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Nearly out of Print; 273 + 14 Pages, - Price, $2.00. 



Reprinted from the above Genealogy, pp. 136, - Price $1.50. 




Reprinted from the above works, pp. 19, - - Price, $0.50. 


With plates, pp. 47, - - - - Price, $0.75. 

[In the latter work the method given, with formulae and tables, was devised by the author 
for his own use, and has been used by him yearly in projecting solar eclipses and in connec- 
tion with other duties in the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac] 


For the above works, address the author, 


The Clarendon, 

Washington, D. C. 
TESTIMONIALS- -See Other Side. 



Extracts from the letter of the Hon. Thomas F. Bayakd, LL. D., 
as printed in the Genealogy and Life, accepting the dedication : 

Wilmington, Del., March 25, 1890. 

Deak Sir : Since receiving your letter of December 23d, the proof sheets 
of the " Life of Thomas McKean, LL.D." have been duly sent to me, and 
I now congratulate you upon the successful completion of your labors. 

I accept with pleasure the honor of your dedication, and as an American, 
especially as a citizen of Delaware, I am justly proud to be thus associated 
with the Memorial of a patriot, statesman, and jurist, so distinguished as 
Thomas McKean. * * * 

As his kinsman and descendant, you have performed a pious duty in com- 
piling with simple accuracy a full and faithful record of the life-work of 
your ancestor, and the picture you have given of his private as well as of his 
public character and career is just and true. 

As a citizen, you have done public service in contributing an important 
chapter in the veritable history of laying the foundations of the Government 
whose blessings we now enjoy, and which it is the duty of each of us to assist 
in transmitting unimpaired to posterity. 

I am, dear sir, respectfully and truly yours, 


Dr. John K. Quinan, of Baltimore, Historiographer of the Mary- 
land Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, author of Medical An- 
nals of Baltimore, etc.: 

I have been so engrossed in reading your work on the " McKean Family " 
that I came near forgetting to thank you for it, which I now do most heartily. 

It is a very valuable addition to historical literature, and, from the close 
and distinguished connection which many of the subjects bear to our 
country's annals, one of national interest and importance. 

The new light you throw on the vexed question of the date of signing the 
Declaration settles it forever, and the book will be quoted as decisive au- 
thority on this topic. 

The care youshow in verifying dates, and the very lucid manner you adopt 
in arranging the respective genealogies, is very commendable, and should be 
adopted more generally than it is by compilers of genealogy. 

His Excellency the Marquis de Casa Ykujo, Madrid, Senator of 
Spain, great-grandson of Governor Thomas McKean : 

[This letter is written in English.] 

Your letter of the 4th instant duly reached me, together with the genealogy 
of the McKean family, and the other interesting books that you kindly sent 

I have looked over them with great interest and pleasure, and appreciate 
the very great work and attention that you have needed to prepare the books. 

Allow me to congratulate you and to congratulate the McKean family about 
your exhaustive history of Governor McKean and his descendants, and to 
thank you most sincerely for the very handsome copy that you have had the 
goodness to send me, and which shall be carefully kept amongst my family 

I avail myself of this opportunity, my dear Mr. Buchanan, to renew the 
assurance of my consideration, and pray you to believe me always, yours 
very sincerely, M. CASA YEUJO. 

John Buchanan Hamilton, Esq., of Leny, Spittal, and Bardowie, 
hereditary chief of the Buchanan Clan, Scotland : 

I am very much obliged to you for the copy you have sent to me ; as yet 
I have merely had time to glance through its contents, but I have seen 
enough to satisfy me that it is a work of immense research and labor, and 
could only have been compiled by one who had all his life been not only in- 
terested in family history, but who has been also a most industrious collector 
of names, facts, and dates. 

I think it was Mr. Gladstone who remarked that he had always regarded 
the Constitution of the United States as one of the greatest efforts of intel- 
lectual statesmanship ever accomplished, and in this Thomas McKean seems 
to have taken a large and active share. 

Judge Mellen Chamberlain, Librarian of the Boston Public 
Library : 

I now have read your book and thank you for it, and especially for the 
kind manner in which you speak of the " AuthentimMon." My opinion, if 
that is of any account, is that it is about as good a piece of work of its kind 
as I have ever seen, and it ought to have wide reading among those who 
undertake historical investigations. I seldom read anything which seems to 
me so free from errors, or so few things from which I find myself obliged 
to dissent. 

[The letter is 13 pages, and the writer then proceeds to point out the por- 
tions of the work he approves, and also those from which he dissents.] 

Hon. Leonard E. Wales, U. S. District Judge, Wilmington, 
Delaware : 

I have read the book with great interest, and desire to thank you for hav- 
ing taken such pains and devoted so much labor to the preparation of the 
biography of your illustrious kinsman. It will prove to be a valuable addi- 
tion to the biographies of American statesmen. I shall prize it very highly. 

I have also read your Observations on the Declaration of Independence, a 
copy of which was placed at my disposal by Mr. Bayard. Your examination 
of the subject is very thorough, and your conclusion appears to be irrefutable. 

James McKeen, Esq., Attorney-at-Law, New York : 
Your most thorough elucidation of the " Declaration " matter must com- 
mend the work to those judicious scholars who appreciate the labor involved 
in such historical investigations. Indeed, the life of Governor McKean con- 
nects itself with so many public events of paramount importance that your 
work takes a much wider range than that of a mere family history. The 
biography will, I trust, command the public attention it deserves. 

It seems to me you effectually pulverize the Reed contention ; you do not r 
even leave them the dust. 

Thomas McKean, Esq., Philadelphia (three letters): ' 

Your favor of May 20th duly received, with the life of the Governor, which 
I have read with great interest, and assure you I am more than pleased with 
it. You have evidently spent a great deal of time and have made a thorough 
search for material. If the genealogy of the McKean family is half as good 
we will feel much indebted for your trouble. I will take for myself fifty 
copies of the Genealogy and fifty copies of the Life of the Governor. 

The Genealogy, to my mind, is as perfect as it could be made, and I have 
been much interested in studying it over. 

You will be glad to hear that the worth of your labor is fully appreciated 
by all who have seen your book. 

James W. Hazlehurst, Esq., Philadelphia (postal card) : 
Book received and much appreciated. It is the most readable book on a 
dry subject which I have met with. 

Washington .Post, June 2, 1890 : 
The principal feature of this work, is that portion relating to the signing 
of the Declaration, and, strange as it may appear at this late day, the author 
has given new facts regarding this important matter. Historians concur 
almost universally in holding that the President and Secretary signed the 
Declaration on the 4th of July, 1776. And although such distinguished 
writers as Bancroft, Daniel Webster, Robert G. Winthrop, Justin Winsor, 
Peter 'Force, Frothingham, Hildreth, and others hold these views, vet the 
author of this book has shown that there is no solid foundation for them. 
In support of this statement, the work is illustrated with three fac-similes 
of the manuscript journals of Congress, from photographs made by permis- 
sion of the Hon. W. F. Wharton, Assistant Secretary of State, which are the 
first fac-similes of these valuable records ever made. These explain the true 
reason for the erroneous, but very common, opinions held by many persons 
regarding the Declaration, which is that the proper printed journals do not 
conform to the original clauses in the manuscript, while whole clauses are 
in print that are not in any of the journals. The originals have been 
guarded so closely in the Department of State that it is doubtful whether 
even a few or any historians have examined them. 

Oration, July 4, 1890, by William L. Stone, Esq., at Woon- 
socket, R. I., before the Governor and State officers : 

[Woomocket Evening Reporter, July 7 ; Woonsocket Patriot, July 11, etc., 

The fact is, that, as a late writer of high authority, Mr. Roberdeau Buch- 
anan, says, " The signing [if it was done] was not the vital act giving life 
and force to the Declaration, but merely the attestation of that act already 
consummated, and, judging by the printed broadside, performed wholly for 
the satisfaction of the public." 

New York World, June 29, 1890 : 

' ' He wrote his name where all men shall observe it and all time shall not 
efface it." This epitaph on John Hancock combines a declaration and a 
prophecy. It begins to appear that the one is doubtful and the other alto- 
gether inaccurate. The epitaph was based on the belief, which was almost 
universal when it was written and which is general still, that John Hancock, 
as President of the Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, wrote his name, 
and wrote it big, on the original Declaration of Independence on the 4th of 
July, 1776. * * * But that idea is wrong. * * * 

Early in the century the historians began to question whether the docu- 
ment as we see it to-day told the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth. When the veracity of the parchment in the State Department began 
to be doubted, the theory was adopted that the original Declaration was 
written on paper and signed on July 4, 1776, by all the immortal patriots 
whose names now adorn the parchment and all printed copies of it. Theu 
circumstances came to light which show that the paper Declaration was m 
signed by all the fifty-six on July 4, and the teaching of the most recent in- 
vestigations is that nobody signed the Declaration on July 4, either on paper 
or on parchment. 

The results of the latest inquiries on the subject are embodied in a book 
recently issued by Roberdeau Buchanan under the title "The Life of the 
Hon. Thomas McKean." * * * 

Buchanan, who is a relative of Mr. McKean, has dedicated his book to ex- 
Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard. * * * The book is illustrated by 
some valuable fac-similes of important passages in the manuscript journals 
of the Continental Congress. These show many inaccuracies in the printed 
journals of the Continental Congress, which have been the guides of his- 
torians and writers of all kinds and the public generally. 

_> *> 2 J 












■ (ft 






u 3. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1890, by Roberdeau 
Buchanan, in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Ligrary of Congress 
By transfer from 
War Depart; 

AUG 30 1933 


Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, LL. D. 






XTbis BioQrapb£ 


"The Leading Delegate from Delaware" 




JUN 8 1895 



Washington, D. C, December 23, 1889. 
To the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, LL. D. 

Dear Sir: 

Having in course of publication a Life of the Hon. Thomas 
McKean, LL. D., who for a number of years was the " leading 
delegate from Delaware " in the Continental Congress, and also a 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence ; it would give me 
much pleasure if you will permit me to dedicate the same to you, 
as a slight mark of my appreciation of the services you have in 
later days rendered, in many important positions, not only to the 
State of Delaware, but to our country at large. 

I have the honor to enclose proof pages of the work as far as 
yet printed ; and, with your approbation, will from time to time 
send the succeeding pages as they are received from the printer. 

I have the honor to be, with much respect, 
Yours very truly, 



Wilmington, Del., March 25th, 1890. 
Dear Sir : 

Since receiving your letter of December 23d, the proof sheets 
of the " Life of Thomas McKean, LL.D.," have been duly sent 
me, and I now congratulate you upon the successful completion 
of your labors. 

I accept with pleasure the honor of your dedication, and as an 
American, especially as a citizen of Delaware, I am justly proud 
to be thus associated with the Memorial of a patriot, statesman, and 
jurist, so distinguished as Thomas McKean. 

In this State Mr. McKean commenced his professional and 
public career ; as a Representative of this community he was 
delegated, together with his compatriot, Caesar Rodney, to the 
Stamp Act Congress of 1765; and from that time onward until 
American liberty and independence were firmly secured, he was 



continuously invested with the highest public trusts which the 
people of this State could bestow ; all of which he executed with 
a fidelity and ability which awakened the grateful admiration of 
his constituents, and secured for him the highest popular esteem. 

To him is due the high distinction of serving longer and more 
continuously than any other member of the Continental Congress, 
in the stormy and eventful years of the struggle for our indepen- 
dent National existence. 

To this it may be added that his assiduity was equalled by his 
courage, discretion and ability in the "times that tried men's souls." 

In parliamentary bodies, declamatory vigor and selfish assertion, 
contenting itself with sharp criticism upon the work of others, 
may, and often do, give distinction and sometimes an undeserved 
reputation with the public ; while the patient, self-controlled and 
steady labor that formulates and constructs is recognized and ap- 
preciated only by the "singular few," who quietly take part in 
the real work of State building, and to whom mankind are chiefly 

In this sober class of unselfish and conscientious constructors of 
our republican system, Thomas McKean must be ranked among 
the first. 

As his kinsman and descendant, you have performed a pious 
duty in compiling with simple accuracy, a full and faithful record 
of the life-work of your ancestor; and the picture you have given 
of his private as well as of his public character and career is just 
and true. 

As a citizen, you have done public service in contributing an 
important chapter in the veritable history of laying the founda- 
tions of the government whose blessings we now enjoy, and which 
it is the duty of each of us to assist in transmitting unimpaired to 
posterity. I am, dear sir, 

Respectfully and truly yours, 

T. F. Bayard. 

To Roberdeau Buchanan, Esq., 

Washington, D. C. 


The author has the honor of presenting herewith to the Mc- 
Kean family, the Genealogy op the Descendants of the 
Hon. Thomas McKean; hoping it may give as much pleasure 
to its readers as it has given to him in its compilation. 

Since boyhood the author has been interested in family history, 
carefully collecting names and preserving such facts, dates, biog- 
raphies, newspaper articles, memoranda of books, etc., as came 
under his notice ; and in this slow way was continually adding to 
his chart of the family, intending at some future time that his 
researches should be published. The active preparation of this 
genealogy, however, dates from the fall of 1885, when he proposed 
to complete the work as a contribution for The Signers of the 
Declaration and their Descendants, in course of prepara- 
tion by Frank Willing Leach, Esq., of Philadelphia. That pub- 
lication having been delayed on account of the magnitude of the 
work, and the present genealogy having much exceeded the com- 
pass of such a contribution, these pages are now given to the 
public independently, and in accordance with the author's original 

As to the plan of the work, it is that usually adopted by Amer- 
ican genealogists. In families possessing a title or entailed landed 
estates, a single line of descent is often followed to the exclusion, 
partially or wholly, of collateral relatives. In this plan, which is 
followed by Burke in England, Browning's Royal Descents, and 
Keith's Provincial Councillors, members of a family are separated, 
while generations are kept together. It necessarily becomes imprac - 
tieable, intricate, and confusing when there are long biographies, 
when the family is large, or when all the descendants are to be 
included. Therefore the plan adopted by the best genealogists in 
this country, and which is decidedly the clearest and simplest, 
is to classify each generation by itself, and the members thereof in 
strict order of primogeniture. Upon this system the work proceeds 
chronologically, the earlier generations first, the later at the end 
of the book ; names of persons appear first as children under the 



biography of their parents, and subsequently as parents of the next 
generation. Names thus repeated are accompanied by a running 
Arabic number for convenience of reference and identification. A 
little examination will readily show how a line of descent may, by 
these numbers, be traced upward to find the ancestors, or down- 
ward to find the descendants. 

Some good genealogists, after the name of a person, give in 
brackets the names of all his ancestors, which the author consid- 
ers useless and cumbersome. It is of no use to the person himself, 
for he knows his own ancestors ; nor to another person, for he 
can readily ascertain the pedigree by the running numbers. The 
use of exponent figures denoting the generations, the author also 
considers to be generally superfluous ; it has been restricted in this 
work to the index, and but sparingly used there. By these omis- 
sions the author is confident that he has not sacrificed clearness of 

Search in libraries for everything that may be in print concern- 
ing the family, and especially in regard to Governor McKean, has 
been thorough, and on account of the prominence of our ancestor 
and of several other members, has been very laborious, as the 
references will show. A few good works, with poor indices, or 
none at all, have been reluctlantly cast aside, from the labor and 
time necessary to consult them. A book without an index is like 
a man who has lost his mind. 

Being accustomed to mathematical precision in his professional 
avocation, accuracy has been the author's great aim in this work, 
especially as to dates ; he has, therefore, upon all occasions en- 
deavored to verify every statement, date and book reference ; in 
several instances where persons claimed to have graduated at col- 
lege, a reference to the quinquennial catalogues showed that they 
did not graduate ; all college degrees here mentioned have there- 
fore been verified by the college catalogues. Mistakes and dis- 
crepancies are common in printed books, but they have also been 
found, when least expected, in such public records as church reg- 
isters, cemetery records, in the Navy Department records, on 
tombstones, in family Bibles, etc. Between the journals of Con- 
gress and the Articles of Confederation the author has discovered a 
discrepancy in a date, and old publications have added a third 
date, which is difficult to account for. The published journals of 


Congress are very inaccurate and misleading, especially in regard 
to the Declaration of Independence. So far as the author has 
compared, the printed journals do not agree with the rough manu- 
script journal, which is the standard, in wording, punctuation, 
or capitalization : the suhstance is of course correct. So numerous 
have been the mistakes discovered and corrected, and so perplex- 
ing the discrepancies which the author has been unable to recon- 
cile or correct, that they have all been entered in Appendix II. 

Whenever it was found necessary to transpose or change the 
wording of an author, to add or omit portions of his work, quota- 
tion marks have been omitted. The author or book is, however, 
in such cases always referred to. 

All doubtful facts are plainly so stated in this genealogy ; the 
New England McKeen pedigree and the letter of Robert Bu- 
chanan are given to preserve the facts from loss, hoping that some 
future genealogist may find use for them as clews for a more com- 
plete history of the family in those early times. 

In the biography of Governor McKean, the author began by 
taking Sanderson's fine biography as a foundation, but soon re- 
jected that plan, and quoted the work with other authors ; he has 
reluctantly been obliged to transpose Sanderson's biography and 
rearrange it so as to place the facts in chronological order, as well 
as to bring together all the writers upon one topic before taking 
up the next. This comparison of various authors has been the 
means of correcting several mistakes in Sanderson which have 
been copied by all succeeding biographers (Appendix II). By 
the use of some extraneous matter, and explanations, have been 
brought into a connected account, several topics that in Sander- 
son's biography seem to have no connection. Minute details, so far 
as accessible, poetry, anecdotes, and other trivial matters often ne- 
glected by the severe historian, have been made use of; for it is 
these unimportant matters which make us feel acquainted with 
another, and give a clearer insight into his life and character. 

Of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, — an intri- 
cate subject, which has been discussed by many able men, includ- 
ing Peter Force, Webster, Winthrop, Bancroft, and lastly Judge 
Chamberlain, it is belived that an abstract of all that has been 
written upon the subject is here given. 

Through the courtesy of the Assistant Secretary of State, and 


the other gentlemen, the author has been accorded the especial 
privilege of photographing the original Manuscript Journals of 
Congress in the handwriting of Charles Thomson — an especial 
favor, since these Journals are among the most valuable records in 
the archives of the State Department, and have never before been 
reproduced in fac-simile. Doubtless but few historians have seen 
the originals, since permission from the Secretary of State is re^ 
quired even to inspect them; and trusting to the inaccurate pub- 
lished copies, many writers have been led into error, or else have 
found discrepancies they could not explain. It is hoped, therefore, 
that these fac-similes may help to elucidate matters, that long ago 
should have been made clear. 

Permission to photograph the Journals was given while pages 
39 and 45 of the present work were being set in type ; and merely 
a few verbal changes could be made in the text. It was found 
subsequently that the negatives were too delicate to be photo-lith- 
ographed ; they were consequently reproduced by the Moss process 
in New York. 

The first fac-simile is the Hough Journal, with the Declaration 
of Independence displayed, reduced three-eighths size. Here may 
be seen the wafers attaching it to the page — the names of John 
Hancock and Charles Thomson in print — and at the top of page 
95 of the Journal, the following clauses omitted in the printed 
copies : — 

" Ordered That the declaration be authenticated & printed 
" That the committee appointed to prepare the declar- 

ation superintend & correct the press." 

It will be noticed, that the names of the fifty-six Signers, and 
the clause preceding them in the printed journals, are nowhere to 
be found. Compare the fac-simile with the text opposite. 

The second plate is a portion of the above on a larger size, and 
from a second negative, half size. 

The third plate is the page of the Secret Journal relating to the 
engrossed declaration, half-size; the interlineation is plainly seen. 
By comparison with the printed journal, the latter will be found 
faulty in the kind of type used, as well as in spelling. 

Several offices and appointments held by Governor McKean, 
and other facts not heretofore mentioned in his biographies, are 


here given ; and at the cost of some repetition, the numerous 
estimates of Governor McKean's character, hy various authors, 
have all been inserted; but scattered through the biography to 
avoid weariness to the reader. An apology may be due for the 
long accounts of the impeachment trials, of Mr. McKean's seat in 
Congress, and perhaps some other portions that may appear tedious. 
They are retained here, hoping to make this biography of Gov- 
ernor McKean a standard, wherein may be found, in full, all in- 
formation that is known of him and that has appeared in print. 

On account of Governor McKean's prominence as one of the 
framers of this government, his biography may be of interest be- 
yond the comparatively limited sphere of a genealogy ; it has 
therefore been bound separately, entitled Life of the Hon. Thomas 
McKean, LL.D. Portions also relating to the signing of the De- 
claration, rearranged with some omissions, have been bound as a 
pamphlet, entitled Observations on the Declaration of Independence. 

Regarding the later generations, the author has corresponded 
with at least one member in each family. Some have furnished 
quite full information, and others have not. It may be that of 
some persons in private life but little is to be said. Facts re- 
corded here will be preserved for posterity, and if any important 
facts are withheld and lost it is not the fault of the author. The 
genealogy is, however, complete as to all descendants of Governor 

Finally, to all members of the family the author returns his 
sincere thanks for their co-operation; and especially to Miss Anna 
M. Bayard, Mrs. Rosa McK. Hotchkiss, His Excellency, the 
Marquis de Casa Yrujo, Madrid, Mr. Henry Pettit, Mr. Henry 
Pratt McKean, and Mr. John T. Lewis. Also to many others, 
among whom may be mentioned the Hon. George Bancroft, Jus- 
tin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University, Judge Mellen 
Chamberlain, of the Boston Public Library (for especial favors); 
to Frank Willing Leach, of Philadelphia, and Dr. John R. 
Quinan, of Baltimore, J. Guthrie Smith, Esq., of Mugdock Cas- 
tle, Milngavie, Scotland, for letters and information. 

To the Hon. William F. Wharton, Assistant Secretary of State, 

and to Frederick Bancroft, Esq., Chief of the Bureau of Rolls and 

Library, the author is especially indebted for their concurrent 

permission, to photograph the manuscript Journals of Congress, 

' 9 


for copies of letters, and for much other information officially fur- 
nished from the Department records. And in no less degree is 
the author indebted to S. M. Hamilton, Esq., of the Bureau of 
Rolls and Library, for facilities in making the above mentioned 
photographic negatives; and also for opening to the author's in- 
spection not only the original Articles of Confederation, but also 
numerous letters and papers of the revolutionary period, in the ar- 
chives of the Department, and for much information, unofficially 
and very cordially given. 

The author is also under obligations to various other gentlemen 
for information from the records of the Navy Department; Con- 
federate Archives ; and Secretary's office, U. S. Senate. To the 
Scots Charitable Society of Boston ; the Hibernian Society of 
Philadelphia; and the Pickett-Buchanan Camp of Norfolk, Va.; 
to Mr. A. R. Spofford, Librarian, and the attendants at the Con- 
gressional Library ; the librarians and others of the State, War, 
Navy, Treasury, and Interior Departments; Patent Office, and 
Bureau of Education ; also the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
City Library, and Athenzeum, of Philadelphia; Astor Library of 
New York ; Long Island Historical Society, of Brooklyn ; Mary- 
land Historical Society and Peabody Library, of Baltimore; Le- 
high University Library, Bethlehem, Pa.; the Masonic Library, 
33d Degree, and Lowdermilk's Antiquarian Bookstore, Washing- 
ton, D. C, 

Washington, D. C, November, 1889. 


Principal Surnames: — McKean, Buchanan (of Md.), 
Pettit, Bayard, Martinez de Yrujo, Marquis de Casa Yrnjo 
(Spain), Borie, Coale, Hoffman, Duke of Sotomayor, (Spain), 
Sanford (of N. Y.), Wade, Wilson. 

Principal Pedigrees : — McKean, Finney, Borden, Buch- 
anan, Bayard, Coale, Cunyngham (Scotland), Lloyd (of Md.) r 
Pettit, Peters, Roberdeau. See also 2d Index of Subjects. 


Dedication to the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard iii, v 

Historical Introduction and McKean Pedigree 1 

Life of Governor Thomas McKean, LL.D 13 

Studies law 13 

The Delaware Assembly 15 

His Marriage ; Borden Family 15 

Minor appointments 17 

Stamp Act Congress, 1*765 — a member 18 

Minor offices — anecdote 19 

Speaker of House of Assembly 20 

Second Marriage 21 

Continental Congress, 1775 21 

Committee of Inspection and Observation, and the Associators 

in Penn 24 

Resolution of the 15th of May, and Public Meeting of May 

20, 1776 \ . 26 

Convention of Deputies at Carpenter's Hall, 1776 28 

The Declaration of Independence 29 

McKean's services in favor of it, secures a unanimous vote . 30 
How signed ; Conflicting statements of McKean, Jefferson and 
Adams; Opinions of recent authors — Force, Webster, Win- 
throp, Frothingham, Bancroft,- Lossing, Chamberlain, and 
others ; The Journals of Congress, fac-similes of the origi- 
nals ; The Declaration not signed by any one on July 4, 1 776. 31 
The engrossed Declaration ; The Secret Journals of Congress : 
Fac-simile of one page; Signed Aug. 2, 1776; Anecdotes 
at signing ; McKean the last one to sign ; Omission of his 

name in print ; Early copies — fac similes 45 

War measures, July, 1776 49 

Public meetings 50 

Constitution of the State of Delaware ; Written by Mr. Mc- 
Kean in one night ; Mr. Read's claim not established .... 51 

Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, 1777 54 

Noted cases 57 

Anecdotes — Andre's Dream, Poetry, etc 61 

President of the State of Delaware, 1777 63 

Articles of Confederation; McKean one of the committee ; 64 

A historical discrepancy 65 

Difficulty with General Thompson 67 

( xiii ) 



Public Meeting. May 24-25, 17*79 67 

High Court of Errors and Appeals 68 

Judge McKean's residence 69 

President op Congress, 1781 70 

Three remarkable incidents in McKean's life 72 

Publishes the Laws of Pennsylvania 73 

Convention to ratify the Constitution of U.S., 1787; McKean 

moves to ratify . 74 

Case of Oswald and attempt to impeach the Supreme Court ; 

Chief Justice McKean's judgment on contempts 77 

Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 1789 79 

Minor matters 79 

Commentary on the Constitution by McKean and Wilson ... SI 

Commotions caused by Jay's Treaty 81 

A Presidential Elector 82 

Heated Political Affairs; Peter Porcupine's Lawsuits 82 

Governor op Pennsylvania, 1799; McKean's 1st election ... 85 

His election opposed by Cobbett ; McKean's election the first 

triumph of the Democratic party 85 

McKean takes the oath of office ; His removals from office — 
not only for political purposes, but for the good of the State; 

Cobbett's remarks 88 

McKean's 2d election ; Conflicts with the Legislature ; Anec- 
dotes 93 

Solicited to become candidate for Vice President of U. S. ; 

Declined ; His election greatly attributed to the election of 

Jefferson to the presidency 95 

McKean's 3d election; Virulent party feeling; Impeachment 
proceedings ; The charges purely political : The attempt 
fails ; McKean's vigorous Replication ; He refutes all the 

charges . 96 

Close of his term of office ; Retires to private life 106 

Fears of a British Invasion, 1814 ; Presides at a town meeting. . 107 

Honorary degrees, diplomas, honors, etc 108 

His death and funeral ; Noble tribute by his former opponent, 

Duane 110 

His Life and Character; John Adams' tribute 113 

His Will and seal thereto 115 

Coat of Arms, probably none 116 

List of Portraits, Historical Paintings and Engravings .... 118 

McKean's Autograph and Letters 121 

Bibliography 123 

Conclusion — His Children 123 

Genealogy, Second and succeeding Generations. 124, 139, 194, 223 

I. List of works containing biographies of Thomas McKean . 229 
II. List of Mistakes and Discrepancies in books and public 

records 233 

III. Positions of honor and trust held by the McKean family . 239 

IV» A Remarkable Reminiscence of Admiral Buchanan . . . 243 

Addenda and Corrigenda 249 

Index of Principal Subjects 251 

Index of all Names 259 






It seems to be the custom of most genealogists in this coun- 
try, to include in their histories an account of all persons 
bearing the surname of which they write ; and in consequence 
of the magnitude of their works, they are frequently obliged to 
omit the descendants of females bearing other surnames. I 
consider that this is not the correct plan upon which to write 
a genealogy: First, because such a work should, if possible, 
contain the names of all the descendants of one person, 
whether bearing the original surname or not ; and secondly, 
because families having no relation whatever to one another, 
are by this plan frequently grouped together ; for an identity 
of surnames is not always a sign of kinship. 

Of the name MeKean we may say that the prefix has its 
counterpart in every age, and in almost every language. As 
early as Biblical times we read, for example, Joshua son of 
Nun, in later days, John son of William, or by transposition 
John, William' s son . Hence Williamson, Johnson, Jackson, 
Peterson, etc. We also have the above genitive case giving 
Williams, Johns or Jones, etc. This form is not confined 
to the English alone, but is found in perhaps every other 
language. The Hebrew ben gives Benjamin, Benson, Ben- 
oni; the Syriac bar gives Barroio, which stands for Barueh, 
Bartholomew, etc.; Latin filius, and its Norman corruption 
Fitz, (as Fitzjames in the Lady of the Bake,') to which the 
Russian witz seems to have some affinity ; the Polish sky ; 
Welsh Ap, which is the Celtic Mob ; German Von; Dutch 



Van ; French de ; and lastly the Scotch Mac, and the Irish 
Man and 0\ Of these, Mac and its contraction Mc and M* 
denote a son, and the 0' a grandson, or in a broader sense, a 


Located in Ulster county there is a family O'Cahan, whose 
descendants bear the name of Kean, Keen, and other corrup- 
tions. We are not descended from this stock, however, but 
from the Scotch Clan McDonald, Lords of the Isles, as will 
appear by the following interesting letter 1 from Robert Bu- 
chanan of Cincinnati, now deceased : 

Cin : 29 July 1851. 

John McKeen, Esq. 

Dear Sir : I write by our mutual friend Mr. Owen, to say, 
that living in the country at present, I have not sufficient access 
to my Library to make full inquiry into the history of your Scot- 
tish ancestors ; but this much 1 have ascertained beyond a doubt, 
that they came in a direct line from the great Clan McDonald- 
Lords of the Isles, one of the most powerful of the clans of the 
Highlands of Scotland. This clan traces its history to its pro- 
genitor " Coll-Vuais" 2 one of the Chieftains of Ireland about a 
century before our Saviour's Nativity, who took possession of the 
Western Coast and Islands of Scotland, and became the founder of 
his clan which increased in power and numbers so greatly, as to 
dispute the throne of Scotland with the King, and to defeat him in 
battle about the year 262. 

But to come down to about the time when your family branched 
off, — It was in the reign of Alexander the 1st of Scotland. The 
Chief's name then was Sumerled, his successor was Rannald, and 
Eannald's son was Donald. Donald had two sons, Angus his 
successor, (and Alexander the progenitor of the MacAlesters 
or " sons of Alexander"). Angus had two sons, Alexander his 
successor, and John ancestor of the Mclans or McEans of Ard- 
namurchan in Argyleshire. Here the Mclans or " Sons of 
John " lived for many generations, emigrating to Ireland and dif- 
ferent parts of the kingdom, as the family increased ; but always 
claiming to belong to the Clan McDonald, and taking part in all 
its battles. 

The Clan McDonald had many other branches besides the 

1 Now in possession of Miss F. A. McKeen, of Brunswick, Me., daughter of 
John McKeen. See also 0' Harts Irish Pedigrees, Dublin, ed. 1887 ; and 
Browning's Americans of Royal Descent, Ped. XXXVI. , note. 

2 Browning's American Descents, quoting 0' Harts Irish Pedigrees, gives his 
name Coll-Vuias, the 121st monarch cf All Ireland. 


Mclans and the McAlesters, viz : Mclvors, McNabs, McAphics, 
Mclntires, &c, &c, &c. 

I will write to you further on this subject when I remove to the 
city, in the winter. In searching over my Library, I will doubt- 
less find something in this way to interest you. 

Very respectfully, 

R. Buchanan. 

No attempt has been made by the author to verify the state- 
ments contained in this letter, or to trace the origin of the 
family in the mother country. 


The first emigrants to this country settled in New England, 
a later emigrant went to Pennsylvania. That these two were 
nearly related, is extremely probable from several considera- 
tions ; but no absolute proof of the fact can be found. I have 
much hesitation in recording a doubtful pedigree ; (doubtful 
however only as to its being the pedigree of the Pemisylvania 
branch.) But as there are not only one, but several facts 
tending to show this relationship, the following account is 
given, in hopes that some one may hereafter succeed in finding 
the connecting link. It is a curious bit of history, and it is 
believed that the historical details have not before been pub- 
lished. It was written by Judge Levi McKeen, of Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. 2 

"The first knowledge we have of the McKeen family is after 
the murder of Archbishop Sharp, when the Covenanters were 
brought before the military tribunals and questioned as to their 
loyalty. The shibboleth upon which life and death depended 
was, 'Was the killing of Archbishop Sharp murder?' If the ex- 
aminant was ambitious of a crown of martyrdom he would answer, 
'no,' wdien immediate execution was done upon him. 

"At this time William McKeen, who appears to have been an 
agriculturalist, was brought before Claverhouse, and upon the 
question being put, answered, he 'was nae laayer and coold na 
tell,' but that he understood ' it was an unlafoo' deed.' This was 
a new answer, and for the present he was dismissed, when he fled 

1 Originally and correctly spelt McKean, as explained on a subsequent 

s As given in the Family Record of Dr. W. E. Coale, where the name i3 
spelled McKean; but it having been pointed out by James McKeen, Esq., of 
New York, after reading these pages in MS., that Levi McKeen never so 
spelled the name, and it probably having been changed in copying, the 
spelling McKeen is here restored. 


to Ireland, where, with many others, he founed a Scotch colony 
in the county of Ulster. At this time the family of David Car- 
gill (the Martyr) emigrated thither. 

"The son of the foregoing William McKeen was an actor in 
the defense of Londonderry. He was sent out with a party to 
forage during the siege, but falling into an ambuscade, was over- 
come, plundered, thrown into a ditch, and left for dead ; but after 
some time he revived and found himself stripped, and nothing left 
but an old hat, which the plunderer had thrown away. 1 

" This one, called William y e Soldier had, 1st. James, born 1665, 
great-grandfather (father to the grandfather) to the writer (Levi 
McKeen), called The Justice; 2d. John, father to Levi's grand- 
mother ; 3d. Gennette or Annis, who married Rev. James Mc- 
Gregor; and one or two other sons, named either Robert, Joseph, 
or William. 

" James y e Justice, by his first wife, had sixteen children. . . ." 2 

" It is known that James and John, sons of William y e Soldier, 
left in Ireland on« or two brothers — the better opinion is but one, 
and that was the grandfather of Governor McKeen, and his name 
was Robert, William, or Joseph. 

" The McKeens originally removed to Ireland under the as- 
surances of the London Company, that they would enjoy their re- 
ligion freed from taxes and tithes. In this they were deceived. 
They therefore determined to send delegates to make inquiries 
into the condition of this country; and try, if possible, to find a 
place where they could settle as a colony all together, in one 
place. They sent the Rev. James McGregor and another clergy- 
man named Holmes, who came to this country in 1716 or 1717; 
and as McGregor was a very eloquent preacher, and there was 
no material difference between this doctrine and those of the Con- 
gregationalists of New England, he was most flatteringly re- 
ceived, and wrote back letters encouraging his friends to remove. 
When James and John closed their concerns, from their wealth 
and influence, they became y e leaders of an expedition that sailed 
September, 1718, in five ships, for Boston, where they had a flat- 
tering reception from y e Governor and public authorities." 

Following here in the manuscript quoted from is a genea- 
logical chart, in which the name Thomas ye Signer, duly 

1 These commotions in Ireland are very fully recorded in the History of 
Londonderry. See also Futhey and Cope's History of Chester County. The ; 
siege of Londonderry lasted eight months, in 1688-89. 

2 Here follows an account of the descendants of James (whose second wife 
was Annis Cargill) and of John, among whom most prominent are Judge 
Levi McKeen, Joseph McKeen, LL. D., first President of Bowdoin College, 
Rev. Silas McKeen, of Belfast, Maine, Hon. Samuel McKean, United States 
Senator from Pennsylvania, and Samuel Dinsmore, sometime Governor of 
New Hampshire. 


appears in his proper place as grandson of the later emigrant 

The genealogical portions of this manuscript, but not the 
historical details, are published with many additions in the 
History of Londonderry , iV~. H., by Rev. Edward L. Parker, 
1851, where the name is universally written MeKeen, except 
in the final clause, as follows: 

"William McKeen, brother of Justice McKeen, born in Ire- 
land in 1704, came to America eight or nine years after the emi- 
gration of 1718 and settled in Pennsylvania. His grandson 
was Thomas McKean, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and for nine years Governor of Pennsylvania." 

In the History of the Town of Antrim, N. H., by Rev. 
W. R. Cochrane, 1880, the same genealogy of McKeen, in- 
luding the last quoted clause, is given. 

In the History of Windham, iV. H., by Leonard A. Mor- 
rison, 1883, and in the History of Acworth, iV. H., Rev. J. 
L. Merrill, 1869, the same genealogy and spelling is given, 
but the Pennsylvania branch is not mentioned, except the son 
William, the emigrant. 

In the History of the Town of Amherst, N. H., Daniel F. 
Secomb, 1883, the name is given McKean, and the Pennsylva- 
nia emigrant mentioned. 

In addition to the above quotation, a recent letter to the 
author from Miss Philena McKeen, gives the following ex- 
tracts from the writings of Judge McKeen (chiefly a letter of 
October 10, 1842), and of her father, the Rev. Silas McKeen. 

"'William McKeen emigrated from Ireland and settled in 
London township, Chester county, Pennsylvania. The house he 
lived in is yet in good repair (1842). After the death of his wife 
Letitia, who died in 1742, he removed to the State of Delaware, 
New Castle county, where he died November 18, 1769, aged 65 

" There has been a tradition in the branch of the McKeen fam- 
ily settled in New England that their ancestor, James McKeen, 
one of the first settlers of Londonderry, went south to Philadel- 
phia, or that part of the country, to visit a brother who had come 
from Ireland and settled there, who is believed to be this William, 
the father of Governor McKeen, of Pennsylvania (S. McK.). 

" Judge Levi McKeen says, ' It is universally believed among 
the McKeans of Pennsylvania that there is a relationship between 
them and those of the same name at the East." The name is 


spelled differently, but that is mere incident. The original spell- 
ing is undoubtedly as they have it." 

It will be noticed that the latter quotations confuse William 
the father of Thomas McKean, with his grandfather, whose 
name is unknown, (unless he be that younger brother of James 
and John.) It is true, however, that the father was an im- 

James McKeen, esq., of New York city, grandson of the 
President of Bowdoin College, informs the author that the 
change of .name occurred by a mistake in spelling it with the 
double ee in the commission of Justice McKean, and he and 
his descendants ever after adopted that form. The same 
gentleman states that the relationship with the Pennsylvania 
branch was often spoken of in his family, and narrates the fol- 
lowing incident : 

" My father (Mr. Joseph McKeen) called, many years ago, 
upon one of the Philadelphia McKeans. My father did not give 
his name or card. The servant, however, announced to the 
gentleman of the house that his brother was in the drawing-room. 
As my father was born in 1787, he was not very far removed 
from a common ancestor (if there was such). 

As a counterpart to this, the author has often heard his 
father and other relatives speak of the strongly hereditary 
McKean likeness in the Pennsylvania family. 

It will be noticed that some of the descendants of the New 
England branch have reverted back to the original spelling of 
the name. 


I will now recapitulate the grounds for believing in the 
relationship between these two families : 1st. The New Eng- 
land family believe the fact. 2d. They state that it was also 
believed by the Pennsylvania family ; unfortunately however, 
there are no manuscript genealogies or letters known to me 
among the descendants of the latter family, that could be ap- 
pealed to in corroboration of this statement. 3d. Similarity of 
Christian names William, Robert, James and John, (Robert 
occurs as one of the sons of John, who was son of W r illiam the 
soldier, and also as a brother of Thomas McKean.) 4th. The 
dates of birth are in accord with the statement ; James the 
eldest son born in 1665, and William, "father of Thomas 
McKean his probable nephew, was born 1707, a difference of 


42 years, which allows a few years for the birth of the un- 
identified younger son, and 33 years for the next generation. 
5th. The New England family came to Ireland under the 
auspices of the London Company ; and we find the Pennsyl- 
vania branch settled in New London, which (according to the 
exhaustive History of Chester County, Pa., by Judge John 
Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope) is said to have been so named 
on account of lands of that company located there. 6th. The 
New England family after landing in Boston located in New 
Hampshire, calling the settlement Londonderry, after the town 
they had left in the north of Ireland. Likewise we find, ac- 
cording to the above named History of Chester County, that 
that county was settled chiefly by Scotch Irish, and only a few 
miles from New London, there is another Londonderry, also 
named after the same Irish town. These two latter facts 
point to a similar origin of the two families. 7th. The New 
England family have shown an early interest in the Pennsyl- 
vania branch, the date of death of William McKean being 
given by them November 18, 1769, aged 65, which is the 
only source from whence I have found this date. They also 
record the death of his wife Letitia in 1742, which is the only 
knowledge we have of that date. 8th. William Cobbett, the 
political writer, as will be quoted in another place, states that 
■Governor McKean's grandfather was the immigrant, confirm- 
ing the statement in Levi McKeen's manuscript. 9. The 
strong hereditary family likeness in the Pennsylvania branch, 
and the incident above narrated. Thus we have strong 
grounds for asserting a very probable relationship of these two 


The pronunciation of this name, by the Pennsylvania branch, 
is the original and correct form, as if spelled Mac Kane. 
Lippincotfs Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World, Phila- 
delphia, 1886, 1 gives it as if written mak-lceen' . Webster's 
Unabridged Dictionary , 1888, likewise gives it ma-keen'. 
These authors arc both wrong for this reason: proper names, 
especially of persons, do not always follow the usual rules of a 
language. That pronunciation is correct, in whatever way the 
owner of a name customarily pronounces it ; the custom of 

x The editor of this work upon reading this paragraph in manuscript ac- 
cepted the statements here made, and remarked that he will correct future 
■editions of the Gazetteer accordingly. 


Governor McKean,the most widely known man who has borne 
the name, is sufficient authority for lexicogriphers. Moreover, 
the peculiar spelling of the name McCain, in the will of Gov- 
ernor McKean's grandmother, is sufficient to settle the Matter 
as to the pronunciation. The Pennsylvania family has always 
pronounced it as if spelled McKane, which is the original and 
correct pronunciation. McKeen is later, and a corruption. 
It should, however, be recognized as one of the forms by the 
above rule, but not the only form of pronunciation. 

During his gubernatorial contest, the political friends of 
Governor McKean made his name rhyme with green and other 
similar words, for which he should not be held responsible. 
And it was once related to the author by a friend, 1 that when 
Governor McKean was on the bench, George Sergeant, the 
eminent lawyer, was promptly rebuked by him for stating 
during an argument before the Supreme Court, that " the Chief 
Justice is sure to see into the matter as I explain it, for he is 
what the last syllable of his name implies," i. e. keen. 


The earliest authentic account we have of those known to be 
our ancestors is in 1725, in which year Susannah McCain was 
settled upon a 300-acre tract of land in New London township, 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, which had been surveyed in 
1720 for William Reynolds. The land now lies mostly in 
Franklin township. In her will, dated December 28, 1730, 
she speaks of herself as "now living, and blessed be Almighty 
God for the same, in the congregation of 'New London." Her 
death occurred less than two months after. Whether she was 
a widow before leaving Ireland, or whether the above mentioned 
William McKean was her husband and emigrated with her, is 
unknown. In her will, she mentions her children: 

i. William McCain, )To whom she devises her land in equal 

ii. Thomas McCain, j parts. 

iii. Barbara Murrah, her daughter. 

iv. John Craghton, her son. also spelled Creaghton [perhaps by a 
former marriage]. This son died in De- 
cember, 1731. In his own will he signs his 
name Crighton, and mentions his brothers, 
William and Thomas McKane, sister Bar- 

1 Mark Wilks Collet, Esq., of the Philadelphia bar, who had the anecdote 
from one of the Sergeant family. 

2 History Chester County, Pa., Judge John Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope r 
4°, 1881. 


bara Murray, to whom he left his plantation, 

and Margaret, 
v. Margaret, married to John Henderson, whom Susanna McCain 

alludes to as her son-in-law. 
vi. James McKean is mentioned, who may have been another son. 

William McKean, the eldest son, was born in Ireland in 
1707. He is mentioned, together with his brother Thomas, in 
relation to a considerable dispute about some land in New Lon- 
don township. He married Letitia Finney, daughter of Robert 
and Dorothea Finney, of Thunder Hill, who died in 1742. 
He remained in New London, and kept an inn in what is now 
Chatham until 1741, in which year he petitioned for license in 
Londongrove, an adjoining township, which was refused, but he 
was allowed to sell "beer and syder" ; the license was finally 
granted the same year. In this year, Thomas McKean, 
brother of William, purchased a tavern and was licensed to 
keep an inn at Tredyffren. At the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion he owned property at Chatham. 

In 1745, William McKean removed to Londonderry, suc- 
ceeding James Logan as tavern keeper there, and married the 
widow Anne Logan, who died in 1751. William McKean died 
November 18, 1769, aged 65 years, according to Levi Mc- 
Keen's manuscript. (The History of Londonderry states that 
he was born in 1704, a discrepancy of three years being no- 
ticed between this date and the date of his birth above given.) 1 

William McKean left issue (so far as known) by his first 
wife, Letitia Finney : 

i. Robert, born July 13, 1 "732, N. S. He studied medicine, and 
also entered the ministry, and was a missionary at 
New Brunswick, N.J. He is the author of an ad- 
dress to Governor Hardy on his arrival, in 1761 ; and 
with five others signed an Address to the Clergy of 
the Church of England, November 5, 1761. He 
married a daughter of Edward Antill, the Councillor. 
In February, 1763, he removed to Perth Amboy, 
with his commission as missionary. He officiated as 
missionary there and rector of St. Peter's church for 
four years, teaching a school in connection with the 
church, and died October 17, 1767, leaving an excel- 
lent character both as a clergyman and physician. 
A monument was erected over his remains, at St. 
Peter's church, Perth Amboy, by his brother 
Thomas. 2 

1 Ibid. The wills mt-ntioned are recorded in West Chester, Chester Co. 

2 Contrib. to Early Eist. Perth Amboy, Wm. A. Whitehead, 1856, pp. 177, 
183, 225-7-8, 291; N. J. Archives, 1st Ser., ix., 338, 340; A Collection of 
Avier. Epitaphs, Rev. Timothy Alden, N. Y., 1814, v., no. 1045. 


ii. THOMAS, born March 19, 1734, of whom presently. 

iii. Dorothea, married John Thompson, of Delaware, 1 and had: 

1. Thomas McKean Thompson, Secretary of State of Penn- 

sylvania under Governor McKean, and an able sup- 
porter of the Governor in his conflicts with the Legis- 

2. Elizabeth, married Col. William McKennan, removed 

to Washington, Pa., and had: 

Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, member of 
Congress 1831-9, '41-3; Secretary of Interior, 
1850, resigned. His eldest son, William Mc- 
Kennan, is now U. S. Circuit Judge, 3d Circuit. 
His son, John D. McKennan, -Esq., is a member 
of the Pittsburgh bar. 
iv. William. 


Robert Finney, born in Ireland about 1668, came to Amer- 
ica with his wife Dorothea and children as early as 1720, and 
settled in New London township, Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania. He purchased of Michael Harlan, in 1722, the Thun- 
der Hill tract of 900 acres, for which a patent was granted 
him August 4, 1733. Tradition says that he was one of the 
defenders of Londonderry, and at the battle of the Boyne 1690, 
and was left for dead on the field. He recovered, dreamed of 
the land he was to purchase, emigrated to America, and rec- 
ognized it when he saw it. He was a ruling elder in the Elk 
River Presbyterian congregation, now known as the Rock 
Church, Maryland, and the first ruling elder and chief founder 
of the New London Presbyterian church, in Chester Co. He 
died in March, 1755, aet. 87. Dorothea Finney died May,. 
1752, aet. 82. They are buried in the graveyard at Thunder 
Hill. 2 

Their children so far as known are : 

i. John, settled in New Castle, Delaware, a physician, also Justice 
of the peace, and Judge of the Orphans' Court, Lt. 
Col. of a Regiment of Newcastle Co.; married Eliz- 
abeth French, a descendant of Joran Kyn. 3 After 
her death, he married Sarah Richardson, who d. s.p. 
Dr. Finney died March-April, 17*74, leaving at least 

1 From letter of John D. McKennan, Ksq., who adds that Governor McKean 
had but one sister.- — Perm. Mag., vii., 464, should therefore be corrected to 
read Dorothea, not Loelitia. 

2 (Hist. Chester Co., Futhey and Cope, p. 547; Perm. Mag., iv., 234 et seq.) 
Bench and Bar of Phila., J. Hill Martin, p. 22 etseq. A history of the Fin- 
ney family is in course of preparation by Robert S. Finney of New York. 

3 Penn. Mag., iv, 234 et seq. 


four children, of whom the eldest was David Finney r 
a lawyer at New Castle, and Justice of Supreme 
Court of Delaware for New Castle. 

ii. Robert, physician, who inherited Thunder Hill, d. about 1782. 

iii. Lazarus, m. Catharine Simonton, d. about 1*740, and left issue. 

iv. LETITIA, married William McKean, father of Governor Thomas 
McKean, as above noted. 

v. William, m. Jane Stephenson, d. 1751, left issue. 

vi. Thomas, m. Mary , d. about 1767, left issue. 

vii, Ann, m. John McClenachan, of New London. 


The following families and persons are not related to Gov- 
ernor McKean's family so far as known: 

Frederick G. McKean, Chief Engineer U. S. N., family- 
name formerly McKeon. 

James Bedell McKean, b. 1821, County Judge in N. Y. y 
Rep., from N. Y., Ch. Justice of Utah (G. A. Townsend, in 
Washington Sunday Capital, Dec. 21, 1879, wrongly calls him 
a grandson of Governor McKean). 

Joseph McKean, D. D., LL. D., 1776-1818, Prof. Rhetoric, 
Harvard University. 

Thomas Jefferson McKean, grad. West Point, U. S. A., res. 
1884, bvt. Major general Vols!, 1861-5. 

William Y. McKean, of the Philadelphia Ledger. 



The subject of this biography * was the son of William 
McKean and Letitia Finney, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He 
was born in New London township, Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania, March 19, 1734, old style. After an elementary in- 
struction in reading, writing and arithmetic, Thomas and his 
elder brother Robert were, at the ages of nine and eleven 
years respectively, placed under the tuition of the Rev. Francis 
Allison, D. D., a man of character and reputation. 


After passing through the regular course of instruction here, 
and acquiring a knowledge of the practical branches of mathe- 
matics, rhetoric, logic, and moral philosophy, Thomas went to 
Newcastle in Delaware, and entered the office of his relative 
David Finney, as a law student Some months after, he en- 
gaged as clerk to the prothonatory of the Court of Common 
Pleas ; a situation which enabled him to learn the practice 
while he was studying the theory of the law. 

So great was the reputation that Mr. McKean acquired in 
his youth by his industry and talents, that before he had at- 
tained the age of twenty-one years, he was admitted 2 as an 

1 The basis of this biography is Sanderson' s Biography of the Signers, 2d 
edition, Philadelphia ; published by Brown and Peters, 1828. Robert Wain, 
Jr., is the author of many of the biographies in Sanderson, including that 
of Thomas McKean. The author is much indebted to Sanderson's Lives, 
yet the extracts from that work form but a small portion of the present bi- 
ography, in which are quotations from about two hundred or more other 
works. Several mistakes in Sanderson are here corrected. Robert Wain, 
Jr., above mentioned, was the son of Robert Wain, of a Quaker family, 
member of Congress, 1798-1801, and was born in 1797. He was an author 
and poet, and died at an early age in 1824. 

2 1754, J. Hill Martin, Bench and Bar of Philadelphia, 1883, and Perm. Mag., 
v., 489. 

2 (13) 


attorney at law in the Courts of Common Pleas for the counties 
of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, and also in the Supreme 
Court. Before the expiration of a year he obtained a con- 
siderable share of business, and in May, 1855, 1 was admitted to 
practice in the courts of his native county of Chester. He was 
also admitted to the courts of the city and county of Phila- 
delphia. In 1756, the Attorney-general, who resided in 
Philadelphia, appointed him, not only without any solicitation, 
but without any previous knowledge on his part, his deputy, to 
prosecute the pleas of the crown in the county of Sussex. He 
resigned this office after performing its duties for two years 
with judgment and ability. In 1758, 2 April 17, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the province of 
Pennsylvania. The envy which the success of the young 
lawyer occasioned among his professional brethren, merely 
served as an additional spur to his industry, and increased his 
assiduity in the pursuit of legal knowledge ; for though he had 
become the eloquent advocate and able lawyer, he was still the 
close and industrious student. 3 He afterwards went to Eng- 
land and studied at the Middle Temple, being admitted there 
May 9, 1758/ 

As a recreation from his studies, in 1757, December 28, Mr. 
McKean enrolled himself with about one hundred and twenty- 
five others in " Richard Williams' company of foot, whereof 
William Armstrong is colonel, in Newcastle county." 5 In the 
same year he was elected clerk of the House of Assembly, an 
honor of which he was unapprised until he received informa- 
tion of his appointment from Benjamin Chew, at that time 
speaker. The following year he was again elected ; but after 
serving that term he declined further appointment. In 1762, 
he was selected by the legislature, together with Caesar Rodney, 
to revise and print the laws passed subsequent to 1752 ; a duty 
which they speedily and satisfactorily executed. 

l Penn. Mag., v., 139, 244, 489, xi., 249 ; and Hist. Chester, Del. Co., J. Hill 
Martin. Not 1756, as given in Sanderson. 

2 Penn. Mag., v., 489, and Bench and Bar ; not 1*757, as in Sanderson. 

3 Judson's Lives. 

tPenn. Mag., v., 244-5, 489 ; xi., 249; Bench and Bar, p. 82. 

5 The original paper in possession of J. Henry Rogers, Esq. See also 
Life of George Read, W. T. Read, p. 48. 



In the same year Mr. McKean first embarked in the stormy- 
sea of politics, which he continued to brave for nearly half a 
century. In October, 1762, he was elected a member of the 
Assembly from the county of Newcastle, and was annually 
returned for seventeen successive years. So much attached to 
him were the people of that county, that they continued to 
elect him, although for the last six years of this time he was 
residing in Philadelphia. He still however retained his house 
in Newcastle, probably because his business frequently called 
him to that city. Finally, on the 1st of October, 1779, on the 
day of the general election in Delaware, he attended at New- 
castle, and in an address to his constituents, declined the honor 
of further re-election. He was then waited upon by six gentle- 
men in the name of the electors, who asked him to name seven 
persons suitable for representatives. He replied that he knew 
not only seven, but seventy, whom he considered worthy of 
their votes ; but. the request being repeated, he acceded and 
wrote down seven names. The election resulted in the choice 
of the seven gentlemen whom he had named. 


On Thursday the twenty-first of July, 1763, 1 Mr. McKean 
was married to Miss Mary Borden, eldest child of Col. Joseph 
Borden, of Bordentown, New Jersey. She and. her sister 
Ann, who married Francis Hopkinson, were said to be two of 
the most beautiful ladies in New Jersey. 2 Of her family and 
ancestry I have found as follows : 


Richard Borden, born 1601, married Joan (born 1604 ; 
died July 5, 1688), settled with his wife in Portsmouth, R. I. 
He purchased land in New Jersey in 1667, and died May 25, 
1671, leaving with other children: 

Benjamin, born in May, 1649, at Portsmouth, R. I. He 

1 Not July, 1762, as stated in Sanderson's Lives. 

2 E. M. Woodward, in Bordentown Register. 

3 Compiled from Savage's Genealogical Diet, of First Settlers ; Gen. Diet, 
of R. I., John 0. Austin, 1887; Hist. Burlington and Mercer Cos., E. M. 
Woodward and John F. Hageman ; Hist. Bordentown and Burlington, in Bor- 
dentown Register, 18*76, E. M. Woodward ; Keith's Provincial Councillors, 
1883, p. 269. 


was married at Hartford, Ct., September 22, 1671, 1 to Abi- 
gail Glover, born 1653 2 (daughter of Henry Glover, of Hart- 
ford, Ct., born about 1614; died 1689, and of Abigail his 
wife), and removed to Shrewsbury, N.J. In 1716, he deeded 
lands to his son Joseph, of Freehold. His Bible record is con- 
tained in a Concordance of the Holy Scriptures, etc., 1698, 
now in possession of Oliver Hopkinson, Esq., of Philadelphia. 
On the fly-leaf is written "Benjamin Borclen, His book, 1706." 
and below, "Abigal Borden died 8 of Geneyery in 66 year of 
her age and year of our Lord 1720." The date of his mar- 
riage, and birth and death of his son Joseph, are verified as 
here given in the text. Benjamin Borden died in 1718 or 
later, leaving eleven children, of whom the seventh child was: 

Joseph, born May 12, 1687, probably near Freehold, and 
when about thirty years of age removed to Tamsworth's 
Landing. He was married about the year 1717 to Ann Cono- 
ver (formerly Covenhoven^), of Monmouth county, New Jer- 
sey. By deed, March 3, 1724, he purchased of Samuel Tams- 
worth one hundred amd five acres of land, and subsequently 
more, and eventually owned the whole site of Bordentown. 
He was thus possessed of very considerable means, and founded 
and named the town of Bordentown. His wife died March 11, 
1744-5, in her 58th year. He died September 22, 1765, 
leaving one son and six daughters. His will is recorded in the 
office of the Secretary of State at Trenton, N. J. His son — 

Colonel Joseph Borden, born August 1, 1719, was a patriot 
of the Revolution. He was a member of the Stamp Act 
Congress of 1765 ; a member of the first New Jersey Con- 
vention at New Brunswick, July 2,1774; one of the Com- 
mittee of Observation of Burlington county, February, 1773; 
entered the army as Colonel of the 1st New Jersey Regiment, 
and became Colonel and Quartermaster of the State troops ; 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, September 11, 1776; 
reappointed September 28, 1781. He was a man of note in 
his locality, and during the war his fine house was burned by 
the British. 3 He was married September 22, 1743, to Eliza- 
beth Rogers, 4 who was born at Allentown, July 10,1725; 

1 Gen. Diet, of R. I. gives the year wrongly, 1670. 

2 According to the Borden Record, Savage is wrong in giving this date 

3 Penn. Mag., ix., 435. 

* From Robert McKean's family Bible, in possession of Mrs. Ann McKean 
Kerr, which is verified (as to this name) by the will of Mrs. Rogers, recorded 


(daughter 1 of Samuel and Mary Rogers. An old pedigree on 
a modern sheet of legal foolscap, found between the leaves of 
the old Borden Recoi'd above quoted, states that Samuel Rogers 
was born 1692, died September 17, 1756; his wife, born 
1690, died April 14, 1738, and verifies the dates of the 
daughter's birth and death here given from other sources.) 
Mrs. Borden died November 2, 1807. Judge Borden died 
April 8, 1791. His will is recorded at Trenton, N. J. His 
issue: 2 

i. Mary, b. July 21, 1744, married July 21, 1*763, Thomas McKean, 

Signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
ii. Ann, b. Jan. 24, 1745-6, d. June 9, 1746. 

iii. Ann, b. May 9, 1747, married Sept. 1, 1768, Francis Hopkinson, 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and left 
iv. Amy, b. Oct. 30, 1749 ; d. Aug. 31, 1751. 
v. L^;titia, b. July 29, 1751 ; d. June 30, 1753 N. S. 
vi. Joseph, b. June 23, 1755 ; m. Nov. 26, 1778, Mary Biles, daugh- 
ter of Langhorn Biles, and d. Oct. 16, 1788, leaving 
one child, Elizabeth, b. Nov. 13, 1779. 


In 1764, Mr. McKean was appointed one of the three trus- 
tees of the Loan Office of Newcastle county, for four years ; 
which trust was renewed in 1768 and 1772 (1769, June 16 3 ). 
This species of loan was one of the most happy expedients for 
the encouragement of industrious settlers in a new country, 
and for the improvement of lands, that was ever invented. 

On the 10th of July, 1765, he was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, John Penn, sole notary, and tabellion public, for the 
lower counties on the Delaware ; 4 and in the same year was 
appointed justice of the peace and justice of the court of 
common pleas and quarter sessions, and of the orphans' 
court for the county of Newcastle. In the November term of 
1765, and February term of 1766, he sat on the bench, and 
directed that all officers of the court should make use of un- 
stamped paper in their several duties ; and it is believed that 

at Mt. Holly, N. J.; in which she mentions her brother Isaac Rogers. 
E. M. Woodward, in the Hist. Burlington and Mercer Co'.'s, is wrong in stat- 
ing that this Joseph Borden married a daughter of Marmaduke Watson. 
He also states wrongly the first of the family, Benjamin instead of Richard. 

1 Keith's Provinc. Counc, 1883, p. 269. 

2 Robert McKean's Family Bible. 

3 Penn. Archives, 2d series, Wm. H. Egle, ix., 643, et seq. 

4 Original in possession of J. Henry Rogers, Esq., of Newcastle, Del. 


this was the first court in the colonies that established such an 


The passage of the Stamp Act in 17G5 aroused a storm of 
indignation throughout the colonies. Had its measures been 
carried out, it would have been ruinous to their prosperity. 
"The sun of liberty is now set," said Charles Thomson, "you 
must light up the candles of industry and economy." To 
avert the threatened evils of this act, the legislature of Mass- 
achusetts proposed to the other colonies to appoint delegates 
to a general congress, who might consult together, and in a 
dutiful and loyal manner, represent the condition of affairs to 
the king and parliament. To this distinguished body Thomas 
McKean was elected a member from the three lower counties 
on the Delaware. His father-in-law, Col. Joseph Borden, was 
a member from New Jersey. 1 It met in New York, October 
7, 1765, and brigadier Timothy Ruggles was elected presi- 
dent. James Otis, of Massachusetts, was one of the most 
prominent delegates, and Thomas McKean and Caesar Rodney 
pillars of the cause from Delaware. 2 The congress passed a 
Declaration of Rights, and appointed three committees to 
prepare addresses to the king, the lords, and the commons; 
the latter committee was composed of Thomas Lynch, James 
Otis, and Thomas McKean. 3 The congress was dissolved on 
the 24th of October. A few of the members were suspected 
of being inimical to its designs, or of wishing to ingratiate 
themselves with the British ministry ; and on the last day of 
the session, when the business was concluded, the president 
and three or four timid members refused to sign the proceed- 
ings. Mr. McKean then rose and addressing himself person- 
ally to the president, stated that as he had made no objections 
to the proceedings, he should now state his reasons for refusing 
to sign the petition. The president replied that he did not 
consider himself bound to state his objections; but upon being 
pressed by Mr. McKean and others for an explanation, he 
finally stated that "It was against his conscience" Mr. 
McKean now rang the changes on the word conscience so long 
and loud, that a plain challenge was given and accepted in 

1 A list of delegates is given in Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, 
1860, i., 465. 

2 Rise of the Republic, Richard Frothingham, 1872. 

3 Ibid., and Life of James Otis, William Tudor, 1823. 


presence of the whole congress ; but the president, who, how- 
ever, had no more courage to fight a duel than he had to sign 
the proceedings, departed from New York the next morning 
before dawn of day. 1 He afterwards joined the British, and 
fought against the colonies. 2 

Mr. Ogden, speaker of the house of Assembly of New Jer- 
sey, also refused to sign, although solicited by Mr. McKean 
and others in private. He at the same time desired to conceal 
his action from the people of New Jersey, who were zealous 
for the cause of America ; Mr. McKean however would promise 
nothing more than not to mention the matter as he passed 
through New Jersey, unless the question was put to him. The 
question was asked in several different towns, and Mr. McKean 
stated the matter without hesitation. The speaker was bui'ned 
in effigy in his town, and at the next meeting of the Assembly 
was removed from the office of speaker. 

Upon reporting to the Assembly at Newcastle, Mr. McKean 
and Mr. Rodney received a unanimous vote of thanks of that 
house for their services. 

Mr. McKean, writing to John Adams, 18th of June, 1812, 
mentions that he is the only survivor of the Stamp Act Con- 
gress. 3 


During the next year, 1766, Mr. McKean was licensed by 
the governor of New Jersey, upon the recommendation of the 
judges of the supreme court, to practice as a solicitor in 
chancery, attorney-at-law and councillor, in all the courts of the 
province. On the 28th of October, 1769, he was appointed 
justice of the peace for the province of Pennsylvania, and re- 
appointed April 10, 1773, and October 24, 1774/ 

Of Mr. McKean's ability as a lawyer, and his ingenuity in 
the defense of a client, an illustration is given by a distinguished 
member of the Philadelphia bar, David Paul Brown, in his 
work, The Forum (ii. 339). 

In a suit brought by Myers Fisher, a lawyer of note, against 
a person by the name of Buncom, in Chester court, for slander, 
in the year 1774, the defamation having been clearly made out, 

1 Sanderson. 

'Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, 1860, i., 465. 

*Adanis Works, x., 14. 

i Penn. Archives, 2d series, ix., 643 et seq. 


Mr. McKean called some scores of witnesses, not to deny the 
slander, but to show that his client was such a notorious liar 
that no man in the county believed anything he said, and that 
therefore no damages could possibly have been sustained by 
the plaintiff. And so the jury found. 

The early settlements upon the Delaware having been made 
under the dominion of a government and courts sitting at New 
York, it eventually became very inconvenient to consult the 
original records ; hence Mr. McKean was selected by the As- 
semby in 1769, to proceed to New York, and there obtain 
copies of all documents relating to real estate in the Delaware 
counties, prior to the year 1700. This duty he satisfactorily 
performed, and the copies thus procured were established by law 
as of equal authority with the original documents. 1 In 1771 
he was appointed by the commissioners of his majesty's customs , 
collector of the port of Newcastle. 


In October 1772, Mr. McKean was unanimously elected 
Speaker of the House of Assembly of Delaware. He writes 
to Mr. Adams that he was unanimously elected, although only 
six of the members were Whigs. 2 

The "Tea Act," so known, which went into effect a year 
later, aroused more indignation than the Stamp Act. The Del- 
aware House of Representatives referred the matter to a com- 
mittee, of whom Mr. McKean was chairman. The committee 
reported October 28, 1773, recommending a committee of cor- 
respondence of five members, which report was adopted, and 
Colonel Rodney the speaker, George Read, Thomas McKean, 
John McKinly, and Thomas Robinson, were chosen to be "A 
Committee of Correspondence and Communication." On De- 
cember 16th of this year, the tea was thrown overboard in 
Boston. 3 When the Boston Port Bill was passed in March, 
1774, closing the port of Boston, the colonies sent aid for the 
sufferers in that city. The Delaware letter was signed by 
Caesar Rodney, Thomas McKean, and GeorgeRead. 4 And at a 
meeting of citizens held at Newcastle, June 29, 1774, a com- 
mittee of thirteen was appointed to solicit contributions for the 

1 Armor's Lives of Governors of Penn., 1872. 
* Works of John Adams, C. F. Adams, x., 82. 
"Scharfs Hist. Del., 1888, i., 215. 
*Frothingham, Rise of the Republic, p. 387. 


sufferers, among the members being Thomas McKean, George 
Read, and John McKinly. 1 


About this time, Mr. McKean met with a serious affliction 
in the death of his wife, on Friday, the 12th of March, 1773, 2 
at half-past eleven o'clock, in the 29th s year of her age, leav- 
ing two sons and four daughters, one of the latter being an 
infant two weeks old. A notice of her death appears in the 
.Pennsylvania Gazette of March 17th. She was buried on 
the Sunday following, in the burial ground of Immanuel Church, 
Newcastle.* A crayon likeness of Mrs. McKean is in pos- 
session of Mrs. Sarah P. Wilson, of Philadelphia. 

Not long after this event, either in the same year or more 
probably in the following year, Mr. McKean removed his resi- 
dence to Philadelphia, although he also retained his house in 

On Saturday, September 3d, 1774, 5 Mr. McKean was mar- 
ried a second time, to Miss Sarah Armitage, of Newcastle. 
They were married by the Rev. Joseph Montgomery, 6 who 
was, as I have ascertained, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church at Newcastle, from 1765 to 1777. No records of that 
church are now in existence prior to 1842. 7 


The political troubles of the colonies had been increasing to 
such an extent, that a correspondence naturally arose among 
the leading and influential characters throughout the continent ; 
public meetings were held in various places, and it was finally 
agreed to call another general congress of the colonies to meet 

1 Life of Geo. Read, W. T. Read ; the name wrongly spelled McKinley. 

s Not February, 1VY3, as stated in Sanderson's Lives. 

s Gov. McKean's -Bible record, in possession of H. P. McKean, Esq. 


5 Ibid. Not Thursday, as giveri in Sanderson. Gov. McKean's record, 
however, does not give the day of the week to this date. 


T I regret that I have been unsuccessful in rinding anything about her 
family or history. None of the name now live in Newcastle ; an old resi- 
dent there tells me that he knows nothing of the name. The church 
records are also defective or destroyed. 


in Philadelphia on the first Monday in September, 1774. 1 
The three Delaware counties met in convention, August 1, 
1774, of which Mr. McKean was a member from Newcastle 
county. The credentials of the Newcastle delegates were 
signed by Thomas McKean, chairman of the county committee. 
This convention 2 elected Csesar Rodney, Thomas McKean and 
George Read as their delegates to Congress. " Thomas Mc- 
Kean," says Bancroft, "was the leading delegate from Dela- 
ware," 3 and on the 5th of September, took his seat in this au- 
gust assemblage, of which he became an invaluable ornament, 
and from that day his country claimed him as her own. 4 San- 
derson states that he was annually elected a member until the 
first of February, 1783, and is the only member who served 
from its opening until after the preliminaries of peace of 1783 
were signed. He was, however, not a member during 1777. 
The delegates produced their credentials and took their seats 
at very irregular times, and twice the state was not represented. 
The Journals of Congress (Way and Gideon, 1823), show 
that the Delaware delegates took their seats as follows : 

i. 1. Sept. 5, 1774. Cresar Rodney, Thomas McKean and 
George Read are delegates at the opening of Con- 
50-2 May 10, 1775. C. Rodney, Thomas McKean, George 

568. Dec. 2, 1776. George Read, John Dickinson and 
John Evans. (George Read appears to have been 
rather opposed to McKean politically. In Sander- 
son's Life of Ca?sar Rodney, it is stated that about 
this time the royalist party and the lukewarm in the 
lower counties contrived to come into a majority for 
a while, "and one of their earliest acts was to remove 
Mr. Rodney and Mr. McKean, two delegates who 
had in every instance shown themselves the uncom- 
promising friends of liberty.") 
ii. 22. Jan. 24, 1774. No delegates from Delaware. The 
President directed to inform the State. 
73. April 4, 1777. George Read, Nicholas Van Dyke, 
and James Sykes. 
368. Aug. 15, 1777. No delegates from Delaware. The 
President directed to inform the State. 

1 It met at Carpenter's Hall, dissolved itself in October, met May 10, 1775, 
in the State House. — Reminiscences of Carpenter 's Hall. 

2 See Birth of the Republic, Daniel W. Goodloe, 1889, p. 234. 
8 Hist. U. S., viii. 75. 

4 Sanderson's Lives. 


423. Jan. 30, 1778. Csesar Rodney, Nicholas Vandyke 1 
and Thomas McKean. 
iii. 19. Aug. 15, 1778. Mr. McKean attended and resumed 
his seat. 
427. Jan. 27, 1780. Mr. Vandyke produced his creden- 
581. Feb. 26, 1781. Mr. McKean attended and pro- 
duced the credentials of the delegates from Dela- 
ware (names not given). 
581. Feb. 27, 1781. Mr. Rodney attended and took his 

592. March 2, 1781. Congress reorganized under the 
Articles of Confederation. All the delegates' 
names are entered on the Journal. From Dela- 
ware, Thomas Rodney and Thomas McKean. 
651. July 26, 1781. Mr. Vandyke attended. 
714. Jan. 28, 1782. Mr. T. Rodney and Mr. McKean 

attended and took their seats. 
718. Feb. 14, 1782. Mr. McKean produced the creden- 
tials of Thomas McKean, Philemon Dickinson, 
Caesar Rodney and Samuel Wharton, delegates 
for the present year. 
725. Feb. 25, 1782. Mr. Wharton attended and took 
his seat. 
iv. 172-3. March 10, 1783. Eleazer M'Comb and Gunning 
Bedford appeared and produced the credentials 
of Cassar Rodney, James Tilton, Eleazer M'- 
Comb and Gunning Bedford, delegates from 
Delaware, elected February 1, 1783. 
The term of service of Thomas McKean here ends. 

On the 20th of October, 1774, Congress, as a retaliatory 
measure, entered into a "non-importation, non-consumption, 
and non-exportation agreement or association," signed by fifty- 
three members, including Thomas McKean and George Read, 
of the lower counties. 2 

Soon after taking his seat, Mr. McKean was appointed 
one of the committee to state the rights of the colonies, the 
various instances in which those rights had been violated, 
and the means most proper for the restoration of them ; 
also on hearing and determining appeals in libel cases in 
the Court of Admiralty ; besides other less important com- 
mittees. He was, however, particularly useful in conducting 

X A variation in spelling will be noticed. 

2 Birth of the Republic, D. W. Goodloe, 1889, p. 80-5. Fac similes of sig- 
natures may be found in J. J. Smith's Am. Hist, and Lit. Curiosities, pi. liii. 


negotiations of the Secret Committee, charged with procur- 
ing arms and ammunition from abroad ; and in managing 
the monetary affairs of the new nation ; two of the most im- 
portant and difficult subjects with which Congress had to deal. 1 
But the most important committee of all was that appointed 
June 12, 1776, to prepare the Articles of Confederation be- 
tween the colonies, which will be recurred to in its proper place. 
Of his subsequent services, it is mentioned in the papers of 
James Madison, 2 that Mr. McKean proposed a conditional ex- 
change of Cornwallis for Col. H. Laurens, on condition that a 
general cartel should be acceded to ; and that he advocated 
coercion towards Vermont by moving to postpone the report of 
a committee in the matter, to make way for a set of resolutions, 
declaring Vermont in contempt of the authority of Congress, 
in exercising jurisdiction over certain persons professing alle- 
giance to New York, that Vermont be required to make resti- 
tution for property taken from them, and in the event of refusal, 
Congress to enforce it ; and, on the part of Delaware, he in- 
sisted on an equality of representation among the States. 


In the troublous times now approaching, the people through- 
out the colonies elected Committees of Inspection and Observa- 
tion, Committees of Correspondence, Committees of Safety, 
etc., and enrolled themselves in military organizations. 

The Committees of Correspondence 3 were chosen during the 
winter of 1773—4 by the several Assemblies, upon recommen- 
dation of the House of Burgesses of Virginia. Thomas McKean 
was one of the Delaware Committee, as related on a previous 
page. The Philadelphia Committee of Inspection and Cor- 
respondence, consisting of forty-three members, was appointed 
June 18, 1774. A new committee of sixty-seven members for 
the city, and forty-two for the county, was appointed in May, 
1775, but Mr. McKean's name does not appear in these lists; 4 
and it is not known when he joined. This is certain, however, 
that he did join, for he was a member in November 1775 or 

1 Armor's Lives of the Govs, of Penn. 

2 Purchased by Congress, and published by Henry D. Gilpin, 1841, pp. 
187-99, 206-14-20, 751-2. 

3 See Frothingham on this subject, p. 312 et seq. 
i Scharfand Westcott, i, 289-92. 


earlier, and subsequently became chairman. It may be con- 
jectured that as Delaware was in a measure considered " the 
Three Lower Counties of Pennsylvania," the Delaware Com- 
mittees was merged in with the Philadelphia Committee. 
There were six sub-Committees of Inspection and Observation 
in Philadelphia. 1 

The Committee of Safety in Pennsylvania was constituted by 
the Assembly June 80, 1775, composed of some of the most 
prominent men in the colony ; Henry Wynkoop, Anthony 
Wayne, Edward Biddle, Thomas Willing, Benjamin Franklin, 
Daniel Roberdeau, John Cadwallader, Robert Morris, Thomas 
Wharton, and others, in all twenty-five, of whom seven con- 
stituted a quorum. 

As early as May 1, 1775, a list was made out of persons in 
the middle ward of Philadelphia, (lying west of Fourth street, 
and between Market and Chestnut streets,) "able and willing to 
bear arms," in which appears the name of Thomas McKean. 2 
Under this date the " roll call of Captain John Little's com- 
pany, 2d battalion" gives about seventy -four names, among 
whom Daniel C. Clymer is first lieutenant, and Thomas McKean 
one of the privates, chiefly enrolled from the middle ward of 
the city. 3 

The military organization in Pennsylvania called itself the 
Associators ; and being at first voluntary, became afterwards 
compulsory. They were governed by a board of officers, and 
a board of privates. Of the former Colonel Daniel Roberdeau 
of the 2d battalion was elected president. Their Code of 
Rules was approved by the Council of Safety ; and soon after, 
on the 8th of November, 1775, was enforced by the Assembly, 
in an act enrolling all white males between the ages of sixteen 
and fifty, fining those who would not bear arms. While this 
bill was pending, the Quakers, a large and influential body in 
Pennsylvania — a majority of whom were Tories — protested 
against its passage. 4 To neutralize the effect of this, the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence directed Thomas McKean, George 
Clymer, Jonathan Bayard Smith, Benjamin Jones, Sharpe 
Delaney, John Wilcox, and Timothy Matlack, to prepare a re-- 

1 Scharf and Westcott, i, 290-3. 

2 Hist. Berks and Lebanon Cos., Pa., I. D. Rupp, 1844, p. 401, quoting 
the papers of Col. D. C. Clymer. 

3 MSS. of D. C. Clymer. See Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, pp. 66, 

4 Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, 1876, p. 60-1. 


monstrance, and with it the committee marched to the State 
House. 1 The board of officers, through its chairman Colonel 
Daniel Roberdeau, likewise presented a remonstrance to the 

About May, 1776, two more battalions were added to the 
Associators ; the 4th, Colonel Thomas McKean, and the 5th, 
Colonel Timothy Matlack, with Daniel C. Clymer as lieutenant 
colonel. 2 

MAY 20TH, 1776. 

The disagreement between England and the colonies con- 
tinued to increase ; the king and ministry made no reply to 
overtures of reconciliation that had been made by the colonies, 
until at last, weary of vain efforts, Congress, on the 15th of 
May passed an important act— the first of a scries of events, 
which culminated in the Declaration of Independence — recom- 
mending to the Colonies, that where no government sufficient 
to the exigencies of their affairs had been established, to adopt 
such government, and that all authority under the crown should 
be suppressed, and all powers be under the authority of the 
people. Some members in Congress opposed this, but Mr. 
McKean was strongly in favor, and said, " that the step must 
be taken, or liberty, property and life be lost." 3 

On the 23d, an address signed by William Hamilton, chair- 
man, asked the Assembly to adhere to its instructions to the 
Pennsylvania delegates in Congress against independence. 
To oppose the influence of this petition, the next day the 
Committee of Inspection and Observation came together, 
with Mr. McKean as chairman, and addressed a memorial 
directly to Congress, that the Assembly did not possess the 
confidence of the people. 4 

" Pennsylvania was now fairly alive with the idea of independ- 
ence. Nowhere had the question been more thoroughly discussed 
than in its press, and nowhere was the opposition more strongly 
intrenched, for it had on its side the proprietary government. 
The tories could point to the instructions of the Assembly as 

1 Ibid., and Scharf and Westcott, Hist. Phila., p. 302. 

2 Scharf and "Westcott, p. 307, and Penn. in War of Rev., W. H. Egle, 1887, 
i, 556. Thos. McKean is, however, referred to as colonel as early as April 
22, 1776.— Col. Rec, x., 548. 

3 Bancroft, Hist. U. S., 1860, viii, 368. 
*Ibid., viii, 386-7. 


the voice of one-eighth of the inhabitants of America. On this 
well-prepared soil fell the resolution of the fifteenth of May. 
The principle it embodied was accepted by the popular party 
as their rule of action. To give expression to the public sen- 
timent, a great public meeting was held on the 20th of May, at 
the State House, which was called to order by Major John 
Bayard, a man of singular purity of character, brave and de- 
vout, in which Colonel Daniel Roberdeau, a gallant soldier of 
the Revolution, presided, and Thomas McKean, an eminent 
civilian, took part." 1 The resolution of the 15th of May was 
read and approved. A protest was drawn up, and agreed to, 
against the Assembly forming a new government (as that should 
emanate from the people). The protest was presented to the 
Assembly on the 22d, and laid on the table. The meeting was 
held in the rain, nevertheless four thousand people were pres- 
ent. 2 A very full account of this meeting, with the resolutions 
and protest, is given in Force's American Archives. (Ser. IV., 
vi., 517-19-845.) 

This great demonstration was felt throughout the province. 
The position it took was responded to by local committees, 
public meetings, and military battalions. Following only five 
days after the passage of the resolution of Congress, its prompt, 
firm and decided action very greatly paved the way for the 
Declaration of Independence six weeks later. 

The people having thus approved the resolution of Congress, 
"that all powers should be under the authority of the people," 
and having protested against the Assembly forming a new gov- 
ernment, the Committee of Observation of Philadelphia, the 
next day, issued a call to the committees of the several counties, 
to send deputies to a Provincial Convention. 3 Thomas Mc 
Kean, as chairman of the committee, then presented a memorial 
to Congress, stating that the instructions of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly to their delegates have a tendency to withdraw the 
province from its union with the other colonies, and this com- 
mittee has called a meeting of all the committees of the prov- 
ince to take action in the matter. 4 

On the 6th of June, the 4th battalion, Colonel MeKean, 

1 Rise of the Republic, Richard Frothingham. See also Genealogy of the 
Roberdeau Family, 62, and Scharf and Westcott, p. 312. 

2 Scharf and Westcott, p. 312. Also Diary of Christopher Marshall, William 
Duane, 1877. 

3 Frothingham, 522. 

4 Force's American Archives, IV., vi., 560, 689. 


unanimously agreed to support the resolution of Congress of 
the 15th of May and the proceedings of the meeting of May 
20th. 1 Other battalions likewise passed similar resolutions. 

In June also, on the 14th, the Delaware Assembly, at the in- 
stance of Mr. McKean, unanimously approved the resolution of 
Congress of the 15th of May, overturning the proprietary gov- 
ernment within her borders.' 2 


This important convention, which commenced on the 18th of 
June, 1776, was the immediate result of the meeting of May 
20th, and is that referred to above in the memorial of Thomas 
McKean to Congress. Deputies, to the number of 104, at- 
tended from all the committees in the province ; Colonel Mc- 
Kean, chairman of the City Committee, called the meeting to 
order, and stated its object. In its organization, Colonel 
McKean was made president, Colonel Joseph Hart, vice- 
president, Jonathan Bayard Smith and Samuel Cadwallader 
Morris, secretaries ; Benjamin Franklin, Colonel John Bay- 
ard, Timothy Matlack, and Dr. Benjamin Rush were among 
those present. The resolution of the 15th of May was read, 
and it was resolved " that the present government of the 
province was not competent to the exigencies of our affairs." 
Afterwards the convention provided for a general Provincial 
Convention from the whole province, to be elected by the 
people, to form a government for the state. This present 
convention in the interim seems now to have taken upon itself 
the general management of most of the affairs of the province ; 
it is appealed to to settle disputes, takes action to raise a Fly- 
ing Camp ; and on the 23d the chairman, Colonel McKean, 
Dr. Rush, and Colonel James Smith 3 are a committee to pre- 
pare a Declaration, which was agreed to on the 24th ; that the 
deputies are willing to concur in a vote of Congress "declaring 
the united colonies free and independent states." The con- 
vention then adjourned, and this Declaration, signed by Thomas 
McKean, president, was by him delivered the next day directly 
to Congress. 4 

'Ibid., 784. 

^Bancroft, viii., 436; Life of George Read, W. T. Read, 1870, p. 245; 
Birth of the Republic, Goodloe, 242. 

3 Not Franklin, as stated in Sanderson's Lives. 

4 Force's American Archives, IV., vi., 951-66, 1721 ; Frothingham's Rise of 
the Republic, 522-3 ; Bancroft's History, viii., 445 et seq.; Niles' Principles and 
Acts of the Revolution, 252 ; Diary of Chr. Marshall, Duane, p. 78 ; Scharf and 
Westcott, Hist. Phil., 321 et seq. ; Hickey's Constitution, 1853, p. 194. 



Following close upon the convention at Carpenter's Hall, 
and encouraged by their fearless Declaration, Congress on the 
1st of July resumed the debate upon the resolution before that 
body which had been postponed from the 10th of June ; and 
on the 2d of July, 1776, 1 agreed to the resolution reported 
from the Committee of the Whole, " That these United Colo- 
nies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and independent 

States " The committee asked leave to sit again, and 

likewise made the same request on the 3d. On the 4th of 
July, 1776, the committee reported the Declaration to Con- 
gress, when it was unanimously agreed to. 2 There is no ac- 
count of the debates on Independence : Adams spoke, as did 
McKean, but we have no report of what they said. 3 R. H. 
Lee, Wythe, Gerry, Jefferson, and Samuel Adams also gave 
their voices in favor.* " Did the able and indomitable Mc- 
Kean remain silent?" says Randall, in his "Life of Thomas 
Jefferson." 5 

When the vote was taken on the 2d of July in Committee of 
the Whole, Mr. McKean voted for, and Mr. Read against the 
resolution: the vote of Delaware was thus divided and lost 
(all votes being taken by States). Every State, except Penn- 
sylvania and Delaware, had voted in favor of the measure ; 
and it was of great importance to secure a unanimous vote. 
Mr. McKean, therefore, without delay dispatched an express, 
at his own expense, for Mr. Rodney, who was then in Dela- 
ware. That gentleman hastened to Philadelphia, and arrived 
at the State House, in his boots and spurs, just in time on the 
morning of the 4th to cast his vote in favor, and the vote of 
Delaware was secured. Two Pennsylvania delegates absented 
themselves, and that State was also united with the majority, 
making the vote unanimous. 6 

These circumstances are related by Mr. McKean in a letter 
to Governor Thomas Rodney, dated August 22, 1813, 7 and 

x Not 1st, as stated in Sanderso?i's Lives. 

2 Journals of Congress, ed. 1111. See also Hickey's Constitution, p. 195 et 

3 Frothingham, 534—7. 

* Historic Account of Old State House, F. M. Etting, p. 96. 

5 I. 183. 

6 Sanderson's Lives : Lives of McKean and of Rodney. 

7 In possession of T. M. Rodney, Esq., pub. in fac-simile in Brotherhead's 
Book of the Signers, Phila., 1861, and also a portion, not the whole, in Harp. 
Mag., vol. lxvii., p. 208 et seq. 



again in a letter to John Adams, January 7, 1814, quoted 
nearly in full on a subsequent page. 

Recent historians are of opinion that Mr. McKean is mistaken 
as to a day or two ; that his patriotic and successful endeavor 
to bring Rodney up from Delaware, was that he might vote on 
the main question — the Resolution of Independence on the 2d 
of July. 1 

The incident just related forms the subject of a poem by the 
well-known writer George Alfred Townsend. 2 Thomas Mc- 
Kean's soliloquy, as he waits upon the State House steps for 
Mr. Rodney, and the concluding stanzas, are as follows : 

" Read is skulking ; Dickinson is 

With conceit and fright our foeman, 
Wedded to his Quaker monies," 
Mused the grim old rebel Roman ; 
" Pennsylvania, spoiled by faction, 
Independence will not dare; 
Maryland approves the action ; 
Shall we fail on Delaware ? " 

In the tower the old bell rumbled, 

Striking slowly twelve o'clock. 
Down the street a hot horse stumbled, 

And a man in riding frock, 
With a green patch on his visage, 
And his garments white with grime. 
" Now praise God !" McKean spoke grimly, 
" Cassar Rodney is on time." 

Silent, hand in hand together, 

Walked they in the great square hall ; 
To the roll with "Aye" responded 

At the clerk's immortal call ; 
Listened to the Declaration 

From the steeple to the air : 
"Here this day is made a nation, 

By the help of Delaware ! " 


Let us now briefly recapitulate Mr. McKean's services in 
favor of the Declaration, as above related : First, as a member 
of Congress, he assisted' in passing the resolution of the 15th 

1 Mellen Chamberlain's Authentication. 

^Poetical Addresses, Bonaventure & Co., N. Y., 1881; Csesar Rodney's Uh 
of July. 


of May. Next as an "eminent civilian," he was the chief 
speaker at a meeting of citizens which ratified the resolution. 
As chairman of the Philadelphia Committee, he issues a call for 
a meeting of deputies of all the committees in the State, and 
also reports this to Congress. As Colonel of a battalion he 
joins his command, and the resolution is again ratified ; he 
takes the chair as Speaker of the Assembly of Delaware, and 
at his instance the resolution is again ratified ; he calls to or- 
der the meeting of deputies at Carpenter's Hall, who have met 
together in answer to bis call, and is made chairman. The 
meeting agrees to support a vote of Congress, that these colo- 
nies SbYefree and independent States. As a privileged dele- 
gate from this meeting, he walks into Congress and lays the 
report before that body. He votes for the Declaration in 
Committee of the Whole, but his vote is neutralized by Mr. 
Read, who votes against him ; he sends an express at his own 
expense for Mr. Rodney, and on the 2d, and on the memorable 
4th of July, with Mr. Rodney outvotes Mr. Read, and secures 
a unanimous vote. 

Had it not been for Mr. McKean's exertions, the engrossed 
Declaration could not have been headed as it now is — The 
Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States. For- 
tunate for the country was it that Mr. McKean held so many 
offices to give him these opportunities ; and fortunate, too, that 
he was a man of sufficient energy and activity to make use of 
them to the best advantage, 


, It is a general popular belief that the Declaration of In- 
dependence was signed on the 4th of July, 1776, as it now 
appears by those whose names are inseparably a part of it. 
The engrossed Declaration implies this, strengthened by the 
printed journals of Congress. The first to challenge this com- 
monly received opinion, according to Judge Chamberlain in his 
Authentication, was Mr. McKean; and since his day many 
eminent writers have discussed the subject. Even the signers 
themselves— McKean, Jefferson and Adams, give conflicting 
accounts of the matter. 

The question as stated by Judge Chamberlain is this: -'Was 
the draught of the Declaration of Independence, which, after 
various amendments, was finally agreed to on the afternoon of 
July 4th, forthwith engrossed on paper, and thereupon sub- 
scribed by all the members then present except Dickinson ?" 


A secondary question : " Was the Declaration signed by any 
one on July 4th, 1776?" seems to be an issue not heretofore 
raised by any historian ; but tacitly accepted in the affirmative 
as an established fact. The author has discussed this question 
on a subsequent page. 

Mr. McKean explicitly denies in four separate letters, that 
the Declaration was generally signed on July 4th : First, in 
a letter to Alexander J. Dallas, dated September 26, 1796, 
and published in " Sanderson's Lives ; " secondly, in the above 
mentioned letter to Governor Rodney of August 22, 1813 ; 
thirdly, in the letter to Mr. Adams of January, 181 4, 1 also 
above mentioned — these two letters last named are almost 
identical, word for word, in the portions relating to this matter 
under discussion ; and, fourthly, in a letter of June 16, 1817 
(eight days before his death), to William McCorkle and Son, 2 
in which the letter to Mr. Dallas is largely quoted. 

In the first named letter, September 26, 1796, in speaking 
of the printed journals, Mr. McKean says : 

" By the printed publications referred to, it would appear as if 
the fifty-fi\e gentlemen whose names are there printed, and none 
other, were on that day personally present in congress and as- 
senting to the Declaration ; w r hereas the truth is otherwise. . . . 

" Modesty should not rob any man of his just honor, when by 
that honor his modesty cannot be offended. My name is not 
in the printed journals of congress as a party to the Declaration 
of Independence ; and this, like an error of the first concoction, has 
vitiated most of the subsequent publications ; and yet the fact is, 
that I was then a member of congress for the state of Delaware, 
was personally present in congress, and voted in favor of independ- 
ence on the fourth of July, 1776, and signed the declaration 
after it had been engrossed on parchment, where my name in my 
own handwriting still appears. 

''I do not know how the misstatement in the printed journals 
has happened. The manuscript public journal has no names an- 
nexed to the Declaration of Independence, nor has the secret jour- 
nal ; but it appears by the latter, that on the nineteenth day of 
July, 1776, the congress directed that it should be engrossed on 
parchment and signed by every member, and that it was so pro- 
duced on the second of August, and signed. This is interlined in 
the secret journal, in the handwriting of Charles Thomson, esquire, 

1 Mies' Reg., July 12, 1817, xii., 305 et seq. ; Adams' Works, C. F. Adams, 
x., 87 ; Mass. Hist. Col., 5th Ser., iv., 505, and partly quoted in Judge Cham- 
berlain's Authentication, Dec. Ind. 

5 Mies' Reg., xii., 278 ; Duane's Diary of Christopher Marshall; The Port- 
folio, Sept., 1817, p. 246, quoting Freeman's Journal. 


the secretary. The present secretary of state of the United 
States and myself have lately inspected the journals, and seen this." 

In the letter to Mr. Adams, after speaking of other matters, 
Mr. McKean continues as follows: 

"On the 1st July, 1776, the question was taken in the com- 
mittee of the whole of Congress, when Pennsylvania, represented 
by seven members then present, voted against it — four to three; 
among the majority were Robert Morris and John Dickinson ; 
Delaware (having only two present, namely, myself and Mr. Read) 
was divided ; all the other states voting in favor of it. The re- 
port was delayed until the 4th ; and, in the mean time, I sent an 
express for Cassar Rodney to Dover, in the county of Kent in 
Delaware, at my private expense, whom I met at the state-house 
door, on the 4th of July, in his boots. He resided eighty miles 
from the city, and just arrived as congress met. The question 
was taken, Delaware voted in favor of independence; Pennsyl- 
vania (there being five members present, Messrs. Dickinson and 
Morris absent) voted also for it; Messrs. Willing and Humphreys 
were against it. Thus the thirteen states were unanimous in 
favor of independence. Notwithstanding this, in the printed pub- 
lic journal of congress for 1776, Vol. 2, it appears that the decla- 
ration of independence was declared on the 4th of July, 1776, by 
the gentlemen whose names are there inserted, whereas no person 
signed it on that day ; and, among the names there inserted, one 
gentleman, namely, George Read, Esq,, was not in favor of it, and 
seven were not in Congress on that day, 1 namely, Messrs. Morris, 

1 Willis P. Hazard, in his edition of Watson's Annals, iii, 222, corrects this 
sentence : Morris should be Messrs., but Hazard is still wrong. The sen- 
tence is correct, as shown by what follows : Morris was " not in Congress on 
that day," because he was absent, as Mr. McKean says above ; the five 
others were not, because they had not then been elected, as he says below. 
In the early part of this letter, in speaking of the vote, Mr. McKean names 
Morris and Dickinson as absent ; here, in speaking of the signers, he properly 
names Morris only. 

After the publication of a letter of Mr. McKean in Potter's American 
Monthly (vols, iv.-v., 1875), a controversy sprang up, whether Mr. McKean 
should not have mentioned nine instead of seven members of Congress ; but 
the editors as well as the contributors of that magazine are still mistaken in 
going back to December, 1774, for the election of delegates. A later elec- 
tion, November 6, 1775 [Journals of Cong.), returned nine members — Mor- 
ton, Dickinson, Morris, Franklin, Humphreys, Biddle, Willing, Allen and 
Wilson. Mr. McKean mentions seven; the other two are Biddle, who was 
sick and died during the session, and Allen, a British sympathizer (Scharf 
and Westcott, i., 317). The latter abandoned his seat, June 14th, and Mr. 
McKean knew that two seats were permanently vacated, so that Pennsylva- 
nia was represented by seven only. Of the above, Morton, Morris, Franklin 
and Wilson signed in August ; their election did not hold over, for they 
were re-elected July 20, 1776, together with Ross, Clymer, Rush, Smith 
and Taylor, nine in all, who signed in behalf of Pennsylvania. I think this 
matter is now clearly and correctly stated. 


Rush, Clymer, Smith, Taylor and Ross, all of Pennsylvania, and 
Mr. Thornton of New-Hampshire ; nor were the six gentlemen 
last named, members of congress on the 4th of July. The five 
for Pennsylvania were appointed delegates by the convention of 
that State on the 20th July, and Mr. Thornton took his seat in 
Congress, for the first time, on the 4th November following; 
when the names of Henry Wisner, of New York, 1 and Thomas 
McKean, of Delaware, are not printed as subscribers, though both 
were present in Congress on the 4th of July and voted for inde- 

Here false colors are certainly hung out ; there is culpability 
somewhere: what I have heard as an explanation is as follows: 
When the declaration was voted, it was ordered to be engrossed 
on parchment and then signed, and that a few days afterwards a 
resolution was entered on the secret journal that no person should 
have a seat in congress during that year until he should have 

signed the declaration of independence After the 4th 

July I was not in Congress for several months, having marched 
with a regiment of associators as colonel, to support general 
Washington, until the flying camp often thousand men was com- 
pleted. When the associators were discharged, I returned to 
Philadelphia, took my seat in Congress and signed my name to 
the Declaration on parchment. This transaction should be truly 
stated, and the then secret journal should be made public. In the 
manuscript journal, Mr. Pickering, then secretary of state, and 
myself saw a printed half sheet of paper, 2 with the names of the 
members afterward in the printed journals stitched in. We ex- 
amined the parchment where my name is signed in my own hand- 

Mr. McKean then turns to other subjects, and concludes : 

" My sight fades very fast, though my writing may not dis- 
cover it. God bless you. 

Your friend, THO'S McKEAN. 
His Excellency John Adams. 

1 Some authors have thought Mr. McKean was mistaken that Mr. Wisner 
voted for independence, because the New York delegates had not been so 
instructed, and since but twelve States voted on July 2d. Franklin Burdge, 
however, published in 1878 a memorial of Henry Wisner, quoting letters of 
his to show that he did vote for independence, and was the only New 
Yorker who so voted. 

2 There is no " printed half-sheet of paper" now in the journals. Mr. Mc- 
Kean saw the journals when Mr. Pickering was Secretary of State, 1*795— 
1800, about seventeen yeai-s before writing this letter, and may confound 
the printed Declaration wafered in, with some other paper, real or imagin- 
ary, not now known. 


Mr. Jefferson holds the contrary side of the question in his 
memoranda, as follows : x 

" The Declaration thus signed on the 4th, on paper, was en- 
grossed on parchment, and signed again on the 2d of August." 

And again, in a letter of May 12, 1819, to Samuel Adams 

" It was not till the 2d of July, that the Declaration itself was 
taken up ; nor till the 4th, that it was decided, and it was signed 
by every member present, except Mr. Dickinson " 

Mr. Adams takes the same side of the question with Mr. 
Jefferson. In transmitting the above letter of Mr. McKean to 
Mercy Warren for her reading, he writes under date of 
Quincy, February 2, 1814 : 2 

" Dear Madam: I send you a curiosity. Mr. McKean is mis- 
taken in a day or two. The final vote of independence, after the 
last debate, was passed on the 2d or 3d of July, and the Declara- 
tion prepared and signed on the 4th. 

" What are we to think of history, when, in less than forty years, 
such diversities appear in the memories of living persons, who were 

These conflicting statements should now be carefully criti- 
cised. Mr. Adams here, in his old age, contradicts what he 
himself said thirty-eight years before in a letter to Samuel 
Chase. On July 9th, five days after the passage of the Dec- 
laration, he writes : " As soon as an American seal is pre- 
pared, I conjecture that the declaration will be subscribed by 
all the members." 3 From which we may infer that the Dec- 
laration had not then been signed. The earlier letter as 
contemporary evidence is deserving of more credit than the 
later one. 

As to Mr. Jefferson, Judge Chamberlain has shown in his 
Authentication, p. 8-9, that Mr. Jefferson's Notes were not 
made at the time alleged, but subsequently, and aided by the 
printed journals. "Hence his notes lose the authority of con- 
temporaneous entries." 

George Washington Greene says : 4 " Mr. Jefferson's memory 
failed him singularly in his history of that document, important 
as the part he bore in it was." 

1 Jefferson' s Writings, H. A. Washington, Washington, D. C, i, 26, 120-2, 
vii., 124; Randall's Life, L, 171. 

2 Mass. Hist. Collections, 5th Ser., iy., 505. 

s Adams' Works, ed. 1860, ix., 421 ; Scharf and Westcott, Hist.. i., 319. 

i Histor. View Amer. Rev., 379. 


And after the appearance of Mrs. Morris' article on the 
Declaration in Potter's American Monthly, several others 
wrote expressing their opinions. Among whom, William Duane 
writes: 1 "Mr. Jefferson was so clearly wrong in stating that 
Pennsylvania's vote for Independence was secured by the ap- 
pearance of new members on the fourth of July, that we have 
a right to suspect him in error in other points." Another 
writer, 2 name unknown, in an article, The Declaration of In- 
dependence, The statements of Thomas McKean and Thomas 
Jefferson compared, gives their statements in full, and says: 
" A gentleman of good repute, as a historical and antiquarian 
scholar, disagrees with Mrs. Morris, and writes us as follows : 
4 Mr. Jefferson, at the time he wrote his autobiography, was 
very old ; and we all know that the memory is the first of the 
mental faculties to show signs of decay. He confused what 
was done in Congress in August, with what was done in July. 
He had forgotten the Mecklenburg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. His account cannot be compared with the clear and 
positive statements of Governor Thomas McKean.' " 

Mr. McKean's first statement on this subject was made 
twenty years after the Declaration was signed. Age had not, 
at. this time or any other time, impaired his mental faculties ; 
witness his subsequent vigor ten years later, while Governor of 
Pennsylvania, and the letter to William McCorkle and son, 
eight days before his death. His first statement, he reiterated 
during the next twenty-one years. In the main facts, his 
statements have not been impeached, although in some col- 
lateral matters of minor importance he may be in error. 

Among recent writers, the opinion is almost unanimous that 
the Declaration was not generally signed on the 4th July, but 
was subscribed or authenticated by John Hancock president, 
and Charles Thomson secretary. 

In his recent history, Justin Winsor 3 states distinctly that 
it was signed by the president and secretary. "The best 
investigators of our day are agreed that the president and 
secretary alone signed it on that day." 

Daniel Webster,* Robert C. Winthrop, 5 and George Wash- 

iVols. iv.-v., for 1875, p. 785. 

3 Ibid., p. 651. 

3 Narrative and Crit. History of Anier., 1888-9, v., 231 et scq. 

*Works, Boston, 1872, i., 129. 

5 Oration, July 4, 1876, Boston, 1876, p. 29. 


ington Greene, 1 hold that it was authenticated by the signa- 
tures of the president and secretary. 

Peter Force, 2 the most thorough and reliable investigator of 
revolutionary history, George Bancroft 3 and Richard Frothing- 
ham 4 rather vaguely and perhaps cautiously state that it was 
authenticated by the president and secretary. 

Benson J. Lossing formerly stated 5 that the Declaration was 
signed by the president alone, but has since changed his opin- 
ion, and has now come to the conclusion that it was signed by 
the members on the paper on which it had been written. 6 

Hildrith's History of the United States (iii, 137) and Wil- 
liam L. Stone 7 hold that, some or a few of the members signed 
on July 4th. 

William T Read, in his life of his grandfather George Read 
(p. 229), is assuredly mistaken in saying it was signed on 
July 4th " by all present in Congress on that day except Mr. 
Dickinson." Force flatly contradicts this statement (origin- 
ating with Jefferson) contained in Lord Mahon's History. 8 

Philadelphia's noted historian, Watson, quotes Mr. McKean's 
letter, that " the Declaration of Independence was not actually 
signed on the 4th of July." 9 

Mrs. Nellie Hess Morris, in a magazine article on the Decla- 
ration, regards it " as a question I cannot venture to decide." 10 

The latest, and most thorough and searching investigator of 
this subject is Judge Mellen Chamberlain, of Boston, in his 
Authentication of the Declaration of Independence, 11 wherein 
he shows that it was not generally signed on July 4th ; but he 
does not touch upon any other phase of the question. 

One naturally now turns to the printed journals of Congress, 
to see what evidence is there recorded, which can be construed 
so variously ; but, as will be seen below, the printed journals 
are inaccurate and misleading, and have doubtless been the 

1 Histor. View of Arner. Rev., N. Y., 1872, p. 101, 379. 

2 The Dec. Ind., or Notes on Lord Mahon's Hist., London, 1855, p. 61. 

3 Hist. U. S., ed. 1885, iv., 452 ; 1879, v., 332. 

i Eise of the Republic, p. 544. 

s Field Book of Rev., 1860, ii., 79, and Harp. Mag., xlvii., 258. 

^Potter's Am. Monthly, Phila., iv.-v., for 1875, 754-7. 

''The Dec. of Ind. in a New Light, Harp. Mag., lxvii., 210. 

*The Dec. Ind., London, 1855, p. 63. 

^Annals, Phila. ed., 1884, 3 vols., i., 400. 

^Potter's Am. Monthly, iv.-v., 498. 

11 Cambridge, 1885; reprinted from Mass. Hist. Coll., November, 1884. 


cause of much of this confusion. The journal (for 1776) was 
first printed by order of Congress bj Robert Aitken, Philadel- 
phia, 1777 (vols. 1 and 2). The whole Journal is in thirteen 
volumes, printed from time to time by Aitken, D.C.Claypoole, 
John Dunlap, and J. Patterson. 

The Journal was reprinted in 1777, vols. 1 and 2 only ; 
again in 1800 by Folwell in thirteen volumes ; and in 1823 by 
Way and Gideon in 4 vols. These are all the earlier editions 
mentioned in B. P. Poore's Catalogue of Government Publica- 

The proceedings of July 4th, 1776, according to the printed 
Journal, 1st edition (1777), are as follows literatim-. 

"Agreeable to the order of the day, the Congress resolved itself, 
into a committee of the whole, to take into their farther consider- 
ation the declaration, and after some time the president resumed 
the chair, and Mr. Harrison reported, that the committee have 
agreed to a declaration which they desired him to report. 

"The declaration being read, was agreed to, as follows ; 

"A DECLARATION by the Representatives of the UNITED 
STATES of AMERICA in Congress assembled. 

\_Here follows the Declaration^ 

"The foregoing declaration was by order of Congress engrossed 
and signed by the following members : 

\_Here follow the names in groups, against the names of their re- 
spective States. ~\ 

Resolved, That copies of the declaration be sent to the several 
assemblies, conventions and committees, or councils of safety, and 
to the several commanding officers of the continental troops ; that 
it be proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head of 
the army." 

In the editions of 1777 and 1800 there are printed but fifty- 
five names subscribed — Mr. McKean's being omitted. In the 
later edition of 1823 this omission is corrected, and his name is 
printed with the others. The discovery of this omission of Mr. 
McKean's name (and which will be referred to more fully under 
the signing of the Declaration on parchment,) was one of the 
causes which led to this discussion as to the signing. 

Wishing to settle the matter if possible, I obtained permis- 
sion from the Secretary of State to examine the original manu- 
script journals of Congress. After a perusal of them, I came 
into possession (through the kindness of the author,) of Judge 
Mellen Chamberlain's Authentication of the Declaration of 



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Independence ; and found that in this investigation, I had un- 
knowingly been pretty much treading in his footsteps. 

It may be explained here, that there are three original manu- 
script journals, which are almost wholly in the handwriting of 
Charles Thomson: 1st. The Rough Journal, so called, con- 
sisting of entries made probably while Congress was sitting, 
which is the standard. 2d. The Smooth Journal, a copy of 
the previous, the entries being somewhat amplified and punctu- 
ated. The 3d is the Secret Journal, which is not a daily 
record, the consecutive dates of a 'portion in 1776 being June 
24; July 8, 11, 17, 19; August 2; then November 27. There 
is consequently in the Secret Journal no entry under July 4, 

In the manuscript Smooth Journal, the declaration is wholly 
in writing, with no attesting clause, and no names attached, 
either in writing or in print. 

Upon examining the Rough Journal, much to my surprise, 
I found no toritten names appended to the Declaration, not 
even Hancock's, and the Declaration itself, with the attesta- 
tion, is in print on a large folded sheet of paper, attached by 
four red wafers. These facts do not appear to have been gen- 
erally known, or at least have not appeared in print, before the 
publication of Judge Chamberlain's pamphlet. 

The page of the journal of July 4th is towards the left hand, 
and is 12| by 8 inches with a margin of 2| inches, on the edge 
of the page at the left, not separated by any line. Jn the 
margin is a duplicate date, and in the body of the page the 
writing covers slightly more than half of the page ; the lo-wer 
part being left blank, undoubtedly to receive the printed 
broadside now found there. This page of the journal is here 
reproduced in fac-simile, a photo-lithograph, and reduced one- 
half size of the original. For this especial favor, — the first 
time that any portions of these journals have been reproduced 
in fac-simile, — the author is indebted to the Hon. William F. 
Wharton, Assistant Secretary of State, and to Frederick Ban- 
croft, Esq., Chief of the Bureau of Rolls and Library. 

The Declaration is on paper 18 inches long by 14f inches 
wide ; the print covering a space 17| by llf inches. It is 
folded upwards at the bottom of the page (where it is at the 
present time worn away and torn completely across,) and 
folded a second time in closing the book. It begins and ends 
as follows, the positions of the wafers being also shown: 



o o o 

In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. 




"YTTHEN in the courfe of human events, it becomes necefsary 

[Here follows the Declaration] 

Signed by Order and in Behalf of the CONGRESS, 
JOHN HANCOCK, President. 



Philadelphia: printed by John Ddnlap. 

Lossing states that the Declaration was passed about two 
o'clock. 1 It was printed during the day and evening ; and the 
next day sent forth to the world. 2 On the 8th, by order of 
the Committee of Safety, it was publicly read by John Nixon 
from the State House steps. In Judge Chamberlain's Authen- 
tication, a letter from Theodore F. Dwight, librarian of the 
State Department, states that this first publication is the one 
wafered in the journal, and that among the papers of Washing- 
ton is another copy, the same which he read, or caused to be 
read, to the army. 

The Declaration was also published in the Evening Post of 
of July 6th, signed by the President and Secretary, and later 
it appeared in other papers. 

The reader has now before him all the facts upon which the 
foregoing diversified opinions are based. It is seen that there 
is no copy of the Declaration signed in the handwriting of 
any one on July 4th, the only attestation being in print ; and 
no paper is known such as mentioned by Jefferson, signed by 
all the members. It cannot be denied that such a paper ever 
existed, for " it may have lost," says Judge Chamberlain, 

1 Field Book, 1860, ii., 78. 

2 Scharfand Westcott, i., 317; Frothingkam, 544. 


" but there are facts making it far more probable that it never 
existed." 1 

The responsibility of inserting the names in the printed 
journal cannot now be determined, and it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that there was no intention to mislead. The Secret Jour- 
nal had not then been printed ; and since the only entry as to 
the engrossing and signing of the Declaration is contained in it, 
the names were probably inserted in the public journal for the 
information of the public. 2 It is unfortunate, for it makes the 
printed journal assert facts on July 4th which did not take 
place until August or later. 

Since there is no Declaration known, in or out of the jour- 
nals of Congress, containing the tvritten signatures of the 
president and secretary affixed on the 4th of July, and not a 
scrap of evidence that such a paper ever existed, the author 
considers it very doubtful whether even Hancock or Thomson 
signed on the 4th. 

In the first place it was not the custom of the Continental 
Congress that resolutions in general should be signed by any 
one. When passed, they were entered on the journal. Sub- 
sequently, copies of resolutions that were sent to General Wash- 
ington and others, were authenticated by the written signature 
of John Hancock ; but such papers were copies, and not original 
records. There are no signed resolutions among the miscel- 
laneous papers of Congress preserved by Charles Thomson. 
This volume of papers was shown to me when making inquiries 
at the Department of State, where the facts in this paragraph 
were ascertained. In answer to a further inquiry as to whether 
there are any resolutions of the Continental Congress signed 
in writing by the President, or by the President and Secretary, 
the following letter states the matter officially : 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 21, 1889. 


The Clarendon, Washington City. 
Sir : In reply to the enquiry contained in your letter of the 
3d instant, I have to say that there are not in the Archives of the 
Continental Congress in this Department any resolutions or 
other papers signed in writing by the President or by the Presi- 
dent and Secretary prior to their entry on the journals. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

J. Fenner Lee, Chief Clerk. 

1 Authentication,^. 15. 

a Ibid., p. 20, Letter of T. F. Dwight. 


Is it likely that John Hancock would violate the usual cus- 
tom of Congress by signing the Declaration unless especially 
authorized to do so ? And the question may also be asked : 
If it required a formal resolution to prepare and sign the en- 
grossed Declaration on the 2d of August, would it not likewise 
have required a similar resolution for Hancock to sign the 
Declaration on the 4th of July ? No such resolution appears 
on the journal, and we may therefore doubt such alleged sign- 
ing. In accordance with custom, the entry on the journal is 
a sufficient attestation of the fact that the Declaration had 
passed Congress. 

No argument can be drawn from the wording of the attest- 
ing clause — Signed by order and in behalf of — that it presup- 
poses a resolution of Congress ; because these words, and others 
of similar import, have several times been made use of in other 
documents, showing the phrase to be one of common use in 
those days, but perhaps obsolete at the present time. 1 

As no Declaration bearing the written signature of John 
Hancock on July 4th is known ever to have been in existence, 
we have only the printed Declaration from which to infer the 
signing. This signing, if it was done, was not the vital act, 
giving life and force to the Declaration ; but merely the attesta- 
tion of that act already consummated ; and, judging by the 
printed broadside, performed wholly for the satisfaction of the 
public. It was therefore a matter of secondary importance. 
This written copy itself was not intended to go before the pub- 
lic, or to be used in any legal proceeding ; it was simply a 
printer's copy, and the printed Declaration made from it would 
be the same whether printed from genuine signatures or from 
the same names written by another person. And from these 
considerations, the author hazards the conjecture that no one 
properly signed on July J^th. But in preparing a copy of the 

1 In support of this statement, the following may be found in Force's 
American Archives: IV., vi., 1136^ Address to Gen. Washington, June 29, 
1776, "By desire, and in behalf of the several Regiments in the Second 
Brigade ;" IV., vi., 847, Petition of Gen. Daniel Roberdeau to the Assembly, 
May 20, 1776, "Signed in behalf of, and by the desire of the inhabitants," 
etc.; V., i., 170, Address to Gen. Roberdeau, July 10, 1776, "Signed by or- 
der and in behalf of the Battalion ;" V., ii., 1075, Address of inhabitants of 
New Jersey to Governor Tryon, October 16, 1776, "Signed by desire and 
in behalf of the inhabitants ;" V., iii., 484, Address by a meeting of citizens, 
November 2, 1776, " Signed by order and in behalf of, the meeting." These 
were found by casually turning over the pages of Force's Archives ; doubt- 
less there are others. See also Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, pp. 61, 
62, 63, 68. This same wording much amplified is also made use of in the 
Articles of Confederation. 


Declaration for the printer, some one, — perhaps Charles 
Thomson, used the customary attesting phrase, and wrote his 
own name as secretary, and that of John Hancock as president. 
And this paper being no part of the public records was not pre- 
served. Thus these two names might have appeared in print, 
with no manuscript as their authority, to turn up at a later day 
for the satisfaction of investigators. 

This view presented itself to me upon reading the broad ex- 
pression authenticated, made use of by George Bancroft and 
others, as though they did not feel warranted by the facts to 
employ- the unequivocal word signed. Hancock could " au- 
thenticate" the Declaration by directing Charles Thomson to 
write his name for him in the printer's copy, although that act 
would not be signing. 

This opinion is admitted to be a mere inference, but it is a 
simple inference, and a natural one to be drawn when there is 
no evidence. It stands upon grounds certainly as firm as the 
opposite side of the question, which is based upon a complex 
inference ; that because there are printed signatures there must 
have been written ones. The simple and plain inference here 
is, that because there are printed signatures there may have 
been written names ; but to go farther, and infer again that 
those written names were genuine signatures, is a double in- 
ference not warranted. 

Considered under the theory of probabilities, if we assume 
the chances to be equal, whether there were written names or 
not, the probability that there were, is \. And if the chances 
are equal that the written names were signatures, the proba- 
bility of this being so, is J of J, or \. The probability that 
they were not signatures, is also \ (because we suppese the 
chances to be the same), and these two fourths together make 
up the half first obtained. Suppose now, to further illustrate 
this, we make a new condition, and ask, whether the names 
were written with a pen or a pencil; if one is just as likely to 
occur as the other, the probability is \ of \ of J, or \. 

We see, therefore, that like a pair of scales, there is a bal- 
ance kept up; the more we weigh down one side with con- 
ditions the higher does the other side ascend, and the lighter 
or less is the probability of the occurrence. The degree of 
probability may be different in each step, but the reasoning 
will be the same ; for example, the probability of there having 
been written names may be greater than \ ; and persons may 
differ in their estimates of these quantities. However they 


may be varied, the more steps we take from known facts the 
less the probability ; the probability of the first step (that there 
were written names) must necessarily be greater than the 
second step (that these names are genuine signatures), because 
the latter is represented by the product of two proper fractions, 
which product must necessarily be less than either fraction. 
The second step may equal, but can never exceed the former 
in probability. Therefore we conclude that it is more probable 
that there were written names, than that they were genuine 

Another aspect of the question is this: It being a legal 
maxim that it is impossible to prove a negative, the burden of 
proof is thrown upon those who hold the affirmative of any 
question to bring forward evidence to support it ; and that has 
not been done in this case, for an inference is not proof; there- 
fore the negative side of this question should stand until over- 
thrown by some evidence ; and we must hold that the names 
were not genuine signatures. 

Why it is, that in preference to this simple negative infer- 
ence, the far-fetched affirmative side should be generally held, 
can easily be explained if we examine the facts as they suc- 
cessively became known. The copies of the Declaration sent 
to the States, the published journals of Congress, and the en- 
grossed Declaration itself, all point to the 4th of July as the 
date of the general signing. Mr. McKean alone held the cor- 
rect opinion, and he was contradicted by Jefferson and Adams. 
This opinion generally obtained for forty-five years, until the 
Secret Journals were published in 1821. So strong a hold 
has it taken upon the public mind, that like many popular fal- 
lacies it has gained the impress of truth. It is still held by the 
vast majority of people, and doubtless will also be till the end 
of time. When the Secret Journals were published, and it 
was found that the general signing did not take place on July 
4th, this popular idea of signing, still holding possession of 
the minds of investigators, warped their judgment; and imbued 
with the idea that somebody signed on the 4th, if not the fifty- 
six, they naturally turned to the first printed copies of the 
Declaration, and from them inferred that John Hancock and 
Charles Thomson were those who signed on that day. 

The main question having now been considered in the light 
of the custom of Congress, demonstrated by mathematics, 
judged by legal maxims, and examined with our minds not 
warped by pre-conceived notions, we are constrained to the 


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conclusion that no one properly signed the Declaration of In- 
dependence on July 4th, 1776. 


As to the signing of the Declaration on parchment there is 
no uncertainty. The record is contained in the Secret Journal, 
first published by order of Congress by Thomas B. Wait in 
1821. In this publication the record stands as follows, litera- 
tim : 

" July 19, 1776. Kesolved, That the declaration passed on the 
4th be fairly engrossed on parchment, with the title and style of 
— 'The Unanimous Declaration op the Thirteen United 
States op America;' and that the same, when engrossed, be 
signed by every member of Congress." 

" August 2, 1776. The Declaration of Independence being en- 
grossed, and compared at the table, was signed by the members." 1 

This page of the original manuscript Secret Journal is 12-J 
by 7f inches, ruled with a red line forming a margin of 1^ 
inches on the left side. The whole entry is seen to be a post 
entry, and interlined. It is in ink decidedly lighter colored than 
the rest of the page. This page reduced one-half size, is also 
here reproduced as a photolithography For this privilege we 
are indebted, as in the former case, to the Hon. William F. 
Wharton, Assistant Secretary of State, and to Frederick Ban- 
croft, Esq., Chief of the Bureau of Rolls and Library. 

In accordance with the vote of Congress, the engrossed Decla- 
ration was signed on the 2d of August by the fifty-four mem- 
bers then present; Mr. McKean and Thornton signed later, 
making the fifty-six. This document is now in the Department 
of State ; the signatures are arranged in six columns of 8, 7, 
12 headed by Hancock, 12, 9 and 18 names, the delegates of 
each State in groups — except Hancock, the president, and 
Thornton who signed later — but without the names of the 
States (which are improperly printed in the published jour- 
nals). Mr. McKean's name is the last in the fourth column, 
with the names of the other delegates from Delaware. 

It is related that Hancock, the president, as he affixed his 
huge signature, exclaimed, "There! John Bull can read my 

1 See also Force's American Archives, V., i., 1584-97. 

2 This is the first time that any portion of these Journals has been liter- 
ally reproduced in facsimile, although portions have been very accurately 
printed by Judge Chamberlain from the letter of Theodore F. Dwight. The 
word Declaration, line 2 of proceedings of July 4th (Authentication, p. 18, 1. 
17), should commence with a capital. 


name without spectacles, and may double the reward of ,£500 
for my head. That is my defiance." l Dickinson, who op- 
posed the Declaration, said, " We are not ripe," to whom 
Witherspoon replied : " Not ripe, sir ! In my judgment we are 
not only ripe, but rotting. Almost every colony has dropped 
from its parent stem, and your compromise, sir, needs no sun- 
shine to mature it. 2 " There go a few millions," said one, as 
Carroll, of Carrollton, the wealthiest member, attached his 
name. " We must all hang together now," remarked Hancock ; 
" Yes," replied Franklin, "or else we shall hang separately." 

There were in Congress on the 4th of July, 1776, seventy 
members, of whom about fifty-one were in their seats. Some 
of these seventy afterwards joined the British, and the terms 
of others expired before the 2d of August, so that on that day 
only forty-seven of these seventy signed, Mr. McKean, the 48th, 
was the last of all to sign. During the interval, however, seven 
new members were elected as follows: Rush, Ross, Clymer, 
J. Smith, and Taylor, all of Pennsylvania ; Carroll and Chase, 
of Maryland. Besides these, Thornton of New Hampshire was 
subsequently elected, and took his seat November 4th. He 
also received permission to sign, making up the fifty-six names. 3 

Immediately after the passage of the Declaration on the 4th 
of July, Mr. McKean obtained leave of absence to march with 
his battalion, and was not present when the engrossed copy was 
signed August 2d. As late as August 8th, 1776, Caesar Rod- 
ney writes to Thomas Rodney that Mr. McKean is still in the 
Jerseys, and not likely soon to return. 4 On the 27th of August 
Mr. McKean was present at the opening of the Delaware Con- 
stitutional Convention at Newcastle. 5 And according to Mr. Mc- 
Kean's letter to Thomas Rodney above mentioned, and quoted 
on a subsequent page, and also the letters to Mr. Adams on a 
previous page, it would appear that he signed the Declaration 
between these two dates, and not as late as October, as stated 
in " Sanderson's Lives." 

There are circumstances, however, which render this infer- 
ence doubtful. Congress, on January 18th, 1777, directed that 
copies of the Declaration, with the names then subscribed, 
should be authenticated and sent to each State. The names 

1 Watson's Annals, 1884, i., 399. 
2 Lossing, Harp. Mag., iii., 155. 
3 Scharf and Westcott, i., 317 et seq. 
* Force, Am. Archives, V., i., 833. 
B Journal, pub. 17*76. 


were then accordingly printed for the first time, 1 and these 
copies were transmitted to the States by Hancock about Janu- 
ary 31, 1777. Mr. McKean's name does not appear upon 
these copies, although Thornton's name is there ; from which 
it seems evident that Mr. McKean did not sign until after Jan- 
uary 18th or 31st, 1777. William L. Stone, in his article, 
The Declaration of Independence in a New Light, 2 says, 
" Thomas McKean from Delaware, as he says himself, did not 
sign till January, 1777." Bancroft states in his History, 3 that 
Mr. McKean signed in 1781, which is in itself preposterous, 
from the nature of the instrument. Peter Force, who knew 
more of Revolutionary history than any man living in later days, 
does not appear to have known the exact date ; he says,* " The 
signing by the members was discontinued at the close of the year 

1776 One signature only, — that of Thomas McKean 

— was afterwards added to the Declaration of Independence." 

Mr. McKean in the letter to Mr. Adams, already quoted, 
says, "After the 4th of July I was not in Congress for several 
months." He repeats this in the letter to Mr. Rodney ; but 
after the Delaware convention had dissolved, September 21st, 
he was probably in Congress on the 25th and 27th, for on 
those days he was appointed on certain committees. His name 
does not appear again in the journal during this year. From 
December 2, 1776, to January 30, 1778, he was not a member 
of Congress, though he was undoubtedly in Philadelphia or 
wherever Congress was in session during that time, and might 
have signed during this interval. 

In the earlier publications of the Journals of Congress, as 
already remarked, Mr. McKean's name was omitted from the 
list of signers of the Declaration. "The error," says he, in 
the letter to William McCorkle and Son, June 16, 1817, 5 re- 
mained uncorrected until 1781,* when I was appointed to print 
the laAvs of Pennsylvania." In 1796, Alexander J. Dallas, 
also in printing the laws of Pennsylvania, discovered the dis- 

1 Journals ; also Winsor s Nar. and Crit. Hist., vi., 268. 

2 Harp. Mag., lxvii., 211. Mr. Stone kindly informs the author that he 
gathers this statement only from Mr. McKean's four letters on this subject. 

8 Ed. 1886, ix., 60 ; ed. 1885, v., 16. Justin Winsor, in his History, vi., 
268, and Judge Chamberlain, in his Authentication, p. 21, as collateral mat- 
ter have quoted this date of Bancroft's. 

* The Dec. Ind., etc., London, 1855, p. 65. 

5 Niles' Reg., xii., 278, and Diary of Christopher Marshall, Duane, 187 7, p. 
291 et seq. 

6 This expression and date may have misled Mr. Bancroft. 


crepancy and investigated it. Mr. McKean's reply to Mr. 
Dallas, dated September 26, 1796, gives this explanation : 
"The journal Was first printed by Mr. John Dunlap in 1778, 1 
and probably copies, with the names then signed to it, were 
printed in August 1776, and that Mr. Dunlap printed the 
names from one of them." 2 Mr. McKean's name is omitted in 
the Journals of Congress, by Aitken 1777, and by Folwell in 
1800. In the copies of the Declaration sent to the several 
states by Congress in January 1777 ; 3 and in The Constitu- 
tions of the /Several States, William Jackson, London, 1783, 
and in the Laws of Delaware, 1797, [by George Reed]. 
His name first appeared with those of the other signers, in 
McKean's Laws 1782, which he had been appointed to publish 
in 1781; also in Dallas' Laws, 1797; in The Constitu- 
tions of the United States, William Duane, 1806 ; in the 
published Journals of the Pennsylvania Senate, December 2, 
1807, under an order that the Declaration be read and inserted 
in the Journal ; (This copy is peculiar, by reason of its having 
the name of Charles Thomson inserted under that of John 
Hancock, and before the names of the other signers.) In 
Tyler's fac simile of the Declaration 1818 ; Journals of Con- 
gress, Way and Gideon, 1823, and probably in all subsequent 
publications of the Declaration. 

Of early official printed copies of the Declaration, the first 
was that of Dunlap, July 4-5,1776; the next was by Mary 
Katharine Goddard in Baltimore, which is the publication at- 
tested by Hancock and Thomson, in their own hands, and sent 
to the States. 4 

Of fac-similes, the earliest was that of Benjamin Owen Tyler, 
styling himself "professor of penmanship," in 1818; it is in 
Italian script with fac similes of signatures, and certified to, 
by Richard Rush, acting Secretary of State. 5 This has been 
engraved on copper and published on vellum, and on paper. A 
fac-simile is published in Force's American Archives, 1848, 
V. i, 1597, bearing the imprint " W. J. Stone, Sc. Washn." 
One was published in New York in 1865 ; and another in The 

1 John Dunlap printed some of the later volumes, and Mr. McKean, -with- 
out looking in the earlier volumes, may have assumed that Dunlap printed 
them all. 

2 Sanderson, where the letter is given in full. 

3 One of these has found its way to the Boston Public Library; a copy of 
another is given in Hist. Mag., Notes and Queries, IV., 2d Ser., Not., 1868. 

4 Winsor's Hist, vi., 268. 

5 A copy is in the State House at Annapolis. 


Declaration of Independence, Boston, 1876. * A photolith- 
ography half size, by N. Peters, Washington, D. C, in 1873, 
certified by C. Delano, Secretary of the Interior, and M. D. 
Leggett, Commissioner of Patents. Another by A. G. Ged- 
ney, Washington, 1883, photographed, half size, from the 
original parchment; below this are fac-simile of the signatures 
with the imprint — " Restoration of signatures, from a copper 
plate engraving in fac-simile, made by order of President 
Monroe in 1823." 2 Fac similes of the signatures alone, are 
given in Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, 1860, pp. 
80-1 ; in Winsor's History already quoted, vi., 263-6 ; 
Harper's Magazine, iii., 158-9 ; and in numerous other works. 

The family of Commodore McKean, in Binghamton, N. Y., 
is in possession of what is probably a fac simile of the Declara- 
tion on parchment. The author not having seen it is unable 
to identify it with such as have been described. 

It is unfortunate that at the present day the signatures can 
with difficulty be made out on the engrossed Declaration, which 
is in the State Department. A recent writer has said that the 
ink was stolen! that some one obtained permission to make a 
fac simile of the Declaration, and passed the parchment between 
heavy rollers which took up most of the ink, causing the writ- 
ing to become faint, and many of the signatures wholly illegible. 


On the day the Declaration was passed, Congress resolved 
that the delegates in Congress from New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania, the Council of Safety, the Committee on Ob- 
servation and Inspection for Philadelphia, and the field officers 
of the Pennsylvania battalions, should be a committee to take 
measures for the safety of New Jersey. This committee met 
the next day, the 5th, and Colonel McKean was called to the 
chair. It was ordered that all the military march without delay 
to Trenton, except three battalions which go to New Brunswick. 3 

In consequence of the above order, Colonel McKean marched 
at the head of his battalion to Perth Amboy,* in New Jersey, to 

1 Winsor's Hist., vi., 266. 

2 While this page is in press, Mr. Gedney states that this copper plate 
is the one bearing the imprint of W. J. Stone, and the same which caused 
the ruin of the parchment Declaration ; that a damp paper was placed over 
the signatures to transfer them, blotting out nearly all the writing. 

8 Force, American Archives, Ser. V., i., 14 et seq. 

*See also Historic Mansions of Phil., Thompson Westcott, p. 488. 


support General Washington. The Pennsylvania Associators 
were under command of General Daniel Roberdeau, who had 
been elected to the command of the Pennsylvania militia. 1 A 
letter from Colonel McKean, published in Sanderson' s Lives, 
gives an account of his battalion being under fire. After the 
flying camp of 10,000 men had been completed, the Associators 
were relieved. In the Pennsylvania Evening Post of August 
13, 1776, is published a resolution of the convention for the 
State of Pennsylvania, that such battalions as shall furnish their 
quota of the flying camp, may return home if the generals and 
field officers shall judge it to be expedient. And about this 
time Colonel McKean returned to his seat in Congress, and 
perhaps at that time signed the engrossed Declaration, as already 


A new Constitution for the State, proposed by Franklin, was 
considered in a public meeting at the State House, October 
21, at which Colonel John Bayard was chairman ; about 1500 
persons attended. The Constitution proposed was generally 
objectionable on account of certain religious qualifications, as 
well as for various other reasons. Thomas McKean, John 
Dickinson and others, opposed it ; James Cannon, Timothy 
Matlack, Dr. Young, and Col. James Smith, favored it. 2 

Not long after this, November 25, 1776, Mr. McKean pre- 
sided at a meeting at the Indian Queen, 3 to counteract the in- 
fluence of the Tories. It appears that they were in the habit 
of meeting at taverns, and singing God save the King. 4 These 
trifles show the earnestness of Mr. McKean, and the great in- 
terest he had in the cause of independence. Although filling 
the exalted position of a delegate in Congress, he deemed noth- 
ing too insignificant to receive his aid, when it led towards 
independence. He endured the privations of a soldier's life, 
speaks at one meeting, presides at another, meets with the 
Council of Safety, presides at the Delaware Assembly, and we 
next find him in quite another sphere. 

1 Elected at Lancaster, Pa., July 4th, 1776, by representatives of the 57 
battalions in the State. Thomas McKean was one of the candidates voted 
for, and received a few votes. [Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, p. 67.) 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 324; Diary of Christopher Marshall, Duane, p. 98. 

3 Described in Pa. Mag., xi., 103, 503. 

4 Scharf and Westcott, i., p. 326. 



During his absence in the army, Colonel McKean was 
elected a member of the convention for forming a constitution 
for the state of Delaware. No sooner had he resumed his 
seat in congress, than his attendance was required at New- 
castle * as a member of this convention. He reached that place 
in a single day. Immediately upon his arrival, after a fatigu- 
ing ride, he was waited upon by a committee of gentlemen, 
members of the convention, who requested that he would pre- 
pare the constitution for them. He retired to his room at the 
public inn, sat up all night, and wrote that constitution with- 
out the aid of a book or the least assistance. At ten o'clock 
the next morning, it was presented to the convention, by whom 
it was unanimously adopted. 2 Understanding the wants and 
feelings of the people, well versed in law and the principles of 
republicanism, and a ready writer, he was able to perform in 
a few hours, a work that in modern times requires the labors 
of an expensive assembly for months. 3 

Mr. McKean relates this remarkable incident in the letter 
to Governor Rodney, dated August 22, 1813, already alluded 
to as published in facsimile, in Brotherhead's Book of the 
Signers; the paragraph is as follows: 

"When the associators were discharged I returned to Phila- 
delphia, took my seat in Congress, and signed the declaration on 
parchment. Two days after I went to Newcastle, joined the 
Convention for forming; a constitution for the future government 
of the State of Delaware (having been elected a member for 
Newcastle county,) which I wrote in a tavern without a book or 
any assistance." 

This has been justly regarded as the greatest act of Mr. Mc- 
Kean's life ; requiring not only a profound knowledge of law 
and politics, but a quick perception, a good memory, clear dis- 
criminating judgment, and a ready pen, to accomplish so much 
in so short a time. It will be remembered that this was 
mainly original work, there being few or none other constitu- 
tions in those days to serve as a guide. This constitution 
may be seen in The Federal and State Constitutions, B. P. 
Poore, 1877. 

1 Sanderson and others give this wrongly, Dover; Mr. McKean states it 
correctly in his letter quoted below. 

2 Sanderson, Goodrich and other biographies. 

3 Judson's Lives. 


Mr. McKean's claim to be the author of this constitution 
has been disputed in favor of George Read, and although the 
counter-claim rests upon very untenable grounds, yet it would 
not be quite fair to wholly ignore it in this biography. Fifty- 
seven years after Mr. McKean wrote the statement just quoted, 
William T. Read, Esq., claimed that his grandfather wrote the 
constitution, because a copy was found in that gentleman's 
handwriting — a very untenable argument, for he may have 
copied it. Such a writing might be used in corroboration to 
strengthen other evidence ; but it has no force as evidence 
when used alone. The statement in full is as follows : 

"Among Mr. Read's papers I find a document in his hand- 
writing indorsed ' Original Draft of the System of Government of 
the Delaware State, with Amendments,' which makes it certain 
that he wrote this first constitution of Delaware." l 

Not quite so certain, for the very caption of this paper is 
fatal to such claim. This heading, — Original Draft, etc., with 
amendments never could have been written until after the 
amendments had been proposed ; that is, long after the original 
draft had been submitted to the convention ; consequently this 
paper in Mr. Read's handwriting can not be that original 
draft of the constitution. The true original draft would not 
have been entitled the draft with amendments. 

Mr. Read, so far as we know, did not claim this honor for 
himself; nor is any mention made of such claim in his biogra- 
phy in " Sanderson's Lives,!' written by William T. Read. 2 
It first appears in Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, in 1854, 
by whom written is unknown, but presumed to be by William 
T. Read, who was a member of the Delaware Historical Soci- 
ety, and therefore a very likely person to have supplied this 
biography to Dr. Allibone. And it was not until 1870, nearly 
sixty years after Mr. McKean's Rodney letter was written, 
that the grounds for the claim were made public. Why such 
delay in making known a historical matter, if Mr. Read really 
were the author ? 

In a note to the passage above cited, William T. Read then 
attacks Mr. McKean's statement. After quoting the paragraph 
upon this question in " Sanderson's Lives," he alludes to it as 
"this fine specimen of glorification," notwithstanding the fact 
that he has just made a similar claim in behalf of his own grand- 
father. Whether this latter should also be considered a fine 

l Life and Corresp. Geo. Read, William T. Read, 1870, p. 186. 
Ibid., p. 159, authorship so stated. 


specimen of glorification, he has apparently left to the judgment 
of the reader. However this may be, Mr. Read then goes on 
further to criticise the several statements in " Sanderson's 
Lives," that the convention was held at Dover (which should 
be Newcastle), that Mr. McKean himself presented the con- 
stitution to the convention, and that it was adopted the next 
morning. Although these criticisms are just, yet the mis- 
takes are not Mr. McKean's, but Sanderson's, caused by am- 
plifying Mr. McKean's simple statement, " which I wrote in a 
tavern without a book or any assistance." In attacking col- 
lateral statements, Mr. Read seems to overlook the fact that 
the main question still stands uncontradicted. 

It seems to be more than anything else, either carelessness 
or an error of judgment on Mr. Read's part to advance this 
claim for his grandfather ; since he has neither refuted Mr. 
McKean's claims, nor substantiated a claim for George Read. 1 

Mr. McKean's character for integrity is sufficiently well es- 
tablished by his acts, and fully made known by the concurrent 
testimony of impartial historians, to warrant the statement that if 
Mr. McKean says he wrote that constitution, it is so. Lossing, 
the historian, in his Biographical Sketches of the Signers 
(1860, pp. 140-4), accredits Mr. McKean with the authorship, 
and not Mr. Read. Scharf, in his History of Delaware (2 
vols., 1888, i., 187, 203), accredits the authorship to each in 
his biographical sketches, showing that he had not carefully 
examined the question. 

George Read as president of the convention, would natur- 
ally require a copy of the constitution under discussion, so as 
to intelligibly direct the proceedings. The amendments on this 
paper being " in a different handwriting, probably that of the 

1 This is not the only mistake or inaccuracy in the volume. The name 
McKinly is spelled wrongly throughout the volume. On page 344 Mr. 
Read states that Mr. McKean died June 17th, and that he had eleven 
children by his second wife — both of which are wrong. Regarding this 
convention he has several mistakes: He says in the text, page 182, that the 
sub-committee reported on the 13th, the report read a second time, and re- 
committed on the 15th, reported again on the 16th; and in the note page 
187, these dates are given 13th, 14th and 18th respectively, all of which are 
wrong except the second date named. Moreover, the two pages are not con- 
sistent with one another. May we not also suspect Mr. Read of carelessness 
elsewhere ? These, however, are trifles compared with the grievous histor- 
ical mistake he makes on page 229 and elsewhere, in saying that "the 
Declaration of Independence was signed July 4th, 1776, by all present in 
Congress on that day except Mr. Dickinson." By this error of judgment he 
charges his grandfather with the inconsistency of voting against the Decla- 
ration in the morning and signing it in the afternoon. 


Secretary of the Convention," (as William T. Read himself 
says in the above work, p. 186,) renders it still more probable 
that this paper in George Read's handwriting is the identical 
copy he had before him ; since the secretary is the proper one 
to have supplied the presiding officer with copies of the changes 
and amendments made from time to time. 

A recent visit to Dover disclosed the fact that there are now 
no manuscript records whatever in the archives of the state, 
relating to this convention. Even the constitution itself can- 
not be found. All the records were probably destroyed many 
years ago. Very likely the records Avere captured by the 
British at the time President McKinly was taken prisoner, as 
related in a letter of Mr. McKean on a subsequent page. 1 The 
journals of the convention were, however, published in 1776, 
by which it appears that the convention met August 27,1776, 
George Read being elected president. On the 80th Mr. 
McKean obtained leave of absence on account of the sickness 
of his son and sister. He returned September 6th, and the 
following day with George Read and others was placed on 
the committee to draft the constitution. The committee re- 
ported on the 14th ; the matter was read a second time on the 
15th, and recommitted ; reported again on the 17th. The 
constitution was partly agreed to on the 18th, and fully ap- 
proved on the 20th. The convention was dissolved on the 


On the 28th of July 1777, Mr. McKean received from the 
Supreme Executive Council, the commission of Chief Justice 
of Pennsylvania ; the duties of which high station he performed 
with zeal and fidelity for twenty-two years. At the time of 
his appointment, he was Speaker of the House of Assembly of 
Delaware, and a delegate in Congress from that State. Six 
weeks later he became President of Delaware. He took the 
oath of office September 1st following ; and was subsequently 
reappointed July 29, 1784, and July 29, 1791. 2 

The period during which Mr. McKean exercised the func- 
tions of Chief Justice, was one of the most important and try- 
ing in the whole course of the jurisprudence of the common- 
wealth. It was at the time when the laws were unsettled, even 
the constitutions of the states undefined, and national existence 

1 Se& also Appleton's Cyclop. Biog. McKinly, iv., 137. 

2 Scharf and W^stcott, ii., 1559; Hazard's Pcnn. Archives, v., 621. 


itself in question. The country was in the midst of a revolu- 
tion when he came to the bench ; and for several years the 
civil was necessarily subordinate to the military rule. Hence 
the interpretation of organic and statute law had to be made 
de novo; precedents had to be established, and the whole 
practice of the courts adapted to the changed relations which 
existed. The causes which were brought in his court were 
many of them peculiar to a period of war and conquest ; — causes 
involving the most delicate questions, vital alike to the rights 
of the subject, and the vindication of justice. Trials for high 
treason, for attainder, for the confiscation of property, were 
frequent. A case rarely transcended in importance and 
amount involved, in any nation or in any age, was the forfeit- 
ure of the proprietary estates. The rulings of the chief jus- 
tice, through all this trying period, and in their different causes 
were marked by great prudence and wisdom. 1 

" Chief Jestice McKean," observes a late Judge of the Supreme 
Court, " was a great man; his merit in the profession of the law 
and as a judge, has never been sufficiently appreciated. It is only 
since I have been upon the bench that I have been able to con- 
ceive a just idea of the greatness of his merit. His legal learning 
was profound and accurate ; but in the words of the poet — ■ 

Materiam superbat opus. — 
The lucidity of his explication, and the perspicuity of his language, 
which is the first excellence in the communication of ideas, was 
perfect; but I never saw equalled his dignity of manner in deliv- 
ering a charge to a jury, or on a law argument to the bar. But 
what is still more, his comprehension of mind in taking notes, so 
as to embrace the substance, and yet omit nothing material, has 
appeared to be inimitable." 2 

"All subsequent decisions of the Supreme Court have sanctioned 
his judicial fame, and even European judges yielded to him spon- 
taneous praise." 3 

Having heard the opinions of a judge, let us now turn to 
those of the advocate : David Paul Brown, who achieved an 
enviable distinction at the Philadelphia bar,* writes that Chief 
Justice McKean " was always considered a sound lawyer and 
an upright judge ; . . he was a stern and arbitrary man. . . . 
Though always deemed a very able lawyer, and a man of in* 

1 Armor, Lives of the Governors of Penn. 

2 Ibid., and also as quoted in Sanderson's Lives. Author unknown. 
3 The Supreme Court Bench of Pennsylvania, in Hazard's Reg., iii., 241, a 

similar article to the previous, and probably by the same author. 
i The Forum, i., 327, et seq. 


flexible honesty, was still a man of strong prejudices, jealous 
of his authority, and rough and overbearing in its maintainance. 
. . . Whatever may have been his deficiency in civility, he 
was a judge of great decision and force of character. During 
the course of his long judicial life, he never wavered in what 
his duty seemed to require." 

L. Carroll Judson, also a member of the Philadelphia bar, 
says, in his beautifully written biography: 1 

"No threats could intimidate, or influence reach him when 
designed to divert him from the independent discharge of his duty. 
His profound legal acquirements, his ardent zeal, his great justice, 
his vigorous energy, and his noble patriotism enabled him to out- 
ride every storm, and calm the raging billows that often surrounded 

him His legal opinions, based as they generally are, upon the 

firm pillar of equal justice, strict equity, and correct law, — given 
as they were, when a form of government was changing, the laws 
unsettled, our state constitutions justformed, the federal con- 
stitution bursting into embryo, — are monuments of fame, enduring 
as social order, respected and cononized." 

" He was without exception one of the greatest legal minds in 
our early history ; filling every station with distinguished zeal and 
fidelity, — a man of eminent learning, ability and integrity, whom 
neither fear nor favor could bend from the stern line of duty." 2 

With two more quotations I will close these extracts, my 
purpose being to show that praise of the legal and judicial 
fame of Thomas McKean is not confined to the writings of a 
few ; but is universally proclaimed by all his biographers. 
The following is from another beautifully written biography by 
David R. B. Nevin. 3 

"Of McKean as a lawyer, we may safely say he was master of 
that intricate profession. As a contemporary remarked of Tilgh- 
man, we may appropriately say of McKean, ' he took in at one 
glance all the beauties of the most obscure and difficult litigations. 
With him it was intuitive, and he could untie the knots of a con- 
tingent remainder, or an executive device, as familiarly as he 
could his garter.' Of his career as a judge, it is unnecessary for 
us to comment; for his judicial fame is the common property of 
the world. Pennsylvania, however much she may have suffered 
in many instances by irresponsible and unworthy political repre- 
sentatives in the councils of the nation, has always been justly 
proud of her incorruptible and learned judiciary. Ross, Tilgh- 

1 Biography of the Signers, 1839. 

2 W. H. Egle, in Penn. Mag., x\., 250 ; The Fed. Const., Sketches, etc. 

3 Continental Sketches of Distinguished Pcnnsylvanians, 18*75. 


man, Ingersoll, Kawle, and Bradford, with a host of others, were 
brilliant stars in the legal firmament of the old colonial times ; 
and the lustre of the galaxy has not been dimmed by such modern 
luminaries as Gibson and Black. But the peer of them all was 
Chief Justice McKean. A faultless logician, fluent without the 
least volubiliiy, wonderfully concise, with a naturally logical 
mind, well disciplined by severe and systematic training, he was 
a most brilliant advocate and attorney. As a judge he had few 
equals in this or any other land. When he assumed the judicial 
ermine, the laws of Pennsylvania were crude and unsettled ; and 
it devolved upon him to overcome all these difficulties, and bring 
order out of comparative chaos. His decisions were remarkably 
accurate, sometimes quite profound, and always delivered with a 
grace of diction, and a perspicuity of language, which commended 
them to the cultivated legal mind. His personal appearance on 
the bench was a combination of proper affibility and great dig- 

We have heard the words of his friends — it is but just to give 
ear to one of his opponents, 1 who says of Chief Justice Mc- 
Kean : 

"He was well qualified for the office of Chief Justice, by his 
power to reason, discriminate and combine; his great learning, 
and ready use of it; his courage, firmness, and inflexibility; but 
little accessible to pleadings for mercy, and so much the slave of 
party, (as appears by the authority cited in the sequel to this 
sketch,) as to lend more than once, his judicial power to punish 
its enemies and still more his own." 2 

Other extracts may be found in the various biographies of 
Chief Justice McKean, too numerous to be inserted here. 3 


The cases decided by Chief Justice McKean are contained 
in Alexander J. Dallas' Reports of Pennsylvania cases, in 
four volumes, 1754 to 1806. The first volume was published 

1 Of those writing since Judge McKean's death, I have found but two who 
have written against him. See note at end of this biography. 

2 Life of Geo. Read, by his grandson, William T. Read, 1870, p. 335. The 
fact that McKean sent an express for Caesar Rodney and outvoted Read on 
the Declaration, seems to rankle in the heart of the grandson, who spares 
no opportunity throughout the whole of his work to speak against Judge 
McKean. This is to be regretted, as McKean and Read were friends, as 
well as colleagues and compatriots. 

3 The principle of which may be named : National Portraits, by Longacre 
and Herring, 1839 ; Hazard's Reg. of Perm., 1829, iii., 241; Hist.(%ester Co., 
Perm., by John Smith Futhey (Judge of the Chester Co. Court) and Gilbert 
Cope, besides other extracts in the various works already quoted. 


in 1790, and the series dedicated to Chief Justice McKean. 
The other volumes appeared successively in 1798, 1799, and 
1807. Lord Mansfield, then in his advanced years, upon re- 
ceiving the first volume from Judge McKean, in 1791, sent the 
following in reply : "I am not able to write with my own 
hand, and most therefore beg leave to make use of another, to 
acknowledge the honor you have done me by your most 
obliging and elegant letter, and sending me Dallas' reports. I 
am not able to read myself, but have heard them all read with 
much pleasure. They do credit to the court, the bar, and the 
reporter. They show readiness in practice, liberality in prin- 
ciple, strong reason, and legal learning. The method too is 
clear and the language pure." 1 

Among the more prominent cases which came before Chief 
Justice McKean may be mentioned the following : 

Roberts and Carlisle (1 Dallas, 35, 39). When the Brit- 
ish took possession of Philadelphia, John Roberts enlisted in 
the British army, and tried to induce others to do the same. 
Abraham Carlisle was a carpenter, avIio received a commis- 
sion from Sir William Howe to watch and guard the gates of 
the city, with power of granting passports. They were at- 
tainted for high treason, and the trial came in September, 1778. 
Joseph Reed was the leading counsel on the part of the State. 
The just performance of Chief Justice McKean's judicial func- 
tions during this time of war required not only the learning of 
the lawyer, but the unyielding spirit of the patriot. Proclaim- 
ing from the bench the law of justice and his country, with 
distinguished learning, ability and integrity, neither fear nor 
power could bend him from the stern line of duty. Regardless 
of the powers of the crown of Great Britain, he did not hesitate 
to hazard his own life by causing to be punished, even unto 
death, those who were proved to be traitors to their country. 2 

The fate of these men caused great excitement generally, 
and especially among the Quakers, to which sect they belonged. 
The Supreme Executive Council was deluged with petitions for 
clemency ; private citizens sent a score of petitions, the minis- 
ters of the gospel, the grand jury, the jury which tried them ; 
even the judiciary, Chief Justice McKean and Judge Evans, 
petitioned the Council for a postponement of the execution. 
Chief Justice McKean's notes of the trial were sent to the 

X MSS. McKean family, Binghainton, and partly quoted in Hazard's Reg. 
of Penn., iii., 241 et seq. 

2 Sanderson's Lives. See also Hazard's Reg., iii., 241. 


Council for their information. 1 It appears from this that Roberts 
and Carlisle were the lamented victims of inflexible justice. 
The petition of the Chief Justice shows that he did not deserve 
the censure bestowed upon him by the quakers and tories, both 
in prose and verse ; he simply performed his duty in passing 
sentence, the execution of which rested with the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council, who could have pardoned the prisoners if they 
had found sufficient cause to do so. 

Samuel Chapman (1 Dallas, 53) was also attainted for high 
treason in the April term, 1781, for not having surrendered 
himself on the 1st of August, 1778, as required by a procla- 
mation issued by the Supreme Executive Council, in pursuance 
of an act of the Assembly passed March 6, 1778. The charge 
of the Chief Justice, which resulted in the acquittal of the de- 
fendant, was learned and circumstantial, embracing a lucid ex- 
position of the law, and exciting the unqualified admiration of 
his professional brethren ; while it dissatisfied and disappointed 
those men who thirsted after blood. No popular excitement 
against individuals accused of offences could in the slightest 
degree divert Chief Justice McKean from the firm and inflex- 
ible discharge of his public duty. His decision evinced the 
soundness of his judgment, and the disdain he felt for the pop- 
ular clamor excited by the occasion. 2 

A writ of Habeas Corpus h Soon after his appointment as 
Chief Justice, an incident occurred evincing in bold relief, the 
independent principle of action which guided his judicial 
career. Twenty persons were confined in the Free-Mason's 
lodge at Philadelphia, on treasonable charges ; and the popular 
excitement against them was extremely violent. They pub- 
lished a remonstrance in the Pennsylvania Packet of Septem- 
ber 5, 1777; and application was made to the Chief Justice 
for writs of habeas corpus in their behalf, which were granted. 
This act, at a period of peculiar public agitation, created great 
dissatisfaction among the more violent whigs, in which many 
members of Congress participated. So marked was their dis- 
pleasure, that Judge McKean, esteeming the good opinion of 
good men, next to the approbation of a good conscience, wrote 
to John Adams on the subject, explaining his course of action. 
For a statement of Judge McKean's position in this matter, the 
reader is referred to Sanderson's Lives ; suffice it here to say 
in brief, that Judge McKean had followed the Pennsylvania 

1 Penn. Archives, Hazard, 1853, vii., 21, 25, 44, 53, etc. 

2 Sanderson's Lives. 


statute, which had somewhat modified the laws regarding 
habeas coo-pus, and by which all discretionary power in the 
judges was taken away, and a penalty of five hundred pounds 
imposed for a refusal to grant a writ. 1 

The popular excitement against these tories was so great 
that the Assembly passed a law suspending the writ of habeas 
corpus, thus preventing the execution of Judge McKean's 
writ. William Allen, a lawyer and a tory, in his Journal 
calls this " a law ex post facto and pendente lite, the very ex- 
treme of tyranny." 2 

Warrant against Colonel Hooper. Judge McKean's firm- 
ness in the execution of the law is exemplified by another 
striking example. In 1778 he issued a warrant against 
Colonel Robert L. Hooper, deputy quartermaster, charging 
him with having libelled the magistrates in a letter to Gouver- 
neur Morris ; and directing the sheriff of Northampton county 
to bring the said Hooper before him at Yorktown. Colonel 
Hooper waited on General Green, who wrote to Judge Mc- 
Kean that he could not consent to Colonel Hooper's absence. 
To this letter, the reply of the Chief Justice, under date of June 
9, 1778, contains the following characteristic paragraph: 

" 1 do not think, sir, that the absence, sickness, or even death 
of Mr. Hooper could be attended with such consequences that no 
other person could be found, who, could give the necessary aid 
upon this occasion ; but, what attracts my attention the most, is 
your observation that you cannot, without great necessity, consent 
to Ms being absent. As to that, sir, I shall not ask your consent, 
nor that of any other person, in or out of the army, whether my 
precept shall be obeyed or not in Pennsylvania." 

There is a strain of inflexible firmness and unshrinking dig- 
nity pervading this letter, admirably illustrative of the whole 
course of his judicial conduct. 3 

The House of Assembly having asked the opinion of Chief 
Justice McKean as to the right of the crown to grant the char- 
ter to the Penns : he gave his opinion upon the question, which 
was afterwards judicially determined in the case of Penn's les- 
see vs. Kline, before Justice Washington of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and Richard Peters, District Judge 
(4 Dallas, 402)/ 

1 Sanderson's Lives. 

2 Under date of Oct. 1, 1111, published in Pa. Mag., ix., 293. 

3 Sanderson's Lives. 

l Life of Joseph Reed, William B. Reed, 1847, ii., 167. 


In the Issues of the Press of Pennsylvania, by Charles R. 
Hildeburn, 1886, there is noted No. 3738, the following work, 
" Charge of Thomas McKean, Chief Justice, to Grand Jury at 
Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery held 
at York," 1788. 


It is related of Chief Justice McKean, by a contemporary, 
that " the Chief Justice when on the bench wore an immense 
cocked-hat, and was dressed in a scarlet gown. He discharged 
the office of chief justice for twenty-two years, and gave strik- 
ing proofs of ability, impartiality and courage." 1 

Watson, the antiquarian, in his chapter on wigs, relates that 
" Judge McKean wore one, and was withal so partial to them 
that he intended to wear one of the bench kind ; he engaged 
one of Kyd for one hundred dollars, and being found when de 
livered, so strange and outre he refused it, and was sued for 
the value." 2 

In those days it was the custom of the Supreme Court to 
hold sessions in the various counties. When at Harrisburg — 
at least while Congress sat at York — (1777-8), Chief Justice 
McKean lived in a substantial one-story log house, a short 
space below what is now Locust street. He wore an immense 
cocked- hat, and had great deference shown him by the country 
people. After the country was quieted, when he and other 
judges of the Supreme Court came to Harrisburg to hold court, 
numbers of the citizens of the place would go out on horseback 
to meet them, and escort them to town. Sometimes one or 
two hundred people would attend for the purpose. The sheriff 
with his rod of office, and other public officers and bar, would 
attend on the occasion ; and each morning, while the Chief 
Justice was in town holding court, the sheriff and constables es- 
corted him from his lodgings to the court-room. The Chief 
Justice on the bench sat with his hat on, and was dressed in a 
scarlet gown. 3 

Many anecdotes says David Paul Brown, remain of the great 
jurist both as Chief Justice and Governor. 

One day when a mob had assembled outside of the Supreme 

1 Graydo?i's Memoirs of His Own Time, 1846. See also Manasseh Cutlers 
Journal, 1787; Pa. Mag., xi., 108. 
2 Annals of Phil., 1868, i., 197. 
'Day's Hislor. Collections, 1843, p. 286. 



Court, he sent for the sheriff and commanded him to suppress 
the riot. 

"I cannot do it," replied the trembling official. 

"Why do you not summon your posse V thundered the 
scowling Chief Justice. 

"I have summoned them, but they are ineffectual." 

" Then sir, Avhy do you not summon meV 

The sheriff stunned for a moment, gasped out, " I do summon 
you, sir." 

Whereupon the gigantic Chief Justice, scarlet gown, cocked 
hat and all, swooped down on the mob like an eagle on a flock 
of sheep, and catching two of the ringleaders by the throat, 
quelled the riot. 1 

The talented but unfortunate Major Andre, at an entertain- 
ment at Mr. Deane's in New York, read a characteristic Dream; 
" His allusions," says a lo} r alist commentator, "to Jackey Jay, 
Paddy McKean, and other rebellious were excellent." 

Andre dreamed he was in a spacious apartment in which the 
infernal judges were dispensing justice. 

" As dreams are of an unaccountable nature " he says, " it will 
not (I presume,) be thought strange that I should behold upon 
this occasion the shades of many who for aught I know may be 
still living. . . . The first person called upon was the famous Chief 
Justice McKean, who I found had been animated by the same 
spirit which formerly possessed the memorable Jeffreys. I could 
not but observe a flush of indignation in the eyes of the judges 
upon the approach of this culprit. His more than savage cruelty, 
his horrid disregard to the many oaths of allegiance he had 
taken, and the vile sacrifices he had made of justice, to the in- 
terests of- rebellion, were openly rehearsed. Notwithstanding his 
common impudence, for once, he seemed abashed, and did not 
pretend to deny the charge. He was condemned to assume the 
shape of a blood-hound, and the souls of Roberts and Carlisle 
were ordered to scourge him through the infernal regions." Next 
appeared the "polite and traveled Mr. Deane :" then "the cele- 
brated General Lee;" "the black soul of Livingston:" "The 
President of Congress, Mr. Jay," and finally " the whole con- 
tinental army," each of whom was "judged" in some character- 
istic manner. 2 

Another loyalist, now unknown, has left a long poem from 
which the following extracts are made : 

l The Forum, as quoted by Rebecca Harding Davis in Harper's Mag., 1876, 
lii., 871. 

2 Frank Moore's Diary of Am. Rev., N. Y., 1860, ii., 120 et seq. 



Hear thy indictment, Washington, at large; 
Attend and listen to the solemn charge : 

Wilt thou pretend that Britain is in fault? 

In Reason's court a falsehood goes for nought. 

Will it avail, with subterfuge refin'd 

To say such deeds are foreign to thy mind? 

Wilt thou assert that, generous and humane, 

Thy nature suffers at another's pain? 

He who a band of ruffians keeps to kill, 

Is he not guilty of the blood they spill? 

Who guards McKean and Joseph Reed the vile, 

Help'd he not to murder Roberts and Carlisle? 

So, who protects committees in the chair, 

In all their shocking cruelties must share. 

Bring up your wretched solitary pair, 
Mark'd with pride, malice, envy, rage, despair, 
Why are you banish'd from your comrades, tell? 
Will none endure your company in hell? 
That all the fiends avoid your sight is plain, 
Infamous Reed, more infamous McKean. 
Is this the order of your rank agreed ; 
Or is it base McKean and baser Reed ? 
Go, shunn'd of men, disown'd of devils, go, 
And traverse desolate the realms of woe. 1 


In September 1777, Judge McKean became the executive 
of the state of Delaware. It is stated in the Life of George 
Read, 2 that the presidency of Delaware was offered to Mr. Read 
who declined it, and Mr. McKinly was appointed. When 
the latter gentleman was captured by the British, Judge Mc- 
Kean immediately assumed the reins of government. 

Under date of October 8, 1777, Judge McKean writes to 
General Washington from Newark, " By the captivity of 
President McKinly of the Delaware State, on the 12th of last 
month, and the absence of the Vice-President, the command in 
chief devolved upon me as Speaker of the Assembly, agreea- 
bly to the constitution. I had some time before accepted the 
office of Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and at the time this 

^Loyalist Poetry of the Rev., Winthrop Sargent, Phil., 1857, pp. 10, 11. 
2 By his grandson, William T. Read, 1870. 


unfortunate event happened, was out of the Delaware State, 
but thought it my duty to my country to repair thither, which 
I did on the 20th following." On his arrival in the state, 
Judge McKean found that all the papers, public records, and 
money had been captured. He immediately called out the 
militia, one-half in active service, and the remainder to hold 
themselves in readiness for instant service. 1 

When this high position devolved upon Judge McKean, while 
holding other high offices in Pennsylvania, he became thereby 
an especial object of British persecution. " I have had," he 
says in a letter two years afterwards to Mr. Adams, dated 
November 8, 1779, " I have had my full share of the anxie- 
ties, care and troubles of the present war. For some time I 
was obliged to act as President of the Delaware State, and as 
Chief Justice of this: general Howe had just landed (August, 
1777) at the head of Elk River, when I undertook to dis- 
charge these two important trusts. The consequence was, to 
be hunted like a fox by the enemy, and envied by those who 
ought to have been my friends. 1 was compelled to remove 
my family five times in a few months, and at last fixed them in 
a little log-house on the banks of the Susquehannah, more than 
a hundred miles from this place ; but safety was not to be 
found there ; for they were obliged to remove again on account 
of the incursions of the Indians." 2 

Judge McKean held this office but a short time, and after 
making provisions for the defense of the State, addressed a 
letter to George Read, the Vice-President, under date of Sep- 
tember 26, .1777, informs him of his accession to the office, the 
reasons for it, details his official acts and resigns the position, 
concluding his letter as follows : "Wishing you all manner of 
success in saving our country in general, and the Delaware 
State in particular, I am," etc. Addressed, " To George Read, 
President of the Delaware State." 3 


The commmitee appointed in Congress, June 12, 1776, pur- 
suant to a resolution of the 7th, to frame the Articles of Con- 
federation, consisted of thirteen members, one for each State, 
as follows : Josiah Bartlett, Samuel Adams, Stephen Hopkins, 

1 Spark's Corresp. of Rev., Boston, 1853, i., 443. 

2 Sanderson. 

?Life and Corresp. of Geo. Read. 


Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston, John Dickinson, Thomas 
McKean, Thomas Stone, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Joseph Hewes, 
Edward Rutledge and Button Gwinnett ; on the 28th Francis 
Hopkinson was added, completing the number. 1 

The Articles were under consideration for several months, 
and debated clause by clause. On a vote relating to taxation 
occurred the first important division between the slave hold- 
ing states and the states where slavery was of little account. 2 
The articles were finally agreed to, November 13, 1777, and a 
copy being made out the same was agreed to on the 15th. 
This state paper, which is the first constitution of our country, 
was dated and signed July 9, 1778, by the delegates of nine 
states; the other delegates had not then been empowered to 
sign it. Thomas McKean signed subsequently in behalf of 
Delaware, pursuant to powers vested in him dated February 
6, 1779, and laid before Congress on the 16th. 3 The last 
State Maryland signed March 1, 1781. This important docu- 
ment is preserved in the archives of the Department of State. 
It is on parchment in one sheet, a roll about thirteen feet long. 


As the other four states ratified the Articles, the delegates 
added the date of signing. And here, as to the date when 
Thomas McKean affixed his signature, there is a decided dis- 
crepancy between the Journals of Congress and the original 
Articles of Confederation, which seems to have escaped the 
notice of historians. In the Journals of Congress, (the original 
rough Journal by Charles Thomson, which I have had the 
privilege of examining, page 265,) is the entry, February 22, 
1779. " In pursuance of the powers in him vested, Mr. 
McKean a delegate of the state of Delaware, signed and 
ratified the articles of Confederation in behalf of that state." 
(See the Printed Journals, Way and Gideon, 1823, iii., 201.) 

In the original Articles, the date is now much obliterated, but 
is apparently " Feb. 12,1779;" the word " Feb." ia almost 
illegible, the first figure apparently 1 is a heavy stroke with a 
dot after it, the lower part of the 2 is wholly illegible and 
also has a dot following it. There is no trace remaining, even 

Journals of Congress; Adams' Works, ii., 292; Frothingham, p. 569. 
The following authors give but twelve names : Hist. Old State House. Etting ; 
Lossing's Field Book, 1860, ii., 653 ; Scharf and Westcott, Hist. Phil, i., 315. 

1 Bancroft's U.S. 

3 Journals of Congress, Feb. 16-22, 1879. 


under a glass to show that the first figure was a 2 obliterated. 
Upon the articles being ratified by all the states, they are 
entered upon the Journal under date of March 1, 1781, where 
the date is given " Feb. 12, 1779." (1st ed., Patterson, vii. 
48, and Way and Gideon 1823, iii., 591). In the Secret 
Journal, however, (Thomas B. Wait, 1821, i. 448-64,) a por- 
tion of the volume is devoted to debates on the Articles. They 
are entered at length, upon the Journal and the date given in 
full "February 22, 1779," agreeing with the first date in the 
rough Journal. But there is also a discrepancy between the 
Rough and Secret Journal, under date of March 1, 1781. 

Hoping to clear up the discrepancy by an examination of 
early published copies, I found to my surprise, that in older 
publications the date is usually given neither 12th nor 22d, 
but " Feb. 13, 1779," and so given in the Laws of the U. S., 
[John B. Calvin,] 1815; The Federalist, New ed. 1837, p. 
480 ; and Elliot's Debates, 1854, i. 85. 

In other publications and later works the date is given Feb- 
ruary 12, 1779, viz.: U. S. Statutes at Large, Richard 
Peters, 1845; Rickey's Constitution, 1855, p. 490; Fed. 
and State Const., B. P. Poore, 1877 : Documeyits Illust. 
Amer. Hist., Preston, 1886. 

Other works too numerous to mention, some of them pub- 
lished during the last century, give the Articles and names, 
but omit the dates. Others omit the names also. McKean's 
Laws, 1782, and Dallas' Laws of Pennsylvania, 1797, might 
have settled the discrepancy, especially the former work, but 
they give the names without dates. 

It is doubtful if the discrepancy can ever be cleared up ; 
February 22, 1779, seems, however, to be the most reliable 
date, for that entry in the journal was undoubtedly made on 
that date ; and as Mr. McKean's authority to sign was laid be- 
fore Congress on the 16th, and entered in the journal on that 
day, it does not seem likely that he would sign before the lat- 
ter date. Lossing, in his "Lives of the Signers," appends an 
account of the Articles of Confederation, and states that Dela- 
ware ratified "on the twenty-second of Februarv and 5th of 
May, 1779. "* 

About this time, Thomas McKean took the oath of allegiance 
before his relative and former preceptor, David Finney, dated 
January 25, 1779, that he does not hold himself bound to yield 
any allegiance to the king of Great Britain, but will be true 

l Ed. I860, p. 327. 


and faithful to the Delaware State. 1 Various judges, public of- 
ficers, members of Congress and others took the oath about this 
same time. 


This officer had been a prisoner of war, and when released 
on parole became angry because he had not been exchanged ; 
and said that Congress had treated him in a " rascally manner." 
He was particularly bitter against Judge McKean, whom he 
accused of having hindered his exchange ; and denounced him 
for having acted " like a liar, a rascal, and a coward." Judge 
McKean laid the matter before Congress, November 19, 1778, 
in an information of personal abuse ; whereupon General 
Thompson was called before the bar of the house, and apologized. 2 

The Supreme Executive Council, December 31, 1778, also 
took notice of the "acrimonious remarks by Brigadier General 
William Thompson." 3 Judge McKean moreover sued Thompson, 
and got judgment for the large sum of .£5,700 against him 
and the publishers of the Packet. McKean, however, re- 
leased the damages in both cases, as he only wanted to see the 
law and the facts settled. Thompson then tried to provoke a 
duel with McKean ; but McKean would not set the precedent 
of allowing a member of Congress or a magistrate to subject 
himself to a duel with every person against whom he gave 
judgment. 4 

MEETING OF MAY 24-25, 1779. 

This public meeting was called to counteract the effect of 
monopolizers, and to devise means to reduce prices. General 
Daniel Roberdeau, recently a delegate in Congress, and a 
signer of the Articles of Confederation, was called to the chair ; 
Timothy Matlack, David Rittenhouse, Thomas Paine, Charles 
W. Peale, Thomas McKean, and others, were present. A 
committee, appointed to carry out the purposes of the meeting, 
was made permanent. " The institution of this committee," 
it is remarked in the Life of Joseph Reed, " is a leading in- 
cident in the local history of these times." The meeting also 
resolved that " those inimical to independence should not be 

1 Original in possession of J. Henry Rogers, Esq. 
^Journals of Cong., Nov. 19-23, 1778. 

3 Hazard's Colonial Records, xi., 653. 

4 Scharf and Westcott, Hist. Phil., i., 393. 


suffered to remain among us." An account of the meeting is 
given in full in the Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family. 1 

A pamphlet in regard to this meeting, entitled "Meeting 
of May 25, 1779," was published by Daniel Roberdeau, the 
chairman. 2 

The tories, who let no opportunity pass for ridiculing the 
public characters of the day, published a poem, of which the 
following is a portion : 




'Twas on the twenty -fourth of May, 
A pleasant, warm, sunshiny clay, 

Militia folks paraded, 
With colors spread, and cannon too, 
Such loud huzzas, and martial view, 

I thought the town invaded. 

And now the State-House yard was full, 
And orators, so grave and dull, 

Appear'd upon the stage, 
But all was riot, noise, disgrace, 
And freedom's sons, o'er all the place, 

In bloody frays engage. 

Each vagrant from the whipping-post, 
Or stranger stranded on the coast, 

May here reform the State, 
And Peter, Mick, and Shad-row Jack, 
And Pompey-like McKean in black, 

Decide a people's fate. 

With solemn phiz and action slow, 
Arose the chairman Roberdeau, 

And made the humane motion, 
That tories, with their brats and wives, 
Should flee to save their wretched lives, 

From Sodom to Gfoshen. 3 


To this court, which was established by the Act of February 
28, 1780, Judge McKean .was commissioned with seven others, 

1 See also Penn. Packet, May 27, 1779 ; Life of Joseph Reed, W. B. Reed. 
2 Catalogued in Hildeburn's Issues of Press of Penn., 1886, No. 3951. 
8 Watson's Annals of Phil. 


November 20, 1780. The court was reorganized under the 
Act of April 13, 1791, and he was recommissioned with nine 
others, April 13, 1791. The court was abolished by Act of 
February 24, 1806. Judge McKean retained his seat as Chief 
Justice during this time. 1 

During this year, 1780, there was an urgent need of funds, 
and a few patriotic gentlemen subscribed $260,000 ; the Bank 
of Pennsylvania was then organized for the purpose of supply- 
ing the army with provisions ; for this purpose Judge McKean 
subscribed <£2000. 2 

On the 25th of December of this same year Judge McKean, 
in a letter to the legislature of Delaware, resigned his seat in 
Congress. " I find," said he, " that my health and fortune 
are impaired by my unremitted attention to public affairs ; 
what I undertake to perform, I do with all my might ; and 
having very little relief in attending Congress, 1 find that this, 
the discharging the duties of Chief Justice, etc., etc., are more 
than I can perform to my own satisfaction. Besides, the rank 
I am obliged to maintain is greater than comports with my 
finances." . . . It is a proof of the disinterested principles by 
which the public men of that period were guided, that Mr. 
McKean had never received, in any year, as much emolument, 
as a delegate, as would defray his personal expenses while 
engaged in the service ; and that during the last two years, 
(1779 and 1780,) he had not been offered or received a 
farthing. His resignation, however, was not accepted, and he 
continued his duties as a delegate from Delaware. 3 


Chief Justice McKean's residence being mentioned by var- 
ious writers, a description should not be omitted here. For 
some years, according to Lossing, he resided in High street, now 
known as Market street, near Second. But in 1780, December 
20th, the Supreme Executive Council directed that the honor- 
able Chief Justice McKean be allowed to occupy Mr. Duche's 
house until July 1st next. In explanation of this, it may be 
stated that the Rev. Mr. Duche had been chaplain to the first 
continental Congress ; but being of a vacillating character, 
after siding with the colonists, joined the British and went to 

'Scharf and Westcott, ii., 1568 ; Bench and Bar of Phil., John Hill Mar- 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 409 ; Niles' Principles and Acts of the Rev. 

8 Sanderson. 


England. 1 He was attainted for high treason, and his prop- 
erty confiscated. This property consisting of the mansion, 
coach house, stables and four lots, was sold August 10, 1781, 
to Thomas McKean for ,£7750, Pennsylvania currency, subject 
to a ground rent of 232J bushels of wheat. A deed for the 
property bearing the above date was executed by the Supreme 
Executive Council, in which the property is described as being 
on the east side of Third street, occupying the whole side 
of the square from Pine street on the south to Union street 
on the north, and thirty feet in depth. 2 This building is de- 
scribed in the Historic Mansions and Buildings of Phila- 
delphia 5 as " a large and splendid mansion in the Elizabethan 
style at the northeast corner of Third and Pine streets." An 
engraving of the house is given in various works ; — in the Book 
of the Signers, by William Brotherhead, 1861, folio ; in 
Sanderson's Biography of the Signers, revised by R. T. 
Conrad, 4°; in Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, (3 vols, 
revised by Willis P. Hazard, 1884, i., 413 ;) and in Scharf and 
Westcott's History of Philadelphia, i., 292. There was a 
large hall in this house, at the ends of which hung the two 
portraits by Peale, of Chief Justice McKean with his son 
standing by his side, and of his wife Sarah Armitage with a 
child on her lap. The mansion passed by will to the eldest 
son, Judge Joseph B. McKean. 


To this exalted position, the highest in the gift of the people 
or of Congress, Judge McKean was elected on the resignation 
of Samuel Huntington, on the 10th of July, 1781. General 
Washington sent his congratulations to him under date of July 
21.* Being also Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, his holding 
two such high positions at one time raised a clamor of opposi- 
tion to him. The press teemecf with essays upon the subject, 
maintaining both sides of the question ; in which the advocates 
of Mr. McKean enjoyed a manifest advantage. The chief 
point alleged was, that it was illegal to hold the office of Chief 
Justice while sitting in Congress ; but it is evident that the 
authors of the outcry were incited either by envy or ambition, 
and not by virtue or love of country, because if his seat was 

1 See his life in Keith's Provinc. Councillors, p. 276. 

*Penn. Colo. Records, xii., 578, xiii., 25 ; Scharf and Westcott, i. 420. 

'Thompson Westcott, 1877, p. 90. 

l Writinc/s of Washington, Jared Sparks, 12 vols., Boston, 1837, viii., 112. 


illegal at all, it was as much so before he was made president 
as afterwards. The Constitution of Pennsylvania, indeed, for- 
bade the holding of two offices ; but it was contended that this 
did not apply to holding other offices outside of the State ; so 
that his being a member of Congress from Delaware Avould not 
conflict with the Constitution of Pennsylvania when he became 
Chief Justice. The outcry came chiefly from Pennsylvania, 
which was unreasonable considering that Pennsylvania had 
appointed the Delaware member of Congress as Chief Justice. 
It was moreover shown that several others were then holding 
these two offices in various States. It was decided that he 
could hold both offices ; the foundation of the decision was, 
that one State could not interfere with another in its internal 
administration, which included the selection of its officers. 
Delaware could not interfere with the selection of the Penn- 
sylvania Chief Justice, nor could Pennsylvania restrain Dela- 
ware in her selection of members of Congress ; and Judge 
McKean's seat was properly held and his election as President 
was valid. 1 

On Sunday, September 2d of this year, the American army 
passed through to Philadelphia going south ; followed on the 
3d and 4th by the French troops. As the latter passed 
through, they were reviewed by Thomas McKean, President 
of Congress, who on this occasion, appeared in black velvet 
with a sword at his side, and his head covered. On his left 
were Washington and Rochambeau uncovered ; and on his 
right M. de Luzerne, the French minister. As the officers 
saluted in passing, McKean responded by removing his hat ; 
and afterwards complimented the appearance of the various 
corps. 2 

These were the troops marching to victory at Yorktown, and 
not many weeks afterwards, Colonel Tilghman, one of Wash- 
ington's aides-de-camp rode express to Philadelphia, to carry 
the dispatches of his chief, announcing to Congress the joyful 
tidings of the surrender of Cornwallis. " It was midnight 
when he entered the city, October 23, 1781. Thomas 
McKean the President of Congress resided in High street, 3 
near Second. Tilghman knocked at the door so vehemently 
that a watchman was disposed to arrest him for disturbing the 

1 Sanderson's Lives. 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 415. Also Thacher's Military Journal, Boston, 

3 Probably a mistake, as he had recently removed to Third stree 


peace. McKean arose, and presently the glad tidings were 
made known." 1 And as the watchman — an old German 
named Hurry — called the hour he proclaimed in a loud sonor- 
ous voice, " Basht dree o'clock and, G-ornivallis isht daken. 2 
The dispatches were read to Congress at an early hour the 
next morning; and Congress, the same day went in procession 
to the Dutch Lutheran Church, to return thanks to Almighty 
God for the successes of the allied armies of the United States 
and France. Handbills were printed, dated October 24, 1781, 
announcing in large letters : Illumination, — that Colonel 
Tilghman having brought news of the surrender, citizens will 
illuminate this evening from 6 to 9 oclock. 3 

As the time approached for the Supreme Court to meet, 
Mr. McKean, on the 23d of October, 1781, addressed a letter 
to Congress resigning the presidency. Congress accepted the 
resignation on that day ; but postponed the election ot a presi- 
dent until the next day, when on motion of Mr. Witherspoon, 
it was unanimously resolved that Mr. McKean be requested to 
resume the chair, and act as president, until the 1st Monday in 
November. To this he acceded ; and on the 5th, John 
Hanson was elected president. On the 7th a vote of thanks 
was given to Mr. McKean for his services as president. 


Three remarkable incidents in the life of Thomas McKean 
deserve especial mention. The first is, that he is the only 
member of the continental congress who retained his seat 
successively, with the exception of one year, from the Stamp 
Act Congress in 1765, and the first continental congress in 
1774, to the peace in 1783. Pennsylvania members were 
limited by her constitution to a term of two years ; but Dela- 
ware did not so limit her delegates. 

The second incident is, that while sitting in congress as a 
delegate from Delaware, he was appointed Chief Justice of 
Pennsjdvania ; — both states claiming him, and holding high 
offices in each. 

1 Lossing's Field Book of Rev., 1852, ii., 527. 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 415-16. This work states that the first news 
was received by a messenger at 3 a. m., October 22, and that Col. Tilghman 
arrived on the 24th, confirming the news; whereupon the event was cele- 

3 Original in possession of Henry Pettit, Esq. A facsimile is given in J. J. 
Smith's Amer. Hist, and Lit. Curiosities, N. Y., 1860, pi. lx. 


The third is the number of high offices he held at one 
and the same time. While sitting as a delegate from Dela- 
ware in Congress, and the chief justice of Pennsylvania, he 
was a member of the Delaware Assembly and also Speaker, 
and for a while became ex officio President of the State of 
Delaware and commander in chief. The year before this, he 
was a colonel of the Pennsylvania Associators, and Chairman 
of the Committee of Inspection and Observation. Subse- 
quently he held at the same time, the three offices of delegate 
from Delaware, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and President 
of Congress. In later years he was Governor of Pennsylva- 
nia as will be seen further on. 

When we reflect upon the number of offices he held, we can 
form an estimate of the vast labor he performed, and the un- 
wearied application requisite to master the complicated details 
of litigated cases, essential to the faithful performance of his 
judicial duties. Yet amidst the violence of party animosity, 
in which he was extensively involved, although his holding so 
many offices became the grounds of complaint, yet his enemies 
do not seem to have charged him with any neglect of his duties. 1 


As already noted in a quotation from a letter of Judge 
McKean, he was appointed by the Legislature in 1781 to 
compile the laws of Pennsylvania; which were published the 
next year with the following title : 

" The Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, carefully compared with the originals ; and an 
Appendix containing the laws now in force, passed between the 
30th day of September 1775 and the Revolution ; together with 
the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the State of 
Pennsylvania, and the Articles of Confederation of the United 
States of America. Published by order of the General Assembly, 
[Arms of the State] Philadelphia, Printed and sold by Francis 
Bailey in Market street. MDCCLXXXII." 

On the next page is given the resolution of the Assembly 
April 2, 1781, that Thomas McKean should publish the laws ; 
And below this is his certificate that he has caused this volume 
to be published. The work is briefly known as McKean' 's Laws. 2 

^National Portraits, J. B. Longacre and James Herring, vol. for 1839. 
2 See John Hill Martin's Bench and Bar of Phil., 1883, pp. 185-8; and 
Hildeburn's Issues of the Press of Pa., 1886, ii., 382, No. 41*79. 




About three years after the treaty of peace was signed, a 
convention was called to meet in Philadelphia, May 14, 1787, 
to frame a constitution for the United States. General Wash- 
ington x presided, and after a session of four months the con- 
vention adjourned September 17th, having agreed to the Con- 

Judge McKean was not a member of this convention, yet he 
was neither inattentive, nor inactive with regard to its proceed- 
ings. He had always been an advocate of the just rights of the 
smaller, against the overbearing influence and power of the 
larger states. 2 A vote by states was insisted upon by him, in 
the first congress of 1765, and in that held in Philadelphia in 
1774, and the concession was made by the other states. At 
the meeting of the federal convention, he delivered to the dele- 
gates from Delaware, notes of the arguments used on those oc- 
casions, and at the same time offered, in private, his reasons in 
support of the security of the smaller states, to members who 
represented the larger. His influence prevailed; and the 
result was the compromise which pervades the present system. 3 

The constitution having been presented to congress by the 
convention, was referred to the several states for ratification. 
Pennsylvania after a hotly contested election chose delegates 
for that purpose who met in Philadelphia, November 20th, 
1787 . 4 Judge McKean was a member from Philadelphia. 
No business was transacted on the first day. On the 21st the 
names were read and a ballot taken for president, which re- 
sulted : Muhlenberg 30, McKean 29, Gerry 1. It being 
questioned whether any one had a majority, the convention 
decided that Mr. Muhlenberg should take the chair. 

The history of this convention forms the subject of a recent 
work: Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution by John 
Bach McMaster, and Frederick D. Stone, published by the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society 1888 ; in which the proceed- 

x He kept a journal of his social movements, which has been published in 
the Penn. Mag., xi., 296 ; and the Philadelphia Times, July 31, 1887, etc., in 
which he records among other things : "Aug. 18. Dined at Chief Justice 
McKean's, and spent the evening at home." 

2 See Papers of James Madison, Henry D. Gilpin, 1841, ii., 751-2. 

3 Sanderson's Lives. (In the Senate each State has an equal vote, and in 
the House a vote according to population.) 

*Scharf and Westcott's Phila., i., 426, which gives the date wrongly 21st. 


ings are detailed at length, and the exciting contests between 
the two parties narrated. A likeness of Thomas McKean is 
also given, with a sketch of his life. 

The Federalists chose for their leaders Wilson and McKean, 
who took the management of the proceedings. After certain 
motions relating to the organization and meetings of the con- 
vention, Judge McKean on the 23d, moved that the constitution 
be read, which was done. On Saturday the 24th he moved 
that it be read a second time ; and in a short speech said that 
they were situated in a new position, with no rules or pre- 
cedents to guide them, and in order to bring the matter before 
them, he would offer a resolution ; not that he expected it 
would be decided to-day, or in a week; and that all those 
should be heard who were opposed to the constitution. He 
therefore moved : x 

"That this Convention do assent to, and ratify, the Constitution 
agreed to on the seventeenth of September last, by the Conven- 
tion of the United States of America, held at Philadelphia." 

This motion was seconded by Mr. John Allison. The 
business was now before the convention ; Mr. Wilson rose and 
spoke in favor of the motion, in a speech lasting several days. 
The principal speeches are given in Elliot's Debates on the 
Federal Constitution, four vols., Authorized by Congress, 
1836 ; but unfortunately all of them are not reported. The 
opposition was assailed by legal arguments, by sarcasm, and 
by ridicule. Judge McKean said in the course of his remarks, 
that the apprehensions of the opposition respecting the new 
constitution amounted to this, that if the sky falls we shall 
catch larks; if the rivers run dry, we shall catch eels; 
and he compared their arguments to a sound, but then it was 
a mere sound, like the working of small beer. 2 

On the 10th, Judge McKean announced that on the 12th he 
would press for a vote. The debates were closed by a long and 
eloquent speech by Judge McKean on the 11th, embracing a 
clear and comprehensive view of the whole subject. He un- 
folded, in a masterly manner, the principles of free government ; 
demonstrated the superior advantages of the federal constitu- 
tion ; and satisfactorily answered every objection which had been 
suggested. Arranging these objections under ten heads, he 

*Not on Monday, 26th, as given in Elliott's Debates. This error is pointed 
out by Bancroft, United States, 1885, vi., 384 ; and Hist. Formation Const. U. 
S., 1885, p. 384. 

3 Penna. and the Fed. Const., 365. 


considered them singly, and delivered his refutation of them 
in a lucid and forcible manner. He concluded this powerful 
argument in these words : 

" The objections to this constitution having been answered, and 
all done, away, it remains pure and unhurt ; and this alone as a 
forcible argument of its goodness. * * * The law, sir, has 
been my study from my infancy, and my only profession. I have 
gone through the circle of offices, in the legislative, executive and 
judicial departments of government ; and from all my study, ob- 
servation and experience, I must declare that from a full exami- 
nation and due consideration of this system, it appears to me the 
best the world has yet seen." 1 

The convention was criticised by outsiders in the public press, 
and Judge McKean did not fail to receive his share of criticism 
and abuse from the opposition. In more than one part of the 
State the excitement developed into a riot. In Carlisle, in par- 
ticular, two figures labeled Thomas McKean Chief Justice, 
and James Wilson the Caledonian, were burned by the mob. 2 

Nevertheless a majority of the people approved the consti- 
tution ; and the next year a majority of States having ratified 
it by the close of June, a procession to celebrate the event was 
arranged in Philadelphia for July 4, 1788. A description of 
this celebration from the pen of Francis Hopkinson, chairman 
of the committee of arrangements, has been preserved and re- 
cently published. 

The First City Troop headed the escort : Independence was 
represented by Colonel John Nixon, who had read the Decla- 
ration twelve years before at the State House ; The French 
Alliance, by Thomas Fitzsimmons ; The Neiv JEra, by Rich- 
ard Bache ; The Convention of States, by the Hon. Peter 
Muhlenberg on horseback ; The Constitution, the Hon. 
Chief Justice McKean, the Hon. Judge Atlee, and the Hon. 
Judge Rush, in their robes of office, seated in a lofty ornamen- 
tal car in the form of an eagle, drawn by six white horses. 
The Chief Justice supported a tall staff, on the top of which was 
the cap of liberty ; under the cap the New Constitution, 
framed and ornamented, and immediately under the constitu- 
tion the words The People in large gold letters affixed to the 
staff". Next came ten gentlemen of social distinction, repre- 
senting the ten States which had ratified the constitution ; The 

1 Sanderson's Lives, and Elliot's Debates, 1888, ii., 542. 

2 Independent Gazetteer, Jan. 9, 1788, as quoted in Penn. and Fed. Const. 
p. 488 ; see also McMaster's Hist. People of U. S., i., 475. 


Foreign Consuls ; The Hon. Francis Hopkinson, representing 
the Admiralty ; The Society of the Cincinnati ; various other 
societies, professions and trades brought up the rear. 1 


This case came before the Supreme Court in the July term, 
1788. 2 Eleazer Oswald, editor of the Independent Gazetteer, 
was defendant in a suit then pending, and published an article 
against Andrew Brown. Brown demanded the name of the 
author, which Oswald declined to give ; he then brought suit, 
whereupon Oswald on the 10th of July published another piece 
over his own signature, which was the ground of the case com- 
ing before the Supreme Court. Chief Justice McKean consid- 
ered that the publication would inflame the public, and preju- 
dice those who may be summoned as jurors. He then asked 
Oswald certain interrogatories, which Oswald refused to an- 
swer. Oswald was then, by the unanimous opinion of the 
judges, held in contempt, and sentenced to a fine of .£10, and 
to be imprisoned " for the space of one month, that is from the 
15th day of July to the 15th day of August." The sentence 
was, however, entered on the record, " for the space of one 
month," omitting the explanatory words following. At the 
expiration of the legal month (twenty-eight days), Mr. Oswald 
demanded his discharge, but this, the sheriff', who had heard the 
sentence pronounced, refused to grant until he had consulted 
the Chief Justice. Judge McKean, remembering the meaning 
and words of the court, told the officer that he was bound to 
detain his prisoner until the morning of the 15th ; but having 
shortly afterwards examined the record, he wrote to the sheriff' 
that agreeably to the record there, Mr. Oswald was entitled to 
his discharge. 

On the 5th of September 1788, Mr. Oswald presented a 
memorial to the General Assembly, in which he stated the 
proceedings against him, and complained of the decision of the 
court ; and the direction of the Chief Justice to the sheriff, by 
which he alleged his confinement had been illegally protracted ; 
and concluded by asking the impeachment of the judges. The 
House in committee of the whole, considered this matter three 
days and examined witnesses. William Lewis made an elab- 
orate argument in vindication of the judges ; Mr. Findley 

^charf and Westcott, i., 447 el seq.; Philadelphia Times, Sept. 11, 1887. 
2 1 Dallas, 319; Scharf and Westcott, i., 426. 


spoke on the other side, and Mr. Fitzsimmons then made a 
motion that there was no cause for impeachment. After 
several unimportant motions, one by Mr. Findley claimed the 
attention of the house : That the action of the judges was an 
unconstitutional exercise of power ; and directing the next 
Assembly to define the nature and extent of contempts and 
direct their punishment. Mr. Findley ably supported his 
resolution ; but Mr. Lewis 1 satisfactorily answered him, that 
the legislative power is confined to making the law, and can- 
not interfere in the interpretation, which is the natural and 
exclusive province of the judiciary ; and secondly, the recom- 
mendation to the succeeding assembly would be nugatory, for 
the courts of justice derive their powers from the constitution, 
a source paramount to the legislature, and consequently what 
is given to them by the former cannot be taken away by the 
latter. Mr. Findley's motion was lost by a considerable ma- 
jority, and Mr. Clymer then renewed Mr. Fitzsimmons' original 
motion, which was adopted, and the memorial of course re- 
jected. 2 

In pronouncing the judgment of the court in the case of Os- 
wald, Chief Justice McKean made the following remarks : 

" Some doubts were suggested whether even a contempt of the 
court was punishable by attachment. Not only my brethren and 
myself, but likewise all the judges of England, think that without 
this power no court could possibly exist ; nay, that no contempt 
could indeed be committed against us, we should be so truly con- 
temptible. The law upon the subject is of immemorial antiquity, 
and there is not any period when it can be said to have ceased or 
discontinued. On this point, therefore, we entertain no doubt." 

These observations have since been repeatedly quoted as 
conclusive on the subject of contempts ; and were cited with 
approbation in the famous debate in January, 1818, in the case 
of John Anderson in the house of representatives of the 
United States. 3 

Lossing in his Lives of the Signers, referring to this matter, 
says, "It was like 'the viper biting a file.' " And a late judge 

1 The impeachment resolution was chiefly defeated by the eloquence of 
William Lewis. — Brown's Forum. 

2 Sanderson's Lives. 

3 Ibid. Col. John Anderson attempted to bribe a member, and a long 
debate ensued as to whether the House could punish him. Joseph Hopkin- 
son quoted a portion of the above paragraph. See Journals H. R., Fifteenth 
Cong., 1st Sess.; also Debates and Proceed., Gales and Seaton, 1854, Fifteenth 
Cong., 1st Sess , pp. "722, 580 et seq. 


of the Supreme Court, writing in Hazard's Register of Penn- 
sylvania? on the Bench and Bar, says of Chief Justice Mc- 
Kean: "Many charges were made against him, finally, and 
attempts were made to impeach him ; but all proved abortive, 
and only shed new lustre upon his character." 

This is not the only instance in which the legislature at- 
tempted a wholesale impeachment of the Supreme Court for 
political purposes. Another case occurred in 1804, which will 
be noticed in its proper place. 


This Convention met on Tuesday, November 24, 1789, to 
frame a constitution for the State. It was at first proposed to 
reform the old constitution then in force, which was very defec- 
tive, with but a single legislative branch ; but this was after- 
wards abandoned as hopeless. Judge McKean was a delegate 
from Philadelphia. Being resolved into committee of the 
whole, December 1st, in which the subject was chiefly discussed, 
Judge McKean was elected chairman. He therefore could not 
take part in the debates ; he was, however, the author of the 
clause making provision for the establishment of schools 
throughout the States, so that the poor may be taught gratis. 
On his retirement from the chair January 29, 1790, he received 
a vote of thanks from the committee. 2 


A few years before this, Judge McKean was appointed by 
Congress by a circuitous sort of ballot, one of nine judges to 
settle a certain territorial claim between the states of Georgia 
and South Carolina. James Madison and James Duane were 
among the judges chosen. 3 

Washington's birthday was celebrated in 1790 by the Soci- 
ety of the Cincinnati ; and Chief Justice McKean did not think 
it beneath himself to march in procession with them through the 
streets. 4 On the 17th of April occurred the funeral of Benja- 
min Franklin. The pall-bearers on this occasion were, the 
President of the State, Thomas Mifflin ; the Chief Justice, 
Thomas McKean ; the President of the Bank, John Morton ; 

MiL, 241. 

2 Sanderson's Lives. 

3 Journals, Sept. 13, 1786. 

*Scharf and Westcott, i., 463. 


Samuel Powell, William Bingham, and David Rittenhouse, 
Esqs., accompanied by the city officers, militia, and others. 1 

During this same year was organized the Hibernian Society 
for the relief of emigrants from Ireland. A number of benev- 
olent gentlemen (among whom were several members of the 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, which society it superseded) met 
together on the 22d of March, and agreed upon a constitution, 
under which, on the oth of April, the officers were elected, as 
follows : President, Hon. Thomas McKean ; Vice-President, 
General Walter Stewart; Secretary, Matthew Carey: Treas- 
urer, John Taylor ; with other subordinate officers. The so- 
ciety was incorporated under the laws of Pennsylvania, April 
27, 1792, upon the petition of Thomas McKean and fifty-eight 
others. The records being imperfect from 1793 to 1813, it is 
not known how long Judge McKean served as president. The 
society is in a flourishing condition at the present day, being 
in possession of an investment fund of $70, 000. 2 

In 1794 occurred what is known as the Whiskey Insurrec- 
tion, in the Western part of Pennsylvania. Extreme coercion 
was about to be employed, and troops were called out by the 
general government, when Judge McKean suggested a mild 
and pacific course, which prevailed. Chief Justice McKean 
and General William Irvine were appointed commissioners on 
the part of the state ; and James Ross, Judge Jasper Yeates 
and William Bradford (TJ. S. Attorney General), on the part 
of the United States. 3 On their way home after leaving Car- 
lisle, two hundred men marched in, with the hope of catching 
Judge McKean and Judge Yeates, who was in his company ; 
but being disappointed in seizing the judges, burned them in 
effigy.* Of this great uprising, much has been written; there 
is a full account in the Pennsylvania Colonial Records, vol. 
iv, by Linn and Egle, 1876. 

Towards the close of the year 1792 occurred the second 
presidential election, in which Chief Justice McKean took part 
as a presidential elector from the 3d Pennsylvania district. He 
cast his vote for Washington, who received the unanimous votes 
of all the electors, and who in due time entered upon his sec- 
ond term of office. 5 

^bid., i., 458 ; Histor. Mag. of Notes and Queries, i., 83-4. 
* Pamphlets of the Society, 1887-9. 

3 Hist. Whiskey Insurrection, H. M. Breckenbridge, 1859, p. 190; also Egle's 
Hist. Penn., i., 227. 

"Hildrith's TJ. S., iv., 505-11. 
6 Lanman's Biog. Annals. 



During this same year, Thomas McKean and James Wilson 
published a work with the following title : 

" Commentary on the Constitution of the United States of 
America, with, that Constitution prefixed, in which are unfolded 
the Principles of free Government; and the superior Advantages 
of Republicanism demonstrated." By James Wilson, LL. D.,and 
Thomas McKean, LL. D. T.Lloyd. 8vo., pp. 147. 3 s. De- 
bret, 1792. 

Both of the authors were signers of the Declaration, and they 
had been the two principal leaders in the convention which rat- 
ified the constitution. McKean was Chief Justice, and Wilson 
an associate justice of the Supreme Court. Wilson was also at 
that time professor of law in the University of Pennsylvania. 
This work was favorably commented upon by that standard 
publication, the London Monthly Review for October, 1792 
(iii, 155), which concludes as follows : 

" The publication must be perused throughout in order to form 
an idea of the good sense, and manly eloquence of the speeches 
here made public. 1 


The revolution which dethroned Louis XVI now broke out 
in France, and England with other countries declared war 
against her. Very naturally the popular sympathy in the 
United States was with France our old ally, and against Eng- 
land our late enemy. Assistance to France was proposed by 
many ; and opposed by others, who raised the objection that 
the country had no resources, and was as yet but feebly 
established. To avert a war, a secret treaty with England 
was concluded by John Jay at London, November 19, 1794. 
On being made public in June following, a few days after its 
ratification by the Senate, (June 24th,) it was received at first 
with an almost united roar of execration throughout the land. 2 
Public meetings in various places gave expression to the feel- 
ing against it. 

In Philadelphia a meeting was held July 24th, at which Dr. 
William Shippen presided. Governor Mifflin, Chief Justice 
McKean, Frederick A. Muhlenberg, David Rittenhouse, Alex- 

1 See also Penn. Mag., xi., 271 ; Allibone's Diet, of Authors, art. McKean. 
2 Randall's Thomas Jefferson, iii., 258-65-66. 



ander J. Dallas, Charles Pettit, Thomas Lee Shippen, Jared 
Ingersol, Blair McClenachan and others were mounted on a 
stage and favored war with England. The treaty was read, 
and then contemptuously thrown off the stage. It was caught 
up by a crowd, who marched with it to the house of the 
British Minister and to Senator William Bingham's, where the 
treaty was publicly burned. 1 Nevertheless the treaty was 
proclaimed and war averted, — happily so for the country. 
John Adams, who favored the other side of the question, re- 
ferred to this matter in a letter to Thomas McKean dated June 
2, 1812, as follows : " Nearly thirty-eight years ago our friend- 
ship commenced. It has never been interrupted to my knowl- 
edge but by one event." 2 Their friendship however after that 
event continued unbroken to the end. 


At the third presidential election in 1796 Adams and Jeffer- 
son were the two principal competitors. Chief Justice McKean 
headed the republican list of Presidential Electors in Penn- 
sylvania, being one of the two electors at large, — the second 
time he had filled this position. Pennsylvania was entitled to 
fifteen electors, and among those from the congressional dis- 
tricts, were Joseph Hiester afterwards Governor, General 
William Irvine, Colonel Samuel Miles, and Peter Muhlenberg. 3 
This ticket, which favored Thomas Jefferson, was elected, re- 
ceived 12,306 votes in the state, against 12,181 for the whig 
ticket headed by Whelen, which favored Mr. Adams. 4 At the 
election, Mr. Jefferson received fourteen of the fifteen votes. 
Mr. Adams however had a majority of the whole number cast 
and was elected president. 


Politics still continued to agitate the people, the newspapers 
being not the least of the causes, which kept up the excite- 
ment. William Duane of the Aurora was particularly abusive 
in all his writings. At length, as we may read in McMaster's 

1 Ibid., and Scharf and Westcott, i., 475-81. 

2 Works, by his grandson, C. F. Adams, 1856, x., 13, and Sanderson's 

3 Lanman, Biog. Annals, p. 514. 
* Scharf and Westcott, i., 485. 


History, 1 weary of this abuse, a number of militiamen, led by 
Joseph B. McKean, son of the Chief Justice, one afternoon in 
May waited on the editor, and demanded an apology. Mr. 
Duane refused ; whereupon he was seized, dragged down 
stairs, and flogged in the public street. For this chastisement, 
Duane entered suit against Joseph B. McKean and thirty 
others ; but they were acquitted after the suit had hung on for 
several years. 2 

Notwithstanding this, Duane took sides with Judge McKean 
in his canvass for governor ; but like many politicians turned 
against him eventually. His wholesale abuse brought him 
continually into trouble. In February, just before the episode 
above related, he became involved in a quarrel with the con- 
gregation of St. Mary's church ; and together with Dr. James 
Reynolds was arrested ami brought before the mayor. Judge 
McKean appeared in their behalf, much to the dissatisfaction 
of the opposite party. 3 

Duane continued his abuse, and the opinion with which he 
was regarded by the opposition may be seen from the follow- 
ing extract from the Federalist or New Jersey Gazette, 
August 5, 1799. " On Tuesday last, Duane the infamous 
Aurora man was arrested by the marshall of the district of 
Pennsylvania upon a warrant from Judge Peters, for publish- 
ing in the Aurora of the 24th ultimo, a gross and virulent 
libel upon the government of the United States." The libel, 
the editor then goes on to say, was, that in 1798, the British 
government distributed $800,000 among officers of the United 
States as secret service money. 

There was another also who took part in the politics of these 
times, so distinguished as a writer that he deserves more than 
a passing notice ; and that person is William Cobbett, whose 
ready and sarcastic pen kept him ever in trouble. He was 
the editor of a weekly paper, — The Gazette, and wrote under 
the pseudonym of Peter Porcupine.* 

1 Mst. People of U. S., ii., 439. 

"Scharf and Westcott, L, 497, 533. 

s Scharf and Westcott, i., 497. Also Wharton's State Trials of the U* S., 
1849, p. 345. 

*He was born in England in 1762, came to Philadelphia, and edited Por- 
cupine's Gazette, in which he attacked and slandered almost every one ; 
thereby becoming involved in suits for slander without number. Of all the 
opponents of Thomas McKean during his exciting canvass for Governor, 
Cobbett was the most rancorous. He "boasted of having immortalized the 
Governor in every country where the English language is spoken." {Loy- 


In this paper in 1797, Cobbett slandered the Spanish Min- 
ister, Senor Martinez de Yrujo, and the Spanish King, calling 
the former, whom he nicknamed Don Yarico, a fop, half don 
and half sans-culotte ; and the latter a poor degraded creature. 
For this, Senor Martinez de Yrujo complained against Cobbett, 
and he was bound over in the District Court charged as a com- 
mon libeller ; but broke his conditions and the cause then came 
in the Supreme Court before Chief Justice McKean. The 
defendant petitioned to have his case transferred to the Circuit 
Court ; but the Supreme Court rejected it. Chief Justice 
McKean presided at the trial. 1 "His charge to the jury was 
a fine one. His explication of the law of libel did him credit," 
says McMaster 2 the historian, but adds that the Chief Justice 
turned libeller upon the prisoner at the bar. Cobbett was 
acquitted by a single vote, (10 to 9.) It is stated in the Life 
of Cobbett, that Chief Justice McKean then determined to 
suppress Cobbett's wholesale abuse, and collecting a number of 
his pamphlets, compelled him on his own authority as Chief 
Justice to go under bonds to keep the peace, and be of good 
behavior. 3 Cobbett, in his inimitable style, relates this in a 
letter to Dr. Joseph Priestly, as follows 4 — 

" He then collected a bundle of my pamphlets and papers, and 
thereupon issued a warrant, . . . [which] stated that I had published 

alist Poetry of the Revolution, p. 171.) After McKean's election he sailed for 
England, and it was thought that he would favor the royalist side, since he 
had opposed the republican form of government in America ; but no, his 
pen at once turned against the king and ministry, and he was soon con- 
victed of various libels against the government and individuals, fined and 
imprisoned. By one of those strange freaks of fortune, he was elected to 
Parliament, but failed signally in that sphere, making several blunders. 
Allibone says that in Parliament he " roared as gently as any sucking dove." 
Southey declared that "As an author he stands very high ; there never was 
a better or more forcible writer. In public he seemed almost against every 
one." [New Am. Encycl.) Judgments of the courts against him for dam- 
ages he deemed as robbery ; Parliament he considered little better than a 
mob for laughing him down. So even in his Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage (Letter xvii., § 181) he cannot conceal his sarcasm, as the following 
singular extract will show : " Nouns of number or multitude, such as Mob, 
Parliament, Rabble, House of Commons, Regiment, Court of King's Bench, 
Den of Thieves, and the like, may have pronouns agreeing with them either 
in the singular or plural number." See his Life, l: How to Get on in the 
World," Robert Waters, N., Y., 1883. 

J 3 Dallas, 467, December term, 1*798; also reprinted in State Trials of 
the U. S., Francis Wharton, LL. D., Phila., 1849. 

2 Hist, of People of U. S., 1855, ii., 353. 

3 How to Get on in the World, R. Waters, N. Y., 1883, p. 60. 
*The Rush Light, Cobbett's Works, xi., 427. 


certain false and malicious libels against himself, Mifflin, Dallas, 
Jefferson, Munroe, Gallatin, old Franklin, the Duke of Bedford, 
Charles Fox, Sheridan, Lord Stanhope, Bonaparte, the Bishop 
of Bergamo, Pichegru, Robespierre, Talleyrand, Parker the 
mutineer, Napper Tandy, Arthur O'Conner, — and the devil 
knows who besides." 


In October 1799, after a furious political contest with James 
Ross, Thomas McKean was elected Governor of Pennsylvania. 
There were two political parties: the Republican or Demo- 
cratic-Republican, (a term which came into use about this 
time,) and the Federalist. The former, which was against the 
encroachments of the federal government, supported McKean ; 
the latter, which favored the strong measures of the govern- 
ment, voted for Ross. 1 McKean received 38,036 votes against 
32,643 for Ross, a majority of 5393 ; 2 The election marked an 
important era in politics ; for it brought in power the new 
party which was afterwards destined to rule the country for 
many years. 


One of the most bitter opponents of Thomas McKean in the 
canvass for governor was William Cobbett. He had never for- 
given the Chief Justice for his decisions in those previous 
lawsuits, and now his aggravating sarcasm, his great fluency of 
expression, and his pointed and undisguised statements, made 
him an opponent by no means to be despised. But the 
acrimony of the contest having long since passed away, an 
account of his attacks cannot fail to be interesting, but will 
doubtless now provoke merely a smile from the reader of these 
pages. The author does not guarantee the truth of the state- 
ments quoted ; but that may also be a feature of Cobbett's style : 

" Judge McKean : This vile old wretch who now disgraces the 
courts of the unfortunate State of Pennsylvania, was formerly a 
stable-man at a tavern in Chester county. The following lines 
allude to his state of innocence : 

" Old Toper, to currying horses was bred, 
But tir'd of so humble a life, 

l Life of Thomas Jefferson, Henry S. Randall, ii., 506. 

2 Legis. Handbook of Pa., T. B. Cochran, 1889, for the votes in detail; 
Scharf and Westcott, L, 498 : see also Hildrith's U. S., v., 314. Hildrith 
gives the votes each 10,000 too small. 


To currying favor he turned his head, 

And 's now curried himself by his wife." 1 

In another place, with great sarcasm, he says : 

" His [McKean's] grandfather was an Irishman who emigrated 
with the consent of his majesty and twelve good and true men." 3 

It would be strange if Oobbett's abuse should overreach 
itself and turn in McKean's favor. Can it be that Cobbett here, 
with a little confusion of generations, alludes to the Claver- 
house jury mentioned in the Introduction? If so, it settles 
the matter in the affirmative that the Pennsylvania and the 
New England McKeans have the same origin. 

In regard to naturalizing foreigners, no one ever represented 
the matter in such a light as Cobbett in the following sentence : 

" McKean. This honorable personage is not only canvassing as 
he goes his circuit (gracious God !), he is not only soliciting votes 
of the present citizens, but he is absolutely making new ones." 3 

Accusing McKean of trying to conciliate the Quakers whom 
he offended by the execution of Roberts and Carlisle, Cobbett 
writes : 

'" Now by St. Paul the work goes bravely on ! !' Nothing that 
I ever saw or ever heard of would please me half so well as to see 
'•The Honor, the Doctor of Laws, Esqr.,' in a broad-brimmed hat 
and a cape coat. But halt ! What shall we do with the three 
tailed wig ? It must not hang dangling down over a piece of 
smooth mouse-colored cloth ; and as to a cap, it would never suit 
either a judge or a governor. A red liberty cap, indeed, some 
governors have been proud to wear ; but this, I take it, would suit 
worse with a Quaker coat than even a three tailed wig. Notwith- 
standing this difficulty, however, I sincerely hope the conversion 
will take place. 4 

About this time Cobbett turned his attention to Dr. Rush, 
charging that he bled his patients to death. Finally Rush 
sued him, and the case came before Chief Justice McKean, 
governor elect, but still in the bench, and Judge Shippen. 
Shippen then came in for his share of abuse, as well also as the 
counsel engaged, namely, Joseph Hopkinson (son of the signer 
and author of " Hail Columbia"), and Edward J. Coale (men 

1 Porcupine' 's Works, by William Cobbett, London, 1801, 12 vols., vii., 300, 
Gazette Selections. 
a Ibid., vii., 333. 
3 Ibid., x., 206. 
*Ibid., x., 212. 


tioned elsewhere in this genealogy), a relative of Hopkinson, 
and a student in his office. Dr. Rush got a verdict of $5000. * 
Finally, when the election drew nigh, with every prospect of 
McKean's success, Cobbett became so wrought up that he pub- 
lished the following threat : 

"I know McKean, and I know that it is my duty, my bounded 
duty to my subscribers in this state, to use all my feeble efforts 
to preserve them from the power of such a man. From private 
considerations, there is no man who need care less about the issue 
of the election than myself. It is out of McKean's power to hurt 
me. I will never live six months under his sovereign sioay." 2 

True to his threat, on the news of the election of McKean, 
Cobbett prepared to leave Philadelphia; but was not able to 
do so before execution was levied by Dr. Rush and others on 
his personal effects that swept away nearly all his property. 3 

He inserted in the Federalist or New Jersey Gazette of 
December 16, 1799, the following advertisement: 

"William Cobbett having, (in order to avoid the disgrace 
of living under the Government of MacKean,) removed from 
Philadelphia to New York, requests all those who may have 
occasion to write to him, to direct their letters to the latter city. 
No. 141 Water street." 

On his arrival in New York he published the following 
card (January 1800) : 

" To the subscribers of this Gazette : Remembering as you must 
my solemn promise to quit Pennsylvania, in case my old demo- 
cratic Judge MACK KEAN should be elected Governor ; and 
knowing as you now do that he is elected to that office, there are, 
I trust, very few of you who will be surprised to find that I am no 
longer in that degraded and degrading state." 4 

He published the Rush Light in New York for a while, in 
which he continued his abuse on Rush, McKean, Shippen, 
Hopkinson, and Harper ; and ended by consigning all Phila- 
delphians to perdition, and sailed for Europe. 5 

The democratic-republicans went wild over the election of 
Thomas McKean, for it was the first triumph of the new party. 
Addresses were made to him, in various places ; and banquets 
given, in which he was toasted. In the Aurora of November 

Ubid., xi., 360-3. 

2 Ibid., x., 190. 

3 Scharf and Westcott, i., 497. 

* Cobbett' s Works, xi., 137. 

5 Scharf and Westcott, i., 499. 


9th, appeared one of the party songs, which concluded as 

follows : 

The day of election the Tories regret, 
Five thousand and odd 's a majority great; 
So here 's to the health of Republican Green 
And Republican Blue and old Thomas McKean. 

On the 6th of November, at a town meeting held in Phila- 
delphia, an address was prepared congratulating the governor- 
elect upon his success. To this, Judge McKean replied that 
under his administration their happy system of government, 
raised on the sole authority of the people, would, he trusted, 
by the favor of God, be continued inviolate ; that neither 
foreign nor domestic enemies, neither intrigue, menace, nor 
seductions should prevail against it ; and that the constitution 
of the United States and of Pennsylvania, should be the rule 
of his government. 1 The reply created some stir at the time, 
on account of its strong partisan language, and it was after- 
wards brought up against him. 2 


Judge McKean took the oath of office as governor on the 17th 
of December, 1799. In the Federalist, or New Jersey Gazette, 
of December 23d. 1799, is the announcement that McKean was 
proclaimed Governor of Pennsylvania on the 18th instant, 3 also 
that Edward Shippen is appointed Chief Justice, and Hugh H. 
Brackenridge, of Pittsburg, a Judge of the Supreme Court. 
This paper is deeply edged with black, as it contains the an- 
nouncement of the lamented decease of General Washington. 

As soon as Governor McKean entered upon his duties, he 
began a series of removals from office, of various persons, high 
and low, which he deemed for the public good. In a letter to 
John Dickinson, June 23, 1800, he says: "I have waded 
through a sea troubles, and surmounted my principal difficulties. 
I have been obliged (though no Hercules), to , cleanse the 
Augean stable, with little or no aid ; for I am my own minis- 
ter and amanuensis." 4 

Governor McKean, as might be expected, was attacked by 

1 Sanderson's Lives. 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 504. 

3 A mistake for 17th. 

* Sanderson's Lives, where a lengthy defense of these removals is entered 
into. In some of the volumes of Penn. Senate Journal may be found long 
lists of the Governor's appointments, 1805-6-7, and thereabouts. 


his political opponents, and his course ascribed wholly to polit- 
ical antagonism. Alexander Graydon was one of those removed 
by him. He was performing the duties of prothonotary of 
Dauphin county " until his sudden expulsion by McKean, to 
whom," he says, " belongs the unenviable distinction of being 
the father of political proscription in the United States." 1 
Charles Biddle, also a contemporary, says of the Governor, " I 
knew he was very much provoked at some severe pieces, writ- 
ten against him by my nephew, Mr. Marks John Biddle. How- 
ever, Governor McKean and myself had always been upon good 
terms, and I had a high esteem for him, believing him to be a 
very honest man, although a very violent one, who had no com- 
mand of his temper ; but spoke whatever he thought upon all 
occasions." Although Mr. Graydon, who was remotely con- 
nected with the governor by marriage, was turned out of office, 
yet Biddle was retained, though he had every expectation of 
being removed. 2 

His political enemies, the Federalists, berated Governor 
McKean, as may be seen from the two following extracts from 
The Administrations of Washington and Adams — the Fed- 
eral Administrations : 3 " After all, McKean is a better gov- 
ernor than Mifflin. He won't corrupt society more, if as much, 
and the work he does will be, more open." (Letter of Chaun- 
cey Goodrich, Hartford, Nov. 18, 1799.) " McKean's ad- 
ministration has brought forward every scoundrel who can read 
and write, into office or expectation of one, and the residue of 
Democrats, with the joy and precocity of the damned, are enjoy- 
ing the mortification of the few remaining honest men and Fed- 
eralists." (Letter of Uriah Tracy, Pittsburg, Aug. 7, 1800.) 

" Mr. McKean's gubernatorial career," says a recent biogra- 
pher," was marked by great ability, and produced beneficial re- 
sults to the commonwealth. He was a rigid partisan, well dis- 
ciplined in tactics, a devout believer in the Jeifersonian maxim 
that, ' to the victors belong the spoils.' In carrying out his 
specific views of this theory, his wholesale removals of political 
opponents was unprecedented in our early history. 4 " 

The Federalists in the legislature now attacked Governor 
McKean for his speech on the 6th of November, as well as for 
his removals. It was moved in the House of Representatives 

1 Memoirs of His Own Time, 1846, p. xiii. 

2 Autobiog. Ch. Biddle, by Craig Biddle, 1883, p. 383. 

3 Geo. Gibbs, 2 vols., N. Y., 1846, ii., 288, 399. 

*Nevin, Continental Sketches of Distinguished Pennsylvanians, 18*75. 


to condemn him, but that branch containing a majority of 
Democrats, the vote was lost. 1 The Senate, however, passed a 
resolution condemning him, to which he made a long reply, 
" declaring that the objectionable expressions were uttered 
before he assumed office ; and that as regarded his removals 
from office, he relied upon his right to make such changes as 
he deemed proper without accountability to any person or 
party," 2 — a reply characteristic of his firmness of purpose in 
what he believed to be right. 

His object in removing opponents was not to make places 
merely for political friends, but to secure efficiency and har- 
mony to his rule. For when the affairs of his administration 
once became settled on a firm basis, he did not adhere exclu- 
sively to his own party in making appointments. He twice 
elevated to the highest position in his power to bestow, that of 
chief justice of the state, gentlemen whose political views were 
adverse to his own. 5 

In verification of this statement, the following anecdote may 
properly find a place here. When Tilghman was nominated 
for chief justice, a committee was sent, who announced them- 
selves as representing the sovereign people, the great democ- 
racy of Philadelphia, and declaring that they could never ap- 
prove this nomination. The governor listened with his usual 
haughty courtesy, and bowing profoundly, replied, " Inform 
your constituents that I bow with submission to the great de- 
mocracy of Philadelphia ; but, by God ! William Tilghman 
shall be chief justice of Pennsylvania." And he was.*' He 
received his appointment February 28, 1806. 

Another anecdote is related, of an appointment which can- 
not be charged to political reasons. A very worthy man 
(John Goodman) applied to him for a commission as justice of 
the peace ; but stated very frankly that he had no certificates 
or backers. "Never mind," said the Governor, " I require 
none ; and if any one should ask you how you got your ap- 
pointment, tell him that Thomas McKean recommended you, 
and the Governor appointed you." 6 

Not long after this, Governor McKean removed his nephew 
by marriage, Joseph Hopkinson, and appointed John Beckley 

x Scharf and Westcott, i., 504. 

2 Egle, Illust. Hist, of Penn., i., 234-5. 

'Armor, Lives of Govs, of Perm., p. 303 ; see also Sanderson's Lives. 

*R. H. Davis, in Harp. Mag., lii., 872. 

5 David Paul Brown, The Forum, i., 345. 


to the office. A controversy ensued over this in which Joseph 
B. McKean appeared in behalf of his father. Governor 
McKean was also assailed for participating as Grand Sachem 
at an anniversary celebration of the St. Tammany Society, 
May 12, 1800, at Buck Tavern, Moyamensing. The cere- 
mony was burlesqued in the Phila. Gazette of June 2d, 1800. l 

Next President Adams made an appointment which set in 
motion a lively controversy. He appointed Alexander J. 
Dallas district attorney, which gave dissatisfaction, as Dallas 
was already Secretary of the Commonwealth. He resigned 
the latter, and Governor McKean appointed him Recorder of 
Philadelphia. The common council objected to this, as he 
held two offices. Proceedings were had and the case was 
argued by Hopkinson, Lewis and Tilghman for the councils, 
and by Joseph B. McKean and Ingersoll for Dallas. The 
defendants (Dallas) won the case, and the legislature at the 
next session took up the matter and passed a law prohibiting 
a person from holding both state and federal offices. Governor 
McKean vetoed this, as he could not admit thereby that he 
had done any wrong in appointing Dallas as Recorder. The 
House passed the bill over his veto and Dallas resigned. 2 It 
is readily seen that the root of this controversy was, that the 
law or custom of holding more than one office, was not then 
well denned, as it is now ; and such cases as the above-related, 
assisted materially in settling the law and custom. 

In justification of Governor McKean's removals from office, 
I know of no stronger argument, than that which may be drawn 
from the writings of his opponents themselves. 1 will first 
cite William Cobbett, in regard to the dilemma of Governor 
Mifflin's appointees to office: 3 

" Two candidates offered, Ross and McKean. In the latter 
they remembered indeed the old revolutionist ; but they also re- 
membered that he was not a Mifflin. Keen, vigilant, persever- 
ing, tyrannical and vindictive as they knew McKean to be, they 
were afraid to give him their support lest they should have him 
for a master ; and afraid to oppose him lest they should be dis- 
placed. Being at last fully persuaded that Ross would succeed, 
they openly gave him their support. They were egregiously de- 
ceived. McKean was elected by a vast majority; and though his 
great age was one of the objections they affected to have against 

1 Scharf and Westcott, i., 504. 
2 Ibid., i., 509. 
8 Works, xl, 387. 


him, he soon made them feel that he was not deficient in point 
of energy. 

" The first step he took was to annul all commissions during 
pleasure, granted by his predecessor. He had previously obtained 
exact information respecting the electioneering conduct of every 
one of the civil officers, whom he had power to displace ; and ac- 
cording to this, he made out his list of proscription. He swept 
the poor fellows off by dozens, with as little ceremony as a foul 
feeding glutton brushes the flies from the meat he is himself going 
to devour." 

Had Governor McKean transcended his legitimate powers 
one iota, or overstepped the law in the smallest particular, 
would not Cobbett have eagerly seized upon it? The fact 
that Cobbett does not bring such a charge is circumstantial evi- 
dence that Governor McKean did not overstep the laws in his 
removals. He first annulled the commissions " during pleas- 
ure ;" he then made a list of those "whom he had power to 
displace." He had a clear right to remove these two classes. 
As to the office holders, Cobbett depicts them in an unenviable 
light, weak, unreliable and insincere to either candidate, think- 
ing solely how to retain their offices. The removals are thus 
seen to be not contrary to law, although contrary to custom. 

The letter of Chauncey Goodrich, quoted a few pages back, 
says, "the work he does will be more open," thus testifying 
that Governor McKean's work is not done in secret or in the 
dark, but is open to the criticism of his adversaries. The 
other letter quoted contains abuse, but nothing against McKean 
more than its language is against its own author. Cobbett's 
attacks, as may be seen from the extracts given, were generally 
abuse, or ridicule, that may have influenced some at that time. 
Such evanescent attacks contain but little to influence posterity. 

The photolithographed facsimile of a printed hand-bill on 
the opposite page, is given as a curious memento of these tur- 
bulent times. It has been preserved in the family, and is now 
in possession of the author. The photolithograph is reduced 
two-thirds of the original size. 1 

The news that the presidential election between Jefferson 
and Burr had resulted in a tie, was known towards the close of 
the year 1800, and much elated the democratic republicans, 
as the election would then be thrown into the House of Re- 
presentatives. Meetings, festivals, and banquets were held in 

lr rhe paper is torn and the print worn away in places. It is not known 
who wrote the line at the bottom. 



Who means to honor the Theatre with his prefertce, 
THIS EVENING, January 2, 1800, 

At the Houfe of Mr. LENEGAN, in Eajt King-Jlreet, Lancajier, 
At the Sign of the White Horfe. 

W^^i^ADiKs t^oENTLETviEN^f Btfttca iter are TC&- 
peftfully informed, that this evening will be prefent- 
ed the grea.tefl variety of amufements that has ever 
~been exhibited in this town, confiding of 

Pantomime, Singing, Hornpipe Danc- 
ing, Tumbling, SPEAKjNG, &c. &c 

And in particular an Indian WAR and SCALP Dance, 
by Mr. Durang and Mr. F. .Ricketts. 

Doors to be opened at fix and the performance to begin at 7 o'clock. 
Tickets to be had at Mr, Lenegan's and at Hamilton's Pfinting-Office. 

^^onjjfldjJ^'TL'EMEN who wifh to engage feats may have 
calling us:3£!rM'!& RoVson at the Theatre. 


Printed by William Hamilton, King-ftreet, Lancaster. 


various places, among which was a splendid gathering at the 
Green Tree Tavern at Philadelphia to hear speeches, drink 
toasts, and sing " Jefferson and Liberty," till they were hoarse. 
One stanza of this favorite party song ran as follows : 

Calumny and falsehood in vain raise their voice 

To blast our Republican's fair reputation ; 
But Jefferson still is America's fair choice, 

And he will, her liberties, guard from invasion. 
'Tis the wretches who wait, 
To unite church and state, 
That the names of McKean, Burr, and 
Jefferson hate. 
But ne'er will the sons of Columbia be slaves, 
While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves. 1 


In the fall of 1802, Governor McKean was re-elected ; his 
popularity gaining for him an immense majority, receiving no 
less than 47,879 votes, against 17,037 for his old competitor 
Ross. His majority was 80,000 in a total vote of 65, 000. 2 
Is not this majority alone a vindication of his three years 
administration ? Three-fourths of the people of the state are 
with him. The opposition is headed by a mere faction, which 
however makes a great noise. Politics ran exceedingly high 
at this election also. A banquet was given to the Governor 
at Hamburg Tavern, and also at Francis' Union Halh And a 
procession to celebrate the acquisition of Louisiana laid out the 
route of the march to pass the Governor's house on Third 
street, May 12, 1804. 3 

During this year (1804) occurred the Brackenridge episode. 
The legislature was acting on a matter of the impeachment of 
three of the four judges of the supreme court, for alleged 
arbitrary conduct in committing to prison for contempt of 
court, one of the parties in a suit then pending ; the contempt 
consisted in an abusive publication in the newspapers. The 
case was similar to that of Oswald already related in these 
pages. Judge Brackenridge the fourth judge happened to be 
absent, and was not embraced in the impeachment ; he how- 
ever sent a letter to the assembly, that he concurred in the 

1 McMaster's U. S., ii., 512. 

2 Legislative Handbook of Pa., Cochran, 1889, p. 398; Hildrith's U. S., v., 
466; Adams' Works, x., 121 ; Scharf and Westcott, i., 513. 
3 Scharf and Westcott, i., 513-19. 


course taken by the other judges. 1 For this, the legislature 
sent an address to the Governor requesting his removal ; but 
the request was utterly refused. The committee attempted to 
remonstrate with him, stating that the expression " may re- 
move" in the address was equivalent to "must remove." 
Governor McKean heard them patiently ; and bowing, replied, 
" I will have you know, gentlemen, that May sometimes 
means Won't. 7, 

This was not the only instance in which the legislature at- 
tempted to interfere with the governor's prerogative, or to 
instruct him in his duties, neither of which would he allow ; 
and on another occasion, a committee of the legislature fared 
no better than the previous had done. 

The governor having vetoed what was deemed an important 
bill passed by the legislature, a committee of three of that body 
was appointed to wait upon his excellency to remonstrate with 
him, and to urge the reconsideration of his veto. He received 
them with his accustomed dignified politeness, and after they 
had explained their mission, apparently without noticing their 
communication, he deliberately took out his watch, and handing 
it to the chairman, said, " Pray, sir, look at my watch ; she has 
been out of order for some time ; will you please put her to 
rights?" "Sir," replied the chairman, with some surprise, 
"I am no watchmaker; I am a carpenter." The watch was 
then handed to the other members of the committee, both of 
whom declined, one being a currier, and the other a bricklayer. 
"Well," said the governor, "this is truly strange! Any 
watchmaker's apprentice can repair that watch ; it is a simple 
piece of mechanism, and yet you can't do it ! The law, gentle- 
men, is a science of great difficulty and endless complication ; 
it requires a life-time to understand it. I have bestowed a 
quarter of a century upon it; yet you, who can't mend this 
little watch, become lawyers all at once, and presume to in- 
struct me in my duty." Of course the committee vanished. 3 

In 1804 an act was passed to substitute referees for a jury, 
thinking that if trials by jury could be gotten rid of, lawyers 
might be dispensed with. Governor McKean vetoed this bill, 
and thereupon sprang up between him and the Assembly a 
violent quarrel, which presently reached a great height. Mc- 

iHildrith's U. S., v., 514. 

2 David Paul Brown, The Forum, where the year is given wrongly 1806; 
Scharf and Westcott, i., 517. 
8 The Forum, i., 344. 


Kean was assailed by his old ally Duane, whose chief sup- 
porter was Michael Leib. 1 

A historical writer of a series of biographical articles in the 
Village Record, of West Chester, Pennsylvania (Sept. 8, 
I860;, with but little apparent partiality to Governor McKean, 
gives a sketch of his life, laying particular stress on the con- 
troversy with General Thompson, the address of December 6th, 
etc., and concludes as follows: "It is curious to remark that 
before the second term ... he quarreled with his old friends, 
and threw himself into the arms of the politicians so graphi- 
cally mentioned in the response above quoted, by whom he 
was triumphantly sustained for a third term." 


The early growth of the Republican or Democratic party, 
has already been noted in these pages. Let us recapitulate. 
In 1796, McKean, then chief justice, headed the presidential 
ticket as an elector-at-large. In Pennsylvania the party was 
successful ; but Jefferson was not elected president. Three 
years after, McKean was elected governor by a large majority. 
His popularity vastly increased during his term of office ; and 
this, added to his great personal and political influence, con- 
tributed in no small degree to the election of Mr. Jefferson to 
the presidency the succeeding year. 2 And during the whole 
of that gentleman's administration, the weight of Governor 
McKean's opinions and conduct was directed to upholding the 
principles which marked the policy of the general government. 3 

Then followed Governor McKean's immense majority at his 
re-election, which brought him forward as one of the most 
prominent men in his party. Being a strong candidate, he 
was, therefore, in the fall of 1803, urgently solicited to become 
a candidate for the Vice- Presidency with Mr. Jefferson at his 
second nomination. Alexander J. Dallas* thus addresses him 
on this subject, under date of October 14th, 1803: 

iHildrith's U. S., v., 514. 

a Nevin, Continental Sketches of Distinguished Pennsylvanians ; Sanderson's 
Lives; Goodrich's Lives, etc. 

3 Sanderson's Lives. 

* Without an especial mention of this gentleman, the warm personal and 
political friend of Governor McKean, this biography would be incomplete. 
Alexander James Dallas was born in the island of Jamaica in 1759, of a 
Scottish family. He removed to Philadelphia, was admitted to the bar, and 
took a high stand in his profession ; published the laws of Pennsylvania, 


" I have been requested by several of our friends, to bear with 
me (to Washington,) your sentiments as to the office of vice- 
president. Your name has been most honorably mentioned on the 
occasion. Pray write me, in perfect confidence, and address your 
letter to the care of Mr. Gallatin, at Washington. Accustomed 
as I have been for many years, to wish every thing that can pro- 
mote your happiness or reputation, it would give me pain to find, 
that in this instance, your disposition should lead you to the fed- 
eral scene : as I do not believe there exists another man in Penn- 
sylvania, to whom, at this period, the real interests of the state 
can be safely confided. But your choice will entirely govern my 
opinions and expressions." 1 

Governor McKean declined this honor both on public and 
private considerations. Had he accepted, he would assuredly 
have been elected, as George Clinton of New York was then 
nominated, and chosen with Mr. Jefferson at his second elec- 
tion in 1804. 

About this time it was reported that Governor McKean 
" has been appointed minister plenipotentiary to the court of 
Madrid, to adjust existing difficulties relative to the possessions 
of Louisiana." Whether he was offered the position, Or 
whether it was a mere rumor, cannot now be ascertained. 2 


In the fall of 1805, as the time for election approached, 
Duane, Leib, and other political enemies of McKean organized 
in secret ; 3 and founded societies throughout the state to pre- 
vent his nomination. They issued an address to the public, 
setting forth McKean's "austerity, and aristocratic habits," 
his "years of professional contention and dominion in courts ;" 
his "ungracious distribution of offices among relatives," and 

and was subsequently reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
He was Secretary of State of Pennsylvania for several terms, both before 
and during Governor McKean's administration. He was also U. S. District 
Attorney, and in 1814 was appointed Secretary of the Treasury. He proved 
to be an able and energetic officer during trying financial times following 
the war of 1812. Besides being a law writer, he was also an author of 
various works. He died in 1817, leaving two sons who became prominent, 
Commodore A. J. Dallas, U. S. Navy ; and the Hon. George M. Dallas, Vice- 
President of the United States 1845-9 ; and a daughter, who was the wife 
of Judge William Wilkins, Senator and Secretary of War. — Appleton. 

1 Sanderson's Lives. 

2 Balt. Gazette and Daily Adv., Nov. 3, 1803. 

5 Mark the contrast : we read above that McKean's acts are done openly. 


his present intimacy " with those who had been his former 
libelers." The federalists, knowing it to be impossible to 
elect one of their own party, and hoping to break McKean's 
majority, nominated a democrat; but McKean's popularity 
was too great for defeat, and he was successfully elected Over 
Simon Snyder, by a large majority — nearly 5000 votes. 1 The 
senate and house were strongly for McKean. 

The Governor thus vindicated, began separate lawsuits against 
John Steele, William Dickson, Matthew Lawler, Thomas Leiper, 
Dr. Leib, Jacob Mitchell, and William Duane, publisher of the 
Aurora, for various publications and utterances. 2 

In July, 1806, the Governor appointed Dr. George Bu- 
chanan, of Baltimore, his son-in-law, lazaretto physician. Dr. 
Buchanan had for seventeen years been a citizen and resident 
of Baltimore, not arriving in Pennsylvania until just before the 
appointment was made. This appointment created some stir ; 
and the Aurora, under the title of "The Royal Family" gave 
the following list of persons connected by blood or marriage 
with the family of the Governor, who held office in the State : 

Thomas McKean, Governor. 

Joseph B. McKean, son, Attorney-General. 

Thomas McKean, Jr., son, Private Secretary. 

Thomas McKean Thompson, nephew, Secretary of Common- 

Andrew Pettit, son-in-law, Flour Inspector. 

Andrew Bayard, brother-in-law to Pettit, Auctioneer. 

Dr. George Buchanan, son-in-law, Lazaretto Physician. 

William McKennan, brother in-law of T. McKean Thompson, 
Prothonotary of Washington county. 

Andrew Henderson, cousin to the Governor, Prothonotary 
of Huntingdon county. 

William Henderson, cousin to the Governor, Brigade In- 
spector of Huntingdon county. 

John Huested, father-in-law of T. McKean Thompson, clerk 
in the Comptroller General's office. 

Joseph Reed, a near relative to Pettit and Bayard, Pro- 
thonotary of the Supreme Court. 

[The term "connected by blood or marriage," is consider- 
ably stretched to make up the above list. Besides the Gover- 
nor, only three are near relations and two connections.] 

1 Leff. Handbook of Pa., Cochran, 1889, p. 398; Scharf and Westcott, i., 
519. See also Randall's Thomas Jefferson, iii., 135; Hildrith's United States. 
v. 556. 

2 Scharf and Westcott, i., 520. 


Even before the list was published, the Aurora was being 
sued by the Governor on three libel cases, and by the Marquis 
de Casa Yrujo, another son-in-law, on three more charges. 
Before the close of July, Duane was the defendant in sixty or 
seventy libel suits ; and kept the staid old city in a turmoil, 
wondering what he would publish next. 1 

Governor McKean continued to make many removals from 
office, and his appointment of William Tilghman, a federalist, 
as already related on a previous page, gave offense to many of 
his own party. In April he added to the quarrel by attending 
a dinner of the St. George's Society, where the health of the 
king was drunk. About this time (November), the grand 
jury of the mayor's court indicted Duane for publishing a toast 
given at a celebration, ' k General Arnold and Governor Mc- 
Kean, both beans of one kidney." 

In the beginning of 1807, politics continued to agitate the 
state with undiminished activity. The virulence of the oppo- 
sition to General McKean took every conceivable shape. Rep- 
resentatives Leib and Engle desired a committee to investigate 
his conduct, but the motion was lost. On the 19th of March, 
Governor McKean, through Joseph B. McKean, Attorney- 
General, tried to have Michael Leib and William Duane ar- 
rested for conspiracy, but the Supreme Court refused the 
warrant. In May, Thomas McKean, Jr., who the previous 
autumn had challenged Dr. Leib, was arrested, and in October 
the grand jury found indictments against both McKean and his 
second, Major Dennis. 2 

Dr. Michael Leib, mentioned above, had been a member of 
Congress, but resigned his seat there, especially to put himself 
at the head of his party in the Pennsylvania Assembly, and 
oppose Governor McKean. 3 

It is probable that no public man in this country, excepting 
Washington, so deeply involved in public affairs as Governor 
McKean, has ever kept himself free from some portion of 
political intemperance, some manifestation of party passion and 
prejudice. On the other hand, personal feelings of hope or 
disappointment, doubtless created for Governor McKean many 
enemies. Yet during the whole constitutional period of nine 
years, the majority of the people were with him ; and at 
the present day, when the party asperities and bickerings of 

Ubid., i., 526. 

2 Ibid., i., 527-9. 

s Hildrith's United States, v., 666. 


the times are in some measure forgotten, it cannot be denied 
that his administration was marked by uncommon ability, and 
with great benefit to the State. 1 Nevertheless, party asperi- 
ties rose to such a height, that early in this year 1807, the 
federalists, led on by a few radicals, made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to impeach Governor McKean. The charges were how- 
ever chiefly allegations of political offenses ; 2 and their frivolity 
and weakness may be seen by a perusal of them in the report 
of the committee to whom the matter was referred. 

The proceedings commenced on the 30th of January, 1807, 
by Dr. Michael Leib, offering a resolution that a committee be 
appointed to inquire whether the official conduct of the Gov- 
ernor be such as to require the interposition of the House. 
This resolution, slightly modified, was adopted March 3d. In 
furtherance of this scheme, various petitions from citizens po- 
litically opposed to Governor McKean, were about this time 
presented to the house, and on the 2d of March the matter was 
referred to a committee consisting of Dr. Leib, Messrs. Lowry, 
Kerr, Lacock and Shewell. Mr. Huston was subsequently ap- 
pointed in place of Mr. Lowry, who had received leave of 
absence. On Monday, the 30th of March, the committee sub- 
mitted a report, containing the following charges, with specifi- 
cations to each: 

" I. That the governor did premeditatedly, wantonly, unjustly, 
and contrary to the true intent, and meaning of the constitution, 
render void the late election, (in 1806,) of a sheriff in the county 
of Philadelphia. 

" II. That he usurped a judicial authority, in issuing a warrant 
for the arrest and imprisonment of Joseph Cabrera ; and inter- 
fered in favor of a convict for forgery, in defiance of the law, and 
contrary to the wholesome regulations of the prison in Philadel- 
phia, and the safety of the citizens. 

" III. That, contrary to the true intent and meaning of the 
constitution, and in violation of it, did he appoint Dr. George 
Buchanan, lazaretto physician of the port of Philadelphia. 

" IV. That, under a precedent, acknowledged to have been 
derived from the king of Great Britain, and contrary to the ex- 
press letter of the constitution, did he suffer his name to be 
stamped upon blank patents, warrants on the treasury, and other 
public official papers, and that too out of his presence. 

"V. That, contrary to law, did he supersede Dr. James Reyn- 
olds, as a member of the board of health." 

1 Sanderson's Lives. Written about 1820. 

2 Armor's Lives Govs. Penn. 


" VI. That, contrary to the obligation of duty, and the in- 
junctions of the constitution, did he offer and authorize overtures 
to be made to discontinue two actions of the commonwealth 
against William Duane and his surety, for an alleged forfeiture of 
two recognizances of one thousand dollars each, on condition that 
"William Duane would discontinue civil action against his son, 
Joseph B. McKean, and others, for a murderous assault committed 
by Joseph B. McKean and others on William Duane." 

Accompanying the report was a resolution that Governor 
McKean be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors. 
The report is partly quoted in Sanderson's Lives, in order to 
show its strong partisan character. It states that "the rights 
of the people of the city and county of Philadelphia have been 
grossly trifled with" by the Governor in rendering void the 
election for sheriff; that Dr. George Buchanan was appointed 
lazaretto physician while he was a resident of Baltimore ; but 
for want of space we must forego further quotations. 

On the report of the committee, the second reading was 
postponed until Thursday ; nothing however appears in the 
journal on that day, but on Tuesday April 7, the motion for a 
second reading was debated, as also on the 8th and 9th, but 
could not be carried, and on the latter day the subject was 
postponed for the early consideration of the next house. 1 

In the fall of the year, says Scharf and Westcott, " the 
stubborn and aristocratic old Governor McKean, as soon as the 
legislature assembled, was greatly assailed by his enemies." 2 
The impeachment resolution of the last house came up as 
unfinished business, December 7, six days after the legislature 
met. The next day Mr. John Sergeant seconded by Mr. 
Biddle (both members from Philadelphia,) moved to postpone 
the further consideration thereof until the second Monday in 
January, 1808 ; lost by a vote of 42 to 42. Mr. Lacock, 
seconded by Mr. Jennings, then moved to refer the matter to 
a select committee, which was lost by the same vote. On 
Friday, January 15th, 1808, Mr. Shewell seconded by Mr. 
Hulme, moved to consider the matter, but the motion was lost 
by a vote of 43 to 43. On Wednesday the 27th of January, 
Mr. Shewell seconded by Mr. Tarr, renewed his motion to con- 
sider the resoultion, which then prevailed by a vote of 44 to 
41. It should be observed that these motions proceeded from 
the party friendly to Governor McKean, who were anxious to 
determine the validity of the charges. 

1 Journals of the 17 th II . R. of Penn., Lancaster, 1806. 
2 i., 532-3. 


The resolution was now fairly before the house, and on 
motion of Mr. Porter, seconded by Mr. Shewell, the further 
consideration of the subject was indefinitely postponed by a 
vote of 44 to 41 ; which finally disposed of the whole matter. 1 

It may be added that every member from the city of Phila- 
delphia, whose rights were said to be particularly infringed, 
voted for the governor, namely : Messrs. Sergeant, Clawges, Sr., 
Hare and Cope (subsequently elected in place of Samuel Car- 
ver, deceased before taking his seat). 

On the next day, the 28th, the Secretary of the Common- 
wealth, Thomas McKean Thompson, appeared before the 
house, and presented a replication from the Governor, dated 
Lancaster, January 28, 1808, in relation to the charges against 
him. Mr. Sergeant, seconded by Mr. Ingham, moved that 
the message be inserted at large upon the journal ; whereupon 
a spirited debate arose, but the motion finally prevailed by a 
vote of 43 to 42. Mr. Leib then moved that the report of the 
committee, with all the accompanying papers, be also inserted 
in the Journal, which was agreed to by a vote of 78 to I.' 2 

The papers upon both sides, here entered upon the Journal, 
are very voluminous. The testimony before the committee 
is given in full : Thomas McKean Thompson, Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, testified that the order making void the elec- 
tion of sheriff was not signed by the Governor, but was 
stamped in his presence ; he was then unable to hold a pen in 
his hand ; that he had been confined to his bed for five weeks, 
that he was at times in great pain, and unable to sit up in bed 
or to use his hands ; but his mind was sound. That his name 
was stamped on public papers in his presence, but never out 
of it. 

Dr. George Buchanan testified that he was a resident of 
Maryland until he arrived in Pennsylvania ; and received his 

1 The following voted aye in favor of Governor McKean : George Acker. 
Paul Appel, William Barnet, Nathaniel Beach, Samuel Bethel, William S. 
Biddle, Valentine Brobst, John Clawges, Sr., Thomas P. Cope, Isaac Dar- 
lington, Jacob Eichelberger, Josiah Espy, George Evans, Robert Gemmill, 
James Gettys, Jacob Gisch (Gish), Charles W. Hare, John Hulme, Samuel 
D. Ingham (afterwards Secretary of Treasury under Pres. Jackson), Daniel 
Ioder (Joder), James Kelton, Bernard Kepner, Jacob Kimmell, John Lo- 
bingier, Benj. Martin, Robert Maxwell, John McClellan, James McComb, 
James McSherry, Charles Miner, William Pennock, Charles Porter, William 
Ramsey, Abraham Rinker, Daniel Rose, George Savitz, John Sergeant, Jacob 
Shaeffer, Conrad Sherman, Nathaniel Shewell, Charles Smith (Lancaster 
Co.), William Trimble, William Worthington, John Wright — 44. 

^Journals 18th IT. R. Penn., Lancaster, 1807. See also Sanderson's Lives. 


commission as Lazaretto Physician the day after he arrived ; 
that he was a candidate for Congress from Maryland in 180d-4. 
The Governor's physicians testified that they were first 
called to attend the Governor January 20th, that he had some 
fever, and a gouty affection, but no delirium. 1 

The Replication of the Governor commences as follows : 

" A long and dangerous illness, the sympathy of friends, and 
the advice of physicians, deprived me of an opportunity to peruse 
the journal, or to have the least knowledge of the proceedings in 
relation to an impeachment of my official conduct, for more than 
a month after the termination of the last session of the General 
Assembly. And since that period, a preper respect for the exer- 
cise of constitutional powers has restrained every disposition on 
my part, to answer the charges which have been exhibited against 
me, while those charges continued a subject of deliberation. But 
the delicacy which has recognized your constitutional jurisdiction, 
must not be allowed to absorb every consideration that is due to 
my own fame, to the feelings of my family, and to the opinion of 
the world. 

"The accusation, though not confirmed by the ultimate vote of 
the house, has been deliberately framed, has been openly discussed, 
and will pass among the legislative records, into the hands of our 
constituents, and our posterity, with all its concomitant semblance 
of proof, and asperity of animadversion. The decision that ex- 
presses your renunciation of the impeachment, affects me indeed, 
with its justice and its independence ; but it is a decision which 
precludes the employment of the regular means of defence before 
a proper tribunal ; and therefore compels me, for the purpose of 
vindication, to claim a page in the same volume, that serves to 
perpetuate against me, the imputation of official crimes and mis- 

" It is incompatible, gentlemen, with my view of the solemnity 
of the occasion, to descend to the language of invective or com- 
plaint. By exposing the depravity of other men, I should do 
little to demonstrate my own innocence; and an expression of sen- 
sibility at any personal indignity that has been inflicted, might be 
construed into an encroachment upon the freedom of legislative 
debate. But the tenor of my public and private life, will I hope 
be sufficient to repel every vague and declamatory aspersion. 
The discernment of our constituents will readily detect any latent 
motive of hatred and malice. The justice of the Legislature up- 
holds an ample shield against the spirit of persecution ; and the 
conscious rectitude of my own mind will yield a lasting consola- 
tion, amidst all the vicissitudes of popular favor and applause.* * 

1 Jowtials, etc. 


'* That I may have erred in judgment, that I may have been 
mistaken in my general views of public policy, and that I may 
have been deceived by the objects of executive confidence, or 
benevolence, I am not so vain nor so credulous as to deny; though 
in the present instance, I am still without the proof and without 
the belief: but the firm and fearless position which I take, in- 
vites the strictest scrutiny, upon a fair exposition of our constitu- 
tion and laws, into the sincerity and truth of the general answer 
given to my accusers, that no act of my public life was ever done 
from a corrupt motive ; nor without a deliberate opinion that the act 
was lawful and proper in itself." 1 

Governor McKean then proceeds in a circumstantial and 
irrefutable manner, separately to repel the charges of the 
committee ; and triumphantly to vindicate his character in 
every particular, from the aspersions with which it had been 

His refutation of the charges is briefly as follows : 

I. The election for sheriff was made void under the act of 
the Assembly of February 15, 1790, "That the Governor 
shall be a competent judge of the election of every person who 
shall be returned to serve as sheriff or coroner ; and for that 
purpose may send for papers, persons or records." The in- 
vestigation was intrusted to a committee of seven persons, of 
whom Joseph Reed was chairman. The committee examined 
witnesses and reported a list of " 96 bad votes " cast, which 
they threw out for various reasons ; — illegal voting, not of age, 
not naturalized, voted in the wrong precinct, etc. If this 
number should be deducted from Wolbert who had 3905 votes, 
then Lawler who had 3846 would have been elected. It could 
not be ascertained for whom the votes were cast. Hence the 
doubt who was elected, and the Governor issued a proclama- 
tion to this effect, declaring the election void, and that the 
present sheriff holds over until the next election. 

Wolbert, accompained by General Barker, called upon the 
Governor to obtain his commission. The Governor refused to 
see them ; and states in his replication, as follows : " It has 
also been developed upon the oath of General Barker, that an 
attempt was then to be made to obtain a commission for Mr. 
Wolbert, by offers of favor, or menaces of vengeance ; by 
giving the Governor the option of 'the sword or the olive 
branch;' and by a denunciation, (which General Barker 
swears came from the tongue of Dr. Michael Leib the chair- 

1 As quoted in Sanderson's Lives. 


man of the committee of impeachment, and similar menaces 
of assassination were contained in anonymous letters received 
through the post-office,) ' that if the old scoundrel, or old 
rascal, did not acceed to the proposal, he would pursue him to 
the grave.' " 

II. Joseph Cabrera was imprisoned upon the request of the 
Spanish Minister. The minister has a right to imprison a 
member of the legation in his own domicile, and has power to 
send him home for trial. He also has an unquestionable claim 
upon the government to guard his prisoner ; this is then re- 
garded not as judicial, but an executive recognizance. More- 
over, at the trial, Cabrera waived his diplomatic privileges. 
As to the second part of the charge, after his conviction, the 
Governor says a power to grant pardon and reprieve of the 
whole sentence, naturally includes the power to pardon any 
part of it ; and this was done also at the request of the min- 

III. Dr. Buchanan's appointment. Under the constitution 
certain offices must be filled by residents of the county in 
which the office is located ; but this does not apply to the 
office of Secretary of the Commonwealth, Secretary, Receiver 
General, etc., because then all the counties in the state would 
not have equal rights. The Lazaretto Physician is not a 
county officer, but an officer of the port of Philadelphia, his 
office being a department of the board of health, and since the 
office was created, there is no instance of a resident of the 
county in which it is located, having filled it. Dr. Buchanan 
is not an alien, but a citizen of the United States. 

IV. The law requires the Governor to sign, but does not 
specify the kind of signature. A cross is a valid signature, 
and in case of the loss of both hands it is hard to imagine how 
a person could sign, if restructed to writing his name. He 
also adds, " Although the Governor did not always affix the 
signature to official papers with his own hand, it was never 
affixed without his express order." 

V. Dr. Reynolds was removed for intemperance and 
violence ; he struck a member of the board of health, which 
act was complained of to the Governor, who counselled a delay ; 
but on the offense being repeated, the other members of the 
board resigned, whereupon the Governor at once removed Dr. 
Reynolds. The act of the legislature, directs that members of 
the board of health should hold office for one year ; but this 
was not meant to enlarge the tenure but to limit it, for the 


legislature provided for cases of death, sickness, removal, etc., 
which implies power of the Governor to remove. 

VI. This charge is based upon overtures made by Messrs. 
Ingersoll, Dallas, Muhlenberg, and Dickerson, but they have 
expressly declared in writing, that they were unauthorized by 
the Governor to make overtures. The Governor states the 
facts of the quarrel briefly as follows : The troops of light 
horse was engaged in suppressing a disturbance in Berks 
and Northampton counties ; and the Aurora charged that they 
" lived at free quarters." The officers called for a retraction, 
an altercation ensued, and they chastised the editor. 1 

Thus did Governor McKean refute the charges made against 
him. He had however to contend, not only against the osten- 
sible charges, but also against the vindictiveness and malignancy 
of the radical members of the committee. The charge that the 
Governor imprisoned Cabrera, and then allowed him privileges 
after conviction ;— that is, complaining of what the Governor 
did against him, as well as what he did in his favor, savors 
more of opposition to the Governor than solicitude for Cabrera's 
welfare. The animus of the mover of these proceedings, Dr. 
Leib, is shown in the testimony of John Barker before the 
committee, Dr. Leib being present: 

" The Dr. [Leib] then arrested my attention by calling me 
general, and told me to remember, general, we offer him the 
sword or the olive branch, let him take his choice. I did not 
consider this to be secrets. I looked upon myself as a kind of 
ambassador. After the Dr. gave me this last instruction, he ex- 
claimed with some warmth, That if the old scoundrel or old rascal 
did not accede to these proposals, he would pursue him to the 
grave." 2 

To the Sixth Charge, it is related in Hildrith's History, that 
Governor McKean retorted by having Leib, Duane, and others 
indicted for conspiracy to corrupt and overawe him. 3 

Governor McKean's replication comprehends a very learned 
and masterly disquisition ; defining in a most lucid manner 
the powers and duties of the several branches of the govern- 
ment, legislative, judicial and executive ; and expounding 
clearly impeachable offences. And upon repeated references 
to it, it has been found to bear the cautious scrutiny of unim- 
passioned judgment, and to furnish a clear, safe, and useful 

1 Journals 18th H. R. Penn. 

^Journals 18th H. R. Penn., 1801, p. 349. 

3 Hist. U. S.. vi., 61. 


guide in the elucidation of cases involving points similar to 
those which he professes to discuss. It is regarded with great 
favor by professional men, and is quoted as authority upon the 
questions of which it treats. 1 

Thus terminated a transaction, which through the baleful 
and exterminating spirit of party, threatened to overshadow 
the closing career of a patriot, whose life, during half a cen- 
tury, had been devoted to the public service. 2 


Governor McKean had now served as the executive of Penn- 
sylvania for nine years, through three terms of office ; his 
services must necessarily be brought to a close by constitu- 
tional limitation. The impeachment proceedings, the strongest 
card played by his enemies, having signally failed, further 
asperities were suspended ; and in the following fall, Simon 
Snyder was nominated against Ross, Governor McKean' s first 
competitor. Snyder was elected, and assumed the executive 
chair December 20, 1808. The same party was yet in power; 
and Leib and Duane, leaders of the same faction, still kept up 
their abuse. After the campaign closed, Duane of the Aurora 
was again pelted with lawsuits ; John Binns one of this faction 
published an article in which he said "under McKean the 
legislature was bullied and abused ; under Snyder it was cau- 
cussed and corrupted." 3 It is here gratifying to find in the 
writings of his enemies, that which redounds to his credit ; he 
may have " bullied" or " abused," but he never "corrupted" 
the legislature. This statement and the inference to be drawn 
from it comes opportunely, not long after Governor McKean's 
statement in his Replication ; that no act of his public life was 
ever done from a corrupt motive. 

At the end of his term of office, Governor McKean retired 
to private life, having been before the public continuously, and 
in many of the highest offices for forty-six years. He was at 
the time of his retirement nearly seventy -five years of age ; 
but his vigor was not diminished by his years. 

"For nine successive years," says a contemporary,* "he 

1 W. H. Egle, Hist. Penn., L, 235 ; and Sanderson's Lives. 

2 Sanderson's Lives. 

3 Scharf and Westcott, i., 533-45. See Duane's obituary on a subsequent 


'L. Carroll Judson, of the Philadelphia bar, Biog. of Signers, 1839. 


wielded the destines of the land of Pennsylvania, commencing at 
a period when the mountain waves of party spirit were rolling 
over the United States, with a fury before unknown. But amid 
the foaming and conflicting elements, Governor McKean stood at 
the helm of state, calm as a summer morning, firm as a mountain 
of granite, and guided his noble ship through the raging storm, 
unscathed and unharmed. His annual messages to the legisla- 
ture, for elegance and force of language, correct and liberal views 
of policy, and a luminous exposition of law and rules of govern- 
ment, stand unrivalled, and unsurpassed. The clamour of his 
political enemies, he passed by as the idle wind ; the suggestions 
of his friends, he scanned with the most rigid scrutiny. Neither 
flattery nor censure could drive him from the strong citadel of his 
own matured judgment. The good of his country, and the glory 
of the American character, formed the grand basis of his actions. 
"His administration was prosperous and enlightened, and when 
he closed his political duties, the bitterness of his political op- 
ponents was lost in the admiration of his patriotism, virtue, im- 
partiality, consistency, and candor." 

Says another writer: 

Perhaps no man attracted so much homage from the crowd as 
Governor McKean, not only as Delegate in Congress, and Chief 
Justice, but especially in his old age. He was one of that old 
stock of Pennsylvanians, of abnormal size and strength in both 
mind and body. He was tall and stately — over six feet in height ; 
and even in later years, notwithstanding his great age, an erect 
person. He usually wore a cocked hat, carried a gold-headed 
cane ; and walked, even to the close of his life, though with a 
somewhat tottered step, with great apparent dignity and pride. 
As is known, he was one of the Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, and if we may use the phrase, which we do in all 
respect and kindness, he was an actual impersonification — a prac- 
tical living, walking emblem, and memento, of that Declaration. 
Apparently the two proudest men the city ever beheld — and sure 
they had much to be proud of — were our present venerable sub- 
ject, and his son-in-law, the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, the am- 
bassador from Spain. 1 

MEETING, 1814. 

During the last war with England, Philadelphia was startled 
by the news that a British army was on our shores. The city 
was wholly unprepared for any defence ; and a number of the 

1 David Paul Brown, The Forum, i., 346. See also Harp. Mag., lii., 8*71. 


most influential citizens met and at once issued a call for a 
town-meeting on the morning of August 26th. Washington 
had been captured the day before, but the fact was not known 
at that time. The meeting convened in the State House 
square. Ex-Governor McKean had been particularly desired 
to attend, and on his appearing once more among his country- 
men on a public occasion, he was greeted with profound respect 
and attention ; and was unanimously called to take the chair. 

He was at this time eighty years of age. Joseph Reed, 
another patriot of the revolution, was made secretary. Never 
since the revolutionary period, had a public meeting been 
held in Philadelphia on so momentous a business ; and never 
since the same period, had an occasion existed, which de- 
manded more promptness and decision of action. No noisy 
demagogues attempted to control its operations, or to create 
excitement by inflammatory harangues. The venerable chair- 
man alone addressed it, and in a few brief sentences, delivered 
with the dignity and emphasis of former days, touched the 
spirit that needed only to be awakened. His speech made a 
deep impression, and was recognized as coming from a patriot 
and a sage. The meeting, without waste of time, and Avithout 
useless discussion, took the measures which the crisis de- 
manded ; and the city was in a short time placed in a con- 
dition to repel the attack of any force which the enemy could 
then bring against it. 1 

The " Committee of Defense, 1814," appointed by this 
meeting, consisted of the officers of the meeting, prominent 
movers, and a number of other citizens. 2 


Governor McKean received the honorary degree of A. M. 
from the University of Pennsylvania, in 1763 ; and LL. D. 
from the College of New Jersey, in 1781, September 26 ; and 
from Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, in 1782 ; and from 
the University of Pennsylvania, in 1785. He was a Trustee 
ot the University of Pennsylvania, in 1779, under the Uni- 
versity Charter; and in 1791, November 18th, at the Union. 3 

1 Sanderson's Lives / see also National Portraits, vol. for 1839 ; and Scharf 
and Westcott, i., 571. 

2 The names may be found in Scharf and Westcott, Hist., iii., 1*769 ; and 
in John Hill Martin's Bench and Bar of Phila. The Minutes of the Committee 
of Defence were published in the Memoirs of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, 1867, vol. 8. 

3 College Catalogues, Univ. Penn. Catalogue, 1880. 


Governor McKean was elected a member of the Philadelphia 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, May 2d, 1785. 1 It 
■was instituted February 11, 1785. 

October 31, 1785, he received his diploma of the Society of 
the Cincinnati, instituted by officers of the American Army, 
at the close of the Revolution. 2 He subsequently became 
Vice-President of the Pennsylvania State Society. The au- 
thor has been unsuccessful in finding any lists of the Penn- 
sylvania Society, containing Governor McKean's name. In 
the Department of State at Washington however, is a letter 
of Thomas McKean and others, dated Philadelphia, March 
6, 1787, addressed to General Washington, in reply to his 
circular letter of October 31st, declining to be re-elected to 
the presidency ; this letter concludes by expressing regret at 
General Washington's determination ; and states that his 
request will be laid before the meeting of the state society, 
called for the 26th instant, and will be intimated to the dele- 
gates to the general triennial meeting ; it is signed by a com- 
mittee of the Society, Thomas McKean, W. Jackson, and F. 

In 1770 or earlier, Thomas McKean, of Newcastle, was 
elected a member of the American Philosophical Society. In 
1786 or earlier, while Chief Justice, he became one of the 
twelve Councillors ; and in 1799 as Governor he became ex- 
officio the Patron of the Society. 3 

In 1790, while Chief Justice, he was one of the founders of 
the Hibernian Society for the relief of emigrants from Ireland, 
and the first president. 

In 1801, McKean county was separated from Lycoming 
county, Pennsylvania, and named in honor of Thomas McKean, 
at that time Governor. 4 

McKean street, in Philadelphia, is also named after him. 

In 1786, was published " The Lyric Works of Horace'''' by 
John Parke, with an appendix containing poems by John Wil- 
cocks, and dedicated to General Washington. The several 
poems being addressed to the prominent men of the day ; Ode 
V, Book III, as also the Secular Poem, Carmen Seculare, 
are both addressed to Thomas McKean then Chief Justice, 
Vice President of the Cincinnati, and late President of Con- 

1 Sanderson's Lives. 
2 Sanderson, The Forum, etc. 
3 Transactions. 

*Egle's Hist Penn.; Day's Ilistor. Collect. 


gress. An Elegy on the death of Colonel John Haselet of 
Delaware is addressed to Cassar Rodney and Thomas McKean, 
members of Congress. 


At length, loaded with honors, this venerable patriot arrived 
at the ultima linea rerum, and departed to "the generation 
of his fathers " on the 24th of June, 1817, aged eighty-three 
years, two months and twenty-five days. 1 

In the United /States Crazette of the following day, ap- 
peared the notice : 

" Another Patriot of '76 descended to the Tomb. 

Died yesterday, the 24th inst., Thomas McKean, Esq., formerly 
Governor of Pennsylvania. 

" The gentlemen of the bar are requested to attend the funeral 
of the late Thomas McKean, Esq., formerly governor of Penn- 
sylvania, from his late mansion, south Third street to-morrow 
morning at 9 o'clock. 

" The Members of the Socfety of the Cincinnati are requested 
to attend the funeral of the late Thomas McKean, Esq., formerly 
governor of Pennsylvania, from his late mansion, south Third 
street to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock. 

" The Members of the Hibernian Society are requested to at- 
tend the funeral of the late Thomas McKean, Esq., formerly gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, from his late mansion, south Third street 
to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock. 

" The Members of the Philosophical Society are requested to 
attend the funeral of the late Thomas McKean, Esq., formerly 
governor of Pennsylvania, from his late mansion, south Third 
street to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock. 

" The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania are re- 
quested to attend the funeral of the late Thomas McKean, Esq., 
formerly governor of Pennsylvania, from his late mansion, south 
Third street to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock." 

In this paper of Thursday the 26th, appeared a set of Reso- 
lutions of respect, passed by the Philadelphia Bar. 

In Poulsen^s American Daily Advertiser of the 25th ap- 
peared a short notice of his death " between the hours of two 

x Not 16 days, as given in Sanderson's Lives. Every succeeding biogra- 
pher has copied this mistake. Not one has thought of verifying it. The 
difference between the dates of birth and death gives 83 years, 3 months, 5 
days ; but his birth being given in old style, eleven days must be deducted, 
and (adding 31 days for May, the previous month to that of his death, to 
make the subtraction possible,) we have his age as given above. 


and three o'clock;" followed the next day, by a long obituary 
and notice of his death similar to that given above. 

On the 27th appeared a long editorial notice commencing as 
follows : 

" Governor McKean. The late Thomas McKean, for- 
merly Chief Justice and afterwards Governor of Pennsylvania ; 
of whose political conduct, however varied may be the judgment 
of the different Parties which divide the State, there can be but 
one opinion as to his regard for the public weal, in his successive 
nominations of eminent characters of different political senti- 
ments, to succeed him in the judicial chair; an instance of patri- 
otic impartiality so rare in public life that it must be allowed on 
all hands to reflect peculiar honor on his memory. * * * * " 

In the General Advertise}' of June 25th, The Aurora, and 
still published by Governor McKean's old political opponent, 
William Duane, pays the following noble tribute to his memory: 

" Died — yesterday at three o'clock, Thomas McKean, LL.D. 
one of the earliest and most firm friends of American independ- 
ence ; some time a representative in the Continental Congress, of 
which he was also president ; many years Chief Justice of this 
commonwealth ; and closed 1 his long and eventful career by serv- 
ing as Governor for nine years in this commonwealth. Mr. Mc- 
Kean was a native of this state, of an old Irish stock, and de- 
rived from his progenitors a considerable share of energy and 
decision of character ; in the most trying times, of the revolution, 
he was among those who never wavered, and who spurned the 
royal favor offered to him, preferring to such honors, and venal 
rewards, the prouder honors of devotion to his country and lib- 
erty. It is to his name due, that it should be remembered, that 
although of an energy not to be resisted in a public station, that 
by his kindness of heart many who had mistaken the path of true 
honor in forsaking their country to serve a tyrant were by his pri- 
vate generosity rescued from public vengeance, and the inexorable 
law. As a judge it must be acknowledged that he gave the laws 
dignity by enforcing them ; his rigor obtained for him many ene- 
mies ; but time, which has drawn the thorn of individual resent- 
ment, will do justice to the austerity which was directed as much 
as human passions can admit, to equal and exact justice. In the 
station of governor he incurred the same censure; and it must be 
confessed deservedly: but the experience of the administration 
which succeeded his has interposed a relief, which by comparison 
reduces the exceptionable parts of Mr. McKean's administration 
to the small sins of passion or pride. He was much better adapted 
to the bench of justice, than the executive chair. In the former 

1 So given ungrammatically. 


he displayed the severity of Cethegus, and the probity of Cato ; 
his principles were strictly republican, but he held that education 
should be the first care of a free people, because there is no dan- 
ger so much to be apprehended as ignorance. If he did not al- 
ways direct his energy against ignorance, in the proper time and 
manner, it was the effect, rather of constitutional warmth than 
any worse passion, as no man more sincerely deplored such aber- 
rations than himself. He was in short a man devoted to what- 
ever he conceived to be just — a most faithful citizen, and earnest 
friend of his country, and its liberty, and independence." 

In the Gentleman's Magazine, London 1817, appears a 
short notice of Governor McKean's death. 

His remains were interred in the burial ground of the First 
Presbyterian Church in Market street, Philadelphia ; the only 
record among the church archives being in the book of inter- 
ments kept by an illiterate sexton: " 1817, June 26, thomas 

Subsequently the remains were removed to the family vault 
of his grandson, Henry Pratt McKean, Esq., in Laurel Hill 
Cemetery, Philadelphia, over which, on a large plain altar 
tomb, 1 is the following inscription : 


this marble 


the remains 


one of the Signers 

of the 

Declaration of Independence, 

President of Congress in 1781, 

Chief Justice 



of the 

State of Pennsylvania, 

Born, March 19, 1734, 

died, June 24, 1817. 

And the DESCENDANTS of his 


Mentioned in The Official Guide Book o/Phila., Thompson Westcott, 1875. 



The reader who has perused this biography will, I doubt 
not, have already formed his own estimate of Thomas 
McKean's character. In the many extracts already given, 
from the writings of judges, lawyers and historians, — his con- 
temporaries and others, — his friends and opponents, there is 
no conflict of opinion upon this subject ; and the general im- 
pression left on the mind of the reader, will convey a far more 
accurate estimate of Thomas McKean's character, than any 
brief summation in a single paragraph. 

The great age attained by many of the Signers of the 
Declaration, and the exceedingly high average of their lives 
collectively, has been noted by historians j 1 four lived to be 
over 90, and eight others between 80 and 90. Of McKean, 
one of his biographers remarks that " For a man of so varied 
and such great labors, his length of life was remarkable, and 
illustrates the maxim, that sloth, like rust consumes faster 
than labor wears." 2 

At the close of Governor McKean's life there were living 
besides himself, five signers ; these last survivors of that im- 
mortal group of patriots were as follows : 3 

Thomas McKean, born 1734, died 1817, aged 83 years 3 mo. 
William Ellery, 1727 1820 92 2 

William Floyd, 1734 1821 86 8 

John Adams, 1735 1826 90 9 

Thomas Jefferson, 1743 1826 83 2 

Charles Carroll, 1737 1832 95 2 

During his latter years Thomas McKean kept up a cor- 
respondence with Jefferson, Adams, and other revolutionary 
patriots. On hearing of his death, Mr. Adams immediately 
addressed the following letter, dated Quincy, June 30, 1817, 
to the editor of Nile^ Register, as a tribute to his deceased 
friend : 

"Mr. Niles. The oldest statesman in North America is no 
more. Vixit. McKean, for whose services, and indeed for whose 
patronage the two states of Pennsylvania and Delaware once con- 
tended, is numbered with the fathers. I cannot express my feel- 
ings upon this event in any way, better, than by the publication 

1 Goodrich, preface. 

2 Armor. 

3 Lanman, Biog. Annals. 


of the enclosed letters. [Here follow the dates of eight letters, 
the latest being June 17, 1817.] I pray you to print these letters 
in your Register. John Adams." 

This letter and the enclosures, were accordingly published 
as requested on the 12th of July, (vol. xii, p. 305, et seq). 

Mr. Adams on the 30th of December following, in a letter 
to John M. Jackson, speaks in the following high terms of 
Governor McKean : 

" In 1774, 1 became acquainted with McKean, Rodney and 
Henry. [Patrick Henry.] Those three appeared to me to see 
more clearly to the end of the business than any others of the 
whole body. At least they were more candid and explicite with 
me than any others. Mr. Henry was in Congress in 1774, and a 
small part of 1775. He was called home by his state to take a 
military command. McKean and Rodney continued members, 
and, I believe I never voted in opposition to them in any one 
instance." l 

It will undoubtedly have been noticed in this biography, 
that Thomas McKean was an eminently successful man in life, 
and essentially a leader among men. Moreover he had the 
true training of a leader, — that of beginning in a lower station 
and ascending. So marked is this, that when the colonies 
were arming themselves in 1775, Mr. McKean, although fill- 
ing the exalted station of a delegate in congress, hesitated not 
to enroll himself in the army as a private. As a lawyer he 
soon took a leading stand in his profession ; as a member of 
the Assembly he rose to be Speaker ; in congress he became 
President; as a judge he rose from the lower courts to the 
highest judicial office, that of Chief Justice ; in the army from 
being a private, he became colonel, his province however lay 
not in military, but in civil life. As Governor, he filled the 
highest office in the state. In numerous committees, conven- 
tions and public meetings, he either directed their proceedings 
as chairman, or else was a leading spirit on the floor. In no 
case do we find him receding ; even during the stormy days 
while in the gubernatorial chair of Pennsylvania ; and in no 
case do we find him stationary in any line until he has reached 
the highest rank therein. 

I cannot better close this biography, than with the conclud- 
ing paragraph in Sanderson's Lives : 

Thomas McKean outlived all the enmities 2 which an active 

1 Works, x., 269. 

'After a perusal of everything that I can find, in print, regarding Thomas 


and conspicuous part in public affairs, had in the nature of 
things, created ; and posterity will continue to cherish his 
memory, as one among the most useful, able, and virtuous 
fathers of a mighty republic. 

Oonscia mens recti, famce mendacia ridet. 


Thomas McKean's will is a holograph will, made, as he 
himself says, when he has passed his eightieth year. It 
covers seven pages of large sized unruled paper, and is dated 
very appropriately August 13, 1814, " and of the independ- 
ence of the United States of America, the thirty-ninth." He 
firsts directs " that my funeral may be decent but not ex- 
pensive." To his wife, he leaves the choice of his house- 
hold furniture to the value of $1000; and $600 per annum, 
and also a house in Holmesburgh. Forty thousand dollars 
advanced to his children is remitted and released to them. 

To Joseph B. McKean, his mansion house in Philadelphia, 
the pictures in the hall of the house, gold-headed cane, " my 
steel-seal ring with my coat of Arms cut thereon," Family 
bible, Notes of cases, and all his manuscripts. 

To Mary McKean only child of his son Robert, deceased, a 
house in Holmesburgh. 

To Andrew Pettit for the four sons and four daughters of 
his deceased daughter Elizabeth, 11 tracts of land on Brush 
creek Beaver co., 2200 acres, and also some rent charges. 

To Lgetitia Buchanan, land on the Ohio river Beaver co. 
near Logstown, six tracts, 1580 acres ; also a plantation called 
Pottersfield in the new county of Centre, 407 acres worth $40 
per acre. 

To the four children of Anne Buchanan, (to Joseph B. 
McKean in trust,) tracts of land on the N. W. of the Ohio 
river, 1116 acres ; and a tract of 404 acres in Haines's town- 
ship, Luzerne co. and some rent charges. 

To his daughter Sarah Maria Theresa, Marchioness de Casa 
Yrujo, 8 tracts on the Sewickly creek, Allegheny co., 2266 
acres 52 perches. 

McKean, (and the references here given will show that this search has not 
been limited,) I am happy to testify that this statement is true. William 
Duane, his most violent opponent, pays him a generous tribute in his obit- 
uary ; and among recent writers, I have found but two who have written 
against him, namely, William T. Read, in 1870 : and a historical writer in 
the Village Record of West Chester, Pa., 1860, both quoted in these pages. 


To Thomas McKean, plantation called Chatham, 392 acres 
in London Grove township, Chester co. and 6 acres of chestnut 
wood six miles distant, also "my silver-hilted small sword, my 
stock, knee and shoe buckles," and his folio hot press bible. 

To his daughter Sophia Dorothea, 4 tracts in Centre co:, 
1684 acres 32 perches ; two lots on Spruce street between 
Sixth and Seventh streets. 

To his grandson Samuel M. McKean, plantation in Mt. 
Equity 300 acres, in McKean co. 

His executors may sell 5 acres on Logan street Phila. co.; 
and about 440 acres, and a tract of 150 acres in Newcastle, 

" All the rest of my estate, real and personal, I give devise, 
and bequeathe to my grandchildren Thomas McKean Pettit, 
McKean Buchanan, Thomas McKean Buchanan, Charles Ferdi- 
nand de Yrujo, and Henry Pratt McKean, and their heirs and 
assigns forever, as tenants in common." 

Joseph B. McKean, Andrew Pettit, and Thomas McKean 
are named as executors. 

Witnessed by Jared Ingersoll and Jos : Reed ; Proved June 
27, 1817, and recorded in Philadelphia, No. 90, lib. 6, fol. 

The will is sealed with red sealing-wax, about the size of a 
quarter of a dollar, now somewhat broken on one side ; but 
enough remains to show the impression of a coat of arms, sub- 
stantially the same as those on David Edwin's engraving of 
Stuart's painting. 


There is no coat of arms in this family that I believe to be 
genuine. The arms under David Edwin's engraving, and the 
same as used by Governor McKean on the seal of his will, are 
as follows : 

Arms : Or, four pallets gules, debruised by a bend sinister azure, 
charged tvith a crescent decrescent argent, between two mullets of 
six points, of the same. 

Crest : An eagle crested, with wings displayed, perched upon a 
snake, with head erected. 

Motto : Mens sana in corpore sano. 

In a copy of McKean'' s Laivs at the Library of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, there is a book plate of 
these arms, (the only book plate of them I have seen or heard 


of,) with the tinctures clearly shown ; and identical with the 
above, save that the divisions of the shield are paly of eight, 
instead of nine. Below the arms on a drapery is the name 
McKean, in script letters, and below that the engraver's name, 
M. de Bruls. 

These arms, I believe to be spurious ; but when or by whom 
first assumed I know not. My chief reasons are as follows : 
1st. No McKean family in England carries such arms ; of the 
three families named in Burke's General Armory, two carry 
a saltire, and the other three trefoils. 2d. No one would 
voluntarily carry the bend sinister. 3d. There is two great a 
similarity to the " stars and stripes " in the shield, — to the 
American eagle in the crest, — and the motto is a household 
word. 4. Judge Thomas McKean Pettit, with a patriotic 
notion discarded his proper crest, and substituted therefore an 
eagle almost identical to that in the above arms, save that in 
these, the eagle is crested, and in the Pettit, not crested, re- 
guardant. And what is more likely than this having been 
done by Judge Pettit, in imitation of his grandsire? 

In some branches of the family, these arms are well known, 
through David Edwin's engraving, and from colored drawings ; 
but none of Judge Joseph B. McKean's descendants know any- 
thing of the "steel seal ring" willed by Governor McKean to 
his eldest son, and from which I had hoped to gain some in- 
formation about these arms. 

Our relative Henry Pettit Esq., of Philadelphia, who is 
interested in family history, and has made some researches as 
to a coat of arms, writes under date of February 26, 1886 : 
"If the McKeans ever had any crest or arms, I should like 
greatly to see it, never having come across it as yet." In 
reply I mentioned these spurious arms ; and not long after 
received a letter dated June 17, 1886, containing the following 
interesting extract: 

" In a previous letter you wrote with regard to the often asked 
for McKean arms. I think myself, that there really are none. 
I bave never seen the so-called arms you refer to, but if ever you 
come across anything engraved or photoed, or representing the 
so-called McKean arms, I should like, from curiosity to see it. 
One reason is this, — About the beginning of this century there 
seems to have been quite a craze, to get up in some families, an 
American modification of the English Arms the families had pre- 
viously worn ; and the result was remarkable, from a herald's 
point of view in many cases. I had myself a book plate of the 
Pettit arms so changed, with eagle for crest, and helmet, vizor up 


full faced, which had been purposely changed by Judge Thomas 
McKean Pettit, from his grandfather Charles Pettit's arms, in 
order to Americanize it, and get rid purposely of all the English 
except the arms proper ; and by the eagle show the American 
branch. I showed these arms as a joke at the College of Arms, 
London, and I thought the Herald would have split with laughter. 
Nevertheless it showed the American independent spirit rampant 
at that period. Now I am disposed to think that a McKean 
plate, arms, crest, and motto, all complete, was devised by some 
patriotic McKeanite, say- about that same time, eagle as usual, 
and all other American features." 


1. An oil Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, and considered 
one of his masterpieces, on a panel formerly in possession of 
the eldest son, Joseph B. MeKcan, now in possession of the 
latter's grandson Samuel M. McKean. It is a half length, 
showing the left side, and the badge of the Cincinnati on the 
left breast, the head turned nearly full face. In the Life and 
Works of Gilbert Stuart by George C. Mason, N. Y., 1879, 
this picture is catalogued with the encomium, " An upright 
Chief Justice, an enlightened lawyer, a sagacious politician, he 
was looked up to as one of the most reliable men of the day." 
By this portrait Governor McKean is best known to pos- 
terity, several engravings having been made from it. 

2. Oil Portrait ; Copy of the previous, by Marchanfc, 
owned by the Law Association of Philadelphia ; and which 
has been loaned to the Supreme Court since 1875 ; it hangs 
in the place of honor behind the Judge's Bench on the right 
side. 1 

3. Oil Portrait; Copy of Stuart (No. 1,) by James R. 
Lambdin, and presented by him to the Pennsylvania Historical 
Society, Philadelphia, November 17, 1852. Numbered 141, 
on the Society's Catalogue of Paintings. 

4. In the Old State House, Independence Hall, oil por- 
trait by Peale. The right side of the face is shown. 2 

5. Signing the Declaration of Independence, by Trum- 
bull. The original, 30x20 inches, is in the Trumbull Gallery 
of Yale College. A copy made by the same artist, painted by 

1 See John Hill Martin, Bench and Bar, p. 222. 

2 See Catalogue of Ind. Hall for use of visitors, portrait numbered 11 ; also 
Belisle's Hist. Ind. Hall, 1859 ; and F. M. Etting, Histor. Acct. of Old State 
Ho., 1876. 


order of Congress, is one of the eight large historical paintings 
in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. Thomas McKean 
is one of the delegates here represented, and numbered 46. 
Not all the members of Congress are however included. The 
picture is well-known by engravings. 1 

6. Washington Resigning his Commission, by Edwin 
White 1859, a large historical painting in the State House, 
Annapolis, Md. Thomas McKean is here represented among 
the delegates, and numbered 18 in the key engraving. As a 
matter of fact however the resignation took place December 
23, 1783, and Mr. McKean's term had expired some months 
before ; — an anachronism, undoubtedly due to Mr. McKean's 
prominence and long service in Congress. Thomas Mifflin, 
president of Congress, Charles Carroll, Thomas Jefferson, and 
Edward Lloyd are also among the delegates shown. This is 
quite a different picture from that of Trumbull, representing the 
same scene, and which is another of the eight large paintings 
in the rotunda of the national Capitol. 

7. Lady Washington's Reception Day; by Daniel 
Huntington of New York. Thomas McKean is numbered 35, 
and is described in the key engraving as Chief Justice of 
Pennsylvania. There are sixty-four likenesses in all. The 
artist very kindly informs me that the picture is 6x9 feet ; and 
that it was painted in 1859-60, for A. H. Ritchie, the well- 
known engraver ; who paid $2500 for it, and who made the 
steel engraving by which it is well known. This picture was 
recently in the collection of A. T. Stewart of New York, and 
was purchased at the sale of his pictures by the Hamilton Club 
of Brooklyn, for $3300. The likeness of Thomas McKean 
was painted from the engraving of Welch after Stuart. 2 

8. The First Prayer in Congress ; September 1774. 
Painted by T. H. Matterson for the Carpenters' Company of 
Philadelphia, to commemorate the meeting of the first Congress 
in Carpenter's Hall. This picture is also well known from the 
engraving on steel by H. S. Sadd " From the original picture, 
painted expressly for this engraving," 1848. Thirty-three 
persons are represented. General Washington, No. 9, kneels 
in the foreground; Thomas McKean, No. 21, also kneels ; in 
the background stands Stephen Hopkins, No. 18, the Quaker 
from Rhode Island, with his hat on. 

1 See a paper by Lyman C. Draper; Collections, State Hist. Soc. of Wis., 
vol. X. 

2 Letter of the Artist, June 19, 1888. 


9. Oil Portrait by Stuart, in possession of His Excel- 
lency the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, Madrid, Spain. 

10. Oil Portrait, Copy of Stuart's (No. 1) by McMurtrie 
of Philadelphia, made for Samuel M. McKean of Washington, 
and now in possession of his daughters. 

11. Oil Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale, in posses- 
sion of Henry Pratt McKean Esq. of Philadelphia, a large 
painting with the Governor's son Thomas, at the age of about 
ten years, standing by his side. 

12. Oil Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale, presented to 
his daughter Elizabeth, on her marriage with Andrew Pettit, 
now in possession of Mrs. Sarah P. Wilson of Philadelphia. 

13. Oil Portrait ; Artist unknown, on a panel, (It re- 
sembles Stuart's No. 1, and may be a copy ; the badge of the 
Cincinnati being shown). Formerly in possession of the Gov- 
ernor's daughter Lsetitia Buchanan, and at her death passed 
to her son the late Admiral Franklin Buchanan. Now at his 
late residence, " The Rest," Talbot Co., Maryland. 

There may be other portraits or copies that I have not 
heard of. 

Engravings ; on steel or copper. 

i. Engraving by David Edwin, entitled "Thomas McKean, 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Vice Presi- 
dent of the State Society of Cincinnati, etc." " Engraved by 
David Edwin, from the original Picture by Gilbert Stuart in 
the Possession of J. B. McKean Esq." It is about one-fourth 
of life size. I only know of five of these engravings, which 
are usually framed; doubtless there are many more. 1. In 
the author's possession. 2. Mrs. Admiral Buchanan, " The 
Rest," Maryland ; 3. The Misses Coale, Baltimore ; 4. Family 
of the late Samuel M. McKean of Washington ; 5. In the 
compiled Biography of the Signers in the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society library, three 4° volumes valued at $2000. 

ii. Engraving, "by J. B. Longacre from a Portrait by G. 
Stuart." This is the illustration in Sanderson's Lives, First 
and Second Editions. It is slightly less than one-half the 
size of the previous. 

iii. Engraving, "by T. B. Welch, from a painting by G. 
Stuart." "M. Quig printer." This illustrates the National 
Portraits by Longacre and Herring ; vol. for 1839 ; and also 
the second edition, by Rice and Hart 1854. 

iv. Engraving, "by S. C. Atkinson," [Apparently a copy 


of Stuart] which illustrates Conrad's edition of Sanderson's 
Lives, 1 vol. imp 8° 18-46 ; and also Benner's Dutch edition, 

v. Print by Tiebout, in possession of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, entitled " Thomas McKean Governor of 
Pennsylvania, Published by D. Kennedy 228 Market St." 
The likeness shows the right side of the face ; and is not 
familiar, to those who know Stuart's and the engravings from 
it. In its general appearance it resembles Peale's (No. 4), 
but in the details it does not ; the expression is different from 
Peale's Portrait. 

vi. Etching of the last named, by Albert Rosenthal, Phila- 
delphia, forming the illustration to " Philadelphia and the 
Federal Constitution.'''' 

vii. August 1781 "A profile in black lead of the pres. of 
Congress Thos. McKean, form of a medal," Extract from the 
note book of P. E. Du Simitiere in Penn. Mag. xiii. 367. 
The whereabouts of this likeness is not now known. 

viii. Centennial Memorial of American Independence ; 
by the American Bank Note Company, (30^ in. by 19f in.) 
This large engraving contains the Declaration, several his- 
torical scenes connected with it, etc., Thomas McKean after 
Stuart, being one of the few likenesses here shown. 

ix. The Frontispiece of the present work is a reproduction 
of David Edwin's engraving (No. i.) by the Moss Engraving 
Company of New York, and reduced one- half size. The auto- 
graph is from Stone's facsimile of the Declaration, men- 
tioned, ante pp. 48, 49. 

Wood cuts illustrating various works, some of them very 
good likenesses, and generally after Stuart, are numerous ; 
but no list of them has been made. 


Thomas McKean's autograph is not a rare one compared 
with others of the Signers. Autograph hunters have suc- 
ceeded in collecting twenty-two complete sets of autographs 
of the Signers ; and it is not likely that any other complete 
set will ever be made, owing to the scarcity of one or two of 
the signatures. 1 Notices of some of these collections with 
fac-similes, including a sample of Governor McKean's writing, 
may be found in Harper's Magazine vol. xlvii. 258, 424, et 

1 Lyman C. Draper, in Col. State Hist. Soc. of Wis., vol. x. 


seq. The most valuable and interesting letter of Thomas 
McKean may be found in fac simile in the Book of the 
Signers, by William Brotherhead, Phila. 1861. The original, 
now or lately in possession of T. M. Rodney Esq., is dated 
Philadelhipa, August 22, 1813, and refers to his name being 
omitted in the first published copies of the Declaration, his 
sending an express for Csesar Rodney, and his writing the 
Constitution for the State of Delaware in one night, without 
the aid of books or papers. 1 

Comparatively few letters of Thomas McKean have been 
quoted in this biography ; Sanderson's Lives contains other 
letters and extracts not here quoted. A number of letters to 
and from Thomas McKean may be found in the Works of John 
Adams by his grandson Charles Francis Adams, 10 vols. 
1856. Eight letters published by John Adams may be found 
in Niles'' Register, vol. xii, p. 305, et seq. In the Correspon- 
dence of the Revolution, 4 vols. Boston 1853, and in the 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the Revolution, 4 vols. Boston 
1829, both by Jared Sparks, are several letters, some of them 
addressed to Washington. A valuable letter to William 
McCorkle, June 16, 1817, may be found in Niles'' Register vol. 
xii. 278, and also in the Extracts from the Diary of Christo- 
pher Marshall, William Duane, Albany 1877 ; in reference to 
the omission of his name on the copies of the Declaration. 
Several letters may likewise be found in Hazard's Pennsylva- 
nia Colonial Records, 16 vols, and its continuation, the Penn- 
sylvania Archives, 12 vols, by Linn and Egle, published by 
the state, 1852-3. Other letters are scattered among various 
biographies, and other works. 

In the Department of State at Washington are at least 
ninety-eight letters of Governor McKean, but few of which 
have probably been published. Eighty-eight of these were 
written while President of Congress, and are addressed among 
others to Samuel Huntington, Gens. Greene, Washington, 
Lafayette, Stark, Heath, Lincoln, Marion, Schuyler ; Govs. 
Hancock, Clinton, Trumbull, Nelson, Burke ; Presidents Reed, 
Rodney, the President of New Hampshire ; also to M. de 
Marbois,' Dr. Franklin, William Bingham, The People of New 
Hampshire, Hon. R. R. Livingston, The Minister of France, 

1 This letter was read by the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, in his address on 
the occasion of the unveiling of the monument to Cassar Rodnev, at Dover, 
Del., October 30, 1889. The author kindly sent me a printed copy of the 
Proceedings containing his address; but it was received too late to be in- 
serted in the note on page 29. 


Thomas Jefferson, Count Rochambeau, Michael Hillegas, 
Count de Grasse. Also six other letters to General Washing- 
ton, one of which, dated Newark October 8, 1777, is quoted 
in these pages from Sparks' Correspondence of the Revolution. 
These letters are not generally accessible unless copies are 


A list of all works I have met with, which contain a biog- 
raphy of Thomas McKean, is appended to this genealogy, 
(Appendix I). Many of them are however copies of one 
another. In the appendix may also be found a list of official 
publications closety connected with the life of Thomas McKean. 
Other works containing merely mention of him are too numer- 
ous to be named, but references to them may be found in the 
notes to the foregoing biography. 

Of these biographies, a few only need special mention as 
being well written, or containing facts not given in the other 
works, namely: 

1. Sanderson's Lives 1820-7, and subsequent editions; 2. 
Judson's Biography of the Signers, 1839, a beautifully 
written article ; 3. National Portraits, an article signed T. 
A. B. (author unknown), well written, but containing numer- 
ous mistakes in dates. 4. Nevin's Continental Sketches of 
Distinguished Pennsylvanian s, 187 5. 5. Armor's Lives of 
the Governors of Pennsylvania, 1872. 6. Hazard's Regis- 
ter, iii. 241 — The Supreme Court Bench of Pennsylvania; 7. 
Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia 3 vols. 4°, 
1884, containing also very numerous references, and facts not 
elsewhere published. 


Governor McKean's second wife survived him but three 
years, and died on Saturday, May 6,1820, aged seventy-three 
years ; and was buried on the 7th in the grave yard of the 
First Presbyterian Church. An oil portrait of her by Stuart 
is in possession of His Excellency the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 
Madrid, Spain ; and another by Charles Wilson Peale, noted 
on a previous page, is the property of Henry Pratt McKean, 
Esq., of Philadelphia. 

AH of Governor McKean's children are named in his bible 
record, owned by Mr. Henry Pratt McKean ; and also the first 


six in another record in possession of Miss Anna M. Bayard. 
They are as follows : 

By his first wife Mary Borden: 

2. i. Joseph Borden, b. Sunday, July 28, 1764. 

3. ii. Robert, b. Sunday, March 9, 1766. 

4. iii. Elizabeth, b. Tuesday, August 18, 1767 (Mrs. Andrew 


5. iv. Letitia, b. Friday, January 6, 1769 (Mrs. George Buch- 

v. Mary, b. Monday, February 18, 1771; d. Thursday, De- 

cember 27, 1781 ; buried in burial ground 
of First Presbyterian church. 

6. vi. Anne, b. Thursday, February 25, 1773 (Mrs. Andrew 


By his second wife, Sarah Armitage : 

vii. A Son, b. Wednesday, November 1, 1775 ; d. the same 


7. viii. Sarah, b. Monday, July 8, 1777 ; baptized by Rev. Jo- 

seph Montgomery (The Marchioness de 
Casa Yrujo). 

8. ix. Thomas, b. Saturday, November 20, 1779, Philadelphia; 

bapt. Jan. 30, 1780. 1 

x. Sophia Dorothea, b. Monday, April 14, 1783, Philadelphia ; bapt. 
July 27, 1783 ; l d. December 27, 1819; 
bur. First Presbyterian church. 

xi. Maria Louisa, b. Wednesday, September 28, 1785, Philadel- 
phia; bapt. Jan. 30, 1786; 1 d. Tuesday, 
October 21, 1788 ; bur. First Presbyterian 



2. JOSEPH BORDEN McKEAN.— Born July 28, 1764. 
Graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1782, and 
subsequently received his master's degree. Studied law, and 
was admitted to the Philadelphia bar, September 10, 1785 ; 
and the same year to the Chester county bar. The next year 
he joined the First City Troop, a distinguished military organ- 
ization, composed of some of the most prominent citizens in 

1 These baptisms are from register of First Presbyterian church, Phila. 


Philadelphia. He was elected a member, April 19, 1786 ; 
and became an honorary member November 19, 1803. 

In 1794, Mr. McKean became the first corporal, re-elected 
in 1796 ; and 2d lieutenant, August 15, 1803. In 1794 this 
troop was called out to suppress the Whiskey Insurrection in 
the western counties of the state. On account of this service, 
in L799, Mr. McKean, with about thirty others of the troop, 
became involved in a quarrel with William Duane, editor of 
the Aurora, as already related ; which eventually became a 
political issue. The suit, instituted by Duane, hung on for a 
long time, finally resulting in an acquittal. 

On the 10th of May, lSOO, Mr. McKean was appointed 
Attorney General of the State, succeeding Jared Ingersoll, and 
retained his office until January 1809. He represented his 
father, and acted in his behalf, in several cases arising out of 
the Governor's removals from office ; the cases of Hopkinson, 
and of Alexander J. Dallas, have already been noted on a pre- 
vious page. And as an outgrowth of the impeachment pro- 
ceedings in 1807, Mr. McKean endeavored to have Michael 
Leib and William Duane indicted for conspiracy, but the Su- 
preme Court refused the writ. 

On the 26th of May, 1813, the State Fencibles were formed, 
among the original members of which were Joseph R. Ingersoll, 
Clement C. Biddle, Richard Willing, Hartman Kuhn, Joseph 

B. McKean, Henry C. Carey, Henry J. Biddle, and others. 

C. C. Biddle was elected captain. 

During the visit of President Monroe in 1817, a meeting of 
citizens and United States officers appointed a committee to 
wait upon him, among whom was Mr. McKean. 

In 1817, March 27, Mr. McKean was appointed an Associ- 
ate Judge of the District Court of the city and county of Phil- 
adelphia. He was commissioned Presiding Judge October 1, 
1818, appointed again an Associate Judge, March 17, 1821, 
and re-commissioned Presiding Judge March 21, 1825 ; which 
position he held at the time of his death. 

Judge McKean resided at his father's house on Third street, 
at the corner of Pine street, which he inherited from him. In 
1794 he became a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania ; 
and in 1824, or earlier, was elected a member of the American 
Philosophical Society. 1 

1 Scharf and Westcott, Hist. Phil., i. 497, 504, 563, 590 ; ii. 1539,. 1572 ; 
J. Hill Martin, Bench and Bar ; and Hist. Chester, Del. Co., 470 ; Catalogue 
University Pa., 1880 ; Appleton's Cyclop. ofBiog., iv., 128 ; Watson's Annals, 



Judge McKean was married, April 13, 1786, to Hannah 
Miles, at the First Baptist Church, Philadelphia. 1 


Her ancestor, Richard Miles, came from Wales to this coun- 
try with William Penn on his second voyage, about 1682. He 
had a son James, whose wife came over at the same time. James 
had two sons, Colonel Samuel Miles, a gallant soldier of the 
Revolution, and Richard (whose granddaughter also intermar- 
ried with the McKean family, as will be seen on a subsequent 
page). Colonel Samuel Miles married Catharine Wister, 
daughter of John Wister and his second wife Catharine Ru- 
benkam, of Wanfried, Germany, and had among other children, 
Hannah, born December 12, 1764, wife of Judge McKean. 2 
Miss Sallie Wistar, whose journal was published in the Penn- 
sylvania Magazine (vols, ix, x.), was a niece of Mrs. Colonel 
Miles, and mentions her cousin Hannah Miles. An oil paint- 
ting of Colonel Miles by Stuart is in possession of the Misses 
McKean, of Washington. 

Judge McKean died intestate in Philadelphia, September 3, 
1826, and was buried in the graveyard of the First Presby-- 
terian Church; Mrs. McKean died in Philadelphia, March 2, 
1845, in her 81st year. Their children: — 

i. Mary, b. Phil. Feb. 20, 17S7 ; d. Phil. May 6, 183.1. 

b. Phil. May 25, 1788 ; d. in infancy, Feb. 1, 

year not given, 
b. Phil. Nov. 28, 1789. 
b. Phil. Oct. 25, 1791 ; d. July 12, 1792. 

10. v. Joseph Kirkbride, b. Phil. Nov. 14, 1792\ 

b. Phil. March 22, 1794; d. July 9, 1861, 

Germantown, Pa., unm. 
b. Aug.' 16, 1796 ; d. Dec. 18, 1800. 
b. Aug. 18, 1798 ; d. Aug. 8, 1800. 

11. ix. William Wister, b. Sept. 19, 1800. 
, b. Aug. 14, 1802 ; d. Phil. March 16, 1863 ; 

b. April 27, 1805, Phil.; d. Phil. March 19, 
1833 ; unm. 

12. xii. Adeline Julia, b. April 22, 1809, Phil. (Mrs. Bayard.) 

3. ROBERT McKEAN.— Born March 9, 1766, at New- 

Phil., 1845, L, 322 ; Brown's Forum, ii., 90, in which most of the dates are 
given wrongly; Transactions, Philos. Soc; By-Laws, 1st City Troop, 1815. 

1 Pa. Archives, 2d Ser., viii., 759. 

2 Letter of F. Potts Green, Esq., and Pa. Mag., v., 365 et seq. "Second 
voyage, 1682," is so stated in the letter. In fact, the first voyage was in 
1682 aud the second in 1699. 




Samuel Miles, 




Joseph Kirkbride, 








William Wister, 


Letitia Henrietta 




Adeline Julia, 


castle, Delaware. He was a merchant in Philadelphia, and a 
vessel owned by him and Joseph Rogers was captured by the 
French in 1797, making him one of the numerous claimants 
under the present French Spoliation Claims. In 1791 similar 
aggressions of England upon American shipping caused a pub- 
lic meeting of merchants and traders to be held at Philadelphia 
in March, at which Stephen Girard was chairman, and Robert 
McKean Secretary. At another meeting, March 21th, a board 
of trustees for the " Algerine fund" was chosen, among whom 
were Thomas McKean, Thomas Mifflin, George Meade, Robert 
Mifflin, and Stephen Girard. 1 

Mr. McKean was a member of the First City Troop, being 
elected April 80, 1791. He was married in the Second Pres- 
byterian Church by Rev. Ashbel Green, April 17, 1791, to 
Miss Ann Smith, daughter of William Smith and Mary Sam- 
merzel, of the Island of St. Eustatius, where she was born De- 
cember 1, 1771. A sampler, a map of Europe made by her 
at the age of thirteen, a beautiful piece of needlework, is 
signed "Ann Smith, Finished Aug. 11, 1787." Her father 
subsequently removed to Philadelphia. Mr. McKean died in 
Philadelphia, June 3, 1802. 2 Mrs. McKean died November 3, 
1813. Their children: — 

13. i. Mary, b. January 8, 1797, Phil. (Mrs. Hoffman.) 

ii. William S.,b. (no records in family register or in 1st Presbyterian 
church, Phil.); died quite young. 

August 18, 1767. Married December b, 1791, to Andrew 
Pettit, son of Charles Pettit, a distinguished patriot and states- 
man of the Revolution, a member of the Continental Congress, 
a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, and a member of 
the American Philosophical Society. He was President of the 
Insurance Company of North America, the oldest in the United 
States ; and his son Andrew, a director of thirty-two years, 
1806-1837. Charles Pettit died September 6, 1806, in his 
70th year, leaving numerous descendants: his daughter Eliza- 
beth married Charles Jared Ingersoll, the eminent lawyer ; 
Andrew married Elizabeth McKean ; Sarah married Andrew 
Bayard ; Theodosia married Alexander Graydon, author of 
Grraydon's Memoirs. 

Andrew Pettit was born February 22, 1762, and became a 

1 Scharf and Westcott, i., 476. 

2 Not June 8th, as published in Pa. Mag., iii., 235. 


merchant in Philadelphia. He was elected a member of the 
First City Troop September 10, 1787, and became an honorary 
member in 1803. He was appointed by Governor McKean 
flour inspector, an important office, judging by the salary at- 
tached, which was $5000 per annum. Mrs. Pettit died Sep- 
tember 9, 1811, and is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery. (Her 
tombstone records her age 42 years, a mistake for 44 years.) 
Mr. Pettit died March 6, 1837, leaving a high character both 
in his social and commercial relations. His will is recorded in 
Philadelphia. Mr. and Mrs. Pettit attended the First Presby- 
terian Church, Philadelphia, where many of their children 
were baptized. Their issue : — 

i. Sarah, b. Sept. 15, 1792; d. Phil. Aug. 16,1851; 

b. Dec. 21, 1793, d. Phil. July 22, 1863; 

b. March 31, 1795. 
b. Dec. 24, 1796 ; d. Feb. 20, 1797. 
b. Dec. 26, 1797. 

b. Feb. 10, 1800; d. April 29, 1884; unm. 
b. Jan. 10, 1802 ^Mrs. Smith). 
b. Feb. 19,1804. 
b. Dec. 10, 1806. 
Two Children, not mentioned in the family register, who died 
in extreme infancy ; no records in 1st Presbyterian church 

in New Castle, Delaware, January 6, 1769. She was married 
by the Rev. Dr. Ewing on Thursday, June 11, 1789, to Dr. 
George Buchanan. 1 


The family of Buchanan is a very ancient one in the High- 
lands of Scotland, dating from the year 1016, and constitutes 
one of the Highland Clans. The genealogy of the family was 
published in 1723, by William Buchanan of Auchmar, entitled 
an " Essay on the Surname of Buchanan.'''' Of this family, 

1 This date is from both of Governor McKean's Bible registers, and is 
verified by the marriage notice in the Pa. Packet of June 17, 1789. The day 
of the week also verifies the date. In the registry of the First Presbyterian 
church, Philadelphia, the date is given June 10th. The entry is there in- 
terlined, and in a different hand from the rest of the page. The register is 
published in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2d Series, vols, viii., ix., which has 
made the error widely known. 

2 The arms of this family, with various differences in the several branches, 
are Or, a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules, ivithin a double tressure 
flowered and counter/lowered with fteurs-de-lys of the second. 


Mary Anne, 








Thomas McKean 












x., xi. 

Two Children, not 


of the Drumakill branch, was Mungo Buchanan, of Hiltoun 
and Auchentorlie, who was admitted a Writer to the Signet, 
November 4, 1695, and who was married January 22, 1687, to 
Anna Barclay, and died April 3, 1710, leaving several sons, 
among whom was : — x 

Dr. George Buchanan, born in Scotland about 1698, emi- 
grated to Maryland in 1723, practiced medicine, and was ap- 
pointed in 1729 one of the commissioners to lay out the town 
of Baltimore. He was a member of the General Assembly in 
1749. He married Eleanor Rogers, daughter of Nicholas 
Rogers ; and died April 23, 1750. His remains were interred 
in the family burial ground on his estate, called Druid Hill, the 
name of which he had at first called Auchentorlie, after the 
family estates in Scotland. Druid Hill, containing 500 acres, 
remained in possession of his descendants until 1860, when it 
was sold by Lloyd N. Rogers, to the city of Baltimore for 
$500,000, and. is now the beautiful Druid Hill Park. 2 

His second son, General Andrew Buchanan, born October 
22, 1734, was Lieutenant of Baltimore county, and pre- 
siding justice. He acted a conspicuous part during the Rev- 
olution, being a member of the committees of Correspondence, 
1774, and of Observation, 1775, and one of the five brigadier 
generals of the State troops, 1776. He was married July 20, 
1760, to Susan Lawson, and died March 12, 1786, and is 
buried at Druid Hill. 3 His eldest son : — 

Dr. George Buchanan, was born in Baltimore, September 
19, 1763, married Laetitia McKean as above stated. He stud- 
ied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania under the cel- 
ebrated Dr. William Shippen, and graduated as a bachelor of 
medicine in 1785. He then went abroad and prosecuted his 
studies at Edinburgh and Paris. He received the degree of 
bachelor of medicine at the American Physical Society of 
Edinburgh, in 1786, and the next year was admitted a mem- 
ber of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, and subse- 
quently became its president. 4 In 1786 he was also elected a 
member of the American Philosophical Society. 

1 Letter, July 27, 1888, of J. Guthrie Smith, Esq., of Mugdock Castle, 
Milngavie, Scotland. 

2 Baltimore during the Rev. War, Robt. Purviance, 1849. American Archives, 
P. Force, numerous references. Scharf's Hist. Maryland. 

3 Griffith's Annals of Baltimore, 1824. Scharf's Chronicles of Baltimore, 
1874. Brantz Meyer's Baltimore past and present, historical and biographical. 
Quinan's Medical Annals of Baltimore, 1884. 

4 Allibone, Diet, of Authors. 


Dr. Buchanan returned to Baltimore in 1789, and the same 
year received his degree of M. D. from the University of 
Pennsylvania, and entered into practice in Baltimore in part- 
nership with Dr. Samuel S. Coale. He was at this time ap- 
pointed physician to the Alms-house. The Medical Society of 
Baltimore was also organized this year, of which Dr. Buchanan 
was one of the founders. During the winter of 1789-90 he 
delivered a course of lectures on obstetrics, at the close of 
which his pupils published a complimentary notice, hoping that 
the lectures of Dr. Buchanan and Dr. Wiesenthal may prove 
the beginning of a permanent medical school. The Medical 
and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland was organized in 1799, of 
which Dr. Buchanan was one of the charter members. 

He is the author of the following works : His thesis Desser- 
tatio Physiologica de Causis Kespirationis ejusdemque affect- 
ibus, University of Pennsylvania, 1785, pp. 30, Phila. 1789 ; 
Treatise on the Typhus Fever, published for the benefit of 
establishing a Lying-in-Hospital in Baltimore, printed by Wil- 
liam Goddard, Baltimore, 1789, 16mo., pp. 25 ; the first pub- 
lished medical monograph of a Baltimore physician. But two 
copies of this are known, one in the Boston Athanseum among 
the pamphlets of General Washington, and the other presented 
by the author to the Royal Society of London. Letter to the 
Inhabitants of Baltimore, in which is suggested the Regis- 
tration of Deaths, the Formation of a Public Park, and the 
Organization of a Humane Society; 1 An Appeal for the 
establishment of a Humane Society, in connection with Drs. 
George Brown, Andrew Wiesenthal, Lyde Goodwin, Samuel 
S. Coale, James Wynkoop, George P. Stevenson, and Moses 
Haslett. 2 An Oration upon the Moral and Political Evil of 
Slavery, delivered at a public meeting of the .Maryland So- 
ciety for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief 
of Free Negroes and others unlawfully held in bondage, 
Baltimore, July 4, 1791. Dedicated to Vice President Thomas 
Jefferson, and printed by P. Edwards, 1793. A copy of this 
was found in the Boston Athenaeum, among the Washington 
pamphlets, with George Washington's autograph on the title 
page. It w r as considered so important a publication that it 
gave rise to W. F. Poole's Anti-Slavery Opinions before the 
year 1800, Cin., Clark and Co., 8vo., in which is given a fac- 
simile of the oration. 

l Balt. Journal and Daily Adv., June 22, 1790. 2 Ibid., July 9, 1790. 


Dr. Buchanan was a member of the First Branch of the City 
Council, 1797-8, at the first election after Baltimore had been 
incorporated a city. He was a magistrate in 1799 ; and in 
1803, October 3, a candidate for Congress, but not elected ; 
there being three candidates, N. R. Moore, William McCreery 
and George Buchanan, the first named receiving a majority of 
the votes cast. 

In 1806, July 4, Dr. Buchanan was appointed by Governor 
McKean physician at the Lazaretto, six miles below Philadelphia, 
and removed with his family to that city. Governor McKean 
was assailed for this appointment, but upon giving his reasons 
as already narrated on a former page, showed that the appoint- 
ment was proper and according to law. 

Dr. Buchanan did not long enjoy his appointment, for he 
was stricken with yellow fever contracted in the discharge of 
his duties, and died July 9th, 1808, and was buried at the 
Lazaretto. " The duties of his office were performed with a 
mildness of temper and correctness of manner that engaged the 
attention of all with whom he had intercourse. The sick or 
unfortunate were objects of his particular attention. The feel- 
ings of the man were never lost, nor the dictates of humanity 
ever neglected in the performance of official duty. In private 
life he was amiable, respected and beloved. In the character 
of a husband, father and master, his example was worthy of 
imitation. He was a sincere and devout Christian ; and by his 
premature death society is deprived of a good and useful mem- 
ber, and skillful physician. . . . "* For the principal facts of 
Dr. Buchanan's professional life we are indebted chiefly to the 
researches of Dr. John R. Quinan,as published in his Medical 
Annals of Baltimore, 1884 ; and also in a biography, page 53 
of the Transactions of the Medical and CJiirurgical Faculty 
of Maryland, April, 1881. Dr. Buchanan's diplomas are in 
possession of George 0. G. Coale, of Boston. 2 

Mrs. Buchanan, after her husband's de^th, removed to Phil- 
adelphia. In 1825-35 she resided at No. 43 South Eighth 
street (between Chestnut and Walnut, east side, about five doors 
below Chestnut). At this time the city extended no farther 
west than Twelfth street, or its vicinity. Mrs. Buchanan died 
on Sunday, February 9, 1845 ; a notice appeared in the JJ. S. 
Gazette of the 10th that the funeral would take place on Tues- 

1 Newspaper obituary, date unknown. 

2 See also Scharf's Chronicles of Baltimore, especially pp. 255-9 ; Journals 
18th H. R. of Pa., 342-3. 


day from her late residence, 125 South Ninth street. She was 
buried in Woodlands Cemetery, her tombstone giving the date 
of her death wrongly, February 9, 1846, instead of 1845. Her 
will, dated May 30, 1843, proved March 10, 1845. " She was 
a friend of the poor, earnest in the discharge of her duty, zeal- 
ous in all good works ; .... I must not forget to mention — 
even in death — my long recollection of her personal beauty, 
which she maintained in a large degree to the last." 1 Her por- 
trait by Miss Peale is in possession of the Misses Coale. A sil- 
houette — the only likeness of Dr. Buchanan — is also in their 
possession. No family Bible record can be found among any of 
Dr. Buchanan's descendants. There is, however, an old list of 
names of children, with dates of birth and death. I mention 
this particularly as the discrepancies are remarkable between 
(1) the above-named "old list ;" (2), St. Paul's Church Regis- 
ter, which has been carefully examined ; and (3), the day each 
child believed to be his birthday. The coincidence of birth- 
days is also remarkable, and is one fact whereby the dates are 
verified (See Appendix II.) 

Dr. and Mrs. Buchanan's children are as follows : — 

i. Susanna, b. April 9, 1790 ; d. Aug. 24, 1795. 

ii. Thomas McKean, b. Sept. 17, 1791 ; d. Oct. 5. 1791. 

19. iii. Mary Ann, b. Oct. 15, 1792 (Mrs. Coale). 

20. iv. Rebecca Susanna, b. Oct. 15, 1793. 

v. Andrew, b. Nov. 10, 1794; d. ; bur. May 1, 1796 

(St P. church). 

21. vi. George, b. July 27, 1796. 

22. vii. McKean, b. July 27, 1798. 

23. viii. Franklin, b. Sept. 17, 1800. 

ix. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 25, 1801 ; d. Aug. 24, 1825. (These 

dates are on her tombstone in Woodland's 
Cemetery, Philadelphia. 

x. Joseph McKean, b. May 7, 1804; d. June 7, 1804. ■ 
20. xi. L^titia Egger, b. Oct. 17, 1806. 

6. Mrs. ANNE (McKEAN) BUCHANAN:— Born Feb- 
ruary 25, 1773. She was married April 6, 1797, to Andrew 
Buchanan, son of General Andrew Buchanan, and younger 
brother to Dr. George Buchanan. Another brother writing 
soon after the wedding, remarks that " Andrew has brought 
home an handsome, accomplished, and I trust amiable wo- 
man." Andrew was born in Baltimore, July 29, 1766, and 
was a merchant in that city. Mrs. Anne Buchanan died May 
26, 1804, and was buried on the 28th (St. Paul's Ch. Regis- 

1 Newspaper obituary, date unknown. 


ter), in the Buchanan graveyard at Druid Hill. (The date 
June 3, 1801, Pa. Mag., iii, 235, is wrong.) 

(After her death Mr. Buchanan married a second time, Miss 
Carolina Virginia Marylanda Johnson, daughter of Joshua 
Johnson, Esq., and sister of Mrs. President John Quincy 
Adams, by whom he had one child, the late Brevet Maj. Gen- 
eral Robert C. Buchanan, U. S. Army, a veteran officer of the 
Mexican and late war, and the recipient of five brevets for gal- 
lantry and bravery in action.) 

Andrew Buchanan died in Baltimore, October 2, 1811, and 
was also buried on the 4th (St. Paul's Ch. Reg.), at Druid 
Hill. A portrait of him by Savage, 1795. and also one of his 
second wife by Savage in 1796, are in possession of Mrs. Gen- 
eral R. C. Buchanan. They are now in the Corcoran Art 
Gallery at Washington, where they were placed with others, 
December 12. 1878". 

The children of Andrew and Anne Buchanan are : — 

24. i. Susan, b. Feb. 27, 1*798, Baltimore (Mrs. Newman;. 

25. ii. Mary, b. Nov. 1, 1800, Baltimore (Mrs. Sanford.) 

26. iii. Thomas McKean, b. Aug. 14, 1802. 

27. iv. Ann McKean, b. May 8, 1803 (Mrs. Wade.) 

ess de Casa Yrujo. — Born in Newark, Delaware, July 8, 
1777 ; baptized according to the rites of the Roman Catholic 
Church, April 8, 1780. Her great beauty and many accomplish- 
ments made her one of the leading belles in Philadelphia, then 
the seat of government. 

A description of society at this time (during Washington's 
administration) has been given in that elegant work, The Re- 
publican Court, by Rufus Wilmot Griswold, 1867 ; illustrated 
by numerous likenesses of the most prominent ladies. Among 
these engravings is one of Miss Sally McKean, from the origi- 
nal portrait by Gilbert Stuart, now in the possession of her 
nephew, Henry Pratt McKean, Esq., of Philadelphia. The 
author of that work testifies to her great beauty, and it is a fact 
that all historical writers who mention her, speak also of her 
beauty. The country was just recovering from the revolu- 
tionary struggle, and society was never gayer than at this 
time. In the Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia 
(ii. 905), may be found a description of Mrs. Washington's 
first reception, by Miss McKean, in a letter to a friend in New 
York. Another entertainment was a dinner given in June, 
1796, by a resident of Arch street, whose name is not men- 


tioned, but suspected to be President Washington. " Among 
the first to arrive," says the narrator, " was Chief Justice Mc- 
Kean, accompanied by his lovely daughter, Miss Sally McKean. 
Miss McKean had many admirers, but her heart was still her 
own. She wore a blue satin dress trimmed with white crape 
and flowers, and petticoat of white crape richly embroidered, 
and across the front a festoon of rose color caught up with 
flowers. . . . The next to arrive was Seiior Don Carlos Mar- 
tinez de Yrujo, 1 a stranger to almost all the guests. He spoke 
with ease, but with a foreign accent, and was soon lost in 
amazement at the grace and beauty of Miss McKean." Sir 
Robert Liston, the British Minister, and Lady Liston, Volney 
the traveller, Gilbert Stuart, Mrs. Henry Clymer, and Mrs. 
William Bingham the beautiful daughters of Thomas Willing, 
and many others, were present. 2 The acquaintance thus com- 
menced resulted in the marriage of Miss McKean to Seiior 
Martinez de Yrujo, at Philadelphia, April 10, 1798. 

Seiior Don Carlos Martinez de Yrujo y Tacon was born at 
Cartagena, Spain, December 4, 1763. He was educated at the 
University of Salamanca; entered the diplomatic service, and, 
after having filled other minor posts, was appointed His Catholic 
Majesty's envoy extraordinary, and minister plenipotentiary 
near the government of the United States — Philadelphia being 
then the capital, before the laying out of Washington. He 
arrived in this country in June, 1796 ; and married Miss Mc- 
Kean as above related. He then resided at No. 315 High 
street (now Market street), on the north side between Eighth 
and Ninth streets ; the house had been previously occupied in 
1795 by Pierce Butler, senator from South Carolina. In 
1802 he lived in a large house surrounded by spacious grounds 
at Mt. Pleasant, in what is now the East Fairmount Park. In 
March, 1797, President Adams was inaugurated. A contem- 
porary describing the ceremonies mentions Seiior Martinez de 
Yrujo as follows: "He was of middle size, of round person, 
florid complexion, and hair powdered like a snow ball : dark- 
striped silk coat, lined with satin ; white waistcoat, black silk 
breeches, white silk stockings, shoes and buckles. He had by 
his side an elegant-hilted small-sword, and his chapeau, tipped 
with white feathers, under his arm." 3 His lawsuits for slander 

1 Name given wrongly, and here corrected. 

a George C. Mason, biographer of Gilbert Stuart, in the JV. Y. Evening Post, 
March 24, 1879. 

8 Scharfand Westcott, Hist. Phi!., ii., 913. 


against William Colbett, have already been noted in the biog- 
raphy of Governor McKean. 

In 1803, Sen or Martinez de Yrujo was ennobled, being 
created Marquis de Casa Yrujo. Soon after this, in 1806 or 
earlier, he was living in the southeast corner of Pine and Sec- 
ond streets, in the large house of John Ross, a merchant. 1 

Some new and interesting facts of social and political life in 
these times have recently been brought to light by Mr. Henry 

" In Jefferson's domestic, as well as his political household, the 
Marquis of Casa Yrujo was thoroughly at home, for he had a 
double title to confidence, and even to affection. His first claim 
was due to his marriage with a daughter of Governor McKean of 
Pennsylvania, whose importance in the Republican party was 
great. His second claim was political. . . , Thus Yrujo w r as 
doubly and trebly attached to the Administration. Proud as a 
tj r pical Spaniard should be, and mingling an infusion of vanity 
with his pride, irascible, headstrong, indiscreet as was possible for 
a diplomatist, and afraid of no prince or president; young, able, 
quick, and aggressive ; devoted to his king and country ; a flighty 
and dangerous friend, but a most troublesome enemy ; always in 
difficulties, but in spite of fantastic outbursts always respectable, — 
Yrujo needed only the contrast of characters such as those of 
Pickering or Madison to make him the most entertaining figure 
in Washington politics." 

The Marquis de Casa Yrujo protested strongly against the 
purchase of Louisiana, and in the midst or the rejoicing at the 
news that the purchase had been consummated, wrote to Mr. 
Madison, the Secretary of State, and with skillful diplomacy 
based his objections upon quite novel grounds — "that he had 
bought stolen goods, and Spain as the rightful owner protested 
against the sale." 3 

Soon after this the Marquis opposed the purchase of Florida, 
and the correspondence on the subject increased in heat on 
both sides ; until it culminated in an open quarrel, which was 
aggravated by some rules of etiquette promulgated by the 
President, but considered offensive by the foreign ministers. 
Regarding certain Franco-Spanish spoliation claims, the 
Marquis de Casa Yrujo sent to the Secretary of State an ad- 

1 Pa. Blag., iv., 48. 

3 Hist. U. S. during the First Administration of Thomas Jefferson, 2 vols., 
1889, i., 425. 

3 Ibid., ii., 252, quoting Yrujo to Madison, Sept. 4, and 27, 1803 ; State 
Papers, ,ii., 569. 


verse opinion by five prominent lawyers — Jared Ingersoll, 
William Rawle, Joseph B. McKean, Peter S. Duponceau, and 
Edward Livingston. When the correspondence with the 
opinion given by these persons was sent to the Senate, it 
caused much excitement, and a resolution was passed directing 
the President to institute proceedings against those gentlemen, 
"whose legal, social and political character, made a prosecu- 
tion as unwise in politics, as it was doubtful in law." 1 

" The passage of the Bill which made Mobile a collection dis- 
trict, and a part of Mississippi territory, gave Yrujo a chance to 
retaliate. About a fortnight after the President had signed this 
law, Yrujo one morning entered the State Department with the 
printed Act in his hand, and overwhelmed Madison with re- 
proaches, which he immediately afterward supported in a note, so 
severe as to require punishment, and so able as to admit of none. 
He had at first, he said, regarded as 'an atrocious libel' on the 
United States government, the assertion that it had made a law 
which usurped the rights of Spanish sovereignty; yet such was 
the case. He gave a short and clear abstract of the evidence 
which refuted the claim to West Florida, and closed by requesting 
that the law be annulled. Madison could neither maintain the 
law nor annul it ; he could not even explain it away." 2 

The Marquis de Casa Yrujo soon after left Washington with- 
out taking leave of the Secretary of State. The fall of 1805 
he passed in Philadelphia ; and on the appearance of the 
President's Annual Message, which contained a general and 
loose statement of the grievances against Spain, the Marquis 
wrote under date of Dec. 6, 1805, a keen note to the Secretary 
of State criticising, not without justice, the assertions made by 
the President. To this the Secretary made no reply, holding 
that executive communications to Congress were not open to 
diplomatic discussion. The quarrel between these officials still 
continued, and the recall of the Marquis had been asked by the 
Secretary of State. In the meantime it was supposed that the 
Marquis would remain away from the capital ; but on January 
15, 1806, society in that city was startled by learning that the 
Marquis had arrived in Washington. The same evening it was 
intimated to him by the Secretary of State that his appear- 
ance at Washington was a surprise, and it was hoped that his 
departure from the country would not be unnecessarily de- 
layed. This note "aroused him to passion only equalled by 

^bid., ii., 258, 259. 

2 Ibid., ii., 260; letter of de Yrujo to Madison, March 7, 1804, MSrf. State 
Dept. Archives. 


the temper of John Randolph of Roanoke." He retorted to 
Madison's insult by replying, "I intend remaining in the city, 
four miles square, in which the Government resides, as long as 
it may suit the interests of the King my master, or my own 
personal convenience." A few days after he sent a formal 
protest to the Department " that the envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary of his Catholic Majesty near the United 
States, receives no orders except from his sovereign." 

The Marquis continued to reside in the country by way of 
bravado, and annoyed Mr. Madison by attacks on him from time 
to time through the Federalist newspapers. 1 

His last letter to the Secretary of State is dated February 
4, 1806, but his successor did not present his credentials 
until July 7, 1807. In 1809, Mr. Madison, in a letter to 
Thomas Jefferson, mentions that the Marquis de Casa Yrujo 
was then at Cadiz, where he had erected large mills upon a 
plan brought from Philadelphia. He was the first one in Spain 
who applied steam to the grinding of corn. 2 

The Marquis de Casa Yrujo was not long after this appointed 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Rio Jan- 
eiro. He returned from this mission in 1813, stopping in 
Philadelphia on his way home. Ex-Governor McKean, writing 
to Mr. Adams in August, 1813, speaks of his visit: " The Mar- 
quis de Casa Yrujo, with my daughter and their children and 
servants, made me a visit on his return from an embassy to 
the Prince Regent of Portugal in Rio Janeiro in Brazil." 3 It 
was at this time that others of Governor McKean's grandsons 
remember the Marquis and their aunt, and recall their cousin 
as a playmate of their boyish days. 

In 1821, the Marquis was appointed minister at Paris, and 
subsequently became first Secretary of State (Foreign Affairs), 
which last post he held at the time of his death. He did not 
hold the office long, but was attacked with apoplexy and died 
in Madrid, January 17, 1824. 

He was a Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of Charles III, 
Ysabel la Catolica, St. Ferdinand and St. Januarius of Naples ; 
the Danneborg of Denmark ; a Gentilhombre de Camara (Gen- 
tleman of the Bedchamber) to H. C. Majesty, and an Honorary 

1 Hist. U. S., during the Second Administration of Thomas Jefferson, 2 vols. 
1889, i., 184 to 187, 209. 

2 Letters of Madison, 1865, ii., 43 7 ; Revolutions in Spain, W. Walton, 
London, 1837, i., 343. 

8 Adams' Works, x., 60. 


Councillor of State. In 1804, or earlier, while minister to 
this country, was elected a member of the American Philo 
sophical Society. 

Portraits of the Marquis and Marchioness de Casa Yrujo by 
Stuart are in possession of the present Marquis at Madrid ; 
other portraits of them, also by Stuart, are in possession of 
Mr. Henry Pratt McKean, of Philadelphia. 1 A crayon of the 
Marquis by Sharpless, taken about 1800, hangs in the old 
State House, Independence Hall, Philadelphia. He is here 
represented in a scarlet coat. Wood cuts of the Marchioness, 
after the steel engraving in the Republican Court, may be 
found in Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia, and 
Scharf's History of Delaware. 

The Marchioness survived her husband some years, and died 
in Madrid, January 4, 1841. Her will is dated July 28, 1840. 

Their children (surname, Martinez de Yrujo y McKean) : 

i. Don Carlos Fernando, b. Phil. April 17, 1*799 ; died the year 

of his birth. 

28. ii. DofU Narcisa Maria Luisa, b. Phil.; bapt. Nov. 30, 1800 (Dona 

Narcisa M. L. Pierrard). 

29. iii. Don Carlos Fernando, b. Washington, D. C, Dec. 14, 1802 

(Second Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 
Duke de Sotomayor). 

8. THOMAS McKEAN, Jr.— Born November 20, 1779. 
He resided in Philadelphia, and was married September 14, 
1809, to Sarah Clementina Pratt, daughter of Henry Pratt, 
and granddaughter of Matthew Pratt, a portrait painter. 
Henry Pratt was a successful shipping merchant in Phila- 
delphia. He purchased an estate called " The Hills," which 
is now part of Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, where he enter- 
tained extensively. He married Elizabeth Dundas; their 
daughter, Sarah Clementina, born December 1, 1791, was 
educated at the Moravian Female Seminary at Bethlehem, Pa., 
a noted institution, founded in 1749, and still in a flourishing 

Mr. McKean followed no profession, but for a time, while 
his father was Governor, he was his private secretary. He 
was appointed adjutant-general of the State militia, July 23, 
1808, holding the office about three years, when the appoint- 
ment was vacated. He took his father's part in the political 
controversies with the legislature and with individuals; his 
challenge to Dr. Leib in the fall of 1807, and the indictment 

1 The latter, but not the former, are catalogued among Stuart's works in 
his Life and Works, by George C. Mason, 1879, p. 177. 


of himself and his second, Major Dennis, by the grand jury 
have been mentioned on a former page. 1 

Mrs. McKean died December 81, 1836 ; and Mr. McKean 
May 5, 1852, after a lengthy decline. Their children: 

30. i. Henry Pratt, b. Phil. May 3, 1810. 

31. ii. Sarah Ann, b. Phil. Aug. 10, 1811 (Mrs. Trott). 

32. iii. Elizabeth Dundas, b. Phil. March 3, 1815 (Mrs. A. E. Borie). 

33. iv. Clementina Sophia, b. Phil. May 27, 1820 (llrs. Charles L.Borie). 



9. SAMUEL MILES McKEAN.— Born in Philadelphia, 
November 28, 1789. lie graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1808, subsequently taking the master's degree. 
He studied law in the office of the Hon. Alexander J. Dallas ; 
but gave up that profession and was appointed to a clerkship in 
the Treasury Department in 1817. In this capacity he served 
until 1830, when he was appointed disbursing agent for the 
Treasury ; and acted as such in a most efficient manner until 
1853, when Congress created three positions in the Treasury, 
called disbursing clerks. To one of these responsible positions 
Mr. McKean was appointed, remaining in that office until the 
time of his death. All the money for the expenses of the De- 
partment passed through his hands during many years ; and 
during the whole of his continuous service of over half a cen- 
tury, his ability and integrity in the performance of these re- 
sponsible duties, made him an honored and respected official of 
this department. 

Mr. McKean owned a copy by McMurtrie, of Stuart's portrait 
of Governor McKean, and also a portrait by Stuart, of Colonel 
Samuel Miles, of Revolutionary fame, both now in possession 
of his daughters. 

He was married in Washington, May 1, 1819, to Mary 
Frances King. She was born in Annapolis, Md., September 
3, 1793, the daughterof Josias Wilson King, of Port Tobacco, 
Charles co., Md., who was an early officer of the State Depart- 
ment, and removed '" :+v l1 - " ' nif government from Philaclel- 

1 Hisloric Mansions Fern. Sem.; Bench and Bar. 


phia to Washington about the year 1800, and died in May, 
1833. Mr. McKean died February 8, 1868 ; and his wife fol- 
lowed him October 13, 1875. They are buried in Oak Hill 
Cemetery. Their children, now residing in Washington, 
D. C.:— 


Letitia H. 


Katherine W 


Mart Miles, d. se. 5 y. 


Harriet M. 


Elizabeth R. 


Mary K. 


Frances M. 


Marcia V. 

10. JOSEPH KIRKBRIDE McKEAN: Born in Phila- 
delphia, November 14, 1792. Graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1808, subsequently taking his master's de- 
gree, and studied law ; admitted to the bar May 24, 1813, 1 
and died unmarried February 26, 1816 (1st Presb. Ch. 

11. Commodore WILLIAM WISTER McKEAN, U. S. 
Navy. — Born in Pennsylvania September 19, 1800. 2 Ap- 
pointed a midshipman in the Navy, November 30, 1814. In 
1821-2, he was in command of the schooner Alligator, twelve 
guns, in Commodore David Porter's squadron, and was active 
in suppressing piracy in the West Indies ; where he captured 
the piratical schooner Ciencqa, April 30, 1822, and sent her 
to the United States. He subsequently commanded the 
schooner Terrier in this same squadron some time during 
1823-4. Commissioned lieutenant, January 13, 1825. Phil- 
adelphia Navy Yard, 1826. Sloop Warren, February, 1827, to 
August, 1830, Mediterranean squadron. Rendezvous, Phila- 
delphia, 1833. Sloop of war Natchez, Brazil squadron, 1834-5. 
Navy Yard, Philadelphia, 1837-40. Commissioned Command- 
er, September 8, 1841. Commanding Brig Dolphin, ten guns, 
Home squadron, September 1841 to April 1842. Governor 
of the Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, 1843-4. Commanding 
sloop of war Dale, June, 1846, to March or April, 1847, Pa- 
cific squadron, when, on account of ill health, Commander Mc- 
Kean was sent home from Panama. Rendezvous, Philadel- 
phia, 1848-9. Commanding frigate Raritan, flag ship of Com- 
modore C. F. McCauley, Pacific squadron, 1852 to January 
1853. President of a Court of Inquiry, 1856. Commissioned 
Captain, September 14, 1^55. Governor of the Naval Asy- 
lum, 1858-60. 

l £ench and Bar, J. Hill Martin. 

2 The records of the Navy Depar' ; rth wrongly, November 

17, 1800. 


In 1860, he was ordered on special duty to the large steam 
frigate Niagara, and conveyed to their home the Japanese em- 
bassy, which had been in this country some months. On his 
return to the United States in April, 1861, at the breaking 
out of the civil war, he was ordered to the command of the 
Gulf squadron as flag officer, assuming the command the latter 
part of September, 1861. He made an attack onFortMcRae, 
Pensacola Bay, which however proved indecisive. The squad- 
ron becoming too large for one command, was divided, and 
Flag-officer Farragut relieved him of the command of the West 
squadron, January 9, 1862, Flag-officer McKean retaining 
the East squadron. On June 4, 1862, he was relieved cf this 
command by Captain Lardner, and returned home. He was 
placed on the retired list December 27, 1861, although still 
retained in command of the squadron, and promoted to be a 
Commodore on the retired list, July 16, 1862. On special 
duty, Philadelphia, 1865. He was as eminent for his piety as 
for his skill and daring, and won the esteem of all who were 
under his command for his consistent and practical christian 
character. He was married August 25, 1824, to Davis Rosa 
Clark, who was born in 1806 (day unknown to the family). 
Commodore McKean died April 22, 1865, at The Moorings, 
his home, in Binghamton, N. Y. Mrs. McKean aied October 
19, 1877. 1 

Their children (see Appendix II.) : 

i. Mary, b. ; d., bur. Feb. 23, 1827. as. 17 mo. 

(1st Presb. Ch., Phila.) ' 

34. ii. Joseph Borden, b. Aug. 11, 1827. 

iii. Elizabeth, b. ; d. in infancy. 

35. iv. Franklin Buchanan, b. Aug. 17, 1830. 

36. v. Caroline, b. Phil. (Mrs. W. N. Wilson). 

37. vi. Elizabeth Davis Clark, b. June 24, 1836 (Mrs. Ely). 
vii. Katharine Myers, b. . 

38. viii. William Bishop, b. Nov. 2, 1840. 

39. ix. Mary Miles, b. Jan. 29, 1843 (Mrs. Jackson). 

40. x. Rosa, b. (Mrs. Hotchkiss). 

xi. Samuel Miles, b. , a farmer, Binghamton, N. Y. 

xii. Adeline Bayard, b. . Resides in Binghamton, N\Y. 

Born April 22, 1809. She was married October 4, 1836, at 
Philadelphia, to Charles Pettit Bayard, Esq., son of Andrew 
Bayard, mentioned in a previous page, as having married a 
daughter of Charles Pettit. 

1 Hamersly's Gen. Nav. Reg.; The Gulf and Inland Waters, Mahan ; Block- 
ade and the Cruisers, Sole)', and other sources. 




Belthazar Bayard had a son Samuel, a rich merchant of Am- 
sterdam, of French Huguenot extraction, who married Anna, 
sister of Petrus Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New 
York, then called New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant had married 
Judith, sister of the above Samuel. In the same ship that 
brought over Governor Stuyvesant, came also Anna, widow of 
Samuel Bayard, and her three sons, Petrus, Belthazar, and 
Nicholas, who are the ancestors of all the American Bayards. 
Petrus married Blandina Kierstede in 1674, and had Samuel, 
Petrus, and Sarah. — Samuel removed from New York to Bo- 
hemia Manor, Md., in 1698. He married Susannah Bow- 
chelle, and after her death, Elizabeth Sluyter, and had James, 
Peter, Samuel, and Mary Ann. — James married Mary Ashe- 
ton, and had twin sons, John Bubenheim, James Asheton, 
and a daughter who d. ae. 17. — John inherited his father's 
estate, dropped his middle name, and is known as Colonel John 
Bayard, a gallant soldier of the Revolution. James was the 
father of the late Senator 1805-13, whose son and grandson 
became senators, and distinguished in the civil history of the 
country. — Colonel John Bayard was born August 11, 1738, 
and married Margaret Hodge, of Philadelphia, July 5, 1759. 
— His second child, Andrew, was born September 24, 1761, 
married Sarah Pettit, March 15, 1792 ; and died December 
13, 1830.— His 7th child and 3d son was Charles Pettit Bay- 
ard, above-mentioned, born July 22, 1809. 1 

Mr. Bayard graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1826, subsequently taking his master's degree. He was a 
broker in Philadelphia, residing in Germantown. He married 
as above mentioned, Adeline J. McKean, and died November 
15, 1884. His wife died June 7, 1886. Their children : 

i. Anna Maria, b. Oct. 8, 1837, Phila. 2 

41. ii. Charles McKean, b. Oct. 30, 1838. Phila. 

iii. John Henry, b. Nov. 18, 1841 ; d. July 2, 1842. 

iv. William McKean, b. May 13, 1843, Germantown. 

42. v. James, b. June 9, 1845, Phila. 

vi. A daughter, b. Feb. 27, 1847; d. the same day. 

vii. Adeline Julia, b. Jan. 1, 1849; bapt. July 5, 1849, "with 

water from the river Jordan" (1st Pres. 

Ch. Rec.) ; d. July 28, 1849. 

43. viii. Caroline Rosa, b. Sept. 26, 1850, Phila. (Mrs. Henry.) 

1 Col. John Bayard, and Bayard family of Am., R. Grant White, 1878 ; Apple- 
ton's Cycl. of Bioff, Col J. Bayard's Biog. Letters of Miss Anna M. Bayard. 

2 While this work was in press, Miss Bayard was attacked by the epidemic 
prevailing over this country and Europe, and died suddenly, Jan. 10, 1890. 



13. Mrs. MARY (McKEAN) HOFFMAN.- Born in 

Philadelphia, January 8, 1797. (The 2d Presb. Church Phila. 
records give the date wrongly July 8, 1796.) She was 
married in Philadelphia, by the lit. Rev. Bishop White, Jan- 
uary 8, 1816, on her 19th birthday, to David Hoffman, Esq. 
He was the eleventh of twelve children, born December 24, 
1784, late in the day, and celebrated the anniversary on the 
25th ; on which account his biographers give the date of his 
birth wrongly, December 25. He was educated as a lawyer, 
and became eminent in his profession, and as a legal writer. 
He was professor of law in the University of Maryland at 
Baltimore, from 1817 to 1836, when the professorship was 
abolished. During this time he published many works on 
jurisprudence. In the fall of 1836 he took up politics, in 
favor of William Henry Harrison ; and was a presidential 
elector at large, from Maryland. He was also a presidential 
elector in 1840. He traveled two years in Europe ; and on 
his return practised law in Philadelphia; where he was ad- 
mitted to the bar December 16, 1843. In 1847 he again 
visited Europe for literary purposes, and while in London, con- 
tributed to the Times a series of articles on the political and 
social arrangements, and economical condition of the United 
States ; which were highly esteemed. 

His principal work on Jurisprudence is (1) A course of 
Legal Study, 1817 ; 2d Ed. 1836. Of this work Justice 
Story said " It contained by far the most perfect system for 
the study of the law which has ever been offered to the pub- 
lic." (See Hew Am. Encycl.') (2) Legal Outlines, 
1836; of which but one volume ever appeared; it has been 
commended as a text book. He also wrote on other subjects ; 
(3) Miscellaneous thoughts on men, manners and things, by 
Anthony Grumbler, of Grumbleoton Hall, Esq., 1837. (4) 
Viator, a peep into my note-book; 1841. (5) Legal 
Hints, 1846. (6) Chronicles selected from the originals 
of Cartapliilus the Wandering Jew, 1855. He employed 
the legend to embellish an epitomized history of government 
and religion since the time of Christ. Two volumes, bringing 
the history down to the year 573, were issued in a striking 
form, London, 1853. The third volume was partly in type 
when the author returned to the United States ; three other 
volumes had been in great part written. Mr. Hoffman also 


left in manuscript Moot Court Decisions; and an Abridg- 
ment of Lord Coke's Reports with Notes. He returned to 
the United States in 1853. And while on a visit to New 
York died suddenly of apoplexy, November 11, 1854. 

Mr. Hoffman received the honorary degree of LL. D. from 
the University of Maryland, and also from Oxford, England, 
and J. U. D. from Gottingen, Germany. He was a member of 
the Maryland Historical Society at Baltimore. 1 

After her husband's death, Mrs. Hoffman resided in Balti- 
more ; and subsequently in West Chester, Pa., where she 
died June 13, 1882, at the advanced age of 85 years. An 
oil portrait of Mrs. Hoffman, by Sully, and a beautiful minia- 
ture, are in the possession of her daughter, Mrs. Kerr. Their 
children : 

i. Frederick William, b. Bait. Nov. 12, 1816; d. Lyons, France, 

Nov. 30, 1833 ; buried at Mt. Auburn 
Cem., Boston, Mass. 

ii. Anne McKean, b. Bait. Nov. 17, 1818 ; d. March 3, 1819. 

44. iii. Anne McKean, b. Baltimore, Md. (Mrs. Kerr.) 

PETTIT. [4.] 

14. CHARLES PETTIT.— Born March 31, 1795. (The 
1st Presb. Ch. Register gives March 30.) In youth he was a 
supercargo, but later in life became a merchant; and subse- 
quently went to St. Louis, where he died unmarried, August 
6, 1851, and is buried in St. Louis. 

15. Judge THOMAS MoKEAN PETTIT.— Born in 

Philadelphia, December 26, 1797. Graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, in 1815; subsequently taking his 
master's degree. He entered the office of his kinsman 
Joseph R. Ingersoll ; studied law, and was admitted to the 
Philadelphia bar, April 13, 1818. In 1819-21 he was Secre- 
tary of the Board of Public Education. He was appointed 
City Solicitor in 1820 ; entered into politics, as a democrat, 
and after the death of Governor Schulze was appointed deputy 
Attorney General, of the Supreme Court and Oyer and 
Terminer, February 9, 1824, and also in 1826. He was a 
member of the Hickory Club, which promoted the election of 
Andrew Jackson to the Presidency. Elected to the House of 

^llibone, Diet. Authors; Gycl. Am. Literature, Duyckink; Appleton, 
Oycl. Biog.; Drake, Diet, of Biog.; New Am.. Cyclop., etc. 


Representatives of Pennsylvania in 1830, and took an active 
part in its business and discussions. The following year he 
was elected a member of the Select Council of the City. He 
was appointed an Associate Judge of the District Court for the 
City and County of Philadelphia, February 16, 1833, until 
1835, when the term for which the court was constituted had 
expired. But a new law having extended the court for ten 
years, he was re-appointed March 30, 1835, for ten years. 
But a few days after this, April 22, he was recommissioned by 
Governor Wolf as Presiding Justice of the same court, and 
served as such during the term of ten years ; at the expiration 
of which he declined further appointment, so repeatedly con- 
ferred upon him ; and then resumed his practice in Philadel- 
phia. He was nominated as a representative in Congress, but 
his party being in a minority in his state, was not elected. 
Appointed by President Van Buren one of the Board of 
Visitors to West Point, and with Governor Marcy prepared the 
report of the Board ; and soon after was appointed by Presi- 
dent Polk, to be United States District Attorney for the east 
district of Pennsylvania, May 5, 1845. President Pierce ap- 
pointed him Superintendent of the Mint at Philadelphia, April 
4, 1853, (the title has since been changed to Director,} but 
his career of usefulness was soon after terminated by death on 
the 30th of May, 1853. He attended St. James' Church, and 
is buried in St. James' churchyard at the corner of Fifth and 
Arch Streets, Philadelphia ; the same in which Benjamin Frank- 
lin's remains are interred. (See Appendix II. 15.) 

Judge Pettit was an active member of the democratic party 
in Pennsylvania. He was a member of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, and sometime Vice-President. He delivered 
before this society, a Memoir of Robert Vaux, formerly Vice- 
president, which is published among their Memorials. He 
also published numerous other addresses, among which are a 
Discourse before the Historical Society, (Phila., 1828 ;) and 
the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania, 
(1830). A 4th of July address before his democratic fellow 
citizens. He also assisted Thomas Sergeant to prepare The 
Common Law Reports of England, (Phila., 1822.) 

In 1835, July 7, upon the death of Chief Justice Marshall, 
a meeting of citizens was held in Philadelphia, at which the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop White presided, Benjamin R. Morgan and 
Judge Thomas McKean Pettit were vice presidents, Nicholas 
Biddle and Judge Edward King were secretaries ; resolutions 


of respect were passed. He was a member of the Board of 
Managers of the Athenaeum ; a member of Franklin Lodge, 
and the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Pennsylvania. 1 

David Paul Brown in The Forum, ii, 350, relates the follow- 
ing anecdotes of Judge Pettit : While District Attorney he was 
prosecuting a case of great importance, in which he introduced 
an accomplice as witness. In the course of his argument, while 
he admitted there might be some objection to his witness, he 
pledged himself still to show that he was right in the main. 
" But," said Mr. B., who was engaged for the defense, " that 
will not be sufficient. You must show that he is right in the 
tail (tale) too." 

In the case of the United States against Harding, in which 
Mr. Rush and Mr. Pettit were engaged for the prosecution, 
Mr. Oliver Hopkinson, 2 in opening his defense to the jury, said 
that " although the case came in with a Mush, it was at best 
but a Petit affair." 

The change which Judge Pettit made in his family coat of 
arms has already been mentioned in the biography of Governor 
McKean. His will is dated October 11, 1^52 ; a codicil May 
26, 1853 ; proved June 11, 1853, and recorded in Philadelphia. 

Judge Pettit was married, in Philadelphia, February 7, 1828, 
to Sarah Barry, daughter of Commodore Richard Dale, a dis- 
tinguished officer of the navy. 3 His wife pre-deceased him, 
dying March 6, 1839, aged about 37 years. Their children, 
all born in Philadelphia : 

45. i. Elizabeth Dale, b. Nov. 6, 1828 (Mrs. Ronekendorf ). 
ii. Richard Dale, b. Nov. 27, 1829; d. Phil. Dec. 3, 1829. 
iii. Mary Montgomery, b. Mar. 3, 1831 ; d. Phil. May 16, 1833. 
iv. Sarah, b. June 3, 1833; d. Phil. April 13, 1838. 
v. Emily, b. Jan. 18, 1835 ; d. Phil. April 14, 1838. 

46. vi. Richard Dale, ' b. Feb. 9, 1837. 

47. vii. Sarah, b. Feb. 18, 1839 (Mrs. Joseph M.Wilson). 

16. Mrs. THEODOSIA (PETTIT) SMITH.— Born Jan- 
uary 10, 1802. She was married June 4, 1839, to Beaton 
Smith, M. D. Dr. Smith was the son of Jonathan Smith, 
Esq., one of the founders, and first president, of the Pennsyl- 
vania Fire Insurance Company, and a brother of General Per- 

1 Simpson's Em. Phils.; Appleton's Cycl. Biog.; Allibone, Diet. Authors; 
Lanman, Biog. Annals; Drake, Diet. Biog.; Martin's Bench and Bar ; Scharf 
and Westcott, Hist. Phil., i., 642 ; ii., 1544-72, et scq. 

*Son of Joseph, grandson of the Signer, and a relative of Judge Pettit. 

3 See Pa. Mag., iy., 237, 494 et scq. 


sifer F. Smith, a distinguished officer of the Mexican War. 
He was born about 1802, graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1820, subsequently taking his master's degree, and 
M. D. in 1823. He traveled in Europe and completed his 
medical studies in Paris. Returning home he practiced medi- 
cine in Philadelphia ; but was soon after induced to accept the 
secretaryship of his father's insurance company, which position 
he held for many years, until his death May 20, 1861, in his 
59th year. 

He took an active interest in the First Presbyterian Church, 
Rev. Albert Barnes, and was one of the founders and a promi- 
nent officer of the Gray Reserves, which organization became 
prominent during the late war. His artistic tastes led him to 
be one of the first patrons of the then new art of photography. 
He enjoyed the confidence of the community in its most en- 
larged sense ; and besides being a faithful and thoroughly 
reliable officer in his business relations, he was a most amiable 
man in many ways — one of Philadelphia's most upright, intel- 
ligent and useful citizens. He was pre-eminently popular on 
account of his genial disposition, cordiality of manner, and 
continuous flow of wit and humor. 

Dr. Smith was twice married ; first to Miss Huddleson, by 
whom he had two children: — Emma Parry, (who married 
Thomas Sparhawk, and afterwards John G. Parr of Kittanning, 
Pa.) and Beaton Jr., who is married and now resides in 
Kansas. He married secondly Theodosia Pettit, who sur- 
vived him, and by whom he had no issue. 

Mrs. Smith lived to an advanced age. Her sisters resided 
with her in Philadelphia during their lifetimes, until Mrs. 
Smith and Miss Elizabeth Pettit were left the last of the large 
family, dying at the same age — 84 years. Mrs. Smith died 
January 22, 1886. 

17. Pay-Director ROBERT PETTIT, U. S. Navy.— 
Born February 19, 1804, (See Appendix II.) He entered 
the navy as a purser April 6, 1837, the title being subse- 
quently changed to paymaster. He served on board of the 
sloop Falmouth in the Pacific squadron in 1839 — June 1840 ; 
Naval Asylum Philadelphia, 1842-3 ; Brig Porpoise, African 
squadron Jan. or Feb. 1843, to November 1844; Naval 
Asylum Philadelphia, 1845-6; Sloop of war Saratoga, Home 
Squadron, April 1848, till November 1849 ; Receiving ship at 
New York, 1850-2 ; Frigate Cumberland, Flagship of Com- 
modore S. H. Stringham, Mediterranean Squadron, May 1852 


to July 1855 ; Steam Frigate Minnesota, East India Squadron, 
1857 to May '59; Waiting orders, 1860-61; Steam Frigate 
Minnesota, 1862, North Atlantic Squadron, and was present in 
Hampton Roads during the attack of the Confederate Ram 
Virginia on the Federal Fleet at Newport News, March 8, 
1862. The Minnesota ran aground during this encounter, and 
preparations were made to abandon and deptroy her, when the 
appearance of the Monitor during the night changed her fate 
Special duty Philadelphia, and settling accounts, 1863—4; 
Special duty and inspector, 1865-6 ; President of the board 
of examiners, Philadelphia, 1867 ; Special duty Philadelphia, 
1869; Paymaster at Philadelphia, 1870-1 ; Naval Asylum, 

Paymaster Pettit was placed' on the retired list, February 
19, 1866. Upon reorganizing the navy under the act of 
March 3, 1871, he obtained the title of Pay Director with the 
rank of Captain. In 1877, after forty years' service, he had 
the rank of Commodore. 

Pay Director Pettit was married in Philadelphia by the Rev. 
David I. Walter, October 11, 1841, to Laura Ellmaker, daugh- 
ter of Levi Ellmaker and Hannah Hopkins, who was born June 
21, 1813, and died October 1, 1878. Pay Director Pettit was 
a thoroughly reliable officer, and well fitted for the responsible 
postion he held ; when on duty, large quantities of government 
property were in his charge, and many thousands of dollars 
passed through his hands, all of which was satisfactorily ac- 
counted for. He stood high in the estimation of the Navy 
Department, and of his brother officers. Philadelphia was 
his home, where he died May 19, 1878, leaving issue as fol- 
lows : 

48. i. Henry, b. Phil. Dec. 23, 1842. 

49. ii. Robert Ellmaker, b. Phil. Nov. 30, 1846. 

18. HENRY PETTIT, M. D.— Born December 10, 1806, 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1824, studied 
medicine at the same institution, and took the degrees A. M. 
and M. D. in 1829. The subject of his thesis was Hydro. 
cephalus. He resided in Philadelphia, where he practiced his- 
profession until his death, April 15, 1836. 




in Baltimore, October 15, 1792. (See Appendix II, under 
No. 5.) She was married April 18, 1815, by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop White, to Edward Johnson Coale, Esq. 


William Coale, of Anne Arundel Co., m. 1st, Esther, whose 
issue apparently became extinct; 2d, Hannah; 3d, Elizabeth, dau. 
Ph. Thomas, by both of whom he left issue. He d. Oct. 30, 1678, 
leaving by his 2d wife — 

William Coale, married Elizabeth, dau. Richard and Elizabeth 
Johns, and d. June 1715, leaving besides several others: — 

Thomas Coale, rem. to Bait, co.; m. Mary, d. 1745, leaving 
two children: — 

William Coale, of A. A. co.; m. Dec. 5, 1752, Anne Stringer, 
daughter of Dr. Samuel Stringer, by whom he had ten children, 
the eldest: — 

Dr. Samuel Stringer Coale, b. March 9, 1754; m. Ap. 19,1775, 
AnnHopkinson; (See Appendix II, 19), and d. Sept. 19, 1798, 
leaving eight children. 

Edward Johnson Coale, eldest child, b. May 18, 1776. 1 


Thomas Hopkinson was the son of Thomas and Mary Hop- 
kinson, of London, merchant. The son was born in London, 
April 6, 1709, em. to Penn.; m. Sept. 9, 1736, Mary Johnson. 
Her grandfather, George Johnson (son of William Johnson of 
Laycock, Wilts, by Elizabeth his wife) was b. at Laycock about 
1620, sergeant-at-law; married Mary, and had with others Bald- 
win Johnson, who removed to Delaware, married Jane, widow 
of William Dyer of Kent co., and had Mary Johnson above 
named. Thomas Hopkinson her husband was a member of the 
Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, and died Nov. 5, 1751, leav- 
ing issue, eight children, among whom were i, Francis Hopkin- 
son, Signer of the Declaration of Independence ; and vi, Ann, 
who married, April 26, 1775, Dr. S. S. Coale, above mentioned. 2 

Edward J. Coale, was born May 18, 1776, at Elk Ridge, 
Anne Arundel co., Md. He was educated as a lawyer, and 

1 MS. of Dr. Christopher Johnston, Jr. 

2 Keith's Provincial Councillors, 1883, in which the family of Thomas Hop- 
kinson, Councillor, is carried down to Mr. Edward J. Coale, his children and 


studied in the office of his cousin Joseph Hopkinson, (son of 
the Signer) author of Hail Columbia. He was admitted to 
the Philadelphia bar April 18, 1799, 1 on motion of Thomas 
Ross in behalf of Mr. Hopkinson. While in Mr. Hopkinson's 
office, that gentleman was counsel for Dr. Rush in his suit 
against William Cobbett. Cobbett's account of this trial in 
his Works, London, 1801, xi. 363, gives a conversation he 
had with Mr. Coale, as follows: 

" As I was going into the Court House to hear this decision, I 
met Mr. Coale, a young man who lived and studied with Hopkin- 
son, the lawyer of Rush. After the usual interchange of civilities, 
the following dialogue ensued, the correctnesss of which I am 
ready to vouch for upon oath : 

"Coale. — What are you doing here? You are going to re- 
move cause, are you not ? 

" Cobbett Yes. 

" Coale Then you won't succeed. 

" Cobbett Why? How do you know I shan't? 

" Coale Why, the Court are against you. I can tell you that. 

" Cobbett. — What! Have they decided then before they have 
heard the parties? They can not be such barefaced rascals. 

" Coale. — Well ! you'll see. 

" And sure enough, I did see in a very little time." 

Cobbett's petition to remove the cause to the Circuit Court 
was rejected, as Mr. Coale had predicted. 

Mr. Coale was admitted to practise before the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, May 4, 1811, on motion of Mr. Hop- 
kinson. He probably before that time resided in Baltimore ; 
for he held the position of Register under appointment of the 
city in 1803. 

In Baltimore, he subsequently became an extensive pub- 
lisher and bookseller: He published the Portico, a weekly 
paper ; which received contributions from many able pens ; 
among them were those of Edward C. Pinckney, and Francis 
S. Key author of the Star Spangled Banner. The Literary 
Visitor was also published by him. He was one of the 
managers of the Washington Monument, of which the corner- 
stone was laid July 4, 1815; and was appointed Consular 
Agent of Russia for the state of Maryland, May 2, 1815 ; and 
Yice Consul of Brazil, the date of his exequatur, September 1, 
1824. He held this appointment until succeeded by his con- 
nection by marriage Mr. Newman, November 8, 1831. At 

1 This is the date from his diploma. Martin's Bench and Bar gives the 
date of his admission April 3. 


the termination of his appointment under the Russian govern- 
ment, the Emperor of Russia sent him a valuable diamond ring 
in appreciation of his services. 

Mr. Coale died suddenly of Asiatic cholera in Washington, 
D. C, on Friday, November 16, 1832; and is buried in Wash- 
ington. " In every relation of life, his conduct was exemplary. 
A kind father, a faithful friend, and charitable and compas- 
sionate almost to excess ; respectful and obliging to his inferi- 
ors, and candid and upright to all men. Mr. Coale was 
originally educated for the bar ; his mind and acquirements were 
those of a gentleman and a scholar." 1 Mr. Coale's diplomas 
are in possession of his grandson George 0. G. Coale, Esq. 2 

Upon hearing of the birth of Mr. Coale's eldest son, Gov- 
ernor Thomas McKean wrote him the following letter, which 
has not before been published: 

Philadelphia, April 30, 1816. 

Dear Sir: I sit down to acknowledge the receipt of the agree- 
able intelligence of the birth of your son, and my first and only 
great grandchild. Sickness, death, and many other untoward 
circumstances have hitherto delayed it. 

May your son be a comfort and an honor to his parents and a 
blessing and ornament to his country. Give him learning, and a 
pious education ; the rest will greatly depend upon his own 
industry and good conduct, under the favor of God. The way 
the twig is bent, the tree will be inclined. Eighty-two years and 
all the knowledge ^hey have brought with them, have taught me 
to put confidence in these sentiments. 

Please kiss the little gentleman for me, and give him my bless- 
ing, and may the Father of all bless him. Give my love to Mary 
Ann, and my respects to all enquiring friends : May you all be as 
happy as I wish you. Vive vale. Thomas McKean. 

To Edward J. Coale, Esq., at Baltimore. 

Mrs. Coale survived her husband many years, residing in 
Baltimore. Through her husband she came into possession of 
several valuable family portraits of the Hopkinson family, which 
embellished the parlors of her house, namely : 

1. Thomas Hopkinson, father of the next three. 2. Fran- 
cis Hopkinson, the Signer, small crayon by himself. 3. Mrs. 
Dr. Morgan, f lengtb by Benjamin West. 4. Mrs. S. S. 
Coale, miniature size. 5. Edward J. Coale, in a scarlet cloak, 

^oulson's Daily Amer. Adv., Phila., Nov. 19, 1832. 

2 £ench and Bar, Martin, 243 et seq.; Scharfs Chronicles of Baltimore, and 
other works as above. 













by Sully. 6. Mary Coale, his sister, who married W. T. 
Proud, by Miller, from a portrait by Stuart. 7. Dr. S. S. 
Coale. 8. Joze Sylvestre Rebello, Minister from Brazil, a 
friend of Mr. Coale, after whom one of his daughters was 

Mrs. Coale died April 3, I860. Her children, all born in 
Baltimore : — 

William Edward, b. Feb. 7, 1816. 

Anne L^etitia, b. April 28, 1817 (Mrs. Brune). 

George Buchanan, b. March 5, 1819. 

Catharine Atterbury, b. June 27, 1821. 

Elizabeth Buchanan, b. Aug. 14, 1823. 

Josepha Rebello, b. April 9, 1826. 

Marianna Buchanan, b. March 5, 1831 (Mrs. Brown). 


E. BUCHANAN. Miss Rebecca was born October 15,1793 
(See Appendix II, under No. 5). Miss Leetitia was born 
October 17, 1806, at the Lazaretto, six miles below Philadel- 
phia. The two sisters were identified together during the 
whole of their lifetime. Neither married, and they continued 
to reside in Philadelphia after their mother's death. Miss Re- 
becca died February 6,1868, and is buried at Woodlands Cem- 
etery. Miss Lsetitia, in the early part of 1877, removed to 
Baltimore, and lived with her nieces, the Misses Coale, until 
her death July 11, 1883. She is also buried at Woodlands 
Cemetery. Miss Lsetitia's extensive acquaintance not only 
among her near, but her distant relatives in the McKean and 
other families, made her the chronicler of the changes that oc- 
curred, and the possessor of much family history. 

21. General GEORGE BUCHANAN.— Born in Balti- 
more, July 27, 1796. He graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1815, in the class with his cousin Judge Pettit, 
and Dr. George B. Wood. He subsequently took the master's 
degree, A. M. Since his two brothers were in the Navy, his 
mother left to him the tract of land she inherited from her 
father Governor McKean, and which in her will she calls 
Auehentorlie, after the estates in Scotland held by the family 
of Dr. George Buchanan, Sr. General Buchanan lived on 
this farm in Gregg township during his whole lifetime. In his 
earlier life, he served for several terms as a Justice of the 
Peace. As a magistrate, Squire Buchanan, as he was called 
by the residents, became one of the prominent men in the 
county. He was appointed Prothonotary of Centre couuty, 


January 12, 1836; holding office until November 11,1839. 
Formerly in the days of Whiggery, he was a member of that 
party, but upon its dissolution he became a democrat ; and 
ever after was an advocate of democratic principles. In 1841, 
he was Captain of the Penn's Valley Troop, and in June 1852 
was elected Brigadier General of the 3d Brigade, 14th 
Division of the Pennsylvania Militia ; holding tins appointment 
until the civil war, in 1861, broke up the Pennsylvania military 
organization. When the war commenced, General Buchanan 
was strongly solicited to accept the command of a brigade, with 
the rank he had held for several years past ; but he declined 
this offer, principally on account of his age. General Buchanan 
was interested in an insurance company in this county, of 
which he was one of the officers. 

He was married: first May 16, 1833, to Sarah G. Miles, 
daughter of Evan Miles, who was a son of Richard Miles (pre- 
viously mentioned in these pages, in the biography of Joseph 
B. McKean.) She was born on Friday, May 23, 1806 ; and 
died on Saturday, April 13th, 1844. 1 General Buchanan was 
married secondly, June 26, 1846, at Potter's Mills, Centre 
co., to Mary Patterson, who died May 18, 1868, aged 58 
years, an invalid for many years. 

General Buchanan survived to an advanced age ; a paralytic 
affection in March 1877, occasioned the loss of speech, but did 
not otherwise interfere with his movements. He died June 9, 
1879, in his 83d year, having outlived his wives and all his 

" General Buchanan had been a citizen of Centre county so 
long that he seemed part and parcel of it ; and his death is a great 
loss not only to his own family but to the whole county. He was 
politically an active democrat ; and took great interest in the 
success of the party, in which he was a tower of strength. He 
was a noble old man, as full of chivalry as a knight of the olden 
time, and withal a sincere Christian. General Buchanan had 
distinguished and honorable connections, and was a high-minded, 
upright gentleman. 2 

General Buchanan's children ; by his first wife Sarah G. 

Miles : 

'According to a newspaper notice, which is probably the correct date; 
the day of the week determines it. The date is, however, recorded April 12 
in the family Bible, and given April 15 in a letter of F. Potts Green, Esq., 
of Bellefonte, her relative. 

2 Bellefonte, Centre Co., paper, editorial. 



Evan Miles, 






Thomas McKean, 


George Lloyd, 


John Blanchard, 


b. Auchentorlie, April 14, 1834. 

b. Auchentorlie, Oct. 27, 1835 (Mrs. Everett). 

b. Bellefonte, Sept. 18, 1837. 

b. Bellefonte, Nov. 11, 1839; d. Dec. 11, 

1857 ; bur. Spring Mills, Centre Co. 
b. Bellefonte, Oct. 20, 1841; d. June 10, 

1842 ; bur. Bellefonte graveyard, 
vi. Mart Blanchard, b. Bellefonte, April 5, 1844 ; d. July 5, 1844; 

bur. Bellefonte graveyard. 

By his second wife, Mary Patterson : 

vii. Mary Ann, b. Auchentorlie, Aug. 10, 1849; d. April 23, 

1850; bur. Spring Mills. 

22. Pay-Director McKEAN BUCHANAN, U. S. N.— 
Born in Baltimore, July 27, 1798 ; but removed to Philadel- 
phia, with bis father's family in 1806 ; and two years after was 
left an orphan, as already related. McKean entered the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1813, in the class of 1817, where 
he remained about two years. He was nineteen years of age 
when Governor McKean died, naming him one of his residuary 
legatees. After leaving college he was for a time in mercantile 
life, in the counting-house of Asaph Stone, Esq., in Philadelphia. 
He then became the warrant clerk in the Navy Department at 
Washington, for three years, 1823-6, while waiting for his 
commission as a Purser in the navy, which he received from 
President Adams, August 21, 1826 ; the title being changed to 
to paymaster June 22, 1860. He was immediately ordered to 
take passage in the frigate Brandywine to join the schooner 
Dolphin in the Pacific, and was subsequently transferred to the 
sloop of war Vincennes ; and in her made a cruise to the South 
Pacific Islands, and round the world— the first American man- 
of-war that had done so. He returned to the United States in 
June, 1830. His next cruise was in the sloop of war Falmouth, 
Master Commander F. H. Gregory, squadron of Commodore 
John Downes, March, 1831, to February, 1831 ; an account of 
which cruise was published by one of the officers, entitled 
Three Years in the Pacific. Attached to the Navy Yard, 
Philadelphia, April, 1831, to Aug., 1835, and exchanged with 
another officer at the Pensacola Navy Yard, Aug., 1835, to 
September, 1837, and temporary navy agent, 1836. In Janu- 
ary, 1839, he was again ordered to the Pacific squadron in the 
noted frigate Constitution, flagship of Commodore Claxton. 
His brother Franklin was also an officer of this ship. She 
sailed in April, from Norfolk for New York, where she took 
on board the Hon. Powhatan Ellis, United States Minister to 
Mexico, as passenger. During this cruise, Mr. Buchanan, 


whose duty it was every Sunday to muster the men, knew every 
man by sight, and called off from memory the names of the 
whole four hundred in their proper order. The Constitution 
returned to Norfolk in November, 1841 .* 

During the Mexican War, Mr. Buchanan was again in the 
Pacific on his fourth cruise — a very singular circumstance. At 
this time he was attached to the sloop of war Dale, June, 1846, 
to August, 1849. While on the cruise this vessel had four 
captains. She sailed from New York under Mr. Buchanan's 
cousin, Commodore McKean, who was invalided and sent home 
from Panama. During the interim Lieutenant E. M. Yard 
had the command, until relieved by commander Thomas 0. 
Selfridge, in May, 1847. He was wounded in the battle of 
Guaymas, and relinquished command to Lieutenant Yard. 
Commander John Rudd subsequently joined the ship, and 
brought her home, the Hon. Seth Barton, United States Charge 
to Chili being passenger. 

This vessel was actively engaged during the war: She 
captured a Mexican schooner, September 80, 1847 ; and the 
next day the town of Muleje". From February to April 1848, 
she operated in the vicinity of Guaymas, capturing that place 
by an expedition on shore. The town of Muleje was also 
again taken, and several launches; and January 30, 1848, the 
town of Cochori, killing and taking prisoners several of the 
enemy. At Guaymas Mr. Buchanan was made collector of 
customs in order to obtain the payment of money exacted by 
the United States from Mexico. 2 

Navy-yard Boston, Feb. 1851 to March 1858, after which 
Mr. Buchanan made Charlestown his future home. From July 
'54 to June '55, he was attached to the steam frigate San 
Jacinto, Captain C. K. Stribling, on a special cruise in 
European waters ; and conveying to Spain the Hon. Pierre 
Soule, the United States Minister. At the minister's request, 
Mr. Buchanan was detailed to accompany him to Madrid ; it 
being thought that Mr. Soule would not be favorably received 
by the Spanish Government. While in Madrid, Mr. Buchanan 
called to see his relative the Duke of Sotomayor, but the duke 
was at this time absent in England. 

From Aug. '56 to March '58, he was attached to the steam 

1 An account of this cruise was published by one of the sailors, entitled 
Life in a Man-of- War, or Scenes in Old Ironsides, Phila., 1841, J. Mercer and 
W. Gallop. 

2 The United States Navy, 1775 to 1853, Geo. F. Emmons, 1853, p. 80. 


frigate Wabash, flagship of Commodore Hiram Paulding, com- 
manding the Home squadron, which took prisoners General 
William Walker and filibusters, at San Juan del Norte, 
Nicaragua. Naval Inspector, Navy-yard, Boston, Oct. '58 to 
Sept. '61. • 

Paymaster Buchanan's last cruise was in the frigate Con- 
gress, September '61, to March 8, '62, during the late war, 
blockading James River at Newport News ; and participated 
in the sanguinary engagement of March 8, 1862, with the Con- 
federate squadron led by the iron-clad Virginia, (formerly the 
U. S. steam frigate Merrimac,) commanded by his own 
brother, Commodore, afterwards Admiral Franklin Buchanan. 
In this battle, familar to all, Paymaster Buchanan commanded 
the berth-deck division of the Congress. 

The Virginia, in the beginning of the action, passed the 
Congress, receiving a broadside from that vessel, and sank the 
Cumberland with her prow. The Congress, to avoid a like 
fate, ran herself aground, and the Virginia, being therefore 
obliged to use her guns, took up a raking position astern, 
where the Congress could bring to bear but two guns. These 
being soon disabled, 1 in the unequal contest, —one dis- 
mounted, and the muzzle of the other shot off, the ship having 
been set on fire several times by hot shot, and with her captain 
and one -fourth of her crew killed, after an action of three 
hours, it was decided to surrender. This was done in accord- 
ance with the maxim that where you can neither injure the 
enemy, nor better your own condition, it is your duty to sur- 
render, to avoid needless loss of life. The Congress was then 
boarded by an officer from one of the Confederate steamers, 
who announced that the officers were prisoners, and that the 
crew would be paroled. But when forty men had been taken 
on board the steamer for the purpose of landing them, she was 
driven off by the batteries on shore, which had still kept up 
their fire. The officers and remainder of the crew then came 
on shore in the ship's boats ; and the Congress blew up at 
midnight with a terrific explosion. 

Dr. Shippen of the Congress in his autobiography, Thirty 
Years at Sea, relates that just before the stern guns were dis- 
abled there was a call for more powder; and none appearing, 
he went on the berth-deck to ascertain the cause. He saw 
that a. shot from the Virginia had raked the whole line of men 

1 See a letter from Edward Shippen, surgeon of the Congress, Century 
Mag., xxx., 641, Aug., 1885. 


passing "full boxes," and either killed or wounded the whole 
of them ; a sufficient reason why there was no powder. And 
in his Naval Battles Ancient and Modern, 1883, also gives 
an account of the battle with additional particulars. "Nearly 
all the men in the powder division below, were killed by this 
raking fire. This division was in charge of Paymaster Bu- 
chanan, who was a brother of the captain of the Merrimac. 
Those now fared best whose duty kept them on the spar-deck. 
Even the wounded in the cockpit were killed." 

An editorial article in the Boston Post of March 20, 1862, 
commenting upon this battle, concludes as follows : 

"A letter from Washington [writer unknown] says 'the con- 
duct of McKean Buchanan, Paymaster, United States Navy, on 
board the frigate Congress, during the attack of the Merrimac, is 
the subject of highest praise at the Navy Department. While the 
fight was progressing, although he knew his brother was in com- 
mand of the Merrimac, he volunteered to Lieutenant Command- 
ing Joseph B. Smith, for duty on either of the upper decks. He 
was ordered to. take charge of the berth-deck, where he acted 
with marked gallantry throughout the action.' " x 

Probably no action ever presented such disproportion of 
killed and wounded. It was too close quarters for a shot to 
wound: — it killed. On the Congress alone, of 434 souls, 
there were killed 94, wounded 29, of whom 8 or 10 died 
within a few days, prisoners 40, unharmed 271. The other 
vessels of the squadron at Hampton Roads were also engaged 
in the action, but the Congress and Cumberland bore the brunt 
of the battle. (Further accounts of this battle will be given 
in the succeeding biograph} 7 .) 

A few months before the battle, Paymaster Buchanan was 
placed on the retired list of the navy, in accordance with the 
act of Congress of December 21, 1861 ; which retired all offi- 
cers over sixty-two years of age, or who had been forty-five 
years in the service. 

On September 1st, 1862, Paymaster Buchanan was ordered 
to the practice ship Savannah at New York until September 
1st, 1864; receiving ship Ohio, Boston, Oct. 1st, 1864, to 
Oct. 1st, 1867 ; special duty naval inspection office, Navy 
Yard, Boston, Aug., 1869, to Oct. 1st, 1870, which was his 
last service. 2 

1 The substance of this paragraph is given in Lossing's Pictorial Hist, of 
Civil War, 1868, ii., 362, note. 

2 See Hamersly's Record of Living Officers of the Navy, revised ed., Aug., 



A short time before his death, Congress reorganized the 
staff corps of the navy, under act of March 3, 1871, whereby 
Paymaster Buchanan received the title of Pay Director, with 
the rank of commodore, assimilated to that of brigadier-general 
in the army. His services may be divided into sea service, 16 
years, months ; shore duty, 16 years, 6 months ; on leave, 
12 years, 1 month. And during this long official life he has 
made seven cruises, sailed in nine vessels, served at eight shore 
stations, acted as judge advocate in several courts martial 
while in the Pacific 1847-9, made four cruises to the Pacific, 
passing once round the Cape of Good Hope, and seven times 
round Cape Horn ; and has taken part in two wars. He was 
a man of exceedingly large acquaintance, it being a frequent 
remark of his, that he had met friends in every part of the 
world in which he had sailed. He was beloved and respected 
by all who knew him, prompt and accurate in the discharge of 
his duties, and in accounting for the millions that have passed 
through his hands during nearly half a century. 

One incident in the official life of Pay Director Buchanan 
deserves especial mention, on account of its great importance. 
On the return home of the frigate Constitution to Norfolk, six 
sailors went on shore, and after getting indebted to their 
boardinghouse-keepers, cleared out, and applied to Pay Direc- 
tor Buchanan to send them their money. In the mean time 
the money in his hands had been attached by the boarding- 
house-keepers ; hence arose a case long desired by the legal 
officers of the government, as to whether the government 
could be sued. Pay Director Buchanan was ordered to pay 
the money to the men, and the U. S. district attorney took up 
the case for him in behalf of the government. It was lost in 
two courts, and appealed again to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, where, in 1846, the decisions below were re- 
versed, and the matter settled for all time that the government 
cannot be sued. This is the principal case cited as authority 
upon this subject, and is entitled Buchanan, plaintiff in error, 
vs. Alexander. 1 

Mr. Buchanan, some years after this, brought a case before 

18V0, p. 300, in which a few dates are not quite correct. An obituary in 
Amer. Annual Cgcl., 1871, p. 5*71, contains several mistakes. 

1 4 Howard Reports, 20. It is cited in the Digest of Decisions of the Second 
Comptroller of the Treasury, 1865, p. 156. See also a history of the case, of 
which the above is an abridgment, in The Continent Magazine, iv., 126 ; also 
iii., 539 ; by the author of these pages, replying to a query. 


the Supreme Court that was noted for the counsel employed. 
His attorney was his friend, the Hon. George M. Dallas, then 
Vice President of the United States ; and on the other side, 
was the Hon. Keverdy Johnson, Attorney General of the 
United States. The newspapers tried to make political capital 
of the fact that so high an officer of the government as the 
Vice President, should act against the government ; but he was 
acting professionally, and in his private capacity. (8 Howard 

During one of his cruises — probably in the Vincennes — the 
ship visited the Marquesas islands. These islands are mostly 
surrounded by deep water, the shore being of solid rock rising 
to lofty heights, showing a bold contour, when seen from a 
distance. 1 The current set the ship against this iron-bound 
coast, and she was with difficulty kept off by poles. On board 
of the vessel was a young Indian king nine years of age, 
accompanied by a number of high chiefs.. The islanders — a 
fierce warlike tribe, and cannibals withal, who were at war 
with this king, stood upon the rocks crying Matti matti typee, 
drawing their hands across their throats, intimating the fate of 
those on board, should the vessel be wrecked. But a land 
breeze finally caught the royals and sky-scrapers, clearing the 
vessel from its perilous position. 

Subsequently during this cruise, when the Vincennes was in 
China, Canton was the principal or only port open to foreign- 
ers at that time ; and this strange man-of-war, being considered 
an unwelcome intruder, two war junks were ordered down the 
river to drive her off. They kept at a safe distance for a 
while, and soon returned, reporting that u they had sunk the 
Yankee bobbery ship." 2 On the coast of South America, 
Paymaster Buchanan saw land, distant 180 miles, the snow- 
capped summit of Chimborazo, 80 miles inland, when the vessel 
was 100 miles at sea. During one of his earlier cruises he 
suffered greatly from rheumatism ; nevertheless, he had a 
strong desire to accompany a party of officers who proposed 
ascending one of the volcanoes in South America. Being 
scarcely able to walk, he hired eight natives to carry him up on 
a litter. On the summit of this mountain, the party roasted 
eggs in the steam issuing from the fissures in the earth. They 
remained all night, and the ground being uncomfortably hot, 
the party could scarcely rest, even on the mats they had 

l Typee — A Peep at Polynesian Life, H. Melville, N. Y., 1847. 
2 Man-of-war. 


brought with them. In the morning, however, Mr. Buchanan, 
much to his surprise, felt himself free from rheumatism, and 
walked down with the party, a distance of about twelve miles ; 
and it is a fact that his rheumatism was permanently cured 
from this time. 

While at the Pensacola navy yard, small change was so 
scarce, Paymaster Buchanan found great difficulty in paying 
the men employed; and therefore issued, in his private ca- 
pacity, printed notes (what we now call fractional currency), 
signed by himself, of the value of 6|-, 12J, 25 and 50 cents, 
redeemable in sums of five dollars. They were readily ac- 
cepted by all the inhabitants, and in fact rose to a premium. 
At the bank one day, Paymaster Buchanan said he would 
withdraw a portion from circulation, but was told: " We can't 
let you do it, sir; we need them for change." But few of 
them now remain, preserved as curiosities. 

Paymaster Buchanan had one peculiarity that was sometimes 
a source of remark among his friends. Althoug open-hearted 
and generous in everything else, he disliked to see any waste 
water. He would say, " Use all you want, but do not waste 
any. If you want to drink a half tumbler, do not pour out a 
full tumbler and waste half of it." He attributed this to hav- 
ing been put on short allowance of water, when on long cruises 
in old time sailing vessels. 

Paymaster Buchanan was married July 1, 1834, to Frances 
Selina Roberdeau. youngest daughter of the late Colonel Isaac 
Roberdeau, U. S. Army. 


Isaac Roberdeau, a French Huguenot who fled from France 
■in 1685, took refuge on the island of St. Christopher, West 
•Indies ; and married Mary Cunyngham, daughter of Robert 
• Cunyngham of Cayon, on that island, scion of a noble family, 
and descendant of Alexander first earl of Glencairn, ennobled 
by King James III. of Scotland in 1488 ; whose family dates 
back in an unbroken line to the year 1057. Mary Roberdeau 
came to Philadelphia, after her husband's death, with her three 
children, of whom her only son Daniel Roberdeau became a 
prominent advocate of American independence ; a brigadier 
general of the Pennsylvania troops, member of the Continental 
Congress 1777-9, and signer of the Articles of Confederation. 
His son, Colonel Isaac Roberdeau, became a lieutenant-colonel 


of topographical engineers of the United States Army, and 
chief of the bureau, which he organized in 1818. Colonel 
Roberdeau married Susan Blair, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Blair, and granddaughter of Dr. William Shippen the 
elder, of Philadelphia, member of the Continental Congress 
1778-80, a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Vice-President of the American Philosophical Society, who 
died in Philadelphia November 4, 1801, aged 90 years. 1 

Pay Director Buchanan died at his residence in Charlestown, 
Massachusetts, March 18, 1871, of a slow decline from the shock 
his system sustained during the late unhappy war. He is buried 
in Mt. Auburn cemetery. The following extracts are from an 
obituary in the Baltimore American, author unknown: 

" The press has lately recorded the death of this distinguished 
officer, which occurred on the 18th instant ... At the time of 
his decease, he was one of the oldest paymasters in the navy. . . 
His age placed him on the retired list by the law of December 
1861, but his commanding abilities in his department of the ser- 
vice kept him in active employment till within a few months of 
his death. In person and character, Mr. Buchanan was a man of 
noble presence. His courtly manner carried the impression of 
the highest qualities of courage and honor, blended with gentle- 
ness and kindly affection truly feminine." 

His widow removed to Washington, D. C, in the fall of 
1872, where she now resides. The children of Pay Director 
and Mrs. Buchanan are : 

57. i. Roberdeau, b. Nov. 22, 1839, Phila. 

58. ii. L^etitia McKean, b. Dec. 24, 1842, Brooklyn (Mrs. Fife). 

23. Admiral FRANKLIN BUCHANAN.— Born in Balti- 
more, September 17, 1800. Entered the navy at the early 
age of fourteen, receiving his appointment as midshipman, 
January 28, 1815 ; and the following April was ordered to the 
frigate Java, Commodore O. H. Perry, passing the next five 
years at sea in various vessels. After a few months on shore, 
he was solicited to accept the appointment of mate in a mer- 

J For the Roberdeau family, see Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, 1876, 
by the author of these pages ; Browning's Americans of Royal Descent, Phil., 
1883, Pedigree xl ; and America Heraldica, N. Y., 1887, p. 76, plate xi., giving 
thejnames and arms of families in this country before the year 1800. For the 
Shippen family : Balch's Letters and Papers Relating to the Provincial History 
of Pennsylvania, 1855; Genealogy of the Descendants of Dr. William Shippen 
the Elder, by the author of these pages, 1877 ; Keith's Provincial Councillors 
of Pa., 1883; Pa. Mag., i., 109 et sea.; America Heraldica. 


chant ship bound for India. So much sea service as he had 
already seen, gave him an experience beyond his years, and 
this position as mate was tendered to him before he was of age. 
(February 21, 1821.) The Navy Department gave him per- 
mission to accept it, and leave for one year. The cruise, how- 
ever, lasted fifteen months ; and on his return he was ordered 
to the Philadelphia Navy Yard. He remained here but a 
few months ; his active and energetic temperament prefering 
duty at sea to the inactivity of a shore station. He cruised 
three years and a half in the West India squadron, as acting- 
master from December 20, 1822 ; and subsequently as acting 
lieutenant, from December 5, 1823. 

In 1823, he was a passed midshipman. This was not a 
separate grade at that time, although it became so subsequently; 
he had passed his examination, and was ready for promotion at 
the next vacancy. He received his commission as lieutenant, 
January 13, 1825, during the latter cruise. 

Two months after his return home, the Navy Department 
showed the esteem in which lieutenant Buchanan was held, by 
placing him in command of the frigate Baltimore, recently 
built for the Emperor of Brazil. These complimentary orders, 
partaking of a semi-diplomatic character, were dated July 31, 
1826, and directed him to take the vessel to Rio Janeiro. He 
was at this time not quite twenty-six years of age. On his 
return to the United States, he was ordered to the sloop of war 
Natchez, in the West Indies: then to the frigate Peacock, one 
of the vessels of Commodore Wilkes Exploring Expedition in 
the South Pacific ocean ; then again to the Natchez in the 
Mediterranean, and soon after transferred to the Constellation ; 
— a continuous cruise of four years and a half. At the ex- 
piration of this cruise in November 1831, Mr. Buchanan had 
been in the service nearly seventeen years, and on active duty 
the whole time, except fourteen months, broken into short 
periods of a few months at a time. Pie had therefore earned 
a well merited rest, and was allowed leave for a little less than 
a year ; when he was ordered to the naval rendezvous at 
Philadelphia, for two months ; and then in February 1833, as 
first lieutenant to the line of battle ship Delaware, bearing the 
broad pennant of Commodore D. T. Patterson. 

This vessel carried as passenger, the Hon. Edward Liv- 
ingston, United States Minister to France. The king, Louis 
Phillipe, remembering that he had been well treated by Amer- 
icans when an exile, invited the minister and officers of the 


Delaware to dine with him. Among those who accepted the 
invitation was lieutenant Buchanan. General Simon Bernard, 
now minister of war, was also one of the guests. He had been 
Napoleon's chief engineer ; and when a refugee in this country 
entered the United States army, became chief engineer, and 
designed all the earlier important forts on the Atlantic coast. 
He also renewed his acquaintance with several of the American 
officers. It was remarked after the dinner, that the American 
officers, as guests of the king, were allowed to be seated ; 
while General Bernard and the other high officers of the 
realm, being subjects, were obliged to stand in the presence of 
royalty. Lieutenant Buchanan was subsequently transferred 
to the frigate United States, and returned home in her. 

He was then ordered on special duty, and also to the re- 
ceiving ship at Baltimore ; and in April 1839, joined the noted 
frigate Constitution, flag-ship of Commodore Claxton, and made 
a cruise in the Pacific. He was subsequently transferred to 
the Falmouth, in which he returned home. 

Promoted to be Commander, September 8, 1841, and in 
April, 1842, ordered w the command of the steam frigate 
Mississippi, in the West Indies, and transferred after a few 
months, to the command of the sloop of war Vincennes. 

During his cruise in the latter vessel, commander Buchanan 
was in a position to render aid to two British merchant ships in 
distress, the Cybele and Cato, for which he received the thanks 
of the British consul at Galveston, Texas. 1 


The want of proper instruction for the younger officers ot 
the navy, in seamanship, gunnery, naval tactics, and other tech- 
nical branches, had been long felt among the older, officers of 
the service ; but no officer had the authority to take action in 
the matter upon his own responsibility. When George Ban- 
croft became Secretary of the Navy in March, 1845, he recog- 
nized the necessity of a naval school. He was no ordinary 
author in matters of education, having graduated at Harvard 
University, and also taken a degree at Gottingen ; and had at 
this time won a reputation in literature. " Commander Frank- 
lin Buchanan had already been selected by the secretary to be 
the head of the new institution. Born in Baltimore in 1800, 
this officer had entered the service at the age of fifteen, and 

1 Nat. Intelligencer, June 26, 1844. 


had risen to the grade of commander, with a high reputation 
for ability in his profession as a skillful, energetic and system- 
atic organizer. H« had had several commands at sea before 
he was called to this new duty ; and his selection by the secre- 
tary was itself an evidence of his fitness for the position." 

In the Historical Sketch of the United States Naval 
Academy, Professor J. R. Soley, 1876, from which the above 
extracts are taken, the credit of devising a system of education 
for the new school is given to George Bancroft. But the letter 
of the Secretary to Commander Buchanan does not bear out so 
broad a statement. The letter, dated August 7, 1845, is 
quite long, and its directions general in their character, leaving 
all the details to Commander Buchanan's judgment : the 
professors and instructors who were then scattered are to be 
collected together; the discipline and morality should be equal 
to that of any college in the country ; that the powers conferred 
on him (Commander Buchanan) by the laws of the country 
were sufficient for the purpose. He was authorized to select 
from the twenty-two professors and three teachers of languages ; 
also from the chaplains, and others junior to himself. '* Hav- 
ing thus expressed to you," the letter concludes, " some general 
views, I leave you with such assistance as you may require, to 
prepare and lay before this department, for its approbation, a 
plan for the organization of the naval school at Fort Severn, 

It is here seen that the whole plan of the school with all its 
details is left to the judgment of Commander Buchanan. Be- 
fore receiving the secretary's letter, he had been ordered to 
report himself at the Department, under date of July 23, 1845, 
for the purpose of conferring with Mr. Bancroft upon this sub- 
ject. Doubtless, the general plan, and perhaps the details, 
were then partly discussed, and Mr. Bancroft's views made 
known. But it cannot be denied that an officer who had spent 
thirty years in the navy was more familiar with the needs and 
requirements of the service, than a civilian who had presided 
over the Navy Departmont but four months. To Mr. Ban- 
croft belongs the credit of founding the school; but the 
organization, and the plan of instruction, with all the details, 
according to the above letter were left to the judgment of 
Commander Buchanan. 

Pursuant to the secretary's letter, Commander Buchanan 
submitted a plan for the establishment of the Naval School, 
August 14th, and the same day was appointed Superintendent 


of the new school. Fort Severn at Annapolis, with the land 
surrounding, was transferred from the War Department ; and 
here, on the 10th of October following, the school was formally 
opened. " Commander Buchanan was a man of inflexible will, 
and a stern disciplinarian, and his hands were strengthened by 
the prompt and cordial support of the Navy Department . . . 
The character of his administration is shadowed forth in his 
opening address. The first lesson of the young officer is sub- 
ordination ; and it was of paramount importance that the first 
administration of the school should exact this, if nothing else. 
Two years of lax discipline at the start, in the period when the 
tone of a school is set, and school traditions are fixed for all 
time, would have been a lasting element of weakness, from 
which the academy was saved by the strong government of 
Buchanan." (Ibid.) 

War with Mexico now commenced, and Commander Bu- 
chanan asked for active sea duty, which the department 
granted, detaching him from the Naval School March 2, 1847. 
His influence over the Naval School does not however termin- 
ate with his detachment; for he was afterwards several times 
appointed a member of the Examining Board. And in Sep- 
tember, 1849, was a member of a board of officers to revise 
the plan and regulations of the School, namely, Commanders 
W. B. Shubrick, Franklin Buchanan, S. F. Dupont, Geo. P. 
Upshur, Surgeon Ruschenberger, Professor William Chauvenet 
and Captain Henry Brewerton, U. S. A. The course of study 
was changed from five to seven years, including a course of 
three years, and the name was changed to the Naval Academy, 
the corps of professors enlarged, and other minor changes sug- 
gested. The next year other changes were proposed which 
were referred to the Board of Visitors for 1851, viz. — Com- 
modore David Connor, Captain S. L. Breeze, Commanders C. 
K. Stribling, A. Bigelow, Franklin Buchanan, and Lieutenant 
T. T. Craven. The principal change made was a consecutive 
course of four years' study. 

In the History of the Naval Academy, by E. C. Marshall, 
it is stated : 

" Captain Franklin Buchanan, the first Superintendent of the 
Naval Academy, has always borne the highest character as an 
accomplished officer. All parties of that day, the Secretary of 
the Navy, the public journals, and others, bear testimony of 
the skill, ability and success with which he discharged the diffi- 
cult duties of his office." 


The several rows of buildings for the quarters of the officers 
and other purposes are known by the name of the Superintend- 
ent at the time they were erected. Buchanan Row extends 
across the academy grounds, between the library and the 
Superintendent's house. 


Upon being detached from the Naval Academy at his own 
request, as related on the previous page, Commander Buchanan 
was the same day ordered to the command of the sloop-of-war 
Germantown, in the Home Squadron, and participated in the 
attack upon the castle of San Juan d' Ulloa, and the capture 
of Vera Cruz. In the expedition against Tuspan, April 18, 
which consisted of the steamers and detachments from the sail- 
ing vessels, Commander Buchanan participated with his crew 
from the Germantown, resulting in the capture of the place. 
The squadron also took possession of Alvarado, which was 
abandoned and the guns spiked on their approach. In June 
an expedition against Tobasco consisted of the small steamers 
and detachments from the sailing vessels in boats, in which 
Commander Buchanan also participated. The river being ob- 
structed, the forces landed in the face of the enemy, and made 
a bold dash up the steep banks of the river, dragging with 
them ten field pieces ; then marched to the city and captured 
the place. 

Two large cannon balls, captured by Commander Buchanan 
during this war, were brought home, and ornament the gate- 
posts of his home in Maryland. 


After the close of the war, Captain Buchanan was in com- 
mand of the Baltimore Rendezvous, and a member of several 
boards of officers, for about three years, when in March, 1852, 
he was ordered to take passage in the steam frigate Mississippi, 
to Europe, and proceed to China to command the steam frigate 
Susquehanna, one of Commodore Perry's noted Japan Ex- 
pedition. Upon his arrival in Japan, Commodore Perry trans- 
ferred his flag to the Susquehanna, which made Commander 
Buchanan the next most prominent officer of the squadron. 
Commodore Perry was the bearer of a letter from President 
Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan, which was delivered to the 
Governor of Uraga with much ceremony. 


Commander Buchanan had command of the expedition upon 
this occasion, and as the captain's gig touched the shore, he 
was the first person in the squadron to land in Japan. 1 The 
arrangements for delivering the letter were made by Captain 
Buchanan with the Governor of Uraga, on board the Susque- 
hanna, and the conversation narrated with illustrations in the 
above work, (iii, 243.) He also commanded the escort 
of about 500 officers and men, when Commodore Perry re- 
ceived the Chief Commissioner's reply to the President's 

Commodore Perry in order to give impress of his high rank 
and power, in imitation of the Japanese kept himself much 
secluded, and was usually carried about on shore in a closed 
sedan chair ; regarding which Captain Buchanan would relate 
an amusing story. During one of the expeditions, the officers 
were ordered to appear in full dress uniform buttoned to the 
throat, with chapeau, sword, etc. The weather being exceed- 
ingly hot they questioned among themselves how they could 
stand it ; when Captain Buchanan said, " I think I can arrange 
it for you." He then went to Commodore Perry, and told 
him that " if all the officers should wear their full dress, trimmed 
with embroidery and gold lace, minor distinctions of uniform 
will be unnoticed, and the Japanese will not know which is the 
high officer ; seeing so many, they will think no one is very 
exalted. But if you wear your full uniform, buttoned up to 
the throat, and the other officers their undress uniform, leaving 
their coats unbuttoned, the Japanese will readily see who is 
the high officer." "That is so!" replied Commodore Perry, 
who at once countermanded his former order, much to the 
delight of the junior officers ; who nevertheless pitied the " high 
officer" in his full dress coat. 

Bayard Taylor, the traveller, was at Hong Kong while the 
Susquehanna was there, and wishing to join this noted expedi- 
tion, was appointed to a minor position by Captain Buchanan. 
In his Visit to India, China and Japan in 1853 (N. Y., 
1869), he relates many interesting incidents of his cruise. 
The Japanese made false forts out of black canvas, not know- 
ing that the ship's spyglasses would at once detect their char- 
acter ; and it was amusing to hear the quartermasters report 
to Captain Buchanan, " Another dungaree fort thrown up, sir !" 
Regarding the captain he adds, " We found in Captain Bu- 

1 Perry 1 s Japan Expedition, 3 vols., published by Congress, iii., 253-4. 


chanan, the commander, all that his reputation as a gentleman 
and a brave and gallant officer led us to expect." 

The Susquehanna returned to the United States in March, 
1855; and just before arriving in New York there was a cry 
of man overboard. It proved to be the favorite monkey ! 
Knowing him to be the pet of the whole crew, Captain Bu- 
chanan had the vessel at once hove to, and called away the 
boats, which were soon manned with willing hands ; but the 
monkey could not be found. 

In June, 1855, Commander Buchanan was appointed one of 
a board of officers, organized under the act of Congress of 
February 28, 1855, to promote the efficiency of the navy. 
This was the first retiring Board for the navy, usually called 
the Board of Fifteen. It was composed of the following 
officers: Captains W. B. Shubrick, M. C. Perry, C. S. Mc- 
Cauley, C. K. Stribling, A. Bigelow ; Commanders G. J. 
Pendergrast, Franklin Buchanan, S. F. Dupont, Samuel 
Barron, A. H. Foote ; Lieutenants J. S. Missroon, R. L. 
Page, S. W. Godon, W. L. Maury, James S. Biddle. 

The members of the Board were officers whose general 
reputation and standing was the highest in the service ; for 
they were to sit in judgment upon their brother officers. They 
were ordered to deliberate in secret, and to keep no record of 
their proceedings. The Board was dissolved September 13, 
1855, after recommending 201 officers to be placed on leave, 
on furlough, or to be dropped ; which finding was carried out 
on the above named day. . This action caused 'widespread dis- 
content throughout the country ; various newspapers took up 
the matter in behalf of the officers ; and the representatives in 
Congress were besieged with petitions for a reversal of their 
action. Nevertheless, the Board was sustained by the Navy 
Department ; but by an act of Congress, the Department was 
obliged to order courts of inquiry, which examined 108 cases, 
reversing the decision in 62 of them. Others were changed 
by the President. 

Commander Buchanan was soon after this promoted Sep- 
tember 14, 1855, to be a Captain, then the highest grade in 
the service ; a Commodore being a Captain, so called by 
courtesy only, while commanding a squadron. 

In May, 1859, Captain Buchanan was ordered to the com- 
mand of the Washington Navy Yard, one of the most desirable 
positions for a naval officer. He was relieved from duty here, 
April 22, 1861, just as the civil war was breaking out; and 


retired to his home in Maryland. His sympathies were with 
the south, and the next month, hearing that his state Maryland 
had seceded, he resigned his commission. Finding the next 
day that Maryland had not seceded, he wrote to the Depart- 
ment to recall his resignation; but both letters were disre- 
garded, and he was dismissed May 14th, to date from April 
22. The Navy Department adopted this course with all 
officers to show their disapprobation. When an officer re- 
signed to take sides with the south, his resignation was not 
accepted, and he was dismissed. The anti-dating of his dis- 
missal from April 22 is certainly of very questionable legality. 1 


On the 5th of September, 1861, Captain Buchanan cast his 
lot with the southern cause, by entering the Confederate navy as 
a captain, the same grade he had held in the old service. He 
was placed in charge of the Bureau of Orders and Detail in the 
navy department at Richmond. His attention was early di- 
rected to the building of gunboats. The large steam frigate 
Merrimac, which had been scuttled and sunk at Norfolk, when 
the navy yard was abandoned by the naval authorities, was 
raised and had been razeed and iron plated ; she was armed 
with an iron prow, with six IX-inch Dahlgren guns, and two 
32-pounder Brooke rifled guns in broadside, also two VII inch 
Brooke pivot guns at bow and stern ; and her name changed to 
the Virginia. The steamer Patrick Henry, 12 guns, commander 
John R. Tucker ; steamer Jamestown, two guns, lieut. -com- 
mander J. N. Barney ; and gunboat Teaser, one gun, lieut. - 
commanding W. A. Webb, were up the James River ready to 
co-operate ; the Beaufort, lieut. -commanding W. H. Parker, and 
Raleigh, lieut.-commanding J. W. Alexander, each one gun, 
were at Norfolk, a total of 27 guns. 2 

To the command of this squadron Captain Franklin Buchanan 
was appointed, February 24, 1862, as flag officer, hoisting his 
flag on the Virginia. 

At eleven o'clock on Saturday, the 8th of March, 1862, the 

x The dates and facts above given, unless otherwise stated, are mainly 
taken from the records of the Navy Department, and were first made use of 
by the author in preparing the obituary of Admiral Buchanan, in the New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register, xxviii., 364, July, 1874. 

2 Report, Adm. Buchanan. 


Virginia, accompanied by the Beaufort and Raleigh, steamed 
out from Norfolk. The federal squadron at Hampton Roads, 
lying off Fort Monroe, was taken completely by surprise, and 
signalled her approach at a quarter before one. The Virginia 
headed up the James River for Newport News, where lay the 
wooden sailing frigates Congress, 50 guns, and Cumberland, 30 
guns. Passing the Congress and receiving her broadside, the 
Virginia struck the Cumberland with her prow, causing that 
ship to sink in a few moments, with about 150 of her crew. 
Meanwhile the Congress, seeing the fate of the Cumberland, 
had set her sails, and with the assistance of a steam tug had 
run herself aground. The Virginia could not approach her in 
the shoal water, and took up a position astern, pouring in a 
aking fire. The Patrick Henry and other vessels had in the 
meanwhile come down James River and were also now engag- 
ing the Congress. The Virginia soon disabled the only two 
guns the Congress could bring to bear upon her, whereupon 
she hoisted the white flag. 

Flag Officer Buchanan then ordered lieutenant Parker to go 
alongside, take prisoners the officers and wounded, and let the 
rest escape. This officer boarded the Congress as directed, in 
the Beaufort, but the steamer was driven off' by the batteries 
on shore, which had still kept up their fire. Commodore Bu- 
chanan seeing this, opened fire again on the Congress with 
three guns, using incendiary shot. The white flag was flying 
from the Congress during this time. This circumstance was 
afterwards unfavorably commented upon by both sides. The 
Virginia claimed the Congress as a lawful prize, and that her 
officers were prisoners of war ; and the Federals blamed the 
Virginia for firing when the white flag was flying. 

Flag Officer Buchanan towards the close of the action ap- 
peared outside of the iron plating of the Virginia, and was 
wounded by a Minie ball from one of the batteries on shore. 
His wound was a compound fracture of the right leg. 

In the beginning of the battle, the other vessels of the Fed- 
eral squadron at Hampton Roads got under weigh for Newport 
News, about eight miles distant. The steam-frigate Minnesota, 
40 guns, grounded when within a mile and a half and was hard 
aground for two days. The Roanoke, 40 guns, had broken 
her shaft some time before and also ran aground. The St. 
Lawrence sailing frigate in being towed up likewise got aground. 
The two former were sister ships of the Virgin'a before she 
was burned at Norfolk. 


After leaving the Congress, the Virginia tried to reach the 
Minnesota, but could not venture in the shoal water, and en- 
gaged her at long range ; several shots taking effect, one of 
which crippled her foremast. The day now closing, the Vir- 
ginia steamed back to Norfolk. 

The Minnesota threw overboard six of her heavy 9-inch guns, 
to lighten the ship, and transferred most of her stores to the 
Whitehall, gunboat, and then floated ; had she not done so, it 
was the intention to have destroyed her at once. The White- 
hall however took fire from a shot or some other cause and was 
burned to the water's edge. The gunboat Oregon received a 
shot in her boiler and blew up. The Zouave also received 
serious damage and was put out of action. 

At Norfolk, Flag Officer Buchanan was taken to the hospital 
with the other wounded, and was not in command the next day 
when the Virginia engaged the Monitor ; the command then 
devolved upon lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones. 

Thus had Commodore Franklin Buchanan the honor of com- 
manding and manoeuvring the first iron-clad vessel engaged in 
actual battle. Naval warfare was revolutionized from that day. 
Two things were demonstrated : that iron-plated vessels would 
mainly compose the navies of the future ; and that the strength 
and calibre of guns must be proportionately increased. These 
facts were established by the Virginia alone, in the first day's 
battle, and are quite independent of the kind or type of armored 
vessel which established them. 1 The Monitor the next day 
merely confirmed what the Virginia had inaugurated. Besides 
this, the Monitor introduced a new type of war vessel ; but so 
did the Virginia — a type of another kind. 

The news of this battle, was the great excitement of the 
whole war: nothing before or since, began to approach to it. 
It disarranged the plans of the military leaders; it filled the 
country with apprehension ; and preparations were made for 
the defense of the principal harbors, New York, Boston, 
Washington, and other places. General Wood, commanding 
Fort Monroe, telegraphed to Washington that probably both 
the Minnesota and the St. Lawrence would be captured, add- 
ing '"it was thought that the Merrimac, Jamestown and York- 
town, will pass the fort to-night." Meanwhile that officer admit- 
ted that should the Merrimac prefer to attack the fort it would 
be only a question of a few days when it must be abandoned. 2 

1 See Soley's Blockade and the Cruisers, 1883, p. 74. 
2 Twelve Decisive Battles of the War, Swinton, p. 245. 


And this he says, of the largest and perhaps the strongest forti- 
fication in the United States! 

The Confederacy was elated in a corresponding degree. 
Congress was in session, and passed the following resolution: 

" Resolved by the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 
That the thanks of Congress are due and are hereby cordially 
tendered to Captain Buchanan and all under his command, for 
their unsurpassed gallantry, as displayed in the recent successful 
attack upon the naval force of the enemy in Hampton Roads. 

" Approved March 12, 1862." 1 

Congress soon after this, by act of April 21, 1862, reorgan- 
ized the navy, and created the grade of Admiral, allowing 
four such officers, Avho " shall be appointed solely for gallant 
or meritorious conduct during the war." To this grade Com- 
modore Buchanan was appointed August 21, 18G2, to take 
rank from that day ; being promoted over the heads of all his 
superiors, and made full Admiral, thus becoming the senior 
officer of the Confederate Navy 2 . 

Flag Officer Buchanan's report to the Secretary of the Navy 
dated March 27, 1862, may be found in the War of the Re- 
bellion Official Records, Ser. I., vol. ix., p. 8. Secretary 
Mallory in transmitting this report to Congress, says : " The 
daring courage and consummate professional ability of Flag 
Officer Buchanan and his associates, achieved the most mem- 
orable victory which naval annals record." 3 

Jefferson Davis writes of this battle and the Virginia: 4 

" Her commander. Captain (afterwards Admiral) Franklin 
Buchanan, with the wisdom of age, and the experience of sea ser- 
vice from his boyhood, combined the daring and enterprise of 
youth ; and with him was lieutenant Catesby ap R. Jones, who 
had been specially in charge of the battery and otherwise thor- 
oughly acquainted with the ship." 

Not only his friends in the south but his former enemies in 
the north have given to Admiral Buchanan much praise for his 
bravery in this battle. Admiral David D. Porter, now the 
ranking officer in the United States Navy, remarks : 5 

1 Statutes at Large, Public Laws of the Confederate States, 1864, p. 53. 

2 Confed. Navy Register, Jan. 1, 1864. See Appendix II., No. 23. 

3 Ibid., p. 1. See also Southern Histor. Soc. Papers, vol. vii., 305. Also 
Report of the Naval Committee, H. R. 48th Cong., 1st sess., Report No. 1725, 
containing extracts from official papers on both sides. 

4 Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, N. Y., 1881, p. 196. 
5 Naval History of the Civil War, N. Y., 1886, p. 120. 


" When this formidable vessel was completed the name of the 
' Virginia' was bestowed upon her, and she was placed under the 
command of Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan, who had resigned 
from the United States Navy, where be had reaped the highest 
rewards that could be bestowed in time of peace. He was a man 
of undoubted courage, and his professional ability was of the first 
order. Buchanan was fortunate in surrounding himself with ex- 
cellent officers, men capable of performing any naval duty, and it 
mav be remarked that no commander was ever better seconded 
by his subordinates." 1 

Professor Soley says of the Virginia and her commander, 
" She was under the command of Franklin Buchanan, whose 
ability and energy had won him a high place in the esteem of 
his brother officers in the navy before the war." Lossing's 
Civil War in America, gives a wood cut of Admiral Bu- 
chanan, and states that he had been " an experienced officer of 
the National Navy." 

Foreign officers likewise have written of this battle. The 
Prince de Joinville 2 gives a correct account of the Virginia's 
movements, and adds, " a ball struck her brave and skillful 
commander, Captain Buchanan." Likewise the Comte de Paris 3 
mentions " the brave Buchanan who was severely wounded in 
the thigh." Lt. Col. Fletcher, 4 of the Scots Fusilier Guards, 
notes the small number of killed and wounded on the Virginia. 
" Among the latter," he says, " was her brave commander, 
Captain Buchanan, who had evinced great courage and skill in 
manoeuvring his vessel." The sinking of the Cumberland 
forms the theme of a poem by Longfellow, entitled The Gum- 
berland, indexed under Birds of Passage, Flight 2d. 

In an interesting magazine article 5 — The First Fight of 
Iron Clads, John Taylor Wood, a former officer of the Vir- 
ginia in this contest, remarks of his commander, " Commodore 
Franklin Buchanan was appointed to the command — an ener- 
getic and high-toned officer, who combined with daring courage 
great professional skill, standing deservedly at the head of his 
profession. . . . Under him were as capable a set of officers 
as ever were brought together in one ship. But of man-of- 

1 The Blockade and the Cruisers, 1883. 

2 Army of the Potomac, N. Y., 1862, p. 30, 31. 

3 History of the Civil War in America, 1876, p. 600. 

4 History of the American War, London, 1866, 3 vols. i. 326. 

5 Century Magazine, xix, p. 739, et seq.; March, 1885. 



Avar's men or sailors we had scarcely any." This article is 
illustrated, and contains an excellent full page wood cut like- 
ness of Admiral Buchanan and Commodore Tattnall, from a 
photograph taken at Savannah, during the war. 

Flag officer Josiah Tattnall now succeeded to the command 
of the Virginia, March 29 ; but early in April, Norfolk was 
evacuated by the Confederate troops ; and being unable to 
take the ship up the James River to Richmond, on account of 
the vessel drawing twenty-three feet of water, he had no other 
alternative but to destroy her. This was a disappointment to 
the Confederacy, and Commodore Tattnall asked for a court of 
inquiry. The court which convened July 5, consisted of 
Captains Lawrence Rousseau, Franklin Buchanan, Sidney 
Smith Lee (a brother of Gen. R. E. Lee,) and George N. 
Hollins, six commanders, two lieutenants, and Robert Ould 
judge advocate. Flag officer Tattnall was honorably acquit- 


When sufficiently recovered from his wound for active duty, 
Admiral Buchanan w r as placed in command of the naval de- 
fenses of Mobile. He was in command here, according to the 
Navy Register, as early as January 1, 1863. In June of this 
year he had under his command the ram Baltic flag ship, and 
gunboats Morgan, Gaines and Selma. The powerful ram 
Tennessee was ready for service in May, 1864, and became 
the flag-ship. 

This vessel was one of the most powerful ever constructed. 
Her length was 209 feet, her casemate was plated with six 
inches of iron, with a thick wood backing ; she had ten ports 
and four broadside 6 inch guns, and two pivot 7^- inch, one each 
at the forward and after ends of the casemate, which could be 
used as broadside guns. Her steering apparatus, however, 
proved to be her only weak point. 

Illustrative of Admiral Buchanan's character and discipline 
the following incident was related to the author by a Confeder- 
ate officer : The government had ordered that each ship which 
ran the blockade should take one-third of her cargo of cotton, 
to be delivered to the Confederate agent at Havana. A foreign 
merchant declined to agree to this condition. Admiral Buchanan 
refused to let the ship depart, and ordered one of his steamers 
to sink her if she made the attempt. Both the Secretaries of 
War and Navy telegraphed to let her go ; but he was obdurate 


until the captain had given the required security ; and not till 
then did he give the permit to depart. 

Just before the Federal attack on Fort Fisher, at Wilming- 
ton, N. C, General Whiting commanding at that point issued 
the following order : 

Wilmington, N. C, Oct. 29, 1864. 

The new work on Confederate Point, to be manned and com- 
manded by the navy, will in honor of the admiral, be known as 
Battery Buchanan. 

W. H. C. Whiting, Major General. 


During the summer of 1864, preparations were made for the 
attack on the defences of Mobile. Vice Admiral Farragut's 
fleet consisted of twenty-five vessels ; viz., fourteen steamers 
lashed two and two together, and one barge, with four moni- 
tors, which were to run past the forts ; six wooden vessels were 
anchored south of Fort Morgan to divert its fire ; besides 
which, six other vessels acted in concert by guarding Grant's 
Pass; in all thirty-one vessels. At 5.45 A. M., August 5, 
1864, this squadron advanced ; the forts opened fire at six 
minutes past seven o'clock ; but the squadron passed the 
obstructions and entered the harbor ; one monitor, the Tecum- 
seh, was sunk by a torpedo. At 7.20 being within range of 
the Confederate gunboats, they opened fire. The Confederate 
ram Tennessee, Admiral Buchanan, dashed at the flag ship 
Hartford, but failed to ram her, and after attacking other 
vessels and passing through the Federal line, returned to her 
anchorage under the guns of the fort. The Federal squadron 
then gave chase to the smaller Confederate vessels : the Selma 
was captured ; the Morgan escaped up the bay ; the Gaines 
also escaped, but was injured and subsequently destroyed. 
Only one Confederate vessel now remained ; and after the 
Federal fleet of fourteen steamers and three monitors had 
anchored, Admiral Buchanan, notwithstanding the fearful odds 
against him, boldly steamed out to attack this fleet. It was one 
vessel against seventeen — six guns against one hundred and 
fifty-eight. Admiral Farragut signalled to attack the Tennessee 
with bows and guns. The Federal fleet kept moving around her, 
making it difficult for the Tennessee to ram any one of them, 
and she was thus subjected to the concentrated fire of the whole 
fleet. The Tennessee was rammed by the Monongahela, but 
partially avoided it. The Tennessee's shots pierced through and 


through, while the Monongahela's glanced off. The Lacka- 
wanna next struck her, then the Hartford, and the two latter 
vessels collided, damaging the flagship. The monitor Manhat- 
tan, firing 15 inch shot of 440 lbs., struck her casemate. The 
two other monitors were firing 11 inch solid shot, one of which 
entered the stern port, jamming the rudder chain. The smoke 
stack was also shot away, and the vessel filled with steam and gas, 
so that the men could hardly breathe. Admiral Buchanan at 
this time was wounded in the right leg by a splinter while 
freeing a gun from a shattered port shutter ; and the ship be- 
ing unmanageable from the loss of her rudder chain, had not 
fired a gun for fifteen minutes. Further resistance was use- 
less, and she then surrendered. The Ossipee was at this mo- 
ment approaching at full speed, and the Monongahela and 
Lackawanna were bearing down on her. The engagement had 
lasted from 7 to 10 A. M. 

Admiral Farragut in his official report, August 12, 1864, 
calls this " one of the fiercest naval combats on record." And 
in his report September 4, 1864, says of Admiral Buchanan 
rather savagely, though still to his professional credit, " He, 
though a rebel and traitor to the Government that had raised 
and educated him, had always been considered one of its ablest 
officers, and no one knew him better, or appreciated his char- 
acter more highly than myself, and, I may add, felt even more 
proud of overcoming him in such a contest, if for no other rea- 
son than to show the world that ramming and sinking a helpless 
frigate at her anchors, is a very different affair from ramming 
steamers when handled by officers of good capacity." * 

Commander Foxall A. Parker, U. S. N., says: — "While the 
gallantry of Buchanan's attack upon the Union fleet must be 
acknowledged, it was certainly most quixotic to make it." He 

1 Admiral Farragut seems to overlook the maxim that all is fair in war. If 
a naval commander can succeed in taking his enemy by surprise, or at anchor, 
it is not to his discredit to do so. The Cumberland was not a " helpless " frig- 
ate, except in an encounter with such a vessel as the Virginia; and further, 
after sinking the Cumberland, Admiral Buchanan could not ram any other 
of the larger vessels in Hampton Roads, for they were all aground — four of 
them; and the Virginia drew too much water to venture near. Admiral 
Buchanan was wounded and not in command during the Merrimac and 
Monitor contest the next day. The last clause above quoted savors either 
of vanity for his own achievements, or else is a slur against all the gallant 
officers in Hampton Roads. It would have been better if the whole para- 
graph had never been written. No commander will ever act up to these 
sentiments, but will take all the advantage he can over his enemies. Ad 
miral Farragut himself did not act up to them when he allowed his vessels 
to ram and bear down upon the Tennessee as she " lay like a log, helpless.'" 


likens it to the charge of the Light Brigade. Captain Johnston 
hauled down the Tennessee's flag, " It had been raised in tri- 
umph, it was lowered without dishonor." 1 

Lt. Col. Fletcher remarks that when the Tennessee was 
hotly beset, " Still the brave vessel fought on : the shocks 
from the various concussions made it almost impossible for the 
crew to keep their feet or to work the guns ; but old Bu- 
chanan — a worthy opponent to Farragut, — had no thought 
of surrender. He continued the contest, until he fell severely 
wounded and the Tennessee, — becoming unmanageable and un- 
able to reply to the fire of the enemy, — lay like a log, helpless 
under the attacks of the many vessels that surrounded her. 
Nothing more could be done, further resistance was hopeless, 
and she surrendered." 2 

A detailed account of this battle, illustrated with diagrams, 
is given in the Treatise on Coast Defenses by Von Schlieka, 
London, 1868, dedicated to Prince Adolphus of Prussia. The 
author remarks that " Admiral James [should be Franklin] 
Buchanan, by his daring bravery, had greatly endeared himself 
to the people of the south." He states, that one of the land 
batteries near Mobile was named Battery Buchanan. 

Other published accounts of the battle are mainly repeti- 
tions of those quoted above, more or less minute as to details. 
In Scribner's Magazine, xiii, 539, for Feb., 1877, a writer 
points out various historical mistakes regarding this battle that 
have been made by artists, poets, and others. 

Admiral Buchanan's official report of the battle may be 
found in the Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. vi. 220. 
He corrects a mistake in Admiral Farragut's report that his 
sword was not delivered up on board the Hartford, but on board 
the Tennessee, to an officer sent by Admiral Farragut. In the 
same volume, page 43, et seq., is a review of Captain Parker's 
book above quoted, by Gen. Dabney H. Maury, who remarks ; 
"Ah! had that luckless rudder chain not have jammed, Bu- 
chanan, not Farragut, might have been the great naval hero of 
the war." 

After the battle had ended, Admiral Farragut sent Admiral 
Buchanan and all the wounded of both sides to Pensacola in 
the Metacomet, permission to pass the forts being given by 
General Page, commanding fort Morgan. Admiral Buchanan 
remained in the naval hospital there until the latter part of 

1 Battle in Mobile, Bay, 18T8. 

2 History of the American War, London, 1866, 3 vols, iii, 408. 


November, when he was sent north, with his two aids, arriv- 
ing at Fortress Monroe November 27th, and was placed in 
Fort Lafayette, New York harbor; he was able to walk on 
crutches at this time, but finally recovered wholly from both 
his wounds, with even no trace of lameness. The Confederate 
government wished his exchange; but holding no officer of 
equal rank, it was refused , and at the close of December it 
was stated that no further exchange would be made until the 
United States were willing to exchange Admiral Buchanan. 
It was finally acceeded to, and he passed through Baltimore 
February 20, 1865, on his way south. 

General Lee's surrender took place soon after, and the 
Confederacy fell to pieces, the various armies surrendering 
one after another. Admiral Buchanan also, surrendered him- 
self at Mobile, May 20th. He was sent to Fort Monroe and 
paroled. He then returned to his home and family on the 
eastern shore of Maryland. 

The Confederate Navy Register of January 1, 1864, gives 
Admiral Buchanan's services up to that date as follows : — sea 
service, 1 year 2 months, shore duty, 10 months, and his pres- 
ent duty then, Commandant at Mobile. The following tabular 
statement is compiled chiefly from the records of the Navy 
Department, (by permission,) and from the Confederate Navy 


Recapitulation of his naval services in detail. 

Appointed midshipman in the navy, January 28, 1815. 

Frigate Java, Com. 0. H. Perry, Medi- 
terranean Mid. April, 1815 to April, 1817 

Brig Prometheus, European Squadron May, 1817 " Oct., 1817 

Franklin, 74 guns, Flag ship Com. 

Charles Stewart, Mediterranean . . Oct., 1817 " April, 1820 

Philadelphia Navy Yard June, 1820 " Feb., 1821 

Furlough 12 months, and permission 

to go to India as mate of a ship . . Feb., 1821 " June, 1822 

Philadelphia Navy Yard June, 1822 " Dec, 1822 

West India Squadron (vessel not men- 
tioned) Act. Mas. Dec., 1822 " Sept., 1823 

Sloop Hornet, West Indies . . . . Act.Lieut. Dec, 1823 " May, 1826 

Command of Frigate Baltimore, built 
for the Emperor of Brazil; carried 

her to Rio Janeiro July, 1826 ;< Jan., 1827 

Sloop Natchez, West Indies .... Lieut. May, 1827 " Dec, 1828 

Frigate Peacock, Exploring Expedi- 
tion, South Pacific Dec, 1828 " March, 1829 

Sloop Natchez, Mediterranean . . . March, 1829 " June, 1829 

Frigate Constellation, Mediterranean June, 1829 " Nov., 1831 



Rendezvous, Philadelphia Dec, 1832 to Feb., 1833 

Delaware, Line of Battle ship, Flag 
ship Com. D. T. Patterson, Medi- 
terranean Feb., 1833 " Feb., 1834 

Frigate United States, Mediterranean Feb., 1834 " Jan.. 1835 

Special service testing guns .... Aug., 1836 " Nov., 1836 

Receiving ship Baltimore Lt.Comdt. March, 1837 " April, 1839 

Frigate Constitution, Flag ship Com. 

Claxton, Pacific Flag. Lt. April, 1839 " Feb., 1840 

Sloop Falmouth, Pacific Lieut. Feb., 1840 " June, 1840 

Commanding steam frigate Mississippi, 

W. I. , . Com. April, 1842 " Nov., 1842 

Commanding Sloop Viricennes, Home 

Squadron Nov., 1842 " Aug., 1844 

Organizing the Naval Academy, and its 

first Superintendent (Aug. 14, 1845) July, 1845 " March, 1847 

Commanding Sloop Decatur, at Naval 

School ... March, 1846 " March, 1847 

Command. Sloop Germantown, Home 
Squadron in Gulf of Mexico, during 
Mexican War March, 1847 " Feb., 1848 

Light House duty Aug., 1848 " Nov., 1848 

Command of Baltimore Rendezvous, 
Jan., '49 ; mem. board to exam, 
midshipmen, June, '49 ; mem. board 
to exam, mid., June, '50 Jan., 1849 " Jan., 1851 

Member of board to examine midship- 
men Sept., 1851 

Ordered to take passage in the Miss- 
issippi to command the steam frigate 
Susquehanna, and proceed to China 
by overland route March, 1852 

Commanding steam frigate Susque- 
hanna, in Perry's Japan Expedition, 
East Indies July, 1852 " March, 1855 

Member of board of officers to pro- 
mote efficiency of the navy ; the first 
retiring board called " Board of Fif- 
teen " June, 1855 " Sept., 1855 

Member of board to exam, midshipmen Capt. April, 1859 " May, 1859 

Command of navy yard, Washington May,' 1859 " April, 1861 

Mem. Bd. Examiners, Oct., '59. President of Bd. Examiners, Nov., '59, and 
June, 1860. 


Chief of bureau of Orders and Detail . Capt. Sept., 1861(?) to Feb., 1862 
Flag Officer commanding Confederate 

squadron Hampton Roads. The 

Virginia, flag ship, and battle of 

March 8, 1862 Flag. Off. Feb. 24,1862 " March 8,1862 

Admiral commanding fleet at Mobile, 

and battle with Admiral Farragut's 

squadron Admiral. Jan. 1, 1863 1 " Aug. 5, 1864 

These services may be divided as follows : — 

1 Ov earlier. 


Sea service. Ships. Shore duty. Stations. 
United States navj- . . . . 21y. 5mo. 18 9 y. 4 mo. II 1 

Special service 19 2 — 

Confederate service .... 1 10 2 10 1 

Totals 25 22 10 2 12 

Total length of service United States navy, 46 y. 3 mo. 
Confederate navy, 3 9 


Admiral Buchanan remained at his home about three years ; 
but as he was known to prefer an active busy life, the presi- 
dency of the Maryland Agricultural College was tendered to 
him, September 5, 1868, which he accepted ; his duties how- 
ever proving uncongenial, he resigned this presidency June 22, 
1869, which was accepted July 1st. 

On the 21st of January, 1870, he was appointed secretary of 
the Alabama branch of the Life Insurance Company of America, 
at Mobile ; and remained in that city until May 22, 1871, when 
he resigned. His resignation being accepted on the 12th of 
June following, he returned to his home in Maryland. In 1870, 
he was offered the agency of the Globe Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany in Baltimore, which he declined. 


Admiral Buchanan was married when a lieutenant, at Anna- 
polis, February 19, 1835, to Miss Ann Catharine, daughter of 
the late Governor Edward Lloyd of Wye House, Talbot county, 
Maryland. Her pedigree is as follows : 

1. Edward Lloyd, his family originally from Wales, came to 
Maryland from Virginia about 1650, and settled near Anna- 
polis ; was commander of Anne Arundel co. and Privy Coun- 
sellor of Maryland ; he had, — 

2. Philemon Lloyd, Member of legislature, m. Mrs. Henri- 
etta Maria (Neale) Bennet, died 1698, leaving with others; — 

3. Edward Lloyd, Mem. legislature, m. Sarah Covington, d. 
1719, inherited Wye House from his grandfather; had; — 

4. Edward Lloyd, b. 1711, Mem. legislature, m. Ann 
Rousby, d. 1770, leaving four children; among w T hom, — 

5. Edward Lloyd, m. Elizabeth Tayloe, d. 1796, and had ; — 

6. Hon. Edward Lloyd, b. 1779, Representative in Congress 
1806-9; Governor of Maryland 1809-11; U. S. Senator 
from Maryland 1819-26 ; m. Sally Scott Murray, and h^d ; — 

1 Exclusive of examining boards. 


7. Colonel Edward Lloyd (b. 1798, who inherited Wye 
House), Ann Catharine (Mrs. Buchanan), born January '14, 
1808, and several others. 

It is the voluntary custom in this family to follow the En- 
glish law of descent, and leave the bulk of the property to 
the eldest son. In consequence, the property greatly increased 
with each possessor, especially during the last fifty years. It 
has been stated that the losses of the late Colonel Edward 
Lloyd, brother of Mrs. Buchanan, during the late war, 
amounted to one million of dollars. 

8. The present Colonel Edward Lloyd, now owner of Wye 
House, married Mary Lloyd Howard. His son, also named 
Edward Lloyd, is an Ensign in the Navy. 

The Hon. Henry Lloyd, Governor of Maryland, 1886-8, is a 
nephew of Mrs. Buchanan. Governor Edward Lloyd was the 
former owner of Frederick Douglass when a slave : the most 
prominent colored man in the United States, and most influen- 
tial man among his race. 1 

Admiral Buchanan died on Monday evening, May 11, 1874, 
at half past eleven o'clock, at his home, a beautiful place 
called The Rest, overlooking Miles River, Talbot county, 
Maryland. He was interred in the burial ground of the 
Lloyd family, at Wye House, about four miles distant. 

Resolutions of respect to his memory were adopted by the 
Survivors of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States in 
and about Talbot co. Md , assembled May 18, 1874 ; signed by 
James Hambleton, president, and Oswald Tilghman, secretary, 
and sent to his family. Also, similar resolutions were adopted 
by the citizens of Talbot co. in mass meeting assembled, on 
the 2d of June, 1874 ; engrossed and attested by Samuel 
Hambleton, president, and J. Frank Turner, secretary. 

The Society of the Army and Navy of the Confederate 
States in the State of Maryland, which was founded not long 
after this, adopted an ornamental heading for their diplomas, 
containing at the top the likeness of Admiral Buchanan, below 
this on the left, General Lee, and on the right, General 
"Stonewall" Jackson. 

The Pickett- Buchanan Cam.p of Confederate Veterans of 
Norfolk, Va., is so named in honor of Admiral Buchanan. It 
was organized in December, 1884, as the Geo. E. Pickett As- 
sociation, and named in honor of the General. The name was 

1 OldKent, Geo. A. Hanson, 1876, where the family is carried down to 
Mrs. Buchanan's children. 


changed as above, January 25, 1885. It is a charitable or- 
ganization for the relief of Confederate soldiers ; uniformed, 
and regularly chartered. It has a full and competent corps of 
officers of whom the principal at the present time are J. F. 
Cecil, commander; Geo. W. Wilson, paymaster; T. B. Jack- 
son, adjutant. 1 

In appearance, Admiral Buchanan was slightly below middle 
stature, bald on the top of his head with iron gray hair on the 
sides brushed upward; his face cleanly shaven, indicated great 
strength of character. He moved with much grace and had an 
affable, courteous bearing. He possessed that indescribable 
magnetism that attracted and interested others in anything he 
said or did. He was compactly built, and the movements of 
his arms and legs gave evidence of great physical strength ; his 
brother McKean has stated, that when in his prime, he was 
considered the third strongest man in the navy ; and in illus- 
tration related the following incident: — 

When a lieutenant, while driving one day with his brother 
George, four young men passed ahead, giving them the dust ; 
they presently lagged behind and passed again ; whereupon 
lieutenant Buchanan spoke to them, threatening to chastise the 
four if they repeated the offense. On their arrival at the inn, 
where travelers stopped, the four young men came up to him 
in a threatening manner. Lieutenant Buchanan without fur- 
ther words knocked down the two foremost, and the two others 
thought it more prudent to retire. 

Another incident showing his courage, and the influence he 
had over men, is related in the Richmond Dispatch of May 
13, 1883. The writer of this interesting article is unknown ; 
it is too long for insertion here, but is given in full in Appen- 
dix No. IV. 


Biographies of Admiral Buchanan may be found in the fol- 
lowing works: N. E. Hist, and Gfen. Register, vol. xxviii.; 
Appleton's Cyclop. Amer. Biog.; Appleton's Cyclop, of 
Biog., 6 vols., 1888; Annual Cyclop., 1874, p. 631; New 
Amer. Encyclop., iii., 379 ; Scharf's Hist. Confed. Navy, 
with a likeness, p. 153 ; Hamersly's Navy Register for 100 
Years; Drake's Diet. Amer. Biog., and others. Admiral 
Porter's Naval Hist. Civil War contains a moderately good 
likeness, but a poor picture. Lossing's Hist. Civil Wur also 

1 Letter of the adjutant. 


contains a wood-cut likeness. John Tayloe Wood's article in 
the Century Magazine, vol. xxix., contains an excellent like- 


Mrs. Buchanan still lives at The Rest, surrounded by her 
children and grandchildren. Admiral and Mrs. Buchanan's 
children are : 

59. i. Sallie Lloyd, b. Annapolis, Dec. 18, 1835 (Mrs. T. F.Screven), 
ii. LyETiTiA McKean, b. Annapolis, Feb. 27, 1837 ") Residing at 

iii. Alice Lloyd, b. Annapolis, Dec. 28, 1839 J "The Rest." 

60. iv. Nannie, b. Annapolis, Sept. 25, 1841 (Mrs. Meiere). 

61. v. Ellen, b. Annapolis, Sept. 25, 1841 (Mrs. G.P.Screven). 

62. vi. Elizabeth Tayloe, b. The Rest, July 1, 1845 (Mrs. Sullivan). 

63. vii. Franklin, Jr.. b. Annapolis, Jan. 16, 1847. 

64. viii. Rosa, b. The Rest, Aug. 23, 1850 (Mrs. Goldsborough). 

65. ix. Mary Tilghman, b. The Rest, Nov. 29, 1852 (Mrs. Owen). 


24. Mrs. SUSAN (BUCHANAN) NEWMAN.— Born in 
Baltimore, February 27, 1798, and was married to George H. 
Newman, a merchant of Baltimore, of the firm of Hammond 
and Newman. He was born in Boston, July 12, 1798, was 
Vice Consul of Brazil, exequatur November 8, 1881, succeed- 
ing his relative Mr. Coale. He died in Baltimore, March 20, 
1847. Mrs. Newman died October 14, 1873. Their re- 
mains are interred at Newport, R. I. 1 

Their children are: — (See Appendix II, No. 24.) 

66. i. William Henry, b. Monday, Nov. 26, 1823. 

ii. Mary Louisa, b. Friday, Dec. 26, 1824. Resides 

Cambridge, Mass. 

iii. Caroline Augusta. b. Friday, 2 1 Residing, New- 

iv. Sidney Calhoun (a daughter), b. Thursday, 2 J port, R. I. 

x The family bible, printed in London 1815, contains numerous discrep- 
ancies in dates, throwing a doubt over every entry, The dates most 
probably reliable are given in the text above. The date Feb. 27, 1798, 
agrees with the registry of St. Paul's Church, Baltimore. Mr. Newman's 
death is recorded, "March 21, 1847, in 49th year," but according to an ab- 
stract from his tombstone, given "March 20, 1847, aged 51 years." The 
latter age is probably wrong, although this date and age are given in the 
American Almanac for 1848, p. 357, and in the Bait. Ainer. and Com. Adv., 
March 22. On Mrs. Newman's tombstone her birth is given wrongly, Feb. 
28, 1799. The date of her marriage is unknown. The dates of births of 
children above given are from this bible ; they cannot be correct, because 
the days of the month do not, in any case, fall upon the days of the week 

2 Two dates omitted by request. 


25. Mrs. MARY (BUCHANAN) SANFORD.— Born in 
Baltimore, November 1,1800. She was married in Baltimore 
by the Rev. Dr. Wyatt, May 27, 1828, to the Hon. Nathan 
Sanford, at that time United States Senator from New York. 1 
She was doubly an orphan at the time of her marriage, and it 
is stated that she was given away by President John Quincy 
Adams, who was a friend of the groom ; and connected by mar- 
riage with the bride's family, as already mentioned on a 
previous page. 

Senator Sanford was born in Bridgehampton, Long Island, 
November 5, 1777. He received an elementary education at 
Clinton Academy East Hampton, and entered Yale College in 
1793, but did not graduate. Studied law in 1797, with the 
elder Samuel Jones, and was admitted to the bar in 1799. By 
his genius and application he soon obtained a handsome and 
profitable practice. In 1800 he was one of the Commissioners 
of Bankruptcy of the United States. In 1803, United States 
District Attorney for the Southern District of New York ; 
Avhich position he held for twelve years. In 1811, he was 
elected a member of the Assembly ; and was subsequently 
chosen Speaker, being the last who presided in a cocked hat. 
The following year he was elected to the State Senate. 

In 1815, Mr. Sanford was elected to the United States Sen- 
ate, and soon afterwards relinquished his profession, devoting 
himself, in his legislative capacity, to the interests of his coun- 
try. After the expiration of his term of office in 1821, he was 
chosen a member of the convention for framing a new con- 
stitution for the State of New York. In 1823, he was appointed 
to succeed the Hon. James Kent, as Chancellor of the State, 
which position he filled with honor until 1825, when he was 
again elected to the United States Senate in place of Rufus 
King, by a unanimous vote of both branches of the legislature. 
He was chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations — the 
most prominent of all the Senate committees. He made an 
elaborate report on coinage, a subject then engaging the atten- 
tion of Congress, and upon his recommendations its subsequent 
legislation was principally based. 

In the presidential election which took place in 1824, Sena- 
tor Sanford was one of the candidates for the office of Vice- 
President of the United States. At this period candidates were 
not formally nominated by their parties, as at the present day. 
In this election there were four candidates for the presidency : 

l Nat. Intell., May 31, 1828. 


William H. Crawford, nominated by the democratic members 
of congress ; Andrew Jackson, nominated chiefly by numerous 
conventions — the candidate of the people ; John Quincy Adams, 
nominated by the legislatures of most of the New England 
States ; and Henry Clay, nominated by his friends in various 
States. Mr. Sanford was put upon the ticket with Mr. Clay. 
The other candidates for Vice-President were Calhoun, Macon, 
Van Buren, Jackson and Clay. Neither candidate received a 
majority of votes for President, but Adams was elected when 
the vote was thrown into -the House of Representatives. Cal- 
houn received a large majority for Vice-President. 

Among the many eminent men to whom Long Island has 
given birth, there has been no one, who during an equal period, 
has served the public in positions more varied and important 
than Senator Sanford. His congressional life has already been 
alluded to ; and his career as Chancellor was not surpassed by 
either of his distinguished predecessors. He was a finished 
scholar, familiar with the ancient languages and with French, 
and in after life made himself master of Spanish and Italian. 1 

On retiring from public life, Senator Sanford took up his 
residence at Flushing, L. I., a town remarkable for the num- 
ber of elegant private residences it contained ; among these 
the most elegant and conspicuous was that of Senator Sanford, 
upon an elevated site in the northern part of the village. 2 

Senator Sanford was married three times : first to Mary 
Isaacs, by whom he had Mary, married to General Peter Ganse- 
voort ; Edward, a state senator ; Eliza, Mrs. John Le Breton, 
and Charles, who died unmarried. His second wife was Eliza 
Van Horn, of Dutch descent, by whom he had one son, Henry, 
who died aged 21. His third wife was Mary Buchanan, who 
survived him. 

Senator Sanford died at his home in Flushing, October 17, 
1838. His widow subsequently removed to Poughkeepsie, N. 
Y., where she died April 23, 1879. 

Only child of Senator Sanford and Mary Buchanan. 

67. i. Robert, b. Albany, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1831. 

— Born August 14, 1802. He was appointed a midshipman in 

1 Thompson's Hist, of Long Island, 1843. 

2 Biographies of Senator Sanford may be found in Thompson's Long Is- 
land, the biographical dictionaries of Appleton, who gives a likeness, Drake, 
and Lanman. He is also mentioned in Benton's Thirty Years in the Senate, 
and in Thurlow Weed's autobiography. 


the navy, November 3, 1818 ; and ordered to Norfolk, Va., 
Oct. 1819. His subsequent services were — John Adams (an 
old vessel, not the recent sloop of war of the same name); West 
India squadron, Ap. '21; Enterprise, Ap. '23; New York, 
station, Aug. '23 ; Constellation, Nov. '23 ; (Emmons' U. S. 
Navy, 1775-53, does not mention any cruise for this date); 
Cyane (the original vessel captured from the English) no date 
given on the department books. She cruised in the Mediterra- 
nean 1824-5 ; leave Oct. '25 for six months, extended to one 
year; Lieutenant, March 3, '27 ; Frigate Hudson, Brazil, flag- 
ship of Commodore J. 0. Creighton, 1828-9-30-1; Experi- 
ment, on the coast, March '32-3 ; Schooner Porpoise, Sept. 1, 
'32 ; dismissed Oct. 20, 1832. The Porpoise was lost during 
this cruise on a reef in the West Indies in 1833. * He died un- 
married, but the date of his death seems to be wholly unknown 
to his immediate relatives now living. 

Born May 8, 1803, 2 according to the History of the Bethle- 
hem Female Seminary, at Bethlehem, Pa., (Lippincott, 
1858,) where she was a student in 1815, John Merry man of 
Baltimore, being her guardian. She was married, May 12, 
1825, to Colonel Richard Dean Arden Wade of the army, at 
that date a lieutenant. 

Colonel Wade was the son of William Wade of Ireland, a 
captain in the British army ; who came to this country under 
Sir Henry Clinton, and served under him during the revolu- 
tion. He married a Miss Dean of New York ; their son was 
born in New York April 26, 1796, and was appointed a 
Second lieutenant of artillery, October 27, 1820; transferred 
to the 7th Infantry, June 1, 1821; transferred to the 
3d Artillery, October 16, 1822. 1st lieutenant, September 
10, 1828. Assistant Commissary of subsistence, December 
1833. Paymaster, April, 1837. Captain, December 26, 
1840. Brevet Major, March, 1843, for gallant and meritor- 
ious service in the Florida war, November 6, 1841. He 
served with distinction in the Mexican war, being severely 
wounded at the battle of Cherubusco ; and took part in the 
battle of Molino del Rey, September 8, 1847, for which he 

x Navy Dept. Records; Emmons' U. S. Navy, 1775-53. 

2 None of her descendants can give the date of her birth, to verify the 
date here stated. After giving several dates, they finally fixed upon one 
which proved to be the first anniversary of her mother's death. Such are 
the trials of a genealogist ! 


received the brevet of lieutenant colonel in March, 18-19. He 
died at Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, N. H., February 13, 
1850. Mrs. Wade subsequently removed to Savannah, 
Georgia, where she died June 25, I860. 1 Their children: 

68. i. Johnanna, b. March 30, 1826 (Mrs. Barlow). 

69. ii. Sarah Elizabeth Merryman, b. Jan. 5, 1828 (Mrs. Thomas). 

70. iii. William, b. April 25, 1831. 
iv. Mart Buchanan, b. Feb. 25, 1833. 

v. Harriet Murray, b. April 28, 1835 ; d. Dec. 9, 1855. 

71. vi. Robert Buchanan, b. Aug. 1, 1844. 


YRUJO Y McKEAN) de PIERRARD.— Born in Philadel- 
phia while her father was the envoy from Spain to this coun- 
try, and baptized November 30, 1800. She was married in 
Madrid, February 14, 1842, to His Excellency, Senor Don 
Bias Santiago de Pierrard y Alcedar, a Field Marshal of 
Spain, subsequently Lieutenant General of Her Majesty's 
forces ; who was sometime Military Governor of the Philippine 
Islands ; and afterwards a member of the Spanish Cortes, in 
1872, and a republican leader. He was decorated with the 
order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Isabel la Catolica, of St. 
Ferdinand, and a Commander of the Royal Order of Charles 
III, being decorated for military deeds of daring. He died at 
Saragossa, Spain, September 29, 1872. Dona Narcisa de 
Pierrard was a Lady in Waiting to Queen Maria Louisa, and re- 
sided at the Court. She was decorated with the order of Maria 
Luisa, and died in Madrid November 3, 1874, without issue. 

From her mother she received a large tract of land in Alle- 
gheny county, Pennsylvania, called the Sewickley tract, which, 
in her will dated September 13, 1861, she bequeathes to her 
two nephews, the Marquis de Casa Yrujo and the Marquis de 
los Arcos. This property had been leased for half a century 
or more, and had recently become so valuable that a lawsuit, 
appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, was 
necessary to dispossess the lessees. 

YRUJO y McKEAN, Second Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 

1 Gardner's Diet, of Army ; Hamersly's Register of Army for 100 Years. 


Duke de Sotomayor. 1 — He was born in Washington, D. C, 
while his father was minister to this country, December 14, 
1802 ; and was educated under the personal direction of his 
father ; entered the diplomatic service at an early age, and 
was appointed an officer of the Ministry of State (Foreign 
Office), and Secretary to the Embassy in Paris ; assisting in 
that capacity at the coronation of King Charles X. of France. 
He returned to Spain in 1826; and took his place at the Min- 
istry of State, being subsequently appointed a Secretary of 
State, and Secretary to the Council of Ministers. On the 
death of King Ferdinand VII., in 1833, he supported the 
cause of the rightful Queen Isabel II., and entered the 
Cortes for the first time in 1838 as a member for Malaga. 
In subsequent Parliaments he sat twice for Palencia, three 
times for Cordoba, and once for Madrid : being finally ap- 
pointed Senator for life, 1846. In politics he always belonged 
to the conservative or moderate party. He filled in succession 
the responsible posts of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James, 1844-46 ; Presi- 
dent of the Council of Ministers, and First Secretary of State 
(Foreign Affairs), 1847-48 ; Ambassador to France, 1849- 
51 ; and Mayordomo to Her Catholic Majesty, 1854. 

As President of the Council of Ministers, he held an office 
next in rank and power to the Queen, corresponding somewhat 
to that of Prime Minister in England ; and of which we have 
no equivalent in this country, unless it be the President him- 
self, while presiding at a Cabinet meeting. The office of 
Mayordomo, or Lord High Steward, is a post of great honor 
near the person of Her Majesty. 

He was a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Orders of 
Charles III. and of Isabel la Catolica of Spain ; the Legion of 
Honor of France ; St. Mauritius, and Lazarus of Sardinia ; 
Christ of Portugal ; the Danneborg of Denmark ; an Honorary 
Councillor of State ; Maestrante de Ronda y de Seville ; 2 and 
a Gentilhombre de Camara to the Queen of Spain. 

He was married at Madrid, June 23, 1844, to Senorita Dona 
Gabriela del Alcazar y Vera de Aragon, Duchess de Soto- 

1 According to the custom in Spanish countries, the name of the mother 
is always added after that of the father, thus : Martinez de Yriijo and (y) 

3 The Macstranza is a society of noblemen for practicing equestrian exer- 
cises ; maestrante, a member. The Royal Maestranza of Ronda was created 
in 15*72, that of Seville in 1670, which are the two oldest in Spain. 


mayor, Grandee of Spain of the First Class, 1 and decorated 
with the Order of Maria Luisa. 

The family of Sotomayor is of very great antiquity in Spain. 
It is related in the early history of the family that Sorred 
Ferrandez, an attendant upon the heir to the throne, killed the 
prince accidentally, in a forest where they were fencing. He 
was pardoned by the king, who considered it an accident. The 
king changed the colors of his arms from red to black, in order 
that his posterity should not be reminded of this occurrence. 
This person resided in the forest (sofa) of Aldea, and gave rise 
to the family of Sorred, afterwards Sotomayor. 3 

The Dukedom of Sotomayor was created by Real Cedula, of 
King Philip the V., dated April 25, 1703 ; the Real Despacho 
(or letters patent) was issued in 1773. Of the ninety duke- 
doms in Spain, Sotomayor ranks about the thirty-eighth. The 
Duchess was born in Barcelona, Spain, March 6, 1826, and 
succeeded to the title in 1844. According to Spanish cus- 
tom, her husband assumed the title of Duke, since this title was 
the superior to his own. 3 

The Duke de Sotomayor was a great sufferer from the gout, 
and during a severe attack unfortunately took his own life at 
the Ducal Palace, in Madrid, December 26, 1855. The family 
property and estates lie in the provinces of Avilla, Badajos, 
Burgos, Guipuzcoa, Madrid, Cordoba, Cadiz, Salamanca, To- 
ledo, and Zamora. The Duchess resides in Madrid. Their 
issue (surname, Martinez de Yrujo y Alcazar): 

72. i. Don Carlos Manuel, b. in London, England, April 5, 1846. 

Third and present Marquis de Casa 
Yrujo y de los Arcos. 

73. ii. Don Manuel, b. at St. Germain en Laye, France, 

June 23,1849. Marquis de los Arcos. 
iii. Dona Maria del Pilar, b. Paris, France, June 3, 1850. 

74. iv. Dona Maria de la Piedad, b. Paris, France, April 27, 1851 (Vis- 

countess de Benaesa). 

75. v. Dona Maria de las Virtudes, b. Madrid, November 2, 1852 (Count- 

ess de Lambertye). 

1 Grandee, in Spain, is a title that has no equivalent in other countries; 
the grandees were originally of royal descent, and took rank before all other 
nobles, were privileged from arrest, and had great power ; they are now 
mostly deprived of their former privileges, except that of wearing the hat in 
the presence of the sovereign. The three grades are distinguished by the 
manner of covering themselves when they do honor for the first time. It 
is not necessary that the possessor of this title should already possess other 
titles of nobility. A noble of lower rank or even a private gentleman may 
be a Grandee of the First Class. 

2 Nobilario de los Eeinos y Senorios de Espana, Piferrer, Madrid, 1858. 

3 Chiefly from a letter of the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, Madrid, March 31, 1887. 



30. HENRY PRATT McKEAN.— Born in Philadelphia, 
May 3, 1810. He spent his youth in that city, and was for a 
time of the class of 1826 in the University of Pennsylvania, 
leaving college at a very early age without graduating and en- 
tering the counting house of his grandfather, Henry Pratt, one 
of the best known and most successful Philadelphia merchants 
of those days. Here Mr. McKean remained for some years, 
acquiring much valuable experience in business and business 
methods, and cultivating and developing his own great natural 
aptitude in the same direction. Later on he undertook on his own 
account important commercial operations with South America 
and Mexico, and extended these finally until they embraced 
active correspondence and trade with the East and West In- 
dies and China, Mr. McKean, exhibiting in the conduct of this 
foreign commerce the spirit of the Merchant Princes of those 
days, winning also in competition with those able and accom- 
plished men his full meed of success. 

If Philadelphia has gained greatly in material prosperity 
since those times, becoming one of the greatest railroad and 
manufacturing centers of the world, it must be said regretfully 
that it has lost something, under the conditions of more mod- 
ern progress, in the passing away of the realities of far com- 
mercial enterprises, with the traditions of which an almost 
romantic sentiment connects itself ; and with the best of these 
traditions Mr. McKean's name justly shares. 

Mr. McKean's maternal grandfather died in Philadelphia in 
the year 1838, leaving to him, in common with the other heirs, 
a portion of an ample fortune. Soon afterwards Mr. McKean 
associated himself in business with his brother-in-law, the late 
Adolphe E. Borie, so well remembered in Philadelphia for his 
genial character and high qualities, and they remained together 
in partnership until Mr. Borie's death in the spring of 1880, 
gradually withdrawing themselves from participation in foreign 
commerce and becoming interested in conspicuous local enter- 

On July 8, 1841, Mr. McKean was married at Troy, N. Y., 
to Phebe Elizabeth Warren, daughter of Stephen Warren and 
Martha Cornell Mabbett, his wife, of that place. 

In 1849, Mr. McKean purchased from the estate of the late 
Louis Clapier a large tract of land some four miles nortwest 
from what were then the northwestern limits of the city of 


Philadelphia, beautifully situated on the first ridge of ground 
of that long succession of ridges, which, mounting constantly 
higher, run parallel with each other with short undulating in- 
tervals through Germantown, Mount Airy and Chestnut Hill, 
some five miles distant on the west and north, where the ground 
then falls away to the beautiful White Marsh Valley. At 
" Fernhill," as Mr. McKean's estate is named, he removed the 
house of Mr. Clapier, and built in its place a fine stone resi- 
dence, 1 the square tower surmounting which is a land-mark on 
all approaches from the direction of the city ; but he retained 
intact the Clapier barn, 2 which from its size and unique charac- 
ter, and the great ship which acts as a vane above it, is one of 
the best known features of the country round about. 

The buildings at "Fernhill" are embowered in splendid 
trees, and the land far to the right and left slopes in a beauti- 
ful lawn to the low ground beneath. The view commands the 
whole city of Philadelphia and the Delaware river and the 
country far across in New Jersey. This fine estate has never 
been intruded upon, but, on the contrary, has been enlarged; 
on its borders great industrial establishments are beginning to 
accumulate, and a great Railroad Junction is now close at 
hand. " Fernhill" must lose. its rural character, but so long 
as it is isolated on a hill and well cared for it can never lose its 
charm. It has been the scene of much generous hospitality, 
and Mrs McKean has aided by her character and kindly life to 
make the house notable for all that is attractive in a home. In 
winter, Mr. McKean and his son occupy respectively the twin 
houses at the corner of 20th and Walnut streets in Philadel- 
phia. 3 

Since the war Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pratt McKean have 
delegated to their son and his wife the pleasant task of con- 
tinuing their own former hospitality, and Mr. McKean, while 
in no sense a recluse, has contented himself with a quiet and 
private domestic life. Their children: 

76. i. Thomas, b. Phila., November 28, 1842. 

ii. Stephen Warren, b. Phila., Feb. 4, 1844 ; d. April 28, 1846. 

1 See The Art. Journal, Sept., 1877, No. 33, p. 262. 

2 It is described in Pa. Mag., v.. 138. 

3 Among Mr. McKean's pictures, is one of Washington, by Peale, taken 
from life at Valley Forge, and referred to in Pa. Mag., xiii., 260 ; in Win- 
sor's Nar. and Grit. Hist, of Amer., vii., 566 ; and in the Century Magazine, 
xxxvii., 861. 


31. Mrs. SARAH ANN (McKEAN) TROTT.— Born in 
Philadelphia, August 10. 1811. She was married November 
5, 1833, to George Trott, formerly of Boston; but who has 
resided in Philadelphia since his marriage. Their children: 

77. i. Sarah McKean, b. Dec. 8, 1835 (Mrs. Hazlehurst). 
ii. George Boylston, b. May 12, 1840; d. Mar. 11, 1842. 
Hi. Henry, b. Dec. 31, 1841 ; d. May 5, 1843. 

— Born in Philadelphia, March 2, 1815. She was married in 
Philadelphia May 23, 1839, to Mr. Adolphe E. Borie. 


John J. Borie, a Frenchman, came to this country in 1805, 
and entered into business as a merchant in Philadelphia. In 
1808, he married Sophia Beauveau, by whom he had twelve 
children, of whom Adolphe Edward was the eldest; born 
November 25,1809. The father associated his eldest son with 
him in business in 1833. 

Adolphe E. Borie graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1825, and subsequently took the degree of A. M. 
He went to France to continue his studies, returning in 1828- 
After this he entered the counting house of his father, and 
about 1838 entered into partnership with Mr. McKean as 
above related. He was Consul for Belgium, November 10, 
1843, and about the same time acting consul for Sicily, but the 
latter does not appear upon the records of the State Depart- 
ment. In 1848, Mr. Borie was elected president of the Bank 
of Commerce, but relinquished the position in 1860, to take a 
trip to Europe. He was a director of the National Bank of 
Commerce, a member of the Board of Trade, a manager of the 
Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, and a liberal contributor 
to various benevolent associations. 

He was one of the founders of the Union Club at the begin- 
ning of the civil war, which afterwards became the Union 
League ; and the first vice-president in 1862, retaining the 
position until his death. He was interested in the Academy 
of Sciences in Philadelphia. 

Upon General Grant's accession to the Presidency, he in- 
vited Mr. Borie to a seat in his Cabinet as Secretary of the 
Navy, which was accepted. Mr. Borie was nominated and 
confirmed March 5, and entered upon his duties March 9, 
1869. His labors, however, proving too onerous for his age 


and health, he resigned June 25, 1869, and Mr. Robeson, who 
was appointed the same day, assumed charge on the 26th. 
(See Appendix II.) 

In 1872, Mr. Borie was a Presidential Elector-at-large from 
Pennsylvania on the Republican ticket, and cast his vote for 
General Grant for President ; and in 1878, after the expira- 
tion of General Grant's term of office, Mr. Borie accompanied 
him on part of his tour round the world, having joined him in 

Mr. Borie was a gentleman of cultivated tastes, and had col- 
lected one of the finest private galleries of paintings in Phila- 
delphia, containing numerous pictures of the modern French 
and Spanish schools. His collection is described in Lippin- 
cott's Magazine (vol. x., 221, Aug., 1872), No. 5 of a series 
of articles entitled Private Art Collections of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Borie was a Trustee of the University of Pennsylvania 
since 1858, and a member of the American Philosophical 
Society since 1872. 

He died after a short illness, February 5, 1880, and was 
buried from St. Stephen's church. The Union League 
adopted suitable resolutions, and appropriate honors were paid 
by the Secretary of the Navy, the Department building being 
closed on the day of the funeral, and draped in mourning for 
thirty days thereafter. 1 

Mrs. Borie died in Philadelphia March 29, 1886, without 

— Born in Philadelphia May 27, 1820 ; and married in Phila- 
delphia May 23, 1843, to Charles Louis Borie, a younger 
brother of the Hon. A. E. Boric. 

Mr. Borie was born in Philadelphia January 7, 1819, grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1837, subsequently 
taking the master's degree. Soon after graduating, he associ- 
ated his younger brother Henry P. Borie with himself under 
the firm of C. & H. Borie, merchants, in Philadelphia ; but 
about 1854 changed their business to that of bankers and 
brokers. In 1871 they associated with themselves as members 
of the firm Beauveau Borie and James M. Rhodes, son and son- 
in law of Charles L. Borie. Henry P. Borie died March 26, 
1886, and Charles L. died at his country seat, called The 

1 fc5ee Appleton's Oi/clop. Biog., 1888; Scharf and Westcott, Hist. Phil., 
iii., 2339 ; Biog. Encycl. Penn.; Phila. Times, Feb. 6, 1880, etc. 


Dell , near Philadelphia, November 7, 1886. The firm has 
since been continued by the surviving partners, Mr. John T. 
Lewis, Jr., being admitted to partnership in 1889. In politics 
Mr. Borie was a Republican, and one of the original members 
of the Union League. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
L. Borie, all born in Philadelphia, are : 

18. i. Elizabeth McKean, b. Mar. 4, 1844 (Mrs. Lewis;. 

79. ii. Beauveau, b. May 9, 1846. 

iii. Clementina, b. April 28, 1849: d. July 15, 1850. 

80. iv. Emily, b. April 9, 1851 (Mrs. Rhodes). 

81. v. Sarah C. McKean, b. Feb. 2, 1853 (Mrs. Mason). 


McKEAN. [11.] 

34. JOSEPH BORDEN McKEAN.— Born August 11, 
1827. He was a farmer at Cobham, Virginia; and was 
married February 5, 1856, to Eliza A. Jarvis, daughter of 
Marietta and Henry Sanford Jarvis, of Redding, Fairfield co., 
Connecticut. She died March 29, 1886, at Deposit, New 
York. Mr. McKean died at Cobham, October 8, 1871. 
Their children : 

i. Franklin Buchanan, b. May 14, 1857 ; d. July 4, 1858. 

82. ii. Anna Bayard b. July 28, 1859 (Mrs. Dean). 

83. iii. Henry Jarvis, b. March 1, 1861. 

iv. Katherine Myers, b. March 26, 1864) Living in Spring Valley, 
v. Marietta Ely, b. Aug. 3, 1866 J N. Y. 

N.— Born August 17, 1830, (See Appendix II, 11.) He 
entered the Navy September 30, 1845, as a midshipman, and 
was stationed at the Naval School. He served on board the 
razee Independence, flagship of Commodore Shubrick, in the 
Pacific, from August 1846, until May 10, 1847, on which day 
he resigned his commission. He died unmarried at Bristol, 
Pennsylvania, October 21, 1853. 

36. Mrs. CAROLINE (McKEAN) WILSON.— Born in 
Philadelphia, and married January 3, 1856, William Newbold 


Wilson; who was born in Princeton, N. J., now a merchant in 
Binghamton, N. Y. Their children : 

i. Kathlina Joline, d. in infancy .- 

84. ii. William McKean, 
iii. Rosa Clark, 

iv. Sadie, \ Twing both d in infancy- 

v. Joline, J J 

vi. Elizabeth Ely. 

ELY. — Born in Philadelphia, June 24, 1836; (See Appendix 
II, 11.) married at Binghamton, June 18, 1856, to Joseph 
Elihu Ely, born January 22, 1825, in Binghamton, and a 
merchant in that city. He was a member of the state legisla- 
ture in 1853, and under appointment of the Governor, Manager 
of the N. Y. State Inebriate Asylum, 1872-77. Mrs. Ely died 
November 23, 1881. Their children : 

i. Rose McKean, b. Phil., Dec. 21, 1857; d. Bing., Aug. 19, 1858. 

85. ii. William Mather, b. Bing., July 20, 1860. 

iii. Elizabeth Anna, b. May 29, 1862 ; d. Oct. 4, 1862. 
iv. McKean, b. July 18, 1863; d. Oct. 20, 1877. 

38. Capt. WILLIAM BISHOP McKEAN, U. S. Marine 
Corps. — Born November 2, 1840 ;* commissioned in the 
United States Marine Corps as a second lieutenant, November 
25, 1861 ; made a first lieutenant November 26, 1861, and 
was soon after ordered to the marine barracks at Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Stationed at the marine barracks, Mare Island, Califor- 
nia, 1863-65. While in California, Lieutenant McKean acted 
as second to Captain Cohen, of the Marine Corps, in convey- 
ing a challenge. For this both were tried by court martial, 
and found not guilty of the charge, but guilty of the specifica- 
tion. This singular finding was set aside by the Secretary of 
the Navy upon the ground that if found not guilty they should 
have been acquitted; the court having no authority to find 
them guilty upon any other charge. 2 Steam frigate Brooklyn, 
flagship of the Brazil squadron, 1865 to Sept. '67 ; promoted 
to a captaincy, October 13, 1869 ; marine barracks, Philadel- 
phia, 1867-70 ; retired from active service April 16, 1870. 

He was married in Philadelphia, January 19, 1871, to Har- 

1 This date is from the register of the First Presbyterian Church, Phila- 
delphia, and entered under the date of his baptism, August 29, 1841. The 
family records give his birth November 10, 1841, which cannot be correct, 
as the baptismal register is chronologically arranged. 

2 Gen. Orders, No. 22, Oct. 17, 1863. 


riet Davis, who was born at " Delaware Place," Wilmington^ 
Delaware, November 12, 1852, the daughter of Samuel Boyer 
and Sally B. Davis. Her father, Colonel Davis, was a gallant 
soldier of the War of 1812. Captain McKean was accident- 
ally killed by being thrown from his horse at Cobham, Vir- 
ginia, August 30, 1879. (His widow was married a second 
time, November 28, 1882, to Beauford E. Vaughan, of Green 
CO., Virginia. They now reside in Wilmington.) 
Only child of Captain McKean : — 

i. Bettine, b. Virginia, Oct. 17, 1871. 

January 29, 1843 ; and married November 10, 1863, to Dr. 
David Post Jackson, a practicing physician in Binghamton. 
Mrs. Jackson died without issue, April 15, 1864. Her husband 
has since married a second time. 

40. Mrs. ROSA (McKEAN) HOTCHKISS.— Born in 
Philadelphia (sec Appendix II, 11), and married in Bing- 
hamton, April 24, 1872, to Cyrus Frederick Hotchkiss, only 
son of the Hon. Giles W. Hotchkiss, representative in Con- 
gress from 1862, to the 38-39-40-41st Congresses. He was 
born in Binghamton about June 16, 1849 ; studied at Cornell 
University 1868-9, but did not graduate ; and died in Bing- 
hamton, March 4, 1878. Mrs. Hotchkiss' home is in Bing- 
hamton, though she lived in Washington in 1881-6. 

Their children, born in Binghamton: — 

i Bessie Roys, 
ii. Rose McKean. 

BAYARD. [12.] 

41. CHARLES McKEAN BAYARD.-Born in Philadel- 
phia October 30, 1838 ; graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania 1857, also A. M.; and entered into business in 
Philadelphia as a broker, residing in Germantown. He was 
married at Newark, N. J.. October 12,1864, to Margaretta P, 
Wilson, daughter of Matthew Wilson and Elizabeth Gill, his 
wife, of Philadelphia. Their children : — 

86. i. James Wilson, b. Aug. 2, 1865. 

ii. Adeline Jolia, b. Dec. 26, 1866. 

iii. Samuel McKean, b. Nov. 21, 1868. 
iv. Margaretta Wilson, b. Jan. 5, 1871. 
v. Elizabeth Gill, b. July 31, 1873. 

vi. Edith Stuyvesant, b. Dec. 20, 1876. 


42. JAMES BAYARD.— Born in Philadelphia June 9, 
1845, and graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1864, and A. M. He entered into business as a wholesale 
lumber merchant, residing in Germantown ; and was married 
in Germantown September 23, 1869, to Elizabeth Henry 
Armstrong, daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Gulick Arm- 
strong—he of Philadelphia, she of Princeton, N. J. Children 
of James and Bessie H. Bayard : 

i. Elsie Harbison, b. Oct. 22, 1870; d. Aug. 10, 1871. 
ii. Mabel, b. March 26, 1872. 

iii. Caeo Rosa, b. June 16, 1873. 

iv. Charles Pettit, b. July 12, 1886. 

Born in Philadelphia, September 26, 1850; and married at 
Germantown May 12, 1875, to the Rev. Alexander Henry. 
He was born in Germantown in December, 1850, graduated at 
the College of New Jersey at Princeton, 1870, also took the 
degree A. M. He studied for the ministry, and was ordained 
in the Presbyterian church. Since his marriage, he has lived 
in Williamsport, Perm.; where he has charge of a congrega- 
tion. Their children : 

i. Maby Bayard, b. Germantown, May 27, 1876; d. Jan. 6, 1890. 

ii. Adeline McKean, b. Williamsport, May 7, 1878. 

iii. Ethel Anna, b. April 5, 1883 ; d. Aug. 20, 1883. 

iv. Alexander, Jr., b. Williamsport, Aug. 21, 1885. 


Born in Baltimore; and married in Trinity Church, New York y 
October 29, 1855, to John Morris Kerr, of New York. Mrs. 
Kerr lived for a number of years in West Chester, Pa., where 
at her house her mother died. In the fall of 1888 she re- 
moved to Germantown, Pa. Her children: 

i. Fredericks Mary, 

ii. Anne Hoffman, died young. 

iii. Margaret, died young. 

PETTIT. [15.] 

DORF. — Born in Philadelphia, November 6, 1828 ; and was 
married in Philadelphia, July 31,1856, to Commodore William 


Ronckendorf, then a lieutenant in the navy. He was born in 
Pennsylvania, November 9, 1812 ; entered the navy as a 
midshipman, February 17, 1832. Schooner Experiment, on 
the coast 1832-3. Schooner Porpoise West Indies, 1833. 
Frigate Constitution, flagship of Commodore Elliot, Mediter- 
ranean, March, 1835 ; carried Lewis Cass, minister, from 
Marseilles to Constantinople. Transferred to John Adams, 
returned May, 1837. Passed midshipman, June 23, 1838; 
Brig Consort, coast survey, 1839-41 ; Sloop Preble, Mediter- 
ranean, Jan. '41,-Aug. '43 ; Lieutenant, June 28, '43 ; Frig- 
ate Congress, July, '42, Mediterranean, and from Jan. '44 to 
March, '45, Brazil squadron. In 1845, bearer of dispatches to 
the Pacific squadron ; served in the Mexican war, returning 
home in the Savannah, Sept. '47 ; Portsmouth, flagship Com- 
modore Gregory, Africa, Sept. '49-June '51 ; Receiving ship 
at New York, 1852 ; Frigate Cumberland, flagship Contmodore 
Stringham, Mediterranean, May, '52-'55 ; Navy Yard Phila- 
delphia, '55-8 ; Commanding steamer M. W. Chapin, Brazil 
squadron, and Paraguay Expedition, 1859; Coast survey, 
1860; Commander, June 29, 1861 ; Water Witch, Gulf squad- 
ron, 1861; San Jacinto, 1862-3, blockading Wilmington and 
at various points on«the coast during the late war; Steamship 
Ticonderoga, '63, searching for privateers ; Powhatan, '63-4; 
Iron-clads Monadnock and Tonawanda in James river, 1865-6 ; 
Receiving ship, Philadelphia, 1866 ; Captain September 27, 
1866 ; In charge of iron-clads at New Orleans, 1871-2 ; 
Canandaigua, North Atlantic squadron, 1872-3 ; Commodore, 
February 12, 1874 ; Retired, November 9, 1874. 1 

Commodore Ronckendorf's home was in Philadelphia,, but 
latterly the family has resided in New York, where Mrs. Ronck- 
endorf died January 1, 1887. The Commodore still resides in 
that city. 

Their children, all born in Philadelphia: — 

i. Thomas Pettit, b. May 10, 1857 ; d. Denver, Colo., Jan. 3, 1885. 
ii. George Read, b. Feb. 11, 1860 ; architect, New York city, 
iii. Mary, b. July 28, 1865 ; d. Media, Pa., Aug. 14, 1866. 

46. RICHARD DALE PETTIT.— Born in Philadelphia, 
February 9, 1837. Graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1856 ; subsequently taking the master's degree. Stud- 
ied law, and practiced his profession in Philadelphia. His 
death, April 30, 1873, was very melancholy ; it occurred by 

1 Appleton, Ilamersly, etc. 


his own hand, on the morning of the day he was to have been 
married. No cause has been assigned for this act — his means 
were ample, he had no bad habits, and he looked forward to 
his marriage with great pleasure, and his passage had been 
secured for a bridal trip to Europe. 

47. Mrs. SARAH (PETTIT) WILSON.— Born in Phila- 
delphia, February 18, 1889, and was married in Philadelphia 
May 24, 1869, to Joseph Miller Wilson. He was born in 
Phoenixville, Chester co., Pa., June 20, 1838 ; graduated at 
the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y., in 1858, 
with the degree of Civil Engineer. After graduating, he be- 
came connected with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as 
Engineer of Bridges and Buildings, residing at Altoona until 
1867, since which date he has resided in Philadelphia. He 
designed and built many large buildings for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, including the large Broad Street Station in 
Philadelphia. A few years ago he severed his connection 
with the railroad and opened an architect's office in Philadel- 
phia, and has been quite successful in his profession. He is 
is a member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, Eng- 
land ; of the American Society of Civil Engineers ; a Fellow 
of the American Institute of Architects ; and a member of the 
American Philosophical Society, 1874. In 1877, the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania honored him with the degree of Mas- 
ter of Science. 

Mrs. Wilson has in her possession the portrait of Governor 
McKean, by Peale, which he presented to his daughter Eliza- 
beth on the occasion of her marriage with Andrew Pettit. She 
has also a crayon likeness of Governor McKean's first wife, 
Mary Borden. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson : — 

i. Alice May, b. Phil., May 10, 1870 ; d. Phil., March 18, 1879 
ii. Mary Hasell, b. Phil., April 28, 1873. 

PETTIT. [17.] 

48. HENRY PETTIT.- Born in Philadelphia, December 
23, 1842. He entered the Department of Arts of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1859, and is a member of the Delta 
Psi Fraternity. But left college in his junior year in 1862, to 
enter the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and 
subsequently became Assistant Engineer of Bridges and Build- 


ings, taking a high rank as an architect and engineer for his 
ingenuity and talents in this position. In May, 1869, he was 
granted leave of absence to visit Europe, where he critically 
examined many of the more important engineering works in 
Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and France, 
with a view to general improvement in future constructions upon 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. After his return home he designed 
the special form of wrought-iron girder bridge, which has since 
been generally adopted by the road as the permanent standard 
bridge. He also designed many of the prominent railroad 
stations and depots, which were executed as accepted types of 
their several kinds. 

In 1873 he was selected as special agent of the Centennial 
Commission at Philadelphia to visit the Vienna Exposition. On 
his return in June, 187-1, he brought a large collection of 
plans, designs, photographs, detailed drawings, etc., not only 
of the Vienna Exposition, but of all the previous ones. These 
plans, with his report, he handed over to the Centennial Com- 
mission. When plans for the various buildings were called 
for, Mr. Pettit sent in designs for all of the buildings. The 
vast amount of information gained abroad gave him a great ad- 
vantage over other architects, and his plans of the Main Build- 
ing and the Machinery Hall were accepted. It has been said 
also that his designs for the remaining buildings were preferred 
to those of other architects ; but to have awarded all to one 
person would have caused much ill-feeling, therefore the 
smaller buildings were awarded to several architects. The 
Main Building for this Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia 
much exceeded in size any similar building heretofore erected. 
It was 1880 feet long and 464 feet wide, with projections on 
all four sides, covering 872,320 square feet, or 20.02 acres ; 
the upper floors increased this to 936,008 square feet, or 21.47 
acres. The Machinery Hall was 1402 feet long by 360 feet 
wide, with an annex 208 by 216 feet ; the area, 558,440 
square feet, or 12.82 acres ; the galleries increased this to 
about 14 acres. 

On the acceptance of his design for the Main Building, he 
was appointed by the Centennial Board of Finance their engi- 
neer and architect. In the construction of Machinery Hall, he 
was associated with Mr. Joseph M. Wilson, his connection. 

When the officers of the Centennial Commission were ap- 
pointed in January, 1875, Mr. Pettit was placed at the head 
of the Bureau of Installation ; and upon him devolved the 


duty not only of assigning the places for the exhibitors of the 
various nations, but the general direction and management of 
the numerous car-loads of exhibits themselves, as they arrived. 
His admirable and systematic management prevented all con- 
fusion, and contributed much to the general appearance of the 
Exposition. Subsequently, in January, 1877, he was appointed 
Chief of Bureau of Management of the Permanent Exhibition. 

While traveling in Algeria during the winter of 1877-8, Mr. 
Pettit was appointed by the State Department to take charge 
of the United States Department for the French Universal 
Exposition of 1878. Upon reaching Paris, he was received 
by President McMahon as the representative of the United 
States, previous to the arrival of Governor McCormick ; and 
superintended the construction of the American department. 
For his services here he was decorated by the French govern- 

In 1884-5, with his friend, Mr. George W. Bacon, he made 
a complete tour of the world. Improving his opportunities, he 
among other things made a study in the East of Hinduism in 
its relation to Christianity ; which was embodied in a word 
upon the subject, and presented in numerous lectures both at 
home, in Bermuda, and in other places. 1 

For his connection with the Centennial and French Exposi- 
tions, Mr. Pettit was decorated with several orders, being a 
ridder of St. Olaf, from King Oscar of Norway and Sweden ; 
a chevalier of the Legion of Honor from France ; a commander 
of Nichan Iftikhar from the Bey of Tunis ; and a caballero of 
Ysabel la Catolica, from King Alfonso XIII. of Spain. The 
University of Pennsylvania also conferred upon him, in 1877, 
the honorary degree of Master of Science. 

Mr. Pettit is a member of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, an Associate of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, and a member of the Union League Club of Phila- 
delphia. He is a gentleman of polished manners, and as a re- 
creation from his professional duties he is devoted to the arts, 
a skillful musician, as well as a composer of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For the last ten years he has kept bachelor 
hall with his friend, Mr. Bacon, in Philadelphia ; their house 
being filled with numerous handsome and valuable mementos 
of their travels. Four years ago Mr. Pettit built a summer 
cottage at Island Heights on the Jersey Coast, near the mouth 
of Tom's River. 

1 Partly from Frank Leslie's Histor. Reg. U. S. Centen. Exp., 1876, in 
■which is also a fair likeness of Mr. Pettit. 


49. ROBERT ELLMAKER PETTIT.— Born in Philadel- 
phia November 30, 1846. He graduated at the Episcopal 
Academy, Philadelphia, 1863, and the Polytechnic College, 
State of Pennsylvania, as a Civil Engineer in 1867, taking the 
master's degree three years later. In 1870 he entered the 
engineer corps of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad Com- 
pany, his talent and good judgment gaining for him rapid 
promotion to responsible positions. In 1874 he became 
engineer in charge of local improvements on the New York 
division. Two years later he became connected with the main 
system of the Pennsylvania Railroad ; subsequently as princi- 
pal assistant, and latterly as superintendent of the New York 
division, where he remained until 1885. During this term of 
service he resided at Pittsburgh, Altoona, Philadelphia and 
Jersey City, as his duties required ; and constructed the Sum- 
mit Tunnel for the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, the Verona 
shops for the Allegheny Valley Railroad, and the large termi- 
nal station at Jersey City. He was also called upon to meet 
several critical emergencies arising from floods, conflagrations, 
and labor strikes. Of the latter may be mentioned the notable 
riots at Pittsburgh in 1877, when $4,000,000 of property was 
destroyed ; and at Jersey City, in 1882, when the malcontents 
threatened to involve the whole labor element of the Middle 
States in forcible resistance to constituted authority. To Mr. 
Pettit's judicious management, the control of this latter crisis 
was in a great measure due. 

In 1885, Mr. Petfcit was appointed General Superintendent 
of the Pennsylvania Division, embracing the main line and 
branches between Philadelphia and Pittsburg, which position 
he now holds, residing at Altoona. He is a man of genial, 
cordial disposition, and a universal favorite with all classes, 
with whom his duties have brought him in contact. His taste 
for the arts have interested him in painting and photography. 

He was married at Hollidaysburg, Pa., November 16, 1875, 
to Margaret Steel Blair, daughter of the Hon. Samuel Steel 
Blair and Sarah P., his wife, of that place, who was born at 
Hollidaysburg, April 9, 1852. 1 Mrs. Pettit died in Jersey 
City, N. J., March 6, 1884. 

Their children : 

i. Sarah Blair, b. Hollidaysburg, Pa., Dec. 9, 1877. 
ii. Robert, b. Altoona, Pa., May 20, 1881. 

1 See Hist. Huntingdon and Blair Cos., Pa., J. Simpson Africa, 1883. 


COALE. [19.] 

50. WILLIAM EDWARD COALE, M. D.— Born in Bal- 
timore February 7, 1816. He graduated at the Maryland 
University in 1836 as a doctor of medicine ; licentiate of med- 
icine, 1838. 1 He was appointed physician to the Baltimore 
General Dispensary 1836-7 ; and an Assistant Surgeon in the 
Navy September 6, 1837, passing number three in a class of 
forty. His first cruise was in the frigate Columbia, flagship of 
Commodore George C. Read, in the East Indies and around 
the world, April 1838-June 1840. On his return he was or- 
dered to the Navy Yard at Boston, September 1840. Ordered 
again to the Columbia, flagship of Commodore Charles Stewart, 
Home Squadron, February 1842. Detached in June following 
and ordered to the steam frigate Mississippi, Home Squadron ; 
detached the September following, and granted three months' 
leave. While stationed in Boston, he became engaged to a 
daughter of Dr. George C. Shattuck, who took him into part- 
nership, and induced him to resign from the navy, which he 
did, his resignation being accepted January 25, 1843. The 
lady to whom he was engaged died before his marriage, but 
through her father's means he soon obtained a large and lucra- 
tive practice, eventually taking rank as one of the leading phy- 
sicans in that city. During the late war, he volunteered his 
services to the Sanitary Commission, and for a time had 
charge of a large steamer conveying sick and other prisoners 
up James River to be exchanged : he was assisted in this duty 
by a corps of assistants. He returned home, sick, but as soon 
as he recovered, visited the army hospitals in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, as one of the special inspectors of the Sanitary 

Dr. Coale is the author of a popular work, Hints on Health, 
Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1857, which has passed through 
three editions ; a treatise on Nosology, and an article on Teta- 
nus in the Md. Med. and Surg. Journal, ii., 409, 1840. 2 

l The Med. and Chir. Fac. of Md., chartered in 1799, were empowered tore- 
quire all who desired to practice medicine or surgery in that state to take out 
a license, irrespective of any diploma they might hold ; and those to whom 
it was granted were termed licentiates of medicine. They latterly have al- 
lowed the exercise of this power to lapse, and lo ! the quacks swarm like 
the locusts in Egypt. — Letter of Dr. J. R. Quinan, Histriographer of the Society. 

* Medical Annals of Bait., Dr. J. R. Quinan; Hamersly's 100 Years Reg. 
Navy ; Records of Navy Dept. (by permission) ; obituary, Boston Courier. 


He was a member and for many years an officer of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and an instructor in the Har- 
vard Medical School. In 1851 he joined the Scots Charitable 
Society of Boston — a society formed of Scotchmen and their 
descendants, founded in 1657, and incorporated 1786. He 
was vice-president for two years 1853-4 ; president for three 
years, 1856-7-8 ; trustee two years, 1859-60 ; secretary, 
1861-2-3 ; and again trustee, 1864-5. In 1865 he was the 
author of a petition to the legislature to increase the member- 
ship. He was one of the founders of the parish of the Church 
of the Advent, and senior warden for many years up to the 
time of his death. 

Dr. Coale in 1860 received the honorary degree of Master 
of Arts from Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

He was married, May 1, 1850, to Katharine Sewell Oliver, 
who was born September 6, 1828 — the daughter of Daniel 
Oliver, M. D., LL. D. (Harvard, 1806), lecturer on medicine 
in Bowdoin College, and professor of medicine in Dartmouth 
College. 1 She died December 19, 1856, leaving one son. Dr. 
Coale married secondly, May 17, 1860, Elizabeth Thompson 
Bell, daughter of Hon. Joseph Bell ; her mother's sister was 
the wife of the distinguished lawyer, llufus Choate. By her 
Dr. Coale had no children. Dr. Coale died April 24, 1865, 
and was buried with impressive services in Mt. Auburn Ceme- 
tery. The Scots Charitable Society and the vestry of the 
Church of the Advent passed appropriate resolutions to his 
memory. The vestry subsequently erected a tablet to his 
memory in the church. 

Dr. Coale was a man of jovial disposition, of extensive and 
varied information; a fluent talker who generally took the lead 
in a conversation ; his fund of interesting information, of wit 
and anecdote, never failed to command the attention of his 
hearers. It has been remarked that he could converse upon 
almost any subject, and give information upon it. 

His brother relates, that he was called in consultation one 
day to a patient who had run a needle into her body in close 
proximity to some large bloodvessels, where it would be dan- 
gerous to use the knife, especially as its exact location was 
unknown. Dr. Coale magnetized a fine needle, suspended it 
by the middle with a silk thread, and by holding it over the 
patient's body, it moved itself parallel to the imbedded needle ; 

1 See Genealogy of Descendants of William Hutchinson and Thomas Oliver, 
William H. Whitmore, Boston, 1865. 


and by lowering the suspended needle one point dipped. He 
thus found out the position of the needle, and which end 
pointed upward. By gently squeezing the flesh the point ap- 
peared, and it was readily removed by the pincers ; thus avoid- 
ing a dangerous operation. On another occasion he was 
called to a patient who had taken an overdose of laudanum. 
All efforts to awaken her had failed; and Dr. Coale remember- 
ing what he had read of the tortures of the Inquisition, made 
use of this knowledge, by arranging a vessel of water so that 
successive drops would fall from a height upon her forehead ; the 
persistent regularity of the falling drops would become unbear- 
able to a person in health, if continued for any length of time, and 
it soon caused a twitching of the muscles of the face ; this grad- 
ually increased until the patient was awakened from her sleep. 
Dr. Coale's only son, by his first wife, Katharine S. Oliver : 

■87. i. George Oliver George, b. Boston, Sept. 10, 1853. 

in Baltimore, April 28, 1817. She was married April 5, 1836, 
to John Christian Brune, a merchant, the eldest son of Fred- 
erick W. Brune, and a member of the firm of F. W. Brune 
and Sons. The father was born in Bremen in 1776, and 
founded the present house in Baltimore in 1795. His eldest 
son was born in 1814, educated at Round Hill School, North- 
ampton, Mass., declined to go to college ; and at the age of 
tw T enty-one became a partner with his father. On the death of 
his father in 1860, he became the head of the firm. He took 
an active part in the formation of the Baltimore Board of 
Trade, and for over twelve years served as its President. He 
was also President of the Association for Relieving the Con- 
dition of the Poor. 

Mr. Brune as a business man, amassed a large fortune ; as 
well also as his brothers, who were members of the same firm. 
In 1856, he suffered an affliction in the death of his wife, while 
travelling abroad. She died July 26, 1856, at the Mitre Inn, 
High street, Oxford, England, and was buried in St. Peter's 
Church, East Oxford. So great was Mr. Brune's affection for 
her, that he directed one of his largest vessels to proceed to Eng- 
land and bring home her remains. The ship took out no cargo, 
and brought back nothing but her body. She had no children. 

Mr. Brune had declined public offices, until the troubles of 
1861 commenced, when he was elected to the legislature, to 
meet in May, 1861. A special session had already been con- 


vened, but some members of Southern sympathies were not 
allowed by the military forces to take their seats. A special 
election was therefore called, at which Mr. Brune was elected. 
He was also strongly Southern in his sympathies. When the 
Massachusetts troops were fired upon in Baltimore, Mayor 
Brown wrote to President Lincoln, urging him to prevent other 
troops from passing through the city ; and appointed Judge 
Hugh L. Bond, J. C. Brune and Geo. W. Dobbin a committee 
to see the President, and upon invitation of Mr. Lincoln these 
gentlemen proceeded to Washington ; but not much was ac- 
complished by them. 1 

As the political troubles increased, the legislature in Sep- 
tember, being composed of a majority of Southern sympathizers, 
was about to pass an ordinance of secession, when General Dix 
on the 12th of September ordered the arrest of fourteen of the 
most influential members, including Mr. Brune and Mayor 
Brown, besides a number of others. 2 This wholesale arrest by 
the military authorities caused much excitement. Of all these 
persons, it is said that but two escaped arrest. Mr. Brune 
was at his club, but his colored man Charles, suspecting the 
errand of two persons who called at the house, entertained 
them with the best of wine and cigars, saying Mr. Brune would 
doubtless be back soon. He then slipped out and warned Mr. 
Brune to leave, came back and gave the men more wine and 
cigars, and thus detained them until Mr. Brune had left the city. 

A few days after, Charles packed Mr. Brune's trunk and 
forwarded it to him in Canada. As a sequel to this incident, 
the authorities on the border, seeing the initials J. C. B. on 
the trunk, seized it under the impression that it belonged to 
the Hon. John C. Breckinridge, who had lately disappeared 
from Kentucky, and was " wanted " by the government. It is 
believed that this seizure gave rise to the report, about this 
time, that Mr. Breckinridge had gone to Canada, whereas he 
had gone south. 

After this, Mr. Brune never set foot in this country again, 
although he could have returned had he so desired. He spent 
his summers in Canada, and the winters in Cuba and the West 
Indies. He died at sea, December 7, 1 864, while on his way 
to Cuba, on board H. B. M. Mail steamer Tasmania, of disease 
of the heart, resulting in brain fever. A likeness of Mr. 

^Balt. and the \9th of April 1861, Geo. W. Brown, Bait., 1887; also 
Scharf's Chronicles of Bait., 1874. 
2 Ibid. 


Brune is given in Brantz Mayer's Baltimore Past and Pres- 
ent, Historical and Biographical. 

52. GEORGE BUCHANAN COALE.— Born in Balti- 
more, March 5, 1819. He began life as a clerk in the Union 
Bank, Baltimore, when about eighteen years of age. He was 
Secretary of the Merchants' Fire Insurance Company, until it 
was changed to the Merchants' Mutual Marine Insurance Com- 
pany, when he became its President. He was an insurance 
agent, and for a number of years represented the Hartford 
Insurance Company of Connecticut, and the Home of New 
York. In former years he also represented other companies. 
Some years ago he took into partnership his son, George Wil- 
liam Coale, under the name of George B. Coale and Son. Mr. 
Coale was married October 10, 1855, to Caroline Dorsey, 
daughter of Dr. Robert Edward Dorsey, Professor of Materia 
Medica in the University of Maryland. Mr. Coale died on his 
sixty-eighth birthday, March 5, 1887, and is buried at Green- 
mount Cemetery. 

Like his brother, he was a man of considerable information, 
a great reader, and the possessor of a retentive memory. He 
had excellent artistic and literary tastes ; and was regarded as 
an authority when he expressed his opinion. He was the 
oldest insurance agent in Baltimore, being greatly respected 
by his business confreres. He was one of the leading mem- 
bers, and a director of the Wednesday Club, a member of the 
Athenaeum Club and the Maryland Club, and a member of St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church. His children, all except the first 
named, born in Baltimore: 

i. Edward Johnson, b. Elk Ridge, July 31, 1856 ; d. Aug. 15, 

1856, Elk Ridge. 

88. ii. Robert Dorsey, b. Sept. 13, 1857. 

89. iii. George William, b. Dec. 23, 1859. 

90. iv. Mary Buchanan, b. June 29, 1861 (Mrs. Redwood). 

v. Edward, b. March 6, 1863 ; d. Sept. 15, 1865, Elk R. 

vi. Grafton Dorsey, b. June 12, 1864; d. June 29, 1864, Bait. 

vii. Caroline Donaldson, b. June 28, 1875; d. Nov. 26, 1878, Bait. 

— Born in Baltimore March 5, 1881. She was married in 
Baltimore June 1, 1871, to Thomas R. Brown, Sr., of that 
city. He was a farmer, and this his second marriage. He 
died in Baltimore December 25, 1871, leaving children by his 
first wife, but none by his second wife. Mrs. Brown resides 
in Baltimore. 



54. Captain EVAN MILLS BUCHANAN, U. S. A.— 
Born at Auchentorlie, his father's place, in Centre county, Pa., 
April 14, 1834. He was educated as a civil engineer, and 
engaged successfully in that profession until offered, in I860, 
the position of captain's clerk by his relative Commodore, then 
Captain, McKean, commanding the steam frigate Niagara. 
The advantages of foreign travel in so pleasant a cruise to the 
Mediterranean and East Indies, decided him to accept the ap- 
pointment. On his return in April, 1861, the civil war was 
breaking out ; and when General McClellan was appointed to 
the command of the Army of the Potomac, he appointed Mr. 
Buchanan his Military Secretary. He acted as such until 
March 24, 1862, when he was appointed a captain and com- 
missary of subsistence in the United States Army, and being 
retained on General McClellan's staff, was with him during the 
seven days' battles before Richmond in June, 1862, as aid and 
commissary of subsistence ; and it was under his immediate 
supervision that all the livestock of the army — above 2700 
head of cattle — were removed from the Chickahominy to the 
James River. For five months he was on the staff of General 
Morrill on the upper Potomac. In March, 1863, he was trans- 
ferred to the staff of General Whipple, 3d Division, 3d Army 
Corps ; and after the battle of Gettysburg, July, 1863, became 
chief commissary of this division, and continued with it after 
its transfer to the 6th Corps, participating in all the campaigns 
under General Grant, from Culpepper to Petersburg. In 
July, 1862, the division was transferred to General Sheridan's 
command in the Shenandoah Valley. Captain Buchanan left 
Harper's Ferry September 27, 1864, with a train of supplies 
for his division. That evening he and his orderly were cap- 
tured by guerillas while resting at a house, and were not heard 
from until four weeks later, when it was ascertained that they 
had been shot through the head, probably while asleep. The 
bodies were discovered about a week after the murder. The 
day of his death is regarded by his family as September 27, 
but is noted in the army registers as September 30, 1864, near 
Brooks' Furnace, Va. Captain Buchanan was unmarried ; his 
body was brought home, and interred in Bellefonte, Pa. 

ETT. — Born at Auchentorlie, Centre Co., Penn., October 27, 


1835. She adopted the middle name of G-eorge, as there 
■were three others named Leetitia Buchanan ; but the name 
does not appear in the family Bible. She was married in 
Philadelphia by the Rt. Rev. William Bacon Stevens, Novem- 
ber 21 (not 19), 1864, to Edward Franklin Everett, of 
Charlestown, Mass. The wedding was set for the 19th, but 
Mr. Everett, who was in the army, did not arrive until the 
21st, on which day the wedding occurred. The 19th is, how- 
ever, the date recorded in the family Bible, in the newspaper 
notice, and in the JV. E. Hist, and Genealogical Register, 
xix., 77. 

Mr. Everett was born in Northfield, Mass., May 28, 1840. 
Resided in Charlestown, graduated at Harvard University in 
1860, and A. M.; was Recording Secretary of the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Society, 1862. Entered the 
volunteer army in the Massachusetts 5th Regiment, Septem- 
ber, 1862; 2d Heavy Artillery, June, '63; 2d lieutenant July, 
'63 ; on staff duty ; mustered out, Sept., '65. He has since 
been in the insurance business in Boston. 1 

Mrs. Everett died at Auchentorlie, September 17, 186B, 
having had one child ; (Mr. Everett has married a second time). 
Her issue : 

i. A child, still-born, Sept. 10, 1866. 

mander U. S. N. — Born in Bellefonte, Centre Co., Penn., 
September 18, 1837. He was appointed an acting midship- 
man October 1, 1851, entering the Naval Academy. He 
stood well in his class and graduated June 9, 1855, becoming 
a midshipman ; and cruised in the Constellation and the Con- 
gress in the Mediteranean, July, '55-Jan. '58. Passed mid- 
shipman April 15, 1858. Master, Nov. 4, '58. Ordered to 
take passage to join the steam frigate Merrimac, then in the 
Pacific, April, 1858, reporting on board May 14th ; trans- 
ferred to the sloop St. Mary's the same year ; detached, Jan- 
uary, 1861. Lieutenant, July 18, 1860. Ordered to the 
steam frigate Mississippi, April, 1861, in the West Gulf 

In December, 1861, the Mississippi was at Ship Island, 
Miss., which was evacuated by the Confederates on her ap- 
proach. Lieutenant Buchanan was sent on shore with a de- 

1 Harv. Univ. in the War, F. A. Brown; Appleton's Cyclop, of Biog., 1888. 


tachment of men to garrison and command the fort, built and 
evacuated by the Confederates. General Phelps, who soon 
after arrived there with a brigade of troops, issued a proclama- 
tion Dec. 4, 1861, to the people of the southwest, which caused 
great dissatisfaction, not only among the naval officers but 
among his own officers and troops : Captain Melanchthon 
Smith, commanding the Mississippi, refused General Phelps a 
boat so that the proclamation could be posted on the main land ; 
and lieutenant Buchanan also declined to allow it' to be posted 
or read on Ship Island while he was in command there. On 
December 26, Ship Island was turned over to General Phelps ; 
and lieutenant Buchanan was put in command of the captured 
prize steamer Lewis, with a hundred seamen. 

Lieutenant Buchanan was promoted to be a lieutenant com- 
mander, July 16, 1862, a new grade then established. He 
was for a time in command of the steam frigate Mississippi, 
then as executive officer of the gunboat New London, the 
captain of this vessel being sick most of the time, Buchanan 
was virtually in command ; this vessel was so active in the 
inland waters, that she received the soubriquet of the Black 
Devil of the Mississippi Sound. 1 Lieutenant commander Bu- 
chanan subsequently commanded the gunboat Calhoun. 

Admiral Farragut writes from Pensacola about September, 
1862 : " Lieutenant Commander McKean Buchanan, with light 
draft steamers, had been operating successfully in Berwick 
Bay and Atchafalaya River." And again, from New Or- 
leans, November 14, 1862, to the Secretary of the Navy, he 
encloses Lieutenant Commander Buchanan's report, saying, 
" He is commanding the naval forces co-operating with the 
army in Opelousas, and had already two fights with the ene- 
my's steamers and land forces." 2 

Early in January, 1864, an expedition to Berwick Bay was 
organized under General Weitzel, numbering 5000 men, with 
21 pieces of artillery. Commodore Buchanan (as he was 
called by courtesy, on account of his commanding a squadron 
of vessels), commanded the naval forces, consisting of the Cal- 
houn, flagship, Estrella, Kinsman and Diana. While ascend- 
ing Bayou Teche, January 14, 1863, a torpedo exploded 
under the Kinsman, which vessel then dropped astern. Com- 
modore Buchanan passed ahead in the Calhoun, and finding the 
vessel impeded by obstructions, went forward in an exposed 

^Annual Cyclop., 1863, p. 696. 
'Life, by Loyall Farragut, 18*79. 


position, and was at once an object for sharpshooters on the 
tank. He was soon struck in the head, and fell dead on the 
deck. The expedition was a failure, 1 resulting only in the 
destruction of a Confederate steamer Cotton (which was burnt 
by the Confederates), and returned to New Orleans. Commo- 
dore Buchanan was interred in the cemetery there January 17, 
his funeral being attended by Admiral Farragut, General 
Banks and staff, and all the principal naval officers in port. 

Lieutenant Commander Buchanan was a brave officer. His 
daring courage and activity while in command of these light 
draft steamers, made his name widely known throughout that 
part of the country. He was young to have command of a 
squadron, being only a little over 25 years of age when 
killed. The command of a squadron at so youthful an age, is 
alone evidence of the estimation in which he was held by his 
superiors. Admiral Farragut, writing home, mentions his 
death as follows, January 15th : " Yesterday was a sad day for 
me. I went to see Banks ; he handed me a dispatch from the 
bar, announcing the loss of the Hatteras. When I came on 
board, I received another, telling me of the death of one of my 
bravest and most dashing officers, Lt. -Commander Buchanan, 
son of Paymaster Buchanan, and nephew of Frank. 2 

Lieutenant Commander Buchanan died unmarried, and his 
remains were subsequently sent to Bellefonte, Pa. 

BUCHANAN. [22.] 

57. ROBERDEAU BUCHANAN.— The author and com- 
filer of this Genealogy. — Born in Philadelphia, November 
22, 1839. Removed with the family to Brooklyn, N. Y., when 
two years of age, and to Charlestown, Mass., in 1851 ; con- 
sequent upon his father's duties in the navy. Educated in 
English branches at the grammar and high schools in Charles- 
town, where he resided ; and in mathematics at the Lawrence 
Scientific School, Harvard University ; graduating in 1861, as 
a Bachelor in Science in the department of civil engineering. 
Entered upon his profession, as an assistant engineer in the 
construction of water works for the supply of Charlestown, 
1862-5, the works being completed in three years at a cost of 

l The Mississippi, F. V. Green, p. 214. 

2 Life, byLoyall Farragut. Mistake in relationship, see App. II., 56. 


one million of dollars. Appointed chief engineer to extend! 
these works for the supply of the city of Chelsea, 1867 : the 
water being conveyed in pipes across Mystic River, three- 
fourths of a mile wide, and through inverted syphons under the 
two draw-ways in the road bridge. Appointed in 1868, to lay 
a system of pipes for the further extension of these works, for 
the supply of the town of Somerville. Appointed to a position 
in the U. S. Patent Office at Washington, September, 1872, to 
April, 1877, and removed to that city, where he has since 

In May, 1879, he became connected with the office of the 
American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, under the dis- 
tinguished astronomer, Professor Simon Newcomb, LL. D., Ph. 
D., U. S. Navy. This work, published annually, is issued 
three years in advance ; the nautical part being for the use of 
navigators ; the astronomical, for the Naval Observatory at 
Washington, and for other observatories and astronomers 
throughout the country. It is a similar work to the Connais- 
sance des Temps of France ; the British Nautical Almanac 
of England; the Almanaque Nautico of Spain; and the 
Berliner Jahrbuch of Germany; which are 
the five " principal astronomical and nautical ephemerides of 
the world ; but there are a number of minor publications." 1 

Mr. Buchanan's duties in this office, are the computation and 
preparation of the ephemerides of the planets Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune ; the Besselian and Independent 
Star-Numbers, for the reduction of the positions of the fixed 
stars ; and the computation of the solar and lunar eclipses, 
with charts showing the portions of the earth within which the 
eclipses are visible. 2 

1 Professor Simon Newcomb, Address before the Naval Institute, 1879. 

2 From the latest issue, that for 1892, Appendix, p. 521 : — 

" The principal computations of the ephemeris have been distributed in* 
the following manner: — 

"The ephemeris of the sun was computed by the late Mr. Eastwood ; the- 
moon's longitude, latitude, semidiameter and horizontal parallax, by Pro- 
fessor Keith ; the right ascension and declination by Professor Van Vleck ; 
the culminations, by Mr. Meier; the lunar distances by Mr. Bradford ; 
Mercury and Venus, by Mr. E. P. Austin ; Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, 
and Neptune, by Mr. Roiserdeau Buchanan ; Jupiter's satellites, by Prof. 
H. D. Todd ; the satellites of Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, by Dr. 
Morrison. The mean and apparent places of the fixed stars were prepared 
by Mr. English and Mr. Hedrick ; the general constants for their reduction, 
by Mr. Buchanan ; the occultations, by Mr. J. 0. Wiessner and Mr. Au- 
hagen ; and the eclipses were computed and the charts projected by Mr, 
Buchanan." A similar paragraph is appended to each adition. 


Besides the above, Mr. Buchanan has at various times as- 
sisted in the computation, and other preparation, of some of the 
special works published by this office ; of which may chiefly be 
mentioned, the Theory of Mercury tvith New Tables, by Pro- 
fessor Newcomb, not yet published. 

He is the author of a Report on Bridge Construction and 
Inverted Syphons, Chelsea, 1868 ; Genealogy of the Rober- Family, 1876; Genealogy of the Descendants of Dr. 
William Shippen the Elder, 1877. 

He was married at Georgetown, D. C, September 12, 1888, 
to Eliza M. Peters, daughter of Hester A. and the late Thomas 
Peters, who was son of Thomas and nephew of Judge Richard 
Peters, of Philadelphia, Secretary of War during the Revolu- 
tion. William Peters, father of these two latter, was a brother 
of Richard Peters, the Provincial Councillor ; he purchased Bel- 
mont in 1742, and in 1745 erected the present mansion house, 
which bears his monogram and date on the gable. In the 
large hall on the lower floor, his arms — a bend between two 
escallops — may still be seen in stucco work on the ceiling. 1 
The land and mansion are now part of Fairmount Park, Phila- 
delphia. On her mother's side Mrs. Buchanan is descended 
from Sir Charles Burdett, 2 an English baronet, who married a 
daughter of Charles Wyndham of Stokesby, ancestor to the 
Earl of Egremont. A grand-daughter of this marriage came 
to this country, renounced her Christian faith, and married the 
Rev. Rabbi Abraham H. Cohen, M. D., of Richmond and Balti- 
more. They were the parents of Mrs. Peters. The mother 
and her children subsequently left the Jewish faith. 3 

Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., December 24, 1842 ; removed to 
Charlestown, Mass., in 1851, with her father's family; and 
was married in that city, October 3, 1867, to George S. Fife, 
an assistant surgeon in the navy. She died in Charlestown, 
July 20, 1871, and is buried near her father in Mt. Auburn 
Cemetery. She was a person of pleasing manner, and a fa- 
vorite among a large circle of friends. In her disposition she 

l A fac-simile is given in The Continent for April 25, 1883, vol. iii., 521 — 
The Right to Bear Arms, by F. W. Leach. 

3 Sir Charles married secondly Sarah Halsey, from whom the present 
baronet is descended. (Burke's Peerage.) 

3 See Historic Mansions of Philadelphia, T. Westcott, for a description of 
Belmont. Mrs. Cohen's autobiography is a little work entitled Henry 


possessed much original wit and humor, and seldom forgot the 
name or face of a person she had once seen, even after the 
lapse of several years. 1 Her children : — 

■91. i. George Buchanan, b. Aug. 9, 1869. 

ii. Selina, b. July 18, 18*71 ; d. next day. 

BUCHANAN. [23.] 

— Born in Annapolis, December 18, 1835. She was married 
at St. John's Chapel, near " The Rest," October 30, 18G6, to 
Thomas Forman Screven, of Savannah, Georgia. He was 
born in Savannah, April 19, 1834 ; graduated at the Univer- 
sity of Georgia 1852 ; A. M.; and graduated also at the Sa- 
vannah Medical College. He is a planter at Savannah; and 
had previously been married at Athens, Ga., November 26, 
1860, to Ade* V. D. Moore, daughter of Dr. Richard D. Moore, 
who died in Athens, Ga., February 7, 1865, in her 31st year. 
By her he has two children, Richard Moore and John ; but no 
children to his second wife. 

60. Mrs. NANNIE (BUCHANAN) MEIERE.— Born in 
Annapolis, September 25, 1841. She and her twin sister were 
formerly so much alike that strangers could not distinguish them 
apart. Even their father could not always tell one from the 
other, and adopted the common name, Nan-Ellen. She was 
married at the Washington Navy Yard, April 3, 1861, to Lieu- 
tenant Julius Ernest Meiere, of the United States Marine Corps. 
The President and all the principal officers of the navy and army 
attended the wedding. Lieutenant Meiere entered the service 
April 16, 1855, and resigned to take sides with the South dur- 
ing the late war; his resignation was not accepted, and he was 
dismissed, May 6, 1861. He entered the Confederate marine 
corps, and finally was one of the garrison of Fort Morgan, 
Mobile, when that post was surrendered. He left his family 
and went west; his wife obtained a divorce July 6, 1885, for 
desertion. Mrs. Meiere for some years past has resided at 
Tunis Mills, Talbot co., Md. Her children : 

i. Nannie Lloyd, b. " The Rest," June 7, 1862. 
92. ii. Ernest, b. " Fairview," Talbot Co., March 5, 1866. 

iii. Ellen Buchanan, b. "The Rest," Oct. 3, 1870. 
iv. Thomas McKean, b. Myersdale, Pa., Oct. 9, 1877. 

1 Dr. Fife subsequently left the navy, and has been for several years in 
California, where he has married a second time. 


61. Mrs. ELLEN (BUCHANAN) SCREVEN.— Born at 
Annapolis, Md., September 25, 1841. She was married at 
" The Rest," June 5, 1861, to George Proctor Screven, of 
Savannah, Ga., brother of Thomas F. Screven, who afterwards 
married her sister. He was born on Wilmington Island, near 
Savannah, April 14, 1839, and was a rice planter at Savannah. 
At the close of the war he lived for a few years in Baltimore. 
He died at Savannah, October 5, 1876. His widow now lives 
in Savannah. Their children : — 

i. Franklin Buchanan, b. Athens, Ga., March 11, 1862. 

ii. Mary, b. Savannah, Feb. 13, 1864 ; d. Bait., March 

9, 1869. 
iii. Murray Lloyd, b. Fairview, Dec. 2, 1866. 

iv. George Proctor, Jr., b. Baltimore, Jan. 12, 1869; d. Tybee Island, 

Oct. 5, 1876. 
v. Ellen Buchanan, b. Baltimore, Oct. 23, 1871. 
vi. Nannie Lloyd, b. "The Rest," May 19, 1877; posthumous. 

LIVAN.— Born at "The Rest," near Easton, Md., July 1, 
1845. She was married November 17, 1868, in St. John's 
Chapel, near " The Rest," to Felix Robertson Sullivan, of 
Baltimore, who was born in that city November 2, 18 — . He 
graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1866 ; and 
is in the insurance business in Baltimore. Their children : 

i. Mary, b. Baltimore, Aug. 19, 1869. 

93. ii. Franklin Buchanan, b. "The Rest," June 27, 1871. 
iii. Felix Robertson, Jr., b. Baltimore, Nov. 7, 1874. 
iv. Nannie Lloyd, b. Baltimore, May 4, 1876. 

03. FRANKLIN BUCHANAN, Jr.— Born at Annapolis, 
January 16, 1847. He was educated at the Maryland Agri- 
cultural College and Easton Academy. Removed to Savan- 
nah, Ga., in 1871, and entered into business as a merchant, 
and since 1879 has been in business on his own account as a 
rice broker, in which he has been very successful, having been 
for some years perhaps the largest rice broker in that city, 
disposing of 250,000 bushels annually. 

Born at " The Rest," August 23, 1850. She was married 
November 15, 1882, to Charles Goldsborough. He was born at 
" Myrtle Grove," Maryland, in 1845 ; l graduated at the Mary- 
land Agricultural College, and became a civil engineer. He 

*For his ancestry and family, see Old Kent, by George A.. Hanson. 


has been engaged upon the Baltimore and Ohio, and the Mary- 
land Central Railroads. He resided for a time at Chester, 
Pa., but is now in Baltimore. 

— Born at " The Rest," November 29, 1852. She was mar- 
ried at St. John's Chapel, June 10, 1873, to William Tilghman 
Owen, of " Hawkesworth," Talbot Co., Md., where he was 
born February 14, 1849. l He is a merchant in Savannah, 
whither he removed with his family in 1877. Their children: 

i. Kennedy Riddell, b. Hawkesworth, March 12, 1874. 
ii. Nannie Buchanan, b. Hawkesworth, Aug. 31. 1875. 
iii. Franklin Buchanan, b. " The Rest," Sept. 27, 1882. 


NEWMAN. [24.] 

66. WILLIAM HENRY NEWMAN.— Born, according 
to his own statement, in Baltimore, November 26, 1823. He 
was educated at the Flushing Institute, Long Island ; and was 
a grain merchant, removing in 1847 from Baltimore to New 
York. He was married in July, 1847, at Newport, R. I., to 
Gertrude Minturn, daughter of Jonas Minturn ; she died March 
4, 1864, on Staten Island. Mr. Newman was married 
secondly, in New York, October 18, 1866, to Ellen Stewart 
Rogers, born February 21, 1828, daughter of the distin- 
guished physician Dr. John Kearney Rogers, of New York, 
and Mary Ridgely Nicholson his wife, of the eastern shore of 
Maryland. Mr. Newman died in New York, January 11, 
1887, without issue. 

SANFORD. [25.] 

67. ROBERT SANFORD.— Born in Albany, N. Y., De- 
cember 10, 1831. He graduated at Union College, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., in 1855 ; while in college he was a member of 
the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity. After graduating, he took 
up the study of law : residing for a short time in Flushing, 
and in New York city, but for several years past in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. He was married at " Edgewood," Hyde 
Park, Dutchess Co., N. Y., May 23, 1867, "to Helen Mary 

1 For his family, see Old Kent, by George A. Hanson. 


Hooker Stuyvesant. She was born at Edgewood, January 12, 
1841, and is descended from several families well known in the 
civil and social history of New York. 

Her grandfather Nicholas William Stuyvesant, a lineal 
descendant of Governor Petrus Stuyvesant, married Katharine 
Livingston Reade, descended in two lines from Philip Liv- 
ingston, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and had : 
John Reade Stuyvesant, who married Mary Austin Yates 
(daughter of Andrew Yates, Prof. Logic and Moral Philos. 
in Union College, grandson of Colonel Christopher Yates, 
killed at the battle of Saratoga, and Hannah Allen Hooker, a 
lineal descendant of Thomas Hooker the Puritan.) Then- 
daughter was Helen Mary II . Stuyvesant, above named. 
Children of Mr. and Mrs. Sanford, all born at Poughkeepsie : 

i. Mary Buchanan, b. Feb. 17. 1869. 
ii. Henry Ga.nsevoort, b. Aug. 29, 1871. 
iii. Helen Stuyvesant, b. Oct. 29, 1873. 
iv. Stuyvesant, b. Jan. 26, 1876. 

v. Desire McKean, b. March 1, 1884. . 

WADE. [27.] 

68. Mrs. JOHNANNA (WADE) BARLOW. Born at 
Fort Severn', Annapolis, March 30, 1826. She was married 
-first to William Habersham, and secondly at Elizabeth, N. J., 
September 16, lb72, to Averill Barlow, who was born in 
Woodstock, Conn., January 13, 1822. They reside in Phila- 
delphia, where Mr. Barlow is in mercantile life. 

THOMAS. — Born at Fort Trumbull, New London, January 
5, 1828. She was married in Savannah, Georgia, November 
9, 1857, to William W. Thomas, then residing in New York, 
but now of Elizabeth, New Jersey, where his ancestors have 
lived for over a century. He is a custom house broker in New 
York. Mrs. Thomas died March 21, 1888. Their children : 

94. i. George Cummins, 

ii. Richard Wade, dead. 

95. iii. William Provost. 
iv. Robert McKean. 

70. WILLIAM WADE.— Born April 25, 1831. He is 
in mercantile life in Savannah, Georgia, as a superintendent 


of the Savannah Cotton Press Association, and president of the 
United Hydraulic Cotton Press Company. He was married in 
Savannah, November 28, 1861, to Susan Robinson Pender- 
gast, who was born on Whitemar's Island, near Savannah, 
July 23, 1841. Their children, all born in Savannah: 

i. Richard Dean Arden, b. April 15, 1863. 
ii. Harriet Murray, b. April 2, 1867. 

iii. William Ogden, b. May 18, 1872. 

71. Capt. ROBERT BUCHANAN WADE, late U. S. 
Aemy. — Born August 1, 1844. He was appointed a cadet at 
large at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, July 1, 
1861 ; graduated and appointed a 2d lieutenant of the 17th 
Infantry, June 23,1865 ; 1st lieutenant the same day ; captain 
September 29, 1867 ; unassigned, March 27, 1869, and on 
duty at headquarters of the 1st military district ; professor of 
military science in the Missouri State College at Columbia, 
Mo.; discharged December 31, 1870, with about three hun- 
dred others, under an act of Congress reducing the army. 1 
Captain Wade was married at St. Louis, Mo., August 27, 1868, 
to Isabel Neff Budd, daughter of George K. Budd, formerly of 
of Philadelphia, and Rebecca his wife, daughter of Hannah 
(Neff ) Patterson, for whose family, reference may be had to the 
Neff Qenealogy, by Elizabeth Clifford Neff, 1886. Mr. Budd 
is a financial and real estate agent in St. Louis, Mo., who sub- 
sequently took his son-in-law into partnership with him, under 
the name of Budd and Wade. Captain Wade died in Chicago, 
Illinois, where he was temporarily sojourning, January 8,1884. 
His widow still resides in St. Louis. Their children, all born 
in St. Louis : — 

i. Robert Budd, b. Oct. 26, 1869. 

ii. George K. B., b. Nov. 4, 1872. 

iii. McKean Buchanan, b. Sept. 27, 1879; d. St. Louis, May 26, 1883. 


YRUJO y ALCAZAR, third and present Marquis de Casa 
Yrujo, y de los Arcos. — Bom in London while his father was 

1 Cullom's Register of West Point ; Hamersly's^4r»M/ Reg. for 100 Years, etc. 


Spanish Minister at that Court, April 5, 1846. He was edu- 
cated in Madrid, and at Stonyhurst College, England, where he 
obtained the gold medal for proficiency in the study of Philos- 
ophy. In 1864 he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts at the 
Madrid University, passing as first class (sobresaliente). En- 
tered the diplomatic service, and was Attache and Third Sec- 
retary to the Spanish Legation in London, retiring from the 
service in 1867. From 1868 to 1875, he withdrew from active 
political and public life, but was present at the abdication of 
Queen Isabella the II, subscribing as a witness thereto. He 
supported invariably the cause of her son and heir to the throne 
of Spain, the Prince of Asturias, afterwards King Alfonso 

After the proclamation of Alfonso XII, on the occasion of 
the Prince of Wales' official visit to his late Majesty in 1876, 
the Marquis was sent on a special mission, and received the 
Prince at Seville in behalf of King Alfonso. 

The Marquis entered the Cortez in 1878, and sat in the con- 
servative interest for Cuidad-Rodrigo, in two successive parlia- 
ments. In 1884 he was elected a Senator by the Province of 
Logrono ; which position gives him the title of Excellency. 

He is a knight of the order of Santiago, a Maestrante de 
Zaragoza, and a G-entilhombre de Camara to H. C. Majesty. 
Upon the death of his younger brother, he succeeded to the 
title of Marquis de los Arcos ; and is heir to the dukedom of 

The Marquis de Casa Yrujo was married in Madrid May 28, 
1876, to Dona Maria Caro y Szechenyi, who was born in 
Madrid, September 29, 1853, daughter of Don Pedro Caro y 
Alvarez de Toledo, Marquis de la Romana, Grandee of Spain 
of the first class, by his wife, nee Countess Szechenyi in Hun- 
gary. The Marquis de Casa Yrujo resides in Madrid, and has 
issue (surname Martinez de Yrujo y Caro): 

96. i. Don Carlos, b. Madrid, July 24, 1877. 

ii. DoSa Maria Ysabel, b. Madrid, April 25, 1879. 

iii. Dona Maria de la Piedad, b. San Sebastian, July 29, 1880. 

iv. Dona Maria del Rosario. b. Madrid, Oct. 2, 1881. 

v. Don Pedro, b. Madrid, Oct. 3, 1882. 

vi. Don Juan. b. Madrid, Dec. 3, 1883. 

vii. Don Luis, b. Madrid, Jan. 15, 1886. 

CAZAR, Marquis de los Arcos. — Born at St. Germain en 
Laye in France, June 23, 1849, while his father was Am- 


bassador to France. His title was created in 1653. 'He died 
in Madrid unmarried, September 22, 1864 ; when the title 
devolved upon his elder brother, the Marquis de Casa Yrujo. 

74. Dona MARIA de la PIEDAD MARTINEZ de 
YRUJO y ALCAZAR, Viscountess de Benaesa. — Born in 
Paris, April 27, 1851. Married in Madrid, April 3, 1880, to 
to Don Pedro Caro y Szechenyi, Viscount de Benaesa, eldest 
son to the Marquis de la Romana, and own brother to the pres- 
ent Marchioness de Casa Yrujo. They reside in Madrid, and 
have issue: (surname Caro y Martinez de Yrujo,) 

i. Don Pedro, b. Madrid, Dec. 20, 1881. 

ii. Dona Maria de la Piedad, b. Madrid, Jan. 20, 1884. 
iii. Don Luis Gabriel, b. Madrid, Jan. 8, 1887. 

YRUJO y ALCAZAR, Countess de Lambertyb. — Born in 
Madrid, November 2, 1852 ; married in Madrid May 24, 1882, 
to Henri Ferdinard Edmund, Count de Lambertye, in France. 
They reside in Paris, and have issue : (surname de Lam- 

i. Monsieur Charles, b. Madrid, Feb. 12, 1883. 
ii. Monsieur Manuel, b. Madrid, March 15, 1884. 


76. THOMAS McKEAN.— Born in Philadelphia, No- 
vember 28, 1842. He graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1862; and subsequently took the master's degree. 
He is a director of the Insurance Company of North America, 
fire and marine ; of the Fidelity Insurance Trust and Safe 
Deposit Company, and of the Philadelphia Saving Fund So- 
ciety. He was married September 24, 1863, to Elizabeth 
Wharton, daughter of the Hon. George M. Wharton, who was 
born in Philadelphia, December 12, 1844. Her pedigree may 
be found in the Genealogy of the Wharton Family, by Anne 
H. Wharton, 1880 ; also in the Pennsylvania Magazine vols. 
i. and ii. Mr. and Mrs. McKean reside in Philadelphia, No. 
1925 Walnut street. Their issue, all born in Philadelphia: 

97. i. Henry Pratt, b. Jan. 12, 1866. 

ii. Thomas, Jr., b. April 29, 1869. 

iii. Maria Wharton, b. April 18, 1870. 

iv. George Wharton, b. July 20, 1872 ; d. Phila., Jan. 20, 1875. 

v. Pheee Warren, b. July 8, 1874. 


TROTT. [31.] 

— Born in Philadelphia, December 8, 1835, and married De- 
cember 2, 1857, to James W. Hazlehurst, now of the Fidelity 
Trust Company, Philadelphia. Their issue : 

i. George Trott, b. Phila. Oct. 18, 1858 ; d. at Nice, France, Dec. 
10, 1881. 
98. ii. Elizabeth Borie, b. Phila., June 1, 1861 (Mrs. Lammot). 
iii. Henry McKean, b. Phila., Dec. 27, 1867. 
iv. Alice, b. Phila., May 20, 1871. 

BORIE. [33.] 

Born in Philadelphia, March 4, 1844, and was married in Phila- 
delphia, December 11, 1872, to John Thompson Lewis, Jr. 
Mr. Lewis is the son of Saunders Lewis, formerly a lawyer 
but afterwards a manufacturer, whose ancestors came to this 
country from Wales in 1686. 1 

He was born in Phila. May 12, 1846, graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1865 ; and subsequently took 
the master's degree. For several years he had been in 
business in Philadelphia as a member of the firm of John T. 
Lewis & Bros., manufacturers, but in 1889 became associated 
with his brothers-in-law in the firm of C. & H. Borie, brokers. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis' issue, all born in Philadelphia: 

. Charles Borie, b. Oct. 12, 1873. 
i. Phcebe Morris, b. Aug. 25, 1879. 
ii. Elizabeth Borie, b. May 8, 1882. 

79. BEAUVEAU BORIE.— Born in Philadelphia, May 9, 
1846 ; graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1865, 
subsequently taking the master's degree ; and is in business in 
Philadelphia as one of the surviving partners of the firm of C. 
and H. Borie, brokers. He was married December 3, 1868, 
in Philadelphia, to Patty Duffield Neill, born August 5, 1846, 
daughter of James P. Wilson Neill and Alice Johnson Ren- 

x Biog. Eneycl. of 1'enn., 1874. 
15 -g 


shaw, his wife, all of Philadelphia. For her pedigree refer- 
ence may be had to John Neill of Lewes Del., 1739, and his 
Descendants, Phila., 1875. Issue of Mr. and Mrs. Borie, all 
born in Philadelphia : 

i. Charles Louis, b. June 9, 1870. 

ii. Emily Ewing, b. May 9, 1872. 

iii. Beauveau, Jr., b. Sept. 25, 1874. 

iv. Adolphe Edward, b. Jan. 5, 1877. 

v. Renshaw, b. April 30, 1883. 

80. Mrs. EMILY (BORIE) RHODES.— Born in Phila- 
delphia, April 9, 1851, and married in Philadelphia, January 
5, 1871, to James Mauran Rhodes, who was born in Provi- 
dence, R. I., December 25, 1848, graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity, R. I., in 1869, and subsequently took the decree of 
Ph. B. He is one of the surviving partners of the firm of C. 
& H. Borie, brokers, in Philadelphia. Their children : 

i. Clementina Borie, b. Phila., Dec. 10, 1871. 

Mary Aborn, b. Paris, France, April 23, 1874. 

iii. James Mauran, Jr., b. Phi 

iv. F. Mauran, b. 

v. Elizabeth McKean, b. 

vi. Emily Borie, b. 

vii. Emily Beauveau, b. 

viii. Charles Borie, b 

ix. Sophia Beauveau, b. 

x. Lawrence Mauran, b. 

la., July 31, 1876. 
Nov. 20, 1878. 
Oct 22, 1880. 

Oct. 22, 1880 ; d. March 22, 1881. 
Feb. 17, 1882. 
April 7, 1883. 

July 7, 1885 ; d. Feb. 25, 1888. 
March 24, 1887. 

MASON. — Born in Philadelphia February 2, 1853 ; and mar- 
ried October 12, 1886, at " The Dell," her father's residence, 
to George Champlin Mason, Jr., of Newport, R. I., son of the 
biographer of Gilbert Stuart. He Avas born in Newport, R. I., 
August 8, 1849, and resided in that place until January, 
1888, when he removed to Philadelphia. He is an architect, 
and Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. 




82. Mrs. ANNA BAYARD (McKEAN) DEAN.— Born 
in Philadelphia, July 28, 1859 ; married at Deposit, New 
York, September 7, 1883, to Edward Gaylord Dean, a drug- 
gist, who was born November 23, 1853. They reside in 
Deposit, Broome Co., N. Y. 

83. HENRY JARVIS McKEAN.— Born at Binghamton, 
Broome Co., N. Y., March 1. 1861. Educated at the Bing- 
hamton High School, and in 1883 was appointed a clerk in the 
Railway Mail Service. He was married in Binghamton, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1885, to Anna Mabel Livingston, daughter of James 
Robert Livingston and Esther Rogers of Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, who was born April 11, 1863. They reside in 
Binghamton. Their issue : 

i. William Wister, b. Jan. 20, 1885. 
ii. Henry Livingston, b. Oct. 7, 1887. 


84. WILLIAM McKEAN WILSON.— Merchant in Scran- 
ton, Pennsylvania; married in July, 1885, to Harriet Kimball, 
who is from the West. 

ELY. [37.] 

85. WILLIAM MATHER ELY.— Born in Binghamton, 
N. Y., July 20, 1860, received an academic education, and is a 
merchant, residing in Binghamton. He was married in Bing- 
hamton September 5, 1883, to May La Monte, who was born 
in Adams, Massachusetts, May 6, 1861, the daughter of Abram 
H. and Helen Dean La Monte. 


86. JAMES WILSON BAYARD.— Born in Germantown, 
Pennsylvania, August 2, 1865 ; graduated from the College of 
New Jersey at Princeton in 1885. For three or four years he 


has been a clerk in the Department of State in Washington ; 
and ai the same time has been studying law under the super- 
vision of the distinguished lawyer and legal writer, the Hon. 
Francis Wharton, Solicitor of the State Department. He also 
attended the law school of Columbian University, from which 
he graduated in June, 1889, and the previous month was ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the District of 


Boston, September 10, 1853, and named after the brother and 
uncle of his father, both of whom were named George. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1874, and from the Dane 
Law School in 1876 ; was admitted to the bar in Boston, 
January 8, 1876, and is practicing his profession in Boston 
with marked success. He was married at St. Paul's Church, 
Brookline, Mass., December 9, 1882, to Elizabeth Atkinson ; 
who was born December 31, 1856, the daughter of George 
and Elizabeth (Staigg) Atkinson, of Brookline. Mr. and 
Mrs. Coale's issue : 

i. Marian, b. Oct. 30, 1883. 

ii. William Edward, b. Jan. 4, 1887. 


88. Professor ROBERT DORSET COALE.— Born in 
Baltimore, September 13, 1857. He graduated at the Penn- 
sylvania Military Academy as a Civil Engineer, in 1875 ; 
then became a special student in Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, l»76-80, and Fellow in Chemistry 1880-8*1 . 
After graduating, he was assistant in that branch, 1881-83 ; 
lecturer on chemistry in the University of Maryland, 1883-4 ; 
and in 1884 was appointed Professor of Chemistry and Toxi- 
cology in the University of Maryland. In 1881, he received 
the decree of Ph. D., from Johns Hopkins University ; his 
original scientific researches which gained his degree were 
published in the American Chemical Journal. 1 

89. GEORGE WILLIAM COALE —Born in Baltimore 
December 23, 1859. He entered into business with his 

1 Johns Hopkins circulars. 1880 ; Appleton's New Encych of Bioy. 


father as insurance agent, subsequently becoming his partner. 
On the death of his father he became the surviving partner, 
carrying on the business. He resides in Baltimore. 

— Born in Baltimore June 29, 1861 ; and was married in 
that city October 25, 1887, to Frank T. Redwood. Mr. 
Redwood was born in Baltimore December 20, 1856, gradu- 
ated at the Baltimore City College and at Loyola College. He 
is the junior member of the firm of Brown and Lowndes, bank- 
ers and brokers, and is Secretary of the Merchants' Club. 
Their issue : 

i. George Buchanan, b. Bait., Sept. 30, 1888. 

FIFE. [58.] 

91. GEORGE BUCHANAN FIFE. 1 — Bora in Charles- 
town, Mass., August 9, 1869. Removed to Washington, D. 
C.,in 1872, with his grandmother, who has had the care of him 
since his mother's death. Studied at the preparatory school 
of Columbian University, Washington, but left there upon 
receiving an appointment as a Naval Cadet at large. He 
entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis, September 5, 1885 ; 
and resigned, January 23, 1886. Re-appointed at large, Sep- 
tember 4, 1886 ; but left the Academy February 10, 1887, on 
account of hazing. He passed two years at Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, as a student in civil engineering. 

MEIERE. [60.] 

92. ERNEST MEIERE.— Born at Fair View, Talbot Co., 
Maryland, March 5, 1866. He is a merchant at Tunis Mills, 
Talbot Co. ; his energy and integrity having made him a 
highly successful and reliable business man in that vicinity. 

SULLIVAN. [62.] 

—Born at The Rest, Talbot Co., Maryland, June 27, 1871. 

1 He has tacitly dropped the 2d and 4th Christian names under which he 
■was baptized. See the Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family. 


He was appointed a naval cadet at large and entered the U. 
S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, May 22, 1886, before he 
was fifteen years of age, being one of the youngest members 
of the class. He stands well in his class, and has won the 
esteem of his superior officers. 

THOMAS. [69.] 

94. GEORGE CUMMINS THOMAS.— Graduated at the 
College of New Jersev at Princeton in 1879, and at the Law 
Department of Washington University, St. Louis, 1881. He 
resides in Elizabeth, N. J., practicing his profession in New 
York city ; and was married at Erie, Pa., November 9, 1886, 
to Miriam Clark, daughter of Joseph David Clark, of Erie, Pa., 
formerly of Sheffield, Berkshire Co., Mass. Their issue : 

i. Elizabeth Miriam, b. Sept. 11, 1887. 

95. WILLIAM PROVOST THOMAS.— Resides in Eliza- 
beth, N. J., and is in business with his father in New York 
city, as a custom-house broker. He was married in Washing- 
ton, D. C, April BO, 1884, to Harriet Caldwell Lyon. Their 
issue : 

i. William Wilberforce, b. Sept. 20, 1887. 

Y DE LOS ARCOS. [72.] 

— Born in Madrid, Spain, July 24, 1877, is the heir to the 
Marquisate, and ultimately to the title of Duke de Sotomayor. 


97. HENRY PRATT McKEAN.— Born in Philadelphia, 
January 12, 1866. He graduated at St. Paul's School, and 
subsequently became a special student at Harvard University, 
1885-7, but did not remain there long enough to take a de- 
gree. He was married at Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, June 


5, 1889, to Marian Shaw, daughter of Quincy Adams and 
Pauline (Agassiz) Shaw, who was born at Jamaica Plain Feb- 
ruary 21, 1866. They reside in Philadelphia. 


MOT. — Born in Philadelphia, June 1, 1861 ; and married in 
that city June 1, 1887, to Daniel Lammot, who was born in 
Wilmington, Del., April 10, 1856. He was educated by pri- 
vate tutors, removed in 1875 to Philadelphia, where he is in 
business as a miner and shipper of coal. 




[Works containing mere mention of Thomas McKean, 
comprising the greater part op those referred to in 
the foot notes, and numbering about 200, are not in- 
cluded in this list.] 

Sanderson's Biographies of the Signers. 

Biography of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
John Sanderson, 9 vols. Phila, R,.W. Pomeroy, 1820-7. En- 
graving by J. B. Longacre. Robert Wain is the biographer of 
Thomas McKean and of many other of the signers. This is the 
earliest work and the original of all the subsequent Lives of the 
Signers ; and is still the standard work of its kind. Being pub- 
lished at first anonymously, it has been sometimes called u Pom- 
eroy's Lives." 

(Rather singularly I have found a great variety in the title 
pages. One set dated 1820-7 ; a second 1823-7 ; a third 1823-4; 
Sanderson's name is given in some volumes, and not in others of 
the same set. On an engraved title page some volumes have a 
coiled serpent, others a female figure.) 

The same, 2d Edition, 5 vols. Philadelphia. Pub. by W. 
Brown and C. Peters, 1828. Engraving by J. B. Longacre. (A 
few minor changes made in this edition). 

The same. 5 vols. Published by Bennet and Walton, 1831. 
(Word for word the same as the 2nd edition.) [Not illustrated.] 

The same. Revised by Robert T. Conrad. 1 vol. Imp. 8°. 
Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Phila. 1846. Engraving by S. C. 

The same as the last named. With 60 engravings, collected 
and prepared by William Brotherhead, 1865. 1 vol. 4°. 160 
copies. $20.00. [Illustrated with a picture of Duche's house, 
but no engraving of Thomas McKean.] 

Edition of Sanderson by Fowle, 1864. 607 pp., rough edges, 
$81. [Mentioned by Allibone.] 



Lives of the Signers, By other authors. 

C. A. Goodrich, Lives of the Signers. New York, 1829. 1 
vol., 12°. [Partly illustrated, no engravings of Thomas McKean.] 

N. Dvvight, Sketches of the Lives of the Signers, New York, 
1830; 1 vol., 12°. [Not illustrated,] 

L. Carroll Judson, Biographies of the Signers (Author a mem- 
ber of the Philadelphia bar). Phila., 1839. 1 vol., 8°. [Not 
illustrated. A beautifully written biography.] 

B. J. Lossing, Lives of the Signers, 1848 and Phila., 1870, 
1 vol. [Poor woodcut likeness.] 

E. Benner, Lebensbeschriebungen sammtlicher unterzeichner 
der unabhangigkeitz-Erklarung. (In Dutch, chiefly from Good- 
rich's Lives. Engraving by S. C. Atkinson from Stuart. 12°. 
Sumneytown, Penn. 1842 and 1858. 

Book of the Signers. William Brotherhead, large folio, Phila., 
1861, containing facsimiles of letters, etc. Duche's house is 

Centennial Book of the Signers. William Brotherhead, Phila., 
copyright 1872, folio. A similar work to the previous. A poor 
woodcut after Tiebout. 

Biography of the Signers, 3 vols., large 4°, in the library of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, for which the Society paid 
$2000. This work is a compilation. Each leaf from Sanderson's 
Lives is set in a border of stout paper, and the work illustrated 
with engravings, views, autograph letters, etc., from various 
sources. Engraving, large size by David Edwin. 

Lives of the Pres. U. S. with biog. notices of Signers of the 
Dec. of Ind.; Robert W. Lincoln, Brattleborough, Vt., 1839. 

Other Biographies of Thomas McKean. 

National Portraits, J. B. Longacre and James Herring, 4 vols., 
4° (vol. iv., for 1839). Engraving by T. B. AVelch. A good 

The same. D. Rice and A. N. Hart. 4 vols., 1854; (vol. iv.) 
Engraving by T. B. Welch. 

Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania, vol. vi. (for 1830), 161, 177, 
191, Sanderson's biography in full; also vol. iii. (1829), 241; 
the Supreme Court Bench of Pennsylvania. 

Lives of the Governors of Pennsylvania, William C. Armor. 
Phila., 1872. Wood cut and autograph. 

Scharf and Westcott, History of Philadelphia. 3 vols., 4°. 
Phila., 1884. Biography ii., 1515, et seq., and very numerous 
references throughout the whole work. Wood cut, good likeness. 

History of Chester county, Penn., Judg<^ John Smith Futhey 
and Gilbert Cope. 4°. Phila., 1881. Biography and woodcut, 
644 et seq. 


Must. History of Penn., William H. Egle, 1870. Short sketch 
and likeness. 

Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, John Bach Mc- 
Master and Frederick D. Stone. Phila., 1888. 8°. Short sketch 
and etching from an old print by Tiebout. 

Scharf's History of Delaware, 2 vols. Phila., 1888, i. 567. 

Sages and Heroes of the American Revolution, L. Carroll Jud- 
son, 2 vols., 1851. 

Harper's Magazine, iii. 145, vii., 429, etseq.,& short sketch and 
likeness; xlvii., 429 et seq., fac-simile of handwriting of various 
signers; lii. 871, anecdotes and a good wood-cut likeness. 

Historical Mag. of Notes and Q. iv., 2d Ser., Nov. 1868, p. 209. 
short sketches of the signers and others, with copies of letters from 
an autograph collection. 

History of Independence Hall, D. W. Belisle, Phila., 1859. 
short sketch. 

Continental Sketches of Distinguished Pennsylvanians, David 
R. B. Nevin. Phila., 1875. 8°. A good biography. 

Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, Henry Simpson, Phila., 

Field Book of the Revolution, Benson J. Lossing, New York, 
1852 (and various editions). 2 vols. Various references and 
short biography, ii., 871; likenesses of the signers, etc. 

Pennsylvania Magazine, xi., 249, etseq. "The Federal Con- 
stitution," by William H. Egle. Sketches of members of the 
Convention. A good biography. 

Life and Corresp. of George Read. William T. Read, Phila., 
1870. A full biography of Thomas McKean, p. 332, et seq. 

Notae Cestrienses. From the Village Record, West Chester, 
Pa., 1860. No. 12 of a series of historical articles. A short 

Bordentown and its Environs. In the Bordentown Register, 
1876. Historical articles by E. M. Woodward, chap. xii. The 
Borden Family, and a sketch of Thomas McKean. 

Catalogue of Independence Hall, 1878. (For the use of visi- 
tors.) List of portraits and brief sketches of the Signers. 

Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser, date unknown, 
probably quoted from Sanderson, about 1827. 

Biographical Dictionaries, etc. 

Appleton's New Cyclopaedia of Biography, 6 vols., 1887, a 
good sketch and likeness. 

Biographical Encyclopaedia of Pennsylvania, 1874. 

New American Cyclopaedia, 16 vols. New York, 1875. 

Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. 3 vols. A brief sketch. 

Dictionary of Congress, Charles Lanman. (Published by 
Congress.) 5th Ed., 1868. 


Biographical Annals of the U. S. Government, Charles Lan- 
man, 2d Ed., 1887. 

Drake's Dictionary of American Biography, Boston, 1872. 

Allen's American Biographical Dictionary. 

Political Register and Congressional Directory, B. P. Poore, 
Boston, 1878. 

Appleton's Cyclop, of Biog., 1 vol., 1868, p. 558, brief sketch, 
improperly indexed. 

Harper's Popular Cyclop, of U. S. History, N. Y., 1881, 
2 vols. 

Johnson's New Illust. Cyclop., N. Y., 1878, 4 vols. 4°. 

Official Publications. 

Journals of Congress, 13 vols. Pub. by authority, Phila., 
1777, and subsequent ed. 

Secret Journals of Congress, 4 vols. Pub. by Congress, 1821. 

Debates on the Federal Constitution, Jonathan Elliot, 4 vols., 
published with the sanction of Congress, Washington, 1854. 

Reports of Cases in Pennsylvania, A. J. Dallas, 4 vols., 1790- 
1807. Dedicated to Chief Justice McKean. 

Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 16 vols. Pub. by the State, 

Pennsylvania Archives, 12 vols., Hazard, 1853. 

Works by Governor McKean. 

Laws of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, 1753-62, 
By authority of the General Assembly, by Thomas McKean and 
Cassar Rodney. And laws down to 1777. Wilmington, 1763- 
77. Catalogued at the library of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, Avith a note, ''believed to be the first book printed 
in Delaware." See page 14 ante. 

Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, etc., by Thomas McKean, 1782, known briefly as Mc- 
Kean's Laws. See page 73 ante. 

Charge of Thomas McKean, Chief Justice, to Grand Jury at 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, and General Gaol Delivery, held 
at York in 1788. (Hildeburn's Issues Phil. Press 1886, No. 
3738.) See page 61 ante. 

Commentary on the Constitution of the United States b) r 
Thomas McKean and James Wilson, London, 1792. See page 
81 ante. 

Speech [to the. Legislature, Dec. 8, 1808], no title page, 8°. 
(Boston Ath. Cat.) 




P. 9. William McKean, discrepancy in date of birth. 
P. 10. Pa. Mag. vii, 466. For Lcetitia McKean, sister of 
Governor McKean, read Dorothea. 


Sanderson's Lives. Adm. bar Chester co., 1755, not 1756; and 

Sup. Ct., 1758, not 1757 Meeting at Carpenter's Hall in 1776, 

Franklin was not on the committee with Mr. McKean Vote on 

Res. of Independence taken July 2d, not 1st Mr. McKean 

signed Dec. Ind. in Jan. 1779, or later, not Oct. 1776 Mr. Mc- 
Kean was not president of Delaware when appointed Ch. Justice, 
the office devolved upon him afterwards. — Const, of Delaware 

written at Newcastle, not Dover Mr. McKean moved to ratify 

Const, of U. S. on 24th, not 26th (See Elliot's Debates) Mr. 

McKean m. 1st, July 21, 1763, not July, 1762 wife died March 

12, 1773, not Feb. 1773 He m. 2d, Sept. 3, 1774, which was 

Saturday, not Thursday Age at death, 83 y., 2 m., 25 days, not 

16 days. 

Goodrich's Lives. Continental Cong, met Sept. 5th, not 3rd, 

Journals of Congress and Articles of Confederation, discrepancy 
in date of ratification mentioned in the text (p. 65). 

Declaration of Independence. Arguments to show that John 
Hancock and Charles Thomson did not sign it on July 4th, 1776, 
as generally stated by historians (p. 31, el seq.) 

National Portraits, 1839. Mr. McKean served in Del. Assem- 
bly till 1779, not 1777. — Stamp Act Cong, met 1765, not 1768 

Com. to prepare Art. Confed., 1776, not 1775 Loan Comms. till 

1776, not 1772 Justice of Peace, 1765, not 1768 Art. Confed. 

( 233 ) 


agreed to 1777, not 1776 — Also Sanderson's mistakes in dates of 
m., d. and age are here copied. 

Etting's Old State House, Lossing's Field Book of Rev., Scharf 
and Westcott's Hist. Phila., and Schart's Hist. Md., give but 
twelve names on committee to prepare Art. Confed.; there were 
thirteen, one from each State (see text, p. 65). 

Armor's Lives of Govs, of Pa., and Scharf and Westcott's 
Phila. Mr. McKean b. New London, not Londonderry. 

Scharf and Westcott's Phila., p. 446. Conv. to ratify Const, of 
U. S. met Nov. 20th, not 21st. 

Elliot's Debates on Fed. Const., ii, 417. Mr. McKean moved to 
ratify Const. U. S. on Saturday, 24th, not 26th ; Bancroft points 
out this mistake. 

Appleton's Gycl. of Biog. McKean and Wilson's Commentary 
on Const. U. S., published 1792, not 1790. 

Bancroft's Hist. U. S. f 1876, v. 855, and 1885, v. 16, states 
that Mr. McKean signed the Declaration in 1781. I think it un- 
doubtedly a mistake, although Mr. Bancroft in reply to my inqui- 
ries kindly informs me that he believes it to be correct — that it is 
not a misprint. This date is copied in Winsor's History and in 
Judge Chamberlain's Authentication. 

Life of George Read. William T. Read, 1870, several mis- 
takes in dates, etc. (p. 53 note.) — Claim that George Read wrote 
Const, of Del. not substantiated (p. 52-4). 

Watson's Annals (Hazard's Ed.), and Potter's Am. Monthly, 
mistakes as to Dec. Ind. corrected (p. 33, note). 

Poetical Addresses. G. A. Townsend, Cassar Rodney's 4th of 
July. For John McKean read Thomas McKean; the latter name, 
it will be noticed, does not suit the metre of the poem. The 
author kindly informs me that the character Sarah Rowland in 
the poem is a fiction — an invention for detaining Mr. Rodney- 

Histor. Mag. iv, 2d Ser., 209, et seq. A sketch of Mr. McKean 
contains several inaccuracies. 

Lincoln's Lives Pres. U. S. and Signers, states wrongly that 
Mr. McKean was present in Congress, Aug. 2d, and signed Dec, 
Ind. on that day. 

Hildrith's Hist. U. S., v. 328, vote for governor in 1799, the 
votes for McKean and for Ross are each 10,000 too small. 

The vote for governor at McKean's first election is thus stated 
by Mr. Herman P. Miller, in the office of the Pa. Senate, in a 
letter of Dec. 4, 1889. A mistake of 792 in the return of Chester 
co. made McKean's vote 37,244; corrected the next day in the 
Senate to be 38,036. Ross's vote was 32,643, not 32,641, as in 
Cochran's Handbook. 

Cochran's Handbook of Pa., 1889, gives the three votes thus: — 


1799. 1802. 

Thomas McKean, Dern., 38,036 Thomas McKean, Dem., 47,8*79 

James Ross, Federal, 32,643 James Ross of Pittsburgh, Fed., 9,499 

[The mistake in Ross's vote is James Ross, Federal, 7,538 

here corrected.] Scattering, 94 


Thomas McKean, Independent Democrat, 43,644 

Simon Snyder, Democrat, 38,483 

Simon Snyder, 395 

Burlington and Mercer Co., and in Bordentown Register, 1876, 
E. M. Woodward. The progenitor of Borden family is Richard, 

not Benjamin Joseph Borden m. Elizabeth Rogers, not a dau. 

of Marmaduke Watson. — Mr. McKean d. June 24th, not 4th. 

Genealogy of the Roberdeau Family, p. 137. Borden pedigree, 

the date of 1763-5 belongs to the previous generation Mary 

Borden m. 1763, not 1762. La?titia McKean b. 1769, not 1770; 

m. June 11th, not 10th Gen. A. Buchanan b. 1734, not 1732, 

andd. 1786, not 1785. 


2. Joseph B. McKean, mistakes in dates in Brown's Forum are 
noted p. 126 ; the correct dates are given in the text. 

3. Robert McKean, W. H. Egle, in Pa. Mag., iii, 235, date of 
death given wrongly. 

4. Mrs. Elizabeth Pettit, age on tombstone 42 for 44 years 

Andrew Pettit d. March 6, 1837, not March 5, as in Amer. Aim., 

5. Mrs. Lsetitia Buchanan. Date of m., records of 1st Presb. 
Ch., Phila., June 10th, should be Thursday, June 11. — Tomb- 
stone, Woodlands Cem., gives date of d. 1846 ; should be 1845. 

Discrepancies in dates of birth of her children, viz.: — 

i. Susanna, b. Apr. 9, 1790, "old list," Apr. 10, St. P. Ch. 

f They believed 
iii. Mary Ann, b. Oct. 15,1792, " Oct. 14, "J Oct.l5tobe 

iv. Rebecca S.,b. Oct. 15,1793, " Nov. 17, " J their birth- 

L day. 
viii. Franklin, b. Sept. 17, 1799, " Sept. 17, 1800, St. P. Ch. 1800 

is correct, 
ix. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 25, 1801, ; ' Jan. 27, 1802, " 

iv. St. Paul's Church has the name wrongly Rebecca Leetitia. 

6. Mrs. Anne Buchanan d. May 26, 1804, and not June 3, as 
given in Pa. Mag., iii, 235. 

7. Marchioness de Casa Yrujo. " Baptized by Rev'd Joseph 
Montgomery" and name given simply Sarah in Gov. McKean's 
Bible Record; and " Baptized according to the rites of the Roman 
Catholic Church on the 8th of April, 1780," in the Marquis* 


M. S Marquis de Casa Yrujo, most biographical dictionaries 

and histories have confused his title with his surname, which is 
Martinez de Yrujo; giving the title wrongly, Marquis de Yrujo. 

9. S. M. McKean. His age given wrongly, 78 y., 3 m., 14 d., 
on the record books of Oak Hill Cem. There is also a discre- 
pancy as to the location of the graves. 

11. Com. W. W. McKean. Date b. wrongly given on Navy 
Dept. Records, Nov. 17, 1800. Drake, Appleton's An. Cycl., 
1865, and others give wrongly b. 1801 ; and call him a nephew 
of Gov. McKean. The dates of his children, furnished by them- 
selves, are rather meagre, and there exists a great discrepancy be- 
tween these and the records of the 1st Prest. Ch., Phila., as fol- 
lows : — 

iii. Elizabeth. In 1st Presb. Ch., Catharine Page was bapt. 
Dec. 18, 1835, which must be this child with a discrepancy of 
names; or else another child not mentioned in the family records. 

iv. His name given wrongly Francis Buchanan in 1st Pr. Ch. 

vi. Elizabeth Davis Clark. 1st Pr. Ch. omits Clark, and gives 
b. 23 June, 1836. 

viii. William B. Family records give b. Nov. 10, 1841, which 
cannot be, as he was bapt. Aug. 29, 1841, according to the 1st 
Presb. Ch. register, in which the entries are given chronologi- 
cally; and the date following is Sept. 16. 

x. Name given Rosa Davis on 1st. Presb. Ch. records. 

13. David Hoffman, b. Dec. 24, 1784, not 25th, as in various 
biographies. — Mrs. Hoffman, Second Presb. Ch. records, give 
bapt. Dec. 19, 1803, and date b. wrongly July 8, 1796. 

14. Charles Pettit, 1st Presb. Ch. records give wrongly b. 
March 30. 

15. Judge Pettit, Numismatics Manual, and Amer. Aim., 1853, 
give date d. wrongly May 31. — The graveyard mentioned is 
owned jointly by Christ Church and St. James ; and in Records 
of Inscriptions, Christ Ch., Clark, 1864, the Pettit vault is men- 
tioned, and Mrs. Pettit 's d. given wrongly by several years. — 
Date of Philomathian address, Drake gives 1836. 

16. Robert Pettit acknowledges Feb. 19, 1804, as his birthday. 
The 1st Presb. Ch. register gives Jan. 10, 1804, in two books — 
Navy Register, July, 1877, gives retired Nov. 15, 1862 : and 
Hammersly's Record, 1870, gives the year 1861, both of which 
are wrong by several years. 

19. E. J. Coale. A discrepancy in date of m. of S. S. Coale 
is noticed. The Coale family records give April 19, 1775 ; Keith, 
quoting Christ Ch. register, gives April 26. This register, pub- 
lished in Pa. Archives, 2d Ser., 1876, viii, gives April 20; the' 
reader may take his choice of these ! 

21. Mrs. Sarah G. Buchanan. Discrepancy in date of d. (p. 
153, note). 


22. Pay-Director McKean Buchanan. A few dates are wrong 
in Hammersly's Records, revised ed., Aug. 1870, and in Annual 
■Cyclopaedia, 1871. 

23. Admiral Franklin Buchanan. N. E. Hist, and Gen. Beg., 
July, 1874, xviii, 364, et seq., entered navy January, not June, 

1815 Date res. from navy given wrongly in Drake's Diet. Am. 

Biog., Ap. 19 ; and by Hammersly's Navy Reg. for 100 years, 

May 22 Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog., 1887, and Cyclop, of 

Biog., 6 vols., 1888, state wrongly that Adm. Buchanan com- 
manded the Virginia when she was destroyed He did not lose a 

leg at either Hampton Roads or Mobile, as Lossing and others 
would have us believe. — Confed. Navy Register, Jan. 1, 1863, 

.gives date of appt. as Admiral, Aug. 26, '62. This Keg. is pub- 
lished in full in N. Y. Herald, March 28, 1863. Navy Reg., Jan. 
1, 1864, gives the date of appt. Aug. 21, '62, to take rank from 
that day. Navy Reg., June 1, '64, gives the date June 2, '64, to 
take rank from that day. [The latter date may have been under 
some reorganization of the navy.] — Old Kent, several dates re- 
garding Buchanan family given wrongly Adm. Buchanan d. 

May 11, 1874, not 12th, as given in Annual Cycl., 1874, and 
other works See above No. 5 for discrepancy in date of b. 

24. Discrepancies in dates of Newman family Bible are men- 
tioned in a note. This record is one of the greatest curiosities 
the author has had the pleasure of examining during the whole 
of his inquiries in behalf of this genealogy. 

25. Senator Sanford b. 1777, not 1779, as given by Drake, 
Lanman, B. P. Poore, and others. 

27. It is strange that none of the family can give the date of 
Mrs. Wade's birth. The date is not in St. Paul's baptismal re- 
cord with those of the other children. 

28. Doiia Narcisa M. L. Martinez de Yrujo. The date of bap- 
tism, as given in the text by the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, is given 
as date of birth by Chapman Biddle, Esq., of Phila., attorney in 
the suit mentioned in the text. 

32. Hon. A. E. Borie's term of office as Secretary of the Navy 
is stated variously by Appleton, Phila. Times, and other biogra- 
phers, but without much or any real disagreement ; on account 
of the apparent discrepancy t he several dates are given in the text 
pages 192-3. The date of Mrs. Borie's birth was at first given 
by the family March 3, as on page 139. After this had been 
printed, it was changed in the MS. of page 192 to read March 2; 
which is probably correct. 

33. Charles L. Borie, date b. given Jan. 6 in Sunday Republi- 
can, Jan. 15, 1888. 

50. Dr. Coale, Quinan's Med. Annals, Bait., 1884, p. 83, L. M., 
1828, should be 1838. See ante p. 203, note. 



54. Capt. Buchanan. Date of death uncertain, as noted in 
text, p. 208. 

55. Mrs. Everett. Singular mistakes as to date of marriage that 
would mislead any one who trusted to the records. 

56. Lt. Com. Buchanan. All the biographers have variously 
misstated his relationship to Admiral Buchanan and to Paymaster 
Buchanan. He was the nephew of each. Lossing's Civil War, 
Appleton's Biog. Diet., may be named. Even Admiral Farra- 
gut, who knew intimately the older members of the family, but 
perhaps not the younger branches, has misstated his relationship. 
The date of the letter of Admiral Farragut last quoted, p. 211, is 
given Jan. 13 in his Life — undoubtedly a mistake for 15th. 





Continental Congress, President — Thomas McKean, 1781. 

Member from Delaware — Thomas McKean, 
Stamp Act Congress, Member from Delaware — Thomas McKean, 

President of the Council of Ministers, Spain — The Duke de Soto- 

mayor, 1847-8. 
President of the State of Delaware — Thomas McKean, 1777. 
Minister of State, 1st Secretary (Foreign Office) — 1st Marquis de 

Casa Yrujo. The Duke de Sotomayor, 1847-8. 
Secretary of the Navy, United States — Adolphe E. Borie, 1869. 
Honorary Councillor of Stale — The 1st Marquis de Casa Yrujo. 
Governor of Pennsylvania — Thomas McKean, 1799. 
Military Governor of Philippine Islands — Sr. Don Bias Pierrard. 
Secretary to the Council of Ministers — The Duke de Sotomayor. 
Senator, Life Senator of Spain — The Duke de Sotomayor, 1846. 
of the United States — Nathan Sanford, 1816-31. 
of Spain — The 3d Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 1884. 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania — Thomas McKean, 1777. 
Chancellor of New York — Nathan Sanford, 1823. 
The Cortez, Spain, Member — The Duke de Sotomayor, 1838. 

The 3d Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 

Sen or Don Bias Pierrard. 
Ambassador, Spain to France — The Duke de Sotomayor, 1841-51. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary — 

Spain to the United States — The 1st Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 

Spain to Rio de Janeiro — The 1st Marquis de Casa Yrujo 

till 1813. 
Spain to Paris — The 1st Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 1821. 
Spain to England — The Duke de Sotomayor, 1844-6. 
( 239 ) 


Secretary of Embassy, at Paris — The Duke de Sotomayor. 
Attache, 3d Secretary, at London — The Third Marquis de Casa 

High Court of Errors and Appeals — Thomas McKean, Judge, 1780. 
Director of the Mint, United States — Thomas McKean Pettit. 
Major-domo oj the Royal Palace, Madrid — The Duke de Soto- 
mayor, 1854. 
Gentile-Hombre de Gamara — The 1st Marquis de Casa Yrujo. 

The Duke de Sotomayor. 
The 3d Marquis de Casa Yrujo. 
Lady in Waiting — Doiia Narcisa M. L. M. de. Yrujo y McKean. 
Attorney General of Pennsylvania — Joseph B. McKean, 1800. 

Deputy, Thomas McKean, 1756. 
District Court of the Pa., Presiding Judge — Joseph B. McKean, 

Thomas McKean 
Pettit, 1833. 
Courtof Common Pleas and Probate Court — Thomas McKean, 1765. 
State Legislatures. Delaware, House — Thomas McKean, 1762 ; 

Speaker, 1772. 
New York, Senate, House, and Speaker 

Nathan Sanford, 1811-15. 
New York, House — Joseph E. Ely, 1853. 
Pennsylvania, House — Thomas McKean Pet- 
tit, 1830. 
Maryland, House — John C. Brune, 1861. 
District Attorney of the U. S. (New York)— Nathan Sanford, 1803. 

(Pennsylvania) — Thomas McKean 
Consuls in the U. S., of Belgium— A. E. Borie, 1843. 

of Brazil— Vice Consul, E. J. Coale, 1824. 
George H. Newman, 
of Russia — Consular Agent, E.J. Coale, 1815. 
of Sicily — Acting Consul, A. E. Borie. 
Presidential Electors — Thomas McKean, 1792, 1796. 
David Hoffman, 1836, 1840. 
A. E. Borie, 1872. 
Centennial Commission, of U. S. — Chief of Bureau, Henry Pettit, 

Prothonotary of Pennsylvania, Centre Co. — George Buchanan, 

Lazaretto Physician, Philadelphia — Dr. George Buchanan, 1806. 
Justice of the Peace— Thomas McKean, Del., 1765 ; Pa. 1769. 

George Buchanan. 
U. S. Civil Service— Treasury, Samuel M. McKean, 1817. 

Navy Department, Nautical Almanac Office, 
Roherdeau Buchanan, 1878. 


U. S. Civil Service State Department, James W. Bayard. 

Post Office Department, Henry J. McKean. 
Private Secretary to Governor, Pennsylvania — Thomas McKean, 

City Council, Baltimore, 1st Branch — Dr. George Buchanan. 


Admiral, Confederate States Navy — Franklin Buchanan. 
Lieutenant General of Spain — Sr. Don Bias Pierrard. 
Flag Officer, U. S. Navy— Captain W. W. McKean. 

Confederate Navy — Captain Franklin Buchanan. 
Military Governor of Philippine Islands — Sr. Don Bias Pierrard. 
Superintendent of Naval Academy — Com'r Franklin Buchanan, 

Governor of the Naval Asylum — Com'r William W. McKean. 
Adjutant General, Pennsylvania — Thomas McKean, Jr., 1808. 
Commodore U. S. Navy — William W. McKean. 
William Ronckendorf. 
Pay Directors (rank of Commodore) — McKean Buchanan. 

Robert Pettit. 
Field Marshal of Spain — Sr. Don Bias Pierrard. 
Captain U. S. Navy (then the highest grade) — Franklin Bu- 
Brigadier General, Pennsylvania troops — George Buchanan, 1852. 
Lt. Colonel U. S. A. by brevet — Richard D. A. Wade. 
Colonel, Pennsylvania Associators — Thomas McKean, 1776. 
Lieutenant Commander U. S. N — Thomas McKean Buchanan. 
CaptainJJ. S. A., Commis. Subsistence — Evan M. Buchanan, 1862. 
U. S. A. Infantry — Robert Buchanan Wade. 
U. S. Marine Corps — J. E. Meiere. 

William B. McKean, 1861. 

Lieutenant U. S. N Thomas McKean Buchanan, 1818. 

Franklin Buchanan McKean, 1845\ 

Assistant Surgeon U. S. N William Edward Coale. 

George S. Fife. 
Military Secretary to Gen. Comg. U. S. A. — Evan M. Buchanan, 

2d Lieutenant Mass. Heavy Artillery — Edward F. Everett. 
Naval Cadet — George Buchanan Fife, 1885. 

Franklin Buchanan Sullivan, 1886. 
Philadelphia City Troop — Joseph B. McKean, 1786. 
Robert McKean, 1794. 
Andrew Pettit, 1787. 
State Fencibles — Joseph B. McKean, 1813. 
Gray Reserves — Dr. Beaton Smith. 
Penn's Valley Troop — George Buchanan, 1841. 


New Castle County Company — Thomas McKean, 1757. 
Private — Thomas McKean, 1775, while a member of Congress 
and Speaker of the Assembly of Delaware. 


American Philosophical Society — Thomas McKean (Counsellor and 
Patron), The 1st Marquis de'Casa Yrujo, Joseph B. McKean, 
Dr. George Buchanan, Hon. A. E. Borie, Joseph M. Wilson. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, Vice-President — Thomas M. 

Maestranza de Ronda y de Seville — The Duke de Sotomayor, 
de Zaragoza — The Third Marquis de Casa Yrujo. 

University of Pennsylvania, Trustees — Thomas McKean, A. E. 
Borie, 1858. 

Maryland University — Professor of Law — David Hoffman, 1817. 

Professor of Chem. and Tox Robert D. 


Maryland Agricultural College, President — Admiral Franklin 

Missouri State College — Prof, military science, Capt. R. B. Wade. 

Hibernian Society , Phila., President — Thomas McKean, 1790. 

Scotfs Charitable Society, Boston, President — Dr. W. E. Coale. 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, President — Dr. George 
Buchanan, 1786. 

Medical Society of Baltimore — Dr. George Buchanan, 1789. 

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Md Dr. George Buchanan. 

Institute of Civil Engineers, London, Eng — Joseph M. Wilson. 

American Inst, of Architects — Joseph M.Wilson, George C. Mason. 

Amer. Soc. of Civil Engineers — Henry Pettit. 

Amer. Inst, of Mining Engineers — Henry Pettit. 

Union League, Philadelphia, V. President — A. E. Borie. 

Members — Charles L. Borie, Henry 

Maryland Club — George B. Coale, Frank T. Redwood, Sec. 
Wednesday Club, Athenccum Club — George B. Coale. 





From the Richmond Dispatch, May 13, 1883. 
[Author unknown.] 

It was some time in the winter of 1831 or 1832 that I hap- 
pened to be in Richmond, and on returning to New York, where 
at that time I was a resident, that rather than encounter the 
fatigue of the overland route by way of Fredericksburg — for in 
those days there were no railroads, or were otherwise in their 
incipiency — I adopted the river-line, which is to say, by steamer 
to Norfolk, and from thence by the Chesapeake Bay-Line of 
steamers to Baltimore. On reaching Norfolk, having some ac- 
quaintances there, I determined to tarry a day or two, and on the 
morning after my arrival was very politely invited by a friend to 
take dinner with him on that day, he remarking at the same time 
that I would meet with some acquaintances and a naval officer or 
two, who, with the crew, had just been discharged from the frigate 
Constellation after a three-years' cruise in the Mediterranean. I 
very gladly accepted the invitation, and met at the appointed hour 
a very pleasant, genial party of ten or a dozen gentlemen. 

After the cloth was removed, and the conversation took a general 
turn, allusion was made by some one present to the hostility that 
seemed to pervade the Constellation's crew towards Mr. Franklin 
Buchanan, the first lieutenant of the ship. That, as they rambled 
about the streets and shops, nearly all of them, as it seemed, more 
or less under the influence of liquor, the whole burden of their 
song seemed to be denunciatory of Lieutenant Franklin Buchanan, 
accompanied by threats loud and deep, One of the officers pres- 
ent, who had been on the cruise, remarked that Buchanan was a 
rigid disciplinarian, but he was not prepared to say he had ever 
exceeded his authority or the rules, and that enforced obedience 


244 mjkean family. 

was absolutely necessary to the preservation of order and the 
working of the ship. He went on furthermore to say that he had 
heard of threats, and if Buchanan was not murdered on the streets 
he might be the next afternoon, as lie was going up to Baltimore, 
and possibly a hundred or a hundred and fifty of the ship's crew 
along with him ; and that having been informed, he had also been 
applied to by some of his friends to delay his departure a few days 
longer in Norfolk. But he replied that he had written to his 
mother and sisters he expected to meet them on a certain day in 
Philadelphia, and he was not to be deterred from his purpose by 
the threat of any man or any number of men. 

On the next afternoon 1 went myself on hoard the steamer, 
which had been advertised to leave at 4 o'clock. I observed a 
number of seamen on the forward deck, but there was no one pres- 
ent with whom I was acquainted who could point out to me Lieu- 
tenant Franklin Buchanan. We got under way at the appointed 
hour, and as it was chilly on deck I went below into the after- 
cabin, where I observed ten or a dozen gentlemen seated around 
the stove, which seemed to me about constituted the number of 
what is called cabin passengers. The conversation was quiet, yet 
it was quite evident from the subjects spoken of that several of the 
gentlemen present were naval officers. But there were no uni- 
forms worn, no name called, and nothing to indicate which was 
Lieutenant Buchanan. We had proceeded about two hours on 
our way when I observed three or four seamen coming down the 
stairway, and on reaching the foot stood still and directed their 
eyes to where we were sitting. Immediately one of the gentlemen 
near me got up, and carrying in his hand what I supposed to be a 
sword-cane, marched three or four times up and down the whole 
length of the cabin, and at times almost touching the seamen. 
While this was going' on, and not a word said that we could hear,, 
the captain of the steamer came below, and in the most decided 
manner ordered the seamen out, reminding them at the same time 
that the conditions of their being taken on board were that they 
were not to come abaft the wheel-house. With a scowling ex- 
pression on their countenances they turned about and went out. 
The gentleman with the cane quietly returned to his seat. There 
was now no difficulty in recognizing him as Lieutenant Franklin 

We had our suppers at the usual hour, everything had been 
cleared away, and our seats resumed around the stove, when a 
body of seven or eight seamen came below. The lieutenant imme- 
diately rose to his i'eet, and with cane in hand began his march. 
He had passed them but once or twice when the captain, in some 
manner apprised, came below a second time, and in the most vio- 
lent language ordered them out, saying at the same time he would 
run the boat ashore and land every one of them unless his orders 


were obeyed. To my great astonishment — drilled to obedience, I 
suppose — every man of them turned about and went out. At this 
moment, Colonel Robert T. Hayne, of South Carolina, whom I 
had never seen before or since, came forward and expressed the 
hope that as he and his family were on board there would be no 
bloodshed, and desired the captain to exercise the most deter- 
mined authority for the maintenance of order. While this was 
going on there was a little by-play around the stove. A passen- 
ger whom I had not before observed ventured the remark that he 
had never been in the company of naval officers that there was not 
some disturbance. Instantly a young gentleman sprung to his feet, 
and told him if he dared to say a word against the navy he would 
tear every limb from his body. The passenger seemed to think 
he would do it, too, for I never saw him afterwards. This young 
gentleman, I was afterwards informed, was midshipman — now 
Admiral David Porter. 

Ten o'clock came — about the hour for retiring — when it oc- 
curred to me before doing so, I would step out on deck and see 
" what of the night." There was a passageway under deck that 
led from the rear to the forward cabin. This I took, and reach- 
ing there, by the light of a great globe-lamp that hung at the top 
of the stairway, I ascended to the deck. I found there any num- 
ber of seamen, who spoke in tones somewhat subdued ; but the 
decree had gone forth, and was yet adhered to, that Lieutenant 
Franklin Buchanan must die. 

I looked out upon the wide waters, agitated by a strong north- 
west wind, and every wave that broke upon the bows seemed to 
send a thrill through the boat from stem to stern. The night was 
magnificent. The air was cool, crisp and bracing, and the firma- 
ment glowed with its infinity of stars. Turning from this magni- 
ficent spectacle, what was my astonishment to see standing imme- 
diately under the great globe light, its beams lighting up every 
feature of his face distinctly as the day, Lieutenant Franklin 
Buchanan. There he stood, with form erect, both hands resting 
on his cane ; the expression of his countenance calm, resolute and 

The seamen gathered around him, and gave vent to their feel- 
ings in blasphemous oaths. One man remarked that he had been 
more than twenty years in the service ; that he had fought at 
Tripoli ; and had never been punished until ordered by Lieutenant 
Franklin Buchanan. Another said he was a tyrant ; another that 
he was no seaman ; another that he should be driven out of the 
service. But there he stood in statue-like repose, not a word 
escaping his lips. He seemed rooted to the deck. For full five 
minutes or more he braved the tempest, but not a man dared lay 
the weight of his finger upon him. Quietly and gracefully he 
turned upon his heel, and passed down the stairway through the 


long passage into the after-cabin, and went to bed. The men on 
deck resolved they would kill him in Baltimore. 

On the following morning we reached Baltimore about 11 
o'clock. The passengers, along with Buchanan, his two or three 
naval friends, and the seamen, all went ashore together; but I 
heard no threat, and there was no attempt at a disturbance. 

In continuation of my journey, I left Baltimore the following 
morning by a steamer that took us to some unnameable place at 
that time, but looking at the later maps, is now called Bohemia, 
on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. At that place we de- 
barked to go on board a canal-boat that carried us across the 
isthmus to a point called Delaware City, on the western shore 
of Delaware Bay. We had in our somewhat limited accommo- 
dations about thirty passengers, including Lieutenant Buchanan 
and his two or three naval friends, and about twenty of the Con- 
stellation seamen. It was growing late, and the bitter cold drove 
almost every one under deck. The presence of Buchanan and his 
approximation again stirred up the wrath of the seamen. They 
growled and grumbled audibly, using a good deal of threatening 
and profane language. One big, black-whiskered fellow went so 
far as to pull out a very formidable knife, felt the keenness of its 
edge, boasted of his being the son of a butcher, and knowing 
where to strike. The passengers had submitted to a good deal of 
annoyance, but had now become alarmed, and demanded of the 
captain of the boat that the most turbulent of these men should be 
put ashore. No sooner said than done, for the captain was a res- 
olute fellow. He stopped the boat and hustled some five or six of 
the ringleaders out upon the bank. At this moment Buchanan 
came to the front. He gave the captain his name, said he was the 
object of their hate, and that if these men, who were returning to 
their homes, their families, and their friends after a three-years' 
absence in the Mediterranean, should be left out upon the bank, 
they were like little children, would not know where to go, and 
would most probably perish with the cold. Take them back, and 
he would guarantee their good behaviour. I call to mind vividly 
the fixedness of the captain's eye. He paused a few moments and 
then told the men to go on board. As they passed in I overheard 
Buchanan muttering to them something about behaving like men, 
the honor of the service, etc., etc. And they did behave well, for 

I heard one of the men say Buchanan was not such a mean 

fellow after all. We finally reached Delaware City, as it was 
called, and went on board of a noble steamer, as well as I can 
recollect called the. William Penn. We found a number of passen- 
gers on board, which was afterwards increased by a stoppage at 
New Castle. 

We soon got under weigh again, and had proceeded possibly 
some fifteen or twenty miles, when the passengers below were 


startled by a terrible concussion that almost threw them from their 
seats. The cry was the boiler had burst, and everybody, myself 
among the number, who were curious to know, hurried out on 
deck. The crowd took a forward direction, and on reaching there 
I found we had run afoul of a sloop, that her mast was then lying 
across our bow, along which one of the sailors had come on board, 
who informed us that the captain, his daughter, and a sailor were 
yet on the sloop. Orders were given for the steamer to back, a 
boat to be gotten out, when I heard Buchanan calling at the top 
of his voice, " Where are the men of the Constellation ?" In less 
than a minute, it seemed, Buchanan, the captain, and a half-dozen 
sailors were in the boat. They rowed for the sloop, which they 
found had keeled over, the captain and the sailor on the outside, 
but the captain's daughter, it was said at the time of the accident, 
was in her berth. The boat was sent back for an axe and a saw. 

We heard the noise of both as they were vigorously plied, for 
the wind was blowing strongly from the north, and the spray of 
the waves as it dashed over the bows of the steamer, such was the 
severity of the cold, seemed almost immediately to congeal. A 
few minutes later the boat came alongside, with the girl in the 
arms of Buchanan, a raving maniac. Startled by the lights and 
the number of persons leaning over the side of the steamer, she 
made a desperate and nearly successful effort to throw herself 
overboard. She was soon raised to the deck, however, and imme- 
diately carried into the cabin, where several doctors, who were 
present, tendered their services, and the kind ministrations of the 
ladies were freely offered in the way of restoratives and dry cloth- 
ing. But, on arriving at Philadelphia an hour or two later, I was 
sorry to learn that her reason had not been restored. 

The last I saw of Buchanan on this occasion was when drying 
his clothing by the stove in the cabin. A tall, dark-complexioned 
man came towards him, and said something to him in an under- 
tone, to which he made a quick reply, " I'll be there directly." A 
few minutes later I saw him enter a stateroom, put on a heavy 
overcoat, and pass out. 

In the spring of 1862 — thirty years later — I was about leaving 
my house for an evening's walk, and had gone but a short distance 
when I met a couple of gentlemen, one of whom I knew, who 
stopped me and introduced me to his friend, Commodore Franklin 
Buchanan. After a few minutes' conversation I suggested if they 
would return with me to my house it would give me great pleasure 
to give them a nice glass of wine. The invitation was accepted, 
and they did so. After taking our seats at the table the conver- 
sation naturally turned upon the great war in which we were then 
engaged, and its probable results. Taking advantage of a pause, 
I said to the Commodore that though of his own knowledge he had 
never seen me before, yet we were not wholly unacquainted. He 


asked me when, where, and in what way; and I narrated what I 
have already done for my reader. He laughed heartily as I pro- 
gressed, and then said to me, " But you did not see the Jinale." 
I told him no, when he went on to say that the dark-complexioned 
man to whom I have alluded came up to him and said the men of 
the Constellation would be pleased to see him in the forward 
cabin. " As this man said he had been punished at my instigation 
during our cruise, I felt his presence whenever he came near me, 
for he rarely spoke, never drank, and go where I would I always 
found, whenever I looked towards him, his eyes were upon me. 
So near as we were to Philadelphia, I thought the men had come 
to the conclusion that their opportunity for taking my life was 
drawing to a close. I therefore stepped into a state-room, where 
I had placed some of my luggage, put on my overcoat, and a pis- 
tol in each pocket. I went immediately into the forward cabin, 
where, drawn up in a body, were the seamen, and to my inquiry 
what was wanted, the dark-complexioned man said to me that as 
they were about to separate, and perhaps never see each other 
again, it was best that they should do so in peace rather than 
anger, and proposed to drink my health. ' With all my heart/ 
was the reply. We drank together and they gave me three 
cheers." IT. 


16, 1. 2, I find that Savage gives the date of baptism; his date 
of birth may therefore be more reliable than that deduced from the 
Borden record. 

16, 1. 3, 1614 should be 1610. 

18-19, From the Address of the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, 
published in the Proceedings on Unveiling the Monumemt to Ccesar 
Rodney, at Dover, Oct. 30, 1889, p. 24, I find that the incident 
here related is from a letter of Thomas McKean to John Adams, 
Aug. 20, 1815. 

19, note 3, for Adam's read Adams'. 

22, 1. 25, et seq., Compare a letter of Caesar Rodney to his 
brother Thomas, Aug. 28, 1776, Force's Am. Archives, V. i. 1192. 

28, note 4, for Scharf and Westcott, p. 321, read p. 312. 

39, Plate and in Preface. The clauses in the Domestic Jour- 
nal which are omitted in the published copies, may be found in 
Force's American Archives, IV. vi, 1731 ; in which is given what 
is more properly the Proceedings in Congress than a Journal, for 
it is compiled from various sources. When writing pages 41 et 
seq. of the text, I did not know the high authority attaching to 
these clauses ; or I should have made use of another argument 
which they furnish, to prove that John Hancock had nothing to 
do with the preparation or authentication of the printed broadside. 
The resolutions are not addressed to him either personally or as 
President of Congress, and moreover it will be remarked that the 
expression here made use of is not that the declaration be signed 
but authenticated. 

46. The letter of Caesar Rodney above referred to, Am. 
Archives, V. i, 1192, gives the exact dates when Thomas McKean 
returned to Philadelphia from the army, and when he left for 
Newcastle. The letter is dated Phila., Aug. 28, 1776, and states 
that Mr. McKean arrived on Sunday night last, and left yesterday 
morning. This date, I have computed, fell upon Wednesday ; he 
therefore arrived on the 25th and left on Tuesday the 27th. 

48-9. Stone's fac-simile of the Declaration. In the Annals 
of Congress, Gales and Seaton, (18 Cong. 1st ses. 1823-4, vol. i. 
82, 431, 779, 915 ; ii. 2711) it is stated that under date of Jan. 1, 
1824, John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State, informs the 
Senate and House that an exact fac-simile of the Declaration has 



been made on copper, and 200 copies struck off, which are at the 
disposal of Congress. By resolution, these were distributed — 
two copies each to the surviving Signers, to the Marquis de 
Lafayette, to the President, to the late President Mr. Madison, 
etc., etc. But three signers were alive at this time ; and Sander- 
son in his life of Charles Carroll mentions the copy sent to that 
gentleman. The copy in possession of Commodore McKean's 
family, can now be identified as one of these, and I am informed 
that there is a tradition in the family that it is one of a number 
distributed to the Signers. Inquiry at the State Department 
elicits the fact that the copper plate is not now in the possession 
of the Department and its whereabouts is unknown. 

65, note 1, Add to the list of works containing but txoelve 
names, Scharf's Hist. Maryland, 1879, ii. 465. 

81, note 2, for vol. iii, read ii. 

82, 1. 2, for Ingersol, read Ingersoll. 
117, 1. 11, for two, read too. 

127, 1. 15, for Ann, read Anne, but retain Ann in 1. 19. 

135, 1. 1, for Colbett, read Cobbett, 

143, 1. 33, for Grumbleoton, read Grumbleton. 

162, 1. 42, for Phillipe, read Philippe. 

171, 1. 35, for General Wood, read Wool. 

173, 1. 10, transfer reference l to line 11. 

181, 1. 27, for James Hambleton, read James P. Hambleton. 

183, heavy type, for Ann, read Anne. 

201, Nichan Iftikhar, is spelled variously; Nichan is the 
Turkish and Tunisian word for decoration, etc., and Iftikhar is 
the name of the order; the term means Signe de la gloire. 


I. Chiefly in the Biography op Governor McKean. 

Adams, John, statements regarding the Declaration, 35 ; — Publishes let- 
ters of McKean, 113; — High opinion of McKean, 114. 

American Philosophical Society, 109, 125, 127, 129, 138, 161, 193, 199. 

Andre's dream, 62. 

Anecdotes and incidents : Chief Justice McKean rebukes council for pun- 
ning on his name, 8 ; — Unique defense of a client, 19; — Express for Caesar 
Rodney, 29, 33; — "Rodney's Ride," 30; — Remarks at signing Declaration 
Independence, 45; — McKean's appearance on the bench, 61 ; — Is summoned 
by the sheriff, 61 ; Andre's dream, 62 ; — McKean hunted like a fox, 64 ; — 
His letter to Col. Hooper, 60; — Ridicules his opponents, 75 ; — Reviews the 
French and American armies, 71 ; — Anecdote of Col. Tilghman, 71 ; — Cele- 
bration of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, 76 ; — Cobbett, 84-87 ; 
William Tilghman, 90; — Judge Brackenridge, 93; — McKean's story of his 
watch, 94 ; — Cobbett's grammar, 84; — McKean hung in effigy, 76. 80 ; — 
An appointment, 90; — A sarcastic toast, 98 ; — McKean's dignity, 107. 

Articles of Confederation, 64; — McKean one of the Committee, 65; — A 
historical discrepancy, 65. 

Associators of Pennsylvania, 24, 25, 49, 50, 73 ; — McKean a colonel, 26, 

Attorney-at-law. 13; — McKean's skill, 19, 56. 

Bayard family, 142 ; — Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, Dedication of the present 
work to, iii.; Introductory letter from v. : — Oration on Ctesar Rodney, 122, 
note, 249;— Col. John, 27, 28, 50, 142.' ' 

Bibliography of Thomas McKean, 123 ; — See App. I. 

Borden family, 15; — Bordentown, N. J., 16. 

Boston Port Bill, 20. 

Carpenter's Hall, 22, 28 ; — First prayer in, 119. 

Chief Justice McKean, 54 ; — Noted cases, 57, 77; — On contempts, 78 ; — O 
impeachable offences, 105. 

Cincinnati, Society of, 79, 109. 

Coat of arms, either none or spurious, 116 ; — Americanized arms, 117. 

Cobbett, William, 83 ; — His force as a writer, 84, note ; Law-suits, 84 ; 
— Works quoted, 84-5-6-7, 91; — Opposes McKean's election, 85; — Leaves 
the country in consequence of his election, 87. 

Committee of Inspection and Observation, 24, 26, 27, 49, 73 ; — Of Cor- 
respondence, 24 ;— Of Safety, 25, 49 ;— Of Defence 1812, 107, 108. See Con- 

Congress, Stamp Act, 18; — Continental, 21; — McKean a member from 
Delaware, 22 ; — Delegates from Delaware, 22 ; — Resolution of May 15th, 
26 ; — Declaration of Independence, history, 29 to 50 ; — Not the custom to 
sign resolutions, 41 ; — Fac-simile of two pages of the Journals, 39, 45 — 
Articles of Confederation, 24, 64, 65 ; — McKean elected President of Con- 
gress, 70 ; — Is succeeded by Mr. Hanson, 72. 

Constitution of Delaware written by Mr. McKean, 51 ; — Claim of George 



Read refuted, 52 ; — Of the United States, McKean moves to ratify, 75; Com- 
mentary on by McKean and Wilson, 81. 

Controversies between Governor McKean and the Assembly, 89, 93, 94, 
98, et seq. 

Convention of Deputies at Carpenter's Hall, 28 ; — Constitutional Con- 
vention of Delaware, 1776, 46, 51 ; — Of Pennsylvania, 1789, 79; — To ratify 
Constitution of United States, 74. 

Cornwallis' surrender, anecdote, 71. 

Dallas, Alexander J., 95 note ; — Reports, 57 ; — Laws, 47, 66 ; — See Index 
of Names. 

Declaration of Independence, 29 et seq.; — Preliminaries, 26, 28 ; — McKean 
votes for it, 29 ; — Sends express for Mr. Rodney and secures a unanimous 
vote, 29, 30 ; — McKean's services in favor of, 30 ; — How signed, 31 ; — Con- 
flicting statements of McKean, Jefferson and Adams, 32-35 ; — Historians 
generally consider McKean's statements to be correct, 36 ; — Statements of 
later writers, Force, Bancroft, Winsor, Webster, Winthrop, Greene, Froth- 
ingham, Lossing, Hildrith, Stone, Read, Watson, Mrs. Morris, and Judge 
Chamberlain, 36, 37 ; — Popular but erroneous opinion that the Declaration 
was signed on parchment July 4, 1776,44; — Facsimile of two pages of MS. 
Journals of Congress, 39, 45 ; — The printed journals inaccurate, Preface, 
ix, x, 37, 38 ; — Declaration probably not signed by any one on July 4, 1776, 
41-45 ; — The engrossed Declaration, 45 ; — Printed Journals, 45 ; — Fac-simile 
of one page of MS. Journal, 45 ; — Anecdotes of signing, 45 ; — McKean the 
last to sign, 46, 47 ; — Early copies, 48 ; — Fac-similes of the engrossed parch- 
ment, 48, 249 ;— Names now uearly illigible, 49. 

Delaware, McKean in the Assembly, 15; — Speaker, 20; — A delegate in 
Congress, 22 ; — Resigns his seat, not accepted, 69 ; — List of Delaware dele- 
gates in Congress, 22 : — Ratifies resolution of May 15, 1776, 28; — McKean 
compiles the laws relating to real estate, 20 ; — Writes constitution for, 51 ; 
— Claim of Mr. Read not substantiated, 52 ; — President McKinley taken 
prisoner, 63 ; — McKean becomes President, 63. 

Democratic party, originally called Republican, 85 ; — Its origin, 85, 87, 
95 ; — McKean's election its first triumph, 87 ; — Campaign songs, 88, 93. 

Duane, William, attack on, 83, 100, 105, 125 ; — Opposes McKean, 83, 96 ; 
— His toast to McKean, 98 ; — His eulogy, 111, 114. 

Duche, Rev. Mr., his house purchased by McKean. 69. 

Engravings of Gov. McKean, 120. 

Fears of a British invasion, 107. 

Federalists oppose McKean's election, 85, 93, 96. 

Franklin's funeral, 79. 

Georgia, dispute with South Carolina, 79. 

Governor of Pennsylvania, McKean's administration, 85 to 106-7. 

" Hail Columbia," its author a nephew of Gov. McKean, 86, 90, 150. 

Handbill, fac-simile of theatre, 92. 

Hibernian Society, McKean a founder, 80, 109. 

High Court of Errors and Appeals, 68. 

Historical paintings, McKean figures in four, 118. 

Impeachment, attempted of Gov. McKean, 99-106; — Charges, 99; — 
Attempt fails, 101; — Virulence of Dr. Leib. 103, 105; — The Governor's 
replication, 102; — Refutes the charges, 102, 103; — A standard opinion on 
impeachable offences, 105 ; — Attempt to impeach the Supreme Court, 77 ; — 
McKean on contempts, 78 ; — Another attempt in 1804, 93 ; — John Anderson 
in H. R. United States, 78 note. 

Inspection and Observation, see Committee. 

Incidents, three remarkable, 72. 

Jay's Treaty, 81. 


Jefferson, Writes on Declaration Independence, 35 ; — Is mistaken on 
some points, 35, 36; — McKean contributes to his election, 95. 

Journals of Congress, Printed journals inaccurate, 37, ix, x ; — There are 
three MS. journals, 39 ; — Facsimiles of two pages, 39, 45 ; — Discrepancy 
with the Articles of Confederation, 65. See also 249. 

Lazaretto physician, 97, 99, 100, 102, 104. 131. 

Lee's resolution, 29. 

Leib, Dr. Michael, opposes McKean, 96, 98, 99 ; — His virulence, 103, 105 ; 
— Challenged by Thomas McKean, Jr., 98, 138. ) 

Letters and writings of Thomas McKean, 121 ; — Referred to, 29, 30, 32, 
121 ;— Quoted, 32, 33, 47, 51, 60, 63, 64, 69, 88, 90, 109, 151 ;— On contempts, 
78 ; — On impeachments, 105 ; — Remarks on Constitution of United States, 
76; — His replication, 102; — His works, 232. 

Little, Capt. John's company, 25. 

Loan office of Delaware, 17. 

McKean, Thomas, 13 et seq.; — Delaware Assembly, 15; — Speaker, 20; — 
His marriage, 15, 21 ; — Stamp Act Congress, 18 ; — Continental Congress, 21 
et seq.; — Convention of Deputies at Carpenter's Hall, 28 ; — Votes for and 
signs Declaration of Independence, 29, 31 ; — Writes Constitution for Dela- 
ware, 51 ; — Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, 54 ; — President of Delaware, 63 ; 
— Signs Articles Confederation, 65 ; — High Court Errors and Appeals, 
68; — His residence, 69 ; — President of Congress, 70; — Attends conventions, 
28, 50, 74, 79 ; — Thrice Governor of Pennsylvania, 85, 93, 96-106 ; — A suc- 
cessful man and leader, 114 ; — His will, 115; — Works by him, 14, 61, 73, 
81, 232 ; See Appendix I., 229. His votes for Governor, 234-5. 

McKean's Laws, 47, 66, 73, 116, 232. 

McKean County, 109; — Street, 109. 

Meetings, public, May 20, 1776, 26;— Oct. 11, 1776, 50 ;— May 25, 1779, 
67, 68 ; — On Jay's treaty, 81 ; — To repel British invasion, 1814, 107. 

Middle Temple, 14. 

Mistakes and Discrepancies, Printed Journals of Congress, ix, x, 37 ; — 
Articles of Confederation, 65 ; — See Appendix II. 

Observation and Inspection, see Committee. 

Pennsylvania, McKean Chief Justice, 54; — Dallas' Laws, 47 ; McKean's 
Laws, 73 ; — McKean Governor, 85, 93, 96 ; — Succeeded by Simon Snyder, 
106 ; — Conflicts between the Governor and Assembly, 93, 99 ; — Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1789, 79 ; — Convention to ratify Constitution of United 
States, 74. 

Poetry, " Rodney's Ride," 30 ; — American Times, 63; — Cobbett's verses, 
85 ;— Meeting of May 24-25, 1779, 67, 68 ; — Campaign songs, 85, 93. 

Porcupine, Peter, 83 ; — See Cobbett. 

Portraits and historical paintings, 118. 

Presidential electors, 80, 82, 143, 193. 

Read, George, delegate from Delaware, 22 ; — Votes against Declaration 
of Independence, 29; — Claim to have written Constitution of Delaware not 
proved, 52, 53, 54 ; — " Gath " says he skulked, 30. 

Removals, Gov. McKean's, 88, 91; 98; — Justification thereof, 91, 92. 

Republican, early name for Democratic, which see, 85. 

Residence, McKean's, 69, 71, 93. 

Resolution of 15th of May, 26, 28, 29. 

Review of French and American armies, 71. 

Roberdeau, Gen. Daniel, 25, 26, 27, 42, 50, 67, 68, 160. 

Rodney, Ctesar, Delegate from Delaware, 22, 23 ; — Publishes Laws of 
Delaware, 14, 232 ; — Rides express to Philadelphia to vote on the Declara- 
tion, 29, 31, 33 ; — "Rodney's Ride," 30, 234; — Monument to, and address 
by Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, 122 note, 249. 
11 -g 


Safety, See Committee of. 

Sanderson's Lives of Signers, 13; — See Appendix I, 229, 233. 

Signers of the Declaration, bibliography, 229-30. 

South Carolina, boundary dispute with Georgia, 79. 

Stamp Act Congress, 18 ; — McKean the last survivor, 19. 

Supreme Court Pa., see Chief Justice. 

Tea Act, 20. 

Thompson, Gen. William, difficulty with Mr. McKean, 67. 

University of Pennsylvania, trustees, 108, 125, 127, 101, 193. 

Vice President of the United States, Mr. McKean declines to become, 95. 

Wain, Robert, Jr., Biographer of Thomas McKean, 13. 

War Measures, July, 1776, 49. 

Whiskey Insurrection, 80, 125. 

Williams' company, Capt. Richard, 14. 

II. Chiefly in the Succeeding Biographies. 

Abdication Queen Isabella, witnessed by the Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 219. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 192. 

American Philosophical Society, 109, 125, 127, 129, 138, 101, 193, 199; 
— See Appendix III. 

Anecdotes, incidents, etc., Judge Pettit, 146 ; — A petit affair, 146 ; — Con- 
versation with Cobbett, 150; Marquesas Islands, 159; — "Yankee bobbery 
ship," 159; — A night on a volcano, 159; — A dislike to waste water, 160; 
— Japan in warm weather, 167 ; — " Dungaree forts," 167 ; — -A monkey over- 
board, 168; — Admiral Buchanan's firmness, 174; — His physical strength, 
182 ; — Remarkable incident, Appendix IV, 243 ; — Escape of Mr. Brune, 206 ; 
— A surgical operation,. 204. 

Army Officers, see Appendix III. 

Auchentorlie, 129, 152, 208-9. 

Battles ; Late war ; Hampton Roads, 155-7, 109-73 ; — Mobile Bay, 175-7 ; 
— Bayon Teche, 210; — Culpepper to Petersburg, 208; — Before Richmond, 
208; — Mexican War; Vera Cruz, 100; — Guaymas, 155; — Tobasco, 166; — 
Cherubusco, 186; — Molino del Rey, 186; — Muleje, 155. 

Belmont, Fairmount Park. 213. 

" Board of Fifteen," members, 168. 

Bone, Hon. A. E„ 192; — Foreign Consul, 192; — Secretary Navy, 192; — 
His picture gallery, 193. 

Brune, Hon. John C, 205; — Visits President Lincoln, 206; — Member 
Maryland Legislature, escapes arrest, 205-0. 

Buchanan Family, one of the Highland clans, 128. 

Admiral Franklin, 16L; — Organizes Naval Academy, 163; In 

Mexican War, 165-6 ; — In Perry's Japan Expedition, 166 ; — Remarkable 
incident Appendix IV; — Commands Washington Navy Yard, 168; — Flag 
Officer commanding the Merrimac, Hampton Roads, 169 ; — Admiral and 
senior officer Confederate Navy, 172 ; — Receives thanks of Confederate Con- 
gress, 172 ; — Admiral commanding in Battle in Mobile Bay, 174; — Naval 
Services, 178 et seq.; — President Maryland Agricultural College, 180. 

■ Pay Director McKean, 154; — In Mexican War, 155; — Paymaster 

of the Congress, Battle in Hampton Roads, 150 ; — Principal in a noted 
case, Buchanan vs. Alexander, 158. 

Robert C, Brevet Maj.-Gen. U. S. A., 133. 

■ Dr. George, Early Baltimore physician, 128 et seq.; — Oration on 

Slavery, 130 ;— Lazaretto Physician, Phila., 97, 99, 101-2, 131 ;— Involved 
in Gov. McKean's controversies, 97, 101 et seq. 

Lieut. Com. Thomas McKean, 209; — In command at Fort Massa- 


chusetts, Suppresses Gen. Phelps' proclamation, 209-10 ; — Commended by 
Admiral Farragut, 210 ; — Killed at Bayou Teche, 211. 

Buchanan, Battery at Wilmington, 175 ; — At Mobile, 1 YY. 

Buchanan, Pickett, Camp, Norfolk, 181. 

Buchanan vs. Alexander, Noted case, Supreme Court U. S. decides the 
government cannot be sued, 158. 

Cartaphilus, the Wandering Jew, 143. 

Casa Yrujo, 1st Marquis of, Envoy Extraordinary Minister Plenipotentiary 
to United States, 133 et seq., 107 ; — Lawsuits with Cobbett, 84, 134; — Sues 
the Aurora, 98 ; — Minister of State, 137 ; — His controversies with Madison, 

2d Marquis, see Sotomayor, 187. 

3d Marquis, 218; — Witnesses Queen Isabella's abdication, 219; — 

Deputed to meet the Prince of Wales, 219 ; — Senator of Spain, 219. 

Centennial Commission, 200 ; — Henry Pettit, Architect, 200 ; Chief of 
bureau, 200. 

Coale, E. J., 149; — Publisher, his works, 150 ; — Foreign consul, 150; — 
Junior council in Cobbett's lawsuits, 86, 150 ; — William E., Dr., 203. 

Confederate Congress, Thanks to Flag Officer Buchanan, 172 ; — Creates 
the grade of Admiral, 172. 

Rams, Virginia (Merrimac), 169 ; — Tennessee, 174 et seq. 

Navy Register, 178. Appendix II, (No. 23,) 237. 

Controversies of Gov. McKean, Is assisted by Jos. B. McKean, 91, 97, 98, 
125 ; — Dr. G. Buchanan, 97, 101 et seq., 131 ; — Thomas McKean, Jr., 98, 
138 ;— Thomas McK. Thompson, 101. 

Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, 129. 

Duane, William, Attack on by J. B. McKean, 125. See previous index. 

Fern Hill, 191. 

Finney family, 10. 

First City Troop, 76, 124, 127, 128. 

Fractional Currency, early, 160. 

French Spoliation Claims, Public meeting, 127. 

Genlilhombre de Camara, 137, 219. 

Grandee, Spanish, 189, 219. 

Gray Reserves, 147. 

Grumbler, A., of Grumbleton, Esq., pseud., 143, 250. 

Hampton Roads, Battle in, 156-7, 169-73. 

Hoffman, David, Author and legal writer, his works, 143. 

Honor and Trust, Positions of, held by McKean family, Appendix III. 

Japan Expedition, Perry's, 166. 

Knighthood, Orders of, Charles III, Spain, 137, 187, 188 ; — Isabel la 
Catolica, Spam, 137, 187, 188, 201; — Maria Luisa, Spain, 187, 188; — 
Santiago, 219; — St. Ferdinand, Naples, 137, 187; — St. Januarius, Naples, 
137; — Dannborg, Denmark, 137, 188; — Legion of Honor, France, 188, 201; 
— St. Maurice, Sardinia, 188; — Lazarus, Sardinia, 188; — Christ, Portugal, 
188 ; — Nichan Iftikhar, Tunis, 201, 250 ; — Olaf, Norway and Sweden, 201 ; — 
St. John, Jerusalem, 187. 

Lazaretto, Phila., 97, 99, 131. 

Londonderry, siege of, 4. 

Louis Philippe, Entertains American officers, 162. 

Los Arcos, Marquis of, 187, 218, 219. 

Mc, Mac, W, prefix, 1. 

McKean Family, Scotch Irish, 2 et seq., Ill ; — In Ireland, 2, 3 ; — In New 
England, 3 et seq.; In Pennsylvania, 8 ; Genealogy, 13, 124 et seq.; Pro- 
nunciation of the name, 7 ; — Prefix Mc, 1 ; — Other families of McKean, 11. 

Gov. Thomas, see previous index. 

Thomas, Jr., Private Secretary, 97, 138; — Challenges Dr. Leib, 98, 



McKean, Joseph B., 124; — Judge, 125 ; — Attorney General, 125 ; — Defends 
his father, 125 ; — Takes part in his controversies, 91, 97, 98 ; — Attack 
on Duane, 83, 100, 105, 125. 

Henry Pratt, 190. 

. Com. W. W„ 140 ;— Flag Officer Gulf Squadron, 141. 

Maestranza, The Spanish, 188 and note, 219. 

Maryland Agricultural College, 180. 

-Legislature, arrest ordered, escape of Mr. Brune, 206. 

Massachusetts, Fort, Gen. Phelps' proclamation, 210. 

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, Md., 130, 203. 

Society of Baltimore, 130. 

Mexican War, see Battles. 

Military Companies, Richard Williams' Company, 14 ; — Capt. John 
Little's Company, 25; — 4th Battalion, Col. McKean, 26; — 5th Battalion, 
Col. Matlack, 26 ;— State Fencibles, 125 ;— First City Troop, 76, 125, 127, 
128 ; — Gray Reserves, 147 ; — Penn's Valley Troop, 153 ; — Massachusetts 
Militia, 209. 

Minister from Spain, The Marquis de Casa Yrujo, 134 et seq. 

Mistakes and Discrepancies, Appendix II. 

Mobile Bay, Battle, 175. 

Nautical Almanac, American Ephemeris and, 212 ; — Similar foreign 
works, 212. 

Naval Academy organized by Com. Buchanan, 163 ; — Buchanan Row, 

Naval Officers, see Appendix III. 

Oration on Slavery, Dr. Geo. Buchanan, 130. 

Pedigrees and Families : Bayard, 142 ; — Blair, two, 161, 202 ; — Borden, 
15 ; — Borie, 192 ; — Brune, 205 ; — Budd, 218 ;— Buchanan, 128, 132 ; — Coale, 
149; — Cunyngham, 160 ; — Dale, 146; — Dallas, 95 note; — Finney, 10; — ■ 
Hopkinson, 149; — Johnson of Md., two, 133, 149; — Lewis, 221; — Living- 
ston, 217 ; — Lloyd, 180; — McKean, 8 et seq., 13, 124 ; — McKeen, 3 et seq.; — 
McKennan, 10 :— Miles, 126, 153 ;— Neff, 218 ;— Oliver, 204 ;— Peters, 213 ;— 
Pettit, 127, 141 ;— Pratt, 138 ;— Roberdeau, 160 ;— Rodgers, 216 ;— Rogers of 
Md., 129;— Shippen, 161; — Smith, two, 127, 146-7 ;— Sotomayor, 188-9 ; 
— Stuyvesant, 142, 217;— Wade, 186 ;— Warren, 190 ;— Wharton, 220;— 
Wilson, three, 194, 196, 199; — Wister, 126. See also index of names. 

Penn's Valley Troop, 153. 

Pennsylvania R. R., 199, 202. 

Peters, Judge Richard, 60, 66, 83, 213. 

Pettit, Charles, Continental Congress, 127. 

Andrew, 97, 127. 

Judge Thomas McKean, 144; — Director Mint, 145. 

Robert, Pay Director, 147. 

Henry, 199 ; — Architect Centennial Commission, 200 ; — Chief of 

Bureau, 200; — Is decorated, 201. 

Robert, General Superintendent P. R. R., 202. 

Philadelphia, A reception in, 133-4. 

Pickett-Buchanan Camp, 181. 

Picture Gallery, H. P. McKean's, 191 ; — A. E. Borie's, 193. 

Pierrard, Senor Don Bias, Lieut. Gen. of Spain, 187 ;— Gov. Philippine 
Islands, 187. 

Presidential Electors, 80, 82, 143, 193. 

Remarkable Incident in life of Admiral Buchanan, 243. 

Republican Court, Griswold's, 133. 

Rheumatism, a cure for, 159. 


Roberdeau Family, 160. 

Gen. Daniel, 160, see, previous index. 

Col. Isaac, Chief of Topographical Engineer Bureau, U. S. A., 160. 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 129. 

Sanford, Hon. Nathan, Chancellor of N. Y., U. S. Senator, Candidate for 
Vice President, 184. 

Scots Charitable Society, 204. 

Societies, learned, see Appendix III, 242. 

Son, An affix to names in all languages, 1. 

Spanish names, peculiarity, 188, 259 note. 

Sotomayor, Duke of, 18*7; — Ambassador to France, 188, — Minister to 
England, Paris, Rio, 188; — President of Council of Ministers (Prime Min- 
ister), 188 ; — Life Senator, 188 ; — Mayordomo, 188. 

Duchess of, A Grandee of Spain, 188-9. 

State Fencibles, 125. 

Surnames, their prefix, 1. 

Taylor, Bayard, in Japan, 167. 

Union League, 193, 194, 201. 

University of Pennsylvania, Trustees, 108, 125, 127, 161, 193. 

Vice President, Senator Sanford a candidate, 184. 

Wade, Col. Richard D. A., 186. 

Wilson, Joseph M., Architect, 199. 

Yrujo, see Casa Yrujo and Appendix II, No. 7, 235-6. 





Surnames of the McKean Family in small capitals. 1 
Names of Authors and anonymous works in italics. 

Acker, George, 101. 

Adams, C. F, 20, 32, 82, 122 ;— 
Henry, 135. 

Adams, President John, 19, 20, 29, 
30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 44, 46, 47, 
59, 64, 65, 82, 89, 91, 93, 113, 114, 
122,134, 137, 249 ;— President J. 
Q., 133,154, 184-5, 249;— Samuel, 
29, 64. 

Adolphus, Prince, 177. 

Africa, J. Simpson, 202. 

Agassiz, 227. 

Aitken, R., 38, 48. 

Alcazar, y Vera de Aragon, Dona 
Gabrella del, Duchess of Soto- 
mayor, 188-9. 

Alcedar, 187. 

Alden, T, 9. 

Alexander, Buchanan vs., 158. 

Alexander, Lt. Com. J. W., 169. 

Alfonso XII, 219 ;— XIII, 201. 

Allen, Andrew, 33 ;— William, 60. 

Allen, Diet. Biog., 232. 

Allibone, S. A., 52, 81, 84, 129, 144, 
146, 229, 231. 

Allison, Rev. Francis, 13 ; — John, 75. 

Alvarez de Toledo, 219. 

America Heraldica, 161. 

American Almanac, 183, 235, 236 ; — 
Annual Cyclopedia, 158, 182, 210, 
237; — Chemical Journal, 224; — 
Ephemieris and Nautical Almanac, 
212; — Philosophical Society,- 
Trans., 109, 126. 

Anderson, John, 78. 

Andre, Maj. John, 62. 

Antill, Edward, 9. 

Appel, Paul, 101. 

Appleton, D., 54, 96, 125, 142, 144, 

146, 182, 185, 193, 198, 209, 224, 

231, 232, 234;, 236, 237, 238. 
Arcos, Marquis, see los Arcos. 
Armitage, Sarah, 21, 70, 124. 
Armor, William C., 20, 24, 55, 90, 99. 

113, 123, 230, 234. 
Armstrong Family, 197 ; — William, 

Arnold, Gen. Benedict, 98. 
Art Journal, 191. 
Asheton, Mary, 142. 
Asturias, Prince of, 219. 
Atkinson Family, 224;— S, C, 121, 

229, 230. 
Atlee, Judge, 76. 
Auhagen, William, 212. 
Aurora, see Duane. 
Austin, E. P., 212. 
Austin, John O., 15. 
B., T. A. quoted, 123. 
Bache, Richard, 76. 
Bacon, George W.. 201. 
Bailey, Francis, 73. 
Batch, Thomas, 161. 
Baltimore American, 161 ; — Amer. and 

Com. Adv., 183, 231 ; — Gazette and 

Daily Adv., 96 ; — Journal and Daily 

Adv., 130. 
Bancroft, Frederick, xi, 39, 45. 

J The custom of indexing Spanish names differs in several respects from the English. 
The mother's name cannot be omitted ; and the name of a married lady cannot prop- 
erly be indexed under the surname of her husband, although it can be under his title. 
For American readers, I have, however, deviated from Spanish custom by adding a 
reference to the name of the wife. 




Bancroft, George, ix, xi, .22, 26, 28, 
37, 43, 47, 65, 75, 234 ;— (Naval 
Academy,) 163-4. 

Banks, Gen. N. P., 211. 

Barclay, Anna, 129.' 

Barker, Gen. John, 103, 105. 

Barlow, Averill, 217; — Johnanna 
(Wade), 187, 217. 

Barnes, Rev. A., 147. 

Barney, Lt. Com. J. N., 169. 

Barron, Capt. Samuel, 168. 

Barton, Seth, 155. 

Bartlett, Josiah, 64. 

Barnet, William, 101. 

Bayard Pedigree, 142 ; — Adeline J., 
(McK.) 3 141 et seq., 126, 196;— 
Adeline J., 4 142 ;— Adeline J., 196; 
—Anna M., 4 142, xi, 124; — Caro- 
line R., 4 142, 197 ;— Caro R., 5 197 ; 
—Charles McK., 4 142, 196, 223 ; 
—Charles P., 3 141-2 ;— Charles 
p.,5 i97 ; _Edith S., 5 196;— Eliza- 
beth G., 196 ;— Elizabeth H., 
(Armstrong) 197 ;— Elsie H., 197 ; 
— James, 142, 197 ; — James W., 5 
196, 223, 241;— John H., 142;— 
Mabel, 197 ;— Margaretta W., 5 
196; — Margaretta P., (Wilson) 4 
196;— Samuel McK., 5 196 ;— Wm. 
McK., 142 ; — A daughter, 142. 

Bayard, Andrew, 97, 127, 141, 142 ; 
—Col. John, 27, 28, 50, 142 ; 
— Hon. Thomas F., Dedication of 
the present work to, iii, v, vi, also, 
122, 249. 

Beach, Nathaniel, 101. 

Beauveau, 192. 

Beckley, John, 90. 

Bedford, Gunning, 23 ; — Duke of, 85. 

Belisle, D. W., 118, 231. 

Bell, 204. 

Bellefonte, Centre Co., paper, 153. 

Benaesa, Viscount de, Don Pedro 
Caro y Szechenyi, 220 ; — Doria 
Maria de la Piedad M. de Yrujo 
v Alcazar Viscountess, see Caro 
189, 220. 

Bcnner, E., 121, 230. 

Bennet, 180. 

Bennet and Walton, 229. 

Benton, Senator T. H., 185. 

Bergamo, Bishop of, 85. 

Bernard, Gen. Simon, 163. 

Bethel, Samuel, 101. 

Biddle, Craig, 89. 

Biddle, Chapman, 237 ;— Charles, 89 ; 

—Clement C, 125 ;— Edward, 25, 
33 ;— Henry J., 125 ;— Lt. James S., 
168 ; — Marks John, 89 ; — Nicholas, 
145 ;— W. S., 100, 101. 

Bigelow, Capt. A., 165, 168. 

Biles, 17. 

Bingham, William, 80, 82, 122, 233 ; 
—Mrs., 134. 

Binns, John, 106. 

Biograph. Encycl. of Pa., 193, 221, 231. 

Black, Judge, 57. 

Blair (Fagg's Manor) Family, 161; 
—(Blair Co.) Family, 202. 

Bonaparte, 85. 

Bonaventure, 30. 

Bond, Hugh L., 206. 

Borden Family, 15, 16, 17, 231, 235, 
249;— Ann, 15, 17 ;— Col. Joseph. 
15, 16, 17, 18, 235;— Mary, (Mrs. 
McKean) 15, 17, 21, 123, 199, 235. 

Bordentown Register, 15, 231, 235. 

Borie Family, 192-3 ; — Adolphe E., 3 
190, 192 et seq., 193, 237, 239, 240, 
242 ;— Adolphe E., 5 222 ;— Beau- 
veau, 2 193, 194, 221 et seq. ;— 
Beauveau, Jr., 5 221 ; — Charles L., s 

193, 221, 237, 242;— Charles L., 5 
222 ;— Clementina, 4 194;— Clem- 
entina S., (McK.) 3 139, 193 etseq., 
221 ;— Elizabeth D., (McK.) 3 'l39, 
192 et seq., 237 ;— Elizabeth McK., 4 

194, 221 ;— Emily, 4 194, 222;— 
Emily E., 5 222 ;— Henry P., 193 ; 
—Patty D., (Neill) 4 221;— Ren- 
shaw, 5 222;— Sarah C. McK., 4 194, 

Boston Post, 157 ; — Courier, 203. 
Bowchelle, Hannah, 142. 
Brackenridge, Judge H. H., 88, 93. 
Bradford, Judge, 57 ; — Isaac, 212 ; — 

William, 80. 
Brobst, Valentine, 101. 
Breckenridge, John C, 206. 
Breeze, Capt. S. L., 165. 
Brewerton, Capt. H., 165. 
Brown, Thomas R., 207 ; — Marianna 

B., (Coale) 152, 207 et seq. 
Brown, Andrew, 77 ;— F. A., 209 ; 

—Dr. George, 130 ;— George W., 

Brown, David Paul, 19, 55, 61, 78, 90, 

94, 107, 126, 146 ;— J. Willcox, 225,. 
Brown and Peters, 13, 229. 
Browning, C. II, vii, 2, 161. 
Brotherhead, William, 29, 51, 70, 122, 

229, 230. 



Bruls, M. de, 117. 

Brune Family, 205 ; — Anne L., 
(Coale) 152, 205 ;— Hon. John C, 
205, 240. 

Buchanan Pedigree, 128 ; — Alice L., 
183 ; — Andrew, 2 132 et seq.;— 
Andrew, 3 132 ;— Ann McK., 3 133, 
186-7, 217;— Ann C, (Lloyd) 3 
120, 180 et seq.;— Anne, (McKean) 2 
132 et seq., 124, 183, 115, 235, 250; 
—Eliza M., (Peters) 4 213 ;— Eliza- 
beth, 3 132, 235 ;— Elizabeth T., 4 
183, 215, 225;— Ellen, 4 183, 215; 
—Evan M., 4 208, 154, 238, 241;— 
F. Selina, (Roberdeau) 3 160-1;— 
Franklin, Admiral, 161 to 183, 
132, 214, 120, 154, 156, 211, 235, 
237, 238, 241, 242, Appendix IV, 
243-8 ;— Franklin, Jr.,* 215, 183; 
—Dr. George, 2 128 et seq., 97, 99, 
100, 101, 104, 132, 240-1-2;— 
George, Gen., 3 152 et seq., 132, 208, 
182, 240-1 ;— George L., 4 154;— 
John B., 4 154 ;— Joseph McK., 3 132; 
— Laetitia, (McKean) 2 128 et seq., 
124, 149, 115, 120, 235, 235;— Lteti- 
tia E., 3 152, 132 ;— Lretitia, [G.] 4 
208 et seq., 154, 238; — Lsetitia 
McK., (of McK.) 4 213 et seq., 161, 
225 ;— Lsetitia McK., (of F.) 4 183 ; 
—Mary, 3 (Mrs. Sanford) 184-5, 133, 
216;— Mary Ann, 3 (Mrs. Coale) 
149 et seq., 132, 203, 235 ;— Mary 
Ann, 4 154;— Mary B., 4 154 ;— Mary, 
(Patterson) 3 153 ;— Mary T., 4 216, 
183 ;— McKean, Pay-Director, 3 154 
to 161, 132, 211, 116, 211, 182, 
237, 238, 241 ;— Nannie. 4 214, 183, 
225 ;— Rebecca S., 3 152, 132, 235; 
— Roberdeau, 4 211 et seq., 161, v, 
vi, 41, 240;— Rosa, 4 215, 183;— 
Sallie L., 4 214, 183;— Sarah G., 
(Miles) 3 153 et seq., 236;— Susan, 3 
(Mrs. Newman) 183, 133, 216;— 
Susanna, 3 132. 235;— Th. McKean, 
Lt., 3 185, 133, 116, 241;— Th. 
McKean, Lt. Com., 4 209 et seq., 
154, 238, 241;— Th. McKean, 3 132. 

Buchanan, Gen. Andrew, 129, 132, 
235;— Dr. George, Sr., 129, 152 ;— 
Robert C, Maj.-Gen., 133;— Robert 
of Cin., ix, 2, 3. 

Buchanan, William of Auchmar' l s 
genealogy quoted, 128. 

Buchanan vs. Alexander, 158. 

Budd Family, 218. 

Buncom, 15. 

Burdett, Sir Charles, 213. 

Burdge, F., 34. 

Burke, Governor, 122. 

Burke, Sir J. B., viii, 117, 213. 

Burr, Aaron, 92, 93. 

Butler, Pierce, 134. 

Cabrera, Jos., 99, 104, 105. 

Cadwallader, John, 25. 

Calvin, John B., 66. 

Calhoun, John C, 185. 

Cannon, James, 50. 

Carey Henry C, 125 ;— Matthew, 80. 

Cargill, Annis, 4 ; — David, 4. 

Carlisle, A., see Roberts. 

Caro y Szechenyi, Don Pedro, Vis- 
count de Benaesa, 220 ; — Dona 
Maria, (Marchioness de Casa 
Yrujo) 219, 220. 

Caro y Martinez de Yrujo, Dona 
Maria de la Piedad, 220 ; — Don 
Luis Gabriel, 220 ;— Don Pedro, 
220 ; — (See Martinez de Yrujo y 

Caro y Alvarez de Toledo, Marquis 
de la Romana, 219, 220. 

Carroll, Charles, 46, 113, 119, 250. 

Carver, Thomas, 101. 

Casa Yrujo, Marquis de, Don Carlos 
M. M. de Y. y Tacon, 2 1st Marquis, 
134 et seq., 84, 98, 107, 239, 240, 
242;— Sarah M. T. (McKean) 2 
Marchioness, 133 et seq., 124, 187, 
115, 235;— Don Carlos F. M. de 
Y. y McKean, 3 2d Marquis, 187 
etseq., 138, 218, 116, 155, see Soto- 
mayor ; — Dofia Gabriela del Alca- 
zar y Vera de Aragon, 3 Duchess 
de Sotomayor, Marchioness, 188, 
189; — Don Carlos M. M. de Y. y 
Alcazar, 4 3d Marquis, 218, 189, 226, 
xi, 120, 123, 138, 187, 189, 236, 
237, 239. 240, 242 ;— Dona Maria 
Caro y Szechenyi, 4 Marchioness, 
219:— Don Carlos M. de Y. y 
Caro, heir, 226, 219. 

Cass, Lewis, 198. 

Cecil, J. F., 182. 

Century Magazine, 156, 173, 183, 191. 

Chamberlain, Judge Mellen, ix, xi, 30, 
31, 32, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 47, 

Chapman, S., case, 59. 

Charles X., 188. 

Charles, colored man, 206. 

Chase, Samuel, 35, 46. 



Chauvenet, Prof. William, 165. 

Chew, Benjamin, 14. 

Choate, Rufus, 204. 

Clapier, Louis, 190. 

Clark, Davis R., 141 ; — (of Pa.), 

Clark, 236. 

Clark and Co., 130. 

Claverhouse, 3, 86. 

Clawges, John, Sr., 101. 

Claxton, Com., 154, 163, 179. 

Clay, Henry, 185. 

Claypoole, D. C, 38. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, 186 ; — George, 
96 ;— Gen., 122. 

Clymer, D. C, 25, 26 ;— George, 25, 
33, 34, 46, 78 ;— Mrs. Henry, 134. 

Coale Pedigree, 149, 152 ; — Anne L., 4 
152, 205 ;— Caroline D., 5 207;— 
Caroline, (Dorsev) 4 207 ;— Catha- 
rine A., 4 120, 132, 152;— Eliza- 
beth, (Atkinson) 5 224 ;— Elizabeth 
T., (Bell) 4 204 ;— Elizabeth B., 4 
152 ;— Edward, 5 207 ;— Edward J., 3 
149 et seq., 86, 183, 236, 240;— 
Edward J., 5 207 ;— George B., 4 
207, 152, 224, 242 ;— George O. 
G., 5 224, 205, 131, 151 ;— George 
W., 5 224, 207 ;— Grafton D., 5 207 ; 
— Josepha R., 4 152 ; — Katharine 
S., (Oliver) 4 204; — Marian, 6 224; 
— Marianna B., 4 207, 152 ;— Mary 
A., (Buchanan) 3 149 et seq., 132, 
203 ;— Mary B., 5 225, 207 ;— Robert 
D., Prof., 5 224, 207, 242 ;— William 
E., M. D., 4 203 et seq., 152, 224, 
3, 151 line 13 et seq., 237, 241, 
242 ;- William E., 6 224. 

Coale, Dr. S. S., 103, 149, 152, 236; 
—Mrs. 151 ;— Others, 151. 

Cobbett, William, 7, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 
91, 92, 135, 150, 250. 

Cochrane, W. R., 5. 

Cochran, T. B., 85, 93, 97, 234. 

Cohen, Rabbi, A. H., 213 ;— Capt. 
David M., 195. 

Coke, Lord, 144. 

Coll-Vuias or -Vuais, 2. 

Collet, Mark Wilks, 8. 

Confederate Navy Register, 172, 174, 
178, 237 ;— Statutes at Large, 172. 

Connor, Com. David, 165. 

Conover, (Covenhoven) 16. 

Conrad, R. T., 70, 121, 229. 

Cope, Gilbert, see Futhey. 

Cope, Thomas P.. 101. 

Continent, The, 158, 213. 
Cornwallis, Lord, 71, 72. 
Covington, 180. 
Cowperthwait and Co., 229. 
Craven, Capt. T. T., 165. 
Crawford, William H., 185. 
Creighton, Com. J. O., 186. 
Crighton, (Craghton, Creaghton,) 8. 
Cullum, Gen. G. W., 218. 
Cunyngham pedigree, 160. 
Cutler, M., 61. 
Dale, 146. 
Dallas, Alexander J., 95 note, 32, 47, 

48, 57, 58, 59, 60, 66, 77, 82, 84, 

85, 91, 95, 105, 125, 139, 232;— 

Com. A. J., 96 ;— Hon. Geo. M., 96, 

Darlington, Isaac, 101. 
Davis Jefferson, 172 ; — Rebecca H., 

62, 90." 
Davis, 196. 

Day, Sherman, 61, 109. 
Dean, Anna B., (McK.) 223, 194;— 

Edward G., 223. 
Dean, 186. 

Deane, Silas, 62 ; — loyalist, 62. 
Delaney, Sharpe, 25. 
Delano, C, 49. 
Dennis, Maj., 98, 139. 
Dickerson, 105. 
Dickinson, John, 22, 30, 31, 33, 35, 

37, 46, 50, 53, 65, 88 ;— Philemon, 

23;— William, 97, 
Digest of Decisions of 2d Comptr., 158. 
Dinsmore, Samuel, 4. 
Dix, Gen. John A., 206. 
Dobbin, Geo. W., 206. 
Dorsey, Caroline, 207 ; — Robert E., 

M. D.,207. 
Douglass, Frederick, 181. 
Downes, Com. John, 154. 
Drake, Francis S., 144, 146, 182, 185, 

232, 236, 237. 
Draper, Lyman C, 119, 122. 
Duane, James, 79. 
Duane, William, (Aurora) 48, 82, 83, 

95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 105, 106, 111, 

115, 125;— William, (Diary) 27, 

28, 32, 47, 50, 122 ;— William, 

(1875) 36. 
Duche, Rev. Jacob, 69, 229, 230. 
Dundas, 138. 
Dunlap, J., 38, 40, 48. 
Duponceau, Peter S., 136. 
Dupont, S. P., Adm., 165, 168. 
Durang, plate app., 92. 



Du Simitiere, P. E., 121. 

Duyckink, Evert A. 144. 

Dwight, JY., 230 ;— Theodore F., 40, 
41, 45. : 

Dyer, William, 149. 

Eastwood, George, 212. 

Edivards, P., 130. 

Edwin, David, engraver, 116, 117, 
120, 121, 230. 

Egle, William H., 17, 26, 56, 80, 90, 
106. 109, 122, 231, 235. 

Egremont, Earl of, 213. 

Eichelberger, Jacob, 101. 

Ellery, William, 113. 

Elliott, Com. J. D., 198. 

Elliott, Jonathan, 66, 75, 76, 232, 
233, 234. 

Ellis, Powhatan, 154. 

Ellmaker, 148. 

Ely, Elizabeth A., 5 195 ;— Elizabeth 
D. C, (McKean) 4 141, 195, 223 ;— 
Joseph E., 4 195, 240 ;— May, (La 
Monte) 5 223 ;— McKean, 5 195 ;— 
Rose McK., 5 195 ;— William M., 5 
195, 223. 

Emmons, G. F., 156, 186. 

Engle, James, 98. 

English, H., 212. 

Espy, Josiah, 101. 

Elting, F. M., 29, 65, 118, 234. 

Evans, George, 101 ; — John; 22 ; — 
Judge John, 58, 

Everett, Edward F., 209, 241 ;— 
Lastitia G., (Buchanan) 154, 208 
et seq., 238 ;— A child, 209. 

Ewing, Rev. Dr., 128. 

Farragut, Adm. D. G., 141, 175-6-7, 
210-11, 238. 

Farragut, Loyal, 210-11. 

Federalist, The, 66, see also M Y. 

Ferdinand VII, 188. 

Ferrandez, Sorred, 189. 

Fife, Lastitia McK., (Buchanan) 161, 
213 et seq., 225 ;— Selina; 214;— 
George B., 225, 214, 241 ;— George 
S., 213 et seq., 241. 

Fillmore, Pres., 166. 

Findley, 77. 

Finney pedigree, 9, 10, ; — David, 
Judge, 11, 13, 66; — Dorothea, 9, 
10; — John, 10; — Ltetitia, 9, 10, 
13 ;— Robert, 9, 10 ;— Robert S., 
10;— Others, 11. 

First City Troop, By-laws, 126. 

Fisher, Myers, 19. 

Fitzsimmons, Thomas, 76, 78. 

Fletcher, Li. Col., 173, 177. 

Floyd, William, 113. 

Fohvetl, 38, 48. 

Foote, Adm. A. H., 168. 

Force, Peter, ix, 27, 28, 37, 42, 45 ( 46, 

47, 48, 49, 129, 249. 
Fowle, 229. 
Fox, Charles, 85. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 25, 28^ 33, 46, 

50, 79, 85, 122, 145. 
Freeman's Journal, 32. 
French, Elizabeth, 10. 
Frothingham, R., 18, 20, 24, 27, 28, 

29, 37, 40, 65. 

Futhey, Judge, John Smith, and Gil- 
bert Cope, 4, 7, 8, 10, 57, 230. 

Gallatin, Albert, 85, 96. 

Gales and Seaton, 78, 249; 

Gallop, W., 155. 

Gansevoort, 185* 

Gardner, Col., 187. 

Gedney A. G., 49. 

Gemmill, Robert, 101. 

General Advertiser, (Aurora) 111. 

Gentleman's Mag., 112. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 29, 74. 

Getty s, James, 101. 

Gibbs, George, 89. 

Gibson, Judge, 57. 

Gideon, see Way. 

Gill, 196. 

Gilpin, Henry D., 24, 74. 

Gisch, (Gish) Jacob. 101. 

Girard, Stephen, 127. 

Glencairn, Earl of, 160. 

Glover, Henry and Abigail, 16. 

Goddard, Mary C, 48; — William^ 

Godon, Adm. S. W., 168. 

Goldsborough, Charles, 215; — Rosa, 
(Buchanan) 183, 215. 

Goodloe, Daniel R., 22, 23, 28. 

Goodman, John, 90. 

Goodrich, Chauncey, 89, 92 ; — C. A., 

51, 95, 113, 230, 233. 
Goodwin, Lyde, 130. 
Grasse, Count de, 123. 
Graydon, Alexander, 61, 89, 127. 
Grant, Pres., 192, 193, 208. 
Green, Rev. Ashbel, 127;— F. Potts, 

126, 153. 
Green, F. V., 211. 
Greene, Gen. N., 60, 122. 
Greene, G. W., quoted, 35, 37. 
Gregory, Adm. F. H., 154, 198. 



Griffith, Thomas W., 129. 
Griswold, R. W., 133. 
Grumbler, A, pseud., 143, 250. 
Gwinnett, Button, 65. 
Habersham, Johnanna, (Wade) 187, 

217 ;— William, 217. 
Hageman, John F., 15. 
Halsey, Sarah, 213. 
Hambleton, James P., 181, 250;— 

Samuel, 181. 
Hamersly, L. R., 157, 198, 236, 237; 

— T. H. S., 141, 182, 187, 203, 218, 

Hamilton, S. M., xii ;— William, 26 ; 

W., plate opp., 92. 
Hammond, 183. 
Hancock, John, x, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 122, 233, 249. 
Hanson, George A., 181, 215-6. 
Hanson, John, 72. 
Harding, 146. 
Hardy, Gov., 9. 
Hare, Charles W., 101. 
Harlan, Michael, 10. 
Harper, 87. 
Harper, (Magazine) 29, 37, 47, 49, 62, 

90, 107, 121,231, 232. 
Harrison, Benjamin, 38 ; — President 

W. H., 143. 
Hart, A. N., see Rice. 
Hart, Col. Joseph, 28. 
Haselet, John, 110. 
Haselett, Moses, 130. 
Hayne, Col. Robert T., 245. 
Hazard, Samuel, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 

67, 79, 122, 123, 230;— Willis P., 

33, 70, 234. 
Hazlehurst, Alice, 221 ; — Elizabeth 

B., 221, 227;— George T., 221;— 

Henrv McK., 221 ; — James W., 

221;— Sarah McK., (Trott) 192, 

221, 227. 
Heath, Gen., 122. 
Hedrick, H. B., 212. 
Henderson, Andrew, 97 ; — John, 9 ; 

—William, 97. 
Henry, Adeline McK., 197; — Alex- 
ander, Rev., 197 ; — Alexander, Jr., 
197 ; — Caroline R., (Bayard) 142, 
197;— Ethel A., 197;— Mary B., 
Henry, Patrick, 114. 
Herring, James, see Longacre. 
Hewes, Joseph, 65. 
Hibernian Soc, pamphlets, 80. 
Hichey, William, 28, 29, 66. 

Hiester. Joseph, 82. 

Hildeburn, C. R., 61, 68, 73, 232. 

Hildrith, R., 37, 80, 85, 93, 94, 95, 
97, 98, 105, 234. 

Hillegas, Michael, 123. 

Historical Mag. of N. and Q., 48, 80, 
231, 234. 

Hist. Bethlehem Fern. Sem., 186. 

Hodge, Margaret, 142. 

Hoffman, Anne McK., 144; — Anne 
McK., (Mrs. Kerr) 16, 144, 197 ;— 
David, LL.D., 143 et seq., 236, 
240, 242;— Frederick William, 144; 
—Mary (McKean), 115, 127, 143 
et seq., 197, 236. 

Hollins, Com. Geo. N., 174. 

Holmes, 4. 

Hooker, 217. 

Hooper, Col. Robert L., 60. 

Hopkins, Hannah, 148 ; — Stephen, 
64, 119. 

Hopkinson Family, 149, 151 ; — Ann, 
15, 17 ;— Francis, 15, 17, 65, 76, 
77, 149, 151 ;— Jos., 78, 86, 87, 90, 
125, 146, 150 ;— Oliver, 16, 146. 

Hotchkiss Family, 196 ; — Bessie R., 
196 ;— Cyrus F., 196 ;— Rosa, (Mc- 
Kean) xi, 141, 196; — Rosa McKean, 

Howard, 181. 

Howard, Reports, 158-9. 

Howe, Sir William, 58, 64. 

Huddleson, 147. 

Huested, John, 97. 

Hulme, John, 100, 101. 

Humphreys, Charles, 33. 

Huntington, Daniel, 119; — Samuel, 
70, 122. 

Hurry, 72. 

Huston, Joseph, 99. 

Hutchinson, 204. 

Independence Hall, Catalogue, 231. 

Independent Gazetteer, 76. 

Ingersoll, Jared, 82, 91, 105, 116, 
125, 127, 136, 250 ;— Joseph R., 
125, 144 ;— Judge, 57. 

Ingham, Samuel D., 101. 

Ioder, (Joder), Daniel, 101. 

Irvine, Gen. William, 80, 82. 

Isabella II, 188, 219. 

Isaacs, Mary, 185. 

Jackson, David P., 196 ; — Mary M., 
(McKean) 141, 196. 

Jackson, President A., 144, 185 ; — 
John M., 114 ; — Gen. "Stonewall," 
181 ;— T. B., 182 ;— W., 109. 



Jackson, William, 48. 

Jarvis Family, 194. 

Jay, John, 62, 81. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 29, 31, 35, 36, 37, 
40, 44, 81, 82, 85, 89, 92, 93, 
95, 96,97, 113, 119, 123, 130, 135, 

Jeffreys, George, Lord High Chan- 
cellor, an infamous judge, 62. 

Jennings, Ebenezer, 100. 

Johns Hopkins, Col., Circulars, 224. 

Johns, 149. 

Johnson Family, 133 ; — Another, 149. 

Johnson's Cyclop., 232. 

Johnson, Reverdy, 159. 

Johnston, Capt., 177; — Christopher, 
Jr., 149. 

Joinville, Prince de, 173. 

Jones, Samuel, 184; — Benjamin, 25; 
— Catesby ap R., 171, 172. 

Journals, — of Congress, MS. Rough, x, 
38, 39, 40 ; — MS. Secret Domestic, 
x, 39, 45;— MS. Smooth, 39;— 
Printed Journals, viii, x, 29, 32, 
33, 34, 38, 45, 232, 233, see also 
Way, Wait, Dunlap, etc.; — Del. 
Const. Conv., 46, 54; — Pa. H. R., 
100, 101, 102, 105, 131 ;— Pa. 
Senate, 88 ;— U. S. H. R., 78, 172. 

Judson, L. Carroll, 14, 51, 56, 106, 
123, 230, 231. 

Kean, 2. 

Keen, 2. 

Keith, Charles P., vii, 15, 17, 70, 149, 
161, 236. 

Keith, Prof. Ruel, 212. 

Kelton, James, 101. 

Kennedy, D., 121. 

Kent, James, 184. 

Kepner, Bernard, 101. 

Kerr, Anne H., 197 ; — Anne McK., 
(Hoffman) 16,' 144, 197 ;— Fred- 
ericka M., s 197 ; — John M., 197 ; — 
Margaret, 197. 

Kerr, James, 99. 

Key, Francis S., 150. 

Kimball, Harriett, 223. 

Kimmell, Jacob, 101. 

King, 139; — Judge Edward, 145; — 
Rufus, 184. 

Kierstede, Blandina, 142. 

Kline, 60. 

Kuhn, Hartman, 125. 

Kyd, wig maker, 61. 

Kyn, Joran, 10. 

Lacock, Abner, 99, 100. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 122, 250. 
Lambertye, Henri F. E., Count de, 

220 ;— M. Charles de, 220 ;— M. 

Manuel de, 220. (See Martinez de 

Yrujo y Alcazar.) 
Lambdin, James R., 118. 
La Monte, 223. 
Lammot, Daniel, 227 ;Elizabeth B., 

(Hazlehurst) 221, 227. 
Lawman, Charles, 80, 82, 113, 146, 

185, 231, 232, 237. 
Lardner, Admiral James L., 141. 
Laurens, Henry, 24. 
Lawler, (Lawlor), Matt., 97, 103. 
Lawson, Susan, 129. 
Leach, Frank W., vii, xi, quoted, 

Le Breton, 185. 
Lee, Gen. Henry, 62 ; — J. Fenner, 41 ; 

—Gen. R. E., 174, 178, 181 ;— R. 

H., 29;— Com. Sidney Smith, 174. 
Leggett, M. D., 49. 
Leib, Michael, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 

101, 103, 105, 106, 125, 138. 
Leiper, Thomas, 97. 
Lenegan, plate opp., 92. 
I,eslie, Frank, 201. 
Lewis, Family, 221 ; — Charles B., 

221 ;— Elizabeth McK., (Borie) 

194, 221 ;— Elizabeth B., 221 ;— 

John T., Jr., xi, 194, 221 ;— Phoebe 

M., 221. 
Lewis, 91 ;— William, 77, 78. 
Lincoln, President A., 206 ; — Gen., 

TAncoln, R. W., 230, 234. 
Linn, John B., 80, 122. 
Lippincott, 7, 186, 193. 
Liston, Sir Robert, 134. 
Little, Capt. John, 25. 
Livingston, (Michigan) 223 ; — 

Edward, 136, 162 ;— Philip, (N. Y.) 

217 ;— Robert R., 62, 65, 122. 
Lloyd, Pedigree, 180 ;— Ann C, 120, 

180-3;— Gov. Edward, 119, 180, 

181 ;— Gov. Henry, 181. 
Lloyd, T., 81. 
Lobingier, John, 101. 
Logan, Anne, 9 ; — James, 9. 
London Monthly Review, 81 ; — Times, 

Longacre, J. B., and James Herring, 

57, 73, 120, 230,233. 
Longacre, J. B., engraver, 120, 229. 
Longfellow, H. W., 173. 
Los Arcos, Marquis of. Don Carlos 



M, M. de Y. y Alcazar, (see Oasa 
Yrujo,) ; — Don Manuel, M. de Y. y 
Alcazar, 187, 189, 219 et seq. 

Lossinff, B. J., 18, 19, 37, 40, 46, 49, 
53, 65, 66, 69) 72, 78, 157, 173, 182) 
230, 231, 234, 237, 238, 

Loundes, Charles D., 225. 

Louis XVI, 8L 

Lowdermilk, W. H., xii. 

Lowry, James, 99. 

Luria, Henry, 213. 

Luzerne, M. de, 71. 

Lynch, Thomas, 18. 

Lyon, Harriet C, 226. 

Mabbett, 190. 

MacAlester, 2. 

McAppic, 3. 

McCain, 8, see McKean ; Susannah, 
8, 9 ;— Others, 8, 9. 

McCauley, Com. Charles S., 140, 168 ; 
— wrongly printed C. F., in Em- 
mons' U. S. Navy. 

McClellan, Gen. G. B., 208;— John, 

McClenachan, Blair, 82 ; — John, 11. 

M'Comb, Eleazer, 23. 

McComb, James, 101. 

McCorkle, W., 32, 36, 47, 122. 

McCormick, Gov., 201. 

McCreery, William, 131. 

McDonald, 2. 

McEans, 2. 

McGregor, James, 4. 

Mclans, 2, 3. 

Mclntire, 3. 

Mclvor, 3. 

McKane, 8. 

McKean Pedigree, 2, 3, 6, 8 ; — Ade- 
line B., 4 141 ;— Adeline J., 3 (Mrs. 
Bayard) 126, 141 et seq., 196; — 
Ann, 3 126 ;— Anna B, 5 194, 223 ;— 
Anna M., (Livingston) 5 223 ; — 
Anne, 2 (Mrs. A. Buchanan) 115, 
124, 132 et seq., 183, 235, 250;— 
Anne, (Smith), 2 127, 250 ;— Bet- 
tine, 5 196 ;— Caroline, 3 126;— Caro- 
line, 4 (Mrs. Wilson) 141, 194 et seq., 
223 ; — Catharine, 3 126 ; — Clemen- 
tina S., 3 (Mrs. C. L. Borie) 139, 
193 et seq.; — Davis R., (Clark) 3 
141;— Eliza A., (Jarvis) 4 194;— 
Elizabeth, (Mrs. Pettit) 2 115, 120, 
124, 127 et seq., 144, 199, 235 ;— 
Elizabeth, 3 126, 236;— Elizabeth, 4 
141 ;— Elizabeth, (Wharton) 4 220 ; 
—Elizabeth D. C., 4 (Mrs. Ely) 141, 

195, 223, 236 ;—Elizabeth D:, s 
(Mrs. A. E. Borie) 139, 192 et seq., 
237;— Elizabeth R., 4 140;— Frances 
M,, 4 140;— Lt. Franklin B., 4 141, 
194, 236, 241 ;— Franklin B., 5 194 ; 
—George, 5 220 ;— Hannah, (Miles) 2 
126 ;— Harriet, (Davis) 4 195-6;— 
Harriet, M., 4 140 ;— Henry J., 5 194, 
223, 241 ;— Henry L., 223;— 
Henry Pratt, 3 190 et seq., 139, 220, 
xi, 21, 112, 116, 120, 123, 133, 
138;— Henry P., 5 226, 220;— 
Joseph B., 2 Judge, 124 et seq., 124, 
139, 70, 83, 91, 97, 98, 100, 115, 
116, 117, 118, 120, 136, 153, 235, 
240-1-2 ;— Joseph B., 4 194, 141, 
223;— Joseph K., 3 140, 126;— 
Katharine M., 4 141 ; — Katharine 
M., 5 194 ;— Katharine W., 4 140;— 
Ltetitia, (Mrs. G. Buchanan) 2 128 
et seq., 124, 149, 115, 120, 235, 
235 ;— Letitia, 3 126;— Letitia H., 3 
126;— Letitia H., 4 140, (The 
Misses, 126); — Marcia V., 4 140; — 
Maria L., 2 124 ;— Maria W., 5 220; 
— Marietta E., 5 194 ;— Marian, 
(Shaw) 227;— Mary, (Borden) 1 15, 
17, 21, 124, 124, 199, 235 ;— Mary, 2 
124;— Mary, 3 126 ;— Mary, 3 (Mrs. 
Hoffman) 143 et seq., 127, 197, 115; 
— Mary, 4 141 ; — Mary F., (King) 3 
139 et seq.; — Mary K., 4 140 ; — Mary 
M., 4 140;— Mary M., 4 (Mrs. Jack- 
son) 196, 141 ;— Phebe E., (War- 
ren) 3 190 ; — Phebe Warren. 9 220 ; 
—Robert, 2 126 et seq., 124, 143, 16, 
17, 115, 235, 241;— Rosa, 4 (Mrs. 
Hotchkiss) 196, 141, xi, 236: — 
Samuel M,, 3 139 et seq., 126, 116, 
120, 236, 240;— Samuel M., 4 141, 
118 ;— Sarah A., 3 (Mrs. Trott) 192, 
139, 221 ;— Sarah, (Armitage) 1 21, 

123, 124, 70;— Sarah C, (Pratt) 2 
138 et seq.;— Sarah M. T., 2 (Mar- 
chioness de Casa Yrujo) 133 et 
seq., 124, 187, 115, 235 ;— Sophia 
D., 2 124, 116 ;— Stephen W., 4 191 ; 
— Thomas, LL.D., Governor, 13 to 

124, 124, v, vi, vii, ix, xi, xiii, see 
Index No. 1 ; Also 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 
11, 92 plate, 97, 125, 121, 128, 
131, 134, 135, 137, 146, 151, 152, 
154, 199, App. I, 229-32, App. II, 
233-5, App. Ill, 239-42, 249;— 
Thomas, Jr., 2 138 et seq., 124, 190, 
97, 98, 116, 120, 241 ;— Thomas, 3 



126 ;— Thomas, 4 220, 191, 226;— 
Thomas, Jr., 5 220 ;— William B.,+ 
Capt., 195 et seq., 141, 236, 241 ; 
—William W., 8 Com., 140 et seq., 
126, 194, 49, 155. 208, 236, 241, 
250 ;— William W., 6 223 ;— Wil- 
liam S., 3 12*7 ;— A son, 2 124 ;—Also 
see v, 1, 3, 6, 7, 8 ; — See also 
McCain and McKeen, p. 3. 

McKean, Governor Thomas, ivorks 
quoted, 14, 20, 47, 48, 61, 66, 73, 
81, 116, 232. 

McKean (ancestry), Dorothea, 10, 
233 ;— James, 9; — Laetitia, (mother 
of Gov.) 79, 11, 13 ;— Robert, Rev., 
9, 13 ; — Samuel, Senator, 4 ; — 
Thomas, Governor, 10 ; — Thomas, 
9;_ William, (Father of Gov.) 6, 
7, 9, 11, 13, 233 ;— William, 10; 
see McCain., McKeen, and note p, 3. 

McKean {other families), Frederick 
G., U. S. N.;— James Bedell, 
Judge ; — Joseph, LL.D., Prof.; — 
Thomas Jefferson, U. S. A.;— Wil- 
liam V., 11. 

McKeen, Annis, 4 ; — Miss F. A., 2 ; — 
Gennette, 4 ; — James, Justice, 4, 5, 
6; — James of N. Y., 3, 6 ; — John, 

4, 6;— John, 2 ;— Joseph, LL.D., 
4 ; — Joseph, (his son,) 6 ; — Letitia, 
(Finney) 5, 9 ; — Levi, Judge, 3, 4, 

5, 7, 9 ; — Philena, 5 ; — Silas, Rev., 
4, 5 ; — Thomas, Governor, 4, 5 ; — 
William, soldier, 4 ; — William, 
farmer, 3, 4 ; — William, (Robert, 
Joseph or) 4, 5, 6, 8 ; also 3 note 1. 

McKennan, Elizabeth, 10 ; — John 

D., 10;— T. McK. T., 10 ;— Col. 

William, 10 ; — William, 97 ;— 

Judge William, 10. 
McKeon, 11. 

McKinly, John, 20, 21, 53, 54, 63. . 
McMahon, Pres., 201. 
Mc Master, John B., 75 et seq., 76, 82, 

84, 94, 231. 
McMurtrie, 120, 139. 
McNab, 3. 

McSherry, James, 101. 
Macon, Senator N., 185. 
Madison, Pres. James, 24, 74, 79, 

135, 136, 137, 250. 
Mahan, A. T, 141. 
Mahon, Lord, 37. 
Mallory, Stephen R., 172. 
Mansfield, Lord, quoted, 58i 
Marbois, M. de, 122. 

Marchant, artist, 118. 

Marcy, Gov. William L., 145. 

Marion, Gen., 122. 

Marshall, Christopher,, 27, 28, 32, 47, 
50, see Duane. 

Marshall, E. C, 165 ;— Chief Justice 
John, 145. 

Martin, Benj., 101. 

Martin, J. Hill, 10, 13, 14, 69, 73, 
108, 118, 125, 140, 146, 150, 151. 

Martinez de Yrujo y Tacon, Don 
Carlos M., 1st Marquis de Casa 
Yrujo, 134 et seq., 84, 98, 107, 239, 
240, 242;— (See McKean, Sarah 
M. T.). 

Martinez de Yrujo y McKean, Don 
Carlos.F., 3 138 ;— Don Carlos F., 3 
2d Marquis, (Duke de Sotomayor, 
q. v.) 187 et seq., 138, 218, 116, 
155, 239, 240;— (See Sotomayor, 
Duchess de ;) — Dona Narcisa M. 
L., 3 (de Pierrard) 187, 138, 237, 

• 240. 

Martinez de Yrujo y Alcazar, Don 
Carlos M., 4 3d Marquis, 218, 189, 
226, xi, 120, 123, 138, 187, 189, 
220, 235, 237, 239, 240, 242 ;— (See 
Caro y Szechenyi) ; — Don Manuel, 
Marquis de los Arcos, 219 et seq., 
189, 187 ;— Dofia Maria del Pilar, 
189 ; — Dona Maria de la Piedad, 
(Viscountess de Benaesa)220, 189; 
— Dona Maria de las Virtudes, 
(Countess de Lambertye) 220, 189. 

Martinez de Yrujo y Caro, Don 
Carlos, 226, 219 ;— Dona Maria 
Ysabel, 219; — Dona Maria de la 
Piedad, 219 ; — Dona Maria del 
Rosario, 219 ;— Don Pedro, 219 ; — 
Don Juan, 219 ; — Don Luis, 219. 

Maryland, Med. and Surg. Journal, 

Mason, George C. Jr., 4 222, 242 ; — 
Sarah C. McK., (Borie) 4 222, 194. 

Mason, George C, 118, 134, 138. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. Col, 32, 35, 37. 

Matlack, Timothy, 25, 26, 28, 50, 67. 

Matterson, T. H., 119. 

Maury, Gen. D. H., 177 ;— Lt. Wil- 
liam L., 168. 

Maxwell, Robert, 101. 

Meade, George, 127. 

Medical and Chir. Fac. of Md., Trans- 
actions, 131, 203. 

Meiere, Ellen B., 214;— Ernest, 225, 
214 p- -J. Ernest, Capt., 214, 241 j 



— Nannie, (Buchanan) 214, 183, 

225; — Nannie L., 214;— Thomas 

McK., 214. 
Meier, H., 212. 
Mentger, F., 109. 
Melville, H, 159, 
Mercer, J., 155. 
Merrill, J. L., 5. 
Merryman, John, 186. 
Meyer, Brantz, 129, 207. 
Mifflin, Robert, 127 ;— Thomas, 79, 

81, 85, 91, 119, 127. 
Miles, Pedigree, 126, 153 ; — Hannah, 

126 ; — Sarah G., 153 etseq.; — Sam- 
uel, Col., 82, 126, 139. 
Miller, Herman P., 234. 
Miller, artist, 152. 
Miner, Charles, 101. 
Minturn, 216. 

Missroon, Capt. John S., 168. 
Mitchell, Jacob, 97. 
Monroe, President James, 49. 
Montgomery, Rev. Joseph, 21, 124, 

Moore, Frank, 62. 
Moore family, 214 ;— N. R., 131. 
Morgan, Mrs. Dr., 151 ;— B. R., 145. 
Morrill, Gen., 208. 
Morris, Gouverneur, 60 ; — Robert, 

25, 33 ;— Samuel C, 28. 
Morris, Nellie H, 36, 37. 
Morrison, Dr. J., 212. 
Morrison, L. A., 5. 
Morton, John, 33, 79. 
Moss, 121. 
Muhlenberg, 105 ; — Frederick A., 74, 

81 ;— Hon. Peter, 76, 82. 
Munroe, James, 85. 
Murray (Murrah), 8, 9. 
Murray, 180. 
Napoleon, 163. 

National Intelligencer, 163, 184. 
Nautical Almanac, 212. 
Navy Department, General Orders, 

195 ;— MS. records, 140, 178, 186, 

Navy Register, IT. S., 236. 
Neale, 180. 
Neff genealogy, 218. 
Neill family, 221 ; — Genealogy, 222. 
Nelson, Gov., 122. 
Nelson, Thomas, Jr , 65. 
Nevin, David R. B.. 56, 89, 95, 123, 231. 
New American Cyclop., 144, 182, 231. 
New Eng. Hist, and, Gen. Reg., 169, 

182, 209, 237. 

Neiv Jersey; — Archives, 9; — Gazette 
(or Federalist), 21, 83, 87. 

New York; — Evening Post, 134; — 
Herald, 237. 

Newcomb, Prof. Simon, 212, 213. 

Newman, Caroline A.. 183 ; — Ellen 
S. (Rodgers), 216 ;— George H., 
183, 150, 240 ;— Gertrude (Min- 
turn), 216 ;— Mary L., 183 ;— Sid- 
nev C, 183 ; — Susan (Buchanan), 
183, 133, 216;— William H., 216, 
183 ; also 237. 

Nicholson, 216. 

Niles, Hezekiah, 28, 32, 47, 69, 113, 

Nixon, Col. John, 40, 76. 

Notse Cestriences, see Village Record. 

Numismatics Manual, 236. 

O'Cahan, 2. 

O'Conner, Arthur, 85. 

O'Hart, John, 2. 

Ogden, Robert, 18. 

Old State House, Catalogue, 118. 

Oliver, Family, 204 ; — Katharine S., 

Oscar, King of Norwa}', 201. 

Oswald, case, 77, 78, 93. 

Otis, James, 18. 

Ould, Robert, 174. 

Owen, Franklin B., 216; — Kennedy 
R., 216; — Mary T. (Buchanan), 
216, 183;— Nannie B., 216 ;— Wil- 
liam T., 216. 

Owen, 2. 

Page, R. L., Gen., 168, 177. 

Paine, Thomas, 67. 

Parke, John, 109. 

Parr, John G., 147. 

Paris, Comte de, 173. 

Parker, E. L., 5 ;—Com. F. A., 176, 

Parker, Lt. Com. W. H., 169, 170. 

Parker, mutineer, 85. 

Patterson, 218 ;— Com. D. T., 162, 
179; — Mary, 153 et seq. 

Patterson, J., 38, 66. 

Pauldino-. Adm. Hiram, 156. 

Peale, Charles W., 67, 70, 118, 120, 
121, 123, 191, 199;— Miss, artist, 

Pendergast, Susan R., 218; — Com. 
G. J., 168. 

Penn vs. Kline, case, 60 ; — Gov. John, 
17 ; _ William, 126. 

Pennock, William, 101. 

Pennsylvania; — Archives, 17, 19, 126, 



128, 232, 236; — Colonial Records, 26, 
TO, 122, 232, see Hazard; — Evening 
Post, 40, 50 ; — Hist. Soc. Catalogue, 
118; — Memoirs, 108; — Magazine of 
Hist, and Biog., 10, 13, 14, 16, 50, 
60, T4, 81, 126, 12T, 133, 146, 161, 
191, 220, 231, 233, 235 ;— Packet, 
59, 68, 128;— Gazette, 2L. 

Perry, Com. M. C, 166-T, 168, 179 ; 
— Com. 0. H., 161, 178. 179. 

Peters, Pedigree, 213 ; — Eliza M., 213; 
—Hester A.. 213 ; — Norris, 49 ;— 
Richard, Judge, 60, 66, 83, 213 ; — 
Thomas, 213. 

Pettit, Family, 127, 142 ; — Andrew, 2 
127 et seq., 97, 115, 116, 120, 199, 
241 ;— Charles,* 144, 128, 236 ;— 
Elizabeth (McKean), 127 et seq. 
124, 144, 115, 120, 199, 235;— 
Elizabeth, 3 128, 147 ;— Elizabeth 
D., 4 197 et seq., 146 ; — Emily, 4 
146 ;— Henry, 3 M. D., 148, 128 ;— 
Henry,* 199 et seq., 148, xi, 72, 117, 
240, 242 ;— Laura (Ellmaker), 148; 
— Letitia, 3 128;-MargaretS.(Blair), 
202 ;— Mary A., 3 128 ;— Mary M., 4 
146 ;— Richard D., 4 146 ;— Richard 
D., 4 198 et seq., 146 ;— Robert, Pay 
Director, 147 et seq., 128, 199, 236, 
241 ;— Robert, 5 202 ;— Robert E., 4 
202 et seq., 148 ;— Sarah, 3 128 ;— 
Sarah, 4 146;— Sarah 4 (Mrs. Wil- 
son), 199, 146, 21, 120 ;— Sarah 
B., (Dale), 3 146, 236 ;— Sarah B., 5 
202 ;— Theodosia, 3 146 et seq., 128 ; 
— Thomas McKean, 3 Judge, 144 et 
seq., 128, 197, 116, 118, 152, 236, 
239, 242 ;— Two children, 128. 

Pettit, Hon. Charles, 82, 118, 127, 141. 

Phelps, Gen., 210. 

Philadelphia Sunday Republican, 237 ; 
—Times, 74, 77, 193, 237. 

Philip, V., 189. 

Philippe, Louis, 162, 250. 

Pichegru, 85. 

Pickering, Timothy, 34, 135. 

Pickett, Gen. Geo. E., 181. 

Pierce, President, 145. 

Pierrard y Alcedar, Don Bias S. de, 
Lt.-Gen., 187, 239, 241, (see 
Martinez de Yrujo y McKean, 
Dona Narcisa M. L). 

Piferrer, Spanish author, 189. 

Pinckney, Edward C, 150. 

Polk, President, 145. 

Pomeroy, R. W., 229. 

Poole, William F., 130. 

Poore, B. P., 38, 51, 66, 232, 237. 

Porcupine, Peter, see Cobbett, 82, 83, 

Porcupine's Gazette, 83, 86, 87. 

Porter, Charles, 101; — Com. David, 
140;— Adm. David D., 172, 182, 

Portfolio, The, 32. 

Potter, (Amer. Monthly) 33, 36, 37, 

Poulson's ^Iwier. Daily Adv., 110, 151. 

Powell, Samuel, 80. 

Pratt Family, 138, 190; — Sarah C, 
138 et seq. 

Preston, H. W., 66. 

Priestly, Dr. Joseph, 84. 

Proceedings on Unveiling the Monu- 
ment to Caesar Rodney, 122, 249. 

Proud, 152. 

Purviance, Robert, 129. 

Querno, Camillo, pseud., 63. 

Quig, M., 120. 

Quinan, Dr. John R., xi, 129, 131, 
203, 237. 

Ramsey, William, 101. 

Randall, Henry S., 29, 35, 81, 85, 97. 

Randolph, John, 137. 

Rawle, Judge, 57 ; — William, 136. 

Read, George, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 
29, 30, 31, 33, 37, 48, 52, 53, 54, 
57, 63, 64, 231, 234;— Adm. G. C, 

Read, William T., 14, 21, 28, 37, 52, 
53, 54, 57,63, 115, 231, 234. 

Reade, Katharine L., 217. 

Rebello, Jose S., 152. 

Redwood,. Frank T., 225, 242;— 
George B., 225 ;— Mary B., (Coale) 
225, 207. 

Reed, Presi Joseph, 58, 60, 63, 67, 
68, 97, 108, 116, 103, 122. 

Reed, William B., 60, 68. 

Reminiscences of Carpenter's Hall, 
(Pub. by Carp's. Co.) 22. 

Renshaw, 221. 

Reynolds-, Dr. James, 83, 99, 104 ; — 
William, 8. 

Rhodes, Charles B., 222 ;— Clemen- 
tina B., 222 ; — Elizabeth McK., 
222; — Emily B., 222; — Emily 
(Borie) 222, 194 ;— Emily Borie, 
222 ; — F. Mauran, 222 ; — James 
M., 222, 193 ;— James M., Jr., 222 ; 
— Lawrence M., 222 ; — Mary A., 
222;— Sophia B., 222. 



Rice (D.) and Hart (A. JV.), 120, 230. 

Richardson, Sarah, 10. 

Richmond Dispatch, 182, 243. 

Rickets, F., plate opp., 92. 

Rinker, Abraham, 101. 

Ritchie, A. H., (engraver) 119. 

Rittenhouse, David, 67, 80, 81. 

Roberdeau Pedigree, 160-1 ; — Daniel, 
Gen., 160, 25, 26, 27, 42, 50, 67, 
68; — F. Selina, 160-1; — Isaac, 
Colonel, 160. 

Roberdeau genealogy, 25, 27, 42, 50, 
68, 161 note, 213, 225, 235. 

Roberts and Carlisle, case, 58, 59, 62, 
63, 86. 

Robeson, George M., 193. 

Robespierre, 85. 

Robinson, Thomas, 20. 

Rochambeau, Count, 71, 123. 

Rodgers of N. Y., (wrongly printed 
Rogers) 216. 

Rodney, Caesar, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 
23, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 46, 57, 110, 
114, 122, 232, 234, 249 ;— Gov. 
Thomas, 23, 29, 32, 46, 47, 51, 52, 
122, 249;— T. M., 29, 122. 

Rogers family, (Md.) 129 ;— (Mich.) 

Rogers, 16, 17, 235 ;— J. Henry, 14, 
17 ; 67;— Joseph, 127. 

Romana, Marquis de la, Don Pedro 
Caro y A de Toledo, 219, 220, see 
Caro ; — Don Pedro Caro y 
Szechenyi, heir, Viscount de 
Benaesa, see Caro ;— Don Pedro 
Caro y M. de Y., heir, see Caro. 

Ronckendorf, Elizabeth D., (Pettit) 
197 et seq., 146 ;— George R., 198 ; 
— Mary, 198;— Thomas P., 198; — 
William, Commodore, 197 et seq., 

Rose, Daniel, 101. 

Rosenthal, Albert, 121. 

Ross, Judge, 56 ; — George, 33, 34, 
46;— James, 80, 85, 91, 93, 106, 
234, 235;— John, 135 ;— Thomas, 

Rousby, 180. 

Rousseau, Com. L., 174. 

Rowson and Co., plate opp., 92. 

Rubenkam, Catharine, 126. 

Rudd, Capt. John, 155. 

Ruggles, Timothy, 18. 

Rupp, I. D., 25. 

Ruschenberger, W. S. W., 165. 

Rush, 146;— Dr. Benj., 28, 33, 34, 

46, 86, 87, 150;— Judge, 76;— 
Richard, 48. 

Rutledge, Edward, 65. 

Sadd, H. S., 119. 

Sammerzel, Mary, 127. 

Sanderson, John, ix, 13,14, 15, 19, 21, 
25, 28, 29, 32, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 
53, 55, 58, 59, 60, 64, 69, 70, 71, 
74, 76, 78, 79, 82, 88, 90, 95, 96, 
99, 100, 101, 103, 106, 108, 109, 
110, 114, 120, 121, 122, 123, App. 
I, 229-30, 233-4, 250 ;— See Con- 

Sanford, Desire McK., 217; — Helen 
M. H. (Stuyvesant), 217; — Helen 
S., 217;— Henry G., 217 ;— Mary 
(Buchanan), 3 184-5, 133, 216;— 
Mary B., 217; — Nathan, Senator, 
184, 237, 239, 240 ;— Robert, 216, 
185 ; — Stuyvesant, 217. 

Sanford, others, 185. 

Sargent, Winthrop, 63, 84. 

Savage, James, 15, 16, 249. 

Savage, artist, 133. 

Savitz, George, 101. 

Scharf, J. Thomas, 20, 53, 129, 131, 
138, 152, 182, 206, 231, 234, 250. 

Scharf and Westcott, 24, 25, 26, 27, 
28, 33, 35, 40, 46, 50, 54, 65, 67, 69, 
70, 71, 72, 74, 77, 79, 82, 83, 85, 87, 
88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 97, 100, 106, 
108, 123, 125, 127, 133, 134, 138, 
146, 193, 230, 234, 249. 

Schulze, Governor, 144. 

Schuyler, Gen. P., 122. 

Screven, Ellen (Buchanan), 215, 183; 
—Ellen B., 215 ;— Franklin B., 
215; — George P., 215; — George 
P.. Jr., 215 ; — Mary, 215 ; — Murray 
L., 215; — Nannie L., 215; — Sallie 
L. (Buchanan), 214, 183 ;— Thomas 
F., 214, 215. 

Screven (others), 214. 

Scribner's Mag., 177. 

Seaton, see Gales. 

Secomb, D. F., 5. 

Selfridge, Adm. T. O., 155. 

Sergeant, G., 8 ;— John, 100, 101 ; — 
Thomas, 145. 

Sbaeffer, Jacob, 101. 

Sharp, Abp., 3. 

Sharpless, artist, 138. 

Shattuck, George C, 203. 

Shaw family (Mass.), 227. 

Sheridan, 85 ;— Gen. P. H., 208. 

Sherman, Conrad, 101 ; — Roger, 65. 



SheWell, Nathaniel, 99, 100, 101. 

Shippen Family, 161 and note; — 
Chief Justice Edward, 86, 87, 88 ; 
—Thomas Lee, 82 ;— Dr. William, 
81 ;— Dr. William, elder, 161 and 
note ; — Dr. William, younger, 129. 

Shippen Genealogy, 161 note, 213. 

Shippen, Dr. Edioard, 156. 

Shubrick, W. B., Com., 165, 168, 

Simonton, Catharine, 11. 

Simpson, Henry, 146, 231. 

Sluyter, Elizabeth, 142. 

Smith, Anne, 127, 250; — Dr. Beaton, 
146, 241 ; — Theodosia, (Pettit) 
146, 128, 

Smith, (of Pa.) 146, 147 ;— (of St. 
Eustatius) 127;— Charles, 101; — 
James, 33, 34, 46; — Col. James, 
28, 50; — Lt. J. B., 157; — J. 
Guthrie, Scotland, xi. 129 ; — 
Jonathan B., 25, 28; — Com. M., 
210;— Gen. Persifor F., 147. 

Smith, John Jay, 23, 72. 

Snyder, Simon, 97, 106, 235. 

Soley, Prof. J. R., 141, 164, 171, 

Sotomayor, Duke of, family, 188, 
189, 218, 219, 226;— Don Carlos 
F. M. de Y. y McKean, Duke of, 
187 et seq., 138, 218, 116, 155, 239, 
240, 242 ;— Dona Gabriela del A. 
y Vera de Aragon, Duchess of, 188 
et seq. ; — Don Carlos M. M. de 
Y. y Alcazar, heir, Marquis de 
Casa Yrujo, q. v.; — Don Carlos M. 
de Y. y Caro, heir, see Martinez de 

Soule, Hon. Pierre, 155. 

Southern Hist. Soc. Papers, 172, 177. 

Southey, Robert, 84. 

Sparks, Jared, 64, 70, 123. 

Sparhawk, T., 147. 

Spofford, A R., xii. 

Staigg, 224. 

Stanhope, Lord, 85. 

Stansberry, pseud., 68. 

Stark, Gen ,122. 

Statutes at Large, Pub. Laivs Confed. 
States, 172. 

Steele, John, 97. 

Stephenson, Jane, 11. 

Stevens, Rt. Rev. W. B., 209. 

Stevenson, George P., 130. 

Stewart, A. T., 119; — Adm. Charles, 
178, 203;— Gen. Walter, 80. 

Stone, Asaph, 154 ; — Thomas, 65. 

Stone, Frederick D., 74 et seq., 231 ; — 
W. J., 48, 49, 121, 249;— W. L., 37, s 

Story, Justice, 143. 

Stribling, Adm. C. K., 155, 165, 168. 

Stringer, 149. 

Stringham, Adm. S, H., 147, 198. 

Stuart, Gilbert, 116, 118, 119. 120, 
121, 123, 126, 133, 134, 138, 139, 
152, 222, 230. 

Stuyvesant, Pedigree, 142, 217; — H. 
M. H., 216 ;— Petrus, 142, 217. 

Sullivan, Elizabeth T. (Buchanan), 
215, 183, 225 ;— Felix R., 215;— 
Felix, R., Jr., 215 ;— Franklin B., 
cadet, 225, 215, 241 ;— Mary, 215 ; 
— Nannie L., 215. 

Sully, Thomas, 144, 152. 

Swinton, 171. 

Sykes, James, 22. 

Szechenyi (in Hungary), 219, 220. 

Tacon, 134. 

Talleyrand, 85. 

Tamsworth, 16. 

Tandy, Napper, 85. 

Tarr, Christian, 100. 

Tattnall, Com. Josiah, 174. 

Tayloe, 180. 

Taylor, Bayard, 167. 

Taylor, George, 33, 34, 46 ;— John, 

Thacher, James, 71. 

Thomas, George C, 226, 217;— Eliza- 
beth M., 226 ;— Harriet C. (Lyon), 
226 ;— Miriam (Clark), 226 ;— 
Richard W., 217;— Robert McK., 
217;— Sarah E. M. (Wade), 217, 
187, 226 ;— William P., 226, 217;— 
William W., 217;— William W., 

Thomas, Philip, 149. 

Thompson, Dorothea, 10; — Elizabeth, 
10 ; — John, 10 ;— Thomas McKean, 
10, 97, 101 ;— Gen. William, 67, 95. 

Thompson 1 s Long Island, 185. 

Thomson, Charles, x, 18, 32, 36, 39, 
40, 41, 43, 44, 48, 65, 233. 

Thornton, Matthew, 34, 45, 46, 47. 

Three Years in the Pacific, W. S. W. 

Ticknor and Fields, 203. 

Tiebout, 120, 230, 231. 

Tilghman, 91 ;— Oswald, 181 ;— Col. 
Tench, 71, 72 ;— Chief Justice 
William, 56, 90, 98. 



Tilton, James, 23. 

Todd, Prof. H. D., 212. 

Townsend, G. A., 11, 30, 234. 

Tracy, Uriah, 89. 

Trimble, William, 101. 

Trott, Henry, 192 ; — George, 192 : — 
George B., 192 ;— Sarah A. (Mc- 
Kean), 192 et seq., 139, 221 ;— 
Sarah McK., 221, 192, 227. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, 118, 119, 122. 

Tryon, Gov., 42. 

Tucker, John R., Capt., 169. 

Tudor, William, 18. 

Turner, J. Frank, 181. 

Tyler, Benj. 0., 48. 

United States Gazette, 110, 131. 

University of Penn. Catalogue, 108, 

Upshur, Capt. G. P., 165. 

Uraga, Governor of, 166-7. 

Van Buren, Pres., 145, 185. 

Van Horn, 185. 

Van Vleck, Prof. J. M., 212. 

Vandyke (Van Dyke), N., 22, 23. 

Vaughan, 196. 

Vaux, Robert, 145. 

Vera de Aragon, 188. 

Village Record, 95, 114, 231. 

Volney, 134. 

Von Schlieka, 177. 

Wade, Pedigree, 186 ; — Ann McK. 
(Buchanan) 3 , 186-7, 133, 217, 237; 
—Geo. K. B., 5 218;— Harriet M., 4 
187 ;— Harriet M., 5 218 ;— Isabel N. 
(Budd), 4 218 ; — Johnanna, 4 217. 
187;— Mary B., 4 ,. 187 ;— McK. B., 5 
218;— Richard D.' A., 3 Colonel, 186- 
7, 241;— Richard D. A., 218;— Rob- 
ert B., 4 Capt., 218, 187, 241,242 ; 
—Robert B., 5 218 ;— Sarah E. M., 4 
217, 187, 226;— Susan R. (Pender- 
gast), 4 218;— William, 4 217, 187; 
William O., 5 218. 

Wait, T. B., 45, 66. 

Wales, Prince of, 219. 

Walker, William, fillibustcr, 156. 

Wain, Robert, Jr., 13, 229. 

Walter, Rev. D. I., 148. 

Walton, W., 137. 

War of the Rebellion, Official Records, 

Warren family, 190 ; — Phebe E., 190 ; 
— Mercy, 35. 

Washington, Justice Bushrod. 60 ; — 
H. A., 35;— Gen. George, 41, 42, 
50, 63, 70, 71, 74, 79, 80, 88, 89, 

98, 109, 119, 122, 123, 130, 134;— 
Mrs., 119, 133. 

Washington Sunday Capital, 11. 

Waters, Robert, 84, 109. 

Watson, J. F., 33, 37, 46, 61, 68, 70, 
125, 234. 

Watson, Marmaduke, 17, 235. 

Way and Gideon, 22, 38, 48, 65, 66. 

Wayne, Anthony. 25. 

Webb, Lt. Com. W. A., 169. 

Webster, Daniel, quoted, ix, 36 ; — iV, 7. 

Weed, Thurlow, 185. 

Weitzel, Gen. G., 210. 

Welch, T. B., engraver, 119, 120, 230. 

Wells, S. Adams, 35. 

West, Benjamin, 151. 

Westcott, Thompson, 49, 70, 112, 213; 
— See also Scharf. 

Wharton genealogy, 220; — Elizabeth, 
220;— Hon. George M., 220;— 
Samuel, 23 ; — Thomas, 25 ; — Hon. 
William F., xi, 39, 45 ; — Francis, 
LL.D., 83, 84, 224. 

Wheien, Israel, 82. 

Whipple, Gen., 208. 

White, R. Grant, 142. 

White, Edwin, 119;— Bishop Wil- 
liam, 143, 145, 149. 

Whitehead W. A., 9. 

Whiting, Gen. W. H. C, 175. 

Whitmore, W. H., 204. 

Wiesenthal, Dr. A., 130. 

Wiessner, J. 0., 212. 

Wilcocks, John, 109. 

Wilcox, John, 25. 

Willing, Richard, 125 ;— Thomas, 
25, 33, 134. 

Wilkes, Com. Charles, 162. 

Wilkins, William, 98. 

Williams, Richard, 14. 

Wilson, (three families) 194, 196, 
199; — Alice M., 199 ;— Caroline, 
(McKean) 194 et seq., 141, 223 ;— 
Elizabeth E., 195 ; — Harriet (Kim- 
ball) 223 ; — Joline, 195 ; — Joseph 
M., 199, 200, 242 ;— Kathlina J., 
195 ; — Mary H., 199 ; — Margaretta 
P., 196; — Kosa, C, 195; — Sadie, 
195 ;— Sarah, (Pettit) 199, 146, 
21, 120 ;— William McK., 223, 195; 
—William N., 194-5. 

Wilson, George W., 182 ; — James, 
33, 75, 76, 81. 

Wilson, James, quoted, 81, 232, 234. 

Winsor, Justin, xi, 36, 47, 48, 49, 191, 



Winlhrop, Robert C, ix, 36. 
Wisconsin Hist. Soc. Col, 119, 121. 
Wisner, Henry, 34. 
W ister/ 'amily, 126. 
Witherspoon, John, 46, 72. 
Wolbert, Frederick, 103. 
Wolf, Governor, 145. 
Wood, Dr. G. B., 152. 
Wood, John Tayloe, 173, 183. 
Woodward, E. M., 15, 17, 231, 235. 
Wool, Gen. John E., 171, 250. 
Worth ington, William, 101. 

Wright, John, 101. 
Wyatt, Rev. Dr., 184. 
Wyndham, 213. 

Wynkoop, Henry, 25;— James, 130. 
Wythe. George, 29. 
Yard, E. M., Lieut, 155. 
Yates, 217. 

Yeates, Judge Jasper, 80. 
Young, Dr., 50. 

de Yrujo, see Martinez de Y., and 
235-6, No. 7. 








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