Skip to main content

Full text of "Genera insectorum."

See other formats

















1)_V James A / (i. KEHN 


1911 K S^.ä']^^^ 

Prix : Fr. 8.35 

En vente chez V. Verteneuil & L. Desmet, Imprimeurs-Éditeurs, 60-62, rue T'Kint, Bruxelles 

Prospectus gratis et franco sur demande. 

Direction scientifique : M. P. Wytsman, Zoologiste, Quatre Bras, (Belgique) 








by Ja.mks a. (j. REHX 

^^Hii V^atinae is a heterogeneous group of Soothsayers or .Mantids primerally characterized 
^i^/V by having the anterior tibias with the external margin spinulose, the internal margin of 

the anterior femora with equal or biseriate spines, and the posterior tibia' and temora 
more or less carinate(i). The subfamilv comprises t\vent3'-eight genera and one hundred 
and three species, roughl\- divisable into six sections. Alany of the species are very rare, in fact a number 
ot the genera are known only from unique specimens, while the proportion of genera with more than 
four species are few, the only genera containing a considerable number of species being Siagmatopiera 
and Vat es. 

Geographical distribution. — In distribution the Vatin;u cover the greater portion of the 
Tropical and Subtropical regions of the earth. In the Neotropical region thev range practically over its 
entire area, extending north of it as far as .\rizona and Texas, and extending south in it as far as the 
northern portion of .\rgentina. In Africa the group ranges from Algeria to Cape Colony, and in the 
Oriental legion it ranges from the Himalavan subregion to Ceylon, while a single species has been 
doubÜLÜly recordeil from Australia. 

Systematic position. — It seems the closest rchitionshq) of the \'atin;e is with the Creobotrin;e, 
a group almost co-extensive in distribution with the former, although of greater range in the Oriental 
region. Certain of the American genera, however, show apparentlv decided tendencies toward the 

(i) Tliis latter character is not absolute, tlie male of dirdioptera bein^' an exception. It is poorly indicated in several other ffener;i 


OK rih )I' I"ERA 

Maiuiuii- and llie true position in a linear arrangement should be mtermediale between the Mantinic 
and Creobolrinae. Xo close relationship appears to exist to any ot the other siibtaniilies of the Mantidae. 

Stal, in 1877, first established and defined this subtamil}- in the sense that we understand it 
to-da}-. while Brunner von W'attenwyl, in iSgS, gave us a key for the differentiation of the genera, 
although we have found it necessar}- to recast the whole arrangement, the table here given being 
entirel}- new. 

Characters. — Body robust, elongate or decidedh- bacilliform. Eves globose, acuminate or 
mammilliform. Occiput roundetl or lobate. Antennie simple, serrate or pectinate. I'ronotum with 
supracoxal dilation slightly or decidedly marked. Organs of flight fully developed or abbreviate. 
Anterior tibiae with external margin spinulose. Anterior femora with internal margin with equal or 
biseriate spines. Posterior tibiae always (i) and the posterior femora usualh- carinate dorsally. C erci 
terete, foliaceous lamellate cjr moniliform. Limbs frequently and abdomen more rarely lobate. 

The Vatinae lends itself mto a group division of six parts as follows : 



Vatides . 

Cardioptei a. 





Lobccneine . 

Leptococe . 

Stagmaioptera . 



Vat es. 






^ Hcierocliœta. 
. Pseitdochttta. 
\ Sever inia. 
] Eutliyphhps. 
\ yEihalochroa. 



Danny ia. 

J alia. 

Where minor genera groups appear to be ])resent we have indicated them by secondary brackets. 
The Cardiopterie and Vatides are entirely Neogaean, the Popae and Jallae almost entirely African, one 
species alone being Oriental, the Stagmatoptera- chiefiy Neotropical with but four African species 
occurring outside that region, while the ff eterocha'ta' falls into two sections, the first of which is 
African and the second Oriental. 


I. Occiput nevey lobate. Eyes nevey mammilliform {acute oy sub- 
acnte in Oxyopsis and Pseudox3'Oi)s). Anterior coxae 
not produced into a distinct lamellate expansio>i at the 
distal extremity of the anleyior margin. 
2. Vertex smooth, without distinct paired processes. Wings 
of female frequently ßavo-tessellate. Tibiae never lobate. 
3. Anterior femora with three discoidal spines. Median 

(I) Except in male of Caniiopterti. 

I'A.M. MAX I ID.-Î": 


(>)id pasierioy tibiae of the male terete, etitiie median 

limbs of male styoiiglv f>ilose i . ( iemis Cardioi'TERA, Burmeister. 

Anterior femora with four discoidal spines. Median 
and posterior tibiae of both sexes more or less dis- 
tirtctlv cari)iale , not stroni;'h' pilose. 
Tegniina of lemale entirely <^reenisli or with stigma 
maculate or ocellate. Femora not lobed (except in 
Lobocneme). flead ßattened anteriorly. 
5. Eyes laterally acute or produced. Tei;inina of 
female elongate, subtqual. Ulnar vein of h'ing 
simple or furcate. Antennae setaceous. 
6. Eyes produced hft/i the apices acute or sub- 
acuminate. Costal field of teginina broad, at 
least tivo-fiftlis tJie entire widtli of teginen. 
7i'ith distinct oblique veins. Posterior femora 
without apical lobe. 
7. Eyes 7i'ith apices acute. Costal field of female 
tegmiiia with reins disposed more longitud- 
inal than transverse. Ulnar vein of 7^'ing 
furcate. Pronotum of female with margins 

decidedly serrate 2. (jenus 0\yoi>sis, ( audell. 

7.7. Eyes siibacuminaie . Costal field of female 
tegmina witli veins disposed more trans- 
verse ttian longitudinal . Ulnar vein of 
wing simple. Pronotum of female i.'ith 

margins hardly serrate 4. (ienus Psei'Doxyops, Saussure iS: Zehntner. 

6.6. Eyes produced hut hfth apices r(>unded. 

Costal field of leginiua narrow, one-third 
to one- fourth tlie entire widlfi of tegmen, 
dense-reiiculate and 'with no oblique veins. 
Posterior femora 'with a small lobe at apex 

of inferior carina 3. (jenus Pakoxyopsis. nov. gen. 

3.5. I-lyes loliindale. Tesniina of Jcmale broad, ovate. 

Ulnar vein of loing ramose. Antennae setac- 
eous or serrulate. 
6. Tegmina of female moderately broad; costal 
margin siibexcised at the apex (except in 
Lobocneme). Antennae of male serrulate. 
7. Supracoxal lobes of female pronotum slightly 
or moderatelx dilated. Costal field of 
female te^^muia hardly or moderately 
dilated. Medi.ui and posterior femora 
without preapical lobes. 
8. Costal field of female tegmina moderately 
dilated, about one-third the entire teg- 
minal widtli. narroji'ing in distal half. 



gen . 

cS. denus Stacmatoptera. Buimeister. 


Genus Heterovates, Saussure. 

Pronutum distinctly shorter than the 

tcgmina 5. (ieiius Parasta(;mat(ii'tera, Saussure. 

8.8. Costal field of female tegmina hardly 
dilated, not more than ojie-fourtk the 
entire tegmiiial h'idlli , hardly narrow- 
ing distally. Pro)iotiun {of female) 

subequal to the tegmina in lengiJi. . 7. (ienus Lepiococe, nov. gen. 
Supracoxal lobes of female pronoltim 
strongly dilated . Costal field of female 
tegmina strongly dilated, about tii^o- 
fifths the entire tegminal i^'idtli. nar- 
rowed only in af>ical third. Median and 
posterior femora each i^'itli a rounded 
preapical lobe on the posterior ventral 

carina b. (ienus Lobocneme. nov. 

6.6. Tegmina of female cordi/orm, very broad 
■h'itJi costal margin considerably dilated , or 
elliptical. Antennae of male setaceous . 
4.4. Tegmina of female fusco-maculate . Median and 
posterior femora lobed . Head anteriorly excavate. 
.2. Vertex above ocelli bilobulate or bicoriiate. Antennae of 
male more or less serrate or pinnate. Tegmina 
frequently fusco-maculate . JVings of female never 
fiavo-tessellate, frequent fy fusco-purpurescent. Median 
and posterior tibiae strongly carinale or foliate. 
3. Limhslobate ; anterior femora with an apical dorsal lobe. 
Abdomen of female lobate. Antennae of male setaceous, 
serrulate. Tegmina subacuminate ; costal field of 

female narrow 

3.3. Anterior femora not lobate. Antennae of male lieavier, 

4. Limbs not lobate, distinctly mull i-carinale . 

5. Tegmina of female 1,'ith apex acuminate ; costal 
field parallel or dilated toward apex, where it 
is more or less strongly excised or at least nar- 
rowed, Tegmina gl een , fusco-maculate. Prono- 
tinii elongate, rather smooth or little granulate. 
Abdomen not lobate. Posterior tibiae curved. 
Antennae of male internally serrate, submonili- 


5.5. Tegmina of female fnlvo-griseous, maciilose ; 
apex attenuate, rounded ; costal field very nar- 
row, toward apex gradually attenuate, not 
excised. Pronotum elongate, considerably gra- 
nulate. Abdomen lobate. (Male unknonin.) . 
4.4. Median and posterior limbs lobate. [l^'emale ahdo- 

10. Genus Zooi.ea, Serville. 

II. Genus Phyi.i.ovates, Kirbw 

12. (ienus Hagiotata. Saussure & Zehntnc 

l'A M. M.W riD.-E 


nu'ii lubate i>r entire. Anten>iae uf iiiale f^ectinaie 
inteiuallv . Tegmiiia of female roiuiidale at the 
apex ; costal field snhpai allel , apex more or less 

excised.) i3. (jcniis X'atks. I^urmeister 

Occiput witl: one or more pairs ol lobes or lobules, or li'here 
tiiese are lacking; the eyes are maiinutlliform , or the 
anterior coxae hare the distal portion of anterior margin 
developed into a lamellate expansion, or the wing lias a 
large ocelliform spot fPseudempusa). 
, Pronoiiiin elongaic. at least three times as long as greatest 
h'idth. (Limbs willi or a'ilhont lobes. Occiput with or 
■without postociilar tubercles.) 
3. Wings 7:'itli large ocelliform spot. Supracoxal dilation 
large, triangularly produced . (Limbs not lobate; occi- 
put siibtriincatc, not lobate ; cerci terete.) .... 
3.3. Wings h'ithont ocelli I orm spot. Supracoxal dilation 
slightly or roundly produced (except in Popa wliere 
it is triangularly produced). 
4. Cerci lamellate, toliaceous. 
5. Occiput not lobate. 

2. Genus Psei demitsa, Prunner von Wal- 
lten uvl. 

6. Posterior and median limbs lobate .... 

6.6. Posterior and median limbs not lobate. 
(Anterior coxae not expanded before tJie 


5.5. Occiput lobate. 

6. Poste) ior and median limbs not lobate or spinu- 


f>.6. Posterior and median limbs lobate or spinii- 
7. External margin ot anterior femora witli five 
spines. (Head slightly broader tlian the 
pronotuin at the supracoxal dilation; ocellar 
eminence siibqiiadrate ; apex of cerci shal- 
lowly bifid; posterior and median limbs 
very short, genicular spines absent. ) . 
External margin of anterior femora 'witli 
six spines. 

S. Posterior limbs long and slender, with 
curved aciculate genicular spines. First 
to sevcntk ventral abdominal segments 
produced posteriorly into delicate fila- 
mentous median processes. Organs of 
fiight extending nearly to the apex of 
the abdomen. Apex of cerci shallowly 

1^ 14. Genus Heteroch^ta, W'estwood. 
f ID. Genus Pseuooch.-eta, Kirby. 

16. Genus Severixia, Finot. 

ly. Genus Heteroch.etui.a, Wood-Mason. 

18. Genus Paradanuria, Wood-Mason. 

/ • / • 

iQ. (jcnus Erin Yi'HLEPS, Wood-Mason. 


<^.<S. Pûsierivy limbs s/iuii, with sliort siiù- 
mucronate ^ifeiiinilar lobts. Second to 
sixl/i ventral alidoniiual segments 
carinaie. Oi\^ans at ßifi'lit /lanilv 
extendinL; beyond the fifili abdominal 

se<;nicni. Apex of cerci rotiindate . . 20. Genus .ï^thai.ochroa, \\'ood-Mas(>n. 
4.4. Cerci teiete-mouilifoi m or fusiform. 

5. Occiput more or less distinctly hi- or quadri-lobate. 
6. Anterior coxae until lamellate dilation at distal 
extremity of anterior margin. 
7. Body very elongate, smooth or granulöse. 
Lateral fair ot occipital tubercles distinctly 
surpassing the others [when these are 
present) in si:e. Limbs eloufiate, very 
slender. Posterior limbs not lobed. 
H. Form extremely elongate. Supra-ocular 

auriculiform lobes very low. Median 

tibiae lobate. {Cerci fusiform.) . . . 22. Genus Mackodakukia, Sjostedt. 
S.8. Form not extremely elongate. Supra- 
ocular auriculiform lobes high, acute. 
Median tibiae not lobate. 
9. Median femora not lobate, rarely ivitli 
several apical spines on the ventral 
surface. Anterior coxae a'ith distal 
lamellate portion longer, less elevated. 

Secondary tubercles on vertex weaker, zi. Genus Danukia, Stàl. 
9.9. Median femora lobate. Anterior coxae 
with distal lamellate portion short- 
er, more elevated. Secondary tuber- 
cles on vertex more pronounced . . 24. ( ienus I'anuriodes, (jit^lio-Tos. 
7.7. Body moderately long, rugose. Head with 
occipital tubercles snbequal in size . Limbs 
moderately robust. Posterior limbs (of 
female) lobed. Dorsum of the anterior 
femora bearing before the apex an acute 

lobe 25. (ienus Poi'a, Stal. 

(j.b. Anterior coxae without distal lamellate dil- 
ation . [Body little elongate , rugose . A nterior 
femora 'untti their superior border termin- 
atiui^ in a tooth. Median and posterior 

limbs lobate. Sufra-aual plate short.) . . 26. Genus JjAxrKiiii.i.A, Westwood. 
5.5. Occiput not lobate. ( Median and posterior femora 

with a preapical lobe . ) 

2.2. Pronotum very short, ovate, little longer than broad. 
[Limbs carinate. pilose, not lobate; occiput 7rith 
juxta-ocular processes.) 

27. Genus Phi J Ki s, Karsch. 

28. Genus |ai.i-a, (iiglio-Tos. 

FAM. MAN riD.l'. 


I. Genus CARDIOPTERA, Burmeister 

Cardioptera. Burmeister. Ilandli. lOnl. Hd. 2. Ahlli. 2. I'l. i, p. 54(j (i83<S). 

Characters. — ["orni wuli Inn'j; almost enlirel\' hyaline le.u'inina and wings in the male, female 
with short chieflv opaque termina and wings. V'ertex hardly arcuate and not dislmctly elevated above 
the eyes; ocelli of the male large, placed close together in a triangle, of the female less conspicuous; 
facial shield strongly transverse, obtuse-augulate dorsally ; eyes moderately prominent; antenna? of the 
male serrate, of the female sniiple. l^ronotum of the male with the shatt slender in the middle, widen- 
ing anteriorh and posteriorly, collar rather heavy, the supracoxal tlilation but little wider than the 
collar, margins of the collar with obsc^lete dentiform tubercles, no median carina present: of the female 
short with the posterior portion narrowed, the collar and supracoxal dilation broad, lateral margins 
with lather strong teeth. Tegmina ot the male elongate, reaching beyond the apex of the abdomen, 
subequal. apex rather narrowly r(}unded, liyaline except for an iniuscate area along the ])rinci])al veins; 
of the female short, ovate, no longer than the abdomen, opaque, principal veins placed nearly in the 
middle of the tegmen. Wings of the male ample, h^•aline except for a narrow costal section; of the 
female slightly shorter than the tegmina, with the transverse nervures banded with color. Abdomen 
slender, subfusiform in the male, obese, broad and ovate in the female; subgenital plate of the male 
trigonal. .Anterior liml)s moderately robust, the coxae with the margins furnished with curved claw-like 
spines, the internal taccs providetl with numerous low callosities: femora with tliree discoidal spines, 
the lateral face with six spines, internal face with fifteen spines; tibije (without apical claw) about half 
the femoral length. Median and posterior limbs slender and simple asicie from a small triangular lobe 
placed immediate!}' before the apex of the posterior femora on the interno- ventral margin; tibi;e of the 
male terete, the median and posterior limbs of the same sex strongh" pilose. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from the Xeotropical 


I. C. hi-achyptera, Burmeister, Handb. Va\\.. V>(\. 2. .Abth. j. Pt. i, p. 041 Bra^^il, Guiana. 
(I.S38) {Mantis). — Plate, Fig. I . 

Mantis sublobatd. S&cviWe, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth. ]). iSo ( iSSg) ; Charpen- 
tier. Orth. Daser, et Depicta, t. 37 1184,^1. 
Ma/i/is pilipes, Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth. y. 192 (iSSg". (Based on o ). 

2. Genus OXYOPSIS, Caudell 

Oxyops. Saussure-. Mitt. Schweiz. Eut. Ges. \'ol. 3, pj). 5b, Oh (i-'^ög) (not of Schönherr, iJ!2Ö). 
Oxyopsis. Caudell, jnurn. New York l'.nt. Soc. X'ol. 12, p. 184 (1904). 

Characters. — b'orm with elongate almost entirely hyaline tegmina and wings in the male; 
females with moderately short tegmina. wings hyaline irregularly barred with color. Head trigonal, the 
eyes angulate or produced laterally: vertex haidh' elevated above the eyes and usually straight; ocelli 
of the male huge and placed in a subequal triangle, of the female small and placed in a depressed 
triangle: facial shield strongl\' transverse, the dorsal margin with a median truncate section: antenna- 
of the male subserrate, of the female simple. Pronotum with the shaft elongate, supracoxal dilation 
moderately prominent, collar moderatel\' tapering: anterior margin rounded, lateral margins serrate or 


OK r H OPT Ii K A 

unainicd in [he male, spineil ni the female, median carina present moie or less distineth-. 'J'egmina oi 
the male elongate, h3'aline except tor the costal lield which is opacpie, the a]iex acute or rounded, 
stigma not indicated; of the female hardly exceeding the abdomen, broad, o])aque except for the 
presence of small hyaline areola' betw een the veins of the anal and a variable portion of the discoidal 
lields, costal held nearly a half the width of the tegmen, a])ex acute or obtuseh' rounded, stigma i)resent, 
longitudinal. Wings of the male hyaline, extending some distance beyond the tegmina, opaque on or 
near the margins at the apex: wings of the female projecting beyond the tegmina. the exjiosed area being 
either rounded, obtuse-angulate and broader than long or acute angulate and longer than broad, the 
exposed apex opaque, the remainder hyaline fasciculate with color. .Abdomen of the male elongate, 
of the female broad, depressed. Limbs of both sexes slender: anteiior coxae armed on th(> vential margin 
with low spines of two sizes in the female, ot one size in the male; anterior femora armed with four 
discoidal spines, the lateral face \\ ith tour spines, the internal face w ith fourteen to sixteen spines of 
two sizes; anterior tibia- (without a])ical claw) slightly less than halt the femoial length. ^ledian and 
])osterioi' limbs slender and simple; tibia' multicarinate. 

Type of the genus : O. nibiciDida (Stoll). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Eighf s})ecies are known 

1. O. nihicuuda(S\.o]\). Xatuur. .Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. Blad. 

pp. 73, 79. pi. 25, f. 96 (i8i3) {Mantis). 

ruhicuiidd, .Saussure, Mém. Hist. Nat. Me.\. Mant. Amer. p. 87, pi. i, f. 6 
(1871) (Sttigmatoptera dilula <3 not Q); Westwood, Revis. Ins. Fam. 
Mant. p. i5, pi. 6, f. 3 (Ö) (18S9). 

2. O. diibiosa (Gigiio-Tos), Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino, Vol. i3, 

no. 3ii , p. 18 (1898). 

3. O. acutipainis (Stal), Bihang Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. \'ol. 4. no. 10, 

p. 71 (1877). 

4. O. media (Stal), ibidem, p. 71 (1877). 

5. O. obtusa (Stal), ibidem, p. 72 (1877). 

6. O. lobe/er, Reim, Froc. .Acad. Nat. ,Sc. Philad. 1907, p. 1 5g, ft. 3, 4(1907). 

- Plate, Fig. I I . 

7. O. iord-//// (Ciiglio-Tos). Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. ("omp. Torino, \'ol. 12, 

no. 3o2, p. I 5 ( 1897). 

8. O. /"ara^'v/rtiY^.ws ( Brancsik), Jahresh . Xatui w . A'er. Trencsén, \'ol. 19-20, 

p. '14 . t. I , f. 10 (1898). 

from the Neotroi)ical region. 

British Guiana. Surinam, 
Cayenne. Brazil, Ecua- 
dor, northern .Argentina. 

\"alley of .Santiago, Ecua- 

Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Sapuca\', Paraguay. 

Northern Argentina and 

southern Bolivia. 
A su n c i on . Pa ra gu a-s- . 

3. Genus PAROXYOPSIS, nov. gen. 

Characters. — General form and structure much as in Oxvo/>s!s. Kyes producetl, but with the 
apices rounded. Tegmina with the costal field narrow, one-third to one-fourth the total width of the 
tegmen and densely reticulate with no oblique veins; stigma transverse. Posterior lemora with a small 
lobe at the apex of the inferior carina. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is at present known to lielong to 
this genus, occurring in the Neotropical region. 

I. P. icierica (Saussure & Zehntner). Biol. Centr.-Amer. Orth. \'ol. i, South America : Urucum, 
p. 191 (1894). Matto Grosso, P>razil. 

icieiica, Giglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zool. .Anat. Comj). Torino, Vol. i5, 
no. 377, p. 2 (1900). 

l-'.\M. MAXTID.V; 9 

4. Genus PSEUDOXYOPS, Saussure & Zehntner 

Pseudoxyops. Saussure cX: Zchntuer. Hiol. Centr.-Amer. Orth. Vol. i. ]>. i85, ir. f. H (1894). 

Characters ( i). — E\ es almost subacuininatc ; face flattened. Pronotuui elongate, slender, 
little dilated above the cox;e, the margins hardly serrate. Tegmina oval, very obtuse, ampliate for two- 
thirds the distance from the base, opaque; costal field occupying half the whole width, costal veins ver}- 
distinct and disposed more transverse than longitudinal, stigma linear. Wings pellucid, fasciculate with 
yellow, apex subangulate : ulnar vein undi\-ided. Anterior femora with four external spines. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species from Tiojjical America is known. 

I. P . pcjpiiU-hia (Westwood), Revis, ins. [-"am. Mant. p. 36, pi. 11, f. <S Ega, .Amazonas, I^nazil. 
(1889) (Stagmatoptera). 

perpukhiii. Saussure c& Zehntner, Biol. Centr.-Amer. Orth. Vol. i, p. i85 


Parastagmatoptera. Saussure, Mt-m. Hist, Xat. Mexique, Alant. .Amér. p. 83 (1871). 

Characters. — I'onn with long legmuia, h\-aline with the costal margin frequently opaque in 
tlu- male, wings h\'aline in the same sex; female with moderatcl}- long opaque tegmina frequently 
having scattered In aline areas and with barred or tessellate wings. Antennae, margins of tegmina and 
wings and feet occasionally pilulose (in male of P. ciliata). X'ertex truncate, entirely or in the juxta- 
ocidar portions more or less elevated above the eyes; ocelli of the male very large, approximate, placed 
in a triangle, of the female smaller, disposed in an arcuate line; facial shield transverse, obtuse-angulate 
dorsalh' with the angle truncate; eyes moderately prominent, convex; antennte of male serrate more or 
less distinctly, subpectinate in scii'iconiis, of female setaceous, Pronotum distinctly shorter than the teg- 
mina in both sexes, in the male slender, subcarinate, the margins hardlv (i'//';r/^^;/M/5) or distinctly («7/«/«) 
denticulate for the entire length, tire supracoxal dilation slight; in the female more robust, not (_/?at'(;- 
i^utlata) or but slightK' {sen icoruis) carinate, the margins distincth' denticulate for their entire length, the 
su])racoxal dilation distinct, but not strongly developed. Tegmina longer than the abdomen in both 
sexes, in the male elongate, vitreous, costal held coriaceous, dilated basally, the greatest width about 
a fourth the total width of the tegmen, the principal veins colored in contrast to the coriaceous costal 
field (serriconn's}. apex rounded subangulate; in the female broader than in the male and more ovate, 
coriaceous, frecjuenlly \\\th a number of Inaline areas in the discoidal and suturai sections, costal field 
about a third the total width of the tegmen, narrowing in the apical half, the apex bluntl}^ angulatCj 
stigma present, but variable in shape. Wings barred or tessellate in the female. h\aline m the male, the 
costal margin ti ('(luentlN- opaque in the female; discoidal vein ramose in the two sexes. Limbs slender. 
Anterior cox;e rather sparsel\- denticidate or spinoso-granulato on the superior margin (these piligerous 
in ciliata ), blackish area of internal face variable in position and size; anterior femora with four discoidal 
spines, the external margin with four spines, internal margin with alternating large and small spines, 
internal iace with \aiious types of coloration. Median and jiosterior limbs simple, without lobes. First 

(I) 'riie I'fmalf sex alone is known 


(MM'I lOl'TJ- RA 

joint of ihe larsi quite lon^. Abdomen suhequal, attenuate- in the male, I'usilorm, JejiiessfMl in tlie 
female; cerci ot male distinclh' articulate, composed of numerous segments; supra-anal j)late of both 
sexes transverse. 

Type of the genus : P . jlavoguttata , Saussure (not of Serville) = seiricoruis , Kirbv. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Six species Irom the Neotropical region are known 
to belong to this genus. 

1. P. ßavogiiltata (Serville), Hist. Xat. liis. Orth. p. i83 (1839) (Mantis). Cayenne. 

2. P. sei'riconiis, Kirby, S\n. Ciat. Orth. \'ol. i, p. 298 (1904). — Plate, Brazil, Santarem. 

Fig. 2. 

Staä;nuitoptcya flavoguttalii . Saussure. Mém. Jlist. Xat. Mex. Mailt. Amer. 

]). 84. pl. I, f. 5 1 1871) (not of Serville). 
P . flavoguttatd. Westwood, Revis. Ins. I'ain, Mant. ]i. 16, pi. 6. f. i iicSSg) 

( not of Serville I. 

3. P. unipHiictata (Burmeister). Handb. Ent. Bd. 2, Abth. 2, Ft. i, p. 540 Brazil, ]?uenos Ayres. 

(i83S) {Mantis)\ Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. V'ol. 8, p. 238 (1864) (Mantis). 
.\. P . tessellata. Saussure & Zehntner, Biol. Centr.-.\mer. Orth. Vol. i, Cayenne, British ( iuiana. 
p. 188 (1894). 

5. P.ciliata (Stàl), \\. Svenska Freg. lùigen. Resa. Ins. p. 3i3 (i860) Kio Janeiro. 


6. P. vitrepennis. Bruner, Journ. New York Ent. Soc. VoL 14. p. 144 (1906). Trinidad. 

7. P. (?) siniiilacriim (Fabricius), Ent. Syst. Vol. 2, p. 21 (1793) (Mantis). America. 

8. P. (?) diluta (Stoll). Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. Blad. Surinam. 

)). 6(). pi. 22, f. 83 (i8t3) (Mantis). 

6. Genus LOBOCNEME nov. gen. 

Parastagmatoptera. Redtenbacher, Froc. Zool. Soc. Fond. ji. 206 (1892). 

Characters. — b'orm of female moderately robust. Vertex truncate, slightly elevated above the 
eyes; fascial shield transverse, the dorsal margin arcuate; ocelli of moderate size, placed in an arcuate 
line (9); eyes mammiform-rotundate ( 9 ,)i moderately prominent; antennae serrate (cf ) or setaceous (9 )• 
Fronotum moderateh' slender, the supracoxal dilation quite marked (9)- 'l>sk subtidjerculate. hardly 
carinate, lateral margins distincth' denticulate, the shaft as a whole distinctly narrower than the collar. 
Tegmina of male elongate h3'aline, with costal held dilated basally. oj)aque coriaceous; ot female 
broad, ovate, oinnpie coriaceous, the margmal field \e\y broad, in the middle two-htths of the entire 
width of the legmen, narrowed in the apical third by the moderately oblique and rounded excision 
of this area; stigma longitudinal, whitish, sometimes with a contiguous small fuscous spot. Wings 
vitreous (cf) or flavo-tessellate ( 9 ) ; discoidal vein with two distal rami (9). Anterior limbs robust; 
anterior coxae considerably dilated at the apical extremity of the internal face, margin denticulate, the 
apical extremity with a large blackish spot; anterior femoia (]uite broad, with four discoidal spines, 
external margin with four spines, internal margin with alternating large and small spines. ^Median and 
posterior femora of both sexes with a decided rounded lobe on the apical portion of the postei ior ventral 
carinae, the lobes and the genicular portions of the femora and tibiae infuscate. 

Geographical distributor of species. — .\ single sjiecies from the West Fidian subregion 
is known. 

1) iJerivecl from //jj'j^ l"be and /.'/'l^'J.'f^ Ifg . 

I'AM. M.WTID.l'; II 

I. L. Ii'hipes f lÙMliciiliiichcr), Pioc. Zool. Soc. Lond. ]>. .mjO, pi. i5. f. Srt-A Si. X'incent. (irenacia. 
(1892) ( Paiaslai^inatuf^tera ) . 

hhif-fs. l^riinner noii W'attenwyl, ibidem, p. 6f)5, pi. 52, f. 4 ii.^Q.-ii \Piird- 

7. Genus LEPTOCOCE • , nov. gen. 

Characters. — iH-niale si'.x alone known. I""oim rather .slender. Head br<jader than decp; ocelli 
small, placed in a stroni^h' arcuate line: facial shifld slron;.;!} transverse: e_yes jjrominent; face sub- 
concave ; antennic setaceous. Pi onotum elongate, nearly twice as long as the anterior coxie and subequal 
to the tegmina in length, shaft subequal in width, ampliation hardly marked, collar slight broader 
than the shaft, margins of the cephalic half denticulate, the denticulations becoming obsolete poster- 
iorly, median carina distinct, 'i'egmina moderately coriaceous opaque, sul)rectangulate-ellii)tical, apex 
1)1 ( ladh' rounded, margins subparallel, costal field narrow, its greatest width not more than a fourth 
the entire tegminal width, verv slightly wider proximall}' than toward the apex; stigma distinct, rolun- 
date. Wings nearly as broad as long, the humeral field hardly projecting beyond the axillary one, apex 
rounded rectangulate, the humeral field and basal jiortion of the axillary field opaque yellow, the 
remainder of the axillary held flavo-tessellate : discoidal vein uniramose. Anterior limbs rather robust; 
coxiE armed on the anterior margin with a series of alternating large and small teeth, the larger of which 
are subfalcate, posterior surface with numerous adpressed spiniform asperities; femora with four 
discoidal spines and armed on the external margin with four spines, the internal margin with alter- 
nating large and siiiall spines; metatarsi of cejihalic limbs elongate. Median hnd)s much shorter than the 
))ostenor j>air. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from the Neotropical 

I. L. thoracica, nov. sp. (2). Venezuela. 

8. Genus STAGMATOPTERA, Burmeister 

Stagmatoptera. iiurmeisler, Ilandb. Ent. I^d. j, Abth. 2, Vi. i,)). 53; (i.s38). 

Characters. — Head trigonal, as l)road as high or somewhat broader than high: vertex 
truncato-transverse, subcompressed ; eyes prominent, rounded or rotundato-angulate ; facial shield 
broader than high, dorsal margin obtuse-angulate with the immediate angle rounded; antennse setaceous 
in both sexes. Pronotuni moderately or considerably elongate; dilation distinctly present but of variable 
jirominence and well rounded or subobtuse- angulate : collar with ampliation ovoid; shaft trigonal in 
section, margms regularly constricted in the median portion or subequal; median canna distinct or 
hardly present: lateral margins hnely or strongly and coarsely spined in the female, unarmed or with 
fine teeth in the male. Tegmina of male narrow, elongate, longer than the abdomen, ovular or with 

ID Deriviil inmi AîTTTO^ in:rr,'^o .\ni\ 'jj / ^f^i'dge . 
(2) Leptococe thoracica, nov. gen. and sp. 

Type : O : fuUita. Vuiie-cuela. 2i'i>o meters elevation. {AcaJ. .Wit. Sc. P/iil<itf.) 

Head with j;reatest " idtli nearly twice that ot pronotum; eyes slightly direete<l anteriorly, vertex distinctly concave. .Median and posterior 
femora much stronger carinate tlian tlie tibiie. General color of head, pronotnni. .jlidonien and limbs dull bufi'. washed with sulphur yellow around the 
mouth and very slightly so on the anterior limbs ; eyes mar» brown: median and posterior limbs clouded with russet. Tegmina very pale apple green, 
stigma seal brown surrounded by a nariow isabelline annulus. Wings canary yellow, toward the periphery of the posterior tlcld broken into tessellations 
with hyaline interstices Spi es of the anterior femora and tibi;e tipped with black . Length of pronotum 10 5 mm. ; greatest w idth of pronotum 4; length 
of teamen 20.,^; greatest width of tegmen - : length of anterior femur i.î. 

The type is the only specimen seen . 



subparallel margins, apex rotundate: costal field and region of principal veins opaque, coriaceous, 
posteriori}' h3-aline; stigma present or rareh- (in hyaloptera) absent; ocellar spot obliterate or indicated 
by several disconnected maculations; tei^mina of female elongate-ovate or ovate; anterior margin gently 
arcuate, with the distal third strongly arcuate or obliquely subtruncate; apex broadi}' rounded, acute, 
attenuate or very blunt; costal field coriaceous, broad, from a third to two-filths the total width of the 
tegmen and densely areolate. discoidal field semi-membraneous or coriaceous with membraneous points; 
stigma usually present, white or concolorous, linear or pi riform, obliquel}' transverse or longitudinal, 
in close proximity to the principal veins or placed a distance posterior to the same; ocellar spot present 
or absent, where present marked and tisually of considerable size, the stigma forming a portion of the 
})eripheiy; discoidal sectors from six to eight in number; marginal field with the veins moderately 
distinct and regularly oblique or rarely almost lost in the reticulations {insaiiabilis); anal area hyaline, 
usiiall}' ornamented with opaque nervure bands or punctate with opaque color. Wings of male hyaline 
with anterior border and apex slighth' opaque; discoidal vein w ith two or three rami ; axillary and 
humeral fields frequently with more or less distinct rudimentar\' trans\'erse opaque bars on the 
cross veins; wings of female large and broad. Inaline with the costal margin antl extremit}' opaque, the 
remainder with a conspicuous pattern of opaque yellowish bars on the cross veins; humeral field yer\- 
broad : discoidal vein with two rami; apex rounded or subacuminate (gra)i(i idieri). Antev\oY limbs of 
male moderately robust; coxa:' unarmed or denticulate on the margins; femora with the internal face 
plain or with median spot : anterior limbs of female quite robust; coxa' with both margins equally 
denticulate or with the posterior very finely sjnnulose when compared with the anterior; femora with 
four discoidal spines and strong marginal spines, internal face unmarked or ornamented with a single 
large spot or a series of varicolored maculations and striae; tibife with ten to thirteen spines on the 
external margin and twelve to sixteen on the internal. Abdomen of male slender, of female broad and 
depressed; supra-anal plate of male trigonal, subgenital plate ample, produced; supra-anal plate of 
female transverse, trigonal, broadly rounded or very slightly and shallowly emarginate { femoralis). 

Type of the genus (i) : .S. predicatoria, Saussure. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Twenty-one species of the genus are known; one 
West African, three from Madagascar and the remainder from the Neotropical region, ranging from 
Nicaragua to Argentina. 

1. S. biocellata, Saussure. Alitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. \o\. 3. p. 67 (1869). Brazil. 

2. 5. SHpplicaria, Burmeister, Handb. Ent. Bd. 2, .\bth. 2, Pt. i, p. 542 Guiana, Surinam, Brazil. 

(i838) {Mantis). — Plate, Fig. 5. 

sHpplicaria, Saussure, Mem. Hist. Xat. Mex. Mant. Ainér. p. 94. pi. i, 
f. II (1871). 

precaiia. Lichtenstein. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Vol. 6. p. 26 (1802) 

{Mantis) (not of Linnasus. lySS); Stoll. Xatuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. 

Spooken en Wandel. Blad. pp. 5i. 78, pi. 17. f. 62 (i8i.3) (Mantis) 

(not of Linnaeus, i758). 
jlavipennis, Serville, Hist. Xat. Ins. Orth. p. 182 { iSZg) [Mantis). 

3. 5. hyaloptera (Perty). iJelect. Anim. Artie, p. 117, pi. 23, f. 6 (i83o- Guiana, Ca}'enne, .Amazon 

1834) (Mantis). River. 
Iiyalopleia, SSiUssure. Mém. Hist. Xat. Me.\. Mant. Amér. p. o5, pi. i, 
f. 12 (18711. 

4. 5. lima (Serville), Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth. p. i83 (1S39) (Mantis). Cordoba, Argentina. 

5. 5. predicatoria, Saussure, Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. \o\. 3, p. 232 Brazil, eastern Peru. 

(1870); Mém. Hist. Nat. Mex. Mant. Amér. p. 92, pi. i, f. 10 (1871). 

6. 5. binotata, Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. 12, p. 341 (1869). Eastern Peru. 

(i) .-\s selected l»y Rehn. Proc. C . S. .\'at . Mtts . Vol. 27, p. .^71 (February, 1(104). 

l'A M. M.WTID.l': 'i3 

7. 5. sepieiili Saussure i^- Zchntiu-r. Hiol. C'cntr.- Ainei'. Oitli.XOl. i, Panama. 

p. 186, pl. 8, f. 2 (1894). 

8. 5. iniuoy, Saussure & Zehntner, ihidcui. p. 187 (1894). Colombia. X'enezuela. 

9. S. pùi, Saussuie Zehntner. ibuleni, p. 187 (1894). Hrazil. 

10. S. pyecaria (l.innanis), Svstr. Nat. (ed. 10), \'ol. i, \). \ ib { i-bb) (Giylliis Colombia, (iuiana, Brazil, 

[Maiiiis]). .-Xrgentina. 
prscd'ria. Palisot de Beauvois, lus. Kec. Africi. et .\inér. )>. 61, (_)rth. 12, 

f. I (i8o5) (Mantis); l^runner xon \\'atten\vy], Observ. Colur. 1ns. p. 3, 

])!. 2. lï. 22(7, b (1897). 
uctosetosa. Goeze, Ent. Beytr. Vol. j, y, 35 (177S; iMii/ilis). 
cubitata, Goeze, ibidem, p. 34 (i77<Si iMaiilis). 

obsecraria, Lichtenstein. Trans. I.inn. Soc. Lond. \'o\. 6, p. 28 11802) 

occUata. Olivier. Encycl. Méth. Ins. Vol. 7. p. 639 (1792) {Maiilis). 
aniudiUa. Stoll, Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. Blad. 

])p. 5.5, 78, pl. iN, f. 66 (i8i3) [Maiiti.y]; .Saussure, Mém. Hist. Xat. 

1\I('X. i\Iant. Amér. ]). 91, pl. l, f. 9 (18711. 
ioi;atond, Stoll, Xatuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. J^Iad. 

l'p. 73, 79, pl. 25, f. 95 (i8i3) [Alniitisi. 

11 . S. ffJiiiiialis, .Saussure & Zehntner, Jiiol. Cenlr. -.Amer. ()rth. \\>]. 1, Surinam, Cayenne, British 

p. 187 (1894). Cuiana. 

12. .S. indicator (Olivier), Enc\'cl. Méth. 1ns. \'ol. 7. p. 041 ( 1 792) (.T/rt«/;,s) . Surinam. 

/'l'rfi Lichtenstein, Trans. Linn. Soi'. I,(.)nd. \'ol. 6. p. 26 11802) 

sancta. Stt)ll, Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. Blad. 
]ip. 52, 7>;. pl. 17. f. 63 (i8i3) [Mantis] (not of Fabricius, 1787J. 

13. S. pagiDia, .Saussure. Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. (îes. Vol. 3, p. 232 (1870). Bogota. Colombia. 
i^. S . costalis, Burmeister. Handb. Ent Bd. 2, .Abth. 2, Pt. i, p 532 Brazil. 

(i838) {Mantis). 

15. S. iiisatiabilis, Rehn, Prue. U. S. Nat. Mus. \'ol. 27. j). .S72 (1904). Costa Rica. 

16. 5. tvp/ion. Rehn, The Canad. Entom. \'ol. 36, p. 107 (1904). Nicaragua. 

17. .S. abdoniinalis {(Jhvler), Enc3-cl. Méth. Ins.X'ol. 7, p. 640 (1792) (Mrt?î;'/,s-). Surinam. 

J>irivia. .Stoll, Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. S]iooken en Wandel. Blad. 

l)p 28, 77, pl. 9. f. 3i iT8i3l 'Mantis,, 
uibtuui, Lichtenstein, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Vol. 6, p. 27 (iSo2) 


18. 5. vityipennis, Bolivar, Mem. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. \'n\. 1, p. 471 (1908). Cameroon, W'est Africa. 

19. 5. />(fr/ ( Brancsik), Jahresh. \'er. Trencsin Com. AOl. i5-i6, p. 177, Nossi Be Island, Madagas- 

pl. 9, ff. i-irf (1893) (Hierodula [Sphodroniaiitis]). car. 
fycyi, .Saussure A: Zehntner. in Grandidier, 11 ist. Phys. Nat. et Fol. Mada- 
<;'ascar, Orth. Vol. i, p. 224, pl 6, ff, i, 2 11895). 

20. S. acittipeniiis (Westwood), Revis. 1ns. Eam. Mant. p. 34, jil. i. f. 8 Madagascar. 

(1889) (Hierodula). 

acutipennis. Saussure & Zehntner, in Grandidier. Hist. Phys. Xat. et l'ol. 
Madagascar, Orth. Vol. i, p. 228, pl. 7, f. 5 iiS()5). 

21. graiididieri, Saussure cv: Zehntner, ibidein, p. 226, pl. 7, ft". 3, 4 (i8g5). Madagascar. 

9. Genus HETEROVATES, Saussure 

Heterovates. Saussure, Melang. ()rih. l't. 4. pp. 84. 85, pl. q, f. 32 (1872). 

Characters (i). — Head small, not broad; facial scutellum tiansverse, front smooth, concave, 
sulcate, vertex cimipressed; e3'es inllated anteriorh'; ocelli very large; antenna- short, filiform. Prono- 

U) The male sex is unknown. 

oiv ri loi' ricix'A 

tum elonj^ate. sliglilly caiinale, llic siipi;ict)Xal dihition slioit, tlie collai subeipial and luvinded anteri- 
orly, margins coarsel)' dentate; region of the dilation wUh two large tubercles, the base of the collar 
also with two smaller ones. Tegmina ovate-lanceolate, reaching or surpassing the ajiex of the abdomen, 
semi-opaque, the costal margin considerably arcuate, costal field opaque. \\"ings lualine, fasciate with 
\-ellow, antcrioi" border straight; diseoidal vein sim]ile or fuicate. Anteiii)r limbs \ c'r\- long and slender, 
femora slightly arcuate. Median and posterior limbs short, not compressed: femora bearing a small 
foliaceous lobe at the e.Ktremity; tibi:e multicarinate, the carina^ ornamented with fme depressed hairs. 
Abdomen fusiform, the sujua-anal plate short, cerci cylindrical. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from the Brazilian 

1. H . pardalina, Saussure, Mélang. Orth. Pt. 4, p. 85, pl. f. iz (1872). Brazil. 

10. Genus ZOOLEA, Serville 

Zoolea. Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. (Jith. }>. 154 (iSSgj. 

Characters. — Form elongate, slender (much resembling members of the subfamih Hiiif^us!>iae). 
Head with the vertex subtruncate, distinctly elevated above the eyes, juxta-ocular sulci very deep and 
sharply delimiting the eyes from the frontal processes; facial shield as high as broad, the dorsal margin 
subrectangulate ; frontal processes elongate, lanceolate, hmi^ei than the head is broad, contigucnis, the 
apices acute, the margins undulate: antennae elongate, slender, of male serrulate on the internal side, 
of female setaceous; eyes rounded, directed anteriorly. Pronotum elongate, the shaft slender, subequal 
and over two-thirds the entire pronotal length, trigonal in section; ampliation short and decided with 
the f)Utline rounded, the anterior extreinitv being trilobate in consequence; margins uniformly serrulate. 
Tegmina subaciiininate, moderately opaque, subcoriaceous. costal field of the female narrow, the 
greatest width not more than a fourth the total tegminal width, gradualh' narrowing to the apex, not 
distinctly excised. Wings of female hyaline except at the apex, which is partially coriaceous-opaque; 
the humeral field considerablv surpassing the axillary field; diseoidal vein ramose. .Abdomen bearing 
median foliaceous lobes on the \enter of the distal segments and supplied (in lobipes) at the angles 
of the same segments with smaller but similar appendages. Trimbs strongly lobate; anterior femora 
with a distinct acute preapical lobe on the dorsal margin, diseoidal spines four in number, external 
margin of femora armed with four spines; the median and posterior limbs with strongly developed 
lobes, the femora with the margins with from i>ne to three marked lobes, the tibia- with a pair of 
premedian more or less angulate lobes. Tarsi elongate, the first joint longer than the others together. 

Type of the genus : Z. luhipes (Olivier). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Two species are known from the Neotropical region. 

1. Z. lobipes (Olivier), Encycl. Méth. Ins. \'ol. 7, ]>. 637 ( i 792) (Mrt/z/w). - P>razil, Guiana. Peru. 

Plate, Fig. 4. 

lohipes, Guérin, Icon. Règne Anim. Vol. 3, p izy. pi. 52, f. 5 11829-44) 

macroptera, Stoil, Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Spooken en Wandel. Blad. 

p. 26, pi. 8, f. 3o (i8i3) {Mantis); Charpentier, Orth. Descr. Depicta, 

pis. 25. 26 (:84i-45) (Viites). 
oilius. Burmeister. Handb. Ent. Bd. 2, A\nh. 2, Pt. i. j). 344 in3K) ; Wites). 

2. Z. muUHohata, Chopard. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1910. p. 182. I'rench (juiana. 

l-.AM. MAN 1 1 D.K 



Theoclytes. Saussure, Mm. Si'lnvciz. Knt. Oes. .\ jip. .53, 60 (1S69) (not of ServUle, 1M39). 

Phyllovates. Kiibv, Syn. ( at. Orth. Vol. i, ]>. 3o2 (1904). 

Characters. — l'"oim of male clnn.i^atc, slcMider, (it female elon.^ate l)ut with the posteiior part 
of the bod}' robust. Head trigonal: occiput subtruncate, slightly elevated above tlie eyes; juxta-ocular 
sidci distinct, front bicornate or bituberculate : ocelli placed in a triangle; facial shield transverse, 
tlorsal margin more or less obtuse-angulate, the ajx-x slightly produced; eyes large, rounded; antenn;L' 
of niale serrate or subpectinate on the internal margin, of female simple. Pronotum elongate, slender, 
straight, tiu' anterior fourth but little dilated, the shaft sube(]ual in width; supracoxal dilation gradual, 
regularly convergent auteriorlv and posteriori}-, the anterior margin of the pronotum broadly rounded: 
median carina strongly marked on the shaft, represented by a sulcus on the collar; margins dentate or 
denticulate, occasionally strongly dentate (sphiicollis) and often with intercalated denticulations, the 
points most numerous on or anterior to thi^ ;nnp!iation. Tegmnia ot male elongate, membranaceous, 
\itreous, greath exceeding the apex of the abdomen, moi'e or less tusco-maculate with the C()stal field 
Ojjaciue green, the latter moderately wide proximally, greatly but gradually narrowing distalh ; tegmina 
of female opa(]ue, broad, but little exceeding tlu- apt'X of the abdomen, costal field distincth' excised 
at the apex oi' obliijueh' attenuate, discoidal held with at least two oblique tuscous maculations of 
variable size, anal tield membranaceous, blackish. Wings of male vitreous, anterior margin greenish, 
apex fusco-punctate ; wings of femaU' membranaceous, blackish-brown, anterior margin yellowish, 
apical margin paler than disk, apex infuscate, the greater number of the cross veins outlined in 
hyaline, apex acuminate. Trimbs not lobate, the median and posterior pair multicarinate, the femora 
and tibia' of these limbs a little arcuate: anterior coxje remotely spinose on the anterior maigin, often 
w ith one or more intercalated spinulations, spinuloso-granulate or sparsely granulate on the posterior 
margin; anterior femoia with four discoidal spines, external margin with four spines; tarsi of the 
median and posterior limbs rather short, .-\bdomen without foliaceous lobes. 

Type of the genus : P. cliloropliaca (Blanchard). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Ten forms of the genus are known fiom Tiopical 
and Subtiopiccd America, ranging trom the southern United States to southern Brazil. 

I. P. (•///('^,>/'/AT<ra (Blanchard), Mag. Zool. i836, i 35 ( KS36)(Ma«!'w). (nilf States to Costa Rica. 
ililoiop/hied, Saussure, Miss. Scieiitif. Me.xicj. Orth. ji. 292, pi. 5, ff. 4, 

4<7 (1872) (Theoclytes). 
me.xicaiia, Saussure, Rev. Mag'. Xiiol . 121, Vol. i3, p. 127 (i«6i) iMaiitis). 
azteca, Saussure, ibidem (2j, Vol. 11, j). 61 (iSSgi [Theoclytes) . 
.2. P. tor«;//j (Saussure (S: Zehntner), Biol. Centr.-Amer. Orth. \ ol. i, Ouatemala. 

p. 191 (1894) {Thfoclvlc^ chloiophaea. var.) 
3. P. maya (Saussure \ Zrhntner). ibidem, p. ii)2, pi. 10, f. 33 (1S94) Mexico, Yucatan. 
( 'I heocl vles ). 

P. brericoniis {■r^iixl). P)iliang Sveiiska \'et.-.\kad. lIandl.\"ol. 4(10), Colombia, Brazil, 
p. 74 (I •'^77) {Pseitdovaies). 
5. P. s/o//<' (Saussure Ov Zelnitnei ), Biol. Centr.-.\ nu r. Orth. \'ol. 1, p. 192 Ouiana. Iirazd. 
(1894) (T/ieoclHes). - (Plate, Fig. 7). 

ciitgidata. .Stull. Xatuur. Afbeelil. Hesclir. Si'ooken en Wandel. Ulad. 
J)]). 29, 77, 1)1 . o. f. .^2 I i8i3) inot of Drury. i77-'5). 
(). P. pat dllda iWaan), in i'emminck, Natuurl. ( jeschied. Nederl. Overz. Guiana. Surinam. 
Bezitt. Zool. Orth. p. ji) I 1^42) {Mantis). 

partitlela, .Saussure. Mem, Hist. Mc\. Mant. Aniér. }>. 176, pl. 2, f. 33 
{ IN7I ) I Theoclytes) . 


OR l l l( )1'TEKA 

suriiutmeiisis. Saussure, Milt. Schweiz. ]^nt. (les. Vol. 3, p. 60 (1869) 
(Tlieoclytes) ; Mém. Hist. Nat. Mex. Mant. .^iner. p\. i, f. 19(18711 
( Theoclytes) . 

7. P. s/^/«?co///5 (Saussure cS: Zelintner). Biol. Ccnti .-Ahum . Oith. Vol. 1, Brazil. 

p. 193, pi. 6, f. 2 (1894) (Tlieoclytes). 

8. P. ihtriiigi (.'Saussure & Zelintner). ibidem, p. ir)3 (1S94) (T/ifoclytes). Rio (jiande do Siil, Brazil. 

9. P. (Saussiii e). Mélang-. Orth. Ft. 4. ]i. (S5. jil. 9, f. 33 (1S72) Brazil. 


10. P. parvitliis{\Vpstwn()d), livws. Ins. I'am. Mant. p. 46 ( 1889) ( T/z^'f'r/r/f.s). l-Jiazil. 

12. Genus HAGIOTATA, Saussure & Zehntner 

Hagiotata. Saussure \- Zehntner, Biol. Centr.- Amei . ()ilh. \'ol. i. pji. 184, 197, pi. ,s, f. 5 (1894). 

Characters ( I ). — Fiont bitubei culate : facial scutellum transv erse, above obtuse-ani^ulate ; 
vertex very slightly higher than the eves. Pronotum moderately short, strongly granulate, margins 
with isolated teeth of considerable size between whicli dentations of a smaller size are placed: median 
carina extending the total length of the pronotum ; collar with two weak rows of teeth, near the base, 
however, with two strong tubercles. Tegmina narmwed toward the apex, which is rounded and not 
emarginate; costal field very narrow, slightly ampliate toward the base; suturai margin subhyaline. 
W'ings with the anteiior field narrow, apex arcuato-truncate. Limbs moderatelv short. Abdomen with 
the fourth segment lobate. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from Brazil. 
I. H. hofniaimi. Saussure & Zehntner, Biol. Centr.-.Amer. Orth. WA. i, Brazil, 
p. 197, pi. 8, f. 5 (1894) {Tlieoclytes hofmanni on plate). 

13. Genus VATES, Burmeister 

Vates. Burmeister, Handb. Ent. lid. 2. .Abth. 2. Ft. i. p. 543 fi838). 
Theoclytes. Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins. Orth., y. i5o (1839). 

Pseudovates. Saussure, Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. \'ol. 3, pj). 53, 60, 221 (1869-70) (2). 

Characters. — l-'orm rather elongate, the male slender, the female with the abdomen depressed- 
fusiform. Head trans\ erse-trigonal ; occiput subtruncate, elevated above the dorsal portion of the 
eves, the frontal region decidedly oblique-declivent ; juxta-ocular sulci distinct: frontal processes jnesent 
as a pair of short, shai ]>. trigonal plates or as elongate, contiguous, parallel, narrow and apically acute 
lobes; ocelli placed in an arcuate line, large in the male, rather small in the female: frontal shield trans- 
verse, dorsal margin rectangulate or with the angle developed with a distinct projecting process: eyes 
prominent, rounded, directed somewhat anteriorly: antenna' of the female slighth' serrulate, of the 
male more or less unipectinate on the internal margin, the apical poition in some species simjily sei- 
rulate. Pronotum more or less elongate, the dilation short, broad anci lather sharply contrasted with the 
subequal shaft, the outline of the ampliation and of the anterior portion of the collar rounded, the 
lateral mai'gins of the collar subparallel, the anterior p(jrtij)n of the pronotum being of a trilobate form; 
median carina distinct, represented on the collar by a sulcus : margins almost entirely motx' or less spinu- 

'D Known from the female alone. 

12) This division, which has been given generic ranlt by some authors, does not appear to us to be of generic value, the characters usually assigned 
as diagnostic, i. e excised apical section of the marginal field of the female tegmina and the infuscate wings of the same se.x, shading ofi into true l'aies. 
It would probably be more logical trom the evidence of material in hand to divide the genus on the character of the frontal processes, but without more 
material this does not seem desirable. 

FAM. MAN 11 D.l-: 


lose. Teginina of male elongati-, subeijual, costal field rather narrow, attenuate, virido-coriaceous, 
remainder almost entirely hyaline (cingulata) or greenish semi-hyaline, more decidedly hyaline toward 
the suturai margin, several oblique fuscous maculations usuall)- present, apex rotundato-angulate ; of 
female shorter, virido-coriaceous, the costal field sharply excised about a fourth the (hstance from the 
apex or slightly cjr hardly excised at the same point, fuscous maculations usual present as in male, apex 
acute or rotundato-angulate. Wings of male hyaline, more or less infuscate or virido-coriaceous apically ; 
of female strongly infuscate with a preapical section as well as portion of the margin paler and trans- 
verse veins of the disk subh3 aline, or In^aline with the costal margin and apex subcoriaceous. Abdomen 
with the lateral margins lobcd or entire in the female, male without abdominal lobes. Anterior coxa; 
more or less distinctly spinulose nn the anterior margin, usually with intercalated smaller spinulations ; 
anterior femora with four discoidal spines, external margin with four spines. Median and posterior 
limbs more or less distinctl3' lobate ami with strongly indicated carina' ; genicular lobes ot median and 
posterior limbs produced subangulate. 

Type of the genus : V. lobnfa ( I-'cdiricius). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Sixteen species are known trom the Xecjtropical 
region, ranging from the sfHithern United States (.Arizona) to Brazil and Peru, with one species foimd 
in the ( ireater Antilles. 

1. V . fyeciinata, Saussure, Mém. Hist. Xat. Alex. .Mant. .\mér. p. i63, Vera Cruz and Tabasco. 

]il. 2. f. 34 (1871). Afexico. 
pectiiuita. Saussure & Zehntner, Biol. Centr.-Amer. Orth. Vol. i, p. 196, 
pi. 6, ff. 4. 5, pi. 10. ff. 3o-32 (1894). 

2. V . foliata (Lichtenstein), Trans. Linn. Soc. Loud. \'ol. 6, p. 24 (1802) « Bengal Guiana. 


siibloluili!. i^toU. Xatuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. Sjiooken en Wandel. Blad. 
pj). 55, 78, pi. 18, f. 07 (i8i3} {ßfnntisi. 

3. sphiiigiconiis (Stoll), ibidem, pp. 5g. 78, pi. 20, f. 74 {iüi3>) (Mantis), a Amboina ». 

4. r. lohata (Fabricius), Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 190 (1798) (Mantis). Cayenne, Brazil. 

Iiyaliiuj, Charpentier. Silbermann Rev. Ent. Vol. 3, p. 3i6( i835i (Empusar, 

Orth. Daser. Depicta, pl. 2 (1841) (Empnsa). 
iv/^jii/rfo/K.î, Bnrmeister, Handb . Ent. Bd. 2, Abth. 2, pt. i. p. 543(1 838). 

5. V . drnticnlata, Saussure, Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. Vol. 3. p. 222 (1870). Surinam. 
(). V. aniazonica (\Vest\\"ood ), Revis. Ins. I"am. ]\Iant. p. 46 (1889) Amazonia. 

( T luoilyies). 

7. V. peruviana, nov. sp. (i). Peru. 

8. F. /'<'i'//h/Vo;«/.'; (Stâl), Bihang Svenska \"et.-.-\kad. I landl. \'ol. 4 (10). Chiriqui. 

p. 73 (1877) (TheocJytes). 

(I) Vates peruviana, nov. sp.— Type : cJ ; Despoblado, N. VerniAcaJ, Xal. .^'c. Pkihui). 

Allied to V. pectiiiicoruis Stal and nm.tzoiiica Westwood, but difl'ering- from the former in the further suppression of the median and posterior 
femoral lobes and in the less elongate pectinations of the antenna-, and from the latter in the larger size, the suppression of the femoral lobes and in the 
antenn:c being longer than the pronotuni. 

Size medium, form elongate. Head half again as broad as the greatest width of the pronotum, much broader than deep, occipital margin 
truncato-sinuate ; vertex with processes rather short, slightly divergent, conic; eyes diverted slightly anteriorly; antennas when extended posteriorly 
ri-aehing slightly beyond posterior margin of pronotum, subpectinate. Pronotum slender, the greatest width contained about four and one-halt times in 
ength. shaft subequal, dilation considerable, rounded, collar slightly broader than the shaft, subequal, cephalic margin arcuate : lateral margins irr>-gularly 
granuloso-dentate, these more numerous anteriorly than posteriorly, median carina distinct. Tegmina nearly twice as long as the pronotum. elongate, 
subequal; costal field narrow, slightly ampliate near base, narrowing regularly toward the apex, coriaceous, opaque, remainder of the tegmina subhyaline, 
apex rounded. Anterior coxae very slightly more than half the length of the pronotum, on the anterior margin supplied with spaced serrato- dentations of 
two sizes, posterior face with numerous small adpressed dentations; anterior femora distinctly longer th.m the coxae, rather slender, slightly arcuate, 
external margin with five (or four I spines, internal margin with fourteen or fifteen spines of alternating large and small size, discoidal spines four in 
number; anterior tibiae slightly less than half the length of the femora, armed externally with eleven and internally with fourteen spines. Median limbs 
consideidbly shorter than the posterior pair, both with no distinct femoral lobes : tibise of both piirs with a distinct low dorsal preniedian lobe carinations 
decided and sometimes suManiellate. 

General color pale ochraceous, mottled and clouded (annulate or subannulatc on the limbs) with prout's brown; eyes seal brown; antennae 
prout's brown. Tegmina pale translucent pea green, becoming pala apple green on the opaque costal field, with median and preniedian oblique brownish 
maculations extending over the median section of the tegmina. Wings pale naples yellow, clouded with gamboge ytUow at the apex and along the costal 
margin, apical section with scattered minute brownish spots 

Length of lîody .So mm.: length ot pronotum lo: greatest width of pronotum 3.S; length of tegnien 3;; length of anterior femur 11. 

1 he type ij unique. 



9. r. seiiaticornis (Stâl). ibitlrm, p. 73 (1S77) {Tlieoclytes). 

10. V. fyaraeiisis, Saussure, Mém. Hist. Xat. Mex. Mant. Amér. p. 168 (1S71). 

paianiih, Saussure & Zehntner, Biol. Centr.-Ainer. Orth. Vol. i, p. icp. 
I'l. 6. f. I, pi. 10. ff. 28, 29 ;i894). 

11. V. to-u'iisendi, Kehn. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 27. p. 073 ( 

12. F. longicollis (Stal). l^ilianj; Svenska N'ct.-.Akad. Handl. Vol. 4 (loj, 

ji. 74 (1877) { Pseiidovd/cs). 

13. V. cingulata (i) (Driny), Illustr. Exot. Eut. Vol. 2, pl. 4(), f. 2 (1773) 


hide/is, DeHaan. in Temminck,Verhandl. Natuurl. Geschied. Nederl.Overz. 

Bezitt. Zoo\. Orth. p. 79 (1842) (Mantis) (not of Fabricius, lyySi. 
hyaliiia, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 277 ( i775) (Mantis) (not of De Geer, 177.'^). 

14. V. annectens. Kehn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. \'ol. 27. ]). 85 (1900). 

15. V. i'ö/^Äf« (Saussure), Rev. Mag. Zool. (2), Vol. 11, p. Gi (1S59) {Tlieo- 

clytes); Miss. Scientif. Mex. Orth. p. 291, pi. 5, ft'. 3. 3rt-r ( 1872). 

16. V. i/V/^ws (Fabricius), Syst. Ent. p. 277 (1775) {Mantis). 

Indens. Saussure, Mém. Hist. Nat. Mex. Mant. .-Vinér. \k 16(1, pi. 2, 
ff .35, 35(7 (1S71!. 

consobrina, .Saussure. Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Oos. Vol. pi. 222 1187(1) 'Pseu- 

Anti(K]uia, C olomhia . 
lîrazil, Mt'xico. .\iixona. 

Mexiccj, Arizona. 

Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba. 



14. Genus HETEROCH/ETA, Westwood 

Heterochseta. Westwood, Arc. Ent. Vol. 1. p. 1O2 (1845); Mélang. Orth. Pt. i, p. 288, 3i2 (1871). 
Stenovates. Saussure (2), Mélan;.;. Orth. \'ol. 2, p. 84 (1872): .Saussure, Scientif. Mex. Orth, 
p. 286 (1872). 

Characters. — Potl\ slender, subbacilliform . Head broad, tiiangular; front excavate, smooth: 
eyes ovalo-conic, obliqueh' directed, with or without a non-granulose apical process; facial shield tians- 
verse ; ocelli very large : antennae short and setaceous. Pronotum elongate, subcarinate; the dilation 
short and weak, collar with the margins subparallel. Organs of flight elongate, in repose not attaining 
the apex of the abdomen; tegmina subparallel, subopaque, costal field straight; wings maculate, 
discoidal vein simple. Anteiior limbs very long and slender: coxae anteriorh lobate and spinose; femora 
slightly crassate at base, armed with long spaced spines. Median and posterior limbs moderatel}' long; 
femora not lobate dorsally, ventral!}- supplied at the apex with tuo lobes: tibiae without lobes; tarsi 
short. .Abdomen bacillitoim : supra-anal plate elongate, acute, carinate: cerci broad, lamellate. 

Type of the genus : //. teniiihes (Westwood). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Three species are known from Equatorial Africa. 

1. H. teiiiiipes (Westwood), Ann. Nat. Hist, (i), \'ol. 8. p. 272 (1841) Senegal, German East 

{Toxodera): Arc. Ent. Vol. i, p. 162, pi. 4t {iH^5) (Toxodera [Hetero- .Africa. 
chaeta']); Revis. Ins. Fam. Mant. p. 41 (1889). 

2. H. orieiitalis. Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat Flist. (7), Vol. i3. p. 87 (1904). East .Africa. 

3. IT. pantherina (3). Saussure. .Mélang. Orth. Vi. 2, 84. pl. 9, ff. 3i-3i(i Eg}-ptian Sudan. Congo. 

( 1 872) {Stenovates). 

pant/ien'na, Brunner von Wattenwyl. .'\nn. Mus. Stor. Xat. Oenova. 
Vol. 3, p. 74 (i8g3) I Stenovates \ ; Werner. Jahresh. Ver. Vaterl. 
Xaturk. Württemberg, Vol . 62. p. 376 (1906) ; Griffini. Ann. Mus. 
Stor. Xat. Genova. Vol. 43, j). 417 (1907.. 

(I; This species has been considered to be u member of tlie -îenius /■'/ly/Zo-nites, but :in e\aniination of Jamaican material show .? it to be a .species 
of Vates. not far removed from y. annectciis . 

(»I For discussion of the status of .S'<«w/7«/?i see \\ erncr, Jalires/i. Vcf ■ I'atcr/. .WUiirk. Wiirttember;;. Voroa p. 37611906; and Griflini. ./««. 
A/us. Stor. A'at. Genova, Vol. 4,1, p. 417 (IQ07 . 

(3) This species was originally recorded from Central .\nierii a. but all subsequent information places its habitat in Central Africa. 

1- AM. MAN 1 1] icj 

15. Genus PSEUDOCH/ETA ■ , Kirby 

Pseudochaeta. Knl)\-, Ann. Ma.;.;. Nat. Hist. (7), \'n\. i3, p. 87 (1904). 

Characters (2). — E3es obtusely conical and ending in a blunt point; ocelli very prominent. 
Pronolum slightly expanded above the anterior coxiE and with the lateral margins denticulate through- 
out. Anterior coxae slightly curved, attenuate beyond the middle and slightly expanded again before the 
extremity, front lateral carina with about six moderately large teeth: anterior femora half as long again 
as tlie coxae, attenuate, the lower carina denticulate to the base: anterior tibias slender, not more than 
half as long as the femora, outer carina with six spines including the terminal one, inner carina with 
a great number of curved spines which gradualh' increase in length and terminate in an immense 
curving hook about two-fifths as long as the tibia", anterior tarsi with the first joint slender, curved. 
Middle and posterior femora with rounded denticulate lateral lobes; middle femora and tibiae short and 
attenuate in the middle, all the cariucS very finely denticulate, femora with an inner and tibiae with an 
outer terminal spine; posterior femora and tibiae long, rather slender, of nearly equal length, all the 
carinas very finely denticulate, fennn-a with an mner terminal spine, tibia- with an inner and outer one. 
Cerci jointed and lamellate. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from West Africa. 
1. P. strachiuii, Kn-by, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), Vol. i3, p. 88 (1904). Lagos, West Africa. 

16. Genus SEVERINIA, Finot 

Severinia. Linot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 46, p. 433 (1902). 

Characters, — Body greatly elongate, slender, weakly subspinose in the female. I lead 
triangular, vertex not produced behind the eyes, occiput obtuse; eyes globose, in the female the apex 
terminates in a short subcylindrical obtuse spine: ocelli strong, little distant, placed in a triangle, 
their plane being perptmdicular to the surface on which they are placed, the mferior placed a little below 
the insertion of the antenna' ; antenna^ of the male simple, of the female unknown. Pronotum elongate, 
much longer than the anterior coxa, the part posterior to the transverse sulcus slightly more than three 
times as long as the anterior part, rounded anteriorly, margins denticulate; supracoxal dilation not 
strong; median longitudinal carina vei \ distinct, the apex being a heart shaped tubercle. Tegmina 
abbreviate, in the male i caching the sixth abdominal segment, in the female not reaching the third : 
costal field irregularly reticulate. Wings marked with purplish black. Anterior coxa- not lobate, the base 
and dorsal margin at the apex not ililated; anterior femora beneath with the internal margin in the 
female armed with alternately large and small spines, in the male with equal spines, external margin 
with tour spines, tliscoidal spines four in number, three in a longitudinal series: anterior tibiae beneath 
with the external margin siiinultjse. Median and posterior femora and tibia carinate above, median and 
posterior limbs not lobate ; posterior tarsi with the. first two joints slightly longer than the remaining 
joints together. Supra-anal plate transverse, apex rotundatc; cerci ovate, bioad, fiat and foliate. 

(i) This genus, the type of which has apparently remained unique since described, is clo^^ely related to H^ierochtvt^t : in tact it is difticult to rind 
any character in the original description to separate it from the latter genus. Ihere exists in the author's mind a strong suspicion that the two are 
inseparable, but it appears preferable to let the name stand for the present as a valid genus, although the diagnosis contains little in the way of differentia' 

(2; Known only from the female. 



Geographical distribution of species. A single species is known from the Algerian 
Sahara region. 

1. S. /mom, Finot, Hull. Soc. lînl. Fr. i Sq3, p. 29 ( i8g3) (//c/^wZ/Wa) ; .Vnn. J^iskra and Tillis. .\lgerian 

See. Ent. Fr. Vol. 64, j). 97 (i8g5) [Heterochtsla); ibidem, \'ol. 65, Sahara, 
pi. 14, ff. io-i_' (1896); Ann. Soe. I'.nt. Belg. \'ol. 46, p. 4^2 (1902). 

17. Genus HETEROCH/ETULA, Wood-Mason 

Heterochsetula. \\'o( «l-Mass» m , jouui. Asiat. Sdc. Bengal. \"ol. 58. Pt. 2, p. 3o8 (i88()). 

Characters. — Sexes alike. Body small, delicate, long, slender, bacilliform. Head transverse, 
depressed, nearly horizontal, pentagonal; vertex much produced above the level of the eyes, distinctly 
divided by notches and grooves into five lobes, a median, two submedian, and two lateral; middle of 
vertex concave, convex or truncate; eyes compressed, laterally very salient, with a short simple or a 
bifid non-faceted corneal spine at the upper and outer angle; facial shield a transverse band deeplv 
indented by the antennae and not ver}' distinctly defined basally, and concave apically; on each side a 
small tubercle is ]>laced betu'een the antennal scrobe and the e3'e. Pronotum transverseh" convex, 
traversed from the base to be\ ond the middle of the anterior lobe by a fine raised median line; margins 
very finely toothed; disk ver}- minutely and sparsely gianulose. Cerci short, broadly foliaceous. Organs 
of fiight colored. Tegmina with the veinlets of the costal field long and very oblique and rarebv branched 
and anastomosed so as to form a reticulum with very long and narrow meshes; median vein simple; 
anal vein not quite reaching the margin; axillary vein reaching the margin. Wings with the anterior area 
narrow; discoidal vein simple. Anterior coxae above depressed and unarmed; anterior femora armed 
below on the outer edge with four spines (order of length tW'O, one, three, four), on the inner edge with 
thirteen or fourteen alternately shorter and longer ones, and bearing four discoidal spines : anterior tibi;e 
blunt tectate. Posterior limbs without foliaceous lobes, but ])rnvided with genicular spines; lateral 
genicular lobes of the feebly quadricristate femora short or acuminately produced; tibiœ filiform, terete 
above, feebly bicristate below; first joint of tarsi not longer than the next two taken together. 

Type of the genus : H . fissispinis, \\'(.)od-Mason. 

Geographical distribution of species, — Two species are known from the Indian subregion 
of the Oriental region. 

I ^ncö/or (Wood-Mason), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), \'ol. 18, p. 441 J^engal and Orissa. India. 
(1876) {Heterochata): fourn. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, \'ol. 58, Pt. 2, 
p. 309 (1889). 

2. H . fissispiiiis, Wood-Mason, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Vol. 58. Pt. 2, IMysore, India. 

p. 309 (1889). 

18. Genus PARADANURIA, Wood-Mason 

Paradanuria. Wood-Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), \'ol. 19, p. 220 (1877): Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, \'ol. 58, p. 314 (1889). 

Characters. — Bod\- elongate, delicate; integument granulöse and longitudinally coarsely 
pauci-rugose. Head depressed, horizontal, deeper than broad, rather broader than the prothorax at its 
dilation ; vertex with its lateral lobes produced above and slightly outwards over the eyes into blunt 
tubercles, median lobe on the disk elevated into a huge convex boss which is separated anteriorly or 
inferiorlv by a transverse sulcus from the subquadrate ocellar eminence, the latter bearing a blunt 

I- AM. MAXriJJ/H 21 

conical tubercle al the muklle of its posterior mars^in ; eyes compressed, rectan^ulate wilh a stout bluntly 
niammilliforni non-faceted corneal spine at the angle. PronoUiin teclale with distinctly rounded 
dilation and a longitudinal median carina w hich is continuous to the apex of the abdomen. Tegmina 
narrow, eloiii^ate, more or less SLÜ:)h3-aline, tessellate, striolate or guttäte with brownish or yellowish. 
Wings hyaline, costa and apex fretiucnth' colored. Supra-anal plate oi female bioader tlian long, tri- 
angular. Ceici of female foliaceous, extending bej'ond the subgenital plate of the abdomen by the 
greater portion of their length, widening from the base to the apex, which is divided b}' a shallow 
notch into two points. Anterior limbs long and slender; coxas expanded along the apical fourth of their 
anterior crest into a conspicuous dentate foliaceous lobe; femora nearly straight, weakly arched below, 
with acute genicular lobes and a conspicuous supragenicular lobe, aimed below on the outer margin 
with six spines, on the inner with a more numerous alternating series, discoidal spines three in number; 
tibiae as broad as deep, above terete, straight and of uniform width. Posterior limbs veiy short; femora 
stout, ver\" slighth- fusiform, prismatic, with four strong crests and accessoiA' ridges, the posterior 
ventral crest foliaceous, genicular and supragenicular lobes long, slender, no genicular spines present; 
tibiae rather longer than the femora, above terete, belo\\' bicristate; hist joint of tarsi not quite so long 
as the combined length of the three succeeding joints. 

Type of the genus : P. oi ientalis, Wood-Mason. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Three species are known from the Indian sub- 
region i)t the (Jiiental region and the Australian region. 

1. P. r;;7VH/a//s,Wi )()d- Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. I list. (4), Vol. ig, p. 22o( 1889). Bangalore and Mysore, 

orniiliilis. W'estwood, Revis. Ins. Fain. Mant. ]>. 41, pi 12, f. 9 118891. Intlia. 

2. P. parvula, Westwood, ibidem, p. .fi (i8Sg) {Toxodera \Paradaiiiin'a]). Habitat unknown. 

3. P. fuiiimiiii [i ), Westwotjd, ibidem, p. 41, pl. 8, f. 7 (iS8g) (Tuxodeia North Australia ? 


19. Genus EUTHYPHLEPS Wood-Mason 

Euthyphleps. W' lud-Mason. Joum. .\siat. Soe. Hengal. \'ol. 58, Ft. 2, j>. 3i5 (i88g). 

Characters. — l'"emale sex alone known. Bod\- long, rather delicate, bacilliform. Integument 
granulöse and spinulose, especialh" on the prothoiax. Head rather depressed; vertex slighth' declivent, 
Its median lobe separated from the submedian lobes by two longitudinal depressions of the disk, the 
latter triangularly produced posteriorlv and dorsally so as to form an occipital cavit)' for the reception 
(A the anterior end of the pronotum ; ocelli large, on a considerable prominence, which bears a spike-like 
erect tooth at the middle of its posterior margin and is separated from the vertex by a transverse 
groove; eyes narrow, oval, convex laterally, produced dorsalh' and armed at the upper and outer angle 
wilh a large stout blunt, somewhat curved digitiform non-faceted corneal spine. Pronotum tectate, with 
a distinct median carina which is continued to the apex of the abdomen. Abdominal segments with the 
ventral faces produced posteriorly, the first to seventh produced in the middle into a delicate filamentous 
process, the last into a broadly concave-truncate triangle with arcuate sides, feici broadly foliaceous. 
thirteen-jointed, broadest at the antepenultimate segment, the tlorsai angle of the last foiu' segments 
produced so that the dorsal margins are bluntly dentate, apices bifid. Organs of fiight extending nearly 
to the apex of the abdomen. Tegmina semi-opaque, subcoriaceous, subequal ; costal field irregularl)' 
reticulate; anterior branch of discoidal vein simple and unbranched, posterior branch of discoidal vein 

(i) Tliis spei'ies does not appear from tlie tijjure to be con,i;eneric with F. orieiitalis. but no specimens liavo been seen by us. 


oiM iior ri-:i\.\ 

with six rami; axillary vein quadri-raniose, the first and second rami ])arall('lim; tlu' mari^m, the third 
and fourth traversing the anal told. \\ nii^s h\ aline, except along the antei inr margin and at the aprx ; 
apex blunt and not markedly produced: anal emargination slight, nbtuse-angulate; discoidal vein iorkcd 
at two-thirds its length from the base. Anterior limbs long and slender: anterior coxfe expanded for 
full\' the apical thiid ot their anterior crest into a conspicuous dentate foliaccous lobe: anterior femora 
narrow, slightly snruate (hirsally, the apex produced inti) a sujnagenicular spine, unter maigin with hve 
spines, inner margin with eleven, (hscoidal spines tliree in number; anterior tibia' straight, paucispinose, 
terete above. Posterior legs long and slender, carinate and lobate and furnished with curved acicular 
genicular spines longer than the genicular lobes, the lateral ones of which aie longei than the dorsal. 

Geographical distribution of species, — A single species is known trom the 11 imala\an 
subregion of the Oriental region. 

I. E. redivenis, Wood-Mason, fourn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. Vol. 58, Pt. 2, Kangra, Himala\as. 
p. 3i7 (1889). 

20. Genus >£THAL0CHR0A, Wood-Mason 

/Ethalochroa. Wood-Mason, .A nn. Mag. Xat. Ilist. (4). \ ol, icj, p. 3o8 (iSj^): Journ. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, \'ol. 58. p. 3io (1889). 
Arsacia. Stal, Bihang Svenska \'et.-Akad. l^'hli. Vol. 4 (loj, ]>. 70 (1877). 
Arsaria. Brunner von Wattenwyl, Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. Genova. \'ol. 33, j). 74 (1893). 
Arteria. Kirby, Syn. Cat. ()iih. \'ol. i, p. 3o8 (1904). 

Characters. — Sexes alike. Body greatly elongate, bacilliform. Head not wider than the dilation 
ot the pronotum, rather higher than broad; occiput concave; vertex divided h\ grooves into fi\e lobes, 
two lateral, which are conoidall}' produced, two submedian, which are not alwa\s produced, and one 
median lobe which is a low transversely convex elevation of c onsitlerable extent, terminating abruptly 
immediately above and behind the ocelli, sometimes produced on the median line in a simple or bitid 
horn; ocular margins of the forehead with a small si)iniform tubercle: ocelli large, placed on a triangular 
tubercle: eyes higher than broad, strongly prominent, tumid, and furnished dorso-laterally with a 
conical non faceted spine or at least a vestige of the same ; facial shield pentagonal, dorsal margin slightly 
produced in the middle: antenna- short, setaceous. Pionotum greath' elongate, granulöse, strong!}- 
tectate with a distinct continuous median carina in the female and a mesialh" interruptetl one in the 
male: shaft slighth^ bowed: supracoxal dilation large, rotund-angulate : lateral carina' shaiply gran- 
ulöse. Second to sixth abdominal segments carinate vcntrally, seventh or eighth emarginate ventrally: 
dorsum of the abdcmicn longitudinalh- carinate; cerci broadl\- foliaceous, spatulate. rounded or rotund- 
ato-truncate at the apex. Organs of flight when closed haidh- extending beyond the fifth abdominal 
segment; marginal areas subcoriaceous, semi-opaque: posterior areas membranous and hyaline; tegmnia 
with the basal third of the costal field rather sharph dilated and covered with dense, sharply defined 
and prominent polygonal reticulations: wings with iinbranched discoidal vein and a distinct anal 
emargination. .Anterior cox;e triquetrous, their cariiKc, especiall}' the posterior, granuloso-spinulose, 
the anterior expanded at the apex into a short foliaceous lobe; femora with their dorsal margin concave, 
cristate at the apex, their ventral margins armed externalh' with five spines and internall} with twelve 
to fourteen alternately shorter and longer spines, discoidal spines three in number; tibia^ weak, curved, 
slightl}' enlarged toward either end from the thin median section, terete dorsally, except for a faint crest 
distally, paucispinose, being armed only on the apical fifth of external margin and on the apical lialf ot 
internal margin, terminal claw long and rather ahrujitlv hooked. Posterior limbs rather short, strongly 

1"AM. MAN i l I ).]■. 


carinate; femora willioiU .genicular spines, the tour carina' expanded nito toliaceous lol)es or sj):nulose, 
^t'nicular lobes short, subnnicronate, trisL^onal ; tibia; equal to or a tritle Ioniser than tht> femoia, with one 
dorsal and two ventral carina-, the latter with fohaceous lobes or the tibirf aie tusilomi in shajie; hrst 
tarsal joint slioi t. about as long as the twf) succeeding joints together. 

Type of the genus : ^rs7/W('/;(;;/rt ( W'estwootl). 

Geographical distribution of species. — 'I'liice si)ecies are known Iroin the Indian and 
C'e\ liinpse sulire.^ions of tin- ()riental res^ion. 

1. .-TT. ( Westwood), Ann. N'at. Hist, (i), \'ol. S, p. 272 (iS-ii) J-ieni^'al, M adras. ( Cylon . 

{Vates}\ Arc. Ent. \'ol. 2, p. 52, note (1N43) (Vaies). 

.ifhmoliaiui, Saussure, Mélang. Orth. I't. 1, p. 3oq (1871) (Popa?i: WooJ- 
Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), Vol. 19, p. iio ( ixjjj ; W'estwood, 
Revis. Ins. Fam. Mant. p. 46, pi. 12, f. 6 (1889], 
viw. s implicipes, Wood-Mason, Proc. /00I. Soc. Loud. ]). 5841 1878). ]:ioinbay. 
Vtiy. //;s/g-«is, Wood-Mason, ihidem. ]). 584 '187.S). Xorth India. 

2. A". a^?z/s. Wood- Mason, Journ. Asiat. Soc. I^engal, \'ol. .T(S, p. 3 1 .-i Sind. India. 


3. .i\ spiiii/>es. Wood-AIason, ibidem, p. 3i3 (1889). Sind, India. 

21. Genus PSEUDEMPUSA, Brunner von Wattenwyl 

Pseudempusa. l-irvnnier von Wattenw \l , .Ann. Mus. Stcir. \at. (jenova, \'ol. 33, p. j5 (1^93). 

Characters. — Mead large, broad; \eite.K straight, compressed, front impressed; antiiuue 
verv' short, setaceous. FronnUim slender, longer than the anterior coxa^", triangularl}- produced above 
the insertion of the latter; margins entiiely eroso-dentate. Tegmina not reaching the apex of the abdo- 
men; apex obtuse. Wings rounded; discoidal vein turcate near the base, enclosing a large field with 
an extensive ocelliform s])ot. Anterior coxa- spinulose ventially, doisal margin granulöse: anterior 
femora slender, unguicular sinus ])laced beyond the middle, internal margni armed with unequal 
spines, discoidal spines four in number, the third the largest; anterior tibia', aside from the claw, 
with seven spines on the external margin. .Median and pcjsterior limbs not lobate. Abdomen dilated, 
but not lobate. Supra-anal i)late of temale triangular; cerci of female terete. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single species is known from the (Jriental region. 
I. F. piinui-pavoiiis. Brunner von Wattenwyl, .\nn. Mus. Stor. Xat. (ienova, lîurma. 
Vol. 33, p. 75, t. 2, f. 25 (iSq3): Observ. Color. Ins. ji. 5, pi. 4, f. 5q 
(1897). — Plate, Fig. 3. 

22. Genus MACRODANURI A, Sjöstedt 

Mac roda nuria. Sjöstedt, jjihang Svenska \'et.-.\kad. Handl.\'ol. 25, .\fd. 4 , no. 6, p, 22, pi. f. i , 2 (i<)oo). 

Characters. — l^ody ver\' narrt)w and elongate, bacilliform. Head trigonal, much broader 
than high, the eyes very large, protuberant and hemispherical; occiput with three pair of tubercles, 
the lateral ones higher than all the others although but short, blunt, subtrigonal tubercles, the median 
pair ot tubercles extremely weak and low; facial shield transverse, svUiobtuse-angulatc dorsally, 
Pronotum very long and thin, forming about two-fifths the entire length; supracoxal dilation 
distinct but not large, its margin rounded, all the lateral pronotal margins rather sparsely spined; 
surface of the pronotum sparsely and irregularh- granoso-tuberculate ; mechan carina distinct but 
weak. Tegmina and wings of female very short, not exceeding the metanotum, of male much more 


24 OK njoi' ri;i\'.\ 

aini)le. Abdomen bacillilc irm, slii^litly e.\])an(lc(l distjilly, median segments with their ajiical margins 
supplied with fohaeeous frdls: supra-anal jilatc ( 9j transverse stdxitiadiate. maigin liiiobale; cerci (9) 
blunt, ilepressed, fusifoim. Anterior lindis w ith their lateral laces grani isn-tubcu uhite ; anteiior coxa' 
about two-fihhs the lengtli ot the ))ronotum. the dist.d e\]),i nsion ralhei long and low and with its 
margin weakly scM ialo-dentate ; anterior temnia slightly longer than tlic coxa;, slighth' boweii dorsalh- 
about a third the lengtli from the distal extremity, tapering, stiongi}' graiKJSo-tubercnIate on the junximal 
two-fifths of the ventral margin, distally armed with four spines on the and with a much more 
numerous (thirteen or foiuteen) series of unequal and irregularl}' disposed spines on the internal maigin, 
discoidal spines lour (i ) in luimber; anterior tibia^ short, with seven spines on the external margin and 
thirteen or fourteen on the internal maigin. Median limbs moderatel\- elongate, sirongh' carinate; 
femora with a dorsal and a ventral lobe near the ajiex, tibia' with a similir ]>reinedian })air. Caudal 
limbs verv^ slender and elongate, carinate. not lobed. 

Type of the genus : .V. pInts}iioidc^. .Sjöstedt. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Two sjiecies are known from Ivpiatorial Africa. 

1. pJiasmoides, Sjostt'dt, lîiliang .Svenska \'et.-Akad. Ilandl. \"ol. 25, I'lench (■ong(i. 
Afd. 4. no. 6, p. ^3, ]il. ft. i, z (igoo). 

2. M. eloiioata (l)e l->ori'e). Ann. Soc. Knt. I>elg. \"ol. 27, j). 76 (i883) SoiUhern (iuinea. 

{Dann n'a ). 

23. Genus DANURIA, Stal 

Danuria. Stal, Oelv. \'et.-Akad. l-'uih. \'ol. i3, \k 16.) (1S.S6); \'ol. 28, p. 387 (1871): Bihang Svenska 
\ et.-Akad. Ilandl. \'ol. 4. no. lo, p. 70 (1877); Karsch, Ent. Xachr. \'ol. i5, p. 270 (1889); 
Werner. Jahresb. \'er. Vat. Nat. Württemberg, Vol. 62, p. 374 (igoG): .Sjöstedt, \Mssensch. 
Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exped. Kilimandjaro, Pt. 17. Orth. p. 72 (igoq). 

Daniura. Saussure, Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. (ies. Vol. 3, p. 70 lEapse lor Danuria) (1869). 

Characters. — Body considerably elongate, slender, subequal. Head comju'essed; exes pro- 
tuberant, elongate oN'ate, attenuate dorsallv ; occiput abox'e each eye produced into a decided auriculate 
acute lol)e, the intervening ])ortion of the occiput emarginato-truncate and on its anterior face bearing 
four tubercles divided b\' sulci; facial shield transverse, obtuse-angulate dorsalh'; antenna: of male 
elongate, monilifurm. of lemale short. Pronotimi slender, subequal. supiacoxal dilation \'ery slight; 
anterior margin nbliqui-h- emarginate laterally, trmicate mesially; lateral margins entireh' spinose 
or granulöse; median carina distinctly but not strongly marked. Tegmina and wings verv ample in the 
male and reaching almost to the apex of the al)domen, quite short in the female, coveting but a very small 
portion of the abdomen. Abdomen elongate: supra-anal plate of male transverse, subbilobate; cerci 
of male blimt terete. Limbs elongate, slender, anterior pair sparselv granulöse, median and jKjsteiior 
pairs strongly carinate. not lobate. Anterior coxœ not less than half the length ol the pronotum, the 
posterior face considerably granulöse, distal expansion decided, angulate and with its margin serrato- 
dentate, median constriction pronounced: anterior femora exceeding the cr)xa' in length, slender, 
straight, distal jiortion with four spines on the external and twelve on the internal margins, discoidal 
spines four in number: anterior til)iœ with seven or eight spines externall}- and ele\"en or twelve 
internal!}' ; proximal joint of the tarsi over half again as long as the remaining joints united. Median 
and posterior limbs not lobed. the distal portion of the posterior carina of the median femora w ith or 
without a slight dentate expansion. 

(i) Sjöstedt ^ives l)ut tliree. However, a specimen in liand sliows four present on one femur and merely the stump of the loiirtli on tliç utlier. 

l'A M. MAXriD.l-; 


Type of the genus : D. thunbagi, Stal. 

This genus is now restricted to five species 

Geographical distribution of species. 

inliahitm.i;" Jiquatorial and Austral Africa. 

1. D. Ihunhogi. Stal, Oefv. \ ot.-Akad. I'^orh. Vol. t3, p. 169 (i856). — Southand East Africa, north 

Plate, Fig. 10. IMf)nibasa, Madagas- 

thniihergi, Saussure, Mélang. (.)rth. I't. i, p. 444, pi. 7, ft'. 66, ôyiiSjii; 
Karsch. Ent. Nachr. Vol. i5. p. 273 1 1SS91. 

2. gi'dcilis (Scluilthess), Ann. .Mus. Stor. Nat. Genijva, N'ol. Sg, p. iSo .Somaliland. 

(189S) {Popa). 

3. D. iinpannosa. Karsch, Ent. Nachr. V'ol. i5, p. 274 (1889). Nubia. 

4. D. sclnveinfuiihi, Werner, Sitz.-Bcr. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, Vol. n6, Gazelle Kiver, Soudan. 

lieft 2. p. 246 (1907). 

5. D. huchholzi, Gerstaecker, Milt, .\atur\v. \ er. \ orpomm. \'ol. 14, p. g3 Gold Coast, Portuguese 

(i883). West Africa. 

□ anuriodes. ( 

24. Genus DANURIODES, Giglio-Tos 

Tds, Bull. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino, Vol. 22, no. 5()3, p. i5 (1907). 

Characters. — « Related to Dannria and Macrodaniiria ; differing, however, from the genus 
Diuniiia in the vertex having, between the elevated conical tubercles, four lower obtuse tubercles, 
separatetl by deep sulci, of which the two intermediate are the lesser, anterior coxœ with the infeiior 
area broader, margins stronglv denticulate, apical lobe shorter, intermediate femora with a preapical 
lobule; from the genus Macnidanitria in the bicornate vertex, the subovate eyes, narrowed above, anterior 
coxte with the apical lobe shorter, anterior femora with four discoidal spines, intermediate tibiae not 
lobate. » 

ish East .Africa. 

Type of the genus : D. holanaiia (Saussure). 

Geographical distribution of species. — h^jur species from Equatorial Africa are known. 

1. D. bolauatia (Saussure), Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. \'ol. 3, p. 70 (i86g) Zanzibar, German and Brit 

{Danuria); ^lélang, Orth. Pt. i, p. 3io (1871) (Daiiiiria). 

Mantis [Danuria ?) siipercH/dris, Gerstœcker. Arch. f. Naturg. Vol. 35, 

p. 210 (1869); Vou der Decken's Keisen in Ost-,-\frika, Vol. 3. Pt. 2, 

p. i5, pi. I, ff. 7, y a h (1873). 
Danuria 1 caffva. AVestwood, Kevis. Ins. l"am. Mant. p. 42. pi. i, f. 5 (1889). 

2. D. bai'bozae (B(jlivar), Jörn. Mat. Ph^^s. Nat. Acad. Sc. Lisboa (2), 

\'ol. 1. p. 8,5 (1890) {Da/niria). 

3. D. serratodeiiiata (Karsch), F.nt. Xachr. \'ol. i5, \). 274 (1S89) (Dniaiiia). 

4. D. kilimandjarica (Sjöstedt), Wissensch. Ergebn. .Schwed. Zool. Exp. 

Kilimandjaro. Pt. 17, Orth. p. 72 (1909) {Danuria). 

Portuguese West .Africa , 

Malange (Poi tuguese West 



25. Genus POPA, Stàl 

Popa. Stal, Orfv. Vet. -.Akad. Forh. \'ol. i3, p. ibg (i85G), Bihang Sv enska \ et. -.Akad. Handl. \ ol. 4, 
no. 10, p. 70 (1S77); \A'erner, Jahresb. Ver. Vat. Nat. Württemberg, \"ol. 62, p. 074 (1906); 
.Sjöstedt, Wissensch. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro. Pt. 17, Orth. p. 72 (1909). 

Characters. — Body moderately elongate, rugose. Head trigonal; e3'es quite prominent, 
globose; occiput with a pair of acute juxta-ocular tubercles on each side, the intervening portion trunc- 
ate ; postocellar region elevated into a considerable more or less rounded protuberance; facial shield 


UR 1 1 K )!' rERA 

ti ansverst', the dorsal niai i^in subi ibtiise-aiif^ulate. Pronotum cli mi^alc. seal n i isi i-tube i culatc ; supia- 
coxal dilation distincl but imt laii;e, suban,i;ulate ; lateral uiar,i;ins senato-dentatc ; shaft with a strong' 
median carina, collar with a uicdio-longitudinal sulcus. reL^uiina and wings \crv ample m the male, 
covering about two-thirds of the abdomen in the lemale: tcj^iniua ( oi iac('t)us, wings smokw Terminal 
abdominal segments with a low niedio-longitudinal mai i^inal cicst ; sujua-anal i>latc of female subtri,i;()nal 
or transverse (juadrate with the angles rounded; cerci of female monilifoiui. Anterior limbs robust, 
moderately long, scabrous; coxa' slightly less than two-thirds the ])ronolal length, triquetrous in section, 
margins serrato-granulate, the anterior margin with a distinct distal subtrigonal lobe; femora with the 
dorsal margin serrato-dentate and aimed with a dentiloiin ])rea])ical lobe, lateral margin armed with 
four spines, internal margin armed with loiuteen or iîtteen sjiines (exclusive in each case of one in each 
genicular lobe); tibife armed externallx with eight sjiines, internally with teii or eleven spines. Median 
and posterior limbs lobate (except in male of spurca), having on the mecfian femora a dorsal premedian 
and dorsal preapical and a \ entral preapical lobe, on the median tibia; a preapical paii , in the posterior 
femora a minute doisal and on the tilMl);e a single preapical lobe. 

Type of the genus : l\ shirca, Stal. 

Geographical distribution of species. — I-'ive nominal species, whose ri'lationships are 
imperfectly kn(jwn, are found in the African and Oriental regions. 

1. P. spurca, Stâl, üefv. Vet.-Akad. Förh. \'ol. i3. p. ihtj (i856); \'ol. 28. 

no. 3, p. 387 (1871). — Plate, Fig. 6. 

Mwdrtii! i nec Fabriciusj, Charpentier. Orth. Descr. Depicta, pl. 3^(1841} 
{Majitisi; .Saussure. ^Mélan"'. Orth. I't. i, p. 3oq (1872); Saussure i^; 
Zehntner, in Grandidier, Hist. Phys. Nat. Madat^ascar. Orth. \'o\. i, 
p. 233 1 1895,1 . 

vay . pallida, Saussure & ZehnUier. in ( irandidier, Hist. Phys. Xat. Madagas- 
car, Orth. Vul . 1. p. 234 ( iSqS». 

2. P. undala ( l-'abricius). lint. Syst. \^ol. 2. p. ig (i/tß) (Mantis). 

uiuidta. Werner. Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Pétersb.. Vol. i3. 

\). 124 (1908) IPopa). 

3. P. servillei, (iiglio-Tos, Boll. .AIns. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino. \'ol. ^j, 

no. .569, p. 3 (1907). 

Theoclytes ? uiidala, Serville, Hist. Xat. Ins. Ortli., ]>. i5z 11839) (not of 
Fabricius) . 

4. P. batesi, .Saussuie & Zehntnt'r. in Cirandidier, Hist. I'hys. Xat. Alada- 

gascar, (.)rth. Vol. i, p. 23o (iSqS). 

uiidala, Idates, Proc. Zool. Sec. Lond. i863. p. 480 (1864) ipart.i. 

5. P. sinlilmanni, Rehn, Ergebn. Deutsch. Cent. Afr. Exped. 1907-08. 

Zool.. Orth. (iqii). 

.S<nith and East Africa (Cape 
of Good Hope to .Somali- 
land), Madagascai'. 

India, Ceylon. 

Cape of Good Hope, Mada- 


Central Afiica. 

26. Genus DANURIELLA, Westwood 

Danuriella. \\'eslw(jod. Revis. Ins. b'am. Mant. p. 42 (1889); Saussure cV- Zehntner, in (kandidier, 
Hist. Phys. Nat. Madagascar. Orth. Vol. i, j). 235 (iSgS). 

Characters. — Insects of very small size, sexes dissimilar. Body slender, extremely rugose. 
Head moderate, str(mgly embossed; eyes large, strongly projecting forwards; occiput much com- 
pressed, more elevated than the eyes, forming a triangular tooth on each side; facial shield transverse, 
the dorsal margin obtuse-angulate, the angle markedly produced anteriorly in the form of a tooth. 
Pronotum short, about two and a half times as long as the greatest width, granulate, carinate. denti- 
culate on the borders, the dilation very weak, the collar short. Limbs short; anterior pair moderately- 
strong, very rugose, .interior cox£e not dilated into a plate at the extremity of the anterior margin; 



antei icH" femora having ihr siijuTior niarj^in snniew hal sinuate, teiininatin«;, m a sUon<( tootli. the 
fxternal iiiaii;in braiint;' tour perpendicular spines, tlie internal armed with tour pairs of alternatinj;- 
lar^e and small spines followed by two or thrc e small spines, a large one and last two small ones; 
anterior tibi;e very robust, sulicompressed, the inferior face concave, not sinuate dorsaliy, the margins 
re,^"ularl\- armed. Median limbs with the femora and tdjiu' labate. Posterior femora with a small lobe ; 
l'>osterior tibi.e not caiinulate, the sujierior margin bi-undnlat(\ the extremity attenuate; metatarsi very 
long, C3iindrical, not carinulate. 

Female. — Ocelli small. I c^gmina lanceolate, very short, subcoriaceous. Wings l^rown, semi- 
(jibicular, the anterior field truncate. Abdomen subfusifoim, very strongly rugose, bearing on the 
dorsum three longitucHnal folds; posterior margin of dorsal segments i to ,S sinuate, forming on each 
side a rounded carinulate lol)e, seventh segment w ith the lateral borders dilated. Supra-anal plate trans- 
verse, roimded ; cerci short. 

Male. — l-'orm slender. Ocelli ver\' large. Organs of Hight elongate, hyaline, little or no coloring. 
Wings large, veins straight and simple. Limbs slendei . Abdomen slender and \ ery smooth. 

Geographical distribution of species. — The onl_\- known species of this genus is found in 
the Malagasian subregion. 

r. D. irreiinlaris, Wesiwood, Revis. Ins. l'"am. Mant.p. 42, pi. i, f. g (i88g). Madagascar. 
iryti^ulaiis, Saussure Zehntner, in Grandidier, Hist. I'hys. Xat. .Alada- 
j^ascar, Orth. Vol. i. ]>. 236. pi. 7, ff. 6, 7 iiSgSi. 

27. Genus PHITRUS, Karsch 

Phitrus. Karsch, Ent. Xachr. Vol. iN, p. 14g (i8g2j; iierl. Itnt. Zeitschr. \ ol. 3g, p. 279, pi. 20, 
f. 8 (i8g4). 

Characters. — I'emale gex alone knovi n. horm slender, elongate. Mead transverse, depressed, 
not bi-auriculate lobate; eyes rounded; antenna^ ver\' slender, moderately long. Pronotnm linear, 
nearly two and one-half times the length of the anterior coxee; above the coxal insertion shghtly 
expanded and thei e nearly twice the width of the base of the pronotum ; entire lateral margins subserrato- 
granulose. Tegmina and wings squamiform, wings colored. Limbs slender, moderately long; anterior 
coxa' with the posterior margin serrulate; anterior femora little longer than the coxa?, beneath on the 
external margin with four spines exclusive of the apical one, on the internal margin with fourteen 
spines, discoidal spines four in number; anterior tibiae beneath armed with ten spines on the external 
margin and thirteen or fourteen on the internal margin; median and posterior femora with a preapical 
lobe in addition to the genicular ones; posterior tibial not carinate above. 

Geographical distribution of species. — A single spt'cies is known from 'J'ropical .\trica. 
1. P. Iflbulipes, Karsch, Ent. Xachr. \'ol. 18, p. 149 (1892); IJerl. Ent. Cameroon, West Africa. 
Zeitschr. \'ol. 39, ]). 279, pi. 20, f 8 (1894). 

28. Genus JALLA, Giglio-Tos 

Jalla. Ciiglio-Tos, Holl. Mus. Zool. Aiiat. Comp. Torino, \'ol. 23, no. 563, j). i3 (1907). 

Characters. — Head broad; eyes considerably prominent, internal margin sinuate, sub- 
reniform ; facial shield much broader than long, the superior margin bisinuate in bracket (J) form ; 
ocelli large and disposed in a triangulate, approximate; vertex behind ocelli with a transverse arcuate 


sulcus, by the eyes j^ninulosc^, in the niidtlle bcliiiul the sulcus bigranulose, summu of the vertex 
truncate in the midtUe and on each side l)y the eye elevated into a conic tubercle with mucronate 
apex. Pronotum oval, little longer than broad, anterior, posterior and lateral margins rotundate, 
narrowed posteriorly, armed upon lateral margins with numerous triangular spines, disk stronglv 
granose, on the prozona an elevated tumescence limited b\' a circular sulcus is present, the tumescence 
armed on each side with a longitudinal series ot three large very acute granules; portion of the prono- 
tum posterior to the transverse sulcus strongh- medio-longitudinall\- sulcate, two low rounded tubercles 
placed before the posterior margin (çf) or with an additional median pair of the same (9)- Tegmina in 
male much longer than the abdomen, elliptical, apex acute, densely venose, sublnaline ; in female 
short ovate, reaching only to the middle of the abdomen, coriaceous, costal and humeral sub-tuber- 
culate. Wings hardly longer than the tegmina, tessellate. Limbs carinate, pilose. Anterior coxa,' hardh" 
longer than the pronotum, robust, triquetrous, internal face granulöse, inferior margin spinose; anterior 
femora somewhat incrassate, the external face granose in the middle, the margins distincth' carinate. 
the internal margin with thirteen spines besides the apical, external margin with live spines including 
the apical, discoidal spines four in number; anterior tibi;e robust, dorsal margin arcuate, ciliate. armed 
exteriorly with six, internalh' with nine spines. Median and posterior femora dorsalh and ventrall}- 
carinate. armed with a genicular spine; median and posterior tibife carinate. 

Geographical distribution of species. — • A single species is known from Tropical Afiica. 
I. J. radiosa. (jiglio-Tos, Boll. Mus. Zoo]. Anat. Comp. Torino, \"ol. 22. Upper Zambesi, 
no. 363, p. 14 (1907). — Plate, Fig. 8, 9. 

(Figures 1-7 and 10 natural size, S. 9 and 11 twice natural size.i 

Fig. I. Cardidptera brachyptera [Buvme'istev). çf . 

— 2. Parastagmatoptera serricoi'uis, Kirb}^, çf. 

— 3. Pseiidempusa pinna-pavonis, ^xunnev \on \\'2L{ien\\\\, 9 (after Brunner von Wattenwyl). 

— 4. Zoolea lobipes (Olivier), 9- 

— 5. Stagmatoptera supplicaria, Burmeister, 9- 

— 6. Popa spurca, Stal, 9- 

— 7. Phyllovates stolli [Sanssmti (s. Zehuiner), 9- 

— 8. Jalla radiosa, Giglio-Tos. dorsum of pronotum of 9 • 

— g. Jalla radiosa, Giglio-Tos, lateral outline of pronotum of 9- 

— 10. Daiiiiria tinmbergi, Stal, anterior limb of . 

— II. Oxyopsis lobder, Kehn, head of 9 (after Rehn). 

Philadelphia, S. A., 15^'' April 1911. 


PsciuleTiipusd p mn^piiTonis . 

Ddiitiria Ihiutbrrgi .