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Full text of "Genera insectorum"

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Genera Insectorum 



FASC. CXXIX-CXXXIV 






Genera 



Insectorum 



PUBLIES PAR 



P. WYTSMAN 




FASCICULES CXXIX-CXXXIV 

129. Lepidoptera Heterocera, Fam. Geometridae, Subfam. Hemitheinse, par L. B.Pkout. 

i3o. Coleoptera, Fam Curculionidse. Subfam. Apioninse par H. Wagner. 

i3i Orthoptera, Fam. Locustidae, Subfam. Listroscelina;. par H. Karny. 

i32. Lepidoptera Heterocera. Fam. Micropterygidse. par E. Meyrick. 

i33. Lepidoptera Heterocera, Fam. Adelidte, par E. Meyrick. 

134. Coleoptera. Fam. Carabidsp. Subfam. Notiophilincne, par. P. Duptiis. 



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LEPIDOPTERA 

FAM. GEOMETRIDiE 

SUBFAM. HEMITHEIN^ 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

FAM. GEOMETRID^ 

SUBFAM. HEMITHEIN^ 

by Louis B. PROUT 

WITH 5 COLOUKED PLATES 



Hemitheidse. Bruand, Mem. Soc. Emul. Doubs, Vol. 2 (2), p. 68 (1846). 

Terpnae. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (182G ?) i). 

Geometridi. Guenee, Duponchers Cat.- Meth. Lep. Eur. p. 223 (1845) (nec Geometrida, sect. t\'p., 

Leach, Edinb. Encycl. VoL 9 (i), p. iS^). 
Timandridi (part.). Stepliens, List Brit. Anim. Brit. Mus. Vol. 5, p. 225 (i85o). 
Geometridae. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 332 (i858). 
Hazidse. Guenee. ibidem, Vol. 10, p. 188 (i858). 
Geometrinae. Packard, Mon. Geom. U. S. A. p. 366 (1876). 
Euschemidae. Butler, 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6, p. 48 (1886). 

Nemoriinae. Gumppenberg, Nova Acta .\cad. Leop. d. Naturf., Halle, Vol. 49, p. 309 (1887). 
Nemorinse. (iumppenberg, ibidein, p. 340 (1887); Vol. 64, p. ^55 (189^). 
Geometridae ipart.). Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, p. 835 (1888). 
Pseudoterpninae. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. ^49 (1893). 
Dysphaniinae. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 10 (1898). 
Hemitheinae, Prout, W}'tsman's Gen. Ins. Fasc. io3, p. 10 (1910). 

This subfamily has been very generally known by the name oi Geomelrinae, which, as we have 
shown in our Introduction, is untenable for it. Duponchers « Chlorochromites i), published as a 
substitute for (juenee's Geometridi, was not latinized; moreover the generic name Chlorochroma, (m 



i) Founded on an invalid Tcntaraen name. See our Introduction iGenera Ittsectorum, Fasc. io3), p. 2, 3. 



2 LEPIDOPtERA HETEROCERA 

which it vvas founded, is an absolute synonym oi Hemithea. Hemitheinae, ex Bruand (1846), is therefore 
certainly its correct appellation. 

The subfamily is evidently on the whole a very natural one, although we have allowed it to 
include a few doubtful forms (Proiopkyta, Turner, Cacochloris, Prout. etc), its least specialized {Protophyta, 
in any case) being ahnost as susceptible of being placed among the heterogeneous CEnochrominae. 
In working out the classification \ve have been incalculably assisted by the work of Dr. A. Jefferis 
Turner, with whom \ve were in constant correspondence during the progress of his revision of the 
Australian genera. since pubHshed in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N ew Sotith Wales, Vol. 35, 
pp. 555-653 (1910). Previous classifications had been based chielly on the antenna, titial armature, dorsal 
crests and venation, all of which furnish useful characters, but none, so far as can be ascertained, a 
consistent scheme. The gradual, progressive obsolescence of the frenulum, though of course it had not 
been entirelv overlooked. had not been systematically consulted; but it is this which forms the foundation 
of Dr Turner's revision. The Australian fauna. comprising all the most archaic forms and at the same 
time some of the most highly specialized (e. g. Cenochlora, Warren), furnishes excellent malerial for 
obtaining an insight into the general lines of evolution, and \ve have made use of the basis with which 
Turner has furnished us. .\t the same time, its application is not without difficulties. The fact that the 
organ differs in the sexes, and that its atrophy is not always concurrent in both, would probably bring 
its employment into disfavour wilh extremists who admit no sexual charactcr as even generic. But still 
more, the fact that it results in (roughly) horisontal sections from the genealogical tree places it somewhat 
out of harmon\- with the ideal principle of natural classification (which would V^ke vertical sections, or, 
rather, would seek to cut off separate branches for « tribes u) and often necessitates our placing rather 
widely apart genera which are pretty clearly in an almost direct line of descent, such as the interesting 
group of genera with characterislic palpal and genitaUc structure and kindred larval specializations 
typified bv Comibaena, Hiibner (with frenukim present) and Eiuhloris, Hiibner (fienulum absent). 
Dr. Turner, with his usual acumen, has fully recognized these limitations of the system, and hasin part 
compensated tor the second b\- supplying a carefully thought-out genealogy of the Austrahan genera. 
This would be much complicated by the inclusion of the entire world's fauna, vvith its multiple ramifica- 
tions and interlacings and its many imperfectly known genera (especially African); and we have neces- 
sarilv been content with the broadest general outhnes, supplemented by occasional conimenls t)n obvious 
or pretty apparent relationships under the indi.vidual genera. 

Apart from the frenulum. the principal hnes of speciahzation have been the loss of tongue, loss 
of metathoracic und abdominal crests, loss of median spurs of hindtibia, pectination of the 9 antenna, 
shortening of the cells, wiiii increased tendency to staikings in the venation. The palpi are also very 
interesting and important, but specialize in divergent directions, and will probably require an exhaustive 
microscopical study before their taxonomic significance is fuUy understood ; in the .•\frican faima, in 
particular, apparently near aliies fretjuently show extreme differences in palpal lengtii. .\'one, however, 
of these characters has sliown nearly such regular ]irogress as the frenulum ; and unfortimatety the few 
which prociHcl uniformlv in ihe two sexes (cresting. venation, etc.,) seem among the least adapled to a 
stable classiiication. Even exckiding P/o/o/^/rr/rt, which must have escaped lieveloping them, the crests 
begin to disappear in some obviouslj' rather priinitivc forms. such as Epipristis. Meyrick, yet are retained 
in some genera which show in other respects rather high specialization (e. g. Lasiochlora, Warren, 
Lophochorisla. Warren, etc), perhaps even in one wliere the frenuluin has disappeared (see Lo^//o5to//i, 
ProutK The venation is extremelv inconstant in details, akhough its general course of evolution is as 
here indicated. SC- of the forewing only arises froin the cell in a few veiy (iiimitive genera, while the 
stalking of SC is indicative of at least a moderate degree of specialization ; with the exception of 
Ornithospila (which \ve regard as iiigli up in its group) it occurs in no genus vvith the 9 frenulum 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 3 

developed; and even m those with cf Iremihim persisting it scatcely ever appears e.xcept in conjunction 
with the migration of SC- to beyond SC"' (the onh- exception being Comihnemi, in which both SC and 
SC- are in a state of flux) ; unfortunately, on the other hand, the exact position of SC is variable even in 
many quite specialized genera, sometimes in close ahies, occasionally in individuals of a single species. 
Similar remarks apply to the other stalkings, and although a survey of a large amount of material 
has shown them often to suppl}- rehable generic characters, their use requires great caution and could not 
furnish higher groupings. The migration of SC- of forewing to beyond SC'' is fixed in the Rhomborista- 
group, the Hydata-gxo\XY> and some others, and therefore ver\" useful; but it is unrehable in a few genera. 
So, also. with certain pecuHar conformations ot the discocelhilars, to be noticed in their places. Vein C 
of hindwing, on which Hulst bases his generic synopsis (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. \'ol. 23, p. 3i2) 
foUows. apparenth" lather unmelhodicalh'. \'et niit without \'ielding occasional usefid clues, almost ever\' 
course which is to be found anywhere among the Geometridae ; its strong anastoniosis with the cell 
(a la Larentiid) is certainly as a rule generic, and we have considered it to be almost always worth using 
as such in the present state of our knowledge : but it is possible that it ma\' ultimatelv break down over 
the closelv allied genera Hydata and Prohydata or even over the African Syiidromodes or Collesis and one 
or two of their allies We have only allowed latitude in the single case of Hierochihonia, and there only 
as a temporar\- expedient to avoid the erection of a genus on a species of which only the 9 is yet known. 
Strange sports in venation are of occasional occurrence, and their possibility must be reckoned 
with in using a venational « ke}' n or in defining a new genus on a single specimen (compare Warren 
on Neurotoca, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 43). Generally, however, they are asymmetrical, and thus not 
liable to deceive. As a small contribution to teratolog}' in venation, we here put on recoid the cases 
which have conie under our notice in the course of our researches; the Comihaena-Eiichloris-group 
seems rather liable to funiish them. Each record refers to a single specimen i). 

Anisozyga gavissima, Walker. T^eft forewing with C forkcd. 

Chrysochloroma weeki, Warren (t}'pe specimen). Ditto. 

Racheospila erina, Dognin. Right hindwing with R- stalked with R'. 

Comibaena pustulala, Hufnagel. Right hindwing with small connecting bar between SC-^ and R' not far 

from their origin; left hindwing wilh rather long oblique additional vein from cell running 

into C. 
Comil>aena delineata, Warren. Both forewings with R- vvell stalked with SC=-R' (SC connate with that 

stalk), but on left wing R- separates from R' opposite departure of SC^-=, while on right wing 

it is stalked with R' to considerably be^-ond that separation ; further, in both forewings, R' is 

lurcate well before termen. 
Microloxia herbaria, Hiibner, var. (?) advolata, Eversmann. Left hindwing with cell narrowing distally, 

by deflexion of .SC (which therefore becomes excessivel}' remote from C); SC'-, R' and R- connate 

from apex of cell. 
Micruloxia indecretata. W^alker. Left forewing with SC" long-stalked with R', quite apart from SC^-^, as 

in tliu Epipleniidae. 
Euchloris allwcostaria, Bremer. Both forewings ditto. 
Euchloris f>lusiaria, Boisduval. Left forewing with C thr<iwing out a spur costad opposite the disco- 

cellulars; right forewing with SC forked (two specimens, same time and place). 
Euclilnris clilorophyUaria. lledemann. Lcft forewing with R- stalked with R'. 
Enchlons quantula. Swinhoe, a\>. glaicosa, Swinhoe. Left forewing with SC^ arising from SC-' instead of 

from SC-'. 



O See also Meyricjk. Prc/r. Linti. .Soc. .\'. S. Wal^sU), Vol. z, p. (,08, on a « //v/a-//i()HM » /fjrou/SA^rirr. (lueniie. anJ intra. p. 3s. footnote. 



^ LEPIUOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

Aglossochloris fidminaria, Lederer. Left forcwing with SC"' long-stalked with R', apurt from SC^'. 
Aglossochlonsfnhninaria. Lederer. Left forewing with SC^ short-stalked with SC instead of with SC^-'; 

iii;ht liindwing with SC^ and R' connected by a short bar. 
Neurntoca nolata, Warren (the type). Botii hindwings with R' throwing off a short obHciue branch 

posteriorly. 
Comostola nympha, Butler. Lett hindwiiig with R' furcate. 
Comostola maculata, Moore. Left hindwing with R-' furcate. 
Comostola ovifera, Warren. Right hindwing with an obhque bar from middle of DC^ to stalk of SC^-R', 

R' furcate, the posterior arm of the fork meeting R- (which is curved) at ternien ; left hindwing 

with SC- furcalc, R' making a costad curve and throwing out a cui-ved brancli posteriorly, 

which nearly rejoins thc niain vein, suggesting an elongate loop. 

In connection with the queslion of venation inav be mentioned ihat of wing-shaiie. Inasmuch 
as the veins at the wing-margins. whose course determines the shape, are evidently the first which must 
vary in response to certain envirt>ninenlal changes they are, as a rule. even less to be reHed on than the 
other veins; nevertheless experience has shown that really w^ide differences of shape have seldom 
appeared in evidently close allies, and we have thercfore recognized genera in several cases on this 
character. At the same time, the presence of a slight angulation of the termen of the hindwing at R^ is 
often clearly non-sigiiificanl. tlioiif^ii it has resuUed in the placing, by systematists, of a good many very 
obvious species of P;'as»«ocji'«ia in Thalassoiies. 

We have made much use of the tibial arniature, and it is very seldoin indeed ihat is has failed 
to assist generic differentiation. The genera Ulioaiemis, Cutpinia, Chrysochloroma, GEiws/>ila, Episothalma, 
Diplodesma and Aglnssochloris of the Old World, and Rhodoclilora, Tachychlora and Tachyphyle of the 
Neotropical Region aloiic seein incHnod to give any trouble on this score — whether through individual 
or generic inconstancy, or intergradation tow^ards allied genera. But there are also certain other genera 
— the Hemithea group at least — in which tiie armature varies with the se.K, and whcre it is conse- 
quently needful to know both sexes in order to assign the species to its right generic position. 

The ^ anlenna sliows, as a rule, consideiable stabiHty, and there seems rarely any objection to 
using it as of generic valiie in this group. as Dr. Turner has done; sometimes not merely the presence 
of the pectinations, but even their approximate length has become weii fixed, as for instance in the case 
of the usually very long pectinations of Comibaena, etc. , or the usualiy quite shoi t ones of Nemoria {Aplodes), 
Racheospila, elc. The 9 aiucnna is K-ss dependable, truly pectinate antenna; and merely dentate or 
almost simple somelimes occurring side by side in quite nearly rehited species; bul it. too, has attained 
stability in Dysphania, in most of the Oo.';^;7agroup of the Neotropical Region, etc. Even the cf antenna 
cannot be used as genciic in quite every case; see the following genera : ^olochroma, Terptia, Bathy- 
colpodes, Omphax. Mixocera. 

General characters of the Subfamily. — Face almost always smooth or nearly so, raroly 
protuberant, exticmely exceptionally with Ironlal tuft. .Anti-nna often short, usiially bipoctinate in the cf 
and fieciuently in the 9 (seo Fig. 8), never unipectinato; ihe pectinations rarely continued to the 
apex; the two series (especially wlien long) usually more or less strongl\- unequal in length. Hindtibia 
rarely aborted, but often with terminal spurs only; cf hindtibia not infrequentiy with elongate terminal 
processi). Abdomon frequently crested ; cf abdomen frequently with strong pencil of hairs just behind 
the basal abdominal cavity ^see Fig. I 2, Oospila coerulea). Wings usually amplo, never rudimentary 



I) Tliis is app;ueiul .■ of vari^ilile ueneric valiie, tliougli pjrsistjnt ulmost throughout tlic large gcnus Comii.tfii,i, an<l very general in Haclieo- 
spi/a.eW. See Fig. 10. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDJE 



or wanting, in nearl^' all the specialized forms protectively assimilated to leaves, prevailing colour 
therefore green ; termen of hindvving or of both wings frequentlj' angled or irregular. Frenulum rarely 
very long or strong, but showing a strong tendencv' to progressive obsolescence: either (j) fairly well 
developed in (f (see Fig. I) and consisting in 9 of a moderate bunch of hairs (Pl. 2, Fig. 14) i); 
or (2) more or less short and wealc in (j*, arising from before a humeral dilation (Fig. 2), in 9 vvanting 
or vestigial ; or (J) entirely wanting in both sexes, the humeral dilation stronger (Fig. 3). ISoth wings 

FlG. I 




FiG. 3 



FlG. 2 





Ltase of hiniiwing 
of Tfrpiia ci orhiiiy Buller, c' • 



Base of liindwing 
of Clilorotoma dicltloriti ia, Guenee, <3 • 



Itase of hindwing 
of liifis tiictearia^ Linne. 



with all the veins present 2), cells usually less than one-half the length of wing, frequently very short. 
discocelhdars (or at least DC) usually incurved, often very deeply, often very oblique posteriorly 3). 
Forewing with SC arising near end of cell or stalked, free or anastomosing with C, or with (" and SC', 
rarel}' 4) with SC= only, never anastomosing with SC^; SC- scarceh' ever 5) stalked with SC, and only 
arising independently from the cell in the five most primitive genera, otherwise stalked with SC^-^ with 
remarkable constanc}', usually arising before, but sometimes after, SC'; SC'*'^ alwavs stalked, SC^ very 
rarely 6) anastomosing with SC-; DC, if present, nearly alvvaj^s very short and obliqne. very frequently 
wanting, R' being stalked, or even long-stalked, with the subcostals; R- usually from above middle of 
discocellulars. Hindwing with humeral angle strong. expanding in proportion as the freiiulum becomes 
reduced; C more variable than in the other snbfamilies. normally free, but appioximated to cell near 
base, diverging rapidly from before, or at late.-t at the middle of ihe cell; SC- usually stalked with R' 
(except in the earlier genera), R- nearly always from above, trequently fronr very much above the middle 
of the cell 7). 

The inost characteristic features of the venation are the almost constant stalking of .SC^ of the 
forewing, ihe absolute absence of an areole. sens. str., i. e. such as results from anastomosis of SC 



i) We have only found .1 really robust Q frenulum in Clttorodoiitopfya . 

2) Except in Cacocltloris itviditla and in the Acrortlta section of l^iplodcsm^. 

3) When DC^-^ forma one continuous curve we have usually expressed it simply by « OC incurved »; occasion;illy, when the anterior part of 
the curve is very steep. wc iiave added an indication tliat the cell is tliereby « produced apically ». When DC- is approximately vertical (or in hindwing 
slightly inclined to be oblique outwards) and only I )C' incurved, we have usually only specitied the latter; only when the resultant an^Ieat thebase of R2 is 
exceptionally stronif hiive we called particular attention to it. Wlien these two discocellulars form independeiit inward curves, tlie angulation at R^ is of 
course accentuated, and always worthy of attcntion (compare Ornttltospita, etc. ). Another equally strikinf^ phase of angulation sometimes occurs. and 
needs distinguishing from the l.ist-mentioned ; this is u liere 1 )C- becomes extremely oblique, so that the anterior extremity of I )0' it considerably further 
from the base of the winji than that of DC- (See P(. 4, Fig. 1 7); we have indicated it by statins that « !)C» arises distally to DC- ■. 

4) See our figured specimen of C'//rj'joc/(/orwwa megaloptera^ Pl. 3, Fig. 1 5. 

i^ Only. so far as is known, in Cacochtoris oclirea and Hclicopagc (?) ciiiere 1 and sometimes — by obsolesccnce of its base — in Hypodoxa 
drleriorata . 1 lie latter ts probably of little importance ; we have seen a specimen of the allied H. miiscosaria in w hich, by a similar basal obsolescf nce. 
SC^ is madc to arise out of C. 

6) Only, so far :is is known, in l.iiicesthes and sometimes Mi.vuchroa. Heticupage (?) ciucrea, Ootplta.x bacoli and Rhadiiiumphax divincta . 
Warren says also in ^otochroina (?) sitbrttbttta, 

7) Almost central in .Keiiochtorodi^s and sometimes in Omphacodcs, ccntral in Mixeophancs. 



6 LlCriDOPTKHA HETEROCERA 

with SC^, or of SC- (out of SC) with SC^ i), and — in the hindwing especially — the point of origin 
of R', above or much above the middle of the discocelhilars. 

The specializations of vein C of the hindvving, of which we have aheady made mention as 
furnishing ihe groimdwork of Hulst's synopsis, only arise in a few of the higher groups. They are not 
found in our first three groups, and onl}- begin to appear accidentally, as it were, in our fourth 
(Agoschema, Agathiopsis, Victoria, etc), but the point-anastomosis (or point-appression) followed by 
rapid divergence becomes almost fixed in the Hemithea-, Comostola- and Eiictostes-sect\ons, leading to 
somewhat longer anastomosis in Thaleva, Syiichlora and one or two others : while the strongest anast- 
omosis, although it has iiot \et attained a higher than generic significance, is found exclusively in our 
two highest groups, and nearly always in conjunction with other marks of advanced speciahzation : 
palpal or antennal modifications, loss of median spurs, stalking of SC^ of forewing, etc. With the 
exception of the Australian and the Malayan (with Nevv (juinea), it appears in all the principal 
faunistic regions, but it is the most prevalent in the .Ethiopian. It is verv- suggestive that it is the home 
of the most primitive genera which fails to provide this specialization, and that India, the home of 
Archaeohalbis and of most of our second, third and even fourth groups (of course excepting the Australian 
and Malayan), furnishes only a single instance of it, Omphacodes directa, Walker. This handful of genera 
cannot possibly bc confounded with the Larentiinae if the rest of the venation be taken into account. 

As regards the conventional subfamily character, the position of R- of ihc hindwing. Turner 
vvell remarks {Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. VVales, Vol. 35, p. 557) that its significance does not lie in its 
occurrence, but in its fixity. We have already noted it in cerlain CEnochrominae; it is characteristic in 
a few AcidaUinae {Asellodes, Guen6e, etc), and even in the entirely imrelated Larentiinae R- is at times 
somewhat nearer to R' than to R^. It is further interesting that the character is ver>- marked in nearly 
all the lower groups in the llcmilheinae. and that the verj' few in which its jxisition is moderated — at 
last even almost ceutral — belong to the highly specialized forms, as Omphacodes, Xenochlorodes and the 
ambiguous Mixeophanes ; so that the character would appear lo have reached its zcnith in the early days 
of the evolutionary history of the snbfamily, and to be now somewhat on the wane, at least in ceriain 
branches 2). 

The cf genitalia have been too little studied to allow of manj^ generalizations, though the species 
whicli have been investigated seem to show generally a satisfactory homogeneitv. The « gnathos » 
is, vvith a tevv curious aiul ajiparently arbitrary exceptions, present; the penis is very generally 
« pestillate ». We are indebted for our knowledge of these parts exclusively to the researches of 
Rev. C. R. X. Burrows and Mr. F. N. Pierce, who provide the foUowing glossary of terms supplemental 
to those employed in Pierce's « Genitalia of the Group Noctuid:v of the Lepidoptera of Ihe liritish 
Islands » : 

Gitathos : the lower jaw of the m.uidibulaio uncus (= « shark's jaw » of Chapman 3). 

Socii : the two organs which in some species lie alongside the uncus. 

Pestillate : shaped like a pestle (used of the penis). 

Coreina (plural, coremata) : the extensile organ bearing a brush of long hairs, springing from the 
diirsal extremity "1' the e ghth abdominal segment and above the junction with the tegumen. 



it Warren {Xovit. Z^yol, Vol. 5. p. \i\ uses tlie teriii « doublc areole ■ in diagnosin^ Mi.vtvhyoa. and it could ulso bc applied to l.eiicesthes ; in 
these isol ited cases there is no vital difTerencc (apart froni dctails of position) froni tlie structure occurring in tliose gencra of tlie AclJaliitiar «liicli liave 
ii double arcolc :md SC* stalked (e. g. Huixcid<illa, Khn loshofhla, pnrt., etc); but in any casc they ai e of ex,:eedingly exccptional occurence iii the 
present sublami y I he origin of SC niuch further proximally in tlie .Acidaliiiiat is still disiinctive in sucli cases. and in tliem SC- anaslomoses. with 
SC^-i at, or close to, the origin of SC*, whereas in tlie two Hcinithfiitae it anastomoses much later. 

2) Meyrick (Proc. l.iiiii. .■soc. X. S. Wales (al, Vol. 2, p. 867), in diagnosing [l^iicroslis] /ulops aigocraiia, savs ; « 5 '= R') equidistant 
lietween 4 and 6 » bul his single specimen must have becn an abcrration ; in a series of seven whicli we have exainincd, we find this vein variable in 
position, but never actually central. 

3) See Geiiera /useclorum, l-'asc. io3, p. 0. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^, 7 

Fiised : united aloni,' a consideiable poition of the lower inner edge, so as to prevent the opening 
of the harpes without the risk or certainty of rupture. 

Unless othervvise specified, the characterization given is always founded on the type species 
of the genus. 

A few words may be added on tlie differentiation of the Heuiitheinae from their nearest relatives, 
the Acidaliinae. One distinction which Turner has considered u radical » is unfortunately inconstant, 
though generally helpful; namely. the wide separation of SC'*-''' at their base from R'. We have seen 
instances, at least in the variable Rhodostrophia, where these are absolutely connate, and close approx- 
imation is not very rare. Without any reference to this, however, we have many criteria to apply. 
If SC" is from the cell and anastomoses vvith SC^'^, or if SC^- arise coincidenth- from the cell and 
anastomose with SC^'^, or even if SC° is stalked with SC'^^ provided SC arises far from end of cell 
and the two anastomoses take place. than the species is certainly Acidaliine. If SC is from the cell and 
fails to anastoinose with SC^"' it is almost certainlv Hemitheine; we know of no exception \mi Clela, 
Duponchel, and one or two American species oi Ptychopoda, Stephens, both of vvhich geneia have almost 
all the other typical characteristics of the Acidaliiuae, and could not perplex the sj^stematist. If the five 
subcostals are stalked but arise in the order SC''^-^-'''', the genus is Hemitheine; if in the order 
5Qo.i.2.3'i (^pieuroprucha, Moscliler) it is Acidaliine. This only leaves room for doubt in the case of the 
few genera in wliich th- order is SC'-''--^-^ : Chrysocraspeda, Hampson, Ornithospila, Comibaena (part.), 
Argyrocosma, DipLJesma (part.), Lathochlora. Of these, only the first-named belongs to the Acidaliinae, 
and this is amply attested, not only by the colour scheme, but by an ensemble of characters which 
would hardly be possible of combination in the Hemitheinae : frenulum fully developed. long (only 
found in generalized Hemitheinac), liindvvmg with C anastomosing at a point with cell (only tound in 
specialized Hemitheinae), discocellukirs straight, subcostal stalk arising much before end of cell, etc. 

An interesting generalization has further been offered by Hulst (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, 
p. 247), which vve have only checked on a few unrelated species taken at random from the two sub- 
families, and from differing faunas. but which we have thus far found valid. He observes, namely, that the 
Acidaliinae liave the pectinations (when present) placed at the base of the segnients, the Hemitluinae 
much further distad — Iie says « at the top of the segments )i, but this requires modifying, as thev are 
often about the middle. 

Early Stages. — These have been carefully and accurately studied in the case of some of the 
Palifiarctic and Nearctic forms. and a basis is hereby provided for some useful generahzations. But there 
is still a deplorable lack of precise and detailed information concerning the other regions, including 
practically the entire area of distribution of our first three groups; from the very few intimations that 
are accessible, there is reason to suspect that they almost entirely lack the specializations which we 
associate vvith the more recentforms. An admirable series of Hfe-histories by the Rev. C. R. N. Burrows 
is invaluable on the following species : Hipparchns papilionana , Linne (as Geometra, Ent. Record, Vol. 17, 
p. 200), Comihaena pustulata, Hufnagel (ibidem, Vol. i5, p. 171), Hcmithea aestivaria, Hiibner (ibidem, 
Vol. ig, p. 234), Chlorissa viridata, Linne (as Nenwria, ibidem, Vol. 20, p. 12S} and Euchloris smaragdaria, 
Fabricius (as Phorodesma, ibidem, Vol. 12, p. ii3). Somc excellent larval descriptions by Dyar will also 
be noticed in thrir places. Egg clHptical, usualh' somewhat flattened above and below, often slightly 
truncate at the broader, micropylar end; pattein consisting of the normal hexagonal reticulation; size 
rather large compared with that of tlie moth. Larva generally rigid, rugose, gianulated, without conspicu- 
ous protuberances, assimilated to small twigs,'often wonderfuHy adaptive. the colour and scheme of 
protection varying according to the conditions of the food-plant; head usually bifid, first thoracic 
segment higher than the licail, more or loss produced anteriorly into two points. In the Comibaena-g\awp, 
however (and some vvhich do not obviously belong closely to that group, such as Synchlora), protected 



8 LEPIDOPTRKA HETEROCEKA 

in qiiite a different vvay, being furnished with an elaborate anangement of special spine-bearing (or 
hook-bearing) processes whereb}- they clothe themselves with debris of the food plant. Pupa mon- or 
less rugose, greenish or light-coloured, not subterranean nor enclcsed in a strong cocoon, but merely 
spun by a fevv threads among leaves. See, hi^vvever. Protophyta and Sterictopsis, to vvhich will probably 
have t(i be added other arch:iic forms. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Palaarctic and Xearctic (excepting the far north): 
Indo-Austrahan (strongly represented); /Ethiopian ; Neotropica]. Wanting in NewZealand. H;i\vaii and 
and probably numerous Pacific Islands and in the e.xireme south of South .A.merica; ahnost vvanting in 
Chih. Distribution doubtless in part governed by ihe general atlachment of the species to trees and 
advanced types of vegetation; perhaps on account of the absence of circumpolar representation, no 
forms common to the Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions (a sharp contrast to the Laicntiinaf). 

Subdivision of the Subfamily. — .A.s shovvn in our introductor}- remarks, the scheme of 

classification does not lend itseif readily to .the differentiation of clearly-defined Tribes. It would not, 
indeed, be difficult to isolate a few of the groups as such, notably the genera Dyspliaiiia and Citsuma 
{Dysphaniinae, Warren) or the genera Uliocnemis, Comibaena, Eiichloris, etc. (vide supra), but it seems 
inexpedient to depart from the general unity of plan for the sake of these few, inasmuch as the sequence 
of the vast residue vvould not in any way be assisted thereby. We merely indicate, for convenience of 
analysis, six groups, the last tvvo of vvliich are marked off by the speciahzations of the frenulum-develop- 
ment, while the first four are subdivisions of the group with frenulum complete, or nearly so, and are 
founded on (a) the point of origin of SC* of the forewing and {b) the nature of the response to environ- 
mental conditions and needs : i. e., the protective habitus. The last-named, which is mainly responsible 
for Warren's threefold division, Dysphaniinae, Pseiidoteipniiiae, Geoinetrinae, may, or may not, piove natural. 
Dr. Tumer thinks not, and believcs Dysphania and one of the leaf-green genera (CEnochloia) to be quite 
closely related to the Pseudoterpninae ; but as the great majority have certainly taken independent jiaths 
\ve consider that a convenient, even though possibly arbitrary, working arrangement may be obtained 
by recognizing them. The Nevv World genera, which nearly all fall into our fourth and fifth groups. 
have certainly foUowed the same general course of evolution as these of the Old World, but the 9 seems 
to have been on the vvhole moie conservative of the fienulum, thus offering some examples of geneia 
{Racheospila , Synchlora, etc.,) vvhich aie awkvvardly on the border-line between the two gioups named. 
For this reason, as vvell as on grounds of practical convenience, wc provide a separate ke}' to the Ncw 
World geneia, some of which, although differing sufficiently froin their Old Woild relatives to render 
their fusion undesirable, are yet much more sharply-defined when compared with ihe other genera of 
their own launa. The only tvvo geneia vvhich are common to both hemispheres. of which one piesents 
some curious problems of geographical distribution (viz. Eitcrostes), are of course inserted in both keys. 
Unforlunately a few genera which seem likely to be valid are only known in the 9 sex, or are 
otherwise quite impeifectly known. Where it seems reasonably safe to do so, these are intioduced into 
the keys as accurately as circumstances will allovv, though in one or tvvo cases only by some super- 
ficial distinction such as that of coloration, vvhich vvoukl not necessarily Iiold in the event of the discover}- 
of species with similar coloration but differing structure. No key, however, can be made to cover 
possible future contingencies. The follovving are the only genera known to us vvhich we have felt com- 
pelled to omit from the keys i), and which must therefore be consulted separately, being heie relegated 
to footnotes : Chloroparda, Lathochlora, Mesiirodes, Rhoiiiiochlora. 



i) The entirely unkno« n genera [.eptographa, Hubner. anti Xeitochtaena. Ixjwer. are not placed in the body of our work at all. but mcrcly 
referred to at tlie end. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 9 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

A. — Old World Qenera 

The following prellminary key, though rather cumbrous in one or two places, is adapted to 
coincide as nearly as convenient with our six Groups, and so to allow of their being worked out in 
dichotomous tabulation subsequently. It is believed that this will in the net result be found an advantage, 
as the least sharply diiferentiated groups (Groups II and IV) can generally, with a ven,' bttle experience, 
be quite readih' separated by their facies, and the detailed ke}'s resorted to immediately. 

1. Forewing ivith SC- arising separately from tlie cell Group I. 

Forewing with SC" nol arising separately from tke cell 2. 

2. HiHdKiing loitlwut hasal expansion \), frenutum present in boilt sexcs 3. 

Hindwing with niarked hasal expansion, Q frenulum absent or absolutely %'estigial 6. 

3. Forewing with fovea Group III. 

Foreiifng withoul fovca . . 

4. Hindtibia '^cithout median spurs 2) . Group II (part.). 

Hindtibia wiih niedian spurs 5 

5. Ahdomcn very iisually crcsted 3), huild ttsually robust, clothing and scaling dense; hindwing 

withoui lail or salient angle at R', SC- scarcely ever stalked; prevailing coloration greys 

or moss greens, never leaf-green Group II. 

Ahdomen not crested, or, if so, Itindwing angled or tailed at R^; build seldom very robust, 
scaling ofien smooth; hindwing with SC^ often stalked; prcvailing coloration bright 
or light greens, iisually assimilated to leaves Group IV. 

6. (^ frenulum present ... Group V. 

(^ frentdiim ahscnt Group VI. 

It may be added that in Groups V and VI the abdomen is rarely crested, the build usualh- 
slender, median spurs often wanting, scaling usually smooth, termen of hindwing usually smooth or 
with a single angle or tail, SC of forewing is at times stalked, C of hindwing often anastomoses with 
cell at a point, sometimes strongly. 

Qroup I 

1. Thorax and ahdomen not cresied i. Genus Protophyta, Turner. 

Abdomen and often thorax crested 2. 

2. Thorax strongly crested ; ^f antenna bipectiuate 3. 

Thorax not or only slightly crested ; q< antcnna simfle 1 

3. Hindwing with SC^ stalked 4. Genus Sterictopsis, Warren. 

Hindwing with SC'^ separate 2. Genus Hei.iomystis, Meyrick. 

4. Abdominal crests very strong ; hindwing with C closely 

approximaled to cell to beyoiid one-half 3. Genus Rhuma, Walker. 

Ahdominal cresls stnall ; hindwing with C diverging well 

hefore one-half 5. Gcnus Arch^obalbis, nov. gen., Prout. 



1) Except in ApoJasinia, wtiich has strong Q frenulum, and verv sligiitly in Pscudottyfiitit, wliich has modcrately long, tliough very meagre 
Q frenulum. 

2) There are only four known Old World genera witli complete frenulum and only two spurs, namely Crypsiphona, Synclysmus, Xenockroma 
and Gnophfsema, all of which we rcfer high up in Group II : but as the three last are rather anomalous, and little known, we have called special attention 
to them. In Group I\', so far as is known, tlie niedian spurs are invariably present. 

3) Not crested in Xpociasmia, and not oronly slightly in Herocliroiita, Actenocltronta and Epipristis. 



10 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEJROCERA 

Qroup II 

1 . Hiiidtibia wil/i iwo spurs 2 . 

Hindtibia with four spurs 5 . 

2. Toiigue well developed 20. Geniis Crypsiphona. Meyrick. 

Tongite wanting or rudimentary 3. 

i. Ahdomeii crestcd ; SC^ offorewing normal 4. 

Abdomen not crested ;SC^ offorewing stalked to beyondSC-'. 25. Genus Gnophosema, nov. gen., Prout. 
^. Head rough-scaled 21. Genus Synci.ysmus, Eutler. 

Headnormal 22. Genus Xenochroma, Warren. 

5. Hindwing with slight basal expausion, Q fnnulum some- 

times weak 6. 

Hindwing withoiit Inisal expansion , 9 trenultim tvell 

developed 7- 

6. Ahdomen crested ; (j' antenna bipectinate 23. Genus Pseudoterpna. Hiibner. 

Abdomen not ciested ; (j' antenna uot bipectinate. ... 24. (Jenus .Apodasmia, Turner. 

7. Tongue waitting 11. Genus Mimandkia, Swinhoe. 

Tongtie developed 8. 

8. Head 7i'ith hood projecting aboveface 18. Genus Cyneoterpna, Prnut. 

Head without hood 9- 

g. Metathorax with very strongly developedcrest .... 17. Cienus Uinuua, Moore. 

Metathorax not, or at mosi quife moderately crested 10. 

10. Hindiiiing jiiith tufts of raised scales 11. 

Hiiidwing tfithont ttifts of raised scales 12. 

11. Hindwingwith cetl short.scale-tuft ai its end .... 12. Genus Pingasa, Mooie. 
Hindwingwtth cell normal. scale-tnft before its end . . i3. Genus HvroDOXA, nov. gen.. Prout. 

12. Hindwing with C apprnximated to cell to ai least one-half. 19. Gcnus Simiagnodei.a, Warren. 
Hindwing with Q diverging hefore one-half i3. 

i3. Pecttts densely hairy ; femora usually hairy ; hindwiug 

with C approximaied to cell for some distance i) 14. 

Pectus noi densely hairy ; femora almost glabrous ; hindwing 

with C approximaied to cell ai poiiti only near base . . 10. Genus Epipristis, Meyrick. 

14. Ahdominal crests rttdimentary or waniing i5. 

Abdominal crests developed 16. 

i5. Hindiiiiiig normally shaped ; cf hiudtibia wilhout process . 8. Genus Actenochroma, Warren. 
Hindwing nnl normally shaped ; (f hindtibia with terminal 

process 7. Genus Herochroma, Sv^'inlioe. 

16. Frons nearly always strongly protiiberant 2) ; femora [esfe- 

cially hindfemur) densely hairy 17- 

Frons not strongly protuberant ; femora glabrous or [hind- 

femur) slighlly or quite moderaiely hairy 3) 18. 

17. (f anienna simple ; forewing with SC anasiomosing wiih C 

and SC^; hiudwing wiih terinen strongly crenate . . 6. Genus Neohai.uis, nov. gen., Prout. 



i) But see Orthocrasfieda . 

2) Less so in Terpita pictaria antl neottoma. 

3) More so in a few .\fetii/l->iofihia. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.C ii 

(;f antenna nea>ly always hipeclinate ; foreimng vnih SC 

almost alu^ays free ; hindwing tjith termen less crenate . 16. Genus Terpna, Ilei iich-Schaffer. 
18. Forewing wilh termen almost vertical anteriorly ; ahdominal 

crestx moderale ; 9 palpus wilh third joint long. . . 9. Genus Orthocrasi'EDa, nov. gen., Prout. 

Forewingwilii termenstrongly obliqiie anteriorly ; abdominal 

cresls usnallv slrong ; Q palpus 'with thirdjoinl nol long 19. 

39. DC of forewing with angle {usually sharp) at origin ofW: 
(^ antenna dentale-ciliale or peclinate ; hindwing with 

inner margin not elongale 14. Genus .■Eoi.ochkoma, nov. gen., Prout. 

DC of forewing not angled at R'^; cf antenna lamellnte ; 

hindtmng with inner margin more or less elongate . . i5. Genus Metalloi.ophia, Warren. 

Group III 

1. Forewing {esfecially in cf) much elongated ; fovea strong. 26. Genus Dysphania, Hiibner. 
Forewing normally shaped ; fovea not strong 27. Genus Cusuma, Moore. 

Qroup IV 

1. (^ frenunnn clnhbed al i\trcnuly 47. Genus DioscoRE, Warren. 

q' frenulum nut clubbed 2. 

2. ForeZi'ing wilh apex falcate, termen othernitse smooth ^- 

Forewing wilh afex nol falcale or termen not smooth i) 5. 

3. Palpus minule 43. Genus Chlorozancla, nov. gen., Prout. 

Palpus moderate to long . . . . , ■ • 4- 

^. Third joinl of palpus small 41. Genus Limbatochlamys, Rothschild. 

Third joiut of palpuselongate 42 Genus Tanaorhinus, Butler. 

5. Forewing i<iith SC^ arising after SQ^ "• 

Forewing iK<ilh SC- arising before SC^ 2) 7- 

6. Abdomen crested ; SC' of foreii<ing froin cell ; DC oi 

hindwing rather slraight 58. Genus Opjsthotia, Wairen. 

Abdomen not crested ; SC of forenHHg slalked ; DC of 

hindwing acutely angled 48. Genus Ornithospila, Guenee. 

7. Hindwing with SC^ stalked 3) °- 

Hindwing wilh SC- not stalked . , ^^- 

8. Tongue 'wanling or vestigial 9^ 

Tongue develofed '°" 

9. Palpus shorl lo minule 55. Genus Archichlora, Warren (part.). 

Polfus moderale lo long 55. Genus Victoria, Warren. 

10. Metathorax cresled 54. Genus Lophomachia, nov. gen., Prout. 

Melathorax nol cresled ' ' • 

11. Abdomen crested '^' 

Abdomen not cresled ^ 

12. Crests stronp 56. Genus Arciiichloka, Warren (part.). 



1) But tta Hipfiarckus smaragJus . 

2) Except Osteosevut \'i) discaia. 

3) Sometimes connute in Cltluromachia 



12 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

Cresis small 3g. (ienus Xenozanci.a. Wanen. 

li. Face tiiflcd ; hiuHwing with subdiaphanous basal patch. . 49. Genus Ai-orandria, Warren. 

Face iwl or scanely Infted ; hindiving wifhnut subdiaphanons 

basal patch j. 

14. liiudwing wilh marked excision between R' and J<' . . 36. Genus Eu.xena, Warun. 

Hindwing withnut marked cxcision behfeen W and ^^ i5. 

i5. Wings black, white marked .;cS. Genus .'\gosci{e.via, Prout. 

Wings green . . j5 

i6. cf anlenna simple; 9 palpus with third joint long i) . . 53. (Jenus Chi.okomachia. Wanen. 

Cf anlenna bipectinate ; Q palpus usiially with third joint 

shnrt , ~ 

' / • 

17. Palpus with third joint relatively long .... 18. 

Palpns with third joint short iq, 

iH. Antcnna rather long, in (^ not bipectinate 5i . Genus .\nisozvga. Piout 

Antcnna shorl. in 9 bipectinate Sg. Genus Osteosema, Wanen (part.). 

19. Hindwing wilh lcrmcn bcnl al R\ shortly toothed at R^ and 

roundly produced at tornus, W separate Sy. (lenus Chloroues, (uien^e. 

Hindwing not so shaped, W stalked 20. 

20. Hindwing7i)ith\)C stronglyoblique 52. (ienus EucYCt.onEs. Wanen. 

Hindwing wiih DC not strongly oblique 21. 

21. cf hindtibia dilatcd, withprocess; Q antenna simple . . 60. Genus Ochrognesia, W.irren. 

(S liindiibia simple; Q antenna bipcctinale Sg. Genus Osteosrma, Wanen (part.). 

21.. Patpnsshort 38. (lenus Akacima, Butler. 

Palpus moderatc tn tnng , . 23. 

23. Antenna in (j' simple .24. 

Antcmta in (^ bipectinate 26. 

24. Metalhorax crested ; abdominal crests highly developed . . 32. Genus Loimiochi.oka. Wanen. 
Metatlwrax Hot crested ; abdominal crests small orwanting 25. 

25. Forewing angled at iXi 35. Genus Dooahia, Warren. 

Forewing uot angled al R- ... 3o. Genus Agathia, (aionee. 

26. Abdomcn crcsted . . 27. 

Abdomen not crcsted 28. 

27. Abdominal crests strong ; forewing wilh lermcu strongly 

elbowed 33 Genus Camptolopiiia. Warren. 

Abdominal crests stight ; forewing 7c<ith termen nnt elhowcd. 3i. Genus Pakagatiua, Warren. 

28. Both wings toith termen strongly and irregularly denlale . 3y. Genus Chi.okodontopeka. Warren. 
Forennng, and geneially hindwing,not strongly deidatc 29. 

2g. Hindwiug with termen toothcd or angled at K' as well 

as R^; (f relinaculuin abnormal 34. Genus I lEi.uoPAr.i:, Warren. 

Hindwing with tcrmcn cvcu, or i&ith a single aiigle al R-' ; 

Cf rcfinaculum iioimal 3o. 

io. Scaling smonth, iridescent; /orewing with apex not acute 3i. 

Scahng thick, opaquc; forewing with apex usually acute 32. 



I) The Q can be distiiiguishccl from .Imsosyga, whicli sliiires with tt thc long palpus, by having l>C of^thc hindwinK less oblique and lacking; 
the very usuul pectoral pencil of that genus. 



FAM. (jEOMETKID.E i3 

31. o* kiiuilibia wil/i s/ioiig peiici! ; Q palpns wilh tliird jniiit 

rather long 46. Genus Chi.okorjthka, T^utler. 

(^ hindtibia i<'ithout f^ciicil ; 9 palpus -lAth third joint 

moderate i) 45. Genus Ioiaphora, Warren. 

32. Palpus roii^h-liaired iihove and bencatli ; fnrewing ivith SC] 

nnl anastonwsing with SC- 44. Genus IIiitarchus, Leach. 

Palpiis nearly sinonth; /orewing ii.nth SC anastontosing 

with SC- 29. Cjenus (Enochloka, Warien. 

Qroup V 

1. HiiidwiHg wilh C anastomosing 7^uth cell to at least one-half 2. 

Hindzving with C free, or anastoinosing very brietlv near 

base only -,_ 

2. Palpus short, Ihird joint in 9 small 3_ 

Palpiis invderate lo long. Ihird joint in 9 elongate. . . i52. (jenus Khouesia, Warren. 

3. Fortwiiig luith SC- arisnig liefore or iininediately after IV. 146. Genus Dichkoma, Westwood. 
Fore7ciiig iKHth SC^ normai 4_ 

4. Hindlibia ijith niedian spurs present 5_ 

llindtibia 'witli inedian spiirs absent i55. CJenus Hiekochthonia, nov. gen., Prout. 

5. Wings narrow; q* anleiina snnple 145. Genus Rhadinomphax, Prout. 

Wings not narrow ; (j' antenna bipectinate 5_ 

6. Hindwing with termeii evenly rouiided, costa not long; 

9 antenna simple 1^4. Genus Syndkomodes, Warren. 

Hindioing willi lernun not eoenly roinided, cosla long ; 

9 antenna hipectiiiate i53. (jenus Lasiochi.ora. Warren. 

7. Forewing ivith SC^ arising aftei SC^ 8. 

Forewing with SC' arising be/ore SC^ 2) 17. 

H. Hindtibia — at leasl in (f i) — ?<'ith lemnnal spurs onlv q. 

Hindlibia in both sexes with all spurs 11. 

9. Wings smoothly and ihinly scaled; abdomen not crested ; 

(^ antenna ciliatcd iS^. Genus Dipi,odesma. sect. I V, Warren. 

Wings thickly scaled ; ahdoinen crested ; (f antenna bipec- 

tinate 10. 

10. BC strongly angled al K^ 65. Genus Spaniocentka, nov. gen., Prout. 

DC not strongly angled at Ri i3o. Genus Ctenothea, nov. gen., Prout. 

I I. Anleniia in (^ ciliated ; ahdomen with metallic crests . . 117. (jenus Metai.i.ochi.ora, Warren (part.). 

Antcnna in (f hipcclinate: crestswanting, or non-inetallic 12. 

12. Palpus short 66. (ienus Metacineta, nov. gen., Prout. 

Palpus moderale to long j 3_ 

i3. Abdomen strongly crested ' 63. (jenus Chi.okomianta, Warren. 

Abdomen not or only slightly crested 14. 

i) rhcre are also venational liifferences between thcse two gehera; in Chtororithra R« of the liintlwintr ari.ses rloser to R<, anil M' is connate 
or shortstalked, while in lotaphora it is sepurate. 

2> ICxcept an occasional aberrant spccies in Prasinocyma. 

i) Ihc ^^ [',> of Lteiiothea antl of Diptoiiesma xatiiliociitora arc unknown to us, and we havc only seen onesound Q of D, siiltexpressa (tcrminal 
spurs only)and one of, presuniably, stibtii^iiimbrata (one median prcsent). Chtornparda and Laihochlora (c^'<3 imknownj probably also belong here in 
our key. 



j^ LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

14. Both wings vjith M' remote at originfrom R^, DC abnormal 67. Genus Argyrocosma, Turncr. 

Both wings with W- not remote at origin, DC normal i5. 

i5. Palfitis with second joint long-haired beneath 68. Genus Comib..esa, Hiibner (part.). 

Palptis with second joint tiot long-haired beneath 16. 

16. Hittdwing with marked basal expaitsion, DC-* arising 

distally to DC', M' rarely stalked ; antenna short . . 64. Genus Rhomborista, Warren. 
Hindwing with scarcely-marked basal expansion, DC nor- 

mal. M} always stalked ; aittenna moderate .... 62. Genus Agathiopsis, Warren. 

17. Wings deep golden 160. Genus Xanthoduka, Butler. 

Wings not deep golden 18. 

18. Htndtibia iii cf wHhout spurs 19. 

Hindtibia in cf 'with spurs 20. 

ig. Antenna in (f liipectinate 108. Genus Eketmopis. Turner. 

Antenna in (f simple 123. Genus Anoploscei.es, Warren. 

20. Metathorax cresied ; antenna with tu/l at base 1) . . . 6i. Genus Ui.iocnemis, Warren. 
Metathorax not crested ; antenna 'without marked tttft at base 21. 

21 . Hindtibia in tj with two spurs 2) 22. 

Hindtibia in (f ijith /our spiirs 3) 39. 

22. Palptis mintite 4) 23. 

Palpiis moderate to long 26. 

23. Ahdomen crested i33. Genus Pseudhemithea, Bastelberger. 

Abdomen not crested 24. 

24. Antenna in (f simple i32. Genus Neromia, Staudin^er (part.). 

Antenna in cf bipectinate . . 25. 

25. Both wings with 'SiV reiitote at origin from K^ .... 106. Genus PENTHEOCHLORA,n<)v. gen., Prout. 
Both wings with M' closely approximated to B? or stalked. 144. Genus Prosomphax, Warren. 

26. Hindtibia in 9 '»'''/' ''''" spurs 27. 

Hindtibiain 9 t^'ith four spurs 5) 32. 

27. Abdomen crested 28. 

Abdomen not crested 29. 

28. Anteniia in (j' and sometimes in Q bipectinate .... 94. Genus Cheroscelis, nov. gen., Prout. 
Antenna not bipectinate i3i. Genus Cyclothea, nov. gen., Prout. 

29. Rather laige inoths; tongue wanting; 9 antenna bipectinate. 148. Genus Pakaprasina, \\'arren. 
Moderate or small moths; tongue present; 9 antenna not 

bipectinatf. . . 3o. 

30. Palptis in 9 with third joint elongate 3i. 

Palpus in Q with third joint not elongate i32. Genus Nekomia, Staudinger (part.). 

3i. Hindwing rotinded ;/orewing with SC^ /rom cell . 149. Genus Microloxia, Warren. 

Hindi^nng quadrate, 'with small tail at R-'; forewing 

with SC' slalkcd i5o. Genus Pamphlebia, Warren. 



1 ) Further ilistiiiijmslu*'! from nearly a II the succeeiiing genera (except Comibaetta and Arffyrographa) by stout. strongly rough-haired second 
joint of palpus and strongly tuftcd forctihia; from Comifiaeiia and Argyro^^rafiha by abdominal rrests and pectinate Q antenna. 

2) In (Enosfii/a sometLnies vcstiges of a second pair. 

3) In Chyysoch/or"ttta sometimes three only. 

4) Herc probably belongs also .\lesttroii''S. cJ unknown. 

51 Only in Efiisothaima and Ciilfiitiia somewhat unstable. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E i5 

2>z. Hindtibia in (^ i.nth tenninal sl>urs Kianlnii; \). . 1 14. (jenus Qinospila, Swiiihoe. 

Hiiidtibia iii (^f ijit/i median spiirs uiantini; 33_ 

a. HindiiiineHijithtermencrenulateorexcisedbetuieenli^andK^ 



• • ■ 34. 

Hindiiiingwith tervten not crenulate or excised 35, 

34. Forewing Jinth termsn usually crenulate; abdomen crested; 

(f anlenna nof pectinate 120. Genus EiusoTHAr.MA, Swinhoe. 

Forewing witli termen not cicniilate; abdomen noi crested ; 

(^ antenna bipectinate 96. Genus Culpinia, nov. gen., Prout. 

35. Forewing witk SC^ stalked, running into C 134. Genus Diplodesma. sect. I, II, III, 

[VVarren. 
Forewing with SC^ froin cell , iiot running into C 36. 

36. Abdomen jiiith strong curled crests I2l.(jenus Lophockita, Warren. 

Abdomen nnth crests small or wantiiig 37. 

37. Hindtiiivg ■ciiith C ap(>roximated to cell, not anastomosing, 

R' from close to K'; (j' aiiteniia bipcctiiiate ; abdomen 

not crested ir3. (jenus Gigantothea, nov. gen., Prout. 

Hiiidwiiig 'with C anastoinosing at a point, R^ normal ; 

(j' antenna ciliated; abdomen often slightly crested 38. 

38. Hind'wing angled or tailed ; ahdomen with smalt cresls. . i22.Genus He.mithea, Duponchel. 
Hindwing rounded or 'weakly bent; abdomen loithout (or 

with at most tnio very small) crests 124. Genus Chlorissa, .Stephens. 

3g. Hindwing jvith DC coniinuonsly and extremely oblique . 107. Genus Thalassodes, Guenee. 

Hindwing with DC not so 40. 

40. Boih wings 'with DC-' extreinely obtique, DC^ vertical or 

obliquc inwards 112. Genus Oxvchora, Warren. 

Both wiiigs 'with DC iiot so 41. 

41. Hindjiiing nnth termeH toothcd at Wand^R^^excisedbetween 42. 

Hindwing witli termen not so shaped 43. 

42. Hindiving tinth M^ stalked gS. Genus Bathycolpodes, nov. gen., Prout. 

Hindwing 'diith hV 'widely separale g5. Genus Heterocrita, Warren. 

43. Forewing zidth termen excised between apex and 'R? . . . 100. Genus Hypoccela, Warren (part.) 2). 
Fore'wing with termen not so shaped 44. 

44. Foreziiing falcate at apex 45. 

Forewing not falcate at apex 3) 47. 

^5. Antenna in cf simple gg. Genus Chloroduepana, Warren. 

Aiiteniia in (^ bipectiiialc 46. 

46. Falcation sinall aiid ^harp; abdomen not crcsted. . . 140. Genus Heteresthes, Warren. 
Falcation larger and bluiitcr ; abdomen crested .... 100. Genus Hvpoccela, Warren (humidaria). 

47. Hind'wing extremely prodnccd to tornus ..... 48. 

Hindwing not extremcty prodnced to tornus 49. 

48. Tongue weak; antenna in (f hipectinate 69. Genus Chloroch.-eta, Warren. 

Tongue 'liiell-developed ; anteiiiia iii (f ciliatcd .... 118. Genus Urohtha, Meyrick. 



r> Or entirely vcstigiaL 

2) Also in the Q of .■tiithnrmasles papilio ,• but in that species the Q anlenna is simple. in Hyfocoela (ao far as yet known : uniformis. tiirpi- 
saria) bipcctinate. 

3) Of coura ■ this does not preclude tlie presence of a minute acute point at apex. sucli as may appear sexually or in individual species (compare 
Otnphax, ^tc.) entirely without generic signiiicance. 



i6 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

4Q. Palpus in hoth sexes short, with ierminal joint small 5o. 

Palpus moderate to lottg, with terminal joint in 9 usually 

elongate 53. 

5o. Abdomen with series of Kiell-developed crests 142. Genus Celidomphax, nov. gen., Prout. 

Abdominal crests slight or waniing 5i. 

5i. Toitguf developed; palpus rarely minute; abdomen never 

crested; antenna moderaie iSg. Genus Chlorocoma, Turner. 

Tongue weak; palpus iisually minute; abdomen ofien Zi.<iih 

minute crests ; antenna rather short 52. 

5'2. Antenna in both sexcs moderately to strongly bipectinate. . 141. Genus Heterorachis, Warren. 
Antenna simple, or in cf only shortly bipectinaie . . . 143. Genus Omphax, Guenee. 

53. Tongue loeak; both wings with termen sirongly ventricose . 102. Genus Perithalera, nov. gen., Prout. 
Tongue well-developed i); anngs not so shaped 54. 

54. Hindwing quadrate, or 7^'ith pronounced tail or angle 

afR? 55. 

Hindwing smooth, or at mosi slightly bent at K^ 61. 

55. Hindwing long and uarrow, termen deniaie, tail at R^ 

long II 5. Genus Ma.xate.s, Moore. 

Hindwing not so shaped 56. 

56. Antenna in (f bipectinate 57. 

Antenna in (f not bipectinate 5g. 

5/. Hindwittgwith tail slight; both tuings with R^ arising close 
to apex of cell ; (^ hindleg with one median spur usually 

weak or wanting; 9 palpus tt>ith third joint very loiig . io3. Genus Chrysochloroma, Warren. 
Hindwing with tail Hsually pronounced 2); R* separate at 
origin; cf hindleg 7^'itli both median spurs developed ; 

Q palpus z^'ith third joint usually not very long 58. 

5S. Abdomen withslight crests 3) loi , Genus Antharmostes, Warren. 

Ahdomen without crests 104. Genus Gelasma, Warren. 

5g. Hindwing Ji'ith SC' connate or harely sialked ; abdomen not 

crested 116. Genus Idiociilora, nov. gen., Prout. 

Hindwing with SC^ well stalked ; ahdomen usually creslcd 60. 

bo. Abdomen with strong curved crests i ig. Gemis ^Iixoi.ophia, Warren. 

Ahdominal crcsts compact and metallic, or wanting . 117. Genus Metallochi.ora, Warren (part.). 

61. Antennain (f bipeciinate 62. 

Antenna in (f notbipecliuale 1 17. Genus Metallochlora, Warren (part.). 

62. Palpus Ji'itk second joint strong, rough-scaled above and 

beneath 63. 

Palpus liiith second joiiit iwrmai 64. 

63. Wingsbroad ; forewtngtoith SC^notanastomosingtmth SC ; 

(f hindtibia almosi always with terminal process . . 68. Genus Co.MiBiENA, Hiibner (part.). 
IViitgs elongaie ; forewingwith SC* anastomosing wiih SC ; 

(f hindtibia 'without process 147. (jenus Argyrographa, nov. gen., Prout. 



1) There may possihly be one or two individual cxccptions in thc spci-ies of succeeding genera, but \\e have not noted such . 

2I Sli^ltt in Gelnsiiia tripticilascia, which is quite doubtfully placed. 

3> If tliese are ever entirely absent. we are unable to differentiate tbe genus rigidly. See our notc thereon. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 17 

64. Hindwiiig with C anasiomosing near base i^iith cell ; q* hind- 

tibia with process, tarsus very short 110. Genus Endemia, Warien. 

Hindwing iK<ith C frce; (^ hindleg nsnally normal 65. 

65. Abdomen loith slight crests iii. Genus Stkepsichlora, Warren. 

Abdomen Knthout crests 109. Genus Prasinocyma, Warren. 

Qroup V[ 

1. Foreiciing with SC' and SC^ stalked or coincidentfrom cell. 164. Genus Cacochloris, nov. gen., Prout. 
Forewing with SC^ {often SC^ also)from stalk ofSC?'^ 2 

2 . Hindwing 7i'itk C anastomosing loith cell to at least one- 

half 3. 

Hindiviug Kiitk C free, or anasiomosing near base only 7. 

3. Hindlibia with foiir spiirs 4. 

Hindtibia with two spurs 5. 

4. Palpus tvith third joini minute ; forewing with SC^ arising 

after SC^ ij5. Genus Collesis, Wari'en. 

Palpus with thirdjoint moderate to long ; forewing with SC^ 

arising before CS^ 176. Genus Omphacodes, Warren. 

5. Wings narrow 201. Genus Mixeopiianes, nov. gen., Prout. 

Wings normaUy skaped , 6. 

6. Palpuswithsecond joint rough-scaled; ^ antennabipectinaie. igg. Genus Allochrostes, nov. gen., Prout. 
Palpus witk second joint smootk ; 9 antenna not bipectinate . 200. Genus Xenochlorodes, Warren. 

7. Tongue absent or vestigial 8. 

Tongue developed i3. 

8. HindicingKiitk lerinen incurved or excisedbeiji'eeji R^ and R-^ 9. 

Hindwing icitk termen noi incurvcd or excised 10. 

9. Hindtibia wiik four spurs 171. Genus Dolosis, nov. gen., Prout. 

Hindtibia witk two spurs 169. Genus Dyschloropsis, Warren. 

10. Sniall species; palpus less tkan one-kal/ diaincier of eye; 

kindwing wiih C diverging after point-anastomosis . , iq6. Genus Cenochi.ora, Warren. 
Moderatc-sized species; palpus more ihan one-half ; hind- 

wing witk C approximated to near middle of cell 11. 

1 1 . Palpiis wiili second juint very stiong, muck longer tkan 

first joint 166. Genus Aglossochloris, nov. gen., Prout. 

Palpus not so 12. 

12. Palpus very sleiider ; liindwing witk tennen well roundcd . -183. Genus Neurotoca, W^arren. 
Palpus moderate i); hindwing witk termen little rounded, 

torniis prolonged 168. Genus Holoterpna, Piingeler. 

i3. Abdomen well crested . 184. Genus Lophostola, nov. gen., Prout. 

Abdomen not or scarcely cresied 14. 

14. Hindtibia witk terminal spurs only ... i5. 

Hindiioia 7jitli ail spurs 21. 

i5. Hindwing (jiiadraie, strongly angled ai E? i85. Genus Gonochlora, Swinhoe. 

Hindi.iing noi so shaped 16. 



I) Rather sliort in pruinosata. 



i8 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

16. Hindwi)ig dcntate, excised hel'u'een R' nud R'* .17. 

Hindwiiig rouiided 18. 

17. Palpus with tkird joint very small; hindwing ii'ith C 

anastomosini; briefly, M^ not stalked 170. (ienus 'J"halei<a, Hiibiier. 

Palpiis i<<ith third joiitt moderale to long ; hindwing wiih C 

/ree, M' long-stalked 189. Geniis I.ambornia, nov. gen., Prout. 

18. Palpiis short ig. 

Palpits moderate to long 20. 

ig. Antenna in cf with long peclinations; forewing 7i'ith SC 

from cell; hindwing loiih M.^ not stalked igS. (jenus Cv.matopi.ex, Tuiiier. 

Antcnna in (^ never with long pectinations ; fflreji'ing 
wilh SC usually slalked ; hiiidwing 7,'ith M' iisiiaUy 
stalked ig7. Genus Mixocera. Warren. 

20. Face and feinora smooth; both 7i>ings with M' stalked or at 

least connate ig8. Genus Eucrostes. Hiibner. 

Face rotigh-scaled, femora hairy; both wings ii'ith M' 

7t'idely separate at origin 167. Genus Iii.ops, nuv. gen., Prout. 

21. Palpus ',<'ith second joint stoiit, rather lonc;. strongly rough- 

scaled above aud beneath i65. Genus Euchloris, Hiibner. 

Palpus normal or slendcr 22. 

■22. Both 7<'ings 'u'ith termen strongly crenate i(3i. Genus Pakamaxates, \\'arien. 

Boih 7iiings 7jith termen not strongly crenate 23. 

23. Palpus short to qiiite moderate. third joini in ncither sex 

elongaie i); anlcnua in Q usiiaUy bipectinate 24. 

Palpiis moderate to long, third joint, at least in Q . elong- 

ate; antenna in 9 "cver bipectinale . 3o. 

24. Hindjtiing narrow, 7oith C long-approximated to cell; Jore- 

7i)ing 7i)ith SC^ anastomosing 7£iith SC^ 181. Genus Leucesthes, 'Warren. 

Hiiidwing noi nariwu 2); /orejuing with SC* not anastom- 

osing 7iiith SC-'' 3) 25. 

25. Fore7i)ing 7i'ith SC and R^ stalked 7t>ith SC^'^ .... 174. Genus Acollesis, Warren. 

Fore7ving 7tiith SCK ani/ nsually K\ /roni ccll 26. 

26. Palpus usually miniile, second joint not or scarcely rottgh- 

scaled beneath 27. 

Palpiis not mintite, second joint rough-scaled benealh 2g. 

27. Hindjiiing juith C long-approximated to cell; both 7tiings 

7iiith M} 7iiidely separate; palpus minttte 28. 

Hind^uing 7i)ith C diverging /rom near base, M' approxim- 

ated, connate or stalked; palpiis not minute ^) . . . 182. Genus Hemistoi.a, Warren. 

zS. Wings broad, R^ o/both/rom close to R^ 172. Genus Nothoterpna, Warren. 

Wings narro7i', R^ 0/ both not/romcloseto R^ . . . . 173. (ienus Chlorosterrha, nov. gen., Prout. 
2g. Fore7iiing 7t>ith SC^ closely approachiiig or anastomosing 

1) Except in one or two pectinated Q Q of Hemistota, of doubtfiil location. 

2) Except in Chlorosti'trha. 

3) Except sometimcs in Mixochroa. 

4) On tlie iirst t%vo of tliese cliaracters, // iiicommoda would ratUer be a .Vothoterfna or Chlorcslerrha ; on thc third character, haploa would 
be. A revision of the African species must await further and better m.tterial. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 19 

Jii/VASC'*; hindii<ing ociireous, witii C doscly (ipprox- 

imated to one half cell t8o. Genus Mixochroa, Warren. 

Forewing ijith SC^ separate from SC^ ; liindt^nng not 

ocltreous, C divergmg before one-half cell 179. (jenus Eui.oxta, Warren. 

3o. Foreii'ing K>ith DC-^ arising markedly distally to DC- 3l. 

Fovewing nnth DC normal 1) 32. 

3r. Hindiving loitli termen crennlate and tailed i88. Genus Berta, Walker. 

Hindwing with iermen tonnded, or slightly elhoKed at R-'. igo. Genus Comostola, Meyrick. 

32. Hindwing liiith termen angled or tailed 2) 33. 

Hindioing with termen not angled or tailed 34. 

33. Forewing wilh apex acntely prodiiced, SC from ceU ; kind- 

wing strongly tailed 186. Genus Chi.oromma, Warren. 

Foreuing with apex nol acuiely produced, SC nearly 

always stalked ; hindwing not stroiigly tailed . . . 187 Genus loDis, Hiibner. 

34. Both taings with M' remote at origin 194. Genus Neothela, Turner. 

Both wings with W^ coiinate or stalked 3) 35. 

35. Hindwing elongate, termen strongly rounded 192. Genus Pyrrhohachis, Warren. 

Hindzving not so. 36. 

36. Forewing with SC and both wings with M' long-stalked . 191. Genus Comostolopsis, Warren. 
Foretoing 7L'ith SC^ from cell ; hoth wings 'wiilt M^ quitc 

short-stalked ig3. Genus Chi.oekes. Turner. 

B. — New World Qenera 

1. Palptis with long , Jorward-projeciing hairs above aiid 

beneath ; wings narrotv,fuscous 40. Genus Xenopepla, Prout. 

Palpus not so ; wings rarely narroiv, never ftiscous 2. 

2. Large moths ; hind'u'iiig wi/h suhdiiiphanoiis patch near base. lo. Genus Rhodochlora, W'arren. 
Moderate or small [very rarely ralher large) moths ; hind- 

wing without subdiaphanous palch near base 3. 

3. Forewing with apex aciite, subfalcatc; hindwing 'with 

iorniis proloiigcd, lermen {especially in (f) straight 4) 4. 

Wings not so shaped 5. 

4. Frennlum in 9 wanting ; hindwing coiicolorous. . . . 79. Genus Tachyphyle, Butler. 
Freuulum in Q preseiit ; hind'wing discolorotts .... 78. Genus Tachychlora, nov. gen., Prout. 

5. Hindtihia in rf with leriniiial spiirs uiily 6. 

Plindlibia in (J joith all spurs 25. 

6. Hindtibia lu Q 701 th terminal spiirs only 7. 

Hindtibia in Q 'with all spurs 23. 

7. Freiiidum devclopcd in bolh sexes ... .... 74. Genus Chi.orosea, Packard. 

Freniiliim 'waiiliiig or vestigial in (^ 8 . 

8. Freiitduin 'wanting in (j' 9. 



1) In /odis aniicientttla formcd as in /ierta, from wliich other (usually subordinate) characters separate it- The hitidzt^iti^ in Berta usually 
has l)C nearly as in forewing, but this is of less use ffenerically. the form being shared by a few lodis : ititifascia, iridescetis (slightly), npataria 
(sometimcs). «tc. 

2) Except /a//.< albi.iettlitla and inicra ; angle very slight in tinifascia . 
31 .Separatc, butnot remotc. in Pyrrh"r,iclxis O^tcaertilfn. 

4) -Both thesc genera liave the median spurs rudimentiry or atropbied and the terminals very unequal. 



20 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Frenulum present in <^ lo. 

9. Palpus in both sexes minute ; hindwingiinih C approximated 

to cell, graduaUy diverging 178. Genus Anomphax, Warren. 

Palpus moderate to long ; hindnnng zi>ith C anostomosing 

with cell at a point, rapidly diverging 198. Genus Eucrostes, Hiibner. 

10. Abdomen crested 11. 

Abdomen not crested 16. 

11. Metathorax liifted ; q* hindtarsus much abbreviated . . gS. Genus Lophochokista, Warren. 
Metaihorax not tu/ted ; (f hindtarsns rarely abbreviated 12. 

12. Abdomiiial crests strong {compact. rounded, glossy, often 

inore or less meiallic) i3. 

Abdominal crests slight [flimsy, curved hairs) .... 86. Genus Leptolopha, Warren. 

i3. Palpus in both sexes miniite i) gi. Genus Progonodes. Warien. 

Palpus in buth sexes not miiiuie 14. 

14. Forettiingwith SC^ stalked, SC^ iisually arising a/ter SC''. 8g. Genus Auophyllodes, nov. gen., Prout. 

ForewingwithSC^ /romcell.SC^ alwaysarisingbe/oreSC^ i5. 

i5. Palpus in 9 ?"''/' third joint long ; hindwing usually with 
raisefl white cell-spots, DC^ usually arising distally 

toYiC-, M.^ stalked 90. Genus Oospila, Wairen. 

Palpus in 9 slender, wiih third joint rather short ; 
hiudi^'ing zciihout raised white cell-spots, DC iiormal. 
M' not stalked 88. Genus Auophylla, Warren. 

16. Eye smaU I25. Genus Mesothea, VVarren. 

Eye iiormal 17- 

17. Forewing with SC^ arising after SC^ 18. 

Foreioing with SC^ nrising before SC^ .... 19. 

18. Hindwiiig 7,'ith C anastomosiiig strongly with cell; wings 

light green i38. Genus Pachycopsis, Warren. 

Hindwing zeiith C /ree; wings deep golden i^g. Genus Xanthoxena, Warren. 

19. Hindwiiig wiih C anastomosing strongly with cell 20. 

Hindwing with C anastomosing ai a point only, orfree. 21. 

20. Palpus miiiute; hindwiiig concolorous, Kiith costasbort. . 157. Genus Callistelma, nov. gen., Prout. 
Palpiis not minute; hindwing discolorous, with costa long. 75. Genus Cheteoscelis, nov. gen., Prout. 

21. Palpus minute; iongne utrophied 2) i58. Genus Dyscheilia. Dognin. 

Palpus in (j' moderatc, thirdjoint in 9 ^'O' ^""S ! io>fgu' 

developed 22. 

22. Hindwing teiith C anastomosing wiih ccU at point near base. i5i. Genus Eueana, nov. geii., Prout. 
Hindming with C closely approximated to cell to beyond 

one-hal/ i56. Genus Telotheta. Warren. 

23. Hindwing neaiiy abi.>ays strongly angled or tailed at R'*; 

/orewing with SC^ nearly always slalked 3). . . . 127. Genus Chloropteryx. Jlulst. 
Hindwing rounded or sUghtly bent at R^, /orewing with 

SC from ceU 24. 



i) See also Genus g2, Rliombochlora . 

21 In thc .-ibscnse of the t^ it is not certain that this genus does not belong in Group VI (<? frenulum absent). It is certainlj very specialized. 
3) When not stallted, either connate or closelj* approximated. At tlie same time, it is possible tliis genus will prove to intergrade with 
Chtorochlamys . 



FAM. GEOMETRIDiE 2i 

^4. Antenna in rf bi/yectinale 126. Genus Chi.okochi.a.mys, Hulst. 

Autenna in (j* not bi/>ectinale 124. Genus Chlokissa, Stephens. 

25. Foretving unth SC^ arising after SC^ 26. 

Forewing i^'ith SC- arising before SC^ i) 27. 

26. Hindtving with C anastomosing more or less strongly i,'ith 

cell 137. Genus Hydata. Walker. 

Hindwing witlt C anastomosing or appressed at a point 

iiear base only i36. Genus Prohydata, Schaus. 

27. Fremdum wanting in boili sexes 28. 

Frenulum present in (^ , and sometimes in Q 3o. 

28. Hindzuing with C anastomosing strongly with cell . . . 177. Genus Merochi.ora, nov. gen., Prout. 
Hindwing with C free 29. 

29. Both wmgs with DC uormal i63. Genus Chloractis, Warren. 

Both wings with DC^ arising far distally to DC^. . . 162. Genus Cathydata, nov. gen., Prout. 

30. Foreaiiug with termtn irregular, 2^'ith excision in anierior 

half 3i. 

Forewing ■with termeu regular 33. 

31. Wings gaily coloured ; hindwing with C free .... 82. Genus Pcecilochlora, Warren. 
VViugs not gaily coloured ; hind^wing with C anastomosing 

at a point or very briefly with cell 32. 

32. Hindwing with termen creuulate; (j' autenua siniple . . 128. Genus Euallcea, Warren. 
Hiudwingwith termen not creuulate; q* antenna bipectinate 129. Genus Neocrasis, Warren. 

33. Hindwing toothed at R' and R-' 81. Genus Neagathia, Warren. 

Hindwing not toothed, or toothed [or bent) at ^^ only 3^. 

34. Wings thinly scaled, hyaline 83. Genus Hyalochlora, nov. gen., Prout. 

Wiugs normally scaled 35. 

35. Abdomen strongly ciested 87. Genus Racheolopha, Warren. 

Abdomen not or scarcely crested 36. 

36. Hindwing with C anastotnosing with cell near base 3^. 

Hindwing with Cfree, or at most anastomosing at a point 38. 

37. Anastomosis slight ; abdomeu with minuie dorsal crest or 

embossed spots. . 70. Genus Racheospila, sect. H, Guenee 

Anastomosis moderate; abdomen smooth dorsally. . . j3. Genus Synchlora, Guenee. [(part.). 

38. Coloration maiuly gieeu 39. 

Coloration very variegated 44. 

3g. Palpus short; hindwing with costa loiig, C long-apfroxim- 

ated to cell. gradually diverging 76. Genus Paromphacodes, Warren. 

Palpus moderate to long; Iiindwiug with C uormal 40. 

40. Autenna in q* bipectinate 41. 

Antenua in q* not bifectinate 72. Genus Uryalofsis, Warren. 

41. Frentdum present in both sexes 42. 

Frenulum n<anting or vestigial in Q 43. 

42. Palpus iii 9 ^^'^''^' third joint small 71. Genus Nemoria, Hiibner. 

Palpus in 9 i^'ith third joinl exposed, usually much elongated 70. Genus Racheospila, Guenee (part.). 



r) Except in Racltpo^pita '}) miwr, from which Hy^iala and Prohydata differ in sliape, in their hyaline or semihyaline wings, etc. 



22 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

43. Palpus 'uiith second joint sirongly rough-scaled above and 

beneath, third joint somezfhat rough-scaled, in Q moder- 

ate ; foretibia tufted 85. Genus Dichokda, Warren. 

Palpus 7iiith second joini more sliortly scaled, third joint 

smooth, in 9 very long ; forelibia not tufted .... 80. Genus Phkudocentra, VVarren. 

44. Forewing with SC running into C ; hindwing not produced 

towards tornus 84. Genus Chrotochlora, Warren. 

ForewiugwithSC^ free; hindwing froduced towards torntis 77. Genus Pyrochlora, \\'arren. 

NoTE. — In all the descripiions in the following pages the wing-expanse is given according to 
the extreme tip-totip measurenient. The adoption of the old continental method of taking the average 
expanse of set specinieiis resiilted in certain inconsistencies and inaccuracies which far more than 
outweighed any possible convenience. 



Qroup I 



I. Genus PROTOPHYTA, Turner 

Protophyta. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, \'oL 35, p. 648 (1910). 

Characters. — Build rather slender. Face smooth. Palpus moderate, fiist joint long-haired, 
second joiiil rough-haired ubove and beneath, third joint modcrate. Tongue developcd. Antenna in (^ 
bipectinate, with apices simpk'. Thorax not crested. Pectus densely hairy. Hindtibia in (^ not dilated, 
all spurs well developcd. Abdomcni not crested. Frenuhiiii fuUy developed. F"orewing with costa slightly 
arched, apex not acute, termen obhquc, crenulate, DC^ slightly oblique inwards, DC stionglj- incurved 
(cell moie produced anteiiorly than posteriorly), SC' from ceU, «'inastoinosing with C, SC- from cell, 
Ri separate, M' separate ; hindwing with termen dentate, the teeth on R' and R-' more prominent, DC 
nearh' as in forcvving, C closely approximated to cell to well beyond middle, SC^ separate, R^ from 
near K', M' separate. 

Egg. — Undescribed. 

Larva. — Undescribed, apparentiy on tea-tree. 

Pdpa. — Undescribed, in a silken cocoon onbark of tea-tree (Lower). 

Type of the genus : Protohhyta castanea ( Lovver) = Pseudoterpna castanea, Lower (1910). 

Geographical distribution of species. — .•\ustialian. 

I. P. caslanea (Lc)v\ei). New South Wales. 

Pseudolerpna caslanea, Lower, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 23, p. 45 (189S). 
Protophyla caslanen, Tiirner, ibidem. Vol. 35. p. 648 (1910). 



2. Genus HELIOMYSTIS, Meyrick 

Heliomystis. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales (2), \^ol. 2, p. 900(1888). 

Characters. — u Face shortly haiiy. Palpus moderate, porrect, basal and second joints densely 
hairy beneath, secnnd joint hairy on upper surface, terminal joint moderate. Tongue well develojied. 



FAM. GEOMETKID^ 23 

Antenna in cf pectinate neailv to apex. Thorax with a dense posterior crest; beneath densely hair}^ 
Posteiior tibia with all spurs present; in (f dilated, with internal groove and tuft. Abdomen with strong 
median dorsal crests. Frenulum and retinaculum m cf strong. Forewing with SO anastomosing with C, 
SC^arising separately from cell, R' separate, R^ and M' separate; hindwing with DC incurved, not 
obHque. C closely approximated to cell to well beyond middle. SC^ and R' separate, R^ and M' 
separate » (Tuvner, Proc. Liiin. Soc. .V. S. IVales, Vo\. 35, p. 647). « l>orewing with costa slightly 
arched, termen rounded, rather obHque, waved; hindwing with termen crenate, tolerably rounded, 
sHghtly bent in iniddle » (Meyrick). 

Early stages unknown. 

This genus is unknown to us in nature, but would appear to be the parent of Dindica. Moore. 

Type of the genus : Heliomystis eleciricd, Meyrick (1888). 

Geographical dlstributlon of specles. — AustraHan. 

I. H. elcilncn. Meyrick. Victoria. 

H/lioiiiyslis electiica, Meyrick. 1'roc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2),.Vol. 2, 
p. goo (I,S88). 

3. Genus RHUMA, Walker 

Rhuma. WaH<er, List Leji. lus. Brit. Mus. VoL 21, p. 4S3 (1860). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate, stout, second joint with thick but appressed 
scales, third joint smooth, rather short, obtuse. Tongue developed. Antenna in cf dentate, with fascicles 
of rather shortciHa; in 9 nearly simple. Tliorax with a small posterior crest (fide Turner). Pectus and 
femora densely hairy. Hindtibia in cf somewhat dilated, with hair-pencih all spurs present. Abdomen 
with strong dorsal crests. Frenulum fuHy developed. Forewing with costa sHghtly arched, apex not 
acute, termen entire, gently convex, obHque, ceH about one-half, DC- vertical. DC'* obHque, SC from 
ceH, free, SC^ from ceH, SC^-^ from weH before apex of ceH, R^ from quite near Ri, M^ separate; hind- 
wing with apex rounded, termen entire, rounded, tornus moderatel\ rounded, ceH somewhat less than 
one-half, DC as in forewing, C closely approximated to cell to be\ ond middle. SC^ separate, R- Irom 
close to K', M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Rlinina siilninraUi, VValker (1860)." 

Geographical distribution of species. — .Austialian. 

I. R. snhaiirata, Walker. — Pl. I , Fig. I . Queensland. 

Rhiima subamaln, W.ilker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2i, p. 484(1X601. 
Hyfocltroma varipiiiiiltitii. Lucas (MS.?). 

4. Genus STERICTOPSIS, Warren 

Sterictopsls. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 5, \i. j57 (i8g8). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus quite moderate, second jomt rather long-haired below 
and roui;h-haired above, third joint small, smoother-scaled. Tongue well developed. Antenna longish, 
in cf pectmate, with apex simple (fide Turner), in 9 nearly simple. Metathorax crested. Pectus densely 
hairy. Femora hairy. Hindtibia in cf dilated with groove and tuft of hair (fide Turner), in both sexes 



24 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

with all spurs. Tarsi inoderately spinulose. Abdomen crested. Frenuluni fuliy developed. Forewing 
rather narrow, costa rather straight, gently arched distally, apex moderate, termen rather straight, 
obHque posteriorly, tornus moderate, cell one-half, SC^ free, or anastomosing with C, or with C 
and SC-,SC^ from cell, R' about connate with SC"*"^, R^ from above middle of cell, M' separate; hindwing 
rather narrow, angles somewhat rounded, termen rounded, cell one-half, UC"* oblique posteriorh', 
C closely appressed to cell to near one half, then gradually diverging, SC^ short-stalked with R'. R- from 
very near R', M' separate. 

Early stages unknovvn i). 

Type of the genus : Sterictopsis iticonseqiietis. Wairen (i8g8). 

Geographical distributlon of species. — .Ausliahan. 

I. S. incoiiseqiieiis, Warren. Queenslanil. \ icioiia. 

Slericlopsts iHCOiiscijuens, Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 25? (i8g8). 
.' Pseudolerpna nrgvraspis, Lower, Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 17, 

p. i57 (1893,1 (nom. vetust. sed diibium). 
Sterietopsis paratoriia, Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 645 (1910) [nec Meyrick 2)]. 



5. Genus ARCH/EOBALBIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Archseobalbis, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Build robust. Face usually somevvhat protubeiant. normally scaled, or shghtly 
roughened. Palpus moderate, second joint densely scaled above and beneath, third joint moderate or 
rather short, smooth-scaled. Tongue developed. Antenna long or moderate, in both sexes virtuall)' 
simple. Metathorax not crested. Pectus densely hairy. Femora long-haired. Hindtibia in both sexes 
with all spurs developed, in cf usually dilated. with strong haii-pencil, sometimes also with a short 
terminal process. Abdomen witli small paired dorsal crests. Frenulum fulh' developed. Forewing with 
costa somewhat arched or neailv straight, apex moderate, termen obhque, subcrenulate, cell about 
one-half, DC incuived, SC connected at point or by short bar vvith C (rarely anastomosing), frequently 
anastomosing shortlj' also with SC^, SC^ froin cell, R' connate or separate, M' well separate; hindwing 
with costa short, apex rounded, termen long, crenulale, inner maigin long, cell less than one-half. 
DC^ incurved, C approximated rather variabh' to cell(usually rather shortly, never to beyond one-half), 
very rapidly diverging, SC* separate, R- characteristic, sometimes lather t'Xtieme, M' separate 
(Pl. I , Flg. 9). cf genitalia vvith uncus pointed (in siiliopalina bifid), at either side a spatulale leaf-like 
arm, gnathos pointed, dentate on the edge, harpe rounded, clasper a short thorn, juxta a horny process 
behind the penis; penis pestillate, sedoeagus vvith long exlended arm, having at the orifice a hatchet-like 
projection. 

Early stages unknown 3). 

Type of the genus : Archaeobalbis viridaria (Moore) = Hypochroma viridaria, Moore. 



1) If this is tlie tnie ai'gyraspis, [.o«er, a specimen was breil in l"ebruar_v from a rougli silky cocoon fornied beneath thc bark of hiicalypttis 
rostraia (Lower). 

2) .\leyrick's type of Hypochroma paratorna. thouRh siipcrficially similar to tlie prcsent specics, is structurally distlnct. not only in havinjf SC of 
forewing strongly stalked with SC^»-*, but in being almost witbout thc dorsal crests and in having shorter antennal pcctinations; SC* anastomoscs both 
with C and with SC-. Tlie species does not fall into any known genus, but as \vc have only secn tlie one specimen. aiid have liad no opportunity to study 
it sidc by side witll Stcrictnpsis or with the gen- ra of (,roup II. we abstain from crcating a genus for it. 

3) Mr. H. L. .Vndrewes has bred .irchae^<balbis sitbtepctis from larva in the Nilgins. but we liave no descriplion of it. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDyE 



25 



Geogpaphical distribution of species. — Indo-Malayan, stiaggling into China. 

An interesting genus, not only as being the only extra-Australian which has preserved the 
primitive venation, but also as being the obvious pareiit of the following group. Shape of wings, nature 
of scaling, scheme of coloration (grey to moss-green, hindwing concolorous with forewing), commence- 
ment of shortening of cell and of rapid divergence of C of hindwing, and indeed almost all its 
characters connect it quite closely with them ; and were it not fortlie point of origin of SC^ it would 
scarcely be separable froni Neohalhis, and quite near Adenochroma . etc. The genus is fairly homogeneous 
in structure, though differing slightly in shape, and more markedly in length of antenna and in the 
(f hindtibia. In the first five species the antenna is long (nearly three-fourths the length of costa) ; in 
hypoglauca, etc. quite moderate. In fariiiosa. and piobably hypoolauca and usneata, the cf hindtibia 
is undilated; in suhopalina dilated, but without terminal process; in the rest with the process, in varying 
grades of developinent. We have not seen sinapiaria, Poujade, and only refcr it here conjecturally. 



1. A. viridaria (Moore). 

Hypocliromn viyiiUu-u!, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 632 (1S67). 
Acteiwchroma mbochracea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 38i (1894). 
Herochroma viridaria. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 172 (1894). 
Pstiidolerpna snhtel^eiis (part.), Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 479 

(iSgS) (nec Walker). 
Actenochroma viridaria. Svvinhoe. Lep. Het. Oxford Mus.Vol. 2. p. 387 (1900). 

2. A. suhtepins (Walker). 

Hvpochromasuhtepeiis,\Va.\kei. ListLep. Ins.Brit. Mus.V0l.21, p. 43s(i.S6o). 
? Acteiwchroiud cristata, Wa.rten, Novit. Zool. VoL i, p. 38i (1894). 
Herochroma siihtcpens. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 171 (1894). 
Pseudolerpiia subtepeiis (part.), Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 479 

(1895). 
y^c/^MOc/icomai-"''/?/"'", Swinhoe,Lep.Het.OxfordMus.VoL2,p.38o(i9oo). 

3. A. urapteraria{'Wa.\keT). 

Hvpochroma urapteraria, Wallier. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 21, p. 438 

(1861). 
Actenochroma urapteraria, Swinhoe. Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 387 

{1900). 

4. A. ochreipiota (Swinhoe). 

Acleiiochroma ochreipicla, Swinhoe, Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (7), Vol. i5, 

p. 166 (19051. 
Pseudoterpna ochreipicla. Hampson, Joiirn.Bombay Xat. Hist. Soc. Vol. iS, 

p. 52 (1907)- 

5. A. suhopalina (Warren). 

Actenochroma subopalina. ^Varren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 382 (1894). 
Pseudoierpna subopalina, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths,Vol.3, p. 480 (1895). 

6. A. usneata (Felder). 

Scotopteryx (?) nsneata, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. I25, f. 12 (1875). 
Pseudolerpna usncata, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths.Vol. 3, p. 479 (1895). 

7. A. hypoglauca (Hampson). 

Pseiidoterpna liypoglauca, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 3i3 (iSgS). 

8. A.farinosa (Warren). — Pl. I, Fig. 2. 

Actenocliroma farinosa, Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35o (iSgS). 
Pseudoterpna fariiwsa, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 480 (1895). 

9. A. sinapiaria (Poujade) (huj. gen.?). 

Hypochroma sinapiaria. Poujade, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 64, p. 3o9, t. 6, 

f. 5 (1895). 
Pseudoterpna siiiapiaria,'Leec\i.Ann. Ma.e;. Nat. Hist.(6l,Vol.20. p. 229 (1897). 

10. A. crassipunctala (Alpheraky) (huj. gen.?). 

Gnophos crassipunctata, Alpheraky, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 49, p. 69 (1888); 
Roman. Mem. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 226, t. 8, f. 7 (1897). 



India with Ceylon. 



N. India to Celebes. 



Burma, Borneo. 

N. E. India. 

India, ? Hong-Kong. 

N. India. 

N. India. 

N. W. Himalayas. 

W. China. 
Turkestan. 



26 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



Qroup li 

6. Genus NEOBALBIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Neobalbis, nov. gen, Prout. 

Characters. — Build robust. Fions protuberant, densely scaled. Palpus moderate to longish, 
first joint long-scaled beneath, second joint stout, rough-scaled above, moderately long-scaled beneatli, 
third joint smooth, in 9 rather long. Tongue developed. Anlenna in both se.Kes virtually simple. Pectus 
denseh' hair}'. Femora hairy. Hindtibia with all spurs. Metathora.K not crested. Abdomen with small 
paired doisal crests. iMenulum fully developed. Forewing with costa slightly arched, apex moderate, 
termen oblique. crenulate, cell somewhat less than one-half, discocellulars incurved, SC from cell, 
anastomosing with C, SC"^ from well down the stalk of SC^', anastomosing at a point with SC, 
' Ri separate, R'^ from slightly above middle of discocellulars, M' separate; hindwing with costa short, 
apex rounded, termen long, strongly crenale, inner margin long. cell scarcely two-fifths, DC^ incurved, 
C approximated to ccll for some distance near base. then sharplj' diverging, SC^ separate, R^ charac- 
teristic, M' well separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

The evolutionar}- importance atlaching to the point of origin of SC* of the forewing necessitates 
the erection of this genus for a few species which are evidenth- in the direct line of descent from 
Arckaeohalbis, agreeing absolutely therewith in facies, and scarcely diftering structurally except in the 
position of that vein. It would, indeed, be possible to merge our new genus with its relatives Herochroma 
and Acfeiiochroma, whichi however, have virlually lost the abdominal crests, and have other features of 
their own. 

Type of the genus : Neobalbis elaearia (Ilampson) = Pseudolerhta claearia, Hampson. 

Geographlcal dlstribution of species. — X. Indi.i, Java, k"ormosa. 

1. jV. </rt(;an'a (Hampson). Sikkim. Khasis. 

Ps/udoterpim claeaii.i, Hainpson, Journ. Hombay .Vat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 14, 

p. 554 ( 1903). 
Actciiochroina subochracea (part.), Swinhoe, .\nn. Mag. Xat. Hist. (7% Vol. 17, 

)). 285 (1906) (nec Warren). 

2. N . flavihasalis {\Va.Yrer\). Java. 

AfUiiochroma Jhivibasiilis, Warren, Nuvit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 38i (1894). 

3. iV. moHtana (Hastelberger). Formosa. 

Actenochroma moiitaiia, Bastelberger. Intern. Knt. 7.eH. Giiben, Vol. 4. 
p. 248 (1911). 

NoTE. — Hypochroma sina/>iaria, Poujade, and Gnophos crassipunciata, Alpheraky, vvhieli we have 
not secn, hut have referred with a query to Archaeohalbis , may equally well belong to the pvesent genus. 



7. Genus HEROGHROMA, Swinhoe 

Herochroma. Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 12, p. 148 (iSgS). 
Hierochroma. Sharp, Zool. Record, p. 283 (iSgS). 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 



27 



FlG. -) 



Characters. — Face moilerately protuberaiit. Palpus moderate, stout, second joint densely 
rough scaled, third joint in (j' quite short, bkint (9 unknown). Tongue developed. Antenna in rf 
simple. Pectus and feinora densely hairy. Hindtibia in (^f .'^omewhat dilated, 
with tuft of hairs and with a well-developed terminal process (Fig. 4), all 
spurs present. .Abdominal crests exceedingly slight, often wanting. Frenulum 
fullv develo|)e(l. Forewing with costa arched, apex acute, termen subcrenu- 
late, cell neaily one-half, DC incurved, SC' from cell, anastomosing at a 
point or connected with C, SC^ from stalk of SC'''^, occasionally from near 
its base, anastomosing at ;i point with SC', R' connate or approximated. 
R^ scaicely above middle of discocellulars, M' well separate from K^; 
hindwing with costa sliort. apex rounded, termen strongly crenatc. slightly 
produced to i\I', inner margin long, cell rather short, DC-* deeply incurved, 
C approxiniated to cell for some distance, sharply diverging before one-half, 
SC^ separate, M' separate. 




Early stages unknown. 



Hindleg of Herochrtrtna baba, 
Swinhoe, i3. 



Probibl\- an almost direct deiivative of Archaeobalbis viridana, its 
hindwing simibu' in shape, but somewhat exaggerated (narrower, more produced to M') and with 
the hindiibiril process moie strongly developed. 

Type of the genus : Herocltnnna baha, Swinhoe (iSgS). 



Geographical distributlon of species. — .Assam. 

I . H . haba. Swinhoe. 

Herochroma baba, Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 12, p. 14S (iSgS). 
Psiudotirpna baba, Hampson. Faiina Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 480 (iSgS). 
.hieitoc/iroma bab,i, Swinhoe, Le;'. Het, 0.\ford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 386 (:gno). 



Khasis. 



8. Genus ACTENOCHROMA, Warren 



Actenochroma. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35o (iiSgS). 

Characters. — Face sloping, somewhat protuberant below. Palpus moderate, stout, second 
joint rough-scaled, third joint in (^ small, concealed (9 unknown). Tongue developed. Antenna in o* 
with the joints distinct, ciliated. Pectus densely hairy. Femora somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in o* not 
dilated, all spiirs present. Abdominal ciests vestigial or wanting. Frenulum fully developed, Forewing 
with costa slightly arched, apex moderate, termen vvaved, oblique, cell less than one-half. DC incurved, 
SC free, SC^ from stalk of SC'-^, R' separate, R- from above middle of discocellulars, M' separate ; 
hindwing with apex rounded, termen rounded, faintly crenulate, cell short, DC* vertical, DC^ deeply 
incurved, C approximated to cell to less than one-half, then rapidly diverging, SC^ well separate, 
R2 rather extreme. (;f genitalia : uncus a long rod, on either side a triangular plate, gnathos pointed, 
harpe with sacculus extended into a long arm bevond end of harpe, penis pestillate. 

Early stages unknown. 

DiiTers from the preceding genus in shape, in subcostal venation (SC free, SC"^ perhaps longer- 
stalked), in the hindleg structure and (slightly) in the antenna. As regards the venation, in spite of its 
known variability in the subfamily. no one can study it in this and the three preceding genera without 



28 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

noticing the constancy witli which SC anastomoses or is connected with C in them. but remains free in 
the present genus. We do not aiifirm that exceptions could not occur; we only say that, in examining a 
very large number of specimens, we have not found a single instance. The same general fixit}' of 
tendencies will be found helpful in connection with manv other genera, even ahhough it cannot be 
made of absolutely first-class importance. 

Type of the genus : Actenochroma muscicoloraria (Walker) = Hypochroma muscicoloraria, 
Walker (iSgS). 

Geographical distribution of species. — X. India. 

i. A. mtiscicoloraria [Walkev). N. India. 

Hypochroma muscicowiaiui, W alkei, List Lej). Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, 

p. 1543 (1862). 
Hypoc/iroina spluigiiala, Felder, Keise Novara, Lep. Het. t. I25. f. 2 (iSjSi. 
Actenocliroma muscicoloraria. Warren, l^roc. XooL Soc. Lond. p. 35o (1893). 
Herocliroiiia muscicohraria. Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 172 (1894). 
Pseudoterpna muscicoloraria, Harapson, latina Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 479 

(1895). 



9. Genus ORTHOCRASPEDA, nov. gen . Prout 

Orthocraspeda, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face sloping, slightly protuberant below, densely scaled. Palpus with first and 
second joints hairy beneath, second joint shortly rough-scaled above, third joint smooth-scaled, in cf 
longish, in 9 'ong. Tongue developed. .Intenna moderate, in both sexes virtually simple. Pectus 
densel}- hairy. Femora nearl}^ glabrous. Hindtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes with >aU spurs 
developed. Abdomen broadly crested. Frenulum fuUj' developed. P^orewing broad, costa slightlj' arched, 
apex squared, termen sliglitly crenulate, anterior half almost vertical, posterior curved, becoming rather 
strongly oblique, cell about two-fifths, DC- incurved, DC^ somewhat curved anteriorl}', oblique poster- 
iorly, SC free, SC^ stalked with SC^-'', R' separate, R' froin veiy little above middle of DC. 
M'separate; hindwing with apex roundod, tfrmen rounded, slightly crenulate, tornus pronounced, 
inner margin rather long, cell short (scarcely over one-third) DC* curved, DC^ arising somewhat further 
distall}', somewhat cui ved, oblique, C quite shortly approximated to cell near base, rapidly diverging, 
SC- sepaiate, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Distinguished from all its allies by the shape of the wings, also from most of them (so far as 
the 9 9 ^re known) by the long terminal joint of palpus. The approximation of C of hindwing to the 
cell is almost as short as in the following genus, which, through its more aberrant species iielearia, is 
perhaps somewhat nearly associated with this, in spite of the difference of facies. 

Type of the genus : Orthocraspeda nettinaria (Guenee) = Hypochroma netttnaria, Guenee. 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — Malayan. 

I. 0. netiinaria (Giienee). Natuna Islands to Philip- 

Hypocliroma nelunaria. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 279 (i858). pines. 

Terpna crassislriga. Warren. Novit. ZooL Vol. 3, p. 36i (1S96) (nov. syn.). 
Aclenocliroma unicolor, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 6, p. 17 (1899) (nov. syn.). 
Pseudolcrpna crassislriga. Semper, Keisen Philipp. (2), VoL 6, p. 637, *• 65, 
f. 10 (1902). 



fam. geometrid^ 29 

10. Genus EPIPRISTIS, Meyrick 

Epipristis. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2. p. 916 (1888); Turner, ibidem, 

Vol. 35, p. 63i (1910). 
Terpnidia. Warren, MS. (m coU. Brit. Mus.); Svvinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 171 (1894). 

Characters. — Facesmooth. Palpusmoderate.second joint somewhat rough-scaled beneath.third 
ioint smooth, moderate in cf , longish in 9 • Tongue developed. Antenna moderate, in both se.xes nearly 
simple, minutely cihated. Pectus somewhat hairy (less densely than in the preceding genera). Femora 
nearly glabrous. Hindtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen smooth or shghtly 
crested {minimana). or somewhat more strongly crested (nekaria). Frenulum fully developed. Forewing 
with costa arched at base and slightly towards apex, termen gently waved, curved, obhque. cell less 
than one-half, DC^ incurved, DC^ arising distahy to DC^, somewhat curved and obhque, SC^ from cell, 
anastomosing with C and usually also with SC- (sometimes free in ndearia). SC-~^ normal, R' separate, 
R^ from above middle of DC, M' separate; hindwing with costa short, strongly arched in proximal part, 
apex rounded, termen convex, somewhat waved or subcrenulate, cell less than one-half, DC' curved, 
DC^ arising distally, usually weak, C approximated to cell at a point or very shortlj' near base, than 
verv strongly divergent. SC^' separate, R- arising near R', M' separate. cf genitalia with uncus bifid, 
gnathos rounded, harpe with spined clasper, penis pestillate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Epipristis minimaria (Guenee) -— Hypochroma minimaria, Guenee = Epipristis 
oxycyma, Meyrick (1910). 

Geographical dlstributlon of specles. — lndo-.\ustrahan. 

1. E. miniinaria (Guenee). 

a. Epipristis miiiimaria miiiimaria. Ceylon, Assam to Borneo. 

Hypochroma miiiiviaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 279 (i858). 
Hypochroma parvula, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 21 , p. i^iS (1860). 
Acidalia truncataria, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 23, p. 774 (1861). 
Piitgasaminimaria, Moore, Lep. CeyL Vol. 3, p. 420, t. 192, f. 2 (1887). 
Epipristis miiiimaria, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 171 (1894). 
Psiudoterpna minimaria, Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 479 (1895). 

b. Efii/>ristis minimaria o.xycyma. Oueensland. 

Epipristis oxycyma, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p. gib (1888). 
Epipristis minimaria, Turner, ibidem. VoL 35. p. 632 (1910). 

2. E. neharia (Guenee). Tenasserim, Borneo, Java. 

Hypochroma nelearia, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 279 (i858). 
Epipristis nelearia, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 73 (1S97). 

II. Genus MIMANDRIA, Swinhoe 

Mimandria (Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 88, gen. cffilebs). Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
p. 541 (1904). 

Characteps. — Face llat, short-scaled. Palpus moderate, sccond joint moderately rough-scaled. 
third joint densely scaled, moderate in cf, slightly longer in 9 • Tongue wanting, or entirely vestigial i). 



1) We have not had any material for Uissection, but if thcre bc any traces of a tonuue tlicy are cerlainly so slight af to bc non-lunctional, and 
of no gencric importance. 



3o LEPIDOPTERA HKTEROCKRA 

Antenna sliort, in both sexes bipectinate. with apex merely serrate, the pectinations rathei long in (^, 
rather short in 9- Pectus hairy. Hindtibia in (^ not dilated, in both sexes with all spiirs. Abdomen 
robust, crested. FrenuUnn fuUy dcveloped Forewing with costa somewhat arched, apex moderately 
acute, termen rounded, obhque, very faintl}' waved, cell somewhat less than one-half. DC-' somewhat 
incurved, then oblique, SC anastomosing or connected with C. SC* normal, usualiy anastomosing 
with SC, R' separate, R^ from above middle of DC, M' separaie; hindwing with apexrounded. termen 
faintly waved, tonius pronounced, inner margin long, cell somewhat less than one-half, DC-' strongly 
incurved, C approximated to ce!l very shortly near base, then rapidh' diverging, SC* separate, R- ir<>m 
near R', M' separate. 

Early stages unknovvu. 

Type of the genus : Mimandiia iiisiilans. bwinhoe (1904J. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Madagascar. 

I. M. nisiiluiis, Swmlioe. Madagascar. 

Mimnndiia insularis {Warren.Novit. Zool.VoI. 2,p.88, nom. nud), Swinhoe, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, ji. .S41 (19041. 

12. Genus PINGASA, Moore 

Pingasa. Moore, Lep. Ceyl. \'ol. 3. p. 419 (1887). 

Pingasia. Moore, Lep. CoU. .Atkinson, p. 247 (i88f^). 

Skorpisthes. I.ucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. Vol. i5,p. 143 (1900). 

Characters. — Face scarcely protuberant. Palpus in q* moderate, in 9 long, second joint 
densely rnugh-scaled, third joint smooth, in (j' moderate, in 9 long, cylindrical, rather slender. Tongue 
developed. Antenna long, in (^ bipectinate to two-thirds with rather short branches, in 9 almost simple, 
Pectus densely hair\-. hY-mora hairy. Hindtibia in cf dilated with haii- pencil. in both sexes with all 
spurs. Abdomen vvith rather slight or moderate dorsal crests. Frenulum fully developeil. Forewing 
with costa nearly straight, gently arched near apex, apex moderate or ratlier pronounced. teimen 
oblique, scarcely convex, almost smooth or faintly subcrenulate, cell iess than one-half (usually tvvo- 
frfths), DC^ incurved, or vertical anteriorly, becoming obiique posteriorly, DC^ curved, not verj' oblique. 
SC from cell, rather closely approximated to C and SC-, but verj- generally free i), SC* from stalk 
of SC-''^, R' just separate, comiate, or very shortly stalked, R* fiom considerably above middle of 
discocellulars, M' separate; hindwing with costa quite short, arched, apex rounded, termen rounded, 
weakly or moderately crenulate. rather long, tornus pronounced, inner margin long (in cf veiy long), 
tufts of raised scales on upper surface at extremity of cell and from middle of inner margin to beyond R-*, 
cell short (scarcely over one-third), DC* curved, strongly oblique, DC-* arising distally thereto, little 
oblique,C parallel with SC for a very short distance ncar base, then very strongly diverging, SC- sepa- 
rate 2), R'^ from very near R', M' separate (Pi. I, Fig. 10). cf genitalia vvith uncus bifurcate, gnathos 
terminating in two points, harpe emarginate at the apex, juxta a long scobinated arm, penis rounded 
{ruginaria ; tephi-osiaria has also been examined, and has much in common). 

Early stages imperfectijf known. Larva rather stout and firm, of somevvliat the aspect of Pseudo- 
terpna, apparently without the s[ieciaIization of head and prothorax characteristic of the higher 



1) We have examined a very large number of specimens, anci can state tliat in not more tlian ten pcr cent is tlierc cven an oscuUtion with eicher 
of the adjacent veins (a rather noteworthy contrast to the following genus) 

2) SUortly staikcd in our figured specimen o( ttng-u/t/gr.i. Warren (Pi.l, Fig. 3); probably only as an exceptional aberration. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDiE 



3i 



Hemitheids. Pupa pale brown, speclcled with blackish. Moore {Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 419, t. 192, f. ib) 
and Semper {Schmetl. Philipp. Vol. 2, p. 637, t. U, f. 16, 17) give two tolerably different-Iooi<ing larvae 
(and pupffi) as crenaria, Guenee ; that of Semper will doubtless be chlora, Cramer. 

An extremely natural genus, with probably the single exception of cinerea, Warren, of which we 
have only seen one example, and that quite cursorily; the 9 we only know from Turner's characteriza- 
tion, but her shorter terminal joint of palpus and the unique resting posture of the species (see Kershaw, 
Vict. Nat. Vol. 14, p. 104, tab.) suggest at least a possibility of wide biological divergence, and Skorpisthes, 
Lucas, may ultimately require to be separated generically. As is often the case with large and homoge- 
neous groups, the delimitation of the various species is a matter of difftculty, and probably some of the 
forms which we here record as species should fall as subspecies or synonyms; some we have not even 
seen, while others have only been examined from the standpoint of their generic status, the specific 
being left for another occasion. 

Type of the genus : Pingasa niginaria (Guenee) = Hypochroma ruginaria, Guenee. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-.Australian and African. 

Section I. — 9 palpus with third joint considerably longer than second {Pingasa, Moore). 



1. P. ruginaria ((iuenee). 

Hypocliroma ruginarui, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 278 (i85x). 
Hypochromn commntata, Walker. List Lep. Iivi. Brit, Mus. Vol. 21, p. 429 

(1860). 
Hvpocltroma commiuiicaiis, Walker, ibidem, p. 4^0 (1860). 
Hypochroma perfectaria, Walker, ibidem, p. 4^4 '1860). 
Hypochroma iiyctemerata, Walker, ibidem, p. 444 (1860). 
Hypochroma grandiJieri, Butler, Cist. Ent. Vol. 2, p. 394 (1879) (var. ?). 
Piiigasa rugiiiaria, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 419 (1887). 
Pingasa decrislata,\Vs.Tten, Novit. Z00LV0I.9, p. 492 (1902) (fide Swinhoe, 

Trans. Ent. .Suc. Lond. 1904, p. 640). 

2. P. chlora (Stoll). 

[Phalaena Geometra] chlora, Stoll, in Cramer, Pap. E.xot. Vol. 4, p. 233, 
t. 398, f. C (1782) [Phalaeiia Pyralis, e.Kerr., ibidem, p. 248]. 

Pseudoterpiia ecchloraria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Sclimett, p 285 (1826?). 

Phalaena clilora, Verloren, Cat. Ins. Lep. Crameri, p. 268 (1837). 

Terpna chlora, Herrich-Schiiffer, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. Vol. 1, p. 37 
(i856). 

Hypochroma chloyaria, Guenee, Spec. Gcn. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 277 (iS58). 
? Hypochroma crenaria. Guenee. ibidem, p. 278 (i.S58). 

Hypochroma c/j/ora, Walker, ListLep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 21,^.437(1860). 
? Boarmia leucosligmaria, Nietner, Observ. Enem. Coffee-tree, p. 23 (1861) 

Hypochroma jHiimfra/a, Butler, Ann. Mas- Nat.Hist. 1 5),VoLio,p.232(i882). 

Hypochroma paulinaria, Pagenstecher. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Xaturk.Vol. 38, 
p. 47, t. i,f. I (1885). 
? Pingasa crenaria. Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3. p. 419. '• 102, f. i, i'' \1887). 
? Piiigasa leucostigmaria, Moore, ibidem, p. 420 (18871. 

Pingasa candidaria, Warreii, Novit. ZooL Vol. i, p. 382 (1894) (var.?!. 

Pseudoterpna clilora. Swinhoe, '1'rans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 170(18941. 
' Pseudoterpna crenaria, Semper. Reisen Philipp. (2),Vol. 6, p. 637 (19021. 

3. P. lariaria (Walker) (pr;cc. form. ?). 

Hypochroma lariaria^Wa.Wner, List Lep.Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 21, p 43.^(1861). 
Hypochroma irrorataria, Moore, Proc Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 632 (1867). 
Pingasa irrorataria, Cotes & Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind. (4), p. 5o6 (i.s.sSi. 

4. P. pseudoierpnaria (Guenee). 

Hypochroma psendoterpiiaria, Guence, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 276 ( i85S). 
Hypochroma pryeri, Butler, Ann. Map;. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. i, p. 398(1878); 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3. p. 35, t. 49, f. 9 (1879). 
Pseudoterpiia pseudolerpnaria, Leech, ."Vnn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, 

p 228 (1897). 



W. Africa to Formosa. 



Malaysia, New Guinea, 
Australia; ? India. 



N. India tn Borneo, New 
Guinea. 

China, Corea, Japan. 



32 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

5. P. tephrosiaria (Guenee) (piaec. var. ?). N. India. 

Hvpochroma tephrosiayia, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. y, p. 277 (i858'l. 
Hypochroma pseudolerpnaria. Cotes & Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind. (4), p. 5o8 

(1888) (nec Guenee). 
Pseudoterpna tephrosiaria. Hampson, Fauna Ind.Moths. Vol. 3.p. 473 1895). 

6. P. abyssiniaria (Guenee). .'Xbyssinia. 

Hvpochroma abvssiniaria, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 277 (i85SI. 

7. P. rhadamaria (Guenee). Madagascar, E. Africa. 

Hypochroma rh.idamaria. Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 277 (i85S). 
Hypochroma altcrata. Walker. Lisl Lep. Ins. Brit. .Mus.VoL 21, p. 428 1 1860). 
Pingasa inlerrupla, Warren, Novif. ZooL VoL 8, p. 204 (1901). 
Pseudoterpna rhadamaria. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 540(1904). 

8. P. respondens (Walker). S. Africa. 

Hypochroma respondens, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 21, p. 428 

(1S60). 
Hvpocliroma(}} distensaria. Walker. ibidem, p. 444 (1860). 

9. P. aitenuans (Walker). ^iena Leone. 

Hvpochroma allenuans, Walker. List I.ep. Ins Brit. Mus. VoL >i. p. 4^0 

(1860). 
Pseudolerpna attenuans, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond. p. 040 (1904). 

10. P. distenta (Walker). \nd\i. 

Hvpochromadistenta. Wa.]\!.eT,l.ist Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.VoL 21,^.43411860). 

1 1 . P. dispensata (Walker). India to Celebes. 

Hypochroma crenaria, var. A., Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9. p. 278 (i858). 
Hypochromadispensata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 21, p. 435 

(1860). 
Hypochroma celata, Walker, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 15^3 (1866). 
Pseudoterpua dispensata, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 473 (iSg5). 

12. P. hypoleiuaria (Guenie). Reunion. 

Hvpochroma hypoleucaria. Guenee, Maillard"s La Reiinion. .^nne.xe G, 
p. 3i (1862). 
i3. P. eiigrapharia (Mabille). Madagascar. 

Hypochromaeugrapharia, Mabille. .\nn. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5). Vol. 9,p. 347(1879). 
14. P. hatiaria (Plot/;) (huj. gen.?). W. Africa. 

Hypochroma bati.iria. Plotz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 41. p. 3o2 (1880). 
i5. P. I ahay ei{Oberthu\). '^ ■ Africa. 

Hypochroma lahayei, Oberthiir, BulL Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 59 (1887); Etud. Ent. 
Fasc. 12. p. 3i, t. 7. f. 5o (1S8SI. 

Pseudolerpna lahayei. Staudinger, Cat. led. 31, p. 261 (1901). 

16. P. nifofasciata, Moore. India to Ceram. 

Pingasia rufofasciala, Moore, Lep. CoU. .Atkinson, p. 247 (1S8S). 
Pingasa rufofasciata, Cotes & Swinhoe. Cat. Moths Ind. (4), p. 507 (1888). 

17. P. rubicunda, Warren (prsec, var.P). Assam. 

Pingasa rubicunda, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 383 (1894). 
Pscudoterpna rubicunda. Swinhoe,Lep. Het. Oxford Mus.Vol. 2, p. 382(1900). 

18. P. recognita (Saalmuller) (huj. gen.?). Madagascar. 

Hypochroma recognita,S&3.\m\i\\cr, Lep. Madag. (2), p. 494. t. 14, f. 260, 
26o(j (1891). 

19. P. alba, Swinhoe. Khasis, E. China, Japan. 

Pingasa alba. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 491. t. 19, i. 6 11891). 
Pseudoterpna alba. Swinhoe, ibidem, p. 171 (1894). 
Pingasa gracilis, Warren, MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.). 

20. P. signifrontaria\u-Ah\\\e). Comoro Islands. 

Hvpochroma signifroiilaria, Mabille, -Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 37, p. 65 
(1893). 

21. P. javensis, Warren. Java. 

Pingasajavensis, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 383 (1894). 

22. P. lati/ascia, Warren. Bachian. 

Pingasa lati/ascia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 383 (1894;. 

23. P. subdeniaia, Warren. S. Celebes. 

Pingasa subdenlata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. J83 (1894). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^. 33 

24. P. veiiiisia, Wanen. Sikkim. Nevv Guinea. 

Pingasa venustn, Warren, Novit. Zuol. \'ol. i, p. 384 11894). 
Pseudolerpua venusta. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 474 (iSgS). 

25. P. angidifera, Warren. — Pl. I, Fig. 3. Fergusson Isl., Nevv (Jui- 

Pingasa anguli/era, Warreii. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 283 (1896). nea. 

26. P. subviridis, Warren. Assam. 

Pingasa suSviridis, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 3o8 (1896). 
Pseudoterpna subviridis, Hampson, Joiirn. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 12, 
p. 88 (1898). 

27. P. subpurpurea, W'arren. X. Borneo. 

Pingasa suhpnrpurea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 3i (18971. 

28. P. atriscripta, Warren. Goodenough Isl., Queens- 

Pingasa atriscripta, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. ig (1899). land. 

Hypochrovia mtinita. Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Oueensl. Vol. 16, p. 78 119011 
(nov. syn.i. 

29. P. blanda (Pagenstecher). Bismarck Archipelago. 

Pseudoterpna hlanJa, Pagenstecher. Zoologica. Vol. 29, p. i5i (19001. 

30. P. acutangula, Warren. New Guinea. 

Pingasa acutangula, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 352 (igoS). 
3i. P. rufilunata, Warren. British Xevv Guinea. 

Pingasa rufilunata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 10. p. 352 (1903). 

32. P. meeki, Warren. British Xevv Guinea. 

Pingasa meeki, ^Varren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. I25 .igo^). 

Section II. — 9 palpus with third joint shorter than second [Skorpisthes, Lucas). 

33. P. cinerea, Warren. S. E. to E. .A.ustralia. 

Pingasa cinerea. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 382 (1894). 

Pseudoterpna singularis. Kershaw, The Victorian Natur. Vol. 14, p. 104. 

tab. (1897). 
Skorpisthss unda-scripta, Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Oueensl. Vol. i5, p. 143 
(1900). 

13. Genus HYPODOXA, nov. gen., Prout 

Hypodoxa, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face scarcely or little prominent, denselv scaled. Palpus moderate to long, 
first and second joints long-haired beneath, third joint smooth-scaled, moderate to long, usually less 
extreme than in 9 Pingasa. Tongue developed. Antenna over one-half length of forewing. in (f bipec- 
tinate with moderate or rather long branches (typically longer than in Pingasa), apical part simple, 
in 9 nearly simple. Pectus densely hairy. Femora more or less hairy. Hindtibia in (^ dilated with hair- 
pencil i), in both sexes with all spurs. Metathorax not or scarcely crested. Abdomen with small or 
moderate paired crests. Frenulum fully developed. Forewmg vvith costa slightly arched at base and near 
apex, otherwise almost straight, apex moderate, termen bowed, oblique, subcrenulate, upper surface 
with a ridge of raised scales near base, cell almost one-half, DC^ slightly incurved, DC^ moderately 
oblique, SC^ from cell, anastomosing or connected with C, SC"^ stalked, anastomosing at a point or 
longer vvith SC. R' connate or separate, R^ from somevvhat above middle of DC, M' well separate; 
hindwing vvith costa rather short or moderate, apex somewhat rounded, termen crenulate, inner margin 
rather long, upper surface vvith tufts of raised scales (usually strong) in cell, at about one-third of wing 
(therefore well removed from DC, at least posteriorly), also at near middle of inner margin, cell not 
much less than one-half, DC^"» rather variable, usually slightly or more decidedly approaching the 



i) Not dilatcd in erebusatj. 



34 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Pingasa-iovm. C shortly approximated to cell near base, SC^ separate, R^ characteristic, M' well separate. 
(5 genitalia with uncus bifid, gnathos rounded, terminating in a long blunt arm, harpe with scobinated 
clasper, vinculum lobed, penis pestillate. 

Early stages scarcel}- known. Larva of muscosaria red. Hchen-hke, found on fences (Lucas, Vict. 
Nat. VoL 5, p. 25). 

Related to the preceding geiius, and hkewise forming a fairly natural group, though not quite so 
strictly consistent in all details. Distinguished by the less short cells, less elongate hindwing (especialh- 
of the Q*), with less shortened costa, the constant anastomosis or connection of SC^ of the forewing 
with C and SC% presence of raised scales on fore- as well as hindwing, and several sHght characters in 
venation, palpi, aiitenna', etc. 

Type of the genus : Hypodoxa tmiliana (Guen6e) = Hypochroma emiliaria, Guenee. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Austraha to New Guinea and Solomon Islands. 

1. H. emiliaria (Guenee). N. and E. Australia, New 

Hypochroma emiliaria. (Doubleday, MS.) Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, Guniea. 

p. 28o(i858l. 
Hy/>ocl:roma aurantiacea, Lucas. Froc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 6. 

p. 297 (1891). 
Hypocliroma subornala. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 36o (1896). 
Hypoiiiroma pnrpurifera. Warren, ibidem, VoL 6. p. 18 (1899) (nov. syn.). 
Hypochroma purpiirissalj, I.ucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. VoL 16. p. 77 

(1901). 
Hypochroina assidens, Lucas, ibidem, p. 79 (1901). 
Terpna emiliaria, 'lurner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35. ]>. 636 

(1910). 

2. H. mtilticolor (Warren) (pra;c. var. vel. syn. ?). St. .\ignan. 

Hypochroma multicolor, Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL 6, p. 17 (1899) i). 

3. //. viridicoma (Warren). 

a. Hypodo.xa viridicoma viridicoma. Tugela (Solomons). 

Hypochroma viridicoma, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 6. p. 18 (1899). 

b. HyPodoxa viridicoma interrupta. Florida (Solomons). 

Hypochroma viridicoma inlerriipla. Warren, Novit.Zool. VoLg.p. 353 (1902). 

4. H. /hisiiiigi-a {Wavren). British New Guinea. 

Hypochroma basinigra. Warron, Novit. ZooL VoL 9, p. 352 (1902). 

5 . H . corrosa {W anen) . British and Dutch Xew 

Hvpochroma corrosa. Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 14, p. I23 (1907I. Guinea. 

6. H. leprosa (Warren). British and Dutch New 

Hypochroma leprosa, Warren, Novil. Zool. \'ol. i.). p. 124 (1907). Gumea. 

7. H. lichenosa (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Hypochroma lichenosa, Wanen, Novit. ZooL Vol. 14, \i. 124 (1907). 

8. H. muscosaria (Guenee). S. E. and E. Australia. 

Hypochroma miiscosaria. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 0, p. 281, t. 6. 

f. 3 (iS58). 
Hypochroma emiliaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 2i, p. 441 

(i86o) (nec Guenee). 
Hypochroma (})cetraria, Felder.Reise Novara. Lep.Het. t.i25, f. 7,70(1875). 
Hypochroma squamala, Felder, ibidem, t. 126, f. 14 (1875). 
Pseiidoterpna mnscosaria. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. VoL 2, p. 385 

(1900). 
Terl^na mtiscosaria. 'furner. Troc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35. p. 637 

(1910). 
g. //. deteriorata (Walker). New South Wales. 

Hypochroma deleriorata, Wallier, List Lep. Ins. Brit Mus. VoL 21. p. 441 

(1860). 



1) Finffasa mttlticolora on type label. It is not unlikcly that not only this, but some at least of the following five species. wiil prove to be forms 
of the vcrv variable emiliaria. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 35 

Hypoe/iroma (?) horridata. Walker, ibidem, Vol. 26, p. 1544 (1862) (ab.). 
Boarmia (Eclropis) nigraria, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 126. f. i 

(1875/. 
Psetidoterpita horridata. Swinhoe, Lcp. Het. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 385. 

t. 6, f. 3 (1900I. 
Pseuiioterpna deteriorata, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 668 (1902). 
Terpna deteriorata, Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35, p. 640 

(1910). 

10. H. erebiisata (Walker). Oueensland. 

Hypochroma erehusata.^MaXker . List Lep. Ins. Brit.Mus.VoL2i, p. 443(1860). 
Hvpochroma erebata. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 12 1, VoL 2, 

)). 914 (1888). 
Pseudolerpna ercbiisata, Swinhoe, Lep. Het.O.xford Mus.VoL 2, p. 385 (1900'. 
Terpiia erebata. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales.VoL 35, p.63S (19101. 

11. H. myriosticta (Turner) (huj. gen.?). Oueensl;md. 

Pseudolerpna myrioslicta, Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. \'oL 28, 

p. 223 (1904). 
Terpna myriosticta, Turner, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35, p. 638 

(1910). 



14. Genus /EOLOCHROMA, nov. gen., Prout 

>Eolochroma, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face slightly or scarcel}' protuberant, densely scaled. Pal])us in both sexes 
moderate, first joined long-haired beneath, second joint stout, shortly dense-scaled, or long-scaled 
almost like first joint, third joint smooth, moderate or rather short. Tongue developed. Antenna rather 
long, in cf bipectinate to or to .beyond one-half, or nearly simple, with tufts of cilia, in 9 minutel^^ 
ciliated. Pectus densely hairj'. Femora nearly glabrous, or hindfemur somevvhat hairy. Hindtibia in cf 
not dilated, in both sexes vvith all spurs. Metathorax not or only very slightl}- crested. x^bdomen with 
moderate or (more usually) strong dorsal crests. Frenulum fuUy developed. Forewing with costa straight 
to near apex, then gently arched, apex moderate, termen bowed, oblique, weakly subcrenulate, cell 
almost one-half, DC^ incurved or inangled (except in unitaria and subnibella ; sometimes only weaklv in 
one or tvvo others of Section II), DC-* vertical anteriorly, slightlv curved posteriorly, SC from cell, free, 
usually well away from both C and SC^ i). SC--5 normal, R' separate, M' separate; hindwing with costa 
rather short, apex rounded, termen rounded, weakly subcrenulate, tornus moderately pronounced, 
inner margin rather long, cell less than one-half, DC^ curved, DC'* nearly always arising further (some- 
times much further) distally, more or less curved, C approximated to cell to less than one-half, then 
rapidly diverging, SC- separate, R^ characteristic. M' separate (Pl. I , Fig. 8). cf genitalia with uncus 
tapered, gnathos weak or atrophied, harpe fused, penis pestillate 2). 

Early stages unknown. 

This genus seems quite sufificiently distinct from Terfina in the scarcely protuberant frons, less 
haiiy femora, etc; the shape and facies are tolerabh' distinctive. but inasmuch as Terpna, as at present 
constituted, presents great diversity in the latter respects this must not be over-emphasized. 

Type of the genus : jEolochruttia tiirneri (huca.s) = Hypockroma iurneri, Lucas. 

Geographical distribution of species. — .Australia, New Guinea, Mysol. 



1) rurner {Froc. Litui , Soc, iV. .S'. IVaies, \o\. 35, p. 6341 notes a specimen of iiirneyi in which SC ^Anastomoses wlth SC, and we have 
observed the same in one oi tang-iiida; but such an occurrence is ovidently quite exceptional. 

2) ^. turneri, prasina and stijffnsa examined, which show sufHcient specific diiTerences. 



36 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Section I. — cf antenna not bipectinate. 

1. .-E. turntri [\.ncsiS). Queensland. 

Hyfochroma turneri. Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Waies (2), VoL 4, 

p. 1096 (1890). 
Actenochroma turneri, Turner. ibidem. Vol. 35. p. 633 (1910). 

2. ^. /'>'rti/«a (Warren). Fergusson Isl., British and 

Actenochroma {}} prasina, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 3, p. 282 (l8g6). Dutch Xew Guinea. 

Actenochroma discolor, Warren, ibidem, p. SSg (1896). 

Actcnochroma prasina, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 669 (1902). 

3. yE. iiiffusa {W&rrcn). — Pl. I , Fig. 4, 4a. Fergusson Isl., British and 

/if/«(0C/'(re)H(ri?i/>/-.j.v;/;.;ab.jH/;isa,Warren,Novit.Zool. Vol. 3, p. 283(1896). Dutch New Guinea. 

4. --E. albifusaria{yNMiex). Mysol. 

Boarmia albiJiisaria,\Va.]kei, List Lcp. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol.35, p.i589(iS66). 

5. yE. modtsia (Warren) (huj. sect.?). British Xew Guinea. 

Hypochroma modesta, Warren, Novit. ZobL VoL 10. p. 35o (l9o3). 

6. .^. amethystina (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Aitenochroma amethystina, Warren, Novit. Zocl. Vol. 14, p. I23 (1907). 

Section II. — cf antenna bipectinate. 

7. .-£'. hypochruiiiaria (Guenee). N. to S. E. Australia. 

Cleora (?) hypochromaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. I.ep. Vol. 9, p. 2^4 (iS58). 
Hypochroma hyj^ochromnria, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), 

Vol, 2, p, gog (i888). 
Pscudoterpna bryophanes, Turner, Trans. ]\oy. Soc. S. AustraL Vol. 28, 

p. 222 (1904). 
Terpna hypochromaria, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 

p. 641 (igio). 

8. .-E. iinitaria (Walker) (huj. gen.?). E. anJ S. E. Australia. 

Tephrosia unitaria. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mu^.Vol.2i, p. 417 (1860). 
Hypochroma acanthina, Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. z, 

p. 910 (18S8). 
Terpna acanthiiia, Turner, ibidcm, Vol. 35. p. 641 (1910). 
g. AL. melarhodata (Walker). S. E. Austraha. 

Scotosia metarhodata, Walker, ListLep. Ins.Brit. Mus.Vol.26,p. 1724(1862). 
Hypochroma metarhodata, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc N.S. Wales (2),Vol.2, 

p. go8(i88.S). 
Ttrpna metarhodata, TuTner, ibidem, Vol.35, p. 640 (igio). 

10. .-E. satiirataria (\\'alker). Mysol, New Guinea, N. aiid 

Hypochroma saturataria, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit, Mus.Vol. 35, p. l5g3 W. .-Xustralia. 

(1866). 
Hypochroma perfulvata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 326 (iSgg). 
Pseudoterpna saturataria. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mns. Vol. 2. p. 384, 

t. 5, f. 6 (1900). 
Hypochroma saturataria ab. perviridata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, 

p. 35i (1903) (ab.). 

11. .'E. viridicata (Lucas) (huj. gen.?). Oueensland. 

Hypochroma viridicata. Lucas, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N. S. Wales '2i. Vol. 4, 

p. 1094 (1890). 
Terpna viridicala, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 641 (1910I, 

12. yE. quadrilinea (Lucas). Queensland. 

Hv/io<:/i)o»irt(;ii(!A-/7/«frti),Lucas,Proc.Roy.Soc.Queensl.Vol. 8,^.80(1892). 
Acteiiochroma ochrea, Warreii. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 36o (1896). 
Hypochroma ochrea, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 4, p. Z07 (1897). 
Pseudoterpnaquadrilinca, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p, 669 (igoz). 
r<»/'«.i.7ii.ii<i;7i'««i!,Turner.Proc.Linn.Soc.X. S.Wales.Vol. 35,^.642(1910). 



1) Hypochroma (juatiriptirtita on type label. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 37 

i3. .-E. siibnihesiejis {Wairen). Qiieensland. 

Hypochioiuii suhrubesceiis, Warreii. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, )>. loi (18961. 

Terpna s«/)r«6«««i,Turner,Proc.I..inn.Soc.K.S.Wales,Vol.35.p.64 2( 19101. 
14. ••£. caesia (Warren). Ron to Fergusson Isl. 

Acteiiocliroma (?| caesia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 2S2 (1896). 

Hypochroma caesia, Warren, ibidem, Vol. i3. p. 77 (19061. 
iS. .■^. langiiida (Warren). British Xew Guinea. 

Acleiwcliioma languiiia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 232 (1898;. 

16. .^. suhrubeUa (Warren) (huj. gen.?). British New Guinea. 

Hxpocliroma subrulieUa. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 35i 119031. 

17. AL. purpurissa (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Hypochroiiia purpurissa. Warren, Novit.Zool. Vol. i3,p.77,t. lo, f 14 (19061. 

icS. /E. rnfivaria (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Hvpocliroma rupivaria, WaTven, Novit, Zool. Vol. 14, p. I25 (1907). 



15. Genus METALLOLOPHIA, Warren 

Metallolophia. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 2. p. 88(189.5). 

Charactens. — Face scarcely protuberant, denseh- but smoothly scaled. Palpus moderate, 
second joint rather long-scaled beneath, third joint in rf short, bkint, in 9 moderate or longish. 
Tongue developed. Antenna rather long; in (J lamellate, the lamellae sometimes with slight lateral 
prolongation, in 9 almost simple. Pectus densely haiiy. Femora apparently nearly glabrous in type 
species, moderateh^ hairy in some cases. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs present. 
Metathorax not appreciably crested. .\bdoinen with minute pair of crests on second segment, stronger 
crests 011 third and fourth, all metallic-coloured in type species. Frenulum fully developed. Forewing 
with costa rather straight, apex moderate or pronounced, termen somewhat cren\ilate, strongly oblique 
(especially in the cf of tj-pe species), cell nearly one-half, discocellulars forming a continuous curve, 
not appreciably angled at R^, SC^ free, SC' normal. R' separate, R^ from slightly above middle of 
DC, M'separate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen convex, somewhat crenulate in type species, 
inner margin long (very long in type species), cell at least two-fifths, discocellars rather variable, either 
separately or continuousl}' curved, DC^ never so oblique as in typical .^oloc/iroma, C approximated to 
cell to less than one-half, then very strongly divergent, SC- separate, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown, 

This small group of evident allies presents no very salient structural features, so far as has yet 
been discovered, and might possibly be united with the preceding genus as another section thereof. In 
some respects it seems intermediate between that genus and Terpna. Unfortunately we have only had 
access to ver^' meagre material, and largely in inferior condition. The metallic crests are not of generic 
value, being apparenth* absent in all but the t\-pe species. while on the other hand thej- are shown in 
one species of .^olociiroma [subrubella). The narrower forevvin^- and longer inner- margin of hindwing give 
to the cf of the type species a distinctive shape, but the difference of shape is less marked in the rest, 
though the inner mnrgin of hindwing seems always relatively longer than in Aiolocltroma. 

Type of the genus : M etallolopliia rHlicosta (Walker) = Hypocltroma vitticosta, Walker (iSgS). 

Geographical distribution of species. — .X. India and China to Borneo. 

I. M. vitticosta (Walker). Borneo, Singapore. 

Hypochroma vitlicosta.VJAXV.er, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.V..il.2i.p.438 1860). 
Mctallolophia vitticosta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 88 (iSgS). 



38 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

2. M. opalina (Warren). N. India ; ? China. 

Tirpna opalina. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 349. t. 32, £. 14 (iSgS). 
Pseudoterpna opalina. Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 4/5 (iSgS). 

3. M. ocellata (Warren). Khasis. 

Terp>ia(}) ocellata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 207. t. 5. p. 25 (1897 . 
Pseudoterpimocellata, Hampson, Journ. Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc.Vol.i4.p.6'i4 
(1903). 

4. M. subradiata (Warren). Penang, Borneo. 

Terpiui subradiata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 388 yiigi). 

5. M. areiiaria (Leech). E- China. 

Pachyodes areiiana, I.eech, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 144. t. 9. f. 12 (1889). 
Pseudoterpna areiiaria. Leech. Ann.Mag.Nat. Hist.(6i,Vol.20, p.229 (1897). 



16. Genus TERPNA, Herrich-Schaffer 

Terpna. Henich-Schaffer, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. Vol. 1 (Lief. 5-i2 [1854] indescr.), p. 26, 87 

(i856). 
Hypochroma (part.). Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 275 (i858) (nec Herrich-Schaffer, i856). 
Pachyodes. Guenee, ibidem, p. 282 (i858). 

Pseudoterpna. Me^rick, Tnms. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 496 (1889) (nec Hiibner). 
Absala. Swinhoe, .^nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 12. p. 149 (1898). 
Archaeopseustes Wavren, .Vovit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 38o (1894). 
Calleremites. Warren, ibidem, p, 384 (1894). 
Psllotagma. Warren, ibidem, p. 678 (1S94). 

Characters. — Build robust. Frons strongly prcnubtrant (except in pidaiia and iieonoma), densely 
scaled, but not tufted i). Palpus moderate, second joint densely rough-scaled, third joint moderate to 
rather shoit, smoother scaled. Tongue developed, antenna somewhat variable in lcngth, in cf usually 
bipectinate, with moderate to short branches, in 9 usually nearly simple or weakly subserrate, 
rarely {lufeipes, supeiaiis and neonoma) shortly bipectinate. Pectus and femora densely hairy. Hindtibia 
with all spurs, in cf often with slight, but rarely {decorata, apicalis) with strong hair-pencil. Metathora.\ 
sometimes crested, but never with the highly-developed crest oi Dindica. Abdomen with well-developed 
mediodorsal crests (small in haeinaiaria and oriiataria); Q abdonien typically very robust. l^renulum 
fully developed. Forewing usually broad, costa gently arched. apex moderate, termen somewhat curved, 
more or less oblique, usually more or less subcrenulate, cell nearly always less than one-half, 
DC incurved, SC' from cell, free 2), SC^ stalked with SC^-s. R' not stalked, M' not stalked; hindwing 
with apex rounded, termen waved or crenulate, sometimes rather irregular, tornal area sometimes 
produced, inner margin always long. cell usually short (one-third to two-fifths), DC usually with a trace 
of angulation at R", but never of the extreme form of Pingasa, yEolochroma, etc, C shortly approximated 
to cell in its second founli, rapidly dtverging, SC- nearly always separate (very shortly stalked in 
subornata, and in the only known specimen of differens), R^ from somewhat above middle of cell, 
M' separate. cf genitalia with uncus bifurcate, gnathos pointed, with small scobinations. harpe 
emarginate at the apex, penis shuttle-shaped, pestillate, aedoeagus scobinated at thc tip (vigens). 

Early stages scarcely known. 



i) Slightly tufted in p^-rcompiiiria, wliich is probably sui .^eiieris. 

2) It is very rcmarkable that. notwithstanding the structural iliversity within this gf nu». \ve have found absolutely no cxception to this saving 
thc unique type of c.t!aiir,,ps and a sinffle example of anularia , and i n the latter SC anastomcs shortly on one wiiig only — an obvious sport . 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 3^ 

The moths which we include here should be divisihle into at least two or three genera, but as we 
have not been able to find sharp lines of demarcation we have left them together. By subdividing the 
genus into subgenera, we have drawn atter^tion to the variabihty of certain characters, which may be 
correlated with some real biological divergence. 

Type of the genus : Teypna liaemalaria, Herrich-Schaffer (i856). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-Austrahan. 

A. — cf antcuna siiuple; iviug-margins non-crenulate. 
SUBGEXUS I. — Cells very short; hindwmg with SC- stalked {Calknmites, Warren). 

1. T. subornata (Warren). Sikkim. 

CdUeyetmtes suboriiata, Wiirren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 385 (1894). 

SUBGENUS II. — Cells almost one-half; hindwing with SC^ separate {Psilotagma, W'arren). 

2. T. decorata (Warren). Bhutan to W. China. 

Psiloiagma decorata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 678 (1894). 

Terpna dorsocristatj. Poujade, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 64, p. 3i3, t. 7, 

f. 18, i^<; (1895) (nov. syn.). 
rsiudoterpna dorsocristata, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, 

p. 229 (isgy). 

B. — cf autenna ivitli e.xtrcinely sliort pcctinations. 
SUBGENUS III. — Wing-margins more or less crenulate; cells rather short {Ahsala, Swinhoe). 

3. T. dorcada (Swinhoe). N. India. 

.Absaladorcada. Swinhoe. .Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (61, Vol. I2. p. 149(1893). 
Psetidoterpiin dorcada, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol 3. \y. 478 (1895). 

4. T.pictaria {\ioore). N. India. 

Pachyodes pictarid, Moore, Lep. Coll. .\lkinson, p. 248 (iS88). 
Pseudolcrpna pictarid, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, )>. 478 I1895). 

C. — cf autcuua ivitli ratlicr short or modcrate pectinatious. 

SUBGENUS IV. — Wing-margins scarcely crenulate, that of hindwing not well rounded; cells very 
short; antenna about one-half, in 9 not pectinate; abdominal crests small to moderate, metathorax 
notcrested; underside of wings spotted {Terpna, Herrich-Schaffer = Pachyodes, (iuenee). 

5. T. haemataria, Herricli-Schaffer. N. India. 

Tcrpna haemataria, Herrich-Schaffer, SammL Aussereur. Schmett. Vol. i, 

t. [41], f. 205, 206 (1854); p. 37, 80 (i856). 
Pachyodes almaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 282 (i85S). 
Pachyodes hoemataria. VValker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 21, p. 44^ 

(1860). 
Pseudoterpna hacmataria. Hampson, Faunalnd. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 476(1895). 

6. T. ornataria (Moore). ^- India. 

Pachyodes ornataria, Moore, Lep. CoU. Atkinson, p. 249 (188S). 
Pseudoierpna ornataria. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 476 (iSgS). 

7. T. amplificata (Walker). China. 

Abraxas amplificata. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 24, p. 1 124(1862). 
Archaeopseustes amplificata. Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. i, p. 38o (1S94). 
Terpna amplificala, Warren, ibidem. p. 681 (1S94). 



40 LEPIDOPTERA HETEKOCERA 

8. T. Itucomelanaria (Poujade). W. China. 

Pachyod/s Uticomelauaria, Poujade, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 64. p. 3ii. t. 7. 

f. 17 (1895). 
Archaeopseustes Uucomelanaria. Leech, .Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, 

p. 23o (1897). 

SUBGENUS V. — Wing-margins scarceh' crenulate, that of hindwing well rounded; cells not verj- 
short; antenna short, in cf with moderate, in 9 with short pectinations {Pachista, nov., Prout ; 
type : T . siiperans. Butler). 

9. 7". superans (Butler). Japan, Corea.' 

Hypochroma superans. Butler. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 5), Vol. i, p. 398 

(1878): 111. Het. Coll. Brit. i\Ius. Vol. 3, p. 36, t. 49, f. 12 (18791. 
Pseudoterpna superaiis, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6),Vol.20, p. 228(1X97). 

10. T. luteipes (Feldfr) (huj. subgen. ?). Cochin Chinii. 

Pachyodis luteipes. I-"elder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 12.1. f. 8 11875). 

SUBGENUS VI. — Wing-margins distinctly crenulate ; cells not ver\' short ; antenna about two-thirds, 
in 9 very rarely («cowowa) pectinate ; metathorax slightl}- crested, abdominal crests well deve- 
loped ; underside not golden-ycllow. without large roundish discal spots [Lohhophehna. nov., Prout; 
type : 7". vigens, Biitler). 

1 1 . T. varicoloraria (Moore). N. India. 

Hypochroma varicoloraria, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 633 (1867). 
Pseudoterpna varicoloraria, Hampson, Faunalnd. Moths.Vol. 3, p. 475(1895). 
Terpna varicotoraria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 233 (1898). 

12. T. costistrigaria (Moore). N. India. 

Hypochroma costislrigaria, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 633 (1869). 
Pingasa costislrigaria, Moore. Lep Coll. Atkinson, p. 248 (1888). 
Pseudolerpna coslistrigaria, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths,Vol.3, p 474 (1895). 

i3. T. vigens (Butler). N. India. 

Hypochroma vigens. Butlcr. .\\\n. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6, p. 127(1880): 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6. p. 63, t. 116, f. 3 (1886). 
Pingasa vigens, Moore, Lep. Coll. Atkinson, p. 247 (1888I. 
Pachyodesvigens, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 169 11S941. 
Psendoterpna vigens. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 475 (iSgS). 
14. T. siwilis (Moore). India. 

Pingasa similis, Moore, Lep. CoU. .-Mkinson. p. 248 (1888I. 
Pachyodes ruficosla, Hampson, 111. Het. CoU. Brit. Mus. Vol. 8, p. 108, 

t. i5o, f. 16 (1891). 
Pachyodes similis, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. .Soc. I.ond. p. 170 (1894). 
Pseudolerpna similis, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. \'i>\. 3. p. 475 i8o5i. 
i5. M. erionoma (Swinhoe). Khasis. 

PiJc/(vo(i« moMoma, S\vinh(>e,.\nn. Mag. Nat.Hist oi.Voi. ij,p.2u)i lSqJj. 
Pseudolerpna erionoma, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 474 (1895). 

16. T. ruficoloraria, Warren. Borneo. 

Terpna ruficoloraria, Wavrcn, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 32 (1897). 

17. T. rubroviridata, Warren. Penang to Borneo. 

Terpna rubroiiridata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 232 (1S98). 

18. T. tenuilinea, Warren. Sumbawa. 

Terpna lenuilinea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 19 (18991. 

19. T . paroptila (Turner) (hic ponenda?) N. Oiieensland. 

Pseudolerpna paroplila, Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .'\ustral. Vol. 3o, ]>. i3o 

(1906). 
Terpna paroplila, Turner, Proc.Linn.Soc. N. S.Wales,Vol. 35.p.638(i9io). 

20. T. neonoma (Hampson) Ceylon. 

Psewlolerpna neonoma, Hampson, Journ. Bombay Nal. Hist. Soc. Vol. 18, 
p. 52. t. E, p. 24 (1907). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 41 

21. T. differens, Warren (huj. subgen. ?). N. India. 

Terpna dijferens, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i5, p. 12.^ (1909). 

22. T. calaurops, nov. sp. i) Prout. Hong-Kong. 

23. T . fiinebrosa, Warren (trans. ad subgen. sequ.?). Khasis. 

Terpna funebrosa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 3oiS (18961. 

SUBGENUS VII. — Wing-margins distinctly crenulate, of hindwing slightly irregular; cells not very 
short; antenna about two-thirds, in cf shortly, in 9 "o* pectinate; metathorax moderately 
crested, abdominal crests strong; underside golden-yellow, with large roundish discal spots 
(Dindicodes, nov., Prout; type : T. crocina, Butler). 

24. 7". apicalis (Moore) (trans. ad subgen. pra;c.?). N. India. 

Pingasia aficaUs. Moore, Lep. Coll. Atkinson, p. 247 {1S88). 
Pingasa apicalis, Cotes & Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind. (4), p. 5o6 ii888j. 
Pseudolerpna apicalis, Hainpson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 476 (iSgS). 
Terpna apicalis, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 3o8 1 1896). 

25. T. crocina (Butler). N. India. 

Hypochroma crocina. Butler, .-Knn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6, p. 126(1880); 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6. p. 63, t. 116, f. 2 (1886). 
Dindtca crocina, Cotes Sc Swinhoe, Cat. Lep. Ind. (4), p. 5o6 (1S88). 

26. T . leopardinata (Moore). N. India, Tibet. 

Hypochroma leopardinata, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 634 (1867). 
.' Dindica leopai dinata, Moore. Lep. Coll. Atkinson, p. 248 (1888) (= sequ. 
s;>ec. ?). 
Psemloterpna leopardiuala, Hampson, Fauna Ind.Moths, Vol.3, p.477 ii8g5). 

27. T. molleriCWaTren). Sikkim. 

Dindica mdlleri, Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 349 (1893). 

28. T. davidaria (Poujade). W. China. 

Pachyodes davidaria, Poujade, .•\nn. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 64, p. 3io. t 7, 

f. 16, i6a (1895). 
Pscudoterpnadavidaria,'Leec\\..\nn. Mag.Nat. Hist.(6), Vol.2o,p.229l 1897). 

D. — cf i-11'tciina with long pectinations. 

SUBGENUS VIII. — Wing-margins strongly crenulate; cells one-half; face and vertex rough-scaled ; 
antenna little over one-half; thorax robust, metathorax slightl}' crested, abdomen with rather 
broad, not very high crests ; underside with broad, velvety subterminal bands [Hypobapia, nov., 
Prout = Hypochruma, Guenee, nom. pra^occ. 2)] (gen. div.?). 

29. T . percompiaria (Guenoe). Australia. 

Hypochroma pcrcomptaria . Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 2S0, t. 6, f. 4 

(i858). 
Terpna percomptaria, Herrich-Schiiffer, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. Vol. i, 

p. 62, 84, t. g5, f. 544, 545 (i858i. 
Pseudoterpna percoml^taria, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 385 

(igoo). 

NoTE. — Hypochroma nyssiata, Felder, Reise Novara, Lcp. Het. t. i25, f. 3, is a Lymantriid, 
closelv allied to, or identical with Munychryia senicitla, Walker; H. edmondsii, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. 



i) Terpna (Lophophelma) calaurops, nov. sp. — cJ. 46 mm. Xearly related to T. i}igetis, Butler, difFering as foUows : antennal 
pectinations somewliat lont^er, SC 0!' forewing anastomosing shortly wiUi C (possibly individual, not .'^pecific), cell of hindwing slightly shorter, coloration 
of upper surface rather darker, with costa more strongly blackish-strigulated, of under surface less tinged with yellowish ; forewing with the base and a 
shade following the antemedian line reddish, area outside basal line light olive, not white; antcmedian line not outcurved in submedian area, becoming 
rathermore oblique at inner margin; postmedian line rather thicker. arising at 5 mm. from apex, the teeth on R^ and il' much blunter; subapical spot 
light olive, not wliite; hindwing with discal mark strong, produced along the base of R' so as to form a more pronounced crook than in wiftv/i/ postmedian 
line with the teeth followed by thick black vein-marks ; subterminal bands beneath broad, that on forewing followed by some dark shading which nearly 
absorbs the white terminal area, leaving free only a small apical patch and some very small patches or spots between R^ and tornus. Hong Kong. Type in 
coll. L. B. 1'rout. 

2) Type : pcrcompiaria, Guen6e, .\loore sel. {Lep. Ccyl . Vol. 3, p. 419). 



42 LEPIDOPTERA HKTEROCERA 

Lond. 1882, p. 364, a Larentiine (genus Xanthorhoe); H. mactilata, Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales{2), 
VoL 4, p. 1095 (sec. specim. typ.) is a close relative of Racotis boarmiaria, Guenee (subfamily Geome- 
irinae - Boarmiinae), differing only in the antennal structure. Other species erroneously erected as 
Hypographa have been correctly removed by Hanipson and Meyrick. 



17. Genus dindica, moore 

Dindica. iMoore, Lep. CoiL Atkinson, p. 248 (1888). 
Perissolophia. Warren. Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond p. 35o(i893). 
Pseudoterpna, scct. IL Hampson, I''auna Ind. Moths, \o\. 3, p. 477 (iSgS). 

Characters. — Face strongly protuberant belovv, with dense tuft of projecting scales. Palpus 
moderate (length nearly twice diameter of eye), rather stout, second joint densely long-haired, third 
joint more shortly scaled, in cf moderate, in 9 lather elongate. Tongue developed. Antenna rather 
long (about two-thirds length of forevving), in (j* bipectinate to beyond one-half, with shortish or quite 
moderate pectinations, in 9 minutely ciliated. Thorax with very powerfully developed posterior crests. 
Pectus and femora densely hairy. Ilindtibia in cf dilated with hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs. 
Abdomen crested, the crest on fourth segment very strong (PL 5). Forevving not broad, costa slightly 
arched, apex moderate, termen oblique, little convex, waved, tornus more or less rounded off, cellnearly 
one-half, DC incurved, SC free, SC*'' normal, R' just separate or sometimes connate, R* from little above 
the middle of cell, M'separate; hindwing with apex rounded. termen somewhat crenulatc, strongly 
convex, termen usually pronounced, cell somewhat less than one-half, DC- usually somewhat curved, 
DC^ oblique, C approximated to cell to less than one-half, then very strongly diverging. SC* approx- 
imated to R', sometimes connate or even (rarely) minutely stalked, R* characteristic, M' approximated 
to R^. cf genitalia : uncus pointed, bifurcate, gnathos strongly scobinated, harpes elaborately dentate, 
penis pestillate, coremata present. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

Differs from Terpna in the exaggerated crests, tufted frons, and probably other slight characters. 
Nearest the subgenus Dindicodes. 

Type of the genus : Dindica polyphaenaria (Guenee) = Hypochroma polyphaenaria, Guenee 
= Dindica basiflavata. Moore (1888). 

Geographical distribution of species. — N. India to Japan and Formosa, Celebes, etc. 

1 . D. polyphacnaria (Guenee). N • India, Borneo, Formosa. 

Hyt>ochroma polypluienaria, Giienee, Spec. Gen. I.ep.Vol.g.p.aSo^lSSS). 
. Hypochroma basiflavata, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 632 (1867). 
Dindica basiftavala, Moore, Lep. Coll. Atkinson, p. 248 (1888). 
Pseudoler/tna polyphaenaria, Swinlioe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 170(1894). 
Dindica polyphaenaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 382 (1894). 

2. D.para. Swinhoe. N. India. 

Dindica para. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 490 11S91). 
Pseudolerpna polyphaenaria {^d.ri.),lid.va\ison, Tauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, 
p. 477 (18951 (nec Guenee). 

3. D. marginala, Warren. Celebes, Borneo. 

Dindica niargiuala. Warreii, Novit. ZooL Vol. i, p. 382 (1894). 

4. D. virescens (Butler). Japan, Corea. 

Bylazora virescens, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. i, p. 398 (1878) ; 
111. Hel. CoU. Brit Mus. Vol. 3. p. 35. t. 49, f. 8 (1879). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 43 

Pscudotevpna koreajia, Alpheraky, Roman. Mem. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 181. t. 10, 

f. 6 (1897) (nov. syn.). 
Actenochroma viyescens, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 23o 

(1897)- 

5. D. siibiosea (Warren). — Pl. I Fig. 5. N. Iiidia. 

Perissolophia subrosca, Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35o (i8g3). 
Pscudoterpiia subrosea, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p, 478 (1895). 

6. D. subsimilis (Warren). N. India. 

Perissolophia subsimilis, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 232 (1898). 
Pseudoterpna suhsimilis, Hampson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 14, 
p. 6S4 (1902). 

7. D. pHrpurata, Bastelberger. Formosa. 

Dindica purpurala, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zeit. Guben, VoL 4, p. 248 
(IQIII. 

18. Genus CYNEOTERPNA, nov. nom., Prout 

Cyneoterpna, nov. nom, Prout. 

Autanepsia. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 629 (1910) (nec Turner, igo8). 

Characters. — Frons tufted. Head with a hood projecting above frons. Palpus rather long, 
second joint hairy benmth, third joint long, close-scaled. Tongue developed. Antenna in o* bipectinate 
with moderate l)ranches, apical one-thnd simple; in 9 simple. Pectus arid femora densely hairy. 
Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen verj- slightly crested. Frenulum 
fuUy developed. Forewing rather elongate, costa nearly straight, tennen crenulate, DC incurved, 
SCi from cell, anastomosing with C and SC^, .SC-'"' stalked, from well before R^ R- from close 
to R' (exceptionally even stalked), M^ separate; hindwing with apex somewhat cut away, termen 
crenulate, especially from R^ to M-, inner margin rather long, C approximated to cell near one-half, 
then rapidly diverging, SC^ rather widely separate from R', R- from close to R', M' well separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Probably related to Terpna [Hypobapta) percomptaria, though not extremely closely. 

Type of the genus : Cyneoterpna ivHsoni (Yi^Xdex) = Hypocliroma wilsoni. Felder. 

Geographical dlstributlon of species. — Austrahan. 

I. C. hnlsoii i (Felder). S. E. and N. E. Australia. 

Hypochroma wilsoni, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. i25, f. 4, 41; (1875). 
Autanepsia wilsoni, 'lurner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales. Vol. 35, p. 63o 
(1910). 

19. Genus SPHAGNODELA, Warren 

Sphagnodela. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35i (i8g3). 

Characters. — Face somevvhat protuberant; face and vertex strongly rough-scaled. Palpus 
quite moderate, rough-scaled, in both sexes with terminal joint quite small. Tongue developed. Antenna 
in cf with rather short, clavate pectinations to near apex, in 9 almost simple. Metathorax slightly 
crested. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in (^ not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs well deve- 
loped. Abdomen crested. Frenulum fully developed. F^orewing with costa arched, apex moderate, 
termen rounded, waved, not veiy long, cell about one-half, discocellulars curved, DC'^ becoming very 
oblique, SC anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, sometimes anastomosing at a point with SC, 
R' separate, M' widely separate ; hindwinj,' with costa longer than in the allies, apex rather pronouncedi 



44 LEPIDOPTHRA HETEROCERA 

termen not strongly convex, waved, inner margin not elongate, cell less than one-half, DC^ deeply 
incurved anteriorly, becoming ven,- oblique posteriorly, C approximated to cell to at least one-half, not 
verj- rapidly diverging, SC^ connate or more usually short-stalked with R', rarely just separate. R- from 
near R^ M^ widely separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Perhaps another derivative of r«7/>«rj, but rather isolated; hindvving proportions differing from 
those of all the preceding genera of the group. 

Typo of the genus : Sphagnodela liicida, \\'arren (1893). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — X. India to Tibet. 
I. S. liicida, Warren. .\". India, Tibet. 

Splmgiwdela litcida.Wa.TTen, l'roc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35i, t. 32, f. i3 (1893). 



20. Genus CRYPSIPHONA, Meyrick 

Crypsiphona Aleyrick, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, p. 901 (1888); Turner, ibidem, 
Vol. 35, p. 63o (1910). 

Characters. — Face not protuberant, smoothlj' scaled. Palpus moderate, second joint hairy 
beneath, third joint moderate {melamsema) or short. Tongue developed. Antenna ralher long, in c^ 
bipectinafe to at least three-fourths with moderate branches, apex minutel}- ciUated, in 9 minutely 
ciUated. Thorax sometimes with sUght anterior crest. Pectus and femora densely hair\ . Hindtibia 
in c? sometimes dilated (fide Meyrick), sometimes simple (octillatia), in botli sexes with terminal spurs 
only. Abdomen not appreciably crested, with lateral tiifts. I"renulum fuUy developed. Forewing with 
costa very slightly arched, apex rather pronounced, termen oblique, subcrenulate, cell nearl)' one-half, 
DC sUghtly incurved (sometimes nearly straighi), SC from cell, anastomosing with C and with SC° 
(occasionaUy SC^ even touches C at a point), SC*-'" from near to or even very short-stalked with R', 
M^ separate; hindwing with costa rounded, termen crcnukite, tornus int)re or less rounded. inner 
margin long, ceU somewhat less than one-half, DC very obUque, nearly straight to sinuous, C shortly 
approximated to ceU, then strongly diverging, SC^ separate (or connate, fide Turner), M' separate. 
Cf genitaUa : uncus bifid (two broad arms), emarginate at the tip, gnathos practically atrophied, harpe 
of irregaku shape, with projecting sacculus, penis rounded, with a strong thorny cornulus on the vesica; 
on the eighth sternite there is a fold emitting a fringe of spatulate scales, divided into three partsb\- two 
pairs oi longer scales. 

Early stages apparentl}' undescribed; larva oi ocullaria on Eiicalyptits. 

Type of the genus : Crypsipkona melanosema, Meyrick (1910) i ). 

Geographical distribution of species. — AustraUan. 

1. C. melanosema, Meyrick. \V. Aiistralia. 

Crypsiphona melaiiosema, Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 
1>. 901 (1888 

2. C. ociiUaria (Donovan). .Australia. 

Phalaenaocultaria, Donovan, Ins. New Holland, t. [36J, f. **** (iSo5 

I) i urners selection is the oldcst known to us. but is r:itlier unfortunate, as he reileseribes the genus from cciiUarij ; moreover, other alrong 
recommendations which have been put forward for the selection of types point to ociiltaria as the better clioice : it is the commonest and best-known 
species. and the generic namc lias u siniilar significance to the specific one. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.t 45 

Boannia ocullaiiii , Bo\sdavsi\. Faune Ent. Pacif. Vol. i. p. aSy (i832). 
Hypochroma occuUayia. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 281 (i858). 
Crypiiphoiia occultaria, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, 

p. 903 (1888). 
3 C. amauya. Meyrick. W. Australia 

Crypsiphona amaura, tAeyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, 

p. 902 (1888). 



21. Genus SYNCLYSMUS, Butler 

Synclysmus. Butler, .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), \'o\. 4, p. 242 (1879). 

Characters. — Face and verte.x rough-haired. Palpus small, second joint rough-scaled, third 
joint in (f minute^ concealed ( 9 unknown). Tongue wanting. Antenna short, in q* bipectinate to about 
two-thirds. with long. rapidly decreasing pectinations. Pectus and femora strongly hairy. Hindtibia 
in cf rather short, greatl}- swollen. with terminal spurs only. Metathorax apparently crested (abraded). 
Abdomen crested. Frenulum fully developed. F"orewing with costa straight (or almost concave) in 
proximal part, arched distally, apex moderate. termen rather straight, faintly waved, cell about one-half, 
DC gently incurved, SC^ free or anastomosing with C, SC^-^ normal, R^ just separate, M' separate; 
hindwing with apex rounded, termen waved, rounded, inner margin long, cell almost one-half, DC some- 
what incurved, becoming oblique, C approximated to cell for some distance, then moderately rapidly 
diverging, SC^ connate, R- from somewhat above middle of DC, M' connate or just separate, M- from 
near M'. 

Early stages unknown. 

This and the following genus are probably not very nearly related to those that have preceded, 
though they seem to be derivatives of the same main stirps. Their white or whitish colour dissociates 
them superficially therefrom. 

Type of the genus : .Syiiclnmus nivins, Butler (1879). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Aladagascar. 

I. S. niveiii. Butler. Madagascar. 

Synclysmiis niveus. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 4, p. 242 (1879). 



22. Genus XENOCHROMA, Warren 

Xenochronna, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. g, p. 497 (1902). 

Characters. — Face not protuberant, shortly scaled. Palpus rather short, rather slender, 
second joint shortl}- scaled, third joint quite small. Tongue short and slender. Antenna (in cf not 
certainly known) in 9 bipectinate to beyond two-thirds, with short branches, apex nearly simple, with 
single short bristles, or merely serrate. Pectus strongly hairy. Hindtibia in cf much dilated (salsa), in 
both sexes with terminal spurs only. Abdomen crested, in 9 ^ery robust. Frenulum developed, or in 9 
rather weak, costa of hindwing without appreciable basal expansion. F"orewing with costa slightly 
arched, apex acute, termen not crenulate, in the t^-pe species strongly elbowed at M', cell less than 
one-half, DC incurved, SC free, from cell or connate with SC^-^, SC^normal, M' stalked or just separ- 
ate: hindwing with apex moderate, termen convex, in type species strongly elbowed at M', cell less 
than one-half, DC incurved, C approximated closely to cell for a short distance (sometimes fused at a 



46 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

point), moderatelj' rapidly diverging, SC^ about connate, R^ moderately characieristic, M^ stalked 
(separate in salsa). 

Early stages unknown. 

A more specialized genus than any of the preceding, apparently, in common with those which 
follow, somewhat transitional towards our fourth Group. 

Types of the genus : Xenochronia candidala, Warren (1902). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — .Ethiopian. 

1. A'. candidata-, Warren. E. Africa. 

Xenockroma candidata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9. p. 498 (1902). 

2. X. planimargo, nov. sp. r), Prout. Nyassaland. 

3. X. salsa (VViirreii) (huj. gen.?). Sierra Leone. 

Pareiichloris{}) salsa, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 43 1897). 



23. Genus PSEUDOTERPNA, Hubner 

Pseudoterpna. Hubner. Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 2^4 (I^JO?); Herrich-Schiitter. Saininl. .Aussereur. 

SchiiicU..VoL I, pi, .!''> (1S-S6). 

Characters. — l''ace smooth. Palpus in both sexes (niite iiK.deratc, shghtly upcurved, second 
joint hairv beneath, third joint ininute, concealed. Tongue present. Antenna moderate, in cf bipectinate 
with short branches, apex simple; in 9 filiform, minutely ciliated. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia 
in cf somewhat dilated, with pencil of rather short hair. in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen crested. 
Hindwing with very shght (almost neghgeable) costal expansion, frenulum in (^ developed, in 9 
consisting of only a few long hairs. Forewing with costa scarcely arched, apex pronounced, termen 
entire, oblique, cell nearly onehalf, DC variably curved, SC usually free, occasionally anastoinosing 
with C, SC* nonnal, R' connate or just separale, R- above middie of DC (sometimes considerably 
above). M' separate; hindwing with costa not short, apex somewhat rounded, termen httle convex, 
inner margin scarcely elongate, cell neaily one-half, DC curved, C approximated to cell to about 
one-half, then rather gradually diverging, SC* connate or just separate, R- above middle of DC 
(sometimes extreme), M' separate. cf genitalia with uncus bifurcate, gnathos blunt. squared at the lip, 
with sinall {prttinata) or large [coromllaria) scobinations, harpe with spined clasper, penis rounded 
at the base, aedceagus with saw-hke projection at the orifice. 

Larva. — Moderately stout, rigid. nearly cylindrical, with shght latt-ial flange; head bilobed, 
the lobes produced to points anteiiorly; skin-surface strongly shagreened, prothorax with tvvo points 
anteriorly, anal flap triangular, tubercles and setae verj- smalL (AU three species figured by MilUere, 
Icun. Chen., t. 91.) 

PuPA. — Moderate, tapering anteriorly, light-brown or clay-colour, irregularly dark-spotted ; 
supra-anal plate long, anal armature appavently simpler than in most of the observed species. In a 
few threads among food-plant. 



i) Xenochroma planimargo, nov. sp- — Q. 40 mm. Build and coloration entirely as in .V. cattdidatn, Warren. differinK only as 
follows : palpus perhaps slightly stronger. antcnna merely serrat.', termen of forewing nearly straight (slightly bowed). of hindwing strungly roundcd, 
neitherwing with thc slightest elbow at M'. Face, front ot foreleg and outsidc and tipof palpuscrimson, .all clse white.wings slightly dusted with ochrenu» 
grey, and with faint traces of ochreoui grey postmedian line, as in candidata. Forewing with M' just separate, hindwing with M' scarcely stalked. 
Blantyre, Nyaisaland (J. E. S. Old). Type in coll, Brit. Mus. 



P^AM. CEOMETRIDyE 47 

This genus is piobabh- derived fiom a neai relative oi Pingasa or oi Epipristis ; the genitalia 
suo^gest a rather definite relationship with the latter. Meyrick and Hampson even merged many of the 
Indo-Austrahan forms in Psendoterpna. Turner has pointed out that the advance towards specialization 
in frenukim-structure is too marked to warrant this (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 635), 
with which we are fully in accord, although we do not find the 9 frenulum literally n obsolete », and 
rather prefer to shovv the natural affinities of the genus by placing it at the summit of Group II 
than removing it to Group \''. 

Type of the genus : Pseudolevpna pniinala (Mufnagel) ^ Phalaena pruinaia, Hufnagel = Pseudo- 
terpna cytisaria, Hiibner (i856). 

Geographical distribution of species. Europe to W. China. 

1. P. pruinata (Hufnagel). Europe to Armenia. 

Phalaena pruinata, Hufnagel, Berlin. Mag. Vol. 4, p 52o (17O7). 
Phalaena prasinaria, Fabricius.Syst.Ent.p. 626 (1775) (nec Hufnagel, 1767). 
Phalaena papilionaria (?).WiIkes. Engl. Moths and Butterfi. p. 6. t. 75 (1773) 

(nec Linne). 
[Phalaena] Geomelra cythisaria (Schiifermiiller), Schmett. Wien, p. 97 (1775). 
Geometra cythisiaria, Jung, Verz. Eur. Schmett. p. 40 (1782). 
Geometra genistaria, De Villers, Ent. Linn. Vol. 2, p. 328 (1789). 
Pseudoterpna cytisaria, Hiibner, Verz. bel<. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?). 
Hippctrchus cythisaria. Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. (2), p. I23 (1829). 
Hemithea genistaiia, Duponchel. Hist. Nat. Lep. V0I.7 (2), p. 252 (1829). 
Hemithea agresiaria, Duponchel, ibidem, p. 257 (1829). 
Hemithea cythisaria, Boisduval.Gen. et Ind. Meth. Eur. Lep. p. 180 (1S40). 
? Hemithea porracearia (Rambur, MS.),Boisduval,ibidem 1 1840) fnom. nud.). 
Pseudoterpna pruinata. Lederer, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 3, p. 172, 

f. I (1853). 
Pseudotcrpna pruiiiata var. virellata, Krulikovsky. Soc. Ent. Ziirich, Vol.23, 

p. II (1908) (var. ?|. 

2. P. coronillaria, Hiibner. S. Europe to Taurus. 

Giometra coronillaria, Hubner, Samml. Eur. Schmetl. Geom. t. i)3, 

f. 479-482 (1818?). 
Pseudoterpna coronillaria, Htibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?). 
Hemithea coroniUaria, Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (2), p. 255 (1829). 
Pseudolerpna a.viUaria, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. V0I.9, p. 339(i85S)(var.?). 
Pseudoierpna coronillaria a.h.armoraciaria, Oljerthiir, Et. Ent. Liv.20. p. 71, 

t. 6, f. 92 (1896) (ab.). 

3. P. corsicaria (Rambur) (prasc. var. ?) Corsica, Sardinia. 

Himithea corsicaria, Rambur, .\nn.Soc. Ent. Fr. V0I.2, p. 32. t.2,f. 6 (iS33). 
Pseudoterpna corsicaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur. 

Vol. 3, p. 12(1846'!. 
Geometra corsicaria. Heydenreich, Lep. Eur. Cat. Meth. (ed.3),p. 5i(i85i). 

NoTE. — Pseudoterpna diphtherina, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1889, p. 496, is a variet}- or 
synonym of Cernia amydaria, Walker. This was unfortunately unknown to us when we were working 
out the subfamitv CEnochrominae, to which the genus belongs. 



24. Genus APODASMIA, Turner 

Apodasmia. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 6:2 (1910). 

Characters. — Face scarcely proiuberant, shortly scaled. Palpus moderate, second joint 
strong, rough-haired abovc and beneath, thinl joint in both sexes small. concealed. Tongue present. 



48 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEKA 

Anteiina in both sexes dentate, shoitly ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia 
in cf ni)t (lilaled, in both sexes uith four well-developed spurs i). .\bdonien not crested. Hindwing in 
both sexes with pionounced basal expansion. yet with frenulum persisting, though slender in the cf. 
Forewing broad, costa ached at base, then rather straight. apex acute. but not produced. termen 
waved, little obUque in anterior half, cell nearlj' one-half, DC somewhat incurved, SC' froni ceil, 
anastoinosing with C, SC^ from stalk of SC"*'' (its base very slender), anastomosing with SC, R' separate, 
R^ considerably above middle, M' separate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen somewhat crenulate, 
inner margin shghth' elongate, cell nearly one-half, DC somewhat curved, C appro.ximated io rr]\ to 
nearly one-half, then diverging, SC^ separate. R- from close to Ri, M' sepaiate. 

Early stages unknnwn. 

Another slightly intiMniediate genus between Groups II and V; yet here it is the (f frenuhim 
which has progicssed most towards the latter, whereas in Pf.eudoterpna it is tlie 9- 

Type of the genus : Apodasmia rtifonigraria (Walker) = Fidonia (?) rufonigraria. Walker (igio). 

Geographical distribution of species. Austrahan. 

\. A. ritfonigraria (Walker). E., S. E. and W. Austraha. 

Fidonia {}) lufoiiigrnriit, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Miis. Vol. 24. p. i('36 

(1862). 
Epijirislis rufottigraria. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. VVales (2., Vol. 2. 

[). 916(1888). 
ApoAasmia rufeaigraria. Turner, iliidem, Vol. 35, p. 6i3 (igio). 



25. GENUS GNOPHOSEMA, NOV. GEN., PROUT (hic ponendum?) 

Gnophosema, nov. gen. rrout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpiis rather short. second joint densuly scaled benealh, third 
joint small concealed (9 mikuown). Tongue wanting. .Xnlenna in cf moderately stout. wilh longish 
pectinations, extreme apex nearly simple. Pectus and femora somewhat liairy. Hindtibia in (f not 
dilated, with terminal sptirs only. .Abdomen not appreciably crested. F-renuhim in cf doveloped, but 
with slight costal oxpansion. Wings shaped as in Pseudoterpna ; forewing with cell one-half, DC incurved, 
SC from cell, freo or anastomosing with C, SC- stalked to be}'ond SC'', .M' ai^proximated to K': hind- 
wing with cell about one-half, DC shghtly incurved. C approximated to cell to about one-half, rapidly 
(hveiging, SC- siiort-stalkcd with I\', R- tVoni somowhat above middk' of DC, M' connato. 

Early stages imknown. 

Type of the genus : Gnophosema isometra (Warron) ^ Giiophos isometra, Warron. 

Geographical distribution of species, — N. W. India. 

I. G. isometra (Wairen). .\'. W. India. 

Giiojilios isoinetra. Warren, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond, p. 3^1 (1888). 
Boaniiia isoiiietra, Ilmnpsoii, Fauna Ind. Jloths, VoL 3, p. 283 (1895). 



i) Turner refers to ;ibs(;iu:e ol inner tcnuinal spur in ,_'. vvhicli lictokeus cither one of tlie rare cascs of individual variability or a spur lost 
through somc injury. Wc liave only secii two luales. but they both have thc terminal spurs fiilly developed. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.F, 49 



Group lli 

26. Genus DYSPHANIA, Hubner 

Oysphania. Hiibner, \'crz. bek. Schmett. p. xj5 (1826?). 

Euschema. Hiibin-r. ibidem, p. 175 (1S26?). 

Hazis. BnisduvHl, l'"auiie Ent. Pacif. Vol. i, j). 2i)3 (iSSa). 

Heleona. Suainsnn, /ool. Illustr. si-r. 2, VoL 3, t. i 16 (i833). 

Polenivora. (iistl, Naturg. Thierr. p. 9 (1S48). 

Pareuschema. Thierry-Miei,', Lc Nalurahste, \'ol. 27, p. iSi (1905). 

Characters. — i'ace rounded-proiiiinent, densely scaled. Palpiis rather long, second joint 
modeialely 1 oUi;h-scaletl. ihird joint rather loni;-. cylindrical, smooth-scaled. Tongue developed. .Antenna 
in hotli sexes bipectinate to ape.x, with rather short braiiches. Thora.x rohiist. densely liair\ bencalh. 
Cox;e dcnsely hairy. l'"einora scarcely hairy, except hindlemur of cf. Foretibia lathei shoit, laisus 
rather long. Mindtibia in cf (except in Section II) with deej) groove conlaining densc tuft of hair, iii both 
sexes with all spurs i^iesent. Tarsi spiiuilose. .\bdomen not crested, in q* woollv-haiied bcneath (except 
in Section II). h^reniiluni fully developed. Forewin.t; iii both sexes with a well-developed fovea. V\'ing- 
shai^e vaiiable, fringes short. h^orewing wilh costa neavh stiaight or sli^hllv arched, ternien sninotli, 
little roundcd, alwa\s vcry oblique (in ihe cf "' thc type specics and its iiearest allies exccssively 
obliiiue), louger (or much longer) than inner margin, cell neaily one-half, usuallv produced apicallv, 
DC deeply incurved, SC' from ccll. free 01 anastomosing with C (variable even in a single species). 
SC^normal. KMongish-stalked with SC^"'', R- \ery cliaracteristic, M' wideh sepaiate; hinduing with 
costa arclu-d, apex not pionounced, termen strongly convex, usualh" inore or less irregularly. tlic pait 
from tornus to near R-' straighter, a marked gibbosity about R-', especiallj' in o*. cell one-half, or slightlv 
over, DC'' incuived, C approximated to (-ell in basal third, laj^idh- diverging, SC^ separate, R^ fr(un 
near R'. M' widely separate ( Pl. I, Fig. 12). cf genitalia (mili/aris) with uncus massive, tapered, 
gnathos strong, iiarpe witli broad, exlended sacculus, vinculum witli long cxtended lower arm, penis 
triangular as the base, broader above, witli strong two-prongcd projection at orifice of a'diragus; large 
coremata. 

L.\KVA. — C\lindrical, smooth, segiiientation well marked, licad rathcr small, anal lla)) somevvliat 
])0'inted; rests stiffly oiitstrctched. with head and anterior segments bcnt dovvnward ; not fully describcd 
(see Janson, Cisi. Ent. \'ol. 2, p. 540, t. 10, p. 2; Moore, Lep. CevL \'ol. 3, p. 422, 423; Semper, 
Reisen Philipp. (2), Vol. 6, )). 63.t. t. U, f. 14; Dewitz, Nora Acia Aca</ . Leop. i/ . Natnif. Halle. WA. 44(2), 
p. 267, t. 9, f. IO-Io/(). 

Pli'A. — Obtuse anteriorly, anal extiemit\- furnished with iiiimeions hooks: of the ordinar\- 
Geometrid form, brown in colour, spun between leaves ( Janson, Moore, Semper, Dewilz, in loc. cit.). 

An exceediiigly nalural genus. of somcwhat unccrtain affinities. though cvideiith' correctly placed 
in the present subfamilw The possession of a fovea in bolh sexes is a ver\- peculiar fealute. Some of 
the otlier distinctions l'iom (jroup II — tlie quite different wing-form, smoother scaling (usualh- with 
some h3'a1ine or semi-hyaline areas), wooUy clothing of abdomen beneath. long-stalking of R' of the 
forewing, etc. — may be, as Turner is inclined to belie\e, of secon(lar\- imiinrtance, and it is not 
unlikely tliat he may be justified iii liis view thal tlic relationship to tlie '7'^)/>;;(!-group is really not 
remote. Some of ihc specics are variable, aiid thc prevalence of geographical variation will rcnder it 



5o 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



necessary to investigate the many foims anatomically before their true status can be established with 
even approximate correctness. We have considered it inexpedient to add to the existing confusion by 
introducing speculative sjmonymy. unless there seemed very strong grounds for it ; it will probably 
prove, therefore, that we have erred in the other direction, of leaving too manj' forms distinct. Some 
good critical notes have been published by Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66. p. 201-224, Jahrh. 
Nassau. Ver. Nat. Vol. 60, p. 73-77, etc. 

Typo of the genus ; Dvsphaiiia Hiimana (Cramer) = Phalaena Attacus numana. Cramer = Dysphania 

numeuia, Hiibner. 

Geographjcal distribution of species. — Indo-Australian. 



SiiCTiON I. — cf hindtibia strongly dilated {Dyspliania, Hiibner). 



1. D. numana (Cramer). — Pl. I, Fig. 6 i). 

Phiilaina Atlacus numaiia, Cramer, I'ap. Exot. Vo!. 3. p. Sg, 176, t. 227, f. A, 

t. 228, f. A (1779). 
Bombyx numana, Olivier, Encycl. Meth. (Ins.) Vol. 5, p. 32 (1790). 
Dysphania numcnia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Sclimett. p. 175 (1826?). 
Dysphania numana, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p. 3^2 (1854). 
Ha2is numanaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. 190 (i858). 
Euschemaflavata, Walker, List Lep Ins. Vol. 3i. p. 172(18641(^0^. syn.l i). 
Euschema iiumaiia, Rober, Tijdsclir. v. Ent. Vol. 34, p. 332 (1891). 
Dysphania flavata, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 378 ligoo). 
Dyspliania numana arcuata, Hastelberger, Iris, Vol. 20, p. 257 (1907) (ab.). 
Dysphania numana albipunctulata, Bastelberger, il>idem. p. 258 ( 1907) (var. ?). 
Dysphania numana lcucophorala, Bastelberger, ibidem, p. 258 (1907) (albipunc- 

tulata ab. .'). 

2. D. hclenetta (VValker) (praec. form.?). 

Euschema heUnctta (While, MS.), Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 7. 
p. 1667 (i856). 

3. D. goramensis, Bastelberger (tiumana form. ?). 

Dysphania goramcnsis, Bastellierger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 2i5 I igo5). 

4. D. peregrina, Bastelberger. 

Dysphania peregrina, Bastelberger, Ent. Zeit. Guben, Vol. 18, p. ii5 (igo5). 

5. D. fenestrata (Swainson). 

a. Dysphania ientstrata /enestrata. 

Heleona /eneslrata, Swainson, Zool. 111. (21, Vol. 3, t 116 ^iS33). 
? Hazis tasmaniae, Le Guillou, Kev. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 257 H841) 2). 
? Hazis lasmanicaria, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. 189 (i858) fead. 
ac prsEc). 

Haiis velilaria, Guen6e, ibidem. p. 191 (i858i. 

Dysphania chalybeala, Hutler, ,\nn. Mag.Nat. Hist.(4i, Vol. 1(5,^.127(1876). 

Dysphania fenestrala, Kirby, Handb. Lep. Vol. 5. p. 236, t. 149, f. i (1S97K 

b. Dysphania /enestrala magnifica. 

Dysphania magniflca, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. 0.\ford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 377(1900). 
Dysphania purpurascens eX /ulgurata, Warren, MS. (in coll. Hrit. Mus.) 

c. Dysphania fencstrata splendiiia, 

Dysphania splendida, Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66. p. 216 (igo5). 

6. D. tetiians (Walker) (prsec. subsp, ?). 

a, Dysphania lintans lenlans. 

Euschema tentans, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3i, p. 175 (1864). 
Dysphania tentans, Swinhoe, Lep, Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 378 (1900). 
Dysphania tentans ab. velala, Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 212 
(igo5) (ab.). 

b. Dysphania tcntans subalbala. 

Dysphania tenlans subalbata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 352 (1902), 



Celebes, Moluccas, Timor. 



Ceiam, ? Woodlark. 

Goram. 

Oby. 

N. W. to N. Australia. 



N. Oueensland. 



E. Oueensland. 



MysoltoNewGuinea, ?N.Queens- 
land. 



Trobriand Isl. 



1) We figured from a typical example of flavata, Walker, but afterwards arrived at tlie conclusion that this. and not thc following, is the true 
n/nnan.t of Cramer. His type figure (t. 227. f. A, c?) is from a discolo ired specimen, and almost unrecognizable. 

2) Description unintellijjible and locality cHobart 'rown) probably inaccurate. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



5i 



7. D. tyrianthina (Butlei). 

Heleona iyriaitthiiw, Biitler, Ann. Majf. Nat. Hist. (5). Vol. lo, p. 23i (1882). 
Euschema tliyriaiilina, Pa{>;enstecher, Zoologica, Vol. 29. p. i5o (1900). 

8. D. fulvilauta, Warren (prac. var. ?). 

Dysphania fnlvilauta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 35o (igo2). 
Dysphania innotata, Warren, MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.). 
g. D. snelleni (Pagenstecher). 

Hazis sneUiiii. Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Vol. 39, p. i63 (1886). 

10. D. semifulva, Warren. 

Dysphania semifulva, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 124 (igog). 

11. D. latiflava, Warren. 

Dysphania latiflava. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 86 (iSgS). 

12. D. latiplaga, Wairen. 

Dysphania latiplaga, WaTien. Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 35i (1902). 

13. D. coiitraria [Walker). 

Euschema contraria, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3i,p. 173 (1864). 
Heleona hdiicosa. Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 104, f. i (1874). 
Dysphania coiitraria, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. V0I.2, p. 378 (igoo). 

14. D. melleata, Warren (praec. subsp.?). 

Dysphania contraria inelleata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 35o (1902). 

15. D. longimacula, Semper. 

Dysphania longimacula. Semper, Reisen Philipp. 121, Vol. 6, p. 636, t. 65. 
f. 9 (1902) i). 

16. D. cyane (Cramer). 

PhaUienaAttacus n'i!«f,Crainer,Pap.Exot.Vol.3,p.i37, 174,1.267,!. D^iySo). 
Bombyx cyane, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. Vol. 2, p 5o6 (1781). 
Dysphania cyane, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 175 (1826?). 
Chelonia cyaiie, Verloren, Ins. Lep. Crameri, p. 102 (1837). 
Euschentaspectabilis,Wa\keT,'List'Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 3i, p. 174 (1864). 
Hazis cyane. Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. Vol. 39, p. 162 (1886). 
Euschema cyaite, Rober, Tijdschr. v. Ent. Vol. 34, p. 332 (i8gi). 

17. D. flavimargo, Warren. 

Dysphania cyane ab. flavimargo, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 35o(i902). 
Dysphania flaviiiiargo, Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. V0I.66, p. 2i3 (igoS). 

18. D. imperialis, Warren. 

Dysphaiiia imperialis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. g, p. 35i (1902). 

19. D. regnatrix, Wairen. 

Dysphania regnatrix, VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. y, p. 352 (1902). 

20. D. iinperatrix, Warren. 

Dysphania imperatrix, Warren, Novit. Vol. 10, p. 261 (igo^). 

21. D. flavicorpus, Warren. 

Dysphania flavicorpus, Warren, No\ it. Zool. Vol. 16, p. I23 (igog). 

22. D. pilosa (Butler). 

Euschema pilosa, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 20, p. 240 (1887). 

23. D. centralis, Rothschild. 

Dysphania ceittralis , Rothschild. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 8. p. 219, t. 10, f. 6 (igoi). 

24. D. poeyii [G-aerm) . 

Dcileptena potyii, Guerin. Voy. Coquille, t. ig. p. 3 (i83o). 
Hazismars <?, Boisduval, Fatine Ent. Pacif. Vol. i, p. 2o5 (i832). 
Hazis marliaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. igo (i858). 
Euschema mars, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p. 408 (1854). 
Dysphania poeyi, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 87 (1895). 
Euschenia poeyi, Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturalisfe, Vol. 29, p. 175 (1907). 

25. D. Am7»«V (Pagenstecher) (praec. form. 9?)- 

Hazis mars Q. Boisduval, Faune Ent. Pacif.Vol. i. p. 2o5 (i832) (nov. syn., 

ftde Thierry-Mieg in litt.i. 
Hasis kiihnii, Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver.Nat. Vol. 39, p. 162 (1886). 
? Dysphania remota ab. q bicolor, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 193 1901). 
Euschema vulcaiius, Thierry-Mieg. Le Naturaliste, Vol. 29, p. 175 (1907). 



DukeofYorkIslands,?Neu- 
Mecklenburg. 

Neu-Hannover, Neu-Meck- 
lenburg. 

Moluccas. 
Solomons. 
New Guine:i. 
S. Celebes. 
Celebes. 

N. Celebes. 
Philippines. 

Moluccas to Bismarck Ar- 
chipelago. 



Tenimber Isl. 

Mefor. 

Solomons. 

Isabel Isl. (Solomons). 

Choiseul. 

Solomons. 

British Nevv Guinea. 

Waigeu. 



Waigeu to Aru Islands. 



I) Sempers publication has apparently tvvo montlis' priority over AVarren's in .X^jvif. Zoi>t. \'o\. 0, p. 35:. 



52 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



26. D. remota (Walkei) i). 

a. Dvsphaiiia rimota rimota. 

Euschima remala, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis.VoL 3i, p. 176 ^1864). 
huscluma cyanoptera. Pagenstecher, Ent. Nachr. Vol. 22, p. 34 11896); 

Abh. Senckenb. Ges. VoL 23, p. 458, t. 20, f. 10 (1897). 
Dvspkania remola, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 378 (1900J. 
? Eiischema revwta. var. auctata. Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 27, 

p. 181 (i9o5) (ab.?). 
? Huschema lemota var. albimiiciila, Thierry-Mieg, ibidem (igoS) (ab. ?). 

b. Dysphaiiia remota coiifliieiis. 

Dvspluinia confiiiens, VVarren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 86(1895). 

27. D. binotata (Walkei). 

Euschema binotala. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Krit. Mus. Vol.3i,p. 176(1864). 
Dysphaiiia binolata, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 3/8 (1900). 
Euschema auristriga, Walker, MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.). 
Dysphania auristriga, Warren, Novlt. ZooL Vol. 2, p. 86 (iSgS) (vix descr.l. 

28. D. bernsteinii (Feklerj (prajc. var.?). 

Helcoiia lieriisleinii. Felder, Reise Xovara, Lep. Het. t. 104, p. 2 (J874). 
? Hazis i(;j-«5/i7«n,Pagenstecher.Jahrb.Nassau.Ver.Nat.VoL39,p. 162 (1886). 

Dysphania hernsteini. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2. p. 86 (1895). 

Euschema hernsleinii. 'Ihierry-.Miey. l.e Naturaliste, Vol. 27, p. 181 (i9o5). 
21,. D. liiteopida (Walkei ). 

Euschcma liiteapicla, \\ alker, Lisi L^;p. Ins. Brit.Mus. VoL 3i,p. 177 (1864). 

Dysphania liileopicla, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 379(19001. 
3o. D. auriplena (Thiern-Mieg). 

Euschema aiinplena. Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 27, p. 181 (igoSi. 

3i. 1). andamana (.Moore). 

Eiischema andamaiui, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 599 1S77) ; 

VVaterhoiise, Aid, Vol. i, t. 11 (1881). 
Dysphania andamana. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2,^.379(1900). 
Dysphania andamana ab. ijtiadriplagiata, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zeit. 

Guben, Vol. 5, p. 55 (i9ii)(ab.). 
Dvsfhania an,lamana ab. /niH5»(«i<i, Bastelberger, ibidem, p. 55(i9Ji) (ab.). 

32. D. militaris (Linnc). 

a. Dysphania militaris militaris. 

Phalaena Uombyx militaris, Linne, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), Vol. i, p. 5o5 (1^58). 
Phalaena Altacits mililaris, Linne, ibidem led. 12), Vol. i (2), p. 811 (1767). 
Bomby.y militaiis. Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 559 (i??^). 
Euschema mililaris, Hiibner, Verz, bek. Schmett. p. 175 (1826?). 
Hazis militaris, BoisJuvul, laune lint. 1'acif, Vol. 1, p. 2o3 (i832). 
Heleana mililaris, Swainson, Zool. 111. (2), Vol. 3, p. 116 (i833l. 
Hazis mililaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. 193 (ks58). 
Eiiscliema abriipta, Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3), Vol. 1, p. 70 (i,s62). 
Dysphania viililaris ab. siameiisis. Bastelberger, Stett. lint, Zeit. Vol. 66, 

p. 222 (i9o5) (ab.). 
Dysphania militaris a.h. nigromarginala, Baslelberger, Jahrb. Nassaii. Ver. 

Nat. Vol. 60, p. 76 (1907) (al>). 

b. Dvs/>hania mililaris sagana. 

Euschema sagaiia, Drucc, Proc. Zool. So> , I.onJ. p. 781. t. 61, p. 3 (1882). 

c. Dysphania iiiililaris selangora. 

liiischema sclani;oia. Swinhoe. .Viiii . Maj; . .\"ai. 1 1 ist. (6), Vol. 1 2. p. 265 ,1893). 

d. Dysphania mililaris isolala. 

Dysphania isolala, Warren. Novit. Zool. \'ol. y. p. 35i (19021. 
Dysphania militaris var. adempta, Bastelberger. Stett. i:iil. Zoit, Vul. 66, 
p. 222 (igo5) (ab.) ,nov. syn.). 

e. Dysphania viilitaris jessica (bon. sp. ?). 

Dysphaitia jcssica, Swlnhoe, .'Vnn. Mag, Nat. llist. (8), Vol. i, p. 67 (1908). 

33. D. scyllea (Swiuiioe) (prjEC. var. vel ab. ?). 

Euschema scyllea, Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat Ilist. (6). Vol. 12, p. 148 (iSg3). 
Dysphania scyllea. Swinhoc, Lep. Het. O.-iford Mus.Vol. 2, p. 38o(igoo). 



Mysol, Bachian, ? Waigeu. 



Oby. Dutch Xew Guinea. 
Ceram. 



Waigeu, ? .\\\\ IsL 

Ceram. 

VVaigeu. 
.•\ndamans. 



India. China. Java, etc. 



Cochin China. Siam. 

Malacca. 

Perak, Suinatra. Borneo. 

Nicobars. Aiulamans, Burma. 
liidia. 



1) It is bv no means impassiblr tliat tiiis aini tiie tuo 
cxtremelv Httle iii.ilcrial. 



tliiCT ruiiowint; are also fitrins of one protean species {poeyiir, biit \\e liaTe ecn 



FAM. GEOMETRID/l': 



53 



34. D. excubitoy (Moore) (sequ. fonn. ?). 

a. Dysphaniit txctibitor ixctihilor. 

Eusclteiiia excubitor, Moore, Proc. 7.oo\. Soc. Lond. i). 846 (18781. 
Dviphania exciibitor, .Swinhoe, Lep. Het.O.\ford Miis. Vol. 2, 11. 379 ( 1900L 

b. Dvspliania excitbitor sodalis (vix diff. ?). 

Etischema sodalis, Moore, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,Vol. 55 (2), p. gg;:886i. 
£i)>s/i/ja«iVisodrtiis,BastelbergerJahrl>.Xassaii.Ver.Nat.Vol. 60,^.74(1907). 

c. Dysphania excuhitor faiinitta. 

Dvsphania faniiittit, Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(8i, Vol. i. 11. 67 (1908). 
3,5. D. stibnpUta (WaWicr). 

Eiischema siibrephta, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mlis. Vol. 2. }>. 406(1^54). 
Hiuis bellonana. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10. p. igi. t. i5, f. i (iSSSi. 
Dvsphania siibrepleta, Swinhoe, Lep, Het. 0.\ford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 3So (1900). 

36. D. hellona (Walker). 

Eiischeina bellona. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p, 403 iiSS^). 
Euschema roepstorffi. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 600(1877/ (var. ?). 
. Eiischema ItintiUita. Butler. Ann. .Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol, 10, p. 3^5 
(18S2) (ab.). 
Eiischema liidifica. Swinhoe. 'Irans. Ent. Soc. LonJ. p. 202 118901 (ab. ?). 
Dysphania hellona, Swinhoe, Lei>. Het. 0.s;ford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 38o (1900). 

37. D, caeruUoplaga, Bastelberger, 

Dvspliania caereiileopla.i;a, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zeit. Cluben, Vol. 5, 
p. 54 (igiii, 

38. D. avdeisonii (Moore) (pra-c. var. ?). 

Euschema j«rf.') s<))//(. Moore,Jovirn,Linn,Soc Lond.Zool.Vol.ji,p.56( 18861. 

39. D. plena (Walker). 

Euschema plena. Walker, List Lei). Ins. Brit. Mns. \'ol. 7, p, 1668 uS56l. 
o^ Ha:is manillaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, i>, 192 (i858). 
3 Hasts halistaria. (kienee, ibidem, p. 192 (i858i. 
Eiischniia hellonarui. Dewitz, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Xaturf. Halle. 

Vol. 44 (2), p. 267. t. 9, f. lo-iofe (18S2) inec Guenee). 
Dvsphaiiia manillaria. Semper, Reiscn 1'hilipp. (2), Vol,6(5), t. U. f. 14, i5 

(1901). 
Dvsphania pliiia. Semper, ibidem. (6), p. 635, t. 65, f. 8 (1902!. 

40. D. doulilcdayi (Snellen). 

Eiischema mahiyaniis. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 2, p. 407 

(1854) (nec Guerin). 
Hazis malavaria, Guenee, Spec, Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. 189 (i85Sj. 
]lazis doiibledayi. Snellen, Tijdschr. v. Ent. Vol. 27, p. 83, 97 (1884). 
Dysphania maUtyaria. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2,p. 36i (1900). 
Eitschema maUtyaria var. patipna. Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste Vol, 27, 

p. 181 (igoS) (ab.) i). 
Dysphania sericata, Bastelberger. Stctt. Eiit. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 210 (100.^) 

(ab. ; ead. ac prsec). 
Euschema angtdata, Warren, MS. lin coU. Brit. Mus.) (ab. ; eail. ac priec.'. 
Dvsphania dotibledayi ah, affluens. Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. V.il. t)i'. 

p, 2o5 (1905) (ab.). 
Euscheina auriluntdata. VVarren, MS. (in coU. Brit. .Mus.). 

41. D. nioyoslriata. Bastelberger (pra^c. ab. ?). 

Dvsphania nigioslriata, Bastelberger, Stott. ICnt. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 211 (ninSi. 

42. D. Iransditcia (Walker) [doubledayi form. ?). 

Euschema /i-3«.?*i(^/n,Walker,Jourii.Linn.Soc.Lond. Zool.Vol.h.p.o.) 1 1S61 1. 
Euschema atirifusa. Warren, MS. (in coll. Brit, Mus.i. 

43. D. albescens, nov. sp. 2), Prout. 



Burma (montic). 



liurma. 



Nias, Sumatra. 



Rornco, Malacca, Sumatra. 



India to 1 !ui ma. 



.■Xndamans. 

Lower Burma. 
I^hilippines. 



Alalavsia. 



Horneo. 

liorneo, Penang, Sumatra, 

ISurneo, 



I) In case tbis l,.r,„, wliicl. is certainly rec.irrent in .^..matr:i, sho..lJ prove to cunstitute a local or seasonul race. it muy be pointed out Ihat 
Thierry-Miei,''s nanie of paiipera ( August. iijo.^) has threc montlis' priority over Bastolbcrgers of sericafa (November, looS). 

21 Dysphania albescens, nov. sp. - 9. 72 mm. Like transducta, Walker, of which it may even prove an extraordlnary aberration but 
with the forewint whitc, onlv sl.t;htlv clou.le.l with bln.sh from basal p,art of M^ to S«=, /. e. in the mid.lle of the .ntcrrupted antemed.an 
band a small ycllow mark at tornns (bounded bv submarginal and marginal bands and by sub.nedia.. fold), hindwing white as far as the postmedian line. 
golden-yellow distally thereto ; dark markings in botl. w.ngs exactly as in the less heavily ...arkcd cx-an.ples of Irausdncia. the streak from antemed.an Ime 
anlerior to SM' ratl.er large a..d strong, .as in norm..l doublcdayi. Underside «imilar, but with heavier blo..-l. between base of M^ and .S.\l- ot torew.ng. 
Abdomen whitc, belted dorsally with light reddish brown, marked anally with yellowish and purple-grey. and w ith a yellow lateral l...e. Sarawak, 4th m.le, 
Rock Roa.l, - .\pril. t.k)ii. Type in oll. Brit. Mus . presented by tlie Sarawak Museu.... 



54 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEEA 



S. India, Ceylon. 



44. D. asurea, Bastelbeiger. N. Borneo. 

Dysphania (jZMrfa,Bastelberger,Intern.Ent.Zeit.Giiben.Vol.i8,p.ii5(i9o5). 

45. D. cancellata, Bastelberger. N. Borneo. 

Dysphania cancellata, Bastellierger, ibidem. p. 116 (igoSi. 

46. D. nelera (Swinhoe). S. India. 

Eusckema w>(?/i!vfl«a.Swinhoe.Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond.p.865(i885)(necGiierin). 
Eusdiema nelera. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc Lond. p. 141 (1891). 
Dysphania nelera, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol 2, p. 38i (1900). 

47. D. palmyra (Stoll). 

Phalaena Bombyx palmyia, Sloll, Suppl. Pap. Exot. Cramer, p.iSg, 1S4 [in 

err. 384]. t. 36, f. i ('1790). 
Euschema palmyra, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. lyS (1826?). 
Phalacna (?) palmyra. Verloren, Ins. Lep. Crameri, p. 167 (1837). 
Cystidia (?) palmyra, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2. p. 342 (1854). 
Euschtma Iransveisa, Walker, ibidem, p. 407 fiSS^). 
Hazis palmyraria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. igo (i858). 
Dysphania palmyra, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 38i (iqooi. 

48. D. percota (Swinlioe). 

Euschema palmyra. Swinhoe,Proc.Zool.Soc. Lond. p. 864 (i885) (nec Stoll). 
Euschema percola,Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 142 (18011. 

49. D. malayanus (Guerin). 

Hazis vialayanus, Guerin. in Delessert, Voy. dans Tlnde (2), p. Sg, t. 23, 

f. 2 (1843). 
Dysphania malayaiius, Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 2ox (igo5). 

50. D. recessa (Walkei) (prasc. form.?). 

Euschema wma. Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. V0I.6, p.gS (1861). 
Euschema proba. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6, p. 120 (1880); 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6. p. 48, t. ti3, f. 2 (1886). 
Dysphania siipergressa. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 87 (i895)(ab.}. 
Dysphania recessa. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. V0I.2, p. 38o (1900). 
Dysphania malayanus, Semper, Reisen I'hilipp. (2), Vol. 6, p. 636 1 1902) 

(nec Giierin). 
Dysphania malayanus (^a.rX..), Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zcit. Vol. 66. p. 201 

(1905). 
Euschema recessa var. luteomaculata, Griinberg, Sitzungsber. Bcrl. Ges. 

Nat. Freunde, p. 287 (1908). 
5i. D. minervaria (Guenee). 

Hazis minervaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, p. 190 (IS58). 

Hazis piignataria. Guenee, ibidem, p. 194 (i858i. 

Euschema horsficldi, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. House. Vol. 2, p. 334, t. 8a, 

f. 7 (iSSg). , 
Euschema patiila, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3i, p. 175 (1864). 

52. D. aurilimbata (Moore). 

Euschema aurilimbala. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 846 (1S78]. 

53. D. auriplaga, Warren. 

Dysphania auriplaga. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 85 (iSgS). 

54. D. ftavidiscalis, Warren. 

Dysphania Jlaviiliscalis, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. S6 (i8g5). 
Euschevia flavidiscalis, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 4. p. 564 (1896). 

55. D. aurogulfata, Warren. 

Dysphania aurogutlata. Warren, Novit Zool. Vol, 9, p. 349 (1902). 

56. D. discalis (Walkei). 

Euschema discalis. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p. 407 (1854). 

57. D. prunicolor (Moore). 

Eiischema subrephta (part.). Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, 

p. 406 (1854) (nec typ ). 
Eiischema primicolor, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 414 (1879). 
Euschema bellissima. Moore, ibidem, p. 414 (iS^g) (ab.) i). 



S. India, Burma. 
Malacca, Singapore. 



Borneo, Perak, Sumatra, 
N. India. 



Java, Burma, Siam. 



Perak. 
Burma. 

Mila Islands. 

Malay Pcninsula, Borneo, 

Sumatra. 
Ceylon. 



i) It is most unfoitiinate that Hampson [Faniuj Ifid. .\f.'llis. \o\. l. p. 469), who is the first to unite thc?e two names, has chosen tbat of 
prunico/or, which represents the much rarer form, and lias not even tlie virtue that is supposed to attach to « page-priority ». But according to the laws 
of nomenclature, his selection must stand. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 55 

58. D. conspicua, Bastelberger. Khasis. 

Dvsphania conspicua. BastelberL;er. Jahrb. Nassau.Ver Nat. V0I.60, p 73 

59. D. ares (Weymer). Nias. 

Euscluma ares (Maassen MS.». Weymer, Stett. Hnt. Zeit. Vol. 46, p. 279, 

t. 2, f. 9 (i885). 
Euschema eleclra. Weymer, ibidem, p. 281 (i885',. 
Dyspliania semiflava, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 87 (1895). 
DyspUania ares. Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 218 (igoS). 

60. D. palestraria (Guenee). Java, Timor. 

Hazis paleslrarta (Boisduval MS.). Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10, 

p. 191 (i858). 
Heleona cuprina, Felder, l^eise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 104. f. 3 (1874). 
Euschema palestraria. Thierry-Miejj, Le Naturaliste. VoL 29. p. i^.t (1907). 

61. D.fruhstorferi (Rober) (prffic. ab. ?). Java. 

Euschema fnihstorferi. Rober, Ent. Nachr. Vol. 21. p. 34 (1895). 

62. D. interrupta, Bastelberger {palestraria var.?). Sumatra. 

Dysphania interrupta. Bastelberger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 66, p. 206 (igoS). 
Euichema sumatrensis. Fau-cett, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. igog, p. 882. t. 82, 
f. 6 (1910) (ab.) (nov. syn.j. 

63. D. bivexillata, nov. sp. i), Prout. Sumatra. 

Section II. — cf hindtibia not dilated; 
cf abdomcn not wooUy-haired beneath 2) {Parciiscbciua, Thierry-AIieg). 

64. D. f^lanccscens (Walkcr). Malay Peninsula, Borneo. 

Euschema glaucescens. Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. Vol. 6, 

p. 93 (1861). 
Euschema regalis, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. |5). Vol. 6, p. 119 (1880). 
Dysphania glaucescens. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus.Vol. 2, p.38i (iQOo). 
Pareuschema regalis,T:\i\.erry-TAieg, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 27, p. iSi (i9o5). 

MoTE. — Euschema resiimpta, Walker = semiplena. Walker, belongs to the Chalcosiinae ; E.flavescens, 
Walker, to the genus Chatalma (Uraniid). Hazis agorius, Boisduval, Fanna Ent. Pacif. Vol. i, p. 204, 
t. 5, f. I, is unknown to us, but evidently not a Dysphania; Butler (MS.) in coll. Brit. Mus. referred it 
to Praesos, Walker. Phalaena papilionaria, Drury, ///. Nat. Hist. Vol. 2, referred to Heleona in Westvi-ood's 
edition, is a well-known Chalcosiine (genus Cyclusia). 



27. Genus CUSUMA, Moore 

Cusuma. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 413 (1879). 

Characters. — Face scarcely protuberant, densely scaled. Palpus moderate, stout, second 
joint rough-scaled, third joint smooth-scaled, moderate, slighdy longer in 9. Tongue developed. 
.•\ntenna not quite one-half, bipectinate to apex, in cf with moderate, in 9 ^"^h shghtlj'- shorter 



1) Oysphania bivexillata, nov. sp. — Q, 04 mm. Head, witli palpus and antennal sliaft, light fleshy brown, crown mar; ed with bngbt 
yellow, liody of the same fleshy brown, marked on sides and dorsally with bright yellow. tbis colour forming on the abdomen ratber narrow belts at the 
ends of the segments Forewing rather broad, termen not extremely convex (shape approaching that of 0««»m) ; nondescript fleshy brown, with purple 
refiections — stronger in certain lights — and with vague suggestions of a paler subterminal band.oblique outwards from costa. strongly retracted from R=; 
eostal margin also paler; a briglit deep yellow strcak along SC from base to about 5 mm. : a rather narrow, sinuous band across cell near its end, continued 
shortlyandweakly into the space between M' and M'; a second carrow band. much constricted in middle and even interrupted by vein R=, running 
from SC just beyond cell to M'; a slight, vague yellow mark in raiddle of submedian area; hindwing bright deep yellow, marked witb purplish 
brown, the markings consisting of a rathcr large oval cell-mark. and Ipostmedian and subterminal bands lormed much as in pleim. Walker, etc. , 
but meeting in a rather large tornal blotch. Underside similar. Sumatra (Crowley Bequest). Type in coll. Brit. Mut. The ground-colour is possibly 
faded from more purplish, but the raarkings are quite dlstinct from any species known to us. 

2) Fide Thierry-ilieg, who founds the genus Pareuschema on these characters. ^^'e have only seen the Q oi glaucescetis. 



56 LEPIDOPTERA IIETEROCERA 

braiiclies. Pectus densdy haiiy. I''emoia hairy. Miiidtibia in (j' dilati-d with hair-pencil, in both sexes 
vvith all spurs. Abdomen n(it crested, in cf densely woolly-haircd boneath, and somctimes laterally. 
Frenulum fullv developcd. Fcirewing less clongate thaii in Dvspha)iia. costa sjightlx archcd, apex 
moderate, tirmen smooth, slightly convex anteriorly. then nearly straij;ht, very oblicjue. torniis rounded, 
cell almost one-half, IX'- vertical, l^C'-* decply inbent. SC fi'ec, SC*"^ stalked, R' long-stalked with them, 
R^ from considcrably ahnvc niiddle of DC, M' well scparale: hindwing with apex rounded, lermen 
wavcd, ccll lcss tlian nnc-half. l)C-'gently curved, C' ai^proximated to ccll t<i ratlnr lcss than one-half, 
rather rapidlj' diverging, .SC^ separate, K- from near K', M' wcll separalc. I''ovca present in forcwing, 
but less strongh' dt-vclopcd than in Dvs/</iaiiiii. 

Early stages un1<n<iun. 

Scarci-ly morc than a subgenus of Dysphauia, with lcss elongate wings, less developed fovea, 

rathcr shortcr ccll tu hinvhving, etc. 

Type of the genus : Ciisiinui rilis{ \\a]kvr}= Eiisihemavilis,\\'a\kL'v ^Cnsiima /m/iii/a..Mo(ire( iSjg). 

Geographical distrlbution of specles. — Ce^lon. 

1. C. -,-ilis (Walkeij. Ccylon. 

Eiischevia ■,ilis. Walker. I.ist I.ep. Ins. Hril. Miis. Vol. 2. ]). 40S (iSj^i. 
Ciisuma limbala. Monre. l'ro('.. Zool. Soc. )>. 413 i.s^iii. 
Cusnma vilis. Moore. ibidein, )'. ^o 'iS^qi. 

2. C. Jiavifiisa, Ilampson. — Pl. 2, Fig. I . Cevloii. 

Cusimia /laviftisa. Hanipson. 111. llct. ( oll. lirit. Mus. Vol.o. p. m. 1. ifiS, 

f. 17 (iSg.S). 
Eiiscliemii ftavifiisa, Hanipson. Fainia Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. ]>. 471 iiSqJ-. 



Group IV 

28. Genus AGOSCHEMA, nov. nom , Prout 

Agoschema, nov. nom. Prtmt. 

Dysschema. Wairen, Novit. Zool. \dl. 5, p. io(i898)(nec lliibncr, i8j6.'). 

Mlcroschema. Wairen, ibidem, \'ol. 10, ji. 349 (igoS) (nec Stal. i86g). 

Characters. — l^ace slighlly prutubciant, witli apprcssed scalcs. Palpus moderate tcilongish. 
rather strong, second joint shortlx niugh-scalcd, tliird joint snmoth, in r^ rathcr shoit. in 9 eldiigatc. 
Tongue developed. Antenna in (^ bipcctinate to aboul tvi^o-thirds, vvith shortish. moderalcly stout 
branchcs,apex simple; in 9 ncarly simple,minutcly ciliated. Pectus and femora slightly hairy. Ilindtibia 
in (^ dilated with hair-pencil, in both sexcs with all spurs. .\bdomcn not crested. I-'iemilum dcveloiied i). 
h^ircwing with costa ncarly straight proximall}-, archcd distally, apex not acute, ttMinen cur\cd. obliijue. 
cell less than one-half, DC slightly incurvcd, becoming moderately obIi(]ue, SC from ccll, frcc, or 
anastomosing at a point with C, SC* rather long-stalked with SC-*"'', R' short-stalked, R^ from considcr- 
ably above middlc of DC, M' separate ; hindwing with apex rounded. tcimen convex, somcwhat 
gibbous in middle, toriuis pronnunccd, cell short. DC^ inodcrateiy obliquc, C shortly approximated to 
ccll near base (sometimes with anastomosis al a point), thcn very raiiidh' di\'crging. SC- st.-ilkcd. 
K"- from cliisc to K', M' connatc with R''. 



I) \Ve liave seen no gooci s^, liut as tlie liiniiuing is witliout ;ippreciablL- basal expansion, we assunie it wiU be present. 



AM. tjEOMETKlD.-E 57 



Early stages iinkiKivvn. 



Warren refers the genus tci the Dvsphaniinae (our Group III), but il has no fovc^a. and rJilYers in 
several other particulars. The condition of vein C of the hindwint;, tlie stalking f)f St!^ and thc possible 
weakness of the Q frenulum ma}- even be indieations of a hif;hcr |iosition than \\e have assigned it. 

Type of the genus : Ai^oschema i^oniata (Warrcn) = Dysschcmu goniata. Warren [i8q8]. 

Geographical dlstributlon of species. — New (niinea. 

1. A. goniala {\\-A\\en). — Pl. 2, Fig. 3. Dutch and ISritisii Xew 

Dyiscliema goniatii, Warren, Novit. Z<iol. Vol. 5. p. 10 (1,^98). Guinea. 

M icroscliema i^oniala. Warren, ibidem. \'ol. 10, !>. 349 (190.^). 

29. Genus CENOCHLORA, Warren 

CEnochlora. Waircn, Xovit. Zool. \'ol. 3, p. 353 (uSgb). 
Euarestus. Lucas, Proc. Koy. Soc. Oueensl. Vol. i5, p. 142 (1900). 

Characters. — Face scarcely protuberant, smoothly scaled. Palpus moderate, rathcr stout, 
second joint scarceh- rough-scaled, third joint short, distinct, blunt. Tongue developed. Antcnna long, 
in cf bipectinate almost to apex, in 9 serrate. Pectus hairy. Femora somewhat hair\ . Hindtibia with 
all spurs, in (^ dilated with hair-pencil. .Abdomen not crested. Frenulum fully developed. Forewing with 
costa strongly arched in basal half, apex moderately acute, termen slightly ventricose posteriorlv^ tornus 
roundetl. cell less than one-half, discocellulars oblique, curved. especiallj- DC-*, SC^ from cell. anast- 
omosing shortlv w ith C and rather strongly with SC^, SC- from stalk of SC^"^, K' separate, K^ about 
central, M' well separate from R-'; hindwing with apex and termen rounded, inner margin rather long, 
anal angle pronounced, C appressed to SC to fully one-half of cell, SC- and R' separate, R- from a little 
nearer to R' than to R^, M' well separatc from !<■'. 

Early stages unknown. 

Turner (Pioc. Linii. .Vfc. .V. .S. JVales, Vo\. 35, p. 644) considers this genus (juite nearly related 
to the Terpna-^vnup. This ma)- possibly be correct, but as its exact jiosition is by no means certain, we 
havc considered tliat for taxonomic purposes it vvas more convcnient to place it at the head of our 
(jroup IV. 

Type of the genus : (Enochloia impeiialis. Wairen (1896). 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — .Austialian. 

I. (2t. impcrialis, Wairen. — Pl. 2, Fig. 4. Oueenslaud. Hritish Xew 

(Enochlora imperialis. Warren. Novit. /ool. Vol. 3, p. 334 1896). Guinea. 

Euareiliis nobiliians, Lucas, I'roc. Roy. Soc. Oiieensl. Vul. i5,p. nz 11900). 
Eiiaiestus patrocinatiis. Lucas. ibidein, p. 142 (1900). 



30. Genus AGATHIA, Guenee 

Agathia. (jiienee. Spec. (ien. Eep. \'ol. 9, p. 3.S8(iS5S). 

Characters. — Face rounded-prominent, smooth-scaled. Palpus in cf modeiate, in 9 l'"!»/ 
second joint densely but not verj' long scaled, third joint smoother, in cf quite moderate, in 9 l^riK t^o 
very long. Tongue developed. Antenna over one-half, in both sexes almost simple. Pectus and femora 



58 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

hairy. Hindtibia in cf strongly dilated, with haii-pencil and usually with a lather broad but not long 
terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen usually somewhat crested, sometimes quite 
smooth. Frenulum fully developed. Forewing with costa arched-, apex usually acute, termen almost 
smooth or waved, httle convex (in some species elbowed at R^), obhque, cell somewhat less than one- 
half, DC incurved, SC from cell, nearly always free, veri- exceptionaily anastomosing shortly with C, 
SC^ normal. R' separate, R-normal, M'- separate; hindwing with apex usually rounded, termen irre- 
gular, strongly tailed at R^ and sHghtly or rather strongly at R', tornus somewhat produced, ceil less 
than one-half, DC^ incurved, C closely approximated to ceil for some distance, occasionally with short 
fusion basad, SC^ approximated to R', R- very characteristic, M^ separate. cf genitalia with uncus 
bifurcate, gnathos with broad lip, harpe angulated, penis pestillate, coremata present. 

L.ilUVa. — Moderately stout, with slight protuberances on prothorax and eighth abdominal, green 
in colour; feedingon species of Nerium, etc. (Moore, Lcp. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 437, t. 197, f. \b. etc). 

PuPA. — Rather slender, segmental incisions, eyes and spiracles well marked, form cyhndrical, 
regularly tapering, abdomen Hght brown. black-spotted, a supra-anal plate and eight terminal hooks. 

Except in the curious variabiHty of tlie crests, this genus exhibits remarkable uniformity of struc- 
ture. As uith most large genera where this is the case, a more thorough revision is needed than the 
scope of the present work admitted; we have done httle more than catalogue the described forms. They 
exhibit weU-marked sexual dimorphism. 

Type of the genus : Agaihia lycaenaria (Kollar) = Geomdra lycaeiiaria, Kollar (Moore sel., 1887). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-Austrahan, straggling into the Palaearctic and 

^thiopian Regions. 

1. A. lycaenaria (Kollar). India and S. China to Java 

Geomelra lycaenaria, KoHar, Hugel's Kashmir, Vol. 4, p. 486 (1844). and Philippines. 

Geometra albiangularia, Herrich-Schafier, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. 

Vol. 1, t. 61, f. 33g (i855). 
Agathia lycacnaria, Giienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p 38o, t. 3, f. 12 ^i858). 
Agathia discriminata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. Sgi 

(1S61). 

2. ^. /rt</a/«(Fabricius). India with Ceylon, Malay 

Phalaena laetata, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Vol. 3 (2), p. 164 (1794). Peninsula. 

fPhalaenazonaria, Donovan, Ins. China. t. [44], f. ** {1799) i). 
} Hipparchus sonarius. Westv/ood, Donovan's Ins. China. nov. ed. p. Si, 
t. 44, f. 2 (1842). 

Agathia laetata, Guenee, Spec. Gen. I.ep. Vol. 9, p. 38i (i858). 

Agathia catenaria, Walker. List Lep. Ins. lirit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 590(18(51!. 

3. A. hemithearia, Guenee. India with Ceylon. 

Agathia hemithearia. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 3Si (i858). 
^. A. hilaraia, Gwenee. India, Borneo, ? Fergus- 

Agathia hilarata, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. \'ol. 9, p. 38l (i858). Son Isl. 

Agathia quinaria, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 639 (1867); Water- 

house. Aid, Vol. 2, t. 184, f. 2 (1S89). 
Agathia prasina, Swinhoe, .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist.(6). Vol. 12, p. 219 (18931. 

5. A. intercissa, Walker. S. India, Ceylon. 

Agatkia intercissa, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.V0l.22, p. 392 (1861); 
Hampson, 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 9, p. 146, t. 170, f. 3 (1893). 

6. A. arcuata, Moore. N. India. 

Agatbia arcuata, Moore, Proc. Zool.Soc. Lond. p. 640 (1S67): Waterhouse, 
Aid, Vol. 2. t. 184, f. 3 (1S89). 



i) As this species is unknown from China, whence Donovan's specimen purported to come. the synonym CAnnot be reuarded as absolutely 
certain. But even if the figure could be proved to represent a rematkable aberration of carissima. Butler, the name of sonaria could not be applied, 
being a homonyin. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDyE 



59 



7. A. carissima, Butler. 

AgatUia carissima, Butler, ill. Het. Coll, Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p. 5o, t. 36. f. 7 

(1878). 
Agathia lacunaria, Hedemann, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 14, p. 5:2, t. 3, 

f. 4 (1879), 
Agathia laetata, Leech, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 23i (1897) 
(nec Fabriciiis). 
S. ^. ma^nifica, Moore. 

Agathia niagiiifica. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 416 (1879). 
9. A. giganiea, Butler. 

Agathia gigantea, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5j, Vol. 6. p. 217 (1880). 
Agathia diversiformis, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i, ]). 388 (1894). 

10. A. visenda, Butler. 

Agdthia riseiida. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(5), Vol. 6, p. 218 (1880). 

11. A . beata, Butler. 

Agalhia beala, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6, p. 218 (1880). 

12. A. subdeleta, Warren (prsec. form.?). 

Agathia subdeleta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 102 (1896). 
i3. A. pisina, Butler. — Pl. 2, Fig. 2. 

Agathia pisiiia. Butler, .-^nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. ,5), Vol. 20, p. 243 (1887). 
Agathia subcarnea. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 285 (i8g6). 

14. A. aslerias, Mej-rick. 

.igathia asterias, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2. p. 899 
(1888). 

15. A. prasmaspis, Meyrick {laetata var. ?) 

Agathia prnsinaspis, Meyrick, Trans. iint. Soc. Lond. p. 495 (18891. 
? Agathia laetala, Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 4, p. 1094 
(1890) (nec Fabricius). 
Agathia veneranda, Swinhoe,Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 670 ( 1902) (nov.syn.). 

16. A. iodioides, Lucas. 

Agathia iodioides. Lucas.Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales (2), Vol. 6,^.296(1 891). 
ij. A. distributa, Lucas, 

Agathiadistributa. Lucas, Proc.Linn.Soc.N.S.WaIes(2),Vol.6, p.296 (1891). 

Agathia disconnecla, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 362 11896) (nov. syn.). 
18. .(4. codina, Swinhoe. 

Agathiacodina, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 7, t. i, f. 3 (1892). 
ig. A. gemma, Swinhoe. 

Agathia gemma, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 8 (1892). 

20. A. diversilinea, Warren. 

a. Agathia diversiUnea diversiUnea. 

.igjthia diversilinea, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 282 (1896I. 

b. Agathia diversilinea ampla, nov. subsp. 11, Prout. 

21. A. rtibrilineata, Warren. 

Agalhia rubrilineata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 362 (1896). 

22. A. obsoleta, Warren. 

Agalhia obsoleta. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 208, t 5, f. 4 (1897). 

23. A. succedanea, Warren. 

Agathia siucedanea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 388 I1897). 

24. A. kiihni, W^arren. 

Agathia kiihni. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 422, 425 (1898). 

25. A. exquisita, Warren. 

Agathia exquisita. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 20 (1899). 

26. A. punctata, Warren. 

Agathia punctata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 327 (1899). 



Eastern Asia. 



Ceylon. 

N. India to Java. 

Darjiling. 
N. India. 
N. India. 
New Guinea to Solomons. 

N. to E. Australia. 

New Guinea to E. Australia. 

Queensland. 
Queensland. 

Assam, Borneo. 
Khasis. 



Fergusson Isl.,Trobriands, Loui- 

siades, ?Ke Islands. 
Dutch New Guinea. 
Java, Borneo. 

Java, Borneo. 

Borneo. 

Ke Islands. 

Great Oby. 

Dammer Islands. 



i) Agathia diversilinea ampla, nov. subsp. — c3. 46 mm. \\\ the dark margins much broader than in typical diversilinea. the 
median and subterminal brown bands of forewing consequently not interrupted, but merely constricted at points where in tlie type form they give 
place to the line yellow lines; subterminal band connected with terminal by a ray along R', enclosing a round spot between R3 and il*. Fak-Fak, 
Dutch New Guinea, 1700 feet, Dec. 1007 (A. E. Pratt). Type in coil L. B. Prout. Cotypes from the same locality in i:olI. Brit. Mus. el coll. 
W, F. H. Rose.nberg. 



6o 



.ICPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



27. 


A. 


28. 


A. 


29. 


A. 


3o. 


A. 


3i. 


A. 


32. 


A. 


33. 


A. 



34. -1. 



i5. 


A 


36. 


A 


37. 


A 


38. 


A 


39. 


A 


40. 


A 


41. 


A 


42. 


A 



conjnncliva, W<inen Bntish N'e\\ (kiinea. 

AgiilJiiii coiijuncfivn, Warieii. Novit. Zool. Vol. 10. p. 35.^ 1 iQo3i. 
ohmihilala, Warven. Hiitish Xow tiiiinea. 

.■igiilliiii ohiiuhiliitii, Warreii. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 10. p. 353 ' 1903. 
ilkearia, Swinhoe. 1-ioineo. 

.■Igiiliiiii illieiuiii, .Svviiihoe, J\nn. Mai;. Xat. Hist. 17 . Vol. ]5. p. 166(19051. 
solnria, Swinhoe. SingaiMire. 

Agiilliiii soliiiiii, .Swinlioe. Ann. Ma^. Nat. Hist, (71. Vol. i5. p. 167 iigoSi. 
olivacta, Wiwwn. Choiseul. 

Agiithia olivacf,!. Warren. No\il. Zuol. Vol. 12. p. 420(1905). 
i/imo/a, i'roiit. Eiji. 

.'Igiilliia liimula, 1'roiit. The HiitoinoloL^ist. \'ol. ^.\. p. 26 '19111. 
/ycaeiiii/ia, i iastelheiger. .Xew Ponu-rania. 

Agalhia hcaeiiidia, Hastell)erf;er, Interii. Kiit. Zcit. c;nben. \'ol. 5, ]'. 5.-i 
(1911). 
a/hif<unc/u/a/a. Haslelbei-gei . 

.\:;athia allii/>ii/icliilala. Hastellieri^er. Intern. lint. Zeit. Gnben. Vol. 5. 
1>. 5.S ' HII I !. I 

dlscisticta, nov. sp. i ). l'ioiit. 
macuiimargo, nov. sp.2). pKuit. 
laqueifera, nov. sp. .^), i'i<iut. 
loiilu^iata, Waiicii. 

.ti;athia coiifuscata. Warren. Novit. Zool. \'ol. 4. p. 32 (18071. 
wii//ifirip/a, Wavren . 

.\Kalhia miillisivil^ta. Warren. Novit. Zool. \'ol. 5, |>. 233 (1898). 
pauj^er, Waneu. 

.Igalhia paiipey, Warren, .Vovit. Zool. Vol. 11. y. 403 ' 104 > 
e/ciiaria, .Swinhoe. 

/Igalhia cltiiaria. Swiiihoe. Traiis. l-^nt. Soc. Loml. p. 542 11904). 
niiiiu/a, Uiuce. 

Agathia miiiula. Driice. .\nn. May. Nat. Hist. S'. Vol. 7. )). 292 (1911). 



Bismarck .\rchiiielago. 

Sylhel. 
Ainboina. 
.Assam to Java. 
Sierra Leone. 

Xii;er Coast to Cameroons. 

Xiger Coast. 

Xiger Coast to Cameioons. 

Cameroons. 



i) Agathia discisticta. nov. sp- o'.4<ii""i- Fiice ;iml palpus piirplc-brown atiuvc, palc below, verte.x aiui antcnua purplc Iirown, 
oi-iu|)ut and fronl ot tliorax pea-grcen, tliorax postcriorly anil abdonien niostlv purple-brown (somewhat damafrcd). Wingsshaped as in £iffiit,te,i. llutler. 
Forcwing pea-^ircen, witli costa to SC palc purplc-lirown, an oblique-cilged purplc-brown b.i<!al patch as iii _^i_^iiutfa,solaria,eic . a roundiBli discal 
spot fuUy as larye as in coiiiita, Swiulioc. vaguc traces of llic niedian liand at inner margin, a subterminal band sbaped a.s in s.ilari,i, Swinhoe, but slightly 
broadcr, terminal luarkinKS (includin;r conspicuous davk lilotcli betwccn U- and R'l as iii tliat species. Hindwing pea-Krecn, witli purj lc-browii patrlies 
at basc aild on iniier liiargin. aiid witli purplebrown tcrminal band nciupying one-lialf ot the wing, its proximalcdge irretiular. tlie green ground-colour 
encroacbing betwccii )<■ ;iiid K* and UKain bctwecn K" and W', its distal cdge reacbing tbe ti^rmen in tornal half, but cnclosing slhuc ill-defined tcrtninal 
grecn spols, tlie usual grccn patib presciit in apiral lialf ; a strongly lunulate-dcntalc blackisli line tniverses tbc terminal bjnd ncar its proxiinal edge ; 
cell-spiit distinct. tliougli sni;iller tli;in in forewing . Under surface paler, the markings duller brown, tlic band on hinilwing niuch narrower towards inner 
margin. its proxiniid part being licrc nnly laintly shadowed. Discal spots prcscnt. S. Sylhet (Crowley Uequestl, type in coll. Brit. ilus. Nearly related to 
ffifiinUa and suiariii, tbeforcwing niore resembling tlie fornicr, the hindwing the latter ; tlic prescnce of conspicuous discal spots Iiotli ;ibovcand beneath 
(as iii r.odina) is rarc in tliis genus. In thc hindwing, K» and Jl 1 are shortly stalked. a still more rarc, if not unique occurrence in tlie genus . 

21 Agathia maculimapgo, nov. sp. — o',-'omiii. \'ery likc a large, r;ither yellow-grcen specinien of ^/A/r/^MAi, I ucas, but witli tlie 
postmedian scries ot spols, cspcii..IIy <in tlie liiiulwin;;, rather further iVom termen, tlie inncr-margiiial on forewing enlargcd into a tliick oblique strcak 
from the margin 10 SM-. liruicn of lorcwiuK witli rather large, but well isohited triangular spots at the ends of veins K-, K', M", M- and SM'!, of alinost 
equ;il sizc, only that ;it K" slightly largcr and cxtcnding across the fringe, a much smaller dark niark at end of K' ; hindwing with inncr margiii Irom 
tornus to postincdian uiarkcii with purplisli tuscous, most broadly at tornus; fringc froni K"to tornus clear nhitish, only witli adarkspotat end of 11'; basal 
halfof abdomcn grccn ;iliovc. rcgularly licltcd witli purplish fuscoiis. .\mboina, Oct. 190; (l'ratt); type in coll. Urit. Jlus. 

3) Agathia laqueifera, nov. sp. — cTQ, 26-3o mm. Face, vertex, palpus and antenna pinkish-brown, slightly mixetl with wliitisli, tlie 
haitsoii undcrside nf palpus whitisli, ',' wifli thinl palpal joint shortcrthan second; occiput grcen, 'Ihorax and ^ibdonicn (cxcept aiially) grccn dorsally, 
teguhc marked with pinkish-brown, abdominal incisions and ircsts (which arc well developed) pinkish-brown. thorax and abdomen p;dcr beneath. 
Forewing bright ycllnw green, costa to SC pinkish-brown, mucli spotted with fuscous in proxiiual and distal thirds, tlie distal somctimes bccoming an 
aluiost continuons Iiro;ui fuscoiis slrcak ; iir.irkiligs pinkish-brown, consisting of ; an iU-dcfined basal patch lietween inner margin and il ; a uarrow b;ind 
froiii costa at tw o-titths to inncr uiargin bclorc or.e-Iialf, st;irting obliquely outwards, forming an irrcgular loop cnclosiug tlie niinute discal dot. morc or 
less outangled again on subnieilian fold, and again close to inner margin, somctiraes connecteil along inner margin witli tlie postmcdiaii; a postincilian 
placed and shaped as in I.op/inc/i/orii crisli/era, marked w illi fuscous or reddish fuscous in its anterior part ; a conspicuous roundcd spot betwecn K- ;inil 
!<■' near termen, almosl wlioUy covered with fuscoiis scales ; sevend minute dots scattered about the wing, antl traces of a line tcrminal I:iie; fringc 
wliiiish, spotted with pinkisli brown :it tlic vein-ends. J-Iindwing with tlie tcctli ;it Ri and RJ sharp, almost cqual ; cxtreme liasc pinkish-browii, basal 
two-fifthsotherwisebright yellowish giecii with luinule du«tiiig, tcrminal tlircc-fifllis in rbe type largcly pinVish browu, leaving a narrow termimd baiid 
of green froni apcx to subincilian fold, and soiue slight green admilture iu middle. especially towards inncr margin; a black dashovspoton R- in thc 
middlcof thepinkish-brown arca. and others(in tlic type mucli fainter) on Ri ;ind K'' ; tcrminal bne pinkish-brown; Iringe- whitish, bisccted by a darkcr 
linc. and with spots at vein-ends. rnderside wbitish grcen, with mostofthe markings of tbe uppersidc traceable in pale pink, a median line or n.arrow 
band on hindwing somctimes ilarker and more promincnt. Type (Q). Digboi, 1'pper .\ssam. in coU. L. H. Prout; a cj from Java (E India Company) aiiil 
a Q from Singapore (Marcb to April, H. N, Ridley\ botli in coll, Brit Mus., have the markings on the hindwing mucli reduced, cspecially the o". i" 
whicli there is little more than a zigzag antemedian line, some irregular longitudinal strcaks in middle of wing and a r.atlicr dense dusting to reprcsent 
tbe rest of thc brown area. 



1-AM. (iEOMIillvllX?!; 6i 

NoTE. — Agathia (?) divaricata, AJooie. Lef>. Coll. Alltinson, p. 25o, l. 8, f. i5, beloogs to the 
subfamily Geometrinae {Ennominae, Waneii). and has beeii niade tlie type of the genus Tnlocrnspeda. 
Wairen, Novit. Zool. \'ol. b, p. 66. 

31. Genus PARAGATHIA, Warren 

Paragathia i). Wairen, Xovit. Zool. Vol. i/. ]). 4<j5 (1902). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpns moderate to lont;, second joint densely scaled. third joint 
smooth, in cf quite moderate. in Q long;, rather slender. Tongue present. .\ntenna in bolh se.xes 
bipectinate, in cf with moderate, in 9 wi'h rather short branches. Pectus hairy. rimdtibia in cf not 
dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen weakly crested. Wings shaped and dccorated as in 
Agatkia. l-"renulum full\- developed. Forewing with I)C deeply incurved, very oblique posteriorly. 
SC' free, SC- iiormal, R' separate, M.^ separate: hindwing with DC incurved. <ibli(]iie posteriorly. 
C approximated to ccll t(5 less than one-half, SC- separate, M' separate. * 

Early stages unknovvn. 

Differs chiefl^- from Agathia in the pectinate antenna' of both sexes. 

Type of the genus : Paragathia albundigindla, Warren (1902). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Tropical Africa. 

I. P. dllnmarginata, Warren. Delagoa Bay, Congo. 

Paragatliia allnmargiiiatd. Warren, Xovit. Z(X)1. \'ol. 9. p. 490 figo2i. 
.igalhia delicia, Thierry-Mieg. Le NatLiralisle. Vol. 21), p. i5o (1907I (nov. 
syn.j. 

32. Genus LOPHOCHLORA, Warren 

Lophochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. .■589(1894). 

Characters. — Face suKJoth. Palj)us in rf moderate, second jonit shorth' lough-scaled, third 
joint rather small (in Q probably elongate). Toni;ue present. Autenna in both sexes almost simple. 
Pectus densely hairy. Hindfemur in cf terminally thickened vvitha tuftof hairs, hindtibia much dilated, 
with short thick terminal process and strong floccous hair-pencil, all spurs present, terminals rather 
short, tarsus rather short. .Metathoiax crested. Abdomen with two tall crests, succeeded by three shorter 
but thick ones; (J' with strong tufts of luiir from posterior wall of basal cavity, the spine in the cavity 
very strong. Frcnulum fully developed. F^newm!; soinewhat elongate, costa somewhat archetl, apex 
prominent, termen subcrenulate, oblique, very slightly elbowcd in niiddle, DC incurved, fully as oblique 
anteriorly as posteriorlv, -SC free, SC^ normal, K' connate or separate. R- slightly above middle of DC. 
M' approximated to R^ ; hindwing ehmgate, terinen crenulate, strongh' toothed at R' and R^, excised 
between, inner margin long, cell almost one-half, DC rather deeply inbent, oblique posteriorly, C shortl}- 
appressed to SC near base, then rapidly diverging, SC^ connate or separate, R- normal, M' approx- 
imated to R •. 

Early stages unknown. 

.An(jther offshoot (scarcely more than a subgenus) of Agathia, distinguished by the crested 
metathorax and the highly developed anterior crests of abdomen.. 



I) Not preoccupied by Parngathis, .Aslimead. iSfSQ. 



62 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

Type of the genus : Lo[>hoclilora cristifera (Walker) = Thalcra cristi/era, Walker (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Boineo, Sumatia. 

1. L. cristifera (Walker). Boineo. 

Thalera cristifera, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 602 (1861). 
Lophochlora cristifera. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 389 (1894); Swinhoe, 
Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, t. 6, f. 5(1900). 

2. L. vicina, Bastelberger. S. E. Sumatra. 

Lobochhira viciiia, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent.Zeit.Guben.Vol.5,p. 53(i9ii). 



33. Genus CAMPTOLOPHIA, Warren 

Camptolophia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, ]->. 102 (1896). 

Characters. — Face obliquely prominent, dense-scaled below. Palpus in cf moderate, second 
joint denseh- scaled, third joint short, blunt. Tongue developed. Antenna scarcely one-half, in cT bipec- 
tinate, with quite short, clavate branches. Pectus and femora strongl\- hair}-. Hindtibia with all spurs. 
Abdomen with three strong dorsal crests, bent backwards terminally. Frenulum fuUy developed. 
Forewing broad, costa arched, apex squared, termen crenulate, vvith slight tooth at R' and rather 
strongly angled at R^, cell somewhat less than one-half, DC incurved. SC free, though approaching C, 
SC^ normal, R' just separate, M' approximated to R^; hindwing with termen crenulate, toothed at Rl 
and R'*, and minutely at M', cell somewhat less thaA one-half, DC slightly curved, C approximated to 
cell to ahnost one-half, SC^ approximated to R', M' to R^, R2 from near R'. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

Also nearly related to Agathia. though somewhat more divergent in shape and pattern ihan ihe 
two preceding genera. 

Type of the genus : Camptolophia marmorata, Warren (1896). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Assam. 

I. C. marmorata, Warren. Khasis. 

Camptolophia marnwrata, Warrcn, Ncivit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 102 (1896). 



34. Genus HELICOPAGE, Warren 

Helicopage. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'o\. 3, p. 106 (i8g6). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf long, second joint extending considerably beyond 
frons, rather slender, but with projecting hairs above and beneath, third joint long, slender, spatulate. 
Tongue present. Antenna more than one-half, in cf bipectinate with shortish branches, apex ahnost 
simple. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in <^ rather slender, v-et with a long, thin hair-pencil, all 
spurs present. Abdomen slender, not crested. Frenulum fully developed, cf retinaculum a long, tough 
spiral. attached only close to base. Forewing with costa moderateh- arched, apex moderate, termen 
somewhat crenulate, little obHque anteriorly, more so posteriorly, cell less than one-half, DC stronglj' 
incurved, very oblique posteriorly, SC' from cell, anastomosing with, or approximated to C, SC^nornial 
(in cinerca long-stalked with SC. and sometimes anastomosing shortly with SC^-*), R^ separate, 
M' separate. Hindwing with tcrmen crenulate, a slight tooth at R' and a longer one at R-'', cell rather 



FAM. GEOMETKll)^-: 63 

less thaii niii-half, l)C ileeply inbent. slKni.t^rly oblique posteriorly, C separated fnirn SC near hase bv a 
fovea-hke i)atcli. approximatcd to SC for second fourth of cell, then raiiidlv (hverj^ing, SC-separate, 
T?- from close to H', M' separate. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

VVe liave abstained from giving any female characters, being only aciiuainted with the 9 in tlu- 
enigniiitical cineiea. which is probablv .«!// ,i;fHcm. 

Type of the genus : 1 lelicihii^e liintHilinalis. \\'arren (1S96). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Assam, Xew Guinea. 
I. //. Iiii iinciinalis, Waricn. Khasis 

Ilelicopiis^t; liii iiinliiudi.^. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. .1, [i. 106 (:8g6i. 
■2. H. aneiea (Warren) (huj. gen. ?). Dutch NevvCJuinea to I.oui 

Agiilhiii eiiieyca, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 284(1806). siades. N. Oueensland. 

Helicoj^iige velata, -Q. Warren, iljideni. Vol. 6. p. Mo (18991 (no\ . syn. 1. 
3. H. velala, Warren (prsEC. form.Pj. Woodlark, f-eossel. 

Ililicopijge (?) velaln. Warreii. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. .390 (i.sgy); Vol. 6, 
p. 3.3o. pro parte (18991. 

35. Genus DOOABIA, Warren 

Dooabia. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 388 (1804). 
Cacamoda. Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. I.ontl. ]>. i7_> (i8()4) i). 
Anisodontodes. Warren MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.). 

Characters. — Face scarcely protuberant. smooUi-scaled. l^alpus with second joint thicklv 
scaled, reaching bevond fions. longer in 9 than in q», third joint smooth-scaled, in cf quite moderate, 
in 9 1'^'ig- 'l'(ingue develojied. .-Vntenna in (^ minutely ciliated. in 9 virtuallv simple. Pectus and 
femora someuhat haiiy. Ilindtibia in rf dilated, with hair-pencil and short terminal process, in both 
sexes witli all spurs. .Abdomen not crested. I^Tenulum fully developed. Eorewing with costa arched, 
ape.x acule. termen somewhat waved, angled at R% cell rather short. UC deeph inbent, SC from cell, 
closel\ approaching C (perhaps sometimes anastomosing), SC- normal, R' connate, R'^ from above 
middlc ot DC, M' separate; hindwing witli termen subcrenulate. tailed at R^, cell rather short, 
nC inbcnt, str(mgl\ oblique posleriorlv , C shorth' approximatcd to SC, f en rapidh divergincr. 
SC- sepaiate, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Divalna viiiilata ( Moore) = linnomos viiidala, Moore (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — liulin. Formosa. 

1. D. viridald (Moorej. \i. Jndia, l'ormosa. 

Eiiiiomos viriiiata. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. (.23 (1S67) ; Water- 

house, Aid, Vol. 2, t. 184, f. 4 (1889). 
ijDoabia viridala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 388 (18941. 
Cacamoda viridata, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. I.ond. p. 172 (18(14 '■ 
Chlorocioiitopera viridata, Hanipson. Faima Ind. MoDis, Vol. 3. p, 4.S3 (i.S<i5i. 

2. D. Itoiilera (Moore). .Assani. 

Thalassodes luiiifera, Moore. Lep. Coll. ,'\tl<inson, p. 230 (18SS). 
Eiu-hlurns liciiifera. Swinlioe. 'l'rans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 174 (18941. 



I) W:irren's papc-r «js puljlislied in .^pril. Swinlioe's lalthough dated April) not until well on in M.iy 



64 LEPIDOPTERA HETEKOCERA 



36. Genus EUXENA, Warren 

Euxenai). Wanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 365 (1896). 

Characters, — P"ace smooth. Falpus modeiate, rather st<iul, second joint rou^^h-SLaled, third 
joint in cf small. Tongue developed. Antenna in (^ almost simpie 2). l'eclus and femora hair\-. 
Hindtibia m (^ dilated with hair-pencil, all spurs present. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum fully 
developed. Forewing with costa arched, apex squared, termen strongly crenulate, conxex, obhque, 
cell short, DC incurved, SC free, SC^ normal. M' separate; liindwinjj wilh tennen crenulatc e.xcised 
between R' and R^, cell short, C \ery siiortly approximated, Ihen lapidly (hvergins, SC? shnrt-stalked 
with K'. M' with R''. 

Early stages unknown. 

Uistinguished from thc prece(hn,L; anil followiny gcnera b\ thc shorter cells, wilh consequent 
stalking of the radials ol hiniiwing; .ilso trom Donabia \i\ iiindw iny-siiape and tmm Chlvrodontopera hy 
the siinple cf antenna. 

Type of the genus : Euxena ciypsichroma. W arien ( icSgbj. 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — Malay Peninsula lo Borneo, ? Phihppines. 

1. E. cryp.suhroma, VVarren. Horneo. 

Euxina crypsichroma, Warieii. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 366(18961. 

2. li. albiguttata (Warren). Padan.i;. 

Chlorudoutopira alhigutiala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 1. )). 387 (i8g^/. 

3. E. insiilsaia, Warren (huj. gen.?). .\'. Luzon. 

liiixeiia insiilsalii. Warren. \ovit. Zool. Vol. ^, p. 3g (1897). 



37. Genus CHLORODONTOPERA, Warren 

Chlorodontopera. Warren. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 35 1 (iSgS). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderatc, rathcr stout, second joint with lough projecting 
scalcs bcneath, third joint smalt in ^f , slightly roughei-scaled than normal, iiioderate in 9- Tongue 
developed. .Antenna in cf bipeclinate to four-fiftlis, the branches varying in differing species, in 9 
laincllaie. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in cf dilated, with slrong hair-pciicil, in both sexes with 
all s])urs. Abdomcn veiy shghtly "crested 3). l'"rpiiuhini fiilly developed, in 9 strong and compact. 
l'"oiewing with costa nearly straight, apex roundh prominent, termen stiongly dentate anteriorh- 
(excised between R' and R^), crenulate and very oblique iiosteriorh', cell about one-half, DC iniient, 
SC' from cell, anastomosing with (" and SC^, SC^normal, R' well separate, R* above middle, M' sepiir- 
ate ; hiiidwing with teriiien dentatc, strongly excised between K' aiul R-, cell neai ly one-hall. IH" decply 
inbent, SC^ separate, K- froiii ncai K', M' separate iPI. I , Fig. I I ). 

Early stages unknowii. 

1) Not preoccupied by Jiuxcuns. I.e Conte, iS^n. 

2) If insi/ls.ila really belongs to this genus, sometinies bipectinate. 

.^> We have seen few really good specimens, but believe that. as iii- .-i^iithi.r. tlie crests are sonietimes wanlinj; ; in any case they iKive hardly 
jjcneric si^niticanre. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDA^ 65 

Type of the genus : Chloioduutnhtra chalybtata (Moore) = Odontoptera chalybtata, Mooip (1893). 

Geographical distribution of species. — N. Indi;i to J^Oimosa. 

1. C. chalybeata(Uourti). N. [ndia. 

OdoiilofUiiic/iulvlit:<h'.i. Moore.Proc. Z00I..S0C. l.oml. p. 5So, t. .^.f.^ 1 1872-. 
Chlorodonloprra cliolylifiil.i. Warren. ibidein. p. 352 Ii8g3). 

2. C. discospilata (Moore). N. India, l"orninsa. 

Odoittofilfia discoapiLilo. Moore, Proc. Zool.Soc. Lond. p. 621 1 1867). 
Chlorodoiilopera discospilota. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 171 (iSy^.i. 
Clilorodonlopfm discopilala. Hampson, Faunalnd. Moths,VoL3, p. 482 1 iSgS;. 
Clilorodontopera discospilaUi. Swinhoe, Lep. Ket. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2, 
p. 3KS (moo). 

3. C. iiiaiiilariiiaia (Leecli). I^-- China. 

Odonloplerii lu.indonnala, Leech, 'i'rans, Lnt. Soc. I.oiul. p. 141, t. o, f. i3 

(i88<j). 
Clilorodontopcrii iiuind.uinnta. Lcech, Ann. Ma.t; . Nat. Hist. (6 , Vol 20, 

)i. 23i (1X971. 



38. Genus ARACIMA, Butler 

Aracima. Hutler, 111, Ilel. Coll. Bril. Mu.s. \iA. j, p. 5o (1878). 
Araclna. Scudder, Xomencl. /ool, p. 3o ; Univ. Inde.K, p, 26 (i88j). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both se.ves short. second joint shortly lough-scaled, 
third joint iiuite small. Ton^ue pvesent. Antenna short, m (f with short, subclavate pectinations almost 
to apex, in 9 almost simjile. Pectus and femora haiiy. Hindleg rather stout, tibia in cf somewhat 
dilated, wilh small hairj)encil, in both se.xes with all spurs. Abdomen scarcely crested. F-rcnulum fully 
developed. ['"orewing with costa strimgh' arched, ape\ pronounced : ternien somewhat oblique. excised 
below apex and betwecn K' and R^ thence subcrenulate, cell about one-half, DC strongly incurved, 
SC from cell, anastomosing at a point or very briefly with C and SC-, SC- normal, R' sejiaratc. K- 
above middle. M^ well separate; hindwing with termen strongl\ crenulate, excised between R' and R-', 
DC'' strongh' incurved, C moderatel\ apiiroximated to cell near base, rather gradually diverging, 
SC- sepaiate, rarely connate, K- fn.m much above middle of 1)C, M' well sepaiate. cf genitalia : uncus 
bifurcate, witli two lobes at the base, scobinated (m the dorsal surface, gnathos wanting, harpe simple, 
vinculum square, emarginate at the base (Coiiiihaena-ioTm), penis pestillate, scobinated above, on tlie 
eighth tergite isa slrnng plate,\vitli two large spalulate armswhich told round thevcntral surface ; perhaps 
related to thc 7>;7'^/(?-gi()up, biit not closel\ ; Pierce thinks it has more connection with Comibaena ; there 
are no socii. 

Early stages iinkiinwii. 

Type of the genus : Araciina muscosa, Biitler (1878). 

Geographical distribution of species. — .'^mur to Japan, ? Formosa, 

1. A. miiscosa. liutlei . Amur to Japan. 

,ln;n»/.MH»5Ci«(T. ButJer.Ill.Het. Coll.Brit.MuB.Vol.2,p.5i,t.36,f..S(i878). 
Gcomelra {}) vestila, Hedemann. Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 14, p. 5o8, t. 3, 

f. 3 (1H79). 
Gfometra muscasa, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 96 (18921. 
• Tlialera vestita. Gutuppenlierg. Mova Acta .^cad. Leoji. d. \'aturf. lialle, 
Vol. 64, p. 5o6 (iSgS). 

2. A. serrata, Wileman (htij. gen. ?). l"ormi>sa. 

Araciiiia sen.ila. Wilem.in. 'Ihe KntomoloRist, Vol. 44. ]>. 271 (1911). 



66 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



39. Genus XENOZANCLA, Warren 

Xenozancla. Wairen, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 342 (i8g3). 

Characters — Face sni<30th. Palpus in (^ quite modeiate, second joint short-scaled, third 
jointsmall. Tongue weak. Antenna in (;f laniinate, somewhat flattened. Pectus some\\ hat hair\ . Flindleg 
in cf short, hindtibia dilated with liair-pencil, all spurs present. Abdomen with small crcsts. Frenulum 
developed. Forewing with costa arched, apex prominent, termen snbcrenulate, e.xcised between apex 
and R^, sharply elbowed at R^, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, SC- normal, R' not stalked, R- fiom 
above middle, M' separate; hindwing with termen crenulate, toothed at R' and R^, C touching SC at a 
point near base, rathor yraduaUy diverging, SC- connate, R-vei\- cliaracteristic, M' separate. 

Early stages iiuknowii. 

.•\ geiius ol uiueiiain attinities, though indisputably belonging to this subfainiiv. \Vc havc seen 
ni) 9 > '^nd only two c?cf , and as the (j' hindw ing shows just a suspicion of basai expansion, it is possible 
Ihat our piovisional location may need revision._ One or two characters suggest a not impossible aftinity 
witli the .African Baihycnlpodts, etc. 

Type of the genus : X(ni>'^iVicla versicolot. Wairen (1893). 

Geographical distrlbutlon of species. — .\'. Incha. 

I; A'. versicolflr, Waneii. X. Iiulia. 

Xeno:aHcla ;'<>s;V«/o).\Varren, \'roc. Zool. Soc. I.ond. \>. .^42,1.32.^.171 1S9.H . 



40. Genus XENOPEPLA, Prout 

Xenopepla iW.iircn, .\'(i\il. /nol. \'ol. 14, p. 210, indcscr.). Piout. Ann. Mag. Xat. Tlist. (S). \'ol. 6, 
]). 2J8 ( 19 10). 

Characters. — F.ice sniooih. Pal|)us in ^f moderate. second joiiit with long. slift, projecting 
haiis (dirccted foiward) abi)ve and beneath, third joint small (Pl. 5.. Tongue strong. Antcnna 
in cf bipectinate witli loiig branchcs (apex j^iobably simplej. Pectus somew hat haii}-. Hindtibia in cT 
dilated with haii-pencil and moderate terminal process, all spurs present. .\bdomen not crested. 
l'"renuluin iii o" moderately strong, hindwing without appreciable costal expansion. Forewing elon- 
gate, costa gently aiched, apex nioderate, ternien entire. moderately nblique anteiinrly. cuiving 
strongly in middlc and becoming extremely oblique posteriorh'. tornus loundeil, cell iully one-half, 
])t' incurved, SC anasloinosing with C, or free, SC^ normal, Xl^ connate 01 shorth- stalked, M' connate 
or approximated ; hinthvins' rather small and narrow, apex rounded, teimen with a sinus between R' 
and R^, a rather pronounced though blunt tooth ai R-% thence weakly sinuate to toinus, which is 
moderate, cell one-liaU", i )C slightlv cuived, C anastoinosiiig with SC biiefly at a littlc distancc from 
base, Ihen rapidly divcrging, SC- slalkecL M' stalked or approximated. 

Early stages unknown. 

A lemarkably distinct genus in its cntire facies. yet structurally quite tjpically Hemitheine; 
except Ihat the palpal hairs ari' abnormally long, we cannot point lo any salient structural character. 
The 9 's unfortunateh' iinknown, but will almost certainly possess a frenulum. 

Type of the genus : Xeiiopepla biciineala. l^rout ( 1910). 



lAM. CEOMETRIIM': 



67 



Geographical distribution of species. — Colomliia, Peru. 

1. -Y. biciineata, PioLit. — Pl. 2, Fig. I I. Columbia. 

Xenopepia bicuiii,Ud. 1'roiit. ."^nn. Mag. \at. Ftist. s,, Vul. 6. ]>. 238 (iqioi. 

2. X. flaviHig-in. Warreii. Perii. 

Xfiiopipla Iliiviiiif;iii, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 210(1907). 



41. Genus LIMBATOCHLAMYS, Rothschild 

Llmbatochlamys. Ixothschikl, Novit. Zool. \'ol. i, p. ,140(1894). 

Characters. — Face densel}- scaled. Palpiis 111 cf (juite modenite, second joint rough-scaled, 
third joint small, concealed, Tongue present. Antenna in cf bijiectinate to nearapex with extremely short 
branches. Pectus and feniura strongly hair^ . Hiniltibia in q' not (hlated, with foui well-develo)>ed 
spurs. Taisi spinulose, .A.bdomen not robust, not crested, Wings ample. Frenulum fuUy developed. 
Forewing with costa moderately nrched. apex acute, somewhat falcate, termen oblique, slightlv convex 
in posterior half, cell nearly (ine-half, DC-' rather strongly oblique posteriorh', SC' from cell, anast- 
omosing shortly or coiinected by very short liav with C, SC^ normal, R' from close to SC^''", M' separate ; 
hindwing with apex rounded, termen slightly waved, lornal region someu hat jiroduced, inner margin 
long, cell nearly one-half, DC-* inbent, strongly oblique posteriorly, C approximated to cell to almost 
one-half, not ver^- rapidly divcrging, SC^ separate, R- from much above middle, M' separate, 

Early stages unknown, 

Piobabh' related to TtnHWiJuiiiis. etc. : ma^ possibh' realh havc moic to do with the non-crested 
membeis of ( jroup 1 1. but tlie smoother scaling of the wings. their shape, and thcir am]>litude relativeh' 
to the bo(h have induced us to regard it as belonging here. 

Type of the genus : Limbalochlainys lostlmrni, Rothschild (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — W. China, 
I, L. lost/ioiin. Rothschild. W. China. 

Liiiilnitotiilainys rnstlunju', Uothscliikl. Xovit. Zool. \*ol. i, p. S^o, t. 12. f. o 
1 18941. 

42. Genus TANAORHINUS, Butler 

Tanaorhinus. liutk-r. 111. llet. Coll. Bril. Mus. \'ol. 3, p. 38(1879). 
Tanaorrhinus. Kiiby, Zool. Rec. Vol. 16, p. 177 (1881). 
Mixochlora. Warren. Xovit. /ool. \'ol. 4, p. ^2 (1807) (indesci. ). 

Characters. — l'"ace denselv scaled, sometimes slightlv protuberant, Palpus moderate to long, 
second joint reaching well bej-ond frons (longer in 9 than in (^), densely 
scaled, but vvithout the long-spreading hairs of typical Hipparchus, third joint '^ig. 5 

in cf moderate or rather long, in 9 ^'^^'y long' smootherscaled. cylin- jW 
drical (Fig. 5). Tonguc developed. Antenna moderatc, in cf bipectinate, 
typically with lather short stoiit pectinations to little bevond one-half, in 9 
simply pubescent. Pectus densely hairy. Legs stout. Femora strongly hairy, 
Hindtibia in cf dilated with hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs, Tarsi 
spinulose. .\bdonien not crested. Frenuluni fullv developed. Forewing with 
costa arched, strongly so in distal half, apex produced, more or less falcate, 
termen (except in discolor) smooth, not convex, tornus well expressed, cell 
rather less than one-half, DC incurved, SC' free, SG- normal, R' separate. M' separate; hindwing with 




Head of Tattaorhinus recifirocatit. 
Wallcer, Q . 



68 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

apex not pronounced, ternien (except in discolur) rounded. tornal area more or less produced, inner 
margin sometimes concave iiear tornus, leaving a conspicuous rounded tornal lobe, cell rather short, 
DC^^and DC-* usualh' separately incurved, resulting in an angle at origin of R^. C approximated or 
parallel to cell to ahnost one-half, then rapidly diverging, SC* separate, R^ from considerably above 
middle, M' separate. cf genitaha with uncus bifid, widely separate at the base, gnathos with long bhint 
tip. harpe simple witli saccuhis, jienis pestillate, coremata present (rafflfsii). 

Early stages iinknown. 

This has ah\ ays been accepted as a iiatural genus, but it is doubtful whither. upon a survey' of all 
the materiai, it should not rather be treated as a section oi Hipparchus. The shape, whioh is the most 
obvious distinction in the lypical sections, is inconstant; thus species no. 6 to 8 of T attaoihintis (Mixo- 
chlora, Warren, indesci.) liave the forewing scarcely more falcate than llipparchtis (Loxochila) smaragdtis . 
The palpus, though typically longer in Tnnaorhiiius, is in like case ; some spccies of Hipparchus {Megalo- 
chlora) approach the less extreme species of Tanaorhiniis. The exact cxlent of the antennal pectinations, 
ihciugh it has heeii used by Meyrick as generic. in separating llippaichus i) from Megcilechloia, seems to 
us much too slight ii distinction; moreover, the pectinations reach somewhat further (lo almost two- 
thirds) in the M/.vcr/i/yxisection ihHii in t\pical Tanaorhinus, and less far in most sections n{ Hipparchus 
than iii the t\ pical oiie. 

Type of the genus : ranaorhinus confuciaria (Walker) = Geomeira coiifiiciaria, Walker (1879). 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — India and China to .\ew (hiinea. 

Section I. — Ternien oi both wings sniooth. 

1. 7". con/iiciarin ( Walker) (sequ. var. ?). (^iina. Japan. 

Geomtlni coii/iuiiiihi, VValker, List ].<■!>. Ins. Hiit. .Miis. Vol. 22. p. 522! 1861). 
Taiiaorliiiius confucioria. Biitlor. III. Hrt. ("oll. Hrit. Mns. Vol. ^. ]>. .18. 
t. 5o, f. 4 1 1.S70 . 

2. T. reciprvcaUi (Walkei ). N. India. ? .S. (.'hina. 

Gcomtlra )ic//i(oi-.i/.(, Walkcr. ListLeii. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL22,i). 5i5(l.S6l). 

Geometra diniiaa. Walker, ibidem, p. 5i6 (1861). 

Tanaorhinus dimissus, Hutler. 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Miis. Vol. 6. p. 6n, t. 117, 

f. }, (1886). 
Taiiaoi/iinus reciprocalus. Hutler. ibidem. p. b8, t. 117. f. 4 |i886). 
Tanaorhinus dimissa, Cotes & Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind. 14), p. 5l6 ii88.S). 
Tanaorhiaus reciprocala. Cotcs iV Swinhoc. ibidem, ]). 5i6 (1888). 

3. T . rafflciii {Mooxc). N. India to Sunda Islaiuls 

Drepana rafflesii. Moore, Cat, l.e]). V.. Ind. Hoiise. Vol. 2. p. .%q. t. n.i. and Philippines. 

f. I (i85g/. 
Geomelra viridiliiUahi,\Va\ker, List Lep. Ins. Brit.Miis.Vol. 22. p.5i5(iS6ii. 
Gtomtlra luttoviridal.i. Walker. ibidem. p. 524 11861). 
Geometra >ubi^iiila, Walker. ibidem. p. 525 ii86i). 
Geometra liasaliata. Walker, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. i6o3 ii866i. 
Tanaorhinus viridilultatus, nutler. 111. Hel. Cnll. Brit. Mns. Vol. 6. p. 67, 

t. 117, f. 2 (1886). 
Tanaorhittus viridilulcala, Cotes & Swiiihoe, Cat. Moths Ind. (4J, p. 5i6 \iS88 1. 
Taiiaorhinus rafflisii, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Miis. Vol. 2, p. SgB (1900). 

4. 7". hiuii, Swinhoe. Khasis. 

Tanaorhiiius kina, Swinlioe. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). Vol. 12. p. i5o (iSgBj. 

5. T. unipuncia, Wairen. New (niinea. 

Tanaorhinus untpuncta. Warren. Xovit. Zotil. \'ol. 6. }>. 33i (1899); VoL ui, 
p. ,%4 (igo3). 



i) tJnder tlie n.-inie of Ctometi a ; viile 7'r.iiis. Eiit. Se,c. Lontz. p. o.^, i>5, 06 (1892). 



1"AM. (iEOMKTRID/E 69 

6. T. ar^tnlifusa ( VValkei ). Borneo, ? I )utch N. (.iiiiiea. 

Geometra argentifvia , Walker, l.ist I.ep. Ins.Brit. Mus.Vol. 22, i)..52(j (1.S61 1. 
Mixochlora argenti/usa. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 42 (18971. 
Tanaorhimis argentifusa, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. 0.\ford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 394. 
t. 6, f. 4 (igoo). 

7. r. viUata (Moore). N. VV. i.ulia ti. Jjpaii, Su- 

Geometra vitlata. Moore, Fror. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 6,36 11X67,1; V\'atpr- matra 

house, .\id, Vol. 2, t. i5i, f. 5 (1884). 
Taiiaor/iiiius prasimis ^ Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5).Vol. 4, p. 438 (18791. 
Me^alochlora vitlata, .Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 174 (1894). 
Taiiaorr/iiiius vitlahts. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, V0I. 3, p. 494 (i.><95!. 
Mixoc/ilora viltala, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 42 (18971. 

8. T. alUrnata{\\^n\\er\). Piiilippines. 

Mixochlora alteriiala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 42 (18971. 
Taiiaorhinus allaiiala. Semper, Reisen Philipp. (2), Vol. 6, p. 639 (19021. 

Section II. — Both wings with tefmen angled ;tt K', ;ind laintly at the other vein-ends(gen.div.?). 

9. T. discolor, Warren. Khasis. Fnrmosa. 

Taiiaorhinus discolai . Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 108 (i8g6i. 
Thalassodcs discolor. Hampson. [ourn. Bnmbav Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 12, 
1'. 92 (1898.. 

43. Genus CHLOROZANCLA, nov. gen., Prout 

Chlorozancla (Warren, MS., in coll. Elwes), nov. gen. Prout. 
Tanaorrhlnus, sect. II. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 4Q4 (180.S). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both se.\es minute. second joint smooth-scaii-d. ■i"uiigue 
present. ,'\iUenna in cf bipectinate to ape.\, witli moderately long- branches, in 9 nearly simplc. Hind- 
tibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen nol crested. Frenulum fullv developed. 
Forewins with costa arched, apex strongly falcate, termen oblique, not convex. cell rather short, 
DC deeply incurved, extremely oblique posteriorly, SC from cell, anastomosing stroni;lv with C, 
SC^normal, R' separatc, M' well separate; hindwing with costat and inner margins rather long. apex 
rounded, termen smooth, rounded, tonius proiK.unced, cell short, DC^ deeply incurved, very oblique 
posteriorly, C approximated to cel! for some distance, then rathcr lapidly diverging, SC- connate or, 
exceptionaljy, short-stalked with K', M' well separate. 

Early stages iinknown. 

Probably a devdopment of TanorliiHus, but entirely ditferent in tiic j^alpus, besides soine small 
distinctions, one ot uhich llainpson uses in erecting his Section II of Tanaorhinus. 

Type of the genus : Chlorosaiicla falcalus (Hampson)= Tanaorrliiniis falcatus, Hampson. 

Geographical dlstributlon of specles. — India. 
I. C./(?/rr?//(.v ( Hampson). India. 

Tanaorrliinus falcatus. Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 494 (iSy.i:. 
Chlorozancla falcata, Warren, MS. (in coll. Elwes). 

44. Genus HIPPARCHUS, LeaCH 

Hipparchus. i.each, Edinb. lincycl. Vol. 9 (i), p. 134 (i8i5): Stephens, Syst. Cat. Brit. Ins. (2), 

p. 122 (1829). 
Terpne. I riibner, Tentanien. p. 2 (1806?) (ined.?) (gen. indescr.). 



70 I.EPIDOPTKKA IIETEROCERA 

Leptornis. Hillherg, Enuni. Ins. Mus. Billb. p. 90 (1820; (gen. indescr.). 

Holothalassis. Hiibnei, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?). 

Geometra. Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7(2), p. 106 (1829) (Treitschkc, 1825, part.: nec Linne. 

i.encii restr.. iSi5). 
Geometra iHipparchus). Henich-Schaffer. Sjst. IHearb. Schmett. Eiir. VoL 3, p. S (1844). 
Loxochila. Hutler, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. p. 6i5 (1881). 
Megalochlora. Me\rick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. j). ^5 (1892). 
Chloroglyphica. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 387 (1894). 
Geometrina. Warren. iliidem, Vol. 2, p. 89 (iSg^J (nec Motschulsky). 
Hydrochroa. duinppenberg, .Nova .^cta Acad. Leop. d. NaturL Halie, \'<)1. 64, 4^9 (iSgS). 

Characters. — I'"ace rounded, hardly protuberant. smooth-scaled. Palpus nioilerate to loiig. 
secondjoint roui^li-liaired ahnve and beneath. third joint siiortisji to inoderale, in 9 snmetimes long, 
smooth-scaied. Tongue developed. .Antenna moderate. in (J' bipectinate, apex usually simple. in 9 
nearl\ simple. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in (f vvith hair-pencil (e.\cept in .«/"«/.«ar/Vi 1, sonu-times 
wiih a short terminal process, in both sexes vvith all spurs. Tarsi spinulose. .^bdomen not cresled. in (;f 
sometiines (spoiisaria. dieckmaniii) witli strong anal luli. Wings ample. thickly scaled. I^renulum luUy 
developed. Forewing vvith costa slightl}- arched or nearly straight (very straight in Section IV), apex 
usually acute. sometimes subfalcate, termen oblii|ue, ncarly straight lu convex. smooth to somewhat 
crenulate. sometimes emarginate belovv apex, cell somewhat less ihan one-half, discocellulais more or 
less curved, somelimes slightly angled at origin of R-, SC from cell, free or anastomosing vviih C 
(variable even in the type species), SC* normal, R' a]iiiri)xiniated. connate or very shorllv stalked 
vvith SC-', M' approximated to R-'; hindwing with apex rounded or neaiiy so. termen convex. rarely 
(smaragdiis) smooth throughout, usually willi an elbovv or small tail at K-', sometimes also (/'apiliotiaiia, 
albovfiiaria, valida) crenulale ihroiighout, ccll less than one-half, discoceliuUns m<ire or less cuive<l, 
somelimes slightlv anxle<l at origin of K-. C approximated to cell rath<'r shortly or moderately. th<n 
lapidly diveiging, SC^ approximated at origin to K', K- vaiiable in exact jiosition, M' approximaled 
to R^. cf genitalia vvith uncus bifid, gnathos terminating in forvvard-curved point. harjie sini]il<'. vilh 
sacculus, jienis rounde<l at base. 

Egc;. — Stmngh -built, oval, the micio]iylar end broader and somewhat rtatteiUHl, a depressioii 
on either si<le, the surface scul]iture<l with siKmglv marke<l cells. microjivle shown bv a shallovv, 
circular, layetl j)it(Ha<ol, on tlu- Ivjie S]>ecies. Entom. Rccord. \'ol. 17, ji. _>22, t. S, f. la. \h). 

Larv \. — In tlie t\ ])<' sjjecies rather stout. rugose. the surfaci' more or less shagreened, scgment- 
incisions well marked, head rounded in first instar, slightly notched afterwards, sota; more or less ta])ering, 
mostl}' vvitli enlarged tops. most of the primary seta' in first instar forked, the voung larva shovving 
Iraces of llie liabit of altaching silken threads which is so marl^id in some of the llfmithtiiiae. The small. 
Inhernating larva; brovvn, of a^lajitive shade. iirotectivcly assimilating to tinv tvvigs, the laiva' in the 
spring fixedly diinorphic, either green niaiked with hiown, or allogether hiow n, wonderfulh assimilated 
to the catkins of hirch, etc, ainong vvhich tliey are leeding : vaiious small iirotuberances and pr<\iecting 
e<lges of segments enhancing ihe resemhlance (sec Hacot, loc. cit. ; CJrajies, Thc EntoiiwIogist.WA. 22, 
]). 110; Poulton, Traiis. Eiit. Soc. Lond. iSSS. )> jqj, 1892, ji. 3io, etc). 

I'ui'.\. — Cyliiulrical, hut for the jirojectioii of ihe wing-cases ventro-lateially ; a legulai lajiering 
froin lourth abdominal segment to anal extremity; a strong conical i^rojeclion before anus beaiiiig the 
armature of eight tall, slender hooks; segment-incisions, sjiiracles and set;v; distinct, sexual organs 
conspicuous; sjiun loosely among leaves [papiUonaria ; see Bacot. Entom. Record, \'ol. 17, ji. 225, for lull 
desciijition ). 



I".\.M. GEOMETRlD.f-: 



71 



The gemis, as here uiKlerslood, seems i|inte a natiual i.ne. in spitc uf a toleiable .imounl of 
variation in the sliape of Ihe lermen uf hoth wiuf^s, and some variation in the length of the thinl palpal 
joint. We have nidicated as sectmnal the ^rener.i which liave been accepted b\ some systematists, but 
do not attach great importance lo ihem. Tlie si-ctioii Chloroglyf>liicii presents the most distinct facies, but 
Megalochlora alone shows most ot ihe piiiicipal \arieties of shape. 

Type of the genus : Hif^Sirihns ftahilio^idria f l^inne) - Phalaena Geomelra fiapilioiiaria, I.inne (1829). 

Geographical distribution of species. — [^aUcarctic Region (chiefl\- the eastern [lart) and 

N. India. 

Section I. — Hindwing \\'\t\\ termen crenulate, tliird joint of palpus .shortish to moderate, 
cf antenna bipectinate to apex, hair-pencil very small {Hipparchus, Leach). 

\. II . papiliviiaria (\Jmne). Europe to |apan. 

l'lu>lncini Geomelra pdpilioihuia, Liiine,Syst. \at. ed. io),Vol. 1,11. 5.!.;(i75»). 
Plhiliienii prdsinayio, liufiiayel, Berl. iVIag. Vol. 4. ]■. 5ot) (1767). 
Geomelra papilioiiariu, Miibner. Samml. liiir Schmett.. Geom. t. 2. f. 6 

(1796?); j). 16 (1800?). 
Terpiie papilioiiaria, Hiibner, Tentamen, p. 2 (1806?). 
Hipparchus papilioiiaria, Leach, Edinb. Encycl. Vol, 9 (li, p. i34i:8i5). 
Ilolotlhilassis papilioiiaria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 2S5 (1826.''). 
Geomttra lierhaccaria, Menetries, Mel. Biol. .\cad. Sc. .St-Petersb. VoL 3, 

p. 112 (iSSgj fab.). 
Gcometra papilioiiaria a.h. ciineata, Biirrows, Ent, Kecord. Vol. 17, p. 202 

(1905) (ab. I. 
Geomcira papilioiiaria a.h. subcaerulesceiis, Hurro\vs,ibidem,p.2o2 (igoS) (ab.j. 
Gcometra papilioiiaria ab. subohsulcta, Burrows, ibidem, p. 202 (1905) (ab.). 

Geomelra papilioiiaria ah. lielela, Burrows. ibidem, p. 2o3 (iqo5) (ab.). " 

Geomctra papilioiiaiiii n]). altia. (rillmer. .Suc. lint. Ziirich. Vol. 24, p. 42 

( 1909) (ab. I. 

Section II. — Fore\\in,L; \\ ith iipe.x subfalcate, both wings with termen otherwise sniooth, 
palptis w ith third joint rather short to moderate, cf antenna with apex simple, hair- 
pencil .stronj^' {Lo.voc/tihi, Butler). 

2. 11. smaragdua (Butler). N. India. 

Tanaorliiiins smaraglHs,\\\Mev. \m\. 'SiA^.r. y.a.i. Ilist. i5l, Vol. o, p. 12S 

(1880). 
Lo.iocliila smara«ciiis, Butler, ProcZool, Soc. LonJ. p, 6i5(i88i I ; III. Het. 

Coll, ]:irit, Mus, Vol, b, p. 6.1, t. 117, i. 5 (1S.S61. 
Gioiiulra smaragdus. Hampson, l-"auna Ind. .Mnths, Vol.3, p. 495 liSg^). 

3. H. flavifrontaria {(juenO.e). India. 

N emoria flavifrontaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 346 (i858). 

Lo.i-ocliila mutans, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 6i5 (1881), 

Geometra flavifrontarici, H.iiniison. Fauna Ind. Moths.VoI. 3. p. 496, f. 220 

fi.SgSi. 

4. H. pratti, nov. sp. i), Prout. Central Chiiia. 

Gr.nnrlia jlroifrontaria, Lcech. .Ann. Ma^;. .\'at. Hist. (6), Vol. 20. ]i. 234 
(1897) (nec Guenee). 



t) Hipparchus pratti nov. sp. — Q. 59111111. Very similar ^o flavi/routaria. Guen^e, build somewhat more robust, palpus somewhat 
longer, both wings with costa somewhat longer. colour brlEhter green, forewing with SC* anastomosing strongly with C, postmedian line of forewing 
broader, somewhat oblique (from costa 7 mm. I^efore ape\ to inner margin y nim. from tornusl. ternien slightly less straight. Ichang, June, iSfifi 
(Mr«. Pratt); type in coll. Brit. SIus. 



72 [.RPIDOPTERA TIETEROCERA 

Section II [. — Hindwin^f \\ itli teinien ell)o\\ed ov toothed at K^, oiten crenulate throughout, 
palpus vvith third joint elongate, cf antenna w ith apex simple, hindtibia variable {Mcga- 
/oc/i/nrd. Me\rirl< = Gionuirina. Warren = Hxdrocliroa, von Gumppenberg i). 

5. H. >;iiutcaria (Mf iietries). Amiir lo Japan. 

Geomet),! glaucariii. Menelries. Mel. Biol. Acad. Sc. St-l'etersl>. Vol. 3. 

p. III i iSSg). 
Geomilra iisilala, Hiitler. 111. Het. CoU. Brit. Mus. Vol. .'. )i. 49. t. .36. f. .1 

(1S7S). 
Me^aloMora gUiucaria. Meyrick, Trans. Ent. .Soc. Lond. ]). 93(1892;. 
Hvdrocliroa glaiuaria, Gumppenberg, Nova .'Xcta Acad. Halle. V0I. 64. 

p. 460 (iSgS). 

6. H. alliorcnayia (Bremer). Amui' to Corea, CKina. 

Gtometra alhovniaria, Bremer. Mem. .\cad. Sc. St-Petersb. Vol. 8,p. 75, t.6, lanail. 

f. 21 (1.SG4). 
Megaloclilora alboveihiria, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ]>. 95 (18921. 

7. H. sponsaria (Bremer) 2). E. Siberia. 

CliloroclironM spoiisaria. Bremer. Mem. Acad. Sc. St-I*etersb. \'ol. .S, 1>. 77. 

t. 6, f. 25 11864). 
M egaloclilora spoiisaria. Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. L<ind. p. 93 (1892). 
M egaloclilora viridesceiitaria. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 2. ]>. 80 (iSgS) 

(nec Motscliulsky). 

8. H . valida ( Felder). .\miu t<i Corea, Japaii. 

Geomelra valida, l"elder, Keise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 37 (1S751. 
Geometra dioptasaria. Christoph. Bull. Soc. Nat. IMoscou. Vol. 55 (2), 

p. 41 (18811. 
Megalocldora valida. Meyrick. Trans. ICnt. .Soc. l.ond. ]>. i(5 (1892). 

9. H. diec/tmanni ((jraeser). S. 1£. Siberia, Corea. Japaii. 

Chlorocliroma sponsaria var. B. Bremer, Mem. .\cad. ."^c. Sl-Tclersb. Vol. 8. 

p. 77 ,'1864). 
Geometra dicckmaHiii, Graeser, Berl. Knt. Zeitschr. Vol. .^2, !>. 384 (1889). 
Megalochlora dieckmanni . Mcyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. )>. 95 (1892). 
[Geometra'] promissaria. Staudinger. MS. (teste Staudinger, Iris. Vol. 10. 

p. 5. 1897). 

10. H . iiidciilaia (Warren). Ivhasis. 

Cliloroglypliica macuhita. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 20S, t. 3, f. 23 ( 18971. 

11. H. maiit/ariiiaria (\.eech). W. Cliina. 

Megalochlora maiidariiiaria. I^eech. .\nn Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). Vol. 20. 
p. 235(18971. 

12. //. vallata (Butler). Japaii, N. India. 

ilialassodis tallata. ISullcr, 111 llcl. Coll. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 2. p. 5o. t. 36. 

f. 9 (1878}. 
MegalocMora vallatii. Warren. Novil. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 108 (1896). 

Seciion IV. — [•"orewing with costa straight, termen niiniilel\ irenulalc Ironi apex to K', 
there Hpj^icciably (^lbowed, tornus squared, liindwing with ternien toothed at R-', 
otherwise smooth, paliiiis with third joinl in cf small, in 9 longish, cf antenna with 
apex simi)lp, hindlibia with strong pcncil {Cli/oroglvpliica . Warren). 

i3. H. variegata (Butler). X. Imlia. 

Loxocliila variegata. Butler. 111. llel. Coll. Hrit. .\lus. \ ul. 7. p. 104. t. 1.I6. 

f. 3 (1889). 
Cliloroglyphica variegala. \\'arren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 387 (1894). 
Thalassodcs variegata. Hamjison, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p. 514 (i8g5). 



1) The type of Hydrochroa, gtaucaria, iluii6ti-i6s, lias iieitlicr tcnuen crcnulute, tbc elbow at R^ of hindwing weak. and tbe cJ antenni 
pectinations reaching to nearer thc apex than in its allies, but we cannot accept it as even sectionally distinct. 

2) Bremer's figure is verr defective, showing non.pectinate C anteuna, inexact shaiie, broadly white costa, etc; but Prof. Kusnczov has 
kindly examine<I his type, :ind confirmed the idciitification of Graeser, Staudinj;er an.l others. 



I-A.M. (iP^OMEIKID.^E 73 

14. H. hypoleuca (Hampson). lUirma. 

ThaUrssudrs liypohucii, Haiiiiisnii. |ourii. HDiiibay Xat. Hist. Soc. \'ol. 14. 
1). 656, t. ("-. f. 34 I ig.i3i. 

MoiE. — The correct subfamily jjosition of various species wrongly descrihed liy VValker, 
Moore and Butler as Geomelra may be foimd from Hampson's Motks nf India or Swinhoe's Lep. Het. 
Oxford Mus. — G. subveclaria, diffissa and /aclaria, Walker (Vol. 22. fi. .ioq, 5io, 5i i) belong lo Ntimia, 
Guenee : G. rnfifrontaria, Hampson, Jouni. Bomtmy Nat. Hisl. Soc. Vol. 14, p. 655, is an .Acidahid, 
sinking to Stcrrha (?) validaria, Walkcr (Vnl. .">5, p. ifio"]): P. G. arnea, frainer, Paf>. Kxot. \'n\. 1 , p. 5g, 
t. 36, f. (j = G. (?) arnea, Walkei (Vol. 20, p. i354) belongs to thc Pyrnlidae, genus AcroMcryx. 



45. Genus IOTAPHORA, Warren 

lotaphora. V\"arren, Novit. Zool. Vol. r. p. 384(1894). 
Grammicheila. Staudinger. Iris, Vol. 10, j). 3 (1897). 

Characters. — l'"ace rounded, smoolh-scaled. Palpus in both se.\'es ciuile moderate, second 
joint strongly rough-scaled, third joint small, slighth' longer in 9 than in (^. Tonguc present. .Antenna 
less than one-half, in (^ bipectinate with slioit branches, apex almost simple, in 9 lamellate, minutel}' 
ciliated. Pectus and femora sttonglj' hair}-. Hindtibia in (^ dilated wilh hair-pencil, in both sexes with 
all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Wings smoolh-scaled, iridescent. bieimltim tulK dexeluped. 1'iirewing 
with costa arched, ape.x not acute. termen oblique, \\'aved, conve.x, cell not quitc one-half, DC gently 
incurved, SC fiee. SC^ normal, R' apprnximated, connate or short-stalked with SC-^, M' approximated 
to R^; hindwing witli ape.\ rounded, termen moderately rounded, gentl\ subcreiuilate. toinus modcrately 
pronounced, cell shoil. L)C incurved, strnngh- oblitpie posteriurh', C appioximated to cell to nearl)' 
one-half, moderately rapidl}' diverging, .SC- just separate, R- from considerably above niiddle of DC, 
M' separate. cf genitalia : uncus with a central rod, at either side of which is an arm of the same length, 
gnathos with poinled tip, harpe with slight projections on the surface, juxta (?) a piocess arising from 
the base of tlie vinculum, nn the eighth sternite is a double lobed chitinous projection. 

L.\KV.\. — Light green, deceptively like a young, half-e.xpanded leat ot the foodplant, Jugians 
mandschnrica, Maxim.; head produced into two points. bod}' contracted. resting rigidh' attached by the 
jirolegs to a twig (Graeser, Berl. Enl. Zeitsclir. Vol. 32, p. iqz). Suggestive ot that oi Hipf>archiis (Stau- 
dinger, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 3). 

Pl;i'.\. — Undescribed; in a loose cocoon amoiig drv leaves ((jraeser, loc. cit.). 

The genus is almost certainly related to Hipparclius, in spite of the different scaling and pattern. 
Its true position is quite certainly in the present subfamily, and we are entirely unalile to say on what 
grounds Hampson {Fanna Ind. Moihs, Vol. 3, p. 322) placed it among his Ortliostixinae. It may have some 
affinity with Osleosevia, btii tliis is less dehnite. 

Type of the genus : lotapliora iridicolor (Hutler) =^ Panaethia iridicolor, Butlei ( 1894). 

Geographical distrlbution of specles. — X. India to .Amur. 

]. /. indicolor (Hutler). N. India. 

Paiitiethia iridicolor, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6. p. 227 118X01 ; 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus, Vol. 6, p. 49, t. ii3, f. 3 (18861. 
[otaphnra iridicolor. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 384 (1894). 



74 I.KPIDOPTERA II irrKROCEKA 

2. /. ailminihilis (Obeitliiii). Cniina to Ainuv. 

Metrocampa [?) admiraliilis, CJberlhiir. Hiill. Soc. Ent. Ir. 16 , Vol. 3, y. .S4 

(i883i: Etud. Ent. Vol. 10, p. 29, t. 1, f. 8 (1884 . 
Megalochlora iridicolorfpavt.). Me^Tick, Trans. Ent.Soc. l.imil. ]•. 95 (18921. 
Grammic/itilii admirabilis, .Staudinger. Iris, Vol 10, p. 3 (1897). 
lolafihora admirahilis, Staiulinf^er, Cal. Lep. (ed. 3), p. 322 (1901). 



46. Genus CHLORORITHRA, Butler 

Chlororithra. liutlei. III llet. CoU. Hrii. Mus. Vol. <S, p. 106(1889). 

Characters. — l"acc- smoolli P;ilpus ralher loiii;', secoinl joiut strons;ly loiigh-scaled. leacliing 
beyoiul tVons. ihinl joiiit smooth. in (f nioderate, in 9 lallier long. roiij;iie developeii. AiUcnna iii (j' 
bipectinate to aboiil twn-thiids. in 9 simple. Pectus haiiy. Ilindtibia in (f dilated witli long pencil of 
haiis, a vety shorl teiiniiial piocess. in both sexes with foui unecjual spiirs. 'l'aisi spinulose. Abdomen 
not crested. Wings smoothly scaled. iiidi'scent. h^roniilum kilh' developed. Forewiii!.; with costa vei v 
slighth arched, apex rathei acute, ternicn oblicjuc, veiy slifjhtly waved, ct'II nearly one-lialf, l)C''deepIv 
incurved. Sl ' frec, SC^normal, K' well se()aiate, J^- trom neai R'. M'sepaiale; hiiidwiii!; with apex 
rounded, lermeii convex, waved, sbshtly i,'ibbous aboul R-', cell less ihan onc-half, DC-* incuived, 
C approximated to cell to neaily one-half, then strongly diveiging, SC- scparate. R- fiom close to R', 
sometimes almost coniiate. M' connale or very short-stalked with R-'lPI. 2, Fig. 9). cf ,t;enitalia very 
distinct fiom an\ otliei sludied, uncus a Ifmi; rod, witli cuived socii, jjnathos terminatinj; in a looth, 
harpe with a sc<>binal<'d projection towards the base of the inner margin, penis pestillate, narrow; 011 
the eighth sternite theie is a roun<led plate, emarginate on the upper edge. from which protrude a pair 
of scobinated arms; this species has long coremata. 

Early stages unkiiown. 

Tliis genus is likel\' iclated to the piece<lini;, whi<li it lesembles in its smooth-scaled, iridescent 

wiiit;s, and in various other characters. 

Type of the genus : Chhnorithra /ea, Pntler (i8Sg). 

Geographical distribution of species. — X . Iiuli.t. 

i.C. /V<i, liutlei. X. liulia. 

Chloronlhia ita. Uuller, III, Het Coll. Hrit. Mus. \'ol. S. p. 106. t. i.%, 

r. 9 (18S9). 
Geometra tea. Hampson, I''auna Ind. Moths, \'ol. 3. p. 407 iiSo5,'. 



47. Genus DIOSOORE, Warren 

Dioscore. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'<j1. 14, p. i32 (1907). 

Halterophora. Wavren, ibidein. \'ol. 3, p. 289 (1S96) (nec Rondani, iSOi). 

Characters. — Facc prominent, <lensel\ but smoothh scale<l. Palpus modeiate, stout. tirst 
an<l second joints densely clothed, thinl joint in (f small. blunt (9 unkiiown). Tongue developed. 
Antenna iiearlv tvvo-thirds, in (j* bipectinate to about one-half, with moderate, decreasing branches, 
a long" apical portion nearly simple. Pectus densely hairy. Femora haiiy . Hiiultihia in cf dilate<l with 
hair pencil, all spurs present (Fig. 6). Tarsal spiniiles moderately conspicuous. Metathorax slightly 



\M. (,i<:()Mi':'i'Kii);?i 



7^ 



FiG. 6 



FiG. 



ciestcd. .\bclomen luU crestcd. Huild robust. iMemilum in cf ^'fiy stiong, tciininatini,' in a laij^e 
knob {bicolor, fHl,i;urala. t/ialassias, Flg. 7) or at least in a verv consiileiable, though moic i;ra(iual 
thickening (mdauomma). l'"oie\vin!;- with costa ncarly straight, gently archcd distally, apex prnniinent. 

tcrmen nblique (especiallx' in typc spcces). slighlly curscd, cell 
less than one-half, stiongh' prciduc-cd apically, I )( ' incurved, 
SC from cell.free, SC-normal,K' stalkcd or scparate. M' ajjpro.K- 
imated at origin to K^; hindwing with 
termen rather long, rounded, scjmetimes 
bubcreinilate,sometimes also with a sinall 
tail at R"', inner margin long, cell rather 
short, DC^ slightly or sharply inbent. 
C closely appressed to cell for a shmt cjr 
moderate distance, then veiy slroni;ly 
diverging, SC- just sepaiate or shoit- 
stalked,R-fromnearR',M'shot-t-stalked, 
connate or separate. cf genitalia : uiicus 
massive. parallel, with large, broad socii. 
gnalhos strong, poiiUed, harpe snnple, penis pestillatc. with ver\ long, parallel sidcs aiid a small sli.iri> 
poinl ; coiemala piesent. 





Himllei; "t I h<'<.io> r jnehtiionniia, \\';irren, 



1'remilnm of Dioscnre bicolin' , 
\V;i.rren. cj. 



Early stages iiiiknciwn. 

A small and ratlier compact geiuis. replacing Hippaichus in tlie Painian Kct;ic.n. 'ihe sliglu difte- 
rences iii shapc seem clearl\- nnn-generic. as is certainl\ tlic case witli those ol the venation. I he most 
signilicant of the latter is the frequent short-stalking of SC- -.f tlie hindwing with R', which — as is the 
case with Uliociiemis along anotliei linc of evolulion — has iiot yct become fixed gencrically. 

Type of the genus : Dioscure inelaiioiinua. Warren (ujcj^). 



Geographical distributlon of species. — N'ew (iuinea to Fergusson Islaiic 



Ihitish lo Dulch Xcw (iuiiica. 



I'"erguss(.n Island. Dutch New 
(iuinea. 

Ihilish to Dutch XcwCiuinea. 



1. D. iiielaiioiiiiiia, Warieii. — Pl. 2, Fig. 6. 

Diosiiirc iiifLiii.oinihi. W.mcii, Xu\il. Zcjol, \'ol. 14, p. l32 ,1907). 

2. D. bicolor (Warren). 

ILillfrolthoyii liicnhiy, Wnrren. Novit. Zool. VcjI. ?<, \k 2i)'1 I iSgfj). 

3: D. fid.iiiirata (Warren). 

HiilUyop/ioya/ulgiiyiilo, VVarreii, No\it Zool. \'ol 4, y. Mt Iisg7l. 
Lo.\ocIiiUi (?) meelti, Warren. ibi(ic:'!ii. Vol. 10. y. .'>ig (iyo3l (iiov. syii.i. 
/J/iJ.sfoic «;fi.7(/. Warren, ibidem. Vol. 14. p. 132 iiqo-). 

4. D. thahissias (Warrenj. Dutch Xew Guiiiea 

I tallcyopliorii lliiilassios. Warren, Xovit. Znol. Vol. 10, 1.. 2ii3 (igo3). 

5. D. homceotes, nov. sp. i), Prout. Dutch New Guinea 



i) Dioscore homceotes. nov. sp. — o', 46 mm. Uetreptively like H. lii/.any.i/it. ijravtically inclistiiiKuisliable in ,ului:ilioii aml 
markings, tjut itiflering as lolloivs : Vertex broadly cream-eolour, not green. Antennal pectinations mucli sliorter. ceasing rattier ie/ ,ye one-liatf of 
shaft. Forewing witli termen curve.t in posterior lialf of wing (almost straiglit in lulgiiyiilj); liindwing witli termen more rounded. rallier more 
irenulate In addition. the tollowing less important distinctiuns may or may not liold wlien more material is compared : Abdominal wlute spots 
somewhat cxtended: white lines on wings somewhat sharper, that of hindwing sliglitly further from ternien, fringes longer, terminal whlte spots 
Utger, a single oblong one crossing the tlie submedian fold in each wing (in fidguyaU tliere is one small spot on eitlier side of submed.an fold, 
well separated); the pale yellow (not « white », as Warren indicates) metatlioraic crest perhaps slightlystronger. Ihe midtibia, wliich m tyrnal lulgiirala 
is raarked like the foretibia Ipurplish fuscous, spotted with ochreousl, is in homoeoUs plain green above: but, strangely enough. tliis coloration is 
shared liy undoubted lulgiirata from Fak-Fak. Xinay \'allev. Central Arfak Mountains, ni.tch New liuinea, J.ioo feet, Kov. iiioS fo Jan. iooq 
(A. K. Prattj. 1 . ]je iu loll. I,. 11. 1'rout. 



76 LEPiDoiTERA 1 1 1; i i;k()c;i;ka 

48. Genus ORNITHOSPILA, Warren 

Ornithospila. Waiieii. Novit. Zoul. \ ol. i. p. .v>ti (i.scj^). 

Urospiia. Wanen. il)idem. p. 38; (1^04). 

Afrena. I lainpson. 'i'rans. Enl. Snc. i.niiil. p. .114 (iSg5). 

Characters. — Eacc slif;htly pintiilieiant, siiiootlilx scaled. Palpiis loiig, second jtiiiit leachinff 
bevoiul Irons, ioiii.;li-scaled, tiiiid jniiil iii iinth sexes elon^ate, smntjtli-si aied. TongiK' dcveloped. 
Antenna ion.t;. iii cf hipectinaie to al)oiU three-fouiths with inodeiaieix' long, decreasing hianches, 
apex ciliated: in 9 pubescent, with singie shoit ciiia. l^ectus and feinnra haiiy. Flindtihia in cf not 
dilated, in botli se.xes vvith four stiong spuis. .-\bdomeii imt ciested. I"iemilum developed in both sexes 
(in Q nnt ('Xticinclx stimig). ]'ore\vin!; bioad. costa aiciicd at basc and towards apcx. ueariy straifjiit 
between, apex acute, teimen sinooth or weakiy subcreniiiate, tornus pionounced, sometiines rectan- 
gular, cel! about two-lifths, prnduccd aj^ically, DC soinetimes obsnlete, leaving the apex of thc cell 
open, DC* deeply inbent (sometimcs almnst angled), DC^^ nearl}' vertical at hrst, becnining sninewhat 
ol)liquc. SC' stali<i'd wilii SC''-'', not aiiastomosing with C, SC^ arising before SC;-, S("- snmetimcs 
anastomnsing shoitl\ wilii SC. K' connate nr separate, M' connate 01 approximatcd: iiiiidvving with 
termen smnoth nr weaidy suixicnuiatc, very slightly or stmngiy elbowed at R-', tornus weli pronounced, 
cell about tvvo-lifths, l)C' aiid IX'-* sepaiately incuivcd, lesulting in a sharp angle at basc of R-,' 
C; approximatcd to celi lo iess than niic-iialf, thm rapidly diverging, SC;'-' scparate, M' cnnnate ni 
approximalc-d (Pi. 2, Fig. 10). 

Early stages apparcnlU- undescribed. 

I>rnl)al)l\ derivcd frnm Hif>/>aic/iiis. but the specialized subcnstal venation. talcen iu conjunction 
with the f;ict tliat tiie genitaiia nf tiic tyi>c species agrec bctter with Piasiuucrma and the /w/is-gioup 
than witii aii\ nf tiie generalizcd forms, leaves it somevvhat doubtfui vvhether it should not be placed 
iatei . Sup( I riciailv il ratiiei stiDiigiv icscmbies C/iiysocltloroma, wiiich sccms tn have ciossed tho border- 
liiic into drnup \'. h^xcept in siigiit dctaiis of shaiie, thc .spccies appcar veiy homogeneous. and we 
shnuld not have dividcd the genus min sections but for the fact lliat pievious authors (Warien, Ilampson) 
havc made scpaiatc genera, and tiiat thegenitalia oi avicularia and esmeralda aie suiinisingly dissimilar. 
Sections il and III (especiaii\ tiic lalter) remiiul, in sii.ipe. oi Hi/>pari/iits, Section 1\'. .\s regards tlic 
iiomenciatuic. it wouid perhaps be mnre strictly coriect in adopt the name of Uiosf>ila, as nami>son 
seiecled thal in merging \\arren's tvvo contcmpnianeous .i;eneia {1'aiiiia Iiid. Mol/is. \'ol. 3, p. 5i3). 
Kut as OrHil/tospila is iii tiie niore genoral use, aiid wili lic i)terened by the slaves of u pago-priority », 
besides i)eiiig mnrc apprnpiiatc, wc vcntuie to tliink that llampsnn"s action can l)e set aside; he did 
not actualK <;</<'/>/ ihe genus, meieiy citing tlic name undcr one of his sections ot T/ialassodes. 

Type of the genus : Oniit/iospila ariiiiiarid (Ciuence) = Geomelra avicitlaria. (hience ( 1^94). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — liidia tn Xew (hiinea. 

Section I. — Teniien ui iuilh wings sul)crenuhite, cliiovv ;it R-' of hiiKhving e.xtremely slight. 
cf genitalia {aviciilayia) with uncus liiiuicate at thc e.xttcnie tiji, with curved .socii, 
gnathos !)roadlv pointed and scobinated, harpe v\ith verv smal!, fine spines on thc 
clasper, penis pestillate, elbowed above (0;-;/////m/'//(7, \\":irten). 

I. (). avicidtvia (duenee). India. 

Geumetra iivicularia. GiieiKio. .Spec. Gen. I.e)). Vol. i). p. 3^2 nbSS . 
Geometiti l>eiinisii;iuilii.\Vsi\ker. List Lep. Ins. Brit.Miis.Vol 22. p.3i6( i86l). 
Oniitliuspilii avieuhiiiii. Warren. Novit. ZooL Vol. i. p. ."^Sb (1894). 
Megiilochhra avicuUuia. Swinlioe. Trans. Ent. Sor. Lond. p. i^^iiSy^ . 
Thiilassodes aviciilaria. Hampson, Faiina Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p 5i3 (iXg.T). 



1-AM. GEUMEIKID.^^ 



77 



2. O. sii/'moiisliiiiis (VValker). 

Gcomtli-ii sub>mnshaiif.\\'a.\ker. I.ist l.ep. Ins. Brit. Mus.VoI.22,p.52«)(i86i). 
.ichloya circumflexarin , Snellen, in Veth. Midden-Siimatra, Vol. 4 (8), 

1>. 53, t. 5, f. I, i<i (1S801. 
Oinillnispila suhmonstraiis, .Swinhoe. Leji. Het, ().\ford Mus. Vol. 2. \>. 40^ 

(1900I. 

3. O. cim-ta (Walker). 

Geomelya ciiicld. Wallver. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 527 , i«6i . 
Oynilliospila cincl.i, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. ONford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 404, t. 6. 
f. 2 I1900). 

4. O. f^sltlacina (Felder). 

Cliliiivsonui u psillociii,), Feliler. K'eise X.uavH. Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 26 1 1875). 



Sumatra and Penang to 
Moluccas, 



B(irn(.'(j, Malay .^rchipel- 
;ig(), Suniatra. 

Moluccas to Dntcli .\'ew 
(jiiinea. 



Sec-ikjn II. — Both \\ings with termen rauitly \\Hved, hindwinp; \\ith ;i stroni,' ;inf,de 

or slifj;ht tail at R-' {Urospila, Warren). 

5. O. liiuald (Moore). >-'• lii<h.i. 

Geoiiiilr.i liiieata. Moore, l'roc. Zool. Soo. Lond. p. 58o. t. .S^. f. 2 '1872). 
UrosfiiUi lineala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 3S7 (1894 1. 
Thalassodes liiieata, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 314 (iSgS). 
Oynilhospila lineaUi. Swinhoe. Leji. Het. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2, p, 403 (1900), 

Section III. — Both wings with termen smooth, hindwing with a definite elbow at R\ Anal 
tuit strongh- developed in cf • cT genitalia with iincus tapered, with large socii, densely 
clothed \\ith thick hairs projecting at right angles, gnathos terminating in a blunt 
scobinated tip, harpe w ith l;irge tuft ot strong spines, sedoeagus vvide, tubular, scobinated 
at the orifice, with ccintral rod wider :it the tip iAfrc-iia. H;impson) (ead. ac Sect. II?). 



6. O. esmeralda (Hampson). 



N. Iii(li;i to Singa|«)re. 



.■Ifyeitaesmerahla, Hanipson, 1 raiis. Enl. Soc. Lond. p. 314 u.So5i; Faiina 
IikI. Moths. Vol. 4, p. 5(i5 (1896). 



49. Genus APORANDRIA, Warren 

Aporandria. W.uieii. XuMt./o.il. \'ol. i,p. 3S5 (181)4). 

Characters. — Face tliukly scaled, with projecting tuft helow (Pl. 5). Palpus rather long and 
strong, second imnt in both se.Kes clongale, long-scaled, third joint densely scaled, in cf lather short, 
in 9 long, Tonguc .leveloped. .-Xntenna in cf bipectinate with moderately ^.^^ ^ 

long, curved, long-ciliated iiectinations, apical one-thnd nearly simiile; 
in 9 almost e.iually strungly bipectinate (Fig. 8). Pectus densely hairy. 
Fcinora hairy. llin.ltibia hardly dilated, but not long, all spurs present, 
Abdoinen not ctested. Frenulum fully developed. Forevving with costa 
straight to nearly tvvo thirds, somewhat ;irch('.l distally, apex acitte, 
ternicn nearly str;iight, ohlique, tornus pronotmced. cell nearly one- 
h;iir, i)r(jduced apically, DC incurved, S('i iVec. SC^ normal, Ri stalked 
wilh SC^-"', M^ connate or short-stalked with K'; hindwmg with apex 
modcrate, termen rather long, sm.ioth, elbowed ;il W', lornus pi.uiounced, 
nmei tn;irgin long, base thinlv scaled, subili;ii)hnnous, cell lather shoit, 
DC slightly bent at origin of R=, C closely appro.Kimated to cell for some 
distance in middle, then rather nipidlv diverging, St>' st:ilked, R^ fnun somewhat ab.ive middle of cell, 
M' st:ilked. 




.\iitenna of 
.-ipoiifiifria s/>fC»/ari<J,Guen^e, Q 



i) Xom. iiulesnr, et pr.Roci:. iWayler. iN.io, etf.'. 



-8 LKPIDOPTEKA H h:Tp:ROCl<:K.\ 

Larva. — Sleiidei, uniforml\ c\ liiuliical. head stnmijly bitid. tlie lobes developed into eiect 
honis: a shnjhi coiiical prnmincncp on ciglitli abdoniinal segmenl (Moore, Lej>. Ctyl. \'ol. 3, ji. 42.1. 
t. 194, t. I ). 

\>VP.K. — Kalher nanow. ihorax ver>- obliciue. abdomen minulcly dark-specklfd, spiraclcs pink 
(Moore. loc. cit. |. 

Type of genus : .Ihtidiiiliiii speciiliiiia ((iuenee) = Geomeira speiiilariii, Guenee (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-Malayan. 

1. A. ffieiidaria ((iuenee). lndia witii Ceylon to Suiua- 

Genmetra sl^ccnliirni, Giicnci;, Spec. (icii. Lcii. Vul,. y. J). 3^2 {l858). tia aild Sula Islands. 

Al^oitiiidria s[-cciiUviii. Warreii, Xovil. Zool. Vol. i. j). .^S5 (i8cj4). 

50. Genus RHODOCHLORA, Warren 

Rhodoclilora. W.MU-n, Novii. /odl. \'ol. i, p. 485(1894). 

Characters. — l'ace sonicwhal i^rominent, smootli-scaled. Palpus loni.; oi longish, sc-cond 
joint rouj^h-scaled, ihird jnint elnn-alc (al least in 9 >. sniootlier scaled. Toiiiiue dcvelojied. .\ntenna 
mndeiale. in cf biprctinaU^ lo ncar ajic.\ with modeiate bianchcs. ajiical e.^ctremity mcicly ciliated; 
in 9 lamcUatc. 1'ectus and fcinora haiiy. Ilindtibia in d* not dilated, all sjnirs usually jiiesent, biit 
une(|ual. Tarsi moderately spinulose. .Abdomen nol crestcd. Win^s am|)le. l"icnuhiin devdoiH-d. 
h^oicvving with costa aiched, ajiex moderatcly acute. termen neaily straiglU, snmcwhat nbliiiiic, lornu5 
j)runounced, cell lcss thau nne-halt', DC incuived, oblitjue jioslcriorly, SC frcc or anastomosing 
with C, SC- normal. K^ sl.ilked with SC--''. M' scjiaiate: hindwing with a subhyaline j)alch near base, 
ajiex roundlv squaied, termen rather sliaighl to near K-'. there roundly judminent. thence again ncarly 
straight to tnrnus, which is pmnounced, cdl short, SC-stalked. K* characteristic, M^ separate. 

Early stages unknnwii. 

Differs from .■iporaiii/iia in thc absence of tiie frontal tuft, etc. The sjiccies are inostly veiy closely 
relatcd intcr sc, and Mr. 1 )rucc, w ho possesses a magnificenl series, consideis inost of them fornis of 
onc very variable sj^ecies, moie or less connected by intermcdiates. This will jirobably prove correct, 
in some cases at least; on the othei hand, we have notcd a few sjiecimens as having ap|iaientl\ terininal 
siMiis onlv on ihe hindlibin. so that therc is sliil nced foi furthcr study. 

Type of the genus : R/ioiior/ilora roseiMlhis ( l'"ehler) -^ Ac/ilora roseif>al/>is, l'"eldcr (i<^94), 

Geographical distribution of species. Trojiical S. .-\meiica. 
i. A'. insei/>alpis (iMlderi. Panama, \'enczuela. Ecua- 

Achloni roscipolj^ii. 1 eldev, Keisc Nov;ira, Lep. liel, t. 127. \>. M i>^T3\ dor. etc. 

Rhodoclilora roscif^alpis, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol, i, p. .385 (1894). 
Rhodochlora roscipnlpis var. hasicostalis. Dogniii, .'Vnn. Soc, Knt, Beltj. 
VoL 44. p. 215 (1000) (ab.?). 

2. R. iiiiiiolur. \\'arren (pr.ec. ab.?). Peru. 

Rhodochlora uiiicolor. \\Mrrcn. Novit. Zonl. \"ol. 14. \>. 2og (1907). 

3. R. gaiijouiaria (Dognin). Ecuador. 

.4chlora gaujoiiiiiria. l)os:;nin. Le Naturalistc, \'oL 14, p. 186 (iSqz;. 

4. R. hniniicipalpis, Warren. Hrilish Ciuiana to Peru. 

Rhodochlora hnniiieipalpis, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. I, \>. 385 (1894). 
Rhodochlora hrunneipalpis al), miiior. Warren, ibidem. VoL 16, ]), 87 (1909) 

(ab. vel var. ?). 
Rhodochlora briiiiiieipalpis ali. nifaria. Warren. ibidem, )> 87 (1909) (ab.). 

5. A'. rotJisc/iildi, Warren. Panama. 

Rhodochlora rothschildi. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. S. \>. ^Si igoi). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 79 

6. R. cxqimila, V\ airen. Peiu. 

Rhodochlora ixqiiisitii, Warren, Xovit. /ool. Vol. 12. p. .^20 iigoSj. 

7. R. alhipituda. Wairen. — Pl. 2, Fig. 7. Pevu. Columhid. 

Rlwdochhira albipiiiicta. Wsrren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 16. \>. 87(1909). 

8. R. tritasciata, Warreii. Peru. 

Rhodochlora trifasciata, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 10. \>. SS (igooi. 

9. R. itstiwargo, Warren. I'eiu. 

Rlioihchlora unlnnargo. Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. .sx (loogi. 



51. Genus ANISOZYGA, Prout 

Anisozyga (Turner. MS.). Pr<iul, The Entomologist. \'ol. 44. p. j6 (1911). 

Anisogamia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 286 (1896) (nec Saussure, i8g3). 

Eucyclodes (pait.). Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, \'ol. 35. p. 6i5 (igio) (nec Warren). 

Hamalolepis. Warren. MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.)(cf. Swinlioe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 676, 

Hnnalfllepis in err., nom. indescr.). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus with second joint reachms< beMind trons. rough-scaled 
(sometimes vvitli stronj,fl\ piojecting hair-scales) above and beneath, third joint smootii, usually slighth 
fusiform, in (f moderate, in Q 'ong. Tongue present. Antenna rather long, in (f shortly bipectinate 
to little beyoud one-half, distalh' nearly simple. in 9 nearly simple. Pectus e.Ktremeh' hairy, and usualh 
with a very long pencil of hairs beneath base of forewing (Pl. 5). F'emora strongh- hairv. Hindtibia 
in (f with strong hair-pencil. and moderately long terminal process, both sexes with two unequal pairs 
of spurs. Abdomen n(_)l crested. Wings usualh' thinh- scaled, the se.xes often differing greath in orna- 
mentation. Frenulum fuUy developed. Forewing with costa arched, apex moderate, termen subcrenulate 
or vvaved, oblique posteriorly,cell nearly one-half, DC incurved, strongh' oblique posteriorly, SC usually 
free, SC^ variable in position, but usualh' from but little before, very exceptionally even stalked 
tfi just afttT SC'', R' separate, M' widely separate ; hindwing with termen convex, typicall\ crenuiate, 
sometimes nearly smooth, but elbowed at R-', inner margin long, cell short (one-third to two-fifths), 
DC^ oblique, DC-' slightly incurved anteriorly, oblique or stronglj- oblique outwards through mostof its 
course, C approximated or appressed to cell to one-half or less, then very lajiidly diverging, SC- stalked, 
R2 very characteristic, M' nearlv always stalked, M- trom rieai end of ccll (Pl. 2, Fig. I 4i. (f genitalia 
with uncus clubbed, spoon-shaped, slightly indented at the ape.x. socii shortei than uncus, gnathos 
terminating 111 a point, harpes with divided cucullus, clavus pointed, penis pestillate, broader at the 
tif), coremata jiresent. 

Lakv.\. — Not fully desciibed; provuled with large flattened piojections 011 Ixith sides of the 
dorsum of each segment. That of pieroides feeds on roses. ( Turnei, Pyoi . Liiiii. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
Vol. 35. p. ()i5, 617). 

Is at base a very natural genus. characterized 1)\ ihe combination of elongate, smooth thirdjoint 
of palpus, long pectoral pencil of hair, strong tibial hair-pencil and process of q*, long hindwing with 
short. obliquely-walled cell and stalking of ladials, usually thin scaling and stiong sexual dimorphism ; 
but will probably need purifying by the removal of some outlieis such as moniliata, in which some of 
these characters are hardly deveioped. Turnei sinks the genus to Eucyclodes. and if some of the forms 
are reallj' intermediate that may perhaps prove inevitable for taxonomic purposes ; we are unfortunately 
unacquainted with the type oi Eiicyclades, but as Turner describes it as having minute teiininal joint to 
the palpus, and apparently dififereut discocellulars. and as its facies is distinct and there is no sexual 
dimorphism. we have ))referrpd, tor the present, not tn mergo the lielter-known genus. 



8o 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Type of the genus : Anisosyga pitrmdes (Walker) = Comibaeua puroides. Walker I1896I. 

Oceanian. vvitli stragglers in Singapore and perhaps 



Geogpaphical distribution of species. 

in India. 

1. ^./«Wrf«(Walker). - Pl. 2, Fig. 5; Pl. 3, Fig. I. 

Comihaena piiroidts. Walker. Li«t Lep. Ins. Mus. Hrit. Miis. Vol. 22, p. 58o 

11861) (cJ). 
Tlialassodes scilissimarui. Walker, ibidem, Vol. 26, p. 1564 (1862, (2). 
Comihaeiia caUinata. Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. 1. 127, f.23 {i875)(<3). 
/odi5^«>-oi(i«,Mcyrick,Proc.Linn.Soc.N.S.Wales(2),Vol 2, p. 897(1888). 
Aitisogamia pieroidcs, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 287 (1896). 
liiicyclodes />iV;roi</«.Turner,Proc.Linn.Soc.N.S.Wales,Vol.35,p.6i7 1910). 

2. A. paiifica (I'>lder) (praec. var.?). 

Comihaena pacifica. Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 24 11875). 

3. A. insperala (Walker). 

riialassodes insperala. \\a.lkei. List Le)). Ins. Bi it. Mus.V0l.22, p.'555(l86l). 
f,idis insptiala. Meyrick, Proc. Linn Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2. p. 895 
11888). 
f .Inisogamia insperata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 127 (1907). 
l'.Hcyclodes insperala. Turncr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales.Vol. 35. p. 622 
(1910). 

4. .4. melii^hila (Walker). 

Comibaeiia metaspila, Walker, l.ist Lep. Ins. Brit.Mus. V0I.22, p.58o^i86j). 
lodis mtlaspila. Meyrick.Proc. Linn.Soc.N.S.Wales(2),Vol.2,p.895(i888). 
lodis eiicalypli. Lucas, ibidem. Vol. 3, p 1267 (1888). 
liuchloris melaspila. Lower, ibidem, Vol. 22, p. 29 (1897K 
Anisogamia metaspila. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 33 (1897). 
Eiicvclodes melaspila. Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales. Vol.3S. p. 624 
1 1910). 

5. A. siiliiratarta (Walker) (pia;c. ab.?). 

Chlorochroma saturalaria. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 35. 

p. 1-609 (1866). 
lodis saturalaria. Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2, 

p. 895 (1888). 
.4nisogamia saluralaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 33 (1897). 
/Utcyclodes salnialaria. lurner. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales. Vol. 35. 

p. 625 (1910). 

6. .!. ,i,'<ivissi»ia (Walker) (huj. gen.?). 

Coiniliaeiiasavissivia,\'Va.]Ver. l^isi Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.V0l.22, i).575(lM6i). 
Berta gavissima, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 435, t. 196, f. 6 (1S87). 
Thalassodes gavissima, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. p. 5io (1895). 
Gilasma gavissima, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 401 (1900). 

7. .•l./<'.i7//«s(Butler). 

Tlialeia le.xlitis. Hutler, .\nn. Ma(;. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 6, p. 219 (1880) : 
111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6. p. 71, t. 117, f. 10 (1886). 

Comibaena lexlilis. Cotes S: Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind. (4), p. 524 (1888). 

Thalassodes lexlilis. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5io (1895). 

Chlorostrota textilis, Wairen. Nc.vit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 3Sq (1897). 
^. A. iip/irias (Meyrick). 

lodis aphrias, Meyrick, Trans. lint. Snc. Lond. p. 492 (1889). 

Anisogamia aphrias, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 127 (1907). 
ij. A. liihrocrossa (Meyiick). 

lodis lilhocrossa. Meyrick. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 493 (1889). 

Anisogamia lithocrossa, \\'arren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 124 fi909)- 
10. .■i ■ speciosa (Lucas). 

lodis speciosa. Lucas. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 4. p. 1094 
(1890) (9). 

Euchloris chionoplaca. Lower. Trans. Koy. Soc. S. .Austral. Vol. 17. p. 288 
(1893) fcJ). 



Oueensland to S. E. Aus- 
tralia. 



Fiji. 

E. to S. E. .\ustralia. 



yueensland. 



Oueensland (?). 



India witli (.'exlnn, 
wak. 



Darjiling i ). 



^ara- 



British New Guinea. 

Xew Guinea. 

Oueensland and Britisli 
New Guinea, ?Sinsapore. 



i) False locality, or uccitlenlal imroductioin?). 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 8l 

A nisogamiu albimacula, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 33 1 1897). 
lodis sideralis. Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. Vol. i3, p. 68 (1898) ((J). 
Anisogamia chionoplaca, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 355 I1903). 
Eucyclodcs speciosa. Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35. p. 620 
(igiol. 

11. A. guniota [[A)W^-ex). N. yueensland. 

Eucliloris goniota. Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 18, p. 86 

I1894). 
Anisogamia ciirvigutta. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 34 118971. 
Anisogiiniia goiiiota. Warren. ibidem. Vo!. 10. p. ."iSS^iQO^). 

12. A. fascinans (Lucasj. Queensland. 

lodis fasciiiaiis.l^ucis. Proc. Linn. Soc.N. S. Wales 121. V0I.8. p. 1^4 (1894). 

i3. A. absoua (Wanen) (praec. var. ?). New Guinea tn Trobriand 

Anisogamui ahsona. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 287 1 1896). Islands. 

i:\. A. albilattta {W-Axren). British and iJutch New 

Attisogamia albilaitta. Warren. Novit. Zool. VoL 4, p. 33 (1897). Guinea. 

Chloroterai nlbilaiita, Warren, MS. iSwinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902. 
p. 6761. 

i5. A. dentata (Warren). N. Oueensland. ? New Gui- 

Anisogamia dentata. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 4, p. 34 (1897). nea. 

Eucvclodes dentata. Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, VoL 35, p. 617 
(19101. 

16. A. inonil iata {Wanen). N. Queensland, BritishNew 

Anisogamia moniliala. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 4, p. 34 (18971 (Q). Guinea to Louisiades. 

Anisogamia undilinea, Warren, ibidem, p, 35 (1897) (cJ). 
Eucyclodes moniliata, Turner, Pror. Linn. .Soc. N. S. Wales. VoL35, p. 623 
(19101. 

17. A. WMSCUM (Warren). Feri!,iisson Isl. 

Anisogamia muscosa, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 35 (1897 1. 
iS. A. nigrimacitlata (WiiTren). British and Dutch New 

Anisogamia nigrimaculata. Warren, Novit, Zool. VoL 4, p. 35 1 18971. Guinea. 

Chloroteras nigromacuhita, Warren. MS. i). 

19. A. sublitiirata (\Varren). Rritish New (iuinea. 

' .4nifoga»iia suhliturata. Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL 6, p. 327 (18991. 

20. A. subvfniista (\^'arren). Britisli New Guinea. 

Anisogamia subvenusta. Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL 6, p. 328 (1899). 

21. A. pagenstecheri (Semper). I.uzon. 

Anisogaiiia paginstechiii.Semper, Reisen 1'hilipp. 12), Vol. 6, p. 640. t. o5, 
f. II (1902). 

22. ^. aUiitiiiihria (Warren). Soloinon Islands. 

Anisogamia albifimbria, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 10. p. 262 (igo3i; Vol. 12. 
p. 421 ( 1905). 

23. A. coenilea (Warren) (huj. gen. ?). British to Dutch N.Guinea. 

Anisogamia coerulea. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol, 10. p. 35^ ( i9o3). 

24. A. rnfipiinctata (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Anisogamia rufipunctata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 35^ (1903). 

25. A, callisticta (Turner). N. Queensland. 

Euchloris callisticla. Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .Austral. Vol. 28, )). 222 

(1904). 
Encyclodes callisticta. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 621 

(igio). 

26. A. albifusa (Warren). British New (iuinea. 

Anisogamia albifusa. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 77 1 1906 . 

27. A. albiseriala (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Anisogamia albisrriata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 78 (1906). 



l) So pivcn on type label. not Chrysochlm-oma. as Swinhoe indicates {Trans. Eitt. .Soc. Lond., 1902, p. 1176}. 



82 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



2X. A. halis (Wanvn). 

.iiuiuj^iimia batis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 78 (igo6i. 

29. A. cnmiiuictiUrta (Wanen). 

.ImsogLimia commaculal.i. Warren. Xovit.Zool.Vol. i.3,p.78. t lo.f. 1 1( 1906). 

30. A. decorata (Warren). 

Aiiisogamia decorala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 1.I, p. 79 (1906). 

3i. A. flaviliiifa (Wanen). 

.iitisogamiaflaviliiiia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1.I, p. 80 (1906). 
.Inisogamiaflavilinca ab. albinata, Warren, ibidem, p. 80 (1906) fab. . 

32. A. aiisivnotata (Warren). 

.Inisogamia griseonolaia. VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i.S, p. 80 ( 19061. 

33. A. iiidcsceiis (Warren). 

Anisog.imia iridcscins. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i.^,i>. 81 (igo6). 

Zjf. A. scititillans (VVairfu). 

.inisogamia scinlillans. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i.1. p. 81 1 19061. 

35. A. seininivta (Warren) i). 

Anis,'gamia seminivca. Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. I.H, p. 82 19061. 

3t). A. tiiseyiata (Wairen). 

.Iniso/^amia tnstrtala. Warreii. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 82 11906). 

?>■]. A. viridissima (Wanen), 

.inisogamia viridissima, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 82 19061. 

38. A. bijiifjala (Warren). 

Anisogiimia bijiigata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 1261 1907), 

39. A. dcsolaia (Warren). 

.Inisogamia ilisolala. Waneii. Novit. /ool. Vol. 14, p. 126 '1007). 

40. A. fragmentata (Warren). 

Anisogamia frinimtnlala. Warren. .\ovit. /ool. Vol. 14, p. 127 11907 . 

41. /1. qracililiiiea (W'aiic.n). 

Anisogamia gracililinea, Warren, Novit, Zool, V0I. 14, p. 127119071. 

42. .-(. /«/7<im (Warren). 

Anisogamia liilaris, Warren, Novit. Zool Vol. 14. p. 128 11907). 

43. A. iniiiiha (Warren). 

Aiiisogamia innulia. Warren. Novlt. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 12S (1907). 

44. .-). orbimaculata (Warren). 

Aiiisogamia orbimaciil.ila. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 12911907). 

4.S. A. stellata (Wanen). 

.■\nisogamia stellala, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 129 (igo?)- 

46. A. suhnigrata (Warreii). 

.inisogamia siilmigrala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. i3o (1907). 

47. A. venif>/aga (Warien). 

Anisogainia vcnipiaga, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p \.^o \ 19071. 

4.^. A. sexmaciilala (Wanen). 

1'horodcsma st.tmactilala. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. i.-l^ 11907 . 

49. A. subfasciata (Warren), 

Anisogamia subfasciata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 124 11909' 

50, .-{. erolyla (Turnci) (huj. geii, ?). 

Eucyclodcs trotyla. Turner, Proc. Linn.Soc. N.S.Wales, Vol, 35, p, 622(1910). 

5i. .]. erymnodes (Turner). 

F.iicvclodis erymiiodes, riirner, l'roc. Linn. Sbc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 623 
(1910'. 
52. A. exililinea (Wairen) (Inij. gcn. ?). 

Rhomborista i.xililinea, Warren. Novit. Zool, Vol. i.\ p 89(1906). 

Anisozygtt exililinia. Pront, The Entomologist. Vol. 44, p, 26 (lon 1. 



Hritish New (jiiinea. 
Hritish Xew Guinea. 
Hritish N'ew (juinea. 
Hritish New Guinea, 

Hiitish New (juinea. 

Hritish New (iuinea. 

Hritish New (jiiinoa. 

Hritish New (iuinea. 

Rritish .New (iuinea. 

Hiitisli New (iuinea. 

British .New (iuiiiea. 

Hritish New (iuinea. 

Hritish aiid Dutcli New 
(iuinea. 

Hritisli New (iuinea, 
Hrilisli New^ (juinea. 
Hritisli .New (iuiiiea, 
Hriiish New (iuinea. 
Hiitish New Guinea. 
Briiish New liuinea. 
British New (iuinea. 
Hritisli New Guinea. 
Soloinon Islands. 
yucensland. 
N. (hieensland. 

Hiitish New Guinea. 



i) This «pecies, Sf.xmnciil.il.i. anil perliiips j few others la. k llie liiniltibial proces» of tlie C. but «eeni ollier«isc to accord witb the genus. 



l'AM. (iKOMi: IRIIM1; 83 

53. A. viiiiilinia, Piout (luij. geu. ?). Dulch Xe\\ (juinea. 

Aius,-izv;\i i\ii:ilnic,i. l'rout, 'l'lie Kiitomolojfist, V0I. 44. p. jo ■ Uiii). 

54. A. polyleucotes, nov. sp. i), Prout. Dutc li New Ciuinea. 

55. A. diazeuxis, nov. sp. j|, Pmut. |)iilrii Xew (iuiuea. 

52. Genus EUCYCLODES, Warren 

Eucyclodes. \\';irrcn, Nn\ii. Zool. \'ol. i. ]>. 390(1894). 

Characters. l''ace siikmiIIi (?) 3). Palpus rytlici ^lioil, leimmal joint slioit 111 both sf-xes. 

Toni^ue j^rcstMit. Anteiiii;i in ^^ hipectinate with sh(»r( biiinclies, apex simple: in 9 sim])le. Pectus 
densely liairy. I liiuitihia in cf dilated vvith hair-pencil and teiminal ]irocess. in hoth sexes with all sj^urs. 
Abdomen nol crestetb Win.^s lliickly scaled. Frenulum fully (leveln|ied. i'\)rewing with cosla almosl 
straiglit, a]>ex bluni. itMinen lounded, DC strr>ngly incurved, oli]n]u<- iKist(Mi(irly, SC^ free, SC^'^ stalked, 
K' connate. M' well se])arale: Ininhvinn with tci men well rounded. tornus piomlnent, 1 )C- i>bli<]ue, 
I)C'^ sliiL;"hth* incurxed, becomiui; slroni^h oblu]ue, SC^stalked, M^ short-stalked. 

Early stages unkiiown. 

Tlie above characters are drawn from Me^rick, VVarren and'1'uinei; see our notr to the pre- 
cediui^ genus. 'Ihe earh' slages will pei"ha]")s throw furthei' light 011 ihe tlei^ref of its af^nit^' with 
Anisocyi^a. 

Type of the genus : Eucvclodes hnf^rcstaria ((luenee) ^ Pliinodesma bnprestaria, (iuenee (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. h^. .•NusUalia wiih Tasinania. 

I. E. /'uprcstiif ia ((iuenee). S. K. Australia with Tas- 

Phorodcsina hupyesliinu^ Guenee, Spec. Gen. J.ep.Vol.g.j^.Syi, t. yj. 4(i858). mania. 

Coynibaeiiii buprestanu. Walker, List Le]), Ins. Brit. IVIus. Vol. 22. ]i. 579 

(i«6i.. 
lodis bupresiaria , Mcyrick, Proc. l.inn. Soc. N. S. Wales 12). Vol. 2, y>. Scio 

(1888). 
Eucyclodes bnprestini\i,\V;irYen, Novit. /ool. \'ol. i. ]>. 390 1894 . 

ij Anisozyga polyleucotes. nov. sp. — c?, .is mm. Face green a.bove. wliite below . Piilpns bri(4lit gohlen oiiinge, beneatli and at 
extrerae tip wliitc. H'-:ul wbite. mixcii «itli gieen on crown . .-Vntennal shaft ochreous, each sefjrment narrowly margineii with white. Thorax above green, 
mixed with white. beneatli svhitc; tlie hjng hair-tuft white. Abdomen white. dorsally niixed with green, a green saddle at base. Korewing with termen 
■crcnulate; wliite (subdinphanoust niarked witli briyjit green ; thc grcen markin^s. which are all more or less irrorutcd or spotted witli white, consist of 
un extended costal patcli froni ba^e to nearly two- fifths, and Irom costa to snbmedian fohl ; a few marks opposite this on inner margin ; an internipted 
band, averaging 3 mni. in width, from costa to JI*. its proximal edge at a little beforeone-half, both edges strongly <lentate, a deep distal indentation in 
middle causing it to be much constricted just in front ot R' ; a ."small blotcli opposite this band on inuer margin ; a narrow much interrupted subterminal 
band which tlirows out projections distad along thc veins tending to meet tlie terminal line and encluse white spots; a very ill-defined, much interrupted 
line at a short distance before the suliterminal band ; a terminal line, strongly interrupted at tlie vein ends; fringe white, marked with green. Hindwing 
with termen strongly crenuhitr ; white, nmi^h dottetl with green, especially on veinsand along inner margin; an elongate.raised whitecell-mark along DC-. 
to which follows a green band whicli is nioderately broad in costal half, but narrows, becomes much interrupted and almost vanishes towards inner 
margin ; a very faint snioky blotch at apex, containing some large grecn spots; a small green patch betwcen K' and k-' adjoining this blotch : subterniinal 
band and terminal line mu(-h as in forewing. l'nderside with tlie green markings much weaker, but with some sliglit brown markinns near apex of 
forewing, and a strong fuscous blotch at apex uf hindwing. I*'ak- Fak, 1700 feet, Dutch New Guinea, Dec. 1007 (A. F., Tratt). Type in coll. L Ji. Prout. 
.\ second c?. pret:is('ly siniilav and witli same data, n coll. Brit. Mus. 

2) Anisozyga diazeuxis, nov. sp. — c?-Q. 26-2S mm. Face green abovc, uhitebelnw. I';ilpu8 olive-j;recn on thc outer side, white within 
and below and at the ends of the segments. \'erlex green, collar partly white. Antennal shaft whitish, spotted with reddish fuscous; pectinations 
reddish fuscoiis. Thorax grcen above. wliite bencath, the long hair-tuft green isomctimes very palcj Foreleg bright oclireous, belted with white. Abdomen 
above green. spottcil witli whitc. l''orewing latlier sliort and brixui. icrmen not vcry ob]it|ue. weakly crenulate; bright green, .spe<-kled witb white; costal 
edge rcddish fuscous, spotted with white; markings whitc ; iinteinedian line rather tbick, fiom a snowy spot at unc-third costa, bccoming indistinct 
beyond vein M ; postmedian niore slender, strongly dentate, somewhat interriipted, from costa :it nearly three-fourths, inhent towards inner margin so 
as to approac:h anteracdiim ; a line of spots of unequal sizes midvvay between rostmedian ;ind ternien. that between K^ and M' the largest; a similar series 
(but smaller) cloae tn tenncn. likewisc intraneural ; a series of white spots at vein-ends; fringe green. greyer distally. Hindwing with termen cvenly 
crenulatc from iV to tornus; DC^ becoming extrcmely obliquc. M' rather widely separate; basal half largely occupied with large white spots; a thick 
strongly dentate line beyond middle (.imm. fromtermen); two subterminalseries of white intraneural spofs, largcr and more regular than on forewing ; 
terminal d«jts .md fringe as in (orewing. tips of frJnge white at cnds of teeth (perhaps worn ofl" in forewint;). rndt-rside paler. much more weakly 
marked ; fuscous co^ital niiirkings rather bioader, tcrrncn and fringe marked with fuscous from apex about to R- (gradiially fading out). Fak-Fak, Dutoli 
New Guinea. 1700 feet, Dcc 1007 to Feb. kioS {A. K. Pr.itt). Type K.T) and cotype (Q) in uoll. I.. H. Prout. Two cSrJ, same data. in coU. Brit. aius, 
A very commonplace looking little species, quite simdar to ca//isficf.i,'VuTnev, but remarkable for tlic wide separation of M* of hindwing, which is 
usnally stalked in the genu*!, exceptionally about connatc, or very rarely just S'-parate. 

,1) Warren says « with a small triangidir horny projection above •, but riuner writes uf tliat this is inappreciable in his example. 



S4 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEKOCEHA 



53. Genus CHLOROMACHIA, Warren 

Chloromachia. Waiien, Novit. Zool. (\ ol. 4, p. 209, inde.scr.), Vol. 6. p. 329 (1899). 
Galactochlora. Waireii. ibidem, Vol. 14. p. i33(igo7). 

Characters. — I-ace smooih. I'alpus in cf modeiale, in 9 'oiig- second joint slout, deiisely 
rough-scaled, third joint smooth, in (j* small, in 9 lo"?;- Tnngue prosent. Antenna in cf dentate, with 
fascicles of cilia, in 9 with niiuule cilia (Section 1), or siinilar to those of the cf (Section II). Pectus 
densely hairy. Eemoia hairy. Hindtibia in cf usualh dilated vvith stiong haii-pencii. l.ut without the 
lerminal process of typical Aiiisozyga. Abdomen not cresled. Frenuium fully developed. Forewing with 
costa arched. apex moderatc, ternien somevvhat waved, or entiie, rounded, becoming oblique posteriorly 
(straighter in Section H), cell short, DC incurvod, SC free, SC- normal. R' connato or approximated, 
rarely stalked, M' sejiarate; iiindwing with apex rounded off, termen more or less cienulate (excepl in 
Section II), bluntK toothed at K^, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell shorl (scarcely over oiie- 
thiid), DC-' slighth iiicurved aiiteiiorly, becoming rather oblii]ue (much less so than in t\ pical Auisosyga), 
C shortly aj^proxunated lo cell. then rapidly diverging, SC* stalked, K- fiom mucli above middle of DC, 
M' stalked. 

Early stages uiiknown. 

Diifers little from Auisozyga except in the cf antenna and the less oblique discocellulars of the 
hindwing. The type-species is subject to a closely parallel sexual dimoiphism to that of typical Anisozyga. 

Type of the genus : Chloromachia divapala (VValker) - Comibaena diva/>alii, Walker (1899). 

Geographical distribution of species. — India to Mala\-sia, Japan. 

Section I. — Forewiuf^ \\ itli lennen l)ent, hindvving crenulale, cf hindtibia stronjj;ly dilated, 
lorcw iii;; w ith K' connate to separate [Chlorojiiacliia, Warren). 

I. C. divapala (VValkcr). 

a. Chloromachia divapala divapala. Iiulia with Ceylnn aml .Aiula- 

Comihaciia divapala. Walker, l.ist Le|>. lns.Hrit. Mus. V0I.22. p.575(i8bi). mans, PChina. 
CombiiUiia divapala. Moore. Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 434, t. igS, f. 2 (1887). 
Tlialaisodes dinapala, Hamp.son. F.iuna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p. 5io 1 iSgSi. 
Chloiomailiia divapala. WaniMi. Novil Zool. Vol. 4, p. 209 (1897). 
GcUisma divapala, Sxvinhoe. I,ep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, i>. ^oi igooi. 

b. Chloromachia dtvapala albispars.i. Sinyapore, Korneo, ! .\ml>oina. 

Thaleia alhisparsa. Walkei . l.ist l.ep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 000 ( 1861 1. 
? Comibaena albiceps, Kelder, Keise Novara, l.ep. Het. t, 127, f, i3 (18751. 
} Pliorodesma coiiciiinala, Pagcnslocher, I.cp. Amboina, ji. 87 (18S4). 
? Chloromachia divapala rufimargo. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 2oi> 1 1S1171. 
? Gelasma nifimargo, Swinhoc, 'Irans. Ent. Soc. Lond, p, 675 (19021. 

Skction II. — Forewiny w ith lenncn alnio.st straight, hindwing not crenulale, cf hindlibia 
scarsely dilated i), lorew ing w ith K' connate to short-stalked (Galactoclilora, W^arren). 

-'. C. piilchella {\\' iwww). N'c\v (Ininea, Kon fsl. 

Uliocaemis puhhclla. Warrcii, .\ovit. Zool. \\i]. >i. ]>. 28(18991. 
Chloromachia{}] palliilaia. Warren, ibiJem, p. 329 (1899) (nov. syn.). 
Galacloclilora iiiveslrola. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 14. p. i33 (10071 (nov. syn. . 



i) Warrcn, in erectin,^' ttie ifciius Ga/.t£toc/t.'oya. overlooked tlie uieili:in spurs, wliich arc quite slmrt. aini approximateJ to tlie lcruiinal> 



l'AM. C,E()METKID/E 85 



54. Genus LOPHOMACHIA, nov. gen., Prout 

Lophomachia, nov. gen. 1'iuut. 

Characters. — Face smoolli. Palpus modeiale. second joint i ijugh-scaled .-iIiom' ynd heneath. 
thiid joint smooth. cxposed, in both sexes moderate. Tongue presenl. Antenna in (^f witli loiig, stroni» 
serrate teetli, beavint^ niinute cilia. in Q almost simple. Pectus and fcmora densely hair\-. ilindlibia 
in cT dilated. with hair-pencil and shortish to moderate terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs. 
Metathorax and ahdcunen strongU' crested. Frenukim fully developed. l'orewing with costa arched. 
apex mixlerate, terinen more or less creniilate, bowed. nblique. cell less than one-half, D(" incurved or 
inangled, S('' from near apex of cell (in semialba sometimes connate with SC''"^), always well free, 
SC-' fiom before (or exceptionall}' just after) Scr-, R' connate or closel)' appioximated, M' connate or 
approximated; hindwing with costa short, apex rounded, termen veiy long, usually crenulate, always 
bent at K'^, toi iius pronouiiccd, inin-r margiii long, cell shoil. DC slightlv curved, not verv oblique, 
C approxiinated to rell till towards nnc-lialf, iheii laiiidly ili\erging, SC- stalked. R^ characteristic, 
M' stalkcd. 

Lak\a. - l-^iolhiiiax, metathiuax and hrst abdominal segnient with small subdorsal protube- 
rances, third and fiuiith abdominals witli long, pointed protuberances, tenth abdominal with a point; 
on Lorautlius (Moorr, Lef^. Cevl. \ ol. 3. ]>. 434). 

Pur,\. — Greenish, thickly covered with mimite purjile-biowii sjieckles {Moore, loc. cit.). 

Differs essentially from Chloromacliia in the drjrsal crests. The difference in subcostal venation, 

tliDUgh also 1)1 it iiniinjiortant, is less constant. 

Type of the genus : Lophomachia semialha (Walker) = Thalera semialha. Walker. 

Geographical distributlon of species. — India, Singapoie, linineo. 

1. L. semidlha (Walkeij. Ceyloii,Singapore, Borneo. 

Thnlera stniialba, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. \o\. 22, \i. 5oi 1 1861). 
Comihaena seminlba, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. VoL 3, p. 434. t. ig6, f. i, 1« (1887). 
Thalassodes semialba, Hampson, Fauna, Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. y. 5ii (1895). 
\Chloromachia\scmialba, Warren, Novit. Zoo). VoL 4. p. 209 (1897/. 
Gelasiiia semialba, Swinhoe. Lep. Het. OxforJ Mus. Vol. 2, p. 402 (1900). 

2. L. pictiirala (Hampson). — Pl. 2, Fig. 8. Ceylon. Bombay. 

Thdlassodes picturata, Hampson. Journ. 1-iombay \at. Hist. Soc. Vol. 14. 
p. 655, t. C, f. 7 (19031. 

3. L. discipennata (Walker). Boineo. 

7"A(7/<n! (i(si;//Ji!««ii/a, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis,Vul.22. ]>.6oo(i86i). 
Gelasma discipeiiiiala. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 402. t. 6, 
f 6 (19001. 

4. L. atireofiilva (Warren) (huj. gen.?) i). Khasis. 

Chloromachia aureofulva. Warren. Novit. /Cuol. Vol. 4. p. 209,1. 5,f. 20(1897,1. 
Thttlnssodes aureofulva, Hampson. |uurn. Bombay .\'at. Hist. Soc, Vol. 14, 
p. 656 (1903). 

55. Genus VIOTORIA, Warren 

Victoria. \\"arii.-ii. Nnvit, Zool. \'ol. 4, p, 4(1 (1897). 

Characters. — hace rougli-scaled. A strong tuft at base of antenna (slight in gordoni amd immu- 
nifica). Palpus modorate to long, second joint moderately rough-hairtd, third joint smoother-scaled, 

Tl .Male antenna simply rilialerl, teste \\'arren , 



86 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 

in cf shoitish to modeiate, in 9 nioderate {albipicta) to long. Tongue absent or vestigial. .\nleiina 
short, in (^ bipectinate to beyond one-half with long branches, in 9 with shorter branches. Pectus 
and temora densely hairy. Hindtibia in (^ (?), in 9 vvith all spurs. Thorax densely clothed above, 
]nftathora.K usually especiall}' so, but without clearly differentiated crest. Abdomen stronglj- crested. 
J-iiiild robust. ['"renulum strong in (^ . present but weak in 9- l^orevving with cnsta straight proximally, 
rather strongh' arched distally. apex acute, termen crenulate, prominent at K-', cell one-half, 
DC'' incurved, SC free, SC^ normal. K' connate or approximated. M' just separate; hindwing with apex 
rounded, lermen toothed at vein-ends, cspecially at K' and R^, tornus prominent, cell rather lcss than 
one-half, DC-' somewhat incurveti. hardlx oblique, C briefly anastomosing with cell, gradualh" diverging 
at (irst, but soon lapidly, SC^ stalived, M' short-stalked orseparate. 

Early stages unknown. 

There is just a suspicion of the basal costal expansinn of ihe hindwing in this aiid tbe following 
gcnus, and some woakening of ihe 9 frenulum, showing an advance in the evolution towards (iroup V; 
they may be nearly in the linc of ancestr}- of the group of robust. cresled African genera which we rcfer 
there {Heterocrita, Bathycolpodes, etc), but we consider the present their best position. 

Type of the genus : Vicloiia albi/>icta, VVarren (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — .Kthiopian. 

1. V. albipicla, Warren. S. .\frica. 

Victoriij alhilncla. Waiieii, .\ovit. Zool. Vol. ^, ji. 40 1 1.S97;. 

2. V. fuscit/iorax, Warren. llganda, Sudan. 

i'iclorii! tuicilhorax, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 12. p. 3S7 (igoSi. 

3. V. gordoni, nov. sp. i), Prout. — Pl. 3, Fig. 2. Old Calabar, 

4. V, immunifica, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Sierra Leone, S, Nigeria. 

5. V . mirabilis, Warren. .NataL 

Vicloiia miiabilis, Warren. .■Kiiii, S. .\fric. Mus. Vol. 10 (i), p. 10 (1911). 

56. Genus ARCHICHLORA, Warren 

Archichlora. Waircn. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. ii (1898). 
Chloroteras. Wanen, ibidem, Vol. S, p. 8(1901). 



i) Vjctoria gordont. nov. sp. ?, 45 mni. Faoe rtNidish bro«n. iiot vt-ry rounh-iculeii. l';ilpiis hrowiiish l'iis*-ous. palcr lieneatli. 

Vertex white; octnput sffcn ; tuft at bujie of uiitcnna sli^ht. Ihorax tjretrn above. p.iie bcneath. Abdonien palc liruwnisli, Ihc dorsiil 4-rest8 fuscous, 
not strongly devcloped. Wlnjjs thinly and snioothly sculed, .somewhat hyaline with iridescent reticctions. 1'orcwin}' sea-grccn with costa narrowly 
light brown, fuscous-specklcd; a darker, niorc opaque patch at base: a scarcely perceptibly darkencd, irregular submarginul hand, prcccdcd l>y irrcK- 
ularly placed whitc vein-dots; a roundish.pale-marKined and minutely pale pupilled. dccp fuscousdiscal niark; a lurne. irregiilarlyoval, deep fuscous blotch 
lietwcen M' and SM- close to tornus; terminal line deep fu.srous. with pale dots at the ends ol tbc vcins ; Irinne light bri»«ni»h proximallv, fuscous 
distally. Hindwing similar, but without the basal patch and tornai blotch. discal spot rathcr largcr, fubtcrminal shade interruptcd betwccn K"' .in>I M'. 
Undcrsuic still paler green. thi- dark discal marl;s somewhat reductd. with broadcr pale cirrumscription : the subterminal band boldly marVcd in 
fuscous, and tbnnvin;;^ out Iummmis lines alon;; tlic veins to tcnncn ; tornal l>lotih ot forewing as alwvc. S. Nipcriu. Old Calabar, i.n> fcct, |anu;iry loth looz 
(C. J. M. Gordon). Type in Oxtord Museum. presented by the capior. .An ahsolutdy typical Viftori.j exccpt in ihe lcw slight detaili of structure 
lioted above; yct vcry distinct in tlie «mooth scaling, and in the dark tornal blotch. The type is in bcautiful condition. 

2) Victoria imnnunifica, nov. sp. — 0. 40 mm. Kace crimson. Palpus fuscous-crimson above, first anti sciond joints wbitish bencath. 
thirvi joint long. ochreous beneath. Antennal shaft ochreoiis. marked witb crimson above tmixed with fuscous proxiuiaUy'. pectinations oi:hreous. 
Vertex crimson. spotted with blackish fuscous; occiput ^Teen. Kore- and middlelcgs ochreoiis;. crimson atiovc; htndlcg whitish. with ihc tarsus 
oclireous. Thorax green above. Abdouien whitc. fiusbed with pale crimson above and sparsely sperklcd witb fuscous; crcsis ucll dcvelope<I. vfllow. 
mixed with fuscous. Korewing l>Iuish grct*n. rosta broadly crimson. heavily spottcd with blackish fnscous, distalty more orhrcous; a biackish inark 
projeiting from costal sliade near base; antcmedian line whitish. indistintt. lunulatc. with n small tooth on SM**. from inncr margin at two-fifths 
becoining ob«:olete on entering cell ; discal mark round, crimsonfuscous. pale-centred ; postmcdian linc whitish, almost obsolcte. miduay bctwcen 
cell-spot and termen, parallcl with lattcr, indicated chicfly by a few white vein-dots; terminal linc finc, fuscous. interruptcd at vein-ends; fringe 
whitc, flushed with p^le crimson, and strongly marked witb fuscous e.\ccpting a pale basal iinc. Hinduing similar, without costal markings and 
antemedian. Underside whitish green, costa morc ochreous than abovc. less spcckled; discal marks laintly indicated. l>ut sniall. not |mle-centred ; 
fringe paler than above, but simiiar. Sierra Leone iC. R. Bartlctt). Type in coll. Brit. Mus. A o" from Ilcsha. S. Nigeria (I-. K H. Humtreyl. 
also in coli. lirit, Mus.. is practicaliy ccrtainly conspecific, although as the locality is diflerent we have omitted rcference to it in the diagnosis. 
Its abdomen, antennal shatt, vcrtcx and costa are morc heavily mixed with fuscous. and the postmcdian line on hoth wings is aifompanied proximaliy 
by distinct fuscous dashes on thc veins, of which there areonlyone or two faint sugeestions in the tvpc. 1 hc thir.l palpal joint is of course much shorter, 
and the antennal pectinations considerably longer than in the .9. In both sexcs the merathorax is smootli, aiid thc tutt of scnlcs at base of nntenna 
quite slight. .M' of hindwing is wcll stalked. In the cT the hindtibia is dilated with hairpencd. 



FAM. GEOMKTKID;'^ 87 

Characters. — l'"ace sniootli. Palpus in botli scxes quite sliort. Toiif^ue usuallv vveak fwell 
developed in f'iilvei iplai;a). Antenna iiot tufted at base, in Ixilh se.xes bi])ectinate, with api x simple. 
Pectus deusely haiiy. I-^emora haiiy. Hindtibia in cf usually dilated vvith hair-pencil, in botli sexes 
with all spurs, the median sonietimes short. Metathora.x not crested. .Abdomen strongh' crested. 
Frenuhim in (f modcrately strony, trom before a scarcely appreciable costal expansion, in Q apparently 
rudimentar}-. Huild mbust. Foiewiug vvith costa straight, except at base and apex, apex moie oi- less 
promment, termen elbowed in middle. oblicjue posteriorly (variable in other respects), cell nearly 
one-half, DC deepl}' incurved, SC' frec> (in zonata anastomosin'; strongly with C and with SC^), 
SC^normal, R^ connate to short-stalked (in :onata separate) M' separate. connate or stalked ; hindwing 
with ape.x mnderate cjr a Httle truncate, termen toothed. vvith the strongest teeth at R' and R'', or merely 
waved, with a rather strong tooth at R' and a very shght one at R^, tornus pronounced, cell less than 
one-half, DC'' incurved, C anastomosing at a point or very shortly with SC near base, then a little - 
approximated before diverging strongh" (in sonaia approximated to fuUy one-half cell). SC"^ stalked, 
R"^ from considerablv above middie of r)C, M' connate or stalked fin sonata separate). 

Early stages unlsnown. 

.\ further development from Victoria distinguished bv ihe short (in Section II absoluteh minute) 
palpus, the still weaker 9 frenulum, etc. ; but it can hardly be in an absolutely direct line of descent, 
on account of the tongue. 

Type of the genus : Arrlndiloid vii idiiiiaciila, Warren (iSi).S). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — .¥lthiopian. 

Sectiox I. — Palpus not e.Kcessively ininute, biiild iisually veiy robiist, 
termeii usuallv not crenulate {Archichlora, Warren). 

I. A. viritliniacnla, Warren. — Pl. 5i Fig. 8. W. .\frica. 

Archiclilora viridiiiuunlii, Wavren, Novit. Zuol. Vol. 5, )>. u 1 1S9S,. 

Victoria viridiiuitcida, Swinhoe, Trans. l-'nt. Soc. Lmid. i'. 55i 11904). 
1. A. mari^inata (Warren). Nigeria, .\shanti. 

Vicloria margiiiaUi. Warren, Novit. Zc«l. Yol. g. p. 497 (1902 . 

3. .-1. marcescen!:, Warren. Nigeria. 

Archichlora iiiorccsccns, Warren, Novit. Xool. \'ol. ii. y. 465 11904!. 

4. A. pulverifilaga (Warren). Nigeiia. 

Oosj^ila ['ulveriphiga, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 14 (189.S). 
Victoria pitlvcripUigd, Warreii. ibiilein, \'ol. S. p. 8 (1901). 

5. A. ansorgei [W-drTen). Uganda. 

Victoria aiisorgti, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. S, p. 8 (1901). 

6. ..^. perornata (Warren) (sect. sequ. ?j. Nigeria. 

Victoria fieroriiala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 2i-j 1 i.SpS). 

SiiCTiOX II. — Palpus e.xcessiveh" niinute, liuild not very robust, 
tcrnieu crenulate (Chlorotcras, Warren). 

7. A. tlevoliita (Walker). W . .-Vfrica. 

Comibaena dccnluta. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 572 1 1.S61 ). 
Cliloroteras devoliita, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 8 (1901). 
Vicliiria dcvoltila. Swinhoe, 'l^rar.s. Ent. Soc Lond. p. 55i (1904). 

Sectiox III. — Palpus not e.xcessively minute, termen not crenulate, Ibrewinfj^ w ith SC 
anastomosiiig strongly with C and SC-', hindvving with C approximatcd to cell to 
one-hali' (gen. div.?). 

S. A. zoiiata {\\'ii\ki-\). S. .Africa. 

Ctiw//i.H'«i! -;u;M/r/, Walker. List Le|). Ins. Hrit. VIus. Vol. 26. p. i 5r>6 1H62). 



88 LEPIDOPTF.RA TTI"rEROCT: RA 



57. Genus CHLORODES, Guenee 

Chlorodes. (lucncc, Spec. Gen. I^ep. \'c)l. 9, p. Sj^! (i858). 

Characters. — I^"ace smooth. Palpus moderate. second joint rousli-scaled above and heneath, 
third ]oinl ni iiotli scxes small. Tongue present. .Antenna ahout one-half. in (f l)ipictinate to near apex 
vvith moderate hranches. in 9 suhserrate. niinutdy riliated. Pectns and lemoia sonn'\vhat hairv. 
Hindtibia in (j' nol dilated, in botli sexes with all spurs. .Xbdomen not crested. lienulum present in 
both sexcs. horewing with costa arched distall\ . apex acute, termen entire, oblique, scarcely convex, 
tornus lathcr iironounced, cell about one-half. DC' somewhat incurved, SC"' from cell. usually anastom- 
osing with C^ sometimes also with SC>'. SC"-normal, R' short-stalked. M' well separatc; hindwing with 
costa not shorlcncd, apcx ronnded. tcrnien subcienulatc. prominent at R'. bluntK' toothcd at R^, 
tornus roundly produced, cell lcss than one-half, \)C^ slightly oblic]ue, DC-' slightlj' incurved, then 
oblique outwards, C approximatcd to cell to nearly one-half. ratlier ,i,Madiially diverging. SC-stalked, 
M' jiist scparate. 

L.\KV.\. — With subdoisal processes much as in lli/yhdrcliiis, Anisosyga, Lo/>/itiiiiac/iia. elc. (Turner, 
Pioc. Liiiii. Snc. A'. S. Wales, \''ol 3.t. p. ()26). 

Type of the genus : C/Uoiodes boisduvalaria (Le (iiiillou) (i858). 

Geographical distributlon of specles. — Australian. 

I. C. /w/irfK!'rt/a;7rt (Le CJuillou). S. 1'.. .-\ustialia, Tasmania. 

|N. gen.) boisduvaliiiiii, LeGiiillou, Kev. /ool. Vol. 4, \i. jS" U.S411. 
Clilorodes miraiidnrin. Gucnee. Sppc. Gen. I,6p. V0I.9, )>. 370. t.5.f. 7 (i858l. 
lodis boisdiivahiria, Meyrick, l'roc. I.inn. Soc. X. S. Wales 121, Vol. 2, 

]). 892 (188S1. 
Clilorodes hoisduvalaria. Hwwihoe. T.ep. I Ict. O.\foi-cl Miis. Vol. 2,p..^97 (1900). 



58. Genus OPISTHOTIA, Warren 

Opjsthotia. Waireii, Nn\it. Zool. \'nl. 1, p. 386 (iSq^l. 

Characters. — i''ace smooth. Palpus in q' modcrate. sccond joinl mnderately rough-scaled, 
third joint rathcr small (in 9?)- Tongue developed. Anlenna rather short. in cf bipectinate to near apex 
with rathci short branches. Pcctus hairy. 1'einoia somcwhat hair\- (?). Hindtibia in cf dilated with hair- 
pencil. four rathei stout spurs, the terminal rathci short. Ilindtarsus rather short and thick. .\bdomcn 
crested. Frenulum developed. Forewing with costa slightly arched. apex modeiate, tcrmen curved, 
faintly waved, tornus rathcr pronounced. cell less than one-half. 1)C incurved, SC free, SC* slaikcd to 
considerabh- bcxond SC'', R' cnnnatc nr approximatcd, M'se])aiate; hindwmg with aj^cx roundod, 
termen with a slighth projection at R-' and a still slightcr at R', rathei straight froin R'' tn near tornus, 
tninus produced to a rounded lobe, inner margin rathci long, cell short, DC obliquc, usually rather 
direct, occasinnally with Dc'^ somewhat incurved anteriorly, C approximated to SC in second fourth of 
cell, then rapidlv diverging, SC-stalked. R- frnin ncai 1\'. M' scparale. 

Early stages unknown. 

Except in the crested abdomen, and the position of SC- of forewing, (liliers little from the 
prcceding and foUowing genera. Its shape differs froin both, as does also the dilated hindtil)ia. F^iom 
Oslcosema it is further distinguished by having M' of hindwing separate. 



1-A.M. (jEOMETKID.*; 

Type of the genus : 0/>isl/nitia limidtlinea (Moore) = Geometia liimidilvien, Moore (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indiau. 

I. O. tiimidilinea (.Moore). ^- I"dia. 

Geometra ttiinldiliiict, Miiore. Lep. loll. .■Vtkinson, ]\ 249 (1888). 
Opistholiit tumiiiiluiea, Warren. Xovit. Zool Vol. i. p. 386 (1894). 
niliociinnis Inmiililiiie.i. Hnmpsun, Faiin.-i Ind Moths.Vol. 3. p. 4X9 (I.-igS). 



59. Genus OSTEOSEMA, Warren 

Osteosema. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, i». 3gj (1894). 
Chlorostrota. \\';irrcn, ihidem. \'ol. 4, p. 3(j (1S97). 

Characters. — Face scarcely protuberant, smooth-scalcd. Palpus lather slender, short to 
moderate, second joint slmrtiy rough-scaled, third joint small in both sexes, or moderatelx long in 9. 
Tongue developed. .\ntenna rather short, m botli sexes bipectinate vvith simple apex, the branches shorter 
in the 9 than in ihe (f (Pl. 5). Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with 
all spurs devt-loped. .\bdomen not crested. Frenulum tulh' developed. Forewing with costa arched, apex 
moderate or ratlier proiuninced, termen oblique, very taindy waved, sometimes slightly benl at R-% 
tornus rather pronounced, cell less than .uie-half, DC incurved, SC free, SC^ normal. R' separate 
(in pastor occasionally short-stalked), M' approximated to R^ ; hindwing with apex rounded, ternien 
convex, somewhat waved, often elbowed at R-*, tornus pronounced, simietimes (especialh- in pastnr) 
with an appioach to thc expansion of Opistholia, cell short, DC not ver\ oblique, C approximated to SC 
for some distance near base. then rapidl\' diverging, SC^ stalked, M' stalkod. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : (hltosiiiiu sani^inliiieala (Moore) = Comilnieiia san,^iiilineala, Moore (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — N. India, Bonuo. 

Sectiox I. — cf antennal pectinations .short and reaching to little beyond two-thirds ; 
9 paliHis with third jnint (luitc short {Ostctiscitia , Warren). 

1. O. sanoiiiliiieala iMoove). N- India. 

Coiinbaenii saiisuiliiieotit, .Moore, Proc. Zool. .Soc. i.ond. p. o3<S ^1867 1. 
Osteosema sanguiliiieala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 392 (1894 1. 
Euciostcs sanguiliiieata, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 176(1894). 
Tliahissjdis saii:;Hilineata, ITampson, Fanna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5i2 (iSgSj. 

2. O. pastor (l^ullcr). N. India. 

Chloiodes pashir, Butler. Ann. .Mas.;. Nat. llist. i5). Voi. i>, p. 210(1880); 

111. Het. (.;oll. Hnt. Mus. Vol. 0, p. 73, t. 117, f. i3 (1886). 
Tholissodcs [iitstor, Ham|)son, l'auna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5ii (1895). 

SliCTKJ.x II. — cf ;intei)iKil pectinations rather long, and reaching to aear ape.x ; 
9 p:d]nis with ihird joint rehilively long {C///<iriisfro/a. Warren). 

3. O. alhoviridis (Moore). .^'- E. Hengal. 

Geomctia allioviridis, Moore, I'roc. Zool. Soi . Lond. p. SSi.t. 34, f. 3 (1872). 
Uliociicmis alhiviridis, Hampson, l-"auna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 489 iiSgS). 
Cliloroslrota alhiviridis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p 36 (1897), 

4. (>. praeaiiipla (Warren) (pi:ec. '.ar. ?). A.s.sam. 

Chlorostnita j-ra/ampla, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, |i. 3? (1897). 



90 LliPIDOPTERA II KTEROCERA 

Uliocnemh albiviridis (part.l, Hamiison. Journ. Honil>ay Kat. Hist. Soc. 
Vol. 14, p. 655(iQo3). 

5. O. r/(5ca/« (Warren) (huj. gen.?) i). X. Konieo. 

Chloroslriila discala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. Sso 1 1897 . 

60. Genus OCHROGNESIA, Warren 

Ochrognesia. Wanen. Novii. Zool. \'ol. 1. p. iqi (1894). 

Myrtea. (luniiipenlx rg, ,\ov;i .«^cta .Actnl. I.coi^.d. Xatiirf. Halk-. \'ol. 04, p.^7^(i)S93j(nt(.- 'l^iirton, 1822). 

Characters. — l"ace sinootli. Palpns inodeiate, second joint relatively long. sliongW- rough- 
haired abo\< iind lieneatli, third joint in holh se.\('s sniall. Tongue piesent. .-\iitenna lathei shoit, in cf 
bipectinate to about two tliiids with railiei slioit, well-ciliated bianches, apex ciliated, in 9 rninutely 
ciliated. Pectus liaiiy. I.cgs slinit. l'ein(iiii haiiy. liindtibia in i^ inuch dilated, with stiont; haii-pencil 
and long terminal proccss. .Vbdomcn nnt crestcd. Frenulum developed in both se.xes. I""orewiiig with 
costa slightly arched, aiiex moderate, termeii ciirved, oblique, cell less ihan one-half, l)L' deeply 
incurved, ol)li(]ue posterioily. SC' free, SC^noiinal. I^' veiy short-stalked, M' separale; hiudwing with 
apex moderate, tcrincn elbowed at K-'. toiiuis squaied, cell short, I)C not very oblique. C approximated 
to cell for soine distance, theii lapidly diverging, SC.!* stalked. R- from much abovc niiddle, M' stalked. 

Early stages a])paiently undescribed We suspect that the larva found at Shanghai on Salix 
pcntaiulra, closely resembling « the remainsofa leaf of which ihe softei parts had been catcn avvay » 
belonged to this species (See Proc. Ent. Soc. Loiid. (3), \'ol. 5, p. 26.). 

Closely akiii to Cotuibiiiiui, with whicli it is olteii uuiled; but the lievelopment of the 9 Ireniiluin 
and lack of detinilc ba^al exiiansion to hindwing show it to be a slightly morc primilive form. l^rom 
Osteoseiim it diftcrs in tlic stionger, inore hairy paljius, thc rf hindtibia and the 9 antenna. 

Type of the genus : Ochrognesia difficia (Walker) = Comibaeiia difficta, Walker (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — V.. .-\sia. 

I. O. dificla (W alker). E. Siberia to China, Japan. 

Comiba/na difficla, Walker, List Le]). Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 576 (1861 . 
Pliorodesma graliosaria, Hremer. Mem. Acad. St-Petersli. Vol. 8, p. 77, 

t. 7, f. I (18041. 
Oclirognesla difficla. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 3gi (18941. 
Myrtea graliosaria. Gnmppenberf;. Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d, Natiirf. 

Halle, Vol. 64, p. 479 (iSq5). 
Eucliloris difficta, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 236 (18971. 
Evchloris gratiosaria, Staudinger. Cat. led. 3), p. 262(1901). 



Qroup V 

61. Genus ULIOONEMIS, Warren 

Uliocnemis. Warren. Proc. Zool. Snc. Lond. ]>. 3.^5 (iSgS). 

Characters. — bace sinooth or somewliat lough-scaled. Palpus in both sexes with sccond 

joint long, rough-liaiied bcneatli. tliird joint iii (^ rather short. in 9 lo"g- smooth-scaled. Tongue 



1] We have only seen the one specinien. anit this. thougli absolutely an Osteosenm in facies and in niost charactcrs, is erratic in venation, forc- 
winjj having SC anastomosinp stror..i;ly witli C. SC^ arisin": niuch before SC*. M' widely separate from Ri. hindwing with R- from very near R' . 



FAM. (iEOMETRlD^ 



91 



preseiU. .Anteiina lather sliort, wilh a slight or strong tiift ot" scales at base, in both sexes bipectinatc, 
in cf with ver\ long, in 9 \\ith moderate branches. apical extremity (about one-fiftli) nearh" simple. 
Pectus and femora hair}'. b"oretibia strongly tufted. mid- and hindlibia moie or less haitw Hmdtibia 
not dilated, median spurs absent, or short, rather approximatcd to Ihe tcrminal. Metathorax and 
abdomen crested. 1 1 indwing with very shght costal expansion at basc. frenukmi in cf rather strong, 
in 9 \\anting, or vestigial. Forewing with costa gently arched, apex squared, termen entire, inore or 
less obli(|ue, curved, cell lcss ihan one-halt, 1 )r'Mncurved, SCMree, SC-normai. K' separate. connate 
or stalked, M' separate; hindwing with apcx rounded or moderate, lermen lounded (very sHghtly 
bulged in middle) or sinuous and elbowed at R^, inner margin rather !<mg, cell short, 1 )C'' incurved 
or rather oblique, C shortly apprcsximated to cell, then rapidly diverging, SC^ slalked (in partiia oftener 
connate), M' stalked (^r connate. (^ genitaha with uncus bifld, gnathos terminating ni a i)omt, harpes 
parallei, plaiii, with socii. vmculum S(]UHre, emarginate at the base, penis pesldlate, nai io\ve<f towards 
thc base. 

r.ARVA. — Rather stout, the segments provided with haired flosh^ processes, to vvhich it 
attaclies small pieces of withered leaves and flowers, after the manner aiComibaena and Euchloris. Colour 
uniform yellowish drab (Hampson, ///. Ilet. CoU. Biit. Mtis. Vol. 9, p i_|5, t. i yb. (. 18: Green, 
Spolia Zevlanica. \'ol. i, p. 74). 

.\n interesting genus, standing ncaiiy on Ihe border-iine belween Groups W and V. Turner, 
indeed, places it in the foi nier, but states that he has not examined the 9 ; moreover lie has no doubt 
worked chiefiy frum fiiiitita, Walker, which is clearly the most ancestral of the genus, w ith Ihe strongest 
Cf frenulum, slrongest crests and most primitive venation. But in spite of some variations in structure, 
not only in ilic respects jnst mentioned. but 111 thc tibial armature, the genus is too natural to bear 
diviiiing. It is inteiesting tjiat the genitalia sliow an even closer resemblance to luichloris than to Comi- 
haena, to whicli the superficial resemblance is so much greater; but all threc, togethci with A^i;ltissoc//lvris, 
Art;yrocosma and lulops, form a thorouglily natural group. 

Type of the genus : Uliocnnnis cassidara (Guenee) = Plwrodesma cassidara, Guenee (i8g3). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-Australian. 

SliCllON I. — Hindtibial armature variablc i). 

1. U. cassidara ((jucnec). 

a. iUiociiemis ciissidara casiidara. X. Inilia and C.hiiiatoSiii,nai)ore. 

Phorodesma cassidara, Giienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol, u, j). 370 (i858j. 
Cowi/4(i^»iTi-.(si((frt);V7, Walker, ListLep. Ins. Brit.Miis. Vol. 22, p. 522 '1S61 1. 
UUociiimis cassidara, Warren. Proc. Zool. .Soc. Lond. p. .355 (i8g3). 

b. UUociumis cassidara Inpla^i^iata, Cevlon. 

Coiiiibaiiia biplac^iala 1 Walker, MS.), Moore, Lep. Ceyl, Vol,3, p. ^35 , 1887). 

-Secikix II. — Hinditibia with terniinal spuis onl\". 

2. U. parltta (Walker). — Pl. 3. Fig. 3. India to Anslialia. 

Comibaeiia parlila. Walker, ListLep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2.:, p, 573(i86i), 

Comibaeiia /elicilala. Walker, ibidem, p. 579 (1861). 

Thalcra concisiplaga, Walker, ibidem, p. SgS (1861). 

lodis partila. Meyrick, Proc, Linn.Soc. N.S, Wales'2), Vol, 2,p. 892(1888). 

F.Hcrostis partita, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. ^go^iSSg), 

Uliocnemis parli/a. Hampson. Faiina Ind, Moths, Vol. 3, p 488, f. 2ib (1895). 



i) Ttic rat-e from N. India, (.;hina an«l the Malay Peninsula, so far as «e have seen, li;is aiways t<;rmin;il spurs only : tlnit Ironi Ceylon Itas one 
median spiir prescnt in the ; (perhaps tometimes both), an<l lioth present in the .^ . 



92 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

3. U. callipUra {Uayvick}. Hnti-li New ( .iiinea. 

Eucroslis callipleia. Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiid. p. 489 (18891. 
Uliocnemis caUipliia. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. p. 28 ' 18091. 

4. U. woodfordi, Warreii. Solomon Islands. 

Uliociiimis woodfordi. Warren. .\ovit. Zool. Vol. ti. p. 29:18991. 

Sectiox III. — Hindtibia with all .■^purs. 

5. U. eJegans. Warren. Dutch \e\v Guinea. I.oui- 

Uliocnemis clfsain. Warren. Novil. Zoul. Vol. 6. p. 28 11899 . siadcs. Bismarck Archi- 

Uliocnemis cassid<ira. Pagenstecher. Zoologica. Vol. 29, p. i53 1 moo jielago. ? N. E. .^UStralia. 

(nec Guenee). 

62. Genus AGATHIOPSIS, Warren 

Agathiopsls. Warien. Xovil. /ool. \ nl. i, p. jS5 (189I)). 

Characters. — l'"ace smooth, Palpus moderale, second joinl wilh close, thick scaling, third 
joinl smooih, 111 cf short, in 9 moderate. Tongue developed. .Antenna moderate, in cf bipectinale to 
bevond one-lialf, with moderate or rather short branclies, in 9 mnirly simple. Pectus and femora hairj-. 
Hindtibia in (^ dilatcd, with hair-pcncil aiul moderate termiiial piocess, in both sexes with all spurs. 
Metathorax crested (especially in basipuncta). Abdomen not appreciabl}- crested. Wings moderatelx' or 
rather thinly scalcd. Frenuhim in (f well devcloped, in 9 wanting or vestigial. h^orevvin}; with costa 
straight to near apex, thcn aichcd, apex moderatc or ralher acute, termcn gently or strongly curved, 
oblique, entire or faintly waved, ccll ncaih one-half, DC incurved, SC free. SC- stalked to beyond SC'', 
R' connatc or shorl-stalkcd. M' coiinale or separate ; hindwing with apex rounded. termen crenulate, 
in maadala witli a moic promincnt tail at R^, lornus pronounced, ccll sliort, DC sometimcs rathcr 
strongly ohliciuc, DC ■■ ralhcr stiaight or incurved, not very. oblique, C shortly appresscd to cell near 
base (the appression in maciilata sometimes commencing with point-anastomosis). rapidly diverging, 
SC* stalked, R"'' veiv charactei istic, M' slalked. (J genitalia with uncus large, massive, tapered. gnathos 
vciy strong. tciminating in a strong tooth ; bclow and beiiind the uncus, on eithcr side, protrude 
scobinated globular processcs; harpes fused at the base. thc clasper exacth- resembling a stockinged 
leg .ind foot : pcnis pestillatc. widening above; coremata present. 

Early stages unknown. 

Is iii similai case, as re,>;ards tlie fieiuihiiii, to thc pieceding genus : thc basal expansion in tlie (;f 
is entiicly negligeable. and the fienulum of fuU development, yet it is completely atropliied in the 9- 
The type species differs from the other two in a large number of slight structural details, each species 
being very true to its own cliaracters : but there can be no doubt as to their relationship. Therc is a 
marked sexnal dimorphism iii all, though not so extreme as in typical Anisosyga. 

Type of the genus : .igathiopsis manilaia, Warien (189(1). 

Geographical distribution of species. — New (juinea and \. Uueensland to Solomons. 

1. .1. manilala, W^arrcn. NewGuinea,Fergussonlsl., 

Agalliiopsis niaculala. W.irren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 286(1896 . New Pomerania. 

.Agatliia hcnedicta, T^aRcnstecher, Zcxilogica, Vol. 29. p. i52, t. 2, f. 39 (19001 
inov. syii. 

2. A. hasipunda, Warien. Pl. 3, Fig. 4. \ewGuinea,Fergusson Isl.. 

Agalliiopsis liasipuncla. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 285 (1896). N. Oueensland. 

Euchloris amphibola. Icirner. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 3o. p. I28 
(1906). 

3. A. subflavata, VVarren. Solomon Islands. 

.igalhiop.<is suliflaimla. Warrcn. Xovit. Zool. \'ol. I2. p- 421 1 igoSt. 



FAM. OEOMETKlU.t 93 



63. Genus CHLOROMIANTA, Warren 

Chlopomianta. Warren, is'(n-it. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 104 (i.Sgb). 

Characters. — Face smooth. I';ilpus in o* nio<lerate, secoiid joint shorlly but densih scaled, 
third joint rather small (9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna in q* bipectinate to tvvo-thirds with 
moderate branches. Pectus hairy. Ilindtibia in cf soniewhat dilated, all spurs present, the terminal 
the shortei". Abdomen with fourdorsal crests of curved liairs. Frenulum in cT developed, no apprecialile 
basal expansion to hindwing. Forewing with costa straight to near apex, then arched, ape.x moderate, 
termen oblique, especially posteriorly, cell less than one-half, DC incuived, SC free, SC^ stalked to 
beyond SC-"\ R' connate, M' approximated ; hindwing with apex rounded, termen subcrenulate, shghtly 
toothed at R' and R^, tornus pronounced, cell short, DC- obhque, DC hardh- oblique. C shortly 
approximated to SC near base, then rapidly diverging, SC^ stalked, M' short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

.Appaiently close to the preceding and follovving genera, so that the 9 frcnulum may be assumed 
to be wanting or vestigial; that of the ^f is as in Agathiopsis. 

Type of the genus : Chloromiaitia fnrniiinala, VVarren (1896). 

Geographical distribution of species. — .'\ssam, 

3. C. /errufiinala.Warren. — Pl. 3, Fig. 5. Khasis. 

Chhiromianlti ierru^iiiiiia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 104 (1896:. 
Oilorodoniopera firniginatn, Hampson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Vol. 12, p. 89 (1S9S). 



64. Genus RHOMBORISTA, Warren 

Rhomborlsta. VVarren, \ovit. Zool, Vol. 4. p. 44 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderale to lather long, second joint shortly but densely 
scaled, third joint smooth-scaled, in i^ short, in 9 variable. Tongue present. Antenna short, in o* 
bipectinate to about two-thirds with rather long branches, in 9 nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Hindtibia 
in cf dilated with hair-pencil, but without terminal process, all spurs present. Abdomen with smail, 
narrow crests. Frenulum in cf rather strong, but not verv long, arising from beforc a liasal expansion 
of hindwing, in 9 vvanting. Forewing vvith costa slightly arched, apex moderate or rathei acute, termen 
oblique, varying from very gently curved to ventricose, cell rathei- short, DC somewhat sinuous, 
usually slightly angled at origin of R^, SC free, SC:- stalked to far beyoml SC'"', R' connate or separate, 
M' separate; hindumg vvith apex rounded, termen crenulate, vvith projecting teeth at R' and R-^, or 
smoother vvith sbghter teeth, tornus pronounced, cell rather short, DC^ obliquelj- curved, DC'* arising 
markedly distally, curved or rather strongly oblique, C approximated to cell near base, then rapidlv 
diverging, SC^ stalked, M' very shortly stalked, connate or approximated. 

Early stages apparently undescribed. 

A very close relative or Cldvroiniaiita, but w ith deJinite basal expansion of hiiKhvini;. and vvith 
very differeiit. slighter dorsal crests. 

Type of the genus : Idivmhoi is,la dcvexala (Walker) = Comihacaa devc.\ata, V\alker (1897). 



94 I.HPiDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

Gaographical distribution of species. — India l<i Sunda Islands. Nevv (iuine.i. 

1. R. deit.xatii (\\'ali<ei ). India. 

ComibaeiKi devexata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, )>. 570 1 1861 . 
Agathia scutuligera. Rutler. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5). Vol. 6. ]i. 216 (1880): 

111. Het. CoU. Brit. Mus. V0I. 6. i'. 73. t. 118. f. i (1886). 
Comibaena scutiligera. Cotes & Swiiilioe. Cat. Moths Ind. (41, p. 523 (188S1. 
CEnospita scutuligera. Swinhoe. 'I rans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 6 1 1802). 
Euchloris derexata. .Swinhoe, ibidem. )>. 175 118941. 

Cldorodontopera devexala, Hampsnn, Fauna Ind. Mcitlis. Vol. 3. p. 4.^4(181).^). 
Rhomborista devexala. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. ]>. 44 (1897). 

2. R. mt;.;aspilaria ((iuen^e). Boinco, Java. 

Phorodesma megaspilaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 371 (i85,s . 
Comibaeiia megaspilaria. Walker. I.ist I.ep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 577 

(1861). 
Comibaeiia uniplaga, Walker. ibUleni. p. 578(18611. 
Rhomborisla mei;aspihiria . Warren. Novit. 7ool. Vol. 4, p. 44 (18971. 

3. R. semipiirptnea. Waiien. N. li. India. 

Rhomborista semipurpurea , Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 4? (18971. 
Chlorodotttopera megaspilaria (part.i, Hampson, Journ. Hombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Vol. 12. p. 89(1898). 

4. R. -ihhflsa, Prout. Dutch Xew (Juinea. 

Rhomborista megaspilaria gibhosa, I'rout. The lintomologist, Vol. 44. p. 27 
(1911). 

65. Genus SPANIOCENTRA, nov. gen., Prout 

Spaniocentra, nov. gen. l'r<iut. 

Characters. — Facc smootli. Palpus lathev long, especially in 9 . second joint close-scak-d. 
leaching wcll bevoud frous, thiid joint smoolh-scaled, in cT moderate, in 9 'ong. Tongue pri-senl. 
Antenna rathcr shoit, in cT l>ipectinate to beyond one-half with moderate branchi's, a considerable 
apical portion meieh witii vhoit cilia. iii 9 iniinitoh ciliated. Pcctus somcwhat h.iiiy. Hindtibia in cT 
not dilated (except in undiierata), in both sexcs with lerminal spurs only. Abdomcn witli small. narrow 
crests. Hindwiui; with maiked hasal expansion, frenulum wanting in 9- Forewing shghtiy aiched at 
base and distally, nearh sliaight betvveen, apex acute, termen sinooth, oblique, slightly cuived 
(in widiferata very strongly oblique posteriorly), cell less than one-half, 1 )C'' incurved, UC-' somewhat 
curved, becommg oblique, St"' free, SC* stalked to beyond SC^, R' connale or stalked, M'sepaiate; 
hindwing with termen waved, jjioduced to a small tooth al K', and with a still slighter one at W, toriuis 
pnmounced, cell short, DC^ obliiiuely curved, 1 )C'' arising distalh , usually ralher straight and nof very 
obhque. ( shorth or modeiately appresscd lu cell, always diverging befoic middle, SC^ stalked, 
M' usuallv short-stalked, sonutimcs coniiate or approximalcd ( Pl. 2, Fig. 16 . cT genitalia : uncus 
abruptlv tapering, with short socii, gnathos pointed, harpc with a dentate plate 011 ihe innei side, in-nis 
pestillate, fedoeagus covered with large spines, vesica with a bunch of cornuli. 

Larva. — Slender, twig-like, green, spiracles black, prothorax and eighth abddininal with a pointed 
prominence. Feeds on Lorantlnis (Moore. Lr/. dyl. \'ol. 3, p. 434). 

PuPA. — (ireen, abduininal segincius minntclv black-speckled (Moore, loc. cit.). 

An otfshoot ai Rhomborista, distinguished chieHx by Ihe ab.sence of the median sjnirs. 

Type of the genus : >>paniocentra pannosa (Moore) = Comibaena pannusa, Moore. 

Geographical distribution of species. — India aiul China to Celebes. 
I. .S-. /'rt;;Hwa(Moore). l"fH« '" liurma, Horneo 

Covtibaena paiinosa. MoC.ve. I.op. Ceyl. Vol. 3. ]'. 433. t. 145, f. i, iu 1 IN^71. (var ?). 



FAM. GEOMk;TKll)/E gS 

Comibaena devtxata C , Walker, List Lep. Ins. Hril. Mus. \'ol. 22, \i. 5~j, 

(186 II (nec typusi. 
lEiiospila lyra, Swinhoe. 'IrHns. linl. .Soc. Lond. p. 6 (1892). 
Chlorodoiilopera pannosa. Hampson. Fauna InJ. Moths. Vol, 3, ]>. 484 f i.SgSi. 
Rhomhorista paniiosa. Swinhoe, Lep. Het.Oxford Mu.s. Vol. 2. p. 38q (19001. 

2. S. iiicomptaria (Leech) (prsc. var. vel s\n. ?). W. Chiiia. 

Euchloris iiicomptaria. Leech. Ann. Ma^. Nat. Hist. (6r, Vol. 20. p. 23g ( 1R97 I. 

3. .S. unditerata (Walker). Celehes. 

Coiiiihaena uiidiiitata. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 35, p. 1612 

(1866'. 
Chlorodoiitopera devcxata i]iaTt. . Hampson, Fauna Imi. Moths, \'ol. 3, 

p. 484 (18951 Inec Walkeri. 
Rhnmhorista uiidiferata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 44, 391 iiSgyi; 

Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxforil Mus, Vol, 2. p. 38o, t. 6, f. i 11900). 

66. Genus METACINETA, nov. gen., Prout 

Metacineta, nov. gen. Pioiit. 

Characters. — l'"ace smonlh. Palpus in botii se.xes short (scarcely longi-rthan tliameter of e\e), 
second joint with inoderatelv ajipressed scales, third joint smooth, slender. Tongue presenl. Anleiina 
short, in cf bipectinate to about three-fourths, with long branches, in 9 almost as strongh- bipectinate. 
Pectus somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in (j' not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen with small 
curved crests. FrenuUim present in (f , wanting in 9- Forewing rather broad, costa slighth' arched, 
apex squared, lermen faintly waved, curvel, oblique posteriorly, cell not qnite one-half, DC^ somewiiat 
curved. 1)C'' becoming very obliipie. SC' free, SC- long-stalked with SC-'^ (far be\ ond origin of SC"'J, 
K' very short-stalked, M'separate; hindwing ample, termen convex, faintly subcrenulate, sometimes 
with a sliglitly stronger elbow at R-*, tornus pronounced, cell not (piiti- one-half, DC- obliquely curved, 
becoming almosl hmizontal, DC'* arising considerably distally, oblique, C closely approximated to or 
anastnm(5sing witli cell ata point near base, rapidl\- diverging, SC- short-stalked, M' well separate. 

Early stages unkiuiwn. 

Differs fioni Rliomboiisla, as will appear fnim the diagnoses, in a nuiiiber of chaiacters, tlKiUf.;h 
nonc, perhaps, very protound. Moreoxei. all the species of Me/rtfj»«/(?, so far as at present known, aie 
characterized by a whitc veiiniculation nn the gieen wings, veiv different from the smooth, even green 
<)f Rhiimhorista. AU tlie sjiecies aro closey related (possiblv races of one variable species.) 

Type of the genus : Metacincta inlci maciilata (Warren) — Rhonihoi it^la inlei maciilala, Warren. 

Geographical distributlon of species. — j-Ethiopian. 

1, A/. nilermaculala {\\'»]]i^u). .Sencgamliia. 

Rhomborista iiitermaculala . Warren. X.ivit. Zool. Vol. 12. y. 3s6 (iqoSi. 

2, .1/. )//ii(/.'.s7;(-/« ( llampson) (iiricc. var.?). Mashoiialand tn British 

Comibaena rhodosticta, Hanipsim. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 475. t. 3(|. £. .-\frica. 

f. 3o ( 1910). 

3, il/. iiihella (Warren) {intermaculata \ar. ?), Xigcr, 

Heterorachis riibella, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 11 , p. 465 1 1904 1. 

4, .1/. agitravaria (Guenee) (hiij. gen.?) i). (( Caxenne? 11. 

Racheospila aifgravaria. Guenee, Spec. (icin. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 373 ( 1.S58). 
Racheolfpha af;);ravaria. Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. 7, p. 137 (igoo . 

5, M. riifomarginata (Pagenstecher) (huj. gen.?). ( hiilinianc. 

Thallassodes nifomarginata, Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Hamlnirg, .\nslalU'ii, 
Vol. 10 (21, p. 46 (1893 1. 



I) Guen6e'« descrlption. and a sltettili ol liis type liiridly scnt to us by M. Ch. UberthUr, strongly sugijest u uieinber nt this yenus. in vvhtch t-ase 
thcre c;an be n<i iloubt tliut (Uien6e's queried lor.ality was erroneous. We know no Soutli .Ameriran species at .^11 like Ihis. 



,,(, LEPIDOPTERA JIETEROCEKA 



67. Genus ARGYROCOSMA, Warren 

Argyrocosma. runiei, I'roc. I.inn. Soc. N. S. \\'alcs, \"ol. i5. p. 6oq (1910). 

Characters. — VdLv smooth. Palpus inodeiate to long, sccond joint reacliing bejond frons, 
nioderately 1 nugli-scaled, third joint smootli, in cT lather short, in 9 l"ng, slender, slightly spatuhUe. 
Tongue developed. .Antenna in o* bipectinale to ahoul three-fourths. with long branches, in 9 minuteljr 
ciliated. Pectus slightlj- hairv. Hindtibia in cf soincwhat dilated, vvith haii-pencii and terniinal process, 
in both se.xes with aii spurs. Abdomen not crested. l-ienulum in cf present, slender. in 9 vestigial. 
Forewing with costa gentl\ arched, ape.x moderateK acute, termen curved, oblique, ccll about one-half, 
DCJ curved, becoming oblique. DC arising distally, SC stalked with SC;*-'', well away from C. 
SC- arising after SC=, K' well separate, M' weil separated at origin froniK-': hindwing with ape\ 
moderate, termen rounded, tornus pronounced, cell about one-half, DC"- curved, becoming alniost 
horizontal, IK^^aiising considerably distall}-. sometimes very oblique, C rather shortly appro.ximatcd 
to cell near base, SC- stalked, R^ from a littlc above middle of cell, sometimes almost central i), 
M' widel\ separated at origin from K''(P1. 2, Fig. I 2). 

Lakv.\. — Undescribed. .\ drawing b\' F. Moore, in coU. Brit. Mus., made from a Javan specinien 
of thni oi p/iiixopa, shows a rugose brown larva, unmistakably akin of that of Cow;//»afHrt. clothed with 
lai gc pieces of leaf. 

PuPA. — Of moderale build, tapering somewhat towards head; brown, surface finelj- siiagreened, 
spiracular spots raised, dark; anal extremity as in the allies, a strong projection above the anus bearing 
thc armature of spines, wliich is iicail\- as that of Hipparc/iits, the strong central paircurved and crossed, 
tlie others (probably six, but one or two broken otf) inore slender, ending in s^^iial curves (from empty 
pupa-case n{ p/iiixopn iii coll. i-?ril. Mus.). 

The genus is ceilainly related to the follovving (especially to sub/iyalina), but veiy distinct in its 
more extreme venation, palpus less rough-scaled above. 

Type of the genus : Ai\i;yrocosma argosticia, Turner (igio). 

Geographical distribution of specles. — Java to N. .Austialia. 

1. A. argosiicla, Turner. N. .•\ustralla. 

Eucldoris iir:;uslicl<i, Tnvner, froc. ],inn. Soi . N. S. Wales. Vol. 28. )>, 220 

(1904). 
ArgvrocosmtJ (tri^nsfictii. 'rurner. il)ideni, \'(>1 . .35, p. 6io iioiol. 

2. A. phrixopa (Meyrick). Java lo Sumba. 

Thahissodcs plin.xol^tt, Meyrick, 'Irans. lint. Soc, I.ond. \>. ^.-iu.xj^i. 
Prasinocyma albipuitctala, Wanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 390 (1897> 
(nov. svn. \. 



68. Genus COMIB/ENA, Hubner 

Comibaena. I.luhiicv. \'erz. bek. Schmett. p. 284 (1826?); Walkor, Lisl Lcp. his. Lrit. ^his. \'o!. 
p. 568 (i8t)i) 



1) 1 iic ubviuus expl^ination of tlns is tbat o» account of tlie distatl niiyration of DO a portion of vein which would have been reckoned to U* has 
to bc regarded as belongiiiK to DC- ; we have a speciinen in which UC'* is more than usuaUy obiique, its base morc proximad and the point of origin of K- 
consequently more normal. 



FAM. <tEO^[p:tkii).1': 



97 



1-I<;. fl 




FlG. lO 




He:iii ol ro;ttl>,itii.i piisliihiij, 
Hufn:iL;el. -■ . 



Hindiep of Comilnt 



r.arLie, I,ur;is, (3 • 



Phorodesma. Buisduval, (len. et Iml. Mi-th. luir. Lep. p. 179 (1840): (jiienee, Spec. Gcn. Lep. 

Vnl, 9, p. 368 (18.S8), 
Colutoceras. Warren, Novit. ZooL V<iL 2, y>. 88 (iSgS). 
Chlorochromodes. Warren. ibideni, VoL 3, f). io3 (1896). 
Comostolodes. Warren. ibidem, yi. 3o8 (iSgO). 

Probolosceles. Warien, ibi.lein. p. 3b8 (1897)-. Me\rick, Trans. Ent. Soc. LoniL p. 73 (1897). 
Proboloscles. Sharp. /ooL Rec. \'n\. ii. p. 260 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smnoth. Palpus with second joint long. strong, subascending, ciothed 
witli long hair-scales bcneath and rnui^h-scaled above, third joint porrect or slightly defle.xed, smooth- 
scak-(L rathcr slendrr, in o' short to moderate, in 9 nioderatc to long (Fig. 9). Tongue piesent. 

.\ntenna rather short to moderate, in q* biprc- 

tinate to about two-thirds. with long branchcs, 

in 9 nearh' simple. niinutelv ciliatcd, or den- 

tate-cihate. or ver^- rarely ((irgeiitatarui, biviaria) 

bipectinate, though more shortly than in the (^ . 

Pectus haiiw F'emora somewhat liaiiy. Fore- 

tibia sometimes stronglv tuftc-d, as in Ulioi- 

iiemis, Hindtibia in 0* (except apicipicta) dilated 

with hair-pencil and more or less long lerminal 

process(Fig, I 0). .Abdomen not crested. Frenu- 

lum in 0* rathershnrt. from bef<irc wclLmaiked 
basal expansion, in 9 vestigial, often entireU' wanting. Forewing with costa gently arched, apex 
squared (n somewhat acute, termen entire, oblique, rather straight or gentl\- curved, cell iess than or 
full> ono-half. IJC incurved (usually continuously, ver}' rarely witli DC^ separateh' curved, resulting in 
a foi in approaching that of the preceding genera), SC usually from near end of cell or connate 01 veiy 
shorti\- slalked, occasioiiall\- (prociimbaria, iiidiniaria, biplaga, qiiadriiiolata, integranoia, atietmata and 
perhaps a few others) well stalked, oftenest free, sometimes anastomosing with C, SC^ usualh- arising 
before SC-^ (after it in biplaga, quadriiiotata, integraiiota. atleiiiiata, variable in procumbaria). R' usually 
stalked with SC--"'. sometimes connate or separate. M' usuall\ separate, soinetimcs connate or stalked ; 
hindwmL; with apex mnderate (pronounced in teiierai. lermcn sinooth or taintl\' waved, usuall\ well 
roundcd, sometimes straighter, tornus distinct (iii pictipeniiis and its nearest allies slightly produced), 
cell less than or fully one-half. DC somewhat curved. typicalh' becoming strongly oblique (DC^ soine- 
times separately curved, in siibhyalina indeed almost angled), C sliortly approximated to cell near base, 
rapidly diverging. SC^ stalked, R^ vaiiable in position, tvpically froin mucli abo\<' middle, .M' ver\- 
variable, t\pically connate. appioximated or vei\' shortly stalked, sometimes (inductaria. mariae, 
albicatma. and probably a few others) longer stalked, occasionally (suhhvalina, tenera) widely separate at 
origin. cf genitalia witli uncus bifid, with pointed socii, gnathos witli arms not united (absent m piistit- 
latai, iiarpc sometimes dentatc 011 iiiner margiii, vinculuin square (in inductaria rounded), strongly 
■emarginate at tln- base. jieiiis loiig aiid slender { pustidata, induclaria, iiiariae aiul integrauota genitalia 
examincd). 

Erjc. — Very flat, a short roundcd oval with micioiiylar end truncate, both sides decply 
■dcpressed, surface covered witli a delicate. but verv iniicli raised. cell net-work (Bacot, Ent. Rec. 
Vol. i5, ]). 204). 

L.\Kv..k. — Exceedingly rugose, thi^ skiii shagreened or spicular. iii tirst sladium an enormnusly 
doveloped lateral flange. specially developed iirocesses 011 tliis flange (snbdorsal on ;ibdoininal 



qS LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

seginents 1-4, subvential on 5, dorsal on 8) each bearing a specialized hooked hair (in later life moditied 
inio tall fleshy cone armed with liooks), some tlask-shaped, hollow hairs on the tlioracic segments and 
abdominals !-8 (lost in later life); by means of silken threads tvvined al)out the hooks, the larva attaches 
fragments of the foodplant, by vvhich the body is ahnost entirely concealed (Burrows it Hacot. loc. cit. 
p. 175, 204, t. 8, 011 pustidata ; the larva; of several cjther species are known. and have tlie same habit). 
Fi PA. — Riovvn, lUf^ose, shagreened, duil, the dorsal area oi posleiior abduminal segnients 
bearing numeious flattened spines, pointing backwards, spiracles largc and dark, scaisof thc special 
larval processes present, beaiing short but stout curved hairs; anal arinatun- consisting of foiii large, 
strong, sc\ the-shapcd, spirally curved hooks ( Hacot, loc. cit. p. 2o5). 

An evidentlv natural genus, nearly akin to Uliocnemis. ihough inore specialized in the basal 
expansion of hindvv ing, loss of crests, etc. : the cT is almost always further distinguishable by the 
hindtibial piocess, thi; 9 almost always by non-pcctinatc antenna. Only in the venation is therc any 
great variation, and tliis fas I )i . rinner \ery shrewdly suimised with e.\treniely lestricted material) 
cannot be utilized for geneiic subdivision. nor even, we find, for subgeneric. In a fevv species (noted 
above) Sf^ of forewing aiises constantly Inond SC^ {Prolwluscelfs, Warren). but '\u proiumbaiia. and not 
improbably in hiplafia. 11 arises either before or bevond. In iiiductaria SC of foievving is constantly 
longish-stalked witli tlie other subcostals, but in its evidently close ajly albicateua (the type «f Comostolodes, 
Warren) it is about coiinate, in siibhyaliiia fiom the cell. Examples couUi be miiltiplied. Tlie examined 
genitalia (especially pustiihtta and iiiductaria) show close relationship. 

Type of the genus : Coiiiibaciia pustiilata (Hufnagel) = P/ialaeiia piistulata, Hufnagel ^ Comibaeiia 

bajulai-ia. Walker ( iS()i ). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Hastein Pahearctic and Indo-Malax an, stiaggling 
into luirope, .Ahica aiul Aiistralia. 

1. C. pitstidata (1 luhiagel). fential and S. F.uiope, .\sia 

P/hiltieiiLi /■ii>liihil,i. liiifnagel, Hcrl. .Maj;. Vol. 4, p. 52011767; 1 '. Minor. 

fluilaeiia Geoiiieli;i Oa/ulaiia [SchitTeriiuiller], Schniett Wien, p. 97 (1775)- 

Plialaeiia ditaria. Fabricius, Gen. Ins. p. 286 (1777). 

Plialaeiia ^^laiica. Geoffroy, Foiircroy's lint. Paris. p. 267 i I785). 

Geometia hajularia. Hiibner. Samml. ICur. Schmett, Geoin. 1. 1, f. .1 1 1706?); 

p. i5 (i8oo?l. 
Comiliaena hajularia, lliibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 2K4 (1826?,. 
Cleora hajidaria, Stephens, Cat, Brit. Ins. (2), p. 123 (18291. 
Ilipparc/ins ha/ularia. Curlis, Hrit. lCiit. Vol. 7, p. 3oo ii8.3o). 
Phoiode>iii,i ha/iilariii. Hoisdiival, Gen. et Ind. Meth. Eur. I.ep.p. 179(1840). 
Plioroitisina piis/ulala. l.oilerer, Verh. Zool.-bot, Ges. Wien, \'ol. 3. p. 172 

(1853). 
P.uchtoris (■itsliilala, Meyrick, Trans. ICnt. Soc. LnnJ. j). 95 11892). 
Myrlea pusliiUila. Gumiipenberg, Nova .Acta .\cad. I.eop.d. Xaturf. Ilalle. 

Vol. 64. p. 479 (1893 . 
Coiiiihaeihi pnstiilata. Prout. Trans. Cilv 1 ..iul. 1 nt.Suc. Vol. 10,^.6411901). 

2. C. ncriaria (i len ich-Schaffer). Cjreece to .\rnuiiia. 

Genmelra iieriaria. Herrich-Schaller. .^ysl. Hearb. Schnutt. ICur. Vol. 3. 

t. 70. f 429 (18481; Vol. 6, p. 62(i852). 
Phorodesma neriaria. I.cderer. Verh. Zool.-bot Ges. Wien. Vol. ,^. p. 172 

(i853). 
Comihaena iieriaria, Walker, List Lej). Ins. Brit. Mus. V0I.22, p. 56g(i86i). 
Eucliloris neriaria, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. I.ond. p. q5 1892 . 
Myrtea neriaria. Gumppenberg, Nova Acta .■Vcid. Lcop. d. Nalurf. Halle, 

Vol. 64, p. 479 18951. 

3. C. iiuiuclaiia ((iuenee), India to N', (.}ueensland. 

Phorodesma nidiictaria. Guenee. .Spec, Gcn. I.cp. Vol. 9. p. 370 (i85.S|. 



i) TliiB naine scarcely neetl be consitlere»! iii\ .iluhite.l l>y Fh,tUie»a ^y,Ktiia\ pustui.itn. Muller (17641. 



FAM. GEOiVIETKID/E 



99 



Eucyoitis smanigdui. Hamiison, 111. Het. CoU. Brit. Miis. Vul. s. p. iio, 

t. i3i. f. i5 (1891). 
Semoria smarugdus, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 504 1 I8g5). 
Comostolodes iiidtictariii. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. ,'09 I18961. 
Comostolodes smaragdus. Warren, ibidem, p. 3og (1896). 
Comoslolodes coitsohniia. Warreii. ibidem. Vol. 4, p. 210 (1897). 

4. C. deteiita (Walkerj. 

Geometra dftenta. Walker, List I.ep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 22. p. 5 18 1 1861 1. 
Geomelra dissessa. Walker. ibidem, p. 52i (i86ij. 
Geometra deiilala. Moore, Proc, Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 636 (1867). 
' .Vemoria dctenta. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5o3 (i8g5i. 

Probohiscdes delenta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 368 (1897). 
Proliolosceles dissrssa, Warren. ibidem. )i. 368 (1897). 

5. C. biplaga, \\'alkei . 

Comibaena biplaga. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 577 ' 1N61 . 
Probolosceles hiflaxa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 368 (1896. 

6. C. leucospilata (Walkt-r). 

Geomelra leiicospilala,\Vii\ker. List Lep Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 26, p. i554 1 1862). 
Raclieospila ciiryp/iata. Felder. Reise Novara. Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 10 (1875) 

(nov. syn.). 
Probolosceles leucuspilala. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiid. p. 55o (19041. 

7. C. chalybeala, Mooie. 

Comihaena chalybeata. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 63g (1867). 
Geomctra chalybeata, Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 496 (18961. 
Uliocneniis chalvbeala. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. ]i. 29 118991. 

8. C. prociimbaria (Pryer) . 

Euchloris procumbaria. l'ryer, Cist. Lnt. Vol. 2, p. 232, t. 4, f. 2 (1877). 
Comihaena vaga. Rutler. 'Irans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 410(1881,1. 

9. C. pictipeiitii.s, Butler. 

Comibaenn pictipennis. Butler, Ann. Mag". Nat. Hist. (5),Vol. 6, p. 2i5 

(1880); 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6, p. 72, t. 117, f. 12 (1886). 
Geometra pictipennis, Hamjison. Fanna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 496 (18951. 

10. C. aiiioeiiaria (Oberthiir). 

Phorodesvia amoenaria, Oberthur. litud. Ent. Fasc. 5. p. 48,1. g, f. 4 i 18801. 
Uliocnemis amoenaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p, 392 (1897), 
Euchloris amoenaria, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3i. p. 262 (igoi). 

11. C. leucnchloraria (Mabille). 

Phorodesma leucochloraria, Mabille, C. \<. S.m l-:nt. Helg.Vol. 23. p.22' 18S0 . 

12. C. cheranuita (Mcyrick). 

lodis cheraiKota, Meyrick, Trans. Knt. Soc. Lond. p. 203 (1881. . 
lodis cheromela, Drucc. Proc. Zool. Soc Lond. p. 227 (1888 . 
lodis checometa. Drucc. ibideni. p. 577 I1888). 
i3. C. mariae (Lucas). 

lodis mariae. Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales (2),Vol. 3, p. 1260 1888). 
Probolosccles albipunclata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. i5 (1898I. 
Proholosceles connata, Warren. ibidem. p. i5 (1898). 
Probolosceles mariae, Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ]). 672 (19021. 
Comibaena mariae, Tiirner, Prnc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 591 
I igio;. 
14. C. teiiiiisaria ((iraeser). 

Phorodesma tenuisaria, Graeser. lierl. lint. Zeitschr. Vo). 32, p.385 (1889); 

Staudinger, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 7, t. i, f i (1897). 
Euchloris tenuisaria. Staudinger. Cat. (ed. 3), p. 262 (igoi 1. 
i5. C. quadriiwtata, Butler. 

Comibaeiia quadriiwUila, iriiitler. III. Ik-t. Coll. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 7. p. 107. 

t. i36, f. 7 (1889). 
\'emoria quadrinotata, Hampsoii. I-;iima liul. Moths.Vol. 3, p. 5o3iiSq.T . 
j6. C. /rtwof/ ((jraeser). 

Phorodesma tancrei. Graeser. Herl. Ent. Zeitschr. Vol. 33, p. 264 (iSgin: 
Staudinger. Iris. Vol. 10, p. 8, t. i, f. 2 (1897). 
< Euchlorii laiicrei, Staiidinger. Caf. led. Si.]!, 262 (19011. 



N. India, ? Philippines. 



Borneo. 

Cape to British E. .Vtrica. 

N. India. 

China to Japan. 
N. India. 

Amur to Corea. 

Madagascar. 

iMJi. 

(Jueeiisland, New Guinea. 



E. Siberia. 



N. Indi 



.•Xiniir. 



Too LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

17. C. iutegranota, Hampsoii. Ceylon, Xilgiris. 

Comihaena iulegranota . Hampson. 111. Het. Coll. Hrit. Miis. Vol. 9, ]>. 146, 
t. 170, f. i3 (1893). 

Eucrostes integranota. Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 177 (1894). 

Xemoria integranota. Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. p. 504(18951. 

Froholosceles inlegranota. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 368 fi8g6). 
i>S. C. albimai-ginaia (Warren). X. Indi;i. 

Uliocnemis alhimarginata. Proc. Zool. Sor. Lond. ]). 355 fiSgS). 
19 C. deltneafa (WaLTren). S. india to liljet. 

Utiociieinis delineaui. VVarren, l'roc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p.356. t.ii, f. 14(1893). 

Geometra deliiieata. Hampson. Faiina Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. p. 497 (1895). 

20. C. diliila (Warren). Japan. 

Colutoceras diluta. Warrcn. Novit. Zool. Vol. z. \>. 88 (1895). 

21. C. teneia (Warren). Assam, 

Clilorocliromodcs tenera. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. io3 (1896). 
liucliloris tenera, llampson. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sor. Vol. 12, p. go 
118981. 

22. C. all)iiateiui i VVarrcn). — Pl. 3, Fig. 8. Assam. 

Comoslolodes alhicaleiia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 3o9 liSgb). 
Eiichloris dispansa (jiart.), Hampson. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. S0c.V0l.12, 
p. 90 (1898) (nec Walker). 

23. C. alleniiata (VVarreii). Hdrneo lo Hurma. 

Proholosceles atteniiata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 369 (1896). 
? Comihaena biflaga var., Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 557 

11861) (nec typus). 
Xemoria integranota (part.'. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 504 

^1895) (nec typusi. 

24. C. pallidiiincta (Warren). VV. Java. ? Talaut. 

l'roiiolosceUs pallidicincta, VVarren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. \'. 2i3 (1897). 
} Proholosceles quadrinolata. Meyrick. Trans. Knt. Soc. Lond. p. 73(1X97) 
(nec Butler). 

25. C. aigentataria ([.eecli). Chi\ia, Japan, Corea. 

Eucliloris argentataria. Leech. .-Xnn. Mai;. Nat. Hist. '6'.Vol. 20, p.237 ( 1897). 
26 C. nigromaLiilaria (Leecb). China.S. E.Siberia, |apan. 

Uliocnemis albimarginata (part.), Hamp.son, Fauna Ind. Moths. \'ol. 3. 

p. 489 (iSgS) (nec Warren). 
Eiicliloris nigromaciilaria, Leech,.\nn. Mag.Nat.Hisl.(6),Vol.20, p.237 ( 1897), 
Uliocnemis delicatior. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. Sgi 1 1897) fnov. syn.). 

27. C. ornahuia (Leech). VV. Cliina. 

Enililoris oruataria, Leeih. ,'Vnn. Ma);. .\al. Hist. bi.Vol. 20, p. 238 1 1897). 

28. C. ohsoletaria (l.eecli). Jajian. 

Eucliloris ohsolelaria. I.enh, .Vnn. Mag. Nat. Hist. i(>),Vol. 20, p. 238(1897). 
21). C. slriataria (Leech). VV. China. 

Eucliloris strialaria, Leech, .-Vnn. iMag. Nat. llist. (6i,Vol. 20, p. 2^9 1 1897). 
3i). C.pulchra (Staudinger). Palestine. 

Pltorodesma /•ulclira. Staudinger, Iris. Vol. 10, p. ,^02, t. 4. f. 27 (l?:<7). 

Eucliloris pulchra, Staudinger. Cat. (ed. 3), p. 262 (1901 1. 
3i. C. flavitaenia (Wa.vren). .Xigeria. 

(Huospila Jlavitaettia. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. i3 (1898). 

32. C. esmeralda (Warren). Ni.£feria. 

Proholosceles (?) esmeralda. WAiren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 5. p. i5 (189S). 

33. C. subhyalina {WnTren). X. India. 

Comibaena iuductaria, Butler. 111. Het. Coll. Bril. .Mus. Vol. 7, p. 22 (1889 

(Uec Guenee). 
Euchloris inductaria, Hampson, Fauna Ind. .\Ioths, Vol. 3. p. 499 (1895 . 
Comostolodcs subliyaliiia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 22 (1899). 

34. C. ptinctaria (Svvinhoe). Madagascar. 

Proboloscelcs punclaria, Swinhoe, Trans. lCnt. Soc. Lond. p. 55o (1904 . 

35. C. viridifimbria {\\'arren). Hritish Now Cuinea. 

Comostolodcs liridifimhria, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol i3. p. 87 (1906). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ loi 

36. C. biviarui. Hampson. Kuweiizoii. 

Coyinliiieiia biviai iii . llampson, Tians. Zool. Sdi . Lond. Vol. 19 (2), p. 126, 
t. 4. f. 60 (iqog.i. 

37. C. latilinea, nov. sp. i ), Pioul. W. Cliin.i. 

Enchloris cliloiofi/ivlliuia. I.eecli, Ann. Ma^tf. Nat. Hist. (6i,Vol. 20, \i. 23g 
(iSo7i inec Hoiiemanni. 

38. C. apicipicta, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Tibel. 

39. C. fuscidorsata, nov. sp. 3), Piout. .Xssain, POylon. 

Xori;. — Comihaena rellexaria, VValker, Lisl hep. Iiis. Bril. Mus. \'o\. 20, p. 1.^65, C. perlepidata, 
Walker, ihideni, and C. scriplilasiiala. Walkei , ibideiii, p. i567, do not bclonf; to tliis subfainily, but to 
the ,£fenus Zamarada. C. i;avisa/a, Walker is a Plutndes, as shown b\' Tlain|ison. C. Iivaliita/a. Mmjve, 
Proc. Zool. Sot . Lond. 1867, \i. 638, and C. fenestraria, i\b)ore, ibideni, p. 639, are not even Geomctiid, 
but Dre]ianid, Pliorodesma eogenaria, Snellen, Tydsclir. v. En/. \ ol, 24, p. 78, is another Zamarada. 



69. Genus CHLOROOH/ETA, Warren 

Chlorochaeta. Wairen, Xovil. Zool. \'()1. 1 1 , p. 464 ( 1904), 

Characters. — Unce smonlh. Palpus in (j* inoderate, rather rough-scah.^d. ihird joint rathrr 
small. Tont^ue wealv. .\ntenna in (^ hipectinate vvitli nKuleratcly loni; hranrhes (a]>ices broken). Peclus 
and femora liair\-. Ilindtibia sHghtl}' dilated. with luiii"-pen(Ml and short terminal process, four rather 
stout spurs. Abdomen very slightly crested. Frenulum slender, from before basal expansion. Forewini^ 
rather broad. with costa straight, curved distally. apex moderately rounded. termen smooth. oblique, 
littlc curvcd, cell short, 1 )C incurved, SC' free. from close to SC/^'="\ S('- normal (only jusf before SC^), 
R^ \ery slmrth stalked. M' approximated t,o K-'; hindwingwith apex moderate, termen sli^htly curved, 
tornus ]>roduced hut not acute, inner margin very long, cell short, DC somevvhat curved, C a]iprox- 
imated to cell for some distance near base, then modcrately divergent. SC^ shorl-stalked, R^ normal, 
\P short-stalked. 

Early stages unknovvn. 



I, Comibaena latilrnea, nov. sp. — o, 27 mm. Green, of about tlie colour of obsoletiiria, Leech (faded). with two broad, straiyht 
■white lines, the antemedKin froni <o8ta at one-tbird to inner margin at neaily one-half, thickening at inner marjjin, the postniedian from costa at three- 
fourths to inner iimrgin at beyond three-fonrths; discal dot small, reddish-black ; termen waved, terminal line dark reii. connected at the vein-ends witli 
rcd spots in the Iringe in such a way as to siiggest a more strongly crenulate margin ; fringe otherwise white. Hindwing without the white lines ; terminsl 
line an<l fringe as in forewing. (Tnderside of forewing with trosta broadly shade<l with redtlish. disrrd spot much larger thJin above, redder, postmedian 
line present, diffuse ; of hindwing unniarked ; both wings witli terminal line and fringe as above. i^u-tsu-Forg, W. Cbina. 0S20 feei. June to July, 1800. 
Type(excoll. I,eecht in coll. Hrit. .VIus. I Jnfortunately the specinien is in poor condition, tbe face being abradcd, abdomcn discoloured, hindlegs lost; but 
it is certainly a typical Comiiiiirtia, and easily recognizable by the »h.aracters here given . In tlie forewing SO arises from the cell and anastomoses shortly 
■with C, SC* arises beforc SC^, K' is separate ; in tlie hindwing il' is approxmiated to k-v 

2) Comibaena apicipicta, nov. sp. - rj, 2H mm. Face reddish above. white beneath. Palpus whitish. marked with fuscous. Vertex: 
whitisii, occiput green. riioiax and basal part of abdomen green above, white beneatb, end of abdomen wholly white. I-^orefemur and foretibia heavily 
spotted with dark luscous; hindtibia not dilated. withont process. Wings of thc same green as in i/c'/i'/r'iiiit, Warren, andsimilarly strigulated with silvery; 
wlioUy witliout lines; forewing with minute black discal dot and dull reddish terminal line, fringe yellowish green ; hindwing witb the discal spot sonie- 
times larger (uiore elongate), terminal line as in forewing, but here markeduith a black line at apex, a thicker one between SC- and R* and a short, 
weak one betwei-n R* and k-, tlie miodle line ac(X)mp;inie(i j)roximaIly by a small, bright pitik blotch. rnderside nearly white, tinged with green in fore- 
wing : discal dots present. forewing with tcrminal line as above. hindwing with it much weaker (obsolescent), the thrce black Unes remaining, but the 
pink blotch entirely wanting. Yatung. Tibet (A- E. Hobsonl. lypc and two co-types in coU. Brit. Mus. Manifestly related to detineaia, Warren, but 
sUghtly smaller .Liul of morc absolutely typical ro»//Vi<(,'«a-shape, the forewing being lcss produced at apex and the hindwing at tornus. In the forewing 
SC' is connite 'two specimen'5) or just separate (onei, in the last named anustomosing with C ; R' is longisli stiilked. SC"- very lung-stalked. arising much 
beyond SC-. 

.1) Comibaena fusoidorsata, nov. sp. — <^. 20-28 mm. Like mtegr.uiota, Hampson. except in its laryer size aml in the foUowing 
points : Kase of abdomL-n wttli larg.- ln^ oiis dorsal bloti:h ; underside of hindwing with large dack apical blotch and witli a distinct green postdiscal 
transverse line as \\\ forcwnig; lorL-winy with SC frce or connate istalked — usually longstalked — in inti-p^ranota , .SC- arising before SC* (usually 
after SC" in iniegranoia). Khasis ttype) and Maskeliya, Ccylon (■' sp. div.) in coll. iirit. Mus. The great variability of integtanoia prevents our 
adding severul other points of ditVerentiation which are nevertheless generaiiy applicabltf. The fuscous blotclies on bolh wings are large and dark, 
of u size and tone which woubl represent the absolute maximum (if not beyond it) in t ntegranoia ; therc is also sometimes a small tomal blotch to 
hindwing which we have never saen in inte^raunta. The base of antennal shaft is not green, nor is there any green admixture in the palpus. Thc 
termen of forewing is slightly straighter than is norma! in integranoia. Hindtibial jirocess as long ns in infe^rai/fia, but a« it is shorter in the 
Ccylon example ithougii slightlv damaged , that (tossibly represcnts still another species. 



,o2 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Onlj- the single specimen is knowii. bui it setms vei\ probable tiiai the -enus is a rather 
specialized relative oi Comibaeva ; the peculiar shape of the hindvving (strongl}' elongate to tornus) is 
distinctive, though there are other subordinate characters. 

Type of the genus : Chlorochaeta longipemiis, Warren (1904). 

Geographical distribution of species. — W. .Africa. 

I. C. longipennis, Warren. ^-iger. 

Chlorochaita loiigifeiiiiis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1 1. p. 464 ( 1904 . 



70. Genus RACHEOSPILA, Guenee 

Racheospila. Ciiienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 372 (i858); Hulst, Trans. Amer. Enl. Sdc \'o1. 23, 

p. 314 ( 1896). 
Blechroma. Moschler, Verh. ZooL-bot. Ges. Wien, VoL 3i, p. 4o3 (1881). 
Miantonota. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 2, p. 89 (iSgS) (gen. ca?lebs): \'ol. 4, p. 4^5(1^97). 
Lissochlora. Warren, ibideni, Vol. 7. p i 34 (1900), 

Characters. l^^ace smooth. Palpus with second joinl usuall}' lalhei long, more or less 

strongly rough-scaled above and beneath, third joint smooth, in cf quile smail to moderate, sometimes 
(leflexed as in Comibaena, in 9 'ong t" verj' long (moderate in a feu species only). Tonijue present. 
Antenna moderate (rather long in some, at least, of the ^Mwa-group), in cf bipectinate with short lo 
nioderate (in Section H longer) branches, ape.x nearly simple; in 9 nearly simple (in Section IH shortly 
bipectinate), Pectus hair\ . l'"emoia glabrous i). Hindtibia in i^ nearly always dilated wilh hairpencil, 
witii rare e.xceptions also with welldeveloped terminal process, Abdomen not oiscaicely crested, but 
very often ornamented with discolorous spots, which (especially in Section H) are frequenlh- somewhat 
embossed and occasionalh' somewhal eiected posteriorly as diminutive crests, Wing-scaling not verj' 
dense, but not tr;inslucent. l''i(iuilum in ^ not very stiongly developed, arising from before basal 
e.xpansion, in Q consisting of a moderately strong tuft of hairs, Forewing with costa iiearly stiaight or 
slightly arched, apex niodeiate to rathei acutc, lermen straight or slightly curved, moderateh' oblique, 
tornus usually rather pronounced, cell less than one-half, DC cuived, SC from cell. fiee or anast- 
omosing with C, .SC* normal (except in mimr), scarcely ever anaslomosing wifh SC, R' short-slalked, 
connate or separate, M' connate or se])aiate, rarely shoit-stalked; hindwing with cosia not long, apex 
moderate, termen convex, either (luite smooth or genlh waved, fiequenth' slighlh ])romineiil at R'' 
(in this case sometiines nearly straight on either side of the piominence), but never wilh sliaip angle or 
tail, toinus pronounced, cell more or less shorl, DC incurved, C approximated to cell foi a shorl or 
quite moderatc distance near base (in Section II usuailv anastomosing at a point or verv shortly), 
SC*stalked, M' stalked, connate or sepaiale (Pl, 2, Flg. I 3). 

Larva, — Mostly unknown. That oi si/ellatia iwliich m;i\ be takcn ;is rc]Tresentali\e of Section 11) 
has the head rounded, slightly letracted, lutcous with dense while giaiuiles: body gieen, wilh dense, 
secondary, pointed white granules ; angular subventral ]irojections on abdominal segments 2 to 6, bearing 
tubercles IV and V: tubercle 1\' laige, a long i oiie with man\ littie siiines to which various objects 
adhere; tubercles I to HI sni;ill, \' larger, VI aiul \'II small : tlu- l;irge tuliercles ;iic l\' of abdominal 
segments 3 to 6, and Hl of segment 2. as is noinial in the gioup. On flower-heads of Laiiiana cainaia 
(Dyar, Pfoc. Eiit. Soc. IVash. \'ol. 4, p, 4^7), The Iarv;e ii{ riihi-ifiontaiia (Packard, Mon. Geom. U. S. A. 



1) We Iiave only observed soiiit* hairiness on tlie iniddle- an<l hintlfeniora oi fayciptntcia. 



FAM. (;i':()METKIl)^- . io3 

p. 387) and iiibrolinearia (Hulst, lint. Amer. Vol. J. p. 72J have pmbahh much in cominon vvith this, but 
are (Hke the imafrines) transitional towards Nemoria {Aplodes). 

Pup;^. — Scarcely described. That of riibrifrontana green. piofuselx dark dotted and wiih black 
dorsal band, last segment hoof-shaped, with two reildish hooks (Packard, loc. cit. p. 3S7). 

.A large geiius. akiii Id Comilhieiia. hul diffciing in the vveU-developed 9 freiiuUim. '\'hv letention 
of this side hy side with an advance m the ^f structure is, as we pointed out in our Introduction, 
characteiistic of certain .Ameiican gencra, which we here place together. Section I differs further from 
Comibaena in the usualh iiuite short antennal pectinations, and in the more variable palpus; Section 11 
in tiie frequeiu bnef aiiastomosis of vein c; of thi- hmdwing with the celh \\'e have inade various 
attempts to divide the genus into tvvo or more on some rehable structural chaiacters, but have found it 
impracticahle: it is even doubtful vvliether Nemoria (Aplocies, auctt.) as at present understood can be 
sharply differentiated from it, but as the last-named conception has had such very general currency, and 
the 9 palpus of Nemoi-ia is so widely dif^erent from that which is usual in Rac/ieospila. we have let it 
stand. \'\'e recognize in Racheospila three Sections, of vvhich the second could easily have heen made a 
genus had Ihe anastomosis of C of the hindvving with the cell not here proved inconstant. In Section [ 
there is a good deal of diversity of facies, and this is in part correlated with recognizable dift"erences of 
structure, so that we have thought it worth while to place the species roughly in gr(jups. It is curious 
that the two n\ three species found in the Uniteil States have the 9 palpus less differentiated from 
Nemoria than the vast majoritv, at least. of these from Central- and South America. The lixaria-gxo\\\->, 
then, has the thirdjoint of the palpus in 9 moderate or longish, never very long, M' of hindvving stalked, 
dorsal ornameiitation usually white, surrounded with red; ih& albociliaria-gvo\x\>. M' well separate i), 
dorsal ornamenlation as 111 the preceding; the diarita-g\o\\\). M' about coiinate, doisal ornamentation 
variable, rareh- verv conspicuous; the integra-g\o\\\\. M' stalked, dorsal ornamentation commonly con- 
sisting of fuscous blotches ; the erina-gxowp, nearly as preceding, but larger moths, with longer antenna:, 
the wings more rounded and ncarly ahvavs more or less marked with fuscous; the i-o»/.s/i«/sa-group 2), 
vvith wings.also tolerahh' rouiided, heavily marked with fuscous, M' separate, SC of forevving free ; 
the rufipicla-g\o\\p, near preceding but more slender and glossy, SC of forewing anastomosing with C; 
the veniliHea/a-g\ouy (gen. (hv. ?), vvith SC^ of forevving anastomosing strongly with SC, M' of both 
wings wideh- sepaiate ; the la/ayaria g^oup. with dorsal oinamentation as in Section II, palj^us even 
more denselv rough-haired than in that. M' coiinate or just separate, antennal pectinations short. C of 
hin(h\ing not anastomosing with ceH. 

Type of the genus : /^ac/ieospila lixaria, (iuenec (1896). 

Geographical distribution of specles. — .Xeotropical ; a few species Nearctic. 

Section I. — Hindwiui; v\ith C never anastomosing, M' varying according to the group, 
ahdomen verv rarely v\ ith eml>ossecl spots, antenna in d \\ith short or quite moderate 
pectinations, in 9 not pectinate. 

a) 'i"lic /;'.ii7>7'r7-grou[i {Rac/icosfyila, sens. str.). 
I. R. lixaria, (niciiee. Florida, ?.\iizona. 

Raclu-o^pild liwji ij. G(ien(!;e. .Spe^'. Cii;\\. I.(^p Vol. 9. ji. .^74 'is58). \ 



1) The neneral constancy ol M' ol tlie liina«inK in llie various Bioups ol tliis genus suKgcBts tlic liope tbut possibly some use make ultimately 
be made of it in laxonomy. Our studlcs of the OklWorkl fauna ha.l resulted in our so largely distrusting it that it was not until a late stage ol 
our revision that we realized its apparent utility; consequently \ve have not even noted ils position in some of the species which we studied carlier. 
and one or two of our placings may need modification. 

2) Wc niight pretty safely have calle<l this the f.v<-/;ii/.r.gr"up, liut are nnacquainted witli Miisihlers species in nature. 



I04 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Giimeli.t iii:uiiarui. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. V0I.22. p.io» 1861). , 
Racheosfila iaclusaria D}-ar. The Canad. Entom. Vol. 40. p. 171 ( 1008,. 
? Raeheospela texaria. Pearsall. Science Bull. Brooklyn Inst. Mus. Vol. i (8). 
p. 4 (lrio6.. 

2. R. extremaria, Waiker. Eastern \. .\meiica. 

Racheosfila (.') exlremaii.i. Walker. l.ist Lep. Ins. lirit. Mus. Vol. Z2. 

p. 5»4 (18611. 
.iflodes rubromarginaria. Packard. Mon. Geom. f. S. A. p. 389. t. i3. 

f. 44 ■ 1876). 
.'\nat>lodes rubromargiHaria . Dyar, BdU. U. S. Nat. >Ius. No. 52, p. 3o2 

I lq.»2 . 
': Racheospilali.xaria. Dyar. The Canad. Entom. Vol. 40. p. 17 

Gueneei. 

3. R. rubrolinearia (Packard). Eastern U. S. .A. 

Aplodes ruhrnlinearia. Packard. Rep. Peab. Acad. Sc. Vol. 5. p. 74 ■ 1873». 
Svnchtora rubroiinearia. Gumppenberj^. Nova .\cta .Acad. Leon. d. Xatiirf. 
Halle. Vol. 64, p. 49« (1895 . 

4. R. rubrifnmlaria. Fackard. Eastern X. America. 

Rachtosfila rubri/rontaria. Packard, Rep. Peab. .\cad. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 76 1 1S73). 
Aplodes rubrifrontaria. Packard. Mon.Geom. U.S.A. p. 3x6. t.io. f. 87 (1876 . 
.4plodes packarJaria, Grote. New Check List N. .^mer. Moths. i>. jt'i 
.I8S2). 

5. R. caiacliloa (Hulst) (huj. ,t;en.?). Il.jnda. 

Aplodes catachlna. Hulst. The Canad. Entom. Vol. 3o. p. 160 18081. 

b) Tiie alhociUaria-^^vony . 

6. /?. a/*(/,/7;ar/a (Herricii-Schaffer). l';inama an.l Pt-ru tu Kio. 

Geometra atbociliaria. Herrich-Schaffer. Samml .\ussereur. Schmett. Vol. i. 
t. 61. f 344 ,i855i; p. 62. .S2(i856 . 

Racheosfila albociliaria. Guenee. Spec. Gcn. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 3^3 . i858i. 

Racheospila purpureotincta. Warren. Novit. Zool. VoL 7, p. i38 (1900) inov. 
syn.) I . 

Racheospila pmpureoviridis. Warren. ibidem. Vol. 11, p. 26 (1904 . 

Racheospila inolliculata. Warren. ibidem. p. 26 'I904) inov. sj-n.). 
7. R. roseiliuearia, Dugnin. Etniador. 

Racheospila roseiliHearia. Dognin. Le Naturaliste, Vol. 14, p. 206 (1892). 
b. R. acoia {Dognin) 2}. Eciia.ioi. 

Geometra atora, Do(;nin. .\nn. Soc. Enl. Belg. Vol. 42. p. 2i5 11898). 
9. R. licada (Dofjnin). ICcuador. 

Gtometra lic.ida. Di>gmin. .\nn. Soc. Ent. Bely. Vol. 42. p. 2i5 i8o!> . 
10. R. calida (Dognin). Ecuador. 

Geoinetra calida. Dognin. .\nn. Soc. Ent. Bel". Vol. 42. p 216 (1898;. 

ii.R.jeiina, Dognin. Ecuadcir. 

RacheospHa jenna. Dognin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belj;. Vol. 42, p. 216 .1808'. 

12. R. albostriata. Warren. Me.xic. V. rtezuela, tolom- 
Racheospila albosii i.ua, WzTTen. Sn\\\ /.k,1 \',,1 - 1, i^i^ .,,.,., liia. 

i3. R. lufigitttala, Warren. \enczuela. 
Rachcospila rujii:ui:.it.i. \\ arren. Novit. Zool. \>. i3y i,, .. 

14. h\ iliahhaiia, Warren. Peru. 
Racheospila diaphana. Warren Novit. Zool. Vol. 8. p. 45.. 

r5. R. viiiociiicta. Warren. Pnn.-ima. 

Raclii.)sr:'.i ■.iiwcincl.i. Warren. Novit. Zool. Viil. .s. ji. 45.. i.„.i . 

i; l^Mcorathis pitrpureoliHcta. Warren. MS.. in Mus. Tring. In i*Me our groupt siiouM lequire naminK. »e uould propose to aiiopt 
Ltucorackit for the prcscnt eroup; Warren (MS.; has also applied it to dnilitinej, parvipnticla, rrmct.i and rHfigutlata, of which dmtitimea. 
remoia and probably fiar^ipunct.t are alien to the group. 

2) For thc plaring of this aml tbe two follnw iny . a< i*'eU as *ome other rare species in coll. l>ognin. \ve areindebted totbe author liinuelf (in litt.>. 



FAM. GEOMETRlDvE 



io5 



i6. R. albilineata (Warren) (hic ponenda?) 

LissocMora alhilineala. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. i6, p. 79 (igogr. 

17. ii. pUnifimbria, Dognin. 

Rachfospila pUnifimhrid. Dosnin. Het. Nouv. .\iner. Sud (i), p. 20 11910). 

iS. ff. inconsfiicua, Bastelberger. 

Racheospild iiiconspicua, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zeit. Guben, Vol. 5. 
\). 34 iigii.. 

c) The (/irt>'//a-gr')up {Lissochlora. Warren). 

IC). R. bryala ( Felder) (hic ponendari. 

Xemoria hryala. Felder, Reise Xovara. Lep. Het. t. 127. f. 12 11875). 

20. R. delicataria (Moschler). 

Xttnoria delicataria, Moschler. Verh. Zool.-bot. (ies. Wien. Vot. 3i. p. 402. 
t. 17, f. 9(l88l). 

21.7?. mollissima (Dognin). 

Ntmoria mollissim-i, Dognin. Le Naturaliste, VoL 14, p. 186 (1892). 
Microloxia moUissima. Warren. Xovit. Zool. VoL 7, p. i35 (1900) 

22. R.ftavifintbria (Warren). 

Aplodes fltiiifimliria, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 423 (1897J. 
Lissochlura flavifim'rria. Warren. ibidem, Vol. 7. p. i35 119001. 

21. R. liriata (Dogninj. 

Geomelra liriala, Dognin, .\nn. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 42, p. 2i3 (18981. 

24. A'. latiita (Dognin). 

Geomttra latula, Dognin. .Ann. Soc. Ent. )ielg. Vol. 42, p. 2i3 (1898). 

25. R. diarita (Dognin). 

Geometra diarita. Doj;nin. .^un. Soc. Ent. Bel^. VoL 42, p. 214 (1S98'. 

26. R. iguala (Dognin). 

Geomctra igiiaUi. Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Helg. Vol. 42. p. 214 (1898). 

2-j. R. pasama (Dognin). 

Gcometra pasama. Dognin, .\nn. Soc. Ent. Helg. Vol. 42. p. 214 11S98 . 

2^. R. parvipuncta, Warren. 

Racheospila parvipuncla, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. 138(1900. 

29. R. nigricornis (Warren). 

Lissochhira (?) nii;ricornis. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 204 {1907). 

30. R. sanguinipunctata (Dognin) (huj. gen. ?). 

Lissoclilorasanguinipuiictaia. Dognin. .\nn. Soc. Ent. Helg. VoL 5o. p, 204 
( 19061. 

3i. R. minor (Warren) (gen. div.?) i). 

Melochlora minor, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. 11. 2o5 (1907). 

32. R. marcida (Warren) (hic ponenda?). 

Lissoclilora (?) marcida, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 79 (1909). 

.53. R. viridifimbria (Dognin). 

I.isfochlora i/i /i?//i)Hi)v./. Dognin, Mem.Soc. Ent. Belg.Vol. iS.p 161 10 11). 

34. R. ella, nov. sp. j). Fi >ut. 



Peru. 

W. Colombia. 

W. Colombia. 



Colombia. 

Surinam. 

Ecuador. 

Colombia. 

Ecuador to Colombia. 

Ecuador. 

Ecuador. Peru. X. .\rgen- 
tina. 

Ecuador. 
Ecuador. 
Hritish (iuiana. 
Peru. 
.Argentina. 

Peru. 

l^]iper .\mazon. 

Columbia. 

Colombia. 



i) Somewhat etfiitic in sliape. S paipus quite «tiort and sleniler 1 ^^ unknownl, pectinations very shorl, SC* ot forewing stalked beyond SC*. 
Might form a new Kenus. 

i) Racheospila ella. nov sp. — J. .;i mm. H«ail and lacegreeo.a narrow wiiite baiid ai lower edge of face. a broad white band between 
antenniB. Palpus pale green. narrowly whitc beneati., third joint moderatc, crposcd Antennal ihalt white at base, ochreous dislally, pectinations short. 
Thor:ii and abdomen grecn above, the latter narrowly belted with white at the eilremity of the segments. Forewing broad, coita slightly arched, aper 
rather acote, termen striight, tornus proiiounced; bright urecn, costal idge narrowly white; lincs while, the anteraedian Iroin costa at one-fourth to inner 
margin atooe-third, very slightly sinuous, .and slighlly outangled on M, the postmclian from cost.i at two-thirdi to inner mirgin at about threc-fifths, 
somewbatincurved in posienor part, luimUtcdentate. tlie lceth pointmg distad ; ccUspot ralhcr largc, reddiih black ; terminal line white; (ringe pale 
green (somewhat dclectivel. Hindwing similar, the antemcdian line distinct, strongly curvcd ; termcn vcry slightly bulgcd in middle, but witb no appre- 
ciablc elbow. Underiide palcr, unmarkcd. Torn*, Colombia, August, 1007. Type in coll. I.. B. Prout. In many respects similar to viridifimbria, but 
larger, quite differcntly shaped. terininal lii.c «hiler, thc chancteriilic markings of underaid.- waiiting. Thr itructuro is normal. ,SC" of forewing Irce, 
R* separate, Jf separatc. M* of liindwing connate : hindtibial process about onc-third lenglh of tarsus. 



io6 



LEPinoPTERA HETEROCERA 



33. R. eugethes. nov. sp. i). Pmut. 
36. R. cecilia, nov. sp. _>), Prout. 



X. E. Peru. 
E. Peru. 



(f) rhe hilegra-groiip [Miantonoia. Warren). 



l'aiiania to (Juiaiias. 



Mc.\ic( 



Mcxico tii Brazil. 



37. R. pacificaria. .\Josililcf. 

Racbcoipila pacijictiiici. Moschler. \eih. Zool.-hot. (ies. \\ ien. Vol. .^1. 
p. 40.^, t. 17, f. i3(l88i.. 

3S. R. carhina (Druco) (hic poiienda?). 

Geometra carbina. Druce, Biol. Centr. .\mer. Lep. Ht-t. Vol. 2. p. S4. t. 40. 

f. 8 ii89-'j. 
KachtOipHa carliiiia, Warren, Novit. Zoul. Vol. 7. p. i38 iigooj. 

39. h'. integra (Warren). 

Miaiitoiiola iiilegra. W arren, Kovit. Zool. iVol.a.p. 90, nom. nud.i, Vol. 4. 
j). 425 (18971. 

40. R. iletitiliiiea, Warren. 

Racheospila deiililiiifti. W arren. Novit. Zuol. Vol. 4. p. 4^0 11897). 
CEiiospiUi tenuiliiiea. Kaye, Trans. lint. Soc. Lond. ]). 147, t. 6, f. 16 (1901) 

(nov. syn.). 
Miaiitoiiola iinliliiiea, Warreii, Kovit. Zool. Vol. 16. \<. Si (1909). 

41. R. xaliria (Dot,min). 

Geometra .xaliria, liognin. .^nn. Soc. Knt. Belg. Vol. 4J. ]>. 212 (18981. 
Miantonota xalirui, Warren. Novit. Zool. V0I. 14. ]). 206 (19071. 
tiitala (Uognin), 

Geoinelra tutala, Doj^nin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Helg. Vol. 42. p. 2i3 118981. 
iiicof,'nita (Warren) (hic ponenda?). 

I.issochlora incognita, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. i35(i90o) 3). 
remola, Warren, 

Racheospila rcmola, VVarren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 7, p, 139 (1900,. 
Mianlonola remola, Warren, ibideni, Vol. 8, p. 447 (1901 . 
R. viridicincta, Schaus. 

Rncheospila viridicincui, Schaus, Trans. Amer. ICnt. Soc, Vol. 27, p. 252 
I1901). 
R. gortnria, Schaus. S. E. Prazil. 

Racheospila gorloi ia, Schaiis. 1 rans. .Ainer. I-^nt. Soc. Vol. 27, y. 252 iqoi I. 
R. cosmeta, liov. nom., Prout. Me.xico. 

Mianloiiota decorata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 1 1, p. 22 (1904) (nec Racheo- 
spila decoraltt. Warreii. 1901), 



42- 


R 


43. 


R 


44- 


R 



Trinidad to Hrazil anJ 
N. .Argentnia. 



Ecuador, (iiiiaiias, 

Panama, Ecuadoi. 
Loc. ii;iiot. 
(.'osta Rica. 

S. E. Hiazil. 



4(., 
47 



1) Racheospila eugethes. nov sp. - o'. ju mni. Kace grecn, palpus w)iiti<.h ^reen.terminat jomt smull. marketl witli red-brown. ADteun.il 
shiili whitL* baBally, ochreous distally, pectiiiations short. Vertex white, occiput green, a bur of crimson scparatin^ the two coiours. 'rtioraz and part of 
abdomen grcen above. whitish bencath ; second abdominat se^mcnt with a larj-e. pare white dorsal spot. broadly margincd with (-rimson, except poster- 
iorly ; dorsum of fonrtli to sixth abdominals dullcr crimson, enrlosinp a white spot on cach scgment. Korewtng with costa sliRhty arehcd postehorly. apex 
moderate, termen alniosi straiKbt. only veiy sl'Khily curved near apex ; costa orhreous ttn|;ed with cnmson, morc sironKly so ncar base, cxtreme ed(;c 
snow-white throughout ; Uncs whitt*. constsiing of ratlier larnc. isolated vein-dots, antemodiiin from costa at abont one fifth. obl qucoutwards to M. wher<- 
the dot is quite near the basc ol M*. tlicncc less oblique, tlie postmedian only distinct froni K' ,w-here ihc dot st^indsat nearly 3 mni. from termcn),scarcely 
perceptibty curved to M*. ihen stron^jly inbcnt, tlie dots at M-, SM* and SM' standinK at 4 mm. Irom termen ; discal dot reddish black. ratlier large : 
terminal lir.e bright crimson proximally. very n;irrowly whitc distally, the criinson thickcning slightly .it the vein-cnds, so as to cncroach on the white 
Hindwing siniilar excepting the costa. the antemedian line as disttnct as the postmedian; termen gently rounded. Undcrside paler, costa of (orewing 
more (?rimson-tinged. base more broadtv crimson. cell-spols present. less prominent ttian above, crimson terminal liiie more slender, a good deal inter- 
rupted poiteriorly on foiewing, on hindwing only present from apex to K*. Huancabamba. Cerro del Pasco, E. Peru. Type in coll. I-. U. Prout. UifTers 
structurally (rnm /tjuitii. Doynin, with the tyre of which we have comparcd it, in the shorter palpus. Venation as in preceding specics, except that R' is 
connate; hindlej^s lost. 

2) Racheospila cecllla, nov. sp. c,=omm. Head and antcnna qu'te as in precedirg species. palpus marked wilh fuscous on outer 
side as wetl as on terminal joint. tcrmin;*! joint longer. Abdomen doisally green, apparently qaite without ornamentation (discolouredl. Forewing with 
costa straight in proximal hall. sliglify curved in distat, apex rather arute, termen vcry strais'ht, tornus pronounced ; grecn with costal edge nearly as in 
the preceding species. but narrower, vein SC bemg nearcr lo thc costa; lines white. not very tntense. the antemedian from costa at one-fourth to inner 
margin at one thini, slightly sinuous, weakly angled on M and oblique towards inner margin, the postmedian at just ovcr 3 mm. from termen, parallel 
therewith from inner margin to R', very slightly reeeding from it costad. ncarly str.tight, minutely dentuulate on the veins ; discal dot almost enlirely 
wanting. an excessively mi.iute dark reddish dot being perceptiblc ou close scrutiny; terminal line nearly as in the precedlng speciei, but with ihe red 
finer, interrupted by white at the veln-euds; (ringe pale yellow. Hindwing with the antemedian I ne strongly curved, the postmedian ap roximately 
parallel to termt n, except about R^ and M' where it makes a strong curve distad ; discalspot entirely w.mting ; terminat Itne and fnngeas in lorewing; 
termen not appreciably bent in middle. fnderside paler, the crimson of cost-i replaced l.y smoky. whieh is thickenc.l at base and gradually nariows; no 
other markings, excepiint; sonie interruptcd tracesof a dark terminal line ; fringes paler thati above. Cushi. E. Peru. 1^20 m. Typeincoll. L. B. Prout. 
\'enation as in the preceding species. Hindtibia withoul the iisual dilation aiid process. 

3) (Euospiia incogviia on ty|)c Ubel. 



FAM. GHO.MPyrRID.^K 107 

48. R. iiigiisqiiama (L)<)t;niii). ,S_ £ Peru. 

Miiuitoiiota ini;risqiMiiia, 1 lngiiiii, Ann. Soc. Ent. Bel^. Vol. 48,)). 1 10; 1904). 

49. R. lectilinea (Warren). Cuha. 

Miantoiiota rectiliiiea. Warrcn. Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. Vol. .3<i. p. ^20 (iQofi). 

50. R. imitans (Warren). l'e,,i, Colombia. 

Miaiitonotii iinitans. Warreii. Xo\it. Zool. \'ol. 14. p. 206 (1907). 

Mianlonota imitan.<i ab. versij^lai^a, Doi;nin. Mem. Soc. lint. Belg. Vol. iS. 
p. 161 (igii) (ab.). 
5i. A'. sellnta (Wairen). }'eru. 

Miaiitonota sellata. Warren, Xovit. Zool. \'ol. 14, ]). 206 119071. 
52. R. consimilis (Warren). Peru. 

Miaiiloiiota coiisiinilis. Warren, Novit. /ool. Vol. 16. p. ,Si (1909). 
Si. R. fimfatis, Warren. Upper .Amazon. 

Racheospila fontalis. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 86 (1909). 

54. R. haematospila, nov. sp. i), Piout. Biazil. 

e) Tbe erina-gr<n\\K 

55. 7i'. m«,Ml)ugiiin). S. .\merica. 

.^chloia eiina. Dognin. .\nn. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 40, p. 143 I1S96). 
Rhodochlora erina ab. bifunclata. Dognin, ibidem, Vol. 52, p. 17 (1908) (ab.j. 
.1//.;«/()«a/,i (•;•/«,; ab. d«;ii«i;/<7, Warren. Xovit. Zool.Vol. 16, p. 81 (1909 (ab ). 
Geometra apiciata, Schaiis. MS. (in coU E. D. Jones). 

56. R. (iiscipiincta {\W-Arr&n). Holixia. 

Rliodochlora discipuncla. Wnrren. Xo\it. Zool. Vol. 7, p. 140 (U)oo). 

S~ . R. pitncHlinea (Dognin). \'eiiezuela. 

Miaiitonola punctiHnea. Dog 11111, .Aiin. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 46, ]), .137 (igo2 1. 

58. R. parcipimcta (Dognin). Frencb (iuiana, I^razil. 

Blechroma parcil>uncta, Dogiiin. .-^nn. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 52, ]>. 204 (190S). 

59. R. unipunctata, nov. sp. 2), Pidut. S. Rrazil. 

/) riie lonspersa-t^rcMY (Bleclnonui, .MosL-liier). 



60. R. e.veitalit ( Mo.sibler). 

Blechroma e.vcrlala. Moschler. \"erh. Zool.-bol. Ges. Wieii. Vol. 3i. p. 404, 
t. 17, f. II (1S81). 



Siii inam. 



1) Racheospila haematospila. nov. sp. - _-, ,ii mm Face sreen, very narrowly wliite-edKecl l)eIow. P.ilpus panly (.'recii. wliitish 011 
inner slde and beneath. lerminal jomt small. ochreo.s. Vertex wliite, on.ipi.t yreen, a hnght crimsoi line separatinB the two eolo.irs. Antennal sbaft 
»hite basally, oclire.uis distally. pectinalions ochreous, very sbort. 1 horHxand abdomeii green above. tlie latler iiiarked with three large crimson spots. 
Forewing with costa nearlv straight, becominK «ently curved d.stally, apei ratlier pronouiiced, termen straiuht ; briKlit Kreen, w,th the costal edse wh.te 
nearly to apex, separated from the ground-Mlour by a narrow shade. whi,li is reddish at hase but be.omes ochreous : lines whitish. faii.t. the antemed.an 
irom beneath costa before one-fourth, curved and obl.que, the pojimedian Irom beneath costa at two-thirds, parallel w.th termen, lienticulate on tbe 
veins ; d.scal spot rather small, crimson ; terminal line crimson, .nterru,ited by wliite dots at the vein-ends and followed by a white line at base of fnnge, 
the crimson line conlinued round apex and along cojta for about i mm. ; frinire .nterruptedly pink (m.ist stronglv so opposite vein ends) |,roiimally. ycl- 
lowish dislally. Hindw i„g with the same markinns, eiceptinj; the coslal ; postmedian l.iie bent on lO. lell-spot n.ore elongate than in forewing : termen 
gently rounded. not a,,|,reciably elliowed at R». Underside paler gree,,. w,lh c.sla of torewing hglit pinkish ochreous ; d,s.TaI sp..t present on forewing, 
obso ele on hind. I.nes wanting. terminal line and fringe as above. I'r«to. Itrazil. Type in coll. L. li Prout .\ pretty species, readilv recognizable bv the 
cnmson abdominal spots. The hindleg .s dilated with hair-pencil, but ihe terminal process is virtually wanting, there being only the slighlest |>os'sible 
extensionolthetibialshoalh. SC of Ihe forewing .s free, Kiconnale, M' .separate. 

2) Racheospila unlpunctata (Staudinger & Bang llaas, .MS.), nov. sp. — ;, .4 mm. Face ai.d antennal shaft reddish. Verlex- and 
occ.put,;reen. Palpus white on luner sideand beneath, hrst and socond joints fuscous on outside; terminal jiiint very small, white marked with luscoua. 
.Antennal pectinations verysh.irt. 1 horax and abdomen green above, the latter becoming wh.tisli at anus. Pectus, underside of abdomen, and legs wliitc. 
lorefemur with a large l.lack spot at extremily, foret.bia largely fuscous, the hair-tuft wholly so; hindtib.a wilh lerminal process fully one-lbird length .,f 
tarsus F.,rewingbroad,costa;.r(:hed.slrongly soatapcx, a,iex bluntly s^uared. termen very sliKhlly rounded; green, with small, reddish black celt-spot; 
ihc Imes composed ol small vein-dots, mostly paiied, one siiow-white, the other dark grey .,r black.sh, the wnite ones placed ,,rox,mad in th,- anlemedian 
line, dislad m the postmediaii ; the wliite dots are [lanly or wholly obsolete ,11 the coslal half .jf tlic wing, leaving otilv Ihe daik ones distinct : autemedian 
l.nestronglycilrved, post.nedian with the dot on SC^' r.-moved only ; inm. Irom termen, minute, the „ext two progress,vely re.-eding from termen, tbe 
neit iwoalmost m aligument wilh that on R^, the rema.iig Iwo (there ,s noiie on submedian fold) au-ain vetv slightly rec.ding : lermmi.l line verv laiutly 
palerlh.n wing, fringe concolorous, wilh a dark reddish mark at endolSCi, Hin,lw.ng w.th .nncr l.largin less long Ihan ,n ihe allies, cellspot minute, 
almost obsolete, lines with ihe white dots not obsoletecostally, postmedian formed nearlyas in forewing, b..t with the d.,t on K-'more dehnitely proximad, 
sugsest.ngamarked incurve of tlie line .listally to the cell. Underside paler green, lines absent, discal dot present on forewing only, reddish mark on 
fringe at end of SC< as above. RioCrande do Sul (pr.,bably Porto Alegrc), received througb the firm of Staudingcr & liang-Haas. Typeincoll. 
L. U. Prout. Perbaps nearest to discipuncta. the iy|,e of which is extremely wasled, but apparentlv has even less inark.ngs tban ihe new «,>.-c.e8. 
SC is free, R' about connale, M> just separate, tlie «lalk.nB <>f W .,1 hindwing raiher short. 



io8 LEPIDOPTERA IIETEROCERA 

6i. li. aliiiia (Driue). Mexico to Panama. 

Gsomelrn aturiii. Druoe. Hiol. C'en1r. Amer. Le)>. Het. Vol. 2. ]>. 84. t. 49, 

f. 9 (1892). 
Rticlieos/iila albociliana. Druce. ibiilem, !>. Sg (18021 Inec llerrich-Schaflfer) 

(nov. syn.l. 

62. R. punliUada. I)(i.i;nin. Itcuador. Pcrii. 

Hachtost-ila l-uiilillada. Dognin, .-^nn -Soc. Ent. Hely. Vol. 3", p. 81 (i.Sg.^i. 
Bhchroma ni.^ricincla. Warren. .Novit.ZooI. Vol. 1 1. p. 5o3 1 19041 nov.syn.l. 

63. R. heiia. Dognin (liic poncnda ?). Eciiador. 

iuiiiiiospila Ihii.i. noi;nin. .\iin. Snc. I'.nt. Hel;^. \'i>I. a.^. p. J17 (iSuS). 

64. R. con/lua (Waireii). Peru. 

BhcliroDia coiiliu.i , \\ arren. N(i\it, /ool. \'oI. 11. p. 5oj ikj.i^i, 

65. R. coiis/iersa (Warren). Pem. Holivia. 

lUecliroma ciniit-irsa. Warren. .\ovit. Xool. Vol. 11, )> 5o2 (1904/. 

66. R. torsilinea (\\'arien) (iiic ponenda ?). . Paragua\ . 

Mixoctra lorsiliiica, Warrcn, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 12, )>, 44 iigoS), 

67. R. oppleta (Warren). Peru. 

Blcclironia opf^lda, Wairen. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, )>, 201 (1007/, 

fiS, R. magnidiscata, nov. sp. 1), l'i(iut, Guatemala, Costa Rica, 

lia.luosiita aUivciUaria ipart.). Driice, Hiol. <'(nir. .Aiiier. I.cp. Het.VoI. 2, 
11. 8y (1892) inec Herrich-SchiilTer . 

g) Tiie /?(>/■//>) (i-Ljroup. 

bg. /i'. />H»i7;sc;/Vi/(7 ( Dognin). folomliia. 

/iltcliroiiia piiiiclistriala, Dognin. Hct. Xoiiv. .\nicr .Su.i i . p. 1« 11910). 

70. R. llorifera (Piout) (pnec. ab. ?). Ccilomhia, 

lilechroma /loriftra. rrout, Anii, .Ma^, Xat. Hist. iK), V0I.6, p. 232 (1910 . 

71. /1'. nifipida (Pront). — Pl, 3, Fig. 7. Peru. 

liUthroma iiifiticla. 1'roiit, .-\nii, Ma^. Nat. Hist, 81, Vol. 6, ]), 233 (1910). 

/; ) '!"lu- veiiiliiuala\.^\u\\y. 

72. /1!. venilineala ( Waiien). Peru, 

Lissochlura veiiiliiieala, Warren, Xovit. /ool. Vol. 14, p. 2o5 11907). 

/) Tlie /(l/"/ii'rt)/rt-gi(iui>. 

73. R. lafayaria (Dogniii). Ecuador. 

Comibaeiia lafayaiia. Doynin, I.e Xaliiraliste, Vol. 14, p 206 (1892). 

Racheospila lafayaria, Prout, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (8), Vol. 6, p. 238 (1910). 
■j.\.. R. fsillacina, Prout (pr;pc. var. ?). — Pl. 3, Fig, 6. Pcni, Riazil. 

Rachtosf-ila psillaciiia, 1'rout. .Ann. Maj;. Xal. I list. (8). Vol. 6. )). 2.37 1 1910 . 
7.S. R. luteifimbria, Dognin. C'(iloinbia. 

Riicheosfiila hittifinibria, Duf;iiin, .\nn, Soc, lint, liclj;, Vol. 45,]), 3oo(igoi 1, 

76, /i', seniiornata, Warrcn, Panania, Colombia. 

Racheospila simioriiata. Warrcn. Xovit, Zool. Vol, .s, p, 450(19011. 

77, R. promontoria, Warren. Poru. 

Rachiospila promoiiloria. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 11. ]). 26 11904 . 

78, R. syncrasis, nov. nom., Prmit. Peru, 

Racheospila coiifliia. W.urcii, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 11. )i. Subi 1904) (nec p. 5o2i. 

11 Racheospila magnidiscata. nov. sp. — o'. -S mm. Face, palpus aboveand antennal shaft rcddisli browii. VtTtcx dirty whitf, witt 
a dull reddtsh band beliind. ( Thorai aiul abdomen discolonred.) Hindlibia strongly dilated, terroina! process short, Win^s shapedand co'o(ired a« in 
aturia, Druce, the markings larger and slronKcr, «lark inirpltsh fuscoiis: tlicsc consist on forewing of : the entire costal edge; a large round blotcb 
eiiclosing the black cell-mark ; irregubir liinular niarkings aroniid tbis ; a postiiiedian line consisting of a large thick costal lunule at beyond tivo-third». 
(reachiiig to R'), smaller lunules on eitlie: side ot R* and ratlicr neat er termen, thickened proximally, a few dark scales between K^ and MS agaio nearer 
termen, a slender Itlnule between M' and M-, and a strongly zigzag line (constderably proximad) Ironi M« to inner margin ; a subtermilial series of vetn 
spots, commencing from two large, confluent ones at costa .1 mm. Irom ape.K, and ceasingatM-; a terminal series of vt in-dots. Hindwing witb Bimitar 
antemedian, postmedian, subterminal and terminal series, tlie discal mark small. Undeiside of forewing whilisb green, the costal half more green. 
markings of upperside weakly reproduced : of liindwing whitish grcen. tinmarked, only the terminal dots weakly indicated. \'olcan dc Atitlan 
25oo35oo feet(G.C. Champion). ei coll. (iodman !i Salvin. Tyiie in coll. Urif. Miis. CostaRica. in coll. Schaus. nislinct frcm ii/,i» iVi iii the fuscouscosta 
and teriiiinal dots. 



FAM. C.EOMKTKID.E 109 

yg. R. falliix. \\'i{[iv[\. Peiii. 

Uaclifospilii /tilLrv. Warreii, No\ it. Zool. Vol. 14. (i. 20S 11907). 

80. R. hninneilinea, Warren. l^erii. 

Raclieospila semiomala ab. hnunicthiic.i. Wanen. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 209 
119071. 

81. R. e.xcelsa, Dogiiin. Colombi;i. 

RacluospUa excclsa. Doniiiii. llet. Xouv. .Amer. Siul. 1 1). p. 10 (1910). 

SiiCTiox II. — Hinchvini; w ith C appressed or closely appro.ximated, usuall)- an:istomosing 
at a point or \-er\ shoi-tl\' (almost lorming a transition to Sxiiclilnrd), M' short-stalked 
(connate in depLudcus \\m\ tiiiiiejacta, and possibly in one or two others), abdomen with 
embossed white spots oi- rudimentary crests, antenna in cf A\ith long pectinations, 
in 9 not pectinate. 

^2. R. gerulaiia [iii\h\\v\). Snutlieni IJnitecl Statcs and 

Phalaena Geomctra oceliata, Stoll, Suppl. Pap. Exot. Cramer, p. i.t6, 1X4 \\ lnclics to Brazil. 

[in err. 384 1, t. .^4, f. 9 (1790) inec Linne). 
Comibaena geiiihiria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 284 1 1S26?,. 
Plialaeiia ocellala, Verloren, Cat. Ins, Lep. Crameri, p. 269 (1837 1. 
Rliorodesma stollaria, Giienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 370 (i858). 
Coiiiihaena ocelhila, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 22, p.570 (1861). 
Racheospila marginiplaga, Walker, ibidem, p. 583 (1861). 
Geometra stollaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Corr.-Blatt. Zool.-min. Ver. Keyensli. 

Vol. 24, p. 1X2 (1870). 
WiiiV«Oiy);7(!»-«/ido;i(i»-/.(,Snellen,Tijdschr,v.Hnt.Vol. 17.^.41, t. 3,f. 4 (1S74). 
Racheospilajiicunda.VeMeT. Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 18 (1.S75). 
Phorodesma ocellata, Moschler, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. Vol. 3i. p. 402 

(1881). 
Racheospila xysteraria. Hulst, lint. .-Vnier. Vol. 1. p. 121 (1SS6). 
Gcomctra ocellata, Mijschler,.\bhanJl. .Senckenb. Nat. Ges. Vol. 16,^.244! 1890). 
Synchlora xystciana, Dyar. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 52, p. 3oi (1902). 
Racheospila pulchclla. Warren, MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus.i. 
8.1 R. sitellaria. (iuenee. VV. Indies, idotida. 

RacheospUa sitellaiia. Guenee, Spec. (.en. Lep. Vol. y, p. 374 1 is5Si. 
Geometra congniala. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit.Mus. V0I.22, p. 5i 1 1 1S61 1. 
lodis indeclararia, Walker, ibidem, \k 541 (i86ii. 
? Gcomelra croceofimhriala, Herrich-Schaffer, Corr,-HhUt. Zool.-min. Ver. 

Re,t;ensb. Vol. 24, p. 182 11S701. 
? Geoiiietra attendaria, Moschler. Al.)hanJI. Scuickenb. N'at. Ges. Vol. 16. p. 243 

(1S90) (nov. syn.). 
Synchlora loiiisa var. (.') hulstiana, Dyar, l'roc. Knt. .Soc. Wash. Vol. 4. 

p. 457 (1901). 
Synchlora hidstiana. Dyar. liull. U. S. Xat. Mus. Xo 52, p. 3oo (1902). 

84. R. sigillaiia. (nienee. Mexico and VV. Indies to 

Rachcospila sigillaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 3^5 (i858). ,S. Brazil. 

Racheuspila lenuimari^o. Warren, Novit.Zool. Vol. 12, ji. 3i9 (1905). 

85. R. epliippiaria (.Vloschler) (pra^^c. var. ?). Januiica. 

Camhogia ephippiaria, Moschler, Abhandl, Senckenb. Nat. Ges. Vol. 14 (3). 
p. 68 (1S861. 
8b. R. expulsata (Waiker). Brazil to ImcucIi (iuiana. 

Jiucrostis e.ipulsata.W-Aker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. V0I.22, p. 566 (iS6i). 
Rachcospila sigillaria ab. (?; i«/^/«i7,Warren, X'ovit. Zool.Vol. 7, p. 139 (1900). 

87. R. leiicoceraiia, Snellen. Colomhia. 

Rachcospihi leiicnceraria. Snellen. 'lijjschr. v. I",nt. Vol. 17, p. 41, t. 3. 
f. 3 (1S74). 

88. R. ciipedinaiia, (jrote. Florida, Haluim,-is. 

Rachcospihi cupcdinaria. Grote, The Caiiad. Hntom, Vol. 12, p. 218 (iSSo). 
Svnchlora louisa, Ilulst, ibidem, Vol. 3o, ]). i5g (1898). 

Geometra cupedinaria. Hani|)son..\nn.Mag Xal.Hist.;7),Vol.i4, 11.178(1904). 
Syiichlora cnpidenaria, Dyar, Proc. Hnt. Soc. Wash. Vol. 10, p. 34 (igo.Si. 



iio LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEKA 

89. Ji. nliapes, Driice. Paiiaina. 

RachtospiUi iiliapes. IJruie. Biol. Centr. .\mer. Lep. Het. \o!. 2. i'. 91. 
t. 5o. f. 6 (18921. 
go. R. nifiliuiala {Wnm-n). Triniii;i(l to l^aiaguay, 

Aplodes riifiliiieala. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4. j). 423 (1897,1. ? Mfxico. 

Racheospila undiilosa. Kaye. Trans. Ivnt. Soc. Lond. p. 148. t. 6. f. 2.^ (igoK 
inov. syn.i. 

91. R. pomposa. Dognin. Mexic" to Peru. 

Geomelra iiicliisaria (part.), Druce, Biul. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, 

p. .S4 (18921 (nec Walkeri. 
Racheos/<ila pomposa. Dognin, .-^nn. .Soi-. lint. Helg. \'oI. 42. p. 217 (1S981. 

92. R. isolata, \\';irren. Grenada and St. \'incent, 

Eiicloris ocellala (part.l. Hampson. .Ann. .\Iag. Xat. Hist. (6), Vol. ifi. •■ Peru. 

p. 3.S2 (18931 inec Stoll). 
Racheospila isolala. Warren, Novit. Zonl. \oL 7, p. i3S (1900 . 

93. R. aslraeoicies, Warren. Panaina to Peru. 

Racheospila aslraeoides. \V;irren. Novit. Zool. \'oI. .s, p. 44.S 1 1901 . 

94. R. bideiiii/era. Warren. Coloinbia. 

Racheiispila liidciilifera. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. .s. p. 449 (190I). 

95. R. liecorata, Warren. Mexico lo Peru. 

Racheospila jucuiida (?;, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. I.ep. Het. Vol. 2, p. 535 

(18021 (nec Felder). 
Racheospila decorala. W^arren, Novit. ZooL Vol. JS. j). 440 (igoi 1. 

96. R. dependeiis. Wairen. Peru. 

Rachtospila depeiideiis. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 2.^ (1904. 

97. R. megastigma. Warren, Costa Ric;i, 

Racheospila megastigma. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, ]). 45 11905. 

98. R. pnhlirifiiiihria, Warren (sigillaria form. ?). Surinain. 

R.icheiispila piilchrifimhria. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p, 209 (19071. 

99. A'. veiiiistiila. Do.s;nin. Ecuador. 

Racheospila veiiuslula. Dognin. Het. Noiiv. .Ainer. Sud 1 11, y. 19 1 1910 . 
100. R. tiimefacta, Prout, Colombia, 

Riicheospila liimefacla. Prout, Ann. MaR. Nat. llist. is . Vol. 6, p. 236 (19101, 
loi. R. lesteraria {(jro&shecV). Arizona. 

Svnchlora Usttraria. Grossbeck, Journ. New York Ent. Soc. Vol. 18, p. 2o3 

' lOIOi. 

102. R. bonhotei, nov. sp. i ). Prout. Bali;imas. 

Geoinelra coii.i^ruala, Haiiipson. Ann. Mafj. Nat. Hist. 171, Vol. 14, p. 178 
( 1 904 ) ( nec Wal kcr 1 . 

Seciion III. — Antenna in 9 l>ipe<tinate. 

io3. R. a.^itraet!. Druce. Mexico to Colombia. 

Racheospila astraea, Dnue, Kiol. Centr. .Ainer. Lep. Het. Vol, 2, p. 90, 535, 
t. 5o, f. 5 (1892 . 

71. Genus NEMORIA, Hubner 

Nemoria. HiibiKjr (ZiUr. b^xot. SchnieU. \'(>1. i, p. 25, indescr.), \ orz. bek. SchnieU. p. 2i>5 (1826?) 2). 
Aplodes. (iueneo, S])ec. (ien. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 3yh (i858). 



1) Racheospila bonhotei. nov. sp. — c>, i5-i; mtn. Like sig;iii iria, Guen^e, but smaller, and entir«ly different in the ornamer- 
tation of the abdomen. I lie abdomen is j^reeii liorsally, with a narrow, bright crimson mediodorsal band, which encloses merely three very small 
(sometimes absolutely minute) white spots on segmentB 2-4. Discal dots minute, less red tiian in sig^iHaria. Fringe rather variabte, usually mostly reil 
enclosing onlv restricted white dasbea opposite the veins. Face crimson, with two small or larger green spots above middte, and narrowly wbite below. 
Hindvvin^ with C anastomosine at a point near basc, dtvergence at first gradual. Bahamas (Andros and Nassau). 5 (f in coll. Brit. Uus., all preteoted by 
J. L. Bonhote. 

2) It is veiy unfortunate that a chant;e in the u8a>;e of this welt-known name, and a corresponding loss of another well-known iiame(/l//(^tiV«) 
are necessitated by the Rules of Nomenclature. 'Ihe firsr author to select a type for Xemoria was Mo.jre [l-^p. Ceyi . \'ol. 3, p. 43i. 1887), who chooses 
bistrinrin, the spefies in connection with which the name Xemtyria wa*i first published iZutr . Fxot. Schmttt.'). 



l'AM. (iKCniK IKlD/li: ) II 

Hipparchiscus. Walsli, Proc. l-!ost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. o, p. 300(1864). 
Anaplodes. Packard, Mon. (ieom. U. S. A. p. 3o2 (US76). 

Characters. — Face smooth. 1'alpus lather short to inoderate. second joint somewiiat loiigh- 
scaled beneath. third joint short or latlicr so iii cf, shoi t to moderate in 9- l"ongue present. .Aiitenna 
in cf bipectinate, apex nearly siniple, in 9 nearly simple. Pectus somevvhat hairy. Hindtibia in cf 
more or less dilated, vvith hair-pencil i), usually also vvith a terminal process. in both sexes vvith all 
spurs. Abdomcn not crested. Frenulum arising from belore a slight basal dilatation, but present in both 
sexes (in (^ sleiulei, nol lon,i;). l'"orevvins;' witli costa more or less arched, apex iiiodeiale. termen cntire, 
oblKiuc. uearly siiaight to slightlv curved. cell somew'hat less than one-half, DC-* incurved (often 
stronglv). SC anaslomosing with C, or free, SC^ normal, R^ about connate, M' separate; hindwing 
with apex moderatch- rouniled. ternien rounded, sometimes slightly ventricose in middle, but never with 
appreciable ant;le or clbovv at U^, cell shmt, DC^ oblique, C approximated to coll to rathci lcss than 
onc-haU', rather rapidlv divciging, SC- stalked. sonictinies connate 01 separate. 

liGG. — EUiptical, flat above and belovv, one ciul a little depressed. no truncation. The hexagoiial 
reticulation slight. Colour shinmg cnhiaceous. changing to reddish. Dur.ition nine days (Dvai. Psychf . 
Vol. 11, p. 121, 011 darKnniata]. 

L.^KV.v. — llcad louiuled bilobed, granular. B(k1v Battened, winged vvilh lateral projections, 
surface spitulai. lubeicles and sette sinall. obsolete in latest stadia. the seta; with sv\i>l!en tips, 
II especiallv tlattened fan-shaped and cleft at tip. Does not bear anj' attached objects (Dj^ar, loc. cit., 
a full description of the five stadia of rf(7;r.7«/Vi/<i). Feeds on trees, etc. Otheis of the larva^ aic known. 
That of the type species is (igured bv Packaid. t. i3, t. :;8. 

PiU'A. — .ApparciUlv not fully dcscribed. That of minwsaiia rathei slender, light browii, imu h 
dotted with fuscous. anal siuiu' short, moderatclv stout. with eight unequal curved slender spinulcs 
(Walsh, Proc. Bos/. .SV. Na/. His/. Vol. 9, p. 3oi; Packard, .-Imer. Nal. \'ol. iS. p. 934). 

As above mentioned, this gciuis is doubtfully differcntiable from certain forms in the preceding, 
although the exticmes (as pistaciaria), vvith quite sinall third joint of palpus iii both sexes, are very 
distinct from normal Raclicospila. Packard distinguishes AModcs (i. e. typical Neiiioria) b}- its narrovv face, 
but makes the face less naiiovv in Anaplodcs (wiiich \\c do not consider lenable generically) ; we have 
foiuul too mucii vaiiation in width in both genera to be ablc to makc anv' use at .-ill of this distinction. 

Type of the genus : Ncinoria bistriaria, IliiliiuM (Moore sel.. 1887). 

Geographical distribution of species. — North aiul Ccnlial .\merica. 

1. A^ bis/riaria, Hiibner. Eastein V. S. A. 

Ntmoria bistriana, Hul)iu>r. Zutr. Exot. Sihmett. Vol. i. )). 25. f. i.lg, 140 

(1819?) 
Aiiisodes bifiUUa, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i585 (1862). 
Aplodes bruniitaria, Packard, Mon. Geom. U. S. A. p. 388, t. 10, p. 88 

(1S76). 
.4f<lodes bistriaria. Hiilst, 'lians. Aiiicr. Ent. Soc, Vol. 23, ]>. 3i5 (1896). 
Syiiclilora mimosaria vAr. briiiiiiearia. Gumppenberg, Nova ,\cta .Vcacl. Leop. 

d. Naturf. Halle, Vol. &.(, p. 498 (iSgS). 

2. A'. mimosaria ((iuenee). Canada, Eastern U. S. .\. 

Afloies mimosaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. L(ip. Vol. 9, p. 377 (i858). to Florida. 

fodis Iraclaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Biit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. S40 (1861). 
Hif^farcliisciis vtiiiislus. Walsh, Proc. Host. .Soc. Nal. Hist. Vol. 11. p. 3oi 
(1864). 



t) Bjtli P.u-kard iiml (lulnt sepurate Amipltuies (fiis/acutriti) l>y the absence of ililatioit with hatr-peni-il, but it is oerlainly preseiil, thouiih m>t 
very &tron|;. 



1,2 T.I"PTD0P'I1-:R,\ TTETP^ROri^.RA 

Aflodtf iif^f^roxinnin,!, Packard. Rep. PeaV). Acad. Sc. Vol. 5. p. 73 '1873). 
Aplodes latiaria , Packard. ibidem, p. 74 (18731. 
Aj^lodts conifeiai ia. Packard, Amer. Nat. Vol. 18, 11. 933 (1884). 
Sviuhlora mimosnria. laliaria et approxiniaria, Gump]>enberj4, Nova .Acta 
Ac.ad. Leop. d. Naturf. Halle. Vol. 64, p. 497, 49S (1895I. 

3. A'. pistaaariai F-Ackiird). California. 

Anaplodes pistaciaria, Packard, Moii Geom. U. -S. A. p. 392.1. i3, f. 581IS76). 
AnapUnhs pistiictaria, UuU\, Ent. Amer. Vol. 2, p. 121 1 1886) ; Trans. Amer. 

Knt. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i6 (1896). 
Eiicliraslfs chloroltucaria var. unistrii;ala. Gumppenlierg, Xova Acta Acad. 

Leo]). d. Naturf. Halle. Vol. 64. ]i. 489 (18951. 

4. .V. viriciii:aria{H\\\si) (huj. gen.?) Coloiado, ?.\iizona. 

Aplodes viridicaria, Hulst, Bull. Bro<iklyn lir.t. Soc. Vol. 3, p. 41 (i88oi. 
? Chlorosea allmria, Grote, 'l"he Canad. Kntom. Vol. i5. p. 126 (i883i. 
Anaplodcs viridicaria. Dyar, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. p. 52, l). 3i6 (1902). 

5. -V. jiiiictolinearia ((iraet). Wesleni V' . S. A. 

Aplodes juncloli)iearia,GtaLe(, Buli. Brooklyn ICnt. Soc. Vol.3. p.S^ 11880); 

Vol. 4, (. 7 (1881). 
AnaplodesjunctoUnearia. Huist. 'Irans. Amer. i:nt. Soc. Vol. 23.p.3i6( i8g6) 

0. A'. arizonaria (Giote). Arizona. 

Aplodes arizonaria, Grote, The Canad. Entom. Vol. i5, p. I25 (i8S3). 
Anaplodts arizonaria, Dyar, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 52, p. 3o2 (1902*. 

7. N. feslaria {Hu]st) (bon. sp., teste Poarsall, Science Bull. Brooklyn Inst. .-Xiizona. 

Mus. Vol. I (8), p. 4.) 

Anaplodcs feslaria, Hulst, Enl. Amer. Vol. 2, p 121 (1886). 

Anaplodes arizonaria 'part.), Dyar.BuU. U.S. Nat. Mus.no.52.p.3o2 (19021. 

8. A'^. zygotaria ( 1 1 iilst). 'iV>xas. 

.4plodes zygotaiia, lluist, Ivnt. .■Vmer Vol. 2, p. 121 (1886). 

Aiiaplodes zygotaria, Hulst. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. »3, p. 3i6 I1896J. 

9. A^ miistela (IJruce). Mexico. 

Raclicospila iimslela. Uruce, Hiol. C.entr. .\mer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, )>. 90, 
t. 5o, (. 3 (1892). 

10. A^. cafy's (Druce) (huj. gon. ?) Mexico. 

li.icheospila capys. Druce, Biol. Cenlr. .\mer. I.ep. Het. Vul. 2, p. i)0, t. 5o, 
f. 4 11S02;. 

11. .V. iMiqiia (,llulst). Colorado. 

.Iplodts obliqua, Hulst, The Canad. Entom. Vol. .3o, p. i6i (iSgSI. 
Geomelra beUonaria, Strecker. Lep. Khop. Het., Suppl. 2, p. 8 (1899). 
Anaplodes obliqua, Dyar, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 52, p. 3o2 (1902). 

12. A'. cat>ysoides (Schaus) (huj gen.?). Mexico. 

Racheospila capysoides. Schaus. Trans. .\nier. lint. Soc. Vol. 27, p. 25i 1 1901 ). 

i3. N. ii,ua'iniata (Dyar). British Columbia. 

Aplodes rubrifoularia var. darwiiiiala, Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 37, 

p. 9o3 (1904). 
Aplodes darwinata, Dyar, Psyche, Vol. 11, p. 121 (1904). 
.iplodcs danviniala. Taylor, The Canad. Entom. Vol. 411. p. 100 (190S). 

14. A^. Iiiiilsonniiti Craylor). .Mberta. 

.■Iplodes liiidsonaria. Taylor. Tlie (,'anad. Entom. \'ol. .^8. p. 206 (1906). 
i5. .V. latirosaria (Pearsall). Utah. 

.Aplodes latirosaria, Pearsall. Science Bull. Hrooklyn Inst, Mus. Vol. i (8), 
p. 4, 12 (1906). 
ib. N. uuilinearia (Taylor). British Columbia. 

.4plodes unilinearia. Taylor, The Canad. Hiitom. Vol. 40. p. 60 (1908). 

17. .V. delicataria (Dyar). Califovnia. 

.■inaplodes delicalaria. Dyar, Proc. lint. Soc. Wash. Vol. io. p. 57 ',1908). 

18. N. splendidaria ((irossheck). .-^rizona. 

.-Iplodes splendidaria, Grossbeck. Journ. New York Ent. .Soc. Vol. 18, 
p. 204 11910). 



I'AM. (,E(.)METRID/1'; ii3 

19. A^. strigataria (Giossheck). Anzoiia. 

Aplodef strigataiia. Grossheck, jouni. Xew Vurk lCnt. Soc. Vol. iS, 
p. 204 (igio). 

20. A'. iutenmria {Vea.\sA\\). Itah. 

Aphdes iiiteiiSiiriti, Pearsall. Ilie Canad. lCntom. Vol. ^3, p. 25i 1 lon i. 

21. N. mutaticolor, nov. sp. i), Prout. Mexico. 

Aiiaplodes piilaciaria, Dnice. Biol. Centr. .\mer. I.e)). Het. Vol. 2, p. 89, 
t. 49, f. 20 (1892) (nec 1'ackard!. 

22. N. cserulescens, nov. sp, 2). Hrout. New Mexico. 



72. Genus DRYADOPSIS, Warren 

Dryadopsis. Waneii, Nnvit. Zool. Vol. 4, [>. 424 (18971. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Falpus vvith second joiiit I0114,', lough-scaled above and beneath, 
thiid joint in r? small, concealed, Tongue present. Antenna in cJ* serrate or subseriate, with fascicles 
of ciha (Fig. II 1. Pectus haiiy. ilindtibia in cf httle dilated, without 
terminal process, all spurs developed. Abdomen not crested. PVenulum F"- n 

in cf (and probabh" in $) from before sHght costal expansion. Forewing 
with costa aiched, apex squared, termen roiinded, oblique, cell almost 
one-half, DC curved, SC free, SC^ normal, R' separate, M' separate; 

Section of antenna 

liindwing with tennen rounded, sometimes with an elbow or verj' shght ai Drya</opsis fi,iveraria.Si<.\,2.us.<i. 
tooth at R^, tornus pronounced, innei margin moderately long, cell short 

(aliout tvvo-fifths), ! )C'^ obliciue posteriorly, C approximated to cell for some distance, then rather rapidly 
diverging, SC- stalked, M' ronnatt- nv just separate, 

Early stages unknown. 

Scarcely more than a subgenus oi Ractieosfiila (with tlie facies of llu- Ble(t!roma-sect.'H>n), diftering 
in the simply serrate (^ antenna. 

Type of the genus : Dryadopsis morbilliata (F"eldei ) = Racheuspila morlnlliata, helder (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Neotropical. 

1. D. morl>illiata {l'e\dey). Brazil. 

Ractieospila morhilliata, i^elder. Reise Novara, Lep. Het. I. 127, f, i6 iiSyS). 
Xemoria morliilliata. Warren, Novit. Zool, Vol. 4, p. 425 > 1897K 
Drvadopsis morbilliata. Warren, ibidem, p. 425^1897!. 

2. D. ptdveraria (Schaus). Bolivia, British and French 

Rarheospila pulvcraria . .Schaus, Trans. .Amer. Ent. ,So( Vol. 27, l>. 25iiiqoii. Guiana, 




i) Nemoria mutaticolor. nov. sp. — c?.32mm. Wing-shape, stnculation and faint postmedian tine as in//s/afiflrii», Packard, but 
differing in the stronRJv blue-green colour, absence of dlscal spotsand of red costa beneath. Sierra Madre, Tepir, Mfxico (Ricliardson). Type in coll. 
Brit. Mus., ex coll. Godm»n-Salvin. Head and legs are damajjed, but thespecies will be readily recrgnizable. In Ihe foresving vein SC is free : in all 
ihei fiistacutria to whicli we have access it anastomnses witli C, but of course ihis may vary in either orboth species. 

2) Nemoria caerules^iens, nov. sp. — (J.iixam. Face reddish. Palpuspale ndireou». Antennalshaft whitish oi-hreous, piire white 
bjsalty: pectinationsshort (not quitetwice diimeter of shafi). Vertex white, occiput i:re«n. Thorax andabdomen Kreen; somewhat Tiii-re mixed with white 
be leath. I.egs pale ochreous, coxa; bright green antenorly, white posterior'y : hindtibial proces-! short. Wmgsr^ither n;)rr. wer than in mimosaria, costa 
of forcwint^ and termen of hi^^dwing less round-d, F irpwiiig bnghi bluish green. wiih costal edyenarrow y wliite, and wiih two broad.clear wliite trans- 
verse line», :it about one-third and twothirds, the antemedian very sliKhtly and regularly curvrd. the pi.strapdian very s'ightly (lutciirved antenorly, very 
sliKhtly incurved between R^» and SM*; fringe while. Hindwing 3'iglltly paler, espe -lally at base, costally wliitish : anteme.tian line strongly cur^ed. 
postmedian ralher broader and m.-re diffuse than on f.rewing, nearly straight, nariowing and sliglitly curved distad at inner iiiargin. Underside 8'ighlly 
paler green, the lines distinct. especially the antemedian. La Cueva, at about 53oo feet, Organ Mountains, New Meiiio. 3i«t Aug. (coll. Townsend). lype 
in coll Hrit. Mu8. Forewing with SC free, R* short-stalke.l : hindwingwith M' coniiate. 



114 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



73. Genus SYNCHLORA, Guenee 

Synchlora. (juenee, Spec. (ieii. Lep. \ol. g. p. 37.1 (iS58); Hulst, Tians. .-\mer. Ent. Soc. Vol, 23, 

p. 314 (l8g6). 
Eunemoria. r'ackard. Kep. PphI). .\cad. Sc. \'ol. 5, p. 76 (1873) i). 

Characters. — Face smf)oth. Pal]>us uith second joint rather long, especially in 9. slighih- 
niugh-scaled beneath, third joint in cf short, in 9 '"'ig or very long, smooth-scaled. '{"cngue present. 
.\ntenna in cf bipectinate vvith ratlier long branches, apical one-third (or more) nearly simple; in 9 
minutely subserrate. Pectus hairy. Femora very slightly hairx" Hindlibia in (j' dilated with hair-pencil 
and rather long terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs. .\bdomen not crested. Frenulum in both 
sexes present, Ironi before well-marked basal iwpansion. F^orewing with costa nearl}' straight, or verj'' 
sliglitly arched, aj^ex pronounced, termen stiaight, or very slighth" curved, oblique, cell nearly one- 
lialf. DC more or less curved, SC' free ni anastomosing with C. SC^ normal, R' about connate, 
M' separate; hindvving with termen smooth, inore or less rounded, tornus pronounced, cell rather 
sliort, C anastomosing to nearly (sometimes fully) one-half cell, SC^ long-st»lked, M' connate, 
approximatetl <ir shortly stalked. cf .genitalia with uncus bifid, w idely divided, gnathos strong and 
pointed, harpe simplo, peuis prstillate. with two thorns, one at each side of origin of ccdceagus; 
coremata piesent. 

Egc. — l'".llii)tical, stiongly flallened 011 two sides, the flat faces concave ; side view slighlly 
vvedge-shaped, the broader end truncate roundly ; surface all finel}' hexagonally reticulate ; pale, 
slightly greenish vellow, shiiiing, turning j^alc icd laler ( Dyar. Psycke, \'ol. 9, p. g3, 011 anata ^ glaii- 
caria). 

L.\RV.-\. — Head rounded, biiobed (scarcely so in fourth stadium). shagreencd or granulated; 
body (at least in the later stadia) short and thick, surface strongly granulated, vvithout protuberances, 
but with the tiibercles angularlv elevated; seta- mostly small. in first stage vvith flattened enlarged tips; 
in first stage seta 1 1 1 of sccnnd abdominal aiid l\' of thinl — sixth is highly specialized, long and sticky, 
wilh bulbous lip; in latei sladia the lubercle itself is enlarged, radiatel}' spinose, sticky, in the fourth 
slage tubercle II of the ninth abdominal is similailv specialized. To the stickv' seta; or tubercles the 
larva attaches fragments of the floweis oii whicli ii lecds (asters), therebv concealing itself (Dyar, 
loc. cit., 011 aera/a, Ihc four stadia fully desciibed). Synchlora dentictilaria has similar liabits, using frag- 
ments of ihe leavcs of its foodplants (Solidago. etc); see Dyai, Eiit. Ne'u's. \'ol. .t. ji. 52. 

PuPA. — Pale brown, with bUu:kisli dorsal line, and more or less dark-marked throughoiit 

(Dyar, Enl. .Vc?t«, \^ol. ,t. p. 02, on denlici(laria). 

A coinpact genus, distinguished from Section II o( Rac/ieospila by the stronger and more fixed 
anastomosis of C of the hindwing and by the loss of the vestigial crests; also superficiall}' by the 
absence of the red marginal coloration which seems constant in that group. VVe suspect that hsteraria, 
Grossbeck, with which we are unacqiiaintt-cl, will prove to be a Raclieospila. Hulst having incorporatcd 
Section II of llic lasl-named into Svnclilora. The larval habit suggests a closc relationship wilh 

I) PiiLkaiil durin^ the siime yejr publi^hed tvvo jndepcniieut iiuieed in souie respects coitflicttng — diagiioses of /•iiiiemcria. The fiist 
publication, in tlie Keport cited above, was in July. accordiiiK to tlie printed date in PacVard's own separatum, kindly supplied to us by Mr. J. .-V. Gross- 
beck ; this was (or the soie species (therefi>re type) graci/arui. Paclcard, a synonym of aeratit, Fabricius. Thc laier EnHemoria, Proc. Bost, .Soc. jVat. 
Hist. Vol. 16, p. .io (Novcmber or — according to Packard"s separate — December), erected with the species nfittaria and tricvloraria (liquoraria, 
LfUen^e) has therefore no possible standuig. Packard himself realized this in preparing his ■ Monograplv», where he siates fp. .^8o) that Euttemoria was 
purely a synonvm of Synchlora (^, and creales (p. SyS) a new tieniis Aiinemoria for iitiitaria. 



FAM. (iEOMETKID^: 



Comihaena; the genitalia, on the other hand, :ire more suggestive of Hipparchus, and scem quile 
unconnected vvith those of the Comibaena-g\-n\\\K 

Type of the genus : Svncliluia liqnoiai ia. (iueiiee (i8g6). 



Geographical distribution of species. 



North and South America. 



1. -S. liquoraria, Guenee. 

Synchloya Uquoyaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. I.ep. Vol. 9, ]) 375 (i858). 
Euiiemoriei tricoloraria, Packarci, Proc. Bost, Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. 16. ji. ?o 

(187.^). 
*• Sviichlora tricolorai la, Packard, Mon. Geom. U. S. A. p. 38:. t. 10, f. K3 

1,1876). 
Sviichlora ruhrifroiiiaria. Dyar. Proc. I). S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 27. p. go3 11904 

(teste Taylor. The Canad. Entom. Vol. 40, p. 100) (nec Packard). 
Svnchlora glaucaria, Dod. 'Ihe Canad. luitom. Vol. 38, p. 2^7 (1906) (nec 

Guenee). 
Synchlora curvilinea. Warren, MS. lin Coll. Brit. Mus.). 

2. 5. herbaria (Fabricius). 

Phalaena herbaria, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Vol. 3 (2), p. 162 (1794^. 
lodisCi^htrbaria. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 6o5 (1861). 
Lissochloia intacta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3i8 (igoSl. 
Microlo.via hirbaria. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 16, p. 82 (1906). 

3. S. aeraia (Fabricius). 

Phalaena aerata, Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst. p. 4^6 (1798). 
A/ilodes glaucaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 377 (i85S). 
Geometra mimicala, Walker, List Lep. Ins.Brit. Mus.Vol. 35, p. 1600(1866). 
Aplodes riibivora, Riley. First Rep. Ins. Mo. p. iSg, t. 2, f. 25 (1869). 
Synchlora alboUneata, Packard. Rep. Peab. Acad. Sc. Vol. 5, p. yS (1873). 
Euncmoria gracilaria. Packard, ibidem, p 77 (1873). 

Synchlora rubivoraria. Packard. Mon.Geom. U.S. A. p.382, 1. 10,^.86(1876). 
Synchlora aerata, Dyar. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 52, p. 3oi (19021. 

4. S. trvndaria, Guenee. 

Synchlora frondaria. Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 376 (i858). 
Thalera miiiuata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 35, p. i6i3 

(1866) i). 
Geometra frondaria, Hampson, .-^nn. .Mag. Nat, Hist. (61, Vol. 16, p. 332 

(1895). 
.iplodes frondaria, Prout, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 210 (1910). 
Synchlora fuscifrons, Warren, MS. (in coll. Brit. Mus). 

5. S. denticularia (Walker). 

Nemoria (?) denticularia. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 536 

(1861). 
Synchlora excurvaria, Packard, Rep. Peab. Acad. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 76 (1873). 
Synchlora denticulata, Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, p, 3i5 (1896). 

6. S. albicostaria (Heirich Schafter) (praec. var. ?). 

Eucrostis albicostaria. Herrich-Schaffer, Corr.-Bl. Zool.-min. Ver. Regensb. 
Vol. 24, p. 181 (1870). 

7. S. rubrifrontaria. Packard. 

Synchlora rubrifrontaria, Packard. Rep. 1'eab. .Acad. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 75 (1873). 
.Synchlora rubivoraria var. rufofrontaria (in err. pro var. rubrifrontaria), 

Gumppenberg, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. Halle, Vol. 64, 

p. 5oo (iSgS). 

8. S. nortia, iJruce (huj. jnen.?). 

Syiicldora (i) iiortia, Druce, Biol. C entr. ,Amer. Lep, Hel. Vol. 2, p. 93, 

t, I, f. 12 (1892). 
AfUides nortia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol, 4, p. 423 (1897). 
Lissochlora (?) nortia, Warren, ibidem. Vol. 7, )), i35 (1900). 

9. S. viridipalleus. Hulst (huj. gen. ?). 

Synchlora viridipallens, Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol, 23, p. 3i5 (1896). 



California to British Colom- 
bia. 



W. Indies. 



Eastern U. S. A, 



Mexico and W. Indies to 
S. Brazil and Uruguay. 



South and East U. S. .\., 
Bermudas. 



W. Indies. 



Eastern U. S. A. 



Mexico. 



Colorado. 



1) Vide 7'raiis. F.itt . .^oc. Loiid. 1910, p. 210; we have (lecided that this synonyiii can be regarded as certain. 



1,6 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

10. S. bistriata (Wanen). Brazil. 

Microloxia bistrialn, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 426 (1S97). 

1 1. S. texana, Hulst (huj. gen.?). Texas. 

Svncldora lexiiiiii. Hiilst, The Canad. Hntom. Vol. .^0, ]). 160 (1898). 

12. S. pallida (Wanen). Island of Bonaire. 

Aplodcs pallida, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i3i iigoo). 
i3. S. rf//i(«Wa (Warren). Brazil. 

Microloxia dilucida, Warren, Kovit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i35 11900). 
14. S. apicata (Warren) (huj. gen.?). Brazil. 

Microloxia apicala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i36 (1900). 
i5. S. delicatula (Dognin). French Guiana. 

.Iplodcs delicatiiia. Dognin, Ann. Soc. I-Int. Belg:. Vol. 53. p. 87 (1909). 

16. S. dorsuaria, nov. sp. i), Prout. .\ntigua. 



74. Genus CHLOROSEA, Packard 

Chlorosea. Fackard, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. \'ol. 16, p. 3i (1S73). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpiis in hoth sexes quite moderate, second joint rather stout, 
strongly rough-scaled, third joinl in botli se.xes (juite small, partly concealed. Tongue present, slender. 
.Antenna less than one-half, in cT bipectinate abnost to apex with rather sliort branches, in 9 shortl}' 
serrate-dentate. Pectus and femora haiiy. Hindtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes with a single pair 
of moderate, eiiual spurs (terminals). Abdomen very slightly crested. Frenuium present in both sexes, 
arising from before a slight basal expansion, (f retinaculum rather near base of forewing. Forewing with 
costa arched, apex ratlicr acute, termen nearly straight, obUque, celi less than one-half, DC deeply 
inbent, SC^ (in type) anostomosing with C. SC^ normal, R' just separale, R- froin above middle, M' sepa- 
rate; hindwing with costa rather long, apex rounded, termen rather straight, cell rather short, DC-' tleeply 
inbent, SC approximated to ceil for some distance, SC^ stalked, R- characteristic, M' separate. 

Early stages unlcnowii. 

Type of the genus : Citlnrosca ncvadaria, Packard (1873). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Western United States. 

I. C. nevadaria, Packard. Wcstern U. S. -A. 

C/ilorosea nevadaria, PackarJ, l'roc. Bost.Soc. Xat.Hist.VoI. i6,p.3i(iS73). 

_'. C. proutdria, Pearsall Utah. 

Clilorosea proiilaria. Pearsall, 'Ihe Canad. Hnlom. Vol. 43, )>. 25o (1911). 
.^. C. roseitacta, nov. sp. 21, Proiit. Arizona. 



i> Synchlora dorsuaria, nov. sp. — o'. 23 mm. Kace ijreen. Vertejt white bet^veen antenn;c, ri'd behind. Occiput green. Rase of 
actennal shaft wliitc. 'lliorav ^Tcen above, whitt- beneath. Foreleg pitrtly nreen, wbile btneath, tibia marked with refl al)ove. Abdomen wliitc. the first 
four seKments doisally apple-Rreen, segmeiits 2-4 bearinjr each a white, red margincd dorsal spot. Wings bright apple-green. Korewing with costa 
narrowly pure white, red at liase: lines indicated by whitedots on the veins, antemedian very ill-defincd, postmcdian distinct, the dotsoii R*and SM- 
somewhat, and tbai nn SM' (the fold) considerably further from termen than the otheri,; cell spot minule but distinct, blackish red. Hindwing similar. 
Underside whitish green. costal half of forewing greener. costal margin itsclf tinged with ochreous, becoming wbite at extrcnu-edge.Antigua. two cj (typc 
and cotype) in coU. Oxford .\Iiis. 

2) Chlorosea roseitacta, nov. sp. — o'.3omm. Facc and palpus rosy (somewhat abraded). Vertex broadly whitc, faintly tinged with 
pink behind: occiputgreen Antennal sliaft white; pectinationssbort (about twice width of shaft). Thorax grcen above and beneath. Femora green, tibia: 
and tarsiwhitish, foretibia rosy on inner side. Abdomen wliite. anteriorly with a dorsal pattern, the second, third and fourth segments b6iii>; partly pink. 
enclosing very larj;e, subtriangiilar white blotches, their apicesdirectjd cephalad. Wmgs sbaped ne;irly.as in iiniadiiria, thecosta (eicept distally^and 
termen of forewing still stralghter, the wing tlierefore appearing more triangular, sharper; colour as in that specics, costal half of hindwing slightly whiter. 
tornus slightly deepei green ; lineon forewing placed as in umadaria, but more slender : tliaton hindwing likewise more slender, distinctat inner margin, 
but losing itself costallv to middle of wing; costa of fnrewing very n;irrowIy wliite. excejit basally ; inner margin of hiiidwing with ;i rosy streak trom post- 
median line basewards for 2 mm. ; at its proxiutal extrcmity there is a faint su^gestion of tlie commencement of an antemcdian white line : fringes green 
proximally, whitedistally. Underside soniewbal paler, postmedian line fainter, norosy strcak on inner margin of hindwing. Palmerleo, Arixona. 'fype in 
coll. T.. B. Prout. Struclure as in uroadaria, but SC* of forewing free. Readily distinguished by its small sizs and the rosy mark on the hindwing. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.-E 



75. Genus CHETEOSCELIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Cheteoscelis, nov. gen. Pioiit. 

Annemoria (part... Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. V^ol. 23, ji. 3i2 (1896) (nec Packard). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes nioderate, Sfcond joint rough-scaled, third 
joint small but distinct. Tongue present. Antenna in (f bipectinate with moderate branches. in 9 dentate 
or shortly bipectinate. Pectus hair}'. Femora somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in q* not dilated, in both sexes 
with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before basal expansion, 
m 9 wanting or vestigial. Forevving with costa slightly arched, apex rather acute, termen smooth, 
obhque, shghtly curved, cell not quite one-half, UC strongly inbent, very oblique posteriorly, SC from 
cell, anastomosingwithC, SC- nornial, R' about connate, R^ from near R', M' about connate ; hindwing 
with costa rather long, apex rounded, termen not strongly convex, tornus moderate, cell somewhat less 
than (.ne-half, DC-' deeply incurved, very obhque posteriorly, C anastomosing to nearly three-fourths 
of ccU, SC- longish-stalked. R- from near R', M' about connate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Clearly a derivative of C/ilorusea. The type specimen of Anncmoria. Packard, Moii. Geom. U. S. A. 
p. 375 {wiitaria, Packard, ibidem, p. 376) is, as Mr. K. F. Pearsall mforms us, a wreck. without head, 
hindwings or abdomen, prohably without anastomosis of C of hindwing ; the genus must remain undeter- 
minable until sound s]iecimens are recognized as conspecific, for Packard's indications are inadequate. 

Type ofthe genus : Chtteoscelis bistriaria (Packard) = C/tlorusea bistriuria, Packard. 

Geographical distribution of species. — \\'estern North America to Mexico. 

1. C. bistriaria (Packardj. Western N. America. 

Chlorosea bislriaria, Packard, Mon. Geom. l". S. .\. p. 378, t. i3, f. 55 (1876). 
Aplodes undiuaria. Strecker, Surv. Dept. Missouri, App. 55, p. 1862 (18781. 
Tlictidia bislriaria, Gumppenberg, Xova Acta .\cad. Leop. d. Naturf. Halle, 

Vol. 64, p. 5o5 (1S95), 
Aniumoria hislriaria, Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i2 (1806) 

2. C. graefiaria (Hulst) (huj, gen. ?). Western U. S. A. 

Clilorosca graefiaria. Hulst, Ent. .4mer. Vol. 2, p. i23 (1886). 

Annenwria graefiaria, Hulst. Trans. Amer. Ent. .Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i2 (1896). 

3. C. naenia (Druce). Mexico 

Omplia.t naeiiia. Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, p. 86, t. 49, 
f. i3 (1892). 

4. C. pedinaria (Grossbeck). .-Vrizona. 

Annemoria pectinaria. Grossbeck. Journ. New York Ent. Soc. Vol. 18. 
p. 202 ' lUIOI. 

76. Genus PAROMPHACCDES, Warren 

Paromphacodes. W.irren, Novit. Zodl. \'ol. 4, p. 428 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smoolh. Palpus ni both sexes very short, slender, third joinl pointed. 
Tongue present. Antenna short, in cf bipectinate to apex with moderate pectinations (becoming verj- 
short at apex), in 9 with strong serrations (the proximal ones almost becoming short. stout, pointed 
pectinations). Pectus hairy. Femora nearly glabrous. Hindlibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all 
spurs. .\bdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf short and slender, from before a moderate costal expan- 
sion, retinaculum iiear base of forewing ; frenulum in 9 well developed. Forewing with costa shouldered 



iiS LEPIDOPTERA HETEKOCERA 

at base, otherwise lathei straight, apex acute, termen straight, oblique, tonuis rather pronounced. cell 
ahnost one-half, DC^ very deeply inbent, SC' anastomosing vvith C. SC' from stalk of SC^-^, anast- 
omosing (sometimes strongly) or connected at a point with SC. R' separate, K' from neai R', 
M' separate; hindwing with costa rather long, apex rounded, termen from R^ straight, tornus acute, 
cell almost one-half, DC'* usually incurved, always rather strongly obhque posteriorly, C approximated, 
yet not closely, to cell to beyond one-half. gradually diverging, SC- stalked, R- from near R'. M' separate, 
M^ from rathernear M' (Pl. 2, Fig. 15 i. 

Early stages uiiknown. 

Type of the genus : Paiomphafodes nihnmanju, VVarren (1S97). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Neolr^jpical. 

1. /-'. rubrimargo, Warren. Pl. 3, Fjg. 10. S. E. Brazil. 

Paromphacodes nihriyiuirgo. VVarren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 429 (1897). 

2. F. riibristellala. Warren i). Colombia. 

Paromphacodes riibrisleltatii. Warreii. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. \t. 429 (1897K 



77. Genus PYROCHLORA, Warren 

Pyrochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2. p. 90(1895)2). 

Characters. — Face wilh shght loughened prominence. Palpus in cf moderale, second joint 

ratiier long, smooth-scaled. third joint quite small (9 unknown to us, would probably have elongate 
third joint). Tongue present. .-^ntenna in cf bipectinate to little beyond one-half with inoderate branches, 
apex minutely ciliated. Pectus and femora hairy. Foretibia short, densely tufted. Hindtibia in cf 
dilated, with haii-peiicil an<l very siiori terminal process, all spurs present. approximated, tarsus long. 
.'Vbilomen not crested. Frenulum in cT well developed, ari.sing from before very slight basal expansion 
(will certainly be present in 9). Forewing with costa arched, apex moderale, termen nearly straight, 
oblique, cell less than one-half, DC extremely incurved, SC free, SC* normal. R' well stalked, 
M' separate; hindwing with apex moderate. termeii nearly straight, tornal area long, inner margin long, 
cell short, DC^ very deeply incurved. becoming ver\- oblique, C rather shortly approximated to cell, 
then rapidlv diverging, SC- stalked. M' stalked or :ipproximated, M^ from near M'. 

Early stages iini<iu>wii. 

Apparently differs little in structure from Racheospila, though the coloration and the shape ol the 
hindwing — produced to tornus (termen at right angles with costa) — are distinctive; the extreme form 
of the discocellulars and the strongly tufted foretibia are also worth)' of note. 

Type of the genus : Pvioihloia ihanis (Cramer) - Phalaena Geometra rhaiiis, Cramer (1895). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Xeotropical. 

1. P. rhaiiis (Cramei), Panama to N. Brazil. 

Phalaena Geometra rhanis, Cramer. Fap lixot Vol. 2, p. 34, i5o, t. 119. 

f.B,C(i777). 
Phalaena Geomeira rkanisaria, Sloll. Suppl. Pap. Exot. Cramer. p. i52, 
t. 34, f. 2, zh (1790I. 

i) Diliers trom the type m liavinK the pilpus quite moderate, not ■ very short», but a.greet well otberwiie; SC anafitomosoi with SO before th 
Jatter parts from C. 

2) Not preoccupied hy Pyrochloris^ Kiug(i839). 



FAM. (iEOMETRlIJyi': iiq 



Coinilhiaia ilhiiiisana. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 284(1826?). 
Phalaeiia r/iaiiisana, Verloren, Cat. Lep, Ins. Crameri, p. 268 (1837). 
Gcomelra (?) W;.i«(s, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Bril. Mus. V0I.22, p.604 (1861 1 
Comibaena rliaiiis, Moschler, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 3i, p. 404 

(1881). 
Pyroclilora 1 Ihiiiis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 90 (iSgS). 



78. Genus TACHYCHLORA, nov. gen., Prout 

Tachychlora, nov. gen. Piout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes moderate, second joint strongly rough- 
scaled, third joint not elongate. Tongue developed. Antenna not long, with moderate tuft of scales at 
base, in both sexes bipectinate to beyond one-half. apical end very shortly ciliated. Pectus strongly 
hairy. Femora rough-scaled to somewhat hair}-. Foretibia short, well tufted (Pl. 5, Fig. 19). Hindtibia 
with median spurs ruchmentary. terminals extremely imequal, no process, hindtarsus considerably longer 
than tibia. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum present in both sexes, from before shght costal expansion. 
h^orewint^ with costa shghtly arched, apex acute, subfalcate, termen nearly straight, faintly concavc, 
tornus prominent. cell short. prodiiced apically, DC^ incurved. SC free (anastomosing with C iii uiii/iai. 
SC^ normal, R' stalked. M' connate or approxiinated ; hindwing w ith costa rather short, the other 
margins long and rather straight, apex moderate, rounded, tornus prominent, cell short. DC incurved, 
C approximated rather shortly to cell, rapidly diverging, SC- stalked, M'stalked, perhaps somelimes 
connate (sepatate in uricha). 

Early stages unknown. 

Perhaps relaicd lo Rhodoihlora (especially exqiiisita), S(;me\\ hat agreeing in culoiation, in the 
partial atrophy of tiic nicdian spurs, etc. But as it seems still more closely connected, botli in sluipe 
and sttuctare, with Tai/iyphylf — scarcely differing essentially except in the presence (jf the 9 fienu- 
lum — we have thought it better to place it here. The hindwing is similar to that of the preceding 
genus, but typically still more produced to tornus; the forewing tends to assume the falcate form of 
Tachyphyle. The shape is, however, less characteristic in some species which we provisionally refer here. 

Type of the genus : Tachvchlora lepidaria (Moschler) = Comibaena lepidaria, Moschler. 

Geographical distrlbutlon of specles. — Neotropical. 

1. T. lepidaria (Moschler). — Pl. 4, Flg. 12. Guianas, Colombia. 

Comibaena lepidaria, Moschler. Verh. Zoo!.-bot. Ges. Wien. Vol. 3i, p. 404. 
t. 17, f. 14(1881), 

2. T. subscripta ( Warren) (prsec. var. vel s\'n.?). Venezuela. 

Comibaena snbscripta , Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 424 (1897I. 

3. T. sileua (Schaus). S. E. Brazil. 

Nemoria silena. Schaiis, Trans. .\nier. Ent. Soc. Vtjl. 27, p. 252 (1901). 

4. T. nricha (Kaye) (huj. gen. ?). Trinidad, Surinam. 

Dichorda uricha. Kaye, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 147, t. 6, f. 6 (igoi). 
Comihaena flavicoma. Warren. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus, Vol. 3o, p. 415 (1906) 
(nov. syn.) i j. 

5. T. Jlavidisca {Wairen). Peru. 

Comibaenaflavidisca. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 20(1904). 

6. T. subaurea ('Warren) (huj. gen. ?). Peru. 

Comibaena suhaurea. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 201 (1907). 



1) We have not seen Wurren's typc, but from the (Jescription we judge tlie synonymy certain. 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



79. Genus TACHYPHYLE, Butler 

Tachyphyle. P.uller, Traiis. linl. Soc. Lond. p. 3jg (1881). 

Characters. - Face smooth. Paliius slioitish to moderate, second joinl rough-scaled beneath, 
third joint smooth, iii cf quite short. in 9 quite moderate. Httle e.xposed. Tongue present. Antenna 
moderate to ratlier short, in (j' bipectinate with moderateh strong branches to be\ond one-half, some- 
times to rather near apex, apical part subserrate, with minute bristles; in $ more or less serrate, with 
minute bristles. Pcctus hairy. Femora nearl}- glabrous. Hindtibia with median spurs minute, more or 
less aborted, apparently sometimes entirely obsolete, terminals ver>- unequal. .'^bdomen not crested. 
Frenulum 111 cf slender, from before well-marked basal expansion : in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa 
rather straight pro.ximally, well arched distally, apex acute, more or less falcate, termen obhque, either 
ver\' gently concave nearly throughout, or in anterior half only, straight posteriorh-, tornus pronounced, 
cell short, produced apically. DC» rather strongly incurved, SC free, SC^ normal, Rl stalked, very 
rarely connate, M' very shortly stalked, occasionally connate; hindwing with costa rather short, ajiex 
roundly squared, termen long, usually (especially in cf ) quite straight almost to tornus, occasionally 
moderately rounded, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short. DC^ somewhat incurved, very 
rarely at all strongly obhque posteriorly, C approximated to cell rather shortly, in rare cases to middle 
or shghtl> beyond, SC^ stalked, M^ stalked (nearly ahvays long-stalked, or at least longer-stalked 
than SC^), M- from near (often close) to end of cell. 

Early stages unknovvn i). 

A very natural gcnus; ihough nonnected with Phriidoceiiiia (which is certainlj- related) by a few 
species of intermediate shapes, it can be readily differentiated by the tibial armature, the non-elongate 
third palpal joint in the 9. etc. Dicliorda is another relative, but again has four spurs, differs in the 
normall^-shaped vvings, more hairy palpi and legs, non-stalking of M', etc. 

Type of the genus : Tncliypliyh aciita, Hutler (1881). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — Neotropical. 

1. T. acida. Hutlei . Panama to N. Brazil. 

Tachyphyle aciila, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. LonJ. p. .329 (18S1). 

2. 7. rt//n;fai'(z (Warren) (prsec. var. vel syn.?). Venezuela ln 1'icnch Gui- 

Dichorda alUiieala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i32 (1900I. ana. 

3. T. basiplaga (Walker). BraziL 

Gcoinrlia hasiplaga, WalUer, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 22. p. 5i2 ( kS6i 1. 

4. T. nigroaj>icalis (Dognin). Colombia. 

Ncmoria iiigroapicali!., Dognin, .-^nn. Soc. Ent. Belfj. VoL 44. p. ^.ig ' iqiiui. 

5. T. uiidiliueaia. Warren. British Guiana. 

Tachyphyle undilineata. Warren, Kovit. 7oo\. VoL 7, p. 140(1900)21. 

6. T. occuUa, Warren. Colombia. 

Tachyphyleoccnlta. Warren, Novil. ZooL VoL 8, )). 431 (iqoi 1. 

7. T. oUvia (Schaus). BraziL 

Phrndocentra nlivia, Schaus. 'Irans. .-Vmor. Lnt. Soc. VoL 27. p. 253 (1901,. 

8. T . subaurata, Warren. Peru. 

Tachy/thyk subaurata. Warren, .\ovit. ZooL Vol. 11, p. 27 IIQ041. 

9. T. cosiiscripia, Warren. l'"rench Guiana. 

Tacliypliylc costiscrifita.\VarTer\. Proc. l". S. Xat. Mus. VoL .10. p. 4-jti 1 iqooj. 



1) But see on Phrtidoceutra. 

z' .yfctochior.t midilttieixta on type label. 



FAM. GEO.METKI !).]•: i2r 

10. T. subfidvata, Warren (huj. gen.?). French (juiana. 

TacliyphyU subfulvnla, Warren, I'roc. II. .S. X;it. Mus. Vol. .^i). p. 427 iqij6 . 

11. T. allnsparsa,Warren. Peru. 

Tiicliyplmle alhispiii sa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 210(19071. 

12. T. fiacdda, Warren (huj. gen. ?). Peru, Upper Amazon. 

TiicliypliyUfiaccida, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. 89 (igog). 
i3. T. fiiscicosia. Warren (huj. gen.?). Upper Amazon. 

TachypliyU fuscicosta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. go (1909). 

80. Genus PHRUDOCENTRA, Warren 

Phrudocentra. \\'arren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 90 (iSg5) (gen. cselebs) ; \'oi. 4, p 429 (iHqj). 

Melochlora. Warren, ibidein, Vol. 8, p. 445 (igoi). 

Neslpola. Warren, ibidem, V^ol. 16. p. 82 (1909). 

? Hyphalia. llubner. \'erz. bek. Schmett. ]). 3o3 (1826?) (nom. vetust. sed valde dubivim). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Paipus longish to veiy long. second jomt rather long, shortl\- to 
moderateh- rough-scaled, third joint smooth, exposed, in cf not minute, in 9 long to very long. Tongue 
present. .Antenna over one-half, in rf bipectinate to about two-thirds, with moderate branches (in 
Section \^I to beyond three-fourths with longer branches), in 9 occasionally bipectinate usually nearly 
simple. Pectus haiiy. Femora glabrous or nearly so. Hindtibia in q* typically dilated with strong 
hair-pencil and moierate terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs, the medians sometimes short, 
especialh' in the c^ , but never aborted. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in ^f slender, froni before 
well-marked basal e.^cpansion. in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa slightly arched, ape.x acute, teimen 
obHque, slightly cnnvex (exceptionall}' apex is falcate, terinen sUghtly concave anteriorh-. gibbous 
posteriorly), cell less than one-half, UC incurved, SC free, SC- normal, R' connate or just separate ; 
M' separate; hindwing somewhat variable in shape, termen rounded, elbowed, or even with a short tail 
at K-K inner margin rather long, cell more or less iliort, DC'^ somewhat incurved, oblique posteriorl}-, 
C approximated shortly to cell, nr to nearl\- one-lialf, rapidly diverging. -SC^ stalked, M' usually separate, 
occasionall}- connate or short-stalked. 

T^.u<v.-\. — Hrowii. protectivel}' assimilated to withered leaf, ihe fiist tive abdominal segments 
apparenth' with enormously extended dorso-lateral protuberances, forming, from the dorsal view, a 
continuous plate (Sepp. Sitriii. Vlind. p. Sg, t. 16. 011 pigraria, a lost species apparently near albiceps and 
luceiis, but with a reddish basal patch like Tacliypliyle hasiplaga; hardly possibly in reality a broad-wiuged 
Tachyphyle). 

Type of the genus : Pliniducenlra pKpillata. VVarren (iSg5, 1897). 

Geographlcal distrlbution of species. - N'eotropical ; .Section \'l localized in the \V". hidies. 

Sectiox I. — cf palpus \vith third joinL rather .short ; 0* hindleg strongly dihited, with median 
spurs very short, terminal process developed ; 9 antenna not bipectinate ; hindwing 
with M' separate {l^hnidnccittni, Warren). 

1. P. piipillata, Warren. ' Mexico to Colombia and 

Ximoria bryata, Druce, Biol. Centr. .\mer. Lep. llet. Vol. 2, p. «5 (1892) Venezuela. 

(nec Felder). 
Phrudoccntra pupillata, Warren, Novit. Zool. 'Vol. 2, p. 90, nom. nud.) 

Vol. 4, p. 429 (1897). 
Melochlora vivida, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 8, p. 446(1901) (nov. syn.). 
Phriidocentra pupillata ab. submacuUita. Warren, ibidem. p. 448 figoi) (ab. ?). 



122 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Section II. — cf palpus vvith third joint rather long; cf hindleg with terminal process, 
all spurs developed; 9 antenna not bipectinate ; hindwing with M' stall<ed. 

2. P. assa (Druce). Costa Rica, ?Peru. 

Xemoria assa, Druce, Biol. Ceiitr. Amer. l.ej). Het. Vol. 2. p. 85. t. 49. 
f. II. 12 (1892). 
? Taclivfl'\'h aeretincta.Warren^Sovil. /.00). \'o\. 1 1, )). 507 (1904) Inov. syn.i. 

3. P. obliquata (Warren). Mexico to Guatemala. 

Nemoria iris (part.), Druce, Biol. Centr. .\mer. Lej). Hel. Vol. 2. p. 85 

(1892) (nec Butler). 
Dichorda ohliquata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, ]>. 5o3 11904). 

4. P. mitigata, nov. sp. i ). Pmut (prsec. var. ?). Panama. 

Section III. — As preceding, but cf third joint sometiines moderate, terminal process 
sometimes wanting, hindwing with i\P not stalked; aspect of Tachyphylc, termen oi' 
hindwing rounded. 



5 P. /flfrf/a/a (FelderJ. 

Xemoria taediata, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127. f. 1 1 (1875). 

6. P. albiceps (VVarren) (praec. var. ?). 

Milochlora albiceps, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. ii, p. 504 (1904). 

7. P. lucens (Warren). 

Tachypliyleluceiii, Warien, Novit Zool. Vol. 14, p. 21011907). 
X. P. pigraria (Sepp) (huj. sect. ?). 

Phalaena Geometra pigraria, Sepp, Surin. Vlind. p. Sg, t. 16 (1848.'). 

Geometra pigraria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 26, p. i553 (1862). 
>.). P. niweiceps. nov. sp. 2), Prout. N. E. Peru 



-•Vmazons. 

Peru. 

Peru. \'enezuela, Trinidad. 

Surinain. 



Section IV. — As preceding, cf third joint usuaily moderate, hindtibia not dilated, hindwing 
v\ith M' not stalked (e.xcept in opaca) ; aspect of Section V [Mclochlora, Warren), termen 
of hindwing more or less elbowed at W' (very slightly in discata, opaca a.nd gcituflexa), 
underside usuallv elaborately marked. 

10. P . jaiieira {Sc\\a.\xs). Rio Janeiro. 

Tachvph\!e janeira. Schaus, Journ. New York Ent. Soc. Vol. 5, p. 162 (1897). 
\\. P. trimaculata (Warien). Costa Rica to Peru. 

Melochlora Irimaculata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8. p. 445 (1901). 

Melochlora intermedia,'Wa.rrer\, ibidem, Vol. 11, p.22 (1904I (ab.) (nov. syn.). 
12. P. affiiiis (Warren) (praec. form ?). Guianas to Peru. 

Melochlora affinis, Warren, Proc. U. .S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 3o, |). 417 (1906). 



t) Phrudocentra mitigata, nov sp. — c?. .)4 tnm. Closely similar to obliquata, Warren, but witli the postmediun line much more 
slender, iilmost oisolete (indicated about as in weaklymarked examples o\ ptifiillata, by a sliKhtly pai.* line), sliuhtly darlc-marnined proxmally; 
hindwing somewhat moreample ihan in obtigiiat^i, with M' skurtly staiked, termen bu't.'ed abou' R'; frenulum verv slender; ftce red. Chir qui, Pinama. 
Type in coll L. B. Prout. It is not alt 'gether imp' ss ble tli-it, in sptte of the ditlerences, th'S may prove, "'n comparison of lar^er and belter material, to 
be a forai of Ihe preceding. In our type (though oiherwise f;;ood) the base aud budy are bad y discoloured in relaxing, so tliat we cannot speak of ihe 
antemedian Ine. Benejlh, the povtmeilian is qu;le obsolele. 

2) Phrudocentra niveiceps. nov. sp. — c7, 3o inm. Ileid and face nure wliite, only the occtput green. Palpus quite modfrate, ra'her 
strongly roiigh-h lireti, i>ale yreen aliove, wliite benealh. .Aiiteiin .1 >haft white t-xcept at aoex, peciin ttion. very shorl . Tlior ix green ab ve, whi'ebfneath. 
I.'-gs white, foretibia marke-i with bl.ickish ab ive, aii.l with tlie hair-tuft almost wtioly b Hck; hiudtibia with a rather sh irl but conspicuous process, 
median spurs develop d, un -qiKil. WiiidS raiher dark grey-green, with slight bron^y reflection, liist il martrms murh p iler, witliout sharp del mttation ; 
forewing sliaped as in Tachyphyle, matked wiih a prominent black celi.stiol and two faint, approximated olivc Iines, the atitemedian outbent on base 
of M'. tlie postmedian i;ently outcurved nenr 08'a, thence tiearly straigh', piriltel with termen ; htndwin^ with lermen gently rounded, dis-al spot 
somewhat smaller than on f.irewinij, Itiies very weak, the postmedtan iiettrly stniight from middle of rosta to inner margin somewhut beyo d mitldle ; both 
wings wilh a fine whitish terminal line, only n -ticeabte in soiue liglits ; fritigi^s n-arly conco orous with termen, distal half stight y paler than proximal. 
Underside similar, without ihe lines ; terminal area of forewing whitrr. tho whole of hindwing omewhat wliiter, especiitly the terminal area, discal 
dot present on forewtng only Huancibamba, N. E. Peru. Type in coll . L. H. Prout. Reminds supeificially of Tachyphyle occnHa, Warren, but differs 
structuratty. In the liindwing, vein Slt is (quite e^ceptionatly ior this gro ip) very short stalked wtth R-t. 



I'AM. (iEOMETKID/K i23 

yiehchlora condensatn. Warren, Novit. '/,ou\. Vol. 14. p. .;o5 (igoy) (var. i-i 

(nov syn.) i). 
Meloclilora affinis ab. ahscondita. Warrpii. ibidfin, Vol. 16. )>. Ho (igogj 

(var. vel ab. ?). 
i.i. P. hydalodes (Wanen). Frencli (^uiana. 

Melochlora hydatodfs. Warrcn, l'roc, U. S. Xat. Miis. Vol. 3o, p. 41« I igo6). 

i.). P. ohniibilata (VVairen). French Guiana. 

Mdochlora ohnuhilato, Warren. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 4ig (igo6). 

i.S. P. vatiilinea (Warren). French (juiana, Panama. 

Mdochlora vag^itinca. Warren, Proc. U. S. Xat. Miis. Vol. io. p. 419 (19061. 

1(1. P. discata (Warren). Peiu, French (iuiana. 

Mdocldora discata , Warreii, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 16. y. 80 (igog). 

17. P. (»/>rtM (Butler). .-Vmazons, French Guiana. 

{odis ol>aca, Biitjer, Trans. Ent. Soc. LonJ. p, 32S (iSSi). 

18. P. }^eimflexa (Warren). French (Tuiana. 

Mdochlora ^rnufiexa, Warreii, Proc. V. S. Xat. Miis. Vol, 3o, p. 418 (igo6). 

Section V. — Near preceding, but with 9 antenna bipectinate; hind^x ing typically produced 

to a small tail at K'' {Mclochlora, VVarren). 

ig. P. neis (JJruce). Mexico, Central .America. 

Tachvpliyle (?j ncis, Driice.. Biol. Centr. .\mer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, p. gS, 

t. 5o, f. i3, 14 ii8g2). 
Mdochlora iieis, Warren, Novit. 'Zoo\. Vol. S. j). 445 iigoi). 

20. P. tennis (Warren) (hic ponenda?). rrinidacl. 

Mdochloratenuis, Warren, Xovit. ZooL VoL 16, p. 80 iigog). 

21. P. inquilina (Dognin) (huj. sect.?). Colombia. 

Mdochlora inquilina. Dnsjnin. Mem. Soc. Knt. Beli;. Vol. 18. p. 161 liqii). 

Sec-| lON VI.— Antenna. rather long, in cf bipectinate to be\-ond three-fourths, with moderately 
long, weU-ciliated l)ranches, each surmounted by a simple stiff hair, in 9 not bipec- 
tinate; cf hindtibia rather varialile; hindwing rounded or very sUghtly lient at R* 
(Ncsipo!a, Warren) 2). 

22. P. anlriliigaiia ( Herrich-Schaffer). Cuba, Florida, 

Geonielra cmtrifugaria, Herrich-Schkller, Corr.-BL Zool.-inin. Ver. 

Regensb. VoL 24, p. 182 (1870). 
Geometra protractaria, Herrich-Schaffer, ibidera, p, 182 (1870). 
Eucrostis hollandaria, Hulst, Ent. Amer. VoL 2, p. 122 (1886). 
Eucrostisjaspidiaria, Hulst, ibidem, p. 122 (1886). 

Racheospila jaspidiaria. Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. VoL 23, p. 3oo ( iSg6). 
Racheospila hollandaria, Hulst, ibidera, p. 3oo (i8g6) ; HoUand, Moth Book. 

p. 336, t. 43. L 19 (igo3). 
Synchlora viridipurpurea, Hulst, The Canad. Entom.VoL 3o, p. i5g (iSgS). 
Rachtospila centrifugaria, Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. VoL io,p.35(igo8). 
.Vesipola centrifugaria. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 16, ji. 82 (igog). 

23. P. kinstoncnsis {Butier). Jamaica, St. Lucia. 

'jfodis liinstoncnsis, Hul\sv, Proc. Zool. .Soc. Lond. p. ^go (1878). 

lodis kingstonensis, Kirby, ZooL Kec. VoL i5, p. 221 (1880). 

Camhogia stellataria, Moschler, .\bh. Senckenb. Xat. Ges. VoL 14 (3), p. 68 

1 1S86) (nov. syn ). 
Racheospila concentrala, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 4, )>. 4^0 11^597) 3 . 



i) We liave not seeii Warren s type of affinis, but that of affiiiis ab. abscoiidiia is manitestly a form ot condensaia. 

i) The species, or forms. referable to this seclion are very close allies. of very uniform struclure anrt facies, and perhaps mostly belonging to a 
sincle protean spccies. Individual races. sucli as those of Cubaorof Jamaica, are certainly exce-sively variable inter se. VVe liad believed the group lo be 
absolutely conSned to ihe West Indies and Flonda, but have recently seen a single eiample of virtually the form of Warren's coticentrala. labelled 
1 Amazon > in the Oxford Museum. 

3) I.eiicorachis coiicentrota on lyjie labe) . 



124 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 

24. P. anomalaria (Moschler). Poito Rico. 

Racheosplla anomalarin. Mosi hler. Abh. Senikenb. Nat. des. Vol. 16, p. 2^3 

(189O). 
Xcsifola anomtiliu la. Warreii, .Novil. Zool. Vol. ih. ]>. 82 ( 19091. 

25. P. heterospila (Hainpson). Hahamas, St. I.ucia. 

Euchloris hiterospila, Hamp.son. Ann. Mag. X;il. Hist. (7), Vol. 14, \> 178 

(1904' i). 
Lissochlora punctata^ Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1 1. p. 504 ( 1904) 1 nov. syn. 1. 
Rhodochlora alhimacula, Warren. ibidem, p. 5o6 (1904 1. 
Nesipola heterospila, Warren. ibidem. Vol. 16, p. 82 (19091. 

26. P. impttnctata (Warren). Dominica. 

yiesipola impunctata. VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. 82 1 looot. 

Section VII. — Species unclas.sified. 

27. P. phylira (Ciainerj (htij. gen.??) 2). Surinam. 

Phalaena Geometra phylira. Cramer. l'ap. Hxot. Vol. j. p. iiJ, i5o, t. 170, 

f. D(i777). 
Phalaena phylirata, Kabricius, Spec. Ins Vol. 2, p. 234 (1781). 
Phalaena Geomelra viridaria. Stoll, Cramer's Pap. lixot. Vol. 4, p. i58, 252, 

t. 370, f. G (1781). 
Hyphalia philyraria. Hiibner, Ver;;. bek. Schmett. p. 3o3 (1826?). 
Hyphalia feslivaria . Hiibner. ibidem, p. 3o3 (1826.'). 
Phalaeiia philyrata. Verloren, Cat. Ins. Lep. Crameri, p. 266(18371. 
lodis phylirata, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 358 (i858). 
Geometra{i) t;iVii/aria,Walker, List Lep.Ins. Brit.Mus.Vol. 22,^.604(1861). 

28. P. loxiaria (Guenee) (huj. gen.?). Loc. ignot. 

Geometra loxiaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 344 (|858). 



81. Genus NEAGATHIA, Warren 

Neagathia. Warien, .N^ovit. Zool. \'ol. 4, p. 426 (1897). 

Characters. Eace sinooth. Palpus m (^ moderate, in 9 '""S- second joint shortly rough- 
scaled, third joint smooth-scaled, in cf rather small. in 9 long, slendei. Tongue present. .Antenna 
slightly over one-hall, in cf bipectinate vvith moderate branches, apical tvvo-fifths nearly simple, voiy 
shortly ciHated; iii 9 nearl.v simple. Pectus shghtly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (^ not 
dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. .\bdomen not crested. Frenulum in (;f slender, fiom before 
moderate basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Wings smoothly scaled. somewhat hyaline or iridescent. 
Forewing with costa slighth" arched, apex acnte. termen very faintly incurved anteriorly, outcurved in 
middle, rather strongly oblique tovvards tornus, cell less than one-half, DC incurved, SC from celi, 
free, ,SC^ normal, R' just separate, M' separate; hindwing with apex slightly cut away, termen sliglitly 
toolhed at R', with a small tail at R'*, weaklv incurved between, straight from R^ to tornus, tornus 
sharp, inner inargin rather long, cell scarcely two-fifths, DC- shghtly incurved, DC' curved or oblique, 
C approximated to cell to nearly one-haif, then moderately diverging, SC* stalked, R* very little above 
iniddle, M' aiiproximated or almost connate. 

Early stages unknown. 



i) Hampsons n;ime %vas publislied jist Aujjust, both Warren's in September. 

2) This species. though quite recognizably figured- is entirely unknown to us, and to those entumologists whom we have consulted. Mr. VVarren 
(in htt.) sujigests that there is just h bare pussibility it may repres nt a lost ,\teti<cltlora. It waa madc the type of the ^eaMS Hyfihitl ia by Hiibner; thercforc 
ifs rediscovery wiH almost inevitably result in a change in tlie generic nomenclature 



I~AM. (tI-IOMETKID.-?-; 125 

Slia]ii' iiiul liicies iMtliei (listincli\ e, ( liaracteis otherwise iKjt salicnt. \\e ha\e found no tangible 
distinction fioni ceitain species of Plirudoioilra (notabl}' olmubilata) excepting the tooth at K' of Ihe 
hiiHfwing. aiul tlie two lionera niav veiy piobabh' have to be inerged. 

Type of the genus : Sfaf;ntliia corruMata ( i""elder) -- Nemoria (?) corruptata, l'"elder (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Neotropical. 

1. N. corniptata (^VnXtlex). Costa Kica to Guianas and 

Nimuria (?) Ciirnipltit:i. l-'elJer, Reise Xovara, l.eii. Ilet 1. 127. f. h (1875-. .•\niazons. 

Neagalhia corruplata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, ]>. 426 (1X971. 

2. N . vitiosaria (Dognin). Ecuador. 

Nevioria (?) vitioiaria, l)of;niii, Le Natiiraliste. Vol. 14, p. 180 ■I8q2). 
2. N. sewiliiciila. Schaus (corruptata var. ?). Brazii. 

Xeagalhiti stmiliuida. Schaus, Trans. Anier. l-.iit. Soc.Vol. 27,]). 25o (1901 •. 



82. Genus PCECILOCHLORA, Warren 

Pcecilochlora. VVarren, Novit. Zool. \'iil. 11, p. 5o5 (up^). 

Characters. — Face sinoolh. Palpus with second joint inodeiale. i(ju,t;h-scaled, third j^jint 
slender, smooth, in cf moderate, 111 9 lo"g- Tongue present. .Antenna 111 (^ bipectinate with short 
branches, ajiical part nearly simple ; in 9 nearly simple, shortly ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Hind- 
tiliia 111 cf dilated with liair-pencil. in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf 
moderately developed. from before slight basal expansion, in 9 1 udimentary. Forewing with costa 
sliglitiy arclicd, apex inodeialc. termen slightly concave anterioiiy. (ibowed at K'*, veiy oblique and 
suV)creniilate posteriorly, cell less than oiie-half, DC'' strongly incurved. SC from ceil, fiee or anastom- 
osing with C, SC- normal, K' shortly stalked, M' connate or veiy shortly stalked ; hiiidwing with termen 
promineiit at R', bluntly toothed at R-', excised between, nearly stiaight from R^ to tornus, sub- 
crenulate. tijnius pronounced, ccll short, !)('■' incurved, C rather shorth" approximated to cell near base, 
SC^stalked, M' slujrt-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Again more distinct in shape aiul facies than iii structural characteis. The conditions of the 
frenulum might faxoui a rather less advanceii ^josition than we have here assigned it. 

Type of the genus : Poeciloclilora miiior, Warren (1904). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Peru to Coloinbia. 

1. /-'. miuor, Warren. Peru. 

Foecilochlora miiior. Warren, Xovit. Zool. 'Vol. 11. p. 5ot) 1904 . 

2. }\ liiteiograpta (Warren). Peru, Coloinbia. 

Xeocrasis heterograpta, Warren, Nijvit. Xool. Vol. ii, p. 23 (1904). 
PotcilocMoro heterograpiti, Warren, ibidem, p. 5o6 11904). 



83. Genus HYALOCHLORA, nov. gen., Prout 

Hyalochlora (Warreii, MS.), nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in (f moderate, in 9 long, second joint extending well 
beyond frons (especially in 9)- r(jugh-scaled above and beneath, third joint smooth, in cf shortish. 



126 lepidoptp:ra iii:teroceka 

iii 9 much elongated. Tongue developed. Antenna in cf bipectinate to nearly two-thiids, with lather 
short branches, in 9 nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Hindtibia with all spurs develoijed. approximated ; 
in rf dilated with strong hair-pencil and moderate terminal process. Abdomen not crested. Frenuluni 
in d" from before shght basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Wings h^^ahne, iridescent. Forewing with cosla 
arched. apex moderate, termen rounded, waved, moderateh' oblique, cell short, less than two-fifths at 
discal spot, but greatly produced at apex and considcrably at posterior angle. DC therefore extremelx' 
inbent (angled at discal spot), SC free, SC^ long-stalked, but arising before SC=, R' connate or short- 
stalked, M' long-stalked; hindwing with apex and ternien rounded, termen weakly subcrenulate, tornus 
pronounced, cell short, DO somewhat inbent anteriorly, obhque posteriorly, C appressed to cell to 
about one-half, then rapidly diverging. St:^ long-stalked. K- from somewhat abovc middle. M' long- 
stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Evidently related to Phrudocailia, but disllnct in the h^ahne wings, sul)crenuUite ternicn ot 
hmdwing, extremelv inbent 1)C of forewing and long stalking of M' of bolh wings. 

Type of the genus : Hyalocliloya sp/endeiis (Druce) = Racheospila splendens. Druce. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Mexico to Colombia. 

I. H. spleiideiis (Druce). Mexico,Costa Rica.Colom- 

Raclieospila splendens, Druce. Biol. Centr. .■Vmer. I.ep. Het. Vol 2, p. 535. bia. 

t. 99, f. 4 (1898). 



84. Genus CHROTOCHLORA, Warren 

Chrotochlora. VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vnl. 12. p. iiy {igo5). 

Characters. — Pectus hairy. Fcmora scarcely haiiy. Hindtibia in cf with all spurs. Abdomen 
not crested. l'renulum slender, from before basal expansion. Forewing triangular, costa straight, 
somewhat arched distally, apex rather acute, ternien entire, oblique, straight, tornus rather pronounced, 
cell less than onc-half, DC-' decply incurved, SC fiom cell, running nito C, SC^ short-stalked with SC'*""'. 
runnino-close to C + SC, perhaps witli contact at a point, R' connate, R* from above middle of DC, 
M'connate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen lounded, tornus squared, cell less than one-half, 
C approximatcd to cell to nearly one-half. rather gradually diveriiing, DC^ incurved, SC- very shortly 
.stalked, M' connate. 

Early stages unknown. 

We have given all the infoiinations available on this genus, without being able to express any 
definite opinion on its status. It was founded on a single, headless specimen which, so for as we know, 
remains unique. The scaling, though smooth. is thick, and some points in the venation therefore remain 
uncertain. 

Type of the genus : Chrotochlora perpulchra, VVarren (igo5). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Peru. 

1. C. perpulchra. Warren. Peru. 

Clirotoclihra perpidclira^V^arren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3i7 (igoS). 



FAM. (;F.0METRII)/K 



127 



85. Genus DICHORDA, Warren 

Dichorda. Wairen, Novit. Zonl. \'ol. 7. p. i32 (rgoo) 

Holothalassis. (jumppenber.t^, Xo\a .\cta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. Ilallc. \'i>\. 64, ]>. .Sio (1895) 
(nec I liihnei"). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate or longish, second joint strongly rough-scaled 
above aiid heneath (usually with long hair-scales beneath), terminal joint moderate, not slender. 
somewhat rough-scaled, parth' concealed, slightly longer in 9 than in (f . Tongue present. Antenna 
moderate. in (j' bipectinate with moderate branches, apex nearly simple, in 9 serrate-dentate (shortlv 
bipectinate in /y/wenix). Pectus strongly hair}-. Femora haiiy. Foretibia tufled. Hindtibia in cf not dilated. 
in both sexes rather rough-scaled, with four rather long, rather approximated spurs. Abdomen not 
crested. h^renulum in cf slender. froin before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa 
slightly arched, apex acute, ternien oblique, more strongly so posteriorl\', fainth- sinuate in anterior 
half, cell less than one-half, DC strongly incurved, SC from cell, free, or anastomosing or connected at 
a point with C, SC^normal, R' just separate, M' separate ; hindwing with apex and termen moderatelv 
rounded, tornus jnononnced, cell short, DC"^ rather incurved, (jblique posteriorly, C approximated to 
cell for a short distance. rather rapidly diverging, SC- stalked. M^ approximated, occasionalh' almost 
connate. 

Early stages unknowii. 

A small aiul compact genus, diffeient in tacies from Phrudocenlra, and structuially in the more 
hairv legs and paljius, shorter and rougher thiid jcjint of the latter, etc. ; in these characters recalling 
Comibaena. Hulst confuses it with Anaplodes (= Nemoria, part.), from which it is distinguished by the 
absence of 9 frenulum, and bv differences of leg-structure, etc. 

Type of the genus : Dichorda iridaria (Guenee) = Geometra iridaria, (uienee (igoo). 



Geographical distribution of species. 



1. D. iridaria (Guenee). 

Geometra iridaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 344 (i858i; Druce, 
Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. VoL 2, t. 49, f. 5 (i8g2(. 

Geometra remotaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p.53o (1861). 

Geomctra iridaria var. fowsi!!/!/;!»-/», H. Edwards, Papilio, Vol.4,p. 19(1884). 

Holollialassis iridaria, Gumppeiiberg, Nova .Acta Acad. Leo]). d. Naturf 
Halle, Vol. 64, p. 5io (iSgS). 

Aiiaplodcs remotaria, Hulst, Trans. ."Vmer. Ent Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i6 (i8g6i. 
? Aiutplodes iridaria, Hulst, ibiJem, p. 3i6 (1896). 

Slossouia latipennis, Hulst. The Canad. Entom. \'ol. 3o, p. 217 fiSgS) 
(teste Grossbeck, Ent, News, Vol. 20. p. 354). 

Dichorda iridaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. 7, p. i32 (lyoo). 

Dichorda pcrpendiculata, Warren. ibidem, \'ol. 11, p. ,So3 (19041 ivar. ?). 

2. D. rectaria (Grote). 

Geometra iridaria (part.i, fackard. Mon. Geom. U. S. .\. p. 3g4 11876) 

(nec Guenee). 
Geometra rectaria, Grote, Tlre Canad. Entom. Vol. g, p. 157 (1877). 
y Aiiaplodes iridaria, Hulst. Trans. .Xmer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, i>. 3i6 (iSgin 
(nec Guenee). 

3. D. iri.s (Butler). 

iVemoria iris, Butler. Trans. liul. Soc. Lond. p. 328 (1881); Uruce, Biol. 
Centr. .Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, t. 4Q, f. 10 (1892), 



United States to Amazons. 

Eastern II. S. A. to Guate- 



Texas, Colorado. 



.Amazons, Guatemala, West 
Indies. 



128 • LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

4. D. illiistiaria (Hulsl). California. 

Geometra iridaria Ipart.), Packard, Mon, Geom. U. S. A. p. 394, t. 10, 

f. 93 (1S76) (nec Giienee). 
Geomelra illustraria, Hulst. Ent. .\mer. Yol, 2, p. 121 ii886). 
Anaplodcs illiistraria. Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23. p. 3i6 (1S96), 

5. D. Miiformis, Warren. Trinidad. 

Dichorda unifoimis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 75 (1909). 

6. D. aplagaria, Dyar. Mexico, 

Dichorda aplaj^aria. Dyar, Proc. U. S. NaJ. Mus. Vol. 38. p. 261 19101. 

7. D. phoenix, nov. sp. i), Prout (huj. gen.?). .Arizona. 

86. Genus LEPTOLOPHA, Warren 

Leptolopha. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. ib, p. 78 (1909). 

Characters. — Face sinooth. Palpus in cf rather shoit, in 9 lather long, second joint rough- 
scaled below, third joint smooth, in cf small, in 9 elongate, slender. Tongue present. Antenna in cf 
bipectinate with ninderate or long branclies, apical one-third or less nearly simple, in 9 nearly sim])le 
or strongly bipectinate. Pectus soinewhat haiiy. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs only. 
Abdomen with rather weak, soft, non-erect dorsal crests. Frenuhim in (^ slender, from before basal 
e.xpansion. in 9 vvanting. I^^orewing with costa very slightly arched or almost straight, apex moderate, 
termen smooth, obhque, shghtly curved, cell rather short, DC incurved, St'' free, SC- normal, 
Ri stalked, M' connate or short-stalked ; hindwing with ternien httle convex, tornus pronounced, cell 
short, DC^ incurved, C aiiproximated to nearly one-half cell, SC* stalked (very long-stalked in Section I), 
M' short-stalked. 

Early stages iinknovvn, 

A small genus, ahnost certainly associated with the group of genera foHowing, though wMth the 
dorsal crests much weaker (especially in Seciion 11). There is some superiicial lesemblance to some of 
the more slenderly-built species of Racheospila (Section Lissochlora). with which Warren compares it; 
but the loss of the niedian spurs, and in Section II tho peclinate 9 antenna, show the greater advance 
in specialization. 

Type of the genus : LepMopha flaviliiiies (Warren) = Lissochlora flaviliiiies, Warren (1909). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Peiu. Brazil. 

Shctiox I. — Dor.sal hair forming definite crests ; cells quite short; 
9 antennn not bipectinate, 
i, L.flavilimes (Warren). Peru to Ui^per Amazon. 

Lissochlora flavilimes . Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol, 11, p. 21 ^1904). 
Leptoloplia flavitimes, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 16, p. 78 (1909). 
Liptolopliaflavitimes ab, decorata, Warren, ibidem, p. 78 (1909). 



il Dlchorda (?) phoenix, nov. sp.— Q, 27 to 32mm. Face crimson above, white marked with crirosoii below. Palpuscrimson, somewhat 
mi»ed with white, base white beneath ; terminal joint more slender than in the otber species. Antenna bipectinate with short, slender branches, lighl, 
ochreous, shaft white dorsally, Vertei white, occiput green. Thorax (;reen, somewhat mixed with white beneatli Abdomen white mixed with green, the 
dorsum wholly green basally, cradually giving place to moreofthe whitecolour. ForewinB with lermen somewhat less oblique than is typicnl in the genus. 
suggesting Aptodes; bright emerald green, costa narrowly crimson, interiupted with white: lineswhile, broad, antemedian froji u slightly thickenedspot 
atcostaat nearly one-third. almost straiglitfinsignificantly outbent in middle)to innermargin at beyond one-third; postmediiln from costa at nearly tbree- 
fourths, parallel wilh termen (in the co type very slightly curved basewards at costa) ; dlscal dot extremely minute (dark) or wholly obsolete , fringe green 
proximally.white distally. Hindwing with costa longer than intypical Dic/wrda. C approiimated to cell to well beyond one-half; concolorou» with fore- 
wing; only thecostal areasomewhat whiter; antemedian line wanting, postmedian nearly straight or very sbghtly curved, from costa ncarly oppositr 
postmedian off.rewing toinner margin ator beyond three-fourths; discal dot and fringe as in forewing. Underside paler, similarly but more weakly 
marked. Phceiiix, Arizona, i3 Sept. 1904 (R. E. Kunze). Type and co-type (both P) in coll. Brit. Mus. Scarcely a true Dichorda, according to the 
differences noted above ; the non-oblique postmedian line of forewing aUo gives it a somewhat dilferent aspect (more as .4ploiies] ; but the frenulum is 
absent. the legs and palpi almost sufflciently bairy, and it can remain here for the prescnt. In the type, SC of forewing is free, in ihe co-type it anaet(;- 
moses moderatelv with C. 



FAM. (iEOMETRID.^': 129 

2. L. nigyif^unclata, \\';inen. PeMi. 

Liptoloplii7 nigiipunctaui, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 16. ]>. 7K (igoq). 

3. L. perinagna, Warren. l'eru. 

S.eptolopha permagiui, Warrcin. Nuvit. Zool. Vul. i6, p. 79 (19091. 

Sectiox II. — Doisal haii' lorming a continuous ridf^e; cells less short ; 
9 antenna strongly bipectinate. 

4. L. paUidaria (Schaus). I^razil. 

Comostiilii pdllidariii, Schaus, Jonin. New York Ent.Soc.Vol. 5.p. 161 (1897). 



87. Genus RACHEOLOPHA, Warren 

Racheolopha. \\'arren. iMovit. Zool. \'ol. 7, p. 137 (iqoo). 

Chapacters. — Face sinooth. Palpus in cf small, in 9 "'ith third joint long. Antenna iu ^f 
hiliectinatc. in 9 periiaps variable (not pectinate in rufilimes). Frenidum in 9 wanting. Hindtibia (at 
least in the 9) with ali spurs. Abdomen crested. 'Wings shaped as in Raciieospila. Section II, etc. Fore- 
wmg with SC stalked to beyond K', sometimes running into (.'. Hindwing with C apprriximated to 
cell tor some distance near base, not anastomosing. 

Early stages unI;nown. 

\Ve have been quite unable to obtain access to a specimen of miccttlaria, Guenee, the type of this 
genus; it is entirel}- unlvnown to Dognin, Schaus and D^ar, and also to Warren at the present time. 
Tlie above meagre notes have been drawn up from a hasty examination of riifilimes, and from one or 
two hints given by M. Oberthiir, fiom (}uenee's type. According to a rough figure, kindly sent us by 
M. Oberthiir, it seems not unlikely that riifilimes should sink. The genus apparently differs from all the 
rest of its group in thc four-spurred hindtiliia. 

Type of the genus : Racheoloplia miccnlaria ((juenee) ^ Raclieospila miccularia, Guenee (igoo). 

Geographlcal dlstribution of specles. — French Guiana(?), Ecuadoi . 

1. A'. miccnlaria ((iuenee). ? French (iuiana. 

Racheoipila micculayiii. (kienee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 374 (i858j. 
Racheolopha miccularia Warren, Novit. Zool. Voi. 7, p. 137 (1900). 

2. R. ritfilimes, Warren (prsec. syn.?). Ecuador. 

Racheolopha rHfilimes,WaTien, No\it. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3ig fiQ05). 



88. Genus AUOPHYLLA, Warren 

Auophylla. Warren, Novit. /ool. \'ol. 4. p. 42^ (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf rather short. slender. second joint sliort-scaled, 
terminal joint small, pointed, in 9 somewhat more eiongate, yet still relatively small and slender. 
Tongue present. Antenna less than one-half. in both sexes strongh' l)ipectinate. with apex nearly simple. 
Pectus hairy. Hindtibia in (j' not dilated, in both sexes with terminal spuis only. Abdomen with 
compact, ghjssy crests. Frenulum in ^f slender, from before basal expansion, retinaculum near base of 
forewing; 9 frenulum wanting. F"orewing witli costa arched, apex acute, termen rather straight, cell 
nearly one-half, DC'-'' inbent. SC froin cell, anastomosing with C or free, SC^ normal. R- from much 



i3o 



I.KPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



above middle ot DC. M' separate; hindwing with termen nearly smooth or waved, slightly bent at R^ 
tornus pronounced, cell almost one-half, C approximated to cell to near one-half, then rapidly divergins:, 
SC^ stalked, M^ nearly connate. 

Early stages unknown. 

This and the succeeding genera form a ver\ natuval group, the dorsal cresls ver}- uniform on the 
whole, median spurs of hindtihia always absent, 9 antenna almost fixedly bipectinate (excepting a few 
Oospila). 

Type of the genus : Aiiopkylla includaria ( Herrich-Schiit^er) = Thalera iiichidaria, Herrich- 
Schaffer (1S97J. 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — Xeolropical. 

1. A. iiicliidaria ( 1 1 erri ch-Schiifler ) . Brazil . 

Tlialfra inclndaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Samml. Aussereiir. Schmett. Vol. i. 

t. 61. f. 341 (1855), p. 36, 62, 82 (1856). 
Plwrodtsma (?) inclusaria. Guenee, Spec Gen. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 3^1 Ii85k). 
ComibaenaO) incliisaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 370 

(1S61). 
AuophyUa incliiiiana, Warren. N'ovU. Zool. Vol. ^, )). 423 (1897). 

2. A. inuUiplagiaUi, VVarren. 

AuophyUa multiplagiaUi, Warren, Xovit. Zoul. \'u1. 4. p. 42^ (1S97). 
i. A. magnifica (Schaus). 

Comibaena magnijtca, Schaus, Trans. .■\mer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27. p. 252 i.iooi 
j^. A. basiplaga, Warren. 

.■tuophylla hasiplaga. Warren. Novit. Zoo!. Vol. 14, p. .;oi (1907) 11. 



Paraguay. X. Argentinn. 

S. E. Hrazil. 

Paraguay, X. .-\rgentina. 



89. Genus AUOPHYLLODES, nov. gen.. Prout 

Auophyllodes, nov. gen. 1'iout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes slender, with second joint short, third joint 
in cf rather small, pointed, in 9 relatively long. smooth. Tongue prcsent. .-Xntenna in both sexes 
strongly bipectinate, the branches ceasing rather abruptly, apex nearly simple, ciliated. Pectus slightly 
hairy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with terminal spurs onl\ . .\I)domen with compact, 
glossv crests (typically small; larger in eciiadorata, etc). Frenulum in cf slender, from before well- 
marked basal expansion; in 9 wanting Forewing with costa gently arched, apex moderate or rather 
acute, termen smooth, oblique, slightly curved to nearly straight. cell rather short, DC little incurved, 
SCi stalked with SC^-», SC^ typically arising after SC», R' often stalked, M' connate to long-stalked; 
hindwing with termen rounded, or ver\- slightly bent at R=', tornus rather pronounced, cell more or less 
short, DC not very oblique, sometimes angled at origin of R*. C approximated to cell for some distance, 
SC- stalked, R^ characteristic. M' shortly to long stalked (Pl. 3, Fig. I 6). 

Early stages unknown. 

Typically veiy characteristic in the venation, but in order to avoid multiplying genera, we have 
included all the species in which SC of forewing is stalked, even where SC does not (as in the vene- 
auelaia group) arise after SC^'. 

Type of the genus : Auophyllodes venezuelaia (Walker) --^ Comibaena venezuelata Walker. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Central America to Brazil. 



I) Ocsptia b.isiping.i 011 typc iabel. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



i3i 



Section I. — Forewing with SC- arising aftcr SC\ 

j.A. venezuelata (VValker). Nicaraguatonorthern South 

Comibacnaveiiezuelala. Walker, I.ist I.ep. Ins. Brit. Vol. 22, p. 570(1X61). America, Trinidad. 

2. A. amlmsta (Warren) ('prajc. ab. ?). \'enezuela ' 

Auophylla ambusla, Warren, Novit. Zool \'.il. 7, p. i3i (19001. 

3. A. nivasata (Walker). Colo.nbia, Ptiuatemala. 

Comibaena iitvasata,\V3.\keT. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol.35, p. 1611 11866), 
'f Comibaena iiivasala. Druce, BioL Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2. t. ^t,, 

f. 18 (1892I (spec. div. ?i. 
? Comitiaeita inelusaria, nruce. ibidem, p. Ss (1S92I mec Herrich-Schafferi 
(ead ac praec. 1. 
Auophytla invasata. ab. fenupta. Warren. Xovit. ZooL VoL 7, p. i32 f iqooi. 

4. A. heHsawa (Druce). Panama. 

Coiiiibaciia belisama, Druce, Biol. Centr. .Amer. Lep. Ket. Vol, 2, p. s-. 
t. 49. f. 16, 17 (1892). 

5. A. partita, nov. sp. i), Piout. Panama, Costa Rica. 

Sectiox II. — Fore-wino with SC- arising l)el'ore SO\ 



6. A. sarptaria (Moschler) (huj. gen.?) 2). 

Ptioiodesma scarptaria. Moschier, Verh, Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. \o\. 3i, 

p. 402, t 17, f. 12 (1881). 
Comiliaena saiptaria. Dognin, Le Naturaliste. VoL 14, p. 186 (1892). 
.\uopliyltasarplaria, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 7, p. i32 (1900). 

7. .'1. ecnadorata (Dognin) (pr;ec. syn. ?). — Pl. 4, Fig. 3. 

Comiliaena ecuadorata. Dognin. Le Naturaliste, VoL 14. p. 1S6 (1S92). 

8. A. iupata (.Schaus). 

Raelicosfila arpala.Sc\\aus. Jonrn. .\e\v Yorl; Ent. Soc.VoL 5. p. 161 (1897I. 
g. .i . itelacrnzi [l)(}'^nin). 

Comibaena delacrtizi, Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 42. p. 21S 11898). 
Oospila delacruzi, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 11. p. 5o5 11904 1. 
Racheolopha detacruzi. Warren, ibidem. Vol. 16. p 86 (1909 . 

10. A. similiplaga (Warren) (huj. gen.?). 

Racheoloplia similipta<;a. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. 137 (19001. 

11. .-i. extensata (Warren). 

Racheolopha extensata, Warren. Proc. U. S. .\at, Mus. Vol. 3o. p. 423 (1906). 

12. A. astigma (Warren). 

Racheolopha astigma. Warren, Novit. Zool. ^'oL 14, p. 206 (19071. 
i3. A . fimbripedata (Warren). 

Racheolopha fimbripedata. Warren, Novit. Zool Vol. 14, p. 207 (1907). 
14. A. leiicostigma (Warren). 

Raclieolopha leucostigma, Warren. Novit, Zool. VoL 14. p. 207 (1907). 
i5. A. Iniiicincia (Warren) (huj. gen, ?). 

Raclteolopha lunicincta,WaTien, .\ovit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. 85 (1909). 



Sunnam. 

Ecuador to French Guiana 

and S. Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil, Peru. 

f^rench Guiana. 

Peiu. 

Pei u. 

Peru. 

Paiaguay. 



1) Auophyllodes partlta, nov. sp. - Q, 28 mm. Sh^pe oHiivasata. Heid, antenna and palpus iiBht ochreous, the latter redder above 
andonoiiters„le; vertei w.th a sl.ghtly paler band behind the antenra=. Legs ochreous. Thorax green above. .Abdomen very pale fleshvochreous, the 
dorsal crests very small, darker fl^sh.colour, glossy, confined to segments 2-+, Forewing with costa broadly pale ochreous, clouded w.th darker and spotted 
with reddish luscous; basal area otherwise brighl green nearly to middle of wing, its boundary somewl.at oblique, and incurved below cell ; outer area pale 
ochreous, irregularly marked with darker, enclosing a large blotch of bright green between SC« und M', with proximal edge proiect.ng anleriorlv nearly 
to DU. posler.orly reced.ng somewha>, distal edge reaching toabout 2..S mm. from termen, eicept between R' and R^. where the pale ochreouscolour 
throws a curved projection basewards ; terminal hne fuscous, interrupted at the vein-ends; fringe ochreous. Hindwing green from SC (and SC* to origin 
ot Ri) to near tornus (sbape almost exactly as m «.•/,sc»„. Druce), terminal area coloured as in lurewing, with ferruginous .rroration more strong towards 
tornuB term.nal Ime as in forcwmg, but more strongly inte.rupted, thickened mto a conspicuous mark at tornus. Underside with pattern weakly showing 
Ihrough ; forcwing w.lh a ^l.ghlly curved fuscous bar from tornus to R»; hindwing with a s...all subap.cal fuscous blotch. La Chlorrera, Panama. I April 
to i5 May, 1898 (C. H. Dolby-Tylor). Type ,n coll. Bnl. Mus. Costa Rica, in coll. W. Scbaus, Structure qu.te typical. 

2) Moschlers figureand description {especially the . green abdomen .) do not fit perfectly w.th ecuaii„rata. and we thereforecile the name 
separately, and asof an unknown spec.es, but it is quite hkely that .t is a form of Dognins widelv distributed and verv var.able spec.es. The last-named 
certainly belongs to the present genus and section. 




i32 lepidoptera heteroceka 

90. Genus OOSPILA, Warren 

Oospila. Wanen. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 426 (1897). 
Drucia i ). Waireii. ibidem, \'ol. 7, p. i33 (igoo). 
IHalioscia. Wareii, iliidem, Vol. 14, p. 202 (1907) (indescr.). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, not long-scaled, third joint in cf small 
or moderate, iii 9 long to very long," smootli. Tongue present. Antenna rather short, in (J bipectinate 
vvith long branches, apical one-third nearly sim])le; in 9 similarly bipectinate, or with more moderate 
branches, 01 lamellate, nearly simjile. Pectus hairy. Femora usually somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in cT 
oftcn clothed witii extremely long hair on inner side, in both sexes with terminal spurs only. .Abdomen 

with compact, glossj- crests (Fig. I 2). l'"renulum in cf short, 
'■"""'■ '2 usualh' slender. from before well-marke<l basal e.xpansion, 

retinaculum near base of forewing; 9 frenulum wanting. l''ore- 
wing with costa gently arched. apex moderate or lather acute, 
termen straight or gently roundod, inoderatoh- convex, cell 
less than one-half, DC usually rather stiaight, DC^ occasionally 
stiongly incurved, SC from cell, free or anaslomosing with C, 
, . ,„ „ , ,.. , .SC^normal, R' shortlv to rather long-stalked, perhaps occasi- 

I.ateral view of (7('j///rt ^OfrK/tf<j. u arren, (j*. - o i i 

^ onallv connate, K^ usually lidin well above middle of DC, 

M' usually short-stalked, occasionally connale or (quite exceptionally) separate, hindwing with termen 
variable in shape, either regularly rounded, slightly ventricose in middle, or more or less tailed at R^ or 
at Ri and R'', tornus pronounced, cell short, DC* usually cuvved, DC-' oblique, tynically arising con- 
siderably distally, C appressed to SC to one-liaU" cell or less, then rapidly diverging, SC^ long-stalked, 
M' stalked. 

Early stages unknowii. 

.\ rathiM hugo genus, showing some amouiit of structural variation, bul nol at all excessive. The 
sliape of the hiiidwing cannot, so far as we can see, be utilized as generic; Warien places a few of the 
most strongly lailed forms as a separate genus, Drucia, but includes there foims in wliich the shape is 
verj' diverse, while he also admits into his other geneia some which aie more or less tailed (e. g., Racheo- 
lopha keteromorpha). The small group with non-pectinate 9 antenna [coerulea, derasa. etc.) may possibly 
be tenable as a genus, but vve have not even ventured to make it sectional, so many ot the females being 
still unknown. Finall)-, it might be possible to split up the genus on the discocellulars of the hindwing; 
in the type-siiecics and many others these arc as described above, but in thc coerulea-gxo\\y> ar\A others 
they are almost slraight (oblique), and in a few (e, g.. couversa) DC-* is strongl\- incurvcd. A very 
prevalent, though not invariable feature in the genus is the presence of an oval or roundish raised white 
cell-spot on DC^ of the hindwing, often in addition to the ordinary cell-spot, which may be.dark or 
white, and is placed about the middle of DC-*. 

Type of the genus : Oospila trilunaria (Guenee) -— Racheospila trilunaria, Guenee (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Neotropical. 

I. O. trilunaria (Gueiiee). Hrazil. 

Phorodesma Irilunarui, uuenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 372 (1858). 
Comibatna triluuaria, Walker.List Lep.Ins.Brit.Mus.VoL22,p. 570(1861). 
Oospila trilunaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL 4, p. 426 (1897). 
Raclieolopha trilunaria ab. obsolescens, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 16, ji. 86 (1909). 



i) Not preoccupied by Drticea, Kirby (iJ^na*. 



I'AM. C.KOMETKID/E 



i33 



9 
lo. 



2. O. i-iliaria (Hubncr). 

Phalaena Geometra margiiuiiia, StoU, .Siippl. I'ap. ICxot. Cramer. p. i56, 

t. 34, f. 8 (1790) (nec h^abricius, 1777). 
Eucrostes ciliaria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 2S3 (1826?). 
Phalaena marginaria, Verloren, Cat, Ins. Lep. Crameri, p. 269 (1S37,. 
Phorodesma (?) semialbaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 372 (i.s58/. 
Comibaena (.') margiii.uia. Wall;er, List Le[i. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 570 

(1861). 

3. O. pallida (Warren) (praec. var. vel svn. ?). 

Racheolopha pallida, Warren, Proc. V. S. Xat. Miis. Vol. 3o. p. 421) ( 1906). 

4. O. liectiloraria (Walker). 

lodis decoloraria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit, .Mus. Vol. 22. p. 541 (1.S61). 

5. O. albiioiiia (Feldev). 

Racheospila (.') albicoma, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 22 (1S75). 
Oospila albicoma, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, \>. i36 (1900). 

6. O. confiindaria (Moschler) (hiij. gen.?). 

Rachiospila confundaria. Moschler. .-^bh. SenrUenb. Nat. (ies. Vol. 16. 
p. 242 (1890I. 

7. O. callicula (Druce). 

Comibaena callicula, Druce. Binl. Centr. ,Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2. p. .s8, 
t. 49, f. ig 11892). 

8. O. asmiiia (Druco). 

Racheospila {'t)asmura, Druce. Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2. p. 92, 
t. 5o, f. II (1892). 

Drucia asmura. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. i33 119001. 
O. hyalina, Warren. 

Oospila hyaliiia, Warren, Novit. '/,ou\. Vol. 4. p. 427 (1X97). 
0. marginala, Warren (ead ac cunfnndaria. Moschler ?). 

Oospila margiiiata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 427 11897). 

11. O. violacea. Warren. 

Oospila violacca. Warren, No\ it. Zool. Vol. 4. ]>. 427 (1897). 

12. O. jaspidata (\A"arren ) . 

Racheospila jaspidata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 430(1897). 
Racheolophajaspidata, Warren. ibidem, Vol. 7, p. 137 (1900). 
Driiciajaspidata. Warren, l'roc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 416 (igo6j. 

13. O. rosifiara (Warren). 

Racheospila rosipara. Warren. Novit Zool. Vol. 4, p. 431 (1K97). 
Racheotophafiavicincla, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 7, p. 137 (1900) (nov. syn.). 
? Racheolopha microspila, Warren. ibidem., Vol. 16, p. 86 (1909). 

14. O. delphinata (Warreii). 

Drucia delphinata, Warren. .\ovit. Zool. Vol, 7, p. i33 (1900). 
i5. O. concinna. Warren. 

Oospila concinna, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p, i36 (1900!. 

16. O. coni^ener. Warren. 

Oospila congener, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. i36 (igooj. 
Halioscila congener, Warren. ibidem, Vol. 14. \y. 2o3 ( igo^), 

17. O. niptimacula, Warrcn. 

Oospila ruptimacula, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol.S, p. 448 (igoi). 

18. O. latimargo (Warren). 

Drucia latimargo, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. ii, p. 20 (igo^). 

19. O. alroviridis, Warren. 

Oospila atroviridis, Warren, Novit, Zooi. Vol. 11, p, 24 (igo^). 
Halioscia atroviridis, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 14, p. 202 (1907). 

20. O. restricta, Warren. 

0».v/.j/,i restricta. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. ii, p. 504 (1904). 
2 1.0. rufiplaga, Warreii. 

OospHa rufiplaga. Warren, Novit Zool. Vol. 11, p. 505(1904). 
2 2. O. depressa, Warren. 

Comibaena albicoma, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, p. 88 

•(1892) (nec Felder;. 
Oospila depressa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 45 (l905). 



Brazil. 



I'"iench Guiana. 

PJamaica, Paraguay. 

Guateinala, Amazons, Brit- 
ish Guiana. 

P(irto Rico, ? Dominica. 

Panama. 

Panama, N. Peru. 

Colombia. 
British Cjuiana. 
British Guiana. 
British Guiana. 

Venezuela, ? Peru. 

S. E. Brazil, Parai^uay. 

Venezuela. 

British Guiana. 

Ecuador. 

Peru. 

Peru. 

Peru. 
Peru . 
Costa Rica, Panama. 



,34 



LEPIIJOPTEKA HK'li:Hn(l'.K \ 



23. O. thalassina, Wanen. 

Oospila thalassiiut. Warrcn, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3i8 \iyo5;. 

24. O. obeliscata (Warren). 

Auophylla obeUscata, Warren. I'roc. U. S. Nat. Miis. Vol. 3o. p. ^14 (1906). 

25. O. exrnscens (Warren). 

n>ucia excresceiis, Warren, l'roc. U. .S. Xat. Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 415 (1906). 

26. O. gniHtjiiciiiaculata (Warren). 

Diticid qiiiiiquemaculata. \\'3irren. Proc. U..S. Xat. Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 416(1906). 

27. O. semispurcata (Warren). > 

Drucia semispurcala. Warren. l'roc. U. S. Xat. l\his. Vol. 3o. p. 416 iiQo6). 

28. O. sellifera, Warren. 

Oospila sellifcra, Warren, Proc. U. S. Nal. Mus. Vol. .3o. ]). 420 iiyoo . 

29. O. coerulea (Warren). 

Racheolopha coerulea. Warren, Proc. U. S. Xat. ,Mus. Vol. 3o. p. 421 (igo6). 

30. O. derasa (Wanen) (prjec. ab.?). 

Rac/ieoloplia derasa. Warren, 1'ror. U. S. Xat. Mus. Vol. .3o. p. 422 (1906). 
3i. O. lilaciiux (Warren). 

Rachcolopha hlaciiia. Warrcn, Froc. U. S. .\at. Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 424 (1906). 

32. O. longipalfis (Warren). 

Racheolopha loiigipalpis^Warren. Proc. U . S. Xat. .Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 425 1 1906). 

33. O. circuiudata (Warren). 

Drucia circumdata, \\'arren, Xovil. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 202 (1907). 

34. O procellosa fWai ren). 

Halioscia proccllosa. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 202 11907!. 

35. O. pliirimaculala (Warren). 

Racheolopha plurimaculata,\\'3rren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 20811907). 

36. 0. conversa (Dofjnin). 

Racheolopha coiivcrsa. Dognin, .\nn. Soc. llnt. Belg. Vol. 52, p. 264 11908). 

37. O. /ractimacula, nov. nom., Prout. 

Halioscia ruptimacula. Warren, Novit. Zool . Vol . 16, ]). 77 ( 1909) 1 nec Oospila 
ruptimacula. Warren, 1901). 

38. O. loiigiplaga, Warren. 

Oospila loiigipliiga. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. ib, p. 83 (1909,1. 

39. O. miiiorata, Waireii. 

Oospila miiiorata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, ]). s^ 1 mooi 

40. O. nasiita, Warren. 

Oospilii nasula, Warrrcn, Xovil. Zool. Vol. ib, p. KJ liyog). 

41. O. semiviridis. Warren. 

Oospila semiviridis, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 84 (1909). 

42. O. heteromorpha (Warren). 

Racheolopha heteromorpha. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 84 (1909;. 
43.0 lactecincta (Warreii) (huj. gen. ?). 

Racheolopha lacieciiicta, Warren. Novit. Zool, Vol. 16, p. 85 (1909). 

44. O. lacteguttaia (Warren). 

Raclieolopha lacteguttata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 85 (1909). 

45. O. fiimidimargu (Dognin). 

Drucia fumidimargo, Dognin. Mcim. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 18, p. 162(1911). 

46. O. dolens, Druce. 

Oospila dolciis, Dnicc, Ann. Map. Nat. Hist. (S), Vol. 7, p. 293 (1911). 

47. 0. mesocraspeda. nov. sp. i), Prout. 



Peru. 

liritisli and l'"rencli (juiana. 

l'"rencli (niiana. 

l^rencli (itiiana. 

Erencli (jiiiana. 

l"~rencli ( iuiana. 

J->ritish (jiiiaiia, Amazons. 

l''rench (jiiiana to Colom- 

bia. 
French (juiana. 

Frencli Ciuiana. 

IVrii. 

Poru. 

Peru. 

Frencii ( iuiana. 

Peru. 

rpiici .\mazon. 
Peiu, Upper .^mazon. 
Triiiidacl. 
Peru. 



Paraguay. 



rppei .Amazon. 

Peru. 

CoUmibia. 

Colombia. 

Panania. 



i) Oospila mesocraspeda, nov. sp. — g, 2711)111. Rice red Pnlpus longd >/j tiniesdiameter of eye), rcd. Antenna bipeclinale with 
moderate br.imlies : shalt ])inxim.illy « hitc :iliovc. disUiUy rcddish. pcctinations oclircous. Vertex whitish green. occiput green, the two colours narrowljt 
separated by red. 'i lioi;u and abdomcii grccu above, abdominal crests shinin^ ruhy red, those on scpments :;-4 strong, those on 5-6 less so, traces of an 
additional crest on 7. Wiiiprs bluc-grcen. nearly as in coerulea and derasa, liindwinB with teriiien sonicwhat niore strongly rounded than in those species. 
Forewing witli costa narrowly ochreous, a sinall black discal spot and a purplish, fuscous-irrorated temiinal band, quite narrow at costa and between 
R> and M'. forining moderate, rounded-inargined projections from R' to K' and tornally ; fringe paler. cbequered with purplish. Hindwing witli tlie raised 
oval white spot on DC=, no sccond cell-spit : border ncarly as on forcwing, but with a third projcction at apcx, nearly coalesced with the middle onc, the 
demarcation indicated ouly by a slight projection of thc green ground-colour at R'. Underside paler, the marginal bands largely obliterated. but leaving 
a terminal linc on both wings, a fuscous tornal blotch on forewing and apical blolch on hindwing. La Chorrera. Panania. lat April to iStli May, 1S98 
(C. H. Dolby-Tylor). Type in coll. Brit. Mus Aspect of tlic <:(ifr»/<-ii-group, but willi pectinate antenna and UC» separately curvc^, as in typical Oospila, 
not continuously oblique with DC, as in coeriitea. Perhaps nearer to carnetiiiiaia and ccnfliiaria, which zre unknown to us. 



FAM. CJEOMETRIIJ.K i35 

4S. O. sesquiplaga, nov. sp. 1). Prout. Biazil. 

NoTE. — Racluolopha canielimata. Wanen, Proc. U. S. Nai. Mus. \'o\. 3o. p. 421; A'. confluaria, 
Wanen, ibidem, p. 422; R. continnata, Wanen. ibidem, p. 422; R. rnliescens, Warren. ibidem, p. 428; 
R.florepicta, Warren, ibidem, p. 424, and R. sporadata, Warren, ibidem, p. 429, are unlcnovvn to us, but 
are probably — some of them almost certainh' — to be added to this genus. Jt is also possible that one or 
two of them belong to Progonodes or one of the other nearly allied genera ; the description of sporadata, ni 
particular, suggests the genus named. 

91. Genus PROGONODES, Warren 

Progonodes. Warien, Xovit. Zool. \'ol. 4, p. 429 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes minute (shorter than diameter of eye), 
shortly scaled. Tdn.oue present (not very strong). Antenna short, in both sexes bipectinate with long 
branches, apical end nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs only. 
Abdomen vvith compact, glossy crests. Frenulum in cf short, from liefore basal expansion, in 9 wantmg. 
Wings usually rather smoothly and not densely scaled, hindwing sometimes with raised oval white spot 
on DC-, as in Ouspila. Forewing with costa rather straight proximally, more arched distally, apex 
prominent, termen obhque, straight anteriorly, slightly or more strongly curved posteriorly, cell nearly 
one-half, DC more or less normal (m nivetacla with DC^ incurved and ] )C"' arismg distally ), .SC from 
11, anostomosmg vvith C (free in nivctacta). SC- normal, R^ connate or short-stalked, W connate or short- 
talked; hindwmg with apex moderate or rather squared, termen slighth- or strongly bent at R^ thence 
rather straight, tornus pronounced, cell somewhat less than one-half, DC variable, C approximated to 
cell for some distance, SC^ stalked, M^ short-stalked, occasionally connate. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

VVe have retained this genus for a fcw species agreeing with Oospila in most charactevs. but 
distini;uislied liy th(.- minute palpus in both sexes. 

Type of the genus : Proi;i<iiodes staiivnata (l''elder) = Raclicospila stagonata. Felder. 
Geographical distribution of specles. — Tropical .America, ?S. l^razil. 

I. P. stagonata (Felderj. Colombia. 

Rac/ieospili! slagoiiaUi. Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 25 (iSyS). 

Progo/iodes stngonata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 4^0 11897I. 
1. P. arycanda (Druce) (prsec. var.?). Costa Rica. 

Rachcospila arycanda. Drucc, Hiul. Centi. .Amer. Lep. Het. Vul 2, p. 89, 
t. .\q, f. 21 (1892). 

3. P. iitlnna (Druce). Panama. 

Raclitoipilii alhciia, Driue, Biol. Centr. Anier, Lep. Het. Vol. 2, p. Nq, 
t. 49, f. 22 (iSg2). 

4. P. nivetacta (Warren). — Pl 4, Fig. 7. Frencli and Hritish Guiana. 

Racheolopha nivetacla, Warren, i'roc. U. .S. Nat. Mns. Vol .3o, p. 425 iigo6). 

5. P . fencslrata, Bastelberger. N". Peru. 

Pi-ogonodes feiiestrata, Hastel1)orger. Intern. lint.Zeit. Gul>en.Vol. 5. p. 5^ 

(icii I j. 

0. P. semicaudata, nov. sp. 2), Proul(huj. gen.?j. Brazil. 



ce 

s 



1) Oospila sesqurplaga, nov. sp — ';',.i2mm. Sliape, strufture and coloiation oiO. corrulea, tlie markings ol butli wings luscous 
purple, consistini,' on forewing uf a minute liisial dot, a thick terminal line, a small pyramiilal blotch betwcen R' and K' and a larger tornal blotch (trom 
midway bctween il' and M'- to inner margin at about i mm. from tornus. its edge rounded). on hindwing of the terminal line and a small tornal blolch ; 
hindwingalso with araised white dash on DCJ; fringes purplish. Undcrside with the markings reduced to the terminal lines and, on forewing only, a 
smail tornal blotch. lirazil, ex coll. Sauiiders, type in coll Oxford Mus. 

2) Progonodes Ci semicaudata. nov. sp. — 9.2()mm. Face red. vertcx white, occiput green, palpusreddish. antcnnal shaft white. 
Thorax and basc of abdomen grccn dorsilly. paler beneath. hore- iinil mi.ldle.IeKS tingcd with red anteriorly. Forewing with costa arched, apex acute. 
termcn straight (evcn faintly subconcave) anteriorlv. strongly curved and oblique posteriotty ; green. with a smalt red-brown cell-spot, large red-brown 
tornal blotcli rcaching to M'. and rather tbick red-brown terminal line, slightly patc-interrupted at the vein ends ; fringe wbitish, m,arked with red-brown 
(defectivc). Hindwing somewhat quadrate, termen produced to a Iilunt tooth at K'', faintly cxcised between K' and Ji^'; green, witti a red-brown apicat 
blotcl) reacliing to ti"; discal spot, terminal line and fringe as in forewing, the terminal line thickened into a very sn)alt blotch at tornus. F.spiritu Santo, 
Brazil. Typc ii) Oxford JiJus. Keforred provii-ionally to Froiiogodcs in spite of sn)atler size and different facies. T lie crests are slight, concolorous with 
abdomen. W of botli wings is very shortly stalkerl. SC-of hindwin}; only shortty st.dked, C isapprovimated to celt to about one-half and divei-gcs gradualty. 



i36 



LEPIDOPTHHA MKTEKOCKKA 



92. Genus RHOMBOCHLORA, Warren (PR/cc. subgen.?) 

Rhombochlora. Warren. Xovit. Zool. \'ol. i6, p. Sg (iqog). 

Characters. — Face smootli. I'alpus in o* ([uite short (about as long as diameter of eye), 
rather slender, second joint shortly rough-scaled, terminal joint minute. Tongue present. Antenna 
scarcely over one half, in (^ bipectinate to tvvo-thirds with moderate branches. apex nearly simple, with 
single cilia. Pectus hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf dilated with hair-pencil, median spurs 
wanting. Abdomen with dorsal crests, somevvhat as in Oo.iy^/Va, etc, but rather less highly developed. 
Frenulum as in (^ inodeiatc, from before appreciable basal expansion, l-^orevving with costa arched, 
apex moderate, termcn very feeblv elbovved al R-', tornus pronounced, cell rather less than one-half, 
DC". incurved, SC free. SC^ normal. K' short-stalked, R^ from above middle of DC, M' approximated : 
hindwing with apex pronounced, termen strongly produced to a blunt tail at R-', lornus pronounccd, 
cell less than one-half, DC rather straight, obhque. C approximated to cell to near one-half, SC stalked, 
M' connate. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

We have dravvn tip tlie above characterization froni \\'arren's type. V)ut have been quite unable 
to study it further or to compare it vvitli the preceding; moreover the 9 '^ unknown, and the status of 
the genus must remain for the present doubtful. Possibly not separable from Progonodts. 

Type of the genus : Rhomhoi/ilora graiiiilnta, Warren (igog). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Amazons. 

I. R. granidata, Warren. Upper Amazon. 

Rliomboclilora griiiiiiliitci, Warreii. Nnvit. Zool. Vol. i6, )). Hg (IC109I. 



93. Genus LOPHOCHORISTA, Warren 



FiG. i3 



Lophochorlsta. Waiien, Novil. Zool. \'ol. 11, p. 22 (1904). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus slender, second joint rather short, rough-scaled above 
and beneath. third joint in (^ small, in Q gieatly elongate. Tongue piesent. Antenna short. in both 

sexes bipectinate vvith long branches, apical one-third merely ciliated. 
Pectus densely haiiy. Femora hairv, hindfemur (at least in (f) densely 
long-haired. Hindtibia in ^ greatly dilated, especially posteriorly, vvith 
dense masses of liair. one long and one short terminal spur, medians 
vvanting ( Flg. I 3); in 9 vvith a single pair of rather short, equal siturs, 
lliiuliaisus in o* abbreviated. Metathorax stronglv tufted. Abdomen with 
strong, moderately compact crests, Hindvving vvith appreciable basal 
expansion, frenulum in (j* arising before it, moderately strong, in 9 
wanting Wings smoothly scaled, somewhat hvfahne. Forewing with costa 
straight proxiinally, slightlj' arched distally, apex moderate, termen 
faintly crenulate. curved, oblique, strongly so beyond M', cell almost 
one-half, DC'* usually deeply incurved, SC free, SC^ normal, K' longish- 
stalked, R^ from much above middle of DC, M' connate or separate; 
hiniiwing with apex rounded, termen crenulate, vvith stronger teeth 
at R' and R'', especially the former, tonuis moderately pronounced, cell less than one-half, DC'' usually 




of Lophochorista ockeudeut^ IJnice, c? . 



FAM. (.EOMETKIIX^ iSy 

deeply incurved, but very variable, C appressed to cell to one-half (the appression sometimes including 
a shght anastomosis), verv lapidlv diverging. SC*^ stalked, M' connale, stalked or a])proximated. 

Early stages unlmown. 

Evidentl^- related to Oospila (e. g.. U. flhdiscala), but distinct in the tufted metathorax, partly 
aborted cf hindleg, smooth, subhyahne scahng, crenulate hindwing, etc. 

Type of the genus : Lophochorista calliope (Drucei - Racheospila calliope. Diuce j) (1904). 

Geographical dlstrlbution of specles. — Mexico to S. E. Brazil. 

1. L. calliope (Druce). Mexico. 

Racheosf^ila calliope, Driice. Biol. Ceiitr. .-Xmer. Lej). Het. Vol. 2, p. 90, t. 5o, 

f. I, 2 (18921. 
Loplwchorista calliope, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 22 (1904). 

2. L. ockendeni (Druce). Peru, Venezuela, S. E. Bra- 

Racheosfiila ocheitdeiti, Druce. Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist.(8i. Vol. 7. p.29.? (1911). Zll. 



94. Genus CHEROSCELIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Cheroscells, nov. gen. Prciut. , 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus long. slender, second joinl shortly rough-scaled beneath, 
third joint smootli, elongate (especially in the 9)- Tongue present. Antenna less than one-half, in 
the (f bipectinate to about two-thirds, in 9 shortly bipectinate {palliata), cihate {rubricorpus) or almost 
simple ioospila). Pectus haiiy. Femora shghtly hairy. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs 
oiil}- 2). .Abdomen crested, in 9 lobust. Frenuhim arising from before some basal expansion, in cf 
moderate, in 9 obsolescent. Forew'ing with costa shghtl}' arched, more so towards apex, apex moder- 
ate, termen curved, obhque, waved, cell rather less than one-half, DC incurved, SC usuallj' free, 
occasionally anastomosing briefly with C, SC^ normal, R' stalked (type, etc.) or separate, M' stalked 
(type) or separate; hindwing wilh termen convex, typically weh-rounded, waved or subcrenulate 
(in rubricorpus somewhat elbovved at R^ and straighter in tornal half), ceH less than one-half, 
DC-' somewhat incurved, C approximated to, or even shghtly anastomosing with cell near base 
{\n palliata point-anastomosing, then rapidly diverging), SC^stalked, R^ normal, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Evidently denved froni a form akin to Archichlora; in some respects ma)- be compared with 
Comibaena, Spaniocenira, etc. The species included are not very perfectly homogeneous, and unfortu- 
nately only one cf {palliata) is known; but there is no difficulty in including them in a single genus. 

Type of the genus : Cheroscelis oospila, Prout. 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — .Ethiopian. 



1) Weassume that Warren drew up tiis diagnosis from tlie true calliope, whjch is unlcnown tous; but it is quite lilcely that the cailiope oi Warren 
was truly ockendetii. Druce, wliich has certainly been passing in coilections under the name ot calliope. and on which our ftwn diagoosis is based. The 
two may possibly be geographical iorms of a single species. 

2) Uiifortunateiy both bin-tlegs lo.st in the sole known example of the type species, bul its relationship to ?'«5r(C(jr/«.? is sufficiently close to 
justify our giving this character. 



i38 i.i:pidoptera iikteroceka 

1. C. oospila. nov. sp. i ), l'mul. Upper Congo. 

2. C. palUata (Wanen). >«''ger <-"oast. 

Rhomlioristapalliata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, )>. i6 189S). 
Rhomborista Hslipeiiiiis. Warren. ibidem. p. 236 (1898). 

3. C. nihncorpus (Warren). Niger Coast. Kilima-njaro, 

CEnospila rubricorpus, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 235 (1898). Xatal. 

llemilliea plagiata, Aurivillius, Schwed. Zool. Exped. Kilimanjaru yi, 
p. ig, t. 2. f. 10 (1910! (nov. syn.). 



95. Genus HETEROCRITA, Warren 

Heterocrlta. Wancii. .Vovit. /ool. \'ol. 8, ji. 445 (1901). 

Characters 2). — l'"ace siimoth. Palpus witli second joint rough-scaled abovc aiid heneath, 
in 9 reaching vvell beNond frons, third joint in 9 nioderate, shortly rough-scaled 3). Tongue deve- 
loned. .•\ntenna in (^ (?) 4), in 9 nearly simple. Pectus haiiy. Hindlibia with the spurs unequal, the 
oiiter median inclining to obsolescence. Abdoinen sometimes vvith slight dorsal crests. Frenulum 
wanting or vestigial in 9 (vvill certainly be present in the cT). Forevving vvith costa slightly arched at 
base and towards apex, nearh- stiaight between. apex rather acute, termen curvcd, oblique, faintly 
vvaved. cell not quite one-half, DC^ curved, becoming very oblique, SC from cell, anastomosing at a 
point or connected with C or free. SC^ normal, sometimes anastomosing at a point with SC, K' connate 
or approximated, M' rathcr vvidely separate; hindvving vvith apex rounded, termen slightly toothed at 
the vein-ends, more strongly so at R' and R^, vvith a slight or stronger excision betvveen these latter, 
ccll less than one-half, DC'' somewhat incurved anteriorly. very obli(|ue posteriorly, C approximated 
to cell to nearly or quite one-lialf, SC-stalked, M' rathcr widely scparate. 

Early stages iinknciwn. 

Type of the genus : Hcterocrila araria (Guenee) = RachtospHa araria, (juenee (1901). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. Africa, ? Madagascar. 

1. H. annia (Guenee). Namaqua Land. 

Racheospila araria, Guenee, Spec.Gen. Lep. \'ol. 9, p. 373 (l858), 
HcUrocrila araria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8. p. 445 (1901), 

2. H. discerpta (Walker) (huj. gen.?). Cai>c. 

Gi-nmetra discerpla, Walker, List Lep. Ins Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 5i3 1 1861). 



1) Cheroscells oospila. nov. sp. — Q, 35mm. He.id and face green, vertex broadly wliite between anttnnx. Palpus m;irkcd witl> 
led above, whitish beneatli. .\niennal shafi basallv white above, diitally red. Thoran green. Kore- and middle- legs mostly red on outer •ide. Abdomen 
ventrally white, dorsallv purplebrown at base, thence whilish densely speckled with puiple-brown ; crests strong, darker purple brown with a slight 
metalbc lustre. Wings bright green, slightly tinged with bluish. Forcwing with costal edge narrowly whitish. tinged with flcshy ochieouB; a very «mall 
pale discal spot, partly edged with red ; two terminal blotches of lii-shy ochreous, iiarrowly and vaguely niargined with red, then raore broadly with purple- 
fuscous. the anterior blotch reaching from SC» to near R», iis projcimal edge about ,i,5 mm, from tcrroen, the posterior blotch much largei, its proximal 
edgefrom inner margin at two-thirds, oblique basewards, then curved and sinuous, crossmg K' at just beyond eitrcmity of cell, thence oblique to termen 
at M', but with a subquadrate eicision before re.iching termen, both blotches slightly irrorated with reddish and fuscous. except pioximally ; terminal line 
thick,' blackish, inteituptcd by the vem-euds, fnnge pale ochreous with a chequeiing of reddish mixed with fuscous. Hindwing similar, the discal spot 
less edged with red, Ihe blotchcs smaller, ihe tornal scarcely larger than the central, an additional elongale blotch along inner margin from near base, 
bounded by vein M as fai as the origin of M*, its boundary thence irregularly oblique to inner maigin at about Ihree-fifths, inner-raaiginal iiinge continuing 
reddish. Undei suiface much paler, the saine markings present, but shadowy, costa of forewing more ochreous. Upper Congo, IQ07 (A . F. K. VVollaston), 
Typeincoll. Brit, Mus, (in excellent condition). We have descrilied the unique specimen very eiactly, bul probably thc blotcheswill prove to vary, as in 
most of the allies, In any cise, the scaicely cilialed anteona and the shape of the hindwmg (rounded, almost crenulate) will dislinguish it abundantly from 

rubricorpus. 

2) Here ag:i,n Warren has erected a genus on a little-known species of Guen6e's, and our diagnosis, drawn up from koranata, may rcquiie 
modificatioii, or the genus inay have to be dropped, Guen4e's type of araria. M. Oberthiir wriles us, 1» in such bad condition that he would advocate 
rejecting the name ; he does not think it is identical with koranata, but there seems to be at least a near alliance. 

3) If rfijt-irr/l/a be really referable to this genus, the palpus must be vanable, for in that species it has the terminal joint quite small and 
concealed in both sexes, 

4^ Warren savs • thick, lamellate, with clavateteeth benealh »; tbey are pectinate \n discerpta. 



FAM. GKOMETKIJ),!'; i3r, 

3. H. koianaia (Felilcr). Cape to Transvaal. 

RahacospilaO)ltoraiuUa. Felder. Keise Novara, Lep. Het.t. 127. f. n 1 1875,1. 

4. H. ciiichita (Saalmiiller) fhuj. gen.?). Madagascar. 

Xfinoiiti ciiicliilii, Saalnmller. Lep ^ladag. (2), p. 493, t. 14. f. 279 118911. 



96. Genus CULPINIA, nov. gen., Prout 

Culpinia, nov. gen. l^rout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus shortish-modeiate, second joinl rough-scaled, third joint 
in cf quile small, in 9 slightly longer. Tongue present. .\ntenna in cf bipectinate almost to apex with 
moderate, in 9 merely subserrate. Pectus hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in o< scarcely dilated, 
but with a small pencil of hairs, median spurs wanting; in 9 with all spurs, the medians variable in 
development, sometimes apparently vestigial. .Abdomen not appreciably crested. Frenuluni present 
in cf, sometimes rather well developed. often weak and colourless, alwa>s arising from before strong 
basal expansion; in 9 wanting. F"orewing with costa arched, apex rather acute, termen straight or even 
faintly incurved anteriorly, curved or bent in middle and becoming strongly obHque, cell less than 
one-haU', DC^ deepl> incurved. becoming very oblique, SC from cell (sometimes almost connate 
with SC^''), anastt)mosing with C orfree, SC- normal. not approaching SC, R' connate or short-stalked, 
M' connate or short-stalked ; hindwing with apex rounded, termen produced to a tooth at R' and a 
stronger one at R^ excised between. tornus moderate, cell short, DC curved, C anastomosing with cell 
at a point or very shortly near base, then moderately rapidly diverging, SC^ short-stalked, M' connate 
or usually stalked (P|. 3, FJg. 13). cf genitalia : uncus poiiited, with socii of equal lengtli, gnathos 
pointed, almost atrophied. harpe rounded, sacculus considerably extended, with srnall scobinations, 
fiom the costa of harpe arise long clubbed scales; penis pestillate, narrow below, wider above, vesica 
with two short cornuli ; related to Thalera, and apparently to Microloxia. 

Early stages luiknown. 

Dedicatcd tu I )r. M. Culpin, of Shanghai, to wlioin we ai-e indebted for material in its type 
species, as well as other Eastern species. An interesting genus, on account of its singularly e.xact super- 
ficial likeness to the well-known T/ialera, of which it must certainly be regarded as the parent. In this 
instance the structure has advanced without the slightest change of facies. In Culpinia the (f frenulum 
is present, sometimes even rather strong, the 9 preserves (at least usually) the median spurs, while 
both frenulum and median spurs are entirel}- lacking in Thalera; Thahra has further specialized in the 
shortening of the palpus, the tendency to stronger anastomosis of C of hindwing with cell, and the 
pectinalion of the 9 antenna; the other differences in venation, although among characters which are 
known to be variable, are by no means slight in the aggregate. The tibial amiature would suggest a 
possible connectiou with tlie Hvmithia-g]iju]i. 

Type of the genus : Ciilpinia diffnsa (Walker) = Thalcra dijfnsa. Walker. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Eastern Pahearctic. 

I. C. diffusa (Walker). Japan to Amur and Chiiia. 

Tlialtradiffusa. Walker, List Lep. Ins. »rit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 597 (1861J. 
Ttiahra crentdala, Butler. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (.■;). Vol. i, ]). 399 (1878); 

III. Het. CoH. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3, p. 37. t. 5o. f. 2 (1879). 
Tlialera ru/olimharia, Hedemann, Hor. Soc. Ent. Koss. Vol. 14. p. 5i2, t. 3, 
f. 5 (1879). 



I40 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

97. GeNUS CHLOROPARDA, NOV. GEN. PROUT thic ponendum?) 

Chlopoparda (Warren, MS.), nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus minute, rough-scaled. Tongue very small and slender. 
Antenna in 9 1'ipectinate. Hindtibia in 9 with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not appreciably crested. 
Frenulum (in cf ?) in 9 wanting, basal expansion of hindwing strong. Forewing with costa arched, 
apex acuteh' jiroduccd, termen concave to R^, there produced, thence very strongly oblique, faintly 
sinuous, tornus obtuse, cell less than one-half, DC^ deeply inbent, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, 
SC--^ stalked, SC'' given off much before SC^, SC- not approaching SC, R' well separate, R** from very 
near R', M' separate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen somewhat sinuous and produced to strong 
teeth at R' and R-', deeph' excised between, tornus moderate, cell short, DC-' incurved, C touching cell 
near base, rather gradually diverging, SC^ stalked, R- from ven near R', M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

It is unfortunate lo be compelled to found a genus upon a species of which we onh' have the 9 
before us, but the combination of characters marks it out as abundantly distinct. .Should the (f frenulum 
prove to be absent, it must be transfevred to the vicinity of Thalaa, from which it differs widelv in 
venation, but little otherwise. .^ similarity (perhaps more than superficial) to Bathycolpodes has indiiced 
us to pkice it here. Excepting Lathochlora — which likewise is known in the 9 sex onh" — it seems 
to bear no really near relationship to any of the genera which share with it the pecuUar subcostal 
venation. Spaniocentra, which has likewise lost the median spuis, has very diflerent discocellulars and 
palpi, but the form of the wings in one or two of that genus and Rhomborista suggest that all three genera 
may belong to a common stirps. 

Type of the genus : Chloroparda palliplagiaia (Walker) — Thalassodis palliplagiata, Walker. 

Geographlcal dlstribution of species. — Burma. 

I. C. palliplagiata (Walker). I-Juima. 

Tluihisiodes pnlUpliigiata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. io63 

(1862). 
Chlorodontoperit pallipla^ittla. Hampson, Fauna Ind, Moths, Vol. 3. p. 483 

(1895). 

98. Genus BATHYCOLPODES, nov. gen., Prout 

Bathycolpodes, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — l'"ace smooth. Palpus in both sexes small, slender, second joint shorth lough- 
scaled, Ihinl joini nniiutc. Pongue usually rudimentaiy. Antenna in both sexes ciliated, either simpls 
or in more or less strongh' pedicellate fascicles i). Pectus somewliat hairv. Femora glabrous, Hindtibia 
in cf somewhat dilated with hair-pencil, no terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomeii 
crested, only the first crest usually strong, Frenulum in (^ strong, but from before basal expansion, 
in 9 vestigial. Forevving with costa aiched, termen usnalh' exciscd below apex, elbowed (usually 
strongly) at R-', very obUque posteriorh", tornus not pronounced, cell iess than one-half, DC^ incurved, 
very oblique posteriorly, SC from cell, free or anastomosing shorth' with C, SC^ normal, R' usualh' 
short-stalked, sometimes connate, R- from above middle of DC, M' stalked; hindwing with apex 
rounded, termen toothed (usuaUy strongh') at R' and R^, excised between, tornus moderateh" 



I) Only in ariisotes sliortly bipectinate. 



FAM. (;E(n[E'l'RID.E 141 

pronounceil, cell less than nne-half, DC-' oblique posteriorly, C appioxiniated or poinl-anastomosing 
near base, usuallv rapidly diverging, K^ veiy characteristic, M' slalked. 

Early stages unknMwn. 

Type of the genus : Bathycolpodes maygiiiata {W -AVex) = Episothalma mayginata, Wanen. 

Geographical distributlon of species. W. Afiica. 

1. B. marginata (Warren). Sierra Leone. 

Episotluilma margiiiota. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 38 (1S97). 

2. B. semigrisea (\Naxren). — Pi. 4, Fig. 6. Congo, Ashanti. 

Episothalma scinignsca. Warreii. Xovit. Zoul. Vol. 4. |). 38 (1897J. 

3. 7^'. excavata (Warren). Nigeria, Ashanti. 

Episolhalma excavala. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 5. \\ 2^4 (i8g8). 

4. B. subfuscala (Warren). Nigeria. 

Episothahna sublnscata. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 9. p. 494 (19021. 

5. B. kabaria (Swinhoe). Sierra Leone. 

Episothalma kabaria. Swinhoe. 'Jrans. l-^nt. Soc. Loml. p. 341 (1904). 

t>. B. vegeta, nov. sp. i), Prout. S. Nigeria. 

7. B. acoelopa, nov. sp.2), Prout. S. Nigeria. 

8. B. anisotes, nov. sp. 3), Prout. W. Africa. 

Episothahna subfuscata, Swinhoe. TrHns. Jint. Soc. LonJ. p. 542 119041 
(indescr. ; nec Warrenj. 

99. Genus CHLORODREPANA, Warren 

Chlorodrepana. Wairen, Xovit. Zool. \'.)1. 6. p. 22 (1898). 

Characters. — i-^ace smooth. Paljnis minute. Tongat' rudniientary. Antenna in both sexes 
sim])le, slightlv pubescent. Pectub haii\ . l'"emora glabrous. llindtibia in (^f some\\hat dilated with 



i) Bathycolpodes vegeta, nov. sp. — (3". 24 mm. Face and palpus blackish, the latter ratlier loDger than in most of the genus. Antenna 
re*l-brown proximallv. blackish distaily, the teeth quite slight. ciliation repular. Vertex red-brown. blackish posteriorJy. I horax green. Alidomen marked 
with green (discolouredl. Forewing with termen crenulate, sligbtly excised between R' and R'', gibbous at R' and M', then very oblique ; rather dark 
bhie-green, cosia red-bro\vn coarsely spotted with biack, termen with red-brown. black-sprinkled and coarsely black-edged, crescentic markings, the first 
between apei and SC"'. the second between SC^ and R', Ihe third (larger) between R" and R^ the last (a moderate-sized blotch at tornus) reaching to M-; 
a. verv feebly indicated, diffuse darker green ceil-spot ; terminal iine black; fringe brown, tinged with red and chequered wiih black at the vein-ends. 
Hindwing rather elongate, the teeth at R* and U^ strong, the excision between deep; similar to forewing, but with ihe anterior two blotches larger, 
confluent, and the tornal one very smail. Underside dirty paie green, the forewing somewhat clouded (except at margins) with greyish ; cell-spots conspi- 
cuous, fuscous. terminal markings nearly as above, but paler, centred with the yround-colour instead of with reddish, their dark edges broad ard difluse. 
Ilesha, S. Nifjeria i L. E. H. Humfrey), iype in coll. Brit. Mus. Nearest to kabaria^ Swinhoe, the shape more extreme (intcrmediate towards excavata), 
the dark borders narrowcr. underside greenish not pink, etc. 

2) Bathyco podes acoelopa, nov. sp. — c?. 22 mm. Face an i palpus b^ack. mixed with red. Vertex and antenna reddish ochreous, 
the pfdicels of the fascicles of ciii i elongate. forming slender, rudimentary pectinations. OccipuL paler ochreous, margined anterioriy by a narrow bUck 
band on crown. Thorai and l)ase of abdomen green dorsaiiy, the rest ol body, wi h legs, ochreous somewhat mixed with reddish; a deep brown-red lateral 
streak on second abd^mini-l segmen . siightiy margined beneaih wiih green. Forewing with termen not excavaied in anterior haif, merely very feebly 
sinuate; blue-green, costal margin from SC paie ochreous, becoming much redder cosially, coarsely speckled with blackish; terminal one-third pale 
ochreous, clouded with darker, especialiy in its middle, and speckled with bi;ickish, a blackish mark near costa and an elongate blackish blotch trom 
tornus ; the green-area is bounded by a blackish line from costaat three-fourths to inner margin at two-thirds, dentate outwardson the veins (mi'st weaklj' 
on R-) and slightly incurved between radials and in submedian area; the space immediatety foUowing the line is narrowly whitisb ; no distinct terminal 
line ; fringe ochreous. Hindwing with tiie tooth at R' and the excision rather sli^^hi; similar to forewing, but with the biackish line bounding tlie green area 
not rfentate, biit slightlv incurved from apex at two tldrds, then more sironglv ouicurved,approaching termen at il- and stiil more closely at tornus.slightly 
recurved between ; tlic tornal blackish blotch very minute, an eiongate one, on the other hand, running from apex to R* ; inner margin very narrowly 
ochreous neariy to base. Underside of forewing wiih basai two-thirds vaguely clouded with reddish except at inner margin, costal edge red.terminal 
areanearlvasabove, but with thefuscous blotch eitended (though gradualiy narrowingand becommg slightiy interrupted)from tornus lo SC*; of hindwing 
with the (uscous blotch from costa to beyond R». llesha. S. Nigeria (L. E. H. Humfrey). 'lype in cnll. Brit. Mus. 

3) Bathycolpodes anisotes. nov. sp. — Q. 28 mm. Face dul! red. Palpus dull red above, ochreous beneath. Xongue developed. 
Antenna with short, but true pectinations, beariiig cilia. Head reddish. with a bhick band across crown. Thorax green above. Abdomen pale ochreous 
brown, the crests well developed, tinged with reddish. Forewing with termifn very weakly crenulate, not excised below apex; rather dark bluish green ; 
costa light ochreous. shaded with red. and coarsely speckled witb blackish ; distai margin for an average widthof 2,5 mm. ochreous. centrally traversed by 
a red-brown shade, and irregularly speckled with blackish, the speckling sonietimes concentrated close to tornus to form a vague blotch ; proximal edge 
of this margin marked by a narrow white, proximally fineiy fuscous-edged line which is toothed outwards on SC^ and R*. incurved between radials and 
again posteriorly to M*, toothed again on 11- and S.\l-; terminal dark spots between the veins; fringe ochreous. Hindwing with termen subcrenulate. the 
tooth at R' acute, but the escision foUowing not very deep ; coloured as forewing, the ochreous margin broadest in anterior halt, and sometimes with a 
curved grey blotch from apex to R''. Underside much paler and more uniforn, but with thetornal blotch of forewing and apicalof hindwingstrong fuscous, 
the latter extended to beyond R*. W. Africa (Bonny). Type in Oxford Museum, ex coll. Saunders. Old Calabar (S. I). Crompton). Co-type in coU. Brit. 
Mus. Nearly aUied to the preceding species, but differing somewhat in shapeand in the formof the terminal bands. and especiaUy in the pectinate antenna. 



142 LEPIDOPTERA II ETEROCERA 

hair-pencil, hut wilhout piocess, in both sexes with all spiirs. Abdomen shghtlj- or moderately crested. 
Frenulum in (f fairly strong, from before shght basal expansion. in 9 vestigial. Forewing broad, with 
costa arched, apex falcate, termen httle obhque, tornus pronounced, cell rather less than one-half, 
DC incurved, SC from cell, free, SC^ normal, R^ just stalkcd, R- rather above middle, M' stalked: 
hindwing with termen bent at R', tlience rather straight, waved. tornus pronounced, cell rather short, 
DC-* sUghtly incurved, C anastomosing witli coU at a ])oint near b;ise, thence moderatelv diverging, 
SC^stalked, R^ very characteristic, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Almost certainl\ a closc relative oi Bathycolj>odes, in spite of the different shape; agrees practically 
in every other character. 

Type of the genus : Chlorodrepana roi/ti, Warren (1899) 

Geographical distrlbution of specles. — W. .Africa. 

1. C. rothi, Warren. Xiger Coast. Cameroons. 

ChlorodrepDiia rothi, Warren, Xovit. Zool Vol. 6, p. 22 (1899). 

2. C. angitstimargo, Warren. Sierra Lcone. 

Chlorodrefaiia aii/;usliiiiargo, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 8. p. 7 (1901 1. 



100. Genus HYPOCCELA, Warren 

Hypocoela i). Warren,- Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 41 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth, somewhat rounded. Palpus in (^f rather sliort. second joint shortly 
scaled, third joint small; third joint in 9 elongate. Tongue present. .Antenna in both sexes biiiectinate 
to two-thirds, in (^ witli moderate (iii hnmidaria longish) branches. in 9 ^vith short branclies. Pcctus 
hair}'. Mindtibia in c? not dilated. in botli sexes with four rathei ai^proximated spuis. Abdomen usuall\- 
somcwhat crested. i^renulum iii (f typically rather strong, but short (in some species more slender^, 
arising from before basal expansion, in 9 vvanting or vestigial. Forewing with apex falcate, or with a 
small rounded excision between R' and R-', cell iess than one-half, i>roduced apically, DC deeply 
incurved, very oblique posteriorly, SC free, or anastoiriosing briefiy with C, SC* normal, R' connate, 
M' connate, approximated or very shortly stalked ; hindwing with termen rounded, or with a small tail 
at r-i'', inner margin long, cell less than one-half, DC oblique posteriorly. C anastomosing at a point, or 
appressed, continuing approximatod for a little, then moderately divergent, SC- stalked (sometimes 
almost connate), M' stalked. 

Early stages unkuMwn. 

We have extended this genus to include (at least provisionally) species of somewhat varj'ing 
shape and facies, but tolerably uniform structure. They share vvith the two preceding genera a rather 
strong build, firm texture of wings, with thick but smooth scaling, the coloration gencrally a good deal 
variegated, and different on the two surfaccs. Phe pectinate antenna (in both sexes, so far as known) 
distinguishes the prosent genus. 

Type of the genus : Hypocoda subfidva. Warron (1897). 



i) Ttie pjenerir name llvpocoelw; li;is liecn tlirut; u-ied in zooloijy, (oninien-ing with Escli^ichoUz li^.io. Co/eofit^nti, but the form Hypotoeia is 
not preoccupied. 



FAM. GEOMETKID.E 143 

Geographical distribution of species. — .Ethiopian. 

1. H. sitbfidva, Wanen. — Pl. 4, Fig. 8. Niger, Cameroons.Uganda. 

Hyfiocoela subfulva. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 41 (1897). 

Hypocoela »«i/o>-»i;s, Warren. ibidem.Vol. 12, p. 385 (igoS) (ab. ?) (nov. syn.). 

2. H. /lumidaria {Sv.'mhne). Madagascar. 

Tanaorliinus Immidaria. Swinhoc, Trans. Ent. ,Soc. Lond. p. 542 1 1004^ 

3. H. furpisaria (Swinhoe). Xigeria. 

Thalera (?) tur/^isaria. Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 346 (1904!. 

4. H. semirufa (Druce). Cameronns. 

Agatlia (?) semiiufa. Druce. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. iSl. Vol. 7. p. 293 figi ! 1. 

5. H, zapluta, nov. sp. i). Prout. Uganda. 



101. Genus ANTHARMOSTES, Warren 

Antharmostes. Warren. Xovit. Zool. \'ol. 6. p. 21 (i8qg). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus raoderate, second joint moderately rough-scaled abo\e 
and beneath, third joint in cf small, in 9 qinte moderate, partly concealed. Tongue present. Antenna 
in cf bipectinate to beyond one-half with rather short branches. tiien becoming dentate-ciliate and 
finalK- simplv ciUated: in 9 nearly simple. Pectus moderatel)' hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf 
dilated, with hair-pencil, in both se.xes with four unequal spurs, only the inner median long. Hind- 
tarsus in (^ short. Abdomen usualh- shghtly crested. [•'renulum in q* mo ierately strong, trom before 
sliglit basal expansion, retinaculum rather near base of forewing; 9 frenulum wanting (in papilio appai- 
enth" vestigial). Forewing with costa arched in distal half. apex acute. termen faintly waved, usually 
somewhat bent or elbowed in middle, cell less than one-half, DC curved, SC free, SC- normal, R' ven,- 
shortly stalked or separate, M' about connate; hindvving witli termen faintly waved and with a tail 
at R-', tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short, DC^ inbent, C closelj- approximated to cell to 
near one-half, rapidh' diverging, SC^ stalked (exceptionally connate). M' stalked. 

Earlystages nnknown. 

The more normally-shaped form {interalhicans) comes very near to Gelasma, and is not easy to 
differentiate definitely therefrom on the characters at present used, the abdominal crests being inconstant 
and ahvavs very shght; vet it is a question whether the generic relationship is really close. 

Type of the genus : Antharmostes mesoleuca. Warren (iSgqi. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Tropical .Africa. 

i. A. mesoleiica, Warren, Niger Coast. 

Antharmostes mesokuca, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. ]). 21 fiSqgi. 



i) Hypocoela zapluta. nov. sp. — cf.^onini. Halpus quite short (less than diameter of eye), tonpueapparently more or less aborted. 
.Antennal pectinations very sliort. .\b(iomen withsmall but distinct crests. Face blackish. mixed with reddish fuscous. Tip of palpus and outside of forelep 
reddish fuscous. darker niarlted. Thorax above concolorous with forewing. abdomen above reddish fuscnus. the crests <larker. Korewing broad. apex 
produced but rounded, termen with rounded excision between SC^ and R''; olive-green. mixed, esperially alonj; veins. with reddish fuscous. the distal 
one-third. from R* to inner margin, more densely mixed with reddish fuscous, which here becomes the prevailing hue : some indistinct darker marks at 
Ihe anterior proximal edge of this terminal shade. Hindwing elongate, termen slightly incurved from R' to R^ wliere it is produced to a strong angle or 
tail; bright orange. more reddish towards base; terminal area broaHly reddish fuscous fr^m the tail to inner margin. broadening slightly at the latter; 
inner margin very narrowly olive-green to near base, somewhat marked with fuscous. Hoth wings beneath briglit orange, forewing with a dark discal spot 
and a series of large dark interneural spots from costa to R^ at 2,5 mm. from termen. Fringes dark grey. Entebbe. tjganda. ioo5 (E. A. Minchin). Type 
in coU. Brit. Mus. Kelated to ttirpisaria, with whicli it agrees in shape: but differing in the aberrant palpus. sharper tail of hindwing und much 
brighter coloration; semirnfa is probably a still closer relative. but with a broad dark marginal band beneatti. In the forewing SC* anastomoses with C. 
R* is separate, in ttie hindwing SC- is connate. or barely stalked. 



144 I^EPinOPTERA HETEROCEKA 

2 A. marginata (Warren). Ashanti to Uganda. 

Chlorostrota margiiiata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 36(1897) "• 
Antliantwstes mtsoUnca ab. semhnarginata, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 6, p. 290 

(1S99) (ab. ?) (nov. syn.). 
Antharmostes mesoleuca ab. marginala, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 

p. 586 (1904) (in err. pro semimarginata). 
Anlharmostes fuscimargo, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p, 112(1909) (ab. ?l 

(nov. syn.). 
Thaleraviolella, Bastelberj^er. ."Vnn. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 5.3. ]'. 441 (iqooi 

(ab. ?) (nov. syn j. 

3. A. interalhicans, Warren. — Pl. 4, Fig. I . .\slianti to Congo. 

Anlharmosles interalHcans, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. g, p. 493 (1902). 

4. A. papilio, nov. sp. z). Pmut (vix huj. gen.?). German E. .AiVica. 



102. Genus perithalera, nov. GEN., Prout 

Perlthalera, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — l'"ace smooth. Palpus in cf rather short, in 9 greatly elongate, second joint 
smooth-scaled. third joint in cf quite sniall, in 9 extremely long. Tongue shght. Antenna in cf bipec- 
tinate vvilli modcuUe branches, in 9 dentale, ciliate. Hindtibia in cf greatly dilated, with strong 
hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf arising before basal 
expansion, in 9 obsnlete. Eorewing wilh costa straight to near apex, then arched, ape.\ squared, 
termen strongly ventricose, waved or subcrenuiate, becoming ver\- oblique, tornus moderate, cell less 
ihan one-half, DC incurved, verj- oblique posteriorly, SC from cell, anastomosing stronglx with C, 
SC^ normai, anaslomosing with SC', R' about connate, R- fiom above middie of DC, M' approximated 
to R'*; hindwiiig wilh apex vveak, termen vvaved or subcrenulale, stiongly ventricose, beni at R' and 
again at R^, cell rather short, DC* incurved anteriorly, C appressed or anastomosing with SC at a point 
near base, then strongly diverging, SC* short-stalked, R* very characteristic, M' connate or short- 
stalked. 

Early stages unknowii. 

The sin^le species was placed by Wancn in Tlialera, but has little in coinmon theiewith 
excepting the marking of the fringes. Essential dilTerences are the presence of frenulum and of median 
spurs, the long palpus and anastomosis of C of hindwing at a point only. Its actual affinities are 
uncertaiii. 

Type of the genus : Perithalcra ohlont^ata (Wanen) ^ T/ialera ohlougata. Warren. 

Geographical distributlon of species. — W Alrica. 

1. P. ohlongala (Warren). 

TliaUra oblongala. Wavrin. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 17 1 i.sqM. 



I) Chtorotfras margituUa on type hitiel. 

•j.) Antharmostes (?) papiho, nov. sp. — o' 9, 40 miii. Nciuiv ut tuc m/g, shtipt; and stroclure of margtiiata, VVtirren, ..,; witli tcrmeii 
of forewinpsomewliat iiiore exciseti below api'x, more sharply angled :it \<?. cf with termen of forewinf; alraost smooth; tail of hindwing well developed; 
cj" antennal pectintttions inuch ionger than in the tillies ; palpus rathcr slicrter (in botli sexes only about as long as diameter of eyeV Face dark red. mixed 
witli white bcnealh ; vertcx and shaft of antenna brown-red, occiput green. *J horax green, paler bcneath. Abdomen dorsally pale reddish, the small crests 
slightly deeper-coloured. Wings briglit bluish jjreen. with slightlydarker green eionpate discal marks, and with broad, pale brown-reddish bordtrs, whicli 
are irreguhirly mottled and strigulated with d.nrker brown-red and purplish : thaton forewing about .S mm. in width, limitcd antcriorly by R^ excepting a 
small projection across that vein at some distance from ternien. proximal cdge formed by a dark line which bcnds towards termen between R* and M' ; 
that of hindwingslightly narrower, but reaching to costa, its proximal edge aiJproachini; termen between K^and &!•, thence soniewhat dent;ite, and finally 
running verv narrowlv along inner margin almost to basc : both wings with :i fine chirk terminal Iine. that of hindwing thickencd and biightcned with dark 
red between the vcins and accompanicd by a rathcr large liark spot at the base of the tail. Under surface niucli paler. forewing with a broad, cloudy purple- 
fuscous submarginal band from Ri to tornus, hindwing with faint traces of the marginal band of upperside. Magila, Cicrman E. Africa. ilay loth. 1898, 
type (Q)incoll. Brit. Mus. ; Victoria Xvanza, cj (much worn , cotype in coU. Brit. ^ us. In the S example SC- of the hindwing is (probably eiceptionally) 
connate instea<l of stalked. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ i^S 



103. Genus CHRYSOCHLOROMA, Warren 

Chrysochloroma. Wairen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 288 (i8g6). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in (f quite moclerate, seccjnd joint densely scaled beneath, 
thnd joint in q' small, short-scaled, deflexed, in 9 long- Tongue strong. Antenna in Q bipectinate 
with hing branches, apical part nearl}' simple; in 9 nearly simple. Pectus densely hairy. Femora 
hair^-. Hmdtibia in (^ not dilated, terminal spurs unequal, medians lather approximated to the termi- 
nals, usualh' strongly unequal, the outer usually very small, sometimes wanting i). Abdomen not 
crested. Frenulum in cf rather strong, but arising before a basal expansion ; in 9 vestigial. apparently 
sometimes wanting. Wings denseh' and opaquely sealed. Forewing bmad, with costa ver\' sHghth' 
arched (usually straight in middle). apex somewhat acute, at least in 9 > termen obhque, smooth. 
slighth' curved (sometimes straight m anterior partj, tornus rather pronounced, cell somewhat less than 
one-half. DC incuived, SC usually free, bending twice, so as to approach successively C and SC^, 
occasionall}' witli briet anastomosis at the points of approach, SC- normal, R' stalked 2), R- from close 
to apex of cell, M' connate or ajiproximated ; hindwing subquadrate, apex modeiately pronounced, 
termen subcrenulate or nearly smooth, angled at R'*, tornus pronounced, sometimes even slightly 
produced, inner margin long, cell shoit, DC straight or shghth" curved, never extremely obHque, 
C appioximated to cell for some (hstance, then rapidly (h\'erging, SC^ stalked, R- from close to R', 
M' stalked (Pl. 3', Fig. 15). o* genitalia : uncus pointed, with large socii ; gnathos almost atrophied; 
harpe angulated; cucullus pointed; penis pesiillate {megaloptera). 

Early stages apparenth" undescribed. The larva; of C. nugalopteia havo been found by 
Mr. F. P. Dodd, in North Queensland, in the nosts of the green tree-ant. 

This genus, though probably akin to Gelasma. differs quite sufficienth' to require separation. 
.^part from the presence of a vestigial 9 frenulum, and perhaps rather greater strengtli of that of the q*, 
which suggests a position less advanced m the genealogical tree, there are several minor points of 
distinction, although the structural variations in Gelasiiui naturally biing about, now and then, a nearer 
approach to Chrysochloroma in one or another of ihom. Thc second joint of the palpus is stouter, densely 
scaled, but without separate projecting hair-scales; the thiid joint in the cf 's more deflexed, in the 9 it 
is quite long, while it is rarely even longish in Gelasmn; SC of the forewing is on the whole more 
bicurved; R^ of both wings arises quite close to apex of cell; the scahng is ahvays dense and opaque in 
Chrysochloroma. neaily always less so — often quite fine and iridescent — in Gelasma ; the (^ hindleg in 
Gelasma is usually dilated with hair-pencil, in Chrysochloroma this is not the case, but on the other hand 
there is a strong tendency to abortion of the outer median spur. 

The resemblance of Clirysochloroma to Ornillioshila, although it is siiperficially so considerable as to 
have misled Swinhoe {Lep. Het. Oxfoid Miis. Vol. 2, p. 4o3) into sinking megaloptera to O. siibmoiistraiis {\), 
is not at all cU)se structiiraU)'. 

Type of the genus : Chiysocldoronia mieki, Warron (1896). 



il Ther.; is certainly variiibility in this character. not only between different species, but within the limits of a single species ; thus in 
megatopiera we have seen the spur almost entirely wanting or only somewhat shorter than the iniier median ; this is independent of sex. 

2) Turner (.Rroc. Linn. Soc. /V. S. IValcs, Vol. 35, p. 6io) says sometimes connate, and is too accurate an observer to be suspected of 
a mistake, but we think his observation probably refers to orikodesma, which we do not place in tliis genus; it is hard to believe that in true Chryso- 
chioroma, with R* arising so near the apex of the cell, R' wou'd be other than stalked, and we have certainly seen no e.xception. In Gelasma eumixis, 
•which is a very close ally of orthoiiesma, we have observed R' sometimes connate. 



146 LKPIDOPTEKA HETEKOCEKA 

Geographical distribution of species. — New Guinea (with islands) to X ■ Oueenslaiid. 

1. C. meeki, Wanen. Trobriand Islands. 

Chrysochloroma ntiikt. Warreu. No\ it. Zool. Vol. 3, ji. 2S8 1 1.S06 . 

2. C. mei^alopiera (Lower). — Pl. 4, Fig. 2. X. Ouecnsland to Kelsland. 

Euchloris megaloplcra. Lower. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aiistral. Vol. 18. p. 87 

I1894). 
Chrysochloroma subalbida, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 364 (1896). 
Euchloris hypoleucus, Lower, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 22, p. 263 

(1897). 
Chrysochloroma megaloptera. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 422 (1898). 

3. C. ehctrica, Warren. Britishand Uutcli XewGui- 

Chrysochloroma eleclriea. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 363 (1896). nea, Ron Island. 

4. C. rubiifincta, Wavren. Brilish New liuinea. Wai- 

Chrysochloroma suhalbida rubritiiicla, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. ,^64 geu. 

(I8g6). 
Oriiithuspila rubrttincla, Swinhoe. 'Irans. lint. Soc. Lond. p. 675 (1902). 

5. C. niibeciila, Warren. Sariba Island (British Xew 

Chrysochloroma nubecula, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, )>. 421 liqo5 . Guinea). 



104. Genus GELASMA, Warren 

Gelasma. Warren, Proc, Zool, Soc. Lond. p. 352 (1893). 

Thalerura (Warren, Xovit. Zoul. Vnl. i. p. 3<)j. indescr.), Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. \-5 

(1894). 

Gharacters. — Face sinooth, or slightlx' roughened below. Palpus nioderale to longish (rather 
short in cunvaliala, both sexes), second joint nioderately rough-scaled (usually with some projecting 
hair-scales above and beneath), third joint smooth, in q* more or less short, in Q shortish to moderate, 
\erv rarelv long. Tongue present. .\ntenna nioderate. in cf bipectinate, typically with long. coarse, 
long-ciHated pectinations, which diminish with great suddenness, apical one-third (less in invidetis and 
perhaps a few others) nearly simplc; in 9 nearly simple, lamellate, Pectus slightly to moderately 
hairv, Femora usualiy glabrous. f lindtibia in cT usually dilated with hair-pencil. in both se.xes with 
all spurs. Abdomen not crested. biennlum in cf slender, but of good length, arising from before 
rounded basal cxpansion ; in 9 \\antin.i;. Wings usually smoothly scaled, nol infrecjuontly somewhat 
iridescent. Forewing with costa usuall\' arched. ape.x acute, termen oblique, straight or sli.ghtly curved, 
cell less than one-haif, DC incurved, SC from cell, or occasionally connate or short-stalked. usually 
free, SC^ normal, very rareh" anastomosing at a point with SC, R' connale or short-stalked, R^ from 
above middle of i)C, M' approximated lo W': hindwing with termen entire or weakly siibcreniilate, 
angled or tailed at R^, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short, DC curved, becoming oblique, 
C approximated to cell for some distance (veiy rarely vvith slight anastomosis), then rapidly diveiging, 
SC^ stalked, R^ characteristic, M' stalked (in coivani sometimes connate), cf genitaha : uncus pointed, 
with rounded socii; gnathos pointed, very slightly scobinated; harpe simple, with raised fold: vinculum 
with slight cenlral piojection at the base ; penis pestillate; eighth sternite double lobed. Apparently 
related to Prasinocvina, lodis, ctc. 

Early stages apparently unknown. 

We havc giveii, under the preceding genus, some notes 011 the diffeientiation of Gelasma there- 
from. From Prasinocymd, to which it is still more closely related, it may generally be distinguished b\- 
the shape of the hindwing, that of Prasinocyma bemg very seldom at all delinitely quadrate or elbowed, 
and oftenest perfectly rounded ; the shortor third joint of the 9 palpus (only at all elongate iii a few 



FAM. (iEOMETRIU^ 147 

species, a.s proti iisa, inahtaria, subm.rcularia anJ tlie viridanrea-^rou^) offers usuall}' a further distinction, 
as does also the nature of the <^ antennal pectinations; but it must be admitted that the tvvo genera are 
not always very sharply defined. Thalerura. with the tail of hindwing on the whole morc pronounced, 
we have found quite untenable. 

Type of the genus : Gdasma Ihdydaria (1 iuenee) = lodis thetydaria, Guenee (1893). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Indo-Malayan Region (straggling into the Eastern 

Palaearctic), Madagascar. 

1. G. thelydaria (Guenee). India, VV. China, Philip- 

[mlis Ihetydariti, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 358 (i858). pines. 

Tlialassodes hifasciala, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 26, p. i562 

f 1 862 ) . 
Thalera bifasciata, Moore, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. p. 637 '1867). 
Gelasma thetydaria, Warren, ibidem, p. 352 (18931. 

2. G. dissimiilata (Walker). Borneo to N. India, Ceylon. 

ThaLissudes dissimidaia. Walker. List Lep. liis. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. 55i 

(1861). 
ThaUnira marginata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 3q2 ■ 1804 . 

3. G. illitiirata (Walker) (prasc. var. ?). E. China, Japan. 

Thalassodes illiturata. Walker, List Le|i. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 26, p. i563 
(1862,1. 

4. G. acufissima (\\'alker). Ceylon. 

Thalera acutissima, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. V0I.22, p.596 (1S611. 
Thalassodes acutissima, Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5i2 (18951. 

5. G. goniaria (Felder) (prasc. var.?). India. 

Timaiidra .i;oiiiaria, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 128, f. 3 (iS^S). 
Thalera aculeata, Hampson, III. Het. CoH. Brit. Mus. V0I.8. p. 109, t. i5o, 

i. 5 (1891). 
Thaleruia goniaria, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 175 1 1894). 
Thalassodes aculissima (part.i, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3. p. 5i2 

(1895) (nec Walker». 

6. G. veninotata (Warren) (praec. var. ?). Assam. 

Thalerura veniiiotata. Warren, Xovit. Zool. VoL i. p. 67S 11894.. 

7. G. inapiaria (Walker). X. India. 

Thalassodes ina/^taria. Walker. List Le]i. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26. p. i56u 

(1862). 
Thalassodes urapteraria, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 160S (1S66). 
Thalerura urapteraria. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 175(1894). 
Thalassodes inaptaria, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5i3 (iSgS). 
Thalernra inaptaria, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. O.tford Mus. VoL 2, p. 403 (19001. 

8. G. glaitcaria (Walker). N. India, Tibet. 

Thaleraglaiicaria. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 35. p. i6i3 (1866). 
Thalassodes glaiicaria, Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5),Vol. 6, p. 21 5 (1880). 

9. G. ambigua (Butler). Japan. 

Thalissodes ambigua. Butler, III. Het. CoU. Brit. Mus. \'nl. 2, p. 49. t, 36, 

f. 6 (1878). 
Thalera amhigua. Lecch. hnn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (61, Vol. 20, p. 244 11897). 

10. G, protrtisa (Butler). Japan, Amur, 

ThaUra protriisa. Butler, III. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 2, p, 5o, t. 36, i. 10 
(1878). 

11. G. f(i?t'(iK; ^Butler). Madagascar. 

Thalera cowani, Butler, .\nn. -Mag. Xat. Hist. (5), Vol. 5, p. 390 1880:. 
Gelasma cowani, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 5^5 (1904). 

12. G. cenlrophylla {M&ync^a). ' E. and S. E. Australia. 

lodis ceiitrophylla, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2, p. 880 

(1888). 
lodis angiilata, Lucas, ibidem. Vol. 3, p. 1264 (1888). 
Prasinncxma centrophylla, Turner. ibidem. Vol. 35, p. 599 (1910). 



148 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



1 J. G. patara (Druce) (vix Imj. gen.) i). 

TliaUissodis patara. Druce, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 577 (1888). 
Gelasma cynlliia, var., Warren, Novit. Vol. 9, p. 353 (1902) (nov. syn.). 

14. G. iViit/iia. Wanen (praec. form.?). 

Gelasma cynthia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. p. 23 (1899) 2). 
i5. G. grandijicaria (Graeser). 

Semoria grandificaria. Graeser, Berl. Ent. /eitschr. Vol. 33, p. 266 (1890). 
Thalera grandificaritt, Staudinger. Iris. Vol. 10, p. 11. t. i, f. 3 (1897). 
Thaleru colataria, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 245 (1897) 
(nov. syn.). 

16. G. griseoviridis, Warren. 

Gelasma griseoviridis,\VarreT\, Proc. Zool Soc. Lond.p.353,t. 3i,f. 6 (18931. 
Thalassodes griseoviridis (part.). Hampson, I-"auna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, 
p. 509 (iSgS). 

17. G. 01 tJtodesma {Lower). 

Euchtoris orthodesma. Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 18. p. 86 

(1894). 
Thalassodes alhijusa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 2g3 (1896) (nov. syn.). 
Chysochloroma orlhodesma, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Walcs, Vol. 35, 

]). 612 (1910). 

18. G. eiimixis (Prout) (prsec. form.?). — Pl. 4, Fig. I I . 

Thalassodes eumixis. Prout, The Entomologist, Vol. 44. p. 27 (1911;. 
ig. G. prasina (Warren). 

Thalerura prasina, Warrcn, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1. p. 3q2 (iSq^ . 
20. G. alliistrigata, Warren. 

Gelasma albislrigala,\Varrer\, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. ■■^u iipuj . 

Ilemilhta fliigellaria, Poujade, Ann. Soc. Enl. Fr. p. 3lo, t. 6, f. 8 (iSg^l. 

IlemiUua flagcllata. Poujade, ibidem, p. 3i5 (1895). 

Thalassodes albislrigala. l.eech, Ann. Mag. Nat.Hist. (61, Vol. 20,^,242(1897!. 

Gelasmafliigellaria. Swinlioc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 674 (1902) 3). 
zi. G nigrifrons (Ilampson). 

Thalassodes nigrifrons, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, V>il, 4, p. 566 (1896). 
22. G. cnnvallala (Warren) (liuj. gen.?). 

Megalochlora coinalUita. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 108 (1896). 

Eucliloris convallala, Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 12, p. 00 
(1898). 
j3. G. iiemoriata (Staudinger) (huj. gen. ?). 

Phorodesma (.'1 nemoriata, Staudinger, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 9 (1897). 

Eiichloris {}) /««loria/rt, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (1901). 
J4. G. submaciilaria [heech). 

Thalassodes siibmncularia. I.eech, .Ann. Mag. Nat. Ilist. (6), Vol. 2'i, 
p. 242(1897). 
j5. G. /uscipuncta, Warren. 

Gelasma fiiscipuncla. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. i3 1898/. 
j6. G. subliistris, Warren. 

Gelasma suOliisliis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 24 1 iSqoi. 

27. G. unicolor, Warren. 

Gelasma unicolor, Warren, Novit. Zool. \<il. ii. p. -• 1 i.snai. 

28. G. viridaurea (Warren) 4). 

lodis viridaiirca. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. o, p. 2:1 i, i.sijoj. 

29. G. ornatifimbria (Warren) (huj. gen.?). 

Chrysochloroiiia ornalifimbria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p, 262 (igo^i. 



Solomon Islands. 

Santa .\nna (Soloinons) 
E. Siberia. 

N. India. 



N. Queensland, Fergusson 
Island. New Guinea. 



Dutch and British New 

Guinea. 
Bhutan. 



Japan, China. 



Ceylon. 
Khasis. 

.•\ ni 11 1 . 

W. Ciiiiia. 

Madagascar. 

Kon Island. 

^"lores. 

Koii island, Dutcli New 

Guiiiea. 
Isabel Island. 



i) Palpuf in bolh seteslon.;, antenna rather lonp (over two-thinlsi, tlir prctiiialions not characleristtc. loreieniur hairy, termcn lesiiccially of 
hindwin^') auhcrenulale, etc. 

2) Chrysochtoroma cynthiti on type labet, 

S\ Warren's name was published in June, Poujades not until November. so tliai it is. we presumc, by an oversii;lit that Swinhoe has adoptcd 
thc lattci . 

4) Thia species, eentrophyl/a, costipicta, bicotor, commixta and probalily bnltrata, seem to stiow in tlie slender (and often long) paipus, vcry 
■lender frenulum and tendeiicy to stalkin^ of SC with SC*"*(at least in '.'iriiiourea^ a rear approach to hdis ; but the prestrce of tbe Irenulum prevents 
our placinp Ihem there. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 



J49 



3o. 
3i. 

32. 

33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 

37- 
38. 
39, 



4' 
42 
43 



G. costipicta (Waneii). 

loiis coslipicl.i, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 358 (igoS). 
G. imitans, Warren. 

Gelasma imilivts, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 87 (1906). 

G. invidens, Warren. 

Gdasma iiividc/is. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 88 {1906). 
G. spumata. Warren. 

Gdasma spumala. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vul. i3. p. 88 (igo6). 
G. hicolor (Warren). 

lodis bicolor, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3. p. 88 (1906). 
G. commixta (Warren). 

lodis commixla, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3. p. 89 (1906). 
G caudipunctata, Warren. 

Gdasma caudipuiiclala. Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 1^4 (1907). 
G. halteata (Warren). 

Thalassodes balteala, VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 13/ I19071. 
G. subangulata (Warren) (huj. gen.?) 

Thalerura subaiigulala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. i37 (1907). 
G. calaina (Turner) (huj. gen.?). 

Prasiiiocvma calaiiia, ']"urner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 5oo (1910). 
G.fuscifimbria, Prout. — Pl. 4, Fig. 4. 

Gdasma fuscipmbria. Prout, The Entoinologist, Vol. 44, p. 28 (igii). 

G. melancholica, nov. sp. i). Prout. 
G. trlplicifascia. nov, sp. 2). Prout (huj. gen.?). 
, G. atrapophanes, nov. sp. 3). 



British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

Biitish to Dutch New Gui- 

nea. 
British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

Biitish New Guinea. 

Oueensland. 

Khasis. 

Borneo, Singapore, ?For- 
Madagascar. [mosa. 

British New Guinea. 



105. Genus MESURODES, Warren 

Mesurodes. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 89 (iSgS). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus very smaU and slender, second joint scarcely rough-scaled, 
third joint smooth, distinct. Tongue developed. Antenna (in cf unknown) in 9 lameUate, mmutely 
ciUated. Pectus somewhat haiiy. Femora scarcely hairy Hindtibia with terminal spurs only. Abdomen 



i) Gelasma melaocholica. nov. sp. — cJ Q, 21-25 mm. Face dark dull red, miied witti olive scales. Palpus similar, bnt more fuscous, 
palebeneath: third joint in Q long. Antenna light yellowish brown, shalt shortly wliitish al base. Vertei and occiput olive-green, the formei very 
rarrowly white anteriorly. Thorax aboveconcolorous with wings ; abdomen above snmewhat paler : both beneath whitish. Wings broad, hindwing with 
teimen 'slighlly waved. right-angled at R=. Colour darlc greyish ohve. Forewing wilh costal edge narrowly deep ochreous. spolted with fuscous ; two 
indistinct lunulate-dentate whitish lines. at approiimately one-third and two-thirds, the postmedian becoming thick and distinct near inner margln ; a 
weakly indicated dark discal soot ; fringe concolorous (sometimes more fuscous), pieceded by an indistinct, slendei pale terminal line, which sometimes 
expands into whitish spols at the vein cnds. Hindwing similar, without the antemedian line. Undeiside of foiewing pale olive, with costal edge as above ; 
ofhindwing whilish, sometimesunmarked.sometimes witli a small daikened maik at apex ; flinges fuscous. Saiawak (type, cj) and Matang, Boineo ; 
Singapoie, alKtwoo^thieeQ) incoll. Blit. Mus. Goping, Perak, a daik abeliation (o-)in coll. Bastelberger. We have alio seen a worn specimen from 
Formosa which isappaiently reteiable tj the same species. 

2) Qelasma (?) triplicifascia, nov. sp. — ,5, 29 mm. Faceoiange-ied, palei below Palpus short,ied, paleibeneath. Antennal shatt 
whitish, pectinations yellowish Vcitex white, occipul yellowish.Tlioiai yellowish above, paler beneath. Abdomen apparently pale yellowish (discoloured). 
Wings wnite, forewing soraewhat more yellowish from costa to SC. Both wings with three naiiow, piile tawny bands ; the hist on foiewing from below 
costaaltwothirds, obl que to above innei margin at scaicely beyond one-half, widening posteiiorly but bccoming lathei ill-de6npd ; on hindwing fiom 
about middleof costa almost stiaight towaids anal angle, nariowing and joining second band before the angle; second band on both wings neaily parallel 
withtermen,about2.5mm. distant theiefrom ; third band close to leimen. A fine teiminal line ol the same coloui as Ihe bands. Fiinges whlte, «llghtly 
mixed with tawny. Both wings with a ininute black cell-spot at about two-fifths. Undei suiface while, unmaiked, costa of lolewing yellowish, deepei 
coloured in basil half . Ankalana, Bets.leo. Madagascai (Kev. Deans Cowan). Type in coU Biit. Mus. Generic position doubtiul. The palpus is quue 
shoit, and the hindwing only veiy weakly elbf.wed at IV. but too elongate for a Chlorocoma ; moreover the pattern is much moie that of Celasma . Legs 
and antennE bioken, but otheiwise the specimen is iu good condition, though it is jnst possible that the substitution of yellowish colour foi gieen may be 
dueto theaction of moistuie. The venation is noimal (SC of foiewing fiee). 

3) Gelasma atrapophanes. nov. sp. — Q,.i8mm Closely similat to(r«m.-.r(i, Piout, differing as follows : teimen of hindwing more 
weakly anglert at R ' ; forewing with basal gieen patch tiavelsed neal its distal edge by a veiy fine, dilect, lunulate-dentale whitish line (this l.ne in 
eumtxis is sometimes absent, but when present it cuives deeply basad along vein M) ; postmedian green band almost straight, parallel with termen, 
traversed close to its distal edge bv a very fine, nearly stiaight, faintly denticulate whitish line, of which there is no trace in eumixis; hlndwing with a 
simllarly fine whitish line traveising the postmedian band close to its distal edge, neaily stiaight in ils arterioi pait. but fotming shalp angles on the veirs 
fiom R> to inner malgin, nearly as in 7'/.a/fl,tWM; discal dot on bolh wings minule. Mount Kebea, nritish Central New (Juinea, 6000 feet, March- 
April 1903 (A. E. Ptatt). Type in coll. Biit. Mus. 



i5o LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 

not ciested. Frenulum (in o* unknown) in 9 apparentl}' entirely wanting. hindwing with marked costal 
expansion. Forewing with costa arched, apex not acute, termen faintly subcrenulate. gently curved, 
rather obhque, cell almost one-half, DC- vertical. DC'^ deeply incurved, strongly obhque posteriorly, 
SC^ from cell, anastomosing with C, SC^"^ normal, well away from SC, R^ connate. R^ from rather 
near R', M^ approximated; hindwing quadrate, termen weakh' subcrenulate, a smalltail at R'*, tornus 
pronounced, with cell less than one-half, DC incurved, obhque posteriorh', C approximated to cell to 
near one-half, then moderately diverging, SC^ short-stalked, R^ from very near R', M' stalked. 

Early stages unKnown. 

The (^ being unknovvn, and ihe unique Q of course not available for dissection, it is not possible 
to state with absohite certaints" that the genus belongs in this vicinity, but its entire aspect suggests that 
it is probably a much more speciahzed development of Chrysochloroma . The (^ frenulum will ahnost 
certainly prove to be present. \n any case the palpus, shape of wings, venation, etc, show that it has 
not the shghtest connection with Eucrosies. with which MinTick (working on the single character of the 
tibial armature) placed it, and we beheve that Warrcn's genus Mesurodes, here provisionally adopted, will 
be found permaiiently iiecessaiy. 

Type of the genus : Mesurodes crichlora (Meyrick) = Eucroslis erichlora, Meyrick ( iSgS). 

Geographical dlstributlon of specles. — Fiji. 

I. M. eiiclilora {Weyucki. ¥\\\. 

Encrostis erichlora, Meyrick, Traiis. Knt. .Soc. Lond. ]>. 203 u886i. 
Misiirodis eiichloiij, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 89 (iSgS). 



106. Genus PENTHEOCHLORA, nov. GEN., Prout 

Pentheochlora (Warren, MS ). nov. gen. Piout. 

Characters — Face sinooth. Palpus in cf ininute (shoiler ihaii diameter of eye), shortly rough- 
scaled (9 unknown). Tongue slender. Antenna in q* bipectinate marly to apex, with longish branches. 
Pectus moderately hairy. Femora somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in (f not dilated, with terminal spurs onh". 
.•\bdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf present, arising before basal expansion. Forewing wilh costa some- 
what arched, apc.x rather acute, termen stiaight, not veiy obhque. toiinis pronounced, cell not shortened, 
DC incurved, strongly obHque posteriorly, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, SC^normal, anastom- 
D.-sing with SC, R' very shoi t-stalked, K- from above middle of cell. M' widely separate ; hindwing 
subquadrate, with apex roundly squared, termen bent ai R-*. otherwise straight, tornus pronounced, cell 
not shortened, DC markedly obhque posteriorly, C appressed to cell at a point near base, thence 
diverging moderately, SC^ shortly stalked, M' remote from R^. 

Early stages unknown. 

A quite distinct genus, though not of ven,- striking appearance. It is more specialized than the 
genera wliich foUow, but we have placed it here on account of the number of characters it shares with 
Mesurodes. It can easily be regarded as a derivative of Gelasma. From Mesnrodes it differs in shape, in the 
shorter approximation of C of hindwing to the cell and in the wide separation of M' of both wings. The 
lew other genera in our Group V with minute palpus and t\\ o spurs (Neromia, PseudhemHhea, Prosomphax, 
Progonodes) differ essentially from Pentheochlora in antennal structurc. abdominal crests, stalking ot M' of 
hindwing or other characters. 

Type of the genus : Pentheochlora uniformis (Hampson) = Thalera uniformis, Hampson. 



FAM. GEOMETKID.^^ i3i 

Geoaraphical distribution of specles. ~ India. 
I. P. iimformis (Hampson). Nilgiris. 

rhalera uniiormis. Hamp^on. 111. Het. Coll. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 8, p. iio. 

t. i5o, f. II (1891 i. 
ThaUssodis Hni/ormis. Hampson. l"auna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 5i3 1895 . 

107. Genus THALASSODES, Guenee 

Thalassodes. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vul. u. \k 55g(i65&); Mooie, Lep. CeyL Vol. 3. p. 420^1667;. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf moderate to longish. in 9 more or less long, second 
jouu rough-scaled above and (rather shortly) beneath. third joint smooth, distinct, in cf moderate to 
longish, in 9 long. Tongue present. .Antenna more than one-half, in (f bipectinate to beyond one-half, 
the pectinations long, weak, usually erected very little from the plane of the shaft, clothed wkh long, 
dense ciha. a long apical portion nearly simple, shorUy ciliated; in 9 nearly simple, shortly ciliated. 
Pectus hairv". Femora glabrous (excepting the hindfemur in the males with speciahzed hindleg). Hind- 
tibia in cf dilated with haii-pencil and usually a short terminal process. or simple, in both sexes with 
all spurs. .Abdomen not crested. Frenuhim in cf moderate, rather short, from before basal expansion, 
in 9 wanting. Forewing broad, with costa arched distally, and usually somewhat shouldered at base, 
straight between, apex acute. termen moderately oblique. slightly curAed or nearly straight, tornus 
pronounced, cell about two-fifths, DC^ incurved, SCi free. SC^ norma]. R' shoit-stalked. M^ connate or 
short-stalked ; hindwing subquadrate, apex moderate, termen smooth. rather straight to R^ there 
elbowed to bluntly toothed, thence straight to tornus, tomus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short 
to very short, DC strongly and continuously oblique (DC^ at times somewhat sinuous), C appressed 
(perhaps sometimes with brief anastomosis) to one-half of the short anterior margin of celL then rapidly 
diverging, SC^ stalked, M' stalked (PL 3, Fig. II). c? .genitaha with uncus pointed or rounded, 
socii ahvays present, usually strong, gnathos usually weak or atrophied, harpe usually narrowed 
above and often with hook or hooks on inner margin (modification of juxta), vinculum rounded or 
extended, penis pestillate, coremata present (at least usually). (Several species examined.) 

L.^Rv.^. — Slender, head bitid, a pointed protuberance on eighth abdominal segment. According 
to the tigure?. would appear to be similar to that of lodis (Moore. Ltp. Ceyl. VoL 3. p. 426; Semper, 
Reisen Philipp. (2), VoL 6, p. 641 : Guenee, :Maillard's La Reunion, annexe G, p. 32). 

Plpa. — Scarcely described: in dissHa pinkish greenish in fiont, thorax and abdomen black- 
speckled (Moore, loc. cit.). 

.\s restricted by Turner. whom we have foUowed. an exceedingly natural genus. The character 
which Turner gives (iirst noted by Guenee himself ) — the extieme obliquity of DC of the hindwmg — 
is verj' constant throughout the forms which are quite clearly congeneric. Its adoption has necessitated 
the removal to Prasinocyma of a few African forms which seem rather nearly related. but as they have 
more normal pectinations, and moreover grade off insensibly into forms with perfectly rounded termen 
of hindwing. iheir removal is at least a convenience taxonomically. The species left are superficially 
extremelv closely allied; the distinctions of leg-structure. though very useful in separating the species, 
are quite certainly not generic. Unfortunately the determination of two of Guenee's species {quadrana 
and vtraria) is entirely lost. and he did not even know their localities. As he possessed the cf of both, 
and gives in his generic diagnosis « les tibias posterieurs non renfles », we doubt Tumer s determina- 
tions. .A species which may well be Guenee's quadraria occurs from N. India to Burma. 

Type of the genus : Thalassodes pilaria, Guenee (1887). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — Indo-Australian, straggling into .tthiopian Region. 



r52 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

I. T . pilaiia, Guenee. Tahiti. 

Tltahissodes pilariti. Guenee, Sjiec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p..'f6i. t. i5. f. 2 ( i858). 

2 T. quadiaria, Guenee. PCentral India to Burma, 

Thalassodes quadiaila. Guenee. Sjiec. Gen. Lep. Vol. y, ]>. 36o(i85.8,. ? .^ustralia. 

3. T. hyraiia, Guenee. Reunion. 

Thalassodes liyraria, Giienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL g, p. 36o {iS58). 

4. T. veraria, Guenee. PAustralia. 

Tlialassodes veraria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 36o (i858). 

5. T. digressa (Walker). S. E. to E. Africa, ? West 

Geometra digressa. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus, Vol. 22, p. 5i3 (1861). Africa. 

Thalassoies ricinaria, Guenee, Maillard*s La Reunion, Annexe G, p. 32 

(1862) (nov. syn.). 
Tlialassodes snbreticulata, Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 68, p. 740 (1900) 

inov. syn., teste Warren in litt ), 
HfH«V/;rasfl^«/;V7i-;<i,Swinhoe,Trans.Ent.Soc Lond, p. 547 (ig04)(nov.syn.). 

6. T. diisila (Walker). India with Ceylon, ?Bor- 

Geometra dissita, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 5i9 (1861). neo, ? Philippines. 

.' Thalassodes dissepta, Walker, ibidem, p. 55o (1861). 
Thalassodes dissita, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 63? 1 18671: l.ep. 
Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 426, t. 194, f. 2, 2« (1887). 

7. T. semiliyalina (Walker). Borneo, Celebes. 

Geometra semihyalina, Walker,List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis.Vol.22,p. 528(1861 j. 
Tlialassodes viridicaput, Warren, Novit, Zool. V0I.4, p. 391 (i897(nov.syn.). 
Thalassodes dissita (part.), Swinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 400 
igool (nec Walker) i). 

8. T. depiilsata, Walker. Malaysia with New Guinea, 

Thalassodes depulsata, cJ, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol, 22. p. 555 ? N. W. India (var. ?), 

(i86i)(nec Q). ? Ceylon. 

? Thalassodes immissaria , Walker, ibideni. p. 553 11861) (nom. dubiuml. 

9. T . iiiconclusaria, Walker. Loc. ignot. 

Thalassodes inconclusaria, Walker, List Le]). Ins. I^rit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 556 
(1861) 2). 
10. T. opalina, Butler. N. India. 

Thalassodes opaliiia. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(5), Vol. 6, p. 214 (1880); 

111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 6, p. 214, t. 117, f. g (1886). 
Eiichloris opalina, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 175 (1894). 
1 1. T. rhytiphorus (Lower) (praEC. var. vel syn.?). N. .-\ustralia, Xew Guinea. 

loiis rhytiphorus, Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc.S. Austral. Vol. 17, p. i56(l893). 
Thalassodes veraria, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35. p. SgS 
(1910) (vix Guenee). 
12. T. satnrata, .Snellen. Celebes. 

Thalassodes salurala. Snellen. Tijdschr. v. Ent.V0l.24, )). 77, t.8, f. 3 (1881). 
i3, T. chloropis, Me\-rick. Fiji. 

Thalassodes chloropis, Meyrick, Tians. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 204 (1886). 
? Thalassodes o/iii//«(i,Druce, Proc.Zool. Soc.Lond.p.227(i888)(nec Butler). 
14. T. byrsopis, Meyrick. NewGuineatoOueensland. 

Thalassodes hyrsopis, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. i, 

p. 249 (18861. 
lodis byrsopis, Meyrick, ibidem, Vol. 2. p. 8g8 (1888). 
lodis implicala, Lucas, ibidcm, Vol. 6, p. 2g3 (i8gi) (teste Turner). 
Thalassoics quadraria, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 5g4 (igio) (nec Guenee). 
t5. T lencospilota, Moore. Ceylon. 

Thalassodts leiicospilota, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 427, t. 194, f. 4 (1887). 
Thalera albomaculata, Hampson, 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. g, p. 145, 
t. 170, f. 39 (i.8g3). 
16. T. tiiiioclea. Druce Fiji. 

Thalassodes timoclea, Druce.Proc. Zool.Soc.Lond. p. 227, t. i3. f. 6, 7 (1888). 
17 T. opaca, Warren (huj. ,s;en.?) . Niger Coast. 

Thalassodes opaca, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 17 (t8g8). 



r) Walkers dissita has the hindwing norraally shaped and the (J bindtibia dilated ; his type of semihyalina has the angle at R^ exceptionally 
weak, and the o^ liindtibia simple. We believe the identification of virt.iicafiiit. Warren, to be safe, although we have not had an opportunity to compare 
the types side hy .-ide. 

2) Type extant. in bad condition, notat present determinable. 



FAM. (U:OMETRID/E i33 

iH. T.oigas, Warren. Solomon Islands. 

Tliiilaiiodes gii;as. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 27 (iSgg). 

1 ) 7'. oslrihiles (Karsch) (huj. gen. ?). Madagascar. 

Tbalera oslracites. Karsch, Knt. Nachr. Vol. 26, p. 370 (19001. 
jij /". unicolor, Warren. Niger. 

Thalassodes unicolor, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 497 (1902). 

2 1 7. f;»/wa, Swinhoe. Penang. 

Thnlassodts curiosa, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond. p. 673 (1902). 
ii. !'. dorsiliiiea, Warren. Nevv Guinea, Solomons, 

Thalassodts dorsilinea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 364 (igo3). N. Oueeiisland. 

23. 7'. dorsipiiHctala, V\'arren New Guinea. 

Thalassodes dorsipunclata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 364 (ignS). 

Thalassodcs do)sil>unctata ab. minor. Warren, ibidem, p. 364 I1903) (ab.). 
24 !'. iiivesiroia, \Va.rTen. British and Dutch New . 

Thalassodes nivestrota, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10. p. 365 (igo3). Guinea 

Thalassodes nivestrata, Kothschild, ibidem. \'ul. 11, t. 3. f. 36 (1904/. 

2.T. 7'. umbrimedia, Warien. British New Guinea. 

Thalassodes umbrimedia . Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 365 (igoSj. 
20. 7'. siihviridis, Warren. Christmas Island. 

Thalassodes subvindis. Warren. .\'ovit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 10 (igo5). 

27. T. zebrala, Warren. British New Guinea. 

Thalassodcs zcbrala, Warren, Novil. Zool. WA. i3. p go (igo6). 

28. 7". viridifascia, Swinhoe. Borneo. 

Thalassodes viridi/ascia . Swinhoe. .\nn. .\Ia{; .Nat.Hist.i8).Vol.i, ^.66(1908). 

29. 7". inleralbata, Prout. Dutch New Guinea. 

T/iassalodts intiralliata, l'rout. Tlie Entomolo;.jist, Vol. 44. p. 27 (igii 1 

30. T. hypocrites, nov. sp. i), Piout. India, Singapore. 
3i. T. aucta, nov. sp. 2), Prout. N. India. 

ii. T. dentatilinea, nov. sp. 3), Pioul. W'. Africa. 

NoTE. — l halassudes vaiidana, Walker, Lisl Lep. Iiis. Bnl. Miis. Vol. i5, p. 1607. belongs to the 
Acidaliinae, Tlialassodes glaiiculala. Walker, ibidem. \'oI. 26, p. i56o, and T. boliviensis, Dognin, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg. Vol. 44, p. 2t5, to the genus Amaurinia (Larentiinae). Thaiassodes albannularia and chlornzouaria, 
Walker, List Lcp. Ins. Biit. Miis. Vol. 22. p. 55is^ a ivpelost; description not recognizable » — Hampson, 
Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 519) appear to us to lepresent small forms of Hypuchrosis caiiente (Cramer); 
in the case of the latter, at Icast, this is fairlv clear. 



il Thalassodes hypocpltes, nov. sp. — cJ, 3S-42 mm. Excessively like Uucospil,.ta. Moore. scurcelv distinguishable eicept as 
follows : liindwing with angle more pronounced : hindtibia in r" simple (in leucospilotu o" fringed throughout with extremely long hair). In addition 
Cthough these would probably be liable to some variation) the white spot.^ of tlie postmedian series are rather more extended into dashes ; the antemedian 
whitespoton inner margin of forewingand the postmedian on that of hindwing are slightly smaller; and the terminal line of both wings is more blackened 
at the vein-ends. Singapore (H. N. Ridley). type cj ; Khasis, one o' : Sylhet(H. il. Parish), one 3; Sikkim, July, 1909 (F. Moller), one (J ; Pirmad, 
Travancore (R. S. Imray). one cj ; all in coll. Brit. Mus. The Thalassodes leucospilota recorded by Warren (Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 19J) from Penang 
wiU also without doubt be this species, which has been heretofore overlooked . W^e have onlv seen true Uucospilota from Cevlon . 

2) Thalassodes aucta, nov. sp . — o". 42-40 mm. Fa.e green. Palpussliglitly less tban one and a half times the length of diameter of eye, 
thirdjointscarcely over one-lhird the length of second joint : green ab .ve. white beneath. Antenna ochreous(more green when fresb), shaft partly white.' 
Thorax and abdomen green above. tlie latter without white spots or line. Wings sbaped, coloured and marked as in Ihe ty pical groiipipitaria, opatina, etc), 
hindwing with tlie angle moderately pronounced {as in opalina); lines moderately distinct, postmedian of forewing not denlate, of hindwing very slightly 
denticulate on theveins. Fringes narrowly greenish proximally.pale yellow distally. Hindtibia not dilaled, the spurs rather short. Forewing with M> varying, 
connate tostalked, hindwing wuh DC" scarcely at all sinuous. Genilalia with uncus tapenng, with broad rounded socii, gnatbosslighlly scobinated, harpe 
fused, narrow above, with strong euived hook on inner margin, vinculum rounded, penis pestillate, hroader above; from the margin of the eighth sternite 
protrude a pair of long tapered horns, widely apart. Cherrapunji, Assam, lype and others in coU. L. B. Prout ; Dharmsala, in coll. Brit. Mus. It is just 
possible that thiswill prove tobe the tniewrnrM of Guen&e, although he gives itsexpanseas only38mm. But we have left undescribed, as more probably 
hisveraria, a more widely-distributed species ocurring in India und .[ava, very similar to dM/a. but smaller (j,S-38 mm.). the angle o( hindwing on the 
averageslightly less strong, the third palpal joint nearly one half as long as Ihe.second. the hmdtibial spurs longer, the fringes usually clearer yellow. 
Should veraria prove to be = aucta, or distinct frcm both, thiswill stand as a species, and we Iherefore give it the provisional name of Thalassodes 
falsaria, nov, sp., Prout. typified by a cf Irom the Khasis in coU. L. B. Prout. 

3) Thalassodes dentatilinea. nov. sp. — cJ, 26 mm. Face red-brown . Palpus red-brown above, second joint white beneath, third 
joint rather elongate, ochreous beneath. Head blue-green, narrowly white between antennx. Antennal shaft while prosimally, reddish ochreous distally. 
Thorax and abdomen blue-green abovc. whitish beneath. Foreleg red-brown above. Hindtibia dilated with hair-pencil. Forewing with apex acute ; blue- 
green. strongly strigulated with white. the costal edge narrowly ochreous; antemedian line scarcely distinguishable among tlie striguIiB, oblique outwards 
from one-fifth costa to one-third inner niargin. outcurved in cell and in subniedian area; postmedian slightly more distinct, parallel with termen, at 4 mm. 
therefrom, markedly dentate; fringe pale ochreous. Hindwing witli the angle atR^strong; colour and strigulation as in forewing; no antemedian line; an 
interrupted white mark along IJC: postmedian line as in forewing. hence strongly bent in middle, as in the rest of tlie gi-nus. Undcrside paler, unmarked. 
Aba, S. Nigeria. 16 May, iqio IJ. J. Simpson). Type in coll, Brit. ilus., presenled by G. A. K. llarshall, on behalf of the Enlomological Commission. 
A second (J, froiii Cape Coast CastIe(G. .\. Higlett), also in coU. Brit. Mus., is clearly conspecific, but with the forewing so rubbed as to obscure the 
markings. The species is recognizable by itt small size, dentate postmedian line and rather strongly angled hindwing, and is erratic in the venation. 
SC being stalked; in the type it arises before R<, but in the Cape Coast Caslle specimen it has migrated to beyond Ri, and SC= to beyond SO>. The 

antennal poctinations are of the normal structure, but reach to fully two-thirds. 



i54 lepidoptkka heterocrra 

108. Genus ERETMOPUS, Turner 

Eretmopus. Tunier. Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, Vol. 35. p. 588 (igio). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to longish. second joint lough-scaled, thiid 
joint smooth, in cf moderate, in 9 elongate. Tongue developed. Antenna well over one-halt", in 0* 
bipectinate to beNond one-half, the pectinations nearly as in Thalassodes. apical part nearly simple. 
verj- shortly cihated; in 9 very shortly cihated. Pectus densely haiiy. Hindtibia in cf much dilated, 
haiiy and with dense tufts of floccous haii, all spurs wanting, hindtarsus aborted, flattened, densely 
rough-scaled (Pl. 5, Fig. 20): hindtibia in 9 ^^''''i terminal spurs only. .A.bdoinen not cresteiL I"re- 
nulum in cf moderately strong, but not lons,'. and arising from before basal expansion ; in 9 wanting. 
Forewing with costa shouldered at base, then straight, well arched near apex. apex moderate, termen 
nearly straight, obHque, tornus pronounced, cell somewhat less than oiie-half, DC^ incurved or iiiangled, 
SC^ free, SC- normaL R' longish-stalked, R^ from much above middle of DC. M' connate orapproxi- 
mated; hindwinf^ with apex squared, termen convex, weakly elbowed at R^*, tornus squared, cell short, 
DC^ obhque, sinuous, C closely approximated to cell to nearly one-half. then lapidly divergintj, 
SC^ rather long-stalked, R' from \exx near K', M' shortly stalked (sometimes veiy shorlly). 

Early stages unknown. 

A near relative of the preceding genus. differing in the leg structure in both se.xes and in the 
somewhat less obUque discocellulars of hindwing. The position of R-, especially in the hindwing. is 
also more extrenie. 

Type of the genus : Eretmohiis maiiiiaria (Guenee) = Thalassodes marinaria, (juenee (igio). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — .\ustrahan. 
1. E.marinaria{Gnence). India to Philippines and 

Thalassodismarinan.i. Giienee. Spec. Gen. I.ep. Vol. 9, p. 36i (i858). N' . .\ustraha. 

Geomelia discissa, Wa^kei, I.ist Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 517(1861,. 
Geoinetra peiiicillata, Walker, ibidem, p. 525 (1861). 
Thalassodes depuhata. S,Walker, ibidem, p. 555 (1861) (nec 3). 
Eretvwpus marinaria, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, Vol.35. p. 589 
(1910). 

109. Genus PRASINOCYMA, Warken 

Prasinocyma. Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 4, p. 44 (1897). 
Pauresthes. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 10, p. 359(1903). 
Pcecllostigma. Warren. ibitlem. p. 36i (igoS). 
Pyrrhaspis. Warren, ibideni, )). 362 (igo^). 

Characters. — P~ace sinooth. Palpus moderate to long, usually rather slender, second joint 
not or only moderately rough-scaled. third joint smooth, in cf rather short lo moderate, in 9 long 
Tongue present. Antenna in cf bipectinate, vvith moderate to longish branches. apex nearly simple ; 
in 9 neaiiy simple. Pectus moderately hairy. Femora nearly glabrous. Hindtibia in cf sometimes dilated 
with hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs ; cf very exceptionnall\- with a slight terminal process, of no 
generic significance. Abdomen not crested. Frenuluin in cf present, slender, arising from before basal 
e.xpansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa somewhat arched, termen usually smooth (sometimes 
waved). oblique, cell somewhat less than onehalf, DC curved SC nearly alvvays from cell, free, or 



FAM. (lEOMETKID.K i55 

anastomosing with C, scarcely ever with SC^, SC- normal, R' connate or short-stalked, rarely separate, 
R^ occasionanv from niuch above middle, M' about connate; hindwing with termen rounded oi weakly 
subcrenulate, or weakly elbowed at R^ (never with pronounced tail i), cell somewhat lessthan one-half, 
DC-* variable, sometimes very deeply incurved, C approximated to cell for some distance, very 
occasionally with brief anastomosis, diverging near middle, SC^ stalked, R^ occasionally from near R', 
M' usualh- connate orstalked. (j* genitalia with uncus pointed. with small round socii, harpe angulated, 
penis pestillate, thickened and swollen in the centre; eighth sternite terminating in tw-o points 
{vermicularia; albicosta andfloresaria have also been e.xamined, and suggest that there will be a good deal 
of variation, together with a definitely traceable relationship ; but the structure-group is a large one, 
embracing lodis, Hcmisiola, Comostola, etc, and not remote from the Hemithea-giowp). 

Early stages scarcely known. 

As Dr. Turner has observed (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 597), « the species included 
in this genus show considerable variety of facies, and considerable variation also in certain details of 
structure, and may possibly need to be divided )). None of the structural characters which we are using 
in the present work, however, seem to admit of such division on any satisfactory basis, and the varia- 
tions are realh- not extreme. In the New Guinea group which Warren has made the basis of his 
Paurestlies, Poecilostigma and Pvrrhaspis, DC-'* shows a strong tendency to exaggerated incurvature, DC^ of 
the forewing is sometimes oblique basewards (i. e. apex of cell producedj, DC- of the hindwing, or 
of both, sometimes somewhat oblique outward, resulting in an acute angulation at the base of R- ; but 
these forms appear in varying degrees, and are in part shared by other sections of the genus, so that 
we have not been able to utilize them. The scaling of the species is usually rather fine and thin, often 
with wlnte strigulation (remmding of Tlialassodes), but this is b}- no means invariable. The abdomen is 
occasionally adorned with a dorsal pattern, and exceptionally (e. g. coerulea) the largest of the spots may 
be slighth' embossed; but there are never anj' real crests. 

Type of the genus : Prasinocynia viriuicularia (Guenee) — T/ialassodes vernitcnlaria, Guenee. 

Geographical distrlbutlon of species. — Indo-.\ustraHan, .Ethiopian. 

1. 1'. rerniiciilaria (Guentte). S. Africa. 

Tluilassodes vermiculana, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. y, p. 309 (iS5S). 
Thalassodes dihietila. Walker.List Leji. Ins. Brit.Mus. V0I.22, p. 548 1 1861). 

2. P. siniiaria (Gucnee). Senegal. 

Tlialassodes simiaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 359 if^S»). 

3. P. germinaria (Guenee). .-^byssinia. 

Thalassodes «erminaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g. p. 36o liS5S). 

4. P. cellularia (Guenee). Reunion. 

Thalassodes cellnlaria, Guenee, ^Iaillard's La Keunion, .-^nne.ve G. p. 32 
(i862). 

5. P. congrua(^NaA\is\-). \V. Africa to Uganda. 

Gcometra congrna. Walker. Proc. Xat. Ilist. Soc. Glasfjow. Vol. i (2), 

p. 371 (1869). 
Thalassodes nigripunctata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 46(1897). 
Thalassodes congrua. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 544 (1004). 

6. P. scissaria (Felder). S. .Atrica. 

Thalassodcs scissaria, Felder. Heise Novara, Lep. Het. 1. 127, f. 9 (iSyS). 

7. P. hadratd (Feldei). Cape. 

Nemoria (?) hadrata, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 27 (1875). 
Thalassodes hadrata (part.), Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 544 
(1904) 2). 



1) Except in crossota, whicll we lijve not seen aiid whicii ib (luitetioiibUnily placed. 

1) Tlie specimen from tlie Gold Coast.referred here by Swinhoe.is quite wrongly deteimined.a damaged Q perhaps relaled to(i/di'y/ic/<i,W»rren. 



i56 T.EPIDOPTERA METEKOCERA 

S. P. pallididata (Mabille) {huj. gen.?) i). Madagascar. 

Thalassodes pallidulala, Mabille, C. R. Soc. Ent. BelR Vol.23. p.xxi (1880). 
9. P. dclicataria (Moschler). \\'. Africa. 

Tlialassodes delicataria, Moschler, Abh. Senckenb. Xat. Ges. Vol. i5 (i|, 
p. g3 (1887). 
10 P. unipuHcta, Warren. Xatal, ? British E. Africa. 

Prasinocyma unil>uncta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, 11. 44 (1897). 

11. P. albifimbria (Warren). British Central Africa. 

Thalassodes alhifimbria. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, y. 214 (1897). 

12. P. tennis (Warren). Niger Coast. 

Syndromodes tenuis, Warren, Novil. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 16 dSoSl ( J, nec S). 
i3. P. rubrimactila (Warren). Unyoro. 

Tlialassodes rubrimacula. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 292(18991. 
14. P. albisticta (Warren). Tropical Africa. 

Antharmostes (?) alhisticla, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. S, p. 2o5 (1901). 
i5. P. differens (Warren). British E. Africa. 

Agraplochlora differens. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 493(1902;. 

16. P. pupillaia (Warren). British E. Africa. 

Thalassodes pupillata, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 406 ' 1Q021. 

17. P. stictimargo (Warren). E. .Africa. 

Thalassodis stictimargo, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 497 (1902). 
iS. P. dohertyi, Warren. British E. Africa. 

Prasinocyma dohertyi, Warren, Xo\ it. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 271 (1903) 21. 
ig. P. ampla, Warren. Angola. 

Prasinocyma ampla. W^arren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 465 (1904I. 
20. P. pictifimbria, Warren. Angola, .Abyssinia. 

Prasinocvma pictifimliria. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 86 (1904). 
2 1. P. pulchraria, Svvinhoe. Tropical .Africa. 

Prasinocyma pulchraria. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 544 'i9o.|i 

22. P. saiutaria (Svvinhoe). Britisli E. Afiica. 

Thalassodes salularia, Svvinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond p. .=144 (1904I. 

23. P. xanthopera, Bastelberger. Conj;t). 

Prasinucyma xanthopera. Bastelbergcr, Inlern. Ent. Zeit. Guben.Vol. 3, 
p. 101 (1909J. 

24. P. dorsipuHctata, Warren. Xatal. 

Prasinocvma dorsipunctata. Warren, Ann. S. .\fric. Mus. Vol. 10 ii), p. 21 
I i'ii I '. 
20. P. sanguinicosta, nov. sp. 3), Prout. Sudan. 

26. P. niveisticta, nov. sp. |), Prout. Xaial. 

1) Swinhoe {'/'fans. /int. .'<"C. l.o>id. 1Q04, p. 547) unites i\\\%vi'-i1\i glacialis, ButlcT {.Uetaliocktora); from Mahillc's description, Uiis scems to 
us absolutely impo.ssiblc. 

2) Prasinocytna circtimpitrictiita uii type I;ibcls. 

.1) Prasinocyma sanguinicosta, nov. sp. — c?, 27 mm. Face crimson. Palpus crimson above. white beneath. Antennal shaft red, 
mixcd with yellow-brown ; pectinations moderate. yellow brown. Vertex pale green, narrowly whitish between antennx: occiput green. Thorax green 
above. whitish beneath (abdomen discolourcd). Korelcg crimson. Wings shaped. coloured and strigulated as in vermicnl.iria, Guen6e, the colour perhaps 
sliglitly more yellowish ; costa ol forewing bright crimson above and beneath ; both wings above with minute black, rcddish tinged discal dot : fringfS 
concolorous. Under surface paler. lChartuni, February I2th, 1909 (G. B. Longstafl). Type in coll Hrit. Mus. Easily distinguished by the broadly bright 
red costa \n piilchrari.i, .Swinhoc, the costal edge 'nvcry imrnrwlyimiai. with red, but that is .1 larger, broader-winged insect of a diflerent shade ot 
green. witli Icss minute discal dots, ctc. In ptiUkraria the c? hindleg is simple, in stiiigiiiiiicosta dilated with hair-pencil; in the fonner SC is free, in 
the lattcr it anastonioses with C. U' is wcU stalked with SC--". 

4) Prasinocyma niveisticta, nov. sp. — c?.28mm. Face green. Palpus ochreous above, paler beneath; terminal joint rather small, 
fuscous-reddish. Antcnna ochreous, shaft wliitish at base ; pectinations moderate. Head grccn, narrowly whitish between antcnnK. Thorai and base of 
abdomen green dotsally, palc bencath; dor.'iumofabdomen apparently marked witliwliite(partly discoloured).Hindtibianot dilated.with four approximatcd 
spurs . Wings opaque bluish green, nearly as in hadrala, Felder. Forewing with costal edge narrowly bright yellow ochre ; a very small white spot on 
middle of inner margin. margined with fuscous distally; termen of both wings with pure whitedotsat Ihe vein-ends and a very small dark blotch attoinui, 
marginedproiimally by awhitecrescent; fringe green proximally, spotted with reddish at the vein-ends. greyer and scarcely marked with red distally. 
Hindwing very weakly elbowed at K^. 1'nderside wliitish, costa of forewing more broadly yellow oclirc tlian above, paling oif somewhat towards apex ; 
tcrmcn and friiige not ornamented. Durban, Xatal. 1909 (G . F. Leigh). Type in coU. Brit. .VIus. Closel; related to hadrala, Felder, agreeing in venatiOn, 
but with third joint of palpus shorter, elbow in hindwing weaker, inner-marginal spot of forcwing smallcr, and w ith tornal ornamentation somewhat 
recalling that of Helerorachis devocala, Walker. 



FAM. (iEOMETRlD/E iS? 

27. P. rugistnigula, nov. sp. i), Pmut. Ashanti. 

2cS. P. neavei, nov. sp. 2), Piout. Nyassaland. 

29. P. blfimbriata, nov. sp. 3), Prout. — Pl. 3, Fig- 9- Transvaal. 

30. P. semicrocea (Walker). E. to S. Au.stralia. 

Gcometra semicrocen, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 528 (1861). 

Chloroclnoma iniermixla, Walker, ibidem, p. 563 (1861). 

Chhrochroma deeisissima. Wallier, ibidem, p. 564 (1861). 

lodis semicrocea. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, p. 8S7 

(188K). 
lodis subalpiiia, Liicas, ibidem, VoL 3. p. 1264 (1S88). 
Thalassodes albicosta, Svvinhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 400 (1900) 

(nec Walkerl. 
Prasiiiocyma semicrocea , Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, Vol. 35. 

p. 599 (1910). 
3i. P. a/^);(05/a (Walker). N. to E. Australia, New 

Geometra albicosta, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 22, p. 529 (1861). Guinea, Lovalt^' Islands 

lodis albicosta, Meyrick, Proc.Linn.Soc, N.S.WaIes(2),Vol.2,p,8SS (1S871. 
lodis bicolora, Lucas, ibidem, Vol. 3, p. I265 (18SS). 
Prasiiiocyma riijitiiicta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 44 (1S97). 
Thalassodes flavicosta, Warren, ibidem, p. 214 (18971. 
Prasinocyma albicosla, Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Walcs, Vol. 35, 

1). 598 (1910). 

32. P. fioresaria {WsiWier'). Flores. 

Geometra fljiesaria. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mus.Vol. 35, p. 1604 (1866'. 
? CEiiospita floresaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 292 (iSg6). 

33. P. oA-j/Cir^/ra (Meyrick) (praec. var.?). X. Queensland, New Cjui- 

lodis oxycentra, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2. nea Louisiades Moluc 

p. 888 (1888). ^^^[ 

(Enospila floresaria (part.}, Warren, Xovil. Zool. Vol. 3, j). 292 (1896). 

CEnospila oxycentra^ Warren, ihidem, Vol. 5, p. 422 (1898). 

Prasinocyma floresaria, Turner, I'roc. Ljnn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 55. 
p. boo (1910,1. 

34. P. nivisparsa (Butler) (huj. gen.?), Duke of Voik island to 

Coviibaenaoiivisparsa^ Butler, Ann. Ma»;. Nat. Hist. i5).Vol. 10. p. 232 f 1882 i. New Guinea. 

Aniso^amia nivisparsa^WiiTTen^ Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 33 (1S97). 
Geometra nivisparsa^ Pao^enstecher, Zoolojjica, Vol. 29, p. i53 (1900). 

35. P. ocyptera {M.eyx\cV). Oueensland, \V. Australia. 

lodis ocyptera, Meyrick, Proc. Linn.Soc. X.S.Wales(2).VoI. 2, p. 887 1 iS.s.Si. 
lodis gracilis, Lucas, ibidem, Vol. 3, p. 1266 (1888). 
Prasinocyma ocyptera. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 422 (1898). 

36. P. rhodocosma (Meyrick). Australia. 

lodis rhodocosma, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2. 

p. 8S9 (188S}. 
Piiisiiiocyma rhodocosma. Tnrner, ibidem, Vol. 35. p. 597 (iqiot. 

1) Prasinocyma rugistrigula, nov, sp. — c?. 4° ^^- Face dull light reddish, partly overlaid with dull green {possibly somewhat 
faded). Palpus reddish above, whitish beneath, third joint minute. Antennal shaft dirty white near base, becoming reddish brown; pectinations bright 
brown, theouter series long near base, rather rapidly shortening. Vertex, occiput, thorax and abdomen dorsally green. Wings rather duU glaucous ereen, 
very smooth-scaled fpresenting an almost greased appearance), stronply but irregularly strigulated with whjtish. Forewing with costa ven.' narrowly pale 
ochreous brownish; a small indistinct fuscous discal dot. Hindwing with the discal dot dark greenish, obscure, slightly difiuse, placed close to the base 
of R-; beneath it, on the submcdian told. a short fuscousdash, Fringes concolorous. Under surface paler, unmarked. Coomassie (H. Whiteside), Type in 
coU. Brit. Mus. Wings shaped as in 7 halassodcs ; forewing with SC anastomosing, M* very shortly stalked. Hindwing with both the stalkings. 

2) Prasinocyma neavei, nov. sp. — p, 36 mm. Like the preceding in markings (except that the discal spot of hmdwing is more 
elongate and the fold-dash shorterl. but differing essentially in shape, which is virtually that of typical Prasiuocyma, the hindwing only very 
slightly bent at K^. Further differs as follows : face bright green, upper part narrowly reddish brown; palpus with second and third joints much elongate. 
slender, red-brown above. white beneath and at tips of joints ; costa of forewing narrowly white ; co]our of wings somewhat brighter, bluer, not greasy- 
looking; forewing with SO free. M' separate: hindwing with SC* shorter-stalked. M* connate. Mlangi Mountain. Xyassaland. 6000-7000 feet, 2 May, 1910 
(S- A. Neave). 'lype in coU. Hrit. Mus. 

3) Prasinocyma bifimbriata, nov. sp. — Q.26mm. Face green (fading to ochreous). Palpus greenish, tt-rminal joint more ochreous. 
Antenna proximally white above, distilly ochreous. Thorax and abdomen green above, anal extremity and underside whitish. Legs ochreous, forecoxa 
marked with green. Forewing apple-green, not strigulated, costal edge ochreous. a small grey mark in fringe at apex, no transverse Hnes, diccal dot 
black, minute, fringe ample, proximal half pale ochreous, distal half grey ; hindwing the same, excepting costa, termen slightly bent at R^. Underside 
much paler, no discal spots, apical mark and fringe as above. Three Sisters, Transvaal. oMarch, igii.Type in coll A. J.T. Janse. Ratber suggestive of 
the Lissochlora- and Mia»tofto/,i-t;ronps of the genus Racheospila, though of a less yellow green. In the forewing SC ig frec, R* and M' about connate; 
in the hindwing SC- and M< are both stalked, DC very little oblique. 



i58 



l1':piuopteka hicterocera 



37. P. exoterica (Meyrick) (huj. gen.?). 

lodisexoterica, Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales (2^ Vol. 2. 11. ^ui 

(1888). 
Prasiiwcvma exoleriai. Turner. ibidem, Vol. .35, \>. SgS I1910,. 

38. P. iostida (Meyrick). 

lodis iosticta. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2, p. 8q3 

(1888). 
Prasinocyma iosticta, Turner. ibidem, Vol. 35, p. Sgg (igiol. 

39. P. cmM^rt^Meyrick) (huj. gen.?). 

lodis crossota. Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2. p. .S94 

(1888). 
Prasinocyma crossota/iurner, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 59H (1910). 

40. P. absimilis, VVarren (huj gen.?). 

Prasitioc\ma absimiiis. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 8, p. 193 (iqoi). 

41. P. indisiincta (Warren). 

Chlorochroma iudistiiicta, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 10, p. 355 (igoS). 

42. P. marginepunclata (Warren). 

Chlorochroma marginepunctata, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 10, p.356(i9o3). 

43. P. minutipiincta (Warren). 

Chlorochroma mimitifuiicla, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 10, p. 356 (I903). 

44. P. pollitta (Warren). 

Chlorochroma poUuta. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 10, p. 356 (1903). 

45. P. punctulata {\\ a.vxe,n). 

Clilorochrovia punclulala, Warren. Novit. ZooL VoL 10. p. 35? (igoS;. 

46. P. piinctifimbria (Warren) (huj. gen.?). 

Ilcmistola 0)punclifimbria, Warren, .Xovit. ZooL VoL 10, p. 358 (igoS). 

47. P.fragilis (Warren). 

lodis fragilis. Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 10, p. 350 (1903). 

48. P. caniola (Warren). 

Paurcsthes caiiiola, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 36o(i9o3). 
Prasinocyma pliaeostigma, Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Walcs. Vol. 35, 
p. 601 (1901) (nov. syn.i. 

49. P. signifera (Warren). 

Paureslhes signifera. Warrcn. Novit. 7i>ol. Vol. 10. p. 36o . 1903 . 

50. P. vagabunda (Warren). 

Poecilosligma vagabunda . Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 36i 11903). 

5i. P. periculosa (Warren). 

Poccihsligma periculosa, Warren. Novit. ZooL Vol. 10, p. 36i ii9o3). 

52. P. cuenilea (Warren). 

Pvrrhaspis coerulea, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 10, p. 362 (1903, i . 

53. P. mislifimbria. nov. nom., Prout. 

Pyrrhaspis punclifimbria,Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 10. \\ 362 iiqo3i (nec 
puiiclifimbria, Warren, ibidem, p. 358). 

54. P. discata (Warren). 

Chlorocluomadiscala. Warren, Novit. Zool Vol. i3, p. 83 (19061. 

55. P.ftavilimes (Warren). 

Clilorochroma fiavilimcs . Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 83 (1906). 

56. P. geminipuncta (Warren). 

Chlorochroma geiiiinipuiicla. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3. p. 83 (1906). 

57. P. laticostata (Warren) (huj. gen.?). 

Chlorochroma laticostata, Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL i3, p. S4 (1906). 

58. P. latistriga (Warren). 

Chloiochroma latistriga, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. i3, p. 84 (1906). 

59. P. obsoleta (Warren). 

Chlorochioma obsoleta. Warren. Novit. ZooL Vol. i3, p. 84 (1906). 

60. P. punctilligera (Warren). 

C.hhfitcliroma puiictilligera. Warren, Novil. Zool. Vol. i3, p. S5 (1906). 



Xew South Wales. 

E. .Australia. 

OueensiaiKl. 

Diitcli Xew Guinea. 

Brilish Xew Guinea. 

British .\\-w Guinea. 

British Xew Guinea. 

British New (iuinea. 

British New (juinea. 

British New (iuinea. 

Brilish New Guinea. 

British and Dulch New Gui- 
nea, N. Queensland. 

British New Guinea. 

Britishand Dutch New Gui- 

nea. 
BritishandDutch NewGui- 

nea. 
British New Guinea. 

British New (iuinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

British New Guinea. 

Britishand Dutch New Gui- 

nea. 
British New Guinea. 



i) Kothschil.lux coeyul'a on lype labels. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



1^9 



6r. P. ruficosta (Warien). British Xew (Juinea. 
Chloyochroma nificosta.\\'arTen, Novit. Zool. \'ol. i3, p. 85 119061. 

62. P. rufisti-iga (Warren). British and Dutch New 

Chlorochroma rufistriga, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 85 (19061. Guinea. 

63. P. vestigiata (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Cltlnrochroma vestigiata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. S6 (19061. 

64. P. bicolor (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Chtorochroma bicolor. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. i3i 1 1907). 

65. P. fraterna (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Chlorocliroma iratenia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. l3l (1907K 

66. P. iiiteimcdia (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Chlorochroma intcrmedia, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. i3l (1907). 

67. P. sororcula (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Chlorochroma sororoiila, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. i32 (1907,1. 

68. P . fiorediscata (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Poecilostii;ma florediscata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. i35 (19071. 

69. P. giauca (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Pyrrhaspis glaiica.\Va.Tren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. i35 (1907). 

70. P. mariiia (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Pyrrhas/yis mariiia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. i35 (1907). 

71. P. anomoea, Turner. N. Oueensland. 

Prasiaocyma anomoea. Turner. Proi . Linn. Soc. X'. S. Wales. Vol. 35, 
]>. 601 (19101. 

I 10. Genus ENDEMIA, Warren 

Endemia. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. 10. p. 357 (i9o3). 

Characters. — l'"ace smooth. Palpus in (^ shortish, in 9 rnoderate, in both sexes slender, 
second joint with moderately appressed scales, third joint smooth, relatively rather long. Tongue 
present. Antenna moderate, in rf bipectinate to about three-fourths with moderate branches, in 9 
nearly simple. Hindtibia in cf diiated, with hair-pencil and short stout process, about one-half the 
length of tarsus, which is very short; in (^ witli four short, in 9 ^^''th four moderate spurs. Abdomen 
not crested. Frenulum in q^ slender, arising from before basal e.xpansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing 
with costa nearly straight, apex not acute, termen obhque, shghth' rounded, cell less than one-half, 
much produced apicalh-, DC deeph' incurved, SC from near end of cell, anastomosing with C and SC-, 
SC^ normal, R' connate, M''connate, hindwing with apex rounded, termen rounded, very faintly bent 
at R^, tornus squared, cell less than one-half, DC'* somevvhat incurved, C anastomosing with cell for 
slightly more than a point, rapidly dixerging, SC~ siiortly stalked, R"^ not very characteristic, M' shorth' 
stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

A genus of somewhat uncertain validity, to which we have been able to give but httlc study ; 
might possibly be merged in Prasiiiocyma. the differences in jialpus, leg-stiucture and venation not 
being very momentous. 

Type of the genus : Eudemia leiiera. Warren (1903). 

Geographical distribution of species. - New Guinea. 

I. E. tenera. W;iiren. British New Guinea. 

Endemia te/tera. Warren, Novit. Zool Vol. 10. p. 35s (igoSl. 



,6o LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



I I I. Genus STREPSIOHLORA, Warren 

Strepsichlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. 14, ]). i36 (1987). 

Characters. — Face sinooth. Palpus with second joint long, wiih closeU' appressed scales, 
third joint in (^ moderate, scarcely more slender tlian second, in 9 rather longer than in (f . Tongue 
present. Antenna over one-half, in cf bipectinate to nearly four-fifths, with moderate branches, apex 
merely ciliated; in 9 nearly simple. Pectus hairj-. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (j' rather long. 
dilated with hair-pencil in sheath, much as in HeinUItea, no process, in both sexes with all spurs. Tarsus 
not aborted. Abdomen slender, niinutely crested. Frenuhini in cf short, in 9 wanting. F-Qrewing 
broad, costa arched, apex squared. termen straight, little oblique, tornus pronounced. cell almost 
one-half, DC strongly incurved, SC^ from cell, anastomosing with C and sometimes with SC^, 
SC^ normal, R' just separate, M^ separate, hindwing with termen minutely toothed at R-», tornus 
produced, cell less than one-half, DC^ very slightly incurveti anterioily, becoming strongly obhque, 
C shortly approximated to cell near base, then very strongly diverging, SC* short-stalked, R'' very 
characteristic. M' separatc. 

Early stages tnil<nown. 

Similar remarks apply to this a.s to tlic pieceding genus; the dorsal crests are so sliglit as to be 
doubtfully generic. 

Type of the genus : Sliepsii/ilora acuiiliinala, Warren (1907). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Nevv tjuinea. 

1. S. aciitiluiiiila, Wancn. British New Guniea. 

Slrepsichlora acutiluiiiitn, Warreii, Novil. Zool. Vol. 14, p. i36 (1907). 

2. S. iitquiiiata (Warren). Hritish New Guinea. 

Rlwmhorista iiiijuiiiiUii, Warren, No%it. /ool. Vol. 10, p. 363 (igo3). 
StrcpsicJilorii iiiqiiiiuUa. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 14. p. 136(1907). 



112. Genus OXYOHORA, Warren 

Oxychora. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. 5, p. 236 (1898). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus rather long, veiy slender. with appressed scales, third 
joint in cf elongate (9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna in cf bipectinate to neaily two-thirds, with 
strong, rapidly shortcning branches. Pectus slightly haiv}'. Femora glabrous. H iiulleg short, liindtibia 
dilated with hair-pencil, all spurs present. .Abdomen not crested. Frenulum slender, colourless, arising 
from before vvell-marketl basal expansion. Forewing with costa shouldcred at base, then slightly arched, 
apex blunt, ternien curved, oblique, cell almost one-half, produced apically, DC-' veiv deepl}- inaiigled, 
becoming very oblique, SC about connate, freei), SC- normal, R' short-stalked. M' widely separate; 
hindwing vvith costa rounded, termen rouiuled, slightly elbowed at R', tornus ncit pronounced, 
DC^ vertical or slightly oblique inwards, DC excessively obliquc, C anastomosing vvith cell at a pcimt 
near base. SC^ rather long-stalked, M' widely separate. 

Early stages unknown. 



I) In the type specimcii. on tlie left wing only. SC an:istomoses at a point witli SC, quitc near tlic apex. VVarren, m diaffnosint; the 
genus, overlooked tliat this was a luorc asynunetrical sport. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ i6i 

Thc tvvo species placed here agree ver}- exactly in structure, except that the type-species has the 
scaling very fine and thin, subdiaphanous. The difference in facies suggests the possibiUty that the\- 
have independently evolved from some cognate form f? in Pi-asiiiocyma), but the peculiar venation seems 
quite adequate tor generic recognition. 

Type of the genus : Oxyihoiii iennis. Warren (i8qS). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Sunda Islands, Nevv Guinea. 

1. O, leiiHis, Warren Buru (Sunda Islands). 

Oxychorn teiiuis, VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 236 (1898). 

2. O. ruficiiuta (Warren). Hritish New Guinea. 

Comostolodes ruficincta. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. liz 11907). 

I 13. Genus GIGANTOTHEA, nov. gen., Prout 

Gigantothea, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to rather long, second joint rather close-scaled, 
third joint distinct, in cf moderately elongate, in 9 rather longer. Tongue developed. Antenna longish, 
in cf bipectinate to Httle beyond one-half with moderate branches, in 9 almost simple. Pectus hairy. 
F"emora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf fully twice as long as tarsus, with sheath and long, strong hair-pencil, 
median spurs wanting; in 9 with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf rather slender, from 
before basal expansion, in 9 obsolete. Forewing with costa gently arched, apex squared or shghtly 
acute, termen faintly waved, gently curved. oblique, cell less than one-half, DC^ incurved (often deeply), 
SCi from cell, bicurved, approaching successively C (sometimes with short anastomosis) and SC^, 
SC^normal, R' stallced, R^ from considerably above middle of cell, M^ approximated to R-'; hindwing 
with apex moderate, termen convex, somewhat waved, slightly prominent at R^, tornus pronounced, 
cell short, DC^ somewhat curved, little oblique posteriorly, C approximated shortly to cell, then very 
strongly divergent, SC-stalked, R^ from near Ri, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Probably neai' some Prasiiiucyma (e. g. riifistriga), nothwilhstandui!; that the leg-structure is 
almostthat cii Hemitliea. Several features recall Chrysochloroma. 

Type of the genus : Gigaiitothea gigas (Warren) = Clilorochroma gigas, Warren. 

Geographical distributlon of species. — New (iuinea. 
r. G. gigas (Warren). British to Dutch New Gui- 

Cltlorocliroma gigas, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, ]k 355 (1903). nea. 

2. G. minor (Warren). 

Clilorochroma gigas a.h. miiior, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p.355 (tgoS). 

Chlorochroma minor, Warren, ibidem, Vol. i3, p. 85 (1906). 

I 14. Genus OENOSPILA, Swinhoe 

CEnospila (VVaiicn, MS.) Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 5 (1892). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus with second joint long, smooth-scaled, third joint in 
Cf rather short, in 9 very long. Tongue present. Antenna in cf bipectinate to scarcely beyond one-half, 
in 9 lamellate, nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Femora glabrous. riindtibia in (j' much dilated, with strong 



i62 LEPIDOPTERA HETERO( EKA 

hair-pencil and moderate terminal process, median spurs present. the inner only long, terminals wanting 
orabsolutelv vestigial (Pl. 5, Fig. 13); in 9 with four unequal spurs. the inner median long. Hindtarsus 
in (j' rather short. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf rather short and slender, from before well- 
marked basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa rather straight, apex moderately sharp, 
termen oblique, ver\- sUghtlj- curved, cell less than one half, usually produced apically, DC incurv«-d, 
SC free, SC- normal, R' usually stalked, R^ from well above middle of cell, M' about connate ; hindwing 
with termen nearly smooth to subcrenulate, usually bent at R^, tomus pronounced, cell scarcely two-fifths, 
DC somewhat oblique posteriorly, C appressed to cell to near one-half, with verv" brief anastomosis. 
then verj^ rapidh" diverging. SC* stalked, R' from ver\- near R', M' stalked. (f genitaha : nncus pointed, 
with large rounded socii. gnathos pointed, harpe rounded, with sacculus extended, terminating at right 
angles, penis pestillate. Apparently related to the HemUhea-gioxxp. 

L.\RV.A. — ■ Rather slender, head bifid, eighth abdommal segment with pointed prominence 
(Moore, Lep. Ceyl. VoL 3, p. 428, t. 194, f. 3a). 

Probably derived from a form closely akin to Prasinocyma jioresaria. Those systematists who are 
entirelv hostlle to generic characters derived from the cf alone would perhaps prefer to make it a 
section of that genus, as its other characters are mostly found in one species or another of Prasinocyma ; 
but the ensemble ((f hindleg, unequal 9 spurs. extreme 9 palpus, apparently more constant and — at 
least soinetimes — more pronounced anastomosis of C of hindwing with SC, and extieme position i>t K-) 
apj)ears to us to justifN- ihe letention of the genus. It has also mucli in common with Chrysochlotonia. 

Type of the genus : CEnospila Aavi/Hsata (VValker) = Thalera fiafifusata, Walker (1892). 

Geographical distribution of species. — India tn N. Austialia. 

\. CE.fiavifusata {\\z\\s.eT). India t.> X. Australia and 

Thaltra flavifusala .\\' 3.\keT , List Lep. lus. Knt.Mus. Vol. 22. p. Sgo 1S61,'. Soloinons. 

Thalassocks sinuala. Moore. I'roc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 637 '1S67). 
': Phorodtsma phyllos.i. Pagenstechcr. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. Vol. 3o, 
p. 154 (1886) (nov. syn. . 
(^aosfiila flavi/usala, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 5 (1892). 
Tkalassodes flavifusata. Hamps<in. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. p. 5o8 (1895). 
CEnospila flavilinea. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 212 (1897). 
Gilasma 0) perlineatj. Warren. ibidem, Vol. 6. p. 33o (1899). 
CEnospila flavifuscata. Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 674 (1902'. 

2. lE. 5/m* (Butler). N. India. 

Racheospila slrix. Butler. 111. Het. CoU. Brit. .Mus. Vol. 7, p. io5, t. i36, 

f. 8 (18891. 
Thalassodes slrix. Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p. 5oq iiSo5 . 
(Enospila strix, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 292 (1896^. 

3. (E. stellata, Warren (praec var. ?). New (iuinea to Woodlark 

CEnospila slellata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 29211896J. Island. 

(Enospila strix (part.), Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 674 (1902). 

4. CE. lucifimbria, Warren. Solomon Islands. 

CEnospila lucifimbria. Wairen. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 27 (1899). 

5. CE. simplex, Warren (huj. gen.?). W. Java. 

CEnospila (?) simplex, Waxren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 33o 11899). 

6. ffi. peristicta, nov. sp. i). Prout. Dutch New Guinea. 



t) Snoapila psristicta. nov. sp — cT. .^-^ mm. P'ace green. Palpus green. wbitish beneath. ^"ertei and proxiroal pan of antennal 
shaft whitc; occiput green. Thorax and abdomen green dorsally. the latter with small white spots. Forewing green with costal edge snow-white. 
broideninfT gradoallv to middle (so as to reach nearlv to SC) and narrowing again distally; lines white. lunulate-dentate : tbe antemcdian at about 
one-third. indiscinct: postmedian at aboot two-thirds. the lunnles vcry indistinct, the teeth on veins ver>- distinct, being punctviated by lafKC pure 
white spots or dashes, accompanied proximally by a slight darkening of the green ground-colour on the veins; ccll-spot distinct. Mack, cioudcd over 
with red; terminal line reprc^entcd by rcd-brown spou bctween thc veins: fringc whitish (defectiTe>; hindwing similar. without antcmed)an line or 
whitc costa fnderside much paler. unmarked, costa ot forcwing whitish. Fak-Fak, Dutch Ncw Guinea. i^oofeet. Jacuary-Fcbniary, iqoS(A. E. Fratt». 
Typc in coU. L. B. t*rout. Nearest to (E sijnplex. of which wc only know thc Q. but larger. thc tcrminal linc reduced lo spots, etc. A tmc 
(jEHCSpit.1. hindtibia greatlT swoUen. inner median spur much swoUcn, thc otber thrce spurs vestigia], but nonc entirely wanting. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E i63 



I 15. Genus MAXATES, Moore 

Maxates. Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vul. 3, p. ^36 (1887J. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes lont;, second joint shortly rough-scaled, 
reaching well beyond tVons, third joint smooth, elongate (especially in 9). Tongue developed. Antenna 
rather long, in <f bipectinate to nearly two-thirds, with long branches. in 9 simple. pubescent. Pectus 
somewhat haiiy. Femora nearly glabrous. Hindtibia in (f dilated, with rather strong hair-pencil, in 
both sexes with all spurs developed. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in jf very slender. arising from 
before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa well arched, apex prominent. termen deeply 
crenulate (the longest tooth at R^). cell short, DC^ deeply inbent, SO from cell, usually anastomosing 
or connected at a point with C. occasionally free, SC* normal, ver\- rarely anastomosing at a point 
with SC^ R' connate, R"'* from neai Ri, M' connate or short-stalked : hindwing narrow. costa short, 
termen crenate, produced to a marked tooth at R' and prolonged to a tail at R^, cell short. DC* oblique 
posteriorly, C shortly appiessed (sometimes with anastomosis at a point or very- briefly) to cell, then 
very rapidly diverging. SC^ shoit-stalked (sometimes connate), R* fiom very near R', M' well staiked 
(Pl. 3, Fig. I 2 I. cf genitalia with uncus pointed, socii large. i^nathos with broad spatulate tip. harpe 
angulated, with pointed terminations. penis pestitlate, spatulate, long coremata present; suggests a 
relationship to Ag^athia and to Episotlialma. 

Early stages nnknown. 

Type of the genus : Maxafes coilataria (Walkerj = Thalassodes coelataiia. Walker (18S7). 

Geographical distribution of species. — India to Queensland. 

i. M. Cfclatana (Walkerj. India with Ceylon, Singa- 

T/ialassodes coelataria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. 552 pore, Borneo. 

(1861). 
Ma.xat{s caelataria, Moore. Le)). Ceyl. VoL 3, p. 436. t. 196, f. 2, 2a (1887). 
Maxales coelataria. Hampson, Fauna Ind. .Molhs. Vol. 3, p. 5o5 (iSgS). 

2. M. macariata (WaWer). N- India. 

Tliatassodes macariata, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i562 

(1S62). 

Maxates macariata. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 5o5 (i8g5i. 

3. .1/. taiiygona (Turner). Oueensland. 

Euchloris tanygona. 'lurner. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .\ustral. Vol. 2f<. p. 2.70 

^1904). 
Maxates tanygona, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales. Vol. 35. p. 588 

(1910). 

I 16. Genus IDIOCHLORA, nov. gen., Frout 

Idiochlora (W"arren. Novit. Zool. \'ol. 3, p. io5, indescr.). nov. gen., Prout. 

Characters. — I'ace smooth. Palpus in ^f quite moderate, in 9 lon»' second joint smoodi- 
scaled, third joint in rf very- small, in 9 verj- long, slender. Tongue present. Antenna in cf rather 
thick, lamellate. almost simple, in 9 similar. Pectus somewhat hairy-. Hindtibia in cT scarcely dilated, 
in both sexes vvith all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before basal expan- 
sion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa gently arched, apex rather acute, termen waved, oblique, 
anterior half faintiy subconcave, cell short, DC somewhat incurved, SC from cell, sometimes anastom- 
osing with C. SC- normal, R' separate, M' wellseparate ; hindwing with termen waved. produced to short 
tail at R3, cell short. broad, DC rather straight, C shortly approximated to cell near base (touching or 



i()4 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



])erhaps sometimes anastomosing at a point), rapidly diverginK, SC* connate, sometimes very shortly 
slalked, M' shortly (or veiy shortly) stalked. 

Early stages imknovvn. 

Not very sharpU" defined from the succeeding genus, though differing in a number of minor 
points; the convcrgence of characters is perhaps in part accidental, the facies being decidedly 
different. 

Type of the genus : Idiochlora ophthalmicata (Moore) = Thalassodes ophthalniicata, Moore. 

Geographical distributlon of species. — X. India. 

I. /. oplithalinuala (Moure). N. India. 

Thalassodes oplithalmicata, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 637 (1867). 
Iiiiochlora ophtlialmicata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. io5 (1896). 




117. Genus METALLOCHLORA, Warren 

Metallochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. V^ol. 3, p. 290 (1896J. 
Chrysomphe. Warren, ibidem, p. 364(1896). 
Cosmogonia. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 4, p. 210 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooih. Palpus in cf moderate, in 9 rather long, second joint wiih 
moderatelv appressed scales. ihird joint in cf short. in 9 mo'e or less elongate. Tongue present. 

Antenna in c? ciliated (often serrate. usually with fascicles, Fig. 14), 
FiG. 14 in 9 minutely cihated. Pectus moderately hairj'. Hindtibia in i^ dilated 

with hair-pencil, usually rather long and with a sheath nearly as in Hemi- 
thea, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen usually with compact, glossy, 
usually inetallic crests (bosses). Frenulum present in (^ , from before basal 
expansion, wanting in 9- Forewing w-ith costa arched, at least distally, 
apex acute, termen oblique, sniooth, usually rather straight, cell less than 
one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell. free, SC^ sometimes stalked to 
beyond SC^, R' connate or short-stalked, M' usually short-stalked, some- 
times connate or just separate; hindwing varied in shape, usually 
elbowed or tailed at R^, never strongly elongate tornally, cell short to very short, DC somewhat 
curved, C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, rapidly diverging, SC- stalked, R'^ very charac- 
terislic, M' stalked. o* genitalia (section Cosmogonia) with uncus pointed. with socii of equal length, 
gnathos pointed, liarpe with long, curved scobinated, clasper, vinculum with long lower arm, penis 
pestiUate, with band of rounded cornuU ; cvidently lelated to Hemithea. 

Early stages unkTiown. 

Type of the genus : Metallochlora mceki. Wairen. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Oceania, ? Madagascar. 

Section I. — Hiiidwinfi withoul long tail at K^, no hyaline patch at l)ase ; 
lorewini,' with SC^ varial)le (Mctalloclilora, W^arren) i), 

i M. meeki.WAwm. Fergusson.Island. 

MctaUoclilora mceki, Warren. Novil. Zool. Vol. 3, p 201 1 18)61. 



Section ofantenna 

ot Meialltichiora {Cosniogcitna) decorata 

Warren, ~7 . 



I) Probably embraces two or tbree seclions, but we bave not the mitcrial for an exbaustive revision. In ielralopha anii /i>ie.u,i, «bicb 
also bave tlieir distinctive shape and coloration. SC* arises after SC»: in the briKbt green m/VrY.ir/J-group it is normal. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.^ i65 

2. M. albiciiictai ia (Walker). Flores. 

Geometnt nlhicinctaria, Walker. List Lei). Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. .35, p. 1604 

(1866). 
Nemoria alhicinctaria, .Swinhoe. Lep. Het. 0.\ford Miis. Vol. 2, p. 398, t. 6, 

£.7(1900). 

3. M. neomela (Meyrick). Tenimbers to Bismarck Ar- 

lodis neomdii. Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 492 (i88g). chipelago, X. andW. Aus- 

Xemoria pisina, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 6, p. 26 (1899). tralia. 

Thalassodes albolineata, Pagenstecher, Zoulogica, VoL 2g, p. i56 (igoo) 

(nov. syn.). 
Hemithea pisina, Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales, Vol.35. p. 604(1^10). 
Melalloclilora neomela^ Turner, ibidem, p 653 (1910). 

4. M. militaris (Lucas). — Pl. 4, Fig. I 0. N. and E. Australia, Ke Is- 

lodis militaris, Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales(2). V0I.6, p. 295 (iSgij. lands. 

Metallochlora dotata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol 3, p. 367 (i8g6). 
M etallochlora flavifimbria, Warren. ibidem, p. 367 (i8g6). 
Mftallochlora militaris, 'Warien, ibidem. Vul.5, p. 422 (i8gS). 

5. M, lineata, Warren. Fergusson and Trobriand 

Metallochlora lineata, Warren. Novit. Zool. VoK 3, p. 291 (i8g6). Isl., Dutch New Guinea. 

6. M. tentiilinea, Warren. Dutch New Guinea. 

Metallochlora tenuilinea, Warren. Novit. Zocil. Vol. 3, p. 368 (i8gf.). 

7. M. differens, Warren. Tenimber. 

M etallochlora differens, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 41 1 1897). 

8. M . tetraloplia (Lower). 

Euchloris (?) tetralopha, Lower, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 23, 

p. 43 (1898). 
Metallochlora tetralopha, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 6o5 (igio). 

9. M. sanguinipnncta, Warren. Ke Islands. 

Metallochlora sanguinipuncta,\VsLiTen. Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. p. 422, 425(1901). 

10. M. proximata, Warren. Solomon Islands. 

Metallochlora proximata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 26 (18991. 

11. M. anrigera (Pagenstecher). Bismark .■\ichipelago. 

Euchluris auri^era, I'ayenstecher, Zoologica, Vol. 29, p. i55 (1900). 

12. M. rubripnHcla, Warren. Solomon Islands. 

Metalloc/ilura riihripuncta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 355 (1902). 
i3. M. circumscripta, Warren. Solomon Islands. 

Metallochlora circumscripta, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 486 (1904). 

14. M. ametalla, Turner. N. Australia. 

M etallochlora ametalhi. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 608 (1910 1. 
i5. M. glacialis (Btitler) (huj. gen.?) i). Madagascar. 

Thalassodesglacialis. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol 5, p. Sgi (1880). 
Nemoria zehraea. Saalmuller, Lep. Madag. (21, p. 495, t. 14, f. 264 (1891) 

(nov. syn.). 
Gelasma zebraea. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 5^5 (1904). 
lodis glacialis. Swinhoe, ibideni, p. 547 (1904). 

Section IL — Hindwinfi; with ;i hyaline patch at base; forewing with SC^ arising after SC^ 

{Cliyysoiiiplie, Warren; bon. gen.?). 

16. M. venusta (Warren). — Pl 3, Fig. I 8. Ceiam, N. Australia, New 

Chrysomphe venusta, Warren, Novil. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 365 (1896). (niinea, N. Australia, Bis- 

Thalera pudica, 1'agenstecher, Zoologica, Vol. 29, p. 1^7, t. 2, i. 7 (1900) inarck Archipelago. 

(nov. syn.). 
Metallochloravenusta, Turner, I'roc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 607 

( 1910). 



I) Confornis to tlie cliaracters liure given, but Iiad proli.ibly a diflerent orijiin. 



i66 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 

Section III. — Hindwin.i,' with ;i long tail at R-'; iorew ing \\ith SC" arising before SC* 

{Cosmogonia, Warren; bon. gen.?). 

17. M. decoraia (Warren). — Pl. 5, Fig. 4. N. Queensland, Dutch New 

Thalerura (!) decorata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. .too 11^96). Cjuinea. 

Cosmogonia dccorata. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 4, ]). 210 (1897). 
Mclallochlora decoiata, Turner. Proc. I.inn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35. 
1>. 606 (1910). 

118. Genus UROLITHA, Meyrick 

Urolitha. Me\ rick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, p. 865 (1888). 

Characters. — l'"ace .smooth. Palpus in cf moderale, in 9 elongate. second joint scarcely 
rough-scaled, third joint smooth. in cf quite moderate, in 9 'ong- Tongue present. Antenna in both 
sexes cihated, in 9 ^er}' minutclv . Pectus somewhat hair\-. Femora glabrous. Ilindtibia in (j* dilatcd 
with hair-pencil, in bcith sexes with all sjiurs. .*\bdoniinal crests slight, somewhat metallic, often wanting. 
Prenulum in (^ rather sliort, from before basal expansion, in 9 vvanting. Forewing wiih costa genth' 
arched. apex rather acute, termen straight. moderately oblique, tornus pronounced, cell less than 
one-half, DC siightly incurved, SC freo (« or rarely anastomosing. wilh C i) — Turner), SC- normal, 
K' sh()rt-stali<cil or connate, M' short-stalked or connate; hindwing with apex prominent, termen long, 
straight, the wing much produced to tornus, inner margin long, cell less than onedialf, DC little oblique, 
C anastomosing at a point near base, rapidly diverging, .SC-stalked, K^ very characteristic, i\I' stalked. 

Early stages uiiknown. 

it is very doubtful whether this genus diffeis fiom MctdUochloia more than doas MetaUochlora inter 
se. M. alhicinctaria and neomela in part bridge over the gap in shape, leading on to the iiiilitaris-gvou^^, also 
with variable ciesting. 

Type of the genus : Urolitha bi/>tiiicti/era (Walker) = lodis bipiiitcti/era, Walker. 

Geographical dlstrlbution of specles. — .Austraiian. 

I. U. bipiiucti/era (Walker). S. E. to E. .Australia. 

lodis bipunctifcra, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 22. p. 5^6 (1861). 
Urolilha bipuiictitera, Meyrick, l'roc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2. 
p. S66 (iSSS). 

119. Genus MIXOLOPHIA, Warren 

Mixolophia. Wanen. .Vovit. Zool. Vol. i. j). 391 (1894). 

Characters. — l'"ace smooth. Palpus in cf rathei short, second joint with moderately appressed 
scales, Ihird jumt small (in alhiradiata second joint rough-scaled, third moderate). Tongue present. 
Antenna in cf subseirate, shortly ciliated. Pectus moderately haiiy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia 
in o* {alhiradiata) dilated wiili hair-pencil and four short spurs. Abdomen strongly crested (in t5'pe with 
curved tufts). Frenulum in cf moderately strong, from before basal expansion. Forevidng with costa 
arched at base and distally, nearly straight between, termen oblique, little curved. subcrenulate, cell 
nearly one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell, free, SC- normal, R' short-stalked. M' approximated ; 
hindwing with termon subcrcnulalc, a prominent tooth at R'', cell short, DC-' incurvcd. C anastomosing 
veiy brieH\- with cell ncar base (in albiradiata merely appioximated), rapidlj- diverging. SC* stalked, 
M' stalkcd. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 167 

Early stages unknovvn. 

We have seen only one specimen of each species, that of ochrohuda with hindlegs lost. On account 
of their shape. etc, they are by no nieans certainly congeneric. Should ochrolauia prove to have only two 
spurs in the cf, it might go with Lophocrita. The aspect is nearer that of Uliocnemis, etc, and altogether 
the position is still somewhat problematical. 

Type of the genus : Mixolophia oclnolaula, Warren (1894). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — N. India. 

1. M. ochrolauta, Warren. Bhutan. 

Mi.xolophia oc/trolaulii,\Va.iTe\i, Xovit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 391 (1894). 
Hemilhia ochrolauta, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 490 (iSgS). 

2. M. albiradiata (Warren) (huj. gen. ?). Assam. 

Vliocncmii albiradiala, Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 355 (1893). 
Hemilhid albiradiata, Hainiison, Faiina Iiid. Motlis, Vo). 3, p. 490(1895). 

120. Genus EPISOTHALMA, Swinhoe 

Episothalma. Swinhoe,. Ann. Ma;.,^ X;il. Hist. (6), Vol. 12, p. 149 (1893). 

Chlorodontopera, sect. Episophthalma. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 483 (i8g5). 

Characters. — Face smooth, rounded. Palpus moderate, second joint shortly rough-scaled, 
third joint in (^ rather small to moderate, in <J smooth, slender, moderate to long. Tongue developed. 
Antenna in r^ dentate with fascicles of cilia, in 9 nearly simple. Pectus and fcmora hairy. Hindtibia 
in c? sometimes dilated with hair-pencd, median spurs wanting or absolutely vestigial, in Q with all 
spurs usually present, but very variable in degree of development, the medians sometimes almost 
entueh' obsolete. .Abdomen with small crests. F^renulum in cf rather strong, from before shght basal 
expansion, in 9 quite rudimentary. Forevvmg with costa very gently arched, more strongly so towards 
apex, apex acute, terinen usualiy crenulate, shghtly incurved below apex, prominent or even sharply 
toothed at R'*, thence veiy oblique, celi less than one-half, DC incurved, SC free, SC-normal, R' con- 
nate or stalked, R- irom rather near apex of celi, M' closely approximated to R^, exceptionally very 
shortiy stallced ; liindwing witli tcrmen crenulate, a strong tootli at R'' and anotlier (often less strong) 
at R', more or iess excised between, tornus pronounced, ceil sliort, C very shortiy appressed to or 
anastomosing with SC, then rapidiy diverging, SC^stalked, R- from near apex of ceii, M' approximated, 
connate or staiked. cf genitaiia witii uncus pointed, socii large, angular, gnathos notunited, harpe with 
clasper in foid, jieuis pestiliate, spatuiate, long coremata piesent; suggesting an aiiiance vvith Maxates. 

Early stages unknown. 

It seems feasible to regard this genus as approximatelv- parental to Hemithea, though certainly 
retaining some signs of affinity witii the more priniitive genera Chlorodoniopera, etc 

Type of the genus : Episotlialma robustaria (Cjuenee) = Hemithea rohiistaria, Guenee = Jhalassodes 

sisHuaga, VValker (i8c)3j. 

Geographical distribution of species. — India to New Guinea. 
I. E. robustaria (Guenee). India to Burma. 

Hemithca robuslaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 383 (iS5Si. 
Thalassoiies siiziwa^d, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.V0l.22. p.55o 1 1 861 1. 
Thalera robustaria, Walker, ibidem, p. SgS (1K61). 
Thalassodes macruraria, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 26, p. i56i (1862). 
Thalassodcs fimbriaria. Walker, Char. Undescr. Lep. p. 97 (1869). 
? Thalassodes indeterminata, Walker, ibidem, p. 98 (1,869). 



i68 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

Episothalma sisuiniga, Swinhoe. Ann. Mag. \at. Hist. (6), Vol. 12. \\ i5o 

(1893). 
Chlorodontopera robuslaria, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, ]). 484 

(iSgS). 
Episothalvia robiislaria, Swinhoe. Lep. Het. O.vford Mus. Vol, 2, p. 388 

(1900). 

2. E. ocellata, Swinhoe. Khasis. 

Episothalma oceilata, Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 12. p. 21S 

(1893). 
Chlorodoniopera ocellala, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoI.3,p. 483 (iSgS). 

3. E. obsciirata, Warren. Eergusson Island to Dutch 

Episothaima obscurata, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 2S9 (1896J. New Guinea. 

4. E. subaurata, Wanen. New Guiiiea. 

Episothaima subaurata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vul. 6, p. 329 (1899). 

5. E. cognataria, Swinhoe. Siam. 

Episothaima cognataria, Swinhoe. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7),Vol. 11. p. 5io 
1 1903). 

121. Genus LOPHOCRITA, Warren 

Lophocrita. Wairen, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 38q (1894). 

Characters. — Eace smooth. Palpus in (^ rather short, second joint quite shortly rough-scaled 
beneath, third joint in cf small. Tongue present. Antenna in cf shghtly subserrate, with fascicles of 
ciha. Pectus moderately haiiy. I'"emoia glabrous. Hindtibia in cf httle dilated, but with a long slender 
pencil of hairs, median spurs wanting (no doubt present in 9)- Abdomen with strong curved crests. 
Frenulum in cf moderately strong, but arising from before a basal expansion of hindwing. Forewing 
with costa gently arched, almost straight between, ape.x rather prt)minent, termen smooth, slightly 
curved, strongly obhque, cell nearly one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell, free, SC* normal, R' short- 
stalked, M' approximated ; hindwing with termen shghtly curved froin apex to R'', there weakly tailed, 
thence subcrenuhite, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short, DC'' incurvcd, C anastomosing 
witli (-ell at a point near base, then slrongly diverging, SC^stalked, M' stalked. 

Early stages iinknown. 

We have iinfortunately seen no 9 of this genus, but it appears to be so clearly a mere modifi- 
cation ol Hemithea, distinguished by the much more highly developed crests, that we have no doubt 

the 9 will prove to have all spurs present. 

Type of the genus : Lophoerita itndifera (Walker) = Thalera undifera, Walker (1894). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — Horneo. 

I. L. undiferii (Walkerj. Borneo. 

Thaiera uiidi/era, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 601 (1861). 
Lophocrita undifera. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 389 (1894). 

122. Genus HEMITHEA, Duponchel 

Hemithea. Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (2), p. lob, 233 (1829). 
Chlorochroma. Duponchel, Cat. Meth. Lep. Eur. p. 224 (1845). 
.' Geometrina. Motscluilsky. Etud. Ent. Vol. 9, p. 35 (1860) i). 



I) iIotschulsky"s diat^nosis makes it quite certain that lie was not dealinf; with a species of .Wegatochlura (a£ Warren, .Vcn/it. Zool. Vol. 2, 
p 89. assumes). and highly probable that he had a Hemitfifa before bim. That he considered Brcmers very bad figure of sponsaria as similar to 
his own '.'iri.ic-scentaria shows little or nothing. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDJi 



169 



FiG. i5 



Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, second joint shortly scaled, reaching 
Ijeyond iruns, third joint smooth, in cf quite moderate, in 9 elongate. Tongue developed. Antenna 
in cf cihated (typically dentate-fasciculate), in 9 minutely ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora 
glabrous (except hindfemur of g*). Hindtibia in cf long, with strong sheath and hair-pcncil, no appre- 
ciabh' process, median spurs wanting, terminals not long, hindtarsus 
abbreviated (Fig. 15); hindtibia in 9 with all spurs. Abdomen with 
small or moderate crests. hienulum in cf present, arising from before 
basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa somewhat arched, 
apex moderate, termen smooth, sliglitl}- curved. obhque, cejl less than 
one-half, SC from cell, usually Iree, sometimes anastomosing with C, 
SC^ normal, R' usually stalked, R^ from above middle of cell, j\l' short- 
stalked, connate or closely approximated; hindwing with apex moderate, 
termen usually tailed or angled at R'' (rarelv onh' slightlx benti, turnus 
pronounced, inner margin rather long, cell short, DC incurved, becoming 
rather obhque, C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, then rapidh- 
diverging, SC- stalked, R'^ from considerably above middie of DC. 
Al' short-stalked. (^f genitaha : uncus pointed, with slender socii of equal 
length, gnathos almost atropliied, harpe vvith fineh' spined clasper, penis 
pestillate, short coremata present. 




Hindleg 
ol lUmiihca acstiiuti ui, Hiibner, c?. 



Egg. — Short oval, mucli ilattened and witlr a large depression on upper side, shghtly flattened 
at one end; suriace shagreened; colour pale green (cf. Enl. Rec. Vol. 14, p. 246; Vol. ig, t. g, f. i). 

Larva. — Thin and frrm (twig-like), head bifid, prothorax with bifid anterior projection over 
head, bodj' with decided lateral flange. In iirst instar with a number of club-shaped hairs and posteriorly 
on the dorsum of abdominal segments i-5 a T-shaped hair, resembling that upon the dorsal area of 
Hipparchus papilionaria; no actual covering as in the Comibaena-grou^p, but the habit prevalent of spinning 
threads about the bod\', to which becomes attached foreign matter such as dust and dirt. In later stadia 
the hairs become progressively less specialized, the « balloon-shaped « process which correponds to the 
special organ of Comibaena and Euchloris (whereby ihey attach their clothing) not ver^' conspicuoiis 
(Burrows, Ent. Rec. Vol. ig, p. 278). 

PuPA. — Rather slender, hght brown, with daik dorsal line ; cremaster with eight hooks, four 
fairly uniform at extremity and two paiis more dorsal and lateral a little before extremity. Loosely spun 
among leaves. 

This genus and the following, though distinct in several characters in their typical forms, are so 
connected by intergrades that it is difficult to maintain them on a rigid classificatory system. AII the 
strongly tailed or angled species (with the possible exceptirm of subflavida, of which we have not access to 
aii undamaged specimen) have also the crested abdomen, and this coinbination of characters furnishes 
the typical Hemitlua. But a iew with appreciably angled hindwing {Chlorissa pretiosaria, at least) have no 
sign of crests, while a fevv African forms with rounded hindwing (e. g. dorsicristata) are inore or less well 
crested. The type species oi Chlorissa has itself frequently two minute crests, and we have observed 
no instance, even in the African species, where the number is more than two. As there is no true 
(angled and fully crested) species of Hemithea known in Africa it seems quite clear that dorsicristaia 
is a development of Chlorissa and we are compelled here to consider the wing-form as equallv important 
with the cresting. 



Type of the genus : Ilemithea aestivaria (HubnerJ = Phalaena Geometra aestivaria, Hiibner (1 82g). 



i-jo 



I,EPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Geographical distribution of species. 



1. H. aesfivaiia (ilubneij. 

Phalatiia Gcomelra sliigala, Miiller. Fauna Ins. Frid. p. 5i (1764) (nec 

Scopoli, 1763). 
Phalaena vtrnaria (.' Fabricius, Syst. Eiit. ]>. 620, 1775), Meyer, Fuesslys 

Mag Ent. Vol. 2, p. 3^ (1779I (nec Linne). 
Phalaena Geomelra thxmiaria |Schiffermuller{, Schmett. Wien, p. 97 (:775 

(nec Linne). 
7 Phalaena herhacta [Geoffro)'], Fourcroy's Ent. Paris. (2), p. 282 (1785) 

fnoin. dubium). 
Phalaena Ccmnelra aeslivaria. Hiibiier, Beitr. Schmelt. Vol. i (4), p. 22, t. 3, 

f. R (1789). 
? Phalaena Geomtlra bajularia. Lang. Verz. Schmett. (ed. 2), p. 174 (1789) 

(nec Schiffermiilleri. 
Geometra aeslivaria, Hiibner. Samml. Eur. Schmett.Geom. t 2, f.9 (1796?) ; 

p. 16 (iSoo.'). 
Macaria thymiata, Curtis, Brit. Ent. Vol. 3, p. i32 (1826). 
Thalera thymiaria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?). 
Hemithta atslivaria, Duponchel, Hist. Nat Lep. Vol. 7 121, p. 106 (1829); 

Prout, Ent. Rec. VoL 12. p. 1S2 (1900). 
Ptychopoda thymiaria. Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. (2), p. i53 (1829). 
Ptychofoda vtrnaria, Stephens, ibidem, p. i53 (1829). 
Chlorissa thymiaria. Stephens, 111. Haust. Vol. 3, p. 3i6 (i83i). 
Chlorochroma aeslivaria, Duponchel. Cat. Meth Lep. Eur. y. 224 (1845). 
Semoria fimbriata, Lederer. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. .?. p. 172 

(1853) (nec Hufnagel). 
Thalera aestivaria, Stephens, List Hrit. .\iiim. Hrit. Mus. Vol. 5. p. 225 

(1856). 
Hemithea thymiaria. Gnenee, Spec. Gen. 1-ep. Vol. 9, p. 3S4 (i858). 
Xemoria strigala. Slaudinger, Cat. (ed. 1), p. 63 (1861). 
Hemithea strigata. Berce, Faune Ent. Fr. Lep. Vol. 5. p. U2 (1873). 
} Ntmoria alliouiidiilaUi, Hedemann, Ilor. Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 14, p. 5ii, 

t. 3, f. 8(18791 (ab.). 
Thalera slrigala, Leech, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond. p. 141 18S9). 

2. II. iiisiilaiia, Gueneei). 

Hemithea insularia, Giienee. .^pei . lieii. l.ej). \'ol. 9, p, iai 1 isSSi. 

3. //. triionaria (Walkei). 

Thalassodes tritonaria,\Va.\keT, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26. p. i56o 

(1862). 
Thalassodes Itiicospilola, Hampson, 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Miis. Vol. o. p. 145. 

t. 176, f. 3 (IX93) (nec Moore). 
Htinilhta tritonaria, Hampson. Faiina Ind. Moths, \'ol. 3. p. 491 (tSgS). 

4. H . jvitka (Pagenstecliei). 

lodis wuka, Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. Vol. 39, p. i53 (1886). 
Nemoria iosoma. Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 495 (18891. 
Hemilhea piclifimbria,WiTTen, Novit. Zocl. Vol. 3, p. 290(1896 . 
Htmithta insularia, Turner, Froc. Linn. Soc, N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 604 
(1910) (nec Gueneei. 

5. //. viridesceniaria (.Motschulsk)-j (huj. gen.?). 

Gtomttrina viridesctnlaria, Motschulsky, Etud. Ent. Vol. 9, p. 36 (1860). 

6. H. tissiiriariaijiremcv). 

lod/s ussuriaria. Bremer. Mem. .^cad. Sc. St-Pctersb. Vol. S, p. 77, t. 6, 

f. 24 (1864). 
} Hemilh/a alboundulata (part.), Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 4, 

p. 565(1896) (nec Hedemanni. 
Ntmoria ussuriaria, Piingeler, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 362 (1898). 
Htmithia ussuriaria. Staudinger, Cat. (ed. i), p. 265 (1901). 



Palaearctic, Indo-.\ustralian. 

Europe to E. Asia. 



Singapore to Philippines, 
Plndia. 

India and China to Java, 
Philippines. 



Bali to Woodlark Island, 
N. AustrHliii. 



Japan. 

S. E. .^ibeiia, Ji. (^.luna. 



i) A ^oup of closely-allicd specics or lorms, to which have been given ihe namcs of tiisn/oria, tritoiiaria. wuka. iosoma and fictifimbria, 
is stiU in considcnibie confusion, und we have Iiud neither the time nor thc material to work it out thoroughly. Thc synonymy and distribution 
here given must conscquently be regarded as mcrely provistonal. 



lAM. (jEOMETKID.-E 171 

7. //. distinctana (Walker). X. India, Tibet. 

Thalassades distincUiria. Walker, Lisl Leji. liis. i>rn. Mus. Vol. 35, p. 11107 

IIS66J. 
Hcmilhta rubrijroiis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 393 1 1894;. 
Hemilhea distincta. Warren, ibidem. p. 3^3 (1S94I. 

8. H. mariiia (IJutlei). Japan. 

Thalassodes marina. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ,5j, Vol. 1, p. 399 (1878;. 
EuchlorispHlata (part. . Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 95 (1892J (nec 

Linnej. 
lodis marina, Gumppenberg. Nova .Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. Halle, 

VoL 64. p. 4S1 (1895). 

9. //. amphitritaria (Oberthiir). E. Siberia, ?Japan, ? East 

Senwria .im/AiYriVaria, Oberthur. Diag. Lep. Askold, p. 8^1879); Etud. China. 

Ent. VoL 5, p. 49, t. 4, f. 8 (1880/. 
? Hemithea obliterata, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 16), Vol. 20, p. 233 (1897; 
Inec Walkeri. 

10. H. costipHiictata (Moore). India with Ceylon, Burma. 

Thalera costipunctata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3. p. 428, t. 195, f. 4 (1887J. 
Thalera gramiiiea, Hampson, lU. Het. ColL Brit. Mus. Vol. 8. p. 109, t. i5i, 

f. I (1891J. 
Hemithea graminea, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 491 (1895). 
Hemithea costifunclala. Swinhoe, Lep. Het. 0.\ford Mus. Vol. 2. p. 392 (1900J. 

11. //. rubripicta, Warren. N. India. 

Hemilhea rubripicta. Warren, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. p. 353 (1893;. 

12. H. nigropuiictata, Warren. N. India, "-Jajian. 

Hemilhea nigropunclata, Wa.Tien, Proc.ZooLSoc.Lond. p. 353, t 3i, f. 4 1 1893). 

: Semoria amphitritaria, Piingeler, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 362 (1898) (nec Oberthiir). 

i3. //. aquamarina, Hampson. N. India. 

Omp/ia.i {}) marina, Butler. IIL Het. CoU. Brit. .Mus. VoL 7, p. 21 (1889) 
inec .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5j, Vol. 1. p. 399, 1878). 

Hemithea aquamarina. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 491 (1895J. 

Hemilkea unicolor, Warren, .MS. in coU. Brit. Mus.j. 
14. H. subflavida, Warreii. Fergusson Island, NewGui- 

Htmithea subflavida. Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 3, p. 290 11896). nea. 

Hemithea suhflavida reducla, Warren, ibidem, p. 367 (1896) i). 

Lophocrila uiidifera Ipart.i. Swinhoe, Trans. lint. Soc. Lond. p. 672 (1902) 
(nec Walker). 
i5. //. quadripunctata, Warren. Dutch Timoi. 

Hemithea quadripunctata, Wairen, Novit. ZooL VoL 3. p. 367 11896). 
it). //. itniliiuarta, Leech. W. China. 

Hemithea unilinearia. Leech. .\nn. .Mag. Nat. Hist. (6i, Vol. 20,p. 232 (1897J. 

17. H. pelliicidula (Turner). N. Queenslaiid. 

Xemoria pellucidula. Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .■\ustral. Vol. 3o, p. 129 

11906J. 
Hemithea pellucidula, Tumer, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35, p. 004 
19101. 

NoTE. — Hcmitltea vaciia, Swinhoe, Traiis. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 671 {Nemoria vaciia on type 
label) belongs to the Aciiialiinae. 

123. Genus ANOPLOSCELES, Warren 

Anoplosceles. \\'anon, .Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 363 (1896). 

Characters. — 1-ace smooth. Palpus in (^ moderately long, second juint rather shortly scaled, 
third joint smooih, eiongate (9 unknown). Tongue present. .Antenna in (;f thick, lamellate, scarcely 



1) The locality w« by inadverience publiibed as « Ccdar Bay, Queenstand »; according: to tbe lype label, wbicb is certainly correct. it 
sbould bc Huinboldt Bay, New Ouinea. Swinhoe (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 672I bas corrccted tbii, buc wichout commcnt. 



172 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in cf dilated with hair-pencil, all spurs vvanting (in 9 ?) ; 
hindtarsLis in ^f short. Abdomen apparentlv not crested. Frenulum in (J* slender, from before basal 
expansion. Forewing with costa arched, apex prominent, termen smooth, obHque, curved, cell about 
two-fifths, DC incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing shortly with C. SC- normal, R' separate, R^ from 
above middle, M' approximated at origin to R-*; hindwing with apex moderate, termen produced to a 
tail at R3; tornus pronounced, cell short, C anastomosing at a point near base, SC- stalked, R- Irom 
much above middle, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

An evident offshoot of Hemiihea. 

Type of the genus : Anoplosceles nigripunctata , Warren. 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — Java. 

l. A. nigripunctata, Warren. W. Java. 

AnoplosceUs nigripunctata. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. ,■?, j). 363 (1896). 

124. Genus CHLORISSA, Stephens 

Chlorissa. Stephens, 111. Haust. Vol. 3, p. 3i5 (i83i); Westwood, Ciassif. Ins. Gen. Synopsis, 

p. loo (1840). 
Nemoria. Lederer, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. 3, p. 172 (i853) (nec Hiibner, Moore restr.). 
Phaiogramma. Gumppenberg. Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. tlalle, Vol. 49, p. J26 (1887); 

Vol. 65, p. 277 (i8g6). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus quite moderate to long, second joint shortly rough-scaled, 
third joint in q* usually small, in 9 quite moderate (the type species, etc.) to long [pulmentaria, etc), 
rather short in the American species. Tongue present. Antenna in cf ciliated (usually evenly), in 9 
minutely ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Ilindtibia in cf elongate, with sheath and 
hair-pencil, and two short terminal spurs (medians wanting); in 9 with all spurs. Abdomen without or 
(especially in tjie African species) with two small dorsal crests. Frenulum in cf slender, from before 
basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa gentl)' arched, apex moderate, termen smooth, 
nearly straight or slightly curved, moderately obligue, cell rather short, DC incurved. SC' usually from 
cell (stalked in dorsicristata and afflictaria, and sometimes in unilineal), usuall}' free, occasionally anastom- 
osing with C, SC^ normal, R' connate or very shortly stalked, M' connate or very shortly stalked, 
exceptionally just separate ; hindwing with termen weakly elbowed or quite rounded, very rarely with 
a definite angle, never tailed, cell short, DC somewhat incurved, C anastomosing wilh cell at a point 
near base, then rapidly diverging, SC* stalked, R^ characteristic, M' stalked (except sometimes in the 
American species). q* genitalia : uncus pointed. with slender socii of equal length (in pulmentaria larger, 
bird'.s-head-shaped), gnathos almost atrophied, harpe rounded, typically with long clubbed scales 
and with a strong, angulated, scobinated projection on the inner margin; penis pestillate, widened 
above, with large striated cornulus (minute cornuli in pitlmentaria) ; a pointed scobinated projection 
of the termination of the eighth sternite. 

Egg. — EUiptical, flattened above and below; surface in viridata with hexagonal pattern, in 
subcroceata smooth, finely shagreened ; green, changing to j-ellowish (Burrows, Ent. Rec. Vol. 20, p. i3i, 
t. 10, f. I, la; Dyar, Psyche, Vol. 8, p. 386). 



FAM. GEOMETRID.*; 173 

Larva. — Kather slender, tvvig-like, surface granulated, lateral flange present, but less developed 
than in Hemithea, etc. ; setas in the earliest stages short and club-shaped, no specialized hairs such as 
those of Comibaena, Hipparchus or even Hemithea. Head and prothorax bifid, scarcely appreciably in first 
stadium (Burrows, Ent. Rec. Vol. 20, p. rS^; cf. Dyar on subcroceata, loc. cit.). 

PupA. — Kather truncated in front, but slender and pointed behind ; colour dull pale ochreous, 
head and wing-cases dusky, a daik line down the back, spiracles black (HeUins, Ent. M. Mag. Vol. i, 
p. 263). 

Type of the genus : Chlorissa viridnta (Linne) = Phalaeiia Geometra viridata, Linne (1840). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Palaearctic, Nearctic, India, Africa. 

i. C. viridata (l^\Y\n€). Europe to Central Asia, 

Phalaeiia Geomilra viridala, Linne, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), p. 523 (i758). ?E. Asia. 

Phalacihi volutaia, Fabriciiis, Syst. Ent. p. 635 (1775) i). 
?Phalaeria syrene fGeoffroy |, Fourcroy's Ent. Paris. p. 286 (1785) (nov. syn.). 
Geometra viridaria. Hiibner. Samml. Eur. Schmett.Geom. t. 2, f, 11 (1796?); 

p. 16 (1800?). 
Geometravernaria, Haworth, Lep. Brit. (2), p. 3oo (i8og) (nec Linne). 
Ncmoria viridaria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?). 
Hipparchus viridatus, Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. (21, p. 122 (1829). 
Hemilhea viridaria, Dupoiichel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (21, p. 246, t. i5i. 

f. 4 (1S291. 
Macaria viridata, Curtis, Guide Brit. Ins., col. i65 (i83i). 
Chlorissa viridata, Stephens, 111. Havist. Vol. 3, p. 3i6 (i83i). 
Chlorissa cloraria, Stephens, ibidem, p. 3i6 (i83i) (nec Hiibneri. 
Nemoria viridata, Lederer. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. 3, p. 172 (iS53). 
[Geometra^i prasinala. Werneburjj, Beitr Schmett. Vol. i, p. 225 (1864). 
Xemoria viridata ab. mathewi, Bankes, Ent. Rec Vol. 19, p. 210 (1907) (ab.?). 
Nemoria viridata ab. rufotincta, Burrows, ibidem, Vol 20, p. i32 (i9o8)(ab.?). 
Nemoria viridata ab. olivaceo-marginata , ab. concavilinea et ab. caerulescens, 

Burrows, ibidem, p. i32 (19081 (aberr.). 
Nemoria viridata ab. rosearia, Culot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 270 ! iqio) (ab. ?1. 

2. C. melitiaria {HeTDch-Schikffer) {pTSEc. var. vel syn. ?). Ural. 

?Hemithea herbaria, iioisduval, Gen. Ind. Meth. Eur. Lep. ]i. iSo 11840) 

(nec Hiibner) 2). 
Geometra cloraria, Eversmann, Fauna Lep. Volg. l.'ral. ]i. 367 11844I (teste 

Herrich-Schaffer) (nec Hiibner). 
Gcometra melinaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Syst. Bearb. .Schmett. Eur. Vol. 3. 

t. 67, fr. 413 (1848); Vol. 6, p. 63 (i852). 

3. C. iloraria (Htibner). Central and S. Euiope (to 

Geomctra cloraria. Hubner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. t. 68, f. 352 (1808?). Turkestan?). 

Geometra porrinata, Zeller, Stett. Ent Zeit. Vol. 9, p. 273 (184S1 nov. syn.l. 
[Geometra] etruscaria (part.), Zeller. ibidem, Vol. 10, p. 2o3 (1S49) 3). 
Geometra porrinaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Syst. Bearb, Schmett. Hur. Vol. 6, 

p. 63 (i852); t. 91, f. 566 (i855;. 
Nemoritt porrinata. Lederer. Verh. Zool -bot. Ver. Wien, Vol, 3, p. 172 

(1853). 
Ncmoria prasinala. Walker, List Le]i. Iiis. Brit. Mus.Vol. 26, p, i556 11862) 

(in err. \>to pornnata]. 
N emoria porrinata ab. rosea, Gumppenberg, Nova Acta .-^cad. Leop. d. 

Naturf. Halle. Vol. 64, p. 492 (1895) (ab.?). 

4. C. solidaria (Guenee). India with Oylon. ? Ab}'^- 

Nemoria solidaria, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 348 (i858). sinia. 

lodis discessa. Walker, List Lep, Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 544 (1861 ;. 



1) Vide Ent. Rec. Vol. 12. p. 180: « seticornis » in the Fabrician description supports the determiiiation of liorkliausen aguinst the later ones. 

2) Suggested bv Guen6e {Spec. Giri . Lep. Vol. 0, p. 347. 35o^ on the evidence of coll, Boisduval, But t)ie last-named author pives « Galloprov, » 
as locality. 

,1) Vide Zellei, Slett. lint. Zcit. Vol, il, p. 56. 



174 



i.i:fidoptera heterocera 



12 

i3 

14 

i5 



\'emoria lataria, Walker, ibidem. Vol. 26, p. i558 (1862). 
Nemoriafrequens, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 616 (1881). 
Nemoria parvulata, Swinhoe. ibidem. p. 85^ (i885) (nec Walkeri. 
C. pttlmentaria (Guenee). 

Hemithea chraria, Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 8(1). p. 549, t. 210, f. i 

(i83o) (nec Hiibnerj. 
[Geomeira] etruscaria (part.), Zeller, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 10, p.2o3 (1849) 1). 
Memoriacloraria, Lederer,Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol.3, p.i72(i853). 
Nemoria pulmentaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 349 (i858). 
? Nemoria viridata var. insignala, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (1901). 
? Nemoria pulmentaria var. falaestinensis fpart.), Fuchs, Soc. Ent. Zurich, 
Vol. 18, p. 5i (19031. 
C. obliterata (Walker). 

Nemoria obliterata, Walker,List Lep. Ins. Brit.Mus. V0I.26, p. i55s(i862). 
} Nemoria viridata (part.), Staudinger, Iris, Vol. 10, p. 9 (1897); viridaria 
(part.), Leech. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). Vol. 20, p. 240 (1897) (nec 
Linne). 
C. attenuata (Walker). 

Nemoria{h rt//<H«<i/.i.Walker,List Lep. Ins. Hrit.Mus.V0l.26. p. i558 1 1862 1. 
? lodis reductata, Walker, ibidem. Vol. 35. p. 1606 (1866). 
? Nemoriaaltemiala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 42 (1897). 

C. faustinata (Milliere) 2). 

Nemoria faustinala, .Millidre, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon in. s.). Vol. 17. p. 26. 

t. 96, f. 2-8 (1S69). 
Phaiogramma fauslinala, Gumppenberg, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle. Vol, 65, p. 278 (1^96). 
Nemoria pulmentaria var. palaestinensis (part.?), Fuchs. Soc. Ent. Zurich, 
Vol. 18, p. 5i (1903) (nov. syn.: teste Piingeler in litt.). 
C. pretiosaria (Staudinfrer). 

Nemoria pretiosaria, Staudinger, Slett. Ent, Zeit. Vol.38, p. 202 (1877). 
Nemoria gelida, Butler, 111. Hel. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 7, p. 21, 104, t. i36, 

f. 5 (1889) (nov. syn.). 
Nemoria pretiosaria vax. giganlaria, Statidinger. Iris. Vol. 5. p. 143 (1892). 
Hemilhea (?) anomala, Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. 3, p. 106 (1896). 
C. stibolepida (Butler). 

Comibaena slibolepida, Butler, Cist. Ent. Vol. 2, p. 394 ^1879). 
? Nemoria pallidularia, Mabille. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5). Vol. 9, p. 333 (1880). 
(nov. syn.). 
Himilhea albislrigulala, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 39(1897). 
Nemoria albistrigulala, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 5, )>, 235 (1898) (nov. syn.). 
Jodis stibolepida, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 547 (1904). 
C. confusaria (Staudinger) (huj. gen.?). 

\Nemoria] conlusaria, .Staiidinger. Iris. Vol. 5, p. 144 (iSq2) ; Vol. 10, p. 10 
(1897). 
C. pitnctifimbria (Warren), 

Hemilhea {}\ puuctijimbria, Warren. .Wivit. /ool. V.>1. .!, p. 366(18961. 
C. approximans (Warren). 

Hemilhea approximans, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol, 4, \>. Jg (1897). 
Nemoria approximans, Warren. ibidem, Vol, 5, p. 235 (1898). 
C. malescripta (Warren). 

Hcmithea malescripta. Warren, Xovit. Zuol. \'ol, 4, p. 40 (1897). 
Nemoria malescripta, Warren, ibidem, Vol, 5, p. 235 (1898). 
C. simplex (Warren) (gen. Hemit/iea?). 

Hemithea simplex, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p, 40 (1807 . 
Nemoria simplex, Warren. ibidem, Vol. 5, p. 235 (189S). 
lodis pariciliala, Fuchs, Jahrb, Nassau. Ver. Nat. Vol. 55, p. 86 1902) 
(nov. svn.) 3). 



S. Europe to Central Asia, 
N. Africa. 



E. Cliina. Japaii. 



Cape. 



Spain, S\ ria, ? Egypt. 



X. W. India and W. China 
to Ferghana and Trans- 
caucasia. 



W. .Africa to .\atai and 
Madagascar. 



E. Siheria. 

Bombaj'. 

Natal, Mashonaland. 

Natal, ? Rritish E, .\frica. 

Java, Sumatra. 



i) See footnote to No. .>, supr.i, 

2) Tliis species, solidaria und stib>>lff>ida. .ire evidently very close relatives, possibly cvcn forms of one widely-spread species, 

3) Published as « lodis {Nem'>ria vel potius Hemiihea ':) parictli.itt » (!>. 



FAM. (iEOMETRID^ 



1/5 



Cape to Mashonaland. 

Xiger. 

Sierra Leone. 

Natal. 

Eastern U. S. .A. 



i6. C. niiilinea (Warren) (ead. ac atlenuaial). 

Hemithea iiiiiliiiea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, ]). 40 (1897). 
Nemoiu! uiiiliiiea, Warren, ibidem. Vol. 5, p. 235 (1898). 

17. C. venniculaia (Warren). 

Himithea vermiculata, Warren, Novit. Zool. \'o\. 4, p. 41 (1897). 
Nemoria vermiculata, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 5, p. 235 ( 1S98). 

18. C. afflictaria (Swinhoe). 

Nemoria afflictaria, Swinhoe, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 549 {1904). 

19. C. dorsicristata (VVarren). 

Nemoria dorsicrislata. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 34 (i9o5j. 

20. C. pislasciaria (Guenee). 

Nemoria [l) pislasciaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 348 (i858i. 
} Acidalia (?) iusecutata.^Wa.Wet, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 26, p. i6i3 
(1862) (nov. syn.) i). 
Thalera superata, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 1612 (1866). 
Nemoria pistaciata, Packard, Mem. Geom. U. S. A. p. 374, 1. 10, f. 80 (1876). 
Nemoria pistacearia, Hulst, Ent. News, Philad. Vol. 6, p. 71 (iSgS). 
Chlorochrnma pistaceata. Giimppenberg, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle, VoL 64, p. 495 (1895). 
Nemoria pistaceata, Dyar, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus. No. 52, p. 299 • 1902). 

21. C. euchloraria (Guenee) (huj. gen. ?). 

lodis euchloraria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 355 (i858). 

22. C. subcroceata (Walker). 

Nemoria sHbcroceata,VJ3.\VeT, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i557 

(1862). 
Chlorochroma inceitata var. suhcroceata, Gurappenberg. Nova Acta Acad. 

Leop. d. Naturf. Halle, VoL 64, p. 495 (1895). 
Nemnria auranticolorala, Strecker, Lep. Het. SuppL 2,p.8(i8g9)(nov. syn.). 
} Nemoria dyarii. Hulst, The Canad. Entom. Vol. 32, p. io5 (1900) 

(nov. syn.j. 
Eucroslis incertata. HoUand, Moth Book. p. 336, t. 43, f. 18 (i9o3) 

(nec Walker). 

NoTK. — Neiiuiiid unitasciata, Druce, Binl. Centr. Anier. Lep. Het. \'ol. 2, p. 535, belongs to the 
Geometrinae (Boarmiiiuie. auctt.); N. bruniieifrons. ManipSon, Trans. Zool. Soc . Lond. \'ol. 19 (2), p. 126, 
to the Acidaliinae. 



Eastern U. -S. A. 
Eastern U. S. A. 



125. Genus MESOTHEA, Warren 

Mesothea. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol, 8, p. 446 (igoi). 

Eucrostis. Hulst, Trans. Amer. l-Lut. .Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i3 (i8g6) (nec Eucrostes. Hiibner). 

Characters. — Face somewhat rough-scaled. Ej^e small. Palpus in both sexes short, second 
joint with long rough scaling. third joint small, concealed. Tongue present. Antenna about one-half, 
in (^ dentate, with fascicles of ciUa, ih 9 nearly simple. Pectus densely hairy. Femora hairy. Hindtibia 
in cf not dilated, in both sexes with teiininal sptirs only. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in (^f weak 
and colourless, arising from before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa slightly arched 
at base, then nearly straight, apex moderate, termen smooth. slightly curved, oblique, tornus somewhat 
rounded oif, cell not quite one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing with C or free (variable 
in botli species), .SC"^ normal, occasionally anastomosing with SC, R' connate, short-stalked or 
approximated, M' separate; hindwing with termen usualK' slightly bent at R'*, cell less than one-half, 



The type witliout localit,v; agrees ver,v well witli pistasciaria, only M' of liiiulwing is stalkeil (ubout connate in our only fiistasctaria). 



176 LEPIDOPTERA IIETEROCERA 

DC incurved, C anastomosing at a }K)int with cell, then iapi(ll\ diverging, SC* stalked, M' connate or 
short-stalked. 

Egg, — Elliplical, disk-like, flattened concave above and below with sharp edges, one end a little 
niore rounded-pointed than the other. narrower; smooth and shining, with sniall, nanovv and obscure 
reticulations (Dyar, Psyclie, Vol. 9, p, 2S7), 

Lauva. — Slendt^r, cylindrical, head strongl}- bilobed, the lobes produced into erect conical 
horns, prothora.x produced anteriorly into similar but smaller cones, skin-surface finely granulated, 
tubercles and seta; very small in first instar, becoming obsolete, anal jilatc pointed, anal legs extended 
laterally wilh large plates (Djar, loc, cit., complete description ol viridipenuaia in iis five stages). 

PuPA. — Apparcntly undescribcd ; cnclosed in a cocoon of a few slrands of silk betwcen leaves 

(]3j'ar, loc. cit.j. 

A very distinct genus.though probably related to CA/owsrt. esi^ecially ils .Amern.iin n-piesentatives. 
Type of the genus : Mesoihea iiuertata (Walker) = Nemoria incertata. Walker (1901). 

Geographical distrlbution of specles. — Nearctic. 

1. M. i««y/rt/a (Walker). Eastern N. Ameiica, 

Nemona inccrlata. Walker, List Lep, Ins, Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i557 1 i86i). 
Semoria ii/>oraria, Zeller, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges.Wicn, Vol. 22. p.481 (1872). 
Nemoria gralala (Walker.MS.) Packard, Mon. (ieom. U. S. A. p. .I73, t. 10, 

f 79 (1876). 
Chlorocliroma gralala^ Gumppenl)erg, Nova Acla Acad. Leop. d. Nalurf. 

Halle, Vol. 64, p. 494 (iKgS). 
Clilorocliroma incerlala, Gumppenberg, iliidem, p. 495 (tS^S). 
Eiicroslis incertala. llulst, Trans. Amer. lCnt. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i3 iis>iui. 
Mesolliea iiicerlala, Warren, Novil. Zool. Vol, 8, p. 446 '1901). 

2. M. viridipennata [Hulsi). Western N. .'\inerica, 

Fiicrostis i'iridipciinata. Hulst, 'Irans. Ain(M'. Fnt. .Sor.Wtl _•.■(, i*..^i.l (i.Sot)i. 



126. Genus CHLOROCHLAMYS, Hulst 

Chlorochlamys. Ihilst, Tians. .\mer. Ent. Soc. \'ol. 23, p. 3i2 (ibgo). 

Characters. — Facc sinooth. Palpus rather long, at least in 9 . second joint moderately rough- 
scaled, third joint smooth, in (^ quite modcratc, in 9 lo"g- Tongue piesent, Antenna moderate, in cf 
bipectinate with long branches, apical part merel}' serrate; in 9 nearlj' simple, Pectus somewhat 
haiiy, Femora glabrous, Hindtibia in cf dilated with hair-pencil, inedian spurs wanting. in 9 with all 
spurs, Hindtarsus in 0* shoit. .■\bdoinen not cresied. Freiiulum in t^ very slender, arising from before 
basal expansion; in 9 ludimentary. Forewing with costa somewhat arched, apex moderate, termen 
smooth, oblique, gently curved, cell not quite one-half, DC incuived,SC' from cell.usually anastomosing 
with C, SC^normal, R' connate or short-stalked, M' connate or short-stalked ; hindwing with termen 
rounded or very weakh- excised between R' and \\\ cell rather less than one-half, DC incurved, 
C anastomosing at a ])oint near base, rather laiiidly diverging, SC^stalked, M' stalked, 

Lauva. — Head small, subquadrate, deeplj' bifid, prothorax with tw-o small anterior dorsal 
projections, body thickest behind, much attenuated anteriorly, Feeds on various flowers (Goodell, 
The Canad. Entom. Vol, 12, p, 235; Hulst, Biill. Brooklyn Enl. Soc. Vol. 2. p. 78). 



FAM. GEOIVIETKID.4^: 



177 



Pi-PA. — Light brown nt' varying- shade. irregulavh' black-spotted and with black ilorsal line; 
in slight cocoon among leaves (Goodell and ITulst, in loc. cit.J. 

Evidentlv a New-World development of Chloi-issa. ibffering bttle, except in the antenna. 

Type of the genus : Chloiochlamys chlorolciicaria (Guenee) = Neiiioria chloioleucaria, ( juenee(i896). 



Geographical distribution of species. — Xorth America. 



Canada, U. S. A. 



1. C. c/iloloreucaria [Liueneej. 

Nemoria chloroleticai in, Gueiiee, S|)ec. Gen. I^ep. Vol. q. p. 35i li85X). 
Nemoria indiscrimin.Uii, WalUer. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mas. Vol. 26, p. i556 

(1862). 
Nemoria (?) deiisaria, WalUer, ibidem, p. i557 I1862J. 
Tlialassodes deprivata. Walker, ibidem, p. i55q (1862). 
Eucrostis r/ctiliiica. Zeller, Verli.Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. V0I.22. p. 4S0 (1872) 

(nov. syn. ; sec. specim. typ.j. 
Eucrostis chloroleucaria. Packard. Mon. Geom. U. S. A. p. 370, t. 10, f. 77 

(1876 1. 
Euchrostes chioroleucaria, Gumppenberj;, .Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Hallc, Vol. 64, p. .188 118951. 

2. C. phyllinaria (Zeller). Texas to Arizona. 

Eiuroslis 1'hylliiiaria. Zeller. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 22, p. 479 

(1S72). 
Chlorochlamys vertai ia. Pearsall, The Canad. Entom. Vol. 40, p. 197 ^igoS) 

inov. S3'n.|. 

3. C. selleraria (Packard). Texas, Nevv Mexico. 

Eucrostis zelleraria. 1'ackard, Mon. Geom. U. S. A. p. 370. t. 10, f. 76 (1876). 
Nemoria phylliiiaria, Hulst.Ent.News, Philad.Vol.6, p. 71 (1895) (necZeller). 
Chlorochlamys phylli nar ia , Hnlst.Trans. Amer.Ent.Soc.Vol.23, p.3i3 (1896). 

4. C. masonaria (Schaus). Arizona to Costa Rica. 

Nemoria masonaria. Schaus, Journ. Xew York Ent. Soc.Vol. 5, p. 161 (1897). 
Chlorochlamys volantaria, Pearsall, Sc. Hull. Brooklyn Inst. Mus. Vol. i (8). 

p. 214 (igo6) (var. ?). 
Gelasma masonaria. Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. Vol. 10, p. 34 I igo8l. 

5. C. inveterascaria, Swett. .Arizona. 

CMorochlamys iir.cternfcaria. Svvett.The Canad. Entom.Vol. 39, p. 379 (1907). 

6. C. apjiellaria, l^earsab. .^rizona. 

Chhiroclihimys afpellaria. Pearsall.Thc Canad. Entom V0I.43. p. 206 (1911 1. 

7. C. curvifera, nov. sp. i). Prout. Arizona. 

8. C. triangularls, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Cabfornia. 



1) Chlorochlamys curvifera, nov. sp. — Q, 20 mm. Face gceen (abraded, but a few green scales remaining on upper part). Palpus 
deep ochreous, tliird joint quite muderate, partly concealed by projecting scales of second ioint. Vertex greenisti white. Thorax green above, abdomen 
paler. Fore- and middle- le^s largely deep oclireous. Forewing slightly more elongate than in the type ; SC* anastomosing strongly with (or apparently 
running into) C ; somewhat bluish green, costal edge very narrowly pale ochreous; lines slender, whitish ochreous, each forming a regular, gentle cur\-e, 
the antemedian from costa at one-third, the postmedian at somewhat beyond two-thirds, fringe green in proximal half, whitish ochreous in distal. 
Hindwing with termen rounded, inner msrgin less long than in type-species, without antemedian line; postmedian slightly more sinuous than on 
forewing. Underside paler, especially of hindwing: antemedian line wanting, postniedian barely traceable. Phocnix. Arizona. yth September, 1004 
(R. E. Kun/e). Type in coll. Brit. .Mus. 

2) rjhlorochlamys triaogu'aris, nov. sp. — Q, 24 mm, Face, palpus and legs deep, bright ochreous. Palpus at least as long as 
in chloroleitcaii.i, stoutcr, \\i'h Inng strong terminal joint. Vcrtex pale green, tinged with oclireous between the antennse; antenna pale ochreous. 
'l"horax green above, ^ibdomeii ratlier paler. Forewing with apex slightly more acute than in chtorolencaria, termen rather straight. oblique; SC iree ; 
light olive green, costal edge narrowly deep ochreous; lines at one-third and two-thirds, iine, pale ochreous. slightly curved and very slightly sinuous; 
fringc green, very indistinctly chequered, the darker patches being opposite tlie vein-ends. Hindwing with termen somewhat sinuous, straight or 
almiist incurved from !<• to R^, appreciably bent at R^; antemedian line ubsent. postmedian sliglitly sinuous, very slightly bent at R^, thence rather 
more oblique. rcaching inner margin at about three-fourths. Underside paler, especiallv of hindwing, postmedian faintly discernible on forewing. 
Head of Noyo, Mendocino County, California, coilected (8-11 June, 1871I and presented by l.ord Walsingham. Type in coll. Brit. Mus. A worn c? 
(sniallerl from the same collection, and no doubt of the same species, has the lines nearer together, and shows the antennal pectinations to be slightly 
shorter than in chloruleiicaria. 

NoTE. — A specimen of Chtorochlamys from the Godman collection, included by Druce {Hiot. Ceiiir. Amer. I.ep. Het. Vol. 2, p. 94I among 
Ainaiirinia simpticearia, Walker, is too worn to determine or describe, but is evidently not masotinria, the only species of the genus yet recorded 
from Central America. Its locality is Volcan de Atitlan. 



1^8 LKFIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 



127. Genus CHLOROPTERYX, Hulst 

Chloropteryx. Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. \'oL 23, p. ^14 (1896). 
Hypnochlora. Schaus, Journ. Xevv York Ent. Soc. Vol. 5, p. i6i (1897) (indescr.). 

Characters. — Face smooth, rather narrow. Palpus slender, third joint in both sexes smooth 
and e.xposed, in (j' (of type species) about half as long as second joint, in 9 'ong '« '^'ery long. Tongue 
present. Antenna in cf bipectinate (except in decipiens); the branches long, ceasing rather abruptly, 
apical portion (about fifteen joints in type species) merely serrate; in 9 nearly alvvays nearlj' simple or at 
most dentate, very shortly ciUated i). Pectus shghtly haiiy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf long, 
vvith ensheathed hair-pencil and nearly alvvays with a short tcTminal process, median spurs vvanting, 
tarsus abbreviated; hindtibia in 9 ^^'th ^H spurs. Abdomen nol crested. Frenulum in (^ moderately 
long, but slender, arising before basal expansion; in 9 waiUiiig. Wings often thinly scaled. more or 
less iridescent. Forewing with costa shghth- arched. apex moderate to rather acule, termen straight or 
slightly curved, cell rather less than one-half, DC-' inbent, SC stalked with SC** (or from close to their 
base), usually anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, R' usually stalked, M' connate, stalked or approxim- 
ated; hindwing elongate, angled or tailed at R-', tornus pronounced, inner margin long, ccll rather 
short, DC-* oblique posteriorlj', C anastomosing vvith SC at a jifiint near base, rapidly diverging, 
SC^stalked, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

This genus bears almost the same relatioiiship to Cblurochlamys as Hemitliea does to Chlorissa, 
being distinguished chieflv' bj' the angulated hindwing. The frequent slalking of SC' of the forewing and 
ihe usual bctter development of tiie (^ hindtibial process are supplementary characters, but they are 
inconstant, and it is possible that the genera, distinct enouijh in their typical forms, will prove to inter- 
grade. We are indebted to Dr Hanison (i. Dyar and iMr. K. V . Pearsall for the generic characters of 
the type species, wliicli, hovvever, is very closely related to some vvell-knovvn Soulli .American species. 

Type of the genus : Chloropteryx itpperaria. liulst^iSgG). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Neotropical, with one species in the Southern 

Unitcd SlalfS. 

1. C. iepperaria (Hulst). N, Carolina to FMorida. 

Nemoria tepperaria. Hulst, Ent. Amer. Vol. 2, p. 122 (1886). 

Chloropteryx tepferaria, Hulst, Trans. Amer Ent. Soc. Vol. 23,^.314(1896). 

2. C. productaria (Herrich-Schaffer). Brazil (?). 

Thalera productaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Samml. .Vnsserenr. Schmett. Vol. 1, 

t. 61, f. 342 (1855); p. 36 (i856). 
lodis productaria. Gnenee, Spec. Gen I.ep. p. 357 (i85n1. 

3. C. <7^»jt«,\ (Warren) (praec. var.?). Mexico to Ecuador and 

lodis productaria (part.), Driice, Biol. Cenlr. .•^mer. Lep. Hct. Vol. 2, Guianas. 

p. 55 (1892). 
Gelasma clemens, Wariew. Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3i7 (iqoSi. 

4. C. paiilaria (Moschler). Jamaica, Cuba. 

.\emoria paularia, Moschler, .■\bh. Senckenb. Nat. Ges. Vot. 14 (3), p. 68 
(1886). 
} Aplodes pnnctata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11. )>. 10 (IQ04I. 

1) Vccording to W jiTren, ,Vijvit. Zoo/. Vol. i6, p. 76, bipectinate in snbruJifsceHS. Our ex.imples — includin^ one from the localily wlience 
tlie species was originally tlescribed — do not bear this out, and there arc probably two very close allies mixed : in any case VV'arren's note prove 
tlie cxistence of one pectinate specics in the genus. 



FAM. GEOMETRIU.^i 



179 



5. C. spiimosaria (Dognin). 

Thaleya sptinwsaria, Dognin. Le Natiiralisle. Vol. 14, \k 237 (1S92L 

6. C. albidata {WaLrren) (pragc. var.?). 

Gelasma albidata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 425 (18971. 
Hypnoclilora olvidaria, Schaus, Joiirn. New York Ent. Soc. Vol. 5, p. 161 

11897). 
Thalera dalica, Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 42, p. 218 (1898). 

7. C. mtinda (Warren). 

Gclasma munda, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 425 (1897J. 

8. C. glauciptera (Hampson). 

Nemoria glauciptera, Hampson, Ann. Mag-. Nat. Hist. 16). Vol. 16. p. 3.^3 

(1895). 
lodislanguescens, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 425 (i8g7J (nov. syn.J. 

g. C. chaga (Dognin). 

Nemoria chaga. Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 42, p. 216 (18981. 

10. C. lechtra (Dognin). 

lodis lechera, Dognin. .'Vnn. Soc. Ent. Belg Vol. 42, p. 216118981. 

11. C. heinithearia (Warren). 

Gelasma hemilhear/a, W^arren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i33 (1900). 

12. C. Iniioipalpis (Warren). 

lodis I?) longipalpis, VVarren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. 1^4 11900) 
i3. C. nordicana (Schaus). 

Gelasma nordicaria, Schaus, Trans. .Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, p. 253 (1901). 

14. C. siigmatica {y\In.rKn). 

Gelasma stigmatica, Warren. Novit. Zool. ^'ol. 11, p. 20 (1904). 
i5. C. subrufescens (Warren). 

Gelasma suhrufescens, Warren, Proc. U. S. Nat. ,Mus. Vol. 3o, p. 417 (1906). 

Gclasma subrufescens -dh. i?) pallescens, WaiTen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 76 
(1909) (al). ?i. 

16. C. piinctilinea (Dognin). 

Gelasma puncttlinca, Dognin, .-\nn. Soc. Ent. Belg. V(.)l. 5Z, p. 88 (19091. 

17. C. dealhata (\i\'arren) 

Gelasmti dcalhata, Warren. No\'it. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 76 (1909"!. 

18. C. decipiens (Warren). 

Hemithea decipiens, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 77 (1909J. 
ig. C. diliila (Dogniii). 

Gelasma diluUi. Dognin. Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 18. p. 160 jigii). 

20. C. pacifica, nov. sp. i), Prout. 

21. C. acerces, nov sp. 2). Proiit. 



Peru, PEcuador. 
Mexico to Brazil. 

Panama to Argentina. 
W. Indies, \'enezuela. 

Ecuador. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil to \'enezuela. 

Venezuela. 

Mexico. 

Peru, ?Columbia. 

(juianasto Peru, Paraguay. 

French Guiana. 

Pei u. 

Peiu. 

Colombia. 

W. Peru, Chili. 
Brazil. 



i) Chloropteryx pacifica. nov. sp. — c? Q, 18-23 mm. Face red-Urown- Palpus red, whitish l)eneath. Head pale green. marked 
with wliite between the an'enn,c. .Vntennal shaft white proximally, red-brown distally, inner series ot <3 pectinations reddish, outer pale. Thorax 
pale green. Foreleg reddish .ibove, wliitisli lieneath. Abdomen tinged witll reddisli dorsally. Wings pale watery green, sraoothly scaled : costa of 
forewing narrowly ochreous. fuscous-dotted. l'"orewing with two slender. not very conspicuous darkened lires. at one-third and two-thirds. tlie ante- 
median rather straight or somewhat sinuous, thickest und most distinct on the veins, the postmedian similar, sinuous, a very fine jjale yellowish line 
at base of fringe ; fringe sliglitly paler than wing. Hindwing with angle at R^ rather weak ; similar to forewing, an elongate cell-mark in place of 
antemedian line. Underside whitish, with costa of forewing narrowly ochreous, broadly red baaally, cell sometiraes flushed with pink. Callao, Peru, 
October-December, i883 (J. J. Walker). l"vpe ic?) in coll. Brit. Mus ; others iboth sexesi from same locality, .March-July, 18S1 and December, 1882 to 
January, i883. in coll. Brit. Mus. et coll. Oxford Mus. Also in coU. Oxford Mus. a pair from Valparaiso, September 2titli to October 8th, i883. 
precisely like tlie Peruvian. These latter bear Commander Walker's original tickets. and he assures us no error in labelling can have occurred. Less 
shiiig and glaucous (more tinged witli green) than i^laiiciptera, differing also in having tlie lines darker than grouiid-colour, the costa reddish beneath,etc. 
Apparently near chaga, presumably a little lighter, no wliite vein-dots punctuating the postmedian. no terminal grey line. 

2) Chloropteryx acerces, nov, sp. — Q, 34 mm. Face and palpus dull red, palpus with first and second joints white beneatli. 
Vertex white, occiput green, some red scales at the division of the two colours. Antennal scales white proximally, reddish distally. Thorax greenish. 
Legs whitish. pale red on upperside. Forewing rather broad ; glossy olive-greenish. with iridescent reflections; costal edge narrowly red-brown, 
sprinkled with blackish ; liiies not very strong. caused by an intensification of the ground-colour, but made more conspicuous by still opaquer accom- 
panying short dashes on the veins distally to the first line and proximally to the second. and whitish vein-dots proximally to the first and distally to 
the second; first line at one-third. oblique outwards to cell-spot (which is quite sraall and absorl)ed in the line), thence parallel with tennen; second 
line sinuous, witli an appreciable outward curve from R^ to M^; an opaque darker olive line at termen. interrupted with white at the vein.ends; 
fringe concolorous with wing proximally, somevvhat whiter distally. Hindwing slightly elongate, with tcrmen strongly convex, slightly toothed at the 
vein ends, the tooth at R^ a little stronger than the others, but not forming the definite tail seen in most of the allies : without the first line ; a rather 
obscure crescentic inark occupying tlie discocellulars ; the rest as in lorewing. LTnderside whiter. except from costa to SC of forewing; costa itself 
reddish-tinged. Petropolis (H. Uoer). Type in coll. Brit. Mus-, presented by Lord Walsingham. Possibly a giant form of c//<r^rt, Dognin, which we 
have not seen. L-irger ttian inost of the allies. forewing with SC free. almost connate witli the stalk of SC to R'; both cells short. 



,8o LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



128. Genus EUALLOEA, Warren 

Eualloea. Wanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. i6, p. ^5 (1909). 

Characters. — l-nce smooth. Palpus iii cf sniall, secoml joint rather smoothly scaled, third 
joiiu in cf quitc small (9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna rather short, in cf nearly simple, 
lamellate. Hindtibia in cf dilated wit 1 hair-pencil, all spurs present. Abdomen apparently not crested. 
Frenulum rather well developed, basal expansion slight. Forevving with costa arched, apex acutely 
produced, termen subcrenulate, forming a shallow sinus in anlerior half. obhque posteriorly, hence 
appearing elbowed at R^, cell short, DC very deeply incurved, SC from cell, anastoniosing at a point 
with C, SC^normal, R' connate, R* from above middle of DC, M' just separate ; hindwing with termon 
irreu-ularly crenulate, toothed at R' and M' and with asmall tail at R-', tornus pronounced. inner margin 
long, cell short, DC^ deeply incurved, veiy- obliquc posteriorly, C anastomosing at a point near base, 
rapidly diverging. SC^ stalked, R- from close to R'. M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Position uncertain; possibly nearer to Potcilochlora than to the present group. Or the 9 "lay 
even provc to have the frenulum prescnt. 

Type of the genus : EuaUoea subbifasciaia, Warren (1909;. 

Geographical distribution of species. — ]'eru lo Amazon. 
1. E. subhi/asciala, Warrcn. Peiu. l'pper .Amazon. 

EuaUoca subiiihiscinla. Warren. Novit. Zciol. Vol. 16. i'. 75 (19091- 

129. Genus NEOCRASIS, Warren 

Neocrasis. Warren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. <S, p. 447 (1901). 

Characters. — l-"ace smooth. Palpus in cf moderate, second joint shorlly scaled, third joint 
smooth. nolclongale(9 unknown). Antenna in cf bipectinate with short branches. Pectus somewhat 
hairy. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before basal expansion. Forewing with 
costa arched proximally and distally. nearly straight between, termen vvith a deep sinus between SC^ 
and R'', angled at R'', oblique and slightly concave to tornus, tornus pronounced, cell short, produced 
apically, DC deeply mcurved, SC free, SC- normal, R' connate, R* well above middle, M'approxim- 
ated at origin to R^*; hindvving vvith apex moderate, termen produced to a strong tail at R^, tornus 
pronounced, ccll short, DC'' incurved, C anastomosing shortly with cell near base, then very rapidly 
diverging, SC^ very shortlv stalked, R^ from near apex of cell, M' verA- shortly stalked. 

Early stages unknovvn. 

Thc unique type specimen being somewhat damaged, a perfect diagnosis is impossible. The 
genus is probably related to Eualloea, possibly also to Poecilochlora. The aspect is somewhat that of a 
strong, opaque Chloropteryx . except in the irregular termen of tiie forewing. 

Type of the genus : Ncocrasis obscurala, Warren (1901). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Colombia. 

1. N. obscurala. Warren. Colombia. 

.\'cocriisis obscuriila, Warren, Novit. Zool. V/ol. 8, p. 447 (1901 . 

2. N. eximia (Dognin) (huj. gen. ?). Peru. 

Thaltra cximia. Dognin, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 14, p. 237 (1S92). 



FAM. GEOMETKID^: i8t 



130. Genus CTENOTHEA, nov. gen., Prout 

Ctenothea, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. - Face smooth. Palpus rather long, second joint routjh-scaled, third joint 
smoother-scaled, in q* rather short and stout, exposed. Tongue present. Antenna moderately long, 
in (;f bipectinate to bevond one-half with moderate branches, a long ajiical portion merely minuteh' 
ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf long, dilated, with pencil and short 
terminal piocess, median spurs wanting, tarsus rather short. Abdomen with slight crests. Frenulum 
slender, from before basal expansion. Forewing rather broad. with costa arched, apex moderate, 
termen nearly smooth, curved, cell less than one-half, DC somewhat incurved, SC from cell, free, 
SC^ stalked to much beyond SC=, M^ about connate; hindwing with costa rather short, termen and inner 
margin long, apex rather pronounced, termen faintly subcrenulate, with a short blunt tooth at R-', 
tornus pronounced, cell short, DC little curved, C anastomosing at a point with cell, then strongly 
diverging, SC^stalked, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Evidenth' related to the Hemithea-grau\>, Q probably with four spurs; distinguished chiefly b}' 
pectinate antenna and point of origin of SC^. 

Type of the genus : Cteiiatliea oiiiata ( VVarren) = Hemithea ornata. Warren. 

Geographical distribution of species. — BaH to Adenara. 

I. C. ornaia (Warren). Bah to Adenara. 

Hemithen oriitita. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 366 (1896). 
Hemithea bella, Warren, ibideTn, Vol. 5, p. 2^4 (18981. 



131. Genus CYCLOTHEA, nov. gen., Prout 

Cyclothea, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus iont;, rather slender, second joint shortly scaled, reaching 
beyond frons, third joint smooth, in q* rather long, in 9 very long. Tongue present. Antenna in cf 
strongly serrate dentate, with fascicles of well-developed cilia; in 9 minutely ciliated. Pectus moder- 
ately hair}'. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in q* with sheath and hair-pencil. as in Hemithea, median spurs 
wanting; in 9 with median spurs wanting. Abdonien with small curled dorsal crests. Frenulum in cf 
slender. fiom before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa arched, apex acute, minutely 
produced, termen very slightly curved, somewhat oblique, tornus rather pronounced, cell less than 
one-half, DC'' incurved. SC from cell, free or anastomosing briefly with C, SC'' normal, R^ connate or 
just separate, M' from close to K''-. hindwing with apex and toinus s^juared, termen tailed at R'', lather 
straight anteriorly iind posteriorly, cell scarceiy two-irfths. 1)C-' little oblique, C shortl}- approximated 
to cell near base (iint anastomosing), SC^ stalked, M^ stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Distinct from Hemilkea chiefiy in the 9 hindtibia and in ihe non-anastomosis of vein C of 
hindwing. 

Type of the genus : Cyclothea i/isjtittcta (Walker) =-■ Thalera disjuncta, Walker. 



i82 r.i:PIDOPTEKA HETEROCEKA 

Geographical distribution of species. — India. Sumatra. 

I. C. liisjunclii (Walker). S. In(1ia with Oylon, Sunia- 

Thateni diijunclii, Walker, List I.ep. Ins.Brit. Mus.Vol. 22. p.595(i86i,i. tra. 

HemilheadisjuKCla, Hampson. Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol 3, p. 492, f. 217(1895). 

132. Genus NEROMIA, Staudinger 

Neromia. Staudiiiger, Iris, Vol. 10, ji. 304 (1898). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus (in type species) quite moderate, almost alike in both 
sexes, second joint shortl^- scaled, third joint smooth, small. Tongue present. Antenna nioderate, in 
both sexes evenly ciliatt-d (very shortly in 9)- only in f^lweiiicoiticta shortly bipectinate. Pectus shghtly 
hairy. Femora glabroiis llindtibia in (^f not dilated, in both sexes with terminal spurs only. .Abdomen 
not crested. Frenulum in cf short and ver\- slender, from before basal expansion; in 9 wanting. Fore- 
wing with costa arched towards apex, apcx moderate, teimen smooth. neariy straight, very oblique, 
cell not (]uite one-halt. I)C incurved, SC from cell (stalked in alridisca), free or anastomosing with C, 
SC^ normal, K' short-slalked, K^ from much above middle of DC, M' coiinate or short-stalked : hind- 
wing with apex and termen rounded, tornus modeiate, inner margin rather long, cellshort. DC^ oblique, 
C usuaily anastomosing with celi at a ])oint, rapidly diveiging, SC- longisli-staiki^d, K^ ciiaracteristic, 
M' longish-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Neypiiiia pulvereis/tarsa (IJampson) --= Nemoria pidvereisftarsa (Hampson) 
- Neromia iodisata, Staudinger (1898;. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Paicstine to .Aden, ? India and China, ? S. Africa. 

. i. N. pidvereispaisa (Hainpsoii). Paiesline to .Aden. 

Nemoria pulvereisparsa, Hampson, Hroc. Zool. Siic. Lond. 11. 26S, t. 10. f. 27 

(1S96). 
Xeromia iodisata. Staiidinger, Iris, Vol. 10, |). .S04. t. 4. f. 28 (189K) (nov. 
syn.) 1). 

2. .V i(()«//;'o«s (Butler) (huj gen.?) 2). India. 

Nemoria carnifrons, Butler, l-^roc.Zool.Soc.Lonil. \>. i69(i«,s. 
Nemoria indecretata (part. ?), Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. i. p. 302, 
f. 222 (1S95). 

3. N , rectiliiicaria (Leech) (pra^c. var. vel syn.?). W. China. 

Nemoria rectilinearia, Leech, .'Vnn. Mag. Nat.Hist.(6i. Vol, 20. (). 241 iiSqj). 

4. N. atridisca (Warren) (huj. gen.?). Natal. 

Hemithea alridisca. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 40 1 i«97i. 
Nemoria atridisca, Warren, iliidem, Vol. 5, p. 235 (1898). 
^. N. rubripunctilla, nov. sp. 3), Prout (huj. gen.?). Transvaai. 

1) This synonymy ist not absolutely ccrtain, a.s \ve have sccn only a fcw poor specimens. and only thc o' of ii^isala, Q tApulvereispana. In any 
casc the t\vo must be very closc alllcs. 

2) Diffcrs in ahape and aspect, in more minutc palpus and in dentatc-faaciculate (^ antenna, but may bc provilionally rcferrcd here. Differs 
from Mixocera in prcscnce of c? frenulum. 

3) Neromla (?) rubripunctHla, nov sp. — c^, 24 mm. Faceochreouireddith. Palpus quiteshort, apprrsied to face, ochreous reddish 
above, paler hcncath. .Anteniia ratlicr thii-k. tapering, not ciliated, reddisli ochreous, proximal pait wliilc above. Vertcx white, occiput creen. Tborax 
and abdomen green abovc. whitish bencath, abdomun witli a tliick ochreous doisal line ; anal tufl stronp. wliitish. Winns grccn, sliphtly blui!.h, irroraled 
and minutely strifjulatcd wtth wliiti . Forcwinc witli costa narrowly ochreous ; discal dot minute, rcd ; liiies in tlie type obsolcte, mercly tlie faintest sup- 
gestion of a postmedian from about two-tliirds of inner margin, losing itscU in middle of wing: fringe ochreous, nairowly green pioximally, inner-maipinal 
fringe mostly green, HindwinK with termcn rounded, inner margin not very long ; a discal dot as in forewinp, but sliKhtly Icss distinct; Irmgc as in fore- 
wing. Underside whitish gieen, unmarked, fringes linged wilh ochreous, costa of forcwing oclircous. Pretoria,'! ran»vaal,i4lh Sepumbcr, ioo6, vcryfresh 
(A. J. T. Jansc). Typc in coU. llrit. Mus. Aberrant in tlie minute palpus iscarcely as long as diameter of eye), non-ciliate antenna, prcscncc of hair- 
pencil on liindtibia ami in tlic cour.se of (.' of hindwing. wliich does not divergc from quite soncar basc; but agreeing belter with lliis genus than with any 
othcr known. I'"oie»viiig witli .SC trec, R' sliorl.stalkcd. A second cj. Ihrec Sisiers. Transvaal, o Maiih. 101 1. in ooll . A. J. T. Janse, hasbolh trans- 
vcrse lines on forcwing and a postmcdian on hindwing, thougli all rather indistinct ; arlemcdian of forewing fiom bcfore one-third, curved, poslmedian 
from beyond two-thirds, almost parallel with termen, postmedian of hindwiiig alniost parallcl with termcn. Iwo Q Q in cnll Brit. Slus., no doubt con- 
specific, are much larger (3o mm.). the lincs distirct. Thcy have tcrmiral spurs cnly. One is fiom Mashonaland (H. B. Dobbie), ihc other from Bnla- 
wayo, Rhodesia, January. igo3 (F. Fyles). 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 



i83 



6. N. barretti, nov. sp. i), Prout (huj. gen.?). 

7. N. phoenicosticta, nov.sp.2). Piout (Inij. gen. ?). 

8. N. chlorosticta, nov. sp.3), Prout (huj. gen.?). 



Cape. 
Rhodesia. 
German E. Africa. 



133. Genus PSEUDHEMITHEA, Bastelberger 

Pseudhemithea. Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zelt. Guben, \'n\. _', p. 281 (1909). 

Characters. — F"ace smooth. Palpus minute, in cf (type-species) scarcely over one-half 
dianieteroteye(9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna nearly simple, minutely ciliated. Pectus hairy. 
Femora slightly hairy. Hindtibia in cf thickened, with strong ensheathed hair-pencil and terminal 
spurs only ; hindtarsus short. Abdomen crested. Frenulum in (f slender, from before moderate basal 
expansion. Forewing broad, costa arched at base and near apex, very sUghdy between, apex squared, 
termen not very obHque, tornus squared, cell less than one-haif, DC incurved. SC^ from cell, free, 
SC^normal, R' just separate, M' connate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen gently waved, shghtly 
cutaway from C to R', leaving a minute tooth or angle at R', cell two fifths, DC scarcely incurved, 
httle obhque posteriorly, C anastomosing v\ith cell at a point near base, moderately lapidly diverging, 
SC2 short-stalked, M' very shordy stalked. 

Early stages unkiiown. 

We are indebted to Dr. Bastelberger for the loan of one of his types of the species on which this 
genus is based. The miiiute palpus, still more than the shght pecuHarity in the shape of the hindwing, 
separates it essentially from Hemithea and Chlonssa. From the African species which we have doubtfully 
referred to Neromia it is distinct (even if its 9 prove to be two-spurred) in the crested abdomen. 

Type of the genus : Psauihemithea ddrita, l^astelberger (1909). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — W. Africa. 



I) Neromia (?) barpettl, nov. sp. ~ cJ S, 28-32 mm. Kace red. Palpus minute, reddish above, whiter bene:itl,. Antenna in bolh 
seies s.mple the scaled surf^ce wh.te. Head green, narrowly white betweeu the antfnns. Thorax and abdomen green, ,.aler beneath and at anus, a white 
dorsal l.ne. Poreleg redd.sh. Wmg.shape and aspect of Chlorocoma ; green. sllghtly more yellowish than in rubrifuncttUa. irrorated and minutely strigu- 
lated w,th white. Forew.ng w.th costal edge very narrowly pale; lines whit.sh, not very consp.cuous; antemedian from costa at one-th.rd (cj) or at l.ttle 
beyondone-four.h (Q).outcurved at first, reachmB inner margin nearly perpend.cularly or by a shght .ocurve; postmedian from costa at beyond two 
h.rds.nearlyparalelw.thtermen: no discal spot or term.nal line; fringe concolorous in proximal half. paler ,n distal. H.ndwing without antemed.a. 



" :, r: . : I.^ -.-..= ,...= . .„=.,c..e. Hu,.e ruu.mentary; wn.cn «..e place to serrat.on at towards three-fourths, last few ioints almost simple 

H 1"k ^..^"!' °"'"""' ochreous. Head green, ..arrowly white between antenna:. Thorax green above. Foreleg deep red above (middle legs los. 

H.ndt.b.a not d.Uted, both spurs rather long, though unequal . Ab.lomen dorsally with a seriesof narrow reddish marks, placed longituri.nally. Wing 
br.Bhtgreen,finely,rroratedw.thwhit,sh,eostaledgeofforew,ng narrowly light ochreous, unspotted ; lines whitish. veryfaint; antemedia 
h.ndw.ng.onforew.ngscarcelydiscernible.apparentlvcrvedandsomewhatobhque outwards; postmedian on both w.ngs parallel with 



hne, postmed,a,,sl,ghtlycurvedornearlystraight. Underside paier green. with the faintest poss.ble traces of a still paler postmed.an l.ne. Annshaw, 
Cape Colony (M,ss F Barrett). Type(cJ) ,nc„ll. Br.t. Mus. The Q. also collected by M.ss Barrett, i, merely labelled ,< Cap. ., but ..robably from the 
.amelocal.ty. Poss.bly a local form of r„.i.-,>„«. «.'.r, difTering i„ lack of celi-spots ; structure pract.cally .dentical. The transverse l.nes are evidently 
rather subject to var.at.on, be.ngco„siderabIy more approximated in the type Q than in the S and the two Q Q bel.eved to belong iorubripunctiUa 

2) Neromia (?) phoen.cost.cta. nov sp. - <3. 3, mm. Face and palpus deep red, narrowlv pale below. Antenna shott and stout, 
withsl,orts(outpeot.nat.ons(the.nnerser,es qu.te rudimentary) wh.ch „i.e place to serrat.on at towards three.fourths, last few joints almost ..mple; 

st). 
g.t.Klinaliy. 

an wanting on 

..,,,. "Jie outwards; postmedian on both wings parallel with termen. at a 

d.stance of 3 mm. ; each wmgs w.tl. a consp.cuous cr,ms„n cell spot, conta,ning a few black.sh scales distally; fr.nges slrongly tinged with crimson. 
Unders.de paler, unmarked, costa as above. Luena Kiver. f,J. E. Khod,.sia, 8 September, .004 (R. L. Harger). rype i„ coll. Brit .Mus. W.ngs broader 
than „, true .\,ro,ma (shapcd as /'.■«,V,„c,.,«<i-type), lurewing w,th SC brieflv anastomosing with C, R' about connale, hindwing with SC short-stalked 
M.justseparate. A Q of the same structure difTers as follows : paler. bluer green. d.scal spot, rather red-lead than crimson, fringes green, w.thout a 
trace of cnmson dorsal marks of abdomen whitish. not red. Antenna s,mple, third joint of palpus short. Selukwe. Rhodes,a, February-Marcl.. ,911 Kindly 
presentedtousby.hecap.or.F. W. Short, B. Sc. Should this prove a local race or distinct speces. we name it Neromia (?) miltosticta, nov 

.1) Nerom.a (?) chlorostiota, nov. sp. - (J, 2,-22 mm. Face brown-red. Palpus minute, ochreous, tipped w,th reddish. Antenna 
almost s,mpie thick ochreous. paler prox,mally on upper side. Head green, narrowly wb.tish between antenni. Thorax and abdomen green dorsally, 
whlte ventra ly, anal tult pale ochreous. Legs pale ochreous.fore- and midfemora and t.b.a- redd.sh above and on inner side. Forew.ug green, with coi,tal 
edgenarrowlypaleochreous; d.scal spot darker green ; antemedia., I.ne obsolete, postmed.an from costa at slightly beyond three-fourths, paler than 
^/T r, 7''^'""?'™"''""'°"'' ''''''"™'''"=: fr^ngeconcolcrous. Hindwing sim,lar. the line strongly curved (almost more stronglv than the termen 
.tself). Unders,de paler green, unmarked. German Kast At, ,ca (S. A. Neave), two cjd ,n coll. Br,t. Mu>. ; the type from the Vallev ol'thc Kuaha K,ver 
Ir.nga to K,lo...a Road. 2000 feet. 2. December, ,010, the cotype Banks of Ruaha R,ver. 20 December, .910. In both examples SO i. free, K' and M' of 
/orew,ng just stalked, ol h,ndw,nB more strongly so ; C of hindw.ng, e.tceptio..ally for this genus. anastomose. with cell for nearly two-filth.. 



i84 LEPIDOPTERA HETEKOCERA 

1. P. delrita, Bastelberger. Angola. 

Pseudkemillieadetritd, Bastelberger, Intern. Hnt. Zeit. Gulien.Vol. 2. [>. 281 
(igoq). 

2. P. saturata, nov. sp. 1). Prout. Xigeria. 



134. Genus DIPLODESMA, Warren 

Diplodesma. VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 289(1896). 
Acrortha. VVarren, ibidem, p. 36i (1896). 
Halophanes. Warren. ibidem, Voi. 7. p. 102 (1900). 

Characters. — F^ace smooth. Palpus moderate to ratlier lonj;. second joint shortl\- rough-scaled, 
third joint suiDotli, in (f moderate, in 9 'ong. Tongue present. .Antenna in (f v\ith lather short, even 
cihation. in 9 "lore minuteiy ciliated. Pectus sHghtly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf dilated 
with liair-pencil, median spurs wanting, in 9 ^^'''1 aH spurs (except apparently in siibexprtssa and possibly 
siibtusumbraia). /Vbdomen not crested (except \n pudentifimbria). Frenulum in cf very slender and usuallj' 
short, arising before well-marked basal expansion ; in 9 wanting. Wings smooth-scaled, sometimes in 
part subdiaphanous.Forewing with costa gently arched,apex moderate.termen rather straight anteriorly, 
then curved and becoming rather strongly obhque, cell short, DC somewhat incurved. C reaching costa 
unusually near apex, SC^ stalked to beyond R', short. running into C, SC* variable, either normal. or 
running into C. or wanting, or stalked to beyond SC-\ R' stallced, M' connate or short-stalked ; hindwing 
with apex modcrate or rounded. lermen an,i:;led or tailed at R-* (in xant/inchlora also wiih slight prominence 
at R'), tornus pronounced, inncr margiu rathcr long, cell short, DC shghtly curved, SC* stalked, 
R2 characteristic, M' well stalked. M^ from close to end of cell, sometimes almost connate with stalk of 
R3 to M' (Pl. 3, Fig. 17). cf genitalia : uncus poinfed, with slender curved socii of eqnal length, harpe 
with small hook near the base of the inncr surface, costa of harpc clothcd with long clubbed scales; 
penis pestillate. Related to Chlorissa, etc. 

Early stages unl<novvn. 

Except in the curious variability of SC* of the lon-w mg, and possibl\ tiie 9 hindtibial armature 
of one or two species, a genus of very uniform structure. The variations of SC*, though they are — so 
far as vve have observed — nearly always constant racially, can scarcelj' be treated as generic, as the\- 
sometimes separate forms so closely alike as to be scarceh' otherwise distinguishable, while uniting 
forms much more vvidely divergent in facies (e. g. xanthochlora and siibexpressa). We have put the varia- 
tions on.record by dividing the genus into sections; Section \\\ is probably intermediate tovvards 
Hemithea. 

Type of the genus : Diplodesma celataria (VValker) = Thalcra celataria. Walker (1896). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Indo-Austraiiau. 



I) Pseudhemlthea saturata, nov. sp — .rt.n mm. Face deop red. Halpus almosi iis long as diimeter of eye. reddish. Antenna 
roddish, more ochreous proximally. Verlei and thorai dorsally (with base of abiomen) concolorous with w.nirs. Ureast and frontof forecoia red. Abdomcn 
pale ochreo..s brown. miied with red dorsally, second. third and fourth segments with rcu and black.crests rather.trong.miiedwith red and biack. Wings 
rather dark blue-grey, sliBhlly tinged with olive-green. Forewinn with costal edge narrowly l.right reddish ochreous, slightly spotted with luscous; the 
lines and cell-.pot olive-green ; antemedian from costa before onc-fourth, oblique outwards, irregular, rather thi.k, but very ill-de6ned ; postmedian 
thick,distincleiceptatcosU, lunul,itedent.te, pro,ecting d.stad at R3 and il'. these teeth the sharpest, incurved between M' andSM», only weakly 
outbent on SM«, slightly pale-edged distaliv, especially towards inner marg.n ; cell-spot rather large; fringe concolorous, w.th a very slender pale l.ne at 
base. H.ndwing .imilar. without antemedian line. Underside much paler, unmarked, the co^tal shade of forewing broader, especially at ba.e. Ilosha. 
S, Nigeria(L. E. H. Humfrey). Type in coll. Brit. Mus. Eicepiing the rather longer palpus, the structure appearsquite typ.cal. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ i85 

Sectiox I. — Forewing with SC^ running into C {Diplodesnia, Warren). 

1. D. cclatayui (Walker). Sula to N. Australia 

Thalirn ceiatinia, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 35, p. 1614 (1866). 
Diplodesma celataria, Warren, Novat. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 289 (1896). 
Euchlom thaJasiica, Tiirner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 28, p. 221 
11904) (nec Swinhoe, 1894) i) (var. ?j. 

Sectiox II. — Forewing \\ith SC' wanting {.4crortha, Warren) 2). 

2. D. obnupia (Swinhoe). Bombay to Cejlon, rAssain. 

ThaUra ohiiupta, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. ji. 855, t. 56, f. 9 Ii885i. 
Nemoria viata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. VoL 3, p. 431, t. 195, f. 6 (1887). 
Thalassodes melica. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 144 (1891). 
Thalassodes obimpta. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5i3 (iSgSi. 
Thalera viata. Hampson, ibidem, p. 5i6 (1895). 
Acrorthaflexicosta, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 36i (1896;. 
Diplodcsma obniipta, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 10, p. 263 (1903). 

3. D. contiacta (Warren) (praec. var. ?). Khasis, Perak, Java. 

Idiochlora conlracta. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 107 (1896). 
Thalassodes contracta, Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 12, 

p. 92 (1898). 
Halophanes iiitegra. Warren, MS. (in Uring Miis.j. 

Section III. — Forewing with SC^ normal, not running into (usuallj- not touching) C. 

4. D. miiHdariu (l.eech). W. China. 

Hemithta mundaria, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 233 (1897). 

5. D. pudentjfimbria, nov. sp.3), Prout. .Assam, ? Borneo. 

Section IV. — Forewing \\ith SC- stalked to beyond SC'', well separate tVom C 

(Hahp/iaucs, Warren). 

6. D. xanthochlora (Swinhoe). Khasis. 

Ma.xates xanthochlora. Swinhoe, Ann, Mag, Nat. Hist. (6), Vol, 14, p. i35 

(1894). 
Halophanes xanthochlora, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 7, p, io3 (1900). 

7. D. siibexpressa (Walker). Boineo. 

Thalera subexpressa, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit, Mus, V0I.22, p. 599 (1861J. 
Thalera innotata, Walker, ibidem, p. Sgg (1861). 

Diplodesma olivata, Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. 4, p. 3S9 (1897) (nov. syn.). 
Hemithea subexpressa, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. 0.\ford Mus.Vol.2, p. 393(1900). 

8. D. subtiisnmbrata (Fuchs) (praec. var. vel ab.?). .Sumatra, Singapure. 

Eucrostis \\'emoria ?) subtusumbrata, Fuchs. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. 
Vol. 55, p, 84 (1902). 



1) E'icAloris thalassica, Swinlioe, Trans. Ent.Soc. Lond. 1894, p. i;5 = Jodis thalassica.^\ooxii,'\% a synonym oi *Ephyra»vttlidaria, Walker 
subfam, Acidaliinae, see Hampson. Faitna Ind. .\foths, Vol. 3, p. 446. Systemalists are not agreed as to wliether this, not being an original binomial, 
should invalidate the later name; but as Turner'3 thatassica is a synonym, tbe point is not ot immediate importance, 

2) Thedirterence between this and Section I is not sexual, as Warren {Novit. Zool. Vol. 10, p. 263) suggests, but it is easy to see bow it arises, 
ior the degree of approacn between SC and SC is very variable in cetataria, and the ultimate tendency would be to become coincident. 

3) Diplodesma pudentifimbrta, nov. sp. — c? Q, 22-23 mm. Facegreen (discolourinp towards red). Palpus greenish tinged with 
red above and at tip. He.i'l green, wliite between the antennee. Antennal shaft reddish, whiter towards base. Thorax green above, paje beneath. 
Abdomenabove green at base.thcu redtlish with a red anda white dorsal crest. Forewingslightly moreelongate than in the type, SC-free, or touchingC, 
nol running into it; cotuur green. smooth-scaled buL not subdiaphanous, costal edge narrowly ochreous, wealdy spotted with fuscous ; Iines whilish, at 
about one-third and two-ttiirds ; antemedian very indistinct, wavy, oblique outwards from costa. and somewhat outcurved in submedian area, otticrwise 
nearly parallei with termen, narrowly shaded with olive dislally; postmedian sllghtly wavy (more so in the Q), almost parallel with termen, narrowly 
shaded with olive proxtmally; terminal darlc line tine. wealc in ihe cj, stronger in Q, interrupted by pale spots at vein-ends; Iringe pale ochreous, tinged 
witb pinlc. iiindwing witliout antcmedian liiie, having instead an indiitinct, eloiigate dark cell-mark; postmedian line with an outward bend froni K^ 
to M", termen and fringe as in forewing. Under surface paler, unmarked, costal edge ochreous, Sbillong, Assam, i5 September, loog, type cJ ; 24 June 

909, cotype (Q), both in coll. Brit, Mus., collected by H. M, Parish. 



186 LEPIDOPTERA UETEROCEKA 



135. Genus LATHOCHLORA, Warren 

Lathochlora. Waricn. Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. 90 (1900). 

Characters. — l'ace smooth. Palpus (in (f unknown) in 9 moderate, slender, third joint 
exposed, smooth. somewhat elongate Tongue present Antenna in 9 lather short and thick, lamellate. 
Hindtibia with terminal spurs only Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in 9 wanting, costal expansion 
marked. Wings smoothly scaled. Forewini; broad, with costa strongly arched, apex acute, termen 
strongly gibbous in niiddle, the gibbosity culminating beyond R-*, thence sinuousand veiy oblique, cell 
short, DC- curved, DC-' arising distad, SC' long-staiked with SC^", quitting little before SC'', 
SC* stalked to far bey<jnd SC^. K' just separate, R^ from above middle of DC, M' connate; hindwing 
with apex rounded, termen produced at R' and R-', vvith excision between, anal angle pronounced, cell 
short, DC slightly angled at origin of K*. C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, rapidi}' 
diverging, SC-stalked, M' short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

The above characterization is drawn up from Warren's single (and not quite perfect) type 9 > 
and we know of no other example. The genus appears to be a valid one. and there can be little doubt 
that the (^ will prove to possess a frenulum. It is very probable, as Warren suggests, that the genus is 
related to the preceding, though the shape of the wings is much more closely tliat oi Balhycolpodes or 

Chloroparda . 

Type of the genus ; Lathochlora iiwniala, Warren (igoo). 

Geographical distributlon of species. — W. .'Vfrican 

I. L. iiiuinulu, Warron. Niger Coast. 

Lathochlorii inornata, Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. 91 (igooi. 

136. Genus PROHYDATA, Schaus 

Prohydata, Schaus, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol, 27, p. 25i (1901); Prout, .■\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 

Vol. 6, p. 236 (19 10). 
Hyalorrhoe Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 21 (1904). 

Characters. — l-'ace smooth. Palpus nn)derate to long, slender. second joint usually reaching 
beyond frons, shortly scaled, third joint smooth, often greatly elongate. Tongue present. Antenna in (^ 
bipectinate to about two-thirds, with moderate branches; in 9 dentate or shortly bipectinate. Pectus 
slightly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf somewhat dilated, with hair-pencil and terminal 
process, all spurs developed. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before basal expan- 
sion. Wings more or less hyaline. Forewiiig vvith costa slightly arclied, apex rather acute, termen 
oblique, j^ently curved, cell one-half or rather less, DC incurved, oblique posteriorly, SC from cell, 
anastomosing strongly with C, SC" long-stalked, SC* given off after SC-^, R* separate (short-stalked 
in stigmatica and auster), K^ from above middle. M' well separate ; hindwing with apex usually rounded 
or subcrenulate, termen somewhat toothed at K', usually a little excised between this and !)■'. cell 
short, DC-' incurved, stiongly obliciue posteriorly, C anastomosing with cell at a point, or closelv- 
appressed. divcrgiiig rather gradually at first. SC^ long-stalked. R^ very characteristic, M' separate. 

Early stages uiiknowii. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 187 

\Ve have not been able to study much material in this genus. and are not sure about its stability. 
It diiTers only from Hydata in the very brief anastomosis (or non-anastomosis) of C of the hindwing, 
but inasmuch as cven in Hydata this varies somewhat (e. g. in povera \ve have found the anastomosis 
much weaker in the cf than in the 9) it would not be surprising to find that some 9 9 oi Prohydata 
upset the distinction altogether. \Ve have not seen Schaus' type-species, which is said to have the palpus 
« short I), and our characters are drawn chiefly i\om prujuuns. 

Type of .the genus : Prohydata apicata, Schaus (1910). 

Geogpaphical distribution of species. — Neotropical. 

1. P. apicata, Schaus. Bolivia. 

Prohydatu apicala. .Schaus, '1 rans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, p. 25i (1901 1. 

2. P. vitrearia. Schaus. Venezuela. 

ProhydaUi vilrtnria. Schaus, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, p. 25i (1901). 

3. P. pellucidayia{\Jogn\n). Ecuador. 

Racheospilapellucidaria, Dognin, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 14. p. 206 (1892). 

4. P. stigmatica (VVarren). Costa Rica. 

Hyalorrhue stigmatica, VVarren. Novit. Zool. Vol. ii, ]>. 2i (1904). 

5. P. briiuneopicta (Warren). Peru. 

Hydata brtiniieopicta. Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 14. p. 2o3 (1907). 

6. P. latifasciaia (VVarren). Peru. 

Hydata latifasciata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 2o3 (1907). 

7. P. heiupicta, Warren. Upper .\.ma/,()iK 

Prohydata benepicta. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. S4 (1909). 

8. P. aurata. Dognin. Colombia. 

Prohydata aurata. Dognin. Het. Nouv. Amer. Sud (i), p. 21 (1910). 

9. P. projiciens, Prout. — Pl. 5, Fig. 5. Colombia. 

Prohydata prviicieiis. Proiit, .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8 . Vol. 6, p. 235 (1910). 

10. P. auster, nov, sp. i), Prout. S. E. Brazil. 

137. Genus HYDATA, Walker 

Hydata. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 26, p. 1621 (1.SO2). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus smooth. slender, moderate to very long. Tongue present. 
Antenna m cf bipectinate to about two-thirds with moderate to long branches, in 9 minutely ciliated. 
Pectus slightlv hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf sometimes dilated with hair pencil and terminal 
process, m both sexes with all spurs developed. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum m cf slender, some- 
times colourless, arising from before basal expansion; in 9 wanting. Wings more or less hyaUne. 
Forewing with costa shghtly or moderately arched, apex rather acute, termen rather straight anteriorly, 
curved or bent in iniddle, becoming rather stroiigly obhque, cell nearly one-half, DC incurved, 
becoming strongly obbque, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, sometimes becoming coincident, 
SC^» long-stalked, SC- given off after SC^, R' separate or almost connate, R^ from above middle of DC. 
M' rather widely separate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen very slightly or strongly toothed 



II Prohydataauster. nov. sp — Q, 20 mm. Heid green. between antennie white. Antennal sliaft white. Thorax and abdomen pale 
green above, white benealh. VVindS shaped and marked nearly as in slig-malica, Warren. Forewing pale yellow-green, thinly scaled, the markmg» 
opaquer olive-green. but indistlnct, except in certain liffhts, consiating of : a patch at base, its margin outanglcd on .\I ; a tbick antemedian line, 
from costa just beyond one-thjrd to inner margin at one-half. forming two curves, with a strong angle at the origin of M', posterior half thc thicker; 
a very targe. slightly curvcd cell-spot; a tliick. slightly interrupted curved line from cnsta at about three-fourths, Ihe outward curves being in middle 
and at inner margin (where it becomes still thicker) ; a faint slender line between this line and the cell-spot, following the same course; vague sug- 
gcstions of large spot» on t»rmen ; in sonie lights the whole costal area also appears ilarkened; bindwing similar. but with a largc blotch on inner 
margin in place of antemedi.an line. aml a niiite small, conspicuou.s cell-spot. tjnderside whitish, forewing feebly marked, hindwing unmarked. Sao Paolo, 
S. E. Brazil (E. D. Jones). •fype in coll. Brit. Mus. Distinguished from sHtrmatica by having truly pectinate antenna (the pectinations about three time» 
diameter of shaft); palpus less long than in most of the allies, very slender, the third joint excessively so (but somewhat damagcdi; SC of forcwmg 
running into C. 



i88 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

at R', straight or soinevvhat excised to R'', there bent, tornus usually pronounced, cell less than one-half, 
DC^ incurved, oblique posteriorly, C anastomosing more or less strongly with cell, SC^ long-stalked, 
M' separate (Pl. 3, Flg. 14). 

Early stages unknovvn. 

Type of the genus : Hydata stihfeneslraria. Walker. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Xeotropical. 

1. H. siibfenestraria, VValker. Venezuela, Brazil. 

Hydata subjetiestraria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. 1622 
(1S62). 

2. H. translucidaria (Herrich-Schaffer). Brazil, Mexico. 

Gtomelra translucidaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. 

Vol. I, t. 61. f. 343 (i855); p. 62 (i856). 
Nemoria (?) translucidaria, Guenee, Spec. Gcn. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 346 ( iS58). 
Rachiospila Iranslucidaria, Druce. Biol. Centr. Amer. Le)). Het. Vol. 2, 

p. 91 (1892). 
t Hydala sordida, Schaus. Trans. .-Vmer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, p. 25o (1901) 

(nov. syn.). 
Hydala transduclaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 2o3 11907). 

3. H. satisfacta (Walker). Brazil. 

Raclieospila satisfacla .W aWei , List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol.22,p.583(i86i\ 

4. H. caducata ( Felder) (huj. gen.?). French Guiana. 

Ximona caducala. Felder, Reise Xovara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 35 (1875). 

5. //. busa (Druce) (huj. gen.?). Panama. 

Racheospila busa, Druce. Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2, p. 92, t. 5o, 
f. 8 (1892). 

6. //. alada (Dognin). Ecuador. 

Racheospila alada, Dojjnin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 42, p. 218 (1S98). 

7. H. felderi, Schaus. Mexico. 

Hydalii felderi, Schaus, Trans. .\mer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, ]>. 250(1901). 

8. H. povera, Schaus. Mexico to Venezuela. 

Racheospila salisfacla, Druce, Biol. Centr. .-\mer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2. p. 91. 

t. 5o, f. 7 (1892) (nec Walker) 1). 
Hydata povera, Schaus, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 27, |). 25o (1901). 

9. H. popayanaria (Dognin). Colombia. 

Hypnochtora popayanaria, Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 45, p. 3io 
(1901). 

Hydala pofiayanaria, Prout, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), Vol. 6, p. 235 (1910). 
10. //. diaphana, Warren. (huj. gen.?). Peru. 

Hydala diaphana, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11. p. S6 (1904). 
ir. //. spilosata, Wanen. Argentina, Biazil. 

Ilydala spilosala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 204 (1907). 
12. H, radiata, Warren. Peru. 

Hydala radiala, Warren Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 77 (1909). 
i3. //. scriptiirata, Warren. Peru. 

Hydata scripturala, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. 78 (1909). 
14. f/. miiscosa, Dognin. Colombia. 

Hydiita muscosa, Dognin, Het. Nouv. Amer. Sud (i), j). 21 (iqio). 
i5. H. propinqua, Prout. Colombia. 

Hydala propinqua, Prout, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (8), Vol. o, p. 2J4 (1910). 
16. H. elegans, Bastelberger. Peru. 

Hydata elegans, Bastelberger, Intern. Ent. Zeit. Guben,Vol.5, p. 54(1911 1 

NoTE. — Hydata spectabUis, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 474, belongs to the Geomet>inae 
(Boarmiinae). 



I) Ihe iipecimen recorded by Wulker (p. 58|) as « rnale ? » to his salisf.icla, though in very poor condition, is pretty eviaently the satis- 
facia of Druce tnec Walker, specim. typ.). 



FAM. GEOMETRIDi^. 189 



138. Genus PACHYCOPSIS, Warren 

Pachycopsis. Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 428 (1897). 
Paraplodes. Warren. ibidem, Vol. 11, p. 24 (1904). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus very slender, in cf rather short, but with third joint long 
in proportion, in 9 longer, third joint very elongate. Tongue slender. Antenna in (^ bipectinate with 
rather long branches, apical part merely serrate; in 9 serrate or with short pectinations. Pectus shghtly 
hair}'. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (j* with pencil of hairs and short terminal process, in both sexes 
with termmal spurs only, the inner long. Abdomen not crested. Frenuhmi in (J short and slender, from 
before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Wings rather thinly and smoothly scaled. Forewing with costa 
arched, apex moderate, termen curved, cell less than one-half, SC from cell, anastomosing strongly 
with or running into C, SC- staiked to beyond SO^, M' separate; hindwing rather long, termen rounded, 
often slightly sinuous, tornus pronounced, cell short, C anastomosing with cell for a considerably 
distance, SC- very long-stalked, M' well separate. 

Early stages known. 

Un the whole somewhat less hyaline th.m Hri/^/a. to wdiich it is nearlv related: but the chief 
structural difference is the absence of the median spurs in both sexes. 

Type of the genus : Pachycopsis tridenlata, Warren (1897). 

Geographlcal dlstrlbution of specles. — '1'ropical South America. 

1. P. iridentata, Warren. Ecuadoi to French (iuiana. 

Pacliycofsis tridenlala. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 428 (1897). 
Hydata Indeiitala. Warren. ibidem. Yol. 14. p. 204 11907). 

2. P. mali II a (Butlev). .'^mazons to French Guiana. 

Aplodes malina, Biitler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 33o (1881). 
Hydata malina, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7. p. 134 (1900). 
Hyalorrhoe maliiia, Warren. ibidem. Vol. 11, p. 21 (1904). 

3. P aurata (Warren). Ecuador. 

Paraplodes aurata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 11, p. 25 (1Q04). 

4. P. liinifera (Warren). Peru. 

Hydata lunifera, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 14, p. 204 (1907). 

NoTE. — Felder's cadiicata, which we have placed provisionall\' in Hydaia, \m\\ have to be trans- 
ferred here. We have seen two 9 9°^^ Pachycopsis from the island of Taboga vvhich may be referable 
to it, but have had no opportunity of comparing them with Felder's type. The figure, like so man\' of 
Felder's amnng the Geometridae, is unrecognizable. 



139. Genus CHLOROCOMA, Turner 

Chlorocoma. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 58i (igio). 
Chlorochroma. Cjuenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, yi. 365 (i85S) (nec Duponchcl, 1845). 

Characters. — I^ace smooth. Palpus short, bui not very slender, second joint short or inoderately 
scaled, third joint in both sexes quite small. Tongue well developed. Antenna moderate, in q' bipectinate 
with moderate branches. apically merely somevvhat dentate, ciliated; in 9 ininutely ciliated. Pectus 
somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in q* dilated with hair-pencil (except in didita), in both 
sexes vvith all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in (^ short, moderate to weak, from before well- 
marked basal expansion : in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa scarcely arched, apex pronounced or acute. 



igo 



I.EPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



termen usually straight, tornus well expressed. cell nearly one-half. DC^ incurved, SC from cell, some- 
times free, usually anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, sometimes anastomosing with SC, R' usually 
short-stalked or connate (in didita well separate), R^ usually from well above middle of DC. M' separate: 
hindwing with apex rounded, termen rounded, or very faintly elbowed at R^ (in ittraspila angled), cell 
less than one-half, DC^ incurved, C approximated (sometimes veiy- closely) to cell to less than one-half, 
then rapidly diverging, SC^ stalked, R^ ver>' characteristic, M' separate (not remote), or more rarely 
connate or extremely short-stalked. cf genitaha : uncus parallel. with socii, gnathos strong, pointed, 
harpe with sacculus pointed; penis pestillate, vesica covered with minute cornuU; eighlh sternite 
terminating in two liUint points; coremata present ; perhaps related to the /orf«-group. 

Early stages apparently undescribed. A few of the larvae are known, and are attached to Acacia, 
Duboisia, etc. 

A very natuial genus, with the probable exception of the single African specles which we liave 
been compelled, for lack of sahent differential characters, to lodge here provisionally. In addition to the 
several distinctions noled in our Key, Chlorocoma normally (hffers from Omphax, Heterorachis and Heteresthes 
in the dilated cf hindtibia ; its palpus, though short, is usually stout, and is seldom (pe^haps only in 
tachypora) positively minutc, whereas in the other genera it is slender and often minute ; the antennal 
structure is much more stable: in ihe inndwing M' is never widely separated at its origin from R^ 

Type of the genus : Chlorocoma dichloraria (Guenee) = Chlorochroma dichloraria, Guenee (1910). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Australia, ? S. Africa. 



1. C dtchloraria ((juenee). 

Chlorochroma dicMoraria. Guenee, Spec. Geii. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 365, t. 6, f. 8 

(i858). 
ChlorocUroma vertiimnaria, Guenee, ibidem. (>. 365 (i858) (ab.) i). 
Geomctia i»/)Hi;ssn)7<i,\Valker, List Le)). Ins. Hrit. Mus.VoL22,p. 529(1861). 
lodis dichloraria, Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales I2i. Vol. 2, p. 884 

(1888). 
lodis vertamnaria, Meyrick, ibidcm, p. 885 (1888). 
Euchloris vertumnaria. Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 28, p 222 

(1904). 
Chlorocoma dichloraria. Tiirner. 1'roc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 

p. 5.S4 (1910). 

2. C. cadmaria ((iuenee). 

Chlorochroma cadmaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 365 {i858). 
Chlorochroma vHlnerata,B\\i\et, Knn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5|, V0I.9, p. 91 (1882). 
lodis cadmaria, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2i, Vol. 2, p. 886 

11888). 
Chhrocoma cadmaria, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 583 (1910). 

3. C carenaria ((juen6e). 

Chlorochroma carenaria, Guenee, Spec. Geii. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 366 (i858). 
Chlorochroma congenita, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 22, l>. 564 

(1861) (nov. syn.) 2). 
ChUifochroma verlumnana var. (?). Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VdI. 22, 

p. 562 (1861). 
? lodis carenaria, Meyrick, Proc. Linn Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, ]>. 881 

(1888). 

4. C e.xteriia (Walker). 

Chlorochroma exlerna, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 564 (1861). 
lodis externa, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales (2),Vol. 2, p. 885 (1888). 
Chlorochroma externa. Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 585 (1910). 



E. and S. E. Austraha with 
Tasmania. 



S. E. to. W. .\ustraha. 



Tasmania (? etc). 



. E. and S. Austraha. with 
Tasinania. 



il This synonymy is accoriiini; to lurn^r. Iii coU. Hnl. Mus., exlerna, Walker. siands as vertumnaria; unfortunately Uucnics desi ription 

is somewliat equivocal. 

21 Tliis is in accordance with coU. Brit. Mus.. and is f.illy supportcd by Guen6cs description. which cannot possibly apply to carrnana, 
Turner (No. 20. iiifral. Thc present insect may possibly be another form of dichlorana, to whicli lurner lias referrc.i congeniti. 



FAM. GEOMETRID,^ 



igi 



5. C. dilataia (Walker). 

Thaltra dilatatj. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. 594(is6i). 

6. C. neptuntis (Butlei). 

Chlorochroma neptuims, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 435 (1886). 
lodis tiepluiius, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, p. 881 

(1888). 
Chlorocoina iteptuiius, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 5S7 (igio). 

7. C. stereoia (Meyrick). 

[odis stereota, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, 

p. 875(1888). 
Chlorocoma stereota, Turner, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 587 (igio). 

8. C. halochlora (Meyrick). 

lodis halochlora, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, p. 87K 

(1888). 
Chlorocoma halochlora, Turner, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 585 (1910). 
g. C. melocrossa (Meyrick). — Pl. 4, Fig. 9. 

Chlorochroma carenaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. 562 

(1861) (nec Guenee). 
Chlorochroma citrolimbaria, Walker, ibidem, p. 562 (1861) (nec Gueneej. 
lodis melocrossa, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 12), VoL 2, p. 879 

(1888). 
lodis submissaria, Meyrick, ibidem, p. 882 (1888) (nec Walker). 
Euchloris xuthocrania, Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AustraL Vol. 3o, p. 127 

(1906). 
Chlorocoma melocrossa, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales,VoL 35. p 586 
(1910). 
10. C. asemanta (Meyrick). 

lodis asemauta, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, p. 879 

(1888). 
Chlorocoma asemanta, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 58? (iQio). 
n. C. paraphylla (Lower) (prac. var. ?). 

Euchloris paraphylla, Lovver, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .^ustraL Vol. 26, p. 229 
(1902). 
12. C. monocyma (Meyrick) (huj. gen.?). 

lodis moiwcyma, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, p. 883 
(1888). 
Chlorocoma monocyma, Turner, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 585 (1910). 
i3. C. assimilis (Lucas). 

lodis assimilis. Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 3, p. I265 

(1888). 
lodis commoda, Lucas, ibidem 12), VoL 7, p. 252 (1892) (ab.). 
Chlorocoma assimilis, Turner, ibidem, VoL 35, p. 585 (1910). 
14. C. ipomopsis (Lower) (liuj. gen. ?). 

lodis ,pomopsis, Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AustraL VoL i5, p. 14 (1891). 
i5. C. tetraspitn (Lower). 

Euchloris tetraspila, Lower, Trans. Roy.Soc. S. AustraLVoL 25,p.66 (1901). 
Chlorocoma tetraspila, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 586(1910). 

16. C. periphvacta (Turner). 

Euchloris periphnicla, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AustraL VoL 28, p. 219 (1904). 
Chlorocoma pcriphracta, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 586 (1910). 

17. C. rhodocrossa (Turner). 

Euchloris rhodocrossa, Turiier, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 3o, 11. 128 

(iqo6). 
Chlorocoma rhodocrossa, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 

p. 583 (1910). 



? S. Africa i). 
Queensland. 

Victoria. 

S. Australia. 

E. to S. Australia. 



\'V. Australia. 

N. W. Australia. 
W. Australia. 

E. and W. Australia. 



.S. Australia. 

S. E. Australia, with Tas- 
mania. 



Queensland. 



W. Australia. 



I) Walker's type is labellod as from S. ..\lrica, but has so entirely the slructure and facies of tlie Australian species that we suspect a mistake, 
«specially as it has never been matched from the African conlinent. The specimen is said to be from Dr. Andrew Smith. and as .Macleay was at one time 
working at Dr. Smith's collection, and had emigrated to Tasmania before the date (184+) when the British Museum received thespecimen, such a mistake 
as we have susrgeslerl seems ([uite feasible. It ra.ay be a large faded eiiraple olassimi/is, or some other known species with which we are not very familiar. 



192 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

i8. C. yhodoloma, Turner. W. Australia. 

Chlorocoma rhodoloma. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales. Vol. 35. 
p. 583 (igio). 

ig. C. tachypora, Turner. Oueensland. 

Chlorocoma lachypora. 'rurner, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, Vol. 35. 
p. 587 (igio). 

20. C. ochroneurodes, nov. nom., Prout. S. E. .-Xustralia. with Tas- 

Chlorocoma careiiaria, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, mania. 

p. 584 {1910) (nec Guenee). 

21. C. didita (Walker) (huj. gen.?) i). Cape. 

lodis didila. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. 542 ^i86i). 

140. Genus HETERESTHES, Warren 

Heteresthes. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. g, p. 35^ (igo.2). 

Characters — hace smooth, narrow. Palpus short and rather slender, second joint shortly 
scaled, third joint in both sexes small. Tongue weak. Antenna rather short, in both sexes bipeclinate 
nearly to apex with long, decreasing branches. Pectus strongly hair\-. Femora hairy. Hindtibia in (^ 
not dilated, in both sexes with four rather stout, nearly equal spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum 
in o^ rather slender, from before slight basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa strongly 
arched, apex minutely falcate, termen with a sHght concavit\- beneath apex, thence somewhat convex, 
obHque, ceU less than one-half, DC very deeply inbent, verj- obHque posteriorly, SC' from cell, free or 
touching C at a point, SC^ normal, R' stalked, R* above middle, M' well separate; hindwing with apex 
rounded, termen entire, sHf;htly rounded, tornus pronounced, cell less than one-half, DC-* incurved, 
very strongh^ obHque posteriorly, C approximated to cell to rather less than one-half, SC- stalked, 
R^ characteristic, M' wcU separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

A superficial similarity between this genus and Tanaorhinus is not supported by the structure. 

Type of the genus : Heteresthes subrubra, Warren. 

Geographical distribution of specles, — Solomon Islands. 

1. H. subrubra, Warren. Solomons. 

Htleresthes subrubra, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 9, p. 35^ (1902). 

2. H . suhaiireata, Warren (praec. (^ ?). Solomons. 

Heteresthes subaureata, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 9, p. 35^ (1902). 



141. Genus HETERORACHIS, Warren 

Heterorachis. Wanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. ^3^ (1898). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes minute (less so in lunatimargo). Tongue 
weak. Antenna in both sexes bipectinate to three-fourths, apex simply cihated. Pectus shghtly hairy. 



i> May be phylogenetically an independent development of Prasiuocyma, with shortened third joint of palpus , or the parent of SyMdromodeSy 
uitbout the anastomosis of C of hindwing. Slightly different in shape from true Chlorccoma, and with the small structural distincticns noted under our 
geiieric dia^nosis. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.-E ig3 

Femora glabious. Hmdtibia in cf not dilated, ui both sexes vvith four rather approximated spurs. 
Abdomen often with small crests. Frenulum m cf arising from before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. 
Forewing with costa slightly arched, apex moderate, termen obUque, Httle curved, cell not quite one- 
half, DC^ obhque posteriorly, SC^ from cell or stalked, usually anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, very 
rarely anastomosing with SC, R' usually approximated, occasionally connate or minutely stalked, 
R- from well above iniddle, M' separate, connate or short-stalked ; hindwing with termen rounded, or 
excised between Ri and R'' (in lunatimargo angled at R^ only), tornus moderate, cell not quite one-half, 
DC^ oblique posteriorly, C anastomosing with cell at a point near base (except Section III), SC^ stalked, 
M' connate, approximated or short-stalked (in Section III well separate). 

Early stages unknown. 

Nearly akin to Omphax, differing chiefly m the pectinate 9 antenna. 

Type of the genus : Hetevorachis i/cvocata (Walker) = Geometra devocata. Walker (i8q8). 

GeographJcal distrlbution of species. — .-Ethiopian. 

Section I. — Forewing with SC from cell, hindwing with termen rounded; 
antennal pectinations moderately long. 

1. H. devocata (Walker). S. Africa. 

Geometra devocata, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 22, p. 514 (1861). 
Heteroiaclus devocata, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 5, p. 235 (1898). 

2. H. diaphana (Warrenj. Madagascar. 

Prasinocyma diapliaiia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 291 (1S89). 

3. //. asyllaria (Swinhoe). Madagascar, 

Prasinocyma asyllaiia, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. S^S (iqo^). 

Section II. — Forewing with SC stalked; hindwing angled at R^; 
antenn;d pectinations short (huj. gen. ?). 

4. H. malachitica (Saahniiller) (hic ponenda?). Madagascar. 

Phorodesma malachitica, Saalmuller, Ber, Senckenb. Nat. Ges. 1879-80, 

p. 291 (1880). 
Racheospila malachitica, Saalmviller. Lep. Madag". (2), p. 496, t. 14, f. 270 

(1S91). 
Heterorachis (.') malachitica, Warren, Novit, Zo<,l. Vol. 5, p. 235(1898). 

5. H. lunatimargo (Prout). W. Africa. 

Antharmosles (?) lunatimargo, Prout. The Entomologist. VoL 44, p. 28 ( 191 1). 

Section III. — Forewing with SC Irom cell ; hindwing excised between IV and R'* ; 
antennal pectmations long; hind\\ing with C approximated to cell for a short distance 
(huj. gen.??) I). 

6. H. triangularia (Swinhoe) 2). Madagascar. 

Phnroiesma Inangidaria, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 55i (1904). 



1) Affinities quite un.-ertain. From the facies :md texture it might possibly be assumed that the species here placed has more connection witl, 
the Bathyco/frodes-gzoMit. 

2) Phorodesma triaii^nLiris on type label. 



ig4 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



142. Genus CELIDOMPHAX, nov. gen., Prout 

Celidomphax, nov. gen. Piout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short (scarcely, if at all, longer than diameter of eye), 
second joint somewhat rough-scaled, third joint in both sexes small, smooth. Tongue present. Antenna 
somewhatover one-half, in ^f bipectinate vvith long branches. in 9 nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Hind- 
tibia in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen with a series of well-developed dorsal crests. Frenulum in (f 
fr(im before basal expansion, in 9 vvanting. Wings ample, vermiculated. Forewing vvith costa arched 
distally, apex moderate, termen oblique, rather straight anteriorly, more curved posteriorly, cell not 
quite one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell. free. SC- normal, R' very shortly stalked, M' approximated ; 
hindwing with termen rounded, tornus moderate. cell less than one-half, DC scarcely curved, only 
shghtly obhque, C approximated to cell for some distance, then rather rapidly diverging. SC* stalked, 
M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Aspect rather of Cheroscelis or of Mdacineia than of Omphax: its actual affinities are somewhat 
doubtful. The tvvo species are verv' closely related. 

Type of the genus : Celidodomphax riibrimacnlata (Warren) = Phorodesma inbrniiaciilala, Warren. 

Geographlcal dlstrlbutlon of specles. — S E. to E. Africa. 

1. C. rubiimacnlata (Warrcnj. Natal. 

Pliorodesnia rubrimaculttla, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 385 (igoS). 

2. C. analiplaga (Warren). (ierman E. Africa. 

AgraploMora analiplaga, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12. p. 38^ (igoS). 



143. Genus OMPHAX, Guenee 

Omphax. Gucnec, Spec. (ien. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 368 (i85S). 
Agraptochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 389 (1894). 
Pycnodontla. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 8, p. 206 (1901). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes mmute (very rarelv as long as diametcr 
of eye), shortly rough-scaled (Pl. 5, Fig. I 4). Tongue slender. Antenna rather short. in cf either thick, 
nearly simple (lamellate) or bipectinate with short branches; in 9 nearly simple, slightly lamellate. 
Pectus hairy. Feinora slightly haiiy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs developed. 
Abdomen typically vvith two or three veiy small crests, sometimes uncrested. Frenulum in (j' present, 
from before some basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Build rather robust, veins often thick (but see 
Section IH). Forewing vvith costa arched (in bacofi straight), apex acute, in 9 «^ven minutely 
subfalcate, termen straight, usually becoming curved posteriorly, cell about one-half, DC^ somevvhat 
inbent, then very obli(]ue outvvards, SC fr(5m cell, anastomosing strongly or slightly with C, 
or free, SC^ norinal, sometimes anastomosing shortly or strongly with SC and verj^ excep- 
tionally with SO", R' usually approximated, rarely stalked, R^ from much above middle of DC, 
M' usually vvidel}' separate; hindwing vvith costa not short. apex moderate. terinen gently rounded, 
never strongly convex. tornus moderate or pronounced, cell one-half or (usually) less, DC-* inbent 
(usually strongly). thcii very oblique outvvards. C approximated to cell for a short or moderate 



FAM. GEOMETRID.C igS 

distance, sometimes with point-anastomosis. divergence usually rather gradual, SC^ stalked. R^ from very 
near R', M' usually widely separate (short-stallced in nigricornis) (Pl. 4, Fig. 14). (f genitalia {baculi) 
with uncus hooded, gnathos terminating in a long blunt arm, harpe with fineh- spined clasper, penis 
pestillate, sharply angulated in the centre, terminating in two dentatearms. Suggests more resemblance 
to Pseiciioteipnn tlian to any otlier genus investigated, but the tvvo genera — so far as is vet known — have 
httle else in common. 

Larv.\. — Probably of the stiff, green, twig-hke type, with two anterior projections from prothorax 
above head. (See Fawcett, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. Vol. 17, t. 8, f. 6, 7, as « Euchloris devocata «, but almost 
certainly an Om/>/iax.) 

PuPA. — Brown, wing-cases paler, veined with brown, segment-incisions distinct, spiracular spots 
large, black (Fawcett, loc. cit. fig. 8). 

We have not seen Guenee's type (locahty unknown), but from his diagnosis, and mformatinn 
kindlj' given b}' M. Oberthiir, it is certainh' identical with, or verv- close to rtibriplaga, Warren, from 
which (with its neavest relativesj we have diagnosed the genus. Robuster than Rhadinomphax, C of hind- 
wing not anastomosing; palpus usually still minuter, abdomen commonly with small crests, forewing 
usualiy more amjile. 

Type of the genus : Omphax plantaria, Guenee (i858). 

Geographical distributjon of species. — ^Sthiopian. 

Section I. — Antenna in cf not bipectinate. 

I. O. plantaria, (juenee. S. and E. Africa. 

Oinplmx plantaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 368 (i858). 
? Agraptochlora rubriplaga, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 33 {1897J. 

2. O. subaspersa (Warren). S. to E. Africa. 

Agraptochlora subaspirsa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 390 (1894!. 

3. O. marginata (Warren). S. Africa. 

Agraptochloia marginata. Warren, Novit. Zool Vol. i, p. 390(18941. 
? Eucliloris devocata, Fawcett. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. Vol. 17, p. 184, t. 8, 
f. 5-8 (1903) (nec Walker). 

4. O. muJesta (W-drren). S. Africa. 

Agraplochlora modesta. Warren, No\ it. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 32 (1897). 

5. O. apicata (V\Ia.rrw). German E. Africa. 

Pycitvdontia apicata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 206 (1901). 

<i. O. bacoti, nov. sp. i 1. Prdut. S. Africa. 

Section II. — Antenna in cf shortly Inpectinate. 

7. 0. vicinitann (\V'allengren) (huj. gen. ?). S. Africa. 

lodis vicinitaria, Wallengren. Wien. Ent, Monatschr. VoL 7, p. i5o 1 1863). 



I) Omphax bacoti, nov. sp. — cj Q. 34 to 36 mm. Face red, mi-\ed with ochreous below. Palpus oclireous, mi.xed with red. J.egs 
ochreous, red on upper side except hindtibia and tarsus. Head green, narrowly ochreous (red marked) between thc antenna^. Antenna quite short, thick, 
lamellate, scaled area ochreous mixed with red. Thorax green above, whitish beneath. Abdomen whitisli ; crests wantin^r. Wings long and narrow, formed 
almost like Rhadiiioiitfiliax .iivincta. but more robust. Forewing green nearh' as in tbat specics, but rouKher, costal edge narrowly pale ochreous ; fringe 
cream-colour. tippeil with pink. Hindwing white, sometimes stronnly tinged with green in inner-marginal half ; fringe white, not tipped with pink except 
towards tornus. t'nderside whitish, tinged with ochreoiis, especially atcosta of both wings; the greater part of forewing (except termen and inner margin) 
soinelimes with a slight smoky sulTusion. Durban (E. A Hac ot;. Type and twocolypes (all cj) in coll L. B. Prout. Pretoria, mth December. iqio(U' Hreyer), 
a Q ; Transvual, (C. H. I'ead),a (3; both in coll. Hrit. Mus. Harberlon. Transvaal, 26th December. iqio, a Q in roll. A. J. T. Janse. Iwo <3 from 
S. Africa in coll. Oxford Mus. Structure quite as in Rhadirtompluix. excepting ttte robust build and the non-anastoniosis of C of the hindwintj. It probably 
forms at least a separate section of Ow;>A<ix, differing in shape and lack ol crests; perhaps even a genus. In the type specimen SC of left forewing 
approaches successively C aid -"^C- without anastomosin^ ; on the right wing it anastomoses at a point with C. In most exainplesit anastomoses llightly or 
strongly with both C and SC*. 



,96 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

8. 0. nigricornis (Warren). Mombasa Island. 

Agraptoclilora ni^ricornis, Warren, Novit.Zool. Vol.^.p. 20S, t. 5,p. 14(1897). 

9. 0. rubyiceps{\\/siTTen). .Angola. 

Agraplocklora ruOriups. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 11. p. 464 11904). 
? Euproclis monopliyis, Svrinhoe, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (71, Vol. 17, p. 541 
(1906) (huj. gen. certo). 

10. 0. rhodocera {Ha.mpson). Rhodesia. 

Prasinoc\»ia rhodoctra. Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 475, t. 39. f. 29 
(igio) I . 

11. O. leucocraspeda, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Transvaal, Mashonaland. 

Section III. — Build slender (cf unknown) (huj. gen.?). 

12. O. anumala {WaTTen). British East Africa. 

Ompliacodts (?) anomala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 495 (1902). 
Comoslolopsis (.') anomala. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 586 (1904). 



144. Genus PROSOMPHAX, Warren 

Prosomphax. Waneii. Ann. S. .Afric. Mus. Vol. 10(1), p. 20(1911). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus ver\- short. Tongue slight. .Antenna in cf bipeclinale to 
two-thmls (m 9 simple, qiiitta). Hindtibia in cf not dilated. in both sexes vvith terminal spurs only. 
.Abdoinen not crested. iMenuhim in cf sUght, in 9 wanting. Forewing triangular, with costa nearly 
straight, shouldered at e.Ktreme base and arched distaliy. apex prominent. tcrinen straight. oblique, cell 
one-half, SC from cell, anastomosing vvith C, SC- normal, R' stalked, R' from near apex of cell, 
M' approximated at origin to R^; hindwing vvith apex and termen rounded. tornus pronounced, 
C approximated to SC for some distance. but not anastomosing, SC short-stalked vvith R'. 

Early stages uiiknown. 

Certainly related to Ompliax and Rhadiuomphax, but distinguished by the absence of median spurs. 
We have not been able to study Warren's type species, but have quoted the characters given by him, 
merely inakins one or tvvo additions from qiiieta which vvill certainly be found applicable. 

Type of the genus : Prosomphax callista, Warren. 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. .'\frica, PBntisii E. .^fnca. 

I . P. callisla. Warren. Cape. 

Prosomplax callisla, Warren, .Ann. S. Afric. Mus. Voi. 10 (i). p. 20 (igiii. 



1) The typc is a cj. uot « Q » as described. 

2) Omphax leucocraspeda. nov. sp. — (S Q, 3o-3t) mm. Facc aiid palpus crimson, the lattcr in c7 minutc, in Q ncarly ctiual 10 
diametcr oicve Vertcx wiitc, liii,'ctl with ochrcous, occiput preen, sideof collar rcd. Antennal shaft ochrcous-whitish proximally, more ochreous distally, 
pectinations in cj ochreous. t.cKS oclireous below, mostly crimson above. Tliorax and liase of abdomen grecn dorsally. abdomcn otherwise whitc.theRrreen 
continuing narrowly land somewlKit interrupted) on dorsum of sc^jments 0-4. Wings bright grecn, irroratcd with whitish; costal edge of forewing narrowly 
pale ochreous; no tincs or spots ; fringes whitish, sligtitly tinged witli ochreous, their extremc bases mixed with grcen. Underside slightty paler, costal 
edge of forcwing ochreous as far as SC, in basal halt usually tinged with rcd. Transvaat : Kranspruit, ig l)cc. 1906 Itype cJi and 21 Oec. 1006 (c?). Riet- 
fontein, 7 Dcc. 1904(2), Boltfontein, 8 Jan. igo; (Q), all from .\. J. T. Janse; Salisbury. Mashonaland, Aug. 1000 (Q), (.i . A. K. Marshall ; Mashona- 
land (Q)H. 11. Dobbie. AU these spocimcns arc in coll. Brit. Mus. Also a Q froin Kranspruit.22 Dcc. 1906, in coU. L. B. Prout, and one from Pretoria, 
5 Dec. IQ07, incoU. A. J. T. Janse. In one cxanple .'^C of forewing is frce ; in the rest it anastomoses with C, in three also with SC*. The structure ig 
typical. exc^pt in Ihe abs;ince of crests; DC of both wiiigs excessively oblique. 



FAM. (iEOMETRID.E i97 

2. P. quieta, nov. sp. i). Prout (huj. gen.?). British E. .Africa. 

Omphacodes anomala. Swinhoe, 'l'rans. Knt. Soc. Loiid. p. 552 (IQ04) 
(nec Warren). 

145. Genus RHADINOMPHAX, nov. gen., Prout 

Rhadinomphax, nov. gen. Prout. 

Omphacodes (part.). Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 396 (1894) (nec sect. tj-p.). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes small (scarcely as long as diameter of eye), 
second joint shortly scaled, third joint not elongate. Tongue present. .'intenna m cf subdentate. or 
with strong-, clawed teeth, shortly cihated, in 9 minutely ciHated. Pectus slightly hairy. Femora 
o-labrous. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum 
in cf arising from before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing triangular, rather narrow, costa 
nearly straight, apex moderately acute, termen nearly straight, obhque, cell about one-half, DC'* deeply 
incurved, very obhque posteriorly, SC from near end of cell, anastomosing quickly vvith C, SC^ nor- 
mal, anastomosing strongly with SC and quite exceptionally also with SC^-^ R' connate or short- 
stalked, R^ from above middle of DC, M' well separate ; hindwing with costa long, apex rounded, 
termen rather straight, tornus moderate, cell about one-half, DC^ deeply inbent (usually inangled), 
strongly obHque below, C anastomosing lo near end of cell, SC^ stalked, R^ very characteristic, M' weli 
separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Nearly akin to Dichroma, but of somewhat more slender build, with SC^ of forewing normal, and 
with non-pectinate cf antenna. Warren evidently drew up his characterization of Ow//;a<;orf« from this 
genus, but chose as type directa, Walker, which is abundantly distinct and must of course bear the 
name. 

Type of the genus : Fihadiiiomphax divuicla (Walker) = lodis divincta, Walker. 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. .^frica. 

i. R. divinctaiWaWieY). Cape. 

lodis divincta. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Hrit. Mii.s. Vol, 22, p. 5^3 (1861). 

Omp/iax {})/rondiiiaia, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f 2. 3 (1875). 
■2. R. piidicaia{Wa.\ker). '-'ape. 

lodis pudicala. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis, VoL 35, p. 1606 (1896). 

3. R. saiiguinipiincta (Felder). Cape. 

Omphax {Y) saiiguiinpu/icta, Felder, Reise Novara.Lep. Het.t. 127. f. i (1875). 

4. R. trimeiii (Ve\dei). Cape. 

Ompliax (?) Irimciii, I"elder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 4 iiS^S). 

146. Genus DICHROMA, Westwood 

Dichroma. Wcstwood, Duncan's Exot. Moths, p 224(1841). 

Characters. — Facesmooth. Palpus in both sexes Httle longer than diameter of eye, moderately 



u Prosomphax |:-) quieta, nov. sp. — 5, 35 mm. Face anU piilpus odireous red, paler below. Vortei green, paler between antenna., 
Antenna palo ochreous. Hiorax pale green almvc. I.eei pale ochreous. Abilomen white. Korewing pale green. unmarkeil ; costal eAf.e narrowly pale 
ochreous; frinuc pale green in prommal half. wliile in dislal. Hindwjng greenish whito, unmarl^ed tlndrrslde white, of forewing «lightly tinged with 
grecn, eipecially in rostal half; coala of forewing as above. Machnkos, Britisli K. Afrira. 7 July, 180« (K. C. Crawshay). Type in coll. lirit. Mus. Phiced 
provi«'ionally in this genus ; thecofta of forewing may be slightly more archcd; thecclUare shorter, hence thereare more stalkings, SC of forewing bcmg 
shortly stalked (t luugli still arising beforc W). \\> of both whigs stalked and SC of hindwing longer-stalked; SC of forewing doe« not analtomoie with C. 



198 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

strong, second joint somewhat rough-scaled. third joint small, concealed. Tongue present. Antenna 
scarcely one-half, in cf shortly bipectinate (the branches scarcely longer than diameter of shaft), apex 
nearly simple; in 9 nearly simple. Pectus hairy. Femora glabrous ; hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both 
sexes with four well-developed spurs. .Abdomen rather long, not crested. Frenulum in cf moderately 
strong, from before basal expansion, retinaculum near base ; 9 frenulum wanting. Forewing with costa 
straight, termen curved, strongly oblique. tornus rounded, ci-ll about one-half, DC very deeply incurved, 
SC anastomosing (usually strongly) with C. SC- ver^- short-stalked (usually arising before Ri). anast- 
omosing with SC (usually strongly), R' stalked, R"^ from near R', M' separate ; hindwing rather narrow, 
costa long. apex rounded. termen somewhat rounded, becoming straighter towards tornus, cell about 
one-half, DC rather deeply incurved, C anastomosing to near end of cell, SC- stalked, R* characteristic, 
M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Notable for the curious position of SC* of forewing, which is more primitive than in any other 
genus except in (}roup I . When not before R' it arises only just alter it. 

Type of the genus : Dichroma equestralis, Westwood (1841). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. .Africa. 

I. D. equestralis, Westwood. Cape. 

Dicliroma eqiieslralis, Westwood, Duncan'sExot.Moths,p.224.t. 30,^.1(1841). 
Argyrophora equistrinaria, Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 10. p. 23z (i858). 

.\'oTE. — The other species placed by Westwood under this genus, Dichroma histrionalis {trofonia, 
Cramer) and arcualis {tro/vnia ab. ?) belong to the Geometrinae {Boarmiinae). The former, under its synonym 
monetata, Guenee, is the typc of Guen6e's genus Argyrophora, which will stand for the species in question i ) ; 
the position assigned to it by Guenee, near the genus Compsopiera, Blanchard {Ligia, Duponchel. nom. 
prseocc), may likeh- be correct. Dichroma alternata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 209, is Larentiid, 
close to Conchylia; Weymer, Deiitsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1908, p. 5i2. proposed for it (under the synonym 
argenteofasciata) the genus Callythria. 

147. Genus ARGYROGRAPHA, nov. gen., Prout 

Argyrographa, nov. gen. Piout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf moderate, second joint roughscaled above and 
beneath, reaching well beyond frons, third joint niinute (9 unknown). Tongue slender. Antenna in cf 
bipectinate with moderately long branches, apical part nearly simple. Pectus and femnra hairj-. Hind- 
tibia and tarsus in (j< rough-scaled, tibia not diLated, all spuis present, tarsus as loiiy as tibia. Abdomcn 
not crested. Frenulum in cf slender and colouiless, from before basal expansion. l'~orewing with costa 
very feebly arched, apex rather acute, termen smooth. oblique, curved posteriorly, cell fully one-halt, 
DC somewhat incurved. SC from cell, sometimes anastomosing with C, SC* from close after R', 
anastomosing with SC, R' short-stalked, M' separate; hindwing with costa rather long, apex rounded, 
termen gently rounded, tornus lather pronounced, cell one-half. DC somewhat incurved, C approximattd 
to cell to about one-half, rather gradually diverging, SC^stalked, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 



i) Kirby, Handb. I.ep. Vol. 5, p. 24J. says of Argyrophora « nom pracocc. •. but wecannot find that tliis is tlie casc; probably he «is con- 
founding it with Argyrophoriis. Blancbard, i852. 



FAM. CiEOMETRirJiE 199 

The differences froni Comibaena, except the narrower wings and more Dichroma-\'\ke facies, are 
perhaps rather shght, yet sufficient; the rough-scaled hindleg, yet without the dilation and process, the 
anastomosis of SC^ of forewing and the longer approximation of C of hindwing to cell are all 
distinctive. 

Type of the genus : Argyrograpka moderata (Walker) = Dichroma (?) moderata, Walker. 

Geographical distpibution of species. — S. Afnca. 

j. A. moderata (Walkerj. Cape. 

Dichroma (?) moderaln, Walker. List I.ep- Ins. Bril. Mus. Vol. 24. ]). 1147 

(1862). 
EuMoris e.ximiata. Felder. Keise Novara, Lep Het. t. 127, f. 5 (18751. 



148. Genus PARAPRASINA, Warren 

Paraprasina. W^arren, Novit. Zool. \'ol. 4, p. 43 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf moderate, in 9 l^rig, second joint with long pro- 
jecting scales, third joint smoother-scaled, in 9 rather long. Tongue wanting. Antenna in cT bipectinate 
nearly to apex, with rather long, decreasing branches; in 9 very shortly bipectinate. Pectus densely 
hairy. Femora hairy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with terminal spurs only. Tarsi 
spinulose. Abdomen not crested, in 9 very robust. Frenulum in (;f moderately developed, arising 
before shght basal expansion, in 9 vestigial. Forevving with costa arched at base and distally, straight 
between, apex squared, termen smooth, obbque, httle curved, cell about one-half, DC strongly incurved, 
SC^ from cell, anastomosing shortly with C or free, SC^ normal, SC-*^ longer-stalked than usual, 
R' stalked. R- froni well above middle of DC, M' separate ; hindwing with termen smooth, rounded 
towards apex, otherwise rather straight, tornus pronounced, cell little less than one-half, DC incurved, 
C approximated to cell to fuli}- one-half, not very rapidly diverging. SC^ stalked, R"^ from near R', 
M' connate or very short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Typeof the genus : Paraprasiiia discolor. Warren (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. .•\frica. 
I. P. discolor, Warren. — Pl. 4, Fig. 5. Cape to Transvaal. 

Paraprasina disculor. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 43 (1897). 

149. Genus MICROLOXIA, Warren 

Microloxia. Wairen, Proc. Zool. Snc. I^ond. p. 354 (1893). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, fairly strong, second joint rather long, 
shortly scaled beneath, third joint smooth, in cf small or moderate, in 9 long. Tongue present 
(sometimes rudimentary). Antenna in ^ bipectinate to three-fourths with moderate to long branches, 
in 9 serrate-dentate. Pectus moderately hairy. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs only. 
Abdomen not crested. F^renulum in cf weak, from before strong basal expansion; in 9 wanting. 
Forewing with costa not or scarcely arched, apex inoderate, termen shghtly rounded, moderately 
obHque, cell nearly one-half. DC somewhat incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing with or running 
into C (rarely free), SC- normal, anastomosing with SC, or running into C, or free, R^ about connate. 



200 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

M' connate or short-stalked; hindvving with termen rounded, tornus moderate, cell somewhat less than 
one-half, DC little curved, C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, then diverging, SC- stalked, 
R^ scarcely above middle, M' stalked. cf genitalia : uncus pointed, with socii of equal length, gnathos 
atrophied, harpefused, rounded, with extended sacculus, penis pestillate. Xearer to Culpiiiia and Thalera 
than to the Hemithea-group. 

Larva. — Rather slender, head bifid, prothorax (and metathorax ?) with two small prominences. 
bodysomewhat wrinkled transversely, carinated, attenuated anteriorly, surface shagreened with white 
granules; on Teuc<ium, Mentha, etc. (Goossens. Ann. Soc. Ent. F>. 1S71, p. 291, t. 4, f. 5: Milliere, 
Lepidopterologie , Fasc. i, p. 7, t. 2, f. i). 

A small genus, to which has been referred a good deal of heterogenous materiai. Even as it is 
here restricted, the species show some variation of facies, and a httle in structure; saturala, with shorter 
(f palpus and weak tongue (perhaps even wanting), may probabh' require generic separation. but 
its 9 's at present unknovvn; menadiara, of vvhich the type is lost, may be allied thereto, but we are not 
certain whether the specimen vve have seen is conspecific vvith rhierry-Mieg's. The typical species 
oi Microloxia are of quite small size, but rehitively faiily robust. and liave a good many characters in 
common vvith the large African Paraprasina. 

Type of the genus : Microloxia herbaria (Hiibner) = Geometra herbaria, Hiibner (1893). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Paliearctic (except X. and E.). India, S. Africa. 

1. M. herbaria (Hiibner). S. Europe to Central Asia. 

Giometra hirbaria. Hiibner. Samml. liur. Schmelt., lieom. t. 79. I. 407 

(i8i8?). 
Neynoria herbaria. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 2S5 (1826 ■■). 
EUopia advolala, Eversmann, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 1837, n" 2, \>. 5i 

(1837) (var.?). 
[Geometra] graminaria (Kollar, MS.), Zeller, Stett. lint. Zeit. Vol. 10, 

p. 204 (1849) (nec Phorodesma graminaria, Kollar, i85o). 
Eucroslis herbaria, Lederer.Verh.Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. 3.p. 172 (i853). 
Nemoria herbaria. Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 35o ( i858). 
Nemoria advolala, Guenee, ibidem, p. 35o |i858). 
Nemoria bruaiidaria, Millidre. Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon (n. s.), Vol. 7, p.243. 

t. 8. f. 10-12 (1861). 
Microloxia herbaria, Warren, Pruc. Zool, Soc. Lond. p. 35^ (1893). 
Synchlora bruandaria. Gumppenberjf, Xova .\ct. .Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle, Vol. 64, p. 496 (1895). 

2. M. indecretata (Walker). Hombay to Ceylon. 

Geometra (?) indecrelala. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. .Mus. V0I.26. p. i555 

(1862). 
Jodis indecretata. Moore. Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3. p. 4^0, t. 194, f. 5 (1887). 
Nimoria pruinosa. Bvitler. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 5, p. 224 (1880). 
Geometra aperta, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 855, t. 56, f. 7 (i885i. 
Nemoria direcla, Hampson, Faiina Ind. Moths. Vol. 3. p. 5o3 (1895) (nec 

Walker). 
Microloxia parvuUita. Warren. in coU. Brit. Mus. nec Walker). 

3. M. leprosa (Hampson). Ceylon. 

Eucrostis leprosa, Hampson, 111. Het. Coll. Bril. Mus. Vol. 9, p. 146, t. 170, 

f. i5 (18931. 
Nemoria leprosa, Hampson, l'auna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3. p. 5o3 liS^S). 

4. M. menadiara (Thierr)--Mieg) (huj. gen.?). Algena. 

Phorodesma «wnrtdiVitu, Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste. Vol. i5. p. 40 (1893). 
Eucrostes (?) menadaria. Staudinger. Cat. led. 3i, p. 263 (1901 . 

5. M. ritjicornis, Warren. S. .Africa, ? Sudan. 

Microloxia rujicornis. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 42 (1897). 

6. M. saturata (Bang-Haas) (hiij. gen. ?). Algeria, S. Spain. 

Eucrostes saturata. Bang-Haas, Iris, Vol. 19, p. i37, t. 5, f. 18 (1906). 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 201 

7. M. halimana (Chretien). Algeria. 

Euoostes htilnnaria. Chretien. Le Naturaliste. Vol. 3i. p. iS '19091. 

8. M. chlorissodes. nov. sp. i), l^rout. S. E. China. 

150. Genus PAMPHLEBIA, Warren 

Pamphlebla. Warien, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 2i3 (1S97). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, slender, third joint sinooth, elongate, 
especially in 9 . rongue present. Antenna in cf bipectinate to about tvvo-thirds vvith moderate branches, 
in 9 iiearly siinple. Peclus slightly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in o* not dilated, in both sexes 
with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Freiiulum in cf very slender, weak, from before strong 
basal expansion; in 9 wanting. Forewing vvith costa straight, apex acute. termen obHque, Httlecurved, 
cell short, DC^ inangled, SC stalked to beyond R', anastomosing with C, R' stalked, R^ above middle, 
M' connate or short-stalked : hmdwmg vvith ape.\ rather pronounced, termen sharply angled at R-*, rather 
straight antenorly and posteriorlv, tornus pronounced, cell short, DC-^ more or less inbent, C anast- 
omosingata point with C, rapidly diverging, SC^stalked, M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

An oftshoiit ni Microloxia, differing in the stalking of SC of forewing and in the shape of the 
hindvving. 

Type of the genus : Pamf>hlcbia rulirolimbiaiia ((juenee) = Amatirinia rubrolimbraria, Guenee^lSg^). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. India to New Guinea. 

I. P. rnbrolimbraria {Guenee). S. India to Nevv Guinea. 

Amaurinia rubroUmbraria. Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol, 9. p. 386 18581. 
Thalassodes diserta. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Miis. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 553 

, (1861). 
Tlialtssodes simpliciaria, Walker, ibidem. p. 553 (1861). 
Xemnria ruficinctai ia, Snellen,Veth's Midden-Sumatra.VoL 4 i8),p. 53 1 1880). 
Thalassodis rubrolimhataiia. Moore. Lep. Ceyl. VoL 3, p. 427 (1887). 
Comostola ruhrolimharia. Meyrick. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 492 (18S9). 
Thalassodes rubrolimbraria, Hampson.Fauna lud. Moths.VoL 3,p.5i3(i895). 
Pamphlebia rubrulimbaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. VoL 4, p. 2i3 (1897). 

Pamphlehia luhroUmharia, ab. interrupta, Bastelberger. Ent. Zeit. Stuttgart. Bismarck Archipelago. 
VoL 21. p. Z17 (1908) (ab.?), 

151. Genus EUEANA, nov. gen., Prout 

Eueana, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, second joint shortly scaled. third joint 
smooth, m 9 greatly elongate. Tongue present. .Antenna in cf bipectinate to about three-fourths, with 



i) Microtoxia Chlorissodes, nov. sp. — c. 2z mm. Face tlull red. Palpus marlced witli dull red, especially on outer side and at tip, 
Ihird ioint rather elongate. Vertex green. narrowly wliite between antenniE. Antennal shalt white proximally ; pectinations moderate. Thorax and 
abdomen grcen above. the latter somewhat paler. Wings green (somewhat faded, as with moisture). Forewing with costal edge ochrcous, not dark-spotted ; 
antemedian line wanting, postmedian extremely faint, scarcely palerthan the ground-colour, and scarcely appreciably dark-edged proxinially, placed at 
about 2 mm. (rom termen, approximately parallel therewith, but sinuous, sliglitly incurved between R' and R^ and rather more strongly in submedian 
area; no terminal line ; fringe long, concolorous proximally, slightly paler distally. Hindwing similar. Underside whitish green, costal balf of forewing 
sllghtly more greenish, costal edge as above. Happy Valley, Hong-Kong. March 7th, 1898 (T. B, Flelcher). Type in coU. I.. B. Prout, kindly presented 
by tlie captor. A secoiid cJ, from Ningpo. June, iSSo (Leech coU.) is in coll. Brit. Mus. A third, almost certainly conspecific, from Kansliirei, Formosa, 
2.^ April, 1908 in coll. Wileman (be iring the registration number 1626 F). In size, shape and colouring this species bears a rather close resemblance to 
Chlorissa. solUaria, but of course it is readily distinguished by the structural characters : pectinate antenna, shorter hindtibia, non-abbreviated tarsus 
and lesslonginner marginof hindwing. The tliird joint of palpusis ratherlonger than in the males ofboth solidaria and typical .Microloxia. In tlie fore- 
wing SC anastomoses «ith C,but not with SC« ; in tbe hindwing R«is not »0 nearly central as in typical .)//cro/o;i:ia. The hindtibia is moderately dilated, 
with liair-pencil. 



202 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

long, decreasing branches, in 9 nearly simple. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs onl}-. 
Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf short, from before basal expansion, in Q vvanting. Forewing 
rather broad, with costa sHghtly arched. apex moderate, termen gently curved, oblique, cell less than 
one-half, DC incurved, oblique posteriorly, SC stalked, SC^ normal. R^ stalked to bej'ond SC, M' separ- 
ate; hindwing with termen waved, somewhat convex, tornus rather pronounced, cell short, DC^ verj- 
oblique posteriorly. C anastomosing with cell at a jioint near base, rapidl}' diver.uing, SC* stalked, 
M' separate. 

Egg. — Elliptical. stron;,'ly flattened above and below, but rounded, one end depressed from 
side view; sha!,'reened, scarcely reticulate (Dyar, Psyche,Vo\. 5, p. ii8). 

Larva. ^ Head strongly bilobed, the lobes increasing in sharpness in later stages, becoming 
conical iioms, pvothorax high, with tvvo forward-directed prominences; body othervvise without special 
protuberances, slender, stiff, cyiindrical, minutely frosted vvith white granules, legs short, anal plate 
pointed cordate. A remarkable mimic of a young twig of its foodplant. Condalea ferrea (Dyar, loc. cit., 
vvho fuUy descril)es tho fivestages). 

PuPA. — Light brown with darker cases and bmken dorsal line; in an imperfect net of threads 
among leaves (Dyar, loc. cit.). 

The systematic position of this genus is somevvhat uncertain. Except in shape and some minor 
points of venation, its characters seem to be nearly those of Pamphlebia, but it is scarcely likely that, 
with that genus, it i.s an offshoot oi Microloxia. It is on the whole more likely that it springs from the 
Oospila-gvow\), though with several specializations vvhich remove it therefrom in our scheme. 

Type of the genus : Eiutina niveociliaria (Herrich-Schaffer) = Eucrostis niveociliaria . Herrich- 
Schiiffer. 

Geographical distribution of species. VVest Indics to Florida. 

I. E. niveocUiana (liemch-Schatfer). West Indies, Flonda. 

Eucroslis niveociliaria, Herrich-Schatfer, Corr.-Hl. Zool.-niin. Vor. Regensb. 

Vol. 24, p. 182 (1870). 
Eucroslis saltusarin, Hulst, Ent. .\iner. Vol 2, )). 122 (1886). 
Raclicospila sallHsaria, Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23. p. 3i4 ( 1896) ; 

Holland. Moth Book, p. 336. t. 43, f. 20 (igoS). 
Rachtospila niveociliaria, Dyar. The Canad. Entom. Vol. 40, p. 171 (1908). 
Phorodesma niveociliaria (Warren MS.l Dyar, Proc. Ent. Suc. Wash. 

Vol, 10, p. 35 (1908). 



152. Genus RHODESIA, Warren 

Rhodesia. Warrcn, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 386(i9o5). 

Characters. — F^ace smooth. Palpus in cf moderate, in 9 lo"R. second joint rough-scaled, 
thivd joint smooth, distincl. in 9 'ong- Tongue slender. Antenna rather short, in (f rather strongly 
bipectinate to bevond two-thirds, in 9 bipectinate (alboviridata) or dentate (viridalbata). Pectus and 
femora hairy. llindtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes vvith four vvell-developed, approximated spurs. 
Abdomen not appreciablj' crested. F"renulum in cf short, from before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. 
Forewing vvith costa slightlv arched, apex moderate, termen slightiy curved, oblique, cell less than 
one-half, DC'* incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing vvith C, SC^ normal, R^ short-stalked or connate, 
M' approximated : hindvving vvith apex and termen rounded, tornus moderately pronounced, cell 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 2o3 

rather short, DC sHghtly oblique, C anastomosing to at least one-half cell, SC^ stalked, M^ connate or 
short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Rhodesia viridalbata, Warren (iqo5). 

Geographical dJstribution of species. — jEthiopian. 

1. R. viridalbata, Warren. Natal. 

Rhodesia viridalbata. Warreii, Novit Zool. Vol. 12. p. 386 (igoS). 

2. R. alboviridata (SaalmuUer). Madagascar, E. .\frica, As- 

Connhaena alboviridata, Saalmuller. Ber. Senckenb. Nat Ges. 1S79-80, hanti. 

p. 2g2 (18S0). 
Plwrodesma alboviridata. Saalmiiller. Lep. Madag. (2), p. 495, t. 14, f. 271 

(1891). 
Rhodesia alboviridata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p 386 (igoS). 



153. Genus LASIOCHLORA, Warren 

Lasiochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 38g (1894). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes short, second joint shortly scaled. third 
joint smooth, quite sinall. Tongue present. Antenna bipectinate nearly to apex with longish (cf ) or 
moderate (9) branches. Pectus somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in 9 (and probably in cf ) with all spurs. 
Abdomen typically with small crests. Frenukim in <^ arising from before well-marked basal expansion, 
in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa arched, apex acute, termen straight or very shghtlj- incurved below 
apex, gently curved posteriorly, cell one-half, DC curved, becoming obhque, SC from cell, anastom- 
osing at a point with C, SC^ normal, Ri well removed at origin from SC^'^, R^ from near R', M^ weU 
separate from R'*; hindwing with costa rather long, termen typically subcrenulate, with a shght tooth 
at R^, cell about one-half, DC^ incurved, C anastomosing to beyond one-half cell, SC^ connate or very 
shortly stalked, R^ from near R'. M' well separate from R''. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Lasiochlora diducta (Walker) = Comihacna diducta. Walker (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. Afiica. 

1. L. didiicta (Walker). Cape to Natal. 

Comtbaena diiucta. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 22, p. 571 (1861). 
Nemoria (?) lunigera. Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. i5 (1875). 
LasiocJilora diducta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 389 (1894). 
Geoinetra diducta. Warren, ibidem, p. 389 (1894). 

2. L. /«Vo/or (Thierry-Mieg). — Pl. 5, Fig. 6. Natal. 

Deilinia bicolor. Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste, Vol. 29, p. 200 (1907). 



154. Genus SYNDROMODES, Warren 

Syndronnodes. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 45 (1897). 

Chanacters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes sliort and slender, second joint shortly 
rough-scaled, tliird joint smooth-scaled, in both sexes quite small. Tongue shght. .'Vntenna in cf bipec- 



204 ■ LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

tinate, apicalh^ merely dentate; iii 9 serrate-dentate. Pectus somewhat haiiy. Femora glabrous. Hind- 
tibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with four strong spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in (f veiy 
slender, from before strong basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing with costa sHghtly arched, apex 
rather acute, termen smooth. nearly straight, oblique, cell nearly one-half, DC'' incurved. SC^ from 
cell, anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, R' separate or very shortly stalked, M' separate; hindwing with 
apex and termen rounded, tornus squared, cell somewhat less than one-half, DC^ incurved. not ver\- 
oblique, C anastomosing with cell to beyond one-half, SC- stalked, M' connate or approximated. 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : Syndromodes invenusta (Wallengren) = lodis invenusta, Wallengren = Syndro- 

modes unicolor, Warren (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — ..^thiopian. 

1. S. »;w««s/rt (Wallengren). S. Africa. 

loiiis inveiiusta, Wallengren, Wien. Ent. Monat-chr. Vol. 7, p. i5o(l863). 
Svndromodts H«ico/o»-,Warren, Novit. Zool.Vol. 4. )). 45 (1897) (nov. syn.) i). 

2. 5. dimensa (Walker) Cape. 

Thalassodes dimensa, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 549 
(1861). 

3. S. cellulata, Warren. Natal, Transvaal. 

Syndromodes cellulnta, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 16 (1898). 



155. Genus HIEROCHTHONIA, nov. GEN., Prout 

Hierochthonia, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — ^''ace smooth. Palpus in both sexes quite short and slender, terminal joint very 
small. Toni;ue absent. .Vntenna in (j' bipectinate to apex, the proximal branches ratherlong; in 9 
shortly bipectinate. Pectus slightly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes slender, with 
terminal spurs only. .\b(lomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before marked basal expan- 
sion; in (j* wanting. Forewing with costa nearly straigiit proximally, somewhat arched distally, apex 
rather pronounced, tcrinen nearlj' straight, oblique. cell not quite one-half, DC^ somewhat incurved, 
SC from cell. anastomosing with or running into C, SC* nonnal, R' about connate, M' just separate. 
Hindwinj; wilh apex and termen vounded, tornus not very pronounced, cell almost one-half. rather 
broad, DC^ hardly oblique, C anastomosing to near end of cell (in alexandraria only approximated), 
SC* stalked. R* from scarcely aliove iniddle of discocellulars. M' short-stalked. 

Early stages unknowii. 

Type of the genus : H ierochthonia pulveraia (Warren) = Microloxia pulveraia, Warren. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Western Asia. 

I. H. pulveratn (Warren). S^^ria. 

Eucrostes olymj^iaria, P, Bohatsch, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 29, 

p. 409 (1879) (nec Herrich-Schaffer). 
Microlo.via pulverala, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 8, p. 193 (1901). 
Eucrosles semitaria. Piingeler, Iris, VoL 14, p. 333 (1902). 



i) Warren would liavc uniled these but that Wallengfren mentions an « areole ». Whatever were Wallengren^s sp-cies (certainly of tliis 
subfamily), that would be an error of observation. or a divergent use of the term. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 2o5 

2. H. petitaria {Christoph){hui. gen.?) i). Transcaspian Provinces. 

Eucrostis petitaiia, Christoph, Stett. Ent. Zeit. Vol. 48, p. i65 (18S7); 
Roman. Mem. Lep. Vol. 5, p. 47, t, 3, f. 3 (1889). 

3. H. alexandraria, nov. sp.a), Prout (huj. gen.?). — Pl. 5, Fig. 7. Central Asia. 



156. Genus TELOTHETA, Warren 

Telotheta. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. 140 (iqoo). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus m cf rather short, in 9 much elongate, second joint 
moderately rough-scaled, third joint in cf smah, in 9 very long. Tongue present. Antenna not more 
than one-half, in o< bipectinate to twothirds, apex nearly simple; in 9 serrate, pubescent. Pectus 
shghtly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in q* not dilated. in both sexes wilh terminal spurs only. 
Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in cf slender, from before basal expansion, in 9 wanting. Forewing 
with costa nearly straight, apex pronounced, termen curved, obhque. cell short, DC shghtly incurved, 
SC stalked with .SC- ^ (arising before R'), R' rather long-stalked. M^ stalked. Hindwing with apex 
rounded. termen rounded. feebly bent at R^, tornus squared, cell shoit, DC verj' straight, C closely 
approximated to ceil to beyond one-half, then divergent, SC- long-stalked, R^ from slightly above 
middle of DC, M' stalked. 

Early stages unlcnown. 

Type of the genus : Tdotheta muscipundata (Dognin) = Geometra muscipunctata, Dognin = Telu- 
theta chlorostigma, Warren (igoo). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Ecuador to Colombia. 

I. T. muscipunctata (Dognin). Ecuador to Costa Rica. 

Geometra muscipunctata, Dognin, Le Xaturaliste, VoL 14, p. 186 (1892). 
Tclothtta chlorostigma, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 7, p. 140 (1900) (nov. syn.). 



157. Genus OALLISTEUMA, nov. gen., Prout 

Callisteuma, nov. gen Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes short, very slender, terminal joint smah. 
Tongue small, slender. Antenna short, in both sexes bipectinate, the branches moderatelv long in cf, 
shorter in 9 ; apical one-third merely serrate. Pectus shgiitly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia 
in cf not dilated. in both sexes with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Frenukim in o< slender, 
not long, from before marked basal expansion; in 9 quite rudimentary, evidently non-functional. 
Forewing with costa scarcely arched, apex rather acute, termen smooth, shghtly curved, cell about 
one-half, DC incurved, SC from ccll, anastomosmg with C, SC- normal, well free from SC, R' connate 
or separate, M' separate; hindwing with apex and termen rounded, tornus rather pronounced, cell 
about one-half, DC not very obhque, C anastomosing to beyond one-half of cell, SC"' stalked, R- nor- 



1) c? unknown; Q antenna not pectinate ; SC*, as well as .SC^, ninning into C. 

2) Hierochthonla (?) alexandraria (Piingeler, MS.), nov. sp. — Q. Similar to/*/<7ari<i, Chrisioph, but differing as follows : antenna 
very shortly peftin;ite ; fuicwing soiiiewhat narrower. with costa stratghter ; colour more bluish green. moreuniform: fringe white; forewing with 
SC* anastomosing at a point with C; hindwing with C merely approximated to cell (to considerably beyond one-half), not anastomosing; abdomen 
perhaps less robust . .\lexaniier Vlouiitains, Central Asia. Type in coll . Piingeler . On account of vein C of the hindwing, can bardly be allowed to remain 
on thisgenus. R* of forewing is well stalked. 



2o6 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

mal, M' usually connate (Pl. 4, Fig. I 6j. cf genitalia with uncus bifid, gnathos bluntlj- pointed, harpe 
simple, penis pestillate, with thorn at the orifice of the sedceagus and long cornulus ; related to Synchlora. 

Early stages unknown. 

No doubt a highly speciahzed descendent of Synchlora, convergent towards Hierochfhonia, with 
which it shaies nearly all characters, but retains the tongue. The presence of a vestigial 9 frenulum, 
in spite ot advanced speciaUzation, well illustrates the greater persistence of that organ in the New 
World, on which we commented in our Introduction. 

Type of the genus : Callistenma fringillata (Schaus) == Aplodes fringillata, Schaus. 

Geographical dlstrlbution of specles. — S. E. Brazil. 
I. C. /»-/»4'i7/(7/a (Schaus). — Pl. 5, Fig. 2. S. E. Brazil. 

Aplodes fringillala, Schaus, Joiirn. New York Ent. Soc. Vol. 5. p. i6i (1897). 
Microloxiafringillata. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i.^5 (1900). 

158. Genus DYSCHEILIA, DOGNIN 

Dyschellia. i)o!;nin, Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg. \'ol. 18, p. 160(1911). 

Characters. — Palpus and tongue quite small, aborted. .Antenna of 9 bipectinate, the pectina- 
tions well separated [(^ unknown). Hindtibia with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. F^renulum 
in 9 wanting. Forewing with SC free, R' stalked with SC*-^, R* above middle of DC, M' connate; 
hindwing with SC^ long-stalked, R* above middle of DC, M' short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Onl\- known to us fiom ])ognin's diagnosis, with one or two supplementary characters supplied 
by the author in litt. 

Type of the genus : Dyscheilia inornata, Dognin (191 1). 

Geographlcal dlstribution of species. — .Argentina. 

I. D. inoniata, Dognin. Argentina. 

Dyscheilia inornata, Dognin, Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. IS, p. 160(1911). 

159. Genus XANTHOXENA, Warren 

Xanthoxena. VVanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 7, p. i3o (1900). 

Characters. — Facc smooth. Hye small. PaljHis in 9 moderate, slender, second joint with 
appressed scales, reaching about as far as frons, third joint moderate, distinct (cf unknown). Tongue 
developed. Anlenna in 9 bipectinate with long branches. Pectus slightly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hind- 
tibia with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in 9 wanting, basal expansion of 
hindwing moderate. Forewing broad, with costa arched, apex rounded, termen convex, oblique 
posteriorlj-, cell short, DC slightly oblique, not incurved, SC stalked to beyond R', SC stalked to well 
beyond SC', R' stalked, R^ from near apex of cell, M' short-stalked ; hindwing with apex rounded, 
termen strongly convex, tornus squared, cell rather short, DC rather oblique, C approximated to cell 
to nearly one-half, SC* stalked, R'^ from near R', M' stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 



FAM. GEOMETRIDyE 207 

Like the Old-World Xanthodura, this genus has struck out an entirely independent course, at least 
as regards coloration, but there is no possible doubt as to its belonging to the present subfamily. Unfor- 
tunately only the 9 is known. Beyond the small eye and the stalking of SC it shows nothing in common 
with Xanthodnra. 

Type of the genus : Xanthoxena imitans, Warren (igoo). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Ecuador. 
I. A'. imitans, Warren. Ecuador. 

Xanlhoxiiia hnilaus.Warien. Novit Zool. Vol. 7, p. i3i (igoo). 



160. Genus XANTHODURA, Butler 

Xanthodura. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 5, p. 384 (1880). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Eye rather small. Palpus in (j' shortish, second joint moderately 
rough-scaled, third joint minute (9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna m (f bipectinate with 
moderate branclies (tips lost). Pectus hair}-. Femora hairy(?). (Hindlegs lost.) Abdomen short, not 
crested. Frenulum in (j* rather slender, from before basal expansion, retinaculum near base. Forewing 
with costa slightly arched, apex moderate, termen entire, obhque, shghtl}' curved, cell less than one- 
half, SC well stalked with SC^-», anastomosing with C, SC^ from just before SC-', R' apnroximated 
to SC^"=, R2 from veiy near R', M^ approximated to R-*; hindwing with apex rounded, termen weakly 
siiiuate between R' and R'^, then prominent, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, cell short, DC-* very 
shghtly incurved. then rather strongly obhque, C anastomosing at a point with cell, rapidly diverging, 
SC^ very short-stalked, R- from close to R^ M' connate. 

Early stages unknown. 

.^n apparently isolated genus, with marl^ed indications of speciahzation. The type is unique, and 
unfortunately not perfect. 

Type of the genus : Xanthodura trucidata, Butler (1880). 

Geographical dlstribution of species. — Madagascar. 

I. A'. trucidata, Butler. — Pl 5, Fig. I . Madagascar. 

XanthoJura Iriicidata, Butler, Ann. Man;. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 5, p. 385 (1880). 



Qroup VI 

161. Genus PARAMAXATES, Warren 

Paramaxates. Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL i. p. 387 (1894). 
Lissolica. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 172 (1894). 

Characters. — p-acc smooth. Palpus mixk^.rate, second joint stout, shortly rough-scaled. third 
joint in cf short, subovate, in 9 somewiial longer, l)ut not extremc. Tongue developed. Antenna 
simple in liotli sexes. Pectus hairy. Femora mnre or less hairy. Hindtibia in (f somewhat dilated with 
hair-pencil, m both sexes with all spurs jiresent. Abdomen not crested, anal tuft strong. I"orewing with 



2o8 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

costa well arched, termen strongly crenate, excised between R' and R\ a strong toolh at R^, cell less 
than one-half, DC incurved or inangled, SC from cell, free, SC^ normal, M' approximated at its origin 
to R^; hindwing narrow, shaped nearly as in Maxates, the tail slightly less extreme, cell shovt, 
DC curved, rather oblique posteriorly, C shortly approximated to cell nearbase, then rapidly diverging, 
SC^ connate or very shortly stalked with R', M' usually just separate, sometimes connate, very occasi- 
onally minutely stalked (Pl. 4, Fig. I 3). cf genitaHa with uncus bifid, widely divided at the base, 
gnathos very narrovv, atrophied, harpe serrate along the inner margin, penis rounded, with two small 
horny cornuH ; the eighth sternite terminates in two points ; on the eighth tergite there is a plate with 
two long arms, quite distinct from any other form studied, suggesting niore affinity with the Adenochroma- 
or IIippayc/i!is-<iToups than with any of the more speciaHzed Inrms. 

Early stages unknown. 

A curious genus, apparently quite distinct genetically from the other species with frenulum 
wanting; possibly derived from a form akin to Dooabia. The loss of the frenuUim is here accompanied 
by less manifest expansion of the base of costa than elsewhere. 

Type of the genus : Paramaxates polygrapharia (VValker) ^-= Hypochroma polygrapharia, Walker 
— Paramaxates vagala, Warren (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species. Indo-Malayan. 

1. P. polygrapharia (\\'ii\\<.et). N. India to Bomeo and 

Hypocliroma polygrapharin, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Miis. Vol. 21, Celebes 

p. 429(1860). 
Macaria vaf;ala, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 23, ji. 1127 (1861). 
Trvgodis vagiita, .Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. \i. 642 (1867). 
Paxamaxales vagala, Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. i, p.387 (1894). 
Paramaxates vagata celebensis, Warren, ibidem, p. 387 (1894 1. 
Paramaxates vagata kliasiana, Warren, ibidem, p. 3H7 (1894;. 
Lissolica polygrapliaria, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 172 (1894). 
Paramaxates polygrapluiria. Hampson, Kauna Ind. Moths,Vol. 3, p. 506(1895). 



162. Genus CATHYDATA, nov. GEN., Prout 

Cathydata, nov. gen. l'rout. 

Characters. — Face with projecting tuft of scales. Palpus in both sexes with second joint very 
long, shortly scaled, third joint smooth, in (f quite moderate, in 9 '^eiy long. Tongue developed. 
Antenna in cf bipectinate with moderate branches, in 9 simple. Pectus hairy. Hindtibia in cf dilated, 
with hair-pencil and process, in both sexes with aU spurs. Abdomen not crested. Wings thinly scaled, 
subhyaHne. Forewing with costa sHghtly arched (more so at base), apex moderate. rounded, termen 
sHghtly waved, obHque, bending and becoming very obHque, tornus somevvhat rounded off, cell less 
than one-half, DC- deeply inangled, DC^ deeply incurved (thus with a sharp angle at origin of R'), 
SC from ceH, free, SC^normal, R' about connate, M' connate or short-stalked ; hindvving vvith apex 
rounded off, termen produced to a strong tooth at R' and a still stronger at R^, thence crenulate to 
tornus, ceH less than one-half, quite short anteriorly. DC^ curving, becoming extremely obHque, 
DC^ arising far distaUy to origin of DC-, C approximated to ceH for some distance near base, SC^ very 
long-stalked, M' very short-staHced. 

Early stages vmknown. 

Probably derived from tlie Phriidocentra-Neagaihia-grouy. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 209 

Type of the genus : Cathydata hatina (Druce) = Hac/ieospila (?) batina, Druce. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Tropical America. 

I. C. batina (Druce). Guatemala to Colombia. 

Riichiospila (?) batina, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. Vol. 2. p. 92, 
t. 5o, f. 9, 10 (1892). 

163. Genus CHLORACTIS, Warren 

Chloractis, VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 2, p. 88 (iSgS). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in t^ slender, moderate. smooth-scaled ( 9 unknown). 
Tongue present. Antenna in (f bipectinate with short branches. Hindtibia in (^f scarcely dilated, but 
with a terminal process fully one-third as long as tarsus. all spurs well developed. Abdomen not crested. 
Wings thinly scaled, subhyaUne. p-orewing with costa gently arched, apex acute, termen shghtly 
incurved to R'*, here elbowed, thence very oblique, tornus not sharp, cell less than one-half, DC deepl}' 
inbent, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, SC^ normal, R'^ from above middle, M' approximated 
at origin to R^; hindwing with termen produced to a tail at R^, tornus pronounced, inner margin long, 
cell less than one-half, DC^ strongh^ inbent, C rather shortly approximated to cell near base, rapidly 
diverging, SC^ rather long-stalked, R^ from very near R'. M' very short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Related to the preceding, but differing in the palpus, the form of discocellulars, shape of 
wing, etc. 

Type of the genus : Chloractis pulchevrima (Butler) = Calothysanis pulcherritna, Butler (i8g5). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Tropical America. 

\ . C. pidcherrima ('Bu.iXer). Amazons, Colombia, Tri- 

Calothysanis fidchsrrima, Hiitler. 'I'rans. Ent.Soc Lond. p. 342 (1S81). nidad. 

Chloniithia pulcherrima, Kaye, ibiclem, p 147 11901). 



164. Genus CACOCHLORIS, NOV. GEN., Prout 

Cacochloris, nov. gen. Frout. 

Characters. — h^ace smootli. Palpus nioderate or longish, rather stout, second joint rough- 
scaled, third joint small or {ochrea) sUghtly elongate. Tongue short Antenna short, in both sexes 
bipectinate with moderately long branches. Pectus somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in 
both sexes with aU spurs. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum wanting in both sexes, basal expansion of 
hindwing weU marked. Wings thickly scaled. Forewing with costa straight, apex rather acute (less so 
in ochrea), termen obUque, straight anteriorlv, curved posteriorly, reU about one-half; DC inbent, 
obUque posteriorly, SC from ceU, anastomosing strongly with C, SC^ coincident with (uvidula) or 
staU^ced with (ochrea) .SC, R^ short-stalked, M' separate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen somewhat 
rounded, tornus rather prominent, ceU short, DC-* usuaU}' rather incurved, C anastomosing with ceU 
at a point (uviditla) or rather more (ochrea), graduaUy diverging, SC^ stalked. R- normal. M' separate. 

Early stages unknovvn. 



2IO LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEKA 

The absence, or point of origin, of SC^, as wcll as the coloration, suggests some doubts whether 
this genus truly belong to the Hemitheinae. It might almost, like Aplasta, be referred to the CEnochro- 
minae. 

Type of the genus : Cacochloris uvidiila (Swinhoe) = Stegania ttvidula, Swinhoe. 

Geographical distribution of species. — India, Africa. 

1. C. MwV^"/» (Swinhoe). — Pl. 4, Fig. 15. VV. and Central India to 

Slegaiiia uvidiila. .Swinhoe. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 860 (i885). Cevlon. 

Eucliloris uvidula, Harapson, Faona Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 498 (1893). 

2. C. ochrea{\NSiTren). German E. Africa, X. Ni- 

Euchloris ochrea, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 210. t. 5, f. 21 (1897). geria. 

165. Genus EUCHLORIS, HiJbner 

Euchloris. Hiibner, Vcrz. bek. Schmett. p. 283(1826?) i). 
Thetidia. Hoisduval, Gen. et Ind. Meth. Eur. Lep. p. 189(1840). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes with second joint rather long, usually 
strong, strongly roughscaled above and beneath, third joint moderate to long, partl)' concealed by 
projecting scales of second joint. Tongue short and slender. Antenna in (J bipectinate to two-thirds, 
or further, with long branches, apically merely serrate; in 9 usually subserrate. Pectus hairy. Femora 
somewhat hairy. Hindtibia in (^ not dilated, but rough-scaled, sometimes even shghtly hairy,sometimes 
with a smal! pencil of hairs from tlie femoro-tibial joint; in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not 
crested. Forewing with costa gently arched, apex moderate, termen obHque, curved posteriorly, cell 
about one-half, DC more or less curved. becoming rather oblique, SC from cell, free or anastomosing 
with C, SC^ normal, sometiines anastomosing with SC, R' connate or approximated (in pliisiaria short- 
stalked), M' approximated or rarely connate {\n pliisiaria well separated); hindwing with termen fuUy or 
moderately rounded, rarely a little subcrenulate, cell nearly one-half, DC usually httle incurved, but 
becoming soinewhat oblique posteriorly, C approximated to cell for some distance (at a point only 
in quantiila), then moderatelv diveigent, SC* connate or short stalked, M' connate or approximated 
(well separate in pliisiaria) {P\. 2, Flg. 17). cf genitalia : uncus bifid, with pointed socii, gnathos 
terminating in a point, harpes parallel plain, vmcuhim square, deeply emarginate at the base, penis a 
long fine needlc {smiuagdaria; phisiaria agrees except that gnathos seems to be absent, vinculum rounded). 

Egg. — A. short broad oval, much flattened on either side, surface with fine hexagonal reticulation 
(Burrows, Ent. Rec. Vol. 12, ]>. i53, t. 7, f. i). 

Larv.-\. — With surface very rough, shagreoned, a pronounced lateral flange, special tubercles 
on abdominal segments 1-4 (above the flange), 5 (on the flange, ventral and posterior) and 8 (dorsal), 
bearing, in first instar, crescend-topped hairs; in later life the tubercles themselves become tall, cone- 
shaped, and covered with horny hooks. By means of these special organs, the larva clothes itself with 
fragments of the foodplant (Burrows, loc. cit. p. lo^, 169, t. 7, f. 2-4). 

Pup.v. — Rugose, shagreened. spiny, spiracles very large and prominent, dorsal area of anal 
segment prolonged beyond anus, bearing a group of spines which terminate in spirally curved hooks 
(Burrows, loc. cit. p. 171). 



i) The name F.uchloris was unfortunalcly useii by Uillbcrir (F.iium. his. Mus. Billb. p. 23. i8jo) in the Coleoptera, but as il «as entirely 
undescribcd, and has been riglitly ij;nored by Coleopterists, we bave not thought ii necesaary to suppress the name here. Should it be judged desirable, 
however (on theground that u isnot always possible for workerson oneOrder of Insects tojudgeor to sift questions of validity in anothcr Order), to adopt 
a rigid Uw agamst duplications. the present genus must be called Theiiiiia (type flHSiaria, Lucas sel., Chenu's Fticycl. Vol. 2, p. i53). 



FAM. GEOMETRID^: 211 

We refer here all the frenulum-losing species of the Coniibaejia-group which have all four spurs 
present in both sexes. The relation to Comibaena is quite certain, by characters of palpus, genitaha, 
larva, etc. It is not quite certain, however. that Section II may not fovm a distinct genus. the palpus 
being more slender and the larva and genitalia at present unstudied. Its extremely long antennal 
pectinations, with only a very short apical extremit}' simple, and the point-anastomosis of vein C of the 
hindwing i) further help to place it a little apart, and its aspect is rather nearer to the Cowros/o/a-group 
than to typical Euchloris. With it, however, it shares the strong tendency to escape the stallcing of SC^ of 
hindwing, the general proportions of palpns and build of legs. The species in Section I are quite 
homogeneous in essentials, though covering almost the full range of the recognized venational variants. 
It is curious that we have only observed one species {pliisiaria) in which SC ever anastomoses with SC-, 
and that in the specimens where this occurs it is always separate from C, though in some other specimens 
of the same species it anastomoses with C (as occasionally happens in most of its congeners). 

Type of the genus : Euihloris smara,s;-(iaria (Fnhricms) =^ Phalaena smaragdaria, Fabricius (1826?). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Palaearctic Region, India. 



Sectiox I. — Paipus stout; cf antennal pectinations moderately lon^ 



1. E. smaragdaria (Fabricius). 

Phalama smaragdaria, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. Vol. 2, p. 192 (1787). 
Geometra smaragdaria, De Villers, Linn. Ent. Vol 4, p. 499 (1789). 
Euchloris smaragdaria, Htibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 283 (1826?). 
Hemithea smaragdaria, Dnponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (2), p. 25i, t. i52, 

f. 5 (1829). 
Hipparchus smaragdanus, Curt-is, Brit. Ent. Vol. 7, fol. 3oo (i83oi. 
Phorodesma smaragdaria, Boisduval, Gen. et Ind. Meth. Eur. Lep. p. 179 

(1840;. 
Geometra smaragdaria. var, gigaiitea. Mllliere. Icon. Chen. Vol. 3, p. 423, 

t. i52. f. 16-18 (1874) (var. et ab.), 
Phorodesma smaragdaria, var. castiliaria, Stauilini,>^er, Iris, Vol, 5, p. 141 

(1892) (ead. ac. praec). 
Phnrodesma smaragdaria, aberr. obsolela, aliiica, uiiilinea, caeruleo-viridis et 

viridis, Burrows, Enf. Rec. Vol. 12, p. ii5 (1900). 

2. E. immaculata (Thunberg) (huj. gen. ?) (praec. ab.?). 

Geomftra immaculata. Thunber^, Diss. Ins. Suec. (i), p. 8 (1784). 
Nemoria iminaculata. Aurivillius, Nord. Fjar. p 198 (1891). 
Etichloris (?) immaculata, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 2G3 (igoi). 

3. E. volgaria (Guenee) (smaragdaria var. ?). 

Geometra prasinaria. Eversmann, Bull. Soc. Xat. Moscou. 1837, n" 2, p. 53 
(1837) (non Hufnagel, 1767, nec Schifferraiiller, 1775). 

Geometra volgaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep, Vol. 9, p. 344 (i858). 

Phorodesma smaragdaria. var. prasinaria, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. i ), p. 63 1 1861). 

Phorodesmii smaragdaria, va.r. prasinaria. var. mongolica. Sta.adinger, Iris, 
Vol. 9, p. 271 (1897) (var. ?). 

4. E. plusiaria (Boisduval). 

Thetidia plusiaria {\<3.mh\xr, ined.), Hoisduval. Gen. et Ind. Meth. Eur. 

Lep. p. iSy (18401. 
Phorodesma plusiaria. Lederer. Verh Zool.-bot. Ver Wien, Vol. 3, p. 172 

(1853). 
Euchloris plusiaria,iita\.niinger, Cat. (ed. 3i. )!. 263 (1901). 

5. E. albocoslaria (Bremer). 

Euchloris albocoslaria. Bremer, Mem. Acad. .Sc St.-Fetersb. Vol. 8, p. 76, 

t. 6, f. 22 (1864). 
Phorodesma albicostaria, Staudinger. ('at. (ed. 2), p 144 (18711. 



Palffiarctic Region 



Sweden (?). 



S. E. RussiatoCentral.-\sia. 



Spain, Algeria. 



E. Siberia, Japan, Corea. 



i) ThlB is somfti nes in a ine isure shared by plitsiaria, but there ihe anastomaiis is ouly accidental, followed by ^jradual divergence. 



212 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEEA 

6. E. chlorophyllaria (Hedemann). E. Sibeiia. China. 

Phorodesma chlorophyllana. Hedemann. Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 14. p 5io, 

t. 3, f. 7 (1879I. 
Nemoria cMorophyllaria, Gumppenberg, Nova Acta .-^cad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle, Vol. 64, p. 490 (1895). 
Euchloris chlorophyllaria, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (1901) (nec Leech. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p. 239). 

7. E. jankowskiaria (Milliere). S. E. Siberia. 

Phorodesma jankowskiaria (Milliere), Oberthiir. Diag. Lep. Askold, p. S 

I1879); Etud. Ent. Vol. 5, p. 47. t. 4, f. 7 (1880). 
Euchloris jankowskiaria, Staudintjer, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (iqoi). 

8. E. serraria {S\.2L\iAinger). Fergana. 

Phorodesma smaragdaria. var. (.■") serraria. Sta^nlinger, iris. Vol. 5, p. 141 

(1892). 
Euchloris serraria, Slaudin^^er, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (1901). 

9. E. smaragdnlaria (Staudingei). Fergaua. 

Phorodesma smaragdttlaria. Staudinger, Iris, Vol. 5, p. I42 (1892). 
Euchloris smaragdularia. Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263(1901). 
i<). E. viridi/rons, Warren. .N. .\tghanistan. 

' Euchloris (.') viridifrons, Warren. Novlt. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 3S9 (1897). 

Section II. — Palpus rather slender ; cf antennal pectinations e.xtremely long. 

II. E. quaHtula {Sv^\r\\\oe). Rnmbiix tn Ce lon. 

lodis ijuautula, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 855, t. 56, f. 6 (i885/ 
Comiboena glarcosn. Swinhoe, ibidem, p. 855, f. 8 (i885) (ab.). 
Euchloris quanlula, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Molhs, Vol. 3, p. 49911895). 

NoTE. — Eitchloris baliata, exarata anil adi/fsata. {•'"elder (Reise Novara, Le/>. Het. t. 127. f. 7, 8, ig) 
belong to the genus Zamarada; Euchloris simpliciaria, Leech {Aiin. Mag. Nat. Hisi. (6) Vol. 20. p. 289) is a 
very close ally or synonym of Caberndes viridis, Warren. These, therefoie, with two indicated in Turner's 
recent revision (p. 65o),must be removed from the subfamily. StoWs /rosinaria (Siippi. Pap. Exot. Cramer, 
p. 161, t. 36, f. 7) referred by Boisduval to Thetidia (= Euchloris) is a I,arentiid of the gt-nus Conchylia. 

166. Genus AGLOSSOCHLORIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Aglossochloris, nov. gen. Proiit. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus rathei long, second joint stout, much longer than first, 
densel}' scaled above and beneath, third joint in bolh sexes rather small, e.xposed, smooth-scaled. 
Tongue vvanting. or (in radiata) quite vestigial. .'\ntenna in (^ bipectinate with rather long branches, 
a rather short apical portion nearly simple; in 9 ^'^'y shortly bipectinate. Pectus hairy. Femora 
somewhat hair}'. Ilindtibia in (^ rough-scaled. median spurs aborted {/ulmiiiaria) or absent. Tarsi 
spinulose. .Xbdomen not crested. Forewing with costa straight. except at extreme base and close to 
apex, apex rather acute, termen sinooth, verj- oblique, somewhat curved posteriorly, tornus rounded, 
cell nearly one-half, DC somewhat curved, SC free, SC* nornial (sometimes quite shortl}' stalked), 
R' short-stalked, connate or closely approximated, M' separate; hindwing with costa fairly long, apex 
rounded, terinen smooth, little convex, tornus moderate. cell less than one-half, DC slightly or 
moderately oblique posteriorly, C approximated to cell for some distance near base, lather gradually 
diverging, SC^ separate, connate or stalked, R'^ variable, M' approximated, sometimcs about connate. 

Larva. — .'Vpparently (]uite similar, certainly similarly clothed, to that oi Euchloris. 

An.^Ysiatic development of Ewc/i/om, of similar facies lo plusiaria. The tibial armature ol/ulminaria 
is probably in a state of flux, but il is very remarkable that all the niales and none of the females which 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 2i3 

we have seen, or of vvhich we can obtain intormation, have the median spurs (or one at least) persisting 
— an absolutelv unique reversal of the general course of evolution of the armature. 

Type of the genus : Aglossochlnris fulminaria (Lederer) = Plwrodesma fulminaria, Lederer. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Central ."Xsia to N. India, ? Amur. 

I. A. fiilmiiiaria ( Lederer). N. Persia, Turkestan. 

P/iorodesma fulminaria. Lederer, Hor. .Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 8, p. 17, t. 2. 

f. 4 {1870). 
Eucliloris fulmiiuiria. StauJinger, Cat. (ed 3l, v'- 263 (1901). 
2- A. rndiata (Walker). N. India. 

Thetidm (?) radiata, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i567 

(1S62). 
Euchloris radiata, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 498 (iSgS). 
2). A. correspondens {Al-ph&raiky) (hou. s\-i. ce-\:io). VV. Thian-Shan to Zeraf- 

Phorudisma fulntiiiaria. var. correspoiulens, Alpheraky, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. shan. 

Vol. 17, p. i57, t. g. p. 85 (i883). 
Euchloris correspondtiis. .Staudinger. Cat. led. 3), p. 263 (1901I. 

4. A. crucigerata (Christoph). N. Persia, Turkestan. 

Phorodesma crucigerata. Christoph, Rom. Mem. Lep. VoL 3. p. o3. t. 4, 

f. n 11887). 
Enchloris crucigerata, Staudinyer. Cat. (ed. 3), p. 263 (1901). 

5. A. mahilhi (Thierry-Mieg). Central Asia i). 

Phorodesma mabillei. Thierry-Mieg, Le Naturaliste, Vol. i5, )>. 162(1893). 



167. Genus IULOPS, nov. gen., Prout 

lulops, nov. gen. l'rout. 

Characters. — Face and base of antenna witli projecting scales. Palpus rather long, second 
joint long, witli long-projecting scales beneath and shortly rough-scaled above, third joint in both sexes 
somewhat elongate, slender. Tongue present. Antenna moderate, in (^ with very long pectinations 
to near apex, very suddenly shortening (much as in Etickloris qiiautiila), in 9 ven- shortly cihated. 
Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in (j* not dilated, somewhat rough-scaled, without median spurs, 
the terminals slrong, the inner the longer (in 9 doubtless with terminal spurs onl)') 2). Abdomen 
not crested. Forewing with costa arched, apex moderate, termen rather straight, obhque, cell one- 
half, DC^ very obhque posteriorly, SC^ from ceh, anastomosing with C, usually well removed from SC*, 
SC^ normal, R' separate (DC often quite long), R- usually from very near R', M' remote at origin 
froin R'*; Iiindwing with apex and termen moderately rounded, tornus moderately pronounced, cell 
almost one-half, DC-* very oblique posteriorly, C rather shortly approximated to cell near base, rather 
rapidly diverging, SC^ connate, R- variable, sometimes rather extreme, oftener little above middle, 
M' remote at its origin from R^. 

L.\RVA. — Undeseribed; clothes itself with florets of aster (Lucus, Victor. Nat. Vol. 5, p. 26). 

Certainly anolher oiTshoot of Euclilnris. 

Type of the genus : Inlufs ari^ocrana (Meyrick) = Eucrnstis ari^ocrana, Meyrick. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Victoria, Tasmania. 



i) .St:imlinger'ssiispicion tliat tfie iiiil.lislifil lcality Aniur wasdue to m error is jiistified. Tliierry-Mieg's type (teste Dognin in litl.) and the 
eo-type kindly lent iis by il. Dognin are botli libellert Central Asia. It is a curicous coincidence tliat a couple of another Ccniral Asiatic species 
(corresponifetis) in foll. lirit. Mus. are alao lal>ell(^d Amur : we haveassumeil this also to be aii error. 

2) The on!y Q which we have seen has lost botli hiudlegs. 



214 LliFlDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

I. /. argocrana (Meyrick). \'ictoria,Tasmania,Queens- 

Eucioslis argocraiia, Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (z), Vol. 2. land. 

p. 867 (1888). 
Cymaloplex argociaiia. 'riirnpr. ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 578 (iqioi, 

168. Genus HOLOTERPNA, Pungeler 

Holoterpna. Piingeler, Iris, Vol. 12, p. 296(1900). 

Characters. — Face densely but smoothly scaled (vertex perhaps rougher-scaled than most of 
the groupj. Palpus inoderate to rather short, in type rather stout. second joint rough-scaled, third joint 
stout, in 9 rather elongate. Tongue rudimentary or wanting. Antenna over one-half (in pruinosata only 
one-half), in cf bipectinate with short branches, in Q simple, rather thick. Thorax strongly clothed 
above, densly hairy beneath. Femora hairy. H^ndtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes moderately stout, 
with terminal spurs only. Tarsi moderately spinulose. Abdomen robust, not crested. Wings rather 
robust, thickly scaled. Forewing triangular, costa straight, onlj' close to apex a httle arched, apex 
roundly prominent, termen entire, obhque. longer than inner margin, very httle convex, tornus 
rounded, cell about one-half, DC rather deeply inbent, SC free, SC* normal. R' about connate, 
M' connate or just separate; hindwing vvith costa (especially in type sjiecies) rather long. apex rounded, 
termen iittle convex, tornus pronounced. inner margin moderately long (in pniiiiosafa very long, tornal 
area produced), cell somewhat less than one-half, SC* very shortly stalked. R- veiy characteristic, 
M' connate or just separate, exceptionally very shortly stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

In spite of the ditfeient facies, seems to differ from Aglossochloris only in minor characters. It is 
iiuestionable whether pruinosata strictly belongs to the genus. 

Type of the genus : Holoterpna diagrapharia. Piingeler (1900). 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — Tuikestan, Palestine. 

Section I. — Palpus, antenna, abdomen and length of hindwing inoderate. 

1. 11. diagrapharia, Piingeler. Tuikeslan. 

Hololerpna diagrapharia. Piingeler, Iris, Vol. 12, p. 206, t. 9, f. 14 (igoo). 

Section II. — Palpus, antenna and abdomen rather short, 
hindwing much elongate to tornus. 

2. //. fyruinosata (Staudinger). — Pl. 5, Fig. I 2. Palestiiie. 

Eucrostcs(>) pruinosata, .StauJinger. Iris. Vol. 10, p. 3o3 (1898). 
Holotirpua pruinosala, Piingeler, ibidem, Vol. 12, p. 297 (1900). 

169. Genus DYSOHLOROPSIS, Warren 

Dyschloropsls. VVarrcn, Novit. Zool. Vol. z, p. 8g (i8g5). 

Hipparchus. (iuinppenberg, Nova .'Vcta .'\cad. Leop. il. Naturf. Halle. V'ol. 64, p. 462 (i^gS) (nec 
Leach). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes short (scarcely as long as diameter of eye), 
second joim ralhcr shortly rough-scaled, third joint small, noi exposed. Tongue rudimentaiy. Antenna 



I'AM. GEOMETRID^ aiS 

rather short, in cf bipectinate to apex, with moderate branches; in 9 strongly serrate (almost sub- 
pectinate). Pectus hairy. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in both sexes with terminal spurs onlv. Abdomen 
not crested. Forewing triangular, costa scarcely arched, apex acute, termen oblique, entire. very slightly 
prominent in middle, ccll nearl}' one-halt', DC somewhat incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, 
SC^ normal, sometimes anastomosing shortly with SC, R' short-stalked, M'separate; hindwing with 
costa long, termen ratlier straight, sHghtly incurved between R' and R^. at which points it is very 
shghtly bulged, tornus moderate, cell somewhat less tiian one-half, DC-' somewhat incurved, C anast- 
oinosing with cell at a point or very shortly near base, gradually diverging, SC^ stalked, M' connate 
or separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

This genus and Holoterpna are possibly offshoots of Microloxia, through loss of frenulum, short- 
enmg of palpus, change of wing-shape, etc. In colour and texture Holoterpna scarcely differs from 
Dyschloropsis . and most structural characters agree, though the latter is less robust, with very differently 
shaped hindwing (costa lunger, inner margin shorter, a weak sinuosity between Ri and R^); it would be 
possible to merge them. 

Type of the genus : Dyschloropsis imparaiia (Guenee) — lodis impararia, Guenee. 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. Russia to W. Mongoha. 

I. D. impararia (Guenee). S. Russia to W. Mongolia. 

lodis imfarayin. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 354 (i858|. 
Eucrostis imparata, Herrich-Schaffer, Neu.Schmett. Eur.Vol. 3, p. 27, f. i36 

(1861). 
[Thalera^^impararia, Lederer, Wien. Ent. Monats. VoL 5, p. 358 (1861). 
Dvschloropsis impararta, Warren, Novit. Zcol. VoL 2, p. 89 (iSgS). 
Hipparchus impararia, Gumppenberg, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle, VoL 64, p. 463 (iSgS). 
Giometra impararia, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 261 (1901). 

170. Genus THALERA, Hubner 

Thalera. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 285 (1826?); Lederer, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. 3, 
p. i72(iS53). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus quite short, second joint rather strongly rough-scaled, 
third joint m both sexes very' small. Tongue present. Antenna in (^ bipectinate to apex, the branches 
moderate or long at first, at apex verv short ; in Q very shortly liipectinate. Pectus hairy. Femora almost 
glabrous. Hindtibia in (f not dilated, in both sexes with tenninal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. 
Forevving with costa shouldered at base, thence straight to near apex, apex squared, termen oblique. 
verj' faintly sinuous, in lacerataria excised below apex, otherwise merely slightly prominent in middle, 
cell less than one-half, DC^ deeply inbent, SC from cell, anastomosing with C (very exceptionally free), 
SC^ normal, very usuallj- anastomosing with SC, R' shoi t-stalked. R- from much above middle of DC, 
M' approximated to R-*; hindwing with apex rounded off, termen excised between R' and R^, toothed 
at these veins and very minutely at the others, tornus moderate. cell less than one-half, DC^ deepl}' 
inbent, C anastomosing shortly with cell, approximately for its second fifth (in lacerataria at a point onl}'), 
then rather rapidly diverging, SC^ stalked, sometimes quite shortly i), R^ characteristic. M' approx- 
imated to R-'. (^ genitalia with uncus tapering to ftne point, socii bulbe<l at base, of equal leiigth witli 



2) Lederer says connate ; we have observed no surh case. 



2i6 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

uncus. gnathos atiophied. harpe tused at base, scobmated above, sacculus extended be},ond the harpe, 
penis pestillate, vvidening above (compare Microloxia). 

Larva. — Slender, twig-hke, head.produced into two sharp points, deeply cleft between, pro- 
thorax similarly produced into two points, projecting over head. bod}- without prominences, anal flap 
produced, terminating in two points. Colour green. vvith rose-red (sometimes interrupted) dorsal line. 
On Calluna, etc. (de Roo vaii Westmaas), Sepp's Nederl. Iiis. (2). Vol. 3, p. 23, t. 5). 

PuPA. — Structure not described, some good figures given in Sepp, loc. cit. (f. 9-12). 

Oii the apparent origin of this genus see Cidpitiia. There must also be a close collateral relationship 
with Dyschloropsis. There is a shght superficial resemblance to the type species of Hemilhea, which has 
been greatlj- exaggerated by early writers. 

Type of the genus : Tiialeia Jimbrialis [Scopoli) = Phalaena fimbrialis, Scopoli (i853). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Palajarctic Kegion, N. India. 

1. T . fimhrialis (SciiyoW). 

a. Tbalerafimbrialisfimbrialii. Europe to Central Asia. 

Phalatna fimbrialis. Scopoli. Ent. Carn. p. 2i6 (1763). 

Phalaena Geometra thymiaria.Linne, Syst.Nat.(ed. 12), Vol.i (2), p. 859(1767). 
.' Phalaena fimbriata, Hiifnagel, Berl. Mag. Vol. 4, p. 604 (1767). 
Phalaena Geometra bupleiiraria [Schiffermiiller], Schmett.Wien, p. 97 (177S). 
Phalaena Geometra dilaria. De Villers. Linn. Ent. Vol. 2, p. 3o2 (I789)(nec 

I"abricius). 
Geometra bupleuraria, Hiibner. Samml. Eur.Schmett. Geom. t. 2,f. 8(1796.'); 

p. 16 (1800.'). 
Phalaena Geomttra albaria, Esper, Schmett. in .Vbbild. Vol. 5. p. 267, t. 47. 

f. 3, 4(i8o5?) (ab. ?). 
Thnlei a bupleuraria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmelt.p. 28S (1826?). 
Hemithea buplevraria, Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lcp. Vol. 7 (2), p. 236, t. i5i. 

f. 5 (1829). 
Thalera thymiaria,LedeTeT, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol.3.p. 172 (i853). 
Ncmoria tliymiarla, de Koo van Westmaas, Sepp's Nederl. Ins. (2), Vol. 3, 

p. 23 (1871?). 
Thalera fimbrialis, Slaudinger, Cat. (ed. 2), p. 145 (1871). 
Thalera fimbrialis, var. moscovita, Gumppenberg, Nova Acta /Vcad. Leop. 

d. Naturf. Halle, VoL 64. p. 5o8 (iSgS) (ab.). 
Thalera fimbrialis,a.h. (var. ?) magnata, Fuchs, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. 

Vol. 56, p. 53 (I903) (var. ?). 

b. Thalera fimbrialis chlorosaria. E. Siberia. Corea. 

Thalerafimbrialis, Graeser, Berl. Knt. /ieitsclir. \ Oi. iz, p. .v^- 1 i^rm. 

Thalei a chlorosaria, Graeser, ibidem. Vol. 35. p. 81 (1890). 

Thalera fimbrialis, var. (?) chlorosaria, Staudinger. Iris.Vol. 10, p. 11 (1897). 

2. T. lacerataria, Graeser. S. E. Siberia and Japan to 

Thalera lacerataria. Graeser, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. Vol. 32, p. 38? (1888). China. 

Chlorodontopera robustaria, Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6),Vol, 20, p. 23o 

I1897) (nec Guenie). 
Ghlorodontopera suavis, Svvinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 670 (1902) 

(nov.syn.). 

3. T. aeruginata (Warren) (prasc. var. vel syn.?). N. India. 

Chlorodontopera acruginata. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 352 (1893). 

NoTE. — Thalera distracta, Walker (Vol. 22, p. 5gi) is a Neoslerrha, T. atroviridaria, Mabille 
(C. R. Soc. Enl. Belir. Vol. 23, p. 22) a Traminda, both Acidaliinae. 

171. Genus DOLOSIS, nov. gen., Prout 

Dolosis, nov. gen. r'i()ut. 

Characters. — F^ace smooth. Palpus iu both sexes minute. Tongue vestigial. Antenna rather 
short, in both sexes with moderate pectinations to near apex, apex ciHated. Pectus hairy. Hindlibia 



FAM. GE0METRID.5; 217 

in (f rather short, slender, with four approximated spurs (medians at four-fiflhs). Abdomen not crested. 
Forewing witli costa arched, apex moderate; termen crenulate, bent in middle, becoming very oblique, 
cell one-half, DC^ rather deeply incurved, SC from cell, or almost connate with DC-'^, anastomosing 
at a point with C, SC^ normal, R' well separate (in the type abnormally remote), R^ from very near R', 
M' widely Si-parate; hindvvmg with termen excised between R' and R^, tornus moderate C closely 
approximated to cell to about one-half, SC^ stallied, R^ from very near R', M' widely separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

The single iinown species has superficially quite the aspect of a Thahra, especially of lacerataria. 
though without the excision in termen of forewing. Structurally, however, it differs in the presence of 
median spurs. the non-anastomosis of C of hindwing, the longer pectinations of the 9 antenna, etc. 
The description given by Guenee of his araria (t}-pe of Heterocrita, Warren) agrees in most respects 
with the present species, but that has a different abdominal pattern. In the absence of structural clues, 
vve prefer to regard araria as a near relative of koraiiata. 

Type of the genus : Dolosis illacerata, Prout. 

Geographical distnibution of specles. — S. Africa. 
I. D. illacerata, nov. sp. i), Prout. Natal. 

172. Genus NOTHOTERPNA, Warren 

Nothoterpna. VVarren, Novit. Zool. Vol. ib, p. 11 1 (1909)- 

Characters. — Face thickly but smoothly scaled. Palpus in o< niinute, tapering, rather 
rough-scaled beneath (9 unknown). Tongue present. Antenna in cf short, bipectinate to apex with 
moderate, rather stoiit branches. Pectus hair}'. Hindtibia not dilated, all spurs present. Abdomen not 
crested. Forewing with margins little convex and apex pronounced (type), or with apex and termen 
more rounded [pallida), cell about one-half, DC incuived, rather strongly oblique posteriorly, 
SC from cell, anastouiosing with C, SC- normal, anastomosing with SC, R' well separate, R'^ from 
very near R' (especially in type), M' well separate; hindwing with apex slightly produced (roundl}'), 
termen being little convex, cell rather less than one-half, \)C^ incurved, oblique posteriorly, C approx- 
imated to cell to fully one-half. rather gradually diverging, SC^ stalked, R^ from very near R', M' well 
separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Differs from Dolosis chiefiy in shape. From Acollesis in the separation of Sv' <jf torew ing and 
(quite considerably) of R'. From Hemistola in several minor points, many of them known to be m some 
cases variable cliaracters, but cumulativtly of considerable force; palpus more minute, antenna rather 
short, bipectinate to apex, R^ more extreme (especially in hindwing), M' further from R'\ termen of 
forewing less oblique anteriorly, hindwing not elbowed or tailed at R'*, C approximated to full one-half 
of cell, graduaily diverging, scaling rougher, coloration less bright. 



i> Dolosis illacerata. nov. sp. — Q,32mm, Face det-p fuscous crimson. Palpus fuscous. Vertex and antennal shaft whitish. Occiput 
green. Tliorax and liase ot abdomen darbaliy (,'reen ; tliorax beneatli and rest of aljdomen wliitish green, llle latter speckled wilh black above, and with 
two dorsal black spots (on second and third segments). Wingsbriglit blue-green, coslal and distal cdges of forewinK and distal edge of hindwing reddish 
brown ; markings reddish brown, overlaid with black; a large cell-spot on each wing, as large as in tlie heaviest-niarked Thalera lacerataria ; antemcdian 
line of forewing rejjresented by dots 011 the veins and a larger one on innrr margin ; poslmedian in saine position as in /acera/aria, but not outbent in 
middlt-, and coiisistmg only ot a series oi vcin-dots aml large spot on inner margin, eacli accomp^nied distally by a small white dot. 1'nderBide rather 
paler, the markings (exceptantcmedian) reproduccd; no white dots. Uurbau, Natal, August, 1902 (Ci . F. Leigh). Type in coll. Urit. Mus. A cJi also froin 
Natal, isin coll. E. Meyrick, and weare indebted to Mr. Meyrick fur furnishing cbaracters whicli have enabied us to complete the genenc diagnosis. 'Ihe 
type Q has lost the hindlegs, but wiil certainly have four spurs. 



2iS LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Type of the genus : Noihoierpna cynssisgiiama, Warren (igog). 

Geographical distribution of species. — W. African. 

1. A^. crassisquama , Warren. Angola. 

NothoterpKa crassisquama. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i6, p. iii (1909). 

2. A''. pallida (Warren). Angola. 

AgraptoMora pallida, Warren, Novit Zool. Vol. 11, p. 463 (1904). 

173. Genus CHLOROSTERRHA, nov. gen., Prout 

Chlorosterrha (Warren, MS.). nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus minute, second joint not rough-scaled. Tongue slender. 
Antenna in o* bipectinate with moderate branches (in monochroma and probabh' in the t3'pe becoming 
rudimentary at apex). Hindtibia in cf slender. wifh four well-deveioped spurs. Abdomen not crested. 
Forevving with costa straight, except at extreme base and towards apex, apex somewhat rounded, termen 
sinooth, very obUque, wing therefore narrow, scaUng typically smooth, cell one-half, DC'' rather 
strongly incurved, SC' from cell, anastomosing with C and (in tj'pe) with SC^, SC^norinal, R' well 
separate, R^ somewhat above middle, M' well separate; hindwing narrow, costa long. apex rounded, 
termen smooth, Utlle conve\, cell one-half, DC^ inbent anteriorly, sHghtly oblique posteriorlj-, 
C approximated to cell for some distance, gradualK' diverging, SC^ short-stalked, R^ from shghth' above 
iniddle of DC, M' separate. 

Early stages iinknown. 

The 9 's unknown, unless semialba realh' belongs to this geniis, which is extieiiiely doubtful. 
It is larger, less narrow (though hindwing much narrower than in Nothoterpiia), somewhat rougher- 
scaled, venation somewhat variable, SC- of forewing stalked to as far as, or beyond SO"', R' sometimes 
stalked, R^ of hindwing from near R', 9 antenna very shortly bipectinate. It is certainly not an Acollcsis, 
by our characterizalion. Typical Chlorosterrha is entirely distinct from Noihottrpiia in shape and facies, 
though with inany characters in common. 

Type of the genus : Chlorosterrha dichroma (l''elder) ^^ Sterrha (?) dichruma, Felder - albaiiiensis, 

Prout I I. 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. .Africa, ? W. .Africa. 

i. C. dichroma (Felder). Cape. 

Sterrlia (?) dicliroma, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 20 (1875). 
Omphacodes dichroma (part.), Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 552 ( 1904). 

2. G. monochroma, nov. sp. 2). Prout. Orange River Colony. 

3. C. semialha (Swinhne) (huj. Ktn.?). — Pl. 5, Fig. 3. W. Africa, ? Mashonaland 

Acollesis semiaWa, Swinhoe, Ann. Mai;. Nat. Mist. (7). Vol. 17, p. 555 (19061. (var.?). 



1) We have drawn up the dia^nosis from a specimen from Graliamstown(presented by the Albany Museum) in coll. Brit. AIus. As we have not 
betrn able to compare tt, side by side, wlth Felder"s type, we state — for the avoidance of possible synonymic complications — that this specimen is the 
actual type-specimen of the Renus, and that in the (improbable) event of its not proving conspecific with dichroma it shall be known as follows ; 
Chlorosterrha albaoiensls. nw. sp. — Shape and marking as in dichroma, Felder, costa of forewing narrowly ochreou*. oblique line sligbtly 
tinged with nchreous, nocell-mark; structure as given under our generic characters. 

2) Chlorosterrha monochroma. nov. sp. — cT, 20 mm. Face and palpus reddish. Head Kteen, narrowly f ale ochreous between the 
antenn:c. Anteiinal shaft pale ochreous, pectinations rather louK. Thorax and base of abdomen green above, otherwise whitish. Legs ochreous. foreleg 
reddish above. Wings shaped iiearly as in tUe type species, apex of forewing slightly more rounded olT; forewing bright bluish green, somewhat as in 
ffemistiyla chrysopfasaria, but a little fuUer. costal edge narrowly pale ochreous, unspotted; no markings; fringe green proximally, narrowly wliite 
distally. llindwtng sliehtly paler, especialiy costally, but nowhere white; fringe as in forewing. Underside the same, or very little paier. Bloemfontein, 
S. Alrica (H. F. WiUon), Type in coll. Brit. Mus. Distingulshable superficially from the numerous land often confusing) unicolorous green S. African 
Nemitheittae \ty its narrow wings; in Rha.iinomphax,v\i\c\\ is nearly as extreme in shape, the hindwing is white. Structurally tlie species agrees 
sufBciently with Ch/orosterrha thoagh the palpus is somewhat stronger, and in the forewing R* is shortly stalked instead of well separate, and .M' rather 
more approximated to R^ than in the type. 



fam. geometrid^ 219 

174. Genus ACOLLESIS, Warren 

Acollesis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 11 (189S). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, second joint shortly rough-scaled, third jomt in both 
sexes quitc small. 1 ongue slender. Antenna in both sexes bipectinate to apex, with rather long branches. 
Pectus sojnewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia m cf slender, witliout hair-pencil, in both sexes 
with four well-developed spurs. Abdomen not ciested. Forewing rather broad, with costa httle arched, 
apex rather sharp. termen straight anteriorly, curved posteriorly, cell less than one-half, DC incurved, 
strongly obhque posteriorly, SO^ stalked with R\ Ri separating first, SCi anastomosing with C, 
SC^ normal, not anastomosing with SC, R^ from near R', Miseparate: hindwing with costa moder- 
ately long, apex rounded, termen rounded, tornus squared, cell rather short, DC incurved, very 
strongly obhque posteriorly, C approximated to cell to beyond one-half, SC^ stalked, R''' from near Ri, 
M' separate (Pl. 4, Fig. I 8). 

Early stages unknown. 

Type of the genus : AcolUsis fraiidnhnta. Warren (189S). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Cape to Unyoro. 
i.A. fraudnlenta. Warren. Cape to Transvaal. 

AcolUsis frauduUiita , Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. 11 (189.S). 

2. A. lanbrata. Warren. Unyoro. 

Acollesis umhriita, Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. p. 290 (1899). 

3. A. terminata, nov. sp. i), Prout. Zukiland. 

175. Genus OOLLESIS, Warren 

Collesis. Wairen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 37 (1897). , 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes very small, slender, third joint minute. 
Tongue short andslender. Antennabipectinate in both sexes. Pectus somewhat hairy. Hindibia in cf 
not dilated, in both sexes with all spurs developed. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa arched, 
apex acute, termen straight anteriorly, curved posteriorly, not very obHque, cell less than one-half, 
DC incurved, very strongly obhque posteriorly, SC^ from cell or stalked, anastomosing with C, 
SC2 stalked to beyond SC"', R' typically short-stalke i with subcostals, R'- from much above middle of 
cell, Miseparate; hindwing with apex rounded, termen more or less rounded, tornus pronounced, 
cell rather short, DD'* incurved, becoming very strongly obhque posteriorly, C anastomosing with cell 
to fuUy one-half, SC^ stalked, R-' from close to R-', M^ connate, approximated or very short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

The two species included heie differ considerably in shape and facies, but can provisionally be 
kept together, to avoid multiplying genera, their characteristics being the short palpus, fully-spurred 
tibia and strung anastomosis of C of the /lindwing. 



I) Acollesisterminata, nov. sp. - S.Jomm. Face red, tinged w,th orance. Palpuson outer side the same, otherw.se witish. V ertei 
and an.ennal shaft white ; occiput pale green. Thorai, abdomen and legs whilish, thorai more green above ; forecoia above and forefemnr and t.b.a on Ihe 
inner sidebright orange. Forewing very broad. as in umirata. Warren. which it closely resembles. Pale yellowish green, with an ohvaceous tinge , l.nes 
white ratherbroad, not verv shi.rplv defined, antemedian of forevving from .nner margin at one-third, .ndistinct, not reach.ng cosla, postmed.an ol botn 
wings placed as , n ,„„6r.,l.,. sl.ghtlv dark-shaded proiimallv ; fnnges dark olive proiimally, white distally ; no cell-spots. Under surface sfll paler, Ir.nges 
as above. Sibudem, Zuh.land, loth Jan., 1904 (C. H. B. G^ant). Type ,n coll. Br,t. Mus. Eitremely like the (J of Colhs.s mtmica, eicept m structure 
Distinguished from Aco//esis ,„nbrata chiefly the absence of d.scal spots. In the venation, SC< of forewing anastomoses very strongly w,th C. Antennal 



pectinations about twice width of shaft. 



220 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Type of the genus : Collesis mimua. Warren (1897). 
Geogpaphical distpibution of species. — ^Ethiopian. 

Sectiox I. — Forewing with SC and R' stalked, antennal pectinations long 

{Collesis, Warren). 

1. C. mimica, Warren. — Pl. 5, Fig. I 0. Rhodesia to Shire Ri%'er. 

ColUsis mimica. Warren. Sovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 3? (18971. 

Sectiox II. — Forewing with SC and R' not stalked, antennal pectinations short 

(gen. div. ?). 

2. C . fleximargo (Warren). .Angola. 

Syndromodts ^eximargo, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 16. p. 112 19091. 



176. Genus OMPHACODES, Warren 

Omphacodes. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 396 (1S94) (sec. cit. tj-p.). 

Characteps. — Face smooth. Palpus slender, third joint in both sexes smooth, exposed, 
moderate, in Q often long Tongue short and slender (in elcgans apparently wanting). Antenna not 
long, in cf bipectinate to about two-thirds with long or rather long branches, in 9 lamellate with long 
teeth (tj-pe species) or subdentate (in a few species bipectinate), minutely ciliated. Hindtibia in cf 
dilated, with hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs well developed. the medians usually the longer. 
Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa slightly arched or nearly straight, apex moderately sharp, 
termen smooth, oblique, gendy curved or nearly straight. cell about one-half, DC incurved, becoming 
oblique, SC from cell, or connate, sometimes even stalked. nearly alwaj-s anastomosing with or running 
into C. SC normal, R' stalked or connate. M' separate fwell separate in tj-pe); hindwing with termen 
usually rounded, tomus moderately pronounced, basal expansion of costa strong, cell not quite one-half, 
DC oblique posteriorly, C anastomosing strongly. usually to near end of cell, then rapidlj- diverging, 
SC* stalked, M' rather weU separated (directa), or approximated, connate or stalked (the .African species) 
(Pl. I, Fig. 7 . 

Early stages unknown. 

Distinguished from Collesis by the longer palpus and the subcostal vcnation. The species are 
usualh- of smaller size. the wings less "broad, etc. Some of them are superficially of precisely the colour 
and facies of the tj^pes of Prasinocyma and Syndromodes, in Group V. On the application of the name 
Omphacodes, see under Rhadinomphax . 

Type of the genus : Omphacodts direcia (Walker) ^^ Nemoria directa, Walker (1894). 

Geographical distribution of species, — Indta, E. and S. .Africa. 

I. O. rf«Vfc/a (Walker). N. India. 

Stmoria (?) iJ/rfrta. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. .Mus. Voi. 22, p. 535 ' i»6i). 
Stmoria gracilis. Butler, III. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 7, p. 21, 104. t. i36, 

f. 4 '1889» nov. syn. 1». 
Euchloris gracilis. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p. 498 (1895 . 



z> W>lker'« tjpe u ta wretcbed conditun, and hu been vrooglj determined br HampMB and Swinhoe, see .Wieroloxia itidicreiata ; bat the 
itrBctiml characten malce ths idencification u here ^reo an a'o«olate certainty- 



FAM. GEOMETKlD.t 221 

2. O. coerulea (Warren). Late Nyassa. 

ilicroloxia (i) coenlia. Waixen, Xovit. Zool. Vcl. 3, p. 368 {1896). 
S\«droKodes ccendea, Warren. ibidem. Vol. 6. p. 27 (1899). 

3. O. pundilincata (Warren). S- Africa. 

SyndTomodes pHiuUliiuaia. Warrea. Xovit.Zool. Vol. 4, p- 40 (1897) il. 

4. O. vivida (Warren). Xaio, u, y.^.. ^. 

SxHdromodes rivida. Warren. Xovit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 27 {1899). 

5. O. divergcHs (Warren). Unvoro. 

Microloxia dizcrgens. Warren. Novi;. Zooi. Vol. 6. d. 2qi 'iSqg'. 

6. O. pulchrifimbria (Warren). British E. Africa. 

S\»dromod/s fulclirifimhria. Warxen. Ncrit. zooi. Voi. o, p. 490 1902 . 

7. O. deli^Mia (\\airen). Xatal. 

Syndromodes delicaia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12. p. 34 (l9o5). 

8. O. triliHtata (Hampson). Rhodesia, Mashonaland. 

AcolUsis tTilineaia. Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 476, t. 39, p. 32 



luIC 



g. O. curvilinea. nov. sp. ^ . Prout. Transvaal. 

10. O. elegans, nov. sp. 5,, Prout. British E. Africa. 

Om-kj.-jdis dinkroma part. . Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 552 J004 
(nec Felder'. 

177. Genus MEROCHLORA, nov. GEN., Prout 

Merochlora, nov. gen. Prout. 

Annemoria (part.). Hulst. Trans. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i3 (1S96) (vix Packard). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus strong, second joint rather long, stronglj^ rough-scaled 
bencaih and somewhat above, third joint in cf small, concealed. Tongue present. .Antenna in cf bipec- 
tinate to near apex with long branches, last few segments merely subserrate, ciUated. Pectus moderately 
hairj". Hindtibia in (^ slender, with four closely approsimated spurs. .Abdomen not crested. Forew-ing 
rather broad, costa slightly arched at base, arched distally, straight between, apex moderate, termen 
rather straight, becoming somewhat cur^ed towards tomus. moderately oblique. cell nearly one-half, 
DC rather strongl^!^ inbent. SC from cell, anastomosing at a point wiih, or running into C 4), 
SC* normal, anastomosing at a point with SC (or with C -r SC), R^ connate or short-stalked, 
M* separate; hindwing with costa moderatel^' long, apex rounded, termen, except towards apex, httle 
curved. tomus rather pronotinced. cell aimost one-half. DC^ inbent anteriorly, C anastomosing with cell 
to considerablj- beyond one-half, SC- rather long-stalked, M' separate. 



i) L^irKhJer.^ T3iKctitine-3S.3 on trpe ;abel. 

2) Omphacodes c^ rvilinea. nov. sp. — 2..:omni. Faceorange, paleibekjw, Palp=s oraiise yeilow tappareBtir brokem. Aliteuul 
shait whitish. wi:h moderaie, ratber siroEg, yeilow pectinataons. Vertex wiiite, tliigeo with veilo» . occipat greec. I^orax gTera ibove. white besrmxii; 
abdomen whitish liegs iost>. Forewii.g with costa ftrajg^t, eicept at b^se. aj>ex acute, temec cnrreo, stroogiT obl:qne ; tiight greer.. costal edge reliow; 
a fine white Ime lioni costa dose !o apex, lather obliqne to miJd e, there curred aji.i becoming more stit>ngly ooli<iue, reachiBg inner iiiarg-.n before two- 
thiids. Hindwing rather uarrow, costa l«ing long.apeirather prominent, but rouided. teimen scaicelyobiiqae. tcixnsless prouoiinced thanin congereis; 
white. tingedwith greenish at teiineD. and especialiv at tcr.iis and tornai half of inncr tnarsin. Vnderside of lorewmg paie green ; of hmdwini: « tiite. 
Waimbath. TransTaal. aoth Xov., looJ iC. .1. Swieistra . Type lo coli. Bnt. Mus. .K D.srr.iwei-winge<l msect than most of ihe genns. shapec mcre nearly 
as KioMitcmiia^ oi Ci^.ratirrria. but diflenn.c in stractnire. 1= the absence of pcrfect mitcria;. and of the i', it is, howevei. impossible tt> scite certaitily 
that it is correctiv placed here. SO oi torewicg is &om ceii. runnmg mto C. R* separale ; DO oi hindwing is littie ob iqoe, R* ii;t.e aboie midcle oj DC. 
The marking of :he f -lewir.i: remmds ol jVr-rr-^-ews, bnt that has the faindwtsf; coDColoitms. 

.i) Omphacodes elegans. nov. sp. — c". 2omm- Face and palpns rea. siightlj paler below, Faieleg oiange-icd totner iegs lostV. Veitei 
uid antennal shaft whitish. pect:nat onsmodeiate, reddishyeliow. Tborax green abore. .^bdose:: white, djrsai.y pale green oji£r»tfew sejtnents, Fore- 
wtBgbiigbtcieaigreen. slightiy tinged with blnish; costa nanowly whitish yeilow. the erreme edgeiathei ::aiker;anmiBBte white cei.-spot ; an obliqoe 
white iine trom t>eiow apex to inner maigin at neariy rwo-tfths. narrowiy b-.rdcred by a bnghl oraiii;e l:3e distajly; trtage ooBcoiorous . Hir.dw-.ng wli:te, 
shaaed with green in :omai region aad along inner margin ; piovimai iiall o: InagegTeennom lomas, gTadaally thading ofi" to white towarcs apex. dista^ 
hilf of tringe ennreiy white. Underside similar, the lorewiac paler ^brightest towarJs costaX with maikings feebier. KaBgondf, Kirw:. Bricsr; E. .\fnca_ 
5i l>ec., iSoS iR. C Crawshay). Type incoll. Brit. Mus. Saperacially excremely lite Cil.Tr.strrrijz aiiirciui, bat diSeiing in stmctate. Palpns ioogeT 
than diameter ol eye ; forewingwith SC aBastomosingstrongly with C. weii a»:ay trom SO. R* separate, hindwing with M' Tery shortly stalted . 

4> It shoold he pointed oat that in thiscase, aad probably othei3 where SO is said to ran into C, it ia reallj ra:hei the costa: et»d o! C tha* 
ia obsolete :ban the oontinuatioa of ^O, af:er the p^-int o! contac: . 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Early stages unknown. 



On Packard's Annenwria, see our note under Clieteoscelis. As the type specimen has four spurs it 
may agree with the present genus, but the forewing venation is different, and altogether the probabihties 
are so strongly against the union that we have no aUernative but to erect a new genus. 

Typeofthe genus : Meiochlora /aseolaria [Guenee) = Nemoria {!) faseolaria, Guenee. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Western U. S. A. 

1. M .faseolayia[Guence). (^ahfornia. 

Nemoria {?) faseolarta, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep \'ol. g. p. 35i (i858). 
Nemoria {?) fasceolaria, Packard. Mem. Geom U. S. A.p. 3^5 (1876). 
Chlorosea perviridaria, Packard, ibideni, p. 379. t. 10, f. 82 (1876). 
Chlorosea fasciolaria, Hulst. Ent. Amer. Vol. 2, p. 141 (1886). 
Annemoria faseolaria, Hulst,Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i2 (1896). 

2. IVI . eutraphes. nov. sp. i), Prout. , Utah. 



178. Genus ANOMPHAX, Warren 

Anomphax. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 74(1909). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes very short, slender, thiid joint small, 
pointed. Tongue rudimentary. Antenna rather short, in both sexes bipectinate almost to apex, the 
branches long in cT, moderate in 9- Pectus somewhat haiiy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (f not 
dilated, in both sexes with terminal spurs only. .'^bdomen not crested. Forewing with costa arched, apex 
moderately sharp, termen nearly straight, obUque, especialh' in (;f , cell fully one-half, DC'* strongly 
inbent, SC shortly anastomosing or connected by short bar with C, SC^ normal, anastomosing shortly 
with SC, R' connate or short stalked, R^ from much above middle of DC, M' separate; hindwing with 
costa rather long, apex rounded, termen Httle convex, tornus rather pronounced, cell one-half, DC^ in- 
curved, C closely approximated to cell to one-half or shghtly more, not vapidly diverging, SC^ stalked, 
R'^ from much above middle of DC, M' separate. 

Lara. — Slender, firm, twig-hke, head (and doubtless prothorax) with anterior bifid pointed 
projection. (Izquierdo, Ait. Uiiiv. Chile, Vo\. 51, p. Ki.t, t. 3, f. 12.) 

Pup.\. — Green at hrst, becoming whilish; thanges among leaves without niaking cocoon. 
(Izquierdo, loc. cit.) 

Likely related to the previous genus; more specialized in most characters, but without the 
anastomosis of C of the hindwing. 

Type of the genus : Anomphax gnotna (Butler) = Omphax gnoma, Kutler (1909). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Chili. W. .Argentina. 
I. ^. ^>'«o;«a (Butler). Chili, \V. Argentina. 

Omphax giioma, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 367 (1882). 
Anomphax giioma, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. 75^1909). 



i) Merochlora eutraphes. nov. sp. — cJ. 32 mm. Very hVc/itseo/aria, agreeini: instructure (termen of forewing perh.ips slightly. but 
scarcely appreciably more iibhque). but differing as foUows ; size considerably larger. palpus green, whitish beneath, only tipped with reddish; vcrtei 
without red hne behind the white fiUet ; cost;tl edge of forewing narrowiy white (green at base). not red. The type specimen. in very good condition, is 
unfurtunately somewhat faded in relaxing, but Mr. J. A. Grossbeck 1, to wtnse generosity we owe Ihe specimen, and who possesses cotypes) informs ua tliat 
the correct colour of the torewing 13 aclear, pale pea-green. Stnckton, Utah, 2 August, iQtt? (T. Spilding). Type in coll. L. B. Prout. SC* of forewing 
anastomoses at a point with C. 



I'AM. GEOMETRIDy^: 



223 



179. Genus EULOXIA, Warren 



Euloxja. Warren, Novit. Zool. \''ol. i, p. 3go (1894). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, second joint rather strongly rough-scaled beneath, 
third joint minute. Tongue present. Antenna moderate, in cf bipectinate with long branches, apex 
nearl)' simple, ciliated; in 9 nearly simple. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia 
in (j' slender, in both sexes with four well-developed spurs. Abdomen slender. not crested. Forewing 
with costa slightly arched, apex rather acute, tennen nearly straight, obhque, cell nearly one-half, 
DC incurved, SC^ from cell, anastomosing at a point or briefly with C, SC- normal, anastomosing or 
connected with SC^ (according to Turner occasionally free), R' short-stalked or approximated, 
M^ separate; hindwing with costa rather long, apex rounded, termen httle convex, tornus rather 
pronounced, cell nearly one-half, DC^ usually rather obhque, DC^ incurved anteriorly, C closeh' 
approxmiated to cell for some distance near base, rather gradually diverging, SC' stalked, R- very 
characteristic, IM' connate, approximated or soraetimes short-stalked. 

Early stages undescribed. 

An exclusively Austrahan genus, perhaps most nearly approached by Section III oi Hemistola, 
which, however, has not the long scahng of the palpus beneath. The tendency to whitening of the 
hindwing and at the same time elongation of its costa, which is noticeable in several of the African 
forms and the single Chihan genus of the subfamily, is here distinctly indicated, and it is just possible 
that these forms have all a common origin in the great Antarctic Continent which recent theon,'' 
assumes. The question lias not been fully investigated, but it is worthy of note thatthese forms have 
quite usually a short palpus, and some venational characters in common (tendenc)? to double anast- 
omosis of SC of forewing, separation of M' of both wings, etc). 

Type of the genus : Euloxia fugitivaria [Gnenee) = lodis fugitivaria, Guenee (1894). 



S. E. to E. Austral 



S. E. Australia, with Tas- 
mania. 

New South Wales. 



Geographical distributlon of species. — Austrahan. 

1. E. fugitivaria (Guenee). 

lodis fiigilivariii, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 35^ (i858). 

lodis intacla, VValker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 22, p. S^D (1861). 

lodis oblijuissima, Walker, ibidem, p. 546 (1861). 

Euloxia fugilivaria, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 390 (1894). 

2. E. meaudraria (Guenee). — Pl. 5, Fig. 9. 

lodis meaiidraria, Gueuee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 355 (i8581. 

Euloxia meandraria, Swiuhoe, Lep. Het. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 3^3 (1900) 

3. E. hypsithrona (Meyrick). 

loiis hypsiUirona, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). Vol. 2, 

p. S74 (1888). 
Euloxia hypsilhrona, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 58i (igio). 

4. E. leurochorda (Meyrick). Tasmania. 

lodis leucochorda, Meyrick, Proc, Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p. .S75 (18S8). 
Euloxia leucochorda, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 58o (1910). 

5. E. berylliiia (Me^-rick). W. Australia. 

loiis beryllina, Meyrick, Proc. Linn.Soc, N. S.Wales(2),Vol. 2, p.877 (1S88). 
Euloxia herylUna, '1'urner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 58i (1910). 

6. E. ochthaula (Me^Tick). W. Australia. 

lodis ochttiaula, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, p. 877 

(188S). 
Euloxia ochlhaula, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 58i (1910). 



224 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

7. E. pyropa (Meyiick). S. E. and W. Australia. 

loiispyropa, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.VVales 12). Vol. 2. p. 878(1888). 
Eulnxia pyropa, Turner, ibidem. Vol. 35. p. 5Si (1910J. 

8. E. argocnemis {yieyrick). W. .Australia. 

lodis argocitemis, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wale^ 121. Vol. 2, p. 883 

(1888). 
Chlorvcoma argocnemis. Turner. ibidem, VoL 35. p. 586 (igio). 

9. E. isadelpha, Turner. W. Australia. 

Euloxia isadelpha. Turner. Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales. VoL 35. )). 58o 
(1910). 

180. Genus MIXOCHROA, Warren 

Mixochroa. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. i3 (1898). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Eye rather smallcr th;ui normal. l^alpus rathershort, secondjonit 
moderately rough-scaled beneath, third joint minute. Tongue present. Antenna over one-half, in cf 
bipectinate ahnost to apex, the branches long, shortening rather abruptly towards apex. Pectus some- 
what hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, with tour nearly equal spurs. Abdomen not 
crested. Forewing with costa sUghtly arciied, ape.x moderately acute, termen oblique. nearly straight, 
cell nearly one-half, DC inbent, SC from cell, anastomosing at a point or shortly with C, SC- normal, 
anastomosing witli SC, then closelv approaching or anastomosing with .SC-*^, R' connate or short-stalked, 
R' from much above middle of DC, M' separate; hindwing with costa rather long, apex rounded, 
termen faintly waved, not strongly convex, from R' to B? straight or very feebly subconcave, cell near 
one-half, DC'' inangled, C closely approximated to cell to fully one-half, SC'' stalked. R- very charactc-r- 
istic, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Related to Euloxia, into which Turner merges it. Diflfering in C of the hindwing, as well as in 
coloration and perhaps thicker scaling. Tlie extremely rare anastomosis of SC- with SC^"* is noteworthy, 
though even here not constant. 

Type of the genus : Mixocliroa gratiosaia (Guenee) ^ Ncmoria graiiosata, Guenee (1898). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Australian. 
i. M. gratiosata{<6uc\\^c]. • S. E. Australia with Tas- 

Nemoria gratiosata, Giienee, Spec. Gen. Lep. VoL 9, p. 35i, 1. 17, f. I (i858). mania. 

lodis gratiosata. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), VoL 2, p. S76 

(1888). 
Mixochroa graliosata, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 5, p. i3 (1898). 
Euloxia gratiosata, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35, p. 579 
(1910). 

181. Genus LEUCESTHES, Warren 

Leucesthes. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 3+8 (1902). 

Acibdela. Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .^ustral. Vol. 3o, p. i3o (1906). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, slender, rather smooth. Tongue present. .■\ntenna 
in cf bipectinate alinost to apex, with long branches, in 9 nearly simple. Pectus shghtly hair>-. Femora 
glabrous. Hindtibia in (j* not dilated, in both sexes with four appro.ximated spurs. Abdomen not crested. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^. 225 

Wings with smooth. slossy scaling. Forewing narrow, costa straight, apex moderate, termen smooth, 
curved, very oblique, cell fully one-half, DC'* curved, becoming oblique. SC from cell, anastomosing 
or connected with C, SC^ normal, anastomosing with SC and then with SC^"^, R^ stalked, R^ from above 
middle of DC, M' separate ; hindwing narrow. costa long, apex and termen rounded. tornus not 
pronounced, cell one-half, DC incurved, rather oblique, C closely approximated to cell tn one-half, 
SC^ stalked, R^ characteristic, M^ separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

No doubt related tn the two preceding genera, yet not very closely. The shape and texture and 
the smoother palpus distinguish it from Mixochroa, olherwise the characters are nearly the same. 

Type of the genus : Leuctsthes alba (Swinhoe) = Nearcha alba, Swinhoe = Leucesthes margarita, 
Warren ( igo2). 

Geographical distribution of species. — W. Austraha 

I. L. ii//)(7 (Swinhoe). W . .A.ustralia. 

Nearcha alba. Swinhoe. Ann. Mag'. Nat. Hist. (y), Vol. g, p. 79 (1902). 
Leticest/ies margarila, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 348 (1902). 
Acihdela alhn. Turner, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. Vol. 3o, p. i3i (1906). 
Lencesthis alba. Prout, in Wytsman, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 104, p. 2 (1910). 

182. Genus HEMISTOLA, Warren 

Hemistola. Warren. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 353 (1893). 

«Jodis. Stephens, List Brit. Anim. Vol. 5, p. 169 (i85o) (nec Hlibner, Guenee restr.) i). 

Pareuchloris. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 386 (1894). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in both sexes usually short to quite moderate (only elongate 
in one or two doubtfuliy-[)laced species), second joint with moderately appressed scales, third joint in 
both sexes usually small (long in lilianu 9 )• Tongue present. .\ntenna in ^f , and usually in 9 . bipectinate, 
with apex nearly simple 2). Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia in (^ usualh- not dilated (dilated, with 
hair-pencil, in riibrimargo and one 01 two others), in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. 
Forewing vvith costa arched, apex moderate to rather acute, termen moderateh' oblique, entire, rather 
straight anteriorly, more curved posteriorly. sonietimes appreciably gibbous in the middle, cell less 
than one-half, DC deeply incurved. SC froin cell, free or anastomosing with C, SC' normal, R' just 
separate or stalked, M' separate or connate; hindwing with termen rather strongly convex, often elbowed, 
or even shoi tly tailed at R^, cell less than one-half, DC'* deeply inbent anteriorly, oblique posteriorly, 
C approximated to cell to near middle, SC- stalked (usually shortly), M' approximated to short-stalked. 
(^ genitalia {chrysoprasaria) : uncus parallel, uith socii, gnathos pointed, harpe with clavus extended to 
two strong horns, penis pestillate, vesica with band of small cornuli, eighth sternite terminatins^ in two 
blunt points. 

Egg. — Verv fiat, laid in piles of twelve to fourleen, standing out at right angles from twig like a 
small branch (Newman, The Entomologist , Vol. 6. p. 16S). 



i) Probxbly the majority of synonytnists would argue that the present genus was the true lodis of Hiibner, and Hiibner's name has been 
employed in that sense by Turner, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N. S. IVates, Vol. 35, p. 579 The s^^cies chrysoprasaria, under \henz.m& oivernaria, is placed 
first in Hiibner's Verzeichniss. which would weigh with many ; wbile Stephens' restriction (though uncharacterized) has three years' priority over 
Ledercr's (characterized) restriction, and eight over Guen^e's work. We fihd, however, that a literal application of the Intornational Rules of Nomen- 
clature saves tho ciirrent usaf^e Guen^e was the 6rst to « select a type » for Jodis, and he selected /aciearia (Sfiec. Gin. Lip. Vol. 9, p. 353, 355). 

2) There is much vanability in detail between the dillerent species. \Ve are unacquainted with the Q of the type species, but Warron {Novif. 
Zool. Vol. 1, p. 3^3) says it is bipectinate, asindeed would have been expected. 



226 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Larva. — Rigid, twig-like, beautitully assimilating duiing hibernation and subsequently to the 
winter and spring coloration of its food-plant (C/^w/rt/Zs) ; head produced to two sharp points, prothorax 
produced to two horns projecting over the head ; body transversely wrinkled, shagreened ;^or frosted, 
each point of the shagreen being tipped with white), with strong lateral flange ; anal flap produced to a 
point (Newman, loc. cit. ; Wackerzapp, Stett. Ent. Ztit. Vol. 5o, p. 282). 

PuPA. — Not fuUy described. Green, the thorax smooth, but punctured. Suspended in loose 
cocoon among leaves (Newman, loc. cit.). 

A not verj' sharply deiined genus, which could, with almost equal propriety, be either enlarged 
or restricted. VVhile on the one hand its constituents are not all very closely related, on the other hand 
it almost intergrades with Euloxia, and in Africa perhaps with AcuUesis or Nothoterpna. 

Type of the genus : Hemistola rubrimargo, Warren (i8fj3). 

Geographical distribution of specles. — Palaearctic and yEthiopian Regions, India to 
l'"ormosa. 

Section I. — Palpus moderate (occasionally even elongate in 9)! hindwing angled; 
antenna in 9 bipectinate {Hemistola, Warren). 

1. H. yuhyimargo, Warren. X. India, Formosa, ?West 

IIemisloIarubrimaigo,Warien, Proc.Zool. Soc. Loiid. p. 3S4, t. 3i.f. 3 (iSgS). China. 

2. H. dijuncta (Walker). E. China, Japan. 

Geometra iijuncta. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 523 (1861). 
Geometra (?) inoptaria, Walker, ibidem, V0I.26, p. i555 (1862). 
Jodis clariptnnis, Biitler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), VoL i, p. 399 (1878); 
111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 3. p. 36, t. 49, f. 10 (1S79). 

3. H. veiieta (Butler). Japan. 

Thalera veneta, Butler, Ann. Mag. .\at. Hist. (5), Vol. 4, p. 437 (1879). 
Uliocnemis venala, Leech, ibidem (6), Vol. 20, p. 232 (1897'. 

4. H . liliana (Swinhoe) (huj, gen. ?). Khasis. 

Thalassodes liliana, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiul. p. 7, t, i, f. 2 (1892). 
Euchloris liliana, Swinhoe, ibidem, p. 175 (1894). 
Thalera liliana, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moth. Vol. 3, p. 5i6 (iSgS). 
Hemisiola liliana, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. !>. 211 (1897). 

5. H. rectilinea, Warren. Khasis. 

Htmistola rectilinea, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p.3o9 (1896). 
Thalera rectilinea, Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Xat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 12, p. 93 
(1898). 

6. H. insolitayia (l^eech). Japan. 

Euchloris insoliiaria <3, Leech. .\nn. .Mat;. .\at. Mist. (oj, Vol. 20, p. 236 
(1897) i)- 

7. H. parallelaria (I,eech) (huj. gen.?). W. China. 

Thalassodcs pariiUelaria. Leech, Atin. Mag. Xat. Hist. (61. Vol. 20, p. 241 
(1897). 

8. //. inconcinnaria (Leech) (trans. ad Sect. II). W. China. 

Thalassodes inconcinnaria, l^eech, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. {6), Vol. 20, p. 242 
(1897). 

9. H. /lavitincta [Wa.rTen) (hu^. gen.?). Khasis. 

Uemistola (})flavilincta. Warren, Novlt. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 211 '1897). 
10. H. tenuilinea (Alpheraky) (huj. gen.?). Corea. 

Thalcra tenuilinea, Alpheraky. Roman. Mem. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 182, t. 10, 
f. 7(1897)- 
M. H. simplex, Warren. Formosa. 

Hemistola simplex, Warren, Novit, Zool. Vol. 6, p. 24 (1899). 



1) Leecb's Chang-Yang Q cannot belong to this species; it is evidently a Hemithea, related to unilinearia. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



227 



Section II. — Palpus short; hindwing not or little angled; 
antenna in 9 bipectinate iParaicJildyis, \V'arren). 



12. H. chyysoprasaria (Esper). 

a. Hemistola chrysoprasaria chrysoprasaria. 

Phalama Geontetra vernaria [Schiffermuller|, Schmett. VVien. p. 971 1775) 

(nec Linnel. 
" Phaloeita pumona [Geoffroy], Fourcroy's Ent. Paris. p. 264 (1785) i). 
? Phaloena nayas [Geoffroy], ibidem, p. 276 (1785) (nom. dubium). 
Phalaena Geotnelra chrysoprasaria, Esper,5chmett. in Abbild. Vol. 5, p. 37. 

t. 5, f. I (1794). 
Phalaena Geomelra aerugitiaiia, Horkhciusen, Eiir. Schmett. Vol. 5. p. 4.^ 

( 1794) (nec Schiffermiiller). 
Phalaena lucidata, Donovan, Brit. Ins. Vol 3, p. 67, t. 97 (1795) (nec Fabri- 

cius. 1781). 
Giiimetra vernaria. Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Geom. t 2, f. 7 (1796?) ; 

p. 16 (1800?). 
Geometra volutaria, Haworth, Lep. Brit. (2), p. 298 (1809) (nec volutaia, 

Fabricius). 
lodis vernaria, Hiibner. Verz. bek. Schmett p. 286 (1826.'). 
Hemithea vernuria, Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (2), p. 24«, t. 132, 

f. I (1829). 
Hipparchus vernarius. Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. 12), p. 122 (1829J. 
Euchloris vernaria, Meyricl;. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 93 (1892'. 
Chlorochroma vcrnaria, Gumppenberg. Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. 

Halle, Vol. 64, p. 494 (iSgS). 
Pareuchloris vernaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i. p. 386 (1894). 
lodis chrysoprasaria, Prout,Trans.City Lond. Ent. Soc. Vol. 10, p.64 (1901). 

b. Hemistola chr-ysoprasaria lissas, nov. subsp. 2), Prout. 

li. H. detracta (Walker). 

Geometra detracta, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 52i (1861). 

Jodis detracta, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 390(1886). 

Thalassodi-s iinduligera. Butler. 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 7. p. io5, 

t. i36, f. 6 11889). 
Euchloris detracta, Hampsun, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 498 (1895). 
Microloxia vestigiata, Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 17). Vol. 16, p. 629 

(igoD). 
Hemislola annuligera,Wa.iTen, .\ovit. Zool. Vol. 16, p. I25 (1909) (nov.syn.). 

14. H. ziinmeymaiint {Hedemann). 

Geometra zimmermanni, Hedemann, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. Vol. 14. p. 509, 

t. 3, f. 6 (1879). 
Euchloris zimmermanni, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc Lonil. p. 95 11892). 
Nemoria zimmermaniii, Gumppenbery. Nova Acta Acad. Leoi>. d. Naturf. 
Halle. V..I. 64. p. 490 (18951. 

i5. H. haploii, nov. nom., Pioiit (liuj. gen.?) 3). 

Parenchloris I?) simplex, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 496 11902) 
(nec Hemistola simfilex, VVarren, 1899!. 

16. H semlalbida. no'. sp. 4), Prout, — Pl. 5, Fig. I I . 



Europe, Asia Minor, ?E. Siberia. 



Central Asia. 

N. and N. W. India. 



E. Siberia. 



British E. Africa. 



( ii iquaiand. 



1) So deteruiined liy A\'erneburj^', Beitr . Schnteli. Vol. i, p. 304, but the dfscription is in opposition thereto. 

2) Hemjstola chrysoprasaria lissas, nov. subsp. — Termen of hindwing without the elbow at R^: average size smaller, lines of 
forewiug inclined towards approximation (but this last occurs as an aberration in the type form, and is probably also variable in the race iissas). 

3) This may possibly prove to be a brightly coloured Xolhulerpna ; we have not been able to give it much stiidy. The palpus is minute in both 
sexes, C of hindwing anastomoses at a point, then gradually diverginji. 

4) Hemistola semialbida, nov. sp. - Q, 40 ram. Face, palpus and inner slde of le^s red. Head bright green, narrowly ochreous white 
between antennie . .\ntennal shatt oihreous white, pectinationa long, reddish ochreous. Thorax green above, whitisli beneath ; legs whitish externallj', 
forecoxa marked with green. .\bdomen ochreous white. Forewing above uniform bright green, the costa narrowly pale ochreous; fringe ample. green 
proximally, white distally. Hindwing white, faintly tinged with green, becoming green at inner margin, especially towards tornus; fringe nearly as in tore- 
wing. Underside of Iiotli wings very pale green, darkening towards the margins, especially the anterior part of forewing ; costa of forewing pale ochreous. 
Matatiele, Griqualand l'"„tst, East Cape Colony, November, 1905 (E, H, Bazeley). 'lype in coll, Oxford Mus. .Agrees with Section II as here characterized, 
except that the second joint of palpus is slightly rougher scaled below, and the wings (particularly the hindwingl are somewhat differently shaped, the 
hindwing having the costa lonjjer and termen less convex. Suggests in shape, and in the whitening of the hindwing. a connecting link between Hemistola 
and ChlorosterrhaO) semiatba, Swinhoe. 



228 LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 

17. H. perviridis, nov. sp. i).Pr()Ut. Transvaal. 

18. H. simpliclssima, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Transvaal. 
iQ. H. incommoda, nov. sp. 3), Prout (hic ponenda?). Cape Colony. 

Section III. — Antenna in 9 not bipectinate. 

20 H. dispartiia (VValkei). N. W. In-Ha, E. Turkestan 

Geometra dispartita, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22. p. 020 (1861) 
Microloxiaefformata, Warren, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. p. 354, t. 3r, f. 2 (1893). 
Euchloris cfformata, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5oi (iSgS). 
Nemoria dispartita, Hampson, ibidem, p. 5o2 (1895). 
Eucrosles efformata, Hamjison. ibidem, Vol. 4, p. 566 (1896). 
Euchloris dispartita, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 390(1897). 

21. H. cymaria (Hampsonj (praec. ab. vel var. ?) N. India. 

Eucrostes cymaria. Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 14. p. 655 
(l9o3). 

22. H. signi/era{WaTTen). Burma. 

Uliocnemis (.') signifera, Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 357, t. 3i, f. i5 

(1893). 
Eucrostessif;/iifera, Hampson. Faiina Ind. Moths. Vol. 4, ]>. 566 (1896). 



183. Genus NEUROTOCA, Warren 

Neurotoca. Wanen, .\ovit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. ^3 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, verj- slender, scarcely rough-scaled. Tongue vvanting. 
Anlenna less than one-half. in 9 bipectinate to near apex, with rather long branches (cf unknown). 
Pectus hairy. Hnultibia wilh terminal spurs only. Abdomcn robust. Forewing broad, costa slightly 
arched, apex moderate, termeu curved,not very oblique,cell almost one-half, DC incurved, SC from cell, 
fiee, Sc;- normal, R' connate or just stalked, M' separate : hindwing broad, apex and termen rounded, 
tornusrather pronounced, cell broad, not quite one-half. DC slightly incurved, C approximated to cell 
insecond quarter, rapidly diverging, SC* stalked, M' separaie. 



i) Hemistola pervlridls, nov. sp. — Q.3-mtn Tace and palpus reil; palpus minutc. Vcrtcx and anlennal shaft whitish ochrcous, 
pectinations ralher loni;. O. .ip.it grcH-n, Thorax and abdomen bright grccn above, whitc beneath. Lcgs largely dcep red. except hindtibia andtarsus. 
Wings uniform briglit grecn, without markings (the colour fornicd by dcnse bnght decp green irroration on pale grccn ground); costa of forewing narrowly 
ochreous ; fringcs concolori)u« with wing proximally, narrowly ochreous whitish distally Undersidc similar. but somcwl.at palcr green. Pretoria, Transvaal, 
2S Fcbruary, lOoS (C. J Swierstra Type in coll. Brit. Mus. Probably closely related to /ia/>loa, agreeing in vcnation. etc, but with longcr antcnnal 
pectinalions and proximal part of fringe Kr.-.-n (no red tinge in distal part). Shape and asp.ict are rather noar Ompkax. and it is of course possible that the 
discovery of the (J w ill sliow thal sex to possess a frenulum, in which case a rc-arrangement will bc necessary. The same remarks apply to the next spccies, 
of which also unfortunately only the Q is known ; it d.fters from per-jiri.iix in its smaller size, much shorter antennal pectinations and more regularly 
roundcd hindwing ; iu thc picsent specics the costa of hindwing is rather long. apical rcgion therefore rather prominent. 

2) Hemistola simplicissima. nov. sp. — Q,33 mm. Extremclylike the precedingspccies, alsorcmindingmuch(except in the somewhat 
les5sharp.apc\ of forewing an.l tornus of hindwing! of Omphax leiicocraspe.la. Antennal pcctinations much shorter than in pet~.iiidis — scarcely as 
long as diameter of sliaft. wliu:h is rather stout ; lace and legs as in pcrviri.iis ; dorsum of abdomcn grccn exceptiug anal extremity. which, logether wilh 
venter. is white : .; .sta ot both wiugs rd.itivelv sliorter than in prr-jiyidis : frina:cs grcen in proximal half, white in distal, entirely without the pinkish-grey 
tips of hapl.a. In both wiugs VI" is well s^paratc from R"; in thc hindwing C is less .loscly appresscd to cell tlian in haploa and perviridis, but continues 
approximated for more than a point — i. e. the venation is more typically tliat of Hemistola; in the forewing SC anajtomoses shortly with C, but is 
well septirate Irom SC*. Pretoria, 3 February, loio. Type in coll. A J. T. janse. 

3) Hemistola incommoda, nov. sp — <S.ti min. Fac- deep red. Palpus scarcely longer than diameter of eyc, dccp red abovc. palcr 
beneath . Vertex and ;intennal sliift p;ile ochreous ; pectinatious modcratc, rciiching to about Iwo-thirds, giving placc to subdeutate structure, wilii short 
ciliation Thorax grcen aliove, l.egs ochreous. fore and middle-let' dccp rcd on uppcrand inner sides: hindtibia not dilated, the spurs very unequal, only 
the inner t.-rminal long Forewin!; uuiform brighl green, of the same shade ;is in typu:al Omhhax : costal edge narrowly crimson ; fringe concolorous with 
wiug proximally. pale distally Hiud« iiig ochreous, p der towards base Ipossibly discoloured from green>. Undersidc of botli wings ochreous, more reddish 
than ahovc. costal re.i shade of forewing much broadcned, especially towards base ; a greenish shade pervading the cell of forewing (again suggesting the 
possibility that the ochreous colouring niay bc artificial). Transkei, Cape Colony iMiss F Batrett). Type in coll, L. 13. Prout ; cotype hopelessly disco- 
loured, but casily recognizable bv structure) in coll. Brit. Mus. An intcrestmg. somewhat anomalous species. which raight be taken, but for the alisence of 
frenulum. for a sraall, pcctin;lt,- O nphax, while in coloration it is curiously like the Australian .Mixocliroa ^ratiosala. Both cells one-half. C of forcwing 
well separate from .SC. SC arising w.-U back. anastomosing shortly witli C. .SC^-» well before K', 11' well separate; C ot hindwing approximatcd to about 
onc half, then moderately diverging. R* not extreme, M' well separate. Evidently vcry susceptible to moisturc. a discoloured patch on forewiuK resembling 
in coloiir the liindwings and sugg.-sting the query raised above. although we undcrstood Mr. C G. Barrett that no changc in hindwing ha.l occurrcd in 
relaxing. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^, 229 

Early stages unknown. 

AfFinities uncertain, .;f altdgetlier unlvnown. May be aderivative of Nothoterpna or Hemistola, but 
is ver\' distinct in ioss of median spurs and of tongue, etc. 

Type of the genus : Neuroloca notata, Warren (1897). 

Geographical distribution of species. — E. Africa. 

1. A^ notata. Warren. E. Africa. 

Neuroloca iiolata. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 43 1897). 

2. N. endorhoda. Hampson. N. E. Rhodesia. 

Neitrotoca eiidorhoda. Hampson. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, p. 476, t. 3c). f 3i 
(1910). 

184. Genus LOPHOSTOLA, nov. gen., Prout 

Lophostola, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — P"ace smootli. Palpus in cf rather short, in 9 elongate, second joint long-haired 
below, m $ long. third joint in cf small, partly concealed, m 9 moderately long. Tongue present. 
Antenna in both sexes nearly simple. Pectus somewhat haiiy. Femora glabrous. (Hindlegs lost in both 
examples.) Abdomen with strong crests. Forewing broad, costa arched distally, apex blunt, termen 
convex, faintly waved, cell less than one-half, DC somewhat curved, SC stalked to beyond R\ 
SC^normal, R^ stalked, M' connate or short stalked ; hindwing with termen waved, bluntly toothed 
at B?, cell about two-fifths, DC ratlier obhque, C anastomosing quite shortly with cell, then rapidly 
diverging, SC^ stallved, R^ very characteristic, M' short-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Very unfortuuately, the unique cf is damaged at the base, but we can find no trace of Irenulum ; 
the costal dilatation is strong. The crested abdomen is distinctive. otherwise the genus might have been 
suspected of some relationshiji to Hemistola. Its actual affinities are doubtful. 

Type of the genus : Lohhostota anniiligera (Swinhoe) = .Lophoctilora annuligera, Swinhoe. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Uganda. 
I. L. anmiiigera {Swmhoe). Uganda. ?Kilima-njaro. 

Lol^lioclilora aiiiiuligera.Swinhne. Ann. Mag.Nat.Hist.(S).Vol. 3,^.94(19091. 
? Hemithea disjiiiicta (?). .\urivillius. Schwed. Zool. Exped. Kilimanjaro (9), 
p. 39(i8io)(nec Walker). 

185. Genus GONOOHLORA, Swinhoe 

Gonochlora. Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 548(1904). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in cf rather short. second joint shortly scaled, third joint 
minute. Tongue developed. Antenna in 9 short, thick, lamellate, with strong clavate teeth. Hindtibia 
in cf slender, with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not appreciably crested. Forewing with costa 
somewhat arched. apex acute. termen subconcave below apex. projecting at R^ to M', thence extremely 
oblique, subconcave. cell scarcely two-fifths, DC somewhat incurved, oblique posteriorly , SC'-^ coincident. 
from stalk of SC^-S. anastomosing strongly with or running into C, R' about connate, R^ from above 
middle, M' just separate ; hindwing diamond-shaped, but with apex rather obtuse, termen faintly crenu- 



-j3o i.epidoptera heterocera 

late, produced to a strong tooth at R'^ slightly sinuate bexond, celi very shorl, DC somewhat oblique, 
C anastomosing with cell at a point, rapidh' diverging, SCslalked, 1\I' stalked. 

Early stages uuknown. 

Apparentlv more related to Diplodesina or to PamhhUbia than to any known genus in Group VI. 
The 9 is at present unknown. 

Type of the genus : Goiiochlora minutaria, Swinhoe (iqo^). 

Geogpaphical distrlbutlon of species. — W. .^frica. 

I. G. miimtaria, Swinhoe. Sierra Leone. 

Goiiochlora miautariii. Swinhoe, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 548 (190.)). 



186. Genus CHLOROMMA, Warren 

Chloromma. VVarren, Xovit. Zoot. \'ol. 3, p. 104 (1896). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in c^ moderate, second joint smooth-scaled, third joint 
in (^ moderate (in 9 probably iong). Tongue present. Antenna in (^ bipectinate with moderate 
branches. apical end shortly ciliated. Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (^f dilated 
witli hair-pencil, all spurs present. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa somewhat arched. apex 
acutely produccd, termen oblique, straight e.xcept close to apex, tornus rather pronounced, cell not 
quite one-half, produced apicall}\ DC deeply incurved, SC from cell, anastomosing with C, SC- nor- 
mal, R' very shortlj- stalked, M^ just separate; hindwing quadrate, produced to a long tail at R^, cell 
rather short, C approximated rather shortly near base, rapidly diverginy, SC* shortly stalked, M' shortly 
to verv .shortlv stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

Dilfers trom lodis in the shape of both wings, aud m some other slight characters, such as the 
point of origin of SC, the somewhat different antennal structure, etc. The palpus is still smoother- 
scaled than ni Hemistola, ihe hindwing differently shaped. We do not know the 9 ■ 

Type of the genus : Chloiomma mimica. Wanen (1896). 

Geographlcal distribution of species. — Assam. 

I. C. mimica. Warren. Assam. 

Chloromma mimica, Warren, Xovit. Zool, Vol. 3, p. io5 (1896). 

187. Genus IODIS, HiJBNER 

lodis i), Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 285 (1826?): Guenee. Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9. p. 353 (i858). 
Leucoglyphica. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 3gi (1894). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, second joint smooth or quite slightly 
roughened, third joint in both sexes smooth, distinct, in cf moderate, in 9 longer. Tongue present. 
Antenna in (^ bipectinate to bevond one-half, usually with rather long, well-ciliated, obliquely-directed 



I) Some of ourEnglish authors, us well as Scudder in the S^omenclator Zooto^iciis, have misunderstood the German usa^e with regard to the 
letter I-J, and since Hiibner of course uses the round form J, have misquoted this name as Jodis . To be consistent, they wiU also have to vvrite Pttisia 
iota, etc. 



FAM. (iEOMETKID.fi: 23i 

branches, recallini; those of Thalassodts, a lather long apical portion nearly simple; in 9 nearh' simple. 
Pectus somewhat hairv. Femora tvpically iVini^ed with some fine hair. Hindtibia in cf dilated with 
hair-pencil. in botli sexes with all spurs. Iliudtarsus in (^ t\'pically short. Abdomen not crested. 
Forewing with costa arched, ape.x moderate to sharp, termen oblique, usually little convex, cell less 
than one-half, DC somewhat curved, SC stalked (or, exceptionally. connate or closely approximated) 
with SC^-s. usually anastomosing with C, SC- normal i). very rarely anastomosing with SC^, R' connate 
or short-stalked. M' connate or short-stalked; hindvving elongate, subquadrate, but apex rather rounded, 
termen nearly always with an elbow or slight tail at R^, otherwise smooth, or nearly so 2), cell rather 
short, DC^ more or less incurved anteriorly, C shortly approximated to cell near base, rapidly diverg- 
ing, SC^stalked, M' stalked. cf genitalia : uncus pointed, with socii, gnathos pointed, harpe indented 
on the outer margin, with diaphanous connection, penis pestillate, eighth sternite terminating in two 
hard scobinated lobes. Show more or less close resemblance to those lA Prasinocyma. Heiiiislola chryso- 
prasana, Berta, Cuin^siola, etc. 

Egg. — Apparently undescribed. 

L.-\RVA. — Verv slender, tvvig-like, transversely wrinkled, head deeply cleft, produced into two 
pomts. jnothorax provided with two small pomts projecting over head. anal flap narrow, triangular 
(Hofmanii, Raupen d. Gi ossschmelt. Eiir. p. 161, 162; we are acquainted with no very full description). 

PuPA. — Rather slender, liL;ht brown. wing-veins and antenna-case dark, anal armature con- 
sisting of four pairs of very small hooks. 

Probably an almost direct derivative of Gelasma. by the loss of frenulum in the (^ . The stalking 
of SC of the forewing seems here to be becoming a fixed character. but a very occasional exception 
prevents our using it as quite absolute. The species are mostly slender, smoothly-scaled, and not rarely 
more or less iridescent. As regards \Varren's Lencoglyphica [type. /asciala), we have not seen the ^f . but 
beheve that Swinhoe {Lep. Hei. Oxford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 404) is right in sinking it. It is probably slightly 
aberrant in having more shortly pectinate antenna, but we can find no other structural distinction — an 
exceedingly slight elbow in the termen of forewing and a slight accentuation of the tail of hindwing are 
clearly inadequate tor generic separation. 

Type of the genus : lodis lactearia (Linne) =^ Phalacna Geointlra lactearia, Linne(i858). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Europe. Asia. 

Section I. — Wings often iridescent; forewing with SC- normal ; 

hindwing always angled at R'. 

I. /. lactearia (Linne). Europe to Japan. Asia Mi 

Phalaena Geometra laclearia, Liiine. Syst. .\at. (ed. 10), p. Jig (i^SS). nor. 

Phalaena Geometra vernaria, Liiine, Faiina Suec. (ed. 2 , p. 323 (1761). 
Phalaena Geometra ainiginaria [Schiffermuller],Schmett. Wien. p. 314(1775). 
Plialoena lactea fGeoffroy], Fourcroy's Ent. Paris. p. 273 (1785). 
Phalaena Geometra decolorata, De Villers. Linn. Ent. VoL 2. p. 385 (1789). 
Phalaeiia Geometra putalaria, Esper, Schmett. in Abbild. Vol. 5, p. 25, t. 2, 

f. 4-6 (1794) (nec Llnne). 
Geometra aeruginaria, Hiibner. SammL Eur. Schmett. Geom. t. g, f. 46 

(1796?); p. 17 (1800?). 
Geometra ptitataria, Haworth, Lep. Brit. (2), p. 3oo (1809). 
lodis aeruginaria, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 286 (1826.'). 
Ptychofoda putataria. Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. (2), p. i53 I1829). 



i) In uiiifascia and albidentitla, which might form a separate genus, SC- is stalked to well beyond SC". 
2) iermen of hindwing prectically quite rounded in micra and atbidcntiila, littie elbowed in unifascia. 



232 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Himilhcn putataria, Duponchel. Hist. Nat. Lep. Vol. 7 (2). p. 242, t. i5i. 

f. .3 (1829). 
Hemiihea aerugiuaria, Duponchel, ibidem, p. 244, t. i52. f. 6 (1829). 
f Chlorochroma aeruginaria, Duponchel. Cat. Meth. Lep. Eur. p. 224 (1845). 
Chlorochroma putataria, Diiponchel, ibidem, p. 224 (1845). 
loiis lactearia, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 355 (i858). 
lodis norbertaria, Rossler, Stett. Ent. Zeit. VoL 38, p. 365 (1877) (var. vel 

ab.?). 
Euchloris lactearia, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 95 (1892). 
Thalera lactearia, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 264 (1901). 

2. /. putata (Linne). 

Phalaena Geometra pntata, Linne, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), p. 523 (1758). 
Phalaena Geometra putatoria. Linne, Fauna Suec. (ed. 2), p. 323 (1761J. 
Phalaena Geometra micantaria, Esper, Schmett. in Abbild. Vol. 5, p. 28, 

t. 2, f. 7,8(1794). 
Geomelra putataria, Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett.Geom. t.2. f. 1011796?); 

p, 17 (1800 ?), 
lodis putataria. Iliibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 286 (1826?). 
Hemithea pntalaria. Hoisduval, Gen, et Ind, Meth. Eur. Lep. p. 180 (1840). 
lodis pulata. Staudinger, Cat, (ed. i), p. 62 (1861), 
lodis alliata. Hofner, Jahr.-Ber. Nat. Landesmus. Karnthen. Vol. 14. p 266 

(1S80). 
Euchloris alliata, Meyrick, Trans, Ent, Soc. Lond. p. gS (1S92). 
Euchloris putata. Meyrick, ibidem, p. 95 (1S92). 
Thalera pulata. Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 3), p. 264 (1901), 

3. /, caudularia (Guenee). 

? Phalaena immacularia. Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Vol, 3 (2), p. i3i (1794) (nec 

Gmelin (1790). 
Nemoria caudularia, Guenee, Spec Gen. Lep, Vol. 9, p, 349 (i858). 
Thalassodes nanda, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 552 (1S61). 
Thalera undularia. Hampson, 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 8, p. 109, 

t. i5i, f, 2 (1891). 
Thalera caudularia, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5i5, f. 226 

(1895). 
Jodis caudularia, Swinhoe, Lep. Het. O.\ford Mus, Vol. 2, p. 404 (igoal. 

4. /, opalaria, Guenee. 

lodis opalaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol.g, p.357 (i,s58). 

Thalerai}] subtraclala. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p, 1753 

(i862). 
Thalassodes opalaria, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol, 3, p, 509(l8g5K 
lodis spumi/tra, Warren, Novit. Zool, Vol, 5, p, 235 (1898). 

5. /. argutaria (Walkei). 

Thalera iifj ii<iifi(i, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus,VoI. 35, p. 1614(1866). 
Gelasma concolor, Warren, Proc. Zonl. Soc. Lond. p. 352 (1893). 
[lodis] argutaria. Warren, Novit, Zool, Vol, 3. p. 107(18961. 

6. /. praerupta (Butler). 

Thalassodes praerupta. Butler, III, Het. CoII. Brit. .Mus. Vol. 2, p. 49, t. 36, 

f. 5 (1878), 
Thalera praerupla, Leech, .^nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), Vol. 20, p, 243 (1897), 
lodis steroparia, Piingeler, Iris, Vol. 21, p, 292, t, 4, f. 8 (1908) (nov. syn.). 

7. /, palUsceiis (Hampson). 

Geometra pallescens. Hampson, III. Het CoII. Hrit. Mus, Vol. S, p. 108, 

t. i5i, f. 3 (1S91). 
Leucoglyphica pallescens, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 1, p, 391 '1894), 
Thalera pallescens, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol, 3, p, 5i6 (1895). 

8. /. irregularis (Warren). 

Gelasma irregularis, W.arren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 392 (1894). 

9. /. annulifera, Warren. 

lodis annuUfera, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 107 (1S96). 
Thalassodes annulifera, Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist, Soc. Vol. 12. 
p. 92 (iSg8). 



Central Europe to Arme- 
nia, E. Asia. 



India with Ceylon. 



India to Borneo. 



N. India, S. China, PJapan. 
Japaii, .Amur. 

Nilgiris, 

N, India, 
Assam. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



233 



10. /. coeruleata, Warren. Assam. 

lodis cocruUala, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 107 (1896). 

11. /. inumbrata, Warren. Assam. 

lodis imimbrala, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 107 (1896). 

12.7. iridescens, Warren. Assam. 

lodis iridescens, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 108 (iKq6). 

i3. /. delicatula, Warren. .^ssam. 

lodis delicatula, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 3o9 (18961. 
14. /. sinuosaria (Leech). China, Japan. 

Thalera sinuosaria, Leech, .\nn. Mag.Nat. Hist. 16). V0I.20. p. 244 11897J. 

i5. /. dentifascia, Warren. Japan, Corea. 

lodis denlifascia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 212 (1897). 

16. /. micra, Warren. Bah. 

lodii micra. Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 212 118971. 

17. /. albifuncta, Warren. Assam. 

lodis albipiincta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5, p. i3 (1S98). 
Thalera albipuncta, Hampson, Journ. Romb. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 14, 
p. 656 (i903). 

Section II. — Wings not iridescent; forewing with SC' stalked to beyond SCs; 
hindwing rounded or only very wealcly elbowed (gen. div. ?). 

18. /. unifascia (Hampson). Nilgiris. 

Thalera unifascia, Hampson, III. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 8, p. iio, 
t. i5i, f. 7 (1891). 

ig. /. albidentiila {Hampson). Ceylon. 

Euchloris alhidentula. Hampson. Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 18, 
p-. 53, t. E, f. 41 (1807). 

NoTE. — 7odis clarissa, Butler, III. Het. Coll. Brit. Miis. Vol. 2, p. 49, t. 36. f. 4 (1878) belongs 
to the Geometriiiae [Boarmiinae), lodis (?) olivacea, Felder, Reise Novara, Lefr. Het. t. 128, f. i3, to the 
Larentiinae (genus Amaiirinia). Other erroneously referred species have been corrected in Hampson's 
Fautia Ind. Moths fVoL 3) and Turner's recent revision of the Subfaniih'. 



88. Genus BERTA, Walker 



Berta. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. AIus. VoL 26, p. 1621 (1862). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate to long, slender, second joint rather long, 
smooth-scaled, third joint in (^^ moderate, in 9 'ong to veiy long. Tongue present. Antenna about as 
in lodis. Pectus slightly hairy Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in (^ dilateJ with hair-pencil, in both 
se.xes with all spurs. Abdoincn not crested. Forewnig vvith costa arched, apex moderate to rather sharp, 
termen obhque, more or less curved, cell less than one-half, DC^ incurved, so that R^ appears almost 
as its continuation, DC^ arising somewhat distally, SC stalked with SC^'^, usually anastomosing with C 
(but see chrysolineata zygophyxia), SC^ normal (m olivesccns anastomosing vvith SC). R' connate or more 
usually very short-stalked, M' separate; hindwing elongate, apex nearly rounded, termen crenulate or 
subcrenulate (e.xcepting persimilis) with a tail at R-* and (excepting acte and persimilis) a smaller tooth 
at R' and an excision between, cell rather short, DC^ strongly oblique, somewhat curved, SC^ arising 
distall}^ somewhat curved, C shortly appressed to cell near base, rapidly diverging, SC- stalked 
M' stalked (sometimes very shortly). cf genitalia : uncus pointed. with socii, gnathos pointed, harpe 



2^4 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



with short projecting clasper. vinculum rounded, eighth sternite terniinating in two h)bes {c/ujsoHneata 
hucospUola). 

Early stages unknown. 

Closelj' related to lodis, differing chiefly in the form of the discocelkilars. especially the incur- 
vature of DC- of the forewing We have seen one aberrant example oi chiysolineata in which, in the 
hindvving, DC'* is an almost straight continuation of DC^, but the obUque course of the two, and the 
lack of any incurve in DC^ still keep the form distinct from lodis. It is just possible the genera will prove 
to intergrade through some forms akin to Berta acte and persimilis (in which the hindwing lacks the 
typical excision of Berta) and lodis of^alaria or iridesceus (in which the discocelUilars of the hindwma are 
inchned to assume the Berta course), but at present there is no difficulty at all in keeping the two genera 
apart. The very long 9 palpus, the shape of the hindwing. and to some extent of forewing (costa and 
termen inchned to be more rounded) and the sepanition of M' of forewing at its origin from R-'. usually 
afford further (hstinctions. 

Type of the genus : Berta chrysolineata, Walker (1862). 

Geographical distribution of species. — India to X. Austraha. W. .^frica. 



Section I. 



Hinchvintr with termen more or less crenulate. 



1. B. chrysolineata, Walker. 

a. Berta chrysoUneata chrysolineata. 

Berta chrysotineala. Walker, List Lei>. CoU. Brit. Mvis. Vol. 26, p. 1621 (1862). 
Thalera chrysolineala, Hainpson, Fauna Ind Moths. Vol. 3, p. 5i6 (iSgS). 

b. Berla chrysaliiteata lygojthyxia. 

Berta chrysolineata zygophyxia. nov. subsp. 11, I'rout. 

c. Berta chrysoliiieala leucospiloUi. 

EMc/i;onj;<i«;os/>i7o/rt,Turner,Trans.Roy.Soc.S.Austral.Vol. 28,^.221(1904). 
Berta chrysolineata.Tu-cner. Proc. Linn.Soc.N.S.Wales.Vol. 35, p. 564(1^10). 

2. B. vaga (Walker). 

Thaleravaga, Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. SgS (1861). 
Berta vaga. Swiiihoe. Lep. Het. O.xford Mus. Vol. 2, p. 405, t. fi. f. 8 (1900). 

3. B. acte (Swinhoe). 

Thalera acte, Swiuhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. o. t. i. t. 13^1892) 2). 
Euchloris acte. Swinhoe, ibidera, p. 175 (1894;. 

4. B. alhiplaga, Warren. 

Berta albiplaga, Warren, l'roc. Zool. Soc. Lond. )>. 357. '• 3i, f. 5 (1S931 

5. B. discolor, Warren. 

Berta (?) discolor, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i, p. 389 (1894). 

6. B. olivescens, Warren. 

Berta olivescens, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 3. p. 287 (1896). 



India with Ceylon, Dutch Xew 
Guinea. 

Sin(,^apore, Hali. 

N. .\ustralia. 

Borneo. 

.-Vssam, Ceylon, ? W.China. 

X. India. 
Padang. 
Fergusson Island. 



Section II. — Hindwing wit!i termen not crenuhite. 



7. B. persimilis (Warren). 

Chloromma persimilis, Warren, Novit 7.0o\. Vol. 4, p. .36 (1897). 



Niger to Cameroons. 



1) Borta chrysolineatazygophyxia. nov. subsp. - .Slmpe and markings as in the In.iian race cli<ysi>liutala o(\.tit AM olive, 
modorately white-niarked tvpe. but with different venation. SC of forewing ansing just liefore end of cell (therefore well before R>, whereas in the name- 
type it is italked to beyond R'), not anastomosing with C : forewmK on the average rather broad . a rather conspicuous white spot in its upex . Singapore 
(2 Q), Bali (2 <S). all in coll. Brit. Mus. Will probably prove a constant forra, or even species. 

2) Gepnietra acte on typ^ label. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.^i 235 



189. Genus LAMBORNIA, nov. gen., Prout 

Lambornia, nov. gen. Prout. 

Chapacters. — Face smooth, broad. Palpus slender, in ^f shortish, m 9 moderate, second 
joind smooth-scaled, third joint distinct, in q' notminute, in 9 ehmgate. Tongue developed. Antenna 
rather short, in both sexes bipectinate to rather near apex, the branches quile moderate. Pectus some- 
what hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes with a pair of unequal terminal spurs, the 
median wanting. Abdomen with minute raised dorsal spots (embrjo crests). Forewing short and broad, 
costa arched, apex bhint, termen subcrenulate, curved, becoming oblique, cell short, DC slightly 
incurved, oblique posteriorly, SC from cell, anastomosing strongly with C, SC^ from stalk of SC'*'^, 
anastomosing strongly with SC^, or even with C -|- SC before their separation, R' about connate, 
R^ from about centre of DC, M^ connate; hindwing elongate, apex rounded off, termen dentate, with 
stronger teeth at R' and R^, excised between, tornus rather pronounced, innei margin ver\- long, cell 
very short, DC not much curved, sometimes shghtl} angled at origin of R-, C closely approximated to 
one-half cell or less, then rapidly diverging, SC- long-stalked, R^ from little above middle, sometimes 
almost ceiitial, M' iong-stalked. 

Early stages unknown. 

A thoroughly distmct genus. Perhaps nearest in facies to Beiia, but diifering in several characters 
(tibial armature, antennal structure, origin of SC^ stumpier forewing). May be derived from an 
immediate ancestor oi Berta, prior to the stalking of SC^. 

Type of the genus : Lambornia iiispicieiis, nov. sp., Prout. 

Geographical distribution of species. — Equatorial Africa. 
I. L. inspiciens, nov. sp. i), I^rout. Uganda, Lagos. 



190. Genus COMOSTOLA, Meyrick 

Connostola. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol, 2, p. 86g (i<S88). 
Leucodesmia. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 25 (i8gg) (nec Howard, i8q5). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus slender, in cf moderate to rather long, in 9 long, second 
joint smooth-scaled, third jomt smooth, distinct, in o* moderate (rarely short), in 9 long. Tongue 
present. Antenna nioderate, in cf bipectinate to two-thirds with long branches, in 9 serrate or simple. 
Pectus almost glabrous. Femoia glabrous. Hindtibia in cf dilated, with hair-pencil and sometimes a 
short terminal process, in both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa shghtly 
to moderately arched, apex usually acute, termen oblique, nearly straight or curved, tornus in typical 



I) Lambornia inspiciens, nov. sp — cj Q. 19-22 mm. Face dull olive-j^reen. Pulpus reddish above. whitish beneatli. Vertox andbase 
of antennal shaft white. the httter distallv reddish ochreous. Thorax fuscous olive above, abdomen atbase dorsally tinted with reddish fuscous. otherwise 
paler, with minute reddisb-fuscous raised «pots. Wings white, smoothly scaled, copiously spotted and blotched with dull olive. Forewing with some slight 
markings at base, especially on costa; two diifuse, ill-deiined bars .at about one-fifth, from costa to il, the outer joming the median band; a difluse. 
ill-defined, interrupted broad band somewhat before middle, ils anterior half consisting of a costal mark and an ovate, white surrounded blotch. bounded 
posteriorly by VI, its posterior half somewbat broader, some clouding tollowing between M' and .\I=, some apots between the radials, distal area with some 
costal marks and some subterminal blotches between the radials and at tornus. Hindwing with a small blotch at end of cell, irregular interrupted lines 
proximally and distally to this ; an interrupted dentate line at about two-thirds, nearly parallel with termen ; a subterminal band, or series of blolche», 
somewhat interrupted from K-' to near tornus . Underside white, unmarked. costa of forewing narrowly ochreous-tinted. more broadly so at base. Entebbe, 
Uganda, iqoScE. .\. Minchin); type (o") in coll. Brit, Mus, Oni, Lagos, in foiest with natural clearings, below 100 feet (W, A.Lamborn); co-types(i o'. ■ S) 
in coU, Oxford .Mus,. the Q dated i5 April, igio. 



236 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCEllA 



section well marked, cell less than one-half, DC^ incurved, DC^ arising further distally (sometimes much 
further, in maculata very little further), SC arising close to or out of the stalk of SC^-"', in the type and a 
few others stalked to beyond R', R' usually stalked, M' connate or short-stalked ; hindwing with termen 
slightly bent at R-', or strongly rounded, tornus usuall\- pronounced, inner margin long, celi short, 
DC slightly oblique, usually nearly straight, sometimes DC^ and DC-' sej^arately (weakly) incurved, 
forming an angle at origin of R^ C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, rapidly diverging, 
M' stalked, M^ from close to end of cell (Pl. 4, Fig. I 7). c? genitalia with uncus parallel, bifurcate at 
the extreme tip, socii terminating in a strong horn, gnathos pointed, harpe with firum-lil3'-shaped 
clasper, penis pestillate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Associated with Berla in the forni of DC of the forevving. That this can have been independently 
acquired is suggested bv a few other genera, but the genitnlia and one or two other characters point to 
the possibilit}' of a real connection in the present case. The superficial aspect is totally dissimilai . There 
may probably be a relationship vvith Hcmistola through C. ovifera and Section III of that genus. 

Type of the genus : Comostola laesaria (Walker) = lodis laesaria, Walker = Comosiola perlepidaria, 
Meyrick (i888). 

Geographical dlstributlon of species. — Indo-Australian. 



Section I. — Termen of hindwing not strongly rounded, but nearly ahvays bent at R^; 
antenna of 9 usually serrate (Coviostola, Warren). 



1. C laesaria (Walker). 

lodis laisaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins, Brit. Miis. Vol. 22, p.544 (1861). 

Eucroslis ferhpidaria, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 35, p. 1610 (1866). 

Tlialera laesaria, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 429 (1887). 

Comostala perlepidaria, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p. 869 (i888). 
Euchloris subliliaria (part.), Hampson, I'aiina Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 5oo 

(1895) (nec Bremer). 
Comoslola laesaria, Turner, Proc. Liiin. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 566 

(1910) 

2. C. meritaria (Walker). 

Geometramerilaria.VfaXket. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.V0l.22, p.S22(l86i). 
Thalera merilaria. Moore, Lep. Ceyl. Vol. 3, p. 429 (1887). 

3. C. subtiliaria (Bremer). 

Euchloris subtiiiaria. Bremer. Mem. Acad. Sc. St-Petersb. Vol. 8. p. 76, 

t. 6, f. 23 (1864). 
P/iorodesma subtiliaria, Staudinger, Cat. (ed. 2), p. 144 (1871). 

4. C. nympha (Butler) (praec. var. vel syn.?). 

Racheospila nympha, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 411 (1881). 

5. C. leitcomera/a (Walker). 

Chloiochroma leucomeraUi, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.Vol. 35, p. 1609 

(1866V 
lodis ieiicomertila, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p. 889 (1888). 
Comoslola Uucomerala. Turner. ibidem, Vol. 35. p. Sfi? (loio). 

6. C maculata {\ioQre). 

Comibaena maculala, Moore, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lonii. p. 638 (i867J. 
Euchloris subliliaria. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, VoL 3, p. 5oo, f. 221 

(1895) (nec Bremer). 
Eucrostes subtiliaria, Hampson, ibidem. Vol. 4, p. 566 (1896). 

7. C. nereidaria (Snellen). 

lodis nereidaria. Snellen.Tijdschr. v. Ent.V0l.24, p. 76, 1. 10. f. 10, 11 ' 1881). 



S. India to Australia. 



Ceylon. 

E. Siberia, China. 

Japan, China, PFormosa. 
E. .-Xustralia. 



.\'. and N. W. India. 



Celebes to Fergusson Is- 
land, N. .«^ustralia. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 237 

Comoiloltt ntyeidana. Mcyrick. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 492 (1889). 
Conwslolajlavu-incta. Warren, \ovit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 288 (tSgej. 
Comostola iitseidaria. Warren, ibidem, p. 3o6 (1S96). 
lEuchlnris suhtiliaria, Pagenstecher, Zoologica, Vol. 29, p. 154 11900) (nec 
Bremer). 
8. C. ovifera (Warren). Sikkim, Tibet. 

Euchloris {?) ovifera. Warren, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 358 (iSgS). 
Eucrostes ovi/era, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 4, p. 566 (1896). 
g. C. mniidaia, Warren. Khasis 

Cumostold munJata. Warren Novjl. Zool. Vol. 3, p. io5 (1896). 

10. C.inops, nov. sp., Proiit i). Kashmir. 

1 1 . C. flaviHmbria, VVarren. British New (iuinea. 

Coynostola flavifimbria, Warren. Novit. Zool. Vol. i3. p. 86 (19061. 

12. C. rufimargo, Warren. Hritish New Guinea. 

Comostola rufimargo, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 86 (1906). 
i3. C. haplophanes, Turner. N_ Queensland. 

Conwstola haplophants, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 
p. 567 (1910). 

Section II. — Termen of hind^\-ing strongly rounded; antenna of 9 .simple 
{Lcucodcsinia, Warren, nom. pragocc). 

14. C. dispav<a (Walker). Cevlon 

Cnmibaena dispansa, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Jltis. Vol. 22, p. 574 

(1S61). 
Racheosptladispansa. Hampson. 111. Het. Coll. Brit. Mus. Vol. 9, p. 146, 

t. 170, f. 5 (1893). 
Euclilorisdispausa. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 3, p. 499 (1895). 
Comostolodes dispansa, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 309 (1896;. 
Leucodcsmta dispansa, Warren, ibidem, Vol. 6, p. 25 (1899). 
Comostola dispansa, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 568 

(1910). 

i5. C. chlorargyra (Walker). India to Borneo, New Gui- 

Comibaena chlorargyra. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 577 nea N. E. Australia 

(1861). 
Eiichloris dispansa ipart.), Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. Vol. 3, p. 499 

(1895) (nec Walker). 
Leiicodesmia chlorargyra, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 25 (18991. 
Comostolachlorargyra, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35. p. 568 

(1910). 

16. C. mimUata (Druce) (prtec. var. ?). New Gumea to Bismarck 

lodis minutata, Druce, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 577 (1888). .Archipelaeo 

Comoi/o/d (roMcAy^fli, Meyrick, Trans. Ent.Soc. Lond. p. 490 (1889) (nov. 
syn.i. 

Leucodesmia conchylias. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6. p. 25 (1S99). 
Leucodesmia minutata, Warren, ibidem, p. 25 (1899). 

17. C. Ctf«/7«a (Waricn). Cevlon 

Ltuiodesmia confusa. Warren, Novit. Zool., Vol. 12. p. 422 (igo5). 

18. C. eiicraspcda, Turner. N Austraha 

Comostola eucraspeda. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 568 
(1910). 



i) Oomostola inops, nov. sp. - ij, 26 mm. Face hright red above, white below. Palpus yellow above. narrowlv white at end of second 
joint, whitishbeneath. .Antenna pale yellow, whitish at base. Legs whitish, tinged with vellow. Head green. narrowlv whitish between antenns Thorai 
green ahove. Abdomen whitish, marked with pale above.Wings bright green (less bluish Ihan in «vifera and macM.,). markings creamy white consisting 
m both wings of a moderate-sized oval discal spot and a postmedian series of rather large vein-spots, tliose on the hindwing larger and partly confluent ■ 
onbothwings, but especially on hindwmg, the Ime thus formed makes an mward cnrve i„ posterior half, reaching inner margin at not much beyond 
(on hmdwmg not beyondl the m.ddle; the red-brown markmg in centre of d.scal spots .s conlined in forewing to a few scales, hardly noticeable in hind- 
wing makmg a fa.rly complete c.rclel, but dull and weak ; fringes creamy white. Underside paler green, unmarked. Lidderwat, Liddan Valley Kashmir 
0,700 feet, .0 July. 1904 (C. H. Ward). Type in coll. Brlt. Mus. Intermediate between ovifera and maculata.tbc markings more as in the latter but with 
rcd term.nal l.ne ent.iely absent. less d.splacement of postmedian series of spots. more evenlv rounded hindwing, etc. The angulation of DC in forewing 
is not very strong. 



238 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



191. Genus COMOSTOLOPSIS, Warren 



Comostolopsis. Warren, N'()vit. Zool. Vol. 9, \>. 494 (1902). 

Characters. — F^ace smooth. Palj>us in both sexes long, very slender, second joint smooth- 
scaled, third joint moderate to elongate in (f , rather long to long in 9- Tongue present. Anteniia 
moderate, in cf bipectinate with long, stout branches, apical portion nearly simple; in 9 subserrate 
(in apicata strongly bipectinate). Pectus scarceiy hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf not dilated, in 
both sexes with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa somewhat arched, apex moderate 
to ratlier acute, termen straight, tornus pronounced, cell short, DC-' much incurved, SC^ rather long- 
stalked, anastomosing with C or free, SC^ normal, typicaily anastomosing with SC, R' short-stalked, 
M' stalked ; hindwing with termcn rounded, or scarcely appreciably bent at R^, cell short. DC-* incurved, 
C anastomosing with or appressed to cell at a point near base, then rapidlj- diverging i), SC' stalked, 
M' slalked, M- from close to angle, or connate, or even very sliortly stalked with R'' and M'. 

Early stages unknown. 

A close relative of Comvstola ; one species {stUlata) is niarvellously like that genus in every detail 
of appearance, certainly betokening affinity, not mere convergence; and as the sole distinction of 
importance isin the discocellulars,it is possible that Comostolopsis ought tobe sunk.andour analyses recast. 

Type of the genus : Comostolopsis simpltx, Warren (1902). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Africa (chiefly S. and E.). 



1. C. simplex, Warren. 

Comostolopsis simplex, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9. ]). 494 (1902). 
EucMoris simplex, Swinhoe. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. S^S (1904). 

2. C. stillata (Felder). 

Nimoria stiUcita. Felder. Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 17 (1875). 

Eucrostis rubristicta, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 23 (1899). 

Eucroslis rufoslellata. Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 68, p. 740 (1900) 

(nov. syn.). 
Comostolopsis stillaria, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 493 (1902), 

3. C. apicata (Warren). 

Pareucliloris apicala, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 5, p. 14 (1898). 
Phorodesma (1) fuscipuncla, Warren, ibidem, VoL 6, p. 291 (1899). 

4. C. capeiisis (Warren) 2). 

Aplodes capensis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 291 (1899). 

5. C. coenilea, Warren. 

Comostolopsis coerulea, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 494 (1902). 

6. C. undiililiuea (Warren) (huj. gen. ?). 

Eucrosles undulilinea. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 3S4 (igoS). 



British E. Africa, ? Natal. 



S. .Africa to Niger and 
Uganda. 



Natal to Cape. 

Cape. 

British E. Africa. 

Sierra Leone. 



192. Genus PYRRHORACHIS, Warren 

Pyrrhorachis. Wanen, Novit. Zool. \*oi. i, p. 292 (1896). 

Pyrrhorhachis. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 5b9 (1910). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus long and slender, second joint l"ng, smooth-scaled, 
third joint long, especialh' in ihe 9- Tongue present. Antenna in (^ bipectinate to be^-ond one-half 



i) Only iii tindHlilinea. which is probably not strictly congeneric (SC^ of forewing arising just before SC*. etc), approximated to aboiit 
one-half of celt. 

zl Type lost (raialaid>. but evidently belongs to this genua, perhaps an ab, or var. of i/m//c.r, with discal spot obsolete (as we have seen a 
specimen from Durban) ami with the pale Une nearer the terinen. The rest ot the description fits eiactly. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 23^ 

with long, abruptly ceasing branches, in 9 simple. Pectus scaiceh- hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtihia 
in (j* dilated. in both sexes with two pairs of unequal spurs. Abdomen not appreciabh' crested. 
Forewing with costa very sUghtly arched, apex moderate, termen entire, bowed, obhque, cell short, 
DC usuaUv incurved (occasionaUy DC^"^ forming one gentlc, continuous curve), SC from near apex 
of ceU or from near base of staUv of SC^-', free or anastomosing with C, R' stalked (arising after SC), 
R^ from above middle of DC, M' staUced (except in caeruUa); hindwing elongate, with termen strongly 
rounded, apex also rounded, tornus not pronounced, ceU short, DC shghtly obUque, ahriost straight or 
with DC* weakh- incurved anteriorly, C anastomosing with ceU at a point near base, very rapidly 
diverging (except in caerulea). SC- stalked (usuaUy shortly), R^ from much above middle, M' stalked 
(except in caerulea). cf genitaUa with uncus paraUel, bifurcate at the tip, socii long and slender. gnathos 
pointed. harpe fuU with forked clasper, penis spatulate. (Akin to those of Comostola .) 

Early stages unknown. 

From Section II of Comostola, which it closely resembles in shape, this genus differs in the simple 
discocellulars; from Comastolopsis it is distinguished by its shape and by the fact that SC arises 
before R', whereas in Comostolopsis the reverse is the case. 

Type of the genus : Pyrrhorachis pyrrhogona (Walker) = Eucrostis pyrrhogona. Walker = Pyrrho- 
rachis cornuta. Warren. 

Geographical distribution of species. — India to .^ustralia. 

Section I. — Hindwing \v\th. C anastomosing at a point; both wings with M' stalked. 

1. P. pyrrhogona (Walker). India to E. Australia. 

Eticrosiis pyrrhogona. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. VoL 35, p. 1610 

(1866). 
lodis marginnUx, Lucas. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2). VoL 3, p. 1267 

(1888). 
Comostola pyrrhogona, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 491 (1889) 

(var.? — • ead. ac cornuta. W^arren) i). 
Euchtoris pyrrhogona, Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths. VoL 3, p. ."ioo (i^gSj. 
Eucrostes pvrrhogona. Hampson, ibidem, Vol. 4. p. 566 (18961. 
Pyrrhoractiis pyrrhogoiia, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 3, p. 292 (1896). 
Pyrrhorachis cornuta, Warren, ibidem. p. 292 (1896) (var. ?j i). 

2. P. alhifimbria (Warren) (huj. gen.?). Khasis. 

Ctimostola albifimhria. Warren, Novit. ZouL Vol. 3, p. io5 1 1896;. 

3. P. deliciosa (Warren). Natuna Islands. 

Coniostolodes deliciosa, Warren, Novit. ZooL VoL 3, p. 365 (1896,1. 

4. P. viridula, W'arren. British Xevv Gumea. 

Pyrrhotachis viridiihi. Warren, Novit. ZuoL Vol. 10. p. 363 (igoSl. 

5. P. castaneata (Warren). gritish New Guinea. 

Comostolodes castaneata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 87 (1906J. 

6. P. luficeps, Wam-n. British New Guinea. 

Pyrrhorachis ruficeps, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. i3, p. 89 (1906). 

7. P. ru/iripunctata (Warren) (huj. gen.?). Japan. 

Microlo.xia rubripunctata. Warren. Novit. ZooL VoL 16, p. 125 (igogi. 

Sec'1 lON II. — Hindwing with C approximated for some distance; 
both wing.s with DC^ oblique, M' separate (vix huj gen.). 

8. P. caerulea (Warren). N. India. 

Comostola caerulea. Warren, I^roc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 354, t. 3i. f. i ( iSgS). 



I) We are not able to appreciate any constant diflferences between the New Guinea specimens {cornut.t, Warren = pyrrhngona, Meyrick) and 
the Indian. those pointedout hy Warren beinj,' inconstant. Probably Warrens na ue should be treated as strictly a synonym. orat bcst an aberration . 



240 lepidoptera heterocera 

193. Genus CHLOERES, Turner 

Chloeres Turnei, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, VoL 35. }). 570(1910). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus slender, in (^ rather short or moderate, in 9 longer, 
second joint smooth, third joint distinct, in cf rather short. in 9 rather long. Tongue present. Antenna 
in (j' bipectinate with rather long branches, apical end simple; in 9 "early simple. pubescent. Pectus 
sHghtly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindlibia in cf sometimes dilated, in both se.xes vvith all spurs. 
.\bdomen not crested. Forewing with costa scarcely arched, apex acute, termen straight, oblique, 
tornus well pronouiiced; cell less than one-half. DC'' inbent, SC' from nearapex of cell, free. SC^ normal, 
Ri very short-stalked, R^ from above middle of DC, M' very^ short-stalked or connate; hindwing with 
apex squared, termen smooth, Httle convex, tornus well pronounced, cell rather short, DC^ usually 
incurved anteriorly. obhque posteriorly, C anastomosing with cell at a point near base, then moderateh' 
diverging, SC^ stalked, R^ from much above middle of DC, M' stalked or connate. 

L.\RVA. — Elongate. flattened, green with Hghter green and darker green hnear stripes laterally. 
On Duboisia myopoioides (Lucas. Proc. Liiin. Soc. N. S. lVales(2), \'o]. 4, p. bo3). 

PuPA. — Undescribed, in a very hght cocoon among leaves (Lucas, loc. cit.). 

Type of the genus : Cldoeres citrolimbaria (Guenee) = Chlorochroma citrolimbaria, (juenee (igio). 

Geographical dlstributlon of species. — .Austraha, Borneo, PSumatra, 

1. C. citrolimbaria (Guenee). E. .Austraha. 

Chlorochroma citroUmbarUt, Guenee, Spec. Gcn. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 366(i858), 
Chlorochroma inc/iort/rt.Walker, I.istLep, Ins, Brit, Miis.Vol, 22,p.563(i86i ;, 
lodis citroUmbaria. Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p, 879 (1888). 
lodis inchoata. Meyrick, ibidem, p. 881 (1888). 
lodis iUidgei, Lucas, ibidem, Vol, 4, p, 6o3 (1890). 
Euchloris cilroUvibaria, Lower, ibidem, Vol. 22, p. 29(1898). 
Chlofres citroUmbaria, Turner, ibidem, Vol. 35. \>. 371 (1910). 

2. C. dyakaria (Walker). Borneo. 

Eucrostisdyakaria, Walker, List Lcp. Ins. Brit, Mus. Vol. 22, p, 56? (t86i). 
Comoslola dyakaria, Swinhoe, Lej). Het. O.xford Mus, Vol, 2, p, 396 (1900). 

3. C. dulciiiata (Fuchs) (hiij, gen,?) Sumaiia. 

Phorodesma {Euchloris) diilcinata, Fuchs, Jahrb. Nassau, Ver. Nat. V0I. 55, 

p. 85(1902), , 

4. C. cissiiia, {'iirner. Queensland. 

Chloeres cissina, Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S, Wales, Vol. 35, p. 572 
(1910), 

194. Genus NEOTHELA, Turner 

Neothela. rurner, Proc, Linn, Soc, N, S, Wales. VoL 35, p. 56g (1910). 

Characters. — Head smooth. Palpus slender, porrect, third joint in o* minute, Tongue present. 
Antenna ui (f bipectinate with long branches, apices simple. Pectus sHghtly hairy. Hindtibia in (^ 
strongly dilated, with hair-pencil, in both sexes with aU spurs, Abdomcn not crested. Forewing with 
costa arched, apex round-pointed, termen obHque, nearly straight, SC from ceH, anastomosing with C 
and SC', R' separate, M' widely separate; hindwing with termen bowed on R^, DC^ incurved, 
becoming very stronglv obHque. C closelv approximated to ceU near base, thence diverginL', SC^ stalked, 
M' widely separate. 



FAM. GEOMETRID,^, 241 

Early stages unknovvn. 

This genus is only known to us froin Tuiner's description. Distinguished bv the wide separation 
of M^ of both w ings. 

Type of the genus : Neothda cissochroa. Turner (igio). 

Geographjcal distribution of species. — N. Queensland. 

I. A'. cissochroa, Turner. X. Oueensland. 

Xeotliehi cissocliioa. Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc.N.S. Wales, Vcl.35,p.570 iiqio;. 



195. Genus CYMATOPLEX, Turner 

Cymatoplex. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, p. 676 ( iqio). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, slendei, terminal joint short m both se.xes. Tongue 
present. Antenna rather short. in cf bipectinate with very long branches, which decrease with great 
suddenness, apical end nearly simple; in 9 thick, shghtly serrate. Pectus shghtly hair}-. Femora 
glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa 
nearlv straight, apex moderate, termen obhque, somewhat curved, cell nearly one-half, DC'' incurved, 
SC^ from cell, fiee, or anastomosing with C, SC- normal, R' connate, stalked or approximated, 
M^ separate or connate; hindwing with termen rounded, tornus moderate, inner margin not elongate, 
cell not quite one-half, DC incurved, C appressed to (or anastomosing with?) cell at a point near base, 
rapidly diverging, SC- stalked, M' separate or connate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Probably, as Turner suggests, more nearly a derivative oi Microloxia than oi Chloeres. It could 
easih' be treated as a fourth subgenus oi Mixocera, the principal distinction being antennal. 

Type ofthe genus : Cymatoplex haUyone {M.eyrick} = Eucrostis halcyone, Meyrick = Cymatoplex 
creiiulata, Turner fioio). 

Geographical distribution of species. — New Guinea to Austraha. 

1. C. hakyone (Meyrick). British New Cminea, N.W. 

Eucrostis linhyone, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 489 (1889). to E. .-^UStraha. 

lodis crenulata, Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 6. p. 294 

(1891) (nov. syn.). 
Eucliloris dicliroa, Lower, Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. V0L27, p.217 (igoS). 
Clilorochroma imparicornis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12, p. 422 (1905). 
Cymatoplex crenulata. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, VoL 35. p. 577 
(19101. 
2 C. hvpolichna, Turner. N. Austraha. 

Cynatoplex livpoliclnia. Tiirner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 33, p. 57S 
(1910). 

196. Genus CENOOHLORA, Warren 

Cenochlora. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 5. p. 12 (1898). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus minute, slender (less than one-half diameter of eye). 
Tongue absent. Antenna in both se.xes bipectinate to about four-fifths with long branches. Pectus scarcel}- 
hairy. Feinora glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes with terminal spurs only. ."Vbdomen not crested. F^ore- 



^42 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

wing with costa somewhat arched. apex moderate, termen smooth, obhquely curved, cell one-half, 
DC^ incurved, becoming obUque, SC^ from cell, anastoinosing at a point with C, well removed 
from SC^, SC^ normal, R' well separate, M' well separate; hindwing with termen rounded, verj^ shghtly 
prominent in middle, but with no distinct bend or angle, cell one-half, DC^curved, becoming rather 
slrongly obHque, C bent near base, anastomosing at a point with cell, then strongly divergent, SC- con- 
nate or short-stalked, M' widely separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

A very speciabzed development of Cymatoplex. 

Type of the genus : Cenochloraquieta {Luca.s) =Iodis qiiieta, Liicas ~Cenochlora/elix,\\ai-Ten{\i<gS). 

Geographical distribution of species. — Oueensland. 

1. C. guieta (Lucas). Queensland. 

lodis qttieta, Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Oueensl. Vol. S, p. 79 (1892). 
Cenochlorafelix, Warren, Novit. Zool.Vol. 5, p. 12 (1898). 
Chlorochroma quiela. Warren, ibidem, Vol. 12, p. 422 (1905). 
Cenochlora qiiieta. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. .35. p. 574 
(1910)- 

2. C. quantiUa, Turner. N. Queensland. 

Cenochlora quantiUa. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. ,S5, p. 5-5 
(i9J0)- 

197. Genus MIXOCERA, Warren 

Mixocera. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 206 (1901) 1). 

Gynandria. Turncr, Proc. iJnn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. iS, p. 5/5 (1910). 

Characters. — P'ace smooth. Palpus in both sexes short, second joint shortly rough-scaled, 
third joint uiinute. Tongue vveak. .^ntenna shortly bipectinate to nearlj' simple, cihated, varying in both 
sexes. Pectus shghtly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes vvith terminal spurs only. 
Abdomen not crested. Forewing with costa shghtl}- arched or nearly straight, apex moderate or rather 
sharp, termen smooth, oblique, gently curved or nearly straight. cell about one-half, DC^ more or less 
curved, SC froin near apex of cell, or from base of stalk of SC^'^, free, or anastomosing with or lunning 
into C, SC- normal, sometimes anastomosing with SC, R' stalked, M' connate, closely approximated 
or very shortly stalked; hindvving with apex rounded, termen moderately to rather strongly rounded, 
tornus moderate, cell less than one-half, DC obHque, at least posteriorly, C shortly appressed to or 
anastomosini; with cell ne;u base, then (hveiging, SC^stalketl, M' shorl-stalked, occasionalh' connato. 

Early stages unknown. 

Probably related to Microloxia. but (liffenng in tlie loss of the frenukim and in the short palpus. 
Except in the anteimal structure, there is little variation of moment, and even the facies of the species is 
in geneial verv unifonn. .•MVica furnishcs most of thc species, and as the matciial which we have seen 



I ) Warren cites. as type of .Wixncera. « ind^cretat<\, Walker p, but we h;ive positivc information from Mr. Warren himself that he misidentihed 
Walker's species — as is also shown by the characters which he assigns to it. We therefore suppose we are justified in explaining the type of the genus to 
be par-.ii/at.i. Walker = ind.'crttita. Warren, and so in employing it in the sense intended by its author. At the same time we would urge the great 
importance of selecting as genotypes correctly-determined species, and of course the ones from which tbe author is actually describing. It is of course 
preferable to make the charactt-rization from the actual nime-type of the species, but where this cannot be done, and any shadow of uncertaintv of deter- 
mination exists, the expedient whicli we have adopted under Chlorosterrha should be resorted to, of giving the genotype an altemative name. 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 243 

consists laigely of isolated specimens froni scatteied localities we have been unable to obtain niuch 
insight intothe Hmitsof the species, rangeof geographical or of individual variation, andthe hke questions. 

Type of the genus : Mixocera f>arvulatii (Walker) = Nemoria (?) parvulata, VVaiker = Mixocera 
itidecretata, Warren (nec Walkcr) (iqoi). 

Geographical distribution of species. — S. India, Africa. N. to E. Austraha. 

SUBGENU5 1. — Antenna in (^ dentate or subpectinate, with fascicles of cilia 
{Mixocera, VVarren) (Pl. 5, Fig. 18). 

1. M . t>arvulata iy\l3.\\<.er). Bombay toCeylon, S. Africa 

Nemoria {}) parvuliila. Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. i55g 

(1862). 
Euchloris rectifasciata. Hampson, Fauna Ind. Moths, Vol. 4, p. 566 (1896, 

(nov. syn.). 
Mixocira mdecretata, Warren, Xovit. Zool.Vol. 8, p. 2061 looi ) 1 nec Walker , 

2. M. frusiratoria (Wallengren). S. Afiica. 

Eticrostis frnstra/oria. Wallenf;ren, Wien. Ent. Monatschr. \'ol. 7, p. i5o 
(i863). 

Eiicrostis frustatoria^WaWieT, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus.VoL35, p. 1610 1 1866). 
.' Euchloris oleagina, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 38 (1896) (nov. syn.) i). 
? Microloxia (?) serraticornis, Warren, ibidem, p. 42 (1S97). 
? Mixocera serraticornis, Warren, ibidem. Vol. 8, p. 206 (1901). 

3. M . albisirigata (Pagenstecher). Tropical Africa. 

Eucrostis albistrigata, PaRenstecher, Jahrb. Hamburg. Anst. Vol. 10, p. 252 

I1893). 
Mixocera albimargo^Warren, Novit. Zool. V0I.8, p 206 (1901) (nov.syn.)2). 

SUi-iGENUS II. — Antennn in both sexes shortly pectinate (Gynaiuiria, Turner). 

4. M. latilincata (Walker). N. to S. E, Australia. 

Gcometra latilineald, Wdlker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 35. p. i6o5 

(18661. 
Eucrostis latilineata. Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 12), Vol. 2, 

p. 868 (1S88). 
Mixocera latilineata, Warren, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 8, p. 206 (1901). 
Gynandria latilineala. Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 35, 

p. 576 I1910). 

SUBGENUS III. — Antenna in cf simply ciliated, in 9 ''■^0' minutely ciliated 
{Thelycera, nov., Prout; type : Mixocera liemitliales, Prout). 

5. M. hemithales, nov. sp. 3), Prout. British E. Africa. 



1} We liave not seen Wallengrens type. but ttie synonymy seems fairly safe. In any case serraticornis is clearly tiie same as oleuffina. 

2) Pagensteclier merely gives ttie cJ antenna of lils albislrigala as « ciliated », but his whole description tits tlie subgenus Mixocera so perlectly 
that it can hardly possibly be referred to a /'^^/ycera unknown to us — especially as itoccurs in such widely separaied localitiesas Portuguese East Africa 
and Angola — and we consider the synonymy here given to be practically quite certain. It is. indeed. not absolutely inconceivable that all the three 
Mi.xocera here registered are but forms of one protean species. 

i) Mixocera (Th^lycera) hemlthales, nov, sp. — cJ, 23 mm. Face, palpus, upper part of foreleg, antennal shaft above and 
postorbital rim broun-red, liead otherwise pale grcen (tinged with ochreous— ? discolour^d). Thorax pale green above. whitish beneath ; abdomen 
whitish. Forewing pale yellow green, costa narrowly whitish ochreous ; a straight, thick whitish line from costa at i 1/2 mm. from apex to inner 
margin at about 3 ram. from tornus, no other markings; fringe whitisli. Hindwing white, unmarked. Underside of forewing greenish white, of hind- 
wing clearer white. Fort Hall. Kenya IJistrict. British East Africa, about 4000 feet, 2 November, 1902 (S. L. and H. Hinde). Type in coll. Oxlord 
Mus.. presented by the captors. The specimen is slightly faded, and it is likely that an absolutely fresh specimen would more nearly approach the 
coloration of the foll 'wing species, A Q from Salisbury. -Mashonaland. February. IQOO ;G. A. K. ilarsliall)and a smaller Q from Bulawayo, 2r November, 1902 
(F. Eyles), both in coll, Hrit. Mus., may likely belong to the present species. 



244 LRPIDOPTEKA HETEKOCERA 

6. M. xanthostephana, nov. sp. i), Prout. Tiansvaal. 

7. M. vipidans, nov. sp. 2), Prout. Maslionaland, Natal. 

198 Genus EUCROSTES, Hubner 

Eucrostes. Hiibner. Verz. bek. Schnielt. p. 283 (1826?). 

Eucrostis. Lederer, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, VoL 3, p. 172 (i853). 

Euchrostes. Gumppenberg, Nova Acta Acad. Leop. d. Naturf. Halle, Vol. 64, p. 483 (1895). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus moderate, second joint somewhat rough-scaled, third 
joint in (^ short. in 9 modeiate to long. Tongue developed, though rather slender. Anlenna short, in 
both sexes bipectinate to about two-tliirds. in cf ^^ith long, in 9 with short branches, apex merely 
serrate; in 9 sometimes subserrate throughout. Pectus .slightly hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in 
both sexes vvith terminal spurs on y Abdomen not crested. Forewing ralher broad 3), costa littte arched, 
apex moderate, termen sinooth, slightly curved, cell neaily one-halL DC incurved, SC from celL 
anastomosing with. or oftener rnnning into C, SC* normal, well separate from C, R' connate or appro.x- 
imated. R- from above middle, M' connate or shorl-stalked ; hindwing vvith apex somewhat rounded. 
termen stronglv rounded, inner margin rather long. ceil rather short. DC'' somewhat incnrved. C anast- 
omosing vvith cell at a point near base, tiien rapidh- divergmg, SC* stalked or connate. R' very 
chaiacteristic, M^ stalked, M- from near end of celL cf genitaha : uiicus pointed. with socii of equal 
length, gnathosstrong, pointed, harpe lounded, with smali serrated lohi on the sacculus. penis pestillate. 
Somewhat lesembhng Ihose of the HemH/i<ii-g]o\ip. but ihis hardly indicates a leaily nc.o- rpl:itionshii>. 

Egg. — Flattened, canaiy yellow — scarcely described. 

Larva. — Moderately long. somewhat atienuated anteriorly. seginentalion «hstiiut. Head rather 
smalL sliglitlN lulobed, ihc lobes rounded, prothoiax and inetathorax strongly keeled, piothorax with 
four small doisal protuberances, first to fifth abdominal segments and eighth abdominal each with a 
single pyiamidal one, spiracles small, rounded (Milliere, Ami. Soc. Liiin. Lvoii (n. s.), VoL i5, p. 208, 
t. 82, L 8. 9; Nat. .SiciL VoL 3, p. 33). 

PuPA. — Rather obtuse, sinooth, gieen, in shght web ainong the foodplant, Eii/^/iorbia (Milliere, 
loc. cit.). 

II Mixocera (Thelycerai xanthostephana. nov. sp . . .'o mm. Knce :iii,l piilpus red. the latter sliorter than diameter of 

eye. AiU>-nna ochreous, apotted witli red above. Head bright yellow oclire, marked with rc<l behind eye and bclow. Thorai above gretn. narrowly 
ochreous in Iront. l.eKS mostly reddish, hind- and part of mid-femur pale. Abdomen whitish. Korewing with costa sliglitly arched. termen slightly 
more oblique than iii most of the species ; delicate blue-green, costa narrowly pale ochreous. an oblique ochreous wliitish line Ironi inner marj;m at 
beyond two-thirds. running toward» apex, lcrminatini} at K' un the type) or at SC ico-typ.); fringe urcen proximally. white distally. Hindwing white, 
t«rmin;il one-fourtli sbaded witli pale green ; fringe palc green proiimally. white distally. Undcrsidc of lorewiiig slighlly paler, the whitish line prescnt ; 
of hindwingmore uniformly greenish-linged. Barberton, Transvaal. lo December, i9io(type)and .5i Uecember. 1910 lco-type). collccledby Mr. A..I T. Janse, 
thc former in hiscollection, the latter in coll. L. B Prout, kindly presented by thc captor. Uistinguislicd Irom the preceding species, apart from larger 
«iie and brighter coloration, by the more oblique coursc of the postmedian line, which. moreovcr. is more slender. A (J from Mulema. rganda, 
May, igo3 (W. I.. Doggett). in coll. Brit. Mus.. appears to be referable lo xaiillinslefliana. though faded, aiid has the line still mure slender. We have 
■ecn otlier specimens from scattered localities. in more or lcss imperfect condition. which certainly bclong to this section. but it would hc premature to 
decide whether we have to deul with a number of very close allies or one or two variablc species In any c.ise the iletails of venation will not assist 
determination, for in tlie type of x.iiilhosteph,i»a SC of foiewing anastomoses with C and J' is connate with K\ while inthe co-tj-pc SC is free and M' just 
separate, and we have observed similar v.ariations in othcr pairs of examplcs which are cqually certainly conspecific. The Uganda cj agrees in venatioo 
with the co-tvpe 

2| Mlxocera (Thelycera) viridans. nov. sp. — <J 9, 20-21 mm Face and palpus deep red. pulpus in cj shortcr than. in Q about 
as long as diamcter of eye. Head and front of thorax oclueous. Thorax and abdomen trecn above. the latter paling ofT to whitish anally. lore-and 
middle-legs red, on outer side whitish; Uindleg mostly whitish, the femur marked with red, the spurs fcrruginous; aslight pencil andprocess: tarsus 
short. Forewing slrongly blue-green, with costa (to SC) pale ochreous; a moderately broad, sliglilly oblique pale ochreous linc from beneath costa 
near apex to inner margin at about threc-fourths. Hindwing concolorous. with a similar line. which runs almost stiaight from costa near apex to 
inner margin at about tliree-fourths, becoming somewliat niore attenuatcd towards tlie latter. Vnderside tlie same. only slightly paler. costal area of 
forewing more mixed with green. Enkcldoom District. Mashonaland (iliss F.. S. Youngs), type cj ; Salisbury, Mashonaland, 2- November, 1807 
iG A.K .M;irshall .discolourcd q- ;Natal.aQ presented by Ur. A. J. Turner; all in coll. Brit. -Mus. Durban, Natal (E. A. Bacot). a Q in coll. L. H.Prout. 
The type specimen bas unfortunately lost botli antenn;e, i)ut the Salisbury (J and the two O.Ql show the structure of the subgenus The/ycra. In all 
four examples SC and li' of the forewing arise closc together either from the angle of th<; cell or the basc of the italk of SC"; !>' varies slighOy 
in obliqueness, and M' from connate to very shortly stalked. The concolorous hindwing separates this spccies rcadily from the two preceding. 

3) Sliape of both wings quite diflerent in simonyi and ruf,iciliaria. being mrrow. hindwingnot concolorous with forewing. These will perhaps 
form distinct genera . 



I'AM. GEOMETKIIJ^: 



243 



Spain and X. Africa to 
Sj-ria. 



Type of the genus : Eiiciosiis iiidii^rmita (TieViUers) = P/ialiwiia Geomelra indigenala, DeVillers 
= E::Ciosles liinhnolaiia, lUihncr (iS2ii;). 

Geographical distnibution of species. — S. Eur')|it', Africa, S. India, N. Australia, W. Indies. 
A curiousi}' scatlercd geiius, bul cliielly .Vfrican. 

1. E. indigenala (I)e Villers). 

Phalaeiia Gfomelra iiidigciiata, De Vlllois. J^inn. ICnt. VcjI. 2, p. 383 (1789). 
Oeomelra fimhi iolayia, Hubner. Samnil. Eur. Schniett. Geom. t. 91, f. 468 

(1S18?). 
Eucrostts fimbriolaria, Hiibiier, Veiz. bek Schmett. p. 283 (1826?). 
Fidonia iiidigeiiaria, Treitschke. Schmett. Eur. Vol. 6 (i|, p. 269 (1827). 
Himithea iiidigeiiaria. Boisduval. Gen. el Ind. Meth. Eur. Lep.p. iSi (1840). 
Phalena virginalis, Costa, Cat. Lep. Xapuli, in Di/.ion. Univ. .Xj^ric. 

p. [i5|, i. I (1840?). 
Clilorochroma iiidigeiiaria. Duponchel. Cat. Meth. Lep. Eur. p. 224 (1845). 
£«C(-os<(i(«rf('.g^e«i!^a,Lederer,Verh.Zool.-bot.Ver.Wien, Vol.3,p. 172(1 8.53). 
Eucroslis indigeiiaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 367 (i>>58). 
Eucroitis nudilimbaria. Mabille, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. |5), Vol. 9, p. i55 (1879) 

(var. vel ab. ?). 

2. E. ritfociliaria, Heriich Schaffer (huj. gen.?). 

Eucrostis rufociliaria, Herrich-Schaffer, Samml. .A.ussereur. Schmett. Vul. i, 

t. 61. f. 345 (iS55): p. 62 (i856). 
? Microloxia roseata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. iz. p. 3fi5 (nov. syn.i. 

3. E. doiuinicaria, (juenee. 

Eucroslis dominicaria. Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. g, p. 367 iiS5Si. 
Synchlora dominicaria, HuUt, Trans. Ainer. Ent. Soc. Vol. 23, p. 3i5 (lSg6). 

4. E. disf^arata, Walker. 

Eucrostis disparata, \\'a]kci', List Lej). Ins Brit. JNIus. Vol. 22, p. 567 (1S61). 
Gcomelra parvulata, Walker, ibidem, Vol. 26, p. i555 (1862). 

5. E. albicornaria, Mabille (prasc. var. vel syn.l). 

Eucroslis albicornaria, Mabille, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5),Vol. g, p. i55(i87g); 
Saalmiiller, Lep. Madag. (2). p. 4^4, t. 14, f. 273 (iSgi 1 i). 

6. E. beatificali (V\'alker). 

Geometra beatificata, WaWiei.hist Lep. Ins.Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. 1534 (1862). 
Eucrostes beaiificala, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 549(1904). 

7. E. iocentra, Meyrick. 

Eucrostis iocentra, Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 12), Vol. 2, 

p. S68 (1888), 
lodis barnardae, Lucas, ibidem, Vol. 6, p. 293 (1891) (nov. syn.y. 
Encrostes naitula, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 211 (1897) (nov. syn.). 

8. E. simonyi, Rebel (huj. gen. ?). 

Eucrostis simonyi, Rebel, .-Vnn. Hofmus. Wien, Vol. g, jj. 67 (iSg^). 
Omfihacodes divincta, Holt White, Bntt. and .\Iolhs Teneriffe, p. S6. t. 4, f. 7 

liSg4) (nec Walker). 
.\ficroloxia,{?) pallida, Warreii, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 3go (i8g7) (nov. syn.;. 

9. E. riibridisca, Warren (ead. &c albicornaria, Mabille?). 

Eucrostes rubridisca, Warren, Novit. Zool. \o\. 4. p. 38 :i8g7). 
TO. E. rutocellala, Mabille (huj. gen. ?). 

Eucroitcs rufocillata, Mabille, Ann. .Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. bS. p. 741 (igoo). 

11. £. innolata, Warren (huj. gen.?) 2). 

Eucr^istt-i iniiotata. Warreii. Novit. Zool. Vol. S, p. 2o5 (1901). 

12. E. rhodophthalma, nov. sp. 3), Prout. 



Cape. 

W. Indies. Florida. 
Bombay to Ceylon, ?Aden. 
Madagascar, S. Afiica. 
Sierra Leone. 
Oueensland. 

Canary Islands, ?\. Africa. 



E. and W. Africa. 
Madagascar. 
Portuguese W. Africa. 
Cape. 



i) .4crastis atbicornarta on tlie legeiiil to jjlate. 

2) Agrees in most characters witli liiicntstes, but il* of liindwing is not stalked. The liindlegs are lost. We know oniy tbe type specimen. 

3) Eucrostes rhodophthalma. nov. sp. — Q,22mm. Face crimson. Palpus crimson, pale beneath, third joint long. Antennal shaft 
whitish, pectinations short. Vertex broadly white, occiput green. Thora.^ and abdomen green above (damaged). Thorax beneath, and upper side of fore- 
and middle-legs reddish. Winj^s bright green, sliglitly raore bluish than in inJigenata, etc. Forewing with costal edge broadly white. only at extreme ba«e 
green and at extreme apex n.irrowly marked witli rosy [in continuation of the terminal line); a pale sinuous postmedian line at two-thirds faintlv indicated 
discal spot rather large, rose-colour, nirrowly surrounded with white; terminal line fine, dark, tinged with crimson; a small white, ros;'-margined terminal 
spot between M^ and Sil-: fring^e rosy. Hindwing similar, the discal spot considerably larger, termen with a series of tlie white, rosy-margined spots 
between the veins. though all except the tornal one very small. I.Tnderside much paler. costal half of forewing flushed with red. Cape of Good Hope, 
probably Translcei (presented by Miss F. Barrett). Type in coU. Brit. Mus. A typical Eucrustes in all respects, except tbat the palpus is longer than usual. 



246 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

i3. E. insularis, nov. sp. i), Prout Sokotra. 

Xtmoria diiecia. Hampson. Xat. Hist. Sokotra, p. 333 (i9o3) (nec Walker). 

199. Genus ALLOCHROSTES, NOV. GEN., Prout 

Alloclirostes, nov. gen., Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus short, secoiid joint rout,'li-sca'ed beucath. third joint in 
both sexes quilc sinall, in 9 slightl}- longer than in cf . Tongue slender. Antenna scarcelj' over one-half, 
in cJ' bipectinate almost to apex, with long, shortening bianches, the few last being mere serrations; 
in 9 similarly bipectinate, but with shorter branches. Pectus haii}-. Femora slightly hair}-. Hindiibia 
in cf not dilated, in both sexes with a single pair of long spurs. Abdonien with doisal pattern. but not 
crested. Forewing with costa shghtly arched, apex moderate, termen shghtly curved, oblique, cell almost 
one-half, YiC-^ curved, obhque posteriorly, SC from cell, running into C, which is far removed from 
SC^"^, SC^ normal. R' short-stalked or separate, \P separate; hindwing rather long. apex and termen 
well rounded. cell iiearly one-half, DC-* somewhat incurved anteriorly, C anastomosing to near end 
of cell, SC^ stalked, R- scarcely ahove midille, M' separate. 

Early stages unknown. 

Related to Eucrostes, differing in the very strong anastomosis of vein C of hindwing and several 
less essential characters. From Xenochlorodes it differs in the rough-scaled palpus. the venation, etc, 
as well as in the scheme of pattern. 

Type of the genus : AHochiosUs saliata n*"eider) = Racheospila saliata, Felder. 

Geographical distrlbution of species. — .Ethiopian. 

1. /4. sa/w/(f (h"el(ler). Xatal to E. Africa, Sierra 

Racheospila saliala, Felder, Keise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 127, f. 36 (1875). Leone. 

Lasiochlora saliata, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 5^3 (1894). 
Eucrostes impunctata, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4,p. 21 1 (i897)(nov.syn.l. 
Syiidromodes rubridentata. Warren, ibidem, p. 2l3 (1897). 
Ilettrorachis 1?) sabiata. VVarren. ibidem, Vol. 5, p. 235 (1S98). 
Syndromodes sabiata, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lonl. p. 5^3 (1904). 

200. Genus XENOCHLORODES, Warren 

Xenochlorodes. Wanen, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, ]>. 47 (1897). 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus very sinall, slender. second joint sinooth-scaled, third joint 
minute. Tongue slender Antenna in cf bipectinate to near apex. w ith long bianches, apical extremity 
nearly simple; in 9 senate or subserrate. Pectus and femora glabrous. Hindtibia in both sexes with 



i) Cucrostes insularis. nov sp. — c? Q, 12-16 mm. Face red. Palpus in d" ven* sliort, in P with second und third joints elongate ; 
ocbreous, marked with rc*d above and on outer side. Vertex bro.adly white. occiput narrowly green. .'Vntennal shaft pure white at base, becomingochreous- 
tinted; (J with moderate pectinations. Q merely subserrate. Thorax and abdomen green above, wliitisli beneath and at anal extremity. Wings bright 
green, costal edge of forewing snow-white nearly to apex, margined by a yellowish (or yellow-green> subcostal streak to apex ; each wing with a very small 
brown red discal liot. and a very indistinct (sometimes almost ohsolete) whitish postmedian line. gently outcurved distally to cell and incurved posteriorly : 
fringes ample, concolorous proxiinally, paler and with a distinct red flush dlstally. Underside much paler, costa of forewing broadly red. and the entire 
costal half (or more> of the wing more or les suffuscd with that colour. Jena-agahan, 1200 feet. 6 January. 1S99 (tjrpe c^) '>: Adho Diraellus, 35oo feet, 
■z Februari 1899(0; Hadibu 1'Iain, 11 Oecember, liigS (o'i. 14 December, 189S (2 Q); all in coU. Brit. Mus. Differs from rubridisca. Warren, in 
tlic absence of red terminal line, and in tbe non-pectinate 2 antenna. The two sexes sbow greater disparity in length of palpus than is usual in 
this genus, each being at tlie extreme in its own directton. 



') Recorded in the A'.// Hist. Sokotra, no doubt by a misprint, as Q. 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 247 

terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested. Foiewing with costa slightly arched, apex modeiate, termen 
oblique, slightly curved. cell about one-half, DC incurved, often very deeply, SC verv' short-stalked 
with SC^'' (or connate, or closely approximated), anastomosing with or running into C, SC^ normal, 
anastomosing with or running into SC (or C), R' stalked, M' short-stalked (or in nubigena connate); hind- 
wing with apex rounded, termen smooth, more or less rounded, tornus s^iuared, ceil short, DC'* shortly 
inbent anteriorly, then slif(htly or moderately oblique, C anastomosing to near end of cell, SQ~ long- 
stalked, R* from scarcely or only quite moderatelj' above middle of MC, M' short-stalked. 

Lakva. — Moderate, head small with two small points. retracted under prothorax, prothorax 
high, strongly bifid, bod}' with lateral flange, no humps, anal flap ending in sharp point, spiracles rather 
prominent. (3n Plnllyrea (Hofmann. Raupen Grussschwetl. Eur. p. 160, hfryllaria). Milliere once found a 
larva on oWvc {Icon. Vol. 3, p. 462.) 

PuPA. — (jreen (not described), in slight cocoon among food-plant. 

* 
Type of the genus : Xenochlorodes olvmpiaria (Herrich-Schaffer) = Geometra olympiaria, Herrich- 

Schaffer =■ Xenoclilorodes pallida, Warien (1^07). 

Geographical distpibution of species. — S. \V. Pahearctic, to Syria. 

1. .Y. olympiaria (Herrich-Schafter). Asia Alinor, Syria. 

Geometrii (Eiicrustisj olyvipiana, Herrich-Schafler, Syst. Bearb. Schmett. 

Europ. Vol. 3, t. 87, f. 539 ii85i); p. 63 (i852). 
Eucrostis olympiaria. Herrich-Schaffer, ibidem, Index, p. 21 (i855j. 
Nemoria (?) olympiaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 35o (i858). 
Eucrostis olympiaria., var. creviojiaria, Staudinger, Iris. Vol. 10, p. 179 

(1897) (ab. ?). 
Xenochlorodes pallida. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 4, p. 47 (1897) (nov. syn.). 

2. A". beryllaria (Mann). S. E. France to Syria, 

Geomelra beryllaria, Mann, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, Vol. 3. p. 76 i i853). N. Africa. 

Eucrostis biryllaria, Lederer, ibidem, p. 172 (i853). 
Nivwria beryllaria, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep. Vol. 9, p. 348 (i8581. 
Nimori.t aureliaria. Milliere.JAnn. Soc. Linn. Lyon (n. s.), Vol. i5. p. iSg, 
t. Si. f. 1-5 (1868). 
,3. A'. niibigena (Wollaston). Madeira. 

Hemithcu ttubigena, WoUaston. Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (3), Vol. i,p. 118 (is58j. 
Nemoria nubigena, Baker, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 212 (1S91 1. 
Microloxia tinbigena, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 12. p. 441 (igoS). 
Hemithea ericetornm, Wollaston, MS. lin coU. Brit. Mus.l. 



201. Genus MIXEOPHANES, nov. gen., Prout 

Mixeophanes, nov. gen. Prout. 

Characters. — Face smooth. Palpus in Q quite short, terminal joint small ((^f unknown). 
Antenna in 9 bipectinate. Hindtibia with terminal spurs onlv. Abdomen not crested. Forewing rather 
narrow, costa almost straight, termen rather strongly oblique, cell just over one-half, SC from cell, 
running into C, SC^ normal; hindwing rather narrow, termen smooth, rounded, angles not pronounced, 
ceil rather long, DC nearly vertical, C anastomosing to near end of cell, SC- long-stalked, R^ from about 
the middle of DC. 

Early stages unknown. 

\Ve have drawn the above characters from notes made on a hurried examination of Warren's 
type. It is altogether anomalous, and cannot be placed in any existing genus. The aspeci is .4cidaliid, 



248 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



and R^ of the hindwing is viituall}' as in that subfamily. froni which, however, the venation of both 
wings separates it radically. Unless it be a development of Xenochlorodes. in which also R- is often nearly 
central, but which has the normal broad wings of the Hemithetnae, its origin is entireh- enigrnatical. 

Type of the genus : Mixeof^haitcs dissimilis fWarren) = EiiMoris dissimilis, Warren. 

Geographical distribution of species. Sudan. 

I. M. dissimilis (Warren c^ Rothschiid). Sudan to Sinai. 

Euckloris dissimilis, Warren & Rothschild, Xovit. Zool. Vol. 12. p. 26. t. 4. 

f. 27 (1905). 
Eucrostts destrtoria, Rebel, Verh. .\at. Ver. Karlsruhe, Vol. 2:. p. 1.^7 

(1909) (nov. syn.). 



SPECIES INCERT/E SEDIS 



Phalaena exspectaia, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 636 (1775) i). 

Phaleana monilaria, Fabricius, (ien. Ins. p. 285 (1777) (huj. subfam.?). 

Phalaena Geometra viridana, Stoli, in Cramer, Pap. Exot. Vol. 4, p. iz6. 252, 

t. 355, f. G (1781) = Leptograjyha [Hiibner. 1826?] conviridaria. 

Hiibner. Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 284 (1826?)= Comibaena (?) viridana, 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 6o5 (1861) 2). 
Leptograplia scriptaria. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Sclimett. p. 284 (1826?) = Pha- 

laena Gcometra vtridaria, Stoll, Suppl. Pap. Exot. Cramer,p. 146, 184 

[in err. 384], t. 32, f. 5 (1790) (nec F"abricius, 1775) = Comibaena (?) 

viridaria, Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 22, p. 6o5 (1861)3). 
Geometra [Nemoria) veiiustaria. Hetrich-Scliaffer. Svst. Rearb. Schmett. Eur. 

Vol. 3,p. 9(1846)4). 
Geometra siibtinctaria, Guenee, Spec. (ien. Ltp. Vol. 9. p. 3^5 (i858) 5). 
Amattrinia oleiaria, Guenee, Ibidem, p. 385 (i858) (huj. subfam.?). 
Thalassodes strigigera, Wallengren, Wien. Erit. Monatschr. \'ol. 4, p. 175 

(1S60) = Hemithca strigigera, Wallengren, Eugen. Resa, Le)). p. 379 

(1861). 
Hypochroma paratorna, MejTick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 2, 

p. 906(1888)6). 
Thalassndes viresccntaria, Maassen, Stubels Reisen, Lep. p. 160, t. 8, f. 11 

(1890) 7) 
Phorodesma latiinarginaria, Maassen, ibidem, f. 12 (1890). 
Lniis multitincla, Lucas, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.'S. Wales (2), Vol. 6, p. 295 

(1891). 
Hypochroma dijfinidcns. Lucas, ibidem. p. 29S (1891) (huj. subfam.?). 
Hypochroma eugramma, Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austtal. Vol. i5, p. 14 

(1892) (iiuj. subfam.?). 
lodis nitida. Lucas. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), Vol. 7, p. 202 (1892). 
Nemoria chhninaria. Mabille, .\\m. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 66, p. 23o (1897}. 
Nemoria virideUaria. Mabille, ibidem, p, 23 i (1897). 



.\sia. 

India. 

Surinam. 



Cape. 



j.nc. ignot. 

? Austraha. 

Borneo. 

Sydney (Austraha). 



S. Australia. 

Bohvia. 

Peru. 



Queensiand. 
S. AustraUa. 

Queensland. 
Madagascar. 
Mauritius. 



1) Referred to Encrosies iiitii^en.ita by IVeitschke umpossible on account of « seticornis ») to Uliocnemis cassidnra with query by Guen^e; 
may bc a Q Comibdenn or Pyrrhorachis. 

2) Possibly a Rach o^fiil.i {B/eckronta) or a Ory^dofisis; might even be a crude 6gure of D. fmlveraria (Schaus). 

31 We seieL-t this as tlie type nf ihe genus L^piografiha. Hiibner. contingent on tlie rediscovery of the species. whicli appears quite 
recognizably figured . 

4) l'o8sibly a Racheospila. 

^) M. P. Thierry-ilieg has seen Guen6e's type, and kindly sent us sonie notes, but does not recognize the species, which he compares to 
an lodis, sens. lat. (? Cht.yrocoma or /iiiloxia); the hindwing is nol white. but body and wings are badly discoloured by moisture. 

6) ,See our uote under Stcrict'psis htconsegncns, supra. p. :;4. 

7) Ttie tigure somewhat suggests tbe buiid of .-tnomphax . 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 249 

Nemoria aequayia, Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 66, p. 23i (1897). Comoro Island and Mada- 

Xenochlaena [Lower, igo3] parphyropa (Lower) -= Arrhodia porphyropa, New South Wales. [i^ascar. 

Lower, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 23. p. 42 fi8g8) 

= Xenochlaena porphyropis, Lower, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. .AustraL 

Vol. 27. p. 192 (1903) (huj. subfam. ?). 

Hypochroma conspurcata, Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. \'()i. i3, j). 68 Queensland. 

(iSq8). 

Hydata{l) diibia, Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. 6, p. 24 (iSgg) i). Niger Coast. 

Leucoglyphica (?) fasciata, Warren, ibidem, p. 25 (1899) 2). Niger Coast. 

Phnrodesma hemistrigala, Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Vol. 68, p. 740 (igoo). Madatrascar. 

Hemithea denlata. Mabille. ibidem, p. 740 (igoo) 3). ? Madafascar. 

Eucrostis lillipittaiia, Mabille, ibidem, p, 741 (igoo). Madagascar. 

MelochUra papucnsis, Warren, .\ovit. Zool. VoL 14, p. 1^4 (1907). British New Guinea. 

Tachyphyle conveigens, Warren, ibidem, p. i36 (1907) 4). British New Guinea. 

NoTE. — Phyle (?) hauakaria, Plotz, Stett . Ent. Zcit. VoL 41, p. 3o2 (1880), from W. Africa, 
is referred by Swinhoe [Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. igo^, p. 586) to the Hemitheinae, but is clearlv the same 
species as Omiza tortuosa, Warren, Nnvit. Zool. Vol. 4. p. 258: some other species entered under the 
Hemiiheinae by Swinhoe in the same place have ccrtainly no connection therewith — Chrysocraspeda, 
Chrysolene (two species) and Gynopteryx rubedinaria (Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1890, not v Moesch., loc. 
cit. i>). Hylophila buddhae, Alpheraky. Roman. Mem. Lep. VoL g, p. i32, t. g, i. 8 (i8g7). from Szechuan, 
has much more the aspect of a 1 lemitheine than ot a Hylophila. but is entirely unknown to us. 

The folldwing genera also do not belong to tlie Hemitheinae : 

Dithecodes, Warren, Novit. ZooL Vol. 7, p. 102. Belongs to the Acidaliiuae. 

Neonemoria. W'arren. ibidem, Vol. 11, p. 23. Belongs to the Acidaliinae. 

Prasinoscia. Warren. ibidem, \'ol. 12, p. 3i8. Belongs to \he Larentiinae (section Astheninae of Warren). 

* 

In couclusion we have to thank the many who have vvith information, advice. the loan of 
specimens, or in any other way assisted us in the arduous work of this revision. Almost all those 
entomologists whose valued help we acknowledged in our revision of the CEnochrominae have placed 
us under still turther obligations by their continued cooperation ; while man^- others, notably 
Herr Rudolf Piingeler. MM. Charles Oberthiir and P. Thierr3'-Mieg, Messrs. Richard F. Pearsall, 
John .\. Grossbeck and F. N. Pierce, have come forward with assistance which we could ill have 
dispensed with. To thc last-nanipd in particular. with the Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, we are very deeply 
indebted for their laborious investigations of many of the genitaha, undertaken at ver\- short notice 
and at considerable personal inconvenience. The free use which we have made of the masterly vvork 
of I)r. .\. J, Turner has already been acknowledged above. 



i) We have seen Warren's type (a Q), but failed to refer it to any known genus : probabl>- it is nov. gen. In tlie forewing SC is from 
cell. anastomosing strongly with C. SC= from stalk of SC'-', anastomosing strongly with SC. from a point with C : hindwing with C anastomosing 
at a point with cell; .ill spurs present; see also Warrens notes. Perhaps related to the Diplod<-s,i,a-gronf. or to Lambornia. 

21 ihis specimi-n (Q) also we have seen, but not closely sludied. See Warren's notes on structure. 

3) Perhaps near to Gelasma (?) cowani, Butler, or — as Mabille says — to H,ter„crita (:•) , i,ictt,ta, .Saaliimller. 

4) 01 this and the preceding species we liave also seen Warrcn's types only. and have not been able to arrive at a satisfactory decision as to 
their probable afEnities. The {oxm,tv(pap«ensis\ is perhaps a Ge/asma, but with the frennlum fending towards obsolescence; it looliS near subaiig„/ato. 
Warren. Tac/iyphyle convrgens will probably prove to form a new genus, distinguished Irom Prasinocy,i,a not only by its shape, but by having tne cells 
of both wings verv short — that of hindwing not quite one-third. 



25o LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGEXDA 



During the progress of the work through the press. a few small errors and omissions have been 
discovered which it is desirable to rectify. There are also one species and two or three synonyms to add 
which had bj' accident been dropped out of our MS., and some recently described or recenth' discovered 
species to enter. in order to bring the work up to date. 

Page i3 : Pingasa. The larva and pupa of P. dispensata, Walker, were figured by Forsayeth from 
Mliow, Trans. Eiit. Soc. Lond. 1884, p. 416, t. 14, f. 12. I2a, and show the larva oi Pingasa to be much 
more closely related to Pseudoterpna than we had gathered from the other (less satisfactory) figures. It 
has quite the outline, pose and even coloration of P. pruinata, and the head « bifid when viewed from 
above and behind ». Feeds on Zizyplms jtijuba. Pupa brown, with darker wing-cases. 

Page 32. insert : 
i6a. P. sapuiigkanana {^{vSinA) {\n,.vc.\-a.r.'i). Sumatra, Borneo, Singa- 

Pstudolerpna sapuiigkanana. Strand, Iris, Vol. 23. p. 204 \iQio}. pore, ?India. 

Page 38 : Terpiia {Hypobapta). The larva and pupa oi percomptaria are described by Rainbow, Rec. 
Anstral. Miis. \'o\. 3 (4), p. 81, t. 18, f. i-id. The larva feeds on Eucalyptns piperita and resembles a 
folded leaf. It is sage-green, thickened in middle, tapering equally to head and anus. tiie two extremities 
looking very much alike; head curiously elongate, bifid, anal extremitj' elongate. chitinous, bifurcate. 
Pupa of the normal form. attached b}' the anal extremity and by a central girth, as in the genera of the 
Cosymbia (= Zouosoina) grnup (subfam. Acidaliinae). We know of no near relative of this larva, but beheve 
we have heard that that of Crypsiphona ocnltaria shows direct affinity with it. The pup;d habit, if not 
an accident in the individuai observed, is extremely remarkable. 

Page 47 : 

I. P. pruinata (Hufnagel). .\dd to the synonymy : 

Aspilales atropunctaria, VValker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. Vol. 26, p. 1673 

(1862) I). 
[Pseudolerpna] renovata, Walker. MS.. in coll. 0.\ford Mus. 

Page 47, insert : 

1(1. P. siinplex, Alpheraky (bon. sp. certo). \. W. China. 

Pseudoterpna pruinata var. simplix, Alpheraky, Roman. Mem. Lep. Vol. 6, 
p. 54 (1892). 

Page 5i, insert : 

ga, D. traiislucida (Montrouzier). Woodlark Island. 

Hazis translucida, Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. .Ag:ric. Lyon (2). Vol. 8, p. 400 

(1856). 

Page 65, insert : 
4. C. taii^iaiia (Wileman) 2). Foimosa. 

Episoplhahna lniwana, Wileman, Tlie Entomoloijist. Vol. 44, p. 207 (loii). 

Page 75 : Dioscore. We Irave recently seen a 9. l'elonging to fiilgurata, liomoeotes. or a close all}'. 
9 palpus with ihird joinl elongate, antenna not pectinate, frenulum not discoveralile. It is possible that. 



I : rhe locality ffi^'*^" (East Florida) is certainly erroneous. The t> pe .specimen, tliough rather sm,'iU and worn. is perfectly recognizable. and not 
onlv the genus, but even the entire group to which it belongs is waiiting 111 the New \\'orld, 

2) Must form a new section of Chtorodoiitopera ; 13 antenna simple. By our Kcy it would fall into Dooabia. as we dichotomized (for sim- 
plicity, as was at the time believed> by the c? aotenna; but is in every detail a Cklorodontopei a . As now understood, Chtorodontopera can be separated 
from all allies by the slrongty and irregularly dentate termen of both wings. with ^troiig excision between R* and J^'' of hindwing; from most also 
by the less elongate third jnint of Q palpus, exceptionally strong Q frenulum and double aiiastomosis of SC* of the forew ing. With this genus ehminated 
our Key will still hold. 



FAM. GEOMETRID/E 25i 

notwithstanding the very strong cf frenulum, \ve have placed this «enus somewhat too far hack in the 
evolutionary scale, and that it may be nearer the stage of development of the Chrysochloroma-Thalassodes 
group than of Hipparchus. 

Page 75, insert : 

6. D. puntifimbria(\N&iT^n). British and Dutch New 

Hemistola {l) punclifimbria, Warren, Novit. /ool. Vol. 10, p. 35.S (igoS). Guinea 

Page Si : 28. A. batis (Warren). According to the venation this should apparently be transferred 
t<) the genus Oxychora ; the 9 frenuluni and some other characters still require investigation. Possibly 
some others of the species which have been referred to the genus Anisozyga will need reconsidering. 

Page 84, insert : 
la. C. infracia (Wileman). Tapan. 

Thalissodes /«/rair/rt.Wileman.Trans. Ent.Soc. Lond.p.342.t.3o,f. 16(1911). 

Page 100 : 

20. C. diliita (Warren). .Add to te svnon^nny : 

Thalera iiigrata. Wileman, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 3^3 (1911) (nov. syn.). 

Fage 107, insert : 
5^a. R. modesla, (Dognin). Mexico. 

Mianlonola modesla, Dognin, Het. Xouv. Amer. Sud (3), p. 22 (1911). 

Page 108, insert : 

72a. R. nignpts (Dognin) i). Colombia. 

Prasinocyma (,') nigripis, Dognin, Het. Nouv, Amer. Sud (3), p. 23 (191 1). 

Page 1 10, insert : 
loza. R. magnaria, Bastelberger. Mexico. 

Racheospila magitaria, Bastelberger. Intern. Ent, Zeit. Guben, Vol. 5, p. 148 
\iTii). 

Page 124, insert : 

29. P. nigroinarginata, Dognin. Colombia. 

Plirudocenlra{'l) nigromarginata, Dognin, Het. Nou v. Amer.Sud (41.^.6(1911). 

Page 127: 
1. D. iridaria (Guenee). Add to the s\-non}-my : 

? Phalacna Geometra albolinearia, Martyn (MS.). Psyche. t. 28, f. 80 (1797). 

Page i3i, insert : 

16. A. im,ila{]Jogmn). French Guiana. 

Racheulopha iiiiuhi. Dognin, Het. Nouv. Amer. Sud (3i, p. 23 (1911). 

Page i58 : 

40. P. (?) absimilis (Warren). Is perhaps a small Dioscore. 

Page i58 : 
40. P. (?) punctifimbria (Warren). Belongs to the genus Dioscore, see supra. 

Page i58 : 53. P. mistifimbria, Prout. Delete the proposed new name, which is unnecessary. The 
last-mentioned punctifimbna in" 46) proving to be a Dtoscore, tlie present species can stand as Prasinocyma 
punctifimbr la (Warrenj. 



I) The structure. according to a specimen kindly lent us by M. Dognin, agrees entirely with that of veniU«e,ita. and strengthens our 
suspicion (p. io3) that this group will prove susceptible of generic sepaiation. 



252 LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 

Page I .Sg. inseit : 
72. P. (?) cseruleotincta, nov, sp. 1), Prout. New Guinea. 

Page 161 , insert : 

3. O. (?) baiis (Warren). British New Guinea. 

Aitisogamia hatis. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol. i3, p. 78 figo6). 

Pnge 174, insert : 

I2a. C. plana (Wileman). Japan. 

.Vemoria plana. Wileman. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 340 (igii). 

Page 182 : 4. A^. atridhca (Warren). I\Iust be transferred to Lop/ioslola. see infra. 

Page i85, insert : 

5a. D. eliila (Wileman). Japan. 

Jitmithea eluta. Wileman. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 33? (1911). 

Page 195, insert : 
6(1. O. shorti, nov. sp. 2), Priiut. S. Riiodesia. 

Page 201 , insert : 

8«. M . ihoisaria (Chretien) (huj. i;en. ?) 3). .Algeria. 

Eucrostes (?) rhoisaria, Chretien, Le Naturaliste. Vul. 3i, p. 3o (19091. 

Page 229 : Lophostola. The study of a pair of examples of « Hemithea » atridisca, \\'arren, which 
we tentatively placed (p.. 182 supra) in Neromia, salisfies us that it is (juite neaily related to annuligera, 
Swinhoe, the type of Lo/^/ws^/a, differing little except in its rather smoother wing-margins. The well- 
developed abdominal crests, long 9 palpus and absence of (^ frenuhim separate it essentially from 
Neromia. On the strength of this generic union, we are able to confirm the placing of Lophostola in 
Gioup VI. and to complete our diagnosis thus : hindtibia in both sexes with torininal spurs onh'. 

Page 229, insert : 

2. L. n^nrfwd (Warren), Natal, 

Hemithta atridisca. Warren, Novit. Zool. Vol 4, p, 40 (1897), 
.Vemoria rt/nrf/scii, Warren, ibidem. Vol. 5, ]). 235 (1898). 

Page 244 : 6. M . xanthostephana. A 9 fiom Nakutu, Rritish E. .Africa. 8 May, 191 1 (H. A. Badeker), 
recently preseiited to the British Museum by thc .•\frican Entomological Research Committee, agrees 
well with the Transvaal examples of this species, although having the postmedian line slender and 
shglitly less obliquc. 



O Praslnocyma (?) caepuleotincta, nov. sp. — Q, 27 mm. Face olive-fuscous, narrowly wliite below. Palpus witli second joint 
«tout, third joint quite moderate ; olive-biown. first joint and base of second wlute beneath. Vertex and base of antenna white. Body white. thorax 
tinged with green-l>lue above. I''orewiiig broad, SC connate. anastomosing strongly with C. SC* normal, anastomosing strongly with SC, R* well 
separate, .M' nearlv connate : rather thinlv scaled, delicate blue (nearly as in the genus Derxena, but slightly more greenish', costa bright ochreous. 
lines consisting of large grey-black spots at costa and on veins. antemedian from about one-fourth coita, rathcr straight, postmedian from costa before 
two-thirds. stron^ly outcurved; cell spot large, black ; some minute grey dots at termen. Hindwing elbowed at R^, cell short, DC ratlier oblique 
outwards. DC^ incurved, C approximated to cell at little more than a point, rapidly diverging. R' from near R', M* rather longer-stalked than SC-; 
marked like forewing, but without the (irst line. Underside almost concolorous with upper. unmarkeil. .\limika River, New Guinea, .luly, loto 
(A. F. R. Wollaston). Type in coU. Brit- Mus. \ very distinct specie.^i. 

2) Omphax shorti, nov. sp. — c?. 32 mm. Face pale ochreous, reddish above. Palpus very mtnute, but rough-scaled, reddish, dark- 
marked. Vertex. antenna and front of thorax pale oclireous; thorax and first segment of abdomen dorsally green. abdomen otherwise white, with 
strongly develuped wliite crests on second. third and fourth segments Wings above bright green. Forewing with costal margin for a breadth of 
about I mm. creamy white. tbe extreme edge ochreous ; liistal margin the same, broadening into a small blotch anally and extending a Ilttle way 
along inner margin, traversed throughout by a thick pale ochreous line whicli (ikewise broadens anally ; termin;il line tine. brighter ochreous, eitending 
along inner raargin as far as does the blotch ; fringe ochreous whitish. Hindwing similar. the costal margin broader ;ind whiter, not ochreous edged, 
the distal broadening slightly towards apex, the extension along inner m;irgin very narrow, but reaching nearly to base, not ochreous-edged. Under- 
side whitish green, with all the margins whitish ochreous, not sharply defined. Selukwe, S. Rhodesia, 20 27 October, loio (F. W. Short). 'lype in 
coll. !,. B. Prout. Not quite a typical Ompkax, the crests being as in Celidomphax. while the pattern strongly recalls Hc^t/iycoifiodes acoelopa ; but 
the rest of the characters are tvpical. The antenna is thick, vein SC* ol forewing free. We have great pleasure in dedicating this lovely species to 
Mr. F. W. Short, B. Sc, F. I. E., of Selukwe, to whom we owe its discovery and by whose generosity it now stands in our collection. 

3) Tbe description given would rather suggest a close ally of Chtorissa piilmcitiaria and fanslinata. The cf is not known. and the Q tibial 
armature was not noted. Bred from Rhus oxyacantha. 



FAM. (iEOMETRID^: ^53 

Page 247 : Mixeopliaiies. \\'e liave now seen the cf , and have been able to give more study to the 
characters of th.s interesting genus. Tongue wanting. Antenna short, in cf bipectinate. with rather well- 
separated branches, in part rather long, but shortening rapidly, apical part merely subserrate. Pectus 
and femora glabrous. Hindtibia in cf not dilated. Forewmg with M' separate, hindwing with M' about 
connate; fringes long. 

Page 248-249 : The following must be added to the list of a Species incerta; sedis » : 
Hemithea sqiialidaria, Costa, Faun. Regn. Napoh. Lep Geom. p. 17, t. 2, Italy. 

f. 4 (1.S48) (vix huj. subfam.) i). 
Pkorodesma graminana, Kollar, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. S. Persia. 

Classe, Vol. i, p. Si (i85o) [Phoradesma on p. 53] 2). 
Euchloris orhrella. Stiand. Ent. Rundschau, Vol. 26, p. 108 (iqog). German E. Africa. 



* 
* * 



In order to secure pnority, in the unavoidable delay between describmg and publishing in the 
present work. prelimmar> diagnoses m outline were inserted in The Entomologist' s Record, Vol. 23. p. 267, 
October, 191 1, of the following New Guinea species and subspecies : 

Agathia diversiluiea ampla, Prout. Ent. Record, Vol. 23. p. 267; Gen. Ins. Geom. subfam. Hemtihemae 

p. 59. 
Amsozyga polyleiicotes, Prout, ibidem ; Gen.Ins. p. 82. 
Anisozyga diazeuxis, Prout, ibidem ; Gen. Ins. p. 83. 
Gelasma atra[<ophanes, Prout, ibidem ; Gen. Ins. p. 149. 
Dioscore homoeotes. Prout, ibidem; Gen. Ins. p. 75. 



1) But fo. Costa's express statement that the palpus distinguishes it from Meirocampa (seiis lat.), we should have been inclined to deter- 
mine it as a form or near ally of Ellopia prosafiaria (Linn.). 

2) Probably a yr«<:-S/»r,-j, allied to smaragdaria, with which Kollar compares it. Or account of this comparison, the size-md.cation etc 
it doe« not seem poss.ble that this can be the <l graminaria, Kollar, MS. . of Zeller (= Microloxia herdaria). 



254 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Pages 
ahrupta. Walk. {g. Dysfhania) 52 

Absala isubg.) Swinh. 38, Sg 

abscondila, Warr. {g. Phnidocentra 

affliiis-a.h.) 123 

absimilis, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) 

i58, 25i 
absona, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 8i 

abyssiniaria, Guen. (f;. Pingasa) 32 

acanthma. Meyr. (g. Molochroma) 36 

acerces, Prout (^. Chloropterxx) 179 

Acihdela genus), Tum. 224 

acoelopa, Prout [g. Bathycolpodesi 141 
Acollesis (g;enus),Warr. iS, 217, 219 
acora, Dogn. {g. Racheospila) 104 

Acrortha (genus), Warr. 5, 184, i85 
acte, Swinh. ig. Berta) 233, 2^4 

Actenochroma (genus), Warr. 

9. 10, 27, 208 
aculeata, Hamps. (g. Gelasma) 147 

acuta, Butl. (g. Tachyphyle) I20 

acutangula, Warr. (g. Piugasa) 33 

acutilunata, Warr. (g. Strepsichlora) 160 
acutissima, Walk. (g. Gelasma) 147 

adempta, Bast. (g. Dysphania) 52 

adiposala, Feld. [g. Euchloris) 212 

adrairabilis. Ob. (g. lotaphora) 73 

advolata, Eversm. (^. Microloxia her- 

hariit var. ' 3, 200 

^oiochroma igenus), Prout 

4. .5, II, 35 
aequaria, Mab. (g. Nemoria\ 249 

aerata. h'ab. (^. Sy«c/(/o/ii) 114, Ii5 

aeretincta. Warr. ig. PhritJocentra) 122 
aeruginaria, Bork. (g. Hemistola) 227 

aeruginariii, Schiff. (g. lodis) 23i 

aeruginata, Warr. i^. Thalera) 216 

aestivaria, Hiibn. (g. Ilemithea) 

7, 169, 170 
affinis, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 122 

afflictaria, Swinh. (^^'.C/i/omsa) 172. 175 
affluens, Bast. (g. Dysphania iouhle- 

(/(iviab.) 53 

Afrena (genus), Hamps. 76 

Agathia (genus), Guen. 12, 57, i63 
Agathiopsls (genus), Warr. 6, 14, 92 
aggravaria, Guen. {g. M etacineta) gS 
Aglossochloris (genus). Prout 

4. 17, 91, 212, 214 



INDEX 
{The names in ilalics are synonyms) 

Pages 
agorius. Boisd. (g. Hazis) 55 

Agoschema fgenus). Prout 6. 12, 56 
Agrapiochlora (genus). Warr. 194 
agrestaria, Dup. (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 

alada, Dogn. (g. Hydata) 188 

alba, Gillm. (g. Hipparchus papilio- 

naria ab.) 71 

alba, Swinh. {g. Leucesthes) 225 

alba, Swinh. (g. Pingasa) 32 

alhaniensis, Prout (g. Chlorosterrha) 218 
albannularia,Walk.(^. r/in/aj.5od«s) i53 
albaria. Grote (g. A'emoria) 112 

albaria. Esp. (g. Thalera) 216 

albescens, Prout (g. Dysphania) 53 

albiangularia. HeTT.-Scii.ig.Agathia) 58 
albicatena, Warr. (g. Comibaena) 

97, 98, 100 
albiceps, Keld. i^. Chloromachia) 84 

albiceps, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 122 
albicinctaria. Walk. ig. Metallo- 

chlora) i65. 166 

albicoma, Druce {g. Oospila) :33 

albicoma, Feld. (g. Oospila) i33 

albicornaria. Mab. (g. Eucrostes) 245 
alhicosta. Swinh. ig. Prasinocyma) iSy 
albicosta, Walk. (g. Prasinocyma) 

i55, 15; 
albicostaria. Herr -Sch. (;;. 5v«- 

chlora) 1 1 5 

albidata. Warr. (g. Chloropteryx 1 179 
albidentula, Hamps. (g. lodis) 

19. 23i, 233 
albilimbria, Warr. {g. Anisozyga) 81 
albirtmbria, Warr. (g. Prasinocvma) i56 
albifimbria. Warr. (g. Pyrrhorachis) 239 
albifusa, Warr. ig. Antsozyga) 81 

albifusa. Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148 

albifusaria, Walk. ig. jEoIochroma) 36 
albiguttata. Warr. (g. Euxena) 64 

albilauta, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

albilineata, Warr. (g. Racheospila) io5 
albimacula, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

albimacula. Th.-Mieg (g. Dysphania 

remota ab.) 52 

albimacula, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 124 
albimarginata, V.'arr. (g. Comibaena) 100 
albimarginata, Warr. ig. Paragathia) 61 
albimargo, Warr. [g. Mixocera) 243 



Pages 
albinata, Warr. ig. Anisozyga flavi- 

linea ab.) 82 
albipicta, Warr. (g. Vicioria\ 85. Sb 

albii)laga, Warr. (g. Berta) 234 

albipuncta. Warr. (g. lodis) 233 

albipuncta. Warr. (g. Rhodochlora) 79 

alhipunctala,\Va.TT. ig. Argyrocosma) 96 

albipunctata, Warr. (g. Comibaena) 99 

albipunctulata, Bast. (g. Agathia) 60 
albipunctulata, Bast. (g. Dysphania 

iiumana var. ?) 5o 
albiradiata. Warr. (g. Mixolophia) 

166, 167 

albisparsa, Walk. {g. Chloromachia) S4 

albispatsa, Warr. (g. Tachyphyle) 121 

albiseriata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

albisticta. Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i56 

albistrigata. Warr. {g. Gelasma) 148 

albistrigata, Pag. (g. Mixocera) 243 

albislrigulata.WaTT. {g. Chlorissa) 174 

albiviridis. Hamps. (g. Osteosema) .sg 

albociliaria, Druce (g. Racheospila) 108 
albociliaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Racheo- 

spila) io3, 104 

albocostaria, Brem. (^. £Kf///oris) 3, 211 

ttlbolinearia, Mart. {g. Dichorda) 25 1 

alholineata, Pag. (g. Metalloclilora) i65 

albolineata. Pack. (g. Synchlora) i\S 

albomaculata, Hamps. (g. Thalassodes) 1 52 

alboseriata. Warr. (^ Racheospila) 104 

alboundulata. Hamps. [g. Hemithea) 170 
alboundulata. Hed. (g. Hemithea aes- 

tivaria ab.) 170 
albovenaria.Brem.^^.Hi^/rtrf/iMj) 70, 72 

alboviridata, Saalm. (g. Rliodesia) 2o3 

alboviridis. Moore (g. Osteosema) 89 
alexandraria, Prout (g. Hierochtho- 

nia\ 2o5 
alinea. Burr. (g. Euchloris smaragtta- 

ria ab.) 211 

alliata, Hofn. (g. lodis) 232 

allineata, Warr. (g. Tachypliyle) 120 
Allochrostes igenus), Prout 17, 246 

almaria, Guen. (g. Terpna) 3g 

alterata, Walk (g. Pingasa) 32 

alternata, Warr (g. Dichroma) 19S 

alternata, Warr. [g. Tanaorhinus) 69 

amaura. Meyr. (g. Crypsiphona) 45 



FAM. GEOMETRID^; 



255 



ambigiM, Butl. li;. Gclasmai 147 

ambusta. Warr. (x. Auophyllodes) i3i 
ametalla. Turn. (;,•. Met:i!loc/ilor,i} i65 
amethystina. Warr. (.;'. .^olochvomn) 36 
amoennria. Ob. (g. ComHianui) 99 

amphiboh}. Turn. [g. Agittliiof^sisi 92 

amphitritaria, Ob. ig. Hciiulhin) 171 
amphiti-itaria. Piing. ig Heniithea\ 171 
ampla, Prout ig. Agathia diversi- 

liiira, subs]i. : 59. 253 

ampla. Warr. ig. Prasinocyma) i56 

amplificata. Walk. (g. Terpnai 39 

amyclaria, Walk. (g. Cerniai 47 

analiplaj^a, Warr. (g. Celidomphax) 194 
y4#»a^/odci (genus), Pack. m 

andamana, Moore (g. Dysphania) 52 

andersonii, Moore (g. Dysphania) 53 
angulata, Warr. (g. Dysphania dou- 

bledayi ah.) 53 

angulata, Luc. [g. Gelasmai 147 

angulifera, Warr. (g. Pingasa) 3o. 33 
angustimargo. Warr. ig. Chloroire- 

pana) I42 

Anisodontodes genusi. Warr. 63 
Anisogamia (genusi, Warr. 79 

anisosjtes. Prout (g. Bathvco!podes\ 141 
Aniso2yga(genus).Prout 3, 12, 79, 84 
Annemoria igenusi. Pack. 

114. 117, 221, 222 
annulifera, Warr. ig. Ldisi 232 

annuHgera. Warr. (g. Hemistola) 227 

annuligera, Swinh. (g. Lophostola) 

229, 252 
anomala, Warr. ig. Chlorissa) i^j^ 

anomala, Warr. \g. Omphax). 196 

anomalaria, 'M6sc\\\.(g.Phrudocentra) 124 
anumoea, Turn. ^g. Prasinocvma' 159 
Anompliax(genusi,Warr. 20, 222, 248 
Anoplosceles (genus), Warr. 14, 171 
ansorgei. Warr. ig. Archichlora 87 

Anthapmostes (genus), Warr. 

i5. 16. 143 
aperta, Swinh. i^'. .M icrolo.via) 200 

aphrias, Meyr. (g. Anisozyga) 80 

apicalis, Moore (^, rfj-Znrt) 38,41 

apicata, Warr. (g. Comostolopsis) 238 
apicata, Warr, (g. Omphaxi igS 

apicata, Sch.a.us (g. Prohydata) 187 

apicata, Warr. (g. Synchlora) 116 

apiciata., Schaus, Ig Racheospila) 107 

apicipicta. Prout (.f. Com;4af «fl) 97, loi 
aplagaria. Dyar (g. Dichorda) 128 

.<4^/orfes igenus), Guen. 4, no 



Apodasmia (genusi, Turn. 9, 10, 47 
Aporandria (genus), Warr. 12. 77 
aiip<'lLiria. Pears (g. Chlorochlamys) 177 
apiiri..ximans, Warr. 'g. Chlorissa) 174 
approximaria. Pack. (g. Nemoriai 1 1 1 

aqiiamarina, Hamps. (g.Hemithea, 171 
Aracima igenu<;), Butl, 12, 65 

Aracina igenus), Scudd. 65 

araria, Guen. (g. Heteiocritai i38, 217 
Archaeobalbis (genus , Prout 

6, 9. 24 
Archaeopseustes (genus), Warr. 38 
Archichlora (j;enus). Warr. 

II. 12, 86, 87, 137 
arcualis, Westw. (g. Dichroma) 198 

arcuata, Moore (g. Agathiai 58 

arcuata. Bast, (g. Dysphaiiia numa- 

iia ab,) 5o 

arenaria. Leech ig. .Eolochroma) 38 

ares, Weym. 1.^. Dysphania) 55 

argentataria, Leech (g. Comibaena) 

97, lOo 
ar.genteofasciata. Weym. (g. Callv- 

Ihria) jgn 

argentifusa, Walk. ig. Tanaorhmus) 69 
argocnemis, Meyr. (g.Euloxia) 224 

argocrana, .Meyr. (^. /i(/o/.5) 6, 2i3, 214 
argosticta, Turn. (g. Argyrocosma) 96 
argutaria, Walk. (g. lodisj 232 

argyraspis, Low. (g. Sterictopsis) 24 

Argyrocosma igenu.S). Turn. 

7. 14, 16. gi, 96 
Argyrographa(genus),Prout 16. 198 
arizonaria. Grote (g. Nemoria) 112 

armoraciaria, Dup. (g. Pseudoterpna 

coronillaria ah.) 47 

arpata, Schaus (g. Auophyllodes) i3i 

arycanda, Druce ig. Progonodes) i35 
Asellodes (genus), Guen. 6 

asemanta. Meyr. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 
asmura, Druce (^. Oos/>(7a I i33 

assa, Druce (g. Phrudocentra) 122 

assidens, Luc. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

assimilis, Luc. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 

astenas, Meyr. ig. Agathia) 5g 

asligma, Warr. 1.5-. Auophyllodes) i3i 
astraea. Druce ig. Racheospila) iio 

astraeoides, Warr. (g. Racheospila) iio 
asyllaria, Swinli. (g. Helerorachisi 193 
athena, Druce \g. Progonodes) i35 

atrapes, Druce ig. Racheospilai iio 

atrapophanes. Prout ig. Gelasma) 

149, 253 



Pagei 

atridisca.Warr. (i'. Lo/i//os/o/n,i 182, 252 

atriscripta. Warr. (g. Pingasa) 33 
atropunctaria.^VJa.W!:. (g. Pseudoterpna) 25o 

atroviridaria. Mab. (g. Thalera) 216 

atroviridis. Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

attendaria, Moschl. (g. Racheospila) 109 

attenuans, Walk. \g. Pingasaj 32 

attenuata. Walk. (g. Chlorissa) 174 
attenuata, Warr. (^. Comibaena) 97, 100 

aturia. Druce (g. Racheospila) 108 

aucta, Prout {g. Thalassodes) i53 
auctata. Th.-Mieg (g. Dysphania 

remota a.h.) 5z 

Auophylla igenusi. Warr. 20, 129 

Auophyllodes genus). Prout 20, i3o 

auiantiacea. Luc. (g.Hypodoxa) 34 

anniiiticolorata, Streck. (g. Chlorissa) 175 

aurata. Warr. (g. Pachycopsis) 189 

aurata. Dogn. (g. Prohydata) 187 

aureliaria. Mill. (g. Xenochlorodesi 247 

aureofulva. Warr. (g. Lophomachia) 85 

aurifusa, Warr. (g. Dvsphania) 53 

aurigera. Pag. (g. Metallochlora) i65 

aurilimbata, Moore (g. Dysphania) 54 

aurilunata. Warr. (g. Dysphania) 53 

auriplaga, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 54 

auriplena. Th.-Mieg (g. Dysphania) 52 

auristriga. Walk. (g. Dysphania) 52 

auroguttata, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 54 

auster. Prout (.^^. P»-o/;y(ia/a) 186, 187 

Autanepsia igenus). 'lurn. 43 

avicularia. Guen. ig. Ornithospila) 76 

axillaria. Guen. ig. Pseudoterpna) 47 

azurea, Bast. (g. Dysphania) 54 

baba, Swinh. g. Herochroma 27 

bacoti, Prout (g. Omphax) 5, 195 

bajularia, Schiff. (g. Comibaena) 98 

bajularia. Lang (g. Hemithea) 170 

baliata, Feld. (g. Euchloris) 212 

balistaria. Guen. (g. Dysphania\ 53 

balteata, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148, 149 

banakaria, Plbtz (g. Phyle) 249 

barnardae, Luc. ig. Eucrostes) 2^5 

barretti. Proiit (g. Neromia) i83 

basaliata, Walk. ig. Tanaorhinus) 68 
basicostalis. Dogn. (g. Rhodochlora 

roseipalpis ab.) 78 

basiflavata. Moore (g. Dindica) 42 

basinigra, Warr. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

basiplaga, Warr. (g. Auophylla) i3o 

basiplaga. Walk. (g. Tachyphyle) 120, 121 

basipuncta, Warr. (g. Agalhiopsisj 92 



2 56 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



Pages 

Bathycolpodes g^enus), Prout 

4, i5, 86, 140, 142. 193 

batiaria, Plotz Ig. Piiigasa) 32 

batina, Druce [g. Cathydals) 209 

batis, Warr. ig. Antsozyga\ Si, 25i, 252 

beata, Butl. {g. Agathia) 5g 

beatificata, Walk. {g. Eucrostes) 245 

belisama, Druce (j. Auophyllodes) i3i 

bella. Warr. {g. Ctenoihea) 181 

bellicosa^ ¥e\A. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

bellissima, Moore {g. Dysphania) 54 

bellona, Walk. (g. Dysphaniii) 53 

bellonaria, Guen. (g. Dysphania) 53 

1 
bellonaria, Streck. {g. Xemoria) 112 

bencdicta, Pag. (g. Agathiopsis) 92 

benepicta, Warr. (g. Prohydata) 187 

bernsteinii, Feld. (g. Dysphania) 52 

Berta (genus), Walk. 

19, 23i, 233, 235, 236 

beryllaria, Mann [g. Xenochlorodes) 247 

beryllina, Meyr. {g. Euloxia) 223 

bicolor. Warr. {g. Dioscore) 74, 75 

bicolor, Warr, (g. Dysphania) 52 

bicolor, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148, 149 

bicolor, Th.-Mieg (g. Lasiochlora) 2o3 

bicolor, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) 159 

bicolora, Luc. (g. Prasiaocyma) i57 

bicuneata, Prout (g. Xenopepla) 67 

bidentifera, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 110 

bifasciata, '^a.W. (g. Gclasma) 147 

bifilala, Walk. [g. Xemoria) iii 

biiimbriata, Prout {g. Prasinocyma) li-j 

bijugata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

binotata, Walk. {g. Dysphania) 52 

biplaga.Walk.(f .Coi««irti:«(i) 97, 98, 09 

biplagiata, Walk. (g. Uliocntmis cas- 

sidara, subsp.j gi 

bipunctata, Dogn. (». Racheospila 

crina ab.) 107 

bipunctifera, Walk. (g. Urolitha) 166 
bislriaria. Pack. (g.Cheteoscelis) 116 

bistriaria. Hiibn, [g. Netnoria) iii 

bistriata, Warr. {g. Synchloia) 116 

bivexillata, 1'riiut {g. Dysphania) 55 

biviaria, Hamiis. (i;. Comibaena) 97, loi 
blanda, Pag. (g. Pingasa) 33 

Blechroma (genus)', Moschl 102, 248 
boisduvalaria, Le G\n\\.(g.Chlorodes) 88 
boliviensis, Dogn. (g. Thalassodes) i53 
bonhotei. VroaX {g. Racheospila) iio 

bruandaria. Mill. (g. Microloxia) 200 

brunnearia. Pack. {g. Nemoria) iii 

brunneifrons, Hamps. (g. Xemoria) 175 



Pices 
brunneilinea, Warr, {g Racheospila) 109 
brunneipalpis, Warr. {g. Rhodo- 

chtora) 78 

brunneopicta, Warr. {g. Prohydata) 187 
brvala, Druce (g. Phrudocentra) 121 

bryata, Feld. g. Racheospila) io5 

bryophanes. Turn. {g. Molochroma) 36 
bii/>leuraria. Schiff. (g.Thalera) 216 

biiprestaria, Guen. (g. Eucyclodes) 83 
busa, Druce {g. Hydala) 188 

byrsopis. Meyr. {g. Thalassodes; i52 

Cdcnworf» (genus), Swinh 63 

Cacochloris (genus). Prout 

2, 5, 17, 209 
cadmaria, Giien {g. Chlorocoma) 190 
caducata. Feld. (^. //vrfn/rt) 188, 189 
caclataria, Moore (g. Maxales) i63 

ca.et\i\ea.,WaTi.(g. Pyrrhorachis) 19, 2^9 
caeruleoplaga, Bast. {g. Dysphania) 53 
caeruleotincta, Prout (g. Prasino- 

cyma) 252 

caeruleo-viridis, Burr, (g. Euchloris 

smaragdaria ah. 211 

caerulescens, Burr,(.y. Chlorissa viri- 

data ab,) 173 

caerulescens, Prout (g. Xemoria) ii3 
caesia, Warr, (g. ^^olochroma) 37 

calaina, Turn. (g. Gelasma) 149 

calaurops, Prout (g. Terpna) 38, 41 

calcinata. Feld. (g. Anisozyga) 80 

calida, Dogn (g. Racheospila) 104 

Calleremites (subg.), Warr. 38, 39 
callicula, Diwce (g. Oospila) i33 

calliope, Druce (g, Lophochorista) 137 
calliptera. Meyr. (g. Uliocnemis) 92 

callista, V,'arr. [g.Prosomphax, 196 

Callisteuma (genus), Prout 20, 2o5 
c.illistii :ta, '1 urn, (g. Anisozyga) 81 

Callythria genus), Weym, 198 

Camptolophia (genus), Warr. 12, 62 
canrellata, Bast. {g. Dysphania) 54 

candidaria, Warr. :g. Pingasa) 3i 

candidata, Warr. {g. Xenochroma) 46 
caniola, Warr. (g. Frasinocyma) i58 

capensis. Warr. (g. Comoslolopsis) 238 
capys, Druce (g, Xemoria 112 

capysoides, Schaus {g. Xemoria) 112 
carbina. Druce (g. Rachcospila) 106 

carenaria, Guen. (g. Chlorocoma) 190 
carenaria, Turn. (g. Chlorocoma) 192 

carcnaria. Walk. (g. Chlorocoma] iqi 

carissima. Butl. (g. Agathia) 58. 59 



Pages 
carnelunata, Warr. (g.Racheospila) i35 
carnifrons. Batl. (g. Xeromia) 182 

cassidara, G\.\eii.(g.Uliocnemis) 91, 248 
cassidara, Pag. \g. Uliocnemis) 92 

castanea, Low. (g. Prolophyta) 22 

castaneata, Warr. (g. Pyrrhorachis) 239 
casliliaria. .Staud [g. Euchloris) 211 

catachloa, ii\\\si ig. Racheospila] 104 
catenaria, Walk. {g. Agalhia) 5& 

Cathydata (genus), Prout 4i, 208 

cauJipuiictata. Warr. (g. Gelasma) 149 
caudularia, Guen, (g. lodis, 232 

cecilia, Prout [g. Racheospda) 106 

celata, Walk. (g. Pingasa) 32 

celataria, Walk. (g. Diplodesma) i85 
ceUbciisis . Warr. {g. Paramaxales) 208 
Celidomphax (genus). Prout 16, 194 
cellularia, Guen. (g. Prasinocyma) i55 
cellulata. Warr (g. Syndromodes) 204 
Cenochlora (genus), Warr. 2, 17, 241 
centralis. Kothsch. {g. Dysphania) 5i 
centrifugaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Phrudo- 

centra) i23 

centrophylla,Me}'r. (g. G«/(Ji«i<i) 147. 148 
celraria, Feld. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

chaga, Dogn. (g. Cbtoropteryx) 179 

chalybeata, Moore (g. Chlorodonlo- 

pera) 65 

chalybeata. Moore (g. Comibaena) 99 
chalybeata, Butl. {g. Dysphania) 5o 

checometa, Druce {g. Comibaena) 99 

cheramota, Meyr, (g. Comibaena) 99 
chtromelti, Druce (g. Comibaena) 99 

Cheroscelis igenusi. Prout 

14, 137, 104 
Cheteoscelis (geiius), Prout 20, 116 
chii'ii,pl.i,a. Low. (g. Anisozyga) 8o. 

Chloeres (genus), Turn. ig. 240 

clilora. i. ram. (g. Pingasa) 3r 

Chloractis igenusi. Warr. 21, 209 
chlorargyra, Walk. {g. Comoslola) 237 
chloraria. Guen. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

chlorinaria, Mab. (g. Xenioria) 248 

Chlorinthia (genus). Kaye 209 

Chlorissa (genus), Steph. 

7, i5, 21, 169, 172, 252 
chlorissodes, Prout (g. M icroloxia) 201 
Chlorochaeta genus. Warr. i5, loi 
Chlorochlamys (geiuisi. Hulst 

20, 21, 176 
Chlorochroma genus;, Dup. 168 

Chlorochroina genusi.Guen. 189 
Chlorochromodes (genus) Warr. 97 



FAM, GEOMETRIDAi 



257 



Pagei 
Chlorocoma (geniis). Turn. 

5. i6. 189, 248 
Chlorodes (genusl. Guen. 12, 88 
Chlorodontopera (ffer.us),Warr. 

5, 12, ('.4. 167 
Chlorodrepana i^enus), VVarr. 

i5. 141 
Chloroglyphica (genus), Warr. 

70, 71. 7^ 
chloroleucaria, Guen. [g. C/iloio- 

clilaiiivs] 177 

Chloromachia (genus), Warr. 

12, 83, 84 
Chloromlanta (genus), Warr. i.3, q3 
Chloromma (genus), W^arr. 19, 23o 
Chloroparda (genus), Prout 

8, i3, 140 
cliloroplixUariii, Leech ig. Comihnenii) 101 
chloroiihyllaria. Hed. {g. Euchlnris) 

3, 212 
chloroi)is. Meyr. (g. T/ialaaodes) i52 
Chloropteryx (genus), Hulst 20, 178 
Chlororithra (genus), Butl. i3, 74 
clilorosana, Graes. ig.T/ialera fim- 

brialis, subsp.) 216 

Ohlorosea (genus), Fack. ig, 116 
Chloroioina (genus), Feld. 77 

Chlorosterrha (genus), Prout 

in, 218, 242 
chlorosticta. Prout (g. i\emoria) i83 

chlorosti};ma. Warr. (g. Telol/iela) 2o5 
Chlorosirotu (geiiusi. Warr. Sq 

Chloroteras (genus), Warr. 86, 87 
Chlorozancla (genus), Prout 11, 69 
chlorozonaria,Walk.(g. T/!«/nMorf«) i53 
Chrotochlora (genus), Warr. 22, 126 
Chrysochloroma (genus),Warr. 

3, 4, 5, 16, 145, 161, 162, 25i 
Chrysocraspeda(genus),Hainps. 7 
chrysolineata, Walk. (g. Berta) 234 

Chrysotnphe (genus), Warr. 164, i65 
chrysoprasaria, Esp. (g. Hemislola) 

225, 227, 23l 
ciliaria, Hubn. [g. Oospila) i33 

cincta. Walk. (g. Ornitliospila) j-j 

cinctuta.Saalm. (g^. H^/ooccj/a) 139, 249 
cinerea, Warr. (». Helicopage) 5, 63 

cinerea, VVarr. (g. Pingasa) 3i, 33 

circumdata, Warr. (g. Oospila) 134 

circimflexaria. Snell. (g. Ornit/iospila) 'jj 
circiimpiiactata .Wa.TT .(g . Prasinocyiiia) i56 
circumscripta, Warr. (g. Metallo- 
, c/ilora) i65 



Pa^es 

cissina, Turn. (g. C/ilocresi 240 

cissochroa. Turn. (g. Xeol/iela) 241 

citrolimbaria, Guen. (g. C/iloeres) 240 
citroliiiibaria. Walk. (g. Cldorocomaj 191 
claripennis. Butl. (g Hemislulaj 226 

clarissa, Butl. (g^. 701/(5) 233 

clemens, Warr. (g. Chloropteryx) 178 
cloraria, Dup. (g. Clilorissa) 174 

cloraria, Eversm (g. Chlorissa) 173 

cloraria, Hiibn. (g. Chlorissai 173 

cloraria, Steph. (g. Chlorissa) 173 

codina, Swinh. (,!,'. Agathia) 5q. 60 

coelataria, Walk. ig. Maxates) i63 

coerulea. Warr. (g. Anisozvga) 81 

coerulea, Warr. (g. Comoslolopsis) 238 
coerulea, Warr. (g. Omphacodes) 221 

coenilea, Warr. (^. Ooi/>//rt) 4, i32, 134 
coerulea,Warr.(g.PrajiKonTOfl) i55, i58 
coeruleata, Warr. (g. lodis) 233 

cognataria, Swinh. ig. Episolhalma) 167 
colalaria, Leech (g. Gelasma) 148 

Collesis (genus), Warr. 3, 17, 219, 220 
Colutoceras (genusl, Warr. 97 

Comibaena (genus). Hiibn. 

2, 3, 7, 8, 14, 16, 90, gi, 96, 137, 

199, 211, 248 

commaculata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

commixta, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148, 149 

commoda, Luc. (g. Chlorocoma assi- 

milis ab.) 191 

communicans, Walk. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

commnlala. Walk. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

Comostola (genus), Meyr. 

4, 6, 19, i55, 211, 23i, 235, 238, 239 
Comostolodes (genus), Warr. 97 

Comostolopsis (genus), Warr. 

19, 238, 23g 
concavilinea, Burr,(^. C/ilorissa viri- 

dala ab.) 173 

concenlrata, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) I23 
Conchylia (genus), Hiibn. 198 

conchylias, Meyr. (g. Comostola) 237 

concinna, Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

concinnaia, Pag. (g Chloromachia) 84 
concisiplaga. Walk (g. Uliocnemis) gi 
concolor, Warr. (g. lodis' 2 32 

condensata. Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 123 
conflua, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 108 

conflua, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 108 

confluaria, Warr. (g. Racheolopha] i35 
confluens, VVarr. \g. Dysphania re- 

mota. subsp.j 52 

confuciaria, Walk. (g. Tanaorhinus\ 68 



Pages 
confundaria, Mbschl. (4". Oo^/^i/ai i33 
confusa, Warr. (g. Comostolai 2^7 

confusaria. Staud. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

confuscata, Warr. (g. Agathia) 60 

congener, Warr. (g Oospila) i33 

congenita, Walk. (g. Chlorocoma) 190 

congrua, Walk. (g. Prasinocyvia) i55 
congruata, Hamps. Ig. Racheospila) iio 
congruala. Walk. (g.Racheospila) log 

coniferaria, Pack. (g.Nemoria) 112 

conjunctiva, Warr. (g. Agathia) 5g 

connata, Warr. (g, Comihaena) 99 

consequaria, Edw. (g. Dichorda) 127 

consimilis, Warr. (g, Racheospila) 107 
coiisobrina. Warr. (g. Comibaena) 99 

conspersa, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 

io3, 108 
conspicua, Bast. (g. Dysphania) 55 

conspurcata, Luc. (g. Hypochroma) 249 
continuata, Warr. (g. Racheolopha) i35 
contracta, Warr. (g. Diplodesma) i85 
contraria, Walk. (g. Dyspliania) 5i 

convallata, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148 

convergens, Warr. (g. Tachyphyle) 249 
conversa, Dogn. (g. Oospila) i32, 1^4 
conviridaria, Hiibn. (g. Leptogra- 

pha\ 248 

cornnta. Warr. (g. Pyrrhorachis / 23g 

coronillaria. Hilbn. (g. Psrudoterpna) 

46. 47 
correspondens, .■Vlph. (j. Aglosso- 

c/iloris) 2i3 

corrosa, Warr. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

curruptata, Feld, (g, Neagathia) i25 

corsicaria, Ramb. (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 
coryphata, Feld. (g. Comibaena) 99 

cosmeta, Prout (g. Racheospila) 106 

Cos»»o,^o««n (genus), Warr. 164, 166 
costipicta, 'Wa.Tr, ig. Gelasma) 14S, 149 
costipunctata, Moore (g. Hemitheai 171 
costiscripta, Warr. (g. Tachyphle) 120 
costistrigaria, Moore (g. Terpna) 40 

cowani, Butl. (g. Gelasma) 147, 249 

crassipunctata, Alph. (g. Archaeo- 

balhis) 25, 26 

crassisquama, Warr.(^ Nothoterpna) 21S 
crassistriga, Warr. (g. Orthocraspeda) 28 
cremonaria. Staud. (g. Xenochlorodes) 247 
crenaria, Guen. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

crenulata, Butl. (g. Culpinia) i39 

crenulata, Luc (g. Cymatoplex) 241 

cristata. Warr. (g, Archaeobalbis) 25 

cristifera, Walk. (g, Lophochlora) 60, 62 



258 



LEPIDOPTKKA HETEROCERA 



Pages 
croceofimhyiiUa, Herr.-Sch. {g. Rncheo- 

spila) 109 

crocina, Butl. (g. Terpna) 5. 41 

crossota, Meyr. (g.Prasinocymaj i55, i58 
crucigerata, Christ. (g. Aglossochlo- 

ris) 2i3 

crypsichroma. Warr. [g. Euxeiui) 64 
Crypsiphona (genusi, Meyr. 

9, 10, 44, 25o 
Ctenothea (genus). Prout i3. 181 

Culpinia (genus), Prout 

4, i5, i39, 200, 216 
cuneata, Burr. [g. Hippaicltus papi- 

lionaria ab.) 71 

cupedinaria. Grote (.!;. RacheospiUi) log 
lupiileiiaria, Dyar (g. Racheosptla) 109 
cuprinii, Feld. (g. Dysphania) 55 

curiosa, Swinh. [g. Thalassodes) i53 

curvifera, 1'rout [g. Chlorochlumys) i-j^ 
curvigutta, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

curvilinea, Prout (g. Omphacodes) 221 
curvilinta, \Va.rx. [g, Synchlora) ii5 

Cusuma (genusi, .Moore 8, 11, 55 
cyane, Cram. [g. Dysphania) 5i 

cyanoptera, Pag. (g. Dysphania) 52 

Cyclothea (genus), Prout 14, 181 

i yniaria, Hamps. [g. Hemislola) 228 

Cymatoplex (genus), Turn. 

18, 241, 242 
Cyneoterpna (genus), Prout 10, 43 
cynthia, VVarr. [g. Gelasma) i^.s 

cylhisaria, Schiff. [g. Pseudoterpna) 47 
cythisiaria, Jung (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 
cytisaria, Hiibn. (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 

dalica, Dogn. (g. Chloropteryx) 179 

darwinata, Dyar (g. .Vemoria) 112 

darvviniata, Dyar (^. iVeMiorm) iii, 112 

davidaria, Pouj. (g. Terpiia) 41 

dealbata, Warr. (g. Chloropteryx) 179 
decipiens. Warr. [g. Chloroptervx) 

178, 179 

decisissima, Walk. \g. Prasinocvma) 157 

decoloraria, Walk. (g. Oospila) i33 

decolorala, Vill. ig. lodis) 23i 

decorata, Warr. i^. Anisozyga) 81 
decorata, Warr. [g. Leptolopha flavi- 

liiiies ab.) 128 

decorata, arr. (^. .1/c/flWof /i/w u.: 166 

decorata, Warr. [g. Racheospila) iio 

decorata, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 106 
decorata, Warr. ig-. T«/«(i) 38, 39 

decrislata, Warr. [g. Pingasa) 3l 



Pages 

delacruzi, Uogn. [g. Auophyllodcs) i3i 
deleta, Burr. [g. Hipparchus papilio- 

uaria ab.; 71 

delicata, Warr. i.g. Omphacodes) 221 

delicataria. Dyar (^. A'<woWrt) U2 

delicataria. M6sch.\ .[g . P rasinocyma) i56 

delicataria, Moschl.i^. Racheospila) io5 

delicatior, Warr. [g. Comibaena) 100 

delicatula, Warr. (g. lodis) 233 

delicatula, Dogn. (^. 5v«i:/'/u)ii, 116 

d///f;fl, Th,-Mieg (g. Paragathia) 6i 

deliciosa, Warr. (g, Pyrrhorachis) 239 

delineata, Warr. (g. Comibaena) 3. 100 

deliJhinata, Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

densaria, Walk- (g. Chloiochlamys) 177 

dentata. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) Si 

dentata. Moore (g, Cnmibaena) 99 

dentata, Mab [g. Hcmithea) 249 

dentatilinea. Prout (1,'. Thalassodes) i53 
denticularia, Walk. [g. Svnchlora) 

114, ii5 

dentifascia. Warr. i^. lodis) 233 
dentilinea. Warr (g. Racheospila) 

104, 106 
dependens, Warr, [g. Racheospila) 

109, 110 

depressa, Warr. (g. Oosptla) i33 

deprivata, Walk. \g. Chlorochlamys) 177 

depulsata, Walk. (g. Eretmolius) 154 

depulsata, Walk. \g. Thalassodes) i52 

derasa, Warr. (g. Oospila) i32, 1^4 

desertoria, Reb. (g. Mixeophanes) 248 

desolata, Warr. [g. .inisozyga) 82 

detenta, Walk. (g. Comibaena) 99 
deteriorata, Walk. (g. Hypodoxa) 5, 34 

detracta, Walk. (g. Htmistola) 227 

detrita, Bast. (g. Pseudhemithea) 184 

deve,\ata, Walk. (g. Rhomborista) 94 

devocata, Walk. [g. Helerorachis) igi 

dcvocata, Fawc. (g. Omphax) ig5 

devoluta, Warr. \g. Archichlora) 87 

diagrapharia, Piing. (g.Hololerpna) 214 

diaphana, Warr. (g. Helerorachis) 193 

diaphana, Warr. [g. Hydata) 188 

diaphana, Warr. [g. Rachcospila) 104 

diarita, Dogn. [g. Racheospilai io3. io5 

diazeuxis, PTOut. (g. Anisozyga) 83, 253 

dichloraria.tiuen.i^'. C/j/ociPi^oHin) 5, 190 

Dichorda (genus), Warr. 22, 127 

dichioa, Low. [g. Cwiatoptex) 241 
Dichroma (genus), Westw. 

i3, 197, 199 

dichroma, Feld. (^'. Chlorosterrha) 218 



Pages 
didita. Walk. (". Chlorocomat 

1S9. 190, 192 

diducta. Walk. (g. Lasiochlora) 2o3 
dieckmanni. Graes. \g. Hipparchus) 

70, 72 

ditterens, Warr. [g \I etallochlora) i65 

ditferens, Warr. i^. Prasinocyma) i56 
differens, Warr. (g. Terpna) 38. 41 

difficta. Walk. [g. Ochrognesia) 90 

diffissa. Walk. [g. Geometra) 73 

diffundens. huc. tg. Hypochroma) 248 

diffusa, Walk. (g. Culfiiiia) iSg 

digressa. Walk. (g.Thalassodes) i52 

dijuncta. Walk. i^'. Heiiiistola) 226 

dilatata, Walk, >g Chlorocoma) 191 

dilucida. Walk. ig. Prasinocyma) i55 

diUicida, Warr. (g. Synclilora) 116 

diluta, Dogn. (g. Chtoropteryx) 179 

diluta, Warr [g. Comibaena) 100, 25i 

dimensa, Walk. (g. Syndromodes) 204 

dimissa. Walk. (g. Tanaorhinus) 68 

dimissus. Butl. [g. fanaorhinus) 68 

dimota, Prout (g. Agathia) 60 
Dlndica igenusi, Moore 10, 42 

Dindicodes subg.), Prout 41 

dioptasaria,.Chr\sX.[g. Hipparchus) 72 
Dioscore (genus), Warr. 

II, 74, 25o, 25i 

diphtherina, Meyr. (g. Cernia) 47 
Diplodesma igenus), Warr. 

4. 5, 7, i3, i5, 1S4, 23o, 249 

directa, Hamps. (g. Microloxiai 200 
directa. Walk. Ig. Omphacodes) 

6, 197, 221 

discalis, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 54 

discata, Warr. [g. Osteosema) 90 

discata, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 123 

discata, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i58 

discerpta, Walk. (g. Heterocrita) i38 

discessa,VJ3.\k. (g. Chlorissa) 173 

discipennata.Walk. [g.Lophomachia) 85 

discipuncta, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 107 

(//«mrt, Walk. (g. Eretmopus) iS^ 

discisticta, Prout (g. Agathia) 60 

discolor. Warr. [g. Molochroma) 36 

discolor, Warr. [g. Berta) 2^4 

discolor. Warr. <g. Paraprasina) 199 

disciilor, Warr. [g Tanaorhinusj 69 

disconnecla, Warr. [g. Agathia) 5q 
discospilata. .Moore [g. Chlorodon- 

topera) 65 
discospilota, Swinh. [g. Chlorodonto- 

pera) 65 



FAM. GEOMETRID^. 



aSg 



Pages 
diii-nminatj, Walk. (^. Agathia) 58 

discrta, Walk. ig. PamphUbia) 201 

disjuncta, Walk. (g. Cyclolhea) 182 

disjuiicta, Auriv. Ig. Lophostola) 229 

disjuncta. Warr. ig. Racheospila 

erina ab.) 107 

dispansa, Walk. Ig. Comustola) 
dispansa, Hamps. {g. Comoslola) 
disparata. Walk. (;,'. Eucrostes) 
dispartita. Walk. (g. Hemistola) 
dispensata. Walk. (g. Pingasa) 
dissepta. Walk. {g. Thalassodes) 
dissessa. Walk. ig. Comibaena) 
dissita, Walk. [g. Thalassodes^ 
dissimilis. Warr. ig. Mixeophanis\ 248 
dissimiilata, Walk. ig. Gehisma) 147 

distensaria, Walk. [g. Pingasa) 
distenta, Walk (g. Pingasa) 
distinctaria, Walk. (g. Hemithea) 
distracta, Walk. ig. Thalera 
distributa, I.uc. (g. Agathia) 
ditaria, Fab. i^. Comibaeua) 
ditaria, Vill. Ig. Thalera\ 
Dithecodes (^;enus), Warr. 
divapala, Walk. ig. Chloromachia) 
divaricata. Moore ig. Agathia) 
divergens, Warr. (g. Omphacodes) 
diversiformis, (g. Agathia) 
diversilinea. Warr. (g. Agathia) 
divincta, Holt-\Vhite ig. Eucrostes) 
divincta, Walk. (g. Rhadinomphax) 5, 197 
dohertyi, Warr. (g.Prasinocyma) i56 
dolens, Druce (g. Oospila) 1^4 

Dolosis (genus). Prout 17, 216 

dominicaria, Guen. (g. Eucrostes) 245 
Dooabia igenus , Warr. 12, 6.^ 

doicada, Swinh (g. Terpna) 3(1 

dorsicristata, Warr. ig. CMorissa) 

169, 172, 175 
dorsilinea. Warr. ig. Thalassodes) i53 
dursipunctata. Warr. f;-. Prasino- 

cvnta) i56 

dorsipunctata.Warr.ig^. Thalossodes) i53 
dorsocristata, Pouj. ig. Terpna) 39 

dorsoviridis, Prout ig. Hemistola) 228 
dorsuaria. Prout (g. Synchlora) 
dotata, Warr. [g. Metallochlora) 
doul'ledayi, Snell. ^g. Dvsphania 
Drucia (genus). Warr. 
Dryadopsis (genusj, Warr. 21. ii3 
dubia, Warr. (g. HydalLi ] 249 

dulcinata, Fuchs (g. Chloeres) 240 

dyakaria, Walk. (g. Chloeresi 240 



dyarli. Hulst ig. Chlorissa' 175 

Dyscheilia (genus), Dosjn. 20, 206 
Dyschloropsis ks""^), Warr. 

17, 214. 2l5 
Dysphania>^enusi.Hiibn. 4, 8. 11. 49 
Dysschenta (genusi, Warr. 56 



237 
237 
245 
22N 

32 
l52 

99 
i52 



32 

32 

171 

216 

59, 60 

98 
216 
249 

84 

61 
221 

59 

59 

245 



116 
i65 

.=).■! 
l32 



ecchloraria, Hiibn. ig. Pingasa) 
ecuadorata, Uogn \g.Auophyllodes) 
edmondsii, I3utl. (g. Hypochroma) 
effiirmata, Warr. ig. Hemistola) 
elaearia. Hamps. ig. NeohaUiis) 
eleclra, Weym. (g. Dysplinnia) 
electrica, Warr. (g. Chrysochloroma) 
electrica, Meyr. (g. Heliomystis) 
elej,'ans, Bast. ig. Hydata) 
eleijans, Prout (g. Omphacodes) 220. 
ele;;ans, Warr. (g. Uliocnemis) 
elenaria, Sw^inh. i^. Agathia) 
ella, Prout (g. Racheospila) 
eluta. Wilem. (g. Diplodesma) 
emiliaria, Guen. (g. HypoJoxa) 
emiliaria, Walk. (g. Hypodoxa) 
Endemia (genus), Warr. 17, 

eudorhoda. Hamps. ig. Neuroloca) 
eogenaria. Snell. (g. Phorodesma) 
ephippiaria. Mbschl. (g.Racheospila) 
Epipristis (genusi. Meyr. 2. 9 
Episothalma (genusi, Swinh. 

4. i5, i63, 
equestralis. Westw. ig. Dichroma) 
equestriiiaria. duen. ig. Dichroma) 
erehata, Meyr, (g. Hypodoxa) 
ereliusata, Walk. (g. Hypodoxa) 
Eretmopus (genus), Turn. 14, 
ericetorum, Walk. (g. Xenochloroies) 
erichlora. Meyr. (g. Mesurodes) 
erina. Doi;n. ,;,'. Rachcospila) 

3, 102, io3, 
erionoma. Swinh. (g. Terpna) 
erotyla. Turn. (g. Anisozyga) 
erymnodes. Turn. ig. Aniso:yga) 
esmeralda, Warr. i^ Comibaena) 
esmeralda, Hanips- (g. Ornilhospila) 

76 
clruscaria, Zell. ig, Chlorissa) 
Euacidalia (genus), Pack. 
Eualloea i!^enus). Warr. 
Euaresius (genus). Luc. 
eucalypti, Luc. (g. Anisozyga) 
euchloraria. Guen. \g. Chlorissa) 
Euchloris (genusj, Hi.ibn. 

2, 3, 7, H, 18, 91, 210, 212 



173. 



21, 



3i 
i3i 

42 
228 

26 

55 
146 

23 
188 
221 

92 

60 
iu5 
252 

34 
34 

i59 
229 
loi 
109 
, 10 

167 
198 
198 
35 
35 
154 
247 
i5o 

107 
40 
8.- 
82 

100 

I 77 

174 

b 

i.so 

57 

80 

175 

2i3 



Paires 
Euchrostes (genus), <;umpp. 244 

eucraspeda. Turn. (g Comoslola) 237 
Euerostes igenus), Hiibn. 

6. 8, is. 20, 244, 246, 248 
Eucrostis (genus), Led. 244 

Eucyclodes (^en\is),'\'mn. 79 

Eucyclodes (genus), Warr. 12, 83 

Eueana (genus), Prout 20. 201 

eugethes, Prout (g. Racheos/ ila. 106 

eugramma. Low. (g. Hypochroma) 248 
eugrapharia, Mab ig. Pingasa\ 32 

Euloxia igenus). \\'arr. 

19, 223, 224, 248 
eumi.\is, Prout (g. Gelasma) 145, 148 
JS^MxefWOrja igeuusi. Pack. 114 

fi^MScAcwia igenus,. Hiibn. 49 

eutraphes, Prout ig. Merochlora) 222 
Euxena (genus), Warr. 12,64 

exarata. Feld. (g. Euchloris) 212 

excavata, Warr. (g. Balhycolpodes) 141 
excelsa. Dogn. (g. Racheospila) 109 

excrescens, Warr. ig. Oospila) 134 

excubitor, Moore (g, Dysphania) 53 

excurvaria, Pack. (g. Synchlora) i:5 

exertata, Moschl. (g. Racheospila) 107 
exililinea, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

eximia. Dogn. (g. Xeocrasis) 180 

eximiala, Feld. (g. Argyrographa) log 
exoterica. Meyr. (g. Prasinocyma) i58 
expiilsata, Walk. (g. Racheospilai 109 
exquisita. Warr. (g. Agalhia) bg 

exquisita. Warr. (g. Rhodochlora) 79 

exspectata. Fabr. (g, Phalaena) 248 

extensata, Warr. (g. Auophyllodes) i3i 
externa, Walk. (g. Chlorocoma) 190 

extrcmaria. Walk. (g. Racheosfila) 104 

iactaria. Walk. (g Geomelra) 73 

falcatus, Hamps- (g. Chlorozancla\ 69 

fallax. Warr \g. Racheospila) 109 
fanitta, Swinh. ig. Dysphania excii- 

liilor, subsp.) 53 

farinosa, Warr. ig. Archaeobalbis) 25 

fasceolaria, Pack. (g. Merochlora) 222 

fasciata, Warr (g. Leucoglyfhica) 249 

fascinans, Luc. ig. .\nisozyga\ 81 

/asciolaria, Hulst (g, Merochlora) 222 

faseolaria, Guen. (g. Merochlora) 222 

faustinata. Mill. ig. Chlorissa) 174, 252 

fea. Butl. [g, Chlororilhra) 74 

felderi, Schaus (g-. //^da<fl; 188 

felicitala, Walk. (g. Uliocnemis) gi 

teli.x , Warr. (g. Cenochiora) 242 



26o 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Pages 

fenestraria, Moore ig. ComiUiuna^ loi 

fenestrata, Swains. (g. Dysphania) 5o 

fenestrata. Bast. j. Progonodts) i3S 
ferruginata. Warr. ^g. Chloromianta) 93 

festaria, Hiilst (^ Nemoria) 112 

festivaria, Hiibn. [g. Phrudouiitra) 124 

fimbrialis. Scop. (g. Thalira) 216 

jimbriaria, VValk. [g. Episothalma) 167 

Jivibriata. Led. (g^. Himilhea) 170 

fimbriata, Hufn. (j. Thalera) 216 

fimbriolaria, Hiibn. (j. £iifros<M) 245 

fimbripedata,Warr. (g.AuophyUodes) i3i 

flacciJa, Warr. (g. Tachypkyie) 121 

flagellaria, Pouj. (^. Gi/asmn) 148 

ftavata. Walk. '^. Dysphania\ 5o 

flavescens, Walk. ig. Euschema] 55 

flavibasalis, Warr. (j. Seobalbis, 26 

flavicincta. Warr. (g. Comostolai 207 

flavicincta. Warr. ig. Oospila) i33 

flavicoma. Warr. (f. Tachychlora) 119 

flavicorpus, Warr. (?. I)v-«/iAn"iVi) 5i 

flavicosta, Warr. [g. Prasinocyma) 157 

flavidisca, Warr. (f Tachychlora) 119 

flavidiscalis, Warr. ig. Dysphaiiia) 34 

flavifimbria. Warr. (§. Comi>i/o/(iJ 2^7 

flavifimbria, Warr. (g^. Metallochlora) i65 

flavifimbria, Warr. (f. Racheospila) io5 

flavifrontaria, Guen. (g.Hipparchus) 71 

flavifrontaria, Leech (j. Hipparchus) 71 

flavifusa, Hamps. (g. C«s«»i(i) 56 

flavifusata. Walk. (g. (Enospila) 162 

flavifnscala. Swinh. 14' CEnospila) 162 

flavilimes, Warr. ij. Leptolopha) 128 

flavilimes, Warr. (j. Prasinocyma) i58 

flavilinea, Warr. (j. .•J/iisofvg<i) 82 

flavilinea. Warr. \g. (Eiiospila) 162 

flavimargo, Warr. [g. Dysphania) 5l 

flavinigra. Warr. (g. Xenopepla) 67 

flavitjenia. Warr. (g. Comibaeua) 100 

flavitincta. Warr. (g^. Hemistola) 226 

flexicosta. Warr. (;;. Diploiesma) i85 

fleximargo, Warr. (;?. Collesis) 220 

florediscata, Warr. (.j.Prasjnoywa) i59 

florepicta. Warr. (4'. Racheolopha) i35 
floresaria. Walk. ^y. Prasinocyma) 

157. 162 
florifera. Prout(^.i?(i<:/i«)s/>;/ii) io3, 108 

fontalis, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 107 

fractimacula, Prout (g. Oospila) iS^ 

fragilis, Warr (g. Prasinocyma) i58 

fragmentata. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

fraterna, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) 159 

fraiidulenta, Warr. (g. Acollesis) 219 



Pages 

irequeus. Butl. i^. Chlorissa) 174 

fringillata, Scbaus (^. Callisteuma) 206 

frondaria, Guen. (^. Synchlora) ii5 

froHdinata, Feld. ( j. Rhadinompha.x) 197 

frosinaria, Stoll (g'. Thelidia) 212 

fruhstorferi, Rob. (j. Dysphania) 55 

frustatoria. \\"alk. (f. A/ijror<>iil 243 

frustratoria, Wall. (g. Mi.xocera) 2^3 

fugitivaria, Guen. (g. Euloxia) 223 
fulj;urata,\Varr. ig. Dioscorei 74, 75, 25o 

fulgurata. Warr. (g. Dysphania- 5o 
fulrainaria. Lcd. (g. Aglossochloris) 

4, 212, 2i3 

fulvilauta, Warr. (j. Dysphania) 5i 

fumidimargo. Dogn. (^. Oospila) 134 

funebrosa. Warr. (f. Terpna) 41 

fuscicosta. Warr. (^. Tachyphyle) 121 

fnscidorsata. Prout (g^. Comibaena) 101 

fusciflmbria. 1'rout (4-. Gelasma) 149 

fuscifrons. Warr (5. Synchlora) ii5 
fuscimargo, Warr. (?. Antharmostes 

marginata 3.h.) 144 

fuscipuncla. Warr. (^. Comostoiopsis) 238 

fuscipuncta, Warr. (j. Celasma) 148 

fuscithorax. Warr. (^. riV/oriVi) 86 

Galaclochlora (genus). Warr. 83, 84 
gaujoniaria, Dogn. (4'. Rhodochlora) 78 
gavisata. Walk. (g. Comibaena) 101 

gavissima. Walk. (j ,4«ijo-ii:.! 3. So 
Gelasma (genusi, Warr 

16, J45, 140. .:3i 249 
gelida. B\itl.{g. Chlorissa) 174 

geminipuncta, Warr. {g. Prasino- 

cyma) l58 

gemma, Swinh. (g. Agathia) 59 

genistaria. Vill. (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 

genufle.xa. Warr. ig. Phriidocentra) 123 
Geometra igenusi, Dup. 70 

GeomeiriHa igenusi, Motsch. 168 

Geomeiriua (genusi, Warr. 70 

germinaria, Guen. [g. Prasinocyma) i55 
gerularia, Hiibn. {g. Racheospila) 109 
gibbosa, Prout i^. Rhomborista) 94 

gigantaria. Staud. ig. Xemoria pre- 

tiosaria var.) 174 

gigantea. Butl. 1?. .'Igathia: 5q 

gigantea. Mill. ig. Euchloris smarag- 

(/firifl var.) 211 

Gigantothea igenus), Prout i3, 161 
gigas. Warr. j,'. Gigantothea) 161 

gigas, Warr. (g. Thalassodes) i53 

glacialis, 'BuH.i g.Metallochlora) i56, i65 



Page» 

glareosa, Swinh. [g. Euchlorisi 3, 212 

^lauca, Geoffr. (g. Comibaena) 98 

glauca. Warr. yg. Prasinocymai 09 

glaucaria, Wiilk. ^'. Gelasma) 147 

glaucaria, Men. (g. Hipparchus) 71 

glaucaria. Gueii. !^. Synchtorai ii5 

glaucescens, Walk. 'g. Dysphania) 55 
glauciptera, Hamps. c- Chloro- 

ptery.x 179 

glauculata, Walk. (/. Thalassodes) i53 

gnoma, Butl. (g. Anom/<hax) 222 
Gnophosema(genus .Prout o. 10. 48 

goniaria, Feld. ij. Gclasma] 147 

goniata, Warr. ig. jigoschema) 57 

goniota, Low. (g. Anisoxyga) 81 

Gonochlora (genus), Swinh. 17. 229 

goramensis. Bast. (g. Dysphaniai 5o 
gordoni, Prout (^. Victoriai 85. 86 

gortaria. Schaus (g Racheospila) 106 

gracilaria, Pack. (g. Synchhra) ii5 

gracililiiiea, Warr. [g. Anisoxygai 82 

gracilis, Butl. (g. Omphacodes) 220 

gracilis. Warr [g. Pingasa) .12 

gracilis, Luc. (g. Prasinocyma) i57 

graefiaria, Hulst ig. Cheteoscelis) 117 

gr.iminarii, Zell. i^. M icroloxia) 200 

graminaria. Koll. [g. Phorodesma) 253 

graminea, Hamps. (g. Hemilhea) 171 

Grammicheila (genus), Staud. 73 

gi.uiiiulieri, lUitl. i^. Pingasa) 3l 

grandificaria. Graes. (^'. Gelasma) 14S 

granulata. Warr. [g. Rhombochlora) i36 

gratala.Pack. \g. Mesotheai 176 

gratiosaria, Hrem. (g. Ochrognesia) 90 

gratiosata. Guen. (g. Mixochroa) 224 

griseonotata, Warr. (g. Anisoiyga) 82 

griseoviridis, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148 

Gynandpia (subg.). Turn. 242. 243 

hadrata, Feld. (g.Prasinocyma) i55 
haemataria, Herr.-Sch. i^'. Terpna) 

38, 39 

haematospila, Prout (g. Racheospila) 107 

halcyonc, Meyr. (g. Cymatoptex) 241 

halimaria, Chret.if. Microloxia) zoi 

Halioscia igenusi, Warr. i32 

h.-ilochlora, Meyr. [g. Chlorocoma) 191 

//fl/o^/in»iesigenusi, Warr. 184, i85 

Halterophora geni.\s).\Va.it. 74 

Hamalolepis [getms), Warr. 79 

haploa, Prout (^ Hemislola) 18, 227 

haplophanes, Turn. (g. Comostola) 237 

HasiS (genus), Boisd. 49 



)-A.M. GEOMETRID.E 



261 



Pages 
helenetta. \\'ii\k. tg. Dyspliamit) 5o 

//e/eOMa (genusi. Swains. 49 

Helicopage (^eniisi, Warr. 5, 12, 62 
Heliomystis igenus, Meyr. g, 22 
Heiitalolepis ^enusi, Swinh. 79 

Hemistola genus), Warr. 

iS. i55, 217, 223, 225, 229, 23i, 235 
hemistrijrata, Mab. Ig. Phorodesma) 249 
hemithales, Prout (g Mixoccia) 243 

Hemithea genus), Dup. 4. 6, 7, 

i5. i3q. 162, 168, 200, 216, 226, 244 
hemithearia, Guen. {g. Agathia) 5S 

hemithearia, Warr. (g. Chloropteryx) 179 
hena, Dogn. ig. Racheospila) 108 

herhacea, Geofir. ig. Hemithea) 170 

herbacearia, Men, ig. Hipparchiis 

papilioiiaria, ab.) 71 

herbaria. Hiibn. yg. Microlo.xia) 3, 200 
herbaria. Fabr. ig. Synchlora) ii5 

Hepochpoma (genus), Swinh. 

9. 10, 26 
Heteresthes genusi, Warr. 

i5. 190, 192 
Hetepocpita (genusi, Warr. 

i5. 86, i3S. 217, 249 
heterograpta. Warr. 'g. Poecilo- 

cUlora\ 125 

heteromorpha. Warr. \g. Oospila) 

i32, 134 
Heterorachis (genusi, Warr. 

16, 190. 192 
heterospila. Hanips. c Phrudnceii- 

ti-ii^ 124 

Hierockroma (genus), Sharp 26 

Hlepochthonia (genus), Prout 

3. i3, 204, 206 
hilarata, Guen. (^. Agathia) 58 

hiiaris, Warr. [g. Anispxyga) 82 

Hipparchiscus fgenus), Walsh iii 
Hlppapchus (genusi, Leech 

7, i3, 69, 20S 
.ff«^^flrc/««s igenusi, (iumpp. 214 

hirundinalis. Warr. ,g-. Helicopage) 63 
histrionalis. Westw {g. Diochroma) 198 
hoemataria, Walk. ig. Terpita) 3g 

hollaiiiiaria, Hnlst g. Phrudoceiitra) i23 
Holoteppna (genus). Piing. 

17, 214, 2l5 
Holoihalassis (genus), Gumpp, 127 
Holoihalassis (genus), Hiibn, 70 

homoeiy!r-w pr, ,nt,^- Dioscore) 

75. 25o, 253 
horridata, Walk. {g . Hypodo.xa t 35 



Pufjes 
horsfieldi, Moore ig. Dysphaiiia) 54 

hudsonaria. Tayl. ig. Xemoria) 112 

hiilstiaiia. Dyar ig. Raclieospila) 109 

humidaria, Swinh, \g. Hypocoelat 143 
hyalina, Warr. {g. Oospila) i33 

hj-alinata, Moore {g. Comibaena) loi 
Hyalochlora (genusl, Prout 21, I25 
Hyalorrhoe {genMs).\Wm. 186 

Hydata igenus), Walk. 3, 21, 187 

hydatodes, Warr, ig. Phrudoceiitra) I23 
Hydrochroa (genus), Gumpp. 70, 71 
Hyphaiia igenus), Hiibn. 121 

Hypnochlora (genus), Schaus 
Hypobapta isubg,). Prout 41, 230 
Hypochroma fgenusi, Guen. 38, 41 
hypochromaria, Guen. ig. JEolo- 

chroma ) 36 

Hypocoela (genus), Warr. i5, 142 

hyp.icrites, Prout {g. Thatastodes) i53 
Hypodoxa ^genus), Prout 5, 10, 33 
hypoglauca. Hamps. {g. Archaeo- 

balbis) 25 

hypoleuca, Hamps. i^. Hipparchus) 72 
hypoleucaria. Guen. ig. Pingasa) 32 
hypoleucus. Low. ig. Chrysockloroma) 146 
hypolichna. Turn. {g. Cymatoplex) 241 
hypsithrona. Meyr. ig. Euloxia) 223 
hyraria. Guen. tg. Thalassodes) i52 

Idiochlopa (genus), Prout 16. i63 

illacerata. Prout (g. Dolosis) 217 

iguala, Dogn. (o^. Racheospila) io5 

illidgei, Luc. {g. Chloeres) 240 

illiturata, Walk. ig.Gelasma) 147 

illustraria. Hulst ig. Dichorda) 128 

imitans, Warr. \g. Gelasma) 149 

imitans, Warr. Ig. Racheospila) 107 

imitans, Warr. ig. Xaiithoxena) 207 

iinmacularia, Fabr (g. lodis) 232 

immaculata, Thunb. ig. Euchloris) 211 

immissaria, WaW^. (g. Thalassodes) i52 
immunifica, Prout (g. Victoria) 85. 86 

impararia, Guen. (g. Dyschloropsis) 2i5 
imparata. Herr.-Sch. ig. Dyschlorop- 

sis) 2i5 

imparicornis. Warr. ig. Cymatoplex) 24 1 

imperatrix, Marr, (g. Dysphania) 5i 

imperialis, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

imperialis, Warr. (g. CEonochlora) 5~ 

implicata. \.uc.{g. Thalassodes) i52 

impunctata, Warr, (g. Allochrostes) 246 
impunctata. Warr. {g. Phrudocentra) 124 

imula. Dogn. ig. Auophyllodes) 25 1 



111 I , l.': l. ai 



Gelasma) 



Pages 
147 



incertata, Gurapp. (g. Chlorissa i-5 

incertata, Walk. {g. Mesothea) 176 

inchoata, Walk, (g. Chloeres) 240 

includaria, Herr,-Sch.if.y4iio^/yHa) i3o 
inclusaria, Guen. (g. Auophylla) i3o 

inclusaria, Druce (g. Auophyllodts) i3i 
inclusaria, Walk. (g. Racheospila) X04 
incognita. Warr. {g. Racheospila) 106 
incommoda, Proat (g.Hemistola) 18, 228 
incomptaria. Leech (g. Spaniocentra) gS 
inconcinnaria, Leech (g. Hemistola) 226 
inconclusaria, Walk.'f. Thalassodes) i52 
inconspicua, Bast. ig. Racheospila) io5 
inconsequens, Warr. (g. Sterictopsis) 24 
indeclararia. Walk. ig. Racheospila) 109 
indecretata. Walk. {g. Microloxia) 

3, 200. 220 
indecietata. Warr. {g Mixocera) 242, 243 
indecretata, Hamps. (g. Neromia) 182 
indeterminata. WaW. Ig. Episothalma) 167 
indigenaria, Treischke (g. Eucrostes) 2^5 
indigenata, Vill. (g. Eucrosles) 245, 24S 
indiscriminala, Walk. (g. Chlorochla- 

ir.ys) 177 

indistincta, Warr. {g. Prasinocyma) i58 
inductaria, Guen. ig. Comibaena) 97, 98 
iiiductaria, Butl. (g. Coniibaena) 100 

infracta, Wilem. {g. Chloremachia) 25i 
ingrata, Wilem. {g Comibaena) 25i 

innotata. Walk. (g. Diplodesmai 185 

innotata, Warr. (g. Dysphauia) 5i 

innotata. Warr. {g. Eucrostes) 2^5 

innuba, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

inops, Prout (g. Comostola) zi-j 

inoptaria, Walk. (g. Hemistolai 226 

inornata, Dogn. ig. Dyscheilia) 206 

inornata. Warr. (g. Lathochlora) 186 
inquilina. Dogn. (g. Phrudocentra) I23 
inquinata, Warr. (g. Strepsichlora) 160 
insecutata, Walk. ig. Chlorissa) lyS 

insignata, Staud. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

insolitaria, 'Leech (g.HemistoIa) 226 
insperata. Walk. (g.Anisozyga) So 

inspicietfs, Prout (g. Lambornia) 235 
insularia, Guen. (g. Hemithea) 170 

insularis, Prout (g. Eucrostes) 246 

insularis, Swinh. (g. Mimandria) 3o 

insulsata, Warr. (g. Euxena) 64 

intacta. Walk. (g. Euloxia) 223 

intacta, Warr. (g. Synchlora) Ii5 

integra, Warr. (g. Diplodesma) i85 

integra. Warr. ig. Racheospila) io3, 106 



262 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Pages 
integranota, Hamps. (g. Comibaena) 

97. 99 
intensa, Warr. \g, RacheospiUi) 109 

intensaria, Pears. (g. Nemoria) ii3 

interalbata, Proiit f^. Thaiassodis) i5.^ 
interalbicans, Warr. ig. Antharmos- 

tes) 143, 144 

intercissa, Walk. [g. Agalhia) 58 

intermaculata, \N3.rr.[g. Metacincta] gS 
intirmedia, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 122 
intermedia, Warr. {g. Prasinocyma) \5g 
intermixta, Walk. \g. Prasiuucyma) 157 
interrupta. Bast. Ig. Dysphaniai 55 

interrupta, Warr. [g. Hypodoxa viri- 

dicoma, subsp.) 34 

iaterrupta, Warr. (g, Pingasa) 32 

interrupta. Bast. (g. Pamphlthia ru- 

hrolimbraria ah.) 201 

inumbrata, Warr. (g. lodis) 233 

invasata, Walk. (g. Auophyllodes) i3i 
invenusta, Wall. ig. Syndromodes) 204 
inveterascaria. Swett (g. Chlorochla- 

mys) 177 

invidens, Warr. i^. Gelasma) 149 

iocentra, Meyr. Ig. Eucrosles) 245 

iodioides, Luc. (g. Agathia) Sg 

Jodts (genus), Hiibn. 

5, 19, 146, i55, igo. 225, 23o, 2^4 
iodisata, Staud. f^. Xeromia) 182 

iosoma, Meyr. (g. Hemithea) 170 

iosticla, Meyr. ig. Prasinocyma) i58 

lotaphora igenus^. Warr. i3, 73 

ipomopsis, Low. Ig. Chlorocoma) 191 

iridaria, Guen. f^'. Dichorda) 127 

iridaria, Pack. (g. Dichorda) 127, 128 
iridescens, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

iridescens, Warr. (^. /orf(5) 19, 233, 2^4 
iridicolor, Butl. (g. lotaphora) 73 

iris, Butl. f:;. Dichorda) 127 

irregularis, Warr. (g. lodis) 232 

irrorataria, Moore f^. Pingasa) 3i 

isadelpha. '1 urn. Ig. Eiiloxia) 224 

isolata, Warr. [g. Dysphania milita- 

ris, subsp.) 52 

isolata, Warr. [g. Racheospila) ■ 1 10 

isometra. Warr, [g. Gnophosema) 48 

ithearia, .Swinh. (g. Agathia) 60 

lulops Igenus). Prout 6, 18, gi, 2i3 

janeira. Schaus (g. Phrudocentra) 122 

jankowskiaria, Mill. (g. Euchloris) 212 

jaspidata, Warr. (f . Ooj^i7n) i33 

jaspidiaria. Hulst (g. Phriidocentra] I23 



Pa^ es 
javensis. Warr. \g. Pingasa) 32 

jenna, IJogn. f^'. Racheospila) 104 

jessica, Swinh. ig. Dysphania milt- 

laris. subsp.) 52 

Jodis igenus), Steph. 225 

jHCunda. Druce i^. Racheospila) iio 

jueunda. Feld. (g. Racheospila) 109 

junctolinearia. Graef (j. Xemoria) 112 

kabaria. Swjnh. (g. Batliycolpodesi 141 

khasiana, Warr. [g. Paramaxates) 208 

kina. Swinh. f^^. Tanaorhinust 68 

kingstonensis. Kirby (g. Phrudoceiitra) 123 

kinstonensis, Butl. f^. Phrudocentrai I23 
koranata, Feld. [g. Heterocrita) 

i3S, i39, 217 

koreana, .■\lph. (g. Dindica) 43 

kiihni. Warr. (g. Agathia) Sg 

kiihnii. Pau;. i^. Dysphania) 5i 

lacerataria. Graes. (g. Thalera) 216. 217 
laclea. Geoffr. (g. lodis) 23l 

lactearia, Linn. f^. lodis) 5, 225, 23i 
lactecincta, Warr. (g. Oospila) 1^4 

lactegutta, \\'a.iT. {g. Oospila) 134 

lacunaria, Hed. (g. Agathia) Sg 

laesaria, Walk. (g. Comostola) 236 

laetata, Fabr. (g. Agathia) 58 

lafayaria, Dogn. [g. Racheospila) 108 
lahayei, Ob. (g Pingasa) 32 

Lambornia (genus), 1'rout 18, 235 
laugucscens, Warr (g. Chloropteryx) 179 
languida. Warr. (g. ^Solochroma) 35, 37 
lacpieifera. Prout {g. Agathia) 60 

lariaria. Walk, (g. Pingasa) 3i 

Lasiochlora igenus),Warr. 2. i3, 2o3 
lalarui. Walk, ig. Chlorissa) 173 

Lathochlora (genus). Warr. 

7. 8, i3. 186 
laliaria. Pack. Ig. Xemoria) iii 

laticostata, Warr, (g. Prasinocymd) i58 
latifascia. Warr. \g. Pingasa) 32 

latifasciata, Warr. (g. Prohydata) 187 
latillava, Warr. (^. Dysphania) 5i 

latilinea. Prout f^ Comibaena) loi 

latilineata, Walk, (g. Mixocera) 243 

latimarginaria. Maass. f^. Phoro- 

desma) 248 

latimargo, Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

lalipennis, Hulst. (g. Dichorda) 127 

latiplaga, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

latirosaria, Pears. (g. Nemoria) 112 

latistriga, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i5S 



Pa^es 
latuta. Dogn. \g. Racheospila) io5 

lechera. Dogn. \g. Chloropteryx) 179 

leopardinata. Moore (g. Terpna) 41 

lepidaria, Moschl. {g. Tachychlora 1 119 
leprosa, Warr. ig. Hypodoxa) 34 

leprosa. Hamps. ig. Microloxia) 200 

Leptographa igenus), Hiibn. 8 

Leptolopha (genusi, Warr. 20, 128 
Leplornis genus), Billb. 09 

lesleraria, Grossb. (g. Racheospila) 

iio, 114 
Leucesthes genusi. Warr. 

5. 8. 18, 224 
leucoceraria, isneW. \f;. Rarheo.ipila) 109 
leucochloraria, .Mab. [g. Comibaena) gg 
leucochorda, Meyr. (g. Euloxia) 223 
Leucodfsntia(^en\ii).VJa.xT. 235, 237 
leucocraspeJa. Prout [g. Omphax) 

196. 228 
Leucoglyphica (genus). Warr. 

23o. 23l 

leucomelanaria, Pouj. (g. Terpna) 40 

leucomerata. Walk. (g. Comoslola) 236 
leucophorata, Bast. (g. Dysphania 

numana. ab ) 5o 

Leucorachis igenusi, Warr. 104 

leucospilata. Walk. (g. Comibaena) gg 
leucospilota. Turn. (g. Berta chryso- 

lineala, subsp. ) 234 

leucospilola, Hamps. \g. Hemithea\ 170 

leucospilota. Moore (g . Thalassodes) 1 52 

leucostigma.Warr. (g.Auophyllodes) i3i 

leucostigmaria, Nietn. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

licada. Dogn. (.!,'. Racheospila) 104 

lichenosa. Warr. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

lilacina. Warr. (g. Oospila) \i\ 

liliana, Swinh. {g. Hemistola) 225. 226 

lilliputaria, Mab (g. Eucrostis) 249 

limbata, Moore (g. Cusuma) 56 
Limbatochlamys j^enus), Roth- 

schild II, 67 

lineata, Warr. \g. Melallochlora) i65 

lineata. Moore ]g. Ornithospila) 77 

liquoraria, Guen. \g. Synchlora) il5 

liriata, Dogn. (g. Racheospila) io5 
lissas, Prout (g. Hemistola chryso- 

prasaria, subsp. 1 227 

Lissochlora (genus), Warr. 102 

Lissolica igenus), Swinh. 207 

lithocrossa, Meyr. ig.Auisozyga) 80 

lixaria, Dyar [g. Racheospila) 104 

li.\aria, Guen. [g. Racheospila) io3 

longimacula, Semp. g. Dysphania) 5i 



FAM. GEOMETRID^ 



263 



Page» 

longipalpis, Warr. (g. Chloropteyyx) 179 

longipalpis, VVarr. (g. Oospila) 134 

longipennis, Warr. (g.Chlorochaeta) 102 

longiplaga, Warr. (g. Oospila) 134 
Lophochlora (geniis), Warr. 12. 61 
Lophochorista fgenus), Warr. 

2, 20, i36 
Lophocrita (geniis), Warr. 

i5, 167, 168 
Lophomachia igeniisi, 1'rout 11, 48 

Lophophelma (subg-. I, 1'roiit 40 
Lophostola (geniis), Proiit 

2, 17. 229. 252 

lotiisa, Hulst I;,'. Racheosptla) 109 

lo.Niaria. Guen. {g. Phrudocentia) 124 
Loxochila igenus). Butl. 70, 71 

lucens, Warr. {g. Phritdocentra) 122 

lucida. Warr. (g. Sphagnociela) 44 

htcidata, Don. (g. Htmistola) 227 

lucifimbria. Warr. [g. ULnospilai 162 
ludifica, Swinh. (g. Drsphania liel- 

lona ab.) 53 

lunatimargo, l^rout {g. Heterorachis\ iq3 

lunicincta, Warr. \g Anophvllodes) i3i 

lunifera, Moore, (g. Dooabia) 63 

lunifera, Warr. (g. Pachycopsis) 189 

luuigera. Feld. \g. Lasiochlora) 2o3 
lunulata, Butl. (g. Dysphama bel- 

lona ab.) 53 

luteifimbria. Dogn. f^'. Racheospila) 108 
luteipes, Feld. (g. Terpna) 38. 40 

hiteomaculata, Griinb. (g. Dysphania) 54 

luteopicta, Walk. {g. Dysphania) 52 

hiteoviridata, Walk. {g. Tanaorhinus) 68 

lycaenaria, Koll. \g. Agalhia) 58 

lycaenidia. Hast. I,i,'. Agathia) 60 

lyra, Swinh. {g. Spaniocentra) q5 

mabillei. Th.-Mieg \g. Aglossochlo- 

ris) 2i3 

macariata. Walk. (g. Maxates) i63 

tnacrurari,i.\\'d.\U.{g.ChIorodontopera) 167 

maculata. Warr. (g. Agathiopsis) 92 

maculata, Moore (g. Comostola) 4. 236 

maculata, Warr. (g. Hipparchus) 72 

maculata. Luc. l^. Hypochroma) 42 

maculimargo, Prout (g. Agathiai 60 

magnaria, Bast. (g. Racheospila) iio 
magnata, Fuchsl^. Thalera fimbria- 

lisva.T.) 216 

magnidiscata, Prout {g. Racheospila) 108 

magnifica, Moore (g. Agathia) 59 

magnifica. Schaus (f. /lii»/>/<vWfl) i3o 



F..ges 
magnifica, Swinh. (g. Dysphania ie- 

nestrata, subsp.) 5o 

malachitica. Saalm. (g. Utterorachis\ 193 

malayanus, Guer. (g. Dysphania\ 54 

malayanus, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 53 

malayaria, Guen. (g. Dysphaniat 53 

malescripta, Warr. (g. Chlorissa; 174 

malina, Butl. (g. Pachycopsis) 189 

mandarinaria, 'Leech.(g.Hipparchusi 72 
mandarinata. Leech {g. Chlorodon- 

/opera) ^ 55 

manillaria, Guen. (g. Dysphania 53 

marcescens. Warr. (g, Archichlora) 87 

marcida, Warr. ig, Racheospila) io5 

margarita, Warr. (g. Leucesthts) 225 

marginaria. StoII l^g. Oospila) i33 

marginata. Warr. (g. Antharmostes) 144 

marginata. Warr. (g. Archichlora) 87 

marginata, Warr. (g. Bathycolpodes) 141 

marginata, Warr. (g. Dindica) 42 

margiuata, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 147 

marginata, Warr. (g. Ompha.v) 195 

marginata. Warr. {g. Oospila) i33 

marginata. Lac. {g, Pyrrhorachis) 239 
marginepunctata, Warr. (g. Prasi- 

nocyma) i58 

marginiplaga. Walk. (g. Racheospila) 109 
mariae. Luc. (g. Comostola) 97, gg 

marina, Butl. (g. Hemithea) 171 

marina. Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i5g 

marinaria. Guen. (g. Erelmopus) 154 

marmorata, Warr. (g. Camptolophia) 62 

mars, Boisd. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

martiaria, Guen (g. Dysphania) 5i 

masonaria.Schausi,i,'-C/i/«;oc/i/3»iv5) 177 
mathewi. Burr. \g. Chlorissa viridata 

al> I 173 

Maxates (genus). Moore 16, i63 

meandraria, Guen. (g. Euloxia) 223 

meeki, Warr. i^. Chrysochloroma) 3, 146 

meeki, Warr. i^. Dioscore) 75 

meeki, Warr. (g. Metallochlora) 164 

meeki, Warr. (g. Pingasa) 33 
Megalochlora igenus), Meyr. 

70, 71, 168 
megaloptera, Low. {g. Chrysochlo- 

roma) 5, 145, 146 

megaspilaria,Guen.(^.ifAo»(6om<«) 94 

megastigma, Warr. (g, Racheospila) no 

melancholica, Prout (g, Gelasma) 149 
melanomma. Warr. f^. Dioscore) 74, 75 

melanosema, Meyr. (g, Crypsiphona) 44 

m(/(i;a, Swinh. (g, Diplodesma) iH5 



Pages 

melinaria. Herr.-Sch. (g. Chlurissai 173 
melleata. Warr. f^. Dysphania) 5i 

Melochlora (genus). Warr. 121, i23 
melocrossa. Meyr. (g. Chlorocoma) igi 
menadaria, Staud. (g. Microloxia) 200 
menadiara, Th -Mieg (g. Microlo- 

xia) 200 

meritaria. Walk. (g. Comostola) 236 

Meroohlora fgenusi, Prout 21, 221 
mesocraspeda. Prout f^. Oospila) 134 
mesoleuca. Warr. i,;; Antharntostes) 143 
Mesothea igenus), Warr 20, 175 

Mesurodes fgenusi, Warr. 8, i^g 
Metacineta fgenusi, Prout i3, gS, 194 
Metallochtora (genusi, Warr. 

i3, 16, 164 
Metallolophia igenusi. Warr. 11, 37 
metarhodata. Walk. (g. JEolocliroma) 36 
metaspila. Walk. (g. Anisozyga) 80 

Mianiouoia (genus), Warr. 102 

micantaria, Esp. (g. lodis) 232 

miccularia, Guen. (g, Racheolopha) 129 
micra, Warr. (g. lodis) 19, 23i, 233 
Mieroloxia fgenus), Warr. 3, 14. 
i39, igg, 201, 202, 2i5, 216, 220, 

241, 242. 252 
Microschema (genus). VVarr. 56 

microspila, Warr. (g, Oospila) i33 

militaria, Guen. (g, Dysphania) 52 

militaris. Linn. (g, Dysphania) 52 

militaris, Luc. (g. Metallochlora) i65 
miltosticta, Prout f^. Xeromia) i83 

Mlmandria fgenusi, Swinh. 10, 29 
mimica, Warr. (g, Chloromma) 23o 

mimica, Warr. (g, Collesis) 220 

miiiiicata, Walk. [g, Synchlora) 11 5 

mimosaria. Guen. f^. Xemoria) 11 1 

minervaria, Guen. (g. Dvsphania 54 

minimaria. Guen. i^. Epipristis) 2g 

minor, Warr. (g. Gigantothea) 161 

rainor, Warr (g. Poecilochlora) I25 

minor, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 21, io5 
minoi ,\VaTr , ( g . Rhodochlora brunnei- 

palpis ab,) 78 

minor, Warr. f^. Thalassodes dorsi- 

punclata ab.) i53 

minorata, Warr. (g, Oospila) 134 

minuala. Walk. (g. Synchlora) ii5 

minuta, Druce (g. Agathia) 60 

minutaria, Swinh. (g. Gonochlora) 23o 
minutata. Druce (g, Comostola) 23? 

minutipuncta, Warr. (g, Prasino- 

cvma) i58 



264 



LEPIDOPTEKA HETEROCERA 



Paget 
mirabilis, Warr. ig. Vtcloria) 86 

mirandaria, Guen. (g. Chlorodes) 88 

mislijiiiibria, Proiit (g. Prasinocyma) 

i58, 25i 
mitigata, Prout ^g. Phrudocentra) 122 
Mixeophanes (genus),PTOut 

5, 6, 17, 247. 253 
Mixocera (genus), Warr. 

4. 18, 241, 242, 243 
Mixochlora (genus). Warr. 67 

Mixochroa genusi. Warr. 

5, 6, iS, 224. 225 
Mixolophia Igenus), Warr. 16, 166 
moderata, Walk. (g. Argyrographa) 199 
modesta, Warr. (g. ^olochroma) 36 

modesta, Warr. {g. Ompha.\) igS 

modesta, Dogn. {g. Rachtospila) 25i 

molleri, Warr. {g. Terpna) 41 

molliculata, Warr. {g. Racheospila) 104 
mollissima, Dogn. (g. Racheospila) io5 
monetata, Guen. {g. Argyrophora) 198 
mongolica, Staud. [g. Euchloris vol- 

garia var.) 211 

monilaria, Fabr. \g. Phalaena) 248 

moniliata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 79, 81 
monochroma, Prout (g. Chloroster ■ 

■rha) 218 

monocyina, Meyr. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 
monophyes, Swinh. (g. Ompha.x) 196 

montana, Bast. (g. Neobalbis) 26 

morbilliata, Feld. {g. Dryadopsis) ii3 
moscovita. Gumpp. (g. Thalera fim- 

brialis ab.) 216 

multicolor, Warr. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

multiplagiata, Warr. [g. Auophylla) i3o 
mnltiscripta, Warr. ig. Agathia) 60 

niultitincta, Luc. (g. lodis) 248 

munda, Warr. {g. Chloropteryx) 179 

mundaria, Leech ig. Diplodesma) i85 
mundata, Warr. (g. Comostolaj 237 

munita, Luc. (g. Pingasa) 33 

muscicoloraria, Walk. (g. Acteno- 

cliroma) 28 

inuscipunctata, Dogn. ,g.Telotetha) 2o5 
muscosa, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) Si 

muscosa, Butl. (^. ^»vi£i»>(i) 65 

muscosa, Dogn. (f. //vd<i'ii) 1S8 

muscosaria, Guen. (g. Hypodoxa) 5. 34 
mustela, Druce (g. Xenwria) 112 

mutans, Butl. (g. Hipparchus) 71 

mutaticolor, Prout (g. Xemoria) ii3 

myriosticta, Turn. ig. Hypodoxa\ 35 

Myrtea (jenus), Gumpp. 90 



Pages 
naenia, Druce ig. Cheteoscelis) 117 

iiAnda, Walk. (g. lodis) 232 

naiiula, Warr. (g. Eucrostes) 245 

nasuta, Warr. (g. Oospila) 1^4 

uayas. Geoffr. (g. Hemistola) 227 

Neagathia(genusi,Warr. 21, 124. 20S 
neavei. Ptout (g. Prasinocyma) i5j 

neis, Druce (g. Phrudocentra) 123 

nelearia, Guen. (g. Epipristis) 28. 29 
nelera. Swinh. (g. Dysphania) 54 

Nemoria Igenus), Hiibn. 4, 21, 110 
Nemoria (genus), Led. 172 

nomoriata, Staud. (g. Gelasma) 148 

Neobalbis (genus), Prout 10. 26 
Neocrasls (genus), Warr. 21, 180 
neomela. Meyr. ig. Melallochlora) 

i65. 166 
Neonomoria (genusi, Turn. 249 

nc.ii onia. Uamps. (g. Terpna) 38, 40 
Neothela (genus), Turn. 19. 240 

neptunus, Butl. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 

nereidaria.Snell. (;5'. Co»ioj/o/<J) 236. 237 
neriaria, Herr.-Sch. [g. Comibaenai 98 
Neromia igenus). Staud. 14, 182, 252 
nescidaria, Warr. (g. Comostola) 2^7 
7Vesi^o/rt (genus), Warr. 121, I23 

netunaria. Guen. (g. Orthocraspeda) 28 
Neurotoca (genus). Warr. 

3, 4, 17. 228 
nevadaria. Pack. (g. Chhrosea) 116 

nigraiia. Feld. (g. HypoJoxa) .!5 

nigricincta, Warr. (.<,'. Racheospila) 108 
nigricornis. Warr. \g. Omphax) 195, 196 
nigricornis, Warr. (g. Racheospila) io5 
nigrifrons, Hamps. (g. Gelasma) 148 
nigrimaculala. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 
nigripes, Dogn. (g. Racheospila) 25i 

nigripunctata, Warr. (g. Anoplosct- 

les) 172 

nigripunctata. Warr. (g. Leplolopha) 129 
nigripunctata. Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i55 
nigrisquama, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 107 
nigroapicalis. Dogn. (g. Tachyphyle) 120 
nigromacularia,Leech(g^.Co»i;4iKM<») 100 
nigromaciihita, Warr. i^. Anisoiyga) 81 
nigromargiuata, Bast. (,!,'. Dysphania 

militaris ab.) 52 

nigromarginata. Dogn. ig. Phrudo- 

centra) 25i 

nigropunctata, Warr. (g. Hemithea) 171 
nigrostriata, Bast. {g. Dysphania) 53 
nitida. Luc. (g. lodis) 248 

niveiceps, Prout (<,'. P/iM<rfo««/ra) 122 



Pages 

niveisticta, Prout (g. Prasinocyma) i56 

niveociliaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Eueana) 202 

nivestrata, Rothsch. [g. Thalassodes) i53 

nivestrola, Warr. (g. Chloromachia) 84 

nivestrota. Warr. (g. Thalassodes) i53 

nivetacta, Warr. {g. Progonodes) i35 

niveus. Butl. {g. Synclysmus) 45 

nivisparsa. B\i\.\.(g. Prasinocyma) 157 

nobililans, Luc. (g. (Enochlora) 5j 
norbertaria. Rossl. (g. lodis laclea- 

ria var.) 232 

nordicaria, Schaus (g. Chloropteryx) 179 

nortia. Druce (g. Synchlora) ii5 

notata. Warr. (g. Xeurotoca) 4, 229 
Nothoterpna (genus). Warr. 

18, 217. 218, 229 

nubecula.Warr. (g. Chrysochloroma) 146 

nubigena, WoU. {g. Xtnochlorodes) 247 
nudilimbaria. Mab. Ig. Eucrostts 

indigenala, var. ) 243 

numana. Cram. Ig. Dysphaniai 5o 

«Kui.iutiriii. Guen. Ig. Dysphania) 5o 

numenia, Hiibn. ig. Dysphania) 5o 

nyclemerata, Walk. (g. Pingasj) 3i 

nympha, Biitl. (;,'. Comostola) 4, 236 

nyssiata. Feld. (g. Hypochroma) 42 

obeliscala, Warr. (g: Auophylla) 1^4 

obliqua, Hulst (f . Xemoria) 112 

obliiiuata. Warr. tg. PhruJocentra) 122 

obliijuissima, Walk. ig. Eiiloxia) 223 

obliterata. Walk. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

obliUrata. Leech ig. Iltmilhea) 171 

oblongata, Warr. Ig. Perithaltra) 144 

obnubilatH, Warr. (g. Agathia) 60 

obnubilata, Warr. (g. Phrudocenlra) 12J 

obiiupta, Swinh. (g. Diplodesma) iS5 

obscurata, Warr. (g. Episothalma) 168 

obscurata. Warr. (g. Neocrasis) 180 
obsolescens, Warr. ig. Oospila trilu- 

naria ab. i32 

obsoleta. Warr. Ig. Agathia) 59 
obsoleta. Burr. (g. Eiichloris smarag- 

daria.ah.) 211 

obsoleta. Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i58 

obsoletaria, Leech (g. Comibatna) 100 

occulta, Warr. (g. Tachyphyle) 120 

ocultaria, Guen. (g. Crypsiphona) 45 

ocellata, Swinh. (g. Episothalma) 168 

ocellata. Warr. (g. Metallolophia) 38 

ocellata, Stoll {g. Racheospila) 109 

ochria, Warr. Ig. ^SolocJiroma) 36 

ochrea.Warr.i^.C<icoc/;/ons) 5, 209, 210 



FAM. GEOMETRID.E 



265 



Pages 
ochreiiiicta. Swinh. {g. Aichatobal- 

bis) 25 

ochrella, Straiid (g. Enchloris) 253 

Ochrognesia (genus). Warr. 12, 90 
ochrolauta, Warr. i^. jSli\olophni\ 167 
ochroneurodes,Prout(^ Cliloroconia \ 192 
ochthaula, Meyr. [g. Euloxia\ 223 

ockendeni, Druce {g. Lophochorisla) 

i36, 137 
ocultaria, Don. {g. Crypsiphona\ 44, 25o 
ocyptera, Meyr. ig. Prasinocyina) 157 
CEnochlora igenus), Warr, 8, i3. 57 
CEnospila igenus;. Swinh. 4, i5, 161 
oleiigiiia. Warr. (g. Mixocera) 243 

oleraria, Guen. (g. Amaurinia) 248 

olivacea, Warr. {g. Agathia) 60 

olivacea, Feld. (g. lodis) 233 

olivaceo-marginata, Burr. (g. Chlo- 

rissa viridaia a.h.) 173 

olivata, Warr (g. Diplodesma) i85 

olivescens, Warr. (g. Berta) 233. 2^4 
olivia, Schaus (g. Tachyphyle) 120 

olvidaria, Schaus (g. Chloropteryx) 179 
olympiaria, Boh. {g. Hierochthonia) 204 
olympiaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Xenochlo- 

riidts) 247 

Omphacodes igenus), Warr. 

5, 6, 17. 197, 220 
Omphax (genusi, tiuen. 

4, 5, i5, 16. 190, 193, 194, 228, 252 
Oospila (genus). Warr. 4, 20, i32 
oospila, VrouX (g.Chiroscelis) i38 

opaca, Butl. I^. Phrudoceiitra) i23 

opaca, Warr. ig. Thalassodes) i52 

opalaria, Guen. (g lodis) 19, 232, 234 
opalina, Warr. \g. Mctallolophia) 38 

opalina, Hutl, (g Thalassodes) i52 

opalina, Druce Ig. Thalassodes) i52 

ophthalmicata, Moore (g.Idiochlora) 164 
Opisthotia (genusi, Warr. 11, 88 

oporaria. Zell. (g. Mesothea) 176 

oppleta, W^arr. (g. Racheospilai 108 

orbimaculata, Warr. (g. Anisozygai 82 
ornata, Warr. (g. Ctenolhea) 181 

ornataria, Leech (g. Comibaena) 100 

ornataria, Moore (^. r<y/«fl) 38, 39 

orna'tifiml)ria, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 14S 
Ornithospila (genus), Warr. 

2, 5, 7, II, 76 
Orthocraspeda (genus), Prout 

II, 28 
orthodesma. Low. (g. Gelasma) 145, 148 
Osteosema (genus), Warr. 12, 88, 89 



Pages 

ostracites. Karsrh (^. Thalassodesi i53 

ovifera. Warr. Ig. Comostola) 4, 236, 2^7 

oxycentra, Meyr. (g. Prasinocyma) iSy 

Oxychora (genus), Warr. i5. 160 
oxycyma, Meyr. (g. Epipristis mini- 

maria, subsp.) 29 

Pachista isubg.), Prout 40 

Pachycopsis Igenus), Warr. 20. 189 

Pachyodes igenusi, Guen 38. 39 

pacifica. Feld. {g. Anisozyga) So 

pacifica, Pmui (g. Chloropteryx) 179 
pacificaria. Moschl. (g. Racheospila) 106 

packardaria Grote (g. Racheospila) 104 

pagenstecheri, Semp. (g. Anisosyga) Si 

palaestinensis, Fuchs (g. Chlorissa) 174 

palestraria. Guen. ig. Dysphania) 55 
pallescens, Warr. (g. Chloropteryx 

subrufescens Ah.) 179 

pallescens, Hamps. (g.Iodis, 232 

palliata, Warr. (g. Cheroscelis) li-, i38 

pallida, Warr. (g. Eucrostes) 245 

pallida, Warr. (f. Nothoterpna) 217, 218 

pallida. Warr. Ig. Oospila) i33 

pallida, Warr. ig. Synchlora) 116 

pallida. Warr. (g. Xenochlorodes) 247 

pallidaria. Schaus i^. L('//o/o/)/;al 129 

pallidata. Warr. (g. Chloromachia) 84 

pallidicincta, Warr. (g. Comibaena) 100 

pallidularia. Mab. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

pallidulata. Mab. (g. Prasinocyma) i56 

palliplagiata, Walk. (g.Chloroparda) 140 

palmyra, Stolli^. Dysphania) 54 

pdlvtyrana. Guen. ig. D\sphania\ 54 
Pamphlebia (genus), Warr. 

14, 201, 202, 23o 

pannosa, Moore (g. Spaniocentra) 95 
papilio, Prout (g. Anlharmostes) 

i5. 143, 144 

papilionaria, Drury (g. Heleona) 55 
papilionaria, Linn. (g. Hipparchus) 

7, 70, 71. 169 
papilionaria, Wilkes (g. Pseudoterpna) 47 

papuensis, Warr. Ig. Melochlora) 249 

para. Swinh. (g, Dindica) 42 
Paragathia (genus), Warr. 12, 61 

parallelaria, Leech (g. Hemistola) 226 

Paramaxatesigenus), Warr. 18, 207 

l)ara|ih\ lla, Low. {g. Chlorocoma) 191 

Paraplodes (genus), W'arr. 189 
Paraprasina (genusj, Warr. 

14, 199, 200 

paratorna, Meyr,ij Hypochroma) 24, 248 



paratoriui. Turn, (g. Sterictopsis) 24 

parcipuncta. Dogn. (g. Racheospila) 107 

Pareuchloris Igenus). Warr. 225 

Pareuschema (genus), Th.-Mieg 49 

panciluita. 1-iirhs (g. Chlorissa) 174 
Paromphacodes igenus), Warr. 

21, 117 

^axofUlSi, lurrx. ig. Terpna) 40 

partita. Prout \g. Auophyllodes) i3i 

partita, Walk. Ig. Uliocnemts) 91 
parvipuncta, Warr. ig. Racheospila) 

104, io5 

parvula, Walk. (g. Epipristisj 29 

parvulata, Swinh. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

parvuhita, Walk. (g. Eucrostes) 2^5 

parvulata, Warr. (g. Microloxia) 200 

parvulata, Walk. (g^. J//*o«ra,i 242, 243 

pasama, Dogn. (g. Racheospila, io5 

pastor, Butl, (g. Osteosema) 89 

patara, Druce (g. Gelasma) 148 

patrocinatus, Luc. ig. CEnochlora) 57 

patula, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 54 

paularia, MoschL (g. Chloropteryx) 178 

paulinaria, Pag. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

pauper, Warr. (g. Agathia) 60 
piaupera, Th.-Mieg (g. Dysphania 

doubledayi ab.) 53 

Pauresthes tgenus), Warr. 154, i55 

pectinaria. Grossb. [g. Chetcoscelis) 117 

pellucidaiia, Dogn. (g. Prohydaia) 187 

pellucidula, Turn. (g. Hrmithea) 171 

penicillata. Walk. (g. Eretmopus) 1^4 
pennisignata, WaW^. (g. Ornithospila) 76 
Pentheochlora (genus), Prout 

14. i5o 
jjercomptaria, Guen. i^. Terpna) 

3, J8, 41, 43, 200 

percota, Swiiih. i,^. Dysphania) 54 

peregrina, Bast. i^. Dysphania) 5o 

perfectaria. Walk. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

perfulvata. \\'arr. ig. Molochroma) 36 

periculosa, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i58 

periphracta. Turn, l^, Chlorocoma) 191 

Perissolophia (genus), Warr. 42 

peristicta. Prout ig. CEnospila) 162 

Perithalera (genus), Prout. 16, 144 

pcrlepidaria. Walk. Ig. Comoslola) 236 

perlepidata, W'alk. ig. Comibaena) loi 

perlineata, Warr. ig. CEnospila) 162 

permagna Warr. i^, Leptolopha) 129 

perornata, Warr. (g. Archichlora) 87 

perpendiculata, Warr. ig. Dichorda) 127 

perpulchra.Warr, Ig. Chrotochlora) 126 



266 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Paffcs 
perrupta, Warr. ig. Auophyllodes 

iiivasalii, ab.) i3i 

persimilis, Warr. {g. Berta) 233. 234 
pcrviridaria. Pack. ig. MtroMora) 222 
perviridata, Warr. (g. ^olochroma 

saturataria, ab ) 36 

perviridis, Prout {g. Hemistola) 228 

petitaria, Christ. (g. Hierochtlionia) 2o5 
phaeostignur, Turn. (g. Prasinocyma) i58 
PAa/'tf^rn»«»ifa(genus),Gumpp. 172 
philyraria. Hiibn. (g. Phrudocentra) 124 
phoenicosticta, Prout (g. S'emoria) i83 
phoenix, Prout ig. Dichoria) 128 

phrixopa. Meyr. (g. Argyrocosma) 96 
Phpudocentra '^enus), Warr. 

22, 121, 208 
phylira, Cram. (;,'. Phriidocentra) 124 
phylirata, I-abr, {g. Phriidocentra) 124 
phylliiiaria. Hulst (g. Chhrochlamys) 177 
phyllinaria.Zell.lf. Chlorochlamys) 177 
phyllosa. PaR. (^. (Eiiospila) 162 

pictaria, Moore (j. Terpiia) 38, 3q 

pictifimbria, Warr. (f. Hemithea) 170 

pictitiml)ria, Warr, 1^'. PriisiHocvwia) l56 
pictipennis. Butl. (^ . Cow«ia/«(i) 97, 99 
picturata. Hamps. (g. Lophomachia) 85 
pieroides, Walk. Ig. Aiiisozyga) 79, 80 
pigraria, Sepp (^, Phrudocentra) 

121, 122 
pilaria, Guen. (g. ThaUissodest i52 

pilosa, Bull. (g. Dys/thania; 5i 

Pingasa (genus), Moore 10, 3o, 25o 
Pingasia (genus), Moore 3o 

pisina, Butl. (g. Agathiat 5ii 

pisiiia, Warr. (g. Metallochlora) i65 

/pij(ii«i7r/((. Hiilst (g. C/i(o»-i.Mii) ' 175 

pistacearia, Hulst (g. \emoria) 112 

pistaceata. Gumpp. (g. Chlorissa) 175 

pistaciaria,Pack.(g'. .VonoMiJl m, 112 
piftaciata. Pack. (g. Chlorissa) 175 

pistasciaria, Guen. (g. Chlorissa) i-i 
plagiata. Auriv. {g. Cheroscelis) i38 

plana, Wilem. {g. Chlorissa) 252 

planimargo, Prout (g. Xenochroma) 46 
plantaria, Guen. (g. Omphax) io5 

plena, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 53 

plenilimbria, Warr. (g.Racheospila) io5 
Pleupoprueha (genus). Moschl. 7 
p\urimac-ulata, Warr. (g. Oospila) 134 
plusiaria. Hoisd. (g Euchloris) 

3. 211, 212 
Poecilochlora (genus), Warr 

21, 125, 180 



Pages 
Poecilostigma ,'ennsi, Warr. 

04, i55 
poeyii, Guer tg. Dysphaniai 5i 

Polenivora (genus), Gistl 49 

polUita, Warr. l^. Prasinocyma) i58 

polygrapharia,Walk. {g, Parama.ra- 

tes) 208 

polyleucotes, Prout {g. AnisozygO) 

82, 253 
polyphaenaria. Guen. [g. Dindica) 42 
pomona, Geoflfr. (g. Hemistola) 227 

pomposa, Dogn. I^. Racheospila) iio 
popayanaria, Dogn. (g. Hydata) i88 
porphyropa. Low, (g. Xenochlaena) 249 
porphyropis, Low. {g. Xenoclilaena) 249 
porracearia. Kamb. {g. Pseiidoterpna) 47 
porrinaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Chlorissa) 173 
porrinata, Zell. {g. Chlorissa) 173 

povera, Schaus (g. Hydata) 188 

praeampla, Warr. (g. Osteosema) 89 

praerupta, Butl. ig^. /odisi 232 

prasina, Warr. i^. jSolochroma) 36 

prasina. Swinh. (g. Agathia) 58 

prasina, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148 

prasinaria, Kversm. (g Euchloris) 211 
prasinaria, Hufn, (g. Hipparchus) 71 

prasinaria, Fabr. ig. Pseudoterpna) 47 
prasinaspis, Meyr. (g. Agathia , 5g 

prasinata, Walk. (g. Chlorissa) 173 

/■xi.wiiu/ii. Wern. {g. Chlorissai 173 

Praslnocyma (genusi. Warr. 

4, i3, 17, 146, 154. 220, 23i 
Prasinoscia igenusj, Warr. 249 

priisiiius. Hutl. \g. Tanaorhinus) 69 

pratti, Prout (g. Hipparchns) 71 

pretiosaria, Staud. (5^. C/i/oimii) 169, 174 
proba, Butl. {g. Dysphania) 34 

Proholosceles (genus), Warr. 97, 98 
Proboloscles (genus). Sharp 97 

procellosa, Warr. (g. Oospila) 134 

procumbaria. Pryer (g. Comibaena) 

97- 98, 99 
productaria, Druce {g. Chloropteryx : 178 
pvoductaria. Herr.-Sch. (i', Chloro- 

pieryv 17S 

Progonodes (genus), Warr. 20, i35 
Prohydata igenus), Schaus 3, 2i, 186 
projiciens, Prout {g. Prohydata) 187 

promissaria, Staud. (g. Hipparchus) 72 
promontoria, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 108 
propini]ua. t>rout (g. Hydata) 188 

Prosomphax (genus). Warr. 14, 196 
Protophyta (genus),Turn. 2, 8, 9, 22 



Pages 
protractaria, Herr.-.Sch. :^. Phrudo- 

centrai 123 

protrusa. Butl. {g. Gelasnuii 147 

proutaria, Pears. \g. Chloroseai 116 

proximata, Warr. (g. Metallochloraj i65 
pruinata, Hufn. (g. Pseudoterpna) 

46, 47, 25o 

pruinosa, Butl. ig. Microloxia) 200 

pruinosata, Staud. <g. Holoterpnai 214 

prunicolor. Moore '.^. Dysphania) 54 

pryeri, Butl. (g. Pingasa) 3i 
Pseudhemithea igenusi, Bast, 

14, i83 
Pseudoterpna igenus), Hiibn. 

9, 10. 3o, 46, 195 

Pseudoterpna (genus), Meyr. 38 
pseudoterpnaria, Guen. (g. Pingasa) 3i 
pseudolerpnaria. Col.&Swinh.l.f.Pin- 

Oisiii 32 
Psilotagma subg.),Warr. 38, 39 

psittacina. leld. {g. Orntthospila) 77 

psiltacina. I'rout(;?. Racheospila) 108 

Ptychopoda (genus), Steph. 7 
pudentilimbria , Prout ig. Diplo- 

desma) 184, l85 

piidica, Pag. i^. Metallochlora) i65 

piidicata, Walk. 1.1;. Rhadinomphax) 197 

pugnataria. Guen. i^. Dysphania) 54 

pulchella, Warr. (g. Chloromachia) «4 

pulch/lla, Warr. {g. Racheospila) 109 

pulcherrima, Butl. {g. Chloractis) 209 

pulchra, Staud. (g. Comibaena) 100 

pulchraria, Swinh. {g. Prasinocyma) i56 
pulchrifimbria, Warr. i^. Ompha- 

codes) 221 
pulchrifimbria, Warr. (g. Racheo- 

spiUi) iio 
pulmentaria. Guen. (g. Chlorissa) 

172, 174, 252 

pulveraria, Schaus (g. Dryadopsisl ii3 

pulverata, Warr. (g. Hierochthonia) 204 

pulvereisparsa,Hamps. )g. Neromia) 182 
pulveriplaga, Warr. (g. Archichlora) 

86, 87 

punctaria, Swinh. (g, Comiliaena) 100 

punctala. Warr. (g. Agathia) Sg 

punctata. Warr. ig. Chloropteryx) 178 

punctata, Warr. (g. Phrudocentra) 124 

punctifimbria, Warr. (g. Chlorissa) 174 
punctifimbria, Warr (g. Dioscore) 

i58, 25i 
punt tifimbria. Warr (g. Prasino- 

cyma) i58 



FAM. GEOMETKlD/]i; 



267 



Vages 
punctilinea, Dogii. {g. Chloyopleyyx) 179 
))unctilinea, Dogn. {g. Raclitospiln) 107 
]iiinctilineata,Warr. tg.Onifihacodes] 221 
imnctilligera, Warr. (g. Prasiiw- 

cyma) i58 

liuncliseriata. Dogn.(^. Racheospila) 108 
|)unctulata, Warr. (g. Prasiiiocyma) i58 
|Hintillada, Mogn. (g. Rachtost>ila) 108 
jiupillata, Warr. (g. Phrudoctiitra) 121 
)iupillata, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) i56 
purpurasctns, Warr. ig. Dysj>haiiia< 5o 
)iurpurata, Bast. i^. Dindica) 43 

/'urpureotincta. Warr. (g. Rachcospila) 104 
purpurtoviridis, Warr (g.Riichtos/^ila) 104 
purl^urilira. Warr. (g Hypodo.va) ,^4 

jiurpurissa, Warr. (g. ^'Eolochroma) i-j 
purpurissala. Luc. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

))ustulata, Ifufn. [g. Comiliaena) 

3, 7, 97. 98 
putata, Linn. (g. lodis) 232 

putalariii. Esp. (^. lodis) 23l 

putataria. Hiibn. (^. /odis) 232 

putatoria. Linn. (g. lodis) 232 

Pycnodontia (gen\is),Warr. 194 

Pyrochlora (geniis), Warr. 22, 118 
pyropa. .Meyr. tg. Eiilvxia) 224 

/'_)/rrAfls^»s (genus), Warr. 154, i55 
pyrrhogona, Walk. Ig. Pyrrhorachis) zig 
PyrPhorachis (genusi, Warr. 

19, 238, 248 
Pyrrhorhachis fgenus). Turn. 238 

([uadraria. Guen. {g. Thalassodes] 

l5i, i52 
quadraria. Turn. {g. Thalassodes) i52 
quadrilinea, Luc. tg. ^olochroma) 36 
quadrinotata, Butl.l^'. Cow(;Aflf«a) 97, gg 
qiiadnparlita. Luc (g. .lEolachroma) 36 
quadripunclata. Warr. (g. Htmithea) 171 
quadriplagiata, Bast. 1^'. Dysphania 

andainana ab. 1 52 

quantiUa, Turn. (g. Cenochlorai 242 

quantula, Swinh. i^. Euchloris) 

3, 212, 2x3 
quieta, Luc. (;f. C««ocA/tira) 242 

quieta, Prout (g. Prosomphax) 196, 197 
quinaria, Moore (g. Agathia) 58 

quinquemaculata. Warr. (g.Oospila) 134 

Racheolopha (genusj, Warr. 21, 129 
Racheospila (genus), Guen. 

3, 4, 8, 21, 102, 248, 25l 
r3LiiiA\.a..Wn.\k.\g.Aglossochloris) 212, 2i3 



Pagcs 

radiala. Warr. tg. Ilydata) 188 

rafflesii, Moore (g. Tanaorhinusj 68 

recessa, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 54 

reciprocata, Walk. (g. Tanaorhiims) 68 
recognita, Saalm. ig. Pingasa) 32 

rectaria. Gro:e tg. Dichorda) 127 

rectilasciata. Hamps. (g. Mixocera) 243 
rectilinca, Zell. 1^'. Chloruchlamys) 177 

rectilinea, Warr. {g. Ilcmislola) 226 

rectilinea, Warr. I^. Racheospila) 107 
rectilinearia, Leech ig. .Veromia) 182 
reducta, Walk. tg. Htmilhca subfla- 

vida, subsp.) 171 

rcduclala. Walk. (g. Chlorissa) 174 

refle,\aria, Walk. (g. Comihacna) 101 

regalis, Butl. (g. Dvsphania) 55 

regnatri.\, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

remota. Walk. {g. Dysphania) 52 

remota, Warr. (g. RacheospiUi) 104, 106 
rcmotaria, Walk. (g. Dichorda) 127 

renovata. Walk. (g. Pscudoltrpna) 25o 
respondens, Walk. {g. Pingasa) 32 

restricta, Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

resumpta, Walk. (g. Euschema) 55 

rhadamana, Guen. (g. Pingasa) 32 

Rhadinomphax (genus), Prout 

5, i3, ig5. 197, 218 
rhanis. Cram. [g. Pyrochlora) 118 

rhanisaria, StoU (g. Pyrochlora) 118 

Rhodesia (genusj, Warr. i3, 202 

rhodocera, Hamps. (g. Omphax) 196 

Rhodochlora (genus), Warr. 4, ig. 78 
rhodocosma, Meyr. (g. Prasinocyma) 157 
rhodocrossa, Turn. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 
rhodoloma, Turn. (g.Chlorocoma) ig2 
rhodophthalma, Prout (g. Eucrostes) 24S 
rhodosticta, Hamps. (g. Metacineta) 95 
Rhodostrophia (genus), Hiibn. 6, 7 
rhoisaria, Chret. {g, Microloxia) 252 
Rhombochlora igenus), Warr. 

S, 20, i36 
Rhomborista (genus), Warr. 

3, 14, 93, 140 
Rhuma (genus), Walk. 9, 23 

rhytiphorus, Turn. (g. Thalassodcs) i52 
ricinaria. Guen. \g. Thalassodes) i52 

robustaria, Guen. (g. Episothalma) 167 
robustaria, Leech {g. Thalcra] 216 

roepstorffl, Moore (g. Dysphania) 53 

rosea, Gumpp. (g. Chlurissa clora- 

ria ab.) 173 

rosearia, Culot {g. Chlorissa viri- 
data ab.) 173 



Fagei 
roseata. Warr. (g. Eucrostes) 245 

roseilinearia, Dogn. (g. Racheospila) 104 
rosei])alpis, Feld. (g. Rhodochlora\ 78 
roseitacta, Prout (g. Chlorosta) 116 

rosi))ara, Warr. (g. Oospila) i33 

rosthorni. Rothsch. i^ . Limhatochla- 

inys ) 67 

rothi, Warr. (g.Chlorudrepana) 142 

roth.schildi, Warr. i^. Rhodochloraj 78 
rubella, Warr. (g. Mdacinita) g5 

rubescens, Warr. tg. Racheolopha) i35 
'rubicunda, Warr. (,1,'. Pingasa) 32 

rubivora. Riley (g. Syiichlora) ii5 

rubivoraria, Pack. (g. Synchlora) ii5 

rubriceps. Warr. (g. Omphaxi ig6 

ruliric()r))us. Warr. ig. Cheroscelisi i38 
rnbridentala. Warr. {g. Allochrostes) 246 
rubridisca. Warr. {g. Eucrosles) 245 

rubri/rons.Warr. g. Hcmilheai 171 

rubrifrontaria, Pack. i^. Rachto- 

spilai io3, 104 

rubrifrontaria, Pack' (g. Synchlora) Ii5 
rubrifrontaria, Dyar {g. .Synchlora 1 1 1 5 
rubrilineata, Warr. (g. Agathia) 5g 

rubrimacula, Warr. (g. Prasino- 

cyina) i56 

rubrimaculata, Warr. {g. Ctlidom- 

phax) 194 

rubrimargo, Warr. {g. Himistula) 

225. 226 
rubrimdrgo, Warr. {g. Parompha- 

codes) 118 

rubripicta, Warr. (g. Hemithta) 171 

rubriplaga, Warr. (g. Omphax) ig5 

rubripuncta,Warr. (g.Metallochlora) i65 
rubripunctata. Warr. (g. Pyrrho- 

rachis) 239 

rubripunctilla, Prout (g. Neromia) 172 
rubristellata, Warr. (g. Parompha- 

codts) 118 

rubristicta, Warr. (g. Comostolopsis) 238 
rubritincta, Warr. (g. Chrysochlo- 

roma) 146 

rubrolimbaria, Meyr. (g. Pamphltbia) 201 
rubrolimbalaria, Moore (g. Pamphlt- 

bia) 201 

rubrolimbraria, Guen. tg. Pamphle- 

bia) , 201 

rubri-ilinearia, Pack. (g. Racheospila) 

io3, 104 
rubroliHtata, Hulst {g. Racheospila) Io5 
rubromarginaria, Pack. Ig. Rachio- 
spila) 104 



268 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



Page» 
rubroviridata. Warr. {g. Terpna) 40 

rufaria. Warr. ig. Rhodochlora brnn- 

neipalpis ab.) 78 

ruficeps, Warr. (g. Pyrrhorachis) 23g 
ruficincta, Warr. (g. Oxychora) 161 

ruficinclaria. Snell. (g.PamphUbia) 201 
ruficoloraria, Warr. {g. Terpna) 40 

ruficornis, Warr. (g. Microloxia) 200 
ruficosta, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) iSg 
ruficosta, Hamps. (g. Tirpna) 40 

rufidorsaria. Snell. (g. Racheospila) 109 
rufifrontaria. Ilamps. ig. Geometra) 73 
rufiguttata, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 104 
nifilime-. Warr. Ig. Racheolopha) 129 
rufiUneata, Warr. [g. Racheospila) no 
rufilunata. Warr. (g. Pin^asa) 33 

rufimargo. Warr. (g. Chloromachia) 84 
rufimargo, Warr. (g. Comoslola) 23? 
ruftpicta, Prout i^. Racheospila) 108 

rufiplaga, Warr [g, Oospila) i33 

rufipunctata. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 
rufistriga, Warr. (g. Prasinocyma) 

iSg, 161 
rufitincla, Warr. i^. Prasinocyma) i57 
rufivaria, Warr. (g. Molochroma) 3? 
rufociliaria, Herr.-Sch. (g. Eucrostes) 245 
rufocellata, ^la.h. (g. Eucrosles) 2^5 

rufofasciata, Moore(g. Pin^nja) 32 

rutofronlaria, Gumpp. {.g, Synchlora) ii5 
rufolimiiaria, Hed. (g. Culpinia) i39 

rufomarginata, Pag. (g. Metacineta) 96 
rufonigraria, Walk. ^g. Apodasmia) 48 
ru/oslellala, Mab. (g. Comostolopsis) 238 
rufotincta, Burr. (g, Chlorissa viri- 

dala ab.) 173 

ruginaria.Guen. ig.Pingasa) 3o, 3i. 25o 
rugislrigula, Prout (g. Prasinocyma) 157 
ruptimacula, Warr. {g. Oospila) i33 

rupliviacula. Warr. (g. Oospila) iS^ 

sabiala, Warr. (g. Allochrostes) 246 

sagana, Druce (g. Dysphania mili- 

taris, subsp.) 52 

saliata, Feltl. (g Allochrosles) 246 

salsa, Warr. {f . ^««oirAfonm 1 43, 46 

saltusaria, Hulst (g. Euiana) 202 

salutaria, Swinh. (,!,'. Prasinocyma) i56 
sanguilineata, Moore (g. Osteosema) 89 
sanguinicosta,Prout(g.Prai/«ocv»«a) i56 
sanguinipuncta, Warr. (g. Melallo- 

chlora) i65 

sanguinipuncta,Feld. \g.Rhadinom- 

phax 197 



Pages 
sanguinipunctala, Dogn. (g. Ra- 

cheospila) io5 

sapoUaria, Swinh. (g, Thalassodes) i52 
sapungkanana, Strand (g. Pingasa) 25o 
sarptarla, Moschl. (g. Auophyllodes) i3i 
satisfacta, Walk. (g. Hydata) 188 

satisfacla, Druce (g. Hydala) 188 

saturata. Baiig-Haas (g. Microloxia) 200 
saturata, Prout (g. Pscudhemilhea, 184 
saturata. Snell. (g. Thalassodts) i52 

saturataria. Walk. (g. Molochroma) 36 
saturataria, Walk. (g. Anisozyga) 80 

scinlillans. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

scissaria, Feld {g. Prasinocymai i55 

scitissimaria, Walk. Ig, Anisozyga) 80 
scriptaria, Hiihn, ig. Leptograp/ia) 248 
scriptifasciata, Walk. (g, Comibaena) 101 
scripturata. Warr. (g, HyiUita) 1S8 

scutiligera, Cot &■ Swinh. (?. Rhom- 

borista) 94 

scutuligera, Butl. (^. Rhomborista) 94 

scyllea, Swinh. (g.Dysphania) 53 

selangora, Swinh. (g. Dysphaniami- 

litaris, subsp.) 52 

sellata, Warr. (f. Racheosptla) 107 

sellifera, Warr. (g.Oospila) 134 

semialba, Swinh. (^. Chlorosterrha) 218 
semialba. M'alk. (f . Lophomachia) 85 
semialbaria, Guen. (^. Oospila) i33 

semialbida, Prout (g^. Hemistola) 227 
semicaudata. Prout (j . Progouodes) i35 
semicrocea. Walk. (g. Prasinocyma) i57 
jfiH(;?ara, Warr. (g. Dysphania) 55 

semifulva, Warr. (f. Dysphania) 5i 

semigrisea. Warr. (^. Bathycolpodes) 141 
semihyalina. Walk. (f. Thalassodts\ i52 
semilucida, Schaus (^, Seagathia) I25 
semimarginata, Warr. (f. Anthar- 

mostes marginata ah.) 144 

seminivea, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

semiornata, Warr. (g. Racheospila) 108 
«miyi/ir«<i. Walk. (g. Euschema) 55 

semipurpurea, Warr. (4'. Rhombn- 

rista I H4 

semirufa. Druce (j. H>'/'i^f<«/rtl 143 

semispurcata, Warr. (^. Oospila 134 

semilaria, Piing, (f . Hierochtjionia) 204 
semiviridis. Warr. (^. Oospila) 134 

sericata, Bast. (f. Dysphania double- 

dayi ab.) 53 

serraria, Staud. (f . Euchloris) 212 

serrata, Wilem. (^f . .,4 »-,iiri«iii ) 65 

strraticornis, Warr. (g. Mixocera) 243 



Pages 
sesquiplaga. Prout l^. Oospilai i35 

sexmaculata. Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 
shorti, Prout (f. OiH///a*) 252 

siamensis, Bast. (g. Dysphania mili- 

taris ab.) 52 

sideralis. Luc. (g. Anisozyga) ,Si 

sigillaria. Guen. (g. Racheospila) 109 
signifera. Warr. (g. Hemislola) 228 

signifera, Warr. (^ Prasinocyma) i58 
signifrontaria, Mab. (g. Pingasa) 32 
silena, Schaus (j. Tachyphyle) 119 

simjaria. Gucn. (^. Piasincyma) i55 

similiplaga. Warr. (f. Auophyllodrs) i3i 
similis, Moore (g-. Terpna 40 

simonyi, Reb. (5-. Eucrostts j^S 

simplex. Warr. (g.Chlorissa) 174 

simplex, Warr. (^ Comostolopsis) 238 
simplex, Warr. (^. Hemistola) 226 

simplex, Warr. (^. Hemistola) 227 

sim]>lex, Warr. (4'. CEnospila) 162 

simplex, .\lph. (4'. Pseudoterpna) 25o 

simplicearia, Walk. (f. Amaurinia) 177 
simpliciaria, Leech (j. Euchloris) 212 
simpliciaria, Walk. (g^. Pamphlebia) 201 
simplicissima, Prout (j. Hemistola) 228 
sinapiaria, Pouj. (f. Archaeobalbis) 

25, 26 
singularis. Kersh. (f. Pingasa) 33 

sinuata, Moore(j. CEnospila) 162 

sinuosaria, l.eech (^ /orf/j) 233 

sisunaga, Walk. (g. Episothalma) 167 

sitfHaria.Guen. (j. i?<ir/(«;.</'i/.i) 102, 109 
Sfcorpisthes genus). Luc. 3o, 3i, 33 
smaragdaria, Fabr. (^. £«i7i/oriij 7, 211 
smaragdarius. Curt. (g. Etichloris) 211 
smaragdularia. Staud. (g. Euchloris) 212 
smariigiius, Hamps. {g. Comibaena) 98 
smaragdus. Hull. (t'. Hipfiirchus) 

68, 70. 71 
snelleni. Pag. (g. Dysph.uiia- 5i 

sodalis. Moore (g. Dysl-hania excu- 

bitor. subsp.) 53 

solaria, Swinh. ig. Agathia) 60 

solidaria. Guen. (g. Chlorissa) 173 

sordida. Schaus ig. Hydata 188 

sororcula, W.irr. (g. Prasinncyma) i59 
Spanlocentpa (genus). Prout 

i3, 94, 137, 140 
speciosa, Luc. \g. Anisozyga) 80 

speclahilis, Walk. ,?. Dysphania) 5i 

spectabilis, Butl. (g. Hydata) 188 

specularia, Guen. (g. Aporandria) 77, 78 
sphagnala, Feld. (g. Actenochroma) 28 



l'\A,M. (iEOMETKID.^i: 



269 



Pdges 

Sphagnodela (genusi, Warr. 10. 43 
spilosata. Warr. {g. Hydata) iS8 

splendens, Dnice (g. Hyaloclilora) 126 
splendida, Bast. [g. Dyspliauia fene- 

j/ra/a, subsp.i 5o 

splendidaria, Grossb. [g. Xemoria) 112 
sponsaria, Brem. tg. Hippaiclius) 

70, 72, 16S 
sporadata, Warv. (g. Racheolopha) i35 
spumata, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 149 

spiwiifera, Warr. (g. lodis) 232 

spumosaria, Donn. (g- Cliloropteryx) 179 
squalidaria, Costa i^. Hemithea) 253 
squamata, Feld. ig. Hypudoxa) 34 

stagonata. Feld [g. Progonodcs) i35 

stellata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 

stellata, Warr. (g. CEnospila) 162 

stellataria, Moschl. (g. Phrudocenlraj I23 
stereota, Meyr. (g. Chlorocoma) 191 

Sterictopsis (genus), Warr. 8, g, 23 
steroparia, Piing. (g. lodis) 232 

stibolepida. But). (g. Clilorissa) 174 

stictimargo, Warr \^. Prasinocyma) i56 
stigmatica, Warr. (g. Cliloropleryx) 179 
stigmatica.Warr. (g-. PcoAjrfa/a) 186, 187 
stiHaria. Warr. ,1;. Comoslolopsis) 238 

stillata, Feld. (g. Comostolopsjs) 238 

stollaria, Guen. (g. Racheospihi) 109 

Strepsichlora {geiius).Warr. 17. 160 
striataria, Leech i^. Comibaena) 100 

strigata, Miill. Ig. Hemithea) 170 

strigataria, Grossli. (g. Nemoria) ii3 
strigigera, Wall. (^. Thalassodes) 248 
strix, Butl. \g. CEnospila) 162 

suauis. Svvinh. (^. Thalera) 216 

subalbata. Warr. g. Dysphama ten- 

tans, subsp.) 5o 

suliallnda. Warr. (g. Clirysocliloroma) 146 
subalpina, Luc. (g. Prasinocyma) i57 

subangulata, Warr. (^. Gelasma) 149 
subaspersa, Warr. (g. Oniphax) igD 

suliaurata, W^arr. (g. Episothalma) 167 
subaurata. Walk. (g. Rhmna) 23 

subaurata, Warr. (.?. Tachypliyle) 120 
subaurea, Warr. (g. Tachyclilora) 119 
subaureata, Warr. (g. Heteresthes) 192 
subbifasciala, Warr. (g. Eualloea) 180 
subcaerulescens. Burr. (g. Hippar- 

chus papiliunaria 3.h.) Jl 

subcarnea. Warr. (g. Agathia) 5g 

subcroceata, Walk. (g. Clilorissa) 

172, 173, 175 
subdeleta, Warr. (g. Agalhia) Sg 



Pages 
subdentata, Warr. ig. Pingasa) 32 

sube.\pressa, Walk. (g. Diplodesma) 

i3, 184, i85 
subfasciata, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 82 
subfenestraria. Walk. (g. Hydala) 1.S8 
stibflavata, Warr. (g. Agathiopsis) 92 
subrtavida. Warr. (g. Hemithea) 171 

subfulva. Warr. i^. Ilypocoela) 143 

subfulvata, Warr. (g. Tachyphyle) 121 
subfuscata. Warr. \g.Bathycolpudcs) 141 
subhyalina. Warr. (g CumibiUna) 

97. 98, 100 
siibignita. Walk. \g. Tanaorhinus) 68 

sublimbata. Butl. (g. Pingasa) 3i 

subliturata, Walk. (g. Anisozyga) Si 
sublustris, Warr. (g. Gelasma) 148 

sulDmacularia, Leech i^. Gclasma) 

147, 14S 
submaculata, Warr. (g. Plirudocen- 

tra pupillata a.h.) 121 

submissaria. Meyr. ig.Clilorocoviu) 191 
submissaria^WaWi. (g.Chlorocoma) igo 
subnionstrans, Walk. ig. Ornitho- 

spila) 77, 145 

subnigrata, Warr i^. Anisuzygai 82 

subobsoleta, Burr. (g. Hipparchus 

papiliunaria a.h.) 71 

subucliracea, Warr. (g. Archacobalbis 1 25 
subopalina, Warr. \,g. Archaeobalbis) 25 
siibornata, Warr. (g. Hypodoxa) 34 

suliornata, Warr. (^. 7"tT/>K(j; 38, Sg 

subpurpurea, Warr. (g. Pingasa) 33 

subradiata, Warr. (g.jEolochroma) 3S 
subrepleta, Walk. \. Dyspliania) 53 

subieticidata, Mab. i,^. Thalassodes) i52 
subrosea. Warr. (g. Dindica) ^3 

subrubella, Warr. (4'. ^^Eoluihroma) 

5, 35. 37 
subrubescens,Warr. (g.JEolochroma) 37 
subrubra, Warr. \g.Heterestlies) ig2 

subrufcscens, Warr. (^. Cliloropte- 

ryx) 17S, 179 

subscripta, Warr. (^. Tachychlura) 119 
subsimilis, Warr. (g. Dindica) 43 

subtepens, Walk. (j'. Archaeobalbis) 

24, 25 
subtiliaria, Brem. (i'. Comostalaj 236 
suhtiliaria, Hamps. (^. Comostola) 236 
subtiliaria, Pag. (j. Comostola) 23j 

subtinctaria, Guen, (g.Geumrtra) 248 
sitbtractata. Walk. (^. /orf/s) 232 

subtusumbrata. Fuchs f.^-. Diplo- 
desnui) 1.1, 184, iS5 



Pages 

subvectaria. Walk. (g.Geometra) j3 

subvenusta, Warr. (g. Anisozyga) 81 

subviridis, Warr. (g. Pingasa) 33 

subviridis, Warr. (if. Thalassodes) i53 

succedanea. Warr. \g. Agathia) Sg 

suffusa, Warr. (g. Molochioma) 36 

sumatrensis. Fawc. (^. Dysphania) 55 
superans, Butl. (g^. Terpna- 38, 40 

superata, Walk. (f. Chlorissa) 175 

supergressa, Warr. (^. Dyspliania) 54 
Synchlora (genusl, Guen. 

6, 7, 8, 21, 114, 206 
Synclysmus (genus). Butl. 9, 10. 45 

synchrasis, Prout (g, Racheospila\ loS 
Syndromodes (genusl, Warr. 

3, i3, 2o3, 220 

syrene, Geoffr. (g. Clilorissa) 173 

Tachy&hlora(genusi, Hrout 4, 19, 119 
Tachyphyle (genus). Butl. 4. ig. 120 
tachypora. Turn. (g. Chlorocoma) 

190, 192 

taediata, Feld. (g. Phrudocentra) 122 

taiwana.Wilem. (g. Chlorodontopera) 25o 
Tanaorhinus (genusi, Butl. 

II. 67, 192 

tancrei, Graes. (g. Comibaena) 99 

tanygona, Turn. (g. Maxates) i63 

tasmaniae, Le Guill. i^'. Dysphania) 5o 

tasnuinicaria. Guen. (g. Dysphania) 5o 

Telotheta (genus), Warr. 20, 2o5 

tenera. Warr. (4'. Co)H/ii7f«(i| 97, 100 

tenera, Warr. (g. Endeiiiia) i^g 

tentans, Walk. (g. Dysphania) 5o 

tenuilinea. Alph. ig. Hemistola) 226 

tenuilinea, Warr. \g. Metallochlora) i65 

tenuilinea. Kaye (g. Racheospilai 106 

tenuilinea, Warr. (g. Terpna) 40 

tenitimargo. Warr. (g. Racheospila) 109 

tenuis, Warr. (g. Oxychora) 161 

tenuis, Warr. {g. Phrudocentra) I23 

tenuis, W'arr. (g. Prasinocyma) i56 

tenuisaria, Graes. (g. Comibaena) 99 
tephrosiaria, Guen. (g. Pingasa) 3o, 32 

tepperaria, H\i\st (g.Chloroptery.x) 178 

terminata, Frout ig. Acollesis) 219 
Terpna (genus), Herr.-Sch. 

4, 5, II. 38. 39, 25o 

Terpne (genus), Hiibn. 69 

Terpnidia (genus), Warr. 29 

tetralopha. Low. (g. Metallochlora) i65 
tetraspila, Low. (^. C/j/ococowKi) 190, 191 

texana, Hulst ig. Synchlora) 116 



270 



LEPIDOPTERA HETEROCERA 



ttxaria. Fears. g. Rachtospila) 104 

textilis, Butl. {g. Attisozygai 80 
thalassias, Warr. (g. Dioscori) 74. 75 

tkalassica, Turn. [g. Diplodesma) i85 

thalassiiia, Warr {g. Oospila) i33 
Thalassodes (geiuis). Guen. 

4. i5. i5i, 23i. 25i 
Thalera igenusi, Hubn. 

6, 18, i3g. 200, 2i5. 217 

Thalerura igenusi, Swinh. 146 

Thelycera (subg.), Prout 243 

Thetidia igenus), Boisd. 210 

thetydaria, Guen. (g. Gtlasma) 147 

tkvmiaiia, Schiff. (g. Hemithea) 170 

thymiaria, Linn. (g. Thalera) 216 

Ihvmiata, Curt. (g. Hemithca) 170 

thyriaiiliiia, Pag. (g. Dysphania) 5i 

timoclea. Druce (g. Thalassod,-s) i52 

torsiliiiea. Warr. g. Racheospila- 108 

tractaria, Walk. ig. Xemoria) iii 

transducta, Walk (g, Dysphania) 53 

transdiutaria. Warr. (g. Hydata) 188 
transgressa, Bast. (f. Dvsphaiiia 

.indamana, ab.) 32 

translucida, Montr. (f. Dysphania) 25o 
translucidaria. Herr.-Sch. i,f. Hv- 

transversa, Walk. (4' Dysphania) 5^ 
triangularia. Swinh. (g. Ueltrora- 

chis\ 193 
trianj^ularis. Prout 15. Chlorochla- 

mys} , 177 

tricoloraria, Pack. (^. Synchlora) 11 5 

tridentata, Warr. (^. Pachycopsis\ 189 

trifasciata,Warr. (f. Rhodochlora) 79 

trilineata, Hamps. (j. Omphacodes) 221 

triUniaria, Guen. (g-. Oospila) i32 
trimaculata, Warr. (,;,'. Phnidoceii- 

tra) 122 

trimeni, Feld. (f, Rhadinomphax] 197 

tripl