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Full text of "Genera insectorum"

Genera Insectorum 



FASC. CCVIII-CCIX 



^ 



Genera 



Insectorum 



DIRIGES PAR 



KWYTSMAN 



FASCIUCLES CCVIII-CCIX 



208. Homoptera. Fam. Membracidae, par W. D. FuNKHOUSER 

209. Diptera. Fam. Scatophagidae, par E. Seguy. 



565788 



^ . 7. S3 



BRUXELLES 

LOUIS DESMET-VERTENEUIL 

IMPRIMEUR-EDITEUR 

igSo - 1952 



QL 






HOMOPTERA 

FAM. MEMBRACIDyE 



HOMOPTERA 

FAM. MEMBRAClDiE 

by W. D. FUiNTKHOUSER 



WITH 14 PLATES 




INTRODUCTION 

HE family Memhracida was first recognized and especially named as a more or less 
distinct group by Germar who in 1821 erected his division « Membracides » to accommo- 
date certain forms which had been previously included in the « Cicadas » of Linnaeus 
and De Geer. Latreille used the same name in 1825. Burmeister followed with 
« Membracina » in i835 and Blanchard in 1840 listed his n Membraciens ». Amyot and Serville in 
1843 designated a number of species of this family as « Cornidorsi » and the term « Centrotitae » was 
apphed to other species by Spinola in i85o. However, the use of « Membracina » by Walker in i85i, 
« Membracinae » by Stal in i858 and « Membracida » by Fieber in 1875 rather definitely estabhshed 
the terminology. The modern ending of « idffi » for the family name was first used by Butler in 1878. 
Although the Membracidce include some of the most bizarre and grotesque of all insects, due 
to their peculiar pronotal developments, they have seldom been found to be of any economic importance 
and consequently have been studied almost entirely by systematists rather than by biologists or economic 
entomologists. As a resuU, a very large number of species have been described and their geographical 
distribution is fairly well known but practically no attempts have been made to work out the hfe histories 
of the insects or even to record their hosts. 

The early work of Fabricius (1775-1803), Walker (1851-72), and Stal (1854-70) was of a very 
general nature and consisted chiefly in the description of species from all parts of the world. Fairmaire 
(1846) made a good start on general classification and Stal (1866) in his n Hemiptera Africana » made 
a definite attempt to classify the Membracida of Africa, the first regional study ever made of this family. 
Later, Melichar (i9o3-o5), Jacobi (1910-12), Lallemand (1925-29) and more recently Pelaez (ig35-36) 
have made valuable contributions to the knowledge of the membracid fauna of Africa. 

The outstanding study of the Membracida of Asia vvas that of Distant (1907 ; 1916) in his « Fauna 
of British India » and recent reports by Kato (1928-33) and Matsumura (1912-34) have added a 
considerable number of new species from Formosa and Japan. 



2 HOMOPTERA 

The classical report by Fowler (1894-98) on the family in « Biologia Centrah Americana » covered 
very completely the Central American forms and is extremely valuable because of the excellence of the 
keys and ilkistrations. Recently Plummer (i935-36) has begun a serious study of the Membracidae 
of Mexico. 

Australia, Oceanica and East Indies have yielded a large number of interesting species which 
have been described and tentatively classified by Goding (1898-1903) and Funkhouser (1927-35). 

South America is very rich in Membracida. Berg (1879-84) early reported on the Argentine 
forms and mam* of the species of South America were recorded by Goding (1914-33) both during the 
period in which he lived in Ecuador and during his later years when he published a large number of 
papers on South American forms. In his later papers Dr. Goding constructed a long series of dicho- 
tomous keys in which he attempted to classify the large number of genera and species represented in 
the neotropical fauna. More recently da Fonseca (1932-36) has made valuable contributions to the 
literature of the South American forms. 

The pioneer workon North American M«»»6rfl«rf<s was done by Goding (1895) and Van Duzee 
(igo8; 1917). M any species oi Membracida had been previously described by Say (iSaS-Sg), Harris 
(i833-8o), Uhler (1871-93), Fitch (i85i-7o) and other early American entomologists but Goding and 
Van Duzee placed the systematic work on a good foundation. Woodruff (1915-24) made some splendid 
critical studies of certain genera and Ball (i9o3-33), an unusually fine systematist, has done much to 
clarify the nomenclature particularly in the Tribe Telamonini. 

Altogether the work on the Membracida has been widely scattered and consists in the descrip- 
tions of new species and the erection of new genera with a few real attempts at classification and 
taxonomy. The author's « Catalogue of the Membracida of the World » (1927) recorded the syno- 
nymy and bibliography of the family up to that year but of course this volume is now out of date due 
to the large number of new species which have been described and the changes in synonymy which have 
been made during the last decade. 

In this monograph an endeavor has been made to assemble this widely scattered material, bring 
it up to date and present it in as compact and usable a form as possible. It is hoped that this may 
be of some value to students of this really reniarkable and interesting family of insects. 

Membracides Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 7 (1821). 
Membracides Latreille, Fam. Nat. Regne Anim. 427 (i825). 
Membracina Burmeister, Handb. Ent, II : 126 (i835). 
Membraciens Blanchard, Hist. Ins. Hemip. 532 (1840). 
Cornidorsi Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 532 (1843). 
Membracides Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. France. IV : 235 (1846). 
Centrotitae Spinola, Tavola Sinot. 27 (i85o). 
Membracina Walker, List Hom. Brit. Mus. 472 (i85i). 
Membracinae Stal, Stet. Ent. Zeit. XIX : 2^4 (i858). 
Jassidae (ex parte) Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 82 (1866). 
Membracinae Sahlberg, Cicad. 97 (1871). 
Membraeida Fieber, Cicad. d'Eur. I : 39 (1875). 
Membracidae Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 204 (1878). 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



CHARACTERS 

The family Mentbracida is characterized particularly by the great development of the pronotum 
which usually conceals the scutellum, often extends over the entire body and sometimes completely 
conceals the tegmina. This peculiar enlargement of the pronotum often takes curious and grotesque 
forms. Other family characters are the three-jointed tarsi, antennas minute and bristle-like inserted 
in front of and between the eyes, tegmina with distinct corium and clavus, veins of tegmina and of hind 
wings homologous and a hook on the episternum. 



PHYLOQENY 

The phylogenetic position of the families of the Homoptera is still a matter of much contro- 
versy among hemipterists. Osborn and Van Duzee have placed the Cicadellida in the highest position 
in the order of taxonomic rank, while Hansen and Kirkaldy make the Fulgorida the culmination of 
the phylogenetic table. Osborn holds that the Cicadida are the lowest of the homopterous families 
and considers the Membracida also very primitive while .'\shmead places the Membracida: next to the 
Fulgorida near the top of the hst. Stal, whose taxonomic work was of a high order, considered each 
of the modern families as subfamilies, while McGillivray and Baker ranked each as a superfamily 
with the present subfamihes raised to family position. Interesting contributions to the subject have 
been made by Reuter, Sahlberg, Goding, Froggat, Ashmead and Distant but no two of these authorities 
agree on the same taxonomic arrangement. 

Without entering into the discussion of the relative speciahzation and probable relationship of 
the other famihes, it would seem that the Membracida, as considered from the standpoint of the structure 
and development of the more iniportant of the physiological systems, must be assigned a very low place 
in phylogenetic rank. In defence of this conclusion, the following arguments may be offered : 

1. The entire sensory system is very poorly developed. We agree with Hansen that the phylogenist 

should attach much importance to the structure of sensory organs and the character of the 
antennae. In the Membracida the antennEe are so minute as to be in most cases hardly visible and 
are but feebly provided with sensory apparatus. The responses of the insects to stimuli are 
exceedingly slow or entirely wanting. 

2. The wings are extremely generalized. In an earlier paper (Funkhouser igiS) the author pointed 

out that the Membracida are in this respect even lower than the Cicadida, which Comstock and 
Needham (1899) have pronounced the most conservative of the Hemiptera so far as wing venation 
is concerned. 

3. The genital organs are very simple. Little progress has been made in developing these structuies 

from the ancient type. 

4. The pronotum, to be sure, is highly speciahzed, but it is hardly logical to vveigh these modifications 

of purely mechanical structures against the more important phylogenetic evidence offered by 
the sensory, motor and reproductive systems. 



4 HOMOPTERA 

So far as the piesent evidence regarding the general relationship and phylogeny of the families 
of the division Anchenorhynchi is concerned, we v^rould conclude that the Fulgoridte are the most highly 
specialized of the families and considerably removed from the others in origin ; that the Cercopida, 
Cicadellidie and Membracida, in that order, have developed from a common stem ; that the Aethalionida 
have branched off from the membracid stem but now represent a distinct family, and that the Cicadida 
are the lowest of all, with an origin considerably removed from the others. This arrangement may be 
diagramatically represented as foUows : 



Fu/gor/dae 

Cercop/dcK 

C/cade/l/dae 

Membrac/dae 

Aetha//on/dae 

C/cad/dae 




FiG. I. — Phylogeny of tho Membraoida 



DISTRIBUTION 



The Membracida are primarily a tropical and subtropical family. Of nearly three hundred 
genera recognized in the family, less than fifty are found in the temperate zones and none in the arctic 
or subarctic regions. There seems to be little doubt but that the center of distribution of the group 
was somewhere in a tropical region and that migrations have been first eastward and westward in 
equatorial areas and that later the forms migrated northward and southward on the respective land- 
masses of the eastern and western hemispheres, their limits of distribution depending upon the adap- 
tibility of the species to environmental and particularly to climatic and floristic conditions. Records 
of distribution from all parts of the world bear out such a hypothesis to a large extent and the 
geological theories of land bridges and life zones in comparatively recent times, as used to explain 
the appearance particularly of birds and mammals, are sufficient to account for earlier tropical migra- 
tions. Unfortunately there is no paleontological evidence to support this assumption since no fossil 
membracids have been discovered, although the closely related families of Cercopidm, Fulgorida and 
Aphida are represented in paleontological Hterature. Buckton (iQoS) proposed the theory that previous 
to the glacial period when « the monkey and the palm-tree occurred within the limits of the arctic 
circle » the Membracida became distributed by a northern route. Since the condition which Buckton 
postulates would place the period of migration sometime around the Eocene and since these land- 
bridges would have been far to the north, his theory does not seem particularly attractive. 

The great home of the membracids at present seems to be South and Central America, with 
equatorial Africa, southern Asia, and the East Indies offering hardly less abundant forms. According 
to the present generally accepted faunal areas of the earth, the Membracida are represented as follows : 

Palearctic Region (Europe; the temperate parts of Asia limited by the Himalayas; the north of 
Africa; Iceland and the islands of the Atlantic). 

Very poorly represented. Only three genera on the entire continent of Europe, but two species 
in Great Britam, four species in Russia, a few representatives in Siberia and north China, and none 



FAM. MEMBKACIDiE 5 

reported from Scandinavia or Iceland. A limited iiumber of species in northern Africa. chiefly forms 
which have migrated from the south. 

Ethiopian Region (Central and South Africa and its islands; Arabia). 

Rich in genera and species. Less coUecting has been done in this area than in most of the 
other tropical and semitropical regions but there is evidence of an abundant membracid fauna. 

Oriental Region (India and the East Indies). 

Extremely rich both in the number of forms represented and in the number of individuals. 
The center of distribution for the subfamily CentroHna. 

Australian Region (Australia, Tasmania and neighboring islands). 

Well represented by rather distinct forms. Ahhough only a comparatively few localities in 
this region are represented by material in collections, these localities have yielded a large number 
of species. 

Nearctic Region (America north of Mexico ; Greeiiland). 

About forty genera, some represented by only one species, becoming less abundant northward. 
A few species common in Canada as far north as Perry Sound. None reported from Greenland. 

Neotropical Region (Mexico; West Indies; Central and South America). 

The most important of all the regions for the Membracida. Central America and the northern 
part of South America have yielded more genera and almost as many species as all the rest of the world 
together. Five of the six great subfamilies are found only in this region. 

Oceanic Region (Extending from and including New Guinea on the west to the most easterly islands 
of Polynesia on the east and from New Zealand on the south to Micronesia and Hawaii on 
the north). 

Only 33 species reported from the entire region, practically all of which are from New Guinea 
and the Solomon Islands. The paucity of material from this area is probably due to lack of coUecting 
rather than absence of the insects since the surrounding regions are rich in Membracida, However, only 
two species have been found in Hawaii and both of these are introduced forms. 



HABITATS 

The Membracida are sun-loving insects. They are most commonly found on grasses, shrubs 
and trees growing in the open, on bushes and young trees at the edges of timber or on vegetation 
along roadsides. They are seldom seen in shady woods and we have never found them in dense 
jungles or in dark forests. In practically all cases they seem to prefer the younger plants; the 
tree-inhabiting species are most likely to be found on saphngs, or, if on older trees, on the youngest 
twigs. Most forms stay close to the ground, and even those species that live on trees of considerable 
size are usually on branches not over twenty feet from the ground. The grass-inhabiting forms seek 
the youngest plants or the youngest leaves of the older plants. This is probably because of the fact 
that the membracid beak is not strong and the young tissue is easier to penetrate. Dry, warm, sunny 
spots on young vegetation is their preferred habitat. 

However, one exception must be made to the above general statement. Mr. Felix Woytkowski, 



6 HOMOPTERA 

who has sent the writer a considerable amount of interesting material from Peru, collected one species, 
Gdastogonia rufomaculata Fallon, from the roots of water plants and from moss which was actually 
under water in the mountain stream Utcubamba in San Ildefonsa, Peru. The insects were taken on 
July 24, 1936. Mr. Woytkowski states (in correspondence) : « These were positively submerged in 
water and the stream has a powerful current ». This is the only example known to the writer of 
aquatic or semiaquatic Mtmbracida and we believe the case to be entirely accidental since the species 
concerned has no physiological structures which would fit it for such a habitat. 



HABITS 

Field notes from all parts of the world indicate that the habits of the Membracida aie about the 
same wherever they are found. Practically their entire life is spent on the stems and leaves of plants 
where they feed, mate and oviposit and where the nymphs go through all of the instar stages. 

Their life is on the whole very quiet. The adults have the interesting habit of ranging them- 
selves in rows on the branches, often thirty orforty individuals placing themselves so close together that 
their bodies almost touch one another and remaining in this position for hours at a time. In the large 
majority of cases the adult rests with its head poiiiting toward the base of the branch, or pointing 
downward if it is on the trunk. By actual counts, made in many parts of the world, nine-tenths of the 
individuals counted were found in this position so that it seems to be a universal habit but the reason 
for it is entirely conjectural. It may be that such an attitude increases the resemblance of the insect (o 
thorns, twigs or irregularities in the bark or leaf surface of the host plant, but this is not evident in ordi- 
nary observation The nymphs are usually found tightly flattened in crevices of the bark or pressed 
closely in the axil of a leaf or the crotch of a twig. In most cases the coloration of the nymph is such 
that they are not easily seen when in such positions. This protective resemblance in many cases is 
strengthened by the presence of the dorsal spines of the immature insect, which carry out leaf and 
bark outlines to an extent which is very conducive to effective concealment. 

Membracids are generally most active during the warmest parts of the day. Feeding, mating, 
oviposition and flight have all been observed oftenest during the hours from eleven o'clock in the mor- 
ning until four in the afternoon, and more activity is shown on extremely warm days than on cool 
ones. This may be due to the fact that the bird enemies or other diurnal foes of the insects are less 
numerous during the heat of the day but such an explanation can be advanced only as a theory. In 
the case of certain species attended by ants it has been suggested that the activity of the membracids 
during the hours mentioned might be due to the activity of the ants at that time, but this may be the 
converse of the true reason, since it may be that the ants are influenced by the membracids, and in 
either case, there is no apparent reason why either insect should show increased activity at definite 
periods unless it be because of tropisms of light or temperature. 

When at rest the insect generally chooses the underside of the first or second-year growth of the 
trees or the uprightstem of herbaceous plants. The legs are spread rather widely apart, allowing the 
abdomen to almost touch the host but keeping the hind legs in a suitable position for springing. This 
position may be held for long periods of time, often for hours together, though actual records are not 
avaiiable owing to the fact that the patience of the writer in timing the resting period of an individual 
has never equaled the pleasure of the insect. Some species have the habit of moving spirally around 
the twig, the movement being very slow but sufficient to accomplish a complete circuit of the twig in 
an afternoon. It has been thought that this is done in an attempt to keep in the sunlight as the sun 
moves across the sky, but this again is merely a conjecture. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 7 

If approached, the insect usually moves around to the opposite side of the twig or stem and 
makes no attempt to fly, except as a last resort in escaping. A slowly approaching object is not readilj' 
noticed, and the insect may usually be touched with the finger before it moves if care is taken to make 
the movement of the hand very slow and deliberate; a sharp, quick movement in the direction of the 
insect, on the other hand, results in its immediate fiight. Few membracids respond quickly to stimuli 
of light or heat; the light from a mirror or the condensed rays of the sun as projected through a lens 
have little effect on the resting insect if no other stimuH are present. Rain causes the membracid to 
move to the underside of the stem or leaf, but a strong wind merely causes it to cling more tightly to 
its host without change of position. 

In feeding, the insects display no pecuiiarities and the process is a leisurely one. The beak of 
the membracid, while not particularly strong, is well fitted for piercing, being robust and heavy and 
fitted with bristle-Hke mandibular and maxillary setse. Both nymphs and adults have Uttle difificulty 
in forcing the beak into the young stems and petioles of the leaves, the parts of the plant on which they 
most commonly feed. It is doubtful whether in all cases the labrum or the labium actually enter the 
tissue, since it seems possible for the insect to make a sufificient puncture with the setae alone. A few 
species, notably Entylia bactriana, Enchenopa binotata and Atymna castanta in North America, and 
Gargara projecta in the Malay Peninsula, have been observed feeding on the blades of leaves, but 
this is unusual. Feeding may be observed at almost any hour of the day, depending on the species, 
but the most favored time appears to be the middle of the afternoon. Very little energy is displayed 
in the feeding movements. The insects remain in one spot for a long time, seeming to find an 
inexhaustible supply of sap at each insertion of the mouth parts, and they show little disposition to 
seek new feeding places. So deeply and firmly is the beak sometimes buried in the tissue of the host, 
and so absorbed do the insects appear to be while obtaining food, that often the mouthparts are broken 
off in collecting and are left in the stem or leaf when the specimen is captured. 

The process of feeding in some species is accompanied by tiie close attendance of ants. It is 
presumed that the presence of the ants is to be explained by their well-known habits of seeking the 
honeydew secreted by the membracids. A large number of observations, however, have suggested 
that possibly there may be another reason for the presence of ants at this time. In many cases the 
ants have been found grouped about the head of the membiacid, as though sharing the sap drawn from 
the stem. Whether or not the ant would be able to make use of such sap» is not known, i)ut the 
phenomenon has been noticed so many times that it seems unreasonable to believe it accidental. 
Be that as it may, the membracids seem in no wa}' disturbed by the attention of the ants, and continue 
the feeding process without noticing their presence. 

A study of the locomotion of the Membracida does not justify the use of the term « tree hopper » 
as popularly applied to the family, particularly in the United States. Of the three methods of locomotion 
— flying, walking and jumping — the last is certainly the least used. 

Most membracids fly well for short distances, with a sharp, whirring flight which in most cases is 
too rapid and too erratic to be foUowed by the eye. The flights, however, are seldom sustained for any 
great distance. The longest flights ever actually measured by the writer were one of fifty yards from 
one tree to another made by a female of Telamona unicolor in Tompkins County, New York, and one of 
seventy-five yards across an open glade in the forest near EHsabethvilie, South Africa, made by a female 
of Oxyrhachis subserrata. In each case the insect pursued a rather irregular course, swinging for several 
feet from one side to the other of a straight line in the flight. Specimens of Atymna castanea in the 
United States and of Triceutrus truncaticornis in Sumatra have been taken while flying around Hghts so it 
is evident that these species, at least, have the power of remaining on the wing for some little time. 



8 HOMOPTERA 

Since the membracids have large, povverful, well-developed wings, there seems to be no reason why they 
should not be capable of long, sustained flight unless they are handicapped by the weight and size of the 
over-developed pronotum. Buckton (igoS) claims that the Memhracida, in spite of their abnormal pro- 
notal structures, have no difficulty in locomotion, and states on the authority of Mickeljohn that even the 
species Bocydium globtdare, which is one of the most bizarre of the tropical forms, « flitted from one shrub 
to another without difificulty or apparent laboured flight h . The writer cannot agree at all with this 
conclusion. Our observations on exotic forms indicate that they are seldom abie to handle themselves 
in creditable fashion even though the mechanism and development of their wings are excellent. It 
seems very reasonable to conclude, therefore, that the shape, size and weight of the enormous pronotum 
proves more of a handicap to the insects than has been supposed. Certainly the Membracida are far 
inferior to the closely related families of Cicadidce, Fulgorida, Cicadellidce and Cercopida in the matter 
of flight. 

In the matter of jumping, the Membracida seem to use this method of locomotion only when 
leaving the twig for flight. The insect leaves its support with a quick snap, which is apparently accom- 
pHshed by means of the powerful hind legs though the movement is entirely too rapid to be diagnosed 
l)y observation. The spring from the support on which the insect has rested seems to carry it for some 
little distance before the wings are spread. There is, however, no true leaping or hopping from twig 
to twig or from leaf to leaf in any species that has been studied in the field. 

The commonest method of locomotion is merely walking about over the hosl. In this process 
all three pairs of legs seem to be equally functional. The movement is generally slow and deliberate, 
but when disturbed the insect is able to scramble rapidly around the twig in a rather awkward and 
amusing fashion. Both nymphs and adults adopt this method as the ordinary means of progress. 
The nymphs, of course, are unable to fly and in no case has a nymph been seen to attempt anything 
resembling a leap. 

At this point in the discussion of habits it may be well to mention the subject of care of the 
young, or « maternal affection », which has been given rather general circulation in connection with 
the Membracida. The theory apparently originated in a report by Miss Murtfeldt (1887) which has 
been given wide credence and has often been quoted («. g. Kirkaldy 1906). Miss Murtfeldt describes 
the finding of an egg cluster of Entylia sinuata, with a female on the leaf, and expresses surprise that 
the insect did not fly away when touched but remained on the leaf while the latter was carried to the 
house and later after the eggs had hatched. The significant statement is made, however, that 
« although I would not assert that she made an}' demonstrations of affection, she certainly seemed to 
enjoy having them (the nymphs) around her». This appears to be the total evidence for belief in 
the maternal solicitude which is attributed to the Membracida. The truth is that the species in question 
is one of the most sluggish of all of the membracids, and the most persistent in clinging to the host 
plant. The writer has often carried a thistle covered with Entylias for several miles along a country 
road without dislodging the specimens. Moreover, when an attempt is made to take the insect from 
the leaf, the insect not only does not spring off, but actually seems to cHng more tightly to the hairy 
surface of the leaf to escape being captured. The experience of Miss Murtfeldt is therefore not un- 
usual, nor is the behavior of the membracid in the case at all unnatural, and it is unlikely that the theory 
of maternal affection as based on her report can be proved. Efforts to substantiate such a theory by 
observation of a large number of species in many parts of the world have yielded no evidence in its 
favor. Many forms have the habit of clinging closely to their host plant if disturbed, and this is true 
whether or not there are eggs or nymphs on the plant with them. 

On the whole, the Membracida must be considered as rather sluggish insects, content to Hve a 
quiet Ufe and showing much less general activity than most of their near relatives. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 



MIMICRY 

The grotesque appearance of many of the species of Membracida suggests at once that the 
peculiar structures must have been developed as some sort of protective imitation or mimicry. 
Certainly many of the forms bear a remarkable resemblance to thorns, leaves or other parts of a plant 
or to other insects. As a result, most observers have apparently assumed that the unusual pronotal 
developments of these insects are the result of Natural Selection and serve as methods of protection. 
Poulton (1891 : 1903) has attempted to explain the meaning of a series of forms by mimicry and pro- 
tective resemblance ; Mann (1912) has noted a protective adaptation in a Brazilian membracid, and 
various authors have called attention to the resemblance of different species of Membracida: to parts of 
their hosts. No doubt the appearance of a considerable number of species may be explained by such 
a theory, particularly in the matter of coloration. The colors of both nymphs and adults of man}- 
forms tend toward verj' effective concealment. Browns, greens and grays in neutral tones predominate 
in the color scheme of the family, and these tones blend with those of the leaves and bark of the host 
plants to an extent which offers excellent protection. 

In the matter of structure, however, a critical study of the pronotal processes from generalized 
to specialized forms, breeds the suspicion that the subject cannot be lightly dismissed or explained by 
a mere reference to mimicry. protective coloration, imitation or Natural Selection. A few well chosen 
examples might seem to illustrate perfectly protective imitation. Such examples would include the 
genus Umbonia with the peculiar thorn-like dorsal spines, the meinbers of the genus Stegaspis which so 
remarkably resemble dead leaves, and the species of Cyrtolobus which look like fragments of bark. 
Another lot would seem also to carry out the same idea but would require a little more use of the imagi- 
nation in the explanation, as, for example, the species of Bolbonoia and Polyglypta which, with a little 
stretch of the imagination may suggest seeds, or the unusual forms of Spoiigofihorus which might 
suggest fungi, or the peculiar multibulbous specimens oi Heteronotus which are said to resemble certain 
tropical ants. However, when one examines the even more grotesque forms, as represented in such 
genera as Pyrgonota, Hypsaiichenia, Plerygia, Anchon, and many others, even the wildest flights of fancy 
fail to suggest a resemblance to nny conceivable part of a plant or other object in the insecfs 
environment. If one continues this attempt to explain the structures on the basis of protective 
adaptations he soon reaches the limits of his imagination and is led into the realm of conjecture — 
which does not provide safe ground for the scientist. 

The truth of the matter is that the great majority of the species of Membracida, in spite of their 
over-developed pronotums, do not suggest any special type of adaptation for concealment but on the 
contrary their structures make them rather conspicuous on theii hosts. More often than not, the 
peculiar processes on the body do not in the least resemble any pai t of their host plant or any known 
object in their environment. Mereover, the species usually cited as wonderful examples of mimicry 
or protective resemblance are comparatively rare ; surely not a convincing argument for the Natural 
Selection theory which is based on utility and on the supposition that those forms which have ihe best 
imitative structures would increase in number over those lacking such structures. 

We are therefore more incUned to the theory that the evoUition of the pronotum from generaHz- 
ed to specialized conditions is an example of orthogenesis and that in many cases the exaggerated 
pronotal developments prove a haadicap rather than an a,dvantage to the insects. 



HOMOPTERA 



ATTENDANCE BY ANTS 

The attendance by ants on various species of Membracida has often been recorded. Interesting 
notes have been published on this subject by Belt (1874), Rice (iSgS), Green (1900), Baer (igoS), 
Buckton (1903), Poulton (igoS), Bianch (i9i3) and Lamborn (1914), and attention has been called to 
thefact by many other authors. The writer (19x73) listed a considerable number of myrmecophilous 
species of northeastern United States with the species of ants associated with these forms. 

The mutual relationship belween these two kinds of insects offers a most interesting field for 
study and opportunities for delightful and fascinating observations of the insects in their natural habi- 
tats. In general this relationship seems to be about the same as that shown between ants and other 
myrmecophilous Hemiptera, particularly the aphids and coccids, and the symbiosis is apparently one 
of mutual benefit, but there are a number of unsolved problems regarding the factors involved which 
iieed further study. 

One of the first of these problems is suggested by the fact that some species are always attended 
by ants while others are never attended although there are apparently no physiological differences to 
cause the distinction. For example, in North America, the genus Ceresa, which is very well repre- 
sented in species and in individuals, is, so far as is known, never found in association with ants, while 
the genus Telamona, almost equally well represented, seems always to be attended. Another problem 
arises from the fact that certain species attended in one locality have never been reported as being 
attended in other locahties, even in the same general region. As an illustration, ants are usually 
found with the nymphs, at least, of Stictocephala inermis in eastern United States but have never 
been seen with the same species in Texas. Again, it sometimes happens that a specieswhich is always 
attended wherever it is found, has a close relative in the same genus and in the same locality which is 
never attended. This is true of several species of Gargara in the Orient. The questions suggested by 
these facts cannot be answered on the basis of abundance or distribution nor on the factor of the pro- 
duction of the anal secretion which attracts the ants. For example, Enchenopa binotata, one of the 
commonest species in the United States, with a wide distribution and an enormous number of indiv. 
iduals, is, so far as is known, never attended by ants, although the nymphs of this species have the same 
extended anal tube and secretes a fiuid as do those of the myrmecophilous forms. Moreover, they are 
so abundant that they should be easily discovered by the ants if there were any occasion for a mutual 
relationship. 

The species of ants attending Membracida seem to be common to all the Membracida concerned in 
a given region. Where two species of Membracida are abundant on the same host at the same time, the 
same kind of ants may be found attending both species, but the same individual ant has never been 
observed to go from one species to the other in collecting the secretion. The number of species of ants 
attending membracids in any one area seems to be rather limited. The species collected in eastern 
United States by the writer and determined by W. M. Wheeler, include Formica obscuriventris Mayr., 
Formica exsistoides Forel, Camponotus pennsylvanicus De Geer, Crematogaster lineolata Say, Prenolepis imparis 
Say and Formica fusca Fabr. Since only those species are recorded which were actually observed 
taking the secretion from the membracid, it is likely that the above list of species is not at all complete 
for the region. From other records in the literature it would appear that the Formica in North America 
are oftenest noted as attending Membracida. Professor Wheeler, in determining ants taken with South 



FAM. MEMBRACID.K ii 

African membracids, states (in correspondence) : « These ants {Plagiolepsis custodiens F. Smith) repre- 
sent in South Africa our species of Formica and Lasiis and probably derive niuch of their food from 
membracids and coccids. » Other South African ants attending Membracida collected by the writer in 
the vicinity of Victoria Falls were kindly determined by M. H. St. John Donisthorpe of the British 
Museum as Polyrhachis {Myrma) schistacea and Crematogaster {Scroccelia) castanea rufonigra Emery. The 
conimonest species of attendant ant taken by the writer in the Malay Peninsula was the small 
longlegged form Plagiolepsis longipes. In Java the only ant taken by the writer was Myrmecaria brunnea 
subcarinata Sm. Dr. M. A. Lieftinck of the Zoological Museum at Buitenzorg also reports this same 
species as attendant on Hypsauchenia recurva l-^unkh., and states as a footnote in one of the writer's 
reports (igSSb) : 

« At Tjibodas I have frequently wathced small colonies of this membracid on the end- 
shoots of a small tree of Talauma candollei L., an indigenous Magnoliacea cultivateti in the 
garden. Both imagines and larvte were found on this tree at any time of the year, the larvse 
being assiduously attended by ants {Myrmecaria subcarinata Sm.) for the sake of a sweet secre- 
tion emitted from the extremity of their body. A colony of Hybandoides sumatrensis Funkh.. 
also found at Tjibodas, but on a host plant unknown to me, was being attended by the same 
species of ant. » 

Ants attending various species oi Ebhnl and Leptocentrus collected by the writer in India were 
determined b}- Mr. Donisthorpe as Polyrhachis bihamata Den., and Dolichodcrus {Hypocliiiea) affinis 
glabripes Fovvl. 

Of course all of tliese examples represent merely the commoner forms collected on varied occa- 
sions and from scattered localities and doubtless include only a few of the species of ants which concern 
themselves with the Membracida. 

The behavior of both the ants and the membracids is much the same wherever they are studied. 
The ants stroke their charges with their antennas, whereupon the inembracids give off from the 
anal tube a liquid that issues in bubbles in considerable quantity. The anal tube of the membracid 
is capable of great evagination, especially in tli(! nymphs, iii which it is long and cylindrical and usually 
tipped with a fringe of fine hairs. The honeydew is eagerly taken from the end of this tube by the 
ants. In many species the adults as well as the nymphs are sought, and the ants seem to be as attentive 
to one as to the other but the adults have not been observed to excrete the liquid to the same extent 
as the nymphs. That the ants are well paid for their attendance can hardly be doubted when their 
industry around the cougregatioiis of Membracida is noted. In many cases the hiding places of the 
membracid are at once betrayed by the svvarms of ants present. It is not believed that the ants herd 
or segregate their charges as in the case of certain of the Aphidce, but shelters for membracid nymphs 
are not uncommon. 

The advantage to the membracid is evident by the protection given by the ants, which do not 
hesitate to bite viciously the fingers of the collector who seeks to remove nymphs or adults fiom the 
host. The ants have been observed also to attack spiders and attempt to drive awaj' Reduviidie in the 
neighborhood of membracid colonies. 

It as been suggested in a preceding section that in some cases the ants may take advantage of the 
punctiires made by the inembracids to procure sap. The best evidence of this is the fact that ants often 
reinain gathered about the spot where the niembracid has fed after the latter has moved away, and 
apparently they find something there to attract them. This may be explained, of course, by the theory 
that anal fluicl fioin the membracid has been left on the plant, but it does not account for the fact that 
the ants are often at the anterior rather than the posterior end of the insect. 

The feeding habits of the Membracidat seem in no way affected by the presence ofants, which 



12 HOMOPTERA 

often svvarm over them in large numbers while feeding is in progress. Both nymphs and adults are 
apparently oblivious of the presence of their hymenopterous companions, and continue their usual 
activities with equal serenity whether ants are present or absent. 

The liquid sought by the ants has been much discussed in connection with the Aphida and the 
Coccidte, and seems in no way different in the Membracida Itis colorless and transparent, rather heavy, 
and somewhat sticky. When first exuded it is incHned to be frothy, due no doubt to bubbles of air 
which emerge with it, but it quickly clears on settling. It is practically tasteless even in comparatively 
large quantities, and many attempts to distinguish a sweet taste have proved unsuccessful. The term 
H honeydew ii, therefore, commonly applied to the fluid, is hardly a descriptive one. It is very likely, 
of course, that the liquid may contain sugars not detected by the human tongue, and this would seem 
to be indicated by the fact that fermentation appears to begin if the substance is left exposed. No chem- 
ical analysis of honeydew has been made by the writer. 



EXTERNAL ANATOMY 

The external anatomy of M embracidte dififers in rather interesting and curious, but more or less 
superficial respects, from the other families of the Homoptera. This of course is due chiefly to the 
unusual development of the pronotum and the adaptation of the other structures to conform to the 
conditions thus produced. More fundamental are the types of wings and the arrangement of certain 
sclerites which in some cases furnish good characters for classification. A brief summary of the more 
important external structures is presented as follows : 

Exoskeleton. — The exoskeleton of the M embracidte \s siroT\g\y hvit not uniformly chitinized. 
The head and thorax, particularly the latter, are hard to the point of brittleness; but in the abdomen 
and in those parts of the meso- and metathorax that are covered by the pronotum, the impregnation 
of chitin is much less heavy. 

The exposed parts of the cuticle — in the Membracida much of the actual body surface is not 
exposed but is covered by the pronotal developments — are modified by remarkable and often grotesque 
punctuations, ridges and areolations, the function of which is conjectural. The commonest decoration 
consists of irregular arrangements of punctures, varying in size and distribution but fairly constant 
in appearance. In fact, this punctuation, whether deep or light, fine or coarse, dense or scant, 
has been used by practically all systematic workers on the group, and there can be no question 
as to the taxonomic value of such structures at least as specific characters. These punctures are merely 
depressions, or pits, extending into or even through the cuticle but in no case perforating the entire 
body wall. They apparently have no connection with tracheal or glandular development and must be 
regarded as being merely superficial sculpturing. Occasionally the pits give rise to hairs. This is, 
however, of no significance so far as the association between the two structures is concerned, since in 
the very pubescent species the hairs arise as abundantly from between the punctures as from theircen- 
ters. Moreover, many strongly punctate forms are entirely without hairs, while many hairy forms are 
entirely without punctures. The association of the two, therefore, is believed to be accidental. 

Pubescence of various types is common throughout the family. It varies from thick, tangled 
mats to sparsely occurring thin liairs. Such growth occurs oftenest on the sides of the meso- and 
metathorax and on the lateral areas of the pronotum. 

The colors of the exoskeleton are in the main somber and dull. As might be expected from 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E i3 

the phytophagous habits of the insects, the usual colors run to greens, yellows and browns. The body 
colors are generally brown and black. A few tropical species show rather gaudy markings of red, 
yellow and orange, aiid these colors occasionally appear in the nymphs. The colors in general, even 
the brighter ones, are permanent, with the exception of the various shades of green, which fade in 
cabinet specimens. Most colors, except the greens, change but Httle when the specimens are preserved 
in alcohol. 

The Head. — In its essential parts, the head of the membracid differs little from those of other 
Homoptera. It varies within the family in size and shape of the sclerites, but shows Httle variation in 
their location or relative position. 

The position of the head varies decidedly and this has been used as a systematic character in 
certain subfamiUes (e. g. Buckton igoS). The variation ranges from an angle slightly greater than a 
right angle with the body, in certain Smiliina, to an almost prone position in many of the CentroUna. 
In no species does the head project straight forward on a line with the body,and in practically all 
species, no matter what the position of the head, the beak projects directly backward and lies between 
the coxae when at rest. 

The compound eyes are large and prominent and are located at the extreme lateral margins of 
the head. In most cases the thorax is hoUowed out to receive the eyes, and partly covers the upper 
and outer surfaces. 

Tvvo ocelli are present. These are located on the cephalic margin of the head, and their posi- 
tion with relation to each other and to the eyes is apparently constant within a species. This offers in 
some subfamilies, particularly Darmna, a good specific character. The ocelli are always between the 
eyes and usually on a line with each other; but they may be near together close to the epicranial suture 
or far apart near the inner margins of the eyes. 

The antennae are located below and slightly in front of the eyes. These organs are very poorly 
developed, and studies in the biology of the insects seem to indicate that their function is extremely 
limited. Three basal segments are present, each niore or less cylindrical, with the first segment the 
shortest. The filament is fine and hairlike and very minutely segmented. From seventy-five to 
eighty-two segments may be counted in the filaments of the species of the Smiliints, and a slightly 
smaller number in the other subfamilies. These segments are longer at the base, closely compressed 
in the center and longest at the extreme tip of the fllament. At the swollen base of the filament are a 
series of pits, from eight to tvvelve in number, situated on the inner curvature and giving rise to two or 
more bristle-like seta?. These structures are best seen in certain species of the tribe Telamonini of the 
subf. Smiliina. The antennas are usually better developed in the nymphs than in the adults. 

The occiput consists of two sclerites more or less distinctly separated from each other, occupying 
the extreme hind part of the dorsal surface of the head and foi ming caudad the upper boundary of the 
occipital foramen. This region is covered by the overlapping fiange of the anterior prothorax, which 
forms with it an articulating surface and is not visible unless the head is separated from the body. The 
lower ends of the occiput behind are fused with the postgenae belovv them and the suture is very indis- 
tinct in the adult head. In the nymph, however, the line of demarkation can usually be determined. 
Apparently these two regions — occiput and postgenae — are intimately connected in the membracid 
head and are probably closely related as to origin. The ordinar}' lower boundary of the sclerites appears 
to be the upper line of the eye, but in a few cases the suture has migrated to a point considerably below 
this line. 

The vertex likewise consists of two sclerites, separated by the epicranial suture, and makes up the 
largest area of the cephalic part of the head. The sclerites are equal in size and are complements of 
each other in shape and position. The vertex occupies all that part of the head between the compound 



14 HOMOPTERA 

eyes, and between the occiput above and the clypeus and genae below. In each sclei ite is located an 
ocellus. As has been noted, the relative position of the ocelli in the vertex is variable, the migrations 
of these organs being both sidewise and up and down. They are always, however, inaline with each 
other horizontally and equidistant from the epicranial suture. In shape each scierite of the vertex is 
roughly pentagonal, the basal, or dorsal part often being sinuate to follow the anterior margin of the 
prothorax into which it fits snugly. On the whole the vertex shows considerable variation in form, and 
the lower cephalic edge is often infolded to form a sharp angle over the base of the antennas. 

The clypeus is oneofthe most variable, most prominent, most interesting and most important of 
the sclerites of the head. The position of this sclerite with reference to the vertex is, however, constant 
and no difficulty is experienced in locating it. The position of the clypeus as an unpaired sclerite 
between the arms of the epicranial suture suggests at once the possibility of confusing it with the frons. 
This indeed would be the natural conclusion, did not the location of the sclerite with reference to the 
arms of the tentorium ofthe endoskeleton precludesuch a possibility. The anterior arms of thetento- 
rium have been shown (Comstock and Kochi 1902) to arise as invaginations at the cephalolateral angle 
of the clypeus or between the clypeus and the frons. In the case of the Membiacida these arms undoubt- 
edly reach the cephahc margin of the sclerite in question, although they have migrated slightly to the 
laterad. It would be impossible, therefore, to reconcile the conclusion that this sclerite represents the 
frons, with any previous work done on the subject, and it seems evident that it must be considered as 
the clypeus. In fact such a conclusion accords perfectly with the work done by Bentley (1900) on the 
cicada, in which he shows that the large projecting sclerite commonly known as the frons in that insect 
is in reality the clypeus. 

In shape the clypeus is generally subquadrangular as seen from before, but projects backward at 
its extremity to form a deep, rounded keel. This keel articulates with the gena on either side, and 
lifts the distal end of the clypeus up from the anterior outline of the head to an extent which often leaves 
a sharp angle between the most cephalic part of the clypeus and the base of the labrum. The variation 
in the shape of the clypeus and in the facial outline which it makes with the gense offers a systematic 
character of some importance. In general the character is generic and apparently constant. The shape 
may vary from a broad, flat, almost perfect rectangle to a swollen rounded spindle or diamond, or, in 
some cases, nearly a circle. It may continue with the genae an unbroken lower outline of the face, or 
may project far below the genas to form a long extension. This variation has been used as a specific 
characterin certain American genera, particularly Ceresa and Stictocephala . Occasionally the outer mar- 
gins of the clypeus are covered by the overlapping projections of the vertex; again, the vertex may be 
prolongedto a point below theclypeus. When such characters are present they have invariably been 
found good for systematic work. In fact the relation in position between the clypeus and the lateral 
margins of the vertex (the « cheeks » of the older writers) has been often noted as an excellent character 
in taxonomic tables. The clypeus is much inclined to pubescence and the tip is usually decorated with 
stiff hairs or bristles which partly cover the base of the labium. 

The frons is not represented as a distinct sclerite in the Membracida. In certain forms, however, 
a vestigial segment which apparently represents this sclerite may occasionall)^ be found between the 
vertex and the clypeus. This has never been found as a constant, clean-cut, and well-marked sclerite, 
but numerous suggestions of its presence are offered, chiefly in nymphal material. Curiously enough 
the evidence is not limited to a single subfamily but is scattered through widely separated genera. 
It isassumed that in the more primitive forms of insects the frons is present and bears the middle or 
anterior ocellus and since in the MembracidiB only two ocelli are present it would appear that in this 
family the frons has disappeared, and with it the median ocellus which it contains. If the triocellar 
condition is the more primitive, the Membracida is this respect are rather highly specialized. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDA-: i5 

The labrum is a single, heavily chitinized, subcylindrical piece attached to the distal end of the 
clypeus and projecting usually ventro-caudad from that sclerite. Because of the incUned or prone 
position of the head, this piece is not visible except occasionally at its basal part from a strictly cephalic 
view of the insect. Little variation is noticed in the labrum, but in the subfamily Platycotina \t tends 
to be shorter and stouter than in other membracids. AUhough in the Membracida the labrum should 
perhaps be considered as one of the head segments and not as an appendage, it is more or less movable 
and probably serves to support and guide the rostrum. 

At the extremity of the labrum arises a small triangular piece, the epipharynx. This sclerite 
is always distinct in both nymph and adult. In the former it appears as a soft, light-colored fleshy 
extension of the labrum ; in the latter as a stiff, hard, sharp segment distinctly set off at its base. In 
posltion it follows the general course of the labrum. 

The genae form the lateral outline of the head and give the facial contour which is sometimes 
used in systematic diagnosis. Each gena is irregular in shape, being bounded dorsad by the vertex 
and mesad by the clypeus. Its lower extremity is contiguous with the base of the labrum. In general 
outHne it is usually a long, rather flat plate, beginning at the lower margin of the eye and continuing 
to the rostrum. In the Smiliina the ends are more or less pointed and the middle is swollen ; in the 
Membracina the entire sclerite is inclined to be nearly quadrangular. The genae are not set in the same 
plane as the frontal surface, but extend slightly caudad, so that the width ot the sclerites determines in 
part the depth of the head. 

Just behind the genas and forming the basal surface of the epicranium are the postgenae. These 
sclerites extend from the occiput to the labrum and are most irregular in shape. The upper extremity 
of each sclerite is projected laterad in a broad disk which almost entirely covers the hinder part of the 
eye. The inner edge bounds the occipital foramen and the lower end fuses with the lateral margin 
of the labrum. The extreme ventral projection foUows the line of the labrum on the inner margin and 
the genae on the outer cephalic, and ends in an attenuated point. 

The occipital foramen, as will be noted from the foregoin;,', is an almost circular opening, its 
edges lined with a thin connective-tissue membrane which is continuous with a like membrane from the 
inner body wall of the prothorax. This conjunctival membrane is of greater extent in the nymph than 
in the adult. 

The rostrum, or beak, consists of a two-jointed labium containing the bristle-like maxilla; and 
mandibles. It is stout and heavy, and is better developed in the nymph than in the adult. In the 
former it is rather fleshy and svvollen; in the latter it is harder and more slender. The length of the 
rostrum has been used as a systematic character ; but this character not only is of very doubtful value, 
but is hard to determine owing to the fact that the rostrum is carried flat against the ventral surface of 
the body. It may be hardly longer than the labrum or it may extend caudad beyond the hind coxae. 
This variation is, to be sure, great, but is not constant. Neither within the genus nor within the 
species has this character been found useful in systematic work. 

The labium in the Membracida does not differ essentially from that organ in other Homoptera. 
It consists of two segments, the basal segment being two or three times as long as the distal. The 
labium is grooved and bears within the groove the mandibular and the maxillary seta;. The entire 
organ is movable, and when the insect is feeding it projects downward at riglit angles to the body. 
When not in use it is folded back betvveen tlie coxas on the median ventral line of the body. In every 
form studied, the labium has been found to be straight, and no cases have been discovered in which 
the distal segment was bent forward as has been shown to be the case in certain other Hemipteia. 

The maxillae are modified to form long, bristle-like seta;. They originate from the inner surface 
of the vertex above the ocelli, at a point about midway between the oceUi and the margin of the occiput 



i6 



HOMOPTERA 



and slightly nearer than the ocelH to the epicranial suture. The base of each maxilla is swollen to 
form a cylindrical club, which represents in length about one-third of that part of the maxilla inclosed 
in the head proper. The entire seta is uniformly cylindrical and smooth. It often extends for some 
length beyond the tip of the labium when extruded. The tip shows some variation, but in most forms 
it is gradually acuminate to a very sharp extremity. In one species of the genus Thelia the tips of the 
maxillse show a bifurcate condition, and in the genus Gargara they appear to be curled but it is doubtful 
if this has any anatomical significance. 

The mandibles originate hkewise from the vertex, but from a point latero-ventrad of the ocelli. 
The base is broadly swoUen and bicipital at its junction with the skeleton of the head. Like the 
maxilla, the mandible is extended in the form of a long, bristle-hke seta ; but, unlike the maxiila, this seta 
is not cylindrical but is flat and lance-like. The extremity is produced into a blade, which is smooth on 
the outer and sinuate on the inner edge. In length the mandibles and maxillas are about equal. 

It will be noted that the attachment of the mandibular and maxillary setae to the vertex does not 
agree with the conclusions reached in regard to other insects, in which these organs originate from the 
postgenae. In a large number of dissections of the membracids, however, this structure seems to remain 
constant. Whether this condition represents a more or less specialized arrangement, or whether it is 
a result of a migration of organs, can be determined only by further investigations. The position of 
the base of the mandibles as here described has been found to vary only in a few of the species of one 
subfamily — the Membracinie In this group it apparently arises from the upper part of the clypeus. 
This may represent a still further migration or a migration in a different direction from the generalized 
condition. 

The head structures described in the preceding paragraphs are diagrammatically shown in the 
following ligure : 



'Verfex 




C/ypeus 

^Gena 
\ '"LaJbrum 
.^ ^€piphonfnx 

^Labiam 




Occ/put 



^Pojfejena 
"^Labium 




— Occipuf 

-Vertex 

~ £ife 
" ~Gena 
"fbsfoena 
'Cf^peuj 
~L abrum 

'£pipiTari^nx 

— Labium 



FiG. 2. — The membpacld head 



The Thorax. — Superficially the thorax presents the most striking and interesting part of the 
exoskeleton. This is of course due to the remarkable development of the pronotum, which is character- 
istic of the family. The promise of peculiar scleritic structure thus suggested is not fulfilled, however. 
when the anatomy is studied. Aside from the unusual and oftentimes grotesque enlargement of the 
prothoracic tergum, the general arrangement of the skeletal parts is comparatively simple and rather 
easily determined. The prothorax is very weakly attached to the mesothorax and separates from this 
segment easily. The mesothorax and the metathorax are firmly joined and the sclerites occasionally 
overlap in such a fashion as to strongly unite these last two segments. On the whole the tergum of 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 17 

each thoracic segment is broad, smooth, and, with the exception of the pronotum, simple. The 
pleuron is narrow, irregular, and more or less complicated, the sclerites are incHned to be twisted from 
a nonnal position. The sternum is broad, much sculptured, and indistinctly sutured. 

The Prothopax. — No evidence of cervical sclerites has been found. The only suggestion 
of such structures is a slight thickening of the connecting membrane in the gular region, which in certain 
species is of sufficient size to warrant attention. On the whole the inembranous connection between 
liead and prothorax is remarkably thin and easily ruptured, and shows nothing that could be con- 
sidered as intersegmentalia or could represent the « microthorax » of Verhoeff (1902). 

The notum of the prothorax shows so mucli variation throughout the family that no general 
discussion of it can be attempted. The peculiarities of this region represent by far the most striking 
and easily recognized characters of the Membracidae. This part of the prothorax is usually expanded 
into a more or less irregular plate, which covers the entire meso- and metanotum, often the entire 
thorax, and in some cases the abdomen as well, and bears on its surface a wide variety of processes 
extending to form most grotesque and bizarre structures. A discussion of such variations would be 
merely an endless catalogue, and is of course not to be attempted. Apparently the pronotal structures 
have no anatomical significance and are merely hollow extensions of the chitinized wall, raised high 
above the basal membrane which represents the normal body outline. Moreover, extended experiments 
clearly indicate that these structures are not involved in any way with any of the physiological processes 
of the insect. In fact, in many instances, the insects seem to fare better without them than with them. 
But whether or not they have any functional value, these pronotal developments are a boon to the 
writer of descriptions since they lend themselves so well to diagnosis and are apparently quite constant, 
both as generic and specific characters, and some apply, at least as secondary characters, to each sub- 
family. It may be noted in this respect that the j)ronotum tends to develop in four principal directions 

— posteriorly, anteriorly, dorsally and from the humeral angles. These four great types of development 
may be found in various stages of enlargement throughout the family, and on them are based many 
attempts of subdivision into subfamilies, tribes and genera. Modifications and combinations of these 
types are of course common, and in sonie groups it is difficult to decide which type is dominant. 

By far the commonest of these types is the development posteriorly, to cover the meso- and 
metanotum and often the entire body of the insect. This posterior extension is found in so large a 
proportion of the forms that it appears to be a sort of foundation structure on which the other types 
of development are built, and is apparently one of the most generalized of the prothoracic processes. 
It may vary from a perfectly simple short prong to a long ornate projection often branched, extrava- 
gantly decorated with barbs, spines, bulbs, and ridges. So constant and so important is this posterior 
process that it has been made the character on which the subf. Cenlrotitia is separated. All forms that 
have the posterior process wanting or so poorly developed that the scutellum is distinct — and it 
would seem that the development of the scutellum increases as that of the posterior process decreases 

— have been placed in this subfamily, which as a result has received a rather heterogeneous collection 
of genera. In generic and specific diagnoses the pronotal structures have been more generally used 
than any other characters shown in the family. This is true for the posterior process, the size and 
shape of the humeral angles, the character of the suprahumeral horns, the structure of the dorsal 
humps and spines and the extent of the median carina. This is to be expected, from the fact that 
these structures are very prominent and quickly noted. Moreover, they are on the whole reliable and 
of much value. 

It would be impiacticable to attempt to indicate the great number of ways in which these struc- 
tures may vary. It would seem, however, from the examination of all of the genera in the family and 



i8 HOMOPTERA 

of an enormous number of species, that the posterior structures are inclined to be more constant than 
the anterior; the posterior process, for this reason, is found to be available as a generic character, while 
the more variable dorsal and suprahumeral structures are suitable for the separation of species. 

The sclerites of the prothorax are not complicated. The pleuron is joined directly to the notum 
without intervening sclerites. Two distinct lateral sclerites are found, the episternum and the 
epimeron. The notum projects downward between these sclerites in a triangular extension, the 
cephaHc margin of which is hollowed out to form a fossa for the eye. Both episternum and epimeron 
are roughij triangular in shape as seen from a side view, the apex of the triangle pointing upward and 
the base forming part of the coxal cavity. Neither sclerite is subdivided but the episternum in some 
forms shows a slight indentation at the cephalo-ventral margin which suggests a coalescence. The 
pleural suture is not prominent, and is very short since the prolongation of the notum in this region 
forms a separating ridge which extends almost to the lateral margin of the segment. In certain 
foliaceous forms, as represented for example in many species of the Membracina, this part of the lateral 
notum is inclined to be more or less swoUen or flattened and truncate at its distal extremity. Tiiis is 
a dependable character, but is unnecessary for systematic diagnosis since other more easily dis- 
tinguished characters are always present with it. In the rather remarkable genus Oxyrhachis the lateral 
margin of the pronotum is produced in an extended tooth, a character pecuhar to the genus and 
important as a distinctive taxonomic structure. Just below the cephalic end of the episternum is 
found a triangular trochantin. This piece likewise is a single sclerite without evidence of subdivision. 
The sternum of the prothorax consists of a single transverse bar extending between the coxal cavities. 
Dorsally this sclerite is smooth and articulates with the posterior margin of the head. Ventrally 
the sternum is irregular in shape but in the simpler forms is trilobed, the central lobe projecting 
downward farther than the lobe on either side. 

The Mesothorax. — The mesothorax is intimately connected with the metathorax and its 
dorsal surface is usually completely hidden b^' the posterior process of the prothorax. The sclerites of 
the pleura, however, may be distinguished in the mature insect and their extent and position readily 
verified in prepared material. The notum of the mesothorax shows two distinct types, according to 
whether the scutellum is or is not developed into a posterior prolongation. In by far the greater 
number of species of Membracida the scutellum is simple, rounded, and not at all extended posteriorly ; 
in a smaller number it is prolonged into a strong prong or thorn, which shows a wide range of shapes 
and positions. As has been noted, this difference serves as a distinction between the subf. Centroiina and 
the other subfamilies. VVhile this is a valuable and reliable character, it is unfortunate that it must 
be chosen as a primary distinctive structure of so large a group as a subfamily, since its determination 
often necessitates the destruction of the specimen. 

The mesonotum usually shows three rather distinct areas, but these areas are apparently not 
separate sclerites since from the earliest nymphal stages they are evidently fused. In the adult, 
however, the regions are set ofF from one another b}' infoldings, or grooves, which may warrant the 
application of the usual names to these parts. The scutum is uniformly smooth, poorly developed and 
weakly chitinized. Being covered by the pronotum it is not in reality an external sclerite at all and 
is not functional as far as protection is concerned. The scutellum when present iorms the second 
region of the mesonotum, and, as been often noted, develops to form a thick, heavy process ; when 
undeveloped, the scutellar region is indicatedby a mere transverse fold. Both scutum and scutellum 
are often entirely membranous. Posterior to the scutellum is a third area, separated from the scutellum 
by a narrow band of connective tissue. This is probably homologous with the (i pseudonotum » as 
described by Snodgrass (1909). Snodgrass has found that in certain Hemiptera the mesopseudonotum 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 19 

is absent ; but tliis judgment is based on the study of Heteroptera only, and the Membracidee are 
apparently representative of a different type of notal structure. In the more distinct forms this 
pseudonotum or postnotum is connected to the scutelluin by one or more chitinized bridges, breaking 
the connecting membrane up into a series of lacunte. In two subfamilies, the Membyaciita and the 
Damiiia:. an indication of a postphragma is found. This appears as ;in extra fold of the mesonotum, 
posterior to the pseudonotum, membranous and irregular but of considerable size and fairly constant. 
Only one wing process is found, this being the posterior. The anterior process is barely indicated in 
a few forms by a thickening or doubling of the lateral margin of the scutum at its extreme ventro- 
caudal angle. 

The pleuron of the mesothorax is more or less turned under the lateral margin of the notum, 
forming part of the ventral body wall. The episternum is a single irregular sclerite, closely fused with 
the lateral notum in the mature insect but separated by the anteriorly extended wing cavity in the 
nymph. The distal (ventral) extremity is produced into the sternal region. The caudo-ventral margin 
forms the upper edge of the mesocoxal cavity. In certain forms of the subf. Membracina the 
episternum seems to be divided by a transverse suture across its lower third. In this subfamily, also, 
the entire episternum is elevated so that it forms part of the articulatory surface of the wing. in the 
other subfamilies the episternum is crowded downward, and the produced notum serves as both the 
dorsal and the ventral margin of the wing cavity at its anterior end and only braces the wing at the 
posterior extremit)' of this cavity. Just cephalad of the episternum is a well-developed spiracle situated 
in the intersegmental membrane. 

The epimeron consists of two distinct sclerites. The larger is roughly subquadrangular and joins 
the notum cephalo-dorsad and the episternum cephalo-ventrad. The second is a small triangular 
piece attached to the dorso-caudal margin of the first and no doubt originating as part of that sclerite. 
In the nymphal exoskeleton the suture between these two sclerites is indicated but not pronounced. 
The dorsal margins of the two epimeral sclerites form the larger part of the lower margin of the wing 
cavity, while the ventral margin of the anterior sclerite forms part of the dorsal-caudal boundary of the 
coxal cavity. In general it would appear that both the pleural sclerites of the Membracida tend toward 
subdivision. This would agree with the « anepimeron and katepimeron » and the « anepisternum and 
katepisternum » of Crampton (igog), but the homologies are not clear if that author's terminology limits 
the division to « upper » and k lower » regions. No paraptera of any description have been found. 
A much-wrinkled connecting membrane at the anterior base of the wing may represent an episternal 
parapterum or preparapterum, but there seems to be no indication of epimeral paraptera or postpa- 
raptera. The basal wing membranes are not thickened and certainly not chitinized. Directly ventrad of 
the episternum is a small but well-defined trochantin. This sclerite is roughly triangular in shape, with 
the base against the episternum and the apex extending cephalo-ventrad to form part of the ventral 
margin of the coxal cavity. 

The sternum of the mesothorax indicates by its sculpture a development from three distinct 
sclerites, but even in the nymphal forms these sclerites are not clearly distinguished. For the sake 
of convenience in description, the areas may be given the usual terms of presternum, sternum and 
sternellum, although it is not at all certain that the regions so designated are strictly homologous with 
the same sclerites in other insects. The entire sternum is roughly shield-shaped and in the mature 
insect shows an anterior fold, a central plate, and a rather distinct posterior piece consisting of a thin 
arm partly encircling the coxal cavity on each side of a lobcd central extension. The presternum is 
very indistinctly set off from the sternum, and indeed in very few cases can the faint lateral hnes that 
are believed to represent sutures be determined. The sclerite can be distinguished, however, by the 
ventral lobe which is produced downward just behind the presteinum. The central sternuin is a flat, 



20 HOMOPTERA 

irregular plate tused with the presternum anteriorly and extending almost to the coxal cavities poste- 
riorly. Its lateral margins unite with the ventral edges of the episterna. The sternellum is always more 
or less distinct. Its lateral arms form the anterior edge of the coxal cavities and its central disk 
separates these cavities. The central disk often bears a median protuberance or tooth, which extends 
directly ventrad. The coxal cavities are not completely closed by the sternal plates of the mesothorax, 
Because of the fact that the notum of this segment projects farther cephalad than the anterior line of 
the sternum, and because the pleural sclerites are turned under the overhanging edge of the lateral 
margin of the notum, a strictly ventral view of the mesothorax shows much more than the sternum. 
No other segment of the thorax is so well developed ventrally as the mesothorax, and no other shows 
anj' indication of subdivision in the sternum. 

The Matathorax. — The metathorax is a narrow segment closely fused with the mesothorax 
but weakly joined to the abdomen. In general structure it conforms to the preceding segment but none 
of the areas are so well developed. The notum. as in the mesothorax, is an arched saddle-shaped sclerite 
forming the entire dorsal surface of the segment. No subdivisions have been found and the entire 
piece is relatively smooth. The metanotum is more strongly chitinized than the mesonotum, probablj' 
due to the fact that this segment is less protected by the pronotum in most forms. The lateral extrem- 
ities of the sclerite are slightly bent outward and bear two wing processes, an anterior notal wing 
process and a posterior notal wing process. Of these the anterior is the better developed. The pleuron 
consists of an episternum and an epimeron. homologous to those of the mesothorax but differing in 
position with reference to the body axis. In the metathorax the sclerites appear to be twisted out 
of position, so that instead of being side by side, as in the normal condition, they are in an oblique 
Hne, with the episternum clearly below the epimeron and the pleural suture extending more or less 
ventro-caudad rather than perpendicularly. The pleural sclerites are distinctly set off from the meta- 
notum by the wing cavity, the only connection being the interscleritic membrane. The metathorax 
agrees with the mesothorax in showing no traces of paraptera. It would appear that one of the 
distinctive structural characters of the family is the absence of these supporting sclerites. The epi- 
sternum is subquadrangular and inclined to be prolonged at its ventral angle. In certain forms of the 
sf. Membracina a small sclerite, apparently derived from the episternum, is found just cephalad of this 
sclerite, but this has been noted in only a few species even of that subfamily. A divided episternum, 
however, would not be an unnatural condition, as evidenced by the structure of the mesothorax. The 
epimeron isdistinctly divided into two sclerites, the larger being cephalo-ventrad of the smaller. Aside 
from a slight shifting in position throughout the subfamilies, the epimeron is a constant and uniform 
structure. It may be mentioned that the pleura of both the meso- and metathorax are much inclined 
to pubescence in the Membracida. In certain genera of the Cenirotina this region is usually covered 
also with a hairy white excrescence, which in the adult insect completely hides all anatomical structures. 
These white tomentose patches are remarkabl}- persistent and do not rub off easily. They have been 
used, in fact, and apparently with success, as systematic characters, and are very distinctive in certain 
species. The nature and function of the deposit is unknown, but its presence in many forms entirely 
precludes the use of scleritic structure for taxonomic purposes. This same woolly covering, described 
by various authois in various terms but often designated as « cretaceously sericeous », is also commonly 
found on the exposed scutellum. In fresh specimens it is generally snow-white in color and is a most 
attractive decoration. In the genus Oxyrhachis both the meso- and the metapleura are extended to 
form short, blunt teeth. Such developments are, however, rare in the family. 

A striking development of the pleura which is characteristic of the Membracidas is found in 
the mesothoracic episternum. This is the episternal hook. This hook arises from near the upper 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



21 



anteiior margin of the sclerite and projects forward, engaging the posterior margin of the pronotum. 
It is found in the great majority of the genera of the family, but not in all. Its function would appear 
to be the interlocking of the pro- and mesothorax by an external mechanical means. It has been noted 
that internally these segments are but weakly joined, the intersegmental membrane being fragile and 
easily torn. The shape and position of the hook vary but little, and in all cases the process is close 
to the wing base. It has not been found to vary within a genus. 

The trochantin of the metathorax is much larger than this sclerite in either of the other two 
thoracic segments. It shows the same general shape as in the other segments — an elongated wedge 
or triangle — but is longer, wider, and thicker. It forms part of the lateral margin of the coxal cavity 
and joins the cephalic bar of the sternum at its lateral extremity. No evidence has been found of either a 
transverse or a longitudinal division of this sclerite, and nothing that would suggest the « trocbantinus 
niajor » and the « trochantinus minor » which Crampton (igog) has found in other ordeis of insects. 

In a very few instances small thickenings have been found in the coxal region which suggest vesti- 
gial sclerites. So rare, however, have been such conditions that they cannot be said to be of importance 
in the family. In by far the larger number of forms the sclerites have been only of the number pre- 
viously mentioned and no accessory trochantinal or accessory coxal sclerites are present. Neither does 
there appear to be any structure of a similar nature concealed by or hidden within the coxas, as has 
been shown to be the case in some other hexapods. The metathoracic spiracle is located just cephalad 
of the upperangle of the episternum, in about thesame relative position as that of the preceding segment. 
It will be seen that only two spiracles are found on each lateral surface of the thorax. Careful examination 
of the prothorax has been made for a hke structure, with negative resuUs. A prominent spiracle is 
located just caudad of the metathoracic pleuron and superficially appears to be a part of that segment; 
but, as will be noted later, this properly belongs to the first abdominal segment. 

The sternum of the metathorax is much smaller than that of the mesothorax, and, though its 
configuration suggests that it may be composed of two or more sclerites, absolutely no evidence has 
been found to bear out such an inference. Neither the nymphal nor the adult forms show sutures 
indicative of such development, and it seems necessary to discuss this part of the segment as a single 




fx)ssa 

yvofum 

jt/oimeron 

'£p/\sfernum 

~^Troc/ianfin 




'-A/feJonofum 



^pimeron Z 

i-fp/meron f 
P/eura/ sufure 
y "fjo/jfernum 
rroc/tanfin 




Mefanofuni 
' ^pimeron f 

EpimeranZ 
^'£pi\sfernum f 
■:.ip/jfernum 2 
TrocAanfin 



FiG. 3. — Thoracic structures 



sclerite. In shape the metasternum is roughly a transverse « II », the openings at the end of the 
figure representing the coxal cavities. The sclerite thus encloses the mesal curve and one-half of the 
cephalic and caudal margins of these cavities. The cephahc bar is shghtly swollen ventrad, the middle 
connection is flat, and the caudal bar, again, is somewhat swollen. As in the case of the preceding 
segment, a strictly ventral aspect of the metathorax shows more than the sternum. The lateral edge 
of the body is formed, not by a flat, perpendicular pleural wall, but by the junction of the upper pleuron 
with the lateral ventral margin of the metanotum. The ventral view, therefore, shows the pleura as 
far dorsad as the wings. 



22 HOMOPTERA 

The thoracic structures described in the preceding paiagraphs are shown in the accompanying 
diagram. 

The Wings. — Thestructure of the wings, their position, and the sclerites concerned in their 
attachments have been discussed in a previous report by the writer (igiya) and the homologies of the 
wing veins have also been made the subject of a special paper (igiS) so that these matters need not be 
discussed in further detail except to call attention to a few particular points which have to do with 
phylogeny and taxoriomy. 

It should be remembered that in the Homoptera the wings are folded against the body with the 
costal margin downward. This makes an apparent, but not a real, reverse of the normal position 
in insects. Theoretically the wing of an insect may be considered as in a plane projecting horizontally 
from the pleural wall of the body, with the costal region extending directly cephalad. Supported in 
such a position, the anterior part of the articulating surface of the wing is attached to the anterior 
wing process of the notum and the upper wing process of the episternum, while the posterior surface 
is attached to the posterior process of the notum and the postparapterum of the epimeron. Actually, 
however, in most orders of insects the plane of the wing is more likely to be tilted upward, the costal 
margin pointing slightly dorso-cephalad and articulating chiefly with the anterior notal process, while 
the anal region extends ventro-caudad and finds its chief connection at tiie pleural wing process 
between the episternum and the epimeron. 

In the Membractda, on the other hand, the costal margin of the wing appears on superficial exami- 
nation to be attached to the upper extremity of the episternum — in fact it actually hes in a groove in 
this sclerite when at rest — whiie the anal area is clearly folded against the lower margin of the notum. 
This position, which is not pecuhar to the wings of the Membracida but is found in most famihes of the 
Homoptera, causes a twisting and shifting of the parts of the wing base which requires special attention. 
If the theoretical position as above described is considered the normal, the position of the membracid 
wing may be conceived by imagining that the normal wing is first folded directly downward and then 
bent backward until its long axis is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the body. This shifting of 
position has resulted in a migration of basal structures which renders difficult the homologizing of parts. 
In spite of the twisting, however, it is possible to reconcile to a large extent the shifted attachments as 
shown in this family with the commoner interpretation of the wing base in other insects. It has been 
noted, in the discussion of the pleural and tergal sclerites, that in the Membracida no anterior wing pro- 
cess could be determined on the notum, while the posterior process was prominent. This is probably 
explained by the fact that the anterior angle of the wing base has migrated away from its normal posi- 
tion, making the anterior process unnecessary ; while the posterior angle has moved upward, increasing 
the musculature of the posterior region. The principal point of attachment of the fore wing is a long, 
curved, partly chitinized cord, fused along the costal and middle part of the wing base (the cephalo- 
ventral margin when in normal position) and extending between the notum and the episternum into the 
body cavity, where it is connected with the wing muscles. This cord supports and probably directs the 
movement of that part of the wing which accommodates the bases of the costal, subcostal, radial, median 
and cubiial veins. It is rather sharply set ofif, however. from the tissue of the wing proper by a deep 
constriction. When the wing is separated from the bodj- it usually breaks along this line. The extreme 
cephalic costal angle is supported by the dorsal margin of the mesothoracic episternum. When at rest 
and folded against the body, the basal fifth or sixth of the costal margin is supported by the meta- 
thoracic episternum, which is hollowed out to receive it. This deep groove is indeed very charac- 
teristic of the family. 

The chitinized portions of the vving base seem to show three weakly developed axillary sclerites 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



23 



but their homologies may be questioned. The cephalic costal angle is swollen into a protuberance, or 
tooth, which is probably homologous with the tegula of other insects. It is usually pubescent, some- 
times hairy, but is not chitinized. The basal region of the fore wing is much given to the development 
of barbs, or hooks, which in some cases interlock with one another or with the notum and in other cases 
are isolated and seem to have no supporting or bracing function. These hooks have never been used 
as taxonomic characters, but there seems to be no reason why they should not be so used since they are 
apparentl}' constant within a species and differ in appearance within a genus. 

The structures mentioned above are diagrammatically indicated in the accompanying text figure : 




2. andJ^^ana/ ye/n^y 

/ ana/ t^/n 

Cubi/a/ ye/n 
A/fedian ye/n 

_ Rad/a/ we/n 

— Cosfa/ and 
jubcojfa/ i/e/n 



Z%dllcuy x/er/fe^^ 



/''ax///arif ,sc/erife 
■^''axiVaru jc/enfe- 




FiG. 4. — Basal ■tpuoturas of membracid fore wing 



The basal and costal areas of the wing are inclined to be coriaceous, punctured, pubescent or 
opaque, and these features are commonly used as diagnostic characters. In one subfamily,the Tragopina, 
the fore wings are so dense nnd coriaceous that the veins are scarceh' distinguishable and this character 
is generally given as distinctive of the subfamily. 

The hind wing is similar to the fore wing in position and attachment. It rests partly on the 
dorsocaudal extremity of the metathoracic episternum, and is attached by strong muscles which extend 
into the body cavity just below the metanotum. The anal lobe is folded under the remainder of the anal 
area when the insect is at rest. At the base of the anal region is a strong hook, which is generally 
constant in appearance but the function of which is not evident. The caudal margin of the metanotum 
shows in some species an overlapping flap which engages the wing when folded. No axillary sclerites 
have been found in the hind wing. From this fact it might be weli to question the correctness of the 
interpretation of the structures described in the fore wing as axillaries. There is little doubt that 
the hind wing in the Membracida is more generalized than the fore wing, and one would naturally expect 
to find in the more generalized wing the better evidence of primitive structures. The fact that such 
structures cannot be found would indicate either that the axillaries are not primitive in the family or 
that the thickenings in the fore wing are not true axillaries. The latter theory is perfectly tenable since 
their validity as chitinized sclerites may well be doubted. It is true that the fuil complement of 
axillaries has been recorded for other Hemiptera by Snodgrass (1909), but here again the forms studied 



24 HOMOPTERA 

belonged to the Heteroptera. A study of the alary and pedal apparatus would seem to indicate that the 
relationship between the Heteroptera and the Homoptera may not be so close in respect to locomotion 
as in other respects, and the presence of the sclerites in the former suborder need not necessarily 
presuppose their existence in the latter. 

Aside from the basal region, the wings of the Membracida are usually membranous. It has been 
noted that in the small subf. Tragopina this is not the case, but this subfamily is very limited in 
representatives. In general the wing consists of a distinct corium and clavus, the claval suture occurring 
along the first anal vein. Both pairs of wings are well developed and expanded. Both are charac- 
terized by having a strongly scalloped margin outlined by the ends of the veins, and in most forms a 
distinct terminal membrane beyond this margin. The extent of this marginal membrane or limbus 
is considered a good taxonomic character. The wings may be entirely, partly, or not at all concealed 
by the pronotum, a variation which has also provetl of value to systematists and on which are based 
many keys and tables to genera and tribes. 

Other general characters of the wings that are used in taxonomic work are the length as compared 
with each other, with the abdomen, and with the posterior process, the shape of the extremities, the 
colors and markings and the venation. Of these, the last-named character is by far the most valuable. 
This is especially true of the hind wings, which are by far the more constant and apparently the more 
generalized. Unfortunately the hinii wings are always covered by the fore wings and are usually much 
shorter than the fore wings, so that their examination necessitates the relaxing of the specimen. 
Moreover, in many cases both wings are entirely hidden under the pronotum. A more or less super- 
ficial character of the wing veins, but one which is believed to be of value at least for specific distinction, 
is the presence of punctures along their courses. In some species each vein is bordered by a double 
row of such punctures and often by corresponding rows of bristles. 

The Legs. — The legs in the Membracida show some interesting features structurally and are 
of importance taxonomically. All three pairs of legs are normal in such general points as the number, 
position, relative size of the segments, and the attachment to the torso. The individual segments, 
however, are much inclined to variation throughout the family. The legs increase in length from before 
backward in practically all of the genera, but in a few the first and second pairs are about equal in 
length. The hind legs are always the longest. It is possible that the relative leg lengths might be of 
value in systematic diagnosis, but the character would be a very hard one to determine in ordinary 
mounted material because of the fact that the legs are so often tightly folded against the lower part of 
the body. In life the front legs usually point forward and the secondand third pairs backward. The 
front legs, in fact, are attached so closely to the head as to completely hide the mouthparts and the 
gular regions when the insect is at rest in its natural position. All of the legs, particularly the posterior 
pair, are very well developed, as would be expected from the jumping habits of the insects. The basal 
parts are heavy and swoUen and cover most of the ventral surface of the thorax. The legs are much 
inclined to pubescence and often bear spines. 

The coxae are heavj' and stout. The posterior pair are usually the largest and closest together, 
and show the greatest tendency toward peculiar development. Each coxa consists of a flattened plate 
which fiUs up the coxal cavity. and a distal projection to which the trochanter is articulated. This distal 
projection is often bent at an angle to the other two-thirds of the segment and projects ventrad. 
Between the body of the coxa and its distal end is found in some cases a constriction or neck. The 
articulatory surface is generally swollen and apparently distorted. In a large number of species the 
lateral end of the middle and hind coxae is distinctly cut off, leaving a triangular piece laterad of the 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ aS 

body of the segtnent but in the coxal cavity. This separate piece is beheved to be a subdivision of 
the coxa and originally a part of that sclerite. 

The trochanter is normally an elbow-shaped segment attached to the ventro-mesal extremity of 
the coxa. The proximal half projects directly ventrad, while the distal half turns ventro-mesad. The 
segment is freely movable in the Membracida, and the articulation with the coxa is comparatively weak. 
The coxa-trochanter joint, however, is often strengthened by overlapping hooks or projections. 
No special modifications are found in the trochanters of the first or the second pairs of legs, but in 
those of the hind legs most interesting developments may be found. The commonest variation is that 
of general shape. In most species the segment is practically cyUndrical, bent in the middle but nearly 
equal in diameter at each end. This shape graduates to a roughly spatulate outhne in which the proxi- 
mal end is much narrowed and nearly cyhndrical while the distal end is broadly flattened and paddle- 
hke. In certain species of the subf. Membracina the segment is shortened and nearly straight, the 
internal angle being hardly recognizable and the articulatory surfaces almost in a line with each other, 
giving the entire segment a spindle-shaped outline. By far the most interesting modification of the 
trochanter, however, and one that is extremely valuable for systematic purposes, is the development of 
teeth on the internal surface of the distal half. When teeth are present the distal end is expanded into 
a flat plate, or disk and the disk is often hoUowed out in the center. The commoner type, however, 
is the arrangement of the teeth over the entire surface of the disk with those on the margin shghtly 
larger than the others. The disk is often elevated to a considerable distance above the body of the 
trochanter, and its surface between the spines is usually pebbled or thrown up into slight nodules. 
From a strictly lateral view the edge of the trochanter appears merely dentate, and the opposite edges 
of the same disk are not uniform in number or position of the teeth. In some species the teeth are 
very small and cone-shaped and in almost all cases they are jet-black in color. An interesting feature 
in connection with the presence of the teeth is the shifting of the attachment of the femur. Ordinarily 
the femur is attached to the lateral end of the trochanter nnd extends more or less laterally from the 
body. When the teeth are present, the plate, or disk, that bears them is developed from the region 
at which the femur ordinarily articulates. This forces the base of the femur around to the mesal 
rather than the lateral angle, and the femur is thus forced to point farther inward or else develop a 
cuive in its proximal end. The faces of the toothed disks of the two trochanters oppose each other 
when the legs are in the normal position, and if the legs are brought close together the teeth meet and 
interlock. No explanation has ever been offered as to the function of these teeth, and their utihty 
is questionable. Another character that is apparently closely related to the toothed condition is found 
in the hairs, or bristles, which often occur on the internal face of the trochanter in many species. 
The fact that these bristles are borne on the same area which gives rise to the teeth in the armed forms, 
and that the genera in which the bristies are found are closely related to those that bear teeth, would 
suggest that the two forms of modification may be the response to similar orthogenetic tendencies. 

The femora show the least variation of any of the leg segments in the Membracide. In shape the 
femur is usually club-like and often much curved. The proximal end is swollen, and the segment grad- 
ually narrows toward the distal end. The distal end is in some cases suddenly expanded to form a 
knob, or head, and before this is a slight constriction, or neck. The entire segment is subcyhndrical, 
seldom flattened, and never angular. It is the largest and strongest segnient of the leg and doubtless 
furnishes the chief power in jumping. The distal end is hoUowed out to receive the end of the tibia, 
and usually projects slightly on either side into a plate to direct and strengthen the knee-joint. The 
femur is much inchned to pubescence, but in this respect it follows the general tendency of the leg as 
a whole and does not differ froin the other segments. It seldom possesses a color pattern, even in 
gaudily decorated species. 



26 HOMOPTERA 

The tibia has attracted more attention in the Membracida than any other segment of the leg. This 
is because in certain forms of the family this segmeiit is broadly fohaceous and very striking in appear- 
ance. On the basis of this peculiarity the genus Membracis, the type genus of the family, was early 
separated (Fabricius lyyS), and the character has since stood as the distinguishing mark of the subf. 
Membracitta, which has been built up around this genus. The character in itself, however, is not sufh- 
cient to distinguish the subfamily, since a number of genera of the subf. Cefitrotitta show the same flatten- 
ed, leaf-hke tibiae. It is only vahd when considered in connection with the covered scutellum. The 
foHaceous tibia as represented in the Mentbracinie, however, shows a decided variation in the three pairs 
of legs; in the lirst and second pairs the tibiag are broadly foliaceous, often three times as wide as the 
femur, and generally smooth and without spines or bristles, while in the posterior pair of legs the tibias 
are proportionally much narrower and less leaf-hke, and are usually armed with strong teeth or spines. 
In the Centrotince, on the other hand, the fohaceous forms show all three pairs of tibise equally expanded, 
the hind pair often as broad as either of the two preceding pairs, and the hind tibia shows a strong 
central rod or mid-rib which is quite characteristic of the subfamily. The tibiae show color patterns 
and various maikings when the legs are at all decorated and the segments are usually pubescent or hairy. 

The tarsus is trimerous and comparatively uniform throughout the family . Of the three segments 
the middle one is usually the shortest; the first and last vary with the leg, the first being the longest 
in the hind legand the last being the longest in the first two pairs of legs. Each segment is somewhat 
club-shaped, narrower at its proximal and swoUen at its distal end. At the distal ends the segments are 
not evenly truncate but are much extended on the underside and bilobed above. Each tarsus bears 
astrong claw, distinctly articulated with the last segment. Each claw is heavy at its base and becomes 
gradually acuminate to a fine, sharp point. No pulvillus is present, but most forms show a broad, 
irregular membrane below each half of the claw. The claw is attached to the last tarsal segment by a 
strong tendon, which is shghtly chitinized at its junction with the lower base of the claw and is conspic- 
uous as a heavy cord. The comparative length of the tarsal segments varies considerably and this 
feature may be used as a specific character but it is of doubtful value. Usually the segments increase 
in length from in front backward, the hind tarsi being the longest. In most cases the first and second 
pairs of legs show this difference only slightly, while the hind tarsi are easily seen to be much longer 
than the others. A notable exception to this occurs in the subf. Platycotina, in which the hind tarsi are 
very much shorter than the anterior or the intermediate ones. This is the character on which the forms 
of this subfamily are separated and it is entirely reUable. The relative smallness of the posterior tarsi 
in these forms is made more conspicuous because of the fact that the posterior tibiae are much swoUen 
at their distal ends, making the comparison between the tibise and the tarsal segments all the more 
noticeable. It is interesting to observe that when any tarsal variation occurs in the Membracida it 
appears in the hind leg rather than in either of the others. The tarsi are much given to pubescence and 
hairiness. In some species this development is so remarkable as to be used in diagnosis. In the subf- 
Centrotina the bristles, spines and hairs are so numerous in many species as to completely hide the other 
structural characters of the tarsus. Aside from its use as the distinguishing character of the subf. 
Platycotina, the tarsus has been liltle used for systematic purposes in the study of the Membracida. 
There is little doubt but that enough variation exists to warrant more careful consideration of this part 
of the leg, and a further study of the hind tarsus may yield good taxonomic data. 

The Abdomen. — The abdomen consists normally of eleven segments, of which the first is 
only partially developed and the last two are more or less modified. The arrangement and number 
of segments is best shown in the nymph, in which the anal region is represented by a series of tele- 
scoping tubes. In this stage the iirst segment is hidden under the metathoiax and the last is poorly 



FAM, MEMBRACID.E 27 

developed, but the others are evident. In the adult the abdomen of the insect is so modified in the 
separate sexes as to require separate descriptions. 

In general, each segment from the second to the seventh, inclusive, is ring-like in form and 
consists of a distinct tergum, pleuron and sternum. The first segment consists of a tergum only and 
this sclerite is only partially developed, the lateral extremities being shortened. The abdominal terga 
are long, horse-shoe shaped sclerites covering not only the dorsum but most of the lateral areas. 
They end ia a rather sharp angle at the junction of the pleura. The pleura are short and subrectan- 
gular, and are located on the ventral rather than the lateral part of the abdomen. The first eight 
abdominal pleuia bear spiracles in the extreme cephalic mesal angle of the sclerite. The spiracle for 
the first segment is, indeed, not in the chitinized part of the sclerite at ali, but is located in the mem- 
brane between this sclerite and the metathorax in such a position that it appears as a part of the latter 
segment. The spiracle of the second segment, likewise, is usually found at the ver}' edge of the sclerite 
if not actually in the membrane, The sterna are uniform in the anterior region.of the abdomen but 
are modified in the posterior region in the two sexes, Each sternum is typically a long curved plate 
forming the ventral floor of thesegment and connecting the pleura of each side. Usually it is smooth 
and unsculptured. The abdomen is much thicker at the anterior than at the posterior end, and for 
that reason the anterior sterna are the longest and widest. 

From an external view of the complete insect very little of the abdomen is visible. The 
projecting posterior process of the pronotum hides the dorsal surface, while the two pairs of wings 
folded tightly against the lateral regions conceal these areas. For these reasons the dorsal and lateral 
parts of the abdomen are not suited for taxonomic study, It is doubtful, however, whether these areas 
would offer characters of value even if they were plainly visible, The color of the abdomen is usually 
uniform and agrees with the general color of the remainder of the body. The under-surface is 
generally darker than the upper, and the segments are in some cases bordered with a lighter shade 
than that of the ground color. The anterior end of the abdomen is inclined to be of a lighter hue than 
the posterior, and all the segments are likely to vary in tliis respect within a species. The entire 
abdomen, and particularly the ventral surface, is much given to pubescence; this is very noticeable in 
certain forms aloag the pleural sclerites. Occasionally the white tomentose patches are found on the 
abdomen as on the thorax. When present they are usually on the lateral areas of the first three 
segments and show through the basal part of the vving. The terga are often punctate, but this 
condition is seldom seen on any part of the abdomen, and even on the terga the punctures are much 
less developed than on the head or the thorax, 

The apical segment of the abdomen of theadult can be discussed onl)' in relation to the different 
sexes, since the modifications in the sclerites caused by the development of the genital organs are 
quite distinct in the male and the female. 

The Female : In the female the sterna of segments two to five inclusive are comparativel}' 
uniform, each being a broad, flat, slighty curved plate extending across the abdomen. The sixth 
sternum is indented at its median posterior margin, and the entire ventral part of the segment is 
usually much recurved, The sternum of the seventh segment is deeply notched in its median 
part to enclose the rounded base of the ovipositor. This is the last entire segment in the female 
abdomen and its shape varies greatly according to the type of ovipositor surrounded. The structure 
of this sternum has been successfully used as a specific character in many genera, In some cases the 
sternum is so deeply indented that from an external view it appears as two separate sclerites. The 
eighth segment may or may not show a sternum, but if one is present it is reduced to a small triangular 
sclerite on either side of the ovipositor and does not e.Ktend entirely across the abdomen. In most cases 



a8 HOMOPTERA 

no sternum occurs in this segment. The ninth abdominal segment consists only of the tergum, but this 
sclerite is much enlarged and makes up the larger part of the posterior end of the body. This segment 
is not represented by a pleuron in any species dissected and no spiracle is present to suggest such a 
structure. The sclerite bends around to form most of the body wall. The free ventral edges do not 
meet, but the space between them is occupied by the styles of the ovipositor. This segment is most 
inclined to show pubescence and well developed hairs, and is the most conspicuous part of the female 
abdomen. The tenth and eleventh segments are more or less vestigial and are usually hidden under 
the posterior projection of the ninth. 

The ovipositor consists of three pairs of styles. The outer pair is the longest and incloses the 
middle pair, which in turn surrounds the inner. The outer styles are roughly forceps-shaped, narrowed 
at the base, wide and flat at the center, and hoUowed out on the inner surface to form a spoon, or 
paddle, the excavated part containing the middle styles. The edges are smooth and the tips pointed. 
The outer styles project below and beyond the ninth abdominal segment and are plainly visible from an 
external view of the insect. They are often densely pubescent, but seldom punctate. They are 
tightly closed except during oviposition and mating, and form a smooth, rounded, ventral surface for 
the apical end of the abdomen. The middle styles are slightly smaller, narrower, and shorter than the 
outer styles, and fit snugly into these. The base of the middle pair is flattened and expanded to form 
an articulatory joint. The shafts of the styles are doubly curved, the edges are smooth, and the 
extremities are very sharp. Like the outer styles, the middle pair are close together when not in use. 
The inner styles are again forceps-shaped, the shafts being narrow and about equal in width through- 
out their length. The lateral and ventral margins of these styles are smooth, but the dorsal edge is 
thrown up into teeth, or nodules, of which there are from two to five on each style. Since the inner 
styles are located deeply within the other two pairs, they are not visible except on dissection. 

The abdominal structures of the female show few characters suitable for taxonomic work. Aside 
from the shape of the last sternum, which has already been discussed, no parts of the abdomen of this 
sex have been used by systematic workers in the family for purposes of classification. 

The Male : The abdomen of the male differs from that of the female chiefly in the structure 
of the apical areas. As a whole the abdomen of the male is flatter, shorter, less robust, generally darker 
in color, and more inclined to pubescence, and the segments aremore closely telescoped. The extrem- 
ity is more regularly and narrowly pointed. The tenth and eleventh terga are usually quite distinct 
and often project some distance beyond the ninth. The ninth segment is modified, but in a different 
way from that seen in the female. In the female this segment shows no pleuron or sternum, but the 
greatly enlarged tergum folds around the entire abdomen; in the male all the parts of the segment are 
present, the pleura projecting as separate sclerites on each side or joined below, and the sternum produced 
and curved upward at the extremity. The first segment is modified as in the female, but the median 
segments are normal. 

No modifications of the abdomen for the production of sound, such as the timbal and mirror of 
the cicada, are present. So far as is known, no species of membracid has any sort of sound-producing 
apparatus and the only noise made in the field is the sharp whir of the wings in flight. 

The Membracidae are not characterized by the noxious odors common to many forms of Hemi- 
ptera. The spiracles were confused with supposed stink glands by Buckton (igoS), but no signs of the 
latter structures are shown in histological preparations. 

The male genitalia, while comparatively simple in structure, are extremely interesting and are 
well deserving of more serious study than has been given to them. Occasional attempts have been 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



29 



made to use the male genitalia for systematic purposes but with Httle success. It is not unreasonable 
to believe, however, that these structures, which have proved of so much value in other groups of 
insects, should be equally distinctive in the Membracida if the characters are patiently diagnosed for a 
large number of genera. It may naturally be supposed that sexual organs undergo less change when 
the insects are forced into new conditions and environments than do motor or protective structures, and, 
being less plastic, would preserve their characters and readily lend themselves to generic classifica- 
tions. The organs have become modified in form and have developed various types of claspers, 
styles and prongs, but the necessity of retaining the function of the organs has kept these modifi- 
cations within bounds. 

The male genitalia are shown diagrammatically in Text Figure 5, in which the first outline 
represents the parts in their normal position, the second shows the same parts as dissected and spread 
apart, and the third shows the lateral aspects. 




Rectum 
/Tergum 
/ /(.arera/ i^a/i^e 
^' ' X)eola(ju-5 

-Jtijle 
-y3terna/ plafe 




Rectum 
/ ^Tercjum 

Latera/ 

L-f - - Oedaquj 
~ dti//e 
^ferna/ plate 




f?ectum 

! Latera/ 
va/i^e 
-6tifle 

Oedacjus 

':5ternal p/a/e 



FlG. 5. 



The tnale genitalia 



The tergum of the ninth abdominal segment overlaps and partially surrounds the rectum, 
which is located at the extrenie dorsal angle of the exposed end. Below and on either side are two 
broad plates which are here termed, for want of a better nanie, the lateral valves. These are sometimes 
folded inward to meet each other, and sometimes they project directly caudad leaving the lower 
surface of the anal tube exposed. When the latter condition obtains, or when the lateral valves have 
been dissected away, the ventral part of the rectum is seen to consist of a somewhat chitinized plate 
which is probably the vestigial sternum of the tenth segment. The area below the rectum and cephalad 
of the valves is occupied by the intersegmental membrane. From the region between and at the base 
of the valves arises the cedagus. This structure is heavy and curved, extending first caudo-dorsad, and 
then dorso-cephalad. Near the base of the cedagus arises a pair of styles, or forceps, which usually 
extend outward laterally and are subject to great modification in shape. The sternal plate, which is 
apparently the sternum of the ninth segment, bends almost directly upward at its tip and in some 
species extends so far dorsad as to form a posterior wall behind the oedagus. The oedagus contains 
the penis, a long, white filamentous tube which is seen only on dissection. 

The terga of the ninth, tenth and eleventh segments are usually visible in the male. In some 
cases the tenth and eleventh are hidden within the ninth, and in some cases they are projected; but in 
all cases they cover the anal tube and form a dorsal roof over the rectum. The ninth tergum is the 
only one suitable for taxonomic use, and this is best seen from a lateral view. From this aspect the 



3o HOMOPTERA 

sclerite appeais as a subtriangular piece extending almost to the pleural line. This tergum may project 
almost directly caudad so that the rectum is located very near the dorsal margin of the segment and 
very little of the tergum is visible from a caudal view; or it may extend well ventrad so that the rectum 
appears nearly in the center of the segment and a large part of the tergum shows from a caudal view 
as a broad, sloping roof. In some cases the entire ninth segment is so small in diameter that from a 
caudal view the eighth segment is visible around it. In some species the tergum is armed with teeth 
on each side, such teeth probably functioning in the process of copulation. Occasionally the tergum 
shows a process, or projection, on the median dorsal line, which is probably the remains of the 
nymphal spines of that region. In many cases the sclerite is pubescent, and the hairs may be devel- 
oped to such an extent as to overhang and hide the rectal opening. The variation in lateral length 
may range from an almost complete arch to a very narrow strip extending hardly one-third of the 
distance toward the pleural line. 

The lateral valves are always present and are of considerable importance. From their position 
they would appear to be modifications of the pleura of the ninth segment, but, for systematic purposes, 
the character mosteasily determined is whether they project directly caudad to continue the lateral line 
of the abdomen, or turn inward to meet under the rectum and form a posterior wall for the body cavity 
and an anterior wall before the oedagus. This is believed to be a constant and valuable generic charac- 
ter. In size the valves vary from narrow triangular sclerites to broad, flat plates which occupy most 
of the lateral surface of the segment. They are often armed with teeth, but the position of these teeth 
is variable. Like the terga, these sclerites are often pubescent. In general the lateral valves seem to 
have little protective function, since the oedagus is well caudad, and they are probably used as copulatory 
organs of attachment. 

The cedagus, or penis sheath, is a heavy, paitl}- chitinized covering for the penis. It is appar- 
ently of one piece and does not show the segments described for this organ in other orders of insects. 
In composition it is substantial enough to withstand the boiling and clearing necessary for examination 
underthe microscope, and usually stands out well in such mounts. The cedagus seems to arise from 
the very base of the ninth segment, between the bases of the lateral valves and the sternal plate. Such 
an origin would agree with that found in certain beetles, and fairly well with the same structure in other 
orders. The function of the organ is undoubtedly protective, and it may be noted that practically no 
olher protection is aiforded to the penis since the entire genital chamber is so openly exposed. The 
cedagus itself is apparently of sufficient strength and rigidity to need no other protection, although in 
most other orders it is covered by some parts of the genital chamber. In shape the oedagus is uniformly 
curved, bending upward and forward so that its apex points toward the rectum. It varies greatly in 
diameter in different genera and the tip is inclined to be much modified. Often the entire organ is 
gradually acuminate and sharp at the extremity; again, the tip may be swollen and surmounted by a 
knob-like projection. Such variations may be of taxonomic importance and should at least prove 
valuable as supplementary characters since in many cases the tip of the oedagus is protruded in mounted 
insects, making the examination of the part possible. 

The penis is difficult to locate except in very fresh material. On superficial examination it 
appears to be a long, whitish filament, its length being surprising as compared with that of the 
oedagus. No indication has been found homologous to the « praepenis » as described by Harnisch 
(igiS) for certain Coleoptera, nor do there appear to be any important variations in the basal structure 
of the organ. 

The styles, or forceps, are very apparent in the Membracida and in many forms extend far enough 
out of the genital chamber to make examination possible in the mounted specimen. Only one pair of 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 3i 

these organs is present and the relative position in the segment is comparatively uniform throughout 
the family. Each style arises from the lateral margin of the segment near its base and usually between 
the lateral valves and the sternal plate. On dissection it is seen that the base extends into the abdomen 
and originates in the seventh segment. The style projects almost directly caudad and sometimes 
shghtly laterad. • In shape the basal part is comparatively straight and the distal end bends upward 
in a gradual curve or sharply at an angle. The tip is the most inclined to variation, and may range 
from a sharp, needle-like point to broadly angled plates or sharply toothed hooks. Study of the process 
of copulation in the living insects proves the function of the styles to be that of clasping or inter- 
locking organs, as their shape would indicate. The terminal hook or angle always turns upward and 
in some cases forward. In a few species examined, the styles act in conjunction wilh the teeth of the 
lateral plates in the mating process. As in the case of the oedagus, the structures of the styles offer 
suggestive taxonomic characters and may be found useful in a number of genera. 

The sternal plate is apparently a modified abdominal sternum, but its tendency to subdivision 
would suggest that it may be a fused or partly fused pair of appendages. The plate originates at the 
base of the ninth segment and is attached to the eighth abdominal sternum. It piojects first caudad 
and then dorsad and is the most posterior of the genital organs. It may extend only a short distance 
upward, or it may extend so far in this direction as to hide the other genitalia when viewed from a 
caudal aspect. It usually shows a division down the median line. This division may show only a 
shght notch, or the separation may be so apparent as to show two distinct plates ; but in aimost every 
case the two halves of the plate may be pulled apart after boihng in caustic potash, showing the real 
structure of the sclerite. For systematic purposes the appearance of the plate in the complete insect, 
rather than a theory as to its anatomical conditions, is of course of more practical importance. This 
can usually be best ascertained from a strictly caudal view, and the characters most easily noted are 
the comparative length of the plate, the shape of the upcurved part, and the amount of sphtting 
at the tip. All these points show sufircient variation to aid in diagnosis and all are relatively constant. 
The sternal plate is usually pubescent and often covered with stiff, bristle-hke hairs. It is freely 
movable and in the ralaxed specimen may be pulled far downward without injury to itself or to the 
remainder of the genitaha. It may often be examined by merely separating the wing tips, and for 
that reason is the best adapted of all the genital parts for systematic work. 

On the whole the male genitaHa afford good taxonomic characters. The parts are simple and 
easy to dissect. The relative position of the plates and the structure of the individual pieces show 
sufficient variation throughout the family, and are constant enough within a genus, to furnish valuable 
data at least to supplement the more evident characters of the exoskeleton. 



INTERNAL ANATOMY 

The internal anatomy of the membracid does not, on the whole, differ enough from that of other 
Hemiptera to warrant special discussion. The digestive system, however, shows some pecuUarities. 
Kershaw (igiS) found that in the species Tyicentrus albomaculatus the ahmentary canal showed a formation 
ofthe mid-intestine very similar to that reported by Packard (1898) for the Psyllida, with accessory 
organs consisting of four uriniferous tubules. The writer has found this same condition present in the 
genus Gargara and in certain other forms of the Centrotina. 

By far the larger number of membracids, however, including all of the Smiliinte which have been 



32 



HOMOPTERA 



dissected, show a much simpler form of food tube the parts of which are diagrammatically shown in 
the accompanying text figure. 



Crop 
-rf/fer cAamber 



Ascending 
/n/c/-/nfesfine 

-Smo// /nfesf/ne 



-Ur/nary fubu/e 



Recfam 



FiG. 6. — The alimentary eanal 

This type is noticeably dififerent from that described by Kershaw particularly in the number 
and position of the urinary tubules. The alimentary canal is short and twisted and the various parts 
are strikingly distinct in size and structure. The short esophagus opens directly into the crop, which 
is very large and has a peculiar twist at its center. At the posterior end of the crop the canal is much 
narrowed to form anascending mid-intestine, which bends abruptly anteriorly, is irregularly coiled and 
twisted, and extends forward as far as the center of the crop. At the end of the ascending mid-intestine 
is a knot from which arise two urinary tubules; each of these tubules has a bUnd end projecting a 
short distance cephalad, while the tubule itself extends along the fuU length of the small intestine, 
and joins the rectum by the side of the small intestine. From the knotted end of the mid-intestine 
arises the small intestine, which is very narrow in diameter and almost straight. The small intestine 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 33 

opens into the swollen rectum, which connects by a smaller rectal tube to the opening in the abdomen. 
At the point where the mid-intestine ends and the small intestine begins, both these organs are 
somewhat looped and give rise to the urinary tubules. This part of the intestine has been called 
the filter chamber, and has been described in the Cercopida by Licent (igi i); but in the type of chamber 
shown by that family the mid-intestine and the urinary tubules are twisted many times around one 
another in an enclosed part of the canal. A similar filter chamber, though not so eloborate, is de- 
scribed by Berlese (1909) for certain Coccida. Apparently such an arrangement of twisted intestine 
and nephridial organs is not uncommon in the Homoptera. 

The respiratory system shows no peculiarities so far as has been observed. The spiracles have 
been discussed under the description of the external anatomy. 

In the reproductive system the only points noted as applied particularly to the Membracida are the 
number of eggs found in various species in life-history studies. It may be noted in this respect that 
the eggs are very large in proportion to the size of the insect, and are usually all matured at about 
the same time. 



LIFE HISTORIES 

The complete hfe histories of very few species of Membracidce have ever been reported. The 
writer has published (1915-20) descriptions of the life historiesofa number of North American forms 
but no similar studies have been made of tropical species so far as the literature of the family would 
indicate. However, from field observations in many parts of the world, we believe that the life histories 
of these insects are much the same, wherever they are found, except in the matters of number of broods 
per year and hibernation. 

In the United States most species of Membracida spend the winter in the egg stage and the first 
evidence of the family in the spring is the appearance of the nymphs from the winter eggs. These 
usually appear in the south in late March and early April while in the north some species do not hatch 
until July. A few species are known to winter over as adults. This is true of the species of Stictocephala 
in the south and of the species oi Euiylia and Publilia in all parts of the country. 

In all parts of the world mating begins almost immediately after the insect reaches maturity. The 
position assumed in the process is the one not unusual in Hemiptera, with the caudal extremities 
together and the heads in opposite directions. The insects are very sluggish at this time and seldom 
move unless disturbed. If molested they fall to the ground, not, however, becoming detached from 
each other. If movement takes place during copulation, the female generally moves forward, dragging 
the male backward behind her. The process has been timed from five minutes to one hour in different 
species. No forms have been observed in flight while in copula. During copulation the styles of the 
male function asclasping organs and the ovipositor of the female is drawn downward and forward. In 
the temperate regions species that have more than one brood a year show more or less well defined 
mating seasons during the summer; but in the tropics the development of nymphs is so irregular that 
the broods overlap and mating may be observed at practically all times throughout the year. 

There are a number of rather distinct types of oviposition, as regards both the location of the 
eggs and the mechanics of the process. The eggs are most commonly deposited under the bark of the 
younger twigs. In most cases a single narrow slit is made in the bark, the ovipositor not reaching the 
cambium or, if reaching it, slitting down on one side of the twig between the bark and the wood and 
not penetrating the xylem. In this slit the eggs are deposited and the bark springs back into place over 



34 HOMOPTERA 

them. In this method little datnage is done to the host, as the injury is not a severe one and quickly 
heals. In another type of oviposition, the insect makes a curved sHt in the bark and another close 
beside it in a series of spiral incisions around the stem. This affects the plant more seriously as in 
some cases the wounds fail to close which not only interferes with growth but affords entrance for other 
insects and for fungi, and in other cases small stems may be so punctured that they break ofif at the point 
of injury. A nuinber of species deposit in the buds of the host. In this type of oviposition theeggsare 
laid just beneath the outer bud scales, and the nymphs emerge at the time when these scales are first 
opening. In a few cases the eg^s are not entirely covered but project slightly out of the bud tissue. 
This method of oviposition has but little injurious effect on the host, since the outer bud scale. being 
entirely protective, may be damaged without injuring the plant. In the case of fruit buds the injury 
may be more serious, but in no case has it appeared to an extent great enough to be considered import- 
ant. A few species lay their eggs in the leaves. Usually the under side of the leaf is chosen for 
oviposition and the eggs are generally placed in two rows, one on each side of the midrib. The egg 
is seldom entirely within the leaf but the tip is plainly visible. A number of species choose the axil 
of the leaf for oviposition and a few are known to oviposit in the roots or in the base of the stem just 
below the surface of the grounii. 

The mechanics of oviposiiion differ decidedly in various species. In most cases the ovipositor 
is extended at right angles to the body and thrust perpendicularly into the host where it remains until 
all the eggs making the compleinent of a single egg mass are deposited. The ovipositor seems to move 
but slightly in the egg slit during the process, although a considerable movement of the abdomen is 
observable. In other cases the entire egg slit is made first and then the ovipositor is inserted perpen- 
dicularly and gradually moved backward during the process until it is almost parallel with theabdomen. 
In still other cases the insect makes the egg sHt and inserts the egg at the same time. The ovipositor 
moves slowly through the bark, forcing the tissues apart and depositing the eggs in one movement. 
With a few species tiie ovipositor is withdrawn from the host after each egg has been deposited, and 
reinserted for the next egg. In one species which was carefully studied, the insect lays a number of 
eggs, then rests, then moves foiward along the same sHt and deposits more — generally a different 
number — then rests again, and so on until a complete row has been finished. The writer's obser- 
vations have been tliat ovipnsition occurs most often when the sun is warmest and the temperature 
highest and usually on that side of the tree or plant which is exposed to the most direct rays of the sun 
when the process is in progress, but VVildermuth (191 5) has reported a species which oviposited chiefly 
at night or early morning, so that apparently there is considerabie variation in this matter. 

The number of consecutive ovipositions made by one female varies with the species but has not 
been greater than five in any species noted. The average is not over three. In most cases the insect 
after depositing one egg mass moves along the twig for a short distance and repeats the process after a 
very short interval of rest. Oiie female generally lays all her eggs on one twig or on twigs very close 
together, and it has never been observed that the insects move from one plant to another during the 
process. While ovipositing, the insect is entirely occupied with her work and does not respond to 
external influences. She refuses to be disturbed and may be touched or pushed without interrupting 
the process. Tlie writer has often attempted to take a female from a branch while oviposition was in 
progress, and in doing so has broken off the ovipositor, which remained in the egg slit. The time 
required for a single oviposition varies from ten minutes to half an hour. Where several egg masses 
are deposited in succession, the resting period between each insertion increases; so that if fifteen 
minutes elapse between the first and second, a half hour may elapse between the second and third, and 
often seveial hours before a fourth if so many are made. The same female may, however, continue to 
lay eggs for several days until a large number have been deposited. Daily field records indicate that 



FAM. MEMBRACIDyE 35 

four or five egg inasses may be deposited by one female in a single day but after that she remains 
quiescent for at least twenty-four hours, and very probably for several days, before another egg-laying 
period begins. The number of eggs in one egg mass does not vary greatly for any one species and 
shows an average of four for all the species studied by the writer, with a minimum of one and a maxi- 
mum of thirteen. The most usual method of placing the eggs seems to be in a palmate arrangement 
with the bases close together and the tips projecting outward, but in some species the eggs are laid 
singly, in others in straight rows, and in still others in irregular clusters. 

The eggs are generally white or pearly, club-shaped or tooth-shaped, and about i.5 milUmeters 
long by 0.3 millimeters wide at the maximum diameter. The egg may be smooth or sculptured, the 
base usually being rounded and the tip pointed. In the eggs of most species a distinct neck is visible, 
often grooved. The chorion is usually vitreous. The micropyle in most cases is oval, opening tan- 
gential to the longitudinal axis. The cap is comparatively large, and before hatching becomes swollen 
and wrinkled. The lateral margins of the egg are curved, one side often being more convex than the 
other. Just before the eggs hatch they become slightly larger. 

Observations in the field and breeding experiments in the laboratory indicate that the average 
duration of the egg stage for North American forms is approximately twenty days and for tropical 
species about twelve days. We have one record of an incubation which lasted only four days. How- 
ever, ecological studies have shown that climatic conditions have a decided influence on the incubation 
of the egg and the development of the nymph so it is evident that there is much variation in the time 
required for the hatching of eggs. The hatching is retarded by dry weather and accelerated by abun- 
dance of moisture; likewise hatching is slower in cold weather than in warm weather. This may be 
due, however, to the condition of the vegetation during favorable and unfavorable growing seasons and 
it is possible that the ecological relationship between the insects and their hosts may have much to do 
with variations in life histories, However, even in the same egg mass the eggs do not all hatch at the 
same time, a difTerence of nearly a week between the first and the last having been observed in some 
instances. 

The mechanics of the process of hatching is practically the same for all species studied. A few 
days before hatching, the egg appears somewhat swollen. This is followed b}' the cracking of the 
chorion about the neck and the upper end. Some days may elapse after the first splitting of the egg 
before the insect emerges. Finally the cap is forced upward and the head of the nymph appears. 
The head is quickly followed by the thorax and part of the abdomen. The nymph then appears to 
rest for a few minutes after which the legs are slowly withdrawn in order, beginning with the first pair. 
At the same time, the dorsal spines become protruded, while the insect is still held by the posterior 
end of the abdomen inside the shell. Finally this posterior end of the abdomen is puUed out, 
and the nymph creeps a very short distance away from the old shell and again rests The entire time 
required for the emergence, from the time the head is first seen until the process is completed, is 
usually about half an hour. 

AU of the species of Membracidte which the writer has studied show five nymphal instars. Each 
of these five instars is usually distinct enough to be recognized, and displays characters sufficient not 
only for the recognition of the species but also for the identification of the particular stage of develop- 
ment that it represents. 

In the first instar the nymph is of course very small, not greatly exceeding in length the egg 
from which it hatched, very light-colored, and extremely soft-bodied. Most nymphs have character- 
istic dorsal spines on the thorax and abdomen. In the first stage these spines are much inclined to be 
complex and branched, and are numerous on the head and thorax with often one or more rows on 



36 HOMOPTERA 

the abdomen. The head is vety large, out of all proportion to the body, and the legs are feeble, 
The eyes are likely to be prominent, and the ocelli and antennse absent or not distinguishable. 
If the species is a pubescent one, the hairs are usually not developed in this instar. No vving pads are 
visible and the abdomen is attenuated. The pronotum is not developed and the prothorax is about 
equal in size to the other thoracic segments. 

In the second instar the size is usually doubled and the entire insect is much darker in appear- 
ance. The prothorax is inclined to be swollen dorsally but no distinguishing protuberance of the 
pronotum is apparent. No wing pads are visible. The head is more normal in comparative size and 
the eyes not so prominent. The ocelli may now be distinguished and likewise the antennae. The 
spines are still very complex and branched hvrt. seldom appear on the head. The anal segment of the 
abdomen is prolonged and the entire body is stouter. 

In the thii-d instar the characteristic enlargement of the pronotum begins to appear and the 
wing pads are evident. The prothorax is much larger than the other two thoracic segments. The 
head is normal in size and the eyes are not over-prominent. The antennsE are plainly to be seen. 
The spines have lost much of their complexity and are much shorter and less branched. In this stage 
the spines of the head and thorax are often entirely wanting and the whole body develops pubescence. 
The anal segment of the abdomen is still much enlarged and the anal tube is prominent. 

In the fourth instar the pronotal enlargement is pronounced, the posterior process usually covers 
the mesothorax and the structures begin to suggest those of the adult. The wing pads are large and well 
developed, usually extending ])osterioriy as far as the third abdominal segment. The head is reduced 
in comparative size, the ocelli are larger and the antennae are normal. The spines are much reduced 
in complexity if not in size; often they appear as mere stubs or bristles, and they are seldom seen on 
any other part of the body than the abdomen. The insect has increased much in size and often 
shows colors chaiacteristic of the imago. 

The fifth and last instar is the longest in duration and in this instar the nymph attains a size 
comparable to that of the adult. The pronotal developments are very pronounced and the wing pads 
are fully formed, usually reaching the fourth abdominal seginent. The spines are heavy but generally 
rather simple. The head is much deflexed, and the eyes, ocelii and antennjE are normal. The beak 
is fully developed, generally extending posteriorly as far as the hind coxse. The legs are strong and 
stout and the abdomen is swollen. The anal tube is less prominent than in the preceding stages. 

The foregoing descriptions of the nymphal stages apply in general to the family as a whole and 
of course there are many variations in different genera and species, but it is believed that these general 
characters are sufficient to enable one to distinguish the various instars in most species. We believe 
that the spines, which are very characteristic and constant, the development of the pronotum, the 
appearance of ocelli and antennse, and the relative size of the wing pads, are good structural characters 
fo diagnosis. 

The time required for each nymphal instar varies not only with the different species, but also 
for the nymphs of a single species, and even for the individuals in a single egg mass. Consequently 
only a very general statement can be made on this subject. Studies of North American forms indicate 
that, very roughly, the average for each of the first four instars is about five days, and for the fifth instar 
ten days, making a total of thirty days for the complete period of development from egg to adult, but 
we have no data on the tropical forms in this respect, so that the above figures may not at all represent 
the family as a whole. 

Thereare various typesof ecdysis, but seldom is there any variation in this respect within a genus. 
In most cases the nymph of the last instar fastens itself securely to the underside of a leaf just before 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 37 

the final molt, and the old exuviae may be found in this position several days after the process has been 
completed. In some cases only the first pair of legs :ire thus attached; in others all six legs. Some 
species do not attach themselves and the old skin falls to the ground as soon as ecdysis is complete; in 
other species the old nymphal skin hangs to the end of the abdomen of the adult and is carried about 
for some time after molting. Just before the last molt, the skin dries out and becomes more or less 
transparent and scaly. Under the micioscope it is possible to distinguish regioiis in which the 
integument has pulled away from the new skin even before splitting begins. The splitting occurs 
down the dorsal line but does not always start in the same place. In most cases the splitting occurs 
lirst along the dorsal line of the head; in a considerable number it begins near the thorax, and in 
a few over the abdomen. The various segments gradually enlarge as they are freed, and become 
decidedly swollen within a few minutes following ecdysis. The exuviae, if perfect, ma}' be used for 
diagnosis and correctly represent the last nymphal stage. 

The nymphs are active but they do not jump as do the adults. They are prone to hide them- 
selves in crevices in the bark and in the axils of leaves, where their coloration renders them very 
inconspicuous. If disturbed they often creep around to the opposite side of the twig and are able to 
run fairly rapidly when in the later instars. They often have the habit of flattening themselves close to 
the twig if molested and remain without movement even when touched. During ecdysis they are of 
course comparatively helpless and may be studied with great ease. 

The newly emerged adults are lighter in color than the normal hue of the species, and are very 
soft-bodied. The exoskeleton becomes hardened, however, within a couple of hours and the normal 
colors appear in twenty-four hours. In the insects ave injured during this period the injury becomes 
permanent and the mutilation may appear as a grotesque twist or bend in the hardened pronotum. 
We suspect that such injured specimens have given rise to certain so-called new species and varieties, 
the descriptions of which have beenbased on single specimens with apparently new pronotal characters. 
After reaching the adult stage the insect often moves to a different host from that on which the eggs 
were laid. In fact such migration may take place during the last or the next to the last nymphal instar. 
In some cases a clear distinction can be made between the host used for oviposition and that used 
as a food plant; in other cases the insect spends its entire life on one plant which serves both as food 
and as an egg host. In the latter case both nymphs and adults may be taken together, and apparently 
they lead a more or less gregarious existence. 

The foregoing life history notes apply in a general way to the family as a whole as the activities 
of the insects have been observed in many parts of the world. In the matters of numbers of broods 
and of methods of wintering over, however, no general statement can be made, since these aspects of 
the life histories of the insects show great variation according to the regions concerned. In the temperate 
zone and in all regions where the vegetation is retarded by winter conditions for a long or short penod, 
the insects usually winter over in the egg stage with an occasional species surviving as adults hibernating 
in leaves and debris around the plants. In such regions the number of broods per year seems to vary 
with the length of the summer and ranges from one to five. In the tropics, however, membracids may 
be found as adults and in all the nymphal stages at practically all times of the year, and apparently 
mating, oviposition, development and maturation are continuous [jrocesses. In fact our collection of 
tropical membracids shows specimens collected in every month of the year and curiously enough no 
one month seems to be favored over the others .so that we are forced to conclude that there is no break 
in the life histories unless it be due to purely local seasonal conditions. 



38 HOMOPTERA 



HOSTS 



The Membmcida seem to be very excellent botanists and in most cases confine themselves to 
very definite host plants both for feeding and for oviposition. In many cases the association between 
the membracid and the host is so characteristic that a knowledge of one is sufficient for recognition of 
the other. In fact in some cases a species not only confines itself to a single host but is the only 
species ever found on that host. As a resuU, a considerable number of species have received such 
names as qiierci, castaiiea, cratagi, ampelofrsidis, etc, to indicate such habitats. 

The host plants of the Membracida in the United States are fairly well known since many writers 
have included such Usts in their reports. Goding (iSgSa), Branch (igiS) and Van Duzee (igoSa) have 
pubhshed extended lists of host plants; economic papers by Hodgekiss (1910), Wildermuth (igiS) and 
others, include detailed accounts of hosts; and Hfe history studies by Matausch (1910-12) and Funk- 
houser (igiSb, c and d) have discussed the hosts of particular species. The writer (1917) tabulated 
all the hosts known at that time for North American species. In North America the host plants may 
be divided into four rather well defined groups of plants. The most important of these groups is 
represented by the Amentiferas, including such nut-bearing trees as oak, hickory, butternut, chestnut, 
beech and hazelnut; of hardly less importance are the legumes of which locust, sweet clover, alfalfa 
and red clover are favorite hosts for many species; the Rosaceae in general, but particularly apple, 
pear, berries, and cuhivated roses represent the third group; while the fourth includes a large number 
of succulent composites such as annual asters. sunflower, daisy, joe-pye weed and thistle. Practically 
every plant that has been recorded as a host for any species of Membracida; in the United States may be 
included in one of these four groups. 

The records of host plants of the tropical Membracida. on the other hand, are very meager, partiy 
because the describers of new species neglected to note or mention the hosts, and partly because, as 
has been the experience of the writer in many regions {e.g. Sumatra), the local botanists and foresters 
were unable to identify the plants concerned. However, the more recent tropical collectors, among 
whoin should be mentioned such excellent entomoiogists as H. S. Pruthi of India, H. M. Pendlebury 
of the Malay States, W. E. Hoffmann of China. M. A. Lieftinck of Java, G. van Son of South Africa, 
J. P. da Fonseca of Brazil and C. C. Plummer of Mexico, are now keeping careful field records and 
their contribution to the knowledge of this subject is rapidly increasing the data on the tropical and 
subtropical species. Even so, it is not yet possible to give any definite groupings for such host plants 
although certain particular hosts, such as species of Teak, Talauma, Cinnamon, Ficus, Magnolia, 
Butea, Gossampinus, Acacia, Dalbergia and Vitex have been reported from the East Indies, Teak, 
Sandai, Cedrus and Micheha from India, Acalipha, Blumea, Semecarpus. Maholus, Hibiscus, Sola- 
num, Eugenia, Phyllantus and Croton from the Philippines. and Boccharis, Cassia, Belaria, Wild Fig, 
Bucida, Vismia, Tachigalia, various legumes and cultivated tobacco in South America. 

It is kiiown that certain species having a wide geographical distribution shift from one host to 
another in different localities. Thus in the United States Carynota mera, common on pecan iii the south 
is found on hickory in the north where the pecan does not grow. In other cases a species seems to 
deliberately change its host even though an appareiitly more constant host is abundant. Thus Enchenopa 
binotata which has a wide range over practically all of North America and is generally found on the hop 
tree (Ptelea trifoliata L.) is in some areas found onlj- on the locust or on the butternut, even though 
there are plenty of hop trees in the immediate vicinity. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 39 

It is known, also, that certain species change their hosts during the life cycle, the nymphs 
migrating from the host on which the eggs were laid to feed on another host and returning to the first 
for oviposition. For example, Slictocephala inermis usually feeds on alfalfa but oviposits on pear and 
apple ; Ceresa bubalus feeds on sweet clover but oviposits on elm ; Ceresa tattrina feeds on aster but ovipos- 
its on pear and apple. 

As in the case of the life histories of the Membracida, much study needs to be made of the host 
plants, particularly of the tropical and Old World species, before sufficient data are available for a 
satisfactory knowledge of this subject. 



ENEMIES 



The Membracida seem to have but few natural enemies. Field notes covering a long period of 
yearsshow surprisingly few cases of these insects actually having been observed captured or eaten by 
other animals. 

Birds undoubtedly occasionally prey upon membracids, especially the soft bodied nymphs, but 
the insects form a relatively small part of their diet. The stomach analyses of insectivorous birds show 
only a meager percentage of Membracida. Wildermuth (igiS) reports that of thirty-one birds, repre- 
senting eight different species, ten had from one to four adults oi Stictocephala festina in their crops; the 
writer (1917) published an unimpressive list of birds representing nine species feeding on eight species 
oi Membracida and McAtee (1918) believes that birds capture more membracids than has generally 
been supposed. These records, however, do not indicate that membracids form an important 
proportion of the diet of any bird. 

Toads have been known to capture membracids, particularly nymphs, and Asilids commonly 
carry off both nymphs and adults. Spiders often catch membracids both in their webs and on the 
twigs and the Mantis is not averse to an occasional specimen. On the whole, however, the damage 
done to the membracid population by these enemies is not great. 

More important are the fatalities due to parasites which are found on both eggs and adults. 
The egg parasites in most cases are Chalcidida but only a fcw have been determined, the only one ever 
reared by the writer being Polynema striaticorue Gir. Observations on egg parasitism would indicate 
that the parasite deposits its eggs in the newly laid eggs of the membracids and passes its larval and 
pupal stages within the egg. On maturing, the adult hymenopteron emerges by breaking off the cap 
of the egg-shell, which has meanwhile become discolored or blackened. Parasites on menibracid eggs 
have been reporled by Jack (1886), Ashmead (1888), Murtfeldt (i8go), Hodgekiss (1910), and the writer 
(igiSf, 1917) but only a few of these, including the one described by Ashmead Trichogramma ceresarum. 
have ever been positively determined. 

Parasites in nymphs and adults are very common but have seldom been successfully reared. 
The writer has found larvae, which were apparently hymenopterous, in the abdomens of many species 
of Membracidte, but all attempts to bring the parasites to maturity have thus far failed. We beiieve 
that more than one season is probably required to complete the life history of the parasites and that 
our failures may have been due to the fact that sufficient time was not allowed for development. 
Matausch (191 1) reported parasitism in Membracida which he believed was responsible for the destruction 
of sex organs but he was equally imsuccessful in rearing a single specimen of any of the parasites 
although he presents an excellent figure of the larvas. Apparently there is some phase in the life 



40 HOMOPTERA 

history of these parasites which does not lend itself readily to the usual methods of rearing. However, 
Kornhauser (1916, 1919) successfullj' reared parasites of Thelia bimaculala. 

Wildermuth (191 5) reports a small red mite (Eryihraus sp.) feeding on membracid eggs and the 
writer has found similar mites, probably of the same genus, as external parasites on a number 
of species. 

It is likely that Ihe hard, sharp pronotum of the adult membracid, the protective coloration, 
and habits of the nymphs, and the protection given to both nymphs and adults by attendant ants, 
particularly the so-called « fire ants » of the tropics, which the writer can testify are among the worst 
of the enemies of the coUector, are sufficient factors to discourage all but the most courageous of the 
usual insect enemies of insects and explain the comparative immunity of membracids to these foes. 



MIGRATIONS 

The migrations of the Membracida are apparently very slow both as regards change of locahty and 
change of host plants. In any given region the same forms may be found in the same locality year 
after 3'ear, while a neighboring locality, offering the same natural conditions, remains unentered. The 
writer has often had the experience of collecting in a strange region, under the guidance of a local 
entomologist who had taken membracids in a certain particular place « several years ago » ; almost 
without fail the insects were there as usual. 

The same is true in regard to migrations from one plant to another. It often happens that one 
tree may be literally covered with individuals of a species, while another tree of exactly the same kind, 
in close proximity to the first, may be unmolested; and these conditions may be noted season after season. 

The reasons for such reluctance in seeking new localities and new hosts are not evident. The 
insects fly weil for short distances and should be able without difficulty to spread over a considerable 
area in a season provided the desired host is abundant throughout the area. This, however, appears 
not to be the case and is probably one of the reasons why the Membracida are not often noted as 
economic pests. 

The migration of the nymph from the hosts on which the eggs are laid to the feeding plant, 
in cases in vvhich such movement is part of the life history, is regular and definite, but the distance 
covered is never great. 

The adults avoid flights of any distance, and if disturbed they generally leave the twig with a 
quick leap, fly rapidly in a narrow circle, and return to the plant from which they were driven. Even 
in a series of trees close together, all of the same kind and all inhabited by membracids of the same 
species, it is unusual to see the insect fly from one tree to another. The greatest movement noted in 
the field is found in areas covered by low grasses or other carpeting vegetation in which the insects fly 
erratically about when disturbed. 

We believe that this disinclination for migration explains why the various species of Membracida 
seem to be so limited in distribution, why there are no cosmopolitan species, and why there are so 
many species. It is interesting to note that in regions broken by many barriers, such as the islands 
of the East Indies, each island has in general its own distinct species while the genera are common to 
the region. We believe that this indicates tliat the islands are the fragments of a large ancient land- 
mass which has been submerged long enough to prevent the isolated insects from interbreeding and to 
develop specific characters but not long enough to destroj- the more general and fundamental generic 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 41 

structures. We believe, also, that the general distribution of the Membracida over the surface of the 
earth may be explained largely on the basis of migrations regulated and governed bj' the size and 
positions of the land masses and land bridges of previous geological periods. 



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 

The Membracidse, as a family, are of little economic importynce. Since they are not flower- 
visiting insects they are of no value in the cross-pollination of plants, and they produce no materials 
valuable to man; on the other hand, they destroy no food products, the damage which they may cause 
to vegetation is so insignificant that except in the case of a very few species it is negligible, the}' do not 
feed on plant tissues, and so far as is known they are not carriers of disease. 

The manner in which membracids may cause damage to plants is limited to tvvo habits, feeding 
and oviposition. Of these the latter is the more harmful. 

So far as feeding is concerned, there is little evidence that Membracidce cause any injury to the 
host. The quantity of sap consumed by the insects is negligible, and the wounds made by the incisions 
of their beaks are neither large eiiough to destroy tissue nor extensive enough to offer opportunity for 
infection. In fact such incisions cannot usually be found even with a microscope a few hours after 
the process. Trees that are literally covered with Membracida seem in no way less healthj' than those 
on which no insects are found. Careful examination of trees in the field shows absolutely no indication 
of injury from feeding habits. 

The egg-laying process may be more destructive, but even this process in most species is of 
little concern. In most cases the sht made by the ovipositor is clean and sharp and very superficial, 
seldom extending to the cambium and usually heahng at once leaving onl}' a faint scar. The phloem 
tissue if injured is not so extensively damaged as to interfere with its function, and the injured part, 
in dicot^ledons at least, would usually slough off naturally within the first or second season. The ovi- 
positor in most of the species is neither long nor powerful, and in those forms in which the eggs are 
laid in the stems of trees — which include the larger nuniber of species — the organ does not reach 
the xylem or, reaching it, is not able to penetrate the harder wood and slips to one side, leaving the egg 
between the wood and the bark. In the cases in which the eggs are laid in buds, the part of the bud 
usually chosen is the outer scales, which are not thereby prevented from performing their functions as 
protective structures and are of little importance in the later development of the plant. 

There are, however, exceptions to the foregoing general statements. Certain species of the 
genus Ceresa in North America are known to cause rather serious damage to young stems and twigs 
because of the fact that the eggs are laid in curving, parallel rows and the bark is cut in such a fashion 
that it fails to heal and leaves a conspicuous line of scars. These scars persist for several years and 
are occasionally infected with fungi and offer an entrance for other insects. If such punctures are made 
in very young twigs or in the soft stems of annuals, especially if made close enough together to girdle 
the stems, the results may be serious. In a somewhat similar maniier, damage may be done to buds 
by those species which lay their eggs in buds, particularly if the buds happen to be small ones in which 
the internal tissues may be reached. Species oi Slictocephala and Etichenopa in the United States have 
been known to destroy small buds of fruit trees and of the butternut in this manner. In most cases, 
however, the buds chosen for oviposition are the large terminal buds and the eggs are so lightly inserted 
that they may be seen projecting on the outside of the bud. In these cases very little damage can 
result. In a few instances, on the other hand, the buds chosen have been so small and the eggs so 



42 HOMOPTERA 

deeply inserted that the buds have been deformed. In the case of a fruit bud this would of course 
result in an economic loss, but the chances are so largely in favor of the choice of large buds, or of 
leaf buds which can be replaced without serious results, that the relative injury done is small. 

The fact that Membracida are found in many parts of the world on host plants of great economic 
value, such as fruit trees in North America, teak in the Dutch Indies, sandal in India, and forage crops 
in various countries, and that so few reports on economic loss due to these insects have ever been made, 
would indicate that the membracids as a group should not be considered as pests. 

Even if certain species should prove to be destructive, the problem of control should not be 
difficult. Very few if any of the Homoptera are so poorly adapted by habits and Hke factors to resist 
the ordinary control measures of the entomologist, as are the tree-inhabiting speciesof the Membracida, 
and it seems hardly likely that in orchards or forests in which the simplest kind of preventative work 
is done they will ever become serious pests. The nymphs of all species are very soft-bodied and habitu- 
ally rest in the crotches of twigs and the axils of leaves, where they can easily be reached by contact 
sprays. Liquid sprays of the miscible oil or nicotine type will run down the twig and collect in such 
places, even if applied in a very careless and superficial manner to the tree. Egg masses are easily 
found, are usually on comparatively young stems, and can be removed by intelligent pruning. Clean 
cultivation and the removal of the weeds which furnish the food or of the secondary hosts on which the 
eggs are laid will control those forms which feed on one host and oviposit on another. On the whole 
the Membracida seem to be of little concern to the agriculturist or forester. 



TERMINOLOGY 

The peculiar pronotal structures of the Membracida have been largely responsible for the 
development of a terminology for this family which is in many cases quite different from that used for 
other insects. Certain descriptive terms have been proposed and adopted which are in some instances 
unique in entomology. Many of these names were first used by early writers but have found favor by 
later entomologists since they were well suited for descriptive purposes and they have now become well 
established. 

Since these terms are used throughout the foUowing descriptions of genera and in the taxonomic 
keys, a few of the most important should be mentioned. 

Pronotum . Applies to any part of the notum of the prothorax whether visible or hidden. It is often 
greatly exaggerated in the Membracida. 

Anterior process. Any projection arising from the front of the pronotum. 

Dorsal crest. A protuberance or hump at or near the center of the pronotum. 

Posterior process. Any extension of the pronotum behind the scutellum. 

Scutellum. The posterior dorsal sclerite of the mesonotum. 

Humeral angles. The lateral protuberances on either side of the front of the pronotum above 
the eyes. 

Suprahumeral horns. Projections often cornute or auriculate on either side of the front of the 
pronotum above the humeral angles. Generally spoken of simply as « suprahumerals ». 

Metopidium. The decHvous part of the pronotum from the base of the head to the front of the 
dorsum. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



43 



Dorsum. Any part of the upper surface of the pronotum. 

Median carina. An elevated ridge extending down the center of any part of the dorsum. 

Lateral carinae. Any ridges or rugas on the side of the pronotum. 



dorja/ cresf 



juprethumera/ horrt ~ ~ 
metopidium-. ^ 
humeral onp/e^^^^ 

^eo-c/- - _ _^ ~ ~ - ~ -. _^^ 
j/iafe ty f/tora^f. 

c/ypeti^s- 

troc/>ar>fer 

femur 



,scu/e//u/n 

pos/error process 
tepmen 




^^//bia 



FiG. 7. — Ganeral structupes 



Base of head. That part of the head which adjoins the metopidium. 
Eyes. The compound eyes on the side of the head. 
Ocelli . The two simple eyes on the front of the head. 



^median carina 
^supra/iumera/ horn 
'' ^metopidium 
"^ ,humera/ ang/e 
' ^^base of/iead 
^^ocellus 




-~-et/ff 

'~~ margin ofQena 

~'~c/(/peus 



FiG. 8. — Frontal structures 



Genae. The side sclerites or « cheeks » extending from the eyes to the clypeus. 

Clypeus. The terminal scieiite of the head above the beak. 

Tegmina. In the Membracidas always refer to the front wings or first pair of wings. 



44 



HOMOPTERA 



Wings. In the Membracidas always mean the hind wings or second pair of wings. 

Corium. The broader, anterior portion of the tegmen, farthest from the scutellum. 

Clavus. The narrower anal portion of the tegmen, adjacent to the scutellum. 

Claval suture. The dividing line, usually a distinct fold, separating the clavus from the corium. 

Apical cells. Those cells of the tegmina or wings which border on the apical end, 

Discoi dal cell. Any completely enclosed cell in the center of the tegmen or wing. 

Apical limbus. The outside membrane which forms the border of the tegmen or wing. 

Armed trochanters. Hind trochanters which bear teeth on their inside margins. 



Baje—~ 



CoMmarg/n ^,-^^^,^^, ,,f, 




A/oicaf cell 

-Tip 
^Apica/ /imbus 



Ana/ margin 



C/atv>/ ysufure 



FiG. 9. — Wlng Btpuetupes 



The above struqtures are diagrammatically represented in Text Figures 7, 8 and 9. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 45 



CLASSIFICATION 



The classification of the Membracidce here adopted recognizes six subfamilies, following the 
classical major divisions which were estabUshed by Fairmaire, Stal and Fowler. These subdivisions 
are based on sound structural characters and have proven entirely satisfactory for taxonomic work. 
Some authors («. g. Goding 1926) have seen fit to include the genus jEthalion in the fam. Membracida 
as a subfamily but we do not see how such an assignment can be justified. The yEthalionida are quite 
distinct from the MembracidcB in such important characters as genitalia, wing venation, sensory appa- 
ratus, pronotal structures and in life histories, and we believe that these insects should be considered 
as a separate family. The six subfamilies here recognized show not only good structural characters by 
which they may be recognized, but there are few genera which show tendencies to overlap and indeed 
very few which may be considered transitional. 

The subfamilies are divided into tribes, erected on more or less arbitrary characters. These 
tribes are in turn divided directly into the genera of which 290 are considered as valid in this study, 
and the genera are again divided directlj' into the species. No other subdivisions, such as sub-tribes or 
sub-genera, are here recognized or considered. 

In the following systematic outlines, the characters are, for the most part, natural ones, and 
we believe entirely suited to dichotomous keys, and sufftcient for the recognition of the divisions 
indicated. In such keys, howevei , the number of characters which can be mentioned in each synoptic 
pair is of course limited, and, in case of doubt, reference should always be made to the more complete 
generic descriptions. 



TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS 

It is of course impossible to state positively the characters which should be considered of generic 
value but after a careful study of those structures which in the Membracida seem to be most useful in 
separating the genera the author has chosen a list of certain easily recognizable features which we 
believe will serve this purpose. These have to do chiefly with the foUowing : 

1. The Head. Shape and position; structure of the base; form of the eyes; position of the 

ocelli; configuration of the inferior margins of the genae; appearance of the clypeus. 

2. The Prothorax. General shape and appearance of the pronotum; type of metopidium; 

appearance of humeral angles; structure of suprahumeral horns; shape and position 
of posterior process; type of scutellum. 

3. The Tegmina and Hind Wings. Size and shape; free or covered; texture; condition 

of basal and costal margins; venation; number of apical and discoidal cells; shape of 
tip; apical limbus. 

4. The Legs. Shapes and comparative lengths of femora and tibiffi; condition of trochanters; 

flattened or foliaceous parts; comparative length of hind tarsi. 



46 HOMOPTERA 

In most cases it is of course not necessary to mention all of these characters, but in the instances 
of closely related genera where careful comparison is required to note differentiation, the entire category 
is often listed. 

Coloration and sculpturing are in general ignored in these generic descriptions since such char- 
actersare usually specific rather than generic. 

Neither have we used the genital characters or the abdominal structures, not because these are 
not valuable, for they probably are, but because they are so extremely difficult to distinguish in mount- 
ed specimens. 

BIBLIOQRAPHICAL REFERENCES 

For obvious reasons we have abbreviated the bibhographical references to the shortest possible 
form but we believe that no undue difficulties will be presented because of this fact since we are 
appending a complete bibUography to which reference may easily be made. 



QEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

It has been our practice for many years to keep a record of all localities represented by specimens 
sent us for determination as well as of those seen in collections throughout the world. We are thus 
able to add a great many distribution records to those given in previously published lists. 

The problem has been how to limit the number of references in the cases of widely distributed 
species. In general, in such cases, we have endeavored to give for each species the general region in 
which it is to be found, with enough scattered localities to indicate the extent of distribution. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ ^7 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E GERMAR 

SUBFAMILIES OF THE FAM. MEMBRACIDyE 

I. Sculellum absent or rudimentary and entirely concealed by the pronotum. 

A. Anterior tibia foliaceous Membracin^ Stal. 

B. Anterior tibite simple 

1. Posterior tarsi very short, much shorter than froni or middle tarsi . . PLATYCOTlNiE Subfam. nov. 

2. Posterior tarsi as long or longer than front or middle tarsi 

a, Third apical cell of corium truncaie, never petiolate Darnin^e Stal. 

aa. Third apical cell of corium petiolale 

b. Tegmina coriaceous and opaque ; apical limbus very broad . . . Tragopin/e Stal. 
bb. Tegmina entirely or almost entirely membranous ; apical limbus 

narrow Smiliin^ Stal. 

II. Scutellum present ; usually exposed Centrotin^ Spinola. 



SuBF. MEMBRACIN/E Stal 

TRIBES OF SUBF. MEMBRACIN^ 

I. ProHotum foliaceous, elevaled, and more or less bilaterally flattened .... Membracini Goding. 
11. Pronotum not foliaceous 

A. Pronotum with one or more anterior horns or prntuberances Notocerini Tiibus nov. 

B. Pronotum tvithout frontal horns Bolbonotini Goding. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE MEMBRACINI GODING 

I. Pronotum highly elevated, arcuate, rounded, compressed and leaflike; no prono- 

tal processes Membracis Fabricius. 

II. Pronotum little elevated, moderately compressed and having an anterior horn or 
frontal angle 
.\. Frontal horn long, usually porrect; head suhquadrate 

1. Lateral carina not extended behind humeral angles Enchophyi.lum A. & S. 

2. Lateral cariiice extended behind humeral angles, usually reaching lateral 

margins of pronotum 
a. Lateral carince of pronotal horu equidistanl froni superior and infe- 

rior margins ; both margins foliaceous Enchenopa A. & S. 

aa. Lateral carincc of pronotal horn close to upper margin; inferior mar- 

gin notfoliaceous Campylenchia Stal. 

B. Frontal horn short, erect; head triatigalar Tritropidia Stal. 



48 



HOMOPTERA 



1. genus membracis fabricius 



Membracis Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 675. (1775). 
Phyilotropis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 41. (1869). 

Characteps : The type genus of the family and of the subfamily. Distinguished by the very 
foUaceous pronotum, leaf-like, highly elevated, and much flattened laterally. There are no pronotal 
processes of any kind and the entire body is generally an arcuate plate. The tibiae, particularly the 
front pair, are broadly compressed and foliaceous. The insects of this genus are mostly of large size, 
among the largest in the entire family, and are often very briUiantly colored. They are among 
the most conspicuous of all membracids. 

Type foUata Linnasus. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is limited to South and Central America and the 
species are distributed as follows : 

1. alboUmbata Fowler, B. C. A. 5. 2. Pl. i : figs. i, 1^(1894). 

2. alticollum Stoll, Cigal. Pl. 28 : fig. i65 (1780). 

3. arcuata De Geer, Ins. [II : 206.9(1773). 

peripharia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 245. 7 (1846). 
subtecta Buckton, Mon. Memb. 42 (igoS). 

4. atrala Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 8. 10 (i8o3). 

5. bipars Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. XIII : 290(1924). 

6. bucktoni Funkhouser (nom. nov.), Ent. News XXXII : i5i (1921). 

militaris (preoccupied) Buckton. Mon. Memb. 43 (igoS). 

7 carinata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 8.8 (i8o3). 
8. caruata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i3 (i8o3). 



Honduras. 
Surinam. 
Brazil, Guiana. 

South America. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Brazil, Guiana. 
Brazil. 



9. confusa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 247. 14(1846). 

interrupla Kairmaire, Rev. Memb. 247. 16 (1846). 
malleonata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 247. 14 (1846). 
juncta Walker, Ins. Saund. Sg (i858). 
trifasciata Stal, Bid Memb. Kan. 269. i (1869). 
trisignala Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 269. 2 (1869). 
exigua Buckton, Mon. Memb. 42 (1903). 

10. divergens Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. XIII : 291 (1924). 

11. dorsata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 11. 26(i8o3). 

curvilinia Walker, Ins. Saund. 58 (i858). 

ephippiala StsA, Hem. Fab. II : 41. 7 (1869). 

vergens Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33o (i9o5). 

12. fasciata Fabricius, Syst. Nat. II : 2092. 54(1767). 

cingulata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 3o7 (i835). 

rosea Fairmaire. Rev. Memb. 246. 9 (1846). 

cucullata Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 76 (iSSg). 

fasciatum Stal, Hem. Fab. II : 41. i (1869). 

sanguinoplaga Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 36i (1906). 

completa Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 36i (1906). 

i3. foUata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. II : 7o5. 2 (1767). — Pl. I, fig. I 

maculifolia StcU, Cigal. 17. Pl. i. fig. 2 (1780). 
flaveola Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 262. 4 (1787). 
c-album Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 244. 4 (1846). 
celsa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 475. 9(i85i). 
expansa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 475. 8 (i85i). 



Brazil, Colombia. 



Ecuador. 
Brazil. 



Brazil, Guiana. 



Brazil, Guiana, Colombia, 
Venezuela, Mexico, Guate- 
mala, Ecuador. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



49 



fiexa Walker, Ins. Saund. 58 (i858). 
surgtns Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 76 (1859). 
jtssica Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 34 (1920). 

14. fusca De Geer, Ins. III : 208. 10 (1773). 

i5. humilis Fowler, B. C. A. 6. 6. Tab. I, fig. 6, 6a (1894). 

16. hfebvrei Fairmaire. Rev. Memb. 246. 10(1846). 

divisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. I23 (i858). 
confinis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 41 (1903). 

17. lunata Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 262. 6(1787). 

nigro-albomaculata (nom. nud.) Stoll, Cigal. 33. (1780). 
mimica Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. I23 (i858). 

18. mexicana Guerin, Icon. Reg. Anim. 364 (i838). 

stolida Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 248. 20 (1846). 
scx-maculata Walker, Ins. Saund. Sg (i858). 
suffusa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 38 (igo3). 

19. micans Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool, IX : 33o (igo5). 

20. nigrifolia StoU, Cigal. 68 (1780). 

nigra Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 668. 4 (1792). 
compressa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng, 9. 14 (i8o3). 

21. peruana Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. XIII : 291 (1924). — Pl. I , fig. 2. 

22. peruviana F"airmaire, Rev. Memb. 249. 21 (1846). 

intermedia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 249. 22 (1846). 
ambigua Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 249. 24 (1846). 

23. proboscidea Burmeister, Zool. Handb. AXXas. Pl. 29, fig. 26(1860). 

24. schmidti (nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 53 (1927). 

trimaculata (preoccupied) Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. Xlll : 294 (1924). 

25. tectigera Stoll, Cigal. 58. Pl. 14, fig. 71 (1780). 

/asciata Coquebert, III. Icon.Tab. 18, fig. i (1799). 

elevata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 8. 9 (i8o3). 

alta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 476. n (i85i). 
fuscata Atkinson, J. A. S. B. 54. 79 (1884). 
provittata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 42 (1903) 

26. tricolor I"airmaire, Rev. Memb. 249. 23 (1846). 

27. trimaculata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2^5. 6(1846). 

nebulosa Fowler, B. C. A. 3i8. I (igog). 

28. zonata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 248. 17 (1846). 

fusifera Walker, Ins. Saund. 58 (i858). 



Peru, Brazil [Guiana. 

Mexico, Pevu, Ecuador, 
Brazil, Guiana, Mexico. 

Brazil, Surinam. 

Mexico, Honduras, Guatema- 
la, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Panama, Colombia. 

Unknown. 
Brazil, .Surinam. 

Peru. 

Peru, Chile, Brazil. 

Mexico. 
Colombia. 

Brazil, Surinam, Guiana, Co- 
lombia, Venezuela, Mexico, 
Ecuador. 

Colombia. 
Costa Rica. 

Brazil. 



2. Genus ENCHOPHYLLUM Amyot and Serville 

Enchophyllum Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 534. (1843). 
Tropidecepa Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 38. (1869). 

Characters : Insects of medium size with the pronotum but slightly elevated and only 
moderately compressed and with a long anterior pronotal process which usually projects forward over 
the head. The head is subquadrate and the genae as well as the front tibiae are foliaceous. The 
tegmina are narrow, lanceolate and usually more or less opaque. The frontal horn bears lateral 
carinte but these ridges do not extend farther backward than the humeral angles. This genus is dis- 
tinctly transitional betvveen Membracis and Enchenopa. 



Type cnuntatum Germar. 



5o 



HOMOPTERA 



Geographical distribution : 

1. albidum Fowler, B. C. A. 7. 2 (1894). 

2. cassis StoU, Cigal. 48, Pl. 11, fig. 52 (1780). 

3. crucntatum Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 266. 11 (i835). 

4. decoratum Erichson, Schomb. Reis. 6i5 (1848). 

tripustulatum Stal, Bid. Mem. Kan. 270 (1869). 

5. dubium Fovvler, B. C. A. 38. 3 (1894). 

6. ensatnm Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 12. 28 (i8o3). 

scenica Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 76 (iSSg). 

7. fulicum Germar, Rev. Silb. III. 225. 9 (i835). 

nigrocuprea Walker, Ins. Saund. 60 (i858). 

8. malaleucum \^a\ker, Ins. Saund. 59(i858). 

9. imbelle Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 271. 7 (1869). 

10. nigroluteum Funkhouser, Joiirn. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. 159(1927). 

11. quinquemaculatum Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 25o. 27 (1846). 

auropicla Buckton, Mon. Memb. 5o (igoS). 
maculalum Buckton, Mon. Memb. 45 (igo3). 

12. riley i Godmg, Can. Ent. XXV : 56. 7 (1893). 
i3. simulans Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 23. 8 (i858). 

14. squamigerum Linnasiis, Syst. Nat. XII : i. 12 (1767). 
i5. trimaculatum Stal, Hem. Mex. 68. 407 (1864). 



Guatemala. 
Surinam. 
Brazil. 
Guiana. 

Guatemala, Mexico, Panama. 
Brazil, Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala. 

Brazil, Argentina. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

St. Vincenfs Island. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Mexico. 



3. Genus ENCHENOPA AMYOT and Serville 

Enchenopa Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 535 (1843). 

Characters : This genus was erected by the authors to include those forms of their « Corni- 
dorsi » which dififeied from their preceding genus Enchophyllum in having the pronotum not foliaceous 
although possessing an anterior horn. Later, however, Stal split off his genus Campylenchia on the 
characters of the pronotal process, so that now the genus Enchenopa is limited to those species having 
the pronotum very Uttle elevated, only slightly compressed, the only foliaceous portion being the more 
or less porrect pronotal horn iii which a single midrib-Uke ridge extends down the center, leaving both 
margins flattened and about equal in width. The sides of the pronotum are multicarinate and the 
ridges extend posteriorly farther than the humeral angles and generally reach the lateral margins. 

Type monoceros Germar. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. albidorsa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 25i. 3o (1846). 

ephippiata (sic) Goding, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 210 (1928). 

2. altissima Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2^2 (1846). 

3. andiiia Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. XIII : 293 (1924). 

4. apicalis Stal, Hem. Mex. 68. 408 (1864). 

5. arcuata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i25 (i858). 

6. bicolor Walker, List Hom B. M. 38 (i85i). 



Brazil, Colombia, Guiana, 

Colombia. 
Costa Rica. 
Mexico. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



5i 



7. bicuspis Walker, List. Hom. B. M. 487. 3i (i85i). 

8. biftisifera Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i25 (i858). 

9. biuotaia Say, Narr. Long's Exp. App. 3oi (1824). 

brevis Walker, List. Hom. B. M. 492 (i85i). 

10. concolor Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 253. 37 (1846). 

nigro-apicata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 23 (i858). 

11. costaricensis Schmidt, Ent. Mitt. XHI : 293 (1924). 

12. ferruginea Walker, List Hom. B. M. 489. 3^ (i85i). 

varians Walker, Ins. Saund. 62 (i858). 

i3. gladius Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i3. 3o (i8o3). 
14. gracilis Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 29. 3i (1818). 
i5. ignidorsum Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 124 (i858). 

16. lanceolata Stoll, Cic. Tabl. 27, fig. 166 (1780). 

longicoUum Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 667. i (1792). 

17. moHoceros Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 28. 29 (1818). — Pl. I , fig. 3. 

18. multicarinata Fowler, B. C. A. 11. 7 (1894). 

19. nigrocuprea Walker, Ins. Saund. 6o(i858). 

20. permufata Van Duzee, Stud. N. .A. Memb. 112 (1908). 

utahensis Godino, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 167 (1929). 

21. qnadricolor Waiker, Ins. Saund. 60 (i858). 

subangulata Walker, Ins. Saund. 61 (i858). 
excelsior Walker, Ins. Saund. 61 (i858). 
humilior VValker, Ins. Saund. 62 (i858). 
curvicornis Walker, Ins. Saund 62 (i858). 

22. quadrimaculata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 124 (i858). 

23. sericea Walker, List Hom. B. M. 493. 41 (i5i). 

24. tesselata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 48 (1903). 



Unknown. 

Mexico. 

Canada, United States. 

Brazil. 

Costa Rica. 
Colombia. 

Panama, Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, 
Surinam. 

Brazil, Colombia, Nicaragua, 

Guiana. 
Brazil, Argentina, 

Guiana. 
Mexico. 
Brazil. 
United States. 

Guatemala, Mexico, Brazil, 
Venezuela. 



Brazil. 

Venezuela, Mexico, Panama. 

Brazil, Mexico. 



4. GENUS CAMPYLENCHIA STAL 

Campylenchia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 39. 43 (1869). 

Characters : Campylenchia was denominated a subgenus by Stal to accommodate those insects 
in which the inferior margin of the pronotal horn was not foliaceous and the carina of this process was 
close to the superior margin. The group was raised to generic rank by Goding (1892) on the basis of 
these characters and has since been so recognized, but the distinction is not clear-cut and theie are 
many species which are more or less transitional. The other characters are the same as those for the 
genus Enchenopa. On the whole, the range of Campylenchia, at least as to nuinbers of individuals, seems 
to be farther north than Enchennpa. 

Type curvata Fabricius. 



Geographical distributlon : 

I. curvata Fabricius, Syst. Khyng. i3. 34 (i8o3). - 
densa Walker, I.ist Hom. B. M. 490. 35 (i85i) 



Pl. I , fig. 4. Colombia, Mexico, United 

States. 



52 



HOMOPTERA 



2. hastata Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 263. 9 (1787). 

nutans Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 28. 3o (1818). 
nigrovittata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 539. 14 (i85i). 

3. latipes Say, Narr. Long's Exp. App. 3o2 (1824). 

antonina Walker, List Hom. B. M. 488 (i85i). 
venosa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 488 (iSSi). 
frigida Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 126 (i858). 
antona (sic) Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 76 (iSSg). 
bimacula Dohrn. Cat. Hem. 76 (i85g). 
rectidorsum Buckton, Mon. Memb. 49 (i9o3). 

4. minans Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 252. 35 (1846). 

micans (sic) Stal, Hem. Mex. 57. 405 (1864). 

5. rtigosa Fowler, B. C. A. 10. 6 (1894). 



Peru, Brazil, Panama, Mexi- 
co, Guiana. 

Canada, United States. 



Mexico, Espiritu Santo Isl. 



Mexico. 



5. genus TRITROPIDIA STAL 

Tritropidia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 44 (1869). 

Cliaracters : Distinguished from the other genera of the Membracini by the triangular head 
and the short, erect frontal horn. The pronotum is moderately elevated, rather distinctiy compressed 
and the lateral carinae are usually very faint or obsolete. The species are all small in size and are 
mostly bright in color. 

Type galeata OUvier. 

Geographical distribution : 

1. bifenestrata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i (1922). 

2. galeata Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 668. 6 (1792). — Pl. I , flg. 5. 



militaris Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i5. 39 (i8o3). 

pulcliella Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i (1922). 

3. nimbata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i5. 40 (i8o3). 

alticervtx (nom. nud.) Stoll, Cigal. ii3 (1780). 

4. rubrocassis StoU, Cigal. 67. Pl. 17, fig. 90 (1780). 



Brazil, Guiana. 
Surinam, Peru, Guiana. 

Surinam, Brazil. 
Surinam, Ecuador. 



GENERA OF TRIBE NOTOCERINI TRIBUS NOV 

I. Head distinctly trilobed SpoNGOPHORUsFairmaire. 

II. Head not trilobed 

A. Venatioii normal 

1. Anterior proiiotum produced in a single porrect process or tubercle 

a. Surface of pronotum smooth Guayaquila Goding. 

aa. Pronotum bearing ridges, spines or nodules 

b. Dorsal margin smooi/t Philya Walker. 

bb. Dorsal margin spinose Hypsoprora Stal. 

2. Anterior pronotum with two suprahumerals Notocera A. & S. 

B. Venation irregiilar ; maiiy small celliiles 

1. Single porrect pronotal process Scalmorphus Fowler. 

2. Two suprahuineral horns or entirely withnut processes Multareis Goding. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



53 



6. GENUS SPONGOPHORUS FAIRMAIRE 



Spongophorus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2hi (1846). 
Cladonata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 273 (1869). 

Characters : This is one of tlie most remarkable of all of tbe genera of the Membracidaj in 
showing grotesque and bizarre pronotal developments which appear generally in the form of greatly 
exaggerated dorsal processes. These most unusual and ahnost unbehevable structures have doubtless 
suggested many of the specific names in the genus such as « inelegans >i , « ludicrus «, « mirabilis », 
« paradoxus » and « ridicuhis n. Fairmaire speaks of the prothorax as « sometimes a bow, sometimes 
presenting elongated or fungifovm swellings, sometimes extending beyond the extremity of the elytra » 
but chooses as his definitive character the peculiar trilobed head, which is, indeed, a character sufficient 
to distinguish it from all other genera of the tribe Notoceriui. Fairmaire notes, in addition, the fact that 
the ocelli are on a line with the middle of the eyes and that the elongate tegmina are usually free. 

Type ballista Germar. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. affinis Fowler, B. C. .\., 29. 3 (1894). 

2. albofasciatus Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 64. 5. (1893). 

3. atratus da Fonseca, .4rquiv. Instit. Biol. VII : 12. 162 (1936). 

4. balUsia Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 23i. i (i835). — Pl. I , fig. 6. 

claviger Stal, Hem. Mex. 68 (1864). 

apicalis Sta.\, Bid. Memb. Kan. 273. i (1869). 

brunneus Fallou, Rev. Ent. IX : 254(1891). 

5. bemetii Kirby, Mag. Nat. Hist. 20 (1869). 

6. biclavus Westwood. Int. Class Ins. II : 4^2 (1840). 

parvulus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 80 (1903). 

7. bivexillifer Costa, Mus. Nap. II : i5o (1862). 

8. championi Fowler, B. C. .\. 28, 2 (1894). 

g. cinereus Aa. Fonseca, Rev. Ent. III : 4. 445 (1933). 

10. clavaria Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 261. 4 (1846). 

11. cosiaia Buckton, Mon. Memb. 61 (1903). 

12. facetus Walker, Ins. Saund. 64 (i858). 

acelus (sic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 82 (i9o3). 

i3. /ai/<«j Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 24. 1. (1862). 

14. foliaius Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. .XXX : i. 8. (1922). 

i5. guerini Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 262. 6. (1846). 

spatiilalus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 262. 7 (1846;. 
dorsalis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 80 (igo3). 
querini (sic) Comstock. Int. Ent. 404 (1924). 

16. inelegans Buckton, Mon. Memb. 82(1903). 

17. inflaius Fowler, B. C. A. 3o. 5 (1924). 

18. latifrons Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 272. 4 (1869). 
ig. lividus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 81(1903). 

20. lobulaius Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 276. 6 (1869). 

21. locomotiva Breddin, Soc. Ent. 60 (igoi). 



Guatemala. 
West Indies. 
Brazil. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 
Colombia. 

Colombia. 

Brazil, Panama, Mexico. 

South America. 

(juatemala. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

St. Vincent's. 

South America. 

Brazil. 
Brazil. 

I^razil, Bolivia, Guiana, Pan- 
ama. 

Mexico. 

(iuatemala. 

Mexico. 

Brazil. 

Bogota. 

Ecuador. 



54 



HOMOPTERA 



22. ludicrus Walker, Ins. Saund. 63 (i858). 

23. machimda Breddin, Soc. Ent. 6o (igoi). 

24. mirabilis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 261. 2 (1846). 

25. nodosis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 79 (igoS). 

26. paradoxus Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 26, 27. (1818). 

27. ridiculus Walker, Ins. Saund. 64 (i858). 

28. rigidus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 275. 5 (1869). 

29. robustulus Fowler, B C. A 29. 4 (1894). 

30. ru/escens da. Fonseca, Rev. Ent. III : 4. 444. (1933). 
3i. undulatits Walker, List Hom. B. M. 498. 9 (i85i). 
32. vexilliferus Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 53. 4 (1893). 



Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 

Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

West Indies. 



7. genus GUAYAQUILA GODING 

Guayaquila Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 21 (1920). 

Characters : We have never seen an example of this genus, and, in fact, the genus has never 
been recognized by any author other than Goding himself. We can therefore only quote his generic 
description as foUows : 

« Pronotum armed with a compressed horn in front, destitute of lateral carinae but with a 
percurrent median carina; dorsum flat, broad at humeral angles, gradually attenuated to an obtuse 
apex which reaches tip of abdomen, but shorter than apices of tegmina. Generally golden silky 
pubescent. Tegmina similar in shape and venation to those seen in the genus Membracis. Wings 
with four apical cells, second broad and quadrangular, fourth minute. Front and middle tibiae 
broadly dilated, short; posterior legs three times the length of front legs, hind tibia; with strong 
sharp spines. Facies of Aconophora. » 

From the above description it would appear that the only diagnostic characters which would sepa- 
rate this genus from other closely related genera would be the absence of lateral carinae and the long 
hind legs, which would seem to be very sHght differences on which to erect a new genus. The figure 
published in the « Boletin de Medicina y Cirurgia » is entirely unsatisfactory. 

Type roreriana Goding. 



Geographical distribution 

1. aperta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 337(i858). 

2. maxima Goding. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 43 (1928). 

3. mirucortiua Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 7 (ig^o) 

4. olseni Goding, Journ. N Y. Ent. Soc XXXVI : 224 (1928). 

5. roreriana Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 34, 37 (1920). 

6. sulfurus Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 44 (1928). 

7. vexator Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent Soc. XXXVI : 43 (1928). 



Brazil, Ecuador. 

Ecuador. 

Honduras. 

Honduras. 

Ecuador. 

Ecuador. 

Ecuador. 



8. genus PHILYA WALKER 

Philya Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 126 (i858). 
Azlnia Walker, Ins. Saund. 63 (i858). 
>Echmopplia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 39 (1869). 

Characters : A group of small, slender-bodied insects at once distinguished by the single long, 
porrect anterior process which is usualiy slightly swoUen and often somewhat bidentate at the tip. The 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



55 



head is subquadrate, all of the tibiae very foliaceous, the sides of the jnonotum rugose or roughly sculp- 
tured and the dorsum smooth. The tegmina are long and narrow and the cells of the apical area mucli 
given to irregularity and a multicellular condition. The insectsare inconspicuous and of somber colors. 

Type bicolor Walker. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. ascendens Waiker, List Hom. B. M. 493. 40 (i85i). 

2. bicolor Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 126 (i858). 

curvicnrnis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 279. 228 (1869). 

3. californensis Goding, Cat. N. A. Memb. 466. 228 (1894). 

Pl. i.fig. 7. 

4. dubia Fowler, B. C. A. 22. 4 (1894). 

5. elephas Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 23. 11 (i858). 

6. ferruginosa Goding, Cat. N. \. Memb. 466. 227 (1894). 

7. lituus Fowler, B. C. A. 21, i (1894). 

8. lowryi Plummer, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 4. 682 (1936). 

9. minor Fovvler, B. C. A. 22. 3 (1894). 

10. pallidipennis Walker, Ins. Saund. 63 (i858). 

11. strigulata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 57 (igo3). 

12. vitreipennis Fowler, B. C. A. 21. 2 (1894). 



Colombia, Ecuador. 
Brazil, Colombia. 

— United States. 

Mexico. 

Brazil. 

United States. 

Mexico. 

Mexico. 

Guatemala. 

Chile, Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Mexico 



9. GENUS HYPSOPRORA Stal 



Hypsoprora Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 277 (1869). 

Characters : Closely related to Philya but differing in having the dorsum decorated with spines 
and often bearing an erect median dorsal process. The anterior horn is strongand is produced upward 
or forward. AU three pairs of tibiae are strongly foliaceous. The tegmina are lanceolate and are 
generally opaque with the venation indistinct. All of the insects of this genus are of small size and of 
inconspicuous colors. 

Type pileata Fairmaire. 



Geographicai distribution : 

1. albopicta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : 17 (1922). 

2. anatina Fowler, B. C. A. 26. 3 (1894). 

3. aspera Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 242(1925). 

4. coronata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 14. 38 (i8o3). — Pl. I , fig. 8. 

varia Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5o2. 17 (i85i). 

5. erecta da Fonseca, Rev. Ent. III : 4. 441 (1933). 

6. nigerrima Fowler, B. C. A. 25. 2 (1894). 

7. nogolata Ball, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash. XLVI : 29 (1^33). 

8. pileata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 266. 12 (1846). 

9. simplex Van Duzee, Calif. Acad. Sci. XII : 11. i6g (1923). 
lo. teter Bucklon, Mon. Memb. 66 (igo^). 



Brazil, Peru. 

Panama. 

Guiana. 

Guatemala, Brazil, Mexico, 

Panama. 
Brazil. 

Mexico, Guatemala. 
United States. 
Colombia. 
Lower Calif. 
Brazil. 



56 



HOMOPTERA 



11. tritubercttlata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 278. 5 (1869). 

12. iuberosa Stal, ]^id. Memb. Kan. 277. 3 (1869). 



Mexico, Panama. 
Colombia. 



10. Genus notocera amyot and Serville 

Notoeera Aniyot and Serville, Hemip. 536 (1843). 
Ptepygla (preoccupied) Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. France I : 266 (i832). 
Kallipterygia Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXIV : 6 (1901). 

Characters : The genus may be lecognized at once by the two ampliate suprahumeral horns 
and by the remarkably spinose and nodulate character of the dorsum which gives the insect a most 
unprepossessing and diabolical appearance as such specific names as « daemonica )> and u satanas » 
would indicate. The head is subquadrate, longer than wide, and leaf-hke. All three pairs of tibias are 
broadly flattened. The tegmina are usually semiopaque but the venation is normal. AU of the insects 
of this genus are small in size and most of them are very dark in color. 

Type crticiala Fabricius. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. alatarntia Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 44 (1928). 

2. arietina Germar, Rev. Silb. HI : 3o8 {i835). 

3. bifida Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 267. 14 (1846). 

4. bituherculata Fowler, B. C. A. 24. 2 (1924). — Pl. I , fig. 9. 

5. bovina Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 24. i (i858) 

6. brachycera Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 265. 9 (1846). 

7. capitata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 267. i3 (1846). 

8. cerviceps Fowler, B. C. A. 24. 3 (1894). 

9. crassicornis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 264. 5 (1846) 

10. cruciata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 18. 8 (i8o3). 

11. cylindricornis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 277. 2 (1869). 

12. damoniaca Buckton, Mon. Memb. 71 (igoS). 

i3. exaltata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5o2. 16 (i85i). 
14. fiavopunctata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 75 (1903). 
i5. hadula Stal, Rio Jan Hem. II : 25. 4 (i858). 

16. hispida Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 265. 7 (1846). 

17. incognita Buckton, Mon. Memb. 75 (1903). 

18. marquarti Laporte, .Ann. Soc. Ent. France I : 221 (i832). 

19. maculosa Walker, Ins. Saund. 65 (i858). 

punctuosa Biickton, Mon. Memb. 75 (igoS). 

20. nigrocruciata StoU, Nat. Leev. Cic. 61 (1780). 

21. nox Ruckton. Mon. Memb. 73 (1903). 



Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Panama. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 

Guatemala, Mexico, Panama. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Brazil 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Colombia, Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Surinam. 
Brazil. 



Nota : For many years the insects of ihis genus have stood under the name Pterygia but Goding (1928) has called 
attention to the fact that this name was employed for a genus in the Mollusca by Bolton in 1798, by Link in 1807 and by 
Latreille in 1825. The membracid genus must therefore be given the name Notocera, Amyot and Serville (1848). 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 

22. quadridens Fairmaiie, Rev. Memb. 264. 4 (1846). 

23. quiiiqtutuberculata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 266. 10 (1846). 

24. rubicunda Buckton, Mon. Memb. 72 (igo3). 

pehlkei Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 326 (1906). 

25. satanas Lesson, 111. Zool. Pl. 56, fig. 2 (i83i). 

subsimilis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 128 (i858). 
concolor Buckton, Mon. Memb. 73 (igoS). 



57 



Brazil. 
Venezuela. 
Brazil, Colombia. 

Brazil. 



26. spinidorsa Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII 

27. tenuicortiis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 263. 2 (igo^). 

28. tripodia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 263. 2 (1846). 

29. tuberosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 266. 11 (1846). 

30. uropigii Buckton, Mon. Memb. 82 (1903). 



2. 171 (1929). Ecuador. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 
Argentina. 
Brazil, Guiana. 



11. genus SCALMORPHUS Fowler 

Scalmopphus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 22 (1894). 

Characters : p-owler separated this genus from Philya on the basis of the diamond-shaped 
appearance of the pronotum as viewed from above, and the strongly reticulate tegmina. These char- 
acters seem to be sufficient for the recognition of the genus. The single porrect pronotal horn is 
gradually acuminate, and the posterior process is likewise narrowed from its base to a very sharp point. 
The head and the first two pairs of tibiae are broadly foliaceous. The tegmina are hvaline and the 
cells are inclined to much irregularity. 

Type reticulatus Fowler. 

Geogpaphical distrlbution : Only two species have been described for the genus and both 
of these apparently rare. One is the type species and the other was described by Ball from Chiricahua 
Mountains. 

1. minutus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. VVash. XLVI : 29 (i933). United States. 

2. reticulatus Fowler, B. C. A. 23. i (1894). — Pl. I, fig. 10. Guatemala. 



12. GENUS MULTAREIS GODING 



Multapeis Goding, Can. Ent. XXVII : 274 (iSgS). 

Chapacteps : Distinguished by the very reticulate tegmina in which the multicellular condition 
is not limited to the apical area but extends throughout the tegmen. The tegmina are broad, rounded, 
and translucent or opaque. If horns are present, they consist of a pair of siiort, blunt suprahumerals, 
but the presence or absence of horns is not constant within a species in either sex. The head and 
prothorax are roughly sculptured and the tibiae are only moderately flattened. The insects are very 
small in size and all of the described species are brownish in color. 

Type cornutus Goding. 



58 HOMOPTERA 

Geographical distribution : The three species which have been described in this genus are all 
from western United States and Lower California as foUows : 

1. cornutus Goding, Can. Ent. XXVII : 274 (iSgS). — Pl. I , fig. I I . California, Utah. 

2. digitatus Van Duzee, Calif. Acad. Sci. XII : ii. 170 (1923). California, Utah, Lower Cali- 

fornia. 

3. planifrons Van Duzee, Calif. Acad. Sci. XII : 11. 170 (igzS). Cahfornia, Lower California^ 

San Marcos Isl. 

GENERA OF TRIBE BOLBONOTINI GODING 

I. Body globular ; rugose and carinate 

A. Tegmina with two discoidal cells Bolbonota A. & S. 

B. Tegmina with four discoidal cells . BoLBONOTODEsFowler. 

II. Body elongate or triangular 

A. Tegmina with ihree discoidal cells; metopidium carinate above eyes 

1. Dorsum straight Erechtia Walker. 

2. Dorsum strongly sinuate . Tylopelta Fowler. 

B. Tegmina luith two discoidal cells; metopidium smooth above eyes 

1. T egmina entirely free ; dorsum straight Leioscyta Fowler. 

2. Tegmina ahnost entirely covered by sides of pronotum; dorsum sinuate . . Taunaya da F^onseca. 

13. Genus BOLBONOTA Amyot and Serville 

Bolbonota Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 537 (i^^^)- 
Tetpaplatis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 77 (i85i). 
Tubercunota Goding:, Can. Ent. XXV : 55 (1893). 
Bulbonota Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVI : 232 (i9o3), 

Characters : This is one of the genera which in the opinion of the Natural Selectionists offers 
a good illustration of the resemblance of insects to seeds, and, indeed, these insects do look very much 
like small, shriveled, wrinkled seeds in their shape and sculpturing. In fact, the small size, globular 
form, and crinkled and corrugated appearance of the pronotum are characters which readily distinguish 
this genus and the closely related genus Bolbonotodes from all other Membracidae. Other characters are 
the absence of pronotal horns, the broadl}' fiattened head and tibias, and the particular fact that the 
tegmina have only two discoidal cells. The species are all small in size and usually very dark in color. 

Type nisus Germar. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is limited to Central and South America from which 
regions a considerable number of species have been described. However, since most of these species 
were described on the basis of size and on the appearance of the corrugated surface of the pronotum, 
and since these characters vary greatly even within a species, we are suspicious that all of the species 
here listed may not be valid. 

1. aspidistrte Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 241 (1925). Guiana. 

2. aureosericea Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 24. 2 (i858). Brazil. 

3. auripennis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2^9. 7 (1846) Brazil. 

4. bispinifera Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 55 6 (1893). West Indies. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



59 



5. torrugata Fowler, B. C. A. 19. 5 (1894). 

minor Fowler, B. C. A. 19. 5. (1894). 

6. cuneata Fowler, B. C. A. 17. 2. (1894). 



7. digesta Buckton, .Mon. Memb. 64. (igoS). 

8. dubiosa (nom. nov.) Van Duzee, Can. Ent. XLVI : 389 (1914). 

aurosericea (preoccupied) Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 417 (1894). 

9 globosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 257. i (1846). 

10. inaqualis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 22. 28 (i8o3). 

11. inconspicua Fowler, B. C. A. 18. 4 (1894). 

12. insignis Fowler, B. C. A. 17. i (1894). 

i3. lutea Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 260. 4 (1914). 

14. meltena Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 129. 20 (i835). 
flavicans Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 258. 5 (1846). 

i5. ««'gra/a Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 36i. 5 (1914). 

16. nisiis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 229. 2 (i835). 

17. pictipennis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 258. 3 (1846). — Pl. I , fig. I 2. 

atomarius Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5io. i (i85i). 

18. plicata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 63 (1903). 

19. pusilla Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 258. i (1846). 

20. pusio Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 23o. 23 (i835). 

21. quadripunctata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 65 (igo3). 

22. quinquelineata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 65 (igo^). 

23. rubritarsa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 66 (1903). 

24. ru/onotata Fowler, Trans. Lond. Ent. Soc. 416(1894). 

25. scabricula Walker, Ins. Saund. 75 (i858). 

26. tuberculata Fabricius, Coq. 111. : Ins. 78 (1801). 



Panama, Honduras, (iuiana, 

West Indies. 
Mexico, Honduras, Guatema- 

la, Costa Rica. Panama. 
Brazil. 
Mexico. 

Colombia. 

Brazil, Panama, (juiana. 

Mexico, Guatemala 

Mexico, Honduras, (juatema- 

la, Costa Rica, Panama. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Bolivia, Costa Rica. 
Brazil. 

Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala, 
Panama, Ecuador, Colom- 
bia, Guiana. 

Ecuador, 

Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Unknown. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 

Unknown. 

Brazil. 



14. Genus BOLBONOTODES FOWLER 



Bolbonotodes Fowler, B. C. A. II : 20 (1894). 

Characters : This genus was erected to accommodate a single specieswhich differed from the 
species of Bolbouota in having four discoidal cells in the tegmina and five apical cells in the wing. Except 
for its slightly larger size, there seem to be no other generic differences. We have never seen this insect 
and are using Fowler's figure as an aid to recognition. 

Typo ganglbaueri Fowler. 



Geographical distribution : 

I. gauglbaueri F-owler, B. C. A. 20. i (1894). — Pl. 2,fig. 13. 



Mexico. 



6o 



HOMOPTERA 



15. GENUS ERECHTIA WALKER 



Erechtia Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 141 (i858). 
Tropidoscyta Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 44 (1869). 

Characteps : Insects of small size with triangular bodies and with the pronotum usually angu- 
late in front but without an anterior process. The sides of the pronotum are carinate, usually with three 
parallel ridges, and the metopidium is strongly ridged above the eyes. The dorsal margin is straight 
and slopes gradually from the top of the metopidium to the tip of the posterior process. The tegmina are 
entirely free, almost entirely hyaline, and have five apical and three discoidal cells. All three pairs of 
tibije are broadly foliaceous. In his original description of the genus, VValker calls attention to the 
(( three parallel dorsal keels; the lateral pair abbreviated; the middle one continued to the acute tip » 
but this condition is also occasionally found in the closely related genus Tyloptlta. 

Type bicolor Walker. 



Geographicai distribution : 

1. abbreviata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 23. 35 (i8o3). 

2. albipes Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i (1922). 

3. bicolor Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 141 (i858). 

4. biiwiata Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : SSg (1914). 

5. brevis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 40 (1928). 

6. bruHHeidorsata Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 35^ (1914). 

7. bulbosa Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3 (1925). 

8. carbonaria Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 228. 19 (i835). 

9. decipiens Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2^4. 41 (1846). 

10. gibbosa De Geer, Hist Ins. III : 211. i3 (1773). 

tricarinatus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 23. 24 (i8o3). 
bicrislata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 256. 47 (1846). 

11. gilvitarsi Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 39 (1928). 

12. guyaneHsis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 54 (1903). 

i3. immaculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 3 (1922). 

14. longa VValker, List Hom. B. M. 486. 28 (i85i). 

i5. maculata Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 36o (1914). 

16. minor Buckton, Mon. Memb. 53 (1903). 

17. mintita Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX ; i (1922). 

18. minutissima Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 40 (1928). 

19. neghcta Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 227 (1925). 

20. nigrovittata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 255. 44 (1846). 

21. ophthalmica Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 255. ^3 (1846). 

22. pcecila Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 24. 23 (1818). 

23. pruinosa Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 2^7 (1925). 

24. pulchella Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 40 (1928). 



Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

BraziL 

Ecuador. 

Peru. 

British Guiana. 

BraziL 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Brazii, British Guiana. 

Argentina. 

Brazil. 

Peru. 

Brazil . 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

British Guiana. 

French Guiana. 

Coloinbia. 

Brazil. 

British Guiana. 

Ecuador. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



6i 



25. 5flW«« Fowler, B. C. A. II : i3. i (1894). 

26. sangninohnta Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 255. 46 (1846). 

27. sttbtrigona Walker, List Hom. B. M. 485. 27 (i85i). 

28. SHCcedanii Buckton, Mon. Memb. 53 (igoS). 

puncticeps Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 219 (1928). 

Pl. 2, flg. 14. 

29. torva Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 228. 18 (i835). 

30. transiens Fowler, Ent. Soc. Lond. 415 (1894). 
3i. tricostata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 24. 24 (i8i8). 

32. trinotata Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII :4.4I2 (ig3o). Argentina. 

33. truncata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 253. 3g (1846). Argentina, Brazil 

34. uniformis Fowler, B. C. A. 14. 2 (18^4). Panama. 



Mexico, Guatemala, Panama. 

Brazil. 

Venezuela. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

South America. 

Brazil. 



16. GENUS TYLOPELTA FOWLER 



Tylopelta Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5 (1894). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but differing particularly in having the 
dorsum strongly sinuate, often actually step-Uke. The body is robust and triangular, the pronotum is 
angular in front and bears a percurrent median carina and two lateral carinae on each side. A single 
short, heavy ridge appears on the metopidium above the eyes. The tegmina are short and broad, not 
at all concealed by the pronotum, and have five apical and three discoidal cells. Fowler described 
the cells of the tegmina as « less oblong » than in Erechtiahvit this character is not constant throughout 
the genus. 

Type gibbera Stal. 



Geographical dtstribution : 

1. appendiculata da Fonseca, Arquiv. Instit. Biol. VII : 12. i58 (1936). 

2. brevis Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. ii5 (1908). 

3. exusta Buckton, Mon. Memb. 55 (igo^). 

4. gibbera Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 46. 8 (1869). — Pj. 2, fig. I 5. 

americana Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 114 (1908). 

5. monstrosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 2^7. 5i (1846). 



Brazil. 

United States. 

Brazil. 

Mexico, Patiama, 
States. 

Brazil. 



United 



17. genus LEIOSCYTA FOWLER 

Leioscyta Fowler, B. C. A. II : 14 (1894). 

Characters : Small, narrow-bodied insects which in general facies resemble those of the two 
preceding genera but which differ from both in having only two discoidal cells in the tegmina and in 
the metopidium smooth above the eyes. The pronotum is more elongate than in Erechtia or Tylopelta 
and the dorsal margin is always straight. A percurrent median carina is present but the sides of the 
pronotum are usually smooth or with not more than one ridge on each side. The tegmina are entirely 
free, with five apical cells but only two discoidals and with a broad apical limbus. The head is sub- 
quadrate and flattened with the ocelH very poorly developed. The first two pairs of tibiae are foUaceous. 



Type pallidifrontis Stal. 



62 



HOMOPTERA 



Geographical distribution : 

1. beebei Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. aSg (igaS). 

2. biiuberculata Goding, journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 38 (1928). 

3. brunnea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 268 (1919). 

4. cornutula Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 46. 4 (1869). 

5. /asciapennis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 39 (1928). 

6. /erruginata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent Soc. XXX : i 6 (1922). 

7. /errugiuipennis Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 468. 236 (1894). — Pl. 2, 

fig. 16. 

8. humeralis Goding, Journ. N. Y'. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 91 {iglo). 

9. minima Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVl : 38 (1928). 

10. niger da Fonseca, Arquiv. Instit. Biol. VH : 12. iSj (1936). 

11. nigra Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 38 (1928). 

12. nitida Fowler, B. C. A. II : 14. 3 (1894). 

i3. pallidipennis Stal, Hem. Fabr. 11 : 46. 3(1869). 

14. pallipes Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 39 (1928). 

i5. pulchella Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 411 (1930). 

16. rufidorsa Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 37 (1928). 

17. spiralis Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 240 (1925). 

18. trimaculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 5 (1922). 

19. trinotata Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 167 (1929). 



British Guiana. 

Ecuador. 

Peru. 

Mexico. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

United States. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Panairia. 

Mexico, United States. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

British Guiana. 

Peru, Brazil. 

United States. 



18. GENUS TAUNAYA DA FONSECA 



Taunaya da Fonseca, Rev. Ent. IV : 3. 35i (1934). 

Characters : The type species of this monotypic genus bears a strong superficial resemblance 
to the forms of Bolbonota but may at once be distinguished by the fact that in Taunaya the tegmina are 
almost entirely covered by the sides of the pronotum vvhile in Bolbonota the tegmina are entirely free. 
The same character serves to separate the genus from its more nearly related genus Leioscyta with the 
additional difference that in Leioscyta the dorsum is straight while in Taunaya it is distinctly sinuate. 
The tegmina have four apical cells, all truncate at the base, and two discoidal cells. 

Type rugosa da Fonseca. 

Geographical distribution : 

I. rugosa da Fonseca, Rev. Ent. IV : 3. 352 (1934). — Pl. 2, fig. I 7. Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 63 



SuBF. PLATYCOTIN/E Subf. nov. 

TRIBES OF THE SUBF. PLATYCOTIN^ SUBF. NOV. 

I. Uiider wings with four apical cells Potniini Goding. 

II. Under wings ivith three apical cells Platycotini Tribus nov. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE POTNIINI GODING 

I. Humeral angles produced into long horns Alchisme Kirkaldy. 

II. Huineral aiigles not produced into horns or spines. 

A. Pronotum without dorsal processes Ochropepla Stal. 

B. Proiwtum with dorsal processes or frontal horn 

1. Frontal horn sharp ; sides of pronoium ridged ; posierior process long, 

reaching to tips of iegmina Aconophoroides Fowler. 

2. Frontal horn blunt ; sides of pronoium smooth; posterior process short, not 

reaching beyond end of abdomen Potnia Stal. 

19. Genus ALCHISME Kirkaldy 

Alchisme Kirkaldy, Entom. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Triquetra (preoccupied) Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 279 (1846). 
Microschema Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 37 (1869). 

Characters : Fairmaire erected his old genus Triqueira on the following chaiacters which, of 
course, still apply : Head large. triangular, slightly rounded at the summit; ocelli equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes; tegmina slightly notched, free at base but sUghtly covered by pro- 
notum at extremities; prothorax having the shoulders dilated in long points; posterior process reach- 
ing tips of tegmina. Of these characters, the long, sharp humeral processes are most satisfactoiy for 
separating the genus from the other Potniini while the four apical cells of the hind wing distinguish it 
from the Platycoiini. The insects of this genus are all of large size, among the largest of the Membra- 
cidae, and are almost without exception greenish in color. They all show, of course, the extremeiy 
short hind tarsi which are peculiar to the subfamily. 

Type inermis Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : 

1. angiistata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 282. 11 (1846). Colombia, Ecuador. 

2. apicalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5i8. 4 (i85i). Colombia, Panama. 

3. bos Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 282. 10 (1846). Colombia, Ecuador. 

obtusa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 91 (i9o3). 

4. costaricensis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 171 (1929). Costa Rica. 

5. elevata Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 10 (1930). Bohvia. 



64 



HOMOPTERA 



6. grossa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 280. 3 (1846). — P|. 2, fig. I 8. 

virgata, Fairmaire, Rev. Memb 282. 9 (1846). 
virescms Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 281. 8 (1846). 
ttrribilis Walker, Ins. Saund. 66 (i858). 
obtusa Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc Lond. 417 (1894). 

7. inermis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 280. i (1846). 

tridtntata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb 280. 4(1846). 

recurva Stal, Bid. Merab. Kan. 266 6 (1869). 

nigrostrigata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 92(1903). 

mucronata Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33o(i9o5). 

8. intermedia Distant, Ent. Mag. 223 (1881). 

9. nigrocarinata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 280. 2 (1846). 

10. obscura Walker, List Hom B. M. 517. 3 (i85i). 

submaculata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 92 (1903). 

11. projecta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent.Soc.XXXVHI : 4.414(1930). 

12. rubrocostata Spinola, Hist. Chile Zool. VH : 272. 3 (i852). 

unicolor Signoret, Ann. Ent. Soc. France III : 584 (1864). 

i3. truncaticornis Germar, Rev. Silb. HI : 244. 11 (i835). 
ttstacea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 281. 7(1846). 

14. turrita Germar. Rev. Silb. III : 243. io(i835). 
insipida Buckton, Mon. Memb. 93 (i9o3) 

i5. ustulata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 281. 5 (1846). 
16. veruta Fowler, B. C. A. II : 33. 2(1894). 



Venezuela, Colombia, Guate- 
mala, Ecuador, Mexico, 
Panama. 

Colombia, Ecuador. 



Colombia. 
Colombia, Ecuador. 
Brazil, Ecuador. 

Peru. 

Chile, Argentina. 

Brazil, Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Colombia, Ecuador, Vene- 

zuela. 
Panama. 



20, genus ochropepla stal 

Oohropepla Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 268 (1869). 
Microschema Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 37 (1869). 

Characteps : Body subtriangular, short and broad; humeral angles not produced ; pronotum 
without dorsal processes ; head equal in width to apex of thorax; ocelli equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes ; median carina percurrent; posteriorprocess extendingabout to end of abdomen; tegmina 
with two discoidal cells; hind wings with four apical cells. Insects of medium size and inconspicuous 
colors. 

Stal separated this genus from his genus Potnia by the absence of the pronotal hom and froni 
Hoplophora Germar (preoccupied, now Metcalfiella Goding) by the four apical cells of the under wing. 

Type corrosa Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : 



1. carinata Funkhouser, [ourn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 11 (1922). 

2. concolor Walker, List Hom. B. M. 514. I7(i85i). 

3. corrosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 272. 11 (1846). — P|. 2, fig. I 9. 

punctum F^airmaire, Rev. Memb. 272. I2 (1846). 

4. ditbia Fowler, B. C.A.II:^^. 4 (1894). 

5. hebes Walker, List Hom. B. M. 525. 17 (i85i). 

6. inaqualis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 44. 3 (1894). 

7. />allens Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 268. i (1869). 



Brazil. 
Colombia. 
Colombia, Panama. 

Panama. 
Colombia. 
Panama. 
Mexico. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



65 



21. genus ACONOPHOROIDES FOWLER 

Aconophopoides Fowler, B. C. A. II : 47 (1894). 

Characters : Large brightly colored insects with a sharp pronotal horn and a superficial resem- 
blance to the Aconophora but at once distinguished from tliat group by the minute hind tarsi. The dia- 
gnostic characters of the genus are the heavy, robust body ; humeral angles not extended into spines; 
pronotum with a strong sharp anterior process ; sides of pronotum strongly carinate; posterior process 
long, extending to tips of tegmina; under wings with four apical cells; tegmina entirely free with five 
apical and two discoidal cells. 

Type gladiator Walker. 



Qeographical distribution : 

1. ^Wja/or Walker, List Hom. B. M. 567. 38(i85i).— Pl. 2,fig.20. 

lata Walker, Ins. Saund. 69 (i858). 

2. projecta Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 5o5. 10 (1914). 

3. rcctispina Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 404. 9(1914). 



Brazil, Panama, British Gui- 

ana. 
British Guiana. 
Bolivia. 



22. Genus POTNIA STAL 



Potnia Stal, Ber. Ent. Zeit. X : 388 (1866). 

Characters : Medium sized insects of somber colors, closely related to the preceding genus 
but differing in having a blunt pronotal horn, the sides of the thorax smooth and the posterior process 
short, never reaching the apex of the tegmina and usually not extending as far as the end of the 
abdomen. The head is subquadrate and roughly sculptured with the ocelh equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes. The pronotum is generally very coarsely punctate. The tegmina are hyaline 
with five apical and two discoidal cells. The hind wings have four apical cells. 

Type venosa (iermar. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. affinis Buckton, Mon. Memb. io3 (1903). 

2. brevicornis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 46. 2 (1894). 

3. granadensis P^airmaire, Rev. Memb. 273. i5 (1846). 

4. jaculiis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 12. 27 (i8o3) 

5. jansoni Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 498 (1894). 

6. perobiusa Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 498 (1894). 

7. venosa Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 19. 16 (1818). — Pl. 2, fig. 2 I . 



Colombia. 

Panama. 

Colombia. 

Brazil. 

British Guiana. 

Brazil. 

Brazil 



GENERA OF TIIE TRIBE PLATYCOTINI TRIBUS NOV. 

I. Poslerior process very shori, not reaching tip of ahdomcn. 

A. Head broad, as wide as base of posterior process; posteriur process long and 
narrow. 



66 



HOMOPTERA 



1 . Usually but not always a porrect pronotal horn or protuberancc ; tegmina 

short, extendingfor not more than oiie-third their length beyond poste- 

rior process Platycotis Stal. 

2. Pronoial horn always present but extending directly forward, the upper 

margin even with the dorsum; tegmina long, extending for at least half 

their length beyond posterior process Orthoplophora Fowler. 

B. Head narrow, nol as wide as base of posterior process; posterior process short 
and shield-shaped 

1. Pronotum with porrect frontal horn Stalotypa Metcalf. 

2. Pronotum without frontal horn Mf.tcalfiella Goding. 

II. Posterior process long, usually reaching tips of tegmina ... .... Umbonia Hurineister. 



23. GENUS PLATYCOTIS Stal 

Platycotis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 36 (1869). 

Characters : Large, heavy-bodied, triangularly-shaped insects often marked with stripes and 
usually, hut not always, bearing a frontal horn. The presence or absence of this pronotal horn varies 
even within a species; it is not a sexual character nor is it indlcati ve of any geograpiiical location. When 
present, the horn is always porrect or more or less upright, never extending directly forward. The head 
is very broad, at least twice as broad as high, with the ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes. 
The posterior process is short and rather flat, seldom reaching the end of the abdomen. The tegmina. 
likewise, are short, extending only slightly beyond the posterior piocess and have five apical and two 
discoidal cells. The hind wings have three apical cells. The hind tarsi aie ridiculously small as 
compared with the tarsi of the front and middle pairs of legs. 

Type viltata Fabricius. 



Geographical distribution : 

i. aciitangula Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 263. 2 (1869). 

2. cornuta Phimmer, Ann. Ent Soc. Amer. XXIX : 4. 683 (1936). 

3. discreta Fowler, B. C. A. II : 42. 3 (1894). 

4. histrionica Stal, Hem. Mex. 69. 414 (1864). 

5. maritimus Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. VII : 11. 287 (1917). California. 

minax Goding, Ent. News. III : 109 (1892). 
asodalis Goding, Ent. News, III : 110(1892). 

6. nigrorufa Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL I43(i858). 

7. spreta Goding, Cat. Memb. N. .\. 4^6. 197. (1894). 

8. straminicolor Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 25. 4 (i858). 

9. tuberculata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 273. 18 (1846). 

ornala Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 274. 19 (1846). 

10. vittata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 20. 23 (i8o3). — Pl. 2, fig. 22. 

sagillala Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 19. i5 (1821). 

belligira Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 3o2 ^1824) 

quadrivitlata Say, Journ. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 3oo (1824). 



Mexico. 
Mexico. 
Guatemala. 
Mexico. 



Mexico, Guatemala. 

Mexico. 

BraziL 

Mexico, California. 

Brazil, Mexico, United States. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDi^S 67 



quadrilineata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 241. 3 {i835). 
humilis Walker, List Hom. B M. 514. 18 (i85i). 
guttifna Walker, List Hom. B M. 53^. i5 (i85i). 
»-i<6m'i7M/a Walker, List Hom. B. M. 53?. 11 (i85i). 
foirecta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 538. 12 (i85i). 
viridescens Walker, List Hom. B. M. 538. i3 (i85i). 
lineosa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 134 (i858). 
nigromaculata Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 25i. 2 (1886). 
nigrolineata Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 25i. i (1886). 



24. GENUS ORTHOPLOPHORA FOWLER 

Orthoplophora Fowler, B. C. A. II : 46 (1894). 

Characteps : This genus was erected for the accommodation of a single species and no others 
have ever been described in the genus. It is to be separated from Platycolis by the quite horizontal or 
even slightly deflexed frontal horn and by the very long tegmina. Superficially it resembles an Umbonia 
butdiffers from thatgenus in the length and character of the pronotal process. We have never seen 

0. salvini, the type of the genus, and are therefore reproducing Fowler's figure which should be 
sufficient for its identification. 

Type salvini Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from a single species as follows : 

1. salvini Fowler, B. C. A. II : 47. i (1894). — Pl. 2, fig. 23. Mexico. 



25. GENUS STALOTYPA Metcalf 

Stalotypa Metcalf, Ent. News XXXVIII : i5 (1927). 
Enchotypa Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 37 (1869). 

Characters : Rather narrow-bodied insects with a thin compressed oblique frontal horn and 
a very short posterior process which does not reach to the tip of the abdomen. The head is narrow, not 
as broad as the base of the posterior process. The prothorax in roughly sculptured and coarsely punc- 
tate. The tegmina have five apical and two discoidal cells and the hind wings have three apical cells. 

Type fairmairei Guerin. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from the Island of Cuba with two 
species as follows : 

1. concinna Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II : 419 (1894). Cuba. 

2. /airmairei Giienn, Hist. Cuba Ins. 181 (i856). Cuba. 



Note : When .Stal proposed his subgenus Enchotypa he made a mistake in naming as the type « granadensis Guerin « 
instead of •< fairmairei Guerin ». He later (1869) corrected this error but as Metcalf (1927) correctly pointed out, the cor- 
rection cannot stand according to the rule of the Entomological Code which states : « The gentoyjie of a monobasic genus 
is the only specitic name cited irrespective of misidentification )>. The species granadensis belongs in the genus Potnia but 
fairmairei represents the group which Stal had in mind. Therefore the name Stalotypa as proposed by Metcalf must 
be accepted. 



68 



HOMOPTERA 



26. GENUS METCALFIELLA GODING 



Metcalfiella Goding. Jouin. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 7 (1929). 
Hoplophora (preoccupied) Germar, Re%-. Silb. I : 177 (i833). 
Hoplophopion (nom. nov.) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXIV : 5 (1901). 

Characters : The genus as now delimited includes those species of the subfamily which are 
robust, triangular, with no pronotal horn, a very short shield-shaped posterior process, a narrow head 
aiid with the hind wings showing three apical cells. The type species, pertusa Germar, which must be 
consulted as a basis for generic characters, shows considerable variation in size and in configuration 
of the pro-thorax but agrees entirely with the above named characters. The pronotum is usuall}- 
veiy roughly sculptured with irregular swellings and coarse punctuation. The head is twiceas broad 
as long with the ocelli laige and prominent and much nearer to each other than to the eyes. The 
humeral angles are broadly auriculate. The edges of the pronotum are marked with red. The teg- 
mina are hyaline with five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Type pertusa Germar. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. carinulata Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 364 (1906). 

2. cinerea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 272. i3 (1846). 

3. concina Fowler, B. C. A. II : 41. 6 (1894). 

concisa (sic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 249 (igoS). 

4. cributn Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 272. 10 (1846). 

5. disparipcs Fowler, B. C. A. II : 40. 4 (1894). 

6. erecta Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 364 (1906). 

nigromaculatum Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 364 (1906). 

7. gigantea Fairmaire, Kev. Memb. 269. i (1846). 

8. gloveri God\ng, Cat. Memb. N. A. 457. 199 (1894). 

9. hanschi Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 365 (1906) 

10. monogramma Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 242. 6 (i835). 

sanguinosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 270. 2 (1846). 
apriformis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 95 (i903). 

11. obtusa Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 25. 3 (1862). 

12. ohansiana Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 366 (1906). 

i3. pertusa Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 242. 5 (i835). — Pl. 2, flg. 24. 

porosa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5i3. 16 (i85i). 

14. pubescens Buckton, Mon. Memb. 96 (1903). 



Colombia. 
Mexico, Guatemala. 
Panama. 

Colombia. 

Guatemala. 

Ecuador. 

Colombia, Ecuador. 

Unknown. 

Ecuador. 

Mexico, Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 



Note : This genus has had a checkered nomenclatorial careerof misadventure. The characters on which Germar 
described his genus Hoplopliora were so broad and indefinite that almost from the first many species were assigned to the 
genus but were soon afterward removed to other genera such as Ochropepla, Platycolis and Pottiia which resulted in much 
confusion. Then Kirkaldy (1901) called attention to the fact that the name « Hoplophora » was preoccupied and sought to 
remedy the matter by proposing a new name « Hoplophorion ». This name was accepted and the catalogues and collections 
were rearranged to conform. However, in 1929, Goding identified triangulum Germar, which had been designated by 
Germar as the type of his genus Hoplophora. as congeneric with corrosa Fairmaire, the type of Ochropepla. Since Hoplophorion 
necessarily included all species congeneric with corrosa, this left all of the other species which had been assigued to that 
genus but which were not congeneric with corrosa without a name. Goding proposed the name « Metcalfiella » as a nomen 
novum for such species and this name now obtains — it is hoped without further necessity for change. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



69 



i5. rubripes Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. lo (1922). 

16. semitecta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 129(1858). 

17. signoreti Fowler, B. C. A. Sg. 2(1894). 

18. sordida Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 17 (1821). 

19. triaugulata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV: 18. i3 (1821). 

triangularum isic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 99 (igoS). 

20. unicolor Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II : 419 (1894). 

21. variegata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 271. 7 (1846). 

22. vicina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 270. 3 (1846). 

proxima Walker, List Hom. B. M. 5i3. i5 {i85i). 
fimbriata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 25. i (1862). 



Colombia, Brazil. 

Brazil, Venezuela. 

Mexico. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 
Colombia. 
Brazil, Ecuador. 



27. Genus UMBONIA Burmeister 



Umbonia Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : i38 (i835). 
Physoplla Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 542 (1843). 

Characters : Large, heavy-bodied, usually brightly colored insects characterized by strongly 
developed dorsal processes, often spine-like, sometimes inflated and swoUen, and occasionally marked 
with stripes of various colors. The diagnostic character which separates this genus from the others of 
the tribe is the long posterior process, generally acuminate and usually extending to the tips of the teg- 
mina. The head is subtriangular with the clypeus extending well below the inferior margins of the 
genae; the ocelli are large, usually elevated, and much nearer to each other than to the eyes. The pro- 
notum is roughly sculptured, coarsely punctate, seldom carinate and often brightly colored. The teg- 
mina are long, narrow, hyaline, with five apical and two discoidal cells and a broad hmbus. The hind 
wings have three apical cells. 

This genus is another of those often cited as showing remarkable protective imitation as evidenced 
by the dorsal processes which are in many species distinctly thorn-Iike and in others subfoliaceous. The 
form of the dorsal process shows great variation within a species with the result that a considerable 
number of forms have been described which have later proved to be synonyms. 

Type spinosa Fabricius. 



Geographical distrlbution : 

1. amazili Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 277. 9 (1846). 

2. ataliba Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 278. 11 (1846). 

lativitta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 520. i5 {i85l). 

3. crassicornis Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 5^3. i (1843). 

nigraia Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 543. 2 {1843). 
orizimbo Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 277. 7 (1846). 
media Walker, ListHom. B. M. 5i6. 2 {i85i). 
decorata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 3 {i858) 
picta Walker, List. Hom. B. M. Suppl. i3o {i858). 
intermedia Walker, Ins. Saund. 66{i858). 
rectispina Stal, Bid. Merab. Kan. 265. 4 {1869). 
peracea Griffini, Stud. Memb. Umb. 3 (i8g5). 
camerani Griffini, Stiid. Memb. Umb. 3 (1895). 

4. erecta Goding, Mem. Ecuad. 33. 37 (1920). 

5. ermanni Griffini, Stud. Mem. Umb. X : 5 (1895). 



Mexico. 

Brazil, Costa Rica. 

Mexico, Honduras, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, Panama, 
Brazil, United States. 



Ecuador. 
Mexico. 



70 



HOMOPTERA 



6. gladius Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 275. 3 (1846). 

7. lutea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 10 (1922). 

8. octolinea Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 9 (1930). 

9. orizaba Fowler, B. C. A. II : 37. 6 (1894). 

10 pyramidalis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 277. 8 (1846). 
reducta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Sig. 8 (i85i). 

11. reclinata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 243.9(1835). 

funista Stal, Nya. Hem. 249. i (1854). 
multiformis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. I29(i858). 
subclivata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 88 (1903). 

12. signoreti Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 278. 10 (1846). 

articularia Buckton, Mon. Memb. 89 (i903). 

i3. sordida Goding, Amer. Mus. Nov. 10 (1930). 

14. spinosa Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 675. 4 {iJjS). — Pl, 2, fig. 25. 

armata Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 668. 3 (1792). 
curvispina Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 265. 8 (1869). 



Mexico. 

Bolivia. 
Mexico. 
Mexico. 
Brazil, Panama. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Costa 
Rica, Brazil. 

Colombia, Honduras. 

Panama. 

Brazil, Surinam, Guatemala, 

Mexico, Panama, British 

Guiana. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 71 



SuBF. DARNIN/E Stal 

TRIBES OF THE SUBFAMILY DARNIN^ STAL 

I. Pronotum without horns or spims Darnini Goding. 

1 1 . Pronotum with horns or spines 

A. Pronotum having a single frontal or dorsal horn or angle; humeral angles 

sometimes produced iiito spines Aconophorini Goding. 

B. Pronotum wiih iwo suprahumeral horns 

1. Posterior process without spines or nodules Hemikvpthini Tribus nov. 

2. Posterior process with spines and inflated nodules IIeteronotini Goding. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE DARNINI GODING 

I. Tegmina largely covered by sides of pronotum 

A. Humeral angles not extended into horns or spines 

1. Corium wiih three longitudiual veins, radiiis forked near middle of teg- 

mina 
a. Ocelli equidistartt from each olher and from the eyes 

b. At least half of tegmina exposed Darnis Fabiicius. 

bb. Less ihan one-ihird of iegmina exposed Hebeticoides Fowler. 

aa. Ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes Ochrolomia Stal. 

2. Corium wiih two longiiudinal veins, both forked near middle of legmina 
a. Sides of pronoium produced in lobes behind each eye 

b. Tegmina almost eniirely covered by pronotum Hebrtica Stal. 

bb. Tegmina not more ihan half covered by pronotum Stictopelta Stal. 

aa. No postocular lobes on pronoium Alobia Stal. 

B. Humeral angles extended into horns, spines or processes 

1. Head exiended obliquely forward; posierior process trinodose .... Cyphotes Buimeister. 

2. Front of head siraight, vertical; posierior process not nodose 

a. Posierior process very much swollen in middle; lateral margms tnflexed; 

auriculate humerals strongly produced Aspona Stal. 

aa. Posterior process inflated at base; lateral margins not inflexed ; humerals 

weakly produced Hypheus Stal. 

II. Tegmina almost entirely free 

A. Corium wiih more ihan one discoidal cell 
I. Corium with three discoidal cells 

a. Pronotum highly elevaied Atypa Laporte. 



72 HOMOPTERA 

aa. Pronoium convex, not eltvated Paradarnoides Fowler. 

2 . Corium uiith two discoidal cells 

a. Pronotum elevated and compressed behiiid humerals Cymbomorpha Stal. 

aa. Pronolum regularly convex 

b. Posterier process curved upward Paragargara Goding. 

bb. Posterior process straight Eumela Stal. 

B. Corium wiih one discoidal cell 

1 . Corium with no iransverse vein in middle of tegmina 

a. Dorsum iricarinate Iria Stal. 

aa. Dorsum unicarinate 

b. Posterior process broad, obiuse Rhexia Stal. 

bb. Posierior process slender, acuie 

c. Apical veins of iegmina curved Smiliorhachis Fairm. 

cc. Apical veins of tegmina straighi 

d T egmina hyaline Darnoides Fairmaire. 

dd. Tegmina semiopaque Brachytalis M. and B. 

2. Corium with a iransverse vein in middle of iegmina Procyrta Stal. 

28. Genus DARNIS Fabricius 

Darnis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 25 (i8o3). 
Oectonura Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 342 (1878). 

Characters : Medium-sized to large insects with the bodies so covered by the hard, usually 
shining, pronotum as to give them a beetle-like appearance. The pronotum extends downward over 
the sides so far as to cover about half of the tegmina but is entirely smooth, often brilliantly colored, and 
has no processes of any kind. The head is obovate, about twice as broad as high and the clypeus does 
not extend below the inferior margins of the genae ; the ocelli are prominent, about equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated above a liue drawn through the centers of the eyes. The 
posterior process is heavy, rounded above, and acuminate, and extends just about to the tips of the teg- 
mina. The tegmina are hyaline with five apical and two discoidal cells and a broad limbus; the corium 
shows three distinct longitudinal veins with the outer one forked near the middle of the tegmen. 

This was the type genus of the subfamily and has had assigned to it at various times seventy different 
species. The genus has now been split up, however, and practically all of these species have been 
removed to other genera, so that at present only eight remain which are considered congeneric with 
lateralis Fabricius, the type species of the genus. 

Type lateralis Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : A Central and South American genus with species recorded as 
follows : 

1. cuneata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 341. 2 (1878). South America. 

2. cyclops Fairmaire,- Rev. Memb. 479. i (1846). Colombia. 

3. lateralis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. II : 27. 6 (i8o3). Brazil, Mexico. 

4. laticauda Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 483. 22 (1846). Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



73 



5. latior Fowler, B. C. A. II : 52. 2 (1894). 

6. olivacea Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. II : 28. 8 (i8o3). 

palltscens Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. II : 28. 9 (i8o3). 
prasina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 482. 14 (1846). 
infixa Walker, List. Hom. B. M. Suppl. 149 (i858). 

7. partita Walker, Ins. Saund. j5 (i858). — Pl. 3, fig. 26. 



8. trifasciata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 28. 7 (i8o3). 

capistrata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 172. 7 (i836). 
bifasciatus Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 545 (1843). 
ii»j;-i</?/a Walker. Ins. Saund. 74 (i858). 



Panama, British Guiana. 
Brazil, Venezuela. 



Brazil, Nicaragua, Panama, 

British Guiana. 
Brazil. 



29. GENUS HEBETICOIDES FOWLER 

Hebeticoides Fowler, B. C. A. II : 52 (1894). 

Characters : Fowler describes this genus as intermediate between Hebetica Stal and the old 
subgenus Leptosticta Stal (now a synonym of Stictopelta Stal), separating it from both by the venation of 
the corium. This is a correct distinction but the venation is no different from that oi Darnis Fabricius 
and in general facies the insects agree with both Darnis and Ochrolomia. This leaves as the only struc- 
tural character available for taxonomic use the relative proportion of the tegmina exposed below the 
pronotum. We do not consider this a very reliable generic character but since the tribe is large and 
subdivisions are helpful in classification, we are here recognizing Fowler's arrangement. 

In general the insects of this genus resemble those of Darnis. The pronotum is smooth, shining, 
with weak punctuation and no carina. There are no frontal, dorsal nor humeral processes of any kind. 
The posterior process is long, acuminate, extending backward farther than the tips of the tegmina. 
The head is subquadrate, twice as broad as long, with the clypeus truncate and not extending below 
the inferior margins of the genae. The tegmina are narrowly and evenly exposed for about one-third 
of their width below the lateral margins of the pronotum. 

Type acutus Fowler. 



Geographical distribution : 

1. acutus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 53. i (1894). — Pl. 3, fig. 27. 

2. confusus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5^. 2 (1894). 

3. denticulus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5^. 3 (1894). 



Guatemala. 
Panama. 
Mexico, Brazil. 



30. GENUS OCHROLOMIA STAL 



Ochrolomia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 32 (1869). 

Characters : Erected as a subgenus by Stal particularly on account of the position of the ocelli 
which are very much nearer to each other than they are to the eyes and because of the short posterior 
process, and elevated to generic rank by Goding (1894) on the strength of these same characters. 
In other respects, and particularly in the matter of general superficial appearance, the species of 
Ochrolomia greatly resemble those of Darnis. 

The insects are medium to large in size; the pronotum is smooth, glistening, often marked with 
brilliant fascia, and without processes of any kind except the posterior projection which is relatively 



74 HOMOPTERA 

short, not reaching the apices of the tegmina. The head is subquadrate, more than twice as broad as 
high, with the inferior margin very much truncate and the clypeus not extending below the genffi; the 
ocelli are small and very close together. The tegmina are long, narrow, hyaHne or smoky, with five 
apical and three discoidal cells and are about half covered by the sides of the pronotum. However, 
even though the tegmina are partly covered, the costal area is well enough exposed to show the three 
longitudinal veins of the corium with the forked radius which is an important character for the group of 
genera to which Ochrolomia belongs. The colors of these insects are various shades of brown, yellow 
and black in rather striking combinations. 

Type suiuralis Germar. 

Geographical distribution : So far as is nowknown, this genus is limited to South America, 
the three described species having been reported as follows : 

1. suturalis Germar, Rev. Silb. HI : 25o. 2 (i835). Brazil. 

2. tricinda Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 172. 6 (i836).— Pl. 3, fig. 28. Brazil, Peru. 

3. virescens Butler, Cist. Ent, H : 338. 4 (1878). Brazil, Ecuador. 



31. Genus HEBETICA Stal 

Hebetica Stal, Hem. Fabr. H : 32 (1869). 

Characters : This was one of the seven subgenera into which Stal divided his genus Darnis 
in 1869. All of these subgenera have since been raised to generic rank on the basis of his characters 
which seem natural, constant and usable. The genus Hebetica was particularly distinguished by Stal by 
the two forked longitudinal veins of the tegmina, the large anterior and very small interior discoidal cells 
of the corium,the pubescent head and thorax and by the fact that the tegmina are almost entirely cover- 
ed by the sides of the pronotum. In general appearance the insects are practically identical with the 
representatives of the genera Darnis, Hebelicoides, Ochrolomia and Stictopelta. The pronotum is rather 
rough and pubescent and is without dorsal, frontal or lateral horns or protuberances but just behind the 
eye is a slight lobe. The posterior process is long and sharp, extending as far caudad as the tips of the 
tegmina. The tegmina are long, narrow, hyahne, with two longitudinal veins, both forked near the 
center of the corium. Unfortunately, so little of the tegmen projects below the lateral margins of the 
pronotum that it must be pulied out before this important character can be seen. The head is broad, 
with the ocelli about equidistant from each other and from the eyes. 

Type limacodes Burmeister. 

Geographieal distribution : According to present records, the genus is represented only in 

South .'\merica by the following species : 

1. apicalis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 483. 23 (1846). Brazil. 

2. arechavelata Goding, Ent. News XXV : 400 (1929). Uruguay. 

3. coiwoluta Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II : 3i8. 14 (1781). Brazil. 

flavicincta Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 12. 2 (1821). 
atomaria Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 12. .S (1821). 
cuneata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 341. 2 (1878). 

4. limacodes 'B\ixme\ster , Rev. Silb. IV: 12. I75(i836). Brazil, Colombia. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



75 



32. GENUS STICTOPELTA Stal 



Stictopelta Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 32 (1869). 
Leptosticta Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 32 (1869). 
Cryptoptera Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 342 (1878). 

Characteps : Laige, slender, smooth-bodied forms which fjreatly resemble the species of 
Darnis but may at once be distinguished from that genus by the venation of the tegmina. The head is 
subquadrate, twice as broad as long, with the inferior margin rounded, the clypeus not projecting below 
the genae, and the ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes. The pronotum is smooth, shining, 
very weakly punctate, not pubescent, with no processes except the posterior extension which is long, 
arcuate, acuminate, and projects backward beyond the tips of thetegmina. A characteristic lobe of 
the inferior margin of the pronotum is to be noted just behind the eyes. The tegmina are long, nai row, 
hyahne, with five apical cells and an irregular number (but usually three) of discoidal cells and are 
about half concealed by the sides of the pronotum. The corium has two prominent longitudinal veins, 
both forked at about the middle as in the preceding genus. The species Jlaviceps Burmeister, which 
Stal designated as the type of his subgenus Leptostida, defiiiitely belongs in Stictopelta so that tlie genus 
Leptoslicta as recognized by Butler (1878) cannot stand. 

Type adusta Burmeister. 

Geographical distribution : The genus has a very wide range and has been fouiid from 
Southern South America through Central America and Mexico and in the United States, in which areas 
a considerable number of species are considered valid as follows : 

I. acuttda Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 481. i3 (1846). — Pl. 3, fig. 29. 

brevis Fairmaire, Rev Memb. 483. 18 (1846). 



2. adusta Burmeister. Rev. Silb IV : 170. 2 (i836). 

bipunctata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 171. 4 (i836). 
polita Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 339 (1878). 

3. arizona Goding, Can. Ent. XXVII : 276 (iSgS). 

4. assimilis Fowler, B. C. A. II : Sj. 7 (i8g5). 

5. carulea Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XLVI : 28 (1933). 

6. cruentata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 173. 8 (i836). 

7. flavicef^s Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 169. i (i836). 

limbala Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 175. 10 (i836). 

8. fraterna Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 340. 9 (1878). 

9. hinnuleus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 57. 8 (1895). 

10. incerta Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL 149 (i858). 

11. indeterminata Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL 148 (i858). 

luisa Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 289. i63 (i883). 

12. latilinea Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL 147 (i858), 
i3. lineifrons Fowler. B. C. A. II : 58. g (i8g5). 

14. marmorata Goding, Ent. News III : 201 (1892). 
i5. nigrifrons Fowler, B. C. A. II : 58. 11 (iSg^). 



Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

Brazil, Uruguay. 
Mexico. 



United States. 

Guatemala. 

United States. 

BraziL 

Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina. 

Peru, Mexico. 

Mexico. 

Mexico, Yucatan. 

Brazil, Mexico, Honduras, 
Argentina, Guatemala, Pa- 
nama, British Guiana. 

Brazil, Uruguay. 

Mexico. 

United States. 

Mexico. 



76 HOMOPTERA 

i6. iiova Goding, Ent. News III : 110(1892). United States. 

17. prcecox Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 173. 9(i836). Mexico. 

18. pulchella Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XLVI : 28 (1933). United States. 

19. punctata Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5j. 6 (1895). Mexico. 

20. squarus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 482. i5 (1846). Brazil. 

21. strigifroHS Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 481. 8 (1846). Mexico. 

22. varians Fowler, B. C. A. II : 56. 5(1895). Mexico. 

23. zonifera Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 339. 5 (1878). Mexico. 

33. GENUS ALOBIA STAL 

Alobia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 32 (1869). 

Chapacters : This genus, as its name would suggest, is to be separated from the other genera 
of the tribe by the absence of the characteristic postocular lobes on the inferior margin of the pronotum 
behind the head. It was erected for the accommodation of a single species, alutacea, which Stal described 
at the same time at which he designated the genus. We have never seen this species, and, in fact, some 
authors have considered it a synonym oi Dariiis olivacea Fabricius, which would of course invalidate Alobia. 
However we have not seen a specimen ololivacea which did not show the postocular lobes nor any speci- 
mens which seemed to approach thiit condition. Since alutacea, as described by Stal, has this very pecu- 
liar and distinguishing character, we beheve that it should be recognized as representing the subdivision 
which he indicates. But since no material is available as a basis for a generic description, we can do 
no more than to quote Stars own words as foUows : 

« Corpore crassiusculo, remote subsericeo capite; obtusissimo, truncato. anteoculos haud 
producto; oceUis inter se et ab oculis fere aeque longe distantibus; thorace alutaceo vel minutis- 
sime granulato, haud punctato, tegmina fere tota tegente, margine antico nuUibi calloso; corio 
venis longitudinalibus duabus e basi emissis, uhiari longe ante medium, radiali nonnihil pone 
medium corii furcatis, area discoidali interiore inter ramos venae ulnaris jacente elongatissimi ; 
prostethio pone oculos lobo destituto. » 

Type alutacea Stal. 

Geographical distpibution : The type species as indicated by Stal is the only known repre- 
sentative of the genus. It is recorded as follows : 
I. alutacea Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 32 (1869). Surinam. 



34. GenuS CYPHOTES BURMEISTER 

Cyphotes Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : 143 (i835). 

Characteps : This is a genus of doubtful position and of questionable standing. From Bur- 
meister's meager description anJ the position which he gave it in his systematic table, we formerly (1927) 
considered it as one of the Smiliinae but Goding has since discovered a second species which definitely 
places the genus in the position here indicated in the subfamily Darninae. 

According to the original description and to the characters assigned to it by Goding, the genus 
is to be recognized particularly by the oblique position of the head and the trinodose posterior process. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 77 

The tegmina are largely covered by the sides of the pronotum ; the humeral angles are extended into 
short spines; the dorsum is nodulate and shows a strong median carina; the tegmina are hyaline with 
four apical cells ; and the tibiae are slightly dilated at the extremities. 

Type nodosa Burmeister. 

Geographical distribution : Only two species are known, both from South America. 

1. insolitus Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 106 (1926). Ecuador. 

2. nodosa Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : 148. i (i835). Brazil. 



35. Genus ASPONA Stal 

Aspona Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 29 (i858). 

Characters : The species of this genus are rather peculiar in appearance because of their 
broad forms and the scabrous and deeply indented surface of the pronotum. The head is triangular 
and somewhat produced. The pronotum is rough and swolien but without nodules or spines. The 
humeral angles are auriculate and strongly produced. The posterior process is constricted just behind 
the humeral angles, then much swollen, much wider than the abdomen and strongly convex, then sud- 
denly narrowed to an acute apex which reaches to the tips of the tegmina. The tegmina are hyaline and 
are more than half covered by the oveihanging sides of the swolien pronotum. The longitudinal veins of 
the costal area are very close together. The corium shows five elongate apical cells and one or two 
discoidal cells. Stal assigns only one discoidal cell to his type species but this character has been 
found to be variable. The tegmina are about half as long again as the wings. The legs are simple and 
all of the tarsi about equal in length. 

Type bullata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is found in South and Central America and in Mexico 
with the known species distributed as follows : 

1. asfyera Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i5i (i858). Argentina. 

2. bullata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 29. i (i858). Brazil. 

3. cuneata Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5i. 3 (1894). Panama. 

4. intermedia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5i. 2 (1894). Panama. 

5. turgesceiis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 5o. i (1894). Pl. 3, fig. 30. Mexico, Guatemala. 

36. Genus HYPHEUS Stal 

Hypheus Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 55^ (1867). 

Characters : This genus was erected for theaccommodation of Fairmaire's species urstts on the 
characters of the pronotum which include a dorsal hump at the base of the posterior process and 
flattened sides which almost completely cover the tegmina. The head is straight, vertical, triangular, 
rounded at the base and with the ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes. The pronotum 
is smooth, punctate, with a strong dorsal swelling at the base of the posterior process, rounded 
humeral angles, a distinct transverse depression just behind the humeral angles but with no horns or 
spines. The sides of the pronotum almost completely cover the tegmina, and the posterior process 
which is heavy, tectiform and sharp, extends just to the tips of the tegmina. The tegmina are hyaline 



78 HOMOPTERA 

with five apical and two discaidal cells, the median apical cell truncate. The legs are simple and no 
part of the body is foliaceous. 

Type iirsiis Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is represented by only two species, both from South 
America, as follows : 

1. ursus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o6. i (1846). — Pl. 3, fig. 3 I . Colombia. 

2. viridistrigata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 145 (i858). Brazil. 

37. Genus ATYPA Laporte 

Atypa Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. France I : 221 (i832). 

Characters : A genus characterized by the high, flattened, somewhat overhanging dorsal crest 
which suggests superficially the genus Telamona of the subfamily Smiliinae but is of course immediately 
distinguished from the Smiliinfe by the truncate apical cell of the tegmina. The head is subquadrate, 
twice as wide as high, with the clypeus short and broad and not extending below the inferior margins of 
the genae, the ocelH much farther from each other than from the eyes and three-jointed antenna inserted 
in a depression on the posterior margin of the head below the eyes. The pronotum is high, compressed 
laterally and the anterior crest overhangs the head. The humeral angles are short and blunt and there 
are no suprahumeral horns or other cephalic processes. The posterior process is elevated, compressed, 
tectiform, and reaches just about to the tips of the tegmina. The entire pronotum is lightly sculptured 
and coarsely punctate. The tegmina are entirely free with five apical and three discoidal cells, the 
median apical cell being broadly truncate. The legs are simple and the tarsi uniform in size. 

Type gibba Laporte. 

Geographical distribution : The genus, so far as is now known, is limited to South America 
and the species distributed as foUows : 

1. bucktoni {nom . nov.) Goding, S. A. Memb. 219 (1929). Colombia. 

gibha ipreoccupied) Buckton, Mon, Memb. 197 (1903). 

2. gibba Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. France I : 221 (i832). Brazil. 

3. gibbosa Walker, List Hom. B. "Sl. Suppl. 142 (i858). Brazil. 

38. Genus PARADARNOIDES FOWLER 

Paradarnoides Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 422 (1894). 

Characters : Head deflexed, twice as broad as high, ocelli twice as far from each other as from 
the eyes, clypeus triangular and projecting for more than half its length below the inferior margins 
of the genaj. Pronotum convex, not elevated ; scut^JJum not visible; median carina strongly percur- 
rent; humeral angles heavy, blunt and triangular; no suprahumeral horns ; posterior process long, 
slender, tectiform, depressed at base, tip acute and not quite reaching the end of the abdomen or 
thetips of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely free, long, pointed, with five apical and three discoidal cells, 
the two inner apical cells distinctly curved. Legs simple ; tarsi of equal length. The insects average 
about eight millimeters in length, are of inconspicuous colors and rather rough sculpturing. 

Type severini Fowler. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 79 

Geographical distribution : Only two species have been described in this genus, both from 
the West Indies, as follows : 

1. ignipes Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 424 (1894). Guadeloupe. 

2. severiui Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 423 (1894). — Pl. 3, fig. 32. Guadeloupe. 

39. GENUS CYMBOMORPHA Stal 

Cymbomorpha Stal, Analect. Hemip. 338 (1866). 
Aulactropis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 34 (1869). 

Characters : Large, conspicuous insects, usualiy greenish or yellowish in color with the dorsum 
highly elevated, semifoliaceous and compressed. The head is subquadiate, broader than high, roughly 
sculptured, usually with longitudinal striae. The ocelli are large, conspicuous and equidistant from each 
otherand from the eyes. The clypeus is rounded and continues the line of the lateral and inferior mar- 
ginsof the genae. The pronotum is highly elevated, strongly compressed laterally, with heavy projecting 
humeral angles but with no suprahumerals or other anterior processes. The posterior process is tecti- 
form, and depressed downward near the end to follow the curve of the tegmina with the tip sharp and 
not reaching the tipsof thetegmina. Thescutellum is entirely concealedby the pronotum. Thetegmina 
are broad, hyaline or smoky-hyaline, with five apical and two discoidal cells and a broad hmbus, and are 
entirely free. The legs are simple and the tarsi equally developed. 

Type amazona Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The genus contains a considerable number of species rather 
widely distributed throughout South and Central America. 

1. amazona Stal, Analect. Hemip. 388 (1866). _ Pl. 3, fig. 33. Brazil, Peru. 

2. atromaculata Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : ii (1929). Ecuador. 

3. hipunctata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 566. 6 (i85i). Brazil. 

4. convexa Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 11 (ig^o). Brazil. 

5. dorsata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 293. 6 (1846). Brazil. 

tequaUs Walker. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i33 (i858). 
persistans Walker, List Hom. B M. Suppl. 338 (i858). 

6. nitidipennis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XX.X : i (1922). Peru, Brazil. 

7. olivacea Fabricius. Syst. Rhyng. 10. 20 (i8o3). Central America. 

obtusa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 11. 23 (i8o3). 

8. prasina Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 234. 3 (i835). Brazil, Panama, Guatemala. 

nigrofasciala Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 292. 5 (1846). 
Itpitla Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i33 (i858). 

9. vaginata Germar, Rev. Silb. II : 23. i (i835). Brazil, British Guiana. 

campestris Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 292. 3 (1846). 
similis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 556. 7 (i85i). 
spinigera Walker, List Hom. B. M. 55;. 8 (i85i). 
rubropedalis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 139 (igoS). 

40. GENUS PARAGARGARA GODING 

Paragargara Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 246 (1926). 

Characters : VVe have never seen the species iholoidea on which Paragargara was founded and 
which is the single representative of the genus, but froin the name which Goding gave the genus (which 



8o HOMOPTERA 

was misprinted in the original description biit which was afterward corrected) and from the characters 
given ia his description, we assume that the insect suggests in general facies the Old World genus 
Gargara which contains a large number of small inconspicuous forms of about the size given for iholoidea. 
Goding's original description which is quite complete but which is not accompanied by a figure, is as 
foUows : 

« Densely and evenly punctate and densely golden pubescent. Head triangular, longer 
than broad, rounded forward from base and curved downward and backward from middle to 
apex; base sinuate; ocelli distant from base, on a line with superior margin of and approaching 
eyes which are large and prominent. Pronotum tumid, forming a dome-like elevation, unarmed 
above humerals and in front, with a strong elevated percurrent carina but not foliaceous; hume- 
rals prominent ; seen from the side the outline is semicircular from base in front to posterior 
process; base of posterior process broad, covering scutellum, seen from above gradually acumi- 
nate to apex which extends beyond tip of abdomen and interior angle of tegmina; seen from the 
side it is roundly elevated from base to apex and tectiform and moderately high. gradually ele- 
vated in a curve above apex of abdomen. Tegmina one-half as broad as long, basal half 
opaque, apical half sordid hyaline vitreous, apices obliquely narrowed to obtuse exterior angle; 
three longitudinal veins emitted from base of corium, radial forked well toward apex to receive 
exterior discoidal cell, ulnar veins simple, space between radial vein and costa broad coriaceous 
and densely punctate ; two discoidal cells, nearly equal, interior cell sessile, its base a transverse 
venule between ulnar veins behind middle; five apical celis, third sessile with base truncate; 
basal half clavus coriaceous, punctate. not gradually acuminate, venation not easily seen. Wings 
with four apical cells. Abdomen robust; legs slender, tarsi all short. » 

The very small size and the upturned tip of the posterior process seem to be the most distinctive 
characters b}' which the genus can be most readily separated from the more nearly related genera of 
the tribe. 

Typo tholoidea Goding. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the following single species : 

I. tholoidea Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 246 (1926). Ecuador. 



41. GENUS EUMELA STAL 

Eumela Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 559 (1867). 

Characters : Rather large brownish or grayish insects with smooth rounded pronotum and 
heavy straight posterior process. The head is subquadrate with base sinuate and the ocelli equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes. The pronotum is convex, rounded in front, with a strong median 
carina and a well defined circular impression on each side. The dorsum is punctate and pubescent. 
The posterior process is heavy, straight, rounded above and sharp at its extremity, extending almost to 
the tips of the tegmina. The scutellum is completely covered by the sides of the pronotum. The 
tegmina are entirely free, usually smoky or fuscous hyaline in color with the venation more or less 
obscure; there are five apical and two discoidal cells and a wide limbus. The legs are simple and the 
tarsi uniform in length. 

Type semiacuta Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The three described species of the genus have been reported 
only from Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



8i 



1. /ornicata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 22. 21 (1821). 

lacca Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : i.i38. 3 (iSSg). 

2. sellata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 234. 4 (i835). 

bruttneo-fasciata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 292. 2 (1846). 

3. semiacuta Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 27. 3 (1862). 



Brazil. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 



42. GENUS IRIA Stal 

iria Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. Sog (1867). 

Characters : Small, slender, inconspicuous insects of dull colors, with low rounded anterior 
pronotum, short, thin posterior process and entirely exposed tegmina. The head is swollen, projects 
forward and is subquadrate, about twice as broad as long; the clypeus is bulbous, projecting forward 
farther than the frons and extending for two-thirds its length below the inferior margins of the genae; the 
ocelli are very large, conspicuous, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated 
well above a line drawn through centers of eyes. The pronotum is low, convex, tricarinate, rounded, 
with weak obtuse humeral angles and no suprahumerals or other anterior projections; the median carina 
is strongly percurrent; the scutellum is entirely hidden by the sides of the pronotum ; the posterior 
process is short, slender and spine-Iike, almost flat but with a strong central ridge and a carina on 
each side, and does not extend as far backward as the anterior angles of the tegmina, being only about 
half as long as the abdomen. The tegmina are entirely free and almost entirely hyaline, the base 
narrowly coriaceous and opaque ; there are five apical cells and one discoidal cell and the apical veins 
are slightly curved; there is no transverse vein across the middle of the corium and the apical limbus is 
very narrow. The legs are simple an 1 the tarsi uniform in size. 

Type carinata Walker. 

Geographical distribution : Seven species have been described in this genus, one from the 
West Indies and all of the others from Brazil. 

1. caritiata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Sgo. 3 (i85i). Brazil. 

2. fasciiftra Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 27. 6 (1862). Brazil. 

3. inornata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 26. 3 (1862). Brazil. 

4. /«^A/o-jjt (nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 147(1927). Guadeloupe. 

carinata (preoccupied) Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XXV : i5 (1872). 

— Pl. 3, fig. 34. 

5. macuUnervis Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 27. 4 (1862). Brazil. 

6. pilosella Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 27. 5 (1862). Brazil. 

7. stictica Stal, Riojan. Hem. II : 26. 2(1862). Brazil. 

43. GenuS RHEXIA STAL 



Rhexia Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 56o (1867). 
Scaphula (preoccupied) Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 494 (1846). 
Trlstan Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXIV : 6(1903,1. 

Characters : Large robust insects with smooth shining appeaiance. Head triangular, smooth, 
shining, impunctate; clypeus extending for one-half its length below inferior margins of gena;; ocelli 



82 



HOMOPTERA 



small, slightly elevated, equidistant from each other and from the eyes; eyes slanting, twice as wide as 
high. Pronotum smooth, polished, lightly punctate, not pubescent; humeral angles rounded, very 
shghtly produced; no suprahumeral horns or other anterior processes ; dorsum convex, rounded, highest 
in middle with weak median carina ; sides weakly impressed; scutellum entirely concealed by pronotum; 
posterior process wide, high, rounded, suddenly narrowed at tip which just reaches internal angles of 
tegmina. Tegmina entirely free, the inner margin impinging on pronotum, hyahne or translucent; 
five apical cells and one discoidal cell, the apical veins distinctly curved and the median apical cell 
irregularly truncate; apical limbus very broad. Legs and tarsi simple. 

Type flavescens Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : Represented in South America and in the Canal Zoneas follows: 

1. bifasciata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 356. 6 (1878). Brazil. 

2. biplaga Walker, Ins. Saund. 6o(i858). Colombia. 

3. bistriga Walker, Ins. Saund. 74 (i858). Brazil. 

4. cmtromaculata Fairmaiie, Rev. Memb. 495. 3(1846). Brazil. 

5. cumulafa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 145 (i858). Brazil. 
6 flavicans Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 494. 2 (1846). Brazil. 

7. kartabensis Haviland. Zoologica VI : 3. 244 (1925). British Guiana. 

8. maculata Funkhouser, Journ N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. i5 (1922). Brazil. 

9. melanocephala Fowler, B. C. A. II : 83. i (1895). Panama. 

10. pallesceiis Fabriciu^, Syst. Rhyng. II : 28. 9 (i8o3). — Pl, 3, Argentina, 

flg. 35. 

11. semiatra Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 494. i (1846). Brazil. 

12. varicosa Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 356 (1878). Brazil, 



44. GENUS SMILIORHACHIS FAIRMAIRE 

Smiliorhachis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 291 (1846). 

Characters : Small. slender-bodied, inconspicuously coloied insects with a straight posterior 
process and the apical cells of the tegmina strongly curved. Head triangular, roughly sculptured, with 
the base weakly arcuate; clypeus projecting for half its length below the inferior margins of the genas 
and continuing the line made by these margins; ocelli small, inconspicuous, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes. Pronotum 
slightly elevated, somewhat compressed laterally, with a strong, sharp median carina; humeral angles 
rounded and weakly protluced; 110 suprahumerals or other anterior processes; scutellum entirely hidden 
by sides of pronotum ; posterior process narrow, tectiform, sharply ridged, with the acute tip extend- 
ing to a point just beyond the internai angles of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely free, broad, usually 
hyaline with some maculations, veins strong. five apical cells and one discoidal cell, the veins of the 
apical cells being very strongly curved; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; all tarsi of equal length. 

Type variegata Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : At present this genus is limited to South America with the 
species recorded as foUows : 

1. concinna Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 27. 7 (1862). Brazil. 

2. octilinea Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 260. 2 (1869). — Pl, 3, fig, 36. Argentina. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 83 

3. proxima Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 285 (i883). Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay. 

4. variegata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 291. 4 (1846). Argentina, Brazil. 

45. GENUS DARNOIDES FAIRMAIRE 

Darnoides Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 496 (1846). 

Characters : Small, inconspicuous insects of yellow or greenish coloration with a slender :icute 
posterior process and hyahne tegmina with straight apical veins Head subquadrate, broader than 
high; base nearly straight; clypeus very slender, extending for two-thirds its length below the iiiferior 
margins of thegense; ocelH small, inconspicuous, somewhat elevated, equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated about on a hne drawn through centers of eyes. Pronotum rough convex 
rounded; metopidium straight; humeral angles weak, rounded; no suprahumerals or other anterior 
processes; posterior process slender, straight, often slightly depressed at base, tip acute and reaching 
just to internal angles oftegmina; scutellum entirely covered by pronotum. Tegmina entirely free 
hyahne, veins weak, fiveapical cells and one discoidal cell, the apical veins straight; apical Hmbus very 
broad. Legs simple; tarsi uniform in size. 

Type limbatus Fairmaire. 

Geographical dlstribution : This genus has a rather wide distribution over Central and South 
.America with the foHowing recorded species : 

1. affiuis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 82. i (1894). Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

BoHvia. 

2. brunueus Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 3o8 (i836). — Pl. 3, flg. 37. Brazil, British Guiana. 

nigroapicaia Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. i (1862) 

3. flavesceus Baker, Can. Ent. XXXIX : 117 (1907). Honduras, Brazil, Mexico. 
4 impressus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 262. 3 (i86g). Colombia. 

5. limbattis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 495. i (1846). Colombia, Venezuela. 

6. puudellatus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 263. 4 (1869). Colombia. 

7. semivitta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 586. 7 (i85i). Colombia, Ecuador. 

46. GENUS BRACHYTALIS Metcalf and Bruner 

Brachytalis Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 2o5 (1925). 

Characters : Very small, shining insects with broad bodies and semiopaque tegmina, resem- 
bHngin general facies the forms of the genus ^cw/rtto of the subfamily Smiliinse but of course immediately 
distinguished from that group by the truncate base of the median apical cell of the tegmina and the con- 
cealed scutellum. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high, with the eyes extending as far laterad as 
the humeral angles; base weakly sinuate; eyes large and prominent; ocelli about equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated near the base of the head well above a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; clypeus broad, somewhat deflexed. extending only slightly below the inferior margins of the 
genas. Pronotum broad, depressed, smooth and shining, very Hghtly punctate and not pubescent; meto- 
pidium sloping, broader than high; humeral anglcs broad, triangular and blunt ; no supiahumerals or 
other anterior processes; posterior process straight, rounded above, short, just reaching the apical end 
of the clavus; median carina faintly percurrent ; scutellum entirely hidden by the sides of the pronotum. 



84 HOMOPTERA 

Tegmina semiopaque with the venation somewhat obscure ; five apical cells and one discoidal cell, the 
median apical cell truncate at base; no apical limbus. Legs simple; posterior tarsi longest. 

Type fuscus Metcalf and Bruner. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the two Cuban species here recorded. 

1. fuscoalis Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 2o5 (igaS). Cuba. 

2. fuscus Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 204 (1925). — Pl. 3, fig. 38. Cuba. 

47. GENUS PROCYRTA STAL 

Procyrta Stal, Hem. Fabr. H : 32 (1869). 
Dysyneritus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 80 (1895). 

Characters : Small, roughly sculptured forms of dull colors with the pronotum somewhat 
elevated and the tegmina free and characterized by a transverse vein just behind the middle. Head 
triangular, roughly sculptured ; base strongly arcuate ; eyes large, prominent ; ocelli small, inconspicuous, 
twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
clypeus extending for half its length belovv the inferior margins of the genae and continuing the line of the 
face made by these margins. Pronotum somewhat elevated, rounded above in front and somewhat 
compressed behind, roughly sculptured, usually maculate with brown or black; dorsum somewhat 
sinuate; metopidium straight, higher than broad ; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles 
weak, rounded, not strongly produced ; no suprahumerals or other anterior processes ; posterior process 
heavy, tectiform, somewhat compressed laterally, tip suddenly acuminate and extending to a point 
beyond theinterior angles but not reaching the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Teg- 
mina entirely free, broad, fuscus hyaline, usually with brown or black markings; base broadly coria- 
ceous and punctate; apical limbus broad; five apical cells with strongly curved venation ; one discoidal 
cell ; the apical area set off by a more or less well defined line of transverse veins. Legs simple ; all of 
the tarsi about equal in length. 

Type pectoralis Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : Apparently well distributed over South America, Central Amer- 
ica and Mexico as represented by the following species : 

1. affinis Guerin, Ic. Reg. An. Ins. 364 (i838). Mexico, Yucatan. 

transversalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 374. 3 (i858). 

2. discrepans Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 14 (igSo). Brazil. fHonduras 

3. intectus Fowler, B. C. A. H : 81. i (iSgS). — Pl. 3, fig. 39. Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, 

4. lineatus Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 12 (ig^o). Brazil. 

5. nubilis Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. i3 (igSo). Brazil 

6. ornamentala StoII, Cigal. 71 (1780). Surinam. 

7. pectoralis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 21. 25 (i8o3). Centval America. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE ACONOPHORINI GODING 

I . Humeral angles not produced into spines 

A Pronotal horns originating in front of suprakumerals 

I. Pronotal horn robust, porrect, straight, sometimes compressed 

laterally, extending forward and upward Aconophora Fairmaire. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 85 

2 . ProHotal horu ciirved 

a. ProHotal horn flaHened dorsoveiitrally, curved forward aiid 

dowiiward Kronides Kirkaldy. 

aa. Proiioial horii very slender extending forward and curving 

strongly upward Orekthophora Funkhouser. 

B. Pronotal horn arising from behind suprahumerals Hemiptycha Geimar. 

1 1 . Himeral angles produced into spines 

A. Pronotum extended into a horn over the head Nessokhinus Amyot and Serville. 

B. Pronotum without frontal exteusion Spinodarnoides Funkhouser. 

48. GENUS ACONOPHORA Fairmaire 

Aconophora Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 294 {1846). 

Characters : Robust, subcyhndrical insects, niostly of large size, with long, heavy, porrect 
frontal horns, long sharp posterior processes, weak humeral angles and entirely free tegmina. Head 
subquadrate, broader than high ; base arcuate ; eyes large and prominent; ocelli equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes; inferior margins of genae usually extended downward into lobes; clypeus broad 
and truncate and extending for at least half its length below the infcrior margins of the genae. Prono- 
tum subcylindrical or conical, usually smooth; humeral angles weak and rounded and but slightly 
produced outward; anterior pronotal horn straight, long, heavy, porrect, usually more or less flattened 
laterally and projecting directly forward and upward; median carina only faintly percurrent; posterior 
process strong, generally rounded above, sharp, length variable but usually extending to a point about 
half-way between the internal angles and the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina 
long, narrow, entirely free, generally smoky-hyaline with strong, conspicuous veins; five long, narrow 
apical cells, the median one truncate at its base; two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad and wrinkled. 
Legs simple; tarsi about equal in length. 

Type laminata Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : This is one of the largest and most widely distributed of all of the 
New World genera of the Membracidae and is represented by a large number of localities both by 
the various genera and by single species. The species are in some confusion but it is evident from 
material in collections that the same species may be found in many widely separated regions. Conse- 
(juently in the following hst of species, the number of countries recorded for a single species may seem 
surprisingly large. 

1. anosparsa Butler, Cist. Ent. H : 348. 9 (1878). Mexico. 

2. brasiliensis Stal, Hem. Fabr. H : 84 (1869). Brazil, Ecuador. 

3. caliginosa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i35 (i858). Guatemala, British Guiana, 

Mexico,Nicaragua,Panama. 

4. cumpressa WaXker, List Hom. B. M. 541 (18S1). Mexico, British Guiana. 

5. concolor VValker, List Hom. B. M. 540. 17 (i85i). Mexico, Peru. 

6. conifera Butler, Cist. Ent. H : 35o. 23 (1878). Mexico. 

7. cultellata Walker, Ins. Saund. 70 (i858). Brazil. 

8. disparicoriiis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 69. 18 (1895). Panama, Honduras. 



86 



HOMOPTERA 



9. ensata Fowler, B. C. A. II : 68. i5 (i8g5. 

10. femoralis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 35. i3 (1869). 

11. ferruginea Fowler, B. C. A. II ; 69. 17 (iSgS). 

12. flavipes Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 238. 16 (i835). 
i3. fusiformis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 69. 19 (iSgS). 
14. gigantea Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 352 (1878). 

i5. gladiata Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 35. 14 (1869) 

16. grisescens Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 238. 17 (i835). 

pugnax Germar, Rev. Silb. III : aSg. 19 (i835). 
inlerna Walker, List Hom. B. M. 541. 19 (i85i). 
gilvipes Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 28. 2 (i858). 

17. imbellis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 295. 3 (1846). 

surgens Walker, Ins. Saund. 69 (i858). 

18. laminata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 294. 2 (1846). — Pl, 3, fig. 4-0. 

19. laticornis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 1^4 (i858). 

20. marginata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 540. 16 (i85i). 

stabilis Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL i35 (i858) 
gracilicornis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 35. 11 (1869). 
nigra Stal, Hem Fabr. II : 35. 5 (1869). 

21. mexicana Stal, Hem. Mex. 70. 427 (1864). 

22. minuta Fowler, B. C. A. II : 72. 27 (1895). 

2 3. nigricnrnis Fowler, B. C. A. 11 : 64. 6 (1895). 

24. nitida F^owler, B. C. A. II : 66. 11 (1895). 

25. obfuscata Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 33i (igoS). 

26. obtusa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 542. 20 (i85i). 

27. obiusiuscula Fowler, B C. A. II : 71. 26 (1895). 

28. pallescens Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 35. 12 (1869). 

29. pinguis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 64. 7 (1895). 

30. projecta Funkhouser. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. 160(1927). 

3i. pruinilia Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 35o. 21 (1878). 
punitia (sic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 134 (i9o3j. 

32. pubescens Walker, Ins. Saund. 70 (i858). 

spathata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 347. 5 (1878). 

33. pugionata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 20. 17 (1818). 

kadina Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 349. 20 (1878). 

34 sinanjensis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 70. 20 (1895). 

35. subinermis Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 28 (iS58). 

36. talpula Stoll, Cigal. 61 (1780). 



Mexico, Guatemala, Nicara- 

gua, Panama. 
Mexico, Bolivia. 
Mexico, Panama, Brazil, Pe- 

ru, Canal Zone. 
Mexico. 

Panama, Bolivia, Brazil. 
Brazil. 
Mexico. 
Brazil, Peru. 



Brazil. Bolivia. 

Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Co- 

lombia, Brazil. 
Mexico, Guatemala, Costa 

Rica, Argentina. 
Mexico, Guatemala, Costa 

Rica, Panama, Peru, Ecua- 

dor, Bolivia, Brazil. 

Mexico, Yucutan, Guatemala, 

Panama, Colombia. 
Mexico. 

Mexico, Guatemala. 
Panama, Canal Zone, Brazil. 
Mexico. • 
Brazil. 
Mexico. 
M exi co , Guatemala , Peru , 

Bolivia. 
Panama, Colotnbia. 
Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico. 
Mexico. 

Guatemala, Brazil. 

Brazil, Ecuador, Argentina, 
Honduras, Colombia, Mex- 
ico, Peru. 

Guatemala, Peru, Ecuador, 
Colombia, Honduras. 

Brazil, Mexico. 

Surinam. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



87 



37. tdigera Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 21. 18 (1821). 

38. temaxia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 70. 21 (1895). 

39. tenuicornis Walker. Ins. Saund. 70 (i858). 

40. variipenuis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 67. 12 (1895). 

41. viridula Fowler, B. C. A. II : 71. 24 (i8g5). 

42. w. album Buckton, Mon. Memb. i32 (1903). 

43. xiphias Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 12. 29 (i8o3). 



Brazil. 

Mexico, Yucutan, Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Mexico, Yucatan. 

Mexico. 

Ecuador. 

Brazil. 



49. Genus KRONIDES Kirkaldy 



Kronides Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Argante (preoccupied) Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 558 (1867). 

Characters : This genus may be recognized at once by the strong curved pronotal horn which 
is broadly flattened dorso-ventrally and bends downward in front of the head. Head deflexed, subquad- 
rate, twice as broad as high, almost entirely concealed from a dorsal view by the over-hanging anterior 
horn, base higher at sides than in the center because of the downward curve of the cephalic margin of 
the metopidium; eyes large, prominent, extending farther laterad than the sides of the pronotum ; ocelli 
prominent, somewhat elevated, farther from each other than from the eyes; clypeus extending for half its 
length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum low, almost flat above, punctate and shining; anterior 
pronotal horn strong, broadly compressed dorso-ventrally, extending forward and bending strongly down- 
ward over and in front of the head, tip truncate ; humeral angles very weak and rounded; median carina 
percurrent; posterior process broad, flat, gradually becoming acute to the tip which reaches just beyond 
the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina long, narrow, opaque, veins 
more or less obscure; five apical cells, the median one truncate at base ; one discoidal cell; apical limbus 
broad. Legs simple; posterior tarsi the longest. 

Type incumbens Germar. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from Scuth America and is represented 
by only five species but the individuals must be very nunierous and easily coUected for they are to be 
found very cominonly in coUections. 

1. brevicornis da Fonseca. Arquiv Instit. Biol. Vill : 8. 236 (19^7). 

2. cochleata Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXXII : 273. 2 (191 1). 

3. incumbeiis Geiinar, Rev. Silb. III : 239. 20 (i835). — Pl. 3, flg. 4 I , 

4. ogloblina da Fonseca, .Arquiv. Instit. Biol. VII : 12. i6i (1936). 

5. tremolaris Goding, Ent. News XXV : 402 (1914). 



Brazil. 

Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil. 

Brazil, Argentina. 

Argentina. 

Uruguay, Paraguay. 



50. GENUS OREKTHOPHORA FUNKHOUSER 

Orekthophora Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 412 [19^0). 

Charaoters This genus may be distinguished at a glance by the long, slender,up-tuined anter- 
ior pronotal horn which is unlike ihat of any other form not only in the subfamily but in the family. 
The insects are small and slender-bodied with the following technical characters : Head subquadrangu- 
lar, twice as broad as high; base emarginate in center to accommodate a median downward curve of the 



88 HOMOPTERA 

cephalic margin of the metopidium; eyes large and glassy; ocelli minute, located in the upper outer 
angles of the head, very close to the base and to the eyes; inferior margins of the genas projecting down- 
ward in lobes on each side; clypeus very long and narrow and projecting for two-thirds its length below 
the inferior margins of the genae ; the extended cl}'peus and the lobes of the gense giving the head a tri- 
lobed appearance. Pronotum rounded above the shoulders and extended forward in a long, slender anter- 
ior process which is strongly curved upward and ends in a slightly dilated and bifurcate tip; humeral 
angles very weak, obtuse and triangular; median carina percurrent; posterior process long, slender, 
tricarinate, decurved, tip acuminate and extending just to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely 
concealed. Tegmina long, navrow, entirely free, opaque but with veins raised and prominent; five api- 
cal and three discoidal cells; median apical cell truncate at base ; apical hmbus well developed. Legs 
simple and very slender ; hind tarsi the longest. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the following single species from the West 
Indies : 

I. cornuta Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 412 (igSo). San Domingo. 

_ Pl. 4, fig, 42. 



51. GENUS HEMIPTYCHA GERMAR 

Hemiptycha Germar, Rev. Silb. I : 177 (i833). 
Hypseletropis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 26 (1869). 
Gelastophara Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279(1904). 

Characters : This genus has had a rather strange and troubled history and is here included only 
because the type species, which is now the only species remaining in the genus, still remains as the lone 
representative, with characters which seem to distinguish it from related forms. The meager characters, 
as described for the genus by Germar, have been subject to many interpretations, and doubtless to many 
misinterpretations, so that species have been assigned to the genus and afterwards removed to other 
genera in a fashion which is most confusing. At one time or another, sixty four difFerent species have 
been placed in Hemiptycha; now only one remains. Moreover, at least two synonyms are known for 
the genus; five or six new genera have been split off from these groups; a number of the old species 
have been positively shown to belong to other subfamilies; and the synonymy of many other species, 
formerly placed in Hemiptycha, is questionable. 

The chief character which may validate the genus is the position of the pronotal hom far back 
on the pronotum and arising from behind the humeral angles. The only other diagnostic characters 
seem to be the very weak humeral angles which are not produced into spines, the straight anterior 
process and the truncate median apical cell of the corium, and these characters have therefore been used 
to identify the genus in the preceding synoptic key. 

Type obtecta Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : The single species now remaining in the genus was described 
froni some unidentified locality in South America. We have never seen this insect and we know of 
no one who has recognized it since Stal used it as the type of Hypselotropis (which we beheve to be a 
synonym of Hemiptycha) in i86g. 

I. obtecta Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i3. 3i (i8o3). South America. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 89 

52. Genus NESSORHINUS Amyot and Serville 

Nessorhinus Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 542 (1843). 

Characters : Medium sized insects of quite remarkable appearance due to the flattened 
anterior horn which projects directly forward over the head and the greatly produced humeral angles 
which project outward as large spines. Head very small, poorly developed, three times as wide as 
high; basealmost flat; eyes large and prominent; ocelli large, conspicuous, located in the upper, outer 
angles of the head, very close to the base and to the eyes, as in the genus Orekthophora ; inferior margin 
of the genas sinuate ; clypeus extending for more than half its length below the inferior margins of 
the genae. Pronotum low and almost flat except for a median dorsal crest which is always present 
but is variable in height; anterior pronotal process long, heavy, strong, tricarinate, somewhat flattened 
dorso-ventrally and extending almost directly forward ; metopidium sloping; median carina percurrent; 
humeral angles developed into long, spine-Hke horns which extend outward and upward; posterior 
process long, slender, tectiform, tricarinate, acuminate, extending just about to the tips of the tegmina; 
scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina entirely free, long, narrow, vitreous, semiopaque; veins heavy 
and prominent, those of the apical area slightly curved ; five apical cells with the median one truncate 
at base; number of discoidal cells variable but usually three; apical hmbus very narrovi'. Legs simple; 
all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type vulpes Amyot and Serville. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the West Indies and is repre- 
sented by the following species : 

1. gibberulus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 294. i (1869). Porto Rico, 

2. gracilis Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 208 (ig25). Cuba. 

3. graciloides Dozier, Araer. Mus. Novit. 3 (igSi). Porto Rico. 

4. vulpes Amyotand Serville, Hemip. 242 (1843). — Pl. 4, fig, 43. Haiti, San Domingo, St. Vin- 

cents Island, 

53. GENUS SPINODARNOIDES FUNKHOUSER 

Spinodarnoides Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 412 (igSo). 

Characters : A slender bodied insect characterized by the long, spine-like humeral angles, a 
spinose median dorsal process but having no anterior horn. The head is rather curious since it projects 
in a horizontal ridge with the base and inferior surfaces sloping backward from this ridge. The head 
is nearly three times as broad as high; base sinuate; eyes large; ocelli large, prominent, three times as 
far from each other as from the eyes and situated just above the protruding ridge of the head; clypeus 
broad, projecting for two-thirds its length below the sinuate margins of the genas. Pronotum rounded 
butnothigh; metopidium sloping; median carina strongly percurrent ; humeral angles produced out- 
ward into long, sharp spines; no anterior horn; median dorsal spine short and sharp ; posterior process 
long, slender, sharp, tricarinate, its tip not quite reaching the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely 
concealed. Tegmina entirely free, long, narrow, hyaline; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical 
limbus narrow. 

Type typus Funkhouser. 



go HOMOPTERA 

Geogpaphical distribution : Known only fiom the type species which was found in Poito 
Rico. 

I. iypus Funkhouser, Journ.N. Y.Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 412 (igSo). Porto Rico. 

— Pl. 4, fig. 44. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE HEMIKYPTHINI TRIBUS NOV. 

I. Tegmina partly covered by sides of pronoium 

A. Head subquadrate, wider ihan long Proterpia Stal. 

B. Head triangular Eulathe Stal. 

II. Tegmina entirely exposed 

A. Corium with one triangular discoidal cell Nassunia Stal. 

B. Coritim with two elongate discoidal cells 

1. Pronotiim convex Tomogonia Stal. 

2. Pronotum elevated and bulbous anteriorly, generally with suprahumeral 

horns 
a. Ocelli equidistant from each other andfrom the eyes 

b. Posterior process extendmg beyond tegmina ; body slender . . . Bubalopa Stal. 
bb. Postertor process not as long as tegmiiia ; body robust 

c. Siiprahumerals heavy, blunt ; posterior process blunt .... Hyphinoe Stal. 
cc. Suprahumerals sharp ; posterior process acute 

d. Cells of tegmina narrotv, oblong Alcmeone Stal. 

dd . Cells of tegmina irregular, not narrow and oblong. . . . Ictaranthe Fowler. 
aa. Ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes 

b. Suprahumcrals strongly curved upward Hemikyptha Metcalf. 

bb. Suprahumerals extending laterad, very little upward ' Sundarion Kirkaldy. 

54. GENUS PROTERPIA STAL 

Proteppia Stal, Bid. Hein. Syst. 557 (1867). 

Cliaracters ; Large robust insects, distinguished by the porrect suprahumeral horns with blunt, 
truncate or rounded tips and by the fact that the tegmina are about half concealed by the overhanging 
sides of the pronotum. Head subquadrate, twice as wide as high ; base sinuate ; eyes prominent, glassy ; 
ocelii small, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded; 
clypeus broad and extending for about half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum tecti- 
form, highest in middle; metopidium straight; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles blunt, 
triangular; suprahumeral horns stout, robust. projecting forward and slightly upward, nearly parallel 
with each other, slightly compressed laterally with usually a lateral carina, tips rounded; posterior pro- 
cess heavy, straight, tectiform, sharp, reaching just beyond the tips of tegmina; scutellum entirely hid- 
den. Tegmina subopaque, pubesceut, about half covered by the sides of the pronotum ; five apical and 
two discoidal cells; median apical cell truncate at base ; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind 
tarsi a little longer than the others. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 91 



Type rotundicornis Fairmaire. 



k 



Geographical distribution : Only two species described, both fiom South America. 

1. >o/««i/^or««5 Fairmaiie, Rev. Memb. 314. 4 (1846). — PI.4, fig. 45. Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia. 

2. truncaticornis Godmg, Amer. Mus. Novit. i5 (igSo). Brazil. 

55. GENUS EUALTHE Stal 

Eualthe Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 557 (1867). 

Characters : Large elongate insects with nearly horizontal suprahumeral horns, a long, slender, 
slightly upturned posterior process and the tegmina partly covered by the sides of the pronotum. Head 
triangular; base strongly arcuate; eyes subtriangular ; oceUi large, nearer to each other than totheeyes; 
inferior margins of gente straight and sloping; clypeus diamond-shaped, projecting for half its length 
below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum low, tectiform, dorsum nearly straight; metopidium 
straight; humeral angles blunt, triangular; suprahumeral horns heavy, blunt, extending outward and 
shghtly upward; posterior process long, slender, slightly upturned, and extending beyond the tips of the 
tegmina ; scutellum entirely covered by the sides of the pronotum. Tegmina long, narrow, fuscous- 
hyaUne,pubescent, about one-third covered by the sides of the pronotum ; five apical and two discoidal 
ceUs; median apical ceU truncate at base; apical limbus very narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longer 
than the other two pairs. 

Type lavigata Fairmaire. 

Geographica! distributlon : The only two species known were described from Brazil and have 
never been reported from any other country. 

1. lavigata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i8. 18 {1846). Brazil. 

2. punctum Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i8. 17 (1846). — Pl. 4, fig. 46. Brazil. 

56. GENUS NASSUNIA STAL 

Nassunla Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 3o (1862). 

Characters : Medium sized, robust insects with stout diverging suprahumerals and entirely free 
tegmina. Head triangular; base arcuate; eyes ovate; oceUi large, prominent, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated about on a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae sinuate ; clypeus sUghtly swoUen in center, extending for half its length below the inferior margins 
of the genae. Pronotum convex, moderately elevated, not compressed, tectiform; metopidium straight; 
median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles weak, bhmt, triangular; suprahumeral horns stout, 
sharp, diverging, extending outward and upward; posterior process strong, tectiform, suddenly acumin- 
ate, extending beyond end of abdomen but not reaching tips of tegmina; scuteUum entirely concealed. 
Tegmina entirely free, hyaUne; five apical ceUs with the median cell truncate at base ; one discoidal 
ceU; veins strong and sUghtly raised ; apical Umbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi the longest. 

Type bistillata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from South America with the foUowing 
records of distribution. 
I. binotata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 291. 3 (1846). BraziL 



g2 HOMOPTERA 

2. bipundata Faiimaire, Rev. Memb. 290. i (1846). — Pl. 4, flg. 47. Biazil, Peiu. 

3. bispina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 290. 2 (1846). Colombia, Panama. 

4. bistillala Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 3i. i (1862). Brazil. 

5. conjicita Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 1^9 (i858). ' Brazil. 

6. dalmani Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 3i. 2 (1862). Brazil. 

7. fortis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i32 (i858). Brazil. 

8. gentilis Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVI : 178 (1902). Brazil. 

9. nigrofascia Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. i3 (1922). Peru. 
10. trux Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVI : 178 (1902). Brazil. 

57. GENUS TOMOGONIA STAL 

Tomogonia Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 258 (1869). 
Tauriona Buckton. Mon. Memb. 259 (i9o3). 
Temogonia (sic) Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 36 (1920). 

Characters : Medium sized, slender-bodied forms, with a convex pronotum, two elongate 
discoidal cells in the corium and with the tegmina entirely exposed ; the suprahumeral horns are very 
variable, ranging from mere blunt protuberances to long, sharp processes. Head triangular, smooth; 
base strongly arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes round; ocelli large, glassy, equidistant from each other 
and from the ej^es and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae weakly sinuate; clypeus extending for one-third its length below inferior margins of genae, tip 
rounded and continuing the line made by the margins of the genae. Pronotum convex, tectiform, 
slightly impressed on each side behind suprahumerals; metopidium sloping; median carina obsolete on 
metopidium but present on dorsum and posterior process ; humeral angles broad, blunt, rounded; supra- 
humeral horns variable in length but always present and usually projecting outward ; posterior process 
strong, carinate, suddenly acuminate and reaching to a point about half-way between the internal 
angles and the tips of the tegmina ; scutellum completely concealed. Tegmina entirely free, broad, 
smoky-hyaline; five apical cells with the median cell truncate at base ; two elongate discoidal cells with 
veins somewhat curved; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with four apical cells and one discoidal 
cell. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type vittatipennis Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : A South and Central American genus reported from the foUow- 
ing countries : 
X. composiana Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 36 (1920). Ecuador. 

2. obesa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^9 (1903). Ecuador. 

3. pectoralis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2^9. 2 (1869). Colombia, Peru. 

4. vittatipeunis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 293. 8 (1846). — Pl, 4, fjg. 48. Guatemala, Colombia. 

58. GENUS BUBALOPA Stal 

Bubalopa Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 255 (1869). 

Characters : We are very suspicious Xh&iBubalopa Stal is a synonym oi Etialthe Stal. The only 
real difference between these genera is siipposed to be the entirely free tegmina in the former and the 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ gS 

partly covered tegmina of the latter. This would be a good character if it vvere constant but \ve find 
thal there is much variation in this respect in both genera since the development of the sides of the 
pronotum is not uniform in either. Usually, however, in Bubalopa the corium is fully exposed, even 
though the clavus may be concealed, and on the strength of this difference we are allowing the genus 
to stand. The other characters are much the same as in Eualthe and are as foUows : Head triangular, 
aboutas broad as high ; base strongly arcuate ; eyes distinctly triangular; ocelli large, prominent, about 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated slightly below a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus faintly trilobed, extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae and continuing the line of the face made by these margins. Pronotum some- 
what swollen anteriorly, tectiform, dorsum sinuate; metopidium straight, about as broad as high; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles very weak, rounded; suprahumeral horns strong, heavy, 
triquerate, extending outward and upward; posterior process very long, slender, tectiform, gradually 
acuminate, extending well beyond the apices of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina 
ahnost entirely exposed, sometimes the clavus hidden; long, narrow, fuscous-hyaline, veins prominent, 
tips rounded; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi much 
longer tlian either of the other two pairs. 

Type furcata Fairmaire. 

Geographical distpibution : The only species which are known in the genus were both 
described from Bogota and have never been reported from any other locality. They are as follows : 

1. furcata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 314. 5 (1846). — Pl. 4, fig. 49. Colombia. 

2. obscuricornis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 256. 2 (1869). Colombia. 

59. genus HYPHINOE STAL 

Hyphinoe Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 558 (1867). 

Characters : Robust, heavy-bodied insects with strong, blunt suprahumeral horns and free 
tegmina. Head triangular, roughly sculptured; base arcuate; eyes triangular; ocelli about equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae sinuate; clypeus broad, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. 
Pronotum elevated, heavy and more or less swollen in front, usually impressed on each side; metopidium 
convex, higher than broad; median carina weakly percurrent ; humeral angles weak, rounded; supra- 
humeral horns heavy, triquerate, blunt, usually extending directly outward and very little upward; 
posterior process suddenly narrowed because of a distinct step behind bulbous base, tectiform, blunt, 
extending to a point about haif way between internal angles and tips of tegmina; scutellum entirely con- 
cealed. Tegmina free, broad, semiopaque; veins heavy ; tips broadly rounded; five apical and two 
discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type cuneata Germar. 

Geographicai distribution : This genus is widely distributed over South and Central America 

and some of the individual species seem to have a wide range. The records up to the present are as 
follows : 

I. asphaltina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3 19. 22 (1846). Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

atriformis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 144 (i858). Colombia, Venezuela.Nicar- 

pubescens Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 144 (i858). 

morio Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 257. 3 (1869). agua. 



94 



HOMOPTERA 



2. bigutta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 142 (i858). — Pl. 4, 

fig. 50. 

3. camelus Gray, An. King. Ins. H : 260 (i832). 

sagata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 246. 2 (i835). 
viiidissima Walker, List Hom. B. M. 572. 21 (i85i). 
valida Walker, List Hom. B. M. 524. i6(i85i). 
obliqua Walker, Ins. Saund. 73 (i858). 

4. cornuta Distant, Ent. Month. Mag. XVI ; 12 (1879). 

5. cuneata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 246. 3 (i835). 

globiceps Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 319. 20 (1846). 

6. diabolica Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 346. 6 (1878). 

7. hirsuta Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 335 (igoS). 

8. inermis Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Lll : 107 (1926). 

9. marginalis Fallou, Rev. Ent. IX : 353 (1890). 

10. ochracea Fowler, B. C. h. II : 78. 10 (iSgS). 

11. placida Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 246. 4 (i835). 

12. proclivis Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. IV : 6^5 (1900). 
i3. pnnctorum Buckton, Mon. Memb. 124(1903). 

14. purulensis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 77. 7 (1895). 
i5. quadrimaculata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 121 (1903). 

16. tau Fowler, B. C. A. II : 76. 5 (iSgS). 

atitlana Fowler, B. C. A. II : 76 (1895). 
subfusca Buckton, Mon. Memb. 122 (1903). 

17. thoracata Distant. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. IV : 695 (1900). 

18. vtilpecula Fowler, B. C. A. II : 77. 8 (1895). 

ig. yaguachiensis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 11 (1929). 



(juatemala, Mexico. 



Mexico. 



Costa Rica. 
Mexico, Guatemala. 

Colombia. 

Central America. 

Ecuador. 

Guatemala. 

Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Costa Rica. 

Brazil, Peru. 

Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Guatemala, Panama 

Costa Rica. 
Panama, Brazil. 
Ecuador. 



60. genus ALCMEONE STAL 

Alcmeone Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 558 (1867). 

Characters : This genus is closely related to Hyphinoe Stal, but differs in having the anterior 
portion of the pronotum far less bulbous, no distinct step before the posterior process, and with the 
suprahumeral horns and the posterior process very sharp and acuminate. Head triangular, broader 
than high; basestraight at sides and strongly arcuate in center; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, 
about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a hne drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of genae straight; clypeus broad and continuing the line of the face made by the 
margins of the genae. Pronotum heavy and elevated, somewhat swollen in front but with no sharp step 
before the posterior process; median carina almost obsolete; metopidium convex, wider than high; 
humeral angles weak and rounded; suprahumeral horns heavy, conical, sharp, extending almost 
directly outward ; posterior process heav}', gradually acuminate, tip sharp and reaching a point about 
half way betweeii the internal angles and the apices of the tegmina; scutellum entirely hidden, Tegmina 
free, broad, vitreous hyaline ; veins prominent; five apical and two discoidal cells; all cells of the 
corium long and narrow; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; tarsi all about equal in length. 



Type centrotoidts Fairmaire. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ gS 

Geographical distribution : This genus is found in South and Central America and in Mexico 
with the following recorded localities ; 

1. brevis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Syi. 19 (i85i). Brazil. 

2. caseoscalpfis Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 344. 6 (1878). Brazil. 

3. centrotoidts Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 317. 14 (1846). Brazil. 

4. curvicornis Stal, Bid. Mem. Kan. 256. 2 (1869). Brazil. 

5. expansicornis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 817. i5 (1846). Brazil, Guatemala. 

6. godmani Fowler, B. C. A. II : 72. i (1895). Mexico. 

7. laia Walker. List Hom. B. M. 571. 18 (i85i). Honduras. 

8. picea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i6. i3 (1846). — Pl. 5, fig. 5 I . Brazil, Colombia. 
g. mistriga Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Lll : 107 (1926). Ecuador. 

61. genus ICTARANTHE FOWLER 

lctaranthe Fowler, B. C. A. II : 79 (i8g5). 

Characters : Phylogenetically this genus is unquestionably very close to Hyphinoe Stal but if it 
may be judged by the type species it bears a strong superficial resemblance to the genus Ceresa of the 
subfamily Smiliinae. It differs from Hyphinoe in having sharp, acute suprahumeral horns and in having 
the anterior portion of the pronotum much less bulbous, and it may be distinguished from Alcmeone in 
having the cells of the corium irregular in shape rather than uniformly narrow and oblong. The more 
imptortant generic characters areas follows : Head triangular, roughly sculptured ; base arcuate; eyes 
ovate; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes; inferior margins of 
genae straight; clypeus ridged in center, extending for half its length below the inferior margins of 
the gen£e. Pronotum elevated, somewhat swoUen in front, lightly impressed on each side; dorsum 
convex and sloping ; metopidium convex, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
triangular, blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, tricarinate, sharp, extending outward and upward ; 
posterior process heavy, tectiform, sharp, extending to a point a little more than half way between the 
internal angles and the apices of thetegmina; scutelhim entirely concealed. Tegmina free, liyaline, 
broad; veins prominent; cells of corium irregular in shape; five apical and two discoidal cells; apex 
rounded; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi somewhat longer than the others. 

Type latifrons Fowler. 

Geographlcal distribution : This genus is known only from the type species which was 
described from Panama but has since been reported from Brazil. 
I. latifrons Fowler, B. C. A. II : 79 (i8g5). — Pl, 5, fig. 52. Panama, Brazil. 

62. Genus HEMIKYPTHA METCALF 

Hemikyptha Metcalf, Ent. News XXXVIII : 16 (1927). 

Characters : This genus contains the largest insects in the family, some of the species 
measuring more than twenty-five milhmeters in length and half that in heiglit, including the pronotal 



Note : Stal must be written Stal. We beg to apologize for the misprint occurring pp. i - 94 inclusive. 



96 HOMOPTERA 

horns. They are all large, robust insects with powerful upstanding suprahumerals and strongly 
elevated pronotums. Head obtusely triangular, smooth; base strongly arcuate and sinuate; eyes 
ovate; ocelli large, prominent, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated well below a 
Hne drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae straight; clypeus extending for half its 
length below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum heavy, robust, elevated; metopidium convex, 
broader than high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles weak and rounded; suprahumeral 
horns long, strong, usually curved, sharp, and extending almost directly upward; dorsum arcuate, 
highest in center; posterior process heavy, tectiform, tricarinate, sharp, extending just about to the 
tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina broad, subhyaline, sometimes very 
slightly covered at the posterior ends by the overhanging sides of the pronotum but mostly free ; five apical 
and two discoidal cells ; apical Hmbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi shghtly longer than the others. 

Type punctata Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has been recorded only from Brazil and we have never 
seen a specimen in any museum from any other country. Eight species have been described as follows : 

1. apicalis Walker, List Hom. B. M.572 (i85i). Brazil. 

2. braziliensis Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 676. 7 (1775). Brazil. 

3. compressicomis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i3. 3 (1846). Brazil. 

truncalicornis Walker, Ins. Saund. 73 (i858). 
spatulosa Buckton, Mon. Memb. i37 (1903). 

4. crux Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. I : 435. 9 (1758). Brazil. 

5. gigas da Fonseca, Rev. Ent. V : 4. 425 (igSS). Brazil. 

6. lata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 571. 18 (i85i). Brazil. 

7. marginata F-abricius, Ent. Syst. IV : 12. 17 (i775). — Pl, 5, fig. 53. Brazil. 

sinepsis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. II : 2095. 71 (1788) 
maculala Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 668. 5 (1792) 

8. punctata Fabricius, Ent. Syst IV : i3. 21 (1775). Brazil. 

scutelligera Lesson, III. Zool. Pl. 55. 2 (i83i). 
cervus Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 247. 5 (i835). 



63. GENUS SUNDARION KIRKALDY 

Sundarion Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Pyranthe (preoccupied) StSl, Bid. Hem. Syst. 558 (1867). 

Characters : Medium sized insects with free tegmina, horizontal suprahumerals, and long, 
slender, posterior processes. Head subquadrangular, broader than high; base arcuate and strongly 
sinuate; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli large, much nearer to each other than to the eyes; inferior 
margins of genae straight and sloping; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of 
genae. Pronotum convex, elevated, highest point just behind the suprahumerals; metopidium convex; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles blunt, tiiangular; suprahumeral horns long, strong, tricarin- 
ate, sharp, extending almost directly outward; posterior process gradually acuminate, tectiform, tricar- 
inate, tip sharp and extending to a point about half way between internal angles and apices of tegmina ; 
scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina free, hyaline, broad, veins prominent; five apical and two 
discoidal cells; tip rounJed; apical limbus broad, Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type Jlava Fairmaire. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 97 

Geographical distribution : This is a strictly South American genus so far as present records 
indicate. The described species are as foUows : 

1. acacite Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 290 (i8S3). Argentina, Uruguay. 

2. alala Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 317. 16 (1846). Brazil. 

3. apicalis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 236. 10 (i835). Brazil. 

4. auriculata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 254. 8 (1869). Brazil. 

5. bimaculata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i5. 9 (1846). Brazil. 

6. brunniventris Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3 16. 12 (1846). Brazil. 

7. chiUnsis Spinola, Gay Hist. Chile VII : 270. i (i852). Chile. 
8 flava Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 314. 6 (1846). — Pl, 5, fig. 54. Brazil. 

9. flavotnarginata Fairmaire, Rev. Memh. 3i5. 10 (1846). Brazil, Argentina. 

10. frusiratoria Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 296 (i883). Argentina; 

11. laticornis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 253. 6 (1869). Brazil. 

12. longicornis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3i5. 17 (1846). Brazil. 

i3. xanthographa Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^7. i3 (i835). Brazil, Argentina. 

GENERA OF TRIBE HETERONOTINI GODING 

I. Corium with two discoidal cells Heteronotus Laporte. 

1 1 . Corium with one discoidal cell 

A. Pronotum with one or more lateral ridges Heliodore Stal. 

B. Pronotum without lateral ridges 

1. Head subquadrate, wider than high. . ■ Omolon Walker. 

2. Head triangular Anchistrotus Buckton. 

64. GENUS HETERONOTUS LAPORTE 

Heteronotus Laporte, Ann. Ent. Soc. France I ; 95 (i832). 
Heniconotus Stal, Hem. Fabr II : 36 (1869). 

Characters : Large, gaudily-colored insects with long, narrow bodies characterized by the very 
nodulate and spinose pronotum. They are among the most bizarre of all of the Membracidae. Head 
quadrate, much wider than high, usually smooth and without pubescence; base straight or weakly 
sinuate; eyes extremely large, globular and protruding; oceili large, glassy, very much nearer to each 
other than to the eyes and situated below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae sloping and strongly sinuate; clypeus trilobed, extending for half its length below inferior 
margins of genae. Pronotum usually bright colored, bearing swollen nodes and decorated with many 
spines; apex of posterior process usually globular and spinose. Tegmina hyaline, very long, extending 
far beyond both the abdomen and the posterior process; five apical and two discoidal cells. Legs 
simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type spinosus Laporte. 

Geographical distribution : A large genus, widely distributed throughout South and Central 
America and Mexico, with tlie largest niimber of species reported from Brazil. 

I. abbreviatus Fairmaire. Rev. Memb. 5oo. 5 (1846). Brazil. 



9« 



HOMOPTERA 



2. athiops Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 359. 2 (1878). 

3. albospinosHS Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 243 (igaS). 

4. belliger Butler, Ci.st. Ent. II : SSg. 3 (1878). 

5. bicornis Lesson, 111. Zool. Pl. Sy, fig. i (i83i). 

bicinctus Kirby, El. Ent. 249 {1892). 

6. delineatiis Walker, List Honi. B. M. SuppL iS^ (i858). 

7. divisus Walker, List Hom. B. M.Suppl. i56 (i858). 

8. fiavolineatus Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 96. 3 (i832). 

inermis Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1.97 (i832). 
furcatus Gray, Anim King. Ins. 161 (i832) 
reticuhita Burmeister, Rev. Silb. I : 227. i (i833). 
signalus Burmeister, Ent. II : i3o. i (1839). 
fowUri Buckton, Mon. Memb. 141 (1903). 

g. flavomacidatus da Fonseca, Arquiv. Instit. Biol. 7. 12 (rgSS). 

10. glanduliger Lesson, 111. Zool. 57, fig. 2 (i83i). 

nigricans Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. I : 96. 2 (i832). 

11. horridus Fabricius, Mant. Ins. H : 264. i5 (1787). 

fuscus Laporte. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. I : 98. 6 (i832l. 
bullifira Burmeister, Rev. Silb. I : 229. 4 (i833). 
excisus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 593. 5 (i85i). 

12. lethierryi (nom. nov.) Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. ^53 (1894). 

trinodosus (preoccupied) Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent, Fr. 154 (1890). 

i3. leucotelus Walker, List Hom B. M. Suppl. i55 (i858). 

14. nodosus Germar, Mag Ent. IV : 3o. 41 (182 1). 

i5. parvinodes (nom. nov.) Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 36i. 11 (1878). 

leucotelus (preoccupied) VValker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 339 (i858). 

16. quadrinodosus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 299. i (1846). 

quinquinodosus Stal, Hem. Me.\. 70. 426 (1864). 

17. spinosis Laporte. Ann Soc Ent. France I : g6 (i832). 

armiitus Laporte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. I : 97(1832) 
clavata Perty, IJel. Anim. 35 (1834). 
abcisus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 595. 16 (i85i'. 
coiifusus Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 36o (1878). 

18 strigosus Butler, Cist Ent II : 36i. 9 (1878). 

19. tridens Burmeister, Kev. Silb. I : 229 (i833). — Pl. 5, fig. 65. 

20. trinodosits Butler. Cist. Ent. II : 35^. 2(1878). 

21. vespiformis Haviland, Zoologica VI : 247 (1925). 

22. vulnerans (jermar, Rev Silb. I : 228. 2 (i833). 

sti/>atus Godin.i;, S. A. Memb. 248 (1929). 

23. xanthomelas Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 33^ (i858). 



Ecuador. 
British Guiana. 
Ecuador, Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Brazil, Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 



Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Brazil. 



Venezuela. 

Brazil. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Mexico. 

Brazil, British Guiana. 



Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Panama. 

British Guiana. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 



65. Genus HELIODORE Stal 



Heliodore Stal. Bid. Hem, Syst. 55^ (1867). 

Characters : This genus was erected for the accommodation of those species which diffeied 
from the forms of the old genus Combophora (now Anchistrotus) as recognized by Stal, by having a tricar- 
inate pronotuni. .At present the genus contains only the type species and may be set off froni the 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



99 



closely related genera Anchistrotus and Omolon by the ridges on the sides of the pronotum. Other 
generic characters as indicated by Stal are : 

« Alis tegminibus dimidiis longioribus. Processu postico ihoracis marginem interiorem 
clavi vel hujus venam longitudinalem tangente ; tegminibus totis vel fere totis liberis. Corio 
areola discoidali unica instructo, ante medium inter venas longiludinales secundam et tertiam, 
basin versus in unam conjunctas, venula transversa destituto. Thorace tricarinato, praster 
carinam mediam percurrentum carinas duabus, pone oculos incipientibus, ad vel ultra medium 
dorsi extensis, instructo; ceteris ut in Combophora. » 

These are the characters which we have used in constructing our key to the genera of the tribe 
and in determining the species used as our Plate Figure. 

Type laporti Germar. 

Geographical distpibution : Known only from the type species from South America. 
I. laporti Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 253. 2 (i835). — Pl, 5, fig. 5 6. Brazil. 

carinata Guerin, Icon. Reg. Anim 7 (i838). 

66. Genus OMOLON WALKER 

Omolon Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 3i5 (1862). 

Characters : We have never seen a representative of this genus but it has been recognized by 
Butler and by Goding who indicate that the genus is to be identified by the subquadrate head. Except 
for this character it would seem that the insects of this genus are in no way different from those of the 
genus Anchistrotus. Butler considered Heliodore a synonym of Omolon but apparently did not note 
either the shape of the head or the lateral carinas in his diagnosis. We cannot figure this genus since 
we have no specimen of aiiy of the three species and there is no published figure of any of them in the 
literature of the family. 

Type tridens Walker. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from three species, all described by 
Walker, and all from Brazil, as follows : 

1. iiicongrua Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 340 (i858). Brazil. 

2. tridens Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 3i6 (1862). Brazil. 

3. varius Walker, Journ. Ent I : 3i6 (1862). Brazil. 

67. Genus ANCHISTROTUS BUCKTON 

Anchistrotus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 147 (1903). 
Combophora ipreoccupied) Germar, Rev. Silb. I : 177 (i833). 

Characters : A remarkable genus identified at once by the greatly swollen globular pronotum. 
The insects are rather brightly colored, mostly of large size, and conspicuous in both structure and 
markings. Head triangular, eyes ovate and i^rominent; ocelli large, nearer to each other than to the 
eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes. Pronotum swollen into an enormous 
hoUovv globe and so weakly attached to the body that it is difficult to collect the specimens without 
detaching it. This bulbous expansion of the pronotum is generally armed with spines, particulaily on 



100 HOMOPTERA 

the posterior part. The pronotum narrows suddenly into a short posterior process which does not 
quite reach the apices of the tegmina. The scutellum is entirely concealed and the anterior portion 
of the pronotum is sloping, smooth and unarmed. The tegmina are hyaline with the tips rounded and 
with a broad apical limbus. The venation is inclined to be irregular, particularly in the apical area, so 
that the number of apical cells may vary, but there is only one discoidal cell. The legs are simple with 
the hind tarsi longer than either of the other two pairs. 

Type obesiis Buckton. 

Geographical distpibution : Only seven good species are here recognized although variations 
in some of the forms have resulted in several synonyms. However, these species are apparently repre- 
sented by a very large number of individuals, since specimens are to be found commonly in most 
coUections. The species which we believe to be distinct are as follows : 

1. besckii Germar. Rev. Silb. I : 232. 14 (i833). Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, 

cuccullata Perty, Del. Anim. 178 (1834). Honduras. 

2. buckloni Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 12 (1929). Brazil. 

3. inanis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 6. 2(i8o3). Brazil, Colombia. 

4. maculata Guerin, Icon. Reg. Anim. 7(i838). — Pl. 5, fig. 57. Brazil, Bolivia, Peru. 

consentanea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5o5. 3(1846). 

5. minor Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5o5. 5 (1846). Brazil. 

discontinua Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. iS? (l858). 

6. obesus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 147 (igo^). Brazil. 

7. obfuscata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 147(1903). Brazil, Peru, Venezuela. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



SuBF. TRAGOPIN/E Stal 

The subfamily Tragopina, while very distinct from the other subfamilies, and easily recog- 
nized by the small, flat, beetle-like appearance of the insects, as well as by the more technical 
characters of the pronotum and tegmina, is in great confusion in so far as the genera and species are 
concerned. 

The five genera here recognized have been generally accepted but we are very suspicious of 
their vaHdity because of the many intergrading forms. All of these genera were erected on characters 
which have been found to be far from distinctive We have been unable to discover any good generic 
characters but we believe that the male genitalia, even though they are not readily adaptable for taxo- 
nomic work, may afford some structures which may eventually prove to be of some value in such studies. 

In like manner, the species are in a very unsatisfactory state. Most of them have been described 
on the basis of the shape of the pronotum and on color markings, both of which characters are extremely 
variable. We have in our collection several hundred specimens which apparently do not belong 
to any known species but which we are as yet unwilling to desciibe as new because of intermediate 
forms and because of the absence of constant and reliable characters. 

We are here accepting, on the basis of characters suggested by their authors, the groups of the 
subfamily as they have been proposed and as they appear in the literature of the family, with the recog- 
nition of the fact that future investigations may show that some of these divisions cannot stand. It will 
be seen that the characters used in the construction of the key to the genera are often comparative 
rather than distinct, and for that reason are far from satisfactorj'. 

GENERA OF THE SUBFAMILY TRAGOPIN^ STAL 

I. Humeral angles not produced into horns 

.A. Corium with one or more discoidal cells ; apical limbus very broad ; tegmina almost 
entirely covered by pronotum ; venation very indistinct 

1. Pronotum withont lateral carina Tragopa Latreille. 

2. Pronotum with lateral carince 

a. Median carina strong; free part of tegmina punctate Tropidolomia Stal. 

aa. No median carina; tegmina not pttnctate Stilbophora Stal. 

B. Corium with no discoidal cells; apical limbus moderate ; tegmina at least half ex- 

posed; venation distinguishable Horiola Fairmaire. 

II. Humeral angles produced into conical horns or iubercles Ceratopola Stal. 

68. Genus TRAGOPA Latreille 

Tragopa Latreille, Reg. .'^.nim. V : 2ig (1829). 
Chelyoidea Buckton, Mon. Memb. i56 (igoS). 

Characters : The insects of this genus are small, globular or flattened, with a broad carapace- 
like pronotum and a superficial resemblance to beetles. They show a wide variety of color markings, 



I02 



HOMOPTERA 



usually of some biilliancy. The tegmina are very largely covered by the pronotum, the apical limbus 
is broad and the venation is usually indistinct. The head is triangular and usually smooth; eyes small 
and globose ; base straight or vveakly sinuate; ocelli twice as far from each other as from the eyes and 
situated about on a line diawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas straight ; clypeus e.xtend- 
ing for half its length beiow inferior margins of genae. Pronotum usually more or less flattened, almost 
completely covering the thorax, abdomen and tegmina, and entirely without horns, spines or other pro- 
tuberances; metopidium sloping; median carina obsolete or onlyfaintly percurrent; scutellum concealed; 
no definite posterior process, the posterior end of the pronotum gradually rounded and blunt. Tegmina 
largely concealed by the overhanging sides of the pronotum, generally less than one-third exposed; 
venation very faint; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi much longer than the others. 

Type albimacula Germar. 

Geographical distpibution : A very large neotropical genus with a wide distribution over 
South and Central America but with by far the largest number reported from Brazil. The forty-nine 
species here hsted probably represent only a small proportion of those which have actually been taken, 
and a very small percentage of those which actuall}' exist. 

1. anea Perty, Del. Anim. 179 (1834). Brazil. 

2. albifascia Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 16 (1922). Bohvia. 

3. albimacula Germar, Mag. Ent IV : 14. 6(1821). Brazil. 

4. annulata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 27. 5 (i8o3). Brazii. 

5. bajulns Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 309 (i835). Brazil. 

6 bicolor Goding, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : 142 (1928). Ecuador. 

7. bilinea Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i52 (i858). Brazil, 

8. biparlita Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 487. 13(1846). Brazil, 

9. bitriaiignlata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 414 Brazil, 

(.930). 

10. brunneimaculata F"unkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 18 Bolivia. 

(1922). — Pl. 5,fig. 58. 

11. buchtoni {nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. Brazil. 

21 (1922). 

nilida (preoccupied) Buckton, Mon. Memb. i56 (i903). 

12. bugahensis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 85. 2 (1895). Panama, 

i3. cimicoidts Fabricius, Coquebert 111. Ic : Pl. 18, fig. 6 (1801). Brazil. 

melanostigma Perty, Del. Anim. 179 (i83o). 
bifacies Walker, List Hom. B. M Suppl. i5o (i858). 

14. coccinella Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 486.9 (1846). Brazil. 

i5. cyanea Burnieister, Rev. Silb. IV : 189. g (i836). Brazil. 

16. decorata Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 406 (1914). Bolivia. 

17. dimidiala Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 287. 12 (1846). Brazil. 

18. discrepaiis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i5o (i858). Brazil. 

19. rfoAm/ Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 487. 10(1846). Brazil. 

20. fasciata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 21 (1922). Brazil. 

21. fenestrata Walker. List Hom. B. M Suppl. i5i (i858). Brazil. 

22. frontalis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb 489. 16 (1846). Brazil. 

23. fulvovaria F-airmaire, Rev. Memb. 488. i5 (1846). Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



io3 



24. funerula Fairmaire, Rev, Memb. 488. 14 (1846). 

25. globus Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 12. 4 (1821). 

glabra Latreille, Anim. King. 177 (i836). 

26. guiana Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 247 (1925). 

27. hnmeralis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 489. 18 (1846). 

28. insignis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 85. i (iSgS). 

29. irrorata Goding, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : 141 (1828). 

30. lata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 23i. i (1869). 

3i. longa Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 17 (1922). 

32. luteimaculata Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 406. 11 (1914). 

33. maculala Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 23 1. 2 (1869). 

34. maculidorsa Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 19 (1922). 

35. marmorea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 486. 7 (1846). 

36. morio Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 26. 3 (i8o3). 

37. nitida Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 3o9 (i835). 

38. obesa Goding, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : 141 (1928). 

39. occnlta Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 248 (1925). 

40. ovalis Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 188. 7 (i836). 

41. parishi {nom nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 177 (1927). 

maculata (preoccupied) Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 
23 (1922). 

42. peruviana (nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 177 (1927). 

brunnea (preoccupied) Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 
23 (1922I. 

43. pubescens Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 17 (1922). 

44. pumicata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 3i. 2 (i858). 

45. puttctatissima Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 486. 8 (1846). 

46. scutellaris Buckton, Mon. Memb. i56 (igo3). 

47. tetyrides Walker, List Hom. B. M. 58o. 4 (i85i). 

48. triangulata Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33i (igo^). 

49. zebra Goding, Bull. Brook Ent. Soc. XXIII : 141 (1928). 



BraziL 
Brazil. 

British Guiana. 

BraziL 

Panama. 

Ecuador. 

Guiana. 

Peru. 

Peru. 

Colombia. 

BoHvia. 

Brazil. 

Brazil, Colombia. 

Brazil. 

Ecuador. 

British Guiana. 

BiaziL 

Brazil. 

Peru. 

Peru. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Brazil, British Guiana. 

British Guiana. 

Unknown. 

Ecuador. 



69. GENUS TROPIDOLOMIA Stal 



Tropidolomia Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 19 (1869). 

Characters : Stal estabUshed Tropidolomia as a subgenus of Tragopa with the following 
description : 

(I Thorace parte antica in latera prostethii transiente, marginibus laterahbus anticis dis- 
tinctis, in carinam, inter oculos et angulos laterales ductam, prominulis vel elevatis; lobo laterah 
prostethii minore, deorsum vergente, interdum tantum carinam simulante, extrorsum haud 
explanato. Frons apicem versus haud ampHata. » 

The most noticeable characters of the genus arethe high, thin, sharp median carina and the more 
or less elevated pronotum. The head is ovate with prominent ocelli which are very much farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes. There is 



I04 



HOMOPTERA 



no definite posterior piocess, the posterior end of tlie pronotum being triangular and not very sharp. 
The tegmina are almost entirely covered by the sides of the pronotum, only a narrow basal portion being 
exposed and this exposed portion heavy and coriaceous. The legs are simple with all of the tarsi about 
equal in length. 

Type auriculaia Olivier. 

Geographical distpibution : A South and Central American genus with about the same 
distribution as that of Tragopa. 

1. alacris Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : i86. 3 (i836). Brazil. 

2. aunculata Olivier, Cigal. Tab. 8, fig. 38 (1780). — Pl. 5, fig. 59. Brazil. 

3. bisttiata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. III : 252. 3(i836). l^razil. 

4. gibbeiula Stoll, Cigal. 62 (1780). Surinam. 

5. involuta Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 27. 4 (i8o3). Brazil. 

obliqua Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : i3. 5 (182:). 
sacrata Burmeister, Rev. Silb, IV : 186. 4 (i836). 

70. genus STILBOPHORA STAL 

Stilbophora Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 20 (1869). 

Characters : StUbophora was also described as a subgenus by Stal, with characters as foUows : 

« Corpore superne nitido, subtilissime punctulato; parte libera tegminum subtihssime 
obsoletissimeque remote punctulata, hnea elevata media destituta ; capite obtuso, majusculo, 
apice ab antico viso obtuse rotundato, parte apicah leviter depressa, margine apicah haud reflexo, 
fronte valde inflexa, transversa, apice medio truncata. » 

The configuration of the pronotum, as above described by Stal, is not a dependable character 
since it shows great variation, but the absence of the median carina, the anterior lateral ridges, the 
rounded posterior apex of the pronotum and the impunctate tegmina should suffice forthe recognition 

of the genus. 

Type nitidula Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : So far as is known, the genus is Hmited to the northern coun- 
tries of South America as indicated by the following species : 

1. gihiceps Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 3i. 3(i858). Brazil. 

2. nitidula Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3i. 20 (i8o3). Brazil,Peru, Colombia, Vene- 

zuela. 

3. semiuulum Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 32. 21 (i8o3). Brazil, Venezuela. 

4. tripartita Fairmaire, Hev. Memb. 490. 25(1846). Brazil, British Guiana. 

5. xauthocephala Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 14. 7 (1821). Brazil. 

71. GENUS HORIOLA FAIRMAIRE 

Horiola Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 492 (1846). 

Characters : The comments which we have made on the subfamily Tragopinae regarding the 

unsatisfactory status of the genera and species apply particularly to the genus Horiola which was 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ io5 

eiected on extremely vague and generalized characters. Burmeister (i835a) indicates two divisions 
of Tragopa, the first « without ears on the thorax near the shoulders » and the second « with ears on the 
side )). Since the size and structure of the humeral angles, to which Burmeister doubtless refers, is 
one of the most variable of all of the characters of the subfamily, these divisions are entirely unusable. 
Fairmaire, in establishing the genus Horiola, states that it represents the second division of Burmeister 
and gives as additional characters the acuminate posterior process, the partly exposed tegmina, the 
narrow apical limbus and the shape of the median apical cell. Goding and others have called attention 
to the indistinct venation with the absence of discoidal cells (a character difficult to determine without 
mutilating the specimen), and the more elongate shape of the body, but none of these characters are 
constant or reliable. 

Theoretically this genus should be distinguished from the other genera of the subfamily by the 
narrower body, the sharper posterior process, the more exposed tegmina, the narrower apical limbus, 
the less distinct venation, the absence of discoidal cells in the corium and the larger humeral angles, 
but practically these characters are so variable, and so difficult to determine, and the gradation is so 
gradual from one genus to another that a large number of intermediate forms fail to fall positively 
into this scheme of classification. 

Type picta Coquebert. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : The genus is represented in South and Central America by the 
foUowing species : 

1. andrea Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : igo. ii (i836). Brazil. 

2. chi Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 190. 12 (i836). Brazil. 

3. composita Walker, List Hom. B. M. 587. 9 (i85i). Venezuela. 

4. fenestrata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 20 (1922). Peru. 

5. lineola Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 492. 2 (1846). Brazil. 

tincola (sic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. i58 (1903). 

6. picla Coquebert, Cigal. Pl. 16, fig. 89 (1780). — Pl. 5, fig. 60. Brazil, Colombia, PanamA. 

arcuala, Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 29. 12 (i8o3). 
lineola Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3o. 14 (i8o3). 
glabrata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3i (i8o3). 
eligiintula Perty, Del. Anim. 178 (i83o). 

7. strigosa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3o. i5 (i8o3). Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela. 

8. strigtilosa VValker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i53 (i858). Brazil. 

9. trigona Walker, List Hom. B. M. 587. 8 (i85i). Colombia. 

latifrons Walker, List Hom. B. M. 588. 19 (i85i). 

10. venosa Walker, Ins. Saund. 76 (i858). Unknown. 



72. GENUS CERATOPOLA STAL 

Cepatopola Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 232 (1869). 

Chapacteps : Ceratof>ola was described as a subgenus of Tragopa by Stal on the strength of the 
cornute humeral angles and was raised to generic rank by Goding (1928) on the basis of the same 
character. Stal describes the group as foUows : « Head somewhat prominent before the thorax, 
armed at the base with two conical horns. Thorax provided with a longitudinal ridge very distinctly 
acute, transversely depressed at apex, anterior margin very obtusely rounded, lateral anterior margin 
between the eyes and lateral angles provided with a ridge. » 



io6 HOMOPTERA 

The sharp median carina and the lateral ridges indicate that the genus is closely related to 
Tropidolomia but the produced humerals which are conical and cornute, are sufficient to distinguish 
Ceratopola from the other genera of the subfamily. 

Type corniculaia SXk\. 

Geographical distribution : Only two species have been described, both from South America. 

1. corniculata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 232. 3 (1869). Brazil. 

2. sodalis Goding, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : 140 (1928). Ecuador, 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 107 



SuBF. SMILIIN/E Stal 

The subfamily Smiliinse is the dominaiit subfamih' in the Nevv Woild and is vvidely distributed 

over both continents. No species of this subfamily has ever been reported from the Old World and 

the center of distribution of the group seems to be North America for the species are not in general 

tropical and more genera are found north of Mexico than have been reported in Central and South 

America. 

Notonly is the subfamily the dominant one in both North and South America but it is the best 

knownof all ofthegroups of the MembracidiE because of the fact that in the United States, particularly, 

a considerable amount of attention has been given to the taxonomy of certain tribes and genera, and 

because the life histories of a number of species have been rather carefuUy studied. 

The classification of this subfamily, based on the pioneer work of Stal and Fairmaire and 

elaborated by Goding, Van Duzee, Ball and otliers, has been generally accepted and seems satisfactory. 

The six tribes here recognized are apparently rather natural subdivisions and are easily characterized 

and defined. 

TRIBES OF SUBFAMILY SMILIIN^ STAl 

I . Wings tvith median apical cill petiolate 

A. Corium witli 3 coniignous longiludinal veins originaiing at base Smiliini Goding. 

B. Corinm vjilh 2 coutignous longitndiual veins originating at base 

1 . Pronoium without longitudinal ridges 

a. Tegmiua free . . Ceresini Goding. 

aa. Tegmina partly covered by sides 0/ pronotum Amastrini Goding. 

2. Pronotum with longitudinal. ruga or Imes on postfrior half Poi.yglyptini Goding. 

II. Wings w:th median apical cell sessile. base truncate 

A. Tegmina more or less covered by sides of pronoium Telamonini Goding. 

B. Tegmina free Acutalini Tribus nov. 

GENEHA OF TRIBE SMILIINI GODING 

I . Sidts of pronotum punctate but without carina 

A. Corium without transverse vein near center of tegmina ; one or no discoidal cells 

1 . Pronolum elevaied, comf^ressed laterally 

a. Dorstim highest in front ; corium with niie discoidal cell Smilia Germar. 

aa. Dorsum highest in middle; cnrium with no discoidal cell Adippe Stal 

2. ProHotum convi-x; not compr^ssed Idterallv ■ Godingia Fowler. 

B. Corium with a transverse vein iiear cenler f legmiiia ; two discoidal cells 
I. Dorsum elevated aiid coiiipressed laterally 

a. Humeral angles slrongly (iroduced 

b. Costal margin of legmina coiiaceoiis aiid punctale Telamonanthe Baker. 



io8 HOMOPTERA 

bb. Costal margin of tegmina hyalitu Antianthe Fowler. 

aa. Humeral augles weak; not strongly produced 

b. Pronotum strongly iitjlated posieriorly Xantholobus Van Duzee. 

bb. Pronotum not strongly inflated posteriorly 

c. Darsum low, distiiictly sinuate at middle Evashmeadea Goding. 

cc. Dotsum rounded or high, not siniiate 

d. Dorsum with a high swollen crest Grandolobus Ball. 

dd. Dorsum without a high swollen crest 

e. Dorsum highest in front Atymna Stal. 

ee. Dorsum regularly aicuate, highest at middle .... Cyrtolobus Goding. 
2. Dorsum convex, not laterally compressed Ophiderma Fairmaire. 

II. Sides of prottotum with longitudinal carina or ruga 

A. Prouotum wiih a dorsal horn or process. 

1 . Corium with two discoidal cells 

a. Dorsum compressed, arcuate Polyrhyssa Stil. 

aa. Dorsum convex, sinuate Metheisa Fowler. 

2. Corium with one discoidal cell or none 

a. Pronotal process arising from in froiit of humeral angles Polyglyptodes Fowler. 

aa. Pronotal process arising from behind humeral angles 

b. Proiwtum with two large rouuded elevations, deeply sulcate beiween. Ecuadoria Goding. 
bb. Pronoium with a single dorsal horn 

c. Dorsal horn small, ofien reduced to a mert tubercle .... Dioci.ophara Kirkaldy. 
cc. Dorsal horn large, erect 

d. Poslerior process of horn declivous or sloping Hille Stal. 

dd. Posterior process of horn coiivex or with a distinct siep . . Gelastogonia Kirkaldy. 

B. Prouotum unarmed 
i. Pronottim couvex. 

a. Corittm with iwo discoidal cells Heranice Stal. 

aa. Corium with one discoidal cell Maturna Stll. 

2. Pronotum highly elevaied Membracidoidea Goding. 



73. GenuS SMILIA Germar 

Smilia Germar, Rev. Silb. 1 : 233 (i833). 

Characters : A genus distinguished by the high, laterally compressed, semifoHaceous pronotum, 
weak humeral angles, tegmina almost entirely exposed with three contiguous longitudinal veins not 
joined by a median cross-vein, and with the median apical cell of the hind wing petiolate. Head 
triangular; base straight; eyes ovate ; ocelli equidistant from each other and from the eyes; clypeus not 
exteiiding beiow the infetior maig'ns of the gense but continuing the Hne of these margins. Pronotum 
highly elevated ;ind lateialiy flattened, without ridges and highest in front; posterior apex suddenly 
iiai rowed to a short aciite process which reaches to a point about half-way between internal angles and 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



109 



tips of teginina. Tegmina hyaline or smoky-hyaline, almost entirely free, with five apical and one 
discoidal cell and a very wide apical limbus. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type centralis Germar. 

Geographical distribution : Sixty species have been assigned, at one time or another, to 
this genus, but all have been removed and placed in other genera except three. Of these, the type 
species is found in Mexico and the other two in the United States and Canada. 

1. camelus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 10, 18 (i8o3). — Pl. 6, fig. 6 I . Canada, United States. 

vittala Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 539 (1843). 

zimmermanni Pairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o8 (1846). 

guttata Fitch, Cat Ins. N. Y. 49 (i85i). 

bttula Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 196 (1893). 

viridis Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 426 (1894). 

comprissa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 191 (igoS). 

silvtstrii Matausch, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XVIII : 172 (1910). 

2. centralis Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 22. 20 (1821). Mexico. 

3. fasciata Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 5Zg. 2 (1843). United States. 

74. GENUS ADIPPE Stal 

Adippe Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 555 (1867). 

Characters : Medium sized insects with moderately elevated and compressed pronotum and 
with the tegmina about half covered by the pronotum. Often rather gaudily decorated. Head trian- 
gular; base sinuate; eyes large and ovate; ocelli conspicuous, farther from each other than from the 
eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of genas and continuing the line made by these margins. Pronotum laterally 
compressed, elevated, highest at about the middle, tectiform; median carina strong and percurrent biit 
no strong lateral ridges ; posterior apex of pronotum just about reaching tips of tegmina. Tegmina 
hyaline, about half exposed, three prominent longitudinal veins extending nearly parallel through basal 
half of corium ; five apical and no discoidal cells ; apicalHmbus broad. Legssimple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type alliacea Germar. 

Geographical distrlbution ; This genus is founJ most commonly in Central America and 
the West Indies with a few species recorded fiom Mexico and South America. 

1. alliacea Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 249. 7 (i835). Brazil. 

2. concinna Fowler, B. C. A. II: i35. 5 (1895). Panama. 

3. grisea Fowler, B. C. A. II : i36. 8(1895). Panama. 

4. hterelica (nom. nov.) Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 694 (igoo). Nicaragua, Panama. 

maculata (preoccupied) Fowler, B. C. A. II : 134. 2 (1894). 

5. histrio Walker, Ins. Saund. 71 (i858). Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, 

ocellata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 188 (1903). Ecuador. 

fiisciula Buckton, Mon. Memb. 189 (i9o3). 

6. iiiaqualis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i35. 6 (1896). Panama, Trinidad. 

7. maculata Distant, Ent. Month. Mag. XLV : 11 (1879 ) Costa Rica. 

8. nigrorubra Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 32 (1922). Costa Rica. 

9. pardaliiia Fowler, B. C A. II : 1^4. 3(1896). Panama. 
10. quadrivittata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 234. 3 (1869). Unknown. 



iio HOMOPTERA 

11. testudo Buckton, Mon. Memb. 188(1903). Colombia. 

12. xebrina Fairmaiie, Rev. Memb. 3o5. 12 (1846). — Pl. 6, fig. 62. Venezuela, Mexico, Guate- 

figurata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i37 (i858). mala, Honduras. 



75. Genus GODINGIA FOWLER 

Godingia Fowler, B. C. A. H : 139(1896), 

Characters : A monotypic genus represented by a fine large beautifully decorated species. 
We cannot improve on Fowler's excellent generic description which is as follows : « Rather broad and 
robust; head broader than long, triangularly produced in front; ocelli set far forward, nearer to each 
other than to the eyes, which are large and prominent; pronotum depressed and convex in front, with 
the metopidium very gradually declivous, broad almost to the apex and then abruptly narrowed to a 
short broad point; dorsum depressed and almost level from above the shoulders, which are slightly and 
obtusely prominent, until near the apex, where it is suddenly depressed and unites with the short apical 
process ; central carina more distinct behind than in front ; sides with a strong broad impression on each 
extending from the shoulders to behind the middie, where they meet the dorsal carina, which at this 
point is very distinct; tegmina ample, extending some way beyond the apex of the pronotum ; corium 
with three veins proceeding from near the base, the ulnar vein not being united by a transverse venule, 
with five apical areas and one discoidal, the third apical area being triangular and stylate; clavus and a 
small part of the corium covered by the pronotum; legs cylindrical ». 

Type giierreroetisis Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the type species from Mexico. 
I. guerreroensis Fowler, B. C. K. H : 139. i (1896). — Pl. 6, fig. 63. Mexico. 

76. Genus TELAMONANTHE Baker 

Telamonanthe Baker, Can. Ent. XXXIX : ii5 (1907). 

Characters : Small inconspicuous insects with a strong superficial resemblance to those of the 
genus Telamona but immediately distinguished by the petiolate third apical cell of the hind wing. The 
dorsal crest, the elevated and somewhat fiattened dorsum and the general facies are very suggestive of 
Tdamona. A distinctive generic character is the strongly punctate basal and costal area of the tegmina. 
The head is subquadrate, with the base arcuate and sinuate; eyes ovate, much wider than high ; ocelli 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of 
eyes; clypeus extending for one-third its length below inferior margins of genae, tip acute and pilose. 
Pronotum elevated into a fiattened crest occupying at least half of thedorsum; metopidium convex, 
broader than high ; humeral angles strongly produced into broad, fiat, triangular extensions; median 
carina strongly percurrent ; posterior process tectiform and extending beyond tips of tegmina. Tegmina 
about half covered by the sides of the pronotum; three parallel longitu<linal veins originating at the 
base, the radial and median connected by a cross-vein; five apical and two discoidal cells. Legs 
slightly flattened; all tarsi about equal in lenglh. 

Type rileyi Goding. 

Geographical distribution : The three knovvn species of the genus have been reported only 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ m 

from the central and western parts of the United States, specifically from Illinois, Kansas, Colorado 
and California 

1. modesta Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 420. 74 (1894). United States. 

2. pukhella Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 181 (igoS). — Pl. 6, United States. 

flg. 64. 

brevis Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 181 (igoS). 

3. rileyi Goding, Ent. News III : 108 (1892). United States. 

coquilUtli Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 420. 75 (1894). 
pulchra Goding, Ent. News III : i. 109 (1892). 

77. Genus ANTIANTHE FOWLER 

Antianthe Fowler, B. C. A. II : 137 (iSgS). 
Janthe (preoccupied) Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 554 (1867). 
Agondas Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXV : 3i6 (1902). 

Characters : Large green insects with high flattened pronotum, long humeral angles, and 
partly covered hyaline tegmina. Head subquadrate, triangular in front; base strongly sinuate; eyes 
ovate; ocelH prominent, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated aboiit on a hne drawn 
through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae straight ; clypeus blunt and extending for one-third 
its iength below the inferior margins of genas, continuing the line of these margins. Pronotum highly 
elevated in a flattened crest, highest in front and gradually sloping to the posterior apex; metopidium 
straight, triangular; humeral angles produced into long flattened horns; median carina strongly per- 
current; sides of pronotum roughlj' punctate but without ridges. Tegmina hyaline; about half 
covered by the sides of the pronotum; three longitudinal veins arising from the base, the inner two 
joined near the center by a transverse vein; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad ; 
apices of tegmina just about reaching the posterior process of the pronotum. Legs simple and cyhn- 
drical ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type expansa Germar. 

Geographical distribution : This is a Central Ameiican genus which has spread northward 
into Me.xico and the United States and southward into northern South America. 

1. i!.a;/fl«sa Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 246. i (i835). — Pl. 6, fig. 65. Mexico, Yucatan, Honduras, 

cucullata Biirmeister, Handb. Ent. II : 140. 4 (i835). Guatemala, Nicaragua, Cos- 

ta Rica, Panama, Colom- 
bia, Porto Rico, United 
States. 

2. foliacea Stal, Hem. Mex. 71. 433 (1864). Mexico, Guatemala, Costa 

Rica, Brazil. 

3. humilis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i38 (i8g5). Mexico, Yucatan. 

4. reversa Walker, Ins. Saund. 72 (i858). Mexico, Guatemala. 

5. viridissima Walker, List Ilom. B. M. Suppl. i3S (i858). Mexico, Co!ombia,Venezuela. 



78. Genus XANTHOLOBUS Van Duzee 

Xantholobus Van Duzee, Stud. N. \. Memb. 78. gS (igo8). 

Characters : \ genus split off of Cyrtolobus on the character of the svvoUen posterior part of the 



112 HOMOPTERA 

pronotum. Head triangular, roughly sculptured ; base weakly arcuate ; eyes ovate ; ocelli inconspic 
uous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated slightly below a Hne drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae. Pronotum highly convex without horns or other processes; posterior half 
strongly inflated and then suddenly narrowed into a blunt posterior process which reaches to a point 
about half way between internal angles and tips of tegmina; metopidium convex, wider than high; 
humeral angles weakly produced; median carina percurrent. Tegmina almost entirely exposed; 
hyaline or smoky-hyahne; three roughly parallel longitudinal veins with the two inner ones connected 
by a cross-vein; five apical and one discoidal cell; apical limbus broad. Legs simple and cyhndrical; 
all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type inflatus Van Duzee. 

Geographical distribution : A North American genus limited in distribution according to 
present records to the United States and Canada but represented in practically all parts of these two 
countries. 

1. altus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ^5. 8i (1932). Arizona. 

2. arenatus Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVH : 481 (1937). Texas. 

3. coconinus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 80 (1932). Arizona. 

4. hirsulus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 81 (1932). Arizona. 

5. inflalus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 97. 3 (1908). Colorado, Arizona. 

6. lateralis Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 96. 2 (1908). New York, Connecticut. 

7. muticus Fabricius, Gen. Ins. Mant. 297. 12 (1776). — Pl. 6, fig, 66. Quebec, central and eastern 

trilineata Say, Narr. Long's Exped. 3oo. 2 (1824). United StateS. 

8. nigrocincta Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 26 (1933). Arizona. 

9. nitidus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 97. 4 (1908). Eastern and southern United 

States. 

10. tttmidus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 56o. 14 (i85i). Florida. 



79. GENUS EVASHMEADEA GODING 

Evashmeadea Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 436 (1894). 
Ashmeadea (nom. nud.) Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XIX : 258 (1892). 

Characters : A genus belonging to the Cyrtolobus group but distinguished by the low dis- 
tinctly sinuate dorsum. Head subquadrate with apex regularly rounded; base gently arcuate; eyes 
globular; oceUi large, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated sUghtly below a Une 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded; clypeus short, not extending below 
inferior margins of genae and continuing the curve made by these margins. Pronotum low, hghtly 
compressed, strongly keeled, distinctly sinuate at middle ; metopidium sloping, wider than high; median 
carina strongly percurrent ; humeral angles weak, triangular, blunt ; apex of posterior process grad- 
uaUy acute, extending to a point about half way between internal angles and tips of tegmina. Tegmina 
hyaUne, the clavus and a smaU part of the corium covered by the pronotum; three contiguous longi- 
tudinal veins; with a cross-vein connecting the inner pair; median apical ceU petiolate; frve apical 
and two discoidal ceUs; apical Umbus broad. Legs simple and subcyUndrical; aU tarsi about equal 
in length. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE ii3 

Type concinna Goding. 

Geographical distribution : Species of this genus have been leported only from Mexico and 
southwestern United States as foUows : 

1. carinata Stal, Hem. Mex. 71. 435 (1864). Mexico. 

discoidalis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 141 (i8g6). 

2. coiiciuna Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 437. 128 (1894). — Pl. 6, Arizona. 

fig. 67. 

80. GENUS ATYMNA STAL 

Atymna Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. SS^ (1867). 

Characters : Atymua was described by Stal as a subgenus of Smilia to accomodate those species 
which were small in size and had the pronotum much higher in front than behind as illustrated by the 
species castanea whxh he designated as the type. The other generic characters are much the same as 
in Cyrtolobus and are as follows : Head triangular ; base weakly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli prominent; 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated below a Hne drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus extending for nearly half its length below inferior 
margins of genae. Pronotum laterally compressed, elevated, tectiform, sharply keeled, much higher in 
front than behind, gradually sioping from the top of the anterior crest to the apex of the pronotum 
which reaches just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; no horns or other processes; metopidium 
sloping, wider than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles weak, triangular and 
blunt; no lateral ridges. Tegmina almost entireiy exposed ; liyaline or clouded; three longitudinal 
veins in the corium with the inner pair connected by a cross-vein; five apical cells with the median 
cell petiolate; two discoidal cells ; apical hmbus broad. Legs simple; tarsi equal in length. 

Type castanea Fitch. 

Geographical distribution : Widely distributed over the United States and Canada with 
species reported from practically every section of these countries and with two species described from 
South .America. 

1. alroinarginata Goding, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIH : 1^7 (1928). Ecuador. 

2. castanea Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49 (i85i). — Pl. 6, fig. 68. Canada, United States. 

nigricephala Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : 137 (1854). 

3. helena Woodruff, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXHI : i. 44 (i9i5). Canada, northeastern United 

States. 

4. inornita Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V : 299 (i83i). Canada, United States. 

5. fiilosa Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 273 (1919). Peru. 

6. querci Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49. 672 (i85i). Canada, United States. 

7. reticulata Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : ir. 481 (1837). Arizona. 

8. simplex Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 93. i (1908). Arizona, Texas. 

81. GENUS GRANDOLOBUS BALL 

Grandolobus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ^5. 75 (1932). 

Gharacters : This genus was erected by Ball to accommodate the single ^-lecles grandis which 
had formerly stood in the genus Cyrtolobus because, as he correctly states : « This species lias always 



114 HOMOPTERA 

been a misfit in the genus Cyrtolobus and rendered that genus hard to define. » Ball distinguishes the 
genus Grandolobus as foUows : 

« Resembling Smilia in general size and form but with the crest shorter and farther back 
from the metopidium. the apical process of the pronotum long and slender as in Cyrtolobiis. 

» Face broader than in Smilia, as broad as in Cyrtolobus, the metopidium broader and round- 
ing over above as seen from the front rather than triangular as in Smilia. Pronotum, as scen 
from side, long and slender with a rather short high, foliaceous crest arising just back of the line 
of the metopidium in a fairly symmetrical arch a Httle longer than its height. This crest occupies 
a little over half of the length of the pronotum arising with a slight sinuation in front and 
with an obtuse angle behind. There is a major inflation in the middle and a minor one near 
the posterior angle. The elytra are long and narrow with typical Cyrtolobus venation, the apical 
cell small, ahnost round with a long pedicel. » 

Type grandis Van Duzee. 

Geographical distpjbution : The single species assigned to this genus was described from 
Arizona, but incequalis Fowler, from Mexico, seems to be a synonym. 

I. grandis Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 84. 6(1908). — Pl. 6, Arizona, Mexico. 
fig. 69. 

initqualis Fovvler, B. C. A. II : 142. 6 (1896). 

82. Genus CYRTOLOBUS GODING 

Cyrtolobus Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XIX : 2^7 (1892). 
Cyptosia (preoccupied) Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. State 49 (i85i). 

Characteps : One of the largest and most wide-spread of any of the membracid genera in North 
America, which area seems to be its center of distribution. The insects of this genus are small, rather 
inconspicuous, with elongate bodies and regularly arcuate, slightly flattened pronotums, and are usually 
tree-inhabiting. The genus may be rather easily recognized by the following characters ; Head sub- 
triangular; base weakly arcuate; eyes ovate, wider than high; ocelli prominent, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated slightly below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior mar- 
gins of genae sinuate; clypeus weakly trilobed, extending for half its length below inferior margins of 
gente. Pronotum moderately elevated, laterally compressed, arcuate, highest at middle; punctate but 
with no lateral ridges; metopidium sloping, wider than high ; median carina strongly percurrent; humer- 
al angles weak and rounded; posterior apex of pronotum gradually narrowed to an acute point which 
extendsbeyond internal angles of tegraina but does not reach the tips. Tegmina largely free, only a 
small part of the corium being covered b}' the sides of the pronotum; hyaline or clouded ; corium with 
three prominent longitudinal veins of which the inner pair is connected by a cross-vein ; five apical and 
two discoidal cells ; median apical cell petiolate ; apical limbus broad. Legs simple ; all tarsi about equal 
in length. 

T ype /enestiatns Fitch. 

Geographical dlstribution : This is distinctly a North American genus with representatives 
in all parts of the United States and with species in Canada and in Mexico. The localities given for the 
following species are roughly grouped according to areas. Where a species has been reported from only 
one state, that state is mentioned. The designation « United States » indicates that the species is found 
in practically all parts of the countrjf. 
I. acuminatus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 7 (1924). Northeastern U. S. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



ii5 



2. aculus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memh. 88. 12 (1908). 

3. arcitiifus Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : 1^4 (iSS^). 

4. arizoiia Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ^5. 77 (1932). 

5. auroreus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 22 (1924). 

6. celsus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 81. i (igo8). 

7. cinclus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 86. g (igo8). 

8. cinereus Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : i56 (1854). 

9. cianw Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 16 (1924). 

10. coronaius Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. VVash. 45. 77 (19^2). 

11. cristiferus Stal, Hem. Mex. 71. ^33 (1864). 

12. discoidalis Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : iS^ (1854). 
i3. distinguendtis Fowler, B.C.A. 11:141.4 (1896). 

14. dixianus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 10 (1924). 

i5. fenestratus Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49. 678 (i85i). 

16. flavolatus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 5^ (1924). 

17. frigidus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ^5. 77 (ig32). 

18. fuliginosus Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : 1^4 (1854). 
ig. fuitkhouseri Woodruff, Crit. Obs. i3 (1924). 

20. fuscipennis Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 91. 18 (igo8). 

21. gloveri Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 4^4. 118 (18^4). 

22. gramatantis Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 44 (1^24). 

23. gratiosus 'WoodruS,Q,\\\- Obs. 3^(1924). 

24. griseus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 90. 16 (igo8). 

25. iuermis Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : 1^7 (18^4). 

26. iittermedius 'Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : Pl. i5,fig. 16(1854). 

27. limus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 87. 11 (igo8). 

28. maculifrontis Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : i56 (1854). 

29. oblongatus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 76 (ig32). 

30. ovalus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 82. 2 (igo8). 

3i. pallidifrontis Emmons, N. Y. .A.gr. Rept. V: Pl. i3,fig.7 (1854). 
ornata Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 240. 4 (1886). 

32. parvulus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 3i (1924). 

33. picttis Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. XIV : 17. 408. 22 (192^). 

34. pulchellus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 29 (1924). 

35. pttritantis Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 33 (1^24). 

36. rufulus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 46 (1^24). 

37. togalus Woodruff, Crit. Obs. 52 (1^24). 

38. tuberosus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 307. 6 (1846). 

semi/ascia Walker, List Hom. B. M. 56i. 16 (i85i). 

3g. vanduzei Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 426. g2 (1924). 

40. j^dK Say,Journ. Acad.Sci. Phila.VI : 299.6(1831). — Pl.6,fig.70. 
sculpta Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 307. 5 (1846). 
nigra Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 172 (1893). 
punctifroiilis Goding, Can. Hnt. XXV : 172 (1893). 
tricincta Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 172 (1893). 
maculala Buckton, Mon. Memb. 174 (igoS). 



Western U. S. 

Eastern aiid southern U. S. 

Arizona. 

Northeastern U. S. 

United States 

Northeastern U. S. 

Eastern U. S. 

Southern U. S. 

Arizona. 

Mexico, 

Eastern aiid southern U. S. 

Mexico. 

Southern and eastern U. S. 

United States. 

Eastern U. S. 

Arizona. 

Easlern aiid southern U. S. 

Eastern U. S. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Eastern U. S. 

Northeastern U. S. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

United States. 

Eastern and southern U. S. 

VVestern U. S. 

United States. 

.Arizona. 

Eastern and southern U. S. 

Canada, United States. 

Northeastern U. S. 

Utah. 

Northeastern U. S. 

Canada, east. and centr. U.S. 

United States. 

Southern U. S. 

East., south. and centr. U.S. 

Western U. S. 
Canada, United States. 



ii6 



HOMOPTERA 



41. viresceiis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 141. 3 (1896). 

42. viridis Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : 1^4 (1834). 

43. vittatipetmis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 142. 5 (1896). 

44. woodruffi Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 76 (1932). 



Mexico. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Mexico. 

Arizona. 



83. GENUS OPHIDERMA Fairmaire 



Ophiderma Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 493 (1946). 

Characters : Medium sized, elongate forms with the pronotum regularly and roundly convex, 
not compressed, the posterior apex of the pronotum extending to a point about half way between the 
internal angles and the tips of the tegmina which are largely exposed. Head subquadrate, twice as 
broad as high; base weakly sinuate ; apex obtusely triangular; eyes subovate; ocelli large, about 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated somewhat below a line drawn through 
centers of eyes: inferior margins of genje sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior 
margins of genae, tip blunt. Pronotum moderately convex, not laterally compressed, regularly rounded ; 
metopidium sloping, much wider than high ; humeral angles weak, blunt and rounded; median carina 
faintly percurrent; sides of pronotum sometinies weakly impressed, usually punctate and pubescent 
but never ridged ; posterior apex acute and reaching to a point about half way between internal angles 
and tips of tegmina. Tegmina well exposed, only the clavus and a small portion of the corium covered 
by the overhanging sides of the pronotum; corium with three strong longitudinal veins, the two inner 
ones connected by a cross-vein as in the Cyrtolobus group; five apical and two discoidal cells; median 
apical cell petiolate ; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi a little longer than the others. 

Type salamaiidra Faimaire. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is particularly abundant in the United States but is 
represented also in Canada, Mexico and Central America with one species described from South 
America. The center of population seems to be the United States. As in the preceding genus, we 
have indicated general areas except for those species which are known only from a single state, and, 
as in former designations, the term « United States » indicates that the species has been reported 
from most of the larger faunal areas of the country. 



1. compacta Gibson and Wells, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV ; 4. 201 

(1917)- 

2. defiiiita Woodruff, Joarn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 253 (1919). 

3. evelyna Woodruff, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 267 (1919). 



Arizona. 

Canada, east. and south. U.S. 
Eastern and southern U. S. 



4. fascipeniiis Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 2.274 (1919). Bolivia. 

5. flava Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 4^9. i33 (1894). 

6. flavicephala Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 439. 134 (1894). 

7. grisea Woodruff, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 2^4 (1919). 

8. infantilis Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 78 (1932). 

9. mus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 143. i (1896). 
10. nigrocincta Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. loi. 6 (1908). 
n. pallida Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 100. 5 (iqoS). 



Canada, United States. 

Eastern and southern U. S. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Florida. 

Guatemala. 

Colorado. 

Western U. S. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 117 

12. panda Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 80 (1932). Arizona. 

i3. pubescens Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : iSy (1854). Canada. United States. ' 
flavigullula Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 172 (1893). 

14. salamandra Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 493. i (1846). — Pl, 6, fig. 7 I . Canada, United States. 

i5. stouei Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 79 (igSs). Florida 

16. tricinda Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45. 78 (1932). Arizona. 



84. GENUS POLYRHYSSA STAL 

Polyrhyssa Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 26 (1869). 

Characters : Polyrhyssa belongs to a group of genera which seems to center around the genus 
Hille Stal, characterized by strongly ridged sides of pronotum and the presence of a compressed frontal 
horn. It is particularly distinguished from the other nearly related genera by the two discoidal cells of 
the corium and the somewhat compressed, arcuate dorsum. Head triangular; base sinuate; eyes nearly 
globular; ocelh prominent. about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a 
line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of geniE shghtly curved ; clypeus projecting for 
half its length below inferior margins of genae and continuing the line made by these margins. Prono- 
tum shghtly elevated and somewhat compressed, with a short, compressed frontal horn ; sides of prono- 
tum strongly ridged with heavy longitudinal carinig; metopidium straight, broader than high ; humeral 
angles heavy, blunt, triangular; median carina strongly percurrent; dorsum regularly arcuate; posterior 
apex of pronotum gradually acuminate and just reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about half 
covered by the overhanging sides of the pronotum ; venation inchned to be irregular but usually showing 
five apical and two discoidal cells ; median apical cell triangular and petiolate; apical hmbus narrow. 
Legs simpie; hind tarsi a httle longer than the others. 

Type cuUrata Fabricius. 

Geographical distributlon : Kuown only from the tj^pe species vvhich was described nierely 
as from « South America » but ofwhich we have specimens froin Colombia and Argentina. 
i. cultrata Fabricius, Coq. 111. Ins. II : 77 (1801). — Pl. 6, fig. 72. Colombia, Argentina. 



85. Genus METHEISA Fowler 

Methelsa Fowler, B. C. A. II : i32 (1895). 

Characters : We are suspicious of the validity of this genus because of the fact that according 
to Fowler's description and according to the characters shown by the type species, if we have correctly 
identified this species, the genus would seem to differ from Polyrhyssa onl}' in the matter of the more 
convex and sinuate dorsum and a slight difference (which may or may not be constant) in the position of 
the ocelli, structures which in our opinion do not represent satisfactory generic characters. Fowler 
regards this genus as standing between Entylia and Publilia on the one hand and Hille and Lucilla (novv 
Dioclophara) on the other, but tliis is true of course also of Pulyrhyssa. A study of M. lucilodes suggests 
the foUowing generic characters : Head triangular, roughly sculptured; base strongly sinuate; eyes 
globular ; ocelli large, prominent, fartherfrom each other than from the eyes and situated 011 a line dravvn 



ii8 HOMOPTERA 

thiough centers of e^es; inferior maigins of genae sinuate; clypeus extending for one-third its length 
below inferior margins of gense Pronotum more or less convex, hardly compressed, porrect frontal 
horn variable in length and usually conical rather than compressed; sides of horn and sides of pronotum 
bearing strong longitudinal ridges; dorsum distinctly sinuate, depressed at middle; posterior apex of 
pronotum gradually acuminate and extending just fo the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina half covered by 
the overhanging sides of the pronotum; basal costal aiea stiongly and thickly punctate and somev.hat 
coriaceous; five apical and two discoidal cells; third apical cell nearly circular and petiolate; apical Um- 
bus narrow. Hind wings with four apical cells and no discoidal cell. Legs simple ; posterior tarsi 
longest. 

Type lucillodes Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : A Central and South American genus repiesented by four 
species as follows : 

1. cucullata Buckton, Mon. Memb. i86 (igo3). Unknown. 

2. fowleri (nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 32 1 (1927). Peru. 

sinuata (preoccupied) Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 362. 6(1914). 

3 lucillodes Fowler, B. C. A. H : i32. i (iSgS). — Pl. 6, fig. 73. Panama. 

4. siuuata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 186(1903). Brazil. 

86. GenuS POLYGLYPTODES FOWLER 

Polyglyptodes Fowler, B. C. A. H : 128 (1896). 

Characters : Medium sized, more or less triangularly shaped insects with elevated, flattened 
bodies, compressed frontal horn, strongly ridged pronotum and with tegmina only about one-fourth 
exposed. Head subtriangular; base arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genre 
sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense with its lateral maigins 
continuing the facial line made by the margins of the genae. Prdnotum strongly elevated, considerably 
compressed. tectiform; porrect laterally flattened frontal horn arising from in front of humeral angles and 
extending forward and upwaid, with the tiprounded; metopidium keeled, about as broad as high; humei- 
al angles strong, short and blunt; median carina strongly percurrent ; dorsum depressed behind frontal 
horn, then arcuate. then gradually sloping to the posterior apex which is acute andextends a littlebeyond 
the tips of the tegmina; sides of the pronotum strongly, longitudinally ridged. Tegmina three-fourtlis 
covered by the overhanging sides of the pronotum; hyaline or slighlly clouded; basal costal area punc- 
tate; iive apical cells; one discoidal cell; apical limbus moderaie. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type cucullatus Fowler. 

Geographlcal distribution : The genus is at present limited to Mexico and Central America 
with the following species : 

1. affinis Fowler, B. C. A. H : 129. 2 (1896). Mexico. 

2. cucullatus Fowler, B. C. A II 128. i (1896). — Pl. 6, flg. 74. Guatemala. 

3. flavocostatus Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 255 (1925). British Guiana. 

4. scaphiformis Fowler. B. C A. II : 129. 3 (1896). Guatemala. 

5. viridis Plummer, Ann. Ent Soc. Amer. XXIV : 4. 688 (1936). Mexico. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 119 



87. Genus ECUADORIA GODING 

Ecuadoria Goding, Menib. Ecuad. 36 (1920). 
Ecuatorlana Goding, Ent. News XXVI : 5. i36 (1920). 

Characters : A very distinctive genus at once recognized by the two large rounded elevations, 
one behind the other, on the dorsum. Head triangular, roughly sculptured; greatly extended down- 
ward; base strongly sinuate ; eyes subtriangular ; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each other 
and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; clypeus very broad and 
blunt, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, its lateral margins continuing the 
facial line made by the gense. Pronotum convex with two large rounded dorsal lobes, one behind the 
other and deeply notched between; metopidium sloping, wider than high ; median carina strongly per- 
current ; humeral angles extended into broad,triangular projections, flattened dorso-ventrally and extend- 
ed directly outward; sides of pronotum decorated with heavy raised longitudinal ridges and dorsal 
lobes irregularly ridged; posterior apex of pronotum gradually acuminate and extending just about to 
the tipsof the tegmina. Tegmina about one-half exposed; hyaline ; basal costal area strongly punctate ; 
five apical cells; one discoidal cell ; median apical cell triangular and petiolate ; apical limbus broad. 
Legs simple, cylindrical; posterior tarsi longer than the others. 

Type bactriaua Goding. 

Geographical distribution : A South American genus with two described species as follows : 

1. baclriana Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 35 (1920). Ecuador. 

2. bicnstata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 238. 3 (1869). — Pl. 6, fig. 75. Colombia. 

88. GENUS DIOCLOPHARA KlRKALDY 

Dioclophara (nom. nov) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Luoilla (preoccupied) Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 555 (1867). 

Characters : Small elongate insects of inconspiciious colors and seed-like appearance with 
strongly ridged pronotum, very small dorsal horns, and tegmina half concealed. Head triangular; base 
weakly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli small, a little nearer to each other than to the eyes and located 
about on an imaginary line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae weakly sinuate; 
clypeus short and blunt, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae and continuing the 
lateral line of the face made by these margins. Pronotum moderately elevated, tectiform, strongl}' 
longitudinally ridged ; a weak, blunt dorsal horn, sometimes reduced to a mere angle, arising from just 
behind the humeral angles; dorsum gradually sloping from tip of horn or angle to the posterior apex of 
the pronotum which is very sharp and just about reaches the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about half 
exposed ; basal costal half strongly punctate and semicoriaceous, apical half hyaline ; five apical cells; 
one discoidal cell; median apical cell triangular and petiolate; apical limbus broad. I.egs simple, sub- 
cylindrical; hind tarsi longest. 

Type viridula Fairmaire 

Geographical distribution : A strictly South American genus, thus far definitely reported 
only from Ecuador and Colombia 

I. cornigera Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2^9. 4 (1869). Colombia. 



120 HOMOPTERA 

2. intermedia Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 421 (1894). Ecuador. 

3. mixta Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2^9. 3 (1869). Colombia. 

4. parvula Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 32. 22 (i8o3). South America. 

5. subcristata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 238. 2 (1869). Colombia. 

6. viridula Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o5. i3 (1846). — Pl. 6, fig. 7 6. Colombia. 

89. Genus HILLE STAL 

Hille Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 555 (1867). 

Characters : This genus is in considerable confusion due to the difficulty of delimiting it from 
F^airmaire 's old genus Oxygouia (now Gelastogonia) in which a number of its species were originally 
placed. Goding (1929) has suggested that the difference in the structure of the dorsal crest is a sufficient 
character upon which to distinguish the two genera and from material which we have been able to study, 
this seems satisfactory. On this basis, the characters of Hille may be given as follows : Medium sized 
insects of triangular shape as seen from the side, with dorsal horn arising from behind the humeral angles, 
the margins of this horn being declivous or sloping, the posterior apex of the pronotum long, sharp and 
reaching the tips of the tegmina, and the tegmina about half exposed. Head broadly triangular; base 
arcuate and strongly sinuate ; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli conspicuous, a little nearer to each 
other than to the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae straight ; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae and continuing. with 
its lateral edges, the facial line made bj' the margins of the genae. Pronotum elevated, convex, with a 
single strong, sharp dorsal horn arising from behind the line of the humeral angles, the posterior mar- 
gin of the horn declivous or sloping, never rounded or showing a distinct step; metopidium convex, 
wider than high; hnmeral angles well produced into large, flat, auriculate, blunt, triangular processes 
which project laterad and are flattened dorso-ventrally ; median carina strongly percurrent; sides of 
pronotum bearing strong longitudinal ridges; posterior apex of pronotum gradually acuminate and reach- 
ing just about to the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about half exposed ; basal half strongly and densely 
punctate, apical half hyaline; five apical cells; one discoidal cell ; median apical cell peliolate; apical 
limbus broad. Legs simple, subcyhndrical ; hind tarsi slightl}' longer than the others. 

Type maculicornis F^airmaire. 

Geographical distribution : The following species of this genus, if they have been correctly 
assigned, are very abundant throughout wide areas in South and Central America. 

1. conica Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o2. 3 (1846). Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela. 

reticulata Wallfer, List Hom. R. M. 523. i5 (i85i). 
fiutaiis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 236. 5 (1869). 
sulphuria Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 2c6. 7 (1877'!. 
acuminata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 187 (i9o3). 

2. dorsalis Fairmaire, Rev. .Memb. 3o3. 5(1846). Colombia, Ecuador, BraziL 

venosa Walker, Lis-t Hom. B. M. 523. 14 (i85i). 
coiispersa Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 236. 3 (1869). 
ttotata Buckton. Mon. Memb. 220. 36 (1903). 

3. ecuadoreiisis Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 420 (1894). Ecuador. 

4. herbicola Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 255 (1925). British Guiana. 

5. mactdicovnis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o3. 6 (1846). Colombia. 

6. pacifica Faiimaire, Rev. Memb. 3o2. 4(1846). Brazil, Panama, Guatemala. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE j2i 

7. ptrftda Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i39(i858). Ecuador, Venezuela. 

8. sohria VValker, List Hom. B. M. 523. i3 (i85i). — Pl. 6, fig. 77. Ecuador, Brazil. 

9. sobrina Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. \\ : 28. i (1862). Brazil, Ecuador. 

90. GENUS GELASTOGONIA KlRKALDY 

Gelastogonia (nom. nov.) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Oxygonla (preoccupied) Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3oi (1846). 
Ennya Stal, Ber. Ent. Zeit X : 387 (1866). 

Characters : Medium to large sized iiisects often brightlj' colored and distinguished from those 
belonging to closely related genera by the convex or step-shaped posterior margin of the dorsal process. 
Head triangular; base strongly sinuate; eyes large, ovate; ocelU prominent, equidistant from each other 
and from the e^-es and situated about on a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genai' 
sinuate; cl3'peus extending for more than h;ilf its length below inferior margins of gena; and continuing 
the line of these margins to form the triangular outline of the face. Pronotum elevated, tectiform, and 
bearing a dorsal crest which arises from behind the humeral angles and while varying in shape and 
stiucture usually consists of a sharp point in front and always shows either a convex protuberance or a 
step-like posterior margin, or both, behind. Metopidium convex, wider than high ; humeral angles 
strongly produced into broad, flattened, triangular, blunt processes ; median carina stiongly peicurrent; 
posterior apex of pronotum gradually acuminate and reaching just about to the tips of the tegmina; sides 
of pronotum bearing strong, heavy, longitudinal lidges. Tegmina about half exposed ; basal costal area 
strongly punctate and coriaceous; apical half hyaline or colored but not coriaceous ; five apical cells ; one 
discoidal cell; median apical cell triangular and stylate; apical limbus moderate. Legs simple, subcy- 
lindrical ; hind tarsi somewhat longer than the others. 

Type rufipes Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : .A Central and South American genus, widely distributed, and, 
so far as individuals of some of the species are concerned, veiy abundant in inany localities. 

[. chlorizans Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVI : 23. 177 (1902). Ecuador. 

2. chrysura Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o3. 2(1846). — Pl. 6, fig. 78. Colombia, Venezuela, Ecua- 

auriflua Walker, List Hom. B. M. 55o. 2 (i85i). dor, Panaina. 

3. irythrol>us Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : i^g. 2 (i835). Biazil, Ecuador. 

alroapleia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 304. 10 (1846). 
insolila Walker, Ins. Saund. 109(1858). 
costigera Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 353 {1878). 

4. exaltata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 140(1858). Biazil. 

palruelis Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 29 3 (1862I. 

5. fairmairti Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVI : 23. 177 (1902). Ecuador. 
6 fasciata Fallou, Rev. Ent. IX : 353 (1890). Ecuador. 
7. funkhouseri Goding, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : i38 (1928). Ecuador. 
8 gihbera Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 20 (ig^o). Ecuador. 
9. gourndli Fallou. Rev. Ent. IX : 353 (1890). Brazil. 

10. hirsuta Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 256 (iga^). British Guiana. 

11. lineosa Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 5. 3i8 (1862). South America. 

12. nehnlusa Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVI : 23. 177 (1902). Ecuador. 



122 HOMOPTERA 

i3. pulchdla Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLVI : 403. 7 (1914). Peru. 

14. rufipts Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3oi. i (1846). Colombia. 

i5. rufiventris Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 14. 8 (1821). Brazil. 

altifrons Walker, List Hom. B. M. 553. 19 (i85i). 

16. rufomaculata Fallou, Rev. Ent. IX : 353 (1890) Ecuador. 

17. signata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : i5. 9 (1821). Brazil. 

91. Genus HERANICE Stal 

Heranice St&l, Bid. Hem. Syst. 55^ (1867). 

Characters : Large, brightly colored insects with the convex pronotuni gradually arcuate and 
suggesting the bottom of an inverted boat, without horns or other processes and with the tegmina about 
half exposed. Head triangular, roughly sculptured; base arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes ovate and 
protruding; ocelli very large, prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated 
about on a line dravvn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae roundly curved; clypeus with a 
distinct central ridge, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genag. Pronotum convex, 
moderately elevated, gradually keeled, highest in the middle; metopidium convex, twice as broad as 
high; humeral angles strongly produced into heavy, blunt, triangular lobes, extending laterad as far as 
half the width of the head; median carina strongly percurrent; sides of pronotum with many prominent 
longitudinal ridges; posterior apex of pronotum heavy, acute, just reaching the tips of the tegmina. 
Tegmina about half covered by the overhanging sides of the pronotum ; basal half strongly punctate, 
apical half hyalinc or clouded; five apical and two discoidal cells; median apical cell triangular and 
petiolate; apical limbus broad. Legs simple, cylindrical, heavy; hind tarsi much longer than either of 
the other two pairs. 

Type miltoglypta Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : The only two species thus far described are from South America. 

1. miltoglypta Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o6. 2(1846). — Pl. 6,fig. 79. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. 

2. planefiava Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o6. 3 (1846). Brazil. 

92. Genus MATURNA STAL 

Maturna Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 555 (1867). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but immediately distinguished by the 
much smaller size of the insects, their inconspicuous coiors, and particulariy by the single discoidal cell 
of the corium. Stal, in differentiating these genera, calls attention, also to the facts that in Maturna it is 
more compressed and is slightly siniiate before the middle. and that the humeral angles are less strongly 
produced than in Herauice. AU of the above are good, constant chaiacteis and in our opinion are entire- 
ly sufficient to validify the genus. In addition it may be noted that in Maturna the head is much more 
pointed and produced downward ; the ridges on the sides of the pionotiim are much farther apart; the 
posterior apex of the pronotum is usually depressed; and the basal area of the tegmina more heavil}' 
punctate and coriaceous than in Heranice. The other characters are aboiit the same for the two genera. 

Type ephippigera Fairmaire. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E i23 

Geographical distribution : The four species known in this genus are all from Colombia, 
South America. 

1. epkippigera Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3ii. 20 (1846). Colombia. 

varia Walker, List Hom. B. M. 555. 5 (i85i). 

2. lloydi Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXII ; 4. 280 (1914). Colombia. 

3. maculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII 1417 (igSo). Colombia. 

4. parvula Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 32. 22 (i8o3) — Pl. 6, fig. 80. 

93. genus MEMBRACIDOIDEA GODING 

Membracidoidea Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 173 (1929). 

Characters : We have never seen the single species which represents this genus and can there- 
fore do no more than to quote Goding's original description as foUows : 

« Head nearly long as broad, wide as base posterior pronotal process, uneven, median 
carina from base to middle, fovea at base and one at apex clypeus; base well arched; ocelli equi- 
distant, even with center of eyes ; lateral margins rounded to apex clypeus. Pronotum highly 
elevated anteriorly, almost foliaceous, subcompressed, superficially resembling some species of 
the genus Membracis; metopidium vertical, summit slightly advancing and briefly rounded, dor- 
sum unevenly curved to posterior apex which reaches tips of tegmina ; sides with several rugae and 
covers half the tegmina; humerals prominent, conical. Tegmina two and one-half times longer 
than broad, 3 parallel longitudinal veins on the exterior half of tegmina, space between subcoria- 
ceous, opaque, densely punctate to bases apical cells; no discoidal cell, 5 apical cells, base third 
cell petiolate, the fifth cell with anterior basal cell and clavus occupying more than half the width 
of tegmina; costal and anterior margins nearly straight, posterior margin obliquely truncate, apical 
angle acutely pointed, limbus rather broad toward interior angle, wings with 4 apical cells, base 
second cell petiolate. Legs simple. » 

It is evident that Goding was impressed by the almost foliaceous appearance of his type species, 
a character which undoubtedly suggested his name for the genus. 

Type rubridorsa Goding. 

Geographlcai distribution : Known only from the type species from Costa Rica. 
I. ruhridorsa Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 174 (1929). Costa Rica. 

GENERA OF TRIBE CERESINI GODING 

I. Pronotum with suprahumeral horiis 
A. Posterior process not Irispinose 

1. Posterior process compressed laterally, tectiform, base iwt swollen, 

apex acute 
a. Pronotum elevated, strongly curved, not deeply impressed above 

lateral margins Ceresa Amyot and Serville. 

aa. Pronotum coiivex, nearly straight, deeply impressed above lateral 

aiigles Centrogonia Stal. 

2. Posterior process convex, not flattened bilaterally, hase swoUen, apex 

spiiielike 

a. Corium ■with 3 discoidal cells Anton^ Stal. 

aa. Corium with 4 discoidal cells Ilithucta Stal. 



124 HOMOPTERA 

B. Posterior process nodose and trispinose 

1. Suprahumerals short, htavy, thick and bUint Xolonia Plummer. 

2. Suprahumerals loiig, sleiider, sharp aiid spine-like 

a. Posterior process with two slender upright spiues at base . . . Cyphonia Laporte. 
aa. Posterior process without erect spines at base Poppea Stal. 

II. Pronolum without suprahumeral horns 

A. Corium wilh five apical and two or more discoidal cells 

1. Posterior process nodose aud trispinose Clepsydrius Fowler. 

2. Posterior process not trispiuose 

a. Posierior process greatly swollen at or near base Paranton.?; Fowler. 

aa. Posterior process not iuflated iiear base 

b. Prouotum couvex, impressed above lateral margin .... Melusina Stal. 
bb. Pronotum elevated, not deeply laterally impressed 

c. Lateral margins of metopidium angulate ; dorsum highest 

infront Stictocephala Stal. 

cc. Laleral margins of metopidium rounded; dorsum highest at 

middle Stictolobus Metcalf. 

B. Corium withfour apical cells and one discoidal ccll Trachytalis Fowler, 

94. Genus CERESA Amyot and Serville 

Ceresa Amyot and Serville, Herhip. SSg (1843). 

Characters : The genus Ceresa is the largest, the best known and the most widely distributed 
of any of the genera of Membracidae in the New World. It is represented in all parts of both continents 
by many species and by an enormous number of individuals. In popular treatises on entomology and 
in elementary text-books, some species of this genus is usually chosen to illustrate the family. In fact, 
in the literature, the species Ceresa bubalus is mentioned mofe times than any other membracid species 
in the World. 

The genus is characterized by the petiolate median apical cell of the hind wing, the entirely free 
tegmina with two contiguous longitudinal veins, the well elevated pronotum without longitudinal ridges 
or deep impressions on the sides, with suprahumeral horns, and with a simple, tectiform, gradually acute 
posterior process. The head is subquadrate wider than long, with the apex triangular; base strongly 
arcuate ; eyes globular ; ocelli prominent, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated a little below 
a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus variable but usually 
extending for about half its length below the inferior margins of genae. Pronotum well developed and 
elevated, roughly triangular as seen from above ; metopidium vertical or convex and about as wide as 
high; median carina present; humeral angles weak; suprahumeral horns always present but varying 
greatly in size from large strong processes to mere tubercular angles ; posterior apex of pronotum always 
simple, without spines or other processes and gradually acute, generally reaching to a point somewhere 
between the internal angles and the tips of the tegmina; sides of pronotum punctate and often with 
faint impressions but never ridged. Tegmina entirely free and the corium fully exposed; five apical 
and three discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs simple. 

Type vilulus Fabricius. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 



125 



Geographical distribution : This genus is distributed throughout all parts of both American 
continents and ranges as far north and as far south as any other membracid genus. As in the case 
of other widely distributed American genera, we have attempted to indicate distribution within certain 
broad regions and occasionally, for species of Umited range, according to states in the United States. 
The terms « United States » or « Canada n or « Mexico », however, indicate that the species is so cos- 
mopohtan that it may be found in practically all parts of the countries so mentioned. 

1. acuUata Fairmaire, Rev. Meinb. 283. 2 (1846). 

2. affittis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 284. 3 (1846). 

3. albescens Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 35. 2 (1908). 



4. albidosparsa Stal, Eug. Resa Omk. Hem. 283 (i^Sg). 

5. ancora Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : 11. 479 {1937). 

6. axillaris Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 235. 8 (i835). 

tertniiiata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 285. 16 (1846). 

7. basalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 527. 12 (i85i). 

brevicornis Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 235 (1889). 
semicrema Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 235 (1889). 
melanogaster Osborn, BuU. Nat. Sci. lowa II : 390 (1893). 
turbida Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 406. 44 (1894). 
semibrunnea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 174 (igo3), 

8. bi/asciata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 286. i3 (1846). 

9. borealis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 284. 5 (1846). 

10. brevicornis Fitch, Trans. Agr. Soc. N. Y. 451. 177 (i856). 

11. brevis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 528. i3 (i85i). 

12. brevityltis V&n Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 36. 4 (1908). 
i3. bruunicornis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 235. 7 (i835). 

14. bubalus Fabricius, Ent. Syst. IV : 14. 23 (1794). — Pl. 7, fig. 8 I 

i5. colon Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^7. 11 (i835). 

16. conciuna Fovvler, B. C. A. II : 106. 9 (1895). 

17. constans Walker, List Hom. B. M 563. 27 (i85i). 

18. cuprea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. 16 (1927). 

nigra Goding, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII : 137 (1928). 

ig. diceros Say, Narr. Long's Exp. App. 299(1824). 

postfasciata Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 540 (1843). 

20. discolor Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 286. 12 (1846). 

21. extensa Walker, Ins. Saund. 68 (i858). 

pauperata Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 287 (i833). 

22. fastidiosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 28:. 6 (1846). 

23. femorata Fairrnaire, Rev. Memb. 289. 24 (1846). 

tacla Walker, List Hom. B. M. 56o. i5 (i85i). 
angulata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 558. 10 (i85i). 
rotundata Van Duzee, Check List 59. i593 (1917). 

24. illiuoieusis Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 404. 32 (1894). 

25. infantilis Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : 1 1. 479 (1937). 

26. iusignis Walker, Ins. Saund. 67 (i858). 



Bolivia. 

Brazil. 

Ontario, eastern and central 
U.S. 

West. U. S., west. Canada. 

Arizona. 

Brazil, Colombia. 

Canada, United States. 



Brazil, Colombia, Peru. 

Ontario, east. and centr.U.S. 

Eastern Canada, eastern and 
central U. S. 

Eastern, centr. and south.U.S. 

Eastern and southern U. S. 

Argentina. 

Canada, United States. 

Brazil. 

Mexico. 

Eastern Canada, eastern and 
southern U. S. 

Biazil, Panama. 
Canada, United States. 

Brazil. 

Colombia, Argentina, Uru- 

guay. 
Colombia. 

Mexico, southern and western 
U. S. 

Central and southern U. S. 

Mexico. 

Mexico. 



126 



HOMOPTERA 



27. integra Walker, Ins. Saund. 67 (i858). 

28. jugifera Stoll. Cigal. 36 (1788). 

29. malitia Germar. Rev. Silb. III : 236. 9 (i835). 

30. mexicana Plummer, Memb. Mex. 3^3 (1935). 

3i. militar is G\hson andWells, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XII: 5. 112 (1917). 

32. nigricornis p-owler, B. C. A. II : 104. 3 (i8g5). 

33. nigrovittata Fowler, B. C. A. II : 104. 4 (1895). 

34. nitens Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. II : 332 (1905). 

35. palmeri Van Duzee, Can. Ent. XL : 114 (1908). 

36. patruelis Stal, Hem. Mex. 69. 420 (1864). 

37. projecta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV: 2. 161 (1927). 

38. puncticel>s Stal, Hem. Mex. 70. 422 (1864). 

39. recta Walker, Ins. Saund. 68 (i858). 

40. rohusta Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 216. i5 (1878). 

41. sallei Stk\, Hem. Mex. 70. 421 (1864). 

42. stimulea (nom. nov.) Van Duzee, Can. Ent. XLVI : 11. 388 (1914). 

acuUala (preocciipied) Van Duzee, Flor. Hem. 2o5 (1909). 

43. taurina Fitch, Rept. Ins. N. Y. III : 335 (i856). 

44. testacea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 284. 4 (1846). 

alta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 529. i5 (i85i). 
cavicornis Stal, Freg. Eus. Resa. Ins. 2^4 (i859). 
s/alii Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A, 406. 43 (1894). 

45. nncicornis F"owler, B. C. A. II : 104. 5 (1895). 

46. uruguayensis Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 286 (i883). 

47. ustulata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 285 7 (1846). 

plana Walker, List Hom. B. M. 529. 16 (i85i) 

48. vacca Fowler, B. C. A. 11 : 106. 8 (1895). 

49. variabilis Fowler, B. C. A. II : io5. 6 (1895). 

intermedia Fowler, B C. A. II : io5. 6 (1895). 

50. vitulus Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 677. 10 (1775). 

pallens Germar, Mag. Ent. III : 25. 26 (1820). 
spinifera Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 25^. 6 (1846). 
curvilinea Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i32 (i858). 
rufescens Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 218. 26 (1878). 
distans Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 218. 25 (1878). 
minor Fowler, B. C. A. II : io3 (1895;. 



Brazil. 

Surinam. 

Argentina. 

Mexico. 

Central U. S. 

Mexico. 

Guatemala. 

Panama. 

Eastern Canada, eastern, cen- 
tral and southern U. S. 

Mexico, southern U. S. 

Argentina. 

Mexico. 

Brazil, Peru. 

Brazil. 

Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia. 

Florida. 

Canada, United States. 

Mexico, Yucatan, Guatemala, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Bra- 
zil, Ecuador, Uruguay, Pe- 
ru. Colombia. 

Panama. 

Uruguay. 

Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ar- 

gentina. 
Mexico. 
Panama. 

Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecua- 
dor, Mexico, Guatemala, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Yuca- 
tan, British Guiana. 



95. GENUS CENTROGONIA STAL 



Centrogonia Stal. Hem. Fabr. II : 24 (1869). 

Characters : Insects which resemble those of the genus Ceresa but differ in being more slender 
and narrow-bodied, in having the dorsum convex and nearh' straight, and in being deeply impressed 
above the lateral margins behind the horns. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high, very roughly 
sculptured; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of e^^es; inferior 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 127 

margins of genae lounded; clypeus extending for moie than half its length below inferior niargins of 
genae. Pronotum low, convex, dorsum straight or slightly sinuate; suprahumeral horns variable in 
length but always present and usually conical and sharp; humeral angles weak and blunt; metopidium 
vertical or convex, about as broad as high ; median carina percurrent; sides of pronotum deeply impress- 
ed in semicircular indentations above the lateral margins behind the suprahumerals; posterior apex of 
pronotum gradually acuminate and generally extending to a point somewhere between the internal angles 
and the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely free, corium fully exposed ; venation heavy and conspic- 
uous; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs simple. 

Type ciliata Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : Species of this genus have been recorded only from Central and 
South America as follows : 

1. centrotoides 'Wa\ke,r, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i38 (i858). Brazil, Ecuador. 

2. ciliata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 287. 17 (1846). — Pl. 7, fig. 82. Colombia, Venezuela. 

3. elegatis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 107. i (1894). • Panama. Brazil. 

4. flavolimbata Goding, Memb. Ecuad. 32. 35 (1920). Ecuador. 

5. luiea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 269 (1919). Colombia. 

6. nasuta Stal, Eug. Res. Omk. Hem. 283(1859). Brazil. 

7. pinguicornis Funkhou.ser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 270 (1919). Peru, Ecuador. 

8. speciosa Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 18 (ig^o). Brazil. 

9. unguicularis Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. 26. 3 (i858). Brazil. 

96. Genus ANTON^ STAL 

Antonae Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 552 (1867). 
Tumayana Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 368 (1906). 

Characters : A genus characterized by the heavy, rounded, bulbous sv\ ellings at the base of 
the posterior process and the very slender spine-like apex to this process. Head subquadrangular 
broader than high, roughly sculptured; base strongly arcuate and vveakl}- sinuate ; eyes globular and 
protruding; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each otlier and from the eyes and situated a little 
below a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genas rounded; clypeus projecting for 
at least Iialf its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex, not highly elevated nor later- 
ally compressed; suprahumeral horns varying in size and length but always well developed ; humeial 
angles weak and rounded; metopidium vertical, usually a little higher than broad; median carina per- 
current ; sides of pronotum deeply impressed above lateral margins behind the horns; dorsum sinuate; 
base of posterior process swollen into bulbous nodes ; apex of posterior process long, slender, sharp, and 
extending beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not reaching their tips. Tegmina entirely free, 
corium fully exposed ; veins strong and heavy; cells large; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical 
limbusbroad especially on the anal margin. Legs simple; hind tarsi inuch the longest. 

Type tigrina Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : A genus represented by only a moderate number of species but 
with enormous numbers of individuals in South America, Central America and Mexico. 

I. aurantiaca Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 288 (1846). Colombia. 



128 



HOMOPTERA 



2. bulbosa Funkhouser, Jouin. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 415 (igSo). 

3. conspersa Stal. Bid. Memb. Kan. 244. 5 (1869). 

4. evelyna Plummer, Memb. Mex. 376 (igSS). 

5. flaccida Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 288. 19 (1846). 

6. gntlipes VValker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. iS^ (i858). 

eva Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 368 (1906). 

7. incrassata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 288. 20(1846). — Pl. 7, fig. 83. 

8. inflata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2^3. i (1869). 

9. jiigropunctata Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 173 (1929). 

10. nodosa Funkhouser, Can. Ent. XLIV : 403. 8 (1914). 

11. picina Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 243. 3 (1869). 

12. tigrina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 287. 17 (1846). 



Mexico. 

Colombia. 

Mexico. 

Colombia. 

Peru, Ecuador, Brazil. 

Colombia. 

Colombia, Venezuela. 
Costa Rica. 
Bolivia. 

Colombia, Brazil. 
Colombia, Venezuela. 



97. Genus ILITHUCIA STAL 

llithucia Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 552 (1867). 
Electrophina Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. ZooL IX : 33i (igoS). 

Ciiaracters : This genus was erected by its author to accommodate Fairmaire's species morio and 
separated from the preceding genus by the simple notation : « Parte anteriore tumida processus tho- 
racis dorso haud sinuate; corio areolis discoidalis quatuor ». In the preceding paragraph of his table, 
Stal described Antonte as having a strongly sinuate dorsum and three discoidal cells in the corium. 
We have never seen a specimen of /. morio but Fairmaire's description of the species indicates that it 
is a large brown and yellow insect with the sides of the pronotum deeply impressed, strong recurved 
suprahumeral horns and free tegmina. 

Goding (1929^) believes that Buckton's Electrophina pacificata belongs to this genus and we are 
willing to accept his judgment, although how he was able to be positive in this matter from Buckton's 
figure and description is beyond our comprehension. 

7. morio has been mentioned onlj' five times in the literature of the family, has not been rede- 
scribed since the original description, and has neverbeen figured. Pending a better knowledge of this 
type species, we would conclude that Ililhucia should be recognized as a good genus and separated 
from Antonie by the less sinuate dorsum and the four discoidal cells of the tegmina. 

Type morio Fairmaire. 

Geographicai distribution : We are recognizing the two above mentioned species with the 
actual locality of pacificata questionable since Buckton locates it only by the expression « Coli. de 
Pacifico ». 

1. morio Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 287. 18 (1846). Colombia. 

2. pacificata Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 32i (1905). Pacific Coast. 



98. GENUS XOLONIA PLUMMER 

Xolonia Plummer, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 377 (1935). 

Characters : Plummercorrectly places this genus as standing between Antona and Clepsydrius. 
It differs from both in the very short, blunt suprahumerals and in the structure of the bulbous expan- 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



129 



sions of the dorsum. Head siibquadrate, much broader than long, smooth; base weakly and regu- 
larly arcuate; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
lounded; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum irreg- 
ularly convex and very bulbous; suprahumeral horns very short, swoUen and blunt ; a large median 
dorsal swelHng just behind suprahumerals ; sides of pronotum strongly impressed above lateral margins ; 
posterior process consisting of a large, trilobed swelling, each bulbous lobe of the swelling ending in 
a sharp spine. Tegmina hyaline and entirely exposed; cells irregular in shape; five apical and three 
discoidal cells ; apical hmbus broad. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs simple ; hind tarsi much 
longer than the others. 

Type variegata Plummer. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the type species from Mexico. 
I. variegata Plummer, Memb. Mex. 378 (igSS). — Pl. 7, fig. 84. Mexico. 

99. Genus CYPHONIA Laporte 

Cyphonia Laporte, Ann, Ent. Soc. France I : 229 (i832). 

Characters : A genus of very remarkable and bizarre insects characterized by the long slender 
suprahumerals, the trispinose and often bulbous posterior process and particularly by two slender upright 
spines at the base of the posterior process. The insects are not large but are often brightly colored. 
Head triangular, roughly sculptured; base straight; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli conspicuous, 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of gense rounded; clypeus extending for at least half its length below inferior 
margins of genae. Pronotum nodulate and spinose; suprahumeral horns slender and spine-like; anter- 
ior portion of pronotum convex; sides of pionotum deeply impressed above lateral margins; metopid- 
ium convex, as broad as high; humeral angles weak, triangular, blunt; median carina usually obsolete; 
posterior process always trispinose and often bulbous, the swellings generally at the base of the spines ; 
two erect spines, side by side, at the base of the posterior process. Tegmina hyaline; cells irregular in 
shape; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical hmbus very broad, particularly at the anal niaigin. 
Hind wings often rudimentary. Legs simple; hind tarsi about twice as long as the others. 

Type irifida Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : Widely distributed throughout South America, Central America 
and Mexico but not reported north of Mexico. 

1. ancoralis Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 285 (i883). Argentina, Brazil. 

2. bonarensis Berg, .Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 240 (i883). Argentina. 

3. braccata Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^4. i (i835). Brazil, Colombia. 

4. capra Burmeister, Rev. Silb. I : 23i. 22 (i833j. Brazil, Colombia, Venczuela. 

5. clavala Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 264. 17 (1878). Biazil, Siirinam, Panama, Ni- 

bulbifera Gerraar, Mae'. Ent. IV : 3o. 40 dSail r^ l 1 ■n i ■ 

,. ., ,, . *' . jv. ^'j \ioii.). caragua, (juatemala, Alexi- 

hispida Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i56 (i858). 

co, British Guiana. 

6. clavigera Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. II : 17. 5 (i8o3). Brazil, Uruguay, Patagonia, 

coUnophom Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. 239 (i883). Ch\\& Art^entina. 

J. fasctata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 214 i5 (1878). Brazil. 



i3o 



HOMOPTERA 



8. flava Burmeister, Rev. Silb. I : 23 1. ii (i833). 

9. flavovittata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 242. 2 (1869). 

10. formosa Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 214 (1878). 

11. furcata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. I : 23 1. 10 (i8S3). 

12. furcifer Laporte, Ann. Ent. Soc. France I : 23o (i832). 
i3. fuscata Buckton, Mon. Memb. i65 (1903). 

14. hirta Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 255. 2 (i835). 
i5. jugalis Buckton, Mon. Memb. i65 (igoS). 

16. nasalis Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 34. 6 (i858). 

furcispina Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. VI : i55. 53 (1890). 

17. proxima Guerin, Ic. Reg. Anim. Ins. 365 (i838). 

18. saturalis Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 285 (i883). 

19. trifida Fabricius, Syst. Ent. IV : 12. 19 (1775). — Pl. 7, fig. 85. 

ornata Laporte, Aiin. Soc. Ent. Fr I : 23o (i832). 



Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela. 
Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, 

Peru, Argentina. 
Mexico. 
Biazil. 
Brazil. 
Brazil, Peru. 

Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico 
Brazil, Peru. 
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, 

British Guiana. 
Brazil,Peru,Yucatan,Mexico. 
Argentina. 
Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, 

Peru. 



100. genus poppea stal 

Poppea Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 55i (1867). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but the insects average larger in size and 
differ in having much stronger suprahumeral liorns aiid in lacking the two upright spines at the base 
of the posterior process. Head subquadrate, tvvice as broad as long, usually smooth and shining; 
base feebly arcuate; eyes very large, globular and protruding; oceUi conspicuous, about equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated on a Hne drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior 
margins of genae sinuate and flanged; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of 
genae. Pronotum bulbous and spinose; anterior portion convex ; suprahumeral horns sharp and gener- 
ally more or less conical; metopidium convex, about as wide as high; median carina usually obsolete ; 
humeral angles well developed, heavy, blunt, triangular; sides of pronotum deeply impressed at lateral 
margins; posterior process trispinose, the spines long and slender and sometimes swollen at their bases. 
Tegmina entirely free, corium fuUy exposed; cells large and irregular in shape; veins strong ; five 
apical and three discoida) cells; median apical cell petiolate; apical Hmbus broad and usually wrinkled. 
Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type rectispina Fairmaire. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This is primarily a Central American genus but a few species 
range northward into Mexico and a few others southward into northern South America. 



i. affinis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 100 (1895). 

2. albiloba Goding. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 172 (1929). 

3. bulbidorsa Godiiig, Amer. Mus. Novit. 17 (igSo). 

4. capricornis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 99. 5 (1895). — Pl. 7, fig. 86. 

5. concititia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 100. 6 (1895). 

6. delicata Plummer, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 4 (1936). 

7. discrepans Goding, S. .\. Memb. 2^4 (1929). 

8. longicornis Plummer, Memb. Mex. 3^5 (ig^S). 



Guatemala, Costa Rica. 

Costa Rica. 

Peru. 

Panama, Costa Rica. 

Panama. 

Mexico. 

Peru. 

Mexico. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ i3i 

9. mutida Fowler, B. C. A. II : loi. 8 (iSgS). Panama. 

10. ttitiiia Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIll : 4. 416 (igSo). Peru. 

11. rectispina Fairmaire, Kev. Memb. 5o2. 6 (1846). Mexico, Guatemala, Yucatan, 

Honduras. 

12. reliculata Fowler, B. C. A. II : loi. 9 (iSgS). Guatemala. 

i3. seiosa Fowler, B. C. A. 11 : 97. i (1895). Mexico, Ilonduras. 

14. suhrugosa Fowler, B. C. .A. II : 99. 3 (1893). Guatemala, Peru. 

i5. succinea Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33i (igoS). Mexico. 

16. torva Fowler, B. C. A. II : 98. 2 (1895). Guatemala. 

17. sebrina Funkhouser,Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 416 (19^0). Canal Zone. 

101. GENUS CLEPSYDRIUS FOWLER 

Clepsydrius Fowler, B. C. A. II : 95 (1895). 

Chapacters : This genus is very closely related to Xolania from which it differs chiefly in the 
absence of suprahumeral horns. The type species. which is the only species known, is a small brown 
and yellow insect with a very bulbous pronotum and a trispinose and bulbous posterior process very 
similar to that seen in the two preceding genera. Head subquadrate, wider than long; base straight ; 
eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a 
line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas broadly rounded; clypeus exlending for at 
least half its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum bulbous and spinose; no suprahumeral 
horns ; humeral angles weak and rounded ; metopidium sloi)ing with the sides bluntly angular at the top ; 
a distinct transverse groove across the metopidium above the humeral angles; median carina very faint; 
anterior portion of pronotum convex; sides of pronotum deeply impressed above the lateral margiiis so 
as to form a dorsal swelling above; posterior process broadly swoUen at base into a bulbous lobe from 
which project three short, sharp, posterior spines. Tegmina entirely free; corium fully exposed ; cells 
large and irregular in shape; veins prominent; five apical and three discoidal cells; median apical cell 
petiolate; iirst apical cell extending far along thecostal margin; apical limbus broad and wrinkled. Hind 
wings withfourapical celis, the second cell stylate. Legssimple; hind legs extremely long in proportion 
to the others and the hind tarsi about twice as long as those of the other legs. 

Type conslrictus Fowler. 

Geographical distribution ; Known only from the type species which, however, seems to be 
quite common in many parts of Mexico. 
I. constrictus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 95. i (1895). — Pl. 7, fig. 87. Mexico. 

102. genus paranton>e fowler 

Parantonae Fowler, B. C. A. II : loi (1895). 

Characters : This is indeed a very strange-Iooking genus, as Fowler has remarked, and while 
it bears a superficial resemblance to Antona:, a fact which doubtless suggested the generic name to its 
author, it differs from that genus in many important characters. The most distinctive features are the 
peculiar hood-shaped anterior pronotum and the deep constriction across the middle of the dorsum sepa- 
rating this anteiior swelling from the strongly bulbous base of the posterior process. The head is sub- 



i32 HOMOPTERA 

quadrate, wider than long and very roughly sculptined; base feeblj' arcuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, 
prominent, located on elevated tubercles, a little nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus hghtly trilobed and 
extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of geiiae. Pronotum convex, strongly 
constricted in middle to form an anterior and a posterior dorsal sweUing; the anterior portion is hood- 
like with a deep impression above the humeral angles and above the head; metopidium sloping; humeral 
angles strong, triangular; no suprahumeral horns; posterior half of pronotum greatly swollen and ending 
in a single, short, sharp spine. Tegmina entirely free; corium fully exposed ; cells irregular in shape; 
veins strong; fiveapical and three discoidal cells; median apical cell petiolate; first apical cell extending 
down the costal margin ; apical Hmbus broad. Legs simple ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type dipteroides Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : According to the described species, this genus rangesfrom north- 
erii South America through Central America and Mexico to the western part of the United States, but 
the species must be quite rare as the}- are seldom seen in collections and have been mentioned only a few 
times in the literature of the famil}'. 

1. binodosa Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : io8 (1926). Ecuador. 

2. dipteroides Fowler, B. C. A. II : 102. i (iSgS). — Pl. 7, fig. 88. Guatemala. 

3. hispida Van Duzee, Trans. So. Dak. Soc. Nat. Hist. II : i. 49 (1914). California. 

4. ornata Plummer, Memb. Mex. 377 (ig^S). Mexico. 



103. genus MELUSINA STAL 

Melusina Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 552 (1867). 

Characters : Very near the foUowing genus, Stidocephala, but with the dorsum low and convex 
and with a deep semicircular impression on each side of the pronotum. Head subquadrate, wider than 
long, roughly sculptured, apex triangular; base arcuate; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli conspic- 
uous, slightly elevated, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae rounded; clypeus convex, extending for half its 
length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low and convex, highest in front; no suprahumerals; 
metopidium vertical, wider than high; humeral angles strong, triangular, blunt ; median carina very 
faint; sides of pronotum with a deep semicircular impression above margins; posterior process long, 
slender, acuminate, extending beyond internal angles of tegmina but not reaching theirtips. Tegmina 
hyaline with five apical and three discoidal cells ; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi inuch 
longer than the others. 

Type nervosa Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : A South American genus represented by the foUowing four 
species : 

1. exaltata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 10. 22 (i8o3). Brazil. 

2. nervosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 289. 22 (1846). Brazil. 

3. nigriveniris Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 272 Ecuador, Colombia. 

(1919). -Pl. 7, fig. 89. 

4. rugifrons Berg. Ann. Soc. Cien. .Arg. XVI : 288 (i883). Argentina. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ i33 

104. genus stictocephala stal 

Stlctocephala Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 24 (1869). 

Characters : In devising a dichotomous key for the identification of the genera of the tribe 
Ceresini, we naturally chose those characters which were most obvious and most easily noted, among 
which of course were the suprahumeral horns. As a resuU, however, the genus Stictocephala is thrown 
out of its natural position in the tribe, at least in so far as relationship and probable phylogeny is con- 
cerned, for certainly this genus is more nearly related to Ceresa than to any other genus in the family. 
Goding (1926) constructed a key for the tribe in which these two genera were thrown together, as they 
should be, but in other respects his table is not entirely satisfactory, and of course he is forced, also, as 
a final distinction, to base the separalion of these tvvo genera on the supposed presence or absence of 
suprahumerals. Stal (1869^) separated Stictocephala from Ceresa, to be sure, on the basis of the absence 
of suprahumerals, but this distinction is very artificial and unsatisfactory. In fact, we doubt if there 
are any good constant characters on which these two genera may be absolutely distinguished. The 
characters of the pronotum. other than the lateral angles of the metopidium, are the same ; the shape 
and structure of the posterior process is identical ; there is no difference in venation ; and studies which 
we have made on the genitalia of the male and the abdominal segments of the female would indicate 
that there is no more variation in these structures in the two genera than there is between diiferent spe- 
cies in either of the genera. The suprahumeral angles of the metopidium vary in both genera, some 
species o{ Stictocephala showing a distinct suggestion of a cornute protuberance and some species of 
Ceresa having the horns reduced to mere angular projections. Since, however, the genus has long been 
established on the basis of this character, we are here recognizing it on that basis. 

The more typical species oi Stictocephala are characterized by the elevated pronotum, highest in 
front and not deeply impressed on the sides, the angular lateral margins of the metopidium, the long, 
slender, simple posterior process, and the entirely exposed tegmina with five apical and three discoidal 
cells. Head triangular, base arcuate and sinuate; eyes narrow ; ocelli prominent, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated somewhat below a Hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae variable but usually rounded ; clypeus variable but generally projecting somewhat below 
the inferior margins of genae. Pronotum elevated highest in front, more or less triangular as viewed 
from above; metopidium high, lateral margins angulate; no distinct suprahumeral horns; humeral angles 
blunt; posterior process long, slender, tectiform, simple, usually depressed and decurved and impinging 
on margins of tegmina, extending beyond internal angles of tegmina but not reaching their tips. Teg- 
mina free, usually hyaline, corium entirely exposed; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical limbus 
broad. Legs simple, subcylindrical; hind tarsi longest. 

Type lutea Walker. 

Geographlcal distrlbutlon : The center of distribution of this genus would appear to be the 
United States but species are found in Soutli and Central America, in Mexico and in Canada. Like 
the genus Ceresa, it is quite cosmopoHtan and has a wide range. 

1. colliiia Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 47. 8 (igoS). Western U. S. 

2. cornuta Fowler, B. C. .\. II : iio. 5 (iSgS). Panama. 

3. diminnta Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 49. 11 (1908). Southern U. S. 

4. elevata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVTI : 4, 271 (1919). Peru. 

5. elongata Fowler. B. C. A. II : iio. 4 (1895). Mexico. 



i34 



HOMOPTERA 



9 

lO 

1 1, 



i3 
14 
i5. 
16 

17 

18, 

19 
20 
21 
22 



/estitia Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 243. 5 (i83o). 
rufivilla Walker, List Hom. B. M. 559. 12 (i85i). 
dubia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 109. 2 (iSgS). 
angulata Wildermuth, Journ. Agr. Research III : 343 (igiS.) 

franciscana Stal, Eug. Res. Omk. Jord. 284. 189 (i85g). 

fulgida Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : 480 (1937). 

fusca Fowler, B. C. A. II : 109. 3 (iSgS). 

gilletti Godmg, Ent. News III : 108. 200 (1892). 

inermis Fabricius, Syst. Ent. IV : 678. i (1775). — Pl. 7, fig. 90. 
goniphora Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V : 243 (i83i). 

Intea Walker, List Hom. B. M. SSg (i85i). 

sanguino-apicalis Goding, Cat. Memb, N. A. 408. 42 (1894). 

mittuta Funkhouser, Eiit. News XXVI : 3. 99 (igiS). 

nervosa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 196 (igoS). 

nigricans Van Duzee, Trans. S. D. Soc. Nat. Hist. II : 49. 272 (1914). 

pacifica Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 44. 2 (1908). 

rottindata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 246. 3 (1869). 

semibrunnea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 174 (1903). 

substriata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 558. i (i85i). 

uniformis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 289. 25 (1846). 

viridis Goding, Ent. News III : iii (1892). 

wickhami Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 44. 3 (1908). 



Southern, central and western 
U. S., Cuba, Porto Rico, 
Canal Zone, Mexico. 

West. U. S., west. Canada. 

Arizona. 

Mexico. 

Western U. S. 

United States, Canada. 

United States, Canada. 

Southern U. S. 

Northeastern U. S. 

California. 

West. U. S., west. Canada. 

Southern U. S., Cuba. 

Northeastern U. S. 

Southern U. S. 

Southern U.S., Mexico, Cuba. 

Colorado. 

Western U. S. 



105. genus STICTOLOBUS METCALF 

Stictolobus Metcalf, Ent. News XXVII : 3 (1916). 

Characters: The species subtilatus Sayhad been a lost species for85years until it was rediscovered 
by Metcalf in 1916 and made the type of his genus Stictolobus. Since then six other species have been 
added to the genus so that it is now well established as a distinct group. As Metcalfs generic name was 
intended to indicate, the genus has characters suggesting those of both Stictocephala and Cyrtolobus; the 
venation is very similar to that of the former genus while the general shape of the pronotum suggests 
the latter. The head is subquadrate, broader than high ; base highly arcuate with two prominent callos- 
ities; eyes rounded; oceUi conspicuous, a httle nearer to each other than to the eyes (in the type species 
about equidistant) and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas 
rounded; ctypeus extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
convex and rounded, highest behind middle; metopidium sloping, wider than high, lateral margins 
rounded, notangulate; humeral angles weak and rounded; median carina faint in front and stronger 
behind ; sides of pronotum distinctly impressed in a semicircular indentation above lateral margins; 
posterior process long, slender, simple, decurved, as long as the abdomen, extending beyond the inter- 
nal angles of the tegmina but not reaching their tips. Tegmina hyahne with five apical and three 
discoidal cells ; median apical cell petiolate ; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with five apical cells and 
no discoidal cell. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 



Type subtilatus Say. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ i35 

Geogpaphical distribution : Of the seven described species, four are from the United States 
and three are from South America. 

1. eredus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 272 (1919). Brazil. 

2. juHiperinus Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : 11. 481 (1937). Arizona. 

3. lateralis Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXI : i. 21 (1936). Illinois. 

4. maculatus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. 162 (1927). Brazil. 

5. septemfasciata Goding. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 108 (1926). Ecuador. 

6. subulaius Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. III : 3oo. 8 (i83i). Southern U. S. 

7. trilineaius Funkhouser, Ent. News. XXIX : 5. 186 (1918). — Pl. 7, Louisiana. 

fig. 9 I . 

106. GENUS TRACHYTALIS FOWLER 

Trachytaiis Fowler, B. C. A. II : ii5. 2. (1895). 

Characters ; Small inconspicuous insects characterized by the elongate unarmed pronotum 
and the fact that the tegmina have only four apical cells and one discoidal cell. Head subquadrate, twice 
as broad as long; base feebly sinuate; eyes small and ovate; ocelli inconspicuous, twice as far from each 
other as from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae sinuate; clypeus extending for about half its length below inferior margins of genae but continuing 
the apical outline of the face made by these margins, tip rounded. Pronotum low and convex, more 
or less depressed anteriorly; dorsum nearly straight; no suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, broader 
than high; humeral angles well developed, blunt, triangular; median carina faintly percurrent ; sides 
of pronotum with no indication of a semicircular impression; posterior process heavy, tectiform, usually 
decurved at the tip which reaches to a point about halfway between internal angles and tips of tegmina. 
Tegmina hyaline with basal and costal areas sparingly punctate; only four apical cells; one very large 
pentagonal discoidal cell; apical limbus very broad. Legs simple; hind legs much longer than the 
others and hind tarsi much the longest. 

Type isabellina Fovvler. 

Geographical distribution : A genus represented by two Mexican species as follows : 

1. distinguenda Fowler, B. C. .\. II : ii5. 2 (189^). — Pl. 7, fig. 92. Mexico. 

2. isabellina Fowler, B. C. A. II : ii5. i (1895). Mexico. 

GENERA OF TRIBE AMASTRINI GODING 

I . Corium with three discoidal cells ; ihird apical cell transverse 
A. Dorsum without ttimid elevations 

1. Pronotum arcuate, comf>ressed laterally Amastris Stal. 

2. Pronoium comex, dorsum nearly straight 

a. Base of third apical cell of corium angulate; venation irregular ; 
tegmina largely coriaceous 

b. Head extending obliquely forward Tynelia Stal. 

bb. Head stratght, perpendicular Boethoos Kirkaldy. 

aa. Base of third apical cell a straight line ; venation regular ; teg- 

mina hyaline Vanduzea Goding. 



i36 HOMOPTERA 

B. Doysum with swolhn rounded elevatioKS 

1. Median apical cell stylate Lallemandia Funkhouser. 

2. Median apical cell truitcate Bajulata Ball. 

II. Corium with two discoidal cells; ihird apical cell elongate 

A. Pronotum convex, not laterally compressed 

1. Dorsum highest in froiit; tegmina almost enlirely covered by pronotum Hygris St&l. 

2. Dorsum straight; tegmina one-half exposed Idioderma Van Duzee. 

B. Pronotum elevated and laterally compressed Erosne Stal. 

107. genus AMASTRIS Stal 

Amastris Stal, Kio Jan. Hem. II : 3o (1862). 

Characters : Small to medium sized insectswith high, arcuate, laterally compressed pionotum ; 
tegmina about half covered by the pronotum, and corium with the median apical cell distinctly trans- 
verse. All of the described species of this genus are greenish in color, fading to yellowish or brownish 
in cabinet specimens. Head triangular, smooth; base sinuate; eyes large, globular, protruding; ocelli 
large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae weakly sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae and carrying out the triangular outline of the face made by the sides of the 
genae. Pronotum elevated, flattened laterally, smooth, highest in front; no suprahumeral horns; humer- 
al angles broadly rounded ; metopidium straight, keeled, much higher than broad; median carina 
strongly percurrent; sides of pronotum without rugae or lateral impressions; doisum gradually rounded 
from top of crest to posterior apex of pronotum which is heavy, tectiform, acute and extends just about 
to the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina usually hyaline, not more than half exposed; five apical and three 
discoidal cells ; median apical cell transverse with base triangular and stylate; apical limbus moderate. 
Legssimple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type compacta Walker. 

Geographical distribution : Widely distributed over South and Central Americaand Mexico 
and two species from southern United States. 

1. antica Germar, Mag. Ent. IV ; 16 (1821). BraziL 

2. brunneipennis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc XXX : 1.31(1922). Brazil. 

3. compacta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 140 (i858). Brazil. 

fallax Stal, Rio Jan Hem. 11 : 3o. : (1862). 

4. consanguina Stal, Rio Jan. Memb. II : 36. 3 (1862). Brazil. 

5. elevala Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 27 (1922). Brazil, Peru, British Guiana. 

6. fiavifolia Stoll, CigaL 61 (1780). Surinam. 

7. funkhouseri Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 25i (igaS). British Guiana. 

8. lycioda Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 27 (igSS). Arizona. 

9. macidata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 3i (1922). BraziL 

10. minuta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 3o (1922). Peru. 

11. obtegens Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 11. 25 (i8o3). — Pl. 7, fig. 93. Mexico, Panama, Colombia. 

cilrina Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3og. 10 (1846). 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



i37 



12. projeda Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 28 (1922). 
i3. sabulosa Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 29 (1922). 
14. simillima Stil, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 3o. 2 (1862). 

i5. Umpla Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 27 (i933). 
16. vismia Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 252 (1925). 



Peru. 

Brazil. 

Brazil, Peru, Colombia.Vene- 
zuela. 

Utah. 

British Guiana. 



108. GENUS TYNELIA STAL 

Tynelia Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. 25o (1868). 

Characters : Small, elongate, narrow-bodied insects distinguished particularly by the extended 
position of the head. Head projecting obliquely forward, subquadrate, almost as long as broad, 
smooth ; base sinuate, lowest in middle; eyes large, ovate, protruding; ocelli very conspicuous, equi- 
distant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of genae broadiy rounded; clypeus extending for onethird its length below inferior 
margins of genae and continuing the broadly rounded apical contour of the face. Pronotum regularly 
convex, highest in the middle; no suprahumerals; humeral angles blunt, rounded; metopidium sloping, 
broader than high; median carina faintly percurrent; sides of pronotum destitute of rugse or im- 
pressions; posterior apex of pronotum heavy, broadly rounded, blunt, reaching just about to the tips of 
the tegmina. Tegmina about half concealed by the overhanging sides of the pronotum ; usually hyahne ; 
venation irregular; five apical and three discoidal cells; third apical cell transverse, base rounded and 
stylate ; first apical cell located on the costal margin considerably in front of the tip; apical limbus 
broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type longula Burmeister. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is at present limited to South and Central America 
with the foUowing species : 

1. hrunnea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 26 (1922). 

Pl. 7,fig. 94. 

2. cinctata Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 249 (1925). 

3. glohosa Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3 25o (1925). 

4. hirsuta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 25 (1922). 

5. longula Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : i. 143. i (i835). 

6. nitida Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 25 (1922). 

7. prominens Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i5i (i858). 

8. pubescens Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 29. 10 (i8o3). 

9. tumulata Buckton, Mon. Memb. Pl. 3^. Footnote (igoS). 



Brazil. 

British Guiana. 

British Guiana. 

Peru. 

Brazil. 

Peru. 

Brazil, Panama. 

Brazil, Colombia. 

Unknown. 



109. GENUS BOETHOOS Kirkaldy 

Boethoos (nom. nov.) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Parmula (preoccupied) Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 491 (1846). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but with the head straight and perpen- 
dicular to the bodv and with the dorsum usually more or less sinuate in the middle. Head subtrian- 



i38 HOMOPTERA 

gular, smooth; base highest next to eyes and lowest in the middle as in the preceding genus; eyes large, 
ovate and protruding ; oceUi small, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about 
on a hne drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of geuEe weakly sinuate ; clypeus projecting for 
about one-third its length below inferior margins of genae and continuing the hne of these margins to 
complete the triangular apical outhne of the face. Pronotum broadly convex, usually somewhat 
constricted at about the middle and highest behind this constriction ; metopidium sloping, broader than 
high; median carina obsolete ; no suprahumerals; humeral angles well developed, triangular, blunt; 
sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged; posterior half of pronotum heav}', rounded, somewhat 
swollen, blunt, the apex not quite reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina not more than half 
exposed ; usually hyaUne with very heavy veins; cells irregular in shape ; iive apical and three discoidal 
cells; median apical cell transverse, base nearly straight and petiolate; first apical cell situated well 
forward on the costal margin as in the preceding genus; apical limbus broad. Legs simple, subcylin- 
drical; hind tarsi longest. 

Type reticulata Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : A Middle-American genus found chiefly in Central .America and 
Mexico and in the northern part of South America. 
T. citrvispina Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i52 (i858). Brazil. 

2. dispar Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 32. 23 (i8o3). Brazil, Panama. 

3. distingueiida Fowler, B. C. A. H : 91. 3 (iSgS). Mexico, Honduras, Guatema- 

la, British Guiana. 

4. gibbiila Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 491. 3 (1846). Brazil. 

5. y^^/czi/a/a Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 29 (i8o3). — Pl.7,fig. 95. Colombia, Brazil. Panama, 

iiiternipta Fabriciiis, Syst. Rhyng. 3i. 17 (i8o3). Costa Rica, British Guiana. 

bistiigata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 491. i (1846). 
biguttata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 491. i (1846^. 

6. sellata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 184 (i836). Colombia, Venezuela. 

7. vertebralis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 491. 2. (1846). Colombia, Brazil. 

110. genus VANDUZEA GODING 

Vanduzea Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 440(1894). 
Hypamastris Fowler, B. C. A. II : 92 (1895). 

Characters : A distinct genus of small, inconspicuous, robust bodied insects characterized by 
the low. convex pronotum without processes, partly exposed tegmina, and particularly by the median 
apical cell of the corium which is definitely transverse and has a perfectly straight base from the middle 
of which a vein extends directly cephalad. Head convex, rounded, subtriangular ; base weakly arcuate 
and sinuate ; eyes ovate; ocelli prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on 
a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genas sinuate ; clypeus feebly trilobed, extend- 
ing for about half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low, convex, usually slightly 
depressed in middle; metopidium convex, wider thanhigh; median carinapercurrent; no suprahumerals; 
humeral angles well developed, bioad, triangular, blunt; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged; 
lateral margins curved downward to cover about one-third of the tegmina; posterior process heavy, 
convex, blunt, extending just beyond the internal angles of tegmina. Tegmina about two-thirds expos- 
ed; usually hyahne; venation regular; five apical and three discoidal cells; median apical cell trans- 
verse, base straight and petiolate; apical limbus moderate. Legs simple ; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



i39 



Type arquata Say. 

Geographical distribution : Primarily North American genus. The genus contains only a 
modest number of species but the number of individuals produced by some of the species is enormous. 
For example, the individuals of V. arcuata, V. segmentata and V. triguttata often appear in certain areas 
Hterally in countless thousands. 
I. albifrons Fowler, B. C. A. II : 93. 3 (iSgS). 



2. arquata Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V : 3o2 (i83i). - 

fig. 96. 

apicalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 533. 33 (i85i). 

3. brunnea 'FowXer, B. C. A. II : 94. 4 (iSgS). 

4. lata Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 441. 138(1894). 

5. minnr Fowler, B. C. A. II : 93. 2 (iSgS). 

6. nolina Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. \5. 82 (igSa). 

7. punctipennis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII 

(■919)- 

8. segmentata Fowler, B. C A. II : 93. i (iSgS). 

9. iesludinea Haviland, Zoolpgica VI : 3. 25i (1925). 

10. triguttata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : i83. 4(1836). 

iripunctata Fainnaire, Rev. Memb. 497. 4 (1846) 
annexus Townsend, Can. Ent. XXIV : 196 (1892). 
vestita Goding, Ins. Life V : 92 (1892). 

11. variegata Fowler. B. C. A. II : 94. 5(1895). 



Guatemala, Mexico, Gulf of 
California. 
Pl. 7, United States, Canada 



Mexico. 

Western U. S., Mexico. 
Mexico. . 
Arizona. 
4. 275 Colombia. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 
western U S. 

British Guiana. 

Southern and western U. S. 



Mexico. 



111. GENUS LALLEMANDIA FUNKHOUSER 

Laliemandia Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : 33 (1922). 

Characters : This genuswas erected for the accommodation of a single rather remarkable species. 
The t3'pe species has since been found in two other countries than that of the type locality but no other 
congeneric forms have been reported. The distinctive features of the genus can therefore be judged 
only from those structures of the type species which seem to represent generic characters. These may 
be stated as follows ; head subquadrate, fiat, smooth, twice as wide as high; base sinuate, deeply indented 
in the middle; eyes enormous, globular. bulging; ocelli prominent, about equidistant from each other 
and from the eyes and situated a little below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex 
and bulbous; a transverse constriction just behind humeral angles and another at the base of the pos- 
terior process together with a deep longitudinal furrow down the median dorsal line, divides the pro- 
notum into four rounded elevations, arranged in pairs on the posterior surface of the dorsum ; metopidium 
low and sloping, broader than high; median carina present on metopidium but obsolete behind the line 
of the humeral angles; no suprahumerals ; humeral angles strong, triangular, somewhat swolIen;pos- 
terior process suddenly depressed behind last pair of bulbous nodes, flattened, truncate, reaching just 
beyond internal angles of tegmina; sides of pronotum roughly sculptured, punctate but not ridged, 
extended downward to cover about one-half of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline, about half exposed ; five 
apical and three discoidal cells ; venation irregular; veins heavy; median apical cell triangular and 
petiolate; apical limbus broad and wrinkled. Legs simple, subcylindrical; hind tarsi longest. 



I40 HOMOPTERA 

Type nodosa Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from a single South Ameiican species. 
I. «orfosfl Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : i. 33 (1922). — French Guiana, British Gui- 
Pl. 7, fig. 97. ana, Brazil. 

112. genus BAJULATA BALL 

Bajulata Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 26 (igSS). 

Characters : The species bajula Goding was described in the genus Evashmedea but was early 
removed to Vanduzea in which genus it stood for niany years but it always occupied a niore or less 
anomalous position in that genus because of the swollen rounded elevations on thedorsum. In igSS 
Ball erected the genus Bajulaia for its accoiiimodation. Its has since remained the single representative 
of the genus. The characters of the species which may be considered generic are as follows : head 
subquadrate, broader than high, roughly sculptured; base strongly sinuate; eyes ovate ; oceUi conspic- 
uous, a little farther removed from each other than from the eyes and situated sHghtly below a hne 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae strongly sinuate; clypeus convex, swollen, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low, convex, with two large 
dorsal swelhngs, one behind the other, the first bilobed and the second simple; metopidium convex, 
broader than high; no suprahumerals ; humeral angles strong, triangular, blunt; median carina faintly 
percurrent; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged and extended downward to cover about one-third 
of the tegmina ; posterior process heavy, tectiform, bhint, just about as longas the abdomen and reaching 
a point halfway between internal aiigles and tips of tegmina. Tegmina about twothirds exposed ; 
hyaline with the basal and costal areas sparingly punctate; veins strong and punctate; five apical and 
three discoidal cells; median apical cell transverse with the base obtusely angulate and petiolate; apical 
hmbus narrovv. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

The genus is closely related to Vandiizea from which, however, it is at once distinguished by the 
dorsal lobes. 

Type bajula Goding. 

Geographieal distribution : Known only from the type species from Arizona. 
I. bajula Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 437. 129(1894). — Pl.7,fig. 98. Arizoiia. 



113. genus HYGRIS STAL 

Hygris Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 29 (1862). 

Characters : A genus erected to accommodate a single small, inconspicuous species chaiacter- 
ized particularly by the low, convex pronotum and the character of the almost entirely exposed tegmina 
which shows only two discoidal cells in the corium. Head triangular, convex; base stiongly sinuate; 
eyes small, twice as bioad as high; ocelli inconspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes 
and situated on a line drawn through centers ofeyes; inferior margins of gen£e sinuate ; clypeus extend- 
ing for inoie than half its length below inferior maigins of genae. Pronotum convex, highest in front, 
slightly depressed in middle, somewhat broader behind; metopidium straight, broader than high; no 
suprahumeials; humeial angles strong, tiiangular, blunt; median carina strongly percurrent ; sides of 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 141 

pronotum punctate but not ridged, extending downward to cover alinost all of the tegmina; posterior 
process heavy, tectiform, acute, reaching almost to tipsof tegmina. Tegmina less than one-fourth expos- 
ed; hyahne with basal and costal areas punctate; iive apical and two discoidal cells; median apical cell 
elongate and stylate ; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type unicariuata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is represented by a single South .American species. 
I. Miicarinata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 29. i (1862). — Pl. 7, fig. 99. Brazil. 

114. GENUS IDIODERMA Van DUZEE 

Idioderma Van Duzee, Florida Hem. 208 (igog). 

Characters ; This genus is very close to the preceding and may eventually prove to be a syno- 
nym of Hygris but until more species are described in both genera and until more material is available 
for study, we prefer to consider it distinct. The three described species are all very small, elongate, 
inconspicuous insects with the foUowing characters which may be considered to be generic. Head sub- 
quadrate, more than twice as broad aslong; base strongly arcuate, depressed in middle; eyes globular; 
ocelli conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense strongly sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genas. Pronotum low, convex; dorsum almost straight; metopidium sloping, 
wider than high ; no suprahumerals; humeral angles weak, auricular, rounded; median carina faintly 
percurrent; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged, extending downward to cover about half of the 
tegmina ; posterior process convex, pointed, extending almost to tips of the tegmina. Tegmina hya- 
line; about half exposed ; five apicaland two discoidal cells; median apical cell triangular and petiolate; 
apical margin moderate. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type viresccns Van Duzee. 

Geographical distribution ; This genus has been reported only from southeastern United 
States and from the West Indies as follows : 

I. picta Osborn, Ann Ent. Soc. Amer. XIX : 36o(ig26). Cuba. 

2 varia Van Duzee, Florida Hem. 208. 255 (igog). Florida. 

3. virescens Van Duzee, Florida Hem. 208. 255 (igog). Pl. 7, fig. I 00. Florida, Cuba. 

115, Genus EROSNE Stal 

Erosne Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 240 (i86g). 

Characters ; Superficially the insects of this genus greatly resemble thoseof the genns Amastris 
but may be distinguished by the facts that the corium has only two discoidal cells, the median apical cell 
is triangular, and the basal and costal areas of the teginina are densely punctate. Head roundly trian- 
gular ; base arcuate and feebly sinuate ; eyes ovate ; ocelli conspicuous, farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded; clypeus 
projecting only slightly below margins of genae and carrying out the rounded outline of the face made 
by these margins. Pronotum elevated, compiessed lateraily, highest in front; metopidium veitical, 
higher than wide; no suprahumerals; humeral angles stiong, triangular, blunt; median carina strongly 



142 



HOMOPTERA 



percurrent; sides of pronotum roughly sculptured with a suggestion of a curved ridge behind the humer- 
al angles and extended downward to cover more than half of the tegmina; dorsum gradually rounded 
from top of crest to tip of posterior apex of pronotum which is heavy, tectiform, and just reaches the 
tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about one-third exposed, the basal and costal areas densely punctate and 
coriaceous; five apicaland two discoidal cells; median apical cell triangular and petiolate. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type brachteata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : Only two species, both from South America, have been describ- 
ed for this genus but there are unquestionably more species to be described, for we have seen un- 
described material in many coUections standing under Amastris which undoubtedly belonged to Erosne. 

1. brachteata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 240, i (1869). Surinam, Ecuador 

2. notata Walker, Ins. Saund. 72 (i858). — Pl. 7, flg. 101. Brazil, Colombia. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE POLYGLYPTINI GODING 

I. Pronotum with a long, slender, porrect anterior horn 

A. Corium with five apical cells 

1. Dorsitm convex, rounded Polyglypta Burmeister. 

2. Dorsum sharply tectiform Bryantopsis Ball. 

B. Corium with three apical cells Bilimekia Fowler. 

1 1 . Pronotum without a pronotal horn or with only a short broad, anterior protuberance 

A. Dorsum flatlened laterally ; deeply notched at middle Entylia Germar. 

B. Dorsnm rounded ; slightly sinuate at middle Publilia Stal. 

116. GENUS POLYGLYPTA BURMEISTER 

Polyglypta Burmeister, Handb. Ent. II : 142 (i835). 

Characters : Long, slender, narrow-bodied insects with the pronotum stiongly ridged longitu- 
dinally, a long, slender horn projecting forward, corium with two contiguous longitudinal veins and with 
five apical cells and with the dorsum rounded and convex. Head roughly triangular with heavy rugas; 
base sinuate, lowest in the middle ; eyes globular; ocelli small, twice as far from each other as from the 
eyes and situated well below a line through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense strongly sinuate; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genee, its sides continuing the triangular 
shape of the face made by the margins of the gense. Pronotum low, convex, strongly. longitudinally 
ridged; anteiior pronotal horn long, strong, porrect, extending forward over the head; metopidium pro- 
jecting forward, keeled, broader th;in high; median carina strongly percunent; no suprahumerals; hu. 
meral angles weak, rounded ; sides of pronotum strongly, longitudinally ridged and punctate and extend- 
ed downward to cover more than half of the tegmina; dorsum nearly straight, highest just behind line 
of humeral angles, gradually curving to tip of posterior process which is long, slender, convex, acuminate, 
and reaches beyond the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina not more than one-third exposed, hyaline, with 
basal and costal areas strongly punctate; two prominent longitudinal veins; five apical cells;median 
apical cell stylate ; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple, subcylindricai : hind tarsi slightly longer than 
the others. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



143 



Type coslaia Burmeister. 



Mexico. 
Guatemala. 
Venezuela. 
Honduias. 

Mexico, Colombia, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, Hondu- 
ras, Yucatan, Panama. 



Geographical distribution : Primarily a Central American genus but represented also in 
northern South America, in Mexico and in southern United States. Some of the species show a wide 
variation in color markings which has resulted in many synonyms. 

1. abbreviata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i36 (i858). 

2. agtta Fowler, B. C. .\. II : 126. 7 (iSgS). 

3. brevivitia Walker, List Hom. B. M. S^S. i3 (i85i). 

4. buctoni (nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 324 (1927). 

strigata (preoccupied) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 180 (igoS). 

5. costata Burmeister, Handb. Ent. H : 142. 16 (i835). — Pl. 7, 

fig. 102. 

pilosa Kairmaire, Rev. Memb. 296. i (1846). 
nigriventris Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 297. 6 (1846). 
viridimaciila Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 298. 7 (1846). 
intirrupta Walker, List Hom. B. M S^S. 14 (i85i). 
slraminea Walker, List Hom B. M. 544. 12 (i85i). 
slrigata Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i36 (i858). 
hogotensis Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 79 (1S59). 
reflexa Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 207. i (1877). 
godmani Distant, Ent. Month. Mag. XVI : 11 (1880). 
nigrodorsis Fowler, B. C. A. II : I23 {1896). 

6. dtspar Fowler, B. C. A. H : 126. 6 (1896). 

7. dorsalis Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 178. 2 (i836). 

maculata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 178. 3 (i836). 
paUipes Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 179. 4 (i836). 
sicula Amyot and Serville, 541 (1843). 
flavomaculata Amyot and Serville, Pl. 9, fig. 9 (1843). 
nigella Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 298. 10 (1846). 
fusca Butler, Cist Ent. II : 208. 6 (1877). 
hordacea Butler, Cist Ent. II : 209. 7 (1877). 
tricolor Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 209. 8 (1877). 

8. lineata Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 179 5 (i836). 

tredecemcostata Fairmaire, Rev. Meml>. 299. 11 (1846). 
abbreviata Walker, List Hom. B M. Suppl. i36 (i858). 
major F"owler, B. C. A. II : 126 (1895). 



Panama. 

Mexico, Honduras, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, Brazil, 
Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, 
Texas, Georgia. 



Mexico, Honduras, Guate- 
mala, Canal Zone, Yucatan. 



117. genus BRYANTOPSIS BALL 



Bryantopsis Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : 11. 482 (1937). 



Characters : We have not had an opportunity to see a representative of this genus, recently 
erected by Ball, and are therefore unable to write a generic description based on the examination of an 
actual specimen nor to figure the type. From the original description of the genus and the description 
of the type species, it would appear that this genus stands between Polyglypta and Publilia, differing from 
the former in the sharplj' tectiform pronotum and from the latter in the presence of the anterior pronotal 
horn. BalFs original description, which follows, should be sufficient to characterize the genus. 

« A typical Polyglyptini resembhng Publilia Stal, except that there is a definite anterior horn 
especially marked in the female, superficially resembhng Metheisa Fowl., especially in the shape 
and length of the horn in the male, but differing radically in venation which has warranted Goding 
in placing this latter genus in the Smilini. 

» As seen from the side with an anterior horn extending obhquely upwards as in Phyla for 



144 HOMOPTERA 

one-third the body length in the female the hoin compressed at apex, cut off obhquely and occa- 
sionally expanded. There are three lateral carinas. The pronotum covers most of the elytra, is 
acutely tectifoim with four or five lateral carina;, the inner one with branches to the highest part 
of the crest. The face is slightly longer than in Publilia, the venation of the elytra similar. » 

Type ensiger Ball. 

Geographical distribution : Represented only by the type species from Arizona. 
I. ensiger Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XXVII : ii. 482(1937). Arizona. 



118. genus bilimekia fowler 

Bilimelcia Fowler, B. C. .\. II : 127(1895). 

Characters : Insects which greatly resemble the species oi Polyglypta, with long, slender bodies 
and single poriect pronotal horns, but with the posterior end of the pronotum bluntly rounded, with the 
head trilobed,the tegmina almost entirely covered and with only three apical cells in the tegmina. Head 
subquadrate, twice as broad as high, strongly trilobed; base nearly straight; eyes very much flattened; 
ocelli inconspicuous, farther from each other than the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes ; inferior marginsof genae extending downward in large rounded lobes, to form, with the clypeus, 
a trilobed ventral outline of the face. Pronotum long, slender, cylindrical ; dorsnm convex; metopid- 
ium merging gradually into the inferior surface of the pronotal horn; humeral angles very weak, prac- 
tically obsolete ; pronotal horn long, cylindrical, projecting forward over the head, strongly ridged on 
all sides, apex blunt; sides of pronotum strongly, longitudinally multicarinate, extending downwards 
to almost completely cover the tegmina; posterior process very blunt and rounded, just reaching the 
tips of the tegmina Tegmina almost entirely covered by the sides of thepronotum; hyaline; three 
apical cells and one discoidal cell; apical limbus narrow. Hind wings with three apical cells. Legs 
much inclined to be foliaceous, particularly the front and middle tibiae which are distinctly flattened. 
Hind tarsi a little shorter than the others. 

Type styliformis Fowler. 

Geographical distributlon : The two described species are both from Mexico and both are 
apparently quite abundant since they are generally to be found in collections from that country. 

1. minor Fowler. B. C. A. II : 128. 2 (1895). Mexico. 

2. slyliformis F"owIer, B. C. A. II : 127. i (1895). Mexico. 



119. GENUS ENTYLIA Germar 

Entylia Germar, Rev. Silb. I : 178 (i835). 

Characters : A very distinct genus recognized at once by the laterally flattened dorsum with 
a deep broad notch in the center which results in prominent high anterior and posterior lobes. There 
are no other processes or protuberances. The pronotum is strongly ridged and the tegmina are largely 
covered by the overhanging sides of the pronotum. Head roughly triangular with inferior margin 
rounded; base sinuate, lowest in middle and with the superior lateral margins angulate above the eyes; 
eyes ovate with inner surfaces straight; ocelli prominent, elevated, nearer to each other than to the eyes 
and situated considerably below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate ; 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



143 



clypeus broadly rounded, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae aiid continuing 
the rounded inferior outhne of the face made by tliose margins. Pronotum elevated, flattened laterally, 
strongly ridged, with a deep broad notch in the center which results in a high anterior and posterior lobe 
on the dorsum ; metopidium triangular, about as high as wide; median carina strongly percurrent; hume- 
ral angles broadly rounded; sides of pronotum roughly and irregularly carinate and extended downward 
to cover at least two-thirds of the tegmina; posterior process tectiform, gradually acute, extending just 
beyond the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina hyahne, only about one-third exposed, basal and costal areas 
punctate and coriaceous; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical hmbus broad on anal margin and 
obsolete on costal and apical margins. Legs simple, subcylindrical ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type sinuata Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : Entylia is primarily a North .American genus. Otily a limited 
number of species have been described but these species are represented by an ahnost unbelievable num- 
ber of individuals. The individuals of such species as bactriana and siniia/a often appear on the host 
plants in such numbers as to completely cover the leaves and stems. Many of the species show a great 
deal ofvariation incolorsand in the shape of the doisal lobes so that several synonyms must be recorded. 

Haiti. 

Eastern Canada, eastern and 



1. areolaia Walker, Ins. Saund 71 (i858). 

2. badriana Germar, Rev Silb. III : 248 (i835). 

accisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 548. 8 (i85i). 
indecisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 549 (i85i). 
reducta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 549 (i85i). 

3. carinata Forster, Nov. Spec. Ins. Cent. I : 67 (1771) 

torva Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 47. 647 (i85i). 
impedita Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 137 (i858). 
vittala Buckton, Mon. Memb i85 (igoS). 

4. coHcisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 547. 6 (i85i). 

decisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 548. 7 (i85i). 

5. fallax Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 28. 2 (1862). 

6. fuscodorsa Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 332 (igoS). 

7. gemmata Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 16. 1 1 (1818). 

corniculata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3oo {1846). 
incisa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 548. 9(i85i). 

8. moesta Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 332 (igo^). 

9. sinuata Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. 5i3 (1798). — P|. 8, fig. 104. 

emargiiiata Fabricius, Ent. Syst. SuppL 5i3 (1798). 
mira Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 212 (1877). 
inaqualis Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 2ii {iSyy). 
aedipus Buckton, Mon. Memb. i83 (1903). 

10. tnrrita Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 212. 8 (1877). 



southein U. S 

Eastern Canada, northeastern 
U. S. 

Southern and westerii U. S. 

Brazil. 
Unknown. 

Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, 
Guatemala, Chile. 

Mexico. 

Southern U.S., Central Amer- 
ica, northern S A , Mexico. 

Brazil. 



120. genus PUBLILIA STAL 



Publllia Stal. Berl. Ent. Zeit. X : 387 (1867). 

Characteps : Closely related to the preceding genus but with the pronotum rounded and without 
the two prominent dorsal lobes. Head irregularly triangular, roughly sculptured; base sinuate, highest 
in middle; eyes ovate, truncate on interior margin; ocelli conspicuous, somewhat elevated, nearer to 
each other than to the eyes and situated below a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genas sinuate; clypeus broadly rounded, extending for about one-third its length below inferior margins 
of genae and continuing the rounded apical outline of the face made b}' those margins. Pronotum con- 



145 HOMOPTERA 

vex, sinuate near the middle, very little compressed laterally; metopidium vertical, broader than high; 
median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, broadly rounded; no suprahumerals; sides of 
pronotum strongly, roughly, irregularly multicarinate and extended downward to almost entirely cover 
the tegmina; dorsum graduall}- arcuate from top of crest to tip of posterior process which is heavy, tec- 
tiform, gradually acute and reaches slightly beyond the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina not more than 
one-fourth exposed, hyahne, basal and costal areas densely punctate and coriaceous; fave apical and two 
discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; tarsi about equal in length. 

Type concava Say. 

Geographical distribution : This is another North American genus which hke Eniylia con- 
tains only a few species but an enormous number of individuals. 

1. ««cajirt Say, Narr. Long's Exped. App. 3ii (1824). — Pl. 8,fig.1 05. Canada, United States. 

extensa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 554. 20 (i85ij. 
nigridorsum Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. Sgg (1894). 
giisea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 184 (1903). 
vittata Buckton, Mon. Memb. i85 (igoSj. 

2. erecta Plummer, Memb. Mexico 379(1935). Mexico. 

3. modesta Uhler. List Hom. Colo. and New Mex. 472 (1872). Western U. S. 

bicinctura Goding, Ent. News III : 200 (1892). 

4. porrecta I'owler, B C. A. H : i3i. 2 (1896). Mexico. 

5. reticulata Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. io5. 2 (1908). United States. 



GENERA OF THE TRIBE TELAMONINI GODING 

I. Hind wings with four apical cells 

A. ProNotunt beariug a horn or crest 

I. Pronottim zvith a crest most ofwhich is behind humerals 

a. Crest more or less quadrangtilar , not stepped Telamona Fitch. 

aa. Crest not quadrangular, either overhanging, pyramidal, lobed or 
stepped 

b. Crest overhaiiging in front Hei.onica Ball. 

bb. Crest not overhanging ; if extended forward the dorsal tnargin 
lobed or stepped 
c. Crest distinctly stepped, the anterior lobe high and rounding, 

the posterior low and quadrangular Heliria Stal. 

cc. Crest sinuate or weahly angulate 

d. Crest high, foliaceous, arisingfrom metopidium . . . Telonaca Ball. 

dd. Crest placed well back of metopidium Palonica BaU. 

2. Pronotum with an anterior horn arising from in front of humerals 

a. Horn porrect, extending forward and upward Thelia Amyot and Serville. 

aa. Horn erect, compressed laterally Glossonotus Butler. 

B. Pronotum without horn or angular crest 

1 . Pronotum low and convex Carynota Fitch. 

2. Proiiotum high and foliaceous 

a. Metopidium rounded posteriorly, without a carina Tropidarnis Fowler. 

aa. Metopidium upright, with a raised carina Archasia Stal. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^. 147 

11. Hiud wittgs wHh three apical cells 

A . Dorsiim with strong longitudinal ridges 

1. Longitudinal veins of corium coalesciiig near middle of iegmina . . Incolea Goding. 

2. Longitudinal veins of coriitm noi coalescing Mendicea Goding. 

B. Dorsum wiihout longiiudinal ridges 

1. Corium with no discoidal cells Aphetea Fowler. 

2. Corium with two or more discoidal cells Phor.morphora Stal. 

121. GENUS TELAMONA FlTCH 

Telamona Fitch, Hom. N. Y. State Cab. 5o (i85i). 

Characters ; The type genus of the tribe Telamonini represents a very interesting group of 
membracids characterized primarily by the fact that the pronotal developnient is chiefly dorsad rather 
than cephalad or caudad, resulting in a hump or crest arising from the median line. The tegmina are 
more or less covered by the sides of the pronotum and the hind wings have a sessile median apical cell 
with the base truncate. 

The genus Telamona is characterized by having four apical cells in the tegmina and particularly by 
the fact that the dorsal crest is quadrangular, without a distinct step on the posterior margin, and arises 
from behind the line of the humeral angles. The insects are generally large in size, robust and heavy- 
bodied but often rather inconspicuous because of their protective coloration and their resemblance to the 
bark of their hosts. 

Head subquadrangular, twice as broad as high; base strongly arcuate and sinuate; eyes large and 
ovate; ocelli large, conspicuous, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about on a line 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae strongly sinuate; clypeus extending for only 
about one-fourth its length below inferior margins of gena;. Pronotum elevated into a iiiore or less 
quadrangular dorsal crest which is mostly behind the line of the humeral angles and which does not show 
a distinct step on the posterior margin; metopidium vertical orsloping, triangular; median carina strongly 
percurrent; humeral angles much developed into broad, heavy, triangular, blunt extensions ; sides of 
pronotum punctate, often roughly sculptured but not ridged, and extended downward to cover about half 
of the tegmina; posterior process tectiform, gradually acute, usually extending just about to tips of teg- 
mina. Tegmina hyaline or smoky ; basal area punctate ; fi ve apical and two discoidal cells ; apical limbus 
well developed. Hind wings with four apical cells, the median apical cell sessile and truncate at base. 
Legs simple; all tarsi about the same in length. 

Type ampehpsidis Harris. 

Geographical distpibution : Primarily a North American genus with a considerable number 
of species and a large number of individuals. Telamona is distinctly a tree-inhabiting genus and has a 
wide variety of hosts, the distribution of the species apparently being determined by the range of the 
particular trees on which they hve. 
I. ampelopsidis Harris, Rept. Ins. Mass. 180 (1841). — Pl. 8, Eastern Canada, eastern, south- 
fig. 106. ern and western U. S. 

cissi (MS name) Harris, Rept. Ins. Mass. 584 (i833). 
cyylops Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3io. 17 (1846). 
diffusa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 143 (i858). 
tigriiia Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 44 (ig^i). 



148 



HOMOPTERA 



2. balli Plummer, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 4. 687(1936). 

3. calva Ball, Froc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 26 (igSS). 

4. celsa Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 21 (igSo). 

5. colliHa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 565. 35 (i85i). 

pruinosa Van Duzee, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. II : i. 5o. 276 
(1914)- 

6. compacta Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 180 (igo^). 

7. concava Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5o. 686(i85i). 

8. conica Walker, List Hom. B. M. 557. 9 (i85i). 

9. coronata Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 5o (igSi). 

10. decorata Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 179 (1903). 

barbata Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 65. 3 (1908). 

11. doraua Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 49 (ig3i). 

12. dubiosa (nom. nov.) Van Duzee, Check List 1634(1916). 

irrorata (nom. nud.) Goding, Ins. Life V : 93 (1892). 

i3. ehrhorni Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 180(1903). 

14. ella Goding, Ins. Life V : 93 (1892). 

i5. extrema Ball, Proc. BioL Soc. Wash. XVI : 179 (1903). 

16. gibbera Ball. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 204(1925). 

17. gounellei Fallou, Rev. Ent. IX : 35^ (1891). 

18. jugata Osborn, lowa Acad. Sci. I : 128 (1891). 

19. maculata Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 72. 18 (1908). 

20. molaris Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 222 (1877). 

21. monticola F-abricius, Syst. Rhyng. IV : 7. 4 (i8o3). 

querci Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5i. 691 (i85i). 
brunneipennis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 197 (i9o3). 

22. reclivata F-itch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 693 (i85i). 

23. ruficarinaia Fowler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 421 (1894). 

24. salvini Distant, Ent. Month. Mag. XVI : 11 (1879). 

25. spiniger Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 2^7 (192^). 

26. spreta Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 417 (1894). 

lugubris Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 179 (i9o3). 
agrandata Ball, Ent. Soc. Amer. XII : i. 53 (i93i). 

27. subfalcata Van Duzee, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. X : 509 (191 2). 

28. tarda Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 204 (192^). 

29. tilia Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 2o3 (ig^S). 

30. tristis Fitch. Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5i. 689 (i85i). 

coryli Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5i. 6go (i85i). 

3i. tttrritella Buckton, Mon. Memb. ig8 (igoS). 

32. itnicolor Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5o. 684 (i85i). 

fasciata Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5o. 685 (i85i). 

33. vestita Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 2o5 (1925). 

34. westcottHjo^mg, Cat. Memb. N. A. 415. 86 (1894). 

obsoleta Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 178 (i9o3). 

35. woodrttffi Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 2o5 (192^). 



Mexico. 

California. 

Brazil. 

United States. 

Western United States. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Florida. 

California. 

United States. 

Florida. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Arizona. 

Unknown. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Arlzona. 

BraziL 

lowa. 

Eastern and central U. S. 

Canada. 

Canada, United States. 

Canada, United States. 

Colombia. 

Guatemala. 

British Guiana. 

Canada, east. and centr. U.S. 

Eastern and southern U. S. 

Eastern U. S. 

Eastern, northern and cen- 

tral U. S. 
Eastern Canada, eastern and 

central U. S. 
Saguenay. 
Eastern Canada, eastern, 

southern and central U. S. 
California, Oregon. 
United States. 

Eastern U. S. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 149 



122. GENUS HELONICA BALL 

Helonica Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. i5 (igSi). 

Characters ; The genus Helonica was erected to accommodate those species which at that 
time stood under the genus Telamona but in which the pronotal crest extended forward in a large 
rounded lobe over the head. In certain other respects, also, such as in the more exposed tegmina, the 
shorter posterior process and the longer hind tarsi, the genus seems to have distinctive characters. 
Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes large and ovate ; 
ocelH large, conspicuous, somewhat elevated, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of gense sinuate; clypeus extending foralmost 
one-third its length below inferior margins of genfe. Pronotum developed into a strong, lateially 
flattened anterior crest which projects forward over the head ; metopidium sloping, triangular, median 
carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular, acute, extending outward as far beyond the 
eyes as the width of the eyes ; sides of pronotum punctate, feebly and irregularly carinate, extended 
downward to cover about half of the tegmina; posterior process tectiform, gradually acute, not 
quite reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about half exposed ; hyaline, basal costal area 
weakly punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells, the inner discoidal cell sometimes divided; apical 
limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi much longer than the others. 

Type excelsa Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution ; The genus seems to be hmited to southern and westein United 
States and Mexico and we suspect that some of the four species here hsted may prove be synonyms 
but would prefer to consider them as distinct until further material is available for study. 

1. albidorsata Fowler, B. C. A. II : 145. 6 (1896). Mexico. 

2. excelsa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3io. i5 (1846). — Pl. 8 fig. I 07. Mexico, southern and central 

U.S. 

3. magniloba Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 422. 80 (1894). IlHnois. 

4. projecta Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 221 (1877). Northeastern U. S. 

cucullata Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 70. 14 (1908,1. 

123. genus heliria stal 

Hellrla Stlil, Bid. Hem. Syst. 556 (1867). 

Characters ; In separating the genus Heliria, in his key, from Thelia and Telamona, Stal 
concisely distinguishes it as follows : « Protuberantia thoracis pone angulos lateraHs posita, apice 
profunde sinuate, ante sinum valde elevata, pone sinum humuH, posterius angulata. » This structuie 
of the dorsal crest, with a distinct step on the posterior margin, resulting in a high rounded anterior 
lobe and a low angulate posterior lobe, is sufficient to characterize the genus. In other respccts it 
diifers ver}' Httle from Telamona except in the shape of the liead. Head subtriangular and rouglily 
sculptured ; base arcuate and deeply sinuate in the middle ; eyes large and ovate ; ocehi large, prominent, 
elevated, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated below a Hne drawn througli centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus witli a median lobe which extends only slightly below the 
inferior margins of the genas so that the clypeus as a whole continues the roughl\' triangular ouiline of 



i5o 



HOMOPTERA 



the face. Pronotum elevated in a dorsal crest which consists of two distinct lobes, a rounded anterior 
lobe and a lower, angulate posteiior lobe ; metopidium convex and sloping, broader than high ; median 
carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles broadly flattened and produced into trianguiar, auriculate 
extensions; sides of pronotum punctate, feebly and irregularly ridg«d, extended downward to cover 
about half of the tegmina; posterior process strong, heavy, tectiform, gradually acute, reaching just 
about to thetips of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline; about half exposed; basal and costal areas strongly 
punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple, subcylindrical ; 
hind tarsi longest. 



Type cristata Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is found in the 
with the following species : 

1. clitella Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : g. 201 (igaS). 

2. cornutula Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 201 (igaS). 

3. cristata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3ii. 19 (1846). — Pl, 8, fig. I 

accUvata Emmons, Agr. N. Y. V : i55 (1854). 
reclivata Glover, MS Journ. Pl. I, fig. ig {1878). 

4. fagi Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 5i. 687 (i85i). 

5. Jitchi Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 202 (192^). 
6 gemma Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 202 (192^). 

7. gibherata Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 200 (1923). 

8. mexicana Stal, Bid. Mem. Kan. 249. i (1869). 

9. prealta Fowler, Trans. Lond. Ent. Soc. 420 (1894). 

10. rubidella Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXXI : 28 (1918). 

11. scalaris l""airmaire, Rev. Memb. 3ii. 18 (1846). 

clivulata Ball, Ent Amer. XII : i. 29 (igSi). 

12. siiiuata Fowler, B.C.A. H: 144. 4 (1896). 
i3. strombergi Goding, Ins. Life V : 93 (1892). 



United States, Canada and Mexico 

Arizona. 
Eastern U. S. 
08. Eastern and cential U. S. 

Northeastern U. S. 
Eastern U. S. 
Northeastern U. .S. 
Western U. S. 
Mexico, California. 
Canada, eastern U. S. 
Western U.S. 
Canada, United States. 

Mexico, southwestern U. S. 
Central and western U. S. 



124. Genus TELONACA Ball 



Telonaca Ball, Pioc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXXI : i. 27 (1918). 

Characters : A genus of the Telamona group, distinguished from the type genus of the tribe by 
the high, sinuate, somewhat foliaceous crest arising directly above the metopidium. Head subovate, 
much wider than high ; base arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes ovate, twice as wide as high; ocelli large, 
conspicuous, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes ; inferior margins of genas weakly sinuate ; clypeus extending only a very little below the inferior 
margins of the genae and continuing the rounded apical outline of the face made by the genae. Prono- 
tum elevated in a strong, high crest arising from the metopidium, its frontal margin anterior to the humer- 
al angles; metopidium triangular; median carina percurrent; humeral angles produced into broad. 
sharp, auriculate extensions; sides of pronotum punctate, the posterior half bearing longitudinal ridges, 
and extended downward to cover about one-third of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline; about two-thirds 
exposed; basal costal area weakly and coarsely punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus 
well developed. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



Type ramona Ball. 



Geographical distribution : This genus has been leported to date only from the United 
States and Canada with the three following recognized species : 

1. alta Funkhouser, Ent. News XXVI : 3. 97 (igiS). Georgia, Florida. 

2. pasadena Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 33 (igSi). California. 

3. lamoiia Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXXI : 28 (1918). — Pl. 8, California. 

fig. 109. 

125. GENUS PALONICA Ball 

Palonica Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 3^ (igSi). 

Characters ; Another genus of the r«Jawo«a group and very closely related to the preceding 
genus Tdonaca but distinguished b}^ the fact that the dorsal crest arises from behind the metopidium. 
Head subquadrangular, much wider than high; base arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes ovate, much 
wider than high; ocelli large, prominent, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas at first straight and then suddenly 
curved downward; clypeus not extending below the inferior margins of the genae but continuing the 
rounded apical outline of the face made by the genae. Pronotum elevated in a high, pyramidal crest 
arising from back of the metopidium with its frontal margin behind the line of the humeral angles; meto- 
pidium sloping, triangular; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, broad, triangular, 
blunt, extending outward beyond the eyes as far as the width of the eyes ; sides of pronotum punctate, 
roughly sculptured, feebly carinate posteriorly, extended downward to cover about half of the tegmina; 
posterior process long, slender, tectiform, acute, reaching beyond the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina 
about half exposed; hyaline; coarsely punctate atbase; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical Hmbus 
broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi much longer than the others. 

Type pyramidata Uhler. 

Geographical distribution : Primarily a Nortli .American genus but one species has been 
found in Guatemala. 

1. portolo Ball, Ent Amer. XII : i. 36 (igSi). California. 

2. pyramidata Uhler, Wheeler's Rept. App. J. i333 (1877). — Pl. 8, United States, Canada. 

fig. I 10. 

decUvnta Van Duzce, Stud. N. A. Memb. 64. i {1908). 
var. : ampliatJ Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. 37 (igSi). 
nasuta Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i (igSi). 

3. satyrus Fowler, B. C A. II : 143 (1896). Guatemala. 

4. tremulata Ball. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : g. 2o3 (igaS). United States, Canada. 

5. viridia Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI : 178 (igo^). Western U. S. 



126. Genus THELIA Amyot and Serville 

Thelia .Am^-ot and Serville, Hemip. 540 (1843). 

Characters : The strong, robust, porrect pronotal horn, extending forward and upward, 
distinguishes this genus froin all of the other genera of the tribe. Head subquadrate, much broader 
than high; base strongly arcuate and feebly sinuate; eyes large and ovate; ocelli large, conspicuous. 



i52 HOMOPTERA 

much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
inferior margins of genas sinuate; clypeus extending for about one-fourth its length below inferior 
margins of genas. Pronotum with a long, strong, subcylindrical, bkint anterior horn which extends 
forvvard and upward, arising from in front of the humeral angles; metopidium vertical, triangular; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles broad, blunt, triangular, extending directly laterad as far 
beyond the eyes as the width of the eyes; sides of pronotum punctate, weakly ridged posteriorly, 
extended dovvnward to cover about one-third of the tegmina; posterior process heavy, tectiform, acute, 
just reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about two-thirds exposed ; hyahne, translucent or 
clouded; basal costal areas coarsely punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells ; apical limbus broad. 
Legs simple, subquadrate in cross-section ; hind tarsi longest. 

This genus has had a rather peculiar history in that at various times seventy-eight different 
species have been assigned to it, all but three of which have now been removed to other genera. 

Type bimaculata Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : A distinctly tree-inhabiting genus with tvvo species widely 
distributed over almost all parts of the United States and Canada and a third questionable species 
from Brazil. 

1. bimaculata Fabricius, Ent. Syst.IV : lo. ii (1794). — Pl. 8, flg. III. United States, Canada. 

2. costigera Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 353 (1878). Brazil. 

3. uhleri Sik\, Bid. Memb. Kan. 248. i (1869). United States, Canada. 

127. Genus GLOSSONOTUS BUTLER 

Glossonotus Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 222 (1878). 

Characters ; Closely related to the preceding genus but distinguished from it by the fact that 
the pronotal horn is practically erect and laterally compressed. It piobably has, in fact, closer phylo- 
genetic relationship to Telamoiia than to Thelia but the position of the dorsal crest, placed well forward 
on the pronotum, causes it to fall naturally in a taxonomic key in the position to which we have 
assigned it. Head subquadrate, roughly sculptured; base arcuate and very strongly sinuate; eyes 
large and ovate; ocelli large, very prominent, twice as far from the eyes as from each other and 
situated about on a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus 
not extending below the inferior margins of the genae but continuing the irregular sinuate apical 
outline of the face made by the genje. Pronotum elevated in a single, laterally flattened, anterior 
horn which is erect or leans only slightly forward and is placed well forward on the dorsum; meto- 
pidium sloping, subtriangular; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles broad, blunt, 
triangular, extending laterad as far beyond the eyes as the width of the eyes ; sides of pronotum 
punctate, weakly, longitudinally multicarinate posteriorly, extending downward to cover about one- 
fourth of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline; three-fourths exposed; basal area coarsely punctate ; five 
apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with median apical cell sessile and 
truncate at base. Legs simple, angulate in cross-section; hind tarsi very little longer than the others. 

Type acumiiiatus Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution ; A strictl}' North American genus but with species represented 
in practically all parts of the United States and Canada. 
I. acuminatus Fabricius, Syst. Ent. VI : 75 (i^yS), _ PL 8, flg. I I 2. United States, Canada. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



i53 



2. cratagi Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 52. 697 (i85i). 

fyramidoides Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441 {1890). 

3. nimbulatus Ball, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV : 9. 200 (igzS). 

4. turriculatus Emmons, Agr. N. Y. V : i55 (1854). 

robina Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 196 (iSgS). 

5. uuivittatus Harris, Rept. Ins. Mass. 180(1841). 

godingi Van Duzee, Bull. Bufif. Soc. Nat. Sci. V : 189 (1894). 
dorsiilis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 197 (1903). 
var. : pmiiilis Ball, Ent. Amer. XII : i. i5 (igSi). 



United States, Canada. 

Eastern and central U. S. 
Eastern U. S. 

United States, Canada. 



128. Genus CARYNOTA FlTCH 

Carynota Fitch, Hom. N. Y. State Cab. 48 (i85i). 
Obtlleta Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 556 (1867). 

Characters : This genus definitely belongs to the Telamona group but differs from the other 
genera by having no anterior horn or crest. The pronotum is low and convex, the tegmina are about 
half exposed and the posterior process just about reaches the tips of the tegmina. Head subquadrate, 
twice as broad as high; base arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes large and ovate ; ocelH much nearer to 
each other than to the eyes and situated about on a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of gena; strongly sinuate; median portion only of clypeus projecting very shghtly below inferior 
margins of genae. Pronotum convex, without an anterior horn or crest; dorsum broadly rounded ; 
metopidium sloping, broader than high; humeral angles weak, not prominent, rounded ; sides of 
pronotum punctate, slightly impressed, extended downward to cover about half of the tegmina; posterior 
process strong, heavy, convex, acute, just about reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina hyahne 
or smoky; about half exposed ; basal area coarsely punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical 
limbus broad. Legs simple, angulate; hind taisi very shghtly longer than the others. 

Type mera Say. 

Geographical distribution ; A North American genus reported thus far only from the United 
States and Canada. 

1. maculata Funkhouser, Ent. News XXVI : 3. 98 (igi5). Florida. 

2. marmorata Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 3oi. 11 (i83i). Canada, northeastern and 

central U. S. 

3. mera Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 3io (i83i). — P|. 8, Canada, United States. 

fig. I 13. 

tripartita Walker, List Hom. B. M. 576. i5 (i85i). 
majus Emmons, N. Y. Agr. Rept. V : i56 (18^4). 
strombergi Goding, Cat. Memb. X. A. 443 (1894). 

4. porphyrea Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o6. 4 (1846). 

picta Provancher, Pet. Faun. Can. III : 246. 2 (1886). 

5. stupida Walker, List Hom. B. M. 577. 16 (i85i). 

muskokensis Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 444. 145 (1874). 
albopicta Buckton, Mon. Memb. i35 (igo3). 

6. vera Goding, Can. Ent. XXVII : 276 (1895). 



East. Canada, northeast. U.S. 

Eastern Canada, northeastern 
U. S. 

Northeastern U. S. 



129. GENUS TROPIDARNIS FOWLER 

Tropidarnis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 60 (1895). 

Characters ; Fowler described this genus incorrectly in the subfamilj' Darninje although his 



i54 HOMOPTERA 

figure for the type species clearly shows the petiolate apical cell of the tegmina which makes such an 
assignment impossible. Ball (igSi) called attention to this fact and correctly placed the genus in the 
tribe Telamonini, not only on the basis of FowIer's figure and description but on the study of species 
of the genus which he had taken in Arizona. 

The insects of this genus bear a strong superficial resemblance to the larger forms of Cyrtolobus but 
differ in having the metopidium broadly rounded without a raised carina, and in having the tegmina only 
about one-third exposed. Phylogenetically the genus is probably more closely related to Archasia, de- 
scribed as the next genus in this list. Head subquadrate, smooth, more than twice as wide as high ; base 
sinuate and only shghtly arcuate ; eyes ovate ; oceni prominent, equidistant from each other and from the 
eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centersof eyes; inferior margins of genaebroadly sinuate; 
clypeus semi-circular, extending not at all below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum elevated but vary- 
ing greatly in the shape of the crest, which is sometimes high and tectiform and sometimes rounded ; met- 
opidium broadly rounded, sloping, wider than high; median carina obsolete on metopidium but usually 
strong on dorsum; humeral angles broad and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged; pos- 
terior process tectiform, just about reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina only about one-third 
exposed; basal area coriaceous and punctate; apical area hyaline; three longitudinal veins proceeding 
from the base of the corium and continuing to the apex; two discoidal cells of which the interior is the 
longer and dilated at the apex; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Ball has taken both nymphs and adults of the type species tecligera and reports that the species is 
extremely variable in size, height of crest and color. 

Type ieciigera Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : The only known species of this genus havebeen found in Mexico 
and Arizona. F"our species have been described and Ball believes that they are all one species, but we 
prefer to list three of them, at least until we have had more material for study. 

1. acutior Fowler, B. C. A. l\ : 6i. 2 (iSgS). Mexico. 

2. pellicolor Buckton. Mon. Memb. 114(1903). Unknown. 

3. tectigera Fowler, B. C. A. II : 60. i (iSgS). — Pl. 8, fig. I 14. Mexico, Arizona. 

robuslus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 114 (igo3). 

130. GENUS archasia Stal 

Archasia Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 556 (1867). 

Characters : A very distinct genus characterized by the high, arcuate, fohaceous pronotum. 
Head subovate, broader than high; base highly arcuate and sinuate; eyes large and ovate; ocelli small, 
not conspicuous, much nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated below a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas sinuate; clypeus indistinctly trilobed, the middle lobe extend- 
ng forabout one-third its length below the inferior margins of the genag. Pronotum elevated in a high, 
arcuate, foliaceous dorsal crest, highest in front and gradually arcuate to near the end of the posterior 
process; metopidium vertical above the head or slightly overhanging in front, triangular, keeled; median 
carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles weak, rounded, not prominent; sides of pronotum punctate 
but not carinate, extended downward to cover about one-half of the tegmina ; posterior process triangular, 
tectiform, sharply keeled, not reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina about half exposed; hj'aline; 
base sparingly punctate ; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs simple, angular 
in cross-section ; hind tarsi slightly longer than the others. 



FAM. MEMBRAClDiE i55 



Type galiata Fabricius. 



Geographical distribution : A distinctly North American genus, entiiely tree-inhabiting so 
far as is known, with three widely distributed spectes. 

1. belfragei Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 25o. 2 (1869). Canada, United States. 

canadensis Provancher, Petit. Faun. Can. III : 23o (1886). 

2. galeata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. IV : 9 (i8o3). — Pl. 8, fig. I I 5. United States, Canada. 

auriculala Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49. 676 (i85i). 

3. pallida Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 3o8. 8 (1846). Eastern and southern U. S. 



131. Genus INCOLEA Goding 

Incolea Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 280 (1926). 

Characters : The group of four genera, of which Incolea is a representative, might perhaps be 
considered as worthy of being set apart as a separate tribe. Certainly tliey are very different in many 
respects from the Telamona group. We have great faith in wing venation as indicating phylogenetic 
development and these four genera all liave only three apical cells in the hind wings. Moreover in 
general facies, the insects are small and dehcate rather than large, heavy-bodied and robust as are the 
forms in the Telamona group. However, the four genera represented in this second division of the 
tribe are all apparently rare and since we have seen very few representatives of an}' of these genera, 
we should prefer to foUow Goding in considering thcm a division of the Telamonini. 

The genus Incolea was erected by Goding for the accommodation of two Ecuadorian species. We 
have not seen either of these species and no others species liave been described for the genus. We 
can therefore do no more than to quote Goding's original generic description which is as follows : 

(c Naviculate, with indistinct longitudinal elevated lines. Head triangular, about as long 
as wide beweeii the eyes, punctulate, base sinuate; eyes small; ocelli inconspicuous, slightly 
nearer eyes and above a hne passing through their center; genee sinuate; clypeus narrow, apex 
acute, strongly recurved. 

» Pronotum punctured, strongly depressed anteriorly, metopidium sloping; median carina 
distinct; humeral slightly prominent; posterior process compressed, tectiform, lateral maigins 
deeply sinuate behind suprahumerals, then broadened and gradually acuminate to acute apex 
which reaches tips tegmina; dorsum Ughtly elevated at middle, sides with indistinct elevated 
longitudinal lines. 

i> Tegmina with two longitudinal veins contiguous to and forked at middle, distant from 
costal and claval suture, interior basal cell with clavus vitreous occupying three-fourths width of 
tegmina, space between longitudinai veins and costa coriaceous, opaque, punctate ; one discoidal 
cell between forks of ulnar vein, five apical cells, the vein between the first and second apical cells 
rarely deficient ; wings with three apical cells, second apical cell truncate. I.egs simple. The 
tegmina are largely covered by pronotum. » 

Type variegata Goding. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from Ecuador and represented by the foUowing 
species : 

1. variegata Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 280 (1926). Ecuador. 

2. viridis (}oding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 280 (1926). Ecuador. 



i56 HOMOPTERA 



132. Genus MENDICEA GODING 

Mendicea Goding, Journ N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 279 (1926). 

Characters : Another genus erected by Goding to accommodate a single Ecuadorian species. 
It is apparentl^' very close to the preceding genus, differing chiefly in the fact that the longitudinal veins 
of the corium do not coalesce near the middle of the tegmina. The type species is the only one in the 
genus. We have not seen this species and while Goding, following his usual custom, does not irgure 
the insect, so that we are unable to provide a Plate Figure for Mendicea, his description is quite full 
and should be sufficient for the recognition of the genus. The original description is as follows : 

« Head triangular, twice broader between the eyes than long, flat, strongly reclined tovi^ai d 
apex which is obtusely angulate, base straight; eyes rather small ; ocelH shghtly nearer eyes; base 
of vertex briefly trisulcate, median sulcus the longer. 

» Pronotum convex, depressed anteriorly; base of metopidium strongly depressed and 
almost horizontal, then suddenly sloping upward and backward to summit, its base witha short, 
horizontal carina each side in front of a shortsulcus; median carina percurrent, strong especially 
posteriorly, and several (six in type) smooth lateral carinae extending from near base to apex, 
between them stronglj' and distinctly punctured; humerals barely evident, but acute; posterior 
process convex, a transverse depression at base which extends to lateral margins, thereafter arcu- 
ate and very lightly elevated at middle, posterior half tectiform, seen from above strongly sinuate 
at base, then lightly dilated and gradually acuminate to the acute apex which is as long as tegmina. 

» Tegmina ahnost completely covered by sides of pronotum, colorless vitreous ; corium 
emitting two longitudinal veins from base, contiguous but not united for half their length, distant 
from costa the space between coriaceous, opaque and punctured, radial vein forked at middle 
enclosing the small only discoidal cell, ulnar vein simple not forked, fourth apical cell and inte- 
rior basal cell with clavus occupying three-fourths of width of tegmina; one discoidal and four 
apical cells, free apical margin rather broad; wings with three apical cells, second cell sessile 
base truncate. 

» Legs slender, with three or four spines in exterior angle, tarsi equal. n 

Type scaphoidea Goding. 

Geographical distribution : The single species from Ecuador is the only representative of 
the genus. 

I. scaphoidea Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 279 (1926). Ecuador. 

133. genus aphetea fowler 

Aphetea Fowler, B. C. A. II : 95 (iS^S). 

Characters : A genus of small, inconspicuous insects with low, rounded pronotum which 
covers about half of the tegmina and a tectiform posterior process just about equalhng in length the 
tegmina. Head subquadrate, twice as wide as high; base weakly sinuate; eyes small and ovate ; ocelli 
very small, inconspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line 
drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior niargins of genae strongly sinuate; clypeus much deflexed, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, highest behind middle ; 
dorsum rounded, usually depressed before middle ; metopidium sloping, wider than high ; median carina 
percurrent; humeral angles small and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not carinate, hollowed 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ iS-j 

out just behind humerals, extended downwaid to cover at least half of the tegmina; posteiior piocess 
strong, heavy, tectiform, gradually acute, reaching just to tips of tegmina. Tegmina hjaline; somewhat 
less than half exposed ; base and basal costal area coriaceous and punctate ; five apical cells ; no discoidal 
cell; apical Hmbus very narrow. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type inconspicua Fowler. 

Geographical distribution ; A genus of South and Central America. Although only five 
species have been described in this genus with a rather limited distribution, we believe that Aphetea is 
much larger and more widely distributed than the records would indicate, for we have seen at different 
times large amounts of undetermined material of this genus which when described will certainly extend 
its size and range. We believe that the fact that these insects are so small and inconspicuous has caused 
them to be generally overlooked. The five described species are as follows : 

1. affinis Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 252 (ig^S). British Guiana, Peru. 

2. hicolor Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 280 (1926). Ecuador. 

3. inconspicxia Fowler, B. C. A. II : gS. i (iSgS). — Pl. 8, fig. I I 6. Guatemala, Trinidad. 

4. maculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. i63 (1927). Peru. 

5. /Kwc/a/a Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S. S. R. XXVIII : 146 Brazil. 

(1927). 

134. GENUS PHORMOPHORA Stal 

Phormophora Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 28 (1869). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but distinguished by the two discoidal 
cells of the tegmina and the fact that the dorsum is usually distinctly depressed before the middle. 
Head subquadrate, twice as wide as high; base regularly sinuate; eyes small and globular; ocelli 
small; inconspicuous, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus strongly deflexed, extending for half its length 
below infei ior margins of genae. Pronotum low, convex, highest behind middle ; dorsum depressed 
before middle; metopidium straight, wider than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles small 
and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not carinate, hollowed out behind humerals, extended 
downward to cover over half of the tegmina; posterior process heavy, tectiform, acute, just reaching 
the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline, clouded or semiopaque ; less than half exposed; base coriaceous and 
punctate; five apical and two or more discoidal cells; apical limbus very narrow. Legs simple; all tarsi 
about equal in length. 

Type maura Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : A Central and South American genus with the following 
described species : 

1. dorsata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3i. 18 (i8o3). Brazil, Ecuador. 

2. Inteostrigata Goding, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXUI : iSg (1928). Ecuador. 

3. maura Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 3o. 16 (i8o3). — Pl. 8, fig. I I 7. Ecuador, Brazil, Peru. 

4. spreta Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. 170 (1927). Jamaica. 



i58 



HOMOPTERA 



GENERA OF THE TRIBE ACUTALINI (TRIBUS NOVUS) 

I. Coriutn wUh five apical cells 

A. Corium without discoidal cells Acutalis Fairmaire. 

B. Corium with discoidal cells 

1. Corium with one discoidal cell Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. 

2. Corittm with two discoidal cells Euritea Stal. 

II. Corittm with Jour apical cells Micrutalis Fowler. 



135. GENUS ACUTALIS FAIRMAIRE 

Acutalis F^airmaire, Rev. Memb. 496 (1846). 

Charaeters : Small insects with triangular or elongate bodies, convex, imarmed pronotum, 
tegmina entirely free with distinct venation and showing five apical and no discoidal cells. Head sub- 
quadrate, twice as wide as high, smooth, convex; base nearly straight; eyes globular; ocelH small but 
conspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae smoothly and Hghtly sinuate; clypeus much deflexed, extend- 
ing for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low, convex, without processes; 
dorsum nearly straight; metopidium sloping, wider than high; no median carina; humeral angles weak 
and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged and impinging on tegmina; posterior process 
long, flattened, acute, tip often depressed and reaching beyond internal angles but not to the tips of the 
tegmina. Tegmina hyaline or semiopaque; base weakly punctate; veins strong; five apical cells; no 
discoidal cell; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with median apical cell sessile and truncate at base, 
Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type fusconervosa Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is found in most parts of North America, Mexico, 
Central America and South America and while the number of species is not large, the individuals are 
often very abundant. 

1. biguttula Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 498. 8 (1846). 

2. flaviventris Lethierry, Ann. Ent. Soc. France IV : 164 (1890). 

3. flavosonaia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 497. 2 (1846). 

4. fusconervosa Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 498. 6 (1846) 



5. geniculata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. 2 (i858). 

6. inornata Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash XVII : 119 (1905). 

7. litterata Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 498. 9 (1846). 

8. lucidiis Huckton, Mon. Memb. 177 (1903). 

9. modesta Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. 5 (i858). 

10. nigrinervis Fowler. B. C. A. II : 114. 2 (1895). 

11. plagiata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. 1 (i858). 

12. semicrema Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 242. 2 (i83o). 

Pl. 8, fig. I 18. 

CDiticonigra Fairmaire, Rev. Memb 498. 7 (1846). 
hrunnta Provancher, Nat. Can. IV ; 32o (1872). 



Brazil, Colombia. 
Venezuela. 
Brazil, Peru. 

Colombia, Mexico, Guate- 
mala, Nicaragua, Panama. 
Brazil. 

Southeastern U. S. 
Colombia. 
Bolivia. 
Brazil. 
Mexico. 
Brazil. 
Canada, United States. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



iSg 



i3. semipallida Stal. Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. 3 (i858). 

14. tartarea Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI : 242. i (i83o). 

i5. termitialis Walker, Ins. Saund. 76 (i858). 



Brazil. 

United States, Canada. 

Brazil, Peru, Colombia. 



136. GENUS THRASYMEDES KlRKALDY 



Thrasymedes (nom. nov.) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 
Phacusa (preoccupied) Stal, Hem, Mex. 72 (1864). 

Characters : Medium sized, elongate insects with low, convex, unarmed pronotum, triangular 
head, tegmina entirely free and showing five apical cells and one discoidal cell. Head triangular, very 
roughly sculptured; base arcuate ; eyes large and globular; ocelii large, conspicuous, equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of ej-es ; inferior 
margins of gense weakly sinuate; clypeus swollen, distended, extending for one-third its length below 
inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low, convex, unarmed ; dorsum straight; metopidium sloping, 
wider than high: median carina obsolete ; humeral angles weak and rounded; sides of pronotum punc- 
tate but not ridged, shghtly impressed behind humerals; posterior process slender, convex, apex sharp 
and reaching just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely exposed ; hyaline; five 
apicalcells; one discoidal cell; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with median apical cell truncate at 
base. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type flavomarginata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : Thrasymedes is found in Mexico, Cential America and South 
America, where s everal species are quite abundant, but has not been reported north of Mexico. The 
described species are as follows : 

1. dubia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 112. 5 (1895). Guatemala, Panama. 

2. flavomarginata Stal, Hem. Mex. 72. 4^6 (1864). Mexico, Costa Rica. 

3. liniola Walker, List. Hom. B. M. Suppl. 146 (i858). — Pl. 8, Mexico, Ecuador, Colombia. 

fig. 119. 



4. major Fowler, B.C.A. II : iii. 3 (1895). 

5. nigricosta Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 109 (1926). 

6. pallesceits Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 247. i (1869). 

7. variata Fowler, B. C. A. II : iii. 4 (i8g5). 



Guatemala, Costa Rica, 
Mexico. 

Ecuador. 

Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, 
Brazil, Ecuador, Peru. 

Mexico, Guatemala. 



137. GENUS EURITEA Stal 



Euritea Stal, Bid. Hem. Syst. 552 (1867). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus but distinguished particularly by the fact that there 
are at least two complete discoidal cells in the tegmina. Head subovate, roughly sculptured; base 
arcuate ; eyes large and globular; ocelli large, prominent, elevated, equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded: 
clypeus with tip rounded and extending very little below the inferior margins of the genae to carry out the 
semicircular apical outline of the face made by the gena^. Pronotum low, weakly convex, unarmed ; 



i6o HOMOPTERA 

doisum straight; metopidium sloping, wider than high ; median caiina obsolete; humeral angles weak 
and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not ridged, distinctly impressed behind humerals; 
posterior process slender, subtriangular in section. very acute, extending beyond the abdomen and 
beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not reaching the tips of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely 
exposed; hyahne ; veins strong, curved and irregular; base, especially the claval area, distinctly 
coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs simple, 
subcylindrical; hind tarsi much longer than either of the other two pairs. 

Type personata Sial. 

Geogpaphical distribution ; This genus seems to have about the same range as Thrasymedes 
being found in Mexico, Central America and South America but not reported from the United States. 

1. albifasciata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX : 24 (1922). — Brazil. 

Pl. 8,fig. 120. 

2. capitata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 175 (igoS). Ecuador. 

3. rfay«o/rf« Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 140 (i858). Brazil. 

4. fasciata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 175 (igoS). Unknown. 

5. munda Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i52 (i858). Mexico, Guatemala. 

nigripes Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 248. 3 (1869). 

6. personata Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 247. 2 (1869). Colombia, Mexico. 

138. genus MICRUTALIS FOWLER 

Micrutalis Fowler, B. C. A. H : 116 (iSgS). 

Characters : Small inconspicuous insects with subtriangular bodies, free tegmina with indis- 
tinct venation but showing four apical cells in the corium. The genus has often been confused with 
Acutalis and the synonymy of some of the species of both genera is still somewhat in doubt, but the 
smaller size, very indistinct venation, and the four apical cells of the tegmina should be sufficient to 
enable Micrutalis to be distinguished. 

Head subquadrate, smooth, convex, twice as broad as high; base feebly sinuate; eyes globular; 
ocelli small, inconspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well above a Hne 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded ; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum low, roundly flattened, triangular as seen from above; no 
dorsal processes of any kind; metopidium sloping, wider than high; no median carina; humeral angles 
weak and rounded; sides of pronotum punctate but not carinate ; posterior process flattened, gradually 
acute, reachingjust about to the internal angles of the tegmina. Tegmina entirely exposed; hyahne or 
semiopaque; veins indistinct; four apical cells; no discoidal cell; apical limbus broad. Hind wings 
with three apical cells, the median apical cell truncate at the base. Legs simple, subcylindrical ; all 
taisi about equal in length. 

Type ephippium Burmeister. 

Geographical distribution : Micrutalis is a large genus with its species widely distributed over 
the entire New World as is indicated by the following list : 

I alhivitta Fowler, B. C. A. H : 121. 11 (iSgS). Mexico. 

2. apicalis Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 52. 3 (1893). West Indies. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



i6i 



3. airovena Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 22 (igSo). 

4. balteata Fairmaiie, Rev. Memb. 496 i (1846). 

ballista (sic) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 219. 25 (1903). 

5. bella Goding, S. A. Memb. 293 {1929). 

6. callangensis Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 22 (ig^o). 

7. calva Sa}', Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V : 242 (i83i). 

milanogramma Perty, Del. An. Art. Pl. 35, fig. 10 (1834). 
flavipenais Germar, Rev. Silb. III ; 240 (i835). 
ilUnoiinsis Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 53 (i8g3). 

8. chapadensis GoA\r\g, Amer. Mus. Novit. 23 (ig^o). 

9. rf/5f(»/js Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 1^4 (i858). 

10. (iorsalis Fitch, Cat. Ins. N. Y. 52 (i85i). 

11. dubia Fowler, B. C. A. II : 119. 8 (iSgS). 

12. ephippium Burmeister, Rev. Silb. IV : 191. i3 (i836). — P 

fig. 12 1. 

ferruginia Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 493. 3 (1846). 
binaria Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 497. 3 (1846). 
moesta Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 35. 8 (i858). 
biplaga Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 5. 3i8 (1862). 
variabilis Berg, Ann. Soc. Cien. Arg. XVI : 244. 3o2 (i883). 
var. : mutibilis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 117 (1895). 

i3. flava Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 168 (1929). 

14. lata Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 22 (igSo). 

i5. Ittgitbrina Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 32. 6 (i858). 
var. : parallela Fowler, B. C. A. II : 120 (1895). 

16. malleifera Fowler, B. C. .\. II : 118. 5 (1895), 

17. miuutus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 178 (1903). 

18. nigrolineata Stal, Hem. .Mex. 72. 4^7 (1864). 

19. notatipennis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 119. 7 (1895). 

20. occidentalis Goding, Cat. Memb. N. A. 429. 97 (1894). 

binotata Goding. Cat. Memb. N. A 430. 99 (1894). 

21. pallens Fowler, B. C. A. II : 118. 4 (1893). 

22. parva Goding, Cat. ,Memb. N. A. 429. 98 (1894). 

23. pumtifera Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i53 (i858). 

24. stipiilipennis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 178 (igo^). 

25. tartaredoides Godiiig, Amer. Mus. Novit. 22 (1930). 

26. tau Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 23 (ig^o). 

27. trifurcata Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 53. 2 (1893). 

28. viridicollis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 118. 6 (1895). 

29. zeteki Goding, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIH : 139 (1928). 



Costa Rica. 

Colombia, Panama, Guate- 

mala, Peru. 
Ecuador. 
Peru. 
United States, Canada. 



Brazil. 

Mexico. 

United States, Canada. 

Panama.. 
8, Colombia. Nicaragua, (juate- 
mala, Mexico, Argentina, 
Brazil, British Guiana, Ca- 
nal Zone, Peru. 



Utah. 
Peru. 
Brazil, Panama, Mexico, Gua- 

temala. 
Mexico. 
Ecuador. 
Mexico. 
Mexico. 
Western U. S. 

Mexico, Guatemala, Yucatan. 

Western U. S. 

Brazil. 

Unknown. 

Bolivia. 

Peru. 

West Indies. 

Panama. 

Panama. 



i62 HOMOPTERA 



SuBF. CENTROTIN/E Spinola 

The subfamily Centrotinae is the largest of all of the subfamilies of the Membracidae. It contains 
more genera, more species, and probably more individuals than all of the other subfamilies combined. 

Apparently it is the only subfamily represented in the Old World. Occasionally a species from 
Europe, Asia or Africa has been described and assigned to a genus in some other subfamily but in each 
instance dissection has proven that the insect has a complete and well developed scutellum even though 
it may be entirely hidden. The New World Centrotinae, while represented by a considerable number of 
genera, are not nearly so conspicuous nor so abundant as are the New World species of the other sub- 
famihes. They are usually smaller in size, less fohaceous and bizarre in appearance, and their 
numbers must be coiiiparatively few, as they are seldom coUected and are always meagerly represented 
in collections. 

The Centrotinae may be ver)' definitely divided into New World and Old World forms. Not a 
single genus has yet been found which is common to both the eastern and the western hemisphere except 
in the case of a few species which are known to have been introduced on shipments of plants. While 
the new World and the Old World forms are undoubtedly closely related, both their natural structures 
and the somewhat more artificial characters which are often a convenience in constructing taxonomic 
keys, are remarkably distinct. 

Therefore it is botli natural and convenient to subdivide the Centrotinae into the two great geo- 
graqhical groups as we are here doing in arranging the genera. Such an arrangement greatly simpH- 
fies the identification of tribes and genera, and until and unless cosmopohtan forms are discovered, it 
should prove entirely satisfactory. 

TRIBES OF THE NEW WORLD CENTROTINiE 

I. Pronotum withoiit a poslerior process Abelini Tribus novus. 

II. Pronoium with a posterior process 

A. Clavus gradually aaiminate from base to apex Acuminatini Goding. 

B. Margins of clavus parallel ornearly so Hebesini Goding. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE ABELINI (TRIBUS NOVUS) 

I. Apex ofclavus obtuse and nearly truiicaie Abelus Stal. 

II. Apex of clavus acuminate 

A. Base of head not tuberculate 

i. Head triangular ; tegmina coriaceoHS Stictodepsa Stal. 

2. Head subquadrate ; tegmina hyaline Scytodepsa Stal. 

B. Base of head sulcate in middle ; tuberculate on each side 

1. Hind wiugs wilh two apical cells; pronotumunarmed Tropidaspis Stal. 

2. Hind wings wilh four apical cells 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE i63 

a. Pronotum unarmed 

b. Corium with sevtn or more apical cells Nicomia Stal. 

bb. Corium with tioi more ihan five apical cells 

c. Corium wiih four apical cells and no discoidal cells .... Endoiastus Fowler, 
cc. Coiium withfive apical cells 

d. Base of head bearing long, horizontal horns Mina Walker. 

dd. Base of head unarmed 

e. Crest of scutellum low Lophyraspis Stal. 

ee. Crest of scutellum elevated inio an ereci horn .... Gerridius Fowler. 
aa. Pronotum with erect processes or wiih suprahumeral horns 
b. Prouotum withoui suprahumerals 

c. An erect horn on the prouotiim and another on the scuiellum . . Lamproptera Germar. 
cc. A single elevation on the pronotum 

d. Pronoium bearing a porreci horn Orekthen Funkhouser. 

dd. Pronotum with a crest ouly Melizoderes Blanchard. 

bb. Pronotum with suprahumerals Tolania Stal. 

139. genus ABELUS stal 

Abelus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 294(1869). 

Characters : Diminutive insects distinguished at once by the lack 01 a posterior process and 
the fact that the posterior end of the clavus is broad and obtuse. Head subquadrate, much broader than 
high ; base straight ; eyes large and globular ; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from 
the eyes and situated high up near the basal margin of the head; inferior margins of genae nearly straight ; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, without pro- 
cesses; metopidium vertical, convex, about as wide as high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral 
angles strong, rounded, blunt; no posterior process; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, flat, tip 
weakly bifid. Tegmina entirely exposed: hyahne with the base coriaceous and punctate ; veinsstrong; 
five apical and three discoidal cells; apical limbus broad on anal margin. Legs simple, very slender; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type luctuosHs Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The two described species are both from South America. 

1. inermis Lethierry, Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg. 155(1890). Venezuela. 

2. luctuosus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 294. i (1869). — Pi. 9, fig. I 22. Colombia. 



140. Genus STICTODEPSA STAL 

Stictodepsa Stal, Hem. Fabr. H : 58 (1869). 

Characters : \ monotypic genus erected by Stal to accoinmodate the Fabrician species/j/iYd/fl 
characterized particularly by the triangular head and opaque tegmina and lacking a })Osterior piocess. 



Not* : Walker's geniis Narnia has been placed in this tribe, but the type of this genus is a])]jarently a cercopid. 



i64 HOMOPTERA 

We have not seen the single species of this genus and it has never been figured. StaFs description of 
the genus, however, is full and complete and should sufftce for its recognition. The original description 
is as foUows : 

« Corpus parvum, elongatum, valde subcylindricum, cohvexum. Caput ante oculos pro- 
ductum, sensim angustatum, apice rotundato-truncatum et medio leviter incisum, sulco distincto 
percurrente longitudinah instructum; facie convexiuscula, supra medium sulco longitudinah in- 
structa; fronte apice biimpressa; genis ultra basin lororum haud longe extensis, margine medio 
sinuatis, lateribus partia productas anteocularis capitus convexis, in faciem et partem sursum ver- 
gentem sensim transientibus. OceUi in margine capitis ante oculos positi et ad hos valde appro- 
pinquati, distinctissimi. Antennse infra oculos et in medio laterum faciei insertae. Thorax seque 
longus ac posterius latus, valde convexus, antrosum sensim nonnihil convexo-decHvis, sexangu- 
laris, carina percurrente distincta media instructus, prope basin latissimus, antrorsum nonnihil 
angustatus, apice rotundatus, lateribus convexis,obtusissimis, in prostethium sensim transientibus, 
marginibus basah et laterahbus posticus teque longis, marginibus lateraHbus anticis longissimis. 
Scutellum multo longius quam latius, acute triangulare, carina longitudinah instructum. Teg- 
mina coriacea, oblonga, apice rotundata, apicem abdominis attingentia, opaca, venis obsoletis. 
Pedes breves; tibiis teretibus, inermibus, non nisi brevissime obsoletissimque setulosis vel 
pilosuiis. » 

Type fuscata Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : The habitat of the lone representative of the genus is indicated 
merely as « America meridionalis » with no definite locahty given. 

I. fuscata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 68. 3i (i8o3). South America. 



141. genus SCYTODEPSA STAL 

Scytodepsa Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 57 (1869). 

Characters : Tiny, inconspicuous insects. distinguished from those of the preceding genus by 
the subquadrate head and the hyahne tegmina. Head subquadrangular, about as broad as high, 
trilobed at the apex; base straight; eyes small, flattened; ocelH large, conspicuous, located in the upper 
outside corners of the head, very near the eyes and close to the basal margin ; inferior margins of 
genae rounded and protruding to produce with the clypeus the trilobed apical outHne of the face; clypeus 
extending for one-third its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, without pro- 
cesses; metopidium straight, about as wide as high, deeply impressed on each side to produce a 
trilobed appearance; median carina strongly and sharply percurrent; humeral angles strong, swoUen, 
rounded, blunt; no posterior process; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, tectiform, sharpiy carinate 
above, tip acute. Tegmina entirely free ; hyaHne or translucent; broadly rounded at apex ; five apical 
ceUs; no discoidal ceUs; no apical Hmbus. Legs simple, very slender; all taisi about equal in length. 

Type exigua Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : This seems to be a strictly South American genus with the 
distribution of the three known species as follows : 

1. exigua Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 23. 36 (i8o3). — Pl. 9, flg. I 23. Brazil, Argentina. 

2. magiia Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 889. 104 (1926). Ecuador. 

3. tricarinata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 2. i63 (1927). Peru. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDyE i65 



142. GENUS TROPIDASPIS Stal 

Tropidaspis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 56 (1869). 

Characters : Small. elongate insects with a bituberculate head, no posterior process, convex 
unarmed pronotum, highly elevated scutellum and with only two apical cells in the hind wings. Head 
subquadrate, roughly sculptured, slightly broader than high; base highly elevated and bearing two 
large rounded lobes, deeply sulcate between ; eyes large and globular; ocelli large, prominent, situated in 
extreme upper outer corners of the head at the lateral bases of the basal lobes; inferior margins of genae 
very short and straight; clypeus very broad, flattened, expanded and foliaceous, extending for at least 
three-fourths its length below inferior margins of genae, tip broadly rounded. Pronotum convex, 
without processes of any kind; extended downward in a flat plate behind the eyes; metopidium sloping, 
broader than high; median carina distinctly percurrent; humeral angles broad, greatly produced, round- 
ed, blunt; scutellum highl}' elevated, tectiform, strongly and sharply carinate, triangular, about twice 
as long as its width at base, base swollen, tip gradually acuminate and extending just to the inteinal 
angles of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaHne; tips broadly rounded; base coriaceous and punctate; veins 
strong and heavy; both corium and clavus entirely exposed; apical portion of clavus gradually acute; 
five apical and no discoidal cells; no apical limbus. Hind wings with only two apical cells and no dis- 
coidal cells. Legs simple, femora cyUndrical, tibiag angulate, hind tarsi longest and sometimes bearing 
accessory lateral spines. 

Type carinata Fabricius. 

Geographical distrlbutlon : Tropidapsis seems to have a rather wide distribution in Central 
and south .■\merica as foUows : 

1. affinis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 169. 1 (1897). Panama, Trinidad, West In- 

dies. 

2. cariiiata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 21. 29 (i8o3). — Pl. 9, flg. I 24. Brazil, Peru, British Guiana. 

3. cornuta Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 261 (1925). British Guiana. 

4. jubata Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 889. 104 (1926). Ecuador. 

5. minor Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 2^9 (1925). British Guiana, Ecuador. 

6. truucaticornis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXV : 187 (1927). DutchGuiana, British Guiana, 

Brazil, Panama, Guatemala. 

143. GENUS NICOMIA STAL 

Nlcomia Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. XXIV : 249 (i858). 

Characters : Small, inconspicuous insects without a posterior process, with a convex unarmed 
pronotum and characterized particularly by the large number of irregular cells in the tegmina of which 
seven or more are on the apical margin. Head subquadrate, wider than high, somewhat deflexed ; base 
bituberculate, notched in middle; eyes large, prominent, globular; ocelli smaU, much farther from each 
other than from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of 
genae straight; clypeus extending for about half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
convex, without processes of any kind ; metopidium sloping, wider than high ; median carina percurrent ; 
humeral angles prominent, roundcd, blunt; posterior end of pronotum truncate and then slightly pro- 



i66 HOMOPTERA 

duced on each side of the scutellum; scutellum elongate, narrowing toward the apex which is obtuse or 
truncate. Tegmina entirely exposed; hyaline; veins strong; seven or more apical cells and two discoidal 
cells; apical hmbus obsolete. Legs simple; tibiae triquerate; tarsi about equal in length. 

Typ« Umniscata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : A small genus with a limited distribution in the northern part of 
South America. 

1. cicadoides Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 3i7 (1862). Brazil. 

2. interrupta Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 249. 2 (i858). Brazil. 

3. lemniscata Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 249. i (i858). Brazil. 

4. obliqua Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 341 (i858). Brazil, Venezuela. 

5. retrospina Lethierry, Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. XVI : i55. 57 (1890). Venezuela. 

6. subfasciata Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 249. 3 (i858). Brazil, Venezuela. 

144, GENUS ENDOIASTUS FOWLER 

Endoiastus Fowler, B. C. A. H : 168 (1896). 

Characters : Small, delicate, fragile insects with no posterior process, convex unarmed prono- 
tuin, strongly sulcate head and with semiopaque tegmina showing four apical and no discoidal cells. 
Head subquadrate, about as broad as high but with the length apparently exaggerated due to the basal 
lobes and the large clypeus; base elevated into two large lobes, deeply notched between; eyes small, later- 
ally flattened; ocelli very small. inconspicuous, situated in the upper corners of the head, very close to 
the base and to the eyes; inferior margins ofgenae short and straight ; antennae unusually well developed, 
inserted below and slightly in front of the eyes; clypeus broad, expanded, extending for three-fourths its 
length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, wilhout processes of any kind, strongly 
keeled; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; scutellum entirely 
exposed, triangular, a little longer than thebreadth at the base, base convex, apex flat, very weakly cari- 
nate. Tegmina coriaceous, semiopaque, broadly rounded at tips; four apical and no discoidal cells;no 
apical limbus. Legs simple, very slender; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type caviceps Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : Represented by two species, both apparently quite rare. 

1. cayiceps Fowler, B. C. A. \l : 168. i (1896). — Pl. 9, flg. 125. Guatemala, Nicaragua, Ecua- 

dor. 

2. productus Osborn, Zoologica HI : 233 (1921). British Guiana. 

145. GENUS MINA WALKER 

Mina Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i65 (i858). 

Characters : Curious little Centrotinae without posterior process, with convex unarmed prono- 
tum, tegmina with five apical cells, and distinguished particularly by the horizontal extensions on the 
base of the head Head subquadrate, broader than high; base elevated and bearing long horizontal 
horns; eyes large and globular; ocelli large, conspicuous, farther from each other than from the e3'es and 



FAM. MEMBRACIDvE 167 

situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of gense rounded; clypeus broad, 
flattened, subfohaceous, extending for three-fourths its length below inferior margins of genae. Prono- 
tum convex, without processes; metopidium sloping, about as broad as high; no median carina; humeral 
angles weak and rounded; scutellum entirely exposed, swoUen at base, acuminate or spinehke at tip, 
strongly carinate. Tegmina hyahne; entirely free; tips broadly rounded; five apical and two discoidal 
cells ; apical limbus extremely narrow. Hind wings with four apical cells and one discoidal cell. Legs 
simple, hind legs much longer than the others; hind tarsi longest. 

Type alitna Walker. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This genus is known only from tropical South America. 

1. aliena Walker. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i65 (i858). Brazil. 

2. spinosa Funkhouser, Journ, N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVHI: 4. 409 (igSo). Ecuador. 

— Pl. 9, fig. 126. 

3. stylata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 212 (igoS). Brazil. 

146. GENUS LOPHYRASPIS Stal 

Lophyraspis Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 55 (1869). 

Characters : Close to the preceding genus but distinguished by the unarmed head, and differ- 
ing from the foUowing genus (Gerridius), with which it has often been confused, by the absence of the 
erect horn on the scutellum, Head subquadrangular, about as broad as high; base strongly arcuate; 
eyes large, globular; ocelli much farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well above a 
line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded ; clypeus broad and flattened and 
extending for at least half its length below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum roundly convex, 
without processes of any kind; metopidium sloping, about as vvide as high ; median carina percurrent; 
humeral angles small and rounded ; scutellum triangular, longer than its width at base, strongly carinate 
above, acute at tip. Tegmina hyahne ; entirely exposed ; five apical and two discoidal cells ; apical limbus 
obsolete. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legssimple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type vittata Ohvier. 

Qeographical distribution : A South American genus represented by the foUowing species : 

1. parvimosca StoU, Nat. Cicad. 63 (1780). Venezuela. 

2. pigmaa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 44. 57 (i8o3). DutchGuiana, BritishGuiana. 

3. scutellata Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 44. 58 (i8o3). Brazil. 

4. vittata Ohvier, Enc. Meth. V : 762. 65(1790). Brazil, Colombia. 

147. GENUS GERRIDIUS FOWLER 

Gerridius Fowler, B. C. A. II : i65 (1896). 

Characters : We have previously (Funkhouser 1927) considered this genus a synonym of 
Lophyraspis but we are now convinced that the tvvo genera are distinct; the chief difference beingthat in 
Stal's genus the scutellum is merely strongly carinate while in Gerridius the scutenum is developed into 
a high, fiattened horn. The specimens of Gerridius vvhich we have seen are small, with unarmed piono- 



i68 HOMOPTERA 

tum and with enormously long hind legs. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base elevated, 
thin, sinuate, margin depressed in middle; eyes globular, slightly flattened laterally ; ocelh large, con- 
spicuous, somewhat elevated, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated about on a line 
drawn thro.ugh centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas straight; clypeus broad, flattened, subfolia- 
ceous, extending for three-fourths its length below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum convex, without 
processes of anykind; metopidium sloping, broader than high ; no median carina; humeral angles 
obtuse, rounded ; posterior half of scutellum elevated into a high, erect, laterally flattened horn which is 
more than twice as high as broad, with thin flattened anterior and posterior margins. Tegmina hyahne 
with strong veins; tips broadly rounded; interior claval area coriaceous and punctate ; five apical and 
two discoidal cells ; no apical Hmbus. Legs simple, very slender; hind legs at least tvvice as long as 
either of the other pairs; femora cyhndrical, tibiae angular in cross section; hind tarsi much the longest. 

Type scutdlatus Fowler. 

Geographical distpibution : This genus is found in both South and Central America but is 
represented by only three described species. 

1. abbreviatus Baker, Can. Ent. XXXIX : 114 (1907). Nicaragua. 

2. armata Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 262 (ig25). British Guiana. 

3. scutellatus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 166. i (1896). — Pl. 9, fig. I 27. Panama, British Guiana, Ec- 

fowUri Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. 261 (iSgSi. uador. 

148. GENUS LAMPROPTERA Germar 

Lamproptepa Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 261 (i835). 

Chapacteps : This genus represents a division of the Abelini in which the insects have a single 
horn on the pronotum, and Lamproptera is particularly distinguished by having not only a long sharp 
horn on the pronotal disc but another on the scutellum. Head with clypeus triangular; base highly 
elevated, bituberculate, weakly sulcate between the two lobes; eyes small and globular; ocelli small, 
inconspicuous, more than twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated high up on the 
head, about on a Hne drawn through the upper margins of the eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping 
and sinuate; clypeus very large, broad, flattened, extending for three-fourths its length below the inferior 
margins of the gense, tip long and triangular, giving the face a distinctly triangular outline. Pronotum 
convex and bearing a single, long, erect, sharp, laterally flattened dorsal horn which is twice as high 
as its width at the base and has the anterior and posterior margins thin and sharp; metopidium vertical, 
broader than high; median carina percurrent ; humeral angles weak and rounded; scutellum entirely 
exposed and bearing a sharp erect dorsal horn, almost exactly the same in shape and general appearance 
as that on the pronotum but considerably longer. Tegmina entirely free; hyaline with strong, colored 
veins; very broad; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; tips broadh' rounded; five apical and two 
discoidal cells; no apical limbus. Legs simple and very slender; femora cylindrical, tibiae triquerate; 
hind legs very much longer than the others and hind tarsi more than twice as long as either of the 
other two pairs. 

Type capreolus Gerniar. 

Geogpaphicai distpibution : This genus is known only from South America and in the case 

of the three Fabrician species the particular locahties are not recorded. 

I. capreoliis Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 33 (1821). Brazil. 

ciipra lerTor) Burmeister, Hand. Ent. II : i3i. i (i835). 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 169 

2. cristala Stal, Hem. Fabr. 11 : 56 (1869). — Pl. 9, fig. I 28. British Guiana. 

3. muscaria Fabricius, Syst. Khyng. 44. 60 (i8o3). South America. 

4. pygmaa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng 44. 57 (i8o3). South America. 

5. scutellata f^^abricius, Syst. Rhyng. 44. 58 (i8o3). South America. 

6. vacca Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 34. 6 (1821). Brazil. 

149. Genus OREKTHEN Funkhouser 

Orekthen Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 406 (igSo). 

Characteps : Very small, inconspicuous insects having a stout porrect horn on the pronotum 
but with the scutellum unarmed. Head vertical, subquadrate, roughly sculptured, broader thanhigh; 
base arcuate and without lobes ; eyes large andglobular; ocelli large, conspicuous, slightly elevated, 
nearly twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; inferior margins of genae strongly slopingdownward and feeblysinuate;clypeus longand narrow, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum extended forward and upward 
into a stout heavy horn with rounded tip ; metopidium projecting slightly forward over the head, triangu- 
lar; median carina percurrent; humeral angles strong and blunt; scutellum entirely exposed, unarmed, 
triangular, base swoUen, tip acuminate and just reaching the internal angles of the tegmina. Tegmina 
f ree ; corium hyaline with strong punctate veins ; clavus entirely coriaceous and punctate ; tips of tegmina 
broadly rounded; five apical and two discoidal cells; no apical limbus. Legs simple, very slender; all 
tarsi about equal in length. 

Type osborni Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : The three described species of Orekthen are all from the extreme 
southern part of South America. 

1. darwiui Funkhouser, Ent. News XLV : 8. 2o3 (1934). Chiloe Island. 

2. osborni Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 407 (1930). Chile. 

Pl. 9, fig. 129 

3. variegata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 408 Chile. 

(1930). 

150. genus melizoderes blanchard 

IVIelizoderes Blanchard, Spin. Gay Hist. Chile 269 (i852). 

Characters ; Closely related to the preceding genus but differing in having only a crest on the 
pronotum rather than a stout horn and in having the tegmina strongly punctate on thebasal half and 
hyaline on the apical half. The insects are small in size,slender and delicate in structure and inconspicu- 
ous in appearance. Head slightly defiexed, subtriangular ; base arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes 
large and globular; ocelli prominent, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of gena; sinuate ; clypeus extending for half its 
length below inferior margins of genae and continuing the line made by these margins to give the trian- 
gular outline to the face. Pronotum convex, elevated in a more or less pronounced crest: metopidium 
swollen, triangular. projecting somewhat forwaid; median carina percurrent; humeral angles broad and 
blunt; scutellum extirely exposed, unarmed, triangular, slightly longer than its width at base, base 



170 



HOMOPTERA 



convex, apex acute. Tegmina free ; basal half coriaceous and punctate; apical half hyaline; five apical 
and two discoidal cells; no apical hmbus. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type carinatus Blanchard. 

Geographical distribution : The four known species are all from Chile. 

1. carinatus Blanchard, Gay Hist. Chile 269 (iSSa). — Pl. 9, fig. I 30. Chile. 

2. cuneata Butler, Cist. Ent. II : 212 (1881). Chile. 

3. dohrni Signoret, Ann. Ent. Soc. France UI : 584(i863). Chile. 

4. gayi Blanchard, Gay Hist. Chile 286(i852). Chile. 

151. GENUS TOLANIA STAL 

Tolania Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. XXIV : 248 (i858). 

Characters : This genus is distinguished by having suprahumeral horns but no posterior 
process. It is the only genus in the New World having this curious combination of characters. The 
insects are among the largest of the New World Centrotinse, with robust bodies and long tegmina. 
Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base sinuate, depressed in the middle; eyes large, ovate, 
protruding; oceUi large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated below 
aline drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae straight, sloping downward and inward; 
clypeus indistinctly trilobed, the median lobe extending for half the length of the clypeus below 
the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum convex and bearing a pair of suprahumeral horns which 
vary m lengthand in sharpness but are always prominent ; metopidium vertical, broader than high; 
median carina percurrent ; humeral angles heavy and blunt; scutellum entirely exposed, subquadrate, 
about twice as long as broad, swollen at base, flat on apical two-thirds, weakly carinate; tip blunt and 
regularly rounded. Tegmina free; hyahne; base broadly coriaceous and punctate; tips rounded; veins 
inclined to be spinose; seven apical and no discoidal cells; apical Hmbus verj- narrow. Legssimple; 
femora cylindrical, tibise triquerous; hind legs longest. 

Type semipellucida Stal. 

Geographical distributlon ; A genus witha hmited number of species but rich in numbers of 
individuals and widely distributed over Mexico, Central America and the northern part of South America. 

1. armata Stoll, Cigal. 90 (1780). Brazil, Colombia. 

fraterna Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 37. 3. (i858). 

2. cristata Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. France i55. 55 (1890). Brazil. 

3. fasciata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 1147 (i85i). Brazil, Venezuela. 

AmwjV/s Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 161 (i858). 

4. obscurus Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 258 (i835). Brazil. 

felinus Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 259 (i835). 

5. obtusa Fowler, B. C. A. II : 166 (1896). Guatemala, Panama,Yucatan, 

Honduras. 

6. opponens Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i5g (i858). — Pl. 9, Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

fig. 131 Yucatan,Brazil, BritishGui- 

ana. 



Neta : Two genera, Eustollia Goding and Williamsiana Goding, have been described and have appeared in the 
literature of the family as belonging to the Tribe Abelini. Neither of these are Membracidae. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 171 

7. pundata Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 2i3 (1925). Cuba. 

8. semipellucida Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. XXIV : 249 (i858). Brazil. 

smilucida (error) Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. i (igSo). 

9. sciitaia Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 36. i (i858). Brazil. 

femoralis Stal, Rio Jan. Hera. II : 37. 2 (i858). 

10. walkeri {nom.nov .) Goding, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.XXIV : ^35 (ig^i). Brazil. 

fasciatus (preoccupied) Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i6i (i858). 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE ACUMINATINI GODING 

I. Venation of tegmina irregular and reticulate 

A. Dorstim straight ; tibia slightly dilated Postanomus nom. nov. 

B. Dorsum sinuate; tibia simple 

1 . Posterior process with two or three nodes ; unanned above humeral angles. Centrodontus Goding. 

2. Posterior process with a single arcuate elevation ; females with suprahum- 

eral horns Tylocentrus Van Duzee. 

11. Venation of tegmina normal 

A. Posterior process close to scutellum 

1. Corium with five apical cells 

a. Tibia dilated; corium with one discoidal cell 
b, Pronotum gibhous and convex 

c. No suprahumerals Lirania Stal. 

cc. Suprahumerals present Flexocentrus Goding. 

bb. Pronotum elevated and compressed 

c. Pronotuni alarge reticulated, inflated sac CEda Amyot and Serville. 

cc. Pronotum not an iiiflated vesicle 

d. Pronotum elevated anteriorly into a bilobed or dilated 

process Lycoderes Gerinar. 

dd. Pronotum leaflike Stegaspis Germar. 

aa. Tibia simple; corium with two or more discoidal cells 

b. Corium with two discoidal cells; tegmina hyaline Glischrocentrus Fowler. 

bb. Corium with three discoidal cells; tegmina semi-opaque 

c. Posterior process very slender ; shorter than the abdomen . . Microcentrus Stal. 
cc. Posterior process robust; as long asthe abdomen Centruchoides Fowler. 

2. Corium with four apical cells 

a. Pronotum bearing elevated globular spines Bocydium Latreille. 

aa. Pronotal process not bearing inflated globules Styi.ocentrus Stal. 

B. Posterior process high above scutellum. 

i. Posterior process trispinose Smerdalea Fowler. 

2. Posterior process with ioothed elevated node Dontonodus Funkhouser. 



Note ; Goding placed his genus Euw.illieria in this tribe Init that genus belongs in the family iEihalionidse. 
Likewise the genus Acanthicus Laporte has been included in this group, but this genus cannot sland since it was erected on 
immature forms. 



172 HOMOPTERA 



152. Genus POSTANOMUS NOM. NOV. 

Postanomus (nom. nov.) Here proposed. 
Anemus (preoccupied) Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 522 (1846). 
Eteoneus (preoccupied) Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 

Chapacters : The insects of this genus stood for many years under Fairmaire's original name 
« Anomus » ; however, Kirkaldy in 1904 called attention to the fact that this name vvas preoccupied and 
proposed the name « Eteoneus » ; we now find that Distantin igoS used « Eteoneus 1) fov a genus of the 
Tingitidae and we are therefore proposing « Postanomus » as a new name. 

The genus is characterized by the irregular and reticulate venation of the tegmina, the absence of 
well developed suprahumerals, the straight dorsum and the slightly dilated tibiae. Head subquadrate, 
twice as broad as high; base arcuate; eyes large and ovate; oceHi not conspicuous, farther from each 
other than from the eyes and situated somewhat above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of gente sloping, nearly straight, thin and sharp; clypeus extending for half itslengtli below the 
inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum convex, without suprahumerals but sometimes showingshght 
tuberosities above the humeral angles; metopidium sloping,broader than high; median carina faint; sides 
of pronotum ridged; dorsum straight; posterior process straight and iinpinging on tegmina; scutellum 
narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina entirely exposed; subcoriaceous and punctate ; venation very 
irregular, showing at least three discoidal cells and a large number of small apical cells; apical limbus 
very narrow. Legs short and slender; femora cyhndrical, tibiae somewhat ilattened, subfoliaceous, 
distinctly dentate ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type reiicidatus Fairmaire. 

Geographlcal distribution ; Only two species have been described in this genus, both from 
Brazil. 

1. cornutulus Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 34. i (i858). Brazil. 

2. reticulatus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 522. i (1846). Brazil. 

153. Genus CENTRODONTUS Goding 

Centrodontus Goding, Ent. News HI : 201 (1892). 
Tuberculocentpua Goding, Can. Ent. XXVII : 275 (1895). 

Characters : Diminutive, inconspicuous insects, characterized by the reticulate tegmina, 
sinuate dorsum, unarmed anterior rounded pronotum and short posterior process. Head subtriangular, 
roughly sculptured, defiexed ; base weakly and gradually sinuate and arcuate ; eyes small and ovate; 
ocelli large, conspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate and sloping ; clypeus blunt, extending for half 
its length below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum convex, rounded, highest above humeral angles, 
unarmed; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles strong and 
rounded ; sides of pronotum rough or tuberculate; posterior process not as long as the abdomen, dorsum 
sinuate and subnodulate; tip acute and just reaching the internal angles of the tegmina. Tegmina 
semi-opaque; base broadly coriaceous; venation very irregular and reticulate; tips rounded; no apical 
limbus. Legs simple; tarsi about equal in length. 



FAM. MEMBRAClDiE 173 



Type atlas Goding. 



Goographical distribution ; The genus is known only from two Ameiican species both of which 
aie very abundant in the western and southwestern part of the United States. 

1. atlas Goding, Ent. News III : iio (iSga). — Pl. 9, fig. 132. Utah, New Me.xico, Arizona, 

CaUfornia. 

2. soliis Goding, Can. Ent. XXXVII : 275 (i8g5). CaUfornia. 

154. GENUS TYLOCENTRUS VAN DUZEE 

Tylocentrus Van Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. 119 (1908). 

Characters : This is a genus which, while very distinct, is difficLdt to place in a synoptic key 
because of the fact that the males are usually unarmed while the females generally show well developed 
suprahumeral horns. As has been mentioned in the descriptions of certain of the preceding genera and 
as will be seen in some of the following genera, the suprahumeral horns in the Membracida», while 
among the most striking and quickly noted of all of the characters of the insects, are among tlie most 
unreliable because of the variation within the species, as in the case of Tylocentrus, and because of the 
gradation from one species and even from one genus to another as has been noted in Ceresa and 
Stidocephala. 

The insects representing Tylocentrus are small in size and inegular in general facies. Head 
subquadrangular, twice as bioadas high, roughly sculptured ; base sinuate and arcuate; eyes large and 
ovate; ocelli prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated a little below a 
line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate, horizontal, ilanged, edges turned 
outward; clypeus veiy long, subquadrate, extending for four-fifths its length below inferior margins 
of genae, tip blunt. Pronotum convex, highest above humeral angles. usually armed with suprahumeral 
horns in the female, unarmed in the male, size, length and sharpness of the horns very variable; 
metopidium sloping, broader than high ; median carina percurrent ; humeral angles heavy and blunt; 
posterior process heavy, usualh' depressed at the base and strongly tectiform before apex which is 
acute and extends a little beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutelhim weil exposed on each 
side. Tegmina semi-opaque; base broadly coriaceous; venation very irregular and reticulate; tips 
rounded ; apical limbus narrow. Legssimple; femora cylindrical, tibiae tiiquerate; hindtarsi longest. 

Type reticulatiis \'an Duzee. 

Geographical distribution : The two species represented in Tylocentrus seem to have a rather 
limited distribution in southwestern United States and northern Mexico. 

1. quadricornis Funkhouser, Ent. News XXX : 8. 217 (1919). Arizona, Lower California, 

Mexico. 

2. rettculatus Wan Duzee, Stud. N. A. Memb. iig (1908). — Pl. 9, Texas. Arizona, Utah, Nevada. 

fig. 133. 

felinus Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LII : 889. io5 (1926). 

155. Genus LIRANIA STAL 

Lirania Stal, Rio Jan. Heni. II : 36 (1860). 

Characters ; This genus, which is known onl^- from the type species, is unknown to us and so 
far as we know has never been recognized since its original description. It has been mentioned only 



174 HOMOPTERA 

three times in the literature of the family since Stal's publication of the Rio Janeiro paper and all of these 
references are merely catalogue listings. 

However, Stafs description is fairly complete and seems to indicate a distinct genus and we are 
therefore accepting it on his authority. Stal considers Lirania as closely related to Lycoderes and gives 
the following description : 

« Caput levissime subrechno-dechvum, subtriangulare, apice inflexum, basi supra ocellos 
tubercuHs duobus instructum. Thorax anterius gibbus, supra scutellum utrimque valde sinuatus, 
retrorsum processum angustum acutum, carina usque ad apicem thoracis antrorsum producta in- 
structum, clavo nonnihil breviorem, emittente. Tegmina clavo areolis quattuor basalibus, unica 
discoidali et quinque apicalibus, rhomboidalibus, instructo. Pedes mediocres, tibiae triquetris, 
utrimque leviter dilatatis. » 

We have attempted to incorporate the above mentioned chavacters in our taxonomic key and 
believe that they should be sufficient for the recognition of the genus. 

Type bituberciilata Stal. 

Geographical distribution ; The single species of the genus is from South America. 
I. bitubtrculata Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. H : 36. i (1860). Brazil. 

156. Genus FLEXOCENTRUS Goding 

Flexocentrus Goding, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LH : 106 (1926), 

Characters : Medium sized insects with well developed suprahumeral homs, the posterior pro- 
cess impinging on the scutellum, shghtly dilated tibiae, and corium with five apical cells and one discoidal 
cell. Head subquadrate, twice as wide as long, deflexed; base strongly arcuate and feebly sinuate; eyes 
large, protruding, globular; ocelli very large, prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes 
and situated well above a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate and pro- 
jecting slightly outward; clypeus extending for about half its length below the inferior margins of the 
genae. Pronotum convex,highest above humeralangles; suprahumeral horns well developedbutvarying 
in size and structure; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high; median carina percurrent; humeral 
angles large, prominent, triangular, blunt; posterior process slender, sinuate, tectiform, impinging on 
tegmina, tip acute and reaching to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on 
each side. Tegmina broad, hyaline, base broadly coriaceous and punctate; tips roundly truncate; veins 
irregular; five apical cells ; one discoidal cell ; no apical limbus. All tibiae more or less dilated; all tarsi 
about equal in length. 

Type felimis Haviland. 

Geographical distribution : The two described species are both from British Guiana, South 
America. 

1. brunneus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVHI : 4. 410 British Guiana. 

(igSo). — Pl. 9, flg. 134. 

2. felinus Haviland, Zoologica VI : 3. aSy (1925). British Guiana. 

157. Genus CEDA Amyot and Serville 

OEda Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 546 (1843). 

Characters : This is one of the most remarkable of all of the genera of the family and the struc- 
ture of the insects is so grotesque and bizarre as to differentiate them at once not only from all other 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiC 175 

Membracidae but from any other insects in the world. The distinctive characteristic is of course the 
enormously swollen, inflated, reticulated, sac-hke pronotum. 

Head triangular and trilobed; base nearly straight; eyes large, globular, protruding; ocelh very 
large, conspicuous, elevated, more than twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated far 
above a hne drawn through centers of eyes, very close to the basal margin of the head ; inferior margins 
of genae modified into distinct, triangular, pointed lobes; clypeus extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae ; base of beak expanded into a broad flattened plate. Entire pronotum devel- 
oped into a large, reticulated, swollen, hoUow sac with a honey-comb appearance which extends forward 
over the head and backward almost to the tips of the tegmina, impinging on the tegmina throughout its 
inferior margin ; no definite metopidium ; no definite median carina ; humeral angles weak and rounded ; 
no definite posterior process ; scuteHuin not visible. Tegmina broad, hyaline; base narrowly semi- 
opaque ; tips broadly rounded ; veins strong ; five apical cells ; one discoidal cell ; apical limbus well devel- 
oped. Hind wings with four apical and no discoidal cells. Legs simple and fragile; tibiae slightly 
dilated; tarsi about equal in length. 

Type infiata Fabricius. 

Geogpaphical distribution ; The three Brazilian species here listed are the only ones described 
for the genus. 

1. hamulata Stal, Hem. Fabr. H : 52 (1869). Brazil. 

2. inftata Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 262. i (1787). — Pl. 9, fig. I 35. Brazil. 

inermis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5o6. 2. (1846). 
frondosa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 206 (igoS). 

3. informis Westwood, Ann. Nat. Hist. 119 (1842). Brazil. 



158. GENUS LYCODERES Germar 

Lycoderes Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^9 (i835). 
Corythophora Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 53 (1869). 
Lophucha Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : S4 (1869). 
Rhyparoptera (part) Stal, Hem. Fabr. 11 : 54 (i86g). 

Characters : .A very distinct genus characterized by the semi-foliaceous pronotum which is 
elevated into a compressed, bilobed or dilated anterior process. Head subfoliaceous, subquadrate, 
about as wide as high; base arcuate ; eyes lateralh* flattened ; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from 
each other as from the eyes and situated far above a line drawn through centers of e\ es, near the upper 
margin of the head; inferior margins of genae flattened, angular, protruding forward ; clypeus weakly 
trilobed, projecting for one-third its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotiim subfoliaceous, 
much fiattened laterally, elevated in front into a ffattened horn which is dilated or bilobed at the tip ; 
no definite metopidium, the front of the pronotum gradually merging into the anterior surface of the 
horn; median carina usually obsolete on the metopidium and front of the horn but strong on the back 
of the horn and on the dorsum ; humeral angles weak and rounded ; sides of pronotum punctate and 
often ridged; posterior process tectiform, exteiiding to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
hardly visible. Tegmina entirely exposed, translucent; basal and costal margins coriaceous and punc- 
tate ; apex more or less punctate; five apical cells; one discoidal cell ; no apical limbus. Tibiaj of all 
of the legs distinctly flattened; tarsi about equal in length. 

Type hippocam.pus Fabricius. 



176 



HOMOPTERA 



Geographical distribution ; South America is the principal 
species have been reported from Central America and from Mexico. 

1. angustata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 201 (igoS). 

2. burmeisteri Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 525. 8 (1846). 

;?MaWalker, List Hom. B. M. 485. 26 (i85i) 
lata Walker, List Hom. B. M 494. 42 (i85i). 

3. capitata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2o3 (igoS). 

4. emarginatiis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 14. 35 (i8o3). 

flexuosa Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. Index 16 {i8o3). 

5. furca Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 524. 6 (1846). 

6. fuscus Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 55i (1843). 

bellicosa Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl i65 (i858). 

7. gaffa Fairmaire. Rev. Memb. 524. 7 (1846).— Pi. 9,fig. 136. 

latipennis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 607. 20 (i85i). 

8. galeritus Lesson, 111. Zool. Pl. 56 (i83i). 

lobatus Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 34. 3 (1860). 
walbergi Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 35. 4 (1860). 

9. gladiator Germar, Rev. Silb. HI : 3io (i835). 

subminax Walker, Journ. Ent. 3i6 (1862). 
torta Buckton, Mon. Memb. 202 (igoS). 
fuscata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 204 (igo3). 

10. hippocampus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 20. 22 (i8o3). 

ancora Germar, Mag. Ent. IV : 32 (1821). 

11. luctans Stal. Rio Jan. Hem. H : 35. 10 (1860). 

corniger Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 36. 12 (1860). 

12. minamen Buckton, Mon. Memb. 5i (1903). 

igniventer Buckton, Mon. Memb. 200(1903). 

i3. mitratus Germar, Rev. Silb. IH : 3ii (i835). 

spinola Fairmaire, Guer. Rev. ZooL 12 (1846). 

14. petasus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5^5. 10 (1846). 
i5. phasianus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 164. i (1896). 

16. pileolum Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 525. 11 (1846). 

truncatulus Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 36. 11. (1860). 

17. prolixus Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. II : 35. 9 (1860). 

18. serraticornis Fow^ler, B. C. A. II : i65. 2 (1896). 

ig. triangulata Funkhouser.Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXVII : 4. 276(1919). 
20. unicolor Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 525. g (1846). 



home of this genus but a few 

Brazil. 
Brazil. 

Brazil, Colombia. 
Brazil, Venezuela. 

Brazil, 

Brazil, Colombia, Nicaragua. 

Brazil, Ecuador. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 



Brazil, British Guiana, Colom- 

bia, Peru. 
Brazil, Peru, Venezuela. 

Ecuador, Brazil, Honduras, 

Mexico. 
Brazil, Colombia, British Gui- 

ana. 
Brazil. 
Panama. 
Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Panama, Yucatan, Brazil, 

Peru. 
Brazil. 
Brazil. 



159. Genus STEGASPIS Germar 

Stegaspis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 23i (i835). 

Characters : A genus of curious insects, often used by the Natural Selectionists as examples 
of protective imitation siiice the form certainly bears a remarkable resemblance to dried leaves, even 



Note : The Fabrician species rhombea has usually been considered as belonging to thisgenus, but it is very probably 
a Tettigoniid. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 177 

to the extent of occasionally showing margins which suggest that they have been chevved by phyto- 
phagous enemies. The pronotum is greatly elevated, flattened and foliaceous and the tibia; are more 
or less dilated. Head subquadrate, about as broad as high, foliaceous, trilobed; base strongly arcuate; 
eyes much fiattened laterally; ocelli conspicuous, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and 
situated near the basal margin of the head, high above a line dravvn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae extended into flattened rounded lobes; clypeus very narrow, forming the weak median 
lobe of the head and not extending below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum elevated into 
a high, compressed, leaf-like irregular crest, usually brownish or greenish in color; no definite meto 
pidium, the anterior margin of the pronotum rising directly above the head with little lateral expansion ; 
median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles weak, triangular, blunt; sides of pronotum punctate 
and irregulaily ridged with reticulate carinas; posterior process high, tectifoim, reaching just about to 
the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum very httle exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, trans- 
lucent; basal area coriaceous and punctate; apex obtusely triangulat, truncate or rounded; veins prom- 
inent; fiveapical and two discoidal cells; no apical limbus. Tibiae of all legs dilated; hind tarsi longest. 

Type frondita De Geer. 

Geographical distribution : A South American genus with one species in the West Indies. 

1. bracteata Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II : 263. 7 (1787). Brazil. 

2. folium Olivier, Ent. Meth. VII : 668. 9 (1792). Surinam, Brazil, Peru. 

3. fronditia De Geer, Ins. III : 208 (1773). Brazil. 

4. gahata Walker, List Hom. B. M. 486. 29 (i85i). Brazil, Peru, British Guiana. 

coacta Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 261 (1906). 

5. insignis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 5^ (1903). — Pl. 9, fig. 137. Brazil, Peru, Bolivia. 

6. lceviptnnis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 527. 14 (1846). Brazil, British Guiana, Peru. 

7. marginalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 479. 29 (i85i). Brazil. 

8. melanopttahis Olivier, Enc. Meth. VII : 668. 7 (1792). Surinam. 

ahdominalis Fabriciiis, Syst. Rhyng. 10. 19 (i8o3). 

9. viridis Funkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. X : 5. 104 (t^o). Trinidad. 



160. GENUS GLISCHROCENTRUS FOWLER 

Glischrocentrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 161 (i8g6). 

Characters : We have never seen the species cucullatus on which this genus was founded, and 
which is the only species in the genus, and can judge the genus only from the original description and 
figures. Fowler's description, while very short and not as complete as might be desired, seems to leave 
no doubt as to the validity of the genus and his figures are excellent. Goding (1927) considered this 
genus a synonym of Blanchard's Melizoderes but this cannot be correct since MeUzoderes has no posterior 
process while Fowler not only figures this process but discusses it in his description of the type species. 
Fowler considered Glischrocentrus as closely related to both Microctntrus and Ischiioctnirus Stal, and dis- 
tinguishes it from the latter by the fact that in Glischrocentrus the posterior process touches the tegmina 
while in Ischnocentrus it is high above the tegmina. His description and figures. however, show more 
important diiferences, particularly in the wing venation and in the shape and character of the clavus. 



lyS HOMOPTERA 

and we are therefore considering Glischioceiitrns as belonging to the Acuminatini and quoting Fowler's 
description and copying his figure for our characterizations. The original description is as foUows : 

« Very close to Phaulocenirus (*), but distinguished by having the forehead more even, the 
frontal tubercles very small, the eyes less prominent, and the pronotum without the ordinary 
central carina, and obtusely produced above the metopidium; the tegmina, moreover, have only 
two discoidal areas; the latter character, however, is somewhat difficult to distinguish in these 
genera. » 

Type cucullatus Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from the type species from Chiriqui. 
I. cucullalus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i6i. i. (1896). — PI. 9, flg. I 38. Panama. 

161. GENUS MICROCENTRUS STAL 

Microcentrus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 295 (1869). 
Phaulocentrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 159(1896). 

Characters : A genus of large, robust, heavy-bodied insects with a short posterior process lying 
close to the scutellum and with long, semiopaque tegmina showing five apical and three discoidal cells. 
Head subquadrate, twice as wide as high, greatly deflexed; base weakly arcuate with a pair of strong 
tubercles, one on each side of the median line ; eyes ovate; ocelli prominent, about equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae 
strongly sinuate; clypeus broad and fiat and extending for half its length below the inferior margins of 
the genae. Pronotum roundly convex, sometimes with more or less well developed suprahumeral protu- 
berances; metopidium nearly vertical, broader than high ; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral 
angles heavy, triangular, blunt; posterior process very short, slender, sinuate, hollowed out on each side 
at the base, closely impinging on the scutellum ; scutellum well exposed, triangular, base swollen, tip 
deeply notched in the center. Tegmina long, semiopaque; base narrowly coriaceous; veins strong and 
more or less punctate; five apical and three discoidal cells; tip acute ; no apical limbus. Femora cylin- 
drical; tibise sometimes weakly dilated ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type carytB Fitch. 

Geographical distribution : This is primarily a North American genus. In the United 
States and Canada the individuals of the tvvo commonest species are very abundant. The other represent- 
atives of the genus range as far southward as Central America but south of the United States the insects 
seem to be rare. 

1. auirtiis Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 3o (igSS). Arizona. 

2. carya Fitch, Cat. Ins. N. Y. 52 (i85i). Pl. 9, flg. 139. Eastern Canada, eastern and 

central U. S. 

3. cornutus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 160. 4 (1896). Mexico. 

4. lynx Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 29 (1^33). Colorado. 

5. nicholi Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46. 3o (tgSS). Arizona. 

6. perdita Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 377 (1843). Eastern, central, southern and 

capra Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 172 (1893). western U. S. 

leibecki Goding, Can. Ent. XXV : 172 (189.3I. 



(*) Now M icrocentrus . W. D. F. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



179 



7. pileatus Fowler, B. C. A. II : iSg. i (1896). Guatemala, Honduras. 

8. proximus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 160. 2 (1896). Guatemala, Mexico, Yucatan. 

9. sordidus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 160. 3 (1896). Mexico. 

162. GENUS CENTRUCHOIDES FOWLER 

Centpuchoides Fowler, B. C. A. II : 161 (1896). 

Characters : Large heavy-bodied insects with strong suprahumeral horns, a long robust 
posterior process and with long, semiopaque or translucent tegmina showing five apical and three 
(sometimes four) discoidal cells. Head subquadrate, about twice as broad as high, very roughly 
sculptured; base weakly arcuate, strongly sinuate and sHghtly tuberculate ; eyes ovate, nearly twice as 
broad as high; ocelH prominent, elevated, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of geniE irregularly sinuate; clypeus roughly, 
longitudinally ridged, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
convex and bearing a pair of strong, well-developed suprahumeral horns which are variable in length 
and in structure ; metopidium nearly vertical, broader than high ; median carina percurrent; humeral 
angles heavy, triangular, blunt; posterior process long, tectiform, reaching to the internal angles of the 
tegmina, impinging on the scutellum and on the tegmina; scutellum narrowl}* exposed on each side. 
Tegmina long, semiopaque or translucent; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate ; five 
apical cells; three or four discoidal cells; tip pointed; no apical limbus. Legs simple; tibia^ not 
flattened ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type laticornis Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from Mexico and Central America and 
is represented by the foUowing two species : 

1. laticoynis Fowler, B. C. A. II : 162. i (1896). Panama, Honduras. 

2. oppugnans Walker, List Hom. B. M. SuppL 160 (i858). — PL 9, Mexico, Yucatan. 

fig. 140. 

163. Genus BOCYDIUM Latreille 

Bocydium Latreille, Reg. Anim. II : 219 (1829). 
Sphaeronotus Laporte, Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. I : 229 (i832). 

Characters : One of the most remarkable of all of the genera of the Membracidje and with 
structures as curious and bizarre as those of any insect of any family. The members of this genus are 
characterized particularly by the fact that the pronotum bears slender spines on which are located inflated 
and decorated globules of various numbers and sizes. Surely from the signs which are displayed above 
their heads, these must be the pawn-brokers among insects. These insects are usually small in size and 
deHcate in structure. Head subtriangular, trilobed; base feebly sinuate, lowest in the center ; eyes 
large and globular; ocelli large, prominent, elevated, three times as far from each other as from the 
eyes and situated close to the upper margin of the head, far above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of genae flattened and extended slightly forward ; clypeus extended for half its length 
below the inferior marginsof the genas to form the central lobe of the trilobed inferior outline of the 
face. Pronotum convex and bearing a slender upright branched spine decorated with a number of 



i8o HOMOPTERA 

globules and usually with a long, curved, needle-like spine extending backward over the body ; meto- 
pidium vertical, keeled, about as broad as high ; humeral angles strong, heavy, triangular, blunt; median 
carina percurrent; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, base swollen, tip acute. Tegmina long, 
narrow, hyaline; veins heavy and usually colored: base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; apex diagon- 
ally truncate; four or five apical and one or two discoidal cells; no apical limbus. Legs simple; all 
tarsi about equal in length. 

Type globulare Fabricius. 

Geogpaphieal distribution : A strictly South American genus, most of the species being known 
only from Brazil. 

1. bullifera Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 4 (igSo). Bolivia. 

2. germari Guerin, Ic. Reg. Anim. 365 (i838). Brazil. 

3. globulare Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. 16. 3 (i8o3). — Pl. 9, fig. 141. Brazil. 

4. globulijerum Pallas, Spicil. Zool. IX : 22 (1772). Brazil. 

5. glomiferum Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 260. 2 (i835). Brazil. 

6. rufiglobum Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5o8. 3 (1846). Brazil. 

7. tintinnabtdiferum Lesson, 111. Zool. Pl. 55 (i83i). Brazil. 

164. GENUS STYLOCENTRUS STAL 

Stylocentrus Stal, Hem. Fabr II : 49 (1869). 

Charactera : A very distinctive genus, similar to the preceding in having long spine-like pro- 
cesses on the pronotum but without the inflated globules. The insects are medium sized, and are deli- 
cate and fragile in structure. Head subquadrate, about as broad as high, trilobed, very roughly sculp- 
tured ; base arcuate and bearing a pair of strong triangular tubercles; eyes very large and globular; ocelli 
large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae extended forward in broad flattened plates; clypeus long and 
narrow, extending for two-thirds its length below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum convex, 
bearing a slender erect spine which is three-branched, the lateralbranches extending outward and curving 
backward, the middle spine very slender, sinuate, extending backward with the tip reaching the tips of 
the tegmina; metopidium broader than high, modified to form the base of the erect spine which is deep. 
ly notched in front at the base ; median carina not developed ; humeral angles extended into short, sharp 
spines; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, swoUen at base, impinging on tegmina, tip acuminate. 
Tegmina semiopaque, coriaceous and punctate on basal two-thirds, hyaline on apical third, usually 
brightly colored; veins strong but irregular; four apical cells; one discoidal cell; apex diagonally trun- 
cate and with a narrow limbus on the anal margin. Legs simple, cylindrical, longand slender; hind 
tarsi longest. 

Type ancora Perty. 

Geogpaphical distributlon ; The two species of the genus have a wide distribution over the 
northern part of South America and parts of Central America. 

1. ancora Perty, Del. Anim. 179(1834). — P|, 9, fig. 142. Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ven- 

ezuela. 

2. championi Fowler, B. C. A. II : 164. i (1896). Panama, Honduras, Costa 

Rica. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE i8i 

165. GENUS SMERDALEA Fowler 

Smerdalea Fowler, B. C. A. II : 162 (1896). 

Characters : This genus is known only from the type species which is a large, rough. spinose 
insect characterized especially by the heavy, irregularly branched suprahumeral horns and the trispinose 
posterior process. Fowler's specific name is well chosen — it is a horrible looking insect. Head sub- 
triangular, very roughly sculptured, inferior margin trilobed ; base feebly sinuate with a nodular protu- 
berance on each side of the median hne; eyes large, protruding, ovate; ocelli large, prominent, equidis- 
tant from each other and from the eyes and situated low on the face about on a line drawn through lower 
margins of eyes; inferior margins of gense produced downward into short rounded lobes; clypeus very 
large, extending for half its length below the inferior margins of the genas. Pronotum convex, bearing 
a pair of large, heavy, irregularly toothed suprahumeral horns and a long, rough, nodulate and spinose 
posterior process ; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
large, triangular with spine-hke tip; suprahumerals heavy, twice as long as the distance between their 
bases, extending outward and upward, decorated with an irregular series of long spine-Uke teeth ; poster- 
ior process robust, rough, with a node at the base and a large apical swelling which is dentate above and 
ends in three heavyspines, extending as far backward as the internal angles of the tegmina; scuteUum 
entirely exposed, long, heavy, swoUen at base and with a dorsal node before the apex which is tectiform 
and then suddenly acuminate. Tegmina opaque, coriaceous and punctate on basal half. hyahne on 
apical half; veins heavy and usualiy pubescent; five apical ceUs; one discoidal ceU ; apex roundly 
truncate; no apical limbus. Legs simple, cyUndrical; aU tarsi about equal in length. 

Type horrescens Fowler. 

Geographical distributlon : The single species of tlie genus has been reported only from 
Central America. 

I. horrescens Fowler, B. C. A. II : i63. i (1896). — Pl. 9,fig. 143. Guatemala, Panama, Costa 

Rica. 

166. Genus dontonodus Funkhouser 

Dontonodus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 407 (i^So). 
Tumacauda Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 3 (igSo). 

Characters : Large. rough insects with heavy suprahumeral horns and an elevated toothed 
nodeon the posterior process. Head subquadrate, broader than high, very roughly sculptured ; base 
high and sinuate and bearing a very large conical tubercle on each side of the median Une ; eyes ovate ; 
oceUi large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a Une drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genag extended forward in rounded lobes; clypeus large, flat, 
extended for three-fourths its length below the inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum rough, 
convex, with large, triquerate, toothed suprahumeral horns, extending outward and upward and 
somewhat longer than the distance between their bases ; metopidium vertical, broader than high; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, robust, triangular, blunt; posterior process heavy, 
sinuate, with a high toothed lobe at the base and with the tip flattened and blunt and reaching just to 
the internal angles of the tegmina: scutellum well exposed, subtriangular, roughly ridged. tip notched. 
Tegmina semiopaque, coriaceous and pilose; veins irregular; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip 



i82 HOMOPTERA 

pointed; no apical limbus. Legs simple, femora cylindrical, tibias triquerate; all tarsi about equal 
in length. 

Type serraticornis Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution ; Of the two known species of this genus, one is from Central 
America and the other is from the United States. 

1. schafferi God\ng, Amer. Mus. Novit. 3 (igSo). Arizona. 

2. serraticornis F^unkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 408 Costa Rica. 

(1930).— Pl. lO.fig. 144. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE HEBESINI GODING 

I. Pronotum bearing three long sharp sl>ines Goniolomus Stil. 

II. Pronotum not trispinose 

A. Posterior process high above scutellum 

1. Exterior discoidal cell of corium stylate, base angulate BoScerus StM. 

2 . Exterior discoidal cell of corium sessile, base truncate 
a. Posterior process very short, not as long as abdomen 

b. Suprahumerals present Spathocentrus Fowler. 

bb. Suprahumerals absent Ischnocentrus Fowler. 

aa. Posterior process as long or Innger than the abdomen 

b. Posterior process bearing an inferior median lobe .... Campylocentrus Stal. 
bb. Posterior process with no median lobe below 

c. Pronoium tmicarinate Ophicentrus Fowler. 

cc. Pronotum tricarinate Psilocentrus Fowler. 

B. Posterior process very close to scutellum 

1 . Pronotum bearing suprahumeral horns 

a. Pronotum with high dorsal elevation Centronodus Funkhouser. 

aa. Pronotum without a high dorsal elevation 

b. Suprahiimerals and posterior process simple 

c. Posterior process very short, not as long as abdomen . . Platycentrus Stal. 
cc. Posterior process as long or longer than abdomen 

d. Scutellum visible at sides Orthobelus St&l. 

dd. Scutellum entirely hidden Callicentrus Stal. 

bb. Suprahumerals laminate ; posterior process ttncinate . . . . Daimon Buckton. 

2 . Pronotum without suprahimeral horns 
a. Sides of scutellum visible 

b. Corium with two discoidal cells 

c. Hind wings withfour apical cells 

d. Tegmina pubescent Amblycentrus Fowler. 

dd. Tegmina not pubescent Centriculus Fowler. 

cc. Hind wings with three apical cells Brachybelus Stal. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.1E i83 

bb. Coritim with three discoidal cells 

c. Posterior process much shorter ihan abdomen Brachycentrutus Metcalf 

cc. Posterior process as long as or longer than the abdomen [and Bruner. 

d. Clavus entirely exposed Monobelus Stal. 

dd. Clavtis partly covered by the prouotum Quadrinaria Goding. 

aa. Scutellum entirely concealed Marshallella Goding. 

167. GENUS goniolomus stAl 

Goniolomus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 294 (1869). 

Chapacters : A very distinct genus if it may be judged by the type species which is the only 
species described for the genus and which is characterized by the three conspicuous spines, one on 
each shoulder and one in the middle of the dorsum. Head subquadrate, broader than high, with a 
horizontal ridge, deflexed below the ridge; base sinuate, lowest in the middle; eyes large and globular; 
ocelli very large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated near the upper 
margin of the head, well above a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas 
rounded; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum 
convex and bearing three strong spines, two humeral and one dorsal; metopidium sloping, broader 
than high, central anterior margin extending shghtly forward over the head; median carina percurrent; 
humeral angles weak and rounded; suprahumeral spines long, sharp, triquerate, extending upward 
and outward, as long as the distance between their bases; dorsal spine long, slender, erect, thornlike; 
posterior process long, slender, decurved, extending almost to thetips of the tegmina; scutellum hardly 
visible on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, semiopaque or translucent; base narrowly coriaceous 
and punctate; five apical and three or four discoidal cells; apex rounded; apical limbus well developed 
on dorsal margin. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type tricorniger Stal. 

Geographical distribution : Known only from the type species from Cuba. 
I. tricorniger Stal. Bid. Memb. Kan. 294. i (1869). — Pl. I 0, fig. I 45. Cuba. 

168. genus BOOCERUS STAL 

Boocerus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 290 (1869). 

Characters ; A monotypic genus, the type species of which bears a strong superficial resem- 
blance to the forms of Campylocentrus in having the inferior lobe on the posterior process, but is entirely 
different in wing venation. Head subquadrate, broader than Iiigh; base weakly arcuate ; eyes 
globular; ocelli conspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well above a line 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas rounded; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of gence. Pronotum convex, bearing suprahumeral horns and a strong posterior 
process originating high above the scutellum ; metopidium vertical, broader than high; median carina 
strongly percurrent; humeral angles strong, triangular, acute; suprahumeral horns long, strong, sharp, 
extending outward and upward, twice as long as the distance between their bases; posterior process 
strong, sinuate, arising high on the posterior dorsum, lobed on the inferior margin, apex sharp and 
extending beyond the internal angles of thetegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, tip deeply 



i84 HOMOPTERA 

notched. Tegmina pellucid; entirely exposed; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong 
and colored ; five apical and two discoidal cells, the outer discoidal cell stylate; tips rounded; apical 
hmbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type gilvipes Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The type species has been reported from Mexico and from 
Central America. 

I. gilvipes Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 290. i (i86g). — Pl. I 0,fig. 146. Mexico, Honduras, Yucatan. 



169. GENUS SPATHOCENTRUS FOWLER 

Spathocentrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i53 (1896). 

Characters : The single species which represents this genus has, so far as we know, never been 
recognized since its original description. However, Fowler's description and his three excellent figures 
seem to leave no doubt but that the genus is valid and we are so recognizing it. From the original 
description and figures, the generic characters may be given as foUows : Head subquadrate, broader 
than high; base arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli prominent, farther from each other 
than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas 
rounded ; clypeus projecting for two thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pro- 
notum convex with strong suprahumerals; metopidium nearly vertical, about as broad as high; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles strong, blunt; suprahumerals as long as the distance between their 
bases, projecting directly outward ; posterior process elevated above scutellum, tip dilated and spatulate, 
not reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina. Tegmina hyaline; base broadly coriaceous and 
punctate; tip rounded; five apical and two discoidal cells; exterior discoidal cell truncate at base; apical 
Hmbus broad. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type intermedius Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from a single species from Mexico. 
I. intermedius Fowler, B. C. A. H : i53. i (1869). Mexico. 

170. GENUS ISCHNOCENTRUS STAL 

Ischnocentrus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 292 (1869). 

Characters : Small, inconspicuous insects without suprahumerals and with a slender posterior 
process high above the scutellum. Head subquadrate, broader than high ; base arcuate; eyes large and 
globular ; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated well above 
a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas sinuate ; clypeus projecting for two-thirds 
its length below infenor margins of gens. Pronotum convex, without suprahumeral horns; metopidium 
sloping, broader than high; median carina obsolete; humeral angles strong, triangular, blunt; posterior 
process slender, spine-like, short, arising from high on the dorsum, far above the scutellum and not 
reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, longer than wide. 
base swollen and tomentose, tip deeply notched. Tegmina hyaline; base broadly coriaceous and 
punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; exterior discoidal cell truncate at base; apical limbus 
nanow. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



i85 



Type niger Stil. 

Geogpaphical dlstribHtion : A Central and South American genus with three species distrib- 
uted as follows : 

I. inconspicuous Buckton, Mon. Memb. 255 (igoS). — Pl. 10, fig. I 47. British Guiana, Canal Zone. 
3. niger Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 293. i (1869). Colombia, Panama, Costa 

Rica, British Guiana. 



/erruginosus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 293. 2 (1869). 
3. rectospina Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. France i55 (1890). 



Venezuela. 



171. GENUS CAMPYLOCENTRUS STAL 

Campylocentpus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 289 (1869). 
Gnamptooentpus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5i (1896). 
Sphaerocontrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : iS^ (1896). 

ChapactePS ; Robust heavy-bodied insects characterized particularly by the fact that the long 
posterior process has an inferior median lobe. Head subquadrate, wider than high ; base slightly 
arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes globular ; oceUi large, prominent, farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense sloping and 
sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense, tip rounded. Pronotum 
convex with strong suprahumeral horns; metopidium vertical, about as broad ashigh; median carina 
percurrent; humeral angles strong, triangular, blunt; suprahumeral horns as long as the distance 
between their bases, extending outward and upward, triquerate, tips sharp ; posterior process long 
tectiform, with a strong inferior median lobe which touches the scutellum, tip sharp and extending well 
beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, base swollen and 
tomentose, tip notched. Tegmina translucent; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; tip rounded; 
five apical and two discoidal cells; exterior discoidal cell sessile with base truncate; apical Hmbus broad. 
Legs simple, femora cylindrical, tarsi triquerate ; hind tarsi much longer than the others. 

Type obscuripennis Stal. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : A genus which has its center of distribution in Central America 
with a few species extending into South America and into Mexico. 

1. aculeolus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i2. 8 (1846). Surinam. 

2. brevicoinis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5i. 6 (1896). Guatemala, Panama. 

3. brunneus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5i. 7 (1896). Mexico. 

4. cavipennis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i53. 2 (i%g6). Guatemala, Panama. 

5. costalis Walker, List Honi. B. M. 6i5. 44 (i85i). Colombia. 

6. curvideus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i5. 18 (1846). Mexico, Guatemala. 

7. gibbocornis Walker, Ins. Saund. 76 (i858). Brazil. Mexico. 

8. Aawtj/fy Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i2. 10 (i856). Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

niveiplaga Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 160 (i858). Yucatan. 

g. nigris Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 410(1930). Costa Rica. 
— Pl. 10, fig. 148. 

10. obscuripennis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 289. i (i86g). Mexico. 

11. pusillus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i2. 11 (1896). Mexico. 

12. sinuatiis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i52. i (i8g6), Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

Yucatan. 



i86 HOMOPTERA 

i3. subspinosus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. Sig. 3i (1846). Mexico,Honduras,CostaRica, 

Panama. 

14. vHreipennis Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5o. 5 (1896). Guatemala. 

172. GENUS OPHICENTRUS FOWLER 

Ophicentpus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i56 (1896). 

Characters : Small delicate insects with no suprahumeral horns and with a slender, extremely 
sinuate posteiior process. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base weakly arcuate; eyes ovate ; 
ocelh large, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through cen- 
ters of eyes ; inferior margins of genae rounded ; clypeus projecting for half its length below inferior mar- 
gins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, without suprahumerals, and smooth on each side of the 
median carina; pronotum sloping, about as broad as high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
large and rounded; posterior process long, slender, triquerate, extremely sinuate, elevated above scutel- 
lum, tip sharp and reaching well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed. 
Tegmina subcoriaceous with very heavy veins; five apical and two discoidal cells, theexteriordiscoidal 
cell nearly circular and almost touching the costal margin of the corium ; apical limbus broad. Legs 
simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type notandus Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from Panama. 
I. notandus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i56. i (1896). — Pl. I O.fig. 149. Panama. 

173. GENUS PSILOCENTRUS FOWLER 

Psilocentrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i56 (1896). 

Characters : This is another of Fowler's mdnotypic genera, the representative speciesof which 
we have not seen. It must be close to Ophicentrus but differs in the wing venation, the less sinuate poster- 
ior process and in having the pronotum strongly tricarinate. From Fowler's description and figures, 
the generic characters may be indicated as foUows : Head subquadrate, wider than high; base strongly 
arcuate; eyes globular ; ocelli prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated 
above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and rounded; clypeus pro- 
jecting for half its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex with astrong, heavy ridge 
on each side of the median carina ; metopidium sloping, about as broad as high ; median carina strongly 
percurrent; humeral angles large and blunt; posterior process slender, lightly sinuate, arisingfrom the 
upper part of the pronotum high above the scutellum and extending just about to the internal angles of 
thetegmina; scutellum entirely exposed. Tegmina hyaline ; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate ; 
five apical and two discoidal cells, the base of the exterior discoidal cell sessile and truncate; apicallim- 
bus broad. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type xaniipa Fowler. 

Geographical distribution : The type species from Mexico is the only known representative 
of the genus. 

I. xantipa Fowler, B. C. A. II : i5j. i (1896). Mexico. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 187 



174. genus centronodus funkhouser 

Centronodus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 4. 405 (igSo). 

Characters ; A very distinct and rather remarkable genus characterized particularly by the large, 
elevated, dorsal node at the base of the posterior process. The insects are large and robust with stout 
suprahumerals, posterior process close to scutellum and semiopaque tegmina. Head subquadrate, 
about as high and broad; base highly arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelH large, prominent, equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of e^-es ; inferior 
margins of genae rounded and often notched; clypeus extending for one-third its length below the 
inferior margins of the genae. Pronotum convex with stout suprahumeral horns; metopidium vertical, 
a httle broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles lafge. triangular, blunt ; 
suprahumeral horns heavy, robust, more or less conical, extending outward and upward, as long as 
the distance between their bases, tips triquerate and blunt; posterior process heavy, tectiform, very 
close to the scutellum and impinging on the tegmina, with a high, elevated dorsal crest at its base, tip 
suddenly acute and reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed 
on each side. Tegmina semiopaque; basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous andpunctate; veins 
heavy and pilose; venation very irregular, particularly in the apical region which may show as many as 
twelve margmal apical cells and six or more discoidals ; anal apical margin truncate ; tippointed; no 
apical limbus. Legs simple, femora cyhndrical, tibife triquerate ; hind tarsi very httle longer than 
the others. 

Type denticulus Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has been reported from both Central and South 
America. Only two species have been described but undescribed material indicates that other species 
are not uncommon in South America. 

1. dciitictilus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc XXXVIII : 4. 405 Costa Rica. 

(1930). — Pl. 10, fig. 150. 

2. flavus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVTII : 4. 406 (igSo). Brazil. 

175. Genus PLATYCENTRUS Stal 

Platycentrus Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 48 (1869). 

Characters ; Medium-sized to iarge insects with robust bodies, well developed suprahumeral 
horns and a short, heavy posterior process lying close to the scutellum. Head subquadrate, twice as 
broad as high; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes ovate; ocelH prominent, nearer to each other than to the 
eyes and situated about on a Hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and 
incnrved; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex 
with strong suprahumeral horns; metopidium nearly vertical, broader than high ; median carina 
percurrent; humeral angles large and blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, heavy, varying in length but 
usuaHy longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward and sometimes 
sHghtly forward, tips usually sharp; posterior process short, heavy, tectiform, straight, tip sharp and not 
reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina and not nearly as far as the end ol the abdomen, 



i88 HOMOPTERA 

closely impinging on scutellum and tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina 
translucent: base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and three discoidal cells; 
tip rounded; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type acuticorms Stal. 

Qeogpaphieal distribution : This genus seems to be Hmited to Mexico and soulhwestern 

United States. 

1. acuticornis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 291. i (1869). — Pl. I 0, fig, 16 1. Mexico, Arizona, Cahfornia. 

dtnticornis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 269 (igoS). 

2. brevicornis Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. XII : 11. 171 (1923). Lower California, San Marcos 

Island. 

3. obtusicornis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 291. 2 (1869). Mexico. 

4. ramosicornis Plummer, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 3^3 (igSS). Mexico. 

5. taurinus Ball, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXXI : 29 (1918). California. 



176. genus orthobelus stal 

Orthobeius Stil, Hem. Fabr. II : 48 (1869). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but dififering particularly in having a long, 
straight posterior process which usually extends farther backward than the abdomen. Head subquad- 
rate, wider than high; base weakly arcuate; eyes globular; ocelli very large. prominent, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
inferior margins of genae sloping downward, sinuate ; clypeus extending for half its length below the infer- 
ior margins of the genae, tip gradually acute. Pronotum convex with strong suprahumeral horns ; 
metopidium sloping, about as wide ashigh; mediancarina percurrent; humeral angles strongand trian- 
gular ; suprahumeral horns strong, varying greatly in length, size and structure, often dilated at the tips, 
usually longer than the distance between their baseS and extending outward and upward; posterior pro- 
cess long, usually straight, tectiform, impinging on scutellum and tegmina, tip sharp and reaching as far 
or farther than the end of the abdomen, always farther than the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
plainly visible on each side. Tegmina hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; 
five apical and two or three discoidal cells; tippointed; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type urtis Fairmaire. 

Geographicai distributlon : Orihobelus seems to be distinctly limited to fhe West Indies. 
The species are very abundant on these islands but have never been found in any other region. 

1. gomez-menori Pelaez, Bol. Soc. Espan. XXXVI : 279 (1936). San Domingo. 

2. havanensis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i6. 22(1846). — Pl. 10 fig. Cuba. 

162. 

3. poeyi Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5x8. 29 (1846). Cuba, Haiti. 

4. urus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5x6. 23 (1846). San Domingo, Haiti, St Vin- 

megaceros Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6i5. 45 {i85i). cenfs Island. 

labatus Buckton, Mon. Merab. 239 (igo3). 

5. ivolcotti Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVI : 37 (1928). Haiti. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 189 



177. Genus CALLICENTRUS Stal 

Callicentrus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 290 (1869). 
Pyramba Buckton, Mon. Memb. 248 (igoS). 

Characters : Medium-sized to large insects with well-developed suprahumerals which vary 
greatly in size and structure and with a simple straight posterior process which entirely coiiceals the scu- 
tellum. Head subquadrate, twice as wide as high, transversely ridged across the middle and much de- 
flexed below the ridge; base weakly arcuate ; eyes very large andglobular; ocelU large, prominent, 
protruding, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense strongly sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of genae, tip sharply pointed. Pronotum convex with strong suprahumeral horns; 
metopidium sloping, a little wider than high; median carina faintly percurrent ; humeral angles large, 
triangular, blunt; suprahumeral horns long, strong and sharp but varying in size and structure, usually 
much longer than the distance between their bases and extending upward and outward ; posterior process 
simple, straight, tectiform, impinging on tegmina, tip sharp and reaching beyond the internal angles of 
the tegmina, usually as far or farther than the end of the abdomen ; scutellum entirely concealed. 
Tegmina long, narrow, hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; tip pointed; five apical and 
two discoidal cells; apical hmbus narrow. Legs simple; all tarsi about the same in length. 

Type ignipes Walker. 

Geographical distrlbution : A West Indian genus which, curiously enough, seems to be 
limited to Jamaica. The species are apparently quite abundant on that island but none have ever been 
reported from any other region. 

1. aurifascia Walker, List Hom. B. M. 618. 49 (i85i). — P|. 10, fig. Jamaica. 

163. 

2. bouasia Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 677 (1775). Jamaica. 

3. cribratus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 619. 5i (i85i). Jamaica. 

4. flavivitta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 617. 48 (i85i). Jamaica. 

5. ignipes Walker, List Hom. B. M. 616. 47 (i85i). Jamaica. 

6. jucundus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 630. 52 (i85i). Jamaica. 

7. platycerus Walker, List Hom. B. M.618. 5o(i85i). Jamaica. 

178. genus daimon buckton 

Daimon Buckton, Mon. Memb. 241 (igoS). 

Characters ; The insects of this genus bear a strong superficial resemblance to those of the 
genus Pterygia of the subfamily Membracinae but the legs are not at all foliaceous and the scutellum is 
well-developed and exposed. Head subquadrate, wider than high, somewhat deflexed; base nearly 
straight; eyes globular; ocelli large, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a Hne 
drawn through centers of eyes; mferior margins of genas rounded; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex with strong ampliate supiahumerals; metopidium 
nearly vertical, a little wider than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large and blunt ; 
suprahumeral horns long, strong, with tips broadly flattened; posterior process long, heavy, with a dorsal 



igo HOMOPTERA 

node or curve near the tip, tip suddenly acute and extending beyond the internal angles of the tegmina ; 
scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina semiopaque; base narrowly opaque and punctate ; 
tip rounded; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus very narrow. Legs slender and simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type satyrus Buckton. 

Geographlcal distrlbution ; This is another West Indian genus with a very limited distribu- 
tion, being found only on the island of Haiti. 

1. satyrus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 241 (igoS). — Pl. I 0, fig. I 54. Haiti. 

2. serricorne Walker, Ins. Saund. 77 (i858). Haiti. 

179. Genus AMBLYCENTRUS FOWLER 

Amblycentrus Fowler, B. C. A. II : i58 (1896). 

Characters : Small elongate densely pubescent insects without suprahumerals and with a short 
thick posterior process lying close to the scutellum. Head subquadrangular, about as long as broad; 
base arcuate and sinuate; eyes large and globular; ocelh prominent, farther from each otherthan from 
the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae rounded ; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, strongly pubes- 
cent; no suprahumeral horns; metopidium sloping, as high as broad, somewhat plicate at base ; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles strong and subauriculate ; posterior process short, tectiform, 
impinging on scutellum, tip blunt and reaching only a Httle beyond the apex of the scutellum, 
scutellum weW exposed on each side. Tegmina long, pubescent; veins strong; five apical and two 
discoidal cells; veins of clavus elevated; apical limbus well developed. Hind wings with four apical 
cells. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type pubescens Fowler. 

Geographical distributlon : The type species from Mexico is the only known representative 

of the genus. 

I. pubescens Fowler, B. C. A. II : i58. i (1896). — Pl. I 0, flg. I 55. Mexico. 

180. GENUS CENTRICULUS FOWLER 

Centriculus Fowler, B. C. A. II : 07 (1896). 

Characters : Medium-sized, slender bodied insects, without suprahumerals and with a short, 
straight posterior process lying close to the scuteUum. Head subquadrate, broader than long; base 
strongly sinuate; eyes globular ; ocelH prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes and 
situated near the base of the head, far above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of 
genae sinuate ; clypeus projecting for half its length below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum con- 
vex, without suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral 
angles very large, blunt; posterior process very short, not reaching beyond the apex of the scuteHum ; 
scutellum broadly exposed on each side. Tegmina hyaHne; basiil half broadly coriaceous and punctate; 
apex rounded; five apical and two oblong, almost equal discoidal cells; apical Hmbus well developed. 
Hind wings with four or five apical ceHs. Legs simple; tibiae incHned to beserrate; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 191 

Type rufotestaceus Fowler. 

Geographical distribution ; A Middle American genus with the two following species : 

1. flavus Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 2. 171 (1929). Costa Rica, Yucatan. 

2. rufotestaceus Fowler, B. C. A. II : iSj. i (1896). — Pl. I 0, flg. I 56. Mexico, Panama, Guatemala. 

181. GENUS BRACHYBELUS Stal 

Brachybelus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 292 (1869). 

Characters : Small, inconspicuous insects with broad pronotum, no suprahumerals, short, 
slender posterior process and three apical cells in the hind wings. Head subquadrate, broader than high, 
deflexed; base weakly sinuate; eyes ovate; oceUi small, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and 
located near the base of the head, far above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
sinuate; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genffi. Pronotum broad, 
convex, without suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, twice as broad as high; median carina obsolete; 
humeral angles large and triangular ; posterior process short, slender, straight, impinging on scutellum 
and not reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum broadly exposed on each side. Tegmina 
subhyaline; base broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong and pilose; five apical and two discoidal 
cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type cruralis St&l. 

Geographical distribution : The type species, which is verj' abundant throughout Mexico 
and Central America, is the only described representative of the genus. 

I. cruralis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 292. i (1869). — Pl. I 0, fig. I 57. Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, 

Honduras. 

182. GENUS BRACHYCENTRUTUS Metcalf AND BRUNER 

Brachycentrutus Metcalf and Bruner, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXI : 28 (1926). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus in general facies but differing in having three discoidal 
cells in the tegmina and in having a broad, triangular posterior process which reaches the apex of the 
clavus. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base nearly straight; eyes globular; ocelli small, twice 
as far from each other as from the eyes and situated jiear the base of the head, far above a line drawn 
through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genee rounded; clypeus projecting for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex. without suprahumerals; metopidium nearly vertical, 
broader than high; median carina percurrent ; humeral angles large and blunt; posterior process short, 
heavy, triangular, reachingjust about to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed 
on each side. Tegmina semiopaque, coriaceous and punctate, with indistinct vems in the basal three- 
fourths; hyaline in the apical fourth; five apical and three discoidal cells, the two outer discoidal cells 



Nota : Walker's species patulus has usually becn considered as belonging to the genus Brachybelus, but this 
species probably belongs to the Bythoscopidae. 



192 



HOMOPTERA 



nearly equal in size, the inner more elongate; apical liinbus broad. Legs simple, slender, pilose; poster- 
ior tibiae roughly serrate; hind tarsi longest. 

Type punctatus Metcalf and Bruner. 

Geographical distribution : Another West Indian genus with species known only from Cuba. 

1. hirsutus Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba2i3 (1925). Cuba. 

2. punctatus Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 212 (1925). — Pl. 10, Cuba. 

fig. I 68. 

183. GENUS MONOBELUS STAL 

Monobelus Stal, Analect. Hem. 368 (1866). 
Delauneya Lethierry, Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg. XXV : 17 (1881). 
Gibbomoppha Buckton, Mon. Memb. 192 (1903). 

Charactars : Small to medium-sized insects with robust, compact bodies, no suprahumerals, 
long, heavy posterior process reaching as far as the end of the abdomen, and entirely free tegmina with 
three discoidal cells. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base feebly arcuate ; eyes globular; 
ocelli large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated above a hne drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping downward, nearly straight; clypeus extending 
for one-third its length below inferior margins of genae, tip narrowly rounded. Pronotum broad, convex, 
smooth, without suprahumerals ; metopidium sloping, much broader than high; median carina obsolete ; 
humeral angles broad andblunt; posterior process long, heavy, sharp, nearly straight, extending beyond 
the internal angles of the tegmina and reaching as far or farther than the end of the abdomen; scutellum 
broadly exposed on each side, base usually tomentose. Tegmina extirely exposed; hyahne; base nar- 
rowly coriaceous and punctate ; five apical and three discoidal cells ; apical limbus broad. Legssimple, 
slender; hind tarsi longest. 

Type/asciatus Fabricius. 

Geographicai distribution i This West Indian genus has the widestdistribution of any mem- 
bracid genus in the Islands. It has never been reported from any other region. 

1. fasciatus Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. 5i5. 33 (1798). — Pl. 10, Porto Rico, Cuba, Haiti. 

fig. 159. 

degteri Coquebert, 111. Icon Ins. I : 35 (1799). 
2-guttatus Fabricius, Syst Rhyng. 21. 27 (i8o3). 
parvula Buckton, Mon Memb. 192 (igoS). 

2. flavidus Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. Sig. 34 (1846). Cuba, Haiti. 

semicrema Baker, Can. Ent. XXXIX : 16 (1907). 

3. irroratus Metcalf and Bruner. Memb. Cuba 211 (1925). Cuba. 

4. lateralis Stkl, Hem. Fabr. II : 5o. 5 (1869). Cuba. 

5. nasutus Stal, Hem. Fabr. II : 5o. 2 (1869). Guadeloupe,Cuba,PortoRico. 

fasciata Lethierry, Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg. XXV : 17 (1881). 
aurea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 193 (igoS). 

6. niger Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 210 (1925). Cuba. 

7. obtusiceps Stal, Hem. Fabr. 11 : 5o. 3 (1869). PortoRico,Haiti,Guadeloupe. 

8. turquinensis Metcalf and Bruner, Memb. Cuba 210 (1925). Cuba. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE igS 

184. GENUS QUADRINARIA GODING 

Quadrinarla Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXV : 2. 167 (1927). 

Characters : This genus is unknown to iis and vve are including it entirely on the authority 
of its author. Goding, however, does not figure the type species and consequentiy we are unable to 
present a Plate Figure. Goding states that the genus is near Brachycentrutus and Gargara, difTering 
from the former in the shape of the head, the position of the ocelli, dorsum not depressed, acute apex 
passing beyond apex of clavus, forked radial and simple ulnar veins, sessile exterior and interior 
discoidal cells and but four apical cells ; and differing from the latter in the subopaque tegmina, three 
discoidal and four apical cells. The original description is as follows : 

« Head with eyes broad as width between humerals, triangular, base straight not sinuate; 
eyes small; clypeus not extended below lorae; ocelli even with center of eyes, same distance from 
each other and base of the head. Pronotum convex, unarmed, with a median carina lightly 
sinuate at middle of dorsum, densely punctured anteriorly more sparingly behind middle. dis- 
tinctly notched behind humerals exposing a little of sides of scutellum, and covered with fine pale 
hairs; posterior process robust, not tectiform, apical fourth acuminate from above and laterally 
to acute apex which reaches tips of tegmina. Tegmina nearly f ree ; clavus partly covered by 
sides of pronotum, clear hyaline excepting coriaceous base, sides nearly parallel, apex obtusely 
rounded, destitute of a longitudinal vein; corium emitting two longitudinal veins from base, 
radial vein forked at middle enclosing first exterior discoidal cell, ulnar vein simple; three 
discoidal cells the first exterior cell stylate, second cell behind it sessile base truncate, the third or 
interior cell equal and contiguous to the others in length, situate between radial and ulnar veins, 
sessile, its base truncate at a transverse venule; four sessile apical cells bases truncate. Wings 
with three apical cells, first and second sessile bases truncate, third stylate, second cell large and 
nearly semicircular, the others sniall. Legs strong, tibiae slender not dilated, tarsi equal. » 

Type u-flava Goding. 

Geographical dlstribution ; The type species from Jamaica is the only known representative 
of the genus. 
I. u-flava Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXV : 2. 168 (1927). Jamaica. 

185. GenuS MARSHALLELLA GODING 

Marshallella Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XXXV : 2. 168 (1927). 

Characters : This genus, as judged by the type species. is very distinct and differs from its 
nearest relatives in having the scutellum entirely concealed and in having the exterior discoidal cell of 
the corium sessile and truncate at the base. The type species is a large brightly colored insect without 
suprahumerals, with a long straight posterior process and with the legs and a spot at the base of the 
tegmina brilliant red. Head subquadrate, roughly sculptured, twice as broad as high; base weakly 
arcuate and sinuate with a small tuberosity above each ocellus; eyes very large, globular and protruding; 
ocelli very large, prominent, a little farther from each other than from the eyes and situated slightly 
above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus extending for 
two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip pointed and pilose. Pronotum low, convex, 
broad, without suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, twice as broad as high; median carina faintly and 
irregularly percurrent; humeral angles large, broad and rounded; posterior process long, straight. 



194 HOMOPTERA 

tectiform, gradually acuminate, tip reaciiing beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely 
concealed. Tegmina hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate ; veins very strong; five or six 
apical and two discoidal cells; exterior discoidal cell sessile and truncate at base; apical hmbus narrow. 
Legs simple; femora cylindrical; tibiae triquerate and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type rubripes Goding. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from Jamaica. 

I. rubripes Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXV : 2. 169 (1927). Jamaica. 

— Pl. 10, fig. 160. 

TRIBES OF THE OLD WORLD CENTROTINiE 

I. Pronotiim with a posterior process 

A. Tibia and head nol dilated; scutellum usually visible 

1 . Pronotum with suprahumeral horns 

a. Hind witigs with three apical cells Centrotini Distant. 

aa. Hind wings with four apical cells 
b . Sides of mesouotum bearing teeth 

c Pronotumbearing a single high process Hypsauchenini Distant. 

cc. Pronotum with two horns Centrocharesini Goding. 

bb. Sides of mesonoium unarmed 

c. Pronotum elevated in a high erect process . . . . . . MiCREUNiNi Distant. 

cc Pronotum withoiit a high median process Leptocentrini Distant. 

2. Pronotiim without suprahumeral horus 
a. Hind wings with three apical cells 

b. Sides of mesonotum bearing teeth Coccosterphini Goding. 

bb. Sides of mesojiotum unarmed Gargarini Distant. 

aa. H ind wings with four apical cells Uroxiphini Goding. 

B. Front tihia and head more or less foliaceous; scutellum present but often 

concealed Oxyrhachisini Distant. 

II. Pronotum wiihout a posterior process Darthulini Tribus nov. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE CENTROTINI DISTANT 

I. Base of poslerior process not tonching scutellum 
A. Poslerior process not angulate at base 

1 . Posterior process with inferior lobe Centrotus Fabricius. 

2 . Posterior process without a lobe beneath 

a. Posffiir iroress ctirved at base, then siraight to apex 

b. Ti^nuua wilh two discoidal cells Tricoceps Buckton. 

bb. 1'fgmina iuilh four discoidal cells Centrotusoides Distant. 

aa. Posti rior process sinnate 



FAM. MEMBRACID^: igS 

b. Posferior process slender, simple 

c. Suprahumerals robust, strongly oblique Platybelus Stal. 

cc. Suprahumerals slender, horisontal Evanchon Goding. 

bb. Poslerior process heavy, swollen or laminate 

c. Posterior process nodose Amitrochates Distant. 

cc. Posterior process not nodose Barsumas Distant. 

B. Posterior process angulate at base 

1. Suprahumerals contiguous or united at hase Monocentrus Melichar. 

2. Suprahumerals distant between bases 

a. Posterior process ampliate heneath Maguva Melichar. 

aa. Posterior process not ampliate beneath 

b. Suprahumerals truncate at tips .Anchon Buckton. 

bb. Suprahumerals acute Spalirises Distant. 

II. Base of poslerior process impinging on scutellum 

A . Posterior process laminate 

1 . Posterior process with high dorsal node 

a. Suprahumerals toothed Pantaleon Distant. 

aa. Suprahumerals simple Antialcidas Distant. 

2. Posterior process without high dorsal node 

a. Suprahumerals cornute Maurya Distant. 

aa. Suprahumerals auriculate Mach.erotypus Uhler. 

B. Posterior process not laminate 

1 . Hind trochanters armed internally with teeth 

a. Apical veins of t^gmina straight Tricentrus Stal. 

aa. Apical veins of tegmina curved Tricentroides Distant. 

2. Hind trochanters unarmed 

a. Suprahiimerals contiguous or united at their hases Eumonocentrus Schmidt. 

aa. Suprahumerals not contiguous or united Crito Distant. 

186. GENUS CENTROTUS Fabricius 

Centrotus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng. i8 (i8o3). 

Beaufortiana Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3o (1916). 

Paratrioentrus Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa XVIII : gS. ii5 (1928). 

Characters : The type species of this genus was one of the first membracids ever to be 
described and since it was one of the coinmonest, and one of the few members of the family found in 
Europe, it consequently must have been very famihar to the early entomologists. As a result, it vvould 
seem that any nevv species which bore even a superficial resemblance to C. cornutus was placed in this 
genus, only to be removed later to some other genus when the family became more and more subdivided. 
Nevertheless, it is lather surprising to note that the bibUograph}' of the genus shows a total of 



igS HOMOPTERA 

279 difterent species which at one time or another have been assigned to it of which only 40 now remain 
and some of these are very doubtful as to their correct generic classification. 

The representatives of this genus are large, robust insects with strong suprahumerals and a more 
or less straight, heavy posterior process which has a well developed inferior node. Other important 
generic characters may be listed as follows : Head subquadrate, a httle wider than high, usually 
pubescent; base arcuate ; eyes comparatively small andovate; oceUi large, prominent, somewhat farther 
from each other than from the eyes and situated about on a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae sloping downward, weakly sinuate; clypeus extending for more than half its length 
below the inferior margins of the gense, tip truncate. Pronotum convex with strong suprahumerals; 
metopidium nearly vertical, about as broad as high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large 
and blunt; suprahumeral horns heavy, as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward 
and upward, triquerate, tips pointed ; posterior process heavy, tectiform, arising from well above the 
scuteUum, with a large inferior node which impinges on the tegmina, tip sharp and reaching just about 
to the internal angles of the tegmina; scuteUum entirely exposed, heavy, triangular, tectiform. Tegmina 
entirely free, broad, subhyaUne; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and 
two discoidal ceUs; tip rounded; apical Umbus broad. Hind wings with three apical ceUs. Legs 
simple; femora cyUndrical; tibiae triquerate and minutely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type cornutus Linnaeus. 

Geogpaphical distribution The wide distribution recorded for this genus makes one 
suspicious that some of the species may not be correctly assigned, since widely separated regions of 
Europe, Asia, Africa and the East Indies are included in the Ust of locaUties. If aU of the foUowing 
species reaUy belong to Centrotus (which we very much doubt), this genus is the most cosmopoUtan of 
aU of the membracid genera. Unfortunately many of these species have never been recognized since 
their original descriptions and we can therefore only record them as they have been described until 
further information is available. 

1. albigutta Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 184(1868). Indian Archipelago. 

2. albilatus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 184 (1868). New Guinea. 

3. angustulus MeUchar, Hom. Ceylon 112. 8 (igoS). Ceylon. 

4. bantuautus Distant, Ins. Trans. i. 2i5 (1908). Transvaal. 

5. Wco/oy WaU<er, List Hom. B. M. 625. 63 (i85i). Unknown. 

6. bioculatus Kirby, Journ Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 166 (1891). Ceylon. 

7. biturris Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 164(1858). New Hebrides. 

8. bovinus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 323 (1916). British East Africa. 
g. colladoi Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 49 (1935). Fernando Po. 

10. constipaius Walker, Journ. I^inn. Soc. Zool. X : 192(1868). Indian Archipelago. 

11. cornutus Linnaeus, I^^auna Suecica 879 (1746). — Pl. I 0, fig. 16 1. Germany, Austria, Poland, 

itaUcus Kirschbaum, Cicad. 67 (i855). France, Italv, Spain, Portu- 

turcicus Kirschbaum, Cicad. 67 (i855). 

abbreviatus Kirschbaum, Cicad. 67 (i855). g^'' England, Finland, Rus- 

siculus Kirschbaum, Cicad. 66 (i855). sia, Siberia. 

gallicus Kirschbaum, Cicad. 67 (i855). 

u horucicade n Taschenberg, Beld. Ins. Libr. 541 (1861). 

dipressus Fieber, Rev. Mag. Zool. III : i5 (1876). 

obtusus Fieber, Rev. Mag. Zool. III : 19 (1876). 

rugosus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 243 (igoSj. 

12. difficilis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i (rgiS). Cape Colony. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



197 



i3. distanti nom. nov. 

cornuta (preoccupied) Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i (1916). 

14. flagdlifer Signoret, Thoms. Arch. II : 336. 641 (i858). 

i5. globifer Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 44 (1935). 

16. granulaius Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 166 (1891). 

17. impressiis Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 192 (1868). 

18. indicatus Melichar, Hom. Ceylon III : 6 (1903). 

19. laxatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes i55 (1916). 

20. magellani Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i3. 12 (1846). 

21. marshalli Distant, Rhynch. Notes 154(1916). 

22. melangensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 323 (1916). 

23. nervosus Motschulsky, Put. Cat. 98 (i85g). 

24. nitobei Matsumura, Cic. Jap. II : 17. 3 (1912). 

25. nodulatus Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 46 (ig35). 

26. pacificus Gerstaecker, Reis. Ost. Afr. 4^0 (1873). 

27. pallidus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6^5. 62 (i85i). 

28. quadripunctatus Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 95. 4 (i855). 

29. ramosus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 47. 2169 (1907). 

30. rugosus Montrozier, Ann. Soc. Lyon II : i (i855). 
3r. scutellaris Olivier, Enc. Meth. 665. 23 (1792). 

32. shoanus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 323(1916). 

33. spinicornis Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 95. 3 (i855). 

34. subnodosus Jacobi, Erg. Zent. Afr. Exp. IV : 35 (1912). 

35. subsimilis Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. I,ond. I : i63. ii3 (1857). 

36. talumensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 292 (1916). 

37. taurifrons Walker, List Hom. B. M, 608. 22 (i85i). 

38. tenuispina Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 5i (i935). 

39. varipennis Signoret. Thoms. Arch. II : 33^. 643 (i858). 

40. walkeri {nom. nov.) Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 372 (1927). 

costalis (preoccupied) Walker, Ins. Saund. 82 (i858). 



Cape Colony. 

Calabar. 

Biafra. 

Ceylon. 

East Indies 

Ceylon, British India. 

Natal. 

Philippines. 

Mashonaland. 

Borneo 

Europe; 

Japan. 

Fernando Po. 

East Africa. 

Unknown. 

Natal. 

Ceylon. 

Woodlark Islands. 

East Indies. 

Abyssinia 

Cafifraria. 

Central Africa. 

Borneo. 

Malaya. 

Java. 

Fernando Po. 

Calabar. 

Unknown. 



187. genus tricoceps buckton 



Tpicoceps Buckton, Mon. Memb. 249 (1903). 

Tambusa Distant, Ins. Trans. 216 (1908). 

Tambusana Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. IX : 652 (1912). 

Characters : A genus of robust insects with strong suprahumerals, the posterior process curved 
but not angulate at the base, three apical cells in the hind wings and two discoidal cells in the tegmina. 
Head irregularly subquadrate, about as broad as high ; base highly arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelli prominent, 
twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated far above a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior mavgins of 



igS 



HOMOPTERA 



gense. Pronotum convex with strong suprahumerals ; metopidium nearly vertical, about as broad as 
high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles heavy, triangular, blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, 
triquerate, as long or longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward, tips 
sharp; posterior process high above the scutellum, curved at base and then nearly straight to apex which 
reaches beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subhyaline; base 
narrowly coriaceous and punctate ; veins somewhat indistinct; five apical and two discoidal cells; 
apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type brunnipennis Germar. 

Geographical distpibution : This isdistinctly an African genus with species widely distributed 
on that continent. 



1. angttlatus Pelaez, Memb. ^''ernando Po 55 (igSS). 

2. brunnipennis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^7. 4 (i835). 



Cameroons. 

Natal, Cape of Good Hope, 

Transvaal, 
Congo Free State, Nyanza. 
Biafra. 



3. curvispina Distant, Rhynch. Notes 322 (1916). 

4. guineensis Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 55 (1^35). 

5. pubipennis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5ii. 7 (1846). — Pl. I 0, fig, I 62. Cape of Good Hope, Trans 

vaal. 

6. »"«^05« Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : 149(1927). Bugombe. 



188. GENUS CENTROTUSOIDES DISTANT 



Centrotusoides Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3o (1916). 

Characters : Heavy-bodied insects, closely related to those of the preceding genus but differing 
in having the basal curve of the posterior process farther caudad and in having at least four discoidal 
cells in the tegmina. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base highly arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelli 
prominent, equidistant from each other and from the ej^es and situated on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes ; inferior margins of gens rounded; clypeus trilobed, extending for two-thirds its length below 
inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex with short, stout suprahumerals ; metopidium nearly 
vertical, broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles very large and blunt; 
suprahumeral horns short, swoUen, triquerate, not as long as the distance between their bases, extending 
outward and slightly upward, tips blunt; posterior process heavy, tectiform, tricarinate, curved above 
the scutellum, tips sharp and reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum well exposed 
on each side, Tegmina subhyaline ; base narrowl}' coriaceous and punctate ; five apical cells and four 
or more (usually five and sometimes six) discoidal cells arranged in two transverse rows with three in the 
distal row and one, two ov three in the proximal row; apicallimbus broad. Legs very strong ; tibia: 
inclined to be flattened; hind tarsi longest. 

Type nniiri Distant. 

Geographical distribution : An African genus with two species both from South Africa. 

1. muiri Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3o (1916). — Pl. I 0, fig. I 63. Natal. 

2. wealei Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3o (1916). Durban. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 199 



189. GENUS PLATYBELUS Stal 

Platybelus Stal, Hem. Afi. IV : 96 (1866). 

Characteps : The insects of this genus are distinguished by their strongly oblique robust 
suprahumeral horns and slender, sinuate, acuminate posterior process which does not touch the 
scutellum. Head subquadrate, wider than high, usually pubescent; base strongly arcuate andsinuate; 
eyes ovate; oceUi not conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated above a 
hne drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sloping downward and feebly sinuate; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip pointed. Pronotum convex 
with long suprahumerals; metopidium vertical, wider than high; median carina strongly percurrent; 
humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns long, triquerate, sharp, extending 
outward and upward, much longer than the distance between their bases; posterior process long, sinuate, 
tectiform, acuminate, tip reaching a point well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina and usually 
beyond the end of the abdomen ; scutellum well exposed on each side. Tegmina hyaUne ; base narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate ; veins strong; five apical and three discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical hmbus 
broad. Hind wings with three apical cells. Legs simple ; femora cylindrical; tibiae triquerate; hind 
tarsi longest. 

Typejlaviis 5ignoret. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus with one (doubtful) species from southern 
Asia. 

1. africanus Distant, Rhynch. Notes SaS (1916). Cameroons,Uganda, Buamba, 

SemliU, Budongo, Unyoro. 

2. albescens Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : 146 Zanzibar. 

(1927). 

3. aries Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. iii (1910). KiUmandjaro. 

4. brmiieus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLII : 3. 33^ (1934). Transvaal, Natal. 

5. dschagga Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 122 (1910). KiUmandjaro. 

6. escaleranus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 324 (1916). Cameroons. 

7. flavns Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. II : 33^. 646 (i858). Calabar. 

varipennis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 326 (1916). 

8. gowdeyi Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3^5 (1916). Uganda, Mabira. 

9. insignis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3^6 (1916). Nyassaland. 

10. luteus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 2^9 (1914). Banguay. 

11. macrocerus Pelaez, Bol. Soc. Espanola XXXVI : 194 (1936). Abyssinia. 

12. projectus Funkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. 43 : 2. 193 (1936). South Africa. 
i3. s!KZ(os».s Distant, Rhynch. Notes i55 (1916). — Pl, 1 0, fig. 164. Nyassaland. 

190. GENUS EVANCHON GODING 

Evanchon Cioding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 40 (i93o). 

Characters : This is a genus characterized by the horizontal suprahumerals and the very 
strongly sinuate posterior process which is elevated above the scuteUum. Head subquadiate, a Uttle 



200 HOMOPTERA 

wider than high; base arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli small, inconspicuous, twice as 
far from each other as from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae rounded; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genas. 
Pronotum convex with horizontal suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median 
carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns projecting almost 
directly outward, variable in size and structure, the tips being sharp, truncate or dentate; posterior 
process long, strong, nearly cylindrical, tricarinate, very strongly sinuate, arising from above the 
scutellum, tip sharp and extending beyond the end of the abdomen, almost to the tips of the tegmina; 
scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, tip broadly notched. Tegmina hyaline; base broadly 
coriaceous and punctate; venation irregular; five apical cells with curved veins; one or two discoidal 
cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

The variation in the structure of the suprahumerals and in the wing venation of this genus as well 
as the erratic geographical distribution of the forms may warrant a further subdivision of the genus if 
and when more species are described which will indicate definite distinctions between these variations. 

Type serpentinus Funkhouser. 

Geographical distpibution : This genus. as at present constituted, shows species both in 
Africa and in the East Indies. We are inclined to believe that the two groups may eventually prove to 
represent different genera. 

1. javanensis nom. nov. Java. 

sinuata (preoccupied) Funkhouser, Treubia i5. i (igSS). 

2. maculatus Funkhouser, Tijd. Ent. 80. I23 (1937). Java. 

3. minutus Funkhouser, Can. Ent. LI : 10 (1919). Pretoria, Africa. 

4. serpentinus Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 209. i3 (1920). — Pl. 10, Borneo. 

fig. 165. 

5. sinuatus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 428 (1935). Uganda, Africa. 

191. Genus AMITROCHATES DISTANT 

Amitrochates Distant, Rhynch. Notes 327 (1916). 

Characters : Small, rough insects characterized by the very nodose and sinuate posterior 
process and the short, bulbous, spined suprahumerals. Head subquadrate, declivous, longitudinally 
ridged, twice as broad as high; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes large and globular; ocelH inconspicuous, 
about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers 
ofeyes; inferior margins of genae rounded; clypeus extending for more than half its length below the 
inferior margins of the genae, tip truncate. Pronotum convex with bulbous suprahumerals which 
terminate in a spine; median carina percurrent; humeral angles heavy and blunt; suprahumeral horns 
thick and subconical, projecting directly outward and ending in a sharp spine; posterior process heavy, 
very sinuate, nodose, rough, elevated above the scutellum and ending in a spine which reaches beyond 
the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad, tip 
upcurved. Tegmina hyaline; base broadly coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; 
apical limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type grahami Distant. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 201 

Geographieal distribution : The genus is lepresented by two Afiican species. 

1. grahami Distant, Rhynch. Notes 328 (1916). — Pl. I 0, fig. 166. Ashanti, Obuasi, Gold Coast. 

2. mabirensis China, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XI : 463 (1923). Aburi, Uganda, Mabira. 

192. Genus BARSUMAS Distant 

Barsumas Distant, Rhynch. Notes i56 (1916). 

Characters : Small, inconspicuous insects closely related to those of the genus Platybdus Stal, 
but differing particularly in the structure of the posterior process which is broadly, laterally flattened 
and impinges on the tegmina for its distal two-thirds. Head subquadrate, broader than high, apical 
half deflexed; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli small, inconspicuous, elevated, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of gente sinuate ; clypeus extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of genas. 
Pronotum convex, with short, broad, flattened suprahumerals; metopidium sloping, broader than high, 
extended forward in a ridge over the head; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular 
and sharp; suprahumeral horns short, flattened, blunt, extending outward and slightly upward, not as 
long as the distance between their bases; posterior process heavy, laminate, arising from well above 
the scutellum, arching above the scutellum, then curved downard and impinging on the tegmina for its 
sinuate two-thirds, incUned to be serrate above, tip sharp and extending beyond the lateral angles of the 
tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad, tip notched and upcurved. 
Tegmina broad, hyahne, wrinkled; base coriaceous and punctate; veins prominent; tip pointed; five 
apical and three discoidal cells; apical Umbus broad, particularly on the anal margin. Hind wings with 
three apical cells. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Typ» primus Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus known only from the type species. 

I. primus Distant, Rhynch. Notes i56 (1916). — Pl. I I , fig. I 67. Mashonaland, Sahsbury, Bel- 

gian Congo. 

193. GENUS MONOCENTRUS MELICHAR 

Monocentrus Melichar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 297 (igoS). 
Congallana Distant, Ins. Trans. I : 2i3 (1908). 
Basilidea Distant, Rynch. Notes 149 (1916). 

Characters : A very distinct genus characterized particularly by the long suprahumerals which 
are closely contiguous or actually joined at their bases. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base 
highly arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent. equidistant from each other 
and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
sinuate; clypeus extending for half its lengtli below inferior margins of genas, tip pointed. Pronotum 
elevated, conical, bearing suprahumeral horns which either touch each other or are grown together at 
their bases ; metopidium conical, higher than wide ; median carina percurrent; humeral angles strong, 
triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns varying in size and structure but always close together or 
united at their bases and usualiy laminate and extending outward at the tips; posterior process heavy, 
sinuate, arising from high above the scutellum, sharply angulate near the base, sometimes with a tooth 



202 HOMOPTERA 

on the angle, extending backward beyond the internal angles of the tegmina and geneially as far as 
the end of the abdomen ; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, tip notched. Tegmina iiarrow, 
basal area usually coriaceous, apical area hyaline; five apical and three discoidal cells ; tips sharply 
pointed; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type delelus Melichar. 

Geographical distribution : An African genus with a rather wide distribution as is indicated 
by the following species : 

1. albomaculatus Schmidt, Zool. Anz, XXXVIII : aSg (191 1). East Africa. 

2. bipenuis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 606. 19 (i85i). West Africa. Ogragra, Came- 

alboliniatum Buckton, Mon. Memb. 216 (igoS). roons Calabar Mt. Coffee. 

3. deletus Melichar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 297 (i^oS). East Africa. 

4. flavigaster Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 26 (igSS). Fernando Po. 

5. /uscum Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 22 (igoS). — Pl. I I , Nigeria. 

fig. 168. 

6. hyalinipeunis Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 240 (191 1). East Africa, Biafra. 

7. hypsaucheniana Distant, Ins. Trans. I : 2i3 (1908). Transvaal. 

8. insularis Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 238 (191 1). East Africa, Fernando Po. 

9. laticornis Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 238 (191 1). East Africa. 

10. leighi Distant, Ins. Trans. I : 2i3 (1908). Transvaal, Uganda. 

11. opacus Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 2^9 (191 1). East Africa, Rio Muni, 

12. rotundicornis Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 23 (igSS). Cameroons. 

i3. strigatum Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 333 (igoS). Cameroons, Uganda. 

194. Genus MAGUVA Melichar 

Maguva Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 109 (1903). 
Anchoneldas Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 162 (1916). 

Characters : The insects of this genus are distinguished by the sharp suprahumerals which 
are widely separated at their bases and particularly by the posterior process which is more or less 
sinuate, distinctly angulate at the base and ampliate or lobed beneath. Head subquadrate, wider than 
high; base arcuate and slightly sinuate ; eyes globular; ocelli small, inconspicuous, equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated somewhat above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of genae sinuate and sloping downward; clypeus extending for half its length below 
the inferior margins of the genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex with long sharp suprahumerals ; 
metopidium nearly vertical, broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles 
large und blunt ; suprahumeral horns variable in size and structure but usually strong, longer than the 
distance between their bases, extending outward and upwaid and curving backward, with tips sharp ; 
posterior process heavy, more or less sinuate, arising from high above the scutellum, and having an 
inferior lobe or plate which is sometimes attached to the scutellum, tip sharp and reaching a Httle 
beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum well exposed, triangular, longer than broad. 
Tegmina hyaline; basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; tip rounded ; five apical and 
three discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Hind wings with three apical cells. Legssimple; hind 
tibiae feebly spined; all tarsi about equal in length. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 2o3 



Type horrida Melichar. 



Geographical distpibution ; The species of this genus are found in Ceylon, Malaya, and the 
islands of the Archipelago. They are appaiently not common and are seldom seen in collections. 

1. brunnea Funkhouser, Ent. Month. Mag. LXXIII : loo (igSy). Borneo. 

2. cornuta [•"unkhouser. Memb. Mt. Kinabalu ii6 (1932). Borneo. 
3 horrida Melichar, Hom. Ceylon log. i (igo3). Ceylon. 

4. iiigra Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 116 (1929). — Pl, I I, New Guinea. 

flg. 169. 

sinuata Funkhouser, Treubia XV : !. t2I (i935). 

5. sordida Funkhouser, SpoHa Ment. i3 (1928). Siberut Island. 

6. typica Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. ."^pp. 162 (1916). Ceylon. 

7. variegata Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 4. 8 (1918). Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra. 

195. GENUS ANCHON BucktoN 

Anchon Buckton, Mon. Memb. 214 (igo^). 

PapaxiphopOBUs Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 2. 89 (1930). 

Chapacteps : A distinct and rather remarkable genus at once recognized by the laminate, 
truncate suprahumerals set far apart and by the posterior process which is sharply angulate at the base. 
Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high ; base strongly arcuate ; eyes globular ; ocelU large, prominent, 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; inferior margins of genae rounded ; clypeus extending for more than half its length below 
inferior margins of gense, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, with strong suprahumerals which are not 
contiguous at their bases; metopidium nearly vertical, about as broad as high; median carina strongly 
percurrent ; humeral angles small, triangular and sharp ; suprahumeral horns strong, heavy, longer than 
the distance between their bases, flattened, extending outward and upward, tips laminate, truncate and 
often dentate; posterior process arising from high above the scutellum, sharply angulate at base, often 
with a tooth at the angle, behind the angle usually straight, slender, acuminate, extending beyond the 
internal angles of the tegmina and about as far as the end of the abdomen ; scutellum entirely exposed, 
subtriangular, base swoUen, tip deeply and broadly notched. Tegmina hyaUne; base narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal ceUs ; apex diagonally truncate; apical Umbus 
broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type nodicornis Germar. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : This is a large genus with a wide distribution throughout Asia 
and Africa. 

1. arebiensis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 8g (igSo). Africa, Northwest Congo. 

2. bilineatus Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. g5. 2 (i855). Natal. 

3. boneti Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 33 (ig35). Fernando Po. 

4. brevis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 52. 2177 (igo^). Ceylon. 

5. brunneus Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 2. 241 (igS^). Hainan Island, China, Han- 

chow. 

6. decoratum Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i6 (1914). West Africa, Lagos. 

7. dilaticornis Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Vo 3o (ig^S). Cameroons. 



204 



HOMOPTERA 



8. echmatum Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 5i. 2174 (1907). 

9. elegans Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 40 (ig35). 

10. flavipes Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 287 (1911). 

11. formosanum Kato, Insect World XXXII : 10 (1928). 

12. gestroi Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 264 (191 1). 
i3. gracilis Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 235 (191 1). 
14. gunni Funkhouser, Can. Ent. LI : 10 (1919). 

i5. limbatum Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 235 (191 1). 

16. lifieaius Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2 (1938). 

17. minor MeHchar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 296. 61 (igo^). 

18. nodicornis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 257. 6 (i835). 



19. nodosus Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 26 (ig^o). 

20. pilosum Walker, List Hom. B. M. 606. 18 (i85i). 

21. poensis Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 37 (1935). 

22. proximus Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France VIII : 202. 53 (1860). 

23. rectangulaUm Kirby, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 166 (1903). 

24. relatum Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i6 (1914). 

25. remigium Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2i5 (igo3). 

26. schubotzi ]acoh\, Ergenb. Zentr. Afrik. Exp. IV : 2. 36 (1912). 

27. senegalensis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5ii. 6(1846). 

28. ulniforme BncVXon, Mon. Memb. 216 (igo^). — Pl. II, fig. 170. 

2g. vicinus Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. II : 33g. 6^5 (i858). 



British India, Tenasserim, 

Myitta. 
Cameroons. 
Africa, Cameroons, Sierra 

Leone. 
Formosa. 
Africa. 

Africa, Fernando Po. 
South Africa, Pretoria. 
Africa. 

China, Kwantung. 
East Africa, Bomole. 
South Africa, Cape of Good 

Hope, Bomole, Natal, Bel- 

gian Congo. 
Sudan. 
India, Ceylon, China, Japan, 

Hainan Island. 
Fernando Po. 
Madagascar. 
India, Ceylon, Mysore. 
Lagos. 
Unknown. 
Africa. 

Senegal, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
India, Tenasserim, Myitta, 

Mysore, Java, Sumatra. 
Calabar. 



196. GENUS SPALIRISIS DISTANT 



Spalirisis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 29 (1916). 
Planecornua Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent Soc. XXXVIII : 90 (igSo). 

Characters : A genus of large robust insects with strong sharp suprahumerals and a long 
posterior process which is angulate at the base. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base 
arcuate and sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the 
eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sinuate; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense, tip pointed. Pronotum convex 
with strong, sharp suprahumerals ; metopidium vertical, higher than broad ; median carina percurrent; 
humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns iong, strong, sharp, usually extending 
outward and upward but sometimes almost horizontal, sometimes slightly flattened before the tips, 
longer than the distance between their bases; posterior process arisiiig from high above the scutellum, 
sharply angulate at the base, often toothed at the angle, behind the angle more or less sinuate, triquerate. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 2o5 

tipaciiminateandextendingalmost to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtiiangular, 
twice as long as broad, tip broadly notched. Tegmina semiopaque, base narrowly coriaceous and 
punctate ; veins strong ; five apical and three discoidal cells ; apical limbus broad. Legssimple; hind 
tarsi longest. 

Type alticornis Jacobi. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus with four described species. 

1. alticornis Jacobi, Ergebn. Zentr. Afrik. Exped. 35 (1910). British East Africa, Uganda, 

Mutanda, Mpanga, Toro, 
Ruwenzori. 

2. humilis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 89 (i^So). Ruwenzori. 

3 infractus Jacobi, Kil. Exped. 122 (1910). Kilimandjaro. 

4. uigris nom. nov. — P|. II, fig. 171. Usambara. 

majusculum Distant, (British Museum MS name). 



197. Genus PANTALEON DISTANT 

Pantaleon Distant, Rhynch. Notes 327 (1916). 
Eupantaleon Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Form. XVIII ; 33 (1928). 

Characters : A peculiar genus of large insects characterized by the high, arcuate dorsal node 
on the posterior process and the strongly dentate suprahumerals. Head subquadrate, about as broad 
as high, usually pubescent; base highly arcuate and sinuate; eyes ovate ; oceUi prominent, farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior 
margins of gense sinuate; clypeus trilobed, the median lobe much the largest, extending for more than 
half its length below the inferior margins of the genae, tip broadly rounded. Pronotum convex with 
strong, toothed suprahumerals ; metopidium nearly vertical, broader than high ; median carina strongly 
percurrent; humeral angles small, triangular and pointed ; suprahumeral horns heavy, robust, swoUen, 
triquerate, apex strongly dentate ; posterior process heavy and elevated into a high, flattened dorsal 
node, tip suddenly acute and reaching just about to the internal angles of the tegmina ; scutellum 
narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina semiopaque, base narrowly coriaceous and punctate ; veins 
strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type montifer Walker. 

Geographical distributlon : The species of this genus are not common and seem to be limited 
to oriental regions. 

1. brunneus Funkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. ^5 (1921). — China, Kiautschau, Chekiang, 

Pl. II, flg. 172. Kiangsu. 

2. bufo Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Form. XVIII : 33 (1928). Formosa. 

3. bulbosus Funkhouser, Ent. Month. Mag. LIII : loi (1937). Borneo. 

4. dorsalis Matsumura, Cicad, Jap. II : i8i5 (1912). Formosa. 

5. montifer Walker, List Hom. B. M. 620. 53(i85i). China, Hong Kong. 



2o6 HOMOPTERA 

198. GENUS ANTIALCIDAS DisTANT 

Antialcidas Distant, Rhynch. Notes 326 (1916). 

Characters : This genus is veiy close to the preceding and perhaps is not deserving of separate 
generic rank. If the two genera are not distinct, then this genus is valid and Paniahun becomes a 
synonym. The only important dilference between Pantaleon and Antialcidas is in the structure of the 
suprahumerals which in the former are strongly toothed and in the latter are simple. This difference, 
however, is conspicuous and noteworthy and seems to be constant, and we are therefore considering it 
a satisfactory generic character. The other characters are very similar to those of PantaUon and may be 
briefly listed as follows : Head subquadrate, broader than high; base arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelli 
inconspicuous, a little farther from each other than from the eyes and situated above a hne drawn through 
centers of eyes; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. 
Pronotum convex with strong, simple suprahumerals ; metopidium vertical, broader than high; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles small, triangular and pointed; suprahumeral horns strong, triquerate, 
extending outward and upward, as long or longer than the distance between their bases, tips sharp and 
without teeth; posterior process elevated into a high, usually triangular dorsal node, much flattened 
laterally and inclined to be foliaceous, tip suddenly acute and reaching just about to the tipsofthe 
tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina semiopaque ; base narrowly coriaceous 
and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; femora 
cylindrical; tibiae triquerate and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type iri/oliaceus Walker. 

Geographical distribution : Anlialcidas, like the preceding genus, is hmited in distribution to 
Eastern Asia. 

1. attenuatus Funkhouser, Rec. Ind. Mus. XXIV : 3. 327 (1922). India.Sureil, East Himalayas. 

2. erectus Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 47 (1921). China, Kiautschau. 

3. trifoliaceus Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i63 (i858). — PL M , North China, Kiangsu. 

fig. 173. 

199. GenUS MAURYA DISTANT 

Maurya Distant, Rhynch. Notes 326 (1916). 

Characters : Medium-sized insects with cornute suprahumerals and a more or less elevated 
flattened posterior process which does not show a high dorsal node. Head subquadrate, broader than 
high; base arcuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, a little farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated somewhat above a line drawn through centers of e^^es ; inferior margins of genae 
sinuate and sloping downward; clypeus extending for more than half its length below inferior margins 
of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex with short, heavj', sharp suprahumerals; metopidium nearly 
vertical, broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, triangular and 
blunt; suprahumeral horns stout, triquerate, robust, extending outward and upward, not as long as the 
distance between their bases, tips pointed; posterior process heavy, laminate, tectiform, tip acute and 
just reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina 



FAM. MEMBRACID.2E 207 

broad, wrinkled, hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; five apical and three discoidal cells ; 
tip pointed; apical hmbus narrow. Legs simple; hindtarsi longest. 

Type gibbosulus Walker. 

Geographical distrlbution : Mrtwrva is an oriental genus with a rather wide distribution over 
northern, eastern and southern Asia. 

1. angulatiis Funkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 48(1921). China, Kiautschau, Formosa. 

2. arisanus Kato, Insect World XXXII : 11 (1928). Formosa. 

3. bicolor Funkhouser, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 2. 246(1936). Bengal. 

4. decoraia Funkhouser, Notes d'Ent. Chinoise IV : 2. 29 (1937). China, Chekiang. 

5. dentictila Funkhouser, Notes d'Ent. Chinoise V : 2 (1938). China, T'ienmuShan. 

6. gibbosulus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 187 (1868). Macassar. 

7. paradoxits Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX : 80 (1876). — Pl. I I, Siberia, West China, Ussuri. 

flg. 174. 

8. sibiricus Lethierry, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX : 80 (1876). Siberia, Ussuri. 



200. GENUS MACH/EROTYPUS UHLER 

Machaepotypus Uhler, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XIX : 284 (1896). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but having the suprahumerals reduced to 
mere folds or ridges or at most only auriculate rather than cornute and in having the laminate posterior 
process only slightly flattened. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base arcuate and weakly sinuate ; 
eyes large and ovate; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant froni each otherand from the eyes and situated 
well above a hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genas, tip rounded and pilose. Pronotum convex 
with suprahumerals very small, auriculate or ridged; metopidium almost vertical, convex, much broader 
than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, blunt and triangular, extending 
farther outward than the suprahumerals; suprahumeral horns consisting merely of ridges or folds or 
short auricular projections; posterior process heavy, shghtly laminate, tectiform, and reaching a little 
beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina opaque 
or translucent; base coriaceous and punctate ; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus well 
developed. Legs simple; tibije strongly pilose; hind tarsi longest. 

Type sellatus Uhler. 

Geographical distribution : This is an Asiatic genus with a rather wide distribution as 
foUows : 

1. brevicornis Funkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 49 (1921). Japan. 

2. brunneus Funkhouser, Rec. Ind. Mus. XXIV : 3. 328 (ig^a). India,EastHimalayas,Darjee- 

ling, Mungpoo. 

3. complicatus Melichar, Hom. Ceylon i25. 3 (1903). Ceylon. 

4. coreanus Kato, Zool. Soc. Japan 293 (19^0). Korea. 

5. discretus Melichar, Hom. Ceylon i25. 2 (igoS). Ceylon, India, Peradeniya, 

Nuwara, 



2o8 HOMOPTERA 

6. nuwarana Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 174. 3382 (1916). Ceylon, Nuwara. 

7. palhscetis Distant, Faun. Btit. Ind. App. 173. 338i (1916). Ceylon, Nuwara. 

8. rubronigris Funkhouser, Notes d'Ent. Chinoise V : 2. 17 (igSS). — China, T' ienmu Shan. 

Pl. II, fig. 175, 

9. sdlatus Uhler, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XIX : 284(1896). Japan. 
10. viiulus Lindberg, Pal. Cic. 23 (1927). Russia. 

201. GENUS TRICENTRUS STAL 

Trlcentrus Stal, Analect. Hem. 387 (1866). 
Megalosoheina Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23i (igoS). 
Otarls Buckton, Mon. Memb. 249 (i9o3). 
Taloipa Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 334 (igoS). 

Characters : This genus belongs to a very interesting group of which species are found both in 
the Centrotini and in the Gargarini in which the hind trochanters are armed with strong teeth on their 
internal margins. Tricentrus has the posterior process simple, well developed suprahumerals of various 
types, and the apical veins of the tegmina straighl. Various attempts have been made to subdivide 
this genus, particularly on the basis of differences in the shape and structure of the pronotal horns, but 
none have proven satisfactory. We can find no constant character which would warrant the splitting 
off of other genera from this large genus or even the erection of subgenera. Because of the consider- 
able amount of variation within the genus, the characters must be stated in rather general terms. 
Those characters which seem always to be present and by which the genus may be recognized are as 
follows : Head subquadrate, wider than high; base arcuate; eyes globular; ocelli prominent, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior 
margins of genas sloping and sinuate; clypeus extending for half its length below the inferior margins 
ofthegense. Pronotum convex with well developed suprahumerals; metopidium vertical or sloping, 
usually wider than high; humeral angles strong and triangular; median carina percurrent; suprahumeral 
hoins varying greatly in size, length, position and structure, but usually strong, simple and extending 
outward and upward; posterior process strong, impinging on tegmina, generally tectiform and fairly 
straight with the tip sharp and extending a little beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
broadly exposed on each side. Tegmina hyahne or subhyahne with the base narrowly coriaceous and 
punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells ; tip pointed; apical limbus well developed. 
Legs simple but with the hind trochanters armed with teeth on the inner margins ; femora cylindrical ; 
tibiffi triquerate and closely, finely spined ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type convergens Walker. 

Geographical distrlbution : This is one of the largest of all of the membracid genera with 
species distributed over practically all parts of Asia and the South Sea Islands. 

1. acer Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i63 (i858). Malacca, Papua. 

2. acuticornis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XV : i. 22 (1919). Philippines, Panay, Culasi, 

Sumatra. 

3. teneus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 167 (1916). India, East Himalayas, Dar- 

jeeling, Assam, Bengal.Ten- 
asserim, Myitta, Malaya. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



209 



4. aquicornis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : n6 (1927). 

5. aiyuri Funkhouser, Ind. Forest Rec. XVII : 5 (igSS). 

6. albescens Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 121 (1929). 

7. albipennis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 287 (igSo). 

8. albipes Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 4 (1927). 

9. albomaculatiis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 56. 2183(1907). 



10. allabens Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 166. 3367 (1916). 



11. aUidorsus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 124 (1929). 

12. amurensis Lindberg, Pal. Cic. 26 (1927). 

i3. amplicornis Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 3. 240 (1937). 

14. assamensis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 5j. 2186 (1907). 

i5. attenuatus Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 388 (igi^). 

16. attenuicornis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 120 (1929). 

17. auritus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 249 (1903). 

18. baheri Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 119 (1929). 

19. banguensis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 238 (1914). 

20. basalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 626. 65 (i85i). 

flavipes Uhler, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XIX : 284 (i8g6). 
kuyanianus Kato, I. Ins. Jap. 45 (ig33). 

21. bergeri Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : i5i (1927). 

22. bicolor Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 55. 2181 (1907). 

23. bi/ormis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 288 (1930). 

24. bifurcus Distant, Faun Brit. Ind. App. i65. 3366 (1916). 

25. bovillus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 164. 3364 (1916). 

26. brevicornis Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 214. 26 (1920). 

27. brevis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc XXII : 3. 2^9 (1914). 

28. brunneicornis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 126 (1929). 

29. caliginosus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : g3. 46 (i856). 



3o. capreolus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 627. 66 (i85i). 

3i. carinatus Funkhouser, Tijd. Ent. LXXX : I25 (1937). 
32. congestus Walker, Ins. SauncL 79 (i858). 



Philippines, Baguio. 

India, Madras. 

Borneo. 

Formosa. 

Sumatra. 

India, Bombay, South India, 

Penang, Malaya, Singapore, 

Myitta, Tenasserim, Assam, 

Garoj Sumatra, Hawaii. 
India, East Himalayas, Pe- 

nang, Borneo, Darjeeling, 

Perak, China. 
Penang. 
Russia. 

Hainan Island. 
India, Assam, Penang, Singa- 

pore. 
Philippines, Mindanao, Pa- 

nay. 
Borneo. 

Sumatra, Fort de Kock. 
Borneo. 

Banguey Island. 
China, Hong Kong, Hainan 

Island, Japan, Formosa. 

Russia, Vladivostok. 

Bombay. 

Formosa. 

India, Darjeeling. 

Burma, Moulmein. 

Borneo, Sandakan. 

Banguey, Barkuda, Borneo. 

Philippines, Soemba. 

Malacca,Singapore,Siam, Bi- 

serat, Bali, Malaya, Suma- 

tra, Borneo. 
Philippines, Luzon, Laguna, 

Savei, China, Ningkwo. 
Java. 
India, Hindostan, Malaya, 

Singapore, Peiiang, Suma- 

tra, West China, Hainan 

Island. 



210 



HOMOPTERA 



33. convergots Walker, List Hom. B. M. 623. Sg (i85i) 
fig. 176. 



Pl. II, 



34. CHrvicornis ¥ nnkhouser , Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R.XVHI : 153(1927). 

35. decnrvatus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XH : 238 (1914). 

36. depressicornis Funkhouser, Notes Musee Heude H : 4. 82 (i935). 

37. divergens Bierman, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXHI : 44 (igio). 

38. dyaki Funkhouser, Ent. Month. Mag. LXXIII : 102 (1937). 

39. euchistns Distant, I^aun. Brit. Ind. App. 164. 3363 (1916). 

40. fairmairei Stal, Freg. Eug. Res. Ins. 284. 192 (i85g). 

tinctoria Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 334 (i^oS). 

41. fasciatus Kato, Insect World XXX : 11. 5 (1928). 

42. fasciipennis Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 28 (1918). 

43. femoratus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 186 (1868). 

44. ferruginosus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : I23 (1929). 

45. finitimus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 628. 67 (i85i). 

46. flavipes Melichar, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXVI : 112 (1914). 

47. forlicornis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 118 (1929). 

48. fukiensis Funkhouser, Notes Musee Heude II : 4. 8r (1935). 

49. fulgidus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 122 (ig^g). 

50. fuscoapicalis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 5 (ig28). 
5i. fuscolimbalus Kato, Insect World XXXII : 8 (1928). 

52. gargaraformis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 8 (1928). 

53. gibbosulus Walker, Ins. Saund. 88 (i858). 



54. glochidiona Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 286 (ig^o). 

55. gracilicornis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 3 (1928). 

56. gracilis Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa XIX : 3. 540 (1928). 

57. horizontalis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 164. 3365 (1916). 

58. hyalinipennis Kato, Insect World XXXII : i (1928). 

59. intermedius Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 242 (191 1). 

60. kamaonensis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i63. 336i (1916). 

61. kotoinsulanus Kato, Insect World XXXIl : 4 (1928). 

62. Aw^«/j Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu 118 (19^2). 

63. laticornis Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 27 (1918). 

64. latus Funkhouser, Fauna Sumat. 5 (1927). 

65. maacki Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVII : 152(1927). 

66. manilaensis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : ii5 (1927). 

67. minor Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 243 (191 1). 



Phihppines, Luzon, Los Ba- 

nos, Malina, Panay, Culasi. 
China, Hwang-Ho. 
Dutch New Guinea. 
China, Chusan Island. 
Dutch East Indies. 
Borneo. 

India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 
Philippines, Luzon, Los Ba- 

nos, Rizal, Laguna, Culasi, 

Bangalore, Malacca. 
Formosa. 

Philippines,Vizcaya, Imugan. 
Celebes, Macassar. 
Penang. 
China, Hong Kong, Hainan 

Island. 
East Indies, Penang. 
PhiUppines. 
China, Hainan Island. 
Borneo. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
India, Hindostan, Assam, 

Calcutta, Malaya, Singa- 

pore, Penang, Borneo. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 

Burma, Moulmein, Borneo. 
Formosa, China, Shanghai. 
East Indies. 

India, Kamaon, Bhimtal. 
Formosa. 
Borneo. 
Phihppines, Luzon, Vizcaya, 

Imugen. 
Sumatra. 
Siberia. 

Philippines, Manila. 
East Indies. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



211 



68. minuUcomis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 4 (1928). 

69. minitus Funkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. XLIII : 2. igS (1936). 

70. mojiensis Matsumura, Cic. Jap. II : 17. 4 (1916). 

71. mushainsis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 2 (1928). 

72. naifunpoensis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 289 (igSo). 

73. «j^g^m Funkhouser, J.R.A.S. 82 : 212. 25 (1920). 

74. nigroapicalis Funkhouser, Fauna Sumat. 3 (1927). 

75. nigrofrontis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : I25 (1929). 

76. nitidus Funkhouser, Fauna Sumat. 2 (1927). 

77. nivis Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu 119 (1932). 

78. okamotoi Kato, ZooL Soc. Jap. 291 (ig^o). 

79. orcus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 247 (1903). 

80. orientalis Funkhouser, Notes Musee Heude II : 4. 83 (1^35). 

81. pallipes Kato, Insect World XXXII : 6 (1928). 

82. panayensis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 114 (1927). 

83. papuaensis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 122 (1929). 

84. pieli Funkhouser, Notes Musee Heude 19 (1934). 

85. pilinervosus Funkhouser, Journ. Ent. and Zoo. VI : 2. 68 (1914). 

86. pilosus Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu 120 (1932). 

87. pinguidorsis Funkhouser, Rec. Australian Mus. XV : 5. 3o8 (1927). 

88. piicatus Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 387 (i^iS). 

89. porrectus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 118 (1929). 

90. projectus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 55. 2180 (1907). 



91. pronus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .'^pp. 166. 3368 (1916). 

92. pubescens Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 127 (1929). 

93. punctattis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 6 (1928). 

94. repandus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i63. 3362 (1916). 
93. resecius Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .^pp. 167. 33^0 (1916). 

96. robustus F^unkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 26 (1918). 



97. rufipennls Funkhouser, Treubia XV : i. I25 (1935). 

98. samai Funkhouser, Notes d'Ent. Chinoise IV : 2. 3o (1937). 

99. selemis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 247 (igoS). 
100. sobrinus Stal, Analect. Hem. 387 (1866). 

loi. spinicornis Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 6. i5 (1918). 

102. spinidorsis Funkhouser, Bornean Memb. 475 (1929). 

io3. spininervis l^unkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : ii5 (1927). 



Formosa. 

Timor. 

Japan, Hokkaido, Honshu. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Borneo, Sandakan. 

Sumatra, Doerien Island. 

Penang. 

Sumatra. 

Borneo. 

Korea. 

Philippines. 

China, Ku-ling. 

Formosa. 

Philippines, Panay. 

Papua. 

China, Hainan Island. 

Philippines, Los Banos. 

Borneo. 

New South Wales. 

Philippines, Mindanao, Da- 

pitan. 
Philippines. 

India, Tenasserim, M}'itta, 

Burma.Moulmein.Calcutta, 

Philippines, Luzon, Viz- 

caya, Imugen. 
India, Tura, Garo, Cochin 

State, Penang. 
Philippines. 
Formosa. 

India,Assam,Borneo,Penang. 
Burma, Malaya, Singapore, 

Penang, Borneo, Perak. 
Philippines, Luzon, Banguet, 

Imugen, Panay, Culasi, 

Flores. 
Borneo. 

China, Hainan Island. 
India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 
Asia. 

Singapore, Penang, Sumatra. 
Borneo, Sumatra. 
Philippines, Samar. 



212 



HOMOPTERA 



104. spinis Funkhouser, Jouin. F.M.S. Mus. XVII : 720 (igSS). 
io5. subangulatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 55. 2182 (1907). 

106. subinermis Lindberg, Pal. Cic. 24 (1927). 

107. suluensis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : i25 (1929). 

108. taipinensis Kato, Insect VVorld XXXII : 3 (1928). 

109. tahaoensis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 290 (1930). 

iio. transversus Distant. Faun. Brit. Ind. 48. 2171 (1907). 

111. truncaticornis Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 8. 17 (1918). 

112. xiphistes Kato, Insect World XXXII : 9 (1928). 

ii3. yatsugcidakensis Matsumura, Ins. Mats. IX : 2. 73 (19^4). 
114. brevispinis Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 206 (1938). 
ii5. maculatus Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 202(1938). 
116. ornatus Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 2o5 (1938). 



Federated Malay States. 
India, Nilgiri, Bengal, Bur- 

ma, Moulmein, Rajmahal. 
Russia. 
Philippines. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
India, Assam. 
Singapore, Borneo. 
Formosa. 
Japan. 

China, Kwangtung. 
China, Kwangtung. 
China, Canton, Hainan Isl. 



202. GENUS TRICENTROIDES DlSTANT 

Tricentroides Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 169 (1916). 

Characters : This genus is unknown to us. It was founded on a single species from Asia and 
according to its author is « allied to Tricentrus from which it differs by the more slender and longer 
posterior process, the more rounded apical veins of the tegmina and the peculiarly hyaline nature 01 
the same ». From Distant's description and figure of the type species, we may indicate the more 
apparent generic characters as follows : Head subquadrate, wider than high ; base nearly straight ; eyes 
globular; ocelli inconspicuous; inferior margins of genas sloping downward with straight edges ; clypeus 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex with strong, sharp 
suprahumerals ; metopidium vertical, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, sharp, longer than the distance between their 
bases and extending outvvard and upward; posterior process long, slender, triquerate, tectiform, 
acuminate, extending well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on 
each side. Tegmina hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; apex rounded; five apical and 
two discoidal cells; apical hmbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. We are copying Distanfs 
figure for our illustration. 

Type proprius Distant. 

Geographical distribution : The genus is known only from the type species. 

I. propritis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 169(1916). — Pl. I I, fig. India, Assam. 
177. 

203. GENUS EUMONOCENTRUS SCHMIDT 



Eumonocentrus Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 241 (191 1). 
Banlnia Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : S17 (1914). 

Characters : Large, conspicuous insects characterized by the erect suprahumerals which are 
contiguous or partly united at their bases. Head subquadrate, about twice as broad as high; base 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 2i3 

highly arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, conspicuous, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
sloping and sinuate; clypeus deflexed. extending for more than half its length below inferior margins 
of genae. Pronotum convex, subconical, with erect contiguous or united suprahumerals; metopidium 
conical, higher than wide ; median carina percurrent ; humeral angles triangular and blunt ; suprahumeral 
horns erect, usuall}' grown together at their bases, tips contiguous and blunt; posterior process long, 
slender, straight or only shghtly sinuate, impinging on tegmina, tip acute and reaching beyond the 
internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum broadly exposed, triangular, tip bifurcate. Tegmina hyaline; 
base broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong ; five apical and two discoidal cells ; apical Hmbus 
well developed. Legs simple; hind trochanters unarmed; hind tarsi longest. 

Type eredus Schmidt. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus with the speciesdistributed as follows .- 

1. bifurcus Funljhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : 148 Africa, Victoria Nyanza. 

(1927). — Pl. I l.fig. 178. 

2. erectus Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVIII : 242 (191 1). Africa, Kameroons. 

3. lamborni Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i7 (1914). Africa, Lagos, Oni. 

204. GENUS CRITO DISTANT 

Crito Distant, Rhynch. Notes 43 (1916). 

Characters : If we have correctly identified the small, inconspicuous insect which we beh'eve 
is Distant's type of this genus, it is close to the representatives of Ebhul on the one hand, and to 
Acanthucus on the other, but belongs to a different tribe from either, and seems to have distinct generic 
characters as follows : Head subquadrate, a little broader than high; base highly arcuate and weakly 
sinuate; eyes ovate ; ocelli small, inconspicuous, farther from each otherthan from the eyes and situated 
well above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae weakly sinuate ; clypeus 
trilobed, the median lobe much the largest, extending for more than haif its length below inferior 
margins of genae, tip rounded; pronotum convex, with small suprahumerals; metopidium almost vertical, 
about as high as broad; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles strong, triangular and blunt ; 
suprahumeral horns small, triangular and sharp; posterior process heavy, very strongly sinuate or 
waved, tip acute and extending well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not reaching the 
apex of either tegmina or abdomen ; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina subhyaline 
and mottled; basal and costal areas narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and 
two discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type festivus Distant. 

Geographical distributlon : This genus is known only from the type species from Queensland. 
I. festivus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 43 (1916). — Pl. II, fig. I 79. Queensland. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE HYPSAUCHENINI DISTANT 

I. Posterior process wiih a dorsal subapical node 

A. Apex of head trilobed Hypsauchenia Germar. 



214 HOMOPTERA 

B. Apex of head truncate 

1. Anterior pronotal process recurved ; venation of tegmina normal 

a. Distal end of tegmina truncate Pyrgauchenia Breddin. 

aa. Distal end of tegmina rounded Gigantorhabdus Schmidt. 

2. Anterior pronotal process straight ; venatioH of tegmina irregular . . Hypsolyrium Schmidt. 
1 1 . Posferior process without a dorsal subapical node 

A. Anterior pronotal process branched and recurved Pyrgonota Stal. 

B. Anterior pronotal process not branched or recurved 

i. Anterior pronotal process nodose ; base of head nof bituberculate . . . Funkhouserella Schmidt. 
2. Anterior pronotal process simple and porrect; base of head bituberculate. Hybandoides Distant. 

205. GENUS HYPSAUCHENIA Germar 

Hypsauchenia Germai, Rev. Silb. UI : 23o (i835). 

Chapacters : Large, bizarre and rather remarkable insects with a high anterior pronotal horn 
usually forked at the tip, a mesonotum bearing strong teeth, and being characterized particularly by the 
trilobed head and the dorsal, subapical node on the posterior process. Head subquadrate, about as 
broad as high, roughly sculptured, apex more or less trilobed; base highly arcuate and strongly 
bituberculate ; eyes globular; ocelH large, prominent, conspicuous, protruding, four times as far from each 
other as from the eyes and situated in the upper, outer corners of the head, close to the eyes and to the 
basal margin and well above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense extended in 
lobes; clypeus very long, extending for three-fourths its length below the inferior margins of the genae. 
Pronotum elevated into a high anterior horn, usually curving backward and bifurcate at the tip; 
metopidium conical, vertical, tricarinate, higher than wide; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral 
angles large, triangular and blunt; mesonotum extended into teeth or lobes; posterior process strong, 
tectiform, impinging on tegmina and bearing a large, rounded, bilaterally flattened, subapical dorsal 
node, tip suddenly acute and reaching justtothe internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly 
exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, coriaceous and opaque; veins indistinct; fiveapical and 
three or four discoidal cells; tip pointed and diagonally truncate ; apical limbus broad. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type hardwickii Kirby. 

Geogpaphical distribution : An Asiatic genus found in India, Malaya and the East Indies. 
i. asper Buckton, Mon. Memb. 212(1903). India. 

2. bulbosa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 211 (igo^). Malaya, Perak. 

3. gibbosa Distant. Faun. Brit. Ind. 12. 21 15 (1907) Burma. 

4. hardwickii Kirby, Mag. Nat. Hist. II : 20.56 (1829). — Pl. II , India, Nepal, Sikhim, Naga, 
Tig. 180. Khasi, Assam, Darjeehng, 



Pegu. 



floralis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 210 (igoS). 
pygmtea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 211 (igoS). 

5. kempi Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 148. 3337 (1916). India, Assam, Burma, Sadon. 

6. manni Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 149. 3338(1916). India, DarjeeUng, Pussum- 

bing. 

7. recurva Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 112 (1929). Java. 

8. subfusca Buckton, Mon. Memb. 211 (igoS). India, Assam, Sikhim. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 2i5 



206. Genus PYRGAUCHENIA Breddin 

Pypgauchenia Breddin, Celeb. Naturw. Ges. XXIV : 126 (1901). 
Pyrgophyllium Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVII : 91 (1902). 
Pyrgolyrium Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVII : 92 (1902). 
Hypsophylllum Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 24 (1926). 

Characters : This genus is closely related to the preceding but the insects are usually smaller 
and the head is not trilobed. It is particularly characterized by the normal venation and by the tiuncate 
tegmina. Head subquadrate, about as wide as high; base high and bituberculate; eyes somewhat 
flattened laterally; ocelli large, conspicuous, much farther from each other than from the eyes and 
situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate; clypeus extending 
for more than half its length below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum elevated into a high, anterior, 
bifurcate pronotal horn which is usually curved backward; metopidium vertical, higher than broad; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles weak and rounded ; mesonotum lobate or toothed at sides; 
posterior process heavy, tectiform, with a rounded elevation before the apex, tip sharp and just reaching 
the internal angles of the tegmina on which it impinges for its entire length; scutellum well exposed on 
each side. Tegmina long, semiopaque, coriaceous and punctate on basal two-thirds; veins indistinct 
except in apical region; apex obliquely truncate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus well 
developed especially in anal region. Legs slender, simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type sarasinorum Breddin. 

Geographicai distribution : This genus seems to be limited to the East Indian Islands. 

1. angulata Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu 114(1932). Borneo. 

2. brevinota Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu ii5 (1932). Borneo. 

3. bruiinea Funkhouser, Memb. Mt. Kinabalu ii3 (1932). — Pi. I I, Borneo. 

fig. 18 1. 

4. colorata Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI 194. 326(1915). Borneo. 

5. cormita Goding, .\mer. Mus. Novit. 26 (i^So). Borneo. 

6. fmrsteri Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVII : 91 (1902). Java. 

7. fulmeki Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 23 (1926). Sumatra. 

8. jugulata Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 9. 332 (1905). Sumatra. 

brtddini Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXVII : 370 (1906). 

9. kinabalense Breddin. Soc. Ent. 91 (1902). Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali. 

10. sarasinorum Breddin, Celeb. Naturw. Ges. XXIV : 126 (1901). Celebes. 

gultiplaga Walker. MS. 

11. suberecta Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 3^5 (igiS). Celebes. 

12. wallacei Breddin, Soc. Ent. XVII : 91 (1902). Borneo. 

207. GenuS GIGANTORHABDUS Schmidt 

Gigantorhabdus Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. 371 (1906). 

Characters : A remarkable genus of very large insects with single bifurcate anterior pronotal 
horns, with the dorsal lobe of the posterior process very near the apex, and with the tips of the tegmina 



2i6 HOMOPTERA 

rounded. The insects are at once noted because of their size. Head subquadrate, roughly sculptured, 
about as long as high ; base arcuate and weakly bituberculate, sulcate between the tubercles; eyes 
somewhat flattened laterally ; ocelli very large, prominent, protruding, four times as far from each other 
as from tlie eyes and situated close to the outer, upper corners of the head, well above a line drawn 
through the centers of the eyes ; inferior margins of genae extending downward in long tongues or 
flattened plates on each side of the clypeus; clypeus long, narrow, extending only slightly below the 
inferior margins of the genae, tip rounded and pilose. Pronotum extended upward into a single high 
conical or flattened horn which is branched at the end to form two extensions curved backward and 
dilated at the tips; metopidium vertical, carinate, higher than broad; median carina strongly percurrent; 
humeral angles heavy, triangular and blunt; anterior pronotal horn high, bifurcate, flattened laterally 
and bent backward ; inferior margins of mesonotum bearing large, blunt teeth ; posterior process heavy, 
tectiform, impinging on tegmina, with a high dorsal node near the apex, tip suddenly sharp and 
extending well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not reaching the end of the abdomen or 
the tips of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, opaque, mottled! 
basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins distinct; venation of apical area inclined 
to be irregular but usually showing five apical and three discoidal cells; apex rounded or bluntly 
pointed, not truncate; apical limbus very broad. Legs heavy, simple; femora cylindrical; tibiae 
triquerate or somewhat flattened ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type enderUini Schmidt. 

Geographical distpibution : This genus is known only from the type species which is found 
in Borneo. 

I. enderleitti Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. 372. 67 (1906). — Pl. I I , Borneo. 
fig. 182. 

208. GenUS HYPSOLYRIUM SCHMIDT 

Hypsolyrium Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6 (1926). 

Characters : This genus was erected to accommodate Stars uncinata and has remained monotypic 
since its original description. We have never seen the type species but from Stirs description and 
from Distanfs excellent figure (Distant, 1907, p. 12) it would appear to differ from its nearest relatives 
in having a straight, unbranched anterior pronotal horn and in having very irregular venation in the 
tegmina. These characters would seem sufftcient to validate the genus and Goding writes (in corres- 
pondence) that he is convinced that the genus is good. We are therefore recognizing it and noting 
such generic characters as may be gleaned from published descriptions and figures as foUows : Head 
subquadrate, wider than high; base arcuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each 
other than from the e^^es and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genaj rounded and lobate; clypeus extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of 
genae. Pronotum extending upward in an erect anterior horn which is not bifurcate and which is not 
curved backward over the body; metopidium conical, about as high as the width at the base; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles small and triangular; anterior pronotal horn erect or leaning slightly 
forward, flattened laterally, notched at distal posterior margin, not bifurcate at the tip; posterior 
process heavy, tectiform, elevated into an arcuate dorsal node before the apex, tip sharp and just 
reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, 
narrow, semiopaque ; basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins distinct; venation, 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 217 

particularly inthe apical region, very irregular; tip pointed, obliquely truncate on anal margin; apical 
limbus broad. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type uncinata Stal. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is represented only by the type species from India 
and we are copying Distant's figure of this insect for our illustration. 

I. uHcinata Stlil, Bid. Memb. Kan. 283. i (1869). — Pl. I I , fig. I 83. India, Pussumbing, Nepal, 

Darjeeling. 

209. genus pyrgonota stal 

Pyrgonota Stal, Hem. Phil. ySo (1870). 

Cliaracters : This remarkable and very interestinggenus difFers from the four preceding genera 
of this tribe by having no dorsal node on the posterior process. It may be separated from the two 
foUowing genera of the tribe by the long, branched, anterior pronotal horn which curves backward over 
the body. Head subquadrate, as broad as high ; base arcuate but not tuberculate ; eyes flattened laterally; 
ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated well above a line 
drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus extending for 
about half its length below the inferior margins of the genas. Pronotum extended upward into a high 
anterior horn which is branched near the tip and curves backward ; metopidium vertical, higher than the 
breadth at base; median carina percurrent; humeral angles triangular and blunt; anterior pronotal horn 
long, slender, conical at base, slightly flattened in the middle, and branched at the tip to form two 
spreading arms which are usually foliaceous near the extremities and curve backward over the body; 
posterior margin of anterior pronotal horn generally spinose or dentate; mesonotum strongly toothed 
on lateral margin; posterior process heavy, simple, tectiform, slightly sinuate, impinging on tegmina, 
tip sharp and extending justabout to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum very faintly exposed 
on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, semiopaque; basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous and 
punctate; veins distinctand inclined to be curved in the apical region; five apical and three discoidal 
cells; tip pointed ; apical limbus narrovv and wrinkled. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type tumida Stal. 

Geographical distribution : This is strictly a Philippine genus and no species has been found 
outside of those islands. 

1. bifoliata VVestwood, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. i3o (1837). — Pl. II, Philippines, Luzon, Los Ba- 

flg. I 84. nos, Culasi, Sargao, Zam- 

bales. 

2. ^i/M^ca Stal, Hem. Phil. 731.4(1870). Philippines, Luzon, Baguio, 

Banguet, Davao. 

3. fenestrata Bergroth, Notulas Ent. V : io5 (ig^S). Philippines, Surigao,Dinagat. 

4. lotigiturris Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 23 (1918). Philippines, Luzon, Mt. Ma- 

quiling. 

5. Horf»7«r>-«s Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XVIII : 6. 684 (1921). Philippines, Mindanao, Su- 

rigao. 



2l8 



HOMOPTERA 



6. philippina Stal, Hem. Phil. yZo. 2 (1870). 



7, semperi Stal, Hem. Phil. 73i. 5 (1870) 



8. tumida Stal, Hem. Phil. 73o. i (1870). 



Philippines, Culasi, Panay, 
Siquijor. 

Philippines, Panay, Antique, 

Culasi. 
Philippines. 



210. GENUS FUNKHOUSERELLA SCHMIDT 



Funkhouserella Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 24 (1926). 

Characteps : AU of the species of this genus were originally described under the genus Pyrgonota 
but they differ from the members of that genus by having the anterior pronotal horn bulbous or nodose 
and unbranched and not curving backward over the body. On the basis of these characters, Schmidt 
has seen fit to place theni in a distinct genus. This genus, aside from the above mentioned characters, 
is close to Pyrgonota, to which it is undoubtedly nearly related, but the bizarre and grotesque structures 
of the anterior process make it at once recognizable. Head subquadrate, a little broader than high, 
convex, punctate and often pubescent; base arcuate and sinuate but never tuberculate; eyes ovate; 
ocelli large, conspicuous, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated a little above a Une 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sinuate and sloping downward to form flat 
plates on each side of the clypeus; clypeus projecting very little below inferior margins of genae, tip 
rounded or truncate. Pronotum extended upward into a high anterior horn which is very variable in 
shape and structure; metopidium conical, about as high as its breadth at base; median carina obsolete; 
humeral angles weak and rounded; anterior pronotal horn projecting upward or forward, decorated 
with bulbs, nodes or protuberances and not branched or curving backward; posterior process tectiform, 
impinging on tegmina, tip sharp and reaching a little beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; 
scutellum very narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, semiopaque; basal and costal 
areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins indistinct; live apical and three or four discoidal cells; tip 
sharply pointed; no apical limbus. Legsheavy; tibiae more or less foliaceous; hind tarsi very much 
longer than either of the other two pairs. 

Type pinguiturris Funkhouser. 

Geogpaphical distplbution : This genus, hke the preceding, seems to be found chiefly in the 
Philippines, but one species has been described from the Malay Peninsula and one from an island off 
the south coast of China. 



1. arborea Funkhouser, Ling. Journ. Sci. XVI : 2. 242 (1937). 

2. binodis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : iio (1927). 

3. brevifurca Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : iio (1927). 

4. bulbicornis Funkhouser, F.M.S. Mus. XIII : 253 (1927). 

5. bulbiturris Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 109 (1927). — 

Pl. II, flg. 185. 

6. pinguiturris Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 374 (igiS). 

7. sinuata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : iii (1929). 



Hainan Island. 
Phihppines, Luzon. 
Philippines, Luzon. 
Malaya, Selangor. 
Phihppines, Luzon. 

Philippines, Luzon, Mt. Ma- 

quiling. 
Philippines, Luzon, Ripang 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 219 



211. genus hybandoides distant 

Hybandoides Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 327 (igiS). 
Platyceras Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 22 (1926). 

Characters : A small but very distinct genus characterized by the simple, poirect anterior 
pronotal horn and bituberculate base of the head. Head subquadrate, wider than high ; base arcuate, 
sinuate and bituberculate ; eyes globular and protruding; ocelli small but conspicuous, farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of ejes; inferior 
margins of genjE sinuate and sloping downward; clypeus large, trilobed, extending for two-thirds its 
length below inferior margins of genae, tip broad and truncate. Pronotum extended forward and 
upward into a simple, porrect horn; metopidium vertical, twice as broad as high; median carina faintly 
percurrent; humeral angles heavy, triangular and blunt ; anterior pronotal horn heavy, somewhat 
flattened laterally, sharply carinate above and below, extending forward over the head, length variable; 
posterior process slender, straight, impinging on tegmina, tip sharp and just reaching the internal 
angles of the tegmina ; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, semiopaque; 
basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous, punctate and pubescent; veins distinct but venation very 
irregularly arranged particularly in the apical region ; usually five apical cells but an indefinite number 
of discoidal cells; tip sharply pointed; no apical Hmbus. Legs simple; femora cylindrical; tibiffi 
triquerate; hind tarsi longest. 

Type horizontalis Distant. 

Geographical dlstribution : This genus has been found only in the Dutch East Indies. 

1. acuticornis Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 23 (1926). Sumatra, Java. 

2. borneensis Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 22 (1926). Borneo. 

3. horizontalis Distant. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 327 (i^iS). Borneo, Mt. Kinabalu. 

4. laticornis Schmidt, Soc. Ent. XLI : 6. 22 (1926). Mentawei Islands, Sumatra. 

5. 5«»»a/)(;«s;'x Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. i5 (1927). — Pl. I l,fig 186. Sumatra, Java. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE CENTROCHARESINI GODING 

I. Dorsum of posterior process nodulate 

A. Scutellum entirely exposed Centrochares Stal. 

B. Scutellum covered excepi narrowly ai sides Negus Jacobi. 

II. Dorsttm of posterior process smooth Sinenodus Goding. 

212. Genus CENTROCHARES STAL 

Centpochares Stal, Analect. Hem. 386 (1866). 

Characters : The insects of this genus bear a strong superficial resemblance to those of the 
New World genus Pterygia. They are rough and spinose with broad spreading suprahumerals and more 
or less foliaceous head and legs. The scutellum, however, is fully developed and entirely exposed 
and the sides of the of the mesonota are armed with teeth. Head subtriangular, very roughly 



220 HOMOPTERA 

sculptured ; base arcuate and feebly sinuate; eyes globular ; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from 
each other as from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of genae subfoliaceous, extending downward in lobes on each side of the clypeus and giving a trilobed 
appearence to the face; clypeus broad, extending for three-fourths its length below the inferior margins 
of the genae, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum convex, very rough and spinose; metopidium vertical, 
broader than high, and bearing short, irregular spines; median carina percurrent and spinose; humeral 
angles heavy, triangular and spinose or dentate; suprahumeral horns well developed, projecting 
outward and upward, longer than the distance between their bases, irregularly covered with short 
spines, tips usually more or less foliaceous and carinate; posterior process heavy, sinuate, rough, 
spinose, slightly elevated above scutelium, bearing rough, irregular nodes on its dorsal surface, the 
subapical elevation largest and ridged, tip blunt and extending almost to the tips of the tegmina; 
scutellum almost entirely exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad, tip broadly notched. Tegmina 
long, narrow and opaque ; basal and costal areas narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins distinct and 
nodulate; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical hmbus broad. Legs heavy, tibiae 
distinctly foliaceous ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type korrificus Westwood. 

Geographical distribution : Centrochares is definitely a genus of Oceanica with more species 

found in the Philippines than in any other region. 

1. borneensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 314 (1916). Borneo, Sandakan. 

2. bucktoni Distant, Rhynch. Notes 314 (1916). Philippines. 

postica (female) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 70 (1902). 

3. foliatus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : ii3 (1929). Borneo, Mowong. 

4. horrificus Westwood, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond. i3o (1837). — Pl. I 2, Philippines, Luzon, Panay, 

Tig. 1 87. Laguna, Culasi, Rizal, Sa- 

spinula Buckton, Mon. Memb. 73 (looS). ._ 

mar, Davao. 

5. posticus Buckton. Mon. Memb. 70 (1903). Phihppines, Culasi. 

6. ridleyanus Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 328 (i^iS). Malaya, Singapore, Selangor, 

Kuala Lumpur. 

7. spiniferus Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 19 (1927). Sumatra. 



213. Genus NEGUS Jacobi 

Negus Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XH : 121 (igio). 

Chapacters : The type species of Negus shows characters which would seem to warrant its 
being placed in a distinct genus. The structure of the pronotal process is quite different from that of the 
other two genera of the tribe and the scutellum is only narrowly exposed on each side. The characters 
which would appear to be generic are as follows. Head subquadrate, broader than high ; base arcuate ; 
eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated about on 
a line drawn though centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas extended into pointed lobes which give a 
trilobed appearance to the apical outline of the face; clypeus broad, extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genas, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, very rough and spinose; metopidium 
vertical, higher than broad, rough and spinose; humeral angles large and triangular; median carina 
percurrent; suprahumeral horns strong, spinose, extending upward and outward, longer than the 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 221 

distance between their bases, tips more or less swollen, spinose and multicarinate; posterior process 
heavy, sinuate, tectiform, nodulate above with the anterior node highest, roughly spinose, tip acute and 
extending beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. 
Tegmina subhyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy and spined; tip pointed; five 
apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Legs heavy, femora cyhndrical, tibias triquerous 
or somewhat flattened ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type asper Jacobi. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This genus is known only from the African species which was 
described from the type and which has since been reported by several authors. 

I. asper Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 121 (1910). — Pl. 12, flg. I 88. Africa, Kihmandjaro, Spanish 

Guinea. 

214. GENUS SINENODUS GODING 

Sinenodus Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIX : 3ii (igSi). 

Ciiaracters : This is a monotypic genus, the type species of which we have not seen. 
Moreover, no figure of the species has ever been pubhshed. However, Goding's good descriptions, 
both of the genus and of the type species, make it easy to present a generic diagnosis as follows : Head 
nearly square, roughly sculptured; ocelU conspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and 
situated on a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae broadly foUaceous. Pronotum 
convex, rough, carinate and nodulate but not spinose; metopidium vertical; median carina strongly 
percurrent; suprahumeral horns strong, heavy, quadrangular, extending upward, outward and sUghtly 
incHned forward, tips broad and truncate; mesothorax with two teeth on each side; posterior process 
long, slender, sUghtly sinuate, destitute of dorsal nodes, tip sharp and extending beyond the tips of the 
tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, verj' narrow, semiopaque; veins 
strong and colored; five apical and two discoidal ceUs; tip pointed; no apical Umbus. Legs strong; 
femora cyUndrical; tibiae flattened and subfoliaceous. 

This genus is apparently closely related to the other two genera of the tribe but differs in not 
being strongly spinose and in having the posterior process long, tricarinate and without dorsal nodes, 
and in having vitreous tegmina and strongly dilated tibiae. 

Type gracilis Goding. 

Geographical distribution : The type species, which is the only species thus far described in 
the genus, is from West AustraUa. 

I. gracilis Goding, Mon. Australian Memb. 33 (igoS). AustraUa, Beverly. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE MICREUNINI DISTANT 

I . Lateral branches of anterior horn simple 

A. Posterior process Hot impinging on tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed ; tips of 
horns simple 
I. Anterior pronotal horn porrect ; posterior process arising from near base of 

pronotum Micreune Walker. 



222 HOMOPTERA 

2. Anierior pronotal horn ered ; posterior process arising high above scutdlum . Leptobelus Stal. 

B. Posterior process impinging on iegmina; scutellum only narroidy exposed on each 

side; tips of horns dilated Eutryonia Goding. 

II. Lateral branches of anterior horn rebranched Elaphiceps Buckton. 

215. Genus MICREUNE Walker 

Micreune VValker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. i. gS (i856). 

Characters : A small genus of large conspicuous insects characterized by the long porrect 
anterior horn which bears slender recurving branches, and the posterior process which usually arises 
from near the base of the pronotum but does not conceal the scutellum or impinge on the tegmina. 
Head subquadrate, wider than high; base weakly arcuate and sinuate; eyes very large, globular and 
protruding; ocelU large, conspicuous, located near the upper outer angles of the head, four times as far 
from each other as from the eyes and situated far above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae short and sinuate; clypeus very large, extending for at least three-fourths its length 
below inferior margins of genas, diamond-shaped, very broad in the middle, tip pointed. Pronotum 
elevated into a porrect horn which is branched at the top; metopidium cone-shaped, wider than high; 
median carina obsolete; humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; anterior pronotal horn turrete, 
porrect, extending upward and forward over the head, branched at the top into two slender branches 
longer than the horn itself which bend backward over the body ; posterior process slender, arising from 
near the base of the pronotum, nearly straight, tip sharp and reaching beyond the internal angles of the 
tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, much longer than broad, tip bifurcate. Tegmina long, narrow, 
semiopaque; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells ; tip rounded; 
apical limbus narrow. Legs slender and simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type formidenda Walker. 

Geographical distribution : This is a Malayan genus with one doubtful species reported 
from East Africa. 

i. electa Melichar. Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 296. 58 (igoS). Dutch East Africa, Umani, 

(Possibly a Monocentrus). Usambaia. 

2. formidenda Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : 93. 49 (i856). — Borneo, Sarawak, Malaya, 

Pl. 12, fig. 189. Singapore. 

quadrilinea Walker, MS. {fidt Distant igiS). 

3. macularum Buckton, Mon. Memb. 214 (igoS). Borneo, Perak, Sandakan, 

Malaya, Sumatra. 

4. metuenda Walker, journ. Liun. Soc. Lond. I : 164. 124 {i85y). Borneo. 



216. GENUS LEPTOBELUS STAL 

Leptobelus Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 86 (1866). 

Characters : A very distinct and rather striking genus characterized particularly by the fact 
tbat the posterior process arises from high up on the anterior pronotal horn just below or between the 
lateral branches. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base hghtly arcuate and sinuate; eyes very 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 223 

large, globular and protruding; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes 
and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae weakly lobed and 
projecting slightly over the edges of the clypeus; clypeus extending for half its length below the inferior 
margins of the genae, tip rounded. Pronotum elevated into an erect conical anterior horn which is 
branched at the top; metopidium convex, vertical, broad at the base and narrow at the top; no median 
carina; humeral angles broad and blunt; anterior pronotal horn conical, erect, branched at the top into 
two lateral branches which usually extend directly outward, tips simple and sharp; posterior process 
long, slender, usually decurved; arising from high on the pronotal horn, usually just below the lateral 
branches, tip acuminate and reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not to their tips; 
scutellum entirely exposed, long, narrow, reaching almost to the end of the clavus, generally swollen at 
the base and often tomentose. Tegmina broad, hyahne ; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins 
strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with four 
apical cells. Legs slender and simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type dama Germar. 

Geographical distribution : This is an .Asiatic genus with a wide distribution in India, the 
East Indies, Malaya, China and the Philippines. 

1. dama Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 258. 7 (i835). — Pl. I 2, fig. I 90. India, Java, Borneo, Suma- 

tra, Philippines. 

2. decurvatus Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 43 (1921). China, Kiautschau, India, 



Sikh 



im. 



3. eUvatus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XVIII : 6. 685 (1921). Philippines, Palawan, Puerto 

Princesa. 

4. flexicornis Walker, Ins. Saund. 78 (i858). India, Punjab, North Hindos- 

tan, West China. 

5. g-azi;//» Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5io. 2 (1846). East Indies, India, Assam, 

Naga Hills, Burma, Pusa, 
North China. 

6. nigris Funkhouser, Bornean Memb. 473 (1929). Borneo. 

7. sauteri Schumacher, Saut. F"ormosa ii5 (igiS). Formosa. 

217. GENUS EUTRYONIA GODING 

Eutryonia Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 34 (igo3). 
Gelastorrhachis Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. ,Sta. Bull. Ent. I : 372 (1906). 

Characters : This genus is very distinct from the other genera of the tribe because of the fact 
that the posterior process lies close to the body, almost concealing the scutellum and impinging on the 
tegmina and because the anterior pronotal horn is dilated or much thickened at ihe apex. Head 
subquadrate, broader than high; base arcuate and sinuate and sometimes weakly bituberculate; eyes 
very large, globular and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, farther from each other than from the 
eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae short, rounded 
and weakly lobate; clypeus trilobed, the median lobe much the largest, extending for more than half 
its length below inferior margins of gena;, tip rounded. Pronotum elevated into a high, conical or 
cyHndrical anterior horn which is usually forked at the top; metopidium vertical, about as high as its 



224 



HOMOPTERA 



width at the base; median carina faintly percuirent; humeral angles broad and blunt; anterior pronotal 
horn erect, heavy, conical or cyhndrical, usually branched at the top into two lateral branches or nodes 
which are very variable in size and shape but are always dilated, bulbous or swollen and generally extend 
outward and backward; posterior process slender, triquerate, sinuate, impinging on tegmina, tip sharp 
and reaching beyond the end of the abdomen and almost to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum very 
narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina hyahne; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; veins 
heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type monstrifera Walker. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : This genus is hmited to the AustraHan region as indicated by 
the localities given for the following species : 

1. clavaia Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. BuU. Ent. I : SyS (1906). Queensland, Kuranda. 

2. diadema Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. 1 : 373 (1906). Queensland, Kuranda. 

3. gracilis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 243 (1926). Queensland, Australia. 

4. moustrifera Walker, Ins. Saund. 80 (i858). — Pl. I 2, fig. 19 1. Australia, New South Wales, 

pondifer Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 3i6 (1862). pjunt River, Moreton Bay, 

cassis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 60 (i9o3). ^ 1 , 

Queenland, Rockhampton, 

Tweed River, North Aus- 

tralia. 



218. genus ELAPHICEPS BUCKTON 

Elaphiceps Buckton, Mon. Memb. 217 (1903). 

Chapacteps : This is one of the most remarkable and bizarre of all of the membracid genera 
because of the extreme specialization shown in the multibranched anterior pronotal process, Head 
subquadrate, about twice as broad as high, roughly sculptured; base highly arcuate, strongly sinuate 
and feebly bituberculate; eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelli large, prominent, a little farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genee sinuate and extending slightly forward; clypeus very large, ovate, extendlng for more 
than half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum extended upward into a 
conical anterior horn which is branched and rebranched; metopidium convex, sloping, about as high 
as the breadth of the base; median carina faintly percurrent ; humeral angles broad, heavy, triangular 
and blunt; anterior pronotal horn erect, conical or cylindrical, branched at the top into two strong 
lateral branches each of which is rebranched, the tips of branches very sharp; posterior process long, 
slender, tricarinate, arising from near the top of the anterior horn just behind or below the lateral 
branches and extending backward and downward high above the scutellum, the tip acuminate and 
reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, heavy, subtriangular, 
longer than broad, base swollen, tip truncate. Tegmina long, narrow, semiopaque; basal and costal 
areas broadly coriaceous and punctate and usually pubescent; veins heavy; five apical and tvvo discoidal 
cells; tips rounded; apical limbus broad. Legs long, slender and simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type cervus Buckton. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 225 

Geographicai distribution : Only two species of this genus have been described, one from 
the Orient and one from the Dutch East Indies. 

1. cervus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 217 (iQoS). — Pl. I 2, fig. I 92. China, Hainan Island, For- 

mosa. 

2. javanensis Funkhouser, Tijd. Ent. LXXX : 121 (1937). J^va. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE LEPTOCENTRINI DISTANT 

I. Base of posterior process distant from scutellum 

A. Base of posterior process not angulaie 

1. Apical veins of iegmina straighi 

a. Posterior proccss not lobed below 

b. Scutellum as broad as long ; apex noiched 
c. Disc of pronotum elevaied 

d. Posterior process long and curved Leptocentrus Stal. 

dd. Posterior process short and siraight Nilautama Distant. 

cc. Disc of pronolum not elevaied 

d. Suprahumerals directed forward Arimanes Distant. 

dd. Snprahumerals directed outiuard and upward Convector Distant. 

bb. Scutellnm much longer than broad; apex acute Telingana Distant. 

aa. Posterior process lobed below Acanthophyes Stal. 

2. Apical veins of tegmina strongly cnrved 

a. Suprahumerals porrect Bathoutha Distant. 

aa. Suprahumerals horisontal or oblique 

b. Posterior process sinuate; apical half impinging on tegmina. . . Indicopleustes Distant. 

bb. Posterior process straight from basal curve, not touching tegmina . Parapogon Distant. 

B. Base of posterior process angulate 

1. Posierior process compressed and curved behind angle Xiphopoeus Stal. 

2. Posterior process straight and acuminate behind angle Maarbarus Distant. 

II. Base of posterior process touching or very near scutellum 

A. Posterior process slightly but dislinctly separated from scutellum 

1 . Suprahumerals horizontal or nearly so 
a. Apical veins of tegmina straight 

b. Posterior process compressed and laterally globose Aspasiana Distant. 

bb. Posterior process narrow and undulate Tshaka Distant. 

aa. Apical veins of tegmitia strongly curved Polonius Distant. 

2. Suprahumerals porrecl or strovgly ohlique 

a. Pronotum gibbous; fosterior process strongly sinuate 

b. Front of pronotum crescentiform Dacaratha Distant. 

bb. Front of pronotum not crescentiform Imporcitor Distant. 

aa. Pronotum not gihbous; posterior process only slightly undulate . . . Otinotus Buckton. 



226 HOMOPTERA 

B. Posterior process imbinging on scutellum, usually almost entirely covering it 

1. Suprahumerals inclined forward 
a. Suprahumerals oblique 

b. Posterior process at least as long as tegmina 

c. Suprahumerals compressed ; tegmina with three discoidal cells. Eufrenchia Goding. 

cc. Suprahumerals triquerous; tegmina with two discoidal cells , . Cebes Distant. 

bb. Posterior process much shorter than tegmina Lubra Goding. 

aa. Suprahumerals porrect Sarantus Stal. 

2. Suprahumerals not inclined /orward 

a. Posterior process as long or longer ihan tegmina 

b. Pronotum strongly rugose Godingella Distant. 

bb. Pronotum not rugose 

c. Corium withfive apical cells Otinotoides Distant. 

cc. Corium wilh three apical cells Gondopharnes Distant. 

aa Posterior process shorter than tegmina 

b. Suprahumerals erect or suherect Ceraon Buckton. 

bb. Suprahumerals horizontal or oblique 
c. Suprahumerals horisontal 

d. Pronotum gibbous before base of posterior process .... Emphusis Buckton. 
dd. Pronotum not gibbous before base of posterior process 

e. Median carina elevated in sptne or angle Acanthucus Stal. 

ee. Median carina straight Sertorius Stal. 

cc. Suprahnmerals oblique 

d. Apical veins of tegmina straight 
e. Dorsum straight, not gibbous 

f . Suprahumerals strang and rohust 
g. Apical veins of tegmina normal 

h. Apical cells of corium short and broad . . . Centruchus Stal. 

hh. Apical cells ofcorium elongate Eufairmairia Distant. 

gg Apical veins of tegminairregular, reticulate. . . Sextius Stal. 

ff. Suprahumerals very slender Periaman Distant. 

ee. Dorsum gibbous Centrotypus Stal. 

dd. Apical veins of tegmina strongly curved Pogon Buckton. 

219. GENUS LEPTOCENTRUS STAL 

Leptocentrus Stal, Analect. Hem. 386 (i866). 
Rabduchus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 25i (i9o3). 

Characters : Since this genus is the type genus of its tribe, it shows very distinctly, as would 
be expected, the fundamental characters of that tribe, especially the strong, simple suprahumerals, the 
slender posterior process extending high above the body, the unarmed mesonotum, the plainly visible 
scutellum and the four apical cells of the hind wings. From the other genera of the tribe it differs 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 



227 



paiticularly in having a broad, notched scutellum, a iong, decurved posterior process and straight 
simple apical veins in the tegmina. More detailed generic characters may be noted as follows : Head 
subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base regularly arcuate; eyes large and globular; ocelli large, 
prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a Hne dravvn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas sinuate ; clypeus long and usually narrow, extending for more 
than half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum convex and 
bearing strong suprahumerals and a long posterior process vvhicli extends backward high above the 
scutellum ; metopidium vertical, usually higher than broad ; median carina strongly percurrent ; huineral 
angles large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns long and strong, variable in size and structure 
but alvvays simple and sharp, usually longer than the distance between their bases and exlending 
outward and upward with a tendency to curve backward; posterior process long, arising from higli 
above the scutellum and usually extending backward and downward, reaching well beyond the internal 
angles of the tegmina and often as far as their tips ; scutellum entirely exposed, broader than long, base 
usually swollen and often tomentose, tip broadly notched. Tegmina long, narrow and hyaline; base 
narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus well 
developed. Legs simple; femora cylindrical ; tibia; triquerate ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type altifrous Walker. 



Geogpaphical distribution : This is one of the most widely 
World genera and is found over wide areas in Asia, Africa and Oceanica. 

1. abdullah Distant, Rhynch. Notes 290 (igi6). 

2. alba Funkhouser, Bornean Memb. 470 (1929). 

3 alhescens Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 427 (igSS). 

4. alholineatus Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 2. 238 (1937). 

5. albonotata Distant, Rh^-nch. Xotes 289 (igi6). 

6. altifrons Walker, List Hom. H. M. 608. 21 (iS5i). 

atratus Walker. List Hom. B. M. 624. 60 (i85i). 
hos Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. 336. 640 (i858). 
gnomon Hiickton, Mon. Meml). 25i (1903). 

7. autilope Stal, Freg Eug. Res. Ins. 284. igi (i85g). 

8. arcuatus Funkhouser, Phil. Jouni. Sci. XXXI II : ii3 (1^27). 
g. arebiensis Goding, Memb. Africa 224 (ig32). 

10. aureomaculatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes3i5 (igi6). 

11. australis Distant, Rhynch. Xotes 24 (igi6). 

12. bajulans Distant. Faun. lirit. Ind. App. i55. 3349 (1916). 



i3. holivari Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 58 (ig35). 
14, hrunneus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIl 
i5. confusus Distant. Rhynch. Notes i5i (igi6). 

16. Jlexicorne Walker, liis. Saund. 78 (i858). 



1-. 428 (1935). 



distributed of all of the Old 

Mala\'a, Siam. 

Borneo. 

Africa, Sieira Leoiie. 

China, Hainan Island. 

India, Nilgiris, Ilillgrove. 

Africa, Congo, Sierra Leone, 
West Africa, Calabar, Kam- 
eroons, Dutch East Africa, 
Amani, Sigital. 

Philippines. 

PhiIippiiies,PaIav>an, Hawaii. 
Africa, Dungu. 
Africa, Uganda. Kafu, Kam- 

pala. 
Africa, Xatal, Malvern. 
Inilia, Bengal, Calcutta, Tra- 

vancore, Cochin .State, Bur- 

ma, Siam, Malaya. 
Africa, Fernando Po. 
Africa, Nairobi. 
Africa, Kameroons, Kenja, 

Aberdare. 
India, Xorth Hindostan. 



228 



HOMOPTERA 



17. formosanus Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Form. XVI II : 32 (1928). 

18. gracilis Funkhouser, Rec. .'^us. Mus. XV' : 5. 3o7 (1927). 

19. grossus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i5 (1916). 

20. imptinctus Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33^ (igoS). 

21. insignis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 32. 2143 (1907). 

22. jacobsoni I^unkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 12 (1927). 

23. lama Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. II : 337. 642 (i858). 

24. leiicaspis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. i58 (i858). 



25. limbipennis Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 120 (1910). 

26. longispinus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 3i. 2141 (1907). 



27. luleinervis Funkhouser, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 2. 2^5 (1936). 

28. mauilaensis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXIII : 1 12 (1927). 

29. mephistopheles Buckton, Mon. Memb. 235 (1903). 

30. obliquus Walker, Ins. Saund. 79 (i858). 

3t. obortus Distant, Faun. Biit. Ind. App. 1^4. 33^7 (1916). 



32. orientalis Schumacher, Sant. Form. 116 (1915). 

33. peracatus Distant, Rh}'nch. Notes i5i (1916). 

34. pieltaini Pelaez, Memb. F"ernando Po 61 (1935). 

35. pilosHS Funkhousev, Revue Suisse de Zool. 191 (1936). 

36. pubescens F\inkhouser, Tijd. Ent. LXXX : 122 (1937). 

37. purpureus I'"unkhouser, Bornean Memb. 471 (1929). 

38. reponens Walker, List Hom. B. M. 604. 14 (i85i). — P|. 12, 

fig. 193. 



39. rufipennis Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 334 (igo5). 

40. rufospinus Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. i3 (1927). 

41. sculellaius Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i55. 33^8 (1916). 

42. subflaviis Noualhier and Martin, Mission Pav. III : 167 (1904). 



Formosa. 

New South Wales. 

Africa, Uganda, Entebke, 

Buamba, Semliki. 
Burma, Padaukbin. 

Borneo, Nicobar Island, Nan- 
kauri. 

Sumatra. 

Africa, Calabar, Angola, F^er- 

nando Po. 
India, Ceylon, Philippines, 

Batbatan Island, Borneo, 

Malaya, Singapore, Punjab, 

Kambera. 

Africa, Ruwenzori. 

Burma, Singapore, Borneo, 
Penang, Portuguese India. 
Mormugao, Sumatra. 

India, Bengal. 

Phih'ppines, Manila. 

India, Sikhim. 

India, Hindostan, 

India, Burma, Malaya, Sin- 
gapore, Borneo, Assam, 
Garo,Tura, Barkuda Island, 
Sumatra. 

Formosa. 

Africa, Somaliland. 

Africa, Kameroons. 

Flores, Soembavva. 

Java. 

Borneo. 

India, Bengal, Mj'itta, Suma- 
tia, Ceylon, Philippines, 
Luzon, Los Banos, Laguna, 
Panay, Sipora. 

Africa, Kameroons, Fernan- 

do Po. 
Sumatra. 

India, South India, Kodai- 
kanal. 

Siam. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



229 



43. sitbstHutus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6o5. 16 (i85i). 



44. tcmrus Fabricius, S^^st. Ent. 676. g (1775). 

yupricapni Fabricius, Syst. Ent. Siippl. 514 (1798). 
tricornis Dohrn, Cat. Hem. 82 (iS59). 
gazella Buckton, Mon. Memb. 235 {1903). 

43. tenuicorms Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 11 (1927). 

46. terminalis 'WaXk&r, List Hom. B. M. 604. i3 fi85i). 

47. /Ae/roa/Zt Distant, Rhynch. Notes 24 (igi6). 

48. ugandensis Distant, Rhynch. jVotes i5i (1916). 



49. ustus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 236 (igo3). 

50, vicarius Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6o5. i5 (i85i). 



India, Bengal, Calcutta, Bom- 

bay,Ceylon,Colombo.South 

India, Mysore. 
India, Assam, Calcutta, East 

Indies, Borneo, Ceylon, Ti- 

mor, Bengal, Malaya, Bur- 

ma, Philippines. 
Sumatra. 
China, Hong Kong, Hain.in 

Island. 
Africa, Nyassaland. 
Africa, Uganda, Entebbe, 

Semliki, Budongo, Unj-oro, 

Malbira, Toro. 
Ceylon, Madras. 
Java, Sumatra. 



220. Genus NILAUTAMA DISTANT 



Nilautama Distant, Fauna Brit. Ind. 32 (igo^). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but with the posterior process short and 
straight, in some cases not extending as far backward as the end of the scutellum. Head subquadrate, 
broader than high; base regularly arcuate; eyes large and globular; ocelli prominent, equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of genae straight and sloping; clypeus subovate, extending for three-fourths its length below inferior 
margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, bearing a pair of strong suprahumerals and a short, 
straight posterior process; metopidium convex, vertical, about as broad as high; median carina weakly 
percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and pointed; suprahumeral horns long, heavy, triquerous, 
much longer than the distance between their bases, extending upward and outward and usuall}' curving 
backward, tips sharp; posterior process short, straight, arising from high up on the pronotum, extending 
backward over the body but not reaching the internal angles of the tegmina and sometimes not as long 
as ths scutelluin; scutellum entirely exposed, as broad as long, base swollen and usually tomentose, tip 
broadly notched. Tegmina long, narrow, hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; 
five apical and two discoidal cells; tips rounded; apical limbus well developed. Hind wings with four 
apical cells. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type lypica Distant. 

Geographical distributlon : An Indian and East Indian genus with four described species. 

1. cicadiformis Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : 164. 121 (1857). Boriieo, Sarawak. 

2. minutispina Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 3. 7 (1918). — Pl. I 2, Penang Island, .Malaya, Ke- 

fig. I 94. dah, Kangean Island. 

3. tricornis Melichar, Notes Mus. Leid 114 (1914). J'iva 

4. typica Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 22. 2144 (1907). India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 



23o HOMOPTERA 



221. GENUS ARIMANES DlSTANT 

Arimanes Distant, Rhynch. Notes 290 (1916). 

Characteps : This genus seems to be closely related to both Ceraon and Lubra but differs from 
both in the low pronotum, the more elevated posterior process and in the pecuhar structure of the 
suprahumerals which are slender, subporrect and tricarinate with the tips broad, truncate and sulcate 
between the ridges. Head subquadrate, much broader than high ; base regularly arcuate ; eyes globular ; 
ocelli large, prominent, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated above a hne drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense sloping, sinuate and slightly flanged ; clypeus feebly trilobed, 
extending for one-third its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum low and bearing long 
suprahumerals and a long, slender posterior process; metopidium vertical, broader than high; median 
carina percurrent ; humeral angles large, triangular and blunt ; suprahumeral horns slender, much 
longer than the distance between their bases, strongly triquerate, extending upward, shghtly forward 
and very little outward, tips broad and truncate and bearing strong ridges with depressions between the 
ridges; posterior process long, slender, tricarinate, shghtly elevated above the body, tip sharp and 
reaching the tips of the tegmina; scutellum broadly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, 
semiopaque; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical 
limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type doryensis Distant. 

Geogpaphical dlstpibution : This genus isknown only from the type species from New Guinea. 
I. doryensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 290 (1916). — Pl. I 2,fig. I 95. New Guinea, Dory. 

222. GENUS CONVECTOR DISTANT 

Convectop Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i53 (1916). 

Chapacteps : The type species of this genus bears a strong resemblance to the forms of Telingana 
but the posterior process is lower and the scutellum is broader than long. Head subquadrate, broader 
than high; base regularly arcuate; eyes globular; ocelU large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other 
and from the eyes and situated shghtly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of 
genae straight; clypeus extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum 
convex with strong suprahumerals and a long straight posterior process; metopidium vertical, about as 
broad as high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles broad andblunt; suprahumeral horns strong, 
triquerate, as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward, tip stiarp ; 
posterior process slender, tricarinate, arising from low on the pronotum but above the scutellum, nearly 
straight, tip acuminate and reaching well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely 
exposed, broader than long, tip broadly notched. Tegmina hyahne; base narrowly coriaceous and 
punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed, apical limbus weil developed. Legs simple; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type cavendus Distant. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : This genus is known only from the type species. 

1. cavendus Distant, Faun. Biit Ind. App. i53. 33^6 (1916). — Pl. I 2, India, Nilgiri Hills, Punjab. 
fig. 196. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



23l 



223. GENUS TELINGANA Distant 



Telingana Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 17 (igoy). 

Characters : A distinct and vvell known genus characterized particularly by the long, 
tricarinate, decurved posterior process which arises low on the pronotum but does not touch the scutellum 
and by the long narrow scutellum. Head subquadrate, roughly sculptured, about twice as broad as 
high; base strongly arcuate and sinuate; eyes large, globular and protruding; ocelU very laige, 
conspicuous, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated well above a Hne drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus nanow, extending for more Ihan 
half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip pointed. Pronotum strongly convex, bearing strong 
suprahumerals and long, decurved posterior process; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high; 
median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles very large, heavy and blunt; suprahumeral horns 
large, triquerate, longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward, tips 
sharp; posterior process long, slender, tricarinate and decurved, arising from low on the pronotum but 
not touching the scutellum, apical third usually impinging on the tegmina, tip acuminate and extending 
well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not reaching their tips; scutellum entirely exposed, 
much longer than broad, tip notched. Tegmina hyabne or mottled; base broadly coriaceous and 
punctate; veins heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; tips rounded; apical limbus very narrow. 
Legs long, slender, simple; tibitc iinely spined; hind tarsi longest. 



Type curvispina Stal. 

Geographical distribution 

from Oriental and Oceanic regiona. 



This is primarily an Indian genus but it has been leported also 



I. balteata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i5i. 3342 (igi6). — Pl, I 2, India, Kodaikanal, Teppaku- 

lam. 



fig. 197. 

2. campbelli Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i5o. 3341 (igi6). 

3. canesceiis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^4 (1903). 



4. capislrata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 19. 2i25 (igoy). 

5. cognata Distant, ('"aun. Brit. Ind. App. i^g. 333g (igi6). 

6. consobriua Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 132. 33^4 (igi6). 

7. curvispina Slal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 284. 3 (iS6g). 

decipiens (nom. nud.) Motschiilsky. Hull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXXVI : g6 

(i863). 
imitalor Buckton, Mon. Memb. 234 (1903). 

8. depressa Funkhouser, Treubia XV : i. 122 (1935"). 

g. flavipes Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : i55 (i8gi). 

10. formosanus Matsumura, Cic. Jap. II : i5. i (1912). 

11. imiiator Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 167 (1891). 

12. oruanda Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i5o. 33^0 (igi6). 
i3. pallipes Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2S4. 4(1869). 



South India, Kodaikanal. 
India,Sikhim, Mungphu,Ten- 

asserim, Myitta, Nicobar 

Island. 
India, Assam, Margherita, 

Burma, Ruby Mines. 
India, Nilgiri Hills. 
South India, Kodaikanal. 
India, Calcutta, Kodaikanal, 

Ceylon, Maskehya. 

Java. 

Ceylon, India,.Assam, Borneo. 

Formosa. 

India, Teppakulam, Ceylon, 

Pundaluoya. 
South India, Kodaikanal. 
India. 



232 HOMOPTERA 

14. paria Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i3. i3 (1846). India, North Bengal, South 

India, Kodaikanal. 

i5. recurvata Distant, Rhynch. Notes 288 (1916). Borneo, Sarawak, Sumatra. 

16. scutellata China, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 480 (1925). ' Asia, Yunnan. 

17. travancorensis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i5i. 3343(1916). India. Travancore, W. Ghats. 

18. varipes Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : 164. 119 (1857). Borneo, Sarawak, Sumatra. 

224. Genus ACANTHOPHYES Stal 

Acanthophyes Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 89 (1866). 

Characters : A small and little known genus of small insects characterized by having an inferior 
lobe on the posterior process. Head subovate, broader than high; base highly arcuate and feebly 
sinuate; eyes small, somewhat flattened laterally; ocelli small, inconspicuous, somewhat nearer to each 
other than to the eyes and situated a little above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of genae sloping, rounded andslighth' flanged; clypeus long, narrow, extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of gense, tip rounded. Pronotum strongly convex with stout suprahumerals and a 
robust posterior process; metopidium vertical, subquadrate, about as broad as high ; median carina 
percurrent; humeral angles strong, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, triquerate, about 
as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward, tips sharp and somewhat 
flattened dorso-ventrally ; posterior process heavy, sinuate, tricarinate, arising from low on the pronotum 
but not touching the scutellum, bearing an inferior median lobe which varies in size but which usually 
touches the tegmina, tip acute and extending almost to the tips of the tegmina on which it impinges; 
scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad, tip notched. Tegmina subhyaline; base 
coriaceous and punctate; veins not conspicuous; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical 
limbus broad, especially on the anal margin. Legs simple; femora cyhndrical; tibiae triquerate and 
finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type albipennis StaL 

Geographical distribution : This is an African and Indian genus with one aberrant species 
in southern Europe. 

1. alb ipenitis StaX, Hem. Afr. IV: 89. i (1866). Africa, Caffraria. 

2. capra Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. 514. 2^4 (1798). India, Tranquebar. 

3. chloroticus Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. France II : 9. 86 (i85i). .'\frica, Caffraria. 

4. wa/Ae;-» Funkhouser, Cat. Memb. 338 (1927). — Pl. I 2, fig. 198. North Africa, Morocco, Spain, 

chloroticus (preoccupied) Walker, Ins. Saund. 82 (i858). PortUffal 

225. GENUS BATHOUTHA DlSTANT 

Bathoutha Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 23 (1907). 

Characters : The t^^pe of this genus, which is the only species in the genus, is a unique insect 
showing very remarkable formation in the suprahumerals, which project almost directly forward, in the 
posterior process which is bent in a bow over the body. and in the strongly curved veins of the tegmina. 
Head subquadrate, deflexed, twice as broad as high; base regularly arcuate; eyes large, globular and 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 233 

protruding; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated above a Hne 
drawn through centers ofeyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and rounded; clypeus long and narrow, 
extending for three-fourths its length below inferior margins of genas, tip rounded. Pronotum conical, 
nearly ilat above, not convex, and bearing porrect suprahumerals and an aiched posterior process ; 
metopidium sloping forward, much higher than broad; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral 
angles small, triangular and pointed; suprahumeral horns long, slender, close together, extending ahnost 
directly forward, very httle upward and hardly at all outward, tips dilated and bearing transverse points; 
posterior process long, slender, curved, arising from low on the pronotum but not touching the scutellum, 
arched over the abdomen, tip sharp and extending just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; 
scutellum entirely exposed, longer than broad, frnely longitudinall}' carinate. Tegmina long, narrow, 
subhyaHne; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; five apical cells and one discoidal cell; veins 
of apical area strongly curved; tips pointed; apical hmbus very narrow. Legs simple; femora 
cyhndrical, tibise slender and finely spined; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type indicans Walker. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This genus is known only from the type from Ceylon. 

I. iniiicans Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 128 (i858). — Pl. 12, Ceylon, Yatiyantota. 
fig. 199. 



226. Genus INDICOPLEUSTES DISTANT 

Indicopleustes Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 25 (1907). 

Characteps : Small insects, closely related to those of the preceding geniis and showing similar 
curved apical veins in the tegmina but differing in the suprahumerals which are short and extend outward 
and upward, and in the sinuate posterior process which is first arched over the scutellum and then 
impinges on the tegmina for its distal half. Head subovate, twice as broad as high; base arcuate and 
strongly sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, about equidistant from each other and from tlie 
eyes and situated a little above a line drawn through centers of ej^es; inferior margins of genjE horizontal 
and rounded; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum convex, 
bearing short suprahumerals and a sinuate posterior process; metopidium convex, vertical, a little 
broader than high ; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and poinled ; 
suprahumeral horns stout, as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward, 
tips sharp and curved backward; posterior process sinuate, arising from low on the pronotum but not 
touching the scutellum, arching over the scutellum and then curving downard and impinging on the 
tegmina throughout its distal half, tip sharp and reaching just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; 
scutellum entirely exposed, about as broad as long. Tegmina broad, semiopaque; basal and costal 
areas coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; tips rounded; apical limbus ver}' 
narrow. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type albomaculatus Distant. 

Geographical distpibution : This is an Asiatic genus represented by species in Ceylon, Java 
and Japan. 

I. albomaculatus Distant, F"aun. Brit. Ind. 25. 2i33 (1907). — Pl. I 2, Ceylon, Peradeni\a. 
fig. 200. 



234 



HOMOPTERA 



2. apicatus Melichar, Notes Mus. Leid. ii3 (1914). 

3. curvaUis Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 112. 7 (igoS). 

4. fuscomaculatus Kato, 111. Ins. Jap. 41:7 (1933). 



Java. 

Ceylon, Kandy, Peradeniya. 

Japan. 



227. Genus PARAPOGON DISTANT 



Parapogon Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 22 (1907). 

Characters : This genus is most nearly related to Tdingaua from which it differs cliiefly in 
having strongly curved veins in the apical area of the tegmina. The two known species of the genus 
are both small, dark inconspicuous insects. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base arcuate 
and weakly sinuate; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated 
slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae horizontal and rounded ; 
clypeus broad, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. 
Pronotum convex with strong suprahumerals and a straight posterior process elevated well above the 
scutellum; metopidium vertical, convex, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns stout, simple, sharp, triquerate, as long as the distance 
between their bases, extending outward and upward; posterior process simple, tricarinate, arising from 
low on the pronotum but not touching scutellum, slightly curved above the scutellum and then straight 
above the abdomen, not impinging on the tegmina, tip sharp and extending beyond the internal angles 
of the tegmina; scutellum entireh' exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad. Tegmina semiopaque 
or subhyaline; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two iliscoidal cells; veins 
of apical area strongly curved; tip pointed; apical limbus very narrow. Legs simple; all tarsi about 
equal in length. 

Type kandyiana Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from Ceylon. Two species have 
been described. 



1. insignis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .App. i53 (1916). — 

fig. 201. 

2. kandyiana Distant. Faun. Brit. Ind. 22. 2i3o (1907). 



Pl. I 2, Ce^-lon, Nuwara Eliya. 

Ceylon, Kandy. 



228. Genus XIPHOPCEUS Stal 

Xiphopoeus Stal, Hem. Afr. IV: 91 (1866). 

Kleidos Buckton, Moii. Memb. 2:4 (igoSj. 

Euxiphopoeus Godirif;, Joiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 91 (igSo). 

Characters : This genus contains a group of rather strange looking insects characterized 
particularly by the angulate, compressed and highly arched posterior process, rough, heavy suprahum- 
erals, and long, pointed, opaque tegmina. Head subtriangular, about as long as broad; base highiy 
arcuate and weaklj- sinuate ; eyes ovate; ocelli large but inconspicuous, farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae rounded and 
extended far downward; clypeus broad, extending for one-third its length below inferior margins of 
genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, roughly sculptured, bearing heavy, rough suprahumerals and 
a strong, arched, lateralh' flattened posterior process; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high ; 



J 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 235 

median caiina strongly percurrent ; humeral angles large and blunt ; posterior process heavy , compressed 
laterally, arising high above the scutellum, slightly angulate at the base, then highly curved over the 
scutellum, then bent downward to touch the tegmina, tip suddenly acute and reaching just beyond the 
internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, triangular, about as broad as long, base 
slightly swoUen, tip broadly notched. Tegmina long, slender and opaque ; base narrowly coriaceous 
and punctate; veins heavy; iive apical and two discoidal cells ; tip pointed; apical limbus very broad. 
Legs heavy; femora cylindrical; tibiae triquerate and roughly spined ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type phantasma Signoret. 

Geographical distpibution : This is definitely an African genus but one species has been 
described from Ceylon. 

1. «w/«s Distant, Rhynch. Notes 152(1916). — Pl. I 2, flg. 202. Africa, Uganda, Kafu River, 

Hoima. 

2. gtiiiculatus Stal. Hem. Afr. IV : 92. 3 (1866). Africa, Sierra Leone. 

3. gestroi Schmidt, Zool. Anz. XXXVHI : 234 (191 1). Africa. 

4. hir culus ]Acoh'\, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 121 (1910). Africa, Kilamandjaro. 

5. horridulus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6o5. 17 (i85i). Africa, Natal. 

6. palmaius Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 333 (igoS). Zanzibar. 

7. phantasma Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. 338. 664 (i858). Africa, Calabar. 

8. validicornis Stal, Ofv. Kong. Akad. Forh. gS. i (i855). Africa, Caffraria. 

9. vomeris Buckton, Mon. Memb. 214 (1903). Ceylon. 

229. Genus MAARBARUS Distant 

Maarbapus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 16 (1907). 

Chapacters : We have not seen a representative of this genus but from Distanfs description 
and figure it apparently bears a strong superficial resemblance to Anchon but differs particularly in the 
venation of the hind wing which in Maarbarus shows four apical cells. We are reproducing Distant's 
figure as our illustration of the genus and are summarizing his description to indicate tlie generic 
characters as foUows : Head subquadrate, wider than high; base aicuate and strongly sinuate ; eyes 
large and globular; ocelli large, prominent, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated well above 
a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas sloping and rounded; clypeus broad, 
extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, 
bearing a pair of slender suprahumerals and a strongly angulate posterior process; metopidium 
vertical, broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and 
sharp; suprahumeral horns slender, much longer than the distance between their bases. extending 
outward and upward with the tips curved backward; posterior process arising from near the base of 
the pronotum but not touching scutellum, strongly angulate at the base and then extending obliquely 
downward but not touching tegmina, tip acuminate and extending beyond the internal angles of the 
tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, longer than broad. Tegmina hyaline; basal and 
costal areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; four apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical 
limbus narrow. Legs simple and slender; hind tarsi longest. 

Type bubalus Kirby. 



236 HOMOPTERA 

Geographical distribution : This is an Indian genus with two species, one from India and 
one from Ceylon. 

1. bubalus Kirby, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 167 (1891). — Pl. I 2, Ceylon, Pundaluoya, Maske- 

fig. 203. Hya. 

2. cinctus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 236 (igoS). India, Calcutta. 

230. Genus ASPASIANA DISTANT 

Aspasiana Distant, Rhynch. Notes 26 (1916). 

Ciiaracters : This genus was erected to accommodate a single species which stood in the 
British Museum collection under Walker's MS name « carbonaria ». The species had not been described 
and Distant. therefore, described both genus and species. The type specimen is a large, smooth, 
shining black insect with a superficial resemblance to the forms of the Neotropical genus Antona. It is 
characterized particularly by the short, sharp, laterally extended suprahumerals and the flat, laterally 
globose posterior process. Head slightly defiexed, subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base arcuate 
and sinuate; eyes ovate; ocelli large, prominent, nearer to each other than to the eyes and situated near 
the upper margin of the head, far above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
sinuate; clypeus strong, extending for about half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
depressed, moderately convexly gibbous, bearing a pair of short, sharp suprahumerals and a broad, 
compressed and laterally globose posterior process; metopidium sloping, broader thanhigh; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles heavy and triangular; suprahumeral horns sharp, extending almost 
directly outward and curving backward; posterior process distinctly raised above the scutellum at base, 
then broadly compressed with the lateral areas globose, then suddenly narrowed, tricarinate and 
depressed, impinging on the tegmina, tip acute and extending almost to the tips of the tegmina ; scutellum 
largely exposed, triangular, longer than broad. Tegmina subhyaline; basal and costal areas narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical limbus 
narrow. Legs heavy, femora cylindrical; tibiae triquerate, sulcate and spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type carbonaria Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from New Guinea. 
I. carbonaria Distant, Rhynch. Notes 27 (1916). — Pl. I 2, fig. 204. New Guinea. 

231. GENUS TSHAKA DistanT 

Tshal<a Distant, Ins. Trans. 214 (1908). 

Characters : The insects of this genus suggest in general facies those of the genus Anchon but 
the hind wings have four apical cells and the posterior process is quite different in generic structures. 
Head strongly convex, subquadrate, broader than high; base highly arcuate and feebly sinuate ; eyes 
large, globular and protruding; ocelli small, inconspicuous, a little farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense sinuate 
and extended forward; clypeus broad, extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of 
gense, tip rounded. Pronotum convexly gibbous, bearing strong suprahumerals and a sinuate posterior 



FAM MEMBRACIDiE aSy 

process; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high; median carina percurrent ; humeral angles large, 
triangular and pointed; suprahumeral horns stout, tricarinate, as long as the distance between their 
bases, extending outward and upward, tips sharp; posterior process sinuate, tricarinate, arising above 
the scutellum and extending backward over the body, not touching the tegmina, tip acuminate and 
extending just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, 
a little longer than its breadth at base, tip broadly notched. Tegmina short, broad and hyaline; base 
coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy ; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip roundly pointed; apical 
limbus broad. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs simple; femora cyhndrical; tibias triquerate 
and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type naturalis Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This is entirely an African genus and has been reported from no 
other continent. 

1. leptocentraria Distant, Ins. Trans. 214 (1908). Africa, Transvaal. 

2. naturalis Distant, Ins. Trans. 214 (1908). Africa, Transvaal. 

3. e)6oWM5 Distant, Rhynch. Notes 42 (1916). — Pl. I 2, flg. 205. Africa, Transvaal, Pretoria, 

Waterberg, Belgian Congo. 

4. undulatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 824 (1916). Africa, Mashonaland, Salis- 

bury, Barberton. 

232. Genus POLONIUS DISTANT 

Polonius Distant, Rhynch. Notes 291 (1916). 

Characters : The type species of this genus, which is the only species in the genus, might not 
at iirst glance be distinguished from a species of Tricentrus but the hind trochanters are unarmed, the 
posterior process is raised slightly above the scutellum and the apical veins of the tegmina are shghtly 
curved. The vahdity of the genus may be questioned but the characters as shown by the type species 
which may be generic are as follows : Head subquadrate, broader than high ; base arcuate ; eyes large 
and ovate; ocelli small, inconspicuous. about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated 
a little above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense nearly straight; clypeus 
broad, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genas. Pronotum convex, bearing short, 
strong suprahumerals and a short, straight posterior process; metopidium sloping, wider than high; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns stout, 
sharp, no longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward and curving 
backward ; posterior process short, straight, slightly elevated above the scutellum, strongly tricarinate, 
tip acuminate and not quite reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum largely exposed, 
triangular, about as long as broad. Tegmina long, narrow, subhyaline ; basal and costal areas strongly 
coriaceous and punctate ; veins of apical area curved; tip roundl}' pointed ; apical limbus well devel- 
oped. Legs simple and very strongly pilose ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type biseratensis Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from Malaya, 
I. biseratensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 291 (1916). — Pl. I 2, fig. 206. Siamese Malay States, Biserat. 



238 HOMOPTERA 



233. Genus DACARTHA DISTANT 

Dacartha Distant, Rhynch. Notes Sig (1916). 

Characteps : An African genus which is closely related to the Oriental genus Emphusis but with 
the posterior process higher above the scutellum and with a much less swollen and crescentiform 
pronotum. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base weakly arcuate and sinuate; eyes large, ovate 
and protruding; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated a little 
above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus very 
broad, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip broadly rounded. Pronotum 
strongly convex, somewhat swollen and crescentiform in front, bearing a pair of short, sharp supra- 
humerals and a long curving posterior process; metopidium vertical, strongly convex, a little broader 
than high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles heavy and blunt; suprahumeral horns 
strong, short, sharp, not as long as the distance between their bases, strongly triquerate, extending 
almost directly outward with the tips sHghtly curved backward; posterior process long, strongly 
tricarinate, decurved, arising from well above the scutellum but bending downward to touch the tegmina, 
tip acuminate and extending well beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, 
subtriangular, a little longer than its breadth at base, tip deeply notched. Tegmina long and subhyaUne; 
base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veinsheavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; 
apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; femora cyhndrical; tibiae triquerous and spined; hind tarsi 
very much longer than the others. 

Typo nyasana Distant. 

Geographical distpibution : Both of the representatives of this genus are natives of Africa, 
I. hyalina Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 65 (igSS). — Pl. 12, fig. 207. Africa, Kameroons. 
3. «jasa«a Distant, Rhynch. Notes Sig (1916). Africa, Nyassa, Spanish Gui- 

nea. 

234. GENUS IMPORCITOR DISTANT 

Impopcitop Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. iSy (1916). 

Chapacters : We have not seen either of the species representing this genus but Distant's 
description and his excellent figure of the type species (which we are reproducing as our illustration of 
the genus) makes it possible to state the very definite generic characters as follows : Head subquadrate, 
broader than high; base highly arcuate and feebly sinuate; eyes large, globular and protruding; ocelli 
small, inconspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated above a line drawn 
through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sloping and rounded; clypeus projecting for half its 
length below the inferior margins of the genae, tip pointed. Pronotum convex but not crescentiform, 
and bearing short, heavy suprahumerals and a very sinuate posterior process; median carina vertical, a 
little broader than high; humeral angles heavy and blunt; median carina strongly percurrent; supra- 
humeral horns stout, triquerous, as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and 
upward with the tips depressed ; posterior process strongly sinuate, arising just above the scutellum and 
then following the line of the inner margins of the tegmina, tip acute and extending well beyond the 
internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum well exposed, triangular, about as broad as long. Tegmina 



FAM. MEMBRACID^^: 2^9 

subhyaline; base bioadly coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical 
limbus narrow. Legs heavy; femora cyhndrical; tibiae triquerous, slightly flatiened and finely .spined; 
hind tarsi longest. 

.•\ccording to its author, this genus suggests the genus Ebhul in so far as the sinuate posterior 
process is concerned, but of course is nt once separated from that genus by the juesence of the supra- 
humeral horns. 

Type typicus Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is represented by two species, one froni India and 
the other from I-^ormosa. 

1. laiicornis Kato, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Forniosa XIX : 541 (1929). I"ormosa. 

2. lypicus Distant.Faun.Brit. Ind. App. 157(1916). — Pl. I 2,fig. 208. India, Nilgiri Hills. 



235. GENUS OTINOTUS BUCKTON 

Otinotus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 233 (1903). 
Otionotus 1'error) Mclichar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. X.XIV : 2g5 (igoS). 

Characters : A large and well known genus distinguished particularly bj- the sloping and non- 
gibbous pronotum and the undulate posterior jirocess which lies close to the scutellum. Head 
subquadrate, wider than high ; base arcuate and sinuate: eyes large, globular and protruding : ocelli 
small, inconspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line diawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genai sloping and sinuate; clypeus very long and n;nrovv, 
extending for three-fourths its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum slightl}- 
convex, not strongly gibbous, bearing a pair of stout suprahumerals and a long, narrow, curved posterior 
process; metopidium low, vertical, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles small 
and blunt; suprahumeral horns stout, tricarinate, sharp, much longer than the distance betvveen their 
bases, extending outward and upward; posterior process iong, slender, tricarinate, vveakly sinuate, lying 
close to the posterior process and impinging on the tegmina; tip acuminate and reaching almost to the 
tips of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, hyaline; base 
narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical 
limbus narrow. Legs simple, stout; femora cylindrical ; tibiae tiicjuerous, somevvhat sulcate and weakly 
spined ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type aiiimiin Bucklon. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has a vvide distribution over .-\sia. .Africa and Australia. 

1. albomaculatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .-\pp. i5g. 3355 (igi6). India, Nilgiri Hills. 

2. albosignatus Distant, Khynch. Notes 40 (1916). Oueensland. 

3. ammon Buckton, Mon. Memb. 233 (igo3). India, Nilgiri Hills. 

4. arcuatus Funkhouser, Can. Ent. LI : 10. 222 (igig). South .Africa, Pretoria. 

5. badius Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .-Npp. i58. 335^ (igi6). India, Nilgiri Hills. 

6. belus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^2 (1903). Unknown . 

7. hrevicornis Distant. Faun. Brit. iml. App. 160. 335^ (igi6). India, Punjab, Lahore, Dehra 

Dun. 



240 



HOMOPTERA 



8. campbelU Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i58. 3353 (1916). 
g. ciirvidens Distant, Rhynch. Notes 1^4 (1916). 

10. doddi Distant, Rhynch. Notes 40 (19 16). 

11. elongatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 41. 2160 (1907). 

12. griseus Melichar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 295. 55 (igoS). 

i3. iuvarius Walker, List Hom. B. M. 621. 55 (i85i). 

14. kerenianiis Distant, Anii. Mag. Nat. Hist. XIV : 332 (1914). 
Pl. I 2, fig. 209. 

pallipis (preoccupied) Distant, Faun. Brit. Iiid. 40. 2i56 (1907). 
i5. midas Buckton, Mon. Memb. 233 (1903). 

16. mimicus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 1^9. 3356 (1916). 

17. uigrorufiis Distant, Rhynch. Notes i53 (1916). 



18. oneratus Walker, Ins. Saund. 78 (i858). 

lignicola Buckton, Mon. Memb. 224 (iqo3). 



19. pallescens Distant. Faun. Brit. Ind. 41. 2159 (1907). 

20. pilosns Funkhouser, Can. Eut. LI : 10. 222 (1919). 

21. recnrvns Distant, Rhynch. Notes 1^4 (1916). 

22. ru/escens Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 40. 21^7 (1907). 

23. iransversus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .App. 161 (igi6). 



India, Nilgiri Hills. 

Africa, Kameroons, Uganda, 

Entebbe, Kikindu. 
Queensland. 
India, South India, Mysore 

Trivandrum, Travancore. 
Dutch East Africa, Amani, 

Bomole. 
China? 
Burma, Kaien Hills. 

Malaya, Perak. 

India, Nilgiri Hills. 

Africa, Uganda,Masindi, East 
Mbale, Mpanga, Toro, Ma- 
biri, Chagive, Hoima, Bu- 
soga, Entebbe, British East 
Africa, Mt. Elgon. 

India, Hindostan, Coorg, Ra- 
niseram, Calcutta, Bombay, 
Poona, Cetrapura, Perade- 
niya, Jaffna, Bangalore, 
Dehra Dun, Bengal, Raj- 
mahal, Durgapur, Madras, 
Janjam, Rambha, Orissa, 
Satpara, Kathiawa, Patan, 
Somnah, Yenna, Medha, 
Saran, Siripur. 

India, Mainpura, Punjab. 

Dutch East Africa. 

Africa,Uganda,Entebbe,Lake 
Isolt. Lake Wamala. 

India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 

India, Punjab, Lahore. 



236. Genus EUFRENCHIA GODING 

Eufrenchia Goding, Mon. Memb. Australia 25 (igo3, March 25). 
Ibiceps Buckton, Mon. Memb. 239 (1903, Sept. 5). 

Characters : By priority of a few months in dates of publication, as indicated above, Goding's 
name tnust be accepteil for this genus, an oceanic group of insects characterized by having heavy 
coinpressed suprahumerals, a long posterior jMocess which hes close to the scutelium and three discoidal 
cells in the tegmina. Head subquadrate. wider than high, roughly sculptured; base feebly arcuate; 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



241 



eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelli small, inconspicuous, about equidistant from each olher and 
from the eyes and situated high up near the base of the head far above a line drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping, sinuate, and shghtly turned forward; clypeus broad with small 
lateral lobes, extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex. robust, 
gibbous, with strong suprahumerals and a long posterior process; metopidium vertical, higher thaii 
broad; mediam carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles we;ik and blunt; suprahumeral horns strong, 
laterally flattened, much longer than the distance between their bases. extending upward and somewhat 
forward with the tips bent outward; posterior process long, slender, tricarinate, lyinj^ close to the 
scutellum, impinging on the tegmina, tip decurved, blunt, and reaching beyond the tips of the tegmina ; 
scutellum very narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, narrow and pointed, hyahne; base 
narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and three (sometimes four) discoidal cells ; 
tip sharply pointed; apical Umbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type falcata Walker. 

Geographical distribution ; This is an oceanic genus which is most abundant in the Austiahan 
region. 

1. ansatus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 289 (igoS). 

2. bucktoni (nom. nov.). — Pl. I 2, fig. 2 10. 



falcatus (preoccupied) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23g (1903) 

3. /alcata Walker, List Hom B. M. 622. 5; (i85i) 

curvicornis Stil, Bid. Memb. Kan. 287. i {1869). 



4. lamimfer Buckton, Mon. Memb. 240 (igoS). 

5. lecd Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 26 (igoS). 

6. mounseyi Distant, Rhynch. Notes i5o (igi6). 

7. iieglecta Buckton, Mon. Memb. 224 (igoS). 



New Guinea, Mt. Alexander. 
South Austraha, Murray 

Bridge. 
Australia, Van Dieman's 

Land, South AustraUa. Ade- 

laide. 
Austraha, Singapore? 
West Australia. 
Philippines. 
South .Austraha. 



237. GENUS CEBES DISTANT 



Cebes Distant, Rhynch. Notes 39 (1916). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but the suprahumerals are not flattened 
and there are only two discoidal cells in the tegmina. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base 
arcuate and strongly sinuate; eyes large, globularand protruding; oceUi large, conspicuous, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated a Uttle above a Une drawn through centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of genae sloping and strongly sinuate, edges turned forward; clypeus broad, trilobed, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip truncate Pronotum convex, gibbous, 
bearing strong suprahumerals and a stout posterior process ; metopidium vertical, about as broad as 
high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, triangular and bhmt; suprahumeral 
horns strong, triquerate, much longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and 
upward andsUghtly forward; posterior process long. heavy, tectiform, triquerate, very close to scuteUum 
and impinging on tegmina, tip sharp. decurved and reaching almost to tips of tegmina; scuteUum 
very narrowly exposed on each side, usually tomentose. Tegmina broad and hyaUne; base narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal ceUs; third apical cell sometimes 



242 



HOMOPTERA 



subdivided into several small cells by tiansverse venules; tip sharply pointed; apical limbus narrow. 
Legs heavy; femora cylindrical ; tibiae broadly triquerate, almost foliaceous; hind tarsi longest. 

Type traiisiens Walker. 

Geographical distribution : This isa rare Australian genus represented by only three species. 



I. areolatus Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 23 (igoS). 



2. godingi Distant, RhA^nch. Notes Sg (1916). 

rubridorsa Buckton (cabinet label). 

3. transiens Walker, List Hom. B. M. 624. 61 (i85i). — PL 13, 

fig. 2 11. 



Aiistraha,Victoria,Braidwood, 
Queanbeyan, New South 
Wales, New Guinea. 

Australia. 

South Australia. 



238. GENUS LUBRA GODING 

Lubra Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 28 (igoS). 

Characters : We have not seen either of the two species representing this genus. The 
descriptions are very meager and the only figures which have been pubHshed are two unsatisfactory 
sketches, one of a tegmen and the other of part of a pronotal process. Consequently, for a generic 
diagnosis, we are forced to depend on Goding's original description of the genus which is as follows : 

« Head triangular, lateral borders sinuous. Prothorax rising vertically from the base, 
the dorsum appears to divide into two long anteriorJy incHned horns which are enlarged towards 
the apex rounded on the top (not truncated), the inner angles produced in triangular acuminate 
spines, the surface reticulated ; the posterior process is much shorter than the tegmina and 
sinuate. Tegmina with two discoidal cells, the second petiolate, furnished with a transverse 
venule between two ulnar veins, near base. Wings with four apical cells. Legs ver}' shghtly 
flattened. » 

Type spinicornis Walker. 

Geographical distribution : This is an Australian genus with two species as follows : 

1. regalis Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 3o (1903). Queensland, Brisbane. 

2. spinicornis Walker, Journ. Ent. I : 3i6 (1862). Austraha, New South Wales, 

Tweed River, Clarence 
River.Queensland, Moreton 
Bay. 

239. GENUS SARANTUS Stal 



Sarantus Stal, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 592 (i863). 

Characters : This genus is closely related to the three preceding genera and belongs to the same 
natural group but differs in having the two long supiahumerals close together and strongl}' porrect. 
Head subquadrate, broader than high; base nearly straight, weakly sinuate; eyes large, globular and 
protruding; ocelli small, inconspicuous, a little farther from each other than from the eyes and situated 
somewhat above a Hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping, sinuate and 
tlanged; clypeus broad, feebly trilobed, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. 



FAM. 1\IEMBRACID.E 243 

Proiiotum convex, bearing a pair of slender suprahumerals and a long, slender posterior process; 
metopidium vertical, higher than broad; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, heavy and 
blunt; suprahumeral horns long, slender, very close together and projecting strongly forward and 
upward, very Uttle outward, tip blunt or truncate; posterior process long, slender, sinuate, tectiform, 
tricarinate, lying close to scutellum and impinging on tegmina, tip acuminate and reaching just about 
to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum very narrowly exposed on eacli side, usually tomentose. Sides of 
thorax generally strongly tomentose. Tegmina broad, hyaline; basal and costal areas coriaceous and 
punctate; veins heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; inner discoidal ceil petiolate, outer truncate 
at base; tip rounded; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; femora cylindrical; tibiae triquerate 
and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type jvallacei Stal. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This genus seems to be limitedto the Australian Region. 

1. apicalis Schmidt. Abzug. Soc. Ent. XL : 4. 18 (igaS). Xew Guinea. 

2. atistralcnsis Goding. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 208 (1926). Queensland, Brisbane. 

3. marginalis Schmidt, Abzug. Soc. Ent. XI^ : 4. 16 (1925). New Guinea. 

4. nobilis Kirkaldj', Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. I : 374. i (igo6). Queensland, Cairns. 

5. similis Schmidt, .A.bzug. Soc. Ent. XL : 4. iS (ig2.5). New Guinea. 

6. iuallacei Stal, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 5g2 (iS63). — Pl. 13, Queensland. 

flg. 2 12. 

240. GENUS GODINGELLA DISTANT 

Godingella Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i (igi6). 

Characteps : This genus was erected to accommodate a single species which we have not seen 
and which has not been recognized in the literature of the family since its original description. Distant 
did not figure the species but his description is sufftcientlj' fuU and clear so that its recognition should 
be a matter of no difficulty and we do not doubt the validity of the genus. We quote Distant's original 
generic diagnosis as foUows : 

n Pronotum very strongly rugose and irregularh' carinate, strongly centrally carinate, the 
lateral processes upwardly and outwardly directed, triquetrous, the margins strongly carinate and 
the upper surface more or less centrally carinate, the carination of the outer margin is continued 
along the outer margins of the posterior pronotal process, which is centrally moderately sinuate 
and reaches or nearl)' reaches the tegminal apex; ocelli a little nearer to eacli other than to eyes; 
face strongly centrally excavate before base of clypeus, eyes large and prominent; tegmin:i 
elongate, about three times as long as broad, apical cells eiongate. 

)> AUied to Sarantus Stal, from which it is distinguished b\- the rugosely carinate pronotum 
and the much more slender and straighter posterior process to sarne, the narrower tegmina and 
their different venation. h. species insufficiently described b\' Kirkaldy from Queensland, and 
which 1 have not seen, as Sarantus nobilis mav jiossibly also belong to Godingella, as maj- also the 
species described by (ioding as Sertorius giganticus from South .Australia. » 

Type queenslandensis Distant. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : The single representative of this genus is from Queensland, as 
the speciflc name would indicate. 

I. qucenslandensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 32 (1916). Queensland. 



244 HOMOPTERA 



241. GENUS OTINOTOIDES DISTANT 

Otinotoides Distant, Rhynch. Notes 320 (igi6). 
Otinoides (error) Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVII : 32i (1916). 

Characters : This is a large and well known genus which was originally founded to accom- 
modate a nuinber of Papuan species which resembled Buckton's genus Otiiwtm but differed principally 
in the structure of the posterior process. The genus proves, however, to have other very distinct 
characters and to have a very wide distribution. It is most easily recognized by the strong spreading 
suprahumeials, the long sinuate posterior process lying close to the scutellum, the smooth pronotum 
and the five apical cells of the tegmina. Flead subtriangular, about as broad as long; base highly 
arcuate and lightly sinuate; eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, a Httle farther 
from each other than from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
inferior margins of genae sloping, sinuate, with edges projecting forward ; clypeus narrow, projecting 
for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip pointed. Pronotum convex, gibbous, bearing a 
pair of short, sharp suprahumerals and a long sinuate posterior process; metopidium vertical, broader 
than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, heavy, triangular and blunt; 
suprahumeral horns strong, triquerate, as long orlonger than the distance between their bases, extending 
outward and upward; posterior process long, sinuate, tectiform, very close to scutellum and impinging 
on tegmina, tip acuminate and almost reaching the tips of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on 
each side. Tegmina broad, hyaline; basal and costal areas broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins 
heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; tiprounded; apical limbus well developed. Legs simple; 
femora cylindrical : tibiae triquerate and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type pallipes Walker. 

Geograpliical distribution : This genus has a very wide distribution over Asia, Africa and 
Oceanica. 

1. albidits Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 188 (1868). New Guinea, Mysol. 

2. australis Distant. Rhynch. Notes 40 (1916). Queensland. 

3. brevivitliis Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : i85 (1868). New Guinea. 

4. bruniteus Funkhouser, Rec.Aus. Mus. XV : 309 (1927). SolomonIslands,Guadaleanar. 

5. bulbosa Funkhouser. Treubia XV : i. 124 (igSS). New Guinea. 

6. dorsata p-unkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. XLIII : 2. 192 (1936). Bougainville. 

7. elevatus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 4^1 (i935). Solomon Islands. 

8. intermediiis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 41 (1916). South AustraUa, Largo Bay, 

Queensland, Gayndah, Peak 
Downs, Kei Islands. 

9. wj!««/;W«w Funkhouser,Journ. N.Y.Ent.Soc.XLIII : 4.431 (1935). Solomon Islands. 

10. pallipes Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X: 188 (1888). New Guinea, Batchian,Mysol. 

tibiahs Walker, Joiirn. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 188 (1868). 
ramivitia Walker MS? (fidt Distant). 
semiclusus Walker MS? (fide Distant). 

11. ^m6«««s Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 115(1929). Amboina. 

12. semilucidus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 186 (1868). New Guinea, Waigiou. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 245 

i3. scrpDitarius Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 335 (igo5). Africa, Kameroons,Tasmania. 

14. solomonensis Distant, Rhjmch. Notes 41 (1916). Solomon Islands. 
i5. spicatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 42 (1916). — Pl. 13, fig. 2 I 3. Queensland. 

16. strigatus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 1S4 (1868). New Guinea. 

curvicornis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 25i (igoS). 

17. subflavipes Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 189 (1868). East Indies, New Guinea. 



242. GENUS GONDOPHARNES DlSTANT 

Gondopharnes Distant, Rhynch. Xotes 32i (1916). 

Characters : Distant erected this genus for the accommodation of Walker's Centroius piceus 
chiefly because of the fact that this species showed onlj' three apical cells in the tegmina. No other 
species has ever been added to the genus and the type species has not been figured or further described. 
We have not seen the insect and therefore are quoting Distant's original description which is as follows : 

« Pronotum not prominently raised, the lateral processes moderately robust, their apices 
more or less recurved and subacute, centrally longitudinally carinate, posterior process broad, 
laterally compressed, tricarinate, sinuous, at base almost toucliing scutellum and impinging on 
the tegmina, its apex longly narrowed and acute, convexly deflected, and reaching the tegminal 
apex; tegmina with three large apical cells. A genus to be placed near Otinoides Dist. )i. 

From the above short and not entirely satisfactory description we judge that this genus is very 
close to Otinotoides and differs from that genus chiefly in the matter of wing venation. 

Type piceus Walker. 

Geographical distribution : The type species from Papua is the only representative of the 
genus. 

I. piceus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. X : 187 (1868). Batchian. 



243. Genus CERAON BUCKTON 

Ceraon Buckton, Mon. Memb. 228 (igoS). 
Daunus (preoccupied) Stal, Analect. Hem. 386 (1866). 
Zanophara Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXVII : 279 (1904). 

Characters : This genus is characterized particularly by the heavy, rough suprahumerals which 
are erect or suberect and broadly swollen at the tips and by the posterior process which is shorter than 
in the other closely related genera. Head triangular, broader than long ; base feebly arcuate and sinuate ; 
eyeslarge, globular and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the 
eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping, sinuate and 
flaring outward; clypeus broad, trilobed, extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense. 
Pronotum convex, gibbous, bearing long, heavy, rough suprahumerals and a short sinuate posterior 
process ; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high ; median carina strongly percurrent ; humeral angles 
large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns long, heavy, rough, close together at the base, extending 
almost directly upward and very little outward, usually multicarinate, tips swollen and generally 



246 



HOMOPTERA 



truncate; posteriov process heavy, tectiform, almost entirely concealing scutellum. impinging on 
tegmina, tip sharp and not reaching tips of tegmina; scutellum very narrowly exposed on each side. 
Tegmina long, narrow, subhyaline; basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy but not 
prominent; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus broad and much wrinkled. 
[^egs simple; femora cylindrical; tibias triquerate and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type tumesceus Buckton. 

Geographical distribution : This is strictly an Austrahan genus. 

1. albovitta Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. Buil. Ent. HI : qo (1907). 

2. leda Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. HI : 89 (1907). 

3. rubridorsatnm Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23o (1903). 

4. succisus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 226 (igo^). 

5. tasmania Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i3. 14 (1846). 



contractus Walker, List Hom. B. M. 622. 56 (i85i). 
truiicaticoniis Watker, Ins. Saand. 81 (i858). 



6. tumesceus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 228 (i^oS). 

7. vitta Walker, List Hom. B. M. 626. 64 (i85i). — Pl. I 3, fig. 2 I 

contorta Walker. Ins. Saund. 66 (iS58). 



4. 



Queensland, Bundaberg. 

New South Wales, Mittagong. 

Austraha, Adelaide. 

South Austraha. 

Tasmania, Australia, Van 
Dieman's Land, Port PhiHp, 
New Holland, Hobart, Gis- 
borne, Victoria, Brisbane, 
Oueensland, New South 
Wales. 

Tasmania. 

Austraha, Tasmania, Camden 
Haven, Penrith, Sydney, 
New South Wales, Quean- 
beyan, Bungendore, South 
Australia. 



244. GENUS EMPHUSIS BUCKTON 



Emphusis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 256 (1903). 

Characters : This is a genus of large insects which are very conspicuous because of the greatl)" 
swollen and crescentiform metopidium. The suprahumerals are usually strong and horizontal, the 
posterior process heavy and straight and the tegmina more or less vitreous. Head subquadrate, about 
twice as broad as high : base arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes large and ovate ; ocelli large, conspicuous, 
farther from each other than from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of gena; slightly sloping and sinuate; clypeus broad, trilobed, extending for two- 
thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip pointed. Pronotum strongly gibbous, swollen, 
crescentiform in front and bearing a pair of robust suprahumerals and a heavy posterior process; 
metopidium strongl}' convex, swollen, protruding, about as broad as high ; median carina usually 
obsolete; humeral angles small, weak and acute; suprahumeral horns varying in size and structure but 
usually horizontal, flattened dorso-ventrally, as long or longer than the distance between their bases, tips 
sharp and sometimes recurved; posterior process heavy, tectiform, almost entirelj' concealing the 
scutellum, impinging on tegmina, generally straight, tip sharp and not reaching the tips of the tegmina; 
scutellum ver}- narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, subhyaline, vitreous or semiopaque; 
basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip 
rounded; apical limbus broad. Legs simple and heavy ; hind tarsi much the longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



247 



Typo ohesus Fairmaiie. 

Qeographical distfibution : This is an .-^ustralasian genus with a considerable oceanic 
disti ibution. 



1. agnaitts Distant, Rhynch. Xotes 3 19 (1916). 

2. alliceps Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : i83 (1S6S). 

3. /w^m Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 3Si (igiS). 

4. bicornis Funkhouser, Rec. Aus. Mus. XV : 5. 3o5 (1927). 

5. bulbifer Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXII : 106 (1927). 

6. erigens Walker, List Hom. B. .M. 614. 43 (i85i). 

7. glohostis Funkhouser, V^hil. Journ. Sci. XVIII : 6. 683 (1921). 



malleiis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6i3. 41 (i85i). 
fig. 2 15. 



Pl. 13, 



9. obestis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5 18. 28 (1846). 

vuiUiator 'WaXVer, List Hom. B. M. 612 40 (iS5i). 
lumescens Buckton, Mon. Memb. 236 (igoS). 

10. occidentalis Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 27 (1903). 

11. perarmatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. i56. 335o (1916). 

12. rugosis Vnnkhonsev, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : iii (1927). 



Siam, Chantaboun. 
East Indies. 

PhiHppines, Mindanao, Ihgan. 
British New (niinea. 
Sumatra. 
Phihppines. 
Phihppines, Mindanao, 
Dapitan. 

India, Teppalculam, Castle 
Rock, N. Kanara, Hombay, 
South India, Ceylon, Bor- 
neo. Java. 

Java. 

West .Austraha, .Swan Kiver. 
India, Cochin, Trichur. 
Phihppines, Sibuyan. 



245. GENUS ACANTHUCUS Stal 

Acanthucus Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 87 (1866). 
AcanthHSUs (error) Distant. Rhynch. Notes 28 (1916). 

Characters : A verv distinct genus characterized particularly by the strong sharp triangular 
dorsal spine at the base of the posterior process. Head subquadrate, broader thanhigh; base highly 
arcuate, feebly sinuate and weakly bituberculate; eyes ovate; oceUi large, prominent, farther from each 
other than from the e\'es and situated well above a hne dravvn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of gense sloping, strongly sinuate and somewhat flanged; cl^^peus very broad, trilobed, extending for 
half its length below inferior margins of gena;, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, bearing a pair of stout 
suprahumerals, a median dorsal spine and a long, sinuate posterior process; metopidium convex, vertical, 
broader than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, subconical and blunt; 
suprahumeral horns strong, triquerate. as long or longer than the distance between their bases, extending 
outward and upward with the tips often recurved or decurved ; dorsum bearing a strong, sharp, trianguiar 
spine at the base of the posterior process; posterior process long, tectiform, stiongly sinuate, lying close 
to scutellum and impinging on tegmina, tip acuminate and reaching nearly to the tips of the tegniina; 
scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, hyaline or siibhyaline; basal and costal 
areas broadly coriaceous and punctate ; veins strong; five apical and two disoidal cells; tip rounded; 
apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 



Type gracilispinus Stal. 



248 



HOMOPTERA 



Geographical distribution : The center of distribution of this genus seems to be the Australian 

Region but one species has been recorded from southern Asia. 

I. bispinus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 288. 3 (1869). Australia, Homebush, Tweed 

River, Sydney, New South 
Wales, Clermont, Maidand, 
Swan River, Victoria, Tas- 
mania. 

South Australia. 

Australia, Tweed River, Blue 
Mts., New South Wales, 
Huon River, Tasmania, 
Victoria. 

Queensland, Cairns. 

Queensland, Bundaberg. 

New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland. 

.■\ustralia, New South Wales. 

Australia, Bruni, Tasmania, 
Victoria, Bunbury, New 
South Wales, Tweed Rivei , 
Clarence River. 

Queensland, Kuranda. 

Australia, Thornleigh, Blue 
Mts., New South Wales. 

India, East Himalayas, Sureil, 
Darjeeling. 

Queensland, Brisbane, Ku- 
randa. 

New South Wales, Sydney. 

Tasmania. 

Australia, Queensland, More- 
ton Bay. 

Australia,New HoUand, Huon 
River, Hobart, Gloucester, 
Mt. Wellington, Tasmania, 
Tweed River, New South 
Wales, Victoria. 



2. carinatus Funkhouser, Rec. Aus. Mus. XV : 3ii (1927). 

3. conspiircatus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 288. 2 (i86g). 



4. dromedarius Kirkalky, Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. I : 377. i (1906). 

5. eurynomus Kirkaldy, Haw. Exp. Sta. Bull. HI : 91. 3 (1907). 

6. euryone Kirkaldy, Haw. Exp. Sta. BuU. III : 2 (1907). 

7. festivus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 28 (1916). 

8. flavidorsus Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 244 (1926). 

9. gracilispinus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 287. i (1869). — Pl. 13, 

fig. 2 I 6. 



10. iasis Kirkaldy, Haw. Exp. Sta. Bull. III : 90. r (1907). 

11. kershawi God'\ug, Mon. Aus. Memb. 17 (1903). 

12. minutispinus Funkhouser. Rec. Ind. Mus. XXIV : 3. 3^3 (1922). 

i3. nivalis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 28 (1916). 

14. obtusus Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. I : 377. 2 (1906). 
i5. pyramidatus Funkhouser, Rec. Ind. Mus. XV : 3io (1927). 

16. rufiventris Walker, List Hom. B. M. 616. 46 (i85i). 

17. trispinifer Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i5. 20 (1846). 



246. GENUS SERTORIUS Stal 

Sertorius Stal, Analect. Hem. 887 (1866). 

Characters : This is a very characteristic Australian genus closely related to the pieceding 
but having no dorsal spine. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base highly arcuate and feebly 



FAM. MEMBKACIDyE 



249 



siiiuate; eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, a little farther from each other 
than from the eyes and situated somewhat above a line dravvn through centers of ev^es; inferior margins 
of genae strongl}^ angulate; clypeus broad, distinctly trilobed, extending for more than half its length 
below inferior margins of genje, tip rounded and pilose. Pronotum strongly convex and gibbous, 
bearing a pair of suprahumerals and a heavy, sinuate posterior process ; metopidium convex, vertical, 
higher than broad; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; 
suprahumeral horns varying greatly in size and structure, ranging from smail protuberances as in the 
type species to large, wide-spreading horns as in S. giganticus Goding, but usually robust, subconical, 
weakly carinate, as long or longer than the distance between their bases, extending outward and 
upward ; posterior process heavy, tectiform, strongly sinuate, lying close to the scutellum and impinging 
on the tegmina, tip acute, decurved, and reaching almost to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum sub- 
triangular, well exposed on each side, tip notched. Tegmina broad, hyaline; base narrowly coriaceous 
and punctate ; veins strong ; five apical and two discoidal cells ; tip pointed ; apicaV limbus well developed. 
Legs heavy; femora cylindrical; tibias triquerate, lightly sulcate and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type australis Fairmaire. 

Geographical distpibution : This genus is limited to the Australian Region and seems to be 
one of the dominant forms of that part of the world. 

1. acM^jcoyM/s Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 244 (1926). Australia, Queensland, Ku- 

randa. 

2. affinis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 25 (1916). New South Wales, Sydney. 

3. aKs^ra/w Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i8. 3o (1846). — Pl. I 3,fig. 2 I 7. Australia, Tasmania, New 



obstans Walker, List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 163 (i858). 
Iiinotatus Walker, Ins. Saund. 81 (i858). 



4. brevicornis Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 21 (igoS). 

5. castancus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 25 (1916). 

6. curvicaudus Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 24 (igoS) 

7. giganticus Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 20 (igoS). 

8. insularis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 26 (1916). 

9. luteus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 244 (1916). 
10. tepperi Godixng, Mon. Aus. Memb. 22 (igoS). 



South VVales, Nev/ HoIIand, 

Victoria, South Australia, 

VVilliamstown. 
South Australia, West Austra- 

lia, Mt. Barker. 
Australia. 
New South Wales, Tweed 

River. 
South Australia. 
Australia, New Britain Isl. 
Australia, Adelaide. 
West Australia, Bunburj-. 



247. GENUS CENTRUCHUS STAL 



Centruchus Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 93 (i866). 

Characteps : This is a genus of comparatively small insects characterized by oblique supra- 
humerals, a non-gibbous pronotum and more or less flattened dorsum, a short, straight posterior 
process and with the veins of the tegmina straight with the apical cells short and broad. Head sub- 
quadrate, roughly sculptured, twice as broad as high; base only slightly arcuate but distinctly sinuate; 
eyes small and globular; ocelli small and inconspicuous but somewhat elevated, about equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins 



25o HOMOPTERA 

of geiiEe rounded and distinctly turned forward; ch^peus broad, feebly trilobed, extending for tvvo-thirds 
its length below inferior margins of gente, tip truncate. Pronotum low, not gibbous, bearing a pair 
of oblique suprahumerals and a short, straight posterior process; metopidium sloping, twiceasbroad as 
high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles large, tiiangular and bkint; suprahumeral horns 
varving greatly in size and structure but always extending outward and upvvard aiid usually strong, 
robust and about as long as the distance between their bases; dorsum more or less flattened ; posterior 
process short, heavy, tectiform, close to scutellum which it almost entirely covers, impinging on 
tegmina, tip blunt and seldom reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina ; scutellum narrowly 
exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, hyahne; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate ; veins strong 
and straight ; five apical and tvvo discoidal cells ; apical cells short and broad ; tips pointed ; apical hmbus 
narrow. Legs simple and slender; tibiae finely spined; hind taisi longest. 

Type /uscipeHiiis Germar. 

Geographical distribution : This geiius is represented in both Asia and Africa accoiding to 
the present Hsting of species but we strongly suspect that the two geographical areas repiesent groups 
which are distinct enough to make it probable that the genus should be subdivided. However, we 
have not seen enough material to warrant sphtting the genus at the present time and are Hsting all of 
the species under Centntchus as loUows : 

1. breviconiis Funkhouser, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 2. 247 (ig36). hidia, Kashmir. 

Pl. 13, fig. 2 18. 

2. capensis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 256. 2 (i835). Africa, Cape of Good Hope. 

3. cuneatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 56. 2184 (1907). India, Sookna. 

4. decoratus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 58. 22S7 (1907). Burma, Momeit. 

5. fuscipennis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 256. 3 (i835). Africa, Cape of Good Hope. 

6. laticoriiis Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 9. 18 (1918). Malaya, Singapore. 

7. mutilus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 168. 3371 (1916). Burma, Maymyo. 

8. nodosus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 226 (1903). East Africa, Grahamstovvn. 



248. GENUS EUFAIRMAIRIA Distant 

Eufaipmairia Distant, Rhynch. Notes 35 (1916). 

Characters : A genus of large, heavy-bodied insects recognized by the robust, oblique supra- 
humerals, the long decurved posterior process and the long narrow cells in the apical area of the 
tegmina. Head subquadiate, roughly sculptured, only a little broader than high ; base arcuate, lightly 
sinuate and feeblv bituberculate ; e^-es large, globular and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, 
somewhat elevated, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior inargins of gena; sloping, strongly sinuate, with the edges distinctly 
turned outward ; clypeus very broad, trilobed with the median lobe much the largest, extending for 
half its length below inferior margins of genffi, tip rounded. Pronotum convex but not strongly 
gibbous, bearing a pair of large robust suprahumerals and a long, heavy, decurved posterior process ; 
metopidium sloping, about as broad as high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, heav\', 
triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns large, heavy, triquerate, longer than the distance betvveen 
their bases, tips blunt; posterior process long, heavy, tectiform, decurved, close to scutellum and 
impinging on tegmina, tip blunt and reaching about to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum narrowly 



FAM. MEMBRACID.C 



25l 



exposed on each side, usually tomentose. Tegmina broad, hyaline; basal and costal areas coriaceous 
and punctate ; veins heavy ; five apicai and twro discoidal cells ; apical cells long and narrovv ; tips roundiy 
pointed; apical limbus well developed. Legs heavy ; femora cylindrical ; Uhhn triquerate and consider- 
ably flattened; hind tarsi longest. 



Type decisHs Walker. 

Geographical distribution 

from that region. 



This is strictly an Australian genus and has been reported only 



I. acanthaspis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i5. 19 (1846). 
fig. 2 19. 



2. consobrimis Distant, Rh\-nch. Notes 37 (1916). 



3. cupreus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 38 (1916). 

4. decisns Walker, List Hom. H. M. 621. 5^ (i85i). 

5. distincius Distaiit, Rhyncli. Notes 38 (1916). 

6. fraternus Distant, Rhyncli. Notes 36 (1916). 



7. harrisi Distant, Khyncli. Notes 35 (1916). 

8. laticornis I"unkhouser, Rec. .Aus. Mus. XV 

9. relatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 36 (1916). 



3o7 (1927). 



Pl, 13, .'\ustralia,PortJackson,Tvveed 
River, Tamwortli, Welling- 
ton, New Soutli Wales, 
Oueensland, Highfields, 
AFurray River, South Aus- 
tralia. 

Oueensland, Rockhampton, 
(ja^-ndali, Peak Downs, 
New South Wales, Coola- 
bah, Victoria, .Mallee. 

South West .'Xustralia, 
Yallingup. 

Australia, New Holland. 

Nortlr Australia, PortDarwin. 

Queensland,Gayndah,Gatton, 
New South Wales, Capertee, 
Rylstone, Lyndhurst. 

Queensland. 

Papua. 

Oueensland, (javndah. 



249. Genus SEXTIUS Stal 



Sextius Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 88 (1866). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus but with much shorter and differently shaped supra- 
humerals and at once recognized by the irregular, reticulate venation in the apical areas of the tegmina. 
Head subquadrate, about twice as broad as high; base lightly arcuate and sinuate; eyes small and 
somewhat flattened, ocellismall, inconspicuous, equidistant from eachother andfrom the eyes andsituated 
on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genas sinuate and sloping only a very little; 
clypeus broad, extending hardly at all below the inferior margins of the genae and continuing the apical 
outline of the face made by those margins. Pronotum convex and bearing a pair of stout suprahumerals 
and a long, heavy, tectiform posterior process ; metopidium vertical, convex, broader than high; median 
carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles large, heav^-and blunt; posterior process long, heav}', tectiform, 
curving downward, impinging on the scutellum and on the tegmina, tip acute and just about reaching 
the tipsofthe tegmina; scutellum narrowly exposed on each side; suprahumeral horns stout, tricarinate, 
as long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and upward. Tegmina broad, hyaline; 



252 



HOMOPTERA 



base broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy ; an indefinite number of apical and discoidal cells 
due to the irregular and reticulate venation in the apical half of the tegmen; tip rounded; apical 
hmbus very narrow. Legs simple and heavy; hind tarsi longest. 

Type viresceiis Fairmaire. 

Geographical distribution : This is another genus which belongs distinctly to the Australian 
Region. 

1. assimilis Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. BuU. Ent. I : 376. 4 (1906). New South Wales, Sydney. 

2. atromaculaius Distant, Rhynch. Notes 35 (1916). Queensland. 

3. bucephalus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 34 (1916). New South Wales, Sydney. 

4. d epr essus GoA\r\g,Mon. Aus. Memb. 12(1903). Queensland, West Austraha, 

New South Wales, Tweed 
River, Maitland, Kemsey, 
Sydney, Brisbane. 

Australia, Adelaide. 

Queensland, Kuranda. 

Queensland, Peak Downs, 
Gayndah. 

South West Australia. 

West Austraha, King George 

Sound. 
North West Austraha. 
Austraha, Adelaide, Bursaria. 

AustraHa, Adelaide. 

Austraha, South Australia, 
Victoria, New South Wales, 
Homebush. 

Austraha, New HoUand, New 
South Wales, Tarago, Clar- 
ence River, Gosford, Lof- 
ton, Wollogong, Bungen- 
dore, Homebush, Maitland, 
Sydney, Penrith, Kemsey, 
Uralla, Newcastle, Queens- 
land, Brisbane, Townsville, 
Victoria, Gisborne, West 
Austraha, Pine River, Ger- 
aldton. 



5. iiiterposita Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23i (1903). 

6. kuranda Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. BuU. Ent. I : 377. 6 (1906). 

7. major Distant, Rhynch. Notes 34 (1916). 

8. occidentalis ]^c6h\, Faun. S. W. Aus. H : 20 (1909). 

9. projectus Funkhouser, Rec. Aus. Mus. XV : 3i2 (1927). 

10. reticulatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 34(1916). 

11. rubrilineus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23o (igo^). 

xantha Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23i (i9o3). 

12. spretus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 23o (1903). 

longinotum Kirkaldy, Haw. Exp. Sta. BuU. Ent. I : 377 (1906). 

i3. teniiis Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIV : 245 (1936). 



14. virescens Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 5i5. 21 (1846). — Pl. 13, 
fig. 220. 

suffusa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 611. 3i (i85i). 



250. Genus PERIAMAN DISTANT 



Pepiaman Distant. Faun. Brit Ind. 37 (1907). 

Cliaracteps : A genus which is rather difficult to dehmit because of a considerable variation in 
the characters of its species but showiiig in general the slender suprahumerals, a rather flat dorsum, a 



FAM. MEMBRACID^: 253 

broadly exposed scutellnm and a wing venatioii which seem sufficiently distinct to warrant the placing 
of the insects in a separate genus. Head subquadrate, a little broader than high ; base arcuate and 
laterally sinuate; eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelH very large, prominent, a little farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of genae sloping, rounded, weakly angulate at corners, edges distinctly flared forward; clypeus 
broad, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of gense, tip rounded. Pronotum 
convex but not strongly gibbous, bearing a pair of slender suprahumerals and a strong, straight posterior 
process; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high; median carina strongly percurrent; humera 
angles large andblunt; suprahumeral horns varying in size and structure but usually short, slender, 
triquerate, not much longer than the distance between their bases and extending outvvard and upward ; 
dorsum flat; posterior process long, tectiform, tricarinate, lying close to the scutellum and impinging on 
the tegmina, tip acute and reaching beyond the internal angles but not to the tips of the tegmina; 
scutellum subtriangular, broadly exposed on each side, base generally tomentose, tip bifurcate. 
Tegmina semiopaque and more or less pubescent; base very weakly coriaceous; veinsstrong; five apical 
and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical limbus narrow. Legs long and heavy; tibiae triquerate and 
finely spined; liind tarsi longest. 

Type flavolineatus Buckton. 

Geographical distpibution : Thisgenus has representatives in India, Malaya, the East Indies 
and the Philippines, the range covering a considerable amount of territory. 

1. acuticornis Funkhouser, F. M. S. Mus. i. 187 (1936). Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 

2. brevifrons Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 383 (igiS). PhiUppines, Palawan, Puerto 

Princesa. 
3. /<jr(j/2H<a/«s Buckton, Mon. Memb. 247 (1903). — Pl. I 3, fig. 22 I . India. Tenasserim, Myitta, 

Mergui, Borneo. 

4. /m&a/HS Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : i63. 116(1857). Borneo, Sandakan. 

5. pilosus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .A.pp. 157. 335: (1916). India, East Himalaj^as, 

Kurseong. 

6. pyropinus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 38. 2134(1907). Bunna, Ruby Mines. 

7. rectidorsum F^unkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXII : 107 (1927). Sumatra. 

8. wallaceiDxstani, Rhynch. Notes 320 (1916). Borneo, Sarawak. 

251. GENUS CENTROTYPUS Stal 

Centrotypus Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 88 (1866). 

Eligius Distant, Rhynch. Notes i52 (1916). 

Cpyptoparma Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXIX : 3. 3i3 (1931). 

Characters : h very distinct and rather remarkable genus of large decorative insects recognized 
at once by the strongly gibbous, exaggerated and swoUen pronotum, the large, wide-spreading and 
usually ampliate suprahumerals and the long sinuate posterior process. Head subquadrate, roughh' 
sculptured, broader than high; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes large, ovate and protruding; ocelU large, 
prominent, farther from each other than frotn tiie eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; inferior margins of genas sloping and rounded; clypeus broad, extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of gente, tip rounded. Pronotum veyy heavy, gibbous and expanded, bearing a pair 



2:54 



HOMOPTERA 



of stiong suprahumerals and a long posterior process; metopidium vertical, much broader thanliigh; 
median carina faintly percurrent or obsolete; humeral angles weak, triangular and acute; suprahumeral 
horns showing considerable variation in size and structure but usually robust, more or less flattened, 
longer than the distance between their bases, extending upward and outward with the tips curved 
backward; posterior process long, tectiform, tricarinate, sinuate, lying close toscutellum and impinging 
on tegmina, tip pointed and extendingalmost totips of tegmina; scutellum very narrowly exposed on each 
side. Tegmina long, narrow, subhyaline or semiopaque, often mottled; basal and costal areas narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy and often nodulate; five apical and two discoidal cells all of which 
are inclined to be irregular in shape ; tip rounded; apical limbus broad. Legs heavy and simple; hind 
tarsi longest. 

Type amplkornis Stal. 

Geographical distribution : A large Asiatic and Oceanic genus with a wide distribution as 
indicated b}' the foliowing species : 

1. aduncus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 236(i9o3). 

2. flw/Z;V«Hzs Stai,Bid.Memb.Kan. 285. i (1869)— Pl. I 3,fig. 222 

3. asmodeus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 36. 2150(1907). 



4. assamensis Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 517. 25 (1846). 
costalis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 6i5. 44 (i85i). 



5. ater Buckton, Mon. Memb. 238(i9o3). 

6. bowringi Distant, Rhynch. Notes 291 (1916). 

7. brunneus Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 207. 8 (1920). 

8. flavescens Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 35. 2149 (1907). 



9. flexuosus Fabricius, Syst. Ent. IV : 12. 16 (1794). 
anchorago (iuerin, Ic. Reg. Anim. (1829). 



10. hospes Kirkaldy, Hon. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ent. I : 378. i (1906). 

11. javanensis F^airmaire, Rev. Memb. 317. 26 (1846). 

12. laminifer Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : 93. ^5 (i856). 

i3. laticornis Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 44 (1921). 

14. latimargo Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : i63. 17 (1857). 
i5. longicornis Vuillefroy, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. IV : 4. 142 (1864). 

16. merinjahensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes i53 (1916). 

17. minutus Cjoding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 28 (1903). 



18. neuter F^airmaire, Rev. Memb. 517. 27 (1846). 

19. nigris Funkhouser, Rec. Aus. Mus. XV : 5. 3o6 (1927). 



Philippines, Luzon. 

Siam, Cambodia, Sumatra. 

India, Tenasserim, Myitta, 
Malaj^a, Singapore, Borneo, 
Sandakan, Sarawak, Kapit. 

India, Assam. Sikhim, Pan- 
kabar, I^urma, Rangoon, 
Tenasserim, Myitta, Siam. 

Burma, Ruby Mines. 

Penang. 

Borneo, Sandakan. 

India, North India, Dehra 
Dun. 

India, Sylhet, Sikhim, Assam, 
Shillong, Sibsigar, Burma, 
Arrakan, Tenasserim, Myit- 
ta, Malacca, Perac. 

New South Wales, S^-dne}^ 

Java. 

Borneo, Sarawak. 

China, Riviere Claire, Haut- 
Tonkin. Madon. 

Borneo, Sarawak. 

Borneo, Sarawak. 

Borneo, Mt. Merinjak. 

South Austraha, Mosman's 
Bay, New South Wales, 
Clarence River, Tamworth. 

Java. 

New South Wales. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



2D3 



20. ortiis Distant, Faiiii. Brit. Iiid. 35. 2148 (1907). 

21. pactolus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 233 (igo3). 

22. parvus Funkliouser, Rec. Ind. Mus. XXIV : 3. 325 (1922). 

23. perahensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i8 (1916). 

alalus (preoccupied) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 237 (iyo3). 

24. pronotalis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 317 (1916). 
20. securis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 238 (igo^). 



26. shdfordi Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i5 (1916). 

27. siamcnsis Distant, Rhyncb. Notes 3i6 (igi6). 

28. iauriformis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i7 (1916). 

29. tauris Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i6 (1916). 



India, Tiivandrum. 
Malaya, Perak. 
Malaya, Perak, Taiping. 
Mala\a, Perak. 

Java. 

India, Sikhim, Mungpliu. Na- 
ga Hills, Nilgiri, Bombay, 
Burma, Ruby Mines, Bor- 
neo, Sandakan. 

Borneo, Sandakan, Sarawak. 

Siam, Malaya, Bulsit. Besar. 

Java. 

Siam, Malaya. 



252. Genus POGON BUCKTON 

Pogon Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2-|8 (igoS). 

Characters ; This genus is ver}' close to Oiinotus but differs in having strongh' curved veins in 
the apical area of the tegmen by which character it is most easily recognized. Ilead subquadrate, 
twice as broad as high; base gradually arcuate and sometimes slightly sinuate; eyes large, globular 
and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well 
above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genai horizontal and broadlv rounded; 
clypeus broad, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum 
convex but not highly gibbous, bearing a pair of stout suprahumerals and a slender posterior process; 
metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles large, heavy and 
blunt; suprahumeral horns short, stout, triquerate, about as long as the distance betwecn their bases, 
extending outward and upward; posterior process slender, sinuate, lying close to the scutellum and to 
the tegmina, tip sliarp and reaching very Httle beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
narrowh' exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, hyaUne; liasal and costal areas broadh- coriaceous 
and punctate; veins heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells; veins of apical area strongh curved ; 
tip rounded ; apical Umbus narrow. I-egs simple; liind tarsi longest. 

Type incurvatum Buckton. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is found in Ceylon with one (luesiionable species 
reported from Australia. 

1. alhosignaium Distant, b"aun. Brit. Ind. App. 161. 335g (igi6). 

2. atricoxis Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 164 (i8gi). 

3. auriculatum Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 285. 5 (i86g). 

4. cuprum Kirby, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV : 168 (1891). 



5. ferrugineum Melichar, llom. Ceylon 114. 3 (igo3). 

6. fiavescens Goding, .Amer. Mus. Novit. 25 (ig^o). 

7. incurvatum Buckton, .Mon. Memb. 248 (igo3). 



Ce}lon, Pundaluoya. 

Ce3'lon, Kand}-, Nawalapitya. 

Ceylon, Horton Plains. 

Ceylon, Badulla, Maskeliya, 
Kand}', Pundaluoya, Ma- 
dulsima. 

Ceylon, Peradeniya. 

Australia. 

Ceylon, Pattipola. 



256 HOMOPTERA 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE COCCOSTERPH[iNri DIS TANT 

I. Proiiotum covend with tubercles Coccostekphus Stal. 

II. Pronotum smooth, not inberculate 

A. Dorsum sinuate ; a/>ex o/ clavus acute 

i. ProHotum gibbous ; corium with four apical cells Parayasa Distant. 

2. Pronntum elevated and compressed ; corium with five apical cells . . . Insitor Distant. 

B. Dorsum straight; apex of clavus obtuse 

1. Corium with three apical cells; posterior process very short and slender. . Yasa Distant. 

2. Corium with five apical cells; posterior process long and robust . . . . Kanada Distant. 

253. Genus COCCOSTERPHUS STAL 

Coccosterphus Stal, Hein. Fabr. II : 5i (i86g). 
Phaepotus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 255 (igoS). 
Phaeronotus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 269 (igoS). 

Characteps : A genus of minute, inconspicuous insects recognized at once by their very small 
size and by the tuberculate pronotum. Head subquadrate, almost as broad as high, a little deflexed; 
base arcuate, sinuate and feeblj' bituberculate; eyes very large and ovate, much wider than high ; ocelli 
small, inconspicuous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus broad, extending for half 
its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum convex, entirely covered 
with small nodules or tubercles, without suprahumerals but with a short, heavy posterior process; 
metopidium sloping, broader than high, extended over the head in two tubercles; median carina strongly 
percurrent and nodulate; humeral angles large, heavy, subconical and blunt; no suprahumeral horns; 
posterior process short, heavy, usually depressed in the middle and swollen at the tip, impinging on the 
tegmina; sides of mesonotum very narrowly exposed as points on each side; no true scutellum. Tegmina 
broad, subhyaline, often mottled; base broadly coriaceous and punctate ; veins indistinct; five apical 
and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; no apical limbus. Legs short and heavy; hind tarsi longest. 

Type minutus Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has been found in India, Ceylon and parts of the 
East Indies. 

[. decoloratus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 71. 22i3 (1907). India, Calcutta. 

2. luteus F"unkhouser, Ind. Forest Rec. XVII : 9 (igSS). India, Madras. 

3. melichari Goding, Old World Memb. i^55 (1934). Ceylon. 

minutus (preoccupied) Melichar, Hom. Cey. 121. 3 (igoS). 

4. minutiis Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. 514. 32 (1798). India, Tr;inquebar, Madras, 

Lake Chilka, East Indies. 

5. mucronicollis Motschulsky, Etud. Ent. XIII : 109(1859). Ceylon, Kesbewa. 

6. obscurus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 73. 22i5 (1907). Ceylon, Peradeniya, Henerat- 

goda. 



FAM MEMBRACID.E 2^7 

7. paludatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 175. 3384 (1916). India, South India, Chikka- 

ballapuia, Orissa, Puri, 
Madras, Lake Chilka, Cal- 
cutta. 

8. stipulipeiinis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 255 (igo3). Borneo, Brunei. 

9. tuberculatus Motschulsky, Etud. Ent. VIII : log (iSSg). — Pl. 13, India, Ceylon, Peradeniya, 

fjg. 224. Kala-Weisa, Puttalam. 

fasciala Melichar, Hom. Ceylon i2i. 2 (igoS). 



254. Genus PARAYASA Distant 

Parayasa Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 176 (1916). 

Characters : A genus of very small insects characterized particularly by the lack of supra- 
humerals, the smooth gibbous pronotum, the sinuate posterior process and the four apical cells of the 
tegmina. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base arcuate and feebly sinuate ; eyes large, ovate 
and protruding; ocelli small, inconspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and 
situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae broad, sloping and rounded ; 
clypeus narrow, pointed, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
gibbous, without suprahumerals but with a short, sinuate posterior process ; metopidium sloping. 
about as broad as high, usually with a semicircular impression above each eye; median carina percur- 
rent; humeral angles heavy, triangular and blunt; no suprahumerals ; posterior process short and 
sinuate, impinging on both niesonotum and tegmina, tip acute and reaching just about to the internal 
angles of the tegmina; sides of mesonotum exposed on each side in a sharp point; no true scutellum. 
Tegmina broad, vitreous or subhyahne ; base broadly coriaceous and punctate ; veins strong; four apica] 
and two discoidal ceils ; tip pointed ; apical limbus narrow. Legs long and slender; femora cylindrical ; 
tibiae triquerous, distinctly curved and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type typica Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has been reported only from British India and the 
East Indies. 

1. affinis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 179. 33gi (1916). South India, Nandidrug. 

2. affixa Distant, Faun. Brit Ind. App. 178. 3389 (1916). India, Nilgiri Hills. 

3. atricapilla Distant. Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 179. 33^0 (igi6). India, Nilgiri Hills. 

4. dissimilis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 179. 33^2 (1916). South India, Kodaikanal. 

5. elegantula Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 178. 3388 (1916). India, Nilgiri Hills, Ootaca- 

mund, Somerdale, South 
India. Kodaikanal. 

6. mactilipennis Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 224. 5o (1920). Borneo, Sandakan. 

7. maculosa Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 177. 338^ (1916). South India. Nandidrug, Ko- 

daikanal. 

8. margherita Distant, Fiiun. Brit. Ind. App. 180. 33g3 (igi6). India, Assam, Margherita. 

9. modesta Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 181. 33^5 (1916). India, Nilgiri Hills. 
10. nilgiriensis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 180. 33^4 (igi6). India. Nilgiri Hills. 



258 HOMOPTERA 

11. ntsiica Distant, Faun. lirit. Ind. App. i8i. 3396 (1916). India, Nilgiri Hills, Lovedale. 

12. typica Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 177. 3386 (1916). — Pl. I 3, Soiith India, Kodaikanal. 

fig. 225. 

255. GENUS INSITOR DISTANT 

Insitor Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App, 176 (igi6). 

Characters : The type species of this monotypic genus shovvs a peculiar pronotal character 
which at once distinguishes it from the other genera of the tribe. The disc is elevated and compressed 
with the anterior and posterior dorsal margins angulate, and the median carina extending upward in a 
sharp crest. Other characters which are probably generic are as foUows : Head subquadrate, twice as 
broad as high; base feebly arcuate and sinuate; eyes globular; ocelH large, about equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn through centers of e\'es; inferior margins of 
gena; horizontal and rounded; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip 
rounded. Pronotum anteriorly prominently elevated, laterallj' flattened, the anterior and posterior 
margins of the disc roundly angulate and compressed; no suprahumerals; metopidium vertical with the 
crest overhanging the head; median carina strongly elevated; humeral angles large and rounded; 
posterior process heavy, concavely depressed in the middle and convexly ampliate posteriorly, tip blunt 
and not reaching the internal angles of tlie tegmina; sides of mesonotum narrowly exposed on each side. 
Tegmina broad and mottled; base strongly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two 
discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus narrow. Legs long and slender; hind tibia; lightly curved; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type exemplificatus Distant. 

Geographlcal distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from India. 

I. exemplificatus Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 176. 3385 (1916). — India, Nilgiri Hills. 

Pl. I3,flg.226. 



256. GENUS YASA Distant 

Yasa Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 74 (1907). 

Characters : This is another monotypic genus characterized, as far as may be judged by the 
type species, by the peculiar venation of the tegmina, which show only three large apical cells, and by 
the very short, slender posterior process. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base feebly arcuate and 
sinuate ; eyes globular and protruding ; ocelli large, a little farther from each other than from the eyes and 
situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense rounded; clypeus broad, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip truncate. Pronotum convex, gibbous, 
without suprahumerals but with a short, weak posterior process; metopidium sloping, much wider than 
high; median carina obsolete; humeral angles large and blunt; no suprahumerals; posterior process 
short, slender and recurved, its tip not nearly reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; sides of 
mesonotum visible but not spinose. Tegmina long, pointed, mottled hyaline; base broadly coriaceous 
and punctate; veins rather indistinct ; three apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical limbus 
broad. Legs slender; hind tibiae strongly curved; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 2^9 

Type greeni Distant. 

Geographical distpibution : This genus is known only from the type species from Ce} lon. 
I. ^r«»2/Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 74. 2217 (1907). — Pl. I3,fig. 227. Ceylon, Peradeniya, Kandy. 

257. Genus KANADA DISTANT 

Kanada Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 74 (1907). 

CKiaracters : This genus bears a strong resemblance to the genus Gargara of the next tribe but 
differs from Gargara in having no true scutellum but having the mesonotum produced on each side in a 
rather long, flattened spine. ]t differs from the other genera of the tribe Coccosierphini in having the 
dorsum straight, the apex of the clavus obtuse, the posterior process long, strong and robust. and in 
having five apical cells in the tegmina. Head subquadrate, twice as broad as high; base wtakh- arcuate 
and shghtly sinuate; eyes rather small, globular and protruding; ocelh large, conspicuous, about 
equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated a httle above a hne drawn through centers of 
eyes; inferior margins of gense rounded and nearly horizontal: clypeus broad, extending for half its 
length below inferior margins of genas, tip broadly rounded. Pronotum weakly convex, not strongly 
gibbous, without suprahumerals but with a strong posterior process; metopidium sloping, twice as broad 
ashigh; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles small, triangular and sharp; no suprahumerals ; 
dorsum nearly fiat; posterior process long, heavy, straight, rounded above, impinging on tegmina, tip 
acute and reaching beyond the intemal angles of the tegmina ; sides of mesonotum plainly visible and 
projecting backward in laminate points. Tegmina broad and h\aline; base very narrowly coriaceous 
and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbusbroad. Legs 
heavy ; femora thickened; tibise strongly longitudinally grooved and finely spined; hind tarsi longest. 

Type irvinei Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the t^pe species fiom India. 
I. »mK«' Distant, I'aun. Brit. Ind. 76. 2218 (1907). — Pl. I 3,fig. 228. India, Bengal, Ranchi. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE GARGARINl DISTANT 

I. Posterior process touching scutellum 

A. Posterior trochanters nnarmed 

1 . Posterior process not laminate 
a. Posterior process straight 

b. Pronotum without carina above humeral avghs . . . (jakgaka Amyot and Seiville. 

bb. Pronottim with carina above hnmeral aiiglcs .... Xanthosticta Buckton. 

aa. Posterior process strongly siniiate Ebhul Distant. 

2. Posterior process dilated into a plate Subrincatok Distant. 

B. Hittd trochanters armed with spines. 

1. Humeral angles strongly produced in auriculate processes . . Sipyi.us Stal. 

2. Humeral angles vueak,noi produced Centrotoscei.us Funkhouser. 



26o HOMOPTERA 

II. Posterior process not touching scutellutn 

A. Posterior process arched 

1. Posterior process itnpiuging on tegmiua behind scutellum . . . Kombazana Distant. 

2. Posterior process curved upward behind sciitelhm Promintor Distant. 

B. Posterior process sinuate 

1. Pronotum spiuose Hamma Buckton. 

2. Pronotum not spinose 

a. Metopidium sloptng, unicarinate Umfilianus Distant. 

aa. Metopidium gibbous, tricarinaie Tiberianus Distant. 

258. GENUS GARGARA AMYOT AND SERVILLE 

Gargara Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 537 (1843). 
Maepopa Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^7 (igoS). 

Characters : This is the largest genus in the family both in number of species, of which we are 
convinced there are yet many to be described, and in numbers of individuals which in some regions 
are to be found in almost unbelievable multitudes. On account of its size, it would be very desirable 
to subdivide this genus, if only to facilitate systematic work, but we can find no natural characters on 
which such a subdivision can be based. The representatives of Gargara are all small, robust, heavy- 
bodied, subtriangular iiisects with very distinct generic characters of which the following are the most im- 
portant : Head subquadrate, broader than long; base arcuate and sinuate ; eyes large and ovate ; ocelli 
large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense sloping and sinuate; clypeus broad, usually extending 
for at least half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. Pronotum low and convex, 
without suprahumerals but with a short, stout, straight posterior process; metopidium sloping, broader 
than high ; humeral angles broad, triangular and blunt ; median carina usually percurrent but sometimes 
almost obsolete; surface of pronotum varying in character but usually punctate or pubescent or both; 
posterior process short, heavy, straight, tectiform, impinging on both scutellum and tegmina, with the 
tip sharp and reaching just about to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum broadly exposed on 
each side. Tegmina broad, hyaline, base usually punctate and pubescent, corium often mottled with 
various colors; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus broad. 
Hind wings with three apical cells. Legs short, stout and heavy; hind trochanters unarmed ; femora 
cylindrical; tibiae triquerate; hind tarsi longest. 

Type genisln: Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : This is a very cosmopolitan genus with as vvide a distribution 
as may be found in any genus in the family. Representatives are to be found in practicallj' all parts of 
the Old World. In spite of this fact, however, and of the large number of species, there is a surpris- 
ingly small amount of variation within the group. 

1. addaheusis Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 489 (i9i5). West Africa, Addah, Gold 

Coast, Fernando Po. 

2. anea Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 491 (igiS). Africa, Uganda, Entebbe, Bo- 

gondo. Unyoro. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 



261 



3. affinis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 61. 2192 (1907). 

4. akotiis Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 20. 19 (1912). 

5. alboapicaia Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 66. 2206 (1907). 

6. albolinea r^unkhouser, Journ. F. M. S. Mus. XIII : 255 (1927). 

7. albomacula Funkhouser, Journ. F. M. S. Mus. Xill : 2^4 (1927). 

8. apicata Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 124. 6 (igoS). 

9. arisanus Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 24. 17 (1912). 

10. asperula Walker, List Ilom. B. M. Suppl. 162 (i858). 

11. aterinna Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 491 (igi^). 



12. attenuata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. .Soc. XXII : 3. 236 (1914). 



i3. aurea F^unkhouser, Ind. For. Rec. XVII : 8 (ig33). 

14. australiensis Funkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. 43 : 7. 197 (1936). 

i5. bicolor Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 9 (1927). 

16. botanshana Kato, Insect World XXXIl : 23 (1928). 

17. brunnea I-^inkhouser, journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 235 (1914). 

18. brunneidorsata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 128 (1929). 

19. brunneifasciata Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 204 (1938). 

20. ctelata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 172. 3379 (1916). 

21. carinata Funkhouser, Treubia XV : i. 129 (1935). 

22. casianea Kato, Insect World XXXU : 16 (1928). 

23. citrea Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 53. 2197 (1907). 



24. confusa Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .App. 171. 33^5 (1916). 

25. consocia Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. I : 164. 122 (1857). 

26. contraria Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 170. 3374 (1916). 

27. davidi Fallou, Rev. Ent. 35^ (1891). 

28. delimitata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 66. 22o5 (1907). 

29. discrepans Goding, Amer. Mus. Novit. 24 (ig3o). 

30. donitza Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 23. i5 (1912). 

3i. dorsata Funkhouser, Journ. F. M. S. Mus. XVII : 717 (ig35). 

32. dorsimaculata Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 298 (ig3o). 

33. elegans Kato. Insect World XXXII : 22 (1928). 

34. elongata Kato, Insect World XXXII : 24 (1928). 

35. escalerai Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po i3 (1^35). 



India, Bomba}% Tenasserim, 

Myitta, Borneo, Banguey. 
Formosa. 
India, Tenasserim. Myitta, Su- 

matra, Java, Formosa. 
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 
Malaya, Selangor. 
Ceylon, Peradeniya. 
Formosa. 

Africa, Sierra Leone. 
Africa, Uganda,Budongo,Un- 

yoro; Buamba, .Semliki, Ma- 

bira, Chagwe. 
Banguey Island, Penang, Bor- 

neo, Sandakan, Sumatra, 

Siberut. 
India, Coorg. 
Australia. 
Sumatra, China, Hainan Is- 

land. 
Formosa. 

Philippines, Mt. Maquiling. 
Java. 
China. 

India, Nilgiri Hills. 
Java. 
Formosa. 
India, Tenasserim, Myitta, 

Burma, Mouhnein, Borneo, 

Sandakan. Java. 
India, Calcutta. 
Borneo. 

India, Punjab, Lahore. 
China, Peking, Manchuria. 
India, Assam, Margherita. 
Borneo. 

Japan, Honshu. 
Malaya. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
Africa, Fernando Po. 



262 



HOMOPTERA 



35. extrema Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 171. 3376 (1916). 

37. fasceifrotttis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 122 (1927). 

38. fasciata Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 2^5 (igSo). 

39. ferrugata Melichar, Hom. Ceylon i23. 4 (igo^). 

40. fiavipes Funkhouser, Notes D'Ent. Chinoise IV : 2. 3i (1937). 

41. flavocarinata Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 8 (1927). 

42. flavolineata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 65. 2204 (1907). 

43. fragila Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 121 (1927). 

44. fraterna Distant, .Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 490 (i9i5). 

45. fumipennis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 299 (1930). 

46. garampiuus Matsumura, Cicad. Jap, II : 22. 12 (1912). 

47. genista Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II : 3i8. 17 (1781). — Pl. I 3,fig. 229. 



48. gracila Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIIl : 120 (1927). 

49. granulata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci.XXXUI : 123(1927). 

50. grisea Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XV : i. 25 (1919). 

5i. hainanensis Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 2. 244 (igSy). 

52. hoffmatiui Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 2. 245 (igS^). 

53. horishaua Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 23. 14 (1912). 

54. hyalifascia Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 8 (1927). 

55. hyalina Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 299 (19^0). 

56. iudicata Bierman, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXIII : 45 (1910). 

57. irrorata Funkhouser, Notes Phil. .\Iemb. 35 (1918). 

58. kawakamii Matsuuuira, Cicad. Jap. II : 26. 20 (1912). 

59. lata F-unkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 5i (1921). 

60. laticapitata Kato, Insect World XXXII : 21 (1928). 

61. ligustri Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 21. 11 (1912). 

62. luconica F"airmaire, Rev. Memb. 255. ^5 (1846). 



63. luteinervis Funkhouser, Rev. SuisseZool. XLIII : 7. 198 (1936). 

64. luteipeuuis Funkhouser, Journ. Ent. and Zool. VI : 71 (1914). 

65. maculata Funkhouser, .Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIX : 2. 249 (1936). 



Ceylon, Peradeniya. 

Philippines, Luzon. 

Japan. 

Ceylon.Peradeniya, Keshewa, 
Weligama, Kandy. 

Indo-China. 

Sumatra. 

India, Bengal, Ranchi,CeyIon, 
Peradeniya, Burma. 

Phihppines, Samar. 

West Africa, Addah, Gold 
Coast. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Europe, England, France, 
Germany, Austria, Spain, 
Italy, Portugal, United 
States (Introduced), New 
Jersey, Connecticut, Japan 
(Introduced). 

Phihppines, Samar. 

Phihppines, Mindanao, 
Luzon, Boriieo, Java. 

Philippines, Manila. 

China, Hainan Island. 

China, Hainan Island. 

Formosa. 

Sumatra. 

Formosa. 

Dutch East Indies. 

Philippines, Benguet, Baguio. 

Formosa. 

China, Kiautschau. 

I""ormosa 

Japan, Honshu. 

PhiUppines, Negros, Cuernos 
Mts., Mindanao, Dapitan, 
Luzon, Mt Maquihng, Pen- 
ang, Borneo, Sandakan, 
Sumatra, Malaya 

Celebes. 

Phihppines, Los Banos. 

North Andaman Isls. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 



263 



66. macnlipennis Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 32. 38 (igi8). 



67. majiiscula Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 61. 2193 (1907). 



68. makalaka Distant, Ins. Trans. I ; 217 (igo8). 

69. marginata Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 298 (ig^o). 

70. matsumnrai Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 298 (igSo). 

71. minor Funkhouser, Notes Mus. Heude XXIII : 11 (1934). 

72. minuscula Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 190 (x868). 

73. minuta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 236 (1914). 

74. mixta Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^7 (igo^). 



75. myitta Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 64. 2200 (1907). 

76. nandidrugana Distant, F"aun. Brit. Ind. App. 171. 33^7 (1916). 

77. nervosa Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. i3. 25 (1918). 

78. nigra Funkhouser, J.R.A.S. LXXXII : 223. 49 (1920). 

79. nigriceps Bierman, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXIII : 46 (1910). 

80. nigroapicata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 119(1927). 
8r. nigrocariiiata Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. i (1914). 

82. nigrofasciata Stal, Hem. Phi!. 729. 5 (1870). 



83. nigroviaculata Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 10 (1927). 

84. nigronervosa Kato, Ins. World XXXII : 18 (1928). 



Philippines, Luzon, Benguet, 
Baguio, Borneo, Sandakan, 
Sumatra. 

India, Sikhim, Mungphu, 
Bengal Hills, Rangamat, 
Chittagong, Pashok, Dar- 
jeeling, East Himalayas. 

Africa, Transvaal. 

Formosa. 

Formosa 

China. 

Mysol. 

Banguey Island, Java. 

India,Bombay, Calcutta, Ten- 
asserim, Myitta, Ceylon, 
Bolongoda, Colombo, Per- 
adeniya, Nelanda, Kekir- 
awa, Puttalam, South India, 
Nandidrug, Coimbatore, 
I^ehar, Akra, Cochin State, 
Perambikulam. Borneo, 
Sandakan, China, Honan 
Island. 

India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 

South India, Nandidrug. 

Maiaya, Singapore, Java. 

Borneo, Sandakan. 

Dutch East Indies. 

PhiUppines, Palawan. 

Phihppines, Los Banos, 
Luzon, Mt. Maquiling, 
Benguet, Baguio. 

Philippines, Luzon, Mt. Ma- 
quiling, Mt. Banahao, Min- 
danao, Iligan, Dapitan, 
Davao, Laguna, Paete, 
Borneo, Sandakan, India. 
Bombay, Kanava, Talewadi, 
Castle Rock. 

Sumatra, I3orneo. 

Formosa. 



264 



HOMOPTERA 



85. nitidipenuis Funkhouser, Journ. Ent. and Zool. VI ; 71. 14 (1914). 



86. nodinervis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 122 (1927). 

87. nodipemiis P^unkhouser. Faun. Sumat. 9 (1927). 

88. nokazana Kato, Insect World XXXII : 21 (1928). 

89. >(ya«^ij/ Funkhouser,Ann. Mus.Acad.U.S.S. R. XXVIII : 154(1927). 

go. opaca Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 201 (1938). 

91. orientalis Funkhouser, Ann.Mus.Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : i55 (1927). 

92. ornaia Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 128 (1929). 

93. pallida Kato, Insect World XXXII : 19 (1928). 

minuta (preoccupied) Kato, Insect World XXXII : 19 (1928). 
var. : liniata Kato, Insect World XXXII : 19 (1928). 

94. parvula Lindberg, Pal. Cic. 27 (1927). 

95. patruelis Stal, Freg. Eug. Res. Ins. 285. 196 (iS^g). 



96. penangi Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 11. 23 (1918). 

97. perpolita Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 490 (igiS). 

98. picea Kato, Insect World XXXII : 20 (1928). 

99. piceola Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 122. i (1908). 



100. pilinervosa Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. LXXXII : 222. 48 (1920). 

loi. pilosa Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 7 (1927). 

102. pingiiis Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 33 (1918). 

io3. projecta Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 10. 22 (1918). 

104. proxima Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 9 (i935). 

io5. pseudocornis Funkhouser, Notes d'Ent. Chin. IV : 2. 33 (1937). 

io6. pulchella Funkhouser, Treubia XV : i. 129 (1935). 



Philippines, Los Banos, Mt. 
Maquiling, Mt. Banahao, 
Mindanao, Iliga, Dapitan, 
Butuan, Davao, Luzon, 
Paete, Benguet, Baguio, 
Malaya, Singapore, Penang, 
Panay, .Antique, Culasi, 
Borneo, Sandakan, Sara- 
wak, Mujang, Sumatra, Chi- 
na, Hainan Isl., Doerian 
Island. 

Philippines, Manila. 

Sumatra. 

Formosa. 

Africa, Victoria Nyanza, Ca- 
meroons. 

China. 

Russia, Ussuri, Lake Khanka. 

Borneo. 

Formosa. 



Russia, Spasskaja. 
Philippines, Luzon, Malinao, 

Tayabas, Mt. Banahao, Min- 

danao, Davao, Sumatra, 

Borneo. 
Malaya, Penang, Borneo, 
South India. 
Africa, Uganda, Budongo, 

Unyoro, Mpanga. Toro. 
Formosa. 
Ceylon, Peradeniya, Malaya, 

Singapore,Penang, Borneo, 

Sandakan. 
Borneo, Sandakan, Java. 
Sumatra. 
Philippines, Mindinao, Zam- 

boanga, Davao. 
Malaya, Singapore, Penang, 

Java. 
Africa, Fernando Po. 
China. 
Java. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 



265 



107. pulchripennis Stal, Hem. Phil. 729 (1870). 



108. pygmaa Walker, List Hom. B. M. 63o. 75 (i85i). 



109. rivulata Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 64. 2202 (1907). 
iio. robusta Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 61. 2191 (1907). 

111. rubens Pelaez, Memb. Fernando Po 1 1 (1935). 

112. rubrogranulata Bierman, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXIII : 45 (1910). 



ii3. riifula Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 429 (ig35). 
114. rugonervosa Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 34 (1918). 



ii5. selangori Funkhouser, Journ. F. M. S. Mus. XVII : 718 (1^35). 

116. semibriinnea Funkhouser, Bornean Memb. 477 (1929). 

117. semifascia Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. I : 94. 48 (i856). 

malayus Stal, Eug. Res. Om. Jord. 285 (iSSg). 

118. semivitrea Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. I : 93. 47 (i856). 

119. sericea Distant, ?'aun. Brit. Ind. 63. 2198 (1907). 

120. setosa Funkhouser, Treubia XV : i. 128 (1935). 

121. shinchiciina Kato, Insect World XXXII : 22 (1928). 

122. sikhimensis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 64. 2201 (1907). 



123. sinensis Funkhouser, Notes Mus. Heude^i. 10 (19^4). 

124. sinuata Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 2^7 (1914). 

125. soeroelangoena Bierman, Notes Mus. Leid. XXXIII : 47 (1910). 

126. sordida Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. i3. 26 (1918). 

127. splendidula Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 172. 3378 (1916). 

128. suigensis Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 299 (igSo). 

129. sumbatviB Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 2^7 (1914). 
i3o. taihokunis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 17 (1928). 

i3i. taikomontana Kato, Insect World XXXil : 17 (1928). 



Philippines, Mindanao, Bu- 
tuan, Luzon, Mt.Maquiling, 
Los Banos, Davao, Panay, 
Antique, Culasi, Borneo, 
Sandakan, India, Sarawak, 
Mujang. 

Philippines, Palawan, Puerto 
Princessa, Luzon, Mt. Ban- 
ahao, Panay, Culasi, Anti- 
que, Mindanao, Davao, Pe- 
nang. 

India, Sikhim, Mungphu. 

India, Calcutta, Kurseong, 
Banguey, Borneo. 

Africa, Cameroons. 

Dutch East Indies, Borneo, 
Sandakan, Sumatra, Java, 
Malaya, Singapore, Penang. 

Africa, Gold Coast. 

Philippines, Luzon, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Imugan, Panay, 
Antique, Culasi, Borneo, 
Sandakan. 

Federated Malay Sfates. 

Borneo. 

Borneo, Malacca. 

Malaya, Singapore. 

Ceylon, Kerbuwa. 

Boeroe Island. 

Formosa. 

India, Sikhim, Madras, Kota- 

giri, South India, Nandi- 

drug. 
China. 
Banguey. 

Dutch East Indies. 
Malaya, Singapore, Sipora, 

Sumatra. 
North India. 
Korea. 

Borneo, Sumbawa Island. 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 



266 



HOMOPTERA 



i32. iaitoensis Kato, InsectWorld XXXII : 24 (1928). 

i33. tappamis Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 23. 14 (1912). 

134. ttctiforma Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 2o3 (1938). 

i35. tigris Funkhouser, Journ. F.M.S. Mus. XVII : 719 {1935). 

i36. triangulata Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. 12. 24 (1918). 

137. /n«o/a/a Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 63. 2199 (1907). 

i38. tuberculata Funkhouser, Journ. Ent. andZool. VI : 2. 70 (1914). 



139. tuntida Melichar, Hom. Ceylon i23. 5 (igoS). 



140. varicolor Stal, Hem. Phil. 728. 3 (1870). 



141. variegata Signoret, Thoms. Arch. Ent. II : 340. 647 (i858). 

142. venosa Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 189 (1868). 

143. virescens Funkhouser, Journ. F. M. S. Mus. XIII : 256 (1927). 

144. vulpeculus Breddin, Hem. Celebes i25 (igoi). 

145. zoiiaia Matsumura, Cicad. Jap. II : 24. 16 (191 2). 



Formosa. 

Formosa. 

China. 

Federated Malay States. 

Malaya, Singapore, Penang, 
Java. 

India, Tenasserim, Myitta. 

Philippines, Los Banos, Ma- 
nila, Luzon, Tayabas, Mi- 
lanao, Mindanao, Davao, 
Zamboanga, Penang. 

Ceylon, Kandy, Peradeniya, 
Maskeliya, Puttalam, East 
Himalayas, Darjeeling, Pa- 
shok. 

Philippines, Luzon, Los 
Banos, Mt. Maquiling, Mt. 
Banahao, M indanao, Davao , 
Manila, Rizal, Montalban, 
Borneo, Java. 

Africa, Calabar, Ituri, Came- 
roons, Fernando Po. 

East Indies,Tondano,Celebes. 

Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 

Celebes. 

Formosa. 



259. GENUS XANTHOSTICTA BUCKTON 



Xanthosticta Buckton, .Mon. Memb. 63 (igo3). 

Characters : Closely related to the preceding genus but difFering in having strong lateral 
carinse over the front of the pronotum above the humeral angles. These carinae are often elevated to 
such an extent as to appear as folds or auricuhite ridges. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base 
weakly arcuate and sinuate; eyes large, ovate protruding; ocelli small, inconspicuous, farther from 
each other than from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn thiough centers of eyes ; inferior 
margins of genae sloping and sinuate ; clypeus broad. extendingfor half its length below inferior margins 
of genaj, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum convex with no suprahumerals but with heavy carinae or 
folds above the humeral angles and with a short, stout posterioi process; metopidium sloping, broader 
than high; median carina percurrent, lateral carinas extending forward over metopidium; humeral 
angles strong, prominent and blunt; posterior process short, heavy, straight and tectifonn, tip sharp 
and reaching just about to the internal angles of the tegmina ; scutellum well exposed on each side. 
Tegmina broad and hyaline ; base coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy and often pubescent; five 
apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus broad. Legs short and stout; hind tro- 
chanters unarmed; femora cylindrical; tibise triquerate; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 267 



Type grisea Buckton. 



Geographical distribution : Only a few species have been desciibed in this genus which 
seems to be limited to the Philippines and the Indian Archipelago. 

1. biplaga Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : igi (1868). Celebes. 

2. constipata Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 192 (1868). Indian Archipelago. 

3. grisea Buckton, Mon. Memb. 63 (igoS). Phihppines. 

4. Inzonica Buckton, Mon. Memb. 64 (igoS). PhiHppines, Luzon. 

5. pseudocornis Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. LXXXII : 217. 3o (1920) — Island of Penang. 

Pl. 13, fig. 230. 

6. trivialis I.^ucklon, Mon. Memb. 64 (igo3). Philippines, Luzon, Manila, 

Los Banos. 

260. GENUS EBHUL DISTANT 

Ebhul Distant, T^aun. Brit. Ind. 5g (igo^). 

Ebhuloides Goding, Journ. N. Y. Ent. .'?oc. XXXIX : 3. 3o2 (igSi). 

Characters : A very distinct genus recognized at once by the tuberculate head, the over- 
hanging flattened anterior edge of the metopidium and the strongly sinuate posterior process. Head 
subquadrate, almost as high as broad, roughly sculptured; base highly arcuate, weakly sinuate and 
strongly bituberculate; eyes small and flattened; ocelli large, conspicuous, elevated, twice as far from 
each other as from the eyes and situated far above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of genae sloping and sinuate: clypeus long and broad, extending for three fourths its length below 
inferior margins of genas, tip rounded. Pronotum convex, without suprahumerals but with a strongh- 
sinuate posterior process; metopidium low and sloping, much broader than high, extended slighth' 
over the head in a flattened plate; median carina stronglj' percurrent; humeral angles heavy, triangular 
and blunt; posterior process slender and strongly sinuate, impinging on both scutellum and tegmina, 
sharply tectiform, tip acute and reaching a little beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
broadly exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, subhyaline, usually heavily mottled with dark colors; 
basal and costal aieas broadly coriaceous and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip pointed; 
apical limbus narrow. Legs simple; hind trochanters unarmed; hind tarsi longest. 

Type varius Walker. 

Geographical distribution : This is a comparatively small genus so far as the number of 
species is concerned but is well represented in individuals which are apparentl}- very abundant. The 
center of distribution seems to be the Indian .Archipelago. 

1 . ai;'»;fli»5 Funkhouser, Phil. Memb. 393 (igi5j. Philippines, Mindanao, Hu- 

tuan. 

2. (!/^^a«5 Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : ii7(ig2g). Borneo. 

3. formicarius Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. .-^pp. 33^3 (igi6). Upper Burma, Maymyo. 

4. maculipennis Funkhouser, Rec. Ind. Mus. XXIV : 3. 3^6 (1^22). India, Pashok, Darjeeling, 

East Himalaj^as. 

5. notatus Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 17 (1927). Sumatra, GunungSinggalang. 

6. uniformis Funkhouser, Faun. Sumat. 18 (1927). Sumatra, Fort de Kock, Ckin- 

ung Singgalang. 



268 HOMOPTERA 

7. t;fln«5 Walker, ListHom.B.M.Suppl.i62(i858).— PI.I3,fig.23l. Burma, Maymyo, Borneo, 

Sarawak. Malaya, Singa- 
pore, Selangor. Penang Is- 
land, Sumatra , Fort de Kock, 
Java. 

261. GENUS SUBRINCATOR DISTANT 

SubPincatop Distant, Rhynch. Notes iSy (1916). 

Chapacters : We have not seen the single species which represents this genus. It has never 
beenfigured nor hasit been recognized in the literature of thefamily except in catalogues since its original 
description. Consequently we can only quote Distanfs original generic description as foUows : 

« Pronotum with the disk broad, moderately convex, very prominently, centrally, longilu- 
dinally carinate, lateral processes absent, but the lateral margins broadly obtusely subangulate, the 
posterior process short, laminately, convexly dilated, its apex shortly subacute. about reaching 
the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin; face broader than long, rugose, eyes prominent; 
tegmina a little more than twice as long as broad, the veins prominent, four apical cells; legs 
robust, but tibia; not dilated. » 

The genus should be easily recognized by the broad, laminate posterior process which would 
serve to distinguish it from any of the other nearly related genera. 

Type ionhineiisis Distant. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : The genus is known only from the type species from north 
Indo-China. 

I. tonkinensis Distant, Rhynch. Notes 1^7 (1916). Indo-China,Tonkin, Lao Kay, 

Chapa. 

262. Genus SIPYLUS STAL 

Sipylus Stal, Analect. Hem. 387 (1866). 
F«rmoc«ntpus Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 284 (igSo). 

Chapacters : The insects of this genus are at once recognized by their strongly produced 
auriculate humeral angles and by their robust triangular bodies which differentiate them irom all of their 
near relatives. Head subquadrate, twiceas broadashigh, roughly sculptured, usually pubescent; base 
strongly arcuate and sinuate; eyes ovate; ocelli large, prominent, farther from each other than from the 
eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and 
sinuate; clypeus subquadrate, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae. Pronotum 
low and flat, without suprahumerals but with broad well developed humeral angles and often with strong 
rugae on the dorsal surface ; metopidium low, sloping, much broader than high; humeral angles very 
strong andauriculate; median carina percurrent; no suprahumeral horns; posterior process short, robust, 
flat. roughly carinate, tip blunt and reaching just about to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
well exposed on each side. Tegmina hroad, hyaline, base broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins heavy 
and often nodulate; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus narrow. Legs simple, heavy and 
robust; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID.E 269 

Type crassulus Stal. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This is a small geniis with a limited distribution. Species have 
been reported, however, from the Oriental, Philippine and Archipelagic regions as follows : 

1. ac«^«<;or«is Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 3o (1918). Philippines, Luzon, Nueva 

Viscaya, Imugan. 

2. albifasciatus Kato, Insect WorldXXXlI : 14 (192S). Formosa. 

3 atiriculatus F~unkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVI : 2. 243 (igSy). China, Hainan Island. 

4. crassulus Stal, Freg. Eug. Res. Ins. 285. 194 (iSSg). Philippines, Luzon, Mt. Ban- 

ahao, Mindanao, Davao. 

5. dilatatus V^aXker, List. Hom. B. M. 63o. 74(1851).— P|. I3, Philippines, Los Banos, Min- 

Tig. ZdZ. danao, Davao, Singapore, 

nodipettttis Funkhouser, Journ. Ent. and Zool. VI : 72. i5 (1914). ,-. 

Borneo, Sandakan, Su- 

matra, Sipora. 

6. gidtulinervis Matsumura, Cic. Jap. II : 25. 18 (1912). Formosa. 

7. latifasciatus Kato, Insect World XXXII : 14 (1928). Formosa. 

8. lineatus Kato, Insect World XXXil : i3 (1928). Formosa. 

9. minutiis Kato, Insect World XXXIl : 14 (1928). Formosa. 

10. rotuiidatus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : n8 (1927). Philippines, Luzon. 

11. sericeus Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 200 (igSS). China. 

12. truncaticornis Funkhouser, Ling. Sci. Journ. XVII : 2. 200 (igSS). China. 

i3. typicus Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 284 (igSo). Formosa, Japan. 

263. Genus CENTROTOSCELUS FUNKHOUSER 

Centrotoscelus F"unkhouser, Journ. Ent. and Zool. VI : 72 (1914). 
Arisangangara Katn. Insect World XXXII : 3o (1928). 

Characters : This genus is very distinct because of the fact that the insects have no supra- 
humerals nor extended humeral angles but never the less have the spines on the iniier surface of the 
hind trochanters as in the horned genus Tricentrns. We are not able to read the Japanese language 
and are not entirely satisfied with any translation which \ve have been able to secure of Kato's original 
description of the genus Arisangargara but from his figures and particularl}' from his characterization of 
the humeral angles as « corners convex d (translated) and of the hind trochanters with « teeth projecting 
outward » (translated) we are convinced that Arisangargara must be considered as a synonym of 
Centrotoscelus. 

Head subquadrate, wider than long; base weakly arciiate and sinuate; eyes globular and pro- 
truding; ocelli large, prominent, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and situated well above 
a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae sloping and strongly curved ; clypeus 
with small lataral lobes, tip swollen, extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of 
genas. Pronotum low and broad, without suprahumerals but with a well developed posterior process; 
metopidium sloping, much broader than high; median carina faintly percurrent; humeral angles weak 
and triangular, not auriculate; posterior process slender, weakly sinuate, tectiform, tip acute and just 
reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum well exposed on each side. Tegmina broad, 
hyaline, base coriaceous and punctate and usually pubescent ; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal 



270 



HOMOPTERA 



cells; tip rounded; apical limbus iiarrow. Legs robust; hind trochanters armed with teeth; femora 
cylindrical; tibiae tiiquerate; hind tarsi longest. 

Type typus Funkhouser. 

Geographical distpibution : Centrotoscelus was originall}' described from the Phihppine Islands 
but has since been reported from the Oriental and Malayan regions. 

1. borneensis Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 2i5. 28 (1920). 

2. brevispinns Funkhouser, J. R. A. S. 82 : 216. 29 (1920). 

hreviconiis (error) Goding, OldWorld Memb. 409 (ig^-l). 

3. brunneiis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXIII : 117 (1927). 

4. concavus Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 3i (1918). 



Borneo, Sandakan. 
Borneo, Sandakan. 



5. flava Kato, Insect World XXXII : 20 (1928). 

6. gracilis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 27 (1928). 

7. handshini Funkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. XLIIl : 7. 196 (1936). 

8. luteus Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 3o (1918). 



PhiUppines, Luzon. 
Philippines, Luzon, Benguet, 

Nueva Vizcaya, Imugan, 

Sumatra, Borneo, 
Formosa. 
Formosa. 
Flores. 
Philippines, Benguet, Baguio. 



9. maculipennis Funkhouser, Journ. F. M.S. Mus. XV^II : 3. 379 (1934). Malaya. 

10. marginata Kato, Insect World XXXII : 29 (1928). Formosa. 

11. matsumurai Kato, Insect World XXXII : 3o (1928). 1'ormosa. 

variegalus (preoccupied) Matsumura, Cic. Jap. II : 21 I1912J. 
kofhueiisis (preoccupied) Matsumura. Cic. Jap. II : 19 (1912). 

12. mfl»/3?;a Kato, Zool. Soc. Jap. 3oo (igSo). Formosa. 
i3. «/^ra Kato, InsectWorld XXXII : 27 (1928). Formosa. 
14. nigrifroiis Kato, Insect World XXXII : 29 (1928). F^ormosa. 
i5. niiida Kato. Insect World XXXII: 28 (1928). F^ormosa. 

16. (y/;« Funkhouser,Journ.Ent.andZool. VI: 73. 16(1914). — PI.I3, Philippines, Luzon, Los 
fig. 233. Banos. 

264. Genus KOMBAZANA Distant 



Kombazana Distant, Ins. Trans. 217 (1908). 

Characters : The absence of suprahumerals and the arched posterior process vvhich bends down 
to impinge on the tegmina at the posterior end are the chief characters for indentification of this genus. 
Head subquadrate, wider than long, roughh- sculptured; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes globular; ocelli 
prominent, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through 
centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae sloping and sinuate; clypeus long, narrow, extending for half 
its length below inferior margins of gente, tip pointed. Pronotum gibbous, no suprahumerals, weak 
humeral angles, posterior process arched at base; metopidium sloping, wider than high; median carina 
faintl}^ percurrent; no suprahumeral horns; humeral angles very small and weak; posterior process tliick, 
heavy and arched above the scutellum, then bending downward and impinging on the tegmina, tip sharp 
and reaching a little beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entireh' exposed, subtriangular, 
longer than wide, tip notched. Tegmina hyaline, base broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; 
four apical and three discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus well developed. Legs robust; tibitu 
somewhat flattened ; hind tarsi longest. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 



Type fidelis Distant. 



Geographical distribution : This genus is represented by only tvvo species both from the 
Transvaal region of South .Africa. 

1. fidelis Distant, Ins. Trans. 218 (1908). — Pl. 14, fig. 234. .\frica, Transvaal, Pretoria. 

2. gargaria Distant, Ins. Trans. 217 (1908). .Africa, Transvaal. 

265. Genus PROMINTOR Distant 

Promlntor Distant, Rhynch. Notes LVII : 495 (igiS). 

Characters : This genus is very close to the preceding and differs chiefly in having five apical 
celis in tlre corium and in having the posterior process curving upwards and' backward behind the 
scutellum. The insects are small and inconspicuous. Head subquadrate, wider than long, shghtly 
deflexed; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes ovate; ocelli large, farther from each other than from the eyes 
and situated above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gena.' sloping and sinuate; 
clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum elevated, convex, 
unarmed; metopidium sloping, wider than high, an irregular foveate spot on each side; median carina 
strongly percurrent; humeral angles very weak and poorly developed; no suprahumeral horns; posterior 
process heavy, sinuate, curving downvvard to apex of scutellum and then upward, tip sharp and just 
about reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum large, heavy, entirely exposed. Tegmina 
hyaline, base coriaceous and punctate; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical limbus well developed. 
Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type nominatus Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from ihe tj'pe sjiecies which was 
collected at the mouth of tlie Umkomaas River in Natal. 

I. iwminatus Distant, Klivnch. Notes LVII ; 495 (igi5). — Pl. 14, Africa, Natal. 

fig. 235. 

266. Genus HAMMA BUCKTON 

Hamma Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. IX : 33o (igoS). 

Gharacters : This genus bears a strong supeificial resemblance to the genus Amitrochates Distant, 
having a similar sinuate and nodulate posterior process but the pronotum is unarmed which of course 
places it in a different tribe and the teginen shows a distinct and rather peculiar stigma on the costal 
margin, the latter character being characteristic of the genus and very rare in the MembracidcC. The 
members of the genus are all small, dark insects and are apparently very rare. Head subtriangular ; base 
arcuate and slightly sinuate; eyes small and ovate; ocelli small, inconspicuous, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated above a Une drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of 
gena^ sloping and weakl}' curved; clypeus subquadrate, extending for half its length beyond internal 
angles of tegmina. Pronotum convex, gibbous, unarmed, tuberculate and spined; metopidium nearly 
vertical, about as broad as high; median carina irregularly percurrent; humeral angles strong and 
sharp; no suprahumeral horns; posterior process heavy, sinuate, roughly trilobed, tubeiculate, spined, 
arising well above the scutelluin and touching tlie tegmina only at tlie middle lobe, tip rounded or 



272 



HOMOPTEEM 



spined and reaching considerably beyond the internal angles of the tegmina but not to their tips; 
scutellum robust, subtriangular, entirely exposed, recurved, tip widely bifurcate. Tegmina broad, 
hyaHne, base coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; 
apical limbus broad ; a large, heavy, punctate stigma on about the middle of the costal margin of the 
corium. Legs simple; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type nodosus Buckton. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus which is apparently not often seen and is 
represented by onl}' three species as follows : 

1. mabirensis Chiiia, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XI : 463 (igaS). — Pl. 14, Africa, Uganda, Mabira. 

fig. 236. 

2. nodosus liuckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. ZooL IX : 33o (igoS). West Africa, Cameroons. 

3. pattersoni Distant, Rhynch. Notes iS"] (igi6). Africa, Gold Coast, Aburi. 

267. Genus UMFILIANUS Distant 

Umfilianus Distant, Rhynch. Notes LVII : 496 (igi5). 

Characters : We have never seen either of the described representatives of this genus and 
neither of them has been recognized or figured in the hterature of the family except in catalogue 
references since their original descriptions. We can therefore only quote Distant's generic description 
as follows : 

« Pronotum elevated, the front obhque, the posterior process moderately slender, tricar- 
inate, convex at base, well separated from scutellum (which is quite exposed and about as long 
as broad), its apical area impinging on the tegminal suture and the apex about reaching the inner 
tegminal margin, lateral angles subprominent ; ocelli almost as far apart from each other as from 
the e^^es; face a Httle concavely declivous; legs simple; tegmina with four apical areas. 

» Hy the shape and direction of the posterior process resembUng the genus Indicopleustes 
Dist., but altogether removed from the division in which that genus is located by the absence of 
lateral pronotal processes. » 

From the above description it v\ ould appear that the genus should be recognized by the absence 
of suprahumerals, the shape of the posterior process, the sloping metopidium and the four apical cells 
of the corium. 

Type declivis Distant. 

Geographlcal distribution : This genus is known only from two African species as follows : 

1. declivis Distant, Rhynch. Notes LVII : 4^6 (igi5). Africa, Mashonaland. 

2. fenestratus Gerstacker, Deck. Reis. Ost. Afr. II : 42^ (1873). German East Africa. 

268. GENUS TIBERIANUS DlSTANT 

Tiberlanus Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 4g3 (igiS). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus but differing particularly in the strongly tricarinate 
metopidium. Head subquadrate, broader than high; base weakly arcuate; eyes ovate; ocelli small, 
inconspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated above a line drawn 



FAM. MEMBRACID^E 273 

through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae rounded; clypeus extending a little below inferior 
margins of gense. Pronotum convex, gibbous, somewhat flattened in front; metopidium vertical, as 
high as broad ; humeral angles strong and triangular; no suprahumeral horns; median carina strongly 
percurrent; a strong lateral carina on each side of metopidium and sides of pronotum; posterior process 
heavy, nearly straight, tectiform, only shghtly elevated above scutelkim, imf)inging on tegmina, tip 
acute and reaching a little beyond internal angles of tegmina; scutellum well exposed on each side. 
Tegmina wrinkled hyaline; basal and costal areas strongly coriaceous and punctate ; veins strong; four 
apical and two discoidal cells ; apical Hmbus broad. Legs robust; hind tarsi longest. 

Type iypicus Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus wliich is apparently rare, as repre- 
sentatives are seldom seen in coUections. Two species have been described. 

1. bulbaceus Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 494 (i^iS). Africa, Cape Colony, Stellen- 

bosch. 

2. typicus Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 494 (1915). — Pl. I 4, Africa, South East Rliodesia, 

fig. 237. Umtali. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE UROXIPHINI GODINCi 

I. Posterior process toucliing sciitellum and tegmina 

A. Sides of scutellum visible 

1 . Apical veins of tegmina straight 

a. Posterior process slender and acumitialc 

b. Dorsum straight from base to apex Uroxiphus .Amyot and Serville. 

bb. Dorsum stroiigly decuived Dingkaxa Goding. 

aa. Posterior process hroad aiid thich 

b. Pronotum witliotit anterior lobes 'J'erknth: s Stal. 

bb. PronotniH with two antcrior lobes Insitoroides Funkhouser. 

2. Apical veins oftegmina stroHgly curved Fogontypus Distant. 

B. Scutellum entirely concealed 

1. PronotuiH without central dorsal elevation Cryptaspidia Stal. 

2, Pronotum with ceiitral dorsal elevation Mesocentrus Funkhouser. 

II. Poslerior process not touching scutellum and tegmina 

A. Posterinr process arising from high above base of prouotum . . . Demanga Distant. 

B. Posterior process arising from near base of pronoium 

1. Base of head sirongly iuberculate Avvania Distant. 

2. Base of Jiead not iubeicutaie 

a. Apical half ofposterior process straight Bocchar Jacobi. 

aa. Apical half of posterior proccss curvcd upward Occator Distant. 

269. GENUS UROXIPHUS AMYOT AND SERVILLE 
Upoxiphus Amyot and Serville, Uemip. 549 (1843). 

Characters : This genus, the type genus of its tribe, is characteiized by the absence of supra- 
humerals, the rounded pronotum, the straight, acuminate posterior process which touches the scutellum 



274 HOMOPTERA 

and tegmina, the exposed sides of the scutellum and the simple venation of the corium with straight 
veins showing five apical and two discoidal cells and the fact that the hind wings have four apical cells. 
Head subquadrate, wider than high, somewhat deflexed ; base arcuate and sinuate; eyes large and 
ovate ; ocelli small, inconspicuous, farther from each other than from the e3'es and situated above a line 
drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense rounded ; clypeus extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex, gibbous, punctate; metopidium vertical, convex, 
about as wide as high ; no suprahumeral horns; humeral angles large, heavy, blunt ; median carina 
faintly percurrent; posterior process straight, tectiform, acuminate, touching the scutellum and the 
tegmina and extending to a point just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina ; scutellum broadly 
exposed on each side (in the type species bright yellow with black tip). Tegmina broad, semi-opaque 
(in the type species ferruginous with yellowish markings); base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins 
strong, simple and straight; five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Hind wings with 
four apical cells. Legs simple, robust and more or less pilose; Iiind tarsi longest. 

Type maculiscutum Amyot and Serville. 

Geogpaphical distribution : Two species, both from Africa, are the only known representatives 
of the genus. 

1. macnliscntnm Amyot and Serville, Hemip. 55o (1848). — Pl. 14, Africa, Senegal. 

fig. 238. 

2. w«//m- Walker, Ins. Saund. 78 (i858). South Africa, Cape of Good 

Hope. 

270. GENUS DINGKANA GODING 

Dingkana Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. 9(igo3). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus and closely resembling it in general facies but with an 
entirely diff^erent geographical distribution and distinguished by the much longer and strongly decurved 
posterior process and the presence of three discoidal cells in the corium. Head subquadrate, strongly 
punctate, twice as broad as high; base feebly arcuate and strongly sinuate; e^^es ovate; ocelH large, 
conspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas sloping and sinuate; clypeus broad, extending for half its length 
below inferior margins of gena:, tip pointed. Pronotum convex, gibbous, roughly punctate; metopidium 
sloping, about as broad as high; median carina faintly percurrent; no suprahumeral horns; humeral 
angles strong, triangular and pointed; posterior process long, slender, tectiform, strongly decurved, tip 
acuminate and reaching to the end of the abdomen and nearly to the tips of the tegmina ; scutellum vvell 
exposed on each side. Tegmina subhyaline, venacious; base coriaceous and punctate; veins strong, 
simple and nearly straight, five apical and three discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. Hind wings wiih 
four apical cells. Legs simple, long and slender; hind tarsi longest. 

Type borealis Goding. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species described from 
Australia but these insects must be quite abundant as they are well represented in most collections from 
the Australian region. 

I. borealis Goding, Mon. Aus. Memb. g (igoS). — Pl. 14, fig. 239. Australia,Queensland,Cairns, 

New Zealand, Tasmania, 
New Guinea. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 



275 



271. Genus TERENTIUS Stal 



Terentius Stal, Bid. Memb. Kaii. 286 (1869). 

Characters : A well-known and distinct Australasian genuscharacterized by iheconvex pronotuni 
with no suprahumerals or dorsal lobes, a long heav}' posterior process which impinges on thescutellum 
and tegmina, and a trilobed clypeus. Head subquadrate, twice as wide as long; base broadl}' sinuate; 
eyes large, globular and protruding; occUi small, farther from each other than from the eyes and situated 
about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae neari\' horizontal and slightly 
flanged ; clypeus broad, trilobed, extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. 
Pronotum low, conve.x, unarmed; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina obsolete 01 
only faintly percurrent; no suprahumeral horns; humeral angles robust, triangular and blunt ; posterior 
process long, tectiform, impinging on scutellum and tegmina, tip acuminate and reaching as far as the 
abdomen and to a pointabout half-wa\' between the internal angles and the tips of the tegmina ; scutellum 
narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina long, subhyaUne, often mottled, sometimes semiopaque; 
basal and costal areas coriaceous and punctate; live apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus broad. 
Legs long and robust; hind tarsi longest. 

Type convcxiis Stal. 

Geographical distribution ; This genus is Hmited to the Auslralian and Archipehigic Regions 
with the following described species : 



1. conterminus Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. I : i63. iiS (iBSj). 

curtulus Walker, Journ. Liiin. Soc. Zool. X : igo {1868). 

2. convexus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 2^6. i (1869). 



East Indies, Aru. 

.Australia, Queensland, Rock- 
hainpton, liiisbane, Cairns, 
New South Wales, Tweed 
River, South Australia. 

Xew Guinea, Bougainville. 

Xew (iuinea, 

XewGuinea, Batchian, Dorey. 



3. niger Funkhouser, Rev. Suisse de Zool. XLIII : 2. 194 (igSS). 

4. nubifascia Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 191 (1868). 

5. piinctalissitnus Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 286. 2 (1869). 

spissus Walker MS (fiiie Distant iijkti. 
pictipmnis Walker, MS. [fiJe ibid.). 

6. yediicltisWiiWier, [ourn. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : igo (1868). 

7. relrac/usWalker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. X : 190 (1868). 

8. ;-y/(T;;(ii Distant, .-\nn. Mag. .Xat. Hist. XVI : 96. 492 (1915).— P|. I 4, Xorth Queensland, Kuranda. 

fig. 240. 



New Guinea. 

East Indies, ^lorty. 



272. GENUS INSITOROIDES FUNKHOUSER 

Insitoroides l''unkhouser, Indian Forest RecordsXVTI : 3 (igSS). 

Characters : This q-enus was eiected to accommodate a single species represented b}' a uni(]ue 
specimen which is now in the collcction of the Forest Research Institute of British ln<lia. It is a rather 



Note : Godini^ considered Tercittius to be synonymous with Nnrnia Walker, biit \ve are convinced that Xiirnia 
belon.cjs in the Ccrcopidx and \ve are not recognizin.i;- it as a mcmbracid genus. 



276 



HOMOPTERA 



remarkable genus and may be at once recognized by the two peculiar dorsal lobes on the pronotum. 
Head subtriangular and punctate; base sinuate ; eyes large and globular; ocelli large, prominent, glassy, 
farther from each other than from the eyes and situated above a Hne drawn through centers of eyes ; 
inferior margins of gena^ rounded ; clypeus triangular, extending for half its length below inferior 
maro-ins of gena. Pronotum produced dorsally into two elevations, the anterior rounded and bulbous, 
the posterior triangular and laterally compressed ; mctopidium extending forward over the head ; median 
carina percurrent; humeral angles strong and prominent; posterior process heavy, tectiform, impinging 
on scuteUum and tegmina, tip blunt, depressed, and just reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; 
scutellum narrowly exposed on each side. Tegmina opaque, mottled; base coriaceous and punctate; 
veins stron"-; five apical and three discoidal cells; apical Umbus narrow. Legs simple; hind trochanters 
unarmed; hind tarsi longest. 

Type typicus Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from South India, 

I. typicus Funkhouser, Ind. For. Rec. XVII : 10. 4 (igSS). — Pl. 14, India, Coorg, Fraserpet. 
fig. 241. 

273. GENUS POGONTYPUS DlSTANT 

Pogontypus Distant, Fauna Brit. Ind. 67 (1907). 

Characters : This genus is characterized particularly by the strongly upcurved veins in the 
apical area of the corium, a character which distinguishes it at once from any other genus of the tribe. 
The insects are smaU and inconspicuous, usuaUy of dark colors, with an unarmed pronotum and a 
short, straight posterior process. Head subquadiate, wider than high; base highiy arcuate and rounded; 
eves large, globularand protruding; oceUi large, conspicuous, a little farther from each other tlian from 
the eyes and situated a little above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae 
rounded; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded and pilose. 
Pronotum convex, rounded, unarmed in front ; metopidium projecting slightly over the head with its 
basal margin strongl}' flanged, broader than high; median carina percurrent; humeral angles strong, 
triangular and sliarp ; posterior process straight, impinging on scutellum and tegmina, tectiform, tip 
acute and extending just beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scuteUum broadly exposed on each 
side. Tegmina broad, subhj^aline or semiopaque and often mottled ; veins very much upcurved in the 
apical region; five apical and three discoidal cells, aU likely to be quite irregular in shape; apical limbus 
verv narrovv or absent. Hind wings with four apical ceUs. Legs simple; hind trochanters unarmed ; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type complicatus Melichar. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is apparently hmited to the Island of Ceylon and is 
represented b}' three species. 

1. complicatus MeUchar, Hom. Cey. i25. 3 (igoS). — Pl. I 4, fig. 242. Ceylon, Negombo, Pattipola, 

Kandy, Yatiyantola. 

2. dissimilis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 173. 338o (1916). Ceylon. 

3. horvathi Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 67. 2208 (1907). Ceylon, Yatiyantola. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^: 



277 



274. Genus CRYPTASPIDIA Stal 



Cryptaspidia Stal, Hem. Phil, 729 (1870). 

Characters : A large, important aiid well-known genus characterized by the smooth, rounded 
pronotum and the completely concealed scutellum. Head subquadrate, wider than high; base arcuate 
and sinuate; eyes large, globular and protruding; ocelli large, conspicuous, twice as far from each 
other as from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins 
of genae rounded and somewhat lobate; clypeus broad, extending for one-fourlh its length below 
inferior margins of genas, tip broadly rounded. Pronotum low, somewhat flattened, unarmed; meto- 
pidium sloping, twice as broad as high; median carina obsolete; 110 suprahumeral horns ; humeral angles 
strong, triangular and pointed ; posterior process heavy, nearly straight, tectiform, impinging on 
tegmina, tip acute and jiist reaching the internal angles of the tegmina ; scuteUum entireh- concealed. 
Tegmina hyaline or subh3'aline, generally more or less mottled; basal and costal areas broadiy coria- 
ceous and punctate; veins weak; five apical and two discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical Hmbus broad. 
Legs simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type piibera Stal. 

Geographical distribution : The center of distribution of Cryplaspidia seems to be the Philip- 
pine Islands from which practically all of the species have been described. 

Philippines, Luzon, Laguna, 

Ubi. 
Phihppines, Luzon, Benguet, 

Baguio. 
India, Almora, lieranag. 
Philippines, Laguna, Los 

Banos. 
1'hilippines, Luzon, Benguet, 

Baguio. 
Philippines, Luzon, Ripang. 
Malaya, .Selangor. 
Philippines, Palawan. 
Philippines, Luzon, Tayabas, 

Mt. Banahao. 
Philippines, Mindanao, Da- 

vao. 
Philippines, Basilan. 

Philippines, Luzon, Los 
Banos, Mt. Maquiling. 

Philippines, Panay, Antique, 
Culasi. Basilan, Luzon, 
Los Banos, Mt. Maquiling. 

Philippines, .Mt, Ma^iuiling, 
Luzon, Baguio, 



1. aurictilata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 114 (1929). 

2. elevata Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XV : i. 26 (1919). 

3. /asciata Funkhouser, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amei-, XXIX : 2. 248 (1936). 

4. impressa Stal, Hem. PhiL 780. 3 (1870). 

5. longa Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XV : i. 27 (1919). 

6. lustra Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XL : 114 (1929). 

7. magna Funkhouser, Journ. F.M.S. Mus, XHI : 2^4 (1927). 

8. minuta Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XXXI II : iiS (1927). 

9. nigra Funkhouser, Notes Phil. Memb. 36 (1918). 

10. obtusiceps Stal, Hem. Phil. 7^0. 4 (1870). 

11. pilosa Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XVIII : 6. 686 (1921). 

12. pubera Stal, Hem. Phil. 729. i (1870). 

i3. tagalica Stal, Hem. Phil. 729. 2 (1870). — PL 14, fig. 243. 

14. ^n/o/w/a Funkhouser, Journ. X,Y. Ent. Soc. XXII : 3. 235 (1914). 



2 78 HOMOPTERA 



275. GENUS MESOCENTRUS Funkhouser 

Mesocentrus r^unkhouser. Phil. Journ. Sci, XVIII : 68i (1921). 

Characters : A single specimen, coUected by the late C.F. Baker of Los Banos, Philippine 
Islands, and deposited in his collection, furnished the type for this genus which is represented only b}' 
the one species. The genus is unique in showing a pyramidal dorsal crest which immediately distin- 
guishes it from all other genera of the tribe. Head subquadrate, broader than long, roughly sculptured; 
base strongly sinuate; eyes globnlar; ocelli small, pearly, inconspicuous, farther from each other than 
from tlie e^-es and situated well above a Hne drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gena 
curved, edges produced forward in a slight flange; clypeus broad, extending for half its length below 
inferior margins of genae, tip semicircular. Pronotum elevated into a single, pj-ramidal, lateralh'- 
flattened, subtriangular dorsal crest, without branches or extensions of an}' kind; metopidium sloping, 
strongly convex, broader than high ; median carina percurrent, only faintly indicated on metopidium 
but very sharp on posterior process; no suprahumeral horns; humeral angles broad, heavy and blunt; 
posterior process heavy, slightly curved, impinging on tegmina, the tip bearing a sharp, narrow, carinate 
projection or keel on the undersurface, tip just reaching the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
present but entirely concealed by the sides of the pronotum. Tegmina subhyaline; basal and costal 
areas coriaceous and punctate; veins prominent and strongl}' pilose; fiveapical and three discoidal cells; 
apical limbus broad and wrinkled. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs simple and strongly pilose; 
hind trochanters unarmed; hind tarsi longest. 

Type pyramidatus Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the type species from the 
Philippine Islands. 

I. pyramidatus Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci. XVIII : 6. 681(1921). Phihppines, Mindanao, Sur- 

- Pl. I4,fig.244. igao. 



276. Genus DEMANGA DISTANT 

Demanga Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 69 (1907). 

Characters : This genus, except for the absence of suprahumeral horns bears a strong superficial 
resemblance to the genus Teliugana Distant, but of course the absence of suprahumerals places it in an 
entirely different tribe. It diff^ers from the other genera of the tribe Uroxiphini in having the posterior 
process not touching the scutellum or tegmina and arising high above the base of the pronotum. Head 
subquadrate, strongly deflexed, twice as broad as high; base nearly straight ; eyes small and globular; 
ocelli large, prominent, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated a little above 
a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of gense nearly horizontal and slightly curved ; 
clypeus long, narrow, extending for more than half its length below inferior margins of gena;. tip feebly 
bifurcate. Pronotum convex, rounded, unarmed; metopidium vertical, broader than high; median 
carina strongly percurrent; no suprahumeral horns; humeral angles strong, conical and sharp; posterior 
process arising high on the pronotum above the scutellum, tricarinate, heavy, gradually curving 
downward so that the tip almost touches the tegmina, tip acuminate and reaching just bej^ond the internal 
angles of the tegmina, about to the tip of the abdomen; scutellum entirely exposed, as broad as long. 



FAM. Mi':\ii^RACir)yi: 279 

lip biangulate. Tegmina entiiel\' free, subhyaline; base narrowly coriaceousand punctate ; veins strong; 
five apical and two discoidal cells; apical limbus well developed. Hind wings with four apical cells. 
Legs heavy and robust; femora cylindrical; tibi;e somewhat flattened; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type sooknaua Distant. 

Geographical distribution : Two species have been described by IJistant for this genus, one 
from Africa and the other from Asia. 

1. defledens Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. llist. X\'I ; 96.494 (1915). British East Africa, Xgare 

Narok, Kenya, German East 
Africa, Ruanda. 

2. soohnana Dislant, Faun. Brit. Ind. 6g. 2211 (1907). — Pl. 14, British India, Sookna. 

fig. 245. 

277. GENUS AWANIA Distant 

Awania Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i8 (1914). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus but with the posterior process much lovver and 
extending just above the scutellum and tegmina and distinguished particularly by the laige tubercles 
on the base of the head. Head subquadrate, about as high as broad, roughly sculptured; base highly 
arcuate and strongly sinuate and bearing a large, heavy tubercle on each side of the median line; e}'es 
comparativel)' small and flattened; ocelli large, conspicuous, a little farther from each other than from 
the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genaj sloping 
and sublobate; clypeus triangular, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of gena', 
tip pointed. Pronotum gibbous, convex and unarmed; metopidium sloping, broader than high, 
distinctly flanged outward at the base; median carina strongly percurrent, no suprahumeral horns; 
humeral angles very large, heavy, subconical and blunt; posterior process robust, slightly curved, 
tricarinate, tectiform, arising from the top of the pronotum and extending backward just above the 
scutellum and tegmina but not touching either, tip acuminate and reachingjust beyond the internal 
angles of the tegmina; scutellum entireh' exposed, about as broad as long, subtriangular, usualh' 
densely pilose, tip bifurcate. Tegmina broad, smoky-hyaline or translucent; base broadly coriaceous 
and punctate; veins verj' heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells: apical hmbus broad. Legs long 
and robust; femora cyhndrical; tibiae somewhat flattened in the middle and ridged at the edges; all 
tarsi about equal in length. 

Type iypica Distant. 

Geographical distribution : This is an African genus represented b}- two species. 

1. typica Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i8 (1914). Africa. Lagos, Oni. 

2. w««flGoding, Journ.N.Y.Ent.Soc. XXX\'ITI : 90 (1930).— Pl. 14, West Africa, [Mench Congo, 

fig. 246. Gombari. 

278. GENUS BOCCHAR JacOBI 

Bocchar Jacobi, Kilimand. Exp. Sjost. 120 (1910). 
Melicharella Goding, Journ. X. Y. Ent. Soc. XXX\'III : 40 (1910). 

Characters : This genus is characterized by the absence of suprahumerals, the straight 
posterior process elevated shghtly above the scutellum and tegmina, and the absence of tubercles at 



28o HOMOPTERA 

the base of the head. Head subquadrate, wider than long, not tuberculate; base lightly arcuate and 
weakly sinuate, smooth; eyes large and ovate; ocelli large, prominent, equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genae 
sloping and rounded; clypeus much deflexed, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins 
of genae, weakly trilobed with the median lobe much the largest, tip pointed. Pronotum low and 
convex, unarmed; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina percurrent; no suprahumeral 
horns; humeral angles heavy, broad and blunt; posterior process straight, tricarinate, tectiform, arising 
from upper posterior margin of pronotum and extending backward close to scutellum and tegmina but 
not touching either, tip acuminate and reaching to the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely 
exposed, triangular, hirsute, broader than long, tip broadly bifurcate. Tegmina long, narrow and 
subhyaline; base narrowly coriaceous and punctate; veins very heavy ; five apical and two discoidal 
cells; apical limbus well developed. Legs short and stout ; hind tarsi longest. 

Type monianus Jacobi. 

Geographical distribution ; Bocchar is an African and Asiatic genus with a rather wide dis- 
tribution as indicated by the foUowing species : 

1. ^(^'iioiMs Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXXII : 276. 2 (1911). Africa, Buea, Mt. Kamerun. 

2. inculiiis Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 124. i (igoS). Ceylon, Pattipola. 

3. montanus ]?iCoh'\, Kil. Exp. 120 (1910). — Pl. 14, fig. 247. East Africa, Uganda, Mutan- 

di, Kigesi, Nairobi. 

4. occidentalis Schmidt, Stet. Ent. Zeit. LXXII : 275. i (191 1). Africa, Portuguese Guinea, 

Bolama, Rio Cassini. 

279. Genus OCCATOR Distant 

Occator Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 174 (1916). 

Characters ; If this genus is to be separated from the preceding genus, it must be done solely 
on the basis of the upturned end of the posterior process, a very dangerous character on which to 
establish a genus, since such a character might so easily represent a mutilation ordeformity, conditions 
which are very commonly seen in the family particularly in the posterior process. Every other character 
which Distant gives for the genus is common to many of the genera of the tribe. It is to be noted, also, 
that the geiius is established on a single species and, so far as is known, on a unique type specimen. 

We have never seen the one species which represents Occator but are tentatively accepting the 
genus entirely on the authority of its author, quoting his description and reproducing his figure. 
Distant's original description of the genus is as follows : 

« Scutellum complete; pronotum subglobose, lateral angles only obsoletely produced, the 
posterior process moderately slender, well separated from the scutellum, the apical area strongly 
upcurved, tricarinate, apex not passing the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin, the 
central carination percurrent throughout its entire length; tibiae not dilated; tegmina with the 
apicalcells nearly straight; ocelli much nearer eyes than to each other; front with two tubercles 
near its posterior margin. 

» In this enumeration allied to the genera Machaeroiypus and Detnanga, but distinct by the 
shorter and peculiarly upturned posterior pronotal process. » 

Type erectus Distant. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^. 281 

Geographical distpibution : Thisgenus is known only from the type species from India. 

I. erecius Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 174. 3383 (1916). — P|. 14, East Himalayas, Kurseong. 

flg. 248. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE OXYRHACHISINI DISTANT 

I. Pronotum with suprahumerals or a bulbous dorsal process 

A. Posterior process touching or concealing scutellum 

1 . Pronotum with suprahumerals 

a. Hind wings wiih ihree apical cells ; posterior process ampliaied 

beneaih Oxyrhachis Germar. 

aa. Hind wings wiihfour apical cells; posterior process noi ampliaie 
beneaih 

b. Dorsutn of posterior process binodose Gongroneura Jacobi. 

bb. Dorsum of posterior process straighi 

c. Venalion of iegmina normal Xiphistes Stal. 

cc. Venaiiou of iegmina irregular, muliicellular .... Goddefroyinella Distant. 

2. Pronotum with an erect, laierally branched swollen dorsal process . Bulbauchenia Schumacher. 

B. Posterior process high above scutellum Taklivva Funkhouser. 

II. Pronotum unarmed 

A. Posterior process compressed and ampliated beneaih; hind wings with 

ihree apical cells O.xyrhachidia Melichar. 

B. Posterior process not ampliated beneath ; hind wings wiih four apical 

cells XiPHisToiDES Goding. 

280. Genus OXYRHACHIS Germar 

Oxyrhacliis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 2^2 (i835). 

Polooentrus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 253 (1903). 

Ouranorthus Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 333 (igoS). 

Characters : A large, distinct, well-known, widely distributed and important genus which, as 
the type genus of its tribe, shows, as would be expected, the more or less foliaceous head and front 
tibise and the concealed scutellum characteristic of that tribe, and is distinguished from the other genera 
of the tribe by the ampliate keel on the underside of the pronotal process and the three apical cells of 
the hind wings. Head foliaceous, quadiate, roughly sculptured; base arcuate and strongly sinuate ; 
eyes large, globular and protruding; ocelli very large, prominent, equidistant from each other and from 
the eyes and situated on a hne drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of genae flattened, 
fohaceous, strongly lobate and sharply angulate; clypeus long, nairow, extending only a little below 
the flattened inferior lobes of the genae, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum gibbous and convex with 
strong suprahumerals and a robust posterior process; metopidium vertical, about as broad as high; 
median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, subconical and blunt; suprahumeral horns 
varying consideiably in size and shape but usually tricarinate, much longer than the distance between 
their bases, e.xtending upward and outward with tlie tips rather blunt; posterior process long, heavy, 



HOMOPTERA 



flattened laterally, iisuall}' upcurved at the tip, reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina, 
apical half bearing a sharp, flattened keel on the underside, often dentate below; scutelkim entirely 
concealed. Tegmina entirely free, long, narrow, hyahne or subhyahne; base and sometimes part of 
the costal area coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and three or four discoidal cells; 
apical hmbus broad. Hind wings w ith three apical cells. Legs stout; all three pairs of tibias more or 
less flattened and fohaceous ; all tarsi about equal in length. 

Type tarandus Fabricius. 

Geographical distribution : This genus has a vvide distribution over practicall}- all of Africa 
and a considerable part of Asia and Oceanica. 

1. binsants Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 148. 3336 (1916). 

2. bisenti Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 322 (igiS). 



3. caudattis Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 9. 335 (1905). 

4. crinitus Buckton, Mon. Memb. 247 (1903). 

5. ddalandei Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 268. 3 (1846). 



6. egyptiamis Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 322 (igiS) 

7. formidahilis Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 146. 3333 (igi6). 

8. gambice Fairmaire, Rev. Memb. 269. 4 (1846) 

g. gibbulus Mehchar, Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXIV : 294. 52 (igo^). 



10. labatus Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 9. 335 (igo5). 

11. lamborni Distant, Rhynch. Notes 19 (igi6). 

12. latipes Buckton, Mon. Memb. 253 (igo3). 

i3. lefroyi Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 147. 3335 (1916). 

14. mangiferana Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 147. 333^ (igi6). 

i5. nigropictus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 20 (1916). 

16. palus Buckton, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. IX : 333 (igo5). 

17. paudatus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 20 (igi6). 

18. rufescens Walker, List Hom. B.M. 5o6. 7 (i85i). 

rudis Walker, List Hom. B. M. Sog i3 (i85i). 



19. subjecta Walker, List Hom. B.M. 504. 2 (i85i). 

20. subserrala Walker, List Hom. B. M, 5o6 (i85i). 



India, Binsar, Kumaon. 
Africa, Natal, Durban, Rhod- 

esia, SaHsbury, Nyasaland, 

Mlanje, Dowa. 
.Africa, Natal, Zululand. 
Ceylon, Kaits. 
Africa, Natal, Cape of Good 

Hope, Rhodesia, Egypt, 

Mariut, Tunis, Morocco, 

Sicily, Syria. 
Africa, Upper Egypt, North 

litbai. 
India, Dehra Dun, Suraj Bagh, 

Salem, Athurkuppam. 
Africa, Senegal, Gambia. 
Africa, Dutch East Africa, 

Tanga, Egypt, Cairo, Basse 

Guiba. 
Africa, Abyssinia. 
Africa, South Nigeria. 
Africa, Natal. Durban. 
India, Pusa. 

India, Dehra Dun, Suraj Bagh . 
Africa, British East Africa, 

Nzoia River. 
India, Bangalore, Coimbatore. 
Africa. Carneroons. 
India, North Bengal, Calcutta, 

South India, Mysore, East 

Bengal, Rajshaki, Satara, 

Medha, Yenua. 
East Indies, Sumatra, Java. 
Africa, AngoIa,BeIgian Congo, 

Rhodesia, Victoria Falls. 



FAM. MEMHRACID^ 



283 



21. tarandtis Fabricius, Ent. S\\st. Suppl. 514(1798). • 
rufus Biickton, Mon. Memb. 254 (igoS). 



22. tenebrosiis Walker, List Hom. B. M. 623. 58 (i85i 

23. tuberculaitis Walker, Ins. Saund. 109 (i858). 

24. uHcatus Melichar, Hom. Ce^-lon 108. 2 (igoS). 

neclaris Buckton, Mon. Memb. 246(1903). 



25. versicolor Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 322 (igi^). 

26. vetusta Walker, List Hom. B. M. Soj. 8 (i85i). 

27. yerhuryi Distant, Rhynch. Notes 21 (1916). 



Pl. I4,fig. 249. Africa, Senegal, Egypt, Gold 
Coast, Cameroons, Abvssi- 
nia, Arabia, India, Bengal. 
Calcutta, Madras, Chatra- 
pur, Ganganu, Mjsore, 
Bangalore, Karachi, East 
Bengal, Rajshaki. Cevlon. 
\. Africa, Sierra Leone, Ivorv 

Coast, Gold Coast. 

Africa, Cape of Good Hope, 
Natal. 

Ceylon, Peradeniya, Trichin- 
opoh'. 

.Arabia, Aden. 

Africa, Natal. 

Aden. 



281. Genus GONGRONEURA JACOBI 



Gongroneura Jacobi, Kilimand. Exp. 120 (igio). 
Pedalion (preoccupied) Buckton, Mon. Memb. 25i (igoS). 

Characters : Near the preceding genus but differing in having four apical cells in the hind wing 
and in having a binodose posterior process which does not show a strong kecl on the under side. 
Head quadrate, foliaceous, about as broad as high; base arcuate, sinuate, and feebly bituberculate ; 
eyes subtriangular ; ocelli large, conspicuous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and 
situated a little above a line drawn tiirough centers of eyes; inferior margins of genag flattened, foliaceous, 
strongly lobed and sharply angulate; clypeus broad, foliaceous, not extending below inferior margins 
of genae, tip truncate. Pronotum gibbous, convex, roughly sculptured, with robust suprahumerals and 
a binodose posterior process; metopidium vertical, about as wide as high; median carina strongly 
percurrent; humeral angles heavj', triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns varying in size and 
struclure but always heavy, rough, more or less swoUen, extending outward and upward, much longer 
than the distance between their bases, often with the tips bent outward; posterior process heavy, 
tectiform, bearing tvvo flattened elevations on the upper surface and often dentate below, tip suddenh- 
acute behind the posterior node and reaching beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum 
completely concealed. Tegmina entirely free, narrow, subhyaline or semiopaque, often mottled; base 
broadly coriaceous and punctate; veins strong and raised; five apical and four discoidal cells ; apical 
limbus broad and wrinkled. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs short and stout; femora cylin- 
drical; all three pairs of tibiae broadh' foliaceous and distinctly spined; hind tarsi longest. 



T"yp* fasciata Buckton. 

Geographical distribution 

continent. 



This is an African genus with a rather extended range on that 



I. ^i>-«'!Vor«/5 Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 120 (igio). — Pl. I4,fig. 250. Africa, Kilimandjaro, Kibo- 

noto, Niederung. 



284 



HOMOPTERA 



2. cartnata Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U. S. S. R. XXVIII : 147 

(1927). 

3. con/usa Distant, Rhynch. Notes 23 (1916). 

delalandei (error) Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 119 (1910). 

4. fasciata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 253 (1903). 

punctipennis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 253 (igoS). 

5. ortiata Buckton, Mon. Memb. 2^2 (1903). 

6. triste Buckton, Mon. Memb. 25i (1903). 



Africa, Victoria Nyanza. 
Africa, Usambara. 

South Africa, Cape of Good 

Hope, Capetown. 
West Africa, Cameroons. 
West Africa, Cameroons. 



282. GENUS XIPHISTES Stal 

Xiphistes Stal, Hem. Afr. IV : 85 (1866). 
Neoxiphistes Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i5 (igi3). 

Characters : This genus is closely related to Oxyrhachis but has four apical cells in the hind 
wings and lacks the ampliated inferior keel on the posterior process. It differs from Gongroneura in 
having no elevations of the posterior process. Head subquadrate, a little longer than wide, roughly 
sculptured; base arcuate and sinuate with a slight suggestion of a tubercle on each side of the median 
line; eyes small, ovate, and more or less flattened ; ocelli large, conspicuous, protruding, equidistant 
from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; inferior 
margins of gen^ produced downward in sharp-cornered quadrangular foHaceous lobes; clypeus long, 
narrow, not extending below the inferior lobes of the gen£e, tip rounded or truncate. Pronotum 
convex, gibbous, bearing stout suprahumerals and a long posterior process ; metopidium vertical, a 
little wider than high; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles short, lieavy and blunt; 
suprahumeral horns var^ing in size and structure but usually short and stout, extending upward and 
forward and very shghtly outward, tricarinate, somewhat swollen, tips blunt; posterior process long, 
slender, tectiform, nearly straight, covering the scutellum and impinging on the tegmina, tip blunt and 
reaching beyond the abdomen and ahnost to the tips of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. 
Mesothorax and metathorax armed with strong lateral teeth. Tegmina subhyaline or semiopaque, 
entirel}' free ; base coriaceous and punctate; veins strong and raised; five apical and four discoidal cells; 
apical limbus broad. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs short and stout; femora cyhndrical; 
all three pairs of tibiae flattened and foli;iceous; hind tarsi longest. 

Type furcicornis Germar. 

Geogpaphical distribution : This is primarily an African genus but questionable species 
have been reported as far east as Malaya and as. far south as Australia. 



1. attenuata Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 94. 324 (igo). 

2. aiistralasia Di^tasii, Rhynch. Notes 21 (1916). 

3. concolor Buckton, Mon. Memb. 224 (1903). 

4. crassicornis Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XVI : 96. 323 (191 5). 

5. crassus Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i3 (1916). 



Africa, Mashonaland. Lesapi 

River. 
South Australia. 
Cape of Good Hope, Trans- 

vaal. 
Africa, Mashonaland, Lesapi 

River. 
Africa, Mashonaland, Rho- 

desia, Salisbury, Transvaal, 

Pretoria. 



FAM. MEMBRACID;]-: 285 

6. exigua Buckton, Mon. Memb. 232 (igoS). Africa, Natal, Zululand. 

7. furcicornis GeTmar, Rev. Silb. III: 232. i (i835). — Pl. 14, fig. 25 I . South Africa, Cape of Good 

fuscicornis Germar, Rev. Silb. III : 232. 2 (i835). Hone 

tariindus (error) Buckton, Mon. Memb. PI. 49, fig. 3 |I903). 

8. inermis Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 119 (1910). Africa, Nyasaland, Zomba. 

9. lagoetisis Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. III : 5i5 (igiS). West Africa, Lagos, Oni. 

10. longicornis Distant, Ins. Trans. 212 (1908). Africa, Transvaal. 

11. orientalis Funkhouser, Malayan Memb. i. i (1918). Malaya, Singapore. 

12. sulcicornis Thunberg, Hem. Rosti. I : 2 (1822). Africa, Natal, Transvaal. 
i3. tangenensis Buckton, Mon. Memb. 225 (i9o3). South Africa, Tanga. 
14. jm«Vo/or Walker, List Hom. B. M. 509. 12 (i85i). East Indies. 



283. GENUS GODDEFROYINELLA DlSTANT 

Goddefpoyinella Distant, Rhynch. Notes 22 (1916). 

Characteps : The geographical distribution of this genus would indicate that it is probabl}- 
distinct from Xiphistes to which it is undoubtedly very closely related, but the only character which 
could be considered as of generic value would be the reticulated apical area of the tegmina. 

Distant limits his generic description to one sentence as follows : 

(! AUied to Xiphistes, but differing in the moie robust and regularly convex pronotal 
process and the reticulated tegminal area. « 

The original description of the type species would fit, in a general way, ahnost any species of 
Xiphistes except for the irregular wing venation and gives no assistance in the formulation of a more 
complete generic description. 

The single species of the genus has not been mentioned in the literature of the family since its 
original description and so far as we know has never been recognized. Neither has any other species 
been added to the genus. We have not seen the type species and can therefore do 110 more than to 
recognize the genus on the basis of the multicellular corium and place it next to Xiphistes in our list. 

Type indicans Distant. 

Geogpaphical distpibution : This genus is known only from the type species from Australia. 
I. indicans Distant, Rhynch. Notes 3i (1916). Queensland, (iayndah. 



284. Genus BULBAUCHENIA SCHUMACHER 

Bulbauchenia Schumacher, H. Sant. Form. Ii5(i9i5). 
Clonauchenia Funkhoiiser, Phil. Joiirn. Sci. XVIII : 6. 679 (1921). 
Bolbauchenia (error) Goding, Old \Vorld Memb. 3i2 (1934). 

Ghapacters : This is a very remarkable and apparentlj- a very rare genu.s, characterized by a 
greatly swollen, laterally branched anterior dorsal process and a posterior process which is elevated to 
form a high, flattened, foliaceous plate. Head foliaceous, triangular, longer than wide, roughly sculp- 
tured; base irregularly rounded; eyes globular; ocelli large, prominent, much farther from each other 
than from liie eyes and situated well above an imaginar}' line drawn through centers of eyes; maigins of 



286 HOMOPTERA 

geniE sinuate and produced; clypeus longer than wide, strongly trilobed, extending for tvvo-thirds its 
length below inferior margins of gense, tip trilobed and pilose. Pronotum with a swollen, bulbous 
anterior elevation and an elevated, plate-like posterior process; metopidium convex, much higher than 
wide; median carina irregularly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, subconical and blunt; anterior 
pronotal process rising as a column above the head and spreading out at the tip to form a swolien 
transverse expansion, this expansion roughly trilobed, the central lobe more or less globular, the lateral 
lobes projecting outward to form heavy, swollen, nodular horns with ends suddenly acute; posterior 
process elevated to form a high, laterally compressed plate which is roughly triangular in shape, the 
anterior margin concave. the posterior margin twice as long as the anterior and convex, the dorsai point 
sharp and almost reaching the posterior margin of the middle lobe of the anterior process, caudal tip 
extending beyond internal angles of tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed by the pronotum ; sides of 
lateral anterior processand of the posterior process bearing reticulated raised carinae; lower margins of 
mesothorax and metathorax extended to form rough tooth-hke projections. Tegmina narrow, largely 
coriaceous and ahnost entirely opaque; basal and costal areas leathery and punctate; venation very 
irregular but showing five apical and four or five discoidal cells; tip diagonally truncate, apices pointed ; 
apical Hmbus narrow. Hind wings with four apical cells. Legs moderately foliaceous and flattened, 
densely and finely spined: hind tarsi longest. 

Type tiawaneiisis Schumacher. 

Geographical distribution : This is an oriental genus represented by only two species, one 
from Formosa and the other from tlie Philippines. 

1. mirahilis Funkhouser, Phil. Journ. Sci.XVIH : 6. 680 (1921). Philippines, Mindanao. Sur- 

— Pl. I4,fig. 252. igao. 

2. ^/flw«»««si5 Schumacher, Sant. Form. ii5 (1915). Formosa. 



285. genus takliwa funkhouser 

Takiiwa Funkhouser, Journ. X. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 480 (i^SS). 

Characters : A single specimen in the collection of the Imperial Institute in London furnished 
the type for this curious monotypic genus. It is characterized by the swoUen, laterally flattened fol- 
iaceous pronotum which suggests the South American genus Lycoderes, and by the entirely exposed 
scutellum. Head subquadrate. wider than long; base strongly arcuate; eyes small but extending 
outward half as far as the humeral angles; ocelli large, conspicuous, equidistant from each other and 
from the eves and situated well above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; inferior margins of gena; 
foliaceous and lobate; clypeus extending for half its length below inferior margins of genas, tip pointed. 
Pronotum highly arched, swoUen, foliaceous, laterally flattened, roughly sculptured and with stout 
suprahumerals; metopidium convex, slightly sloping, about as wide as high; median carina strongly 
percurrent; humeral angles large, triangular and blunt; suprahumeral horns large, swollen, twice as 
long as thedistance between their bases, extending outward with the tips curved downward, somewhat 
compressed dorso-ventrally, tips blunt; posterior process rising from behind horns, very tliick and heavy 
at base, rising in a high arch over the scutellum, then curving downward to touch tegmina, then sinuate 
with tip depressed and extending almost to tips of tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, subtriangular, 
swollen, about as long as wide; sides of pronotum rough. Tegmina broad, semiopaque; base narrowly 
coriaceous and punctate; veins indistinct ; fiveapicaland four discoidal cells; tip pointed; apical limbus 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 287 

narrow. Legs shoit and stout; fenioia .somewhat fiattened ; lirst and second pairs of tibiae expanded 
and foliaceous; hind tarsi longest. 

Type caiteri Finikhouser. 

Geographical distribution : This genus is known only from the tj-pe species from Africa. 

I. carteri Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLIII : 4. 480 (igSS). — Africa, Goki Coast. 
Pl. 14, fig. 253. 

286. GENUS OXYRHACHIDIA Melichar 

Oxyrhachidia Melichar, Hom. Ceylon 118 (igo3). 

Characters : Tiiis genus differs from Oxyrhachis in practically no respects except the absence 
of suprahumerals. We have already expressed our doubt, in connection with other genera, as to the 
value of the suprahumeral horns as a generic character, since in some genera and even, in rare cases, 
within a species, we find both armed and unarmed forms, and between certain closely related genera 
we find the gradation from the armed to the unarmed species so gradual that it is impossible to draw 
a definite dividing line. However, if the absence of suprahumerals in Oxyrhachidia proves to be a 
constant character (at present only one species has been described in the genus) we have no reason for 
refusing to accept the genus as valid. Like the forms of Oxyrhachis, the type species of Oxyrhachidia 
shows the compressed ampliated inferior keel on the posterior process and the three apical cells in the 
hind wings. Head subquadrate, a little wider than long, semifoliaceous, roughly sculptured; base 
strongly arcuate and sinuate and weakly bituberculate ; eyes small and flattened; ocelli large, conspic- 
uous, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; inferior margins of genas extended downward in square, flat, sliarply angulate foIi;iceous lobes; 
clypeus longer than vvide, extending only slightly below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded. 
Pronotum convex, gibbous, without suprahumerals ; metopidium sloping, wider than high, llattened 
above; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles heavy, subconical and blunt; no supra- 
humeral horns; posterior process heavy, tricarinate, tectiform, slightly concave in the middle and 
upturned at the apex, a flattened keel on the undersurface of the apical half, tip blunt and extending just 
beyond the intemal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirelv concealed by the pronotum. Tegmina 
broad, hyaline; base coriaceous and punctate; veins very strong and raised; five apical and four 
discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical limbus very narrow. Legs short and heavy ; femora roughly 
cylindrical; all three pairs of tibiae broadly flattened and foliaceous; hind tarsi longest. 

Type iiieuiiis Stal. 

Geographical distribution : Oxyrhachidiais known only from StaTs species from Ceylon wliich 
was designated as the type of the genus. 

I. iiiermis Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 283. i (1869). — Pl. 14, flg. 254. Ceylon, Peradeniya. 

287. GENUS XIPHISTOIDES GODING 

Xiphistoides Goding, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXIV : 936 (igSi). 
Xiphidia (preoccupied) Goding, Jouni. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 92 (igSo). 

Characters : This genus differs from Xiphistes in the same way in which Oxyrhachidia differs 
iVoni Oxyrhachis, namely in the absence of suprahumerals, and the saine cominents whicli we have 



288 HOMOPTERA 

previously made legardiiig the questionable value of this character again applies. Xiphistoides has the 
same important characters as Xiphistes in the matters of the four apical cells of the hind wings and the 
absence of the ampliated inferior keel of the posterior process. Head subquadiate, longer than wide, 
roughly sculptured; base highly arcuate, strongly sinuate and feebly bituberculate; eyes ovate, somewhat 
flattened laterally; oceUi large, prominent, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and 
situated a little above a Une drawn through centers of eyes; inferior margins of genas lobate, quadran- 
gular, foliaceous, corners sharply angulate; clypeus longer than broad, extending only a little below the 
inferior lobes of the genae, tip rounded and pilose. Pronotum convex, gibbous, unarmed in front, 
roughly sculptured; metopidium sloping, broader than high; median carina roughly and irregularly 
percurrent; humeral angles heavy and blunt; no suprahumeral horns; posterior process straight, heavy, 
tricarinate. tectiform, impinging on tegmina, no expanded inferior keel, tip blunt and reaching just 
beyond the internal angles of the tegmina; scutellum entirely concealed. Tegmina broad and hyaline; 
base coriaceous and punctate; veins strong; five apical and four discoidal cells; tip rounded; apical 
limbus broad. Legs short and stout; all three pairs of tibiae broadly flattened and foliaceous; hind 
tarsi longest. 

Type carinatits Funkhouser. 

Geographical distribution : Two species, both from .'\frica, have been assigned to thisgenus. 

1 . carinatus Funkhouser, Ann. Mus. Acad. U. S. S. R. XXVHI : 47 Africa, Victoria Nyanza, Bud- 

(1927). — Pl. I4,fig. 255. du Forest, Itara. 

2. iiiermis Jacobi, Kil. Exp. XII : 7. 119 (1910). Africa, Nyasaland, Zomba. 

GENERA OF THE TRIBE DARTHULINI TRIBUS NOVUS 

I. Pronotum unarmed 

A. Af>ex of abdomen extended in a long spine Dakthula Kirkaldy. 

B. Apex of abdomen normal Coloborrhis Germar. 

II. Pronotum ziiith suprahumeral liorns Hemicentrus Melichar. 

288. Genus DARTHULA Kirkaldy 

Darthula Kirkaldy, Ent. XXXIII : 242 (1900). 
Urophora (preoccupied) Gray, Anim. Kingd., Ins. II : 261 (i832). 

Characters : Although represented by only a single species, this genus is quite remarkable and 
fully desnrves to stand as the type genus of a small but very distinct tribe. It is characterized first of 
all by the absence of a posterior process but chiefly by the peculiar spine-Iike extension of the abdomen 
and the finely reticulated tegmina. The type species is a curious insect with unusual structure and 
coloring and is one of the largest of aU of the Membracidas. Head sublunar, twice as wide as high, 
distinctl)' curved on its horizontal axis, very roughly sculptured; base highly arcuate and much sunken 



Notes : i. The n;eniis Porcorlnims Goding was described as amembracid (Goding igoS) and was placed in the group 
which would be represented by this tribe by the same author (Goding 1934) but China (China 1924) transferred 
this genus to the Jassoidea. 

2. The genus Eufroggaltia Goding was also described as a membracid (Goding igo3) but was shown by China 
(China 1927) to belong to the family Peniatomida. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 289 

in the middle in a deep pit belovv the overhangiiig margin of the pronotum ; ejes small and giobular 
(bright red in the type species); ocelli large, conspicuous (brilliant red in the type), twice as far removed 
from the eyes as from each other and situated low on the face, about on a hne drawn through lower 
margins of eyes; inferior margins of gense broadly rounded ; clypeus three times as long as broad, extend- 
ing for its entire length below the inferior margins of the gense, tip pointed and pubescent. Pronotum 
convex, gibbous, entirely unarmed, elevated into a crest with a high thin keel on the median dorsal 
hne: metopidium sloping, broader than high, extended into a flange over the head; median carina 
strongly percurrent, raised in a flattened plate on the pronotum; humeral angles very large, broad, 
triangular and blunt; no suprahumeral horns ; no posterior process ; scutehum entirely exposed, sub- 
triangular, swollen at the base, about as broad as long, tip acute. Tegmina long, narrow, opaque, 
the entire surface reticulated by heavy raised veins which form a very large nuuiber of small, irregular 
cells; basal area broadly coriaceous and punctate ; tip rounded ; no apical limbus. Legs long, slender 
and simple; hind tarsi longest. Dorsal sclerite of terminal segment of abdomen extended into a long 
tube-like rod, cyHndrical and pilose, as long or longer than the abdomen itself. 

Type hardwicki Gvay. 

Geographical distpibution : This is an Indian genus wilh the type species (which is the 
only species known) apparently quite common and having a wide distribution over that region. 

I. hardwicki Gray, Griff. Ed. Anim. Kingd., Ins. II : 261 (i832). — India, .Assam. Sikliim, Mar- 
Pl. 14, fig. 256. gherita, Khasi Hills, Naga 

Hills, DarjeeHng, Nepal, 
Burma, Kuby Mines, VVest 
Yunnan, South Ilimalayas, 
Kurseong. 

289. Genus COLOBORRHIS Germar 

Coloborrliis Germar, Kcv. Silb. IV : 73 (i836). 
Euryprosopum Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 267 (i«53). 
Bohemania Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 97 (i855). 

Characters : The insects of this genus, which are apparently very cercopid-hke in apjiearance, 
are unknown to us but they have been recognized and described often enough to indicate that the\- 
possess distinctive characters sufficient to justify the jistint^ of the genus as valid. The genus is certainly 
quite different from either of tlie other genera of tlie tribe. (iermar's excellent original description of the 
genus as well as the descriptions given by Stal for the synonymous genera make it possible to summarize 
the more important generic characters as foUows : Head subquadrate, wider than high, dellexed ; e^es 
large; ocelH prominent, equidistant from each other and from the e^es; inferior margins of gente flattened 
and rounded; clypeus extencHng below inferior margins of gense. Pronotum convex and entirely 
unarmed; no suprahumeral horns; no postei ior process ; scutellum entirelj' exposed, short, subtriangular, 
base transversely impresseil. Tegmina coriaceous with reticulated venation. Legs somewhat flattened ; 
hind tarsi longest. 

Type corticina (jermar. 

Geographical distribution : This is an .African genus represented by three species. 

I. corticina Germar, Rev. Silb. IV : 73 (i836). Africa, Caffraria. 

boheinania Hiickton, Mon. lleml). 267 !i9o3). 



290 HOMOPTERA 

2. petspicillaris Germar, Rev. Silb. IV : 73 {i836). Afiica. 

3. sobrina Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 97. i (i855). Africa, Caffraria. 

patruelis Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 98. 2 Ci855). 

290. GENUS HEMICENTRUS MELICHAR 

Hemicentnus Melichar, Notes Mus. Leid. 114 (1914). 
Sarritor Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 182 (1916). 

Characters : The presence of suprahumeral horns and the absence of a posterior process 
provide a combination of characters which at once distinguishes this genus not only from the other 
genera of the tribe but from any other genus in the subfamily. Head subquadrate, smooth, twice as 
broad as high; base arcuate and weakly sinuate; eyes very large, globular and protruding; ocelli large, 
conspicuous, equidistant from each other and from the eyes and situated above a Hne drawn through 
centers of eyes; inferior margins of genaesloping and weakly rounded ; clypeus three times as long as 
wide, extending for two-thirds its length below inferior margins of genae, tip rounded and pilose. 
Pronotum convex, gibbous, with strong suprahumerals but no posterior process; metopidium vertical, 
about as broad as high ; median carina strongly percurrent; humeral angles large, subconical and sharp ; 
suprahumeral horns varjing considerably among the different species in size and structure but usually 
heavy, tricarinate, somewhat fiattened dorso-ventrally, at least twice as long as the distance between 
their bases, extending outward and upward, tips blunt; no posterior process; scutellum entirely 
exposed. subtriangular, about as broad as long, swoUen at the base, tip broadly bifurcate. Tegmina 
long, slender, hyaline or subhyaline, usually much wrinkled; base coriaceous and punctate; veins 
heavy; five apical and two discoidal cells ; tip rounded; apical hmbus narrow. Legs long, slender 
and simple; hind tarsi longest. 

Type bicornis Melichar. 

Geographical distribution : The distribution of this genus seems to be limited to the south 
Asiatic and Archipelagic region. 

1. actdeatus Olivier, Enc. Meth. VH : 669(1792). Ceylon. 

2. atUnuatus Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XVI : 2. 5o (1921). China, Kiautschau. 

3. bicornis Melichar, Notes Mus. Leid. ii5 (1914). Java, Semarang. 

4. bispiiius Stoll, Cigal. 76 (1783). Ceylon. 

5. w?-««i?/s Funkhouser,Ann. Mus.Acad. U.S.S.R. XXVIII : i5o(i927). Indo China, Annam, Song 

Dinh. 

6. r«to!« Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. App. 182. 3397 (1916). _ Pl. 14, Lower Burma, Moulmein, 

tig.zoT. Dawna Hills, Farm Caves, 

Java. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E 291 



SUMMARY 

This repott recognizes 290 genera with a total of 2334 species distributed among the subfamiHes 
and tribes as follows : 

FAM. MEMBRACID/E 

Subf. MEMBRACIN/e 

Number 
TRIBE MEMBRACINI of Species 

Genus Memhracis Fabricius 28 

Enchophyllum Amyot &ndSer\\\\e. i5 

Enchenopa Amyot and Serville 24 

Campylenchia Stal 5 

Tritropidea Stal 4 

76 



Tribe NOTOCERINI 

Genus Spongophorus Fairmaire 32 

Guayaquila Goding 7 

Philya Walker 12 

Hypsoprora Stal 12 

Notocera Amyot and Serville 3o 

Scalmorphus Fovvler 2 

Multareis Goding 3 



98 



Tribe bolbonotini 

Genus Bolbonota Amyot and Serville 26 

Bolbonotodes F^)wler i 

Erechtia Walker 3^ 

Tylopelta F"o\vler 5 

Leioscyia Fowler 19 

Taunaya da i'"()nseca i 



86 

260 



292 HOMOPTERA 

Subf. PLATYCOTIN/e 

^ r^^-r:.,ww,,,. Numbcr 

Tribe POTNIINI r c ■ 

of Species 

Genus Alchisme Kirkaldy i6 

Ochropepla Stal 7 

Aconophoroides Fowler 3 

Potnta Stal 7 

33 

Tribe platycotini 

Genus Platycotis Stal lo 

Orthroplophora Fowler i 

Stalotypa Metcalf 2 

Metcalfiella Goding 22 

Umbonia Burmeister 14 

49 



Subf. DARNIN/E 

Tribe DARNINI 



Genus Darnis Fabricius . 8 

Hebeticoides Fowler 3 

Ochrolomia Stal 3 

Hebetica Stal 4 

Stictopelta Stal 23 

Alobia Stal i 

Cyphotes Burmeister 2 

Aspotia Stal 5 

Hypheus Stal 2 

Atypa Laporte 3 

Paradarnoides Fowler 2 

Cymhomorpha Stal 9 

Paragargara Goding i 

Eumela Stal 3 

Iria Stal 7 

Rhexia Stal 11 

Smiliorhachis Fairmaire 4 

Darnoides Fairmaire 7 

Brachytalis Metcalf and Bruner 2 

Procyrta Stal 7 

107 



82 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 293 



TRIBE ACONOPHORINI Number 

01 Species 

(jenus Aconophora Fairmairc 43 

Kronides Kirkaldy 5 

Orekthophora Funkhouser i 

Hemiptycha Germar i 

Nessorhinus Amyot and Serville 4 

Spinodarnoides Funkhouser i 

55 



Tribe hemikypthini 

Cjenus Proterpia Stal 2 

Ettalthe Stal' 2 

Nassunia Stal 10 

Tomogonia Stal 4 

Bubalopa Stal 2 

Hyphinoe Stal 19 

Alcmeone Stal g 

Ictaranthe Fowler i 

Hemihyptha Metcalf 8 

Sundarion Kirkaldy i3 

70 

Tribe heteronotini 

Genus Heteronotus Laporte 2 3 

Heliodore Stal i 

Omolon Walker 3 

Anchistrotus Buckton 7 

34 



Subf. TRAGOPIN/e 



Genus Tragopa Latreille 48 

Tropidolomia Stal 5 

Stilbophora Stal 5 

Horiola Fairmaire 10 

Ceratopola Stal 2 



266 



70 



294 HOMOPTERA 

Subf. SMILIIN/E 

Number 

TRIBE SMILMNI of Species 

Genus Smilia Germar ■ 3 

A dippe Stal 12 

Godingia Fowler i 

T elamonaHihe Baker 3 

Aniianthe Fowler 5 

Xantholobtis Van Duzee 10 

Evashmeadea Goding 2 

Aiymna Stal 8 

Grandolobus Ball i 

Cyrtolobns Goding 44 

Ophiderma Fairmaire 16 

Polyrliyssa Stal l 

Metheisa Fowler 4 

Polyglyptodes Fowler 5 

Ecuadoria Goding 2 

Dioclophara Kirkaldy 6 

Hille Stal 9 

Gelastogonia Kirkaldy 17 

Heranice Stal 2 

Maturna Stal 3 

Membracidoidea Goding i 

i55 
TRIBE CERESINI 

Genus Ccresa Amjot and Serville 5o 

Cenirogonia Stal 9 

Avtona; Stal 12 

Ilithucia Stal 2 

Xolonia Plummer . i 

Cyphonia I.aporte ig 

Poppea Stal 17 

Clepsydrius Fowler i 

Paranlona Fowler 4 

Melusina Stal 4 

Stictocephala Stal 22 

Sticiolobus Metcalf 7 

Trachytalis Fowler 2 

i5o 

Tribe amastrini 

Genus Amastris Stal 16 

Tynelia Stal 9 

Boethnos Kirkaldy 7 

Vanduzea Goding 11 

Lallemandia Funkhouser i 

Bajulata Ball i 

Hygris Stal i 

Idioderma Van Duzee 3 

Erosne Stal 2 

5i 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ agS 

TRIBE POLYGLYPTINI Number 

01 Species 

Genus Polyglypta Burmeister 8 

Bryantopsis Ball i 

Bilimekia Fowler 2 

Etttylia Germar 10 

Publilia Sial 5 

26 

Tribe telamonini 

Genus Telaiitoiia Fitcli 35 

Heloiiica Ball a 

Heliria Stal i3 

Teloiiaca Ball 3 

Palonica Ball 5 

Thelia Amyot and Serville 3 

Glossoitotus Butler 5 

Carynota Fitch 6 

Tropidarnis Fowler 3 

Archasia Stal 3 

Incolea Goding 2 

Mendicea Goding i 

Aphetea Fowler 5 

Phormorphora Stal 4 

92 
Tribe ACUTALINI 

Genus Aciitalis Fairmaire i5 

Thrasyiiiedes Kirkaldy 7 

Euritea Stal 6 

Micrtitalis Fowler 29 

57 



Subf. CENTROTIN/E (New World) 
Tribe ABELINI 

Genus Abelus Stal 2 

Sticiodepsa Stal i 

Scytodepsa Stal 3 

Tropidaspis Stal 5 

Nicomia Stal 6 

Endoiastus Fowler 2 

Mina Walker 3 

Lophyraspis Stal 4 

Gerridius Fowler 3 

Lamproptera Germar 5 

Orehthen Funkhouser 3 

Melizoderes Blanchard 4 

Tolania Stal 10 

53 



53i 



296 HOMOPTERA 



Tribe ACUMINATINI 

Number 

of Species 

Genus Postanomus Funkhouser 2 

Centrodontus Goding 2 

Tylocentrus Van Duzee 3 

Lirania Stal i 

Flexocentrus Goding 2 

Oeda Amyot and Serville 3 

Lycoderes Germar 20 

Stegaspis Germar 9 

Glischrocentrus Fowler i 

M icrocentrus Stal 9 

Centruchoides Fowler 2 

Bocydium Latreille 7 

Stylocentrus Stal 2 

Smerdalea F^owler i 

Dontonodiis Funkhouser . . . . , 2 

65 



tribe hebesini 

Genus Goniolomus Stal 1 

Boocerus Stal i 

Spathocentrus Fowler i 

Ischnoceutrus Stal 3 

Canipylocentrus Stal l3 

Ophicentrus Fowler 1 

Psilocentrus Fowler i 

Centroiiodus Funkhouser 2 

Platycentrus Stal 5 

Orthobelus Stal 5 

Callicentrus Stal 7 

Daimon Buckton 2 

Amblycentrus Fowler i 

Centriculus Fowler 2 

Brackybelus Stal i 

Brachycentrutus Metcalf and Bruner 2 

Monobeltts Stal 8 

Quadrinaria Goding i 

Marshallella Goding i 

58 



176 



FAM. MEMBRACID.K 297 



Subf. CENTROTIN/E (Old World) 

Number 

TRIBE CENTROTINI of Species 

Genus Centrotus F^abricius 40 

Tricoceps Buckton 6 

Cenlrotusoides Distant 2 

Platybelus Stal i3 

Evanchou Goding 5 

Amitrochates Distant 2 

Barsumas Distant i 

Monocenlrus Melichar i3 

Maguva Melichar 7 

Anchou Buckton 29 

Spalirises Distant 4 

Pantaleon Distant 5 

Antialcidas Distant 3 

Maurya Distant 8 

Macharotypus Uhler 10 

Tricentrus Stal 116 

Tricentroides Distant l 

Eumonocentrus Schmidt 3 

Crito Distant i 

269 

TRIBE hypsauchenini 

Genus Hypsauchenia Germar 8 

Pyrgauchenia Breddin 12 

Gigantorhabdus Schmidt i 

Hypsolyrium Schmidt i 

Pyrgonota Stal 8 

Hybandoides Distant 5 

Funkhouserella Schmidt 7 

42 

Tribe CENTROCHARESINI 

Genus Centrochares Stal 7 

Negus Jacobi i 

Sinenodus Goding i 



Tribe MICREUNINI 

Genus Micreitne Walker 4 

Eutryonia Goding 4 

Leptobelus Stal 7 

Elaphiceps Buckton 2 

17 



298 HOMOPTERA 



Number 

Tribe LEPTOCENTRINI of Species 

(jenus Leptocmims Stal 5o 

Nilautama Distant 4 

Arimanes Distant i 

Convedor Distant i 

Telingana Distant 18 

Acanthophyes Stal 4 

Bathoutha Distant i 

Indicopleustes Distant 4 

Parapogon Distant 2 

Xiphopceus Stal 9 

Maarbarus Distant 2 

Aspasiana Distant i 

Tshaka Distant 4 

Polonius Distant i 

Dacartha Distant 2 

Imporciior Distant 2 

Otinotus Buckton 23 

Eufrenchia Goding 7 

Cebes Distant , 3 

Lubra Goding 2 

Sarantus Stal 6 

Godiugella Distant i 

Otinoioides Distant 17 

Goiidof^harnes Distant i 

Ceraon I-!uckton 7 

Emphusis Buckton 12 

Acanthnctts Stal 17 

Sertorius Stal 10 

Ceniruchus Stal 8 

Eufairmairia Distant 9 

Sexiius Stal 14 

Periamau Distant 8 

Ceutrotypus Stal 29 

Pogon Buckton 7 

287 



Tribe coccosterphini 

Genus Coccosterphus Stal 9 

Parayasa Distant 12 

lusiior Distant i 

Yasa Distant i 

Kauada Distant i 

24 



FAM. MEMBRACID.i<] 299 



Number 

TRIBE GARGARINI of Species 

Genus Gargara Amyot and Serville 145 

Xanthosiicla Buckton 5 

Ebhid Distant 7 

Sabrincator Distant i 

Sipylus Stal i3 

Centrotoscelus Funkhouser 16 

Kombazana Distant 2 

Promintor Distant i 

Hamma Buckton 3 

Umfilianiis Distant 2 

Tiberianus Distant 2 

198 

Tribe uroxiphini 

Genus Uroxifihus Amj^ot and Serville 2 

Dinghana Goding i 

Terentius Stal 8 

Insitoroides Funkhouser i 

Pogontypus Distant 3 

Cryptaspidia Stal 14 

Mesocentrus Funkhouser i 

Demanga Distant 2 

Awania Distant 2 

Bncchar Jacobi 4 

Occaior Distant i 

39 

Tribe OXYRHACHISINI 

Genus Oxyrhachis Germar 27 

Gongroneura Jacobi 6 

Xiphistes Stal 14 

Goddefroyinella Distant i 

Bulbauchenia Schumacher 2 

Takliiva Funkhouser i 

Oxyrhachidia Melichar i 

Xiphistoides Cjoding 2 

54 

Tribe DARTHULINI 

Genus Darthula Kirkaldy i 

Coloborrhis Germar 3 

Hemicentrus MeUchar 6 



949 



Grand Total 233^ 



3oo HOMOPTERA 



SUPPLEMENT 

Following the author's pubHcation of his Catalogue of the Membracidae it was his custom to 
record new genera and species together with titles of papers in an interleaved copy of the Catalogue. 
Thus his copy of the work was kept up to date from the time of its publication in 1927 until his final 
illness in 1948. The additions hsted below are selected from those notes, covering the period between 
the completion of the manuscript for the present work in 1938 and the end of his life. There is no 
claim of completeness of the record for this ten-year interval, except that it covers the author's efforts 
in that direction. Some ambiguities exist in the author's notes on changes of name, making it impos- 
sible to be certain of his interpretations of them. They are therefore omitted here. The order followed 
in the lists below is substantially that of the 1927 Funkhouser Catalogue. 

RECENT GENERA 

Penichrophorus Richter, Caldasia VI : 86 (1943). 

Hemicardiaous Plummer, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XLVil : 2. 41 (1945) [saunderst]. 

Atymnina Plummer, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVI : 3. 240 {1938) [elongata]. 

Acentrotus Kato, Memb. East Asia i5i (1940) [mcultus']. 

Thuris Funkhouser, Ent. News LIV : 9. 229 (1943) [fenesirattts']. 

Tsunozemia Kato, Memb. East Asia i52 (1940) [mojiensis]. 

Gonoconophora da Fonseca, .Arq. Inst. BioL 19 : iii (1949) [funkhotiseri]. 

NEW SPECIES 

Membracis richieri da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. 19 : ii3 (1949). Brazil. 

Spongophorus hoffmanni Pelaez, Anales Inst. Biol. XI : 1. 285 (1940). Mexico. 

Alchisme laticornis Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 277 Peru. 

(1940). 

A. pingiticornis Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y.Ent. Soc.XLVlII : 3.277 ('94o)' Peru. 

A. spiitosa Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 27S (1940). Peru. 

Potitia brunneifrontis Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 464 (1943). Guatemala. 

Bolbonota atitla Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. ^55 (1943). Guatemala. 

Enchenopa ansera Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 456 (1943). Guatemala. 

Erechtia trimaculata da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. i32 (1941). Brazil. 

Hypsoprora alticornis Plummer, Memb. Mex. i55 (1943). Mexico. 

H. brevis Plummer, Memb. Mex. 159 (1943). Mexico. 

H. caldwelli Plummev, Memb. Mex. i58 (1943). Mexico. 

H. pyramidata Plummer, Memb. Mex. i56 (1943). Mexico. 

Leioscyta neivai da. Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. 129 (1941). BraziU 

L. qitadrimacttlata da. Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. i3i (1941). Brazil. 

Poinia maculaia Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 463 (1943). Guatemala. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDyE 



3oi 



Umbonia antigua Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 462 (1943). Guatemala. 

U. immaculata Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 463 (tg^S). Guatemala. 

Aconophora brevicornis Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 467 (1943). Guatemala. 

A. brunnea Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 281 (1940). Peru. 

A. cnffea Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 466 (1943). (juatemala. 

A. erecta Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 280 (1940). Peru. 

A. lutea Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 466 (1943). Guatemala. 

Paragargara nigra Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 279 Peru. 
(1940). 

Rhexia diversa Richter, Caldasia V : 43 (1942). Colombia. 

R. rubofenestrata Richter, Caldasia V : 46 (1942). Colombia. 

Sundarion nigromaculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : Peru. 
3. 281 (1940). 

Tragopa testudina Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 470 (1943). Guatemala. 

Centrogonia brevicornis Richter. Caldasia II : 71 (1941). Colombia. 

C. gracilicornis Richter, Caldasia VI : 100 (1943). Colombia. 

C. incornigera Richter, Caldasia III : 41 (1941). Colombia. 

C. nigrovittata Richter, Caldasia VI : 96 (1943). Colombia. 

C nigerrima Richter, Caldasia VI : 99 (1943). Colombia. 

C. curvicornis Funkhouser, BulL Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : i5 (1943). Arizona. 

Ceresa grisescens Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 283 Peru. 
(1940). 

C. luteimaculata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLXIII : 262 Peru. 

(1940). 

C. riibra Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 471 (1943). Guatemala. 

C. viridolineata Funkhouser, Memb. (juat. 472 (1943). Guatemala. 

Micrutalis nigromarginata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : Peru. 
3. 289 (1940). 

Penichrophorus sericatus Richter, Caklasia VI : 86 (1943). Colombia. 

P. dilatatus Richter, Caldasia VI : 92 (1943). Colombia. 

P. bogolensis Richter, Caldasia VI : 87 (1943). Colombia. 

P. impressus Richter, Caldasia VI : 96 (1943). Colombia. 

Poppea vestigia Plummer, Rev. Ent. Soc. Wash. XLVII : 41 (1945). Salvador. 

Stictolobus delongiFhimmer, Memb. Mex. 160(1943). Mexico. 

5. solanofilus da Fonseca, Livro d'Almeida 17 : 187 (1946). Brazil. 

5. nitidns Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 284 (1940). Peru. 

5. marginatus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIIl : 3. 285 Peru. 

(1940). 

5. viridis Funkhouser, BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 3. 75 (1943). United States. 

Thrasymedes virescens Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. Peru. 

288 (1940). 

Hemicardiacus saundersi Plummer, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XLVII : 2. 40 Guatemala. 

(1945). 

Antianthe chichiana Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 476 (1943). Guatemala. 



302 



HOMOPTERA 



Aphelea nigropida Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 476 (1943). 
Atymna distinda Piummer, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVI : 3. aSg (ig38). 
A. gigantea Plummer. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVI : 3. 238 (1938). 
Atymnina elongata Plummer, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVI : 3o. 241 

(1938). 
Xantholobus arizonensis Funkhouser, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXVIII : 

3. 76(1943). 
Amastris guttata da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10 (1941). 
A.pacifica Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 478 (1943). 

A. pernviana Funkhouser, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 286 (1940). 
Matitrna multilineata da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. i35 (1941). 
Polyglypta nigridorsa (Fowler) Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 479 (1943). 
Polyrhyssa cullrata maculata da Fonseca. Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. 134 

(1940- 
Tynelia (Tynella, sic) flavodorsata da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 

10. i36 (1941). 
T. nigra Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 287 (1940). 
Vanduzea decorata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIII : 3. 287 

(1940). 
V . mayana Funkhouser, Memb. Guat. 480 (1943). 
Anchon buctoni Goding, Old World Memb. 328 (1939). 
Evanchon variegatus Funkhouser, Memb. F^ormosa 267 (1943). 
E. nitida Funkhouser, Congo Belge 8 (1943). 
Gargara alini Funkhouser, Manch. Memb. 144 (1940). 
G. albopleura Fiinkhouser, Manch. Memb. 145 (1940). 
G. auomala Kato, Memb. East Asia 19 (1940). 
G. gressitti Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : i. 64 (1942). 
G. nodulata Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : 6. 63 (1942). 
G. takahashii Kato, Memb. East Asia 17 (1940). 
G. doniiza testacea Kato. Memb. East Asia 18 (1940). 
G. toukini Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : i. 65 (1942). 
Orlhobelus arahii Kato, Memb. East Asia 8 (1940). 
O. takachihonus Kato, Memb. East Asia 6 (1940). 

Platycentrus auriculatus Pelaez, Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. II : i. 62 (1941). 
Polonius /roggatti Goding, Old World Memb. 349 (1939). 
Stylocenlrus rubrinigris ^''unkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XLVIIl : 3. 

276 (1940). 
Thuris fenestratus Funkhouser, Ent. Nevvs LIV : 9. 229 (1943). 
Tricentrus coreanus Kato, Memb. East Asia 12 (1940). 
T . femella cornis Kato, Memb. East Asia 10 (1940). 
T. obesus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : i. 61 (1942). 
T. purpureus Funkhouser, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : i. 62 (1942). 
T. taurus Funkhouser. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. L : i. 62 (1942). 
T . yagoi Kato, Memb. East Asia 11 (1940). 
T. verrucus Kato, Memb. East Asia i3 (1940). 
Xiphistes maculipennis Funkhouser, Treubia XVII : i. 35 (19^9). 
Gonoconophora funhhouseri da Fonseca, Arq. Inst. Biol. 19 : iii (1949). 



Guatemala. 
Mexico. 
Mexico. 
Mexico. 

Arizona. 

Brazil. 

Guatemala. 

Peru. 

Brazil. 

Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Brazil. 

Peru. 
Peru. 

Guatemala. 

Ceylon. 

Formosa. 

Belgian Congo. 

Manchuria. 

Manchuria. 

Japan. 

China. 

China. 

Formosa. 

Japan. 

China. 

Japan. 

Japan. 

Mexico. 

Australia. 

Peru. 

Peru. 

Korea. 

Japan. 

China. 

China. 

China. 

Korea. 

Japan. 

Java. 

Brazil. 



FAM. MEMBKACIDiE 



3o3 



NEW LOCALITY RECORDS 



Noloceia ciirviceps .... British (juiana. 

N. hispida (juatemala. 

Alchisme grossa .-\rgentina. 

A.obsciira Argentina. 

A. projecta Argentina. 

Hoplophorion corrosum . . . .Xrgentina. 

Leioscyta rufodorsa .... British Guiana. 

Membracis arcuata .... .\rgentina. 

M . foliata Argentina. 

M. peruviana .Argentina. 

M. tectigera Argentina. 

Notocera bituberculata . . . .Argentina. 

Aconophora disparicornis . . (juateniala. 

A. ferruginea (hiatemala. 

A. femoralis .Argentitia. 

A. fusiformis Argentina, British 

Cjuiana. 

A.lamiuata (juateinala. 

A. laticornis Argentina. 

A. marginata Biitish Guiana. 

A.pallescens British Cjuiana, 

Peru, Bolivia. 

A.pinguis .Argentina. 

A. projecta Argentina, Britisli 

Guiana. 

A. siuanjensis Argentina. 

Aspona cuneata Guatemala. 

Cymbomorpha dorsata . . . British Cjuiana. 

Darnis lateralis Guatemala. 

Hemikyptha marginata. . . . .Argentina. 

Heteronotus quadrinodosus . . .Argentina. 

H . tridens British Cjuiana. 

Ictaranthe latifrons .... Argentina. 

Nassunia binotata .... British Guiana. 

Stictopelta cruentata .... Argentina. 

S.fraterna Argentina, British 

Guiana. 

5. latilinea .Argentina. 

S. pracox .Argentina. 



Suudarion apicalis 
S. bimaculata . 
S. brunniventris . 
S. flavomarginata. 
S. xaiithographa . 
Horiola lineolafa . 
Acutalis nigrinervis 
Centrogonia nasula 
Ceresa basalis . 
C. hifasciala . 
C. concinna 
Cyphonia clavata . 
C. fuscata . 
C. proxima 
Enritia albifasciata 
Micrutalis luguhrina 
M. pallens . 



Poppea affinis . 
Stictolobiis mactdatus 
Telamona westcotti 
Antkianthe expansa 
A. reversa . 
A. viridissima. 
Atymna querci. 
Cyrtolobus vaii. 
Ophiderma flava . 
O . flavicephala 
■ puhescens . 
Amastris antica . 
A . compacta . 
A . minida . 
Diociophara mixta 
Entylia bactriana. 
E. gemmala . 
Gelasiogonia erythrop. 
G. exallata. 
Polyglypta dorsnlis 
Tynclia hirsuta 



.Argentina. 

.Argentina. 

.Argentina. 

.Argentina. 

.Argentina. 

British (juiana. 

("anada. 

Colombia. 

Quebec. 

.Argentina. 

Argentina. 

Argentina. 

.Argentina, Peru. 

.Argentina, Peru. 

Argentina. 

(juatemala. 

British Guiana, 
Argentina. 

Costa Rica. 

Argentina. 

Canada. 

British Guiana. 

Guatemala. 

(juatemala 

C"anada. 

Canada. 

Canada. 

Canada. 

Canada . 

I^iitish (aiiana. 

British Cjuiana. 

British Guiana. 

.Argentina. 

Canada. 

Argentina. 

Argentina. 

l^ritish Guiana. 

Cjuatemala. 

l^ritisli (juiana. 



3o4 



HOMOPTERA 



A nchoii bondi . 

A . poensis . 

A. pilosum. 

Bocydium globiilare 

Centrotoscelus kashuiieiists 

C. marginata . 

C. nigrifrons . 

C. niiida . 

C. shinchicuna 

Endoiastus caviceps 

Gargara asperula 

G. brtinneidorsata 

G. davidi . 

G. hainanensis 

G. nigromaculata 

G. nitidipenuis 

G. piceola . 

G. sordida . 

Otinotus pilostis 

Pantaleon hufo 

Platybeltis africantis 



Belgian Congo. 

Belgian Congo. 

Hainan. 

British Guiana. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Ecuador. 

Belgian Congo. 

F"ormosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa- 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Formosa. 

Belgian Congo. 

Formosa. 

Belgian Congo. 



P. insignis Belgian Congo. 

P. sinuosus Belgian Congo. 

Platycentrus taurinus . . . Mexico. 

Pyrgonota arborea .... China. 

Sipylus auriculatus .... China. 

Spalirisis alticornis .... Belgian Congo. 

Stegaspis insignis British Guiana. 

Stylocentrns ancora .... British Guiana. 

Telingana canescens .... Nicobar. 

T . fiavipes Borneo. 

Tolania opponens British Guiana. 

Tricentrus albomaculatus . Brazil. 

T . allabens Formosa. 

T . amplicornis China. 

T. basalis Formosa. 

T . bergeri Vladivostok. 

T . brevis Borneo. 

T . brevispinis China. 

T . fulgidus Kuala Lumpur. 

Tricoceps rugosa Belgian Congo. 

Tshaka obortus Belgian Congo. 



FAM. MEMBRACIDiE 3o5 



ACKNOWLEDQMENTS 

To make proper acknowledgment for the many courtesies and services extended to the writer by 
entomologists in many parts of the world and over a long period of years would require more words and 
more space than our publishers would allow. We are convinced that entomologists are the most gener- 
ous and the most kindly of all persons on earth. 

However, we would be most ungrateful if we did not mention particularly a few of those without 
whose assistance the material forthis report could nothave been obtained. 

The late W. L. Distant of London was most kind for many years in comparing specimens with 
British Museum material and in making valuable suggestions regarding taxonomic problems; the late 
C. F. Baker of Los Banos, Philippine Islands, one of the most indefatigable collectors we have ever 
known, furnished us with hundredsof specimens from many parts of the world ; the late R. C. McGregor, 
also of the Philippines, was a constant correspondent, a generous contributor of specimens, a painstak- 
ing editor of our papeis and our enjoyable companion when we were in the Islands; the late 
F. W. Goding, an ardent student of the Membracidae, was our never-failing source of material and 
information, both in Ecuador and in the United States, and upon his death bequeathed to us his 
entomological library ; the late Lewis B. Woodruff, a real gentleman and a charming guest, supplied us 
with complete sets of his paratypes; the late W. M. Wheeler was most obliging in making determina- 
tionsofants; the late J. H. Comstock was from our student days our inspiration in the study of 
entomology. 

We are greatly indebted to Mr. E. P. Van Duzee of San Francisco, California, and lo 
Dr. E. D. Ball of Tucson, Arizona, for much sound advice, pertinent suggestions and for the loan and 
gift of specimens ; to Mr. W. E. China for permission to work in the British Musuem and for many 
courtesies shown us in London ; to Professor W. E. Hoffmann of Lingnan University for Chinese 
material and particularly for his time and patience in assisting us in collecting in China; to 
Mr. H. M. Pendlebury of Kuala Lumpur for his gracious hospitality to us in Malaya and for his 
regular contributions to our collection ; to Dr. H. S. Pruthi for the piivilege of examining Indian 
material and kindness shown to us in Calcutta ; to Doctors L. G. E. Kalshoven and M. A. Lieftinck of 
Buitenzorg for the privilege of working up the Membracidae of their collections and for pleasant days 
spent in Java; to Mr. Edward Jacobson of l-^ort de Kock and Bandoeng for much Archipelagic material 
and especially for valuable advice and instructions which assisted us in collecting in Sumatra ; to 
Mr. Bernard Smit of Port Elisabeth for niaterial and for assistance in field work in South Africa ; 
to Dr. V. Lallemand of Brabant. Belgium, for donations and for honoring us in his publications ; to 
Doctors Walther Horn and Hans Sachleben of Berlin-Dahlem forregutar sendings of material for study 
from the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut ; to Dr. Janust Nast «f Warsaw, Poland for the opportu- 
nity of studying the valuable collection of the Panstwowe Museum and his own collection ; to 
Dr. A. Kiricenko of the U. S. S. R. for the privilege of seeing the membracid material in the Zoolo- 
gical Museum of Leningrad; to the Rev. Octave Piel of Shanghai for enjoyable personal conferences in 
China and for regular shipments of specimens from the Musee Heude; to Dr. Prof. Ed. Ilandshin of 
Basle, Switzerland for the pleasure of examining and reporting on his unusual collection; to Dr. Dionisio 
Pelaez of Madrid for valuable information regaiding .African species; to Sr. Jose Pinto da Fonseca of 



3o6 HOMOPTERA 

Sflio Paulo for important papers and for specimens of Brazilian forms; to Redvo. Apolinar Maria of the 
Colegio de la Salle at Bogota, Colombia, for many donations of South American specimens; to 
Mr. C. C. Plummerof Mexico City for Mexican material; to Mr. H. S. Parish of Toronto for a wide 
variety of Canadian and neotropical specimens and field notes; and to Mr. Felix Woytkowski of Lima, 
Peru, for South American material and for valuable distribution and habitat records. 

Finally we desire to express our appreciation of the work of Miss Aline Rudolphi of Detroit, 
Michigan, the artist who prepared the figures for this volume (now Mrs. Aline Rudolphi Hansens of 
New Brunswick, N. J.). 



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da Fonseca, Jose Pinto (19^4). Um novo gfenero de Membracidae (Homoptera). Revue de 
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da Fonseca, Jose Pinto (ig35). Uma nova especie do genero Hemikyptha (Hom. MembracidEe). 
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da Fonseca, Jose Pinto (1936). Contribui^uo para o conhecimento dos Membracideos neo- 
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da Fonseca, Jose Pinto (1937). Contribuigao para o conhecimento dos Membracideos neotropi- 
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da Fonseca, JosePinto. (ig^o). Contribui^ao para o conhecimento dos Membracideos neotropicos 
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da Fonseca, Jose Pi nto. (ig^i). Contribui^ao para o conhecimento dos Membracideos neotropicais 
(IV). Arq. Inst. Biol. XII : 10. 12^-140. 12 figs. 



FAM. MEMBRACID^ 3i5 

da Fonseca, Jose Pinto. (1946). Uma nova especie do genero Stictolobus (Hoinopteia; Membiaci- 
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Froggatt, Walter W. (1907). Australian Insects. 356-358. 

Funkhouser. William Delbert (igiS). Homologies of tiie Wing Veinsof the Membracidre. 
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Funkhouser William Delbert (1914^). Some Philippine Membracidic. Pomona Journal of Ento- 
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Funkhouser, William Delbert (igi^b). New Membracidffi froin the East Indies. Jouriial of the 
New York Entomological Society XXII : 235-23^. i plate, 9 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1914C). New South American .Membracida;. Canadian Entomo- 
logist XLVI : 357-362; 403-407. I plate, 12 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delb-ert (1914^). Report on a Collection of Membracida; from the Colom- 
bian Andes, taken by .Mr. John Thomas Lloyd, Journal of the New York Entomological 
Society XXII : 275-280. 2 plates, 10 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igoa). New Membracidae from the United States (Hemip., 
Homop.). Entomological News XXVI : 97-101. Plate III ; 10 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igiSb). Life Histoiy of Thelia bimaculata Fab. Annals of the 
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Funkhouser, William Delbert (igi^c). Note on the Life history of Enchenopa binotata Say 
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Funkhouser, William Delbert (igi^d). Ty()es of Fitch's species of Membracida;. Bulletin of 
the Brooklyn Entomological Society X : ^S-So. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igiSe). Review of the Philippine Membracidae. The PhiHppine 
Journal of Science X : D : 365-4o5. 2 plates, 3 text figures. 

Funkhouser, W^illiam Delbert (i9i5f). .\ .\ew Membracid fiom Trinidad. BuUetin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society X ; io3-io5. i plate, 5 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (uji^g). Life Historj' of Vanduzea arquata Say (Membracidae). 
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Funkhouser, William Delbert (1917^). Biology of the Membracidae of the Cayuga Lake 
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Journal of Science XIII : D : 21-39. ^ plate. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1918^). A new Membracid on Cypress. Entomological News 
XXIX : 185-187. I plate, 8 figures. 



3i6 HOMOPTERA 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igiSc). Malayan MembracidfE. Journal of the Straits Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 79 : 1-14. 

Funkhouser William Delbert (igiga). New Records and Species of Philippine Membracidae. 
The Phihppine Journal of Science XV : 15-29. i plate, 8 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (i^igb). A New Tylocentrus from Arizona (Membracidae; Ho- 
moptera). Entomological News XXX : 217-219. Plate X, 4 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igigc). Four New African Membracidae. The Canadian 
Entomologist LI : 220-224. Plate 19, figures 1-8. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (i^igd). New Neotropical Membracidae. Journal of the New 
York Entomological Society XXVn : 267-277. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1920). New Record and Species of Malayan Membracidae. 
Journalof theStraits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 82 : 2o5-225. i plate, i5 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (19213). Note on the Genus Cryptonotus (Membracidae; Ho- 
mop.). Entomological News XXXII : i5i. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1921^). New MembracidEB from China and Japan. Bulletin 
of the Brooklyn Entomological Society XVI : 42-^2. i plate, 12 figuies. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1921C). New Genera and Species of Philippine MembracidtB. 
The Philippine Journal of Science XVIII : 679-689. i plate, 10 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig^id). Orthogenesis in the Membracidae. Science, LIV : 157. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1922^). New Records and Species of South American Membra- 
cidffi. Journal of the New York Entomological Society XXX : i-35. 3 plates, 35 figures. 

F^unkhouser, William Delbert (1922^). New Records and Species of Membracidae from India. 
Records of the Indian Museum XXIV : Part III : 323-33o. i plate, 5 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig^Sa). Walker's Species of Membracidae from United States and 
Canada. Annals of the Entomological Society of America XVI : 97-113. Plate IV, 9 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igi^b). Family Membracidae. /« Guide to the Insects of Con- 
necticut. Part IV : The Hemiptera. State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 34 : 
i63-2o6. Plate IV : 19 figures. ' 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (19230). New Host for Membracidae. BuUetin of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society XVIII : i56. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (19273). Fauna Sumatrensis. Membracidae (Homoptera). Sup- 
plementa Entomologica XV : 1-22. 29 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927^). Two New MembracidiE (Homoptera) from Sumatra. 
BuUetin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society XXII : 106-iog, 5 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927C). New Australian Membracidae (Homoptera). Records of 
the Australian Museum XV : 5. 3o5-3i5. 16 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927^). General Catalogue of the Hemipteia. Fascicle i : 
Membracidas. Smith College Press. 58i pages. 

Funkhouser, Williain Delbert (1927^). New Membracidae Coliected by the Cornell South 
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7 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927^). New Philippine Membracidae (Homoptera). The Phi- 
lippine Journal of Science XXXIII : 109-125. 4 plates, 3o figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927^). New Membracidae (Hemiptera, Homoptera) in the 
coUection of the Zoological Museum of the ."^cademy of Science of the U.S.S.R. Annuaire du 
Musee Zoologique de TAcademie des Sciences de TU.S.S.R. XXVIII : 145-157. 2 plates, 
1 1 figures. 



FAM. MEMBRACID/E Siy 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1927^). New Malayan Membracidaj. Journal of the Federated 
Malay States Museums XIII : Part 4. 253-256. 5 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1928). Spoha Mentawiensia : Membracidae, Homoptera. Jour- 
nal Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society VI : i. 13-14. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1929^). New Archipelagic Membracidas. The Phihppine Journal 
of Science XL : i.iii-i35. 2 plates, 34 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1929^). Bornean Membracida;. Journal of the Federated Malay 
States Museums XIV : 469-478. 9 figures. 

Funkhouser, WiUiam Delbert (19290). The Membracidte of China. Lingnan Science Journal 
VII : 475-482. I plate, 3 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1930). New Genera and Species of Neotropical Membracidse. 
Journal of the Entomological Society of New York XXXVTII : 4. 403-422. 2 plates, 18 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig32). Membracidae from Mount Kinabalu. Journal of the Fe- 
derated Malay States Museums XVII : X : 1 12-121. 7 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1933). Entomological Investigations on the Spike Disease of 
Sandal (3) Membracidae (Homopt ). Indian Forest Records (Entomological Series) XVII : X : 
i-io. 8 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (19343). A New African Membracid. Journal of the New York 
Entomological Society XLII : 3. 33g-34i. 6 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delhert (ig^^b). A New Malayan Membracid. Journal of the Federated 
Malay States Museums XVII : 3. 57g-58o. i figure. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig^^c). A New Membracid Collected by Charles Darwin 
(Homoptera) Entomological News XLV : 8. 203-204. 4 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igS^d). Membracidae in Musee Heude Collection. Musee 
Heude. Notes d'Entomologie Chinoise. Vol. II : Fasc. 2. 17-23. 6figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig35a). New Records and Species of Chinese Membracidae. 
Mus6e Heude. Notes d'Entomologie Chinoise. Vol. II : Fasc. 4. 79-84. 6 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (i935b). New Records and Species of Membracidae in the 
Buitenzorg Museum CoUection. Treubia, Deel i5, Afl. i. iig-iSo. 7 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (i935c) New Membracidae in the Imperial Institute CoUection. 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society XLIII : 4. 427-435. 10 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig^^d). Four New Malayan Membracidae. Journal of the Fede- 
rated Malay States Museums XVII : 2. 717-721. 4 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig36a). A New Membracid from Illinois. Bulletin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society XXXI : 21-23. 3 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig36b). New Membracidas in the Handschin CoUection. Revue 

Suisse de Zoologie XLIII : 7. 189198. 3 figures. 
Funkhouser, William Delbert (19360). Five New Indian Membracidai. Annals of the Entomo- 

logical Society of America XXIX : 2. 245-250. 5 figures. 

F^unkhouser, WiUiam Delbert (ig^^d). Two New Malayan Membracidse. Journal of the Fede- 

rated Malay States Museums XVIII : i. 187-189. 2 figures. 
Funkhouser, William Delbert (ig^^a) Four New Chinese Membracidae. Notes d'Entomologie 

Chinoise IV : 2. 2g-33. 4 figures. 
Funkhouser, William Delbert (igS^b). Three Xew Membracidae from Borneo. Entomo- 

logists' Monthly Magazine LXXIII : 100-102. 3 figures. 

F^unkhouser, William Delbert (igS^c). Fauna Javanensis : Membracidae (Homoptera). Tijd- 
schrift voor Entomologie, Deel 80 : 121-126. 4 figures. 



3i8 HOMOPTEKA 

Funkhouser, VVilliam Delbert (igSyd). Membracidse of Hainan Island. Lingnan Science 
Journal XVI : 2. 237-247. 7 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (igSSa). Two New Chinese Membracidae. Notes d'Entomologie 
Chinoise V : 2. 17-19. 2 figures. 

Funkhouser, VVilliam Delbert (igSSb). New Membracidae from South China. Lingnan Science 
Journal XVII : 2. 199-208. 8 figures. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1939). A New Membracid from West Java. Treubia 17.35-36. i fig. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1939). A New Emphusis (Membracidse) from Malaya. Jour. Fed. 
Malay St. Mus. XVIII : 3. 377-378. i fig. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1940). New Peruvian Membracida? (Homoptera). Jour. N.Y. Ent. 
Soc. XLVill : 3. 273-293, 2 pls., 18 figs, 

Funkhouser, VVilliam Delbert (1940). Three New Manchurian Membracidae. Arb. u. Morph. u. 
Taxon. Ent. 7 : 2. 144-146, 3 figs. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1942). Six New Chinese Membracidte. Jour. N.Y. Ent. Soc. L : 
61-67. 6 figs. 

Funkhouser, WiUiam Delbert (1942). Note on Stictopelta nova Goding. BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
XXXVII : 4. 126. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1942). Membracidag (Homoptera) from British Guiana. Zoologica 
XXVII : 3,4. 125-129. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Note on Multareis planifrons Van Duzee. Bull. Biook. Ent. 
Soc. XXXVII : 5. 166. 

Funkhouser, WiUiam Delbert (1943). A New Ceresa (Membracidae, Homoptera) from Arizona. 
BuU. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXVII : 5. 181-182, 3 figs. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Immature Stages of Bajulata bajula Goding (MembracidiE, 
Homoptera). Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXXVHI : 2. 44-47. i pl. 6 figs. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Two New Membracida: from Arizona. BuU. Brook. Ent. 
Soc. XXXVIII : 3. 75-77, 4 figs. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Membracidae of Guatemala. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. XXXVI : 
3. 455-482. 2 pl., i5 figs. 

Funkliouser, William Delbert (1943). A New Membracid Genus from Peru (Homoptera). Ent. 
News LIV : g. 229-232. 3 figs. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Synonymy of the Membracidae of l-^ormosa. Jour. N.Y. 
Ent. Soc. LI : 4. 265-275. 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1943). Mission G. F. de Witte Congo Belge. Inst. des Parcs Nat. 
du Congo Belge. Fasc. 43 : 3. 1-8. 2 figs. (1943). 

Funkhouser, William Delbert (1944). Some Venezuelan Membracidae. Zoologica XXIX : 4-193. 

(jarman, Harrison (igo8). Apple Orchard Pests in Kentucky. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment 
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Garman, Harrison (1916). The Locust Borer and Other Insect Enemies of the Black Locust. 
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Gay, Claudio (i852). Historia fisica y politica de Chile. Zool. VII : Ins. 266-272. 

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Geimar, Ernst Friedrich (i833a). Conspectus Generum Cicadariarum. Kevue Silberman, Tome I : 
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Germar, Ernst Friedrich (i833b). Heschreibung von Combophora Beskii u. vulnerans in Bur- 
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Germar, Ernst Friedrich, (i835). Species Membracidum Musei Germari et dispositio generum 
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Gibson, .-\rthur vvith Fletcher. James, q.v. 

Gibson, Edmund Harrison (1917). The Collection of Hemiptera in the United States National 
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Cjibson, Edmund Harrison (1919). Hemiptera collected by the Yale Dominican Expedition of 
1913. Proceedings of the United States National Museum LV : 275-277. 

Gibson, Edmund Harrison and Wells, Emma (1917). The Genus Ophiderma Fairm. (Mem- 
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Gibson, Edmund Harrison and Wells, Emma (1917). A Key to the Species of the Genus 
Ceresa A. & S. occuring north of Mexico and the description of a nevv Species (Membracida; ; 
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(jibson. William Hamilton (1893). A Queer Little Family on the Bitter-Sweet. Harper's Monthly, 
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Gillette, Clarence P. and Baker, Carl FuUer (1S95). A Preliminary List of the Ilemiptera of 
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Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colorado. i-ij. 

Girard, Maurice (1884). Metamorphoses des Insectes. Paris. 

Girard, Maurice (i885). Membracida;. /« Traite elementaire d'Entomologie III : 866-870. 

Girault. A. Arsene (191 1). Descriptions of three new North American species of the M}'marid 
genus Polynema Haliday parasitic on membracid eggs, with a list of the species described 
since the year 1898. Journal of the New York Entomological .Society XIX : i2-i3. 

Girault, ,\. Arsene (1911). Hosts of insect egg parasites in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia, 
with a supplementary American list. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Insectenbiologie 
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(jlover, Tovvnend (1876). List of Membracidae. /h Report of the Entomologist and Curator of the 
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Glover, Tovvnend (1878). IUustrations of North American Entomology in the orders of Coleoptera, 
Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera. Lepidoptera, Heiniptera and Diptera. Title page 
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Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (Editor) (1788). Edited i3th edition of Linnasus' Systcina NaturjE, q. v. 

Goding, F^rederic Webster (1892^). Studies in North .American Membracidae. Entomological Nevvs, 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (1892^). A s\-nopsis of the subfamilies and genera of the Membracidtu 
of North America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society XIX ; 253-260. 

(ioding, Frederic Webster (1893C). Food plants of some North American Membracidae. Insect 

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320 HOMOPTERA 

Goding, Frederic Webster (iSgSb). Fitch's Tj^jies of X. A. MembracidEe. Canadian Entomologist 
XXV ; 171-172 ; 196. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1894). Bibliographical and Synonymical Catalogue of the Described 
Membracidae of North America. Bulletin of the IlUnois State Laboratory of Natural History 
IH : 391-482. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1895). Studies in N. A. Membracidae. Canadian Entomologist 
XXVII : 274. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1897). Ledra perdita vs. Centruchus Liebeckii. Canadian Entomo- 
logist XXIX : 245-246. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1898). A Preliminary Study of the Membracidae described from Aus- 
traUa and Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Part I : SS-go. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1903). A Monograph of the AustraUan Membracidas. Preceedings of 
the Linnean Society of New South Wales XXVIII : 2-41. i plate. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1914). Catalogue of the Membracidae of Uruguay (Hemip. Homop.). 
Entomological News XXV : 397-403. 

Goding. Frederic Webster (19203). The known Membracidas of Ecuador (Homop.). Entomo- 
logical News XXXI : i35-i36; iSS-iS^. 

Goding, F'rederic Webster (i^aob). Entomologia Nacional. Sinopsis de los Membracideos del 
Ecuador (Insectos Hemipteros, suborden Homopteros).Boletin de Medicina y Cirurgia XVIII : 
I plate, 6 figures. 

Goding, FVederic Webster (1921). Sinopsis de los Membracideos del Ecuador. Revista Nacional 
Vicente Rocafuerte V : i-i5. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1923). Synopsis of the Membracidae of Chile. Revista Chilena de 
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Goding. Frederic Webster (igaGa). Nevv Genera and Species of Membracidse (Homoptera). 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (1926^). Synonymy of Buckton's AustraUan Membracidae. Journal 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (1926C). New Membracidae I. Jouvnal of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society XXXIV : 243-246. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1926^). New Membracidae II. Journal of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society XXXIV : 279-281. 

Goding. Frederic Webster (19260). Classification of the Membracidae of America. Jouvnal of 
the New York Entomological Society XXXIV : 295-317. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1927^). New Membracidce III. Jouvnal of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society XXXV : 2. 167-170. 

Goding, Fvedevic Webster (1927^). Revision of the Membracidae of South Amevica and Antilles. 
Jouvnal of the New York Entomological Society XXXV : 2. 183-191. 

Goding, F"rederic Webste r (1927C). Synonymic Notes on Jassoidea and Membracidas. Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History XX : 119. 541-542. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1927^). The Membracidae of South Amevica and the Antilles II. 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society XXXV : 4. 391-410. 

Goding, F"rederic Webster (1928^). New Membracidas IV. Journal of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society XXXVI : i. 37-41. 

Goding, F~vederic Webster (1928^). New Membracidae V. Jouvnal of the New York Entomo- 
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FAM. MEMBRACID^: 321 

Goding, Frederic Webster (1928C). New Membracidffi VII. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomo- 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (1928^). Membracidae of South America and Antilles III. Sub- 
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I plate, i5 figures. 

Goding, Frederic Webster (igaga). Notes on some South American Membracidae. Journal of 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (igagb). New Membracidae VI. Journal of the New York Entomo- 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (19290). New Membracidae VIII. Journal of the New York Entomo- 
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Goding, Frederic Webster (1929^). New Membracidae IX. Journal of the New York Entomo- 
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