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A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making 
of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation 

Under the Editorial Supervision of 


Corresponding Secretary of The Maryland Historical Society; Author of 

"Carlyle Family"; "Thomas Family of Talbot County, 

Maryland, and Allied Families," etc., etc. 








R i25 L 





JOHNS HOPKINS, founder of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
* versity, was born in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, May 
19, 1794. His given name, Johns, came from the old Mary- 
land family of that name, of which he was a descendant. He- 
was of Quaker ancestry on both sides. His father, Samuel 
Hopkins, was a farmer. His mother, Hannah (Janney) Hop- 
kins, of the Virginia Janney family, was a woman of superior 
intellect and will, and a guiding spirit of the Baltimore yearly 
meeting of Friends. 

Johns Hopkins spent his youth on the farm, attending 
school in winter. At the age of seventeen he went to Balti- 
more with his uncle, Gerard T. Hopkins, to learn the grocery 
business. He developed ability, and when nineteen, the uncle 
left the young man in charge of the business. The British 
army was then in the neighborhood, but the young man in- 
creased the business, notwithstanding the excitement and de- 
rangement caused by the war. At the age of twenty-four he 
had saved eight hundred dollars, and went into business for 
himself, with his uncle's indorsement, renting a small store 
and forming a partnership with Benjamin P. Moore, under 
the firm name of Hopkins and Moore. The firm was dis- 
solved in 1822, and he associated with himself two of his 
younger brothers, under the name of Hopkins and Brothers. 
After remaining in this business for twenty-five years, and 
having extended it into Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
and adjoining States, Mr. Hopkins retired in 1847, leaving 
it in the hands of his brothers and two of their clerks. 

Mr. Hopkins continued to manifest great interest in the 
commercial life of the city of Baltimore. After the resigna- 
tion of James Swan, he was elected president of the Merchants' 
Bank of Baltimore, and filled this position until his death. 
md. 22 


Here he had many opportunities to favor young business men; 
he aided those who showed the qualities of diligence, good 
sense and integrity, and the liberality with which he thus lent 
his credit to firms and individuals entitled him to general 
gratitude. He was a stockholder in the First National, the 
Mechanics', Central, National Union, Citizens' and the 
Farmers' and Planters' banks. He was a director of the Mer- 
chants' Mutual Marine Insurance Company, and a large stock- 
holder in the George's Creek Coal Company and the Mer- 
chants' and Miners' Transportation Company. He was a 
large stockholder in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, be- 
came a director in 1847, in 1855 was made chairman of the 
finance committee, and was instrumental in sustaining the 
credit of the company and in insuring the completion and suc- 
cess of the road. When the road was embarrassed prior to 
1857, because of internal dissensions and the financial crisis, 
and was unable to provide for the heavy obligations arising 
from extensions, Mr. Hopkins voluntarily endorsed the notes 
of the company, thus risking his private fortune in the enter- 
prise. Again, during the panic in the fall of 1873, ne ^ ur " 
nished the company with nearly a million dollars in cash, 
enabling it to pay its interest. By these and similar actions, 
by his means, personal efforts and credit, he was instrumental 
in averting from Baltimore the financial disasters that swept 
other cities in the panic of 1873. He was a ^ so interested in 
supplying the wants of the growing commercial activity of 
Baltimore, and erected expensive buildings in suitable locali- 
ties for warehouses and offices, among them being the Rialto, 
and was director of the Baltimore Warehouse Company. 

The great philanthropic work for which his name was 
held in honor was based upon an incorporation formed at his 
instance, on August 24, 1867, under a general statute, u For 
the Promotion of Education in the State of Maryland." These 


trustees organized, and it appeared on the death of the founder 
that, after providing for his near kin, he had bequeathed the 
bulk of his fortune to the two institutions which bear his 
name, The Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. Each received an endowment of three and one-half 
million dollars. The university received his country estate at 
Clifton, consisting of three hundred and fifty acres of land, 
fifteen thousand shares of the common stock of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, with a par value of $1,500,000, and other 
property valued at $750,000. The property assigned to the 
hospital consisted of about one-half real estate and one-fourth 
each of the bonds and stocks and bank stock; the income of 
the two institutions was to be kept distinct. Mr. Hopkins 
made provision for students from Maryland, Virginia and 
North Carolina, in recognition of the fact that these three 
States had contributed most materially to his financial suc- 
cess in life. Few conditions were attached to the administra- 
tion of the university. He wisely selected a board of trustees 
who were liberal minded, with broad foresight and good busi- 
ness capacity. The trustees on February 6, 1874, proceeded 
to the organization of the work entrusted to them, prepared 
an outline of the proposed institution, and elected the trustees 
w r ho had been selected by the founder. They were fortunate 
in their choice of a president, Daniel C. Gilman, then presi- 
dent of the University of California. He was chosen Decem- 
ber 30, 1874; me wor k of organization was continued, and 
the first students admitted in October, 1876. There had been 
no attempt in the management of the university to evolve an 
institution of first grade with a single effort. The university 
as it is to-day is the product of time and brains. The college 
and university work is sharply differentiated. At this time 
little attention was given in this country to post-graduate work, 
and original research was rare. This was now made the lead- 


ing feature of the Johns Hopkins University, and a three 
years' graduate course was established, leading to the degree 
of Ph.D. An undergraduate or collegiate course was added 
leading to the A.B. degree. The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
was opened in 1889, and in 1893, in connection with it, a 
medical school, which has achieved great reputation. Both 
the hospital and the medical school are conducted under the 
auspices of the university. Women are admitted to the med- 
ical classes on the same conditions as men, Mary Garrett, of 
Baltimore, having raised a special fund to enable the trustees 
to do this. There are fifteen buildings in the hospital group, 
which occupies a hill of thirty acres on Broadway, in East 
Baltimore, not far from the manufacturing center of the city. 
The hospital is said to be the finest in its appointments and 
arrangements in the world. Although the hospital and the 
university are distinct corporations under separate boards of 
trustees, several members are common to both boards. These 
boards have always worked in entire harmony with each other. 
The working relations of the hospital to the medical depart- 
ment of the university are so clearly set forth in the letter of 
Johns Hopkins, are so thoroughly established in practice, 
and are so definitely and unanimously agreed upon by the 
two boards, that there can be no possibility that they will ever 
be disturbed. The university and the hospital being thus 
closely linked together through the medical school, which in 
a sense belongs to each, there naturally follows a sharing of 
the expense of maintenance of the school, those departments 
of medical science which are not directly concerned with the 
work of the hospital, such as anatomy, physiological chemis- 
try and pharmacology, being sustained by the university from 
the special revenues of the school, while those departments 
which are indispensable for the conduct of the hospital, such 
as pathology, medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, are 


sustained in part from the endowment of the hospital, which 
thus, in addition to the facilities for clinic instruction afforded, 
is a direct contributor to the support of the medical school. 
In order to maintain the highest degree of efficiency, the 
professors in the Johns Hopkins Medical School are expected 
to devote their energies to the work of teaching, of investiga- 
tion and of hospital practice, and not to have professional 
engagements outside the hospital otherwise than in a consult- 
ing capacity. The patients in the hospital and the students in 
the school are entitled to the first consideration and to the best 
service in time, energy and thought on the part of the members 
of the medical staff. 

Mr. Hopkins also provided by will for a convalescent 
hospital in a country neighborhood within eash reach of the 
city, and a home in Baltimore county for colored children 
having but one parent, and in exceptional cases for such other 
children as might need assistance. 

There are few points of interest and none of romance in 
the life of Johns Hopkins. His property was acquired by 
slow and sagacious methods. He led a prosaic and monoto- 
nous life, the life of the business man, moving in the same 
routine day after day. He bought a large library and many oil 
paintings, but he did not live in costly fashion; he never mar- 
ried, and had no immediate family. The significance of his 
life lies in the fact that he labored to accumulate a fortune 
with a direct and definite object in view to do good to his 
fellowmen. He died in Baltimore, December 24, 1873. 


T> EVERDY JOHNSON was born at Annapolis, Maryland, 
May 21, 1796, and was the son of John Johnson, a leading 
lawyer and eminent jurist, who filled the offices of Attorney- 
General, Judge of the Court of Appeals, and Chancellor of 
Maryland. His mother's maiden name was Ghiselin, and her 
father Reverdy Ghiselin, was the commissioner of the land 
office of Maryland. Miss Ghiselin was a noted beauty, as 
well as a woman of rare intellectual powers. 

Reverdy Johnson entered school at the early age of six 
years the primary department of St. John's College and 
graduated at the close of his collegiate course in 18 12, at the 
age of sixteen. He began the study of law with his father, 
and was for a time a student under Judge Stephen. He was 
admitted to the bar in 18 15, and began the practice of law in 
Prince George county next year. It is promising to all young 
law practitioners to know that when this afterward great, com- 
petent and self-possessed lawyer delivered his first speech 
before a jury, he was so embarrassed that he made an utter 
failure. The Attorney-General of the State appointed him 
one of his deputies for Prince George county, an office equiva- 
lent to that of the present State's attorneyship. Though so 
young, he performed these duties in a most creditable manner. 
In 1817 Mr. Johnson removed to Baltimore and began 
to practice for himself, unaided by the fees of a public office. 
Here he met with success, and his talents attracted the atten- 
tion of the public along the line of its general welfare, and 
he was elected to the State Senate in 1821, under the old 
system of a senatorial electoral college. He at once distin- 
guished himself by his brave, intelligent and comprehensive 
discussion of public matter characteristics that marked his 
public and professional career throughout life. He knew 


Federal issues as well as he understood the narrower limita- 
tions of State politics. His professional career had brought 
Mr. Johnson in contact with Robert Goodloe Harper, William 
Pinkney, Luther Martin, Roger B. Taney and others, "who 
had already made the bar of Maryland famous." It was 
during this period that Mr. Johnson was elected State Re- 
porter to the Court of Appeals, and in conjunction with 
Thomas Harris published seven volumes of reports, embrac- 
ing the cases from 1800 to 1827. 

Mr. Johnson was re-elected to the Maryland Senate in 
1826, served two years, and then resigned to devote himself 
to his profession, in which he speedily reached "a rank and 
reputation unsurpassed at the American bar." He was fre- 
quently before the Supreme Court in important cases, and his 
professional abilities were often in demand in distant parts of 
the United States and even in England and France. In 1845 
he was elected as a Whig to the United States Senate and 
served until 1849. Already Reverdy Johnson had made his 
mark as a most independent character, disregarding at all 
times the partisan interest of the organization to which he 
belonged, when the superior demands of his country called 
for patriotic action. In 1833 he met with a serious and pain- 
ful accident. Henry A. Wise, of Virginia, had challenged 
John Stanley, a member from North Carolina, to fight a duel, 
and Mr. Johnson was one of Mr. Wise's seconds. While 
practicing for the affray, a ball struck a tree, rebounded, and 
struck Mr. Johnson in the left eye, destroying its sight. 

Mr. Johnson, as a member of the United States Senate, 
at once reached a high standing, and particularly on account 
of his courage against the general sentiment of the Whig 
party, to which he belonged, in supporting the Mexican War. 
On the accession of General Taylor to the presidency, Mr. 
Johnson was made Attorney-General, under date of March 


7, 1849, and he was continued by President Fillmore until 
July 20, 1850. In 1854 Mr. Johnson was employed by English 
claimants to argue a case in London before an Anglo-Ameri- 
can commission. During his residency of several months in 
England he was received wtih great courtesy by th' barristers 
and judges, and left a fame that had not been forgotten when 
he returned fourteen years afterward as the representative 
of the United States at the Court of St. James. Mr. Johnson 
was opposed to the proscriptive principles of the Know-Noth- 
ing party, and that led him into the ranks of the Democrats, 
and he became a supporter of Buchanan for the presidency. 
Four years later he favored the election of Stephen A. Douglas. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Mr. Johnson was a 
member of the Peace Congress of 1861, which endeavored 
to avert the horrors of internecine strife. When that failed 
he took a decided stand for the war, in support of the Federal 
Government. In 1862, then being a member of the Maryland 
Legislature from Baltimore county, he was re-elected to the 
United States Senate, where he supported the conduct of the 
war, and at its conclusion favored an immediate readmission 
of the Southern States to the Union. During the war he 
participated in all the great debates of the Senate, and always 
opposed harsh and retaliatory measures toward the South. 
Sometimes his position led him to vote with the Democrats 
and sometimes with the Republicans. He voted in 1864 for 
the constitutional amendment to abolish slavery. 

While he opposed the military reconstruction of the 
South, yet, when the President vetoed the first reconstruction 
bill he voted for it on its return to the Senate, because he was 
convinced that the Southern people could secure no better 
terms. During his senatorship he was made the umpire, by 
the Government, of question that had grown out of the Civil 
War at New Orleans. In 1868 he was appointed by Presi- 


dent Johnson to be Minister to England, and was confirmed 
by the Senate. He resigned his seat as Senator and repaired 
to England, where he received honors and attentions that had 
never been accorded to any American minister before. Among 
the quest' >is arising at that time was the settlement of the 
Alabama Claims of the United States against England. This 
received masterly management at the hands of Mr. Johnson, 
and he negotiated the Johnson-Clarendon treaty, which was 
defeated as a purely party measure by the Senate. This treaty 
obtained for our Government all it ever secured in this matter, 
and it settled its Alabama claims on the basis laid down in 
the treaty made in Mr. Johnson's mission. 

In 1869 General Grant became president and recalled 
Mr. Johnson. He was now seventy-three years old, but he 
returned to his law practice with a vigor of body and energy 
of mind worthy of a youth. In 1872 Mr. Johnson supported 
Horace Greeley for president. His practice now was large 
and important, and his reputation as a great constitutional 
lawyer unrivaled. His arguments are deemed to be among 
the best expositions of our organic law, and "it may be said 
that he will live in American history as one of the foremost 
expounders of the Constitution." 

He was a ready and accommodating public speaker. On 
many an important public occasion his voice was heard for 
the public weal, and he appeared in all the harrassing cares 
of his profession or onerous duties of public life, always to 
have time to serve his fellow-citizens as the orator in their 
public gatherings. May 2, 1844, when the Whig party rati- 
fied the nomination of Henry Clay for president in the mon- 
strous meeting in Baltimore on that date, Reverdy Johnson 
was one of the speakers. On Saturday, May 23, 1846, at the 
outbreak of the Mexican War, an immense "war meeting" 
was held in Monument Square. Sam Houston, Senator from 


Texas, was introduced, after Mr. Johnson had delivered a 
patriotic and eloquent address in favor of the war with 
Mexico. An immense meeting was held in Monument 
Square on May 3, 1848, to give expression to public sentiment 
in approval of the recent revolution in France, and Reverdy 
Johnson was one of the speakers. January 10, 1861, he was 
orator at a meeting held at the Maryland Institute, favorable 
to the perpetuation of the Union of the States. In 1869, 
July 1 2th, the eleventh festival of the Northwestern Saenger- 
bund commenced in Baltimore. On the 14th there was a 
grand picnic at the Schuetzen Park, at which Reverdy John- 
son made an address. On many an occasion the superior abili- 
ties of this eminent lawyer and distinguished statesman were 
at the command of his fellow-citizens, who gave honor to the 
prophet, even in his own country. 

Mr. Johnson died February 10, 1876. He was in Ann- 
apolis to appear as counsel in an important case in the Court 
of Appeals. Governor Carroll invited him to dinner at the 
executive mansion. Here he was the central figure, and 
charmed all present by the brilliancy of his conversation and 
his delightful fund of wit, humor and anecdote. His spirits 
never left him. During the evening he left the company. He 
was found shortly afterward in the area of the Governor's 
mansion, between the upper end of the garden and the house, 
where he had fallen a distance of four or five feet. He was 
then unconscious, with a wound on his head. He never re- 
turned to consciousness, and died in a few hours, some attribut- 
ing his death to apoplexy. 


ARTHUR PUE GORMAN was born in Woodstock, 
Howard county, Maryland, March n, 1839. He went 
to the public schools of his county until the age of thirteen, 
when he became a page in the United States Senate, through 
the influence of Senator Stephen A. Douglas, he was made 
postmaster of the Senate, and served until September, 1866, 
when he was appointed a revenue collector in Maryland, hold- 
ing the office until March, 1869, when General Grant became 
President, when he was removed. He was chosen director of 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company in June of the same 
year, and later was made president. 

He was elected a member of the Maryland House of 
Delegates as a Democrat in 1870 and 1871, and was a member 
and speaker in 1872. He was elected a State Senator from 
Howard county in 1875 anc ^ 1< &79, an d United States Senator 
in 1880, and was twice re-elected. At the age of fifty-two 
Senator Gorman was recognized as one of the most conspicu- 
ous political leaders in this country, alike as a wise manager 
and broad statesman. In several great national conflicts he 
proved his exceptional capacity for leadership. Although 
handicapped by limited book schooling, by wide and studious 
reading and practical experience from youth with the national 
methods of legislation, by observant intercourse and associa- 
tion with the ablest men of the nation in the Senate and House, 
and through a long and varied personal service in the highest 
State and National councils, he was enabled to secure a knowl- 
edge of public affairs that so disciplined his native gifts for 
government administration as to make him one of the most 
sagacious and practical statesmen of his time. His power 
and skill in the vast and. difficult chess game of politics were 
extraordinary, and were remarkably shown in crucial con- 


tests. The election of Grover Cleveland as a Democratic 
President after his party's defeat for a quarter of a century, 
and the failure of the election bill, that Republican partisan 
measure, in the Fifty-first Congress, through Mr. Gorman's 
cool and able agency, were two crowning examples of his 
signal capacity as a manager. He clearly proved his title to 
rank as the most astute and consummate party administrator 
of his party in the nation. To a thorough equipoise of temper 
and command of his faculties under any pressure, he added an 
unfailing readiness of resource and wisdom of plan equal to 
any call. Courage, self-reliance, honesty and clean ways 
marked his management, inspired respect and won triumphs. 
In the famous Pittsburgh riots, when he was president of the 
canal company, a place of immense party responsibility and 
patronage, his sagacity enabled him to settle the difficulty. He 
was a speaker of clearness and force, with a voice of peculiar 
distinctness and metallic resonance. A master of parliamen- 
tary law and constitutional principle, and exhaustive student 
of the subjects of legislation, a calm, sententious and powerful 
debater, both fearless and judicious, using gentleness and 
aggressiveness as the occasion demanded, avoiding errors either 
of impulse or unpreparedness, Senator Gorman impressed 
himself strikingly upon National matters. His name was 
almost universally and spontaneously in the public mind for 
years, and was voiced in the press of the land for the 

Senator Gorman died in the middle of his third Sena- 
torial term, in Washington City, June 4, 1906, and his remains 
were interred at Laurel, Maryland. 


CEVERN TEACKLE WALLIS was born in Baltimore, 
September 8, 1916, and was the second son of Philip and 
Elizabeth Custis Teackle Wallis. His mother was the daugh- 
ter of Severn Teackle, of Talbot county, Maryland. Philip 
Wallis, the father of Severn Teackle, was the only child of 
Samuel Wallis, of Kent county, who settled there in the 
eighteenth century. 

Severn Teackle Wallis received a collegiate education at 
St. Mary's College, which, in 1841, conferred upon him the 
degree of LL.D. He graduated in 1832 with the degree 
of A.B., at the age of sixteen, and obtained his M.A. degree 
two years later. He commenced his legal studies with William 
Wirt and finished them with John Glenn, in 1837. Mr. Wallis 
was graduated in the law at nineteen, and permitted to prac- 
tise it, though he could not formally enter the bar until he 
reached his majority. 

His knowledge of Spanish obtained for him, in 1843, 
membership in the Royal Academy of History of Madrid. 
In 1846 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of North- 
ern Antiquaries of Copenhagen. In 1847 he made a trip to 
Spain and published ''Glimpses of Spain; or, Notes of an 
Unfinished Tour." In 1849 he paid a second visit to Spain, 
holding a commission from the Secretary of the Interior "to 
report upon the titles of public lands in Florida as affected 
by Spanish grants during the pendency of negotiations with 
this country in 18 19." He wrote on his return: "Spain: Her 
Institutions, Politics and Public Men." He made visits to 
Europe in 1856 and 1884. 

The friend and cotemporary of Reverdy Johnson and 
John Nelson, he had early reached the very forefront of the 
profession of his State and Nation. He was frequently before 


the Court of Appeals of Maryland and the Supreme Court 
of the United States. His powers of description, his biting 
wit and profound learning, coupled with his undaunted cour- 
age, invested even the most unimportant questions of law that 
he argued with the most entertaining and agreeable attire of 
forensic and oratorial drapery. 

In politics Mr. Wallis was a patriot before he was a 
partisan, and whenever he espoused a cause, he did it with 
all the ardor of a brave and ardent nature. His first inquiry 
was, "Was it right?" That settled, all other questions were 
relegated to the rear while he unsheathed his keen and spotless 
blade of war. Unfortunate was the opponent who crossed 
swords with him : he was a swordsman as strong to defend as 
he was powerful in attack. 

Mr. Wallis entered politics as a Whig, but when the 
prospective Know-Nothing clan sprang from the ashes of the 
party of Clay and Webster, Mr. Wallis went boldly into the 
ranks of his old Democratic antagonists. In 1857 he was 
offered by President Buchanan the position of United States 
District Attorney, but declined it. In 1858 he wrote the 
reform address, which movement led to the election of a 
Democratic Legislature and the reforms of i860, when the 
police force of Baltimore was placed under the State control 
and a reform city government established. He supported 
these measures before the Court of Appeals, which deter- 
mined their legality. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Wallis was one of that large body of influen- 
tial Marylanders who hoped and acted to prevent the Civil 
War. After the riot of the 19th of April, Mr. Wallis was 
one of a committee to visit President Lincoln to try to stop 
the passage of troops through Baltimore. When the special 
election for members of the Legislature took place in the 
spring of 1861, Mr. Wallis was elected a member from Balti- 


more city and was made the chairman of the Committee on 
Federal Relations. He reported on order that "the House 
of Delegates had no power to pass an ordinance of secession." 
In May he reported an order for commissioners to visit the 
President to secure the opening of communications with the 
North. He also further reported that it was "inexpedient 
to call a convention to consider secession." This order that 
the House adopted, should have settled with the Government, 
for the time at least, the intentions of the House; but not so. 
On the night of September 12th Mr. Wallis was arrested by 
the order of General John A. Dix, United States Army. Soon 
afterward other members of the Legislature were seized. 
While the Legislature of Maryland had taken no steps to 
inaugurate secession, it had tried, against the overwhelming 
odds of the Government, to vindicate the rights of the State. 
Mr. Wallis, as the chairman of the Committee on Federal 
Relations, was the chief exponent of the State's views and the 
champion of its privileges. He wrote the report of the Com- 
mittee on Federal Relations, a most trenchant and convincing 
arraignment of the administration for its usurpations of power. 
The feeling against this report was manifested by the Federal 
soldiers burning thirty thousand copies of it at Frederick that 
the State had ordered to be printed. Conveyed to Fortress 
Monroe, transferred to Fort Lafayette, and thence to Fort 
Warren, Mr. Wallis remained a prisoner until 1862, reso- 
lutely refusing to take any and all oaths offered him as a 
precedent qualification for his liberty. At last the prison 
doors opened without conditions, and Mr. Wallis was again 
a free man. 

Though debilitated by his long imprisonment, Mr. Wallis 
returned to the profession he graced with ardor and success, 
and the best efforts with his pen and his most important 
labors for political reform in the State were made at this 


period and continued until his death. In passing from the 
stormy days of the Civil War, it is curious to note that Mr. 
Wallis, like a famous prisoner of old, never had any accusa- 
tion laid against him why he was arrested, and he and the 
other members of the Legislature never knew, beyond sus- 
picion, why they had been incarcerated in military prisons. 

Mr. Wallis was impelled to a public life by a high sense 
of duty to the young men the obligation of setting them an 
example of, and encouraging them to show, independence in 
political action. He accepted the presidency of the Civil 
Service Reform and the Reform League, which positions he 
relinquished only at his death. He was the candidate, in 
1875, f tne Independent and Republican parties for Attorney- 
General. That he was elected was no question. The men 
who robbed the people of their choice, years afterward, con- 
fessed their crime; but, as in Mr. Tilden's case, another man 
than the one who had been elected took the office of Attorney- 
General. His celebrated letters in that campaign are amongst 
the choicest of the choice polemics of Maryland's famous 
political campaigns, both of Colonial and Republican periods. 
Mr. Wallis's addresses number amongst them : 

Valedictory before the School of Medicine, 1868. 

Address upon George Peabody. 

Address to the Law Class of the University of Maryland. 

Address upon the unveiling of the statue of Robert Brooke 
Taney, 1872. 

Address on the Lee Memorial Association, 1875. 

The address of Mr. Wallis on George Peabody was re- 
peated by request of the Legislature before that body in 1870. 
In 1844, he delivered a lecture "On the Philosophy of His- 
tory and Some of Its Popular Errors." Amongst his poems 
are: "Blessed Hand," "The Last of the Hours," "Truth and 
Reason," "The Spectre of Colalto," "In Fort Warren," 
"Henon," "God's Acre," and "Midnight." 


Mr. Wallis was a lover of home, books and friends. A 
Wallis Memorial Association, in 1896, published a memorial 
edition of his works. His State included him in the group 
of her distinguished sons of the legal profession, which is to 
be chiseled in the frieze of the Supreme Court Room of the 
new Court House in Baltimore. Mr. Wallis did not marry. 
He died April 1 1, 1894. 



"DOSS WINANS, famous as an inventor, particularly in the 

line of locomotive engines, was born at Vernon, New 
Jersey, in October, 1796. Nothing is told of his early life 
or education; but he became a farmer and displayed inventive 
talent by making a new plow. From this time he devoted him- 
self to the study of mechanism, more particularly that of rail- 
roads. He invented the friction wheel for cars and the out- 
side bearing on axles, now used altogether by the railways 
of this country. He also invented the eight-wheel car system. 

In 1830 he removed to Baltimore, Maryland, and subse- 
quently the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, recog- 
nizing his ability, sent him to England under instructions to 
study the railway systems of that country. He remained a 
year, gaining information which proved of the greatest im- 
portance not only to the Baltimore and Ohio Company, but 
to railroad enterprise in general throughout the country. He 
constructed the first locomotive which was successfully used 
on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and he invented the 
style of locomotive known as the "camel-back." He organized 
the great railway machine shops of Baltimore, the largest in 
the country, and with the assistance of his sons managed them 
with great success. Being invited by the Russian Government 
to build the rolling stock for the Moscow and St. Petersburg 
Railroad, in 1843, he declined the proposition in favor of his 
two sons. In 1858 he and his son Thomas constructed the 
first of the so-called cigar steamers. In a circular issued at 
that time, this was described as being wholly of iron, and the 
length "is more than eleven times its breadth of beam, being 
sixteen feet broad and one hundred and eighty feet long.'' 
Others were built in England by his son, but they were not 
successful. At the time of the Civil War he was also an 


inventor of a cannon which was put to use by the Confederates 
but which proved to be of no lasting worth. 

Mr. Winans was an active Democrat; he strongly favored 
the Southern Confederacy during the Civil War. In 1 86 1 
he represented Baltimore in the extra session of the Maryland 
Legislature. For a time he was imprisoned in Fort McHenry, 
on account of his opposition to the Federal Government. He 
made a number of selections from the works of eminent writers 
on scientific topics, and himself published a number of pamph- 
lets on religious subjects. 

His wife, Julia Winans, died May 24, 1850. His two 
sons, Thomas De Kay and William L. Winans, inherited his 
mechanical genius. Mr. Winans died in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, April 11, 1877. 


WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY was born in Frederick 
county, Maryland, October 9, 1839, son of John Thomas 
and Georgiana Schley. He was graduated from the Naval 
Academy in 1860, and was assigned to the frigate "Niagara." 
In 1 861 he was made master, and sent to the store-ship "Poto- 
mac," at Ship Island. In 1862-63 ne served in the West Gulf 
blockading squadron, and fought a field battery on the Missis- 
sippi river at Port Hudoon, Louisiana, and during this time 
was promoted to lieutenant. In 1864-66 he was with the 
Pacific squadron, distinguishing himself during an insurrec- 
tion of Chinese coolies on the Chincha Islands, and in San 
Salvador in the protection of American persons and property 
during a revolution. In 1866 he was made lieutenant-com- 
mander, and for three years was an instructor in languages 
at the Naval Academy. In 1870 and for three years he was 
on the China station, and led the assaulting column against 
the forts on the Sulee river. In 1873-76 he was again on the 
instructional staff at the Naval Academy, meantime being 
advanced to the rank of commander. In 1877, commanding 
the "Essex," he rescued a shipwrecked company on Tristan 
d'Acunha Island. He was lighthouse inspector, 1880-83, and 
in the latter year was attached to the bureau of equipment. 

Perhaps the most notable achievement of Commodore 
Schley was his search for Greely and his exploring in the 
Arctic regions, in 1884. Greely, with twenty-five men, had 
sailed from St. Johns, Newfoundland, in June, 1881, and dis- 
appeared from view. Two ineffectual attempts had been made 
to find the party, when Schley (then a commander) volun- 
teered to make an attempt, and on May 12, 1884, he sailed 
from St. Johns with three vessels, and, overcoming what would 
have been regarded by a less courageous soul as insuperable 


difficulties, in the last part of June he found seven of the sur- 
vivors, in an awful condition, their only sustenance for weeks 
having been water in which had been boiled strips of their 
sealskin garments. The survivors were safely brought home, 
and also the bodies of nine of their dead companions. In 
honor of his humane and hazardous achievement, Commander 
Schley received from the State of Maryland the thanks of its 
Legislature, and a gold watch, and from the Massachusetts 
Humane Society, a gold medal of the first class, and the land 
near which he had made the rescue was named Schleyland. 
From 1885 to 1889, Schley (now captain) was at the head of 
the Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting. In 1889-91 he 
commanded the "Baltimore" during the difficulties with Chili, 
and later was sent to Sweden with the remains of the famous 
John Ericsson; and for this service received from King 
Oscar a gold medal. In 1892 he served again as lighthouse 
inspector, and commanded a cruiser from 1895 t0 ^97, when 
he became chairman of the lighthouse board. In February, 
1898, he was promoted to commodore. 

At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Commo- 
dore Schley was ordered to the "Brooklyn," as commander of 
the Flying Squadron. Then followed the operations about 
Cienfuegos and Santiago, and Schley's discovery of the Span- 
ish fleet in the latter harbor, and the conflict, in which the 
four Spanish vessels were run aground under the fire from 
the Americans. Commodore Schley was absent at the outset, 
but arrived before the action was over. Schley's early move- 
ments were criticized in some quarters, but he was exculpated 
by an examining board, and the popular verdict was most 
favorable to him. Promoted to rear-admiral, at the close of 
the war, he was made a member of the military commission 
in Porto Rico, and, this duty discharged, he returned home 
and was received in several principal cities with the highest 



honor, and was made the recipient of various valuable gifts 
a gold and jeweled sword at Philadelphia, from the people of 
Pennsylvania; and another by citizens of New York; and a 
gold medal set with jewels by the people of Maryland, the 
Governor of the State making the presentation. In 1885, in 
collaboration with Professor James R. Soley, U. S. N., he 
wrote "The Rescue of Greely." 

Commodore Schley married, at Annapolis, Maryland, in 
1863, Anna Rebecca, daughter of George E. Franklin, and to 
them were born three children : Lieutenant Thomas Franklin 
Schley, U. S. A.; Virginia Wortley, and Dr. Winfield Scott 
Schley. He died suddenly on the street in New York City, 
October 2, 191 1, and his remains were interred at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


ONG prominent among those who have made a permanent 
impress upon the history of Baltimore are the Garretts, 
and the influence of their leadership and enterprise has ex- 
tended over a large part of the United States. Their activities 
include the creation of a great banking business, the develop- 
ment of one of the leading railway systems reaching from the 
iMississippi to the Atlantic tidewater, the establishment of 
foreign steamship lines, the building of modern terminals, the 
increase in mining, manufacturing and agriculture, the encour- 
agement of the arts, and the extension of education on ad- 
vanced lines. So long as Baltimore continues to be a com- 
mercial and industrial city, and so long as it remains a center 
of education, the results of the foresight and energy and broad 
initiative of the Garretts must be appreciated. Of sturdy 
qualities, full of the pioneering spirit, reverential and con- 
scientious, staunch upholders of the Presbyterian faith, and 
eager for achievement, the members of this family projected 
upon the entire community a force that has been felt for 
generations, and that has been rich in its consequences to the 
larger life of the city, State and Nation. 

John Garrett, the first of this famous family to emigrate 
to America, was a native of the North of Ireland. He mar- 
ried Margaret MacMechen, born in Scotland. John Garrett 
was taken ill during the voyage to America, and died before 
land was reached. His widow and their children continued 
the journey to Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, where they 
settled. Mrs. Garrett bought a farm and cultivated it suc- 
cessfully. In 1798 she removed to Washington county, Penn- 
sylvania, and bought another farm, and on this her children 
grew to maturity. 

Robert Garrett, son of John and Margaret (Mac- 


Mechen) Garrett, was born at Lisburn, County Down, Ire- 
land, May 2, 1783, and died February 4, 1857. In him and 
his descendants have been united the vigorous traits of this 
Irish and Scotch ancestry. He was seven years old when his 
family came to America, and the early death of his father 
made him a close helpmate of his mother even at that tender 
age. For nine years he worked on the farm in Cumberland 
county, and afterwards on the other farm in Washington 
county, and then at the age of sixteen joined his elder brother 
in a trading expedition among the Indians. They followed the 
Monongahela river to its junction with the Ohio. Owing 
to the intense cold they were obliged to pass the winter in an 
Indian hut at Marietta, which in later years became the 
eastern terminus of the Marietta & Cincinnati Railroad. They 
were well treated by the Indians, and exchanged their goods 
for various kinds of furs. They reached home in the spring, 
satisfied with the results of their trip. Close to the scene of 
this first trading expedition, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
later built an iron bridge across the Ohio river, a son of Mr. 
Garrett being president of the company. The success of the 
trading expedition was of great value to Mr. Garrett, for it 
directed his attention to the West and Southwest and their 
opportunities, and inspired the work that was to make him a 
large factor in their development. Shortly after the opening 
of the nineteenth century he moved to Baltimore, and was a 
clerk in the produce and commission house of Patrick Dins- 
more, in which capacity he remained some four years, when 
he became a partner in the firm of Wallace & Garrett, which 
continued up to the year 18 12, when it was dissolved. Here 
he gained further experience in the handling of Western trade. 
Mr. Garrett removed to Middletown, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and entered into business there, but returned to 
Baltimore about 1820 and engaged in commercial pursuits. 


He opened a business on Franklin street, and later removed to 
Howard street, between Fayette and Lexington streets, which 
was headquarters for the Western and country trade. The 
experience he had gained in the West was of great benefit to 
him in his new and broader undertaking, especially in the 
judgment of distances and the best modes of shipment. He 
soon became a power in the wholesale grocery, produce, com- 
mission and forwarding business, to which he devoted him- 
self. He was in competition with some of the oldest and 
strongest local firms, but he was able to more than hold his 
own and found a specialty in which he was easily first. This 
was the serving of the Western trade by better facilities. He 
made shipments by pack horses over the Allegheny Moun- 
tains, and later by fast wagon trains arranged to run by day 
and by night over turnpikes and plank roads and connect with 
the Pennsylvania canal for Pittsburgh. The fostering of this 
Western trade had its influence upon the foreign trade of 
Baltimore. Increased demands from the West necessitated 
larger importations, and Mr. Garrett established direct com- 
munication with the East and West Indies and with South 
America for goods especially suited for the West, and also 
with the most important ports of Europe for the exportation 
of American products. He became the American agent for 
large shipowners of this country and Great Britain, and in 
due time he was considered one of the most prominent and 
substantial merchants and shippers of Baltimore. In those 
early days transportation for men and wares was done by 
pack-horse, wagon and stage coach. Other ports had better 
highways and were nearer the sea than Baltimore, and Mr. 
Garrett realized that Baltimore's hope of competition with 
the superior facilities of its rivals lay in the establishment of 
the best possible connections with the West. So this idea he 
held forth and advocated on every possible occasion. From 


1820 to 1825 he was active in the support of the movement, 
then just gaining headway, for quicker service between Balti- 
more and the growing western country. This plan was the 
precursor of what is today the indispensable Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad. Mr. Garrett, when the railroad project began to 
assume shape, threw to its support all his influence and enthu- 
siasm, and it is a fine chapter of family purpose and zeal that 
tells how his son was the chief instrumentality in securing for 
the western land the transportation facilities which he had 
urged with such clear vision and with such unfaltering reso- 

The firm of Robert Garrett & Sons was formed about the 
year 1839, and its first location was 34 North Howard street. 
The new firm, to which the sons of Mr. Garrett were admitted, 
had connections with the largest financial and exporting houses 
in London, Belfast, Dublin, and other important points of 
Europe, and handled a steadily increasing part of the mer- 
cantile and financial transactions of the times. In the course 
of years the firm confined itself exclusively to the banking 
business, and although the membership of the firm has 
changed, the name has remained the same, and the prestige 
of the house has been faithfully maintained. As Mr. Garrett's 
wealth increased, he contributed more and more to the welfare 
and advancement of the city in which he had made his home. 
Many instances of the enlightened policy of his bank might 
be cited, but one will serve to show the sentiment which guided 
him. In the financial troubles of 1853 the securities of the 
Central Ohio Railroad were excluded from sale in New York. 
The road was important to Baltimore, and the firm of Robert 
Garrett & Sons furnished the funds necessary to support it 
over its greatest difficulties, without thought of personal gain, 
but solely because they considered it a matter of necessity for 
Baltimore's Western trade. Mr. Garrett was one of the earliest 


advocates of the building of the Connellsville route, later put 
through by his son, holding that it was the best and shortest 
line to the West. In fact, through all his work and in all his 
years of effort and public spirit he used his arguments and his 
financial success to bring about the facilities to the West which 
he had early seen would be so vital to the growth and life of 

Mr. Garrett's business interests became many and varied. 
He entered loyally into the active development of the city. He 
was a director of the Baltimore Water Company, the Balti- 
more Gas Company, the Baltimore Shot Tower Company, 
and the Savings Bank of Baltimore. In 1836 he was one of the 
organizers of the Western (now Western National) Bank, 
serving as a director until his death, and being succeeded by 
his son, his grandson and his great-grandson. In 1847 he was 
one of the leading spirits in the establishment of the Eutaw 
Savings Bank of Baltimore. He became one of its directors, 
and gave it his personal service, which continued until he died. 
He purchased the Eutaw House in 1845, and made it a hotel 
of the first rank. Five years later he bought the Wheatfield 
Inn, on Howard street, and replaced it by a new hotel on the 
site of the present New Howard Hotel. In order to draw 
more western trade to Baltimore he saw there must be good 
accommodations for the visitors, and so he built these new 
hotels to increase the commercial opportunities of the grow- 
ing city. 

In 1850, after the close of the Mexican War, he became 
interested in California. In association with others he built 
the "Monumental City," which was the largest ocean steam- 
ship that had ever been constructed in Baltimore, for traffic 
between Baltimore and San Francisco. The harbor of Balti- 
more had not then been dredged to its present depth, and 
there was considerable difficulty in handling the new ship. 


Robert Garrett married, on May 19, 1817, Elizabeth, 
born September 18, 1791, died July 17, 1877, daughter of 
Henry StoufTer, for many years a prominent merchant of Bal- 
timore, and a member of the City Council. Mrs. Garrett was 
a woman of most estimable character, devoted to her home and 
family, yet finding time for many charities and good deeds. 
In 1824 she was one of the organizers of the Society for the 
Relief of the Indigent Sick, and at the semi-centennial cele- 
bration of this institution she was one of the two surviving 
founders. The idea upon which this society was established 
were the basis of the organization of the Baltimore Associa- 
tion for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor. 
Among the children of Mr. and Mrs. Garrett were: Henry 
S., born March 6, 18 18, died October 10, 1867, unmarried; 
John Work, a sketch of whose life follows; Elizabeth B., born 
July 25, 1827, married, July, 1892, Dr. E. H. White. 

Mr. Garrett's life was of rare usefulness to Baltimore. 
His clear and far-seeing mind grasped the problems of the 
future, and the boldness of operation in his projects was 
matched only by the indomitable perseverance which carried 
his undertakings to success. He had a wonderful capacity for 
judging the merits and motives of men, a genius for details, 
patience and respect for the opinions of others, a large view of 
life, and an unfailing self-reliance. He had no pleasure 
greater than uniting with his wife in doing good and in fur- 
thering the welfare of the people of Baltimore. To charity 
and religion he gave prompt and liberal support. He was a 
splendid type of the American citizen whose interests are 
broad, who won success by honorable enterprise, who recog- 
nized the responsibilities of wealth, and who left a heritage 
of power and purpose for the city which he loved and which 
he did so much to advance. 

John Work Garrett, son of Robert and Elizabeth (Stouf- 


fer) Garrett, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, July 31, 1820, 
and died at Deer Park, Garrett county, Maryland, September 
26, 1884. After what has been said of Robert Garrett it would 
seem somewhat embarrassing to claim for his son a larger 
fame, and yet it is not inconsistent, for the son was the com- 
plement of the father, and what the father saw the son accom- 
plished in a way that gave him recognition and reputation 
throughout the world. In the effect upon the development 
and progress of Baltimore, the services of John Work Garrett, 
especially in connection with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
possessed a value which is simply incalculable. No other 
American ever did more for his city. 

His early education was in the schools of Baltimore and 
this was supplemented by a course in Lafayette College, at 
Easton, Pennsylvania. He was a student there in 1834 and 
1835, but he did not graduate. He is recorded as a non- 
graduate of the class of 1.838. In 1865 he received the honor- 
ary degree of Master of Arts from the college, and in 1866 he 
was a member of the board of examiners of the Pardee 
Scientific Department of Lafayette College. He pre- 
sented a valuable papyrus-scroll to the college library. 
From college he entered his father's business, and became a 
partner in the firm at the age of nineteen. From the first he 
showed himself to be a man of prodigious energy and of live 
interest in vital things. He had the faculty of applied intelli- 
gence, and he inherited from his father an abundance of rug- 
ged determination. He had great natural ability for banking, 
and gradually the entire management of the bank's affairs de- 
volved upon him and his brother. Under their enterprise 
and vigilance the business was rapidly extended, and it be- 
came the American agency of George Peabody & Company, 
of London, and of other large and well-known firms of 
Europe, and attained rank as one of the most influential insti- 
tutions of the United States. 


From his early youth, Mr. Garrett had seen opportuni- 
ties in the development of transportation, and as far as lay 
in his power had made a personal study of conditions; he 
realized that with a great continent and a growing population 
the question would become one of the most tremendous and 
far-reaching the nation had to solve. He particularly con- 
sidered Baltimore, and argued that with its geographical loca- 
tion it should be a leader in railway traffic. After mature 
deliberation he began to buy shares in the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and this was the beginning of a connection that was 
to endure throughout his life. The Baltimore & Ohio had 
many difficulties to contend with, not least of which was the 
competition of the Chesapeake & Ohio canal. Obstacles had 
to be overcome, extensions made, improvements inaugurated, 
and most of this had to be pioneer work. There were few 
precedents worth bothering about or worth following. Even 
before his election as a director, in October, 1857, Mr. Garrett 
had been considering original lines of thought and policy, and 
when he spoke those in control of the road listened. At that 
time politics controlled the company, and in his first speech 
as a director, Mr. Garrett was so radical and definite and the 
impression he created was so deep, that the political power 
in the management of the road was at once curtailed and the 
benefits were welcomed by those interested in the true welfare 
and progress of the company. Johns Hopkins, the famous 
merchant and philanthropist, was so taken with Mr. Garrett's 
plan that upon his motion Mr. Garrett was made president. 
This was November 17, 1858, and president of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad, John Work Garrett remained until his 
death, twenty-six years later. 

He went into the presidency of the company in a year 
of financial difficulties, but he lost no time in introducing 
economies and business methods, with the result that his first 


annual report showed a gain in net earnings. From that year 
the success of the road continued. It had, of course, its periods 
of stress, and when Mr. Garrett was dead, the finance com- 
mittee of the company placed on record this fact: "More 
than once did John W. Garrett come to the rescue of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Company with his whole private fortune, 
and but for his courage and public spirit, its safety and the 
success it has attained could not have been." This is the literal 
truth, and it shows how Mr. Garrett made the welfare of the 
road his own life, living it day by day, and raising it from 
a weakly managed affair, controlled by party politics, to a 
great independent system that for years was the training school 
for the best railroad and transportation men of the world. 
Another fact shows the quality of Mr. Garrett's devotion. 
When he became president his salary was four thousand dol- 
lars a year. The success and prosperity of the road becoming 
assured, as the result of his executive ability, the board of 
directors unanimously voted to increase this salary to ten 
thousand dollars. Mr. Garrett declined the increase, as also 
the offers of two other railway corporations, one of which 
meant an annual salary of thirty thousand dollars and the 
second of fifty thousand dollars. His aim always was to dedi- 
cate every possible resource to the advancement and efficiency 
of the road, and in his refusal to accept larger compensation 
for himself was shown the rare unselfishness that makes the 
leader and the builder. 

It is not within the limits of this article to detail the many 
and remarkable operations in which Mr. Garrett was engaged 
during his connection with the Baltimore & Ohio; they belong 
more appropriately to railroad history, but it may be said 
that for more than a quarter of a century he was one of the 
ablest and best-known Americans, constantly in the public 
eye because of his activities in the business world. During 


the Civil War the Baltimore & Ohio was one of the important 
means of transportation for troops and supplies. The traffic 
was enormous, and the construction corps, which was kept 
constantly employed to make repairs in those troublous days, 
accomplished wonders. A deputation of Baltimoreans, who 
did not like Mr. Garrett's politics, went to Washington and 
requested President Lincoln to remove Mr. Garrett from the 
management of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The sharp 
reply of the President was: "When any or all of you have 
done half as much to aid this Government as John W. Garrett 
has done, I may consider your request." Mr. Garrett was a 
close friend of President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton, and 
was as much part of President Lincoln's Cabinet as any man 
in it. He was often called to its meetings when questions of 
great moment were discussed. 

Under Mr. Garrett's management the stock of the Balti- 
more & Ohio rose to high values, and the company was enabled 
to invest its surplus in branches, steamship lines and real estate. 
Mr. Garrett gave considerable attention to the related enter- 
prises which interested his road. Mainly through his advo- 
cacy a line of steamships was established between Baltimore 
and Europe. He was one of the leading spirits in the con- 
struction of the dry docks, warehouses and grain elevators at 
Locust Point. During his presidency the Baltimore & Ohio 
Telegraph was established, and it was afterwards allied with 
the Bankers' and Merchants' and the Postal Telegraph Com- 
panies. He was also associated with John W. Mackay and 
James Gordon Bennett in the laying of the new Atlantic cable 
to Europe. Under his administration there was negotiated 
in 1884 the loan which enabled the Baltimore & Ohio to 
extend its main line to Philadelphia, and then by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading to reach New York City. To the end 
he was busy with plans and purposes for the advancement of 
the Baltimore & Ohio. 


Mr. Garrett was a statesman who never held political 
office. He helped ably and constantly in the management of 
the Democratic party, but he would take no office, even though 
the governorship of the State was offered to him. For many 
years he was connected with the Associate Reformed Church, 
presiding over its trustees. He was a close personal friend of 
Johns Hopkins, who appointed him one of the trustees of the 
Johns Hopkins University. He was a friend of George Pea- 
body, and was an officer of the Peabody Institute. In many 
ways he contributed to the improvement and adornment of 
Baltimore, and did much to increase its attractiveness. He 
was a patron of the fine arts, and his home held foreign and 
American pictures that were valuable and widely representa- 
tive of the best schools. He was one of the organizers of the 
Employees Relief Association of the Baltimore & Ohio, and 
its development and usefulness were due in large measure to 
his initiative and support. With a keen interest in horticul- 
ture and agriculture, he paid especial attention to the importa- 
tion and improvement of famous breeds of horses and cattle. 
He presided at the meeting for raising funds for the erection 
of a new building for the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and his address became the keynote of the campaign that ended 
successfully. These are a few of the many good causes which 
he served and to which he liberally contributed. 

Mr. Garrett married Rachel Ann Harrison, born January 
17, 1823, who died at Montebello, the family seat in Balti- 
more county, November 15, 1883, as the result of injuries 
received by being thrown from a carriage. She was the daugh- 
ter of Thomas Harrison, a prominent merchant of Baltimore 
in the days before the Civil War. The children of Mr. and 
Mrs. Garrett were: Robert, Thomas Harrison, Mary E., and 
Henry S.. Sketches of Robert and Thomas Harrison appear 
in other pages of this work. Miss Mary Garrett enjoys nat- 

MD- 24 


ional esteem for her work in charity and education. Bryn 
Mawr School in Baltimore is a lasting monument to her phil- 
anthropy, and her contributions to Johns Hopkins Hospital, 
by which the admission of women was secured, and to other 
institutions, have won for her warm praise. 

Mr. Garrett lived a fine life and lived it well, and he 
was happiest when he was busiest. In appearance he was 
handsome, impressive and vigorous. Self-command and poise 
were among his characteristics. In any relation and in any 
emergency he was prompt and dependable. He had confi- 
dence and courage and he was always ready to meet any ob- 
ligation. He had the clear conception of things and the right 
regard for what was best in the exercise of human activities. 
With all the elements of a strong character he took up the 
exacting responsibilities left by a remarkable father, and by 
his prudence, foresight and industry largely increased them 
in value and kept them intact for the benefit of the family. 
Thus, in all his relations business, public and personal he 
measured up to the stature of a great executive, a splendid 
citizen and a noble father. 


/GEORGE BROWN, of the second generation of the dis- 
tinguished family whose name is identified with the 
greatest of American banking houses, was the second son of 
Alexander Brown, the founder of the business which still bears 
his name, being known to-day, as it was a century ago, as the 
firm of Alexander Brown & Sons. 

George Brown, second of the four sons of Alexander 
and Grace (Davison) Brown, was born in 1787, in Ballymena, 
Ireland, and was fifteen years old when he came to the United 
States. During the lifetime of his father he was associated 
with him in the management of the Baltimore house, and was 
always a devoted son as well as a most efficient partner. Upon 
the death of his father, George Brown became the head of 
the house, and for a quarter of a century upheld its high 
standard of financial honor. As a business man he was dis- 
tinguished by prudence, by sterling integrity, by quickness 
of perception, and by indefatigable application. When, in 
1927, the Mechanics' Bank was reduced almost to insolvency 
by bad management, he consented to become its president, and 
in a short time raised it to a state of great prosperity. He was 
the founder and for some time the president of the Merchants' 
Bank, and he was one of the moving spirits that inaugurated 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

As a citizen, his conduct was marked by a high degree 
of public spirit and benevolence. The House of Refuge was 
a special object of his care, and the monument to his memory 
erected there by the liberality of the late Benjamin Deford 
worthily attests his generosity and valuable services to that 
institution. He was the first president of that excellent charity 
known as the Baltimore Association for the Improvement of 
the Condition of the Poor, and as long as he lived he took 


a warm interest in the Peabody Institute, of which he was 
one of the original trustees. Although his modest and retiring 
disposition always made him shrink from public view, when 
summoned to the front by the call of duty, he never failed to 
respond. When on the verge of his fiftieth year, and a mer- 
chant and banker of the highest standing, he faithfully served, 
first as a private soldier and after, as first lieutenant, in a volun- 
teer cavalry company which was raised after the great riot of 
1835, by a number of our best citizens, with the laudable 
object of preserving the peace of the city. 

Mr. Brown married Isabella McLanahan, of Pennsyl- 
vania. Mrs. Brown was a woman whose name was associated 
in the public mind with all that is true and elevated in religion 
and lovely in woman. Her husband, true to a principle which 
had actuated him during life, that his charities should be 
distributed as unostentatiously as possible, made no provision 
for them in his will beyond making her the almoner of his 
bounty. Well and faithfully, as many can testify, has she 
executed the responsible and difficult trust. She caused to be 
erected the beautiful Presbyterian church, known as the 
Brown Memorial Church, "in memoriam" of her husband, 
as expressed on a marble tablet in the rear of the pulpit. It 
is an appropriate monument to him who regarded religion as 
pre-eminent above all other things, and loved his church with 
all the ardor of his noble nature. In numberless ways Mrs. 
Brown executed the trust committed to her by her husband, 
fulfilling his most cherished wishes. 

Mr. Brown died August 26, 1859, at his home in Balti- 
more, possessed, it is believed, of the largest fortune ever held, 
up to that time, by a citizen of Maryland. This great wealth 
he held as a trust, and the world can testify that he was a most 
faithful steward. Foremost in all great and good enterprises, 
comprehensive in his views of business, he was one of the most 



valuable citizens Baltimore ever had. He was characterized 
by deep domestic affections and by sincere benevolence. The 
tenor of his life and work is beautifully expressed in a sen- 
tence inscribed on the monument erected to his memory at the 
House of Refuge: 

In spirit eminently charitable; cautious in judgment, in action prudent; 
wise in council, and an earnest helper in all good works. 


WALTER BOOTH BROOKS, who died January, 1896, 
in Baltimore, Maryland, is a notable example of the 
fact that a number of the best traits are inheritable, and in 
addition to those he possessed by this right are many others 
which are equally as good. He rose far above the standard 
in business matters, and in the affairs of state his advice was 
sought. The business operations with which he was con- 
nected for so many years were of a most extensive and varied 
character, and assisted greatly in making Baltimore the great 
commercial center it is at the present time. 

Walter Booth Brooks was born in Baltimore, May 27, 
1823, and died at his home, "Cloverdale," Eutaw Place, Bal- 
timore, January 17, 1896. He was named for General Walter 
Booth, who had been his father's intimate friend and earliest 
business partner, and was educated in a private school in Con- 
necticut. He was very young when he took his first step in 
business life, commencing in the wholesale dry goods house 
of his father, and when he attained his majority, in 1844, ne 
was admitted to a partnership in the firm at the same time 
as Derick Fahnestock, who was his lifelong friend. For the 
six years following, the business was conducted under the style 
of C. Brooks, Son & Company, later this became Brooks, 
Fahnestock & Company, the large warehouse of the firm being 
for many years on Baltimore street between Howard and 
Eutaw streets. Mr. Brooks was clear-headed, energetic and 
enterprising, and when the outbreak of the Civil War put a 
stop to their trade with the South for the time being, the firm 
determined to open a branch business in a westerly direction. 
Accordingly Walter B. Brooks was sent to Zanesville, Ohio, 
there to establish the proposed branch concern, and personally 
look after the conduct of affairs, while Mr. Fahnestock was 


to remain in Baltimore and attend to the interests at that end 
and in Pennsylvania. In 1865 Mr. Brooks withdrew entirely 
from the business in Baltimore, became entirely identified with 
the branch he had established in Zanesville, which was known 
as W. B. Brooks & Company, and remained in Zanesville until 
1867. The business prospered under his capable management, 
and he proved beyond a doubt that he had inherited the busi- 
ness qualities and executive ability of his father in no small 
degree. He then returned to Baltimore, and for a number of 
years after his return was principally engaged as assignee for 
a number of business firms whose affairs had become hope- 
lessly involved, and which he succeeded in winding up in a 
satisfactory manner. Among these business firms were the dry 
goods house of Howard Cole & Company, and Kirkland, 
Chase & Company, who were importers of coffees and sugars. 
Both of these had been very expensive failures, involving large 
interests and immense sums of money, and the ability which 
Mr. Brooks displayed in unraveling the tangled state in which 
he found matters, drew upon him the attention of the promi- 
nent men of the business world. Subsequently Mr. Brooks 
turned his attention to real estate matters, foreseeing that the 
growth of the city was a matter of but a few short years, and 
in this idea he was not mistaken, as events proved. He became 
associated with the Canton Company, to the presidency of 
which he was elected in 1877, to succeed Charles J. Boker, 
and he was identified with this enterprise for many years. The 
real estate transactions of this firm were frequently of enor- 
mous proportions, and they were located in the eastern suburb 
of Baltimore, where they owned large tracts of land. The 
ready understanding and sound judgment of Mr. Brooks 
speedily made themselves manifest in this enterprise, and 
under his management the affairs of the concern, which had 
not been very flourishing at the time he took hold of matters, 


changed in a very short time. When Mr. Brooks assumed the 
management, the shares of the company were selling at a very 
low price, and the company heavily in debt. At the time of 
his death he had paid all indebtedness and the stock was on a 
substantial basis and selling at a high price. He loved work 
for work's sake and found pleasure in facing difficult financial 
problems, and overcoming them. He was connected with a 
number of other financial and commercial enterprises, among 
them being the following: Director and stockholder in the 
Western National Bank, the Eutaw Savings Bank, Safe De- 
posit and Trust Company, Consolidated Gas Company, How- 
ard Fire Insurance Company, and the Central Ohio Railroad 
Company. For some years he had also been interested in the 
Central Passenger Railroad of Baltimore. 

When he was engaged with business matters, his entire 
attention was given to the matter in hand, but he entertained 
the fixed idea that it is not at all necessary for a business man 
to exclude himself from social intercourse, and he lived 
according to this principle. He was of a genial, whole-souled 
disposition, and was one of the incorporators of the Merchants' 
Club in 1880, was chosen president when the club was reor- 
ganized in 1885, and it was there that his fine spirit was seen 
to the best advantage. His quiet courtesy and tactful affability 
smoothed the rough places on the road of life of the club as 
soon as he assumed the management, which was at a time 
when the affairs of the club were in such sad financial condi- 
tion that it was about to be sold at auction. Mr. Brooks 
changed all this entirely, and by the system he introduced 
placed the club on a paying basis, and it is now the gathering 
place for about six hundred merchants and the most desirable 
locality for entertaining their visiting business friends. While 
Mr. Brooks had always taken a serious and decided interest 
in the political affairs of his city, State and country, he had 


never solicited public office and was not anxious to serve in 
any. In 1887, however, while he was absent from the city, 
he was made the Republican nominee for the office of Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, and when he was informed of this honor, 
he declined to return to the city for the time being, and it was 
a considerable length of time before he would allow himself 
to become convinced that it was for the best interests of the 
State that he should accept the nomination of his party, and 
in this manner, with the assistance of the Independent Demo- 
crats, who had offered their support when they became 
acquainted with the name of the Republican candidate, help 
to break up the Democratic u ring." The election was a hotly 
contested one, but the influence of the Democrats was too 
great, and Governor Jackson was elected. As trustee of the 
Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church for many years, Mr. 
Brooks was a liberal subscriber to the institution, and equally 
liberal in connection with the numerous charities which it 

Mr. Brooks married, 1852, a daughter of Abram G. Cole, 
for many years a well-known dry goods merchant of Balti- 
more. In the course of his long life Mr. Brooks gave em- 
ployment to many hundreds of people, and by all of them he 
was regarded more in the light of a fatherly friend, to whom 
they might go for counsel and help when in need, rather than 
as a mere employer. His kindly heart was ever ready to listen 
to plans for the betterment of humanity in general, and his 
private charities, which were numerous, were bestowed in a 
simple, unostentatious manner which was thoroughly appre- 
ciated by the recipients. His death was a great loss, not alone 
to his immediate family and friends, but to hosts of others 
who had been affiliated with him in business matters. 


long and active career, one of the most enterprising men 
of his day, and the success which he achieved may almost be 
characterized as phenomenal. His greatest achievements were 
in large railroad affairs, and he was the principal factor in 
the building up of the Atlantic Coast Line System, which lay 
at the foundation of the development and prosperity of an 
immense region bordering upon the Southern Atlantic. In 
religion and education he had an abiding interest, and his bene- 
factions to churches, schools and libraries were many and 

The family of Newcomer is of German-Swiss ancestry, 
and its history in this country begins with Wolfgang New- 
comer, who with his parents came from Switzerland, about 
1720. Their landing was at Philadelphia, where he worked 
at his trade as a carpenter. He removed later to Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania. He was the father of five daughters 
and three sons. Of the latter, Christian became a bishop of 
the United Brethren church. Henry was father of thirteen 
children, among whom were Samuel and Henry. 

John Newcomer, son of Henry Newcomer, was born De- 
cember 18, 1797. He was a man of great ability and promi- 
nence. He was a large real estate holder in Washington 
county, personally superintended his farm, and operated a 
flour mill on Beaver Creek. He also founded the flour and 
grain commission firm of Newcomer & Stonebraker, in Balti- 
more. He was sheriff of his county in 1836, State Senator 
1840-46, County Commissioner 1846, delegate to convention 
which framed the new State Constitution in 1850, and County 
Commissioner again in 1859. He was not only highly regarded 
for his ability, but for his sterling personal character; many 


disputes were committed to him, and his decisions were always 
marked by unimpeachable fairness. He died April 21, 1861. 
He married his cousin Catherine, born December 18, 1802, 
daughter of Samuel Newcomer. She was of a beautiful Chris- 
tian character, and to her training and example her son, Ben- 
jamin F. Newcomer, attributed much of the development of 
his own character and of those qualities which brought him 
success in life. She lived to see with pride the result of her 
love and care in the success and prominence of her son, and 
died February 3, 1883, in her eighty-first year. 

Benjamin Franklin Newcomer, son of John and Cathe- 
rine Newcomer, was born at Beaver Creek, Washington 
county, Maryland, April 28, 1827, in a log house which long 
ago disappeared. In 1829 his parents removed to Hagers- 
town, returning in 1834 to Beaver Creek, where young New- 
comer entered the country school at the age of seven years. 
His youth was spent industriously; he worked on the farm 
and in the mill, in which he frequently spent the night, awak- 
ening to look after the machinery when it came to a stop. 
While his father was serving as sheriff, the young man 
(familiarly called Frank), traveled with him all over the 
county, and at times beyond its bounds, summoning jurors and 
witnesses, often riding in severest winter weather. It is curi- 
ous to note that the lad was actually sworn in as a deputy 
sheriff when only ten years of age. In 1837 the family again 
returned to Hagerstown, where Frank attended the academy 
one year, in 1840, intending to become a civil engineer. The 
following year the family returned to Beaver Creek. Frank 
was offered the choice of remaining at the academy or of 
returning to the farm. He chose the latter a choice he after- 
wards spoke of as boylike and foolish, but destiny had directed 
his steps aright. His father, wishing to send some one to Balti- 
more to look after his interests in the newly established firm 


of Newcomer & Stonebraker, the son proffered his services. 
This led to his taking up his residence permanently in that 
city, and changed the entire direction of his life. He engaged 
in his new undertaking with all the energy of his nature, and 
soon built up a large business, the firm transacting about one- 
tenth of all the flour business of the city. When about eighteen 
years of age he purchased his father's interest in the firm, giv- 
ing his notes at six per cent, for the book valuation, and agree- 
ing to also pay $1,000 per annum for the use of his name until 
he himself came of age, and all this indebtedness was paid. In 
1862, Mr. Stonebraker withdrew from the firm, and Mr. 
Newcomer continued the business alone, under the name of 
Newcomer & Company. The firm underwent various changes 
by admission of new partners, until Mr. Newcomer retired 
from the active management, but continuing to keep in the 
name of the firm his accounts and the funds for his other 
enterprises. Meantime, in 1853, Mr. Newcomer aided in the 
organization of the first Corn and Flour Exchange in Balti- 
more, was one of its first directors, and w r as a prime factor in 
purchasing the present Chamber of Commerce site. Notwith- 
standing his retirement from mercantile life, Mr. Newcomer 
retained his membership in this organization until the close 
of his life. 

While making his beginning in mercantile affairs, Mr. 
Newcomer, realizing that a lad of fifteen was too young to 
consider his education completed, joined the Mercantile 
Library, became a regular leader there, and attended its lec- 
tures on philosophy, astronomy and chemistry. Later he 
became a director of the library. 

While yet engaged with his firm in mercantile business, 
his activities extended into other fields. In 1854, at the age 
of twenty-seven, he became a director of the Union Bank, 
afterward the National Union Bank of Maryland; he was 


the youngest man on the board, and outlived all his fellow- 
directors of that date, and every bank officer from teller to 
president. He was an incorporator of the Safe Deposit & 
Trust Company of Baltimore, served as its president for thirty- 
three years (the first eleven years without salary), and stamped 
upon it his own individuality to a remarkable degree. His 
interest and pride in the company were completely apart 
from any question of personal interest; he spared himself in 
nothing, and held others to a like strict account. After his 
death, the board of directors entered upon their records that 
"it was as president of this company that he was most appre- 
ciated in this community, and its history is the record of the 
most active part of his long, useful and busy life; its growth 
and its standing is the most enduring monument to his wisdom 
and intelligence, to his integrity and industry, and to the loy- 
alty with which he guarded every interest confided to his 
care." He was also a director of the Savings Bank of Balti- 
more, and of other financial institutions. He was an accom- 
plished financier and his judgment upon the merits of stocks 
and bonds was highly valued. A most significant tribute to 
his ability is found in the fact that, during the Civil War 
period, General Simon Cameron, then a member of Presi- 
dent Lincoln's Cabinet, offered to establish in Baltimore the 
first national bank in the country, if Mr. Newcomer would 
accept the presidency, but this flattering offer he declined as 
being too remote from the line of his private business. 

Mr. Newcomer's great abilities were noticeably conspicu- 
ous in railway affairs. For many years he was in close touch 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad system, and was an intimate 
personal friend of President Scott, Roberts, Thompson and 
Cassatt. Though never an official of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road itself, he was prominently connected with various of its 
subsidiary companies. In r 86 1 he was elected a director of 


the Northern Central Railway Company, and was made 
chairman of its finance committee, which position he held 
continuously until his death, except during his voluntary 
retirement from 1874 t0 1878. For forty years he conducted 
the negotiations for most of the real estate purchased by the 
company in Baltimore; at times, when there was reason for 
the company to remain unknown, title was vested in his name, 
at one time to the value of more than a million dollars. He 
was a director of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore 
Railroad Company, and of the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad 
Company for many years, and in 1895, after the death of Oden 
Bowie, succeeded to the presidency of the last named. 

The story of his connection with the southern railroads 
now comprised in the Atlantic Coast Line, is interesting and 
absorbing. The close of the Civil War found all southern 
roads practically obliterated. In 1868, Mr. Newcomer was 
solicited to act as trustee for a syndicate and conduct opera- 
tions for the rehabilitation of the Wilmington & Weldon and 
the Wilmington & Manchester railroads. He was then en- 
gaged in the flour and grain business, and demurred until it 
appeared that the project would lapse unless he consented to 
act. He finally agreed, on condition that W. T. Walters would 
serve with him as co-trustee. The syndicate paid in a capital 
of $1,200,000; new railway charters were secured, and, besides 
reorganizing the roads above named, the Southern Railway 
Security Company was formed, with a capital of $960,000, 
completing the Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta Railroad. 
The properties acquired also included the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Railroad, the Richmond & Danville, and 
other parts of the present Southern Railway; these were dis- 
posed of from time to time, and never became a permanent 
part of the Atlantic Coast Line. After repeated embarrass- 
ments and failures, in 1898, the railroads controlled by the 


syndicate were consolidated those in South Carolina as the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad of South Carolina, and those in 
Virginia as the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of 
Virginia. In May, 1900, these properties were consolidated 
as the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Mr. Newcomer was the 
prime factor in all these gigantic operations. He was presi- 
dent of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad Company from 
December 1, 1888, to February 12, 1890, and after the con- 
solidation hereinbefore named, was vice-president and for 
many years treasurer of the Atlantic Coast Line Company, and 
director of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and subsidiary 
companies. During these years his duties took him all over 
the South, and other interests to the Middle West. During 
his busy life he visited almost every State in the Union, also 
Canada, Alaska and Cuba, and made two tours of Europe. 

Regarding Mr. Newcomer's benefactions it is difficult to 
speak without violation of the very principle of modesty upon 
which he worked. His sympathies for the blind were intensi- 
fied by the fact that he had a brother and sister so afflicted. 
He became one of the incorporators of the Maryland Institu- 
tion for the Instruction of the Blind, was the first secretary, 
in 1864 was made treasurer, and in 1881 succeeded J. Howard 
McHenry as president. Mr. Newcomer's services covered a 
period of forty-four years, twenty years as president. In 1886 
the title was changed to Maryland School for the Blind. Mr. 
Newcomer gave freely of his time and attention, and a gift of 
$20,000 to the building fund. One of the pupils gave evidence 
of a remarkable talent for music, and Mr. Newcomer sent 
him to the Peabody Conservatory at his own expense. In like 
spirit he contributed the sum of $20,000 to the Baltimore Hos- 
pital for Consumptives. One of his characteristic gifts was 
that which founded the Washington Free Library in Hagers- 
town, he, in his modesty, declining to permit his name to be 


used in its title. Again, the Washington County Home for 
Orphans and Friendless Children at Hagerstown owes its 
existence to a conversation between him and his brother, and 
to their liberal aid. He was a member of the board of trustees 
of Johns Hopkins University, on account of his personal 
friendship for President Gilman. Besides his larger gifts, 
many a young man was assisted by him to an education and a 
beginning in business life, in many cases without knowing 
whence came the aid. 

A member of the Christian church (the Disciples, or 
Campbellites), Mr. Newcomer usually attended the Lutheran 
church, of which his wife was a member. He was a reverent 
and careful Bible reader, and his religion was carried into his 
daily life and in it found beautiful expression. His work for 
the good of others knew no end. The greater part of his time 
was devoted to assisting others, many of whom had no claim 
upon him. His views of right and wrong were absolutely 
uncompromising; if an act seemed to him wrong, he could not 
in any way countenance it. His intense conscientiousness was 
eloquently attested at a period during the Civil War. He 
could have secured a profitable contract for furnishing flour 
to the Federal Government, but to procure it, it was necessary 
for him to take the oath of allegiance, which, as a Southern 
sympathizer, he resolutely refused to do. 

A few years before his death, Mr. Newcomer fell through 
a hatchway, cutting his head, wrenching his arms, and nar- 
rowly escaping death. He was picked up unconscious but at 
once recovered his senses and insisted upon walking upstairs 
to his office. Declining all assistance, he went to his desk, 
called his secretary, gave him certain instructions, and then 
answered that he was ready for a physician. The shock to 
his system at his advanced age (beyond three-score and ten) 
was very severe, but he recovered rapidly, and there seemed 


to be no permanent ill effects. Shortly afterwards a cataract 
formed upon his eyes, and which in time left him blind an 
affliction which he bore with touching patience. On the last 
Friday in March, 1901, he was in his office as usual. That 
night he suffered a slight stroke of apoplexy, and two days 
later death brought relief, on March 30, 1901. His demise 
affected the entire community, and all the bodies with which 
he had been connected paid fervent tribute to his worth. 

On November 14, 1848, the year in which he attained his 
majority, Mr. Newcomer married Amelia Louisa, daughter 
of the late John H. Ehlen, one of the earliest stockholders of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and for many years a director 
of that corporation, and of the Chesapeake Bank and the Fire- 
men's Insurance Company. She was remarkably well suited 
to him a gentle, lovable character, with high aims and ideas, 
giving him hearty co-operation in all his efforts. She died 
October 20, 1881. On February 9, 1887, Mr. Newcomer 
married Mrs. Sidonia Kemp, widow of Morris J. Kemp, and 
daughter of the late Charles Ayres. She died February 7, 



JOHN BOWIE, the first of his name in the annals of Mary- 
* land, was born 1688, died 1759. He emigrated from Scot- 
land, according to family tradition, about the year 1705-06, 
at the invitation of his maternal uncle, John Smith, who, pre- 
ceding him many years, had settled on the Patuxent river, a 
few miles north of the present village of Nottingham. He 
married, in December, 1707, Mary, daughter of James Mulli- 
ken. Children: John, born in 1708, died 1753; Eleanor, 1709; 
James, 1 7 1 4 ; Allen, 1 719 ; William (see forward); Thomas, 
1723 ; Mary, 1726. 

Captain William Bowie, son of John and Mary (Mulli- 
ken) Bowie, was born in 1721, at the home of his parents, 
"Brookridge," a few miles from Nottingham, Prince George's 
county, Maryland. His father bought and deeded to him a 
large tract of land about two miles from Nottingham when 
he reached the age of twenty-one years, called "Brooke's Re- 
serve," which in after years was known as "Mattaponi." Here 
he erected a large brick house in the old Colonial style. Many 
grand entertainments have its old walls witnessed, while the 
hospitality and ready welcome extended by its owners to hosts 
of guests have endeared "Mattaponi" to five generations. It 
is probable that William Bowie commanded one of the militia 
organizations maintained by the Province, though no record 
of his commission has been discovered. In 1753 ne was a P~ 
pointed tobacco inspector for Nottingham, and later a justice 
of the peace, a member of St. Paul's vestry, and in 1767 warden 
of the parish. In 1770, it being rumored that ships were en 
route from Great Britain, loaded with European goods, and 
might soon be expected to reach the Patuxent, the inhabitants 
of Prince George's county thought it necessary to support "The 
Association" by prohibiting the landing of these cargoes, and 


called a meeting for April 10, 1770, at Upper Marlborough, 
selecting representatives to keep an eye upon events, and to 
provide guards at points on the Patuxent river where ships 
were likely to touch. Only the most resolute and responsible 
citizens were delegated by the people for this purpose, and 
the ones for "Patuxent" (or Nottingham) were William 
Bowie and his brother, Allen Bowie. William Bowie was a 
delegate sent from Prince George's county, to a convention 
held at Annapolis, June 22, 1774, which passed strong resolu- 
tions in favor of upholding the rights of the Province, if neces- 
sary by force of arms, against Great Britain. In November of 
the same year, a meeting of freeholders was held at Upper 
Marlborough, where a committee was appointed which was in- 
structed to see that the resolutions of the "Association of the 
American Continental Congress" were enforced within Prince 
George's county. Among the men selected for this committee 
were William Bowie and his brother, Allen Bowie, as well as 
Walter and Robert Bowie, sons of William. The latter was 
also placed on a committee of correspondence, and it was 
further "resolved that Captain William Bowie and Walter 
Bowie (with others) are selected as delegates of this county to 
attend a convention to be held at Annapolis and are author- 
ized to vote in the convention for delegates to attend a con- 
gress which will assemble at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 
the 10th of May next." In June, 1775, these representatives 
met at Annapolis, and on July 26, 1775, this convention issued 
the celebrated "Declaration of the Association of the Freemen 
of Maryland," the name of the Bowies being affixed to this 
memorable document, which antedated by one year the general 
"Declaration of Independence," and is now framed and hang- 
ing in the State House at Annapolis. What further part Wil- 
liam Bowie took during the Revolution is not shown, as the 
records for the county during the succeeding few years are 


very meagre, but it is safe to presume a man as active as he 
had been, and who had shown such fearless patriotism, was 
not idle. He was too old for the army, but he doubtless con- 
tinued to take part in the councils of his people, and to aid 
them as advisor. The land records and his will show Captain 
William Bowie a man of wealth for his day, owning tracts of 
land in various parts of the country, much stock of all kinds, 
and many negroes. 

Captain William Bowie married, in 1745, Margaret 
Sprigg, born April 20, 1726, daughter of Osborne Sprigg and 
his first wife, Elizabeth Sprigg. Osborne Sprigg was the 
grandson of Thomas Sprigg, the emigrant, who died in 1704, 
and who was the first owner of the fine estate in Prince 
George's county known as "Northampton." Children: 1. 
Elizabeth, born in 1746. 2. Walter, see forward. 3. Governor 
Robert, born March, 1750, died 18 18; married Priscilla 
Mackall. 4. William Sprigg, born 175 1, died 1809; mar- 
ried Elizabeth Brookes. 5. Osborn Sprigg. 6. Ann, 1760. 
7. Margaret Sprigg, 1765. 

Walter Bowie, son of Captain William and Margaret 
(Sprigg) Bowie, was born at "Mattaponi," near Nottingham, 
Prince George's county, Maryland, in 1748, died November 9, 
1 8 10. He was probably educated by the Rev. John Eversfield, 
and by the Rev. Mr. Craddock, at the latter's school, near 
Baltimore. His father bought him a large farm near Col- 
lington, then known as "Darnell's Grove," later, as "Locust 
Grove," and now "Willow Grove." At one time he was in- 
terested in a large commercial business, conducted at Queen 
Anne, shipping tobacco to Europe, importing merchan- 
dise from points as far as India, as is seen by an adver- 
tisement in the "Annapolis Gazette" of 1774. He 
became exceedingly wealthy, and the county records show 
him possessed of enormous plantations and large num- 


bers of negroes, his land extending for many miles along either 
side of the public road. He was a raiser of blooded stock, and 
his racers carried his colors on the tracks of Annapolis, Balti- 
more, Bladensburg and Nottingham. His horse, "Little 
Davy," won fifty guineas at Annapolis in 1784, and on Octo- 
ber 12, 1790, his famous flyer, "Republican President," won a 
purse of twenty guineas, and the day following, one of fifty 
guineas. Walter Bowie's career was an exceptionally brilliant 
one; possessing a faculty for directing public opinion, he held 
an influence over the people for a longer time than is often 
seen. Intellectual, wealthy and ambitious, he early became a 
prominent figure in the field of politics, and at the commence- 
ment of the struggle for independence stepped to the front with 
those other stern patriots who determined to risk both life and 
property in defense of their rights. In March, 1774, he, with 
his brother Robert, later Governor, and their uncle, Allen 
Bowie, were selected as members of the committee appointed 
to carry into execution throughout Prince George's county the 
resolutions of the Continental Congress. On January 16, 1775, 
at another meeting of Freeholders, he and his father, Captain 
William Bowie, were chosen as two of the delegates to repre- 
sent their county at the first Provincial Convention, called to 
assemble at Annapolis the following June. When the Assem- 
bly convened, Walter Bowie was appointed a member of the 
committee of correspondence, and on July 16, 1775, the con- 
vention issued the celebrated "Declaration of the Association 
of Freemen," and Walter Bowie, his father, and many other 
distinguished men affixed their names to that famous paper. 
In January, 1776, he was elected second lieutenant of a com- 
pany of militia, raised in his county for the defense of the 
province. A short time later he was commissioned major of 
militia, and was referred to in public papers as "Major Bowie" 
until after the war ended, though it is not shown what part he 


took in the active campaigns beyond the borders of the State. 
In November, 1776, he was one of four delegates elected to 
represent Prince George's county at the first constitutional con- 
vention, and assisted in framing the first Constitution of the 
"State of Maryland." In November, 1780, he was elected to 
the State Legislature. The elections for members of that body 
were annual, and Walter Bowie was returned to the House in 
1781-82-83-84, when his brother, Robert, and his first cousin, 
Fielder Bowie, were elected two of his associates. These 
three Bowies continued to be elected in 1785-86-87-88-89-90, 
when Robert and Fielder dropped out for a while, but Walter 
continued to hold his seat in the House until 1801, when he 
was sent to the State Senate. In 1786 he was one of "the 
electors for the United States Senator." In 1791 he was 
appointed a justice of the peace. In 1794 tne Governor com- 
missioned him colonel of militia. In 1802 he resigned from 
the State Senate and was elected a representative to the Ninth 
United States Congress, to fill the unexpired term of William 
Richard Sprigg. In 1793, at a County Convention held in 
Upper Marlborough, Colonel Thomas Contee presiding, reso- 
lutions were passed "urging Mr. Walter Bowie to stand for 
re-election as the Republican candidate for Congress from this 
district." He was elected, served until March, 1805, and then 
refused to accept a third nomination. After a long and con- 
tinuous career of thirty-five years, his death occurred, and he 
was buried at "Locust Grove." 

Walter Bowie married, May 16, 1771, Mary, born No- 
vember, 1747, died May 16, 18 12, daughter of Benjamin and 
Elizabeth (Townley) Brookes, who were married in 1745 by 
the Rev. John Eversfield. Benjamin Brookes lived near Marl- 
borough, and is buried at the church in that village. Children 
of Mr. and Mrs. Bowie: 1. Margaret, born March 22, 1772. 
2. William, see forward. 3. Daniel, born March 7, 1779, died 


1843. 4. Elizabeth, born April n, 1781, died August 17, 
1810. 5. Walter, born 1785, died 1879. - Juliet Matilda, 
born 1788. 

William Bowie, son of Walter and Mary (Brookes) 
Bowie, was born at "Locust Grove," Prince George's county, 
Maryland, January 29, 1776. He inherited a large property 
from his father and administered the latter's estate. He is 
described as a man of sound judgment and business capacity. 
He was the only one of his direct line who did not actively 
engage in politics, though he evidently took an interest in 
them, as is shown by the Governor appointing him a justice 
of the peace in 1808-10, also a member of the Levy Court, 
in 1820. At a convention held in Marlborough, in 1825, 
Dr. Joseph Kent, then Governor presiding, William Bowie 
was selected as a delegate to represent his county at a 
State convention to convene in Baltimore, for the purpose of 
considering plans for chartering the Chesapeake and Ohio 
canal. He was always a Democrat, and an attendant of the 
Episcopal church. On December 14, 1802, he married (first) 
Kitty Beans Duckett, born December 4, 1783, the only child 
of Baruch and Mary (Beans) Duckett. Children: 1. Wil- 
liam Duckett, see forward. 2. Mary Margaret, born October 
23, 1806, died June 2, 1809. 3. Eliza Duckett, born October 
19, 1809, died April 20, 1846. 4. Walter Baruch, born Sep- 
tember 8, 181 1, died October 1 1, 1832. 5. Kitty, born January 
11, 1816. 6. Robert, born December 23, 1817, died Septem- 
ber 13, 18 18. Mrs. Bowie died August n, 18 19. Mr. Bowie 
married (second), March 27, 1822, Anne Duckett Mullikin, 
born March 23, 1788, daughter of Belt Mullikin and Mary 
(Duckett) Mullikin, and granddaughter of James and Charity 
(Belt) Mullikin. Mr. Bowie died September 10, 1826. 

William Duckett Bowie, eldest child of William and 
Kitty Beans (Duckett) Bowie, was born at "Fairview, M Prince 


George's county, Maryland, October 7, 1803. His grandfather, 
Baruch Duckett, devised him a valuable estate near Colling- 
ton, where he settled after leaving college, but by the death 
of his two brothers, and by purchasing the interests of his 
sisters, he came into the possession of "Fairview," which he 
then made his home. He was his father's executor, and by 
the will of his uncle, Daniel Bowie, inherited all of the latter's 
land, which, with his own property, made him one of the 
wealthiest planters in Prince George's county. A tall, hand- 
some man, with bright, dark eyes and strong features, endowed 
with a clear, vigorous and well-balanced mind, he was yet 
more highly esteemed for the sound principles which added 
greater lustre to his character. So generally was his worth 
appreciated, that he might have occupied some of the highest 
official positions had his ambition been for public life. 
Although ever interested in political matters, and a forcible 
speaker, his tastes led him mostly to the retired paths of his 
well-regulated plantations, and the comforts of domestic life, 
though on several occasions he was induced to allow his name 
to be brought before the people. In 1830, he and his uncle, 
Walter Bowie, Jr., were appointed by the Governor, mem- 
bers of the Levy Court. In 1831, he was a delegate to the 
Congressional Convention. In 1838 he was nominated by the 
Democrats for the Legislature, but defeated by his cousin, 
General Thomas F. Bowie, the Whig candidate. Again the 
following year he was defeated by General Bowie, but in 
1840 he overcame the large Whig vote and was elected to 
the House of Delegates, in which he served two terms. He 
was then pitted against that old veteran Whig leader, Robert 
W. Bowie, of "Mattaponi," who was considered by his party 
to be almost invincible, but was triumphantly elected to the 
State Senate, and re-elected at the expiration of his term. 
He was among the first to recognize the benefits to be derived 


by his community if a railroad should be built through South- 
ern Maryland, and to his efforts, jointly with those of his son, 
Oden, and their relatives, Robert, Walter and Thomas F. 
Bowie, is due the construction of the Baltimore & Potomac 
Railroad. When that company was organized he was elected 
one of its directors, and was regularly re-elected by the stock- 
holders for a number of years. The Governor appointed him 
a colonel of militia, and later commissioned him general of 
the State troops, but until the day of his death he was known 
as "Colonel" William D. Bowie. 

William Duckett Bowie married (first), February 8, 
1825, at "Bellefield," Eliza Mary, daughter of Benjamin, Sr., 
and Rachel Sophia (West) Oden. She died in 1849 and he 
married (second), January 7, 1854, Mary Oden, his first 
wife's half-sister, daughter of Benjamin, Sr., and Harriet 
Black (West) Oden, the latter a sister of the first Mrs. Oden. 
Children of first wife: Oden, see forward; Catherine, born 
1828, died November 8, 1883; William Duckett, Jr., born No- 
vember, 1830, died February 2, 1888; Christiana Sophia, born 
1835 ; Walter Baruch, born August 26, 1836, died February 
17, 1837. Children of second wife: Harriet Oden, Mary, 
Eliza and Laura. Shortly after his second marriage Colonel 
Bowie conveyed "Fairview" to his eldest son, Oden Bowie, 
and removed to "Bellefield," near Croom, in Nottingham dis- 
trict, the lovely old Colonial home of his second wife, and it 
was here that he spent the remainder of his years, leaving it 
for no length of time until the winter before his death, which 
he spent in Baltimore. He was an enthusiastic breeder of 
stock, and his Southdown sheep and Hereford cattle were 
famous throughout the State. His wife died in Baltimore, 
in March, 1873, an d IS buried at St. Thomas' Church, Croom. 
Colonel Bowie died at "Bellefield," July 18, 1873, and is 
interred at "Fairview." Benjamin Oden, Sr., father of both 


of Colonel Bowie's wives, was a very large landowner. When 
a young man he had charge of some of the mercantile interests 
of Stephen West, accumulated much property, and married 
two of Mr. West's daughters. He then bought "Bellefield," 
which had originally been the property of Patrick Sim, ances- 
tor of Governor Thomas Sim Lee, and which was then known 
as "Sim's Delight." Mr. Oden was married at "The Wood- 
yard," the famous old home of the Wests, January 27, 1791, 
by Rev. William Duke, who also officiated at his second wed- 
ding, August 22, 181 3, when he married the younger sister. 
He was born in 1762, died in 1829. The West family is an 
old one in Maryland, tracing their lineage back for centuries 
to an English peer, Lord De La Ware. The first of the name 
to emigrate was Stephen West, son of Sir John West, of 
Houghton, Buckinghamshire, England, who settled in Anne 
Arundel county, Maryland, and married Martha Hall, about 
1720. Their son, Stephen West, Jr., married Hannah, daugh- 
ter of Captain Williams, of Wales, and his wife, Christiana 
Black, of Scotland. Captain Williams bought from his wife's 
brother, a Mr. Black, of London, "The Woodyard," which 
was a large estate on which Henry Darnall, brother-in-law of 
Lord Baltimore, had built an enormous brick house. He was 
land commissioner under the lord proprietor, and named his 
plantation "The Delight of the Darnalls." At his death it 
passed to Mr. Black, of London, a relative and a large creditor 
of Henry Darnall, from whom it was conveyed to his niece, 
Hannah Williams, who married Stephen West, Jr., and thus 
became "West property." The house was probably the largest 
in Southern Maryland, surrounded by a park and English 
shrubbery, but was destroyed by fire shortly after the Civil 

Governor Oden Bowie, son of William Duckett and Eliza 
Mary (Oden) Bowie, was born in Prince George's county, 


Maryland, December 10, 1826, died December 4, 1894. He 
was educated by a private tutor at home until nine years of 
age, when, upon the death of his mother, he was sent to the 
preparatory department of St. John's College, Annapolis, at 
that time under the charge of the distinguished Professor 
Elwell. He remained at St. John's three years, and at twelve 
years of age attended St. Mary's College, Baltimore, where 
in July, 1845, he graduated as valedictorian of his class. 
Shortly afterward he began the study of law, but on the break- 
ing out of the Mexican War, in 1846, he enlisted as a private 
in the Baltimore and Washington Battalion, commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel William H. Watson, and was promoted 
to a lieutenancy at the battle of Monterey, where he was highly 
complimented for gallantry by General Taylor. President 
Polk subsequently appointed Lieutenant Bowie senior cap- 
tain of the only voltigeur regiment (one of the ten new United 
States regiments then raised by act of Congress) ever in the 
United States service. Captain Bowie's health, however, 
proved unequal to the rigor of military life, and he was com- 
pelled to return home before the end of the war. Upon his 
return from Mexico, he devoted himself to farming, and in 
spite of his active business and political career managed to find 
time for agricultural pursuits. He had several of the finest 
stock farms in the county, breeding largely thoroughbred 
horses, Devon cattle, Southdown and Cotswold sheep. 

His business life involved many important and respon- 
sible trusts. In i860 he was made president of the Baltimore 
& Potomac Railroad Company, and at once proceeded to push 
that enterprise with his customary energy, having several sec- 
tions of the road under contract in 1861, when the work was 
interrupted by the outbreak of the Civil War. On the return 
of peace the construction of the road was recommended, and 
was soon completed under Mr. Bowie's intelligent manage- 


ment. In 1873 ne was elected president of the Baltimore City 
Passenger Railway Company. When he assumed the presi- 
dency of this corporation its stock was selling at $14, with a 
par value of $25, no dividends had been declared for two 
years, the company owed the city a debt of over $100,000 for 
arrearages of park tax, and the road stock was in a wretched 
condition. Later, stockholders received regular dividends, 
and the equipment of the road was of the best character. In 
1870 he was elected president of the Maryland Jockey Club, 
then organized, and through his exertions the course at Pim- 
lico was bought and established. In order to connect the city 
and course more closely, the Arlington & Pimlico Railroad 
Company was organized in January, 1881, with John Merry- 
man as president. Mr. Merryman was ill when elected, and 
was confined to his house all winter, but during his sickness 
the road was built through the energetic efforts of Mr. Bowie, 
and the first train ran over it May 14, 1881. 

In politics Mr. Bowie was always a Democrat, and his 
political career commenced in Prince George's county in 1847, 
when he was nominated for the House of Delegates on the 
Democratic ticket, and although not of age on Election Day, 
was beaten by only ten votes in that strong Whig county. At 
the following election, in 1849, he was elected to the House, 
the only Democrat from the county, his three colleagues be- 
ing Whigs. After this he withdrew entirely from active 
politics until 1861, when he was nominated as the "peace 
candidate" for the Senate, but the polls were seized by the 
military, and the Democrats were not allowed to vote. In 
1864 he was nominated as the Democratic candidate for lieu- 
tenant governor, but was beaten by the soldier vote in the field. 
Mr. Bowie was chairman of the Democratic State Central 
Committee throughout the war, and was one of the principal 
negotiators with Governor Swann in regaining control of the 


State for the Democrats. He was a delegate to the Chicago 
State Democratic Convention which nominated McClellan 
for the Presidency in 1864, was then appointed the member 
of the Democratic State Committee from Maryland, and it 
was through his exertions and influence that the Democratic 
State Convention of 1868 was held in Baltimore. In 1867 he 
was elected to the State Senate, where he became chairman 
on the committee on federal relations and executive nomina- 
tions, member of the committee on internal improvements, and 
other important standing committees. This was a very im- 
portant legislative session, and Mr. Bowie rendered valuable 
and efficient service in the consideration and determination 
of the many great public questions of the hour. It was at this 
session that an effort was made to annul the charter of the 
Baltimore & Potomac Railroad, and the life of the road was 
only saved by the energy and ability of Mr. Bowie. In 1867 
he was elected governor by a majority of nearly forty-two 
thousand votes, leading largely the remainder of the Demo- 
cratic State ticket. Governor Bowie's administration was of 
a most successful character, and was marked by many practical 
and important achievements. Among them may be mentioned 
the settlement of the oyster difficulties with Virginia, the 
collection of the arrearages of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
the repayment by the United States of large sums of money 
advanced by the State, and the obtainment of large quantities 
of arms and artillery from the Federal government. Not the 
least of the practical results of his administration was the 
wonderful change produced in the condition of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio canal, which was metamorphosed from a finan- 
cial wreck into an interest-paying enterprise. Governor 
Bowie joined the Masonic order in 1870, and was a Master 
Mason. He was a member of the Episcopal church. 



Governor Bowie married, December 3, 1851, Alice, 
daughter of Charles H. and Rosalie Eugenia (Calvert) Car- 
ter, of "Goodwood," Prince George's county, Maryland, the 
latter of whom was a daughter of George Calvert, of River- 
dale, a descendant of the early proprietors of Maryland. 


"V^THILE many of our countrymen owe their success to 
intense concentration upon one line of effort, and while, 
indeed, concentration is a quality of the highest value, yet 
among the real leaders of American enterprise there often 
appears a man so endowed by nature with a genius for organi- 
zation and management as to be able to carry on with ease 
and success a variety of momentous undertakings. Howard 
Munnikhuysen was one of these specially favored individuals, 
and no list of the important men of the Monumental City 
could be complete without a sketch of his life and career, a 
man peculiarly useful and successful in every direction in 
which his preference took him. 

Born in Harford county, Maryland, June 19, 1842, he 
was the son of Dr. W. T. Munnikhuysen, of Bel Air, Mary- 
land, a prominent physician. Dr. Munnikhuysen's father was a 
member of the old Holland family of that name, coming to 
America about the year 1775 from Amsterdam, and settling 
in Baltimore, where he became a prosperous merchant and 
established a line of ships that traded extensively with for- 
eign ports. His wife was a Mary Howard, whose ancestors 
were prominent in the annals of Maryland. 

Howard Munnikhuysen received his early education at 
the public schools and the University of Maryland, from 
which he graduated in 1863. He then studied law under 
Henry D. Fernandis, at Bel Air, Maryland, and in 1864 came 
to Baltimore, where he practiced for some time on his own 
account. He became associated 'with Robert D. Morrison 
and the law firm of Morrison, Munnikhuysen & Bond was 
formed, Nicholas P. Bond being the third member. On Mr. 
Morrison's death the firm name was changed to Munnikhuy- 
sen, Bond & Duffy, the latter being Edward Duffy. 

rw. / /%- . 


Mr. Munnikhuysen's rise in the profession was rapid, 
and was largely due to his industry and his conscientious ef- 
forts to master the science of law. He was noted for his apti- 
tude in grappling with details and for his accurate and keen 
perception and judgment, and possessing that judicial instinct 
which makes its way quickly through immaterial details to 
the essential points upon which the determination of a cause 
must turn, he was soon one of the foremost corporation law- 
yers at the bar. 

Belonging to that class of distinctively representative 
American men who aim to promote public progress while 
advancing individual prosperity, he became counsel for, and 
part owner in many useful and profitable enterprises which 
contributed largely to the industrial growth of Baltimore. 
Street railways received much of his attention, and he was 
instrumental in the introduction and establishment of the first 
cable and electric systems in Baltimore. His first venture in 
this line was to project the Highlandtown & Point Breeze 
Railway, which extended from City Hall to Highlandtown, 
and which was afterwards absorbed by the City & Suburban 
Railway Company. His projection of this line was due in 
large measure to the fact that he represented various real estate 
interests at Highlandtown, most of the property belonging to 
the Pancoast estate, and he also was counsel for a Philadelphia 
party who owned much land in that vicinity. The next street 
railway enterprise with which he was connected resulted in 
the introduction of rapid transit in this city. With the assist- 
ance of others he secured through the Legislature a charter 
which empowered the old People's Railway Company to use 
new methods of traction, to build new roads and to buy others 
then in existence, and obtaining a controlling interest in the 
old Citizens' Railway, of which James S. Hagerty was 
president, he consolidated the two roads under the name of 


the Baltimore Traction Company. In this enterprise he had 
associated with him Messrs. Widener and Elkins, of Philadel- 
phia, and the Messrs. Hambleton of this city, and these horse- 
car lines were soon afterward converted into cable roads. He 
was also actively interested in the introduction of modern street 
railway in Washington, D. C, and was president of the sys- 
tem in that city up to two years previous to his death, which 
occurred September 6, 1896. After retiring from the presi- 
dency of the Washington company he gave his attention to 
the development of the Pancoast estate at Highlandtown, 
which under his management greatly increased in value. 

Mr. Munnikhuysen was a splendid type of the alert, 
energetic, progressive business man, to whom obstacles serve 
rather as an impetus to renewed labor than a bar to progress. 
Quick and decisive in his methods, keenly alive to any business 
proposition and its possibilities, he found that pleasure in the 
solution of a difficult problem without which there can be no 
real success, as otherwise there is indicated a lack of that 
intense interest which must be the foundation of all progress 
in commercial and industrial lines. Both in public and pri- 
vate life Mr. Munnikhuysen was ever unostentatious, always 
ready to aid the needy and accord to the laborer his hire. 
Among the public men who were his contemporaries he stood 
as an example of honesty and patriotism, equaled by few and 
excelled by none. During the whole period of his public life 
he exhibited a consistency and uprightness of conduct which 
won for him the admiration of his fellow-citizens. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Munnikhuysen married Bessie A. Pancoast, 
daughter of Dr. Joseph Pancoast, one of the most celebrated 
surgeons of his day in Philadelphia. 

A genial, companionable man, Mr. Munnikhuysen liked 
to entertain his friends, and his handsome home on Charles 
street was the scene of many brilliant social events, both he 

MD- 26 


and his family being social favorites. He was a member of 
the Maryland Club for more than thirty years. His country 
seat at Catonsville is one of the show places of Maryland. It 
is impossible to estimate the value of such men to a city. Their 
influence ramifies all through the commercial and industrial 
life, extending itself to the whole social economy. Every man, 
from the toiling laborer to the merchant prince, receives bene- 
fit from the enterprises which they devised and established; 
they need no eulogy, for the simple record of their careers tells 
its own story. 

! 9 



T171THOUT the usual preliminary training, James 
Malcolm began the study of law, and by reason of per- 
severance and ambition finally overcame all obstacles, and 
was admitted to practice at the Baltimore bar. For twenty 
years thereafter he practiced his profession at that bar, and 
when, on May 10, 1864, his death was announced in the vari- 
ous courts of the city, Superior, Common Pleas, and City Cir- 
cuit, each vied with the other in rendering honor to his mem- 
ory. All these courts adjourned until after the funeral as a 
special mark of respect, and at a meeting of the Baltimore bar 
resolutions were adopted extolling the many virtues of their 
fallen comrade and acclaiming him as one whom they de- 
lighted to honor. 

James Malcolm was born August 15, 1819, the son of 
Peter and Janet (Bell) Malcolm. Mrs. Malcolm's brother, 
Henry Bell, was renowned for having been the first to apply 
steam successfully as a motive power to machinery in Great 
Britain. James Malcolm began his active career as a clerk 
in the mercantile business operated by his father, but he was 
ambitious to become a lawyer, and finally obtained oppor- 
tunity to read law under the direction of J. Mason Campbell, 
of the Baltimore bar. He read and studied in Mr. Camp- 
bell's office, and finally, after passing the required examina- 
tions, he was admitted to the Baltimore bar. The time con- 
sumed in preparation for this examination was unusually 
short, but the years which followed were years also of appli- 
cation and study, and if he lost a case it was not through lack 
of proper knowledge of the law as laid down in text book and 
report. His capacity for work was enormous, and he gave to 
all his early cases such intense study and application that he 
grew in learning as well as in experience very rapidly. He 


was noted for his loyalty to a client's interest, and as he grew 
in argument, alive in strength, and in knowledge of court 
procedure, he became a most formidable antagonist. Finally 
came the time when he was the peer of most of his contem- 
poraries in ability and learning. Courteous always to the court 
and to his legal brethren, he received equal courtesy in return, 
and his relations with his brethren were unusually cordial. 
Though associated with William Pinckney Whyte in crim- 
inal law, he was never known to take but one criminal case. 
He had a great aversion to dishonesty and crime of any de- 
scription, and could never be induced to defend malefactors 
in the criminal courts. He was a man of a strong, upright 
and sterling character and unimpeachable integrity. He could 
not tolerate a lie and never broke his word nor deceived anyone 
in the smallest degree. No man in Baltimore had more friends 
than he, being gracious and kind to all who came in contact 
with him. He belonged to that coterie of prominent lawyers 
who made the Baltimore bar so famous in pre-war times by 
their great knowledge of the law and by their courtesy both 
in and out of court. He counted among his intimate friends 
such men as Severn Teakle Wallis, I. Nevett Steele, Mahon, 
and other men of distinction. He was a Southerner to the 
backbone, and though he did not believe in slavery, nor ever 
held slaves, all his sympathies were with the Confederacy in 
the great struggle between the States. James Malcolm was a 
devout and active member of the congregation of the old 
Central Presbyterian Church. He served for a number of 
years on its board of trustees, and it is said of him that he 
never failed to attend Sunday services. 

James Malcolm married Rachel C. Cole, daughter of 
Hamilton H. and Evaline M. Cole, and granddaughter of 
George Milemon, architect of the old court house. 

He was the soul of constancy, and to his dying day re- 



tained the friendship of those with whom he came in con- 
tact. He was a sound adviser, and whether considered as 
professional man, citizen, or friend, no man ever passed from 
the Baltimore bar more generally regretted than James Mal- 
colm, who passed to the jurisdiction of the Great Court from 
his home on Charles street, in the city of Baltimore, May 
10, 1864. 


AT a memorial service held in the Anne Arundel County 
Court House in honor of a fallen comrade, James Russell 
Brashears, an Associate Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of 
Maryland, a calleague, said in part: 

In connection with this gathering here today, 1 cannot but recall that 
other gathering nine years ago in the Court House at Ellicott City, when 
Judge Brashears was nominated. It so happened that the privilege was given 
to me, as one of the delegates to that convention, to place him in the nomina- 
tion, and the sincere sentiments and predictions then expressed at the outset 
of his judicial career, perfectly harmonize today with our tributes to that 
career, now ended. He was the unanimous choice of the Convention, and 
the representatives of all three counties of the circuit took pride in acclaiming 
him as the man of their choice, and in pointing to his splendid qualifications 
for the new honor that was being bestowed upon him. It was a happy 
occasion, not only in felicitation of the moment, but more especially because 
of the brightness of the prospect that lay before our nominee. That was the 
auspicious beginning of his judicial career, which, with the ripening of years, 
even increased in lustre and strength, and at its close stands out as a monu- 
ment to nobility of character and devotion to duty. Today it is in sad 
retrospection that we are gathered together to pay tribute to this noble life 
and this honored career, which had become an association and attachment 
to the hearts of all of us. Judge Brashears was a good man, and so pure 
and undefiled was his private life that it was inevitable that his professional 
and judicial career should reflect the same enobling characteristics. He 
possessed in a marked degree the four traits which Socrates said belonged to a 
judge: "He heard courteously; he answered wisely; he considered soberly, 
and decided impartially." Moreover, he fully measured up also to Lord 
Bacon's description of a judge: "He was more learned than witty; more 
reverend than plausible ; more advised than confident ; above all things in- 
tegrity was his portion and proper virtue." 

While he was beloved by all who knew him, by laymen as well as by 
his brethren of the Bench and Bar, it was to the younger members that he 
especially endeared himself by his kindly and helpful interest in them and 
their proper endeavors. This was true though of all persons needing en- 
couragement and help, for having himself learned from his own experience 


what it means to make one's way in life, from humble beginnings, the splen- 
did qualities of his heart and mind were broadened as he ripened in experience, 
and gave him a rare understanding of and sympathy with all those with 
struggles and difficulties to overcome. 

Always kindly and affable, and even gentle of disposition, he neverthe- 
less commanded unbounded respect and the evildoer knew and feared him 
as his uncompromising foe. He was a man of positive convictions on funda- 
mental principles and conception of duty, and of unbending courage in 
standing up for them, so that under his administration the noble and best 
traditions of this Honorable Court have been fully maintained. He was 
a good man, an able and conscientious judge, an enlightened and public- 
spirited citizen, a devoted and dutiful husband and father, a loyal and sincere 
friend, he was, all in all, a true Christian, and more than that could not be 

Said an eminent judge: 

His high character, unblemished life and great modesty could be studied 
with profit by the young men now at the Bar and entering public life. Many 
of our young men at their entrance into public life may feel that they have 
to, in order that they may achieve success, be of the world, worldly, yet in 
this politically tempestuous county there lived and died a man who, starting 
life with few advantages, except high character and industry, guided by 
true Christian teachings, so retiring, so modest, that I feel perfectly safe in 
saying that during his life he never uttered a word that could not have been 
with propriety spoken in the presence of his wife, mother or young son, and 
yet his county loved to honor him and he held very nearly every position of 
trust and honor that could be held by an attorney. 

From the day that Judge Brashears came to the Bar until the day of 
his death, he constantly grew in public esteem. He enjoyed the confidence 
of all the people regardless of party. At the first session of the Legislature 
at which he served, he was, with his modesty, freedom from all petty vices 
of the times, and his genial disposition to take his duties seriously, regarded 
as out of place in that body ; but in short time his sterling worth, hard work 
and high character advanced him to his proper place, and at the session of 
1894 he was chairman of the House Committee on Judicial Proceedings, the 
highest honor in that body that can come to an attorney. 

As State's attorney he was careful, prudent and a hard worker, con- 
stantly improving, until toward the close of his term he was a dangerous 


opponent, and during his term won several notable victories in the conviction 
of habitual violators of the law who had grown to believe they were immune 
from conviction. 

As Associate Judge of this circuit it is hardly necessary for me to speak 
after the eloquent words spoken of him by his colleague who served with 
him during the whole time he was on the Bench, and the members of this 
Bar who have spoken so beautifully of his work and exalted character. 

This was how the kindly-hearted, perfectly-poised, clear- 
headed, clean-minded judge was regarded by the members of 
the profession he long adorned. With a mind without bias 
he worked hard to master cases in order that he might reach 
a proper conclusion and decide each case according to the 
law and the facts, and his written opinions were clear and to 
the point. Outside the profession he had an admiring throng 
of friends in all walks of life, and when the end came the 
people of the Fifth Judicial Circuit mourned. 

Judge Brashears came of good, sturdy stock, his people 
were settled in Lower Anne Arundel many years before the 
Revolutionary War, and six days after the Declaration of In- 
dependence the Brashears and Gardiner boys were volunteer- 
ing for service in the companies of Captains Tillard and Chew, 
then forming at West River to fight for our independence. 
The American ancestor, Benjamin Brasseur, came from 
France to Virginia, and thence to Maryland, in 1658, and 
was naturalized an English subject, December 4, 1662. Soon 
afterward he died intestate, but his widow, Mary, whose 
death occurred soon after that of her husband's, left a will 
in which she gave her residence as "The Clefts." Benjamin 
Brasseur, the founder, was commissioned a judge of Calvert 
county, May 21, 1661, according to Volume II, page 424, 
"Archives of Maryland." The line of descent from Judge 
Benjamin Brasseur to Judge James Russell Brashears, to whose 
memory this review is dedicated, is through the founder's 
son Robert, his son Samuel, his son John, his son John (2), 


his son William, his son Robert, his son John William, his 
son Judge James R. Brashears. 

The records of the land commissioner's office show that 
284J/2 acres, a part of Anne Arundel Manor, was surveyed, 
June 12, 1769, for Mr. John Brashears (the anglicised form 
of the name) and on September 1, 1771, was patented to 
Mr. John Brashears. This land was devised by him to his 
sons, Benjamin, William and Jonathan, by his will, dated 
August 10, 1771. William Brashears, great-grandfather of 
Judge James R. Brashears, was the last of the name to own 
a part of "Brashears Purchase," and when he conveyed his 
interest to strangers he reserved the family burial ground. 
John William Brashears, father of Judge James R. Brashears, 
was a farmer, a strong and able man, who served for a time 
as register of wills of Anne Arundel county. 

James Russell Brashears, son of John William and Willie 
E. Brashears, was born at West River, Anne Arundel county, 
Maryland, March 13, 1858, died August 19, 1917, at his home 
in Annapolis, Maryland. He attended public school and West 
River Academy until eighteen years of age, working on the 
home farm during vacation periods. At the age of eighteen 
he came to Annapolis, a strong, well-developed, modest, coun- 
try boy, entering his father's office as deputy register of wills, 
virtually running the office. Keen and alert of mind, he soon 
saw that the returns from farm labor were small in com- 
parison, and he determined to study law. Upon completing 
his law preparation, he was admitted to the bar, and began 
practice in the year 1887. Said a colleague of the bench in 
referring to this period : 

This member of the Court enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with Judge 
Brashears before his admission to the Bar, and, together as young men just 
beginning life, we talked of our hopes and aims and plans for the future. 
Like most of the boys of the Civil War period, we had not enjoyed many 
educational advantages and agreed that we could hardly hope to ever enjoy 


any of the honors then held by the older distinguished members of the bar, 
while both of us, having the natural reverence of the country boy for persons 
in high place, looked upon the members of the Court as persons apart from 
ordinary mortals only to be approached with awe and reverence. 

At that time Judge Brashears was a young man of pleasing appearance, 
fair of form, physically a giant in strength, gentle manners and pleasing 
address, he inspired confidence and rapidly grew in public esteem. 

His acquaintance gained in the office of Register of Wills 
was very large all over the county, and practice came to him 
in abundance. This acquaintance never grew less, for he held 
his friends, who constantly increased in number, becoming in 
time a valuable asset both in a professional and political way. 
He began early to make his influence felt in Democratic party 
councils, and beginning with the year 1889, and continuing 
until 1 901, his name was on this party ticket at every State 
election. In 1889 he was elected to the Maryland House of 
Delegates, and was thrice re-elected, an unusual honor in Anne 
Arundel county. At the general election of 1895, although 
most of the Democratic candidates were defeated, he was 
elected State's Attorney, serving most ably a full term of four 
years. In 1901 he was again elected to the House of Dele- 
gates, his fourth term. During his term he served as tem- 
porary speaker on committees on Ways and Means, and chair- 
man on Judiciary, the ranking committee of the House; 
chairman of the Committee on Chesapeake Bay and Its Tribu- 
taries, and chairman of the Committee on Temperance. 
While a member of the General Assembly he absolutely re- 
fused all passes, neither would he accept an allowance for 

In 1907 he was elected State Senator for a four years' 
term, but had hardly entered upon his senatorial duties when 
he was appointed by Governor Austin L. Crothers to fill the 
vacancy upon the bench of the Fifth Judicial Circuit Court, 
caused by the death of Judge James Revell. The appointment 


was made April i, 1908, and under it Judge Brashears served 
until the next general election, when he was elected to suc- 
ceed himself, for the full term of fifteen years. He had been 
nominated for the office by the Democrats of the circuit com- 
prising the counties of Anne Arundel, Howard and Carroll, 
and had the endorsement of the Republican Convention, a 
splendid tribute to receive from political opponents. With his 
elevation to the bench, he practically retired from all political 

He was truly one of those sincere, noble characters who 
made the world better for having lived in it. In his public 
career, as in his private life, he exemplified the highest ideals, 
and as one who loved his fellowmen he was, in turn, loved 
and honored by them. He was in the truest sense a Christian 
gentleman, and, as one of the pastors at the funeral services 
so feelingly said: "The Lord abode with him." Judge 
Brashears was thoroughly practical and an accomplished man 
of affairs. His boyhood experience on the farm, his later 
experience in the Register of Wills office, in the active practice 
of his profession, as State's Attorney, as member of the House 
of Delegates for four terms and as State Senator, and lastly 
his judicial career, his interest in which was shared by his 
delight in his home farm, all served to broaden his knowledge 
of men as well as of affairs, and, combined with his ster- 
ling integrity and unswerving devotion to duty, splendidly 
equipped him for the invaluable service he rendered to his 
people. He had, especially, rare discernment in picking out 
the true from the false, and stood as a veritable bulwark 
against sharp practices and unrighteous machinations, just as 
he stood ever ready to extend the strong arm of the law (and 
with justice tempered with mercy) to all those who needed 
and merited its help and protection. 


Judge Brashears was a member and a trustee of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Annapolis, his funeral being 
from that church, where a great throng from city, county and 
State gathered to pay last homage to one whom they loved. 
He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and of the Improved Order of Red Men, and of the various 
bar associations, local, State and National. 

Judge Brashears married, December 22, 1891, Matilda 
Brown, daughter of ex-Mayor James Brown, of Annapolis. 
Mrs. Brashears survives her husband with an only son, Lieu- 
tenant James H. B. Brashears, a graduate of St. John's Col- 
lege, now second lieutenant of the United States Marine Corps, 
who was stationed at Quantico, Virginia, at the time of his 
father's death. 

The memorial service held in honor of the memory of 
Judge Brashears was presided over by Judges Moss and For- 
sythe; eulogies were offered by lawyers and judges, and the 
following resolutions unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, The Supreme Ruler of the Universe has in His Divine 
Providence seen fit to remove from our midst, Hon. James R. Brashears, 
late Associate Judge of this Court, and 

Whereas, In view of the cordial relations that existed between Judge 
Brashears and the members of the Bar, it is right, fit and proper, that a 
public acknowledgment by the Bench and Bar of his virtues, personal and 
legal qualities, should be made a matter of record. 

Therefore, Be It Resolved by the members of the Bar of the Circuit 
Court for Anne Arundel County, that we here express our deep regret at 
his untimely demise. 

Resolved, That in his association with the members of this Bar that he 
was always courteous, considerate, careful, kind and conscientious. 

Resolved, That in our belief, personal feelings or motives never entered 
into his mind in regard to any case before him, whether he was a friend or 


foe, and that we believe he held the scales of justice with such an even hand 
that a feather's weight would turn them. 

Resolved, That this Bar feels that his deatli was a distinct and sad 
loss to our community, and that we bow to his memory loyally with our 

Resolved, That in his high character, he was an ornament to the Bench 
of the State, and that his loss to the Bench, the State and the people of Anne 
Arundel County, is a deep regret to those who practiced before him as a 
Judge and who associated with him individually. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be entered upon the minutes 
of the Court and another be sent to his family. 


pEORGE STEWART BROWN, for nearly half a century 
the active head of the famous old banking house of Alex- 
ander Brown & Sons, in addition to the possession of the 
exceptional financial ability inherited from his father and 
grandfather, had talents which fitted him for public life, and 
for many years served with distinction as Paymaster-General 
of the State. He was identified with almost all the important 
financial and philanthropic interests of Baltimore, and to each 
one he proved himself a tower of strength. 

George Stewart Brown, son of George and Isabella (Mc- 
Lanahan) Brown, and grandson of Alexander Brown, the 
founder of the house, was born May 7, 1834, in Baltimore, 
where he received his academical education at McNally's 
Institute. At the age of sixteen he entered his father's office, 
and at twenty was admitted to membership of the firm. Upon 
the death of his father, in 1859, he became the head of the 
house and the only surviving member of the firm. In 1867 
W. H. Graham became associated with him, and in 1872 
W. G. Bowdoin was taken into the firm, the name of which 
remained, as always, unchanged. 

In 1868 Mr. Brown was appointed by Governor Swann 
Paymaster-General of the State, and was continued in office 
for many years, being reappointed by several succeeding 
occupants of the gubernatorial chair. His period of service 
was marked by the greatest efficiency, and he always mani- 
fested a peculiarly strong interest in the militia. He twice 
served on the Harbor Committee, and also the Committee 
on Manufactures. Among other positions of trust which he 
held were those of president of the Baltimore & Havana 
Steamship Company, director in the National Mechanics' 
Bank, the old Calvert Sugar Refining Company, and the 


Union Railroad Company, and vice-president of the Canton 
Company. An active business man, General Brown engaged 
in many forms of enterprise, and in politics was a leader in 
the reform movement of 1859, and in similar movements in 
1875 an d 1889, serving in the last named year as chairman 
of the Nominating Committee of One Hundred. He was long 
identified with the Young Men's Christian Association, and 
was one of the most liberal contributors to its support. For 
many years he was one of the managers of the House of 
Refuge, the Blind Asylum, and the Maryland Bible Society, 
and was also a trustee of the Peabody Institute. Next to his 
anxiety for the moral and social welfare of his native city 
was his interest in all that could increase its beauty, and as 
Park Commissioner he rendered most valuable aid in this 
direction. Politically he was a Democrat, although at all 
times preferring "the right man in the right place/' inde- 
pendent of party considerations. He was for many years 
identified with the First Presbyterian Church, on Madison 
street, to the work of which he was a liberal contributor. 

General Brown married, in 1857, Harriet Eaton, of New 
York, and they became the parents of a son, to whom they 
gave the name of his great-grandfather, Alexander. General 
Brown was of striking appearance, being tall and straight as 
an arrow, with a full grey beard. He was sparsely built, but 
active, and always fond of athletic sports. He was one of the 
organizers of the Elkridge Hunt Club, and until a few years 
previous to his death was an ardent follower of the hounds, 
keeping pace with men many years his junior. More recently 
he turned his attention to yachting, and on board the "Bally- 
mena" traveled all along the North American Atlantic coast. 
He also spent much time in Europe, his visits being frequent 
and of considerable duration. 

General Brown died May 19, 1890, at his Baltimore resi- 



dence, mourned by the entire community for the exercise of 
those qualities which made him, as a man and a citizen, a 
worthy successor of noble and public-spirited ancestors, a pil- 
lar of the prosperity of his native city, and a motive power in 
her advancement. As a man, admirable in every relation of 
life, he has left an honored memory, honored especially for 
those good deeds which his modesty would fain have con- 
cealed, but for which multitudes bless his name. 


'"PHE family of Dawkins established itself at Over Norton, 
Oxfordshire, England, in the time of Henry VIII. One 
of the family who attained prominence as a sea general, as 
admirals were then called, fought under Blake when Jamaica 
was captured. Later he became one of Cromwell's major 
generals who helped govern England and was placed in charge 
of South Wales. Another of the family, who is praised by 
Dr. Johnson in Boswell's biography, devoted his wealth to 
two objects. A classical scholar and traveller, he fitted out 
an armed expedition, and re-discovered Palmyra, which had 
been lost for centuries to civilized eyes. His travelling com- 
panion, Wood, published a large folio volume narrating the 
journey. Subsequently James became a secret agent of the 
"Young Pretender," and represented him at the Court of 
Frederick the Great. He is mentioned with much praise in 
a book by Mr. Andrew Lang, entitled "Pickles, the Spy," 
which is a history of the "Young Pretender's" betrayal by some 
of his Scotch adherents. The founder of the family in Amer- 
ica was Joseph Dawkins, of Calvert county, Maryland, said 
to have been born in England, and to have come from Oxford- 
shire to Maryland about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Arms Gules, a lion passant or, between two roses in pale argent and 
as many flaunches of the second each charged with a lion rampant sable. 

Crest A dexter arm couped at the shoulder proper, holding a battle axe 
bendways or, the blade rose gules. 

Joseph Dawkins, the immigrant ancestor of the Daw- 
kins of Maryland, settled in Calvert county, in the year 1668, 
or prior thereto. Among the documents formerly belonging 
to the Lords of Baltimore, which were brought from England 
by Dr. William Hand Brown, and are now in the Maryland 

MD. 27 


Historical Society, is the Rent Roll of Calvert County, the 
original book used by the Lords Proprietors. On page 21 
appeared the following entry: "Hill Hall," 200 acres, sur- 
veyed April 11, 1668, for Joseph Dawkins and Robert An- 
drews. "Hill Hall" was probably the home plantation of 
Joseph Dawkins. He also acquired two other tracts known, 
respectively, as "Joseph's Reserve" and "Joseph's Place," as 
appears from the following entries in the Rent Roll, "Joseph's 
Place" containing 200 acres, surveyed November 24, 1682, for 
Joseph Edloe, situated on the north side of the Patuxent river 
and the west side of Leonard's creek, in possession of William 
Dawkins, and "Joseph's Reserve," 196 acres surveyed, Novem- 
ber 27, 1682, for Joseph Dawkins. 

(I) The founder of this family in America was Joseph 
Dawkins, of Calvert county, Maryland, said to have been 
born in England, and to have come from Oxfordshire to 
Maryland about the middle of the seventeenth century. He 
married Mary Hale. His will was probated May 9, 1685. 
Children: 1. Joseph, see forward. 2. William, married Ann 
Smith. 3. James. 4. Mary, became the wife of James Duke, 
of Calvert county, Maryland. 

(II) Joseph Dawkins, son of Joseph and Mary (Hale) 
Dawkins, was a resident of Calvert county, Maryland. He 
died in 1715, and his will was probated April 2, 171 5. He 

married Sarah . Children: 1. William, see forward. 

2. Joseph, of "Bachelor Hall." 3. James, born April 29, 
1708, of "Haphazard" and "Mary's Dukedom." 4. Mary. 
5. Sarah. 6. Margarett. 7. Dorcas. 

(III) William Dawkins, eldest son of Joseph and Sarah 
Dawkins, married Mary, daughter of General James Mackall. 
This marriage is recorded on page 86 of the Register of Christ 
Church Parish, Calvert county, as follows: "William Daw- 
kins intermarried with Mary Mackall, August 9th, 1720." 


General James Mackall, member of the House of Burgesses 
from Calvert county, Maryland, 171 2, and Chief Justice of 
Calvert county, 17 16, married Ann Brooke, daughter of 
Roger Brooke, born September 20, 1637; Justice, 1675 to 1684, 
and High Sheriff, 1684, and his second wife, Mary (Wolse- 
ley) Brooke. Roger Brooke was son of Robert Brooke, born 
June 3, 1602, in Southampton, England; B. A., Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, July 6, 1620, M.A., April 23, 1624; arrived in 
Maryland, June 30, 1650; commander of Charles county, 
Maryland, 1650; president of Provincial Council, 1652, act- 
ing Governor of Maryland, 1652; died July 20, 1655, and his 
second wife, Mary (Mainwaring) Brooke, daughter of Roger 
Mainwaring, Bishop of St. David's. William Dawkins died 
1756, and his will was probated November 20, 1756. Chil- 
dren of William and Mary Dawkins: 1. Ann, born August 
2, 1721; married a Mr. Elliott. 2. Sarah, born September 
18, 1723, died 1730. 3. Elizabeth, born April 19, 1725. 4. 
James, born January 15, 1726. 5. Joseph, born January 22, 
1728. 6. Mary, born November 10, 1730. 7. M. Dorcas, 
born March 20, 1732. 8. William, see forward. 9. Charles, 

born August 22, 1736; married Rebecca . 10. Rebecca, 

born May 3, 1738. n. Benjamin, born June 4, 1740. 12. 
Jesse, born July 21, 1742. 

(IV) William Dawkins, son of William and Mary 
(Mackall) Dawkins, of Calvert county, Maryland, was born 

August 3, 1734, an d died after 1786. He married . 

Children: 1. Rebecca, born December 2, 1759. 2. Joseph, 
see forward. 

(V) Joseph Dawkins, son of William Dawkins, was 

born about 1769. He married Mary , and they had 

one child, James, see forward. 

(VI) James Dawkins, son of Joseph and Mary Daw- 
kins, of Calvert county, Maryland, was born in 1793, an( ^ 


died March 6, 1826. He married, 1816, Mary Parran, daugh- 
ter of Alexander Parran, born 1757, died 1805, and his wife, 
Millie (King) Parran, born 1761, died 1818. Alexander 
Parran was a son of Young Parran, Associate Justice of Cal- 
vert county, 1747 to 1755; Chief Justice of Calvert county, 
1756 to 1769; member of the House of Burgesses, 1765 to 
1771, and his wife, Elizabeth (Smith) Parran. Young Par- 
ran was son of Alexander Parran, Chief Justice of Calvert 
county, 1700, and his wife, Mary (Young) Parran. Children 
of James and Mary (Parran) Dawkins: 1. Elizabeth Mary, 
born October 6, 18 17. 2. Alexander, born March 28, 1819. 
3. Young Parran, see forward. 4. Jane, born June 8, 1822. 5. 
Eliza Maria, born December 13, 1823. 6. Rebecca. 

(VII) Young Parran Dawkins, son of James and Mary 
(Parran) Dawkins, of St. Mary's county, Maryland, was born 
October 3, 1820, and died January 23, 1883. He was Judge 
Commissioner of the Orphans' Court, assessor, and held other 
offices. He married, May 26, 1842, Alethea Elizabeth Dor- 
sey, born 1824, died October 25, 1878, daughter of Walter and 
Ann (Ireland) Dorsey, of Calvert county, Maryland. Chil- 
dren: 1. James Alexander, born September 21, 1845; married 
(first) Melissa Polk Bryant, daughter of Joshua Bryant, of 
Harford county, Maryland; married (second) Mary Lizzie 
Deming, born June 12, 1857, daughter of Edward C. and 
Frances (Ghislen) Deming, of Norfolk, Virginia. Child by 
first marriage: James Arnold, born October 29, 1875, died 
June 27, 1876. Children by second marriage: Frances Ale- 
thea, born April 14, 1884; Young Parran, born April 19, 
1887; Mary Deming, born November 14, 1889, became the 
wife of Herbert S. Michael. 2. Mary, born August 30, 1849, 
died November 10, 1850. 3. Young Parran, born September 
23, 1856, died, unmarried, December 9, 1899. 4. Walter 
Ireland, born October 21, 1858; Associate Judge of the Su- 



premc Bench of Baltimore; former president of the Maryland 
State Bar Association. 5. Eva, born May 27, 1864, and died 
March 2, 191 7, was the wife of James S. Edelen, of Prince 
George county, Maryland. 


A WONDERFUL life ended September 7, 1917, with the 
passing of William S. Polk, of Baltimore, a nonagenarian 
in years, a leading man in the insurance field for half a cen- 
tury, an ex-naval officer and ex-army officer, and one of Balti- 
more's best-known and deeply-respected citizens. But it is 
not these facts that form his claim to be numbered with those 
men of eminence whose lives are the glory of the city of Balti- 
more, but his life of uprightness, his Christian character and 
his all-embracing charity. No pen could overdraw the beauty 
of the life now begun in a better clime. 

The Polk family is one of antiquity, tracing to early days 
in Scotland, the feudal barony of Pollock being held in the 
family in the time of King David, who reigned in the twelfth 

Arms Vert a saltire or, between three high horns argent, stringed gules, 
in the flanks and base. 

Crest A boar passant quarterly or, and vert transfixed through the 
shoulder by an arrow proper. 

Motto Andaciter et strenne. 

In the year 1269, Petrus de Pollok was one of the men 
of rank who under pressure submitted to Edward of England 
in the bond known as Ragman's Roll. Petrus de Pollok was 
succeeded by his son, Robert de Pollok, who married Agnes, 
daughter of Sir John Maxwell, Lord of Carlaverok, they the 
parents of a son, John Brecius de Pollok, who left a son, John 
de Pollok, designated in a charter by King James II. of Scot- 
land (December 12, 1439), as: "Nobilis sir Johannis de Pol- 
lok, fillius et Tires Brecius de Pollok." From this famous 
noble sprang the illustrious line of Pollok of that ilk. His 
ancestor was Charles Pollok. John de Pollok had a second 
son, Robert de Pollok, who received from King James II. 


the great land grant in New Scotland, as Ireland was 
then called. He became Sir Robert de Pollok, whose eldest 
son John inherited the estates in Old Scotland, while the 
youngest son Robert received the newly acquired lands in Ire- 
land, with the title of Sir Robert de Pollok, the name there 
always and until this day having been pronounced Polk by 
the natives, as it has continued to be by the descendants of 
the one who brought it to Maryland. 

In the year 1640, Sir Robert de Pollok, of Ireland, joined 
the Scotch Covenanters, whose commander-in-chief and gov- 
ernor of Dumbarton Castle was a relative of General Sir Alex- 
ander Leslie, one of the famous soldiers of that day. In 1646 
Sir George Maxwell, of Nestor Pollok, was married to Lady 
Arabella Stewart, lineal descendant of King Robert III. He 
was succeeded by his son, Thomas; and his second son, Robert 
Bruce Pollok, married the widow of Major Porter, of the 
English Army. According to the, best authorities, the lady 
was Miss Madeline Tasker and heiress to the estate of Morn- 
ing Hall in Ireland. She was closely related to the Countess 
of Mornington, and an aunt to the Duke of Wellington. 
Robert de Pollok had patented to him in 1687 certain estates 
in Dames Quarter, Somerset county, Maryland, which have 
descended in the family to the present generation. Robert 
Bruce Pollok (Polk) had eight children, the majority of 
whom married and left descendants who have been among 
Maryland's distinguished sons, and found in high position all 
through the West and South, a President of the United States 
bearing the name. The name of Robert Polk and that of his 
son appear in 1689 among the loyal subjects of Somerset 
county, Maryland, who addressed a letter to King William 
and Queen Mary. 

The line of descent from Robert Polk, the founder of 
the family in Maryland, is through his fifth son, Robert, who 


married a Miss Gillette. Their son, Captain Robert Polk, 
married Elizabeth Digby Peale, sister of Maryland's most 
famed artist, Charles Willson Peale. Captain Robert Polk 
commanded the sloop, "Robert Polk," and later the schooner, 
"Montgomery," during the Revolution, and during a desper- 
ate engagement between the "Montgomery" and English ves- 
sels in 1777 was mortally wounded. 

Charles Peale Polk, son of Captain Robert and Elizabeth 
Digby (Peale) Polk, inherited the artistic talent of the Peaks 
and became a celebrated artist. His son, David Peale Polk, 
was a distinguished officer of the United States in 181 2. His 
wife was Letitia (Stewart) Polk, of Maryland. Their son, 
William Stewart Polk, of Baltimore, was an honored repre- 
sentative of this branch of an honored family, and to him this 
review is dedicated. 

William Stewart Polk was born in Washington, D. C, in 
1827, and died at his home in Baltimore, Maryland, Septem- 
ber 7, 1 917. At the age of twelve years he was brought to 
Baltimore by his parents, and there ever afterward resided. 
He was a well-educated young man, his last years of training 
being in a Philadelphia school. His business career began in 
Baltimore as clerk in a large mercantile establishment. He 
continued in business until 1853, in which year he entered the 
naval service, being assigned to the United States steam frig- 
ate, "Saranac," as assistant paymaster, and he made a memor- 
able voyage to the Mediterranean, returning in 1856. Later 
he received an appointment to the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, where he was at the outbreak of the Civil W T ar. He was 
commissioned a captain of engineers by Governor Letcher, of 
Virginia, and served in that capacity until the close of the war. 

After the war was ended he returned to Baltimore, and 
for half a century was actively engaged in the insurance busi- 
ness. He entered the underwriting field in 1866 as a member 


of the firm of John S. Selby & Company, and four years later 
he purchased the interests of his partner, and became sole 
proprietor of the agency. The business was conducted indi- 
vidually until 1901, in which year Fletcher Long, who had 
been identified with the office since 1869, and David Peale 
Polk, son of the senior member, who entered the office at the 
age of seventeen years, were admitted to partnership. The 
agency made its start in 1866 as representatives of the Georgia 
Home of Columbus and the Valley of Virginia of Westches- 
ter. The agency of the Liverpool, London and Globe Insur- 
ance Company was conferred upon this office with the incom- 
ing of 1868, being the only fire insurance corporation repre- 
sented as agents. This company was among those who 
promptly paid every penny of the losses encountered by the 
Baltimore devastation of 1904, and has done likewise when- 
ever involved in large conflagrations. Besides being admir- 
ably equipped to write fire risks up to any figure as the accred- 
ited representatives of the staunch corporation named, a 
permanent and influential clientele w 7 as controlled as brokers 
in all insurance lines. Health, accident, liability, plate glass, 
steam boiler, burglary, fidelity and surety contracts were writ- 
ten for the Philadelphia Casualty, a connection dating back 
several years. Modernly appointed offices were occupied in 
suite No. 1 10, Chamber of Commerce Building. This agency 
was affiliated with the Association of Fire Underwriters of 
Baltimore City from its earliest formation, in August, 1879. 
The signature of the senior Polk is the ninth of the thirty-two 
appended to the articles of agreement, and the rules and regu- 
lations adopted at that time to banish rebating and other evils 
from the insurance circles of the Monumental City. Mr. Polk 
naturally took a pride in his long and honorable professional 
record, during which he always enjoyed the good will and 
regard of his compeers and the implicit confidence of clients, 


companies and all coming in touch with him. He was re- 
garded as an authority on insurance affairs and he unselfishly 
and cheerfully gave his fellow agents the benefit of the thor- 
ough knowledge attained during his long experience. For 
over forty years he was general agent for the Liverpool, Lon- 
don and Globe Insurance Company, and when, in 1905, he 
toured England, his Liverpool stay was signalized by an elab- 
orate entertainment tendered him by the English insurance 
companies whom he represented in Baltimore. In 191 1 the 
firm with which he had long been connected re-organized as 
Hopper, Polk & Purnell, insurance agents and brokers, Mr. 
Polk becoming vice-president, which post he filled until his 
death, although active business duties had long been surren- 
dered to the younger men of the concern. Yet he visited his 
offices every day, although his health was failing for several 
months. When his ninetieth birthday arrived, and he passed 
into the ranks of the nonagenarian, he retired from his activi- 
ties. From his long years of intimacy with Baltimore, his par- 
ticipation in the great war, and his extended course of reading 
and study, he was a veritable mine of historical information 
and a much sought after authority. 

Mr. Polk married Lou Ellen Anderson, of Tennessee, 
who survives him with two sons, Anderson and David Peale 
Polk, all residents of Baltimore. A daughter, Lucile, married 
George Brooke, and resides at Birdsboro, Pennsylvania, near 

The following eulogy gives an intimate view of the beauty 
of character and charming personality of Mr. Polk, the writer 
being a personal friend: 

On Friday, the seventh of this month, there passed to the Great Beyond, 
a man noted for those attributes which go to make up the true Christian 
gentleman, apart from the superb qualifications which gave him a marked 
place in the particular business sphere in which he was engaged. William 


Stewart Polk was a man sui generis. As has been stated, he was without a 
flaw in his dealings with man in his business career of more than half a 
century in this community. 

But it was to the Christian character of this gentleman that special 
attention is called. For the said half a century he had been a devout follower 
of his Divine Master, holding fast to those tenets of the Christian faith 
which are alone satisfying to the devout believer and are so necessary to that 
salvation wrought out for all by Him who died that they might live. 

Mr. Polk possessed the charity for all men which utterly precluded his 
judging any man falsely. He was modest in his personal demeanor, willing 
always to defer to others what he might have arrogated to himself in the 
decision of important matters. He was full of brotherly kindness which drew 
men unto him in their dealings with him, they knowing full well that every- 
thing would inure to the best interest of all concerned. He was a devout 
student of Holy Writ. It was his greatest pleasure to study the Bible, and 
within the period of his Christian life he had read it through word for word 
sixty-five times, so arranging that the last verse in Revelation would be read on 
his birthday. It is unquestionable as to whether a similar record can be 
shown. It can be very well surmised that the life of such a man was a 
benison to all who came closely in contact with him. His was an example 
which one might follow. 

The loss to his family cannot be estimated as it is irreparable and too 
sacred a subject to suggest comment. That he will be missed by all who 
knew him goes without the saying, but they know in whom he believed and 
persuaded that He will hold him in His hands until that day when all shall be 
united in that blessed home for ever and ever. 

In thus reviewing the life of his friend and its peaceful ending, the writer 
feels that the thought uppermost in his mind should be: "Let me die the 
death of the righteous and may my past end be like this." 


"C^OREMOST among the journalists of the recent past, was 
George William Abell, who built up the "Baltimore Sun" 
to be one of the few representative papers of the United States. 
Mr. Abell has left a name in his profession greater even than 
that of his distinguished father, the founder of the paper, the 
latter having been more of a business man than a journalist, 
while George William Abell is regarded by many as the 
greatest newspaper man of his time. 

Mr. Abell was born December 21, 1842, in Baltimore. 
He was the second son of Arunah Shepherdson and Mary 
(Fox-Campbell) Abell, and received his preparatory educa- 
tion at Dalrymple's School, whence he passed to the University 
of Maryland, graduating with highest honors, June 17, 1861. 
He took up the study of law, and on December 17, 1864, was 
admitted to the Baltimore bar, but, after spending two years 
in the office of Charles J. Gwinn, decided to make journalism 
rather than law the work of his life. He, therefore, entered 
the counting-room of the "Sun," and thence passed into the 
news and editorial departments. He was identified with all 
the improvements, developments and enterprises of the paper 
from the time he entered its service until the day of his death, 
a period of nearly thirty years. His legal studies were always 
of great advantage to him, and for many years he was his 
father's confidential attorney. After the death of Mr. A. S. 
Abell, and of his third son, Walter R. Abell, the A. S. Abell 
Company was incorporated, August 9, 1892, at which time 
George William Abell was elected president and manager, 
which offices he continued to hold for the remainder of his life. 

While sharing fully with his brother, Edwin F. Abell, 
other serious manifold responsibilities pertaining to his 
father's large estate, the more active and immediate manage- 


ment of the "Sun," by mutual agreement between the brothers, 
devolved upon George William Abell. He brought to his 
office not only experience acquired under his father's instruc- 
tion, but the most generous enthusiasm and the noblest and 
loftiest conception of the mission of a great newspaper, and 
the duty to the public of the editor and publisher of such a 
paper. He upheld the high standard set by his father, ever 
excluding from the columns of his journal news of a sensa- 
tional or impure character. Realizing the power and influ- 
ence of the "Sun,' 1 he held his high office as a trust, bringing 
to the discharge of his duties all the results of his ripe and 
varied experience and his careful observation, together with 
the manifold resources of his cultured and judicial mind, 
wielding an influence all the more potent for the reason that 
it was moral no less than political, and exercised for the public 
weal rather than for personal ends. 

Mr. Abell was greatly admired and beloved by the men 
with whom he was associated in the management of the "Sun." 
Each day he conferred briefly with heads of departments, after 
which he withdrew from the office for the day. He had the 
reputation, well deserved, of transacting an enormous amount 
of business in a short time, possessing that power which is more 
of a gift than an acquisition the ability to do two or three 
things at once, and do them all well. 

Mr. Abell was a loyal and loving son to Baltimore and 
to Maryland, having deeply at heart what he conceived to be 
the best interests of both. His opinions might differ from 
those of others, but the very earnestness with which he de- 
fended his own views proceeded from the sincerity of the 
convictions that they w r ere right. He was absolutely without 
malice or any feeling of personal hostility toward those from 
whom he differed, and whose conduct in public affairs he felt 
it his duty to criticise and oppose. He was distinguished 


throughout his career for public spirit, devotion to principle, 
courage and unselfishness. It was in consequence of his liberal 
disposition, and at his suggestion, that "The Sun Almanac" 
was first issued in 1876, and he encouraged and stimulated 
every step in its subsequent publication, realizing that it was 
an exceedingly useful and practical compilation, and satisfied 
a public want. It was his desire to make the book not merely 
a chronicle of the year, but, through its agency, to foster 
interest in and appreciation of the history of the State, and to 
make widely known the varied resources and advantages of 

Mr. Abell married, November 29, 1871, Jane Frances, 
daughter of George W. Webb, and three children were born 
to them: Charles Shepherdson; Jennie M., wife of Francis 
Theodore Homer, of Baltimore; and Annie, who died in 

In 1888 Mr. Abell visited Europe with his family, and 
was to have gone abroad again three days before his death, 
which occurred after a brief illness, May 1, 1894, at his home 
in Baltimore. The removal of this gifted and lovable man 
while in the prime of life was mourned with deepest sin- 
cerity by both high and low. It is not a matter of marvel 
that his memory is enshrined in the hearts of all who knew 
him, and remains as a blessed benediction to those who were 
his friends and associates while he was still an active factor 
in the affairs of the world. 

The loss which Baltimore sustained by the removal of 
such a man is well-nigh incalculable, but his "works follow 
him." A monument reared by his own genius commemorates 
him the great journal of which he was, for so many years, 
the heart and soul, which he might also be said to have created 
still addresses its vast and constantly increasing audiences. 
"The pen is mightier than the sword." If any doubt this, let 
him consider the life and work of George William Abell. 


'PHE useful life of Judge William Witzenbacher terminated 
while in the full prime of his splendid powers and he 
seemingly had every right to look forward to years of even 
greater usefulness. He was German in his love of intelligent 
and massed organization, but over all he was an American to 
the core, true to his native city, State and land. He was one 
of the best-known men in Hagerstown, as there his years, fifty- 
four, were spent. His clear analytical mind had for many 
years grappled with the legal troubles of his many friends and 
not with their legal troubles alone, but their business prob- 
lems, their political ambitions, and their social aspirations. 
He had advised, counseled, entreated, commanded and repri- 
manded, as occasion required, both as lawyer and friend, a 
large proportion of the leading men of the city. He was well 
informed upon many subjects beyond the ken of most men, 
for he was not satisfied with superficial knowledge, but delved 
deep into any subject he approached. If there was anything 
in his mentality which differed from the attitude of the gen- 
eral lawyer, it was his passion for differentiation, classification 
and painstaking dissection of causes and trial cases. This 
marked his legal career and distinguished him as one, more 
of the adviser and consultant than the attorney. Yet at the 
bar he was convincing, and his presentation to the court was 
strong, fair and convincing, his argument revealing the vast 
amount of labor he had expended in the preparation of his 
case. Loyalty to his clients, loyalty to friends and to every 
obligation, distinguished him, and the friends of half a cen- 
tury named him "an honest man," and at his death a city 

Judge Witzenbacher was a son of William and Catherine 
Witzenbacher, the father, born in the Odenwald region of 


Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, in 1823. He came to the United 
States about 1853, becoming a resident of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land, and there died February 8, 1886, a man of sterling char- 
acter and high standing in the community of which he was a 
part for over thirty years. William J. Witzenbacher was 
born in Hagerstown, December 1, 1861, and there died Feb- 
ruary n, 1916. He passed all grades of the public schools, 
completing college preparation with graduation from the 
Washington County High School, class of 1880. He at once 
entered Johns Hopkins University, pursuing a three years' 
classical course, receiving the usual bachelor's degree, class 
of 1883. ^ e did not at once enter upon the exclusive study of 
law, but for three years, 1883- 1886, was an instructor in the 
McDonough School, Baltimore county, Maryland, his law 
study being an added task. In 1886, that position was resigned 
and a course of exclusive law study begun under the preceptor- 
ship of the eminent Alexander Neill, upon whose motion he 
was examined and admitted to the Washington county bar in 
November, r 886. From that time until his death he was a 
member of the bar located in his native city, Hagerstown. 
He won his way to public favor, the friends of the boy rallying 
to the support of their comrade, and as the years proved the 
excellence of his qualifications to serve them legally, self 
interest, as well as friendship, held their loyalty. He never 
received more than he gave, and no act to friendly interest in 
his career ever went unnoticed or unrequited. In 1889, he 
was the Democratic candidate for the Legislature from his 
district, and with the entire ticket went down to defeat. In 
the spring of 1890, he was appointed City Attorney, a posi- 
tion he filled with credit for five years. The rapid growth of 
the city during his term of office gave rise to many intricate 
problems of municipal government to the solution of which 
he applied himself most diligently and successfully, and an 


amendment to the City Charter became a necessity, he pre- 
paring all the important legislation. In 1895, during the 
absence of Charles A. Little, Mr. Witzenbacher was appointed 
District Attorney ad interim. In 1889 ne was appointed 
attorney to the Board of County Commissioners, serving two 
years. During his term he conducted to a successful issue the 
question of the tax liability prior to 1896. In 1902, he was 
appointed attorney to the newly created Board of Election 
Supervisors, a position he held for one year. 

The death of Judge Edward Stake, in 1902, created a 
vacancy. Mr. Witzenbacher was appointed by Governor John 
Walter Smith to represent Washington county in the Fourth 
Judicial District. He performed the judicial duties pertain- 
ing to the office for the remainder of the term, and in 1904 
was the candidate of the Democratic party for the same office. 
He was defeated by a small margin by the Republican candi- 
date, and Judge Witzenbacher returned to the private practice 
of his profession. Another public service rendered was in the 
matter of the electric bill adopted by the people after a very 
heated contest in 1910. He took the view that the contract 
into which the city officials had previously enlisted was void, 
and after a test of the law had been made, the Court of Ap- 
peals sustained his view. This was his greatest law case, for 
in it, not only his ability at untangling intricate questions 
shone, but his genius for patient reference and research, and 
it was Judge Witzenbacher who saved for the city the home 
electric plant which is of such value and profit to the city as 
to be a matter of civic pride. During his career he was called 
by his fellowmen to fill about every important position in the 
county which was required to be filled by a lawyer, and in 
each place his was loyalty true to his duty. 

Judge Witzenbacher's literary tastes were pronounced, 
and he delighted in research and study, particularly in the 

MD- 28 


field of history and literature. He was a fluent linguist and 
read, as well as spoke, French, Spanish, Italian and German, 
this opening up to the finest literature of these tongues, as 
well as the ancient Greek and Latin classics. His knowledge 
of these modern languages enabled him often to be of great 
service in the court room and many were the occasions when 
distressed foreigners blessed the man who could speak their 
tongue and explain their case. His literary attainment, and 
his devotion to his profession, co-operated in rendering him a 
zealous, active friend to the establishment of a law library in 
the local court, and far beyond the limits of his city he was 
recognized as a most learned and cultured gentleman. In- 
deed, so highly was he regarded, that a professorship in Johns 
Hopkins University was offered him, but was declined, he 
preferring the law. He remained loyal to the profession until 
his last illness, and in the annals of the Washington county bar 
no name shines with such undimmed lustre. 

Although not successful in his candidacies for office, his 
ptrty being the minority one, Judge Witzenbacher was a 
leader of the Democracy in Washington county, and retained 
a potent voice in party councils until the last few years of his 
life, when failing health warned him that he must conserve 
his energies. He was not a violent partisan, however, but 
retained an independent attitude and acted as right and duty 
dictated. It was truly said of him that the sincerity of that 
judgment, and the honesty of his purpose, was never doubted 
either on legal, political or private questions, and whether on 
or off the bench his opinions carried great weight. He had 
won a place for himself in State party councils, and had he 
lived, State political honors would surely have been his. He 
was exceedingly practical in his view of politics and had 
little patience with radical reformers. The essence of the 
wisdom of the ages as gathered from history was his guiding 


light in the sphere of action which embraced statesmanship. 
Fads and isms of all sorts failed in their appeal to him, and 
to the last he was the practical American, free from all that 
detracts from a well rounded character. 

Judge Witzenbacher visited Europe some years before 
his death, and was particularly delighted with Rome, bringing 
home with him a love of all things Italian. Of all the lan- 
guages at his command he spoke Italian with the greatest 
fluency, and one of his greatest pleasures was intelligent con- 
versation upon ancient and modern Europe. He was always 
interesting, entertaining, and instructive in his talks, perhaps 
no other man in his community being so well informed. His 
private library was well filled with the best of literature, and 
an excursion into its foreign atmosphere was a revel of keen 
delight to him. As a man, he had his friends, his enemies, 
his associates, but had few intimates. He loved nature in all 
her forms and moods, and one of his favorite diversions was 
long strolls through the mountains and by the winding streams. 
He knew trees, their varieties and differences, as few laymen 
know them. The rocks, the hills, the valleys, plant life, flow- 
ers, bird life, all in nature appealed to him, and a map of the 
starry heavens was as familiar to him as a map of his native 
Maryland. But let none imagine that he was pedantic or 
held aloof from the enjoyments of the people. He was a 
frequent visitor to the moving picture theatres, and took a 
deep interest in all things that men care for, but his natural 
impulses were intellectual, and his mind was the mastering 
impulse of his life. As a writer put it, he was of that type of 
man that might be characterized as an ancient Roman of the 
days of the Republic, projected into a modern world. He was 
a member of Friendship Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons; 
Hagerstown Lodge, Benevolent Protective Order of Elks; was 
a director of the People's National Bank; member of the First 


Hose Company, and of Zion Reformed Church. Thus he 
lived, and thus he died, sincerely regretted, and wept for, by 
his sisters, who are the only women who know him well, for 
he never married. Four sisters survive him : Mrs. Charles M. 
Suter, of Hagerstown; Misses Catherine and Nannie Witzen- 
bacher, of Hagerstown, with whom he lived, and Mrs. Wil- 
liam Mitthe, of Columbus, Ohio. The house in which he 
lived and died, and yet occupied by his sisters, stands upon 
the same site as the house did in which he was born, and he 
knew no other homes. 

On April 3, following the death of Judge Witzenbacher, 
memorial services were held in the Court Hall in his honor. 
Chief Judge A. Hunter Boyd presided, Judges Robert R. 
Henderson and M. L. Keedy also being present with many 
members of the Washington County Bar Association, which 
he had been instrumental in founding. Many beautiful trib- 
utes were paid the dead jurist's memory, and resolutions recit- 
ing his life and services were read, adopted and ordered spread 
upon the minutes of the court. Judge Henderson, in closing, 
spoke in the highest terms of Mr. Witzenbacher as a lawyer 
and judge, stating that he left a standard of judicial conduct 
to those who followed him upon the bench, and that his train- 
ing and mind marked him as a lawyer of unusual attainment. 
Chief Judge Boyd spoke of their dead comrade as a man pos- 
sessed of untiring energy, and with a remarkable grasp of the 
law; a well equipped lawyer, and an exceptional judge, his 
death a distinct loss to the State and the community. 


T\R. THOMAS A. ASHBY was one of the foremost physi- 
cians and surgeons of the country, with a national reputa- 
tion in his profession, and as a medical educator and author, 
a native of Virginia, born near Front Royal, Warren county, 
November 18, 1848. 

His family is descended from Richard de Ashby, Lord 
of the Manors of South Croxton and Quenby, Leicestershire, 
England, in the year 1 296. The town of Ashby-de-la-Zouche, 
and Ashby Castle, in which Mary, Queen of Scots, was im- 
prisoned, are located in Leicestershire, and are associated with 
the English family of Ashby. 

Both in England and America the family has been repre- 
sented by many men who have achieved distinction in litera- 
ture, statesmanship and in war. The American line was 
planted by cavaliers who took refuge in Virginia during the 
Protectorate of Cromwell. Dr. Thomas A. Ashby was fifth 
in line of descent from Colonel John Ashby, who was a com- 
panion and trusted friend of Washington in the French and 
Indian Wars prior to 1764. Colonel Ashby commanded a 
company in the ill-fated Braddock campaign, and was chosen 
by Washington to convey the intelligence of defeat to the 
Governor of Virginia. As an officer in the Colonial service 
of Virginia he was noted for courage and daring as an Indian 
fighter, and is credited with various remarkable exploits. 
Through the same line Dr. Ashby was related to the late Gen- 
eral Turner Ashby, the distinguished Confederate officer in 
the War between the States, and whose tragic death, on June 
6, 1862, cast a gloom over the entire South. Through the 
family of his paternal grandmother, Dr. Ashby was descended 
from the Marquis Calmes, a French nobleman, whose family, 
with other Huguenots, came to Virginia after the revocation 


of the Edict of Nantes. Through the same line he was also 
descended from Philip Thomas, who came to Maryland prior 
to 1 65 1, and became progenitor of the Thomas family and 
others equally distinguished. During the Revolution, Dr. 
Ashby's great-grandfather, Captain Nathaniel Ashby, held a 
commission in the Third Virginia Regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Thomas Marshall, father of Chief Justice Marshall. 
After the war Captain Ashby married Margaret Mauzey, 
granddaughter of Colonel Henry Mauzey, a Huguenot, who 
came from France to Virginia in 1685. 

In 1867, at the age of nineteen, Dr. Thomas A. Ashby 
entered Washington College (now Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity) and there came under the benign influence of its presi- 
dent, General Robert E. Lee, the distinguished Confederate 
commander. He there pursued an elective course comprising 
the classics, modern languages and chemistry, as affording him 
special preparation for his chosen profession. Leaving col- 
lege in June, 1870, after a three and a half years' course, in 
the fall of 1 87 1 he entered the Medical Department of the 
University of Maryland, from which he was graduated in 
March, 1873, a ^ so serving during his last year as interne in 
the University Hospital. After his graduation he entered 
upon practice in Baltimore, and his rise in his profession was 
rapid. He was soon appointed Prosector to the Chair of 
Anatomy in the Medical Department of the University. In 
March, 1875, ne was elected Resident Physician to the Uni- 
versity Hospital, where his opportunities for clinical study 
and observation were of the most valuable character. His 
father dying in 1878, he w r as obliged to resign his position 
in July of that year and return to Virginia to close up the 
family estate. In October following he returned to Balti- 
more, and from that time to his death was a resident of that 
city, and a leader in all professional lines. 


In 1882 Dr. Ashby proposed to several prominent profes- 
sional colleagues the advisability of establishing a Women's 
Medical College in Baltimore, and under his leadership that 
institution was established the first in the South for the med- 
ical education of women. Dr. Ashby delivered the address at 
its opening, and presented in support of the new enterprise 
arguments which have never been controverted. He filled the 
Chair of Obstetrics from 1882 to 1897. To his ability and 
enthusiasm were largely due the successful career of the school, 
which is recognized as one of the most efficient and creditable 
of its class in the country, ever leading in every movement 
looking to the higher methods of medical instruction. In 
1889 Dr. Ashby was called to the Chair of Diseases of Women 
and Children in Baltimore Medical College. Here a wide 
field opened before him, and he made the most of the oppor- 
tunity. The college was almost in its infancy, and its facili- 
ties were not equal to the work of progress which had been out- 
lined, but enthusiasm, energy and progressive spirit prevailed, 
and within a few years the college faculty and trustees erected 
a college and hospital plant at an outlay of more than $ 1 50,000, 
which placed it in the front rank of medical schools in the 
country. In July, 1897, Dr. Ashby resigned his chair in the 
Baltimore Medical College, and was elected Professor of Dis- 
eases of Women in his alma mater, the Medical Department 
of the University of Maryland. In these various positions he 
evidenced the most consummate ability and conscientiousness. 
He devoted much attention to abdominal surgery, and it is 
claimed for him that he performed successfully the first lapa- 
rotomy for ruptured tubal pregnancy in the State of Mary- 
land. As an operative gynecologist his experience was phe- 
nomenally large and successful. 

Outside the strict duties of his profession, Dr. Ashby's 
activities were many and varied. In May, 1877, he was one 


of the founders of the "Maryland Medical Journal," which 
was issued as a monthly until May, 1880, when it was changed 
to a bi-weekly. He subsequently became sole editor and owner, 
and in May, 1883, made it a weekly publication. This is the 
only medical journal in the State which up to that time had 
survived the third number of its second volume. It has taken 
first rank among the medical periodicals of the country, and 
owes its success to the indomitable perseverance, energy and 
determination of Dr. Ashby. Owing to the increased exac- 
tions of his professional and other duties, he sold his interest 
in the journal in 1888. His labors as editor extended through 
some fourteen years, and during that period his pen was active 
on almost every subject of professional interest and importance, 
and he was a frequent contributor to other professional pub- 
lications. For the term of 1890-91 Dr. Ashby adorned the 
presidency of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Mary- 
land, the sixth in point of age of the medical societies of the 
country. From 1897 he was prominently identified with the 
upbuilding of the famous old University of Maryland, and 
especially of its medical department. He was editor of the 
Hospital Bulletin of the University of Maryland, published in 
the interests of the university. He was ex-president of the 
Baltimore Medical Association and of the Baltimore Gyneco- 
logical and Obstetrical Society; member of the American 
Medical Association; honorary member of the Medical So- 
ciety, District of Columbia ; a fellow of the American Gyneco- 
logical Society; American Therapeutical Society, and Ameri 
can Medical Association. Dr. Ashby was active in a number 
of business enterprises and interested and active in one of the 
largest fruit growing interests in Virginia, the Belmont Fruit 
and Stock Farm. He was for years a director of the Com- 
monwealth Bank. 

Dr. Ashby was elected to the Maryland Legislature in 


1909, and his record in that body proved creditable in every 
way, his official efforts were always on the side of good gov- 
ernment and in support of those measures which he deemed 
most conducive to the general good. He was the only physi- 
cian of high standing and professional reputation in the city 
of Baltimore who was willing to sacrifice his practice for 
what he considered a higher duty, and he was the only one 
of the faculty of Maryland University who served in the 
Legislature, this being an honor peculiar to himself, and 
the able manner in which he performed the duties and re- 
sponsibilities of his important office was evidence of the fit- 
ness of the man for the place. He showed strikingly what a 
man of energy, kindliness and purpose, combined with absolute 
integrity, could accomplish. Practically all of the bills which 
he introduced the pure food law, the lunacy measures, those 
adding additional powers to the State Board of Health and 
various other measures went through so easily that one who 
did not see the guiding hand of Dr. Ashby might have 
imagined that these things worked themselves. He was an 
indefatigable worker on the committee and his valuable serv- 
ices were fully appreciated by all. He served as chairman of 
the hygenic committee which handled the pure food bills, 
public health, and state care of insane; member of corporation 
committee which handled claims, temperance and civil service 
reform, and a member of the city delegation which handled 
all the bills pertaining to the city of Baltimore. Dr. Ashby 
served the excellent purpose of proving that the politicians do 
not know all when they insist that a man who has not been to 
the Legislature and "doesn't know the ropes" cannot do any 
good there. The excellent record of Dr. Ashby at Annapolis 
is an object lesson which Baltimore needed. If a few more 
men of the high integrity and spotless character of Dr. Ashby 
would take an active interest in politics it would be almost 


impossible to estimate the good effect upon general legislature. 

Dr. Ashby was social and literary in his tastes, an om- 
nivorous reader, attentive student and thoughtful observer, 
and his conversational powers were charmingly agreeable and 
instructive. His manner was frank and cordial, and he pos- 
sessed in eminent degree the faculty of making and retaining 
friends, his characteristics being those of an unassuming and 
cultivated gentleman. His home was in Madison avenue, 
Baltimore, and was the frequent resort of choice circles of 
professional and other friends to whom his hospitalities were 
gracefully and cordially dispensed. 

Dr. Ashby married, in 1877, Mary Cunningham, of Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, a lady of most charming personal and 
social qualities. Their family numbers five interesting and 
highly educated daughters. He died June 25, 1916. 


Fisher, was born in the family residence at the northwest 
corner of St. Paul and Pleasant streets, Baltimore, on March 
1 6, 1834. He was educated at private schools and at St. 
Mary's College, graduating with high honors in 1850. In 
1854 Mr. Fisher and his brother, Robert A. Fisher, became 
partners of their father in the firm of James I. Fisher & Sons, 
succeeding the old firm of R. H. & William Douglass, which 
was engaged in the South American and West Indian trade. 
After the death of his father, Mr. Fisher continued in business 
with his brother, withdrawing in 1882. Some years later he 
formed the banking house of Fisher & Shaw, which firm was 
dissolved in 1899, when he took into partnership his sons, 
James I. and Robert A. Fisher, under the firm name of Rich- 
ard D. Fisher & Sons. Mr. Fisher retired permanently from 
business in 1903. 

With relief from the cares of commercial activity there 
came fuller opportunity to gratify literary tastes and the latter 
years of Mr. Fisher's always busy life were occupied with 
historical research, mainly concerning the State and city of 
which he was so loyal a citizen. Many contributions, original 
and other, to the collections of the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety, evidence his discriminating and untiring ability and 
interest. No effort for the advancement of the public good 
lacked his cordial and efficient co-operation. No movement 
of public benevolence was without his generous assistance. He 
was for many years secretary of the board of trustees of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Baltimore. 

Mr. Fisher's death occurred on the 13th day of August, 
1 9 10, and the estimation in which he was held by his fellow 
citizens is expressed in the Minute adopted by the Maryland 


Historical Society, at its meeting in November of that year 
in the following form: 

Mr. Fisher had been in active business until a few years before his death 
and, becoming an Active Member of the Society in 1866, he brought to it, 
even during his busier years, the assistance of his business training and experi- 
ence, while with greater leisure he had for some years past given to it increas- 
ing thought and interest, adding to its historical archives matter of the rarest 
value, secured by him both in this country and abroad, with much personal 
labor and at no inconsiderable cost, and contributing, as a member of its 
council, the aid which his mercantile education peculiarly fitted him to furnish. 

The many and valuable contributions, continued to the last meeting of 
the Society before his death, for which the Society is so greatly indebted to 
Mr. Fisher, comprised maps, manuscripts, prints, copies of records obtained 
at home and abroad, journals of the privateers and letters of marque "Law- 
rence'', "Pelican", "Decatur", "Osprey", the Eden correspondence, the "Good 
Intent" papers, the Boucher papers, the Index of Uncalendared Maryland 
Papers in the British Treasury, and many others, but no enumeration may be 
made of the far more valuable contributions of sound judgment, wise counsel, 
kindly advice, and thoughtful suggestion for which the Society, and more 
especially its council, record this inadequate expression of sincere appreciation. 

Of strong convictions, of unswerving loyalty, of unimpeachable rectitude, 
he was yet considerate of those whose views did not coincide with his own 
and of so graceful speech and courteous demeanor as to disarm opposition and 
transform difference into agreement. 

In sorrowful recognition of the great loss which it has sustained in the 
death of Mr. Fisher this Society places upon its records this expression of its 
admiration and appreciation of one who throughout a long and well-spent life 
has ever shone as a merchant of unsullied honor, a friend of unwavering fidel- 
ity, a gentleman of unbounded courtesy, a man of unlimited kindness, who 
walked uprightly among his fellow-men and humbly before his God. 

Mr. Fisher married Margaret, daughter of the late Rev. 
Samuel Gover Winchester. 


n^HE Holloway name has long been associated with that 
great modern aid in combatting the destructive fire fiend, 
Charles T. Holloway being the inventor of the chemical fire 
engine, and at the time chief engineer of the Baltimore fire 
department. Charles T. was the father of Reuben Ross Hollo- 
way, and from youth he had been associated with his father in 
experiments and the manufacture of fire fighting devices, en- 
gines and extinguishers. Upon the death of the father, in 1898, 
the son succeeded to the management of the business. Later, 
the local company was absorbed by the American La France 
Fire Engine Company, and, as a director of that company, 
Reuben R. Holloway was connected with the business until 
his death. 

The ancestry of Reuben Ross Holloway is traced through 
maternal lines to Edward Foulke, who was born in Wales, 
May 13, 1651, came to America in 1698, and died November 
8, 1 741. His wife, Eleanor, born in Wales, died in Gwynedd, 
Pennsylvania, January 16, 1733. The line of descent from 
Edward and Eleanor Foulke to Reuben Ross Holloway is 
traced through their daughter, Margaret Foulke, born in 
Wales, who died, March 23, 17 17, in Pennsylvania. She 
married Nicholas Roberts, who died in 1733. The line con- 
tinues through their daughter, Elizabeth Roberts, born June 
1 1, 1723, died May 29, 1790, who married, February 12, 1743, 
David Humphrey, son of Robert and Margaret (Evans) 
Humphrey, of Gwynedd, Pennsylvania. Their daughter, 
Elizabeth Humphrey, born in Gwynedd, March 13, 1761, 
died in Baltimore, Maryland, April 29, 1847, her husband, 
Sabritt Bowen, surviving her. Eleanor Humphrey Bowen, 
daughter of Sabritt and Elizabeth (Humphrey) Bowen, was 
born in January, 1792, died November 2, 1874, married 


Robert Holloway, of Virginia, born in 1786, died January, 
1863, leaving a son, Charles Thomas Holloway. He married 
Anna Harden Ross, they the parents of Reuben Ross Hollo- 
way, to whose memory this review is devoted. 

Charles Thomas Holloway, son of Robert and Eleanor 
Humphrey (Bowen) Holloway, was born December 25, 1827, 
died in Baltimore, Maryland, March 17, 1898. He was an 
influential man of his day, head of the Charles T. Holloway 
Chemical Fire Engine Company of Baltimore, a company 
devoted to the manufacture of a fire extinguisher and a chem- 
ical fire engine, both inventions of Charles T. Holloway, 
and bearing his name both as an inventor and maker. He 
married October 12, 1854, Anna Harden Ross, born July 13, 
1830, died January 31, 1909, daughter of Reuben and Sarah 

Reuben Ross Holloway, son of Charles T. and Anna 
Harden (Ross) Holloway, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, 
June 13, 1855, and died in his native city, December 13, 1908. 
After finishing his school years he became associated with 
his father in the manufacture of the special lines of the 
Charles T. Holloway Chemical Fire Engine Company, and 
when, in 1898, the father passed to the spirit land, he was 
succeeded by his son as head of the business. Mr. Holloway 
continued the manufacture of the Holloway extinguisher and 
chemical fire engine for some time, then sold his right, title, 
and interest, to the American La France Fire Engine Com- 
pany, and from that time until his death was manager of the 
Baltimore branch of that company, and a member of its board 
of directors. He was a member of high degree in the Masonic 
order, and belonged to several social and patriotic organiza- 
tions, among them the Sons of the American Revolution, he 
serving the local chapter as treasurer. 

Reuben R. Holloway married, January 28, 1892, Ella 


Virginia Houck, daughter of Dr. Jacob Wcvcr and Susannah 
(Porter) Houck. Mrs. Holloway survives her husband, a 
resident of Baltimore, with two children, Virginia Leslie, born 
November 18, 1892, married, April 26, 1913, Ernest Smith 
Jeffries, their children: Ernest Smith (2) Jeffries, born April 
2, 1914; Virginia L. Jeffries, born July, 1 916 ; Charles 
Thomas (2) Holloway, born March 22, 1897, married June 
20, 1918, Frances A. Fuller, of Worcester, Massachusetts. 

Ella Virginia (Houck) Holloway traces her ancestry to 
Lieutenant Robert Porter, of Back River Neck, Porters Bar, 
Maryland, an officer of the Revolution. He was born in 1757, 
died March 16, 1810. He was commissioned first lieutenant in 
the Third Regiment of Maryland Troops, February 20, 1777, 
resigned in April, 1777, married Susannah Buck, born in 1772, 
who died September 1, 1845. The line of descent is through 
their son, James Porter, born in 1797, died September 30, 
1843. James Porter married November 26, 1829, Elizabeth 
Frances Todd, born January 29, 1809, died in July, i860, 
daughter of Bernard and Mary (Green) Todd, of an ancient 
Maryland family (q. v.). The line continues through Susan- 
nah Porter, daughter of James and Elizabeth Frances (Todd) 
Porter, born September 26, 1832, died in May, 191 1. She 
married, November 15, 1852, Dr. Jacob Wever Houck, and 
they were the parents of Ella Virginia Houck, widow of 
Reuben Ross Holloway. 

The Todd ancestry of Ella V. (Houck) Holloway be- 
gins in Maryland, with Thomas Todd, of "Toddsbury, 1 ' 
Gloucester county, Virginia, in 1664, who settled at the North 
Point farm in Baltimore county, Maryland, now called 
"Todd's Inheritance, " which is still in the possession of the 
family. He was a son of Thomas Todd, who is mentioned in 
the records of York county, Virginia, in 1642, and who bought 
land in Gloucester county in 1652. His eldest son, William, 


patented 500 acres in that county, in 1666. Thomas Todd 
served as burgess of Baltimore county from 1674 to 1675. His 
will dated April 1 1, 1676, was the first recorded in Baltimore 
county. He died on board the ship "Virginia," bound for 
England. Thomas Todd married Ann Gorsuch, daughter of 
the Rev. John Gorsuch, Vicar of Walkam Parish, Hereford- 
shire, England, and granddaughter of Sir William Lovelace. 
Their children were: Thomas, of further mention; Christo- 
pher; James; William; Phillip; Joanna; Frances and 

Thomas (2) Todd, son of Thomas (1) and Ann (Gor- 
such) Todd, was born in Virginia, in 1660, and died in 
January, 1724. His epitaph reads: 

Here lies the body of Captain Thomas Todd, who 
was born in the year of our Lord 1660 and departed 
this life the 16th day of January, 1725. 

He married Elizabeth ; they were the parents of: 

Anne, born in 1682, died 1720; Christopher, born 1690, died 
1743; Frances, born in 1692, died 1703; Thomas, of further 
mention; Richard, married and had, Bernard and William; 
William of King and Queens county, married Martha Vicu- 
nes; Philip, sheriff of Gloucester county, Virginia, in 1730; 
Frances, born 1703, died 1743, married Robert North, of 

Thomas (3) Todd, son of Thomas (2) and Elizabeth 
Todd, owned land in Baltimore county, Maryland, and died 

in 1725. He married Elizabeth , who bore him two 

children, Thomas, of further mention, and Robert. 

Thomas (4) Todd, of Todds Neck, Baltimore county, 
Maryland, son of Thomas (3) and Elizabeth Todd, died in 
1759. He married Eleanor Dorsey. By a will dated De- 
cember 9, 1756, and recorded at Annapolis, April 2, 1759, he 
devises to his three daughters, Elizabeth, Eleanor and Fran- 


ces, a tract of land called "Showan Hunting Grounds"; to 
his youngest daughter, Mary, he devises "Todds Industry" in 
Patapsco Neck; also a tract called "Whirwells Neck," and 
"all my land where Thomas Jones now lives, known by the 
name of 'Cuckold's Point,' and my land at the island called 
'Todds Island'." He bequeathed his personal estate to his 
son, Thomas, and four daughters. His wife, Eleanor Dorsey 
Todd, was the third daughter of Caleb Dorsey, who was the 
son of Honorable John Dorsey and his wife, Elinor Warfield, 
daughter of Richard Warfield, the American ancestor. The 
children of Thomas (4) and Eleanor (Dorsey) Todd were: 
Thomas, of further mention; Elizabeth, married John Crom- 
well; Eleanor, married John Ensor; Frances, married George 
Risteau, in 1757 ; Mary, married John Worthington. Eleanor, 
wife of Thomas Todd, married (second) William Lynch. 

Thomas (5) Todd died in 1798, son of Thomas (4) and 
Eleanor (Dorsey) Todd, married and had four children: 
William, died in 1 8 13 ; Bernard, of further mention; Christo- 
pher, died 1849; George W., died in 1818; Thomas, died 
1 808. 

Bernard Todd, son of Thomas (5) Todd, died in 18 16. 
He was born on the homestead at North Point, Baltimore 
county, Maryland, and on reaching manhood became quite 
extensively interested in marine trade, owning many vessels 
used in the business. He manifested his loyalty to his country 
by his service in a cavalry company during the War of 181 2, 
but aside from voting never took any active part in politics. 
He married Mary Green, daughter of one of the most promi- 
nent families in Baltimore county, and sister of Josiah Green, 
who served as a colonel in the War of 18 12. Their children 
were: Thomas J., married Mary Trotten; George W. ; 
Nathan; Richard; Elizabeth F., of further mention; Sarah 

MD 29 



Ann, married (first) John Diffendorfer, (second) Thomas 

Elizabeth Frances Todd, daughter of Bernard and Mary 
(Green) Todd, was born January 29, 1809, and died July, 
i860, married, November 26, 1829, James Porter. 

Susannah Porter, daughter of James and Elizabeth 
Frances (Todd) Porter, married Dr. Jacob Wever Houck. 




["T is not an unusual thing for a man to achieve prominence 
in business, nor to be a world widely known manufacturer; 
were this the sum total of William A. Tottle, whose passing 
left many a heart desolate, it would be but a duplicate of the 
lives of thousands of his fellow-citizens. But he was more 
than a successful manufacturer, more than the head of a pros- 
perous corporation, for he lived not for himself but for the 
welfare of others. No interest in his life outweighed the 
church of his choice, its Sunday School, and that great philan- 
thropy work the Y. M. C. A. In the work of his own church 
he was very active and it was well known to his friends that 
the spiritual and financial interests of the Church of the Re- 
deemer in Baltimore were ever uppermost in his thoughts. As 
a business man his credit was high and his character above 
reproach. He was always on the right side of public ques- 
tion and his purse readily opened at the call of distress. He 
held his spoken word sacred, and while careful in business 
methods, he was enterprising, liberal and broad-minded. 
While he was generous in his benefactions he always gave 
quietly without the slightest ostentation, the satisfaction he 
deserved from helping others, the only reward he craved. The 
great sorrow of Mr. Tottle's life was the loss of his wife with 
whom he had spent a lifetime of happy married companion- 
ship, but that loss was soon recompensed in his early call to 
join her, but a few weeks intervening between their going away 
to their eternal home. He was a son of James and Elizabeth 
P. Tottle, of Devonshire, England. 

William A. Tottle was born December 17, 1844, died at 
the country home of his son, Morton P. Tottle, in the village 
of Glydon, twenty miles from Baltimore, Maryland, July 20, 
1916. He became fully conversant with brush manufacture, 


M M II 111 !.--. ..I !! Ill .1 , t -I-. | . || | 

and in 1883 located in Baltimore and began the manufacture 
of brushes. Through his capable management a large business 
was secured, and later was incorporated as William A. Tottle 
& Company, Incorporated, with plant on South Hanover 
street. Although the business was a very large one, and "Tot- 
tle" branded goods found in every part of the country, Mr. 
Tottle and his son, Morton P., were practically the sole own- 
ers of the company's stock, and from incorporation William 
A. Tottle was president and his son vice-president. Mr. Tottle 
was more closely associated with his employes than is usual 
with heads of concerns; he took a great interest in everything 
concerning their welfare, and was greatly honored and be- 
loved by them all. 

From the days of Bishop Cummings Mr. Tottle was a 
steadfast devoted member of the Reformed Episcopal Church, 
and from the organization of the Church of the Redeemer in 
Baltimore, he was officially connected with that parish. In 
1875 ne was elected a vestryman, and from that time until his 
death he continued a member of the vestry and gave freely 
of his time, his counsel and his means. He was known to 
all the bishops of the church, and to the clergy in many cities 
other than Baltimore. At the time of his death he was senior 
warden. He was also for many years superintendent of the 
Sunday school; was one of the pioneer members of the Y. M. 
C. A. and affiliated with the Maryland and International 
Sunday School Associations, serving for many years as treas- 
urer of the Maryland association; great was his usefulness and 
his influence in these bodies, and when there came the day 
that the strong arm of their friend was removed the Vestry 
of the Church of the Redeemer passed the following resolu- 

Whereas, it has pleased Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, to take 
unto himself the soul of our loved and respected brother, William Alexander 
Tottle; and 


Whereas, it has been his privilege and pleasure to share in the found* 
ing and for many years devote himself to the work of the Reformed Episcopal 
Church of the Redeemer at Baltimore, Md. ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, that we, the Vestry of the Church, do hereby give expression 
to our profound grief at his removal. For forty-nine years he was our Senior 
Warden ; for twenty years the Superintendent of our Sunday School ; and 
during all that time his life has been an inspiration and an encouragement that 
will live with us all our days. And be it further 

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be sent to his bereaved family, 
with whom we mourn, and for whom we feel most deeply; that they be 
written in the minutes of the Vestry ; and that they be printed in the Episco- 
pal Recorder. 

R. A. Harris, T. Rowland Philips, 

Secretary. Rector. 

Mr. Tottle married June 15, 1869, Mollie E. Holtz, 
who died June 12, 1916, aged seventy-one years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Tottle left a son, Morton P. Tottle, born March 24, 1881, his 
father's partner and successor. He married Elaine Dorothy 
Gore, and has a son, William A. (2), born February 19, 1909. 


THE career of Mr. Ely, which terminated just as he was 
about to enter the ranks of octagenarians, was closely con- 
nected with the city of Baltimore during his entire life. By 
heredity he was entitled to rank with the highest, and by 
personality and achievement with those whose names will go 
down in history as the builders of a great city. He bore well 
his part in Baltimore development, and during the mature 
period of his years, seventy-nine, was intimately and officially 
connected with water transportation, manufacturing and finan- 
cial corporations. He was one of the founders and senior 
director of the Commonwealth National Bank, but real estate 
operations constituted his greater interest during the last 
twenty years of his life. He was a son of Rev. Judah and 
Hannah (Fearson) Ely, whose daughters, Charlotte and Mary 
Ely, half-sisters, gave their lives to the foreign missionary 
cause, and in 1868, under the auspices of the American Board 
of Missions of the Congregational church, went to America 
and there labored until death. Miss Mary Ely died in 
America in 1913, Miss Charlotte Ely surviving her until the 
Turkish occupation of Armenia in 1 91 5. 

Mr. Ely traced his ancestry through paternal and 
maternal lines to many of the oldest American families, one 
line leading to Elder William Brewster of the "Mayflower." 
His stepfather, Dr. Jameson, was a noted surgeon of Balti- 
more; his great-aunt, Mrs. Mary Young Pickersgill, made the 
flag which "in triumph" waved over Fort McHenry during 
the long night bombardment and inspired the pen of Francis 
Scott Key to write "The Star Spangled Banner," and his 
maternal grandfather, Captain Jesse Fearson, whose name he 
bore, commanded an American privateer during the Revolu- 
tionary War. This line of ancestry is thus interestingly traced 
from Benjamin Flower. 

Genealogical and memorial 455 

Benjamin Flower, born 1714, married, June 9, 1735, 
Ruth Bibb, born August 8, 1 7 1 5, died February 13, 1761. 
Their children were: 1. Ann, died in infancy, April 16, 1737. 

2. Samuel, born March 29, 1738. 3. Rebecca, see forward. 
4. Elizabeth, born January 14, 1745. 5. Colonel Benjamin 
Flower, of Revolutionary fame, born July 1, 1748, died April 
28, 1781; was presented with a sword by General Washing- 
ton for his "masterly retreat" when Philadelphia was cap- 
tured by the British; he impressed all the vehicles available, 
loaded them with cannon and other munitions of war so sadly 
needed by the little army at Valley Forge, covered the con- 
tents of the wagons with manure, and drove out under the 
very eyes of the British officers. 6. William, born 1751. 7. 
Hannah, born 1754. 

Rebecca Flower, daughter of Benjamin and Ruth (Bibb) 
Flower, was born November 17, 1739. She married, May 5, 
1762, William Young, son of John and Ann Young, born Oc- 
tober 24, 1737, died February 19, 1778. Their children were: 
[. William, born July 8, 1763. 2. John, born August 8, 1765. 

3. Hannah, of further mention. 4. Benjamin, born July 27, 
1769, physician, friend and contemporary of the famous Dr. 
Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia. 5. Rebecca, born August 
3> l 773- - Mary Young, born February 12, 1776, died 
October 4, 1857; married John Pickersgill. She became 
famous for having made the flag that floated over Fort Mc- 
Henry at Baltimore when it was attacked by the British dur- 
ing the War of 18 12, and inspired Francis Scott Key to write 
the "Star Spangled Banner." 

Hannah Young, daughter of William and Rebecca 
(Flower) Young, was born August 20, 1767. She married 
(second) Captain Jesse Fearson, of Baltimore, Maryland (her 
first husband was George Wells). Captain Jesse Fearson re- 
ceived a captain's commission from Congress in 1782, signed 



by John Hancock. His vessel was the ''Buccaneer," three 
hundred tons burden, carrying eighteen guns and one hun- 
dred and twenty men. During the War of 1812 he was cap- 
tured and thrown into prison in Havana, Cuba, from which 
he eventually escaped and returned to the United States. The 
children of Captain Jesse Fearson and his wife, Hannah 
(Young) Fearson were: John; Benjamin; Lydia, married 
Henry Stickney; Hannah, of further mention. 

Hannah Fearson, daughter of Captain Jesse and Hannah 

(Young) Fearson, married (first) Rev. Judah Ely, and (sec- 

\ ond) Dr. H. G. Jameson. Rev. Judah and Hannah (Fearson) 

Ely had one son, Jesse Fearson Ely, to whose memory this 

appreciation is inscribed. 

Jesse Fearson Ely was born in 1836, died in Baltimore, 
Maryland, December 20, 191 5. Son of cultured parents, he 
was given the advantages of excellent private schools, and 
when the preparatory period of life had passed he secured a 
good position with the Merchants' and Miners' Transporta- 
tion Company, continuing several years. Later he was identi- 
fied with the Ericsson Line of Steamers, becoming heavily 
interested in that and other corporate enterprises of Baltimore. 
For a number of years he was a member of the De Ford 
Leather Company and of the Thomas Kensett Can Company, 
was an organizer and senior director of the Commonwealth 
National Bank, and at one time was a director of the Old 
Town National Bank. While he maintained his directorship 
in the Commonwealth National Bank until his death, he prac- 
tically withdrew from all other corporate connection during 
the last twenty years of his life, but was an active real estate 
operator during that period. He was an able business man, 
honorable, just and upright, resourceful with the courage 
of his convictions, and most highly esteemed by those with 
whom he was associated in corporation or company. He was 



interested in all good causes and aided in the various move- 
ments of church and charity to promote better moral and liv- 
ing conditions in the city. In political faith he was a Re- 
publican, but never sought public office; in religious belief an 

Mr. Ely married Lois Adela Dodge, and left two daugh- 
ters : Eliza J. Celeste, of No. 841 Park avenue, Baltimore, and 
Adela Lois, who married, June 8, 1898, Walter Scott Cars- 
well, M.D., of Baltimore, Maryland, and has children, Lois 
Charlotte, born November 4, 1899, Walter Scott (2), De- 
cember 19, 1900. 


ACKING one year of the Psalmist's "three score and ten" 
years allotted to man, Charles H. Torsch fulfilled all that 
constitutes the true life of man, and the influences of that life. 
He was always a resident of Baltimore, and from the day when 
as a lad of fifteen he was graduated from the Central High 
School, until his death, he was continuously identified with 
Baltimore's business interests. He began as a clerk in a dry 
goods store, and thence rose step by step to many higher posi- 
tions, chief of which at his death was the presidency of the 
Torsch Packing Company. His advance was not meteoric, 
but gradual, through personal application and the practice of 
the essential principles of commercial honor. In his relations 
to the community, commercial, civil and social, he exhibited 
those qualities which mark the good citizen, exerting his in- 
fluence and directing his energy not alone for personal in- 
terests, but also for the public good. His life was an earnest, 
useful one, and its lesson an inspiration to every boy with his 
own way to make through the world. He was a son of Henry 
F. Torsch, who was born in Germany, and who came to the 
United States when eighteen years of age, locating in Balti- 
more, and dying there December 23, 1886, aged eighty-three. 
His mother, also of German birth, was before her marriage 
Mary L. Schardelman. *"' 

Charles H. Torsch was born in Baltimore, Maryland, 
November 12, 1846, and died there August 15, 191 5. He was 
educated in the Baltimore public schools, entered the Central 
High School (now Baltimore City College) when only eleven 
years old, and four years later, in 1861, was graduated, winner 
of a Peabody prize of one hundred dollars for excellence in 
scholarship. Immediately after graduation he entered the 
employ of John S. Barry & Company, wholesale dry goods 



(T~>< oC 



merchants, on Hanover street, Mr. Thomas F. Ryan, the New- 
York financier, also being a clerk in this house at the same 
time. Later he was with the commission house of Vickery 
& Carroll, continuing as clerk and bookkeeper until 1879. 
He was then thirty-three years of age, with a good general 
knowledge of salesmanship and business management. In 
1879 ne joined with his brother, Frederick A. Torsch, and 
formed the firm of Charles H. Torsch & Brother, locating 
first on Hanover street, and later at the corner of Charles and 
Pratt streets, and established a glassware and crockery bus- 
iness. They continued successfully at that location until. 1886, 
and then removed to a larger store in Hopkins Place, where 
the manufacture of tinware was added to the other branches. 
Thirteen years later they sold their establishment, and devoted 
themselves to the business of C. H. Pearson Packing Company, 
in which the brothers had previously become associated as 
stockholders, and in which they had purchased a controlling 
interest in 1897. In 1899 Charles H. Torsch assumed the 
management of the company, which in 1903 was incorporated 
as the Torsch Packing Company, with himself as president. 
In 1901, prior to incorporation, the Pearson company estab- 
lished at Bay St. Louis, Hancock county, Mississippi, The 
Peerless Oyster Company, Ltd., for the packing of oysters 
and shrimp, a branch of the Baltimore house, which is yet 
maintained, Charles H. Torsch being president until his death. 
In 1905 another plant was built at Milford, Delaware, for 
the canning of fruits and vegetables. These plants were es- 
tablished to fill out the season, the supply of oysters from 
Chesapeake Bay then being insufficient to keep the Baltimore 
plant actively employed at all times. That condition later 
passed away, but the Mississippi and Delaware plants proving 
profitable investments were continued. The Baltimore pack- 
ing plant grew to large proportions, employing about four 


hundred hands in the busy season. As the head of his varied 
interests, Mr. Torsch proved the strength of his executive 
ability, and all of them prospered. 

A Republican in politics, Mr. Torsch came to the part- 
ing of the ways with the regular city organization in 191 1, 
and entered the primaries against it. He failed, however, in 
his struggle with the force which for years had dominated the 
party. Previously he had been appointed a member of the 
Board of Park Commissioners, and in 1898 succeeded David 
L. Bartlett, Esq., as president of the board. It was with his 
active assistance that the first playground in a public park was 
opened at Carroll Park by the Children's Playground Society. 
In his public career he was broad-minded, progressive and 
enterprising, always found in the van of all movements for 
the public welfare. He wrote much for the public press, and 
made his influence felt for good. He had a wide acquaint- 
anceship, was very popular socially, and was highly esteemed. 
He never declined a contest where principle was involved, 
and was a hard fighter, but none were so ready as he to pro- 
claim amnesty after a contest was over. He was enterprising 
and energetic, thorough and resourceful; most charitable and 
generous. He had a kind heart and an open purse for those 
who were weaker and less fortunate, but who deserved his 
sympathy; and in all things measured up to the full stature 
of a man. Although not in late years identified with the 
Young Men's Christian Association, Mr. Torsch was in his 
early years deeply interested in the objects and aims of the 
society, and pronounced them good. But as in other things, 
he was far in advance of his contemporaries and when he pro- 
posed that the association add bowling alleys and pool tables 
to their games as a means of drawing young men within good 
influences, the idea was pronounced sacreligious, and vetoed. 
Twenty-five years later both these attractions appeared in the 


Young Men's Christian Association and the Guild House. 
He became a member of St. Mark's English Lutheran Church, 
formerly on North Eutaw street, now on St. Paul street, under 
Rev. Charles Stork, D.D., and later at Dr. Stork's request 
became a charter member of the new St. Paul's Lutheran 
Church, Druid Hill avenue and McMechen street. Years 
later he joined the First Unitarian Church, of which Rev. 
Alfred R. Hussey, D.D., was pastor, and continued active in 
church work and philanthropy until his health failed. 

Mr. Torsch married, in 1872, Emma M. Saumenig, who 
with their only son, Charles Burnet Torsch, and two grand- 
daughters, Althea L. and Marie M. Torsch, survive him. 

An elder brother, Captain John W. Torsch, also born in 
Baltimore, espoused the cause of the South during the Civil 
War, was in command of the Second Maryland Regiment, 
Army of Northern Virginia, and with his chief, General Rob- 
ert E. Lee, gave up the struggle at Appomattox Court House. 


"VTOT LONG after reaching man's estate, and soon after his 
graduation from Johns Hopkins University, Douglas M. 
Wylie became an associate of his honored father in the flour 
and grain firm of Wylie, Smith & Company as a partner, and 
from that time until his death was very prominent in the bus- 
iness life of Baltimore. Few men were more diverse in their 
interests or took part more willingly in all that pertained to 
the public or social life of his city; his activity and influence 
was not confined to commerce, for he was a social favorite 
and numbered many of his intimates among the most fashion- 
able and select. He possessed a rare trait of character that 
led him to identify himself actively with movements in many 
fields of public welfare and reached out into the broad do- 
main of public interest; made himself familiar with its pro- 
blems and held himself readv at all times to aid in their 
solution. Thus at one and the same time he was influential 
and strong in business, in religious activity, in the city's 
struggle for civic righteousness, in the cause of charity, in 
educational affairs, in fact, strong for everything that touched 
upon or furthered the cause of the public good. 

The foundations upon which he built his proud record 
of citizenship were a heritage from his father, Robert M. 
Wylie, and with the advantage of a University education, the 
preceptorship of his able father, and the momentum gained 
while yet he could avail himself of the wisdom and experience 
of that father, he went forward to greater heights of success 
and influence. 

Robert M. Wylie was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1838, 
and came to the United States a young man. Shortly after 
arriving in Baltimore he became clerk for the firm of D. J. 
Foley & Company. He formed a partnership with A. A. 


Johnson in 1863, trading as Johnson & Wylie. In 1865, with 
F. T. Smith, he founded the grain and flour firm of Wylie, 
Smith & Company, conducting a highly successful business 
under that name until the forming of the firm of Wylie, Son 
& Company. Six months prior to his death, June 20, 1902, 
he withdrew, leaving all his business interests in the hands of 
his capable son, Douglas M. Wylie. He was one of the foun- 
ders and incorporators of the Baltimore Corn and Flour Ex- 
change, was one of the familiar figures on the exchange, and 
for nearly half a century was engaged in the flour and grain 
business. The Corn and Flour Exchange afterward became 
the Chamber of Commerce, and for many years he was a 
director. From 1873 until 1880 he served the Chamber as 
treasurer, for which he accepted no remuneration; in 1890 
he was elected second vice-president, and in 1891 first vice- 
president. He was also one of the incorporators and vice- 
president of the Terminal Warehouse Company, and a dir- 
ector of the Western National Bank. Robert M. Wylie was 
a devout member of the First Presbyterian Church, was twice 
chosen an elder of the congregation, and for a number of 
years was chairman of the executive committee. He was one 
of the organizers of the Presbyterian Association of Maryland ; 
a trustee of the Presbyterian Home for Women; a director 
of the Presbyterian Ear, Eye and Throat Hospital, and a 
director of the Egenton Orphanage. He married Elizabeth 
McKee, of Baltimore, and had two children, only one of whom 
lived, Douglas Miller Wylie. Mrs. Wylie survives both hus- 
band and son. 

Douglas Miller Wylie was born in Baltimore, April 28, 
1865, died unmarried in Baltimore, where he lived with his 
mother, March 9, 1 91 4. He completed his education at 
Johns Hopkins University, class of 1890, shortly afterward 
became a member of the firm of Wylie, Smith & Company, 


and from the very beginning of his career displayed unusual 
aptitude for business. He was soon a potent force in the firm's 
affairs and ten years later the style and title became Wylie, 
Son & Company, and so remained until both father and son 
had both joined the great majority. On January i, 1902, 
Robert M. Wylie withdrew, turning the executive manage- 
ment over to his son, and from that time until his death 
Douglas M. Wylie was the active head. Under his guidance 
the house continued its successful career and so prominently 
did its head become that he was chosen president of the Balti- 
more Chamber of Commerce, a position he held two terms. 
In the great fire of 1904, the great grain warehouses built by 
Robert M. Wylie and owned by Wylie Son & Company, were 
destroyed, Douglas M. Wylie expressing his thankfulness that 
his father had been spared witnessing their destruction. For 
twelve years Douglas M. Wylie was a director of the Eutaw 
Savings Bank, and member of its investigating committee, his 
associates on the board expressing their high opinion of his 
uprightness and usefulness, adding: "His death means a per- 
sonal loss. We shall sadly miss his vigorous work and sound 
advice in connection with the business of the bank." He was 
also vice-president and director of the National Bank of Com- 
merce; director of the Terminal Warehouse Company and 
of the Maryland Trust Company. 

Mr. Wylie was an independent Democrat in politics, and 
once his name was mentioned in connection with the mayor- 
alty, but his independent tendencies did not commend him to 
the powers that rule. In 1909 he was elected chairman of 
the Anti-Amendment League, and in 191 1 he was appointed a 
member of the Board of Park Commissioners by Mayor 
Mahool. But his public spirit did not wait on public office 
and he was greatly in evidence in all public movements. He 
was an active member of the First Presbyterian Church of 


Baltimore, serving as deacon from 1895, an d a trustee from 
1902 until his death. He was most benevolent in disposition, 
extending charity freely through personal channels and 
through the medium of organized bodies. He was for years 
identified with the Charity Organization Society, but while 
affiliated with about every charitable organization in the city 
it did not require official action to arouse his sympathy, any 
unfortunate appealing to him always finding a friend. 

He was fond of the pleasures of social life and was one 
of the most popular clubmen of the city, belonging to the 
Maryland University, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, Merchants, 
Elk Ridge Hunt, and Baltimore Country clubs. He was a 
member of the Bachelors Cotillion, welcome at its functions, 
and one of the most popular of the older members, being very 
fond of dancing, which fact endeared him to the younger 
members, who claimed him as one of their own. Notwith- 
standing his weighty business and other responsibilities he was 
scrupulous in the observance of his social obligations and was 
an honored guest in the best society. His versatility, big- 
hearted, genial disposition, and never failing consideration for 
others, won him friends everywhere, and many were the 
hearts that were touched by the tidings that their friend had 
left them. His life was an inspiration, and the memory of this 
christian gentleman, good citizen, sterling business man and 
loyal friend will long survive. 



PHYSICALLY notable for his great height, six feet six 
inches, and his splendidly proportioned weight, three 
hundred and forty-five pounds, the deeds of Colin McLean 
were of like unusual proportions. A builder of great works, 
only the most difficult construction seemed to appeal to him, 
and he left as monuments to his constructive genius, a large 
number of the greatest piers, bridges and buildings along the 
Atlantic coast from New York City to Albermarle Sound. 
The foundations for two of the immense suspension bridges 
which span the East river, connecting Brooklyn and New 
York, the longest timber railroad bridge spanning navigable 
waters in the world, the great five mile sea wall at Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, were important contracts successfully 
completed by Mr. McLean and the list of great enterprises 
presenting perplexing problems to engineer and contractor 
could be indefinitely prolonged. When the great Johnstown 
flood subsided and disclosed a scene of death, wreck and 
destruction unparalelled, the United States and Pennsylvania 
State engineers advised the governor of Pennsylvania to select 
the most competent contractor he could find and give him 
entire charge of the work of restoring the vast inundated tract 
to a cleanly sanitary condition. Mr. McLean was the man 
chosen for the work, was given full authority and performed 
the work in a perfectly satisfactory manner in the shortest pos- 
sible time. Men high in the financial world and in business, 
great builders and engineers, called him friend, and that 
friendship was never forfeited. Mr. McLean was deeply 
interested in civic afTairs as a citizen and it was the dream of 
his life that Baltimore water front should become a continuous 
scene of industry and commerce. He aided in every way 
May Preston's plans for the Key Highway, the opening of 


McComas street, the Belt Line railroad and the dredging of 
Spring Gardens Channel. He was a descendant of Scotch 
Highland ancestors who settled in Nova Scotia, and his early 
life was one of stirring adventure. But the enthusiasm and 
reckless daring of youth gave way to the settled purpose of 
mature years and he became one of the strong men of his day, 
but never outgrowing his love for the unusual and extremely 
difficult problems of his business. 

Colin McLean was born at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, died 
at his home, 1 591 Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Maryland, April 
29, 1 916, aged seventy-two years. He was noted in boyhood 
for his adventurous spirit but kept himself under control until 
he was fourteen, then with a few belongings tied up in a small 
bundle, he attempted to stow away on a large sailing vessel in 
Halifax harbor, but failed in his first attempt. Later he again 
started away from home secretly determined to see the world 
and that time he succeeded. He sailed the seas for several 
years, was mate of a merchant ship at the age of twenty and 
indeed "saw the world." When the sea palled upon him, he 
made a sudden change, quit his ship in New York harbor 
and for several months worked under the surface of the East 
river with the sand hogs, digging to a solid rock foundation 
for the piers of the Brooklyn Bridge. When that work lost 
its novelty he became a rigger on the same structure. The 
pay was large and he saved his wages until he had sufficient 
capital and experience to carry into execution an ambition he 
had formed to himself to become a contractor of similar work. 
He began with construction work obtained from the Long 
Island Railroad Company and so well were those operations 
executed that he was entrusted with the Company's most im- 
portant work. He built their extensive system of piers on 
the East river and a large number of the hotels the company 
caused to be erected in their plan for the development of 


Long Island. This work was not done under contract but as 
the company's construction manager at a large salary. From 
the Long Island Railroad Company he went to the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, then under the presidency of John W. 
Garrett, Mr. McLean's position being superintendent of 
bridges and buildings. During the years which followed he 
constructed nearly all the improvements made by the Balti- 
more and Ohio, including the elevators at Locust Point, the 
round houses, piers, machine shops and nearly all the wharves 
and terminal facilities in Baltimore and other ports reached 
by the road's connecting lines. 

Leaving the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Mr. McLean 
carried out his long cherished ambition to become an inde- 
pendent contractor. He returned to New York City and 
entered the lists against the old established firms of that sec- 
tion. But none knew their business better than Colin McLean 
and he rapidly forged to the front. His first important con- 
tract was the large station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
at Twenty-fourth and Chestnut streets, Philadelphia, fol- 
lowed by the building of several water front piers. This gave 
him prestige and from that time until his death he constructed 
the most difficult and largest structures in different cities along 
the Atlantic coast. In addition to the works previously enum- 
erated the more important works constructed under contract 
by Mr. McLean, through his firm The McLean Construction 
Company, were foundations for the East River and Williams- 
burg bridges, New York, the transfer bridges and wharves of 
the Brooklyn Wharf and Warehouse Company; all the im- 
provements of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on Staten 
Island, New York; the Atlantic and North Carolina trestle, 
two miles long from Beaufort to Moorehead City; the Nor- 
folk Southern trestle, six miles long over navigable water in 
Albermarle Sound; the five mile sea wall at Charleston, South 


Carolina; the piers at Norfolk and Newport News for the 
Norfolk and Western Railroad; the Southern, the Atlantic 
Coast Line, the Chesapeake Steamship and Virginia Railway 
Companies. Another contract difficult of execution in which 
he took a deep interest was for draining a part of the Dismal 
Swamp. These were the principal achievements of the life of 
this master builder, this physical and construction giant. He 
loved his work and was a master spirit no matter how many 
eminent engineers, contractors or capable men surrounded 
him. The emolument he received, and the profit secured 
through the completion of a difficult complex contract, did 
not give him half the satisfaction as the fact that it was com- 
pleted, in the face of all difficulty, on time, and his was the 
master mind which had directed it. 

Mr. McLean married (first) , who died in 1884. 

Issue: George McLean and Josephine McLean. He mar- 
ried (second) Catherine Maddy, of New York City, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1892. They had one son, Colin McLean, Jr., who 
died October 20, 1913. 


QEORGE BLAKISTON was a representative of a family 
which, for nearly two centuries and a half, has given to 
the State of Maryland and to the Nation many useful and 
heroic citizens who have borne well their part in life. 

The name of Blakiston first appears in English history 
in 1341, no doubt called into prominence by participation in 
the career of conquest upon which Edward III. was then en- 
tering, and which could not fail to evoke the martial spirit of 
this ancient race. The Blakiston family of Maryland de- 
scends from the Blakistons of Newton Hall, a branch of the 
Blakistons of Blakiston, in the Palatinate of Durham. The 
name has at different times been variously spelled, but the 
correct orthography is Blakiston. The arms and crest are 
as follows: 

Arms Argent, two bars, and in chief three dunghill cocks, gules. 
Crest A dunghill cock or, crested, armed, wattled, and collared, gules. 

(I) The Rev. Marmaduke Blakiston, of Newton Hall, 
immediate ancestor of the Maryland family, was the fifth son 
of John Blakiston, of Blakiston, by his first wife Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir George Bowes, of Dalden and 
Streatham, Kent. He was vicar of Woodborne, rector of Red- 
marshall in 1585, rector of Sedgefield in 1599, and prebendary 
of Durham, and was buried at St. Margaret's, Crossgate, 
September 3, 1639. He married, June 30, 1595, Margaret 
James, who was buried at St. Margaret's, March 10, 1636. 
Their children were: Tobye, of Newton Hall; John, men- 
tioned below; Thomas, vicar of North Allerton and preben- 
dary of Wistow, ejected during the civil wars; Robert, rector 
of Sedgefield and prebendary of Durham on the resignation 
of his father in 163 1; Ralph, rector of Ryton, county Pala- 
tinate; Henry, of Old Malton, County York; Peter, sometime 


of Old Malton ; George, sheriff of Durham in 1656, emigrated 
to Maryland with his family in 1668, settled in St. Mary's 
county and died the following year; Frances, married John 
Cosin, Lord Bishop of Durham; Mary, married Ralph Allen- 
son, merchant in Durham; and Margaret, married Thomas 
Shadforth of Eppleton, County Palatinate. 

(II) John Blakiston, son of Rev. Marmaduke and Mar- 
garet (James) Blakiston, was baptized August 21, 1603. In 
1641 he was member of Parliament for Newcastle, in 1645 
was mayor of Newcastle, and in 1649 was one of the judges 
who pronounced sentence of death on King Charles I. He 
married, November 9, 1626, at All Saints', Newcastle, Susan 
Chambers, and their children were: John, died in infancy; 
John (2), barrister-at-law; Joseph, died in infancy; Nehe- 
miah, mentioned below; Rebecca, married James Lance; 
Elizabeth, died in infancy. John Blakiston, the father, died 
in 1650. 

(III) Nehemiah Blakiston, son of John and Susan 
(Chambers) Blakiston, is named in his father's will, 1649, 
and in 1674 we find him claiming land in St. Mary's county, 
Maryland. He probably came to this country in 1668, with 
his uncle, George Blakiston, who is stated, in his brother's 
will, to have "suffered much in public concerns", and would 
seem to have emigrated for this reason, as well as on account 
of his relationship to the regicide judge. No doubt the 
family shared in the persecution which, after the Restoration, 
was endured by the Commonwealth leaders, some of whom 
testified on the scaffold to their loyalty to the cause of freedom. 
Nehemiah Blakiston was one of the attorneys of the Provin- 
cial Court and of the Courts of St. Mary's and Charles coun- 
ties, and in addition to the active practice of the legal pro- 
fession he filled the office of clerk of the King's customs for 
Wicomico and Potomac rivers. In the Revolution of 1689 


he played an important part, and for his good services at this 
time received a vote of thanks from the Assembly. At the 
same time he was commissioned captain of a troop of horse 
in St. Mary's county militia, and in a letter dated July 17, 
1690, writes that he has been appointed president of the Com- 
mittee for the Present Government of this Province. April 
2i t 1 69 1 , he was appointed Chief Justice of the Provincial 
Court of Maryland, and in the same year was Speaker of the 
Assembly. August 26, 1691, he was commissioned a member 
of the Council of Maryland, and on April 8, 1692, was recom- 
missioned a justice of the Provincial Court. He was com- 
missioned colonel probably on the following day, his name 
thereafter always appearing as "Colonel Nehemiah Blakis- 
ton". He married, May 6, 1669, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Gerard, of St. Clement's Manor, who was for a num- 
ber of years a member of the Council of Maryland, but later 
removed to Westmoreland county, Virginia, and died there 
in 1673. Children: John, mentioned below; Susanna, mar- 
ried (first) Thomas, grandson of Secretary Thomas Hatton, 
slain at the battle of St. Mary's, 1665; (second), John Atta- 
way; Rebecca, married Walters; Mary, married Mat- 
thew Mason. Colonel Nehemiah Blakiston continued his 
career of honorable service to the close of his life, being pre- 
sent at a meeting of the Council, August 25, 1693, and dying 
not long after, his widow, Madame Elizabeth Blakiston, being 
cited to administer on his estate December 1 1 of the same year. 
(IV) John Blakiston, son of Nehemiah and Elizabeth 
(Gerard) Blakiston, married Anne, daughter of his stepfather, 
Joshua Guibert, and their children were: Nehemiah, pro- 
bably died young; John, mentioned below; Thomas; Eliza- 
beth, married Roswell Neale, of St. Mary's county; and Su- 
sanna, married Robert Mason, of the same county. John 
Blakiston, the father, died in the autumn of 1724. 


(V) John Blakiston, son of John and Anne (Guibert) 
Blakiston, married Eleanor, daughter of Colonel George Dent, 
of Charles county, and the following were their children: 
Nehemiah Herbert, mentioned below; George, died 1774; 
and John, died 1802. John Blakiston, the father, was a large 
landowner in St. Mary's county, and died January 18, 1756. 

(VI) Nehemiah Herbert Blakiston, son of John and 
Eleanor (Dent) Blakiston, died in 1816, and in his will devises 
to his children Longworth's Point, which had descended to 
him from his great grand-father, Nehemiah Blakiston, and 
Elizabeth (Gerard) Blakiston, his wife. The records of King 
and Queen parish, St. Mary's county, show that Nehemiah 
Herbert Blakiston was several times elected a vestryman of 
the parish. He married (first) January 30, 1772, Mary, 
daughter of Kenelm and Chloe Cheseldine, and (second), in 
August, 1801, Eleanor Gardiner Hebb. By his first wife he 
had issue: Thomas; Eleanor; Kenelm; Mary; George, men- 
tioned below; Margaret, married Goldsmith; and Dent. 

The children of his second marriage were: Henry Herbert, 
married Ann E. Shanks; John; Bernard, married Rebecca 
Jordan Allstone; Caroline Gardiner, died 1817; Juliana; and 
Jane Maria, married Robert McK. Hammett. 

(VII) George Blakiston, son of Nehemiah Herbert and 
Mary (Cheseldine) Blakiston, was born November 28, 1780, 
and his will, dated November 7, 1842, was proved in St. 
Mary's county, January 17, 1843. He married, in January, 
1813, Rebecca Goldsmith, and had issue: James Thomas, 
mentioned below; Richard Pinkney, a physician; George 
Wellington, married Joanna Cheseldine; Lilias D., married 
John F. Dent; Zachariah Demeneau, married Harriet Ann 
Shanks; Lucinda, married J. R. W. Mankin; Ann Rebecca, 

married Biscoe Cheseldine; and Priscilla Hebb, married 



(VIII) James Thomas Blakiston, son of George and 
Rebecca (Goldsmith) Blakiston, was a lawyer, and one of 
the most prominent men in the business and political life of 
St. Mary's county. He married, in November, 1840, Ann, 
daughter of Dr. William Thomas, of Cremona, St. Mary's 
county, and Eliza, his wife, daughter of Henry and Mary 
(Sothoron) Tubman. The death of Colonel Blakiston was 
widely and sincerely mourned as that of a man admirable in 
all the relations of life. 

Colonel Blakiston and his wife were the parents of the 
following children: William Thomas, Teackle Wallis and 
George, mentioned below; Walter, deceased; James T. ; An- 
drew; and four daughters: Bettie, Jane T., Ann T. and Ella 
Rebecca. William Thomas, the eldest son, was a cadet at 
West Point, and a member of the graduating class at the break- 
ing out of the Civil War. His sense of duty to his State 
prompted his resignation. He joined the Confederate army, 
and after participating in many leading campaigns, was 
wounded at the battle of Gettysburg and died from the effects 
of the wound in July, 1863. At the time of his death he was 
first sergeant in Company A, Second Maryland Regiment, 
commanded by Captain William H. Murray. His commis- 
sion as first lieutenant had been made out but was not received 
until after his death. Of the daughters, Jane T. married 
Joseph R. Foard, and Ann T. married William N. Conway, 
of Baltimore City. 

(IX) Teackle Wallis Blakiston, son of James Thomas 
and Ann (Thomas) Blakiston, was born December 8, 1846, 
in St. Mary's county, Maryland, and obtained his early edu- 
cation at the private school of Topping and Carey, Baltimore. 
After completing the course of study, he entered the office of 
his uncle, James H. Thomas, who, in partnership with Severn 
Teackle Wallis, constituted the law firm of Wallis & Thomas. 


It was with this firm that Mr. Blakiston fitted himself for the 
profession for which his subsequent career proved him to be 
so peculiarly adapted. He became noted for his quick appre- 
ciation of the points to be established, and for his invariable 
success in getting at the root of the matter by questions during 
argument and by these illuminating inquiries would either de- 
velop the strength of the argument or demonstrate its weakness. 
The firm of Blakiston & Blakiston, of which he was senior 
member, was formed in 1880, upon the arrival of his brother 
George in this city. The partnership was maintained until 
1897, when Mr. George Blakiston withdrew, the firm having 
acquired a large connection and built up an enviable reputation 
for sagacity, eloquence and honorable dealing. Thereafter, 
until the close of his life, Mr. Blakiston practised alone. He 
was a strong man, a lawyer of great ability, cool and resource- 
ful. As a speaker he was versatile, eloquent and logical, never 
failing to command the attention of his audience. His style 
was original, his language classical, and his utterances were 
pervaded by a deep earnestness and sincerity which carried 
conviction to the minds of his hearers. His intellect was 
luminous and vigorous and it was his delight to master the 
most intricate legal problems. 

It is the special function of the lawyer to participate 
actively in the affairs of his community. He is the spokesman 
for its patriotic observances, for the reform of its abuses and 
for the enlargement of its functions. To this sphere of pro- 
fessional life and duty Mr. Blakiston brought the ability, zeal 
and earnestness which characterized him in the courtroom and 
the council, and his gifts as an orator were never more com- 
mandingly displayed than on the political platform. He was 
an ardent Democrat, and took a prominent part in the Allison 
campaign, acting as chairman of the independent Democratic- 
organization which supported Mr. Allison against Mr. James 


Bond of the regular ticket. He was also identified with the 
new judge campaign of 1882, which was the first large inde- 
pendent movement when three Democratic judges, George 
William Brown, William Stewart and William Fisher, and 
two Republican judges, Edward Duffy and Charles E. Phelps, 
were elected. As a member of the State Brigade staff, with 
the rank of colonel, under General James R. Herbert, Mr. 
Blakiston saw active service in the railroad riots of 1877. 

Fearless and frank, detesting all subterfuge, with mind 
and motives singularly transparent, he never sought popu- 
larity, but stood at all times as an able exponent of the spirit 
of the age in his efforts to advance progress and improvement. 
He held at one time the office of judge advocate general and 
was a close friend of Judge Dennis. Realizing that he would 
not pass this way again, he conformed his life to a high stand- 
ard, so that his entire record was in harmony with the strictest 
principles of integrity and the loftiest ideals of honor. In all 
his relations to the bar he was essentially courteous, and in 
private life most genial and companionable. All who met 
him socially could testify to his charm and affability and to 
the brilliancy of his conversation, replete with reminiscence 
and anecdote, with humorous disquisitions upon the topics of 
the time and fascinating allusions to literature. 

The death of Mr. Blakiston occurred October 30, 1909, 
while he was still in the fullness of his powers and at the 
height of his activities. He was unmarried. A man of the 
purest character, the loftiest principles, the calmest judgment, 
the most unblenching courage, he served his city and his State 
well. To every able lawyer and brilliant orator there are pre- 
sented opportunities of advancement, the acceptance of which 
would be inconsistent with personal and professional integrity. 
Mr. Blakiston, sensitive to the slightest possible shadow of 
dishonor, invariably repelled these approaches. He kept un- 


stained the name transmitted to him from generations of noble 
ancestry. Most truly might be said of him what was said of 
one of the noblest of earth: "His fame is whiter than it is 

(IX) George Blakiston, son of James Thomas and Ann 
(Thomas) Blakiston, was born February 25, 1855, at Leonard- 
town, St. Mary's county, Maryland, and was educated at 
Charlotte Hall and St. John's College. After finishing his 
collegiate course he was for three years engaged in teaching, 
and during that time studied law in his father's office. After 
his admission to the bar he practised for five years in St. 
Mary's county, and in 1882 came to Baltimore, where he be- 
came associated with his brother, Teackle Wallis Blakiston, 
forming the law firm of Blakiston & Blakiston. 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Central 
Railway Company, held in February, 1892, Mr. Blakiston was 
elected a member of the board of directors. The railway was 
then a horse-car road, and during the construction period 
which has converted the line into an electric road, with every 
first-class facility, Mr. Blakiston served as chairman of the 
building committee. In September, 1892, he was elected presi- 
dent of the company, and his fitness to occupy the position was 
attested by the fact that he was re-elected at each annual meet- 
ing until 1898, when the road was purchased by the City 
Passenger Railway Company. In 1900 he became president 
of the Realty Trust Company, which subsequently absorbed 
the Citizens' Trust and Deposit Company and the Atlantic 
Trust and Deposit Company, becoming the Union Trust Com- 
pany of Maryland. It was at this time that he retired from 
the practice of his profession, withdrawing from the firm of 
Blakiston & Blakiston, which, nevertheless, retained its name 
without alteration. As a financier Mr. Blakiston was keen, 
astute and resourceful, possessed that intellectual acumen and 


power of discrimination which enabled him to unravel the 
intricacies of a case and penetrate quickly a labyrinth of de- 
tails to whatever constituted the heart and centre of the matter. 
This caused him to be consulted in regard to a number of 
critical financial situations and the acceptance of his judg- 
ment and adoption of the course which he thought most ad- 
visable under the circumstances, was, in each instance, fol- 
lowed by the happiest results for all concerned. 

Mr. Blakiston always took an active interest in civic 
affairs, especially in matters pertaining to the Fire Depart- 
ment. Not one of the many improvements which developed 
in the department escaped his notice, and he was among the 
first to begin the publication, in the newspapers, of a series of 
articles agitating the question of forming a "full-paid" de- 
partment in the city of Baltimore. He was a member of the 
Maryland Club and the Bachelors' Cotillon, and attended the 
Protestant Episcopal church. 

As the president of the Belvedere Hotel Company, Mr. 
Blakiston purchased from Miss Florence Mackubin, the well 
known artist, her portrait of Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore. 
It was through the courtesy of Sir William Eden, the descen- 
dant of the Calverts and of Sir Robert Eden, the last Colonial 
Governor of Maryland, that Miss Mackubin obtained the 
privilege of copying the portrait, which is said to be the only 
life-sized picture of Cecilius Calvert extant. Lord Baltimore 
is represented in a black velvet jacket and tunic, thickly 
braided with gold, a gold sword-belt and richly mounted 
sword, and wearing a Parliamentary collar instead of one of 
the Cavalier type. This portrait of the great founder of Mary- 
land hangs over the fireplace in the large hall of the Bel- 
vedere, and will irresistibly recall those noble traditions loy- 
ally cherished by every true Marylander. 

Mr. Blakiston married, in November, 1892, Maud B., 



daughter of T. Buchanan Price, who bore him two sons, 
George Blakiston and T. Buchanan Blakiston. 

Strict and literal fulfillment of every trust reposed in 
him marked the entire career of Mr. Blakiston. A high- 
minded man of affairs and an able and conscientious lawyer, 
he was also a patriotic and public-spirited citizen, a title which 
has ever been synonymous with the name of Blakiston. 

His death occurred July 6, 1914. 


HHHIS ancient and honorable race of Anglo-Norman origin 
has, in the successive generations, given to the world many 
statesmen, warriors and divines, and has exercised no small 
influence in the advancement of learning and art. Both in 
English and x\merican annals the name is a prominent one, 
its original form, de Gylpyn, having been gradually modern- 
ized by dropping the "de" and changing the "y" to "i". There 
is a tradition that the family was planted in England by Bert 
de Gylpyn, who went thither in the train of William the Con- 
queror, and whose crest was, as an old rhyme says, 

"the rebus of his name, 
A pineapple a pine of gold." 

Richard de Gylpyn was the first of the family of whom 
we have authentic knowledge. He displayed signal courage 
in slaying a wild boar which had committed great devastation 
in Cumberland and Westmoreland, and as a reward was grant- 
ed by the Baron of Kendal the estate of Kentmere, situated in 
the latter county. The Baron, like most of the nobles of that 
time, could neither read nor write, and therefore, on going to 
Runnymede to assist in wresting Magna Charta from King 
John, took Richard de Gylpyn with him as secretary. For 
this service, as well as for his other achievements, he was 
knighted, adopting the arms which have ever since been borne 
by his descendants: 

Arms Or, a boar statant sable, langued and tusked gules. 
Crest A dexter arm embowed, in armor proper, the naked hand grasp- 
ing a pine branch fesswise vert. 

Motto Dictis factisque simplex. 

The estate was increased in the reign of Henry III. by 
the grant by Peter de Bruys of the Manor of Ulwithwaite to 


Richard, the grandson of the first of that name. This grant, 
written in Latin, is still preserved by the English head of the 
family. Kentmere remained in the family until the civil wars 
of the time of Charles I., when members of the family were 
fighting on both sides. About the same period another Richard 
Gilpin purchased Scaleby Castle, near Carlisle, which has 
been in the family ever since, although it is not now owned 
by a Gilpin, but has passed into the female branch. 

Among the most distinguished of those who have shed 
lustre on the family name was Bernard Gilpin, often called 
"The Apostle of the North." Brought up a Roman Catholic, 
he was made rector of Houghton, but before the death of 
Queen Mary he became satisfied with the doctrines of the 
Reformation, and until his death wielded an immense influ- 
ence in ecclesiastical affairs. He was summoned to appear be- 
fore Dr. Bonner, Bishop of London, to stand trial for heresy, 
and on the journey fell from his horse and broke his leg. Be- 
fore he was able to appear before the judges, Queen Mary 
died, the reformers came into power, and he had nothing to 
fear. In those turbulent times, Bernard, contrary to custom, 
went unarmed and fearless, and was noted for his unflinching 
devotion to the people and to what he considered his duty. 
On one occasion, upon entering a church, he saw a gauntlet 
suspended in mid-air a challenge of some trooper in the 
building. Taking the glove with him, he said during the ser- 
mon, "I see there is one among you who has, even in this sacred 
place, hung up a glove in defiance." Then, displaying it, he 
added, "I challenge him to compete with me in acts of Chris- 
tian charity," flinging it, as he spoke, upon the floor. Queen 
Elizabeth offered him the Bishopric of Carlisle, which he de- 
clined, preferring to preach the Reformation and endow 
schools. He was a spiritual guide, beloved by old and young 

MO 51 


A brother of Bernard Gilpin was William Gilpin, from 
whom the Baltimore branch of the family is descended. He 
married Elizabeth Washington, of Hall Heal, a collateral 
ancestress of George Washington, first president of the United 
States. William Gilpin died and was buried at Kendal, 
January 23, 1577. 

(I) Thomas Gilpin, of Warborough, was a colonel in the 
Parliamentary army and fought at the battle of Worcester, 
September 3, 1651. He afterward joined the Society of 
Friends, and for forty years was a preacher. 

(II) Joseph Gilpin, son of Thomas Gilpin, was the 
founder of the American branch of the family. He was born 
in 1664, and, like his father, was a Friend. In 1696 he emi- 
grated to the Province of Pennsylvania and settled in Chester 
county, his home in England having been in Dorchester, 
county of Oxford. In the new land, Joseph Gilpin, after the 
manner of Friends, lived in perfect harmony and friendship 
with his Indian neighbors. It has been believed and handed 
down that his philanthropy and patriotism were not surpassed 
by any in the country. Great numbers of emigrants, princi- 
pally Friends, on coming over, were kindly received and enter- 
tained at his house week after week, and he cheerfully de- 
voted a good portion of his time for several years in assisting 
them to find suitable situations and to get their lands properly 
cleared. Part of his house is still standing, and the last of 
the property passed out of the family less than fifty years ago. 
It was situated at Birmingham meeting-house, on the Brandy- 
wine, and the house is said to have been the headquarters of 
General Howe. Joseph Gilpin married, February 23, 1692, 
Hannah Glover, and among their children were two sons: 
Samuel, from whom was descended William Gilpin, a gov- 
ernor of Colorado; Joseph, mentioned below. Joseph Gilpin, 
the emigrant, died November 9, 1741. 


(III) Joseph (2) Gilpin, son of Joseph (1) and Hannah 
(Glover) Gilpin, was born March 21, 1704, and in 1761 re- 
moved to Wilmington. He married, December 17, 1729, Mary 
Caldwell, and they were the parents of twelve children, in- 
cluding a son Gideon, mentioned below. Joseph Gilpin, the 
father, died December 31, 1792. 

To this generation of the Gilpins belongs a name illus- 
trious in art, that of Benjamin West, who succeeded Sir Joshua 
Reynolds as president of the Royal Academy. John West, 
the father of Benjamin, was the son of Thomas and Ann (Gil- 
pin) West, the latter the sister of Thomas Gilpin, of War- 
borough, the Parliamentary colonel. 

It is probable that to this generation belongs also George 
Gilpin, a descendant of Joseph Gilpin, the emigrant. George 
Gilpin settled in Alexandria and was a friend of Washington. 
At the breaking out of the Revolutionary War he was made 
colonel of the Fairfax Militia and was present at the battle 
of Dorchester Heights. After the war he was interested with 
Washington in some navigation experiments on the Potomac, 
and at the funeral of the first president George Gilpin was 
one of the pall-bearers. 

(IV) Gideon Gilpin, son of Joseph (2) and Mary (Cald- 
well) Gilpin, was born December 4, 1738, and married, De- 
cember 1, 1762, Sarah Gregg. They were the parents of 
eight children of whom the eldest was Bernard, mentioned 
below. Gideon Gilpin died August 20, 1825. 

(V) Bernard Gilpin, son of Gideon and Sarah (Gregg) 
Gilpin, was born October 27, 1763, and about 1800 removed 
from Chad's Ford, Pennsylvania, to Maryland, the homestead 
he founded there having been ever since in the possession of 
the family. He married (first) August 21, 1793, Sarah 
Thomas, who at her death left seven children. Mr. Gilpin 
married (second) August 24, 1807, Letitia Gilbert, and of 


their nine children the youngest was Bernard, mentioned be- 
low. Bernard Gilpin, the father, died August 18, 1847, in 
the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

(VI) Bernard (2) Gilpin, son of Bernard (1) and Letitia 
(Gilbert) Gilpin, was born March 5, 1826, at Sandy Spring, 
a Friends' settlement, in Montgomery county, Maryland. His 
early education was such as would have fitted him to follow 
the calling of a farmer, but as this line of work did not appeal 
to him he went to Baltimore at the age of seventeen years to 
seek other employment. His first position was as a clerk in 
the retail drug business of C. B. Barry, and in 1846 he entered 
the service of E. H. Stabler & Company. Some years later 
he established himself in the wholesale drug business in asso- 
ciation with James Baily, later becoming a member of the firm 
of Canby, Gilpin & Company, with which he was connected 
for many years. He was a broad-minded man and interested 
in widely diversified objects. One field of public benefit in 
which he was an active participant was the furthering of 
plans for inducing emigrants to settle in Maryland, but the 
West seemed to offer such superior inducements that he finally 
abandoned his ideas in this direction. He traveled extensively 
through the United States, making several trips to the Pacific 
coast, and his letters during these trips show literary ability 
of no mean order. 

As an energetic business man and a citizen seriously in- 
terested in the public welfare, Mr. Gilpin's influence was felt 
in numerous directions. The assistance which he gave to all 
charitable enterprises, in personal activity as well as financial 
contributions, endeared him to the hearts of many. In manner 
he was quiet and unobtrusive, but his dignity and force of 
character made him a power to be reckoned with in all mat- 
ters with which he was concerned. His political affiliations 
were with the Whig party until its dissolution, when he joined 


the Republicans. His parents having been Friends, Mr. Gil- 
pin had been trained in the doctrines of that denomination, 
but his opinions were liberal and non-sectarian, and he be- 
lieved that the true part of religion was toleration and good 
will toward all mankind. 

Mr. Gilpin married, November 19, 1851, Mary Bernard, 
of Baltimore, and they became the parents of three sons: 
Henry Brooke; Bernard, Jr., who went to the Rocky Moun- 
tains as an explorer and surveyor for the United States gov- 
ernment when he was but seventeen years of age, settled at 
the eastern base of the mountains; and Frank. 

In appearance Mr. Gilpin strikingly resembled the great 
ancestor whose name he bore, Bernard Gilpin, "The Apostle 
of the North." Portraits of the two men show the same type 
of feature, and it is worthy of remark that the race of the Gil- 
pins has to an unusual extent transmitted, through many gen- 
erations, the same facial characteristics. 

Mr. Gilpin died May 7, 1897, at his home in Baltimore. 
For half a century he was honorably known in the financial, 
social and commercial circles of the Monumental City, and 
has left behind him the revered memory of a useful and un- 
selfish life, in all respects worthy of the noble stock from 
which he sprang. 


^PHERE is no particular period in the life of William 
Keyser, long one of Baltimore's noblest citizens, which 
can be selected as the most important and conspicuous, but 
if it were possible to do so, the period 1 87 1 - 1 88 1 , during which 
he was a vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
could be named. This period is not only remarkable for the 
important part he took in the extension of the road to Chi- 
cago and in the great improvements in its physical condition, 
but for the spirit of consideration and mutuality he instilled 
into the management and the spirit of loyalty he inspired in 
the men. He had been engaged in business and in manufac- 
turing on a large scale, and when he assumed the second vice- 
presidency of the Baltimore & Ohio, he brought to the office 
the viewpoint of the merchant, the manufacturer and the 
shipper, something unusual in a railroad official at that time. 
Thus, when apparent deadlock would arise between the com- 
pany and shippers, it was Mr. Keyser's intimate knowledge 
of the rights and needs of both parties to the argument, his 
spirit of fairness, and love of justice that was depended upon 
to harmonize the conflicting elements and bring peace with 
honor. His genial humor and kindly disposition endeared 
him to the men, and in 1877, when a great railroad strike 
paralyzed the nation, he went from point to point on the 
Baltimore & Ohio system conferring with the men, and it was 
largely through his personal, friendly relations with them that 
the difficulties were adjusted as far as his own road was con- 
cerned. He often appeared before the legislatures of states 
and councils of cities in behalf of the road, and the town of 
Keyser, West Virginia, is one of the monuments to this period 
of his life. 

To a business career of great achievement, Mr. Keyser 


:m^ y 


added public service of unusual value, holding to high ideals 
and standing like a rock against corruption and narrow part- 
isanship, yet he was never a candidate for office, although for 
many years a leading figure in local politics. He did not often 
appear upon public platforms, but wielded a trenchant pen, 
and could always be found using his influence in behalf of 
good measures before Legislature or Council and opposing 
those he deemed detrimental to the public good. When 
Baltimore lay prostrate after the great fire of 1904, he at 
once planned to rebuild the structures he had lost, and as 
general chairman of the Emergency Committee, appointed 
by the Mayor, he was indefatigable in his efforts to have that 
committee successfully perform its duties. There was no 
phase of Baltimore's business, educational or civic life, which 
did not appeal to him, and his civic pride ran high. 

Mr. Keyser traced in direct paternal line to the Keysers 
of Raab, a town on the Danube in Hungary, where they were 
known to have resided in the sixteenth century. One of the 
family, a priest, became a convert to the principles of Luther 
and Zwingli, was tried for heresy and burned at the stake at 
Scharding, Bavaria, in June, 1527. The family, to escape 
persecution, fled to Crefeld on the Rhine, later locating in 
Amsterdam, Holland, where four generations were merchants 
and manufacturers. Dirck Gerritsz Keyser, a Morocco 
leather manufacturer of Amsterdam, son of Dircksz Keyser, 
married Cornelia, daughter of Tobias van den Wyngaert, a 
Mennonite minister, one of the signers of the third Mennonite 
Confession in 1632. They were the parents of Dirck Keyser, 
the founder of the family in America. 

Dirck Keyser, the American ancestor, was born in Amster- 
dam in 1635, and married at Buickesloot, near Amsterdam, 
November 22, 1668, Elizabet ter Himpel. He was a manu- 
facturer of silk there until 1688, when, having lost his wife, 


he joined a party coming to America, and the same year set- 
tled with his three children at Germantown, then a suburb, 
now a part of the city of Philadelphia. The party with which 
he came purchased a large tract from William Penn and 
divided it into fifty portions of fifty-five acres each, Dirck 
Keyser receiving lot No. 22 on which he built a stone house 
yet standing. He acquired other lands and was one of the 
leading men of the village. He died there in 1714. 

Pieter Dirck Keyser, born in Amsterdam, November 26, 
1676, married, September 4, 1700, in Germantown, Pennsyl- 
vania, Margaret Souplis, born 1682, daughter of Andrew 
Souplis, a burgher of New York, and his wife, Anneke Souplis, 
and died in Germantown, in 1724. 

Dirck Keyser, born September 26, 1701, died January 8, 
1756. He married, in 1725, Alitje de Neuss, daughter of Jan 
and Elizabeth de Neuss. 

Michael Keyser, born August 30, 1745, died October 5, 
1825. He married, November 25, 1767, Catherine Knorr, 
who died July 28, 1828. 

Samuel Keyser, born December 3, 1778, in Germantown, 
died November 6, 1839, in Baltimore. He married, in 1804, 
Mary Stouffer, daughter of John Stouflfer, of Baltimore, 
formerly of York county, Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Stouffer Keyser, father of William Keyser, was 
born February 18, 1805, and died February 18, 1871. He 
married, 1834, Elizabeth Wyman, daughter of William Wy- 
man, of Lowell, Massachusetts. 

On his mother's side, Mr. Keyser was descended from 
Francis Wyman and Elizabeth Richardson (married 1614), 
of West Mill, near Buntingford, Hertfordshire, England, 
whose son, Francis, born 1617, together with his brother John, 
emigrated to America and settled first at Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts. He was one of a party appointed to explore the 


country north of what is now Boston, and one of the original 
settlers of Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1640. He was a large 
land owner in that town, fought in the Indian wars, and had 
a son killed in King Philip's War in 1676. He married 
Abigail Read, in 1650, and died at Woburn, 1699. Their son, 
William Wyman, born at Woburn, 1656, died 1705, married 
Prudence Putnam, of Lynn. Their son, Joshua W r yman, born 
at Woburn, 1692, died 1770, married Mary Pollard. Their 
son, William Wyman, born 1739, married, 1765, Mary 
Griggs, and died at Roxbury in 1820. He was a captain 
in Patterson's regiment at the battle of Bunker Hill. Their 
son, William Wyman, of Lowell, was born in Roxbury, 1782, 
married, in 1806, Ruth Davis, daughter of Colonel Aaron 
Davis, of Roxbury, and died in Lowell, 1864. Their daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth Wyman, born in Lowell, 1812, married Samuel 
StoufTer Keyser, 1834, and died in Philadelphia, February 
18, 1886. 

The children of Samuel Stouflfer and Elizabeth (Wyman) 
Keyser were: 1 and 2. Samuel and William, twins, born No- 
vember 23, 1835; Samuel married Julia Therese Keyser, 1868, 
and died in New York, April 7, 1906. 3. Henry Irvine, born 
December 16, 1837, married Mary Washington, 1864, and 
died May 7, 1916. 4. Sarah Elizabeth, born November 17, 
1839, married John Worthington Williams, of Philadelphia, 
1863. _ 

W T illiam Keyser, of the eighth generation, son of Samuel 
Stouffer and Elizabeth (Wyman) Keyser, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, November 23, 1835, and died at his country 
estate, "Brentwood," near Reisterstown, Baltimore county, 
Maryland, June 3, 1904. He was educated in private Balti- 
more schools and St. Timothy's School at Catonsville, be- 
ginning his long and eminent business career in the counting 
room of his father's firm, Samuel S. Keyser & Company, iron 


importers of Baltimore, in April, 1852. His father's health 
having become impaired, he soon became the leading spirit 
in the business, and two years later his brother, Henry Irvine 
Keyser, joined him. In 1857 Samuel S. Keyser retired; the 
style of the firm was changed to Keyser, Troxell & Company, 
and the place of business moved from Pratt and South streets 
to Calvert and German streets, then known as Lovely lane. A 
large three-story warehouse was erected upon the old site 
which stood until destroyed by the fire of 1904, when the site 
was taken by the city in the widening of Pratt street and the 
new docks. In addition to his large private business, William 
Keyser, about 1857, when twenty-two years of age, was ap- 
pointed receiver of the Laurel Cotton Mill, a trust he admin- 
istered so ably that the mill regained its former financial stand- 
ing. About the same time he was associated with Horace 
Abbott in the affairs of a shipbuilding firm, having a con- 
tract to build a war sloop, the "Dakota," which contract Mr. 
Keyser completed satisfactorily and the vessel became a part 
of the United States Navy. 

He had during these years become well known in the 
business world and his responsibilities were numerous and 
weighty. In 1865 he became one of the incorporators of the 
x\bbott Iron Company, operating a large rolling mill and 
plant at Canton near Baltimore, and as chairman of its execu- 
tive committee was potent in the successful management of 
the plant, then employing one thousand men in making rails, 
boilers and armor plate. He was connected with the company 
for several years, then transferred his activity to the Baltimore 
Copper Company, became its president and directed its affairs, 
organizing a special partnership of Pope, Cole & Company 
of which John W. Garrett, Johns Hopkins and himself were 
the special partners. During this period he took a part in the 
establishment of the first Baltimore line of transatlantic line 


of steamers, an enterprise which failed, but fifteen years later 
Mr. Keyser took an active part in establishing the successful 
Johnston Line. In 1870 the firm of Keyser, Troxell & Com- 
pany reorganized as Keyser Brothers & Company, and a new 
warehouse, fronting on German street, just east of Calvert, was 
erected. He was elected president of the Northwestern Vir- 
ginia Railroad Company, better known as the Parkersburg 
branch of the Baltimore & Ohio system, in 1870, and at the 
same time was offered the second vice-presidency of the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad Company, but declined. He accepted 
election to that post in 1871, his friendship with John W. 
Garrett, president of the road, and Johns Hopkins, the great 
Baltimore financier, causing him to accept the post previously 

As second vice-president, besides being in charge of the 
physical condition of the road, his duties were largely main- 
taining friendly and amicable relations with official bodies and 
officials of the various states through which the road passed. 
He thus made the acquaintance of many public men and ac- 
complished a great work in popularizing the company through 
his fair dealing with the various communities. He also spent 
much time on the road in charge of the construction of the 
Chicago extension and acting as president of subsidiary lines. 
He personally conducted the negotiations with the strikers, in 
1877, was continuously on the line for three weeks, meeting 
angry men face to face and retaining their respect, although 
obliged to deny their demands. It was a most congenial work 
in which he found himself engaged, having the confidence of 
the management of the road and the good will of the men. In 
1880 his health began to fail, and under the advice of his 
doctor he took a trip to Europe, and in 1881 he retired from 
the service. During his railroad career he was from 1870 for 
several years a director of the Western Maryland Railroad 
Company and chairman of the finance committee. 


After retiring from the Baltimore & Ohio, he made an 
extended tour of Europe, and upon his return the business of 
Keyser Brothers & Company was wound up and the ware- 
house at German and Calvert streets was changed into an 
office building. In 1885 he organized the Baltimore Copper 
Smelting & Rolling Company, became its first president and 
held that office until his death. He also accepted the presi- 
dency of the Old Dominion Copper Company owning mines 
and smelters in Arizona, and for fifteen years was closely 
identified with the copper industry; established close relations 
with the Anaconda Copper Company of Montana, the product 
of the great Anaconda mine being refined at the works of the 
Baltimore Company and sold through their agencies. At the 
Canton plant of the company, copper ores from all over the 
world were smelted, and in the conduct of his business Mr. 
Keyser made frequent trips West and abroad. He was closely 
associated with James B. Haggin, the Montana Copper mag- 
nate, and in 1889 represented the Anaconda Company in its 
negotiations with the Secretan Copper Syndicate in Paris, be- 
ing in Paris at the time of the dramatic failure of the Syndi- 
cate. In 1892 he organized the Baltimore Electric Refining 
Company at Canton, one of the largest electrolytic refineries 
of copper in the world, the superior product of the company 
going principally to Europe. Later that company was com- 
bined with the Baltimore Copper Smelting & Rolling Com- 
pany. He was the first president of the South Baltimore Car 
Works, with a plant at Curtis Bay, was a director of the West 
Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railroad, also returned to the 
Baltimore & Ohio as a director, was a director of the Western 
Maryland, serving for some time as chairman of the finance 
committee, served on the directorates of the National Me- 
chanics Bank, the National Union Bank of Maryland, and 
other corporations. These are the bright lights only in a busi- 


ness career of nearly half a century during which Mr. Keyser 
became a power in finance and manufacturing, and a whole- 
some, elevating, influence. His conservatism rendered him 
a factor of safety in the business world, and he often took 
occasion to warn his friends of various dangerous speculations. 
He was much sought for in advice, and from his rich ex- 
perience he gave freely. His genial, kindly, humorous nature 
made him a most pleasant man with whom to transact business, 
his associates esteeming him very highly. As the years swept 
on he gradually withdrew from active business, and from 1895 
until his death he gave himself chiefly to his private invest- 
ments and real estate interests, not from a desire to retire but 
on account of his failing health. 

Eminence in business life carried with it other responsi- 
bilities, and these Mr. Keyser gladly assumed as presented. In 
his earlier life he was a member of the Franklin Literary 
Society; a director of the Maryland Institute when twenty- 
one years of age; also the Mercantile Library; a trustee of 
the McDonogh Fund, interested in the school maintained by 
that fund, connected with the Enoch Pratt Library, and the 
Hannah More Academy at Reisterstown, the latter holding 
his interest all through life, one of his favored objects of aid. 
In 1898, with his cousin, William Wyman, each donating sixty 
acres, he began the Homewood movement in the interest of 
Johns Hopkins University, and during the ensuing five years 
he gave much time and energy to the development of Home- 
wood and the adjacent Wyman Park. After the great fire 
of February 7, 1904, he was appointed chairman of the Emer- 
gency Committee and threw himself unreservedly into the 
work of rehabilitation. He was himself a heavy loser, but 
with cheerful optimism he at once planned to rebuild, began 
the crusade for wider streets in the burnt district while the fire 
was still raging, and the first land acquired by the city in the 
street widening plan was donated by William Keyser. 


He was a great reader and student, acquiring an intimate 
knowledge of both French and German, spoken and written, 
after passing his thirtieth year. He traveled a great deal both 
on business and pleasure bent, visiting Europe frequently and 
going to both Egypt and the Holy Land. He kept his private 
yacht "Kaleda" and made many cruises with his family and 
friends south and north along the Atlantic coast. The country 
appealed to him, and from 1885 his home was beautiful 
"Brentwod," a farm near Reisterstown, Baltimore county, 
situated on a hill above the upper Patapsco River. There he 
spent his summers, Baltimore his winter home. 

A Democrat in politics, he was extremely independent, 
and with other reformers of the city waged long and relentless 
warfare against the Democratic organization and all "powers 
that prey." He was a prominent figure notwithstanding he 
never would accept office. He made his appeal to civic pride 
and patriotism, and he brought about results in government 
most beneficial to city and State. In 1882 he was one of the 
committee of five in charge of the New Judge movement, the 
first successful effort to break the power of the Democratic 
Ring after the Civil War. In 1883, in an attempt to accom- 
plish "reform within the party," he served as chairman of the 
Democratic City Committee. He accomplished much through 
the Reform League organized in 1885; he became chairman 
of its executive committee in 1894, and in many campaigns 
was foremost with the League in battling for purity of the 
ballot box and the election of the best men. He held exalted 
ideas of good government and civic virtue, and to him may 
largely be traced the downfall of ballot box stuffing, roughing 
the polls and other practices and crimes frequent during the 
halcyon days of Ring rule in Baltimore, now happily passed 
into oblivion. He ever evinced a fondness for political life, 
and while vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio, directed 


the political policy of the company. As chairman of the Dem- 
ocratic City Committee he gained close knowledge of gang 
political methods, and when he came into conflict with the 
same powers he was thoroughly furnished for the fray. The 
"New Judge" fight was one of the most remarkable campaigns 
ever waged in the city and in it Mr. Keyser was closely allied 
with Robert T. Baldwin, president of the Mechanics Na- 
tional Bank, John K. Cowen, and other prominent citizens. 
He was active in the campaign of 1885 and in successive cam- 
paigns until 1897, when as chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of the Reform League he joined with many other 
prominent men in supporting the Republican nominees, a 
course of action which resulted in the final overthrow of the 
Democratic managers. After accomplishing that result, he 
undertook the task of bringing new men to the front in that 
party, and to that end urged the nomination and supported the 
election of Thomas G. Hayes for mayor. He was bitterly 
opposed to the election law passed at a special session of the 
Legislature in 1901, and never ceased his opposition to the 
Democratic managers responsible for its passage. During the 
campaigns of 1901 and 1903, he openly supported and worked 
hard for the Republican nominees. In 1903 he brought about 
the nomination of Robert M. McLane for mayor, and during 
the session of the Legislature, 1903-04, he appeared frequently 
at Annapolis in opposition to the proposed law abolishing 
spring elections in Baltimore and to the Wilson Disfranchising 
Bill. He was president of the Reform League at the time 
of his death, had also been vice-president of the Maryland 
Civil Service Reform Association, and in 1898 was one of the 
leaders of the New Charter Union. He gave largely of his 
means as well as of his time to the cause of reform, was always 
ready to respond to any deserving call made upon him, no good 
work sought his co-operation in vain, but he was most unosten- 


tatious and the extent of his charities will never be known. He 
was a lifelong member of the Protestant Episcopal church, 
and in 1887 built a stone church near Reisterstown which 
he presented to All Saints' Parish in loving memory of his 
mother. He served the local church in various offices, and 
as deputy represented his parish in the diocese of Maryland 
and that diocese in the General Convention of the church. 

To Mr. Keyser is due a great deal of credit for the raising 
in 1902 of the $1,000,000 endowment fund for Johns Hopkins 
University, and the placing of that valuable institution upon 
a sound financial basis. It was purely a labor of love, yet he 
was most earnest and untiring in his interest, and when the 
trustees of the University took official action upon his death 
they spoke of him as a "man whose whole public life was an 
inspiring example of good citizenship and civic duty. His 
public service in a private station offers a practical example of 
the fulfilment of the ideals which the University endeavors to 
inculcate.' 1 The faculty of the University also passed resolu- 
tions naming Mr. Keyser as a man of "eminent sagacity," who 
led a "life of high example and rare beneficence." "In busi- 
ness, in politics, in the cause of religion, the cause of humanity 
it was always the same large nature, the same unshaken will, 
the same calm foresight, the same energetic utterance, the same 
commanding presence that made for all that was righteous, all 
that was generous." "It is an honor to Baltimore that such a 
man should have unfolded so freely in this community." 

At his home, "Brentwood," about three miles from the 
Glyndon depot, reached by an avenue forty feet wide, which 
he built and presented to the public, Mr. Keyser and his wife 
dispensed a charming hospitality. He was a delightful host, 
she a charming hostess, both richly endowed with mental and 
physical graces. He was a man of commanding form, six feet 
in height, with manners invariably courteous and dignified. 


His genial personality never failed to attract, and it was char- 
acteristic of him that in youth his close friends were those 
older and in his latter years those much younger than he. His 
life was full of goodness, a solid, simple, unassuming, strong 
and serviceable one, and it is impossible to contemplate the 
variety, extent and importance of his work and the deep im- 
press of his personality upon his times without admiration. 
Long years of hard work told heavily upon his health, and 
although apparently unusually well, he passed away instantly 
on the afternoon of June 3, 1904, while walking on the lawn 
at "Brentwood," apoplexy causing his death at the age of 

Mr. Keyser married, November 10, 1858, Mary Hoke 
Brent, died October 29, 191 1, daughter of Robert J. Brent, a 
leading member of the Baltimore bar. They were the parents 
of three sons and three daughters: 1. Robert Brent, born 
August 5, 1859; married, June 14, 1888, Ellen Carr McHenry, 
daughter of James Howard McHenry, of Sudbrook, Balti- 
more county, Maryland. 2. John Wyman, born May 25, 1861, 
died in infancy. 3. Mary Brent, born July 21, 1862, died in 
infancy. 4. Mabel Wyman, born December 30, 1867, died in 
infancy. 5. Mathilde Lawrence, born February 26, 1870; 
married, April 23, 1901, William M. Manly. 6. William (2), 
born November 25, 1871 ; married, October 18, 1906, Jean 



A MONG the class of citizens who in days gone by added to 
the growth of Baltimore, who became prominent by the 
force of their own individual character at a period when it 
may truly be said that there were giants in the land, giants in 
intellect, energy and enterprise, and who, dying, left behind 
them imperishable "footprints on the sands of time," John 
Edward Hurst stands in the front rank. Few citizens have 
lived in our midst since the foundation of Baltimore who have 
left a brighter record for every trait of character that consti- 
tutes true greatness. Certainly, none whose memory shall 
float down the stream of time will be more honored and 

The Hurst family is one of the old families of America, 
and traces its lineage as far back as the year 1216 in England. 
It is one which has furnished its full quota of members to 
those who were active in defense of the rights and liberties 
of this country, and to professional, financial and commercial 
lines. Bishop John Fletcher Hurst, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, president of the Drew Theological Seminary, 
well-known author and writer for the press, is a grandson of 
Samuel Edward Hurst and his first wife, Lavinia Littleton, 
and there have been a number of others in this family who 
have attained more than a merely local reputation as writers. 

(I) Edward Hurst married in England, where his life 
was spent, and among his children was Edward (see forward) . 

(II) Edward (2) Hurst, son of Edward (1) Hurst, was 
born January 16, 1744. He married, 1764, Sarah, daughter 
of Henry Hooper, and resided at Battersey, County Surrey, 
England. Children : Samuel Edward (see forward) ; Thomas, 
Joseph and Rebecca, who emigrated to America, and settled 
in Dorchester county, Maryland, in 1796. 


(III) Samuel Edward Hurst, eldest child of Edward 
(2) and Sarah (Hooper) Hurst, was born at Battersey, 
County Surrey, England, in 1764, and died October 26, 1822. 
He came to Maryland when he was about sixteen years of age, 
and his name appears as one of the fourteen "militia men" 
drafted from Dorchester county, listed in a letter of Henry 
Hooper to the governor, dated June 28, 1781, "to serve in the 
Continental army until the 10th day of December next." He 
served as a private in the Second Company, Captain James 
Gray, Third Maryland Regiment, from June to December, 
1 78 1, and in the Maryland Line, First Regiment, as a member 
of the Sixth Company, until his honorable discharge at Fred- 
erickstown, November 29, 1783. He was on the fighting line 
in the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina, during several 
important engagements; took part in the siege and battle of 
Yorktown, and witnessed the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. 
In 1787 there was awarded him, as a soldier, a piece of land, 
No. 1053, of 4,165 lots, of fifty acres each, on reserved ground 
lying west of Fort Cumberland, then in Washington (now 
Garrett) county, Maryland, about one and a half miles from 
Deer Park. It seems that this property was never valued 
highly enough either to occupy, pay taxes thereon or sell, and 
the title subsequently passed into other hands. He owned a 
farm near Salem, and about thirteen years prior to his death 
purchased a tract of land on the west side of the stream, later 
known as Hurst's Creek, and about four miles east of Cam- 
bridge, the county seat. This place was called Weir's Neck 
and passed into the possession of his eldest son. He became a 
member of the Methodist denomination some years before his 
death, and is buried in the old cemetery at Cambridge. 

Samuel Edward Hurst married (first) 1786, Lavinia Lit- 
tleton. Children: 1. Elizabeth, born 1787, died 1845, mar- 
ried Thomas Wingate. 2. Stephen (see forward). 3. Chris- 


tiana, born 1795, died 1880, married Lewis Finney. 4. Elijah, 
born 1797, died 1849. Mr. Hurst married (second) 1803, 
Elizabeth Yardley. Children: 5. Samuel, born 1804 and 
died 1840. 6. John, born 1807, died 1880. 7. James, born 
1810, died 1823. 8. Henrietta Maria, born 1813, died 1847, 
married William H. Swiggett. 9. Emily, born 1816, died 

(IV) Stephen Hurst, eldest son and second child of Sam- 
uel Edward and Lavinia (Littleton) Hurst, was born in 1793, 
and died in 1846. As the eldest son he inherited Weir's Neck, 
according to the English custom, and was a gentleman farmer 
and a local preacher of the Methodist church. Shortly after 
his death his wife removed with the family to Cambridge, 
Maryland. He married Anne Jones, and among his children 
was John Edward (see forward). 

(V) John Edward Hurst, son of Stephen Hurst, was born 
at Weir's Neck farm, on the Great Choptank river, near 
Cambridge, October 21, 1832, and he died January 6, 1904. 
Upon the removal of his mother to Cambridge, he entered the 
Cambridge Academy, where he studied for several years. At 
the age of seventeen years he decided to go to Baltimore, and 
there found a position with Hamilton, Easter & Company, but 
at the end of one year became an employe of Hamilton & Sons, 
with whom he remained for seven years. He next entered into 
business relations with the firm of Hurst & Berry, in which 
his uncle, John Hurst, was the senior partner. In 1857, Mr. 
Hurst in association with his cousin, William R. Hurst, 
bought out the old firm of Hurst & Berry, thus making his 
first business venture under his own name, the firm being 
known as Hurst & Company. Later the business was removed 
to Nos. 241-243 West Baltimore street and in 1868, upon the 
death of William R. Hurst, Littleton B. Purnell and Captain 
Alfred Maddox became associated with John E. Hurst, and 


the firm name changed to Hurst, Purnell & Company. Under 
the able management of the partners, of whom Mr. Hurst was 
the leading spirit, the business prospered and increased to 
such an extent that, in July, 1886, it was removed to Hopkins 
Place and Green street, and finally, in 1905, was located at 
Nos. 39-41-43-45 Hopkins Place, at the corner of Lombard 
street. The firm was reorganized December 1, 1895, an( ^ ^ e " 
came known under the name of John E. Hurst & Company, 
the members of the firm being: John E. Hurst, Lloyd L. 
Jackson, William B. Hurst, A. C. R. Wilhon, William E. 
Clarke, Henry S. Hurst and John E. Hurst, Jr. Just one 
year later Mr. Clarke retired from the firm and Mr. M. F. 
Burgess was admitted in his stead. The business, at the head 
of which his name figures, is so closely intertwined with the 
life of Mr. Hurst, that a history of the one must of necessity 
include a history of the other. The firm was built up from 
small beginnings and it is owing largely to the energy, enter- 
prise and executive ability of Mr. Hurst that it has attained a 
position in the business world second to none of the same class. 
The larger part of its trade is with the Southern States, and 
it is estimated to amount to fully $5,000,000 annually. The 
business has always been conducted in such a safe and con- 
servative manner, that even the numerous financial and com- 
mercial panics through which the country has passed, have 
been unable to affect it in the least. The various departments 
are under the capable management of experienced buyers and 
salesmen, and it speaks well for all concerned to be able to 
make the statement that many of the employes of this house 
have held their positions for a lifetime. It has always been an 
up-to-date house in every respect, keeping a bright lookout for 
all new ideas and improvements in the drygoods line, and 
introducing all modern equipments as soon as they have been 
proven practicable. Mr. Hurst was also identified with a 


number of other important business enterprises. He was 
formerly president, then vice-president of the Merchants' and 
Manufacturers' Association; director in the Mercantile Trust 
& Deposit Company; vice-president and a director of the Na- 
tional Exchange Bank; a director of the Eutavv Savings Bank; 
a director in the Fountain Hotel Company (Carrollton Ho- 
tel) ; director in the Ashland Manufacturing Company; direc- 
tor in the Board of Trade; trustee of the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital, and in connection with the last named office, considered 
it his duty and pleasure to visit the hospital every Sunday 
afternoon, and spend some hours in conversation with the 
patients and officials. He was a director in the Merchants 
and Maryland clubs, a member of the Elkridge Fox Hunting 
Club, and a liberal contributor to the Horse Show. Although 
Mr. Hurst took a deep interest in the political welfare of his 
country, he was never desirous of holding public office. Yet 
in 1895, when the Democratic party sought a man to represent 
them, whose personal and business character were unimpeach- 
able, and offered the nomination for the office of governor to 
Mr. Hurst, he considered it his duty to put aside his personal 
feelings in the matter, and act as was for the best interests of 
the greater number concerned. He was, however, defeated 
in the election by Hon. Lloyd Lowndes. For a number of 
years he served as a member of the water board under the 
administration of Mayor Latrobe. Mr. Hurst was not only 
the business head of the house, but took a personal interest in 
the welfare of those in his employ, and the love of his employes 
was evidenced on the occasion of his seventy-first birthday, 
when they presented a handsome silver punch bowl to him, a 
gift which he valued above all others as an emblem of the 
personal love they bore him. His benefactions were numer- 
ous but unostentatious, he having a decided dislike to notoriety 
in this connection. The affairs of the Samuel Ready School 


aroused his deepest interest; he was a director of the institu- 
tion and frequently looked after the comforts of its inmates 
personally. Shortly before his death he donated twenty thou- 
sand dollars toward erecting the Hospital of the United Chari- 
ties at Cambridge, and was the guest of honor on the occasion 
of the laying of the cornerstone. The death of Mr. Hurst 
came suddenly and unexpectedly. He had suffered for some 
time from a cancerous growth on one cheek, which had been 
successfully operated upon on two occasions. On the day prior 
to his death, he repaired to the hospital to have another opera- 
tion performed; this was successful, but as a result of the dis- 
ease, clots had formed in the veins and entered the heart, caus- 
ing death the following night. The sad news was a great 
shock to the entire city, and rich and poor vied with each 
other to do honor to his memory. As soon as the news of his 
death reached the business world, a meeting was called of those 
in the same line of business, and it was unanimously decided 
that all business be suspended and the stores closed during 
the hours of the funeral. The Senate of Maryland, the Cam- 
bridge Town Council and a number of other public bodies 
adopted resolutions expressing their sorrow at the death of 
Mr. Hurst, and the loss they had sustained. As Mr. Hurst 
had been a vestryman of St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal 
Church for more than thirty years, the funeral took place from 
that edifice. The services were conducted by the rector, Rev. 
W. H. Falkner, assisted by Rev. George C. Stokes and Rev. 
G. Mosley Murray. So entirely unexpected was his death, 
that he had planned to meet his wife and daughter abroad the 
following spring. Mr. Hurst was devoted to the ties of friend- 
ship and of family, regarding them as a sacred obligation, 
and when he passed away the city mourned the loss of a mem- 
ber of one of its most representative and prominent families. 
His city residence was at No. 704 Cathedral street, Baltimore, 
and his summer residence was "Hurstleigh." 


Mr. Hurst married Mary R. S., daughter of Dr. Ephraim 
Bell, of Baltimore county, Maryland. Children: Nancy W., 
who married Lieutenant Alfredo Cappellini, of the Italian 
Navy; Julia Bell H., who married Dr. C. H. Wilkin; Mary 
Boyd H., married E. Harvie Smith; Charlotte B., married 
C. G. Miller; Sallie W.; William B.; Henry S.; John E. 
Jr. Mr. Hurst, by his own honorable exertions and moral 
attributes carved out for himself friends, affluence and posi- 
tion. By the strength and force of his own character he over- 
came obstacles which, to others less hopeful and courageous, 
would have seemed insurmountable. His mind was ever occu- 
pied with projects for the welfare of the city of his adoption. 
Selfishness was foreign to his nature, and in all the enterprises 
he advocated and forwarded he had in view the good of his 
fellowmen. His reputation for public and private integrity 
was second to that of no man in the land. His friends were 
many, and were to be found in all classes of society, all of 
whom were deeply and sincerely affected by his death. 


WILLIAM HAMBLETON, the pioneer ancestor of the 
branch here under consideration, was born in 1636, died 
in 1677. He was a resident of Talbot county, Maryland, 
served as representative for that county in the Maryland As- 
sembly, 1666-75, high sheriff, 1662-63, and justice and county 
commissioner, 1669-75. He married Sarah, daughter of John 
and Frances Watkins. 

(II) William (2) Hambleton, son of William (1) and 
Sarah (Watkins) Hambleton, was born in 1663, died in 1725. 
He married Margaret Sherwood, who died in 1755, daugh- 
ter of Hugh and Mary Sherwood, the former of whom was 
born in 1632, died in 1710; he was representative for Talbot 
county in the Maryland Assembly, 1692-93, and justice and 
county commissioner, 1694-96. 

(III) John Hambleton, son of W T illiam (2) and Mar- 
garet (Sherwood) Hambleton, died in 1773. He married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas and Jane Studham, of Talbot 
county, Maryland, the former of whom died in 1737. 

(IV) William (3) Hambleton, son of John and Mary 
(Studham) Hambleton, was born before 1733, died in 1795. 
He married Mary, daughter of John and Mary (Sherwood) 
Auld. John Auld, born January 9, 1702, died July 12, 1766, 
was son of James and Sarah (Elliott) Auld, of Talbot county, 
Maryland, the former of whom was born in 1665, died in 172 1, 
and the latter was born February 1, 1670. Sarah (Elliott) 
Auld was the daughter of Edward Elliott, of Talbot county, 
Maryland, born in 1639, died after 1707. Mary (Sherwood) 
Auld, born May 25, 1704, died September 30, 1795, was the 
daughter of Daniel and Mary (Hopkins) Sherwood. Daniel 
Sherwood, born March 20, 1668, died August 15, 1738, was 
the son of Hugh and Mary Sherwood, mentioned above. 


Mary (Hopkins) Sherwood, born June 6, 1672, was the 
daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Towe) Hopkins, the 
former of whom died in 1701. 

(V) John (2) Hambleton, son of William (3) and Mary 
(Auld) Hambleton, was born in 1755, died December 22, 
1832. He married, June 17, 1793, Margaret, daughter of 
Thomas and Catherine (Fell) Bond, grandaughter of Thomas 
and Phoebe (Thomas) Bond, great-grandaughter of Thomas 
and Ann (Robinson) Bond, and great-great-granddaughter of 
Peter and Alice Bond. Thomas Bond, born September 27, 
1744, was son of Thomas Bond, who died in 1762, and he was 
son of Thomas Bond, of Baltimore county, Maryland, born in 
1679, died in 1756, and he in turn was son of Peter Bond, who 
died in 1705. Catherine (Fell) Bond was the daughter of 
William and Sarah (Bond) Fell, the former of whom was of 
Baltimore county, died in January, 1746, and the latter a 
daughter of Thomas and Ann (Robinson) Bond, mentioned 

(VI) Thomas Edward Hambleton, son of John (2) and 
Margaret (Bond) Hambleton, was born May 15, 1798, died 
May 18, 1876. His birth occurred at Abingdon, Harford 
county, Maryland. He was one of the originators of the Board 
of Water Commissioners of Baltimore in 1858, and a member 
of it until 1861. He organized and was the first president of 
the Maryland Fire Insurance Company, an institution that 
commanded the confidence of the community. He took an 
active part in the establishment of the cotton factories at Elys- 
ville, Maryland, and was largely interested in other cotton 
manufacturing enterprises in Baltimore and its vicinity. He 
established in Baltimore a drygoods jobbing house, and was 
widely known as an honorable and successful merchant, and 
in addition to these duties, served as a director of the Western 
Bank. He was an old line Whig up to the commencement of 


the Civil War, when his sympathies turned in the direction of 
the Democratic party. Mr. Hambleton married, December 
2, 1824, Sarah A., daughter of Jesse and Elizabeth (Dear- 
dorff) SlinglufT, and sister of Jesse Slingluff, who was presi- 
dent of the Commercial and Farmers' National Bank. Jesse 
SlinglufT Sr. was born January 1, 1775, an( * married, Septem- 
ber 11, 1799, Elizabeth Deardorff, born April 18, 1775. Chil- 
dren of Thomas Edward and Sarah A. (Slingluff) Hamble- 
ton: Jesse Slingluff; John A.; T. Edward (see forward); 
William Sherwood; Francis H.; James Douglass; Clara. 

(VII) Thomas Edward (2) Hambleton, son of Thomas 
Edward (1) and Sarah A. (Slingluff) Hambleton, was born 
May 16, 1829, at New Windsor, Carroll county, Maryland, 
died at his home, "Hambledune," near Lutherville, Mary- 
land, September 21, 1906. He graduated from St. Mary's 
College in 1849, and immediately commenced his business 
career, his first venture being as a manufacturer of agricultural 
implements, from which he retired to engage for a short time 
in the wholesale provision trade. In 1854, his father retiring 
from business, he, with his brother, John A. Hambleton, con- 
tinued the wholesale drygoods house of Hambleton & Son, 
under the name of Hambleton Brothers & Company. This he 
followed until the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, 
when, being a sympathizer with the Southern cause, and hav- 
ing a large business south of the Potomac river, he transferred 
his residence to Richmond, Virginia, where he found himself 
allied with the Richmond Importing & Exporting Company, 
whose business was the exportation of military and other stores, 
which was done by running the blockade of Federal vessels 
that lay off Wilmington, North Carolina, and Charleston, 
South Carolina. In this venture he met with the varying 
success of fortunes that attended that calling, one of his mis- 
haps being the losing of a steamer near Georgetown, South 


Carolina, the vessel falling a prey to the United States navy, 
although Mr. Hambleton and his crew escaped capture. In 
the pursuit of his business as blockade runner he made several 
trips to Europe. He purchased the blockade runner "Co- 
quette" and subsequently built the steamship "Dare," which 
he personally commanded until the close of the war. He 
carried dispatches from President Davis and other high offi- 
cials, running chances of being captured and hung as a spy. 
Captain Hambleton, as he was known among his Confederate 
associates, was an active member of the Isaac R. Trimble 
Camp, Confederate Veterans, being elected May 2, 1905, and 
was then awarded the bronze cross of honor by the Daughters 
of the Confederacy. 

Upon the return of Mr. Hambleton to Baltimore, in 1865, 
he, with his brother, John A. Hambleton, established the late 
firm of John A. Hambleton & Company, bankers and brokers. 
They became active operators in the market, and while ob- 
serving those safe rules that had always characterized the 
banking and brokerage business of Baltimore, they began to 
extend the scope of transactions, and made special effort to 
attract the attention of the Great West to Baltimore as a place 
for favorable financial negotiations. In 1872 they associated 
with them Thomas T. Smith, and in the same year they occu- 
pied the Consolidated Building, 20 South street. Their house 
was a complete banking institution, transacting all kinds of 
banking business. Aside from their individual success, their 
active spirit and enterprise was of great service to Baltimore, 
they having raised it out of the restricted field in which it had 
been so long confined, bringing it into activity. The banking 
institutions of a city are a fair index of its commercial charac- 
ter and financial strength, through the successive stages of its 
history. They are the centres around which all the movements 
of trade navigate, and by which they are regulated. There- 


fore it is not only necessary that they have substantial capital, 
firm available assets, but wise, judicious, efficient and irre- 
proachable officers and directors, whose administration and 
character strengthen confidence. Prominent among these was 
the late Thomas Edward Hambleton, who possessed the quick- 
ness of the progressive man and was alive with the spirit of 
the times. 

As a member of the firm of John A. Hambleton & Com- 
pany, Mr. Hambleton was identified with a number of im- 
portant public enterprises, among which may be mentioned 
the several rival corporations of the old Gas Light Company, 
viz.: The People's, the Consumers', and the Consolidated 
Water Company; Cincinnati, Washington & Baltimore Rail- 
way Company, of which he was one of the reorganization 
committee; West Virginia Central & Pittsburg Railway Com- 
pany, now part of the Western Maryland system; Piedmont 
& Cumberland Railroad Company; Albany & Northern Rail- 
road Company, of which he was president at the time of his 
death; Mercantile Trust & Deposit Company, of which he 
was the largest individual stockholder and member of its 
board of directors, and the Baltimore Traction Company, the 
pioneer of rapid transit in Baltimore, of which he was presi- 
dent from its formation. He was the oldest member of the 
Baltimore Stock Exchange. He was one of the signal men 
in the city's history, whose name and record should never be 
forgotten. He was quick in his judgment of men and the 
affairs of men, and was usually accurate in his convictions. 
He possessed the characteristics which make for success in 
all branches of business, and his shrewd judgment, his grasp 
of the problems of finance, and his promptness in acting in 
every enterprise which was proved by his judgment, brought 
him wealth and gave him a conspicuous position in the field of 
Baltimore finance and business. 


Mr. Hambleton was a member of the leading social and 
business clubs in and around Baltimore, but preferred his 
home to club life. His residence, near Lutherville, Balti- 
more county, was one of the handsomest in the State. It was 
called "Hambledune," after an old home of the Hambletons 
in Scotland. After relinquishing business cares, he devoted 
himself to crops and poultry, being a connoisseur in the latter, 
having some of the finest chickens in the section. Descended 
from one of the most influential families of Baltimore, his 
social position was among the highest, where his many genial 
traits of character made him ever welcome. It is impossible 
to estimate the value of such men as Mr. Hambleton was to 
a city, at least during their lifetime. His influence was felt 
all through the commercial and industrial life, extending to 
the whole social economy. Every man, from the toiling 
laborer to the merchant prince, received benefits from him. 

Mr. Hambleton married (first) in 1852, Arabella Stans- 
bury, born November 10, 1829, died August 25, 1893, daugh- 
ter of Major Dixon and Sophia (Levy) Stansbury, grand- 
daughter of Captain Edmund and Belinda (Slade) Stansbury, 
great-granddaughter of Dixon and Penelope (Body) Stans- 
bury, great-great-granddaughter of Thomas and Jane (Dixon) 
Stansbury, great-great-great-granddaughter of Tobias and 
Sarah (Raven) Stansborough, and great-great-great-great- 
granddaughter of Detmar Sternberg, who came to Baltimore, 
Maryland, in 1658. Major Dixon Stansbury, United States 
Army, born about 1783, died in 1841 ; his wife, who died in 
1830, was a daughter of Sampson Levy. Captain Edmund 
Stansbury, born October 6, 1746, died in 1801; his wife was 
a daughter of William Slade, of Baltimore county, who died in 
1785 and married, August 13, 1741, Elizabeth Dulaney. Dixon 
Stansbury, born December 6, 1720, died in 1805; married, 
January 4, 1740-41, Penelope, born November 27, 1724, 


daughter of Stephen and Elizabeth Body, the former of whom 
died in 1742. Tobias Stansborough was born in 1652, died in 
7709; was a resident of Baltimore county, Maryland; was in 
active service against Indians, as ranger, under Captain John 
Oldton, in 1695. Mr. Hambleton had three children by his 
first marriage: Sarah, died in early life; Frank Sherwood, 
see forward; Thomas Edward, died at about age of eighteen 
of typhoid; graduate of Virginia Military Institute. Mr. 
Hambleton married (second) Mrs. Theodosia L. Talcott, 
widow of Major Charles Talcott, of Washington. 

Mr. Hambleton died September 21, 1906. His funeral 
took place from Grace Protestant Episcopal Church, of which 
he was a member, and the services were conducted by Rev. 
W. H. H. Powers, rector of Trinity Protestant Episcopal 
Church, of Towson, where Mr. Hambleton attended. In- 
terment was in Greenmount Cemetery. 

(VIII) General Frank Sherwood Hambleton, son of 
Thomas Edward (2) and Arabella (Stansbury) Hambleton, 
was born in Baltimore, Maryland, March 27, 1855, died at 
Bad-Nauheim, Germany, August 17, 1908, whither he had 
gone for the benefit of his health. He was educated in private 
schools of Baltimore, and at Virginia Military Institute, where 
he was graduated in the same class with United States Senator 
Culbertson, of Texas. During his early life, his health not 
being very robust, his father purchased for him a cattle ranch 
in Wyoming, in 1880, on which he resided for five years. 
roughing it in true cowboy fashion, but at the same time mak- 
ing of it a lucrative investment, the result of incessant and 
arduous labor coupled with wise forethought and prudent 
judgment. His reminsicences of ranch life were varied and 
interesting, and his kindness of heart was displayed in the 
fact that when cattle were shipped on trains for the Chicago 
market, he himself accompanied them on the train and at- 
tended to their various needs, thereby knowing that they were 


properly cared for. In 1885 he devoted his attention to an 
entirely different line of work, engaging in the banking busi- 
ness, entering the banking house of John A. Hambleton & 
Company, at the same time that John R. Nelson became a 
member of the firm. The house was then composed of his 
father, Thomas Edward Hambleton, his uncle, John A. Ham- 
bleton, John R. Nelson and Gustavus Ober. He was never 
an aggressive banker, but was always a keen observer, making 
many profitable ventures for the house in mining properties, 
one of these being the Ohio River & Western Coal Company. 
There was no better known financier in Baltimore and in fact 
throughout the South than General Hambleton, who, although 
aristocratic in his sentiments, always took a deep interest in 
those matters tending to promote the welfare and happiness 
of the people, to elevate their tastes and improve their habits. 

General Hambleton was a man of deeply embedded con- 
victions as to right and duty, was very charitable in a quiet 
way, disliking ostentation in his giving, a man of broad view, 
large faith and a great heart, and the memory of his upright 
life remains as a blessed benediction to those who were his 
associates. Evenness and poise were among his characteristics, 
and he was a dependable man in any relation and in any 
emergency. He was a man ready to meet any obligation of 
life with the confidence and courage that comes of conscious 
personal ability, right conceptions of things and an habitual 
regard for what is best in the exercise of human activities. He 
was a member of the Maryland, Baltimore, Country, Bach- 
elors' Cotillion and Merchants' clubs, also the Green Spring 
Valley Hunt Club and the Society of Colonial Wars in the 
State of Maryland. He was a member of the Baltimore and 
New York Stock Exchanges. Governor Warfield appointed 
Mr. Hambleton on his staff with rank of brigadier-general. 

General Hambleton married Anna B. Crawford, of Bal- 
timore, daughter of William H. Crawford, who was presi- 
dent of the Third National Bank. 

^2/ Wtlll(Mit ffllrcdbon 


/^N September 24, 1846, the American troops, under Gen- 
eral Taylor, captured the city of Monterey, Mexico, 
after five days of fighting with the Mexicans for its possession. 
A New Orleans newspaper of that period in describing the 
battle said in part: 

Colonel Watson, the commander of the Baltimore Battalion, in the 
attack on Monterey, and who was killed fighting at the head of his command, 
was the son of our respected fellow citizen, Major Thomas A. Watson. 
Colonel Watson was a gentleman of great popularity in Baltimore, and pre- 
sided at several sessions as Speaker of the House of Representatives of Mary- 
land. He was quite a young man, and made fair to attain a high distinction 
as a military man. He came of good stock, his father being a veteran of 
North Point, of the Florida and Texas campaigns, in all of which he dis- 
played the greatest bravery and patriotism. His son prepared to follow his 
example, had at great sacrifice gone more than two thousand miles to meet 
the enemies of his country, and fell nobly, justifying the proud hopes of his 
friends and the anxious teaching of his patriot father. 

There gloriously ended the life of a man just in the prime 
of his intellectual strength and vigor; a life which had been 
one of distinguished success as lawyer, statesman and soldier. 

Colonel William H. Watson was born about the year 
1805, only son of Thomas A. and Rebecca Watson. He com- 
pleted his classical education in the best institutions of his 
day; then chose the profession of law as the activity he would 
pursue. He studied under an uncle, William H. Freeman, 
then an eminent member of the Baltimore bar, read the 
prescribed term, and on January 14, 1829, was admitted to 
the bar of Baltimore county, Maryland. He began practice 
in Baltimore, and at once made manifest the strength of his 
mental powers, although he did not devote himself to his prac- 
tice with the energy so observable in later years. But he 
quickly gained public favor, and even in his earlier years it 

MD 33 


was evident that he was destined to rise to fame in his profes- 
sion, and as a citizen. He practiced in the various city, State 
and Federal courts of the district, meeting with considerable 
success, and in a few years was well known in Baltimore as 
one of the rising young men of the city. He early displayed 
a deep interest in public affairs, became a leader of the political 
thought of the Second Ward, of this city, and was chosen to 
represent that ward in the first branch of the City Council. 
In that body he was distinguished by his devotion to the in- 
terests of his constituents, and by the ability displayed as a 
legislator in securing the passage of bills in which he was 
interested. Colonel Watson continued to grow in popular 
esteem, and, in 1838, was elected a member of the Maryland 
House of Delegates, and in that body, as in the Council, his 
quality placed him among the leaders. In 1843, he had the 
honor of presiding over the deliberation of the House, as 
speaker, a position to which he was chosen by his contem- 
poraries for his peculiar fitness and ability, although much 
younger in years than other aspirants to that high honor. He 
did not disappoint his friends, but filled the responsible posi- 
tion of speaker with an earnestness and ability most creditable 
to himself and gratifying to his constituents. 

After completing his term as Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Mr. Watson retired from political office, applied 
himself to the practice of his profession exclusively, and rap- 
idly was advancing to eminence when he responded to his 
country's call and entered the army forming for the invasion 
of Mexico. He had naturally a taste for military life, and 
was at that time captain of the "Independent Blues," a vol- 
unteer organization of the city. He had shown the ability to 
command men, and when a call was made by the President 
of the United States upon Maryland to furnish her proportion 
of men, Captain Watson, who had already volunteered, was 


commissioned by the Governor of Maryland as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Maryland Battalion. After the battalion had 
been sworn into the service of the United States, Colonel Wat- 
son lead them to Washington, and in company with the vol- 
unteers from the District of Columbia, they embarked on the 
steamer, "Massachusetts," and sailed for Vera Cruz. He 
joined the army under General Taylor, and under that com- 
mander displayed a courage no danger could daunt, and par- 
ticipated in the battles fought, and victories won, until Mon- 
terey, where, at the head of his battalion, in almost the hour 
of assured victory, he fell mortally wounded. The following 
incident taken from a letter from an army man to a friend in 
Baltimore illustrates his* quality on the battle-field: "When 
our color sergeant was wounded one of the company picked 
up the flag and said, 'Colonel! I had better fall back or the 
flag will draw their fire.' 'No!' said he, 'bring on the Stars 
and Stripes,' then waved his sword and rushed forward." 

When the news of Colonel Watson's death reached Balti- 
more, both the city and county courts adjourned, no business 
being transacted other than the drawing up of resolutions 
befitting the sad occasion, and expressing the feelings of the 
courts. After the resolution had been read and adopted in 
the city court, George R. Richardson, Attorney-General of 
the State, addressed that body in eulogy of Colonel W T atson. 
In the county court the following resolutions were read and 

Resolved, that while we participate in the joy that gladdens every heart, 
at the brilliant and triumphant successes of our country's soldiers, in the 
desperate battles which won the surrender of Monterey, to their courage and 
gallantry, we have heard with deep and unaffected sorrow, that Baltimore has 
again to mourn another gallant son in the death of Colonel William H. 
Watson, who with his brave companions in arms, volunteered at the first call 
of his country, and nobly fell while leading his battalion to victory. 


Resolved, that while we deplore the loss of a youthful warrior, whose 
patriotism, courage and untiring energy, gave the brightest promise to his 
country, we most deeply mourn the death of one, who, as a member of this 
bar, was respected by all for his professional bearing, and loved by those who 
best knew him for the warmth and steadfastness of his friendships. 

Resolved, that we sympathize with his afflicted family in the sorrow of 
their bereavement, and request the chairman of this meeting to offer them 
our sincerest condolence. 

Resolved, that as a tribute to the memory of our departed brother and 
friend, we will wear suitable badges of mourning for the remainder of the 
present term. 

Resolved, that the proceedings of this meeting be entered upon the min- 
utes of Baltimore county court, with the consent of the Judges, and be pub- 
lished in the several newspapers of the city. 

The resolutions were read, and the Hon. Reverdy John- 
son arose and seconded the motion to adopt them with the 
following remarks: 

I have, Mr. Chairman, but a melancholy pleasure in the privilege afforded 
me, of seconding the resolutions of your committee. With our deceased 
brother my relations were most intimate. They have long since ceased to be 
merely professional, if, indeed, they were ever merely so. They soon ripened 
into the closer and dearer ties of private friendship, and from first to last 
were not only unbroken, but strengthened. To me, therefore, his death has 
been a blow as heavy as has been felt out of his own household. But I am 
not without consolation they, too, when they come to recover from the 
agony of the first shock, will not be without consolation. He has met death 
while gallantly maintaining his country's honor. No man need covet a 
greater glory. No man, if he does covet it, can earn greater glory. 

A citizen soldier, volunteering at the very first tidings of war his ser- 
vices to his government leaving wife and children in the discharge of that 
enlarged duty which embraces all others duty to country with daring in- 
trepidity rushing into the first struggle of arms, but under the restraint of 
disciplined skill, and dying almost in the hour of victory at the head of the 
brave men under his command, can never go unwept or unhonored. Such a 
death carries with it its own reward, such a death creates an inheritance of 
which friends and family may well be proud. The blood of the father so 
shed, saves, if there is nothing else to save, the widow and orphan from 


distress. This is our and their price this is our and their consolation. He 
has, to be sure, gone from us in the very prime of manhood and usefulness, 
but yet he has not gone prematurely. The last end that can happen to any 
man never comes too soon if he falls in the support of the laws and liberty 
of his country. There are other considerations too, not to be forgotten in 
this our moment of grief. The example of Colonel Watson and the gallant 
citizen soldiers in the battles of Monterey ; their prompt response to their 
country's call; their noble daring; their matchless courage; their strict dis- 
cipline, gives the world assurance that as we are the happiest, and happiest 
because the freest people on earth, so are we, when our country needs our 
valor, among the bravest and best soldiers who ever trod the battlefield. As 
long as these are the fruits of our freedom we never need fear that will fail 
us we never need apprehend danger from any foreign foe. 

It is, I know, in general, idle to look far into the futurity and speculate 
upon the fate of nations, but if the generations which are to follow us are 
as true to freedom and our institutions as the citizens of the union are now, 
they are destined to increase in power, and to diffuse social and political 
happiness till time shall be no more. 

In the Councils of the State where he was several times called to repre- 
sent this city, no man could have been more faithful or diligent, and such 
was the estimation of his talents and standing by his associates, that he was 
soon selected to preside as Speaker over the deliberations of our House of 
delegates, and by common consent, as I have every opportunity of knowing, 
was admitted to have discharged the duties of the station with unsurpassed 
ability. But his natural bent was a military life. As a captain of volunteers, 
of this city, he ever enjoyed the love and confidence of his men, and the 
respect and admiration of the city. It was in this, his favorite pursuit, his 
life has been offered up. a willing sacrifice to his country's honor. His name 
he bequeathes to us. To those who knew and loved him as I did (and there 
are thousands of such) it is a rich possession; a courteous, professional brother; 
a sincere, ardent and constant friend a devoted husband and parent a 
gallant and skillful soldier; an ardent patriot, thy name we are proud of, 
and will ever cherish with the fondest regard. Watson and Ringold are 
amongst the dead, but their memories will live as long as memory shall have 
a place in this, our noble State. 

Col. Watson early became impressed with the fraternal 
excellence of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and 


became a member of Gratitude Lodge, of Baltimore. He 
filled all official chairs of the lodge, and as Noble Grand 
became a member of the Grand Lodge, of Maryland, to which 
he was officially attached at the time of his death. The ex- 
citement and danger of the fireman's life appealed to him, and 
among the firemen of Baltimore no man was more fearless 
in the discharge of his duty, nor more prompt in answering 
alarms. He was a member, and President, of Columbian 
Hose Company, and for many years he was representative 
of the company in the City Fire Department, serving for a 
long time as secretary. In his private life he was most ex- 
emplary. Of frank and ardent temperament, candid and 
generous to a fault, urbane, courteous and friendly, firm in 
his friendships, Col. Watson endeared himself to all, and was 
truly mourned by an entire city and State. 

Col. Watson married at about the time he was admitted 
to the bar, 1829, Sarah A. Taylor, daughter of Captain Lemuel 
Taylor, of Baltimore, a beautiful and highly accomplished 
lady, who bore him three children: William H., Jr., died 
in West Point; Anna Freeman, married James H. Martin, of 
New York, and Monterey, wife of Dr. James D. Iglehart, of 

Col. Watson was deeply attached to his home and to his 
family, his devotions as husband, and father, being a perfect 
cap stone to his many virtues as citizen, friend, soldier. 


A LOYSIUS LEO KNOTT, who was prominently identi- 
fied with the public affairs of Maryland for many years, 
and whose ability as a lawyer and orator was well established, 
was a descendant of James Knott, who immigrated to Virginia 
from Yorkshire, England, in 1617, and settled in Accomac 
county, removing in 1643 to Maryland. 

Zachary Knott, grandfather of A. Leo Knott, was born 
in St. Mary's county, removed to Montgomery county in 
1 77 1, and was extensively engaged in tobacco planting. Ed- 
ward Knott, son of the preceding and father of A. Leo Knott, 
was born in Montgomery county, and served as a lieutenant 
during the War of 181 2. For many years he was successfully 
engaged as a farmer and planter, and later removed to the 
city of Baltimore. He married Elizabeth Sprigg, daughter 
of Allan and Eleanor (Neale) Sweeney, of Chaptico, St. 
Mary's county, and grandaughter of Allan Sweeney, an officer 
who allied himself with the fortunes of the Pretender, fought 
bravely at Culloden, and after that disastrous engagement 
escaped to America. Through his connection with the Ger- 
ards, Neales, Darnells, Digges, Sewells, Spaldings, and other 
Catholic families of the early colony of Maryland, Mr. Knott 
is descended from the first colonists of Maryland, the Pilgrims 
of the "Ark" and the "Dove," men who, in the words of Ban- 
croft, "were the first in the annals of mankind to make relig- 
ious freedom the basis of the state." The Gerards, Neales, 
Digges, Darnells and Sewells filled important positions in 
the early Colonial government of the Calverts. 

Aloysius Leo Knott was born near New Market, Fred- 
erick county, Maryland, May 12, 1829. At the age of eight 
years he was sent to St. John's Literary Institute, in Frederick 
City, a school which had been established by the late Rev. 


John McElroy, under the supervision of the Jesuits. Here 
he remained one year, at the expiration of which time he 
moved with his parents to Baltimore and was matriculated 
at St. Mary's College in that city. While in this institution 
he was noted for the careful attention he gave to his studies, 
especially the Greek and Latin classics, and was graduated 
from it with honor in 1847. As a first step in his working life 
Mr. Knott decided upon the profession of teaching, and re- 
ceived the position of assistant in the Cumberland Academy, 
a private institution of learning, and at the end of one year 
he was offered and accepted the position of teacher of Algebra 
and Greek in St. Mary's College, his alma mater. Two years 
were thus passed with great profit to those under his tuition, 
when he determined to take up the study of law and make that 
his life work. For two years he read law in the office and 
under the able preceptorship of William Schley, an eminent 
lawyer of that time. He then removed to Howard county, 
where he resided for two years, and established and for some 
time conducted a classical school near St. John's Church, in 
that county, known as the Howard Latin School. 

Resuming his legal studies in 1855 in the office of William 
Schley, Mr. Knott was in due time admitted to the bar of 
Baltimore. He formed a business partnership with James 
H. Bevans, which continued for two years, since which time 
until his death Mr. Knott practiced his profession alone. He 
was elected in 1867 without opposition to the important and 
responsible position of State's Attorney for Baltimore, having 
been nominated for this office by the Democratic party, was 
nominated and re-elected for a term of four years in 1871, 
and for a third term in 1875. During these years he tried 
many cases, both of a civil and criminal nature, among them 
being some involving important questions of constitutional 
law, one of which was the question of the constitutionality of 


the laws passed by Congress to enforce the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth amendments, which was known as the Force Bill. The 
constitutionality of these laws was opposed by Mr. Knott with 
great vigor, and he was highly complimented on his manage- 
ment of these questions in a letter written to him from Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, November 11, 1879, by Judge Thomas M. 
Cooley, the eminent jurist and writer on constitutional law. 
Mr. Knott retired from office in 1880 and resumed his prac- 
tice of law, and two years later was offered the nomination for 
a seat on the Bench of Baltimore by the Independent party, 
but declined to accept it. He was always an earnest supporter 
of Democratic principles, but sometimes in local elections 
supported Independent nomination. During the reform 
movement in 1859 in Baltimore he was actively engaged in 
freeing the City and State from the malign control and gov- 
ernment of the Know-Nothing party. In the campaign of 
i860 Mr. Knott was a prominent and influential figure. He 
visited Washington a number of times in order to listen to the 
Senate debates on the status of slavery in the territories, and 
was present at the debate between Judge Douglas and his 
famous opponents, Davis, Benjamin and Toombs. 

Mr. Knott was a member of the committee of arrange- 
ments on the part of the Democratic City Convention at the 
time of the split in the Democratic party in Baltimore, and he 
warmly espoused the cause of Judge Douglas, believing that 
he was the legitimate nominee of the Democratic party, and 
that his election would be the only barrier against disunion 
and civil war. However, Mr. Lincoln was elected, and the 
important events of the Civil War transpired in rapid suc- 
cession. On the breaking out of the war, however, the feel- 
ings and sympathies of Mr. Knott were with his State and 
section, notwithstanding his disapprobation of their course, 
and he refused to unite with the Republican, or as it was then 


known in Maryland, the Unconditional Union party. For, 
whatever might be the professions put forth by the party, or 
whatever patriotism might inspire its members, Mr. Knott 
felt that sooner or later it would stand committed to a course 
of action toward the Southern States which would be violently 
unconstitutional and wholly destructive to the rights of the 
States which his conscience could not approve. His convic- 
tions became only too well justified. The military authorities 
had suppressed the Democratic party in Maryland, but in 
1864 it was revived and reorganized in Annapolis under the 
leadership of Ex-Governor Thomas G. Piatt, Colonel Oden 
Bowie, Colonel Thomas Dent, Oliver Miller, William Kim- 
mel, A. Leo Knott, and others. 

Mr. Knott, though not reared as a Democrat, allied him- 
self at a meeting held in Annapolis with that party; and when, 
in February, 1864, it was decided to make an effort to reor- 
ganize the Democratic party in Maryland in the interest of 
constitutional government, Colonel (afterward Governor) 
Oden Bowie was made chairman, and A. Leo Knott secretary 
of the State Central Committee, a position which he held for 
several years. In that year Mr. Knott was sent as a delegate 
to the convention which met in Chicago and nominated Gen- 
eral George B. McClellan as the Democratic candidate for 
president. The Democratic party, however, was defeated. 

The next three years were years of stress and turmoil in 
Maryland. The constitution of 1864, fathered by the extreme 
wing of the Republican party, had been forced upon the 
people in a manner which all men now know to have been 
illegal, and despite the whole power of the federal govern- 
ment, inspired and directed by President Lincoln personally, 
this instrument was only "counted in" and proclaimed by Gov- 
ernor Bradford a fundamental law of the State by the slender 


majority of 218 votes. Vast numbers of the Democrats were 
practically disfranchised. It was carried by what was known 
as the soldier vote, taken in the camps. The majority of the 
home vote against it was about two thousand. 

Undismayed by the powers arrayed against them, the 
Democrats determined to put a full ticket in the field, and 
Mr. Knott was the nominee for Congress in the third district. 
He was charged with being a rebel sympathizer and a war- 
rant was made out for his arrest at the polls, but on the 
remonstrance of one of the judges it was not served, and 
Mr. Knott was dismissed, but without voting. By methods 
now well understood, the State was carried for Lincoln. The 
Democrats continued to fight and they began to get recruits 
from moderate men who had been co-operating with the 
Republicans. Among these were the Governor, Thomas 
Swann; Montgomery Blair, Lincoln's first postmaster-gen- 
eral; Edwin Webster, collector of the port of Baltimore; 
W. H. Purnell, postmaster of Baltimore, and others of similar 
character. Naturally such influential men brought a consider- 
able following to the reorganized Democracy, and in the last 
desperate battle, fought the 6th of November, 1866, the Demo- 
crats carried every legislative district in Baltimore City, 
which, with their majority in the State at large, gave them 
two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly, and enabled 
them thereby to formulate a call for the new constitutional 
convention. The main fight was in the city of Baltimore. In 
this connection the following letter of congratulation to Mr. 
Knott from Governor Oden Bowie, written the day after the 
election of November 6, 1866, is indispensable as showing 
the acknowledged importance of the result in Baltimore, with- 
out which there would not have been the present institution 
of 1867: 


Collington, Prince George's Co., Md. 

Nov. 8, 1866. 
My dear Knott, 

You have covered yourselves all over with glory. Most heartily do I 
congratulate you. 

It seems to me the occasion is worthy of and calls for an address from 
our committee. I am too much engaged just now, however, in railroad 
matters to go up and consult you all about the matter, and, as at this distance 
from the real battlefield (Baltimore City), I might make a mistake in the 
kind of address our allies might think best. I write to ask you to prepare 
such a one as on consultation you think best and publish it as coming from 
ourselves. In haste, 

Yours very truly, 

Oden Bowie. 

In accordance with the request of Governor Bowie, Mr. 
Knott prepared and issued an address to the Democratic con- 
servative voters of the State, congratulating them on the bril- 
liant victory they had won over overwhelming Radical Re- 
publicans, and the redemption of Maryland from the tyran- 
nical rule of a Radical Republican oligarchy. 

Governor Swann had removed the two Republican police 
commissioners, Messrs. Woods and Hindes, after trial, on 
the ground of gross misconduct in conducting the municipal 
election in the previous October and had appointed in their 
places Messrs. Valiant and Young. The removed commis- 
sioners refused to surrender their offices and, with the aid of 
the mayor, Judge Bond, the State's Attorney and the police 
force, resisted the execution of the order of the Governor. 

The two gentlemen appointed by the Governor and Mr. 
Thompson, the sheriff of the city, were arrested and confined 
in the city jail without bail on Saturday, November 3, 1866, 
before the election, by order of Judge Bond of the Criminal 
Court, on the charge of riot wrongfully preferred against 
them by the State's Attorney. They were kept in jail until 


after the election. Subsequently, under habeas corpus pro- 
ceedings, this action of the judge and the State's Attorney 
was declared by Chief Justice Bartol of the Court of Appeals 
to be illegal, and the gentlemen so unjustly arrested and im- 
prisoned were discharged. It was the desperate effort of a 
faction, unscrupulous in means, but insignificant in numbers, 
to perpetuate its ill-gotten power in the State. 

Governor Swann then called on President Johnson for 
the aid of the federal government in suppressing this insur- 
rectionary movement against the authority of the State. Gen- 
erals Grant and Canby were dispatched one after the other 
by the President to Baltimore to examine into and report upon 
the condition of things in the city. Before calling on Gov- 
ernor Swann both these gentlemen held interviews with the 
leaders of the Republican insurgents, and, returning to Wash- 
ington, reported against any interference on part of the gov- 
ernment. Nor, after the visits of Generals Grant and Canby 
and their conduct while in the city, did the Democratic con- 
servatives desire any interference of the federal government, 
for they felt convinced that if any interference should take 
place it would, under the influence of Secretary Stanton, the 
unrelenting enemy of the South, be exerted to support the 
recalcitrant police commissioners and the Republican party, 
and not to sustain Governor Swann and the oppressed people 
of Maryland. All these occurrences tended to dismay, but 
not to discourage the Democratic conservatives, who entered 
on the election held on the 6th of November, 1866, without 
a single judge or clerk, although these had been assured to 
them by both Grant and Canby, and against the combined 
and violent opposition of the city authorities, the judge of the 
Criminal Court, the State's Attorney's office, and the police 
force, supplemented by five hundred special officers collected 
from the canaille of the city, achieved a brilliant victory, car- 


rying the three legislative districts, assuring thereby a ma- 
jority of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly, 
and the passage of a bill for the call of a constitutional con- 

Of the House of Delegates of that General Assembly 
Mr. Knott was a member from the second legislative district 
of Baltimore. He was active in the proceedings, being a mem- 
ber of the joint committee of the Senate and House, of which 
Judge Carmichael, of Queen Anne's, was chairman, to report 
a bill for a call for a convention to frame a new constitution 
in the place of the constitution of 1864 adopted by the Repub- 
lican party during the war. He was also a member of the 
Committee on Federal Relations, which reported a resolution 
refusing the assent of Maryland to the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution. He was the chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Internal Improvements that reported the bill for 
the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad, and served on other 

The General Assembly was now within three weeks of 
the close of the session and neither the convention bill nor the 
military bill had been passed, both necessary and vital meas- 
ures. The former had encountered unexpected opposition 
from some of the more timid members of the Democratic 
conservative party, who, alarmed by the threats of the Repub- 
licans, thought we should be content with a general enfran- 
chisement act passed early in the session. There were grave 
doubts as to the constitutionality of this act enfranchising the 
people en bloc under the 4th Section, Article 1, of the con- 
stitution of 1864, and this course therefore would have left 
the question of the emancipation of the people open to the 
construction of a hostile judiciary. To this course there were 
insuperable objections. A caucus of the party was called, at 
which Mr. Knott offered and advocated the following resolu- 


tion: "Resolved, That, laying aside all private and public 
bills, the Democratic conservatives hereby pledge themselves 
to devote the remainder of the session to the passage of the 
convention bill and the military bill." 

During the session of the Legislature violent threats had 
been made and resolutions adopted at meetings of Republi- 
cans in the city and throughout the State against the course 
pursued in that body by the Democratic conservatives in restor- 
ing the people to their rights, even to the extent of declaring 
that the federal government would be invoked to suppress 
"the rebels and traitors" who were trying to gain possession 
of the State and renew the rebellion. 

To meet any such contingencies as were threatened, should 
they arise, and admonished by the weakness of the State author- 
ities in the events preceding the election of November 6, 1866, 
it was deemed necessary to provide, arm and equip an ade- 
quate military force and place it in the hands of the Governor. 
The resolutions offered by Mr. Knott were unanimously 
adopted by the caucus; and these two measures were imme- 
diately taken up and passed by the General Assembly. The 
election of November 6, 1866, thus accomplished its work. 
The people of Maryland, after a long and arduous struggle, 
had at length come into their own. It was under the military 
bill then passed that the Fifth Regiment, now the pride of 
Baltimore City, was organized in the spring and summer of 
1867. Maryland was free. 

The constitutional convention submitted the new consti- 
tution, which was ratified, and in the fall of 1867, Oden Bowie, 
who during three years had led the struggle as chairman of 
the committee of which Mr. Knott was secretary, was nom- 
inated and elected Governor by forty thousand majority. Mr. 
Knott was nominated and elected State's Attorney of Balti- 
more by a majority of twenty thousand, and was re-elected 


to this office in 1871 and again in 1875, making three terms, 
covering a period of twelve years. On Mr. Knott's nomina- 
tion as State's Attorney he received the following letter from 
the late Judge Richard B. Carmichael, clarum et venerabile 
nomen, with whom he served in the Legislature of 1866- 1867: 

Belle View, Md., Oct. 6, 1867. 
A. Leo Knott, Esq., 

My dear Sir: 

I have only a word to convey my congratulations on your nomination 
and to express my pleasure at it. 

Perhaps you will permit me "entre nous" to remind you that the duties 
of the place will require all the emphasis which drew down upon you last 
winter the fierce retort of the ''honorable member" from Dochester. 

This allusion to the "fierce retort" of the member from 
Dorchester refers to a personal incident which occurred be- 
tween Francis P. Phelps and Mr. Knott in the discussion 
for a State appropriation to the Baltimore ice boat bill, which 
was strongly antagonized by "the honorable member" from 
Dorchester. The incident was settled by the intervention of 
mutual friends. 

Mr. Knott was an active and leading member of the 
House of Delegates in the Legislature of Maryland, which 
assembled January 1, 1867, and was particularly earnest in 
his efforts to have the new constitution adopted, which was 
done in November, 1867. Many other measures of reform 
were put through in this session, and Mr. Knott was a member 
of a number of special committees, among them being: Joint 
committee of the Senate and the House to report a bill for 
the call of a convention to frame a new constitution for the 
State, member of the Judiciary Committee, chairman of the 
Committee on Elections and of the Committee on Internal 
Improvements. As chairman of the last named committee 
he was instrumental in having some amendments to the old 


charter of the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad Company 
passed, by means of which a new railway was established 
between Baltimore and Washington. In the National Demo- 
cratic Conventions of 1864 and 1872 Mr. Knott represented 
his State, and was a member of the National Democratic 
Executive Committee from 1872 until 1876. He was promi- 
nently identified in 1884 with the campaign which resulted 
in the election of Grover Cleveland, making speeches in Mary- 
land, West Virginia, New Jersey, and New York. One year 
later he was offered and accepted the position of Second Assist- 
ant Postmaster-General, which he filled until the close of the 
first administration of President Cleveland. When Mr. Knott 
was appointed to this office "The Baltimore Sun" contained 
the following editorial: 

The appointment of Mr. A. Leo Knott to be second assistant postmaster- 
general is in every respect one of the best that could have been made. It is 
as honorable to the president and Mr. Vilas, the postmaster-general, as it is 
gratifying not only to Maryland, but to all who are acquainted with Mr. 
Knott, and who know with what conspicuous ability he filled for twelve 
years the office of state's attorney for the city of Baltimore. During the three 
successive terms for which he was elected he proved himself to be one of the 
most fearless and energetic prosecuting officers that Baltimore has ever had ; 
and, on his retirement from a position that was both delicate and arduous, 
the thoroughly noble manner in which his official duties had been performed 
was made the subject of the warmest approval from the press of the city. 
Mr. Knott has been heartily in accord with the principles of the Democratic 
party ever since the time when, in 1858, he first began to take an active part 
in political affairs. He has not been a blind partisan, but, while holding to 
his party, has shown on occasions a conservatism and a spirit of independence 
that won for him the respect even of those with whom he differed on points 
of policy or methods of action. He has rilled various places of honor in the 
parry, being a member of the legislature, of the state Democratic convention 
of 1864, and was a delegate to the national Democratic conventions of 1864 
and 1872. As an eloquent public speaker his services have frequently been 
in request at home and in other states. His appointment as second assistant 
postmaster-general has, therefore, been well earned, and to Maryland it is 

MD. -34 


especially welcome, as it is intimately connected with that branch of the ser- 
vice which concerns the transmission of the mails. We have no doubt that 
Mr. Knott will bring to the work that is before him the same zeal and 
thoroughness for which he was distinguished as state's attorney, and which 
has been a marked feature of his political and professional career. 

Other Baltimore papers also referred to the appointment 
in terms of high praise and satisfaction. The position to which 
Mr. Knott had been appointed was a very responsible and 
important one, and during the summer of 1885 he spent sev- 
eral months in examining and inspecting the service in order 
to familiarize himself with its manifold duties, traveling as 
far as Salt Lake City, Bismarck, Chicago, and Duluth. Dur- 
ing the entire length of time that he held this office it was the 
custom of Mr. Knott to devote one month each year to tours 
of inspection of this nature, and he thus acquired most valu- 
able information regarding the specific needs of the various 
sections of the country, which it would have been a difficult 
matter for him to obtain in any other manner. He made many 
important changes and improvements in the transportation 
system of the mails, some of which have been retained by his 
successors. In 1886 Mr. Knott prepared and submitted in his 
annual report to the postmaster-general and to Congress a plan 
for adjusting the pay of railroad companies for railway mail 
transportation and postal-car service, whereby the government 
would have been saved more than one million dollars annu- 
ally. The postmaster-general and Congress took no action in 
the matter, and the cost of this branch of the postal service 
is now more than fifty-four million dollars annually. In 
the same year Mr. Knott was sent by the President of the 
United States to the Governor-General of Cuba to arrange 
a convention with the Governor-General for the transmission 
of mails between Spain and Cuba by way of Key West, Tampa 
and New York, a mission in which he was highly successful. 


Upon the resignation of Judge William A. Fisher from the 
bench of Baltimore City, Governor Lloyd offered the appoint- 
ment to the vacancy to Mr. Knott, which the latter accepted. 
President Cleveland, however, having expressed a decided 
wish that Mr. Knott remain in office until the close of his 
administration, Mr. Knott declined the appointment, and upon 
his retirement from office, April, 1889, resumed his legal 
practice, with offices in Washington and Baltimore. 

The following year he became associated with the late 
Linden Kent, R. Byrd Lewis, and Robert J. Washington in 
the management of the interests of the heirs of Henry Har- 
ford, the last lord proprietary of Maryland, in the suit insti- 
tuted by the United States government concerning the rights 
and titles to submerged lands in the Potomac, opposite Wash- 
ington. This case was argued before the Supreme Court in 
1898. In the campaign in favor of Cleveland in 1892 Mr. 
Knott was an active participant, as he also was in the campaign 
in favor of Bryan in 1896. A fluent speaker, he gave on many 
occasions conclusive evidence of his ability to argue forcibly 
and convincingly. He was frequently requested to deliver 
addresses on historical and literary subjects before learned 
bodies in Baltimore, New York and Washington, among 
others, an address to the graduates of Manhattan College, 
New York; to the graduates of Loyola College and of Rock 
Hill College, Baltimore; of Washington College, Chester- 
town, and to the students and graduates of his alma mater, 
St. Mary's College and Seminary, on the celebration of her 
centenary in 1891. He also delivered the address on Christo- 
pher Columbus on the occasion of the dedication of the monu- 
ment erected by the Italian Societies of Baltimore to the 
great navigator. Mr. Knott was the author of the article 
"Maryland" in the Encyclopedia Americana, and of the arti- 
cle "The Roman Catholic Church in Maryland" in the Cath- 


olic Encyclopedia. He was a frequent contributor to the 
press on historical and political subjects. He was the author 
of a work entitled "A Relation of Some Political Transac- 
tions in Maryland, 1861-1867." In these transactions Mr. 
Knott took a prominent part as a member of the House of 
Delegates from Baltimore City in 1867. His book was well 
received by both press and public, many favorable notices 
being given it. "The Baltimore Sun" said, in part: 

A biographical sketch of Hon. A. Leo Knott will prove of absorbing 
interest, not only to his many friends in Baltimore, but to all Marylanders 
who recall the memorable struggle in this state from 1861 to 1867 for 
political freedom. Mr. Knott is one of the most distinguished citizens of 
Baltimore, and was among those who led the fight for political liberty in 
this critical period in the history of Maryland. With the other distinguished 
men who were engaged in that bitter struggle he displayed an indomitable 
will, invincible courage, and ability of the highest order, entitling him to an 
honorable place among those who have served the state well and faithfully. 
It is believed that but for the intrigues and selfishness of some of those who 
subsequently secured the control of the Democratic party of Maryland, Mr. 
Knott would doubtless have been elevated to the bench, a position which he 
was well fitted to adorn. The volume is an invaluable compendium of the 
political history of that period, and it presents Mr. Knott and those who 
were associated with him in the struggle in the light of patriots who, regard- 
less of the consequences and unawed by power, made one of the most deter- 
mined fights in the history of the American republic for the constitutional 
rights and liberties of the citizen as against a minority sustained by Federal 
bayonets and ruling in defiance of the spirit of our institutions. 

Mr. Knott was elected a member of the House of Dele- 
gates of the General Assembly of Maryland in 1899, took a 
prominent part in the proceedings and deliberations of that 
body, was chairman of the Committee on Corporations. He 
took an active and influential part in effecting a reduction in 
the price of gas to the people of Baltimore from $1.50 to 
$1.10 per thousand feet. In June, 1900, Mr. Knott was chosen 
by the Democratic State Convention as a delegate to the Dem- 


ocratic National Convention held at Kansas City, July 4, 1909. 

Mr. Knott was a member of the Maryland Club, of the 
Maryland Historical Society, of the Order of Colonial Lords 
of Manors in America, and president of the Maryland Orig- 
inal Research Society. He was also a member of the Society 
of Colonial Wars in Maryland, of the General Society of the 
War of 1 81 2, of which latter he was for many years the judge 
advocate general. By birth, education and conviction he was 
a member of the Roman Catholic church. 

Mr. Knott married, 1873, Regina M., daughter of 
Anthony and Mary (Phelan) Keenan, old and respected 
citizens of Baltimore. The ancestors of Mary (Phelan) 
Keenan came from Waterford, Ireland, in 1776. John and 
Philip Phelan joined the American Army in Boston, 1776. 
Philip Phelan was a lieutenant of the Third Company of 
Colonel Henry Jackson's Sixteenth Regiment of the Massa- 
chusetts Line. Later he held the same rank in the Continental 
Army, was with General Greene in his southern campaigns, 
and fell at the battle of Eutaw Springs. John Phelan entered 
the army as an ensign and was promoted, January 1, 1777, to 
the rank of lieutenant in Colonel Smith's Regiment of the 
Continental Army. He also was with General Greene in his 
southern campaigns, went through the Revolutionary struggle, 
remaining in the army until its disbandment at Newburg, 
October, 1783, attained the rank of captain, and that of major 
by brevet, and after the war settled in New York and engaged 
in a mercantile life. He made several voyages as a super- 
cargo, being wrecked in one and losing all his possessions. 
He removed to Baltimore upon his return to America, and 
opened and for many years conducted a classical and mathe- 
matical school on North Exeter street. Among his pupils who 
later became famous were: Christopher Hughes, an accom- 
plished diplomat, who was for a number of years the Ameri- 


can minister at The Hague; the late Hon. William H. Gat- 
chell; George W. Andrews, formerly a well-known chemist 
of Baltimore. Major Phelan, who was a member of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, died in Baltimore, September 13, 
1827, and was buried with military honors. 

Mrs. Knott was a prominent and influential member of 
the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution from its formation, being a resident of the city of Wash- 
ington at that time, 1890. She was one of the fifteen honorary 
vice-presidents-general for life, a position conferred for dis- 
tinguished services rendered the society. On her removal to 
Baltimore Mrs. Knott instituted the Society of the Daughters 
in Maryland, March 4, 1891, and was the first State regent. 
She established the Baltimore Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, and was its regent for ten years. Mrs. 
Knott was a graduate of the Visitation Convent, Mt. De Sales, 
Catonsville, and was the first president of the Alumnae Society 
of that institution. 

Mrs. Knott was a native of Baltimore, a member of the 
Roman Catholic faith, and active in the charitable and relig- 
ious work of that church. A woman not only of unusual sweet- 
ness and beauty of character, but possessed of great intel- 
lectuality, she was an ornament to Baltimore society, and her 
death, October 30, 191 1, was the cause of great sorrow to 

A loyal son of Maryland, Mr. Knott gave his best efforts 
to the advancement of the material prosperity of his State and 
city, but over and above this he was a true and faithful citizen, 
maintaining the public-spirited traditions of the family from 
which he was descended. His death occurred April 12, 1918. 


"PJANIEL MILLER, who was prominent in philanthropy, 
politics and business circles, one of the most useful citi- 
zens of Baltimore, head of the firm of Daniel Miller Com- 
pany, and a representative of the best element of energy and 
progress of the younger men of Baltimore, was born in that 
city, June i, 1849, son of Daniel and Mary Ann (Klein) 
Miller. Daniel Miller, Jr., was educated in the public schools 
of Baltimore, and entered Baltimore City College in 1863, 
graduating therefrom in 1867. He entered the present firm of 
Daniel Miller & Company in 1871 ; the firm was then located 
on Baltimore street, near Howard. In 1880 Henry Clay 
Miller, then head of the firm, died, and the business was reor- 
ganized. On returning from a trip abroad for his health, 
Mr. Miller became a member of the newly-organized firm. 
It then consisted of the following members: Theodore K. 
Miller, Daniel Miller, William R. Miller, Robert C. David- 
son, J. Frank Supplee. Daniel Miller was the financier of the 
firm of Daniel Miller & Company, and his keen insight into 
business affairs and conditions had much to do with the success 
of the firm. The firm occupied one of the handsomest modern 
store and warehouse structures in Hopkins Place, extending 
through to South Liberty street, a distance of one hundred 
and eighty feet. The premises had a frontage of forty-five 
feet on Hopkins Place and seventy-one feet on Liberty street. 
All the modern improvements were introduced, while a thor- 
ough system of organization was enforced, and the extensive 
business was handled with method and precision. The firm 
had a direct trade throughout the southern States and west 
of the Ohio with leading retailers and general merchants. The 
enterprise of the house was proverbial. 

In 1893 Mr. Miller was elected president of the 


Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, serving in that 
capacity for three years, and he was instrumental in bringing 
about numerous benefits through the association to the business 
men of Baltimore. In his speech at the Merchants' and Manu- 
facturers' banquet, over which he presided with great success, 
Mr. Miller said: 

Duty, at times, sings in minor keys, paying tribute to departed greatness; 
but to-night duty is a trumpet call to every member of this association to for- 
get those things which are behind, and to seek, those things which are before, 
striving for the spirit which was in Patterson, Peabody and Hopkins, and is 
now in our Enoch Pratt, so that our many members, as one body, may 
contribute its share to the brilliant future awaiting our city. 

It can be seen from this that he was a firm and enthu- 
siastic advocate of the Greater Baltimore, and that he did all 
in his power to advance and strengthen it in all its interests. 
For a number of years he was a director of the National 
Exchange Bank, vice-president of the Guardian Security and 
Trust Company, and a member of the Board of Trade. 

In the politics of Baltimore he was also a factor. He 
thoroughly knew the needs and advantages of the city, and 
added to this knowledge was a broad public spirit that sought 
the highest good for the community. He was a prominent 
member of the Reform League and took an active part in its 
work. He also belonged to the Civil Service Reform Associa- 
tion. He was one of the strongest tariff reform advocates in the 
State, and in 1892 presided over the Cleveland tariff reform 
meeting held in the Lyceum Theatre. In all reform move- 
ments in Maryland he was conspicuous and active upon com- 
mittees and on the platform. In 1891 Mr. Miller was the 
Independent Democratic candidate for the office of State 
Senator of the Second Legislative District, but was not elected. 
Mr. Miller was selected by Mr. Hooper, when the latter was 
Mayor, as one of the members of his reform school board, and 
was elected vice-president of that board. 


Every form of charitable enterprise interested him and 
secured his active support. He was the founder and first 
president of the Friendly Inn. Since its inception it has grown 
to a much larger extent than its projectors imagined. Aside 
from being of assistance to unfortunate men, the institution has 
saved the city a great deal of trouble, as well as relieving the 
police department of what was fast becoming a nuisance. It is 
due chiefly to Mr. Miller's belief in the work of the Inn, and 
his enthusiastic support, that the institution was kept going 
through a long period before its work was appreciated by the 
public and finally gotten into excellent condition. For a while 
he bore the burden of responsibility almost alone. Mr. Miller 
co-operated heartily with the Charity Organization Society 
and gave considerable of his time and means to the work of 
that organization, of which he was deemed one of the most 
valuable members. He was a director of the Presbyterian Eye, 
Ear and Throat Hospital, besides being connected with other 
hospital work. 

Mr. Miller married, in 1 88 r , Mary Warner Kirkbride, 
of the family of that name in Philadelphia. Children: i. 
Henry C, born January 16, 1882; married Janet Goucher. 2. 
Mabel Kirkbride, born June 2, 1883; died July 29, 1910, in 
Germany. 3. Edward Kirkbride, born May 12, 1885; mar " 
ried Elizabeth Turner. 4. Daniel, Jr., born May 24, 1889. 
5. Hazel, born February 20, 1893. 

Mr. Miller died at his home, 605 Park avenue, Balti- 
more, December 13, 1898, in the prime of life, aged forty- 
nine years. The funeral services were conducted by the Rev. 
Joseph T. Smith, pastor emeritus of the Central Presbyterian 
Church, and the Rev. Dewitt Benham. Interment was in the 
family lot in Greenmount Cemetery. Resolutions of regret 
were passed by the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Associa- 



tion, Maryland State Temperance League, Board of Man- 
agers of the Friendly Inn Association, Directors of the 
National Exchange Bank, and Directors of the Guardian 
Trust and Deposit Company. 


/^HARLES HENRY NICOLAI, eldest son of Charles D. 
Nicolai, of Oldenburg, Germany, and Sarah Eliza (Saun- 
ders) Nicolai, of Westmoreland county, Virginia, was born 
in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, July 12, 1834. He was 
educated in the public and private schools of his native city, 
and in the year 1853 entered upon a business career with one 
of the largest importing firms of that period. He had already 
given evidence of fine mentality and executive ability. His 
natural inclination was toward the practice of law, but the 
untimely death of his father, in 1852, changed his outlook 
upon life and caused him to enter the business world. Of an 
analytical and argumentative nature, the arena of politics soon 
attracted him, and soon after attaining his manhood his ener- 
gies were about equally divided between public affairs and 
private enterprises. One of his first business adventures was 
the formation of a cement manufacturing company, Mr. 
Nicolai being its president for several years. Many of the 
largest buildings of Baltimore, which were erected nearly half 
a century ago, were constructed with cement supplied by this 
company, the most notable being the present city hall. Later 
he became interested in oil refining, being, in fact, a pioneer 
in that industry. He was actively engaged in this business 
until 1896, when his refinery was completely destroyed by fire, 
after which he retired from active business life. For a number 
of years he was a director of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
during the incumbency of the late John W. Garrett, president 
of that railroad. 

When the war between the States broke out, Mr. Nicolai 
became an ardent supporter of the cause of the Union, regard- 
ing the separation of the States as a great calamity. He was a 
friend and admirer of President Lincoln, frequently visiting 


the President at the White House, and conferring with him 
upon matters of importance. At the close of the war he ren- 
dered valuable service to his State by exerting his influence, 
and by participating in the formation of the Democratic con- 
servative party, under the leadership of Governor Thomas 
Swann. Throughout his life he cherished a reverent affection 
for Mr. Swann, who was his ideal of manhood and states- 
manship. It was the proud boast of his political life that he 
had the honor of prevailing upon Mr. Swann to allow his 
name to be presented as the candidate of his party for the 
nomination of the office of Governor of the State of Maryland, 
and to which office he was duly elected. Mr. Nicolai was a 
member of the Governor's staff, with the rank of colonel. He 
represented Baltimore county in the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, in 1867, an d was its youngest member. He took an 
active part in the deliberations of that body, which gave the 
State a new Constitution and which restored the full right of 
citizenship to many thousands of the citizens of the State, who 
had been deprived during the war of this prerogative, which 
is so dear to the heart of every true American. He used his 
influence to the fullest extent for the attainment of this privi- 
lege and right. Of the one hundred and twenty-six delegates to 
the State Constitutional Convention, in 1867, Mr. Nicolai was 
the last survivor within the State at the time of his death, in 
191 5. Mr. Nicolai served two terms in the Maryland Legis- 
lature (1867- 1 871) as a representative of the conservative ele- 
ment of the Democratic party. He was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Corporations during that period, as well as being 
a member of other committees. Whilst in the Legislature, he 
introduced a bill which, later, became a law, requiring the 
flag of the United States to be furled daily from the top of the 
State house at Annapolis, a custom which has been observed 
since the enactment of that law. . 


Mr. Nicolai was also a member of the first Board of 
Trustees of the Maryland State Agricultural and Mechanical 
Association, and was the sole surviving member of this body 
when he died. It was through his efforts that this association 
acquired the Pimlico property and, nearly forty years after, 
when it devolved upon the Legislature to appoint a trustee, 
to settle up the affairs of the association and to dispose of the 
property, Mr. Nicolai was chosen to serve in that capacity. 
The proceeds of the sale of the property, amounting to more 
than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), was turned over by him 
to the State of Maryland and to the city of Baltimore; also to 
private stockholders. 

Mr. Nicolai was genial in temperament, and had the old- 
fashioned Southern spirit of hospitality. A man of intense 
energy, enterprising and public-spirited; a true pioneer in his 
willingness to embark in the new channels of trade as they 
appeared before him; he gave liberally of himself and his 
means to the creation of a bigger, better Baltimore, and is 
one of the men to whom his native city is indebted for much 
of her commercial greatness. Beginning his business and pub- 
lic career so young, and living to become an octogenarian, he 
naturally formed a very wide acquaintance and was on terms 
of intimacy with a large number of the most influential and 
prominent men of his city and State for nearly half a century. 

On February 22, 1855, Mr. Nicolai married Charlotte R. 
Turner, daughter of Colonel J. Mabury Turner, of Baltimore, 
Maryland, by whom he is survived. Eight children were born 
to them, viz.: Mrs. James Hallowell Mickle; Miss Charlotte 
E. Nicolai and Charles D. Nicolai, who also survive him; 
Mrs. John L. Streeper, who died March 29, 1904; Lawrence 
Swann Nicolai, who died December 11, 1907; Miss Marie 
Nicolai, who died August 7, 1914; Miss A. Beatrice Nicolai, 
and Wilson Townsend Nicolai, who died January 21, 1895. 
Mr. Nicolai, father of these children, died June 25, 191 5. 


T17HATEVER else may be said of the legal fraternity, it 
cannot be denied that members of the bar have been more 
prominent actors in public affairs than any other class of the 
community. This is but the natural result of the causes which 
are manifest, and require no explanation. The ability and 
training which qualify one to practice law also qualify him 
in many respects for duties which are outside the strict path 
of his profession and which touch the general interest of 
society. Having held marked precedence among the distin- 
guished members of the bar in Baltimore was Judge William 
A. Fisher, who was distinguished for mental clearness and 
vigor and for his high standards of professional honor. His 
great success at the bar was due not so much to unusual ora- 
torical ability as to his faculty for direct and lucid statement 
and unadorned logic, his thorough mastery of the cases and his 
unflagging energy and industry. He was intellectually a strong 
man, rather than a superficially brilliant one, and he brought 
to the bar and bench the solid and valuable qualities that create 
honor and respect for both. 

William A. Fisher was born in Baltimore, Maryland, 
January 8, 1837, son of William and Jane (Alricks) Fisher, 
the former of whom was for many years a wholesale dry goods 
merchant of Baltimore, and afterwards head of the well- 
known banking house of William Fisher & Sons. The days 
of his childhood and youth were passed in the city of Balti- 
more, and he was a student of St. Mary's College, Loyola 
College, and Princeton College, graduating from the latter 
institution in 1855, w ^ tn degree of Bachelor of Arts, and later 
the degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him by his 
alma mater. His legal studies were conducted under the direc- 
tion of William Schley, of Baltimore, and he was admitted 


to the bar June 8, 1858. He engaged in the active practice 
of his profession, achieving success and winning renown, and 
in 1867 entered into partnership with Colonel Charles Mar- 
shall, under the firm name of Marshall & Fisher, which was 
well-known and highly honored, and this relationship con- 
tinued until 1 88 r . During this time he served as counsel for 
the Western Maryland Railroad Company, Union Railroad 
Company, for other large and wealthy corporations, and for 
many local and foreign interests of great importance. In No- 
vember, 1879, he was elected to the State Senate to represent 
the second legislative district of Baltimore, being elected to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Robert M. Mc- 
Lane, and by his thorough business methods and habits proved 
himself a useful and valuable member of that body. One- 
tenth of the acts passed at the session of 1880 were introduced 
by him, among them the new law of limited partnership, 
which materially changed the existing system. He was chair- 
man of the judiciary committee of the Senate, of the joint 
committee on registration, and of the joint committee to draft 
a bill to apply the restraints of law to primary election, and 
he was a member of the committee appointed by the Demo- 
cratic caucus to confer with the Governor, Comptroller and 
Treasurer in reference to the preparation of legislation for the 
retrenchment of expenses and the reform of alleged abuses. 
He also introduced many other measures of importance, all of 
which were passed by the Senate, though not all by the House. 
Especially prominent were the services he rendered in the 
defeat of the bill passed by the House, which, while reducing 
street car fares in Baltimore to five cents, made no provision 
for transfers, and proposed to deprive the city of the park tax. 
This bill, after a protracted and exciting struggle, was de- 
feated in the Senate almost entirely by his vigorous efforts. 
He also made a strong fight against the system of inspection 


in tobacco, cattle, hay, etc., advocating earnestly the policy of 
leaving trade to protect its own interests. He was also a mem- 
ber of the water board, and prior to this he was engaged to 
conduct the proceedings for the condemnation of the lands 
necessary for the immense enterprise and improvement in- 
volved in the introduction of the new water supply from 
Gunpowder river. 

Mr. Fisher was brought most clearly and prominently 
before the public in 1882, when he was put forward on the 
"new judge ticket." The campaign was one of the most hotly 
contested known in the city and resulted in a sweeping victory 
for the new ticket by Judge Fisher. He held the position on 
the bench to which he had been elected until January 3, 1887, 
and then resigned, believing that he could be of more use as 
a general practitioner at the bar. His strong personality and 
his large following throughout the State made him one of the 
most prominent possible candidates for the Democratic guber- 
natorial nomination in 1895. While Mr. Fisher was regarded 
as the leading candidate, events so shaped themselves that at 
the last moment John E. Hurst was nominated as the Demo- 
cratic standard bearer. Upon his resignation from the supreme 
bench he again resumed the practice of law, under the firm 
name of Fisher, Bruce & Fisher, his parters having been W. 
Cabell Bruce and D. K. Este Fisher, and they conducted one 
of the largest and most lucrative practices in the city. Judge 
Fisher was a Democrat in politics, and served as president 
of the Business Men's Democratic Association in the cam- 
paign when Davidson was elected mayor. He was honored by 
his profession by being chosen the president of the Bar Asso- 
ciation. He was a member of the Episcopal church. Judge 
Fisher was also connected with charitable works, being a 
trustee of the Maryland Institute for the Blind, a trustee 
and at one time secretary of the Thomas Wilson Sanitarium 


for Children, and also a trustee of the Thomas Wilson Fuel- 
Saving Society. In addition to performing the duties of these 
positions, he filled the post of executor and trustee of the 
Thomas Wilson estate. He was the first president of the 
Charity Organization Society. 

Judge Fisher was the highest type of a gentleman and a 
scholar. As a high-minded, public-spirited, patriotic citizen, 
he reflected credit upon his native State and upon the city of 
Baltimore. He never was a seeker after office and occupied 
but few public places. He carried with him to the bench a 
profound knowledge of the law, a stainless reputation and a 
mind absolutely fair and judicial. In his profession he was 
in the very foremost ranks of Maryland lawyers at a time 
when the Baltimore bar numbered many men of brilliant 
attainments and national reputation. In all the walks and 
relations of life he was a good and an honorable man, one of 
the pillars of the State. 

Judge Fisher was married in May, 1859, to Louise Este, 
who survives him. She was the daughter of Judge David 
Kirkpatrick Este, of Cincinnati, and it is interesting to note 
that Mrs. Este, who was a member of Judge Fisher's family 
for some years, was living, in good health, mentally and 
physically, at the time of the death of Judge Fisher. 

Judge Fisher died at his country residence at Ruxton, 
Baltimore county, Maryland, September 26, 1901. The 
funeral services were conducted in Emanuel Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, corner of Cathedral and Read streets, Balti- 
more. Interment was in the family lot in Greenmount. 



/ T*HE financial and commercial growth and development of 
a city are so closely interwoven with the history of the 
individuals who further these interests, that a history of one 
is almost practically a history of the other. In this connection, 
in regarding the history of the city of Baltimore, it is most 
important that a history of the late Chauncey Brooks be taken 
into consideration. While many men owe their success to in- 
tense concentration upon one line of effort, and while this 
quality is of decided value, there are a few exceptions in 
American enterprise, where leaders of business matters have 
been so variously endowed by nature, that they have been able 
to organize and manage successfully a number and variety of 
exceedingly important undertakings. Of these exceptional 
men, Mr. Brooks is an example par excellence. His ancestors 
had their home in England, and some of them came to 
America previous to the war of the Revolution, and made 
their home at New Haven, Connecticut, where the first 
Chauncey Brooks was a lieutenant and a Royalist, siding with 
the Crown at the time of the Revolution in America. His 
lands and property were confiscated and held by the patriots, 
and were not recovered by him until after his marriage with 
Elizabeth Barnes, a member of a patriot family. The Brooks 
family belonged to the Episcopal church; the Barnes family 
were Congregationalists, and New England people. 

Chauncey Brooks, son of Lieutenant Chauncey Brooks, 
was born in Burlington, Connecticut, January 12, 1794. He 
attended the public schools in the vicinity of his home, and 
from his earliest years displayed unusual ability. At the age 
of nineteen years he went to Baltimore, Maryland, and after 
an exhaustive consideration of the advantages offered by a 
residence in that city, concluded to make it his permanent 


home. The results achieved in his future career proved the 
wisdom of his plan. It was but a short time before his busi- 
ness acumen and ability made themselves perceptible in vari- 
ous directions. Methods of transportation engaged his atten- 
tion at the outset, and he was connected with this line of 
industry from the first, transporting goods by team to the 
adjoining sections of the country and to the valley of Virginia, 
and over the mountains into Ohio. Mercantile life next en- 
gaged his attention, and in 1822 he associated himself with 
General Walter Booth, of Meriden, Connecticut, who was at 
the time president of the Bank of Meriden and had repre- 
sented his State in the Federal Congress for a number of years. 
The business partnership thus formed under the firm name of 
Booth & Brooks met with success from its very inception, 
which was continued uninterruptedly for many years. After a 
number of years, General Booth withdrew from the firm, 
which was continued under various firm names until shortly 
before the conclusion of the Civil War. The various names 
under which he operated and the firms he was interested in 
during this period were: Chauncey Brooks & Company; C. 
Brooks, Son & Company; Brooks & Fahnestock; Brooks, Ful- 
ton & Company; John G. Harryman & Company; Brooks, 
Towner & Company; Brooks, Thrasher & Company; the 
present firm of Brooks, Rogers & Company, and the banking 
house of Fahnestock & Company. The class of goods handled 
by these firms was a most varied and extensive one, including, 
in wholesale quantities, dry goods, grain, boots and shoes, etc. 
Mr. Brooks entertained the excellent idea that the best 
method of promoting public progress was to advance indi- 
vidual prosperity, and acting in accordance with this theory, 
he became the associate member in a number of enterprises, 
selecting as his associate, not men of capital like himself, but 
one of those clerks in his employ who had shown especial 


business aptitude and who would be guided by the mature and 
ripened experience of himself. In this manner he is said to 
have furnished capital for the opening of more than thirty 
concerns, not permitting his name to be used in the firm name, 
but figuring as the "Company" in it, and when the concern was 
placed on a successful and paying basis, withdrawing from it 
and leaving it in the hands of his young associate. Some of 
the business houses thus called into existence are still in the 
field in active operation in Baltimore, and have long since out- 
grown their small beginnings, and have helped greatly in de- 
veloping the commercial interests of the entire community. 

In addition to these mercantile enterprises, Mr. Brooks 
at a very early period took an active part in numerous indus- 
trial and manufacturing operations in Ohio, Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia, and at the time of his death was largely con- 
nected with the oil output of that State. It was but natural 
and human that he should desire success in all he undertook, 
but his greatest delight was in the opportunities the wealth 
thus acquired gave him to benefit others, collectively and 
individually, and he was too liberal minded to attach undue 
importance to this success. His extensive undertakings brought 
him that pleasure which comes with the conquest of difficul- 
ties which had seemed apparently insurmountable. The mag- 
nitude and magnifient results of his operations attracted to him 
other prominent business men of his day, who desired to benefit 
by his experience and advice in other fields of action. He 
was elected a director of the Baltimore Savings Bank, and 
served in this capacity until his death. He was one of the 
organizers of the Western Bank, and was elected to the presi- 
dency of that institution in 1837, succeeding the Hon. Samuel 
Jones, and remained president in active service until his death. 
With the interests and welfare of this financial institution Mr. 
Brooks became so closely identified that it has been considered 


by many as his individual idea, his executive ability and sound 
judgment being prominent factors in its success. As president 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, to which office 
he was elected in 1846, he succeeded William G. Harrison, 
served for a part of two years, and was succeeded by John W. 
Garrett. During his term of office the road passed through 
the most troublous period of its existence, and the riots at 
Mount Clare occurred in 1857. The presence of mind and 
personal courage of Mr. Brooks wielded a great influence in 
quelling the disturbance, his coolness and calm statement of 
facts having the effect he intended them to produce. His ex- 
pressed idea of the future business life of the city was so 
closely connected with the existence of this railroad, that a 
destruction of the one would mean ruin to the other, and in 
association with Johns Hopkins, he did his utmost to prevent 
this alarming state of affairs from coming to pass. 

During his earlier years he served several terms as a 
member of the City Council, but although frequently proffered 
public office in later years, he consistently refused these honors, 
deciding that he was more usefully employed in devoting his 
energies to fostering the financial and commercial welfare of 
the city. He was one of the earliest and most intimate friends 
of George Peabody, and was named by the latter as one of the 
twenty-five original trustees of the Peabody Institute. Mr. 
Brooks never permitted his private interests to stand in the 
way of measures which might benefit the community at large, 
and the opinion held of his business sagacity and sound judg- 
ment was so great, that in matters of dispute among his friends 
and neighbors he was considered a sort of oracle, who must of 
necessity be able to give the advice suitable to any case. With 
young men just beginning a mercantile career this was espe- 
cially the case, and the advice he gave them was always based 
on sound principles. He ascribed his success largely to the 


H i- " ' i - i- - - . .. ... , . I, 

fact that he would never take a hazardous risk, nor depend 
upon speculation to increase his gains. The numerous financial 
and commercial crises which occurred while he was actively 
engaged in business never seriously affected his business in- 
terests, for the reason that they all rested on a solid founda- 
tion, and while firms went to the wall all around him, none 
of the concerns with which his name was in the slightest degree 
affiliated, ever surrendered to any of these panics. 

Mr. Brooks married (first) 1820, Marilla Phelps, born 
1798, died 1861, daughter of Lynde and Lorena (Gaylord) 
Phelps, of Burlington, Connecticut, and granddaughter of 
Lieutenant Aaron Gaylord, who fell at the Massacre of Wyo- 
ming, 1778; his daughter, then about one and one-half years 
of age, fled with her mother and two other children through 
eight hundred miles of almost trackless forest, finally reaching 
her home in Connecticut in safety. The children of this mar- 
riage were: Walter Booth, Henry, Phelps, Thorndyke, John 
Chauncey, Franklin Lynde, Albert Jennings. Mr. Brooks 
married (second) Mrs. Mary (Phelps) Marks, whose first 
husband was Almeron Marks. She had no children by this 

The ripe and varied experience of Mr. Brooks, and his 
careful observation, rendered his counsel of the highest value 
on all occasions, and he was ever ready to freely impart the 
knowledge he had gained in his long years of activity to those 
who solicited it. Charitably inclined by nature, when the 
means of conferring benefits on suffering humanity were 
placed at his disposition by the success of his enterprises, he 
made a free use of them in this direction, but his benefactions 
were always bestowed in an unassuming and unostentatious 
manner, and it was not until after his death that the full extent 
of them became apparent. His influence was felt by the city 



for good while he was still living, and the impression is one 
which will continue to be felt for many years to come. His 
death occurred at his residence in Eutaw Place, Baltimore, 
Maryland, May 18, 1880, at the venerable age of eighty-six 


ORIOR to the year 1820, John and Mary (Thomas) 
Williams came from near Penzance, a seaport of Corn- 
wall, in England, to Baltimore, Maryland, where both died 
a few years after their arrival. Fortune had not been kind to 
the young couple, and their infant son, John Thomas 
Williams, was left to the care of strangers with scanty funds, 
and so frail in health that physicians and friends agreed in 
predicting his early death. But they were false prophets, and, 
in spite of all difficulties which confronted him, won his way 
to honorable position in the business world, and was known 
as a man widely read and highly cultured. His early life, 
begun under such gloomy conditions, brightened with the 
years, and not only business success but the love of wife and 
children came to him, with the respect and confidence of many 
friends. Years of European travel added to the intellectual 
polish he acquired, and in peace, contentment, and ease, his 
life passed into lengthened shadows, and in his eighty-fifth 
year was called to his home of Eternal Rest. 

John Thomas Williams, son of John and Mary (Thomas) 
Williams, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, August 20, 1820, 
and died in York, Pennsylvania, in January, 1905. His early 
educational advantages were limited, his health so frail that 
school attendance was long impossible, but he never lost an 
opportunity to improve his mind, and when his health im- 
proved sought every means to gain knowledge. When he 
grew older he became a member of Baltimore Lyceum, a 
club which met in the evening for educational purposes, de- 
bates being frequent, the subjects, scientific and current 
events. He was also an extensive reader, and became an 
exceedingly well-informed man, always interested in scien- 
tific subjects. 

O, nUUuLuuvvvj 


In early life Mr. Williams was engaged in various pur- 
suits, and for a number of years was in the employ of the 
Methodist Book concern. When photography was being in- 
troduced it appealed to his artistic tendencies, and he became 
a student of art, finally becoming one of the first photog- 
raphers of the city. A few years after his marriage, in 1847, 
Mr. Williams spent a summer vacation at York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and, believing that town offered a good opportunity for 
a photographer, he opened a studio there, one of the very first 
to start in business outside of the large cities. He liked York, 
his studio became popular, and he made that city his per- 
manent home. 

As the years brought him opportunity, Mr. Williams 
spent several years in European and American travel, dispos- 
ing of his business and traveling care free. He became well 
acquainted with the Continent of Europe, and with the scenic 
grandeur of his own country; although, then, travel was not 
a matter of fast trains and Pullman accommodations. After 
his period of travel was ended, Mr. Williams became ad- 
juster for a fire insurance company, and in that position spent 
about thirty years, continuing in active business until passing 
into the ranks of octogenarians, being past his eightieth birth- 
day when he retired. Mr. Williams, although not a resident 
of Baltimore during the last half century of his life, never 
surrendered his interest in the city of his birth, but was a 
frequent visitor, and continued both business and social rela- 
tions with many of its citizens as long as he lived. 

In the year 1847, Mr. Williams married Cecelia Du- 
shane, who preceded him to the spirit land, as did their two 
sons. Mrs. Williams was a daughter of Valentine and Eliza- 
beth (Sendorf) Dushane, her father of Huguenot ancestry, 
the Dushanes coming to America in the seventeenth century 
with other French refugees, settling in Delaware. Valentine 


Dushane, father of Mrs. Williams, was one of a family of 
brothers who came to Baltimore, was a builder by occupation, 
and, during the War of 1812, was a sergeant in Captain Deem's 
Company, Fifty-first Regiment, serving in defense of Balti- 
more. Mr. Williams and his wife attended old St. John's 
Methodist Episcopal Church, on Liberty street, a religious 
congregation, which, in its day, was an important factor in 
the religious and social life of Baltimore. Miss Nellie C. 
Williams, of Baltimore, survives her mother, father and 
brothers, the last of her line. 


r T % HE great fraternity organized under the walls of the glori- 
ous temple which its founders had helped to rear and 
which, during the Middle Ages, roamed over Europe in bands, 
building the magnificent cathedrals which are to-day num- 
bered among the architectural wonders of the world, has ever 
included among its members the greatest of earth, kings and 
nobles having become candidates for initiation as the fraternity 
acquired proportions and influence which placed it in the front 
rank of the powers of Christendom. In our own land its 
importance dates from an early period, many of those most 
eminent in our history having been enrolled among its mem- 
bers, the names of Washington ever standing highest. In the 
present century none exercised greater influence in the coun- 
cils of the order than did General Thomas J. Shryock, former 
State Treasurer of Maryland and one of the foremost Masons 
of the United States. 

The family of the Shryocks is of Prussian origin and was 
transplanted to this country by two brothers who immigrated 
before the Revolutionary War. One of these, Henry Shryock, 
great-grandfather of General Shryock, served in the Conti- 
nental Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Battalion, Maryland Infantry. He was later one of 
the members from Maryland at the convention that ratified 
the Constitution of the United States. He appears to have 
subsequently removed to Virginia, his son Jacob having been 
a native of that State. 

Henry S. Shryock, son of Jacob Shryock, and father of 
General Shryock, was born in Virginia, and about 1840 came 
to Baltimore, where he engaged in the manufacture of furni- 
ture until about 1875, from which time until his death he lived 
in retirement. He was prominently connected with the bank- 


ing interests of the city, was president of the Third National 
Bank and helped to organize the Safe Deposit and Trust Com- 
pany as well as the First National Bank. Notwithstanding the 
fact that his family were slave-holders, he was one of the orig- 
inal Republicans and Lincoln men of this section and cast his 
first presidential vote for John C. Fremont. He was for many 
years a member of the Baptist church. He married Ann 
Ophelia, daughter of Thomas Shields, a successful merchant 
of Virginia. Mr. Shields was of Irish descent, and was a 
member of Brooke Lodge, No. 147, Free and Accepted 
Masons, of Alexandria, Virginia, being also a Knight Tem- 
plar. A fine portrait of Mr. Shields now hangs in the grand 
master's room in the Temple in Baltimore. 

It is interesting to note that the Masonic affiliations of 
General Shryock were inherited. In addition to this record 
of his maternal grandfather a little incident of his mother's 
childhood constitutes a peculiar and touching link between 
himself and the ancient order of which he was so distinguished 
a member. When in 1824 Lafayette, then the guest of the 
Nation, visited Alexandria, Mrs. Shryock, at that time a little 
girl, was chosen to recite a childish welcome to the French 
hero, the occasion being a Masonic parade of the brethren of 
Alexandria, Washington Lodge, No. 22, of which Washing- 
ton had been master. Often in after life, when referring to 
the subject, Mrs. Shryock urged her sons to become Masons, 
a wish that she lived to see fulfilled. She was the mother of 
eleven children, seven of whom grew to maturity, among them 
two sons: William H., and Thomas Jacob, mentioned below. 
The former succeeded his father as president of the Third 
National Bank, resigning and retiring in 1894. Henry S. 
Shryock died in 1881, and the following year his wife also 
passed away. Mr. Shryock was a man of strict probity and 
great moral courage, as was proved by his adherence to the 


cause of the Federal Government at a time when such fidelity 
was, in Maryland, a severe test of character. His name is 
enrolled in the list of those true patriots who at great cost to 
themselves saved Maryland to the Union. 

Thomas Jacob Shryock, son of Henry S. and Ann 
Ophelia (Shields) Shryock, was born February 27, 1851, in 
Baltimore. He received his education in the public schools 
and at the Light Street Institute. At the age of sixteen he 
began his business career by engaging in the lumber trade, in 
which, shortly after, he formed a partnership with his older 
brother, William H. Shryock, under the firm name of W. H. 
Shryock & Company, their place of business being situated at 
the corner of Union dock and Eastern avenue. At the age 
of twenty-one Thomas Jacob Shryock became the sole pro- 
prietor and conducted the business alone until 1880, when he 
became a wholesale lumber dealer, taking as a partner George 
F. M. Houck, the firm being known as Thomas J. Shryock & 
Company. General Shryock proved himself to be, as a busi- 
ness man, what some one has called a "conservative progres- 
sive," constantly advancing, but always first making sure of 
his ground. In 1880 he built the Shryock wharf, and in 1885 
started a branch wholesale lumber business in Washington, 
District of Columbia. In 1880 he became interested in the 
St. Lawrence Broom & Manufacturing Company, at Ronce- 
verte, West Virginia, and subsequently became its president. 
Over one hundred thousand acres of white pine lands are 
owned by this company and twenty-five million feet of white 
pine lumber is annually manufactured by them. 

General Shryock was always a very active Republican, 
but never allowed his name to go before a convention until 
prevailed upon to become a candidate for the office of State 
Treasurer, and he had the honor of being the first Republican 
ever elected to that office in the State of Maryland. The duties 


it involved were discharged by him with distinguished ability, 
his masterly grasp of important points showing him to be a 
man of large mentality. The financial and commercial con- 
cerns, the educational, political, charitable and religious in- 
terests which form the chief features of the life of every city, 
have all profited by his support and co-operation. He was 
a member of the board of public works of Maryland, and 
was vice-president of the State Insane Asylum and the Mary- 
land House of Correction to the time of his death. From 
1896 he was connected with the Maryland Agricultural Col- 
lege. For four years he served as first lieutenant in the Mary- 
land National Guard, and during that time took part in the 
railroad riots of 1877. Governor Lloyd Lowndes appointed 
him chief of staff with the rank of brigadier-general, and this 
position he held for four years. 

General Shryock married (first) in Baltimore, Maria 
Mann, and five children were born to them. While still almost 
infants they were deprived by death of their mother, and in 
1887 General Shryock married (sceond) Catherine B. Miller, 
of Syracuse, New York, becoming by this union the father 
of three children. 

While he was an alert and enterprising man, wielding a 
wide influence, he did not believe in concentration of effort 
on business affairs to the exclusion of other interests, but had 
just appreciation of the social amenities of life. His many 
admirable qualities of head and heart drew around him in 
private as well as in public life a large and influential circle of 
friends whose best wishes in his enterprises he always had and 
who counted his friendship one of their choicest privileges. 
He was a man of attractive personal presence, tall and robust, 
erect and dignified in bearing, with a strong and kindly face 
and manners invariably courteous and agreeable. Noted for 
his beneficence and public spirit, his generosity kept pace 


with his wealth and often he proved himself to be a friend 
in need. He traveled somewhat extensively, having made 
many trips abroad, visiting places of importance and interest 
in all parts of Europe and the Far East. 

General Shryock was made a Mason in Waverly Lodge, 
No. 152, in 1874, an d two years later was elected master, serv- 
ing two terms and greatly advancing the prosperity of the 
lodge. After a service as grand inspector he was elected junior 
grand warden of the Grand Lodge in 1879, senior grand 
warden in 1880, deputy grand master in 1884, and grand mas- 
ter in 1885, being the youngest, with the exception of Brothers 
Webb and Howard, who ever occupied the Grand East in 
Maryland. He was active in other branches of Masonry, was 
past high priest of Druid Chapter, past eminent commander 
of Beauseant Commandery and past illustrious grand master 
of the Grand Council, Royal and Select Masters of the State, 
also past grand treasurer of the Grand Chapter. He received 
the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in 
Albert Pike Lodge of Perfection, Meredith Chapter, Rose 
Croix, and Maryland Preceptory, and at the session of the 
Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction held at Wash- 
ington in 1888, the thirty-third degree as honorary sovereign 
inspector general. As grand master, General Shryock was 
the author of great reforms in the work throughout the State, 
insisting upon absolute uniformity and proficiency among the 
officers, enforcing rigid examinations and in various ways in- 
fusing new life into Masonry in the State of Maryland. On 
June 6, 191 1, he laid the cornerstone of the new Temple at 
Cumberland, and on February 22, of the same year, was elected 
president of the George Washington Masonic Memorial 

In November, 1910, the beautiful Masonic Temple on 
North Charles street was the scene of the unveiling of a large 


bronze tablet bearing the portrait of General Shryock, the 
occasion being memorable as marking the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of General Shryock's tenure of office as grand master, 
a longer term, according to authorities on the subject, than 
any other in the annals of the fraternity except that of the 
late King Edward. The portrait, which was modeled by 
Hans Schuler, represents General Shryock in profile, seated 
at a table upon which are displayed various Masonic emblems. 
In his left hand is held the half-unrolled plan for the new 
Temple, the reconstruction of which, on its unusual scale of 
beauty and magnificence, after the old one was destroyed by 
fire several years ago, is largely attributed to the untiring and 
devoted efforts of the grand master. Mr. Schuler also de- 
signed a superb silver loving cup, the gift of the Masons of 
the State generally, and a portrait of General Shryock for a 
medal struck in his honor and executed in bronze. The tablet 
bears the following inscription : 

A tribute of appreciation, respect and brotherly love from the fraternity 
to commemorate the close of the twenty-fifth successive year of devoted labor 
in behalf of the craft as its Grand Master. 

These words touched a responsive chord, not only in the 
heart of every Mason, but also in that of every Marylander, 
the loyal sons of the Old Line State sending up from all her 
hills and valleys a greeting of "appreciation, respect and 
brotherly love" to Thomas Jacob Shryock, the man whom all 
delighted to honor. The death of General Shryock took place 
February 3, 191 8, and to others is left the duty of guarding 
the interests of the ancient order of which he was a valuable 
member and to watch over the welfare and advancement of 
his beloved native city and State. 


TN passing in review the record of the life of John H. 
B. Latrobe, it seems almost incredible that one man should 
have been gifted with excellence in so many and so widely- 
diversified directions, and have succeeded in accomplishing 
so much. It is one of the very rare exceptions to be met with 
in this world. 

John H. B. Latrobe, son of Benjamin H. and Mary 
Elizabeth (Hazlehurst) Latrobe, was born in Philadelphia, 
May 4, 1803, and died at his home in Baltimore, Maryland, 
September 11, 1891. For a time the family resided in Wash- 
ington, where his school education was commenced, and 
he then attended Georgetown College and the school con- 
ducted by Mr. Carnahan, who subsequently became presi- 
dent of Princeton College. Later young Latrobe became a 
student at St. Mary's College, where he remained until his 
appointment to a cadetship at West Point, from which he 
resigned in 1821, after the death of his father. General 
Thayer, who was the superintendent at West Point while John 
H. B. Latrobe was there, wrote to him in 1864, as follows: 

Forty-two years have not effaced from my memory the regret and dis- 
appointment I felt when, near the close of 1821, your resignation was handed 
me, for I had counted on you as a future officer of engineers. You were then 
at the head of your class and without a rival. Had you waited a few months 
before resigning, you would have been the recipient of the highest honor and 
prize the academy and government could bestow as a reward for distinguished 
scholarship and merit 

The death of his father, however, had made this resigna- 
tion a necessity, and upon the return of his mother with the 
younger children to Baltimore, young Latrobe entered the law 
office of his father's friend, General Robert Goodloe Harper. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1825, but as he was without 
md 3a 


great personal influence, his acquisition of a practice was 
necessarily a matter of time, and in the meantime he set about 
other ways of increasing his income. Gifted as an artist and a 
writer, he called these arts into practical use. His yearly con- 
tribution to the "Atlantic Souvenir" was a novelette; for San- 
derson's "Biographies of the Signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence" he wrote the life of Charles Carroll, of Carroll- 
ton; "The Picture of Baltimore," another product of his facile 
pen, was illustrated with outline drawings of the public build- 
ings; in "Lucas' Progressive Drawing Book" he furnished both 
plates and letterpress; he illustrated "McKenny's Tour to the 
Lakes." Before he was admitted to the bar he had already 
commenced "Latrobe's Justices' Practices," which when fin- 
ished went through a number of editions, Mr. Latrobe revis- 
ing the eighth edition himself in 1889, when he was eighty-six 
years of age. As a poet his lines were graceful and not without 
considerable merit. His interest in military affairs was an 
active one for some years after his return to the city of Balti- 
more, and he served as an aide to General Harper, at that 
time in command of the Third Division, Maryland Militia. 
In this connection he had an important post to fill in the re- 
ception to General Lafayette in 1824, and at various times was 
in command of the Chasseurs of Lafayette and the First Balti- 
more Sharpshooters, and while on a visit to Philadelphia was 
captain of the First Baltimore Light Infantry. 

Mr. Latrobe was the means of organizing what was ulti- 
mately known as the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of 
the Mechanical Arts, the first exhibition being held in the con- 
cert hall in South Charles street, which was used as a lecture 
room until more convenient quarters were secured in the 
Athenaeum building. It was organized originally, September 
5, 1824, by John H. B. Latrobe and several others, and 
destroyed by fire, February 7, 1835. When it was reorganized, 


December i, 1847, Mr. Latrobe was selected to deliver the 
opening address, and was connected with it for many years. 
While still engaged with his legal studies, he delivered a 
course of lectures on history and geography at the Apprentices' 
Library. In the meantime, the skill with which he had con- 
ducted such cases as were entrusted to him had not remained 
unobserved. In 1828 he was employed by the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad Company to secure the right of way from 
Point of Rocks to Williamsport, and from that time onward 
was connected with the railroad company as its counsel. He 
was appointed counsel for the foreign creditors of Maryland 
in 1841, and it is due to the measures which he originated that 
the payment of interest on the debt of the State was resumed. 
President Taylor appointed him one of the "Visitors" to West 
Point in 1849, and his colleagues chose him as president of the 
board. He visited Europe several times, and while there in 
1857, as counsel for the firm of Winans, Harrison & Winans, 
the Russian contractors, he conducted their affairs so success- 
fully that he was given what was at that time considered an 
enormous fee, $60,000, and was retained by this firm as their 
special counsel. 

Mr. Latrobe was one of the founders of the American 
Colonization Society, prepared the first map of the colony in 
Africa from the descriptions of an agent of the society, and in 
association with General Harper bestowed upon the rivers 
and settlements the names by which they are known at the 
present time. He was instrumental in securing an appropria- 
tion of $200,000 from the State to be utilized in the transporta- 
tion of emigrants from Maryland, and the constitution and 
ordinance for the temporary government of the Maryland 
colony in Liberia, at Cape Palmas, were his work. It was due 
to his activity in this connection that in 1853, while president 
of the Maryland State Colonization Society, he was elected 


president of the American Colonization Society. He aided 
his effective work in this direction by no less effective publi- 
cations and addresses in various other States, and was devoted 
to the scheme throughout his life. He was invited by the King 
of Belgium in 1876 to represent the United States at the meet- 
ing called by the king at Brussels, with a view to organizing 
an International Association for the Exploration of Africa, 
and when this was effected Mr. Latrobe was elected president 
of the American branch. 

Political honors had very little attraction for him. Al- 
though nominated by the Democratic party in 1829, at a time 
when the city had but two representatives, Mr. Latrobe de- 
clined the honor. His reason for this course of procedure was 
that his professional duties demanded his attention to the ex- 
clusion of political matters. As an inventor he is best known 
through the "Latrobe Stove," also known under the name of 
"The Parlor Heater," and a variety of appellations, which is 
in familiar use throughout the United States. He was in 
especial demand as a patent lawyer, as his knowledge of 
mechanical principles gave him an advantage not to be over- 
looked. He organized and incorporated the telegraph com- 
pany over whose lines the first telegraphic message was sent, 
and by means of introducing Morse to President Harrison of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, succeeded in in- 
teresting the latter in the new idea. He had a very peculiar 
and practical theory about utilizing scraps of time, which very 
many people allow to go to waste, and this was the secret of 
his being able to accomplish what seem to be almost marvel- 
lous results. He was eighty years of age when he purchased a 
typewriter and learned to use it with a fair amount of rapidity. 

The honors showered upon Mr. Latrobe and the offices he 
held are almost numberless. He delivered the address at the 
laying of the cornerstone of the Masonic Temple in 1866, was 


chosen grand master of the fraternity four years later, and was 
re-elected for nine successive years, when he declined another 
re-election. When the cornerstone of the new City Hall was 
laid in 1867, he was chosen to make the address, and was 
selected by the citizens of Baltimore to receive it from the 
building committee. He was appointed commissioner from 
Maryland to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 
1876, and so active was his work in the commission up to the 
close of the exhibition that the thanks of the Society for the 
Better Observance of the Sabbath were tendered him for 
having been instrumental in closing the Exposition on Sun- 
days. He was a member of the Board of Visitors of the Mary- 
land Hospital for the Insane, and was later chosen vice-presi- 
dent, an office he filled many years. He was one of the foun- 
ders, and president, of the Maryland Historical Society, and 
one of the regents of the University of Maryland. As chair- 
man of the Public Park Commission, his work was of a most 
excellent character. He served as president of the Maryland 
Academy of Art until its collections were transferred to the 
Peabody Institute, and it was due to his efforts that the casts 
were obtained which are now in the gallery of the Maryland 
Historical Society. For many years he was president of the 
"Proprietors of the Greenmount Estate," and was one of the 
original purchasers with a view to turning it to its present 

Mr. Latrobe married (first) Maria, daughter of Dr. 
James Steuart, of Baltimore; (second) Charlotte Virginia, 
daughter of Ferdinand Leigh Claiborne, of Mississippi. 

Editorially one of the Baltimore papers said of Mr. Lat- 
robe, in part: 

Maryland has possessed in this country no man who accomplished so 
much in so many different directions as John H. B. Latrobe. To have done 
one of a dozen things that he did would have been more than one man in a 



thousand achieves in a lifetime. To have done all that he did, was to crowd 
a long and noble career so full of achievements that its retrospect seems an 
almost impossible record. In reviewing his life it is difficult to decide whether 
to bestow the higher praise on the thoroughness with which he did each 
thing, or on the facility with which he did all things, and the only way out 
of the embarrassment is to admire the universality of his ability, the wonderful 
endurance of his mental and physical powers, and the unflagging steadiness 
of his purpose. The lifework of such a man is his best eulogy. He achieved 
fortune and fame outside of politics by the pure force of his ability and 
integrity. Labor was to him both duty and pleasure. He aimed at success, 
and he succeeded, and with it all he maintained the purity and rectitude of 
his character, and left a reputation which should be an incentive and an en- 
couragement to every young man. It was a noble life, nobly lived. 




X *' 

Lews rbt& Ct? 


i /W/^/4^W^ 


TPHE invention which the world knows as the Mergenthaler 
Linotype, the creation of the brain of Ottmar Mergen- 
thaler, a man of genius, who by this invention has established 
his claim as one of the great emancipators of modern times, is 
one of the strangest in the world in many respects, the strangest 
being the fact that this wonderful and intricate machine by 
which type is set, cast line by line, ready for the press, and the 
type redistributed, is the invention of a man who never set 
type in his life and never worked in a printer's office. For 
over four centuries type had been set by hand, the business 
was a prosperous one and there seemed no stimulus for the 
invention of a type setting machine, but nevertheless Mr. 
Mergenthaler conceived the idea of one. Lack of funds for 
a time handicapped him, but nothing discouraged him, and 
finally, in 1885, he was able to announce his invention as com- 
pleted. All the world now knows the name "Mergenthaler"; 
it is known wherever newspaper offices are found, and the revo- 
lution the linotype has wrought in these offices and other 
printing establishments was so comparatively peaceful that its 
magnitude was not, perhaps, and is not yet fully realized. The 
adoption of the linotype was for a time fought by the in- 
terested unions, but time proved that the benefit to be derived 
from the machine extended to the manufacturer, printer and 
purchaser of the printed page everywhere. The invention 
of Mr. Mergenthaler, who was a German by birth, was due 
entirely to American influences. Freedom of thought and 
action, each man an equal and the door of opportunity open 
to all, these were the inspirations which gave to the world the 
linotype, one of the greatest inventions of its kind of the age. 
The early models of the Linotype have been deposited in the 
Smithsonian Institute in Washington, District of Columbia. 


Ottmar Mergenthaler, son of John George and Rosina 
(Ackerman) Mergenthaler, was born May n, 1854, m Hach- 
tel, Wurtemberg, and not in Bieticheim, as has been stated 
in earlier biographies. His father followed the profession of 
teaching, in which he excelled, and his mother's family num- 
bered among them several of that profession. He was a pupil 
in his father's school and the hours out of school were filled 
with work around the home, and in after years he wrote of this 
period that "it was all work and no play." The intention was 
to have him become a teacher, but he rebelled and it was plain 
that he possessed mechanical talent, for he mended the village 
clocks, modeled animals out of wood, and he was what we 
know as a boy "handy with tools." But it costs money in Ger- 
many to learn the trade he aspired to, maker of mathematical 
instruments, and his education was not sufficient to warrant 
him in aspiring to more than an inferior position. So, taking 
what he could get, he became an apprentice to his Uncle 
Hahl, brother to his step-mother, agreeing to work without 
wages for four years, pay a small premium, furnish his own 
tools and in return was to be taught watch and clock making 
and receive his board and lodging. At the age of fourteen he 
began work and so well did his zeal and progress satisfy his 
uncle that he began paying him wages at the end of his third 
year, twelve months sooner than agreed upon. During this 
period he attended the village night school and Sunday school 
and gained his first knowledge of mechanical drawing. In 
1872, he completed his appenticeship, and, seeing no oppor- 
tunity to turn his training to profitable account, he joined the 
tide of young Germans who left their homes during the years 
following the Franco-Prussian War, disheartened by the de- 
pressed condition of the Empire. He was aided to reach 
the United States by August Hahl, son of his employer uncle, 
who was a maker of electrical instruments in Washington, 


District of Columbia, who forwarded cash for the passage ex- 
pense and promised him work upon his arrival. As the age 
of military service had nearly arrived, the young man lost no 
further time, and in 1872 he landed in Baltimore, Maryland, 
going thence to Washington. 

And now began a new life for this eighteen-year-old Ger- 
man boy, the greatest surprise being work at good wages, his 
employer not taking advantage of his inexperience. While the 
making of electrical instruments was entirely new to him, and 
that was the business of the Hahl shop, he soon became very 
proficient, and within two years acted as shop foreman and 
as business manager in Mr. Hahl's absence. The shop made 
many instruments for the newly created weather bureau and 
signal service, and did much of the experimental work on the 
apparatus to be used for heliographs, gauges for rain and 
snow, wind velocity, registering instruments, etc., and in per- 
fecting these standard instruments, he was selected to work 
with the officers and the inventor. The United States Patent 
Office law requiring a model to accompany every application 
for a patent brought much business to the little plant, as most 
of the inventors had their models made in Washington. Thus 
young Mr. Mergenthaler came in contact with inventive 
minds and for some time lived in an atmosphere of invention, 
which eliminated his own training and even before he was 
of age the idea of the linotype entered his mind. At all events, 
here he gained valuable inspiration and in the Hahl shop aided 
in perfecting many of the inventions of others. 

In 1873, M r - Hahl moved his shop to Baltimore, the 
panic of that period inducing the change. It was about the 
year 1876 that the linotype machine first took, and in the face 
of many discouragements, principally lack of funds, Mr. Mer- 
genthaler persevered in his experiments, a great deal of steel 
and other materials being sacrificed, to say nothing of labor. 


The partnership which was formed in Baltimore between Mr. 
Hahl and himself terminated in 1883, Mr. Mergenthaler re- 
moving to a small machine shop on Bank Lane near St. Paul 
street. There he pursued his great invention which had be- 
come a part of his life, and at waking he was at work and at 
sleeping was dreaming of the day when an operator seated at 
a keyboard should cause type to assemble, perform their work 
and return each to his own department to issue again when 
the operator pressed the key. 

Finally a confidence was established and sufficient capital 
was secured to complete and place the invention on the market. 
A company was formed and shortly afterward, in 1 88 q t a syn- 
dicate of wealthy newspaper men obtained a controlling in- 
terest in the company, paying therefor $30,000, although not a 
dollar of profit had yet accrued from the manufacture or sale 
of the machine. Later the syndicate and Mr. Mergenthaler 
quarreled and he retired from the company, and under the 
corporate name, Ottmar Mergenthaler & Company, he estab- 
lished a plant at Clagett and Allen streets, Locust Point, Bal- 
timore, and there began supplying the demand for linotypes 
which by 1890 had become well established, and since then 
well nigh universal. So the battle was fought and the victory 
won, and truly great victory it was. When the linotype was 
perfected and it became simply a matter of filling orders, Mr. 
Mergenthaler turned to another wonder-working machine and 
perfected an invention by which a woman operator, and a 
boy to renew the material holding spaces, can manufacture 
grape baskets and berry boxes in a constant procession. This, 
too, bears the name Mergenthaler, and with the linotype has 
added to the wealth of the world by reducing proportion cost, 
and to the happiness and comfort of the world by increasing 
production. The personality of this modest genius was most 
pleasing and won for him an army of friends. The employees 


of his plant rendered him ungrudging service, and every man 
employed in experimental work did his very best to work out 
the ideas submitted him to reproduce in metal. He was most 
democratic, even after success and wealth came, and his men 
felt a pride in him and in his work which they practically 
made their own. 

Mr. Mergenthaler married, September u, 1881, Emma 
Lachenmayer, who survives him. They were the parents of 
three sons and a daughter: Fritz L., deceased; Eugene G., 
Herman and Pauline. Mr. Mergenthaler died at his home in 
Baltimore, October 28, 1899. 


A N honorable and distinguished ancestry may be considered 
as something worthy of mentioning even in our republican 
government, where all are held responsible for their own acts 
and are judged by their own merits. Thomas Henry Gaither, 
we are sure, never boasted of his ancestors and but few of his 
intimate friends even are aware that in his veins there flows 
blood as noble and good "as all the blood of all the Howards." 
The family is of English extraction, and John Gaither, the 
immigrant ancestor, came to this country with Lord Balti- 
more and settled in Maryland. On his maternal side Mr. 
Gaither was of Scotch descent, the family having settled in 
this country, in Connecticut, in the early colonial days. 

Daniel Gaither, grandfather of Thomas Henry Gaither, 
was an extensive farmer of Montgomery county, Maryland. 
One of his brothers, Henry Gaither, was an officer in the 
Revolutionary war, serving as a captain in the Maryland line, 
and as a lieutenant in the Third Regiment Infantry, United 
States army; he was one of the five lieutenant-colonels ap- 
pointed when the United States army was first organized. 

George Riggs Gaither, son of Daniel Gaither, was born 
in Montgomery county, Maryland, April 15, 1797, died Sep- 
tember 18, 1875. He was a pupil in the dsitrict schools of his 
native county until he had attained the age of sixteen years, 
and then entered upon his business career, which proved an 
eminently successful one. His first position w T as as a clerk 
in the dry goods store of his uncle, Romulus Riggs, in George- 
town, D. C., and in 1820 he purchased the interests of his uncle 
in this enterprise, and conducted it on his own account until 
1825. He then removed to Baltimore and established him- 
self in the wholesale dry goods business in that city, near 
Sharpe street, and was thus engaged until 1840, when he re- 


tired from business activities, having accumulated an immense 
fortune by his business acumen and straightforward and honor- 
able business methods. During this interval the firm name 
was changed a number of times, being in succession: George 
R. Gaither; Gaither, Matthews & Oulds, and George R. Gai- 
ther & Company. His financial transactions were on a scale 
to compare favorably with his transactions in the mercantile 
world, and his contributions toward the improvement of Balti- 
more by means of the erection of many warehouses and pri- 
vate residences, were colossal for that time. The family home 
was located in Cathedral street. His country seat, at which 
he resided for many years, was known as "Oakland" and was 
formerly the property and residence of Charles Sterrit 
Ridgely; it is located in Howard county, Maryland. He was 
a man who never acted upon impulse instead of judgment, 
and his policies, socially as well as in business matters, were 
not formed by hasty conclusions. He married Hannah Smith, 
born in Washington, D. C, in 1800, died June 20, 1873; 
daughter of Abram Bradley, granddaughter of Abram Brad- 
ley, and descended from the Bradleys who were among the 
earliest settlers of the State of Connecticut. Abram Brad- 
ley, Jr., was one of the early officers of the United States gov- 
ernment, being first assistant postmaster-general under Presi- 
dent John Adams, and had full charge of the removal of the 
general postoffice to Washington, D. C, when it was decided 
to remove the department to that city. Mr. and Mrs. Gaither 
had ten children, among them being: 1. George Riggs, Jr., 
born in Baltimore, Maryland, January 21, 1831. He was the 
recipient of an excellent education, and was engaged in farm- 
ing until the outbreak of the Civil war, when he entered the 
Confederate army. He was in command of Company K, First 
Virginia Cavalry, with the rank of Colonel, served during the 
entire war and participated in all of the most important en- 


gagements. He was made a prisoner once, exchanged, and 
returned to his command. At the close of the war Colonel 
Gaither returned to Maryland, and made his home in Balti- 
more, where he was engaged in the cotton business until 1879. 
He has served as lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Maryland 
Infantry, and as commanding colonel of the Fifth Regiment, 
Maryland National Guard, Veteran Corps. He married, 
August 7, 1 85 1, Rebecca Hanson, daughter of Colonel Charles 
S. W. and Mary Pue (Ridgely) Dorsey, who are both de- 
scended from the old and prominent families of Maryland. 
They have had children: Mary Ridgely; Henrietta; George 
Riggs, the third; Charles Dorsey; Abram Bradley; John 
Dorsey; Thomas Henry; Ridgely and Rebecca Dorsey. 2. 
Thomas Henry, see forward. 3. Hannah B., who erected to 
the memory of her father the magnificent Church of the Holy 
Comforter, at the corner of Pratt and Chester streets, Balti- 
more. 4. A. Bradley. 5. Henrietta, who married John 

George Riggs Gaither Sr., although very young when 
the War of 18 12 broke out, was true to the patriotic ideas 
always entertained by his family, and served in Peter's Artil- 
lery during that famous contest. He was in four engage- 
ments, including the battle of Bladensburg, from which his 
company retreated after the battle was lost, bringing off its 
guns and caissons, it being one of the very few in that particu- 
lar struggle which maintained good order when it retired from 
the field. 

Thomas Henry Gaither, youngest son of George Riggs 
and Hannah Smith (Bradley) Gaither, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, October 15, 1835. His elementary educa- 
tion was acquired in a private boarding school in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, and he then matriculated at the Baltimore 
City College, from which he was graduated with honor. 


Country life appealed to him more than that of the city, and 
he accordingly was always identified with agricultural matters, 
partly as a farmer, partly as a commission merchant. In busi- 
ness transactions he exhibited the quick appreciation and 
prompt decision which are as necessary to the successful mer- 
chant as to the successful general, but tempered with a cour- 
tesy that wins the esteem of all who come in contact with him. 
In private life his amiable and generous disposition endeared 
him to a host of friends. His military career consisted of 
service in the company commanded by his brother, mentioned 
above, and about 1882 he served as a commissioner of Howard 
County, Maryland. He was a member of the Episcopal 
church, holding pews in the Brown Memorial Church, the 
Emmanuel Church, and St. John's Church of Howard county. 
His contributions to these institutions were liberal ones, and 
he was foremost in all matters which tended to elevate and 
advance the community, either in a religious or secular 

Mr. Gaither married in Howard county, Maryland, Sep- 
tember 29, 1857, Sophia B., born in Annapolis, Maryland. 
September 19, 1840, daughter of Commodore Isaac and Sarah 
B. F. (Bland) Mayo, granddaughter of Chancellor Bland, of 
Maryland, and sister of Frederick, Henrietta, Samuel G., 
Annie, John and William Johns Mayo. Commodore Isaac 
Mayo, United States Navy, served with distinction in the War 
of 1812, and died in 1861. Mr. and Mrs. Gaither had two 
children: Georgiana Mayo, who married Laurence Balliere. 
and Thomas H. 

The home life of Mr. Gaither was almost ideal in its 
refined and intellectual surroundings, and was a magnet to 
attract numberless friends who were loud in their praises of 
the gracious hospitality and winning personality of the mis- 
tress of it. Mrs. Gaither is rarely gifted as a hostess, and 



while lavish in her hospitality, there is an air of refined sim- 
plicity and harmony which seems the acme of comfort, and 
she was a most charming helpmeet to her worthy husband, 
who was ever approachable and genial, and had the happy 
faculty of winning friends wherever he went. He was frank 
in declaring his principles, was sincere in maintaining them, 
and his career was rounded with success and marked by the 
appreciation of men whose good opinion was best worth hav- 
ing. His death occurred September 23, 1918. 


HPHE origin of the Machen family from which Arthur 
Webster Machen sprang was in the borders of Wales. 
The emigrant of the name in America settled on the Rappa- 
hanock river in Virginia in the early part of the eighteenth, 
or latter part of the seventeenth century. Thomas Machen, 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born in Virginia, 
in February, 1750, and moved to Washington, where he 
resided for a number of years. He married Ann Lewis, who 
was born December 31, 1754. His death occurred at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, May 17, 1809; his wife passed 
away, in that city, February 13, 18 10. 

Lewis Henry Machen, was born in Maryland, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1790. His early youth was busily spent in ac- 
quiring an education, availing himself of every means for 
mental improvement; by writing essays, preparing speeches 
for delivery before a debating society, and by constant read- 
ing and study. His education was interrupted by the death 
of his father, who, leaving not a small personal estate, left his 
mother and three sisters dependent upon him for support. 
This reduced him to the necessity of earning a livelihood, and 
he obtained employment as clerk in the office of the Secretary 
of the Senate, a connection he retained for nearly fifty years. 
His spare time was devoted to studying law, but he never 
felt able to forego his salary to become a practicing attorney. 
He married, October 15, 1812, Miss Cynthia Pease, daughter 
of Louisa and Henry Pease of Connecticut. 

An earnest advocate of the War of 18 12, President Madi- 
son, on May 6, 18 13, commissioned him a captain of infantry 
in the First Regiment of the Militia of the District of Co- 
lumbia. In the spring of 1814, he purchased, in Maryland, 
eight miles from Washington, a farm, where he resided, and 

MD. 37 


thus automatically lost his command. When the British were 
approaching Washington, by his energy, good judgment and 
presence of mind, the archives and secret documents of the 
Senate were removed from the Capitol, thereby saving them 
from the conflagration which ensued. 

Mr. Machen's first wife died October 15, 181 5, leaving no 
issue, and after remaining a widower for a little over one 
year, he married Caroline Webster, born in New Hampshire, 
November 2, 1788, and a daughter of Toppan and Elizabeth 
(Flagg) Webster. He contracted, in the presidential cam- 
paign of 1828, a hearty political antipathy to Andrew Jack- 
son that caused him to write a series of stirring and violent 
newspaper articles supporting the Whig candidate. His supe- 
rior officer in the Senate strenuously objected to his partisan- 
ship, threatening him with the loss of his position, but he 
repeatedly refused to forego his right as a citizen to use his 
pen in support of the policies and candidates which seemed 
to him conducive to the welfare of his country. This insist- 
ence upon what he conceived to be his right as a citizen did 
not operate to his disadvantage. Eight years later the same 
superior officer promoted him to be "Principal Clerk of the 
Senate," a position which he held until 1859. Mr. Machen, 
in 1843, purchased a farm of seven hundred and twenty-five 
acres, near Centreville, Fairfax county, Virginia. This home- 
stead he named "Walney" from the magnificent walnut trees 
in front of his mansion. 

Though devoid of a collegiate education, Mr. Machen, 
by constant reading, and love of study, acquired a wide cul- 
ture and a degree of literary knowledge far surpassing that 
of the average college graduate. Latin, French and Spanish 
he read with ease. The love of books was a mania with him. 
His artistic taste made him love good bindings, illustrated 
books and engravings, and he was also a patron of artistic 


merit wherever he found it. In all things his life was ani- 
mated and guided by a tenacious Christian faith. Educated 
as an Episcopalian, he joined the Presbyterian church in 
early manhood, he believing that the latter form of church 
government was more in harmony than Episcopacy with our 
republican institutions. While at "Walney," his country resi- 
dence, there being no Presbyterian church in the neighbor- 
hood, he became a staunch supporter and vestryman of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. During the sessions of Con- 
gress, he frequently attended at Trinity Church, but in 1854 
he became a member of one of the constituent parts of what 
is now known as the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church. 
In the latter years of his official position in the Senate, 
the seeds of secession were breeding discord and disunion. 
After his resignation he retired to "Walney," where the bur- 
dens of advancing years were augmented by ill-health, and 
a sun stroke in the summer of i860. At the election for mem- 
bers of the constitutional convention held in February, 1861, 
he voted for the Union candidates, and though he looked for- 
ward sadly toward secession, he yearned for a conservative 
leader to rescue the old Union. He remained on his home- 
stead in Virginia until November, 1862; the Union Army in 
its march through that State, some time preceding this, sacked 
"Walney," his library being scattered, his domestic servants 
leaving him, and for a matter of safety, he, and his family, 
came to Baltimore for a residence. Here he remained until 
August 1 1, 1863, when his death took place, and he was buried 
in Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore. His wife survived him 
until July 8, 1878, dying in the nintieth year of her age at her 
son's home in Baltimore, and was buried beside her husband. 
Of the seven children of Lewis H. and Caroline (Webster) 
Machen, four of them died in childhood, the others were: 
Emeline Machen, who died unmarried, in Baltimore, in 1887, 
Arthur Webster Machen and James Patterson Machen. 


Arthur Webster Machen was born on July 20, 1827, in 
the city of Washington, District of Columbia. He was of a 
slender build in stature, and during childhood suffered from 
sickness. After receiving an elementary schooling from a lady 
teacher, and an Irish pedagogue, he entered a private school 
in Georgetown, District of Columbia, kept by the Rev. Dr. 
McVain, a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman. Here he became 
drilled in Latin grammar and syntax. He next attended a 
school in Washington conducted by a Mr. Abbot, a native of 
New England, and here became proficient in Greek. Always 
an ardent reader, he used to tell stories to his schoolmates, 
often continuing them from day to day to maintain the interest 
of his hearers. After graduating from the "Select Classical 
Seminary" the name of Mr. Abbott's school Mr. Machen 
became a student at the Columbian College, now George 
Washington University. Here he continued his studies about 
a year, then the educational plans made by his father were 
changed on account of the purchase of "Walney." The next 
six years were spent as the life of a country boy; the open-air 
life on a Virginia farm improved his delicate health. He 
superintended all the farm operations and personally par- 
ticipated in them. In spite of his arduous labors, his father's 
extensive library having been removed to "Walney," he con- 
tinued his studies, adding greatly to his knowledge of books, 
not only in English but in Greek and Latin. 

It was during his residence at "Walney" that he first 
commenced his literary efforts for the press. He was suc- 
cessful in winning several prizes for his efforts. He was, how- 
ever, morbidly solicitous to preserve his incognito, as he 
wished to avoid any reputation as a "litterateur or dilletante," 
which might interfere with his plan to become a lawyer. The 
winter and early spring of 1849 were spent in assisting his 
father in the labors of his clerical position during the session 


of Congress. He witnessed the inauguration of General 
Zachary Taylor, which was of great interest to him on account 
of his sympathies with the Whig party. His life as a farmer 
terminated in the autumn of 1849, never to be resumed with 
the exception of brief visits to "Walney." The law had already 
attracted him, even in his early childhood, and to fit himself 
for that profession he entered the Harvard Law School. Dur- 
ing his whole course of studies at this college, he supported 
himself, first by stories and articles for magazines, later, in 
part, by his stipend as librarian of the Harvard Law School 
Library. His novel, "Everstone," was published serially in 
the American Whig Review. Though he afterward wrote 
some fiction he decided after the publication of his novel to 
devote himself to magazine articles and book reviews. At 
the time of his graduation, in 1851, he won the prize for the 
best thesis, the subject selected by the faculty being "The 
Rights and Liabilities of Railroad Companies." 

While he was a member of Harvard Law School, also 
after his admission to the bar, he assisted Professor Theophilus 
Parsons in compiling his work on contracts; he not only con- 
tributed material for the notes, but wrote the chapter on 
"Slavery." Among his closest friends, amongst the students, 
was Richard J. Gittings, of Maryland; Alfred M. Barbour, 
of Virginia; Gene R. Locke, of Kentucky; C. C. Langdell, of 
New Hampshire; James C. Carter, of New York, and Alfred 
Russell, of Michigan. The degree of Bachelor of Laws was 
conferred on him by Harvard College at the time of his 
graduation. He, however, continued his law studies at Cam- 
bridge for another year, and in the summer of 1852, he re- 
turned to the Virginia farm. The momentous question now 
was a decision in reference to his permanent residence, he hesi- 
tating between New York and Baltimore, but finally, having 
a desire to live in a Southern atmosphere, he decided on the 
latter city. 


Mr. Machen was admitted to the bar of the Superior 
Court of Baltimore City, on June 13, 1853. He immediately 
opened an office in Baltimore in conjunction with Richard J. 
Gittings, his former classmate. Though the public regarded 
them as partners, there was no formal agreement, only a tacit 
understanding to share alike in all fees. The young briefless 
barrister was eager to work, but clients were few and far 
between, and after three years at the bar he was still "as poor 
as Job's turkey." The greater the discouragements the more 
manfully he strove. Whatever litigations fell into his hands, 
he prosecuted vigorously; he sought to attract practice rather 
by industry, study and efficiency than by extending his social 
acquaintance; he sought relaxation in books in preference to 
society. In the autumn of 1855, Mr. Gittings was selected 
State's Attorney for Baltimore county; while he never was a 
partner in criminal matters with the new State's Attorney, the 
reputation of the two associates began to spread abroad, and 
civil business improved. At the end of the year, the tide of 
professional success was still advancing. A few months later 
Mr. Machen had his first case in the Court of Appeals, and 
though the case received an adverse decision, the firm of 
Machen and Gittings had a remarkable record of success in 
the spring of 1859, when they were employed in almost every 
civil case on the Baltimore county trial docket and gained 
them all. 

During the period of waiting for law practice, Mr. 
Machen assisted Professor Parsons in preparation of his law 
books. After this work was successfully accomplished, Pro- 
fessor Parsons urged him to write a book on trusts. This he 
declined to do, but instead commenced a work on estoppel. 
After almost completing the manuscript for the work, the 
publications of two works on the subject dampened his ardor, 
and the book was never completed. Another law book he 


started to compile was an alphabetical list of "Words Judi- 
cially Construed." 

Mr. Machen's first case was in the Supreme Court of the 
United States, Parker vs. Kane, in i860. From the commence- 
ment of his legal career he was in love with his profession. 
He understood the lawyer's art of acquiring, in a short time, 
a sufficient mastery of even highly technical subjects to discuss 
them intelligently. In discouraging days, when he was wait- 
ing for practice, it was his devotion to the high ideals of his 
profession which sustained him through the daily routine and 
the more disheartening idleness. After he began to get prac- 
tice, his devotion to the law by no means diminished. Though 
he recognized that criminal litigation was a valuable experi- 
ence for a young lawyer, it was however distasteful to him, 
his preference being for civil cases. The first cause celebre, 
in which Machen and Gittings were concerned, was tried in 
the Baltimore County Court in January and February, 1859. 
The indictment was against two men for the murder of a 
policeman named Rigdon. The murderers were members of 
two influential clubs of ruffians that terrorized Baltimore. 
They secured convictions in both trials and were instrumental 
in breaking up these clubs named the "Plug Uglies" and the 
"Rip Raps," and thus delivering Baltimore of a serious menace 
to her safety and good government. A vacancy occurring in 
the Superior Court of Baltimore, caused by the death of Judge 
Z. Collins Lee, the appointment was tendered to Mr. Machen 
by the Governor, but, after two weeks' consideration, he de- 
clined the honor. He never took an active part in the political 
affairs of the age, and voted for the first time when he was 
twenty-eight years old. On the question of slavery he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and disapproved the 
decision in the Dred Scott Case, in so far as it restricted the 
power of Congress to legislate on slavery in the territories. 


In the presidential election of i860, he voted for Bell and 
Everett, the last remnant of the Whig party. The conclusion 
of the Civil War found the firm of Machen and Gittings with 
a flourishing and rapidly growing business. They were re- 
tained in Baltimore county on one side or the other in almost 
every important legislation. While in Baltimore City their 
position was not so pre-eminent as in the county, they enjoyed 
a practice which ranked them in the forefront of the bar. 
Mr. Machen's first European trip was taken in 1867; two years 
later he made another trip, when he visited Rome and South- 
ern Italy. The increasing business of Machen and Gittings 
caused them to offer a partnership in their office at Towson- 
town, Maryland, to Colonel David G. Mcintosh, a distin- 
guished soldier in the Confederate Army, who, after the war, 
located in Maryland. The firm was known as Machen, Git- 
tings and Mcintosh, and the junior member had charge of the 
Baltimore county office at Towsontown. 

Mr. Machen married Miss Minnie J. Gresham, of 
Macon, Georgia. Immediately after his marriage he joined 
the Franklin Street Presbyterian Church of Baltimore, and 
became one of its influential members. He was elected a 
trustee of the church and was re-elected annually until his 
death. He was chosen president of the Library Company of 
the Baltimore Bar in 1873, a d was re-elected yearly until his 
death, thus holding the office for forty-two years. His con- 
stant, severe work on his professional employment impaired 
his health, and by the advice of his physician he made another 
European trip in the summer of 1881. The following year 
he again declined the nomination as one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Bench of Baltimore City. In the same year his law 
partner, Richard J. Gittings, died, after a brief illness, and 
the firm of Machen, Gittings and Mcintosh was dissolved by 
mutual consent. The senior member continued the practice of 


law individually. Since the close of the Civil War, Mr. 
Machen affiliated with the Democratic party, though he never 
took any active part in politics, and during the period of 
Democratic supremacy in Maryland he did not even take the 
trouble to vote. He always opposed the independent move- 
ments in Maryland politics, and never, save in one or two 
instances of judges and non-political offices, did he vote for a 
Republican candidate. He was president of the Bar Asso- 
ciation of Baltimore in 1897-8; and was counsel for the Balti- 
more City Passenger Railway Company from its incorpora- 
tion in 1862. 

Mr. Machen was fond of travel, of seeing new scenes and 
of visiting places possessing historic or literary associations. 
His summer vacations were spent in America, frequently in 
the White Mountains. In 1908, however, and again in 1910 
and 191 1, he spent three summer months in Europe. On Sun- 
day, December 19, 1917, after returning from church services, 
he passed quietly away, surrounded by his family. 

The "Baltimore Sun," December 22, 1917, in an editorial, 
reviewed Mr. Machen's career: 


In the death of Arthur W. Machen, Baltimore loses one of few remain- 
ing human beings who linked it with a comparatively early part of its history, 
and our local bar loses probably the last survivor of a professional period 
which was especially prolific in lawyers of unusual intellect and force. Merely 
as a human landmark Mr. Machen was peculiarly interesting, since his long 
life of nearly eighty-nine years embraced an era of municipal change and 
progress which the young man and woman of to-day must realize, if at all. 
only at second hand and on the testimony of others. Mr. Machen was a 
part of old Baltimore as well as new Baltimore, of the Baltimore of the 
distant past as well as Baltimore of the present, of the days when the railroad 
and the telegraph were still a wonder, and of the days when the automobile 
has become almost as common as the barnyard fowl, and when travel by air 
is becoming as familiar a spectacle as travel by stage coach once was. 


Born ten years before the birth of "The Sun," and coming to the bar 
sixty-two years ago, the mind of a man of Mr. Machen's breadth and train- 
ing became the permanent depository of local history, the sensitive and re- 
ceptive film on which the pictures of men and events were impressed with 
special clearness and significance. His life was a part of the community life 
for so long that his passing creates a very keen sense of family loss. A human 
factor has gone which we cannot replace, one which helped to preserve the 
feeling of community continuity and to keep us in living touch with our past. 
What an addition a man such as Mr. Machen could have made to local 
history had he been able to find the leisure to put down in black and white 
his personal reminiscences of men and things! 

As a member of the bar Mr. Machen belonged to an era to which we 
can always point with pride. That he held a recognized place in the front 
rank of his profession in a day which boasted such men as Teckle Wallis, 
Charles Marshall, Bernard Carter, Judge Ritchie and John P. Roe, and in 
which Recerdy Johnson, Steele, McMahon, Nelson and Schley still held 
their own as veteran intellectuals, is the best tribute to his legal ability and 
standing. What gives him wider claim to ordinary human interest and 
sympathy than his professional achievements was his intense and critical liter- 
ary taste, and the broad culture by which he strengthened and rounded his 
professional studies. The lawyer of the old regime was supposed to be a 
man of education and reading, and the old system built up its legal super- 
structure on a wide and solid foundation of learning. Mr. Wallis illustrated 
the fact that legal ability is not necessarily narrow and one-sided, and Mr. 
Machen, though he did not enter the realm of literature as a producer, main- 
tained his love for it in spite of all the professional demands upon his time, 
and there can be little doubt that it returned his affection with profitable 
dividends in his legal labors. 

The lawyer of to-day is necessarily in a hurry. The competition is 
greater, the rewards are larger for the elect. We cannot expect the same 
breadth of culture as in the earlier days, though legal learning and legal 
ability may be as profound and as marked as in the past. But when we 
review a career like that of Mr. Machen, we cannot but regret that the old 
school of legal training has so few representatives remaining, in this country 
at least, and that keen but narrow specialists occupy so large a place in a 
profession which was once the centre of literary arts and graces. 

J/-. c/miiircKe < J /town 


TPHE Thorn family of Baltimore trace descent from a Scotch 
ancestor, Alexander Thorn, who, loyal to his king, gal- 
lantly aided the Jacobite cause in Scotland until that fatal day 
in 1746, when "Prince Charlie's" cause received its death- 
blow, and he, an officer, tied from the field, finally reaching 
America in safety. From Alexander Thorn, the Scotchman, 
sprang.a distinguished Southern family, Dr. Joseph Pembroke 
Thorn, of Baltimore, an eminent son, being of the third Ameri- 
can generation. Through intermarriage the Thorns are 
closely related to other families of distinction, notably, Mayo, 
Tabb, Bland, Wright, Randolph and Poythress. 

Arriving in Virginia, after his flight from Scotland, 
Alexander Thorn settled in Westmoreland county, but later 
removed to Culpeper county, Virginia. He married Eliza- 
beth Triplett, who died April 6, 1789, daughter of John Trip- 
lets Alexander Thorn died two years later, February 27, 
1791. They were the parents of several children, the line of 
descent being traced to Dr. J. Pembroke Thorn, through 
Colonel John Watson Triplett Thorn, the eldest son of the 
founder. In the generations that have followed from the brave 
Scotch officer, who sacrificed his all for the cause of "Prince 
Charlie," and even to the fifth generation there are evident 
traits which distinguished him. Loyalty even to a lost cause 
is a family trait, and when his grandson, J. Pembroke Thorn, 
was confronted with a similar problem, he offered his service 
in defense of the cause he believed in, and served the Con- 
federacy with all his ability. 

Colonel John Watson Triplett Thorn, eldest son of Alex- 
ander and Elizabeth (Triplett) Thorn, was born November 
11, 1769, and died May 22, 1855. He inherited the family 
estate, "Berry Hill," Culpeper county, Virginia, was a wealthy 


planter, and the owner of two hundred slaves, many of whom 
he sought to free by colonization in Pennsylvania, but they 
chose to return to him and their comfortable homes at "Berry 
Hill." He was elected State Senator, served his county re- 
peatedly as high sheriff, was an officer of the War of 1812, 
and a devoted churchman, serving as vestryman for more than 
fifty years. He married, July 27, 18 15, Abby de Hart Mayo, 
daughter of Colonel William and Elizabeth Bland (Poy- 
thress) Mayo. They were the parents of Dr. Joseph Pem- 
broke Thorn, to whose memory this tribute of respect and 
appreciation is inscribed. 

Dr. Joseph Pembroke Thorn, son of Colonel John Wat- 
son Triplett and Abby de Hart (Mayo) Thorn, was born at 
the paternal estate, "Berry Hill," Culpeper county, Virginia, 
March 13, 1828, and died at his home, No. 828 Park avenue, 
Baltimore, Maryland, August 21, 1899. His youth was spent 
at "Berry Hill," where he was trained in all the industries of 
the estate, wood and iron working, weaving, basket making, 
coopering and shoe manufacturing, Colonel Thorn consider- 
ing a knowledge of such industries a necessary part of his 
son's education, and all were reared to habits of industry. As a 
lad, Dr. Thorn attended the primary school kept in a log 
schoolhouse nearby, later attended the academy presided over 
by Professor Thomas Hanson, of Fredericksburg, Virginia. 
He was very anxious to go to sea, and finally succeeded in 
obtaining a berth, but the initial voyage from Virginia to Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, cooled his ardor, and henceforth the sea 
had no charms for him. He made the return journey home 
by land, and there remained until the outbreak of the Mexi- 
can War, when he was commissioned first lieutenant of a com- 
pany he recruited in Fredericksburg. But the urgent repre- 
sentations made to him by his father finally caused him to 
yield, and he resigned his commission, and received in recog- 


nition a fine farm presented him by his father. But he 
repented his decision, and, journeying to Washington, he ap- 
pealed to the President to restore him to the rank. His plead- 
ings, reinforced by his enthusiasm and attractive personality, 
won the President's consent, and he was commissioned second 
lieutenant, his captain being W. B. Taliferro, who subse- 
quently became brigadier-general, Confederate States Army. 
He was then nineteen years of age, but he possessed every sol- 
dierly quality, and at the front distinguished himself by his 
bravery and coolness under fire. He was twice wounded, once 
near the Puente Nationale, and again at Huamantla, com- 
manding his company in both actions. For a time after the 
capture of Mexico, the capital city, he was on duty there, and 
in the Province of Taluca, escaping all dangers, but at the 
close of the war, while in Vera Cruz, he was stricken with 
yellow fever and was carried to Fort Hamilton, New York, 
there recuperating, and soon thereafter returned to his Vir- 
ginia home. 

His brother, Dr. William Alexander Thorn, an eminent 
physician of Northampton county, Virginia (died May 12, 
1899), induced the young man to begin the study of medicine 
under his direction, and a year later he entered the medical 
department of the University of Virginia, where he won dis- 
tinction in scholarship, and was the popular president of his 
class. He completed his medical studies in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, receiving his M.D. from Jefferson Medical 
College with the class of 1851. From that medical college 
Dr. Thorn entered the United States Navy, passing the exam- 
inations brilliantly, being second on a list of about one hun- 
dred applicants. He was admitted as assistant surgeon, was 
assigned to the frigate "Savannah," and spent four years on 
that vessel, cruising in South American waters. 

On his return to the United States, Dr. Thorn resigned 


from the service, married, and retired to a farm in Culpeper 
county, Virginia. He took active part in public affairs, and 
served on the staff of General William B. Taliferro during 
the John Brown excitement at Harper's Ferry, ranking as 
colonel, and thereafter, even before Virginia seceded from the 
Union, enlisted in the Confederate Army. He was assigned 
to the command of the "Irish Battalion," the only troops Vir- 
ginia then or afterwards raised separately, and continued its 
commander afterward. He was with Stonewall Jackson in 
the Valley campaign, and in all the marchings and battles in 
Western Virginia. He was recklessly brave, shunned no dan- 
ger, and was several times wounded. At the battle of Kerns- 
town, a bullet which would have pierced his heart was stopped 
by a pocket Testament, which he carried in his breast pocket. 
While the sacred book saved his life and was ever treasured 
as a precious souvenir, it could not prevent the shock to his 
heart, and he was unable to resume field duty. He was as- 
signed to the duty of transferring troops from Richmond down 
the Peninsula, but his health did not improve, and he was 
ordered to Bermuda by his physician. He ran the blockade 
from Charleston, and narrowly escaped capture at the entrance 
to the harbor of Bermuda. His quest for health was fruitless, 
and after a lengthy stay he made his way to Canada, there 
being visited by some of his family. At this time cruisers were 
being built abroad for the Confederacy. They were to be 
commanded by Commodore Maury, an old friend of Dr. 
Thorn's father. Dr. Thorn was ordered to Europe to await 
the completion of those cruisers then being built in France, 
but much of his waiting was spent in Italy. His wife had died 
in 1861, and during his wait in Italy, he met Catherine G. 
Reynolds, who became his wife in Leamington Cathedral, 
England, in 1865. The ending of the war found him still 
abroad, and it was not until 1866 that he returned home. 


Dr. Thorn located in Baltimore, Maryland, after his 
return from abroad, and there resided until his death, thirty- 
three years later. He became prominent in professional, polit- 
ical and social life, and was one of the strong and influential 
men of his day. He was a Democrat in politics, ardently sup- 
ported Grover Cleveland for the presidency, and had the 
honor of being president of the first Cleveland Club organ- 
ized in the country. That club under his leadership aided 
greatly to create the sentiment which culminated in the nom- 
ination and election of the first Democratic president since 
James Buchanan, who was succeeded by Abraham Lincoln. 
President Cleveland, Secretary Manning, and other party 
leaders, always recognized the great service Dr. Thorn ren- 
dered Democracy's cause. 

At the fall election in 1877, Dr. Thorn was chosen coun- 
cilman; in 1884 was elected member of the Maryland House 
of Delegates, and later was chosen speaker of that body; in 
1897, he was defeated for State Senator from the second dis- 
trict, that being the only time the verdict of the polls was 
adverse to his candidacy. While in the Legislature he intro- 
duced a bill to create a State hospital or asylum for the feeble- 
minded children of that State. That bill failed passage, but 
in the next session the bill was presented by the doctor's son, 
Pembroke Lea Thorn, who had succeeded his father, and was 
enacted. The governor of the State appointed Dr. Thorn a 
member of its board of management, and that body elected 
him president. Under his administration land was bought 
near Owings Mills, suitable buildings were erected, and the 
hospital brought to a successful plane of efficiency. This insti- 
tution was very dear to his heart, and to it he gave freely and 
constantly of his time and his means. He donated one of the 
cottages erected as part of the hospital equipment and, much 
against his wishes, the board of trustees named it "Pembroke 


Cottage," and another, donated by the family, "Thorn 

For almost twenty years Dr. Thorn was a vestryman of 
Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, contributing largely of 
his time, talents and experience to the work of the church 
and its philanthropies. He was a member of the new church 
building committee. For several years prior to his death he 
was a member of Emanuel Protestant Episcopal Church, and 
was very devoted to its services and interests. For many years 
he was a member of the Diocesan Convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of Maryland, a zealous worker and regular 
attendant upon all its sessions. He long served Spring Grove 
Asylum as trustee, and for four years was president of the 
board. He founded, in association with Dr. William T. How- 
ard and Dr. H. P. C. Wilson, the first institution of its kind 
in Maryland, The Hospital for Women of Maryland, which 
filled the urgent need for such a hospital until the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital added a woman's hospital. 

Dr. Thorn married (first), October u, 1857, Ella Lea 
Wright, born May 2, 1837, died January 25, 1861. They were 
the parents of two sons: f. W r illiam H. DeCourcy Wright, 
born in Baltimore, October 14, 1858, married (first), October 
29, 1885, Mary Pleasants Gordon, born July 25, 1864, died 
May 3, 1892, by whom he had two children: Anne Gordon 
and Mary Gordon. He married (second), June 14, 1910, 
Mary Washington Stewart, widow of John Stewart, and 
daughter of H. Irvine and Mary Washington Keyser, of Bal- 
timore. Children: Elizabeth Keyser, born September 30, 
1912, William Henry DeCourcy Wright, July 5, 1915. 2. 
Pembroke Lea, born January 11, 1861. Dr. Thorn married 
(second), in Leamington Cathedral, England, Catherine G. 
Reynolds, of Kentucky. They were the parents of two sons : 
Hunt R. Mayo and J. Pembroke, Jr. 


This compilation of the personal history and genealogical 
lines of Dr. J. Pembroke Thorn necessarily deals with the 
leading features of a long and useful life. The regard in 
which he was held in the city was thus expressed editorially 
by the "Baltimore Sun" on the day of his death: 

Dr. J. Pembroke Thorn, though a native of Virginia, has been so long 
a resident of Baltimore, that he was thoroughly identified in every way with 
the State of his adoption. Like many others whom Virginia sent us, Dr. 
Thorn proved a valuable and enterprising citizen, and made a prominent 
place for himself in professional, political and social circles. He came of 
strong and spiritual Virginia stock with whom honor, courage, and duty 
were the highest motives of life, and never lowered or sullied the noble 
standard of personal integrity and manhood which came to him as a State 
and family heritage. Born when "Knighthood was in flower" in the South, 
and where the grand old title Gentleman was considered the highest of 
distinctions, he never forgot the ideas or traditions of his youth, but carried 
with him to the closing years of his century the courtly bearing and the lofty 
and gallant spirit that characterized the gentleman of the old regime. Dr. 
Thorn was one of the last surviving representatives of a class of citizens 
who applied the principles of chivalry to modern democratic life, and who, 
in public affairs, like the old Guard at Waterloo, would rather die than 
surrender political principle or compromise moral conviction. The type seems 
passing away in public life, and the country is the poorer for it. We could 
exchange with benefit much of what is called the progress and development 
of the past two or three decades for public of the moral caliber of a day 
that is dead. 

The maternal ancestors of Dr. Thorn Mayo, Tabb, 
Bland, and others are herein outlined. His mother, Abby 
de Hart (Mayo) Thorn, was a lineal descendant of Joseph 
Mayo, who was born July 17, 1656, died October 8, 1691, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of George Hooper. Colonel 
William Mayo, son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Hooper) Mayo, 
was baptized October 4, 1684, and died November 1, 1744. 
Colonel William Mayo surveyed the Barbadoes from 1717 
to 172 1, the account of the survey and the map he made yet 


preserved in King George's Library at the University of Dub- 
lin, Ireland. He also ran the dividing line between Virginia 
and North Carolina in 1728. In 1730, he was a major in the 
Virginia forces; in 1737, he laid out the city of Richmond; 
and in 1740, was a colonel in the Virginia forces. He married 
Anne Perrott, daughter of John Perrott, born in 1645, and 
Anne, born in 1666. 

John Mayo, son of Colonel William and Anne (Per- 
rott) Mayo, was born in 1734, and died June 17, 1784. He 
married Mary Tabb, born July 8, 1733, died September, 1792, 
daughter of William Tabb, born February 25, 1702, and 
Susanna (Gould) Tabb, born February 23, 1717. John Mayo 
appears as a burgess from 1768 to 1771 ; was a member of the 
Virginia Convention from 1775 to 1776, and a member of the 
Cumberland County Committee in 1775. 

Colonel William Mayo, son of John and Mary (Tabb) 
Mayo, was born September 26, 1757, and died August, 1837. 
He married, December 24, 1778, Elizabeth Bland Poythress, 
born in 1759, died August 6, 1806. Their daughter, Abby de 
Hart Mayo, who died December 30, 1830, married Colonel 
John Watson Triplett Thorn. 

(The Tabb Line). 

Mary (Tabb) Mayo, wife of John Mayo, was a great- 
great-granddaughter of Humphrey and Joanna Tabb, the 
former's death date prior to 1659. Their son, Thomas Tabb, 
died before 1687. His wife was Martha (surname unknown). 
Their son, John Tabb, was baptized November 12, 1676. He 
married Martha Hand. Their son, William Tabb, was born 
February 25, 1702. He married Susanna Gould, born Feb- 
ruary 23, 1717. Their daughter, Mary Tabb, was born July 8, 
1733, and died September, 1792. She married John Mayo. 


(The Bland Line). 

John Bland, born in 1573, died in 1632, married Susan 
Duclere, born in 1590, and died in 1664. 

Theodorick Bland, son of John and Susan (Duclere) 
Bland, was baptized January 16, 1629, and died April 23, 
1 67 1. He married Anne Bennett, who died in November, 
1687. He was the first of a family famous in the annals of 
Virginia, speaker in the House of Burgesses in 1659 and 1660, 
and member of the Virginia Council in 1664. 

Richard Bland, son of Theodorick and Anne (Bennett) 
Bland, was born August n, 1665, and died April 11, 1720. 
He married, February 11, 1701, Elizabeth Randolph, who 
died January 30, 1720, daughter of Colonel William Ran- 
dolph and Mary Isham, and granddaughter of Richard Ran- 
dolph and Captain Henry Isham. Richard Bland was county 
commissioner in 1699, burgess in 1702, and visitor to William 
and Mary College in 1716. 

Colonel Richard Bland, son of Richard and Elizabeth 
(Randolph) Bland, was born May 6, 1710, and died October 
26, 1776. He married, March 21, 1729, Anne Poythress, born 
December 13, 1712, and died April 9, 1758, daughter of 
Colonel Peter Poythress, of Flowerdieu Hundred. Colonel 
Richard Bland was called the "Cato of the Revolution." He 
was contemporary with the great George Mason, and would 
have been a signer of the Declaration of Independence but 
for his refusal, because of ill health, to become again a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress. He first came into public 
view in Virginia as a commissioner of the military forces in 
1737; from 1742 to 1775, he was a member of the House of 
Burgesses; in 1774, 1775 and 1776, he was a member of the 
Committee of Safety; was elected a delegate to the First Con- 
tinental Congress in which he served and which laid the 
foundation for the Declaration of Independence, but his health 


was then declining so that he could not accept service in the 
succeeding Congress. Thomas Jefferson said of Colonel 
Bland: "He was the wisest man on the Bland side of the 
James River." His political pamphlets are to be found in any 
authoritative summary of the sources of American history, 
that one on the Stamp Act is especially noteworthy. It was 
published in 1765. His patriotism was as stern as that of 
George Mason who changed the motto on his coat-of-arms 
from Pro patria semper to Pro republica semper. 

Elizabeth Bland, daughter of Colonel Richard and Anne 
(Poythress) Bland, was born March 17, 1732-33. She mar- 
ried Colonel Peter Poythress, born in 1733. Their daughter, 
Elizabeth Bland Poythress, was born in 1759, and died August 
6, 1806. She married Colonel William Mayo. 

(The Wright Line). 

Mrs. Ella Lea (Wright) Thorn was a descendant of one 
of Maryland's ancient and honorable families, her American 
ancestors being: 

Captain Nathaniel Wright, born about 1657, died in 
1710. He was appointed commissioner to help lay out the 
boundaries of Queen Anne's county, Maryland; commissioner 
to help found the parishes of the Protestant Episcopal church 
on the eastern shore; county judge; captain of militia, and 
vestryman of what is now, partly, old Wye Church. He 
married Sarah . 

Solomon Wright, son of Captain Nathaniel and Sarah 
Wright, died in 1729. He married Mary Coursey (De 
Courcy), daughter of John and Mary Turbutt Coursey (De 
Courcy), and granddaughter of Colonel Henry Coursey (De 
Courcy) and his wife, Elizabeth Carpenter. 

Judge Solomon Wright, son of Solomon and Mary 
Coursey (De Courcy) Wright, was born in 1717, and died 


in 1792. He was burgess in Maryland from 1771 to 1774; 
member of Maryland conventions of 1774 and 1775 ; chairman 
of the committee of Queen Anne's county in 1775 and 1776; 
signer of the Association of the Freemen of Maryland, July 
2 6> 1775 The Maryland Declaration of Independence; 
judge of the first Maryland Court of Appeals in 1778, where 
he served until his death in 1792; and special judge to try 
treasons on the eastern shore during the Revolutionary War. 
He married, September 20, 1750, Mary Tidmarsh, daughter 
of William Tidmarsh and Martha (Crew) Tidmarsh, and 
granddaughter of William Crew and his wife, Mary Unick. 

Robert Wright, son of Judge Solomon and Mary (Tid- 
marsh) Wright, was born November 20, 1752, and died Sep- 
tember 7, 1826. In the short campaign against Lord Drum- 
mond's legion of Tories in Virginia, he served in Captain 
Kent's Company of Queen Anne's "minute men," and later 
as a captain in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary 
War. He was a member of the State Senate; three times gov- 
ernor of Maryland, 1806, 1807 and 1808; United States Sena- 
tor from 1 80 1 to 1806, when he resigned to become governor 
of the State; representative in the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth and seventeenth congresses; district judge, and the 
author of the Constitution of the American Colonization So- 
ciety. A summing up will show more than thirty years of 
public service to the credit of Robert Wright, who was a 
little past seventy-three. years of age, when he died. 

Robert Wright married Sarah Coursey (De Courcy), 
daughter of Colonel William and Rachel (Clayton) Coursey 
( De Courcy) , granddaughter of Henry Coursey ( De Courcy) , 
and great-granddaughter of Colonel Henry Coursey (De 
Courcy), who came to Maryland in 1649. 

William Henry De Courcy Wright, son of Robert and 
Sarah Coursey (De Courcy) Wright, was born December 9, 



1795, at "Blakeford," Queen Anne's county, Maryland, and 
died March 25, 1864. He was United States Consul at Rio de 
Janeiro, in 1825, and Charge d'Affaires ad interim to Brazil 
on two occasions, aggregating over two years, one of which 
was during the Brazilian-Uruguayan War. He married 
Eliza Lea Warner, born October 1, 1800, and died May 25, 
1864. Their daughter Ella Lea Wright, born May 2, 1837, 
died January 25, 1861. She married Dr. Joseph Pembroke 


T7LISHA RIGGS, seventh child and fourth son of Samuel 

and Amelia (Dorsey) Riggs, was born June 13, 1779, 
near Brookeville, Montgomery county, Maryland, died Au- 
gust 3, 1853, in New York City, and was there buried in 
vault No. 35, Marble Cemetery. 

After a period of educational preparation, Elisha Riggs 
located in Georgetown, District of Columbia, and there com- 
menced his career in the employ of a local merchant. He 
became one of the foremost merchants and financiers of his 
time, and to him the late George Peabody, multi-millionaire 
and famous philanthropist, was indebted for "the beginnings" 
of his successful business career, for Peabody had entered the 
employ of Elisha Riggs as an "office boy," and was subse- 
quently taken into partnership by his employer. The business 
activities of Elisha Riggs may be comprised under two heads, 
namely: as merchant and as financier. Under the latter head, 
the most important features were his aiding and establishing 
the well-known banking-house of Corcoran & Riggs; his con- 
nection with the old Collins Line of steamships, and his par- 
ticipation in the underwriting and guaranteeing of the Mexi- 
can War Loans of 1847 and 1848. 

Mr. Riggs, in early life, took an interest in military 
affairs, and the office records show that on April 23, 181 2, 
he obtained a commission as ensign in the company of Cap- 
tain Thomas Owings, Thirty-second Regiment of Militia, in 
Anne Arundel county, Maryland. The conclusion of our two 
years' war with England, in 18 14, marks the entry of Elisha 
Riggs into that broad field of business enterprise which was 
destined to establish his ample fortune, and to secure for him 
a permanent place among American men of affairs. 

For some time prior to this period, Mr. Riggs had been 


conducting a dry goods business in Georgetown, District of 
Columbia, with George Peabody as an assistant. Peabody was 
born in 1795, and was thus Elisha Riggs' junior by sixteen 
years. Nevertheless, a strong personal attachment and mutual 
esteem developed between employer and employee, which 
proved to be life-long in its duration. On July 1, 1815, Mr. 
Riggs took Peabody into partnership, it being understood that 
this arrangement should continue for a term of five years, 
under the firm name of Riggs & Peabody, dry goods mer- 
chants. The business was conducted in Georgetown, District 
of Columbia, and in Baltimore, Maryland, where it was estab- 
lished in 1816, being located on Baltimore street, near Han- 
over street. Young Peabody proved himself worthy of the 
confidence which the senior member of the firm had placed in 
his uprightness, ability and diligence, and at the expiration of 
the five years' verbal compact, articles of agreement in writing 
were executed, under date of July 29, 1820, between Elisha 
Riggs and George Peabody, which, happily, have been pre- 
served. As this paper has some historic interest, a few extracts 
therefrom may be in order. It recites, as follows: 

This agreement, made this 29th day of July, 1820, between Elisha Riggs 
of the one part, and George Peabody of the other part, both of the City of 
Baltimore, Maryland Whereas, a copartnership has existed since 1st. Jan- 
uary, 1815, between the parties hereto in the trade and business of merchants, 
which has been carried on in Georgetown, D. C, and Baltimore, aforesaid, 
under the firm of Riggs and Peabody, the capital whereof was furnished 
and put in solely by the said Elisha Riggs, there being a verbal agreement 
to divide profits, two-thirds to be credited to Elisha Riggs and one-third to 
George Peabody, and losses to be borne and paid in proportion, etc. And, 
Whereas, the said parties intend to continue the said business for a term of 
two years accounting from January 1st last passed (at which time the said 
copartnership, according to the original understanding between them, ex- 
pired), the said parties agree to continue as merchants at Baltimore for two 
years from January 1st last past, etc. 


The earnings of the firm, amounting to $70,709.24, in mer- 
chandise, cash, bank stock, and outstanding debts, together 
with $3,000.00 of the sum standing to the credit of Elisha 
Riggs on the firm's books, were to remain and constitute the 
capital. It was further stipulated that Elisha Riggs and 
George Peabody should not draw on their own accounts in 
excess of $3,000.00 and $1,500.00 per annum, respectively. 
Mr. Peabody, the junior partner, traveled in the interests of 
the firm, his journeys on horseback taking him through West- 
ern New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. In 

1 82 1 the business had prospered to such an extent that branch 
offices were opened in Philadelphia and New York City. In 

1822 the firm name was changed to Riggs, Peabody & Com- 
pany, the principal office of the business being located at what 
was then known as No. 208 West Baltimore street. Mr. Riggs' 
residence was on the west side of Hanover street, south of 
Conway street. In 1829 the firm of Riggs, Peabody & Com- 
pany was dissolved, Elisha Riggs retiring from the business, 
and removing to New York City, where he had his office and 
business on Hanover Place, and his residence at No. 5 Bowling 
Green, the latter estate being a part of the present site of the 
United States Custom House. 

Mr. Peabody went to England, and in 1837 established 
the firm of George Peabody & Company, merchants and money 
brokers, in Wamford Court, London. An intimate and pleas- 
ant business connection of many years was thus severed, but 
their personal relations continued despite the wide stretch of 
sea lying between them; and Mr. Riggs still maintained im- 
portant relations with Mr. Peabody in matters of international 
finance. It was Elisha Riggs and George Peabody who were 
largely concerned in restoring the credit of the State of Mary- 
land abroad after the financial depression of 1841-42, by dis- 
posing of a Maryland bond issue of $8,000,000.00. Mean- 


while, the Baltimore house continued to do business under the 
name of Peabody, Riggs & Company, removing its location 
about 1840 to No. 7 German street, west of Charles street, 
and taking in Samuel Riggs as a partner in the concern. 

Prior to his removal to New York City, Elisha Riggs aided 
in the establishment of the banking house of Corcoran & Riggs, 
in the city of Washington, D. C. This institution was organ- 
ized by William Wilson Corcoran and George Washington 
Riggs (son of Elisha Riggs). Elisha Riggs was the financial 
backer of his son in this enterprise, and aided him in an 
advisory capacity. In 1846 a disagreement arose between Mr. 
Corcoran and George W. Riggs with respect to the advisa- 
bility of the bank's participation in the Mexican War Loan 
bidding, Mr. Corcoran being favorable to the scheme, and 
Mr. Riggs positively refusing to sanction it, upon the ground 
that he was opposed to embarking in stock operations on "bor- 
rowed" money, and because, as he expressed it, "our situation 
here induces many people to put confidence in us such as 
would not be placed if it were known that we speculated 
largely. I think it wrong for persons who do a banking or 
collecting business to operate in stocks unless possessed of 
money to carry on such operations without taking from the 
regular business." 

George W. Riggs retired from the bank temporarily, and 
was succeeded by his half-brother, Elisha Riggs, Jr. Subse- 
quently, Mr. Corcoran retired, and Elisha, Jr., and George 
W. Riggs took over the entire business as Riggs & Company, 
of Washington, D. C, with a branch office at No. 56 Wall 
street, New York City, and conducted the business until the 
death, in 1 881, of George W. Riggs. 

Riggs & Company, however, continued to operate suc- 
cessfully until July, 1896, when the concern was dissolved, 
with good-will worth well into the millions. The members of 


the firm at that time were Messrs. E. Francis Riggs, Charles 
C. Glover, Thomas Hyde and James M. Johnson, who on 
July i, 1896, organized the present Riggs National Bank, of 
Washington, with a capital of $500,000.00. A few years later 
they doubled the capital to $1,000,000.00, and took in certain 
controlling shareholders of the National City Bank of New 
York. The Riggs National Bank is located at the corner of 
Fifteenth Street and New York Avenue, Washington, D. C, 
on the site of the original offices of Corcoran & Riggs, and 
Riggs & Company. 

In 1849 the Collins Line of steamships, plying between 
New York and Liverpool, was inaugurated by Edward K. 
Collins, a native of Truro, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Elisha 
Riggs became financially interested in this line. The com- 
pany's fleet consisted of five steamships, the "Atlantic," "Pa- 
cific," "Arctic," "Baltic," and "Adriatic." On April 27, 1849, 
the first steamer, the "Atlantic," departed from New York, 
carrying both freight and passengers. The "Arctic" and "Pa- 
cific" of this line are memorable in the history of marine disas- 
ters. In 1854 the "Arctic" was lost off Cape Race, Newfound- 
land, and 322 of the passengers perished. In May, 1856, the 
"Pacific" left Liverpool with a full passenger list, and was 
never heard from. The company was obliged to cease opera- 
tion in January, 1858, owing to the action of the United States 
Government in terminating, without reasonable notice, the 
mail subsidies or contracts made with Mr. Collins for carry- 
ing the European mails, and involving a subsidy of $385,000.00 
a year, obtained in 1847, and another $858,000.00 a year, made 
in 1852. The United States mail was thereupon carried across 
the Atlantic by vessels sailing under a foreign flag. 

On February 9, 1847, the United States Treasury De- 
partment advertised that sealed proposals would be received 
for a loan of $18,000,000, under the act of January 28th of 


that year, authorizing the issue of Treasury notes, etc., to be 
issued payable two years after the date of advertisement, with 
interest at six per cent per annum. This was known as the 
second Mexican War Loan. The firm of Corcoran & Riggs 
was the only bidder for the entire lump sum, although there 
were numerous bidders in lesser amounts. The bid of Cor- 
coran & Riggs was accepted by the Government, and the firm 
subscribed the entire second loan, largely upon the guarantee 
of Elisha Riggs. In the following year a new loan was adver- 
tised for $16,000,000.00 and Corcoran & Riggs, for themselves 
and Baring Brothers & Company, of London, and others, bid 
for the entire amount, of which $14,065,550.00 were allotted 
to them. 

Concerning the personal character of Elisha Riggs we 
may speak briefly. The average biographer is usually a firm 
believer in the old aphorism >de mortuis nil nisi bonum 
and is frequently tempted to bestow upon his chosen hero the 
daub of fulsome praise. We shall, therefore, confine this part 
of our subject to the estimation of Elisha Riggs. as derived 
from the impressions of his contemporaries. 

As a merchant he was distinguished for his uniform 
courtesy and his love of fair dealing. He was a power in 
Wall street, and, at times, a bulwark of strength to the Gov- 
ernment in its financial operations. He was a well-known 
figure in the world of finance, and men confidently followed 
his leadership. His kindness of heart was proverbial; and, 
although he had attained to great opulence, his manner of 
life was simple, and his social intercourse democratic. In 
brief : Elisha Riggs, the man, was genial, generous, hospitable, 
courteous, honorable, and just. 

In the succeeding pages, the family of Elisha Riggs is 
traced from John Riggs, his grandfather, down through his 
grandson, Clinton Levering Riggs, of Baltimore, Maryland. 


(Riggs Family of Maryland). 

John Riggs, grandfather of Elisha Riggs, was born in 
1687, anQl died August 17, 1762, on his estate in Anne Arundel 
county, Maryland, known as "Rich Neck," adjoining to his 
other plantation called "Riggs' Hills." 

The first reference to John Riggs in the Maryland records 
occurs in the will of John Marriott, of Anne Arundel county, 
dated August 20, 1 716, wherein fifty acres, being part of a 
tract of land called "Sheppard's Forest," belonging to the 
said Marriott, are bequeathed to John Riggs. On November 
6> J 7 2 3> J onn Riggs? of Anne Arundel county, received a war- 
rant for one hundred acres of land, and on December 7, fol- 
lowing, he received another warrant for an additional one hun- 
dred acres. A certificate of survey was issued on December 
8, 1723, to "Mr. John Riggs, of Anne Arundel county, Gent.," 
embracing the aforesaid two hundred acres under the name 
of "Riggs' Hills," and describing the tract as lying in the 
said county, adjoining to a tract of land called "Rich Neck," 
on the northernmost branch of the Patuxent river. This tract 
was patented on August 30, 1725. "John Riggs, the older, of 
Anne Arundel county, planter," purchased on September 11, 
1 75 1, from Beale Bordley, of Annapolis, for 200 sterling, a 
tract of one thousand acres of land in Frederick county, Mary- 
land, called "Bordley's Chance," alias "Bordley's Choice," 
near Brookeville, Montgomery county, Maryland. These 
several tracts, "Riggs' Hills," "Rich Neck," and "Bordley's 
Choice," were owned by John Riggs until his death, which 
occurred August 17, 1762, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 
He died on the "Rich Neck" estate, of which he purchased 
one hundred and forty-two acres from Charles Hammond, on 
July 6, 1725. John Riggs, with Joseph Hall, held pew No. 
16, in Queen Caroline Parish Church. 

John Riggs married, January 16, 1721-22, in St. Anne's 


Parish, Anne Arundel county, Maryland, Mary Davis, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Davis, and had issue: i. Thomas, born Octo- 
ber 20, 1722, died October 25, 1797 (unmarried). 2. Rachel, 
born June 11, 1724, died April 16, 1794; married, October 6, 
1741, Edward Warfield. 3. John, born July 11, 1726, died 
1808 (unmarried). 4. James, born April 13, 1728, died August 
14, 1780; married Sarah Howard. 5. Ruth, born October 20, 
1730, died October 18, 1779; married, January 20, 1752, 
Greenberry Griffith. 6. Mary, born September 24, 1732, died 
November 27, 1755; married Benjamin Griffith. 7. Catharine, 

born February 24, 1734, died April 8, 1802; married 

Hyatt. 8. Ann, born July 29, 1739. 9. Samuel, of whom later. 

10. Elisha, born October 4, 1742, died June 6, 1777; married 
(first), Caroline Welsh, married (second) Delilah Holland. 

11. Achsah, born January 27, 1746, died September 9, 1817; 
married, November 30, 1773, Samuel Brown. 12. Amon, born 
April 21, 1748, died March 16, 1822; married Ruth Griffith. 

Samuel Riggs, father of Elisha Riggs, was born October 
6, 1740, in Anne Arundel county, and died May 25, 18 14, near 
Brookeville, Montgomery county, Maryland, where he is 
buried. He removed to "Bordley's Choice," near Brookeville, 
Maryland, about 1767, of which tract he had inherited two 
hundred acres by the will of his father. He was tobacco 
inspector in Queen Caroline Parish, September 2, 1766-67, 
and held a commission as second lieutenant in Captain Na- 
thaniel Pigman's company of the militia in the Lower District 
of Frederick county, belonging to the Twenty-ninth Battalion, 
his commission being issued on May 14, 1766 (Md. Arch. XL 

Samuel Riggs married, in 1767, in Anne Arundel county, 
Amelia Dorsey, daughter of Philemon Dorsey, and had issue : 
1. Mary, born August 14, 1768, died January 21, 1846; mar- 
ried Henry Griffith. 2. Henrietta, born December 22, 1769, 


died April 3, 1854; married Daniel Gaither. 3. Thomas, 
born January 12, 1772, died January 10, 1845; married 
Mary Riggs (cousin). 4. Anna, born August 12, 1773, 
died February 18, 1796; married John H. Riggs (cousin). 
5. Reuben, born May 23, 1775, died April 25, 1829; 
married Mary Thomas. 6. George W., born August 
8, 1777; married (first), Eliza Robinson; married (sec- 
ond), Rebecca (Smith) Norris. 7. Elisha, of whom later. 
8. Eleanor, born June 7, 1781, died August 9, 1804. 9. 
Romulus, born December 22, 1782, died October 2, 1846; 
married Mercy Ann Lawrason. 10. Julia, born December 
22, 1784, died September 26, 1862 (unmarried). 11. Samuel, 
born June 14, 1786, died 1805 (unmarried). 12. Remus, born 
January 12, 1790, died December 18, 1867; married Katha- 
rine Adams. 

Elisha Riggs was born June 13, 1779, near Brookeville, 
Maryland, and died August 3, 1853, in New York City. A 
complete biographical sketch of Elisha Riggs will be found, 
under his name, in the preceding pages. 

Elisha Riggs married (first), September 12, 18 12, Alice 
Lawrason, daughter of James Lawrason; (second) July 16, 
1822, Mary Ann Karrick, daughter of Joseph Karrick. Issue 
by first marriage: 1. George Washington, born July 4, 18 13, 
died August 24, 1881 ; married Janet M. Shedden. 2. Lawra- 
son, of whom later. Issue by second marriage: 3. Elisha, 
married Mary Boswell. 4. Joseph Karrick, married Rosalie 
Vanzantd (she married (second) Prince Ruspoli, of Florence. 
Italy). 5. William Henry (of Paris, France), donor of the 
Riggs' collection of armor at Metropolitan Museum, New 
York City; (unmarried). 6. Mary Alice, married Samuel 
Wilkins Cragg. 

Lawrason Riggs was born November 22, 1814, at George- 
town, D. C, and died October 13, 1884, at 814 Cathedral 


street, Baltimore, Maryland. He went to school at Round 
Hill, and started in business at fourteen years of age. At 
twenty he went to Spain for his health. His godfather, George 
Peabody, gave him a dinner, in London, on his twenty-first 
birthday. Later he went to Peoria, Illinois; and next to St. 
Louis, Missouri, engaging in business with Lawrason Lever- 
ing. His factory burning down, about 1858, he retired from 
business, and removed to Washington, D. C. After marrying 
for the third time, in 1859, he lived abroad two years, then 
in New York five years, and finally removed to Baltimore, in 
March, 1867, where he resided until his death. He was buried 
at Greenmount, Baltimore. 

Lawrason Riggs married (first), February 4, 1840, Sophia 
Cruttenden, of Georgetown, D. C, who died without issue 
in 1 841, and is buried in Belief ontaine Cemetery, St. Louis, 
Missouri; (second) in 1843, Frances Behn Clapp, who died 
January 4, 1849; (third) February 24, 1859, in Washington, 
D. C., Mary Turpin Bright, daughter of Jesse D. Bright. 
Issue by second marriage: 1. Benjamin Clapp, born February 
16, 1844, died April 18, 1883; married, June 1, 1874, Bebecca 
Fox. 2. Alice Lawrason, born July 10, 1846; married, De- 
cember 2, 1873, Riggi n Buckler, M.D. 3. George Washing- 
ton, born December 22, 1848, died May 15, 1914; married, 
October 8, 1879, Kate Cheesaman. Issue by third marriage: 
4. Mary Bright, born January 5, i860, died April 7, 1862. 5. 
Lawrason, born October 17, 1861, in New York City (un- 
married). 6. Bright, born March 26, 1863, died November 
n, 1863. 7. William Pickersgill, born August 11, 1864, in 
Newport, Rhode Island, (unmarried). 8. Clinton Levering, 
of whom later. 9. Jesse Bright, born February 3, 1870, at 
Baltimore; married, October 5, 1893, Charlotte Morris Sym- 
ington. 10. Alfred Randolph, born April 19, 1871, at Balti- 
more. 11. Francis Graham, born November 29, 1872. 12. 


Henry Griffith, born November 29, 1872. 13. Thomas Dud- 
ley, born January 28, 1875, died May 22, 1913; married, June, 
1897, Laura Lanman. 

Clinton Levering Riggs was born September 13, 1866, at 
No. 23 West Seventeenth street, New York City. He was 
brought to Baltimore when six weeks old, and resided, until 
marriage, with his parents at No. 814 Cathedral Street. His 
education commenced at Grady's Private School in Read 
Street. At the age of eleven years, he went to St. Paul's 
School, Concord, New Hampshire. He graduated as civil 
engineer in the class of 1887, of Princeton University. 

He practiced engineering a short time in building a 
branch of the C, B. & Q. railroad in Iowa, with headquar- 
ters at Cedar Rapids; then entered the machine shop of Robert 
Poole & Son Company, Baltimore. He then went to the Det- 
rick & Harvey Machine Company, February 9, 1891, and 
retired from business, a vice-president of that company, on 
January 15, 1903. He entered the service of the Maryland 
National Guard as second lieutenant, Company E, Fifth Regi- 
ment Infantry, April 29, 1890; was promoted to the captaincy 
of Company F, same regiment, February 23, 1 89 1 ; was com- 
missioned major of same regiment, November 12, 1895. He 
was mustered into the service of the United States as major 
of the Fifth Maryland United States Volunteer Infantry, May 
14, 1898, and mustered out at the close of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, October 22, 1898. He resigned from the Maryland 
National Guard, January 26, 1899. He was appointed Adju- 
tant-General of Maryland, with the rank of Major-General, 
January 29, 1904, and served under Governor Edwin War- 
field until January, 1908. He was appointed by President 
Woodrow Wilson a Commissioner to the Philippine Islands 
and Secretary of Commerce and Police, assuming office on 
December 1, 1913, resigned November 1, 191 5. 



Clinton Levering Riggs married, October 23, 1894, at 
"Oak Hill," York Road, Baltimore, Maryland, Mary Ann 
Jenkins Cromwell, daughter of Richard Cromwell, and had 
issue: 1. A son, born October, 1900, at "Montrose," Catons- 
ville, Maryland; died in infancy. 2. A daughter, born Sep- 
tember, 1 901, at "Notting Hill," Catonsville, Maryland; died 
in infancy. 3. Clinton Levering, born September, 1903, at 
No. 903 North Charles Street, Baltimore; died June 1 1, 191 2. 
4. Marian Cromwell, born February 28, 1905, at No. 903 
North Charles street, Baltimore. 5. Richard Cromwell, born 
June 24, 1908, at "Notting Hill," Catonsville, Maryland. 

(The Dorsey Line). 

The name, Dorsey, was pronounced as if spelt "Dossy," 
and in fact it appears, at times, so recorded. It was also writ- 
ten "Darcy," from which circumstance a French origin has 
been claimed for the family; but there is evidence to indicate 
that the Maryland Dorseys had been located for a time, at 
least, in Ireland, prior to their arrival in America. That 
the family bore arms is proved by the seal to the original will 
(dated January 7, 1742), of Caleb Dorsey, of Anne Arundel 
county, which displays: "on a fess between three wolf heads, 
a lion passant, guardant." 

Edward Dorsey, also called "Edward Darcy, Gentle- 
man," received, in 1650, a warrant for two hundred acres of 
land in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, and a grant was 
issued to him on February 23, 1651, for two hundred acres 
additional. In 1667, Edward Dorsey assigned to Cornelius 
Howard his right to land for transporting seven persons into 
the Province. "Dorsey," held by Edward Dorsey, gave the 
name to Dorsey's creek, upon which was located Thomas 
Gates, whose will of 1659 provided that "Edward Dorsey's 
children shall have free outlet to the woods and spring, as 


formerly I have given them." He therefore had children, 
although it is not known whether they followed him to the 
Province or traveled between the Province and England; but 
an early record read : "Robert Bullen demands lands for bring- 
ing a number of passengers, amongst whom was Edward 
Dorsey, in 1661." The record continues: "August 24, 1664, 
patented to him (Edward Dorsey, Jr.) and to John and Josua 
Dorsey, a plantation called 'Hockley-in-the-Hole,' originally 
400 acres (later resurvey, 842 acres), near the site of Ann- 
apolis." Edward Dorsey died prior to 1681, for on December 
6th of that year, Edward Dorsey of Anne Arundel county, 
Gent., son of Edward Dorsey, late of said county, deceased, 
conveys his interest in "Hockley-in-the-Hole" to his brother, 
John Dorsey. Edward Dorsey married, and had issue: 1. 
Edward, of whom later. 2. Joshua, died 1688; married Sarah 
Richardson. 3. John, died March 11, 17 1 5 ; married, 1683, 
Pleasance Ely. 4. Sarah, married Matthew Howard, Jr. 

Colonel Edward Dorsey, son of Edward Dorsey, the 
American ancestor, came to Maryland before 1664. He is 
doubtless the Edward Dorsey brought over by Robert Bullen 
in 1661 ; but whether this was his first trip across the sea is 
not known. He was a Justice for the County of Anne Arundel 
in 1679, a g am m 1686, and again in 1689; was styled "Cap- 
tain in 1686, "Major" in 1687; commissioned Major of 
Horse, of Anne Arundel county, September 4, 1689; Major of 
Anne Arundel county, October 9, 1694; was commissioned 
Associate Commissioner in Chancery, October 17, 1694; Bur- 
gess of Anne Arundel county in 1694, again in 1695, 1696, 
1697, and for Baltimore county, 1701-1705. He was Commis- 
sioner, also Judge of High Court of Chancery, March 2, 
1695-96; and was styled "Colonel" in 1702; was one of the 
committee in 1694 to lay out town lots and a common for 
Annapolis, Trustee of King William and Mary School in 


1696, and a Commissioner for the erection of St. Anne's 
Church, Annapolis. The first session of the Legislature in 
Annapolis was held at the house of Major Edward Dorsey, 
commencing February 28, 1694-95. Prior to 1700, and after 
his marriage to his second wife, Margaret Larkin, Colonel 
Edward Dorsey removed from Annapolis to "Major's 
Choice," west of Waterloo, and north of the Old Brick 
Church. Colonel Dorsey's sons by Sarah Wyatt, his first wife, 
were located near him upon "Long Beach" and "Major's 
Choice." Colonel Dorsey owned landed estates not only in 
Anne Arundel county, but also in Baltimore county. Colonel 
Edward Dorsey died at "Major's Choice" (now Howard 
county), in 1705. His will is dated October 26, 1704, and 
was proved December 31, 1705. Children by first wife, Sarah 
(Wyatt) Dorsey: 1. Edward, died young. 2. Samuel, mar- 
ried Jane Dorsey. 3. Joshua, of whom later. 4. John, born 
1688; married, April 8, 1708, Honor Elder. 5. Nicholas, 
died 1718; married, December 20, 1709, Frances Hughes. 6. 
Benjamin, living in 171 5. 7. Hannah, married Samuel How- 
ard. 8. Sarah, married John Petticord. Children by second 
wife, Margaret (Larkin) Dorsey: 9. Larkin. 10. Charles. 
11. Francis, died 1749; married Elizabeth . 12. Ed- 
ward. 13. Ann, married John Hammond. The widow, Mar- 
garet (Larkin) Dorsey, married (second) John Israel, for- 
merly of London, England. 

Joshua Dorsey, son of Colonel Edward and Sarah 
(Wyatt) Dorsey, was born in 1686, and died November 28, 
1747. He inherited from his father by his will, "Barnes 
Folly" and part of "Long Reach." He acquired the interest 
of his brother, Samuel, in "Major's Choice," Howard county, 
and afterward resided there. On June 10, 1734, Joshua and 
his brother, John, patented 632 acres under the name of 
"Brother's Partnership," and on November 23, 1747, a deed 


was executed, dividing the same. Joshua Dorsey was a Justice 
of Baltimore county, 171 2-14, and Captain of Militia, 1742. 
He married, May 16, 171 1, Anne Ridgely, daughter of Henry 
and Katharine (Greenberry) Ridgely, at Christ Church, 
Queen Caroline Parish, Anne Arundel county, Maryland. His 
will was dated November, 1747, and proved February 6, 
1748. Children of Captain Joshua and Anne (Ridgely) Dor- 
sey: 1. Henry, born November 8, 171 2; married Elizabeth 
Worthington. 2. Philemon, of whom later. 3. Rachael, born 
July 6, 1717; married John Warfield. 4. Elizabeth, born 
November 6, 1720. 5. Joshua, born March 6, 1723; died un- 
married. 6. Nicholas, born June 2, 1725; married Elizabeth 
Worthington. 7. Catharine, born December 21, 1727, died 
April 20, 1746. 8. Anne, born October 15, 1730. 9. Sarah, 
born May 27, 1733. 10. Charles, born November 11, 1736. 
Philemon Dorsey, son of Captain Joshua and Anne 
(Ridgely) Dorsey, was born January 20, 1716, and died 1772. 
He inherited from his father, "Brother's Partnership," at Day- 
ton, and settled there. He was captain of the "Hundred," 
whose duty it was to count the output of tobacco, and to levy 
church tax for its support. He was one of the builders of the 
"Chapel of Ease" upon "Poplar Spring Branch" and attended 
to its construction in 1750. His homestead stood upon the 
west of the road leading from Glenelg to Dayton, and his sur- 
veys reached west of his homestead some ten miles. His will 
is dated December 1, 1771, and proved April 7, 1772. Cap- 
tain Philemon Dorsey married (first), February 19, 1738, 
Catharine Ridgely, daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (War- 
field) Ridgely, at Christ Church, Queen Caroline Parish, 
Anne Arundel county, Maryland. He married (second) 
Rachael Lawrence. Children by first wife: 1. Anne, born 
October 2, 1740; married Captain John Dorsey. 2. Eliza- 
beth, born May 13, 1742; married William Ridgely. 3. Phile- 


mon, Jr., born February 7, 1744; married Ann . 4. 

Catharine, born November 30, 1745; married Benjamin War- 
field. 5. Sarah, born September 9, 1747; married Rachel 
Warfield. 6. Amelia, born August 23, 1749, died August 6, 
1807; married Samuel Riggs (see Riggs family). Children 
by second wife: 7. Joshua, married Janet Kennedy. 8. Hen- 
rietta, married William Hobbs. 9. Ariana, married Samuel 

(The Lawrason and Levering Lines). 

James Lawrason, a prominent merchant of Alexandria, 
Virginia, was born December 2, 1753, in Sussex county, New 
Jersey, son of Thomas Lawrason, of whom little record is 
found. He died at Alexandria, April 18, 1823, leaving a will 
dated October 23, 1820, probated May 26, 1824. He mar- 
ried at Leesburg, Virginia, June 23, 1779, Alice, daughter of 
Septimus Levering. Children: 1. Thomas, born March 29, 
1780, died June, 1819; married Elizabeth Carson. 2. Eliza- 
beth, born September 28, 178 1, died March 16, 1821 ; married 
(first) Hezekiah Smoot, (second) John Paradise. 3. Mary 
Miller, born February 17, 1783, died August 13, 1870; mar- 
ried Aaron Levering. 4. John Butcher, born March 15, 1785, 
died December 17, 1786. 5. Ann Butcher, born February 14, 

1787, died 1861 ; married, September 3, 1807, Aaron Righter 
Levering. 6. William, born June 13, 1788, died October 23, 

1788. 7. Mercy Ann, born October 24, 1789, at Alexandria, 
Virginia, died September 12, 1853; married, May 29, 18 10, 
Romulus Riggs. 8. Alice, born February 28, 1792, at Alex- 
andria, Virginia, died April 16, 18.17; married Elisha Riggs 
(see Riggs). 9. Susanna, born March 24, 1794, died 1800. 
10. James, born March 15, 1796, died February 14, 18 14. n. 
Benjamin S., born June 4, 1799, died November, 1800. 

Alice Levering was a great-great-granddaughter of Rosier 
Levering, who was born in the early years of the seventeenth 


century in Holland, of a family which, according to the Lever- 
ing family history and genealogy, was derived from ancient 
English or Anglo-Saxon stock, and which had been exiled 
because of their religious principles. The name is certainly 
Teutonic in its origin. Proof of this is found in the little 
town of Leveringhausen in Westphalia, near Arnaberg, the 
ancient capital of the duchy. Rosier Levering, after his mar- 
riage, settled at Gemen, Westphalia, Germany, where prob- 
ably he died about 1662. A tradition preserved by the rem- 
nant of the family there says that they occupied the old Lever- 
ing homestead in that town, and that Rosier Levering and his 
wife died there. He married Elizabeth Van der Walle, of 
Wesel, Westphalia, Germany, near the frontier of Holland. 
Children: 1. (John) Wigard, of whom later. 2. Eberhard, 
born about 1652, died September 5, 171 1; married, 1677, 
Mechtold Schmulling. 3. Elizabeth, born about 1654. 4. 
Alche, born about 1656. 5. William, born about 1658, died 
January 3, 1709; married (first), about 1687, Greta Nilent; 
(second) about 1691, Maria Velts. 6. Gerhard, born about 

1660, died after 173 1 ; married Mary , at Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania. 7. A daughter, born September, 1662. 

Wigard Levering, son of Rosier and Elizabeth (Van der 
Walle) Levering, was born about 1649, at Gemen, West- 
phalia, Germany, and died February 2, 1744-45, at Roxbor- 
ough, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was buried in the 
Levering Cemetery. From an original contract in the pos- 
session of the Pennsylvania Historical Society is the following : 

1685, March 20, we the subscribers, do acknowledge and confess by 
these presents, that we have contracted and agreed together that Dr. Thomas 
Van Wylick and Johannes Le Brun, in behalf of the Pennsylvania Company, 
in which they and other friends, of Frankfort and other parts, are engaged, 
to accept or receive one Wigard Levering, old 36 or 37 years; Magdalena 
Boeckers, old 36 years, and four children: Anna Catharine, William, 


Amelia, and Sibella, respectively Yi, lYi, 5, and 9 years, to and for the 
service of the aforesaid company to transport by shipping out of Holland or 
England, to Pennsylvania, upon their costs, etc. 

Note. Written upon the margin of this contract appears an agreement 
to include the "contractor's brother, Gerhard Levering." 

In the Philadelphia Historical Society is a petition from 
the agent for the Pennsylvania Company to William Penn, 
setting forth that a suit, heretofore brought against said 
Wigard for the payment of the money due for transporting 
him and his family under the above-mentioned contract, had 
been adjudged against him, and in favor of said Wigard Lev- 
ering, by reason of the unlawful and unfair advantage taken 
by said Wigard Levering, who employed and retained all the 
lawyers in the colony in his own behalf, thus making it im- 
possible to have his case properly prosecuted before the court, 
and he (the agent) petitions, therefore, that the case be 
ordered reopened for a further hearing. Wigard Levering 
and his wfie lived in Gemen until after the decease of their 
first child, and then moved to Mulheim, where they remained 
until they emigrated to America, after March 20, 1685, bring- 
ing their surviving four children. He settled first in Ger- 
mantown, and removed to Roxborough township in 1691, 
where he bought 500 acres, lying between and bordering upon 
the River Schuylkill and Wissahickon creek. Upon this 
estate he lived his remaining years. He left a will, dated 
August 23, 1742, probated February 7, 1745. 

Wigard Levering married, in March, 1674, Magdalena 
Boeker, daughter of William Boeker. Children: i. Johanna 
Sophia, born January or March, 1675, at Gemen, Germany, 
died in infancy. 2. Anna Catharine, born March, 1676, at 
Mulheim, Germany; married, 1692, Heinrich Frey. 3. Maria 
Elizabeth, born July, 1678, at Mulheim, died in infancy. 4. 
William, born May 4, 1679, at Mulheim, died 1746; mar- 


ried Katharine . 5. Amelia Ann Sophia, born July, 

1682, at Mulheim, died February 5, 1771 ; married Benjamin 
Morgan. 6. Anna Sibella, born September, 1684, at Mul- 
heim, died August 17, 1764; married George Miller. 7. Her- 
man, born November 18, 1686, at Germantown, died May, 
1 69 1. 8. Elizabeth, born January 7, 1689, at Germantown, 
died September, 1703. 9. Sidonia, born April 23, 1691, at 
Germantown; married Peter De Haven, or Indehaven. 10. 
Jacob, of whom later. 1 1. Magdalena, born January 13, 1695, 
at Roxborough, Pennsylvania, died before 1736; married Wil- 
liam Tennis or Tunes. 13. Infant (still born). 

Jacob Levering, son of Wigard and Magdalena (Boeker) 
Levering, was born January 21, 1693, at Roxborough, Penn- 
sylvania, and there perhaps died in October, 1753. On Feb- 
ruary 20, 1 71 7, his father conveyed to him eighty-five acres of 
land on which he settled, and which comprised the area as 
now subdivided between Washington and Levering streets, 
Twenty-first ward of the City of Philadelphia, bordering on 
the Schuylkill river, and embracing a large part of the bor- 
ough of Manayunk. His house was on the east side of Green 
Lane until 1736, when he built a stone house on the west side. 
A modern dwelling was erected on the site of the old stone 
house in 1890 by Eliza Levering, who occupied it. Jacob 
Levering also owned an estate on the opposite side of the 
Schuylkill, now in Lower Merion Township, in Montgomery 
county. His will is dated December 22, 1752, and proved 
October 22, 1753. Abraham and Septimus Levering were his 
executors. Jacob Levering married, about 1 71 5, Alice Tunes, 
who died 1750-53. Children: 1. Magdalena, born 1716, at 
Roxborough (now part of Philadelphia), Pennsylvania; mar- 
ried, September, 1740, Samuel Showier. 2. Abraham, born 
May, 1717, on Green Lane, Roxborough, died October 31, 
1804; married, November 14, 1745, Anna Thomas. 3. 


Wigard, born 1719, died July 5, 1782; married (first), Eliza- 
beth Sturges, married (second) Elizabeth . 4. Wil- 
liam, born 1721, died November 7, 1785; married, May 16, 
1751, Margaret Lohrmann. 5. Jacob, born 1723, died before 

1807; married Elizabeth . 6. Anthony, born 1725; 

married, December 12, 175 1, Agnes Tunis. 7. Benjamin, born 
September 15, 1728, died February 25, 1804; married, April 
2, 1754, Katherine Righter. 8. Septimus, of whom later. 

Septimus Levering, son of Jacob and Alice (Tunes) Lev- 
ering, was born about 173 1, at Roxborough, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, and died before 1794, in Loudoun county, Vir- 
ginia. His wife is buried in the Levering Cemetery, Rox- 
borough, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and as her gravestone 
is inscribed "widow of Septimus Levering," he must have 
preceded his wife, who died June 16, 1794. Under date of 
February 4, 1775, the minutes of the Phliadelphia Baptist 
Church record: "Our brother Septimus Levering, intending 
to go to Virginia, has requested a letter of recommendation, 
which the church agrees he shall have." On June 9, 1779, a 
bond describes him as "Septimus Levering of the Parish of 
Shilborn, County of Loudoun, and Colony of Virginia." Both 
Septimus and his wife were baptized June 25, 1757, as mem- 
bers of the Great Valley Church in Chester County, and were 
dismissed to the Philadelphia Church, July 1, 1761. He was 
made a deacon September 7, 176 1, and resigned October 5, 

Pierre de Simitiere's MSS. in the Pennsylvania Library, 
states: "Septimus Levering was one of the few persons who 
kept a carriage in Philadelphia in the latter part of the 
Eighteenth century." Septimus Levering inherited from his 
father "all that tract of land whereon Jacob Levering lived." 

He married Mary Thomas, born 1730, died 1794, daugh- 
ter of Griffith Thomas. Children: 1. Griffith, born April 



25, 1753, at Roxborough, Pennsylvania, died August 20, 1888; 
married, October 13, 1776, Hannah Griscom. 2. Alice, born 
April 25, 1756, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died April 25, 
1821; married James Lawrason. 3. Septimus, born 1758; 
married Elizabeth Ferrill. 4. Thomas, born December 9, 
1761, died August 5, 1805, unmarried. 5. Mary, born 1772, 
died October 19, 1862; married Seth Cartwright, of Alexan- 
dria, Virginia. 


T^HE name of Frick has been long and honorably asso- 
ciated with the legal, financial, scientific and social life of 
Baltimore. It is of German origin and the earliest records 
of it are found in an ancient document of the year 1 1 13, which 
shows that the administration of the Frickgau or Frickthal, a 
district still known under that name in the northern part of 
Switzerland, was administered under appointment of the Ger- 
man Emperor by two brothers, Rudolph and Werner, Counts 
von Frick. The records also of Zurich and Basle show that 
the descendants of these two brothers were men of distinction 
until the dissolution of the bonds between the German Em- 
pire and the Swiss confederation, during which time, and sub- 
sequently through religious persecutions, they suffered loss of 
fortune, and their estates dwindled until they became small 
landowners and farmers throughout the cantons of Zurich and 
Aargau. In the year 1650, Henrich Frick, a landowner and 
school-teacher in Knonan Canton, Zurich, who was subjected 
to persecutions on account of his religious faith, emigrated 
with his wife, Elizabeth, and three children, two daughters 
and one son, to the* Under Pfalz, or Rheinish Palatinate, taking 
with him considerable property and cattle. His son, Henrich, 
born December 19, 1647, was the father of John Conrad Frick, 
the first of the name to become a colonist in America. 

Arms A red wolf rampant on a shield argent. 

John Conrad Frick, born March 28, 1688, and ancestor 
of the Frick family in Maryland, married in the Palatinate, 
Barbara Enten, and in 1732 he and his wife sailed from Rot- 
terdam, Holland, in the ship "Pennsylvania" and landed in 
Philadelphia, September 11, 1732. He was one of the group 
of colonists who founded Germantown, Pennsylvania, and in 


this settlement John Conrad Frick lived the remainder of his 
life, his death occurring October 3, 1761. 

Peter Frick, fourth son of John Conrad and Barbara 
(Enten) Frick, was born November 9, 1743, in Germantown, 
Pennsylvania, and died October 15, 1827, in Baltimore, Mary- 
land. In 1770 he married Anna Barbara Breidenhart, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Christopher Breidenhart, of Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, and, removing from Germantown, came to Baltimore, 
Maryland, thereby founding the Frick family in that State. 
As a resident of Baltimore, Peter Frick was actively identi- 
fied with the civic and business interests of the city. He be- 
came a successful merchant of Baltimore, and in 1797, when, 
in obedience to an Act of Assembly, incorporating the City 
of Baltimore, a mayor and councilmen were elected, Peter 
Frick was chosen a member of that first council. The sons 
of Peter and Anna Barbara (Breidenhart) Frick were: John 
Frick, merchant, William Frick, of the Baltimore Bar, 
George Frick, M.D., a physician, distinguished for his scien- 
tific attainments, being one of the first physicians in America 
to specialize on the treatment of diseases of the eye, on which 
subject he was the author of several valuable treatises. 

William Frick, second son of Peter and Anna Barbara 
(Breidenhart) Frick, was born November 2, 1790, in Balti- 
more. He married, on June 6, 18 16, Mary Sloan, daughter 
of James Sloan, also of Baltimore. His early education was 
received at a Moravian college at Nazareth, Pennsylvania, a 
college then regarded as a center of scholarship in the country. 
Mr. Frick's legal studies were pursued in Baltimore, in the 
law office of Gen. William H. Winder, and in 18 13 the young 
man was admitted to the Baltimore Bar, where he speedily 
acquired legal distinction and became prominent in municipal 
affairs. His talents were devoted chiefly to admiralty, mari- 
time and insurance law. He was identified with almost every 


social and public enterprise of importance undertaken in the 
city. In conjunction with Chief Justice Taney, Judge Heath 
and other distinguished supporters of Jackson, he took an 
active part in the organization of the Jackson party. After 
several years of successful practice of law in the courts of 
Maryland, he was elected State Senator from Baltimore City, 
and in 1837 was appointed, by President Jackson, Collector of 
the Port for the District of Maryland. In June, 1848, Gov- 
ernor Francis Thomas appointed him judge of the Baltimore 
County Courts, and associate judge of the Court of Appeals, 
which offices he held until his election as the first judge of the 
Superior Court of Baltimore City, which post he honorably 
filled until his death. In the War of 18 12 William Frick 
served as a volunteer during the campaign in Maryland. His 
death occurred July 29, 1855, at Warm Springs, Virginia, 
after an illness of only a few days' duration. His widow 
survived him until October 13, 1866. 

The children of William and Mary (Sloan) Frick were: 
William Frederick, of further mention; Elizabeth A., mar- 
ried Dr. William Power; Mary L., unmarried; Charles, of 
medical fame; George P., merchant; Frank, a prominent 
merchant; James Sloan; William, of the United States Navy, 
and later in the naval service of the Confederacy; the last five 
mentioned are deceased. 

Mrs. Mary (Sloan) Frick, wife of Judge William Frick, 
had three brothers: James Sloan, Jr., Dr. Charles Sloan, and 
Dr. William Sloan, all of whom were men of high attainments 
and culture. James Sloan, Jr., a graduate of Princeton Uni- 
versity, class of 1804, was admitted to the Maryland Bar. In 
tastes he was cosmopolitan. He was an author of ability and 
an excellent linguist. In 1 818 he published a delightful volume 
entitled "Rambles in Italy," but his promising literary and 
professional career was unfortunately ended by his death, in 
1 819, at the early age of thirty-three years. 


Dr. William Sloan studied medicine under Drs. Littleton 
and Donaldson, of Baltimore, and graduated in medicine, in 
Philadelphia, in 1 8 1 1. He was appointed surgeon of the Four- 
teenth United States Infantry at the commencement of the 
War of 1812, and continued in military service until peace 
was declared. Later he was elected one of the physicians of 
the Baltimore City Dispensary, and, in 1817, was appointed 
physician to the almshouse of Baltimore county. He died at 
the early age of twenty-eight years. 

Dr. Charles Sloan, youngest son of James Sloan, of Balti- 
more, was one of the pioneer martyrs to scientific research into 
the nature of yellow fever. He had gone to New Orleans to 
study the disease, and, unfortunately, fell a victim to the mal- 
ady, dying in New Orleans on November 15, 18 19, in the 
twenty-third year of his age. 

Arms Gules, a sword in pale, point downward, blade argent, hilt or, 
between two boars' heads, couped at the neck of the third. On a chief ermine 
a lion passant of the first, between two mascales, sable. 

Crest A lion's head erased or. 

At a meeting of the Baltimore Bar, held in the Superior 
Courtroom, July 30, 1855, in honor of the memory of Judge 
William Frick, eloquent tributes were paid his memory. Said 
John H. B. Latrobe in part: 

To a graceful and ready wit, whose characteristics were its cheerfulness 
and faculty to delight, Judge Frick united talents of a higher order, whose 
impulses were always toward the elevated and refined. Fond of art and an 
adept in some of its branches, apt in all matters of science, and with strong 
literary power, he embellished his professional life with rare accomplish- 
ments. As to his social qualities, Mr. Chairman, how shall those of us. 
who knew him, speak of them? Warm-hearted and generous, the life of 
every circle that was fortunate enough to enjoy his presence, with an apparent 
happiness of temperament that was contagious almost. Who was his equal 
while he lived who has he left behind that shall take his place? As a man 
and citizen, Mr. Chairman, of whom can more honorable things be said' 


Blessed in the relations of a domestic life in a most eminent degree, his best 
eulogy, in this regard, is in the family he left behind him, to find comfort in 
his unspotted fame, and in the knowledge that, if not of kindred, yet all 
who knew him admired him for his talents, loved him for his virtues, and 
valued him for his solid and intrinsic worth. Graves are garlanded, while 
palaces are unadorned, and so, Mr. Chairman, what might seem flattery if 
spoken to the living, may, as in this instance, be uttered as the simplest truth 
in reference to the dead. 

Said Edward H. Docwra in part: 

To us, Mr. Chairman, the decease of our late Judge is a heavy calamity, 
for long and kindly association with him had engendered in our breasts the 
best feelings, the warmest friendship. So lately amongst us in his usual 
health, it seems hardly to be realized that William Frick is dead. Thus 
much, Mr. Chairman, have I trespassed upon this meeting, for Judge Frick 
was beloved by the members of this bar, both old and young, and I deem it 
not amiss that I, as one of the younger of the brotherhood, should pay my 
sad tribute to his worth. He has passed from us in the flesh, and it is not 
proper that we should let this occasion go by without joining our testimony 
to his many virtues. We know not who will in the future preside over us 
in this court, but I trust that whoever he may be, he will discharge the 
arduous duties of this bench as fairly and as honestly as they were dis- 
charged by our late Judge. 

Resolutions were adopted by the Bar expressing the high 
opinion in which they had held Judge Frick, and after other 
addresses the meeting adjourned to later attend the funeral 
in a body. 

At the assembling of the Superior Court over which 
Judge Frick had presided, eloquent tributes were paid the 
dead jurist. Said Judge Presstman in part: 

Judge Frick was distinguished by many ennobling qualities of mind and 
heart. Refined in his tastes, courteous and affable in his manners, he had 
won the affections of those with whom he was upon terms of intimacy, and 
commanded the respect and confidence of all who were brought into com- 
munion with him in his public or private relations. Enjoying the advantage 
of early training, he was an accomplished scholar, and his political, literary 


and legal writings evinced a chaste and cultivated style. Having enjoyed 
a large share of public confidence, he was frequently called upon to assume 
the duties and responsibilities of public stations all of which he performed 
with ability and unimpeachable integrity. He was a courteous opponent, not 
unmindful of the rights and feelings of others; yet always a staunch advocate 
of those political principles he believed to be most conducive to the welfare 
of his country. As a lawyer, he obtained an enviable rank in the earlier 
portion of his professional life at this bar, when some of the most distinguished 
names adorned its roll, and with many of whom he was intimately asso- 
ciated. Few men possessed in a higher degree that rare conversational talent 
which made him a welcome visitor and ornament of the social circle. As a 
jurist, he was perhaps more distinguished in the Appellate Court, during the 
time he occupied a position in that tribunal, which afforded him a better 
opportunity to do justice to those talents which he possessed than was afforded 
him in the trials at nisi prius. His opinions, as delivered in that court, have 
received high commendation. During the period he presided in this court, 
and the perplexing cares and anxieties which are necessarily incident to the 
station, his chief purpose seemed to be that the scales of justice should be 
held with a steady hand. The light of his mind is extinguished, and his 
presence, once familiar in this temple of justice, shall never again be visible; 
but his virtues will be held in affectionate rememberance. The court will 
stand adjourned until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 



A LIFE honorable in its achievement, and unusual in its 
length, ended with the passing of William Frederick 
Frick. A graduate of Harvard, his years there threw him 
into intimate contact with the poet, Longfellow, the states- 
man, Sumner, and men of New England, who later rose to 
fame, their intellectual attainments stimulating his own, and 
aiding to mould his character and mode of thought. He was 
also fortunate in his youth in the acquaintance of Judge Story, 
and other intimate friends of his distinguished father, men 
much older than himself. From such youthful and early 
manhood surroundings was developed the man of brilliant 
talents, high ideals and scholarly tastes, whose life was to prove 
so valuable to his native city. As a lawyer he was learned, 
broad minded and accurate, ranking as one of the most dis- 
tinguished practitioners of his time. As a citizen he was 
useful and courageous, deeply interested in the public school 
system. His life was one of honor and usefulness, every one 
of his years, eighty-eight, spent in preparation for and in the 
accomplishment of his ambitions and ideals. His social quali- 
ties were in accord with his intellectual attainment, and the 
eulogies pronounced upon his honored father can with equal 
propriety be applied to the son, save that the legal career of 
the latter did not include service on the bench. 

William Frederick Frick, eldest son of Judge William 
and Mary (Sloan) Frick, was born in Baltimore, April 21, 
1817, died in the city of his birth, January 25, 1905. His 
education, carried along under private tutors, Drs. Girardin 
and Williams, at old Baltimore College, was continued at 
Harvard College, and finished with graduation and high 
honors, class of "35." Early association, natural inclination 
and environment, dictated his choice of a profession, and when 


Judge William Frick was called to his father's, his mantle 
fell upon a son whom he had personally trained, and who for 
fifteen years of his early practice had had the benefit of a dis- 
tinguished father's advice, counsel and admonition. After 
completing legal study under the direction of his father, the 
young man was admitted to the Baltimore Bar in May, 1839. 
He at once began practice, and until his death, sixty-six years 
later, was actively engaged in his professional work. The 
promise of his youth was more than fulfilled and he rapidly 
rose to eminence, becoming one of the most distinguished and 
honored members of the Baltimore Bar. His scholarly tastes 
led him away from strict devotion to his profession in his 
earlier career at the bar, and considerable time was then given 
to lectures and addresses on matters of public interest, and in 
contribution to current literature. 

The cause of public education particularly appealed to 
him, and he took an active and an eager interest in the organ- 
ization of the Baltimore system, serving for several years as 
president of the city school board. He wrote and spoke for 
the system without limit, his writings and addresses a direct 
influence in awakening public interest in city and State educa- 
tional affairs. But with the continued growth of his private 
practice, he gradually withdrew from public activities, and 
in his later years he gave himself exclusively to the service of 
his clientele. He was counsel for some of the more important 
commercial and corporate interests of his city, and personally 
served as a director of leading corporations, including the Bal- 
timore & Ohio Railroad Company, the Consolidated Coal 
Company, and the Consolidated Gas Company. So in honor 
and usefulness his long life was passed. He was keenly alive 
to his responsibilities as a citizen, and in the stormy times 
through which political Baltimore has passed, he was not neu- 
tral, but warmly espoused the cause he deemed the righteous 


one, and was a powerful advocate for that cause. But outside 
official membership on the school board he could never be 
induced to accept political office. He was an independent 
Democrat, never wearing the collar of party subserviency, but 
a trusted adviser, and highly regarded by the true leaders of 
his party. In 1850 twelve of the most distinguished members 
of the Baltimore Bar organized the Friday Club, an organiza- 
tion most notable for half a century, which passed out of exist- 
ence in 1905, with the death of William Frederick Frick, the 
last survivor of the twelve. From 1872 until 1890 Mr. Frick 
practiced in association with his son, James Swan Frick, whom 
he admitted to a partnership after his admission to the bar 
in 1872. In 1890 the son withdrew from active practice, the 
father continuing alone. 

William Frederick Frick married, February 10, 1848, 
Anne Elizabeth Swan, born in Baltimore, Maryland, January 
10, 1819, and died there, December 20, 1880, daughter of 
James and Elizabeth (Donnell) Swan. Mr. Frick survived 
his wife twenty-five years, but was solaced in his long evening 
of life by the loving companionship of his three children: 1. 
James Swan, born November 30, 1848, a member of the Mary- 
land Bar; married Elise Winchester Dana, daughter of 
Colonel Samuel and Abbie E. (Rice) Dana, a descendant of 
Richard Dana, who settled at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 
1640. 2. Mary Sloan, born January 4, 1851 ; she married 
(first) Robert Garrett, of Baltimore, and (second) Dr. Henry 
Barton Jacobs. 3. Elizabeth Donnell, born June 5, 1853, be- 
came the wife of Frank Foster, of England, whom she sur- 
vives, a resident of Washington, D. C. 

Anne Elizabeth (Swan) Frick, wife of William Fred- 
erick Frick, was a granddaughter of Gen. John Swan, born 
in Dumfries, Scotland, where his family had been prominent 
since 1599. The name Swan is of very ancient Danish extrac- 
tion, derived from a Dane Swain or Swan of noble ances- 


try, who settled early in the southeastern portion of Great 
Britain. The Swans were possessed of landed property in 
Kent and Derby from the period of the Norman Conquest. 
The name, as borne by landowners, occurs in the Domesday 
Book, and as early as the reign of Richard II, the Swans 
signed to their name "Gentleman" in ancient deeds. Through 
England, Scotland, and also Ireland, branches of the family 
scattered, as indicated by similarity in coats-of-arms and crests. 

Arms Azure, three swans argent, two and one ; chief or. 
Crest A cockatrice's head erased proper, ducally gorged, ringed and 
lined argent. 

Motto Paratus Sum (I am ready). 

It is from a Scotch line of ancestry that the Swan family 
of Maryland is descended, and in the Maryland branch, as in 
most of the others, is to be found upon the coat-of-arms three 
snowy swans floating upon the blue waters of a lake as repre- 
sented by an azure shield. 

General John Swan, the great-grandfather of James 
Swan Frick, was born November 27, 1750, in Dumfries, Scot- 
land. He came to Maryland in the year 1766 as the heir of 
his uncle, Robert Swan, who died in Annapolis, May 4, 1764. 
He was a mere lad of sixteen when he sought the New World, 
and with the ardent enthusiasm of youth he espoused the 
patriots' cause and fought gallantly for the liberty of a nation. 
At first a resident of Annapolis, John Swan soon moved to 
Frederick county, Maryland, and later to the rapidly grow- 
ing town of Baltimore. He early entered the Army of the 
Revolution, was wounded at Morristown, and upon his recov- 
ery was, by order of General Washington, commissioned, on 
April 26, 1777, captain of the Third Continental Dragoons, 
at that time being recruited by Colonel George Baylor at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. He was made major of the First 
Continental Dragoons, on October 21, 1780, and served with 
gallantry until the close of hostilities, and was with General 


Lafayette, at Yorktown, when Lord Cornwallis surrendered. 
At the close of the Revolutionary War, Major Swan was 
made general of the Maryland State Militia. He was also 
one of the signers of the original, and the amended constitu- 
tion, of the Society of the Cincinnati, that organization of dis- 
tinguished brothers-at-arms of which George Washington was 
president, and General Otho Holland Williams, of Maryland, 
was treasurer. General Swan's eldest son, Robert Swan, and 
his grandson and namesake, John Swan, were also members 
of the society by inheritance, and James Swan Frick, great- 
grandson of General John Swan, now represents him in the 

General Swan settled in Baltimore after the independence 
of the United States was assured, and became closely identi- 
fied with the interests and development of the city. Among 
other offices held by him was the presidency of the Branch 
Bank of the United States for Maryland. 

On July 12, 1787, General Swan married Elizabeth Max- 
well, born 1757, daughter of George and Elizabeth (Trippe) 
Maxwell, of Charles county, Maryland, and he died August 

21, 1824. 

James Swan, son of General John and Elizabeth (Max- 
well) Swan, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in January, 
1796. In 1818 he married Elizabeth Donnell, daughter of 
John Donnell, Esq., an Irish gentleman, who came to Mary- 
land late in the eighteenth century, and married, October 11, 
1798, Anne Smith, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (Custis) 
Smith, of Northampton county, Virginia. James Swan was 
president of the Merchants 1 Bank of Baltimore for a number 
of years, and one of the first directors of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad. He died August 25, 1859. Anne Elizabeth 
Swan, eldest daughter and second child of James and Eliza- 
beth (Donnell) Swan, married William Frederick Frick. 


'"PALL and soldierly in carriage, with snow-white hair and 
mustache, General Gill was a striking figure anywhere, 
but was particularly well known and highly esteemed in Bal- 
timore's financial district. His soldierly bearing was both 
hereditary and acquired, as through his mother he descended 
from Captain John Deale, of Maryland, a distinguished offi- 
cer of the Revolution; paternal and maternal ancestors fought 
in the War of 1812, and General Gill was an officer of the 
Confederacy. When the struggle finally terminated at Appo- 
matox, he became identified with the commercial life of Balti- 
more, but from 1887 until 1910 was president of the Mercan- 
tile Trust & Deposit Company and a power in financial affairs. 
The last two years of his life were spent abroad and in retire- 
ment at his Baltimore home, but his visits to the banking 
district to meet and chat with old friends were frequent. He 
was one of the most conspicuous figures in Baltimore's business 
district, having been identified with its welfare as merchant 
and financier for over forty years. 

General Gill's grandfather, John Gill, of Alexandria, 
Virginia, born June 14, 1765, died March, 1856, son of 
Thomas Gill of Notton, Yorkshire, England, came to Amer- 
ica just after the close of the Revolution, as the resident part- 
ner of the shipping firm of Abernethy, Lowry & Gill, of Lon- 
don, one of the leading firms of that time. He married Esther 
Lowry, daughter of Colonel William and Oliva (Pickins) 
Lowry, both from Castle Blaney, County Monaghan, Ire- 
land. Colonel Lowry came to Baltimore in 1794, an d shortly 
afterward was commissioned by Governor Lee, of Maryland, 
major of the Thirty-seventh Regiment, Maryland Volunteers. 
He was subsequently made colonel of the regiment. John 
Gill settled in Alexandria, Virginia, about the year 1784. The 


following year he married Esther Lowry, daughter of his 
partner. The firm of Abernethy, Lowry & Gill going out of 
business, John Gill continued in business for himself, in Alex- 
andria, until 1800, when he removed with his family to Balti- 
more, conducting there for many years a successful shipping 
business. Later in life he acted as a notary public, which was 
then a most important and lucrative office. 

Richard Wardsworth Gill, father of General John Gill, 
was born in England, October 14, 1793, while his parents were 
on a trip to the mother country. He was educated at St. Mary's 
(now Loyola) College, and after graduation embarked in 
business, about the year 181 5, forming a co-partnership with 
his brother, William Lowry Gill. His preferences, however, 
were for the law, and the firm did not long continue. He 
served in the War of 181 2, on General Smith's staff, and was 
at the battle of Bladensburg, where, on August 24, 1814, an 
American force was defeated by the British, who immediately 
afterward entered and burned the city of Washington. He 
studied law and was admitted to the courts of Baltimore city 
and of Baltimore and Hartford counties in the year 1820. In 
1824 he was elected District States Attorney for the city of 
Baltimore and served in this capacity for two years. Subse- 
quently he became a general practitioner with varied success 
until the year 1834, when he changed his residence to Ann- 
apolis to become the reporter of the Court of Appeals. His 
name is intimately associated with this work from that time 
to within a short period of his death, covering nearly nineteen 
years of unremitting toil, the result being Harris & Gill, Gill 
& Johnson, and Gill's Maryland Reports. In 1835 he mar- 
ried Anna Franklin Deale, daughter of Captain James Deale, 
of West River, Anne Arundel county, Maryland, and grand- 
daughter of Captain John Deale, who served in the Revolu- 
tionary War. Richard Wardsworth Gill died February 28, 
1852. " 


General John Gill, son of Richard Wardsworth and Anna 
Franklin (Deale) Gill, was born in Annapolis, Maryland, 
August 15, 1841, died, while sojourning for the benefit of his 
health on the New Jersey coast, at Ventnor, Atlantic City, 
July 2, 191 2. He was in his eleventh year when his honored 
father died, but this did not interfere with his plans for an 
education. After preparation at St. John's College, Ann- 
apolis, and four years at Lawrenceville, New Jersey, whence 
he was graduated in 1859, he entered the University of Vir- 
ginia in i860. Less than a year after matriculation he left 
the university to enlist in the Confederate Army, he then being 
in his twentieth year. He was one of the first students to re- 
spond to the call of the South, joining the Maryland Guard. 
This regiment did not go to the front immediately, however, 
and filled with enthusiasm on behalf of the South, and eager 
to face the hardships and danger of a soldier's life, he, with 
a few companions, made his way to Richmond. There he 
enlisted in Captain William H. Murray's Company, in the 
First Maryland Regiment, Confederate States Army. He 
served for more than a year in that regiment and took part in 
many battles. After receiving a slight wound in the cheek at 
the battle of Cross Keys, Private Gill left the infantry to join 
Company A, Maryland Cavalry, and served through the war 
with that command. He was brought frequently in contact 
with Lee, Jackson, Early, and other Confederate leaders, and 
soon earned for himself an enviable reputation for bravery, 
intelligence and resourcefulness. He was engaged in the bat- 
tles of Manassas, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, Seven 
Days, Cedar Mountain, Spottslyvania Court House, the Wil- 
derness, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Trenlinns Station, Yellow 
Tavern, Brandy Station, Culpeper, and the final struggle 
about Richmond, when Lee surrendered to Grant. General 
Gill's coolness under fire and his faithful performance of duty 


won for him frequent commendation from the Southern lead- 
ers. General Fitzhugh Lee, General Commander of Cavalry 
of the Army of Virginia, on whose staff he was, and under 
whom General Gill served for three years, said, in an auto- 
graph letter which was one of General Gill's treasured posses- 
sions, that he "would have been glad to lead five thousand men 
like John Gill against ten thousand of the enemy." 

At the termination of the great struggle General Gill 
returned to Maryland, his native State, to take up the struggle 
for life, and to assist in the reconstruction of the South. After 
carefully studying the field, General Gill decided upon the 
mercantile profession and immediately identified himself with 
the grain trade. He associated himself with James Knox, 
under the firm name of Knox & Gill, and this firm probably 
did more than any other to establish for Baltimore the reputa- 
tion of being one of the greatest grain markets in the country. 
This partnership was dissolved in 1871, General Gill con- 
tinuing in the business under the name John Gill & Company, 
but after two years the General associated himself with Charles 
D. Fisher, under the firm name Gill & Fisher. The history 
of this firm has been the history of the grain trade of Balti- 
more, its activities continually expanding and its prosperity 
increasing, carrying the name of Baltimore as a grain market 
far and wide. 

When in 1887 General Gill became president of the Mer- 
cantile Trust & Deposit Company, he retired from the firm, 
Gill & Fisher, and severed his connection with the grain trade, 
although his successors still retain the name. In 1880 General 
Gill with a number of other local capitalists formed the Mer- 
cantile Trust & Deposit Company. He then became its presi- 
dent and continued to serve in that office until two years before 
his death, when he resigned. In the beginning the company 
did business in a few small rooms in a basement on South 


street, about where the First National Bank now stands. Under 
the stimulus of General Gill's vigor the present commodious 
home of the company at Calvert and German streets was built, 
and under his direction the company prospered. In building 
it up General Gill drew around him some of the ablest finan- 
ciers of the city. Among those associated in the company's 
development were the late William Wallace Spence (his 
father-in-law), Alexander Shaw, Bernard Cahn, Louis Mc- 
Lane, Andrew Reid, John A. Hambleton, William H. Black- 
ford and Charles D. Fisher. As a business man General Gill 
was shrewd and successful, with a keen intuitive judgment as 
to propositions submitted to him. He left nothing half done, 
but when dealing with a business went straight to the bottom, 
and when his mind was made up he was hard to swerve. It is 
said that he rarely went wrong in his judgment of men or of 
business propositions. Outside of serving as a director of 
several banks and other financial institutions, General Gill 
confined his activities to the Mercantile Trust & Deposit Com- 
pany, and became a power in financial circles. On April 8, 
1909, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his connection with the 
company, the officers and employes arranged a demonstration 
of the esteem in which they held their president, and pre- 
sented him with a handsome silver loving cup, which was 
highly prized. 

General Gill was always an active though independent 
worker in the Democratic party. He never accepted political 
office, but his influence in the direction of the party's affairs 
was considerable. He was an anti-Bryan Democrat, and 
fought the Commoner and his policies at every turn. In 1896 
General Gill was elected delegate-at-large to the Democratic 
Convention at Chicago. When Bryan was nominated, General 
Gill went promptly against him. He refused to neutralize 
his influence as the majority of the other Democrats did by 


supporting Palmer and Buckner, but actively worked for the 
election of William McKinley, the first Republican he has 
ever supported for high office. He again fought Bryan and 
supported McKinley in 1900, and when the Nebraskan was 
again nominated, in 1908, although General Gill did not take 
an active part in the campaign, he refused to lend his name 
for Bryan's support. In 1904 he published a book of remi- 
niscences of the four years' struggle in which he bore so hon- 
orable a part. While it was the work of his leisure hours and 
not intended for general distribution, the book is regarded as 
a valuable addition to the literature of the war; copies are 
highly prized, and are now unobtainable. He ever retained a 
deep interest in his comrades of the army and many were the 
needy ones he aided. He served on the military staffs of 
Governors McLane, Hamilton and Lloyd, was an active mem- 
ber of Maryland Line Confederate Veterans, and belonged to 
the Maryland and to the Merchants' Clubs. He was identi- 
fied with many of the associations working for civic better- 
ment, and aided generously in all that tended to make a better 

He was very fond of travel, and of the State of Cali- 
fornia, visiting the Pacific coast several times. After his 
retirement from the executive management of the trust com- 
pany, in 1 9 10, he went abroad with his family, hoping to 
regain his health. He spent a year at Vichy, France, and dur- 
ing that time many interesting travel letters from his pen 
appeared in a Baltimore newspaper. He returned from 
abroad in November, 191 1, apparently benefited. It was but 
temporary, however, the end coming the following July. 

General Gill married, November 27, 1868, Louise Wal- 
lace Spence, daughter of William Wallace Spence, who sur- 
vives him with four daughters: Charlotte Morris, married G. 
Blagden Hazelhurst; Olivia Murray Bispham; Mary Esther, 
married Lloyd Richardson Macy; and Agnes. 


/^REAT lawyers are almost as much the product of nature 
as poets, and Mr. Gans' mental equipment could not have 
been better suited for his profession had he deliberately 
selected in advance the intellectual qualities necessary to pro- 
duce a great lawyer. For analytical power, luminous and 
forcible reasoning, ability for striking and effective presenta- 
tion of his facts and his arguments, Mr. Gans had no superior 
among his contemporaries or for many years prior to his 
appearance at the bar. He belonged to a younger generation 
of lawyers than did Bernard Carter, John P. Poe, Teackle 
Wallis or Colonel Charles Marshall, but the high legal 
standards and traditions those great lawyers represented, did 
not suffer at his hands, and his name will be remembered 
among the strong men who have given distinction and author- 
ity to the Maryland bar. No lawyer in the State achieved 
greater distinction at the bar than Mr. Gans. His opinions 
were sought in the most intricate cases and he was regarded 
by the bench as one of the most eminent legal authorities 
appearing before them. This opinion was also entertained by 
the leading lawyers of the State and by so distinguished an 
authority as the late Senator Isidore Rayner, who recom- 
mended Mr. Gans to President Taft for appointment as 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a recom- 
mendation endorsed by the Maryland bar. 

Conversant with every phase of legal jurisprudence and 
thoroughly informed in every detail, Mr. Gans, unlike most 
great lawyers, did not make a specialty of any branch of the 
law. It mattered not whether he was engaged to conduct a 
criminal case or one affecting the millions of a corporation, 
he was equally well equipped, and, with his case prepared to 
the hour, was a tower of strength to the cause he advocated. 


Thoroughly democratic and unassuming, he made no preten- 
tious appearance, but in a quiet, modest way, performed an 
immense amount of work without attracting attention, for his 
services were in constant demand. When not in court he 
was at his office, even reading testimony while riding home 
and there burning the midnight oil in study and preparation 
of a case, his devotion to his clients' interest leading to exces- 
sive overwork and resulting in a sudden breakdown in health. 
Besides his immense court practice, he was in constant demand 
in consultation, his advice on semi-legal business propositions 
was considered as of the very best. As a lecturer on Criminal 
Law at the Law School of the University of Maryland, which 
function he assumed in 1883, he was very popular with the 
students. His lectures were clear, terse, and directly to the 
point, and it was rarely a student "cut" his class. His "Sylla- 
bus on Criminal Law' 1 is regarded as one of the best and 
shortest avenues to accurate and comprehensive knowledge of 
criminal procedure, and is an authority eagerly sought by law 

Edgar H. Gans was a son of Rev. Daniel and Margaret 
(Schwartz) Gans. In the early eighties, Rev. Daniel Gans 
was a minister of the Reformed church in Baltimore, and his 
entire family became converts to the Catholic faith. After his 
retirement from the ministry, Daniel Gans studied law, was 
admitted to the bar and was elected a judge of the Orphans' 
Court, an office he held until his death. Edgar H. Gans was 
born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, November 24, 1856, died 
in the city of Baltimore, September 20, 1914. In 1870 the 
family moved to Baltimore, where Edgar H. continued his 
studies in the public schools, completing the high school 
course, then entered City College, whence he was graduated 
with the highest honors, class of 1875. Deciding upon the 
profession of law, he entered the Law Department of the 


University of Maryland, receiving his degree Bachelor of 
Laws, class of 1877. He at once began practice in Baltimore 
in the office of John P. Poe, quickly gaining recognition at 
the bar, and, in 1879, two years after beginning practice, was 
appointed by Charles G. Kerr, Deputy State's Attorney, an 
office he filled for eight years. The training of the State's 
Attorney's office was most valuable to the young lawyer. He 
conducted a number of the most important cases in the crim- 
inal court and became noted as one of the most aggressive 
cross examiners in the profession. He secured convictions in 
some very important cases, and became a terror to evil doers, 
as, no matter how strong a defendant was in political influ- 
ence, it was not recognized by Mr. Gans, who prosecuted with- 
out fear or favor. At the close of his second term as deputy, 
in 1887, Mr. Gans had no doubt political aspirations, but he 
was not of the temperament necessary to become a successful 
politician. He was strongly urged for the office of State's 
Attorney in 1887, it being the impression that Mr. Kerr, the 
incumbent, did not desire a renomination. Mr. Gans an- 
nounced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination, but 
later Mr. Kerr decided that he desired another term and was 
nominated by the Convention. Mr. Gans, not feeling that he 
had been fairly treated, ran as an independent candidate, but 
was defeated. This marked the end of his career as an office 
holder, although he ever continued to manifest a deep interest 
in public affairs. Until the advent of William Jennings Bryan 
into national politics in 1896, Mr. Gans was a consistent Demo- 
crat. After that time he acted independently in State and 
local politics, but was always opposed to party machines, fight 
ing the Democratic organization the harder, because it was 
the more powerful. He did not make a political speech for a 
number of years before his death, but, when he was "in the 
harness," he was regarded as one of the most convincing 
speakers upon the hustings. 


After his retirement from the State's Attorney's office, he 
began private practice and his services were sought in a num- 
ber of criminal cases. He did not enjoy that line of practice, 
however, and soon abandoned it for a general civil practice, 
later corporation law attracting his greatest attention, and 
perhaps his reputation in that branch of the law is his greatest 
claim to legal fame. However, he was not a specialist, but 
a lawyer, learned and skilful in all branches. In 1889 he 
formed a partnership with B. Howard Haman, who had been 
his classmate at law school, and as senior member of the firm 
of Gans & Haman, continued in active practice until his 
death. Younger men were admitted to the firm in later years, 
but neither the firm name nor its directing head was ever 
changed while Mr. Gans lived. He was connected with many 
of the important cases brought before the Maryland courts 
during the years 1889- 1914; f ew > indeed, but his name ap- 
peared either as plaintiff" or defendant. One of the important 
cases in which he was senior counsel was that affecting the 
validity of the "Grandfather" clause in the Maryland elec- 
tion law. This case was tried in the United States District 
Court before Judge Morris (now deceased), Mr. Gans argu- 
ing the law was unconstitutional. He won his case, but an 
appeal was taken to the United States Supreme Court, where 
he delivered a powerful argument in opposition to William 
L. Marbury. The favorable decision of the Supreme Court 
was rendered after his death. 

The last great work of Mr. Gans was the preparation of 
a brief prepared as counsel for the Regional Bank Committee 
of Baltimore, for presentation to the Federal Reserve Board. 
This brief, one of the ablest legal documents ever prepared in 
the State, was in support of Baltimore's claim to be selected 
as the location of a Regional Federal Reserve Bank. When 
the committee selected Mr. Gans as their counsel, he an- 


nounced he would take up the fight vigorously, and he did, 
his death proving a severe blow to those who relied upon him 
to force Baltimore's claims against those of Richmond before 
the Federal Reserve Board. Another case in which the public 
was interested was in 1910 and 191 1, when, with the late Judge 
William Shepard Bryan, he defended the Police Commis- 
sioners of Baltimore in the charges brought against them by 
Governor Crothers, who was represented by Thomas G. Hayes 
and Attorney General Isaac L. Straus. Such noted cases show 
how great a reputation Mr. Gans had gained in the last quarter 
of a century of his life. Amongst a number of cases which 
first called public attention to him was the leading case of 
The State vs. The Baltimore News Publishing Company, a 
libel suit instituted at the instance of certain politicians in 
connection with the exposition made by the "News" of the 
policy playing evil. His life ended on the topmost round of 
professional success. Personally he was reticent and conserva- 
tive, but, in the practice of his profession, most aggressive 
and formidable. Young lawyers frequently consulted him and 
he always helped them willingly with advice, giving them 
valuable opinions for which he made only a nominal charge. 
Many of his arguments in court were regarded as master- 
pieces of reasoning, his wonderful analytical mind and untir- 
ing industry in preparing his facts forming a combination of 
rare power. 

At the threshold of his maturity he left the Reformed 
church and joined the Roman Catholic church, and till the 
end of his life he never ceased to be one of her devoted and 
enlightened sons, joining to the simplicity of the faith of a 
child, that broad culture, that sense of accuracy and precision, 
which was indeed one of his main characteristics. At the 
time of the separation of Church and State in France, he was 
asked by, and prepared for, the Baltimore "Sun" an account 

MI> tl 


of the "Separation Bill" in France. That article, which was 
later published in pamphlet form, obtained a wide circulation 
among clergy and laity, and drew the attention of thinking 
men both in this country and in Europe. In affairs of legal 
importance he was the trusted adviser to Cardinal Gibbons 
and the Catholic clergy. In 1900 he received from Loyola 
College and from Mount St. Mary's College the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. 

Mr. Gans married, in 1884, Elizabeth V. Wall, of Balti- 
more. They were the parents of eight children, seven of 
whom survive their honored father. His three sons, J. Edgar, 
James D. and Hilary W., are now wearing the United States 
uniforms. The four daughters are: L. Dolores; M. Margaret, 
who married Lieutenant Reilly; Elizabeth V., married Cap- 
tain Austin, and Anna Katherine. 

/Irtnyvj ^rvuXj ^ju^A^i . 


A LAWYER by choice and thoroughly devoted to the pro- 
fession he adored, Colonel Stump ha'd from youth a de- 
cided taste for public affairs and for military life. He rose to 
eminence in his profession, was twice elected Congressman, 
served as Commissioner General of Immigration, and attained 
the rank of Colonel of Militia, thus proving his versatility and 
his genius. He did well everything he undertook, and when, 
about 1902, he laid aside professional cares and retired to the 
quiet of "Waverly," near Harford county, his Belair estate, 
he carried with him the love and esteem of his contemporaries 
of the bar and official life. It is the special function of the 
lawyer to actively participate in the affairs of his community, 
to be its spokesman on special occasions, its leader in the 
reform of abuses and for the enlargement of its functions, and 
to act as the motive power in its educational, moral and charit- 
able work. Such was Colonel Herman Stump, and in the life 
of Belair he will be sorely missed. 

The Stumps of Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England, claim 
that the Stumps came from Prussia to England in 1500, during 
the reign of King Henry VII. To parents whose names are 
yet unknown were born two sons: Heinrich, who appears not 
to have emigrated to this country, and Johann, of further men- 

Johann Stumpf, born probably in Prussia, emigrated to 
the Colony of Pennsylvania, married in Christ Church, Phila- 
delphia, November n, 1726, Mary Catherine Bakerin, and 
before 1730 moved to Cecil county, Maryland, where he died 
in 1747. John Stump (as he was always known in Mary- 
land) had by his wife two sons: John, of further mention; 
and Henry, born January 5, 173 1, died in August, 1814. He 
married, about 1755, Rachel, daughter of William and Eliza- 


beth Perkins, and moved to the Valley of Deer Creek, Har- 
ford county, then a part of Baltimore county. There he pur- 
chased an estate and resided until death, leaving issue. De- 
scendants are numerous in both Harford and Cecil counties, 
and he is the ancestor of many men of note, including Judge 
John H. Price, Judge Henry Stump, Judge Frederick Stump, 
Judge H. Arthur Stump and others. 

John (2) Stump, son of Johann (John) (2) and 
Mary Catherine (Bakerin) Stump, was born May 6, 1728, 
died in March, 1797. He inherited his father's estate in Cecil 
county and there resided until shortly before his death, when 
he sold his property and that inherited by his wife, consisting 
of several farms, and removed to Harford county, presumably 
to be near others of his family who had married and settled 
there. He married Hannah Husband, born March 27, 1722, 
daughter of William and Mary Husband, and a descendant of 
Augustine Herman, of "Bohemia Manor." It was through 
this relationship that the name Herman became a familiar 
one in the Stump family. John and Hannah Stump were the 
parents of three sons and three daughters: 1. John, of 
"Stafford," of further mention. 2. Herman, married, June 20, 
1793, Elizabeth Smith Dallam, daughter of Josias William 
and Sarah (Smith) Dallam. She survived him and married 
(second) Abram Jarett, and died October 24, 1825. 3. Han- 
nah, born 1762, died November 20, 1824; married, March 
14, 1786, John Stump, of "Perry Point," Cecil county, her 
cousin, son of Henry and Rachel (Perkins) Stump. 4. Nancy, 
married George Coulson. 5. William, died unmarried. 6. 
Martha, married (first) Thomas or William Johnson, (sec- 
ond) John Creswell. Of these children, John, Herman and 
Hannah survived their father. 

John (3) Stump, eldest child of John (2) and Han- 
nah (Husband) Stump, was born in Cecil county, Mary- 


land, June 5, 1752, and by industry, enterprise and thrift, 
accumulated a large estate called "Stafford," near the mouth 
of Deer creek, where he died full of years and honors. He 
was a member of the Cecil County Committee of Observation, 
and was active in the collection of supplies to Northern suf- 
ferers through the blockade of their ports by the British ships 
during the early years of the Revolution. He and John 
Archer (their descendants intermarrying) were chosen, in 
1776, by popular vote, "Electors of a Senate of Harford 
County." He became a man of large means for his day and 
left each of his seven children well endowed with this world's 
goods. He married, October 17, 1779, Cassandra Wilson, 
daughter of Henry and Priscilla (Gover) Wilson, her father 
a member of the Society of Friends, but nevertheless full of 
patriotic zeal during the Revolution and a man of influence. 
John (3) and Cassandra Stump were the parents of five 
sons and five daughters: 1. William, born December 2, 1781, 
died March 28, 1821 ; married, December 10, 1817, Margaret 
Miller. 2. Hannah, born April 6, 1784, died unmarried. 3. 
Ann, born January 29, 1786, died August 19, 1867; married, 
November 16, 1802, John Archer. 4. Priscilla, born August 
6, 1787, died July 16, 1865, unmarried. 5. Mary, born April 
20, 1789, died 1872; married, September 22, 1808, James W. 
Williams. 6. John, born December 25, 1790, died in in- 
fancy. 7. John Wilson, of further mention. 8. Herman, born 
May 10, 1794, died in infancy. 9. Hannah Cassandra, born 
July 18, 1796, died May 7, 1858; married, October 16, 1817, 
James W. Williams, cousin of James W. Williams, mentioned 
above. 10. Herman, "of Stafford," born August 13, 1798. 
died March 13, 1881, unmarried. 

John Wilson Stump, seventh child of John (3) and 
Cassandra (Wilson) Stump, was born in Cecil county, Mary- 
land, February 23, 1792, died at his estate, "Oakington," on 


Chesapeake Bay, Harford county, Maryland, October 21, 
1862. He was a planter and an extensive land owner, also 
head of an important commercial enterprise in partnership 
with his brother-in-law, James W. Williams, who, in 1842, 
and prior to that year, represented Harford and Cecil coun- 
ties in Congress. Mr. Stump was in France when war broke 
out with Great Britain in 181 2, and on his return home the 
vessel on which he sailed narrowly escaped capture by the 
British fleet in the Chesapeake, but, eluding them, reached 
Baltimore in safety, Mr. Stump taking part in the defense of 
that city as aide to General Strieker. He married, January 
13, 1814, Sarah Biays, born October 26, 1794, died May 19, 
1876, daughter of Colonel James and Sarah (Jackson) Biays, 
of Baltimore. Colonel James Biays was a large vessel owner 
and shipping merchant of Baltimore, through whose enter- 
prise and public spirit the commerce of that port largely 
benefitted. He commanded the American cavalry at the bat- 
tle of North Point, and in official reports he was highly com- 
mended for his bravery and efficiency. John Wilson and 
Sarah Stump were the parents of five sons and seven daugh- 
ters: 1. James Biays, born December 17, 1815, died Decem- 
ber 4, 1839, unmarried. 2. Priscilla, born October 14, 1817, 
died August, 1907; married, June 26, 1837, John Griffith. 3. 
Cassandra, born August 20, 1819, died June 18, 1865; mar- 
ried, May 27, 1837, Septimus Norris. 4. Mary Biays, born 
September 23, 1820, died September 23, 1826. 5. Sarah, born 
June 13, 1822, died March, 1918; married, January 31, 1838, 
James Murray. 6. John Wilson, born October 15, 1824, died 
May 21, 1867; married, August 23, 1854, Mary Birdsall. 7. 
Mary Biays, born November 14, 1826, died November 21, 
1 881, unmarried. 8. Margaret Ann, born May 12 or 22, 
1828, died May 22, 1828. 9. William, born September, 1829, 
died August 15, 1862; married, September 2, 1857, Mary 


Bartram North, of Washington, D. C. 10. Thomas Bird 
Coleman, born September 7, 1 831, died April, 191 2; married, 
October 11, 1865, Adeline Wray. n. Jane, born September 
10, 1833, died August 9, 1834. 12. Herman, of further 

Herman Stump, twelfth child of John Wilson and Sarah 
(Biays) Stump, was born at "Oakington," Harford county, 
Maryland, August 8, 1835, died at his estate, "Waverly," near 
Belair, in his native county, January 9, 1917. He was edu- 
cated in the classics under private tutors and at Delaware 
College, chose law as his profession, and after preparation 
under the preceptorship of his cousin, Hon. Henry W. Archer, 
of Belair, he was admitted to the bar. From 1856, the date 
of his admission, until 1902, the date of his retirement, Colonel 
Stump was actively engaged in the practice of his profession, 
practicing not only in Harford courts but in the courts of 
adjoining counties and in all State and Federal courts of the 
district. Learned in the law and skillful in its application, he 
was connected with some of the celebrated cases of his period 
and in many noted criminal cases, notably that of Mrs. E. G. 
Wharton for the poisoning of General Ketchum, and that of 
Elizabeth Cairnes for the shooting of Nicholas McComas. 
He conducted a large practice and ranked with the ablest pro- 
fessional men of his day. 

Southern born, and of Southern family, his sympathies 
during the War between the States were naturally with his 
Southern brethren, but he took no active part in opposition 
to the Government. He had decided military tastes, had been 
for many years prominent in the State militia and held 
the rank of colonel. Near Belair, the county seat of Har- 
ford county, he purchased a large estate which he named 
"Waverly," and there, even while weighted with professional 
and official cares, he devoted himself with deep interest to its 


management and cultivation. He loved the great out-of-doors, 
and "Waverly" was his greatest joy, with its fertile acres and 
rural beauty. 

In 1878 Colonel Stump was elected State Senator; pre- 
sided over the Democratic State Convention of 1879, which 
nominated William T. Hamilton for Governor; was chosen 
president of the Senate in 1880, and was elected to represent 
his district in the Fifty-first Congress, as a Democrat. He was 
re-elected to the Fifty-second Congress, and at the expiration 
of his term was appointed by President Cleveland, Commis- 
sioner General of Immigration, a newly-created department of 
the government, of which Colonel Stump was the first chief. 
Colonel Stump was largely instrumental in framing the Im- 
migration and the Chinese Exclusion laws, and was twice sent 
to Italy on special missions by the United States Government 
in regard to Italian immigration; and was present at the nup- 
tials of the present King of Italy. At the expiration of his 
term he resumed the practice of law at Belair, continuing 
until 1902, when he retired and spent the last fifteen years of 
his life in the congenial life of a country gentleman. 

But Colonel Stump did not live for his own pleasure and 
aggrandizement. On the contrary, his sympathy was bound- 
less and his interest deep in all community affairs. For many 
years he was president of the board of visitors at Rosewood 
Training School for Feeble Minded Children, located at 
Owing's Mills, Baltimore county, and lived to see this great 
institution grow from thirty inmates to more than seven hun- 
dred children, and with purse, voice and influence supported 
all good causes. He was the oldest member and a Past Mas- 
ter of Mount Ararat Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, of 
Belair, and when he was laid at rest his brethren of the lodge 
were in charge of the services and performed over his grave 
the beautiful burial rites of the order. He was a man of 


average height, but of large and powerful body. He was 
most hospitable, and both before and after marriage a most 
gracious hospitality distinguished him. He was an official of 
the Harford County Agricultural Society, and a communicant 
of the Episcopal church. 

Colonel Stump married, late in life, Mary Fernandez de 
Velasco, of New York, a descendant of Admiral de Velasco, 
who for his courage and bravery was created Duke of Frias by 
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, a half-sister of 
John Haldane Flagler, of New York, and through her mother 
a cousin of Lord Haldane, Lord High Chancellor of Great 
Britain ( 191 3 ) . They had no children. Of the large family 
of children which came to his parents he was the last sur- 
vivor, with the exception of his sister Sarah, wife of James 
Murray, of London, England. Mrs. Stump survives her hus- 
band, as does a nephew, Bertram N. Stump, United States 
Commissioner of Immigration at Baltimore. 


AT the age of eighty-two the life of Eliphalet Parsons, one 
of the sterling educators of the city of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, closed. For fifty-eight of these years he had given him- 
self to the cause of education, and no man can repute the value 
of his life. He taught in the public schools, conducted private 
schools, and finally, in 1913, retired, being then principal of 
one of the public schools of Baltimore. He was of distin- 
guished American, English, and Scotch ancestry, his father of 
ancient English family, and in America tracing to the eminent 
Jonathan Edwards. On the maternal side, Mar, he traced 
descent from the Scottish Earls of Mar. The Parsons family 
in England was numbered with the gentry; two country seats 
are yet occupied by descendants in which the ancestors of the 
American family lived, one built in 1500, the other, one hun- 
dred years later. In America the family has ever been noted 
for its eminent divines, jurists and educators, many of the name 
having added greatly to the sum of human learning. Elipha- 
let Parsons was a son of Jonathan and Mary Ann (Mar) 
Parsons, the names Eliphalet and Jonathan having been 
handed down for many generations since the marriage of a 
Parsons to a daughter of Jonathan Edwards. 

Eliphalet Parsons was born in the city of Baltimore, 
Maryland, and in his early life received but an ordinary edu- 
cation. He was, however, a student all his life, and an omni- 
verous reader. When a youth he read all the classics of the 
best English authors, and all his life he accumulated knowl- 
edge even as he was constantly imparting it. He also special- 
ized in and became most proficient in mathematics, later teach- 
ing that branch as well as English literature. Though almost 
entirely self-educated he acquired deep knowledge, and must 
always be considered as a very learned man. An excellent 


memory, coupled with learning, finally fitted him for the 
study of pedagogy, and until the years grew too heavy he con- 
tinued at his post of duty. Many men of prominence belong- 
ing to the past and to the present generation, not only in his 
own but in all parts of the country, sat under his instruction, 
and carried out into the world his teachings and example. He 
began teaching at an early age, and was principal of grammar 
school No. 15, in Baltimore. In 1859 he became owner and 
principal of St. Timothy's Military Academy, at Catonsville, 
Maryland, succeeding Dr. Van Bokelen, in the famous old 
school. He continued owner and head of St. Timothy's sev- 
eral years, then, in 1869, returned to Baltimore, where he 
established another private school, which he conducted until 
1872. He then bought from Professor Eli Lamb, Milton 
Academy, in Baltimore county. He maintained that school 
in successful operation as a boarding school until 1885, when 
he eliminated the boarding department, removed the school to 
Baltimore, where it was continued as a private school for day 
scholars. It was not long after his return to Baltimore that he 
gave up Milton Academy and again accepted a position in the 
public schools as principal of one of the city schools, and so 
continued until reaching the age of seventy-nine years. 

So highly was Professor Parsons esteemed by the Balti- 
more Board of Education that at one time, desiring to express 
that esteem, the board elected him professor of mathematics 
in the City College of Baltimore, but with that modesty which 
always distinguished him, he did not accept the chair, but 
stepped aside in favor of a younger man. That was but one 
of the generous acts of his career, his noble character con- 
stantly inspiring him to similar kindly deeds. He was gener- 
ous to a fault and there was never a suspicion of an ulterior 
motive, for he was always actuated by the highest motives 
throughout his long and useful life. 


Professor Parsons was of deeply religious nature, a herit- 
age from several noted divines of the earlier generations, 
paternal and maternal. He was a lover of the Bible, and 
knew its contents as few men do. He had an apt quotation 
for all occasions and in his religious faith followed the teach- 
ings of John Wesley, as expressed in the doctrines of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. He was a licensed local preacher, 
and for the greater part of his life an active, devout member 
of the Madison Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church of Balti- 
more. As an educator, he believed in and enforced strict 
discipline, but he always strove to be absolutely fair in his 
judgments and in his punishments. So well did his pupils 
understand that desire that he was not only respected but 
beloved by them. In his political action he long was a sup- 
porter of the Democratic party, but later became a Prohibi- 
tionist. In 1913 he retired to a well-earned rest, and three 
years later passed peacefully away. 

Eliphalet Parsons married Susanna A. Warner, who died 
October 22, 1896, daughter of Asa Warner, of Baltimore. 
Professor and Mrs. Parsons were the parents of five sons and 
two daughters: Virginia Stone, of Baltimore; Alfred Van- 
divir, a physician of the District of Columbia; Sue Farwell, 
married Professor C. W. E. Miller, Greek Professor of Johns 
Hopkins University; Eliphalet, of New York City; Benjamin 
Whitely, of Baltimore; William Essex, of Philadelphia; and 
Luther M., a practicing dental surgeon, of Baltimore. 


A GIRL of twenty had been crucified in Belgium by the 
Germans. "As a result," wrote Douglas Eldred Young 
in a letter to his parents, "I am now gunner number one hun- 
dred and eighty-five thousand and eighty-five." Thus simply 
and without ostentation, did a noble soul express the motive 
which impelled him to risk his life in the cause of justice and 
humanity. Human rights had been violated, the most sacred 
institutes of peaceable and liberty-loving, though alien, nations 
were being trampled on, the spirit of a long dormant bar- 
barism was aroused, stalking ruthlessly through the land, lay- 
ing it waste with sword and flame and inflicting untold wrongs 
and miseries upon innocent peoples. This was enough. It 
did not matter to Douglas E. Young that his own kindred and 
his own people had not suffered, for in him the spirit of 
chivalry still lived, and wrought with a strength which recog- 
nized no limitation of frontier or continent. 

No words of eulogy need here be spoken of that noble 
band from many a distant nation which pressed forward to 
aid the gallant armies of France and England in their hour of 
need. Future historians will write their names in characters 
which shall live forever in the hearts of men, and with them 
shall live the name of Douglas Eldred Young. 

Douglas Eldred Young was the son of Walter Douglas 
Young and Alice Gertrude Eldred Young. He was born in 
Baltimore, Maryland, July 14, 1895, a "d was * tne nmtn 
American generation of an old and honorable family, a geneo- 
logical sketch of which is appended. Graduating from the 
public schools of Baltimore, he entered the Polytechnic Insti- 
tute of that city in 1913, and would have completed his course 
there in 1917 had he not given his life in the great cause. 

Douglas was a lover of all manly sports, fond of adven- 


ture and romance and possessed of a tireless energy which led 
him into many useful activities and made him a moving spirit 
and a leader among his associates. He was a member of the 
Maryland Naval Militia, the Cadet Corps of the Polytechnic 
Institute, Assistant Master of the Roland Park Boy Scouts, 
and a communicant of St. David's Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Roland Park, the suburb in which his family home 
was located. In 191 5 he was commissioned as a State Forest 
Warden and for more than a year before his departure for 
Europe he was in the service of the Maryland State Board 
of Forestry. 

Through all his useful activities, his chivalrous spirit 
chafed his country's delay in entering the great struggle, and, 
when it seemed that there was no immediate prospect of his 
being able to fight under his own flag, he determined to enlist 
in the English army. Accordingly, he sailed for Europe in 
September, 191 6. The voyage was made on a ship laden with 
horses for the Allies and it was as one of the men engaged in 
the care of these animals that he worked his way to England. 
The night of his arrival in England he witnessed a Zeppelin 
air raid and saw one of those engines of destruction brought 
to earth. The next day he enlisted in the Royal Field Artil- 
lery, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and after a brief course of train- 
ing was sent to the front. Later he was transferred to Com- 
pany D, of the York and Lancaster Fourth Regiment, and with 
this organization he served until he met his death. 

In April, 1917, his parents received letters from him 
which were written from a hospital "Somewhere in France," 
but later he was again with his regiment "advancing toward 
Monchy" from the Scarp. On Tuesday, April 10, 1917, in 
passing near Roeux on the second day of battle, and while 
pressing forward in advance of his companions at a point of 
great danger, he was struck by a machine gun bullet and ex- 
pired instantly. 


Accompanying the official notification of his death sent 
to his parents, was a note from the Secretary of State for War, 
signed by Lord Derby, conveying, at the command of the 
King, "The true sympathy of His Majesty and the Queen in 
your sorrow." Letters received from the captain, chaplain 
and sergeant of his company all commented on his manly and 
soldierly qualities and gave the details of the ending of this 
brave young life. 

Together with one of the sergeants of his company, who 
fell in battle with him, he was buried on the field near by, his 
grave charted and marked with the honors of war. 

So closed, at the age of twenty-one, the life of a brave 
soldier. As a tribute to his memory the flag on the headquar- 
ters of the Roland Park Civic League was lowered to half 
mast and so remained for a period of ten days. He leaves 
behind him many friends who mourn his loss, but who will 
ever honor and revere his name as one who made the supreme 
sacrifice for a high ideal. 

Rev. Christopher Yonges was born in England about 
1545, graduated Bachelor of Arts, Oxford, 1563, Master of 
Arts, 1566; died in Southwold, England, June 14, 1626, and 
two days later was buried in the chancel of the church of 
which he was Vicar. In the chancel floor is set a brass tablet 
bearing this inscription: 

Here Lyeth interred Y body of 
Mr. Christopher Yonges, who 
Deptd this lite ye 14 days of June. 

Anno Domini 1626. 

A good man full of faythe was he 
Here preacher of God's Word, 
And manie by his Ministrie 
Were added to the Lord. 


He married late in life his wife, Margaret. They were 
the parents of four sons and four daughters, the line of descent 
being through the eldest son, John. 

Rev. John Youngs was born in England about 1598, and 
it is believed was educated at Oxford. He married, in 1622, 
in the church at Southwold, England, of which his father was 
Vicar, and there his two eldest sons, John and Thomas, were 
born. His first wife was Joan Herington, who died about 
1630. He married (second) Joan Harris, a widow. He was 
the first settler of Southold, Long Island. He was held in the 
highest esteem and was greatly beloved. As he owned the 
works of Rev. William Perkins, an able exponent of the Cal- 
vanistic doctrine, no doubt that was his own religious convic- 
tion. His third wife, whom he probably married in Salem, 
Massachusetts, about 1639, was Mary Warren Gardner, a 
widow, daughter of Thomas Warren, of Southwold, England. 
They were the parents of two sons : Benjamin, of further men- 
tion, and Christopher. 

Benjamin Youngs, believed to have been born in South- 
old, Long Island, about 1640, died there in 1697. He seems 
to have lived in the old homestead with his parents, and to 
have inherited through the will of his mother in 1678. From 
1674 t0 ^83 he was town clerk, and from 1674 t0 r 87 was 
recorder. He was survived by his wife, Elizabeth, and sons, 
John; Benjamin, of further mention; and Christian. John in- 
herited the homestead. 

Lieutenant Benjamin (2) Youngs was born in Southold, 
Long Island, January 13, 1678, died at Aquebogue, Long 
Island, December 17, 1768. At the age of sixteen he began 
learning the weaver's trade and followed it all his active 
years. He was a lieutenant of Militia, Company No. 3, in 
1715, his cousin, also Benjamin Youngs, being captain of the 
company. He married, December 28, 1703, Mercy Landon, 


who died June 16, 1782, aged seventy-nine. They were the 
parents of eight sons and daughters, the line of descent being 
through the fourth son, Seth. 

Seth Youngs, born in Southold, Long Island, February 
20, 171 1, died in Torrington, Connecticut, July 6, 1761. Soon 
after his marriage, in 1734, ne moved to Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, thence, in 1743, to Windsor, and later to Torrington. He 
married, March 19, 1734, at Southold, Long Island, Hannah 
Lawrence, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, died in Tor- 
rington, November 1, 1761, leaving a large family of small 
children, she only surviving her husband four months. The 
line of descent is through their thirteenth child, Calvin. 

Calvin Youngs, born in Windsor, Vermont, June 18, 1757, 
died in Vernon, New York, August 6, 1806. He was a silver- 
smith by trade and during the Revolution served in Captain 
Bancker's company, Second Regiment, Albany county, New 
York, Militia. In 1797 he resided in Northampton, New 
York, and held office as commissioner of highways, going 
thence to Vernon. His Bible (published in 1803) contained 
the record of the family back to Rev. Christopher Yonges, 
Vicar of Southwold, England. He married, March 7, 1779, 
Eva Van Epps, born in 1754, died September 13, 1817. Their 
first seven children were daughters, their eldest son, Abram 
Van Epps, continuing the line. His only other son, Calvin, 
died in childhood. 

Major Abram Van Epps Young was born in Vernon, 
New York, October 21, 1794, died September 24, 1832, in Au- 
burn, New York. He was an influential citizen of Auburn, a 
vestryman of the Episcopal church, and major of a cavalry 
regiment. He married, December 22, 1821, Lydia Hutchin- 
son Whipple, born September 16, 1802, died July 9, 1878. 
daughter of Elisha Whipple, of Fleming, New York. They 
were the parents of two sons and three daughters, Margaret. 

MP H12 


Mary and Elizabeth; Colonel Van Epps, an officer of the 
Union Army, later State Senator from the Sheboygan Dis- 
trict, Wisconsin; and Calvin, of further mention. 

Calvin Young was born in Auburn, New York, January 
31, 1830, died October 13, 1902, Auburn, New York. He 
was a mechanical engineer, an inventor of many important 
devices, such as the first steam operated fire engine, axle 
machine parts of the self-binding harvester, including its knot- 
ter, corn harvesting machinery, etc. He was selected as engi- 
neer to operate the first railroad engine running between Au- 
burn and Syracuse, New York. He married, November 13, 
1852, Maria Louise Howe, born April 23, 1832, died October 
13, 1903. Children: Robert Fulton Young, a coal merchant, 
of Auburn, New York, and Walter Douglas, of further 

Major Walter Douglas Young, born in Auburn, New 
York, June 27, 1870, educated in the grammar schools at 
Auburn, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Science 
from Cornell University, 1892; a member of the Chi Psi 
Fraternity. He was constructing engineer for the General 
Electric Company; electrical engineer of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad, and president of The Electromechanical Com- 
pany at Baltimore. For many years he was an officer in the 
Infantry Signal Corps and Coast Artillery of the M. N. G. 
In September, 191 7, was commissioned as major in the En- 
gineer Corps of the United States Army. Charter member of 
the Baltimore Country Club, member of the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers, American Society Mechanical 
Engineers, and American Electrochemical Society. He mar- 
ried, October n, 1894, at Auburn, New York, Alice Gertrude 
Eldred, born in Berlin Heights, Ohio, September 27, 1869; 
educated in the grammar schools at Auburn and at The Miss 
Master's School, Dobbs Ferry, on the Hudson, New York. 
They were the parents of Douglas E., of this mention; Alice 
L. ; Calvin; Geraldine M.; Katherine B., and Josephine B. 


A NATIVE son of Baltimore and a descendant of those 
fine Maryland families, Pitts, Griffith, Dorsey and Sulli- 
van; prominent, respected and loved for his manly attributes 
and ability, the business career of Sullivan Pitts was notably 
successful and covered a period of half a century of Balti- 
more's greatest development. Not a worldly man, but pre- 
ferring home life, his library and observatory above all, he 
was most kindly, gentle and high-minded, held in high esteem 
by his many friends and acquaintances. Said one who knew 
him well : 

The death of Mr. Pitts has removed from our midst a remarkable and 
admirable personality. Only those who knew him intimately knew all his 
splendid attributes of mind and heart, and the scholarly attainments that 
went to make up his attractive and splendid character. His acute and 
trained intellect, his cool and analytical judgment, controlled by a gentle 
courtesy, marked all his intercourse with his friends and his dealings with 
his fellowmen. 

Those of us who had known him from boyhood saw and acknowledged 
all these fine traits of a splendid manhood that not only endeared him to us 
who knew him so well, but made him a shining example to others. As his 
life long friends, we knew and appreciated his great ability, his mental 
acuteness, his fair judgment, and his kindness, gentleness, courtesy and 

His home life his family life was such a beautiful one that it was 
an object lesson to all who were privileged to witness it intimately, and h\* 
whole life made an indelible impression upon those friends who were close 
to him and who will forever mourn his loss. 

Our community has lost a most valuable member, one whose high char- 
acter, attainments, and personality, endeared him to us all, and made him a 
bright example of an able, brilliant, and lovable man and friend. 

Sullivan Pitts was born in Baltimore, Maryland, January 
17, 1846, died in the city of his birth, March 3, 1917, son of 
Thomas Griffith and Elizabeth (Sullivan) Pitts, and of old 
Colonial family. He began his education in a private school, 


and in such schools of the highest order he completed prepa- 
ratory study. He then entered St. James College, near Hag- 
erstown, Maryland, there completing his intellectual training. 
But he was ever a student, and his later years demonstrated 
the depths of learning on subjects not supposed to interest 
business men. 

Mr. Pitts was greatly interested in scientific research and 
study, particularly so in the study of the heavenly bodies. He 
was not the mere amateur, but delved deep into the science, 
and on the roof of his residence had an observatory erected in 
which was installed the largest and finest telescope in the 
State. That telescope now, at his request, is a part of the 
astronomical equipment of his alma mater, St. James Col- 
lege. He was a member, and an ex-vice-president, of the Bal- 
timore Academy of Sciences, and an authority frequently con- 
sulted. He was also a skillful amateur photographer, his 
camera being a source of unending pleasure to him. He was 
one of the men most intimately concerned in the organization 
of the Fifth Regiment, Maryland National Guard, at the 
close of the Civil War, and was a devout churchman, a com- 
municant of Christ Protestant Episcopal Church. He was a 
Democrat in politics, but took no active part in political life. 

Mr. Pitts married, at Cambridge, Maryland, January 26, 
1 87 1, Ellen Lloyd Goldsborough, daughter of Tilghman and 
Mary Ellen Goldsborough. Mr. and Mrs. Pitts were parents 
of five children, two sons and three daughters : Sullivan Pitts, 
Jr.; Tilghman Goldsborough Pitts, who married Dorothy 
McCreary Paine, and has three children: Tilghman Golds- 
borough, Jr., Clinton Paine, and Alice McCreary; Elizabeth 
Lloyd Pitts, who died in infancy; Mary Ellen Pitts, who died 
in childhood, and Alice Lloyd Pitts, who married Dr. John 
McFarland Bergland, and has two sons, John McFarland, Jr., 
and Eric Lloyd. 


The A 


TUST over the line marking man's allotted years, Thomas 
*L Herbert Shriver, for many years a prominent figure in the 
religious, political and business life of Maryland, "lay down 
to pleasant dreams." For one hundred and fifty years his 
family has been identified with Carroll county, Maryland, his 
great-grandparents, David and Rebecca (Ferree) Shriver, 
being among the first settlers of the county. In the Rhine Pala- 
tinate the family traces to the year 1206, the original name, 
Screiber. The Maryland family traces in unbroken line from 
Lorenz and Margaret Screiber, born in Alsenborn, Rhine 
Palatinate, Germany, where both died in 1681. They were 
the parents of Joseph Schreiber, and grandparents of Andreas 
Schreiber, the founders of the family in Maryland in 1721. 
One hundred years after Lorenz Schreiber flourished the 
American descendants anglicised the name and it assumed its 
present form, Shriver, as it will be written from the first 
generation in Pennsylvania. 

Andreas Schreiber, son of Joseph and Anna Schreiber, 
was born in Alsenborn, the Rhine Palatinate, was baptized 
September 7, 1673, and died in the Province of Pennsylvania, 
America, about 1723, having arrived in that province with his 
family in 1721, making settlement near Philadelphia. He 
married, August 3, 1706, Anna Margaretta (Hess) Young, 
baptized October 22, 1674, daughter of Hans Theobald and 
Margaretta Hess, of Frankelbach, and widow of John Young. 
Children: Ludwig, baptized October 17, 1709; Andreas (2), 
of further mention; Anna Margaretta, baptized July 25, 171 5. 

Andreas (2) Shriver, son of Andreas (1) and Anna 
Margaretta (Hess-Young) Schreiber, was baptized in the Re- 
formed church at Alsenborn, Rhine Palatinate, September 6, 
171 2. He came to Pennsylvania with his parents in 1721, set- 


tied with them near Philadelphia, and in 1733 married Ann 
Maria Keiser, born near Heidelberg, Germany, daughter of 
Ulrich and Veronica Keiser, who came to this country in 
173 1. Children: David, of further mention; Veronica, born 
1737, married Henry Kountz; a daughter, married George 
Kountz; Anna Maria, married John Kitzmiller; Elizabeth, 
born 1748; Andrew, born 1749, married, 1773, Magdalena 
Mares; Jacob, born 1752. 

David Shriver, eldest son of Andreas (2) Shriver, the 
first of the American born Shrivers, and founder of the family 
in Maryland, was born in Pennsylvania, March 30, 1735, and 
died at his farm, "Avondale," on Little Pipe creek, Carroll 
County, Maryland, January 30, 1826. About 1760 David 
Shriver moved from Conewago, Pennsylvania, to the State 
of Maryland and took up land in Little Pipe creek about seven 
miles from Westminster. There he became a man of im- 
portance, serving actively in the winning of our independence 
from Great Britain, sitting as a member of the convention 
which formed a declaration of right and a State constitution, 
and served Carroll county as delegate to the General Assem- 
bly for more than thirty consecutive years, and then served in 
the State Senate. He was the owner of thirty slaves, but by a 
clause in his will they were all given their freedom. He mar- 
ried, May 8, 1761, Rebecca Ferree, born January 21, 1742, 
died November 24, 18 10, daughter of Abraham and Elizabeth 
(Eltinge) Ferree, of Pequa, Pennsylvania. Children: An- 
drew, of further mention; Rachael, born in 1767, married, 
1784, Adam Forney; David (2), born April 14, 1769, mar- 
ried, 1803, Eva Sherman. 

Andrew Shriver, eldest son of David and Rebecca (Fer- 
ree) Shriver, was born at the homestead on Little Pipe creek, 
Maryland, November 7, 1762, and died September 20, 1847. 
About the year 1800 he bought an estate in Frederick, now 


Carroll county, Maryland, to which he removed and gave 
the name Union Mills. That estate is yet in the possession of 
the family and there his son, William Shriver, and his grand- 
son, Thomas Herbert Shriver, lived. Andrew Shriver was 
active and interested in public affairs, was a magistrate the 
greater part of his life in Carroll county, but held no political 
office. He married, December 31, 1786, Elizabeth Shultz, 
born August 15, 1767, died September 27, 1839, daughter of 
John Shultz, of Maryland. The wedding ceremony was per- 
formed by Rev. William Osterhein, a distinguished clergyman 
of his day. Children: John, born 1788, married, 1816, Hen- 
rietta Meyer; Thomas, born 1789, married, 1814, Anna E. 
Sharp; Rebecca, born 1790, married, 1815, John Renshaw; 
Matilda, born 1792, married, 1814, M. H. Shangler; James, 
born April 4, 1794, died August 8, 1832, married (first), Feb- 
ruary 10, 1819, Elizabeth Beason Miller, (second) Eliza Mil- 
ler (sisters-in-law) ; William, of further mention; Elizabeth, 
born 1799, married, 1835, L. I. Brengle; Andrew Keiser, born 
1802, married, 1837, Catherine West; Anna Maria, born 1804, 
married, 1841, William T. Steiger; Joseph, born 1806, mar- 
ried, 1834, Henrietta J. Causten; Catherine Clemem, born 
1808, married, 1828, S. J. Brengle. 

William Shriver, sixth child of Andrew and Elizabeth 
(Shultz) Shriver, was born at Littlestown, Pennsylvania, De- 
cember 23, 1796, and died at Union Mills, Carroll county, 
Maryland, June 11, 1897. He established a milling business 
at Union Mills, which he continued until his death. He mar- 
ried, November 21, 1824, Margaret Josephine Owings, born 
August 29, 1808, daughter of John and Margaret (McAllis- 
ter) Owings, of Conewago, Pennsylvania. The mother of 
Margaret McAllister was Margaret Herbert, direct descend- 
ant of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Lieutenant 
Thomas Herbert, who came in warfare to this country in 


1812, was Margaret Herbert's first cousin. He afterwards 
became Admiral Lord Herbert. Closely related is Michael 
Herbert, who about fifteen years ago was English Ambassador 
to Washington. Children of Mr. and Mrs. Shriver: James, 
born November 27, 1825; Eliza Jane, born February 24, 1827, 
died January 31, 1887; Elizabeth, born May 3, 1828; Thomas 
J., born November 23, 1829, died September 29, 1887; Sarah 
Clementine, born December 17, 1830; William Tell, born Au- 
gust 4, 1832, married, May 15, i860, Roberta Lyon; John Law- 
rence, born October 4, 1834, died September 15, 1873, mar- 
ried, October 19, 1865, Roberta Allen Cassin; Andrew Keyser, 
born March 21, 1836, married, November 21, 1865, Emma 
Jabel Saunders; Albert, born June 2, 1838; Christopher C. T 
born March 31, 1840, married, February 12, 1889, Cora Ber- 
nard Payne, of Warrenton, Virginia, born November 2, 1853; 
Mark Owings, born March 3, 1842, married, 1882, Christina 
Agnes Deitrick; Benjamin Franklin, born December 25, 1843, 
married, 1878, Helen Nicholson McSherry; Thomas Her- 
bert, of further mention; Mary Owings, born July 9, 1848; 
Emma, born April 25, 1850. 

Thomas Herbert Shriver, of the sixth American genera- 
tion of his family, of the fourth Maryland generation, and of 
the third to live at Union Mills, Carroll county, was the thir- 
teenth child of William and Margaret Josephine (Owings) 
Shriver. From the fact that he served on the staffs of both 
Governors Lloyd and Jackson, he gained a military title and 
was invariably addressed as "General/' Like his great-grand- 
father, David Shriver, he attained eminence in public life 
and was a prominent man of affairs. He was also a devout 
churchman, and when the last rites were said in St. John's 
Church, Westminster, on January 3, 1917, the eulogy was de- 
livered by his intimate friend, Cardinal Gibbons, who said 
in part: 


In the death of T. Herbert Shriver I have lost a cherished friend <>t 
fifty years duration. About the time of my consecration as bishop, nearly 
half a century ago, I began my visits to his edifying Christian family at 
Union Mills. Herbert and I formed a strong attachment which continued 
uninterrupted till his death. In the ardor of his youth he conceived a desire 
to study for the ministry and to labor with me in North Carolina, which 
was then the most unpromising mission in the United States. But in the 
source of his studies his health failed and he was obliged to give up the cher- 
ished wishes of heart. But if the church lost a zealous apostle the state 
gained an upright citizen, and commerce, a leading, honorable representative. 
He served in both houses of the Legislature with intelligence, diligence and 
with honor to the State. The same noble ideals which ruled his private life 
and business operations guided him honorably within the political arena. 

Farewell, my cherished friend, I will no longer greet you in my accus- 
tomed visits. I will never look upon your face again, or listen to your warm 
words of welcome. But your spirit will hover over your sacred home and 
over the sweet little chapel, where we often knelt and prayed together, 
and where I imparted to you the Bread of Life. I cherish the belief and hope 
that I will meet you again in the land of the living, in that city not made 
with hands, where there will be neither sorrow nor mourning, nor death 
nor separation, but eternal union and peace and rest in the b?som of our 

Thomas Herbert Shriver was born at Union Mills, Car- 
roll county, Maryland, February 19, 1846, and died there De- 
cember 31, 1 916. He was preparing for college when the 
War between the States began in 1861, and on June 28, 1863, 
when General Stuart's cavalry passed through to join General 
Lee in Pennsylvania, he rode away with the cavalrymen, 
fought at Gettysburg, and in a number of cavalry engagement 
in Northern Virginia. Being so young, he was taken from 
the ranks and sent to Virginia Military Academy, and there 
was one of the company of cadets who marched out of the 
academy and joined the Confederate forces fighting the battle 
of Newmarket, Virginia. One of his treasured possessions 
of after life was the diploma received from Virginia Military 


Academy, conferred in 1882 upon all of the cadets living who 
had taken part in that battle. He continued a soldier of the 
Confederacy until the surrender, May 15, 1865. He was en- 
gaged for several years as a traveling salesman and later con- 
ducted the milling business at Union Mills established by his 
father, had large farming and banking interests, and with his 
brother, Benjamin F. Shriver, principal owner of the B. F. 
Shriver Company, owning and operating a chain of factories 
devoted to the canning of fruits and vegetables. From 1904 
he was president of that company; president of the Union 
Bank; president of the Westminster Hardware Company; 
vice-president of the Westminster Deposit & Trust Company; 
director of the Democrat Advocate Publishing Company, of 
Westminster, and had other interests, scarcely less important. 

An ardent Democrat, he took an active part in county and 
State politics, and was frequently spoken of as a candidate for 
governor. He was a member of the Maryland House of Dele- 
gates in 1878 and again in 1880, and elected State Senator in 
1884. In 1888 he was Deputy Collector of the Port of Balti- 
more. He served on the military staff of Governor Lloyd 
with the rank of General and in similar rank on the staff of 
Governor Jackson. In 1894 ne was appointed by Governor 
Crothers a member of the Atlantic Deep Water Commission. 
He was a devoted Christian and member of St. John's Roman 
Catholic Church, of Westminster; member of the Knights 
of Columbus, and Grand Knight of Westminster Com- 
mandery. His home at Union Mills, seven miles from West- 
minster, was a favorite resting place for Cardinal Gibbons, 
and but two weeks before Mr. Shriver's death he had spent 
several days in much-needed rest. 

Mr. Shriver married, February 16, 1881, Elizabeth Rosa- 
lie Lawson, born September 7, 1854, died March 21, 1887, 
daughter of Robert and Margaret (Quinn) Lawson. Chil- 


dren: Hilda, born November 2, 1883, married Robert Sar- 
gent Shriver; Joseph Nicholas, born September 10, 1885; 
William Herbert, born February 25, 1887; Robert Thomas, 
twin with William Herbert. 

General Shriver's funeral was marked with every solem- 
nity of the church and by the presence of Cardinal Gibbons 
and many high dignitaries and priests. He was laid at eternal 
rest in St. John's Cemetery and borne to his last resting place 
by his three sons, son-in-law and two nephews, all named 


'M'OT only was Cumberland Dugan an early prominent 
merchant of Baltimore, but at the time of his death he 
was the oldest active business man in the city, one of the most 
widely-known and most-popular. His career as a merchant 
began in 1852, and continued without interruption until his 
death in 1914. He was a warm friend of W. W. Spence, an 
older man than Mr. Dugan, and survived him a few months, 
but Mr. Spence had given up actual participation in business 
some time before, leaving Mr. Dugan the oldest active busi- 
ness man in the city. He was eighty-four years of age at his 
death, and until his last illness, which lasted two weeks, took 
an active interest in the affairs of the firm which he founded, 
Cumberland Dugan & Company, machinists, although natur- 
ally the heavier burdens were borne by his son, and partner, 
Joseph Dugan. His long life began in Baltimore, his educa- 
tion was obtained in her schools, his trade was learned in her 
shops, his entire business life was spent within the borders of 
his native city, and he was laid at eternal rest in one of her 
beautiful "Cities of the Dead." 

Mr. Dugan was a man of energy, an able financier and 
business manager, most regular in his habits, a fact to which 
he attributed his long life. Of a genial, kindly disposition, he 
made friends on every side, and was loved by all with whom 
he came in contact. He was of a home-loving nature and 
one of his greatest joys was to have his large family about him. 
The celebrations of the various family events, especially his 
own birthday anniversary, were always occasions of quiet but 
intense happiness and cheer. He kept in touch with modern 
progressive ideas, and when old in years was able to discuss 
latter-day problems and plans with the younger generation. 
He was a great believer in outdoor life, and whenever pos- 


sible took long walks along the shady lanes of "Ilchester," his 
country home. During the winter months, as a rule, he came 
to the city, but was still at his country home at the time of his 
death and would probably have remained there for the winter. 
Very observant, and with a keen sense of humor, Mr. Dugan 
was a most delightful companion, and had a fund of stories 
that made his company much sought by both young and old. 
He had many interesting tales of old Baltimore, and was 
always one of its strongest supporters, particularly in tit 
when the city's financial and commercial aspect was not of the 
brightest. He was a grandson of Cumberland Dugan, who 
came to Baltimore in the early years of that city's business 
development, shortly after the opening of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, established a rope walk, and founded a family. His 
son, Frederick Dugan, a lawyer of Baltimore, married Emily 
Chatard. It is their son, Cumberland (2) Dugan, to whom 
this tribute of respect is dedicated. 

Cumberland (2) Dugan was born in Baltimore, July 29, 
1830, his birthplace, the old family residence on Exchange 
place. He died at his country residence, "Ilchester," near 
Baltimore, December 12, 1914. He was educated in private 
schools, and at St. Mary's College, at Emmetsburg. In early- 
youth he entered business life, and in 1852 began his long 
and honorable career as a merchant, dealing in hardware and 
machinists' supplies. The outgrowth of his business was the 
firm of Cumberland Dugan & Company, machinists, Howard 
and Barre streets, his son, Cumberland Dugan, Jr., becoming 
his father's partner, and later his son, Joseph, was taken into 
the concern. The firm became leaders in their line, and one 
of Baltimore's solid business enterprises, but after the death 
of his son, Joseph Dugan, was dissolved. 

Mr. Dugan was a devout member of the Roman Catholic- 
church, and was ever an enthusiastic worker. He was one 


of the incorporators of St. Mary's Industrial School, gave 
much of his time and business ability to its affairs for half a 
century, the institution losing with his passing one of its most 
earnest supporters and advisers. He was also a director of 
St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum, and of the Metropolitan Sav- 
ings Bank. In political faith he was a Democrat of the old 
school, loyal to his party, but not an aspirant for public honors. 
Mr. Dugan married Harriet Buchanan, daughter of Dr. 
James A. Buchanan, and granddaughter of Judge Thomas 
Buchanan, and niece of Judge John Buchanan. Children: 
(i) General Thomas Buchanan; (2) Cumberland, Jr.; (3) 
Ferdinand C. ; (4) Hammond J.; (5) Joseph M., deceased; 
(6) Charles Nelson; (7) Emily C; (8) Mary Cole; (9) 
Harriet; (10) Nancy, married Carlton Coulter, and (n) Jen- 
nie, married Captain John K. Robinson, of the United States 


f\N the day Thomas McCosker was buried the flags on all 
school buildings of Baltimore were at half mast in honor 
of the man who for fourteen years had been a member and 
president of the Board of School Commissioners. "Honest 
Tom McCosker," people called him, and although he was in 
the thick of many political fights and his years of service cov- 
ered a most turbulent period in the history of the School 
Board, he was scrupulously fair, always ready to hear every 
side of a question, and even his opponents admitted his hon- 
esty of purpose and that he acted from a conviction of right. 
He had attained octogenarian honors ere he yielded to the 
"Arch Enemy," and belonged to that class of shipbuilders who 
made Baltimore famous and carried the American flag in 
triumph in every contest in which shipbuilding superiority 
was at stake. From the ways in his own shipyard at the foot 
of Chesapeake street, yachts, clippers, tugboats and lighters 
were sent out, and on launching days he took great pride in 
escorting special guests about the yards. He made it a rule 
never to commend his own work, but shipping men knew 
that he built his reputation into the craft that left his yards. 
He introduced a new maxim into Baltimore politics when, 
in 1872, his party wanted a candidate from East Baltimore 
who would make a winning fight: "play fair, be square, and 
if you're wrong say so." He was not a "talking man," but 
a good listener and a hard worker. Men respected him, and 
when the flags floated at half mast, it was not an empty honor. 
but expressed a city's grief. 

Early in the nineteenth century, Daniel McCosker fled 
from his native Ireland for political reasons, first landing in 
Newfoundland, later coming to Baltimore, where his son. 
Thomas McCosker, was born at the Columbia avenue home 


of the family, in 1834, died at his home in East Baltimore, 
November 27, 19 16. He was educated in St. Patrick's Paro- 
chial School, Broadway and Bank streets, and in private 
schools, becoming quite early in life a ship carpenter's appren- 
tice. He became an expert workman and in five years a master 
mechanic. Those were the days of clipper ships hewn from 
white oak, and he helped to construct a number of the ves- 
sels that won maritime fame for the United States. In 1874 
he started his own yard on the north side of the harbor near 
the foot of Chesapeake street and there built many hulls. 
For many years he built every tugboat for the P. Dougherty 
Company, and of twenty-two tugboats built in Baltimore 
within a certain period seventeen were constructed in the 
McCosker yards. Patrick Dougherty, who died a year earlier 
than his friend, would have his tugs built by no one else, feel- 
ing that a McCosker boat could go anywhere and weather any 
storm. He built his vessels sound and straight, and it was a 
common saying that his opinions were built the same way. 
The last hull built by Mr. McCosker was the tug "Albatross," 
launched in 1908. Soon after her launching he announced his 
retirement from business and the yard was closed. Many of 
his closest friends had moved from East Baltimore to the 
suburbs, but Mr. McCosker said that East Baltimore suited 
him and that he saw no reason to change his residence, nor did 
he. When St. Elizabeth's Church was organized, in 1895, he 
was one of the first members of the new parish and always 
continued a communicant. In 1872 Mr. McCosker was 
elected a member of the Maryland Legislature, serving under 
five elections continuously, until 1882, with the exception of 
the session of 1876. As a member of the House of Delegates 
he was loyal to the Democratic party, but he was an inde- 
pendent thinker, quietly protesting when measures were pre- 
sented of which he did not approve. In 1885 he was the 


reform candidate for sheriff of Baltimore, supported by the 
progressive element, but was defeated. He continued his fight 
for reform within the party, fought hard, but was "fair and 
square," and when wrong said so. 

Mr. McCosker's great interest was in the public schools, 
and when, after fourteen years' service, he was retired from 
the school board he keenly felt it. He was originally ap- 
pointed a member of the Board of School Commissioners by 
Mayor Hayes, who declared him to be "one of the best citi- 
zens of Baltimore." He completed his fourteenth year of 
service November 24, 191 5, the board at that time unani- 
mously adopting a resolution of congratulation and esteem 
which expressed the sincere and heart-felt conviction of each 
of his colleagues. He had long been president of the board 
and he was regarded with warm affection by each commis- 
sioner, and was thoroughly respected. When his term ended 
he was the last link binding the school board with a turbulent 
past. All who had been members during the sensational Van 
Sickle fight, the Semmes-Hooper fight, and the tension fol- 
lowing the resignation of General Laurason Riggs, Robert 
M. Rother and Dr. Hans Froelicher from the board in 191 1 
had gone. In the fall of 191 1 he succeeded General Riggs as 
president of the board, and from that time his opinions be- 
came more conservative and he never grew to be an advocate 
of modern innovations, which he denounced as "fads." His 
theory, firmly believed in, was that the public schools should 
confine their courses to the English branches, and should 
teach them thoroughly, but when, in 1913, Adjutant General 
Machlin suggested the introduction of military training, 
President McCosker expressed himself in favor of the plan. 
He favored other modern features, and when in the spring 
of 1916 it began to be whispered that the Mayor would re- 
tire him, the Public School Teachers' Association appointed 



a committee to call upon the Mayor and ask that President 
McCosker be retained. Even after his retirement he retained 
a keen interest in school affairs and through his former col- 
leagues kept in touch with board action. He was a most 
skilled presiding officer, and expert parliamentarian, and had 
an intimate knowledge not only of the rules of the board, but 
the history of their enactment and the underlying causes. He 
was not a large man but was of robust constitution and bore 
his years well. A year prior to his death he suffered an attack 
of heart trouble, and after his retirement from the board he 
was again stricken. Although weakened physically, there was 
no faltering of the mental faculties, and he met death with a 
clear mind, as courageously as he had lived. 


AS one of the foremost civil engineers of this country, a 
distinguished scholar, a man of breadth of mind, cul- 
tured tastes, and public spirit, Mendes Cohen will long be 
remembered in his native city, Baltimore, and in the State of 
Maryland, whose history his family had borne important part 
in making and he in preserving. While closely associated 
with the engineering enterprises of his native city, and par- 
ticularly related to its early railroad history, it was perhaps 
his thirty years' valuable connection with the Maryland His- 
torical Society as one of its moving spirits, secretary and presi- 
dent, that was most highly appreciated. How valuable that 
service was is best expressed in the words of ex-Governor 
Edwin Warfield, who succeeded Mr. Cohen in the presi- 
dency of the society when the latter resigned about a year 
prior to his death, feeling that a younger man should assume 
the burden. Said Governor Warfield: 

The passing of Mr. Cohen is extremely regretted by all who have 
learned to know him and know what he has done for the city and State. 
Mr. Cohen was a man with pride in his State, and probably had more pride 
in it than any other citizen. His constant, diligent and faithful work in 
looking out for its interests, and for the preservation of its history, was shown 
in his activity in the Maryland Historical Society. He never ceased to labor 
for the organization and during the past year has done some of his best 
work. His loss will be keenly felt by all of us and his faithful work will be 
much missed. 

Mendes Cohen was a grandson of Israel Cohen, who 
came from Bavaria in 1787, following his brother Jacob I. 
Cohen, who came to Pennsylvania in 1773, settling first in 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, shortly afterward moving to Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, serving in the Revolutionary War from 
that State. Later he moved to Richmond, Virginia, where 


he was joined in 1787 by his brother, Israel Cohen, grand- 
father of Mendes Cohen. The family remained in Rich- 
mond until 1808, when the sons of Israel Cohen located in 
Baltimore. These sons were members of Captain Nicholson's 
Company of Fencibles, and rendered service during the second 
war with Great Britain, aiding in the defense of Fort Henry. 
Jacob I., one of the sons, was a member of the Baltimore City 
Council, and was the founder of the banking house, Jacob I. 
Cohen & Brothers. David I. Cohen, father of Mendes 
Cohen, was associated with his brothers and others in the 
projection and organization of the old Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington & Baltimore Railroad. 

Mendes Cohen was born in Baltimore, May 4, 1831, died 
in his native city, August 13, 1915, son of David I. Cohen, 
who was fifth of the six sons of Israel Cohen, who came to 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1787, to Baltimore in 1808. David I. 
and Harriet Cohen had several children, two of them, Bertha 
and Jacob I. Cohen, survive their brother Mendes. After 
a long course of study in private schools, Mendes Cohen, in 
1847, began the study of civil engineering in the locomotive 
works of Ross Winans, in Baltimore, there continuing until 
1 85 1, becoming proficient as an engineer. The course he pur- 
sued was practical as well as theoretical, and when he left the 
Winans works, in 1851, it was to enter the engineering corps 
of the B. & H. Railroad, so continuing until 1855. He then 
became assistant superintendent of the Hudson River Rail- 
road, serving in that capacity until 1861. At the outbreak of 
war between the States, in 1861, Mr. Cohen was placed in 
charge of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad through the influ- 
ence of General George B. McClellan, who was acquainted 
with his engineering and executive quality. From his ap- 
pointment in 1 86 1 until 1863 he was president and superin- 
tendent of the Ohio & Mississippi, then until 1868 was in 


special service with the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad. 
In 1868 he was appointed assistant to the president of the 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company, also holding the office 
of comptroller. Three years were passed in that responsible 
position, when he resigned to accept the presidency of the 
Pittsburgh & Connellsville Railroad, serving from 1872 until 
1875. He then retired from active professional work, although 
in 1885 he accepted appointment at the hands of President 
Cleveland as a member of the board to examine and report 
on a route for the Chesapeake and Delaware canal. He was 
also chairman of the Baltimore Sewage Commission from 1893 
to 1901, and he was often called upon to serve on boards in 
charge of public improvements. In 1892 he was elected presi- 
dent of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and in pro- 
fessional reputation had few equals. 

The last thirty years of his life, 1885 to 1 9 1 5, were largely 
devoted to work in connection with the Maryland Historical 
Society, serving as corresponding secretary from 1884 until 
1904, and as president from 1904 until 191 3, only then laying 
aside executive burdens, not surrendering active interest until 
his last illness, his last year of life being one of incessant 
work, notwithstanding his weight of years. There are per- 
manent monuments erected during his long term of service, 
and of these two only will be named, the Society records, how- 
ever, teeming with the results of his public-spirited and deep 
interest. Perhaps the grandest monument to his memory, and 
one of greatest of historic importance, was the gathering and 
presentation to the Society of the letters and papers of Charles 
Carroll, "of Carrollton," the famous signer of the Declara 
tion. These papers, numbering nearly eight hundred, he 
found partly in his own family, and by extensive purchases 
from other sources completed. But they were hopelessly 
mixed and to himself he assigned the task of sorting and clas- 


sifying them. That work completed, they were presented to 
the Society, a most valuable gift. . 

In the early part of 191 5 Mr. Cohen and others were 
instrumental in returning to the State of Maryland a replica 
of the Great Seal of Maryland, which was found in the hands 
of a second-hand dealer in Edinburgh, Scotland. A great deal 
of diplomacy and tact was necessary to obtain this valuable 
relic, but it was finally accomplished, and when the present 
seal is no longer available for use the replica can be used in 
actual service. It was but a few months prior to his death that 
the replica was finally deposited with the State. 

Mr. Cohen's long life, which carried him into the ranks 
of octogenarians, gave him extended opportunity for wide 
and varied usefulness, his business life rivaling in value the 
scholarly work of his later years. The two periods round out 
and fill the measure of a perfect life. His published work on 
"City Sewers," written while a member of the Baltimore Sew- 
age Commission, is highly regarded as an authority by sani- 
tary engineers throughout the world. As secretary and presi- 
dent of the Historical Society he opened up new fields of 
activity and imparted to its meetings and its programs a dig- 
nity and a value not hitherto attained. In his citizenship he 
met the highest ideals and best standards of usefulness, and 
in his private life was a pattern of liberal benevolence. He 
served as a trustee of Peabody Institute, and as a member of 
the Municipal Art Commission, and while no persuasion could 
induce him to enter political life, he was ever ready to serve 
in such capacities as have been noted. That he deserved well 
of his city, and that he added additional lustre to her citizen- 
ship, is most abundantly proved by the foregoing record of 
his unselfish public-spirited life. 

Mr. Cohen married, in 1865, Justina Nathan, of New 
York City, who survived him without children. 


"\URING his years, seventy-one, Mr. Tucker won reputa- 
tion as a lawyer of learning and ability, and as one of 
the most ardent advocates of the legal prohibition of the 
liquor traffic. When a too close application to the duties of 
his profession brought about an undesirable physical condi- 
tion, he withdrew, and for about ten years was free to devote 
his time to any form of recreation or enjoyment he chose. He- 
spent a great deal of that time working for the cause of pro 
hibition, a cause by no means as popular then as now. Mr. 
Tucker, during his long career as a lawyer, had seen so much 
of the effect of liquor upon the lives and fortunes of men, 
that he had formed a very strong opinion on the wisdom of 
its manufacture and sale, opinions which he was never ad- 
verse to expressing. During the campaign which Joseph 
Levering made for the presidency of the United States as 
the candidate of the Prohibition party, Mr. Tucker accom- 
panied him on a speaking tour through the Northern States, 
and made many telling speeches in behalf of the prohibition 
principle, and its standard bearer. In 1895 ne allowed his 
name to be used as a candidate for Attorney General of Mary- 
land, not with the slightest expectation of election, but that 
he might show his devotion and interest to the cause he 

W. Frank Tucker was born in Anne Arundel county, 
Maryland, in 1845, son of William and Rebecca (Laughlin) 
Tucker. He died at his home, No. 1601 John street, Balti- 
more, Maryland, January 3, 1916. He attended Miller's 
School in his native county, and, after exhausting the ad- 
vantages of that school, began the study of law in the office 
of Judge Revell, at Annapolis, Maryland. He continued 
under Judge Revell's preceptorship until admitted to the 


Maryland bar, then began practice in Annapolis, there re- 
maining several years. He then located in Baltimore, where 
he successfully practiced his profession until about 1906, when 
he retired to a well-earned rest, passing ten years of his evening 
of life in contentment and ease. He is buried in the church- 
yard of All Hallow's Parish, Anne Arundel county, Maryland. 
Mr. Tucker married Helen Dulany, who survives him, 
both for many years members of the North Avenue Baptist 

Church, Baltimore. Their children are: , married 

W. G. Robertson; Claude E., of Philadelphia; Benjamin 
O. H.; Philip W., and Alice S. Tucker. 


AS president of the Appeal Tax Court, and as United States 
Marshal, Judge Langhammer was best known in his 
native city, Baltimore, although, until 1900, he was actively 
engaged as a partner in the firm, E. Langhammer & Sons, 
wholesale grocers and ship chandlers. His public service was 
long and varied, and highly valuable, beginning as a member 
of the Board of Education, in 1888, when thirty-two years of 
age, and continuing as a member of the First Branch of the 
City Council, president of the Appeal Tax Court, United 
States Marshal, chief clerk of the License Board, until his 
death, at the age of fifty-nine years, five months and two days. 
His career was one of honor, and to his devotion and public 
spirit in the cause of education, and to the preservation of 
law and order, Baltimore owes a debt of gratitude. He will 
long be remembered for the successful war he waged against 
those pirates of the Chesapeake bay, known as the "Shang- 
haiers," a war that was begun immediately upon his appoint- 
ment to the office of United States Marshal, in 1902, by his 
personal friend, President Roosevelt. Kidnapping, and even 
murder, were not infrequent acts of these men, and to their 
extermination Marshal Langhammer bent his unrelenting ef- 
forts. He personally cruised the oyster bed bay district in 
an armed vessel, and won his fight. In the first year of his 
administration over three hundred cases of "Shanghaing" were 
reported to his office, while in the last year of his term of 
eight years there were only two. This was, perhaps, his 
greatest service to his city and State, but much credit is due 
him for the part he took in breaking up and securing the con 
viction of eight of a band of desperate Baltimore criminals, 
known as "yeggmen," long a menace to life and property. 
Although a stern officer of the law, and uncompromising in 


his pursuit of criminals, he was a man of kindliest impulse, 
ever ready to lend a helping hand to those in need, or trying 
to break away from evil associates and habits. He was charit- 
able to a fault, and it was his greatest pleasure to aid deserving 
young men to obtain a start in the world. He was the son of 
Ernest Langhammer, founder of the firm, E. Langhammer & 
Sons, one of Baltimore's substantial merchants. 

John Frederick Langhammer was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland, November 17, 1856, died in the city of his birth, 
April 19, 1916. He was educated in the public schools, 
Knights private school, and the Bryant & Stratton Business 
College, an honor graduate of the last named institution. 
Thoroughly prepared in theory, he began actual business life 
in his father's mercantile house, later became a member of 
the firm, E. Langhammer & Sons, wholesale grocers and ship 
chandlers. The firm was a prosperous one, the large number 
of vessels entering the port of Baltimore, and the local bay 
trade, forming a continuous outlet for immense quantities of 
goods. In addition, they had a contract for supplying the 
United States light houses and tenders for eighteen years, 
and owned a fleet of vessels sailing under their own house 
flag. In 1900 the father, and founder, wishing to retire, the 
business was sold. 

John F. Langhammer from early life took a deep interest 
in public affairs, and in 1888, two years prior to his retire- 
ment from business, was elected a member of the Board of 
Education, serving four years. He later was a trustee and 
director of St. Mary's Industrial School, and there never was 
a time when he was not an ardent supporter of education's 
cause. In 1882 he yielded to a popular demand and became 
the candidate of the Republican party for First Branch of the 
City Council. His ward was normally Democratic by five 
hundred majority, but Mr. Langhammer's personal popularity 


reversed that majority, and he was elected by one hundred 
and eighty-six votes over his Democratic opponent. In 1893 
he was re-elected by an increased majority, and was appointed 
by President Hooper, chairman of the important Committee 
on Ways and Means. When President Hooper was elected 
Mayor of Baltimore, he appointed his friend, Mr. Langham- 
mer, member of the Appeal Tax Court, and when Mayor 
Hooper was succeeded by Mayor Maister he retained Judge 
Langhammer upon the bench. He was chosen president of 
the court, and served until 1902, one of the most popular offi- 
cials of the city government, all men acclaiming him fair and 
just in his rulings and decisions. While in council he was 
counted among the men of the First Branch whose sole ambi- 
tion was to so legislate that the city at large would be bene- 
fited. He was mainly responsible for the act which resulted 
in raising the United States flag over every school house in the 
city, a practice now so well established that the wonder is 
that there should ever have been any opposition. 

Judge Langhammer continued upon the bench of the 
Appeal Tax Court four years, 1898- 1902, then resigned, hav- 
ing been appointed United States Marshal by President 
Roosevelt, his personal friend. He took the oath of office, 
July 17, 1902, and served continuously for eight years, com- 
piling a record of activity in the stamping out of crime against 
Federal law that stands unequalled. The ''Shanghaiers" of 
the Chesapeake learned to fear him, and that they no longer 
infest the bay, and menace the life and property of the peace 
ful oystermen and fishermen, is due to the fearless, untiring 
efforts of Marshal Langhammer, who personally led his men 
against them. He took an active part in connection with the 
police department of the city in breaking up the gang of 
"yeggmen" who had eluded capture so long, eight of the gang 
being landed in prison for terms varying from five to fifteen 


years. The fortune telling case against the notorious Dr. 
White was handled by him, the doctor receiving a prison sen- 
tence of three years. The Marshal also fought the "white 
slaver," with noteworthy success, and all criminals found in 
him an unrelenting foe did their crimes come within his 
authority. In 191 2 he succeeded Colonel Washington Bowie 
as chief clerk of the Baltimore Board of Excise Commission, 
which office he held until his death. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, and his friends were legion. He was 
a member of the Masonic order, the Odd Fellows and of the 
Junior Order of American Mechanics, taking an active in- 
terest in all. He was an ardent Republican, strong in his sup- 
port of party principles, but not blindly partisan, numbering 
his political supporters and warm personal friends in both 

Judge Langhammer married, and is survived by his 
widow, Emma Virginia; two sons, Karl and John F. ; two 
daughters, Ernestine and Ethel. The family residence is at 
No. 3502 Fairview avenue, Walbrook, Baltimore, Maryland. 


k OR seventy-seven years Stephen K. Pardee was known 
among men, his home for all but the six closing years ol 
his life having been at Sudlersville, a village of Queen Anne 
county, Maryland, on the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Wash- 
ington Railroad. He was a man of prominence in the village, 
a leader in church and Sunday school work, and, until his 
removal six years prior to his death, was intimately con- 
nected with all phases of the public life of the village. Ik- 
was a son of Professor Eli S. Pardee, one of the early prin- 
cipals of Washington College, a non-sectarian educational in- 
stitution of Maryland, located at Chestertown, founded in 
1782. During the War of 1812, Professor Pardee led a com- 
pany of the college students in an attack on the British at the 
battle of Caulks Field, near Chestertown. Stephen E. Pardee 
was born in Sudlersville, Kent county, Maryland, in 1841. and 
died at the home of his son, S. Colquitt Pardee, in Lin- 
thicum Heights, near Baltimore, Maryland, March 1, 191 8. 
After completing his education, he made his entrance into 
the business life of the village, and until his retirement and 
removal to Linthicum Heights, in 191 1, he was a useful and 
honored resident of the village of Sudlersville. For half a 
century Mr. Pardee was an active member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and one of the strong pillars oi 
support. The Sudlersville Sunday School was an object oi 
his especial interest, and in addition to being one of its foun- 
ders and organizers, he was for a score of years its superin- 
tendent, and much longer a member of its teaching corps. He 
was a man of honorable, upright life, true to every obligation 
of life, public or private. From boyhood he took an interest 
in all matters of public concern, and until his death, at the 
age of seventy-seven, he kept in close touch with all current 


Stephen E. Pardee married Margaret Elliot, who died 
in 1915, daughter of John and Julianna (Sudler) Elliot, of 
Sudlersville, Maryland. Mr. and Mrs. Pardee are buried in 
the family plot in Sudlersville Cemetery. Four sons and a 
daughter survive their parents: Charles H. Pardee, of Balti- 
more, connected with the United States Sub-Treasury, in that 
city; S. Colquitt Pardee, a member of the Baltimore bar; 
John Elliot Pardee, formerly a journalist, owning and edit- 
ing the "Easton Ledger," Easton, Talbot county, Maryland, 
but now a street paving contractor, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania; Earnest B. Pardee, a brick manufacturer, of Wat- 
sontown, Pennsylvania. The only daughter, Mrs. Anna S. 
Wade, resides in Collingswood, Camden county, New Jersey. 

richard' h. johns 

A MAN of kindly heart and lovable nature, Mr. Johns 
passed his years, sixty-eight, among the friends and ac- 
quaintances of a lifetime, and in their love, respect and con- 
fidence continued until his latest breath. At the time of his 
passing he was president of the Board of Fire Commissioner- 
of the city of Baltimore, and in a general order issued to the 
department the board said: "In the death of Mr. Johns, the 
Fire Department of Baltimore has lost a most loyal, efficient 
and painstaking official, whose whole thought was for the wel- 
fare of the department generally." Mr. Johns was a son of 
Richard H. Johns, of Baltimore, a famed boat builder of 
former years. 

Richard H. (2) Johns was born in Baltimore, Maryland, 
in 1848, and died suddenly, being stricken at his home, No. 
1303 North Central avenue, Baltimore, Maryland, Novem- 
ber 6, 1 916. He exhausted the advantages of the public schools 
of the city, and after finishing the high school course, began 
the study of law under the direction of William Sheppard 
Bryan. He was admitted to the bar, practiced his profes- 
sion for many years, and was an honor to his profession. He 
was an active worker in the Democratic party from youthful 
manhood and, during the administration of Governor Car- 
roll, served as magistrate at the Old Central Police Station. 
When Mr. Preston was first elected Mayor of Baltimore re- 
appointed Mr. Johns president of the Board of Fire Commis- 
sioners, and, in 1914, reappointed him to the same position. 
He gave himself whole-heartedly to the duties of his office. 
labored diligently, and fully proved by loyal service the depth 
of his devotion. He earned the respect of his associates and 
contemporaries, and no man stood higher in public esteem. 

Mr. Johns was a member of Holy Innocents Protestant 


Episcopal Church for many years, and deeply interested in 
all good works. He married Bessie Leach, who survives him, 

with two daughters: Lily, married Register, and has 

one child; Rosella, a resident of Baltimore. The city officials 
paid their fallen associate every honor, and his funeral was 
largely attended. Officers of the Fire Department: Deputy 
Chief Engineer L. H. Burkhart and District Engineers 
Michael A. Lind, Frederick Branan, E. Louis Shipley, John 
Kahl, and James T. Dunn, were pallbearers, while the honor- 
ary pallbearers were: Mayor Preston, the department heads 
at the City Hall, Fire Commissioners Albert Diggs and Sid- 
ney T. Manning, John J. Mahon, Marshal of Police Carter, 
Mayor's Secretary, Robert E. Lee, P. W. Wilkinson, secre- 
tary of the Fire Board, Judge Walter I. Dawkins, Dr. J. J. 
Valentini, Dr. George M. Steck, James B. Yeakie, Joseph 
Popplein, A. S. Goldsborough, George May, Calvin W. Hen- 
drick, John F. O'Meara, president of the First Branch, City 
Council; John Hubert, president of the Second Branch; Gen- 
eral Laurason Riggs, president of the Police Board; Daniel 
J. Loden; Chief Engineer August Emrich, of the Fire De- 
partment, and former City Collector Jacob W. Hook. His 
burial took place in Greenmount Cemetery. 


POSSESSING those sterling attributes of character which 
marked him as "a man among men," Mr. Noonan was 
one of the most widely known jewelers, and business men, 
of the city of Baltimore, Maryland, but, moving quietly and 
unostentatiously among his fellow men, attracted less attention 
than many of lesser worth to the community. His years, sixty- 
three, were all spent in his native city, Baltimore, with the 
exception of those between 1864- 1867, his parents moving to 
New York City when he was eleven years of age. In 1867 
he returned to Baltimore, and began his connection with the 
business which brought him wealth and wide acquaintance. 
He was of a quiet nature, and kindly, friendly spirit, in per- 
sonality, charming, and his deeds of charity, quietly per- 
formed, will never be known. He was both esteemed and 
beloved by a wide circle of friends, while his good deeds en- 
deared him to many who only knew him as their generous 
friend in time of need. 

Robert J. Noonan was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 
1853, died in the city of his birth, March 10, 1916. He was 
educated at Calvert Hall College, which he attended until 
1868, when circumstances arose which compelled him to begin 
active control of his own fortunes. He entered the employ 
of Hidges Brothers, jewelers, with whom he remained until 
1877, becoming an expert jeweler. In 1877, he established his 
own store in Baltimore, and, in course of time, became head 
of a very large wholesale and retail jewelry business. lie 
gained high reputation for honorable dealing, and was known 
as the "Society" jeweler, the best of Baltimore society becom- 
ing his patrons. He also became very well acquainted with 
the theatrical folk, who carried his fame to every part of the 
United States, and gave him abundant trade. His wholesale 


department was equally well patronized, the combined depart- 
ments swelling the volume of trade to large proportions. He 
invested largely in Baltimore real estate, was an expert in 
valuation of property, and the adviser of many in their real 
estate investments. He continued in business until the close 
of life, and passed to the "great beyond," leaving a precious 

Mr. Noonan was a devout Catholic, and a generous sup- 
porter of its many charities. In his will, he generously pro- 
vided that his estate, after it shall have passed from the stew- 
ardship of his loved sister, Elizabeth Noonan, who is left sole 
executrix, without bond, shall revert to six institutions, in 
which he was deeply interested in life. Specific requests are 
named, which are eventually to go to the Sisters of Mercy, to 
be used for Mercy Hospital; the Little Sisters of the Poor; 
the St. Vincent de Paul Society; St. Joseph's German Hos- 
pital; St. Agnes Hospital; the Sisters of Bon Secours. 



HTO the outside world, William Beall Hunt, of Baltimore, 
was merely the able, efficient man of affairs, so retiring 
and modest was he concerning his many talents which indeed 
were unusual in a business man. But to his friends he was 
a man of great personal charm, a poet, artist, lover of music, 
birds and flowers, and devoted to children. At the home on 
Longwood road, Roland Park, which he shared with a brother 
and three sisters, to whom he was devotion itself, bird houses, 
feeding boxes, and drinking pans; beautiful flower beds, trees, 
and shrubs, plainly gave evidence of the tastes of the inmates 
of that home. After he moved his residence in the country, 
and after his old home church, St. Peter's, had been sold, he 
became interested in the Sunday schools of the Episcopal 
churches the Transfiguration and St. Mary's, near his home. 
It was his frequent practice to appear at the classes with a 
flower for each of the children composing them. He taught 
them much from the Book of Nature, and made them familiar 
with a great many habits and songs of the birds. After he 
passed on a friend thus wrote of him: 

Mr. Hunt had a rich and full life, the life of a thinker and a dreamer 
and a poet which was kept hidden in reserve. To his closest friends this 
was unsuspected until in a favored moment under some provocation of con- 
versation it revealed itself. His courtesy, kindness, sympathy, nohleness. 
and gentle fineness were constantly in evidence ; the depth of the feeling of the 
man when it glowed it never flashed was a constant surprise to even 
those who knew him best. His was a rare and charming personality, one 
in whose presence one could be silent without awkwardness, and who was 
notwithstanding a constant provocative to conversation. He was a connoisseur 
of flowers, a lover of birds, and a friend of children. Many a little one will 
remember through life the loving nickname he had fancifully bestowed. One 
thinks of him as a flower, haply chanced upon beside the stream of life. 
blooming modestly and content with such sunshine as leaked to him beneath 


the trees, to the careless voyager appearing but as a usual forestry blossom ; 
but to the lover lingering among the vines and ferns it speedily became a 
rare treasure, both for its own sweetness and for the rich wealth of human 
association it revealed. 

The Hunts were among the early settlers of Calvert and 
Baltimore counties, Maryland. William Beall Hunt traced 
his ancestry from Job Hunt, a Presbyterian clergyman, who 
came from Warwickshire, England, and settled first in South- 
ern Maryland, removing, in 1760, with his family to Balti- 
more county. There he took up large tracts of land, in the 
east half of Green Spring Valley, his estate comprising what 
is now known as Brooklandville, and extending toward Sher- 
wood and Ruxton. He married Elizabeth Chew, who bore 
his four sons: Henry, born March 5, 1745; Job, born March 
16, 1747 (see forward) ; Samuel, born January 30, 1749, and 
Phineas, born November 2, 175 1. Job Hunt, Sr., died some 
time prior to 1773, for on July 26th, of that year, Elizabeth 
Hunt transferred real and personal property to two of her 
sons, Samuel and Phineas, because of approaching marriage 
to John Bond. A section of the land which she gave to her 
sons at this time was called "Beall's Discovery," and it was 
upon a part of this land that Hunt's church was afterward 
built, and upon which is located the graveyard where many 
of the members of the Hunt family are buried, including Mrs. 
John (Hunt) Bond, three of her sons, the wife of Phineas 
Hunt, and others. Soon after coming to Baltimore county 
the Hunts connected with the Garrison-Forest English 
Church. Job Hunt, Jr., was a warden there in 1771 ; Samuel, 
in 1802, and Phineas was elected a vestryman on Easter Mon- 
day, March 25, 1799, which position he retained until the 
year 1809. 

When, in 1769, Robert Strawbridge and Robert Wil- 
liams came to Baltimore county to preach the doctrines of 


John Wesley, the Hunt brothers were among the first to accept 
Methodism. Lednum in his history of Methodism states that 
Phineas Hunt and his wife Susan became Methodists when 
the early itinerants came to their neighborhood. Phineas 
opened his house for preaching and his neighbors gathered 
to hear the gospel. Phineas Hunt was made leader of the 
class which met in his home, that class being the foundation 
of the present Hunt's Episcopal Church. He had preaching 
in his house long before the first church edifice was built. In 
the beginning the Methodists did not consider themselves a 
separate church, but a part of the Church of England. This 
accounts for Phineas Hunt and his brother Samuel remaining 
active in the latter church. In about 1780, Phineas Hunt 
built a small chapel for the Methodists which he called Zoar 
Chapel, and later, on September 4, 1785, he transferred to 
William Stine, Marner and Samuel Hunt, Michael Thraner, 
Joshua Bowen, Daniel Isrig and others, the ground on which 
the chapel was built for the use of the Methodist Episcopal 

Job Hunt, son of Job and Elizabeth (Chew) Hunt, 
married Margaret Hopkins, February 7, 1771, and died Feb- 
ruary 18, 1809. Children of Job Hunt and his wife, Mar- 
garet Hopkins, were: Samuel, born January 1, 1772, died 
February 10, 1779; Elizabeth, born February 2, 1774. died 
September 10, 1775 ; Sarah, born November n, 1777; Miriam. 
born October 15, 1779; Samuel, born October 5, 1780, died 
October 5, 1782; Elizabeth, born August 11, 1783, died Jan- 
uary 9, 1784; Job (3), see forward; John, born July 2, 1787; 
Elizabeth, born December 23, 1789; Jesse, born July 3, 1793. 

Job Hunt, of Hagerstown, Maryland, son of Job and 
Margaret (Hopkins) Hunt, was born June 10, 1785. He 
married Ann Boyd. Their son, Samuel Hunt, married Mar- 
tha M. Beall, daughter of William Murdock Beall, of Fred- 


erick, Maryland. Samuel Hunt was a merchant of long stand- 
ing of the well-known leather firm of Samuel Hunt & Son, 
of Baltimore, the business originally being established in the 
year 1785. This long-established business was carried on for 
many years by his son, William Beall Hunt, now, too, gath- 
ered to his fathers, his useful life and high character being 
the inspiration of this review. 

William Beall Hunt was born in Baltimore, and there 
spent his life, his death occurring April 10, 1915. After his 
graduation from Baltimore City College, with high honors of 
a first prize winner, he began his long and honorable career 
as a merchant. He began business life in association with his 
father, Samuel Hunt, a prosperous leather merchant, his first 
position being in the counting room as bookkeeper. It was not 
long, however, before he was admitted to a partnership, the 
firm name then becoming Samuel Hunt & Son. They oper- 
ated the business until the death of Samuel Hunt, when the 
two sons continued as Samuel Hunt's Sons. When the great 
fire swept Baltimore, the firm did not resume, the Hunt 
brothers then retiring. During those earlier years in business 
the father, as the years advanced, leaned heavily upon his 
capable son, and eventually the burden of business manage- 
ment was borne entirely by the younger partner, William 
Beall Hunt. He developed rapidly and grew with his respon- 
sibilities until he had brought the firm into the very front 
rank among leather merchants. He traveled extensively 
abroad, his many trips to purchase goods being also trips to 
all centers where he could indulge his passion for art and 
music, his love of the beautiful in all things, and his artistic 
talent which had been cultivated from youth was also a trade 
asset, for many of the beautiful designs for the handles of 
the leather bags, and other goods the firm dealt in, were de- 
signed by him. While Nature in all her phases was a joy 


to him, and growing things made a particular appeal, his cul- 
tured mind responded as eagerly to the beauties of art, music, 
and literature. He was a graceful writer, giving a great deal 
of his spare time to writing, the current magazines publishing 
many short stories from his pen. He was a member of the 
Historical Society, of the Churchman's Club, of the Oratorio 
Society, and a subscriber for many years to the Peabody con- 
certs. Like his father, he was a member of old St. Peter's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Samuel Hunt having served 
that parish as vestryman for a number of years. The son's 
connection with the Sunday school has been noted, and he had 
many warm friends among the clergy and laity of the church. 
He never married. 

As a tribute to his memory the following poem was writ- 
ten by the Bentztown Bard : 

His sleep is sweet 

That fell on him too soon, 
Who at November 

Wore the heart of June; 
I mind the Spring more closely than I did, 
Because it is the season when we hid 
His dust in slumber near the little town 
Where all life's boyhood fancies wander up and down. 

He was a breath 

Of joyous spring in life 
Touched in cold death 

So brave and still for the strife 
The winds of March blow mournfuller than ever 
Across the memories of the years that sever 
A boyhood faith in him who always seemed 
A brother like the brothers men have dreamed. 

In rest he lies 

Who never thought of rest 


Until he'd sown some joy 

In someone's breast ; 
The noblest truth is in the lives men give 
That they may help dependent ones to live 
And he gave all-love, sacrifice, devotion 
And kept his youth through grayhaired years in motion. 

He should have lived, 

That to himself might come 
Of all he gave 

A more proportioned sum ; 
Proportioned to his goodness for this soul 
That wore the sunlight, though the clouds might roll 
And kept a frolic nature to the end 
For those he loved, and for each gentle friend. 


best known men in Baltimore, died February 9, 191 5, in 
that city. 

Born in Baltimore, on May 1, 1867, he was the son of 
William Dorman and Isabelle (Paddington) Gill. His father 
was the founder of the lumber firm, which later became Wil- 
liam D. Gill & Son, and of which the son was the head at 
the time of his death. General Gill was educated in the pub- 
lic and private schools of the city, and later attended a private 
school in Charlotteville, Virginia. At the age of twenty-onc 
years he left school to enter his father's business establishment, 
as a clerk, and after having mastered its details became a mem- 
ber of the firm on January 1, 1894. ^ ' s understood that the 
business under his direction has been very prosperous. Gen- 
eral Gill was also interested in a number of other profitable 
enterprises. In the spring of 1894 ne was re-elected president 
of the Builders' Exchange, and had also been a director of the 
Lumber Exchange. As a member of the executive committee 
of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, lie had 
charge of the campaign for a larger membership, carried on 
some time ago, and was successful in increasing its numbers. 
He was a director and secretary of the Freeport Smokelc- 
Coal and Coke Company, and was a director and member of 
the executive committee of the Maryland State Bank. As one 
of the vice-presidents of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Ass 
ciation, he attended all of its meetings and took a pronounced 
interest in all that was said and done. He was appointed by 
Governor Austin T. Crothers, October 21, 1909, delegate t> 
the meeting of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association. 
held at Norfolk, Virginia, November 17, 1909, and received 
credentials as delegate to the same from the Merchants' and 


Manufacturers' Association of Baltimore. Again, in 1910, he 
was appointed delegate to the next annual meeting, held in 
Providence, Rhode Island. At several subsequent meetings he 
sat as a delegate from Maryland. In 1907 he was elected a 
member of the National Geographic Society. He was ap- 
pointed by Governor Goldsborough as a member of the Mary- 
land Commission to the San Francisco Exhibition. 

In politics, General Gill was a staunch Republican, but 
had a host of friends in the other political parties. He was 
a close personal friend of Governor Goldsborough. Although 
he never ran for office, he was always ready to join in any 
movement toward civic betterment. He was a member of the 
City Charter Committee of One Hundred, in 1910, and was 
a member of the Greater Baltimore Committee of 1913-1914. 
He was also a prominent member of the Builders' Exchange 
and the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, and as 
chairman of the membership committee of the latter organiza- 
tion aided in bringing the membership of that body up to 
1,000. He also served in an official capacity in these organ- 
izations. In 1896 Governor Loundes appointed him a colonel 
on his staff, but as he had recently entered the firm his father 
opposed the acceptance of the appointment, and it was de- 
clined. He, however, accepted when Governor Goldsborough 
appointed him inspector-general on his staff, and took much 
interest in the State troops. He accompanied the Maryland 
National Guard to Camp Phillips Lee Goldsborough, near 
Westminster, in 191 2, and led the soldier's life there. Gen- 
eral Gill had the welfare of the Maryland National Guard 
at heart. Convinced that the employers of young men should 
urge their employees to take an interest and become members 
of the militia, he was instrumental in having the Builders' 
Exchange and the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion send investigating committees to the Belair encampment 


last summer a year ago to see just what the Guard meant to 
young men in the way of instruction and training. He was 
always ready to lend aid to any of the organizations in the 
Guard, and was always to be seen at the regimental social 

General Gill was a member of many clubs and organiza- 
tions, and was noted as a bon vivant and raconteur. He was 
a thirty-second degree Mason, was former president of the 
Rotary Club, and of the Mount Washington Athletic Club, 
and a member of the Merchants' Club, Baltimore Athletic 
Club, Baltimore Country Club, Union League, Maryland 
Country Club, Baltimore Yacht Club and the Maryland So- 
ciety of New York. 

Governor Goldsborough said of him: "General Gill was 
a whole-hearted, generous and true man, warm and loyal in 
his friendships. He was deeply interested in the upbuilding 
of Baltimore city and the entire State and gave of his best 
energy and thought toward that end. I feel that I have lost 
a strong personal friend, one whose companionship was kindly 
and genial and whose sincerity was beyond question. " 

Considerably over six feet in height, and of a massive 
physique, General Gill was a striking figure in any company. 
Of a genial disposition, companionable, obliging and ready at 
all times to put his shoulder to the wheel in any undertaking 
for the improvement of the city and State, General Gill had 
many friends, among whom he was generally known as "Billy" 
Gill. He had the jolly, hearty disposition that so often char 
acterizes a man of his big, robust build, and to know him wa> 
to become attached to him. General Gill was a man of broad 
interests. Not only was he closely identified with the business 
life of the city, for in addition to his duties as head of the 
wealthy firm of William D. Gill & Son, lumber merchants, 


he kept in close touch with all matters pertaining to civic de- 

General Gill had a big capacity for friendship, and it 
was his staunchness and loyalty, as well as his joviality, that 
endeared him to so many people. He was very democratic in 
his tastes, his friends having included all classes, and he was 
always willing to go out of his way to perform a kind act. 

General Gill married Florence Eugenia Scarlett, No- 
vember 21, 1888, who survives. One of the intimate friends 
of General Gill, whose death (February 9, 1915) brought 
sorrow to many hearts, said, when talking about him: "If I 
were writing his epitaph I would make it simply 'Billy Gill, 
Good Fellow' ". 

Minute of the Merchants 1 and Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion on the death of General William Dorman Gill: 

It is with unfeigned sorrow that the Executive Committee meet to-day 
to testify, as far as words may, to their loss in the death of General William 
Dorman Gill, their fellow member and friend. He was one of the most 
active and useful members of this association. Its present numerical strength 
is a witness to his energy and the unsparing devotion of his time ; and his 
genial manliness, which attracted everyone whom he met and made it a 
pleasure to oblige and associate with him. 

A successful business man, a public-spirited citizen, with exalted notions 
of civic duty, having firm convictions as to what he believed to be right, no 
one ever heard an unkind word from him about his opponents. 

The City of Baltimore and the State of Maryland have lost in him one 
who was active in every movement having their betterment for its object. 

In our Association we relied upon his judgment, appreciated his energy 
and business success, and found him always a diligent and able co-worker, 
but it was as a broadminded, generous man that he bound himself most 
closely to us, and these ties are the hardest to sever. 

We will miss him in our work, but as a true man and friend he will live 
the longest in our memories. 

Resolved, That this minute be spread upon the records of the Associa- 
tion and a copy sent to the family of the deceased and published in the 
daily papers. 


Be It Furthermore Resolved, As a further mark of respect that the 
Executive Committee, as a whole, attend the funeral in a body. 

Charles E. Falconer, President. 
Andrew C. Trippe, Counsel. 
Robert J. Beacham, Secretary. 

Builders' Exchange of Baltimore City. At a special 
meeting of the Board of Directors of the Builders' Exchange, 
held this ioth day of February, Nineteen Hundred and Fif- 
teen, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, recognizing in the death of our esteemed and respected 
president, General William D. Gill, the will of Divine Providence, we, the 
Board of Directors of the Builders' Exchange of Baltimore City, do hereby 

Resolve, That in the death of Mr. Gill this community has lost one 
of its most progressive and beloved citizens. It is further 

Resolved, That by his death this Exchange will feel the loss of his 
counsel and advice in the administration of its affairs. It is also 

Resolved, That this Board of Directors on behalf of the Excha: 
tender to his family in their bereavement our most sincere sympathy ; and it 
is further 

Resolved, That this Board attend the funeral in a body, and that a 
page be set aside in the memorial Book to his memory and a copy of these 
resolutions be sent to his family. 

By order of the Board of Directors. 

Minute of the Executive Committee of the Maryland 
Commission to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 
on the death of William Dorman Gill. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Mary- 
land Commission of the Panama-Pacific International Expo- 
sition, held February io, 191 5, the following minute v 
adopted unanimously: 

General William D. Gil!, our friend and associate, comrade and coun- 
sellor, yesterday crossed the Mountains of Endeavor and passed t. the V alley 

of Reward. 

We shall miss his sunny presence, his warm regard, his honest manli- 
ness, his sturdy soul and his conscientious counsel at our hoard. 


We feel that the City of Baltimore has lost a master builder who 
wrought greatly with the true joy of labor and that the State of Maryland 
has been deprived of the fruits of such service as only its best sons may give. 

At a meeting of the Lumber Exchange of Baltimore, held 
this ioth day of February, the following minute was adopted 
and placed on the records of the Exchange : 

Our Heavenly Father has in His wise Providence taken from us our 
esteemed friend, William D. Gill. 

The death of Mr. Gill brings sorrow to his associates in the lumber 
trade. As a member of this Exchange for many years his work and influence 
in the organization was to maintain the best traditions and the best methods 
of the business, and in his personal place, he was equally conspicuous as an 
honorable merchant. 

He was a generous and genial companion and loyal friend, and identified 
with the many and varied interests in our city and State; to none of these 
will his passing come as a greater loss than to those of the lumber fraternity. 

Our sympathy goes out to his bereaved family, and we share with them 
their sorrow. 


"ITtTHEN finally Edward I. Clark had argued his last case, 
made his last motion and uttered his last plea, a wave 
of sadness passed over the city of Baltimore, for he was well- 
known and highly-esteemed far beyond professional and polit- 
ical circles. He was a native son of Baltimore, a member of 
the law firm, Clark & Clark, from 1882 until his death, and 
a leading Democrat. He was a great criminal lawyer, and an 
eminent citizen, but men loved him for his genial, generous, 
kindly nature, his humor and unfailing friendliness, his in- 
tegrity and his willingness to serve. He was one of the oldest 
practitioners at the Baltimore bar, his service covering a 
period of forty-five years, 1 872-1917. His service to his fel- 
lowmen extended far beyond the confines of city lines, for 
during his years at the bar he served on several commissions 
whose duty it was to revise the laws of the State. He was a 
son of James A. and Eliza Wilson Clark, of Baltimore. 

Edward I. Clark was born in Baltimore, Maryland, May 
23, 1851, and died at his home in that city, September 28, 1917. 
He was educated at Calvert Hall and Loyola College, his 
studies during this period being directed with the law in view. 
He prepared for the legal profession under the preceptorship 
of Judge William J. O'Brien, of the Baltimore bar, and in 
1872 passed the required examinations successfully, and was 
admitted to the bar. He practiced privately during the first 
ten years of his legal career, then formed a partnership with 
his brother, Joseph A. Clark, which was never broken until 
death dissolved the bond which united them. He became 
famous in his profession, ranking with the leading criminal 
lawyers of the State, and until 191 3 was actively engaged in 
practice. He was then stricken with paralysis, but in time 
recovered sufficiently to perform some legal duty, but was 


greatly enfeebled in all but his mental powers, only losing 
consciousness a few minutes before entering upon the long 

During his earlier professional career he became in- 
terested in various building associations, both as legal adviser 
and member, and in 1883 was elected to the State Legislature. 
In 1903 he was defeated by a narrow majority for the office 
of judge, and in 191 1 announced himself as a candidate for 
the judgeship, but later withdrew his name. He served on 
various commissions to revise State laws, but the law was his 
great love and all else was secondary. He was a lifelong 
Democratic, and in the councils of the party wielded consider- 
able influence. During the Progressive storm of 191 2 he was 
swept by the strength of the Roosevelt sentiment, and like many 
others followed that one-time invincible leader to defeat. He 
was one of the local leaders of the Progressive party and put 
forth his best efforts to achieve success. He was a member of 
the City, State and National Bar associations, and a com- 
municant of St. Ignatius Roman Catholic Church. He was 
connected with other organizations of the city, social, pro- 
fessional and religious, taking a deep interest in all that con- 
cerned the welfare of his fellowmen. 

When the death of Mr. Clark became known, most of 
the courts of the city adjourned in respect to his memory. The 
announcement and motion to adjourn were made by James 
Fluegel in Circuit Court No. 2, and Part 2 of the Superior 
Court and the Orphans' Court, Richard B. Tippett seconding 
the motion in the Circuit Court, and George W. Cameron in 
Part 2 of the Superior Court and in the Orphans' Court. Judge 
Duffy, sitting in the Circuit Court No. 2, adjourned the meet- 
ing. In the last named circuit, William H. Lawrence made 
the motions, Albert Ecke seconding. In Part 2 of the City 
Court, B. H. Hartogensis and Eldridge Hood Young were 


the speakers. Judge Henisler adjourned the City Court upon 
being informed of the death of Mr. Clark. The funeral was 
largely attended at St. Ignatius Church, and following the 
service, Mr. Clark was laid at eternal rest in Greenmount 

Mr. Clark married (first) Emma Reed, of Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia. He married (second) Frances A. Bell, of New York, 
who survives him and is a resident of Baltimore city. 

Thus an earnest, useful life was passed, there being no 
blank spaces or wasted periods in its years, sixty-six. When 
legal age was attained, Mr. Clark was ready for his responsi- 
bilities, had completed both classical and professional study, 
and at the time of assuming adult honors also took his place 
among his townsmen as a member of the Baltimore bar. Life 
to him was real and earnest, and as he prepared so he con- 
tinued, always at his post, answering every call of duty or 
friendship. He fought well the battle of life, shared his full 
share of victory, and was not unduly elated, met his share of 
defeat and was not cast down nor discouraged. He was a 
good lawyer, a loyal citizen, a true friend and a manly man. 

MI). -45 


T^OR a score of years, 1893-1913, connected with the United 
States Consular service, appointed by President Cleve- 
land, Charles M. Caughy, of Baltimore, Maryland, through 
his adaptability, courtesy and diplomatic handling of the ques- 
tions submitted to him, won the approbation of the State De- 
partment and the universal good will and respect of the 
people to whom he was accredited. At all times and in all 
places he upheld the dignity of the great Nation he repre- 
sented, yet was so kindly, considerate, hospitable, and just, that 
he was considered in the light of a friend. 

Charles M. Caughy was a son of S. Hamilton and Alice 
(Prendergast) Caughy, of Baltimore, and was born June 5, 
1850, and died in Richmond, Virginia, August 27, 1913. 
After completing advanced courses of study, he embraced 
journalism and became known as one of the most brilliant men 
of his profession. He traveled in Europe for several years 
as correspondent for the Baltimore "Bulletin," edited by W. 
Mackey Lafflin, and later founded "Every Saturday," a 
weekly journal published in Baltimore, devoted to literature, 
art and dramatic affairs, and later he became a well-known 
and popular lecturer on European travel. He was the author 
of a number of plays, one, "Love and Duty," which was very 
favorably received upon the Baltimore stage and elsewhere. 
In 1893 he was appointed United States Consul to Mes- 
sina, Italy, by President Cleveland, and for fourteen years 
he remained there, being transferred to Malaga, Spain, just 
before the great earthquake, which destroyed the consulate 
and cost the lives of the newly-appointed Consul and his wife. 
He remained at Malaga two years, and was then transferred 
to Milan, Italy, where he remained about four years before 
sailing for home stricken with a disease which baffled the 


Italian specialists. A few days after reaching the home of 
his wife's father in Richmond, he fell and fractured his hip, 
this complicating his already serious condition and hastening 
his end. As Consul, Mr. Caughy came under the operation 
of the merit system, and had he lived would have risen to 
higher rank in the diplomatic service. He spoke several lan- 
guages fluently, and was very popular with all classes. 

Mr. Caughy married, January 20, 1880, M. Alice Hig- 
gins, daughter of John M. and Kate C. Higgins, of Richmond, 
Virginia, the ceremony being performed in the Cathedral 
there by Archbishop Keanes, their wedding being the occa- 
sion of the first nuptial mass the Archbishop celebrated after 
his consecration to that high dignity. Mrs. Caughy survives 
her husband and is a resident of Baltimore. Their two chil 
dren: Clinton Norbert, deceased, and Mary Kathleen, who 
married a Mr. Edwards. 


CONTEMPORARY with the group of lawyers, Robert 
Goldsborough Keene, Severn T. Wallis, R. Stockett 
Matthews, Colonel John L. Thomas and others, who made 
the history of the Baltimore bar glorious, John Henry Keene 
added to his own fame as a lawyer prominence in Maryland 
politics, and through his work "Justice and Jurisprudence," 
dealing with problems of the negro race, gained a national 
and international audience. He was a grandson of Dr. Samuel 
Young Keene, of Talbot county, Maryland, a surgeon of the 
Revolution, serving from the beginning until the end of the 
struggle for liberty, and descended from an illustrious Eng- 
lish family of statesmen, ecclesiastics, and lineal descendant 
of Richard Keene, of Richard's Manor, on the Patuxent, who 
was son of Henry Keene, of Wordstown, Surrey, England. Dr. 
Samuel Young Keene married Sarah Goldsborough, daughter 
of Howes and Rebecca Goldsborough, of Talbot county, 
Maryland. Their son, John Henry (i) Keene, born in Tal- 
bot county, married Sally Dorsey Lawrence, daughter of 
Levin Lawrence, of the "Flying Camp of '76," and grand- 
daughter of "Wild Caleb" Dorsey, of Howard county. They 
were the parents of two sons, Robert Goldsborough, and John 
Henry (2) Keene, both of whom were eminent members of 
the Baltimore bar. 

Robert Goldsborough Keene, the younger brother, at the 
first call of the Confederacy for men, enlisted in the First 
Regiment, Virginia Cavalry, but later was transferred to Com- 
pany A, First Regiment, Maryland Cavalry, serving with that 
command until the war closed. He was engaged at Second 
Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietam, served through the West 
Virginia campaign, was in the famous charge at Greenland 
Gap, was courier for General Jackson in the Valley of Vir- 



ginia, and fought with the Army of Northern Virginia in 
many of its hardest campaigns. He was taken prisoner at 
Luray after the burning of Chambersburg, and for several 
months was confined at "Camp Chase," in Ohio, finally, how- 
ever, was exchanged, returned to his regiment, and was in the 
service when the end came. After the war he resumed his 
law study begun under the eminent George T. Gill, and in 
1867 was admitted to practice, locating in Baltimore, and 
there practicing for thirty years. He was a Democrat in 
politics, took an active part in many campaigns, but never ac- 
cepted office for himself. He was largely interested in real es- 
tate operations, and the chief promoter of that popular seaside 
resort, "Ocean City," on the Atlantic coast of Maryland. He 
had a pew at Christ Episcopal Church, was a member of the 
Maryland Club, the Elkridge Fox Hunting Club, and the 
Aheneum Club. Mr Keen married Mrs. Abbie P. Breese, 
daughter of George W. Patterson, of Virginia. 

John Henry (2) Keene, oldest son of John Henry and 
Sally Dorsey (Lawrence) Keene, was born at the Keene 
homestead on the Harford road, east of Lauraville, Mary- 
land, the post office being named for the estate, and died at 
"Glymalira," the old Carroll estate, near Glencoe, Baltimore 
county, Maryland, May 6, 1914, aged seventy-eight years. 
After preparation in private schools he entered Harvard Uni- 
versity for a classical course, and after its completion entered 
Harvard Law School, whence he was graduated LL.B., with 
special honors. After his return to Baltimore, he began prac- 
tice in association with his brother, Robert G. Keene, and to- 
gether they conducted a very successful law business in all 
State and Federal courts of the district. The Keenes were 
well known in and outside the profession as men of ability. 
honor and integrity, and worthily bore the name at an excep- 
tionally brilliant bar. 


After retiring from active practice, John Henry (2) 
Keene gave himself principally to literary pursuits, writing 
and publishing "Justice and Jurisprudence," a work which 
was devoted to a discussion of the problems confronting the 
negro race. That book obtained a wide circulation on both 
sides of the Atlantic, and brought its author a great deal of 
favorable comment. An ardent Democrat, and a close friend 
of Senator Arthur P. Gorman, he took an active part in city 
and State politics, principally as a writer of campaign litera- 
ture for committees and for the party candidates. He was 
an extremely forceful writer, and this political work brought 
him a great deal of satisfaction, not less for the real pleasure 
it gave him than from the many words of commendation re- 
ceived from the press and from individuals. He also em- 
ployed his able pen to further the cause of Christian Science, 
though never uniting with the church. 

He possessed considerable landed interests, his hand- 
some residence at the corner of St. Paul and Preston streets 
finally being razed to make way for the Earl Court Apart- 
ments, of which he was the principal owner. For some years 
prior to moving to that location, he occupied the residence at 
No. 8 West Hamilton street, his sisters, Laura and Mary 
Keene, still residing there. His latest residence was "Glyma- 
lira," the old Carroll estate, near Glencoe. He also had 
another sister, Mrs. Craig, widow of the late Dr. John A. 
Craig, of Ravenswood, Govans, Maryland. Aside from his 
legal and literary prominence, Mr. Keene was one of Balti- 
more's most interesting figures. He dressed with a great deal 
of care, his clothes always imported from England, being made 
invariably from cloth of a design which attracted attention. 
His was a familiar figure on the downtown streets of the city, 
and nearly everybody knew the courtly, dignified gentleman, 
but none ever spoke of him as "Mr. Keene" or even as "John 


H. Keene," but invariably as "John Henry Kecnc." Horse- 
back riding was his favorite recreation and he often rode along 
Charles street, his riding clothes of English make and of 
striking design and color. 

During Mr. Keene's legal career he developed a strong 
attack, and in the many famous cases with which he was 
connected (for the Keenes were one of the leading law firms 
of the city) he was an antagonist to be dreaded. After his 
retirement, in addition to the writings mentioned heretofore. 
he discussed every public movement or question of im- 
portance through the medium of the daily papers in much 
the same clear, forceful, logical style that he formerly used 
before the courts in behalf of his clients. He was exceedingly 
tenacious, and contested his argument to the end. He was 
opposed to the location of the statue of S. Teackle Wallis, in 
Mt. Vernon Square, and earnestly contended for a different 
site even after the statue had been erected. He frequently 
wrote in scatching criticism of various civic projects, and 
was an equally strong advocate for the man, or cause, he 
espoused. He was loyal in his friendship, and as a lawyer, 
noted for his devotion to a client's cause. His was a strong 
character, unmarred by anything petty or unworthy. He 
fought his battles in the open, and never resorted to any of 
the tricks of the pettifogger nor the demagogue, was a fair 
foe, and a trustworthy friend. His great sense of humor was 
most amusing, and he was a delightful conversationalist. 

John Henry (2) Keene married, in middle age, Fannie 
Howell Cook, daughter of a wealthy New York banker. 


"DORN in the State of Maryland, Mr. Palmer from the age 
of fifteen years was identified with the business life of 
the city of Baltimore, and he never relinquished his interest 
until the end of his life, although he was numbered among 
the octogenarians of Baltimore. He was a typical Southern 
gentleman, lovingly referred to as of the "old school," and 
while holding views on slavery radically different from neigh- 
bors and associates, he kept through storm and sunshine the 
love and esteem of all. While a successful business man and 
a heavy contributor to the commercial greatness of his city, 
Mr. Palmer's life was not lived sordidly, but the obligations 
of home, the demands of religion and the responsibilities of 
citizenship were most carefully considered and scrupulously 
met. He was a man of most pleasing personality, which drew 
to him the admiration, confidence and companionship of the 
finest men and women. But in his home he was at his best, 
and home was the center of the universe to him. There, too, 
he was most deeply appreciated, for he was of such great 
modesty that it was only through personal intimacy that it 
was possible to really know him. A characteristic of his 
nature was a deep love of nature as expressed in the fields and 
forest. His care of fine timber amounted almost to venera- 
tion, and early in life he taught his children in their walks 
to distinguish the different trees by their bark and foliage. 
Cheerful and sunny in disposition, he found good in every- 
thing, while to the unfortunate his purse was ever open. In 
his home a generous hospitality was dispensed, host and hostess 
vieing with each other in their desire to have each guest feel 
that they were welcome. 

In the Palmer records it is stated that the name came from 
the early ancestor who made the pilgrimage of the Holy Land, 


and the meaning of the palm was strength and ability to 
return to normal position no matter how bowed or crushed. 
In America this branch springs from John and Mary 
(Southery) Palmer, of Concord, then in Chester, now Dela- 
ware county, Pennsylvania. They came from England in 
1682, John Palmer having been born in that country in 1660, 
died 1742. A photograph of the "Deed of William Penn's 
Agents to John Palmer, 1688" is published in the "History 
of the Palmer Family" (by Lewis Palmer, of Concordville). 
The Palmer homestead, in good preservation, was built by 
Moses Palmer, grandson of John Palmer, "the settler," on 
the site of the original house. 

At this homestead in Concord, Delaware county, Penn 
sylvania, Pennell Palmer, father of Edward Livingston 
Palmer, and a direct descendant of John and Mary (Southery) 
Palmer, was born 4 mo. 15, 1798. From his father he learned 
the hatter's trade, and remained at home until of age, then 
located at Alexandria, Virginia, where he married Rebecca 
Neal McPherson, born 8 mo. 2, 1804, daughter of Daniel and 
Elizabeth (Grubb) McPherson, of Virginia. Soon after his 
marriage, 4 mo. 30, 1828, he returned to Concord, where two 
of his ten children were born. He remained in Concord two 
years, then purchased a farm in Howard county, Maryland, 
to which he removed. There eight children were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Pennell Palmer, several of whom died in in- 
fancy. Later in life he bought a farm in Montgomery county, 
Maryland, near Sandy Spring, a Friendly settlement, and 
there he and his wife resided until their death. His wife, 
Rebecca Neal (McPherson) Palmer, died 8 mo. 6, 1867, at 
Sandy Spring; he died 7 mo. 19, 1883, at the home of his SOD, 
Charles, in Baltimore, and both are buried in the graveyard 
of Sandy Spring Meeting. Mrs. Palmer was a direct descend 
ant of the McPhersons, who came to this country early in 


1600, and could trace her ancestry back through many genera- 
tions of sturdy Highlanders. Her son, Edward L. Palmer, 
was always proud of his Scotch blood, loved the songs and 
poets of Scotland, and when traveling in that land eagerly 
sought for mementos, and was deeply interested in all tales of 
history concerning his mother's people, the McPhersons. She 
was a woman of fine mind, and reared her children carefully, 
encouraging them in their reading and study, and exerting a 
wise, broad-minded policy in their upbringing. 

Edward L. Palmer, son of Pennell and Rebecca Neal 
(McPherson) Palmer, was born near Simpsonville, Howard 
county, Maryland, 8 mo. 8, 1833, and died at the home of his 
daughter, Eleanor (Palmer) Williams, 12 mo. 17, 1917. He 
remained there until he was fourteen years of age, when he 
went to Baltimore, Maryland. He entered the office of 
Crosby & Company, foreign fruit importers, of Baltimore, 
as a clerk, and continued his connection with that firm until it 
was dissolved, when he reorganized it under the name of 
E. L. Palmer & Company. Edward L. Palmer, in association 
with his brother, John M. Palmer, were importers and whole- 
sale dealers in foreign fruits, raisins, etc. The business was 
located at No. 107 West Lombard street, Baltimore, until the 
great fire of 1904, but immediately established themselves at 
No. 1 13- 1 15 Cheapside, in a very substantial structure, and 
continued the business there. His rise from clerk to owner 
in so comparatively a short time was due to his own ability 
under the spur of the influence, encouragement, and affection 
of his uncle, John D. McPherson, of Washington, D. C, a 
distinguished lawyer, who practiced before the Supreme 
Court of that city, who was a loved guide to the young lad 
who left home at so early an age. He read and studied 
under his uncle's suggestion, and in this way more than made 
good the advantages he had been deprived of by so early 
leaving school. 



t ID 

The firm, E. L. Palmer & Company, owned and operated 
in partnership with others some of the clipper ships which 
made Baltimore famous in the days when sail power only 
was employed in navigating ships. Their vessels brought car- 
goes of fruits and nuts to Baltimore wharves, Mr. Palmer dis- 
tributing them through his store organization to the retail 
merchants of the city and section. He continued his personal, 
active interest in the firm until the fire of 1904, then sur- 
rendered the management to younger shoulders, but always 
retained his financial interest in the business he entered as a 
lad of fifteen and left a veteran of seventy-one years. He lived 
thirteen years after retirement at the modern mansion he built 
at No. 112 Elmhurst Road, Roland Park, a suburb of Balti- 
more, but after the death of his wife, in 191 1, he resided with 
his son, Edward L., Jr., until increasing infirmities made it 
necessary that he be near his daughters. For two years he- 
divided his time between his three daughters, the end coming 
at the home of one of them in Philadelphia, after some months' 


Mr. Palmer belonged to that distinguished class of old- 
time merchants who, while bearing many business obligations, 
were able by foresight and ability to weather all financial 
storms and retained the confidence of customers and banking 
concerns throughout a long career without a single break. He 
was instrumental in establishing and was president of the 
first cold storage company in Baltimore. Yet he was always 
considered conservative, and toward the close of his life a 
bit "old fashioned/' but he held the esteem and trust of his 
associates, the merchants of Baltimore and elsewhere, to the 
very highest degree. Success was written large on all his 
business undertakings, and in no less a degree was his private 
life an unequalled success. 

Reared by his parents in the Orthodox branch of the 


Society of Friends, of which his father was a member, he con- 
tinued in that faith all his life. He was a friend to any move- 
ment tending to promote the welfare of his city, and in civic 
affairs always upheld the cause of good government. He 
loved music and the arts, was fond of travel, tastes shared by 
his wife, and together they enjoyed the refinements of culture 
and education to which their means entitled them. They were 
united in their desires for the education of their children, and 
the college training was given them which Mr. Palmer had 
been unable to secure for himself. He was an ardent Repub- 
lican, and kept fully abreast with the politics of county and 

Edward L. Palmer married, 10 mo. 25, 1859, Susan 
Catherine Boyd, born 10 mo. 25, 1836, died 1 mo. 27, 191 1, 
daughter of Hiram and Matilda (Harbaugh) Boyd, of 
Adamstown, Maryland. Her Grandfather Boyd voluntarily 
freed his slaves long before many of his Maryland neighbors 
and before the agitation concerning slavery had become gen- 
eral. He deemed slavery a wrong, and willingly sacrificed 
his property investment for conscience sake. Matilda Har- 
baugh was of Swiss ancestry, the Swiss ancestor who first came 
to this country, to escape religious persecution, finding a loca- 
tion in a beautiful valley near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
which to this day bears the name of Harbaugh Valley. Mrs. 
Susan Catherine Palmer, while she attended the services of 
the Society of Friends for many years with her husband, was 
more in sympathy with the Unitarian faith, and toward the 
end of her life affiliated with that church. She was a con- 
stant help to her husband and together they trod life's path- 
way for fifty-two years. Their union was a perfect one, each 
seeking the other's happiness, and in the search finding their 
own deepest joy. Five children came to the Palmer home, all 
of whom survive the parents, as do fifteen of their sixteen 


grandchildren who came into their lives at that period when 
the love of little children is precious beyond price. Chil- 
dren: Albert G., of Sandy Spring, Maryland, a graduate 
Ph.D. of Hopkins University; Eleanor, married Carroll R. 
Williams, of Philadelphia; Mrs. T. Janney Brown, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Mrs. R. E. Robinson, of New York; Edward 
L. (2), the only one of the family remaining in Baltimore. 
He is an architect, intimately connected with suburban de- 
velopment, especially in the Roland Park district. The re- 
mains of Mr. and Mrs. Palmer were interred at Druid Ridge 
Cemetery, Baltimore. 


TN the year 1800, Philip Benjamin Sadtler founded, upon 
Baltimore street, in Baltimore, Maryland, the jewelry and 
optical business to which his grandson, George W. Sadtler, 
succeeded, developed so successfully, and continued its able 
executive head until his death in 191 6, at the age of sixty- 

George W. Sadtler was a son of George T. Sadtler, who 
received the business from his father, and to which he admit- 
ted his sons, conducting it under the firm name, G. T. Sadtler 
& Sons, opticians and jewelers. The business was incorporated 
under that name, and as its president George W. Sadtler was 
long the responsible head. He was a man of strong character, 
and aided by a natural business ability won a commanding 
position in the business life of his city. Upright and honor- 
able, he bore himself manfully under all conditions, and went 
to his last home unafraid and unashamed. He played well his 
part in the drama of life, and the curtain never fell upon a 
more worthy man. He came from a long line of military 
ancestors. His great-grandfather, Captain Frederick Reese, 
(who married Anna Margaret Ulrichson, of Frederick 
county), held a commission in both the Revolutionary and 
the Indian War of 1795. His grandfather, Captain John 
Reese (who married Mary Zacharias, of Frederick county), 
was in the War of 181 2, being promoted for bravery. Philip 
Benjamin Sadtler (who married Katharine Capito Saner- 
wine) was captain of a company called the Baltimore Yae- 
gers during the War of 1812. Mr. Sadtler saw service, but 
his fame is founded upon his business success and the high 
place he attained in the jewelry and optical line, with which 
the Sadtler name has been connected for one hundred and 
sixteen years, 1800-1916, grandfather, father, and son having 


successively been the responsible heads. While the business 
will be continued under the old name, there is no son to suc- 
ceed the father, the descent now being through the female line. 

George W. Sadtler, son of George T. and Sarah (Reese) 
Sadtler, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, February 22, 1848, 
and died at his home, No. 26 East Twenty-fifth street, in the 
same city, October 2, 191 6. He was educated under the instruc- 
tion of the famed Dr. Dalrymple, and upon leaving school 
began business life as an employee of his father, who was 
head of the Sadtler optical business. After mastering the 
details of the business and acquiring expert optical knowledge, 
he was admitted to a partnership with his brothers, Herbert 
and Frank R., the firm name becoming G. T. Sadtler & Sons. 
In time he succeeded to the presidency of the corporation 
bearing the same name, and was one of the strong, influential 
business men of his city. He was one of the founders of the 
Maryland Optical Association, was chosen its first president, 
and until ill health compelled him to desist from all unneces- 
sary work he remained its executive head. 

Mr. Sadtler was a member of the Maryland National 
Guard, holding an officer's commission in the Fifth Regi- 
ment. In 1877 he served with his regiment in the quelling of 
the riots which in August threatened life and property through 
the strike of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad men, a general 
strike prevailing all over the country. He was wounded and 
promoted for bravery. After his resignation, in 1879, he 
became a member of the Fifth Regiment, Veteran Corps, of 
which he was a member until his death. He was a member 
of Mount Moriah Lodge and the Maryland Commandery of 
the Masonic Order, and when the last rites of the Episcopal 
church had been performed his brethren of the order con- 
ducted the impressive Knights Templar burial service accord- 
ing to the ritual of the commandery. He belonged to other 


organizations, including Boumi Temple, Order of the Mystic 
Shrine, and the Seventeen Club, composed originally of seven- 
teen members, who from 1886 had met annually to dine, the 
number constantly diminishing until, thirty years after its 
founding, but five men remain. 

Mr. Sadtler married, November 29, 1877, Delia Crom- 
well Banks, who survives him, daughter of Judge Thaddeus 
Banks, of Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, an eminent jurist of 
the Pennsylvania bar, now deceased, and Delia Cromwell 
(Reynolds) Banks, of Maryland. Two daughters also sur- 
vive their father: Kathleen Cromwell, who married Dr. Hous- 
ton Boyd Hiatt, of Clinton, North Carolina, and Sophia P. B., 
who married Edwin Uhthoff Heslop, of Baltimore. 


A LTHOUGH his years numbered eighty-seven, George A 

Pope spent them all in Baltimore, his business life begin- 
ning as a clerk at the age of fifteen and terminating with 
retirement half a century later. Important as were his busi- 
ness connections and literary taste, he was best known for 
his long association with Sheppard Asylum, afterward the 
Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital, an institution which he 
served as trustee thirty-six years, as president thirty-one years, 
and whose growth and present usefulness is largely due to his 
able guidance and broad vision. In fact, after his retirement 
from business in 1896, he gave himself unreserved!;.' to the 
affairs of that institution, and continued its faithful, deeply- 
interested friend until the last. This was but one of his philan- 
thropies, however, his generous heart finding many outlets 
for his unfailing kindness and charity- Although he hail been 
in failing health for several months and was bearing an unusual 
weight of years, he retained his mental vigor to a remarkable 
degree until the very last. He was one of the pioneers of 
the copper refining industry in Baltimore, and one of the best 
known of the older business men in the city. 

George A. Pope was born in Baltimore, Maryland, Sep 
tember 23, 1830, and died at the home of his daughter, Mrs 
Julian Stuart Jones, Fortieth and Oak streets, Baltimore, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1918. He attended Hallowell's School, in Alexan- 
dria, Virginia, until fifteen years of age, then became a clerk 
with Thompson & Oudesluys, and continued in mercantile lite 
until 1858, when he became interested in the refining of ^ 
per and other metals, a business with which he was connected 
in varied form and manner until his retirement in 1896. He 
was the senior partner of Pope & Cole until the dissolution 
of that firm, and then was manager and head of the Canton 
Copper Works, also of its successor, the Baltimore Copper 
Smelting and Refining Company. He was a pioneer in the 



business and won both reputation and fortune through his long 
connection therewith. For several years he was a director of 
the Savings Bank of Baltimore and of the Maryland Casualty 

His literary tastes were cultivated and given free rein, his 
interest increasing with his years. He was first a director 
and later, for a great many years, president of the Mercantile 
Library Association, and made that association a real benefit 
to the public, not only as a library, but as an educational cen- 
tre through his medium of entertaining and instructive courses 
of lectures. After the close of the war he was active in pro- 
viding school advantage for the newly-made freedmen, and 
accomplished a great deal of good in their behalf. He was a 
birthright member of the Society of Friends, connected with 
the Baltimore Meeting, Park avenue and Laurens street. He 
was a member of the Maryland Club and of the Maryland 
Historical Society. His greatest interest was displayed toward 
the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital, an institution with 
which he was connected from 1882 until his death. He served 
five years as a member of the board of trustees, 1882- 1887, 
and as president of the board, 1887-1918. 

Mr. Pope married (first), in 1857, Hannah L. Betts, of 
Philadelphia, who died in 1868, leaving a daughter, Eba, now 
a resident of Baltimore. He married (second), in 1871, Zayde 
A. Hopkins, who died in 1891, leaving two daughters: Mrs. 
Charles Sydney Winder, and Mrs. Julian S. Jones, both resi- 
dents of Baltimore, and a son: George A. (2) Pope, an 
enljsted member of Battery D, 1 10th Regiment, United States 
Field Artillery, who was in training for foreign service at 
Camp McClellan, Alabama. For a quarter of a century the 
family has spent their summers at their cottage, "Ninigret," 
at Watch Hill, Rhode Island, Mr. Pope being deeply in- 
terested in the success and development of that beautiful sea- 
side resort. 

wtx/UcUn, Jtc/m zSanew 


CEVENTY years, the full Biblical period of life allotted 
man, was vouchsafed Captain John Baker, and although 
born in another land than this, he was brought here so early in 
life that he knew no divided interest. Nearly one-half of his 
life was devoted to the service of the city of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, as a policeman, during which period he served in every 
capacity from patrolman to captain, only retiring from his 
force upon reaching the legal limit of age. Even after sever 
ing his connection with the Department of Public Safety, he 
continued in police and detective work privately, being em- 
ployed by the Baltimore Trust Company. He was one of 
the best known, vigorous and efficient members of the force, 
counted his friends as legion, among them some of the most 
influential and prominent men of his city 7 . He was the soul 
of fidelity to duty, moral, upright and honorable in his private 
life, cheerful and courteous even under the most trying cir 
cumstances. His charity knew no bounds, he gave freely 
according to his means and was ever ready with a hand to 
the unfortunate who sought his aid. He was active in church 
work, a true Christian in the fullest sense of the word. 

Captain John Baker was born in Germany, February 27, 
1846, died in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, January 2, 1 91 6. 
He was brought by his parents to Baltimore in 1852, and 
acquired his education in the public schools of the city which 
was ever his American home. After completing his studies 
he was variously employed, learning both the cigar making 
and baking trades. He was twenty-one years of age when, on 
May 22, 1867, he was appointed patrolman by the Baltimore 
Board of Police Commissioners and assigned to duty in the 
Western Police District. He early displayed a devotion | 
duty which marked him for promotion, which came to him 


through merit alone, September 24, 1875, when he was 
awarded a sergeantcy on the force. In that rank he served 
until October 31, 1882, when he was promoted lieutenant. He 
fully justified the expectations of the appointing powers in 
both the positions, and on July 17, 1884, he was raised to the 
grade of captain. All these years he had been retained in the 
Western District, but two years after his appointment to a 
captaincy he was transferred to the Southwestern District, go- 
ing to his new post, October 14, 1886, there remaining ten 
years. On September 5, 1896, he was transferred to the North- 
western District, there serving until his retirement on half pay, 
September 12, 1902, after a service of thirty-five years. After 
his retirement he was connected with several enterprises, then 
entered the service of the Baltimore Trust Company as pri- 
vate detective, so continuing until his death. 

Captain Baker was a deacon of the Christian Temple, the 
Grand Army Club, the Royal Arcanum and the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. Thus in usefulness his life 
was passed and the record of efficiency and honor shown by 
the books of the Police Department is not cleaner nor more 
honorable than that of his private life. Captain Baker mar- 
ried Mrs. Martha E. Close, who survives him. 


Alexander Murdoch, who was born in Scotland, Liter 
came to this country, locating in Baltimore, Maryland, to go 
in business with his uncle, Alexander Fridge, already estab 
lished in the wholesale dry goods business. Fridge <S; Mur- 
doch gave way to Alexander Murdoch & Company, the firm 
consisting of Alexander Murdoch, Alexander F. Murdoch and 
Charles McCoy. The business of the house was commission 
wholesale dry goods, and both father and son held prominent 
place among Baltimore commercial houses. 

Alexander Fridge Murdoch" was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland, July 4, 1833, and died at his apartments in The 
Anneslie, Baltimore, January 31, 191 7. He was educated at 
Mr. McNally's, a large, private school at that time, after 
which he began business life with his father. Alexander Mur 
doch, advancing from assistant to a partnership in the firm. 
Alexander Murdoch & Company. After the death of his 
father the firm was dissolved, but Alexander F. Murdoch 
continued the business under his own name at No. 17 West 
Baltimore street until his health failed, in the spring of 191^ 
when he retired from active pursuits, being then the oldest 
merchant in the city active in the wholesale dry goods trade. 
He was a director of the Bank of Baltimore for a number of 
years, and was identified with many charitable movements. 
He was one of the charter members, and until his death 
treasurer of the Baltimore Free Summer Excursion Society. 
formed in 1875, which owed its inception to his efforts. The 
Boys' Home also appealed to him and for a number of years 
he was a member of its board of directors. He was a loyal 
and devoted member of the First Presbyterian Church, and 
of St. Andrew's Society, an organization of which his tathcr 
was for many years president. 



In 1858 Mr. Murdoch married Florence Davies, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Jacob G. Davies, of Baltimore, who died April 
1, 1888. He is survived by three children: Davies Murdoch, 
Susan Turnbull Murdoch, and Mary Davies, who married 
Edward T. Norris ; and three grandchildren : Louise McKim 
Murdoch, daughter of Davies, and Alexander Murdoch and 
Edward Taylor Norris, sons of Mary Davies and Edward T. 


'"PHE career of Herbert Dalton Thompson was one winch 

every young man may regard with profit, and itt lesson 
should stimulate and encourage them. He rose from the rank] 
to a high position of trust with the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and during his thirty-three years' connection with that road 
never took a backward step, but steadily progressed, until he- 
reached the responsible position of treasurer. To begin at the 
bottom and to reach so commanding a position that the flags 
of a great railroad system flew at half mast in respect to his 
memory, until after his funeral, was the achievement of his 
life, and when men of his craft mention the name of Herbert 
Dalton Thompson it is with the respect gladly rendered to one 
regarded as among the best informed railroad men of the 
country. Although a resident of Baltimore from youthful 
manhood, Mr. Thompson was not a "native son," but was 
born in Wilmington, North Carolina. He was the second 
son of John W. and Louise Exum Thompson, and came from 
a family of railroad men, his father and grandfather both 
having been pioneer railroad builders of the South. His 
father was for many years treasurer of the Wilmington and 
Welden, Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta roads, after 
wards merged into the Atlantic Coast Line; and it was in 
his office that Mr. Thompson received his early business 

Herbert Dalton Thompson was born December 24, i860. 
while the dark storm clouds were gathering which were 1 
soon to burst and pour their dread storm of woe over the 
entire country and lay waste his own city and State. But. 
blissfully unconscious of the bitter struggle being waged, he 
g'rew to boyhood, and then to manhood, acquiring a good edu- 
cation and choosing the profession of an accountant. His 


preparatory education was acquired at Jewett's, a school justly 
famous in that section and one which has the proud record of 
having educated some of the most successful and distinguished 
men of the South. Later he was graduated from Burgess and 
Catletts Military Academy. 

He located in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1882, there secur- 
ing a clerical position with the Northern Central Railway 
Company, then, as now, a part of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
system. He was advanced as his ability was made manifest, 
and in each position he but demonstrated that he was capable 
of mastering deeper problems and carrying greater responsi- 
bilities. He was finally promoted to the post of assistant treas- 
urer of the Northern Central Railway Company, and at the 
time of his death was filling that position. In addition, he 
was assistant treasurer of the Union Railway Company, of 
Baltimore city, assistant treasurer of the Elmira and Lake 
Ontario Railroad Company, and treasurer of the Central Ele- 
vator Company. During his thirty-three years' connection 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad he won not only official posi- 
tion but high reputation among railroad men for his wide 
knowledge of railroad problems of management, not only 
those of his own financial department but of operating and 
managerial questions which required expert handling. His 
acquaintance among railroad men was very large, and when 
his death was made known, Gamble Latrobe, superintendent 
of the Baltimore division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, or- 
dered that all flags of the road be displayed at half mast. 
This order was endorsed by higher officials, and all flags of the 
road in Baltimore and Philadelphia were so displayed until 
after the funeral. He died in Baltimore, December 29, 1915, 
and is buried in Leake Cemetery, Rockingham, Richmond 
county, North Carolina. 

Mr. Thompson married Cecelia Covington, daughter of 



Edwin Poythress and Louise (Coleman) Covington, who sur 
vives him. Their children are: Nora Louise, who married 
Robert Peel Dicks, of New York; Herbert Dalton Thompson. 
Jr., who married Marguerite LeCron; Marguerite Vcrtncr 
wife of Warren A. Stewart, of Baltimore, and Edwin Coving 
ton Thompson, student in the Episcopal High School of Ak\ 
andria, Virginia. 


TX7ITH George Bunnecke passed from life one of the best- 
known and highly-esteemed German citizens of Balti- 
more, a man whose worth and charity was known all over the 
city, one whose fatherly ways and gentle hand, that was wont 
to give so willingly and liberally, is greatly missed. 

George Bunnecke was born near Quakenbruck, in the 
former Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, August 28, 1839, 
died at his home in the city of Baltimore, March 19, 1916. 
He was well educated in his native land, and there learned his 
trade, coming to the United States in 1864, a young man of 
twenty-five. He located in Baltimore, Maryland, and for 
several years was engaged in the building trade, and in 1871 
established in the contracting and building business under his 
own name, but later admitted his sons, operating under the 
firm name George Bunnecke & Sons. He continued in busi- 
ness until his death, but as years added their weight the heavier 
burdens were transferred to the stalwart shoulders of his sons, 
Henry G. and Julius G. Bunnecke, who were ever anxious to 
relieve their honored father of every burdensome duty. The 
firm transacted a very large business and in addition to the 
many fine private houses which were erected by Mr. Bunnecke, 
or under his supervision, he built Zion parish house, Odd Fel- 
lows Hall, the German Bank building, the Nurses' Home of 
the Hebrew Hospital, Levering Hall, several buildings at the 
Insane Asylum, at Bay View, many warehouses in our city, 
among them the five-story warehouse of A. Spear, on Eutaw 
street, "The Bourse," on Water street, the "German Cor- 
respondent" building, and several of the large buildings be- 
longing to the Crown Cork & Seal Company. He was also a 
director of the German Fire Insurance Company and, besides, 
had many minor interests in Baltimore. His reputation as an 




honorable and capable contractor was very high and his name 
was a guarantee of honest, faithful performance of every con 
tract he undertook, even though it may have turned out to be- 
an unprofitable one. 

In social life Mr. Bunnecke was well known and popular, 
and in philanthrophy his interest was unbounded. He was for 
many years a director of the German Orphan Asylum; presi- 
dent of the Unkel Braesig Verein; member of the Architects 1 
Exchange; the German Historical Society; the (iermania 
Mannerchor; the Technical Association; the Orphan Asylum 
Association; charter member and vice-president of the Ger- 
man Aged People's Home; director and vice-president of the 
German Society of Maryland; director of the Merchants' and 
Manufacturers' Permanent Building and Loan Association. 
At a meeting of the last named organization the following 
resolutions were inscribed on their minutes as tribute to the 
memory of the dead associate: 

In memory of George Bunnecke who departed this life. March 19, 
19 16, in his seventy-sixth year. 

By unanimous vote of the officers and Board <it Directors of the Mer- 
chants' and Manufacturers' Permanent Building and Loan A->ociation it 
was resolved, upon the twentieth day of March. 1916. to set aside this page 
of fts minutes as a tribute to the memory of one whose fidelity, untr 
interest and openhanded, unvarying assistance had contributed in unmea^ur- 
able degree to the successful activities of this Association. 

George Bunnecke, himself a man of domestic tastes, mu u nf a ilin g in 
his belief that the fireside is the foundation stone of the nation and he 
ever ready to lend material aid to those who sought to begin mature! re- 
sponsibilities by the establishment of a home. 

By further unanimous vote of the officers and Board of Direct I the 

Merchants' and Manufacturers' Permanent Building ami Loan AsBodal 
it was resolved that a copy of this minute be sen! to the familj 

George Bunnecke was one of the oldest members of ZlOll 


Church, was for sixteen years, during the most critical period, 
president of the Church Board, and upon his resignation was 
made its first honorary president. He had also been a 
director of Old Zion School. In Masonry he was a member 
of Germania Lodge, No. 160, Free and Accepted Masons; 
Adoniram Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; Monumental City 
Commandery, Knights Templar, and in the Ancient Accepted 
Scottish Rite held the thirty-second degree. In all the fore- 
going orders he took a deep interest and in his life exemplified 
their best tenets and most exalted principles. He was a good 
man, big-hearted and sympathetic, generous in all things, and 
left to his children an honored name. 

Mr. Bunnecke married, August 28, 1865, Miss Anna 
M. J. Cordes, born August 21, 1839, died May 3, 191 1, pre- 
ceding her husband to the grave. Six children survive their 
parents : Henry G. and Julius G., of George Bunnecke & Sons, 
their father's successors in business and for many years his 
partners; George, Jr.; William G. ; Theodore G., and an only 
daughter, Bernhardina, married, March 2, 1918, John Thomas 
Spicknall, resides at the old home, No. 104 Patterson Park 
avenue, Baltimore. 


TN 1877 William Leroy Russell, a young Southerner, aged 

twenty years, came to Baltimore and for forty years w.i 
resident, thirty of those years having been -pent in the service 
of the Western Maryland Railroad Company, as agent at 
Westminster, Fulton and Arlington. His home was in Wesi 
Arlington for many years, and there he was best known. I i 1 
life was one of earnest effort, his responsibilities beginning at 
the age of thirteen years, when the death of his father left him 
the support of his mother and younger brother. That tru-t 
was held sacred and was only relinquished when, in his 

mother passed beyond his loving care. He ranked high in 
public and private regard, continuing in active business until 
two years prior to his death, holding the office of police mag 
trate until the last. He was a descendant of the English Kus 
sell family, the founder coming to America at an early date. 
His father, Samuel Owens Russell, was an Alabama cotton 
dealer operating in both that State and Mississippi. He 
served the cause of the Confederacy in uniform, and ^pent his 
last years in Mississippi, where he died in 1870. Samuel 
Owens Russell married Eleanor Otten, and by her had the 
following children: Allen, died in childhood; William I.e 
roy, subject of this sketch; Charles, a railroad man, who lived 
in Mississippi; Jennie, who married William I) Martin, and 
made her home in Mississippi; Ellen, wife of A. B. Cha 
of Alabama; Delphia Anne, who married J. A. Wimbish, And 
resided at Moselle, Mississippi. All of these are deceased 
excepting Mrs. William I). Martin. 

William Leroy Russell was born in Mobile. Alabama. 
October 11, 1857, and in the schools ot Waynesboro, M M - 
sippi, he obtained his education. At the age ot thirteen he 
lost his father, and at the age of fifteen \\ - ; sen a position 


by his brother-in-law, a merchant of Jackson, Tennessee. 
There he remained four years, resigning his position as man- 
ager of a department, and coming to Baltimore in 1877. The 
first three years he was in the employ of the Singer Sewing 
Machine Company, in 1880 beginning a term of service with 
the Western Maryland Railroad Company, which terminated 
thirty years later, in 1910. He was at first carried as an 
"extra," but in a very short time he was appointed agent at 
Westminster, was transferred nine months later to Fulton sta- 
tion, and later to Arlington, where he continued agent until 
control of the road passed to other hands. During his thirty 
years with the Western Maryland he compiled a record of 
faithfulness barely, if ever, equalled, never being absent from 
his post a single day when it was his duty to have been there. 
Not only was he faithful, but efficient, his whole energy being 
always given to the duty in hand and every effort put forth to 
perform it well. 

After leaving railroad employ Mr. Russell established a 
real estate and fire insurance business, which he conducted 
until 191 5. He was then appointed police magistrate by Gov- 
ernor Harrington, and during his two remaining years of life 
he gave himself entirely to the duties of that office. West 
Arlington was his home for many years and he contributed 
largely to the development of that suburban town. He was 
a Democrat on national issues, but in local affairs very inde- 
pendent, choosing his candidate regardless of party. He was a 
member of Washington Camp. No. 69, Patriotic Order Sons 
of America ; charter member, and for more than twenty years 
treasurer of Arlington Council, Junior Order of American 
Mechanics; The Order of Railway Telegraphers; and from 
May 22, 1 89 1, postmaster at Arlington station. He was con- 
nected with the Arlington branch of the Commercial Bank 
of Maryland; with the Arlington Improvement Association, 


and was a charter member and vice-president of the Arlington 
Building and Loan Association. 

Mr. Russell married, in 1877, Annie Martin Granni 
who survives him, with four daughters: Lottie Louise Gran 
niss, married William Biggs; Emma May, married William 
E. Churm; Eleanor Leroy, married T. Walter Bell; \^n.\ 
Doline, married Edwin R. Greasley. The family home 
No. 4101 Groveland avenue, West Arlington, Baltimore, 
Maryland, and there Mr. Russell died, July 8, 1917, aged 
sixty years. 

The funeral of Mr. Russell was conducted at his home 
by the Rev. Dr. E. H. Lamar, pastor ot McKendree Metho 
dist Episcopal Church, Washington, D. C, assisted by the 
Rev. G. Pitt Beers, pastor of Liberty Heights Baptist Church. 
The pallbearers were members of the organizations to which 
he belonged, delegations from those bodies also attending, and 
later resolutions of respect and condolence were passed and 
sent to Mrs. Russell. Burial was in Druid Ridge Cemetery. 


"C*OR forty years Mr. Rhodes was a resident of Baltimore, 
prominent in business life, a devoted member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and a citizen of sterling 
worth: A man of attractive personality, lovable in character, 
loyal in his friendships and upright in all things, he had many 
friends, these including bishops and other dignitaries of the 
church. Rev. Sam P. Jones was his close friend, and it was 
due to the efforts of Mr. Rhodes that that great Southern 
Evangelist was able to hold his first meeting in Baltimore. A 
man of quiet, domestic taste, he was best appreciated by those 
who knew him intimately, and to that inner circle was revealed 
those noble traits of character which marked him as the true 
Christian gentleman. 

Oliver L. Rhodes was born at Bridgewater, in the Shen- 
andoah Valley, Virginia, in 1850, died at his home at Forest 
Park, Baltimore, Maryland, May 27, 191 5. When a mere 
boy he entered the Confederate service, serving the last two 
years in the cavalry under Colonel Mosby. He was but fifteen 
when the war closed, and from military he returned to school 
life. After completing his studies he remained in Virginia 
until 1875, then located in the city of Baltimore, ever after- 
ward his home. For eighteen years he was engaged in business 
as a wholesale dealer in hats, but later he became interested in 
other business activities of importance. 

He was a staunch Democrat of the Jeffersonian type, was 
for two years chief engrossing clerk of the Maryland Legisla- 
ture during Governor Crothers' administration, and at the 
time of his death was assessor to the Appeal Tax Court, a 
position he had held four years, and to which he had just 
been re-appointed by Mayor Preston. While he had ever 
been an active party worker, he never sought office for him- 


self, the above being the only public positions he ever accepted. 

He was a prominent figure in Baltimore Methodism, de 
voted to the interests of his church, serving for twenty five 
years on the official board of Emmanuel Method isl Episcopal 
Church South. He was very proud of his church, attended 
many of the annual conferences, and delighted in the friend 
ships he held among the clergy, many of whom he entertained 
most enjoyably at his hospitable home. Said one writer who 
had been entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Rhodes in "princely 
style" : "An atmosphere of culture and refinement threw about 
the home an indescribable charm. There a gue>t for week] 
the memories of that stay still linger with us as an evening 

Mr. Rhodes married, in 1882, Mary Cochran, a resident 
of Baltimore, who survives him, with one son, K. Oliver 

MD- il 


A RESIDENT of Baltimore from 1899, Mr. Rokos was 
the most prominent of men and most successful merchant 
of Northeast Baltimore, known to all his twenty thousand 
countrymen in the city as the "King of Bohemia." He took 
a deep interest in public community affairs, and in all move- 
ments that tended to better civic conditions. He was a public- 
spirited, progressive citizen, allied with the progressive sec- 
tion of the Democratic party, and labored ardently for Presi- 
dent Wilson's election. 

Jaroslav J. Rokos was born in Caslav, Bohemia, and came 
to the United States when twenty-six years of age. He was a 
baker by trade, and for ten years after coming to this country, 
conducted a bakery in New York City. About 1899 (or 1897), 
he located in Baltimore, Maryland, and here again established 
a bakery, making a specialty of rye bread. Through his busi- 
ness acumen he built up a lucrative business, and his bakery 
became one of the best known in the city. His first stores on 
Barnes street proved inadequate and were enlarged, but in 
turn they too were outgrown, and at the time of his death, in 
1913, he was perfecting plans for the construction of one of 
the largest bakeries in the city. He prospered abundantly, but 
not for himself alone, for he was most charitable, and gave 
thousands upon thousands of loaves to the poor, and was their 
staunch friend in winter and summer, through evil and good 
repute. He subscribed liberally to all propositions for the 
betterment of the people, and labored in season and out of 
season for those causes which promised better things. 

While strong in his belief in the principles of the Demo- 
cratic party, he was independent, and above political trickery, 
always in touch and sympathy with the progressive spirit, 
active in the political and industrial welfare of his city. He 


had open to him the whole field of opportunity given by 
Democratic institutions, and, in 1909, he entered the politic. il 
arena as an anti-organization candidate in the primaries for a 
seat in the City Council. He was defeated that year, hut in 
191 1 again was a candidate, but the Democratic organization 
was strong in its support of another candidate, and Mr. Ro\ 
was defeated. He was to have made a third attempt, which 
would undoubtedly have been successful, as he had won to his 
cause in the two previous campaigns legions of followers. 1 Ic 
was one of the committee of party advisers to the Democratic 
State Central Committee, and a delegate t<> the Maryland 
State Democratic Convention of 1912, which declared in favor 
of the nomination of Woodrow Wilson for the presidency. 
He was a member of the Fraternal Order of i : the 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Hlk>; the Impro. 
Order of Heptasophs; Sekol Jednota Blesk, and other Bohe- 
mian societies. Mr. Rokos married Katherinc Sesula, who 
survives him with six children: Ella Ree, (Catherine, Ernes 
tine, Amelia, Birdie P. and William J. Rok 

In every field of endeavor he entered, Mr. R<>k"-> was 
active, and knew what it was to work out for himself the 
problems which, when solved, brought him succej His 
heart, mind, service, and his ambitions were always in the 
service of the people he so much loved and trusted, And their 
love in turn for him was strikingly attested when, at the time 
of his death, on every street corner in Northeast Baltimore, 
groups gathered and discussed the sad event. He died An 
gust 2, 1 9 1 3, and is buried in the Bohemian National Ceme 
tery, his funeral the largest ever held in Northeast Baltimore. 


T^7HEN a child of three years, Mr. Weber was brought to 
the United States by his parents from their native Ger- 
many, and with the exception of an interval of but a few years, 
his after life was spent in Baltimore. He loved the city of his 
adoption and was always actively interested in its development. 
The branch of the Weber family in Germany to which he 
belonged was distinguished for its service in the cause of 
religion and the church, and in recognition of that distin- 
guished service, any theological seminary of the Lutheran 
Church in Germany was open to any male member of the 
family, free of charge. 

August Carl Weber was born at Lassphe, Westphalia, 
Germany, October 5, 1862, died in the city of Baltimore, 
Maryland, July 30, 191 5, son of Carl Christian and Christina 
(Loos) Weber. He was brought to this country by his 
parents in 1865, the family locating in Baltimore, where Carl 
Christian Weber (father) became a prominent business man. 
In 1867 young August C. Weber was taken back to Germany 
and there remained until twelve years of age, then was returned 
to his parents in Baltimore, which was ever afterwards his 
home. He attended school in Germany, and after his return 
to Baltimore, completed the full course of the schools of the 
city. Later he pursued a four years' course at Baltimore City 
College, whence he was graduated, class of 1883. 

After graduation he began business life as clerk with 
Kahn & Schloss, merchant tailors, remaining in that employ 
for several years. His next position was with the Torsch 
Packing Company, then began his long connection with the 
George Gunther Brewing Company. He was engaged until 
1900 as their bookkeeper, but when the company was reor- 
ganized as a corporation in that year, he became a stockholder. 


and secretary, of the George Gunther, Jr., Brewing ( om 
pany, filling that office until his death. I [e was also secret 
of the Germania Building and Loan Association for sixto 
years, and of the Lloyd Permanent Building and Savings Ai 
ciation for twenty-one years, having been one ol the organizers 
and charter members of the latter association. 

Mr. Weber was a member of Monumental I Free 

and Accepted Masons; past high priest of Phoenix Chapter, 
No. 7, Royal Arch Masons; member of Baltimore Com- 
mandery, No. 2, Knights Templar, and .1 past eminent com- 
mander of the last named body. He was ail active member 
of Zion Lutheran Church and ever one of its generous sup 
porters. He was a careful, systematic business man, his 
and accounts models of neatness and accuracy. I le was highly 
regarded as a man of strictest integrity and p jed the per- 
fect confidence of his associates in business. In private life he 
was genial, friendly and companionable, ig many 

warm friends, and in fraternity and church was both active 
and useful. He was bountiful in his charity, but gave quietly, 
none ever being turned away were they in need ol stance. 
The directors of the Lloyd Permanent Building and Savii 
Association, of which he was a founder, adopted the foil 
resolutions at a meeting held after his death: 

Whereas it lias pleased the Great and Only Givei f Life 1 

from our midst our friend and secretary, August C. Weber, and 

Whereas by his demise we have lost a true and valued friend and the 
Association an earnest and conscientious worker; 

Therefore, Be It Resolved, That we how to the Will I ( > I 
shapes all destinies. 

Resolved, That by his death we mourn one, who b\ his intt 
straightforwardness, his firmness oi character and sense ot dul mi n d e d 

the respect of all. 

Resolved, That we extend the family of the deceased our most be 
sympathy in this, the hour of their bereavement. 



Resolved, That a copy of the resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of the Association. 

Mr. Weber married Miss Lena Kohlhepp, of Baltimore, 
who survives her husband with one daughter, Ruth. The 
family residence is No. 2612 East Baltimore street. 


AT the age of seventy-three years, Benjamin i . Nicoll 

passed to the reward which awaits the JUS1 m.m. and .1 
life of great usefulness closed. He was bom in [84 ind 
died March 2, 1915, being yet the able and capable presidi 
of Charles F. Eareckson & Company, one ol Baltimore's lead- 
ing commercial houses. He had been a resident oi Baltimore 
all his life, and was a descendant of an ancient English family. 
During the War between the States he enlisted and served 
in the United States Navy, and was a part of the attacking 
force at Fort Fisher. He was a member of the Veteran Naval 
Corps and the Royal Arcanum. He is survived by three 
brothers, one of them, Rev. William Nicoll, now living at 
York Road and Hutchins avenue, Baltimore. 



Abell, Anna T., 66 

Arunah S., 13, 42, 66, 428 

Caleb, 13 

Charles S., 430 

Edwin F., 20, 39, 66 

Elizabeth M., 42 

George W., 21 , 428 

Jane F., 430 

Margaret, 42 

Mary, 20 

Preserved, 13 

Robert, 13 

W. W., 42 

Walter K., 21 
Agnus, Annie E., 12 

Felix, Gen., 12 
Ashby, John, Col., 437 

Mary, 442 

Nathaniel, Capt.. 438 

Thomas A., Dr., 437. 438 

Baker, John, Capt., 723 

Martha E., 724 
Bernard, Alfred D., 271 

Richard, 271 

Richard C, 273 

Theresa E., 273 
Blakiston, George, 470, 473, 477 

James T., 474 

John, 471, 472, 473 

Marmaduke, Rev., 470 

Maud B., 478 

Nehemiah, 471 

Nehemiah H., 473 

Teackle W., 474 

Bland, John, 595 

Richard, 595 

Richard, Col., 595 

Theodorick, 595 
Bond, Christiana, 52 

John, 50 

Peter, 48, 49 

Thomas, 49, 51 

Thomas E., Dr., 48, 51 
Bowdoin, George E., 68 

Katherine G., 70 

William G., 68 

William G., Jr., 70 
Bowie, Alice, 398 

John, 386 

Oden, Gov., 386, 394 

Walter, 388 

William, 391 

William, Capt., 386 

William D., 391 
Brashears, James H. B., Lieut., 

James R., 406, 409 

John W., 409 

Matilda, 412 
Brooke, James, 233, 234 

Thomas, 229 

Richard, 229 

Robert, 230 

Roger, 232, 233 
Brooks, Chauncey, 546 

Chauncey, Lieut., 546 

Marilla, 550 

Mary, 550 

Walter B., 374 



Brown, Alexander, 371, 414, 415 

George, 371, 414 

George S., 414 

Harriet, 415 

Isabella, 372 
Bryan, William S., 294 

William S., Jr., 293, 294 
Bunnecke, Anna M. J., 732 

George, 730 

George, Jr., 732 

Henry G., 732 

Julius G., 732 

Theodore G., 732 

William G., 732 

Cabell, Nicholas, 94 

Nicholas, Col., 95 

Robert G., 94 

William, Dr., 94 

William H., 95 
Caughy, Charles M., 706 

M. Alice, 707 

S. Hamilton, 706 
Clark, Edward I., 703 

Emma, 705 

Frances A., 705 

James A., 703 
Clautice, Alice, 302 

George, 301 

George J., 302 

Peter, 301 

William F., 301 
Cohen, Bertha, 676 

David I., 676 

Israel, 675 

Justina, 678 

Mendes, 675, 676 
Cole, Elizabeth, 153 

James, 1 52 

Robert C, 152 
William, 152 

Dawkins, James, 419 
James A., 420 
Joseph, 417, 418, 419 
Walter I., 417, 420 
William, 418, 419 
Young P., 420 

Donnelly, Daniel, 297 
Edward A., 300 
Francis X., 300 
Mary H., 300 

Dorsey, Edward, 610 
Edward, Col., 611 
Joshua, 612 
Philemon, 613 

Dugan, Charles N, 670 
Cumberland, 668, 669 
Cumberland, Jr., 670 
Emily C, 670 
Ferdinand C, 670 
Hammond J., 670 
Harriet, 670 
Thomas B., Gen., 670 

Duvall, Barton, 138 
Gabriel, 136 
Mareen, 132, 136 
Richard I., 132, 138 
Richard M., 140 
Samuel, 137 

Eaton, Abijah H., 268 
Clarence J., 270 
Emma, 270 
Francis, 268 
Friend, 268 
Harriet E., 270 
Nathaniel, 268 



Ellicott, Andrew, 235 

George, 236 
Elliott, Lily, 229 

Marshall, Dr., 229 
Ely, Eliza J. C, 457 

Jesse F., 454, 456 

Judah, Rev., 454 

Lois A., 457 
Ensor, Irma, 206 

John S., 202 

Fisher, Charles D.. 34 
David, 34 
James I., 443 
Louise, 545 
Margaret, 444 
Nannie P., 37 
Richard D., 443 
William, 34, 542 
William A., 542 

Frick, Anne E., 628 
James S., 628 
John C, 620 
Mary, 621 
Peter, 621 
William, 620, 621 
William F., 626 

Friez, Cordelia, 336 
Frederick J., 336 
Jean J., 333 
Joseph, 332 
Julien M., 336 
Julien P.. 332, 333 
Lucien L., 336 

Fulton, Albert K., 12 
Caroline, 12 
Charles C, 1,4 
Charles C, Jr., 12 
Emily J., 12 

George, 2 

Gaither, Daniel, 572 

George R., 572 

Sophia B., 575 

Thomas H., 572, 574 

Thomas H., Jr., 575 
Gallagher, Charles W., Rev., 166, 

Emily A., 169 

Evangeline, 169 

John C, 167 

Samuel C, 167 
Gans, Daniel, Rev., 638 

Edgar H., 637, 638 

Elizabeth V., 642 

Hilary W., 642 

J. Edgar, 642 

James D., 642 
Garrett, Alice, 24 

John, 359 

John W., 23, 359, 364 

Mary E., 369 

Rachel A., 369 

Robert, 359 

Thomas H., 23 
Gill, Agnes, 76 

Florence E., 700 

John, 631 

John, Gen., 631, 633 

Louise W., 636 

Nicholas R., 75 

Richard W., 632 

William D., 697 

William D., Gen., 697 
Gilpin, Bernard, 480, 483. 484 

Bernard, Jr., 485 

Frank, 485 

Gideon. 483 



Henry B., 485 
Joseph, 482, 483 
Mary, 485 
Thomas, 482 
Gorman, Arthur P., 347 

Hambleton, Anna B., 512 

Frank S., Gen., 505, 511 

John, 505, 506 

Thomas E., 506, 507 

William, 505 
Harvey, Roland B., 316 

William P., 316 
Hayes, Julia, 65 

Thomas C, Rev., 60 

Thomas G., 58, 60 
Hill, Bancroft, 178 

Charles E., 170 

Eben C, Dr., 178 

Ebenezer, 170 

John P., 178 

Joseph B., 170, 173 

Kate, 174 

Ralph, 170 

Samuel, 170 
Holloway, Charles T., 446 

Ella V., 446 

Reuben R., 445, 446 

Robert, 446 
Homer, Charles C, 184, 185 

Charles C, Jr., 188 

Christopher, 185 

Frances M., 187 

Francis T., 188 

Henry L., 188 

Robert B., 188 
Hopkins, Johns, 337 

Samuel, 337 
Hunt, Job, 692, 693 

William B., 691, 694 
Hurst, Edward, 498 

John E., 498, 500 

Mary R. S., 504 

Samuel E., 499 

Stephen, 500 
Hutzler, Albert D., 292 

David, 286, 288 

Ella J., 292 

Joel G. D., 292 

Moses, 288 

Iglehart, James D., Dr., 518 
Monterey, 518 

Jenkins, Charles C, 113 

George C, 113 

Joseph W., 113 

Mary I. P., 116 

Michael, m, 113 

Thomas C, 1 12 
Johns, Bessie, 688 

Richard H., 687 

Richard H., Jr., 687 

Rosella, 688 
Johnson, John, 342 

Reverdy, 342 
Jolliffe, John, 237, 239 

John, Capt., 238 

Joseph, 237 

William, 237, 238 

Kealhofer, Elizabeth L., 307 

George, 305 

Henry, 305 

Theobald, 305 

William, 305 
Keene, Fannie H., 711 

John H., 708 



John H., Jr., 708, 709 

Laura, 710 

Mary, 710 

Robert G., 708 

Samuel Y., Dr., 708 
Keyser, Dirck, 487, 488 

Mary H., 497 

Robert B. (R. Brent), 497 

Samuel, 488 

Samuel S., 488 

William, 486. 489, 497 
Kirk, Albina. 281 

Eliza, 282 

Godfrey, 274 

Henry C, 281 

Henry C. Jr., 282 

Isaac, 275 

John, 274, 275 

Joseph, 276 

Lucy S., 282 

Samuel, 274, 280 

Virginia E., 282 
Knott, Aloysius L., 519 

Edward, 519 

James, 519 

Regina M., 533 

Zachary, 519 

Lanahan, Annie R., 109 

Charles M., 109 

William, 109 
Lane, Alexander M., 45 

Charles S., 43 

Charles S., Jr., 45 

Hetty, 45 

John C, 43, 46 

John M., 45 
Langhammer, Emma V., 684 

Ernest. 682 

John F., 681, 682 

John F., Jr., 684 

Karl, 684 
Latrobe, Benjamin H., 561 

Charlotte V., 565 

John H. B., 561 

Maria, 565 
Lawrason, James, 614 

Thomas, 614 
Levering, Jacob, 617 

Rosier, 614 

Septimus, 618 

Wigard, 615 

McCosker, Daniel, 671 

Thomas, 671 
McKim, John, 161 

Mary S., 164 

Robert, 163 

Robert V., Dr., 161. 164 

Thomas, 161 

William D., 163 

W T illiam J. A., 165 
McLean, Catherine, 469 

Colin, 466, 467 

George, 469 
Machen, Arthur W.. 577, 580 

Lewis H., 577 

Minnie J., 584 

Thomas, 577 
Malcolm, James, 403 

Peter, 403 

Rachel C, 404 
Marriott, Aline T., 267 

John, 267 

William H., 266 
Mergenthaler, Emma, 571 

Eugene G.. 571 

Herman. 571 



John G., 568 

Ottmar, 567, 568 
Miller, Daniel, 535 

Daniel, Jr., 537 

Edward R., 537 

Henry C, 537 

Mary W., 537 
Morris, John T., Col., 71 

Virginia C, 73 
Morrow, Amanda C, 182 

George, 179 

Kathry A., 183 
Munnikhuysen, Bessie A., 401 

Howard, 399 

W. T., Dr., 399 
Murdock, Alexander, 725 

Alexander F., 725 

Davies, 726 

Florence, 726 

Susan T., 726 

Newbold, David, 322 

David M., 320, 323 

David M., Jr., 325 

Eliza, 324 

Eugene S., 325 

Francis, 322 

James B., 325 

James F., 322 

Thomas, 320 
Newcomer, Amelia L., 385 

Benjamin F., 378, 379 

Henry, 378 

John, 378 

Sidonia, 385 
Nicolai, Charles D., 539 

Charles H., 539 

Charlotte R., 541 
Nicoll, Benjamin C, 743 

William, Rev., 743 

Noonan, Elizabeth, 690 

Robert J., 689 
Norris, Edward T., 726 

Mary D., 726 

Ould. Elizabeth C, 255 
Henry, 250 
Henry L. S., 250 
Marion H., 255 
Mary S., 255 

Palmer, Albert G., 717 

Edward L., 712, 714 

Edward L., Jr., 717 

John, 713 

Pennell, 713 

Susan C, 716 
Pardee, Charles H., 686 

Eli S., Prof., 685 

Ernest B., 686 

John E., 686 

Margaret, 686 

S. Colquitt, 686 

Stephen E., 685 
Parsons, Alfred V., Dr., 652 

Benjamin W., 652 

Eliphalet, 650 

Eliphalet, Jr., 652 

Jonathan, 650 

Luther M., Dr., 652 

Susanna A., 652 

William E,, 652 
Patterson, George F., 86, 87 

William, 86 
Peirce, George, 252 

Isaac, 254 

Job, 255 

Joshua, 253, 254 
Pitts, Ellen L., 660 

Sullivan, 659 


Sullivan, Jr., 660 

Thomas G., 659 

Tighlman G., 660 
Poe, George, 193 

Jacob, 194 

John, 193 

John P., 193, 196 

Neilson, 195 
Polk, Anderson, 426 

Charles P., 424 

David P., 426 

Lou E., 426 

Robert, 423 

Robert, Capt., 424 

William S., 422, 424 
Pope, George A., 721 

George A., Jr., 722 

Hannah L., 722 

Zayde A., 722 
Porter, James, 447 

Robert, Lieut., 447 
Preston, Emma L., 3 1 5 

James, 313 

James O., 315 

Radcliffe, George L., 261 

James S., 258, 261 

John, 257 

John A. L., 257, 258 

Rebecca, 260 

Richard, 257 

Sophie D., 261 

Thomas B. T., 261 
Reed, Andrew, 120 

Emilie, 131 

John, 119 

Joseph, 120, 121, 129 

Thomas, 110 

William, 118, 131 

William B., 130 
Rhodes, E. Oliver, 737 

Mary, 737 

( Hiver L., 7 {6 
RiggS, Alice, 607 

Clinton L., 609 

Elisha, 599, 607 

John, 605 

Lawrason, O07 

Mary A., 607 

Mary A. J., 6lO 

Samuel, 599, 606 

William II.. 607 
Ritchie, Albert, 89 

Albert, Dr., 8g 

Albert C, 94 

Elizabeth C, 
Rokos, Ella R., 7 jg 

Jaroslav J., 738 

Katherine, 739 

William J., 730 
Rouse, Beekman O., 

E. Louisa. 169 
Russell, Annie M.. 7 ] s 

Samuel O., 733 

William L., 733 

Sadtler, Delia C, 720 
George T.. 7 1 8 
George W.. 718, 710 

Philip B.. 718 
Schley. Anna R., ;sS 
John T.. 
Thomas I'., Lieut.. 

Winfield S.. Admiral, J56 

Winlield S., Dr., ' 

Shriver, Andreas, 66j 

Andrew. 662 

David, 66 1 . I 



Elizabeth R., 666 

Joseph, 66 1 

Joseph N., 667 

Robert T., 667 

Thomas H., 661, 664, 665 

William, 663 

William H., 667 
Shryock, Catherine B., 558 

Henry, 555 

Henry S., 555 

Jacob, 555 

Maria, 558 

Thomas J., Gen., 555, 557 
Smith, Alexander, Rev., 283 

Emma B., 285 

Frances R., 285 

Franklin H., 285 

Helen A., 210 

Henry, 283 

James H., 283, 284 

Robert, 207 

Robert H., 207, 208 
Snowden, Philip, 107 

Richard, 105 

Richard, Capt., 102, 104 

Richard H., 108 

Samuel, 106 

Samuel P., 108 
Spence, Charlotte, 159 

Mary A., 159 

William W., 154, 157 

William W., Jr., 160 
Spicknall, Bernhardina, 732 

John T., 732 
Stabler, Carrie E., 85 

Edward, 81, 83 

Ellen W., 85 

Jordan, 81, 83 

William, Dr., 82 

Stanley, Charles H., 245, 246 

Ella L., 249 

Harvey, Rev., 245 

John, 245 

John W., 245 

Margaret, 249 

William, 249 
Stump, Bertram N., 649 

Herman, Col., 643, 647 

Johann, 643 

John, 644 

John W., 645 

Mary F., 649 
Swan, James, 630 

John, Gen., 629 
Sweeney, Margaret, 304 

Peter, 303 
Swindell, Margaret A., 256 

Walter B., 256 

Taneyhill, Caroline A., 151 

G. Lane, Dr., 149 

G. Lane, Jr., 151 

Ruth H., 151 

Thomas, Rev., 149 
Thorn, Alexander, 587 

Catherine G., 592 

Ella L., 592 

Hunt R. M., 592 

J. Pembroke, 592 

John W. T., Col., 587 

Joseph P., Dr., 587, 588 

Pembroke L., 592 

William H. D. C, 592 
Thomas, Allison, 148 

Armstrong, 148 

Carroll, 148 

Douglas H., 190 

Douglas H., Jr., 189, 190 


Eliza S., 243 

Elizabeth L., 192 

Fantelina, 147 

James W., 142, 143, 146 

John, 143 

John C, 97 

John C, Dr., 99 

John H., 240 

Lawrence B., Rev., 96, 99 

Mary B., 101 

Mary T., 242 

Philip, 96 

Richard, 145 

Samuel, 96, 97 

Thomas, 142 

William, Maj., 143, 144 
Thompson, Cecelia, 728 

Edwin C, 729 

Herbert D., 727 

Herbert D., Jr., 729 

John W., 727 
Todd, Bernard, 449 

Thomas, 447, 448, 449 
Torsch, Charles B., 461 

Charles H., 458 

Emma M., 461 

Henry F., 458 
Tottle, James, 451 

Mollie E., 453 

Morton P., 453 

William A., 451 
Travers, Elisabeth, 264 

Thomas, 263 

Thomas B., 262, 263 
Trippe, Andrew C, 53, 55 

Andrew N., 56 

Caroline A., 56 

Edward, 54 

Henry, Lieut. -Col., 53 

James, S4 

James M., 56 

Joseph E., 54 

William, 54 
Trundle, Anne M., \z 

David, 26 

Harris W., ^ 

John, 27 

Otho, 28 

Otho W.. 28 

Wilson B., 26, 31 
Tuck, Dorcas V., So 

Grace G., 80 

Philemon H., 77, 78 

William, 77 

William H., 77 
Tucker, Alice S., 680 

Benjamin O. H., 680 

Claude E., 680 

Helen, 680 

Philip W., 680 

W. Frank, 67^ 

William, 679 
Tyson, Elisha, 224 

Frances E., 229 

Frances H.. 2 29 

Isaac. 223 

James E.. 221, 227 

Mathias, 222 

Natlian, 225 

Reynear. 22 1 

Wagner, James V., 99 

Julia. 99 
\\ JHs, Philip. i.<0 

Samuel, 340 

Severn T., ; 
Warfield, \ t< 2it 

Benjamin. 214 



Benjamin, Capt., 214 

Edwin, 212, 219 

Edwin, Jr., 220 

Emma, 219 

John, 214 

Joshua, 216 

Richard, 213 
Watson, Sarah A., 518 

Thomas A., 513 

William H., Col., 513 
Ways, Charles E., 326, 327 

Elizabeth V., 331 

Margaret E., 331 

Max, 331 

Thomas F., 331 
Weber, August C, 740 

Carl C, 740 

Lena, 742 

Ruth, 742 
White, Benjamin, 30 

John, 29 

Nathan S., 30 

W T illiam, 30 

William S., 29 
Wilde, George C, 165 

Mary A., 165 
Williams, Cecelia,- 553 

Georgeanna, 312 

Henry, 308, 309, 310 

Henry, Rev., 308 

John, 552 

John T., 552 

Nellie C, 554 
W T inans, Julia, 355 

Ross, 354 

Thomas D. K., 355 

William L., 355 
Winder, Charles S., 722 
Witzenbacher, Catherine, 436 

Nannie, 436 

William, 431 

William J., 431 
Wright, Nathaniel, Capt., 596 

Robert, 597 

Solomon, 596 

William H. D. C, 597 
Wylie, Douglas M., 462, 463 

Robert M., 462 

Young (Youngs), Abram V. E., 
Maj., 657 
Alice G., 658 
Benjamin, 656 
Calvin, 657, 658 
Douglas E., 653 
John, Rev., 656 
Seth, 657 
Walter D., Maj., 653, 658 







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