 
Fixed 



2 « 



Revolving 
Fixed 



Revolving 

2 Fixed..., 

Flashing.. 
Fixed 



6 

VThite 

Red 

it 

Brown 

White 

Red 

Straw col.. 
White 

« 
a 

(C 

it 

a 

Brick 

Yellow 

White, red. 
White 






85 

25 

56 

27 
34 
31 

30 

32 

34 
56 
34 
34 
42 
41 
61 

150 
150 



83 
46 
61 

150 

32 
32 

32 



37 



& • 



ts 



160 

70 

74 

29 
63 
34 

110 

40 

67 
138 
48 
62 
54 
53 
66 

160 

166 

59 
189 
106 



42 



8 

i 



1795 

1848 

1806 

1855 
1827 
1839 

1857 

1837 

1823 
1798 
1857 
1829 
1848 
1809 
1826 

1857 
1858 

1856 

1828 
1828 
1839 

1826 

1853 
1839 

1838 
1835 



1 
I 

I 



1857 
1855 
1857 

1856 
1855 



1855 

1855- 
1857 

1858 
1856 
1856 
1855 



1857 
1855 
1855 

1855 



1854 
1854 

1854 



"S? 



Semarlcs. 



f Fresnel lens ; flash 
\ 2 min. 

Fog bell. Machine. 

Flash 30 sec. 
Light on keeper's 
house. 

{2 reflector lights. 
Fog beU. 



Fog bell. Machine. 
Flash 30 sec. 
Fog Bell. Machine 7 
per min. 



First light honse 
built in 1826. 



Fog bell. 



On keeper's house. 



COMMEECE. 



121 



liifeboat Stations have also been established by the General Government upon the sea- 
coast and great lakes. On the shores of Long Island and the adjacent islands are 30 lifeboat sta- 
tions, the first of which were established about 1850. Each of these consists of a house, containing 
a lifeboat, boat wagon, life cars, mortar for throwing lines, and every fixture that could be used in 
afibrding aid to vessels in distress. The houses are furnished with stoves for warming them when 
necessary, and with fuel and matches for kindling a fire on short notice. They are each intrusted 
to a local agent, and are under the general care of a superintendent appointed by the Secretary of 
the Treasury. Their location is indicated on the map. 

Goast Survey. — A survey of the coast, with soundings of its adjacent waters, was ordered 
by the General Government about 50 years since ; but many years were necessarily employed in 
making preliminary arrangements. Active surveys were begun about 1832, and during the 
♦last 15 years they have been prosecuted with great efiect. The triangulations of this survey 
are conducted with great precision, and extend up aU rivers navigable from the sea as far as 
tide flows. 



Light Houses, continued. 



Nake. 



CatskiD Reach ... 

PrymesHook 

Four Mile Point., 



Coxeackie 

Stuyvesant , 

New Baltimore 

Fire Hook Island.. 

Coeymans Bar 

Schodack Channel. 
Ctowleland 



Van Wies Point 

Split Rock 

Cumberland Head.. 

Point au Roche , 

Ogdensburgh , 



Cross Over Island . 



Sunken Rock.. 
Rock Island... 



Tibbetta Point.. 

Galloo Island... 
Horse Island.... 



Stony Point.... 
Salmon River.. 



Oswego 

Big Sodus Bay., 
Genesee 



Genesee Beacon.. 
Niagara Fort 



Black Rock Beacon., 

Horse Shoe Reef. 

Bufifalo 



Cattaraugus 

Dunkirk 

Dunkirk Beacon 
Barcelona 



Location. 



211 

{' 



("Half way Athens^ 
■i andCatskill, E. of y 

( river ) 

2 mi. N. Hudson, e. side 
w. side. Half way 
Athens and Cox- 

sackie 

w. side. N. end of 

\ Cow Island 

E.side 

E. side on island 

Calvers Plat Island , 

N. end Poplar Island 

w. side Mulls Plat 

E. side near Castleton... 

f E. of dike below Al- ) 
1 bany. w. side..../ 

Near Essex 

Near Platteburgh 

w. of Lake Champlain.. 
Mouth of Oswegatchie.. 



Above Oak Point., 



1 



In front of Alexan- 
dria Bay 

ear Mullet Creek .... 



{Entrance of St.Law- 1 
rence J 

w. side island 

Near Sackets Harbor .. 



On Stony Point 

N. side entrance harbor.. 



W. pier harbor 

w. of Sodus Harbor 

w. of entrance to river. 



End of w. pier 

Outlet of Niagara River. 

/Near head Niagara) 
( River | 

Entrance Niagara River 

8. pier. Harbor 

' w. pier. Cattaraugus 1 
Greek J 

Harbor 

Pier w. side liarbor 

Portland or Barcelona.. 



§1 



10 
10 
10 

10 
10 



15 

12 

ii 

12 



9 

9 

14 

14 
11 

11 






Fixed . 
« 
u 



■k. 



e 



White., 



o 



tll 



u 


(I 


(( 


u 


it 




a 


White 


u 


« 


te 


a 


(I 


" 


« 


« 


ti 


» 


a 


a 


Revolving. 


« 


Fixed 


a 


(C 


t( 


Revolving 
Fixed 


it 
(< 


(t 


(( 


i( 


(( 


« 


« 


Flashing... 
Fixed 


(E 


« 


it 


Flashing... 
Fixed 


(( 

it 


a 


« 



5 
.<a> . 

,S 5 JS S 



32 
32 

20 

32 

32 
20 

"20 

15 

32 
36 

"27 

25 

28 
27 

47 

51 
34 

34 

46 

45 
50 
37 

22 
44 

13 

50 
51 

35 

50 
25 
40 



38 
38 
35 

38 

38 
21 
25 
25 
25 
21 

15 

100 
55 

"30 

37 

31 
39 

67 

59 
42 

39 

49 

59 
64 
81 

28 
78 

25 

50 
65 

44 

87 
40 
80 






1854 
1851 
1854 

1829 

1829 
1854 
1857 
1S57 
1857 
1854 

1854 

1838 
1837 
1857 
1834 

1847 

1847 
1847 

1827 

1820 
1831 

1837 

1838 

1.S37 
1825 
1822 

1822 
1813 

1853 

1856 
1828 

1847 

1837 
1837 
1829 



-a 



1854 



1854 
1854 



1856 
1855 

1855 

1855 

1855 
1855 



1857 
1857 

1857 

1855 

1855 
1858 
1855 

1855 
1857 



1857 



1857 
1854 
1857 






Remarks, 



On keeper's house. 



Building. (1858.) 
Light on keeper's 

house. 
Light on keeper's 

house. 



Light on 
house. 

Rebuilt 1854. 

Shoal N. w. 
Light on 

dwelling. 
Light on 

dwelling. 
Light on 

dwelling. 



keeper's 

1 mi 

keepe/s 

keeper's 
keeper's 



Lake coast light. 

Lake coast and har- 
bor light. 

Frame. Harbor light. 

On mess house. Fort 
Niagara. 



Lake coast light. 

Rebuilt 1857. 

Lake coast light. 
Harbor light on pier. 
Lighted with natural 

gas. No harbor at 

this place. 



Besides the above, there are nine State lights established in 1856 in the marshy " Narrows " at the head of Lake Champlain. 
Big Sodus Beacon was destroyed In a gale in 1857. 
A flashing light has been authorized at Crown Point. 



122 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



There are lifeboats on Lake Ontario at Tibbetts Point, Sandy Creek, Salmon River, Oswego, 
Sodus, Genesee River, and Niagara River, which were supplied by the U. S. Government in the 
Bummer of 1854. Several have also been placed on Lake Erie. None of those on the lakes have 
been provided with houses, except such as have been erected by the persons having them in 
charge. 

Immig'ration into the U. S. for many years past has been very great ; but the proportion 
landing in New York has been less than the relative amount of trade. Other routes in some 
respects afford superior facilities for immigration. The large number of ships ai'riving in Canada 
without cargoes favors immigration to a great extent ; and hundreds of thousands of immigrants 
have crossed into this State from Canada without their names ever appearing on the U.- S. Govern- 
ment records. These immigrants have consisted chiefly of Irish and Germans ; though there has 
also been a large number of English, Scotch, and Norwegians. The greater part of the immi- 
grants either locate in the cities or immediately pass on to the wild lands of the AVest. The En- 
glish and Scotch usually prefer to settle in Canada.^ 

Assay Office. — By an act of 1853, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to establish an 
assay oflice at New York, for the special accommodation of the business of the city. At this 
place the owners of gold or silver bullion, or of foreign coin, may deposit the same, have its value 
ascertained, and certificates issued payable in coin of the same metal as that deposited, either at 
the office of the assistant treasurer in New York, or at the Mint in Philadelphia. The metal 
assayed may, at the option of the owner, be cast into bars, ingots, or discs, of pure metal, or of 
standard fineness, and stamped with a device designating its weight and fineness. This office is 
under the general direction of the Director of the Mint, in subordination to the Secretary of the 
Treasury. The Assay Office is located on Wall St., adjacent to the Custom House, and is fitted up 
with every appliance for carrying on its operations upon a very extensive scale. Its lofty chimney, 
emitting dense, orange colored fumes of nitric acid, forms a conspicuous object in the district. 
About 50 men are employed upon the premises. Its officers are a superintendent, treasurer, as- 
sayer, melter, and refiner, with their assistants and clerks. The site of the Assay Office was 
bought Aug. 19, 1853, for $553,000, and the premises were fitted up and completed Oct. 9, 1854, 
at a total cost of $761,493.62.^ 

Tlie Mail Service of the State of New York forms about 5 per cent, of the whole U. S. in 
miles, and 7 per cent, in cost, while the receipts from postage in this State amount to 22 per cent. 



Passengers arrimng by Sea at New York since 1820. 









i> 




A 












a 




c 




e 








^,- 




^,- 




*^^ 


Ml 


Ce 


e^ 


">.£ 




"S>£ 


bo 


Vv2 


















e 






^ ^ 




. &> 




. ^ 




3,834 


^ 


^i 


t^ 


(2§ 


^ 


^1 


1820 


1830 


13 748 


1840 


60,009 


1849 


213,736 


1821 


4,038 


1S31 


10,737 


1841 


55,885 


1850 


184.882 


1822 


4.116 


1832 


28,914 


1S42 


74,014 


1851 


294,445 


1823 


4.247 


1833 


39,440 


1843 


38.930 


1852 


303,153 


1824 


4,889 


1S.34 


46.053 


1844 


59,762 


1853 


294.818 


1825 


7.662 


1S35 


32,715 


1845 


76.514 


1854 


327,976 


1826 


6,908 


1836 


58,617 


1846 


98,863 


1855 


161,490 


1827 


12.602 


1837 


51,676 


1847 


145,8.30 


1856. 


162,108 


1828 


19,860 


1838 


24,935 


1848 


160,994 


1857 


203,500 


1829 


14,814 


1839 


47,688 


1 









Until 1850 these returns -were made up to Sept. 30 ; but since 
1851 they began upon Jan. 1 each year. The number between 
Sept. 30 and Dec. 31, 1850, not included in the above, was 38,831. 

The total number of passengers who arrived in tlie U. S. from 
1820 to 1858 was 4,482,837, of which number 3,028,225 arrived 
in New York. 

" The establishment of a mint at New York has been repeat- 
edly urged, and the addition of coining machinery to the exist- 
ing Assay Office could be made at a moderate expense. 

Amounts Assayed at the U. S. Assay Office in New York. 

Fine Fine 

Tears. Gold Value. Silver Value. 

lars. bars. 

1854 822 $2,888,059.18 

1855 6.182 20.441,81.3.63 

1856 4.727 19,396,046.89 52 $6,792.00 

1857 2.230 9,335,414.00 550 123.317.00 

1858 to June 30 7,052 21,798,691.04 894 171,961.79 

Total 21,013 $73,860,024.74 1,496 $302,071.79 



1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1S58 to June 30., 



Total Pieces. 
822 
6,182 
4,799 
2.780 
7,946 



Total.. 



22,509 

Amounts Deposited. 



Total Value. 
$2,888,059.18 
20,441,813.63 
19,402,839.52 

9,458,721.00 
21,970,652.83 

$74,162,096.16 



From Oct. 10 to Dec. 31, 1854...., 
From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1855.... 
From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1856.... 
From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1857.... 



Gold. 
...$9,200,893.69 
...26.087,701.24 
...17.803,692.40 
...18,997,365.40 



Total $72,749,652.73 



Silver. 

$76,307.00 

350,150.08 

474.161.38 

1,397,702.99 

$2,298,331.45 
72,749,652.73 



Total gold and silver $75,047,974.18 

Proportion of the above payable in.fine bars $47,817,597.00 

" « " coin 27,230,377.18 



Total $75,047,974.18 

Amounts transmitted to the Mint for Coining. 

Gold. Silver. 

From Oct. 10 to Dec. 31, 1854 $5,142,202.60 $41,417.89 

From Jan. 1 to Dec. .31, 1S55 7,722.476.47 71,587 34 

From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1856 5.797,652..33 412,416.06 

From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1857 9,307,928.89 1,842,768.71 

Total ,$27,970,260.29 $2,368,190.00 

Cost of transportation from the Assay Office to the Mint and 
return : — 

On gold. Si per $1.000 $27,8.34.17 

On silver, $3 per $1,000 7,101.98 

Total $34,936.14 



COMMERCE. 



123 



of the whole sum collected, and exceed by over $300,000 per annum the expenses of the establish- 
ment within its borders. The total expenses in the U, S. overrun the receipts by about $3,500,000 
annually.' 

There were four Distributing Post OfiBces in New York, Jan. 1, 1859, located respectively at 
New York, Albany, Troy, and Buffalo. The Troy post oflBce was discontinued as a distributing 
office July 1, 1859. 



1 Post Office Summary for the year ending June 30, 1S58. 



Length of routes in miles 

Trausportation in coaches, miles 

•• " cost 

" in steamboats, miles 

" " cost 

" by railroad, miles 

" " cost 

" mode not epeciliud, miles 

" " " cost... 

Total cost of transportation 

Total number of miles by coaches 

" '■ steamboats .... 

" " railroads 

" " modes not spe- 
cified 

" " every method. 

Number of mail routes 

" contracUirs 

" route agents 

" express agents 

" local agents 

" mail messengers 



New 
York 
State. 



13.078 

4.9in 

$109,490 

168 

$7,298 

•2,s94 

$333,163 

o.05o 

$68,100 

$518,060 

2,430.792 

108.944 

3,961,795 

1.46S.312 

7,969,843 

828 

?02 

55 

11 

2 

315 



United 
States. 



260,603 

53.700 

$1,909,844 

17.043 

$1,233,916 

24,431 

$2.82S..301 

10.-..429 

S1.823,3.i7 

87.795,418 

19.555,734 

4.569.610 

25,763,452 

28.876,695 

78,765,491 

. 8,296 

7,044 

440 

28 

43 

1,464 



Exchange Offices under the postal arrangement with Canada. 
In the United States. In Canapa. 



Black Kock. 
Buffalo , 



Cape Tincent.... 
Fort Covington. 

L*<wiBton 

Mooers 

Morristown 

Ogdensburgh 

Oswego 



Plattsburgh., 
Rochester 



Rouses Point 

Sackets Ilarbor., 



Suspension Bridge.. 



Troy 

Whitehall 

Youngstown 



Waterloo. 

Toronto, Hamilton, London, and 
Queenston, (by throngh 
bags,) Fort Eric, and Ports 
Denver, Simcoe, liowaii. lUir- 
well, Vienna, and Stanley, 
Montreal. 

Kingston. 

Dundee. 

Queenston. 

liomingtbrd. 

Brockvillo. 

Prescott. 

Kingston. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

Montreal, St. Johns. 

Coburg. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

St. Johns. 

Kingston. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

Suspension Bridge and Canada; 
Route agents. 

Montreal ; by through bag. 

St. Johns. 

Niagara. 



From New York City to every port and country with which 
the U. S. has postal arrangements. 



Mail Routes in Neio York by Railroad and Steamboat. 



Termini. 



By RArLROAD. (June 30, 1858.) 

New York to Dunkirk 

New York to Albfiny 

New York to Chatham Four Corners 

Brooklyn to Greenport 

Sufferns to Piermont 

Newburgh to Chester • 

Hudson to West Stockbridge, Mass 

Albany to Buffalo 

Albany to Troy 

Albany to Eagle Bridge 

Troy to North Bennington, Vt 

Troy to Schenectady 

Troy to Saratoga Springs 

Eagle Bridge to Rutland, Vt 

Saratoga Springs to Castleton, V^ 

Plattsburgh to Canada Line T. 

Rouses Point to Ogdensburgh 

Watertown to North Potsdam , 

Sackets Harbor to Pierrepont Manor 

Schenectady to Ballston 

titica to Boonville 

Rome to Cape Vincent 

Syracuse to Rochester 

Syracuse to Oswego 

Syracuse to Binghamton 

Canandaigua to Elmira 

Canandaigua to Niagara Falls 

Rochester to Niagara Falls 

Rochester to Avon , 

Batavia to Attica 

Buffalo to Lockport 

Buffalo to Lewiston 

Buffalo to Hornellsville 

Buffalo to State Line 

Corning to Batavia 

Owego to Ithaca 

Bt Steaotoat. (Sept. 30, 1858.) 

New York to Manhasset 

Albany to New Baltimore 

Whitehall to Plattsburgh 

Ithaca to Cayuga .■ 



instances. 


No. of 

trips per 

week. 


Annual pay. 


Total annual 
cost. 


Number of 
Route. 


460 


19 


$92,000 


$117,378 


1,026 


144 


19 


32,400 


44,1312 


1,002 


130i 


6 


5,593 


8,865 


1,003 


98 


18 


8,225 


11,147 


1,007 


18 


6 


772 


870 


1,026 


19 


6 


814 


891 


1,032 


35 


6 


1,750 


1,770 


1,064 


298 


25 


51,600 


62,442 


1,073 


7 


13 


1,050 


1,050 


1,074 


33 


12 


2,829 


3,946 


1,075 


32i 


12 


3,250 


4,329 


1,082 


22 


12 


1,650 


1,725 


1,083 


32.81 


12 


3,281 


3,942 


1,084 


62i 


12 


6,250 


7,244 


1,091 


54 


12 


5,400 


6,567 


1,099 


23 


6 


986 


1,163 


1,122 


119 


12 


9,700 


11,252 


1.123 


76 


6 


3,800 


5,505 


1,146 


18i 


6 


792 


1,117 


1,153 


16 


6 


800 


950 


1,104 


35 


12 


2,625 


2,886 


1,200 


97 


18 


8,329 


10,975 


1,210 


104 


12 


20,800 


23,099 


1,228 


35^ 


12 


3,043 


3,463 


1,229 


80 


6 


3,429 


4,952 


1,230 


6Si 


12 


5.137i 


6,524 


1,269 


97 


18 


6,100 


8,094 


1,270 


75 


12 


11,400 


14,230 


1,275 


18 


6 


772 


1,030 


1,278 


11 


6 


550 


650 


1,300 


22 


12 


1,100 


1,100 


1,312 


29 


12 


1,450 


1,560 


1,313 


91 


12 


6,825 


7,657 


1,314 


69 


19 


13,800 


17,741 


1,315 


100 


6 


4,286 


7.533 


1,309 


33 


12 


1,415 


2,313 


1,375 


18 


g 


300 




1,004 


15 


g 


485 




1,076 


95 


11 (for 7 
months) 


4,800 




1,108 






40 


6 


1,713 




1,375 



124 



NEW yOKK STATE GAZETTEEK. 



Tlie Fisheries in New York, although considerable in amount, are quite subordinate to 
other branches of industry. The whale fisheries, formerly of great" importance, are now chiefly 
limited to Sag Harbor, Greenport, and Cold Spring Harbor.^ The shores and bays of Long Island 
support great numbers of fishermen, and the product of their labor chiefly finds a market in New 
York City.^ The Hudson yields shad, sturgeon, and other fish in great quantities ;^ and there are 
extensive fisheries upon the great lakes, especially near the e. end of Lake Ontario and in the 
waters of Chaumont Bay.* The waters of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence formerly 
abounded in salmon; but, from the building of dams and mills, or other causes, the tributaries of 
these waters now afibrd but very small supplies. Trout and other fish highly prized for food 
abound in the clear mountain streams of Northern New York. Hundreds of millions of "bony 
fish" are taken annually around Long Island for manure ; and the manufacture of oil from sharks, 
porpoises, and other fish has been at various times carried on with encouraging success. Numerous 
special laws have been passed for the preservation of fish in certain waters and at particular sea- 
sons ; but this is now made one of the subjects within the legislative jurisdiction of Boards of 
Supervisors. 



United States Ocean Mail Lines connecting loith New York, Sept. 30, 1858. 



Routes. 



N. T. via Southampton, England, to Bremenhaven, Germany. 

N. Y. to Aspinwall, New Grenada, direct 

N. Y. via Havana to New Orleans 

N. Y. to Liverpool, England 

N. Y. via Cowes, England, to Havre, France 



ii 

Is 




Anniial 
Pay. 


3,700 
2,000 
2.000 
3,100 


13 
24 
24 

20 


$60,000 

1 290,000 

385,000 


3,270 


13 


Postages 



Bemarels. 



Act of June 14. 1858. 
J Contract under Acts of 1847 
t and 1851. 
Contract Act 1847. Now under 

Act of June 14, 1858. 
Act of June 14, 1858. 



Comparative Receipts and Expenses of the Post Office in New York and all the Offices in the 

United States for the year ending July 30, 1858. 



Letter postage 

Newspaper postage . 
Registered letters.... 

Stamps sold 

Total receipts 



New 
Torlc. 



$285,207.46 

90,244..30 

2,874.65 

1,080,384.98 

1,458,711.39 



United 
States. 



$882,122.95 

593,407.19 

28,146.95 

5,692,366.63 

7,196,04.3,72 



Pay of Post Masters.. 
Incidental expenses.., 

Total of above 

Transportation 

Total expenses 



iVew 


United 


Twk. 


States. 


$316,267.39 


$2,.349.260.49 


311.893.98 


1,104.183.53 


628.161..37 


3.453,444.02 


525.950.00 


7,344,619.44 


1,164,111.37 


10,798,063.46 



1 The right to drift whales was often made a subject of special 
reservation or sale by the Indians of Long Island; and the 
capture of whales in open boats from the shore has continued 
from the first settlement to the present time. Scarcely a year 
passes without one or more being taken along the shore of the 
island. The whale fisheries from Hudson, Poughkeepsie, and 
Newburgh, once large, have ceased altogether. On the 30th of 
June, 1858, 5,927.92 tons were employed in the whale fisheries 
at Sag Harbor, 1,942.12 tons at Greenport, and 2,136.27 tons at 
Cold Spring Harbor. The total of whaling vessels in the U.S. at 
the same time was 198,593.51 tons. 

8 The wholesale fish mart of N.Y., on the East River, at the 
foot of Fulton St., occupies an entire block. The rarer kinds are 
oftener sold in the Washington Market. A record kept in 1856 
enumerated 79 species, in 56 genera and 20 families, as found iu 



these markets, the majority of them being marine fish from tho 
waters adjoining Long Island and the New F.ngland coast. A 
few came from the South, and many Irom the interior lakes and 
rivers. 

3 It is estimated that $100,000 worth of shad are taken annu- 
ally below the Highlands. JThoy are caught in seines nearly as 
far up as Albany. About '$20,000 worth of sturgeon are sold 
annually at the Albany market. 

* As many as 10.000 bbls. have been taken at Chaumont Bay 
in one season, although sometimes no more are taken than 
enough to supply the local want. The fish are chiefly lake her- 
ring and whitefish. The amount of tonnage invested in this 
State in the cod fisheries is quite unimportant, and amounted 
in June, 1868, to 131.32 tons at Greeiiport, and 159.34 tons at 
New York, consisting of licensed vessels under 20 tons. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 




In 1754 King's College was incorporated in N. Y. City by patent, and libe- 
rally endowed by a lottery and grants of land. At the commencement 
of the Revolution it was the only incorporated educational institution in 
the colony. In 178-i its name was changed to Columbia College; and 
in connection with it an extensive scheme of education was devised, in 
Iwhich the college was to be the center of the system, and subordinate 
[branches were to bo established in different parts of the State, — tho 
whole to be under the control of a board denominated "Regents of the 
University." This board was to consist of the principal State oflScers, 
two persons from each co., and one chosen by each religious denomi- 
nation. The number of the Regents was afterward increased by add- 
ing 33 others, 20 of whom resided in N. Y. City. This whole scheme 
was found to be impracticable; and by act of April 13, 1787, it was superseded by a system which 
has continued without essential change to the present time.' By this act the Governor, Lieut.-Gov- 
ernor, and 19 persons therein named were constituted 

Reg'ents of the University, and required to visit and inspect all colleges and academies, 
and report their condition, annually. They might appoint presidents of colleges and principals 
of academies for one year, in case of vacancy, and incorporate new colleges and academies, pro- 
viding the revenue of the latter should not exceed the value of 4,000 bushels of wheat annually. In 
1842 the Secretary of State, and in 1854 the Superintendent of Public Instruction, were made ex 
officio members of the Board of Regents. Vacancies are filled by the Legislature in the same manner 
that U. S. Senators are appointed; and Regents hold their oflBce during life, unless they resign or 
forfeit their place by removal from the State, by accepting the office of trustee in an incorporated 
college or academy, or by accepting a civil office the duties of which are incompatible with their 
duties as Regents:" but the members maybe removed by concurrent resolution of the Senate and 
Assembly.' They receive no pay. Under a special act of 1791, the Regents appoint the faculty 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the City of N. Y. and confer degrees upon its gradu- 
ates.* They confer the honorary degree of M.D. upon four persons annually, upon recommendar 
tion of the State Medical Society, and may grant any honorary degree. They have exercised 
this right by conferring the degree of LL.D. upon 12 persons since their first organization.* 

In 1821 they were authorized to incorporate Lancasterian and select schools.® In 1844 the Regents 
were made trustees of the State Library, and, with the Superintendent of Schools, were charged 
with the supervision of the State Normal School. In 1845 they were made trustees of the State 
Cabinet of Natural History, and in 1856 were intrusted with what remained of the publication of 
the colonial history. Their secretary and the Secretary of State are commissioners to superintend 
the completion of the publication of the natural history of the State. 

The Regents annually apportion $40,000 of the income of the Literature Fund^ among academies, 
in proportion to the number of students pursuing the classics or the higher English branches ; 



1 The authorship of this system has been generally ascribed to 
Alexander Hamilton, then in the Assembly. The original drafts 
of the act, still preserved, and the legislative journals of that 
period, show that Ezra I'Hommedieu, then in the Senate, was 
prominently concerned in its passage, if not the original mover. 
The bUl was introduced in the Senate upon a petition from Clin- 
ton Academy, in Suffolk co. 

2 What these offices are does not appear to have been settled. 
On several occasions an appointment to the bench of the Supreme 
Court has created a vacancy. Non-attendance at the meetings 
of the Board during one year has also been construed to vacate 
the seat of a Regent. 

8 This power has never been exercised by the Legislature. 
* A similar power existed with regard to the Western College 
of Physicians and Surgeons at Fairfield, during its existence. 

5 The honorary degree of M. D. had been conferred upon 120 
persons previous to 1859. Resolutions were passed, Oct. 14, 1851, 
for conferring the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of 
Literature ; but none have been granted. 

6 This right has been exercised four times, viz. :^ 
Select School at Henrietta, Monroe co., July 2, 1827. 
Lewiston High School Academy, Niagara co., April 16, 1828. 
Fabius Select School, Onondaga co., Feb. 27, 1841. 
Hunter Classical School, Greene co., June 23, 1851. 
Lancasterian schools were incorporated by special acta, as 

follows : — 
Albany, Lancaster School Soc, May 26, 1812. 



Catskill, Lancaster School Soc, March 14, 1817. Repealed April 
20, 1830. 

Hudson, Lancaster Soc., April 15, 1817. 

Schenectady, Lancaster School Soc, Nov. 12, 1816. 

Poughkeepsie, Lancaster School Soc. 

' This fund originated with certain tracts of land reserved for 
literature, and was largely increased by four lotteries, granted 
April 3, 1801, by which $100,000 were to be raised for the joint 
benefit of academies and common schools, but chiefly for the 
latter. In 1816, the avails of the Crumhorn Mountain Tract, 
amounting to $10,416, were given from the general fund to aca- 
demies and common schools; and in 1819 the arruars of qnit- 
rents, amounting to $53,380, were also thus equally divided. In 
1827, $150,000 was given to this fund by the Legislature; and on 
the 17 th of April, 1838, the sum of $28,000 was set apart annually, 
from the incomo of the XJ. S. Deposit Fund, for distribution 
among academies. The sum previously applied for this purposo 
was $12,000 annually ; and since 1834 a small part of the income, 
aside from this, has been applied, from time to time, to the pur 
chase of apparatus. 

This fund was managed by the Regents until, by act of Jau. 
25, 1832, it was transferred to the Comptroller for investment.- • 
the Legislature appropriating the proceeds annually, and the 
Regents designating the scale of apportionment. 

The principal of the fund amounted, Sept. 30, 1858, to $269,952 
.12, aside from the TJ. S. Deposit Fund, and was invested chiefly 
in stocks and Comptroller's bonds. 

12& 



126 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



designate such academies as sliall receive aid in establishing classes for instructing teachers of 
common schools; conduct exchanges of books and documents with other States and countries; 
maintain a system of meteorological observations at certain academies; and make full reports 
annually to the Legislature upon the condition of the colleges and academies of the State, the State 
Libi-ary, and the Cabinet of Natural History. 

The officers of the Regents are, a chancellor, vice-chancellor, and secretary. They appoint a 
librarian and assistants to the State Library, and a curator to the State Cabinet. Six members 
form a quorum for the transaction of business. Their annual meeting is held on the first Thurs- 
day of January, in the Senate chamber, and is adjourned for short periods during the session of the 
Legislature. Most colleges report annually to the Regents, but are not uniformly subject to visita- 
tion, nor do they share in the income of the Literature Fund. They have generally been assisted 
by grants of land or money from the State. 

Colleg'es and Academies are entrusted to boards of trustees, who possess the usual 
powers of corporations, and usually fill all vacancies occurring in their number.^ They appoint 
professors and instructors, and remove them at pleasure, unless employed by special agreement. 
All degrees in colleges, whether honorary or in due course of study, are conferred by the trustees. 

By an act passed April 12, 1853, the Regents were required to establish general rules under 
which colleges, universities, and academies might claim incorporation, subject to such limitations 
and restrictions as might be prescribed by law, or which, by the Regents, might be deemed proper ; 
and institutions tlius formed should possess, in addition to the powers thus vested in them, the 
general powers of a corporation, under the Revised Statutes of this State. The trustees of academies 



1 Genesee College, N. Y. Agricultural College, People's College, 
University of Buffalo, and University of the City of N. Y., are 
owned liy shareholders, who elect trustees, or officers analogous, 
for stated terms. The principal State officers are tx officio trus- 



tees of Union College; and the Mayor and Recorder of cities 
are, in some cases, trustees of medical colleges. The principal 
facts concerning colleges and professional schools may be classed 
as follows : — 



Literary and Medical Colleges. 



Name. 


Location. 


Datec 


/ Charter. 


How Incor- 
porated. 


Alfred University 


Alfred 
New York 
Elmira 
Lima 

Clinton 

Geneva 

Le Roy 

Hamilton 
McGrawville 

Ovid 
Havana 
Fordbam 
Canton 

Troy 

Schenectady 

Albany 
New York 
Rochester 
Buffalo 
Albany 

New York 

New York 
Geneva 

New York 
New York 
Buffalo 

New York 


Mar. 28,1857 
Oct. 31, 1754 
April 1.3, 1855 
Feb. 27,1849 

May 26,1812 

April 5, 1824 

April 3,1857 

Mar. 26,1846 
April 17, 1851 

April 15, 1853 
April 12, 1853 
April 10, 1840 
April 3,1856 

April 12, 1855 

Feb. 25,1795 

April 17, 1851 
April 18, 1831 
May 8, 1846 
May 11,1846 
Feb. 16, 1839 

April 25, 1831 

Mar. 10,1807 
AprU 8, 1835 

Mar. 27, 1857 

1850 

Miiy 11,1846 

Feb. 1, 1837 


Law 
Patent 
Law 
Law 

Regents 

Regents 

Law 

Law 
Law 

Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 

Regents 

Regents 

Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 

Law 

Regents. 
Trusts, of 
G. CoU. 
Law. 
Law 
Law 

Law. 


Elmira Female College 

Genesee College 


Hobart Free College 


Ingham University 

Madison University 

N. Y. Central College Assoc. 

N. Y. State Agric'l College 

People's College" 

St. John's College 


St. Lawrence University... 
Troy University 


Union College 


University of Albany 

Univ. of the City of N. Y.... 
University of Rochester 


Albany Medical College* ... 

College of Pharmacy of City 

of New York 


College of Physicians and 

Surgeons of N. Y 

Medical Inst, of Geneva Coll. 

Metropolitan Medical Coll.," 
New York Medical College, 
Univ. of Buffalo, Med. Dep.,"* 
University of the City of 
New York, Med. Dep.«.... 



Remarks. 



Seventh-day Bap., 33 trustees. 

Prot. E., 24 trustees. Formerly King's College. 

Changed from Elmira Collegiate Institute. 

Meth. E., 28 to 30 trustees, elected for 5 years by 
classes. 

N. S. Presb., 24 trustees. Changed from Hamilton 
Oneida Academy. 

Prot. E., 24 trustees. Originally Medical Dep. con- 
nected. Changed from Geneva College, April 10, 
1852. 

N. S. Presb., 24 trustees. Changed from Ingham 
Collegiate Institute. 

Bap., 27 trustees. Theological Depart, connected. 

Located on a farm. Students not excluded on ac- 
count of sex or color. 

10 trustees. In course of erection. See Oi'ici. 

24 trustees. In course of erection. Capital, $250,000. 

R. C, 9 trustees. Theological Depart, connected. 

Universal ist, 25 trustees. Theological Department 
connected. In course of organization. 

Methodist E., 64 trustees. Charter conditioned to 
$100,000, which is obtained. Organized. 

15 trustees, besides those ex officio. Changed from 
Scheuectady Academy. 

Law Department only organized. 

32 trustees. Medical Department connected. 

Bap., 20 trustees. Theological Depart, connected. 

Medical Department only organized. 



For education of druggists. Does not report. 



Mayor and Recorder ex officio trustees. 

Medical Dep. only one organized. Full nniv. ch.arter. 



« Trustees elected for 6 years. Students and teachers expected 
to labor from 10 to 20 hours each week. Located on a farm of 
200 acres. 

^ Mayor and Recorder of Albany ex officio trustees. Building 
erected for Lancasterian school, and leased by the city at a 
nominal rent. 

« A college of similar name, incorp. March 28, 1827, did not 
organize. See Megents' Report, 1858, p. 168. 



^ Capital limited to $100,000. Proprietors elect council of 16 
for 4 years, besides which each department elects one to the 
council to hold at their pleasure. 

' The council of the University of the City of New York con- 
sists of 32 shareholders elected for 4 years, besides the Maj'or of 
New York and 4 of the Common CouncU designated for the 
purpose. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



127 



possessin" a capital stock may be elected by the proprietors fur such terms as shall be fixed. The 
capital stock of an academy may not exceed §50,000, and that of a medical college formed under 
the general law cannot be less than $50,000, nor more than $200,000. All such charters, exceptr 
ing those containing provisional conditions, are porpetual. 

Theological Seminaries in the State of New York." 



Najtb. 



General Theological Seminary of P. E. Church 

Hartwick Seminary (Theological Department) 

Martin Luther College (Theological Department') 

Rochester Theological Seminary 

St. Joseph's Theological Seminary 

St. Lawrence University (Theological Dep.) 

Theological Department Mailison University , 

Theological Seminary of Auburn 

Theological Seminary of Associate Heformeil Church. 
Union Theological Seminary 



Location. 



New York 

Ilartwick 

Buffalo 

Rochester 

Fordliam 

Canton 

Hamilton 

Auburn 

Newburgh 

New York 



Denomination. 



P. E. 
Lutheran 
Lutheran 
Baptist 
R. C. 

Univcrsalist 
Baptist 
N. S. Presb. 
A. R. Presb. 
N. S. Presb. 



Date of Ealab- 
lishvient. 



1817 
1S16 

Nov. 4, 1850 
1846 
1S58 
1820 

April 14, 1820 
18.30 
1836 



•s.. 






58 
5 

36 



24 

30 

11 

106 






430 
52 

50 



2()2 
580 
U.3 
211 



t^-^ 



11,963 
1,250 

6,500 



7,500 

6.000 

3.200 

18,000 



« Mostly upon authority of the American Almanac of 1859. 
Several of these possess liberal endowments, and defray the per- 
sonal expenses of the students attending them. Tuition fees 



are, it is believed, in no cases required from those receiving in- 
struction. All the above are now in operation. 



The following institutions have been projected, but have not been established, or have ceased 

to exist : — 



Name. 



Date of Incorp. 



Albany College 

Auburn University 

Auburn Female University 

Brockport College 

Cayuga College 

Central Medical College and Syracuse Medical \ 

College i 

Clinton College, Fairfield 

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Wes-I 

tern District, Fairfield J 

Flushing College 

Ithaca College 

Kingston College 

Medical Department of Columbia College 

N. Y. College of Dental Surgery, Syracuse 

Richmond College, Richmond co 

St. Paul's College, College Point, Flushing, L. I. 

Troy Medical College 

University of Western N. Y., Buffalo 

Washington College, Richmond co 

Westminster College, Buffalo 



Feb. 26,1826 
Jan. 29. 1852 
March 4, 1830 

1849 
Mar. 25, 1816 
June 12, 1812 

April ioj 1822 

1793 

April 13,1852 
AprU 18, 1838 
May 9, 1840 

April's,' 1836 
Jan. 27, 1827 
April 17, 1851 



BemarJa. 



Applications were made for a college in 1795, but refused. 

Provisions of charter not complied with. 

Never organized. 

Never organized. 

Applications made Feb. 15, 1802. Refused. 

( After a few courses of lectures, these institutions were 

\ abandoned. 

Conditions not complied with. 

f Courses of lectures were held until 1840, the Regents con- 

1 ferring the degrees. 

Applications refused Feb. 20, 1845. 

Conditions not complied with. 

Applications refused in 1779, 1804, and 1811. 

Discontinued in 1814. 

Discontinued in a short time. 

Never organized. 

Closed in a short time. 

Application refused, Feb. 16, 1824. 

Never organized. 

Conditions not complied with. 

Never organized. 



Besides these, several institutions bearing the name of col- 
leges have been established, but of which no general statistics 
have been obtained. Among them are the •' Martin Luther Col- 
lege," at Buffalo, the '• College of St. Francis Xavier," (R. C) in 
New York ; " Franciscan College and Convent," inaugurated Oct. 
4, 1858, at Allegany, Cattaraugus co. ; the " De Veaux CoUege for 



Orphan and Destitute Children," incorporated April 15, 1853, 
and located at Suspension Bridge, Niagara CO.; and the "St. 
Peter's College," (R. C.,) in course of organization, at Troy. 
Most of these are unincorporated, none of them possess the right 
of granting degrees, and they generally partake more of the 
character of academies than of colleges. 



Tabular Summary of Colleges as reported Jan. 1859, for the year previous. 



Name. 



Albany Medical College 

College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y 

Columbia College 

Genesee College 

Hamilton College 

Hobart Free College 

Madison University 

Medical Institute Geneva College 

Medical Department of University of N. Y.... 
Medical Department of University of Buffalo. 

Metropolitan Medical College 

New York Central College 

New York Medical College 

St. John's College 

Troy University 

Union College 

University of City of New York 

University of Rochester 



i. 


Ib' 
55S 




41 


4l 




9 


121 


56 


9 


173 


50 


12 


153 


25 


6 


96 


15 


9 


134 


27 


7 


92 


20 


9 


119 


23 


7 


31 


8 


7 


347 


128 


9 


38 


9 


6 


18 


10 


9 


16 


4 


12 


99 


37 


27 


49 


6 


4 


53 




16 


297 


89 


16 


125 


16 


8 


149 


22 






.32 8 



90,000 
114..336 
24.500 
125,000 
35.000 
18,700 
16,049 
70,000 
14,000 

'sb'.'ob'o 

50,000 

74.200 
100.000 

70.993 
200,000 

38,201 











1 




g 


Oi 

^ 


5 » 


c.^ 




•8^ 


e ? ■ 




■0.2 
e S 


es 


t?'-.-2 




'as 


$ 


$ 


$605 


$1,120 






635 


1,325 


6','5'i5 


44.150 
5,250 






l.'ie'i 


8,019 






Free. 


4,595 






2,402 


7,285 










199 


160 






1,735 


3,840 






84 


132 


1,497 












335 


I.IjO 




4,000 






10,177 


12,151 






12.207 


11,150 






5,360 


10,835 










128 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



Statistics of Academies from the Regents' Report of 1859. 



Names. 



Academy at Little Falls 

Academy of Dutcbess Co 

Albany Academy 

Albany Female Academy....- 

Albion Academy 

Alfred Academy 

Amenia Seminary 

Ames Academy 

Amsterdam Female Seminary 

Argyle Academy 

Auburn Academy 

Augusta Academy 

Aurora Academy 

Ball Seminary 

Bingham ton Academy 

Brockport Collegiate Institute 

Brookfield Academy 

Brooklyn College & Poly tech. Inst.. 

Buffalo Female Academy 

Cambridge Washington Academy... 

Canajoharie Academy 

Canandaigua Academy 

Canton Academy 

Gary Collegiate Seminary 

Cayuga Academy 

Champlain Academy 

Cherry Valley Academy 

Chester Academy 

Cincinnatus Academy _. 

Clarence Academy 

Claveraek Academy & II. R. Inst... 

Clinton Grammar School 

Clinton Liberal Institute 

Cortland Academy 

Cortlandville Academy 

Dansville Seminary -. 

Deaf and Dumb Institution — . 

Delaware Academy 

Delaware Literary Institute 

De Ruyter Institute 

Dundee Academy 

East Bloomfield Academy 

Ellington Academy 

Erasmus Hall Academy _. 

Fairfield Academy 

Falley Seminary 

Farmers' Hall Academy _. 

Fort Covington Academy 

Fort Plain Seminary and Female 

Collegiate Institute __. 

Franklin (Malone) Academy _. 

Franklin ^Prattsbu^gh) Academy.. 

Fredonia Academy 

Friendship Academy 

Galway Academy 

Genesee Conference Seminary 

Genesee Wesleyan Seminary 

Genesee and Wyoming Seminary... 

Genesee Academy 

Geneva Union School 

GUbertsville Academy & Coll. Inst. 

Glens Falls Academy 

Gloversville Union Seminary 

Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary.... 
Grammar School Columbia College 

Grammar School Madison Univ 

Grammar School N.Y.Cent. Coll... 

Granville Academy 

Greenville Academy 

Groton Academy 

Hamilton Academy 

Hamilton Female Seminary 

Hartwick Seminary 

HoUey Academy 

Hudson Academy 

Ithaca Academy 

Jamestown Academy 

Jefferson County Institute 

Johnstown Academy 

Jonesville Academy 

Jordan Academy 





.S v 






a 






S -o 


•s 










'S;5 












S^l' 


fe . 


fe 


■^1 






■B 


« s 


^ 


^i 


Sm 


■> 


rX'S 


^1 














:^ 


^1 


g^ 


3 


131 


92 


4 


181 


110 


10 


242 


116 


13 


200 


136 


3 


224 


133 


13 


476 


355 


7 


168 


125 


2 


80 


67 


4 


45 


35 


5 


99 


71 


3 


135 


95 


1 


41 


18 


2 


226 


101 


2 


113 


33 


3 


182 


101 


7 


351 


148 


2 


95 


71 


19 


507 


240 


10 


159 


82 


3 


172 


69 


4 


186 


98 


6 


145 


87 


2 


129 


59 


5 


210 


106 


6 


107 


87 


3 


148 


76 


9 


210 


64 


3 


90 


29 


3 


133 


98 


2 


111 


47 


14 


433 


367 


4 


127 


70 


7 


67 


22 


6 


394 


344 


4 


234 


161 


3 




so'e 


10 


225 


186 


9 


261 


205 


3 


139 


64 


4 


230 


106 


3 


60 


53 


3 


210 


113 


3 


103 


52 


10 


389 


308 


11 


383 


191 


1 


56 


41 


3 


168 


105 


7 


264 


167 


3 


287 


145 


4 


170 


148 


4 


281 


171 


3 


166 


91 


9 


103 


99 


4 


235 


146 


11 


587 


495 


7 


210 


104 


5 


218 


168 


13 


921 


43 


2 


103 


46 


4 


233 


127 


7 


265 


60 


6 


340 


156 


7 


90 


71 


1 


43 


23 


6 


135 


106 


... 


77 


48 


1 


86 


26 


2 


193 


93 


3 


130 


67 


6 


158 


117 


2 


88 


88 


4 


264 


100 


2 


100 


52 


6 


345 


216 


3 


185 


120 


4 


165 


126 


3 


205 


119 


8 


216 


153 


2 


158 


125 



-§ 



r 



O S fi 



$178.52 
213.44 
225.58 
263.89 
258.57 
688.84 
234.79 
130.21 

64.03 
137.77 
170.75 

34.93 
195.98 

62.09 
194.54 
287.68 
131.94 
461.81 
159.11 
1.33.89 
190.18 
168.81 
114.48 
203.74 
168.81 
147.47 
124.18 

56.26 
184.34 

91.20 
712.12 
133.89 

42.69 
667.40 
312.40 

593.76 
360.91 
397.78 
124.18 
205.69 
100.90 
219.26 

97.02 
597.64 
370.62 

79..56 
203.74 

324.54 
281.36 
287.18 
331.81 
176.58 
192.10 
283.30 
960.49 
201.80 
325.98 
83.44 
89.26 
238.67 
116.42 
302.70 
137.77 
36.86 
201.80 
93.14 
50.44 
180.46 
130.00 
213.44 
170.75 
194.04 
100.90 
419.12 
238.85 
244.49 
230.90 
296.88 
242..52 



Total Values. 



8 






tS<5 



$10,200 

11.000 

90.000 

33.347 

7.100 

17.266 

18.500 

2.440 

9.000 

3.100 

8,214 

2,487 

2.900 

3,810 

6.500 

30,000 

3,000 

69,754 

55,000 

4,250 

5.580 

12.500 

3,500 

15.140 

10,000 

5,504 

13.000 

2,950 

3.183 

5,000 

35,330 

2,600 

80,300 

5.000 

2.800 

3,043 

26,000 

21,000 

8,800 

2.350 

5,000 

3.650 

9,500 

20,200 

17,800 

3,350 

2,150 

24.000 
8,000 

10,000 
4.500 
3,125 

"s.soo 

27,500 
8,581 

11.200 

10,000 
4.500 
4.500 

17.497 
6,800 



2,900 
2,500 
5.850 
3.775 
8..513 
7.800 
2.900 
3.200 

12.500 
4.400 

11.050 
3.000 
9.652 
3,800 



"fe^ 



^ 



$361 
310 

1.631 

1,028 
606 
680 

1..596 
275 
400 
242 
332 
368 
610 
197 
400 

1,022 
170 
367 
360 
650 
260 
690 
440 
546 

3,027 
342 
223 
370 
174 
182 
173 
200 

1,775 

1.000 
711 
164 

1.183 

1,053 

426 

267 

558 

228 

2,604 

1,044 

655 

681 

205 

152 

3.38 

1.251 

2,111 

214 

""210 
2,366 
864 
708 
1.000 
658 
240 
160 
432 
550 

""250 
233 
251 
441 
823 
410 

1.579 
243 
177 
437 
2S3 

1,445 
240 
441 
209 









$584 

081 

2.917 

2,415 

350 

1,375 

1,267 

200 

405 

150 

500 

289 

400 

485 

438 

377 

155 

1,875 

1,742 

566 

244 

1,345 

327 

600 

879 

552 

762 

284 

206 

151 

846 

175 

475 

1,000 

600 

170 

630 
395 
642 
178 
478 
160 
497 
1,280 
1,062 
223 
262 

456 
415 
457 

752 
168 



152 
2,319 
702 
600 
516 
455 
385 
168 
939 
222 



250 
45 
160 
625 
473 
368 
202 
228 
200 
900 
740 
1,566 
282 
366 
350 



ft? 



$1,295 
3,116 
5,717 
6,662 
2,139 
12,124 
10,302 

742 

674 
1,330 
1,478 

260 
1.501 

507 
1,612 
3,204 

700 
30,453 
5,970 
1.700 
1.284 
3.139 
1,094 
4,078 
1,622 
1,440 
4,768 
1.180 
1,232 

836 
13.214 
6,059 
1.553 
3.973 
1,752 

574 

2,286 

4,144 

1,101 

2,308 

713 

971 

2.196 

14.307 

4.632 

649 

1,049 

3,159 
1.767 
2,280 
2,177 
1,198 
3,417 
1,393 
4.603 
1,905 
3,699 
6,434 
1,101 
1,215 
2,631 
2.449 
5,990 

611 
1,403 

443 

816 
1.502 

■774 
4,905 
1.813 
1,751 

702 
3.328 
1.317 
2.136 
1.630 
6,447 
1.583 



a 



$1,195 
2,928 

10,062 
7,508 
2,138 

10,989 

10,301 

712 

760 

1,319 

1,477 

260 

1,412 

514 

1,611 

3,244 

700 

30,313 
6,078 
1,695 
1,406 
3,189 
1,094 
4,078 
1,665 
1,440 
4,768 
1.196 
1,066 
770 

11,385 
6,165 
1,653 
4.208 
1,819 
720 

8,250 
3,975 

991 
2,440 

713 

964 

1.858 

13,021 

4,632 

641 
1,017 

4,359 
. 1,819 
2.645 
2,459 
1,198 
3.339 
1475 
4,644 
1,885 
3.923 
4,440 

702 
1.215 
2,631 
2,134 
4,167 

600 
1,404 

473 

768 
1,330 
1,341 
4.852 
1.734 
1,751 

705 
3,181 
1,317 
2,1.35 
1,529 
5,447 
1.584 



I 






444 
339 
946 

1,062 
439 
737 

1,711 
305 
381 
173 
249 
181 
653 
178 
409 
474 
126 
335 
195 
391 
192 
813 
293 
612 

2,346 
263 
144 
250 
155 
213 
281 
175 

1,257 

1,129 

668 

67 

838 
1,032 
280 
201 
696 
188 
2,435 
953 
436 
739 
112 

208 

285 
1,196 
1.744 

189 
98 

216 
2,041 

520 

1,200 
389 
228 
101 
433 

1,148 



199 
355 
392 
831 
427 

1,050 
221 
164 
447 
308 

1,637 
193 
405 
191 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



129 



Staiisiics of Academies from the Begents' Report of 1859, continued. 



Names. 



Kepseville Academy 

Kinderbook Academy 

Kingsboro' Academy 

Kingston Academy _ 

Liberty Normal Institute , 

LiKkport Union School 

Lowville Academy _ 

Lyons Union School 

Macedon Academy 

Manlius Academy 

Marion Collegiate Institute 

Mayville Academy 

Medina Academy 

Mexico Academy 

Middlebnry Academy 

Monroe Academy 

Montgomery Academy _ 

Monticello Academy 

Moravia Institute 

Moviiit Morris Union Free School. 

Mount Pleasant Academy 

Munro Collegiate Institute 

New Paltz Academy 

New York Conference Seminary.... 

New York Free Academy 

North Granville Female Seminary. 

North Hebron Institute 

North Salem Academy 

Norwich Academy 

Nunda Literary Institute 

Ogdensburgh Academy 

Oneida Conference Seminary 

Onondaga Academy 

Ontario Female Seminary 

Oswego High School 

Ovid Academy , 

Owego Academy 

Oxford Academy 

Packer Collegiate Institute 

Palmyra Classical Union School.... 

Peekskill Academy 

Perry Academy 

Peterboro' Academy 

Phelps Union Classical School 

Phipps Union Seminary 

Plattsburgh Academy 

Pompey -Academy 

Poughkeepsie Female Academy... 

Prospect Academy 

Pula.«ki Academy 

Randolph Academy 

Ked Creek Union Academy 

Rensselaerville Academy 

Richburgh Academy 

Rochester Female Academy 

Rogersville Union Seminary 

Rome Academy 

Rural Seminary 

Rushford Academy 

Rutgers Female Institute 

Sag Harbor Institute , 

St. Lawrence Academy 

Saugerlies Academy 

Sauquoit Academy 

Schenectady Union School , 

Schoharie Academy , 

Schuylerville Academy 

Seneca Falls Academy 

Sodus Academy , 

Spencertowu Academy 

Springville Academy 

S. S. Seward Institute 

Starkey Seminary 

Susquehanna Seminary , 

Troy Academy 

Troy Female Seminary 

Truniansburgh Academy 

Unadilla Academy „ 

Onion Hall Academy 

Union Literary Society 

Union Village Academy 



1 

i 


•5 (^ 

41 


TIte No. that pursued 
classical studies. 


4 


378 


246 


4 


106 


67 


3 


66 




5 


209 


114 


2 


115 


9 


9 


491 


181 


4 


267 


176 


4 


128 


68 


4 


ato 


179 


2 


99 


25 


5 


158 


74 


2 


78 


49 


5 


171 


164 


4 


223 


159 


6 


229 


142 


4 


152 


75 


2 


77 


28 


7 


153 


60 


2 


122 


63 


4 


98 


70 


7 


82 


59 


3 


134 


95 


2 


61 


33 


11 


460 


226 


25 


613 


567 


13 


114 


132 


1 


"eo 


32 


5 


311 


222 


5 


309 


241 


3 


161 


116 


8 


351 


258 


3 






13 


128 


110 


3 


121 


80 


8 


273 


196 


4 


249 


109 


6 


300 


165 


24 


673 


375 


5 


282 


134 


3 


101 


50 


5 


127 


49 


1 


42 


14 


5 


408 


91 


10 


217 


176 


4 


215 


160 


2 


43 


39 


8 


119 


98 


1 


87 


24 


3 


170 


61 


4 


184 


87 


5 


250 


158 


2 


91 


30 


3 


86 


51 


4 


122 


62 


4 


96 


76 


3 


233 


110 


3 


122 


77 


2 


201 


141 


18 


278 


156 


2 


320 


61 


5 


293 


125 


3 


179 


50 


3 


115 


87 


5 


206 


143 


3 


112 


91 


3 


169 


123 


4 


193 


98 


4 


129 


72 


5 


78 


62 


2 


166 


86 


6 


157 


101 


5 


161 


112 


7 


232 


192 


5 


45 


28 


21 


319 


212 


2 


1.58 


34 


2 


80 


21 


9 


220 


143 


6 


209 


173 


4 


215 


140 



^"5 



§• 






?461.81 
130.00 

219.26 

17.46 
351.21 
279.42 
131.94 
347.33 

48.51 
141.65 

95.08 
318.22 
308.52 
275.54 
145.53 

60.45 
116.42 
102.84 
135.83 
114.48 
182.40 

62.09 

438.53 

1,100.70 

256.14 

" "si'gs 

430.77 
467. &4 
225.58 
500.62 

"211.50 

155.23 

350.91 

211.50 

318.22 

727.75 

225.58 

97.02 

85.38 

27.17 

176.58 

310.46 

310.46 

75.67 

190.18 

38.81 

118.36 

168,81 

291 .56 

58.21 

93.14 

120.30 

147.47 

213.44 

149.41 

273.60 

302.70 

118.36 

236.73 

97.02 

168.81 

260.51 

176.58 

238.67 

168.81 

131.94 

102.84 

166.87 

195.98 

217..32 

364.79 

54.32 

411.36 

65.97 

40.75 

277.48 

335.69 

271.66 



Total Values. 






o'-S 



$3,600 
4.000 
3.700 

15.IXK) 
1.250 

13,000 
7,500 

15,000 
6,055 
3,000 

11,500 
3,750 
6,200 

14,000 
6,.'iOO 
6.465 
6,000 
4..350 
2,200 

n.ooo 

21,500 

7,900 

20.000 

117,324 

19,000 

2,400 

3.000 

8,400 

2,900 

11,000 

26,000 

12,700 

20,000 

11,000 

15,600 

5,000 

9,350 

121,765 

12,000 

17.000 

16,750 

4,528 

5,200 

10.200 

5,500 

5,400 

15,963 

2.9no 

9,028 
6,420 
9,650 
2,610 
3,200 
6.000 
7.860 

10.500 
4,100 
6.963 

27,500 
2,400 

10,000 
5,000 
2.500 

41,000 
4.000 
2.850 
3.000 
3.300 
2,750 
3,500 

10,000 

10,350 

37,000 
7,575 

12,100 
4,300 
3,5.50 

15,400 

10,500 
4,581 






^ 



$227 
600 
417 
667 
185 
259 
860 
745 
207 
410 
248 
194 
350 
630 
930 
158 
200 
251 
362 
222 

1,467 
869 
486 
350 

9,296 
228 
40 
536 
400 
174 
501 

2,327 
616 
931 

2,500 
360 
601 
9.53 

1,.3.38 
674 
645 
567 
207 
315 
471 
229 
351 
.578 
312 
301 
38S 
175 
203 
172 
.186 
160 
420 
647 
283 

2.314 
210 
784 
152 
192 

4.000 
351 
211 
496 
1S4 
192 
200 
262 
853 
158 
240 

1,.374 
163 
256 
634 
731 
305 



I 

II 



$200 
624 
655 
400 
164 
600 
627 
403 
736 
200 
592 
205 
235 
S26 
499 
1.50 
300 
170 
361 
193 
300 
719 
553 
250 

8,988 
375 
137 
250 
899 
184 
679 

2,694 
306 
924 
600 
600 
180 
790 

1,595 
250 
446 
210 
174 
201 
212 
474 
150 
760 
S25 
175 
278 
175 
1.55 
185 
170 
174 
850 
237 
837 

3,138 
187 
493 
185 
186 
200 
161 
400 
600 
283 
210 
410 
150 
658 
4.57 
275 
903 
150 
151 
369 
481 
187 



ft; 

3 



$2,328 
1,294 

670 
3,176 

701 
4,459 
2,170 
1,757 
2,482 

978 
1,546 

889 
1,839 
2,001 
2,015 
1,369 

811 
2,359 

830 

710 
7,033 
1,639 

981 
19,939 
69.783 
13,372 

110 

487 
2,123 
1,902 
4,686 
4.321 



4,855 

3,784 
2,373 
2,1.31 
30,574 
2,438 
2,387 
1,225 

334 
1.996 
3,674 
1.948 

502 
4,497 

294 
2.557 
1,263 
1,560 

375 

927 
2.224 

939 
2,060 
1,081 
1.531 
10..397 
1,546 
2.484 
1.117 

712 

19,278 

1,.305 

1.073 

1,879 

919 

993 
1,002 
4.045 
1,220 
2,376 
2,486 
8.743 

756 

630 
3,686 
2.778 
1,938 



5 
g 



$2,328 
1,294 

567 
3,058 

683 
4,522 
2,046 
1,807 
2,471 

812 
2.503 

910 
1,967 
2,083 
1.976 
1,368 

806 
2,443 

830 

710 
6,650 
1,256 

980 
20,473 
60,671 
10.034 

110 

440 
2,114 
1,703 
4.449 
4,502 



4,854 

3,625 
2,344 
2,149 
24.474 
2.385 
2,185 
1,7.35 

319 
2.053 
3,673 
1,948 

613 
4,597 

317 
2,614 
1,263 
1,5.59 

435 

855 
2.224 

9.39 
2,1.31 
1,081 
1,5.31 
12.272 
1..521 
1.925 
1.347 

743 
19,5.32 
1,337 
1,094 
1,863 
1.106 

971 

951 
2,108 
1,483 
2.479 
2.409 
8.270 
1,051 

629 
3,532 
2,414 
1,941 



i 
s 

2 

i_ 

231 

680 
285 
620 
189 
144 

1,119 
986 
177 
417 
196 
186 
349 
527 
8,52 
141 
480 
216 
366 
315 

1,376 
722 
447 
360 

6,528 
358 
112 
262 
500 
171 

l,2i8 

1,946 
635 
895 

470 
402 
1,285 
1,128 
1,094 
609 
347 
184 
604 
406 
146 
366 
634 
376 
293 
320 
200 
223 
132 
171 
1-20 
506 
678 
162 
3,032 
206 
936 
180 

V, ^2 
2,904 
331 
215 
293 
1.33 
240 

leo 

129 
1,268 
138 
244 
1,065 
200 
266 
667 
604 
373 



130 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Statistics of Acadeinies from tlie Regents^ Report of 1859, continued. 



Nakes. 



tJtica Academy 

Utica Female Academy 

Vernun Academy 

Wallkill Academy 

Walton Academy 

Walworth Academy 

Warsaw Union School 

Warwick Institute 

Washington Academy 

Washington Co. Seminary & C. I... 

Waterloo Union School 

Waverly Institute 

Webster Academy 

Westfield Academy 

West Wintield Academy 

Whitehall Academy 

Whitestown Seminary 

Wilson Collegiate Institute 

Windsor A-cademy 

Yates Academy 

Tates Polytechnic Institute 



Total 949 





•S| 
















?> 








Total Values. 






e 




a <aj 


FQ 


'? g 












.c 




^s 


g 


■5 ?s 










s» 


^ 










s *> 


2 . 


'S g 


'S 


r> 






£ 


a 


1 




il 




S 
3. 






s 




S 


fc^ 


^s 


cC '^ 


•« ^ 


■fe"! 


■£> 


'fe' 


^ 


^ 


i2 


^ 
^ 


il 




s ?■ * 


§3 
II 





11 


^ 


"§ 

g 




7 


188 


159 


$308.52 


$7,000 


$313 


$760 


$3,947 


$3,944 


169 


n 


179 


69 


133.89 


23.000 


189 


257 


3.861 


3,728 


127 


5 


162 


96 


186.28 


4.000 


464 


583 


891 


890 


530 


3 


198 


110 


213.44 


6.510 


340 


190 


2,811 


2,811 


423 


6 


131 


73 


141.65 


3,429 


409 


473 


1,899 


1.6S5 


222 


3 


84 


•35 


67.91 


8.440 


200 


789 


998 


855 


130 


3 


150 


1.37 


265.83 


4,800 


279 


461 


1,396 


1.396 


231 


3 


112 


62 


91.20 


6,300 


1.50 


150 


1.382 


1,320 


104 


4 


124 


63 


122.24 


5,000 


271 


700 


1.109 


1,103 


366 


16 


777 


512 


993.98 


14,100 


646 


947 


9.192 


9.191 


549 


9 


608 


27 


52.39 


6.500 


435 


476 


3.090 


3.372 


789 


5 


176 


43 


83.44 


7.354 


165 


178 


1,391 


1,580 


166 


3 


92 


47 


91.20 


4,300 


166 


168 


743 


738 


112 


3 


250 


113 


219.26 


4,300 


540 


300 


1.216 


1,161 


610 


9 


357 


165 


293.60 


10.000 


778 


925 


3,142 


3,142 


600 


3 


187 


77 


149.31 


3.560 


260 


503 


1,058 


1,040 


220 


9 


400 


286 


554.95 


12.500 


1,305 


1,236 


3,635 


3,612 


1,193 


4 


232 


138 


267.77 


2.685 


785 


546 


1,210 


1,209 


790 


2 


59 


36 


69.85 


3.780 


488 


190 


506 


678 


589 


2 


157 


43 


83.44 


2.750 


480 


519 


795 


840 


332 


7 
949 


251 


109 


211.50 


10,000 


242 


368 


3,182 


3,182 


296 


35,009 


20,812 


$39,911.66 


$2,009 076 


$111,438 


$101,693 


$595,125 


$582,135 


93,969 



Academies incorporated since the organization of a State Government in 1777. 



Name. 


Zocation. 


Incnrp. by 
Legislature. 


Jncorp. by 
Regents. 


Remarlcs. 


Academy of the Sacred Heart.. 

Academic Department of Union 

School 


Rochester, Monroe co 

Warsaw, Wyoming co 


April 11, 1849 


Jan. 11, 1855 
April 22, 1865 
Feb. 8, 1849 
Mar. 4,1813 
Jan. 29,1828 
April 16, 1828 


Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Sold, fall of 1858. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Merged in Packer Inst. 
Not organized. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Diss, by act Apr. 21, 1846. 


Adams Collegiate Institute 

Addison Academy 

Albany Academy 

Albany Female Academy 

Albany Female Seminary 

Albany Pearl Street Academy. 
Albion Academy 








Albany. Albany co 




Albany, Albany co 

Albany, Albany co 

Albany Albany co .... 


Feb. 16,1821 
April 9,1828 
April 2.3. 1836 
May 1, 1837 
May 6, 1834 


Albion, Orleans co 

Alexander, Genesee co 


Feb. 27,1841 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Jan. 31,1843 
JIar. 29, 1836 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 16, 1841 

Feb. 1, 1856 
May 4, 1841 
Feb. 13,1844 
Feb. 14,1815 
Feb. 11,1840 
Feb. 28, 1842 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Feb. 27,1841 
April 11, 1843 
Mar. 21, 1808 
Feb. 5, 1839 


Alexander Classical School 


Amenia Seminary 

Ames Academy 

Amsterdam Female Seminary.. 

Angelica Academy 

Antwerp Liberiil Lit. Inst 

Argyle Academj' 

Astoria Institute 








April 22, 1837 
Mar. 29, 1839 
May 12,1836 


Amsterdam, Montgomery co 

Angelica, Allegany co 


Arsfvle. Washinsfton co 




Astoria. Oueens co 


Auburn Academy 






Auburn Female Seminary" 

Augusta Academy 




April 18, 1838 


Ausrusta. Oneida co 


Aurora Academy* 


Aurora, Erie co 

Ayon, Liyingston co 

Hoosick Falls, Rensselaer co 

Ballston. Saratosra co 


ApriisO, 1833 
April 30, 1836 


Ball Seminary" 


Ballston Academy 




Batavia Female Academy 

Bedford Academy 


Batiivia, Genesee co 


Mar. 5, 1838 
April 8,1826 
Mar. 8,1833 
Mar. 29, 1841 


Bedford. Westchester en 


BernyUle Acad. & Fern. Sem... 

Bethany Academy 

Binghamton Academy 


Bern. Albanv co 


Bethany, Genesee co 


Feb. 28,1842 
Aug. 23, 1S42 
April 1, 1811 
April 16, 1828 
Feb. 15,1842 
AprU17, 1847 
April 7,1854 

Jan. 14,1847 

Jan. 10, 1850 
Oct. 14,1851 


Binghamton, Broome co 


Blooming Groye Academy 

Brid^'ewater Academy 






Bridgewater, Oneida co 


April 8,1826 


Brockport Collegiate Institute. 


Brockport, Monroe co 






Brooklyn Coll. & Polytech.Ins. 
Brooklyn Coll. Inst, for Young 

Ladies 

Brooklyn Female Academy 

Broome Academy 

Brownville Female Semin;n-y... 

Buffalo Female Academy 

Buffalo Female Seminary 

Buffalo Literary & Sci. Acad''.. 


Brooklyn, Kings co 


Brooklyn, Kings co ., 


April 23, 1829 
May 8, 1845 
April 30, 1839 






Brownville, Jefferson co 


Buffalo, Erie co 






April 23, 1831 
April 17, 1827 


Buffalo, Erie co 





a Jan. 29, 1852 and July 21, 1853. The Institution had be- 
come extinct under its first charter. 

» Incorp. as the " Aurora Manual Labor Seminary." Name 
changed April 16, 1838. 



Named from L. Chandler Ball, principal founder of the In- 
stitution. 

i Incorp. as the " Buffalo High School Association." Name 
changed. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



131 



Academies incorporated since 1717, continued. 



Name. 


Location, 


Incorp. by 
Legislature. 


Jncnrp. hy 
Eegents. 


Remarks. 


Cambridge Washington Acad... 

Canajoharie Acatieuiy 

Canandaigua Academy 

Canton Academy 

Carlisle Seminarv 


Cambridge, Washington co 

Canajoharie, Montgomery co 




Mar. 30, 1815 
Feb. 26,1828 
Mar. 4. 1795 
Jan. 23, 1840 
Oct. 20,1853 
May 16,1845 
Mar. 12, 1804 

Mar. 23, 1801 
Aug. 23, 1842 
Jan. 15,1857 
July 9,1857 
Feb. 8, 1796 
Feb. 27,1844 
April 21, 1857 
Oct. 12, 1854 
Mar. 17, 1835 
Feb. 5, 1839 
June 14, 1854 
Feb. 26,1839 
Nov. 17, 1787 
Feb. 27,1826 
Mar. 29, 1836 
Feb. 15,1842 
Feb. 23,1849 


Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional charter. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Provisional Charter. 

Provisional Charter. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional Charter. 
Merged in Genesee Coll. 

Merged in Geneva Coll. 


April 13, 1826 




April 24, 1837 


Carlisle, Schoharie co 


Cary Collegiate Seminary 


Oaryville, Geneseo co 


» 




Catskill Female Seminary 

Cayuga Academy 

Champlain Academy 




Mar. 24, 1820 


Aurora, Cayuga co 


Champlain, Clinton co 


„,. 


Chnrlotteville, Schoharie co 

Stockton, Chautauqua co 




Chavitauqua Coll. Inst 

Cherrv Vallev Arademv 




Cherry Valley, Otsego co 




Chester Academy 

Cincinnatus Academy 

Clarence Academy 








Clarence, Krie co 








Claverack Academv 


Claverack, Columbia co 


April" 25, "mi 


Claverack Acad. & Hud. II. Ins. 

Clermont Academy 

Clinton Academy 

Clinton Grammar School 

Clinton Liberal Institute 

Clinton Seminarv 


Claverack, Columbia co 


Clermont, Columbia co ,. 


April 26, 1834 


East Hampton, Suffolk co 




Mar. 28, 1817 
April 29, 1834 


Clinton, Oneida co 


Clinton, Oneida co 


Clover Street Seminary 

Collegiate Inst. City of N. Y... 

CoUinsville Institute 

Columbia Academv 


Brighton, Monroe co 

New York City 

West Turin. Lewis co 

Kinderhook, Columbia co...* 


April 7,1848 
July 10, 1851 
May 2,1837 

A"p"rii"l5",""i82i2 


Mar. 13, 1797 

June 14, 18.54 
Feb. 2, 1819 

.i"an!"3i,'"is"43 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Jan. 14, 1858 
April 1.3, 1842 
Feb. 2, 1820 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Jan. 30, 1838 
Dec. 3, 1847 

Mar. 22, 1855 

Feb. 1, 1792 
Jan. 23, 1840 


Cooperstown Female Academy 
Coopcrstown Seminary and Fe- 
male Coll. Institute 




Cooperstown, Otsego co 




Cortland Female Seminary 

Cortlandville Academy 

Coxsackie Academy 

Dansville Seminary 

De Lancey Institute 

Delaware Academy 


Cortlandville, Cortland co 

Cortlandville. Cortland co. 


April 18, '1828 




May 5, 1837 


Pansvillo, Livingston co 






Delhi, Delaware co 




Delaware Literary Institute 

De Ruyter Institute 

De Ruyter Institute 

Dover Academy 




April 23, 1835 
Mar. 30, 1836 


Do Kuyter, Madison co 

Do Ruyter, Madison co 

Dover, Dutchess co 

Dundee, [Starkey] Yates co 

Dunkirk, Chautauqua co 


May 9, 1835 


Dundee Academy 

Dunkirk Academy 

Dutchess County Academy 

East Bloomfield Academy 

Eastern Coll. Inst. City of N.Y. 
Ellington Academy 


May 1, 1837 


East Bloomtield, Ontario co 

New York City 

Ellin^'ton. Chautauoua co 


April 9,1838 
May 7, 1844 


Feb. 11,18.53 
Mar. 31,1840 
Oct. 20, 1853 
Nov. 17, 1787 
Mar. 6,1838 
Mar. 15, 1803 
Feb. 5, 1839 
.Tan. 21,1791 
Feb. 5, 1839 
April 21, 1857 

Oct. 11,1845 

Oct. 20,1853 
April 28, 1831 
Feb. 23, 1824 
Feb. 23,1830 
Feb. 8, 1849 
Jan. 26,1830 
Jan. 29,1839 
Oct. 11,1845 
Feb. 1, 1856 

Jan. 8, 1857 
Mar. 9, 1836 
Mar. 27, 1845 
Feb. 7, 1829 
Mar. 29, 1S13 

Feb. 4, 1847 
May 4, 1841 
Jan. 12, 1842 
Jan. 11, 1855 
Feb. 19,1829 


Elmira, Chemung co 




Elmira Collegiate Seminary.... 
Erasmus Hall 




Flatbush. Kind's co 




Essex Coimty Academy 

Fairfield Academy 

Falley Seminary" 


Westport, Essex co 


May 1, 1834 


Fulton, Oswego co 

Goshen. Oran*''e co 


May 24,1836 


Farmer's Ilall 

Fayetteville Academy 


Fayetteville, Onondaga co 


May 4, 1837 


Fem. Acad, of the Sacred Heart 

Fishkill Education Society 

Flushing Institute . . 


New York Citv 

Fishkill, Dutchess co 

Fluehin"', Queens co 


July 9, 1851 
Mav 11, 1835 
April 16, 1827 
May 13, 1845 
April 21, 18.31 


Fonda Academy 

Fort Covington Academy 

Fort Plain Seminary and Fe- 
male Collegiate Institute 

Franklin Academy^ 

Franklin Academy 

Fredonia Academy 




Fort Covingtonj Franklin co 

Fort Plain, Montgomery co 




Prattsbure'h. Steuben co 






Nov. 25,1824 


Friendship. Allegany co 

Gaines, Orleans co 

Galway, Saratoga co 

Galway, Saratc^a co 


Gaines Academy 

Gal way Academy 


April 14, 1827 
May 26,1836 


Galway Academy 


Genesee Conference Seminary... 
Genesee Manual Labor Sem*... 
Genesee Seminary 


Pike. Wvominer co 






April 13, 1832 
May 11,1835 


Batavia, Genesee co 


Genesee Valley Seminary 

Genesee Wesleyan Seminary*^... 
Genesee & Wyoming Seminary 
Geneseo Academy^ 




Apriiso/issS 


Alexander, Genesee co 


Geneseo, Livingston co 


Mar. 10, 1827 








April 15, 1853 


Genoa Academy 

Gilbertsville Acad. & Coll. Inst. 

Glens Falls Academy 

GloversTille Union Seminary... 
Gouverneur Wesleyan Sem/.... 


Genoa, Cayuga CO 


Gilbertsville. Otsego co 

Glens Falls, Warren co 






Gloversville, Fulton co 




Gouverncur, St. Lawrence co 


April 5,1828 



"Incorp. as "Fulton Fem.ale Seminary;" name changed to 
" Fulton Academy," April 11. 1842 ; to the " Falley Seminary 
of the Black River Conference," April 11, 1849 ; and to the name 
given above, March 5, 1857. 

* Charter made perpetual June 23, 1851. 



<: See act of March 27, 1834. "^ See act of March, 1836. 

« Incorp. as the " Livingston County lOgh School." Name 
changed Mav 13, 1846. 

/Incorp. as the " Gouverneur High School." Name changed 
April 24, 1840. 



132 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Academies incorporated since 1777, continued. 



Name. 


Location. 


Incnrp. hy 
Legislature. 


Jncorp. hy 
Kegents. 


Remarks. 


Grammar School Colum. Coll." 
Grammar School Madison Uni. 
Grammar School University 


New York City 




April 17, 1838 
June 17, 1853 

April 17, 1838 

April 16, 1830 
Feb. 27,1841 
Feb. 27,1816 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Feb. 14,1851 
Feb. 23,1824 
Jan. 17, 1856 
Jan. 29,1793 


Extinct. 
Sold in 1859. 

Merg. in Ham. ColL, 1812. 

ExUnct. 

Now a private institotion. 
Provisional charter. 
Extinct. 
Extinct 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Ingham TTniT. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Public Schools. 

Now a private institution. 

Merged in Ing. Coll. Inst. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Private School. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Changed to Munro Coll- 
Inst. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 


Hamilton, Madison co 




New York City 




Gram. School of N. Y. Cen. Coll. 


McGrawville, Cortland co. 
Granville, Washington co 


Mar. 31, 1828 
April 25, 1831 


Greenbush & Schodack Acad... 


East Greenbush, Rensselaer co... 

Greenville, Greene co. 

Groton, Tompkins co 

Half Moon, Saratoga co 


Groton Arademv 


May 6, 1837 


Half Moon Academy 

Hamilton Academy 

Hamilton Female Seminary.... 

Hamilton Oneida Academy 

Harlem Lit. & Sci. Academy... 
Hartwick Seminary 




Hamilton, Madison co 




Kirklapd, Oneida co 




Harlem, New York City 


Jan. 24,1829 


Hartwick, Otsego co 


Aug. 13, 1816 
Oct. 12,1854 
Jan. 14,1858 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Feb. 11,1840 

Jan. 23, 1840 

Mar. 28, 1850 
Feb. 14,18.50 
Mar. 3, 1807 


Hedding Literary Institute 

Hempstead Institute 

Hempstead Seminary 

Herkimer County Academy 

Highland Grove Gymnasium... 
Hobart Hall Institute 


Hempstead, Queens co 

Hempstead, Queens co 

Herkimer, Herkimer co 




May 2, 1836 


Fishkill, Dutchess co 

Holland Patent, Oneida co 

Trenton, Oneida co 

Holley, Orleans co 

Hubbards Corners, Madison co... 


April 11, 1831 
Mar. 16, 1839 
April 24, 1834 


Holland Patent Academy 

Holley Academy 

Hubbardsville Academy 

Hudson Academy 

Hudson River Agricult. Sem... 
Ingham Collegiate Institute*... 

Ithaca Academy 

Jamestown Academy 

Jefferson Academy 

Jefferson County Institute'* 

Johnstown Academy 

Joneaville Academy 

.Tordan Academy 

Keesoville Academy 

Kinderhook Academy 






Stockport, Columbia co 

Le Roy, Genesee co 

Ithaca, Tompkins co 


May 6, 1837 
April 6,1852 
Mar. 24, 1823 
April 16, 18.36 
Nov. 27,1824 
May 25,1836 


Jan. 28,1853 

Feb. 5, 1839 
Jan. 22.1833 
Jan. 30, 1838 
Jan. 27,1794 
Oct. 26,1850 
Jan. 12, 1842 
Feb. 6, 1839 
Feb. 19,1828 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 3, 1795 
Feb. 15,1842 

Jan. 22,1846 
Feb. 8, 1796 
Mar. 17, 1854 
Feb. 16, 1841 
April 16, 1828 
Sept. 20, 1849 


Jamestown, Chautauqua co.. 

Jefferson, Schoharie co 


Watertown, Jefferson co 

Johnstown, Montgomery co 

Clifton Park, Saratoga co 


April 1,1850 


Keeseville, Clinton co 

Kinderhook, Columbia co 

Kingsborough, Fulton co 


May 4, 1835 
April 3,1824 


Kingsborough Academy 


Kingston Academy 

Knoxville Academy 


Kingston, Ulster co 


Knox, Albany co 

La Fayette, Onondaga co 


May 9, 1837 
April 23, 1836 


La Favette High School 




Lansingburgh Academy 

Laurel Bank Seminary 

Le Roy Female Seminary 

Lewiston High School Acad.... 

Liberty Normal Institute 

Literary & Sci. Inst, of York... 
Little Falls, The Academy at... 

Lockport Academy 

Lockport Union School 

Lowville Academy 

Lyons Academy 


Lansingburgh, Rensselaer co 










Lewiston, Niagara co 




Liberty. Sullivan co 

York, Livingston co 


April 10, 1849 
Mar. 27, 1839 


Little Falls. Herkimer co 


Oct. 17,1844 

Oct. 26.1850 
Mar. 21, 1808 

.Tan. 30, -1845 
Jan. 29,1839 




May 26,1841 
Mar. 18, 1850 






Lyons, Wayne co 


Mar. 29, 1837 

April 11, 1842 
April 13, 1835 
Mar. 15, 1849 
Mar. 27, 1839 

April 24, 1834 
April 10, 1850 
April 20, 1836 
April 13, 1826 








Manlius Academy 

Mansion Square Female Sem... 


Manlius, Onondaga co 

PontrhkecDsie. Dutchess co 




Feb. 5, 1839 
April 25, 1851 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 26,1828 
Jan. 26,1819 
Feb. 16,1841 
Jan. 21,1791 
April 1,1852 
Jan. 23,1840 
Feb. 16,1841 


Marion Collegiate Institute 

Mayville Academy 


Marion. Wayne co. 




Medina, Orleans co 

Mendon, Monroe co , 

Mexico, Osweco co 




Mexico Academy/. 


Middlebury Academy 


Middlebury, Wyoming co 

Millville, Orleans co 


Millville Academy 

Montgomery Academy. 

Monticello Academy 


April 25, 1840 


Monticello, Sullivan co 










Moriah Academy 


Moriah, Essex co 




Mount Pleasant Academy 

Monnt Pleasant Academy 

Mount Pleasant Female Sem... 

Monroe Academy 

Monroe Academy 

Munro Academy 


Mount Pleasant, Westchester co.. 
Mount Pleasant, Westchester co.. 
Sing Sing, Westchester 


Mar. 24, 1820 


April 3,1827 
May 10,18.36 
July 2,1827 
Feb. 7, 1843 
April 23, 1839 

Feb. 13,1844 
Mar. 3,1806 
April 29, 1836. 
Oct. 11,1845. 




Henrietta, Monroe co 





Henrietta, Monroe co 




Elbridge, Onondaga co 


May "ii" 1835 






New Berlin Academy 

Newburgh Academy 


New Berlin, Chenango co.,.. 


Newburgh, Orange co 


New Paltz Academy 


New Paltz, Ulster co 


April 12, 1838. 


New Paltz. Ulster co 




New Rochelle, Westchester. 

Newtown, Queens co 


April 13, 1826 
Mar. 15, 1822 
May 2, 1834 


Newtown Female Academy 

New Woodstock Academy 

New York Conference Sem 

New York Free Academy 




Cazenovia, Madison co 

Charlotteville, Schoharie co 

New York City 




Oct. 26,1850 
Oct. 31,1849 


May 7, 1847 



<• See act of above date. 

* Changed to the Ingham University, April 3, 1867. 
« Entitled to share in Literature Fund, by act of April 17, 
1S26. 



* Incorporated as the " Black River Literary and Theological 
Institute." Name changed May 12, 1846. 

• Again incorp. by statute May 7, 1840. 

/Incorp. as the "Rensselaer Oswego Academy." Nama 
changed May 14, 1845. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



133 



Academies incorporated since 1777, continued. 



Name. 



New York Inst. Deaf k DumW 
North Oraaville Female Sem... 

North UobrOD Institute 

North Siilem Academy- 

Norwich Academy 

Norwich Union Seminary 

Nunda Literary Institute 

Ogdensburgh Academy' 

Olean Academy 

Oneida Conference Seminary".. 
Oneida Inst, of Sci. & Industi-y 

Oneida Seminary 

Onondaga Academy 

Ontario Female Seminary 

Ontario High School 

Orleans Academy 

Oswegatchie Academy 

Oswego Academy 

Otsego Academy 

Ovid Academy 

Owego Academy 

Oxford Academy 

Oyster Bay Academy 

Packer Collegiate Institute 

Palmyra Academy 

Palmyra High School 

Palmyra Classical Union School 

Peekskill Academy 

Pembroke & Dariea Class. Sch. 

Penfield Seminary 

Perry Academy 

Perry Center Institute 

Peterboro Academy 

Phipps Union Seminary 

Piermont Academy 

Plattsburgh Academy 

Pompey Academy 

Poughkeepsie Collegiate School 
Poughkeepsie Female Academy 
Poughkeepsie Female Seminary 

Prattsville Academy 

Preble High School 

Princetown Academy 

Prospect Academy 

Pulaski Academy 

Randolph Acad. Association..... 

Red Creek Academy 

Redhook Academy 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.... 

Rensselaerville Academy 

Rhinebeck Academy 

Richburgh Academy 

Richmondville Union Seminary 

& Female Collegiate Inst 

Ridgebury Academy 

Riga Academy 

Rochester Collegiate Institute.. 

Rochester Female Academy 

Rochester High School 

Rochester Inst. General Ednc. 
Rochester Inst. Practical Educ. 
Rockland County Female Inst. 
Rogersville Union Seminary.... 

Rome Academy , 

Rome Academy 

Royalton Center Academy 

Rural Academy 

Rushford Academy 

Rutger's Female Institute"* 

Rye Academy 

Sag Harbor institute 

St. Lawrence Academy 

St. Paul's College, The Propri- 
etors of. 

Sand Lake Academy 

Saratoga Acad. & Sci. Inst 

Saugerties Academy 

Sauquoit Academy 

.Schaghticoke Seminary 

Schenectady Academy" 

Schenectady Lyceum & Acad/.. 
Schenectady Young Ladies' Sem 
Schoharie Academy 



Location. 



New York City 

Granville, Washington co 

Hebron, Washington co 

North Salem, Westchester co... 

Norwich, Chenango co, 

Norwich, Chenango co 

Nunda, Livingston co 

Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence co-. 

Olean, Cattaraugus co 

Cazenovia, Madison co , 

Whitesboro', Oneida co 

Oneida, Madison co 

Onondaga, Onondaga co 

Canandaigua, Ontario co 

Victor, OntJirio co 

Orleans, Jefferson co 

Ogdensburgh, St. Lawrence co 

West Oswego, Oswego co 

Cherry Valley, Otsego CO 

Ovid, Seneca co 

Owego, Tioga co 

O.xford, Chenango co 

Oyster Bay, Queens co 

Brooklyn, Kings co 

Palmyra, Wayne co 

Palmyra, Wayne co 

Palmyra, Wayne co 

Peekskill, Westchester co 

Pembroke, Darien, Genesee co.. 

Penfield, Monroe co 

Perry, Wyoming co 

Perry Center, Wyoming co 

Peterboro, Madison co 

Albion, Orleans co 

Piermont, Rockland co 

Plattsburgh, Clinton co 

Pompey, Onondaga co 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess CO 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess co 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess co 

Prattsville, Greene co 

Preble, Cortland co 

Princetown, Schenectady co 

Prospect, Oneida co 

Pulaski, Oswego co 

Randolph, Cattaraugus co 

Red Creek, Wayne co , 

Redhook, Dutchess co , 

Troy, Rensselaer co < 

Rensselaerville. Albany co 

Rhinebeck, Dutchess co 

Richburgh, Allegany co , 

Richmondville, Schoharie co.... 

Minisink, Orange co 

Riga, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Orangetown, Rockland co 

Rogersville, Steuben co 

Rome, Oneida co 

Rome, On«ida co 

Royalton, Niagara co 

Montgomery, Orange co 

Rushford, Allegany co 

New York City 

Rye, Westchester co 

Sag Harbor, Suffolk co 

Potsdam, St. Lawrence co 

Flushing, Queens co 

Sand Lake, Rensselaer co 

Saratoga Springs 

Saugerties, Ulster co 

Sauquoit, Oneida co 

Schaghticoke, Rensselaer co. 

Schenectady, Schenectady co 

Schenectady, Schenectady co...., 

Schenectady, Schenectady co 

Schoharie, Schoharie co 



Incorp. by 
LfifiskUure. 



AprU 15, 1817 

Mar.' 16, 1837 
Aprii'20,i835 
Aprii 6, 1825 



April 14, 1825 
April 6, 1830 

April -iti, 1833 
April 25, 1833 

April 13, 1826 



Mar. 19, 1853 
AprU 11,1842 
Mar. 2S, 1829 
April 7, 1857 
April 16, 1S38 
April 6,1838 



April 21, 1828 

May 26, isse 
May 10, 1836 
Mar. 19,1834 

April 24,1834 



June 4, 1853 

Mar! "27," 1839 
April 23, 1823 
May 8, 1837 



April 30, 1839 



April 21, 1837 
Mar. 16, 1827 

April 19, 1828 
April 14, 1832 



April 28, 1835 
Jan. 28, 1848 
AprU 9,1839 



April 10, 1838 
AprU 13, 1826 



May 9, 1840 
Aprii 28, 1835 

May ""4, 1836 

Mar'. 21, 1837 
Mar. 22, 1837 
April 28, 1837 



Incorp. by 
JUeyents. 



Feb. 10,1854 

Mar. 17, 1854 

Feb. 19, 1790 

Feb. 14,1843 

Jail.' 30, 1845 

Feb. 5, 1839 

AprU 11, 1853 

Jan. 29, 1828 

Mar. 24, 1829 

July 9, 1867 

April 10, 1813 

Jan. 29, 1828 

Feb. 5, 1851 



Feb. 8, 1796 
Jan. 26, 1830 
AprU 16, 1828 
Jan. 27, 1794 
Mar. 15, 1803 
Jan. 11, 1855 

July 2, 1833 

Feb. 5, 1839 

Oct. 8, 1857 
April 7, 1854 
Jan. 31, 1843 
Jan. 23, 1853 
Feb. 11, 1840 
Mar. 15, 1842 
Mar. 4, 1829 
Mar. 11, 1811 
Feb. 9, 1839 
Fob. 28, 1837 

Jan. 31, 1850 

Oct. 20, 1853 
Jan. 24,1851 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
AprU 



24, 1851 

5, 1846 
23, 1829 

6, 1846 
30, 1845 
23, 1841 
12, 1850 



Feb. 10,18.54 
Feb. 11, 1840 
May 11, 1846 
Feb. 26, 1839 
Feb. 5, 18.39 
AprU 19, 1831 



Oct. 12, 1865 
Jan. 28, 1853 

iiiir'. "i5, '1849 

AJj'rii "l,"i852 
Mar. 4, 1852 
Jan. 23,1840 

Jan. 20,1848 
Mar. 25, 1816 



Feb. 19,1846 

AprU 7,1864 
AprU 6, 1849 

Jan." "29,' 1793 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 5, 1839 



Jit marks. 



Extinct. 

Merged in Public Scho*>U. 



Extinct. 
Provisional Chanei 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Provisional Charter. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Became private inst. 1855. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Rochester Col- 
legiate Institute. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 

Not organized. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Merged in Union Coll. 1795 

Extinct. 



« Entitled to a share of the Literature Fund by act of AprU 
15, 1830. 

' Merged in the Public School System of Ogdensburgh by 
»ct of April 13, 1857. 

" Incorp. as the " Seminary of the Genesee Conference ;" name 



changed to " Seminary of Genesee and Oneida Conference" 
March 24, 1829, and to the present name May 8, 1835. 

''Charter amended March 16, 1858. 

« Revived by act of April 17, 1818. See also act of April 25, 1831. 

/Allowed to educate females by act of March 2S, lb39. 



134 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Academies incorporated since 1777, contimied. 



Name. 



Schuylerville Academy 

Scientific & Military Academy 

of Western District 

Seneca Falls Academy 

Seward Female Seminary of 

Kochester 

Sherburne Academy 

Skaneateles Academy 

Sodus Academy 

Southold Academy 

Spencertown Academy 

Springville Academy 

S. S. Seward Institute 

Starkey Seminary 

Steuben Academy 

Stillwater Academy 

Stillwater Seminary 

Sullivan County Academy 

Susquehanna Seminary 

Syracuse Academy 

Ticonderoga Academy 

Troy Academy 

Troy Episcopal Institute 

Troy Female Seminary 

Trumansburgh Academy 

Turin Academy 

Unadilla Academy 

Union Academy 

Union Academy 

Union Hall 

Union Literary Society 

Union Village Academy 

Utica Academy 

Utica Academy 

Utica Female Academy 

Vernon Academy 

A'ictory Academy 

Wallabout Select Gram. School 

of the 7th Ward in the City 

of Brooklyn 

Wallkill Academy 

Walton Academy 

Walworth Academy 

Warnerville Union Seminary 

& Female Institute 

Wai'saw Union School 

Warwick Institute 

AVashington Academy 

Washington Academy 

Washington County Seminary 

& Collegiate Institute 

Waterford Academy 

AVaterford Female Academy.... 

Waterloo Academy 

Waterloo Union School 

Watertown Academy" 

V/averly Institute 

Weedsport Academy 

Westfield Academy 

West Hebron Classical School.. 

Westtown Academy 

West Winfield Academy 

Whitehall Academy 

AVhitehall Academy 

White Plains Academy 

Whitesboro' Academy 

Whitestown Seminary 

Wilson Collegiate Institute 

Windsor Academy 

Windsor Academy 

Yates Academy 

Yates County Academy & Fe- 
male Seminary 

Yates Polytechnic Institute 



Location. 



Schuylerrille, Saratoga co.. 



Whitesboro', Oneida co... 

Seneca Falls, Seneca co. 



Rochester, Monroe co 

Sherburne, Chenango co 

Skaneateles, Onondaga co 

Sodus, Wayne co 

Southold, Suffolk co 

Spencertown, Columbia co 

Springville, Erie co 

Florida, Orange co 

Starkey, Yates co 

Steuben, Oneida co 

Stillwater, Saratoga co 

Stillwater, Saratoga co , 

Bloomingburgh, Sullivan co — 

Binghamton, Broome co 

Syracuse, Onondaga co 

Ticonderoga, Essex co_ 

Troy, Rensselaer co 

Troy, Rensselaer co 

Troy, Rensselaer co 

Ulysses, Tompkins co 

Turin, Lewis co 

Unadilla, Otsego co 

Stone Arabia, Montgomery co.. 

Granger, Allegany co 

Jamaica, Queens co 

Belleville, Jefferson co 

Union Village, Washington co.. 

Utica, Oneida co 

Utica, Oneida co 

Utica, Oneida co 

Vernon, Oneida co 

Victory, Cayuga co 



Brooklyn, Kings co.... 
Wallkill, Orange co.... 
Walton, Delaware co... 
Walworth, Wayne co.. 



Warnerville, Schoharie co. 

Warsaw, Wyoming co 

Warwick, Orange co 

Salem, AVashington co 

Warwick, Orange co 



Fort Edward, Washington co.. 

Waterford, Saratoga co 

Waterford, Saratoga co 

Waterloo, Seneca co 

Waterloo, Seneca co 

Watertown, Jefferson co 

Waverly, Tioga co , 

Weedsport, Cayuga co 

Westfield, Chautauqua co 

Hebron, Washington co 

Westtown, Orange co 

West Winfield, Herkimer co... 

Whitehall, Washington co 

Whitehall, Washington co 

White Plains, Westchester CO.. 

"Whitesboro', Oneida co 

Whitesboro', Oneida co 

Wilson, Niagara co 

Windsor, Broome co 

Windsor, Broome co 

Y'ates Center, Orleans co 



Penn Yan, Yates co 

Chittonaugo, Madison co.. 



Incorp. by 

Legislature. 



April 5,1839 

Aprii'i4,"i829 

Aprii21,'l837 
May 13, 1845 
Mar. 19, 1827 
May 7, 1847 

April 17, 1826 

April 5, 1828 

April 28, 1835 

May" 5,' 1834 
April 13, 1S39 
May 6, 1837 

April 30, i839 



April 13, 1826 



May 26, 1853 
April 28, 1837 
April 18, 1838 
May 21, 1836 



May 4. 1839 
May 26, 1841 

May 12, 1841 



April 28, 1834 

April 11,1842 

jiay' 2,1835 

April 18,' 1838 
May 5, 1837 

April 18,1839 

April 20, "issi) 

Apririg, 1828 

May 16,1837 

April 17, 1828 



Jncorp. by 
liefjcnts. 



Jan. 23,1840 



Jan. 



April 17, 1826 
April 27, 1837 Feb. 



9. 1829 
5, 1839 



Feb. 11,1840 
Jan. 23,1840 

Jan. 11,1855 



Dec. 3, 
Jan. 26, 
Feb. 4, 
Feb. 25. 
Jan. 29, 
Jan. 29, 
Feb. 25, 
Mar. 31, 
April 7, 
Feb. 5, 
AprU 8, 
Feb. 5, 



1847 
1830 
1848 
1848 
1828 
1839 
1848 
1831 
1854 
1839 
1858 
1839 



Jau. 30,1838 
July 6, 1854 

April" i, 1852 
Mar. 31. 1795 
11, 1855 
29, 1792 
5, 1830 
Jan. 23, 1840 
Mar. 14, 1814 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 



Feb. 
Feb. 



5, 1839 
6, 1839 



Feb. 13,1842 
Feb. 10,1854 
April 19, 1843 

Jan. 27,1854 

Jan. 11, 1855 

Mar. 17, 1854 

Feb. 15, 1791 

Mar. 25, 1811 

July 6, 1854 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Mar. 19, 1819 
Aug. 23, 1842 
Oct. 11,1855 

Jan. 21,1858 



Feb. 
Mar. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



5, 1839 
22, 1855 
30, 1S40 
14, 1851 



Oct. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 



27, 1848 

26, 1830 
23, 1813 

27, 1845 
19, 1846 



Mar. 
Aug, 



15, 1849 
23, 1842 



Jan. 25, 1830 
April 11, 1853 



lUinarhs. 



Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Merged in Public Schools. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 



Extinct. 



Extinct. 
Provisional charter. 



Merged in Public Schools. 



Extinct. 



Not organized. 



Extinct. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Merged in Union School. 



Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 



Extinct. 



» Charter repealed Feb. 19, 1841". Merged in Black River Literary and Religious Institute. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




Ample provisions have been made by the State for the establish- 
ment and support of public schools throughout its borders. To 
this end the whole inhabited portions of the State have been divided 
into convenient districts, in each of which a school is taught some 
portion of the year and is open to all and within the reach of all. 
These schools are supported in part by money derived from the 
State, in part by a rate bill collected •from parents of children 
attending school, and in part by a tax upon the property of the 
district.' 

Scliool Districts are formed and altered by school com- 
missioners. These districts are so formed as to best accommodate 
all the inhabitants of the various localities and at the same time 
secure eflBciency in school organizations. Each district has a schoolhouse and a library. Its 
monetary affairs are arranged, and its officers elected, at annual meetings of all the taxable in- 
habitants. Its officers are trustees, a clerk, a collector, and a'llbrarian.^ 

ScIiooI Commissioners are elected in each of the Assembly districts of the State outside 
of the cities, and have the general supervision of schools. They examine and license teachers, 
visit the schools, and in every possible way endeavor to advance the general interests of education. 
They report annually to the State department of education. 

Tlie State Superiiiteiident of Public Instruction is the administrative officer 
of the school department. lie has an office in the State Ilall at Alljany, and has a deputy and 
the necessary number of clerks. He hears and decides appeals from the school officers and Com- 
missioners, and has the general supervision of the common schools, Indian schools, the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, and all similar institutions in the State. He is ex officio a member of the 
Board of Regents of the University, is chairman of the Executive Committee of the Normal 
School, and a trustee of' the State Asylum for Idiots. He also apportions the school fund among 
the several counties and districts as the law directs. 

The school fund of the State, derived from a variety of sources, in 1859 yielded a revenue of 
$264,500.' This sum, and the amount derived from the f mill tax, is divided among the schools 
as follows : — One-third is divided among the districts in proportion to the number of teachers 
employed, and the remaining two-thirds are distributed to the several counties in proportion to 
their population, and thence distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of children 
between the ages of 4 and 21. 

District liibraries were established in 1838 ; and from that period to 1851, with few inter- 
missions, the sum of !|55,000 was annually appropriated for the purchase of books.* These 



1 In 1859 the amount divided by tlie State among the several 
districts was $1-316,607.18. Of this sum $1,052,107.18 was de- 
rived from the J mill State tax, and $261,500 from the interest of 
the common school fund. 

A record is kept of the attendance of each pupil, and the 
amount due for teachers' wages above that received from the 
State is assessed in proportion to this attendance. Cost of 
fuel, repaii-s, and the amount of rate bills abated to indigent 
parents are met by a tax upon the property of the district. 

8 IHslrict Meetings decide upon questions of building and re- 
pairing schoolhouses, furnishing them, providing fuel and facili- 
ties for teaching, within the limits of the law. The annual 
meetings for the election of officers are held on tlie second Tuesday 
of Oct. throughout the State. The Board of Trustees, consisting 
of 1 or 3 at the option of the district, constitute the executive 
officers of the district. The Trtistees engage teachers, properly 
furnish the schoolhouse, provide fuel, and execute the wishes of 
the district as expressed in the district meetings. They have 
also the care of the district library. The Clerk preserves the 
records of the district and calls district meetings. 

3 The school fund was chiefly derived from the following 
sources : — 

1799, Seven-eighths of four lotteries of $100,000, aggre- 
gate $ 87,500 

1801, One-half of lotteries of $100,000, aggregate 50.000 

1805, Proceeds of 500,000 acres of land sold. 

" Stock subscribed in Merchants' Bank, and in- 
creased in 1807 and '08. 
1816, One-half of the proceeds of the Crumhorn Moun- 
tain Tract of 6,944 i acres, amounting to 5,208 



1819, One-half of the arrears of quitrents $26,690 

" An exchange of securities between general and 
common school fund, by which the school fund 

gained 161,641 

" Proceeds of escheated lands in Military Tract given. 
1822, By the Constitution, all public lands, amounting to 
991,659 acres, were given to the school fund. 

1827, Balance of loan of 1786, amounting to 33.615 

" Bank stock owned by the State 100.000 

« Canal '• " " " 150,000 

1838, From the revenue of the United States deposit 

fund, annually 110,000 

An additional sum from the same fund for libraries 55,000 

The sum of $25,000 from the revenue of the tJnited States 
deposit fund is annually added to the capital of the common 
school fund; and the capital of this fund Is declared by the Con- 
stitution to be inviolate. 

In directing the sale of the public lands, the State reserved 
certain lots in the 10 Towns of St. Lawrence co. and in the Che- 
nango 20 Townships, for gospel and school purposes. The pro- 
ceeds from the sales of these lands have formed a local fund for 
the benefit of the towns in which they lie. Many other towns 
have small funds, derived from fines and penalties, applicable to 
schools. See p. 47. 

* The following directions are given in the selection of books :- • 

" 1. No works written professe<lly to uphold or attack any 
sect or creed in our country claiming to be a religious one shall 
be tolerated In the school libraries. 

"2. Standard works on other topics shall not be excluded 

135 



136 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



libraries, free to every person in the district, generally comprise books on scientific and literary 
subjects and affording means of information which would otherwise be unattainable. 

Tlie State IVormal Scliool was established in 1844, for the instruction and practice of 
teachers of common schools in the science of education and the art of teaching. It is supported 
by an annual appropriation from the literature fund, and is under the immediate charge of an 
executive committee appointed by the Regents of the University. Each county in the State is 
entitled to send twice as many pupils to the school as it sends members to the Assembly. The 
pupils receive tuition and the use of textbooks free, and also receive a small amount of mileage. 
The school is located at the corner of Howard and Lodge Streets, Albany.^ 

The law makes provision for the establishment of Union Free ScIlOOlS wherever the 
inhabitants may desire it, and for the formation of Colored Schools in districts where the 
presence of colored children is offensive to a majority of the people of the district.^ 

Previous to the Revolution no general system of education was established. All the schools 
that had been founded were of a private character or the result of special legislation. The 
necessity and importance of common schools had not been recognized, and education was princi- 
pally confined to the wealthier classes. At the first meeting of the State Legislature, in 1787, 
Gov. Clinton called the attention of that body to the subject of education, and a law was passed 
providing for the appointment of the Regents of the University. In 1789 an act was passed appro- 
priating certain portions of the public lands for gospel and school purposes. In 1793 the Regents 
in their report recommended the establishment of a general system of common schools ; and in 
1795 Gov. Clinton in his message to the Legislature strongly urged the same.' On the 9th of 
April of that year a law was passed "for the purpose of encouraging and maintaining schools in 
the several cities and towns in this State, in which the children of the inhabitants of the State 
shall be instructed in the English language, or be taught English grammar, arithmetic, mathe- 
matics, and such other branches of knowledge as are most useful and necessary to complete a good 
English education." By this act the sum of £20,000, or |50,000, was annually appropriated for 
5 years for the support of these schools.* 

The beneficial result of this system, imperfect as it was, became at once apparent ; and from time 
to time measures were taken to increase the funds and to improve the system.* The successive 
Governors nearly all strongly recommended the passage of new laws for the encouragement and 
support of schools f but nothing definite was accomplished until 1811, when 5 commissioners were 



because they incidentally and indirectly betray the religious 
opinions of their authors. 

" 3. Works, avowedly on other topics, which abound in direct 
and unreserved attacks on, or defense of, the character of any 
religious sect, or those which hold up any religious body to con- 
tempt or execration by singling out or bringing together only 
the darker parts of its history or character, shall be excluded 
from the scliool libraries. In the selection of books for a dis- 
trict library, information, and not mere amusement, is to be 
regarded as the primary object. Suitable provision should, 
however, be made for the intellectual wants of the young, by 
furnishing them with books which, without being merely 
juvenile in their character, may be level to their comprehension 
and sufficiently entertaining to excite and gratify a taste for 
reading. It is useless to buy books which are not read." — Code 
of Public Inst., 1856, p. 326. 

1 Males are admitted at 18 and females at 16 years of age; 
and upon entering each one is required to sign a pledge that 
he intends to become a teacher. The number of graduates up 
to the close of the thirteenth year, 1856-57, was 999, and the 
number of pupils at that time was 223. The school for several 
years occupied the building near the head of State Street, now 
known as " Van Vechten Hall." In 1848 the present building 
was erected, at a cost of $25,000. The experimental school 
taught by the graduating class numbers somewhat over 100 
pupils. These pay tuition, and are elected or appointed by the 
Executive Committee. 

2 Under the Union Free School law a large number of schools 
have been established in different parts of the State. These 
schools are supported by a direct tax upon the property of the 
district, and the rate bill system is discarded. Free schools are 
established in all the cities and in most of the larger villages in 
the State by special laws. In most cases the free schools are 
graded, and comprise 3 or 4 distinct departments, furnishing 
ijistruction from the primary to a full academic course. Being 
entirely free and within the reach of all, they afford to every 
child, regardless of his position in life, an opportunity to secure 
a thorough English education. These free schools rank among 
the best public schools in the country; and they have thus far 
proved superior to those in which the rate bill system is retained. 

3 la his message Governor Clinton uses the following lan- 
8'uage. — "While it is evident that the general establishment 
and liberal endowment of academies are highly to be com- 
mended and are attended with the most beneficial consequences, 



yet it cannot be denied that they are principally confined to the 
children of the opulent, and that a great portion of the commu- 
nity is excluded from their immediate advantages. The esta- 
blishment of common schools throughout the State is happily 
calculated to remedy this inconvenience, and will therefore en- 
gage your early and decided consideration." 

* The principal features of the system inaugurated by this act 
were as follows : — 

1. The public money was to be appropriated to the several 
counties in the proportion of their representation in the Legis- 
lature, and to the towns in proportion to the number of taxable 
inhabitants in each. 

2. The Boards of Supervisors |were required to raise by tax 
one-half as much as they received from the State. 

3. Each town was to elect not less than 3 nor more than 7 
commissioners, to take general charge of the schools, to examine 
teachers, and to appertion the public moneys in the several dis- 
tricts. 

4. The people in each district were authorized to elect 2 or 
more trustees, to employ teachers, and to attend to the special 
interests of the school. 

5. The public money was to be divided among the various 
districts in proportion to the number of days' instruction given 
In each. 

6. Annual reports were to be made from the districts, towns, 
and counties. 

The returns of 1798 show a total of 1,352 schools organized 
and 59,660 children taught. 

6 An act was passed in 1799 authorizing the raising of $100,000 
by 4 lotteries, $87,500 of which was appropriated for the support 
of common schools. In 1801 $100,000 more was raised by lottery 
for school purposes, of which sum $50,000 was devoted to com- 
mon schools. In 1800 a bill appropriating $50,000 to the sup- 
port of common schools passed the Assembly, but was defeated 
in the Senate. 

8 Gov. .Jay, in 1800, Gov. Geo. Clinton, in 1802, Gov. Lewis, in 
1804 and '05, and Gov. Tompkins, in several successive years, 
urged u|)on the Legislature the necessity of revising the school 
laws and of making more liberal appropriations for the support 
of schools. Several bills were introduced into the Legi.slature ; 
but they were all defeated in either the Senate or Assembly. In 
the mean time the school moneys gradually increased, and were 
funded by the Comptroller, laying the foundation of the present 
large school fund. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



137 



appointed to report a complete system fur the organization and establishment of common schools. 
The commissioners made a report, accompanied by a draft of a bill, Feb. 14, 1812. Tlie report waa 
t^ccepted by the Legislature, and the bill became a law.^ Under this act, Gideon Ilawlcy was ap- 
pointed Superintendent, and continued in office from 1813 to 1821. The great success which this 
system met with, and tlie firm hold which it speedily attained, is mainly due to the administrative 
abilities and indefatigable exertions of Mr. Ilawley. Several important changes were made in the 
law during his administration, all of which tended greatly to improve the schools. In 1821 the 
office of State Superintendent was abolished, and the superintendence of schools was made an ap- 
pendage to the department of Secretary of State. Every successive year the Governor and Secre- 
tary of State urged upon the Legislature the necessity of systematizing the schools and of 
correcting obvious defects in the existing laws.'' In 1835 a law was passed providing for the esta- 
blishment of teachers' departments in 8 academies, 1 in each of the Senatorial Districts of the State.' 
In 1838 the District Library system was established by law ;* and in 1841 the office of Deputy Su- 
perintendent was created.^ In 1843 the Board of Town Inspectors and School Commissioners was 
abolished and the office of Town Superintendent was substituted. May 7, 1844, an act was passed 
for the establishment of a State Normal School ; and the school was opened at Albany on the 18th 
of Dec. following.® 

On the 13th of Nov. 1847, the Legislature abolished the office of County Superintendent, — al- 
though the act was strongly resisted by many of the best friends of education in the State.'' During 
the same session Teachers' Institutes, which had existed for several years as voluntary associa- 
tions, were legally established.* 

On the 26th of March, 1849, an act was passed establishing free schools throughout the State. 
By the conditions of this act the rate bill system was abolished, and the whole expense of the 
schools beyond the State appropriation was made a tax upon the property of the district. This act 
was submitted to a vote of the people and was sustained by a majority of 3 to 1. In consequence 
of the inequality of the laws in regard to taxes, it was found that the Free School system did not 
work well in practice. Kemonstrances poured in upon the next Legislature from all parts of the 



I These commissioners, appointed by Gov. Tompkins, were 
Jedediah Peck, John Murray, jr., Samuel Russel, Roger Skin- 
ner, aud Samuel Macomb. The principal features of this bill 
were, — 

1. $50,000 was annually to be divided among the counties of 
the State. 

2. The Boards of Supervisors were obliged to raise an equal 
sum, to be distributed among the towns and districts. 

3. Three commissioners were to be appointed in each town to 
superintend the schools and examine teachers. 

4. Three trustees were to be elected in each district to engage 
teachers and otherwise provide for the local necessities of the 
school. 

5. The whole system was to be placed under the charge of a 
State Superintendent. 

* In 1812 the office of School Commissioner was created, and 
from 3 to 6 school inspectors were annually elected in each 
town, with the same powers and duties as school commission- 
ers. Bills were introduced from time to time to place the whole 
system again under the charge of a distinctive ofiScer, to pro- 
vide for more efficient supervision of schools, to secure more 
competent teachers, and to establish a seminary for the instruc- 
tion of teachers ; but they all failed of receiving the necessary 
support. In 1828 the number of inspectors was reduced to 3. 
The laws that were passed corrected the most obvious abuses ; 
but no great step was taken in advance until 1838. 

3 Erasmus Hall Academy in Kings co., Montgomery Aca- 
demy, Orange Co., Kinderhook, St. Lawrence, Fairfield, Oxford, 
C'anandaigua, and Middlebury Academies, were the institutions 
in which this department was established. 

i On the 13th of April of this year, the foundations of the 
District School Library were laid by "an act authorizing the 
taxable inhabitants of the several school districts to impose a 
tax not exceeding $20 for the first year and $10 for each suc- 
ceeding year, for the purchase of a district library, consisting 
of such books as they shall in their district meeting direct." 
This bill was ably advocated in the Senate by Col. Young, of Sa- 
ratoga, and the Hon. Levi Beardsley, of Otsego ; and its friends 
were indebted for its success to the untiring exertions and ex- 
tensive influence of James Wadsworth, of Geneseo. By act ot 
.luly 9, 1851, the law was modified, giving to supervisors of 
towns a discretionary power of levying a tax for library pur- 
poses. 

In 1838 an act was passed requiring $55,000 of the school 
moneys to be distributed among the school districts and ex- 
pended by the trustees in the purchase of suitable books for 
district libraries, anJ the residue for the payment of the wages 
of duly qualified teachers. An equal amount was also required 
to be raised by fcixation on the several counties and towns and 
applied to the same purposes. 



The first definite proposition to establish district libraries 
was made by A. C. Flagg, in his report of 1830. 

6 In 1839, John C. Spencer, Superintendent of Schools, recom- 
mended a plan of county supervision, which " was urged upon 
the department and the Legislature; and under the strong re- 
commendation of the Superintendent, backed by the exertions 
of several of the most eminent friends of popular education, — 
among whom may be enumerated the Uon. Jabez D. Uammoud, 
who as early as 1835 had given to the public the details of a 
plan essentially similar; the Rev. Dr. Whitehouse, of Roch- 
ester ; Francis Dwight, Esq., editor of the District School Jour- 
nal, then of Geneva; Professor Potter, of Union College; and 
James Wadsworth, Esq., of Geneseo, — this project became, iu 
1841, by the nearly unanimous action of the Legislature, incor- 
porated with our system of common BchooU."—Iiandairs Com- 
mon School System, p. 44. 

6 The establishment of a Normal School for the professional 
education of teachers was strongly advocated by several Super- 
intendents, and had been a favorite measure of many distia- 
guished friends of the cause for many years. The bill for the 
establishment of the Normal School was introduced March 22, 
1844, by Hon. Calvin T. Hurlburd, of St. Lawrence. The bill, 
as passed, appropriated $9,600 for the first year, and $10,000 per 
year for five years, for the support of the school, under the di- 
rection of the State Superintendent and Regents of the Uni- 
versity. The Superintendent of Schools, (Samuel Young,) Rev. 
Alonzo Potter, Rev. W. H. Campbell, Uon. Gideon Hawley, and 
Francis Dwight, Esq., were appointed an executive committee 
to attend to the interests of the school. The committee pro- 
ceeded to organize the school by the appointment of David P. 
Page, Principal; Frederick I. Ilsley, Teacher of Music; and 
J. B. Howard, Teacher of Drawing. Only 29 pupils were ia at- 
tendance the first day; but the number speedily increased to 
100, and since that time the school has been an uninterrupted 
success. 

' This office had become very unpopular in some sections of 
the State, in consequence of .appointments having been fre- 
quently made by the Board of Supervisors upon political con- 
siderations merely, without the least regard to the qualifica- 
tions of the appointees. Under the supervision of the County 
Superintendents the schools had progressed more rapidly than 
ever before, in the same period ; and after the abolishment of 
that office they steadily retrograded for several years. 

s The first Teachers' Institute in the State was held at Ithaca, 
Tompkins co., April 4, 1843, under the direction of James S. 
Denman, County Superintendent. Immediately afterward, in- 
stitutes were held in other counties ; and in a few years they 
became a fixed institution. In 1847 they were recognized by 
the Legislature, and appropriations were made for their sup- 
port. 



138 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



State ; and ia 1850 the law was again submitted to a vote of the people and again sustained, — though 
by a decreased majority. In April, 1851, the Free School Act was repealed and the rate bill system 
was reinstated.^ 

During the session of 1853 a law was passed allowing Union Free Schools to be established 
under certain conditions.^ On the 30th of March, 1854, the office of Superintendent of Public In- 
struction was created, — thus substantially restoring the original system of general supervision.' 
On the 13th of April, 1855, a law was passed allowing the Regents of the University to designate 
certain academies in the several counties in which a teachers' class might be taught free, the Stat€ 
allowing §10 for each pupil so taught, to a number not exceeding 20 in each academy. 



1 At the time of the repeal of the Free School act a provision 
was made for raising $800,000 annually by a State tax, which 
in many of the rural districts practically made free schools. 
This tax was afterward made a i mill tax upon all the property 
of the State, producing; a sum somewhat larger in the aggregate, 
and one increasing with the wealth and wants of the State. 

2 The law for the creation of Union Tree Schools was a recog- 
nition of the free school principle and an important step in the 
progress of education. 



3 While the School Department was a subordinate branch of 
the Department of State, it was impossible to give to it that 
cliaracter and efficiency necessary to the best interests and wel- 
fare of the schools. Since the change, every department of edu- 
cation has felt a new impulse and has been constantly improv- 
ing. The administration of the schools has been much more 
perfect, the reports have been more regular and reliable, and 
the standard of teaching has materially advanced. 



School Statistics from the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1859." 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus... 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua... 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franlvlin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery . 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga. 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego - 

Otsego 

Putnam , 

Queens 

Rensselaer ... 
Kichmond .... 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady.. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca. 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.. 

Wayne 

Westchester . 
Wyoming .... 
Yates 

Total 



^1 



170 
252 
211 
253 
248 
305 
lU 
274 
182 
187 
182 
332 
213 
326 
180 
156 
110 
146 
1&3 
28 
193 
373 
47 
176 
193 
238 
244 
120 
95 
171 
397 
297 
207 
184 
134 
298 
319 
65 
75 
199 
24 
39 
464 
257 
63 
203 
112 
104 
350 
148 
159 
159 
165 
219 
130 
238 
219 
159 
191 
106 



11,500 






169 
259 
214 
255 
247 
307 
116 
277 
182 
188 
182 
337 
217 
327 
187 
157 
111 
151 
164 

33 
199 
375 

47 
178 
196 
239 
244 
126 

95 
163 
408 
296 
204 
179 
132 
297 
320 

65 

76 
210 

24 

41 
464 
230 

68 
203 
112 
102 
355 
150 
163 
159 
165 
223 
1.32 
241 
219 
148 
189 
106 



11,617 



CI' 



243 
262 
221 
255 
278 
318 
127 
286 
189 
199 
183 
a37 
247 
497 
182 
156 
113 
151 
172 

29 
203 
398 
355 
179 
207 
254 
336 
129 
1,350 
197 
458 
369 
224 
201 
143 
344 
320 

68 
111 
273 

38 

43 
482 
245 

83 
204 
112 
117 
354 
161 
163 
166 
183 
2.31 
123 
247 
252 
211 

197 

110 



Xo. of chil- 
dren between 
4 and 21. 



14,286 



39.559 
16,411 
13,510 
16,121 
19,438 
19.935 
10.641 
14,747 
18,327 
16,503 

9,2.54 
15.696 
21,446 
50.773 
11.400 
11,299 
10.551 
10,644 
11.689 

1.046 
14,136 
25,757 
50,772 
10.358 
14.055 
15,6.54 
34.370 
12,033 
200,000 
18,051 
38,455 
32.478 
15.375 
21,651 
10,514 
27,248 
18.027 

5,489 
17,058 
28,372 

8,133 

6,939 
31,219 
18,145 

7,281 
12,024 

7,108 
10.164 
25,717 
15,192 
12,280 
10.874 
11,993 
25,758 

7,812 
16,296 
17.052 
27.738 
12,072 

7,536 



No. of vol- 
umes in dis- 
trict library. 



27,018 
20,196 
17.314 
20,859 
45,109 
33,260 
11.571 
31,941 
18,203 
21,719 
18,588 
28.075 
33.915 
45.445 
17,393 
11,868 
12.308 
17,842 
2i;051 

1,454 
24.676 
41,536 
37,529 
15,628 
28,040 
30.445 
36,518 
18,048 

4,000 
23.764 
54..588 
44,978 
27.248 
32,929 
10,082 
31.341 
35.009 

9.064 
23,023 
30,382 

7,025 

9,365 
42.898 
31,228 

9,5.37 
22.578 
13,092 
16.347 
32,010 
23.999 
12,.519 
17.872 
21.088 
32.632 

9,896 
30.743 
26.240 
31.803 
25.114 

12,170 



Apportionment 
of State moneys 
/or 1859. 



$.34,755.46 
18,443.07 
15,680.38 
17,569.93 
21,647.28 
22.9.37.75 
10,727.63 
18,622.61 
16,448.91 
17,196.20 
11,586.07 
19.703.21 
22.672.83 
49,449.52 
12.252.48 
11,126.18 

9.236.79 
12..312.75 
12.793.84 

1..515.H 
15.765.92 
28,164.96 
68,798.02 
11,580.04 
15,664.48 
18.430.01 
34,972.62 
11.649.24 
207.a32.95 
18.105.71 
41.891.72 
83,261.15 
17,391.78 
21,434.10 
11,302.71 
28,152.08 
21.994.48 

5.319.28 
15.251.77 
28,962.-54 

6,617.81 

6,311.17 
33,173.93 
19,624.40 

7.394.20 
14.505.51 

7.912.37 

9,968.53 
26.672.33 
15.123.09 
12.004.20 
11,737.21 
13,272..59 
24.249.37 

8.832.63 
18.526.88 
19,301.57 
26.908.02 
13.924.49 

8.203.32 



1,240,176 I 1,448,113 | $1,316,607.18 



Total receipts. 



$122,068.91 
28,818.51 
24,123.23 
27,601.80 
48.535.41 
40,785.66 
19,119.92 
29,341.34 
23,529.05 
34,767.79 
17,255.54 
28,757.16 
46.222.93 

138,417.98 
19,337.32 
15,637.73 
14,102.19 
23.487.48 
22,016.69 
2,105.87 
27 ,.365.25 
49,185.46 

246,401.75 
17,348.67 
26,652.77 
31.594.17 

112.104.41 
23.430.67 

951.178.40 
37,950.86 
72.376.15 
80,114.54 
36,443.60 
53,077.70 
19,2.39.56 
72.476.06 
32.171.15 
9,103.17 
42,606.25 
14,029.12 
16,871.63 
12,295.09 
58..331.45 
34.626.32 
17,979.08 
21.844.73 
13.628.71 
24,109.69 
42.912.11 
38,755.50 
19,238.68 
19,627.49 
24.285.06 
43,763.04 
12,9.53.77 
31,963.60 
37,833.48 
84,648.40 
21,750.20 
19,089.09 



$3,277,255.14 



Total expenses. 



$124,673.71 
32.258.36 
27,529.65 
33.362.17 
59,294.50 
45,440.26 
20.558.93 
32.506.47 
26.198.33 
36,898.14 
20,937.05 
33.603.46 
61.889.61 

197,405.83 
21,271.35 
20,802.87 
18,713.68 
28,726.67 
27,027.94 
2,364.82 
33,633.20 
58,063.32 

230.877.31 
19,408.54 
34.072.68 
34,847.48 

107.480.57 
23,430.67 

951.178.40 
37.950.86 
72,376.15 
80,114.54 
36.443.00 
63.077.70 
19,239.56 
72.476.06 
32.171.15 
9.103.17 
42.506.25 
14,029.12 
16,871.53 
12,295.09 
68,331.45 
&4,626.32 
17,979.08 
21.844.73 
1.3,528.71 
24.109.69 
42,912.11 
38.755.50 
19,238.58 
19,627.49 
24,285.00 
43,763.04 
14,063.80 
86.966.24 
45,994.11 
95,156.04 
27.744.76 
16,417.96 



$3,792,948.79 



» The above Table embraces returns from Jan. 1 to Oct. 1, 1S5S, except the last column, which is for the year 1857. 



CHURCHES. 



139 



The office of School Commissioner was created by law April 12, 1856, and by the same act the 
office of Town Superintendent was abolished. This substantially reinstated the office of County 
Superintendent, the abolishment of which in 1847 was so disastrous to the interests of education.^ 
On the loth of March, 1856, an act was passed directing that the school laws should be digested and 
cudiiied.'^ By act of April 12, 1858, the school year was changed so as to commence Oct. 1, and 
the annual district school meetings were directed to be held on the second Tuesday of Octobi'r. 

Mercantile Colleges, especially adapted to instruction in opening, conducting, and closing 
business accounts of every kind, and an elucidation of the laws and customs that have been esta- 
blished concerning them, have within a few years been opened in most of our cities. They de- 
pend entirely upon individual enterprise for support, and instruction is usually given by oral illus- 
ti'ations, lectures, and examples.' 



CHUECHES. 



The various church organizations in the State are independent of each other and are supported 
entirely by private contributions. The aggregate amount of church property in the State, and the 
amount annually raised for religious purposes, is immense. The following is a list of the different 
denominations, arranged in alphabetical order : — 

Tlie African Metliodist Episcopal (Zion) Cliurcli was formed in 1820. The 
State of New York forms one conference, having in 1852 1,928 members. 

Tlie American Swedenborgian Association was formed in 1857, and has its 
office in New York City. A Printing and Publishing Society of this denomination, formed in 1850, 
collected in the year ending in 1858 $3,108.25. It owns the stereotype plates of all the theological 
writings of Swedenborg. 

Tlie Anti Mission or Old School Baptist, in 1855, had in the State 18 churches and 
1,101 members. 

Tlie Associate Presbyterian Cliwrcti, in 1855, had 26 churches and 3,926 members, 
and Tlie Associate Reformed Presbyterian Cliurcli 38 churches and 5,634 mem- 
bers. These two denominations united in May, 1858, under the name of Tlie United Pres- 
byterians. 

Tbe Baptist CImrcll has in the United States 565 associations, 11,600 churches, 7,141 
ordained ministers, 1,025 licentiates, and 923,198 members. Of these 43 associations, 812 churches, 
738 ordained ministers, 90 licentiates, and 84,266 members are in New York. Its general Benevo- 
lent Associations are the "American Baptist Missionary Union," "American Baptist Publication 
Society," "American Baptist Historical Society," "American Baptist Home Mission Society," 
"American and Foreign Bible Society," " American Baptist Foreign Mission Society," " Southern 
Baptist Convention," 1845, and " Southern Baptist Publication Society," 1847. It has in this State 
2 colleges and 2 theological seminaries, and has 5 periodicals devoted to its interests.* 



1 The School Commissioners have generally succeeded in 
awakening a new interest iu their respective districts by per- 
sonally visiting the schools and teachers, by encouraging the 
formation of teachers' associations and institutes, and by re- 
quiring a higher standard of qualification on the part of teachers. 
The schools under their supervision are steadily improving. 

2 The expense of this codification of the school laws was de- 
frayed from the library fund. 

3" These institutions are almost indispensable In every mer- 
cantile community. They atTord instruction upon every depart- 
ment of business accounts, and Incidentally upon methods of 
conducting business generally. Courses of lectures are usually 
given, in which are unfolded the laws relating to all business 
matters, and a vast amount of information is given relating to 
all departments of commercial transactions. The most exten- 
sive of these colleges are those of Bryant & Stratton, 7 in num- 
lier, of which 3 are in this State,— 1 at Buffalo,! at Albany, and 
1 at New York.— Eastman's Colleges, at Rochester and Oswego, 
and Bassetfs College, at Syracuse. There are various other 
institutions of the kind in the State, of good local repute, and 



of great value to the villages and towns in which they are es- 
tablished. 

* The Missionary Union was formed in 1814 ; its receipts fbr 
1857-58 were $97,808.77. It has 19 missions, 80 missionaries, 
and over 300 churches. The headquarters of the Society are at 
Boston. The Baptist Publication Society was formed in 1824, 
and has its depository at Philadelphia. It supports 53 colpor- 
teurs, and its receipts for 1857-58 wore $60,585.12. The Amer' 
ican Baptist Home Missionary Society was formed in 1832, and 
has its oflHce in New York. It employs 99 missionaries and 
supplies about 250 stations. Its receipts for 1867-58 were 
$52,093.33. The American and Foreign Bilile Society, formed in 
1838. has its office at New York. Its receipts for 1857-58 were 
$57,049.98. Madison University, at Hamilton, and the University 
of Rochester are Baptist institutions; and attached to each is a 
theological seminary. The papers published by this denomi- 
nation are, — The New York Examiner, New York Chronicle, 
American Baptist, (newspapers,) and the Home Mission ReDord, 
and Mothers' Journal, (magazines,) all published in New York 
City 



140 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie Clii'istian Connexion^ divide the State into the New York Eastern, New York 
Central, New York Western, Northern, Black River, and Tioga Christian Conferences, each having 
distinct boundaries. They have in the U. S. and Canada over 1,500 ministers and 335 commu- 
nicants. The census reports 85 churches in this State and 9,825 persons usually attending them. 

Tlie Congregational CSiurclies of the Union number about 2,900, with 2,400 ministers 
and 240,000 members. Of these, 425 churches, 400 ministers, and 25,000 members are claimed 
within the State of New York.^ 

Tlie Congregational Metbodists^ were first composed of seceders from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in 1820. They have 3 churches in the State. 

The Disciples of Christ have in the Union over 1,700 churches, 1,100 ministers, and 
130,000 members.* In New York they reported, in 1855, 28 churches and 2,015 members. The 
New York State Convention embraces, besides the State, parts of Connecticut and Vermont. 

Tlie Evangelical £iutlieran Churcb embraces 35 synods in the U. S., of which 25 are 
connected with a general synod. It numbers 1,083 ministers and 1,920 congregations,* and has of 
general societies the Parent Educational, Home Missionary, Foreign Missionary, Church Extension, 
Lutheran Historical, and Lutheran Publication, for the purposes indicated by their respective titles. 
It has within this State a Theological Seminary and Academy at Hartwick, Otsego county, and 
Martin Luther College, with a theological department, at Buffalo. 

The Free Will Baptist Church in the U. S. has 28 yearly and 129 quarterly meetings, 
1189 churches, 957 ordained and 164 licensed preachers, and 55,209 communicants,® This State 
comprises 5 whole yearly meetings and parts of 2 others. As no attention is paid to State lines 



The Fifty-First Annual Report of the Baptist Missionary 
Convention of the State of New York (Oct. 1858) gives the fol- 
lowing statistics of this denomination in New York. The dates 
of organization are from the Baptist Almanac : — 



Associations. 



Bl.ick River 

Broome & Tioga 

Buffiilo 

Canisteo River 

Cattaraugus 

Cayuga 

Chemung River 

Chenango 

Cortland 

Deposit 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex & Champlain.... 

Franklin 

Genesee 

Genesee River 

Harmony 

Hudson River North.. 

Hudson River South.., 

Lake George , 

Livingston 

Madison 

Mohawk River 

Monroe 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Rensselaerville 

Saratoga 

Seneca 

Stephentown 

Steuben 

St. Lawrence 

Union 

Washington Union ... 

Wayne 

Worcester 

Yates 



e 



1808 

1823 

1815 

1835 

1835 

1800 

1842 

1832 

1827 

18.o4 

1834 

1847 

1S34 

1811 

1811 

1828 

1838 

1851 

1851 

1809 

1812 

1808 

1837 

1827 

1791 

1824 

1820 

1822 

1814 

1843 

1832 

1795 

1799 

1805 

1821 

1832 

1817 

1813 

1810 

1834 

1834 

1830 

1842 



S 



32 

25 
21 
10 
23 
19 
20 
29 
19 
15 
20 
19 
14 
17 
17 
15 
20 
29 
41 
11 
10 
19 
10 
24 
35 
14 
23 
21 
19 
11 
16 
17 
12 
23 
15 
12 
19 
23 
15 
23 
16 
17 
8 



•S-s 



35 
19 
21 

9 
18 
17 
17 
21 
18 
11 
19 
13 

7 

12 
16 
13 
16 
21 
57 
10 

8 
18 

9 
19 
33 
12 
28 
17 
19 

9 
13 
16 
11 
25 
13 
10 
21 
20 
15 
18 
13 
12 

6 



g 

^ 



2.958 
2,755 
2,512 

381 
1.534 
2,106 
1.856 
2,571 
2,188 

992 
1.738 
1.344 
1.079 
1,702 
1,908 
1,435 
1,8G8 
4.985 
9,013 

646 

693 
2.290 

731 
3,056 
5.532 
1,563 
2,549 
1,866 
1,544 
1,061 
1,670 
1,398 
1,372 
3,258 
1,797 
1,139 
2.149 
2,168 
2,282 
3.691 
1,728 
1,286 

804 



1 Otherwise named "Unitarian Baptists." They originated 
between 1793 and 1801, in secessions from Baptists, Methodists, 
and Presbyterians. Each church is independent in government ; 
and full statistics are not accessible. 

2 The, General Association of New York includes the Oneida, 
Black River, Essex, St. Lawrence, Western New York, Long 



Island, New York & Brooklyn, Ontario, Susquehanna, Albany, 
and Puritan of Wyoming & Allegany Associations. The Ameri- 
can Congregational Union has for one of its objects the aid of 
feeble churches. In the year ending in 1S5S it expended 
$0,154.05 for this purpose. 

s Otherwise known as "StilweUites." 

* Sometimes known as " Camphellites," from Rev. Alexander 
Campbell, the founder.— Jba; eg Hoyt's Quad. Meg., 1852, p. 253. 

6 From the Lutheran Almanac, 1859. Tho synods embraced 
in New York are as follows : — 


Synods. 


When 
formed. 


Ministers. 


Congre- 
gations. 


New York Ministerian 

Hartwick Svnod 


1785 
1830 
1838 
1839 


59 
25 
24 
16 


55 
33 
30 
16 




Synod of Buffalo 






Of these the last two are not connected with the Genera] 
Synod. 

These synods have no definite boundaries, but overlap each 
other, and in some instances extend into neighboring States. 

The Kirchliches Informatorium and Historische Zeitblatt, of 
Buffalo, and Der Lutherische Herold, of New York, are the 
official organs of this denomination. 

6 The Fi-ee Will Baptist Register for 1859 gives the following 
statistics. To those extending partly into neighboring States 
a star is prefixed ; and those entirely out of the State are in 
Italics. 


ANNUAL 

Mfktinqs. 


quakterlt 
Meetings. 


1 
s 
g 

43 

38 
37 

34 

16 
17 

40 


.s.« 
■§1 

43 

30 
29 

22 

7 
13 

36 


is 

7 

3 
8 

10 

3 
3 

2 


•i 

i 

Si 

2,170 

1,666 
1,262 

240 

4S8 
826 

2,163 


Holland Pur- 
chaso 


'Cattaraugus, Catta-" 
raugus Center, 
Chautauqua.Erie, ■ 
♦French Creek, 

and Genesee 

'Rochester, Monroe,' 
-1 Union, Wayne, - 

Freedom 

♦Owego, Gibson,' 
- Spafford, *Wal- - 

ton 

'Yates and Steuben," 
*Potter Co.,Brad- 
ford and Tioga, 

*Tu8carora 

Lawrence, Jefferson 

McDonough, Che-| 


Genesee 


*Susquehanna... 

*New York and 
Penn.- 


St. Lawrence 

Union 


Central N.Y 


\ nango 
Whitest 
wego, 
laer. 
Lake 


Utseuc 

3wn, Os-' 
Rensse- 
♦Oteego, 
Gieorge 



CHURCHES. 



141 



in these divisions, the exact numbers in the State cannot be determined from the reports. Its 
general institutions are 3 mission societies, an anti-slavery society, a biblical school and insti- 
tution at New Hampton, N. H., and a seminary in this State. 

The Friends or Quakers have, since 1827, been divided into 2 distinct branches, known 
as " Ilicksite" and " Orthodox." The Hicksites have a general meeting for the United States and 
Canada, which is divided into 6 yearly, 33 quarterly, and 138 monthly meetings in the U. S., and 
2 half-yearly and 6 monthly meetings in Canada. This State is embraced within the New York 
and the Genesee yearly meetings, the former of which extends into New Jersey and the latter into 
Canada. There are of the New York yearly meeting in this State 7 quarterly and 31 monthly 
meetings ; of the Genesee yearly meeting 2 quarterly and 8 monthly meetings. 

The Orthodox Friends divide the United States and Canada into 8 yearly, 1 half-yearly, C5 
quarterly, and 222 monthly meetings. The New York yearly meeting comprises 1 half-yearly, 
15 quarterly, and 43 monthly meetings, of which 9 entire and a part of 1 other quarterly and 
28 monthly meetings are within the State, the remainder being in adjoining States and Canada.^ 

The German Methodists^ originated in the year 1800, and number about 20,000. They 
have in New York about 15 churches and 3,000 members. 

The Mennonites have in the Union 300 churches and 36,280 members: of these, 6 
churches and 442 members were reported in Western N. Y. in 1855. 

The Methodist Episcopal Churcli in the United States was divided in 1844 into the 
Church North and the Church South, forming two independent organizations, differing only upon 
the question of slavery. The Church North embraces 49 annual conferences, 5,365 traveling, 769 
superannuated, and 7,169 local preachers, and 820,514 members and probationers. The 
total number of preachers in both divisions is 20,644, and of members 1,476,291. This State 
embraces 5 entire and parts of 4 other conferences, which are subdivided into districts and cir- 
cuits, each with definite boundaries. The Sunday School Union of the M. E. Church North re- 
ports 11,229 schools, 120,421 officers and teachers, 639,120 scholars, and 2,054,253 volumes in S. S. 
libraries. Its Tract Society has auxiliaries in each conference, and distributes large quantities of 
tracts and a small paper called " The Good News." Its Missionary Society supports 44 foreign mis- 
sionaries and 76 helpers, and 302 missionaries and 214 helpers among the Indians and foreign 
populations. Its " Book Concern" carries on an amount of publication equaled by that of few 
private firms in the country, including books, papers, and magazines. This denomination has 
within the State 1 college and 10 seminaries, in connection with annual conferences.' 

The Methodist Protestant Church was formed Nov. 1830. It divides the Union 
into conferences, stations, and circuits. The census reports as belonging to this denomination in 
this State, in 1855, 46 churches and 1,605 members. 

The Presbyterian Church existed as one body until 1837, when it was divided into 
" Old School" and " New School," which form two distinct organizations, with similar professions 
of faith but different views of discipline. The Old School General Assembly of the U. S. report 
33 synods, 159 presbyteries, 2,468 ministers, 3,324 churches, and 259,335 communicants. During 



T^" missionary societies under the charge of this society are 
the Free Will Baptist Foreign Mission Society, which supports 
B missionaries and their iamilies at Arissa, India, the Free 
Will Baptist Home Mission Society, and the Free Will Baptist 
Female Missionary Society. The Whitestown Seminary, occu- 
pying the premises erected for the Oneida Institute, formerly a 
manual labor school, is under the auspices of this denomination. 

1 The names of quarterly meetings within the State, with the 
number of monthly meetings in each, according to Foulke's 
i^neiids' Almanac for 1858, are, in the New York yearly meet- 
ing, Westbury, 6, Purchase, 3, Nine Partners, 3, Stanford, 4, 
Kaston, 5, Saratoga, 5, Duanesburgh, 5; in the Genesee yearly 
meeting, F.irmington, 5, Scipio, 3. 

The quarterly meetings within the yearly meeting, according 
to Wood's Book of Meetings, 1858, are as follows, with the date 
of establishment and number of monthly meetings iu each: — 
Westbury, (1676,) 2; Purchase, (prior to 1746,) 3; Nine Part- 
ners. (1783.) 3; Stanford, (1800.) 3; Ferrisburgh, (partly in Ver- 
mont, 1809.) 1; in New York, 2; in Vermont, Farmington, 
(1810,) 5; Butternuts, (1812, imder the name of Duanesburgh, 
changed in 1838,) 3; Saratoga, (1793, in 1795 changed to Easton, 
in 1815 divided into Saratoga and Easton, and in 1835 the latter 
was discontinued,) 3; Scipio, (1825,) 2; Le Ray, (1830,) 3. The 
first meeting mthin New York was established at Oyster Bay, 
by Kichard Smith and others who were banished from Boston 
in 1656. The persecutions of that colony drove others to Rhode 
Island and Long Island, and meetings were established at Oys- 
ter Bay, Gravesend, Jamaica, Hempstead, Flushing, and other 
places, at an early period. 

> Correctly known as Evangelical Association, or Albrights. 



8 The following is a summary of the Conferences in New 
York. Those marked with a star are partly in other States. 





is 


Preachers. 


Members in Society. 


i 

II 


CONFEEENCB. 


1 

1 


s 

s 

i 

1 


-3 


1 


i 

1 
1 




New York 




207 
110 
147 
165 
168 
167 
150 
142 
93 


38 
14 
34 
50 
30 
26 
33 
45 
11 


161 
102 
142 
177 
159 
206 
139 
176 
134 


26.666 
9,511 
16,380 
22,990 
16,972 
20,306 
16,861 
22,236 
11,652 


4,477 
1,133 
2,134 
.3,382 
3.128 
2,607 
2.257 
3.029 
2,485 


31,143 
10.644 

18,514 
26.372 
20,100 
22.913 
19,118 
25,265 
14,137 


15,245 

3.883 
108 

11,532 
3,542 
6.445 
4.()93 

27,289 
3,225 


Genesee 


1810 
1829 
1833 
1836 
1836 
1848 
1849 
1852 


Oneida 


*Troy 


Black River 

*Erie 


Ea.st Genesee 

*New York East 
♦Wyoming 



The districts within the State of New York forming the above 

Conferences are : — 

Niw JTort— Poughkeepsie, Rhinebeck, PrattsvlUe, Monticello, 
N. Y. German Mission, Rochester, and German Mis- 
sion. 



142 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



the year ending ]May, 1858, $2,544,692 was raised for various religious and benevolent objects. Its 
general objects of promotion and extension are conducted by Boards ; and it has various funds for 
special objects. The State of New York embraces the greater part of 3 synods.^ 

Tlie ^ew Scliool Presbyterian General Assembly of the United States reports 26 
synods, 120 presbyteries, 1,612 ministers, 1,687 churches, and 143,510 communicants. During 
the year ending May, 1858, $273,965.90 was raised for domestic and foreign missions, education, 
and publication. It has several committees for the promotion of its general objects, and has in this 
State 2 theological seminaries and several periodicals.'* 

Tlie Primitive Metliodists have 2 churches and about 500 members in this State. They 
have in the Union over 1,200 members. 

Tlie Protestant Episcopal Clturcli embraces in the Union 31 dioceses and 4 mis- 
sions, 1,995 parishes, 39 bishops, 1,979 clergymen, and 127,953 communicants. Total contribu- 
tions for missionary and charitable purposes, $1,265,642.96. Its general institutions are the " Gene- 
ral Theological Seminary," New York, the " Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society," the 
" General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union and Church Book Society," the " Protestant 
Episcopal Historical Society," the " Western Church Extension Society," and the " Prot. E. So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Evangelical Knowledge." 

Tlie Diocese of IVc^v York' embraces all e. of the e. lines of Broome, Chenango, Madi- 
son, Oneida, Lewis, and Jefferson cos., and comprises 275 parishes, 321 clergymen, and 22,411 
communicants. 



Genesee — Buffalo, Niagara, Genesee, Wyoming, and Olean. 
Oneida — Oneida, Chenango, Cortliind, Auburn, and Cazenovia. 
Troy — Troy, Albany, Saratoga, Plattsburgh, and 3 in Vt. 
Black Miver — Rome, Syracuse, Oswego, Adams, Watertown, 

Ogdensburgh, and Potsdam. 
Erie — Fredonia. The remainder in Ohio and Penn. 
Eo^t Genesee — Geneva, Rochester, West Rochester, Bath, Corn- 
ing, Elmira, and Lima. 
Xfew York East — New York, (E. district,) Long Island, and 2 

in Conn. 
Wyoming — Binghamton and Owego, in part ; the remainder in 
Penn. 
The offices of the several Missionary Societies and of the Book 
Concern are at 200 Mulberry St., N. Y. The periodicals issued 
from that establishment are the Christian Advocate and Jour- 
nal, a weekly newspaper ; the Quarterly Review, the National 
Magazine, and the Ladies' Repository, octavo magazines ; and 
the Sunday School Advocate, The Good News, and the Mission- 
ary Advocate, small newspapers. The Northern Christian Ad- 
vocate, at Auburn, is also an official publication of this denom- 
ination. Under the auspices of this Church are the Genesee 
College, at Lima, Livingston co. ; the Amenia Seminary, 
Dutchess CO. ; Ashland Collegiate Institute, Greene CO.; Char- 
lotte Boarding Academy, Schoharie co.; Falley Seminary, Ful- 
ton, Oswego CO. ; Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, Lima, Livingston 
CO.; Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, St. Lawrence co. ; Jones- 
ville Academy, Saratoga co. ; New York Conference Seminary, 
Charlotteville, Schoharie co. : Oneida Conference Seminary, 
Cazenovi.a. Madison co. : and the Susquehanna Seminary, Bing- 
hamton, Broome co. Besides these, a large number of institu- 
tions, including several of the incorporated academics, are 
owned and patronized mainly by members of this denomination. 
1 The names of presbyteries and statistics of churches of this 
branch in the State are reported in the Old School Presbyterian 
Almanac for 1859 as follows : — 



Stnods. 


t 

o 
1803 
1843 

1788 


Presbyteries. 


«=; 
99 
60 

169 


1 

i 

64 

62 

130 


li 


Albany 

Buffalo 

New York.,.. 


Londonderry, Troy, Al- 
bany, Mohawk 


7,756 
5,028 

17,495 


Ogdensburgh, Genesee R., 
Buffalo City, Michigan, 
Rochester Citv 


Hudson, North River, 
Bedford, Long Island, 
New York, New York 
2d, Canton, Ningpo, 
Connecticut, Nassau, 
Western Africa 





The Board of Domestic Missions has 610 missionaries and 
900 churches and missionary stations. Receipts for the year 
ending March 1, 1858, S105,277.52. Its offices are located in 
Philadelphia and Louisville. 

The Board of Education is divided into ministerial education 
and education in schools, academies, colleges, and parochial 



schools. Under the auspices of this denomination are 22 col- 
leges, 60 academies, and 100 parochial schools. The receipts for 
1857 were $56,492.06. Its office is at Philadelphia. 

The Board of Foreign Missimis has 69 ministers, 30 male and 
90 female assistant missionaries, and 23 native teachers. The 
receipts for 1857 were $223,977.79. Its office ia at the corner of 
Center and Reade Sts., N. Y. 

The Board of Publication issues tracts, books, newspapers, 
and other periodicals in great numbers. Its receipts for 1857 
were $126,960.28. Its office is at Philadelphia. 

2 The following summary of the New School Presbyterian 
Church in New York is from the American Presbyterian Al- 
manac for 1859, and other authentic sources : — 





"B 




»^ 


Synods. 


8 




Oj 








O 
1803 


Albany 


Utica 


1829 
1812 


Geneva 


Onondaga 


1855 


Susqueh'nna 


1853 


Genesee 


1821 


N.Y.&N.J. 


1788 



Presbyteries. 



Champlain, Troy, Albany, 
Columbia, Catsldll 

St. Lawrence. Watertown, 
Oswego, Utica 

Onondaga 

Otsego, Chenango, Delor 
ware 

Genesee, Ontario, Roch- 
ester, Niagara, Buffalo, 
Angelica, 

Hudson, North River, 
Long Island, New York 
3d, New Y'ork 4th, 
Brooklyn, and 4 others 
not in the State 



84 

65 

109 

80 

42 
125 



70 

72 
93 
70 

51 



108 



228 155 24,905 



8,257 

7,106 
9.725 
7,769 

3,989 
12,371 



The various societies under the care of this denomination are 
in charge of the Presbyterian Publication Committee, Foreign 
Mission Committee, Permanent Committee on Education, and 
Church Extension Committee. Young men preparing for the 
ministry are educated at the Union Theological Seminar}-, of 
New York City, and Auburn Theological Seminary, of Cayuga 
CO. The newspapers of the denomination are the Evangelist, of 
New York, and the Genesee Evangelist, of Rochester. 

8 Its institutions are the " Society for the Promotion of Re- 
ligion and Learning," the " Corporation for the Relief of Widows 
and Children of Clergymen," the " Prot. E. Tract Society," the 
"New York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society," the 
" New Y'ork Prot. E. City Mission Society," the " Prot. E. Chris- 
tian Mission Society for Seamen in the City and Port of New 
York," the " Prot. E. Brotherhood of New York," the " Northern 
Jlissionary Convocation," the "Bible and Common Prayer Book 
Society of Albany and its Vicinity," the "Brotherhood of St. 
Barnabas," (Trnv.) "Columbia College," "Trinity School," 
(N. Y.,) "St. Luke's Hospital," (N. Y..) "St. Luke's Home for 
Indigent Christian Females," the "Church Charity Founda- 
tion," (Brooklyn,) and the " Pastoral Aid Society." 



CHURCHES. 



113 



Tlie Diocese of Western Xew York^ embraces the remainder of the State, comprising 
149 parishes, 129 clergymen, and 10,551 communicants. 

The Reroruied Metliodists originated in 1814, in Vt. Their church government ig 
Congregational, They report in the State 8 churches and about 500 members. 

Tlie Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, is derived from the church of tho 
same name in Scotland. In 1855 it numbered in the State 15 churches and 2,274 members. 

Tlie Reformed Protestant Dutcli Cliurcli of the State belongs to the General 
Synod of the Ref. Prot. Dutch of N. A. It is subdivided into the particular Synods of New York 
and Albany, the former embracing 16 and the latter 14 classes, of vs'hich 29 are entirely within the 
State and 1 partly in New Jersey. In 1855 it reported 3G4 churches, 348 ministers, 130,120 per- 
sons attending congregations, and 38,927 communicants. Of these, 260 churches, 259 ministers, 
21,027 families, 97,553 total of congregations, and 31,208 communicants, were in this State. 

Tlie Roman Catholic Cliurcli divides the Union into 7 Provinces, 46 Dioceses, and 3 
Yicarates Apostolic. The Province of New York comprises the New England States, New York 
and New Jersey, and the dioceses of New Y''ork, Portland, Burlington, Boston, Hartford, Brook- 
lyn, Albany, Buffalo, and Newark. Four of these are within this State. There are 3 theological 
seminaries, 1 preparatory seminary, 2 colleges, and a large number of benevolent and educational 
institutions belonging to this denomination within the State, and 8 periodicals devoted to its 
interests.^ 

Tlie Seventh Day Baptists have in the United States 67 churches, 70 ordained ministers, 
and 7,250 members. Of these 36 churches are in New York. In 1835 the denomination was 
divided into associations, of which the Eastern, Central, and Western are embraced wholly or in 
part in this State. De Ruyter Institute and the Alfred Academy are under the patronage of this 
denomination. 

Sliakers, or the "United Society of Believers," otherwise called the " Millennial Church," 
numbers in the Union 18 communities and about 6,000 members. They live in "families," and 
in New York they are principally located at New Lebanon, Watervliet, and Groveland. 

Tlie Unitarians number in the Union 293 clergyman and 250 societies, mostly in Massa- 
chusetts. They have within this State 10 societies. Their only periodical within the State is the 
" Christian Inquirer," a weekly newspaper in Now York City, published under the auspices of 
the "Unitarian Association of the State of New York."' 

Tlie Universalists United States Convention is composed of clerical and lay delegates from 
each State and Territorial Convention, and meets on the third Tuesday of Sept. annually.* The 
denomination has a Historical Society, composed of all preachers and laymen in good standing 
who sign the constitution. It also has a General Reform Association, that meets in Boston on the 



1 Its institutions are Hobart Free College, at Geneva; and De 
Veaux College, at Suspension Bridge. There are besides several 
incorporated and private academies supported by members of 
this denomination. — Church Wmanac for 1859, pp. 32, 47. 

3 The following statistics are upon the authority of the Catholic 
Almanacs of 1859. 

General Statistics for 1859. 



Churches 

Chapels 

Stations 

Clergymen on the Mission... 
•' otherwise em- 
ployed 

Seminaries 

Clerical students 

Colleges 

Convents 

Academies for Boys 

Select schools for Boys 

" » " Girls 

Free schools for Boys 

" " " Girls 

Hospitals 

Houses of protection 

House of the Good Shepherd 
Parochial and other schools.. 

Orphan asylums 

Pupils in Free schools, about 



Diocese of 
New York. 


Diocese of 
Albany. 


•2S 




113 
5 


36 


47 


5 


50 


14 


99 


86 


39 


24 






1 






36 


23 


21 


•> 


2 


... 


o 


1 






7 


1 




21 






23 






1 






1 






1 


15 




4 


6 


2 


12,000 







'S> 



29 

35 
13 



The Diocej;e of New York, formed in 1808, comprises Delar 
ware, Dutchess, New York, Orange, Putnam, Richmond. Koek- 
land, Sullivan, Ulster, and Westchester counties. The Diocese 
of Brooklyn, formed in 1853, comprises Kings, Queens, and Suf- 
folk counties. The Diocese of Albany, formed in 1S47, comprises 
the remainder of the State E. of the west lines of Cayuga, 
Tompkins, and Tioga counties. The Diocese of Buffalo, formed 
in 1847, comprises the counties w. of the west lines of Ca- 
yuga, Tompkins, and Tioga. 

The distinctive schools under the patronage of this denomi- 
nation are the St. John's College, at Fordham. Westchester co. ; 
College of St. Francis Xavier, New York City ; St. Josepli's 
Theological Seminary, Fordham; Ecclesiastical Seminary. Buf- 
falo ; Franciscan Convent, Allegany ; and Preparatory Seminary 
of Our Lady of the Angels, Niagara, 

The Catholic papers in the State are The New York Freeman's 
Journal and Catholic Register, The New York Tablet, The PUot, 
(N. Y. and Boston,) Katholische Kirchen Zeitung, weekly, of 
N. Y.; The Buffalo Sentinel, weekly; Catholic Institute Maga- 
zine, N«wburgh; Brownson's Quarterly Review, N, Y,: Ameri- 
can Catholic Almanac and Clergy List ; and the Six Cent Catho 
lie Almanac and Laity's Directory, of N. Y. 

3 Year Book of the Unitarian Omg. Churches,\^hT. 

* The Neiv York State Convention embraces the Central, Nia» 
gara, Cayuga, Buffalo, Mohawk River, Ontario, Genesee, Black 
lliver, St. Lawrence, Otsego, Allegany, Steuben, Chautauqua, 
Chenango, Hudson River, and New York Associations, and con- 
tains 220 societies, 194 church edifices, and employs 107 preachers. 
It has a State Educational Society, with S40.000 subscribed, 
and $25,000 invested for the Theological School in Canton ; 
and has in charge the Clinton Liberal Institute. The Uni- 
versalist Paper and Book Establishment has assets amount- 
ing to S13.796, and unredeemed stock to the amount of ?4,169. 
The profits of the concern are applied to the purchase of the 
shares, which will thus become the property of the State Con- 
vention. It has a relief fund for aged and disabled preachers. 
The Young Men's Christian Union, formed Jan. 1856, and tha 



144 



NEW TORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



last Tuesday in May. This denomination has organizations in 32 States and Territories, in 19 of 
which State Conventions are held. It has 4 educational, 9 missionary, 1 tract, and 4 Sunday 
school associations, 1 relief fimd, and 1 book and ne-n-spager establishment, — all of vrhich are of a 
State character. It has 85 associations, 1,334 churches or societies, 913 church edifices, 655 
preachers, 18 periodicals, and 9 institutions of learning. 

The Wesleyan Metliodists.^ This denomination in the United States was formed by 
seceders from the M. E. Church, May, 1843. 

Besides these, there are churches in the State known as Bethels, Evangelical, German Evangelical 
Reformed, Jewish, Calvinistic Methodists, German Methodists, Moravians, French Evangelical 
Presbyterian, Protestant Communitij of Inspiration, Second Advent, True Dutch, Free, and Union, 
numbering in the aggregate a large number of church edifices and communicants.'' 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 



Societies of a religious, humane, and benevolent character began to be formed in considerable 
numbers about 1822-25. The objects of these societies enlisted the co-operation of members of the 
different religious denominations and of other philanthropic persons, and annual meetings were 
held in New York for the several objects. 

The time of meeting has been usually in the second week in May, and the appointments were 
so made that the same persons could attend several of them in succession. These societies have 
become numerous, and "Anniversary week" thus becomes a season of interest to thousstnds. The 
assembling of so large a number of persons from distant sections of the Union has led reformers 
of every degree to appoint the anniversary meetings of their societies at the same time and place ; 
and there is scarcely a society for the promotion of religion, morality, charity, or civil and social 
reform that is not thus annually brought to public notice, its operations exhibited, and its 
claims urged. 

The societies exclusively under the control of a single denomination are noticed under the reli- 
gious sects. 

The principal societies of a general character are as follows: — 

Tlie American Bible Society, formed by a convention of 60 persons, mostly clergy- 
men, May 8, 1809, has for its object the publication and distribution of, the Bible and parts 



N. T. City Missionary Society are connected with this denom- 
ination. Its periodicals are the Christian Ambassador, at 
Auburn and New York, and a monthly periodical by the female 
department of the Clinton Liberal Institute. 
1 The M. E. Church in England and Canada is thus known. 



The church of this name in the TJ. S. differs from the others in 
rejecting the classification of the ministry as bishops, elders, 
and deacons. Their official organ is the True Wesleyan. 

2 The following table shows the general statistics of churches 
in the several counties : — 



Church Statistics. 



Counties. 


II 

129 

75 

6-3 

61 

100 

105 

33 

111 

4.5 

8.1 

51 

92 

132 

155 

51 

35 


Value of 

church 

property. 


CouN'riBS. 


II 


Value of 

church 

property. 


ConwTiKS. 


J. ^ 

-2-6 

s v 

^•s 

84 

112 

51 

84 

117 

30 

73 

114 

29 

41 

117 

103 

26 

85 

50 


Vahie of 

church 

property. 


COUTTOTS. 


II 


»^ S 

t^'§ a, 

$144,333 
161,438 
278,260 
60.000 
106.700 
183.690 
409,350 
57,250 
287,120 
272,000 
868.250 
169,-365 
133,650 1 




$1,272,025 
122.360 
207.564 
112,.370 
311,620 
225.250 
1.50.750 
232.030 
137.975 
276.650 
11S,000 
1S3.555 
693.650 
1.176,285 
121,600 
66,195 


Fulton 


39 

61 

74 

5 

85 

127 

149 

54 

86 

94 

141 

52 

252 

74 

201 

142 


$ 96.350 

164,300 

168,325 

1,400 

173,500 

346,785 

2,840,700 

65.845 

263,260 

202,580 

804,230 

141,300 

12,092.750 

229.205 

635.960 

663,610 


Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 


$283,730 
443.855 
228.600 
234,715 
231.952 

85.000 
492.135 
746,640 
285,100 
136,300 
263.485 
813.975 
173.710 
129.830 

99,125 




48 

105 

112 

46 

45 

66 

100 

33 

95 

80 

148 

74 

48 


Allegany 

Broome 

Cattar.au gns.. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua . 

Chemung 

Chenai>go 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Del.aware 

Dutchess 


Genesee 

Greene 


Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 


Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 


Otsco 


Putnam 

Queens 


Tompkins 

Ulster 


Lewis 


Rensselaer.... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

.?t. Lawrence. 

Saratoga 

.Schenectady. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 


Warren 

Washington.. 


Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 


Westchester- 
Wyoming 

Yates 


j Montgomery. 

New York 

Niagara. 

Oneida 


Total 


Essex 


5,077 


31,480,144 


Franklin 


Onondaga 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 145 

thereof without note or comment.^ Auxiliary to the American Bible Society are numerous county 
and local societies, through which the greater part of the funds are raised.* 

Tlie American Tract Society was instituted in 1825, by the several evangelical de- 
nominations, for the purpose of disseminating tracts and books upon moral and religious subjects.' 
Several of the religious denominations have tract societies of their own. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed 
in 1809, for the purpose of supporting missions in foreign lands. Its central office is in Boston ; 
but It has auxiliary societies throughout this State. It is chiefly supported by the Congregational 
and New School Presbyterian societies.* 



1 The first society within the State for the gratuitoas distribu- 
tion of the Scriptures was the N. Y. Bible and Common Prayer 
Book Society, formed in 1809. A large number of co. societies 
was formed within the next five years. The present society, 
formed in 1816, has gradually increased in wealth and influence, 
until its operations have extended to almost every section of 
the globe. It has a Bible liouse in New York. — one of the most 
extensive publishing houses in the world. Its books are gra- 
tuitously distributed, or sold at cost ; and -the total number of 
volumes issued up to May, 1858, was 12,804,014. These are 
j.roduced in great varieties of style and in upward of forty 
different languages. The society has also published the Bible in 
English with raised characters for the blind. 

The Baptist and Protestant Episcopal denominations have 
separate societies for publishing the Scriptures, although many 
members belonging to both of these co-operate with the Ameri- 
can Bible Society. 

2 The following table gives the names of these societies, the 
date of their organization, and the amount of their donations 
and remittances up to May, 1858 : — 



Name. 



Albany Co 

Allegany Co 

Amity Female 

Ausable Valley 

Brooklyn City 

Broome Co 

Buffalo City 

Caledonia 

Caledonia Female 

Carlton 

Cattaraugus Co 

Cayuga Co 

Chautauqua Co 

Chemung Co 

Chenango Co 

Clinton Co 

Cold Spring 

Columbia Co 

Cortland Co 

Delaware Co 

Dutchess Co. Female 

Dutchess Co 

Erie Co 

Essex Co 

Floyd and Western Welsh 

Franklin Co 

Fulton & Hamilton Co.... 

Geneva 

Genesee Co 

Genoa 

Greene Co 



Date. 



May, 1816 
April, 1825 
Sept. 1816 
Dec. 1845 
Feb. 1849 
Feb. 1817 
Nov. 1847 
April, 1818 
May, 1817 
Jan. 1855 
Aug. 1829 
June. 1817 
AprU, 1820 
July, 1828 
Nov. 1826 
April, 1821 
Aug. 1838 
Oct. 181 
Aug. 1816 
July, 1816 
Oct. 1817 
Oct. 1839 
April, 1848 
Jan. 1817 
April, 1S54 
June, 1821 
Dec. 1816 
April, 1846 
July, 1818 
AprU, 1825 
Sept. 1816 



Donations. 



Greene .^ JMar. 1855 

May, 1817 

Oct. 1816 

Aug. 1855 

Jan. 1817 

April, 1828 

May, 1850 

1824 

1817 

1816 

1816 

1821 

1818 

1816 



Herkimer Co 

Hudson Female 

Jasper 

Jefferson Co 

Lewis Co 

Lewis Co. Welsh 

Livingston Co 

Long Island 

.Madison Co 

Montgomery Co 

Monroe Co 

Newburgh 

New York Female 

New York Calvinistic 

Welsh 

New York Marine 

New York 

Niagara Co 

North Brooklyn 

North Seneca 

Nyack Ref. D. Ch. Female 

Oneida Co 

Onondaga Co 



$19,621.00 
1,526.49 
329.15 
370.04 
5,683.76 
1,960.01 
2,339.91 
3,366.72 
1,673.97 



Remit- 

tances for 

Bibles. 



127.06 

3,738.99 

1..397.13 

2,949.35 

5,538.99 

718.56 

101.01 

10.83.5.30 

4,320.90 

1,450.75 

4,754.87 

15,930.45 

698.06 

909.14 

50..30 

381.95 

21,182.49 

1,117.86 

3,169.47 

972.15 

6,477.23 

25.00 

3,268.27 

1,970.50 



May, 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

June, 

Sept. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
May, 
May, 



1844 
1817 
1829 
1830 
1816 
July, 1852 
May, 1842 
Jan. 1817 
April, 1832; 



3,936..37 

544.51 

341.60 

6,542.59 

20.786.70 

5,701.51 

390.00 

22,828.47 

3,784.74 

102,926.12 

546.23 



42,091.43 

2,457.41 

1,726.16 

582.19 

74.80 

15,220.06 

7,594.00 



$16,385.20 

3,326.92 

130.85 

804.05 

10.054.75 

5.171.46 

5,329.05 

111.28 

232.50 

91.53 

1,879.62 

7,807.61 

7,547.60 

3,404.26 

6,634.34 

4.291.26 

324.39 

6.1.31.77 

5,830.78 

5,341.42 

3,985.20 

5,365.39 

4,163.76 

4,244.35 

81.70 

3,385.60 

11,2.37 ..37 

2,280.75 

6,950.40 

1,072.20 

5.746.56 

175.00 

4,699.15 

805.32 

87.00 

12,274.47 

2,997.44 

147.65 

5,482.53 

30,785.72 

6,814.87 

1,345.11 

19.282.30 

3,768.00 

17,369.47 

72.86 

6,043.89 

264,911.73 

5,401 .,51 

1,726.20 

707.73 

7.20 

20,521.48 

12.805.50 



Name. 



Ontario Co 

Orange Co 

Orleans Co 

Oswego Co g 

Otsego Co 

Peekskill Female 

Poughkeepsle Fcm. Union 

Putnam Co 

Remson Steuben Welsh 
and Vicinity 

Rensselaer Co. 

Rockland Co 

Sandy Hill and Fort Ed- 
ward 

Saratoga Co 

Schenectady Co 

Schoharie Co 

Schuyler Co 

Seneca Associate Ref. 

South Seneca 

South Steuben 

Steuben Co 

St. Lawrence Co 

Sullivan Co 

Tioga Co 

Tompkins Co 

ULster Co 

Utica Welsh and Vic 

Warren Co 

Washington Co 

Watervliet 

VTavne County 

Welsh B. S. of Nelson 

Welsh B. S. of Rome 

Welsh B. S. of Holland 
Patent 

Westchester Co 

Wyoming Co 

Yates Co 



Date. 



Mar. 1817 
June, 1816 
July, 1830 
Mar. 1826 
rune, 1816 
Feb. 1817 



Sept. 
May, 



1850 
1828 



Jan. 1817 
June, 1816 
July, 18J.6 

Nov. 1848 
July, 1816 
May, 1823 
Jan. 1817 
Feb. 1856 
May, 1846 
Feb. 1846 
June, 1848 
Feb. 1817 
April, 1820 
Aug. 1826 
June, 1823 
May, 1828 
Nov. 1816 
Jan. 1817 
Sept. 1821 
Mar. 1817 
Jan. 1849 
April, 1847 
Sept. 1856 
Mar. 1855 



Donations. 



May, 
Aug. 
Feb. 
Dec. 



1855 
1827 
18.50 
1827 



$ 8,405.15 

24,141.22 

3,230.82 

2,488.15 

3,116.79 

713.59 

1,080.81 

120.00 

3,893.68 

35,452.61 

1,985.72 

164.64 

12,779.61 

2,741.56 

3,934.40 

358.50 

319.71 
1,735.67 
1,267.85 
2,085.38 
2,115.40 
2,388.90 
4.272.81 
4,044.04 
\1,14591 
4,479 71 

194 44 

19,092.11 

3,720.58 

3,731.43 

12.00 

228.08 

184.48 
19,614.17 
2,310 82 
4,372.10 I 



Remit- 
tances for 
Bibles. 



$ 4,870.93 
6,426.71 
4,058.68 
7,286.94 
7,573.77 
166.76 

316.16 

2,141.06 
22.289.21 

2,289.64 

243.93 
7,277.96 
4,454.40 
3,982.19 

513.23 
16.08 
1,077.02 
1,264.36 
5,201.34 
14,193.70 
3,156.16 
5,.373.82 
6.249.34 
2,191.24 
2,450.12 
2,300.38 
7,4.58.51 
2,117.34 
4,775..31 
53.35 

132.73 

77.40 
6,977.71 
4,634.73 
3,468.60 



10 



3 This society has a large property vested in a publishing 
house and grounds, corner of Nassau and Spruce Streets, New 
York, and in the stock, machinery, and materials used in the 
manufacture of books and tracts. Its fiscal affairs are managea 
by a finance committee. It has 31 auxiliaries in thu State of 
New York. The receipts up to May, 1858, were So ^56,711.05,- 
about three-fifths of which were derived from sales, and the re- 
mainder from donations. Previous to May, 1858, this societal 
had circulated 1.3,098,013 volumes, 188,971,408 publications, 
4,753,741,573 pages; including 149,761 volumes (9,831 .sets) ol 
the Evangelical Family Library, 94,026 volumes (2,089 ^ets) of 
the Christian Library, 48,638 volumes (1,990 sets) of the Keli 
gious or Pastor's Library. 319..323 volumes (4,557 sets) of th< 
Youth's Library, and 160,921 volumes (20,044 sets)of the Youth's 
Scripture Biography. The society publishes an Aiman.nc, the 
American Messenger, (in Engli.sh and German,) and Child's 
Paper, in large editions ; and issues books and tracts in tlie Eng • 
lish, German, French, Spani,sh, Portuguese, Italian, Welsh. 
Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Hungarian languages. It openitta 
through branch and auxiliary societies, general agents and su- 
perintendents, and paid and volunteer colporteurs. The Ameri- 
can Tract Society of Boston, which formerly co-operated with 
this, is now a distinct organization. 

_ Societies of kindred character were formed in the State pre 
vious to this,— the more important of which was the New York 
Religious Tract Society, formed in 1812, with auxiliaries in vari- 
ous parts of the country. 

4 This society has established 27 missions, 121 stations, ana 
101 out stations in Africa, Greece, Western and Southern Asia, 
China, Sandwich I.slands, Micronesia, and among the North 
American Indian Tribes. It employs 373 missionaries and as- 
sistants, and 524 native pastors and assistants, has 8 printing 
presses, and up to 1858 had issued 1,080,481,083 pages of tracts 
and reliirious books. These missions numbered 318 churches, 
and 27,740 members; and the educational department embraced 



146 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie American Home Missionary Society was formed May 12, 1826, for the pur- 
pose of supporting the ministry in feeble and destitute Presb. and Cong, churches in the U. S.^ 

Tlie American Sunday Scliool Union was formed in 1824, for the purpose of en- 
courao-ino- the establishment of Sunday schools and of supplying them with books. Its central 
oflBce is at Philadelphia. The New York Sunday School Union, auxiliary to this, was established 
in 1816, and has numerous local subordinate societies in different parts of the State.* 

Tlie American Seamen's Friend Society was formed in 1828, and endeavors to 
carry out the intentions expressed in its title by distributing Bibles and tracts, supporting the 
ministry, and otherwise promoting the moral welfare of seamen.^ 

The" American Betliel Society was instituted in 1836, for the purpose of opening 
chapels for boatmen and mariners, distributing tracts, and extending other means for their moral 
improvement. It established a magazine named the "Bethel Flag ;" and has auxiliaries in many 
places on the lakes, rivers, and canals. 

Tlie American and Foreign Christian Union was formed in 1849, for the special 
object of counteracting the influence of the Romish and other churches opposed to the class usually 
denominated " evangelical."* 

The Central American Education Society was formed for the purpose of 
assisting young men preparing for the ministry. In 1858 the society aided 111 students. 

The American Colonization Society was formed at Washington, Jan. 1817, for 
the colonization of free colored persons in Africa. The IVc^v York State Colonization 
Society was formed at Albany, April 9, 1829, and has had numerous auxiliaries in the State.* 

The National Compensating Emancipation Society, formed in 1857, has for 
its object the purchasing of slaves for the purpose of giving them freedom. 

The American Anti Slavery Society was organized Dec. 4, 1833,* 

The American Missionary Association Avas formed Sept. 1846, as a Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society. Business office in N. Y. City. Receipts for first 12 years of its exist- 
ence, §421,001.98. Present monthly income, §3,000 to $,5,000. It has a slaves' Bible Fund, 
and labors for the extinction of slavery. The association publish The American Missionary (paper) 
and American Missionary Magazine, both monthly. 

Young Men's Christian Associations have been formed in most of the cities and 



6 seminaries, 17 other boarding schools, 619 free schools, (of 
which 312 were supported by the Hawaiian Government,) and 
17,020 pupils. The receipts in the year endinc; .Tuly 31, 1858, 
were $334,018.48, the principal part of which was derived from 
aon-At\ons.—Forty-JVinth lieport A. B. O. F. M., 1858. 

1 This society was formed by the union of two societies pre- 
viously formed by the Presbyterian and Reformed Protestiint 
Dutch Churches. It is supported by the Congregationalists and 
New School Presbyterians, and to some e.xtent by the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch, Lutheran, and German Reformed Churches. 
In 1858. 1,012 persons were connected with this society or its 
agencies and auxiliaries, of which 1.33 are within this State. 
The number of congregations and stations fully or statedly sup- 
plied is 2.0.34: Sabbath school scholars, 65.500; contributions to 
benevolent objects, $24,272.28. The receipts in 12 months were 
$175.971.37 : the payments in the same time were $190,735.70. 
Total receipts in 32 years, $3.456.082 ; total years of labor, 
18.871 ; total additions to churches, 150.275. 

There are a central and a western agency in this State. — the 
office of the former of which is at TJtica "and of the latter at 
(Geneva. The number of mission.iries aided within the year was 
1.33. Total contributions, $39,347.96. 

2 This movement was supported by most of the evangelical 
denominations : but severjil of them have since estfiblished Sun- 
day school organizations among themselves. The American 
Sunday School Union had, in 1858. expended about $2,500,000 in 
books, and .$1,000,000 more in organizina; Sunday schools. Its 
receipts for the last year were $65,076.14; and "it had formed 
1.524 new schools, vrith. 57,787 pupils and 9.694 teachers. The 
New York Sunday School Union had, in 1858, 210 schools, re- 
porting 60.000 pupils, 4,825 teachers, 82.294 books in libraries, 
.md $13,089 raised by contributions. Sunday schools in some form 
are supported by nearly every religious denomination, and are 
chiefly for Biblical instruction. A State Sunday School Teachers' 
Convention, formed in 1855, meets annually. Its third report, 
made Oct. 1858, gave a total in the State of 1,895 schools, 22,263 
officers and teachers, and 212.812 pupils. 

3 This society has 15 stations in various parts of the world, 
and grants aid to various Bethel operations not connected with 
it. The receipts for the year ending in 1858 were $25.236.20 ; 
•ind the total expenses in the seamen's cause about $100.000 ; 
2.257 mariners had been received at the Sailors' Home in New 
York, and the whole number received into that institution from 
It* establishment was 52,353. 



* The association has 61 home laborers ; and its receipts in the 
year ending in 1858 were $76,603.22. Its expenses in the same 
time were $79,604.33. It has agents, and supports chapels in 
several foreign coiintries. 

6 The slave trade was abolished in 1807, and after .Tan. 1, 
1808, the cargoes of captured slaves were to be sold for the bene- 
fit of the State where they might land. By an act of March 
3, 1819, the General Government appropriated .$100,000 for the 
restoration of a large number of Africans to their native conn- 
try. By the co-operation of the Government with this Society 
a purchase was made in Dec. 1821, in the neighborhood of Cape 
Mensurado, on the w. coast of Africa, from which has grown 
the present Republic of Liberia, under the special patronage of 
this society. Formal possession was taken April 28, 1822. 

Several of the subordinate State societies h.ave been merged 
in anti-slavery and other more radical societies for the termi- 
nation of slavery. In the year ending in 1858 the receipts of 
the New York Colonization Society were $15,634.62. 

6 The expenses of the society for the year ending in 1858 were 
$17,052, including those of the Anti Slavery Standard, its prin- 
cipal organ. Receipts, $15,200 from the paper and donations, 
and $17,355 by auxiliaries. 

A New York State Anti Slavery Society, with numerous aux- 
iliaries, was formed about 1834—36, and its friends soon organ- 
ized themselves into a political party. The highest State vote 
of this party was in 1844, when it amounted, on the Governor's 
ticket, to 15.136. Slavery existed under the Dutch, and was 
continued through the English period of our colonial history. 
An act was p,assed March 31, 1817, declaring that every chUd 
born of a slave in this State after July 4, 1799, should be free at 
the age of 28 if a male, or at 25 if a female. Every child bom 
after the passage of the act was to become free at tlie age of 21, 
and measures were ordered for the education of children held 
in service. The importation of slaves was prohibited. The first 
emancipation under this law, therefore, took effect July 5, 1827, 
as the law fixed the period as after instead of upon the 4th of 
July, as was perhaps intended. The 5th of July has sometimes 
been celebrated as their anniversary of independence ; and hence 
arises the slang expression of " Fourth of July one day arter." 
Those born before the above date remained slaves till their death, 
and the census of 1855 reported one such as living in the State. 
The number of slaves in New York at different periods has 
been as follows: — 

1790 21,324 1810 15.017 I 1S20 10,046 | 1840 4 

1800 20,613 I 1814 11,480 | 1830 75 | 1850 .— 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 147 

large villages in the United States and British Pi-ovinces. They form a general confederation, 
the State of New York forming the fourth district. These associations embrace within their 
objects a library, reading room, lectures and prayer meetings.^ 

Tlie Youu^ Men's Christian Union of New York is supported by the Unitarian and 
Universalist denominations principally. 

Toung^ Men's Associations for mutual improvement have been formed in various parts 
of the State and under various names. The plan of organization is essentially alike ; and it 
usually includes a library, reading room, cabinet, lecture course, and debating club. Most of 
these associations have been organized by special acts, and their affairs are managed by executive 
committees chosen annually by the members. They can hold a limited amount of property for 
the special objects of their organization.^ 

In most of the large villages, associations have been formed for the support of lectures at stated 
intervals in the winter months. They are generally of a temporary character, are re-organized 
every season or are attached to academies or other existing institutions. 

Tlie THew Yorli State Temperance Society was formed April 2, 1829. Its objects 
were to suppress intemperance and limit the traffic in intoxicating liquors. It received the support 
of a large number of the best and most philanthropic citizens, and its influence spread rapidly 
throughout the State.' Since the formation of the first society, efforts to suppress intemperance 
have been made upon an extended scale, and the strong arm of the law has been invoked to pro- 
hibit the traffic in alcoholic liquors. 

Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. " The Ancient and Honorable Fra- 
ternity of Free and Accepted Masons" of the State of New York is under the government of a 
Grand Lodge, composed of its Grand Officers and the representatives (the Master and Wardens) 
of every lodge in the jurisdiction. As at present constituted, the Grand Lodge dates from 1785, 
when Chancellor Robert R. Livingston was elected Grand Master, and continued in office till 1801.* 
In 1859 there are 430 chartered lodges in the State, (numbered to 474,) with about 33,000 mem- 
bers, numbering among them a very respectable class in all the walks of life. There is at least 
one lodge in every county in the State, (except Hamilton ;) 93 of the lodges are in the city of New 
York ; and a lodge is located in every considerable town and village. The annual receipts of the 



1 In July, 1858, associations of this kind were in active ope- 
ration in Albany, Albion, Black Rock, Brnoldyn, Buffalo, Cats- 
kill, Flushing, Hudson, Jamestown, New York, Oswego. Pough- 
keepsie, Rondont, Saratoga Springs. SlapUtnn, Tray, Utica, and 
Waterford. Those in italics belonged to the confederation. 

2 The first organization of this kind in the State was the Al- 
bany Young Mens Association, formed Dec. 13, 1833, and in- 
corp. March 12, 1835. The following Is a list of these associa- 
tions in the State formed under special acts : — 



Name and Location. 



Albany, Albany CO.. 



Buffalo, Erie co 

" " (German) 

Elmira, Chemung co.... 

Fulton, Oswego co 

Geneva, Ontario co 

Port Byron, Cayuga co. 

Sackets Harbor, Jeffer- 
son CO 

Saratoga Springs, Sara - 
toga CO 

Franklin In.stitute. 
Syracuse, Ononda- 
ga CO 

Schenectady, Schenec 
tady CO 

Troy, Rensselaer CO 

Utica, Oneida co 

Watertown. Jefferson co 



Date, of 
incorporation. 



March 12, 1835 
March 3, 1843 
May 12, 1846 



} 



April 
May 
April 
April 

March 

May 

Dec. 



11, 1842 
13, 1846 
17, 18.39 
10, 1844 

2,1843 

14, 1840 

1849 



March 
April 
March 
April 



9, 1839 
10, 1835 
25, 1837 
17, 1841 



Remarks. 



Fully organized. Li- 
brary 7,000 vols. 

Library in 1855, 7,500 
vols. 

Library in 1855, 1,800 
vols. 



Closed. 



/Library in 1859, 
\ about 3,000 vols. 



Fully organized. 

Closed. 

Burned out in 1849. 



8 The fourth report of the State Society, in 1838, gave 1,538 
societies and 231,074 members. Its principal organ, the Temper- 
ance Recorder, was begun March 6, 1832, at Albany, and issued 
many years. It also jiublished almanacs, tracts, and circulars 
to a large extent. The American Society for the Promotion of 
Temperance, formed in 1S27, was in 1836 succeeded by the 
" American Temperance Union." The latter, in the year ending 
in 1858, received $1,987.20. Its principal organ is the Journal 
of the American Temperance Union, at New York. Both this 



and the State Society are still in operation. About 1841-45 the 
" Washingtonian" temperance movement, originating among 
reformed inebriates, spread over the State, and several thousand 
independent societies were formed under it, — most of which, how- 
ever, died out with the enthusiasm under which they were 
created. The secret orders of " Rechabites" and " Sons of 
Temperance" originated in New York, about 1842, and subse- 
quently those of "Cadets of Temperance," "Daughters of Tem- 
perance," "Good Samaritans," "Daughters of Samaria," 
" Knights Templar," " Social Circles," and other associations of 
a similar class were formed for the avowed purpose of pro- 
moting temperance reform. Numerous lodges or encampments 
were formed, and these societies at one time embraced large 
numbers of members. Several of them have been given up en- 
tirely ; and it is believed none of them are increasing. They 
required a form of initiation and pledge of secrecy, had fixed 
dues payable at regular intervals, provided money to assist the 
sick and bury the dead, and gave certificates of membership, 
which, with passwords and other tokens of recognition, might 
enable a memljer to claim assistance among strangers belongmg 
to the order. 

The License question was submitted to the popular vote May 
5, 1846, with the result of 111.884 /;«•, and 177,683 against, license. 
The operation of the law was deemed by many to be uueqnal ; 
and its effect upon the temperance cause was unquestionably 
adverse. In 1847 the majonties fur license were large in most 
of the towns. The " Maine Law," or prohibition movement, 
began in 1851, and was urged by its friends with great force 
during .several sessions of the Legislature. A prohibitory law 
was passed, but was declared unconstitutional by the Court of 
Appeals. The present law regulating the sale of intoxicating 
liquors, passed April 16, 1857, provides a Board of Excise Com- 
missioners in each county for granting licenses and prosecuting 
violations of the law. 

* At the close of his term there were 94 lodges in the State, 
of which the oldest was St. .lohn's. No. 1, (yet in active exist- 
ence,) established in the city of New Yoric in 1757. Gen. Jacob 
Morton was Grand Master from 1801 to 1806, De Witt Clinton 
from 1806 to 1820, and Daniel D. Tompkins from 1820 to 1822, 
when the Grand Lodge became divided. In 1826, at the com- 
mencement of the Anti-Masonic excitement, (see Genesee co.,) 
there were about 360 lodges in the State, (numbered to 507,) 
with about 22,000 members. In 1836 the number of lodges had 
been reduced below 75, with a corresponding membership, — say 
4,000. 



143 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Grand Lodge are about $16,000 ; and during the year ending in June, 1859, the amount expended 
for charitable relief by the Grand Lodge and its immediate agents was about $3,000 ; and probably 
three times more than that sum was expended for the same purposes by lodges and individual 
I^Iasons. There is in the Hall and Asylum Fund, raised for charitable and educational purposes, 
about $25,000, controlled by trustees chosen by the Grand Lodge, (it not being incorporated;) and 
this sum is constantly being increased from various sources, — a portion of it arising from the 
stated revenues of the Grand Lodge. The fraternity are now all united in one body, under the 
jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge and its subordinates, and are in a sound and flourishing condition. 
The office of the Grand Secretary and place of business of the fraternity is in Odd Fellows Hall, 
corner of Grand and Center Sts., New York. The Grand Lodge is in correspondence and direct 
coninuniioation with all the Grand Lodges and Masonic fraternity throughout the world.^ 

IiKlepondeiit Order of Odd Fello^TS. This order was introduced into the United 
States from Manchester, England ; and the first regular lodge was opened at Baltimore, in 1819. 
The Grand Lodge of the U. S. includes 42 subordinate Grand Lodges in the States and Territories, 
Canada, and the Sandwich Islands. There are 2 Grand Lodges and 623 subordinate lodges in 
this State.2 

Sous of Malta. This order embraced in this State, on the 1st of July, 1859, the Grand 
Lodge of the State and 8 subordinate lodges, with an aggregate membership of 12,680. 



MEDICAL SOCIETIES. 

The formation of County Medical Societies was authorized by an act passed April 4, 1806. 
They were empowered to grant licenses to practice medicine in the State and to collect of the 
members a sum not exceeding $3 annually. Delegates sent from each co. society, in number 
equal to the representation of the co. in Assembly, were to constitute a State Medical Society, 
which had the power of granting diplomas to practice medicine and to decide upon cases appealed 
from the co. societies. Although local societies were formed under this act in most of the counties 
then existing, several of them have ceased to exist ; and there are at present but about 40 county 
societies that are represented by delegates. The State Society was formed Feb. 5, 1807, and is 



1 The stated fostiviils of tlio fraternity arc on the 24th of June 
and 'JTth of Dooembor, usually styled St. .Tohn's days. The offi- 
cers of the Grand Lods^e and of the .subordinates are elected 
annually : and the time and place for the " Annual Commnuica- 
tion" of tlio Grand Lodge is ou the first Tuesday of June, in 
the city of New York. 



The elective Grand OflBcers of the Fraternity are Grand Master, 
Deputy Grand Ma.*ter, Senior Grand Warden, Junior Grand 
Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, and 5 Grand Chap, 
laius. 



Sfatistics of tlie Odd FeUoios for the year ending Jan. 30, 1858. 



LODQES. 



Lodges, or Subordinate 

encampments 

Number of initiations.... 

" " rejections.... 

« died 

" " members 

u a ti |.^ 

lieyed 

No. of widows and fami- 
lies relieved 

Amount p.iid for relief of 
memliers 

Amount paid for relief of 
widowed families 

Amount paid for educa- 
tii>n of orphans 

Amount paid for burying 
the dead 

Amount of annual re- 
ceipts 






3,390 

16,549 

1,713 

1.739 

176,700 

23,151 

2,705 

$294,992.91 

66,614.55 

11,2«4.06 

67,364.70 

1.223,686.03 



V 


V 


^ 


^ 


o -.-^ 


? .li 


1^^ 

§■? 2 


III 


493 


130 


690 


448 


61 


27 


82 


118 


11,7S3 


8,475 


715 


1,345 


113 


393 


$11,263.80 


$29,663.62 


3,185.18 


6,545.17 


207.29 


388.69 


2,250.00 


5,091.17 


44,756.78 


69,981.18 



II 



623 
1,138 

78 

200 

20,258 

2,060 

606 

$40,927.42 

9,730.35 

595.98 

7,341.17 

114,787.96! 



EXCASIPMKNTS. 



S.S 

SB 
1.^ 



t?|€ 



651 

2,755 

79 

220 

22,319 

902 

93 

$28,171.10 

3,111.60 

10.00 

6,377.24 

110,156.54 



Ill 



71 

66 

2 

8 
979 



$211.00 

10.00 

40.84 

2,019.92 



■S S fe 



13 

60 



4 

487 

82 
1 

$363.00 
3,00 

90.00 
2,426.75 






84 

• 116 

2 

12 

1,466 

64 

1 

$574.00 

3^ 

10.00 

90.84 

4,446.67 



MEDICAL SOCIETIES. 



149 



now composed of delegates from co. societies, 1 delegate from each medical college, 5 from the 
New York Academy of Medicine, honorary members by virtue of office or by election, and per- 
manent members elected after 4 years' service as delegates. The annual meetings of the society 
are held on the first Tuesday of February. The State Society has maintained a regular organization 
from the beginning ; and since 1848 its proceedings have been reported annually to the Legisla- 
ture and published with their documents.* 

Homeopathic Medical Societies may be organized in the several counties under an act of April 
13, 1857 ; and such have been formed in Kings, Livingston, New York, Oneida, and perhaps other 
counties.'' 



County Medical Societies. 



County. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broomo 

Cattaraagus 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton and Uamilton. 

Genesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

^1(18 

J^wis , 

Livingston 

Madison , 

Monroe , 

Montgomery 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga , 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Kensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

WatTen 

Washington 

Wayne , 

Westchester 

Wyoming 

Yates 



Date of 
Organization. 



July 

Not. 



Aug. 

June, 
Aug. 



Oct. 



29,1806 
6,1823 



1836 
6,1806 

1806 
10, 1808 
1806 
1806 
1815 

1809 



Aug. 

Dec. 

March 



May 
July 
May 
July 
July 



July 

July 

July 
July 



6, 1806 

17, 1806 

2,1822 

1808 

29, 1821 

27, 1806 

9, 1821 

3, 1806 

1, 1806 

1806 
1, 1806 

1, 1806 

17, 1821 
1, 1806 



July 18, 1806 



May 
Oct. 



Oct. 
Dec. 



18, 1850 
14, 1807 



1857 
29, 1857 



July 22, 1806 



July 
May 
March 



1,1806 
8, 1797 
4,1823 



Fint Praident. 



Wm. McClelland. 
Chester Lusk 



Lemuel Hudson . 
Tracy Robinson.., 



Wm. Wilson 

Lewis S. Owen 

Joshua U. Brett 

Samuel Bard 

Josiah Trowbridge., 

Records lost. 



Westel Willoughby, jr 

John Durkee 

Cornelius Low 

Records bunicd 

Charles Little 

Israel Farrell 

Alexander Kelsey 

Alexander Sheldon.... 
Nicholas Romayne 

Amos G.Hull 

John H. Frisbie 

Jonathan Sweezey 

Benjamin Coe 

Joseph Wliite 

Benjamin Woodward. 

John Demarest , 

Joseph W. Smith 

3. B. Wells 

Nelson Winton 

David Conklin 



Andrew Proudfit 

Archibald Macdonald.. 
Joshua Lee 



Firtt Secretary. 



Charles D. Townsend., 
Ammi Donbleday 



Asa R. Howell., 
Geo. Mowrey ... 



Wm. Bay 

Geo. W. Bradford.. 

Adam J. Doll 

Van Kleek 



Andrew Farrell 

Hugh Henderson 

Andrew Vanderze 

Organization abandoned 

Cyrus Wells 

Elijah Pratt , 

Frederick F. Backus 

Stephen Reynolds 

Edward Miller 

David Hasbrouck 

Walter Colton 

Nathaniel Elmer 

Luther Cowen 

Caleb Richardson 

Ira M.Wells 

Charles WTiipple 

W.Noble , 

C. C. Van Dyck 

Thomas Shannon 



D. Moses Blachely 



Wm. Livingston 
Watson Smith... 
John Hatmaker, 



First No. 

of 
Members. 



17 
6 

11 

8 

20 
10 



9 

13 

9 

9 
20 
20 

8 
106 

29 
11 

22 

7 
14 



20 

11 
5 



10 

7 



23 



12 



Present 

No. of 
Members. 



45 

20 



15 

40 

27 
22 
40 
35 
95 



65 

32 
46 
94 
20 
450 

90 
62 

50 

36 
37 



11 



14 

7 



28 
41 
25 



1 The first act regulating the practice of physic and surgery 
in New York wag passed June 10, 1700. It was amended in 
1792 and 1797, and under the latter the judges of State courts 
and courts of Common Pleas and Masters in Chancery were, 
upon proof of two years' study of medicine, authorized to licen.so 
persons to practice as physicians. By the act of 1806, medical 
societies might be formed in each co. by socuring five or more 
members; and where there were loss than five physicians in a 
CO. they might unite with the society of a neifjhbonng co. 

The restrictions upon practice witljout a iliplotna were finally 
abolished in 1844; and the law now inalies no distinction between 
the diffi^rent classes of practitioners. Those, aHsimiing to .lot as 

Ehysicians become responsible for their iiractire, and, if not 
censed by a county or the State Society or regularly graduated 



at a medical school, can collect pay according to the time em- 
ployed, but they cannot collect the specific fees, implying pro- 
fessional skill, which are recognized by the established usages 
of the profession. 

- The number of homeopathic practitioners in the State is 
about 600, of whom l.VJ are in New York and Brooklyn. Tho 
Central, Bond St., and Northern Homeopathic Dispensaries in 
New York, the Homeopathic Dispensary of Brooklyn, the 
Hahnemann Academy of Medicine of New York, and the Homeo- 
pathic Medical Society of Northern N. Y., are sust.iined by this 
class of physicians, and the North American Homeopathic 
Joninal, (nuarterly.) the Homeopathic Review, (mo.,) and the 
Homeopathic, (semi-mo.,) all published at New York, are de- 
voted to their interests. 



150 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Population, Classified hy Color, Political Relation, Nativity, dec, according to the State 

Census of 1855. 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus . 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer .... 

.Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery. 
New York...., 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego , 

Putnam 

Queens , 

Rensselaer ... 
Richmond.... 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady . 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.. 

Wayne 

Westchester . 
Wyoming .... 
Yates 

Total 



5 

3 



103,681 
42,910 
36.650 
39,530 
53,571 
53,580 
27,288 
39,915 
42,482 
44,341 
24,575 
39,749 
60,635 

132,331 
28,539 
25,897 
23,284 
31,532 
31,137 
2.543 
38.566 
65.420 

216,355 
25.229 
37,9-13 
43,687 
96,324 
30,808 

629,810 
48.282 

107,749 
86.575 
42.672 
60,868 
28.435 
69,398 
49,735 
13.9.34 
46.266 
79,234 
21,389 
19,511 
74,977 
49.379 
19,572 
3.3,519 
18,777 
25,358 
69.099 
41.086 
29,487 
26,962 
31,516 
67,936 
19.669 
44,405 
46.760 
80,678 
32,148 
19,812 



3,466,212 



Color. 



102,842 
42,729 
36,135 
39,401 
53,171 
63,271 
26,825 
39.701 
42,351 
43,137 
24,547 
39.655 
58,806 

131,473 
28,403 
25.460 
23,124 
30,948 
30,325 
2,539 
38,394 
65,223 

211.875 
25,186 
37.7.34 
43.362 
95.835 
30,407 

618,064 
47,880 

107,1.34 
86,073 
42,088 
58,720 
28,325 
69,030 
49,518 
13,805 
4.3,216 
78,340 
20,799 
19,014 
74,875 
48,7-37 
19,261 
33,063 
18,701 
2.5,190 
62,557 
39,018 
29,377 
26,732 
31,267 
66,510 
19,589 
44,185 
46,515 
78,750 
32,119 
19,715 



3,420,926 



•8 

eg 



839 
181 
515 
129 
390 
109 
463 
214 
131 
1,254 

28 

194 

1,829 

858 

136 

17 
160 

86 

812 

4 

172 

197 

4,480 

43 
209 
325 
489 
401 
11,840 
402 
615 
502 
5S4 
2,148 
110 
368 
217 
129 
3,050 
894 
59(0 
497 
102 
642 
311 
456 

76 
•168 
408 
1,888 
110 
230 
249 
1,426 

70 

220 

245 

1,928 

29 

97 



45,286 



Political 
Relations. 



18,616 

9,884 

8,282 

8,037 

11,526 

11,912 

6,869 

9,700 

6,374 

9,412 

5,902 

9,065 

12,498 

21,743 

5,652 

4,462 

6,066 

6,477 

6,952 

599 

8,678 

14,206 

32,627 

6,284 

8,136 

9,974 

17,272 

6,786 

88,877 

8,2.57 

20,946 

16,933 

9,147 

11,.301 

5,704 

14,609 

12,177 

3,037 

8,187 

14,933 

3,795 

3,580 

13,984 

10,.377 

3,790 

7,376 

4,377 

5,.395 

14,151 

7,939 

6,727 

6,181 

7,456 

13,197 

4,165 

9,356 

10.205 

14,245 

7,0(54 

4,474 



20,282 
2,032 
2,056 
2,645 
4,863 
4,795 
1,191 
977 
8,404 
3,800 
704 
1,532 
6,861 

37,274 
2,994 
3,739 
1,559 
4,107 
1,522 
168 
3,955 
5,377 

65,536 
2,751 
4,329 
3,232 

22,837 

2,688 

232.678 

10,327 

18,472 

73,549 
4,767 
7.965 
3,813 
7,372 
1,640 
1,216 
8,618 

14,921 
5,078 
3,457 
9,915 
5s748 
2,943 
874 
587 
2,153 
3,605 
3,083 
3,606 
979 
1,160 
9,487 
1,643 
4,822 
4,767 

16,741 

2,827 

942 



652,322 632,746 



Nativities. 



8 



64,705 
32,826 
27,874 
28,918 
40,720 
37,965 
19,983 
32,402 
25,222 
36,500 
19,989 
33,575 
48,073 
66,945 
19,067 
14,583 
19,632 
20,339 
27,338 
1,998 
30,283 
50,103 
94,122 
17,583 
26.141 
34,060 
63,9.39 
25,762 
262,156 
27,763 
68,.302 
57,589 
30,666 
45,3.39 
19.841 
60,731 
42,205 
11,628 
33.092 
51,667 
14,094 
13,512 
47,991 
37,423 
14,696 
31,195 
15,.379 
19,253 
48,737 
34.983 
21,508 
20,760 
25,687 
53,136 
14,632 
32,297 
35,077 
52,036 
22.438 
16,082 



2,222,321 



b? 



70,407 
39.150 
32,921 
34,629 
46,033 
46,444 
24,075 
37,728 
29,279 
39,141 
23,139 
36,072 
50,724 
77,620 
23,799 
19,258 
20,811 
24,920 
28,765 
2,225 
32,607 
66,471 

115,245 
19,669 
31,185 
39,336 
63,048 
26,714 

303,721 
33,206 
76,868 
65,126 
35,639 
49,718 
23,363 
56,895 
46,674 
12,228 
34,800 
57.447 
15,441 
15,030 
69,667 
41,305 
15,217 
32,117 
17,648 
22,498 
56,489 
36,807 
23,185 
25,028 
29,538 
54,735 
17,122 
37,482 
39,380 
57,401 
26,978 
18,277 



2,528,444 






33,247 
3,1.53 
3,225 
4.066 
6,8.54 
6,797 
2,876 
1,747 

13,021 
5,107 
1,380 
3,564 
9,707 

54,2.57 
4,684 
6,622 
2,448 
6,427 
2,261 
310 
5,803 
8,6.30 
100,206 
5,470 
6,549 
4,361 

83,276 

3.880 

322.469 

14,717 

30,354 

20,949 
6,803 

10.761 
4.966 

12,024 
2.770 
1,694 

11,1.35 

21,445 
6.882 
4,436 

15.016 
7,927 
4,303 
1,294 
966 
2,763 
2,196 
4,211 
6,128 
1,597 
1,849 

13,162 
2,479 
6,791 
7,103 

23,132 
5,060 
1,408 



917,708 



^ 






























s.^ 


g 








? !- 










Sfe 




.1 


1 


,c 












^■^ 


e 


«? 


^ 


^ 


N 3 


> 


















g-^ 


Ki 








o 










8,231 


18 


25 


46 


46 


536 


18 


11 


20 


46 


611 


18 


5 


.32 


35 


496 


21 


16 


31 


26 


890 


17 


14 


89 


46 


749 


14 


11 


21 


38 


675 


8 


5 


11 


11 


273 


17 


19 


84 


46 


4,449 


20 


18 


18 


28 


1,069 


20 


11 


34 


28 


245 


7 


13 


25 


34 


283 


18 


6 


29 


25 


1.567 


19 


15 


43 


17 


2.315 


35 


82 


66 


43 


1,164 


7 


10 


15 


21 


1.323 


15 


15 


17 


20 


631 


12 


10 


20 


20 


436 


16 


9 


80 


35 


616 


11 


8 


27 


27 


53 








1 


4 


608 


21 


26 


37 


36 


991 


41 


28 


62 


66 


8.924 


45 


44 


16 


27 


722 


8 


7 


21 


36 


376 


13 


9 


14 


13 


848 


27 


18 


48 


41 


2,105 


27 


30 


56 


30 


625 


26 


14 


14 


•l 


25,858 


411 


316 


656 


52 


976 


11 


14 


25 


24 


3.062 


48 


42 


617 


56 


2.150 


24 


28 


22 


40 


570 


21 


10 


26 


32 


1,241 


18 


14 


42 


36 


736 


13 


4 


10 


11 


1,778 


33 


24 


41 


62 


569 


24 


18 


64 


60 


426 


6 


2 


5 


13 


1,.588 


21 


9 


46 


8 


3,080 


19 


13 


42 


32 


246 


3 


12 


12 


2 


980 


7 


2 


7 


16 


2.272 


26 


23 


39 


51 


1,271 


18 


13 


86 


43 


269 


7 


8 


8 


16 


601 


9 


9 


7 


19 


219 


4 


4 


10 


24 


366 


5 


8 


19 


18 


870 


21 


7 


28 


29 


681 


12 


6 


26 


13 


665 


8 


7 


11 


20 


436 


11 


13 


16 


13 


271 


6 


6 


28 


43 


2,997 


26 


21 


23 


28 


348 


9 


1 


10 


12 


1,0.30 


22 


12 


44 


44 


668 


21 


16 


22 


36 


3,1.30 


14 


20 


56 


41 


266 


17 


11 


21 


30 


281 


9 


16 


13 


23 


96,489 


1,422 


1,136 


2,742 


1,812 



Percentages of the Several Classes to the Total Popidation. 



White males 49.23 

" females 49.47 

Colored males 0.61 

" females 0,69 

Total males 49,84 

" females 50.16 

Single 60.08 

Married 36,15 

Widowers 1.02 

Widows 2.75 

Native voters 14.90 

Naturalized voters 3.91 



Aliens 18,54 

Owners of land 10,41 

Over 21 years who cannot read and 

write 2.78 

Ages under 5, males ■ 6.85 

" fem.ales 6,74 

Aged 6 and under 10, males 5.73 

" " females 5,64 

Aged 10 and under 15, males 5.46 

" " females 6,35 

Aged 15 and under 20, males 4.91 

" " females 5.45 



Aged 20 and under 30, 
Aged 30 and under 40, 
Aged 40 and under 50, 
Aged 50 and under 60, 
Aged 60 and under 70, 



Aged over 70, males.,, 
" females 



males 9,43 

females 10,44 

males 7.28 

females 6.78 

males 4,79 

females 4.39 

males 2.91 

females 2.76 

mulea 1.55 

femaloB 1.56 

0.84 

0.85 



POPULATION. 151 

Summary of Population at different periods in the several Counties, as now organized. 



Counties. 


1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


1814. 


1820. 


1825. 


1830. 


1835. 


1840. 


1845. 


1860. 


1865. 


Albany 


13,717 


25,155 


34,661 
1,443 


33 885 


38,116 
6,520 


42,821 
13,184 


63,520 


59,762 


68.593 


77,268 


93,279 


103.681 1 


Allegany 


2.207 


20.238 


27,295 


30.254 


31.402 


37.808 


42.910 


BriMiiup 


45 


2,730 


6,481 
468 


7.423 


11,100 


13.893 


17,579 


20,199 


22,.338 


25.808 


30.660 


36,660 


Cattaraugus.. 






537 


4,090 


6,643 


16,724 


24,986 


28,872 


30.169 


38.;;5o 


39,530 


Ciiyuga 




16,817 


29,843 


33.609 


38,897 


42.743 


47,948 


49.202 


00.338 


49.663 


55.4.58 


53,571 


Chautauqua... 






2.381 


4,2.^9 


12,568 


20,639 


34,671 


44.869 


47.976 


46.548 


60.493 


53.:',80 


(."liomuiig 


2,931 


1,848 


2,852 


3.115 


4,272 


8,011 


11,502 


14.439 


15,483 


17.742 


21.737 


27.2S8 


Chenango 




6,600 


21,704 


24.221 


31,215 


34,215 


37.238 


40.762 


40.786 


39.900 


40.311 


39,915 


Clinion 


1.036 
27,732 


3,916 
35.322 


8.802 
32,390 


7.764 
3.3,979 


12,070 
38.330 


14.486 
37.970 


19.344 
39.907 


20.742 
40,746 


28.157 
43,252 


31,278 
41.976 


40.047 
43,073 


42,482 
44,341 


Columbia 


Cortland 




982 


8.879 


10.893 


16.507 


20,271 


23.791 


24.168 


24,607 


25.081 


25,140 


24.575 


Delaware 


2.745 


10.228 


20.303 


21,290 


26.5S7 


29,565 


33,024 


34.192 


35,396 


36.990 


39.834 


39.749 


Dutchess 


36,334 


37,909 


41.190 


43,707 


46,615 


46,698 


50.926 


50.704 


52,398 


55,124 


68,992 


60.635 


Krie 


""578 


4;i57 
443 


4.067 
9,477 
2.719 


6,201 
9,949 

2,568 


10,!*34 

13,811 

4.439 


24,316 

15,993 

7,978 


35.719 
19.2S7 
11.312 


57,594 
20.699 
12.501 


62,466 
23,6;U 
16„^)18 


78,635 
25,102 
18.692 


100,993 
31,148 
25.102 


132,331 
28,539 
25,897 




Franklin 




'ifik 


6,931 
12,584 


15.048 

3.660 

19.536 

465 


14.491 

9.435 

20,210 

556 


15.723 
18.578 
22,996 
1.-251 


17,006 

20,708 

26.229 

1,296 


20.4.U 

26,008 

29,525 

1,325 


21.597 

29,145 

30.173 

1.064 


18,049 

28,705 

30,446 

1,907 


18.579 
28,845 
31,9.57 

1,882 


20,171 
28,488 
33.126 

2.188 


23.284 

31,532 

31,137 

2,543 


Genesee 




Hamilton 


Herkimer 


2,827 


10,332 


24.742 


23.725 


31,017 


33,040 


35.870 


36.201 


37,477 


37,424 


38.244 


38,566 


Jellersou 




262 


15.140 


18,564 


32.952 


41,660 


48.493 


53.088 


60,984 


64,999 


68.153 


66,420 


Kings 


41495 


5.740 


8.303 


7.ii58 


11.187 


14,679 


20,535 


32,057 


47,013 


78.691 


138,882 


216,355 


Ijewis 




1,362 


6,433 


6.84S 


9.227 


11,669 


15.239 


16,093 


17,830 


20.218 


24.564 


25,229 


Livingston.... 




2.44S 


10..526 


13.181 


21,006 


26.731 


27.729 


35.683 


42.498 


38.389 


40.876 


37.943 


Madison 




8,030 


25.141 


26,276 


32.208 


35.646 


39,038 


41,741 


40,008 


40.987 


43,072 


43,687 






1,192 


4,0S3 


11.178 


27,288 


39,108 


49,856 


58.085 


64.902 


70,899 


87,060 


96,324 


Montgomery.. 


18,261 


13,015 


23.007 


22.705 


21.846 


22.600 


23.264 


26,108 


■ 35.818 


24,643 


31.992 


30,808 


New York 


33,131 


60,489 


96.373 


95,619 


123.706 


166,086 


197.112 


268,0.89 


312,710 


371.223 


615.547 


629,810 


Niagara 






1.465 


1.276 


7.322 


14,069 


18.482 


26.490 


31,132 


34.550 


42.276 


48,282 




1,891 


20.839 
6.434 


30.634 
25.495 


45.627 
30,020 


60,997 
41,467 


57,847 
48,435 


71,326 
58.973 


77,618 
60.908 


85..no 

67,911 


84,776 
70.175 


99.566 
85.890 


107.749 

86,575 


Onondaga 


Ontario 


1,075 


8.406 


22.088 


22,812 


36.292 


37.422 


40,288 


40,870 


43.501 


42.592 


43,92.) 


42,672 


Orange 


22,809 


29.368 


34,347 
1,164 


34,908 
1,524 


41.213 
5,349 


41,732 
14,460 


46.366 
17,732 


45,096 
22.893 


50.739 
25.127 


52,227 
25,845 


57,145 
28,501 


60,868 
28,4.35 


Orleans 


Oswego 




348 


3.889 


5,382 


12,364 


17,875 


27,1J9 


38,245 


43,619 


48,441 


62.198 


69,.39S 




i,702 


21.636 


38,802 
10.293 


41,587 


44,856 


47,898 


51,372 


50,428 


49,628 


50,509 
13.258 


48,638 
14,138 


49,735 


Putnam 


8.932 


9,830 


9.353 


11.268 


11.866 


12.628 


11.550 


12.825 


13,934 


Queens 


16.014 


16.893 


19,336 


19,269 


21.519 


20,331 


22.460 


26,130 


30,324 


31,849 
62,338 


36,833 


46,266 


Rensselaer 


22.428 


30.442 


36.309 


36.8.33 


40.153 


44,065 


49.424 


55,515 


60,259 


73.363 


79,234 


Richmond 


3.835 


4 563 


5,347 


5..502 


6.135 


5,932 


7,082 


7,691 


10,905 


13,673 


16,061 


21,389 


Rockland 


6,001 


6,353 


7,758 


7.817 


8,837 


8,016 


9,388 


9,696 


11,975 


13,741 


16,962 


19,511 


St. Lawrence. 




454 


7,8S5 


8,252 


16,037 


27,595 


36,354 


42,047 


56,700 


62,354 


68,617 


74,977 


Saratoga 


17,077 


24.483 


33,147 


31,139 


36.052 


36,296 


38,679 


38,012 


40.553 


41,477 


45,646 


49,379 


Schenectady.. 


5.698 


8.8S8 


10.2(15 


11.203 


13,081 


12,876 


12,347 


16.230 


17.3S7 


16,630 


20,054 


19,572 


Schoharie 


2,073 


9,80S 


18.945 


19,323 


2.3.154 


25.926 


27,902 


28,508 


32,358 


32,4SS 


33.548 


33,519 


Schuyler 




266 


3,609 


6.552 


10,411 


13,773 


13,754 


15,163 


16,388 


17,327 


18.519 


18,777 


Seneca 




4,057 


11,306 


13.935 


17,773 


20,169 


21,041 


22.627 


24.874 


24,972 


25.441 


25,368 


Steuben 




1,788 


6.036 


8.983 


18,068 


20,282 


28.012 


34.961 


40,651 


46,203 


58,388 


59,099 


Suffolk 


16,440 


19,464 


21.113 


21.368 


24.272 


23,695 


26.780 


28,274 


32,469 


34,579 


36,922 


41.066 


Sullivan 


1,703 


3,222 


6,108 


6.233 


8.900 


10,373 


12.364 


13,755 


15,629 


18,727 


25.088 


29,487 


Tioga 




2,034 


5.860 


5.188 


7.966 


9,988 


13,425 


16.534 


20,527 


22,456 


24.880 


26.962 


Tompkins 




927 


5,153 


9,816 


22.167 


27,961 


31,333 


32,345 


32,296 


32,264 


32,694 


31,516 


Ulster 


16,297 


21,6.33 


26,576 


26.428 


30.934 


32,015 


36,550 


39,960 


45,822 


48,907 


59,384 


67,936 




1.080 


4,825 


7.565 


7,838 


9.453 


10,906 


11,796 


12,034 


13,422 


14,908 


17,199 


19,669 


Washington... 


20,497 


30,982 


36,724 


36,359 


38,831 


39.280 


42,635 


39,326 


41.080 


40.554 


44.750 


44.405 






1,410 


6,575 


11.220 


20,309 


26,761 


33.643 


37,788 


42,057 


42,515 


44,953 


46,760 


Westchester... 


24.003 


27,347 


30.272 


26.367 


32,638 


33,131 


36,456 


38,789 


48,686 


47,394 


58,263 


80,078 


Wyoming 






2,736 


5,4U 


16.149 


22,307 


29,047 


32.771 


34,245 


30,691 


31,981 


32,148 


Yates 

Total 




1,702 


4,867 


5,434 


18,026 


15,313 


19,009 
1,913,131 


19,796 


20,444 


20,777 


20,590 


19,812 


340,120 


588,603 


961,388 


1.035,910 


1,372,812 


1,614,458 


2,174,517 


2,428,921 


2,604,495 


3,097,394 


3,466,212 



Abstract from the Census of the Indians residing on Reservations in 1855. 



Reservations. 


Where located. 


1 


e 
a 

1^ 
378 

604 

73 

176 

207 

71 

312 
166 


S 
ll 

138 

228 
21 
57 
87 
32 

106 
66 

735 


i 
5 

6 

2 
1 
2 

1 

2 
2 

21 




'?<» • 

242 

200 
52 
73 

132 
54 

153 
91 

997 


N 

•«^ 

100 
200 

80 
60 
34 

464 


s 

§ 

2 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

10 


1 

•2 

s. 

117 

56 
31 
38 

40 
63 

350 


«o p . 

1,714 

3.032i 

354i 

2,063i 

l,425i 

2,515 
3/)92 


^ 


s 
e 

II 

203 

389 
20 
49 
95 
14 

144 

180 


Co 

96 

197 
18 

42 

108 

6 

97 
109 

673 


1 

9 

91 

"44 

"92 
236 


s 

1 


Allegany 

Cattaraugus ".. 

Oneida' 




376 

575 

88 

173 

206 

89 

290 
160 


389 

729 

43 

141 

161 

16 

261 
349 

2,089 


626 

1,054 

36 

142 

142 

32 

409 
464 


Cattaraugus, Erie, k Chau- 
tauqua cos 


Madi.son and Oneida cos 


Onondaga' 

St. Regis" 

Shinnecock 

Touawanda 

Tuscarora. 

Total "* 


Franklin co 


Suffolk CO 


Genesee, Erie, and Niagara 


Niagara co 




1,947 


1,987 


13,867 i 


1,094 


2,805 







" The total number reported was, from neglect of the mar- 
iihal, too small. lu May, 1855, 1,388 were returned as entitled 
to share in annuities. 

' The returns of civil condition are too indefinite to be re- 
lied on. 

• The larger part of this village is in Canada. 



<* In the returns of the last State census 235 Indians (102 males 
and 133 females) not residing on reservations were enumerated 
and reported with the population of the towns in which they 
live. These, added to the numbers in the above table, make 
2,049 males and 2,120 females, or a total of 4,169 Indians re- 
siding in the State in 1S55. 



152 



NEW YOKK STATE GAZETTEER 

Persons engaged in the various Professions, Trades, and Occupations 



Counties. 


1 

01 


S 

S 

c 

■s 


s 

e 

g 

.S » 


t 

IS 

s 
c 

t 

1 


s 

11 
11 

0^ 


a 

s 


Coach and Wagon. 
Malers and }Vheel- 
Wrights. 


i 

204 
52 
87 
52 

148 

121 
50 

103 
30 
33 
46 
48 
90 

311 
32 
27 
43 
53 
36 

53 
144 

533 

59 

102 

101 

519 

34 

1.018 

125 

184 

394 

101 

78 

83 

698 

88 

19 

21 

126 

16 

20 

157 

69 

8 

81 
36 
114 
68 
48 
14 
60 
62 
283 
54 
61 
156 
78 
39 
69 


<5 i 


i 


d 


1 
1 

i 
1 


f 

4 


Albany 

Allegany 


561 
242 
196 
160 
289 
290 
156 
206 
185 
221 
135 
183 
292 
764 
159 
109 
111 
195 
132 

10 
240 
356 
735 

84 
224 
243 
618 
165 
2,611 
230 
570 
451 
268 
340 
153 
303 
332 

92 
189 
404 

80 
133 
319 
208 
132 
160 
113 
125 
335 
149 
164 
139 
172 
352 

79 
237 
226 
342 
162 

117 


869 
218 
177 
163 
335 
298 
126 
200 
182 
252 
159 
183 
351 

1,050 
105 
97 
117 
150 
153 
3 
249 
379 

1,816 
102 
236 
259 
878 
168 

6,745 
235 
726 
560 
243 
299 
157 
338 
281 
133 
285 
555 
86 
178 
329 
183 
149 
161 
89 
133 
264 
231 
127 
146 
169 
270 
63 
269 
265 

1,555 
181 
124 


214 

59 

33 

44 

107 

115 

44 

52 

30 

49 

27 

38 

147 

227 

19 

26 

24 

37 

43 

4I 
95 

466 
29 
76 
73 

183 

27 

2,606 

50 

221 

107 
48 
69 
23 
97 
66 
9 
37 

112 
34 
20 
62 
39 
37 
39 
16 
26 
66 
27 
24 
25 
53 
31 
16 
45 
65 

182 
45 
33 


1,202 
465 
422 
326 
647 
691 
413 
353 
206 
490 
272 
377 
703 

2,023 
223 
212 
297 
382 
234 
14 
404 
763 

2,935 
218 
427 
484 

1,381 
352 

7,204 
441 

1.487 

1,132 
410 
667 
269 
768 
580 
230 
679 
947 
386 
269 
700 
508 
212 
379 
218 
289 
632 
602 
305 
318 
387 
698 
108 
455 
561 

1,389 
324 
212 


1,148 

107 

137 

79 

238 

202 

140 

02 

127 

204 

77 

64 

209 

1,085 

72 

60 

61 

98 

82 

2 

156 

213 

4,708 

54 

145 

136 

668 

103 

13,897 

272 

683 

551 

163 

298 

111 

308 

129 

37 

198 

624 

134 

59 

267 

185 

137 

60 

37 

89 

155 

117 

49 

91 

97 

267 

27 

171 

192 

309 

75 

73 


87 
80 
67 
64 
89 

104 
38 
86 
47 
67 
56 
72 
88 

167 
31 
37 
24 
61 
58 
1 
52 

116 

313 
35 
76 
86 

141 
37 

393 
61 

174 

133 

103 

102 
54 

112 
93 
25 
53 
98 
31 
32 

110 
79 
26 
42 
33 
42 

104 
80 
35 
43 
52 
68 
39 
87 
83 

138 
64 
41 


244 

105 

70 

57 

137 

166 

69 

104 

71 

113 

60 

67 

155 

289 

54 

42 

44 

144 

63 

1 

78 

144 

265 

46 

106 

129 

277 

67 

757 

77 

258 

216 

112 

198 

75 

101 

154 

18 

104 

151 

19 

41 

109 

86 

42 

79 

41 

74 

147 

82 

45 

62 

107 

171 

26 

121 

126 

204 

93 

72 


767 

24 

92 

28 

186 

176 

108 

51 

58 

158 

48 

58 

252 

385 

28 

30 

36 

64 

66 

2 

86 

134 

1,734 

44 

119 

144 

418 

111 

7,436 

87 

483 

265 

82 

298 

118 

147 

167 

36 

132 

480 

8 

41 

98 

87 

94 

41 

27 

72 

64 

213 

32 

35 

82 

164 

14 

119 

146 

322 

60 

82 


5,728 

7,364 

5.851 

6:855 

8.223 

9;249 

2;848 

7,467 

3,925 

5,260 

4,835 

7,448 

5,591 

10,182 

3,782 

4,410 

2,899 

5,507 

4,190 

511 

6,321 

7,000 

476 

4,975 

4,774 

7,019 

7,957 

3,131 

193 

5,505 

11,880 

9,079 

6,333 

5,455 

4,067 

8,667 

9,985 

1,957 

3,598 

5,824 

574 

1,323 

11,427 

5,960 

2,234 

5,372 

3,409 

3,033 

9,696 

3,942 

3.616 

4,145 

6,038 

5,703 

2,088 

7,204 

7,494 

4,239 

6,328 

2,794 


498 
49 
34 
36 
98 
50 
57 
32 
30 
49 
12 
16 
30 

370 
17 
4 
11 
18 
26 

51 

53 

1,199 

5 

46 

9 

265 

106 

4,079 

104 

190 

139 

53 

78 

41 

110 

16 

7 

67 
208 
64 
12 
56 
63 
41 
8 
22 
47 
37 
4 
10 
27 
22 
92 
10 
60 
66 
142 
22 
15 


122 
66 
25 
39 
49 
85 
26 
48 
32 
60 
26 
39 
52 

108 
21 
15 
21 
35 
34 

33 
89 

226 
27 
65 
51 
93 
60 

709 
63 

131 

102 
34 
85 
19 
53 
78 
4 
46 
86 
68 
15 
69 
66 
31 
42 
17 
31 
43 
26 
43 
20 
35 
96 
18 
32 
43 
97 
32 
14 


4,216 

892 

477 

643 

1,362 

1,200 

652 

442 

2,005 

2,021 

250 

571 

2,608 

6,367 

918 

254 

1,156 

1,057 

587 

49 

855 

1,045 

7,044 

564 

2,107 

1,338 

4,901 

1,722 

19,748 

2,592 

4,487 

3,168 

1,259 

2,695 

1,618 

1,976 

642 

539 

2,316 

3,477 

728 

423 

1.349 

1,293 

2,912 

1,613 

174 

608 

629 

1,179 

1,455 

692 

502 

3,451 

520 

1.258 

1.172 

4,151 

320 

491 






Cbantauqua 




Cliutou 

Columbia 

Pnrtlnud 




Dutchess 

Erie 


Essex 


Franklin 

Fulton 








Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kinfira 




Livingston 




Montgomery 


Nia^^ara 










Orleans 




Otse'o 






Rensselaer 




Rockl.ind 


St. Lawrence 


Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

St"uben 

Suftolk 


Tioga 


Tompkins 

Ulster 


Washington 

Wayne 


Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 


16,948 


24,804 


6,656 


40,731 


30,359 


4,810 


7,135 


7,539 


16,939 


1 321,930 


9,056 


3,755 


115,800 



Nativities of the Population of New York. 

The following Table shows the nativities of the population of the State, as reported by the census of 1855 : — 



WTiere born. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Where born. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Npw Vnrk 


2,222,321 
63,091 
57,086 
54.206 
14.941 
11.7.37 
5.818 
40.391 
31.472 


64.077 

1.863 

1.648 

1.565 

.431 

.339 

.168 

1.164 

.907 


Ohio. . 


5,256 

3,413 

1,265 

1,103 

606 

13,124 

183 

922,019 

17,749 


.151 

.098 
.030 
.033 
.017 
.378 
.005 
26.585 
.512 




Michigan 


Ma?;sachu8ett8 


A^'isconsin 


New Hampshire 

Khode Island 


Indiana.. .. 


Southern States 


Other States 


New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 


Forei""n Countries 


At sea and unknown 





PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS. 
in the several Counties, as reported by the State Census of 1855. 



153 















1 








■« 






Jf 














L 








£ 








s 
a 

to 






3 














^ ^ 








•K 






■s, 


*f 


(« 




o 










1 

1 


5 
1 

338 


IS 3 


2 


if 


s 
S 


s s 


*5 

s 
o 

G 

1 


1 


4 

1 


137 


^5 


1 

1,070 


1 

e 
s 


6Q 

1 


S 


07 




212 


468 


634 


88 


183 


399 


174 


178 


103 


136 


64 


354 


162 


92 


400 


52 


28 


82 


184 


59 


64 


39 


85 


23 


46 


45 


11 


156 


74 


171 


43 


20 


24 


46 


28 


133 


200 


56 


50 


65 


68 


26 


134 


45 


22 


185 


110 


136 


31 


32 


9 


33 


22 


54 


137 


34 


37 


27 


74 


11 


59 


29 


4 


112 


56 


99 


27 


17 


14 


73 


151 


192 


176 


96 


99 


132 


114 


73 


77 


73 


17 


428 


45 


158 


31 


39 


98 


67 


90 


108 


226 


62 


111 


88 


125 


41 


145 


55 


12 


309 


72 


239 


36 


50 


60 


46 


52 


128 


93 


45 


68 


71 


62 


22 


66 


36 


8 


203 


44 


100 


14 


23 


20 


54 


19 


68 


104 


40 


63 


46 


77 


17 




43 


2 


156 


63 


124 


4 


23 


24 


36 


71 


86 


170 


34 


32 


28 


44 


18 


57 


39 


7 


105 


35 


86 


115 


10 


11 


65 


80 


105 


216 


71 


77 


98 


83 


43 


65 


39 


15 


271 


24 


155 


47 


35 


148 


20 


8 


57 


99 


51 


42 


36 


49 


8 


12 


33 


4 


117 


34 


11« 


9 


21 


8 


41 


6 


61 


200 


37 


67 


26 


70 


14 


3 


30 


2 


118 


97 


205 


20 


12 


17 


76 


171 


205 


3S5 


124 


67 


166 


103 


42 


104 


53 


8 


2SS 


54 


201 


72 


69 


185 


196 


176 


687 


714 


141 


131 


438 


218 


210 


118 


146 


180 


1,063 


187 


313 


100 


167 


58 


44 


17 


56 


112 


33 


31 


24 


34 


10 


1 


22 


3 


48 


34 


76 


99 


14 


3 


12 


7 


35 


88 


22 


19 


20 


29 


8 


28 


16 


3 


57 


14 


72 


1 


14 


26 


25 


2 


75 


112 


22 


36 


49 


32 


3 


■ •. 


22 


4 


99 


193 


71 


44 


15 


11 


33 


13 


128 


149 


74 


27 


73 


75 


19 


45 


55 


22 


124 


31 


108 


5 


14 


8 


29 


19 


54 


156 


63 


62 


36 


47 


6 


3 


26 


46 


141 


60 


115 


36 


15 


65 


• •> 


3 




6 


1 




... 


1 


... 


... 


1 


1 


3 


43 


10 


13 


1 




33 


52 


99 


123 


63 


61 


52 


62 


20 


23 


51 


32 


152 


111 


125 


23 


26 


47 


1 68 


84 


173 


329 


139 


153 


104 


125 


28 


66 


86 


27 


414 


109 


210 


40 


50 


39 


354 


556 


1,628 


2,649 


37 


411 


1,150 


336 


676 


102 


163 


543 


2,481 


122 


290 


147 


340 


69 


11 


3 


54 


74 


25 


32 


37 


42 


... 


... 


28 


11 


88 


8 


89 


9 


12 


5 


64 


56 


97 


137 


86 


44 


67 


73 


15 


16 


60 


13 


150 


18 


128 


20 


16 


10 


43 


61 


105 


175 


60 


84 


97 


88 


22 


13 


67 


15 


301 


41 


189 


38 


32 


79 


140 


401 


565 


394 


234 


183 


368 


197 


109 


248 


109 


70 


858 


88 


281 


149 


100 


43 


44 


15 


78 


162 


60 


44 


42 


47 


14 


23 


35 


61 


139 


24 


99 


39 


14 


28 


1,112 


1,714 


3,634 


6,001 


130 


1,685 


3,400 


1,252 


1,901 


523 


884 


1,755 


12,609 


228 


1,268 


100 


897 


589 


41 


41 


260 


165 


75 


58 


99 


75 


17 


32 


60 


67 


207 


20 


113 


27 


39 


12 


147 


225 


412 


480 


116 


190 


290 


200 


115 


136 


117 


97 


988 


146 


334 


118 


103 


121 


118 


122 


365 


342 


142 


123 


275 


131 


68 


146 


126 


92 


488 


42 


250 


76 


53 


53 


49 


56 


137 


164 


101 


51 


95 


102 


23 


67 


65 


6 


183 


8 


108 


40 


32 


11 


59 


87 


239 


308 


92 


99 


109 


89 


37 


225 


64 


42 


357 


47 


191 


118 


61 


77 


32 


9 


76 


99 


66 


69 


61 


60 


21 


12 


32 


12 


104 


20 


94 


9 


19 


5 


74 


92 


231 


241 


171 


84 


125 


113 


38 


14 


65 


25 


281 


75 


246 


87 


33 


24 


62 


32 


94 


197 


68 


100 


82 


89 


26 


1 


78 


7 


263 


38 


172 


23 


23 


17 


13 


84 


34 


68 


26 


IS 


25 


12 


1 


12 


9 


18 


54 


2 


44 


21 


12 




36 


76 


174 


187 


45 


25 


105 


49 


17 


12 


40 


16 


157 


2 


125 


2 


78 


86 


99 


301 


330 


529 


77 


108 


226 


121 


46 


424 


90 


55 


512 


98 


232 


210 


70 


18 


35 


7 


137 


217 


12 


3 


81 


17 


35 


2 


9 


18 


79 


11 


36 


8 


20 


2 


12 


72 


62 


67 


14 


18 


40 


23 


7 


87 


25 


9 


88 


6 


36 


... 


25 


11 


86 


40 


120 


245 


79 


91 


82 


61 


23 


87 


67 


10 


216 


54 


243 


17 


39 


19 


54 


105 


89 


218 


45 


68 


90 


101 


37 


62 


30 


19 


160 


29 


141 


28 


21 


74 


30 


189 


63 


120 


8 


52 


51 


37 


11 


96 


15 


4 


216 


12 


56 


16 


7 


12 


39 


13 


81 


138 


61 


63 


33 


68 


10 


2 


32 


2 


147 


28 


159 


9 


18 


12 


18 


12 


48 


69 


42 


39 


33 


46 


10 


2 


26 




107 


32 


96 


21 


3 


12 


33 


97 


67 


107 


58 


54 


55 


49 


6 


14 


26 


IS 


124 


16 


77 


17 


19 


47 


51 


80 


154 


230 


79 


66 


74 


75 


27 


97 


55 


11 


152 


68 


117 


32 


28 


9 


24 


5 


96 


268 


41 


61 


75 


48 


23 


28 


24 


8 


234 


7 


133 


8 


27 


17 


15 


1 


65 


102 


24 


33 


15 


36 


7 


13 


17 


4 


91 


120 


82 


42 


13 


3 


16 


25 


60 


88 


40 


28 


31 


49 


10 


64 


23 


6 


106 


33 


94 


4 


19 


2 


.23 


46 


78 


128 


81 


67 


85 


61 


15 


43 


38 


8 


148 


26 


124 


17 


7 


17 


56 


27 


186 


316 


l02 


73 


95 


76 


30 


3 


47 


96 


326 


163 


154 


133 


35 


24 


12 


6 


33 


59 


15 


16 


20 


32 


4 


29 


15 


10 


52 


90 


62 


11 


5 




62 


36 


97 


202 


49 


99 


86 


76 


16 


30 


61 


34 


214 


36 


148 


62 


31 


23 


43 


44 


161 


186 


67 


103 


83 


116 


14 


39 


86 


21 


257 


45 


203 


17 


49 


7 


127 


113 


525 


631 


54 


102 


304 


114 


62 


121 


58 


314 


437 


30 


303 


108 


87 


241 


36 


14 


72 


147 


55 


42 


53 


69 


13 


28 


56 


9 


127 


34 


114 


4 


20 


8 


21 


9 


41 


82 


45 


37 


35 


39 


13 


8 


32 


6 


126 


20 


95 


6 


8 


9 


4,542 


6,309 


13.781 


20,664 


3.917 


5,802 


10,081 


6.010 


4..3.'39 


4,006 


3,895 


4,076 


29,236 


3,416 


9,959 


2,825 


3,160 


.3,141 



T^e total number of persons reported in 1855 as engaged in pursriits other than the foregoing was 

as follows : — 



Actors 325 

Agents 2.340 

Agri. Implement Makers 386 
Apothecaries and Drug- 
gists 1.438 

Apprentices 1,421 

Arcliitects 261 

Artificial Flower Makers 237 

Artists and Designers 751 

Auctioneers 220 

Authors 5S 

Ax Makers 283 

Bakers 5.136 

Bankers 432 

Bank Officers .^.39 

Barbers 2,142 



Barkeepers 

Basket .Makers 

Bell Founders 

Bellliangers and Lock- 
smiths 

Bellows Makers 

Billiard Makers 

Bill I'osters 

Bird Cage Makers 

Bli^cking Makers 

Block Makers 

Boarding House Keepers 

Boat Builders 

Boatmen and Watermen. 

Boiler Makers 

Bookbinders 



987 
783 



6.59 

24 

5 

7 

7 

32 

391 

1,680 

693 

9,136 

7(18 

2,121 



Booksellers and Station- 


544 
14 

379 

756 
1.176 
1,627 

142 

13 

1,2.33 

183 

622 

1,081 

6,308 

61 

201 


Calico Printers 


28 


ers 


Calkers 


659 


Bottlers 


47 


Box Makers 


Carpet Makers and Deal- 






330 


Brewers and Distillers 


Carters and Draymen 

Carvers and Gilders 


7.350 
1.125 


Bridge and Dock Builders 


32 


Cattle Dealers 


13 






264 


Broom Makers 


Chandlers and Soap 






622 


Builders 


Charcoal Burners and 

Dealers 

Chemists 




Butchers 


556 


Button Makers 


183 


Cadets 


Chimney Sweeps 


Vi 



154 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Professions and Occupations, concluded: — 



Chronomtter Makers 4 

Civil Engineers 249 

Civil Officers 1,427 

Cluck Makers and Re- 
pairers 104 

Clothiers 1,084 

Cloth Manufacturers not 

specified 123 

Coiil Dealers 138 

Coffee, Spice, and Mus- 
tard Makers 25 

Collectors 222 

Comb Makers 229 

Confectioners 1,088 

Contractors 699 

Cool;s 1,424 

Coopers 7,539 

Coppersmiths 409 

Cork Cutters 45 

Cotton Manufacturers.... 75 

Custom House Ofiicers... 346 

Cutlers 249 

Daiiymen and Milk- 
Dealers....! 1,050 

Dealers not otherwise 

specified 1,668 

Dentists 761 

Dock Keepers 54 

Drivers, Coachmen, &c... 3,253 

Drovers 362 

Dyers .and Bleachers 470 

Editors 384 

Electrotypists 11 

Embroiderers 218 

Enanielers 3 

Engineers 3,180 

Engravers 761 

Envelope Makers 29 

Expressmen 422 

Factory Operatives 2,477 

Farriers 160 

Feather Dressers 8 

Ferrymen 6 

File Cutters 358 

Fire Engine Makers 6 

Firemen 416 

Fish Dealers 165 

Fishermen 965 

Fishing Tackle Makers... 14 
Flax Dressers and Work- 
ers 66 

Fortune Tellers and As- 

trologists 4 

Forwarders 274 

Frame Makers 164 

Fringe, Tassel, and Gimp 

Makers 1.55 

Fruit Dealers ,322 

Furnacemeu 1,807 

Furriers 227 

Gamblers 7 

Gardeners and Florists... 3,269 
Gas Fitters and Fixture 

Makers 527 

Gas Makers 132 

Gas Meter Makers 8 

Gatekeepers 499 

Geologists and Mineralo- 
gists 5 

Glass Cutters 80 

Glass Makers 466 

Glass Stainers 52 

Glovers 166 

Glue Makers 37 

Goldbeaters 134 

Gold and Silver Smiths.. 820 
Grate Makers and Set- 
ters 98 



Giindstone and Millstone 

Makers 23 

Gunsmiths 496 

Gutta Percha Manufac- 
turers 3 

Hair Cloth Makers 17 

Hair Workers 89 

Hame Makers 69 

Hardware Dealers 426 

Hat and Cap Makers 2,928 

Hemp Dressers 11 

Horse Dealers 102 

Hose Makers 6 

Hosiers 28 

Hunters 59 

Ice Dealers 152 

Importers 409 

India Rubber Manufac- 
turers 73 

Ink Makers 61 

Inspectors 295 

Instrument Makers 172 

Insurance Officers 319 

Intelligence Officers 3 

Inventors and Patentees 30 

Iron Mongers 44 

Iron Workers 990 

Ivory Black Makers 17 

Ivory Workers 5 

Japanners 73 

Jewelers 2,055 

Junkshop Keepers 321 

Keepers and Wardens of 

Prisons, Ac 284 

Lace Makers 61 

Lampblack Makers 6 

Lamplighters 18 

Lamp Makers 51 

Lapidaries 17 

Last Makers 98 

Lath Makers 11 

Laundresses 3,557 

Lecturers 35 

Librarians 5 

Lighthouse Keepers 30 

Lime Burners 129 

Linguists 10 

Lithographers 176 

Livery Stable Keepers.... 741 
Looking Glass Makers.... 53 
Lumbermen and Dealers 2,933 
Mail Agents and Carriers 231 
Manufacturers (not spe- 
cified) 1,448 

Map Makers 11 

Marlile Dealers 66 

Market Men and Women 205 

Mat and Kug Makers 83 

Match Makers 223 

Matrons of Asylums. Ac . .37 
Mechanics ('not other- 
wise specified) 3,837 

Midwives 47 

Military Equipment Ma- 
kers 5 

Millwrights 1,262 

Mineral Water Makers... 117 

Miners 415 

Model Makers 8 

Modelers 1 

Morocco Dressers 250 

Moulders 3,114 

Mould Makers 42 

Musical Instr. Mannfac. 130 

Music Dealers 37 

Musicians 1,177 

Music Teachers 621 

Nail Makers 433 



Naturalists 10 

Needle Makers 1 

Newsboys 197 

Nurserymen 240 

Nurses 968 

Oculists _ 17 

Oilcloth Makers 133 

Oil Makers 124 

Opticians 63 

Organ Builders 81 

Ostlers 948 

Overseers and Superin- 
tendents 475 

Oyster Men and Dealers., 458 

Packers 112 

Paint and Color Makers.. 21 

Paper Dealers 20 

Paper Hangers 196 

Paper Makers 914 

Paper Stainers 87 

Patent Leather Makers... 10 

Patent Medicine Makers. 59 

Pattern Makers 427 

Pavers 341 

Pawnbrokers 20 

Pearl Workers 4 

Peddlers 4,131 

Pen Makers 61 

Pencil Maker.-i 49 

Perfumers , 35 

Photographers and Da- 

guerreotvpists 389 

Piano Makers 1,076 

Pickle and Preserve Mar 

kers 11 

Pilots 387 

Pin Makers 5 

Pipe Makers 26 

Pla.ster Figure Makers... 41 

Plate Printers 31 

Platers 269 

Plumbers 958 

Pocket Book Makers 212 

Policemen 1,513 

Polishers and Burnishers 578 

Porcelain Makers 12 

Porters 3,916 

Portfolio Makers 6 

Portrait Painters 37 

Postmasters 184 

Pot and Pearl Ash Ma- 
kers 36 

Potters 287 

Powder Makers 27 

Produce Dealers 526 

Professors 188 

Publishers IGO 

Pump Makers 40 

Pursers 10 

Pyrotechnists 22 

Quarry men 1,031 

Ragpicker.s 250 

Razor Strop Makers 5 

Reed Makers 16 

Refiners and Assaj'ers... 91 

Reporters 59 

Restaurant Keepers 288 

Riggers 469 

Roofers and Slaters 175 

Rope and Cord Makers... 663 

Runners 150 

Safe Makers 88 

Sailmakers 563 

Sailors and Mariners 9,720 

Salenitus Makers 15 

Salesmen 723 

Saloon Keepers 871 

Salt Makers 602 



Sandpaper Makers 3 

Sash and Blind Makers.. 1,004 

SaM" Filers 45 

SawMakers 228 

Sawyers 3,724 

Scale Makers 69 

Scavengers 41 

Screw Makers 8 

Sculptoi-s 86 

Sealing Wax Makers 1 

Servants 58,441 

Sextons 147 

Shingle Makers 217 

Ship Carpenters, Mast 

and Spar Makers 3,632 

Shirt and Collar Makers 434 

Shoe Peg Makers 7 

Shot Makers 9 

Showmen 15 

Silk Workers 81 

Soldiers and Military 

Officers .". 709 

Speculators 487 

Spinners 463 

Spring Makers 26 

Stage Proprietors 174 

Starch Makers 40 

Stave Makers 20 

Steel Makers 9 

Stereotypers 47 

Stevedores 280 

Stewards 281 

Storekeepers 1.120 

Stove Makers 160 

Straw Workers 131 

Students , 4,184 

Sugar Refiners 144 

Surgeons 48 

Surgical Instr. Makers... 38 

Surveyors 382 

Telegraph Operators 258 

Tobacconists 3,744 

Tool Makers 404 

Toy and Fancy Dealers 

and Makers 164 

Traders 115 

Trimmers 308 

Turners 909 

Turjjentine Makers 5 

Type Cutters 21 

Type Founilers 155 

Umbrella Makers 374 

Undertakers 213 

Upholsterers 1,106 

Yarnish Makers 267 

Yictualers 57 

Vinegar Makers 25 

Watchmakers and Re- 
pairers 813 

Watchmen 412 

Wax Bleachers 2 

Whalebone Workers 122 

Whip Makers 51 

White Lead Makers 46 

Wliitewashers 262 

Window Shade Makers... 31 

Wine and Liquor Dealers 749 

Wire Drawers 15 

Wire Workers 91 

Wood Cvitters 240 

Wood Dealers 75 

Wooden Ware Makers.... 41 
Wool Carders and Comb- 
ers 282 

Wool Dealers 49 

Woolen and Worsted 

Workers 147 



ALBANY C0U:N^TY. 




This was an original county; formed Nov. 1, 1683, and confirmed 
Oct. 1, 1691.1 

Tryon and Charlotte (now Montgomery and Washington) counties 
were taken off in 1772, Columbia in 1786, Kensselaer and Saratoga in 
1791, a part of Schoharie in 1795, a part of Greene in 1800, and Sche- 
I nectady in 1809. The Manor of Rensselaerwyck was erected into a dis- 
trict March 24, 1772, and subdivided into east and west districts soon 
after the Kevolution. The county lies on the west bank of Hudson 
lliver, about 150 miles from its mouth, and contains an area of 544 
square miles. Its surface is undulating and hilly, and it has a general 
inclination toward the southeast. A narrow intervale extends along 
the course of the river, bounded by a series of steep bluffs from 100 to 180 feet high, from the sum- 
mits of which an undulating and slightly ascending plateau stretches westward to the foot of the 
Helderbergh^ Hills, where it reaches an elevation of about 400 feet above tide. This range of hills 
rises from 400 to 800 ftet above the plateau, and 800 to 1200 feet above tide. Their declivities are 
very steep, and sometimes precipitous, on the east, but more gradually sloping upon the west. 
Several other ranges of hills, inferiorto them in height, extend in a general northerly and southerly 
direction through portions of the county. The highest point is the summit of theHeldorberghs,in 
the northeast corner of the town of Bern, and is 1200 feet above tide. All these ranges of high- 
lands may be considered as outlying spurs of the Catskills, which, in turn, are but a northerly 
continuation of the Allegany Mountains, and a part of the great Appalachian system. 

The geological formations of this county belong to the Upper Silurian system, and comprise 
nearly all the rocks of the " New York System," from the Utica slate to the corniferous limestone. 
Above the rocks, in the eastern part of the county, are thick deposits of drift, consisting of sand, 
gravel, and clay; and along the river intervales are rich alluvial deposits. The lowest rock, 
cropping out on the Hudson, Normans Kil, and Mohawk, is the Utica slate. Next above is the 
graywacke and shales of the Hudson lliver group, appearing in the valleys of all the streams 
that flow into the Hudson, and apparently underlying the entire eastern part of the county. This 
stone is quarried for building stone and flagging.* The red rocks that form the base of the 
Helderberghs evidently belong to the Medina sandstone series, though they have sometimes been 
confounded with the red shales of the Onondaga salt group. Next above, forming the first terrace 
of the mountains, is the water-lime group, from 50 to 200 feet in thickness, furnishing both water 
and quick-lime. Next in order is the pentamerus limestone, 50 feet in thickness, consisting of 
impure gray and black limestone mixed with slate and shale. Overlying this is the Catskill lime- 
stone, from 50 to 180 feet in thickness, consisting of thick, compact masses of limestone alternating 
with thin layers of shale. It is used for building stone and lime. The Oriskany sandstone is 
next developed, in a strata only 2 feet in thickness, followed by the cauda-galli grit, from 50 to 
60 feet in thickness. This last has a fine grit, and resembles black or gray slates, but is easily 
disintegrated, and crumbles upon exposure to the air. Next in order come the Onondaga and 
corniferous limestones, the latter crowning the summits of the mountains. These rocks furnish 
both a superior quality of lime and an excellent building stone. The surface of the eastern 
part of the county is covered with immense beds of clay, gravel, and sand. The highlands west 
of Albany City are covered 40 feet deep with sand, which rests upon a bed of clay estimated to be 
100 feet deep. In this drift are found small beds of bog ore and numerous chalybeate and sul- 
phuretted springs. In the limestone regions are numerous caves, sink holes, and subterranean 
water courses, forming a peculiar and interesting feature of the county. 

The principal streams are, — the Hudson lliver, which forms the eastern boundary ; the Mohawk, 
which forms a part of the northern boundary ; the Patroon Creek, Normans Kil, Vlamans, Coey- 



1 The county by these acta embraced " the Manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck, Schenectady, and all the villages, neighborhoods, 
and Christian plantations on the east side of Hudson's River, from 
RoelotTe Jansen's Creek ; and on the west side, from Sawyer's 
Creek to the outermost end of Saraghtoga." Tlie Manor of Liv- 
ingston was annexed to Dntchess co. May 27, 1717, and by sub- 
ie(iuent statutes the county of Albany was also made to com- 



prise every thing within the colony of New Tork north and west 
of present limits, and at one time the whole of Vermont. 

« Signifying "Clear Mountain," from the fine prospect from 
their summit. 

« Several of the intermediate series of rocks, including tiiB 
gray sandstone, CI inton, Niagara Falls, and Onondaga salt groups, 
are not found in the county. 

155 



156 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



mans, Haanakrois, and Catskill Creeks, and their branches. Nearly all the streams that flow into 
the Hudson have worn deep gulleys in the sand and clay. Many of these gorges are 100 feet deep, 
and extend from one-fourth of a mile to one mile from the river. The streams farther west gene- 
rally flow through narrow, rocky ravines bordered by steep banks. These streams are mostly 
very rapid, and subject to extremes of flood and drouth. There are several small lakes among the 
hills, but none of special importance. 

The soil upon the intervales is a deep, rich alluvial loam. In "Watervliet, Albany, and the 
eastern parts of Guilderland and Bethlehem, it consists of almost pure sand, with strips of clay 
alone- the banks of the streams. A belt of land lying between the sandy region and the foot 
of the Helderberghs is principally a clayey and gravelly loam, and very productive. Upon the 
Helderberghs the soil consists of alternate layers of clay, slate, and gravel, generally with a sub- 
soil of tenacious clay called " hard-pan." Patches in this region are also stony, and much of it 
is wet and cold, and only moderately productive. Pitch pine, oak, and chestnut are the principal 
kinds of timber that grow upon the sandy region. In the most barren parts these trees are 
mere dwarfs, and the region has much the appearance of a desert. In the southeast corner of 
the county is a limited amount of red cedar. West of the sandy tract are found the usual trees 
of this northern climate, including both the deciduous and evergreen.^ 

In the farming districts the people are principally engaged in raising spring grains, dairying, 
the raising of stock, and in gardening for the markets of Troy and Albany. The people of Albany, 
West Troy, and Cohoes are principally engaged in manufactures and commerce. 

The city of Albany is the county seat and State capital. The county buildings are commodious, 
and the county institutions are well organized. The City HalP at Albany, erected at the joint 
expense of the city and county, contains the principal city and county offices. The Albany County 
Penitentiary' is a fine building in the western part of the city. Persons convicted of certain 
crimes, and sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, are confined here ; and prisoners are re- 
ceived from Dutchess, Columbia, Rensselaer, Washington, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties. 
The county has no poor-house, but contracts with the city for the support of its paupers. 

Albany is 145 miles above New York, upon the Hudson. The tide rises about one foot in the 
river.* In low water, navigation is obstructed, except for vessels of light draught, by the " over- 
slaugh," or bar, near Castleton, and at other points ; and considerable sums have been expended in 
attempting to deepen the channel, by dredging, and building a long stone dike below Albany.' 
The most important works of internal improvement in the county are, — the Erie Canal,® the New 
York Central, and the Albany, Vermont, and Canada Railroads, all terminating in the city of 
Albany. Connected with these lines, and terminating at Greenbush, directly opposite Albany, are 
the Hudson River, Albany and West Stockbridge,^ Harlem, and Troy and Greenbush Railroads. 
A company has been chartered to build a r. r. from Albany in a s. w. direction to Binghamton, 
and the work upon it is now in progress. A pier has been built in the river in front of Albany, 
for the benefit of navigation,® 

Hendrick Hudson is supposed to have ascended the river as far as Albany in 1609. During the 
next three or four years, several Dutch traders commenced a traffic with the Indians, and small 
trading houses were built at Manhattan and Albany. In after years these stations were fortified, the 
one to protect from invasion by sea, and the other against incursions from the French settlements 
in Canada. The principal military work at Albany (built in 1623) was known as Fort Orange. 
The station at Albany remained a mere trading post until 1630, when agricultural improvements 
began. The Dutch West India Co. was formed in 1621, for promoting settlement in " New Nether- 
lands," as the Dutch possessions in America were then called. In 1629, this company granted to 
Killian Van Rensselaer, one of the commissioners, (a pearl merchant of Amsterdam,) a charter 
conferring upon him privileges similar to those enjoyed by the feudal barons of Europe.' His 



1 A geological and agricultural survey of Albany co. was made, 
in 1820, by Dr. T, Komeyn Beck, for the Co. Ag. See, and was 
the first enterprise of the Itind in the state. — Mevi. Bd. Ag., i. 367. 

2 See page 160. 

8 This penitentiary was built in 1845-46, and opened for 
prisoners in April, 1846. It was organized under the direction 
of Amos Pilsbury, in 1848, and has since continued under his 
direction and that of his sou, Louis 1). Pilsbury. It has 300 
cells, and the average number in confinement has been 220. The 
convicts are principally employed in the manufacture of cane- 
Beat chairs and saddlery hardware. During the first 8 years the 
total receipts were $115,082, and the total e.xpenditures $104,680. 

* The tide rises here 6h. 34m. behind time of the moon's 
Bontbing. 6 Senate Doc. 40, 1857, 2>. 171. 



* The Erie Canal terminates in a basin at Albany, and com- 
municates with the Hudson at West Troy. It crosses the Mohawk 
River, above Cohoes Falls, upon a stone aqueduct. A company 
has been incorp. for building a ship-canal from Albany to New 
Baltimore, a point below the bars which obstruct navigation. 

' Leased by the Western (Mass.) R. R. Co. 

' The pier is built across a curve in the west shore, and opens 
into the river at both ends. It is divided for the accommodation 
of the railroad ferries, and isl^ miles long. It was formerly closed 
by locks. The basin inclosed witliin the pier affords a secure 
harbor, during winter, for river vessels and canal boats, which 
otherwise would be exposed to destruction from ice. The pior 
is owned by an incorporated company. 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



157 



agents' made largo purchases of land lying on both sides of the Hudson, near Albany,* in 1G30-37, 
at which last date the manor embraced a territory 24 mi. n. and s. and 48 mi. e. and w., including 
nearly all of the present counties of Albany and Rensselaer.' By the terms of the grant the 
charter would be forfeited unless the lands were settled in 7 years by at least 50 persons over 15 
years of age. A ship load of emigrants was forwarded in 1630, and others in each of several suc- 
ceeding years. The emigrants were furnished with stock, seeds, and farming implements, and 
the land was leased at an armual rent, payable in grain, beeves, and wampum, or a share of the 
products.* The proprietor received the title of Patroon, and in him was vested authority in 
civil and military affairs subordinate only to the West India Co. and the States General. He had 
his forts, soldiers, cannon, and courts of justice ; and, although the laws allowed an appeal from 
the decisions of the local courts, he required every person who settled within his jurisdiction to 
pledge himself never to exercise this right. Altercations soon arose between the agents of the 
patroon and the oflBcers of the garrison at Fort Orange, in regard to the land immediately around 
the fort; and the controversy was not settled until after the English conquest.* The settlement 
formed under Van Rensselaer gradually acquired importance as a trading post, and a considerable 
hamlet was built under the guns of Fort Orange.* Mills were built on several of the streams, and 
a church was erected. By the surrender of the colony to the English, in 1664, the personal rights 
of the colonists were secured, and a new charter was granted to the patroon, restricting his civil 
power, but confirming the relations existing between landlord and tenant.' The feudal tenure was 
finally abolished in 1787.' 

The leasehold tenures, from an early period, excited discontent among the tenants.' The late 
patroon, by his indulgence, had secured their regard ; and when he died, in 1839, the course that 
would be pursued by his successor became a matter of solicitude. A committee of respectable 
men, appointed by the tenants to wait upon him and confer upon subjects of mutual interest, were 
treated with marked coldness and disdain, which quickly led to the organization of armed resist- 
ance to the enforcement of civil processes in the collection of rent. In Dec. 1839, the excitement 
was so great in the w. part of the county, that the Governor issued a proclamation, and sent an 
armed force to assist the civil officers. The people finally dispersed, and no collision ensued. For 
many years the anti-rent question greatly excited the public mind in all sections of the State 
where the leasehold tenure prevailed.'" Within a few years, much of the land has been conveyed in 
fee to the lessees ; and probably in a few years the whole question will be amicably arranged in 
this manner.'' There are 17 newspapers and periodicals now published in the county.''* 



1 Jansot Krol and Derick Cornelissen Duyster, commissary 
and under commissary at Fort Orange. 

2 The tract first purchased, w. of the Hudson, extended from 
Beeren (Bear) Island — called by the Indians " Passapenock" — 
up to Sneackx Island, and "of a breadth of two days' jour- 
ney." 

* On the 1st of Oct. 1630, a copartnership was formed between 
Tan Rensselaer on the one part, and Saml. Godyn, Johannes de 
Laet, Saml. Bloemmaert, Adam Bissels, and Toussaint Moussart 
on the other, by which the latter were constituted co-directors 
of Rensselaerwyck, and were bound to do homage and fealty to 
the lord of the manor. 

* The patroon reserved the right to trade with the Indians. 
For several years this trade was carried on by the settlers, who 
received goods from the patroon's store, and sent the peltries 
which they received to be sold by him in Holland. This busi- 
ness afterwards fell into the hands of local traders. 

5 So active did this controversy become, that at one time Gov. 
Stnyvesant sent an armed force to Albany to support the rights 
of the company against the proprietor. 

6 This place soon became the seat for holding all great councils 
with the Indian tribes. Among the curious things mentioned 
in the annals of the " old colonie" is the fact that, during an almost 
unprecedented freshet in the spring of 1646, a whale 40 feet long 
came up the river and stranded on an island near the mouth 
of the Mohawk. Four others stranded the same season, 40 
Dutch mi. above New Amsterdam. 

1 For a concise view of the changes made by this charter, see 

Barnard's Hist. Sketch of Rensselaerwyck, p. 107. 
8 The manorial title has descended as follows : — 

KiLLiAN Van Rensselaer, first Patroon, died in 1647, at Amster- 
dam, leaving the property with his two sons. 

Johannes and Jeremiah. Each of these had a son named 
KiLLiAN, the former of whom died without issue in 1687, 
leaving the title with 

KniilAN, son of Jeremiah. Dongan's patent was confirmed to 
the two cousins Nov. 5, 1685, and all other claimants 
released to the survivor in 1695 ; to whom also Queen 
Anne's patent of confirmation was granted May 20, 
1704. He willed the property to his son, 

Jbeemiah, and to the male heirs of his body ; but, dying without 
iasue, the title passed to his younger brother, 



Stephen, who had a son (sole heir under the will above men- 
tioned,) named 
Stephen, who died in 1769, leaving the title with 
Stephen, the late patroon, who was bom in 1764, and died 
in 1839. The entail ended with this person, who, in his 
will, gave the w. part of the manor to his son, Stephen, 
the present proprietor, and the e. part to his son, 
WiLUAM P., of New York. 

9 The " Quarter Sales," as they were technically called, h 
which the landlord claimed a part of the purchase money at 
each transfer of a lease, was particularly obnoxious. In 1850 
the Quarter Sales were declared unconstitutional by the Su- 
preme Court. 

10 This movement led to the adoption of Art. 1, Sec. 14, in tht. 
constitution of 1846, prohibiting the lease of agricultural lands 
for a longer period than 12 years. 

11 The relative amount of the land held by lease and in fee in 
the county is now nearly as follows :— In Watervliet, nearly all 
held in fee; in Guilderland, three-fourths; in Bethlehem, Coey- 
mans, and New Scotland, two-thirds ; in Knox, Rensselaerville, 
and Westerlo, half; and in Bern, one-third, — the remainder 
being held by lease. 

12 The following list is imperfect, but is supposed to include 
all the more important newspapers ever published in the Co 
Wo are indebted to Joel Munsell, printer, for assistance, and tho 
use of his immense collection of specimen numbers, in the prepa- 
ration of this class of statistics. 

The Albany Gazette was first issued in Nov. 1771, by Alex, and 
James Robertson, who joined the loyalists in N. Y. in 
1776. 

The New York Gazetteer or Northern TnteMgencer, m 1782, by 
Solomon Balantine and Charles R. Webster. In 1784 
the name was changed to 

The Albany Gazette, and in 1788 a semi-weekly edition was 
issued. In March, 1817, united with the Albany Daily 
Advertiser, and took the name of 

The Albany Gazette and Daily Advertiser, continued until 1845 

The Albany Journal, or Mmitgomery, Washing/on, and Colum- 
bia Intelligencer, semi-w. in winter and w. in summer 
was started in Jan. 1788, by Chas. R. & Geo. Webstjer, 
and published in connection with the Gazette. 

The Albany Daily Advertiser, Sept. 1815, by Theodore Dwight 



158 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



In 1817 W. L. Stone united it with tlie Albany Gazette. 
The American Journal of Sciena' and Art. Thos. McKee, editor. 
The Albany Register was published by John Barber from 1788 

till 1808, aod bv S. Southwick till 1817. 
The Federal Herald, by Claxton & Babcock, brought from 

Lansingb'gh in Feb. 17S8, and again returned thither. 
The Albani/ Centinrl, senii-w., 1796. In Nov. 1806 changed to 
The Republican Crisis. Backus & Whiting and Isaac Mitchell 

were Buccessively publishers. 
Thi Albany Chronicle was commenced in 1797 by John McDo- 
nald. Joseph Foy and Henry C. Southwick were after- 
ward its editors. It was discontinued in 1799. 
The Guardian, 1807. Van Benthuysen & Wood, 2 years. 
The Balance, and New York Slate Journal, semi-w., 1808-11, 

Croswell & Frary ; removed from Hudson. 
The Albany Republican was started in April, 1812, by Samuel 

K. Brown. — Romaine succeeded the next year, and after 

several years it was merged in the Saratoga Patriot. 
The Stranger, 1813-14, 8vo. John Cook, pub. 
The Albany Argus was established as a semi-w., tri-w., and w., 

Jan. 1, 1813, by Jesse Buel; and d., semi-w., and w. 

editions were issued in Oct. 1825. Edwin Croswell was 

many years its publisher. Feb. 15, 1856, merged in 
The Atlas and ArgiiS; da., semi-w., and w. Comstock & 

Cassidy, pub. 
The Albany Atlas, da., semi-w., and w., was started in 1841 by 

Vance & Wendell ; in 1856 it was united with the Argus. 
TJie Christian Visitant, 4to, was begun June 3, 1815, by S. 

Southwick, and continued 2 years. 
The Friend. 8vo, mo., was begun in 1815 by D. & S. A. Abbey. 

1 vol. published. 
The Statesman, pub. by — Carter; removed to N.Y. in 1818. 
The Plough Boy was started 1819, by Solomon Southwick, 

under the nom de plume of Henry Homespun. 
The Albany Microscope, 1820, by Chas. Galpin, continued till 1842. 
The National Democrat, published at Albany and N.Y., was 

started in 1823 by Wm. McDonald, and continued 1 year. 
2%€ Religious Monitor, mo., was commenced in May, 1824, by 

Chauncey Webster. It is now published in Philadelphia. 
The Escritoire, or Masonic and Miscellaneous Album, was started 

in 1826 by E. B. Child. Its name was changed to 
The American Masonic Record, and was pub. by E. B. Child for 

4 or 5 yrs. 
The American Masonic Register was pub. 5 y. by L. G. Hoffman. 
The National Observer, w. and semi-w., was started in 1826 by 

Geo. Galpin, and continued 4 years : S. Southwick. ed. 
The Albany Telegraph and Christian Register was started in 

1826, and in 1827 
The Albani/ Christian Register, L. G. Hoffman, pub,, and J. R. 

Boyd, ed., May 10,' 1827. 
77ie Albany Daily Chronicle was started April 22, 1826, and 

published a short time by Galpin & Cole. 
The Comet was begun Aug. 4, 1827. D. McGlashan, ed. 
The Standard was published in 1827 by Matthew Cole. 
Signs of the Times was started Oct. 13, 1827, and discontinued 

Nov. 8, 1828. D. McGlashan, pub., S. De W. Bloodgood, ed. 
The Antidote was pub. in 1827. Webster & Wood, pub., S. 

Southwick, ed. 
The Morning Chronicle, da., and The Albany Chronicle, semi-w., 

were published in 1828 by Beach, Denio, & Richard. 
The Age was published in 1828 by Galpin & Sturtevant. 
The Albany Times and Literary Writer was started Dec. 27, 

1828, by Jas. McGlashan; Bloodgood & Van Schaick, eds. 
The Albanian, semi-rao., was started Jan. 30, 1828, by Arthur 

N. Sherman. 
The Albany Minerva was published in 1828 by J. Mnnsell. 
Tlie Albany Evening Journal was commenced 

March, 1830. It was published by B. D. Packard & Co., 

Tliurlow Weed, ed. A w. and a semi-w. journal are 

now issued from this office by Weed, Dawson & Co. 
The Farmers, Mechanics, and Working Men's Advocate, da., was 

started in 1830 by Mcl'herson & McKereher. The fol- 
lowing year it appeared as 
The Daily Freeman's Advocate, and Farmers, Mechanics, and 

Working Men's Champion, and was pub. 1 or 2 yrs. 
The Albany Bee, da., was started in April, 1830, by J. Duffey, W. S. 

McCuUoch. and Charles Angus. 
The Temperance Recorder, mo., was published in 1831 by the State 

Temperance Society. 
The Albany Quarterly, 8vo. Commenced in 1832 by the Alb. 

Hist. Soc. Jas. R. and Sam'l. M. Wilson, eds. 1 vol. pub. 
The Daily Craftsman was removed from Rochester in 1831. 

E. J. Roljerts & Henry James, publishers. 
American Temperance Intelligencer, mo., was started in Jan. 1834. 
T/ie Silkworm, 8vo, mo., begun May, 1835. The 3d vol. was 

changed to 
The Silk Worm and Sugar Manual, devoted in part to sugar 

beet culture. It was discontinued in 1838. 
The American Quarterly Hemp Magazine was commenced Feb. 

1833. 2 vols, published. 
The Albany Transcript, da., the first penny paper in Albany, was 

started Oct. 12, 1S35. 
The Albany Bout/uet and Literari/ Spectator, mo., was published 

in 18.35 by Geo. Trumbull. 
The Albany Whig was commenced in 1834, by J. B. Van Schaick 

& Co., as the weekly of Tlie Daily Adverti.ier. It was 

soon merged ia The Albany Gazette, a semi-w. paper 

issued from the same o£Sce. 



The Common School Assistant, mo., was published in 1836 by J. 
Orville Taylor. 

The Associate Presbyterian Magazine, 8vo, mo., Kev. P. Bul- 
lions, ed. Pub. from 1838 to 1842. 

Southwick's Family Newspaper was published in 1838. 

The Jeffersonian was published by Horace Greeley during the 
campaign of 1838. 

Tlie Cultivator, mo., was commenced in March, 1839, by 
Jesse Buel. It was afterward published by W. Gaylord 
and L. Tucker, and now by L. Tucker & Son. 

The Tomahawk and Scalping Knife was published a short time. 

The Albany Patriot was started in 1840 by Jas. C. Jackson, 
and continued 4 years. 

The Unionist, da., was published by J. Mnnsell, and 

The Rough Hewer by Theo. M. Burt, during the campaign of 
1840. 

The District School Journal, mo., was established at Geneva in 
1840, Francis Dwight, ed. Removed to Albany in 1841, 
and continued by the State School Dep. until 1862. 

The Examiner was published in 1841 by G. Galpin. 

The American Magazine, 8vo, mo., started in 1841 by J. S. & B. 
Wood. 3 vols. pub. 

The Irishman was published seven weeks In 1842 by H. 
O'Kane, J. Mnnsell, printer. 

The New Tm-k State Mechanic was started in 1842 by J. 
Mnnsell, and continued eighteen months. 

The Northern Star and Freeman's Advocate was started in 
1842 by J. G. Stewart and Charles S. Morton. 

The Sunday Tickler was piiblished in 1842 by C. W. Taylor. 

The Albany Switch was commenced in 1842 by H. J. Hastings. 
In 1855 Edward Leslie became its editor. 

The Youth's Temperance Enterprise, mo., started Nov. 13, 1842, by 
J. Stanley Smith, ed. and pub., and continued 3 years. 

The American Citizen, da. and w., was started in 1843 by Stone 
& Henley, and ed. by J. S. Smith. 

The Albany Knickerbocker, da. and w., was com- 
menced in 1843 by H.J. Hastings, and is still continued. 

The Albany Daily Patriot was publi.'shed in 1843 by C. T. Torry 

The Subterranean was started Mar. 23, 1843, by Jas. Duffey. 

The Albanian, da., was published in 1844. 

The Albany Religious Spectator was started in 1844 by J. Mnn- 
sell and E. H. Pease. The next year it passed into the 
hands of B. F. Romaine, who continued it until 1857. 

The Birney Advocate, semi-mo., was pub. during the campaign 
of 1844 by E. W. Goodwin. 

The Anti-Renter was started by Thos. A. Devyr Aug. 16, 1845. 

27(6 Albany Freeholder was started April 9, 1845, by Thos. 
A. Devyr, and continued until 1854. 

The American Quarterly Journal of Agricrdture and Science, 
Svo, was commenced Jan. 1845, by E. Emmons and A. 
T. Prime. .Jan. 1846 it was pub. monthly by E. Emmons 
and A. Osborne. It was sold to Ch. Bement in 1848, 
and discontinued in Dec. of the same year. 

The Gavel, mo., published in 1845 from Munsell's press. 

The Scourge was published in 1845 by Woodward & Packard. 

The Vesper Bell, da., a few numbers pub. by Abbott & Crosby. 

The Albany Herald, da. and tri-w., was commenced in 1846 br 
A. B. Van Olinda, and in Dec. it took the name of 

I'he Morning Telegraph, and in March, 1847, of 

The Statesman, edited by W. M. Watson. 

The Balance was published in 1846. 

The Mechanics' Advocate, 1846, J. Tanner, pub., continued 1 yr 

The Mechanics' Journal, 1846, Munsell & McFarlan, pub., wa? 
issued 1 year. 

The Horticulturist, and Journal of Rural Art and Rural 
Taste, was commenced in July, 1846 : A. J. Downing, 
ed., L. Tucker, pub. The 8th vol. was removed to 
Rochester. In 1856 it was pub. at Philadelphia by R. 
P. Smith ; John J. Smith, ed. In .Jan. 1858 removed to 
N.Y.; Saxton, pub., J. J. Smith, ed. 

Tlie Mechanics' Mirror, Svo, was published in 1846 from Mun- 
sell's press. 

The Son of Temperance and Rechabite, Svo, mo., was pub. in 
Aug. 1846 by J. Stanley Smith & Co. 

The Albany Castigator was issued in 1847 by M. J. Smith. 

The American Literary Magazine, mo., started July, 1847, T. 
Dwight Sprague, pub. ; removed to Hartford, June, 1848. 

The Christian Pidladium, J. Hazen, ed., was brought from Fulton 
CO. in 1847 or '48, and removed to Irvington. N.J.,Oct. 1855. 

The Busy Bee, E. Andrews, ed., was pub. from 1848 to 18^0. 

The Odd Fellows' Literary Magazine was pub. in 1848. W. K. 
Cole, ed. 

The Telegraph and Temperance Journal, mo., was commenced 
in 1848 by S. Myers, and continued 4 years. 

The Daily Artiz'jn was pub.a short tinie in 1H49 by Tanner & Stow. 

The Albany Daily Messenger was pub. 1849 by B. F. Koniaine