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THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XXXI. 



/ 

4 



Printed by NiciiOLS, Son, and Hentley, 
Ked Lion Passage^ Fleet Street, Lundon. 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY : 

CONTAINING 
AN HISTORICAL AND CRFnCAL ACCOUNT 

or THE 

I 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

or TBI 

t 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH. 

FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



« 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY - 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A. 



VOL. XXXL 



LONDON: 

PIIINTBD FOR J. NICHOLS AND 90N ; F. C. AND J. RIYINQTON ; T. PAYNE ; 
OTRIDGB AND SON; O. AND W. NICOL f G. WILKIE ; J. WALKER; W. 
LOWNDES; T. EGERTON ; LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J. CARPENTER | 
LONGMAN, UUR9T, REBS, ORME, AND BROWN; CADELL AND DAVIES ; LAW 

' AND WHITTAKER; J. BOOKER; J. CUTHELL ; CLARKE AND SONS; J. AND 
A. ARCH; M. HARRIS; BLACK, PARBURY, AND ALLEN ; J. BLACK; J. BOOTH ; 
J. MAWMAN ; GALE AND FENNER ; R. H. EVANS ; J. HATCHARD; 3. MURRAY; 
BALDWIN, CRAOOCK, AND JOY4 El BENTLEY ; OGLE AND CO. ; W. GINGER ', 
RODWELL *AND ' MARTIN ; P. WRIGHT; 1. DBIGUTON AND SON, CAMBI^DGE J 
CONSTABLE AND CO. EDINBURGH; AND WILSO$l AND SON, YORK. 

1317. 



A NEW AND GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



yy ALL (John), a learned physician and medical writer, 
was born at Powick, in Worcestershire, 1703. He Was th^ 
SOD of Mr. John Wall, an opulent tradesman of the city of 
Worcester, who served the office of mayor in 1703. He 
received the early part of bis e^u£«L:t9(^'b'at agrammar-schoo^ 
at Leigh-Sinton, and at the .college school of Worcester, 
whence be was electcjd scholar of WprceV^er-coUejg^, Ox- 
ford, ill June 1726. In l^;i;5, he was^^elected fellow of 
Merton -college, soon after which he took the degree of 
bachelor of physic, and remot«i^.6.tbe city of Worcesterj 
where he was, many years settled in practice. In L759, he 
took the degree of M. D. Besides an ingenious ** Treatise 
on' the virtnes of Malvern-waters," which he brought into 
reputation, he enriched the repositories of medical know- 
Jedge with many valuable tracts, which, since his death, 
have been collected into an octavo edition, by his son, the 
pre3ent learned Dr. Martin Wall, F. R. S. clinical-pro- 
fessor of the university, and were printed at Obcford in 
1780. He married Catherine youngest daughter of Martin 
Sandys, esq. of the city ^ of Worcester, barrister at law, 
and uncle to the first lord Sandys. Dr. Wall was a man of 
extraordinary genius, which he improved by early and in- 
defatigable industry in the pursuit of science ; but he was 
more particularly eminent in those branches of natural 
philosophy which have an immediate connexion with thie 
arts,^ and with medicine. He was distinguished likewise 
through bis whole life by an uncommon sweetness of man- 
ners, and cheerfulness of disposition, which, still more 
than his great abilities, made his acquaintance courted, 
and his conversation sought, by persons of all ranks and 
ages. His practice, as a physician, was extended far 
Vol. XXXI. B 



2 WALL. 

beyond the cgmmon circle of practitioners in the country, 
and he was particularly eminent for benevolence, courtesy, 
penetration, and success. His native country still boasts 
many roonumeiits of the application of bis eminent talents 
to her interests. To his distinguished skill in chemistry, 
and his assiduous researches (in conjunction with some other 
chemists) to discover materials proper for the china-ware, 
the.Vity of WorcjesJter owes the i^stabltsbment of its porce- 
lain-manufacture. Besides the improvements he suggested 
and put in execution for the accommodation of visitors at 
Malvern, it was to his zeal and diligence the county of 
Worcester is in no small degree indebted for the advantages 
of the infirmary, which he regularly attended during bis 
whole life. His principal amusement was painting; anil 
U has been said of him, that, if he had not been one of 
the best physicians, he would have been the best painter 
of his age. This praise is perhaps too high, yet his de- 
signs for the two frontispieces to *' Hervey's Mcditatious,** 
that for Cambridge's ** Scribleriad,*' and for the East win -^ 
dow of thfe ehapel of Oriel-college, Oxfor<l, are very cre- 
ditable specimens of his talents. He died at Bath, after a 
lingering disorder, June 27, 1776, and lies buried in the 
abbey-church. The tracts published by his son, are, 1. 
** Of the extraordinary effects of Musk in convulsive dis- 
orders.*' 2^ " Of the use of the Peruvian Bark in the 
small-pox.** 3. " Of the cure of the putrid sore-throat." 
4. " Mr. Oram's account of the Norfolk -boy.*' 5. ** Ob- 
servations on that case, and on the efficacy of oil in worm- 
cases." 6. " Experiments and Observations on the Mal- 
vern -waters.'* 7. ** Letters to Sir George Baker, &c. on 
the poison of lead, and the itnpregnation of cyder with 
that metal." 8. " A Letter to Dr. Heberden on the An- 
gina Pectoris." 9. " Supplement; containing an account 
of the epidemicfever of 1740, 1741, and 1742." The edi- 
tor has enriched this publication with various notes, which 
discover an extensive acquaintance with lihe subjects ih 
question, and a candid and liberal turn of mind. To the; 
treatise on Malverji- waters Dn Martin Wall has also sub* 
joined an appendix of some length, containing an expe- 
rimental inquiry into their nature; from which it appear?, 
that the Holywell-water at MalveFn owes its virtues princi- 
pally to its extreme purity, assisted by the fixed air which 
it contains. > 

^ Nash's Hist, of Worcestershire.— Month, 'key. vol. LXlV.-^Cha!mers*9 
UUt. of Oxford. 



WALL.' 3 

WALL (WiLUAM), the able defeoder of infant-baptism, 
was born in 1646, but where educated, or any further par-» 
titulars of his early life, are not upon record. He was 
vicftr of Shorehaoi in Kent, where he died in J728, at the 
age of eigbty-two, and was considerably advanced when 
he stept forth aa the champion of infant- baptism, in oppo- 
siiion to Dr. John Gale, the ablest writer of his time on the 
baptist side. Mi*. Wall published his <* History of Lifant 
Baptism"' in 1707; and Dr^ Gale, in 171 1, published <*Re- 
flections" on it (See Gale.) In 1749, a friendly conference 
was held on the subject hetween him aud Mr. Wall, which 
eoded wi^h^ut aiiy ohaaga of opinion an eitbev side. Mr. 
W^ll, in the same year, publisibed his '^ Defence of the 
History of Infant Bkptbm,'* whixsb was accounted a per4> 
formaoce of such ability and ao decisive on the question, 
that tha uoiversity of Oxford, to mark their high opinioil 
of. the book, and of the talents of the author, conferred on 
bim the degree of D, D. in the fdlbwing year. After his 
death were published " Critical Notes on the Old Te&ta« 
inent, wberein the present Hebrew .te][t is explained,' and 
in many places amended, from the ancient versions, mora 
paFticuUrl^' from that of the LXX. To which is prefixed, 
a large introduction, adjusting the authority of the Maso<r 
reti^ Bible, and viniiicating it from the objections of Mr. 
Wbist/qn, and the author of the ' Grounds and Reasons 
of the Christian /Religion.^ By the late learned William 
Wall, D. D, author of the. "History of Infant Baptism,'*- 
J 733, ^voU, 8vQ. 

Dr. Wall stands confusedly at the head of those writers 
who have supported the practice of infant-baptism ; and 
bis antagonists Gale, Whiston, and the baptist hiistorian 
Crosby, all unite in praising his candour and piety. He 
wa^ vicar of Shoreham for the long space of fifty- two 
years. He. once had au offer of a living of 300/. a year, 
Ph^lsfii^ld, three miles from Shoreham, which his conscience 
would not allow him to aci^ept ; but he afterwards consented 
to take one of about one fifth the value, at twelve miles 
distance, that of Milton, near Gravesend. By an only 
daughter, Mrs. Catherine Waring, of Rochester, he had 
si;iteen grand-children. This lady communicated some 
anecdotes of her father, printed in Atterbury's Corre- 
spondence, by which it appears that he was a man of a face-* 
tious turn, and there are some of his letters to Atterbury 
in that correspondence. He was such a zealot for this pre- 

B 2 



4 WALLACE. 

late, that be would have lighted up all Whittlebury- forest^ 
in case of his recall, at bis own expence. ' 

WALLACE (Sir William), a celebrated warrior and pa- 
triot, was born, according to the account of bis poetical 
biographer Henry, or Blind Harry, in 127G. He was the 
younger son of sir Malcolm Wallace of EUerslie, near Pais- 
ley, in the shire of Renfrew, Scotland, and in his sixteenth 
year was sent to school at Dundee. In 1295, he was in- 
f^ulted by the son of Selby, an Englishman, constable of 
the port and castle of Dundee, and killed him ; on which 
he fled, and appears to have lived a roving and irregular 
life, often engaged in skirmishes with the English troops 
which then had invaded and kept Scotland under subjec- 
tion. For his adventures, until be became the subject of 
history, we must refer to Henry. Most of them appear 
fictitious, or at least are totally unsupported by any other 
evidence. Wallace, however, is represented by the Scotch 
historians as being about this time the model of a perfect 
hero ; superior to the rest of mankind in bodily stature,- 
strength, and activity ; in bearing cold and heat, thirst 
and hunger, watching and fatigue ; and no less extraordi^ 
nary in the qualities of his mind, being equally valiant and 
prudent, magnanimous and disinterested, undaunted in ad- 
versity, modest in prosperity, and animated by the most 
ardent and inextinguishable love of his country. Having 
his resentment against the English sharpened by the per- 
sonal affront abovementioned, and more by the losses his 
family h^^d sustained, he determined to rise in defence of 
his country, and being joined by many of bis countrymen, 
their first efforts were crowped with success; but the earl 
of Surrey, governor of Scotland, collecting an army of 
40,000 men, and entering Annandale, and marching tbrougli 
the South«west of Scotland, obliged all the barons of those 
parts to submit, and renew the oaths of fealty. Wallace, 
with his followers, uuable to encounter so great a force, 
retired northward, and was pursued by the governor and 
his army. 

When the English army reached Stirling tbey discovered 
the Scots encamped near the abbey of Cambuskeneth, on 
the opposite banks of the Forth. Cressingham, treasurer 
of Scotland, whose covetousness and tyranny had been 
one great cause of this revolt, earnestly pressed the earl of 

> Nickols*! Altetburjr — and Bowyer. —Crosby's Baptists. . 



W A L L ACE. 5 

Sttrrey to pass bis army over the bridge of Siirling, and 
attack the enemy. Wallace, who observed all their no- 
ttons, allowed as many of the English to pass as he thought 
he could defeat, when, rushing upon them U'ith an irresis* 
tible impetuosity, they were all either killed, drowned, or 
taken prisoners, in the heat, of the action, the bridge, 
which ivas only of wood, broke down, and many perished 
ID the river; and the earl of Surrey, with the other part 
of his army, were melancholy spectators of the destruction 
of their countrymen, without being able to afford them 
any assistance : and this severe check, which the English 
received on Sept. 11, 1297, obliged them to evacuate 
Scotland. Wallace, who after this great victory was sa- 
luted deliverer and guardian of the kingdom by bis fol- 
lowers, pursuing the tide of success, entered England with 
his army, recovered the town of Berwick, plundered the 
counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, and returned 
into bis own country loaded with spoils and glory, 

The news of these surprising events being carried to 
king Edward L who was then in Flanders, accelerated hi& 
return, and soon after he raised a vast army of 80,000 
foot and 7000 horse, which the Scots were now in no con^ 
dition to. resist. Their country, for several years, had been 
almost a continued scene of war, in which many of its in«- 
habitants had perished. Some of their nobles were in the 
EiTglish interest, some of them in prison ; and those fevv 
who had any power or inclination to defend the freedom 
of their country, were dispirited and divided. In parti-f 
cular, the ancient nobility began to view the power and 
popularity of William Wallace with a jealous eye : which 
was productive of very fatal consequences, and contribute4 
to the success of Edward in the battle of Falkirk, fought 
July 22, .1298, in which the Scots were defeated with great 
slaughter. 

We hear little of Wallace after this until 1303-4, when 
king Edward had made a complete conquest of Scotland, and, 
appointing John de Segrave governor of that kingdom, re- 
turned to England about the end of August. But Wallace, 
even after this, and although he had been excluded by 
the jealousy of the nobles from commanding the armies or 
influencing the councils of his country, still continued to 
assert her indepenjkncy, This, together with the remem- 
brance of many mischiefs which he had done to his English 
subjects, and perhaps some apprehension that he might 



€ W A L L A C E.: 

again rekindle tbe flames of war, made Edward employ va- 
rious means to get possession of his person ; and at length 
he was betrayed into his hands by sir John Monteith, hir 
friend, whom he had made acquainted with the place of his 
concealment. The king immediately ordered Wallace to 
be carried in chains to London': to be tried as a rebel 
and traitor^ though he had never made submission, or 
sworn fealty to England, and to be executed on Tower* * 
hilly which was accordingly done, Aug. 23, 1305. This, 
says Hume, was the unworthy fate of aliero, who, through 
a course of many years, had, with signal conduct, intrepi- 
dity, and perseverance, defended, against a public and op- 
pressive enemy, the liberties of his native country. * 

WALLAEUS. See WALMVS. 

WALLER (Edmund), an eminent English poet, was 
born Match 3, at Colshiil in Hertfordshire. His fatlier 
was Robert Waller, esq. of Agmondesham, in Bucking- 
hamshire, whose family was originally a branch of the 
Wallers of Spendhurst in Kent ; and his mother was the 
daughter of John Hampden, of Hampden in the same 
county, and sister to tbe celebrated patriot Hampden. His 
father died while he was yet an infant, but left him a yearly 
income of three thousand five hundred pounds ; which^ 
rating together the value of money and the customs of life, 
we may reckon more than equivalent to ten thousand at tbe 
present time. 

He was educated^, by the care of his mother, at Eton ; 
and removed afterwards to King's college in Cambridge: 
He was sent to parliament in his eighteenth, if not in his 
sixteenth year, and frequented the court of James the first* 
His political and poetical life began nearly together. Id 
his eighteenth year he wrote a poem that appears first in 
his works, on the prince's escape at St. Andero; apiece 
which shewed that he attained, by a felicity like instinct, 
a style which . perhaps will never be obsolete; and that, 
** were we to judge only by tbe wording, we could not 
know what was wrote at tvienty, and what at fourscore.'* 

* ** He had grammar learniag from Bigge, of Wickham, saf (who was 

the information of Mr. — — Dobson, his scboolefellow, and of the same 

nyiufister of Market Wickham, who forme) that hfs little thought then hfe 

tatu^ht a private schoole there, and vipold have been «o rare a ^ooii ho 

was (be told me) a g:ood schoolmaster, was wont to make bis exf^rcise for 

md bad been bred at Eaton coll. him.^' Aobrey, in *' Letters of £ml- 

fliohoole, 1 have heard .Mr. Tbo. kMmt -Persona," 18IS, 3 tuIs. Sve. 

1 He!iiryfs«ndHatiM'8'HiitorietY)f Ertgiimd, 



3k' 

^ 



WALLER. T 

Hii vei^tficatton was, in bis first essay, &aeh as it appear* 
in bis last performance. He had already formed such a* 
system of metrical harmony* as -be never afterwards mactv 
needed, or much endeavoured, to inoprove. 

Tbe next poem is supposed by Fenton to be the addresm 
'* To the Queen^ on her arrival ; but this is doobtfal^, and 
we have no date of any other poetical production before 
that which the murder of tlie duke of Buckingham occa-> 
stoned. Neither of these pieces that seem to carry their 
own dates could have been the sudden effusion €>f fancy. 
In tbe verses on the princess escape, the, predictioti of bis 
marriage with the princess of France must have been writ-, 
ten aftet* tbe event; in the other, tbe promises of the king^S 
kindness to the descendants of Buckiivgham, whicb could 
not be properly praised till it bad appeared by its effects^ 
shew that time was taken for revision and improvement. 
It is not known that they were published till they appeared 
long^ afterwards with other poems. 

Waller was not one of those idolaters of praise who cuU- 
tivate their minds at tbeexpence of iheir fortnifes. Hicb 
as he was by inheritance, he took care early to grow richer; 
by marrying Mrs. Banks, a great heiress in the city, wboitt 
the interest of the court was employed to obtain for Mr^ 
Crofts. Having brought him a son, who died young, and 
a daughter, who was afterwards married to Mr. Dormer 
of Oxfordshire, she died in childbed, and left him a wi^ 
dower of about five and twenty, gay and wealthy, to please 
Himself with another marriage. 

Being too young to resist beauty, and probably too vain 
to think himself resistible, he fixed bis heart, perhaps half 
fondly and half ambitiously, upon tbe lady Dorothea Sid-^ 
ney, eldest daughter of the earl of Leicester, whom h^ 
courted by all the poetry in which Sacharissa is celebrated ; 
and describes her as a sublime predominating beauty, of 
lofty charms, and imperious influence ; but sbe, it is said, 
rejected his addresses with disdain. She married, in 1639, 
the earl of Sunderland, wbo^died at Newbury in the royal 
cause; and, in her old age, meeting somewhere with WaU 
ier, asked bim, . when be would again write such verses 

^ *< Wben be wm a britke yooog etsay.' I have severall tinies. heard 

sparke, and Arst siudyed poetry, * Me- him say, that be cannot versify «heu 

thoaght,' taid he, ' t never uwe a he will ; but wheo tb* fitt cemev Upon 

l^ood copie off £ogliib versos: they btm, b« does it easily.'' Aubrey, a« 

^ant smootboesse: ih^a I began to before. 



*• WALLER. 

upon her; '^ When you are as young, madam,'' said be, " aiid 
as handsome, as you were then.'' In this part of his life ii^ 
viras that he was known to Clarendon, among the rest of the 
men who were eminent in that age for genius and literature^ 
From the verses written ^t Penshurst, it has been collected, 
that he diverted his rejection by Sacharissa by a voyage^) 
and his biographers, from his poem on the Whales, think i( 
not improbable that he visited the Bermudas; but it seem^ 
much more likely that he should amuse himself with form-!, 
ing an imaginary scene, than that so important an iucident, 
as a visit to America, should have been left floating in cop^ 
jectural probability. Aubrey gives us a report that some 
time between the age of twenty-three and thirty, *^ he 
grew mad,'' but did not remain long in this unhappy state; 
and be seems to think that the above disappointment might 
have been the cause. It is remarkable that Clarendon in* 
$inuates something of this kind as having happened to him, 
when taken up for the plot hereafter to be mentioned , . 
The historian's words are, " After Waller had, with incre- 
dible dissimulation, acted such a remorse of conscience, his 
trial was put off out of Christian compassion, till he might 
recover his understanding^ Neither of these perhaps is 
decisive as to the fact, but the coincidence is striking. 

From his twenty-eighth to his thirty-fifth year, he wrote 
his pieces on the reduction of Sallee ; on the reparation of 
St. Paul's; to the King on his navy ; the panegyric on the 
Queen mother ; the two poems to the earl of Northumber* 
land ; and perhaps others, of which the time cannot be di^^ 
covered. When he had lost all hopes of Sacharissa, he 
looked round him for an easier conque^^t, ^nd gained a lady 
of the family of Bresse, or Breaux. I'he time of bis mar- 
riage is npt exactly known. It has not been discovered 
that his wife was won by his poetry ; nor is any thing told 
of her, but that she brought him many children. He doubts.- 
less, says Johnson, praised some whon^ h^ would have been 
afraid to marry, and perhaps married one whom he would 
have been ashamed to praise. Many qualities contribute 
to domestic happiness, upon which poetry has no colours 
-to bestow ; and many airs and sallies may delight imagina- 
tion, which he who flatters them never can approve. There 
are charms made only for distant admiration. No spectacle 
is nobler than a bla^e. Of this wife, however, his biogra- 
phers have recorded that she gave him five sons and eight 
daughters, and Aubrey says that slie was beautiful and very 
pnident. 



WALLER, » 

During the long interval of parliament, he is represented; 
as living among those with whom it was mo^l honourable 
to converse, and enjoying an exuberant fortune with that 
independence of liberty of speech and conduct which 
wealth ought always to produce.. Being considered as the 
kinsman of Hampden, he was therefore supposed by the 
courtiers not to favour them ; and when the parliament was 
called in 1640, it appeared that his political character had 
not been mistaken. The king's demand of a supply pro- 
duced from him a speech full of complaints of national 
grievances, and very vehement ; but while the great posi- 
tion, that grievances ought to be redressed before supplies 
are granted, is agreeable enough to law and reason, Waller, 
if his biographer ma.y be credited, was not such an enemy 
to the king, ds' not to wish his distresses lightened ; for he 
relates, '* that tlie king sent particularly to Waller, to se- 
cond, his d^utand of some subsidies to pay off the army ; 
and sir Henry Vane objecting against first voting a supply, 
because the king would not accept unless it carifie up to 
his proportion, iVlr. Waller spoke earnestly to sic Thomas 
Jermyn, comptroller of the household, to save his master 
from the eflFects of so bold a falsity: * for,' he said, ' I am 
but a country gentleman, and cannot pretend to know the 
king's mind :' but sir Thomas durst not contradict the se^ 
cretary ; and his son, the earl of St. Alban's, afterwards 
told Mr. Waller, that his father's cowardice ruined the 
king." 

In the Long Parliament, which met Nov. 3, 1 640, Wal- 
ler represented Agmondesham the third time; and was 
considered by the discontented party as a man sufficiently 
trusty and acrimonious to be employed in managing the 
prosecution of Judge Crawley, for his opinion in favour of 
sbtp-money; and his speech shews that he did not disap« 
point their expectations. He was probably the more ar- 
dent, as bis uncle Hampden had been particularly engaged 
in the dispute, and, ;by a sentence which seems generally 
to be thought unconstitutional, particularly injured. He 
Wcis not however a bigot to his party, nor adopted all their 
opinions. When the great question, whether episcopacy 
ought to :be abolished, was debated, he spoke against the 
innovation with great coolness, reason, and firmnesj^; and it 
is to be UfTiented that he did not act with spirit and uoi-* 
formiCy, Widen the Commons began to set the royal auf 
thority at open defiance. Waller is said to have withdrawn 



to W A L L E R. 

from the House, and to have returned with the king^s per. 
itiissioQ ; andy when the king set up his standard, be s^nt 
him a thousand broad-pieces. He continued, however^ ti>> 
sit in parliament; but spoke/' says Clarendon, ^^with great 
sharpness and freedom, which, now there was no danger of 
being out-voted, was not restrained ; and therefore used as 
an argument against those who were gone upon pretence 
that they were not suffered to deliver their opinion freely 
in the House, which could not be believed, when all men 
knew what liberty Mr. Waller took, and spoke every day 
with impunity against the sense and proceedings of the 
House.'* 

Waller, as he continued to sit, was one of the commis- 
sioners nominated by parliament to treat with the king at 
Oxford : and when they were presented, the king said to 
him, *^ Though you are the last, you are not the lowest, 
Dor the least in my favour." Wbitlock, another of the 
commissioners, imputes this kind compliment to the king's 
knowledge of the plot, in which Waller appears afterwards 
to have been engaged against the parliament. Fenton, 
with equal probability, believes that this attempt to pro-s- 
mote the royal cause arose from his sensibility of the king's 
tenderness. Of Waller's conduct at Oxford we have no 
account. The attempt, just mentioned, known by the name 
of Waller's plot, was soon afterwards discovered. 

Waller had a brother-in-law, Tomkyns, who was clerk 
of the queen's council, and had great influence in the 
city. Waller and he, conversing with great confidence, 
told both their own secrets and those of their friends : and, 
surveying the wide extent of their conversation, imagined 
that they found in the majority of all ranks great disappro* 
bation of the violence of the Commons, and unwillingness 
to continue the war. They knew that many favoured the 
king, whose fear concealed their loyalty : and they imiBi<- 
gined that, if those who had these good intentions could 
be informed of their own strength, and enabled by inteU 
ligence to act together, they might overpower the fury of 
sedition, by refusing to comply with the ordinance. for the 
twentieth part, and the other taxes levied for the support 
of the rebel army, and by uniting great numbers in a pe<- 
tition for peace. They proceeded witji great caution. 
Three only met in one place, and no man was allowed to 
impart the plot to more than two others ; so that, if any 



WALLER. li 

should be suspected or seized, more than three could not 
be endangered. 

LordXonway joined in tlie design, and, Clarendon ima- 
gines, incidentally mingled, as he was a soldier, some mar- 
cial hopes or projects^ which however were only mentioned, 
the main design being to bring the loyal inbahitants to the 
knowledge of each other ; for which purpose there was to 
be Appointed one in every district, to distinguish the friends 
of the king, the adherents to the parliament, and the neu*- 
trals. How far they proceeded does not appear; the rei 
suit of their inquiry, as Pym declared, was, that within the 
walls, for- one that was for the royalists, there were three 
actainst them ; but that without the walls, for one that was 
ajraiiist them, there were five for them. Whether this was 
said from knowledge or guess, was perhaps never inquired. 

It is the opinion of Clarendon, that in Waller's plan no 
violence or sanguinary resistance Was comprised ; tlmt he 
intended only to abate the confidence of the rebels by puli- 
lic declarations, and to weaken their power by an oppo- 
sition, to new supplies. Thi«, in calmer times, and more 
than this, is done without fear; but such was the acrimony 
of the Commons, that no method of obstrticting them was 
safe. About the same time another design was formed by 
sir Nicholas Crispe, an opulent merchant in the city, who 
ga\^ and procured the king in his exigencies an hundred 
thousand pt>unds, and when he was driven from the royal 
exchange, raised a regiment and commanded it. His ob- 
ject appears to have been to raise a military force, but his 
design and Waller's appear to have been totally distinct. ^ 

The discovery of Waller's design is variously related. 
In ^* Clarendon's History" it is told, that a servant of Tom- 
kyns, lurking behind the hangings when his master was in 
conference with Waller, heard enough to qualify him fcrr 
an informer, and carried his intelligence to Pym. A ma- 
nuscript, quoted in the " Life of Waller," relates, that 
^' he was betrayed by his sister Price, and her Presbyterian 
chaplain Mr. Goode, who stole some of his papers ; and, 
if he bad not strangely dreamed the night before that his 
sister had betrayed hinf), and thereupon burnt the rest of 
his papers by the fite tiiat was in his chimney, he bad cer- 
tainly lost his life by it." The question cannot be de- 
cided. . It is not unresrsonable to believe that the men in 
power, receiving intelligence from the sister, would em- 
ploy the servant of Tomkyns to listen at the conference. 



12 W A L L E E. 

that th^y might avoid an act so offensive as ihat of de*- 
stroying the brother by the sister's testimony. 

The plot was published in the most terrific manner. On 
the 31st of May (1643), at a solemn fast, when they were, 
listening to the sermon, a messenger eatered the church, 
and communicated his errand to Pym, who whispered it to 
others that were placed near him, and then went with them 
out of the church, leaving the rest in solicitude and amaze- 
ment. Thfey immediately sent guards to proper places, 
and that night apprehended Tomkyns and Waller; having 
yet traced nothing but that letters had been intercepted^ 
from Ahich it appeared that the parliament and the city 
were soon to be delivered into the hands of the cavaliers. 
They perhaps yet knew little themselves, beyond some 
general and indistinct notice^. " But Waller," says Cla- 
rendon, "was so confounded with fear and apprehension, 
that he confessed whatever he had said, heard, thought, or 
seen; ail that he kn.ew of himself, and all that he suspected 
of others, without concealing any person of what degree or 
quality soever, or any discourse that he had ever, upon nuy 
occasion, entertained with them : what such and such la- 
dies of great honour, to whom, upon the credit of his wit 
and great reputation, he had been admitted, bad spoken 
to him in their chambers upon the proceedings in the 
Houses, and how they bad encouraged him to oppose them : 
what correspondence and intercourse they had with some 
ministers of state at Oxford, and how they had conr 
veyed all intelligence thither." He accused the earl of 
Portland and lord Conway as co-operating in the trans- 
action ; and testified that the earl of Northumberland had 
declared himself disposed in favour of any attempt that 
might check the violence of the parliament, and reconcile 
them to the king. 

Tomkyns was seized on the same night with Waller, and 
appears likewise to have partaken of his cowardice ; for he 
gave notice of Crispe^s having obtained from the king a 
commission of array, of which Clarendon never knew how 
it was discovered. Tomkyns had buried it in his garden, 
where, by his direction, it was dug up; and thus the rebels 
obtained, what Clarendon confesses them to have bad, the 
original copy. It can raise no wonder that, they formed 
one plot out of these two designs, however remote from 
each other, when they saw the same agent employed in 
both, and found the commission of array in the hands of 



W A L L £ It. 13 

him who was employed in collecting the opinions and af^ 
fections of his people. * 

. Of the plot, thus combined, they took care to make thd 
most. They sent Pym among the citizens, to tell them 
of their imiminent danger, and happy escape ; and inform 
them, that the design was, ^^to seize the lord mayor and 
all the committee of militia, and would not spare one of 
them." They drew up a vow and covenant, to be taken 
by every member of either House, by which he declared 
bis detestation of all conspiracies against the parliament^ 
and his resolution to detect and oppose them. They then 
appointed a day of thanksgiving for this wonderful de* 
lilrery; which shut out, says Clarendon, all doubts whether 
there bad been such a deliverance, and whether the plot 
was real or fictitious. 

On June 1 1, the earl of Portland and lord Conway were 
committed, one to the custody of the mayor, and the other 
of the sheriff: but their lands and goods were not seized. 
Waller, however, was still to immerse himself deeper in 
ignominy. The earl of Portland ami lord Conway denied 
the charge; and. there was no evidence against them but 
the confession of Waller, of which undoubtedly many would 
be inclined to question the veracity. With these doubts 
he^vas so much terrified, that he endeavoured to persuade 

* ** The plot," says May, ** was ance, and to des'roy all those. wbo> 

borrid, and could not possibly have should by authority of PariLament be 

be<fn put in esecation without great their opposers ; and by force of arms 

effusion of Mood, as niu3t needs ap* to resist all payment jmpo&ed by the 

pear by the particular branches of it, authority of both Houses for support 

which were confessed Apon the exa- of those armies employed in their de- 

Biinatiout of master Waller, master fence. " Many other particulars there 

Tonikins, master Challoner, master were," cpntiooes Mr. May, " ttfo te- 

Rassel, master Blinkhorne, master dious to relate at large; as what sig- 

White, and others the chief actors of nals should have been given to the 

it.*' That which appeared by the kiug's forces of horse to invade the 

Narrative declaration published by city; what colours for difference tbove 

autborifty of Parliament, wa& to this of the p!ot should wear to be known 

effect ; that 1. They should seize in- to their fellows, and such like. Much 

to their custody the king's children, heartened they were in this business 

i. To seize upon several members of by a commission of array sent from 

Moth Houses of Parliament, upon the Oxford at that time from the king to 

lord mayor of London, aind the com> them, and brought secretly to Lon- 

mittee of the militia there, under pre- don by a lady, the lady Aubigny, 

tsnce of bringing them to legal trial, daughter to the earl of Suffolk, a wi- 

2. To seize upon ail the city's out- dow ever since the battle of KeyntoD* 

work's and fort$, upon the tower of where the lord Aubigny her husbaml 

Lsndon, and all the magazines, gates, was slain. That commission of amy 

and other places of importance in the. was directed fjrom the king to sir Ni« 

city. 4. To let in the king's forces, cholas Crispe, &c. &c." 
to surprise the city with their as»i»t- 



i4 W A t t E tt. 

Portland to a declaration like hi» onvu, by a letter wfaicb i^ 
extant in Fentoirs edition of his works; but tbi$ had very 
little effect : Portland sent (June 29) a letter to the Lords, 
to tell tbeiDy that he ^^ is in custody, as be conceives, with"« 
out any charge; and that, by what Mr. Waller bad threat*^ 
foed him with since he was inriprisoned, be dotb appre-* 
bend 3- very cruel, long, and ruinous restraint: be there«i 
(ore prays, that be may not find the effects of Mr. Waller's 
threats, a long and close imprisonment ; but may be speedily 
brought to a legal trial, and then be is confident the vanity 
9lid falsehood of those informations whieb have been giveik 
against bim will appear.'* 

In consequence of this letter, the Lords ordered PorU 
land and Waller to be confronted ; when the one repeated 
his charge, and the other his denial. The examination of 
the plot being continued (July 1») Thinn, usber *of the 
Hpqse of Lords, deposed, that Mf« Waller having bad « 
conference with the lord Portland in an upper room, lord 
. Portland said, when he catna down, ^^ Do me the favour 
lo tell my lord NortbumberUnd, that Mr. Waller has exr*. 
tremely pre$sed me to save my own life and bis, by throw-* 
ipg the blame upon the lord Conway and the earl of Nor- 
thi^mberland." Waller, in bis letter to Portland, tells him 
of the reasons which be could urge with resistless efficacy, 
in a personal conference ; but be overrated bis own ora- 
tory ; bis vehemence, whether of persuasion or intreaty,. 
was returned with contempt. One of his arguments witli. 
Portland is, that the plot is already known to a woman. 
This woman was doubtless lady Aubigny, who, upon this 
occasion, was committed to custody ; but who, in reality, 
wheti she delivered the commission of array, knew not 
what it was. The parliament then proceeded against tbe 
conspirators, and Tomkyns^and Chaloner were hanged. 
The earl of Northumberland, being, too great for prosecu- 
tion, was only once examined before the Lords. Ttie earl 
of Portland and lord Conway, persisting to deny tbe 
charge, and no testimony but Waller^s yet appearing against 
them, were, after a long imprisonment, admitted to bail. 
Hassel, tbe king's messenger, who carried the letters to 
Oxford, died the night before bis trial. Hampden escaped , 

* Waller*! ittflaence at this time feelings mu&t have been strangely 

nnst have been very low, when it blunted, if he was not sensible of the 

fenred just to save his own life, but meanness of bis own escape, and the 

not that of his sister's husband i or his disgrace now inflicted on his family* ' 



WALLER. IS 

dealby perhaps by the interest of hts familyi bitt waA 
kept in prbon to the end of his life. They whose naihea 
were inserted In the commission of array were not ca-* 
pitally punished, as it could not be proved that they b^d 
consented to their own nomination : but they were consi*' 
dered as maligoants, and their estates were seized. 

" Waller,'* says Clarendon, whom we have alreadjT 
quoted on this point, ^'though confessedly the most guilty^ 
with incredible dissimulation, affected such a remorse of 
conscience, that bis trial was put oflP, out of Christian com** 
passion^ till he might recover his understanding.'* What 
use be made of this interval, with what liberalit}^ and 
$uccess be distributed flattery aud money, and how, when 
be was brought (July 4) before the House, he confessed 
and lamented^ aud submitted and implored, may be read 
in the History of the Rebellion (B. vii.). The speech, to 
which Clarendon ascribes the preservation of his dear^ 
bought Jife^ is inserted in his works. The great historian^ 
however, seems to have been misUken in relating that be 
prevailed in the principal part of his supplication, not to 
be tried by a council of war; for, according to Whitlock, 
he was by expulsion from the House abandoned tp the tri-* 
bunal which he so much dreaded, and, being tried and coct-* 
demued, was reprieved by Essex ; but after a year's im-* 
pfisonmeot, in which tinue resentment grew less acrimo-» 
nious, piiying a fiue of ten thousand pounds, be was per<» 
mitted to recollect himself in another country. Of his be^ 
haviour in this part of bis life, Johnson justly says, it is not 
necessary to direct the reader's opinion. 

For the place of his exile he chose France, and stayed 
some time at Roan, where his daughter Margaret was borfiy 
who was afterwards bis lavourite, and his an^anuensis. He 
then removed to Paris, where be lived with great splen* 
dour and hospitality; and from time to time amused him* 
aelf with poetry, in which he sometimes speaks of the re« 
bels, and th^ir usurpation, in the*' natural language of an 
honest man. At last it became necessary for his support, 
to sell his wife^s jewels, and being thus reduced, he soli- 
cited from Cromwell permission to return, and obtained it 
linp the interest of colonel Scroop, to whom his sister wa> 
married. Upon the reqaains of bif fortune he lived at 
Jilallb^tfO, a house built by himself, very near to Beacons- 
-field, where his mother resided. His mother, though 



1^ W A L L t % 

related to Cromwell * and Hampden, was zealous for the 
royal cause, and when Cromwell visited her used to re- 
proach him ; he, in return, would throw a napkin at her, 
and say he would not dispute with his aunt ; but finding in 
time that she acted for the kin<r as well as talked, he made 
her a prisoner to her own daughter, in her own house. 
This daughter was Mrs. Price, who is said to have betrayed 
her brother* 

Cromwell, now protector, received Waller, as his kins- 
man, to familiar conversation. Waller, as he used to re- 
' hite, found him sufficiently versed in ancient history ; and 
when any of his enthusiastic friends came to advise or con- 
sult him, could sometimes overhear him discoursing in the 
cant of the times ; but, when he returned, he would say, 
** Cousin Waller, I must talk to these men in their own 
way," and resumed the common style of conversation. Hef 
repaid the Protector for his favours, in 1654-, by the famous 
panegyric, which has been always considered as the first 
of his poetical productions. His choice ^ of encomiastic 
topics is very judicious ; for he considers Cromwell in his 
exaltation, without inquiring how he attained it; there' is 
consequently, saj-s Johnson, no mention of the rebel or 
the regicide. All the former part of his hero's life is veiled 
with shades; and nothing is brought to view but the chief, 
the governor, the defender of England's honour, and the 
enlarger of her dominion. The act of violence by which 
be obtained the supreme power is lightly treated, and de- 
cently justified. In the poem on the war with Spain are 
some passages at least equal to the best parts of the paiie- 
gyrick ; and, in the conclusion, the poet ventures yet a 
bigher flight of flattery, by recommending royalty to Crom- 
well and the natiou. Cromwell was very desirous, as ap- 
pears from his conversation, related by Whitlock, of add- 
ing the title to tbe power of monarchy, and is supposed to 
have been withheld fronj it partly by fear of the army, and 
partly by fear of the laws, which, when he should govern 
by the name of king, virould have restrained his authority. 
The poem on the death of the Protector seems to have been 

* This seems a mistake. What has of Cromwell. Yet Mr. Noble states 

^iven the to the notion that Waller that ihe palnut Hampden wa^ tirst coct- 

vas a reUtioD of Cromwell, was their sin boih to Cromwell and 'to Waller, 

always caUing cotaing a usual custom and Cromwell therefore iised to c*U 

at that time, where any family con- Waller's inotiier atinl, and WallOr-coM- 

nevions were, though the parties were sin, 
not actually allied,-— Noble's Memoirs 



I 

W A L L K R. i1 

difitated by real veneration for his memory^ for he had lit- 
tle to expect ; he had received nothing but bis pardon from 
Cromwell, and was not likely to ask any thing from those 
who should succeed him. 

Soon afterwards the restoration supplied him with anothei^ 
subject ; and he exerted his imagination, his elegance^ and 
bis melody, witb equal alacrity, for Charles II. It is not 
possible, says Johnson, to read without some contempt and 
indignation, poeais of the same author ascribing the high', 
est degree of power and piety to Charles I. then transferring^ 
the same power and piety to Oliver Cromwell ; now inviting, 
Oliver to take the^crown, and then congratulating Charles. 
II. on his recovered right. Neither Cromwell nor Charles 
could value hid testimony as the effect of conviction, or^ 
receive his praises, as effusions of reverence; they could, 
consider them but as the labour of invention, and the tri« 
bute of dependence. The " Congratulation," however, 
was considered as inferior in poetical merit to the Panegy- 
rick ; and it is report€^d, that, when the king told Waller 
of the disparity, he answered, *^ Poets, sir, succeed bettei^ 
in fiction than in truth." The Congratulation is; indeed, 
not inferior to the Panegyrick, either by decay of genius^ 
or for want of diligence ;^ut because Cromwell had done 
much, and Charles had done little. Cromwell wanted ao« 
thing to raise him to heroic excellence but virtue; and 
virtue his poet thought himself at liberty to supply. Charles 
had yet only the merit of struggling without success, and 
suffering without despair. A life of escapes and indigence 
could supply poetry witb no splendid images. 

In the &rst parliament summoned by Charles the Second 
(March S, 1661), Waller sat for Hastings in Sussex, and 
served for different places in all the parliaments in that 
reign. In a time when fancy and gaiety were the most 
powerful recommendations to regard, it is not likely that 
Waller was forgotten. He passed his time in the company 
that was highest, both in rank and wit, from which even 
his obMinate sobriety did not exclude him. Though he 
drank water*, he was enabled by his fertility of mind to 
heighten the mirth of Bacchanalian assemblies ; and Mr. 
Saville said, that ^' no man in England should keep him 

* Aubrey sayt* " He has but a ten- at tbe water- stayres, be fell dowse, anft 

d«r weake body, but wa^s always very had a cruel fall.' 'Twas. pity to use 

temperate- — -— -— ~ made him dam- such a sweet swas 90 inhumanly «'> 
nabledruoke at Somerset House, where; 

Vol. XXXI. C 



IS WALLER. 

cooipatiy >9irith6ut drinkrng bat Ned Waller.*' The pmbe 
given him by St. Evreoiond is a proof of hh reputation ; for 
it was only by his reputation that be coirid be kntiwn, as a 
writer, to a man who, though he lived a great part of m 
tbng life upon an English pension, never condescended to 
understand the language of the ntttion that maintained bim» 
In parlian^nt, Burnet says, Waller •^ was the delight of 
the bouse, and though 6ld, said the liveliest things of any 
among them**' His name aa a speaker often occurs ii% 
6rey*» " Debates," but Dr. iotnson, who examined them, 
says be found no extracts tlvat could be more ijuoted a» 
eithibtting sallies of gaiety than cogency of argument. He 
was, however, of Bucb consideration, that bis remarks were 
citcolated and recorded ^ nor did he suffer his reputation 
to die gradually away, which nMgi)t easily hiappen in a 
k^g life ;. but renewed .his claim to poetical distinction, as- 
occasions wcte offered, either by public events, or private 
Incidents; aiKl contenting himself with the influence of hi» 
ikiuse, or loving quiet better than, influence, be never ac<» 
cepted any office of magistracy. He was not, however,, 
without some attention to his fortune ; for be asked from the 
king (in 1665) the provostship of Eton college, and ob^ 
tained it ; but Clarendon refused to put the seal to the 
grant, alleging that it could be held only by/a clergy man» 
It is known that sir Henry Wotton qualified himself for it 
by deacon^s orders. 

To this opposition, the author of bis life in the <' Bio* 
grapbia Britannica'* imputes the violence and. acrimony, 
with which Waller joined Bucklngham't faction in the pro-, 
aecution of Glarendonw If this be true, the oiotive was 
illiberal and dtshoirest, and shewed that more than sixty 
years bad not been able to teach him morality. His accu^ 
aation of Clareiulon is such as conscience can hardly be 
supposed to dictate without the help of malice. ** We 
were to be governed by janizsaries instead of parliaments, 
and are in danger from a worse plot than that of the fifth 9^ 
^^fovember ; then, tf the lords and commons had been de"* 
stroyed, there bad been a succession ;. 1>ut here both had 
Veen destroyed for ever.** Vhh h the language of a vmn^ 
"who is glad of an opportunity to rail, and ready to sacrifioe 
'truth to interest at oue tira^, and to anger at another. 

▲ year after the chancellor*a banishoaent, ^notber ¥a* 
caucy gave him encouragement for anotberpetitton ibrlbe 
provostsbip of £ton^. which the king referred to the coundl^ 



WALLER. 19 

Wboy 9^Jt(er bearing th^e question argued by lavtryers for ti^xtp 
dayS| determined that the ofiice could qp held only by a 
clergyman, according to the act of uniforipity, since thp 
prQvosts bad always received institution as for a parsonage 
from the bishops of Lincoln. The king then said^ be couJl(l 
not break the la^v which he had made ; and another (Dr* 
Cradocjc) was chosen. It is not known whether be asl^e^ 
any thing more, but he continued obsequious to. the court , 
through the rest of Charles's reign. 

At the accession of king James, in 1685, be was, ip bi^ 
eightietl^ year, chosen member for Saltash, in Cornwall, , 
and wrote a '' Presage of the downfall of the Turkish {Em- 
pire,*' which he presented to the king on his birth-day. 
Jamea treated him with kindness and familiarity, of whicli 
instances are given by Fenton. One day, taking him int9 
his closet, the king asked him how be liked one of the 
pictures : " My eyes," said Waller, " are diip, and I do 
not know it.*^ The king said it was the princess of Grange. 
" She IS," said Waller, ** like the jgreatest woman in the 
.world." The .ki^^g asked who that was, and was answered^ 
— q^een £li;zabeth. " I wonder," said the ting, "you ahould 
ihinjf. so ; but, I must confess, she had a wise couneil." * 
" And,' sir," said Waller, " did you ever know a fool cl^ise 
jk wiae one ?" When the king knew that he v^as about tp 
jparry his daughter to Dr. Birch, a clergyman, he or/jlere4 
a French gentleuau to tell him that " the king wondered b^ 
could thin,k of marrying his daughter to a falling church." 
" The king," said Waller, " do^ me great bono.ur, in li- 
king notice of my domestic affairs ; but I have lived long 
enough to observe that thi$ falling church has gpt a trick 
of rising ajgain." He took notice to his friends of the 
);ing*s conduct ; ;^nd said that " he would be left like a 
ivhale upon tf^e strand." Whether he was privy to >ny of 
the transactions which ended in the reyoiution, i^ not 
known. His heir joined the prince of Orange. 

Having now attained an age beyond which the laws of 
nature seldom suffer life to be extended, otherwise than 
by a futqre state, be seems to have turned his mind upon 
preparation for the decisive hour, and therefore cahse- 
crated bis poetry to devotion. It is pleasing to discover 
that his piety was without weakness ; that his intellectual 
powers cpntinued vigorous ; and that the lines which he 
ccupapoaed when he, for age, could neither re^d nor write, 
are net inferior to the effusions of his youth. Towards the 

C 2 



20 W A L L E R. 

decline of lif e, he bought a small house, with a little hmd^ ^ 
at Coleshill ; aod said, *^ be should be glad to die, like the 
stag, where he was roused." This, however, did not hap- 
pen. When he was at Beaconsfield he found his leg» 
swelled, and went to Windsor, where sir Charles Scar« 
borough then attended the king, requesting him, as both 
a friend and a physician, to tell him what that swelling 
meant. ** Sir,*' answered Scarborough, **^ your blood will 
run no longer.'* Waller repeated some lines of Virgil, and 
went home to die. 

As the disease increased upon him, he composed himself 
for bis departure ; and calling upon Dr. Bircb to give him 
the'boly sacrament, he desired his children to take it witb 
him, and made an earnest declaration of his faith in Chris^ 
tianity. ^ It now appeared what part of his conversation 
with the great could be remembered with delight. He 
related, that being present when the duke of Buckingham' 
talked profanely before king Charles, he said to him^ 
** My Lord, I am a great deal older than your Grace, an(l 
have, I believe, heard more arguments for Atheism than- 
ever your Grace did ;, but I have lived long enough to see 
there is nothing in them ; and so I hope your Grace will.^ 

He died' October 21,. 1687, and was buried at Beacons* 
field, with a monument erected by his son^s executors, for 
which Rymer wrote the inscriptions on four sides. He left 
several children by his second wife ; of whom, his daugh- 
ter was married to Dr. Birch. Benjamin, the eldest son,, 
was disinherited, and sent to New Jersey as wanting com- 
mon understanding. Edmund, the second son, inherited 
the estate, and represented Agmondesham in parliament,^ 
but at last turned Quaker. William, the third son, was a 
merchant in London. Stephen, the fourth, educated at 
New eoltege, Oxford, was an able civilian, 'and died Feb. 
22f 1707, while the articles for the union of the British 
kingdoms, which he had ^contributed to frame and improve,, 
were under parliamentary consideration. There is said to 
have been- a fifth, but we have no account of him. Wa{«> 
ler's descendants still reside at Beaconsfield, in die greatest 
affluence. 

^ The character of Waller, both mora!* and intellectual, 
has been drawn by Clarendon, to whom he was familiarly 
ktidwn, with nicety, which certtsiinly none to whom' he was 
-not known can presume to emulate. " Edmund Waller,**^ 
says that excellent . historian, ^^ was born to a vefy ftfr 



WALLER. 21 

estate, by the parsimony or frugality of a wise father and 
mother ; and he thought it so commendable an advantage, 
that he resolved to improve it with the utmost care, upon 
which in his n^ature he was too much intent ; and, in order 
to that, he was so much reserved and retired, that he was 
scarcely ever heard of till by his address and dexterity he 
bad gotten a very rich wife in the city, against all the re- 
commendation, and countenance, and authority, of the 
court, which was thoroughly engaged on the behaif of Mr. 
Crofts; and which used to be successful in that age against 
any opposition. He bad the good fortune to have an alii- 
aiii^ce and friendship with Dr. Moriey, who had assisted and 
instructed him in the reading many good books, to which 
his natural parts and promptitude inclined him, especially 
the poets; and, at the age when other men used to give 
over writing verses (for he was near thirty years of age 
when he first engaged himself in that exercise, at least 
. that he was known to do so), he surprized the town with 
two or three pieces of that kind ; as if a tenth Muse bad 
been newly born to cherish drooping poetry. The doctor 
•at that time brought him into that company which was 
most celebrated for good conversation ; where he was re- 
ceived and esteemed with great applause and, respect. 
He was a very pleasant discoqrser, in earnest and in jest ; 
and therefore very grateful to all kind of company, where 
he was not the less esteemed for being very rich. He bad 
been even nnrsed in parliaments, where he sat when he 
was very joung; and so, when they were resumed again 
Rafter a long intermission), he appeared in those assemblies 
with great advantage; having a graceful way of speaking, 
^nd by thinking much upon several arguments (which his 
temper and complection, that had much of melancholic, 
inclined him to) he seemed often to speak upon the sud- 
den, when the occasion had only administered the oppor- 
. tunity of saying what he had thoroughly considered, which 
gave a great liistre to all he said, which yet was rather of 
delight than weight. There needs no more be said to ex- 
tol the excellence and power of his wit, and pleasantness 
of his conversation, than that it was of magtitude enough 
to cover a world of very great faults ; that is, so to coyer 
them that they were not taken notice of to his reproach ; 
viz. a narrowness in his nature to the lowest degree; an 
abjectness and want of courage to support him in any vir- 
ituous'undertaking; an insinuating, and seryile flattery, to 



?♦ 



WALLER. 



Of his course of studies, or choice of books, Dotfaing 
$s known more than that be professed himself unable to 
read Chapman's translation of Homer without rapture. 
His opinion concerning the duty of a poet is contained in 
his declaration, that ^^ he would blot from his works any 
line, that did not contain some motive to virtue." For his 
merit as a poet, we may refer with confidence to Johnson, 
whose life of Waller we have generally followed in the 
prieceding sketch, and on which he appears to have be- 
stowed inore than usual pains, and is in his facts more than 
iisually accurate. English versification, it is universally 
allowed, is greatly indebted to Waller, and he is pvery 
where elegant and gay. To his contemporaries he must 
have appeared more rich in invention, than moderti critics 
^re disposed to allow, because, as Johnson observes, they 
have found his novelties in later books, and do not know 
or inquire who producedthem first. Dr. Warton thinks it 
rcfmarkable that Waller nieyer mentions Milton, whose Go- 
in'uS, and smaller poems, preceded his own ; and he acr 
founts for this by Milton's poetry being unsuitable to the 
French taste on which Waller was formed *. 

From Aubrey, quoted in the preceding notes, we may 



. f Somp light is thro7D on this sai^- 
ject by bishop Atterbury, who was the 
<»ditor of the edition of Waller's Poems 
pcinted in 1690, and speaks thns in 
the preface : 

" Waller commends no poet of his 
iiffles that was in any degree a rival 
p> biqi, neither Oenham^ uor Cowley, 
nor Dryden, nor Fairfax himself, to 
whose Teriification be owes so much, 
«iid- dpon whose turn of retse he 
founded bis own. Sir John Suckling 
lie writes against, and seems pleased 
in exposing the mapjr falsa thoughts 
there are in his copy of verses '* Ag^ainst 
IPruilion ;" and, besides, he well knew 
the advahtage be bad of sir John ; par- 
ticalariy in that sort of rerse and man- 
ner of. writing. He has copies in praise 
of the translator of Gratius, Mr. Wase 
f I think),' sir William Da? enant. Mr. 
JSaodysy and Mr. Evelyn : he knew 
their reputation would not hurt his own. 
!Ben Jonson and Fletcher he commends 
in good oirnest ; their dramatic irorks 
gave him no pain ; that sort of writing 
he never pretended to. Denham's high 
compliment to Waller in hit ** Cooper's 
Hill" deserved lome return* 



f Mr. Waller has praiyed Chaucer^ 
and borrowed a 6ne allusion to prince 
Arthur's Shield, aud the name of Glo- 
riana, from Sponsor ; but fie was not 
piuch conversant in or beholding to 
either. Milton's Poem came not forth 
till Mr: Waller was above sixty years 
old, aud, as I suppose, be had no ta&te 
for. his manner oV w/iting. 

" There are but few things io Waller 
that shew \kl^ acqoaiotance with the 
Latin; fewer still that would make one 
think him acquainted with the Greek 
poets. Somewhat of the My^iology 
he knew; but that might be no deeper 
than Ovid's Metamorphoses. Some 
allusions to several parts of the £neid, , 
the story qf it 1 m«an» for as U» t(|e 
language he has copied little of it. 
Had he been a perfect master of Vir- 
gil, his Latin phnse would have crept 
every where into Waljer's English; af 
we see it does in Drydeo's writings 
(who yet was far from being a perfect 
master of him). As for his cloudHCOft^" 
peliinst and two or three more, com* 
pouoa words, I belifve he wen^ not tq 
the original for them, but. to sooi^ 
translation, perhaps CbapmaA's.*' 



WALLER. is 

■elect a few more particulars of Waller. Speaking pf hb 
plot, he says, << He bad much ado then to. save his life; 
aftd in order to it, sold his estate, in Bedfordshire, about 
IZOOLperarm. to Dr. Wright, M. D. for 10,000/. (much 
under yalue) which was procured in twenty-fours time^ or 
else he had been hanged. With this money he bribed the 
House, which was the first time a House of Commons was 
ever bribedV « His intellectuals are very good yet (1680), 
but be growes feeble. He is somewhat above a middle 
stature, thin body, not at all robust : fine thin skin, his 
face somewhat of an olioaster : his hayre frized, of a 
brownish colour ; full eie, popping out and workinge, ovall 
faced, his forehead high and full of wrinkles. H^s bead 
but small, braine very bott, and apt to be cbolerJque. 
Suanio doctius^ eo iracundior. Cic. He is somewhat ma- 
gisterial!, and bath received a great mastership of the Eng- 
lish language. He is of admirable elocution, and grace- 
ful, and exceeding ready.'* — " Notwithstanding his great 
witt and maisteresse in rheiorique, &c. he will oftentimes 
be guilty of mispelling in English. He writes a lamenta- 
ble hand, as bad as the scratching of a hen.'" 

WALLEK (Sir William), an eminent parliamentary 
general, was born in 1597. He was descended, as well as 
the preceding poet, from the ancient family of the Wal- 
lers of Spendhurst, in the county of Kent; and received 
at Magdalen-ball and Hart-hall, Oxford, his first educa- 
tion, which he afterwards completed at Paris. He began 
his military career in the service of the confederate princes 
against the emperor, in which be acquired the reputation 
of a good soldier, and upon his return home, was distin- 
guished with the honour of knighthood. He was three 
tinies married ; first to Jane, daughter and heiress of sir 
Hiehard Reynell, of Ford in Devonshire, by whom he had 
one daughter, Margaret, married to sir William Courtenay 
of Powderham castle, ancestor of the present lord viscount 
Courtenay ; secondly, to the lady Anne Finch, daughter 
of the first earl of Winchelsea, by whom he had one son, 
William, who was afterwards an active magistrate for the 
county of Middlesex, and a strenuous opposer of all the 
measures of king Charles the Second's government ; and 

. 1 Fentoa's Life.— Johnson^s Poets.— Biog. Brit— ^Letters by Eminent Per- 
sons.— Buraet*s own Times.— -Clarendon's Life and Hi8tory;--->NobIe's Mempir^ 
pf Crooivfen, tol. IL p. 66. 



S« WALLER. 

CNie daughter, Anne, married to sir Philip HarcoUrt, fr6ni 
yvbcva is descended the present earl of that naEne. Of tbo 
family of ^ Wiliiam^s third wife, we are not informed. 

Sir Willialti Waller w.as elected a member of the long 
parliament for Andover; and having suffered under the 
•everity of the »tar- chamber, on the occasion of a private 
quarrel with one of bis wife's relations, as well as imbibed 
in the course of his foreign service early and warm preju* 
dices in favour of the presby teriao discipline, be became a 
determined opponent of the court. While employed at . 
the head qf the parliamentary forces, under the earl of 
' Efsex, he was deputed to the command of the expedition 
Ugainst Portsmouth, when colonel Goring, returuing to his 
duty, declared a resolution of holding that garrison for bis 
majesty. In this enterprise, sir William co^iducted himself 
with such vigour and ability, that he reduced the garrison 
in a shorter time and upon better terms th^n could have 
been expected; and afterwards obtained the direction of 
•everal other expeditions, in which he likewise proved re* 
markably successful. After many signal advantages, how-» 
ever, h^ sustained some defeats by the king's forces, par* 
ticularly at [loundway Down near the Devizes, and at 
Cropready- bridge in Oxfordshire. On each of those occa* 
siotis, the blame was thrown by him on the jealousy of 
other officers; and neither the spirit nor the judgment of 
his own operations were ever questioned. The indepen- 
dents, who were becoming the strongest party, both in 
$hd army and the parliament, had wisiied him to become 
iheir general, on terms which, either from conscience or 
military honour, be could not comply with. By the fa- 
mous self-denying ordinance be was removed from bis 
command, but still maintained so great an influence and> 
Imputation in the army, as rendered him not a little for- 
midable to the rising party ; and he was thenceforth con- 
aidered as a leader of the presbyterians against the designs 
pf the independents. He was one of the eleven members 
impeached of high treason by the army: This forced him to 
withdraw for some time ; but he afterwards resumed his 
seat in parliament, until, in 1648, with fifty others, he 
was expelled by the army, * and ail of them committed to 
different prisons, on suspicion of attachment to the royal 
cause. He was afterwards committed to custody on suspi- 
cion of being engaged in sir George Booth's insurrection, 
in Aug. 1658, but in November was released upon bail. 






WALLER. 17 

In Feb. 1659 he was nominated one of the council Of ttal^^ 
and was elected one of the representatives of Middlete^i^, in 
the parlislment f^hich began April 25, 1660. He died at 
Osterley-pafk in Middlesex, Sept. Id, (668, and was bu# 
tied in the chapel in TotMIUstreet, WettminMer. Mr« 
Seward very erroneously says be was buried in the Ab« 
bey-church at Batb. It ii^ his first wife who was bnrtcd 
there, but there is a monumental statue of sir William^ at 
well as of the lady, which perhaps oceastoned the mistake. 
There is a tradition that when James II. visited the Abbey^ 
be defaced the hose of sir William upon this monoment^ 
which Mr. Warner in his ** History of Bath'' allows to be 
defaced, but Mr. Seward asserts that ** there appear at 
present no traces of any disfigurement.*' Of a cii^cam* 
stance ^o easily ascertained, it is singular there should be 
two opiniofis. Anthony Wood gives, as the literary pet*? 
fortiiances of sir William Waller, sOme of his letters- and 
dispatches respecting his victories, but the only article 
wjbidh seems to belong to that class is his '^ Divine tnedita** 
tions upon several occasions ; with a daily directory,'' Lond. 
1680, 8vo. These were written during his retirement, and 
give a Very faithful picture of his honest sentiments, and 
of his frailties and failings. Wood also mentions his ** Vin^ 
dication for taking up arms against the king," left behind 
in manuscript, in which state it remained until I793| 
when it was published under the title of ** Vindication of 
the Character and Conduct of sir William Waller, knight ^ 
comtnattder in chief of the parliament forces in the West: 
explanatory of his conduct in taking up arms against king 
Charles I. Written by himself. - And now first published 
from the original manuscript. With an introduction bv the 
editor," 8vo. The MS. came from one of the noble lamir 
lies descended fr6m him. It appears to be written with 
great sincerity, as well as precision, and contains many in- 
teresting particulars, relative to the democratical partiei^ 
which struggled for superiority after the king had faileo 
• into their power. The style seems to bear a stronger re- 
sletnblance to that of the age of James the First, or his im*- 
mediate predecessor, than to the mode of composition 
generally practised in England about the middle of the last 
century. If any thing can confirm the declaration that sit 
William was actuated solely by disinterested motives^ it is 
the veneration which he professeii to entertain for the Con^ 
Atitation of \n% eoijlitr^r, He avov^ himself z sincere Mpx^i 



28 WALLER. 

to the British form of government, consisting of king, lords; 
and commons ; and it Appears, that, from the beginnings 
hi» imputed apostacy from the cause of public freedom^ or. 
rather of democratical tyranny, ought justly to be ascribed 
to the cabals of the republican leaders, and not to any 
actual change whicbhad ever taken place in his own senti- 
ments. The volume, indeed, is not only valuable as aa 
ingenuous and explicit vindication, but as a composition 
abounding with shrewd observations, and rendered inte- 
resting by the singular manner, as well as the information 
of the author, who seems to have been no less a man of 
vivacity and good sense, than of virtue and learning. ' ' 
. WALLIS (John), an eminent English mathematician, 
was born Nov. 2S, 1616, at Ashford in Kent, of which 
place bis father of the same names was then minister *, but 
did not survive the birth of this his eldest son above six 
years. He was now left to the care of his mother, who 
purchased a house at Ashford for the sake of the education 
of her children, and placed him at school there, until the 
plague, which broke out in 1625, obliged her to remove 
him to Ley Green, in the parish of Tenterden, under the 
-tuition of one James Movat or Mouat, a native of Scot- 
land, who instructed him in grammar. Mr. Movat, says 
Dr. Wallis, ^' was a very good schoolmaster, and his schp* 

* Mr. Wallii was son of Robert and aod other occasional sermoos, and his 
Elien Wallis of Thingdon (or, as it is catechisioj^ and otherwise instroctiog 
usnally pronounced, Fyeoden) in the the yoanger sort, be did, with some of 
-•ounty of Northampton, and was born the oiost eminent neighbouring minis^ 
there in January 1587, and baptized ters, maintain a week-day. lecture. On 
the 1 8th of that month. He was edu- Saturday, their market-day ; which was 
cnted in Trinity college in Cambridge, much frequented, beside p numerous 
where he took the degrees of B. A* ,and auditory of others, by very many of 
M. A. and about the same iime en- the neighbour-ministers, the justices 
tered into holy orders, in the reign of the peace, and others of the gentry ; 
of queen Blizabeth.. Toward the end who after sermon did ase to dine at an 
of that queen*s reign he was made mi- ordinary, and there confer, as there 
sister of 'Ashford, a market-town in was occasion, about such affairs at 
Kent, where he continued the re- might concern the welfare and good 
mainder of his life in great esteem and government of that town and the parts 
reputation, not only in that town and adjacent, wherein tbey were respec* 
parish, but with the clergy, gentry, tiveiy concerned.*' He died at Ash- 
.and nobility, round about. " He was,*' ford November 30, and was buried ]>e- 
says T>r, Wallis, " a pious, prudent, cember 3, 1622. By bis wife Joanna, 
learned, and orthodox divine, an emi- daughter of Henry and Sarah Chap- 
vent and diligent preacher; and with man of Godmersham in Kent, t^e had 
his prudent carriage kept that great three sons : John, the eldest, the sub- 
town in very good order, and promoted ject of this article, Henry and Wil- 
piety to a great degree. Reside bit liam ; and two daughters, Sarah and 
jpreachiog twice on t^e Lord's Day, ** Elien. 

] Atik Oi. vol. U.*Viodication of Sir W. WaUer.— Critical Review, 1793, 



W A L L I S. 39 

lar I continued for divers years, and was by him wdl 
grounded in the technical part of grammar, so as to under- 
stand the rules and the grounds and reasons of such ruie^, 
with the use of them in such authors, as are usually read 
in grapnmar- schools : for it, was always my affectation even 
from a child, in all parts of learning or knowledge, not 
merely to learn by rote, which is soon forgotten, but to 
know the grounds or reasons of what 1 learn, to inform my 
judgment as well as furnish my memory, and thereby make 
a better impression on both.^' In 1630 he lost this iff- 
structor, who was engaged to attend two young gentlemen 
on their travels, and would gladly have taken his pupil 
Wallis with them; but his mother not consenting on accourtt 
of his youth, he was sent to Felsted school in Essex, of 
which the learned' Mr. Martin Holbeach was then master. 
During the Christmas holidays in 1631, he went home to 
his mother at Ashford, where finding that one of his bro- 
thers had been learning to cypher, he was inquisitive to 
know what that meant, and. applying diligently was ena^ 
bled to go through all the rules with success, and prose- 
cuted this study at spare hours on his return to Felsted, 
where also be was instructed in the Latin, Greek, and He- 
brew tongues, and in the rudiments of logic, music, and 
the French language. 

In 1632 he was sent to Cambridge, and admitted of 
Emanuel college, under the tuition first of Mr. Anthony 
B\irgess, iafterwards rector of Sutton Colfield ; next of 
Thomas Horton, afterwards master of Queen's college, and 
lastly of the celebrated Benjamin Whichcot. It is not im- 
probable that he had his divinity from the first two, and 
somewhat of his style from the last of these tutors. At his 
first entrance upon academical studies, he was reconciled 
to having staid a year or two longer at school than appeared 
necessary, or than he liked, since he found that owing to 
the knowledge he had accumulated, in that time, he was' 
now able to keep pace with those who were some years his 
seniors. ** I found," he says, " that beside the improve- 
ment of what skill I had in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew lan- 
guages (which I pursued with diligence) and other philo- 
logic studies, my first business was to be the study of logic. 
In this I soon b^ame master of a syllogism, as to its struc- 
ture and the reason of its corisequences, however crypti- 
cally proposed, so as not easily to be imposed on by falla- 
cious oir false syllogisms, vriien I was to answer or defend^ 



90 W A L I. I )8. 

mni P9 mapnge an argum^t ^vitb good advaot^ge^ w)ieo I 
.wa$ tp argu^ c>r oppose; and to distinguish ambigluoMS 
mi)f4s or aeiueoces^ a9 there w^ occasion ; and was abte tp 
jbold pace wUb .those, who were some yearis my seniors. 
Mid had obtained the reputation of a good disputant'. Apd 
iadeed I had the good hap all along, both at school axid la 
,^$ university^ to be reputed (if not equal) not pinch in- 
Xerior to jtbose of the best of my rai^k. Frorp logic I pro- 
ceeded to ethics, physics, and nietapbysics (consulting th^e 
iv;hpolmeii on such points), according to the methods ^f 
philosophy, then i^^ fashion in that university. And I tppk 
into the sp^ulativje part of physic and anatomy, a;s p^rts 
of natural pbih^sophy ; and, as Dr. Glisson (then public 
professor pf physic in that Mpiyersity) hath since told me, I 
W9S the first pf his soos, who, in a public disputation, 
maintained the circulatioi) pf the blood, which w^s then a 
jBew doctrine, though I had no design of practising pby;sic* 
And I had th^n imbibed the principles of what they noyr 
jcall the new philosophy ; for I made no scruple of divert- 
ing from the common road of studies then in fashion to apjfr 
Eart pf useful learning ; presuming that iuiowledge is pp 
urthen ; and, if of any p^rt thereof I shQuld afterwards 
.have no occasion to make use, it would at least do me no 
hurt ; and what of it I might or might not have occasion 
.for, J could not then foresee. On the same account I di- 
veri^ed also to astronomy and geography, as parts of natural 
.philpsopby, and to other parts of mathematics ; though at 
that time they were scarce looked upon with us as aca<je- 
jyiical studies then in fashion. As to divinity, on which I 
bad an eye from the first, I had the happiness of a stript 
4nd religious education all along from a chi)d. Whereby 
I was not only preserved from vicious courses, and ac- 
qyiaintjed with religious exercises, but was early instructed 
in tbe principles of religion and catechetical divinity, anfl 
tb^ frequent reading of scripture and other good books, 
and diligent attendance on sermons : and whatever other 
atudiea I followed, I was careful not to neglect this: and 
jbecame timely acquainted with systematic and poleuiic di- 
vinity, and bad the repute of a good proficient therein.^' 
The length of this extract we trust will he excused, as it 
is but seldom we attain that interesting p^rt of biography, 
Jke progress of early stpdies. 

SocMi after his admittance into Epianuel college, be wa^ 
<sli08m of the foundatipn^ and adjuitted a scholar qf the 



W A L L I S. ti 

liouse, but by die statules he was incapable of a feliowshipy 
it being provided that tbere should not be more tbaii oae 
fellow of th<i same county at the same time^ and there wja$ 
already one of the county of Kent, Mr. Wellar, who coo-« 
tiDued in the college long after Mr. Wallis left it. WalJisy 
however, was so highly esteemed by ttve society, that when 
he declared his design of leaving the coUegie, Df. Richai^d 
Uoldsworth, then master, and the fellows, bad a coosuha-< 
tion about founding a new fellowsliip on hi« account, that 
he might not remove from thetn. But the times growing 
confused, there was no room for executing such a design, 
and Mr. Watlis removed to jQ^een's college in Cambridge, 
where be was chosen fellow, and continued so, lill by hit 
marriage he vacated bis fellowship. In Hilary term 16:36^7^ 
he took the degree of bachelor of arts, and about four years 
after that of master ; and then removed to Queen*s, pro* 
baUy in consequence of the interest of Dr. Horton, his ftn^ 
mer tutor, and now master of that college. 

Being designed for the church, be bad studied divinity 
with great care, and now was admitted to holy orders by 
Dr. Walter Curie, bishop of Winchester. In 1641 he left 
college to be chaplain to sir William Darley, at Buster-* 
cramb in Yorkshire. In the foljbwing year he acted in th« 
same capacity to ]ady Yere, widow of sir Horatio Vere. It 
was daring her occasional residence in London that he was 
enabled to discover bis surprising talent in decypbering; 
and as this had an Importaut effect on his future life and 
fiime, it may be necessary to give bis own account of the 
discovery. ** About the beginning of our civil wars, in tb(^ 
year 1642, a,' chaplain of sir William Waller^s, one evening 
as we were sitting down to supper at the lady Vere's ia 
Loudon, with whom I then dwelt, shewed me an inter* 
eepted letter written in cypher. He shewed it me as a cu- 
riosity (and it was iudeed the first thing I had ever seeu 
written in cyphers), and asked me, between jest and ear- 
nest, wfaetfaerl could make any thing of it; and he waa 
surprized, when I said, upon the first view, perhaps I mighty 
if it proved no more but sl new alphabet. It was about tea 
o^dock, when we rose frOEm supper. . I then withdrew to 
tny chamber to consider it ; and by the number of different 
characters therein (not above 22 or 2S) I judged, that it 
could not be -more than a new aVphabet, and in about two 
hours time, befdi^ I went to bed, I had decypt^red it ; 
and I sent aeopy of it so decypbered the nekt morning to 



32 W A L L I S. 

him from whom I bad it. And this was my first attempt at 
decyphering. This unexpected success on an easy cypher 
was then looked upon as a great matter ; and I was some** 
while after pressed to attempt one of another nature, which 
was a letter of Mr. secretary Windebank, then in France, 
to his son in England, in a cypher bard enough, and not 
unbecoming a secretary of state. It was iir numeral figures^ 
extending in number to above seven hundred, with many 
other characters intermixed ; but not so hard as many that 
I have since met with. I was backward at first to attempt 
it, and after I had spent some time upon it, threw it by as 
desperate; but after some months resumed it again, atid 
had the good bap to master it. Being encouraged by this 
success beyond expectation, I afcerwards ventured on many 
others, some of more, some of less diiBcuhy ; and scarce 
missed of any that I undertook for many years, during our 
oivil wars, and afterwards. But bf late years the French 
methods of cypher are grown so intricate beyond what it 
was wont to be, that I have failed of many, tho' I have mas- 
tered divers of them. Of such decyphered letters there 
be copies of divers remaining in the archives of the Bod* 
leian library in Oxford, and many more in my own custody, 
and with the secretaries of state." The copies of decy- 
phered letters, mentioned by Dr. Wallis to be in the ar<* 
chives of the Bodleian library, were reposited by him there 
in 1653, and are in the doctor^s own hand-writing, with 
^ memorandum at the beginning, to this purpose: '^A 
collection of several letters and other papers,. which were 
at several times intercepted, written in oypher, decyphered 
by John Wallis, professor of geometry in the university of 
Oxford ; given to the public library there," anno domini 
1653. This part of our author^s skill gave him afterwards 
no small trouble, and might possibly have been of very bad 
consequences to him, had he not had some friends in power, 
particularly the earl of Clarendon and sir Edward Nicholas 
secretary of state, who valued him for his great learning 
and integrity, and were sensible of his affection for the 
royal family, and his loyalty to the king, and the many 
good services he had done his majesty before the restora* 
tion. The doctor's enemies soon after the restoration En- 
deavoured to represent him as an avowed enemy to the 
royal family ; and to prove this they reported, that he had 
during the civil wars decyphered king Charles I.'s letters 
taken in his cabino^ at Naseby ; and that the letters so de* 



W A L L I S: 33 

CJ^bered by him were to be seen in the books of cyphersy 
which our author bad given to the university. This re^* 
port being revived upoo the accession of king James II. to 
the crown, the doctor wrote a letter in his own vindication 
to his gres^t friend Dr. John Fell, bishop of Oxford, dated 
April 8, 1685 ; which was as follows : 
" My Lord, 

*^ I understand there have of late been complaints made 
of me, that I decyphered the late king's letters, meanieg 
those taken in the late king's cabinet at Naseby-fight, and 
after printed. As to this, without saying any thing, whe-« 
therit be now proper to repeat what was done above, forty 
years ago, the thing is quite otherwise. Of those letters 
and papers (whatever they were) I . never saw any one of 
them but in print ; nor did those papers, as I have been 
told, need any deciphering at all, either by me or any 
body else, being taken in words at length just as they were 
printed, save that some of them were, I know not by whom, 
translated out of French into English. 'Tis true, that &{^ 
terwards some other letters of other persons, which had 
been occasionally intercepted,* were brought to my hands ; 
some of which I did decypher, and some of them I did not 
think fit to do, to the displeasing of some, who were then 
great men. And I managed my selfe in that whole busi«- 
ness by such measures, as your lordship, I think, would 
not bee displeased with. I did his majesty who then was 
(king Charles the first) and his friends many good offices, 
as I had opportunity both before and after that king's death ; 
and ventured farther, to do them service^ than perhaps some 
of those, who now complaine of mee, would have bad the 
courage to do, bad they been in my circumstances. And 
I did .to his late majesty, k. Charles the second, many good 
services both before and since his restauration, which him- 
selfe has been pleased divers, times to profess to mee witb 
great kiodnes* And if either my lord chancellor Claren- 
don, or Mr« secretary Nicholas, or his late majesty, were 
now alive, they would give mee a very different character 
from whajt, it seemes, some others have done. And I 
thinke his mojesty that now is knowes somewhat of it, and 
some other persons of honour yet alive,. &£.^' 

In our authorities are other proofs of his innocence in this 
matter; but we presume it cannot be denied ihatbe.had been 
of service Ao the. republican government by this peculiar ta- 
lent. He had airways joined with tbem, and in 1653 he had 

Vol. XXXI. D 



J4 W A L L I & 

the sequestered living of Si. Gabriel^ Fenchurcib-^treety 
granted to him. . The same year be pubKsbed in 4to^ 
^ Trath tried ; or, Animadversions on the Lord Brooke's 
^ Treatise of the nature of Truth'.'* His mother dying this 
year, he became possessed of a handsome fortune. In 
1644 he was appointed one of the scribes or secretaries to 
the assembly of divines at Westminster, to whose conduct 
tad views be gives a v^ry different colouring from what we 
meet with in most of the publications of that time. *^ The 
parliament," he asserts, *' bad a great displeasure against 
the order of bishops, or rather not so much against the 
order, as the men, and against the order for their sakes ; 
and had resolved upon the abolition of episcopacy as it then 
stood, before they were agreed what to put instead of it ;. 
and did then convene this assembly to consult of some 
other form to be suggested to the parliament, to bq. hy 
them set up, if they liked it, or so far as they should like 
it. The divines of this assembly were, for the generality 
of them, conformable, episcopal men, and had generally 
the reputation of pious, orthodox, and religious protes- 
tants $ and (excepting the sdven independents, or, as they 
were called dissenting brethren) I do not know of any non» 
eonformist among them as to the legal conformity then re- 
quired. Many of them were professedly episcopal, and, I 
think, all of them so episcopal, as to account a welUregti- 
lated episcopacy to be at least allowable, if not desirable 
and advisable ; yet so as they thought the present cqnsti- 
tution capable of reformation for the better. When I name 
the divines of this assembly, I do not include the Scots 
commissioners, who, though they were perinitted to be 
present there, and did interpose in the debates, as they 
saw occasion, yet were no members of that assembly, nor 
did vote with them, but acted separately in behalf of the 
ohurch of Scotland, and were aealous enough for the Scota 
presbytery, but could never prevail with the assembly to 
declare for it. On the other hand, the independents were 
against all united church government of more than one 
single congregation, holding that each single coi^gregation^ 
Voluntarily agreeing to make themselves a church, and 
choose their own officers, were of themselves indepen** 
dent, and not accountable to any other ecclesiastical go- 
vernment, but only the civil magistrate, as to the public 
peace; admitting indeed that messengers from several 
churches might meet to consult in commoDy as there might 



W A L L I a ss 

be QCGanon, but without any authoritative jurisdiction^ 
* Agaiast tliese, the rest ef the assembly was unanimous, (and 
the Scots comtaissioners with them) that it^ was lawful by 
the word of God for divers particular congregations (beside 
the inspection of their own pastor and other officers) to be 
united under the same common government; and such 
communities to be further subordinate to provincial and. 
liational assemblies ; which is equally consistent with epia* 
copal and presbyterian principles. But whether with or 
without a bishop or standing president of such assemblies^ 
was not determined or debated by them. When any sucU 
point chanced to be suggested, the common answer wstf, 
that this point was not before them, but was precluded liy 
the ordinance by which they sat ; which did first declare 
the abolition of episcopacy (not refer it to their declaration), 
and they only to suggest to the parliament Komewhat ia 
the room of that so abolished. And this is a true accounti 
of that assembly as to this point (and when as they were 
called presbyterians, it was not in the sense of anti-epie-*. 
copal, but anti^independents), which I have the more largely 
insisted on, because there are not many now living who. 
can give a better account of that assembly than I can. To^ 
this may ke^ objected their agreement to the covenant, 
which was, before I was amongst them. But this, if rightly 
understood, makes nothing against what I have said. The 
covenant, as it' came from Scotland, and was sent from the 
parliament to the assembly, seemed directly against all 
episcopacy, and ibr setting up the Scots presbytery just aa- 
among them. But the assembly could not be brought to 
assent to it in those terms, being so worded as, to preserve 
the gorernment of the church of Scotland^ and to reform 
that of England, aiid so to reduce it to the nearest uni- 
formity. But before the assembly could agree to it, it was* 
thui odoilified^ to preserve that of Scotland (not absolutely, 
but) against the common enemy; and to reforkn that of 
Bogland (not so as it is in Scotland, but) according to the 
wo^of God, and the exampleof the best reformed churches; 
and to endeaivour the nearest uniformity ; which might be 
aA weU by reforming that of Scotland, as that of England^ 
or of both. And whereas the covenant,, as first brought 
to ^hem, was against ^opety, prelacy, heresy, schiam, pro- 
faneness, &c. they would by no means be persuaded to 
admit the word prelacy^ as thus standing absolute* For 
though they thought the English episcopacy, as it then- 

D2 



•»/ 



S«- W A L L I S. 

Mood, capable of reformatioa for the better in divers thingf|r 
yet to engage indefinitely against all prelacy, they would 
not agree. After many days debate on this point (as t 
understood from those who were then present) some of 
the parliament, who then pressed it, suggested this ex<-' 
pedient, that by prelacy they did not understand all man- 
ner of episcopacy or superiority, but only the present 
episcopacy, as it now stood in England, consisting of 
archbishops, bishops, and their several courts and sub- 
ordinate officers, &c. And that if any considerable alte- 
ration were made in any part of this whole frame, it was 
an abolition of the present prelacy, and as timch as was^ 
here intended in these words ; and that no more was in- 
tended but a reformation of the present episcopacy in 
Euglandi And in pursuance of this it was agreed to be 
expressed with this interpretation ; prelacy, that is, church 
government by archbishops, bishops, their chancellors and 
commissaries, deans, deans and chapters, arch-deacons, and 
all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy. 
And with this interpretation at length it passed ; and the 
Scots commissioners in behalf of their church agreed to 
those amendments.. I know some have been apt to put 
another sense upon that interpretation; but this was the 
true intendment of the assembly, and upon this occasion.^* 

Some of these sentiments belong not only to the assem- 
bly, but to our author ; and, ashe retained them to the last, 
were probably the cause of his having so little preferment 
afterwards when he was a favourite at court, and much em- 
ployed as a decypherer. 

In March of this year, 1644, he married Susanna, daugh- 
ter of John and Rachel Clyde of Northiam, Northampton- 
shire. In 1645, the weekly meetings, which gave birth to 
the Royal Society, being proposed, he attended them along 
with. Dr. John Wilkins (afterwards bishop of Chester), Dr. 
Jonathan Goddard, Dr. George Ent, Dr. Glisson, Dr. Met- 
ret, doctors in physic, Mr. Samuel Foster, then professor of 
astronomy at Gresham college, TheodQre Haak, a German 
of the palatinate, and then resident in London, who is said 
to have first suggested those meetings, and many others. 
These meetings ,were held sometimes at Dr. Goddard's 
lodgings in Wood-street, sometimes in Cheapside, and some- 
times at Gresham college, or some place near adjoining. * 
. In 1 647, he happened to meet with Oughtred*s ^^Clavis," ; 
of which be made himself master in a few weeks, and dis- 



W A L L I S. 37 

covered a new method of resolvipg cubic equations, which 
he cojnmunicated to Mr. Smith, professor of mathematics 
at Cambridge, with whom he held a literary correspond- 
ence upon mathematical subjects for some years. The In* 
depetidents having now acquired the superiority, our slu- 
thor joined with some other ministers of London, in sub- 
scribing a paper, entitled ^*A testimony to the truth of 
Jesus Christ, and to the solemn league and covenant: as 
also against the errors, heresies, and blasphemies of these 
times, and the toleration of them." Not long after this, 
he exchanged St. Gabriel Fenchurch-street, for St. Mar- 
tin's Ironmonger-lane; and in 1648, subscribed, as minister 
of that church, to the remonstrance against putting the 
king to death ; and to a paper entitled ^^ A curious and 
faithful representation of the judgments of ministers of the 
Gospel within the province of London, in a letter from 
them to the General and his Council of War." Dated 
Jan. 17, 1648. 

Notwithstanding this opposition to the ruling powers, 
lie was in June following appointed by the parliamentary 
visitors, Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford, in room 
of Dr. Peter Turner, who was ejected ; and now quitting 
his church, he went to that university, entered of Exeter 
college, and was incorporated master of arts. Acceptable 
-as this preferment was, he was not an inattentive observer 
of the theological disputes of the time ; and when Baxter pub- 
lished his ^^ Aphorisms of Justification and the Covenant,'* 
our author published some animadversions on them, which 
Baxter acknowledged were very judicious and moderate. 
Before the end of this year, Wallis, in perusing the mathc- 
-matical works of Torricelli, was particularly struck /with 
wha|; he found there of Cavalleri's method of indivisibles, 
this being the first time he had heard or seen any thing of 
that. method, and conceived hopes of attaining by it some 
assistance in the problem concerning the quadrature of the 
circle. He accfordingly spent a very considerable time in 
studying it, but found some insuperable difficulties, which, 
with what he had accomplished, he communicated to Mr. 
Seth Ward, then Savilian professor of astronomy, Rook, 
. professor of astronomy at Gresham college, and Christo- 
^phcr Wren, then fellow of All Souls, and several other 
eminent mathematicians at that time in Oxford, but not 
meeting with the assistance, he wished, he desisted from 
the farther pursuit. 



N 



SS W A L L I 8. 

Id 1653, he published a grammar of the EnglUh tongno, 
for the use of foreigners in Latin, under this title: *^ Graoi- 
matica Linguas Anglicans, cudi Tractatu de Loquela sen 
jSononim Formatione/' in 8vo. In the piece *^ De Lo- 
qaela," &c. he tells us, that '^ he has philosopbically con* 
sidered the formation of all sounds used in articulate speecb,t 
as well of our ovrn as of any other language that he knew; 
by what organs, and in what position, each sound was 
formed y with the nice distinctions of each, which in some 
letters of the same organ are very subtle : so that by such 
organs, in suct^ position, the br^tb -issuing from the lungs 
will form such sounds, whether the person do or do not 
hear himself speak/' This^ we shall find he afterwards 
endeavoured to turn to an important practical use. In 
1654, he was admitted to the degree of D.D. after per- 
forming the regular exercise, which he printed afterwards^ 
and in August of that year, made some observations ou the 
solar eclipse, which happened about that time. About 
Easter, 1655, the proposition in his '* Arithmetica Infini- 
torum,'' containing the quadrature of the circle, being 
printed, he sent it to Mr. Oughtred ; and soon after, in the 
same year, be published that treatise in 4to, dedicated to 
the same eminent mathematician. To this he prefixed a 
treatise on conic sections, which he set in a new light, con* 
sidering them as absolute planes, constituted of an infinite 
number of parallelograms, without any relation to the cone^ 
and demonstrated their properties from his new method of 
infinites. 

About the ^ame time. Hoboes published bis ^^ Eleraen- 
torum PhilosopbiflB sectio prima, de corpore," in which be 
pretended to give an absolute quadrature of the circle. 
This pretence Dr. Wallis confuted the same year, in a La^ 
tin tract, entitled '^ Elenchus Geometries Hobbianse;*' which 
being written with some asperity, so provoked Hobbes, that 
in 1656 he published it in English, with the addition of 
what he called '^ l^ix Lessons to the Professors of Mathe^ 
matics in Oxford," 4ta. Upon this Dr. Wallis wrote an 
answer in English, entitled, '^ Due Correction for Mr. 
Hobbes ; or. School Discipline for not saying his Letsoias 
right,*' 1656, in 8vo; to which Mr. Hobbes replied in a 
pamphlet, with the title of " STITMAI, &c. or, Marks of 
the absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scottish Church 
politics, an'd Barbarisms, of John Wallis," &c. 16^7, 4to. 
This was immediately rejoined to by Dr. Wall|s.in *♦ Hob» 



W A- L L I ?;. }9 

Im^i PuncU Pisjmiclioi'' 1657 ; and bere this controversy 
msevuft to bave ended at tbia time; but four years after, 
H6l^ Mr. Hi^bbes printed ^^ Examinatio & emendatio Ma- 
tbeoMiticoruBi bodrernoruoiy io sex Dialogis ;*' which oc-* 
csasipned Dr. Wallis to pubiisb, the ne^t year, ^< Hobbius 
Heautontimorumenos,'* in 8vo, addressed to Mr. Boyle. 
Although Dr. Waliis was uoiversaliy allpv^ed to have the 
best of the argument in tbijs controversy, Hobbes being 
notoriously deficient in matheoiatical science, yet none of 
his answers to Hobbes were inserted in the collection of 
bif majtbemaitical works, published in 1699, 3 voU fo). 
besau^ei as he says bimself, he had no inclination to 
trample on the ashes of the dead, although it was his duty 
Io expose the fallacious reasoning of Hobbes when alive *• 
In 1656 he published a work on the angle of contact, ir 
which be expoaes' the opinion of Peletarius. In the fol- 
Jowiog y^tr, having completed his plan of lectures, he 
published the wh^le, in two parts, under the title of ^^ Ma*- 
tbesis Univfirsalisy sive Opus Arithmeticum." While thia 
ivas in the press, he received a challenge from Mr. F^rgaat 
of Toulouse, which engaged him in an epistolary dispute 
with that gentleman, a$ well as with Mr. Frenicle of Paris. 
The problem was \^* Invenire cubum, qui additis omnibus 
suis partibus aiiquotis conficiat quadratum." This chal- 
}mg0 ba4 been sent by Fermat to Frenicle, Schooten, and 
fluygeef^ Dr. WalUs sent a solution of it before the end 
of ]d|in^> which being objected to both by Frenicle and 
Fermat, occasioned a dispute which was carried on this 
year find part of the next, after which both these gentle* 
mmi acknowledged the^ sufficiency of WalHs's soluition, 
wi^ the enco^li«lm of being the greatest mathematician 
in £arope. WalHs) however, .having heard that Frenicle 
t was about to publish the correspondence, and being, from 
some circumstances in his conduct, a little suspicious of 
misrepresentation, requested sir Kenejm Digby, then at 
Pairis, through whose hands the whole had passed, to give 
his coosent to the publication of it by the doctor himself, 
which being readily granted, it appeared in 1658, undev 
tiiie title of <^ Commercium Epistolicum.^' 

^n the same year, on the deatji of Dr. Gerard Langbaine^ 
Dr. Wallis was chosen to succeed him in the place of 

* See an amusing account of this contvotersy in Mr. D'Israeli's ** Quarrels 
of Amhari,'* vol. 11. 



•40 V W A L L I S. 

" Gustos Archivoiruin'' to the university. But he was not 
elected to this oflSce without some struggle. Dr. Ricbardi 
Zoucb) a learned civilian, who, as his friend Mr. Henry 
Stubbe represents the case> bad been an assessor in the 
vice chancellor's court for thirty years and more, and wa^ 
well versed in the statutes, liberties, and privileges of the 
University, stood in opposition to our author. But the 
eJectionf being carried for Dr. Wallis, provoked Mr. Stubbe, 
a great admirer of Mr. Hobbes, to publish a pamphlet en* 
titled, ** The Savilian Professor's Case; stated :" London, 
1658, in 4to. Dr. Wallis replied to this; and Mr. Stubbe 

' republished his case with enlargements, and a vindication 
of it against the exceptions of Dr. Wallis. Anthony Wood, 
who is inveterat^ly prejudiced against Dr. Wallis*, gives a 
•suitable misrepresentation of this affair. In July of the 
same year (1658) he received a letter from sir Kenelmk 

« Digby, in which were contained two prize questions pro- 
posed by M. Pascal, for squaring and finding the gravity 
of some sections of the cycloid ; and though be bad never 
before considered that curve, yet he sent a solution to 

- both the questions, but too late, it would appear, according 
to the time fixed at Paris, for him to receive the prizes. 
This however occasioned his publishing in 1659, a letter 
** De Cissoide et corporibus inde genitis." 

It appears that just before the restoration, he bad done 
considerable service to the royal cause by bis art of de- 
cyphering, and on that event, Charles II. received hini 
veiy graciously, and he was not only confirmed in both his 
places, of SaviUan professor, and keeper of the archives, 
but likewise was made one of the king's chaplains in ordi- 
nary. In 1661 he was one of the divines who were ap<^ 
poi4ited to review the book of Common Prayer. He after- 
wards complied with the terms of the act of uniformity, 
and continued a steady conformist to the church of Eng- 
land until his death, ^ ■ 

We have already mentioned his Grammar of the English 
tongue, published in 1653. By some observations in that 
work, he had been led to suppose it possible to teach the 
deaf and dumb to speak. On this it is probable he bad 
made many experiments ; and communicated what be bad 

* This appears to have been the gave sach general dislike, that he was 

^a$e with Aubrey tOQ, who gives some compelled to write and prouounce a 

very ill-founded reports of Dr. Wallis. sort of recantatioa in tl^e convQoa.ti9D^ 
$lubbe's pamphlet, it may be added, 



W A L L I S. 41 

.tried ^to. his friends^ who now were desirous to bring the 
matter to the test. Accordiugly he was persuaded to em- 
tploy his- skill on one Daniel Wballey of Northampton, who 
had been deaf and dumb from a child. About Jan uarj, 
tl661>2, he began to teach this person, and with such suc- 
cess, that in little more than a year, he taught him to pro- 
.nounce distinctly even the most difficult words, and to ex- 
press his mind in writing. He was likewise able to read 
distinctly the 'greater part of the Bible, could express him.- 
self intelligibly in ordinary affairs, understand letters writ- 
ten to him, and write answers to them, if not elegantly, yet 
so as to be understood. This being known, attracted the 
curiosity of the public in no common degree. Whaliey was 
brought to the Royal Society, May the 21st, 1662, and to. 
their great satisfaction, pronounced 'distinctly enough such 
words as were proposed to him by the company; and though 
not altogether with the usual tone or accent, yet so as 
easily to be understood. He did the like several times at 
Whitehall in the presence of his majesty, prince Rupert, 
and others of the nobility ; and the doctor was desired to 
try his skill on Alexander Popham, esq. a son of lady 
Wharton, by her former husband, admiral Popham. His 
mother, it is said, when she was big with him, received a 
sudden fright, in consequence of which his head and face 
were a little distorted, the whole right side being some- 
what elevated, and the left depressed, so that the passage 
of his left ear was quite shut, up, and that of the right ear 
proportionally distended and too open. However Dn 
Holder says, that he was not so deaf, but that he could 
hear the sound of a lute string, holding one end of it in 
his teeth ; and when a drum was beat fast and loud by 
him, he could hear those, who stood behind him, calling 
him gently by his name. When he was of the age of ten 
or eleven years, he was recommended to the care of Dr. 
William Holder, then rector of Blechindon in Oxfordshire^ 
and taken by him into his house in 1659, where he learned, 
to speak and pronounce his name, apnd some other words. 
Of this Wood gives us the following account ; that Dr. 
Holder ^^ obtained a great name for his most wdnderful 
art in making a young gentleman, Alexander Popham, who 
was born deaf and dumb, to speak ; that he was the first 
that is remembered ever to have succeeded therein in 
England, or perhaps in the world ; and because it was a 
wonderful matter^ many curious scholars went from Ox« 



42 W A L L I S. 

ford to see and hear the person speak.*' Howerer this be, 
4bree years after, viz. in 1662^ this young gentleman was 
sent by bis relations to Dr. Wallis, for him to teach him to 
speak, as he had taught Mr. Whalley. ' Wood owns, that 
J4r. Popham being called home by his friends, iie began 
to lose what lie had been taught by Dr. Holder. And Dr. 
Wallis observes, that both Mr. Whalley and' Mr. Popham^ 
notwithstanding the proficiency they bad made under him 
in learning to speak, were apt to forget, after their depart* 
ing from him, much of that nicety, which before they had, 
in. the distinct pronouncing some letters, which they would 
recover, when he had been occasionally with them to set 
Ibem right, they wanting the help of an ear to direct their 
apeaking, as that of the eye directs the band in writing* 
'^ For which reason,*' says he, ** a man, who writes a good 
kand, would soon forget so to do, if grown blind. And 
therefore one, who thus learns to speak, will, for the con^- 
ttmiance and improvement of it, need somebody continually 
with him, who may prompt him, when he mistakes.'' Dr. 
Wallis remarks likewise, that Dr. Holder had attempted to 
teach Mr. Popham to speak, <* but gave it over.^' . This 
seems very likely to be true, because bis friends did not 
aend him again to Dr. Holder, but desired Dr. Wallis to 
teach him. However that be, a dispute took place be« 
tween the two doctors. A letter of Dr. Wallis concerning 
this ciire was inserted in the *^ Philosophical Transactions^ 
of July 1670. This was represented, as if he had vainly 
asaiimed to himself the glory of teaching this young gen** 
tleman to speak, without taking any notice of what had 
been before done to him by Dr. Holder, who therefore 
published in 1678 at Loiidon in 4to, ^^ A Supplement to 
the Philosophical Transactions of July 1670, with some 
Kefiections on Dr. Wallis's Letter there inserted." To 
this Dr. Wallis replied the very same year, entitling hia 
papers, which were directed to the lord viscount Broiincker, 
president of the Royal Society, << A Defence of the Royal 
Society, and the Philosophical Transactions, particularly 
those of July 1670, in answer to the Cavils of Dr. William 
Holder,*' London, 1678, in 4to. To this Dr. Holder made 
no reply. The reverend and learned Mr. John Lewis of 
Mergate observes, in a MS life by him of Dr. WaUisy 
eommunicated to the authors of the General Dictionary^ 
*^ that without lessening Dr. Holder's great abilities, it k 
a plain and certain fact, that Dr. Wallis had, in his tract 



W A L L I S. 43 

^De LcKjuela/ discovered the theoryof this by considering 
very exactly, what few attended to, the accurate formation ^ 
of all sounds in speaking ; without which it were in vain 
to set about this task. This tract was printed^no less than 
six years before Dr. Holder undertook to try his skill df 
teaching a dumb man to speak on Mr. Pophaiii. And it 
is no disingenuous reflection to suppose, that Dr. Holder 
had seen it, and profited by it ; whereas it does not ap* 
pear, that Dr. Wailis could have the least hint from him, 
when be at first taught Mr. WbaUey. But Wood; to shew 
how just and equitable a judge be was of this difference, 
tells us, that he knew full well, that Dr. Wailis at any time 
could make biaek white, and white 1>lack, for his own ends^ 
and had a ready knack of sophistical evasions, v Base re* 
flections, which confute themselves, and expose their in- 
ventor !" However, Dr. Wailis published his method of • 
instructing persons deaf and dumb to speak and under- 
stand a .language, which was printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions. .And ^* I have,'' says he, ^^ since that tim^ 
upon the same account, taught divers persons (and some 
of them very considerable) to speak plain and distinctly, 
who did before hesitate and stutter very much ; and others 
to pronounce »uch words or letters, as before they thought 
impossible for them to do, by teaching them how to rec- 
tify such mistakes in the formation, as by some impedi- 
ment or acquired customs they had been subject to.*' 

Dr. Wailis had become ooeof the first membersof the Royal 
Society, and was a very considerable contributor to their 
early stock of papers, particularly on mathematical sub- 
jects. In 1663, at the request of sir Robert Moray, be 
wrote his '^Cono-cunseus, or Shipwright's circular wedge," 
and a treatise ^^ De Proportionibus," in vindication of 
Suclid's definition in the fifth book of his Elements. This 
be dedicated to lord Brouncker, with whom he lived in 
the most friendly communication of studies till his lord- 
fhip's death. In the same year^ be gave the first demon- 
stration of that most important and useful problem, con-* 
cerning ^' the laws of motion in the collision of bodies." 
In 1666, he framed a new hypothesis to solve the phseno- 
mena of the tide, of which no tolerable account bad then 
appeared* This, after further investigation, he published in 
1668, under the title of ^^ De JEstu maris hypothesis nova ;" 
and th0 next year, the first part of his treatise ** De motu,'* 
which was generally esteemed bis master-piece. The whole 



44 W A L L I S. 

was completed in 1671, under the title of " Mechanic^, 
sive de motu tractatus geometricus." In 1673, he pub- 
lished in Latin *'Horoccii opera posthu ma" (see HoRROX), 
to which be subjoined Flamsteed's '^ Discourse of the equa- 
tion of time." He also employed some of his leisure hours 
in correcting, for his own private use, and supplying the 
defects found in all the manuscript copies of Archimedes'^ 
" Arenarius et Dimensio Circuli." This he printed in 
. 1676, at dean Fell's request, to convince the public of thp 
necessity of publishing a collection of the ancient mathe- 
maticians ; a scheme which, a few years before, had been 
dropped for want of encouragement. 

About this time, the university having determined to 
-publish an Oxford Almanack, their right to do so was clis- 
puted by/the Company of Stationers. Dr. Wallis was en- 
trusted with the management of the suit, which was finally 
determined in favour of the university. In 1680, he pub- 
lished, from the best manuscripts, ^^ Claudii PtolemaBi 
opus barmonicum," Gr. et.Lat. with not^s ; to which be 
raiterwards added an appendix, ^' De veterum harmonica 
ad hodiernum comparata*," as also " Porphyrii in bar- / 
iDonicaFtolemaBi Commentarius,'' &c. In 16S4, be pub- 
lished bis ^'Algebra," in English, containing the history 
of that art, and the successive improvements, from its first 
appearance in £urope to his own invention of the '^ Arith- 
metic of Infinites ;" to which he afterwards added the in«- 
finitesimal method 6f Leibnitz, and that of fluxions by 
fir Isaac Newton. In the following year he published three 
dissertations, . on Melcbisedeck, Job, and the titles of the 
Psalms. In 1687, his ^^ Institutio Logica'' appeared; ancl 
nearly about the same time he edited '^ Aristarchus Samius 
de magnitudine solis et lunse,^* with ^^Pappi libri secundi 
collectionum mathematicorum hactenus desiderati frag- 
mentum." In the same year, 1689, he wrote a letter to 
sir Samuel Morland at Utrecht, proving, in at least fifty 
instances, how much Des Cartes borrowed his pretended 
improvements in Algebra from our countryman Harriot; 
and this charge, our readers may recollect, has been more 
recently confirmed. (See Harriot.) 

In 1690, he published ^^ The doctrine of the Blessed 
Trinity briefly explained ;" pt) which he received a written 

* This work is highly praised hy 4he subject, the late Dr.. Buroeir, u|> 
oae of the most competent judges ^f his History of Music, vol. I. p* 126« , 



W A L L I S. 45 

ktter, subscribed IV. /.with the post*mark September 23, 
returning him thanks for his book. This letter he printed, 
and in answer to it published a second letter dated Septem* 
ber27, 1690, and afterwards a third, dated October 28,' 
1690. Before this third letter was published there came 
oat a pamphlet, entitled ^' Dr. Wallis's Letter touchingr 
the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity answered by his Friend." 
This occasioned the doctor to add a postscript dated No- 
▼ember the i5th, 1690. Soon after came out a tract, en- 
titled " An Answer to Dr» Walli&'s three letters,'* and 
sinother entitled ^* The Arian's Vindication of himself 
against Dr. Wallis's fourth letter on the Trinity." This 
produced a fifth letter of the doctor's on the same subject, 
dated February 1 4, 1 690- 1 . " Observations" were likewise 
made on these four letters concerning the Trinity and 
Cr^ed of Athanasius. This induced the doctor to write a 
sixth letter, dated March the 14th, 1690-1. fV. J. wrote 
the doctor a second letter, which was answered by the doc- 
tor ill a sereflth letter, who likewise published three ser- 
mons on John'xvii. 3. and afterwards an eighth letter^ 
dated Noveniber the 2 3d, 1691, 

He bad alsa a controversy on infant-baptism, which oc** 
ca$ioned his writing a tract ** De Paedobaptismo" ; and 
another on the Sabbath, with Thomas Bampfield, a coun- 
sellor at law, who, in 1691, published a work to prove 
that the Sabbath should be observed on Saturday rather 
than on Sunday. In answer to this Dr.Wallis produced 
his "Defence of the Christian Sabbath," 1692, two edi- 
tions 6f which were quickly sold. Bampfield wrote a 
reply, to which Dr. Wallis rejoined, and there the dispute 
ended. 

The last affatr in which Dr.Wallis appears to have been 
consulted was on the scheme for altering the style, which 
be opposed* on* various reasons, and it was accordingly laid 
aside ; but has ^ince been established without any of the 
inconveniences either in astronomicat'calculations, or other- 
wise, of which he was afraid. Towards the end of his life 
the curatory of the university-press made a collection* of 
his mathematical works, which were printed at Oxford 
1999, in three volumes in folio, with this title, *^ Johannis 
Willis -S. T. P. Geometric Professoris Saviliani in celeber- 
rimft Academic Oxohiensi, Opera Mathematica, tribus Vo- 
luminibus contenta." This edition was dedicated to king 
WiUiamia 



46 W A L L I S- 

Dr. Wallis died at the Satilian profettor'c boose in Nem 
college lane, Oxford, Oct. 28, 1703, in hit eighty^eigfath 
year, and was. interred in St. Mary's, where a monoment 
was erected by his son, John Wallis, esq. a barrister. This 
son was born December the 26th, 1650, and placed by his 
father in Trinity college, in Oxford, and afterwardf ad^ 
mitted of the Inner Temple, London, where he proceeded* 
barrister- at- law February 1, 16dl-2» He married Eliza-^ 
both daughter of John and Mary Harris, of Soundels, or 
Sounders, by Nettlebed, in Oxfordshire, afterwards heiresv 
to her brother Taverner Harris, whose mother descended 
from Richard Taverner, a learned lawyer in king Heniy 
VIII.'s time, and high sheriff of the county of Oxford. By 
this match Mr. Wallis became possessed of a good estate 
called Soundess. His wife died August the 8tb, 1693^ 
leaving three children surviving her, viz. John, Mary, and 
Elizabeth. 
. Anne, the doctor's eldest daughter, was born Jtme 4, 
1656, and married, December 23, 1675, to John Bleneow, 
of an ancient family at Marston St. Laurence, in Northamp- 
tonshire, then barrister-at-law, and afterwards knighted, 
and promoted to be one of the barons of tYm exchequer, 
and afterwards one of the justices of the king's bench. It 
has been said, that the promotion of this gentleman to 
these honourable posts was owing to thfe doctor, who having 
excused himself on' account of bis age from accepting the 
offer of a bishopric, told his friends that he had a son4ti* 
law a barrister-at-Iaw ; and that if they would promote him, 
he should be as much obliged as if he was promoted hiov- 
self. The doct6r*s daughter had by sir John seven chiU 
dren, viz. John, Mary, Anne, Thomas, William, Eliza- 
beth, and Susanna, who were all living in 1696. 

Elizabeth, the doctor's youngest daughter, was bora 
September 23, 1658, and married February 21, Iddl, to 
XVilliam Benson, son to George and Mary Benaon, of Tow- 
cester, in Northamptonshire, who dying on November 5^ 
1691, left her a widow without any children. 

M^*. Lewis observes, that the doctor ^* was happy in the 
enjoyment of a vigorous constitution of body, and of % 
mind, which was strong, serene, and calm, and not soon 
rui&ed and discomposed ;*' and tliat, '^ though whilst he 
lived be was looked on by the most rigid and. zealous party^ 
men in the university with a jealous, eye, and suspected at. 
not thoroughly well affected to the Monarchy and Church 



W A L t I a 41 

oi EngUnd, be wii# yet very miicli haQOured 4od este««ied 
by others q£ a better temper and judgmeotf and of iiior« 
knowledge and larger thoughts. By these, both at home 
aud abroad^ was be reckoned the glory and ornament of hii 
country, and of the university in particular.*' In ihis oha«; 
racter his talents are certainly not over»rated« It is there** 
fore with some surprize that we perceive him slightly no- 
ticed by a late mathematical biographer, as ^* distingiMshed 
more by industry and judgment than genius." Sorely 
higher praise Is due to the man whose discoveries *' consti- 
tuted the germ from which some of ^he most important of 
tb^ Newtonian discoveries originated.*' 

During his lattef years be was much employed as ^ de^ 
cypherer for goverament, but the very great services he 
performed by means of this uncommon faculty, were very 
ill rewarded. Indeed, he seldom received more than the 
pay of a copyist, when he certainly might have secured 
his own terms, and made his fortune at onqe, But it is 
among the best parts of his character that, in all situations, 
he was unambitious and independent. Courtiers^ proratset, 
as {^'shrewdly observes) are like certain medicines, if they 
do not operate quickly, it is not likely they wiU at alL 
The elector of Bri^idenbui^h sent him a gold chain and 
medal .^ great valoe^ which the editor of his sermons, pub*- 
Itsbed 179i, disposed of some years ago, as old gold, but 
nqt without first offering it for sale to the Oxford and Bri^ 
tish museums, and to several antiquaries. In 1700 king 
William granted Dr. Wallis an annuity of 1002. per annum, 
with survivorship to his grandson, ft^r. William Blencoe, 
on condition of his teaching the latter his art of decy- 
pherijag/^ 

WALLIS (JoHif), a worthy English divine, and botani- 
cal writer, was born in 17 14» in or near the parish of Ireby, 
ia Cumberland* He was of Queen's college, Oxford^ 
where he thok his degree of M. A. in 1740, and acquired 
some reputation as a sound scholar. Though possessed of 
good natural abilities, and no small share of acquired 
knowledge, be. lived and died in an humble station. His 
disposition was so mild, and his sense of duty so proper^ 
that ha passed through life without a murmur at bisrlot. 
Early in life he married a lady near Portsmouth, where he 

* Life prefixed to Sermonl, 1791. — Gen. Diet.— Biog. Brit— Tbompson's 
Untory of the Royal Society.— Preftee to Uearoe'i » Lanstoft'iXlhrQmcle.'* 



48 W A L L 1 S. 

at that time resided on a curacy. For fifty-six years they^ 
enjoyed the happiness of their matrimonial connexion : an 
happiness that became almost proverbial in their neigh- 
bourhood. After spending a few years in the south of Eng- 
land, he became curate of Simonburn, in Northumber- 
land ; and while here, indulged his taste for the study of 
botany, and filled bis little garden with curious plants. 
Thts amusement led him gradually into deeper researches 
into natural history; and, in 1769, he publiished a <^ His- 
tory of Northumberland," 2 vols. 4to, the first of which, 
containing an account of minerals, fossils, &c. found in that 
country, is reckoned the most valuable. In other respects,' 
as to antiquities, &c. it is rather imperfect, and uncon- 
nected. His fortune, however^ did not improve with the* 
reputation wiiich this work brought him, and a dispiite with 
his rector occasioned him to leave his situation^ when he 
and his wife were received into the family of a clergyman 
who had formerly been his friend at college.. He was cu-^ 
rate for a short time at Haughton, near Darlington, in. 
1775, and soon afterwards removed to Billingham, near 
Stockton, where he continued until increasing infirmities 
obliged him to resign. He then removed to the village of 
Norton, where he died July 23, 1793, in the seventy- 
ninth year of his age. About two years before his death a 
small estate fell to him by the death of a brother ; and to 
the honour of the present bishop of Durham (but certainly 
not to the surprize of any one that knows that munificent 
prelate), when the circumstances and situation of Mr. Wal- 
lis were represented to him, he allowed him an aiinuai pen- 
sion from the time of his resigning his curacy. From a 
sense of gratitude, Mr. Wallis, just at the close of life* was 
employed in packing up an ancient statue of Apollo, found 
at Carvoran, a Roman station on the wall, on the confines 
of Northumberland, as a present to the learned Daines 
Barrington, brother to the bishop. In the earlier part of 
his life Mr. Wallis published a volume of letters to a pupil, 
on entering into holy orders. * 

WALMESLEY (Charles), D. D. and F.R. S. was an 
English Benedictine monk, and a Roman catholic bishop ; 
also senior bishop and vicar apostolic of the western district, 
as well as doctor of theology of the Sorbonne. He died at 
Bath in 1797, in the seventy-sixth year of his age; and 

1 HutchinsQD's Hist, of Cumberland. — Gent. Mag. LXIII. 



W.A L M E S L E V. 49 

the forty*first'of his episcopacy. He was the lastsarvivo^ 
of those eminent matheaiaticians who were concerned k) 
regulating the chronological style in Englandi which pro- 
duced a change of the style in this country in 1752. Be- 
aides some ingenious astronomical essays in the Philoso^ 
phical Transactions, he printed several separate works, both 
on mathematics and theology; as, 1.'* Analyse des Me- 
aures des Rapports et des Angles/' 174.9, 4to, being an 
extension and explanation of Cotes's '* Harmonta Mensu<* 
rarum.'* 2. *^ Theorie du monument des Aspides/^ 1749^ 
8vo. 3. *' De inaequalitatibus motuum Lunarium," 1758^ 
4to. 4. ^* An Explanation of the Apocalypse, Ezekiel's 
Vision," &c. By the fire at Bath in the time of the riots^ 
1780, several valuablttmanuscripts which he had compiled 
in the course of his life and travels through many countries^ 
were irretrievably lost. * *" 

WALPOLE (sir Robert), earl of Orford, grandson of 
air Edward Walpole, K. B. and third son of Robert Wal- 
pole, M. P. for Castle- Rising, in Norfolk, was born at 
Houghton, in Norfolk, Aug. 26, 1676. He received th^ 
first, rudiments of- learning at a private seminary at Mas* 
aingbam, in Norfolk, and completed his education on the 
foundation at Eton.. Wal,pole was naturally indolent, and 
disliked ap'plication, but the emulation of a public semi- 
nary, the alternate menaces and praises of his master, Mr. 
Newborough, the maxim repeatedly inculcated by his fa-p 
ther, that he was a younger brother,^nd that his future 
fortune in life depended solely upon his own exertions, 
overciime the original inertness of his disposition. Before 
he quitted Eton, he had so cousiderably improved himself 
in classical literature, as to bear the character of an excel- 
lent scholar. In April 1696 he was admitted a scholar of . 
King^s college, Cambridge. Qn the death of his elder 
surviving brother in 1698, becoming heir to the paternal" 
estate, he resigned his scholarship. Singular as it may 
appear, be had been designed for the church ; but on his 
destination being altered by the death of his brother, he 
no longer continued to prosecute his studies with a view to 
a liberal profession. His father, indeed, appears to have 
been in a gre^t, measure the cause of this dereliction of bis 
studies, for he took him from, the univiersity to his seat at 
Houghton, where his mornings being engaged in farming, 

> Gent Mag. toI. LXVH.— Hutlon's Diet new edit. 

Vol. XXXI. E 



iO W A L P O L E. 

or in the sports of the field, and bis evenings io cohViml 
tociety, he had no leisure, and soon lost the inclination^ 
foir literary pursuits. In July 1700, be married Catherine, 
daughter oJF sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, and 
Ills ftither dying, he inherited the f^rnily estate of somewhat 
more than 2000/. a year. 

He was. now elected member for Castle-Rising, And sat 
for that borough in the two short parliaments Which were 
Assembled in the last two years of the reign of king WiU 
liam, add soon became an active member for th^ whig 
party. In 1702 he was chosen member of parliament for 
KingVLynn, and represented that borough in several sue* 
t^eedihg parliaments. In 1705 be was nominated one of 
the council to prince George of Denmaris, as lord high 
admiral of England; in 1708 he was appointed secretary 
at war; and, in 1709, treasurer of the navy. In 1710 he 
Was one of the managers of the trial of Sachevetd, but 
when the whig-ministry was dismissed he was removed 
froto all his posts, and held no place afterwards during 
queen Anne^s reign* In 171 1 he was voted by the Hous^ 
of Commons guilty of a high breach of trust and notoriotii 
corru{>tion in his office of secretary at war ; and it was re* 
sohred that be should bcf committed to the Tower, and ex- 
Jpelled the House. Upon a candid revkw of this affair, 
there does not appear sufficient proof to justify the severity 
Used towards him ; and perhaps bis attachment to the Marl- 
t>6rough ministry, and his great influence in the Hoos^, 
owing to his popular eloquence, were the true causes of 
his censure and imprisonment, as they had been before of 
his advancement. All the whigs, however, on thil occa* 
sion, eonsidered him as a kind of martyr in their cause. 
T|he borough of Lynti re-elected him In 1714,'ud, thougk 
the House declared the election void, yet they persisted 
in the choice, and he took a decided part against the 
queen's tory-ministry. In the well-known debate relating 
to Steele for publishing the << Cristis,'' he gfeatly distin- 
guished himself iti behalf of liberty, and add^d to the po^ 
pularity he had before acquired. The schiftm-biM likewise 
soon after gave him a fine opportunity of eitertieg Ms elo^ 
qtience, and of appearing in the character of the <:bamptofi 
of cm\ and religious liberty. On the death of the qo«to 
a revolution of politics took pla<?e, ami the wtrig-fMtrty pre- 
vailed both at court and in the senate. Walpole had be- 
fore recommended himself to the house of lls^nover, by 



W A L P O L E. 51 

bis zeal for itis caase when the Commons considered th^ 
statb of the nation with regard to the protestant succes- 
i»ion : and be had now the honour to procure this assurancb 
of the House to the new king (which attended the address 
of condolence and congratulation), "That the Commonift 
would make good all parliamentary funds." It is therefore 
Dot surprising that his promotion soon took place after the 
king^s arrival ; and that in a few days he was appoiiueil re- 
ceiver and paymaster general of all the guards and garri- 
sons, and of all other the land forces in Great Britain, 
paymaster of the royal hospital at Chelsea, and likewiise a 
privy counsellon On the opening of a new parliament, a 
coinmittee of secrecy was chosen to inquire into the con- 
duct of the late ministry, of which Walpole was appointed 
chairman; and, by his management, articles of impeach- 
hient were read against the earl of Oxford, lord Boling- 
broke, the duke of Ormond, and. the earl of Strafford. Thfe 
eminent service he was thought to have done the nation 
and the crown, by the vigorous prosecution of those mi- 
nisters who were deemed the chief instruments df the peac^, 
was soon rewarded by the extraordinary promotions of firsk 
cooatnissioiler of the treasury, and chancellor and under- 
treasurer of the exchequer. 

In tWo years time a misunderstanding appeared amongst 
his majesty*^ servants ; and it became evident that the in- 
^rest of secretary Stanhope and bis adherents began 16 
outweigh that of the exchequer, and that Walpole's powet 
was visibly on the decline. King George had purchased o^ 
the king of Denmark the duchies of Bremen and Verden> 
which his Danish majesty had gained by conquest froni 
Charles XII. of Sweden. The Swedish hero, enraged to 
s^e his dominions publicly set to sale, conceived a resent- 
ment agsAnst the purchaser, and formed a design to gratify 
his revenge on the electorate of Hanover. Upon a mes- 
sage sent to the House of Commons by the king, secretary- 
Stanhope moved for a supply, to enable his majesty to con- 
cert such measures with foreign princes and states as might 
isrevent any change or apprehensions from the designs of 
Sweden for the future. This occasioned a warm debate^ 
in which it was remarkable that Walpole kept a profound 
silence. The country-party insisted that such a proceed- 
ing was contrary to the act of settlement. They insinuated 
that the pe^ce of the Empire Was only a pretence, but that 
fht i^ecurity df the new acquisitions was the rea] object of 

£ 2 



\ 



$2 W A L P O L E. 

this unprecedent^ supply ; and tbey took occasion to ob-^ 
serve too, that his majesty's own ministers seemed to be 
divided. But Walpole thought proper, on this surmise, 
to speak in favour of the supply, which was carried by a 
majority of four voices only. In a day or two he resigned 
all bis places to the king \ and, if the true cause of his de* 
fection from the court had been his disapprobation of the 
measures then pursuing, his conduct would have been con« 
sidered in this instance as noble and praiseworthy. But 
they who consider the intrigues of party, and that he spoke 
in favour of these measures, will find little room to sup- 
pose that his resignation proceeded from any attachment 
to liberty or love of his country. He resigned most pro- 
bably with a view to be restored with greater plenitude of 
power ; and the number of his friends, who accompanied 
him in his resignation, prove it to ^have been a mere 
factious movement. On the day of his resignation he 
brought in the famous sinking-fund bill : he presented it 
as a country-gentleman ; and said be hoped it would not 
fare the worse for having two fathers ; and that his suc- 
cessor (Mr. Stanhope) would bring it to perfection. His 
calling himself the father of a project, which. has since 
been so often employed to other purposes than were at 
first declared, gave bis enemies frequent opportunity for 
satare and ridicule ; and it has been sarcastically observed, 
that the father of this fund appeared in a very bad light 
when viewed in the capacity of a nurse. In the course of 
the debates on this bill^ a warm contest arose between Wal- 
pole and Stanhope ; on some severe reflections thrown upon 
him, the former lost bis usual serenity of temper, and re- 
plied with great warmth and impetuositj'. The acrimony 
on both sides produced unbecoming expressions, the be-* 
traying of private conversation, and the revealing a piece 
of secret history^ viz. " the scandalous practice of seiliog 
places and reversions.'' A member said on the occasion, 
'^ I am sorry to see these two great men fall foul of one 
another: however, in my opinion, we must still look on 
them as patriots and fathers of their country : and, since 
they have by mischance discovered their nakedness, we 
ought, according to the custom of the East, to cover it, by 
turning our backs upon them." 

In the next session of parliament Walpole opposed the 
ministry in every tlyng; and even Wyndham or Shippen 
did not exceed him in patriotism. Upon a motion in the 



W A L P O L E. 5S 

Heuse for continuing the army, he made a speech of above 
an hour long, and displayed the danger of a standing army 
in^ free country, with all the powers of eloquence. Early 
in 1720 the rigour of th^ patriot began to soften, and the 
complaisance of the courtier to appear ; and he was again 
appointed paymaster of the forces, and several of bis 
friends were found soon after in the list of promotions. No 
doubt now remained of his entire conversion to court- 
measures ; for, before the end of the year, we find hira 
. pleading as strongly for the forces required by the war- 
office as he had before declaimed against them, even 
thoiigh at this time the same pretences for keeping them 
on foot did not exist. 

It was not long before he acquired full ministerial power, 
being appointed first lord commissioner of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer; and, when the king went 
abroad in 1723, he was nominated one of the lords justices 
for the administration of government, and was sworn sole 
secretary of state. About this time he received another 
distinguished mark of the royal favour ; his eldest son, then 
on his travels, being created a peer, by the title of Baron 
Walpole of Walpole. In 1725 he was made knight of the 
bath ; and, the year after, knight of the garter. Into any 
detail of the measures of his administration, during the 
long time he remained prime or rather sole minister, it 
would be impossible to enter in a work like this. They 
are indeed so closely involved in the history of the nation 
and of Europe, as to belong almost entirely to that de- 
partment. His merit has been often canvassed with all the 
severity of critical inquir)', and it is difficult to discern the 
truth through the exaggerations and misrepresentations of 
part3\ But this difficulty has been lately removed in a 
very great measure by Mr. Coxe's elaborate ** Memoirs of 
^r Robert Walpole/' a work admirably calculated to abate 
the credulity of the public in the accounts of party-writers. 
Although sir Robert hatd been called " the father of cor- 
ruption" (which, however, he was not, but certainly a 
great improver of it), and is said to have boasted that he 
knew every man's price *, yet, in 1742, the opposition 

* This accusation reminds us of reported, that '< all men have th^ur 

another against the late Mr. Burke, price ',^* but speaking of a partici|lar 

who if represented as having catled number of his opponents, he said " All 
t^e people '* the swinish multitude,'' , iiiof men have their price,*' and in the 

when he spoke only of a particular event many of them justiQed his ob- 

ela^,-^ as a swhiish multitude. Sir Ro- serration.— Coxe*s Memoirs^ p. *li'i, 

. bert Walpole did not say, as visually 4to edit. 



$4 W A L P O L E, 

prevailed, and he was not any longer able to carry ^ otar 
jority in the House of Commons. He now resigned all 
bis places, and fled for shelter behind the throne. But 
there is so little appearance of his credit receiving any di- 
ininution that he was soon after created earl of Orford, and 
most of his friends anddependants continued in their places. 
The king too granted him a pension of 4000/. in considera- 
tion of his long and faithful services. 

The remainder of his life he spent in tranquillity and 
retirement, and died, 1745, in his seventy-first y^ar. What* 
eyer objections his ministerial conduct may be. liable to, 
vet in his private character he is universally allowed to 
have had amiable and benevolent qualities. That he wai 
a tender parent, a kind master, a beneficent patron, a 
firm friend, an agreeable companion, are points that have' 
been seldom disputed ; and Pope^t who was no friend to 
courts and courtiers, has paid him, gratis, a handsomer 
cpmpliment on the last of the^e heads than all this liberality 
could ever purchase. In answer to his friend, who per* 
suades him to go and see sir Robert, be says, 

<^ Seen him i have/ but ia his happier hour 
Of social pleasure, iU exchang*d for ppw'r^ 
Seen him^ uncqmber*d with the venal tribe. 
Smile without art, and win without a bribe/' 

Abput the end of queen Anne^s reign, and the beginning 
of George the First, he wrote the following pamphlets, 
1. ^^ The Sovereign's Answer to the Glouceatershire Ad- 
dress." The sovereign meant Charles duke of Somerset, 
80 nick-named by the wbigs, 2. <^ Answer to the Repre- 
sentation of the House of Lords on the state of the Navy,'* 
1709. 3. ^^ The Debts of the Nation stated and coA-^ 
eidered, in four papers," 1710; the third and fourth^ Mr, 
Gqxe thinks, were not his. 4. M The Thirty-five millions 
accounted for," 1710. 5. ** A Letter from a foreign Mi- 
nister in England to Monsieur Pettecum," 1710, This 
likewise Mr. Coxe doubts, but thinks he might have written 
an answer to it, as it was a vindication of the tories. 6. 
*^ Four Letters to a friend in Scotland upon Sacheverell's 
Trial ;" falsely attributed in the <« General Dictionary" to 
Mr. Maynwaring. 7. " A short History of the Parlia-» 
ment." It is an account of the last Session of the queen, 
8. "The South- Sea Scheme considered." 9, "A pam- 
phlet against the Peerage^Bill," 1719. 10. " The Reporl 
of the Secret Coaamittee, June 9ih, 1715." li, "Ths 



W A L P t K, 1^ 

^$9J^t8 of a Meaober of tb^ Lowei'-bouae, \n rela^iototq 
9 {HTDject for restraining ^t\d lia;iiting tbie ppwer of tb^ 
Crown in. the future creMion of pe«rs/* 1719. 12. '^Tbe 
Eeport of the Secret Committee, Jane 9, 1715." 13. *^ Aj 
prirate Letter from General Churchill after Lord Orford'a 
i^etiremjsnt,'* wbicb bas been considered as indicating; ^ 
love of retirement, ai^d contempt of grandeur ; but it wiU 
probably appaar to be ratber an affectation of contentment 
iKtth a situation which be could no longer change. Amidst 
all his knowledge, he h^d laid up vej;y little for the pi|f^, 
posies of retirement. 

Mr. Coxe bas aUo enriched tbe historical library with; 
mfiifioirs 9f HoBATio Lord Walpole, brotber to sir Robert^, 
first ea^l of Orford. Horatio was born in 1679f and caipQ 
earjiy into public life. lu 1706 he ^pompanied genial 
Stanhope to Barceloaai as private secretary, and in 1707 
ws^ appointed secrecy to Hency Boyle, esq. tben cbaUft 
celior of the Ej^cbequer. In 1708, he w«nt as secretl^'^ 
of an embassy to tbe empeKor of Germany, and was present 
iu the same capapity at the congr^s of Gertruydenherg ia 
1709. On sir Robert's being nominated first lord of the, 
treasury in 1715, be was made secretary to that board. 
In 1716 he was sent a9 envoy to the Hague; and in 1717, 
succeeded to tbe office of surveyor and auditor-general qf 
all bis majesty's revenues in America, in consequence of a 
reversionary grant obtained some time before. In 1720 
be was appointed secretary to the duke of Grafton, when 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. In 1723 he commenced . his 
embassy at Paris, wb^re b^ resided till 1727 as ambassa-i. 
dor. In 1730 he was made cofferer of his majesty's house-- 
boid. In 1733 he' was sent plenipotentiary to the States*, 
general ; in 1741 was appointed a teller of the exc^iequer, 
and in 1756 was created a peer of England, by the title, 
of lord Walpole of Wolterton. His lordship died Feb. 5^ 
1757. 

By Mr. Goxe's memoirs, lord Walpole is placed in a far 
mo^e important point of view than he bad heretofore ob- 
tained, and it appears that no one could be. more intrusted 
with the secret springs of ministerial action ; but be ps^r'^ 
took of the obloquy which followed his brotber, and baft . 
consequently been misrepresented by those compilers of 
history wbo depend for tbeir information on party pamr 
phlets. Lord Uardwicke said of him, that ^^he uegoci* 
ated with firinness and address ^ and with the love of peace. 



56 W A L P O L E. 

Miicli was the system of his brother; he niever lost sight ot 
that great object, keeping up. the sources of national 
strength and wealth. He was a gieat master of the com- 
dnerciat and political interests of this country, at)d de- 
servedly raised to the peerage.'* Mr. Coxe adds, that hn- 
inp'ral conduct was irreproachable; that he was sincere in 
his belief of Christianity, and zeaibus and constant in per- 
forming the duties of religion ; and that he maintained au 
tininipeachable character for truth and integrity, as well in 
hts public as in his private capacity. 

He wrote ipany political pieces, " with knowledge, but 
fn a bad style,** as his nephew says, •'yet belter than his 
sjieeches.'* Among these are, 1. "The case of the Hes- 
sian troops in the pay of Great Britain," Lond. 1730. 2. 
**The Interest of Great Britain steadily pursued, iii answer 
to a pamphlet; entitled ** The case of the Hanover forces, 
impartially and' freely examined. Part I." 1743. This 
'* Case" wa3 written by lord Chesterfield and Mr. Waller. 

3. ** A Letter to a certain distinguished patriot and ap- 
plauded orator, on the publication of his celebrated speech 
on the Seaford petition, in the . Magazines," &c. 1748, 

4. '* Complaints of the Manufacturers, relating to the 
abuses in marking the sheep, &c." 1752. 5. " Answer to 
the latter part of lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the stu&y 
of history," printed in 1763. Some other pamphlets are 
attributed to lord Walpole in our authority, but rather on 
doubtful evidence.* 

• WALPOLE (Horace), third and youngest son of sir 
Robert Walpole, first earl of Orford, by his first wife 
Catherine Shorter, was born in 1718, and received the 
early part of his education at Eton, where he first became 
known to the celebrated Mr. Gray, whose friendship at 
that early period he cultivated, and whose esteem and re- 
gard he retained, until the difference arose between them 
which we have noticed in our account of that celebrated 
poet. From Eton he went to King's-college, Cambridge; 
but, according to the practice of men of rank and fortune 
at that time, left the university without taking any degree. 
While there he wrote ** Verses in Memory of King Henry 
the Sixth, founder of the college," which are dated Feb. 2, 
1738, and are probably the first production of his pen, 
Iti the same year he was appointed inspector-general of 

1 Cosft'f Memoir! of Walpok,— Park*6 cdittoo of .the B<qral apd No^e ^^utl^ofs, 



W A L P O L E. 57 

the exports and imports ; a place which he soon after ex- 
changed for that of usher of the exchequer. To these 
were add^d'the post of comptroller of the pipe and clerk 
of the estreats; alt which he held unto his death. 

Finding himself disinclined to enter so early into the 
business of parliament, he prevailed on his father to per* 
mit him to go abroad, and Mr, Gray consented to accom- 
pany him in his travels. They left England on the 29th 
of March, 1739, and took their route by the way of France 
to Italy, viewing whatever was remarkable in the several 
places they visited, and at some of them, particularly Flo- 
rence, residing several months. About July 1741 the two 
friends came to a rupture, and parted at Reggio, each pur- 
suing his journey homewards separately. Of this quarrel, 
the circumstances, as we have remarked in Mr. Gray's ar- 
ticle, are not clearly known ; but Mr. Walpble enjoined 
Mr. Mason to charge him with the chief blame, confessing, 
that more attention, complaisance, and deference, to a 
warm friendship, and superior judgment and prudence, 
might have prevented a rupture which gave much uneasi- 
ness to them both, and a lasting concern to the survivor. 
A reconciliation is said to have been effected between them 
by a lady who wished well to both parties ; but the cor- 
diality which had subsisted between them never wholly re- 
turned, as Mr. Walpole was entirely unnoticed by Mr. 
Gray in his last will. Mr. Walpole, however, was the 
first person to whom, in 1750, Mr. Gray communicated 
his celebrated "Elegy in a Country Church-yard," and by 
him it was communicated to several persons of distinction. 
In 1758, also, Walpole employed Mr. Bentley to orna- 
ment an. edition of his friend's poems with beautiful de- 
signs and engravings, and printed it at his own press at 
Stra«vberry-hill. 

On Mr. Walpole's return to England, he was chosen 
member for Callington, in the parliament which -met in 
June 174-1, and had soon an opportunity of evincing, that 
he was not likely to become either a silent or inactive 
member. On the 23d of March 1741-2, on a motion being 
made for an inquiry into the conduct of sir Robert Walpole 
for the preceding ten years, he opposed the proposition in 
a speech of some length, with great spirit, and greatly to 
the credit of his filial piety. He was not, however, a fre- 
quent speaker, and had no great relish for parliamentary 
duties. In 1747, he was chosen for the borough of Castle 
Eising^ and for King'< Lynn, in 1751 and 1761. 



5a \/tr A L p o L £. 

The t^nor of bis lifo wa$ not much varied by accident or 
adventure; though s^,out 1749 be narrowJy esqaped the 
pistol of a bighwayoiaiiy the relation of which \va shall givt^, 
in his own words^in one of bis " Worlds." " An acquaint- 
ance of n)ine was robbed a few years ago, aud very nttar 
shot through the hef.d by the going-off of the pistol of tb;^ 
accomplished ]V(r. JVfacle^n ; yet the whole aifair was cqb- 
ducted with the greatest good -breeding on both sides.^ 
Tb^ robber, who had only taken a purse this w^y bqcai^s^^ 
he bad that morning been disappointed of marrying a gr^^t 
fprtune, no sooner returned to his lodgingSi than be ^ut^ 
the gentleman two letters of excuses, which w^tb le^. wit^ 
than the epistles of Voiture, bad ten times more natural 
and easy politeness in the turn of their expression- In thft. 
postscript be appointed a meeting at Tjbum at twelve ai; 
night, where the gentleman might purcbiase again a«y 
trifles he bad lost ;. and my friend bas been blanked for notj 
accepting the rendezvous, as it seemed liable to be con- 
strued by ill-natured people into a doubt of the honour p^ 
a man who bad given him all the satisfaction in his power 
for having unluckily been near shooting him through the 
bead." 

" The World" wasi a well-kpown periodical paper, in 
which be assisted the editor Mr. Moore, by writing Nos. 6, 
8, 10, 14, 28, 103, 168, 195, and the concluding "World 
Extraordinary," containing the character of Henry Fox, 
then secretary at war, afterwards lord Holland. 

In 1752, his first publication (except some Poeqas in 
Dods1ey*s collection, and ajeu d'espritin the "Museum") 
appeared, entitled "iEdes Walpoliana,'' describing^ bis 
father's magnificent palace at Houghton, in Norfolk, and 
the noble collection of pictures it contained, which the 
pecuniary embarrassments of the late earl of Orford (Mr^ 
Walpole's nephew) obliged him to dispose of to the em- 
press of Russia. It is remarkable that Mr. Walpolej as 
appears by one of bis letters in the British Museum, with 
ail his family-partiality and taste for the arts, tbpugbt tbe 
value of this collection greatly over-rated. 

In 1757 he published <^ A Letter from Xo-Hp, ^Chi- 
nese philosopher at London, to his friend Lien-Chi. at 
Pekin : a spirited and elegant performance, cbiefly on 
the politics of the day. It went through five e^ition^ in a 
fortnight. 
, This yes^r he set up a printing-press at Stri^wb^rry-billj 



W A L P O L E: M 

&t which most of his own perforinfincesy md tome; curii](iii 
works of other authors were printed. Its fir^t productioift 
was Gray's Odes, and this was followed by the edition s^nd 
translation of part of Hentzner'a Travels, lord WhitwQrth's 
account of Russia, Life of Lord Herbert of Cberbury, &q. 
By limiting the number of copies of e^cb work, and pgrt-9 
ing with them only as presents, lie created a api^ies of 
bme and curiosity after the productions of his presa, which 
waa then quite new, and unquestionably v^ry gri^tifying to 
himself. We need not analyze this kind of reputation^ a^ 
it is now better known in ours thati in bis daysi. In tbii 
way, in 1761, he printed at Strawberry-bill two volumes <^ 
his '* Anecdotes of Painting in England,*' compiled feooi 
tbe papers of Mr. George Yectue, purchased at the sale of 
die effects of that industrioua antiquary. It will be al? 
lowed, that the remains of Mr. Vestue could not have 
fallen into better bands. In 1763, another volume wm 
added,, and also tbe Catalogue of Engravers ; and, in 1771, 
the whole vicas completed in a fourth volume, to which waa 
added *^ Tbe History of the Modern Taste in Gacdening.^' 
Id 1764, on the dismission of general (afterward marshal) 
Conway from the army fpr a vote given in parliament, be 
defended hia friend's conduct in a pamphlet, entitled *^ A 
Counter Address to the Public, on the late dismission of a 
general officer," 8vq^ 

In tbe succeeding year, be published ^^ The Castle of 
Otranto," a gothic story, which in the title«page was as*- 
aerted to be a translation fcom tbe Italian by William Mar-* 
shal, gent. In the same year, however, a second edition 
appeared, with the initials of the real author, Mr. Walpole. 
In 17^6 be is supposed tp have indulged his vein of hu- 
mouv in *^ An account of the Giants lately discovered, in a 
letter to a friend in the country." 

In 1766, happened the famous quarrel between David 
Hume and John Jacques Rousseau, in which the former 
appears to have -acted wdth tbe most distinguished genero- 
sity, friendship, and delicacy ; and tbe latter, with hi^ usual 
suspicion, wildness, and eccentricity. On this occasion, 
Mr. Walpole wrote a pretended letter from the king of 
Frusaia; to Rousseau, which found its way into the public 
prints, and contribi|ted to widen the breach between the 
two contending philosophers. As a j^u d'esprit this com- 
position did honour to, his wit; but it has been delicately 
aatd that hfiA be auppre«^d it, his reputation for a conciU- 



60 W A L P O L E. 

iftory disposition, and true benevolence of mind, would 
have lost nothing of its lustre. 

^ Previously to the dissolution of parliament, in 1768, Mr. 
Walpole had determined to retire from public business; 
and, accordingly, in a very handsome letter to the niayor 
of Lynn, declined the honour of representing bis constitu- 
ents any longer. 

The same year, Mr. Walpole published his ** Historic 
Doubts of the Life and Reign of King Richard 111/* 4to. 
This performance endeavours to establish the favourable 
idea given of this monarch by sir George Buck, the histo- 
rian; but this defence did not receive universal assent : it 
was controverted in various quarters, and generally con* 
sidered as more ingenious than solid. It was answered by 
Frederick Guy Dickens, esq. in a 4to volume ; and ibe 
evidence from the wardrobe- roil was controverted by Dr. 
Milles and Mr. Masters, in papers read before the Society 
of Antiquaries ; and now it was discovered that Mr. Wal- 
pole, who affected the utmost humility as an author, and 
most politely deferred to the opinion of others, could not 
bear the least contradiction, and one or both of these lat- 
ter pieces gave him so much disgust, that he ordered bi^f 
name to be struck out of the list of members, and renounced 
the honour annexed to it fVom bis connection with the 
body of antiquaries. Yet in this plausible work, the cha- 
racter of Richard is in some measure cleared from many of 
the enormities charged upon him by historians and poets ; 
and, particularly, the absurdity of representing him as a mass 
of personal deformity, is justly exposed. 

It was about this time that the transaction took place 
. for which he has suffered the greatest censure, though, 
when every circumstance id duly weighed, perhaps but 
little blame willattach to his memory. We allude to the 
affair of Chatterton, whose fate was attributed by many to 
the neglect and superciliT)us behaviour of Mr. Walpole. 
How justly, we have already given our opinion. (See Chat- 
TRRTON, p. 183-4), and from that opinion we are not dis- 
posed to depart, although, from subsequent information, 
it may be allowed that Walpole had in scarcely any in- 
stance in his life displayed the liberality of patronage, and 
in very few, the steadiness of friendship. 

In 1768, Mr. Walpole printed fifty copies of his tra- 
gedy of the *^ Mysterious Mother," which, as usual, were 
distributed among his particular friends, but with injunc* 



W A L P O L E. 61 

dons of secrecy. The horribhs »tory on which it is founded 
be professed to have heard when youngs and that it hap- 
pened in archbishop^s Tillotson'si time : but he soon dis* 
covered that it had appeared in bishop HalPs works, ana 
that it had actually been twice dramatised, however unfit 
such a shocking case of incest is to be presented to the 
public eye. Of this indeed the author was aware; '^ The 
subject/' be says, " is so horrid, that I thought it would 
shock rather than give satisfaction to an audience. Still 
J found it so truly tragic in the two essential springs of 
terror and pity, that I could not resist the impulse of 
adapting it to the scene, though it should never be prac* 
ticable to produce it there. I saw too that it would admit ^ 
of great situations of lofty characters, and of those sudden 
and unforeseen strokes which have singular effect in operat- 
ing a revolution in the passions, and in interesting the 
spectator. It was capable of furnishing not only a con* 
trast of characters, but a contrast of vice and virtue in the 
same character : and by laying the scene in what age and 
country I pleased, pictures of ancient manners might be 
drawn, and many allusions to historic events introduced to 
bring the action nearer to the imagination of the spec- 
tator. The moral resulting from. the calamities attendant 
on unbounded passion, even to the destruction of the cri* 
minal person's race; was obviously suited to the purpose 
and object of tragedy.*' This traced}', however, remained 
for some years tolerably concealed from the public at 
large, until about 1783, when some person^ possessed of a 
copy, began to give extracts from it in Wood fall's Publie 
Advertiser, which produced the following private letter 
from the author, dated Berkeley-square, Nov. 8, 1783. 

^^ Mr. H. Walpole sends his compliments to Mr. Wl)od- 
fall, and does intreat him to print no more of the Myste- 
rious- Mother^ which it is a little hard on the author to see 
retailed without his consent. Mr. Walpole is willing to 
make Mr. Woodfall amends for any imaginary benefit he 
might receire froip the impression, though as copies of 
the play have been spread, there can be little novelty in 
it; and at this time the public must b^ curious to see more 
interesting articles than scenes of an old tragedy on a dis«> 
gusting subject, which the author thinks so little worthy 
of being publisbedj that after the first small impression^ 
k0:has ,en(Uavoured to suppress it as much as lies in his pe>si>er ; 
and whici) he assures Mr. Woodfall he would not suffer to 



6? W A i. P O L E. 

be represenjted on tb« sta^, if any tnanager vmi injttdicibtlii 
enotig'h to thihk of it. 

*<Mr.Walpole is very sorry Mr.Woodfell droppled ftucfc 
i hint, as weil as the extravagant preference given to him 
over other gentlemen of great merit, which preference Wr. 
Walpol^ utterly disclaims, as well as the other bigh^flbWit 
compliments which he is not so ridiculous as to like. 

" Mr. Walpolfe trusts that Mr. Woodfall will not cortii 
ttiunicate this letter to any body, and will be mubh obliged 
to him if he will let him know what satisfaction Mr. Wood- 
fall will expect for suppressing all farther mention of biih 
and his play." ^ 

This letter, the original of which is now befbre us, \i 
very characteristic of that double traflSc which Mr. WaU 
pole too frequently endeavoured to carry on between *thfc 
public and himself, and which seems to have ended oftly 
in deceiving both. With, all his bflforts to "suppress it 
as much as possible,'' he had at this tkite pHnted the tra^ 
gedy in the first volumia of his collected Works intended for 
sale, and begun some years before^ 

From thi^ period no circumstance of importance occurred 
in the course of Mr.Walpole*s life untit 1791, #hen, by 
the death of his nephew, he succeeded to the title of «arl 
of Orford. The accession of this honour, and df the for- 
tune annesced to it, made no alteration, in any respect, in 
bis manner of living, nor did he take his seat in the Hbusis 
df Peers. He stiii pursued the same unvaried tenor of life-^ 
devoting himself to the conversation of his friends and to 
the pursuits of literature. He had been early skfflicted 
with the gout, which, as- he advanced in years, acquir)tfd 
strength, though it did not disqualify him either for com- 
pany or conversation. The same spirit of inquiry, and tho 
same ardour of pursuit, prevailed almost to the latest pe- 
riod of his life. He was capable of enjoying the society of 
his friends until a very short time before his death, which 
happened on the 2d March 1797. 

By his will, whieh contains tv^enty^two sheets, beside^ 
the addition of seven codicils, by one of which he directed 
that his body might be opened and afterwards privately 
interred, he bequeathed to Robert Berry, esq. and bis two 
daughters, Mary and Agnes Berry, all his printed Work« 
and manuscripts, to be published at their discretion, and 
for their oWn emolmnent. To these two ladies he gtvIA 
4000f. eabh ; and, for their lives, the house and garden latt 



W A L P O L^E. 68 

Mrs.Gliv^'s, ^itb the long meadow beforetfaesainey and all 
the fommure there ; after their deaths or marriages, to go 
to the sante uses as Strawberry-hill; and with a restrictioa 
not t9 let the honse for longer than a year. By the 
same codicil 4] e also directs nil the boxes containing bis 
priffts^ bodks of prints, &c. to be conveyed to Strawberry^ 
hill, to remain as luMr-looms appurtenant to that estate $ 
and^n^akes it a particular request to the person in possession 
of his favourite residence, that the books, and every article 
t>f furniture there, may be preserved with care, and not 
disposed of, nor even removed. But all the letters written 
to him by such of bis friends as shall be living at the tiiiie 
of his death, are to be returned to the writers. . 

Strawberry-hill he bequeathed to the hon. Mrs. Anne Da- 
tner, arid a legacy of 2000/, to keep it in repair, on condii» 
tion that she resides there, und does not dispose of it to aiij 
person, ilnless it be to the countess dowager of Waldegrave^ 
on whom and her heirs it is entailed. He died worth 9 1^0007. 
3 per cents. Thi< villaof Strawberry- hill, so often mentioned^ 
was originally a small tenement, built in 1698, by the earl of 
Bradford's coacfamwi, as a lodging-house. Golley Gibber 
HTKS one bf its first tenants; and after him, success! v\ely^ 
Talbot, Bishop of Durham, the marquis t>f Carnarvon, Mrs. 
Ohev^iviv, che toy-wdman, and lord John Philip Sackville* 
Mr.W. purchased it 1747, began to fit it up in tbe Gothic 
style 1753, and cond^Ieted it 1776, He permitted it to be 
•attewnf by tickets, to parties of four^ from May to October, 
tet\^een the hours of twelve and three, and only one party 
m day. Tbe best concise account of this villa, and its va- 
4aable contient^, that has hitherto appeared, may he found 
in Mr. Lysotis's ^* Environs of London." A catalogue rai- 
sonn^e of its furniture wiki drawn up by the noble owner, 
printed at Strawberry-^hill in 1774^ and is now among bis 
works. He devoted a great part of his life and fortune to 
the embenishment of this villa, which has long been viewed 
as one of the greatest cariosities near the metropolis. In 
it he had amassed a coUection of pictures^ prints, and draw* 
iogs^ selected wiih great taste. 

His intervals of leisure, health, and spirits, he employed 
in the works above mentioned,. most of which have beeh 
fcvourites with tbe public, although they are of very op- 
posite ilierits. He was alterndtely a poet, an historian, a 
liolitician, an antiquary, and a writer of dramas and ro- 
lirilltiees.. Of all his works bis o#n opinion appeared l& be 



64 



W A L P O L 



humble ; but this was mere affectation, for lie wtit perttnti* 
Clous in maintaining what he bad once asserted : and being 
possessed of keen powers of controyersy, he betrayed ail 
the irascibility of the author, while he aiFected to be cod* 
sidered only as a gentleman writing for his amusement. In 
fats latter days he determined to vindicate his claims to li- 
terary rank, and empbyed himself in preparing for the 
press that splendid and complete edition of his woi*k8| 
which was published the year after his death, and was 
bought up wiih avidity, as an important addition to every 
library. He had begun to print this edition as far back as 
i76», and nearly two volumes were completed at his pri* 
vate press. . 

* Of his poetry, no very high character has been formed ; 
yet, like his prose, it often surprises by unexpected flashes 
of wit, aod epigramnuitic turns of expression and illttslni- 
tion, in which he evidently delighted* His ^* Mysterious 
Alother" is, ihdeed, of very superior merit, and has occa^ 
Jioned a general regret that he should have chosen a sub*^ 
ject so unfit for public performance. For nervous, simpl^^ 
and pathetic language, each appropriated to the several 
persons of the drama ; for striking incidents ; for addreaa 
in conducting the plot ; and for consistency of charact^t 
uniformly preserved through the whole piece ; the late edi- 
tor of the Biographia Dramatica. thinks it equal, if not su- 
perior, to any play of the last century. The ^* Castle of 
.Otranto" is his only original work in prose which displays 
-great powers. It passed through many editions, and re- 
ceived new popularity when the story was dramatized in 
1782 by captain Jephson^ It ought not to be less a fa- 
vourite now, when a passion for the marvellous seems to 
prevail like an epidemic with the writers and readers of 
romance *• 



• In one of his letters to Mr. Colfi 
in the ^riiish Museum, dated March 
9, 1765, he gifes the followin^r as the 
origin of thi^ romance. V ^ waked one 
mcjrnHig in the beginning of last June 
from a dream, of which ail I could re- 
cover was, that I had thought myself 
in an ancieut ca&tle (a very natural 
dream for a head filled like mine with 
gothic iiory), and that on the upper- 
most bannister of a great atair-case, I 
saw a gigantic hand in armour. In 
the evening 1 sat down, «nd began to 
wn^, without koowing io the least 



what r intended to say or relate. Tb« 
work grew on my hands, and I grew 
fond of it. Add, that I was very glad 
to think of any thing rather thai) poll* 
tics. In short, Lw^s so engrossed with 
my tale, which I completed in less 
tl^an two months, that one ereniog I 
wrote from the time I bad drunk my 
tea, about six o'clock, till half an hour 
aftet one in the morning, when ray 
hands and fingers were so weary, that 
I could not hold the pen to finish the 
sentence, but left Matilda and Isabella 
talking in the middle of a paiafrajpU." 



Wr A L P O L R CJ 

'. Of liU oompifaklions, the most uteFul is, <*Tbe Anecdoles, 
pf Painttng aod Engraying.^' This was avowedly formed 
from materiaU left by Vertue, but it is aUo evident that 
the arrangement) the principles, the taste, and every thing 
not technical, is Mr. Walpole's. It is a just complaint that 
he did hot continue to improve and enjarge what had been 
so welt received, what will ever be a standard book, and 
has, probably in no iMconsiderable degree,** led to the ad« 
yanceraent of the ana in this country. 

One of the predominant features in Mr. Walpole^s cha- 
racter was, a veneration for birth and rank,, to which he 
certainly had pretensions in the long list of his ancestors, 
although among them we find few distinguished benefac- 
tors to their country. This passion, however, which in 
tlis political career he joined with principles that have noc 
i^ean thought connected with it, led him to search after 
those illustrious examples in whom birth and rank have 
been allied with genius. His industry soon produced the 
pleasing compilation entitled ** A Catalogue of Royal 
and Noble Authors,** which) although greatly enlarged in 
the edition published with his works, has been thought 
meagre by those who did not consider that he professed to 
give a catalogue only. To what size and importance might 
it not have swelled, had he given the lives of the authors 
on the scale usually allowed in biographical compilations i 
In this work, the chief excellence is in his characters: 
they are admirable as portraits ; and, like portraits, they 
have some of the faults, as well as beauties, of the most 
celebrated masters. We h^ve often referred, and beei| 
greatly indebted, to Mr, Park's splendid, accurate, and 
bigbly improved edition of this work, published in ISO^i 
6 vols. 8vo. 

The letters to general Conway and his other friends, 
which be left for publication with his works, have been 
much admiired. They exhibit his taste, his disposition, 
his friendship, and all his peculiarities, to the greatest ad- 
vantage. It cannot be doubted that he valued those com-^ 
positions, as be had kept copies of them for so many years^ 
with a view to publication ; and as he was always of opinio^ 
that the English made a very poor figure iu letter-writingj^ 
it is not unfair to suppose that he might wish to remove 
thb reproach, with what success, it is not necessary here 
to. inquire^. .It must b§ observejcL Jbowever, that his wif 
has many marks of effort and labour^ that it recurs too 

Vol. XXXL F 



«6 W A L P O 1 E. 

4 

often, and that he is too often disposed to trMt *eridu« 
subjects with unbecoming levity. If be was not art infidel; 
he was at least a sneerer ; and while in 'one place be aloiosl 
predicts the revolution in France, and in another enectales 
the atrocities with which it was accompanied, he seems 
unconscious that his own principles were not very remote 
from those which precipitated the destruction of the throne 
and the altar. 

Mr. Walpole valued highly his talent for letter-writings 
and many have regarded him as the best letter-writer of 
his day. If they had said the most lively, or the most 
witty, they would have been nearer the truth. But what«> 
ever the particular metit of his correspondence, it has since 
proved fatal to his personal character in a. very important 
feature. Letter- writing seems to have been with him a 
species of patronage, of grace and favour conferred upon 
his literary contemporaries, on whom he bestowed no othet 
favours* Whatever else he might disappoint them in, tb^y 
were sure to receive a letter full of praise, and Mr.Wal* 
pole's praise was once thought of considerable importance. 
But since his printed correspondence has been compared 
with many hundred letters now extant that never were in«« 
tended for the press, the evidence of his insincerity, of hit 
extreme vanity, and duplicity towards those whom he most 
lavishly flattered, is too full and clear to admit of any hesi- 
tation in pronouncing that these degrading meannesses 
belonged to him in no common degree. One very gross 
instance of his treacherous correspondence may be~ seeh id 
Stewart's Life of Dr. Robertsoti ; but more^ and perhaps 
fuller, proofs exist in his correspondence with the late. 
Rev. William Cole of Milton, nowtn the British Museum. 

Lord Orford^s intellectual defects, says a critic of gteaft 
candour and ability, were those of educatioii, and temper 
and habit, and not those of nature. *' His rank, and* bis hh^ 
ther's indulgences, made him a coxcomb : nature made 
him, in my opinion, a genius of no ordinary kind. The 
author of ^^The Castle of Otranto*' possessed invention, 
and pathos, and eloquence, which, if instigated by some 
slight exertion, might have blazed to a degree^ of which 
common critics have no couceptiou.*' ' 

I Parkli edition of the Royal and Nobl« Authon.i-.G«fiit. Mn^. toLLXVIIv 
Preface to hit Works .— Cole'i MSS, in Brit. Mas. &c.— D'luraeli'f Calamitiet 
of Authors i a severe, but aiskt«rly kketdi.— British fisikyists. ihrdket tei |^ 
••Worid.* 



W A 1 8 H. €7 

' WALSH (PfiTEft), ati Irish catholic of great learnmg^ 

ftod liberality, wais born at Moortown, in the coiiDty olf 

Kildare, in thie early part of the sevenieenth centory. He 

Was a friar of the Franciscan order, and was professor of 

dirtnity at Loiivaih^ where he probably was educated. Re« 

turning to Ireland, be went to Kilkenny at tbe time ibe 

pope'» nuncio was there, but was not of his party. On 

the contrary, be made many endeavours to persuade tbe 

Irish Roman cajlholics to the same, loyal sentifnents as ha 

bidfiselff held ; and after the restoration of Cbaiflesr H. whett 

be was procorator of the Romish clergy of Ireland, he per-i 

liuaded nrany of tbem to sabscribe a reeognitioii or temon^ 

strance^ not cmly of their loyalty to the kirtg, but of tbeii^ 

disclainiing the pope's supremacy in tc^nhpdrals, Tbis drew 

upon bim the resentment of many of bis* brethren, anck 

particttlatly of the court of Home. Such iibpes, however, 

were entertained of this importaiat cbangein tbe sentiment^; 

of the Irish eathoUcs, that in 1666 the coart thought pro>« 

per to pdrnlit their clergy to meet openly in synod afc 

Dublin, in order, as was expected, to authorize. the abewie 

reoionstraDec by a general act of the whole body. But tbis 

assembly broke up without coming to any decision^ and tb^' 

dok^ of Ormondy then lord lieutenant, eonsidered it ne-^ 

oessary t9 proceed againat those who refused ta give any* 

security for their allegiance. But when, in 1670^ lord 

Berkeley succeeded tum^ by aome secret orders or intrigaear 

c^ tbe popisbly-^affected. party in England, Walsh, and tbosie 

who bad signed Ibe remonstrance, were so persecuted as- 

to be obliged to leave the country. Walsh came to Lon»« 

don, and by the interest of tbe duke of Ormond, got an 

aonoity of 100/. for life. He had lived on terms of inti^^ 

nmcy with the duke for nearly forty years, and had never 

toacbed much on the subject of . religion tmtil the reign of 

James II. when he made some overtures to gain tbe duke 

over to popery ; but desisted when he found his arguments 

bad no effect. Dodwell took some pains^ although in vain, 

to convert Walsh, hoping, that as they bad cast hina out 

of the comnaunion of the church of Roioe, be might be 

persuaded to embrace that of the cbureh of England^ 

Wabb died in September 1687^ and was buried in St. Duu* 

8tan*s in tbe West. 

Burftet says of him : ^* He was the honestest and learnedest 
man I ever knew among them, and was indeed, in all points 
of controrersy, almost wholly a protestant. But he bad 

¥2 



e9 w A L s H: 

t^ses of his own, by which be excused fat^^ adheHhg to 
the church of Rome, and tkiaintained, that with these he 
could continue in the communion of that church witb6ut 
siny &c. He was an honest and able man, much practised 
in intriguesi and knew well the methods of ^e Jesuits and 
other missionaries." 

He wrote various controversial pamphlets, chiefly in vin- 
dication of bis conduct as to the above remonstrance ; and 
a history of it, under the title of ** The History, &c, of 
the Loyal Formulary, or Irish Remonstrance, in 1661/' 
1674, folio. He wrote also *^ A Prospect of the State o£ 
Ireland from the year of the world 1756 to the year of 
Christ 1652,^* Lond. 1682, 8vo; but this he brought down 
no farther than 1172/ his style and tedious digressions not 
being relished. ^ 

. WALSH (WtbLiAM), an Ehglish critic and poet, was 
the son of Joseph Walsh erf Abberley in Worcestershire, esq* 
and born about 1663, for the precise time does not appear.' 
According to Pope, bis birth happened in 1^59; hot Wood 
places it four years later. He became « gentleman-com« 
moner of .Wadham-coUege in Oxford in 1678^ but left 
the university withont a degree, and pursued his studies 
in London and at home." That be stqdied, in whatever 
placoi is apparent from the effect; for he became, in- 
Dryden's opinion, *^ the best critic in the nation.V He- 
was not, however, merely a critic or a scholar. He was 
likewise a man of Ashion, and, as Dennis remarks, osterii- 
tatiou^ly splendid in bb dress» He was likewise a member 
of parliament and a -courtier^ knight of the shire for bis.^ 
native county in several parlisiments, in another the i«« 
presentative of Richmond in Yorkshire, and gentleman.^, 
the iiQrse to qi^een Anne under the duke of Somerset. 
Some of his vferses shew him to have been a zealous friend 
to the Revolution ; but bis political ardour did upt abate. 
Jiis reverence or kindness for Dryden, to whom. Dr. John- 
son says, he gave a DiMertation on Virgil's Pastorals; hut 
this was certainly written by Dr. Ghetwood, as appears* 
by one of Drydeu's letters. In 1705 he began to corre^ 
spend with Pope, in whom he discovered very early the^ 
power of poetry, and advised him to study, correctness, 
which the poets^ of his time, he said, all neglected. fv^heir-^ 
letters are written upon the pastcH-at comedy of the ka- 

. ' ' ' . ' • ■ • 

^ ^. HMrift'f Ware.**Buriie(*s Owf Tiines."^-«Brokeftbj'i Life <)f ]X)dw 



W A t S U «» 

llans, aad those pastoral* which Po(i(3 was then .preparing 
to publish. The kindnesses which are 6rs|; experienced 
are seldom forgotten. Pope al«i^ays retained a grateful ine* 
oiory of Walsh's notice, and mentioned him in on^ of his 
ktter pieces among those that had encouraged \k\$ juvenile 
studies. 

*' GranvOle the polite, 

*^ And knowiog Walsh, would tell me I coidd wiite/^ 

In his *^ Essay oq Criticism/* h^ h%d given him more 
splendid praise, and, in the qpinion of his learned com- 
mentator, sacrificed a little of his judgment to his grati- 
tude. He died in 1708, aged forty-six yesifs. I)e is known 
more by his familiarity with greater men than by anything 
done or written t^y himself. His works $kre not nuoierous^ 
nor of great merit. In ^691, he pi])hlisbed, with a preface 
^ written by his friend ^ud i^dvocate Drydep, '^ A Dialogue 
concerning Women, toeing a Pefence of tb^ Sex,^^ in Svo ;; 
and, the year after, ** Letters apd Poems, amorous and 
gallant/' published in what is called ** Dryden's Miscel- 
lany.*^ These were republished amoqg the ** Works of the 
Miiior Poets,** printed in 1749, with other performances, 
consisting chiefly of elegies, epitaphs, odes, and songs, in 
which he discovers more elegance than vigour, and seldom 
rises higher than to be pretty. ' 

WALSINGHAM (Sir Francis;), an eminent statesman 
in the reign of qpeen Elizabeth, of fin ancient family in 
Norfolk, was the third and youngest son of Wil(iam Walr 
aingham of Scadbury, in the parish of Chislehurst, in Kent, 
hy Joyce, daughter of Edmund Denny, of Cheshunt in 
Hertfordshire. He was born at Chislehurst in 1536. He 
spent soipe time at Ki.ng*s-college in Cambridge, but, to 
complete bis education, travelled into foreign countries, 
Inhere he acquired -various languages and great acpomplish"^ 
ilAents. These soon recommended him tp be agent to sif 
William Cecil, lord Burleigh ; an4 uniler his direction he 
ci^ine to be employed in the most iippprt^nt Affairs of state. 
Ifi^ prst engagement was s^ ambassadpr in France dur- 
ing the civi) wars in that kingdom. In August 1570| 
he was sept a fecond time there in the same capacity, to 
tr^iit of a marriage between queen Elizabeth and the duke 
of Alen^n, with other matters ; add continued until April 

1 Cibber^i Livef.— JohnsoaVPoett.— rl^owUt^i edition of Pop«'t Workt. Sfs 
Iodex.«Ma1oi}e's Dfydw, vol. I. 9^. IV. ^3, '563.— Speiice's Anecdotes, 



(!Q W A 1 S I N G H A M. 

1J73 at the court of France, where be acqi^UM himself 
with great capacity and fidelity, sparing neither pain$ nor 
money to proinote tb€) queen's interest, whOj however, did 
liot support him with much liberality. It was even with 
great d^fficuhy that he could procure such supplies as weri$ 
necessary for the support of his digniBed station. In a l^t^; 
ter from him (Harleiao MSS. No. 260), to the earl of Lei- 
cester, dated Paris, March 9, 1570, he earnestly solicits 
for some allowance on account of the great dearth in 
France ; desiring lord Leicester to use his interest in hit 
behalf, that he might not be so overburthened with th^ 
^are how to live, as to be hindered from properly auending 
to the business for which he was sent thither. Five days 
after he wrote a letter to lord Burleigh, which gives a cu- 
rious account of the distresses to which Elizabeth's repre-? 
sentative was reduced by her singular parsimony. " Yo^r 
lordship knoweth necessity hath no law, and therefore I 
hope that my present request, grounded on necessity, will 
weigh accordingly. And surely if necessity forced q[ie not 
hereto, I would forbear to do it for many respects. I do 
not doubt, after my lord of Bpckhurst's return, but you 
shall understand, as well by himself, as by others of his 
train, the extremity of dearth that presently reigneth here;, 
which is such as her majesty's allowance doth not, by 5h 
ii\ the week, defray my ordinary charges of household. 
And yet neither my diet is like to any of aiy predecessors, 
nor yet the numbec of my horses so many as they hereto-* 
fore have kept, I assure your lordship, of SOO/. I brought 
in my purse into this country, I have not left in money and 
prgvisioQ much above 300/. ; far contrary to the account I 
luade, who thought to have had always 500/. beforehand to 
have made my provisions, thinking by good husbandry 
sopewhat to have relieved my disability otherwise," &c. 
In another letter, dated June 22, 1572, he again solicits 
I lord Burleigh for an augmentation of his allowance, al- 
ledging, that otherwise be should not be able to hold out : 
but notwithstanding this and other solicitations, there is 
much reason to believe that the queen kept him in consi- 
derable difficulties. 

His negociations and dispatches during the above ^m-> 
bassy were collected by sir Dudley Digges, and published 
in 1€55, folio, with this title, ** The complete Ambassa- 
dor; or, two Treatises of the intended Marriage of que^n 
Elizabeth, of glorious memory; comprised in Letters of. 



W A L S I N G H A M. Tl 

Negotiation of m Francis Walsingham, her resident in 
France. Together with the answers of the lord Burlaigbt 
the earl of Leicester, ^ir Thomas Smith, and otberp* 
Wherein, as in a clear Mirrour, may be seen the faces of 
the two Courts of England and France, as they then stood ; 
with many remarkable passages of State, not at all meiv 
tiooed in any history." These papers display Walsingham*a 
acuteness, discernment, and fitness for the trust that was 
reposed in bioi. 

After bis return, in 1573, be was appointed one of the 
principal secretaries of state, and sworn, a privy-counsellov, 
and soon after received the honour of knighthood. He 
now devoted himself solely to the service of his country 
and sovereign ; and by bis vigilance and address preserved 
her crown and life from daily attempts and conspiracies. 
In 1578, be was sent on an embassy to the Netherlands, 
and in )58l, went a third time ambassador to France, in 
prder to treat of the prqposed marriage between the queen 
and the duke of Anjou i and also to conclude a league of- 
fensive and defensive between both kingdoms. He resided 
in France from about the middle of July to the end of thf 
year. In 1583, he was sent into Scotland on an embassy 
to king James, attended with a splendid retinue of one 
hundred and twenty horse. The particular design of thi| 
embassy is not very clearly expressed by historians. It 
appears to have been partly occasioned by king James hav* 
ing taken into his councils the earl of Arran, a nobleman 
very obnoxious to queen Flizabeth. Sir James Melvi], wbq 
was at this time at the Scottish court, mentions their ex- 
pecting the arrival of secretary Walsingham> *^ a counsels 
^lor,*' he says, << of worthy qualities, who bad great credit 
with the queen of Fngland.*' Sir James was sent to wel- 
come him, and to inform himy ^* That bis majesty was v(?ry 
flad of the coming of such a notable personage, who waa 
Qown to be endued with religion and wisdom, whom he 
' bad ever esteemed as his special friend, being assured- 
that his tedious travel in his long voyage (being diseased as 
he was) tended to more substantial points for the confirma^ 
tion of the amity between the queen bis sister and him^ 
than had been performed at any time before.'' 

Walsingham had then an audience of the Scotch king, 
and after several other private conferences with bim» set 
out again for England. But during hi;i stay in Scotland, 
his declined having any intercourse with the earl of Arran^, 



t2 W A L 8 I N G H A M. 

«^ for he ef teemed the said earV^ says Mel vil, <'ascorn^v 
of religion, a aower of discord, and a despiser of true and 
honest men ; and therefore he refused tp speak with him, 
or enter into acquaintance ; for h^ was of a contrary nature, 
religious, true, aiid a lover of ail honest i^n.*' Arran, in 
reseuttAent, did ^very thing be could to affront Waising- 
hsini ; ^ut the latter, on his returq, made a very advan- 
tageous representation to Elizabeth, of the character and 
abilities of king James. Hume observes, that Elizabeth** 
chief purpose in employing Walsingham on s^n embassy 
*»f where so little business was to be transacted, wa^ to 
l^arp, from a man of so much penetration and discerrrment, 
the real character ef James. This yoong prince possessed 
Tery good parts, though not accompanied with that vigour 
and industry which his station required ; and as he ex* 
eellec^ in general discourse and conyersatipn, Wa|singham 
entertained a higher idea of his talents than he was after- 
wards found, when real business was transacted, to have fuHy 
m^ted/* Llo3'd, who imputes universal genius to Waf- 
singham, says, that he copid '< as well fit the humour of 
king James v^ ith passages out of Xenophon, Thucydides, 
t^l'utarch, qf Ts^citus^ i|s .he could that of Henry kipg of 
France with Rabelais*s concejts, or the Hollander witii me- 
fsbanlc discourses.'* 

Sir Francis Walsingham wa^ npt only f^siduous in the 
discharge of those innportant trusts which were immediately 
co^mitte^ to bifn, or were connected with his ofEce a^ 
aecrefary^ of stfite, but be wias also zealous to promote every 
public-spirited design, especially what regarded trade and 
ihavigation, Whitrh the English were at (his time extending 
with great success to all parts of the world. Among otheiS 
be patronized the celebrated Hakluyt in bis studies and 
lUsc'overies, and also promoted sir Huqiphrey Gilbert'^ 
voyage for the settling of I^ewfoun^land, by procuring bin* 
4 sum of money arid two ships from the merchants of 
Bristol. 

in 1586, that << the distance between the churches (of 
Rome and En^^land) should be made wide enough,** An- 
tony Wood informs us that a new divinity-lecture waa 
fobiided ar Oxford by sir Francis, "a man of great abilities 
in the schools of policy, an extreme hater of the popes 
^nd churc^h of Rome, and no less a favourer to tho^e of the^ 
j^urttap party.** In the letters which sir Franks addressed 
vo the chadceHcMr of the qniyeirsitjF otl this occasion, be 



W A L fi I N G a A at Y3 

^;i, <' whereas it is found by good espertMee, tbtt the 
l^rariHRg in popery, and in superstition, whereof our Eng^ 
UsbmeD of late years txained in the seminaries beyond the 
se;^ so greatly glory, and so much hurt her majesty'^ good 
subjects^ when they come to this realm from thence, hath 
by no means grown and taken root so deeply in those se- 
minaries as by certain public teachers in those seminaries 
that read and baildle only common places of their false 
religion, which some call dictates, whereby the English 
•Jesuits, and late made priests beyond sea, though io truth 
of small or no reading at all themselves, yet make a great 
shew of learning : I cannot but manrel^ and much raislik^ 
fhot IP our universities here at home,' as great care is not 
had for advancement of true religion of God here pro* 
fessed, by some more lectures of diviuity to be read, e8pe<- 
cially the handling the principal parts of our religion, 
whereby no doubt but that the ministry of the churches of 
this realm, which should spring from the uniyersity, would 
be not only better to deliver all true doctrine, but also to 
confute upon every occasion the contrary,'^ &c.— The first 
lecturer nominated by sir Francis, was the celebrated Dr. 
John Rainolds (See Rainolds, p. 494), but the lecture was* 
only of the temporary kind, and is supposed to have ceased 
pn the founder^s death. 

In the same year, 1586, he displayed his usual sagacity 
and vigilance in the management of every thing relative 
to the detection^ of Babington*s conspiracy, against queen 
Elizabeth; and in October was one of the commissioners^ 
appointed to try Mary queen of Scotland. In the course 
of this trial Mary indirectly charged sir Francis with coun* 
terfettiug her letters and cyphers, and with practising both 
against her life and her son^s. Upon this sir I'homas rose 
upi and protested that his heart wss free from all malioe 
against the Scottish queen. *^ I call God,** says he, *^ to 
witness, that as a private person I have done nothing un- 
beseeming an honest man ; neither in my public condition: 
and quality have I done any thing unworthy of my place.' 
I coQfef(s, that out of my great care for the safety of the 
queen and realm, I have curiously endeavoured to search 
And sift out all plots and designs against the same. If Bal- 
lard (one of the persons concerned in Babington^s con-^ 
spiracy) had offered me his assistance, I should not have re- 
fused it ; yea, I would have rewarded him for his pains and 
service* If I have tampered any thing with him, why did' 



« W A L S I N e H A M. 

bo not discover it to save bis life ?'' With this answe^r 

?Q0^n Mury said she was satis^ed ; and she desired sir 
rancis ^^ not to be angry that she bad spoken so freely 
what she bad beard reported, aod that be would give no 
more credit to those that slandered her, than she did to 
•«ch as accused bim.'* 

Soon after this sir Francis was made chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, As to bis share in baffling the designs 
^f the court of Spain, Welwood, in bis *^ Memoirs/* in- 
forms us that Walsingbam^ by a refined piece of policy^ 
defeated, for a whole year together, the measures that the 
Spanish monarch had taken for fitting out his armada to 
invade England. ^^ The vast preparations," be says, *' ibat 
were making for a considerable time in Spain, kept all 
Europe in suspense^ and it was not certain against whom 
they were designed i though it was the general opiniou 
they were to subdue the Netherlands all at oncoy which 
Spain was sensible could not be done without a greater 
force by sea as well as land, than bad hitherto been emr 
ployed for that service. Queen Elizabeth thought fit to 
be upon her guard, and bad some jealousies that she might 
be aimed at : but bow to find it out was the di$culty» which 
at length Walsingham overcame. He had intelligence from 
Madrid, that Philip had told his council that be bad dis^r 
patched an express to ^ome with a letter written with his 
own hand to the pope, acquainting bini with the true de? 
sign of his preparations, and asking bis blessing upon it, 
which for some reasons he would not disclose to them till 
the return pf the courier. The secret being thus lodge4 
with the pope, WalsiDgham, by means of a Venetian priest 
retained at Rome as kis spy, got a copy of the original let-* 
ter, which was stolen, out of the pope's cabinet by a gen«- 
tleman of the bed-chamber, who took the keys out of the 
pope's pocket while he slept. And upon this intelligence 
Walsingham found a way to retard the Spanish invasion for 
a whole year, by getting the Spanish bills protested at 
Genoa, which should have supplied them with money to 
c^rry on their preparations." In our article of Thoipa^ 
Sutton, founder of the Charter-house, we have mentioned 
that this gentleman was Walsingham's chief agent in getr 
ting these bills protested. 

Of the remainder of sir Francis Walsingbam's life we 
have few particulars. It appears, that, in 1589, he enter- 
tl^ined queen Elizabeth at his bouse at Bafru Elms, and. 



M wift usual in all her m^esty^s visits, bar whole couri 
Prei^piiily to thi» vUit, the queen bad taken a leasa of tbt 
manor of Barn<*E|j|is, which was to coaiinence after th^ 
expiration of sir Henry Wyat'g, in 1600. U^r intere^ia 
tb\$ lease she granted hy letters patent, bearing date tba 
twenty-first j^ear of. her reign, to sir Francis Walsingbam 
and bis heirs. Sir Francis, in addition to his other dig* 
nitiea, was a knight of the garter, and recorder of CoU 
fh^ter. He passed fai^ latter days niostiy In this retire* 
meiit at Barnes, and whan any of his former gay com* 
pauions came to see bim and told.bin^ be was meiancholyy 
h^ is said to have replied, ^' No, I acn not melancholy ; I 
aip Aerious ; and Uis fit I shoqld be so.. Oh ! my friends* 
while we laifgh, all things are seripus round about us 3 
Qod is s^ripus, who exerciseth patience towards us : Chrisi 
U serious, who shed his blood for us : the Holy Spirit ia 
seriou«f in striving against the obstinacy of our hearts : tliei 
holy #cripture/i bring to our ears the most serious things in 
tb# world : the hqly sacra<nents represent the most sertoua 
and awful matters ; the whole creation is serious in serving 
Cod and u^ i all that are in heaven and hell are serious :*^ 
bpw tiien can- we b^ gay ?" 

Sir Francis Walsingbam died April ^, 1590, at bis town 
bouse in Seething^lane, so poor, it is said, that his friends 
were obliged to. bury him in St. Paul's late at night, in the 
ippst private, manner ; in con6rmation of which fact, no* 
certiiicate of his funeral appears to have been entered at 
the Heralds' college, as was usual when anyf>erson ofcem-^ 
sequence was interred in a manner suitable to his rank.; 
H4)W he became so poor must now be a matter of conjee-* 
tiire. In the early part of his public life we have seen that 
he expended his own fortune in the service of his country,. 
aud what he gained by his official employments was not, 
probably, more than sufficient to keep up his rank* 

His only surviving daughter had the singular lot of being, 
wife to three of th^ most accomplished men of the age,> 
sir Philip Sidney, the earl of E^sex, and the earl of Claa** 
ripard. She died at Barn-Elms, June 19, 1602, and was 
buried the ne^^t night privately, near her husband in St.. 
Paul's cath^^ralf * 

Sir Francis Walsingham was a puritan in his religioiis 
prii|ciplas, and atfiri^ta favourer of- them in some matters, 
of xliscipUne. To Uiem heofferefiU in 1^93, in the queen's '. 
name, that provided they would conform in other points, 



n W A L,d I NO ll A M > 

«1ie tlpree eerjemonies of kneeling at the cbmmunidfi'y wtorf 
ing the surplice^ aod the cross in baptism, should be ei^^ 
puiiged oat of the Common-prayen But the^ replying to 
these concessions in the language 6f Moses^ that ^* they 
would not leave so much as a hoof behind,'* meaning, that 
they would have thfs church^Iiturgy wholly laid aside^ and 
not be obliged to the performance of any office in it ; so 
unexpected an answer lost them in a great aieasuTe Wal* 
singham's affection. His general character has b^en thus 
sumiped i|p, from various authorifies : ^' He was un- 
doubtedly one of the most refiaed poiiticiaos, and most 
penetrating statesmen, that ever any age produced. He 
fa^d an admirable talent both in discovering and managing 
the secret recesses of bunian nature : he had his spies in 
most courts ofGhriStendoip, and ftUowed them a liberal 
maintenance ; for his grand maxim was^ that *< knowledge 
js never too dear/^ He spent his Whole time and faculties 
in the service of the queen and her kingdonis ; on which 
account her majesty was heard to say that <' in diligence 
and Sagacity he exceeded her expectation.^' He is thought 
(but this, we trust, is unfounded) to have had« principal 
hand in laying the foundation of the wars in France and 
Flanders; and is said, upon hU retpri) from his embassy 
in France, when the gueeQ expressed her apprehension 
of the Spanish designs against that kingdom, to have an« 
swered, ^' Madam, be content, and fear not. The Spa* 
niard hath a great appetite, and an excellent digestion. 
But I have fitted him with a bone for these twenty years, 
that your majesty shall have no cause to dread him, 
provided, that if the fire chance to slack which I ijvLve 
kindled, you will be ruled by me, and cast in soi^e of your 
fuel, which v^ill revive the flame.** He would cherish a 
plot some years together, admitting the conspirators to 
bis own, and even the queen^s presence, very fainiliarly ; 
but took care to have them carefully watched. His spies 
constantly attended on particular men for three years to*' 
gether; and lest they should not keep the secret, he dis* 
patched them into foreign parts, taking in new ones in 
their room. His training of Parry, who designed the mur* 
der of the queen ; the admitting of him, under the pre- 
tence of discovering the plot, to her majesty's presence ; 
and then letting him go where he would, only on the 
security of a centinel set over him, was an instance of 



W A L SI N:a H A Ik it 

ti^h ^nd: bftzfird beyond comoion apprehension. Tlit 
(jueen of Scots' letters were all carried to him by her own 
fiervauty whom she trusted, and were decyphered for him 
by one Philips^ and sealed up again by one Gregory ; so 
tba^ neither that queen, nor any of her correspondents ever 
perceived either the seals defaced, or letters delayed. 
yideo et taceo^ was his saying, before it was his mistress's 
motto. He served himself of the court factions as the 
^ueen did, neither advancing the one, nor depressing the 
other. He was familiar with Cecil, allied to Leicester^ 
and an oracle to RadcliiFe earl of Sussex. His conversation 
was insinuating, and yet reserved. He saw every man, and 
i>one saw him. *' His spirit/' says Lloyd, '' was as public 
ashis. parts; yet as debonnaire as he was prudent, and as 
pbliging to the softer but predominant parts of the world, 
as be was serviceable to the more severe ; and no less dex- 
tro^s to work on humours than to convince reasoui He 
would say, he must observe the joints and flexures of 
affairs \ and so could do more with a story, than others 
^ould with an harangue. He always surprized business, 
^u)4 preferred motions in the beat of other diversions ; and 
if he ii)ust debate it, be would hear all, and with the ad« 
vantage of foregoing speeches, that either cautioned 6r 
copfirmed.bis resolutions, he carried all before bim iu: 
^pnclusion, without reply. To him men's faces spake as 
laucb as thetir tpngue$, and their countenances were in*- 
dex^ of their hi^arts. Ue would so beset men with ques*- 
tions, and draw them on, that they discovered themselves 
ivbetheir they answered or were silent. He maintained 
fifty-three, agents and eighteen spies iu foreign courts ; and 
for two pistoles an order bad all the private papers in Eu-^ 
rope. . Few letters escaped his hands ; and be could read 
their contents without touching the seals. Religion was 
^ interest pf his country, in his judgment, and of his. 
soul; therefore he maintained it as sincerely as he lived 
tU It had his head,, his purse, and his heart. He laid tha 
great foundation of the protest4nt constitution as to its po^ 
Hoy, and the main plot against the popish as to Us ruin.'* 
.r< Jn ^^ Cot^oni Posthmnii, or divers and.choice pieces of sir 
Robert Cotton,*' &c. is a short article entitled ^^ Sir Francis^ 
tValsingham's anatomising of Honesty, AmbiUon, and For- 
titude j^ but the book ascribed to him, entitled << Arcana 
Xulica \ or, Walsyngham's Manual, or prudential Ma:)cims,'', 



f S W A L S I K p » A M: 

which has been printed several cttnes, is of more doubtftit 
authority.* 

WALSINGHAM (Thomas, or Thomas of), on^of the 
best English historians of the fifteenth century, was a na-* 
tive of Norfolk, a Benedictine of St. Albans^ and historio^ 
grapher royal, about 1440, in the reign of Henry VL He 
compiled two historical works of considerable length, the 
one "A History of Erfgland," beginning at the 57th Henfy 
lit. the year 1273, and concluding with the funeral of 
Henry V. and the appointment of Humphrey duke of 6lou«^ 
cester to the regency of England. His other work is entitled 
*^ Vpodigma Neustries," a sort of history o( Normandy, afi<» 
ciently called Neustria, interspersed with the affairs of Eng-* 
land from the beginning of the tenth century to 141 S. Ift 
the dedication of this work, which, with the other, W89 
published by archbishop Parker in 1574, fol. he tells Henrf 
V* that when he reflected on the cunning intrigues, frauds, 
and breaches of treaties in his enemies the French, be was 
tormented with fears that they would deceive him : and bad 
composed that work, which contained many estamples of 
their perfidy, to put him upon his guard. WalsinghaiM 
himself allows that his style is rude and unpolished, and he 
relates many ridiculous stories of visions, miracles, and pot* 
tents, but all this was the credulity of the age. In what be«' 
longs to himself he is more to be praised : his narrative in 
fur more full, circumstantial, and satisfactory, than that of 
the other annalists of those times, and contaiua many things 
BO where else to be found. ' 

WALSTEIN (Albekt), duke of Fridland, a celebrated 
German commander, was born 'in 1584, and descended of 
a noble and ancient Bohemian family. His education ap^ 
pears to have been irregular. At first be had no indifia^ 
tion for study, but later in life be applied himself to astro^ 
nomy and politics, at Padua. After his return to his own 
country, he married, but being soon left a widower, he 
went to the siege of Gradisca, in Friuli, and offered hi A ser-« 
vices to the archduke Ferdinand, against the Venetians* 
When the troubles broke out in Bohemia, he offered him** 
^If to the emperor, with an army of thirty thousand men, 
on condition of being their general. The emperor having 

1 Biog. Brit.->Lloyd'8 State Wo»tbi«f.— Peck'i Desiderftta.*-Birch*8 LivM^ 
—MelviPs Memoirs.— Lysons*! EoTiroos, vol. 11. — Lodge's liluttrations.— 
rinme'iNist — ^Wood's Aooali. 

5 Nicolson'f Hist. Librarj.— Henry's Hist, of Great Britain. 



W A t s T e t N. « 

eonsented, WaUtein marched alttfae bead of tltis army, anil 
reduced the diocese of Halberstadt and the bitboprio of 
Hftlle; he ravaged also the territories of Magdeburgh and 
Atihalt; defeated Mansfeldt in two battles ; retook all St«< 
tesia; vai^quished the marquis d^Urlach; conquered tb0 
archbishopric of Bremen and Holsace^ and made himself 
master of all the country between the ocean^ the Baltic 
sea, and the Elbe ; leaving only Gluckttadt to the king of 
Denmark, whom he also drove finom Pomerania, where he 
bad tnade a descent. After the treaty of Lubec, the emv 
peror gave him the titles and spoils of the duke of Mecklen* 
bnrgh^ who had rebelled; but Walstein publi^ed an edict 
about that time, ordering the restitution of ecclesiastical 
property in the territories just given him ; and the protests 
tants, beirtg alarmed, called in Gtistavus Adolphus, king of 
Sweden, to their assistance. This step so intimidated thft 
ettiperof, that he permitted Walstein to be removed, and 
sent only Tilly against Gustavus. Tilly having been d«-* 
feated at Letpsic by the Swedes, the conqueror rurshed intm 
Germany like a torrent, which obliged the emperor to re^ 
caH Walstein, whom he appointed generalissimo. Wal«« 
tein accordingly entered the lists with the Swedish mo^ 
tiarch ; defeated him, and was defeated in his turn ; took 
from him almost the whole of Bohemia, by the capt«re of 
Prague, and fought with various success till the bloody 
battle of Lutcen, November 16, 1632, which Walateia 
lost, though Gustavud Adolphus was killed ^t the com* 
tDencement of the action. Walstein, notwithstanding this 
defeat, finding himself delivered from so formidable a 
prince, was saspected of aiming at independence ; and these 
suspicions being itK;reased by his refusing to submit to tha 
court of Vientia in any of his enterprises, the emperor de-» 
graded him, and gave the conrraiand to Galas. Walstein^ 
alarmed at this, made the officers of his army take an oath 
of fidelity to him at Piisen, January 12, iG34, and retired to 
Egra, a strong city on the frontiers of Bohemia and Saxony; 
but Gordon, a Scotchman, lieutenant-colonel and governor 
of Egra, flattered by the hopes of great preferment, con* 
spired against him with Botler, an Irishman, to whom WaU 
ttein had given a regiment of dragoons, and Lasci, a Scotch* 
man, captain of his g^uards. These three, who are said to 
have been instigated to this crime by the court of Vienna^ 
murdered him in his chamber, February 15, 1634. He 
was, at that time, fifty years old. The family of Walsteia 



80 W A L T 6 Ni 

n dutioguisbed in Gern^pij, and has produced sCivetal 
ofcber great men. ^ 

WALTON (Brian), a learned, English bishop, and edi« 
tor of the celebrated Polyglott Bible, was borta at Cleave'^ 
land in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in 1 600. He was ad« 
mmedsizer of Magdalen college, Cambridge, under Mr. John 
Gooch,but in 1616 removed to Peter-House college, where 
be took a master of arts degree in 1 623. About that time, 
or before^ he taught, a school, and serred as a curate in 
Suffolk, whence he removed to London, and lived for a 
little time as assistant or curate to Mr, Stock, rector of All- 
hallows in Bread^street. After the jd/^ath of Mr. Stock, 
h^ became rector of St. Martinis Orgar in London, and of 
Sandon in Essex ; to the latter of which he was admitted 
in January 1635, and the same day to St. GilesVin-the- 
Fieids, which he quitted soon after. The way to prefer- 
ment, lay pretty open then to a jnan of his qualities; for» 
he had not only uncommon learning, which was more re* 
garded then than it had been of late years, but he was also 
exceedingly zealous for the church and king. In 1639, he 
commenced dootor of divinity ; at which time he was pre* 
bendary of St PauPs and chaplain to the king* He pos* 
sessed also another branch of knowledge, which made him 
Very acceptable to the cleigy : he was well versed in the 
laws of the land, especially those which relate to the patcii» 
mony and liberties of the church. During the controversy 
between the clergy and inhabitants of the city of London, 
about the tithes of rent, he was very industrious and active 
in behalf of the former ; and upon that occasion made so 
exact and learned a collection of customs^ prescriptions, 
laws| orders, proclamations, and compositions, for many 
hundred years together, relating to that matter, (^n abstract 
of which was afterwards published,) that the judge declared, 
*< there could be no dealing widi the London ministers if 
Mr. Walton pleaded for them.'' Such qualities, however, 
could only render him peculiarly obnoxious to the repub- 
lican party, and accordingly, when they had^assumed the 
superiority, he was summoned by the House of Common^ 
as a delinquent; was sequestered from his living of St. 
Martinis Orgar, plundered, and forced to fly ; but whether 
he wei^t to Oxford directly, or to his other living of San* 
doo in Essex, does lyot appear. It is, however, certain that 

» Moreri.—Wct. HisU 



Walton. h 

he Vw» most cruelly treated at that liting likevvise, bfcirtg^ 
grievously harassed there ; and once, when he was' sbtigjit' 
for by a party of horse, was forced to shelifer himself W 
a. broom-field. The manner of his being sequestered froirif' 
this living is a curious specimen of the principles of tbos^' 
who were to restore the golden age of |>oliticai justice. Sir- 
Henry Mildms^y and Mr. Ashe, members of parlianyeritj 
first theiHselves drew up articles agairist him, though* nd' 
way concerned in the parish, and then sent riiem to San^ 
don to be witnessed and subscribed. Thus dispossei&sed^ 
of both his livings, be betook himself for refuge to Ox- 
ford, as according to Lloyd^ he would otherwise hkve been' 
murdered. 

On August 12, 1645, be was incorporated in the uni-* 
versity of Oxford* Here it was that he formed the noble* 
scheme of publishing the Polyglott Bible ; and, upon the* 
decline of the king's cause, he retired to the house of Dr* 
Williai?! Fuller, his farlier-in-law, in London^ where, though 
ftetjuently disturbed bj' the prevailing powers, he lived to ' 
complete it; , The *'Biblia Polyglotta'* was published at 
London in 1657, in 6 vols, folio; wherein the sacred text- 
waij by bis-singular care and oversight, printed, not only^ 
in the vulgar Ladn, but also in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chal*-' 
dee, Samaritan, Arabic, ^thiopic, Persic, and Greek, lan- 
guage*; each having its peculiai' Latin translation joined 
therewith, and an apparatus fitted to each for the bettelf 
understanding of those tongues* In this great wOrk> so far' 
s^ related to the correcting of it at the press, and the col-' 
lating of copies, he had the assistance of several learned*' 
persons; the chief of whom was Mn Edmund Castell, after- 
wards professor ef Arabic at Cambridge. Ambng his other' 
assistants were Mr. Samuel Clarke of Mertpn college, -and 
Mr. Tiioma^ Hyde of Queen's college; Oxford : he had' 
also some help from Mr. Whelock, Mh Thorndike^ Mr. 
Edward Pocock, Mi*. Thomas Greaves, &c. Towards 
printing the work^ he had contributions of money from 
many noble persons and gentlemen, which were put into 
the bands of sir William Humble, treasurer for the said 
work. The Prolegomena and Appetidix to it wefe at« 
ticked in 1669, by Dr. John Owen, in "Considerations," 
&04 who w^s answered the same year by Dr. Walton, in a 
piece iitider the title of " The Considerator considered : 
or, a>brief View of certain Con^siderations upon the Mblia 

VOL.XXXL G 



82; WALTON. 

Polyglotta, the Prblcgomena, and Appendix* Wherein, 
a,mong other things, the certainty, integrity, and the di- 
vine authority, of the original text is defended against the 
consequences of Atheists, Papists, Anti-Scripturists, &c. 
inferred from the various readings and novelty of the He- 
brew points, by the author of the said Considerations ; the 
Biblia Polyglotta and translations therein exhibited, with 
the various readings, prolegomena, and appendix, vindi- 
cated from his aspersions and calumnies; and the questions 
about the punctuation of the Hebrew text, the various 
readings, and the ancient Hebrew character, briefly band- 
it,". 8vo. These prolegomena, which have always been 
admired, and aflPord indeed the principal monument of his 
learning, consist of sixteen parts : U Of the nature* origin, 
division, number, changes, and use of languages. 2. Of 
letters, or characters, their wonderful use, origin and first 
invention, and their diversity in the chief languages. 3« 
Of the Hebrew tongue, its antiquity, preservation, change, 
excellency, and use, ancient characters, vowel points, and 
accents. 4. Of the principal editions of the Bible. 5. Of 
the translations of the Bible. 6. Of the various readings 
in the Holy Scripture. 7. Of the integrity and authority 
of the original texts. 8. Of the Masora, Keri, and Ketib, 
various readings of the Eastern and Western Jews, Beo 
Ascher^ and Ben Napthali, and of the Cabala. 9. Of the 
Septuagint, and other Greek translations. 10. Of the La- 
tin Vulgate. II. Of the Samaritan Pentateuch,^ and the 
versions of the same. 12. Of the Chaldee language, and 
visions. 13. Of the Syriac tongue, and versions. 14. Of 
the Arabic language and versions. 15. Of the Ethiopia 
tongue and versions; and, 16. Of th^ Persian language 
and versions* As these instructive prolegomena were highly 
valued by scholars on the continent, they were reprinted at 
Zurich in 1573, fol. by Heidegger, with Drusius*s collec- 
tion of Hebrew proverbs; and about 1777 Dr.Dathe printed 
an edition at Leipsic in Svo, with a preface containing many 
judicious and learned remarks on several of Dr. Walton^s 
opinions. 
. Nine languages, as we have observed, are used in. this 
Polyglott, yet there is no one book in the whole Bible 
printed in so many. In the New Testament, the four evan- 
gelists are in six languages ; the other books only in five ; 
and those of Judith and the Maccabees only in three. 



W A L T Ni Si 

The S^ptuagint Tersion is printed from the edition at Rome 
in 1587. Tbe Latin is the Vulgat^ of Clement VIII. But 
for these and nraany other particulars of the history and pro-* 
gress of this work, so great an honour to the English press^ 
we must refer to Dr. Clark's Bibliographical Dictionary, and 
that invaluable fund of information, Mr. Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes. The alterations in the preface to the Polyglott, 
in which the compliments to Cromwell are bmitted or al- 
tered so as to suit Charles II. have been long the topic of 
curious discussion, which ha$ had the effect to give a facti-^ 
tious value to the copies that happen to have the preface 
unaltered^ This was a few years ago in some measure de-» 
stroyed by Mr. Lunn, the bookseller, who printed afac simile 
of the republican preface, as it has been called^ which may 
be added by the possessors of the royal copies. 

After the restoration. Dr. Walton had the honoi^r to pre* 
sent the Polyglott Bible to Charles II., who made him cbap^ 
lain in ordinary, and soon after promoted him to the bishop-* 
ric of Chester. In September 1661, he went to take pos- 
session of his see ; and was met upon tbe road, and received . 
with such a concourse of gentry, clergy, militia both of the 
city and county, and with such acclamations of thousands of 
the people, as had never been known upon any such occa- 
sion. This was on the 10th of September, and on the 1 1th 
he was installed with much cerepiony ; '^ a day," says Wood, 
"not to be forgotten by all the true sons of the Church of 
England, though cursed then in private by the most rascally 
faction and crop-eared whelps of those parts, who did their 
endeavours to make it a May-game and a piece of foppery." 
This glory, however, which attended bishop Walton, though 
it seems to have been great, was yet short-lived ; for, re- 
turning to London, he died at his house in Aldersgate-street, 
Nov. the 29th following, and was interred in St. Paul's ca- 
thedral, where a monument with a Latin inscription wasi 
erected to his memory, of which a broken stone now only 
remains, with a few words of the inscription, in the vault of 
St. Faith^s under S,t. Paul*s. t)r. Walton was tivice married. 
His first wife was Anne, of the Claxton family of Suffolk. 
She died May 25, 1640, aged forty^-three, and was buried 
in the chancel of Suiidon chufth, where a handsome monu- 
ment was erected to her memory. His second wife was 
Jane, daughter to the* celebrated Dr. Fuller, vicar of St. 
Giles's Cripplegate. Dr. Walton had published at London, , 

G 2 



s^ 



WALT ON/ 



in 1655^ ^* Ititroductio ad lectionem Lidguarum Orienta- 
lium,** in 8vo. ' 

WALTON (George), a gallant naval officer, memor- 
able for the brevity of his dispatches, appears to have been 
of obscure origin, nor is any thing known of his history until 
bis apppintment, in 1692, to be first lieutenant of the De- 
vonshire, an eighty-gun ship. From this time we have only 
accounts of bis removals from one ship to another, without 
any opportunity of particularly displaying his courage, un- 
til 1718, when he commanded the Canterbury of sixty 
guns, and' was sent under the command of sir George Byng 
to the Mediterraoeanr On the 1 1th of August, tlie British 
fleet, then off Sicily, which had during the preceding day 
and nigbt, been in pursuit of the Spaniards, having come up 
so close to them as to render an engagement unavoidable, tlfe* 
marquis de Mari, one of their rear admirals, separated from 
the body of the fieet, and ran in for the Sicilian shore, with 
slxships of war, and all the galiies, store-ships, bomb- ketches, 
and fire-ships. Captain Walton was immediately detached 
after them with sis ships of the line, by the commander- 
in-chief, who himself pursued the remainder, and soon be- 
gan the attack, the issue of which was, that he captured 
four Spanish ships of War, one of them mounting six-ty 
guns, commanded by rear admiral Mari himself, one of 
fifty-four, one of forty, and one of twenty-four guns, with 
a bomb-vessel and a ship laden with arms ; and burnt one 
ship of war mounting fifty-four guns, two of forty, and one 
of thirty, a fire-ship, and a bomb-ketch. It may admit of 
some dispute, whether this brave o£Bcer derived a greater 
degree of popular favour from the gallantry of his con- 
duct, or the very singular account he rendered of it to his 
commander-in-chief, and to the world. The whole of bis 
dispatches were comprised in the following laconic note: 

*^ Sir, Canierburj/, offSyracus^^ Aug, 16, 1718. 

^^ We have taken and destroyed all the Spanish ships 
and vessels that were upon the coast, the number as per 
margin. 1 am, &c. George Walton." 

His. behaviour on this occasion procured him the honour 
of knighthood ii^mediately on his . return. He afterwards 
rose by the usual gradations to the rank of admiral of the 
blue, and was employed in various, expeditions^, but with- 

> Biog. Brit.—Ath. Ox. Tol. 11.— Gen. Dkt.— Lloyd's Memoirs.— Walker's 
tufftriogs, &c. 



WALTON. 85 

» 

out ^having any opportunity of acquiring addkioniil dis- 
tinction. In 1735 he retired altogether 'from active s^r- 
Ticemo a pension of 600/. a year, and died in 1740. ' 

WA»LTON (Isaac, or, as he used to writeit, iZAAK), a 
celebrated writer on 'tbe art of angling, and the author of 
'Home valuable lives, was born at Stafford in August 1593. 
rHis first setilement 'in London, as a shopkeeper, was in tli» 
Royal Burse in -Cornhill, built by sir T. Greshdm, ^and 
finished in 1567. 'In this situation he could scarcely be 
said to have had elbow-room ; for, the shops over theBurse 
were but seven -feet and a half long, and 6ve <wide ; yet he 
carried on his trade till some time before 1624, when ''be 
dwelt -on the north side of 'Fleet- street, in a house two 
doors west of the end of Chancery -lane, and abutting on « 
messuage known by the sign of 'the Harrow;'' by Wfaicli 
sign the old timber •^louse at -the soilth- west corner of 
Cbancerywlane, in Fieet-stteet, till within these few years, 
was known. A citiaen of ibis age would almost as much 
disdain to admit df atenanit foribalf bis shop, as a knight 
would to ride double ; though the brethren of one of the 
most ancient orders of the world were so little above tbis 
*pi^ctice, that their common seal was the device of two 
Tiding one horse. He married prdbably about 1632 ; for 
in that year be lived in a house in Chancery-ilane, a few 
doors higher up on the left hand than the former, and de- 
scribed by the occupation of a sempster or milliuer. The 
former of these 'might be bis own proper trade ; and the 
ktter, as being a femiuine occupation, might be carried 
on by his wife : she, it appears, was Ani>e, the daughter 
of Mr. Thomas Ken, of Furnivai's-inn, and sister of Tho- 
4aaa6, afterwards Dr. Ken, bishop of Bath and Wells. About 
1<643 'be left London, and, with a fortune very far short of 
what would now be called a competency, seems to have 
retired altogether from business. While ibe continued in 
London, his favourite recreation was angUng, in which be 
was the greatest proficieut of bis time ; and, indeed, so 
great were his skill and experience in that art, that there 
is scarcely any writer on the subject since his time who 
has not made the rules and practice of Walton -hb very 
foundation, {t is, therefore, with the greatest (propriety 
that Langbaine calls him ** the common father of -aill an- 
glers." The river that he seems mostly to halve frequented 

1 CampbeH'f Lives of Ihe Adtnirali .-^Charnock's BiQg. Navalis. 



»? WALTON, 

that county. These are testimonies in favour of Walton's 
authorky in matters respecting fish ^nd Ashing ; add it will 
barvdly be thought ^ diminution of that of Fuller to 'say, 
that he was acquainted with, and a friend of, the person 
M^kom be thus implicitly commends. About two years after 
tl>e restoration, Walton' wrote the life of Mr. Richard 
Hooker, author of the " Ecclesiastical Polity :" he was 
enjoined to undertake this work by his friend Dr. Gilbert 
Sheldon, afterwards archbishop of Canterbivry, who, by 
the- way, was an angler. £ishop King, in a leuerto ih^ 
auidior, says of this life, ** I have often seen Mr. Hooker 
with my 'father, who w^s afterwards bishop of London, from 
whom, and others at that titne, I have beard of the most 
mateirial passages which you relate in the history of his 
Jifei" Sir WiHiam Dugdale, speaking of the three post-r 
humous books of thfe " Eccleiiiastical Polity," refers th^ 
reader ^^ to that seasonable 'historical discourse lately com* 
piled and published, with great judgment and integrity, by 
that .muob* deserving person Mr. Isaac Wakon." 

The life of Mr. George Herbert, as it stands the -fourth 
and 'last in the volume in which t bat and the three former 
are collected, seem« to >have been wrifeten the next after 
ilooker^s : it was first published in 1670. Walton professes 
i>im8elf to have 'been astranger to the person of Herbert; 
^d though he assures us his life of him was a free-will 
coffering, it abounds with curious information, and is no 
"way inferior 'to any of the former. Two of these lives, Vtz, 
•those of 'Hooker and 'Herbert, we are told, were written 
under the root of Walton's good friend and 'patron Dr. 
<yeorge Morley, bishop of Winchester ; whi<5h seems to 
'agree with Wood's account, that, ** after his quitting Lon*- 
don, he lived mostly in the families of the eminent clergy 
of *hat time ;'^ and none who. consider the inoffensiveness 
•cif Jiis manners and the pains he took in celebrating the 
lives and actions of good men, c^n doiibi bis being much 
ibeloved 'by them. 

In d670, these lives were collected and published in 
ootiivo, with a dedication to the above bishop of Windhes- 
jter, and a preface, containing -the motives 'for writing tbeai ; 
-this preface is followed by a copy of verses, by his inti- 
inate friend and adopted son, Charles Cotton, /of (Beres- 
iori in Staffordshire, esq. the author of the second part of 
»the '^-Complet-e Angler." The " Complete Angler** having, 
in the space of twenty-tbree years, gone through -ioxtr 



WALTON. 89 

9 

ediliQDs, Walton, in 1676, and in the eighty-third year of 
bb age, was preparing a fifth, with additiom, ^fior therpveas; 
when iCottoD wrote a second ipatt of ithat wofk. Cotton 
sobfiiitted the manuscript to Waiton's.perusal, who vetumed 
it .with ibis approbation, and a'fewiinatgiiial strictures; .and 
in tiiat year they were published together. Cottun^.« book 
had the title of <<The Complete Angler; being inatruc*- 
iionshow to angle for a. trout or grayling, in aolear steeam, 
Airt.II." and. it bascever«inoe been reoewed as a second 
part. of Walton*4,'book. In the title-page is a cipher, com- 
jiosed of ;the initial letters of 'both their names:; wbicb 
cipher, Cotton tells us, he -had. caused to be >ciit in .stone, 
and fiet up over a fishing-bouse itbatihe'had.ereeted near 
has. dwelling, on theibank of.ibe little. river £>ove, .which 
.dixrides the eotinties of Stafibrd and Derby. ^ 

iCotton'« <book is a judicious .supplement :to Wnlton^^ ; 
ibr, it must notibe concedled, that Walton, though he was 
«o expert an angler, knew tbut little of tfly-fishing ; andin^ 
deed iher ,18 «o ingenuous as to confess, that .the greater 
pavtof what be>has>saidion'tbat sub)ect was .communicated 
tothim by Mr. Thomas Barker, and not the result of this 
own experience^. And of Cotton 'it must be said, that, 
iiving in a country where 'fly-Bshing was, ;and is, almost 
<tbe<only practice, ibe 'had not only the means of acquiring, 
•but actually possessed, more skill in the art, as also in the 
method of making flies, than most men of bis time. His 
book is in fact ^ continuation of Walton's, not only as it 
rteaches at large that 'branch of the art of angling which 
Walton had but slightly treated on, but as it takes up Y^e- 
>nator, Walton's piscatory discrplitie, just where his master 
had :left ibim. 

Walton was now in his eighty-third year, an age, which, 
•to use his own words, " might have procured him a writ of 
.ease t^ and secured him from all farther trouble in that 

* Jhls Mr. Batker wag a good-hu- Westminster. A few years after tbe 

iDOured gosviping old man, and seems first publication of WaUon's book, viz. 

tO'have baen a cook; -forbe says, **he in 1659, be publii^hed a hook, entitled 

had been admitted.ivtoitbe.niOiBt wan- *' Bar k«r'«8 Delight, rOr the Act of Aji- 

bassadors kitchens that had come to giing.*' And, for that singular vein pf 

-Englaadfor forty years, and drest fish humour that runs through it, a most 

for them ;" for which he says, ** be diverting book it is. 
was duly paid by 'the Lord Proteotor." f^ A diacharge from the af&ee of a 

(tie* 8 pent a. great deal of time, and, it judge, or the state and decree of a 

«eem8, money too, in ifishing ; and, in aerjeant at Wmt. Dugdalei'Ong. Jurid. 

the-latier-'part of bia life, dwelt in «n f, 189* 
aims- house near the C^atehoiwe, at - 



90 WALTON. 

kind ;'' when he undertook to write the life of bishop San^ 
derson, which was published, together with several of the 
bishop^s pieces, and a sermon of Hooker's, 1677, in 8vo. 
It was not till long after that period when the faculties of 
men begin to decline, that Walton undertook to write this 
life ; yet, far from being deficient in any of those excel- 
lences that distinguish the former lives, it abounds with 
the evidences of a vigorous imagination, a sound judg- 
ment, and a memory unimpaired ; and for the nervous 
sentiments and pious simplicity displayed in it, let the 
4:oncluding paragraph, pointed out by Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
be considered as a specimen : ^^Thus this pattern of meek- 
ness and primitive innocence, changed this for a better life. 
It is now too late to wish that mine may be like his, for I 
am in the eighty-fifth year of my age, and God knows.it 
hath not ; but I most humbly beseech Almighty God that 
my death may : and I do earnestly beg, that, if any reader 
shall receive any satisfaction from this very plain and as 
true relation, he will be so charitable as to say. Amen V* 
Such were the persons, whose virtues Walton was laudably 
employed iu celebrating; and it is observable, that not 
only these, but the rest of Walton's friends *, were emi- 
nent royalists ; and that he himself was in great repute for 
his attachment to the royal cause will appear by a relation 
which sir John Hawkins has quoted from Ashmole's ^^ His- 
tory of the Garter." 

Besides the works of Walton above-mentioned, there are 
extant, of his writing, verses on the death of Dr. Donne, 
beginning, " Our Donne is dead ;" verses to his reverend 
friend the author of the *^ Synagogue," printed together 
with Herbert's "Temple;" verses before Alexander Brome's 
"Poems," 1646, and before* Cartwright's "Plays and 
Poems," 1651. He wrote also the lines under an engrav- 
ing of Dr. Donne, before his " Poems," 1635.* 

Dr. Henry King, bishop of Chichester, in a letter to 
Walton, dated in Nov. 1664, says, that he had done much 
for sir Henry Savile, his contemporary and familiar friend; 
which fact connects very well with what the late Mr. Des 
Maizeaux, some years since, related to Mr. Oldys, that 

* In the number of his intimate Edwin Sandys, sir Edward Bysh, Mr. 

friends, we find Abp. Usher, Abp. Shel- Cranmer, Dr. Hammond, Mr. Chil- 

don, Bp. Morton, £p. King, Bp. Bar- lingworih, Miehael Drayton, and that 

low, Dr. Fuller, Dr. Price, Dr. AVood- celebrated scholar and critic Mr. John 

fefdj Dr. f eatlj, Dr, Holdsworth, sir . ilales of Eton. > 



WALTON. 91 

1 

there were then several letters of Walton extant, in the 
Ashmolean Museum, relating to a life^of sir Henry Savile, 
which Walton had entertained thoughts of writing. He 
also undertook to collect materials foV a life of Hales. Mr. 
Anthony Farringdon, minister of St. Mary Magdalen, Milk- 
street, London, had begun to write the life of this memo- 
rable person, but, dying before he had completed it, his 
papers were sent to Walton, with a request from Mr. Ful- 
man, who had proposed to himself to continue and finish 
it, that Walton would furnish him with such information as 
was to his purpose. Fulman did not live' to complete his 
design ; but a life of Mr. Hales, from other materials, was 
Compiled by the late Mr. Des Maizeaux, and published by 
him in 1719, as a specimen of a new '^Biographical Dic- 
tionary." In 1683, when he was ninety years old, Wal- 
ton published ^'Thealma and Clearchus, a pastoral history, 
in shiooth and easy verse, written long since by John Chalk- 
bil, esq. an acquaintance ^nd friend of Edmund Spenser :'• 
to this poem he wrote a preface,* containing a very amiable 
character of the author. He lived but a very little time 
after the publication of this poem ; for, as Wood says, he 
ended his days on the 15th of Dec. 1683, in the great 
frost, at Winchester, in the house of Dr. William Hawkins, 
a prebendary of the church there, where' he lies buried. 

In the cathedral of Winchester, on a large black flat 
marble stone, is an inscription to his memory, the poetry 
of which has very little to recommend it. Of the various 
editions of Walton's Angler, and other works on the same 
subject, an accurate catalogue is given in the British Bib- 
liographer, vol. H. ' Of his " Lives'* a much improved edi- 
tion was published by Dr. Zouch in 1796, 4to, reprinted 
since in 8vo. The life of Walton followed in the preceding 
sketch, is principally that by sir John Hawkins, in his edi- 
tion of the Angler. Dr. Zouch's is perhaps more elegant, 
but has few additional facts. ' 

WANDESFORDE, (Christopher, Viscount Castle- 
comer), an upright statesman, was the son and heir of sir 
George Wandesforde, knight, of Kixklington, in Yorkshire, 
and was born at Bishop Burton, in the East Riding of that 
county, in Sept. 1592. His family was very ancient and 
honourable^ the pedigree beginning with Geoffrey de 
Musters, of Kirklington, in the reign of Henry H, He 

^ Life by Sir John IIawkins-«*and \ty Dr. Zoucb. 



92 WANDESFORDE. 

-was taught by his virtuous mother the rudiments of the 
English tongue, and of the Christian religion, and sent, as 
soon as it was proper, to the free^school of Wei lis, and 
there instructed in due course in the I^tin and Greek lan- 
guages. About the age of fifteen he was judged fit for the 
university, and admitted of Clare-'hall, Cambridge, under 
* ^the tuition of Dr. Milner. -Here, it is supposed, bis ac^ 
.quaintance commenced with Mr. Wentwofth, afterwards 
earl of Strafford, which grew into the strictest friendship 
and fraternal affection. Mr. Wandesforde is said to have 
made great progress at college in the arts and sciences, 
and the knowledge of things natural, moral, and divine; 
but applied himself closely at the same time to the study 
of the classics, and particularly to oratory, as appears from 
bis subsequent speeches in parliament. At the age of 
nineteen he was called from the university by bis fatber^s 
death, to a scene of important business, the weighty re- 
gulation of family affairs, with an estate heavily involved ; 
bis necessary attention to which prevented faim from .pur- 
suing the studies preparatory to the church, which be had 
originally chosen as a profession, and now relinquished. 

After this, a general acquaintance with the laws of bis 
country seems to have been his leadfng acquirement, and 
hence, when he became a representative in parliament, he 
was nominated one of the eight chief managers in 'the im* 
.peaohment of the duke of Buckingham. The account of 
Mr. Wandesforde's share in that transaction, as given by 
Husbworth, is .much to the credit of his moderation and 
prudence. In the new parliament, which met March. 1 7^ 
l'62Sy he made a conspicuous ifiguve, and acted a truly 
constitutional part, supporting the privileges of the people 
when attacked, and when these were secured by a confir- 
mation of the petition of right, adhering to bis sovereign. 
About 1633, it was proposed by Charles I. to send Mr. 
Wandesforde ambassador to Spain ; but tbis honour ^was 
declined, from bis not wishing to engage in any public 
•employment. Soon after, however^ when his friend lord 
Wentworth was fixed onto go as lord-deputy to Irelandy 
Mr. Wandesforde was persuaded to accompany bim tas 
master of the rolls, from motives of personal regard. He 
arrived at Dublin in July 1633, whene be built a new of- 
<fice oftlie rolls at his own co&t. In 1636 he was made one 
of the lords justices of Ireland, in the absence of lord 
Wentworth, and knighted. Retiring to his seat at Kil- 



W A N D E S F O a D E. 93. 

• 

dftFc^, he cbmpletied his. book of '* Instructions to bb Son,"' 
which,be»r8 date Oct« 5, 1636. He soon after sold Kildare 
to lord Wentworth, and purcliased the estate of Castl«- 
comer, where he established a in a^nu factory for cottons^ and 
founded a^coiliery. In 1640 he was appointed lord -deputy 
in the place of lord Strafford^ and gave such satisfaction to> 
the king by his- conduct in that high station, that he was 
created baron M owbray^ and Musters, and viscount Castle-* 
corner^ On. the receipt of the patent, however, he ex^^ 
claimed, ** Is it a fit tin>e for a faithful subject to appear 
higher than usual, when his king, the fountain of honours^ 
is hkely to be reduced lower than ever?*' He therefore- 
ordered tlia patent tobe conceaiedi and his grandson^ was 
the first who assumed its privileges^ 

His lordship died Dec. 3, 1640,- and his loss was utriver^ 
sally, lamented, says Lodge, being a man o£ great prudence,v 
moderation^ integrity, and virtcte. Lord Straiford, on bear^ 
ing of bis death, is said to have uttered the following* 
apostrophe: ^^ I attest the eternal God^ that the death of 
my cousin Wandesforde more affects me than the prospect 
of my own ; for in him is lost the richest .magazine of learn-* 
ing, wisdom, and piety, that these times could boast.'' 

His lordship was reported by. his daughter to have read 
over the whole Bible yearly, and to have made ^^ great re- 
marks upon it." These remarks^ with other ** Collections 
in Divinity," are said to be lost, and so it was for some 
time surmised, were his valuaUe ^^ Instructions to lus Son,'* 
an excellent manual of piety and wisdom, till a duplicate 
copy was discovered which liad been privately transcribed, 
and frbm which the work was printed under the care of the 
author's great- great-grandson, Thomas Comber, LL. D. 
in 1777, 12mo, with a second volume in 1778, containing 
memoirs of the life and death of lord-deputy VVandes* 
forde. ' 

WANLEY (Humphrey), a literary antiquary of great 
learning and accuracy, was the son of the rev. Nathanael 
Wanley, some time vicar of Trinity-church in Coventry. 
This Nathanael Wanley was born at Leicester in 1633, 
and died in 16^80. Besides the vicarage of Trinity-church, 
it is probable that be had another in Leicestershire, from ' 
the following title-page, ** Vox Dei, or the great duty of 
self-reflection upon a man's ow»' wayes, by N^- Wanley, 

' Memoirs, by Dr. Comber.— Parkas editioa of the Royal and Noble Authors. 



94 . W A N L E Y* 

M. A. and mrnister of the gospel at Beeby in Leicester- 
shire," London, 1658. He was of Trinity-college, Ox- 
ford, B. A. 1653, M. A. 1657, but is not mentioned by 
Wood. The work which now preserves his name is his 
" Wonders of the Little World," .1678,. fol. a work to be 
classed with Clark's " Examples," 2 vols. foL or Turner's 
^5 Remarkable Providences," containing a vast assemblage 
of remarkable anecdotes, &c. many of which keep credulity 
on the stretch. As these were collected bj^ Mr. Wanley 
from a number of old books, little known, or read, it is 
not improbable that such researches imparted to his son 
that taste for bibliographical studies which occupied his 
whole life. At least it is certain that Humphrey, (who was 
born at Coventry, March 21, 1671-2, and was bred first a 
limner, and afterwards some other trade), employed all his 
leisure time, at a very early period, in reading old 'books 
ftnd old MSS. and copying the various hands, by which he 
acquired an uncommon faculty in verifying dates. Dr. 
Lloyd, then bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, sent him to 
•Edmund-hall, Oxford, of which Dr. Mill was then princi- 
pal, whom he greatly assisted in his collations of the New 
Testament. Hearne says, that during his stay in this hall, 
he attendeH but one lecture, which was in logic, which be 
swore he could not comprehend. Dr. Charlett, master of 
University-college, hearing of Wanley's attention to mat- 
ters of antiquity, induced him to remove to his own col- 
lege, which he soon did, residing at the master' s'lodgings, 
who, says Hearne, " employed him ia writing trivial things, 
so that he got no true learning." He certainly acquired 
the learned languages, however, although it does not ap- 
pear that he attended much to the usual course of. acade- 
mic studies, or was ambitious of academic honours, as bis 
name does not appear in the list of gradijates. By Dr. 
Charlett's means he was appointed an under-keeper of the 
Bodleian library, where he assisted in drawing up the in- 
dexes to the catalogue of MSS. the Latin preface to which' 
be also wrote* Upon leaving Oxford, he removed to Lon- 
don, and became secretary to the society for propagating 
Christian knowledge; and at Dr. Hickes's request, travelled 
ovdr the kingdom, in search of Anglo-Saxon MSS. a cata- 
logue of which he drew up in English, which was after- 
wards translated into Latin by the care of Mr. Thwaites, 
and printed in the "Thesaurus Ling. Vet. Septen." Oxon. 
nOif, foL He was soon after employed in arranging the 



W A N L E Y. 9S 

valuable collections of Robert earl of Oxford, with the ap- 
pointment of librarian to his lordship, in this enQploymeot 
he gave such particular satisfaction, that be was allowed a 
faandsome pension by lord Harley, the earPs eldest son 
and successor in the title, who retained him as librarian till 
his death. In Mr. Wanley*s Harleian Journal, preserved 
amo9g the Lansdowne MSS. in the British Museum, are 
several remarkable entries, as will appear by the specimens 
transcribed below *. 

' Mr. Wanley remained in this situation until his death, 
which happened July 6, 1726, and was occasioned by a 
dropsy. He was twice married, first to a widow, with 
several children ; the second time, only a fortnight before 
bis deatii, to a very young woman, to whom ,he left his 
property, which was considerable. 

About 1708, he first began to compile the catalogue of 
lord Oxford's. MSS. and proceeded as far as No. 2407 of 
the present printed catalogue. Throughout the whole, he 
shews great learning and judgment, and his strictures are 
so just, that there is much reason to lament his not having 
lived to put the finishing hand to a work, for which he was 
in every respect so well qualified. This, which was said of 
Wantey, in the preface to the first edition of the printed 
catalogue in 1762, may still be repeated, without any dis- 
respect to his successors, because it is to be feared that 
much useful information was lost by his death; 

* ThU journal, wbicfa^ begias in he bad a note under the bishop's band 

March 1714-15, and is regularly con- for the same : My lord undertook to 

fioued till within a fortnight of his manage this matter." — "July 21, 1722. 

death, is kept with ail the dignity as This day it pleased the most illustrious 

well as the exactness of the minutes of and bigh-horn lady, the lady Henrietta 

a public body. For instance, ''March Cavendish Holies Harley, to add to her 

2,1714-15, present, my lord Harley former bounties to roe, particularly to 

and myself. The secretary related, a large silver tea-pot formerly given to 

that the reverend and learned Mr. El- me* by her noble ladyship, by trending 

iftob deceased tome time since ; and ' hither (to this library) her silversmith 

(bat he having seen Mrs.Elstab bis with a fine and large silver tea> kettle, 

sister, and making mentian of the two lamp and plate, and a neat wooden 

MSS. which Mr. El itob had borrowed stand: as in all duty and gratitude 

fron^ the library (being S4. A. 16. and bound, I shall never cease from pray- 

42 A. 19.), she said, she would take ing Almighty God to bless her and all 

all due carer to see them restored. — My this noble family with all blessings 

lord Harley expressing some compas- temporal and eternal.** — *' August 4, 

lion on the unexpected decease of Mr. 1725, Mr. Pope came, and I shewed 

Urry of Christ-church, the secretary him but few things, it being late." — 

shewed that two MSS. borrowed for his There are many more, and some very 

vse by the present bishop of Rochester eurious, extracts, from this jouraal in 

(Dr. Atterbury), while dean of Christ- Mr. Nichols's *^ Literary Anecdotes." 
church, are not yet restored ; and that 



96 W A N L E IE. 

Besides tliese labours, Wanley published a translaliOD of' 
Ostervttld's *^ Grounds and principles of the Christiaa re** 
ligioit, explained in a catechetical discourse for the instme^- 
tton of yoi>ng people/' This was revised by Dr. Stanhope, • 
and printed at London^ 1704, 8vo. Hearne, who seecRsto 
have had a pique at Wanley^ represents him as an unsteady,- 
capricious man; and of this there are some evidences in bis 
QAvn journal. Uearne likewise asserts that he was impra?^ 
dent and dissipated, but for this we have no other proof^. 
and if he left considerable property^ he had not been un« 
wise in that respect. There is an original picture of hini' 
in the Bodleian library ; another, balf-lengtb, sitting, in the 
possession of the Society of Antiquaries. A mezzotinto 
print of him. wasjscraped by Smith, in 1718,.froniapatnty^ 
ing by Hill. > ^ 

. WANSLEB (John Michael), a learned German^ was 
born ID 1635, at Erfort^ in Tburingia^ where- his father was 
minister of a Lutheran church. After having studied phi- 
losophy and theology at.Konigsberg, he pot himself ufider* 
Job Lutdolf^ in order to learn the Oriental tongues^ of that, 
celebrated professor. Ludolf taught him the Ethiopic 
among others ; and then sent him at his own expence int6r 
England to print his ^^ Ethiopic Dictionary,'' \)«[hicb camo 
oat at London in 1661. , Ludolf complained of Wanslttb 
for inserting many false aod ridiculous; ^h^n^S) ^nd after^ 
wards gave a nqw edition of it himself. Dr., Edmund Cas* 
tell was at that time employed upon his '' Lexicon Hepta- 
glotton," and was much gratified to find in Wansleb a maa 
who could assist him in his laborious undertakiog ; he re-^ 
ceived him therefore into his house, and kepfe him three 
months. Wansleb was ^ no sooner ret unied to Germany, 
than Ernest the pious, duke of Saxe-Gotha^ being informed 
of his qualifications, sent him to Ethiopia : the prince's 
design was, to establish a correspondence between the Pro-, 
testant Europeans and Abyssines, with a view to promoter 
true religion among the latter. Wansleb set out in June 
1 663, and arrived at Cairo in Jan. following. He employed 
the remainder of the year in visiting part of Egypt ; but 
the patriarch of Alexandria, who has jurisdiction over the 
churches of Ethiopia, dissuaded him from proceeding ta 
that kingdom, and sent his reasons to Ernest in an Arabic 

' NicboU's Buwyer. — LeUert. from Eminent: PersoM, 1813| S vols. Svo.^^ 
, Preface to the Harletan CaUkgue.^Dibdia's BibliomaBiti. 



\ 



W A N S L E B. 97 

letter, which is still extant in the library of the duke of 

Saxe-Gotha. 

Wansleb left Alexandria in the beginning of 1665, and 
arrived at Leghorn ; but durst .not return to his own coun- 
try, because duke«£rnest was greatly displeased with his 
conduct, in neglecting the chief object of his embassy, 
and employing in an improper manner the sums he had re- 
ceived, f He went therefore to Rome, where he abjured 
Lutheranism, and entered into the order of St. Dominic in 
1666. In 1670, he was sent to Paris, where being intro- 
duced to Colbert, he was commissioned by that minister 
to return to the East, and to purchase manuscripts and 
medals for the king's library. He arrived at Cairo in 1672, 
continued in Egypt near two years, and in that time sent to 
France 334 manuscripts, Arabic, Turkish, and Persic. Th6 
Mahometans growing jealous of this commerce which Wans- 
leb carried on, hte removed from Egypt to Constantinople, 
and had promised to go from that place in search of manu- 
scripts to mount Athos ; but excused himself on pretence 
that Leo Allatius had taken away the best for the use of the 
Vatican. He was preparing to set out for Ethiopia, when 
he was recalled to France by Colbert ; who, it seems, had 
just reasoo to be displeased with his conduct, as Ernest bad 
been before him. He arrived at Paris in April 1676, and 
might have been advanced not only to the royal professor- 
ship of Oriental languages, but even to a biishopric, if his 
irregular life iand manners had not stood in his way. He 
lived neglected for two or three years, and then ^iied in 
June 1679. 

His publications are, 1. "Relazione dello statb presente 
deir Egitto, 1671," 12mo. This is said to be an abridged 
account of Egypt, which had been sent by him in several 
letters to duke Ernest; and Ludolf has related, that the 
Jacobines, whom he employed to translate it into Italian, 
have deviated from the original in several plapes. 2. "Nou- 
velle Relation en forme de Journal d*un Voyage fait en 
Egypte en 1672 et 1673," 1676, 12mo. 3. ** Histoire de 
I'Eglise d^Alexandrie fdnd^e par S. Marc, que nous ap- 
pellons Velles des Jacobites -Coptes d'Egypte, ecrite au 
Caire m£me en 1672 et 1673. 1677," 12mo. * 

WARBURTON (John), a heraldic writer and antiquary, 
was the son of Benjamin Warburton, of Bury in Lancashire, 

> ^k^ro»t yofc XXVI.— Lobo'* Voyage O'Abyas. vol I.-<-Mosh«iiii.-r 
Moreri. 

Vol. XXXI. » 



W WARBURTON. 

bj Mary, his wife^ eldest daughter, and at length heiress of 
Michael Buxton, of Buxton, in Derbyshire. He was born 
Feb. 28, 1681-2. According to Mr. Grose, he received no 
education, and was originally an exciserlian ; Mr. Gros^ 
^dds that he was ignorant not only, of the Latin, but of 
bis native language, and so far from understanding mathe- 
matics, he did not even understand guaging, which, '^ like 
navigation, as practised by our ordinary seamen, consists 
only in multiplying and dividing certain numbers, or writ- 
ing by an instrument, the rationale of both which they ar« 
totally ignorant of." It appears from Mr. Brooke Somer- 
set's notes, that Toms, who owed his rise tp him, told that 
gentleman that he h^d great natural abilities, but no edu- 
cation. Grose observes, that " his life was one continued 
^cene of squabhfes and disputes with his brethren, by whom 
he was despised and detested." Toms remarks, that 
*' though his conduct was faulty, yet he was extremely ill- 
used, especially by the younger Anstis, who was of a vio- 
lent tyrannical disposition," and there seems reason to 
suspect that his quarrelsome disposition, rather than his in- 
capacity, hais occasioned many of the discreditable reports 
which have accompanied his name. As a collector of an-' 
tiquities he appears to have been indefatigable. 

The first appearance he made in public was in 1716, 
when be published his map of Northumberland. In 1719 
he was elected a fellow both of the Royal arnd Antiquary 
societies, and could not then, we presume, have be^n 
thought the ignoramus which he has sinbe been repre-^ 
sented. He remained a onember of the Society of Anti- 
quaries to the last, but was ejected from the ttoyal in June 
1757, in consequence of not having made his annual pay- 
iftents for a great number of years. In June 1720 he was 
created Somerset herald, and appears to have been con- 
stantly at variance with the superiors of the college. In 
1722-3 he published in four closely printed 4to pages, '*A 
List of the Nobility and Gentry of the counties of Middle- 
sex, Essex, and Hertford, who have subscribed, and or- 
dered their coats of arms to be inscribed on a new map of 
those counties, which is now making by John Warburton, 
esq." In August 1728, he gave notice, thjat ^'he keeps a 
register of lands, houses, . &c. which are to be bought, 
sold, or mortgaged, in England, Scotland, or Wales, and 
if required, directs surveys thereof ^to be made: also so- 
licits grants of arms, and performs all other matters relating 



WARBURTON. 99 

to the office of a herald. For which purpose daily attend- 
ance is given at his chambers in the Heralds* office, near 
Doctors Commons, London. He answers letters post-paid^ 
arid advertises, if required." This quackery did not pro* 
bably raise him very high in the opinion of his brethren; 
In 1749, he publislied a map of Middlesex on two sheets 
of imperial atlas, with the arms of the nobility and gentry 
on the borders. But the earl marshal, supposing these to 
be fictitious, by his warrant commanded him not to take in 
■any subscriptions for arms, nor advertise or dispose of any 
maps, till the right of such person respectively to such arms 
were first proved, to the satisfaction of one of the kings of 
arms. In his book of '^ London and Middlesex illustrated,'* 
;ifter observing the above injunction of the earl marshal, he 
subjoins, *^ which person's (Anstis) partiality being well 
known to this author, he thought it best to have anothei: 
arbitrator joined with him, and therefore made choice of 
the impartial public, rather than submit his performance 
. wholly to the determination of a person so notoriously 
remarkable for knowing nothing at all of the matter.'' 
After censuring the notion; that trade and gentility are 
incompatible, as a doctrine fitted only for a despotic go<^ 
rernment, and judiciously remarking the moral impossi- 
bility there would soon be of proving descents and arnfis 
for want of visitations, he returns to attack the heads of the 
college, by saying, that such proofs are obstructed by the 
exorbitant and unjustifiable fees of three heralds, called 
kings at arms, who receive each 30/. for every new grant* 
In his ^^ London and Middlesex illustrated," he gave the 
names, residences, genealogy, and coat-armour of the no- 
bility, principal merchants, and other eminent families, 
emblazoned in their proper colours, with preferences to 
authorities. 

In 1753, Mr. Warburtoa published " Vallum Romanum, 
or the History and A.ntiqnnies of the Roman Wall, com- 
monly called the Picts Wall, in Cumberland and Northum- 
berland," with plates and maps, 4to. These, with some 
prints, are the whole of his publications, but he had an 
amazing collection of M8S. books, prints^ &c. relating to 
the history and antiquities of England, which were dis- 
persed by auction after his death. He had alsa, bnt un- 
fortunately lost, a large collection of old dramas, of which 
a catalogue, with remarks, appears in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for September 1815. 

H2 



100 W A R B U R T O N. 

. Mr. Warburton died at his apartments in the college 
of arms. May 11, 1759, aged seveDty-eight, and was bn- 
fied on the 17th in the south aisle of St. Bennetts church. 
Panics Wharf. A peculiar circumstance attended his fu- 
peral. Having a great abhorrence to the idea of worms 
criwiiqg upon him when dead, he ordered that ^is body 
should be inclosed in two coffins, one of lead, the other of 
pak: the first he directed should be filled with green 
broom, bather, or ling. * In compliance with his desire, a 
quantity, brought from Epping forest, was stuffed ex«9 
tremely close round his body. This fermenting, burst the 
coffin, and retarded the funeral, until part of it was taken out« 
* Mr. Warburton married twice : one of his wives was a 
mdow with children, for he married her son, when a minory 
to one of his daughters. Amelia, another, married Oct. 
•23, 1750, to capuin John Elphinston, afterwards vice- 
lidmiral and commander-in-chief of the Russian fleet, who 
died very greatly respected by the late empress, Catherine 
IL who created him knight of the order of St. George: he 
was deservedly honoured and beloved by all who knew him* 
This gallant officer died in November 1789, at Cronstat, 
after a short illness. By his last wife, our author had John 
Warburton, esq.* who resided many years in Dublin, and 
yths pursuivant to the court of exchequer in Ireland : he 
married, in 1756, Ann-Catherine, daughter of the rer. 
Edward-Rowe Mores, rector of Tunstal in Kent, and sister 
of Edward-Rowe Mores, esq. M.A. and F.R. and A.S., so 
well known for his skill in antiquity, and the large collec- 
tions of choice MSS. and books he left at his death, which 
were sold by Mr.Paterson in 1779. This Mr. Warburton, 
leaving Dublin, became one of the exons belonging to his 
majesty's yeomen of the guard at St James's. Mr. Noble 
says, that going into France since the troubles in that king«« 
dom, he was one of the few English who fetl victims to the 
9anguinary temper of the usurj^rs, being guillotined for a 
pretended sedition, by order of the national convention 
committee at I^yons, in December 1795* but a correspond- 
ent in the Gentleman's Magazine says that the Mr. War* 
burton, who was guillotined, was th^ uephew and not the 
son of the herald. * '^ 

WARBURTON (William), an English prelate of great 
ubilities and eminence, was born at-Newark-upon*Treot^ 

^ Noble's Coll. of Aniii.-*KidioU's Bowycr. 



W A R B y R T O N. 101 

/ 

in the county of Nottingham, Dec. 24, 1698. Hisi^ther 
was George Warburton, an attorney and town-clerk of the 
place in which this his eldest son received his birth and 
education. His mother was Elizabeth, the daughter of 
William Hobman, an alderman of the same town ; and his 
parents were married about 1696. The family of Dr. 
Warburton came originally from the county of Chester, 
where his great -grandfather resided. His grandfather, 
William Warburton, a royalist during the rebellion, was 
the first that settled at Newark, where he practiced tlie 
law, and was coroner of the county of Nottingham. George 
Warburton, the father, died about 1706, leaving his widow 
and five children, two sons and three daughters, of which 
the second son, George, died young; but, of the daugh- 
ters, one survived her brother. The bishop received the 
early part of his education under Mr. TwelU, whose son 
afterwards married bis sister Elizabeth; but he was prin- 
cipally trained under Mr. Wright, then master of Okebam- 
scbool in Rutlandshire, and afterwards vicar of Campden 
ill Gloucestershire. Here he continued till the b^intiing 
of 1714, when his cousin Mr. William Warburton being 
made head -master of Newark-school, he returned to his 
native place, and was for a short time under the care of 
that learned gentleman. During his stay at school, he did 
not distinguish himself by any extraordinary efforts of 
genius or application, yet is supposed to have acquired a 
competent knowledge of Greek and Latin. His original 
designation was to the same profession as that of bis father 
and grandfather ;. and he was accordingly placed clerk to 
Mr. Kirke, an attorney at East Markbam in Nottingham- 
shire, with whom be continued till April 1719, when he 
was qualified to engage in business upon his own accouut. 
He wi^s then admitted to one of the courts at Westminster, 
and for some years continued the employment of an attor- 
ney and^icitor at the place of bis birth. The success be 
met with as a man of business was probably not great. It 
was certainly insufficient to induce him to devote the rest 
of his life to it : and it is probable, that his want of en- 
couragement might tempt him to turn his thoughts towards 
a profession iu which his literary acquisitions would be 
more valuable, and in which he might more easily pursue the 
bent of bis inclination* He appears to have brought from 
school more learning than was requisite for a practising 
lawyer. This might rather impede than forward his pro* 



102 



WARBURTON, 



gross ; as it bi^s been generally observed, that an attentToa 
to literary concerns, and the bustle of an attorne}r's office^ 
ifith only a moderate share of business, are wholly incom* 
patible. It is therefore no wonder that he preferred retire- 
ment to noise, and relinquished what advantages he might 
expect from continuing to follow the law. it has been 
suggested by an ingenious writer, that he was for some 
time usher to a school, but this probably was founded on 
his giving some assistance to his relation at Newark, who 
in his turn assisted him in those private studies to which 
he was now attached ; and his love of letters continually 
growing stronger, the seriousness of his temper, and pu- 
rity of his morals, concurring, determined him to quit his> 
profession for tlie church.- In 1723. he received deacon's 
orders from archbishop Dawes ; and his first printed 
work then appeared, consisting of translations from Csssar, 
Pliny, Claudian, and others, under the title of <^ Miscella- 
neous Translations in Prose and Verse, from Roman Poets, 
Orators, and Historians,'' 12mo« It is dedicated to his 
early patron, sir Robert Sutton, who, in 1726, when Mn 
Warhurton had received priest's orders from bishop Gib-^ 
son, employed his interest to procure him the small vicar«4 
age of Gryesly in Nottinghamshire. A^[>out Christmas^ 
1726, he came to London, and, while there, was intro- 
duced to Theobald, Concanen, and other of Mr. Pope's 
enemies, the novelty of whose conversation had at this 
time many charms for him, and he entered too eagerly 
into their cabals and prejudices. It was at this time that 
he wrote a letter * to Concanen, dated Jan. 2, 1726, very 
disrespectful to Pope, which, by accident, falling into the 
bands of the late Dr. Akenside, was produced to most of 
that gentleman's friends, and became the subject of much' 
speculation. About this time he also communicated to 
Theobald some notes on Shakspeare, which afterwards ap- 
peared in that critic's edition of our great dramatic poet. 
In 1727, his second work, entitled " A Critical and Philo- 
sophical Enquiry into the Causes of Prodigies and Mira- 
cles, as related by Historians," &c. was published in 12mo, 
and was ;^lso dedicated to sir Robert Sutton in a prolix ar- 
ticle of twenty pages. In 1727 he published a treatise^ 
under the title of *^The Legal Judicature in Chancery 

♦ This letter, which Di. Akenside has been lately given to the world by 
says will probably be remembered as Mr. M alone, in the ''Supplement to 
loD^ as any of ihe bishop's writiogb, Shakspeare." 



WARBURTON. 



103 



stated/' which he undertook at the particular request of 
Samuel Burroughs, esq. afterwards a master in Chancery, 
who put the materials into his hands, and spent son(ie time 
in the country with him during the compilation of the 
work. On April 25, 1728, by the interest of sir Robert 
Sutton, he had the honour to be in the king's list of mas* 
ters of arts, created at Cambridge on his majesty's visit to 
that university. In June, the same year, he was presented 
by sir Robert Sutton to the rectory of Burnt or Brand 
Broughton, in the diocese of Lincoln, and neighbourhood 
of Newark, where he fixed himself accompanied by hid 
-mother and sisters, to whom he was ever a most affectionate 
relative. Here he spent a considerable part of the prim^ 
of life in' a studious retirement, devoted entirely to letters, 
2md there planned, and in part executed, some o^ his itiost 
important works. They, says his biographer, who are un- 
acquainted with the enthusiasm which true genius inspires^ 
will hardly conceive the possibility of that intense applica* 
tion, with which Mr. Warburton pursued his studies In 
this retirement. Impatient of any interruptions, he spent 
the whole of his time'that could be spared from the duties' 
of his parish, in reading and writing. His constitution was 
strong, and his temperance extreme, so that he needed no. 
exercise but that of walking ; and a change of reading, or 
study, was his only amusement. 

Several years elapsed after obtaining this preferment, 
before Mr. Warburton appeared again in' the world as a 
writer*. In 1736 he exhibited a plan of a new edition <rf 
Velleius Paterculus, which he printed in the " Bibliotheque 
Britannique, ou Histoire des Ouvrages des Savans de la 
Grande Bretagne, pour let mois Juillet, Aout, & Sept. 
1736. A la Haye." The design never was completed. 
Dr. Middleton, in a letter to him dated April 9, 1737, 
returns him thanks for his letters, as well as the Journal, 
which, says he, " came to my hands soo4) aftier the date of 



^ At least there was nothing pub- 
lished that can be with certainty as- 
cribed to him. Iq 1732, bis patron, 
sir Robert Sutton, haTing been a mem- 
ber of the Charitable Corporation, fell 
under the censure of the House of 
Comoions, on account, of that iniqui- 
tous business. He was expelled tbe 
House, and his for:une for some time 
seemed to be holden but on a pre- 
carious tenure. On this occasion a 



pamphlet appeared, entitled " An Apo- 
logy for sir Robert Sutton." It can 
only be conjecturerl, that Dr. Warbur- 
ton had some concern in this produe- 
tion ; but, when tbe connexion betweea 
him and sir Robert, and the recent ob- 
ligation received from that gentleman, ' 
are considered, it will not be thought 
unlikely that be might, on this ocei- 
sion, afford his patron some assistance 
by htf pen. 



104 W A R B U R T p N. 

my last. I had before seen the force of your critical geoios 
very successfully employed on Sbakspeare, but did riot 
know you bad ever tried it od the Latin authors. I am« 
pleased with several of your emendations^ and transcribed 
them into the margin of my editions ; though not equally 
M^ith them all. It is a laudably and liberal amusement, ro 
try now and then in our reading the success of a conjec- 
ture ; but, in the present state of the generality of the old 
writers,, it can hardly be thought a study fit to employ a 
life upon, at least ngt worthy, I am sure, of your talents 
• and industry, which, instead of trifling on words, seem 
calculated rather to porrect the opinions and manners of the 
world,^' These seutiments of his friend appear to bav^ 
had their due weight; for, from that time, the iptended 
edition was laid aside, and never afterwards resumed. It 
was in this year, 1736, that he may be said to.bave emerged 
from the obscurity of a'^riv^te life into tbe notice of the 
world. The first publication, which rendered him after-, 
wards famoiis, no\y appeared, upder the title of ^^ The AU. 
liance between Church and State ; or, the necessity and 
equity of an established religion ain^ a test-law, demon- 
strated from the essen<^e and end #f civil society, upon the 
fundamental prrnciples of the law of nature and nations,''. 
Ip this acute and comprehensive work be discusses the obli- 
gation which lies upon every Christian community to to- 
lerate the sentiments, and even the religious exercises of 
those who, in jthe incurable diversity of human opinion, 
^issent from^er doctrines ; s^nd the dqty which she owes to 
herself of prohibiting by some test the intrusion into civil 
{^0ices of men who would otherwise endanger her existence 
by open hostility, or by secret treachery. His biographer, 
bishop Hurd, renj^rks, that this work was neither calculated 
td please the high church divines, nor the low ; but, he 
^dds, that *' aUhopgh few at that time were convinced, all 
^ere struck by this essay of an original writer*, and could 
not dissemble their admiration of the ability which ap- 
peared in the construction of it.'^ ^^ There was, indeed," 
fsontinues IIurd| *^ a reach of thought in this system of 
church polity, which would prevent its making its way at 
pnce. It required time and attention, even in the most 
capable of its readers, to apprehend the force of the argu- 
neotation, and a more than common share of candour to 
adopt the conclusion, when they did. The author had 
therefore reason to b.e satisfied with the re.peptiou pf bi^ 



WARfeuRTON. 



105 



theoiy^ ^uch as it was ; and baring thotoughljr persuaded 
himself of its truth, as well as importance,; he continued to . 
enlarge and improve it in $i!veral subsequent editions; ai|d 
in the last, by the opportunity which some elaborate at- . 
tempts of his adversaries to overturn it, had afforded him, 
he exerted his whole strength upon it, and has left it in a* 
condition to brs^ve the utmost efforts of future criticism.'* 
The late bishop Horsley, in his " Review of the ease of the 
Protestant Dissenters" published in 1787, says that War- 
burtoi) has, in this work " shewn the general good policy of 
an establishment, and the necessity of a test for its secu- 
rity, upon principles which republicans themselves cannot 
easily deny. His work is one of tbe finest specimens that 
are to be found, perhaps, in any language, of scientific 
reasoning applied to a politipal subject." 

In the close of the first edition of the *^ Alliance" was 
announced the sqbeme of ^^ The Divine Legation of Moses,*' 
in which he had at this tim# made a considerable progress. 
The first volume of this work was published in January 
1737-8, under the title of " The Diviqp Legation of Moses 
demonstrated on the principles of a rSligious deist, from 
.the omissions of the doctrine of a future state of rewards 
and punishment^.'injthe Jewish dispensation : in six books.'* 
This was, as ^he/aatbor afterwards observed, fallen upon 
in so outrageoju? ^tjd briHail a manner as had been scarcely 
pardonable hja^itbeen ** The Divine Legation of Maho*- 
met." It prod uped several answers, and so much abuse 
from the authors of **The Weekly Miscellany," that ia 
less than, two months he was constrained to defend himself 
in " A Vindication of the Author of the Divine Legation, 
of Moses, from the aspersions of the Country Clergyman's 
Letter in the Weekly Miscellany of February 14, 1737-8," 
8vo. The principle of the " Divine Legation" was not less 
bold and original than the execution. — ^Tfeat the doctrine 
of a future state of reward and punishment was omitted iO; 
the books of Moses, had been insolently urged by infideU 
against the truth of his mission, while divines were fejebly^ 
occupied in seeking what wait certainly not to be found 
there, .otherwise than by inference &nd implication. But 
Warburton, with an intrepidity unheard of before, admitted, 
the pr^o&ition in its fullest extent, and proceeded to de-, 
monstrate from that very omission, which in all instances 
of legisiationj merely human, fcad been industriously avoid- 
edi that ^i ""system which could dispfense with* a doctrine. 



106 W A R B U R T O N- 

the rery bond and cement of human society, must hare 
come from God, and that the people to whom it was given 
must have been placed under Ms immediate superintend- 
ence. But it has been well obserred, that although in the 
bands of such a champion, the warfare so conducted might 
be safe, the experiment was perilous, and the combatar^t 
a stranger : hence the timid were alarmed, the formal dis- 
concerted ;' eveii the veteran leaders of his own party were 
scandalized by the irregular act of heroism ; and he g^ve 
some cadse of alarm, and even of dissatisfaction, to the 
friends of revelation. They foresaw, and deplored a con- 
sequence, which we believe has in some instanced actually 
fbllowed ; namely, that this hardy and inventive champion 
has been either misconceived or misrepresented, as having 
chosen the only firm ground on which the divine authority 
of the Jewish legislator could be maintained ; whereas that 
great truth should be understood to rest on a much wider 
and firmer basis : for could th^ hypothesis of Warburton 
be demonstrated to be inconclusive ; had it even been dis-» 
. covered (which, from the universal knowledge of the his- 
tory of nations at present is impossible) that a system of 
legislation, confessedly human, had actually been instituted 
and obeyed without any reference to a future state^ still 
the divine origio and authority of the Jewish polity would 
stand pre-eminent and alone. Instituted in a barbarous 
age, and in the midst of universal idolatry, a system which 
taught the proper unity of the Godhead ; denominated his 
person by a sublime and metaphysical name, evidently im* 
plying self-existence ; which, in the midst of fanatical 
bloodshed and lust, excluded from its ritual every thing 
libidinous or cruel, (for the permission to offer up beasts in. 
^ sacrifice is no more objectionable than that of their slaughter 
for human food, and both are positively humane,) the re-> 
fusal in the midst of a general intercommunity of gods, to 
admit the association of any of them with Jehovah : — all 
these particulars, together with the purity and sanctity of 
tile moral law, amount to a moral demonstration that the 
religion came from God. 

Warburton's Divine Legation, says the same masterly 
writer to whom we are indebted for the preceding observa- 
vations *, is one of the few theological, and still fewer con- 

* Quarterljr Review, No. XIV. Revi«pr of Warburton's Worki, an article of 
ancommon ability, which we wiab we were at liberty .to atsisn to its proper 
author* 



WARBURTON. lof 

troversial works, which scholars perfectly indifferent to 
such subjects will ever read with delight. The novelty of 
the bypothesisj the masterly conduct of the argument, th6 
hard blows which this champion of faith and orthodoxy is 
6ver dealing about him against the enemies of both, the 
scorn with which he represses shallow petulance, and the 
inimitable acuteness with which he exposes dishonest so- 
pbistry, the compass of literature which he displays, his 
widely extended views of ancient polity and religion, but, 
above all, that irradiation of unfailing and indefectible ge* 
nius which, like the rich sunshine of an 'Italian landscape, 
illuminates the whole, — all these excellences will rivet 
alike the attention of taste, and reason, and erudition, as 
long as English literature shall exist ; while many a stand- 
ard work, perhaps equally learned and more convincing, is 
permitted to repose, upon the shelf. But it is in his episodes 
and digressions that Warburton's powers of reason and 
brilliancy of fancy are most conspicuous. They resemble 
the wanton movements of some powerful and half-broken 
quadruped, who, disdaining to pace along the highway 
under a burden which would subdue any other animal of 
his sl^ecies, starts aside at every turn to exercise the na- 
tive elasticity of his muscles, and throw off the waste ex- 
uberance of his strength and spirits. Of these the most 
remarkable are his unfortunate hypothesis concerning thfe> 
origin and late antiquity of the Book of Job, his elaborate 
and successful Disquisition on Hieroglyphics and Picture- 
writi-ng, and his profound and original Investigation of the 
Mysteries. 

Mr. Warburton's- extraordinary merit had now attracted 
the notice of the heir-apparent to the crown, in whose im- 
mediate service we find him in June 1738, when he pub- 
lished " Faith working by Charity to Christian edification ; 
a sermon preached at the last episcopal visitation for con- 
firmation in the diocese of Lincoln ; with a preface, shew- 
ing the reasons of its publication ; and a postscript, occa- 
sioned by some letters lately published in the Weekly Mis- 
cellany : by William Warburton, M, A. chaplain to hi* 
royal highness the prince of Wales*" A second edition of 
" The Divine Legation*' also appeared in November 1738. 
In March 1739, the world was in danger of being deprived 
of this extraordinary genius by an intermitting fever, which 
with some difficulty was relieved by a plentiful use of the 
bark. His reputation was now rising every day ; and he 



lOf W A R B U R T O Ni 

ahoqt this time rendered a service to Pope, bymeaotof 
which he acquired an ascendancy over that great poet, 
which will astonish those who observe the air of superiority 
Which, until this connection, had been shewed in ail Pope*^ 
friendships, even with the greatest.inen of the age. Th0 
^* Essay on Man'* bad been now published some years ; and 
it is universally supposed that the author had, in the com- 
position of it, adopted the philosophy of lord Bolingbroke* 
whom on this occasion he had followed as his guide, with-* 
out understanding thf tendency of his principles. In 1758 
M. de Crpusaz wrote some remarks on it, accusing the 
author of Spinosism and Nat^ralism ; which falling into IVJr, 
Warburton^s hands he published a defence of the .first 
epistle in ^' The Works of the Learned/' and soon aftef 
of the remaining three, in seven l^ptters, of which six w^r^ 
printed in 1739, and tbe seventh in June 1740, under the 
title of *^ A Vindication of Mr. Pope's Essay ou Man, by 
the author of the Pivine Legation/' The opinion which 
tAr. Pope conceived of these defences, as well as of their 
author, will be best seen in bis letters. In consequence, 
a firm friendship was established between them, which con- 
tinued with much undiminished fervour until tbe death of 
Mr. Pope, who, during the remainder of bis life, paid a 
deference and respect to bis friend's judgment and abilities 
which will be considered by many as almost bordering oa 
servility. 

In 1741 the second volume of ^^The Divine Lega<» 
tion," in two parts, containing books IV. V. VI. was pub* 
lisbed ; as was also a second edition of tbe '^ Alliance 
between Church and State." In the summer of that year 
Mr. Pope and Mr. Warburloo, in a country- ramble, took 
Oxford in their way, where they parted ; Mr. Pope, after 
one day's stay, going westward ; and Mr. Warburton, who 
stayed aday after him to visit Dr. Conybeare, then dean of 
Christ Church, returning to London. On that day tbe 
vice chancellor. Dr. Leigh, sent a message to his lodgings 
with tbe usual compliment, to know if a doctor's degree, in 
divinity would be acceptable to him; to which such an 
answer was returned as so civil a message deserved. About 
the same tiine Mr. Pope had the like offer made him of a 
doctor's degree in law, which he seemed disposed to accept,, 
until he learnt that some impediment had been thrown in 
the way of his friend's receiving tbe compliment intended' 
ior him by the vice-chancellor. He then absolutely rex 



W A R B U R T O N. 10^ 

fused that proposed to htmself: ** Mr. Pope," says HurcJ^" 
*• retired with some indignation to Twickenham, but coh- 
soled himself and his friend with this sarcastic reflection, 
• We shall take our degree together in^Jiw^, whatever we 
do at the university,* ^^ This biographer also informs us 
that ^'the university seemed desirous of enrolling their 
narmes among their graduates,*^ but that ** intrigue and 
envy defeated this scheme." He adds, that this was '* the 
fault of one or two of its (the university's) members," a 
Bumber surely insufficient to produce such an effect. But 
the real history of this matter seems never to have been 
given. 

Mr. Pope's affection for Mr. Warborton wa« of service to 
him in more respects than merely increasing his fame. He 
introduced and warmly recommended him to most of his 
firiends, and amongst the rest to Ralph Allen, esq. of Prior 
Park, whose niece he some years afterwards married. In 
consequence of this introduction, we find Mr. Warburton 
at Bath in 1 742. There he printed a sermon which ha(f 
been preached at the abbey-church, on the 24th of Octo- 
ber, for the benefit of Mr. Allen's favourite charity, the 
general hospital, or infirmary. To this sermon, which was 
published at the request of the governors, was added, *' A 
short account of the nature, rise, and progress, of ihe Ge- 
neral Infirmary, at Bath." In this year also he printed a 
dissertation on the Origin of Books of Chivalry, at the end 
of Jarvis's preface to a translation of Don Quixote, which, 
Mr. Pope tells him, he had not got over two paragraphs of 
before he cried out, ^ Aut Erasmus, aut Diabolus.' ^* I 
knew you," adds he, ^* as certainly as the ancients did the 
Gods, by the first pace and the very gait, I have not a 
moment to express myself in ; but could not omit this, 
which delighted me so much." Mr. Tyrwhitt, however^ 
has crompletely demolished Warburton's system <m this 
subject. Pope's attention to hisv interest did not rest in 
matters which were in his own power; he recommended 
him to some who were more able to assist him ; in parti-^ 
edar, h^ obtained a promise from lord Granville, which 
probably, however, ended in nothing. He appears. also to 
have' been very solicitous to bring lord Bolingbroke and 
Mr. Warburton together, and the meeting accordingly took 
place, but we are told by Dr. Warton, they soon parted in 
mutual disgust with each other. In 1742 Mr. Warburton 
publbhed ^ A critical and philosophical Commentary on 



i 



110 W A R B U R T O N. 

Mr. Pope^S/ Essay on Man : in which is Contained a Vindl-* 
cation of the said Essay from the misrepresentations of Mr. 
de Uesnel, the French translator, and of Mr. de Crousaz^ 
professor of philosophy and mathematics in the academy of 
Lausanne, the commentator.** It was at this period, wheti 
Mr. Warburton had the entire confidence of Pope, that he 
advised him to complete the Dunciad, by changing the 
hero, and adding to it a fourth book. This was accord-^ 
ingly executed in 1742, and published early in 1743, 4to, 
with notes by our author, who, in consequence of it, re- 
ceived his share of the castigation which Gibber liberally 
bestowed on both Pope and his annotator. In the latter 
end of the same year he published complete editions of 
" The Essay on Man," and "The Essay on Criticism:" 
and, from the specimen which he there exhibited of bis 
abilities, it may be presumed Pope determined to commit 
to him the publication of those works which be should 
leave. At Pope's desire, he about this time revised and 
corrected the " Essay on Homer," as it now stands in the 
last edition of. that translation. The publication of "The 
Dunciad" was the last service which our author rendered 
Pope in his lijfe-time. After a lingering and tedious illness, 
the event of which had been long foreseen, this great 
poet died on the 30th of May, 1744 ; and by bis will, dated 
the 12th of the preceding December, bequeathed to Mr. 
Warburton one half of his library, and the proprerty of/ alL 
siicb of his works already printed as he had not otherwise 
disposed of or alienated, and all the profits which should 
arise from any edition to be printed after his death ; but 
at the same time directed that they should be published 
without &ny future alterations. In 1744 Warburton's as- 
sistance to Dr. Z. Grey was handsomely acknowledged in 
the preface to Hudibras; but with this gentleman he had 
afterwards a sharp controversy (See Grey.) "The Divine 
Legation of Mos^s" had now beerf published some time ; 
and various answers and objections to it had started up 
from different quarters. In this year, 1744, Mr Warbur- 
ton turned his attention to these attacks on his favourite 
work; and defended himself in a manner which, if it did 
not prove him to be possessed of much humility or diffi- 
dence, at least demonstrated that he knew how to wield the 
weapons of controversy with the hand of a master. His 
first defence now appeared under the title of " Remarks oa 
several Occasional Reflections^ in answer to the Rev. Dr. 



W A R B U R T O N. ill 

Middleton, Dr. Pococke, the master of the Charter-house^ 
Dr. Richard Grey, and others; serving to explain and jus- 
tify divers passages in the Divine Legation a# far as it it 
yet advanced : wherein is considered the relation the se- 
veral parts bear to each other and the whole. Together 
with an Appendix, in answer to a late pamphlet, entitled 

An Examination of Mr. W 's Second Propusition," 8vo, 

And this was followed next year by " Remarks 09 several 
Occasional Reflections^ in answer to the Rev. Doctor* 
Stebbing and Sykes; serving to explain and jusitify the 
Two Dissertations, in the Divine Legation, concerning the 
command to Abraham to ofler up his son, and the nature 
of the Jewish^ theocracy, objected to by those learned 
writers. Part IL and last;" 8vo. Both these answers are 
couched in those high terms of confident superiority which 
marked almost everjuperformance that fell from bis pen 
during the remainder of his life. Sept. 5, 1745, the friend- 
ship between him and Mr. Allen was^more closely cemented 
by hui marriage with bis niece, Miss Tucker, who sur- 
vived him. At this juncture the kingdom was under a great 
alarm, occasioned by the rebellion breaking out in Scot- 
land, Those who wished well to the then-established go« 
yernment found it necessary to exert every efibrt which 
could be used against tiie invading enemy. The clergy 
were not wanting on their part ; and no one did more ser- 
vice than Mr. Warburton, who published three very ex- 
cellent and seasonable sermons^t this important qrisis.^ L 
*} A faithful portrait of Popery ; by which it is seen to be 
the reverse of Christianity, as it is the destruction of mora- 
lity, piety, and civil liberty. A sermon preached at St. 
James's church, Westminster, Oct. 1745," 8vo. IL ^*A 
sermon occasioned by the present unnatural Rebellion, &c. 
preached in Mr. ^Hen^s chapel, at Prior Park, near Bath^ 
Nov. 1745, and published at his request," 8vo. IIL "The 
nature of National Offences truly stated. A sermon preach- 
ed on the general fest-day, Dec. 18, 1745," 1746, 8vo. On 
account of the last of these sermons he^ was again involved 
in a controversy with his former antagonist, Dr. Stebbing, 
which occasioned " An Apologetical Dedication to the 
Rev. Dr. Henry Stebbing, in answer to his censure and 
misrepresentations of the sermon preached o)a the general 
fast-day to be observed Dec. 18, 1745," 1746, 8vo. Not- 
withstanding his great connections, his acknowledged abi- 
tkjies, and his established reputation, a reputation founded 



ii2 W A R B U R T N. 

ff 

on the durable basis of learnings and upheld by the decent 
and attentive performance of ^ery duty incident to his 
station ; yetive do not find that he received any addition 
to the preferment given him in 1728 by sir'Robert Sutton 
(except the chaplainship to the prince'of Wales) until April 
1746| when he was unanimously called by the society of 
Lincoln^s InH to be ttleir preacher. In November he pub- 
lished *%A Sermon preached on the Thanksgiving ap- 
pointed to be observed the 9th OcU for the suppression of 
the late unnatural Rebellion," 1746, 8vo. In 1747 ap- 
peared his edition of " Shakspeare,'!^ from which he de- 
rived very little reputation. Of this edition, the nameless 
critic already quoted, says, ^^ To us it exhibits a pfaasno- 
menon unobserved before in the operations of human in- 
tellect — a mind, ardent and comprehensive, acute and pe- 
netrating, warmly devoted to the subject and furnished 
with all the stores of literature ancient or modern, to illus- 
trate and adorn it, yej: by some perversity of understanding, 
or some depravation of taste, perpetually mistaking what 
wa& obvious, and perplexing what was clear; discovering 
erudition of which the author was incapable, and fabricating 
connections to which he was indifferent. Yet, with all 
these inconsistencies, added to the affectation, equally dis- 
cernible In the editor of Pope and Shakspeare, of under- 
standing the poet better than he understood- himself, there 
sometimes appear, in the k*ational intervals of his critical 
delirium, elucidations so bippy, and disquisitions so pro- 
found, that onr adnniration of the poet (even of such a 
poet), is suspended for a moment while we dwell on the 
excellencies of the commentator." '- 

In the same year he published, 1." A Letter from an 
author to a member of parliament, concerning Literary 
Property," 8vo. 2. " Preface to Mrs. Cockburn's remarks 
upon the principles and reasonings of Dr. Rutherforth*s 
Essay on the nature and obligations of Virtue,'* &c. 8vo. 
3. " Preface to a critical enquiry into the opinions arid 
practice of the Ancient Philosophers, concerning the na- 
ture of a Future State, and their method of teaching; by 
double Doctrine," (by Mr. Towne), 1747, 8vo, 2d edition. 
In 1748 a third edition of "The Alliance between Church 
and State : corrected and enlarged." • In 1749, a very ex- 
traordinary attack was made on the moral character, of Mr. 
Pope from a quarter whence it could be the least expected. 
Uu " Guide, Philosopher, and Friend," lord Bolingbroke, 



W A R B U R T O N. llS 

(Published a book which be had formerly lent Mr. Pope itt 
MS; The preface to this work, written by Mr. Mallet^ 
contained an accusation of Mr.' Pope's having clandestinely 
printed an edition of his lordship's performance without his 
leave or knowledge. (See Pope.) A defence of the poet 
^oon after made its appearance, which was universally as- 
cribed to Mr. Warburton, and was afterwards owned by 
him. It was called '' A Letter to the editor of Letters on 
the Spirit of Patriotism, the Idea of a patriot King, and the 
State of Parties, occasioned by the editor's advertisement ;'* 
which S009 afterwards produced an abusive pamphlet under 
the title of ^* A familiar epistle to the most Impudent Man 
living," &c. a performance, as has been truly observed, 
couched in language bad enough to disgrace even gaols 
and garrets. About this time the publication of Dr. Mid- 
dletpn's ♦^ Enquiry concerning the Miraculous Powers," 
gave rise to a controversy, which was managed with great 
warmth and asperity on both sides. On this occasion Mr. 
Warburton published Hn excellent performance, written 
with a degree of candour and temper which, it is to be 
lamented, he did j^ot always exercise. The title of it was 
^ Julian ; or, a discourse concerning the Earthquake and 
Fiery Eruption which defeated the emperor's attempt to 
rebuild the Temple' at Jerusalem, 1750," 8vo. A second 
edition of this discourse, *^ with Additions," appeared ia 
.1751. The critic above quoted has some remarks on this 
work too important to be omitted. " The gravest, the least 
eccentric, the most convincing of Warburton's works, is 
the ^ Julian, or a discourse concerning the Earthquake and 
Fiery Eruption, which defeated that emperor's attempt to 
rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem, in which the reality of 
a Divine interposition is shewn, and the objections to it are 
are answered.' The selection of this subject was peculiarly 
happy, inasmuch as. this astonishing fact, buried in the 
ponderous volumes of the original reporters, was either 
little considered by an uninquisitive age, or confounded with 
the crude mass of false, ridiculous, or ill-attested miracles, 
which * with no friendly voice' had been recently exposed 
by Middleton. But in this instance the occasion was im- 
portant : the honour of the Deity was concerned; his power 
bad been defied, and his word insulted. For the avowed 
purpose of defeating a well-known prophecy, and of giving 
to the world a practical den\jostratioa that the Christiati 
scriptures contained a lying jlrediction, the emperor Julian 
Vol. XXXI. I 



114 W A R B U R T O N. 

undertbok to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem ; when^ ta 
the astonishment and confusion of the builders, terrible 
flames bursting from the foundations, scorched and re- 
pelled th^ workmen till they found tl:\emselves compelled 
to desist. Now this phsenomenon was not the casual erup- 
tion of a volcano, for it had none of the concomitants of 
those awful visitations : it may even be doubted whether it 
were accompanied by an earthquake ; but the marks of in- 
tention and specific direction were incontrovertible. — The 
workmen desisted, the flames retired^ — they returned to the 
work, — when the flames again burst forth, and that as often 
as the experiment was repeated. 

'' But what, it may be asked, is the evidence by which 
a fact so astonishing is supported ? Not the triumphant 
declamations of Christian, even of contemporary Christian 
writers, who, after all, with "one voice, and with little variety 
of circumstances, bear witness to the truth of it, but that of a 
friend of Julian himself, a soldier of rank, an heathen though 
candid and unprejudiced ; in one word, the inquisitive, the 
honest, the judging Am. Marcellinus. The story is told 
by that writer, though in his own awkward latin ity, very 
expressively and distinctly. We will add as a specimen of 
our author's' power, both in conception and language, the 
following rules for the qualification of an unexceptionable 
witness. 

* Were infidelity itself, when it would, evade the force 
of testimony, to prescribe what qualities it expected in a. 
faultless testimony, it could invent none but what might 
be found in the historian here produced. He was a pa- 
gan, and so not prejudiced in favour of Christianity: he 
was a dependent, follower, and profound admirer of Ju- 
lian, and so not inclined to report any thing to his dis- 
' honour. He was a lover of truth, and so would not relate 
what he knew, or but suspected, to be false. He had 
great sense, improved by the study of philosophy, and so 
would not suffer himself to be deceived : he was not* only 
contemporary to the fact, bijt at the time it happened re- 
sident near the place. He related it, not as an uncertain 
hearsay, with diffidence, but as a notorious fact;, at that 
time no more questioned in Asia than the project of 
the Persian expedition : he inserted it not for any par- 
tial purpose, in support or confutation of any system^ 
in defence or discredit of any character; he delivered 
it in 410 cursory or transient manner; nor in a loose or 
private mesioir; but gravely and deliberately, as the 



J 



WAilBURTON, 115 

natural and nece9sary part of a composition the most use* 
fui and important, a general history of the empire, on the 
complete performance of which the. author was so intent^ 
that he exchanged a court life for one of study and con* 
templation, and chose Rome, the great repository of the 
proper materials| for the place of his retirement.' 

f* To a portrait so finished, is it possible for the greatest 
judge of evidence to add a feature *, to such freedom, fer« 
tility, and felicity of language, is it possible for the united 
powers of taste and genius to add a grace ? In the story 
of the crosses said to have been impressed at the same time 
on the persons of many beholders, there was probably a 
misture of, imagination, though the cause might be elec* 
trie. This amusing part of the work we merely hint at, in 
order to excite, not to gratify, the reader's curiosity : but 
with respect to the parallel case detected by Warburtoii 
in the works of Meric Casaubon, it is impossible not to ad- 
mire those wide and adventurous voyages on the ocean 
of literature, which could enable him to bring together 
from the very antipodes of historical knowledge, from the 
fourth to the seventeenth century, from Jerusalem and 
from our own country, facts so strange, and yet so 
nearly identical." 

In 1751, Mr. Warburton published an edition of Pope's 
** Works," with notes, in nine volumes, octavo ; and in the 
same year printed "An Answer to a Letter to Dr. Middle- 
ton, inserted in a pamphlet entitled The Argument of the 
Divine Legation fairly stated," &c. 8vo. and " An Ac- 
count of the Prophecies of Arise Evans, the Welsh Pro- 
phet, in the last Century;" the latter of which pieces 
afterwards subjected him to much ridicule. In 1753, Mr. 
Warburton published the first volume of a course of Ser- 
mons, preached at Lincoln's-inn, entitled "The Principles 
of natural and revealed Religion occasionally opened and 
explainetd ;" and this, in the subsequent year, tvas fol- 
lowed by a second. After the public had been some tin:>e 
promised lord Bolingbroke's Works, they were about this 
time printed. The known abilities and infidelity of this 
nobleman had created apprehensions, in the minds of many 
people, of the pernioious effects of his doctrines ; and 
nothing but the appearance of his vfbole force could have 
convinced his friends how little there was to be dreaded 
from, arguments against religion so weakly supported. The 
personal enmity, which had been excited many years before 



116 AY A R B U R T O N. 

between the peer and our anthor, had occasioned the former 
to direct much of his reasoning against two works of the 
latter. Many answers were soon published, but none with 
snore acuteness, solidity, and sprigfatUness, than '^ A View 
of Lord Bolingbroke^s Philosophy, in two Letters to a 
Friend," 1754. The third and fourth letters were pub- 
lished in 1755, with another edition of the two former; 
end in the same year a smaller edition of the whole ; which, 
though it came into the world without a name, was Quiver- ^ 
ially ascribed to Mr. Warburton^ and afterwards publicly 
owned by hiiti. To some copies of this is prefixed an ex- 
cellent complimentary epistle from the president Montes- 
quieu, dated May 26, 1754. At this advanced period of 
his life, that preferment which his abilities might have 
claimed, and which had hitherto been withheld, seemed 
to be approaching towards him. In September 1754 he 
was appointed one of bis ms^esty's chaplains in ordinary, 
and in the next year was presented to a prebend * in the 
cathedral of Durham, worth 500/. per annum, on the 
death of Dr. Mangey. About the same time, the degree 
of doctor of divinity was conferred on him by Dr. Herring, 
then archbishop of Canterbury; and, a new impression 
of *^ The Divine Legation" having being called for, he 
printed a fourth edition of the first part of it, corrected 
and enlarged, divided into two volumes, with a dedication 
to the earl of Hardwicke. The same year appeared *' A 
Sermon preached before his grace Charles duke of Marl- 
borough president, and the Governors of the Hospital for 
the small-pox and for inoculation, at the parish church 
of St. Andrew, Holborn, oh Thursday, April the 24th, 
17S5,"^4to; and in 1756 " Natural and Civil Events the 
Instruments of God's moral Goverivment, a Sermon preached 
on the last public Fast-day, at Lincohrs-inn Chapel," 4to. 
In 1757, a pamphlet was published, called *^ Remarks on 
Mr. David Hunters Essay on the Natural History of Re- 
ligion ;" which is said to have^ been composed of marginal 
observations made by Dr. Warbqrton on reading Mr. 
Hume's book ; and which gave so. much offence to the au- 
thor animadverted upon, that he thought it of importance 
enough to deserve particular mention in the short account 
of his life. On Oct. 11, in this year, our author was ad* 

* Soou after he attained this pre- Neal's History of the Puritans, which 
fcniMDt^ he wrote the Remarki on are now added to his Works. 



W A R B U R T O N. 117 

vanced to the deanery of Bristol ; and in 1758 republished 
the second part of *^ The Divine Legation,'' divided into 
two parts, with a dedication to the earl of Mansfield, which 
deserves to be read by every person who esteems the welt- 
being of society as a concern of any importance. At 
the latter end of next year, Dr. Warburton received the 
honour, so justly due to his merit, of being dignified 
with the mitre, and promoted to the vacant see of 
Gloucester. He was consecrated on the 20th of Jan. 
1760; and on the 30th of the same month preached Jbe- 
fore the House of Lords. In the aext year he printed ^^ A 
rational Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper," 12mo. In 1762, he published '<The 
Doctrine of Grace : or, the office aiKi operations of th€ 
Holy Spirit vindicated from the insults of Infidelity and 
the abuses of Fanaticism,'^ 2 vols. 12mo, one of his per^^ 
formances which does him least credit; and in the sue* 
ceeding year drew upon himself much ilhberal abuse fi'oiii 
some writers* of the popular party, on occasion of his com^ 
plaint in the House of Lords, on Nov. 15, 17^3, against 
Mr. Wilkes, for putting his name to certain notes on the 
infamous ^^ Essay on Woman." In 1765, another edition 
of the second part of ^^ The Divine Legation " was -pub- 
lished, as volumes III. IV. and V. ; the two parts printed 
in 1755 being considered as volumes I. and II. It was this 
edition which produced a very angry controversy between 
him and Dr. Lowtb, whom in many respects he found more 
than his equal. (See LowTH, p, 438.) On this occasion 
was published, ^^ The second part of an epistolary Corre* 
spondeiice between the bishop of Gloucester and the late 
professor of Oxford, without an Imprimatur, i.e. without a 
cover to the violated Laws of Honour and Society," 1766, 
Svo. In 1776, be gave a new edition of ^^The Alliance 
between Church and State ;" and ^* A Sermon preached 
before the incorporated Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel iri foreign Parts, at the anniversary Meeting in the 
parish church of St. Mary-le-bow, on Friday, Feb. 21,^* Svo. 
The next year produced a third volume of his ** Sermons,** 
dedicated to lady Mansfield ; and with this, and a single 
** Sermon preached at St. Lawrence- Jewry on Tluirsday^ 

* S^e Churchiirs Duellist, the De- former was worthy of the Devil ; then, 

dication of his Sermons, and other afterashort pause, added, *< No, 1 b^y 

pieces. In making his complaint, the the Devil's pardon, for he is incapabU 

bishop, after solemnly disavowing both of writing it.'' 

the poem and tbe notes, averred, the 



)» 



/. 



118 W A R B U R T O N. 

April 30, 1767, before his royal highness Edward dake of 
York, president, and the governors of the London Hospital. 
&c." 4to, he closed his literary labours. His faculties con- 
tinued unimpaired for some lime after this period ; and, in 
1769, he gave the principal materials to Mr RuflThead, for 
. bis ** Life of Mr. Pope." He also transferred 500/. to lord 
Mansfield,^ judge Wilmot, anil Mr. Charles Yorke, upon 
trust, to found a lecture it^ the form of a course of ser- 
mons ; to prove the truth of revealed religion in i^eneral, 
and of the Christian in particular, from the completion of 
the prophecies in the Old and New Testament, which re- 
late to the Christian Church, especially to the apostacy of 
^ Papal Rome. To this foundation we owe the admirable 
introductory letters of bishop Hurd ; and the well adapted 
continuation of bishops Halifax and Bagot, Dr. Aptborp, 
the* Rev. R. Nares, and others. It is a melancholy re- 
flection, that a life spent in the constant pur>uit of know- 
pledge frequently terminates in the loss of tho^e powers, the 
cultivation and improvement of which are attended to with 
too strict and unabated a degree of ardour, lliis was in 
fiome degree the misfortune ot Dr; Warburton. Like Swift 
and the great duke of Marlborough, he gradually sunk into 
a situation in which it was a fatigue to him to. enter into 
general conversation. There were, however, a few old 
and valuable friends, in whose company, even to the last, 
his mental faculties were exerted in their wonted force ; 
and at such times he would appear cheerful for several 
hours, and on the departure of his friends retreat as it were 
within himself. This melancholy habit was aggravated by 
the- loss of his only son, a very promising ypung gentle- 
man, who died, of a consumption but a short time before 
the bishop himself resigned to fate June 7, 1779, in the 
eighty-first year of his age. A neat marble monument has 
been lately erected in the cathedral of Gloucester, with the 
inscription below *• 

♦ " To the memory of and 

WILLIAM WARBURTON, D. D. of what he esteemed the best Estab* 

for more than 19 years Bishop of thii lishment of it, 

see. the CHURCH of ENGLAND. 

A Prelate He was born at Newark upon Trent^ 

of th« most sublime Genius, and Dec. ^, 1698. 

exquisite Learning. Was consecrated BI$HOP of Gloo- 

Both which taleuts cester, Jan. 80, 1760. 

he employed through a long life. Died at his palace, in this city, 

in the support June 7, 1779, 

•f irhat he firmly belicTed, and was buried near this place, 
the CHRISTIAN RELIGION; 



W A R B U R T O N. ii9 

/ 

Dr. Johnson's character of this literary phaenomenon is 
too remarkable to be omitted. ** About this time (1738), 
Warburton began to make his appearance in the first ra-nks 
of learning. He was a man of vigorous faculties, a mind 
fervid and vehement, supplied by incessant and unlimited 
inquiry, with wonderful extent and variety of knowledge, 
which yet had not oppressed his imagination nor clouded 
his perspicacity, "^l o every work he brought a memory 
full fraught, together with a fancy fertile of original com- 
binations ; and at once exerted the powers of the scholar, 
the reasoner, and the wit:. But his knowledge was too 
multifarious to be always exact, and his pursuits were too 
eager to be always cautious. His abilities gave him a 
haughty consequence, which he disdained to bonceal or 
moHify ; and his impatience of opposition disposed him to 
treat his adversaries with such contemptuous superiority 
as made his readers commonly his enemies, and Excited 
against the advocate the wishes of some who favoured th^ 
cause. He seems to have adopted the Roman emperor's 
determination, * oderint dum metuant ;' he used no allure-* 
ments of gentle language, but wished to compel rather 
than persuade. His style is copious witht^ut selection, and 
forcible without neatness ; he took the words that pre^ 
rented themselves : bis diction is coarse and impure, and 
his sentences are unmeasured." To this character, which 
has been oft^n copied, we shall subjoin some remarks from 
the able critic of whomwe have already borrowed, and whose 
opinions seem entitled to great attention. 

*' Warburton's whole constitution, bodily as well as men- 
tal, seemed to indicate that he was born to be an extraor- 
dinary man : with a large and athletic pers6n he prevented 
the necessity of such bodily exercises as strong constitu- 
tions usually require, by rigid and undeviating abstinence. 
The time thus saved was uniformly devoted to study, of ' 
which no measure or continuance ever exhausted his un- 
derstanding, or checked the natural and lively How of bis 
spirits. A change in the object of his pursuit was his only 
relaxation ; and he could pass and repass from fathers and 
philosophers to Don Quixote, in the original, with perfect 
ease and pleasure. In the mind of Warburton the founda- 
tion of classical literature had been well laid, yet not so as 
to enable him to pursue the science of ancient criticisoi 
with an exactness equal to the extent in which he grasped 
k. Hi» master-faculty was reason, and bis master-science 



120 W A R B U R T. O N. 

was theology ; the very outline of which last, as marked oat 
by this great man, for the direction of young students, sur^ 
passes the attainments of many who have the reputation of 
considerable divines. One deficiency of hb education be 
had carefully corrected by cultivating logic with great dili- 
gence. That he has sometimes mistaken th^ sense of his 
own.citations in Greek, may peiliaps be imputed to a pur- 
pose of bending them to his own opinions. After all, he 
wai^ incomparably the worst critic in his mother tongue* 
Little acquainted with old English literature, and as little 
with those provincial dialects which yet retain much of the 
phraseology of Shakespeare, he has exp9sed himself to the 
derision of far inferior judges by mistaking the sense of 
passages, in which he would have been corrected by shep- 
herds and plowmen. His sense of humour, like that of 
most nien of very vigorous faculties, was strong, but ex« 
tremely coarse, while the rudeness and vulgarity of bis 
manners as a controvertist removed all restraints of decency 
or decorum in scattering his jests about him. His taste 
seems to have heen neither just nor delicate. He had no* 
thing of that intuitive perception of beauty which feels ra-' 
ther than judges, and yet is sure to be follovyed by the 
common suffrage of mankind : on the contrary, his critical 
favours were commonly bestowed according to rules and 
reasons, and for the most part according to some perverse 
and capricious reasons of his own. . In short, it may be 
adduced as one of those compensations with which Provi-> 
dence is ever observed to balance the excesses and super- 
fluities of its own gifts, that there wad not a faculty about 
this wonderful man which dpes not appear to have been 
distorted by a certain inexplicable perverseness, in which 
pride and lo^'e of paradox were blended with the spirit of 
subtle and sophistical reasoning. In the lighter exercises 
* of his faculties it may not unfrequently be doubted whether 
be Relieved himself; in the more serious, however fine- 
spun his theories may have been, be was unquestionably 
honest. On the whole^ we think it a fair subject of specu- 
lation, whether it were desirable that Warburton's educa- 
tion and early habits should have been those of other great 
scholars. That the^ordinary forms of scholastic institution 
would have been for his own benefit and in some respects 
for that of mankind, there can be no doubt The grada- 
tions of an University would, in part, have mortified his 
vanity and subdued, bis arrogance. . The perpetual coUL- 



W A R B U R T O N. 121 

sions of kindred and approximating minds, which eonsti- 
tute, perhaps, the great excellence of those illustrious se^ 
minaries, would have rounded off some portion of his na^ 
live aspeirities ; he would have been broken by the aca-* 
demical curb to pace in the trammels of ordinary ratioci* 
nation ; he would have thought always above, yet not aIto« 
gether unlike, the rest of mankind. In short, he would 
baye become precisely what the discipline of a college was 
able to make of the man, whom Warburton hiost resembled, 
the great Bentley. Yet all these advantsvges would have 
been acquired at an expence ill to be spared and greatly 
to be regretted. The man might have been polished and 
the scholar improved, but the phsenomenon would have 
been lost. Mankind might not have learned, for centu- 
ry to come, what an untutored mind can do for itself. > A 
self-taught theologian, untamed by rank and unsubdued by 
intercourse with the great, was yet a novelty; and the 
manners of a gentleman, the formalities of argument, and 
the niceties of composition, would, at least with those who 
love the eccentricities of native genius, have* been unwill- 
ingly accepted in exchange for that glorious extravagance 
which dazzles while it is unable to convince, that range 
of erudition which would have been cramped by exactnest^ 
of research, and thai haughty defiance of form and deco- 
rum, which, in its rudest transgressions against charity and 
manners, never failed to combine the powers of a giant 
with the temper of a ruffian." 

Bishop Warburton's widow was re-married, at Wyke in. 
Dorsetshire, in August 1781, to the rev. John Stafford 
Smith, B. D. his lordship's chaplain, who, in her right* .be- 
came owner of Prior Park. In 1788, a handsome edition 
of the bishop's Works was carefully printed, from his last 
corrections and improvements, in 7 volumes 4to, at the 
expence of Mrs. Smith, under the immediate superintend-' 
ence of bishop Hurd. This edition was followed in 1794 
by a " Discourse, by way of general preface to the 4t6 
edition of bishop Warburton's Works, containing some ac- 
count of the life, writings, and character of the author.'* 
For many reasons this *' Life" appeared to be unsatisfao 
tory *, and two. very important faults were imputed to it. 

* " With the life of this wonderful would have been difficult to find a man 

person, as given by his most devoted in the whole compass of English literar 

friend, it is impossible for us to express ture competent to the task, exceptiag^ 

«ur entire satisfactieiy/ In truth, it the immortal biographer of the English^ 



122 WARE U R T O N. 

It was partial, and it was defective. It will however al- 
ways be. read, as the last, and evidently an elaborate pro* 
duction of bishop Hurd, and as the ablest applogy that 
can be offered for the failings of his friend. Since bishop 
Kurd's death, the characteristics of both the author and 
biographer were amply displayed in a volume of 'very 
curious " Letters" which passed between Warburton and 
Hurd during a. long course of years. To these must be 
added, although we less approve the motive and the spirit 
which produced such a publication, a Volume that appeared 
in 1789, with the title, "Tracts by Warburton and a War- 
' burtonian, not admitted in their works," 8vo, Throughout 
Mr. Nichols's '* Literary Anecdotes," likewise, but espe* 
cially in vol. V. may be found many interesting particulars 
of bishop Warburton arid his friends, and many of his let- 
ters, contributed from various authjentic sources.^ 

WARD (Edward), a poet and miscellaneous writer, was- 
of low extraction^ and born in Oxfordshire about 1667. 
Jacob said" of him, in his Lives of the Poets, that he kept a 
public house in the city, but in a genteel way, which was 

poets. To any writer of bis own school, of real genius, which' is capable of 
as such, there were certain general ob- being fired by the contemplation of ex- 
jeciioDS, and against every individual cellence, till it partakes of the heat 
in the number, particular exceptions and flame of its object. On the other 
might be taken. In the first place, the hand, he wnnted nothing of thai ma- 
prejudices of the whole body were ex- lignity which is incident to the coolest 
iseesive, and their views of tb^ subject tempers, of that cruel and aoatoaiica\ 
narrow and illiberal in the extreme. In faculty, which, in dissecting ihe cha- 
anage of ability and learned independ- racter of an antagonist, can lay bare, 
eoce, they bad erected their leader with professional indifference^ the qui« 
into a monarch of literature, and who- verin^ fibres of an agonized victim* 
ever presumed to content his claim was, For this purpose his instrument was 
without ceri'mony, sacrificed to it, irony ; atid few practitioners have ever 
while with the rancour which ever pur> employed that, or any other, more un-.' 
sues this single species of delinquency, feelingly than did the biographer of 
the mangled limbs of the departed ene- Warburton, even when the ground of 
myixrere held up vith savage derision complaint was almost imperceptible, 
to the scorn or commjseiaiiun of man- as in the cases of Leland and Jortin. 
kind. ** To the author of the Delicacy of 
" But even among the disciples of Friendship, however, the ofHce of i)io* 
the Warbortoniao school, Hurd assur- grapher to Warburton, whether wisely 
ediy was not the man whom we should or oiherwise, was in fact consigned; 
have wished to select for the delicate and it cannot be denied, that he has 
and in?idious task of embalming his executed hts task in a style of elegance 
patron's remains. Subtle and sophis- and purity 'worthy of an earlier and 
tical, elegant, but never forcible, his better age of English lilerature." 
heart was cold, though bis admiration Quarterly Review, ubi supra. 
was excessive. He wanted that power 

• Life by Hurd.— -Nichols's Literary Anecdotes. — Quarterly Review, No. 
XIV. in the review of the octavo edition of Warburtou's Works, published ia 
1811. 



WARD. 12S 

much frequented by those who were adverse to the Whig 
administration. Ward, however, was affronted when be 
read this account, not because it made him an enemy t6 
the Whigs, or the keeper of a public house, but because 
his house was said to be in the city. In a book, therefore, 
called ** Apollo's Maggot," h^ citclared this account to be a 
great falsity, protesting that his public house whs not in th6 
city, but in AJoorJields. Oldys says he lived a while in Gray's- 
Inn, and for some years after kept a public house in Moor* 
fields, then in Clt* rkenwell, and lastly -a punch-house in 
Fulwood's-Rents, within one door of Gray's-inn, where he 
would entertain any company who invited him with many 
stories and adventures of the poets and authors he had ac- 
quaintance with. He was honoured with a place in the 
*• Dunciad" by Pope, whom, however he contrived to 
vex, by retorting with some spirit. He died June 20, 1731, 
and was buried the 27th of the same month in St. Pancras 
church-yard, with one mourning-coach for his wife and 
daughter to attend his hears^, as himself had directed in 
his poetical will, which was written by him June 24, 1725, 
This will was printed in Appleby's Journal, Sept. 28, 1731. 
W^ard is most distinguished by his well-known " London 
Spy," a coarse, but in some respect a true, description of 
London manners. He wrote one dramatic piece, called 
**The Humours of a Coffee-house," and some poems in 
the Hudibrastic style, but not " England's Reformation/* 
as asserted in Mr. Reed's edition of the Biog. Dram. 1782. 
That was the production of Thomas Ward, who will be men- 
tioned hereafter. * 

WARD (John), a learned and useful writer, was born ' 
in London about 1679. His father was a dissenting minis- 
-ter of the same name, boru at Tysoe, in Warwickshire, who 
married Constancy Rayner, a woman of extraordinary piety 
and excellence of temper, by whom he had fourteen chil- 
dren. She died inAprd 1697, when her funeral sermon 
was preached and printed by the Rev. Walter Crosse; and 
Mr. Ward survived her twenty years, dying Dec. 28, 1717, 
in the eighty-second year of his age. Of his numerous 
family he left only two, a daughter, and the subject of this 
article. 

His son John appears to have early contracted a love for 
learning, and longed for a situation in which he could make 

. 1 Gibber's Lives.— Jacob's LiTe8,-^Biog. Draip.— Bowles's edition of Pope, 



124 WAR D. 

it his chief object. He was for some years a clerk in the 
navy office, and prosecuted his studies at his leisure bour^ 
with great eagerness, and had the assistance of a Dr. John 
Ker, who appears to have been originally a physician, as 
be took his degree of M. D. at Leyden, but kept an aca« 
demy at Highgate, and afterwards in St. John^s-square, 
Clerkenwell. Mr. Ward continued in the navy-office until 
1710, when he resigned his situation, and opened a school 
in Tenter-alley, Moorfields, which he kept for many years, 
being more desirous, as he said, to converse even with 
bo3's upon subjects of literature, than to transact the or* 
dinary affairs of life with men. In 1712, he became one 
of the earliest members of a society of gentlemen, who 
agreed to meet once a week, or as often as their affairs 
would permit, to prepare and read discourses, each in his 
turn, upon the civil law, and the law of nature and na* 
lions. In the prosecution of this laudable design, they 
went through the " Corpus Juris civilis," Grotius " De 
Jure belli et pacis,*' PuffendorfF ^< De officio hominis et 
civis," and ended with Cicero ^' De Officiis.*' Some of 
the society were divines, and some lawyers^ and as their 
affairs from time to time obliged any of them to leave tb6 
society, they were succeeded by others. But in order to 
preserve a perfect harmony aud agreement among them* 
selves, it was always a standing rule not to admit any ne«ir 
member, till he was first proposed by one of their number, 
and approved of by all the rest. This society, with some 
occasional interruptions, was kept up till Michaelmas- term 
i742. Several of the members were afterwards persons 
of distinction both in chiirch and state, and Mr. Ward 
continued highly esteemed among them while the society 
subsisted. 

In 1712, be published a small piece in Latin, octavo, 
entitled ^' De ordine, sive de venusta et eleganti turn 
Tocabulorum, turn membrorum sententiae collocatione,*' 
&c. When Ainsworth was employed to compile an account 
of the antiquities collected by Mr. John Kemp, which he 
published under the title of ^^ Mouumenta Vetustatis Kem* 
piana,^' Mr. Ward furnished him with the descriptions and 
explanations of several of the statues and lares, and with 
the ^ssay ^^ De vasis et lucernis, de amuletis, de an nulls 
et fibulis,'* and the learned commentary *^ De asse et par^ 
tibus ejus," which had been printed in 1719. About this 
time Mr* Ward was so eminent for his knowledge of polite 



19 

t9 



WARD. 125 

literature, as well as antiquities, that oii Sept. 1, 1720, he 
was chosen professor of rhetoric in Greshao) college, and, 
on Oct. 28 following, made his inaugural oration there, 
"De usu et dignitate artis dicendi." Greshaai<-coliege 
was then in existence, and the appointment to a professor- 
ship a matter of some consequence ; but after the venera- 
ble building was pulled down, and the lecturers removed to 
a paltry room in the Royal Exchange, the public ceased to 
take any interest in them. 

In 1723, he published a Latin translation of the eighth 
editioa of Dr. Mead^s celebrated " Discourse of the Plague," 
that author not approving of the translation of the first 
edition by Maittaire, which was never printed. In the 
same year Mr. Ward was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, of which he became a vice-president in 1752, and 
continued in that office until his death. In 1724, he sub- 
joined to an edition of Vossius^s ^< Elementa Rhetorics,^ 
printed at London, a treatise ^^ De Ratione interpungendi,* 
containi^ig a system of clear and easy rules with regard to 
pointing, superior to what bad before appeared on that 
subject. In 1726, when Dr. Middleton published bis dis- 
sertation '^ De Medicorum apud veteres Romanes degei^- 
tiiim conditione,*' Ward answered it, at the suggestion of 
Mead, and a short controversy took place (See Middle- 
ton), which has been already noticed. When Buckley 
was about to print his splendid edition of Thuanus, Mr. 
Ward translated his three letters to Dr. Mead into Latin. 
In 1732, at the request of the booksellers who were pro- 
prietors of Lily's grammar, he gave a very correct edition 
of it, and in the preface a curious history of that work. 
The same year he contributed to Horsley's '* Britannia 
Romana" an " Essay on Peutinger's table, so far as it re- 
lates to Britain." He had also communicated many remarks 
to Horsley ; and Ward^s copy, now in the British Museum, 
contains many MS corrections and additions. 

In Feb. 1735-6, Mr. Ward was chosen a member of the 
society of antiquaries, and in 1747, being proposed by 
Roger Gale, esq. one of the vice-presidents, was elected 
director on the resignation of Dr. Birch, who, from an iti« 
flammation in his eyes, had been prevented for some 
nonths from performing the business of it^; and in 1753 he 
was appointed one of the vice- [Presidents, which office he 
held until his death. In 1736 he assisted Ainsworth in the 
publicatioA of his Dictionary, and performed the same ser- 



126 WARD. 

r 

I 
I 

vice to the subsequent editors, as long as he lived. In thi« 
same year he became a member of the Society for the 
encouragement of Learning, by printing valuable books at 
their own expence. During its existence, which, for va- 
rious reasons, was not lonjj, Mr. Ward had the care of the 
edition of Maximus Tyrius, to which he contributed the 
prefatory dedication ; and in the preface to the edition of 
** JElian de animalibus," the editor Abraham Gronovius is 
full of acknowledgments to Mr. Ward for his assistance in 
that work. In Dec. 1740, his " Lives of the Professors of 
Gresham College" were published at London, in folio, a 
work which Dr. Birch justly pronounces a considerable ad- 
dition to the literary history of our country *. Of this also 
there is a copy in the British museum, with considerable 
MS additions by the author. 

In 1741 he translated into Latin the life of Dr. Arthur 
Johnston, for auditor Benson's edition of that poet's Latin 
version of the Psalms; and in 1750 he addressed a Latin 
letter to<Dr. Wishart, principal of the university of Edin- 
burgh, which was the year following added to the princi- 
pal's edition of Volusenus, or Wilson, " De animi tran- 
quillitate." This probably led to the degree of doctor of 
laws, which the university of Edinburgh conferred upon 
Mr. Ward the same year. On the establishment of the 
British museum in 1753, Pr. Ward was elected one of the 
trustees, in which office he was singularly useful b^ his 
assiduous attendance, advice, and assistance in the forma- 
tion of that establishment, and the construction of rules for 
rendering it a public benefit, which it is, however, now in 
a much higher degree than in Dr. Ward's time. 

In July 1754 he published a new edition of Camden*s 
" Greek Grammar" for Westminster school. The last 
work published by himself was his " Four Essays upon the 
English Language," which appeared in June 1758. 

He died in the eightieth year of his age, at his apart- 
ments at Gresham college, Oct. 31, 1758, and was interred 
in the dissenters' burying ground in BunhilUfields. He 
had prepared for the press his " System of Oratory, deli- 
vered in a course of lectures publicly read at Gresham 
college," which was accordingly published in 1758, 2 vols. 

* In d^ view of the college pre- tagonist. Dr. Woodward, in the gate* 

fixed to this work, Ward paid a sin- way, at the moment Woodward it 

gular oomplitnent to his friend Dr. kneeling and laying bis swerd at the 

Mead, by introducing him and bis aa* feet of Dr, Mead* 



WARD. 127 

Sto. Another posthumous work was published in 1761, 
entitled "Dissertations upon several passages of the Sa- 
cred Scriptures," &vo. On these Dr. Lardner published 
^* Remarks," which he introduces with a high compliment 
to the learning and piety of the deceased author, A se- 
cond volume was published in 1774. The papers written 
by him, and communicated to the Royal Society, are nu- 
merous and valuable. They occur from No. 412 to vol. 
XLIX. He also contributed some to the Society of Anti- 
quaries. He communicated to Mr. Vertue an account of 
a mosaic pavement found in Littlecote Park, to accom-' 
pany the engraving, and was the author of the dedication, 
preface, and notes to Pine's Horace. By the multitude 
and value of his works he attained great reputation, at^d, as 
we have seen, reached the highest literary honours. 

As to his private character, Dr. Birch says that his piety 
was sincere and unaffected, and his profession as a Chris- 
tian was that of a protestant dissenter, with a moderation 
and candour which recommended him to the esteem of 
those members of the established church who had the plea- 
sure of his acquaintance or friendship. His modesty was 
equal to his learning, and his readiness to contribute to 
any work of literature was as distinguished as his abilities 
to do it. Dr. Lardner and Dr. Benson may be ;nentioned 
as acknowledging his assistance in their theological pur- 
suits. * 

WARD (Samuel), master of Sidney-Sussex college, 
Cambridge, a learned divine -of the seventeenth century, 
was boru of a good family in the bishopric of Durham, at 
a place called Bishops- Middleham. He was first sent lo 
Christ's college, Cambridge, where he became a scholar 
of the house, whence he was, on account of his extraor- 
dinary merit, elected into a fellowship at Emmanuel, and 
succeeded to the mastership of Sidney-Sussex college on 
Jan. 5j 1609. On April 29, 1615, he was installed arch- 
deacon of Taunton, and was at that time D. D. and pre- 
bendary of Bath and Wells. On Feb. 11, 1617, he was 
promoted to a stall in the metropolitical church of York, 
where he had the prebend of A rapleford, which he kept 
to his de^th. In 1620 he wias vice-chancellor of the uni- 
versity, and the year following was made lady Margaret's 

' Life, writtiBn by Dr. Birch, and published by Mr. Maty, 1766, 8ro. — 
Nichols^ Bowyer.' 



128 ' W A R D. 

professor of divinity. In 1622 he was at Safisbury with 
bishop Davenaiity his intimate and particular friend, with 
whom, together with bishops Hall and Carleton, he had 
been sent by king James to tlie synod of Dort in 1618, ad 
persons best able to defend the doctrine of the Church of 
England, and to gain it credit and reputation among those 
to whom they were sent. 

In 1624 he was rector of Much-Munden, in Hertford- 
shire. He is said also to have been chaplain extraordinary 
to the king, and to have served in convocation. As he was 
an enemy to Aripinianism, and in other respects bore the 
character of a puritan, he was nominated one of the com- 
mittee for religion which sat in the Jerusalem chamber in 
1640, and also one of the assembly of divines, but never 
0at among them, which refusal soon brought on tjie severe 
persecution which he suffered. On the breaking out of 
the rebellion he added to his other offences against the 
usurping powers, that unpardonable one of joining with 
the other heads of houses in sending the college plate to 
the king. He was likewise in the convocation-house when 
all the members of the university there assembled, many of 
them men in years, were kept prisoners in the public 
Schools in exceeding cold weather, till midnight, without 
food or fire, because they would not join in what the re- 
publican party required. After this. Dr. Ward was de- 
prived of his mastership and professorship, and plundered 
and imprisoned both in his own and in St. John's college. 
During his confinement in St. John's he contracted a dis« 
ease which is said to have piit an end to bis life, about six 
weeks after his enlargement; but there seems some mis- 
take in the accounts of his death, which appears to have 
taken place Sept. 7, 1643, when he was in great want. 
, He was buried in the chapel of Sidney-Sussex college. 
Of this house he had been an excellent governor, and an 
exact disciplinarian, and it flourished greatly under his 
administration. Four new fellowships were founded in his 
time, ajl the scholarships augmented, and a chapel and a 
irew range of buildings erected. Dr. Ward was a man of 
great learning as well as piety, of both which are many 
proofs in his correspondence with archbishop Usher, ap- 
pended to the life of that celebrated prelate. Fuller, in 
his quaint way, says he was " a Moses (not only for slow- 
ness of speech) but otherwise meekness of nature^ Indeed,' 
when in my private thoughts I have beheld him and doc- 



WARD. 12S 

tor Collins (disputable whether more different or more 
eraiuent in their endowments) I could not but remember 
the running of Peter and John to the place where Christ, 
was buried. In which race John came first, as the youngest 
and swiftest, but Peter first entered into the grave« Dr«; 
Collins had much the speed of him in quicknesse of parts, 
but let me say (nor doth the relation of a pupil misguide 
me) the other pierced the deeper into underground and 
profound points of divinity.** 

Of his works were published in his life-time, 1. ^^ Suf* 
fragium collegiale theologorum M. Britannise de quinque 
controversis remonstrantium articulis ; item, concio in 
Phil. 11, 12, 13, de gratia discriminante,*' London, I6279 
4to, reprinted 1633. 2. ^'Eadem concio,*' ibid. 1626, 4to. 
3. '^ Magnetis reductorium theologicum, trppologicunit. 
in quo ejus verus usus indicatur,*' ibid. 1637, 8vo. The 
following were published after his death by Dr. Seth Ward, 
the subject of the following article (but no relation), who, 
it appears, had kindly administered to his necessities while 

S confinement. 4. '^ Dissertatio inter eum et Thomaoa 
atakerum de baptismatis infantilis vi' et e^cacia,** ibid, 
l$52f 3ro. 5. '^ Determinationes theologicss^'* ibid. 16 $9, 
along with a treatise on justification and prelections on 
original sin. * 

WARD (Seth)^ an. English prelate, famous chiefly for 
his skill in mathematics and astronomy, was the son of Jx)hn 
Ward an attorney, and born at Buntingford, in Hertford* 
shire. Wood says he was baptised the 16 th of April, 1617; 
but Dr. Pope places his birth in 1618. He was taught 
grammar-learning and arithmetic in the school at Bunting-f 
ford ; and thence removed to Sidney college in Cambridge, 
iuto which he was admitted in 1632. Dr. Samuel Ward^ 
the master of that college, was greatly taken with his in- 
genuity* and goodnature ; and shewed him particular fa- 
vour, partly perhaps from his being of the same surname, 
though there was no affinity at all between them. Here he 
applied himself with great vigour to his studies, and parti- 
cularly**to mathematics, his initiation into which. Pope thus 
relates : ** In the college library Mr. Ward found by chance 
aome books that treated of the mathematics, and they being 
wholly new to him, he inquired all the college over for a 

1 Walker's JSufferings. — Cole's MS Athens in Brit Mus.— Lloyd's Memoir*. 
«*-FiiUcr's History df Cambridge, and Wortbies, — Usher's Life and Letters. 

Vol. XXXI. K 



IM WARD. 

guide to instruct Iiim in that way; but all his s6areb was 
in vain ; these books were Greek, I mean unintelligible, to 
all the. fellows of the college. Nevertheless he took cou^ 
rage, and attempted them himself, propria Marte^ without- 
any confederates or assistance, or intelligence in that conn* 
try, and that with so good success, that in a short time be 
not only discovered those Indies, but conquered several 
kingdoms therein, and brought thence a great part of their 
treasure, which he shewed publicly to the whole university 
not lonjj after." 

Mr. Ward having taken his master's degree in 1640, was 
chosen fellow of his college. In the same year Dr. Cosins, 
the vice-chancellor, pitched upon Ward to be prsevaricator, 
tbe same office which is called in Oxford terrac filius; and 
be took so many freedoms in his speech, that the vice-chan^^ 
cellor suspended him from his degree ; though he reversed' 
the censure the day following. 

The civil war breaking out. Ward was involved not a 
little in tbe consequences of it. His good master and pa- 
tron. Dr. Samuel Ward, was in 1643 imprisoned in St 
John's college, which was then made a gaol by tbe parlia* 
raent*forces; and Ward, thinking that g^ratitude obliged 
him to attend him, continued with him to his death, which 
happened soon after. He was also himself ejected from 
his fellowship for refusing the covenant; against which 
be soon after joined with Mr. Peter Gunning, Mr. John 
Barwick, Mr. Isaac Barrow, afterwards bishop of St. 
Asaph, and otliers in drawing up a treatise, which waa 
afterwards printed. Being now obliged to leave Cam- 
bridge, he resided some time with Dr. Ward^s relations in 
and about London, and at other times with the mathema-' 
tician Oughtred, at Albury, in Surrey, with whom be ha^ 
cultivated an acquaintance, and under whom he prose«* 
cuted his mathematical studies. He was invited likewise 
by the earl of Carlisle and other persons of quality, to re* 
side in their families, with offers of large pensions, but 
preferred the house of his friend Ralph Freeman, at As- 
penden in Hertfordshire, esq. whose sons he instfucted,* 
and with whom be continued for the most part till 1649^ 
and then he resided some months with lord Wenman, of 
Thame Park in Osrfordshire. 

He had not been in this noble ^mily long before the 
visitation of the university of Oxford began ; the effect x>f 
wiiicfa waS| that many learned and eminent persons were. 



WARD, lU 

tmned 6ut» and among them Mr. Greaves, the Sayilian 
professor of astronomy, who had a little before distinguished 
himself by his work upon the Egyptian pyramids. ^ Mr. 
Greaves laboured to procure Ward for his successor^ whose 
abilities in this way were universally known and acknow* 
ledged, and eflPected it. Ward then entered himself of 
Wad ham- col lege, for the sake of Dr. Wilkins, who was the 
warden; and, Oct. 1649, was incorporated master of arts^ 
At this time there were several learned men of the univer- 
sity, and in the city, who often met at the warden's lodg« 
lags in Wadham college, and sometimes elsewhere, to im* 
prove themselves by making philosophical experiments. 
Among these were Dr. Wilkins and Mr. Ward, Mr. Robert 
Boyle, Dr. Willis, Dr. Goddard, Dr. Waliis, Dr. Bathnrst, 
Mr. Rooke, &c. Besides reading his astronomical lectures^ 
Mr. Ward preached frequently, though not obliged to it,- 
for sir Aenry Savile had exempted his professors from alt 
university exercises, that they might have the more leisurd 
to attend to the employment he designed them for. Mn 
Ward^s sermons were strong, methodical, and clear, and 
sometimes pathetic and eloquent. 

Soon after his arrival at Oxford, he took the engagement^ 
or oath, to be faithful to the commonwealth of England, as 
it was then established, without a king or house of lords t 
for, though he had refused the covenant while the king 
was supposed to be in any condition of succeeding, yet^ 
now these hopes we're at an end, and the government, to- 
gether with the king, was overturned, he thought that no 
good purpose could be answered by obstinately holding out 
any longer against the powers that were. In the mean 
titue his first object was to bring the astronomy-lectures, 
which had long been neglected and disused,' into repute 
again ; and for this purpose he read them very constantly, 
never missing one reading-day all the while be held the 
lecture. 

About this time. Dr. Brownrig, the ejected bishop of 
Exeter, lived retired at Sunning in Berkshire ; where Mr. 
Ward, who was his chaplain, used often to wait upon him. 
in one of these visits, the bishop conferred on him the 
precentorship of the church of Exeter; and told him, that, 
thoogh it might then seem a gift and no gift, yet that upon 
the king^s restoration, of which the bishop was confident, it 
would be of some emolument to him. He paid the bishop's 
aeoretary the full fees, as if he were imn^ediately to tike 

K 2 ^ 



i^fi W A K D. 

f>09ie0$i(Hi> though this happened in the very height of 
ih^ir despair ; and Ward^s acquaintance rallied hiiti upon 
it^ telling, him that they would not give him half a crawn 
for his precentorship. But the professor knew that, let 
things take what turn they would, he was now safe; and 
tbati if the king ever returned, it would be a valuable pro- 
motion^ and in fact it. afterwards laid the foundation of his 
future riches and preferment. 

. In 1654, both the Savilian professors performed their 
exercise in order to proceed doctors in divinity ; and, when 
they wer6 to be presented, Wall is claimed precedency. 
(See Walus.) This occasioned a dispute ; which being 
decidejl in favour of Ward, who was really the senior, 
Wallis went out grand compounder, and by that means ob- 
tained the precedency. .In 1657 be was elected principal 
9f Jesus-cbllege by the direction of Dr. Mansell, who bad 
been ejected from that headship many years before ; but 
Cromwell put in one Francis Howell, with a promise of 80/. 
It year to Dr. Ward, which was never paid. In 1659 he 
was chosen president of Trinity-college, although' abso- 
lutely disqualified for the office, and was ^)erefore obligedi 
«t the restoration, to resign it. At that time, however, he 
was presented to the vicarage of St. Lawrence- Jewry : for^ 
though he was not distinguished by his sufferings during 
the exile of the royal family, yet be was known to be so 
averse to the measures of the late times, and to be so well 
affected to the royal cause, that his compliances were for*- 
given. He was installed also,Mn 1660, in the precentor- 
ship of the church of Exeter. In 1.661 he became fellow 
of the Royal Society, and dean of Exeter; and the follow^ 
ing year was advanced to the bishopric of thai church. 
Dr. Pope tells us, he wa^ promoted to that 'see, without 
iinowing any thing of it, by the interest of the duke of 
Albemarle, sif Hugh Pollard, and other gentlemen, whom 
he had obliged during his residence at Exeter. 

In i667 be was translated to the see of Salisbury; and, 
in 1671, was mad^ •chancellor of the order of the gartec, 
being the first protestant bishop that held that office, which 
b(9*procured to be annexed to the see of Salisbury, after 
jt bad been held by laymen above a hundred and fifty 
years. Bishop Davenatit had endeavoured to procure the 
aapiie, but failed, principally owing to the troubles .com^ 
img an« Ward^s first care, after his advancement to SbUm^ 
hwff vra3 ^repair and beautify his caibelfaral %nd paitoej 



W A E K 



iii 



aiuttbmi'to BOppress the fioncoAformist» and their coiiVen^' 
I»iele9 in his diocese. This so enraged their party, thttf/ in 

1669, they forged a petition against him, under the bandft 
of some chief clothiers; pretending, that they were pe1r« 
secuted, and their trade ruined : but it was made appear 
at the council-table that this petition was a notorious libel^ 
and that none of those there mentioned to be persecuted 
and ruined, were so much as sammoned into the ecclesi* 
astt^al court *. * 

Bishop Ward was one of those unhappy persohd whd 
have the misfortune to outlive their. faculties. He dated 
bis indisposition of fa^ahh 4^rom a fever in 1660, of which 
be was not- well' dored ; (and, the m<irning he was conse^ 
crated bishbpW Exeter in •]66Sf, heHvas so ill, that he^ did 
not imag'ine-he shduid outlive the soiemnit}^ After he 
was bishop of Salisbury he was seised with a dangerous 
scd^butical atrophy and looseness: but this was removed 
by riding-exercifte. Yet, in course of time, melancholjr- 
and loss of memory gradually came up^n him; wbleb, 
joined with some diflference he had with Dr. Pierce, the 
deanof his chui^h, to whom he had refused an unreason-' 
»b|e request, and who pnrstied him with great Virulence 
and malice, at length totally deprived him of all senve. 
He lived to the Revolution, but without knowing any things 
of that event, although he subscribed in May 1688 the 
bi&hops^ petition against reading king James's declaration 
of liberty of conscience, and died at Knightsbridge Jan. 6^ 
1*6S9, in the seventy -^second year of his age. He was in<« 
terred in his cathedral at Salisbury, where a monumient 
was 'erected to hi6 memory, by hid nephew, Seth Ward, 
treasurer of the church. The bishop died unmarried. 

"Mr. Oughtred, in the preface to his *^ Clavi^ Mathema^ 



i • <^<Let . tbit be - sisid once for a1l» 
that he was do violent man, nor of a 
persecuting spirit, as these petitioner^ 
riqprtteated brtn $ but if at any time 
he vraf more aotive tb^a ordinary 
against the dissenters, it was^ by ex- 
press command from (he Conrt, some* 
tipMa by letters,, and S9metime8 gi«en 
Sn charges by the judges of the as- 
sizes, which councils altered fre- 
qnva^ft now in favour of- the dis« 
tenters, and tlvep agf in in opposition 
to them.; as it is well known to 
those who lived then^ and bad the- 
ifflHttwiigbt into public affairs* It is 



true, he was for the ait Against -con- 
venticles, and laboured much-to get it 
past, not without the order and di- 
rection of the greatest au^ority both 
civil and ecclesiastical, not oot of en- 
mity to the dissenters persons, as they 
unjustly suggested, but lore to the re- 
pose and welfare of the ■ government ; 
for he believed if tbe growth of them 
were not timely suppciessed, it would 
either cause a^neeessity of a standifl|f 
army to preserte.thf peac^i or a.gene« 
ral toleratiooi which would end in po- 
pery, whither all things then had an ap^ 
patent tHideocy,.".Fio|ie*g|jfio£ Wispd. 



WARD. 

tica^*' calls him << a prudent, pions^ and iogemoiiSy person,; 
admirably skilled, not only in mathematics, but also in all 
kinds of polite literature." Mr. Oughtred informs us, that 
he was the first in Cambridge who had expounded his 
<< Clavis Mathematica," and tbat^ at his importunate de- 
sire, he made additions to, and republished that work. 
Bishop Kurnet says, ^^ Ward was a man of great reach^ 
went deep in mathematical studies, and was a very dexter- 
^ ous man, if not too dexterous ; for his sincerity was muqh 
questioned. He had complied during the late times, smd 
held in by taking the covenant ; so he was hated by the 
high men as a time-server. But the lord Clarendon saw, 
that most -of the bishops were men of merit by their suffer- 
ings, but of no great capacity for business. So he brought- 
Ward in, as a man fit to govern the church ; and Ward, 
to get his former errors to be forgot, went into the high, 
notions of a severe conformity, and became the most coo- 
siderable man on the bishops' bench. He was a profound 
statesman, but a very indifferent clergyman." 

In the House of Lords he was esteemed an admirable 
speaker and a close reasoner, equal at least ^ to the earl of 
Shaftesbury. He was a great benefactor to both hia. 
bishoprics, as by his interest the deanry of Burien, in Corn- 
wall was annexed to the former, and ^be chancellorship 
o£ the garter to the latter. He was polite, hospitable, and 
generous: and in his iife^time, founded the college at Sa- 
lisbury, for tlie reception and support of ministers* widows, 
and the sumptuous hospital at Buntingford, in Hertford- 
shire, the place of bis birth. His intimate friend, Dn 
Walter Pope, has given us a curious account of bis life, 
interspersed with agreeable anecdotes of his friends. Pope's 
zeal and style, however, provoked a severe pamphlet from 
Dr. Thomas Wood, a civilian, called '< An Appendix to 
the Life,'* 1679, I2mo, bound up, although rarely, with 
Pope's work. 

Bishop Ward's works are, 1. ^^ A Philosophical Essay 
towards an Eviction of the Being and Attributes of God, 
the Immortality of the Souls of Men, and the Truth and 
Authority of Scripture." Oxford, 1652, 8vo. 2. " 0e 
Cometis, ubi de Cometanim natudk disseritur, Nova Co- 
netarum Tbeoria, & novissimse Cometas historia propo* 
nitur. Praelectio Oxonii habita." Oxford, 1653, 4to. 
3. <* Inquisitio in Ismaelis BuUialdi Astronomise Philo- 
laicas fundamenta." Printed with the book ^ De Come* 



- W A R 1>; lis 

tky 4. ^^Idea Trigonometrise demonstratfle io uamti ju- 
venttttis Oxon/' Oxford, 1654, 4to. 5. ^* VindiciflB Aca-' 
demiarum : containing 59016 brief Animadversions upon 
Mr. John Webster'8 Book styled The Examen of Acade* 
mies.'* Oxford, 1654, 4to. To ihis book is prefixed an 
Epistle written to the Author bygone who subscribes him- 
self N. S. and who is supposed to be ,Dr« John Wilkins^ 
those two letters being the last of both bis names. 6. 
" Appendix concerning what Mr. Hobbes and Mr. William 
Dell have published on the same Arguments.*' Printed at 
the end of ** Vindicifle Academiarum." 7. " In Thoma», 
Hobbii Philosophiam Exercitatio EpistoHca. Ad ampliss* 
eruditissimumque virum D. Johannem Wilkinsium S.T.D 
Collegii Wadhamensis Gardianum. Cui subjungUur Ap* 
pendicula ad Calumnias ab eodem Hobbio (in sex Docu* 
mentis nuperrimd editis) in Authorem congestas, Re-, 
sponsio." Oxford, 1656, 8vo. 8. '^ Astronomla Geome-' 
trica, ubi methodus proponitur, qui primariorum Plane-> 
taruni Astronomia, sive Elliptica, sive circularis possit 
Geometric^ absolvi." London, 1656, 8vo. 9. Several 
Sermons: as I. Against Resistance of lawful Powersi^ 
preached November the 5th, 1661, on Rom. xiii. 2* II. 
Against tlie Anti- scripturists, preached Febriiary the 20tb 
1669, on 2Tim.'iii. 16. III. Concerning the sinfulness, 
danger, &nd remedies of Infidelity, preached February the 
I6tb, 1667, on Heb. iii. 12. London, 1670, 8vo. IV. Ser- 
mon before the House of Peers at Westminster, October 
the 10th, 1666, on Ecrcles. ii. 9. V; Sermon concerning 
the strangeness, frequency, and desperate consequence of 
Itipenitency, preached April the 1st, 1666, soon after the 
Plague, on Revel, ix. 20. VI. Sermon against Ingratitude, 
on. Deut. xxxii. 6. VII. An Apology for the Mysteries of 
thre Gospel, preached February the 16th, 1672, on Rom. 
i. 16. Some of which Sermons having been separately 
printed at several times, were all published in one volume 
at London, 1674, 8vo. VIII. The Christian's Victory over 
Death, preached at the funeral of George duke of Albe- 
marle in the Collegiate church of Westminster, April the 
3©th, 1670, on 1 Cor. xv. 57. London, 1670, 4to. IX. 
The Case of Jof am, preached before the House of Peers^ 
January the 30th, 1673, on 2 Kings vi. last verse. Lon- 
don, 1674, 4to. 

That by which he has chiefly signalized himself, as to 
astronomical invention, is his celebrated approximation to 



1S6 WAR D. 

the true jdace of a planet^ from a gi?en metii aiomaly^ 
founded upon an hypothesis, that the motion of a pfawet, 
though, it be reaily performed in an riiiptic orbit^ may yet 
be considered as , equable as to angular velocity, or with 
an uniform circular motion round the upper focBs of the 
ellipse, or that next the aphelion, as . a centre. By this 
means he rendered the praxis of calculation much easier 
than any that could be used in resolving what has been 
commonly called Kepler's problem, in whiqh the coequate 
anomaly was to be immediately investigated frcun the mean 
elliptic one. His hypothesis agrees very well wiih those 
orbits which are elliptical but in a very small degree, as 
that of the Earth and Venus: but in others, that are more 
elliptical, -as those of Mercury, Mars, &c. this approxii* 
mation stood in heed of a correction, which was made by 
BuUiald. Both the method, and the correction, are very 
well explained and demonstrated, by Keill, in his Astro-' 
nomy, lecture 24. ' 

WARD (Thomas), whom we mentioned under the 
article Edward Ward, as being the real author of the Ho«^ 
dibrastic poem called ** England^s Reformation," was, ac- 
cording to Dodd^ a learned schoolmaster, who becoming a 
Roman catholic, in the reign of James II. published several 
books concerning religion. Dodd says that in these *^ he 
was so successful, that, though a layman, he was able to 
give diversion to some of the ablest divines of the church 
of England, He some time rode in the king's guards ; and 
it was no small confusion to his adversaries, when they un- 
derstood who it was they engaged wKh ; imagining all the 
while, they were attacking some learned doctor of the Ro* 
man communion." After the revolution' he retired into 
Flanders, where he died soon after. He left two chilchren, 
a daughter who became a nun, and a son whom Dodd 
speaks of as ^^runv (about 1742) a worthy cathoUc clergy^ 
man.'' 

The ** books concerning religion'' which Dddd ascribes 
to him, are, 1. '^ Monomachia ; or, a duel between Dr. 
Tenison, pastor of St. Martin's, London, and a cathdlie 
soldier." 2. << Speculum Edclesiasticum." 3. << The Tree 
of Life," taken from a large copper cut^ 4. ** Errata's of 
the J^rotestant Bible," 1688, 4to. 5. <* The controversy of 

' life by Pope. — ^Biof. Brit,— HaUon'ii I>ict]ooftry,<Mi<{r«Dfer«M-AUi, Ox. 
Tol. II.— Warton's Life ^f Bathant, p. 52—54, 145. 



W A R 0. l§t 

t 

oi^iiiatioii truly stated/' Lond. 1719^ 8^0, which occasioned 
fev^ral treatises on both skies upon that subject ; espe- 
eiatly that of Le Conrayer. 6. ** A confutation of Dr. 
Biirnet's Exposition of the Thirty-nine articles," a MS. in 
the English college at Doway. 7. '* England's Reformat 
lion, in several cantos, in the Hudibrastic style," 4t0| 
printed at Hamburgh, but reprinted at London in 1716^ 
)(vo, and afterwards in 2 vols. i2tno. This is a malicious 
and scurrilous history of the changes in religion, from 
Hetiry Vlllth's being divorced from Catherine of Arragon, 
to Oates's plot in the reign of Charles II.; and is ac-^ 
companied with many extracts from acts of parliament, 
state papers, and public records of all sorts. The imita- 
tion of Hudibras is tolerably successful, and there is a con*? 
siderable share of humour, wit, and liveliness, but not 
enough to atone for the many misrepresentations of fact, 
and the malignant tendency of the whol|3. ' 

WARE (James), an eminent antiquary, was descended 
from the ancient family of De Ware, or De Warr in York- 
shire, the only remains of which are, or lately were, in Ire- 
land. His granfdfather, Christopher Ware, was an early 
convert to the protestant religion in the beginning of the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, and that principally by the argu- 
ments and persuasion of Fox, the celebrated martyrologist. 
His father James, who was liberally educated, was incro" 
duced to the court of queen Elizabeth, where he soon be- 
came noticed by the ministers of state, and in 1588 was 
sent to Ireland as secretary to sir William Fitz-Williams^ 
the lord deputy. He had not filled this office long before 
he was made clerk of the common pleas in the exchequer, 
and afterwards obtained the reversion of the patent place 
of auditor general, a valuable appointment, which remained 
nearly a century in his family, except for a short time 
during the usurpation ; and his income having enabled him 
to make considerable purchases in the county and city of 
Dublin, &c. his family may be considered as now removed 
finally to Ireland. While on a visit in England, James I. 
bestowed on him the honour of knighthood, and as a par- 
ticular mark of favour, gave his eldest son the reversion of 
the office of auditor general. He also sat in the Irish 
parliament which began May 1613, for the borough of 
Mdlow in the county of Cork. He died suddenly, white 
walking the street in Dublin, in 1632. 

t l>odd'i Ch*.Hiit vol. III.— Gent. Mag. toI. LIV; 



1S8 WARE. 

By his lady^ Mary^ sister of sir Ambrose Briden, of -Maid*- 
stone in Kent, be bad five soiis and five daughters^ His 
eldest son, tbe subject of this article, was boro in Cattle* 
street, Dublin, Nov. 26, 1594, and discovering early a love 
of literature, his father gave him a good classical education 
' as preparatory to his academical studies. In 1610, when 
/ sixteen years of age, he was entered a fellow commoner ia 
Trinity college, Dublin, under the immediate tuition of Dr. 
Anthony Martin, afterwards bishop of Meath, and provost 
of the college ; but his private tutor and chamber-fellow was 
Dr. Joshua Uoyle, an Oxford scholar, and afterwards pro- 
fessor of divinity. Here Mr. Ware applied to his studies 
with such success, that he was admitted to his degree of 
M. A. much sooner than usual. 

After continuing about six years at college, be improved 
what he had learned ac his father^s house. It was here 
that he became acquainted with the celebrated Dr. Usher, 
then bishop of Meath, who discovering in him a taste for 
antiquities, gave him every encouragement in a study in 
which himself took so much delight. From this time a 
close friendship commenced between them, and Usher, in 
his work *^ De Primordiis,'* took occasion to announce to 
the public what might be expected from sir James Ware^s 
labours. In the mean time bis father proposed a match to 
him, which proved highly acceptable to all parties, with 
Mary, the daughter of Jacob Newman, of Dublin, esq. 
But this alteration in his condition did not much interrupt 
his favourite studies. He had begun to collect MSS. and 
to make transcripts from the libraries of Irish antiquaries 
and genealogists, and from the registers and chartularies 
of cathedrals and monasteries, in which he spared no ex- 
pence, and had frequent, recourse to the collections of 
Ufsber, and of Daniel Molyneux, Ulster king at arms, 
an eminent antiquary, and his particular friend, whom in 
one of. bis works he calls ^^ veuerandee antiquitatis cuU 
torem." 

After extending his researches as far .as Ireland could 
afford, he resolved to visit England in quest of the trea- 
syres which its public and private libraries contained. 
Arriving at London in April 1626, he had the happiness 
to fiivd his friend Usher, then archbishop of Armagh, by 
whom he was introduced to sir Robert Cotton, who ad* 
mitted him to his valuable library, and to his friendship^ 
tnd kept up a constant correspondence with him for the 



W A R E. .13D 

fiire remaiDing years of bis life. Having funiisbied bims^If 
with many materials from the Cotton collection, ttie Tower 
of Loodon, jRtid other repositories (many of which, iu his 
band-writing, are in Trinity college library) he returned 
with Usher to Ireland, and immediately published a tract 
entitled *^ Archiepiscoporum Cassiliensium et Tuamen- 
sium Vitffi, duobis expressie commentariolis," Dublin, 
1626, 4to; and two years after, ^* De praesulibus Lagenise, 
sire provincisB Dubliniensis, lib. unus,'' ibid. 1628, 4to, 
both which he afterwards inserted in his larger account 
of the Irish bishops. About the same time be published 
^^ Coenobia Cistertientia Hibernie," which was afterwards 
included in his ^^ Disquisitiones de Hibernia.^' In the 
Utter end of 1628 he went again to England, and carried- 
with him some MSS. which he knew would be acceptable 
to sir Robert Cotton: and in this second journey added 
considerably to his own collections, by bis acquaintaiTC^ 
with Selden and other men of research and liberality. 
About the end of the summer 1629 he returned home, 
and soon after received the honour of knighthood from the 
hands of the lords justices. 

On his father's death in 1632, be succeeded brm in his 
estate and in the office of auditor-general, of which, in 
1643, be procured from the marquis of Ormond, then lord 
lieutenant, a reversionary grant for his son, also called . 
James, who died in 1689. It appears by a letter which the 
marquis wrote on this occasion that sir James, ^^ even when 
his majesty's affairs were most neglected, and when it was 
not safe for any man to shew himself for them, then ap- 
peared very zealously and stoutly for them,'' and, in a 
word, demonstrated his loyalty in the worst of times. His 
studies, however, were now somewhat interrupted by the 
duties of his office, on which he entered in 1633, on the 
arriYal of the lord-deputy Wentworth, afterwards earl of 
Strafford, who took him into his particular confidence, and 
consulted him upon all occasions. To render him more 
useful iu the king's service, he called him to the privy- 
council, and there he had frequent opportunities of shew- 
ing his address and talents in the most important affiiirs. 
This year (1633) he published ^* Spenser's view of the 
state of Ireland," and dedicated it to the lord-deputy, as 
he did afterwards Meredith Hanmer's ^^ Chronicle," and 
Campion's ^^ History of Ireland." 

His talents were not more valued by Strafford^ than by 



140 ware: 

the whole body of the clergy. When the two houses of 
convocation in Jan. 1634 petitioned his majesty, and the 
. lord-deputy, for the settlement of some impropriations in ' 
the possession of the crown on a resident clergy, they aa-» 
nexed a schedule of particulars to their petition, setting- 
forth a true state of what they requested. Lest the crown 
should be deceived in the matters prayed for, they re- 
quested that the same should be referred to some able 
commissioners therein named to examine the contents of 
the schedule ; of whom they desired that sir James Ware 
should be one, which was accordingly granted, and a rd* 
port made in their favour. Of the clerical character, sir 
James held an opinion equally just and humane^ for in his 
office of auditor-general, he always remitted the. fees ta 
clergymen and their widows. 

In 1639, notwithstanding the hurry of public business^ 
he publii>hed ** De Scriptoribus Hiberniae, lib. duo," Dab^ 
lin, 4to. It is unnecessary to say much of this outline of the 
history of Irish writers, as it has since been so ably trans^ 
lated, enlarged, and improved by Mr. Harris, forming 
nearly a tialf of his second folio. In the same y^ar, sir 
James was returned a member of parliament for the uni- 
versity of Dublin : of his conduct here, we shall only no** 
tice that when a ferment was raised in, both bouses asrainst 
the earl of Strafford, sir James exerted his utmost zeal in 
his defence. When the Irish rebellion broke.out in 1641, 
be closely attended the business of the council, and we 9€t& 
his n^me to many orders, proclamations, and other acts of 
state against the rebels. He engaged also with others of 
the privy-council, in securities for the repayment of con«- 
siderable sums advanced by the citizens of Dublin, for. tbe. 
support of the English forces sent to quell the rebellion* 
The marquis of Ormond, lieutenant-general of these farces, 
reposed great trust in sir James, and advised with him oi> 
all important occasions. In 1642, when Charles I. wished 
for the assistance of these troops against his rebellious^sub- 
jects at home, he determined on a cessation with the rebela 
for one year, and in this the marquis of Ormond, sir Jamei^ 
Wiire, and others of the privy council concurred, rather, 
however, as a measure of necessity than prudence. This 
news was very acceptable at the king's court, then held at 
O&ford, but the measure was condemned by the parlia- 
ment. While the treaty of peace with the Irish rebels ms^ 
pending, the inarquis of Ormond, having occasion to send 



WARE. 141 

some persons in whom he could confide to the king at Ox« 
ford, to inform his majesty of the posture of his affairs in 
Ireland, and to know his pleasure iii relation to those 
particulars of the treaty which remained to be adjusted, 
fixed upon lord Edward Brabazon, sir Henry Ticiiborne, 
and sir James Ware, as persons acceptable to the king, 
and not inclined to favour either the popish or parlia- 
mentary interest. X^^y arrived at Oxford in the end of 
1644, and, while here, such time as sir James could spare 
from the business on which he was sent, was employed . by 
him in the libraries, or in the company of the men of learn- 
ing. The university complimented him with the honorary 
degree of doctor of laws. 

While these commissioners were returning to Ireland, 
they were taken by one of the parliament ships, and sir 
James, 6nding there were no hopes of escaping, threw 
9vertoard his majesty's dispatches to the marquis of Or- 
mond. He and his companions were then brought to Lon- 
don and imprisoned ten months in the Tower, but were at 
last released, in exchange for some persons imprisoned in 
Dublin, for an attempt to betray the town of Drpgheda to 
the Scotch covenanters. During his tedious imprisonment, 
sir James amused himself by writing ^^ An imaginary voy- 
age to an Utopian island,'' which was never published, but 
the MS. remained for many years in the family. When 
discharged he returned to Dublin, and 4iad an order from 
the lord- lieutenant find council on the treasury for 718/* 
for the expences of his journey. As the king's affairs now 
became desperate in both kingdoms, he sent instructions 
to the marquis of Ormond to make peace with the Irish 
catholics ^^ whatever it cost, so that his protestant subjects 
there may be secured, and his regal authority preserved." 
In what manner. this was to be effected belongs to the his- 
tory of the times. It was on the part of Charles an un« 
fortunate measure, but it was thought a necessary one« 
Peace was accordingly concluded with the catholics by the 
^arl of Glamorgan, whose conduct in the affair has been 
well illustrated by Dr. Birch in bis << Inquiry into the share 
king Charles I. had in the Transactions of the earl of Gla- 
JDAorgaB," Lond. 1747 and 1756, Qvo. In the mean time 
Glamorgan being thought to have exceeded his commis- 
sion, secretary Digby then in Ireland, accused him at the 
eouneil-tabie, Dec. 26, 1645, of suspicion of treason. He 
was th.0ti arrested^ and sir James, the earl of Roscommon, 



142 WARE. 

and lord Lambert, were appointed a committee to iirqtffre 
into hiH conduct, and take his examination, which in Janu- 
ary following was transmitted to the king. 

During the remainder of the troubles, sir James remained 
firm to the kingV interest, and zealously adhered to the 
marquis of Ormond, wlio ever after entertained a great 
affection for him. He continued, in Dublin, till the mar- 
quis, by the king's orders, surrendered that place to the 
parliamentary power in June 1647. Ac this time sir James 
Ware was considered as a man of such consequence, that 
the parliament insisted on his being one of the hostages for 
the performance of the treaty; and accordingly he repaired, 
with the earl of Roscommon, and col. Arthur Chichester, 
to. the committee for the management of Irish affairs at 
I>erby-house, London ; but as soon as the treaty was con- 
cluded, and the hostages permitted to depart, he returned 
to Dublin, and IKed for some time in a private station, 
being deprived of his employment of auditor- general. He 
was, however, disturbed in this retirement by Michael 
Jones, the governor of Dublin, who, jealous of his charac- 
ter and consequence, sent him a peremptory order to de- 
part the city, and transport himself beyond seas into what 
country he pleased, except England. Having chosen 
France for the place of his exile, Jones furnished him with 
a pass for himself, his eldest son, and one servant, signed 
April 4, 16,49. He landed at St. Malo's, whence he re- 
moved not long after to Caen in Normandy, and then • to 
Paris, and contracted an acquaintance there with some of 
the literati, and particularly with Bochart, whose works he 
much esteemed, and thought his ** Hierozoicon*' a suitable 
present for the library of the university of Dublin. After 
continuing in France about two j'ears, he left it in 1651, 
and by licence from the parliament *came to London on 
private business, and two years after went to Ireland' to look 
after his estates. 

Having now leisure to prosecute his favourite studies, 
the return to which was now consoling as well as gratifying, 
lie took several journeys to London to publish them; the 
art of printing being at that time in a very low condition in 
Ireland. In May 1654 he published the first edition of his 
antiquities, under the title of ** De Hibernia et antiquitati- 
bus ejus Disquisitiones,** Lond. 8vo, and a much enlarged 
and corrected edition in 1658. He also collected the 
works ascribed to St. Patrick, and ptiblisbed tbem, with 



WARE 149 

I 

notes, under the title ** Opuscula Sancto Patricio, qui Hi- 
bernosvad fidem Cbristi cbnvertit, adsc^ipta, &c/' Lond. 
1656, 8vo. 

. On the restoration, he was, 4>y special order from his 
quajesty, replaced in bis office of auditor'-general, and a 
parliament being summoned in May 1661, he was unaoi* 
mously elected representative of the university of Dublin* 
He was very instrumental in the parliamentary grant of 
30,000/. to the marquis, now duke, of Ormond, who dis* 
tinguished him in a very particular manner. By bis grace's 
interest,- be was made one of the four commissioners of 
appeal in causes of the excise, and new impost raised by 
the statute of 14th and 15th Charles II. with a salary of 
150/. He was also appointed one of the commissioners for 
the execution of the king's declaration for the settlement 
of the kingdom, and for the satisfaction of the several in- 
terests of adventurers, soldiers, and others, and was, by the 
kisg's instructions, made of the quorum in this commission, 
without whose presence and concurrence no act could be 
done in execution of the declaration. His majesty, in. 
consideration of his faithful services for a great number of 
years, and perhaps not forgetting a handsome sum .of 
money which he had sent him in his exile, was graciously 
pleased to offer to create him a viscount of the kingdom of 
Ireland, but this he refused, and likewise a baronetcy. At 
his request, however, the king granted him two blank 
.baronet's patents, which be filled up and disposed of to 
two friends, whose posterity,. Harris says, ^' to tbis day 
enjoy the honours," but be does not mention their names. 

Returning again to bis studies, he began with some 
pieces of tbe venerable Bede, published under the title of 
" Venqrabilis Bedae epistolse duas, necnon vitae abbatum 
Wiremuthensium etGerwiensium,&c." Dublin, 1664. The 
same year he published the Annals of Ireland for four 
reigns, ^' Rerum Hibernicarum Annales regnantibus Hen- 
rico VII. Henrico VIII. Edwardo VI. et Maria, &c." ibid. 
1664, fol. ; and the year following his history of the bishops 
of Ireland, entitled ^* De Praesulibus Hiberniae Comaen- 
tarius, &c." ibid. 1665, ibi. He was preparing other mat- 
ters respecting Ireland, but was prevented by bis death 
which took place Dee. 1, 1666, in the seventy<third year 
of his age. He was buried in the church of St. Werburg, 
im the city of Dublin, in a vault belonging to his family. 

As an antiquary, sir Jam^ ^are must ever be held in 



U4 WARE. 

veneration by his countrymen. He was the Camden of 
Ireland, and was deficient only in not Hnderstanding the. 
Irish language ; yet major, Vallancey observes, that con- 
sidering his ignorance of' that language, he did much. 
'* His works are the outline's and materials of a great plan, 
which he enjoyed neither life nor abilities to finish ; and it 
is much to be lamented that he had not the good fortune to 
meet with so experienced and' intelligent an amanuensis at 
Mac Terbiss sooner/' He found, however, an excelleut 
editor in Walter Harris, esq. who married fa]sgrand-daugh«- 
ter, and published all his works, except ^ the Annals of 
• Ireland, in 1739 — 1745, 3 vols. fol. ornamented with en-* 
gravings. These were reprinted in 1764, 2 vols. fol. a> 
work which now bears a very liigh price. Sir James Ware^a 
MS collections relative to Ireland were purchased of bia' 
heir by lord Clarendon, when lord-lieutenant in 1686, and 
after his death by the duke of Cbandos, whom the pubtic 
apirited dean of 8t. Patrick's in vain solicited to deposit 
them in the public library at Dublin. These underwent a 
•econd dispersion by public auction. Dr. Milles, dean of 
Exeter, whose uncle had considerable property in Ireland, 
purchased a large part, and deposited them in the British 
Museum ; Dr. Kawlinson bought others, and bequeathed 
them to the library of St. John^s-coHege, Oxford, and 
aome part fell into the hands of lord Newport, chancellor of 
Ireland. Of these MSS. a catalogue was printed at Dvth^ 
lin about 1641, and another at Oxford iu 1697, in the 
*^ Catalogue of MSS. of England and Ireland.'* Sir James 
was a man of a charitable disposition, and frequently con* 
tributed considerable sums .of money to the relief of the 
indigent, especially to decayed royalists, whom he also* 
often invited to his hospitable table. Harris says he always 
forgave the fees of office to widows, clergymen, and cler« 
gymen^s sons, as we have already noticed ; and adds, that 
he was frequently known to lend money, where be had i;io 
prospect of repayment, not knowing how to deny any 
body who asked. On one occasion, a house in Dublin^ 
forfeited by the rebellion, being granted to him, he sent 
for the widow and children of the forfeiting person, and 
conveyed it back to them. 

By his wife, sir James Ware had ten children, of whom 
only two sons and two daughters arrived at maturity. Of 
the latter, Mary was married to sir Edward Crofton, bart« 
aad Rose to lord Lambert, afterwards earl of Cavan. His 



WARE. 145 

eldest son James succeeded him in bis estate and office, 
and married . the daughter of Dixie Hickman, of Kew, in 
the county of Surrey, esq: and sister to Thomas lord Wind- 
sor, who was afterwards created earl of Plymouth. By a 
general entail raised on this marriage, the estate of the 
family afterwards came to an only daughter, Mary, who 
took for her second husband sir John St* Leger, knt. one 
of the barons of hrs majesty's court of exchequer jn Ireland, 
in whom the estate vested. Sir James Ware's youngest 
son Robert was in his youth troubled with epilepsy, and 
atTorded no hopes to his father, which induced him to con- 
sent to the general entail before mentioned ; but this son 
afterwards recovering a vigorous state of health, sir James 
had little pleasure in reflecting on what he had done, and 
to make Robert every amends in his power, laid up 10002; 
for every remaining year of his life, which was not above 
six or seven. Robert married Elizabeth, daughter to sir 
Henry Piers, of Tristernagh, in the county of Westmeath^ 
bart. and from'this marriage one only son, Henry, survived. 
Henry married Mary, the daughter of Peter Egerton, of 
Shaw, in Lancashire, esq. by whom he bad two sons, and 
a daughter Elieabeth, married to Walter Harris, .esq. edi- 
tor of sir James Ware's works* 

Of Robert Ware some farther notice must be taken, as 
he was a writer of considerable note in his day. He had 
by those writings appeared so averse to the Roman catholic 
interest of Ireland in the reign of Charles II. that, fearing 
the resentment of that party, which he had reason to be- 
lieve would be severe enough, and beiivg advised by the 
earl of Clarendon, then lord lieutenant, he removed with 
his family into England on the same day that lord Tyrcon-, 
nel landed in Ireland to take upon him the government^ 
which he continued until the revolution. Mr. Ware died 
March 1696, after publishing, l."The Examinations of 
Jfaithful Commin and Thomas Heath,*' &c. Dublin, 1671, 
4to. 2. " The Conversion of Philip Corwine, a Franciscan 
Friar, to the protestant religion, in 1569,'* ibid. 1681, 4to.' 
3. " The Reformation of the Church of Ireland, in the 
life and death of George Brown, sometime archbishop of 
Dublfn," ibid. 1681, 4to. This stands the first in the Eng- 
lish edition of sir James Ware's Works, DuWrn, 1705, fol. 
and is also reprinted in the " Phoenix," vol, I. 4. " Foxes 
and Firebrands ; or a specimen of the danger and harmony 
of popery and separatioti; wherein is proved from unde- 

VOL.XXXI. L ' 



146 WAR E. 

niable matter of fact aod reason^ that separation fvooi the 
Church of England is, in the judgment of papists, and by 
ftad experience, found the most compendious way to intro* 
duce popery, and to ruin the protestant religion, in two 
parts," London, 1680, 4to, Dublin, 1682, 8vo. The first 
part, with the examinations of Commin and Heath, was 
published by Dr. John Nalson in 1678, 8yo, and the se* 
cond part was added by Mr. Robert Ware. 5. ^' The hunt- 
ing of the Romish Fox, and the quenching of sectarian fire- 
brands; being a specimen of popery and separation/' Dub- 
)in# 1683, 8vo. 6. " Foxes and Firebrands, the third part,'* 
Lpnd. 1689, 8vo. 7. ^* Pope Joan; or an account that 
there was such a she-pope, proved from Romish authors 
before Luther," &c. ibid. 1689, 4to. Mr. Ware left also 
an unfinished and imperfect MS. on the history and anti- 
quities of the city and university of Dublin. ' 

WARGENTIN (Peter), knight of the order of the 
polar star, secretary to the royal academy of sciences at 
Stockholm, F. R. S. one of the eight foreign members of 
the academy of sciences at Paris, and member of the aca- 
demies of St, Petersburg, Upsal, Gottingen, Copenhagen, 
and Drgntheim, was born Sept. 22, 1717, and became se- 
cretary to the Stockholm academy in 1749. In this coun« 
try he is probably most known from his tables for com- 
puting the eclipses of Jupiter^s satellited, which are an- 
nexed to the Nautical Almanac of 1779. We know not 
that he has published any separate work ; but in the 
*^ Transactions of the Stockholm Academy,^' are 52- me- 
moirs by him, besides several in the ^* Philosophical 'trans- 
actions," and in the '^ Acta Sdcietatis Upsaliensis.'' He 
died at the observatory at Stockholm, Dec. 13, 1783.* 

WARHAM (William), an eminent English prielate, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and lord high chancellor, the son 
of Robert Warham, was born of a genteel family at Okely, 
in Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester school, 
whence be was admitted a fellow of New college, Oxford, 
in 1 475. There he took the degree of doctor of laws, and, 
according to Wood, left the college in 1488. In the same 
year he appears to have been collated to a rectorship by 
the bishop of Ely, and soon afterwards became an advocate 
in the cyurt of arches, and principal or moderator of the 

* HaqrU's eilition of Ware, vol. II. — Biog. Brif. — Oough^s Topography. 

* Matlofi'tf Dict.-^£log<^s des Academicient, voLIV. 



W A R H A M. 147 

«uil law 8<^oi in St. Edward's parish, Oxford^ Tn 1499 
he was sent by Henry VII. with sir Edward Poynings^ on 
4n embassy to Philip duke of Burgundy, to persuade bim 
to deliver up Perkin Warbeck, who had assumed the title 
of Richard duke of York, second son of king Edward IV; 
representing that be had escaped the cruelty of his uncle 
king Richard III. and was supported in this imposture by 
Margaret, duchess dowager of Burgundy, sister of Edward 
IV. as she had before given encouragement to Lambert 
Simnel, the pretended earl of Warwick, out of the impla-» 
cable hatred which she had conceived against Henry VII. 
Upon this remonstrance the ambassadors were assured by 
the duke*s council (himself being then in his minority) that 
*^ the archduke, for the love of king Henry, would in no 
sort aid or assist the pretended duke, but in all things pre*' 
serve the amity he had with the king; but for the duchess 
dowager, she was absolute in the lands of her dowry, and 
that he could not hinder her from disposing of her own.^^ 
This answer, being founded on an assertion not truci, 
aamely, that the duchess dowager was absolute in th^ lands 
of her dowry, produced a very sharp reply from the Eng- 
lish ambassadors; and when they returned home Henry 
VII. was by no means pleased with their success. They» 
however, told him plainly that the duchess dowager had a 
great party in the archduke's council, and that the arch* 
duke did covertly support Perkin. The king for some 
time resented this, but the matter appear^ to have been 
accommodated in a treaty of commerce concluded in Fe-*- 
bruary 1496, by certain commissioners, one of whom, on 
the part of England, was Dr. Warham. 

Warham now, according to lord Bacon, begsln mueh 
to gain upon the king's opinion, and baying executed 
his office of master of the rolls, ad well as his other em*- 
ployments, with great ability, and with much reputation^ 
he was in 1502 made keeper of the great seal of England » 
and on the first of January following lord high chancellor. 
In the beginning of 1503 he was advanced to the see of 
Loi^don. In the preceding year the king's eldest son Ar^^ 
thur prince of Wales was married to Catherine of Arra- 
gon, but died soon after, and Henry's avarice rendering' 
him unwilling to restore Catherine's dowry^ which was 
200,000 ducats, he proposed that she should marry h\$ 
younger son Henry, now prince of Wales.. But there 
being great reason to believe that the marriage between 

L 2 



148 W A R H A M. 

prince Arthur and Catherine had been really contuminatedv 
Warham remonstrated, in very strong terms, against this 
preposterous measure, and told the king, that he thought 
it was neither honourable, nor welUpleasing to God. In 
this, however, he was opposed by Fo^ bishop of Winches* 
ter, who insisted that the pipe's dispensation could remove 
all impediments, either sacred or civil. This marriage, 
it is well-known, afterwards took place, and was the cause 
of some of the most important events in English his- 
N tory, 

. In March 1503-4, bishop Warham was translated to the 
see of Canterbury, in which he was installed with great 
solemnity, Edward duke of Buckingham officiating as his 
steward on that occasion. He was likewise, on May 28, 
1506, unanimously elected chancellor of the university of 
Oxford, being then, and ever after, a great friend and be- 
nefactor to that university, and to learning in general. In 
1509, Henry VIL died, and was succeeded by bis son 
Henry VIII. from whose promising abilities great expec* 
tations were formed. Archbishop Warham's high rank in 
the church, and the important office he held in the state, 
as lord chancellor, naturally caused him to preside at the 
council-board of the young king, and his rank and talents 
certainly gave him great authority there. One of the '6rst 
matters of importance, in the new reign, was the marriage 
of the king, which, from his tender age, and his aversion 
to it, had not yet taken pl.ace, and it was now necessary 
that his majesty should decide to break it off, or conclude 
it. Warham still continued to oppose it, and ^Fox, as 
before, contended for it; and it, accordingly, was per- 
formed June 3, 1509 ; and on the 24th of the same month, 
the king and queen were crowned at Westminster by arch- 
bishop Warham. In the years 1511 and 1512, we find our 
prelate zealously persecuting those who were termed here- 
' tics; alid although the instances of his interference with 
the opinions .of the reformation are neither many, nor 
bear the atrocious features, of a Bonner or a Gardiner, they 
form no small blemish in bis character. 

Warham continued to hold his place of chancellor for 
the first seven years of Henry VIII. but became weary of 
it when Wolsey had gained such an ascendancy oyer the 
king, as to be intrusted with almost the sole administration 
of public affairs. Warham, says Burnet, always hated 
cardinal Wolsey, and would never stoop to him, esteeming 



X 



W A R H A M. 149 

it bel9tv the dig'iuty of Kis see. Erasmus relates of War* 
bam, that it was his custom to wear plain apparel, and that 
once when Henry VI H. and Charles V. had an interview, 
and Wolsey took upon him to publish an order, that the 
clergy should appear splendidly dressed, in silk or da- 
inask, Warham alone, despising the cardioars commands, 
came in his usual cioaths. One misundei'standihg between 
Warham and Wolsey was aboiit the latter's having the cross 
carried before him in the province of Canterbury. War- 
bam as primate of all England, had taken umbrage that 
Wolsey^ who was only archbishop of York, should cause the 
cross to be carried before him in the presence of Warham, and 
even in the province of Canterbury, contrary to the ancient 
custom ; which was, that the cross of the see of York should 
not be advanced in the same province, or in the same 
place, with the cross of Canterbury, in acknowledgment 
of the superiority of the latter see. When Warham ex- 
postulated with Wolsey on this subject, be appears to have 
convinced him of the impropriety of his conduct ; but 
rather than desist from it, and lo^e a dignity he had once 
assumed, Wolsey contrived how he might, for the future, 
have a right to it, without incurring any imputation of 
aitting contrary to rule. And though his being a cardinal 
did not give him the contested right, he knew that he 
might assume it with a better ^grace, if be was invested 
with the legantine character ; and therefore he solicited and 
obtained it, being made the pope's legate a latere in No-^' 
lumber 1515. On this, in the following month, the arch* 
bishop Warham resigned the seals, and Wolsey was tnade 
lord chancellor in his room. There were subsequently 
many contiests between these two great statesmen, in ^hich 
Warham generally maintained the dignity and indepen*' 
deuce of his character with gi-eat firmness; but Wolsey,' 
as long as he remained the king's favourite,, was the more 
powerful antagonist. Still, notwithstanding bis superi- 
ority, Warham sometimes' was enabled to convince him' 
that he stretched his power too far. Of this we have a re- 
markable instance. Warham had summoned a convocation 
of the prelates and dergy of his province to meet at St. 
PauPs April 20, 1523, and the cardinal had summoned a 
convocation of bis province of York to meet at Westmin- 
ster at the same time. But as soon as the convocation of 
Canterbury met, and were about to proceed to business, 
th(k cardinal stimmoned them to attend him April 22;; in a 



MQ W A B. H A BC 

legantine coudcU at Westminster, This extraordinary 
j^.tep gave great offence to the prelates and clergy of the 
province of Canterbury. They indeed obeyed the summoiiSy 
but when they came to treat of business, the proctors for 
^be clergy observed, that their commission^ gave them no 
authority to treat or vote but in convocation. This object 
Uon proved unanswerable, and the cardinal, to his great 
mortification, was obliged to dismiss, his legantine council. 
When, in 1529, Wolsey was deprived of all his honouft, 
the great seal was again' offered to Warham, but being tiow 
far advanced in years, and displeased with the general 
proceedings of the court, he declined the offer lu his last 
year, 1532, he exhibited two instances of weakness, thf& 
one in being, with many others however, imposed upon by 
the pretended visions of Elizabeth Barton, commonly called 
the Maid of Kent; the other, in a kind of pifotest,. vijbicb 
be left in the hands of a notary, against all the laws that 
, bad been made, or that should thereafter be made, by. 
the present parliament, in derogation of the authority oC- 
the pope, or the right and immunities of the church. The 
design of this private protest against those laws to which 
be had given his consent in public, is not very obvious*. 
Burnet would suggest, that it was a piece of superstitious 
penance imposed on hiqn by his confessor, in which case 
1^ must be apcounted an instance of extreme weakness. 

The archbishop sat in the see of Canterbury twenty*^ 
^ight years, and died at St. Stephen's near that city, in the 
bouse of William Warham, his kinsman, and archdeacon o£ 
Canterbury, in 1552. He was interred, without any pomp, 
in hi% cathedral, in a little chapel built by himself for the. 
place of his burial, on the north of @ecket^s tomb, where 
a^ monument was erected for him, which was defaced in the 
civil wars. He laid out to the value of 3000/. .in repairing 
and beautifying the houses belonging to his. see. It apr* 
pears, from a letter of Erasmus to sir .Thomas More, that 
t(iough he had passed through the highest posts in chpri^h 
4iAd state, be had. so little regarded his own private ad* 
vantage, that he left no more than was sufficient to pay 
bis debts and funeral charges. And ,it is said, that, when 
be was near ids death, he called upon bis stewa^-d to know 
what money he had in his hands; who telling him ^^ that 
he had but thirty pounds^'' he cheerfully answered. Satis 
viatici in cesium, i. e. ^' That was enough to last till he got 
tp Heaven.^' He left his theological books to the libmry- 



W A ft H A M. 151 

\ 

of Ali-Souls college^ bis civil and canon law books to New 
college^ and ail his books of church music to Winchester 
college. 

He was the warm friend' and generous patron of Eras^ 
mus, to whom» besides many letters, be sent his portrait 
which Dr. Knight supposes to have been a copy of that at 
Lambeth by Holbein ; Erasmus^ in return, sent him his own. 
He also dedicated his edition of St. Jerome to the arch* 
bishop, and in other parts of his works, bestows the highest 
encomiums on him. He calls him his only Mtecenas, and 
says that his generosity and liberality extended not to hinf 
only, but to all men of letters. Erasmus gives us a very 
pleasing account of Warham's private life. ** That,'' 
says be, ** which enabled him to go through such various 
cares and employments, was, that no part of his time, nor 
np degree of his attention, was taken up with hunting, or 
gaming, in idle or trifling conversation, or in luxury or 
voluptuousness. Instead of any diversions or amusements 
of this kind, be delighted iji the reading of some good and 
pleasing author,' or in the conversation of some learned 
man. And although he sometimes had prelates, dukes, 
and earls as his. guests, be never spent more than an hdur 
at dinner. The entertainment which he provided for bis 
fiends was liberal and splendid, and suitable to the dig* 
nity of his rank ; but he never touched any dainties of iiie 
kind himself. He seldom tasted wine ; and when he had 
attained the age of seventy years, drank nothing, for the 
most part, but a little small beer. But notwithstanding 
his greait temperance and abstemiousness, he added to the 
cheerfulness and festivity of every entertainment at which 
lie was present, by the pleasantness of his countenance, 
aud the vivacity and agreeableness of his conversation. 
The same sobriety was seen in him after dinner as before. 
He abstained from suppers altogether-: unless he hap- 
pened to have any very familiar friends with him^ of which 
number I was ; when be would, indeed, sit down to tabte^ 
but then could scarcely be said to eat any thing. If that 
did not happen to be the case, he employed the time by 
others usually appropriated to suppers, in study or devo- 
tion. But as he was remarkably agreeable and facetious 
in his discourse, but without biting or buffoonery, so he^ 
delighted much in jesting freely with his friends. But 
scurrility, defamation, or slander, iie abhorred, and avoided 
as be would a snake. In this manner did this great npan 



KS2 WARING. 

I 

inake bis days sufficiently long, of the shortness of wfsicli 
inany complain.*' ' * 

WARING (Edward), Lucasian professor of mathema^ 
tics in the university of Cambridge, was descended from 
an ancient family at Mitton, in the parish of Fittes, Shrop<- 
^hire, being the eldest sou of John Waring of that place. 
He was born in 1734^ and after being educated at the 
free school at Shrewsbury, under Mr. Hotcbkis^ was sent 
pn one of Millington's exhibitions to Magdalen college^ 
Cambridge, where he applied himself with such assiduity 
to the study of mathematics, that in 1757, when he pro- 
ceeded bachelor of arts, he was the sehior wrangler, or 
most distinguished graduate of the year. This honour, for 
the securing of which he probably postponed his first de-t 
gree to the late period of his twenty-third year, led to bis 
election, only two years afterwards, to the office of Luca* 
9ian professor. The appointment of a young man, scarcely 
twenty-five years of age, and still only a bachelor of arts, 
to a chair which had been honoured by the names of New«» 
ton, Saunderson, and Barrow, gavt great offence to the 
senior members of the nniversity, by whom the talents and 
pretensions of the new professor were severely arraigned » 
The first chapter of his " Miscellanea Analytica,'* which 
Mr. Waring circulated in vindication of his scientific cha- 
racter, gave rise to a controversy of some duration. Dn 
Powell, master of St. John's, commenced the attack by a 
pamphlet of ^^ Observations" upon this specimen of the 
professor's qualifications for his office. Waring was de- 
fended in a very able reply, for which he was indebted to 
Mr. Wilson, then an under-graduate of Peter House, after- 
wards sir John Wilson, a judge of the common pleas, and 
a. magistrate justly beloved and revered for bis amiable 
temper, learning, honesty, and independent spirit. In 
1760, Dr. Powell wrote a defence of his "Observations," 
and here the controversy ended. . Mr. Waring's deficiency 
of academical honours was supplied in the same year by 
the degree of M. A. conferred upon him by royal mandate, 
and be remained in the undisturbed possession of his officie. 
Two years afterwards, his work, a part of which had esc* 
cited so warm a dispute, was published from the university 
press, in quarto, under the title of ^' Miscellanea Analytica 

1 Godwin de Prsesulibus, by Richardson. — Rapin's History.— Jortin's and 
Knight's Lives of Erasmus. — Burnet's Hl^t. of the Reformation.-^Henry's Hist. 
of Great Britato, &^. 



waring: 153 

4e iSquationibus Algebraicis et Curvarum Proprietatibus/.* 
with a dedication to the duke of Newcastle. It appears 
from the titte*page, that Waring was by this time elected t 
a fellow of his college. The book itself> so intricate and 
abstruse are its subjects, is understood to have been little 
studied even by expert mathematicians. Indeed, speaking 
of this and his other works, in a subsequent publication, he 
says himself, ^^ I never' could bear of any reader in Eng- 
land out of Cambridge, who took the pains to read and 
understand what I have written.^' 

For his profession in life, Mr. Waring chose the study o'f 
medicine, and proceeded a doctor in that faculty in 1767. 
In 1771 he appears in the list of physicians to Adden« 
brooke's hospital in Cambridge ; and about this time prac- 
tised in the neighbouring town of St. Ives. But though 
he followed this pursuit with characteristical assiduity, and 
attended lectures and hospitals in London, he never en- 
joyed extensive practice. Of this he was the less careful, 
as, in addition to the emoluments, which are considerable, 
of his professorship, be possessed a. very handsome patri- 
monial fortune, while his favourite science supplied him 
with an inexhausible fund of amusement and occupation* 
In 1776 he entered into a matrimpnial connexion with miss 
M^ry Oswell, sister of Mr. William Oswell, a respectable 
draper in Shrewsbury ; and not many years afterwards re- 
tired from the university, first to a house in Shrew^sbury, 
and at length to his own estate at Pleaiey, near Pontes- 
bury. The mathematical inqiiiries which had occupied so 
large a portion of his earJy life, he still continued to culti- 
vate with undiminished diligence; and he, also occasionally 
indulged in philosophical excursions of a more popular and 
intelligible class. The result of these he collected in a 
volume printed at Cambridge, in 1794^, with the title of 
"An Essay on the Principles of Human Knowledge." 
Under this comprehensive title are contained his opinions 
on a great variety of subjects. But this bopk, in the front 
of which he designates himself as fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of London, and of those of Bologna and Gottingen, 
was never published. Thus paused the even tenour of Dr. 
Waring's life, interrupted occasionally by a visit to the 
Board of Longitude, in London, of which he was a mem* 
ber, and from which he always returned with an encreased 
relish for his country retreat at Pleaiey : and here he might 
have promised himself many years of life and health, when 



154 W A R I N G. 

fais career was terminated by a short illness, produced by 
a violent cold caught in superintending some additions 
which he was making to his house. He died on the 15th 
of August, 179S) in the sixty>fourcb year of his age. 

Dr. Waring successively produced a number of pieces, 
of a like abstruse kind as his '^ Miscellanea Analytical' 
such as the " Proprietates Algebraicarum Curvaruro," pub- 
lished in 1772, the " Meditationes Algebraicae," published 
in 1770, and the ^^Meditationes Analytical," which were 
in the press during 1773, 1774, 1775, and 1776. These 
were the chief and the most laborious works edited by the 
professor ; and in the Philosophical Transactions is to be 
found a variety of papers, the nature of which may be seen 
from the following catalogue. 

Vol. LIII. page294, Mathematical Problems.*— LIV. 193, 
New . Properties in Conies. — LV. 143, Two Theorems in 
Mathematics. — LXIX. Problems concerning Interpolations. 
lb. 86, A general Resolution of Algebraical Equations. — - 
LXXVI. SI, On Infinite Series —LXXVII. 71, On find- 
ing the Values of Algebraical Quantities by converging se- 
rieses, and demonstrating and extending propositions given 
by Pappus and others. — LXXVIIL 67, On Centripetal 
Forces, lb. 588, On some Properties of the Sum of the 
Division of Numbers. — LXXIX. 166, On the Method of 
correspondent Values, &c. lb. 185, On the Resolution of 
attractive Powers. — LXXXI. 146, On infinite Serieaes. — " 
LXXXIV. 385 — 415, On the Summation of those Seheses 
whose general term is a determinate function of Zy the dis- 
tance of the term of the Series. For these papery, the 
professor was, in 1784, deservedly honoured by the Royal 
Society with sir Godfrey Copley's medal ; and most of 
them aHbrd very strong proofs of the powers of his mind, 
both in abstract science, and the application of it to philo- 
sophy ; though they labour, in common with his other works, 
under the disadvantage of being clothed in a very unat- 
tractive form. 

In his disposition and character, Dr. Waring is repre- 
sented as of inflexible integrity, great modesty, plainness, 
and simplicity of manners; of a meekness and a diffidence 
of mind to such a degree, as to be always embarrassed 
before strangers. His extreme short-sightedness too, joined 
to a certain want of order and method in his mind, which 
appeared remarkably even in his hand- writing, rendered 
his mathematical compositions so confused and embarra$sed9 



WARING. US 

that ill manuscript they were often utterly inexplicable, a 
circumstance which may account for the numerous typo- 
graphical errors in his publications. 

We shall sum up this sketch of the life of Dr. Waring, 
with the concluding words of his *^ Essay on Human Know- 
ledge/' which contain a just and pleasing specimen of his 
genuine piety and unfeigned humility. *' Should it please 
Providence to deprive me of the use of my Faculties, may 
I submit with humble resignation ! May I for the future 
lead a life better in practice^ and more fervent in devotion 
to the Supreme Being ; and may God grant me hiB grace 
here, and pardon for my sins, when the trumpet of the 
great Archangel shall summon me to life again, and to 
judgement !" * 

WARNER (Ferdinando), a very voluminous writer, 
was born in 1703, but where we are not told. He was of 
Jesus college, Cambridge, according to Mr. Cole, but we 
do not find bis name among the graduates of that univer- 
sity. In 1730 he became vicar of Ronde, io Wiltshire; in 
1746 rector of St. Michael Queenhithe, London, and in 
1758 rector of Barnes, in Surrey. He also styles himself 
chaplain to the lord chancellor, and LL. D. ; the latter title 
probably obtained from some northern university. He died 
Oct. 3, 1768, aged sixty-five. Dr. Warner was a la- 
borious man, and having deservedly attained the character 
of a judicious and useful writer, as well as a popular 
preacher, he was frequently engaged in compilations for 
the booksellers, which, however, he executed in a very 
(Superior manner, and gave many proofs of diligent research 
and judgment, both in his reflections and in the use be 
made of his materials. The following we believe to be a 
complete, or nearly complete list of his publications; 1. 
" A Sermon preached before the Lord Mayor, January 30, 
1748," 2. " A Sermon preached before the Lord Mayor,- 
on September 2," 1749. 3. "A system of Divinity and 
Morality, containing a series of discourses on the principal 
and mo^t important points of natural and revealed Religion; 
compiled from the works of the most eminent divines of the 
Church of England,** 1750, 5 vols. l^mo. This was re- 
printed in 1756, 4 vols. 8vo. 4. " A scheme for a Fund for 
the better Maintenance of the Widows and Children of the 

> Account of Shrewsbury, 1810, lSmo.-«-G!eig'8 Supplement to the fiueycio- 
pe4ia Britann'i(^a.-»HuUon*t Diet. new. edit.' ' 



156 WARNER. 

1 

I 

^ clergy," 1753, 8vo. For this scheme, when carried into 
execution, he received the thanks of the London clergy, 
assembled in Sion college. May 21, 1765,. and published 
another pamphlet, hi^reafter to be mentioned. 5. ^* An 
illustration of the Book of Common Prayer and Administrar 
tion of the Sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of 
the Church of England," &c. 1754, folip. lo this year he 
took the degree of LL. D. probably, as we have already 
suggested, at some northern university. 6. *^ Bolingbroke^ 
or a dialogue on the origin and authority of Revelation/' 
1755, 8vo. 7. " A free and, necessary enquiry whether the 
Church of England in her Liturgy, and many of her learned 

- divines in their writings, have not, by some unwary ex- 
pressions relating to Transubstantiation and the real pre,- 
sence, given so great an advantage to papists and deists as 
may prove fatal to true religion, unless some remedy be 
speedily supplied ; with remarks on the power of priestly 
abjsolution,^' 1755, 8vo. 8. In 1756 he published the first 
volume of his ** Ecclesiastical History to the Eighteenth 
Century,*' fblio; the second volume in 1757. This is the 
most valuable of all his works, and has frequently beeq 
quoted with approbation. 9. "Memoirs of the Life of sir 
Thomas More, lord high chancellor of England in the reigvi 
erf Henry Vin. 1758," 8vo. This is dedicated jto sir Rci- 
bert Henley, afterwards lord chancellor Northington, wba 
is complimented for the favours he had conferred on him 
on his receiving the seals ; probably for the rectory of 
Barnes, witli which he held Queenhithe and Trinity the 
Less. 10. " Remarks on the History of Fitigal and other 
poems of Ossian, translated by Mr. Macpherson, in a let- 
ter to the right hon. the lord L (Lyttelton)," 17G2, 

8vo. 11. "The History of Ireland, voL I.". 1763, 4to, 
He published no more of this, being discouraged by a dis- 
appointment in his expectations of some parliamentary |is- 
sistance. Yet in one of those newspaper notices, which 
Dr. Warner did not disdain, he speaks of the encourage^ 
ment which he met with when he went to Ireland in 1761 
in search of materials for this work. He tells us of " the 
liberty granted him by the provost and fellows of the uni- 
versity to peruse the books and MSS. in the college library, 
as also thos^ in the library of St. Sepulchre, founded by 
the late primate Marsh ; and of his free access to the col- 
lections of Mr. Harris, which were purchased by the parlia- 
ment, &c. ; that he was likewise complimented with the 



WARNER. 157 

liberty of searching the records of the privy council^ and 
other offices, &c." 12. " A le^er to the fellows of Sion 
college^ and to all the clergy within the bills of mortality, 
and in the county of Middlesex, humbly proposing their 
forming themselves into a Society for the Maintenance of' 
the Widows and Orphans of such Clergymen. To which 
is added, a sketch of some Rules and Orders suitable to 
that purpose,'* 1765, 8vo. 13. " The History of the Re- 
bellion and Civil War in Ireland," 1767, 4to. 14. " A full 
and plain account of the Gout, whence will be clearly seen 
the -folly or the baseness of all pretenders to the cure of it, 
in which every thing material by the best writers on that 
subject is taken notice of, and accompanied with some new 
and important instructions for its relief, which the author's 
experience in the gout above thirty years hath induced him 
to impart.*' This wa»tbe most unfortunate of all his pub- 
lications, for soon after imparting his cure for the gout he 
died of the disorder^ and destroyed the credit of his system. 
Dr. Warner is said to have declared that he wrote his 
** Ecclesiastical History," and his " Dissertation on the 
Common Prayer," three filio volumes, both the original 
and corrected copies, with one single pen, which was an 
old one when he began, and when he finished was not wort) 
out. We are likewise told- that a celebrated countess 
begged the doctor to make bei» a present of it, and he 
having coo^plied, her ladyship had a gold case made with 
m short histofy of the pen engraved upon it, and placed it 
in her cabinet of curiosities. This foolish story, for such 
it probably is, reminds us of a similar one related of the 
pious Matthew Henry, who is said to have written the whole 
of his commentary on the Bibhe, 5 vols. fol. with one pen* 
Mr. Henry is also said to have made this declaration in 
public. Unfortunately, however, Mr. Henry never wrote 
the whole of his commentary, nor lived to see it completed^ 
and consequently could have made no such declaration. 
- Dr. Warner's son, the late Dr. John Warner, was of 
Trinity college, Cambridge, B. A. 1758, M. A. 1761, and 
D. D. 1773. For many years he was preaq^er at a chapel 
in Long Acre, which was his private property. In 1771 
he was presented to the united rectories of HockliiTe and 
Chalgrave, in Bedfordshire, and afterwards to the rectory 
of Stourton, in Wilts. Having resided in France at the 
«ra of the revolytion he imbibed all those principles which 
produced it, and although no man could be more an enemy 



158 .WARNER. 

to the atrocities which followed, they made no dtfiefence 
in his republican attachments. He is known in the literary 
world by a singular publication entitled *^ Metronariston/' 
and wrote the ** Memoirs of Mekerchus," in the Gentle- 
man^s Magazine. He died, after a few daya illness, in St. 
John's-square, Clerkenwell, Jan. 22, 1800, aged sixty^- 
four. ' 

WARNER (John), a learned and munificent prelate, 
was the son of Herman Warner, citizen of London, and 
was born in the parish of St. Clement Danes, Strand, about 
1585. After some grammatical education, in which he 
made a very rapid progress, he was sent to Oxford in 1598, 
and the year following was elected deoty of MagdaKen col*- 
Jege. Here iie proceeded successfully in his studies, jand 
taking the degree of B. A. in 1602, commenced M. A. in 
Jane 1C05, in which year he was elected to a fellowship. 
In 1610 he resigned this, probably in consequence of the 
fortune which came to him^ from his godmother. In 1614 
he was presented tp the rectory of St. Michael's, Crooked- 
lane, by archbishop Abbot, which be resigned in 1616, 
and remained without preferment until 1625, when the 
archbishop gave him the rectory of St. Dionis Backchurcb 
in Fenchurch>street. In the interim he had taken both his 
degrees in divinity at Oxford ; and Abbot, continuing hi» 
esteem, collated him to the prebend. of the first stall in the 
cathedral of Canterbury. He was also appointed governor 
of Sion college, London, and was made chaplain to Charles 
I. In the second year of this monarch's reign Dr. Warner 
preached before him while the parliament was sitting, 
dudng passion week, on Matt. xxi. 28, and took such li<- 
berties with the proceedings of that parliament as very 
highly provoked some of the members who happened to be 
present. Some measures appear to have been taken, against 
bim, but the dissolution of the parliament soon after pro« 
tected him, yet we are told that a pardon from the king 
was necessary, ^which pardon was extant at the time Dr. 
^achary Pearce communicated some particulars of his life 
to the editors of the •* Biographia Britannica." 
• In 1633 he attended the king on his coronation in Scot- 
land, and the same year was collated by him to the deanery 
of Lichfield. In 1637 the king advanced him to the bishop* 
ric of Rochester, and notwithstanding the small revenue 

1 Nichols's Bowyer, Sec. 



W A H N ? R. 149 

attached to thU see, Dr. Warner resigned bis deanery and 
his prebend, besides a donative of 200/. per annutp in Kent, 
probably Barham, or Bishops-bourne, of which, it is said, 
be was parson. In 1640 be assisted the king with 1500/. 
on the Scotch invasion of England, and gave bis attend- 
ance, when there was only one prelate besides himself in 
the council at York. The same year he had the courage 
to oppose the praemunire in the House of Peers, and as- 
serted the rights of the bishops sitting iA parliament. With 
equal zeal be joined in the declaration made by some others 
of his brethren, May 14, 1641, to maintain and defend, 
as far as lawfully they might, with the.ir life, power, and 
estate, the true reformed protestant religion, expressed in 
the doctrine of the Church of England, against all popery 
and popish innovation within this realm; and maintain and 
defend his majesty^s royal person, honour, and estate ; also 
the power and privilege of parliaments, the lawful rights 
and liberties of the subjects, and endeavour to preserve, 
the union and peace between the kingdoms of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. 

All this opposition to the changes then proposed soon 
appeared to be fruitless, and in August of the same year 
be was impeached with twelve other bishops, for acting in 
the convocation of 1640, making then canons and constitu- 
tions, and granting his majesty a benevolence. On thia 
occasion his brethreiv unanimously relied on bisliqp War- 
ner's talents for their defence, which he undertook with 
spirit, but their total subversion being determined, nothing 
availed. He continued, however^ inflexible in his adhe- 
rence to the cause of his sovereign, at whose command, 
not long before his death, the bishop wrote a treatise 
against. the ordinance of the sale of church lands, which 
was printed in 1646 and 1648, 4to, under the, title " Church 
Lands not to be sold,^' &c. After the death of Charles I. 
likewise, our prelate published several sermons against 
that illegal act. And having maintained his consistency so 
far as. to refuse to pay any tax or loan to the parliament,, 
his estate, ecclesiastical and temporal, was sequestered^ 
his books seized, and by a singular refinement in robbery, 
all bonds due to him from any person whatever were re- 
leased. He would probably also have been imprisoned, 
had he not escaped into Wales, where he led for three yea^s 
a wandering and insecure. life, but wherever he had oppor-r 
tiinity, constantly, performed the duties of his episcopal 






160 WARNER. 



\ 



function, which he also did wherever he might happen to 
bci till the restoration. 

After his majesty's garrisons were given up he was forced 
to compound for his temporal estate, now four years se- 
questered, at the rate of the tenth part real and personal ; 
but all oaths to the usurping government he refused to the 
last ; and having, although after a heavy deduction, saved 
a considerable part of his estate, he devoted it to the as*- 
sistance of his suffering brethren, and was a great support 
to such of the sequestered clergy and their families as were 
reduced to absolute poverty. Of this, bishop Kennet, in 
his life of Somoer, affords the following proof and instance : 
** When in the days, of usurpation an honest friend paid a 
visit to him (Warner), and upon his lordship^s importunity 
told him freely the censures of the world, as being of a 
close and too thrifty a temper, the bishop produced a roll 
of dij; tressed clergy, whom in their ejectments he had re- 
lieved with no less tjian eight thousand pounds ; and in- 
quired of the same friend, whether he knew of any other 
like objects of charity ; upon which motion the gentleman 
soon after by letter recommended a sequestered divine, to 
whom at the first address he gave 100/." 

He sent \00L to Charles II. in his exile, designing to 
continue remitting money as he could afford it, but he! was 
betrayed by his servant, who discovered the matter to Crura- 
well, and he would have suffered for it, had he not pre- 
vailed on the treacherous informer, by money, to go into 
Ireland. On the restoration, bishop Warner was replaced 
in the see of Rochester, and enjoyed it till his decease on 
Oct. 11, 1666. He was interred in Rochester cathedral, 
where a handsome monunfient was soon after erected to his 
memory in a small chapel, at the east end of the north aile. 

He married the widow of Dr. Robert Abbot, bishop of 
Salisbury, and had issue by her one daughter, his heiressi 
who by her husband, Thomas Lee, of London, had a son^ 
John, to whom and his sons bishop Warner bequeathed so 
considerable an estate as surprised those who knew the ex« 
t^nt of his charities, and the small income arising from his 
bishopric. Nor will that surprise be much diminished by 
th^ fact, that when young he bad 16,000Z. left him by a 
relation^ who was his god-mother, for if we take into ac- 
count what he suffered by the usurpation, and what he gar\'e 
to his distressed brethren during that period, it will yet ap- 
pear surprising that he was enabled to exert his charity and 



WARNER, 161 

munificence to such a vast amount as appears was the case. 
To account for this, some have accused him of parsimony^ 
but for this there is no proof, and the greater part of what 
he gave was given at various periods in his Izjfe^time; but 
others have with more probability supposed that^he lived 
on the profits, small as they were, of his bishopric, while 
the produce of his estates was accumulating. Be this as it 
(kiay^ we have the following items of nearly twenty thousand 
pounds, which he expended or bequeathed to the following 
objects : 

To the demies of Magdalen college, Oxford, in eleven 

years - . . - . <gl,100 

— - repairing St Paul's, London - - 1,050 

The redemption of captives, &a - - 2,500 

Library of Magdalen college ... 1,200 

(&bedrai of Canterbury, for fonts and library - 1,200 

" Rochester, towards a library - - 500 

Repairs of that cathedral, and by his will - - 1,000 
For augmenting poor vicarages in the diocese of Rochester 2,000 
Paid by his executors for the building of Bromley college 8,500 
For repairs of the palace ... qqq 

£ 19,850 

Bromley college above-mentioned was founded by him 
for the residence and maintenance of twenty widows ofN 
loyal and orthodox clergymen. By his will he empowered 
his executors, sir Orlando Bridgman, and sir Philip War- 
wick, to raise a sum of money adequate to the purposes of 
such ft building, out of his personal estate, and charged his 
manor of Sway ton with the annual payment of 450/. viz. 
50/. per ann. for the chaplain, and 20/. each for the wi« 
dows. The founder bad expressed a desire that this build- 
iag should be erected as near to Rochester as conveniently 
might be; but as no healthy or convenient spot could be 
obtained near that town, the present site was chosen at the 
north end of the town of Bromley, under the sanation of 
an act of parliament passed in 1670; and by other subse- 
quent benefactions the institution has been brought to its 
present useful state. Another of bishop Warner's founda- 
tions was that of four scholarships in Baliol college, Ox- 
ford^ for four young men of Scotland, to be chosen from 
time to time by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop 
of Rochester. Each was to have 20/. yearly until M. A. 
when they were to return to their owu country in holy 
orders, *^tbat there may. never be wanting,in Scotland some 
Vol. XXXI. M 



162 W A R N'E R. 

who shall support the ecclesiastical establishment of Eng- 
land.*' Owing to sonie demur on the part of this college^ 
these scholars were first placed in Gloucester ball (now 
Worcester college), and there was a design to have made 
that a college for their use ; but, in the mastership of Dr. 
Thomas Good, in 1672, they were removed to BalioL 

Bishop Warner is said to have been an accurate logician^ 
philosopher, and well versed in the fathers and schoolmen^ 
He was a roan of a decided character, equally cheerful and 
undaunted. In his manner he had less of the courtier than 
of the kind friend, always performing more than he pro<- 
feised. Of his religious principles the only evidence we 
have is in a letter addressed to bishop Jeremy Taylor, in 
defence of the doctrine of original sin, whiiih that prelate 
had endeavoured to explain away in a manner totally in- 
consistent with the tenets of the church, as laid down in 
her liturgy, articles, and homilies. Warner was of the 
school of Abbot, and ,less likely to adopt Arminianism, 
although he was personally attached to its great frienc arch- 
bishop Laud. ' 

WARNER (Joseph), an eminent surgeon, was born in 
the island of Antigua, in 1717, on the family estate, which 
'he inherited, together with a ring, famous in history, as 
.the one given by queen Elizabeth to the earl of Essex, and 
which in the hour of impending danger be entrusted to the 
countess of Nottingham, who never delivered it to the 
qUeen, and this, according to the story, was the cause of 
Essex^s losing his life. By some means this ring had re- 
gularly descended, together with the estate, in the Warner 
family. Mr. Warner was sent to England at an early age^ 
and educated at Westminster school. At the age of seveii^ 
teen he was apprenticed to the celebrated surgeon, Samuel 
Sharpe, and after residing seven years with him, was ad* 
mitted joint lecturer in anatomy at St. Thortias^s hospital 
with Mr. Sharpe, after whose resignation Mr. Warner cod*- 
tinned the lectures for several years. 'In 1746, during the 
rebellion in Scotland, he volunteered h'is professional sei^- 
vices, and joined the royal army under the duke of Cum<- 
berland. In the course of that campaign he was recallecL 
to London to fill the office of surgeon to Guy*s hospital, ^ 
situation which he held, with increasing reputation, and 

« 

» Ath, Ox. vol. II — ^Burnet's Own Timei.— Biog. Brit.— Fuller's Worthies. 

Barwick's Life.-^Lysons's EnvironSt in which is the first engraved portrait of 
Warner.»-Chalmert*s Hist, of Oxford.*-Bunne]f's Life of bishop Taylor. 



I 
I 

I I 



WARNER. 163 

great professional success, for the long period of forty-four 
years^ During this time bis private practice becaine. ex- 
tensive, and his fame was increased by his valuable treatises 
on the cataract, the hydrocele, &c. and bis still more va- 
luable volume of *^ Cases in Surgery,'' 1754, &c. In 1756 
he was elected a fellow of the royal society, in whose Trans- 
actions a number of his communications were published. 
In 1764 he was elected a member of the court of assistants 
of the then corporation of surgeons, and in 1771, became 
onc( of the court of examiners, in which office he con- 
tinued to discharge his duty most punctually until the last 
month of his life. 

He died at his house in Hatton-garden, July 24, 1801, 
in the eighty*Bfth year of his life, without much illness, 
but of the mere effects of age, and retained his faculties to 
the last. He left a very estimable character, both as to 
professional and private merit. He was among the earliest 
teachers of anatomy, whose labours have greatly contri- 
buted to lessen the necessity of going abroad, and have 
rendered London at the present day the first chirurgical 
school in the world. * 

WARNER (Richard), who merits notice for his regard 
. to the science of botany, and the respect and honour he 
ever shewed to the lovers of it, was the son of John Warner, 
a banker, who is somewhere mentioned by Addison or 
Steele, as having always worn black leather garters buckled 
under the knee, a custom most religiously observed by our 
author, who in no other instance affected singularity. He 
was born in 1711, educated at Wadham college, Oxford, 
and being bred to the law, had chambers ip ^Lincoln's Inn, 
but possessing a genteel fortune, he principally resided in 
an ancient family seat with an extensive garden belonging 
to it, on,Woodford Green, in Essex. Here he maintained 
ahotanical garden, was very successful in the cultivation 
of r^re exotics, and was not unacquainted with indigenous 
plants. The herborizations of the company of apothecaries 
were, once in the season, usually directed to the environs 
of Woodford, where, after the researches of the day, at 
the table of Mr. Warner, the products of Flora were dis- 
played. The result of the .investigations made in that 
neighbourhood was printed for private distribution by Mr. 
Warner, under the title "Plant® Woodfordiepses ; or a 

» Gent. Mag. vol. LXXI. 
M 2 



164 WARNER. 

catalogue of the more perfect plants growing spontaneomf^ 
about Woodford in Essex/* Lond. 1771, 8vo. At none of 
the graminaceous or cryptogamous tribes are introduced^ 
the list does not exceed^ 18 species. The order is alphas 
betical, by the names from Ray's Synopsis ; after whicb 
follow the specific character at length, from Hudson*s 
^ Flora Anglicat!' ^^^ Lionscan ckss and order, and the 
English name, place, and time of flowering. 

Mr. Warner was alsa distinguished for polite learnings ' 
and eminently so for hirs critical knowledge in the writing9 
of Shakspeaire^ He published ^* A Letter to I>a:vid Garrick^^ 
esq. concerning a glossary to the Plays of Shakspeare," &6> 
176&, 8vo. He bad been long nyaking collections for a 
Dew edition of that author ; but on Mr. Steevens's adver-* 
tisementof his design to engage in the same task on a dif^. 
fereNt |>lan, he desisted from the pursuit of hi>s own. Inf 
bis youth he had been remarkably fond of dancing; nor 
till his rage for that diversion si»b»ided, did he convert the 
largest room in his house into a library. Tathe la«t botir 
of his life, however, he was employed oi> the ** Glossary'* 
already mentioned, although it never was co'mpleted. At 
his death, which happened April 11, 1775, he bequeathed 
all his valuable books to Wadham college, Oxford, where 
he received his education ; and to the same society a small 
annual stipend to maintain a botanical lecture. He also 
translated the comedies of Plautus left untranslated by 
Thornton, which were published 4n 1772 and 1774. The 
books he left to Wadham college form a good, although 
not a complete collection of the old English poets, with 
many editions of Shakspeare, some of which are interleaved 
with writing paper, obviously intended for annotations, &c. 
had he pursued his design of a new edition. ^ 

WARNER (WitLiAM), an old English poet, is called 
by Phillips, '^a good honest plain writer of moral rules and 
precepts, in that old-fashioned kind ef seven-footed verse, 
which yet sometimes is in use, though in different manner, 
that is to say, divided into two. He may be reckoned 
with several other writers of the same time, i. c. Q,ueei> 
Elizabeth's reign : who, though inferior to Sidney, Spen«» 
ser, Drayton, and Daniel, yet have been thought by some 
not unworthy to be remembered and quoted : namely George 
Gascoigne, Thomas Hudson, John Markham, 7'homas^ 

> Pulteney's Botmny.— Nichols's Bowyer. — Lysons's Eovirons^ 



WARNER. 1«5 

Achely, John Weaver, Charles Middleton, George Ttir- 
i>er?ii1e, Henry Constable, sirEdword Dyer, Thomas Church- 
yard, Charles Fitzgeoffry." 

^ William 'Warner was a fiative of Oxfordshire, and born^ 
as'Mr. EiUs is iuolined to think, about 1558, which supr 
poses bim 16 have published his first wock at the age of 
twenty-five. He was educated at Oxford, btit spent bis 
time in the flowery paths of poetry, history, and romance, 
in preference to the dry pursuits of logic and philosophy, 
and departed without a degree to the metropolis, where he 
.soon became distinguished among the minor poets. It i^ 
said, that in the latter pare of his life, he was retained in ' 
the service of Henry Carey, lord Hunsdon, to whom he de- 
^licates his poem. Mr, 'Ritson adds to this account, that 
Jby bis dedications .to Henry and George, successive barpoa 
jof Hunsdon, he appears to bave been patronized by, or in 
^ome manner connected with, that family. 

In the fourth edition of Percy'a Ballads, we find the fol- 
Jowing extract from the parisb register of Amwell, in Hert- 
iordshire, communicated by Mr. Hoole, although first given 
by Scott, in his poem of ^* Amwell," edit. 1776. *^ 1608- 
1609 — Master William Warner, a man of good yeares and 
lof honest reputation ; by bis profession an atturnye of the 
Comnon Pleas,; author of Albion^s England, dlynge sud- 
denly in the mght in bis bedde, without any former com- 
playnt or sicknesse, on Thursday -nigbt heeinge the n4nth 
day of March, was buf ied the Saturday following, and ly- 
«th in the church at the corner, under the stone of Walter 
Ffader." 

His ^' Albion^s England^' was bis principal work; and 
was not only a favourite with his own age^ but has received 
very high praise from the critics of our own time. It is an 
epitome of the British history, and, according to the edi* 
tor of the " Muses Library," Mrs. Cooper, is written with 
great leanving, sense, an'd spirit ; in some places fine to 
an extraordinary degree^ of which aa instance is given in 
the story ofAr^entill and Curan, a tale. which, Mrs. Cooper 
adds, is full of beautiful incidents, in the romantic taste, 
extremely affecting,, rich in ornament, wonderfully various 
in atyle, and in short one of the most beautiful pastorals 
,she ever met with. To this opinion, high as it is, Dr. 
Pprcy thinks nothing can be pbjected,. unless perhaps an 
affected quaintness in some of \\is expressions, and an in- 
delicacy in some of his pastoral images. Warner^s con- 



i66 WARNER. 

temporaries raoked him on a level with Spenser, and called 
him the Homer and Virgil of their itge. But Dr. Percy 
remarks, that be rather resembled Ovid, whose Metamor- 
phosis be seems to have taken for a inodel, having deduced 
4 perpetual poem from the deluge down to the reign of 
queen Eliz.abeth, full of lively digressions and entertaining 
episodes. And though he is sometimes harsh, affected, and 
indelicate, be often displays a most charming and pathetic 
simplicity. 

He was numbered in bis own time among the reGners of 
the English tongue, which ^^ by his /pen was much en* 
ricbed and gorgeously invested in rare ornaments, and re- 
splendent habiliments." Such is the opinion of Meres, 
in bis "Wit's Treasury;" but the progress Warner made 
in refining the English tongue was certainly very in- 
considerable. He owed bis simplicity to his taste ; but he 
had not the courage to abandon the uncouth and quaint 
expressions so peculiar to his time, and to shew that wit 
and point might exist without them^ . His style, however, 
was then thought elegs^nt, and such was bis power of pleas- 
ing, that ** Albion's England" superseded that very popu- 
lar work " the Mirror of Magistrates." 

Warner was a writer of prose. His work was entitled 
'< Syrinx, or a seauenfold Historic, handled with varietie^ 
of pleasant and profitable, both comical and tragical argu- 
ment," printed in 1597. Warton calls it a novel, or rather 
a suite of stories, much in the style of the adventures of 
Heliodorus's Etbiopic romance. He appears also to have 
translated Plautus's ^' Menaechmi," published in 1595. 
Ritson informs us, that by an entry in the Stationers'- 
book, on the 17tb of October, 1586^ « The Wardens, 
upon serche of Roger Ward's house, dyd find there in 
printing, a book in verse, intytled " England's Albion, 
beinge in English, and not auctborised to be printed, which 
he bad been forbidden to prynte, aswelt by the L. archb. 
of Canterburye, as also by the said wardens at bis own 
bouse ;" and forasmuch as he bad done this '^ contrary to 
the late decrees of the hon. court of Starre -chamber, the 
said wardens seised three heaps of the said < England's Al- 
bion'." Why this work was prohibited, except for the in- 
delicacies already noticed, is not very apparent. We know 
that bishop Hall's satires incurred the displeasure of the 
guardians of the press at no long distance from this time. 



\ 

WARNER. 167 

. Mr. Headley, who has extracted many beauties from 
Warner, says, that his tales, though often tedious, and not 
unfreqaently indelicate, abound with all the unaffected 
incident and artless ease of the best old ballads, without 
their cant and puerility. The pastoral pieces that occur 
are superior to all the eclogues in our language, those o£ 
Collins only excepted. He also quotes Djray ton's lines oi^ 
Warner, which the. reader will find in bis piece of" Poet$ 
and Poesy." * 

WAllTON (Thomas), the historian of English poeti-y, 
was descended from an ancient and honourable fan>ily of 
Beverley in Yprkshire. His father was fellow of Magda-* 
len-college, Oxford, poetry professor in that university, , 
and afterwards vicar of Basingstoke, Hampshire, and Cob- 
ham, Surrey. He married Elizabeth daughter of the rey^ 
Joseph Richardson, rector of Dunsford, Surrey, and had 
by her three children ; Joseph, the subject of the next ar-: 
tide, Thomas, and Jane a daughter, who survived ^oth t 
her brothers. Ho died in 1746, and is buried under the 
rails of the altar of his church at Basingstoke, with an .in* 
^cription on a tablet near it, written by his sons, who af^ 
terwards published a volume of his poems, by subscrip-^ 
tion, chiefly with a view to pay the few debts he left be* 
hind, and supply his children with some assistance in the 
progress of their education. Whether the success of this 
volume was equal to their hopes, is uncertain, but the poems 
acquired no reputation. 

Thomas was. born at Basingstoke in 1728, and from his 
earliest y^ars discovered a fondness for reading, and a taste 
for poetry. In his ninth year he sent to his sister th^ fol- 
lowing translation from the Latin of Martial : > 

*' When bold Leandei* sought his distant Caiir 
(Nor could the sea a braver. burthen bear)^ 
Thus to the swelling waves he spoke his woe. 
Drown me on my return — ^but spare me as I go/' 

This curiosity is authenticated by the letter in which he 
sent it, 'lately in the possession of his sister. It bears 
date ** from the school, Nov. 7, 1737." His biographer, 
Mr. Mant, says, that he continued under the care of his 
father until his redioval to Oxford; but we have been in- 

1 Phillips's Tbeatmm by Sir E. Brydges,— Ath. Ox. vol. I. — EUiB*8 Sp^cimeos^ 
.— Ritson's Bibl. Poetica.— Eng^lish Poets, 21 vols. 1*810,— Warton's Hist, of 
Poetry,— Headley's Beauties, 



168 W A R T O N. 

formed that he was placed for some time at Basingstoke-* 
school. 

In March 1743, in bis sixteenth year, he was admitted 
a commoner of Trinity-college, and soon after was elected 
a scholar. How much he was ever attached to that col^ 
lege, his writings, and a residence of forty-seven years, 
with very few intervals, sufficiently shew. In 1745, he i» 
said to have published ^' four Pastoral Eclogues;*' bat thi^ 
appears to be a mistake. About this time, however, he 
sent one or two articles to Dodsley^s Museum * ; to which 
his brother was likewise a contributor ; but his first detached 
publication was ^' The Pleasures of Melancholy," of which 
the first copy differs considerably, particalarty in the in- 
troductory part, from that published in his collectioii of 
poems. On the appearance of Mason's ** Isis," reflecting 
on the loyalty of Oxford, which a foolish riot among some 
students bad brought into question, Mr. Warton, encouraged 
by Dr. Huddesford, the president of Trinity, published in 
1749, " The Triumph of Isis,*' in which he retaliated on 
the sons of Cam in no very courtly strains. The poem, 
however, discoverecf certain beauties, which pointed hiia 
out as a youth of great promise. It is remarkable, that 
although be omitted this piece in an edition of his^oems 
printed in 1777, he restored it in that of 1779. This is 
said to have been done at Mason*s suggestion, who was 
candid enough to own that it greatly excelled his own elegy, 
both in poetical imagery and correct flow of versification-; 
but Mason appears to have forgot that his personal share in 
the contest was but trifling, and that it contained a libel on 
the university of Cambridge. 

In 1750, our author contributed a few small pieces to 
ihe '' Student, or Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany,^' 
then published by Newberj'. Among these was the " Pro- 
gress of Discontent," which had been written in 1746, 
and was founded on a copy of Latin verses, a weekly ex- 
ercise much applauded by Dr. Huddesford, and, at his de- 
sire, paraphrased into English verse : In this state his bro- 
ther. Dr. Warton, preferred it to any. imitation of Swift 
he had ever seen. His talents were now generally ac- 
knowledged, and in 1747 and 1748, he held the office of 

* These were, a Song imitated from They are authenticated by Dr. War-> 

the Midsummer Nigbt'i Dreami and a ton's Autograph, in bis copy of the 

prose Essay onSnugness, written partly Museum, lu the possession of the edi- 

by him and partly by Dr. Vansitlart. tor of this dictionary. 



WART ON. 16» 

poet laureate, conferred upon him according to w ancient 
practice in thfe Common'room of Trhjity-college. ' The 
duty of this office was to celebrate a lady chosen by the 
same authority^ as the lady-patroness ; and Warton per- 
formed tills task, on an appointed day, crowned with a 
wreath of laurel. The verses, which - Mr. Mant says are 
still to be seen in the C6mmon*room, are written in an 
elegant and flowing style, but he has not thought them 
worthy of transcription. 

In 1750, betook his master's degree; and in 1751,. sue* 
ceeded to a fellowship. In this last year, he published his 
excellent satire entitled "Newmarket;" "An Ode to 
Music performed at the Theatre ;*' and verses *^ on the 
death of Frederic prince of Wales," which he inserted in 
the Oxford collection, uuder the fictitious name of John 
Wbetham ; a practice not uncommon. lu 1753, appeared 
at Edinburgh ^^ The Union, or Select Scots and English 
Poems." Mr. Warton was the editor of this small voliune, 
in which be inserted his " Triumph of Isis," and other 
pieces, particularly the " Ode on the approach of Sum- 
mer,*' and the " Pastoral in the manner of Spenser,*' 
which is said to be written by a gentleman formerly of the 
university of Aberdeeni Why he should make use of such 
a deception, cannot now be discovered. 

About 1754, he drew up from the Bodleian and Savilian 
-statutes, a body of statutes for the Radcliffe library. In 
the same year he published his ^^ Observations on the Faerie 
Queene of Spenser," in one volume octavo, which were 
afterwards enlarged and published in two volumes, 1762. 
By this work he not only established his chaYacter as an 
acute criiic, but opened to the world at laree that new and 
important field of criticism and illustration which has since 
been so ably cultivated by Steevens, Malone, Reed; Todd, 
and other commentators on our ancient poets. 

Soon alter th« appearance of the ** Observations'* they 
were attacked in an abusive pamphlet entitled " The Ob- 
server observed," written by Hnggins, the author of a very 
indiffereiit translation of Ariosto. Huggins had engaged 
Mr. Warton in this translation, but when he read what 
Warton asserted of the inferiority of Ariosto to Spenser, he 
immediately cancelled his share of the translation, and 
published this angry pamphlet^. Mr;» Warton, w ha was 

* Th« following piiragraph from specimen >»f the whole. " Sect; II. He 
Huggins's pamphlet vill be a sufficient (Warton) reiamet the poitonoua acri- 



170 



W A R T O N. 



now in bis thirty*sixth year, 'had employed fully half that 
time in an unwearied perusal of the old English poets and 
such contemporary writers as could throw light on their 
obscurities. The ^' Observations on Spenser'' must have 
evidently been the result of much industry and various 
reading, aided by a happy memory. 

In 1757, on the resignation of Mr. Hawkins of Pembroke 
college, our author was elected professor of poetry, which 
office, according to the usual practice, he held for tei> 
years. His lectures were elegant and original. The trans- 
lations from the Greek anthologies, now a part of his col^ 
lected poems, were first introduced in them ; and bis ^* Dis-> 
sertatio de Poesi Bucolica Grscorum," which he after- 
wards enlarged and prefixed to his edition of Theocritus^ 
was also a part of the same course. During the publica-» 
tion of the '^ Idler'' he sent to Dr. Johnson, with whom he 
had long been intimate, Nos. 33, 93, and 96 of thatpaper^ 
Hia biographer, bowser, is mistaken in supposing that he 
contributed any papers to the '^ Connoisseur." His being 
invited by Colman and Thornton to engage in a periodical 
{publication has no relation to the *^ Connoisseur." It was 
Moore, the editor of the ** World," who projected a Ma«- 
gazine, soon after the conclusion of that paper, and told 
the two Wartons that ^^ he wanted a dull plodding fellow of 
one of the universities, who understood Latin and Greek.'* 
Mr. Bedingfield, one of Dodsley's poets, and Gataker,the 
surgeon, were to be concerned in this Magazine, but Moore's 
death prevented the execution of the scheme. 

In 1760 he published, but without his name, '^ A de- 
scription of the City, College, and Cathedral of Winches,- 
. ter," 12mo. From his own copy, in the possession of the 
present editor, he appears to have been preparing a new 
edition about 177^, which was perhaps prevented by a 
'^ History of Winchester" published soon after in two vo* 



mony with which he charges his wea- 
pon, which he takes care shall he ju- 
diciously two-edfedy lest it fail of slash- 
ing frieod as well as foe. * Although 
(saith our observer) Spenser furmed his 
Faerie Queene upon the fanciful plan 
of Arioslo.' — Poor Spenser ! Wretched 
Ariosto !— >Aud oh ! most mighty War- 
ton !— Let this suffice, for reply to all 
he here advances of falsehood against 
Ariosto, which that poem totally con- 
Ironts: such falsehood, that were it 
trut&» is insipid and immaterial; and 



let us .pass the chronicles of the seven 
champions, Morte Arthur, sirTristram» 
the Blatant Beast, the Qnesiyn Beast, 
which is afterwards more particularly 
described, wilh a bed-roll of quotations, 
no less delectable than erudite, most 
appositely collected, to give not only 
a dignity, but also a magnitude to this 
important tome ; that purchasers may 
be well snpply'd for their disbnrsement 
of pence, either in their meditatii^ f u« 
migationsy or at the Cloacinian offer- 
tory." 



WARi'ON. 171 

lumes, a more ihowy work, but far more inaccurate. In 
the same year (1760) he published a piece of exquisite hu« 
mour, entitled *^ A Companion to the Guide, and a Guide 
to the Companion, being a complete Supplement to all 
the accounts of Oxford hitherto published.^ This passed 
through three editions in a very short time, but for some 
years has been ranked among scarce books*. A more 
scarce work, however, is his ^* Inscriptionum RomanaTum 
Metricarum Delectus," 4to, which ought to have been no- 
ticed under the year 1758. The design of this collection 
was to present the reader with some of the best Roman 
epigrams and inscriptions, taken from the ** Elegantite an- 
tiquorum marmorum,*' from Mazochius, Smetius, Grute- 
rus, and other learned men. It contains likewise a few 
modern epigrams, one by Dr. Jortin, and five by himself, 
on the model of the antique, the whole illustrated with va- 
rious readings and notes. 

About 1760 he wrote for the "Biographia Britannica,'* 
the life of sir Thomas Pope, which he republished in 1772, 
8vo, and again in 1780, with very considerable additions and 
improvements; and in 1761 he published the '* Life and 
Literary Remains of Dr. Bathurst." In the same year, and 
in 1762, he contributed to the Oxford collections, versed 
on the royal marriage, and on the birth of the prince of 
Wales, and an ode entitled the *^ Complaint of Cberwell,** 
under the name of John Chichester, brother to the earl of 
Donegal f. His next publication was the ^* Oxford Sau- 
sage, or select pieces written by the most celebrated wits 
of the university of Oxford.'* The preface and several of 
the poems are undoubtedly his, and the tatter are authen* 
ticated by his adding th^m afterwards to his avowed pro- 
ductions. In 1766 he superintended an edition from the 
Clarendon press of ^VCephalus' Anthology;" to which he 
prefixed a very curious and learned preface. In this 'he 
announced his edition of ^^ Theocritus," which made its 
appearance in 1770, 2 vols. 4to, a most correct and splen- 
did work, that carried his fame to the continent. 

In 1767, he took his degree of B. D. and in 1771 was 
elected a fellow of the society of antiquaries. In October 
of the same year he was instituted to the small living of 

* A new edition was published in Shenstone had a visit from both at the 

1806 by Mr. Cooke, of Oxford, with the Lefisowes io vhe summer of 1758. Shen* 

original cuts. ttone^s Letters. On these great occa-' 

f This information is from Mr. sions of academical gratulations, our 

Maot's Life. Lord Donegal was, how. author sometimes wrote verses for those 

ever, one of Mr. Warton's pupiU. who could not write for tbeniielvei. 



J'72 W A R T N, 

Kiddington, Oxon. on the presentation of George Henry 
earl of Litchfield, then chancellor of the university, a noble* 
uian whose memory be afterwards honoured by an epitaph. 
In 1774 he published the first volume of his *^ History of 
English Poetry/' the most important of all his works^ and 
to the completion of which the studies of his whole lif^ 
appear to have been bent. How much it is to be regretted 
that he did not live to complete his plan, every student in 
ancient literature must be deeply sensible. He intended 
^t6 have carried the history down to the commencement of 
the eighteenth century. A second volume accordingly 
appeared in 1773, and a third in 1781, after which heproi- 
bably relaxed from ^ his pursuit, as at the period of bis 
death in 1.790, a few sheets only of the fourth volume were 
-printed, and no part left in a state for printing. His ori- 
ginal intention was to have comprised the whole in two or 
three vplumes, but it is now evident, and he probably soon 
became aware, that five would have scarcely been sufficient 
if he continued to write on the same scale, and to devia4:e 
occasionally into notices of manners, laws, customs, &Cv 
that had either a remote, or an immediate connectiori with 
his principal subject. What his reasons were for discoa- 
tinuing his labour's, cannot ilow-be ascertained. Ijt is well 
known to every writer that a work of great magnitude re^ 
quires temporary relaxation, or a change of employment, 
and may admit of both without injury; but be might pro- 
bably find that it was now less easy to return with, spirit to 
his magnum opus^ than in the days of more vigour and aq- 
tiyity. It is certain that he wished the public to think that . 
he was making his usual progress, for in 1785, when he 
published *^' Milton's Juvenile Poems," he announced the 
speedy publication of the fourth volume of the history, of 
which, from that time to his death, ten sheets only were 
finished. His brother, Dr, Joseph, was long supposed tp 
be engaged in completing this fourth volume. In one of 
bis letters lately published by Mr. Wooil, and dated 17^)2, 
he says, ** At any leis^ure I get busied in finishing the last 
volume of ^r. Warton's History of Poetry, which I hat^e 
engaged to do, for the booksellers are clamorous to have 
the book finished (though the ground I am to go over is so 
beaten) that it may be a complete work." Yet on his death 
in 1800, it did not appear that he had made any progress ^. 

* A continuation of this work is in the bands of Mr. Parkj and il cansot 
be in better. 



W A R T O N. in 

I9r« Warton^s biographer has traced the origin of this 
work to Pope, who, according to Ruff head, had sketched 
• pian of a history of poetry, dividing the poets into classed 
or schools; but Ruffhead*s list of poets is grossly erroneous. 
Gray, however, Mr. Mason informs us, had meditated ^ 
liistory of English poetry, in which Mason was to assist him. 
Their design was to introduce specimens of the Provencal 
poetry, and of the Scaldic, British, and Saxon, as preliminary 
to what first deserved to be called English poetry about the 
time of Chaucer, from whence their history, properly so 
called, was to commence. Gray, however, was deterred 
by the magnitude of the undertaking ; and being informed 
that Warton was employed on a similar design, more readily 
relinquished his own. 

Such is Mr. Mantes account, who adds (in p. cxxvi) that 
Warton '^judiciously preferred the plan on which he has 
proceeded to that proposed by Pope, Gray, and Mason.*' 
It appears, however, that Warton had made considerable 
progress on his own plan before be knew any thing of Gray *s, 
and that when he heard of the latter, and perhaps at the 
same time of its being relinquished, be thought proper^ 
which he might then do without indelicacy, to apply to 
Gray, through the medium of Dr. Uurd, requesting that 
be would communicate any fragments, or sketches of his 
design. Mr. Gray, in answer to this application, senit the 
following letter : 

" Sir, 15th April, 1770, Pembroke Hall. 

" Our friend. Dr. Hurd, having long ago desired me in 
your name to communicate any fragments, or sketches of 
a design I once had to give a history of English poetry, 
you may well think me rude or neghgent, when you see 
me hesitating for so many months before I comply with 
your request, and yet (believe me) few of your friends 
have been better pleased than I to find this subject (Purely 
neither unentertaining, uor unuseful) had fallen into hands 
so likely to do it justice ; few have felt a higher esteem for 
your talents, your taste and industry ; in truth, the only 
cause of my delay has been a sort of diffidence, that would 
Bot let me sepd you any thing so short, so slight, and so 
imperfect as the few materials I had begun to collect, or 
the observations I had made on them. A sketch of the di- 
fision and arrangement of the subject, however, I venture 
to. transcribe, and would wish to know whether it corre- 
sponds in any thing with your own plan, for I am told your 
first volume is already in the press. 



\ 



174 W A R T O N. 

" Introductjon. — On the poetry of thie Galic {or Celtic) 
nations, as far back as it can be traced. 

'^ On that of the 'Goths ; its introduction into these 
blandts by the Saxons and Danes, and its duration. Oa 
the origin of rhyme among the Franks, the Saxons and 
Proven^aux ; some account of the Latin rhyming poetry 
from its early origin down to the fifteenth century. 

" P. I. — On the school of Provence, which rose ^bout 
the year 1 100, and was soon followed by the French and 
Italians; their heroic poesy, or romances inverse, alle- 
gories, fabliaux, Syrvientes, comedies, farces, eanzoni, soa« 
nets, balades, madrigals, sestines, &c. Of their imitators, 
the French^ and of the first Italia^i school (commonly calPd 
the Sicilian) about the year 1200, brought to perfection by 
Dante, Petrarch, Boccace, and others. 

" State of poetry in England, from the Conquest (1066) 
or rather from Henry IFs time (1154) to the reign of Ed- 
ward III. (1327). 

P. II. — On Chaucer^ who first introduced the manner of 
the Proven^aux, improved by the Italians ifito our'coun^ 
try; his character and merits at large; the different kinds 
in which he excelled. Gower, Occleve, Lydgate, Havves, 
G. Douglas, Lindsay, Bellenden, Dunbar, &c» 

" P. 111. — Second ItaliaiH school (of Ariosto, Tasso, &c.) 
an improvement on the first, occasioned by the revival of 
letters in the end of the 15th century. The lyric poetry 
of this and the former age, introduced from Italy by lord 
Surrey, sir T. Wyat, Bryan, lord Vaux, '&c. in the be- 
ginning of the 16th century. 

^^ Spencer ; his character, subject of his poem allegoric 
and romantic, of Provencal invention ; but his manner of 
creating it borrowed from the second Italian school. Dray- 
ton, Fairfax, Phin. Fletcher, Golding, Phaer, &c. : tbis 
school ends in Milton. 

" A third Italian school, full of conceit, begun in Q. 
Elizabeth's reign, continued under James, and Charles the 
first, by Donne, Crashaw, Cleveland ; carried to its height 
by Cowley, and ending* perhaps in Sprat. 

" P. IV. — School -of FrancCy introduced after the restora- 
tion ; Waller, Dryden, Addison, Prior, and Pope, whick 
has continued down to our own times. 

^' You will observe, that my idea was in some measure 
taken from a scribbled paper of PopCf of which (I believe) 
you have a copy. You will also see that I had excluded 



W A R T O N. 1^5 

dramatic poetry entirely, which if you have taken in, it 
will at least double the bulk and labour of your book *." 

Mr. Warton's answer to the above letter, which has never 
yet appeared, is now transcribed from his own copy. 
" Sir, 

'^ I am infinitely obliged to you for the favour of your 
letter. 

" Your plan for the History of English Poetry is ad- 
mirably constructed; and much improved from an idea of 
Pope, which Mr. Mason obligingly sent me by application 
from our friend Dr. Hurd. I regret that a writer of your 
consummate taste should not have executed it. 

'^ Although I have not followed this plan, yet it is of 
great service to me, and throws much light on many of my 
periods by giving connected views and details. I begin 
with such an introduction, or general dissertation, as you 
had intended ; viz. on the Northern poetry, with its intro- 
duction into England by the Danes and Saxons, and its 
duration. I then begin my History at the Conquest, which 
I write chronologically in sections; and continue, as mat- 
ter successively offers itself, in a series of regular annals, 
down to and beyond the restoration. I think witjiyou, that 
dramatic poetry is detached from the idea of my work, that 
it requires a separate consideration, and will swell the size 
of my book beyond all bounds. One. of my sections, a 
very large one, is entirely on Chaucer^ and exactly fills 
your title of Part Second. In the course of my annals I 
consider collaterally the poetry of different nations as in- 
fluencing our owii. What I have at present finished ends 
with the section on Chaucer, and will almost majce my first 
volume ; for I design two volumes in quarto. This first 
volume will soon be in the press. I should have said be- 
fore, that, although I proceed chronologically, yet I often 
stand still to give some general view, as perhaps of a par- 
ticular species of poetry, &c. and even anticipate sometimes 
for this purpose. These views often form one section ; yet 
are interwoven into the tenor of the work without inter- 

* This letter cooclades with request- question who it was that had the power 

iBg the Tavoar of some attention to a or right to communicate it." How it 

foreign yonng gentleman, then entered oane into the Magazine during Mr. 

of one of the cdlleges. Mr. Mant, who Warton's life-time is not known. The 

is indebted to the Gentleman's Maga- original, however, is now in posses- 

zine for the copy he has given, adds, sion of the editor of this Dictionary, 

** There seems no reason ta doubt of its along with Warton^s answer. 
f eBuineness, though there may he to 



llB W A E T O N. 

.-rupting my historical series. In this respect, some of my 
sections have the effect of your parts^ or divisions ^*. » 

** I cannot take my leave without declaring, that my 
strongest incitement to prosecute the History of English 
Poetry is the pleasing hope of being approved by you, 
whose true genius I so justly venerate, and whose genuine 
poetry has ever given me such sincere pleasure. 
•* Winchester college, April 20, 1770. I am, sir, &c.'* 

It is almost needless to say that the progress of Warton^a 
History afforded the* highest gratification to every learned 
and elegant mind. Ritson, however, whose learning ap- 
pears to, have been dear to him only as it administered to 
bis illiberality, attacked our author in a pamphlet entitled* 
** Observations on the three first volumes of the Hiatory of 
English Poetry, in a familiar letter to the author,^' 1792« 
. In this, while he pointed out soniie real inaccuracies, for 
which he might have received the thanks of the historian, 
his chief object seems to have been to violate, by low scur« 
rility and personal acrimony, every principle of liberal cri- 
ticism, and of that decorous interchange of respect which 
men of learning, not otherwise acquainted, preserve between 
one another.^ What could have provoked all this can be 
known only to those who have dipped into a heart rendered 
callous by a contempt for every thing sacred and social. 

In 1777 Mr. Warton published a collection of his Poems, 
but qmitting some which had appeared before. A second 
edition followed itk 1778, a third in 1779, and a foorth in 
1789. The omissions in all these are restored in the edi- 
tion published ip 1810 of the ^^ English Poets." 

In 1781 he seems to have devoted his mind to a plan as 
arduous as his History of Poetry. He had been for some 
time making collections for a parochial history, or, as it is 
more usually called, a county history of Oxfordshire. As 
a specimen, he printed a few copies of the History of the 
parish of Kiddington, which were given to his friends, 
but in 1782 an edition was offered to the public. To^ 
pography had long formed one of his favourite studies, , 
and the acuteness with which he had investigated the pro- 
gress of ancient architecture f, gave him undoubtedly high 
claims to the honours of an antiquary; but as he stood 

* This blank is Blled up by • notice J ?■ his Obsemitiong on Spenser, 

of the young foreigner recommended •«<«»««« published w.th other Jwsays 

bv Gr»v ^^ **« ■■"** subject, by Mr. Taylor, 

^*^'*^* cfHolboni, 1800.' 



W A R T O N. * 177 

pledged for the completion of his poetical history/ it is to 
be regretted that he should hav6^ begun at this advanced 
period of life to indulge the prospect of an undertaking 
which he never could complete. 

In 1782 he took an active part in the Chattertonian con- 
troversy, by publishing ** An Enquiry into the authenticity 
of the Poems attributed to Thomas Rowley." He had al- 
ready introduced the question into his history, and now 
more decidedly gave his opinion that these poems were the 
fabrication of Chatterton. The same year he published his 
i^erses " on sir Joshua Reynolds's painted window in New 
.college chapel." This produced a letter to hi oi from sir 
Joshua, in which, with a pardonable vanity, if it at all de« 
serve that appellation, he expresses a wish that his name 
had appeared in the verses. In a second edition Warton 
complied with a wish so flattering to himself, by implying 
the duration of his poetry, and Reynouos was substituted 
for the word artist. 

In this year also he was presented by his college to the 
donative of Hill Farrance, in Somersetshire; and about thei 
same time became a member of the literary club, com- 
posed of those friends of Dr. Johnson whose conversations 
form so interesting a part of his Life by Boswell. In 1785 
he was chosen Camden professor of history on the resigna- 
tion of Dr. (now ^ir William) Scott, By the letters added 
to Wool I's life of his brother, we find that our author was 
making interest for the professorship of modern history in 
176.8, when Vivian was preferred. Warburton on this 
occasion sent him a letter complimenting him on the heroic 
manner in which he bore bis disappointment, and inform- 
ing him, as a piece of consolation, that Vivian had an ulcer 
in his bladder which was likely to prove fatal in a short "^ 
time! — As Camden professor, he delivered an inaugural 
lecture, ingenious, learned, and full of promise; but, says 
his biographer, ".he suffered the rostrum to grow cold 
while it was in his possession." 

The office of poet laureate was accepted by him thiis 
year;^ as it was offered at the express desire of bis majesty, 
and be '611ed it with credit to himself and to the place. 
Wl^itehead, his immediate predecessor, had the inisfor- 
tHiie to succeed Cibber, and could with difficulty make the 
public jo.bk seriously on the periodical labours of the larii- 
reate, yet by perseyeraace he contrived to restore some de- 
gree of' respect to the office. Warton succeeded yet bet- 

VOL.XXXI. N 



tis 



W A R T O N. 



ter by varying the accustomed modes of addresSi^ and by 
Recalling the mind to gothic periods, and splendid events. 
The facetious authors, indeed, of the " Probationary Odes" 
(a set of political satires) took some freedoms with bis 
name, but they seemed to be aware that another Gibber 
would have suited their purpose better ;* and Warton, who 
possessed a large share of humour, and a quick sense of 
ridicule, was not to be offended because be had for once 
been the " occasion of wit in other men *.** 

His last publication was an edition of the *' Juvenile 
Poems of Milton,*' with notes, the object of which was "to 
explain his author's allusions, to illustrate; or to vindicate 
his beauties, to point out his imitations, both of others aod 
of himself, to elucidate his obsolete diction, and by the 
adduction and juxtaposition of parallels gleaned both from 
his poetry and prose, to ascertain his favourite words^ and 
to shew the peculiarities of his phraseology.'* The first 
edition of this work appeared in 1785, and the second in 
179 L, a short time after his death. It 'appears that he bad 
prepared the alterations and additions for the press some 
time before. It was indeed ready for the press in 1789, 
and probably begun about that time, but was not com- 
pleted until after biis death, when the task of correcting 
the sheets devolved upon his brother. His intention was to 
Extend his plan to a second volume, containing the "Pa- 
radise Regained," and " Sampson Agonistes ;" and he left 
notes on both. He had the proof sheets of the first edition 
printed only on one side, which he carefully bound. They 
are still extant, and demonstrate what pains he took in 
avoiding errors, and altering expressions which appeared 
on a second review to be weak or improper. The second 
edition of Milton was enriched by Dr. Charles Burney's 
learned remarks on the Greek verses, and by some obser- 
vations on the other poems by Warburton, which were 



* We hare bis brother^s authority 
that " he always heartily joined in the 
laofb, and applauded the exquisite wit 
aad humour that appeared \n many of 
those original satires." Mr.. Bowles's 
eridence may be cited as more impar- 
tial, and as affording the testimony of 
an exeellent judge, to the character of 
Warton. *' 1 can say, being at that 
.|)tte a scholar of Trinity college, that 
tke laureate, who did the greatest lio- 
■othr to his station from his real |)oeii- 
cal abiiitias, <)id moyt heartily join in 



the laugh oT the Probationary Od^es ; 
for a man more devoid of envy, anger, 
and ill- nature, never exi8ted.--So tweet 
was his temper, so remote from pe» 
dantry and all affectation was his.con- 
duct, that when 'even Ritson'f scur- 
rilous abuse came out, in which be aa« 
serted that his back was ** hroad twmgh^ 
and his heart hard enough,** to bear 
any tbin^ Ritson could lay on it, he 
only said, with bis usual smile, •* A 
block- lettered dog, air !*»— Bowlet's tdU 
Hon of Pope'a work^ VI. 925^ • 



W A R T O N. 179 

communicated to the editor by Dr. Hurd. At the time of 
our author's death a new edition of his Poems was also pre-* 
paring for publication. , 

His death was somewhat sudden. Until his sixty-second 
year he enjoyed vigorous and uninterrupted health. On 
being seized with the gout he went to Bath, from which 
he returned recovered, in bis own opinion, but it was evi- 
dent to his friends that his constitution had received a fatal 
shock. On Thursday, May 20, 1790, he passed the even- 
ing in the Common-room, and was for some time more 
cheerful than usual. Between ten and eleven o^clock he 
was suddenly seized with a paralytic stroke, and expired 
next day about two o^clock. On the 27th his remains were 
interred in the anti-chapel of Trinity college, with ,the 
highest academical honours ; the ceremony being attended 
not only by the members of his own college, but by the 
vice-chancellor, heads of houses, and proctors. His grave 
is marked by a plain inscription, which enumerates his 
preferments, with his age and the date of his death. 

To these particulars, some of which have been taken 
from Mr. Mantes Life of Warton prefixed to an edition 
of h\s Poems published in 1802, it may. now be added 
on another authority, that from April 1755 to April 1774, 
he served the curacy of Woodstock, except during the 
long vacations ; and although his pulpit oratory does not 
appear to have ever entitled him to particular notice, 
many are still alive who speak of him with more regs^rd 
and affection than of any person who ever officiated there *• 

Mr. Warton's personal character has been drawn at great 
length by Mr. Mant, and seems to have no defects but 
what are incident to men who have passed their days in 
retirement from polished life. A. few peculiarities are re- 
corded which might perhaps have been omitted without 
injury to the portrait. Spme of them seem to be givep 
upon doubtful authority, and others are not, strictly speak- 
ing, characteristic, because not habitual, or if habitual, are 
too insignificant for notice. It has been said, boweyer, 
that Mr. Warton was a lover of low company, a more se- 
rious charge, if it could be substantiated. But what low 
company means is not always veryobvious. It is not as- 
serted that Warton disgraced his character by a constant 

* Baldwin^i Literary Journal, 1S03, Wartoo, and evidently written by one 

when mn eooie other anecdotes and who knew him well, 

diaracteristics rery hbooarable to Mr. . 

' ' K 2 



180 W A R T O N. 

association wkh such ; and that he should have occasionatiy 
amused himself with the manners and conversation of hum- 
ble tradesmen, mechanics, or peasants, was surely no great 
<rrime in one whose .researches imposed in some degree the 
necessity of studying mankind in all ranks, and who, in 
the illustration of our ancient poets, had evidently profited 
by becoming acquainted with the conyersation of the ino- 
dern vulgar. 

In literary company he is said to have been rather silent, 
but this, his surviving .friends can recollect, was only 
where the company consisted of a majority of strangers; 
dnd a man who has a reputation to guard will -not lightly 
enter into conversation before -he knows something of those 
with whom he is to cc»nverse. In the company of bis 
friends, among whom he could reckon the learned, the 
polite, and the gay, no man was more communicative, 
more social in his habits and conversation, or descended 
tiiiore frequently from the grave interchange of sentiment 
to a mere play of wit. 

His temper was habitually calm. His disposition gentle, 
frifertdly, and forgiving. Hisr resentments, where he could 
be supposed to have any, were expressed rather in the 
language of jocularity than anger. Mr. Mant has given as 
a report, that Dr. Johnson said of Wartoti, *^ he was the 
only man of genius that he knew without a heart." But 
it h highly improbable that Johnson, who loved and prac- 
tised tf uth and justice, should say this of one with whom 
he had exchanged so many acts of personal and literary 
friendship. It is to be regretted, indeed, that towards the 
end of Johnson's life, there was a coolness between him 
atnd the Wartons ; but if it be true that he wept on the re- 
Ciollection of their past friendship, it is very unlikely that 
Kfe would have characterised Mr. Warton in the mannei" 
I'eported. Whatever was the cause of the abatement of 
their intimacy, Mr. Warton discovered no resentment, 
when he communicated so many pleasing anecdotfes o( 
Johnson to Mr. BosWell, nor when he came to discuss th« 
merits of Milton in opposition to the opinions of that eihi- 
lient critic. Dr. Warton, indeied, as may be seen in hxi 
notes on Popfe, mixed somewhat more asperity with his r<i- 
view of Johnson's sentiments. 

Instances of Warton's tenderness of heart, affectionate 
regard for children, and general humanity, have been ac-» 
cumulated by all who knew him. Nor is this wonderfuiy 



W A R T O N. in 

for he knevir nothing of one quality which ever keep9 the 
heart shut. He bad no avarice, no {imbition to Acquire the 
superiority which wealth is supposed to confer. For many 
years he lived on his maintenance from college, and from 
the profits of a small living, with the occasional fruits of his 
labour as a teacher or as a writer. It cannpt be doubted 
that as he had been tutor to the son of tha prime-minister 
(lord North), and to the sons of other persons of rank, bp 
might reasonably have expected higher preferment. But 
it happens with preferment more generally than the world 
suspects, that^what is not asked is not given. Warton had 
a mind above servile submission, yet he would hava asked 
where asking is a matter of course, had not his contented 
indolence, or perhaps the dread of a refusal, induced him 
to sit down with the emoluments which cost neither trouble 
nor anxiety. What he got by his writings could not be 
much. However excellent in themselves, they were not 
calculated for quick and extensive sale, and it, is said he 
sold the copy-right of his " History of Poetry," for less 
than four hundred pounds. 

In the exercise of his profession as a divine, Mr. Mant 
has not heard that he was mitch distinguished. He went 
through the routine of parochial duty in a respectful man- 
ner; but a hurried mode pf speaking, partly owing to 
habit and partly to a natural impediment, prevented his 
being heard with advantage ^. It is a more serious objec- ' 
tion, that he has, particularly in his notes on Milton, ex- 
pressed opinions on religious topics, the consequence of 
which he had not deliberately considered. He hated Pu- 
ritans and Calvinists, but does not seem to have under- 
stood very clearly that his own church, and every pure 
chiirch, has many doctrines in common with them. His 
opinions on Psalmody, and on the observation of Sunday, 
are particularly objectionable. 

As a contributor to the literature of his country, few men 
stand higher than Warton, He was the first who tqinght 
the true method of acquiring a taste fpr the excellencies of 
our ancient poets, and of rescuing their writings from ob- 
scurity and oblivion. In this respect -he is the father of the 
school of commentators, and if some have, in certain in- 
stances, excelled their master, they ought to recollect to 

♦ T«»o Serui,ons whioli he preache«l filiated Sermon for the Martyrdom, 
repeatedly are in our possession, but curioiiitly abridged } the other it in an 
oeUher writieu by )iiin.^elf. One is a old band, (>robably his father's. 



182 , W A E T b N. 

whom they are indebted for directing them to the paths of 
research. Of Warton it may be ^aid, as of Addison, " He 
is now despised by some who perhaps would never have 
seen his defects, but by the lights which he afforded them." 
His erudition was extensive^ and his industry must have 
been at one time incessant. The references in his Histoiy 
of Poetry only, indicate a course of various reading, col- 
lation, and transcription, to which the common life of man 
seems insufficient. He was one of those scholars who have 
happily rescued the study of antiquities from the re- 
proaches of the frivolous or indolent. Amidst the most 
rugged tracks of ancient lore, he produces cultivated spots, 
flowery paths, and gay prospects. Many of the digressions 
tha,t have been censured in his history, appear to have 
been contrived for this purpose; and the relief which his 
own mind demanded, he thought would not be unaccept- 
able to his fellow-travellers. 

To the industry which he employed in all his literary 
undertakings, there can be no doubt he was indebted for 
much of that placid temper and contentment which distin- 
guished him as a resident member of the university. The 
miseries of indolence are known only to those who have no 
regular pursuit, nothing in view, however easy or arduous, 
nothing by which time may be shortened by ( ccupation, 
and occupation rendered easy by habit. To all this waste 
of time and talent Warton was a stranger. During the 
long vacation, indeed, he generally resided with his bro- 
ther at Winchester, but even this was a change of place 
rather than of occupation. There he found libraries, 
scholars, and critics, and could still indulge his delight in the 
^* cloysters pale,'* ** the tapered choir," and " sequester'd 
isles of the deep dome ;" and there, as well as at home, he 
continued his researches, and enjoyed, solitude or society 
in such proportions as suited his immediate inclination. 
' Yet as be pursued an untried path, and was the founder 
of his own studies, it cannot be a matter of great surprise, 
if he failed in conducting them with due method. To this 
it was owing that the emendations and additions to his first 
and second volumes are so numerous, as to have been 
made the ground of a serious charge against his diligence 
and accuracy. But had he lived to complete the work, he 
could b^ve no doubt offered such excuses as must have 
been readily accepted by every reflecting mind. If we 
9^dmii the maguhude of the undertaking, which evidently 



W A R TON. I \B$ 

exceeded his own idea when he fondly hoped that it might 
have been finished in two or three volumes; if we con* 
sider the vast number of books he had to consult for mat- 
ters apparently trifling, but really important ; that be had 
the duties of a clergyman and tutor to perform while en- 
gaged on this work, and above ail, that liis friends were 
assisting him, often too late, with additional illustrations 
or references, it will not appear highly (rensurable that be 
dismissed his volumes capable of improvement. From his 
t)wn copy of the first volume of his history, and of his edi- 
tion of Milton, both now before us, it appears that he cor- 
rected with fastidious care, and was extremely anxious to 
render his style what we now find it, perspicuous, vigo- 
rous, and occasionally ornamented. His corrections are 
often written in an indistit>ct hand, and this perhaps occa- 
sioned fresh errors, which he bad not an opportunity to 
correct;^ but with all its faults, this history will ever remain 
a monument of learning, taste, and judgment, such as few 
men in any nation have been able to produce. 

His poetry, as well as that of his brother, has been the 
occasion of some difference of opinion among the critics; 
and the school of Warton, as it is called, has not of late . 
been always mentioned with the respect it deserves. 
Among the characteristics of our author^s poetry, however, 
his style may be considered as manly and energetic^ but 
seldom varied by the graces of simplicity. His habits of 
thought led him to commence all his poems in a style 
pompous and swelling; his ideas often ran on ^he imagin- 
ary day« of Gothic grandeur and mighty achievement, and 
where such subjects were to be treated, as in his " Tri- 
umph of Isis,'* and in his ^^ Laureat Odes,** no man Could 
have cloathed them in language more appropriate. 

The " Triumph pf Isis'* was written in his twenty-first 
year, and exhibits the same beauties and faults which are 
to be found in his more mature productions. Among tliese 
last, is a redundancy of epithet which is more frequently a 
proof of labour than of taste. The " Pleasures of Melan- 
choly^' appears to be a more genuine specimen of early 
talent. He was only in his seventeenth year, when his 
mind was so richly stored with striking and elegant ima- 
gery. . 

In general he seems to have taken Milton for his ^ode), 
.and throughout his poems we find expressions borrowed 
with as much freedom from Milton, as he has proved that 



184 W A R T O N, 

Milton bofrowned from others. One piece only, " New- 
market," is an imitation of Pope, and is certainly one of 
the finest satires in our language. In this be has not only 
adopted the versification of Pope, and emulated his wit^and 
point, but many of bis lines are parodies on wba,t he recol- 
lected in Pope's Satires. This freedom of borrowing, 
however, seems so generally allowed, that it caji form no 
higher objection against Wartop than against Pope, Gray, 
and others of acknowledged eminence. We cannot be 
surprized that the meniory of such a student as Warton 
should be familiar with the choicest language of poetry, 
and that he should often adopt it unconscious of its being 
the property of another. The frequent use of alliteration is 
a more striking defect; but perhaps these are $tricture;s 
which ought not to interfere with the general merit of 
Warton as a poet of original genius. His descriptive 
pieces, had he written nothing else, would have proved his 
claim to that title. Nothing can be more natural, just, or 
delightful than his pictures of rural life. The *^ First of 
April" and the ^^ Approach of Summer" have seldom been 
rivalled, and cannot perbaps be exceeded. The only ob- 
jection which some critics have started is, that his descrip- 
tions are not varied by reflection.. He givies an exquisite 
landscape, but does not always express the feelings it 
creates. His brother, speaking of Thomson, observes that 
the unexpected insertion of reflections ** imparts to us the 
same pleasure that we feel, when, in wandering through 
a wilderness or grove, we suddenly behold in the turning 
of the walk a statue of some Virtue or Muse." Yet in 
Warton's descriptive poetry, it is no small merit to have 
produced so much effect, and so many exquisite pictures 
without this aid. 

" The Suicide" perhaps deserves a yet higher character, 
rising to the sublime by gradatiops which speak to every 
imagination. It has indeed been objected that it is imper- 
fect, and too allegorical. It appeals, however, so forcibly 
to the heart, awakens so many important reflections, and 
contains so happy a mixture of terror and consolation, that 
it seems diflBcult to lay it down without unmixed admira« 
tion. The " Crusade," and the ** Grave of Arthur,", are 
likewise specimens of genuine poetical taste acting on ma- 
terials that are difficult to manage. Both in invention and 
execution these odes may rank among the finest of their 
species in our language. 



W A R T O N. t8S 

Warton has afforded m^ny proofs of an exquisite r^lisb 
for humour iq hi$ " Panegvric on Oxford Ale," the **Pro- 
gre^:^ of Discontent/' and other pieces classed under that 
d^npo)iuation. His success in these productions leads ooce 
more to the remark that few men have combined so many 
qualities of mind, a taste for the sublime and the patheticj^ 
the gay and humorous, the pursuits of the antiquary, an4 
the pleasures 9f amusement, the labours of research, and. 
the play of imagination. Upon the whole, it may be 
allowed that, as a poet, he is original, various, and ele- 
gant,, but that in most of his pieces he discovers the tast^ 
that results from a studied train of thought, rather than 
the wild and enraptured strains that arise from passion, in* 
spired on the oioment, ungovernable in their progress, and 
grand even in their wanderings. Still he deserves to h^ 
classed among tbe revivers of genuine poetry, by preferring 
'^ fiction and fancy, picturesque description, and romantic 
imagery," to " wit and elegance, sentiment and satire^ 
^p^kling couplets, and pointed periods." ^ . 

WARTON (JosEPu), an-elegant scholar, poet, and critic^ 
brother to the preceding, was born at the house of his ma- 
ternal grandfather, the rev. Joseph Richardson, rector of 
Dunsford, in 1722. Except for a very short time that he 
was at New-college school, he was educated by his father 
unt^l he arrived at his fourteenth year. He was then ad- 
mitted on the foundation of Winchester-college, under 
the care of the venerable Dr. Sandby, at that time the head 
of the school,, and ]^afterwards chancellor of Norwi<;h. He 
had not been long at this excellent seminary before be ex- 
hibited considerable intellectual powers, and a laudable 
ambition to outstrip the common process of education* 
Collins, the poet, was one of his school-fellows, and in 
conjunction with him and another boy, young Warton s6nt 
three poetical pieces tathe Gentleman's Magazine, of such 
merit as to be highly praised in that miscellany, but not, as 
his biographer suppo.ses, by Dr. Johnson; A letter also 
to bis sister, which Mr. Wooll has printed, exhibits very 
extraordinary proofs of fancy and observation ifi one so 
young. 

In September 1740, being superannuated according to 
the laws of the school, he was removed from -Winchester, 
and having no opportunity of a vacancy at New-collegCi 

» 

» Mantes Lifeof Warton.— English Poets^ 21 vols. ISIO. 



I8« W A R T O N. 

he went to Oriel. Here he applied to h\^ studies,* not 
only with diligence, but with that true taste for what is 
valuable, which rendered the finer discriminations of critic 
eism habitual to his mind. During his leisure hours he 
composed several of his poems, among which bis biogra- 
pher enumierates " The Enthusiast, or the Lover of Na- 
ture," " The Dying Indian," and a prose satire entitled 
*' Ranelagh-house." He appears likewise to have sketched 
an allegorical work of a more elaborate kind, which he did 
not find time or inclination to compltte. On taking his 
bachelor's degree in 1744, he was ordained to hi6 father^s 
curacy at Basingstoke, and oflSciated in that church till 
February 1746; he next removed to the duty of Chelsea, 
whence, in order to complete his recovery from the smaiU 
poXf he Went to Chobham. 

About this time he had become a correspondent in 
Dodsley's Museum, to which he contributed, as appears 
by his copy of that work now before us, •* Superstition," an 
Ode^ dated Chelsea, April 1746, and stanzas written ^^on 
taking the air after a long illness." In the preceding year, 
as noticed in his brother's life, be published by subscrip- 
tion, a volume of his father's poems, partly to do honour 
4;o his memory, but principally with the laudable purpose 
of paying what debts he left behind him, and of raising ak 
little fund for himself and family ; and the correspondence 
Wool! has published, shows with what prudence the two 
brothers husbanded their scanty provision, and with what 
affection they endeavoured to support and cheer each other 
while at school and college. 

Owing to some disagreement with the parishioners of 
Chelsea, which had taken place before he left that curacy, 
he accepted the duty of Chawton and Droxford, but after 
a few months returned to Basingstoke. In 1747-8 he was 
presented by the duke of Bolton to the rectory of Win- 
stade, and as this, although a living of small produce, was 
probably considered by him as the earnest of more valu- 
able preferment, he immediately married Miss Daman of 
that neighbourhood, to whom, his biographer informs us, 
he had been for some time most enthusiastically attached. 
In 1747, according to Mr. Wooll's account, he had. pub- 
lished a volume of Odes, in conjunctipn with Collins, but 
on consulting the literary registers of the time,, it appear» 
that each published a volume of poems in 1746, and in the 
same month. It cannot how be ascertained what degree 



W A R T O N. 137 

of fame accrued to our author from this volume, but in the 
preface we find hiai avowing those sentiments .on the na- 
ture of gfenuine poetry which he expanded hiore at large 
afterwards, and which were the foundation of what has 
since been termed " The School of the Wartons." 

" The public," he says, "has been so much accustomed 
of late to didactic poetry alone, and essays on moral sub- 
jectSy that any work, where the inmgination is much in- 
duigedy will perhaps not be relished or regarded. The 
author, therefore, of these pieces is in some pain, lest 
certain austere critics should think them top fanciful or 
descriptive. But as be is convinced that the fashion of 
moralizing in verse, has been carried too far^ and as he 
looks upon invention and imagination to bp the chief facul- 
ties of a poet, so he will be happy if the following Odes 
may be looked upon as an attempt to bring back poetry 
into its' right channel.'* In 1749 be published his " Ode 
to Mr. West." 

In 1751, his patron the duke of Bolton invited hiip to be 
his companion on a tour lo the south of France. For this, 
Mr. Wooll informs us, he had two motives, " the society 
of a man of learning aqd taste, and the accommodation of a 
Protestant clergyman, who, immediately on the death of 
his duchess, then in a confirmed dropsy, could marry him 
to the lady with whom he lived, and who was universally 
known and distinguished by the name of Polly Peachum." 
Whichever of these motives predominated in the duke's 
mind, it is much to be regretted that our author so far 
forgot what was due to his character and profession as to 
accept the offer. But if any circumstance, besides the 
consciousness of doing wrong, could embitter the remem- 
brance of this solitary blemish in his public life, it wa^, 
that, after all, the only hopes which could justify hi$ com- 
pliance were very ungraciously disappointed. For some 
reason or other, he was obliged to leave his patron, and 
come to England before the duchess died, and when that 
event took place, and He solicited permission to return to 
the duke, he had the mortification to learn that the cere^ 
mony had been performed by Mr. Devisme, chaplain to the 
embassy at Turin. 

Soon after his return to England, he published his edi- 
tion of " Virgil" in English and Latin, the iEneid trans- 
lated by Pitt, and the Jgclogues and Georgics by himself, 
who also contributed the notes on the whole. Into tbii 



188 W A R T O N. 

publicatioDi he introduced Warburton's Dissertation od 
the Sixth iEneid ; a commentary on the character of lapis 
by Atterbury, and on the Shield of JEneas by Whitehead, 
the laureate, originally published in Dodsley^s Museum ; 
and three Essays on Pastoral, Didactic, and Epic poetry, 
written by himself. Much ojF this valuable work, begun 
in 1748-9, was primed when he was abroad, and the whole 
completed in 1753. It is unnecessary to add that his share 
in the translation, his notes, and especially his Elssays^ 
raised him to a very high reputation among the scholars 
and critics of his age. The second edition, ^which/appeared 
a few years after, was much improved. In addition to the 
other honours which resulted from this display of classical 
taste, the university of Oxford conferred upon him the 
degree of master of arts by diploma, dated June 23, 1759. 
Such is Mr. Wooll's account, but it is evident from the 
date that his essay likewise preceded this just mark of 
esteem. 

During 1753 he was invited to assist iri the ^* Adven* 
turer," which was begun by Hawkesworth in 1752. The 
invitation came from his frien.d Dr. Johnson, who informed 
him that the literary partners wished to assign to him the 
province of criticism. His contributions to the Adventurer 
amount to twenty-four papers. Of these a few. are of the 
humourous cast, but the greater part consist of elegant 
criticism, not that of cold sagacity, but, warm from the 
heart, and ppwerfully addressed to the finer feelings as well 
as to the judgment. His critical papers on Lear have 
never been exceeded for iust taste and discrimination. His 
disposition lay in selecting and illustrating those beauties of* 
ancient and modern poetry, which, like the beauties of 
nature, strike and please many who are yet incapable of 
describing or analysing them. No. 101, on the blemi&he^ 
in the* Paradise Lost, is an example of the delicacy and 
impartiality with which writings of established fame ought 
to be examined. His observations on the Odyssey, in 
Nos. 75, 80, and 83, are original and judicious, but it may 
be doubted whether they have detached many^ scholars 
from the accustomed preference given to the Iliad. If 
any objection may be made to Dr. Warton's critical papers^ 
it is that his Greek occurs too frequently in a work intended 
for domestic instruction. His style is always pure and per^ 
spicuous, but sometimes it may be discovered without any 
other information, that " he kept company with Dr. John-- 



• \ 



W A R T O N. 1^9 

son.'* The first part of No. 139, if found detached, might 
have been attributed to. that writer. It has all his manner, 
not merely " the contortions of the sybil," but somewhat 
of the ** inspiration." 

About this time he appears to have meditated a history 
of the revival of literature. His first intention was to pub- 
lish select epistles of Politian, Erasmus, Grotius, artd others, 
with notes; but after some correspondence with his bro- 
ther$ who was to assist in the undertaking, it was laid aside, 
a circumstance much to be'lamented, as few men were more 
extensively acquainted with literary history, or could have 
detailed it in a more pleasing form. At a subsequent pe- 
riod, he again sketched a plan of nearly the same kind, 
which was likewise abandoned. Collins some time before 
this had published proposals for the history of the revival 
of learning, with a life of Leo the tentl^, but probably no 
part was executed, or could indeed be reasonably expected 
from one of his unhappy state of mind. ^ 

In 1754, our author was instituted to the living of Tun-? 
worth, on the presentation of the Jervoise family * ; and 
in 1755, on the resignation of the rev. Samuel Speed, he 
was elected second master of Winchester school, with the 
management and advantages of a boarding- bouse. In the 
following year, sir George Lyttelton, then advanced to the 
peerage, commenced the patronage of nobility by bestow- 
ing a scarf on Mr. Warton. He had for some time enjoyed 
the familiar acquaintance of sir George, and assisted hina 
in the revisal of his history of Henry II. 

Amidst all these honours and employments, he now found 
leisure to complete the first volume of his celebrated *^ Es- 
say on the Writings and Genius of Pope," which he dedi- 
cated tq Dr. Young, but, did not subscribe his name. Dods- 
ley likewise, although the real publisher, thought proper 
to employ his deputy Mrs. Cooper, on this occasion. The 
following passage from one of Dodsley's letters, published 
by Mr. WooU, will probably thro\V some Jight on his mo- 
tive. **Your Essay is published, the price 5s, bound, I 
gave Mrs. Cooper directions about advertising, and have, 
sent it to her this afternoon, to desire she will look after its 
bfeing inserted in the evening papers. I have a pleasure 
ih telling ]rou that it is likM in general, and particularly 

' ^ Abotxt this live he tent tome of his juveaiie pieces to Dodsley's Collection 
of Poems. 



100 W A R T O N. 

by siicb as you would wish should ]ike it. But you have 
surely not kept your secret ; Johnson mentione<^ it to Mr. 
Hitch us yours. Dr. Birch mencioned it to Garrick as 
yours, and Dr. Akenside mentioned it as yours to me; 
and many whom I cannot now think on have asked for it 
as yours or your brother^s. I have sold many of them in 
my own shop, and have dispersed and pushed it as much 
as I can ; and have said inore than I could have said if my 
name had been to ity — The objections made to this admi* 
rable piece of criticism were, in the mean time, powerful 
enough to damp the ardour of the essayist, who left his 
work in an imperfect state for the long space of twent}*- 
six j^ears. 

In M)ay 1766, he was advanced to the head mastership 
of Winchester school, a. situation for which he was emi* 
iiently qualified, and in which his shining abilities, urbanity 
of manners^ and eminent success in producing scholars of 
distinguished talents, will be long and affectionately re* 
membered. In consequence of this promotion he once 
more visited Oxford, and proceeded to the degree of ba-. 
chelor and doctor in divinity. In. 1772 he lost the wife of 
his early affection, by whom he had six children. The 
stroke was severe; but the necessity of providing a sub*» 
stituto for his children, and an intelligent and tender com- 
panion for himself, induced him in the following year ta 
marry Miss Nicholas, daughter of Robert Nicholas, esq^ 
a descendant of Dr. Nicholas, formerly warden of Win*. 
Chester. 

The. tenour of his life was now even. During such 
times as he could spare from the school, and especially on 
the return of the Christmas vacation, he visited his friends 
in London, among whom were the whole of that class who 
coinposed Dr. Johnson's Literary Club, with some persons 
of rank, by whom he was highly respected, but who ap- 
pear to have remembered their old master in every thing 
but promotion. In 1782, he was indebted, to his friend 
and correspondent, Dr. Lowth, bishop of London^ for a 
prebend of St. Paul's and the living of Thorley in Hert« 
fordshire, which, after some arrangements, be exc*faanged 
for Wickham. This year also he published his second and 
concluding volume of the *' Kssay on Pope/' and a new 
edition, with some alterations, of the first. 

In 1788, through the interest of lord Sbannop, be ob« 
lained a prebend in Winchester cathedral, and through 



W A R TON. 194: 

that of lord Malmsbury, the rectory of Easton, which, 
within the year, he was permitted to exchange for Upham. 
TheT amount of these preferments was considerable, but 
they came late, when his family could no longer expect 
the advantages of early income and oeconomy/ He was 
sixty years of age before he had any benefice, except the 
small livings of Wynslade and Tunwbrth, and nearly se- 
venty before he enjoyed the remainder. The unequal dis- 
tribution of ecclesiastic preferments would be a subject too 
delicate for discussion, if they were uniformly the rewards 
of ecclesiastical services, but as, among other reasons, they 
are bestowed on account of literary attainments, we may 
be allowed to wonder that Dr.Warton was not remunerated 
in an early period of life, when he stood almost at the head 
of Englifih scholars, and whe^i his talents, in* their full vi- 
gour, would have dignified the highest stations. 

In 1793, he came to d resolution to resign the master- 
ship of Winchester. He was now beginning to feel that 
his time of life required more ease and relaxation than the 
duties of the school permitted ; and his resolution was pro-^^- 
bably strengthened by some unpleasant proceedings at 
that period among the scholars. Accordingly he gave in 
his resignation on the twenty-third of July, and retired to 
his rectory of Wickham. A vote of thanks followed from 
the wardens, &c. of the school, for the encouragement he 
had given to genius and industry ; the attention he had 
paid to the introduction of st correct taste in composition 
and classical learning, and the many and various services 
which he had conferred on the Wiccamical societies through 
the long course of years in which he filled the places of 
second and head master. These were not words of course, 
but triily felt by the addressers, although they form a very 
inadequate character of him as a master. 

During his retirement at Wickham, he was induced by a 
liberal otter from the booksellers of London, and more, pro- 
bably, by his love for the task, to superintend a new edi- 
tioa of " Pope's Works ;" which he completed in 1797 in 
nine volumes octavo. That this was the most complete 
and best illustrated edition of Pope, was generally allowed, 
but it had to contend with objections^ some of which were 
not urged with the respect due to the veteran critic who 
had done so much 4o reform and refine the taste of his age* 
It was proper to object that he had introduced one or two 
pieces which ought never to have been published, but it 



192 W A R T O N. 

• > 

was not so proper or necessary to object that he had given 
us his essay cut down into notes. Besides that this was 
unavoidable, they who made the objection had not been 
very careful to compare the new with the old matter ; they 
would have found upon a fair examination that his original 
illustrations were very numerous, and that no discovery re* 
specting Pope's character or writings made since the edi- 
tion of Warburton, was left untouched. 

It has already been mentioned that he had once an in- 
tention of compiling a history of the revival of learning, 
and that he had abandoned it. About 1784, however, he 
issued proposals for a vvork which would probably have in- 
cluded much of his original purpose. . This was to have 
been comprized in two quarto volumes, and to contain "The 
History of Grecian, Roman, Italian, and French Poetry in 
four parts ; I. From Homer to Nonnus ; II. From Ennius 
to Boqtiiis ; III. From Dante to Metastasio ; IV. From 
W. de Lorris to Voltaire." This he announced as "pre- 
paring for the press.*' Probably his brother's death, find 
his desire to complete his History of English Poetry, di- 
verted him from his own design ; but it does not appear 
that he made any progress in either. 

After the publication of Pope, he entered on an edition 
of Dryden, and about 171)9 had completed two volumes 
with notes, which have since been published. At this time 
the venerable author was attacked by an incurable disorder 
in his kidnevs, which terminated his useful and honourable 
life on Feb. 23, 1800, in his seventy-eighth year *. He left 
a wndow, whb died in 1806, a son and three daughters, the 
youngest by his second wife. He was interred in the same 
grave with his first wife, in the north aisle of Winchester 
cathedral : and the Wiccamists evinced their respect for 
his memory by an elegant monument by Flaxman, placed 
against the pillar next to the entrance of the choir on the 
so>ith side of the centre aisle. 

In 1806, the rev. John Wooll, master of the school of 
Midhurst in Sussex, published "Biographical Memoirs of 
Dr. Warton, with a selection from his Poetry, and a Lite-* 

^^'His cheerralness and resigna- cistn. So qoret, so composed vat bis 

tion in afflictioo were invUicible : even- end, that he tnight more truly be said 

under the extreme of bodily weakness, to cease to live, than (o hate voder* 

his strong mind was unbroken, and his gone the pan^t^^'of death." Wodll'l. 

limbi became parali2ed in thfe very act « Memoirr, pp. 109» 105. 
id dictating an epistle of flrieodiy oriti- 



W A R T O N. 193 

rary correspondence.^* From all these^ the present sketch 
has been compiled^ with some additional particulars gleaned 
frooi the literary journals of the times, and other sources of 
information. 

The personal character of Dr. Warton continues to be the 
theme of praise with all who knew him. Without affecta- 
tion of superior philosophy, he possessed an independent 
spirit ; and amidst what would have been to others very bit- 
ter disappointments, he was never known to express the 
language of discontent or envy. As a husband and pa- 
rent, he displayed the tenderest feelings mixed with that 
prudence which implies sense as well as affection^ His 
manners partook of what has been termed the old court: 
his address was polite, and even elegant, but occasionally 
it had somewhat of measure and stateliness. Having left 
the university after a short residence, be mixed early with 
the world, sought and enjoyed the society of the fair sex, 
and tempered his studious habits with the tender and po- 
lite attentions necessary in promiscubus intercourse. In 
this respect there was a visible difference between him and 
his brother, whose manners were more careless and unpo- 
lished. In the more solid qualities of the heart, in true 
benevolence, kindness, hospitality, they approached more 
closely. Yet though their inclinations and pursuits were 
congenial, and each assisted the other in his undertakings, 
it may be questioned whether at any time they could have 
exchanged occupations. With equal stores of literature, 
wit^ ^qual refinement of taste, it may be questioned whe- 
ther the author of the Essay oh Pope could have pursued 
the History of English poetry, or whether the historian of 
poetry could have written the papers we find in the Ad- 
venturer. 

In conversation. Dr. Warton's talents appeared to great 
advantage. He was mirthful, argumentativej or comniu- 
nicative of observation and anecdote, as he found his com- 
pany lean to the one or the other. His memory was more 
richly stored with literary history than perhaps any man of 
his time, and his range was very extensive. He knew 
French and Italian literature most intimately ; arid when 
conversing on more common topics, his extempore sallies 
and opinions bore evidence of the same delicatis t^ste and 
candour which appear in his writings. 

His biographer has considered his literary qharacter 
under the three headi of a p6^t, a critic, and an instructor j 
Vol, XXXI. O 



/ 



194 W A R T O N. 

but. it i& as a critk principally that be will be known td 
posterity, and as one who, in the language of Johnson^ has 
taught '* how the brow of criticism may be smoothed, and 
how she may be enabled, with all her severity, to attract 
and to delight/* A book, indeed, of more delightful va^ 
riety than bis Essay on Pope, has not yet appeared, nor 
one in which there is a more happy mixture of judgment 
and sensibility. It did not, fiowever, flatter the current 
opinions on the rank of Pope among poets, and the author 
desisted from pursuing his subject for many years. Dr. 
Johnson said that this was owing *' to his not having been 
able to persuade the world to be of his opinion as to Pope. 
This was probably the truth, but not the whole truth. Mo- 
tives of a delicate nature are supposed to have had some 
fthare in inducing him to desist for a time. Warburtoa 
Was yet alive, the executor of Pope and the guardian of bis 
fame, and Warburton was no less the active and zealous 
friend and correspondent of Thomas Warton ; nor was it 
any secret that Warburtoti furnished Ruffhead with the 
!tnaierials for his Life of Pope, the chief object of which 
was a rude and impotent attack on the Essay. Warburtoii 
died in 1779, and in 1782, Dr. Warton completed bis Es«- 
say, and at length^ersuaded the world that he did not di^r 
fer from the common opinion so much as was supposed *• 
fitill by pointing out what is not poetry, he gave unpar- 
donable offence to those, whose names appear among poets^ 
but whom he has reduced to moralists and versifiers. 

In this work our author produced no new doctrine. The 
severe arrangement of poets in his dedication to Young, 
which announced the principles he intended to apply to 
Pope, and to the whole body o/ English poetry, was evi<* 
dently taken from Philips, the nephew of Milton. In the 
preface to the Theatrum of this writer, it is asserted, that 
** wit, ingenuity, and learning in verse, even elegancy 
itself, . though that comes nearest, are one thing : true 
native poetry is another ; in which there is a certain air 
and spirit, which, perhaps, the most learned and judicious 
in other arts do not perfectly apprehend ; much less is it 
attainable by any art or study.'' On this text the whol6 

**^ " I thank you ^or the friendly is comprehended in these words of jout 

delicacy in which you speak of my own. He chote te be the poet of rea- 

Essay on Pope. I never thought we son rather than of fancy." Leit<*r from 

disagreed so much as you seem to Dr. Warton to Mr. Hayleyi published 

imagine. AU I said, and all I think, by Mr. Wooll, p. 406. 



W A R T O N. 15^5 

of the Essaiy is founded, and whatever objections if ere 
taised to it, while that blind admiration of Pope wbiek 
accompanied his long dictatorship continued in full force^ 
it is now generally adopted as^he test of poetical merit bj 
the best critics, although the partialities which some en- 
tertain for individual poets may yet give rise to difference 
of opinion respecting the provinces of argument and 
feeling. 

That Dr. Warton advanced no novel opinions is proved 
from Phillips's Preface; and Phtllips, there is reason to 
suppose, may have been indebted to bis uncle Milton for 
an idea of poetry so superior to what was entertained in his 
day. It has already been noticed, that the opinions of 
the two Wartons, ^' the learned brothers*' as they have 
been justly styled, were congenial on most topics of lite-« 
rature; but, perhaps, in nothing more than their ideas of 
poetry, which both endeavoured to exemplify in their own 
productions, aithongh with different effect. Dr. Warton 
was certainly to point of invention, powers of description^ 
and variety, greatly inferior to the laureate. The '* Enthu- 
siast,-' the " Dying Indian,*' the " Revenge of America,'^ 
and one or two of his Odes, are not deficient in spirit and 
enthasiasm ; but the rest are more remarkable- for a correc| 
and faultless elegance than for any striking attribute of 
poetry. His <^ Odes," which were coeval with those of 
Collins, must have suffered greatly by comparison. So 
different is taste from execution, and so strikingly are wei 
reminded of one of his assertions, that " in no polished na- 
tion, after criticism has been much studied, and the rulea 
of writing established, has any very extraordinary work ap- 
peared." But while we are reminded of this by his own 
productions, it may yet be doubted whether what may be 
true when applied to an individual who has lived a life of 
eritieism, will be equally true of a nation. Even among 
our living poets, we may find more than one who have 
given proofs that extraordinary poetry may yet be pro- 
duced, and that the rules of writing are not so fixed, nor 
criticism so studied, as to impede the progress of real ge- 
ttios. All that can be concluded respecting Dr. Warton is, 
that if his genius had been equal to his taste, if he could 
have produced what he appreciates with such exquisite 
skfill in others, he would have undoubtedly been in poetry 
what he was in erudition and criticism. 

2 



196 w A'R ton; 

As an. instructor and divine, Mr. WooU's opinioti of biitt* 
may be adopted with safety. ** His professional exer-' 
tions united the qualities of criticism and instraction.- 
When the higher classes read under him the Greek trage-^ 
dians, orators, or poets, they received the benefit, not 
only, of dirisct and appropriate information, bulof a pure^ 
elegant lecture on classical taste. The spirit with which 
he commented on the prosopopoeia of CEdipus, or Eiectra, 
the genuine elegance and accuracy with whi6b he deve- 
loped the animated rules and doctrines of his favourite 
Longinus, the insinuating but guarded praise he bestowed^ 
the well-judged and proportionate encouragement he uni-: 
formly held out to the first dawning of genius, and the 
anxious assiduity with which he pointed out the paths to 
literary eminence, can never, I am confident, be forgotten 
by those who have hung with steadfast attention on his pre- 
cepts, and enjoyed the advantage of his superior guidance.- 
Zealous in his adherence to the church-establishment, and 
exemplary in his attention to its ordinances and duties, he 
was at the same time a decided enemy to bigotry and in-^ 
tolerance. His style of preaching was unaffectedly earn- 
est, and impressive ; and the dignified solemnity with which, 
he read the liturgy (particularly the communion-service), 
was remarkably awful. He had the most happy art of ar- , 
resting the attention of youth on religious subjects. Every 
Wiccamipal reader will recollect his inimitable commenta- 
ries on Grotius on the Sunday-evenings, and his discourse 
annually delivered in the school on Good Friday ; the im- 
pressions made by them caniiot be forgotten. ^ 

WARWICK (Sir Philip), a political writer and histo- 
rian of the seventeenth century, was by birth a gentleman, 
descended from the Warwicks of Warthwykesof Warwicke 
in Cumberland, and bearing the same arms : ^^Yert, 3 lionr 
rampant Argent." His grandfather, Thomas Warwick, is* 
(in th^ visitation of Kent, by sir Edward Bysche, in 1667), 
styled of Hereford, but whom he married is not mentioned. 
His father, Thomas Warwick, was very eminent for his. 
skill in the theory of music, having composed a song of 
forty parts, for forty several persons, .each of them to have 
his part entire from the o*ther. He was a commissioner for 
granting dispensations for converting arable land into, 
ptasture ; and was some time organist of Westminster-ab'-. 

> WooU'8 Memoirs.— -Eogiish Poets, IS 10, 21 vols. 



WARWICK. 197 

bey and the Ghapel-rojal. He married Elizabeth daughter 
and co-heir of John Somerville, of Somerville Aston le 
Warwick ; by whom he had issue one son, Philip^ our 
author, and two daughters; Arabella, married to Henry 
Clerke, esq. and afterwards married to Christopher Tur- 
ner, of the Middle Temple, esq. barrister at law, who, at 
the Restoration, was knighted, and made a baron of the 
exchequer. 

Sir Philip Warwick was born in the parish of St. Marga* 
refs, Westmiitster, in the year 1608. He was educated 
at Eton-school, and afterwards travelled into France, and 
was some time at Geneva, where he studied under the 
famous Diodati. When he returned from abroad, ht be- 
came secretary to the lord treasurer Juxon ; and a clerk of 
the signet. He was diplomated bachelor of law at Oxford 
April 11th, 1638, and in 1640 was elected burgess for 
Radnor in Wales, and was one of the fifty-six who gave ^ 
negative to the bill of attainder against the earl of Strafford. 
Disapproving afterwards of the conduct of parliament, he ' 
went to the king at Oxford, aiid was for this desertion (by 
a vote of the House, Feb. 5, 1643), disabled from sitting 
there. Whilst at Oxford, he lodged in University-college, 
and his counsel was niuch relied upon by the king. In 
1643$ he was sent to the earl of Newcastle in the north, to 
persuade him to march southerly, which he could not be 
prevailed to comply with, " designing (as sir Peter War- 
wick perceived) to be the man who should turn the scale, 
and to be a self-subsisting and distinct army wherever he 
was." In 1646, be was one of the king's commissioners 
to treat with the parliament for the surrender of Oxford; 
and in the following year he attended the king to the Isle 
of Wight in the capacity of secretary ; and there desiring, 
with some others, a leave of absence to look after their 
respective affairs, he took leave of the king, and nevef saw 
him more. Besides being engaged in these important com- 
missions, he took up arms in the royal cause; one time 
, serving under captain Turberville,- who lost his life nef»r 
Newark, at another in what was called tk€ Troop of ShoWy 
consisting of noblemen, gentlemen, and their attendants, > 
in all about 500 horse, whose property taken together was 
reckoned at 100,000/. per annum, and who, by his ma- 
jesty^s permissioQ, (they, being his guards,) bad the ho- 
nour of being engaged in the first charge at the battle of 
Edgehill. 



198 WARWICK. 

He W9S busily engaged in private conferences with the - 
chief promoters of the Restoration ; but this he does not 
relate '' to creep into a little share in bringing back the 
king/* as he attributed that event to more than earthly 
wisdom. In the first parliament called by Charles II. he 
was returned burgess for his native city of Westminster, 
and about that time received the honour of knighthood^ 
and was restored to his place of clerk of the signet. He 
was likewise employed by the virtuous earl of Southamp- 
ton as secretary to the treasury, in which office he ae« 
quitted himself with such abilities and integrity as did 
honour to them bpth, and in which post he continued till 
the death of that earl in 1667. The loss which the pub* 
^lic sustained in his retirement from business is handsomely 
acknowledged in one of sir William Templets letters to our 
author. 

He married, about the year 1638, Dorothy, daughter of 
Thomas Button of Mash, Yorkshire, by whom be had 
an only son Philip. Towards the end of Charles the First*s 
reign he purchased the seat called Frognal, in the parish 
of Cfaiselhurst, in Kent, now or lately the seat of lord 
Tiscount Sidney ; and about the year 1647, be married, to 
his second wife, dame Joan, widow of sir William Botteler, 
bart. who was killed in the battle at Cropredy-bridge, and 
daughter of sir Henry Fanshaw^ of More«>park, a near 
kinswoman to General Fairfax. 

Sir Peter Warwfck died January 1 5th, 1682-S, in the 
seventy-fourth year of bis age. His only child, PhiUp 
(who married Elizabeth, second daughter and co-heiress (^ 
John lord Freskville, of Stavely^ie* Derby, by whom he 
bad no issue, died at Newmarket the 26th of March fol* 
lowing, as he was returning post from Sweden (where he 
was envoy) to take his last farewell of his father. She was 
afterwards fourth wife of John earl of Hoidernesse. 

By will, proved April 5, 1683, sir Peter Warwick left to 
the parish of Chiselhurst iOOL to be placed out at interest 
for apprenticing a boy in the sea-service. To bis-native pa« 
rish of St Margaret, Westminster, the like sum for the 
same purpose ; and towards the building of St. Paulas church 
100/. ; to sir Charles Cotterill the little seal of bis old master 
king Charles. 

Dr.JSmitfa, the learned editor of sir Peter Warwick's 
^ Discourse of Government,*' says, ** That the author w«m 
9u gentleman of sincere piety, of strict morals, of a great 



WARWICK. 199 

• 

ud vast un4.erstancliag9 and of a very solid judgment; 
and that, after bis retiring into the country, he addicted 
himself to reading, study, and meditation ; and, being 
very assiduous in hi& contemplations,^ he wrote a great deal 
on various subjects, his genius not being confined to any 
one particular study and learning.'^ What we have, how- 
.€iver, of his in print is, ^' A Discourse of Government, as 
examined by reason, scripture, and the law of the land, 
written in 1678,'' and published by Dr. Thomas Smith ip 
1694, with a preface, \yhich, being displeasing tp th^ 
then administration, was suffered to remain but in very fe^r 
copies *. His princi|>al work was, ^' Memoirs of the lieigo 
t>f King Charles I. with a Continuation to the Restoratipn;'' 
adorned with a head of the author after Lely> engraved by 
White> and taken at a later period of his life than th^ 
which appeared in the ^^ Gentleman's Magazine^' for Sept. 
171^0. The Memoirs were published in 1701, 8vo; an4 
to which is not unfrequently added his *^ Discourse on Gor 
vernment," before mentioned. This History, with several 
others of the time of Charles I. have this peculiar merit^ 
that the authors of them were both actors and sufferers ip 
the interesting scenes which they describe. Our author is 
jusdy allowed'to be exceeded by none of them io eandpur 
and integrity. There is likewise ascribed to our author 
** A Letter to Mr. Lentbal, shewing that Peace is better 
than War," small 3 vo, of 10 pages, published anonymously, 
1646; and in the British Museum some recommendatory 
letters from him io favour of Mr. Collins the mathemati- 
cian ; whiob are publisljied in Birch's ^^ History of the 
Royai Society ;" and i» the Life of Collins, in the new 
edition of the ^^ Biographia Britannica." ^ 

WASE (CmiiSTOPMER)., a man of considerable learnings 
was born at Haickney in Middiesex, and admitted scholar 
of Kipg's-coUege, Cambridge, Nov. 25, 1.645. Before he 
was made junior £eUow, he turned (^rotius's ^'Baptizato- 
rum puerorum institutio," from t^e original Latin verse 
into Greek v«r«e, which was published by his schoolmaster 
at Eton, Dr. Nicholas Grey, under the title, " Hugonis 
CrQtii bap.tizato)*um puerorum itistitutio ; cui accesserunt 
Grasca ejusdem metaphrasis a Christ^phero Wase Regalis 
CoU. Cantab, et Anglicana versio a Francisco Goldsmith, Ar- 

* This seenui doabiful. See Granger^ Letters, published by Malcolm, pp. 385> 
387, 389. 

1 Qent. M;ag. vol. LX.— Granger, and Gr^mger's Letters* 



200 W A S E. 

migero, una cum luciilentis e S. S. testimoniis, a N. G. 
scholar Etonensis informatore,'*^ Lond. 1647, 8vo. A se- 
cond edition of this appeared in 1650, and a third in, 1668, 
with a somewhat different title, and the addition of a 
** Praxis in Graecam metaphrasin per Barthol. Beale." 

Mr. Wase was afterwards made fellow of King's-college, 
'and went out bachelor of arts. In 1650 he published aa 
'English translation in verse of the " Electra" of Sophocles. 
For something offensive in the preface of this translation, 
or some other accusation by the parliamentary party, which 
is not quite clear, (Walker says he delivered a feigned let- 
ter from the king to Dr. Collins) he was ejected from bis 
fellowship, and obliged to leave the kingdom. He was 
afterwards taken at s^a, and imprisoned at Gravesend, from 
'which he contrived to escape, and served in the Spanish 
army against the French. He was taken prisoner in an 
engagement, but released soon after, and came to England, 
where he was appointffd tutor to William lord Herbert, 
eldest son to the earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. To 
this nobleman he dedicated " Gratii Falisci Cynegeticon, 
a poem on hunting. byGratius, &c." Lond. 1654, 8vo. 
This translation, and his comment on that elegant poem, 
are sufficient proof of his abilities. Waller addressed a 
copy of verses to him on his performance. 

In 1655 he proceeded M. A. and was schoolmaster of 
Dedham near Colchester in Essex, and about the same 
time married. He was afterwards made master of the free- 
school of Tunbridge in Kent, probably about 1660. While 
here he published bis ^* Dictionarium Minus ; a com- 
pendious Dictionary English-Latin, and Latin- English,^' 
Lond. 1662, 4to. In 1671 he was elected superior beadle 
of law in the university of Oxford, and printer or archi- 
typographus to the same university. The same "year be 
published *^ Cicero against Cataline, in four invective 
orations; containing the whole manner of discovering that 
xiptorious conspiracy," Lond. 8vo. This was followed by 
** The History of France under the ministry of cardinal 
Mazarine, written in Latin by Benjamin Priolo," Lond. 
8vo. In 1678 he published at Oxford, ^< Considerations 
concerning free-schools as settled in England," 8vo; and 
in l6S7y " Christopheri Wasii Senarius, sive de legibus et 
licentia veterum poetarum," Oxon. 4to. He wrote also 
** StructursB Nonianae," and appears to have been con- 
cerned in an edition of sic John Spelman^s Hfe of king 



W A S E. fiOl 

Alfred. H^arne says he translated it into Latin, and pub- 
lished it at Oxford in a thin folio, with a commentary by 
Oi>adi«h Walker, master of University-college. He died 
Aug. 29, 1690, and appears tobave been a man of great 
parts, and a very considerable sufferer for bis loyalty. 
Hearne, at p. 20 of his discourse, prefixed to the eighth 
volume of Leiand's Itinerary, stiles him ^' that eminent 
pbilologer," and makes honourable mention of a son of 
his of the same name, who was fellow of Corpus Chrisii- ' 
college, Oxford.. He died, B. D. 1711, aud was buried 
at Corpu!f, where is an inscription to his memory. ' 

WASHINGTON (George), commander in chief of the 
armies, and first president of the United States of America, 
was born Feb. U, 1732, in the parish of Washington, Vir- 
ginia. He was descended from an ancient family in 
Cheshire, of which a branch had been established in Vir- 
ginia about the middle of the seventeenth century. No 
remarkable eircumstances have transpired of his education 
or his early youth ; and we should not indeed expect any 
marks of that disorderly prematureness of talent, which is 
so often fallacious, in a character whose distinguishing 
praise was to be regular and natural. His classical instruc- 
tion was probably small, such as the private tutor of a Vir- 
ginian country gentleman could at that period have icaf 
parted ; and if his opportunities of information had been 
more favourable, the time was too short to proBt by them. 
Before be was twenty be was appointed a major in the Co- 
lonial militia, and he had very early occasion to display 
those political and military talents, of which the exertions 
on a greater theatre have since made bis name so famous 
throughout the vvqrld. 

The plenipotentiaries who framed the treaty of A\x 
la Chapelle, by leaving the boundaries of the British 
and French territories in North America unfixed, had 
sown the seeds, of a new war, at the moment when they 
concluded a peace. l*he limits of Canada and Louisiana, 
furnished a motive, or a pretext, for one of the ninst sue* 
cessful but one of the most bloody and wasteful wars in 
which Great Britain >had ever been engaged. In the dis* 
putes which arose between the French and English ofKcers 
on this subject, major Washington was employed by the 

1 Cole's MS Athens ia Brit Mus — Walker's SufferiDgs;— Hcarut^^ Life of 
Alfred. — Harwood's Alumni EtoDenies. 



202 WASHINGTON. 

governor of Vir^ioia, in a negotiation wkb the French go- 
vernor of Fort du Quesae (nomr Pitsburgh) ; who threatened 
the English frontiers with a body of French and their Indiao 
allies. He succeeded in averting the invasion ; but bestir 
lities becoming inevitable,* he was in the next year ap* 
pointed lieutenant colonel of a regiment raised by the co- 
lony for its own defence ; to the command of which be 
soon after succeeded. The expedition of general Brad- 
dock followed in 1755 ; of which the fatal issue is too well 
known to require being described by us. Colonel Wasb^ 
ington served in that expedition only as a volunteer ; but 
such was the general confidence in bis talents, that he 
may be said to have conducted the retreat. Several Bri^ 
tish officers lately alive, attested the calmness and intrepid 
dity which be shewed in that difficult situation, and the 
voluntary obedience which was so cheerfully paid by the 
whole army to his superior mind« After having acted a 
distinguished part in a subsequent and more sucpessfu} 
expedition to the Ohio, , be was obliged by ill health, in 
1758, to resign his military situation* The sixteen years 
which followed of the life of Washington, supply few miu 
terials for the bic^rapber. Having married Mrs. Curtis, a 
Virginian lady of amiable character and respectable con^ 
sections, he settled at bis* beautiful seat of Mount Vernpn, 
of which we have had so many descriptions ; where, with 
the exception of such attendance as was required by bis 
duties as a magistrate and a member of the assembly, bi^ 
time waa occupied by bis domestic enjoyments, and the 
cultivation of bis estate, is a mainner well suited to tb« 
tranquillity of. his unambitious mind. At the end of this 
period he was called by the voice of his country from thi^ 
state of calm and secure though unostentatious happiness. 

For almost half a century symptoms of disaffection to 
the mother country had been so visible in the New Eng- 
land provinces, that as far back as 1734, the celebrated 
bishop Berkeley had predicted a total separation of North 
America from Great Britain. That prelate, when a pri* 
Tate clergyman, had lived three years in Rhode-Island, and 
was an attentive and sagacious observer of the ^manners and 
principles of the people, among whom he perceived the 
old leaven of their forefathers fermenting even then with 
great violence. The middle and southern provinces^ how- 
ever, were more loyaU and their influence, together with 
perpetual dread of the French before th^ peace of 1763, 



WASHINGTON. eo3 

put oS the sepAratton to a more dMUnt day tfaan that at 
wfaich, we have reason to believe,, the bishop expected it 
to take place. Virginia, the most loyal of all the colonies, 
bad long been in the babit of calling itself, with a kind of 
proad pre*eminence^ ^^ his Majesty's ancient dominion,^* 
and it was with some difficulty that the disaffected party of 
New England could gain over that province^ when the 
time arrived for' effecting their long-mediuted revolt. .At 
last, however, they succeeded, and we find Mr. Washing* 
ton a delegate from Virginia ia the Congress, which met 
at Philadelphia Oct. 26, 1774. As no American united 
in so high a^egree as he did, military experience with an 
estimable character, he was appointed to the command of 
the army which had assembled in the New England pro- 
vinces, to hold in check the British army which was then 
encamped under general Gage at Boston. 

At this period there is some reason to believe that nei« 
ther general Washington nor his constituents entered 
heartily into the views of the New Englanders ; but afraid 
lest their army, after shaking off the yc^ of Great Britain^ 
might give laws to the Continent, he took upon hfmself 
the command of that army in the month of July 1775. To 
detail his conduct in the years which followed, would be to 
relate the history of the American war. it may be said 
generally, that within a very short period after the decla* 
jration of independence, the afiairs of America were in a 
condition so desperate, that perhaps nothing but the pecii* 
liar character of Washington's geciins could have retrieved 
tiiem. Activity is the policy of invaders, and in the field 
of battle the superiority of a disciplined army is displayed. 
Bot delay was the wisdom of a country defended by un* 
disciplined soldiers against an enemy who must be more 
exhausted by time than he could be weakened by defeat. 
It required the consummate prudence, the calm wisdom, 
the inflexible firmness, the moderate ai^d well balanced 
temper of Washington, to embrace such a plan of policy, 
and to persevere in it : to resist the temptauons of enter** 
prize ; to fix the confidence of his soldiers without the at« 
traction of victory ; to support the spirit of the army and 
the people amidst those slow and cautious plans of de£en» 
sive warfare which are more dispiriting than defeat iuelf } 
to contain his own ambition and the impetuosity of his 
troops ; to endure temporary obscurity for the salvation of 
bis country, and for the attainment of solid and imm^Mrtal 



204 WASHINGTON. 

glory; and to suffer even temporary reproach and obloquy, 
supported by the approbation of his own conscience and 
the applause of that small number of wise men whose praise 
is an earnest of the admiration and gratitude of posterity. 
Victorious generals easily acquire the confidence of their 
army. Theirs, howeyer, is a confidence in the fortune of 
their general. That of Washington's army was a confi- 
dence in bis wisdom. Victory gives spirit to cowards, and 
even the agitations of defeat sometimes impart a courage 
of despair. Courage is inspired by success, and it may be 
stimulated to desperate exertion even by calamity, but it 
is generally palsied by inactivity.— A system of cautious 
defence is the severest trial of human fortitude. By thi» 
test the firmness of Washington was tried. 

It must not, however, be concealed, that some of the 
British commanders gave him advantages which he surely 
did not expect ; and it has been thought that more than 
once they had it in their power to annihilate his army, 
merely by following up their victories. The issue of the 
contest is well known. * • ^ 

Much has been said by the American biographers of 
Washington, concerning his magnanimity during the ra- 
vages of a civil war, in which' he acted so conspicuous a 
part; but, on the other hand, two instances have been 
mentioned in which he is thought to have been deficient 
in this great quality of a hero. Granting (it has been said) 
that duty required him to execute, as a spy, the accom- 
plished major Andr^, true magnanimity would have pre- 
vented him from insultingly erecting, in the view of that 
unfortunate officer, the gallows on which he was to be 
hung, several days before his execution. And when earl 
Cornwallis was overpowered by numbers, and obliged at 
York-town to surrender to the united armies of America 
and France, a magnanimous conqueror would not have 
claimed, contrary to the usage of civilized war, the sword 
from the hands of that gallant nobleman. On these two 
occasions, and on some others, the conduct of Washing- 
ton agreed so ill with his general character, that he has 
been supposed to be influenced by the leaders of the French 
army. Cne thing is certain, that he was so little pleased 
either with his own conduct on particular occasions, or with 
the general principle of the American revolution, that he 
never could be forced to talk on the subject. An Italian 
nobleman, who visited him after the peace, had often at* 



WASHINGTON. 205< 

teiii|>ted, in vain^ to turn the conversation to the events of 
the war. At length be thought he bad found a favourable 
opportunity of effecting his purpose ; they were riding to* 
gether over the scene pf an action where Washington's 
conduct had been the subject of no small animadversion. 
Count — - said to him, ♦* Your conduct, sir, in this action 
has been criticized;*' Washington made no answer, but 
clapped spurs to hishorse ; after they had passed the field. 

he turned to the Italian, and said, ** Count , I observe 

that you wish me to speak of the war. It is a conversation 
which I always avoid. I rejoice at the establishment of the 
liberties of America. But the time of the struggle was a 
horrible period, in which the best men were compelled to 
do many things repugnant to their nature." 

The conclusion of the American war permitted Washing'^ 
ton to return to those domestic scenes, from which nothing 
but a sense of duty seems to have had the power to draw 
him. Bat he was not- allowed long to enjoy this privacy. 
The sjupreme government of the United States, hastily 
thrown up, in a moment of turbulence and danger, as U 
temporary fortification against anarchy, proved utterly in-^ 
adequate to the preservation of general tranquillity and 
permanent security. The confusions of civil war had given 
a taint to the morality of the people, which rendered the 
restraints of a just and vigorous government more indis- 
pensably necessary. Confiscation and paper money, the 
two greatest schools of rapacity and dishonesty in the 
world, had widely spread their poison among the Ameri-^ 
cans. One of their own writers tells us that the whole sys-* 
tem^ of paper money was a system of public and private 
frauds. In this state of things, which threatened the dis- 
solution of morality and government, good men saw the. 
necessity of concentrating and invigorating the supreme 
authority. Under th^ influence of this conviction, a con<» 
vention of delegates was assembled at Philadelphia, which: 
strengthened the bands of the federal union, and bestowed: 
on congress those powers wbich were necessary for the pur- 
poses of good government. Washington was the president 
of this convention, as he, in three years after, was elected 
president of the United States of America, under what wa&> 
malted **The New Constitution," though it ought to have- 
been called a reform of the republican government, as that 
republican government itself was only a reform of the an- 
cient O:>loi3ial constitution under the JBritish crown. None. 



2<W W A S H LN G TO N. 

of these changes extended so fai^ as an attempt to nevr* 
model the whole social and poiiticat systeon. 

Events occurred during his chief magistracy, which cod« 
tulsed the whole political world, and which tried most se-* 
verely his moderation and prudence. The French revo« 
Intion took place. Both friends and enemies have agreed 
itt stating that Washington, from the beginning of that re* 
iFolution, had no great confidence in its beneficial opera-^ 
lion. He must indeed have desired the abolition of de« 
spotism, but be is not to be called*the enemy of liberty^ if 
be dreaded the substitution of a more oppressive despo^sm« 
It is extremely probable that bis wary and practical under- 
ttauding, instructed by the experience of popular comma* 
tions^ augured little good from the daring speculations of 
inexperienced visionaries. The progress of the revolution 
was not adapted to cure his distrust, and when, in 1703^ 
France^ then groaning under the most intolerable and hi- 
deous tyranny, became engaged in war with almost all the 
governments of the civilized world, it is said to have been 
• matter of deliberation with the president of the United 
Htates, whether the republican envoy, or the agent of the 
French princes should be received in America as the diplo«* 
matic representative of France. But whatever might be 
bis private feelings of repugnance and horror, bis public 
conduct was influenced only by his public duties. Asa 
virtuous man he must have abhorred the system of crimes 
which was established in France. But as the first magi- 
strate of the American commonwealth, he was bound only 
to consider how far the interest and safety of the people 
whom he governed, were affected by the conduct of France, 
lie saw that it was wise and necessary fpr America to pre- 
serve a good understanding and a beneficial intercourse 
with that great country, in whatever manner she was g6- 
verned, as long as she abstained from committing injury 
against the United States. Guided by this just and simple 
principle, uninfluenced by the abhorrence of crimes which 
he felt, be received Mr. Genets the minister of the French 
republic, and was soon shocked by the outrages which that 
minister committed, or instigated, or countenanced against 
the American government. The conduct of Washington 
was a model of firm and dignified moderation. Insults 
were offered to his authoriiy in ofliciai papers, in anony- 
BQous libels, by incendiary disclaimers, and by tumultuous^ 
meetings. The lew of fiationf was trampled under foot« 



WASHINGTON. 201 

coniidentUl mmisters were seducbd to betray him, and 
the deluded populace were so in6amed by tiie 9rts of 
tbeir enemies that they broke out into insurrection. No 
vetation, howerer galling, could disturb the tranquillity 
of his mind, or make him deviate from the policy which hit 
situation prescribed. With a more confirmed authority^ 
and at the head of a longer established government, be 
might perhaps have thought greater vigour justifiable. But 
in bis circumstances, ' he was sensible that the nerves of 
Mtho^ity were not strong enough to bear being strained. 
Persuasion, always the most desirable instrument of go* 
vernment, was in his case the safest ; yet he never over* 
passed the line which separates concession from meanuessw 
Ha reached the utmost limits of moderation, without being 
betrayed into pusillanimity. He preserved external and 
internal peace by a system of mildness, without any of 
those virtual confessions of weakness, which so muish dis* 
honour and enfeeble supreme authority. During the whole 
of chiikt arduous struggle, his persotial character gave that 
strength to a new magistracy which in other countries 
arises from ancient habits of obedience and respect. The 
authority of his virtue was^ more efficacious for the preser** 
vation of America, tbaa the legal powers of his office. 

During this turbulent period he was re-elected to the 
office of pt*esident of the United States, which he held 
&om April 1789 till September 1796. Probably no ma« 
gistrate of any commonwealth, ancient or modern, ever 
occupied a place so painful and perilous. Certainly no 
man )vas ever called upon so often to sacrifice his virtuons 
feelings (he had no other sacrifices to make) to his public 
duty. Two circumstances of this sort deserve to be parti* 
enlarly noticed. In the spring of 1794 he sent an ambas* 
ftador to Paris with credentials, addressed to his ^^ deav 
friends, the citizens composing the committee of public 
safety of tlie French republic,'* whom he prays God " to 
lake under his holy protectiop." Fortunately the Ameri- 
can ambassador was spared the humiliation of presenting 
his credentials to those bloody tyrants. Their power was 
subverted, and a few of them had suffered the punishment 
of their crimes, which no punishment could expiate, before 
his arrival at Paris. 

Washington had another struggle of feeling and duty to 
encounter when he was compelled to suppress the insur- 
rectioa ia the westera couotiefi of Pennsylvania by force of 



• 



20» WASHINGTON. 

arms. But here be bad a consolation in the exercise of inef« 
cy, for the necessity of having recourse to arms. Never wa» 
there a revolt quelled with so little blood. Scarcely ever 
was the basest dastard so tender of his own life, as this 
virtuous man was of the lives of his fellow citizens. The 
value of his clemency is enhanced by recollecting that he 
was neicher without provocations to severity, nor withouk 
pretexts, for it. His character and his office had been re* 
viled in a manner almost unexampled among civilized na- 
tions. His authority had been insulted. His safety had 
t>een threatened. Of his personal and political enemies 
9om6 might, perhaps, have been suspected of having in- 
stigated the insurrection ; a greater number were thought 
to wish well to it ; and very few shewed much zeal to sup- 
press it. But neither resentment, nor fear, nor even po- 
licy itself, could extinguish the humanity- of Washington. 
This seems to have been the only sacrifice which he was 
incapable of making (o the interest of his country. 

Throughout the whole course of his second presidency, 
the danger of America was great and imminent almost be- 
yond example. The spirit of change indeed, at that pe- 
riod, shook all nations. But in other countries it had to 
encounter ancient and .solidly established power. It had 
to tear up by the roots long habits of attachment in some 
nations for their government, of awe in others, * of ac- 
quiescence and submission in all. But in America the go- 
vernment was new and weak. The people had scarce time 
to recover from the ideas and feelings of a recent civil war* 
In other countries the volcanic force must be of power to 
blow up the mountains, and to convulse the continents that 
held it down, before it could (escape from the deep cayerns 
in which it was imprisoned : — in America it was covered 
only by the ashes of a late convulsion, or at most by a little 
thin soil, the produce of a few years^ quiet; 

The government of America had none of those salutary 
prejudices to employ which in every other country were 
used with success to open the eyes of the people to the 
enormities of the French revolution. It bad, on the con- 
trary, to contend with the prejudices of the people in the 
most moderate precautions against internal confusion, in 
the most measured and guarded resistance to the unpa- 
ralleled insults and enormous encroachments of France. 
Without zealous support from the people, the American 
government was impotent. It required a considerable time» 



WASIJINGTON. 



209 



fitnd it cost aa arduous and 'dubious struggle, to direct the 
popular spirit agaiust a sister republic, established among 
a people to whose aid the Americans ascribed the establish- 
ment of their independence. It is probable, indeed, that 
ho policy could have produced this effect, unless it had 
been powerfully aided by the crimes of the French govern* 
ment, which have proved the strongest allies of all esta* 
blisbed governments ; which have produced such a general 
disposition to submit to any known tyranny, rather than 
rush into all the unknown and undefinable evils of civil 
confusion, with the horrible train of new and monstrous 
tyrannies of which it is usually the forerunner. Of these 
circumstances Washington availed himself with uncommon 
address. He employed the horror excited by the atrocities 
of the French revolution for the most honest and praise- 
worthy purposes; to preserve the internal quiet of his 
country ; to assert the dignity, and to maintain the rights^ 
of the commonwealth which be governed, against foreign 
enemies. He avoided war without incurring the imputa- 
tion of pusillanimity. He cherished the detestation of 
Americans for anarchy, without weakening the spirit of 
civil liberty, and he maintained, and even consolidlitedy 
the authority of government, without abridging the pri- 
vileges of the people. i 
' The resignation of Washington in 1796 was certainly a 
measure of prudence, but it may be doubted whether it 
was beneficial for his countr}% in the then unsettled state 
of public affairs. When he retired, be published a valedic- 
tory address to his countrymen, as be had before done when 
he quitted the command of the army. in 1783. In these 
compositions the whole heart and soul of Washington are 
laid open. Other state papers have, perhaps, shewn more 
spirit and dignity, more eloquence, greater force of genius, 
and a more enlarged comprehension of mind. But none 
ever displayed more simplicity and ingenuousness, more 
moderation and sobriety, more good sense, more pru- 
dence, more honesty, more earnest affection for bis coun- 
try and for mankind, more profound reverence for virtue 
and religion ; more ardent wishes for the happiness of his 
fellow-creatures, and more just and rational views of the 
means which alone can effectually promote that happiness* 

From his resignation tiljl the month of July 1798, he 
lived in retirement at Mount Vernon. At this latter pe^ 
riod it became necessary for the United States to arm. 
Vd. XXXI. P 



210 WASHINGTON. 

They bad eudured with a patience of which there is no 
example in the history of states, all the contumely and 
wrong which successive administrations in France had 
heaped upon them. Their ships were every where cap- 
tured, their ministers were detained in a sort of imprison^ 
ment at Paris; while incendiaries, cloathed in the sacred 
charactet of ambassadors, scattered over their peaceful pro- 
vinces the firebrands of sedition and civil war. An oSet 
was made to terminate this long course of injustice, by a 
bribe to the French ministers. This offer was made by 
persons who appeared to be in the CQnfidence of M. Talley- 
rand, who professed to act by his authority, but who have 
t>een since disavowed by him. In the mean time the United 
States resolved to arm by land and sea. The command of 
the a^my was bestowed on general Washington, which he- 
accepted because he was convinced that " every thing we 
hold dear and sacred was seriously threatened ;" though he 
had flattered himself " that he had quitted for ever the 
boundless field of public action, incessant trouble and high 
responsibility, in which he had long acted so conspicuous 
a part.'' . In this office he continued during the short pe- 
riod of his life which still remained. On Thursday the 12th 
^December 1799, he was seized with an inflammation in his 
throat, which became considerably worse the next day ; 
and of which, notwithstanding the efforts of bis physicians, 
he died on Saturday the 14th of December 1799, in th^ 
sixty-eighth year of his age, and in the twenty-third year 
of the independence of the United States, of which he may 
be considered as the founder. The same calmness, sim- 
plicity, and regularity, which had uniformly marked his 
demeanour, did not forsake him in his dying moments. 
Even the perfectly well-ordered state of the most minute 
particulars of his private business, bore the stamp of that 
constant authority of prudence and practical reason over 
bis actions, which was a distinguishing feature of his cha- 
racter. He died with those sentiments of piety, which had 
given vigour and consistency to his virtue, and adorned 
every part of his blameless and illustrious life. ^ 

WASSE (Joseph), a very learned scholar, was born in York- 
shire in 1672, and educated at Q.ueen*s college, Cambridge^ 
where he took his bachelor's degree in 1694, that of master in 
1698, and that of bachelor of divinity in 1707. Before 'this' 

1 Eaeycl. Brit Supplement, by Dr. Gleig. — Life of WashingtoD, by Manliall. 



W A S S E. 



211 



be bad assisted Koster in his edition of Stiidas, as appears 
\fj a letter of bis, giving an account of that eminent critic. 
(See KusTEB.) In (710 Wasse became more generally 
known to the literary world by his edition of ** Sallust/^ 
jfiOy the merits of which have been long acknowledged. 
He amended the text faty a careful examination of nearly 
eighty maooscripCB, as well as some very ancient editions. 
Jn Dec. 1711 he was presented to the rectory of Aynhoe 
in Northamptonshire, by Thomas Cartwright, esq. where 
John Wbiston.(the bookseller) says *^he lived a very agree- 
able and Christian life, much esteemed by that worthy fa« 
Hiily and his parishioners." He had an equal regard for 
them, and never sought any other preferment. He had a 
very learned and ^choice library, in which he passed most 
of his time, and assisted many of the learned in their pub- 
lications. He became at length a proselyte to Dr. darkens 
Arianism, and corresponded much with him and with Will. 
Whiston, as appears by Wbiston^s Life of Dr. Clarke, and 
bis own life. According to Whiston he was the cause of 
Mr. Wasse^s embracing the Arian sentiments, which he 
did with such zeal, as to omit the Athanasian creed in the 
service of the church, and other passages which militated 
against his opinions. Whiston calls him ** more learned 
than any bishop in England since bishop Lloyd,'* and in- 
forms us of the singular compliment Bentley paid to him, 
^* When I am dead, Wasse will be the most learned man 
in England." 

' That he was a good scholar and critic, his essays in the 
^' Bibliotheca Literaria" afford sufficient evidence ; but he 
was not ,the editor of that work, as some have reported. 
Dr; Jebb was the editor, but Wasse contributed several 
pieces, as many others did, and at length destroyed the 
sale of the work by making his essays too long, particu* 
larly his life of Justinian, who filled two whole numbers, 
and was not then Rnished. This displeased the readers of 
the work, and after it had reached ten numbers (at 1>. 
ea<:h) it was discontinued for want of encouragement. 
What were published make a 4to volum§, finished in 1724. 
Mr. Wasse was the author of three articles in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions ; !. " On the difference of the height 
of a fauQian body between morning and night." 2. " On 
the effects of Lightning, July 3, 1725, in Northampton- 
shire." 3. " An account of an. earthquake in Oct, 1731,; 
in Northamptonshire." He was also a considerable con- 

p 2 



V 



212 ■ W A S S E. 

tributor to the edition of " Thucydides/* which goe* 
by the name of ^^Wassii et Dukeri/' Aaist. 172 F, 2 vols* 
fol. He died of an apoplexy, November 19, 1738,, 
and was succeeded in his living of Aynhoe by Dr. Yarbo* 
rough, afterwards principal of Brasenose college, Oxford, 
who purchased ps^rt of his collection of books, many of 
them replete with MS notes and collections of MSS. by 
Mr. Wasse. They are now in the library of that college, 
by the kindness of the heirs of Dr. Yarborough. Joho 
Whiston adds that Wasse was *^ a facetioti& man in con- 
versation, but a heavy preacher ; a very deserving cha- 
ritable man, and universally esteemed.^'V A considerable 
part of his library appeared in one of Whtston's sale ca- 
talogues. ^ 

WATERHOUSE (Edward), a heraldic and roiscella- 
oeous writer, was born in 1619.. He had a. learned educa- 
tion, and resided some time at Oxford, for the sake of the 
Bodleian Library there; but was not a member of that 
'university. Soon after the passing of the ^second charter 
of the Royal Society, he was proposed on the 22d July, 
1668, candidate for election into it; and chosen the 29 tb 
of the same month ; being admitted the 5th August. He 
afterwards entered into holy orders, by the persuasion of 
Dr. Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1668. He was 
twice married : to his first wife he had Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Robert Smith, alias Carriugton, by Magda- 
len his wife, daughter of Robert Hervey, esq. comptroller of 
the customs-house to James the First ; secondly to Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heiress qf Richard Bateman of Harting- 
ton in Derbyshire, and London, esq. by Christiana, his first 
wife, daughter of William Stone, of Loudon, esq. who 
died, leaving him one son, and two daughters ; the daugh- 
ters only survived him. He died 30th May, 1670, aged 
fifty-one, at his house at Mile-end-green, and was interred 
June 2d, at Greenford in Middlesex, where he had an 
estate. He was author of the following works, some of 
which are much sought after at present: I. ^' An Apology 
for Learning and Learned Men," 1653, SvOr 2. "Two 
Contemplations of Magnanimity and Acquaintance with. 
God," 1653, 8vo. 3. "A Discourse of the Piety, Policy, 
and Charity of Elder Times, and Christians," 1655, 12mo. 

* >Iicliols'f Bowyer. — MS Account by Whist oa the bookseller. — WJiistoa's 
Li(b.-->GeDt. Mag. voL LXXVIII.-— Dibdin's Classics. 



/ 



WA T E R H O U S E. 213 

4. " A Defence of Arms and Armcnry," 1660, 8vo; with a 
frontispiece of his quarterings. 5, ** Fortiescutws illustra'* 
tus; or, a Commentary on sir John Fortescue, lord chan- 
^ellour to Henry VI. his book, De Laudibus legum Angliae," 
1663, fol. with a fine portrait of Waterhouse, by Loggan, 
and of sir John Fortescue, by Faithorne. 6. ** The Gentle- 
man's Monitor," 1665^ 8vo, with a portrait by Horlocks. * 

WATERLAND (Daniel), a learned English divine, and 
able assertor of the doctrine of the Trinity, was born Feb. 
14, 1683, at Waseleyi or Walesly, in the Lindsey division 
of Lincolnsbire, of which parish his father, the rev. Henry 
Waterland, was rector. He received his early education 
partly at Flixborough, of which also his father was~ rector^ 
under his curate Mr. Syices, and partly tinder his father, 
until be was iit to be sent to the free-school at Lincoln, 
then in great reputation. His uncommon diligence and 
taJents recommended him to the notice of Mr. Samuel 
Garmstone and Mr. Antony Read, the two successive 
masters of that school, at whose request, besides the ordi- 
nary eicercises, he frequently performed others, which were 
so excellent as to be handed about for the honour of the 
school. In 1699, he went to Cambridge, and on March 
30, was admitted of Magdalen college, under the tuition of 
Mr. Samuel Barker. In December 1702 he obtained a 
flicholarship, and proceeding A.B. in Lent term following, 
was elected fellow in Feb. 1703-4. He then took pupils, 
and was esteemed a good teacher. In 1706 he commenceci 
A.M. In February 1713, on the death of Dr. Gabriel 
Quadrin, master of the college, the earl of Suffolk and 
Binden, in whose family the right is vested,* conferred the 
mastership upon Mr. Waterland, who having taken holy 
orders, was also presented by that nobleman to the rectory 
of Ellidghara in Norfolk. But this made little or no addi- 
tion to bis finances, as be gave almost the whole revenue 
of it to his curate, his own residence being necessary at 
college, where he stiR continued, to take -pupils, and for 
their advantage wrote his ^* Advice to a young student,' 
wiih a method of study for the first four years,'' which went 
through several editions. 

In 1714, he took the degree of bachelor of divinity, at 
the exercise for which he gave a proof of no common abi- 

i Atb. 0%. VoL n.-^Gent. Mag. vol. LXU. and LXVI.— Communiealion bf 
a deseendant. 



1214 W A T E R L A N D. 

lilies. He chose for bis first question, upon which conse- 
quently his thesis was made, ^* Whether Arian subscrip«- 
tion be lawful ?'' a question, says Mr, Seed, worthy of him 
who abhorred all prevarications, and had the capacity to 
see through and detest those evasive arts, with which some 
would palliate their disingenuity. When Dr. James, the 
professor, had endeavoured to answer his thesis, and em- 
barrass the question with the dexterity of a person. long 
practised in all the arts of a subtle disputant, he immedi- 
ately replied in an extempore discourse of about half an 
hour long, with such an easy flow of proper and significant 
words, and such an undisturbed presence of mind, as if he 
bad been reading, what he afterwards printed, ^'The case 
of the Arian subscription considored.'* He unravelled the 
professor's fallacies, reinforced ' his own reasoning, and 
shewed himself so perfect a master of the language, the 
subject, and himself, that all agreed no otie ever appeared 
to greater advantage. He was on this occasion happy in 
a first opponent Mr. (afterwards the celebrated bishop) Sher- 
lock, who gave full play to his abilities, and called for all 
that strength of reason of which be was master. One sin- 
guTar consequence is said to have followed this exercise* 
Dr. Clarke, in the second edition of his '* Scripture Doc- 
trio^e," &c. published in 1719, omitted the following words, 
which were in his former edition of that book : *^It is plain 
that a man may reasonably agree to such forms (of sub- 
scription to the thirty- nine articles) whenever he can in 
any sense at all reconcile them with scripture.** This is 
remarked by our author in the preface to his vindication 
of Christ's divinity, as redounding to Dr. Clarke's honour, 
,and it is well known that Dr. Clarke afterwards constantly 
refused subscripiion. 

On the death of Dr. James, regius professor of divinity, 
Mr* Wateriand was generally considered as fit to succeed 
him, but his great esteem for Dr. Bentley, who was elected, 
prevented bis using bis interest. He was soon after ap- 
pointed one of the chaplains in ordinary to George I. who, 
on a visit to Cambridge in 1717, honoured him with the 
degree of D. D. without his application ; and in this degree 
be was incorporated at Oxford, with a handsome encomium 
from Dr. Delaune, president of ^t. John's college in that 
university./ In 1719, he gave the world the first specimen of 
bis abilities on a subject which has contributed most to his 
fame. He now published the first ^^ Defence of his Que- 



W A T E R L A N D; 215 

Hes/^ in vindication of the divinity of Christ, which ^n-* 
gaged him in a controversy with Dr. Clarke. (See Clarke^ 
p. 409.) The " Queries" which he thus defended were 
originally drawn up for the use of Mr. John Jackson the 
rector of Rossington in Yorkshire (See Jackson, p. 420), 
and it was intended that the debate should be carried on 
by private correspondence ; but Jacksoh having sent an 
answer to the " Queries/' and received Waterland's reply, 
acquainted him that both were in the press, and that he 
must follow him thither, if be wished to prolong the con- 
troversy. On this Dr. Waterland published " A vindica-^ 
lion of Christ's Divinity : being a defence of some queries^ 
&c. in answer to a clergyman in the country;" which being 
soon attacked by the Arian party, our author published in 
1723, "A second vindication of Christ's Divinity, or, a 
second defence of some queries relating to Dr. Clarke's 
ficheme of the holy Trinity, in answer to the country 
clergyman's reply," &c. This, which is the longest, has 
always been esteemed Dr. Waterland' s most accurate per* 
formance on the subject. We aVe assured that it wa^' 
6mshed and sent to the press in two months ; but it was a 
subject be had frequently revolved, and that with pro- 
found attention. In answer to this work, Dr» Clarke pub- 
lished in the following year, *' Observations on the- second 
defence," &c. to which Dr. Waterland replied in "A- 
farther defence of Christ*» divinity," &c. It was not to 
be expected that these authors woiild agree, as Dr. Clarke 
was for explaining the text in favour of the Trinity, by 
what he called the ihaxims of right reasoning, while Dr. 
Waterland, bowing to the mysterious nature of the subject^ 
considered it as a question above reason, and took^the texts 
in their plain and obvious sense, as, he proved, the fathers 
had done before him. 

A short time before the commencement of this contro- 
versy. Dr. Waterlarid had attacked a position in Dr. Whit- 
by's ^' Disquisitiones modestse in Bulli defensionem fidei 
Nicenae," which produced an answer Horn Whitby, en- 
titled " A reply to Dr. Waterland's objections against Dr. 
Whitby's Disquisitiones." This induced our author to pub- 
lish in th« same year (1718) "An answer to Dr. Whitby's 
Reply ; being a vindication of the charges of fallacies, mis- 
quotations, misconstructions, misrepresentations, &c. re- 
specting his book, entitled ' Disquisitiones modestae, in a 
letter to Dr. Whitby'.'* 



• \ 



216 W A T E R L A N D. 

In consequence of the reputation which Dr. Waterland 
bad acquired by his first publication on this subject, he was 
appointed by Dr. Robinson, bishop of London, to preach 
the first course of sermons at the lecture founded by lady 
Moyer. This he accomplished in, 1720, and afterwards 
printed in ^^Eigiit Sermons, &c. in defence of the Divinity of 
our Lord Jesus Christ,'' &c. 8vo, and in the preface informs 
us that they may be considered as a supplement to his 
** Vindication of Christ's Divinity." In 1721 Dr. Water- 
land was promoted by the dean and chapter of St. Paul's 
to the rectory of St. Austin's and St. Faith's, and in 1723 
to the chancellorship of the church of York, by archbishop 
Dawes. The same year he published his '^ History of the 
Athanasian Creed," which he undertook in order to rescue 
this venerable form of faith from Dr. Clarke's censures, who 
had gone so far as to apply to the prelates to have it laid. 
. aside. In 1727, upon the application of lord Townsend, 
secretary of state, and Dr. Gibson, bishop of London, bis 
majesty collated him to a canonry of Windsor ; and in 
1730, he was presented by the dean and chapter to the 
vicarage of Twickenham in Middlesex. On this he re* 
signed bis living of St. Austin and St. Faitn, objecting to 
holding two benefices at the same time with the cure of 
souls ; but as this principle did not affect his holding the 
archdeaconry of Middlesex, he accepted that preferment 
this year, given him by bishop Gibson. 

Dr. Clarke's exposition of the Church Catechism being 
published in 1730, our author immediately printed some 
remarks upon it, with a view to point out what be esteemed 
to be dangerous passages in that exposition, and to coun- 
teract their influence. In the prosecution of this design^ 
be advanced a position concerning the comparative value 
of j)ositive and moral duties, which drew him into a con-* 
troversy with Dr. Sykes. Sykes having published an an- 
swer to Dr. Waterland's ** Remarks," the latter replied in 
a pamphlet, entitled ^^ The nature, obligation, and efficacy 
of the Christian Sacraments considered ; as also the com** 
parative value of moral and positive duties distinctly stated 
and cleared." Other pamphlets passed between them on 
the same subject, until Dr. Waterland's attention was called 
to Tindal's deistical publication of ^* Christianity as old as the 
Creation." Against this, he wrote " Scripture vindicated, in 
answer to Chrisiiatiity as old as the Creation," 1730 — 1732, 
three parts ; and two charges to the clergy of the arcbdea* 



W A T E R L A N'D; 21Z 

coory.of Middlesex on tbe same subject. He now found 
an antagonist in Middleton, (a Tindal in disguise), who 
published "A Letter to Dr. Waterland," &c. the purport 
and consequences of which we have already detailed. (See 

MiDDLETON, p. 137.) 

Dr. Waterland had another controversy with Mr. Jack-^ 
son before mentioned, on account of Dr. darkens ^'De* 
monstration of the Being and Attributes of God," Dr. 
Waterland undertaking to show the weakness of the argu-' 
ment a priari, which Clarke had thought proper to em- 
ploy on this occasion. In the ^^ Second, defence of liis 
Queries," Dr. Waterland had dropt sonle hints against this 
kind of argument, but did not at that time enter into the 
subject ; nor were his objections published until 1734, 
when the substance of what he had written upon the sub* 
ject, in some letters to a gentleman, was given to the pub- 
lic by Mr. (afterwards bishop) Law, partly in his notes on 
King's ** Origin of Evil" and partly in his '^ Inquiry into 
the ideas of Space," &c/.to which is added '^ A Disserta- 
tion on the argument a priori by a learned hand," i.<e. 
Waterland. In this dissertation he endeavoured to prove, 
first, that the argumentum a priori is very loose and pre- 
carious, depending on little else than an improper use of 
equivocal terms or phrases: secondly, that, moreover^ when' 
fully understood, it is palpably wrong and absurd ; thirdly, 
that the several pleas or excuses invented for it are falla- 
cious, and of no real weight ; and he concludes with a 
brief intimation of the hurtful tendency of insistnig\ao 
much upon this pretended argument, both with regard to 
religion and science. The publication of these sentiments 
served to renew the controversy between Mr. Law, him- 
self, and Mr.Mackson. 

In the same year, ,1734, Dr. Waterland published "The 
importance of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity asserted," 
not the most temperate of his writings, for be hints at 
the interference of tbe civil magistrate; but as he considers 
the doctrine of the* Trinity to be fundamental, this was 
alone an assertion sufficient to call down the vengeance of 
the Arian and Socinian writers, both then and since, when 
speaking of him. He pursued the same subject in two 
charges delivered to the clergy. of his archdeaconry, in 
this and the following year. Having often introduced the 
doctrine of tbe Eucharist in his charges, he combined bis 
sentiments on that topic in a large 8vo volume, entitlecl 



21* W A T E R L A N D. 

'^ A Review of the doctrine of the Eucharist, as laid down 
IB scripture and antiquity/^ 1737. This was the last of his 
works that appeared in bis life-time, and was calculated to 
confute the opinions of Hoadly, Johnson, and Brett. 

About 1740, a complaint which he had long neglected^ 
as appearing a trifle (the nail growing into one of his great 
toes) obliged him to remove from Cambridge to London 
for the benefit of the advice of the celebrated surgeon, 
Ch^selden : but this was now too late ; for a bad habit of 
body, contracted by too intense an application to his 
studies, rendered his case desperate ; and after undergoing 
several painful operations, with exemplary patience, a mor- 
tification took place, of which he died Dec. 23. ^ He waa. 
interred, at his own request, in one of the small chapels 
oh the south side of the collegiate church of Windsor, 
where is a plain^ stone with his name and age, fifty-eight, 
inscribed on it. , 

Dr. Waterland married, about 1719, a lady of good fa- 
mily and fortune,*who survived him ; but he left no child. 
He was a man free from ambition ; all his preferments were 
besiowed without any application on his part direct or in- 
direct, and he might have reached to higher, had he de- 
sired them, by the recommendation of archbishop Potter. 
The bishopric of LlandafF was once offered to him, but be 
declined it. 

In his life time he published some single sermons, and 
after his death two volumes more were added, with two 
tracts, 1. " A summary view of the doctrine of Justification. 
2. An Inquiry concerning the antiquity of the practice of 
infant communion, as founded on the notion of its neces- 
sity. The whole published from the originals, in pur- 
suance of the request of the author, by Joseph Clarke, 
M. A." 1742. The tract on justification seems chiefly 
levelled at Whitfield's answer to the bishop of London's 
pastoral letter, in which he asserted good works to be only 
fruits and consequences of justification. 

Dr. Waterland was one of the ablest defenders of the doc* 
'trine of the Trinity in his day, not perhaps always the most 
temperate, for he appears to have occasionally lost his tem- 
per amidst the rude attacks of some of his antagonists, but in 
jgeneral he adhered closely to his argument, and sLvoided per- 
sonalities. As Arianism was the chief object of his aversion, 
it was some times retorted that he too had departed from 
the creed of hi^ church by inclining towards Arminianism. 



W A T E R L A N D. 21^ 

His character was drawn at great length by the rev. Jere- 
miah Seedy in a funeral sermon^ preached Jan. 4, 1740-1, 
the Sunday after his interment. *^ His head,^* says Mr. 
Seed, ** was an immense library, where the treasures of 
learning were Vanged in such exact order, that, whatever 
himself or his friends wanted, he could have immediate re- 
course to, without any embarrassmient. A prodigious ex- 
pence of reading, without a confusion of ideas, is almost 
the peculiar characteristic of his writings. His works, par- 
ticularly those upon our Saviour's Divinity, and the Import- 
ance of the doctrine, and the Eucharist, into Ahiqh he has 
digested the learning of all preceding ages, will, we may 
venture to say, be transmitted to, and stand the examina- 
tion of, all succeeding ones. He has so thoroughly ex*!- 
hausted every subject that he wrote a set treatise upon, 
that it is impossible to hit upon any thing which is not in 
his writings, or to express that more justly and clearly, 
which is there." * 

WATSON (David), known chiefly as a translator of 
Horace, was born at Brechin in Scotland, 1710, and edu- 
cated in St. Leonard's college, St. Andrew's, where he 
took his degrees, and was appointed professor of philoso- 
phy. When the college of St. Leonard was united by adt 
of parliament to that of St. Salvador, 1747, he came to 
London, and completed his translation of Horace, 2 vols. 
6vo, with notes, &c. which is in great esteem. But his 
dissipated life brought hioii into many wants, and he was 
frequently destitute of the common necessaries of life.- In 
his latter years he taught the classics to private gentlemen; 
but his love of pleasure plunged him into new difficulties; 
and he sunk beneath his character as a scholar. He died 
in great want near London, 1756, in the forty-sixth year of 
his age, and was buried at the expence of the parish. Be- 
sides his translation of Horace, he wrote " The History of 
the Heathen Gods and Goddesses."* 

WATSON (Henry), a gallant officer and able en- 
gineer, was the son of a grazier, who lived at Holbeacb, 
in Lincoln«hire, wher6 he was born about 1737, and edu- 
cated at Gosberton school. Here his genius for the mathe- 
matics soon discovered itself, and in 1753 he was a fre- 
quent contributor to the " Ladies Diary.'* About this time 

1 Biogt Brit.— Seed's Funeral Sermoni 

s Preceding edition of this Diet. , 



220 WATSON. 

his abilities became known to Mr.^Whichcot, of Harps well, 
then one of the members of parliament for Lincolnshire^ 
who introduced him to the royal academy at Woolwich ; 
and he soon after obtained a commission in the corps of 
engineei's. Under the celebrated mathematician, Thomas 
Simpson, Watson proseputed his studies at Woolwich, and 
continued to write for the " Ladies Diary," of which Simp- 
son was at that time the editor. Such was Simpson's 
opinion of Watson's abilities, that at his decease he left 
bim his unfinished mathematical papers, with a request 
that he would revise them, ^and make what alterations and 
additions he might think necessary ; but of this privilege 
it see^9 to be doubted whether he made the best use. 
(See Simpson, p. 20.) 

During the war which broke out in 1756, be gave sig^ 
nal proofs of his superior abilities as an engineer ; parti- 
cularly at the siege of Belleisle in 1761, and at the Havan- 
nah in 1762. At the latter place his skill was particularly 
put to the proof ; for having declared at a consultation, 
contrary to the opinion of the other engineers, that a 
breach might be made in the Moro Castle, th^n deemed 
impregnable, he was asked by the commander in chief in 
what time be would engage to make the bi'each ? He gave 
for answer, that with a certain number of men and cannon 
(naming them) he would undertake to do it in forty-eight 
)iours after the proposed batteries were erected. Accord- 
ingly he undertook it, and though he was struck down by 
the wind of a ball which passed near his head, and carried 
for dead to his tent, yet he soon recovered and returned to 
ius duty, and the breach was made in a little more than 
half the time. For this piece of service he not only re- 
ceived the particular thanks of the commander in chiefs but 
of his majesty. 

His abilities soon became too conspicuous to be over- 
looked by that eminent soldier and politician, lord Clive, 
who singled him out as an engineer qualified forgreat and 
nobl« enterprisef!. Accordingly he accompanied his lord- 
ship to Bengal for the purpose of carrying such plans into 
execution which might be thought necessary for the pre- 
servation of the British acquisitions in that quarter; or to 
assist his lordship in any further operations he might think 
requisite for the interest of his country. 

It was not difficult for a person of the colonePs penetra- 
tion to see the advantageous situation of the Bay of BengaL 



WATSON. 321 

He kneff that if proper forts were built, and the English 
marine put on a tolerable footing in that part, they might 
soon become masters of the Eastern seas ; he therefore got 
a grant of lands from the East India company for con-> 
structing wet and dry docks, and a marine yard at Calcutta^ 
for cleaning, repairing, and furnishing with stores the men 
of war and merchantmen* A plan of the undertaking was 
drawn, engraved, and presented to his majesty, and the 
East India company, and fully approved of; and. the works 
were carried on for some years with a spirit and vigour that 
manifested the judgment and abilities of the undertaker ; 
and though the utility of such a national concern is too 
obvious to be insisted on, yet the colonel, after sinking 
upwards of 100,000/. of his own property in the noble de- 
sign, was obliged to desist, for reasons that are iK>t very 
clear. 

Colonel Watson had determined to come immediately 
for England to seek redress ; but, on 'consulting his friend 
Mr. Creassy (the snperintendant of the works) he changed 
his resolution. Mr. Creassy represented to the colonel the 
loss he would sustain in quitting so lucrative an office as 
chief engineer to the East India company ; the gratification 
his enemies would receive on his leaving that country ; the 
loss the company might experience during his absence ; 
and finally the delay aVid uncertainty of the law. These 
considerations induced him. to send Mr. Creassy in his 
stead. This happened just at the ere of the Spanish war; 
and, as the colonel had great quantities of iron and timber 
in store, he resolved to build three ship), two of 36, and 
one pf 32 guns^ and in consequence lie sent instructions 
to his agents in England to procure letters of marque, and 
Mr. Creassy was to return with them over land. These 
vessels were to cruise off the Philippines for the purpose 
of intercepting the Spanish trade between Manilla and 
China. This design, however, was frustrated, perhaps by 
the same means that stopped his proceeding with the 
docks ; for his agents, on applying for the letters, received 
a positive refusal. But these disappointments did not 
damp the colonePs enterprising spirit ;. for, as soon as be 
heard of the ill success of his agents in England, he very 
prudently employed the two vessels be bad iinished in com- 
m^rciabservice. The tliird never was iinished. 

For near ten yearjs colonel Watson was the chief engineer 
of Bengal, Bahar, aud Ocisaa. The East India company, 



■s 



!129 WATSON. 

in a gr^at roeasure, owe their valuable possessions in that 
quarter to bis unexampled exertions ; for, in spite of party 
dispute, of bribery on the part of the nations then at war 
with, the company, and of the numerous cabals which per- 
plexed and embarrassed their councils, he executed the 
works of Fort- William, which will long remain a monument 
of his superior skill; and, for its strength, this may justly 
tie styled the Gibraltar of India. Nor are the works at 
Buge Buge, and Melancholy Point, constructed with less 
jHdgment. But he did not confine his studies to the mili- 
tary sciences. In 1776 he published a translation of Eu-^ 
ler's " Theorie complete de la construction et de la nian- 
ttttvre des vaisseaux," with a supplement upon the action 
of oars, which he received in manuscript from Eulerjust 
before be had finished the translation of what was pub- 
lished. This translation he has enriched with many addi- 
tions and improvements of his own ; and he intended to 
have enlarged the work in a future edition, by making ex- 
periments for discovering the resistance of bodies when 
moving in a fluid ; but it is not known if be left any papers 
on the subject. 

This book, which is almost the only one of the kind in the 
English language, is of great importance in ship-buildiug ; 
for though the subjects are handled scientifically, yet such 
practical rules for constructing vessels to advantage might 
be drawn therefrom, as would amply repay the trouble of 
a close perusal. The colonel gave the best proof of this in 
the Nonsuch and Surprise frigates; the first of 36, the 
other of 32 gunsv These were built under his particular 
direction by Mr. G. Loucb, and a few black carpenters at 
Bengal, at his own expence, and proved the swiftest sailers 
of any ships hitherto known. 

The colonel's genius was formed for great undertakings. 
He was judicious in planning, cool and intrepid in action, 
and undismayed in danger. He studied mankind, and was 
a good politician. Few, perhaps, better understood the 
interests of the several nations of Europe and the East. 
He was humane, benevolent, and the friend of indigent 
genius. When Mr. Rollinson, a man of great abilities as 
a mathematician, conducted the Ladies Diary, after the 
death of Mr. Simpson, and was barely existing on the pit- 
tance allowed him by the proprietors, the colonel sought 
and found him in an obscure lodging, and generously re- 
lieved his necessities, though a stranger to his person. 



WATSON.' 228 

This the old man related while the tears of gratitude stole 
doif n bis cheeks. He survived the coloners bounty but a 
short time. 

By long and hard service in a unfavoarable climate, he 
foun^ his health much impaired, two or three years befoife 
he left India; and therefore, >in 1785, he put affairs in a 
train of settlement, in order to return to England, to try 
the effects of .his native air. In the spring of 1786, he em- 
barked on board the Deptford ludiaman ; but the fluK 
and a bilious complaint with which he had sometimes been 
afflicted, so much reduced him by the time he reached St* 
Helena, that be was not able to prosecute his voyage iii 
that ship. This island is remarkable for the salubrity of 
its air, of which the colonel soon found the benefit ; ^i^ 
the importunity of his friends, or his own impatience to 
see England, got the better of his prudence, for as soon aaj 
he began to gather strength, he took his passage in th^ 
Asia ; the consequence was a relapse^ which weakened hiiq^ 
to such a degree by the time he arrived at Dover, that h^ 
lingered but a short time, and at that place departed thin 
life on September 17, 1786. He was buried in a vaiaU; 
made in the body of the church at Dover, on the 22d o£ 
the same month, in a private manner. His death may be 
accounted a national toss. No English engineer, since 
Mr. Benjamin Robins, F. R. S. ppssessed equal abilities.^ 
The same climate proved fatal to both : Mr. Robins died 
at Madras in the company's service; and it may be said of 
the colonel,^ that after he had quitted it, he liv;^d but just 
long enough" to bring his bones to England. * 

WATSON (James), an excellent printer, was born at 
Aberdeen, where his father was an eminent merchant du- 
ring the reign of Charles II. and in 1695 set up a printing-, 
house in Edinburgh, whichreduced him to many hardships, 
being frequently prosecuted before the privy-council of 
Scotland for printing in opposition to a patent granted to. 
one Mr. Anderson some years before. In 1711, however, 
Mr. Watson, in conjunction with Mr. Freebairn, obtained 
a patent from queen Anne, and they published several 
learned works ; and some of them were printed on very 
elegant types, particularly a Bible, in crown 8vo, 1715, a 
matchless beauty, and another in 4to. He wrote also a 
curious ** History of Printing," in Scotland, which is pre- 

1 Life prefixed to the second. edition of his transUtioa of Euler, 1790, 8vo. 



224 



WATSON. 



\ 



fixed to his " Specimens of Types," a rare little volume, 
printed in the early part of the last century. He died at 
Edinburgh,. Sept. 24, 1722.^ 

WATSON (James), a learned English lawyer, and one 
of the judges of the supreme court of judicature at Ben- 
gal, was born November 25, 1746, in the parish of Great 
Chishill, in the county of Essex. He was th6 eldest soa 
of the Rev. James Watson, D. D. an eminent presbyterian 
minister, then pastor of a dissenting congregation in that 
place, as well as of Melbourne, in the county of Cambridge, 
by Anne his wife, the daughter of John Hanchet; esq. of 
Crissel Grange, in the county of Essex. Though the re- 
tired situation in which this faniily lived, and the talents 
of the father, were very favourable to a domestic education, 
yet the son was very judiciously placed under the care of 
the Rev. Mr. Bahks, a clergyman in that neighbourhood, 
under whose tuition he was prepared for the peculiar 
advantages of a public school. Accordingly, Dr. Watson 
having discovered the progress that his beloved child had 
made in the elements' of language, sent him to the metro- 
polis, and placied him under the care of a person with 
whom he could confide, that he might be admitted into St. 
Paul's school. 

That seminary was then under the superintendence of the 
very learned and amiable Mr. George Thicknesse, of whom 
his worthy pupil always spake with the deepest reverence. 
While, however, he was embellishing his mind with the 
rich stores of classic literature, a violent fever impeded 
the pursuit, and compelled him to return to the country 
for the restoration of his health. This desirable end being 
accomplished, his venerable parent conducted him to Lon- 
don, j-emoving thither indeed with his family. Having ex- 
pressed a strong inclination for the ministerial profession, 
which might naturally be expected from the powers of elo-, 
quence he discovered, be was placed at the academy for. 
Protestant dissenting ministers, then kept at Mile-end, 
near London, by John Walker, D. D. Thomas Gibbons, 
D. D. and John Conder, D. D. 

Here he added considerably to his stock of knowledge, 
and at length entered upon his profession. He spent one 
year in assisting Mr. Newton of Norwich, and then re- 
paired to the university of Edinburgh, where be acquired 

I PrecediDg editbo of IJ^PmU 



WATSON., 225 

the esteem of some of its most eminent professors, es- 
)ieciaily the late principal Robertson, and as a proof of it, 
that university afterward conferred upon him the degree 
of doctor of laws. On bis return to £ngland, be was in- 
vited to succeed the late Rev. Mr. Williams, of Gosport. 
This invitation he accepted, and was ordained pastor in 
1771. His ministrations being, however, unacceptable to 
a minority, occasioned a separation, which by his pru- 
dence and mildness very little interrupted their harniony» 
He generally preached thrice each Sunday, and was con- 
st^int, unremitting, and peculiarly tender and consoling in 
his visits to the sick and afflicted. But at length, through 
the persuasions of some friehds, who had discerned his ta- 
lent for disputation, and had witnessed his clear and intimate 
acquaintance with the laws of his country, he was induced 
to change his profession, and enter himself at the Inner- 
Temple. Accordingly he relinquished the ministry in the 
summer of 1776. 

Mr. Watson chiefly resided at Titchfield, a pleasant vil- 
lage in the neighbourhood of Gosport, and thefe availed 
himself of the professional knowledge of the late Mr. Mis- 
sen, recorder of Southampton. In August 1777, he mar- 
ried miss Joanna Surges, who then resided with her grand- 
mother at TitchBeld. She was the daughter of a gentleman 
who was long resident at Calcutta. By this union he had 
fourteen children. Soon after his marriage he removed to 
London. / 

In 1778, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 
a very honourable manner, having previously acquired the 
friendship of its president sir Joseph Banks, the late Dr. 
Solander, and several other men of eminence. In the 
autumn of 1780, he was called to the bar, and travelled the 
western circuit, where he always met with that reception 
^ wkich bis friends had promised and his abilities warranted.. 
Having commenced this profession, at this period of his 
life, he deemed it very expedient to be uncommonly as- 
siduous in his application to the study of the law. ' This 
attention to business he paid to the last, allowing himself 
little rest, seldom indulging in relaxation of any kind. In 
July^ 1783, his excellent father departed this life. On his. 
removal to London, he had been chosen pastor of a con-? 
gregation in the Borough of Soutbwark, and continued in 
that relation till his. death. At the close of 1787, Mr. 
Watson was called to the rank of seijeant, with Messrs. 

Vol. XXXI. Q 



226 W A T S O R 



* 



Runnington and Marshall. The year before he was electedr 
recorder of Bridport in Dorsetshire, and was then so much 
esteedaed by the corporation, that in the last parliametit 
he was chosen one of their representatives without any op- 
position. His attendance in the senate was frequent, and 
though he did not signalize himself so much in debate as 
some others have done, yet he rendered himself useful as 
a chairman upon several committees, for which indeed his 
firmness, tempered with sweetness, admirably qualified 
him. But he reserved his greatest strength for the India 
eourt of proprietors, of which he was one, and where he 
frequently spoke with much applause. 

On the much-lamented death of the very celebrated sir 
William Jones, Mr. Watson was appointed to succeed him 
in March 1795, an honour which he, and every one 
connected with him, very deeply felt ; but while be was 
preparing for his voyage, his filial piety suffered a deep 
dIow, death depriving him of his valuable mother, who de« 

^ parted this life on the 26th of April that year. But on the 
Sth of July, having been previously Knighted, though 
fdr from agreeable to his modest disposition,, he, accom- 
panied by his lady, and two eldest children, set sail for 
Calcutta in the B^rrington. The voyage was long and 
stormy, for they did not reach their destination till Feb. 27, 
1797. It being term-time, on his arrival at Calcutta, he 
was immediately called upon to discharge the duties of his 
office, and went through the business with the utmost spi« 
rit and reputation. But a period was soon put to his active 
services, for on April 29 th he was seized with a fever, of 
which he died May 2.' Next day he was inferred with the 
customary honours of his rank, his corpse being followed 
to the grave by a numerous concourse of the gentlemen of 
the settlement, who had been led to form considerable ex- 

, pectations of his merit. ' 

WATSON (John), the historian of Halifax, was eldesi 
son of Legh Watson by Hester daughter and at last heiress 
of John Yates, of Swinton in Lancashire, and was born at 
Lyme-cum-Hanley, in the parish of Prestbury, in Che* 
shire, March 26, 1724. Having been brought up at the 
p;ram mar-schools of Eccles, Wigan, and Manchester, all 
m Lancashire, he was admitted a commoner in Brazep- 
Nose-college, Oxford, April 7, 1742. In Michaelmas- 

A Cknt. Mag. l'r97.—UniT. Mag. for 1798. 



WATSON. M7 

term, 1745, be took the degree of B. A. June 27,' 174^, 
iie was elected a fellow of Brazen-Nose college, being 
cbosen into a Cbesbire fellowship, as being a Prestbary* 
parish m&n. On the title of his fellowship he was ordained 
a deacon at Chester by bishop Peploe, Dec. 21, 1746. 
After his year of probation, as fellow, was ended, and his 
residence at O'xford no longer required, he left the college; 
and his first employment in the church was the curacy of 
Runcorn, in Cheshire ; here he stayed only three months^ 
and removed thence to Ardwick, near Manchester,, where 
fae was an assistant curate at the chapel there, and private 
tutor to the three sons of Samuel Birch, of Ardwick, esq. 
Daring his residence here, he was privately ordained a pri^t 
ftt Chester, by the above bishop Peploe, May 1, 1748, and 
took the degree of M. A. at Oxford, in act- term the same 
year. From Ardwick he removed to Halifax, and was li- 
censed to the curacy there, Oct. 17, 1750, by Dr. Mat- 
thew Hutton, archbishop of York. June 1^ 1752, he mar^ 
ried Susanna, daughter and heiress of the late rev. Mr. 
Allon, vicar of Sandbach, in Cheshire, vacating thereby 
his fellowship at Oxford. Sept. 3, 1754, he was licensed 
by the above Dr. Hutton, on the presentation of George 
Legh, LL. D. vicar of Halifax, to the perpetual curacy of 
Kipponden, in the parish of Halifax. Here he rebuilt the 
Curate's house, at his own expence, laying out above 400/. 
tipon the same, which was more than a fourth part of the 
Whole sum he there received ; notwithstanding which, his 
unworthy successor threatened him with a prosecution in 
the spiritual court, if he did not allow him ten pounds for 
dilapidations, which, for the sake of peace, he complied 
with. Feb; 17, 1759, he was elected F. S. A. After his 
first wife^s death, he was married, July 11, 1761, at E'a*' 
knd, in Halifax parish, to Anne, daughter of Mr. James 
Jaques, of Leeds, merchant. August 17, 1766, he wai 
inducted. to the rectory of Meningsby, Lincolnshire, which 
be resigned in 1769, on being promoted to the rectory of 
Stockport, in Cheshire, worth about 1500/. a year. His 
presentation to this, by sir George Warren, bore date 
July 30, 1769, and he was inducted thereto August the 2d 
following. April 11, 1770, he was appointed one of the 
domestic chaplains to the right hon. the earl of Dysart. 
April 24, 1770, having receh'^ed his dedimus for acting as 
a justice of the peace in the county of Chester, he was 
sworn into that oiSce on that day. Oct. 2, 1772, he re- 
el 2 



523 WATSON. 

ceived his dedimus for acting as a justice of peace for ih^ 
county of Lancaster, and was sworn in accordingly. Hit 
principal publication was ^^The History of Halifax/' 1775, 
4to, whence these particulars are chiefly taken. He died 
March 14, 1783^ after finishing for the press, in 2 vols^ 
4to, ^' A History of the ancient earls of Warren and Sur- 
rey," with a view to represent his patron sir Gewge War- 
ren's claim to those ancient titles ; but it is thought by a 
Very acute examiner of the work and judge of the subject^ 
that he has left the matter in very great doubt. 

Mr. Watson's other publications were, 1. *' A Discourse 
preached at Halifax church, July 28, 1751, ftyo, enUtled 
Moderation, or a candid disposition towards those that 
'diflTer from us, recommended and enforced," Svo. Thij^ 
passed through a second edition. 2. ** An Apology for bis 
conduct yearly, on the 30th of January," 8vo. To this is 
annexed, a sermon preached at Ripponden chapel, on 
Jan. 30, 1755,/ entitled ^* Kings should obey the Laws." 
3. " A Letter to the Clergy of the Church, known by the 
name of Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, concerning a re- 
markable book of hymns used in their congregations, 
pointing out several inconsistencies and absurdities in the 
said book," 1756, Svo. 4. ^'\Some account of a Roman 
station lately discovered on the borders of Yorkshire.-* 
5. ^* A mistaken passage in Bedels Ecclesiastical History 
explained." 6. ^< Druidical remains in or near the parish 
of Halifax, &c." These* three last are printed in the Ar- 
cheeologia. He had also made collections for the antiqui** 
ties of Chester and of a part of Lancashire. The late Mr, 
Gilbert Wakefield, who married his niece, says, Mn Wat^ 
son was one of the hardest students he ever knew. Hia 
great expellence was a knowledge of antiquities, but '< be 
was by no means destitute of poetical fancy; had writteo 
some good songs, and was possessed of a most copious col* 
lection of bon-mots, facetious stories, and humorous com^ 
positions of every kind, both in verse and prose, writtea 
out with uncommon accuracy and neatness." From* the 
same authority we learn that Mr. Watson had once a faudi- 
brastic controversy with Dr. Byrom of Manchester. ^ 

WATSON (Richard), a late eminent and learned pre- 
late, was born in August 1737, at Heversbam in West- 
moreland, five miles from Kendal, in which town his fe- 

y W«tM«'t Hilt of Hilifai..^^Cen8. LHeraria, rot I.— Wakefitld'S MfttUff . 



W A t is O H'. 



^2d 



flier, a clergyman, was master of the free grammar-^schoolj 
knd took upon himself the whole care of his son's earl^ 
education. From this seminary he was sent, in November 
1754, with a considerable stock of classical learning, a spi* 
rit of persevering industry, and an obstinate provincial ae- 
ibent, to Trinity college, Cambridge, where, from the time 
4)f his admission, he distinguished himself by close appli- 
eation to study, residing constantly, until made a ^cholaV 
in May 1757. He became engaged with private pupils iti 
^November following, and took the degree of B. A. (With 
superior credit, being second Wrangler,) in January 175^1 
He was elected fellow of trinity college in Oct. 1760^' 
was appointed assistant tutor to Mr. Backhouse in Novem- 
ber that year; took the degree of M. A. in 1762, and was 
made moderator, for the first time, in October following,- 
He was unanimously elected professor of chemistry in Nov. 
1764; became one of the head tutors of Tritiity college in 
1767 ; appointed regius professor of divinity (on the death 
of the learned Dr. Rutherforth) in Oct. 1771, with the rec- 
tory of Somersham in Huntingdonshire annexed. 
•- During a residence of more than thirty years, he was 
distinguished at one time by the ingenuity of his chemical 
researches ; at another, by his demeanour in the divinity 
chaii"*. He wrote, within the above period, the following 
papers in the Philosophical Transactions (having been 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1769) : " Experi- 
ments and Observations on various Ph^snomena attending 
the Solution of Salts ;'* «< Renriartts on the Effects of Cold 
in February 1771 ;** "Account of an Experiment made' 
with a Thermometer, whose Bulb was painted black, and 
exposed to the rays of the Sun ;" ** Chemical Experiments' 
and Observations on Lead Ore;'* all which were reprinted^ 
in'4he fifth volume of the « Chemical Essays." In 1768 
bo publishied ** Institutiones Mfetallurgicie,*'8vo, intended 
as a text-book for that part of his chemidiliectures which' 



. ^ 09 ibi« pabject 9 cofresp<mdsot 
to the Gentleman's Magazine, who, 
ti|^8 himself Clericus Lond'inensis, af. 
fevds H8 the folltMriug information i— 
*'Tbe Ute regius professor, biihop 
Waison, liad the singular qualification 
of iiaf>reft»ifig « ttntnerour auditory 
wjth the big^iest opioien of hif abili- 
tie». HisconpreheosiYe mind grasped 
every subject, and, as moderator, he 
united the uf'banHy of the gentleman 



with the dignity of the profetsor. He 
gave full scop^ to the ingeouity of the 
respondents, and their opponenis; and 
delivered his sentlm«'ntf( with a fluency 
and elegance which few caia attain in a- 
foreign language. Duringsixtec^n years 
lie presided in the chair, and left the 
learned meniibery of the university to 
lament that he was obliged, from bad 
health, to retire to his native county.*' 



/> 



aso w A T s o If . 

explained the properties of metallic substances; and in 
1771, ^^ An Essay on the Subjects of Chemistry and their 
general divisions/' ^vo. 

In 1769, he published an Assize Sermon, preached afc 
Cambridge, 4to ; and in 1776, two other sermons preached 
at Cambridge, 4 to, which extended his fame beyond the 
precincts oF the university ; one, on the 29th of May, 
** The Principles of the Revolution vindicated ;" the other^ 
on the " Aniiiveri»ary of his Majesty's Accession." 

In 1774, he was presented to a prebend in the church of 
Ely ; and in January 1780, succeeded Dr. Charles Plump- 
tre in the archdeaconry of that diocese. He published a 
sermon preached before the university at the general fast, 
Feb. 4,47SO; and a discourse delivered to the clergy of 
the archdeaconry of Ely. In August that year he was prer« 
sented by bishop Keene to the rectory of Northi^old, ia 
Nprfolk, 

The principles expressed by Mr. Gibbon, in various parts 
of the *^ History of the Rise and Declension of the Roman 
Empire;" called forth the zeal of Dr. Watson ; whose 
'' Apology for Christianity, in a series of letters, addressed 
to Edward Gibbon, esq." was published in 1776, I2mo^.- 
and several times reprinted. This work is certainly re- 
plete with sound information and reasoning, but it pro-i 
duced in the learned historian no diffidence of his own 
powers, although he did not choose to exert them in con-> 
troversy. A correspondence took place on that occasion 
between the antagonists, which is preserved in the Life of 
Gibbon by lord Sheffield. In .this, which consists of only 
two short . letters. Dr. Watson must, we think, be alloWed 
to have carried his politeness or his liberality to the ut- 
most verge *. 

*^ B^ntinck^street^ Aw. 2, 1776. 

^^ Mr. Gibbon takes the earliest opportunity of presenting 
bis compliments and thanks to Dr. Watson, and of express-* 
ing his sense of the liberal treatment which he has received 
from so candid an adversary. Mr. Gibbon entirely doin« 
cides in opinion with Dr. Watson, that as their different sen- 
timents, on a very important period of history, are now sub- 
mitted to the public, they both may employ their time in a. 
manner much more useful, as well as agreeable, than they . 
could possibly do by exhibiting a single combatin the am* 



* Theie letten are short, and too curioog to be omitted. 



-< 



WATSON. 231 

(ibttheatre of controversy. Mr. Gibbon is therefore deter- 
mined to resist the temptation of justifying, in a professed 
reply, any passages of bis history, which might perhaps be 
easily cleared from censure and misapprehension ; but he 
still reserves to himself the privilege of inserting in a fu- 
ture edition some occasional remarks and explanations of 
his meaning. If any calls of pleasure or business should 
bring Dr. Watson to town, Mr. Gibbon would think himself 
happy in being permitted to solicit the honour of his ac- 
quaintance.'* 

Dr. Watson^s answer, it would appear, was not sent for 
above two years. 

" Sir, Cambridge^ Jan. 14, 1779, 

It will give me the greatest pleasure to have an oppor- 
tunity of becoming better acquainted with Mr.' Gibbon. I 
beg he would accept my sincere thanks for the too favour- 
able^ manner in which he has spoken of a performance, 
which derives its chief merit from the elegance and import' 
ance of the work it attempts to oppose, I have no hope of a 
future existence, except that which is grounded on the 
truth of Christianity. I wish not to be deprived of this 
hope ; but I should be an apostate from the mild principle 
of the religiob I profess, if I could be actuated with the 
least animosity against those who do not think with me 
upon this, of all others, the most important subject. / beg 
j/our pardon for this declaration of my belief; but my tem- 
per is naturally' open, and it ought assuredly to be without 
disguise to a man whom I' wish no longer to loo^ upon as 
an antagonist, but as a friend. I have the honour to be^ 
with every sentiment of respect, your obliged servant, 

R. W.'» 

So extraordinary a letter surely requires no «omn>ent. 

In 1781, he published a volume of " Chemical Essays," 
addressed to bis pupil the duke of Rutland, which was re*< 
ceived with such deserved approbation, as to induce the 
author to give to the world, at different times, four addi- ' 
tionai volumes of equal merit with the first. It has been 
stated, that when bishop Watson obtained the professorship 
of chemistry, without much previous knowledge of that 
science, he oeemed it his duty to acquire it; and accordingly 
studied it with so much industry, as materially to injure his 
health : with what success, his publications on that branch 
of philosophy demonstrate. When he was appointed to 
that professorship, he gave public lectures, which were' 



932 WATSON; 

attended by numerous audiences ; and his '' Gbemical Ea^ 
says'^ prove that his reputation was not undeserved. They 
have passed already through several editions, and are ae-* 
counted a valuable manual to those who pursue that branch 
of science. **7'be subjects of these Essays/' to use the 
author's own words, *^ have been chosen, not so much with 
a view of giving a system of Chemistry to the world, as 
with the humble design of conveying, in a popular wayy 
a general kind of knowledge to persons not much versed in 
chemical inquiries.'' He accordingly apologizes to che- 
mists, for having explained common matters with, what will 
appear to theni, a disgusting minuteness*; and for passing 
over in silence some of the most interesting questions, such 
as those respecting the analysis of air and fire, &c. The 
learned author also apologizes to divines; whose forgiveness 
he solicits, for having stolen a few hours from the studies 
of his profession, and employed them in the cultivation of 
natural philosophy; pleading, in his defence, the example 
of some of the greatest characters that ever adorned either 
the University of Cambridge, or the Church of England. 
In the preface, to the last of these volumes, he introduces 
the following observations: *' When I was elected pro- 
fessor of divinity in 1771, I determined to abandon for 
ever the study of chemistry, and 1 did abandon it for seve- 
' ral years ; but the veferis vestigia flamnue still continued 
to delight me, and at length seduced me from my pur- 
pose. When I was naade a bishop iivl782, I again de- 
termined to quit my favourite pursuit : the volume which 
I now offer to the public is a sad proof of the imbecility 
of my resolution. I have on this day, however, offered a 
sacrifice to other people's notions, I confess, rather than to 
my own opinion of episcopal decorum. I have destroyed 
all my chemical manuscripts. A prospect of returning 
health might have persuaded me to pursue this delightful 
science ; but I have now certainly done with it for ever—- 
at least I have taken the most effectual step I could to wean 
myself from an attachment to it : for with the holy zeal of 
the idolaters of old, who had been addicted to curious arts 
— I have burned my books." 

Having been tutor to the late duke of Rutland^ when his 

Srace resided at Cambridge, Dr. Watson was presented by 
im to the valuable rectory q( Enaptoft, Leicestershire, in 
1732 ; and in the same year, through the recommendation of 
the same aoble patron, was advanced and coQsecrated to the 



W A T S O ^li 411 

i>Miopric pf Landaff, In consequence of the smallness of 
the reveDues of the latter. Dr. Watson was allowed to bold 
with it the archdeaconry of Ely, bis rectory in Leicester- 
shire, the divinity professorship, and rectory of Somersham> 
At that time his fame for talents and science stood very 
high; but his politics having taken an impression from the 
.party which he had espoused, and which, though (hen ad^ 
mitted to power, had been in opposition, probably pre- 
vented bis advancement to a more considerable eminence 
on the episcopal bench ^. Immediately after his promo- 
tion, he published <^A Letter 'to archbishop Cornwailison 
the. Church Revenues," 1783, 4tQ; recommending a new 
ilisposition, by which the bishoprics should be rendered 
equal to each other in value, and the smaller livings be sp 
far increased in income, by a proportionate deduction frojoa 
th§ richer endowments^ as to reiiider them a decent cpmper. 
tency. This letter produced several pamphlets in oppo- 
sition to the scheme, which was never^afterwards brought 
forward in any other shape. In 1784 bishop Watson pub* 
lished '^ A Sermon preached before the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, in the Abbey Church, Westminster, on Friday^ 
Jan. 30,^' 4to; and also ^^ Visitation Articles for the Dipr* 
cese of Landaff,^V 4to« 

In 1785, this learned prelate was editor of a ^^ Collect 
tion of Theological Tracts, selected from various authorsi 
for the use of the younger Students in the University,'*- 
6 vols. 8vo. Thi; compilation, comprising pieces on the 
most interesting subjects in sacred literature by differeni 
writers, was intended to form a library of divinity for every 
candidate for holy orders. Some objections, however, have 
been made to it on the score of its not being entirely con^ 
fined to the writings of members of the Church of England^ 
or at least that it did i)ot exclude some of dubious princi- 
ples. In the same year he published ^^ The Wisdom and 
Goodness of God, iu having made both Rich and Poor, n 
Sermon,'' 4to; and a second edition in 1793. 

In 1786, bishop Watson had a considerable accession tp 
his private fortune, by the death of Mr. Luther, of Ongar 
in Essex; who, having been one of his pupils at Cam<r 
bridge, retained so great a sense of his worth, that hc|. 

/\ 

* At the time of the king^s iUoess sionally advanced by him during the 

in 1789, bishop Watson advocated the Aaif;rica(i War, and at an early period 

uaqualified right oftbeprtoce of Wales of the French Revolution, bad the e(U 

to assume the regency, which, i»ith feet, it in supposed, of impeding hia 

tome other political doctrines t>coa- trdoslation to a better bishopric. ^ 



SSt WATSON. 

bequeathed to him an estate, which was sold to the earl 'of 
Egremont for 249OOO/. 

In 1788 he published *^ Sermons on Public Occasions, 
end Tracts on Religious Subjects,*' 8vo, consisting chiefly 
t>f -smaller pieces which had before been printed separately. 
** An Address to young Persons after Confirmation, 1789,*^ 
12mo, which had been annexed to the first of his charges; 
and (anonymous) ** Considerations on the Expediency of 
revising the Liturgy and Articles of the Church of England,'* 
1790, 8vo. On the 27th of February, 1791, bishop Wat- 
son preached, to a crowded congregation, at the church of 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields, a sermon before the governors of 
th^ Royal Humane Society, and again pleaded for the 
^same Society in 1797, in a sermon at St. Bride's, Fleet- 
street ; but neither of these has been printed. His sermon 
for the Westminster Dispensary (preached in 1785), was 
published in 1792, with an excellent appendix ; as well as 
" A Charge delivered to the Clergy of his Diocese in June 
1791," 4to. — " Two Sermons, preached in the Cathedral 
Church of LandafF,,and a Charge delivered to the Clergy 
of that Diocese in June 1795," were published together in 
1795, 4to. The first of these Sermons is a general argu*" 
ment against Atheists ; the second, a more particular dis- 
cussion of the evidences for Christianity. The purport of 
the charge is, to recommend theological humility, in op- 
position to dogmatizing. 

In 1796, his lordship's powers in theoUgieal controversy 
were called forth on a most important occasion, though by 
a very inferior antagonist to Gibbon. Thomas Paine, after 
having enlightened the world in regard to politics, pro- 
ceeded, in his " Age of Reason," to dispel the clouds in 
which, he impiously conceived, Christianity had for so 
many ages enveloped the world. , The arguments of this 
man were abundantly superficial ; but his book was likely 
to produce greater effect than the writings of the most 
learned infidels. The connexion of his political with his 
religious opinions tended still farther to increase the dan- 
ger ; for atheism and jacobinism at that time went hand in 
hand. It was on this occasion that the bishop of Landaff 
atood forward in defence of Christianity, by publishing his 
most seasonable and judicious *^ Apology for the Bible, in 
a Series of Letters addressed to Thomas Paine," 12mo. 
His genius was here rendered peculiarly conspicuous, by 
his adopting the popular manner and style of bis antago^ 



WATSON. 255 

Hist; atid by thus addressing himself in a particular^ hiant- 
ner to the comprehensions and ideas of those who were 
mostjikely to be misled by the arguments he so very ably 
confuij^ed. By this he in a great measure contributed to 
prevent the pernicious effects of "The Age of Reason'* 
among the lower classes of the community, and at the 
same time led them to suspect a«id detest the revolutionary 
and political tenets of tbe.apthor. The British Critics^' 
speaking of this apology, say, "We hail with much de« 
light the repetition of editions of a book so important to 
the best of causes, the cause of Christianity, as the present 
It is written in an easy and popular style. The author has 
purposely, and we think wisely, abstained from pouring 
into it much of that learning which the stores of his mind 
would readily have supplied. He has contented himself 
with answering every argument or eavil in the plainest and 
clearest manner, not bestowing a superfluous word, or 
citing a superfluous authority for any point whatever.'* 
- From the verycommencement of the discussions on the 
slave trade, bis lordship always stood forward as a sdrenu* 
ous advocate for icg abolition ; and though in the earlier 
years of the eventfol contest with France which speedily 
succeeded, he in general recommended paciflc measures^ 
yet before • its conclusion he became convinced of the ne* 
cessity of prosecuting the war with vigour* His lordship^s 
" Address to the People of Great Britain,''- 1798, 8vo, is 
evidently the address of a man, who amidst all the differ- 
ences in matters of less moment, feels honestly for his 
country in the hour of danger, and wishes to unite all 
bands and hearts in her defence. Such a tract from so' 
distinguished a character was not likely to pass unnoticed : 
several replies appeared, among which the ivtost intempe- 
rate was that of Gilbert Wakefield. His ** Charge deli-* 
vered to the Clergy of Landaff, is a suitable supplement 
to the " Address;" and in 1802 appeared another very ex* 
cellent << Charge to the Clergy of LandaflP." In 1803, the 
bishop published ^^ A Sermon, preached in the Chapel of 
the London Hospital, on the 8th of April ;" a powerful an- 
tidote to the mischief produced among the people at large 
by his old antagonist Paine ; of whom he takes occasion 
thus to spe^k, cootrasting hitn, as an unbeliever, with sir 
Isaftc Newton as a- believer: ^^ I think myself justified in' 
saying, that a thousand suc^ men -are, in -understanding,.^ 
but as tbe dqfst of the balance^ wl^en weighed against New«^ 



£S« WATSON. 

ton;** M indubic&ble truth, most usefully presented to ihii 
Contemplation of the multitude. In the same year ap-* 
peared his ^ Thoughts on the intended Invasion/' 8vo; 
In ^* The Substance of a Speech intended to have been 
delivered in the House of Lords, Nov. 22, 1803/* which was 
printed in 1 804, bishop Watson warmly entreats the nation 
to coincide with the measures proposed for the emancipa- 
' tion of the y^atholics, and also states some proposals for free- 
ing the nation of its public burthens by one patriotic effort. 

The bishop published a Sermon preached at St. 'George, 
Hanover-square, May 3, 1 804, before the Society for the 
Suppression of Vice ; for whi<;h» it cannot be denied, he 
pleads with his usual energy ; though it must beadmitted, 
th^e. principles and maxims of the society may not be found 
BO efficacious towards the wished-for reformation, which is 
levelled at the lower rahks of society, instead of the higher, 
who are the manifest corrupters t>f the others, by their ex* 
ample and influence. 

"A Charge delivered to the Clergy of th^ Diocese of 
Landaff in June 1805,'' was published in that year; and 
another in 1808 :— " Two Apologies, one for' Christianity 
against Gibbon, and the other for the Bible against Paine, 
published together with two Sermons and a Charge in De- 
fence of Revealed Religion," in 1806, 8vo:— " A Second. 
Defence of Revealed Religion, in two Sermons ; preached' 
in the Chapel-royal, St. James's, 1807.*' — "Communica- 
tion to the Board of Agriculture, on Planting and Waste 
Lands," 180^. His lordship's latest publication was a col-' 
lection of " Miscellaneous Tracts on Religious, Political, 
and Agricultural subjects," 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. Some ar- 
ticles by him occur in the Transactions of the Manchester 
Literary and Pbiiosophicail Society, of which he was one' 
of the earliest members. During the last years of his life 
bis lordship employed his leisure up6n a history of his own^ 
times, after the manner of bishop Burnet's celebrated 
work ; and left directions for its publication after his de- 
cease. Such a performance from so ertiinent a character 
will, of course, be expected with no ordinary anxiety by 
the political as well as the literary world, and will throw 
light on those parts of his own character and conduct which' 
have been the subject of sonfe difference of opinion. Iti 
the inean tifxie it may be said of him, that he was an ex- 
^lent public speaker,^ both in the puif^it and in the #6^ 
Jiote ; his action graceful^ his voice ftiU and harmoniboSy 



w A T s o K Sir 

ftoii] bis delivery cbaste.and correct. As far a$ his influence 
exieacled, be was. invariably the patron of merit. As a 
writer, bisbop Watson united tlie knowledge of a scholar 
with the liberality of a gentleman, and in the course of a 
long, active, and conspicuous life, his lordship's demean-^ 
our was marked by the characteristics of a very superior 
mind. His partiality to unlimited toleration in regard to^ 
religious opinion called down upon him the applauses of 
one part of the community, and the censures of the other. 
He uoiforanly exerted his endeavours to procure the aboli- 
tion of the corporation and test-acts. In his private deport^ 
ment, though somewhat resented, he was' remarkable for 
the simplicity 6f his manners, and the equality of his tem>- 
pex: ; enjoying all the emoluments of his stations, and the 
fame arising from his writings, in rural retirement, at CaU 
garth-park, Westmorland, a beautiful sequestered sittia- 
tion on the celebrated Lakes, a retreat which he bad not 
only adorned and improved, but in some measure created/ 
and where he passed much of. his time in the irfdul* 
gence of those deep studies to which his whole life was 
addicted* His plantations here were very extensive, an(t 
in 1789 gained him a premium from the Society for the 
encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Comttierce«* 
On the whole, Dr. Watson may justly be pronounced a' 
prelate of distinguished abilities, learning, research, and 
industry. He had a numerous family, and many disttn-- 
guished personages, were attached to him by the ties of 
friendship ;. amongst whom, the late duke of Graf: on, to the 
dose of his life, was long one of the most conspicuous. * 

WATSON (Robert), an elegant historian, was born at 
St. Andrew's in Scotland, about 1730. He was the son of 
an apothecary of that place, who was also a brewer. . Hav- 
ing gone through the usual course of languages and phiio-'' 
sophy at the scHool and ■ university of 8t Andrew's, and' 
also entered on the study of divinity, a desire of being ac- 
quainted with a larger circle of literati, and of improving' 
hia|self in every bcanch of knowledge, carried him, first,* 
to the university of Glasgow, and afterwards to that of< 
Edinburgh. The period of theological studies at the uni- 
versities of Scotland is four years ; but during that time' 
young men of ingenious minds find sufficient leisure to' 
carry OQ and advance the pursuits of general knowledge.^ 
few men studied aiore censtanily than Mr. Wation. If 

* ' *- ' ' • ^ »Geiit. Mag. for 1816. 



JSS WAT SO N. 

jffBB a rule with him to study eight hours every day ; and 
this Isiw he observed during the whole course of his life. 
An acquaintance with the polite writers of England, after 
the union of the two kingdoms, beoame general in Scot- 
land ; and in Watson^s younger years, an emulation be^^n 
lo prevail of writing pure and elegant English. Mr. Wat-> 
son applied himself with great industry to the principles of 
philosophical or universal grammar ; and by a combination 
pt these, with the authority of the best English writers, 
formed a course of lectures on style or language. He pro^^ 
eeeded to the study of rhetoric or eloquence ; the princi^' 
pies of which be endeayoured to trace t6 the nature of the 
human mind. On these subjects he delivered a course of 
lectures at Edinburgh, similar to what Dr. Adam Smith had 
delivered in the same city previous to his removal to Glas* 
gow in 1751. To this he was encouraged by lord Karnes, 
who judged very favourably of his literary taste and ac« 
quirements; and the scheme was equally successful in Wat- 
son's as in Smith's hands. 

. At this time he had become a preacher ; and a vacancy 
having happened in one of the churches of St. Andrew's, 
be offered himself a candidate for that living, but was dis- 
appointed, yet he succeeded in what proved more advan- 
tageous. Mr. Henry Rymer, who then taught logic at St. 
Salvador's college, was in a very infirm state of health, 
and entertaining thoughts of retiring. Mr. Watson pur- 
chased, for no great sum .of money, what, in familiar 
phraseology, may.be termed the good-will of Mr. Rymer's 
place ; and with the consent of the other masters of St. 
Salvador's, was appointed professor of logic. He obtained 
also a patent from the crown, constituting him professor of 
rhetoric and belles-lettres. The study of logic in St. An- 
drew's, as in most other places, was at this time confined 
to syllogisms, modes, 'aud figures. Mr. Watson, whose 
mind had been opened by conversation, and by reading 
the writings of the literati who had begun to flourish in the 
Scotch capital, prepared, and read to his students, a 
course of inetaphysics and logic on the most enlightened 
plan ; in which he analyzed the powers of the mind, and 
entered 'deeply into the nature of truth or knowledge. On 
the death of principal Tullidelpb, 0r. Watson, through 
the interest of the earl of Kinnoul, was appointed his suc- 
cessor, ia which station he lived only a iew years, dying 
in 1780. He is chiefly known iii the literary world by his 



J 



W A T "S O N. ^«f 

^ HUtory of Pbjlip IL'' a very interesting portion of hk^ 
tory, and in which the English, under queen Elizabeth, 
had a considerable share. He wrote also the history ot 
Philip III. but lived only to complete four books ; the last 
two were written, and the whole published in 410^ 1783 
(afterws^rds reprinted in 2 vols. 8vo), by Dr. William Thom- 
son,, at the desire of the guardians of Dr. Watson^s chii- 
dren, whom be bad by his wife, who was daughter to 
Mr. Shaw,, professor of divinity in St. Mary's-coUege, St« 
AnArew's, ' 

WATSON ^Thomas), a Roman catholic prelate in tba 
reign of queen Mary, was educated at St. John's-coilege, 
Cambridge, of which he was elected fellow, and in 1553 
master. In November of the same year the queen gave 
him the deanery of Durham, vacant by the deprivation of 
Robert Home. He had previously to this been for some 
time chaplain to Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, and wa« 
equally hostile to the reformed religion. In April 1554, 
he was incorporated D. D. at Oxford, and in August 1557, 
was consecrated bishop of Lincoln. In this see he re*' 
Qiained until the accession of queen Elizabeth, when h^ 
was deprived on account of denying the queen^s sopra-* 
macy ; and remaining inflexible in his adherence to popery^ 
he suffered confinemeat in or near London until 1580, 
when he was removed to Wisbech-castle, together with 
the abbot Feckenham, and several others. He died there 
Sept 25, 1582, and was interred in the church-yard of 
Wisbech. He held several conferences with those, of the 
reformed religion, and parlicularly was one of those ap^ 
pointed to confer with, or rather sit in judgment on^Cran* 
mer, Ridley, and Latimer, previously to their exeoutioa 
a^ Oxford. For some time he was confined in GMndal^a 
house, and that prelate wished to converse calmly with 
him on the points in dispute at that time, but he answered 
that he would not enter into conference with any man. 
Watson is represented as of a sour aud morose temper. 
Of his works, we bave beard only of, 1. ^^ Two Sermons 
before queen Mary^ on the real .presence and sacrifice of 
the mass,** Lond. 1554, 8vo. 2, ^^ Wholesoaie and Ca» 
tho.Uc doctrine concerning. the seven. Sacraments, in thirty 
Sermons,*' ibid. 1558, 4to. Dodd mentions as his anta- 
gonists or answerers, *^ A Sermon against Thgrnas Wat- 

^ EaisycIopKdia BritaDalca.-^WQodhou8elee^ Life of Lord Kpmsum 



»I0 WATSON. 

•on*s two Sermons, by which he would prove the real pre-^ 
sence," ibid. 1569, 4to, by Robert Crowley ; and "Ques-^ 
tio in Tbomam Watsonium Episc. Lincoln, aliosque, super 
qatbusdam articiiiis de bulla papali contra reginam Eliz;** 
Fntncfort, 1621. 

Bishop Watson has been confounded by Wood, Dodd, 
aud others, with Thomas Watson, the sonnetteer, and they 
have attributed to the prelate the translation of the '^ Ailti- 
gone" of Sophocles, which belongs to the other. Bishop 
Watson, indeed, who appears to baVe been at one time a 
polite scholar, composed a Latin tragedy called ^*Ab$olon;'' 
but this he would not allow to be printed because in locis 
paribus^ anapcesttLs was twice or thrice used instead of 

Of Watson, the sonnetteer, we have very little personal 
history. He was a native of London, and educated at 
Oxford, where he applied all his studies to poetry and 
romance, in which he obtained an honourable name. An 
simple account of his various productions, va)uat>le' rarities 
in the poetico- commercial world, may be seen in our au-* 
tborities. He is supposed tb have outlived his namesake, 
the prelate, and died in 1591 or 1592. ^ 
, WATSON (Thomas), a nonconformist divine of con- 
tliderabte eminence, was educated at Emmanuel college, 
Cambridge, where he was remarked to be a very hard stu- 
dent. In 1646, he became rector of St. Stephen^ Wal- 
brook^ by the sequestration of his predecessor, and was a 
preacher of great £sime and popularity until the restoration, 
when he was ejected for nonconformity. In other respects 
be was a man rather of loyal principles, and besides a vi- 
gorous opposition to the measures adopted against the life- 
of Gharles I. and a remonstrance to Cromwell against the 
murder of that sovereign, he was concerned in what wa» 
called Love's plot to bring in Charles II. and was for some 
time imprisoned in the Tower on that account. After his 
ejectmetit from St. Stephen's, Walbrook, he occasionally 
preached where he could with safety, until undulgence 
being granted in 1672, he fitted up the great hall in Crosby 
House, Bishopsgate-street, which then belonged to sir John 
Laogham, a nonconformist, and preached there several 

1 Atfa. Ox. Tol. Id— ^Dodd*s Ch. Hist««-^atchm«on*s Darham, toL IL p. It?, 
— Strype'i Grindal, p. 78 --^nr. Mag. vol. LXIIt and LXVIII.-«<}eot. Lit. 
vol. I.— Philips's Tbeatfum, by s'ht fi. Brydf ft,— £Um'9 Speoiiii0AS«— •filblio» 
srapber, yoK IV.— Walton's Hift, of Po«lrx. 



WATSON. 241 

years* At length he retired to Essex, where be died sud* 
denly, as is supposed about 1689 or 1690. The time, 
either of his birth or death, is do where mentioned.. He 
published a variety of small works on practical subjects,, 
particularly " The Art of Divine Contentment," which 
has gone through several editions ; but his greatest work is 
his " Body of Divinity,'' ,1692^ fol. consisting of a series of 
sermons on the Assembly's Catechism, reprinted a few 
years ago in 2 vols. 8vo. * 

WATSON (Sir Wiluam), eminent for his skill in botany 
and electri.city, was born in 1715, in St. Job n^s- street, 
near Smith field, where his father was a reputable trades-- 
mau. He was educated at Merchant Taylors^ school, and 
in 1730 was apprenticed to Mr. Richardson, an apothecary. 
In his youth he had a strong propensity to the study of 
natural history, and particularly to that , of plants. This 
led him to make frequent excursions in a morning, several 
miles from London ; so that he became early well ac- 
quainted with the indigenous plants of the environs of Lon- 
don; and, during his apprenticeship, he gained the ho- 
norary premium given annually by .the apothecaries com- 
pany to such young men as exhibit a superiority in the. 
knowledge of plants. In 1738 Mr. Watspn married, and 
set up in business for himself. His skill and diligence in 
his profession soon distinguished him among his acquaint- 
ance, as did his taste for natufal history and his general 
knowledge of philosophical subjects among the members of 
the royal society, into which learned body he was elected 
in 1741; his 6rsttwo communications being printed in the 
41st volume of the Philosophical Transactions. 

Soon after his admission he distinguished himself as a 
botanist, and communicated some ingenious papers to the 
society, which are printed in their Transactions, particu- 
larly " Critical remarks on the Rev. Mr. Pickering's paper - 
concerning the Seeds of Mushrooms," which that gentle- 
man considered as a new discovery, whereas Mr. Watson 
shewed that they had been demonstrated several years prior 
to that period by M. Micheli, in his " Nova plantarum 
genera," printed a,t Florence in 1729. But that which at- 
tracted the attention of foreign botanists mostly, was his. 
description of a rare and elegant species of fungus, called 

* CaUmy. — Wilson's Hist, of Disscn'ing Churches.— C©le*s MS. Athenac Can- 
tab, io Brit. Mu«. 

Vol. XXXI. R 



242 WATSON. 

from its form geaster. This was written in Latin, and ac« 
companied with an ekigra?iiig. 

In 1748 Mr. Watson had an opportunity of showing at-* 
tention to M. Kalm, during his abode in England, which 
was from February till August, when he embarked for 
America. He introduced him to the curious gardens, and 
accompanied him in several botanical excursions in the 
environs of London. This eminent pupil of Linnaeus, who > 
was a Swedish divine, on his return home, became pro-» 
fessor of oeconomy at Abo, where he died Nov. 16, 1779. 
(See KalM.) The same civilities were manifested by Dr. 
Watson to the eminent Dr. Pallas, of Petersburgh, during 
his abode in England, which was from July 1761 to April 
1762. 

In 1749, in company with Dr. Mitchell, Mr. Watson 
examined the remains of the garden formerly belonging to 
the Tradescants. They found the arbutus, and the cti- 
pressus Americana, with other erotics, in a vigorous state, 
after having sustained the winters of this climate for one 
hundred and twenty year^. This situation had also af- 
forded a proof, not often exemplified, of the large size 
to which the common buckthorn will grow. They found 
one about twenty feet high, and near a foot in diameter. 
In 1751 were laid before the public some very curious and 
interesting particulars relating to the sexes of plants, which 
tended to confirm the truth of that doctrine in a remarkable 
manner. These were occasioned by a letter from Mr. My- 
lins, of Berlin, informing Mr. Watson that a tree of the 
palma major foliis flahelliformibuSy which, although it had 
borne fruit for thirty years past, had never brought any to 
perfection until the flowers of a male tree, brought from 
Leipsic, twenty German miles distant, had been suspended 
over its branches. A fter this operation, the tree yielded 
the first year above one hundred, and the second, upon 
repeating the experiment, above two thousand ripe fruit ;^ 
from which eleven young palm-trees had been propagated. 

Mr. Watson paid the same tribute, in 1751, to the me- 
mory of Dr. Henry Compton, bishop of London, the friend 
and patron of Mr. Ray, as he had done to that of the 
Tradescants ; and gives a list of thirty-three exotic trees, 
which were then remaining in the garden at Fulham. Froil^ 
this catalogue may be inferred, not only the original spleo* 
dour of the garden, and the zeal and taste the bishop 
shewed in the cultivation of such numerous curiosities, bur 



W A T S d 51. 24S 

the facility with which trees of very different latitudes may 
becottie naturalized in England. 

In the 45th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, wd 
find '^ an account of the cinnamon>tree ;" occasionejd by a 
large specimen, equal in size to a walking cane, seht over 
by Mr. Robins to Dr. Leatherland, and which was exhibited 
to the inspection of the royal society. From this account 
we learn that three cinnamon trees, which w<^re intended 
to have been Sent to Jamaica, were growing in the garden 
of Hampton Court in the reign of king William. 
• Mr. Watson, about this time, was the first; his biographer 
apprehends, who communicated to the English reader an 
account of a revolution which was about to take place 
among the learned, in botany and zoology, respeciing the 
removal of a large body of marine productions, which had 
heretofore been ranked among vegetables ; but which were 
now proved to be of animal origin, and stand under the 
tiame of zoophytes, in the present system of nature. It 
may be easily seen that this respects the corals, corallines^ 
eschars^, madrepores, sponges, &c. ; anid although even Ges- 
ner, Imperatus, and Kuniphius, had sonbe obscure ideas 
relating to the dubious structure of this class, yet the full 
discovery that these substances were the fabrications of 
polypes, was owing to M. Peyssonnel, physician at Gua- 
daloupe. This gentleinah had imbibed this opinion first in 
I7S3, at Marseilles, and confirmed it in 1725, on the coast 
of Barbary. While at Guadaloupe he wrote a volume of 
400 pages in 4to, in proof of this subject, which he trans- 
mitted in manuscript to the royal society of London. It 
was afterwards translated, analyzed, and abridged in 1752 
by Mr. Watson, and published in vol. XLVII. of the Phi- 
losophical Transactions, at a time when the learned were 
wavering in their opinions on this mattef. 

Omittiog the very minute account whicb Dr. Ptflteney 
has given of every botanical communication nnade by Mr. 
Watson, we may observe that his talents rendered him SL 
welcome visitor to sir Hans Sloane, who had retired to Chel- 
sea in 1740. In fact, he enjoyed no small share of thefa7 
vour and esteem of that veteran in science, and was ho- 
noured so faV, as to be nominated one of the trustees of the 
British Museifm by sir Hans himself. After its establish-' 
ment in Montague hotise^ Mr. Watson was very assiduous, 
not only in the internal arrangement of subjects, but also 
III procuring the garden to be furnished with plants, inso-' 

R 2 



244 W A T S O N. 

much thaty in (he first year of its establishmeiity id 17^^* 
it contained no fewer than 600 species, all in a flourishing 
state. 

Nothing however contributed so much to Nextend Mr, 
Watson's fame as bis discoveries in electricity. He took 
up this subject about [744, and made several important 
discoveries in it. At this time it was no small advancement 
ip the progress of electricity, to be able to. fire spirit of 
wine. He was the first in England who eflfected this, and 
he performed it, both by the direct and the repulsive power 
of electricity. He afterwards fired inflammable matter, 
gunpcfwder, s^nd inflammable oils, by the same ^leans. He. 
also instituted several other experiments, which helped to 
enlarge the power of the electrician ;,but the niost import- 
ant of his discoveries was, the proving that the electric 
power was not created by the globe or tube, but only coU 
lected by it. Dr. Franklin . and Mr. Wilson were alike 
fortunate about the same time. It is easy to see the ex- 
treme utility of this discovery in conducting all subsequent, 
experiments. It soon led to what be called ^^ the circula- 
tion of the electric matter." 

Besides these valuable discoveries, the historian of elec- 
tricity informs us that Mr. Watson first observed the dif- 
ferent colour of the spark, as drawn from different bodies; 
that electricity suffered no refraction in passing through 
glass.; that the power of electricity was not affected by th^ 
presence or absence of fire, since the sparks were equally 
strong from a freezing mixtuire, as from red-hot iron ; that 
flame and smoke were conductors qf electricity ; and that 
the stroke was, as the points of contact of the non-electrics 
on the outside of the glass. This investigation led to tlie 
coating of phials, in order to increase the power of accu- 
mulation ; and qualified him eminently to be the princi* 
pal actor in those famous experiments, which were made 
on the Thames, and at Shooter's Hill, in 1747 and 1748 ; 
in one of which the electrical circuit was extended foiir 
miles, in order to prove the velocity of elecjtricity ; the re- 
sult of which convinced the attendants that it was instan- 
iaueous. 

It o\]ght also to be remembereid^ that Mr. Watson con- 
ducted some other experiments, with so much sagacity and 
address, relating to the impracticability of transmitting 
odours, and the power of purgatives, through glass ; and 
those relating to the exhibition of what was called th^;. 



W A T S 9 N. 245 

** glory round the head,*' or the " beatification,'* boasted 
to have been done by some philosophers on the continent ; 
that h^ procured, at length, an acknowledgment from Mr. 
Bose, of what he called ^' an embellishment," in conduct- 
ing the experiments ; a procedure totally incompatible 
with the true spirit of a philosopher ! 

Mr. Watson's first papers on the subject of electricity 
were addressed, in three letters, to IVJartin Folkes, esq. 
president of the royal society, dated in March, April, and 
October, 1745, and were published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, under the title of '^ Experiments and obser« 
Talions tending to illustrate the nature and properties of 
electricity." These were followed in the beginning of the 
next year (1746) by *' Farther Experiments, &c.;" and 
these by " A sequel to the Experiments," &c. These 
tracts were collected, and separately published in octavo, 
and reached to a third or fourth edition. They were of so 
interesting a nature that they gave him the lead, as it were, 
in this branch of philosophy ; and were not only the means 
of rsiising him to a high degree of estimation at home, 
but of extending his fame throughout all Europe. His 
house became the resort of the most ingenious and illus- 
trious experimental philosophers that England could boast. 
Several of the nobility attended on these occasions y and 
bis present majesty George III. when prince of Wales, ho- 
noured him with his presence. In fact there needs no 
greater confirmation of his merit, at that early time, aa^ 
an electrician, than the public testimony conferred upoa 
him by the royal society, which, in 1745, presented hinr^ 
with sir Qodfrey Copley's medal, for his discoveries in 
electricity. 

After this mark of distinction, Mr. Watson continued to 
prosecute electrical studies and experiments, and to write 
on the subject for many years. In 1772 he was appointed 
by the royal society to examine into the state of the pow- 
der magazines at Purfleet, and with the hon. Mr. Caven^ 
dish, Dr. Franklin, and Mr. Robertson, fixed on pointed 
conductors as preferable to blunt ones ; and again, was of 
the committee in 1778, ahef the experiments of Mr. Wil- 
son in the Pantheon. 

Those who were acquainted with the extent of Mr. Wat- 
son's knowledge in the practice of physic, in natural his- 
tory, and experimental philosophy, were not surprised to 
see him rise into the higher rank of his profession. This 



246 WATSON. 

event to6k place in 1757, previous to which he 'bad been 
chosen a member of the royal academy of Madrid, and he 
was created doctor of physic by the university of Halle, 
't'he samp honout was conferred upon him by that of. Wit- 
temberg about the same time, soon after which be was dis? 
ifrancbised from the gpmpany of apothiecaries. In 1759 be 
became a licentiate in the college of physicians, This'aU 
teration in his. circumstances, iiazardous as it might be 
considered by some, occasioned no diminution in bis emo- 
luments, but far the contrary. He had before this time 
removed from Aldersgate-street to Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
where he lived the remainder of his days: and now he 
found himself at greater liberty to pursue his studies, and 
carry on at more leisure the extensive literary connexion in 
which he was engaged both at home and abroad. In Oct. 
X762 he was chosen one of the physicians to the Founds 
ling Hospital, which office he held during the remainder 
of his life. 

In 1768 Dr. Watson published " An account of a series 
of Experiments, instituted with a view of ascertaining the 
most successful fnethod of inoculating the SmalUpox,'* 8vo. 
These experiments were designed to prove wliether therq 
was any speciBc virtue in preparing medicines; whether 
(he disease was more favourable when the matter was taken 
from the natural or the artificial pock ; and whether the 
crude lymph, or the highly concocted matter, produced 
different effects. The result was, what succeeding and 
ample experience confirmed, that after due abstinence 
from animal food, and heating liquors, it is of small im^ 
portance what kind of variolous matter is used ; and that 
no preparatory specifics are to be regarded. Dr. Watson 
also published various papers in ** The London Medical 
Observations," and other similar works, of which it is un- 
necessary to give a detailed account, as they are well 
known to medical practitioners. 

As Dr. Watson lived in intimacy with the most illustrious 
and leaifned fellows of the royal society, so he was himself 
one of its most active members, and ever zealous in pro- 
moting the ends of that institution. For many years he 
was a frequent member of the council ; and, during the 
presidentship of sir John Priugle, was elected one of the 
vice-presidents ; which honourable oflSce he continued to 
^11 to the end of his days. He was a most constant attend- 
ant on the public meetings of the society ; and on the pri- 



WATSON. ?47 

Vit^te ftssociations of its members, especially on that for^- 
merly held every Thursday, at the Mitre jn Fleet-street, 
and afterwards at the Crown and Anchor tavern in the 
Strand. In 1784, Dr. Watson was chosen a fellow of the' 
RoyaUcoUege of Physicians ; and made one of the elects ; 
an(|, in 1786, be had the honour of knighthood conferred 
upon him ; being one of the body deputed by the college 
to congratuliite bis majesty on his escape from assassi- 
nation. 

In general sir William Watson enjoyed a firm state .of 
health. It was sometimes interrupted by fits of the gout ; 
but these seldom confined him long to the house. In 
1786, the decline of his health was very visible to his 
friends, and bis strength was greatly diminished, together 
with much of that vivacity which so strongly marked his 
character. He died May 10, 1787. 

Sir William Watson had a natural activity both of mind 
and body that never allowed him to be indolent in the, 
slightest degree. He was a most exact ceconomist of his 
time, and throughout life a very early riser, being up 
usually in summer at six o'clock, and frequently sooner ; 
thus securing to himself daily two or three uninterrupted 
hours for study. In his younger days, these early hours 
were frequently given up to the purposes of simpling; 
but, in rip^r years, they were devoted to §tudy. He riead 
much and carefully ; and his ardent and unremitting de- 
sire tp be acquainted with the pirogress of all those sciences 
which were hisobjects, joined to a vigorous and retentiveme- 
mory,* enabled him to treasure up a vast stock of knowledge. 
What he thus acquired be freely dispensed. His mode of 
5;onveying information" was clear, forcible, and ^energetic. 
His attention, however, was by no means confined to the sub^ 
jects of his own profession, or those of philosophy at large. 
He was a eyeful observer of men, and of the manners of 
the age ; and the extraordinary endowment of bis memory 
had (urnisbed bina with a great variety of interesting and 
entertaining anecdotes concerning the characters and cir* 
cumstances of his time. On all subjects, his liberal and 
communicativi^ disposition, and his courteous behaviour, 
encouraged inquiry ; and those who sought for informa** 
tion from him, seldom departed without it. In his epis« 
tolary correspondence he was copious and precise ; and such 
as enjoyed the privilege and pleasure of it experienced in 
his punctiisUity another quajific^tion which greatly enhan* 



248 WATSON. 

ced its value. It appears by the character his biographer 
has given of him, of which the preceding is a part, that he 
was not less estimable in private than in public life.' 
' WATT, (Joachim.) See VADIANUS. 

WATTEAU (Anthony), a French painter, was bprn 
at Valenciennes in 1684, of mean parents, wi^» were ill 
able to cultivate his genius as it deserved. He was placed 
at first under an ordinary master in the country; but his 
ambition led him to Paris, where he was employed in tbe 
theatre by a scene painter. Here his genius began to 
distinguish itself, and aspired to a prize in the academy, 
which he gained. He found means afterwards to obtain 
the king^s pension, which enabled him to see Rome, on 
which his heart had long been set. Here he was much 
taken notice of ; as he was afterwards in England, where 
be spent a full year. His health declining, he returned 
into his own country with 'a view to establish it; but the 
experiment failed, and he died in the flower of his age in 
1 72 1, a martyr, as is commonly supposed, to industry, 
Watteau was a painter of great merit, considering his age 
and disadvantages. Every thing he gained was from him- 
self. He bad not only his own talents to form ; but h^ had 
bad habits, contracted from bad masters, to overcome. In 
spite of all his difficulties, he became a very eminent 
painter;, and his works are thought worthy of a place in 
the most curious cabinets. Vandyck and Rubens were the 
masters he copied after his studies became liberal. He 
painted chiefly conversation-pieces, in which the airs of his 
heads are much admired. It is thought he would have ex- 
celled in history if he had studied it. He left behind him 
a great number of drawings ; some of which are done in red, 
others in black, chalk ; and many there are in which both 
are mixed. 

Lord Orford, who has included Watteau among his 
painters, allows that England has but very slight pretensfons 
to. him, he having come hither only to consult Dr. Mead^ 
for whom he painted two pictures, that were sold in the 
doctor's collection., He objects to Watteau, and it is a 
very serious objection, that in his landscapes, be did not 
copy his trees from nature, but from those pf the Tuilleries 
and villas near Paris, where they are trimmed into fantas** 
tical shapes. * 

1 Pulteney'i Sketches.T^Tbomson's Elist. of the Royal Society. 
* Pilkin|;tpn*— Argenville, yoI. IV* — W«lpol^'i Anecdotes. 



WATT S. 249 

WATTS (Isaac), a very celebrated dissenter, wasborm 
at SouthaQapton, July 17, 1674. Hi$ father was the mas- 
ter of a boarding-school in that town, of very considerable 
reputation. He was a soberer for non-conformity in the trme 
of Charles II. and when at one time in prison, his wife, it 
is said, was seen sitting on a stone, near the prison-door, 
suckling her son Isaac. 

This son, the eldest of nine children, was a rjemarkable 
instance of early attention to books. He began to learn 
Latin at the age of four, probably at home, and was 
afterwards taught Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, by the Rev. 
John Pinborne, master of the free-school at Southampton, 
rector of All-Saints in the same place, prebendary of Leck- 
ford, and vicar of Eling in the New Forest. To this gen* 
tleman Mn Watts afterwards inscribed an elegant Latin 
ode, which is inserted among his *^ Lyric Poems.'' The 
proficiency he made at this school induced some persons of 
property to raise a sum sufficient to maintain him at one 
of the universities ; but his determination was soon fixed 
to remain among the dissenters, with whom his ancestors 
had long been connected. In 1690, he went to an aca- 
demy superintended by the Rev. Thomas Rowe, where he 
had for his companions Hughes the poet, and Horte, after- 
wards archbishop of Tuam, Mr. Samuel Say, afterwards 
an eminent preacher among the dissenters, and o(her per* 
sons of literary eminence. It is well known that Dr. Watts 
strove to wean Hughes from his attachment to the stage. 
In 1693, he joined the congregation which was under the 
care.of Mr. Rowe, as a communicant. 

His application at this academy was very intense, and 
perhaps few young men have laid in a larger stock of va« 
tioQS knowledge. The late Dr. Gibbons was in possession 
of a large volume in his hand- writing, containing twenty-two 
Latin dissertations upon curious and important subjects; 
which were evidently written when at this academy, and, 
says Dr. Johnson, ^* shew a degree of knowledge, both 
philosophical and theological, such as very few attain by 
a much longer course of study.'' His leisure hours seem 
to have b^en very early occupied in poetical efforts. He 
was, as he hints in his miscellanies, a maker of verses 
from fifteen to fifty, and in his youth he appears to have 
paid attention to Latin poetry. His verses to his brother, 
in the gh/conick treasure, written when he was seventeen, 
are remarkably easy and elegant. Some of bis other odes, 



Z$0 WATTS- 

•a3rs Dr. Johnson, are. deformed by the Pindaric folly 
then prevailing, and are written with such neglect of all 
metrical rules, as is without example amoiig the ancients ; 
but his diction, though perhaps not always exactly pure, 
has such copiousness and splendour^ as shows that he was 
but a very little distance from excellence. The same bio- 
grapher informs us, that ^' bis method of study was, to 
impress the contents of his books upon his memory by 
abridging them, and by interleaving them to amplify one 
system with supplements from another." To this Mr. PaL- 
.mer adds, that it was his custom to make remarks in the 
.jDiargin of his books, and in the blank leaves, to write an 
•account of what was most distinguishing in them, to insert 
-his opinion of the whole, to state his objections to what be 
•thought exceptionable, and to illustrate and confirm what 
appeared to him just and important. 

At the age of twenty he left the academy, and spent two 
years io study and devotion at the house of his father, who 
treated him with great tenderness ; and had the happiness 
indulged to few parents, of living to see his son eminent for 
literature, and venerable for piety. 

At the end of this time, he was invited by sir John Har«- 
-topp, to reside in his family, at Stoke Newington, near 
London, as tutor to his son. Here he remained about four 
^r five years, and on his birth^day that completed his tweA- 
ty-fourtb year, in 1698, preached his first sermon, and was 
chosen assistant to Dr. Chauncy, minister of the congre*^ 
gation in Mark- lane. About three years after, he was ap* 
pointed tQ succeed Dr.. Chauncy ; but had scarce entered 
on this charge when he was so interrupted by illness, as to 
render an assistant necessary ; and after an interval of health 
be was again seized by a fever which left a weakness that 
pever wholly abated, and, in a great measure checked the 
usefulness of his public labours. 

While in this afflicting situation, he w^s received into 
the house of sir Thomas Abney, of Newington, knight, and 
alderman of London, where he was entertained with the 
utmost tenderness, friendship, and liberality, for the space 
of thirty -six years. Sir Thomas died about eight years after 
Dr. Watts became an inmate in his family : but he conti- 
nued with lady Abney, and her daughters, to the end of his 
life. Lady Abney died about a year after him ; and the last 
of the family, Mrs. Elizabeth Abney, in 1782. 



-WATTS. 251 

<' A coalition like t^bis,** says Dr. Johnson^ ** a state in 
which the notions of patronage and dependence were over- 
powered by the perception of reciprocal benefits, deserves 
a particular memorial ; and I will not withhold from the 
reader Dr. Gibbons*s representation, to which regard is to 
be paid, as to the narrative of one who writes what he knows^ 
and what is known likewise to inultitudes besides." 

The passage thus elegantly alluded to is as follows : 
*^ Our next observation shall be made upon that remark- 
ably kind providence which brought the doctor into sir 
Thomas Abney's family, and continued him there till his 
death, a period of no less than thirty-six years. ^ In the 
midst of his sacred labours for the glory of God, and good 
of his generation, he is seized with a most violent and 
threatening fever, which leaves him oppressed with great 
weakness, and puts a stop at least to his public services 
for four years. In this distressing season, doubly so to his 
active and pious spirit, be is invited to sir Thomas Abney's 
family, 'nor ever remoVes from it till he had finished hia 
days. Here he enjoyed the uninterrupted demonstrations 
of the truest friendship. Here, without any care of his 
own, be had every thing' which could contribute to the en« 
joyment of life, and favour the unwearied pursuits of his 
studies. Here he dwelt in a family, which for piety, order, 
harmony, and every virtue^ was an house of God. Here 
he had the privilege of a country recess, the fragrant bower, 
the spreading lawn, the flowery garden, and other advan- 
tages, to sooth his mind and aid his restoration to health ; 
to yield him, whenever he chose them, ihost grateful interr 
vals from hi$ laborious studies, and enable him to return to 
them with redoubled vigour and delight. Had it not been 
for this most happy event, he might, as to outward view, 
have feebly, it may be painfully, dragged on through many 
more years of languor, and inability for public service, and 
even for profitable study, or perhaps' might have sunk into 
his grave under the overwhelming load of infirmities in the 
midst of his days ; and thus the church and world would 
have been deprived of those naany excellent sermons and 
work^ which he drew up and published during his long 
residence in this family. In a few years after his coming 
thither, sir Thomas Abney dies: hut his amiable consort 
survives, who shews the doctor the same respect and friend- 
ship as before, and most happily for him, and great num- 
bers besides, for, as her riches were g)reat, her generosity 



A, 



252 WATTS. 

and manificence were in full proportion : her thread of life 
was drawn out to a great age, even beyond that of the doc* 
tor's -y and thus this excellent man, through her kindness, 
and that of her daughter, the present (1780) Mrs. Eliza* 
beth Abney, who in a like degree esteemed and honoured 
him, enjoyed ail the benefits and felicities he experienced 
at his first entrance into this family, till his days were num- 
bered and finished, and, like a shock of corn in its season, 
he ascended into the regions of perfect and immortal life 
and joy." 

In this retreat, he wrote the whole or nearly the whole 
of thos^ works which 'have immortalized his name as a 
divine, poet, and ^ilosopber. He occasionally preached, 
and in the pulpit, says Dr. Johnson, though his low stature, 
which very little exceeded five feet, graced him with no 
advantages of appearance, yet the gravity and propriety of 
his utterance made his discourses very efficacious. Such 
was his How of thoughts, and such his promptitude of Ian* 
guage, that in the latter pait of his life be did not precom-* 
pose his cursory sermons ; but having adjusted the heads, 
and sketched out some particulars, trusted for success to 
his extemporary powers. 

He continued many years to study and to preach, and to 
do good by his instruction and example, till at last the in- 
firmities of age disabled him from the more laborious part 
of bi^ ministerial functions, and being no, longer capable of 
public duty, he offered to remit the salary appendant to it, 
but his .congregation would not accept the resignation. 
His income did not exceed one hundred pounds, of which 
he allowed one third to the poor. 

His death was distinguished by steady faith and compo- 
sure, and deprived the world of his useful labours and ex- 
ample, Nov. 25, 1748, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 
He expired in that l^ouse where his life had been prolonged 
and made comfortable by a long continuance of kind and 
tender attentions, of which there are few examples. 

Dr. Johnson's character of him, in that admirable life he 
wrote for the English poets, may be received with confi- 
dence. Few men have left such purity of character, or 
such monuments of laborious piety. He has provided in- 
struction for all ages, from those who are lisping their first 
lessdns, to the enlightened readers of Malbranche and 
Locke \ lie has left neither corporeal nor spiritual nature 
unexamined ; he has taught the art of reasoning, and the 



W A T T S» 253 

$cience of the stars. His character, therefore, must be 
formed from the multiplicity and diversity of h^s attain- 
ments, rather than from any single ^performance, for it 
would not be safe to claim for him the highest rank in any 
single denomination of literary dignity ; yet perhaps there 
was nothing in which he would not have excelled, if he 
had not divided his powers to different pursuits. 

His entire works have been published in six volumes 
quarto, and more recently in octavo ; but some pieces pub- 
lished under the title of bis "Posthumous works,*' are con- 
sidered as spurious, with the exception of his letters to his 
friends, which probably are genuine. Of his philosophical 
compositions, those most likely to perpetuate his name, are 
his " Logic,'' and " Improvement of the Mind." In point 
of popularity, his '^ Psalms and Hymns" far exceed all pub- 
lications of the last century, and it is said that for ipaDy 
years past, communibus annis, nearly fifty thousand copies, 
have been printed of these )n Great Britain, Ireland, and 
America. 

Of late years a very important part of Dr.Watts^s cha- 
racter has been called in question. It has been confidently 
asserted by some anti-trinitarians, that before his death he 
was come over to their party, and .that be left some papers 
behind him, containing a recantation of bis former senti- 
ments, which his executors thought it most prudent to 
suppress. But against this charge he has been defended 
by the late rev. Samuel Palmer of Hackney, who pub- 
lished, in 1785, "The Life of Dr. Watts," &c. with, among 
other additions, '^ An authentic account of his last senti- 
ments on the Trinity." In this account Mr* Palmer endea- 
vours to demonstrate that Dr. Watts never gave up the. 
orthodox faith in the doctrine of the Trinity, but that he 
liad somewhat altered his judgment with respect to the 
manner of expressing and maintaining it. Upon a careful 
perusal of the whole, we are inclined to think that Mr. 
Palmer has not removed all the diflSculties attending (he 
question ; although on the other hand he has ably and. 
fully vindicated Dr. Watts from the last evidence to be 
produced from his own pen ; and all that remains to affect 
the character of the doctor rests on an anonymous accusa- 
tion in a literary journal, (Month. Rev. vol. LXVI. p. 170,) 
the author of which we suspect to be Dr. Kippis, who is no 
longer to be called upon for the proofs of his assertion* 
With respect to the reports propagated by some Arian and 



254 



WATTS. 



Socinian writers, that the author revised his Hymns and 
Psalms, a little before bis deatb,.in order to render tbem, 
at tbey say, ^* wholly unexceptienable to every Christian 
professor/* tbey are generally discredited. Yet in reli* 
anceon this reportV editions have been published, in which 
his sentiments have been mutilated, with no sparing hand, 
to accommodate them to Socinian principles. ' 

WATTS (William), a learned sufferer during the usur- 
pation, was hortk near Lynn in Norfolk, about the end of 
the sixteenth century^ and was educated at Caius college^ 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of A. B. in 1610, and 
that of A. M. in 1614, in which last he was incorporated at 
Oxford in 1618. After leaving college, he travelled abroad 
and became master of various languages. On his return 
be was made chaplain in ordinary to king Charles I. In! 
1639 betook his degree of D.D. at Oxford, and had the 
living of St. Alban's, Wood-street, but the time of his ad- 
mission does not appear. He was afterwards chaplain un« 
der the earl of Arundel, general of the iPorces in the Scotch 
expedition in 1639, and prebendary of Wells. About 
1642, his living in London was sequestered, bis wife and 
family turned out of doors, and himself compelled to fly«- 
Some small pittance is said to have been afterwards given 
to his family out of the sale of his goods, tie now joined 
the king, who appointed him to attend as chaplain upon 
prince Rupertj and he was present with his highness iii ait 
his engagements. He also served under the prince on 
board of ship, and was with him when he was blocked up 
in the harbour at Kingsale in Ireland. While here, Dr.* 
Watts was ** taken with a distemper which no physic could 
cure," ai^d of which he died in 1649. Dr. Watts is ofienf 
mentioned by Vossius, as one of the most learned men of 
his time. He liad a principal hand in Spelman^s Glossary, 
and was the editor of Matthew Paris, a tine edition printed 
at London in 1640, fol. In the preface he acknowledges 
his x)bligations to sir Henry Spelmau. He also published 
in 1631, a translation of *' St. Augustine^s Confessions/* 
with marginal notes, &c. 12aio. Wood mentions some • 
other treatises from his pen, but it seems doubtful if thej 
were printed. Wood adds that he published, before the 
civil wars of England began, ** several numbers of news- 

• ■ 

> Life by Gibbons — by Dr. Johnson— ami by Mr. Palmtr. — WiUon'i Hibt. 
of Dissentioip Cburches.- 



WATTS. fi6< 

books,*' wbieh appear to be the newspapers called *^ Th« 
German Intelligencer/' 1^30, and tbe *' Swedish Intelli^ 
gencer/* 1631 ; but he was educated for other and more 
important labours, had the unhappy circumstances of tbe 
times permitted him the quiet use and enjoyment of bis 
time and talents. ' 

WAYNFLETE {William op), the illustrious founder 
of Magdalen college, Oxford, was the eldest son of Richard 
Patten, or Barbour, of Waynflete in Lincolnshire, by Mar« 
gery, daughter of sir William Brereton, knight ; and bad 
for his brother John Patten, dean of Chichester, but tbe 
precise time of his birth is no where ascertained^ Accord'' 
ing to the custom of his day, be took the surname of Wayn^i^ 
flete from his native place. He was educated at Winches** 
ter school, and studied afterwards at Otcford, but* in what 
college is uncertain. Tbe historian of Winchester is in-' 
ciined to prefer New college, which is most consistent witb 
the progress of education at Wykeham's school. Wood 
acknowledges that although his name does not occur amon^ 
tbe fellows of New college, nor among those of Merton^> 
where Holinshed places him, unless he was a chaplain or 
postmaster, yet *^ the general vogue is for the college o^ 
William of Wykeham.'' Wherever he studied, his profi*' 
ciency in the literature of the times, and in philosophy and 
divinity, in which last he took the degree of bachelor, ig 
Said to have been great, and the fame he acquired as school^ 
master at Winchester, with the classical library he formed, 
is a proof that he surpassed in such learning as was then 
attainable. 

Of his preferments ♦ in the church, ^ve have no account 
that is not liable to suspicion. Wood says that he was 
rector of Wraxall in 1433, which is barely possible, al- 
though at this time he was master of Winchester school ; 
and that he was rector of Cbedsey in 1469, which is highly 
improbable, because he had then been twenty years bishop 
of Winchester. It is, however, more clearly ascertained 

* Dr. Chandler has recovered some caiae a subdeAopn by tbe rtyle of 

pa^riiculars vhich are more authentic ViTitllam Waynflete of Spalding : 

t^t^L wbat Wood furnished. It ap« March IS, of the same year, he wai 

pears by these that in 1420, April 31, ordained deaooo, and iu 14S6, Jan. 

iie occurs as an unbe'nt=£ced acolyte, £l8t, presbyter, on the title of the 

under tbe name of William Barbor: house of Spalding. 
in 14€0, Jan. 81, William Barbor be- 

> Ath. Ox. vol. !. new edit.— Walker's Suffertogi«— Lloyd's Meiiioirs.--'Chai-' 
■Mrs Life of Ruddiman^ p** US» 



«6 W A Y N F L E T E. 

that about 1429 he was appointed head master of Win^ 
cheater school, where fa& displayed great ab^ities as a 
teacher. In 1438, he wa^ master of St. Mary Magdalen 
hospital near Winchester, which is -supposed to have sug-t 
gested to him the name and patroness of his foundation at 
Oxford. 

In 1440, when Henry VI. visited 'Winchester for the 
purpose of inspecting the discipline, constitution, and pro- 
gress of Wykeham^s-school, on the model of which he had 
begun to found one at Eton, he procured the consent of 
Waynflete to remove thither, with thirty five of bis scholars 
and 6ve fellows, whose education our founder superintended 
.until December ^1, 1442, when he was appointed provost 
of that celebrated seminary. On the death of cardinal 
Beaufort in. 1447, he was advanced to the see of Winches- 
ter, Much he held fer the long space of thirty-nine years^ 
during which he amply justified the recommendation of the 
kiog, being distinguished ** for piety, learning, and pru- 
deoqe.^' His highness- honoured with his presence the 
ceremony of his enthronement* 

. His. acknowledged talents and political sagacity procured 
i|im the unreserved confidence of his royal master, who 
appears to have treated him with condescending familiarity, 
employed hini in some aifairs of critical importance, atid 
lieceiv^d throughout the whole of his turbulent'reign abun- 
dant proofs of his invariable loyalty and attachment. In 
1450, when the rebellion of Jack Cade burst fortb| Wayn* 
flete, who had retired to the nunnery of HolyweU^ was 
sent for by the king to Canterbury, and advised the issuing 
a proclamation offering pardon to all concerned in the re- 
bellion, except Cade himself; in consequence of which 
the . rebels dispersed, and left their leader to his fate. 
Soon after, when Richard, duke of York, took up arms, 
tlie king sent our prelate, with the bishop of Ely, to in^ 
quiii*e his reasons for so alarming a step. The duke re* 
plied, that his only view was to remove evil counsellors 
from his highness, and particularly the duke of Somerset. 
Waynflete and his colleague having made this report, the 
king ordered the duke of Somerset to be imprisoned, and 
received the duke-of York with kindness, who on his part 
took a solemn oath of future allegiance and fidelity ; which, 
however, he violated at the battle of Northampton in 1460u 
In October 1453, Waynflete baptised the young prince of 
Wales by the name of Edward, afterwards Edward IV. 



W A Y N F L E T E. asi 

I 

in October i456, he was appointed lord high. chanceUor 

\n the room of Bourchier, archbishop of Canterbury; and 

the following year he sat in judgment with the archbishop 

and other prelates, upon Dr. Reginald Pecockoi bishop of 

.Cfaicbester, who had advanced some doctrines contrary to 

the prevailing religious opinions. On this occasion the 

Qourt was unanimous in enjoining Pecocke to a solemn re« 

cantation, and confinement to his house; his writings alsa 

, were ordered to be burnt ; but the archbishop, according 

to Mr.'Lewis's account, took a far more active share in this 

businiess than the chancellor. 

Waynflete resigned the office of chancellor in the month 
of July 1460, about which time he accompanied . the king 
to Northampton, and was with him a few days before the 
fatal battle near that place, in which the royal army was 
defeated* Waynflete's attachment to Henry's cause bad 
been uniform and decided, yet his high character and ta« 
Jents appear to have protected him. Edward I V« treated 
him not only with respect, but with some degree ofjnag- 
danimity, as he twice issued a special pardon in his favour^ 
and condescended to visit bis newly-founded college at 
Oxford, a favour which to Waynflete^ embarked in a work 
t which require^d royal patronage, must have been highly 
gratifying. The remainder of his life appears to have been 
free from political linterrerence or danger, and he lived to 
seethe quiet union of the bouses of York and Lancaster, 
in the marriage of Henry VII. with Elizabeth of York. 
Besides his other preferments, he is said to hstv^ been 
chancellor of the university of Oxford ; but his name no 
where occurs in Wood's copious and accurate account of 
the persons who filled that office. 

He died of a short but violent illness in the afternoon of 
Aug. II, 14&6, and was interred, with great funeral pomp, 
in Winchester cathedral, in a magnificent sepulchral cha* 
pel, which is kept in ^e finest preservation by the society 
of Magdalen-college. In his will he bequeathed legacies 
to all bis servants, to all the religious of both sexes in 
Winchester, to all the clergy, in that city, and to every 
fellow and scholar in Wykeham's two colleges and his own. 

His biographers have celebrated his piety, temper, and 
htmanity* Besides the foundation of Magdalep-college, 
of which an ample detail is given in our authorities, be 
established a free-school in his native town, and was a be- 
Hefector to Eton college, Winchester cathedral, and other 

VoL-lCXXI. S 



2^8 W A Y N F L E T E. 

plisbces. tn these labours, while his mmrificent spirit )i>« 
duced him to hire the ablest artists, he displayed himself 
tery considerable talents as an architect. Leland was in*- 
formed that the greatest part of the buildings of Eton col« 
lege were raised under his direction, and at his expence. 
In 1478 we find him overseer of the buildings at Windsor^ 
an office formerl}' held by his great predecessor Wykebam, 
and it. was from that ptace he sent workmen to complete 
the Divinity-school of Oxford.' 

WEAVER, See WEEVER. 

WEBB (Philip Carteret), a distinguished antiquary, 
born in 1700, was regularly bred to the profession of the 
law 3 and was admitted an attorney before Mr. Justice 
Price, June ^0, 1724 : he lired then in the Old Jewry, but 
afterwards removed to Budge-row, and thence to Great 
Queen-street, Lincoln's-Inn fields. He was peculiiprjy 
lesirned in the records of this kingdom, and particularly 
able as a parliamentary and constitutional lawyer. In 1747, 
he published ^-^ Observations oh the Course of Proceedings 
ih the Admiraltyrcoupts,'* 8vo« In 1751 be assisted m^hr 
terially in obtaining the charter of incorporation for the 
Society of Antiquaries, remitting in that, business the cus« 
iJ^tiizty fees which were due to him as a solicitor;, and on' 
msiny other occasions proved himself a very useful member 
of tbat learned body. Purchasing a house and estate at 
Busbrid^e, Surrey, where he resided in the summer, it 
gave him art influence in the borough of Haslemere, for 
ivbich hi was chosen member in 1754, and again in 1761., 
He'became, under tba patronage of lord chancellor Hard^^ 
wicke, secretary of bankrupts in the Court of Chancery^ 
and was appointed one of the joint solicitors of the treasury 
in 1756. In July 1758, he obtained a silver medal from 
tlie Society of Arts for having planted a large quimtity of 
acorns for timber. In 1760 he had the honour of present- 
ing the famous Heraclean table to the king of Spain, 'by 
the hands of the Neapolitan minister, from whom he re« 
ceived in return (in November that year) a diamond-ringv 
w^orth 500/. .In April 1763, the period of Mr. Wiik^*^ 
b6ioj^ apprehended for writing *' The North Briton," Hfu 
4r5; Vhi Webb .became officially a principal actor ia. that 

ttiemorlible prosecution, but drd not altogether approve, of 

• 

. 1 Chandler's Ljfe of Waynflate.^WDodV Colleges aod Halls.— Clialiaers> 
l|iftt» irf Oxford* 



W E B B. 259 

> 

die severity with which it was carried on ; and printed, on 
that occasion, '* A Collection of feecords about General 
Warrants ;" and also " Obsen^atioiis upon discharging Mr. 
Wilkes from the Tower." He held the oflSce of solicitor 
to the Treasury till June 1765, arid continued sec?retary of 
bankrupts till lord Nortbington quitted the seals in 1766« 
He died at Busbridge, June 22, 1770, aged seventy; and 
bis library (including that of John Godfrey*, esq. which 
he had purchased entire) was sold, with his MSS. on vel- 
lum, 'Feb. 25, and the sixteen following days, 1771. A 
little before bis death he sold to the House of Peers thirty 
MS volumes of the rolls of parliament. His MS& on pa- 
per were sold, by his widow and executrix, to the late 
marquis of Lansdowne, and are now in the British Museum. 
The coil)s and medals were sold by auction the same year, 
three days sale ; in which were all the coins and medals 
found in his collection at the time of his decease; but he 
had disposed of the rbost valuable part to different persons. 
The series of large brass had been picked by a nobleman. 
The noble series of Roman gold (among which were Pom- 
pey, Lepidus, &c.) and the collection of Greek kings and 
lownsj had been sold to Mr. Duane, and afterwards formed 
part of the valuable museum collected by the, late Dr. 
Hunter. The ancient marble busts, bronzes, Roman 
earthen -ware, gems, seals, &c. of which there were 96 lots, 
were sold in the above year. On the death of the late 
Mrs. Webb, the remainder of the curiosities wa^ sold by 
Mr. Langford. Mr. Webb's publications were, 1 . " A Let- 
ter to the Rev. Mr. William Warburton, M. A. occasioned 
by some passages in his book, entitled * The Divine Lega- 
tion of Moses demonstrated.' By a gentleman of Lincoln's 
Inii," 1742, 8vo. 2, " Remarks on the Pretender's De- 
elaration and Commission," 1745, 8vo. 3. " Remarks 
on the Pretender's eldest Son's second Declaration, 
dated the lOth of October 1745, by the author of the 
Remarks on his first Declaration," 1745, 8vo. Of these 

# Son of Benjamin GodfrejTi esq. of utiqatties ; and aUo of opint and 
Df Norton-court, near Faversbam in medals, which, after his deaUi^ were 
Keott whom he succeeded in that sold by auction.- His library (con- 
state* He was very corpalent, through taining 1200 valuable volumes) was 
indoleaoe or inactivity, an4 a great bought for about lOOIv by T. Osborae, 
€|)icure, which shortened his life about, who sold the whole again to Mr» Webb 
1741.' Mr. Godfirey (who was related before it was unpacked. OfMr. Jobu- 
t9 sir lEdaondbury) was a person of , Godfrey and bis lady, good portraits 
lr«niiig« and bad a good collection are in tbe posHflfion of Mr. Nichols* 

S2 



260 WEBB. 

*y Remarks" a second edition was published the same yeat; 
4. " Excerpta ex Instrumentis publicis de Judasis/' . con- 
sisting of seven pages small 4to. 5. *^ Short, but true, 
Btate of facts relative to the Jew-Bill, submitted to tbe 
consideriftiion of the Public/' three pages small 4 to. 6. 
<' Five plates of Records relating to the Jews, engraven at 
the expence of Philip Carteret Webb, esq." 7. " The 
Question whether a Jew born within the British dominions 
was, before the making the late Act of Parliament, a Per- 
son capable by Law to purchase and hold Lands to him 
and his heirs, fairly stated and considered* To which is 
annexed an Appendix, containing copies of public recordt 
relating to the Jews, and to the plates of Records, by a gen- 
tleman of Lincoln's Inn," 1753, 4to. Printed for Roberts, 
price 2s. 6d. '* A Reply" to this, in the same size and at 
tbe same price, written, as it is supposed, by Mr. Grove, 
author of the Life of cardinal Wolsey, was printed for 
Kobinson, Woodyer, and Swan. 8. ** A short Account of 
some particulars concerning Domesday* Book, with a view 
to promote its being published," 1756, 4to. 9. ** A short 
Account of Danegeld, with some farther particulars relat- 
ing to William the Conqueror's Survey," 1758, 4to. 10. 
^^ A State of Facts, in defence of his Majesty's right to cer- 
taio Fee-farm rents in the coiinty of Norfolk," 1758, 4to. 

11. ^* An Account of a Copper Table, containing two in- 
scriptious in the Greek and Latin tongues ; discovered in 
the year 1732, near Heraclea, in the Bay of Tarentum, in 
Magna Grecia. By Philip Carteret Webb, Esq. Read at 
ft meeting of tbe Society of Antiquaries tbe 13th of De- 
cember, 1759, and ordered to be printed," 1760, 4to. 

12. *^ Some Observations on fthe late determination £or 
diJicbarging Mr. Wilkes from his commitment to th^ Tower 
of London, for being the author and publisher of a seditious 
libel called * Tbe North Briton, No. 45.' By a membet 
of the House of Commons," 1763, 4to. He also printed 
a quarto pamphlet, containing a number of general war- 
rants issued from the time of^the Revolution; and some 
6ther political tracts, particularJy at the time of the rebel- 
lion in 1745, on the close of which his abilities, as solicitor 
on. the trials in Scotland, proved of eminent service to tbe 
public. Mn Webb was twice married ; and by bis first 
lady (who died in March 12, 1756) left one son of his pnm 
name. His second wife was Rhoda, daughter of John> 
Cotesy esq. of Dodingtort, in Cheshire, by Rhoda, one of 



WEBB E, 261 

the- daaghters and coheinr of sir John Huborn, bart.* of 
Warwieksbir&; biit by her be had no isstie. * 
«• WEBBE (George), a pious prelate, the son of a cler- 
gyman at Brombam in Wiltshire, >was born there in 1581, 
and was entered first of University-college, Oxford, in 
15^8 ; but became the same year a scholar of Corpus-col- 
lege. Here he took his degrees in arts, entered into holy 
orden, and was made minister of Steeple Aston in Wilt* 
shire, where he also kept a grammar-school, as he after- 
wards did at Bath. In 1621 be was inducted to the rectory 
of St. Peter and &t. Paul in Bath, being then bachelor in 
divinity. In 1624 he proceeded D. D. On the accession 
of Charles L he was made one of his chaplains in ordinary, 
and in 1629 baptised bia majesty's first child, which died 
immediately after. He was consecrated bishop of Lime* 
riek^ in Ireland, in December 1634. Before his death he 
^as confined by the rebels in Limeriqk castle, where he 
died in the latter end of 1641, and was permitted by them 
to be buried in St Muncbin's cburch-yard in Limerick. 
*^ He Was a person of a strict life and ccHiversatton," and 
esteemed the best preacher at the court of king Charles ; 
and -his published compositions are in a more pare and 
elegant style than those of most of his conteiAporaries. His 
pkrincipal work is his ^^ Practice of Quietness, directing a 
Christtao to live quietly in this troublesome world/' We 
have not discovered wiien this was first publishedv but it 
bad reached a third. edition in 1631, and was afterwards 
often. reprinted. The best edition is that of 1705, cr. 8vo, 
wiib his portrait and an engraved title-page. It is a work 
wUcb gives a high idea of the author's placid temper and 
pious resignation, amidst the confusions he lived to witness. 
Hia other publications are, 1. *^ A brief exposition of the 
priaciples of the Christiau religion,'' Lond. 1612, 8vo. 
i{. ^^ Arraigement of an unruly tongue, wherein the faults 
•f an evil tongue are opened, the danger discovered, and 
ronediea prescribed, &c." ibid. 1619, l2fno. 5. ^^Agur's 
prayer^ or the Cbvistiaa choice, &c." ibid. 1621, l2mo. 
4. *^ Catalogua protestantium : or the Protestant's Calen- 
dar; containing a survey of the protestant religion -long 
before Luther's days," ibid. 161^4, 4to. 5. << Lessons and 
l^ercises out of Cicero ad Atticum," 1627, 4to. Heptrb-* 
lilfaed also some otherbooks for grammar-schools^ a Latin 

* KichoU'f Bowyer. '.. 



262 WEB BE R. 

and Englifth edition of two of Terence's cooiedies; and 
several sermons^ which appeared from 1609 to 1619.^ 

WEBBER (John), a royal academician, and a man of 
very considerable talents, was the $oq of a sculptor, a na^ 
tive of Berne in Switzerland, but was born in Loudon ill 
1751. Part of his education as an artist, he received at 
Paris, but afterwards entered the Royal Academy of Lon4 ' 
don. He was elected an associate Nov. 5, 1785, .and a 
royal academician in February 1791. In the .last voyag« 
which captain Cook giade to the South-Seas, Mr. Webber 
was appointed draught8i](ian to the expedition, and wheD 
the two ships, the Discovery and the Resolution, arrived at 
St. Peter and St^ Paul, K^mtscbatka, Webber was obliged 
to act as interpreter between captain Goiver and major 
]3ehm, he being the only person on board of either ships 
who understood German, From this voyage he returned 
in 1780, when ho was employed by. the lords of the admn 
ralty to superintend the engraving of the prints (by Bartot* 
lozzi and other. eminent artists) executed after the draw» 
ings which he had made, representing ^he different events 
and scenes that occurred in the voyage, the accumcy 
of which has been confirmed, by subsequent experience* 
When this work was concluded, he published, on his own 
account, a set of views of the difierent places he had v'u 
sited in the voyage. They were etched and aquatinted bj 
himself) afterwards coloured, and produced a very pleasi* 
jng effect. This work was in part completed, when bis 
health declined, and, after lingering for some months^ he 
died April 29, 1793, in the forty-^eoond year of his age. - 

His. works consisted of paintings and drawings; the 
former were chiefly landscapes, though be painted aoose 
figures representing the inhabitants of the Soutb^SeaislancU, 
but they were deficient in .the drawing. His landscapei 
were. pleasing, and carefully finished, but with rather too 
inuch attention to the minutiae, and the colouring frequently 
too gaudy. There is a picture painted by him "in the 
. counciUcfaamber of the Royal Academy ; but the best pro* 
duction of his hapd is a small view, in the pos«es«i6n of 
Mr. Farington, R. A,' 

W£BST£R (WiLUAM), a learned and laborioas diwine^ 
g^9tUdson to bishop Sparrow, was born in Deceoiber I6€9^ 
and having been admitted a student of Gai<ts«collem« Cam* 



1 Ath. Oz, rol. H.-f-Harris'seditiodi of Ware's 'Ireland. 
t Edwards's Aoecdolei of PainteiB.— »Pil|uDgtoii. 



WEBSTER. SfiS 

WUI^pey tbftre took his degrees of Bi A. 1711, M. A. 171^^ 
Mid D. D. 1 752. . In i 7 1 5 he was made curate of St. ]>uh« 
scan in the West, London^ and in 1725, edited the ^^ Life 
of General Monk," from the original manuscript of De^ 
Skioner. This volume he dedicated to the countess Gran^ 
▼iUe, and to John lord Gower, who were descended froni 
the family of , Monk. His next production was, '^ The 
Clergy^s Right of Maintenance vindicated,*' 8vo, which is 
also inscribed to lord Gower, who was afterwards his patron. 

In 1729 be published " Two discourses ; the first con- 
cerning the nature of error in doctrines merely speculative^, 
shewing that the belief of such doctrines may be required 
of us as necessary terms of salvation ; wherein also the case 
of positive institutions is considered : thesecond, shewing 
chat the doctrine of the Trinity is not merely speculative. 
In answer to the arguments of Mr. Sykes and Mr. Chubby 
with a preface, containing some remarks on the presence 
times, particularly iii relation to the Clergy." In 1730 he 
published a translation of father Simon's ^* New Testament,^' 
with notes, &c. 2 vols. 4to ; and in the same year, '' The 
duty of keeping the whole Law $ a discourse on St James ii. 
10, wherein are some seasonable remarks on the deists," 8vo» 

In 173.1 he was removed from his curacy at St. Dunstan^'s, 
and published in that year ** The fitness of the Witnesses 
ottiic Resurrection of Christ considered ; in answer to the 
principal objections against them," 8vo; and. also two 
pampbteu aad a letter in a newspaper, in defence of bishop 
Hare, who bad been attacked by Gordon, the translator of 
Tacitus, on aceoirot of some passages in a 30th of January 
sermon. Being now out of employment, his eldest brother 
WAS at the expence of obtaining for him his doctor's degree 
tin- divioity ; but in ACigustof the same year, 1732, bishop 
Gooch gave him the curacy of St. Clement Eastcbeap, with 
a salary of 70/. and in February following he was presented 
by a relation to the rectory of Deptden in Suffolk, worth 
i02L a- year. 

In 1733 Mr. Bowyer printed for him *^ A vindication' of 
Eustace Budgell," probably in the affair of Dr. Tindall's 
will ; and in that year he began *^ The Weekly Miscellany," 
.a periodical paper, under the name of *^ Richard Hooker, 
.esq. of the Inner Temple," but it was not much relished, 
nor of long continuant!e. In- 1740 be was editor of a 
pamphlet concerning the woollen manufactory, the ma- 
terials for which were furnished by one of tlie trade, an<jl 



264 M^ E B S T E R. 

^bave 9000 of: them were .sold. During the remaiBder of 
hi» life, at least until 17^7, be published 9. number of teoi* 
porary pamphlets, and occasional sermons, with so little 
adtantage to himself, that in the last mentioned year we 
find bim soliciting the archbishops and bishops for. charity. 
This was not altogether unsuccessful, aldiough it does not 
apfiear tovhave satisfied his wants. In 1741 be had re- 
signed, his rectory and curacy for tbe vicarages of Ware and 
Tfaundridge,. which, be informs us, were not very productive* 
His last publication was ^^ A plain narrative of facts, or 
tthe author's case fairly and candidly stated.'' This be sur- 
vived but a few months, dying Dec. 4, 17^8. 

Dr. Webster' does not appear to have been entitled to 
fnuch more respect than he received. He was undoubtedly 
^man of learning and acuteness, but so eager for 'profit 
and promotion, as seldom to regard tbe means by whiohtfaey 
were acquired^ One instance may suffice to give an >idea 
of bis character in this respect. In his <^ Plain narrative of 
Facts," be informs us that he wrote a pamphlet (on the 
woollen trade) which had such great repiHation all over the 
Iciogdom, that, without knowing who was tbe author of it, 
jt^as said that '^ be deserved to have bb statue set up in 
every trading town in England." Yet^ when tbe demand 
fetp this pamphlet subsided, be actually published an answer 
to it, under tbe title of << The Draper's Reply," of which 
two or three editions were sold. ^ 

WECHEL (Christian), a cdebrated prijoter in Paris, 
began to pr^ntQreek authors in 1530, and flourished for 
more .than twenty years. His editions were so extremely 
correct, that not above two faults were sometimes found in 
a folio volume, which was probably owing to his having 
iiad Sylburgius, one of the best scholars and critics then in 
Germany, for the corrector of bis press* He was brought 
into trouble -in 15S4 for having sold a book of Erasoms, 
'< De esu iuterdieto carnium," wbicb bad been censured 
by the faculty of divinity ; and, according to father Garasse, 
he iell into poverty for his impiety, in printing an anony- 
mous book, in favour of the salvatioq of infanu dying be- 
fore baptism. However, from tbe flourishing circumstances 
pf bis son, Bayle infers that he was not reduced to poverty. 
, Ti^ time of his death is not known ; but we are >not ^blQ 
to trace him beyond 1552.* . 

1 Nicholt'f Bowyer. * Gen. Diet^*»Bai)let jQseiaei».-<-Moreri, 



W E G H E li S&M: 

WEGIiEL (ANDR£W>y son of the preceditig^.was lilie«» 
wise a tery able printer. Being a proteslant, be went ta 
Fraidcfort^ about 1573; ba?iog left Paris, after tbe: maa** 
saeve on St Bartholomew's day^ tbe year before* . He bim* 
self relates the great daxiger to whicb^be was exposied on. 
the night of that massacre > and in what manner he was 
saved by tbe learned Hubert Languet, who lired in , bis 
houae. He expresses bis gratitude for it in the dedioatiom 
of Albert Krants's '^ Vandalia/' panted at Fcankfort in 
1575;. in which place he continaed to print maay. greati 
and important works. He died in 156L U was at bit 
house where our celebrated sir Philip Sidney lodged wbeii> 
at Frankfort, and where he became acquainted with Lao- 
guet, then a resident from tbe elector of Saxony. 

A catalogue of the books, which came from the prejEisea 
of Christian and Apdrew Wechel, was printed at Frank* 
fort in 1590, 8vo. They are. sup{)o$ed to have bad the 
greatest part of Henry Stephens's types. ' 

WEDDERBURN (ALEXAND&ti), earl of. Rosslyn, and 
lord high cbanoellcnr of England, the descendant of ^u aa-« 
cient Scotch family, was the eldest son of Peter Wedder-* 
burn, of CbesterbaLI, esq. one of tbe senators of tb^ college 
of justice, in Scotland. He was bQrn Fc^. 13, 1733, and 
bred to the law, in which profession some of bis ancesi^ts 
had made a very distinguished figure. He is said to have 
been called to the bar when scarcely twenty years of age^ 
and was making some progress in practice when: an insult, 
or what be conceived to be such, from the bench, deiber* 
xaiaed him to give np the farther pursuit of the profession 
in that country, and remove to England. Aecordingly he 
came to London, and enrolled himself as a member of tbe 
Inner Temple in May 1753, and after tbe necessary pr<^ 
paratory studio, was called to tbe bar in November 1757* 
One of his main objects during his studies h^re, was to di-^ 
vest, himself as much as possible of his national accent, and 
to acquire tbe English pronunciation and manner, in both 
which he was eminently successful under the instructions 
of Messrs. Sheridan and Macklin. 

. He appears to have soon acquired a name at the bar, aad 
to have formed valuable connections, particularly with lord 
,Bute and lord Mansfield, for in 1763 he was made ki^^s 
counsel, and at the same time became a bencher of Lin*" 

> Gen. Dict.<>««Baiiiet Jugeiqens.— ^oocVs Life of sir Pl^ilip Sidney, p. 5^ 



H6 W E D D E R B U R N. 

•dill's Inn. He also i^tained a seat in parliament, ¥nd 
joon bad an opportunity of greatly improving bis finances 
99 well as bis ^me, by being tbe succiessful advocate for 
lord Ciive. . During bis first years of sitting in parliansent^ 
he supported some of tbe measures of what were theti 
termed tbe* popular party; but had eitber seen bis errors 
or bts^ interest in .another point of view, for in January 
1771 be accepted tbe office of solicitor general, and frooi 
diat time became a strenuous advocate for tbe administra« 
tion wbo conducted tbe American war. In July 1778 be 
was appointed attorney-general, an office wbicb evenrhis 
•fiemies allow tbat be held with great mildness and mode** 
ration. It. often happened to this distinguished lawyer^ 
tbat bis single advice bad great influence wkb the party to 
wbicb be belonged, and it is said tbat bis opinion only 
wlis the means of saving the metropolis from total destruc^ 
tion by the mob of 1 780. When his majesty held a privy^ 
couAcii to determine on the means of putting a stop tg 
these outrages, Mr. Wedderburn was ordered by tbe kinff 
to deliver bis official opinion. He stared in the most pre*- 
eise terms, tbat any such assemblage of depredators might 
be dispersed by military force, without waiting for forms, 
or -reading the riot act. ^^ Is ibat your declaration of tbe 
law, as attorney-general ?V said tbe king ; Mr, Wedder- 
burn answering distinctly in- the affirmative ; *^ Then let it 
90 be done,** rejoined the king ; and the attorney-general 
drew up the order immediately, by which the riots weire 
8uppres«»ed in a fefw hours, and the metropolis saved. 

Immediately after this commotion be was appointed chief 
justice of tbe common pleas, at|d called to the house of 
peers by tbe name, style, and title of lord Loughborough, 
baron of Loughborough, in tbe county of Leicester. In 
1783 his lordship was appointed first commissioner for 
keeping tbe great seal ; but as soon as tbe memorable 
coalition between lord North and Mr. Fox look place, ^ bis 
lordsbip joined bis old friend lord North, and remained in 
opposition to tbe administration of Mr. Pitt. It has belm 
said tbat it was by his advice that Mr. Fox was led to act 
the unpopular part which lost him so many friends during 
his ^majesty's indisposition in 1788*9. In 1793, when 
many members both of tbe bouse of lords and commons, 
formerly in opposition, thought it their duty to rally roonil 
the throne, endangered by the example of France, lord 
Loughborough joined Mr. Pitt, and on Jan. 27th of tbat 



W E D D E R B U R N; 2flf 

jresr, was appointed lord high chancellor of England, whicb 
office be held until 1801, when he was succeeded by thitt 
present lord Efcdon. In Oct. 1795 his lordship obtained "a 
new patent of a barony, by the title of lord Loughborovgb, 
of Loughborough in the county of Surrey, with rematndef 
severally and successively to his nephews, sir James Sitt^ 
dair Erskine, bart. and John Erskine, esq. and by patent^ 
April 21, IdOl, was created earl of Rosslyn/ in the county 
of Mid Lothian, with the same remainders. ^ 

His lordship, feeling the infirmities of age coming fast 
upon him, retired from the post of chancellor at this time, 
and lived chiefly in the country, sometimes at his seat, n^llf 
Wiodsory and also occasionally at Weymouth, when fbe 
royal family, at whose parties both he and his countess 
were frequent guests, happened to be there. By sobriety; 
regularity, and temperance, he doubtless prolonged t 
feeble existence, but at length died suddenly, at Baileys^ 
between Slough and Salt Hill, on Thursday, January 3^ 
1S05, about one o^clock in the morning, in the seventy* 
second year of his age, of an apoplectic fit; He was in- 
terred a few days after in St. PauPs cathedral. 

His lordship was first married Dec. 31, 1767, to Bettys 
Anne, daughter and heir of John Dawson, of Morley, in th6 
covnty of York, esq. but her ladyship dying, Feb. 15tlF^ 
17S1, without issue, his lordship married, July 1782, Char^ 
lotte^ daughter of William the first and sister to the late 
WiUiam, viscount Courtenay, but had no issue by her. 

Lord Rosslyn never published but one work, to which 
his name was affixed; this made its appearance in 1793, 
and was entitled <' Observations on the state of the Eng-^ 
lish Prisons, and the means of improving them; commu^ 
nicated to the rev. Henry Zouch, a justice of the peace, 
by the right hon. lord Loughborough, now lord high chan-* 
tcellor of Great Britain.'* For some time, Mr. Wraxall in* 
forms US, he was almost convinced that his lordship was the 
aothot of Junius's letters, notwithstanding the severity with 
which he is treated in those celebrated invectives; but in 
this opinion few perhaps will now coincide. 

It is difficult, says the most candid of his biographers, to 
speak of public men, so lately deceased, free from preju- 
dices created by individual feelings. Lord Rosslyn ap- 
peared to be a man of subtle and plausible, rather than of 
solid talents. . His ambition was great, and his desire of 
office unlimited. He could argue with great ingenuity on 



ttS W £ D D E R B U R N. 

either side, so that it was difficult to anticipate his future 
by bis past opinions. These qualities made him a valuable 
partizan ; and a useful and efficient member of any admini-- 
stration. Early in his public career Be incurred the pow^ 
erful satire of Churchill in a couplet which adhered to him 
for the remainder of his life. He had been -destined for 
the Scotch bar; a fortunate resolve brought him to the 
wealthier harvest of English jurisprudence.; His success 
was regular and constant; and in the character of solicitor-* 
general he was long a powerful support to the parliament 
tmry conduct of lord North's ministry. When the alarm of 
the French revolution, which separated the heterogeoeoua 
oppositioii formed by the whigs under Fox, aud the tories 
under lord Noctb, obtained him a seat ou the woolsack^, be 
filled that important station duting the eight years he oc*4 
cupied it, not, perhaps, in a manner perfectly satisfactory 
to the suitors of his court, nor always with the highest de- 
gree of dignity as speaker of theupper bouse ; but always 
with that pliancy, readiness, ingenuity, aud knowledge^ 
of which political leaders must har% felt the cooveniencey 
and th^ public duly appreciated the. talent. Yet hisslenn 
der and £exible eloquence, his minuter person, and the 
comparative feebleness of his bodily organs, were by no 
means a match for the direct, sonorous^ and energetic ofa«« 
tory, the powterful voice, dignified figure, and bold ^tao^ 
iier of Thurlow ; of whom he always seemed to stand in 
awe, and to whose superior judgment be often bowe»l 
against his will. ^ 

WEDGWOOD (Jo^iah), an ingenious .improver of the 
'English pottery manufacture, was born in July 1730, aud 
was the younger sou of a potter, whose property coosistiag 
chiefly of a small entailed estate, that descended to. the 
eldest son, Josiali was left, at an early period of life, to 
lay the foundation of his own fortune. This he did most 
substantially by applying his attention to the. pottery. busir 
ness, whichy it is not too much to say, he brought 4o the 
highest perfection, and established a manufacture that has 
opened a new scene of extensive commerce, before uor 
known to this or any other country. His many discoveries 
of new species of earthen wares and porcelains, his studied 
forms and chaste style of decorations, and the correctness 

' ColHns's Peera»c, bj' sir E. Brydges, — Park's edition of the Royal. and N(H 
ble Authors^-^ent. Mag. Tol. I4XXV. — ^Wraxalt's Memoirs; 



WEDGWOOD. 2«t 

tnd judgment with which all* his works were executed un« 
der his own eye, and by ankts for the most part of bis 
own forming, have turned the current in this branch of 
commerce; for, before bis time, England imported the 
finer earthen wares ; but for more than twenty yemrs past| 
she has exported them to a very great annual amount, the 
whole of which is drawn from the earth, and from the in- 
dustry of the inhabitants; while^the national taste has been 
improved/ and its reputation raised in foreign countries. ' 
It was ubout 1760 that he began his improvements in the 
Staflbrdshire potteries, and not only improved the dompo^ 
sftion, forms, and colours of the old wares, but likewise 
invented, in 1763, a new species of ware, for which .he 
obtained a patent, and which being honoured by her ma- 
jesty^s approbation and patronage, received the name of 
queen^s ware. Continuing his experimental researches, 
Mr. Wedgwood afterwards invented several other speciea 
of earthen •ware and porcelain, of which the principal are :' 
1. A terra cotta; resembling porphyry, granite, EgyptiaD 
pebble, and other beautiful stones of the siliceous orcrys- 
tailihe order. 2; Basaltes, or black ware ; a black porcelain 
biscuit of nearly the same properties with the natural stone, 
receiving a high polish, resisting all the acids, and bearing 
without injury a very strong fire. 'S, White porcelain bis- 
eoit ; of a smooth wax-like appearance, of similar pro^ 
pertieswitb the preceding, 4. Jasper; a white porcelain 
of exquisite beauty, -possessing the general properties o£ 
basaltes; together with the singular one of receiving 
through its whole substance, from the admixture of me- 
tallic calces, the same colours which those calces give ter 
^ass or enamels in fusion ; a property possessed by no 
por>celain of ancient or niodern composition. 5. Bamboo, 
or cane-eoloured biscuit porcelain j of the same nature as 
the white porcelain biscuit. And 6. A porcelain biscuit re- 
markable for great hardness, little inferior to that of agate; 
a property which, together with its resistance to the strong*. ; 
eit acids, and its impenetrability to every known liquid, 
renders tt welh adapted for the formatioi) of , mortars, and 
many different kinds of chemical vessels. The above six 
distinct species of ware, - together with the queen's ware 
fifst noticed, have increased by the industry and ingenuity 
efdiflferent manufacturers, and particularly by Mr. Wedg- 
wood and his^sbn, ihlo an almost endless variety of. forms 
for ornament and use. These^ variously painted and em- 



flo WEDGWOOD. 

beltisbed, constitute nearly the whole of the present fine 
earthen-wares and porcelains of English manufacture* 

Siicb inventions have prodigiously increased the number 
of persons employed in the potteries^ and in the traffic and 
transport of their materials from distant parts of the king- 
dom : and this class of manufacturers is also indebted to 
him for much mechanical contrivance and arrangement ia 
their operations ; his private manufactory having had, for 
thirty years and upward, all the efficacy of a public work 
of experiment. Neither was he unknown in the walkfS of 
philosophy. His communications to the royal society shew 
a mind enlightened by science, and contributed to procure 
him the! esteem of scientific men at home and throughout 
Europe. His invention of a thermometer for measuring 
^he higher degrees of heat employed in the various arts^ is 
of the greatest importance to their promotion, and will add 
celebrity to his name. 

At an early period of his life, seeing the impossibility of 
extending considerably the manufactory he was engaged 
ifl on the spot which gave him birtb, without the advantages 
of inland navigation, he was the proposer of the Grand 
Trunk canal, and the chief agent in obtaining the act of 
parliament for making it, against the prejudices of the 
landed interest, which at that^time were very strong. Tb6 
Grand Trunk canal is ninety miles in Jength, uniting tM 
rivers Trent and Mersey ; and branches have been since 
made from it to the Severn, to Oxford, and to many oth^r 
parts; with also a communication with the grand junction 
canal from Braunston to Brentford. In the execution of 
this vast scheme, he was assisted by the late ingenious Mr. 
Brindley, whom he never mentioned but with respect,- 
By it he enabled the manufacturers of the inland part of 
Staffordshire and its neighbourhood, to obtain from the 
distant shores of Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and Kent, those 
materials of which the Staffordshire ware is composed; 
affording, at the same time, a ready conveyance of the 
manufacture to distant countries, and thus not only to rival, 
but undersell, at foreign markets, a commodity which has 
proved, and must continue to prove of infinite advanjtage 
to these kingdoms ; as the ware, when formed, owes ks 
ralue almost wholly to the labour of the honest and indns^ 
trious poor. Still farther to promote the interest and be-* 
Hefit of his neighbourhood, Mr. Wedgwood planned and 
iMurried into execution! a turnpike-road, ten miles in lengthy? 



w E D a W O D. «H 

thi^cmgh that part of Staffordshire, called the pottery: thus 
opening anojLber source' of traffici if, hy fro^t or other im- 
pediment, the carriage by wat^r should be interrupted. 
His pottery was near Newcastle-under-Lyne,, in Stafford- 
shire, where he built a village called Etvuria, froiQ the re- 
semblance which the clay there dug up bears to the ancient 
Etruscan earth. . 

On one occasion he stept forward in favour of general 
trade, when, in his opinion, Mr. Pittas propositions for ad« 
justing t,he commercial intercourse between Great Britain 
2|Qd Ireland, threatened to be of very pernicious consequeni^e 
to the British manufacturers. He was, therefore, in 17^^ 
tb^ founder and chief promoter of an association in Lon- 
don, called '^ The General Chamber of thQ Manufacturer! 
i>f Great Britain," Mr, Wedgwood was very assiduous in 
)vriting and printing upon this great national subject, au4 
in consequence of so firm an opposition the proposition^ 
were abandoned. 

, Mr. Wedgwood. closed a life 6f ^useful labour, pn Janur 
ajry 3, 1795, in his sixty-fourth year. Having acquired.^, 
1^'ge fortune, his purse w^ always open to the calls of 
jcharity, and to the support of every institution for the 
public gopd. To the poor he was a benefactor in the mo^t 
enlarged ^en^^ of the word, and by the learned, he wat 
i^ghly respected for his original genius and persevering 
aqdustry in plans of the greatest national importance. H<^ 
had been for many year^ a fellow of the Royal and Anti- 
quarian Societies.* , 

WEEVER, or WEAVER, (John), an industrious anr 
tiquary, is supposed.. to have been born in Lancashire in 
1576 ; but the exact place of his birth does not appear to 
have been ascertained by his biographers. He was eds-^ 
cated at Queen's college, Cambridge, where he was ad- 
mitted April 30, 1594, under dpctor Robert Pearson, arch- 
deacon of Suffolk, and shortly after went abroad in searcji 
of antiquities, a study to which he was peculiarly attadhed^ 
Be appears to have been at Liege and at Rome. At bit 
return to England he travelled over most parts of that 
country, and of Scotland, under the protection and en* 
€0uragement of sir Robert Cotton and the learned Selden.. 
Ill 1631 he published bis '^ Funereal Monuments," an:dtbe 
next year died at his house in ClerkenwelUclose^ agei()i 

» Gent. Magr. vol. LXV. 



i12 W E E V E ft. 

• 

fifty-six. He was buried in St. JameVs, Clerk^nwell, wttif 
an inscripticm, in Strype's Survey. The following epitapb 
is df bis owA composition : 

* Lancs^hire gave me bi^th/ 
And Cambridge education 5 
Middlesex gave me deaths 
And this Church my humation ; 
And Christ to me hath given 
A place with him in Heaven. 

• Wood states bim to have been a man of very dininutivel. 
size, and accuses him of being '* too credulous in many 
aintters.'* 

Weever's ** Funeral Monuments'' is a wock of great in- 
formation. It contains a variety of the most useful and 
Entertaining matter, which must have cost the author much 
Ubour, but which he has not, as some say, executed with 
the greatest fidelity and diligence, being indeed very de-^ 
ficient in point of accuracy, especially in the numeral \eX* 
ters and figures. The title of the work is, " Ancient Fvne* 
rail MonVments within the Vnited Monarchie of Great Bri* 
taine, Ireland, and the islands adiacent, with the dissolued 
monasteries therein contained : their founders, and what 
eminent persons baue beene in the same interred, etc. In^ 
termixed and illustrated with varietv of historical! obser*^ 
vations, annotations, and briefe notes, extracted out of 
approued authors, infallible records, lieger bookes, cbar«* 
ters, rolls, old manuscripts, and the collections of iudicioos 
antiquaries, etc. : composed by the studie and trauels of 
John Weever. Spt labor Uvis, London, printed by Tho* 
mas Harper, 1631. And are to be sold by Lawrence Sad« 
ler, at the signe of the Golden Lion in Little Briuine.** 
-prefixed is an engraved title by Cecil! : it contains ppw 
^71, exclusive of the dedication to king Charles^ epistle to 
the reader, and index ; and is illustrated with wood-cuts* 
The author dates bis epistle ** from my house in Clerken* 
•well-close, this 28th of May> 1631." It appears that, had 
he lived, he intended to have published Modern Monit* 
mental Inscriptions, as a companion to his former work, of 
-which a second editioit appeared 1661, Lond. folio, with a 
head of Weever, and ^ third in 1766, 4to^ with some im-* 
proveraents, by the rev« William Tooke, F. R. S. There 
aft many of his original MSS. in the library of the Society 
of Antiqiiaries, and he is supposed to have been the author 



I 



W E I S S E. 273 

of ja *f History of Christ in verse/* noticed in the Censura 
Literaria. * . ^ * . 

WEISSE (Chrisiian Felix), a modern German poet 
and nnitsceilaneous writer of great fame in his country, was 
a native of Saxony, where he was born in 1726. He ap- 
pears to have ^eyote(i the principal part of his life to lite- 
rary pursuits, particularly poetry, the drama, and the prin- 
ciples of education. He obtained the pl^ce of electoral re- 
ceiver for.the circle of Upper vSaXony, which probably made 
bis circumstances easy, while it did not interrupt his nu- 
merous dramatic and other compositions. He died at 
Leipsic, Dec. 15, 1804, in the. seventy-ninth year of bis 
age. He v\rote a great many tragedies and comedies, the 
former of which are esteemed by his countrymen equal to 
those of Racine, and his comedies had great success, al- 
though the German critics give the preference to his comic 
operas. They also speak in the highest terms of his Ana- 
creoQtic odes, his Amazonian songs, and his translation of 
TyrtaEjus. He was a long time editor of the " Library of 
the Belles Lettres,'* a much esteemed German literary 
journal. ' He published also a periodical work from 1776 
to 1782, called the " Friend of Children," collected after- 
wards into volumes^ and consisting of many interesting arti- 
cles calculated to promote a love of virtue and of instruc- 
tion in young minds. In this he has had several imitators^ 
and Berquin's " Ami des enfans" is said to be little more 
than a translation or imitation of Weisse's work. He pub- 
lished also •* The correspondence of the family of the 
Friend of children," in a periodical form, but which is said 
to be a new edition, in a more convenient shape, of bis pre- 
ceding work. * 

WELCHMAN (Edward), a learned English divine, 
was the son of John Welchman of Banbury in Oxfordshire- 
He was born ahont 1665, and became a commoner of Mag^ 
dalen hall in 1679. He took his degree of bachelor of. 
arts in April 1683, was admitted probationer fellow of Mer- 
ton college in 1684, arid master of arts in June 168^8. 
After entering into holy orders, he was presented by the 
society of Merton college to the rectory of Lapworth, with 
which he held that of Solihull in Warwickshire. He be- 

» Gough'8 Topography. —Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Gent. Ma?, vols. LVllI. LXXVI. 
and LXXVII.— Warton'$ Hist, of Poetry.— .Censura Lilcraria, vol. 11,— Cole's 
MS. Atheuae in Brit. Mas. 

a Diet. Hist. 

Vol. XXXI. T 






il4 W E L C H M A N. 

Game also archdeacon of Cardigan. He died May SB, 
1739. One of bis sons was afterwards reduced to keep an 
i^ln at Stratford on Avon *. 

Mr. archdeacon Wetchman^s chief publication was his 
illustration of the thirty-nine articles, written origitiaily in 
Latin, but afterwards translated from the sixth edition, 

, under the title of "The Thirty-nine articles of the Church v 
of England, illustrated with notes, &c." 8vo. Of this there 
have been many editions. He published also, 1. "A de- 
fence of the Church of England from the charge of schism 
and heresy, as laid against it by the vindicator of the de* 
prived bishops (Mr. Henry Dodwell)," Lond. 1692, 4to. 
2. " The Husbandman^s Manual : directing him how to 
improve the several actions of his calling, and the most 
usual occurrences of his life, to the glory of God, and be- 
nefit of his soul," ibid. 1695, 8vo, written for the use of 
his parishioners in Lapworth. 3. *^ Dr. Clarke's Scripture 
(doctrine of the Trinity examined," Oxon. 1714, 8vo. 4. 

* ** A conference with an Arian," &e. without his name, 
ibid. 1721, 8vo. Besides three occasional sermons, enu- 
merated by Cooke, we may add an edition of Novatian*s 
works, carefully corrected by our>author, and published at 
Oxford in 1724, 8vo. * 

WELLS (Edward), a learned English divine, of whom 
i¥e are sorry our materials are so scanty, was admitted a 
scholar at Westminster school in 1680, and was thence 
elected to Christ-church, Oxford, in 1686, where he pr»* 
ceeded M.A. in 1693, and 6. and D. D. in 1704. He was 
a tutor in his college, and among others had under his 
care, the celebrated antiquary Browne Willis, who pre- 
sented him to |the rectory of Blechley in Buckinghamshire^ 
where his nephew, Edward Wells, was his curate. Dr. Wells 
also obtained the rectory of Cottesbach in Leicestershire in 
1717, and died in August 1727. Among Dr. Wells's use- 
ful publications are, I. **An historical Geography of the 
Old and New Testament, illustrated with maps and chro- 

*, *• Whilst the coacbmiin stoppe<l much (li'erary) merit of his own la 

to water his horses, my landlord, out boast of, mine host never failed to 

of civility, caino to pay his coinpli- acquaint hiii cnstomers with. '* Gen- 

ments to Dr. Gr'^viile,- who knew the tlemeo," he %«ould say. /-"yog baire 

man to he a son of the learned Dr. duubtiesK heaid of my father; he 

We4chmaii, woll knoMn for his illns- made the thirly^nirn; articles." , Spi- 

tratioQ of the thirty-nine articles: iitual (^uixo:e. Book XI L Chap. 10^ 

which piece of history, as he had not ^ 

I Ath. Ojc. vol. ir. &c. 



WELLS. 275 

# 
nttlogical Ubies," 4 vols. 8vo. 2. *' The young gentle- 
man's course of Mathematics 3 vols. 8vo. 3.^^ An his* 
lorical Geography of the New Testament," 8vo. 4. " Acith- 
metic and Geometry/' 3 vols. 8vo. 5. ^^ A paraphrase, 
with annotations on all the books of the Old and New 
Testament/* 6 vols. 4to. 6. ^^ An help for the right un- 
derstanding of the several divine laws and. covenants/' Svo, 
7. ** Controversial Treatises against the Dissenters.** 8^ 
** An Exposition of«the Church Catechism." 9. **Pray#rl 
on common occasions,** a sequel lo the preceding. 10« 
** Harmonia Grammaticalis ; or a view of the agreement 
between the Latin and Greek tongues, as to the declining 
of words," &c. i I. ** A Letter to a friend concerning the 
great sin of taking God*s name in vain.'* 12. ^^ Elementa 
Arithmetical numerosse et specioss." He published also 
some other tracts on subjects of practical religion, particu- 
larly specified in our autl/ority ; and was the editor of a 
good edition of " Dionysius*s Geography,'* Gr. and Lat. 
Oxford, 1706. He was esteemed one of the most accurate 
geographers of his time.^ 

WELLS, or WELLES (Samuel), a ntJnconformist di- 
vine, the son of Mr. William Wells, of~ St.. Peter's East, 
in Oxford, was born- Ihere August 18y 1614, and brought 
up in Magdalen, college, but is not mentioned by Wood. 
He commenced M.A. in 1636; married Mrs. Dorothy Doy- 
ley, of Auborn in Wilts, 1637, being the t.wenty-.second 
year of his age. He was ordained Dec. 23, 1639, at which 
ti'me he kept a school in Wandsworth. He was assistant 
to Dr. Temple, at Battersea, in 1639. In the war-time^ 
for their security, he removed his family into Fetter-lane, 
London, about J 644 ; and about that time was in the army, 
chaplain to Col. Esse.x. He was fixed minister at Kemnam^ 
in Berks, 1647, where his income is said to be 200./. per 
annum, but not above twenty families in the parish. He 
was invited to Banbury in Oxfordshire; accepted the offer, 
and settled there in 1649, though a place of less profit, 
namely, about 100/. per annum, ^ His reason for leaving 
Remnani was, that he might do good to more souls. When 
the troubles were over, he- had the presentation of Brink-* 
worth, said to be about 300/. per annum, but declined it 
for the former reason. When tl>e ' Bartholomew- Act dis- 
placed hiqo, he remitted 100/. due from Banbury; and 

' L Kichol8*a Uist. of Leiceiteribire. 

T 2 



376 WELLS. 

aftihrwards would cheerfully profess, ^^ that he bad not one 
carking thought about the support of his famiivy though 
be bad then ten children, and his wife big with another.'* 
The Five-Mile act ren^oved him to Dedington, about five 
miles distant from Banbury, but as soon as the times would 
permit, he returned to fianbury,. and there continued till 
his death. There Mr. (afterwards Dr.) White, of Kidder- 
minster, the church minister, was very friendly and fami- 
liar with him, frequently paying each other visits; and one 
speech of his, when at Mr. Wells^s, is still remembered* 
•* Mr. Wells," said he, " I wonder how you do to live so 
comfortably. Metbinks you, with your numerous family, 
live more plentifully on the providence of God than I can 
with the benefits of the parish." Mr Wells was of a cheer- 
ful disposition, and of a large and liberal heart to all, but 
especially to good uses. It was the expression of one who 
had often heard him preach, " That his auditory's ears 
were chained to his lips." As he used to hear Mr. White 
in public, so Mr. White, though . secretly, went to hear him 
in private ; and once, upon bis taking leave, he was heard 
to say, " Well, I pray God to bless your labours in private, 
and mine in public." There is a small piece of Mr. Wells's 
printed; the title, "A Spirituall Remembrancer," sold by 
Cockrell. * / 

WELSERUS. See VELSERUS. 
WELSTED (Leonard), a minor poet and miscellaneous 
writer, born at Abington in Northamptonshire in 1689, 
received the rudiments of his education in Westminster- 
schopl, where he wrote the celebrated little poem. called 
** Apple-Pie," which was universally attributed to Dr. King, 
and as sudh had been incorporated in his works. Very , 
early in life Mr. Welsted obtained a place in the office of 
ordnance, by^he interest of his friend the earl of Clare, to 
whom, in 1715, he addressed a small poem (which Jacob 
calls '*a very good one") on his being created duke of 
Newcastle ; and to whom, in 1724, he dedicated an octavo 
volume, under the title of " Epistles, Odes, &c. written on 
several subjects ; with a translation of Longinus's Treatise 
on the Sublime." In 1717 he wrote "The Genius, on 
occasion of the duke of Marlborough's Apoplexy ;" an ode 
much commended by Steele, and so generally admired as 
to be attributed to Addison 4 and afterwards *< An Epistle 

* Gint, Mag» vol. LIV.— Calanoy.' 



W E L S T E D. 277 

to Dr. Garth, on tbe Duke's death." He addresfied a 
poeiQ to the countess of Warwick, on her marriiiige with 
Mr. Addison ; a poetical epistle tg the duke of Chandoa ; 
and an ode to earl Cadogan, which was highly extolled by 
Dean Smediey. Sir Richard Steele was indebted to him 
for both the prologue and epilogue to ''The Conscious 
Lovers;*' and Mr. Philips, for a complimentary poem on - 
bis tragedy of •" Humfrey duke of Gloucester.'* In 17 IS, 
be wrote "Tbe Triumvirate, or a letter in verse from Pa- 
lemon to Celia, from Bath," which was considered as a 
satire against Mr. Pope. He wrote several other occasional 
pieces against this gentleman^ who, in recompence for his 
enmity, thus mentioned him in his ^'Dunciad :" 

" Flow, Welsted, flow ! like thine inspirer, beer; 
1-hough stale, not ripe ; though thin, yet never dear ) 
So sweetJy mawkish , and so smoothly dull -, 
Heady, not strong 3 o*ertiowing> though not full/* 

In 1726 he published a comedy called ^^The Dissembled 
Wanton." In the notes on the ** Dunciad," 11. 207, it is 
invidiously said, ^^ he wrote other things which we cannot 
remember." Smedley, in his Metamorphosis of Scrible- 
rus, mentions one, the hymn of a gentleman to his Crea«* 
tor * : and there was another in praise either of a cellar 
or a garret. L. W. characterised in the ^* Bathos, or the 
Art of Sinking," as a didapper, ahd after as an eel, is said 
to be this person, by Dennis, Daily Journal of May 11, 
1728. He was also characterised under the title of anothes 
animal, a mole, by the author of a simile, which was handed 
about at the same tim^, and which is preserved in the notes « 
on the Dunciad. 

In another note, it is maliciously recorded that be re- 
ceived at one time the sum of five hundred pounds for 
secret service, ani^bng the other excellent authors hired to 
write anonymously for the ministry. . That sum did cer^ 
tainly pass through his hands ; but it is now well known 
that it was for the use of sir Richard Steele. And in a 
piece, said, but falsely, to have been written by Mr. Wel« 
sted, called *' The Characters of the Times," printed ia 
1728, 8vo, he is made to say of himself, that ** he had, in 
bis youth, raised so great expectations of his future ge- 
nius, that there was a kind of struggle between tbe twot, 

■ 

* Mr.WeUted, in 1796, lamented written by a gentleniaB on acceantof 
the death of a beloTed child, in a poem tbe death of his only daughter. See tb« 
«alJed ** A Hymn to the Creator," Poem in Gent. Mag. toI. IX* p. S5&» 



278 * W E L 8 T E D. 

iinrversities, which should have the honour of his educs^ 
lio'B ; to compound this, he civilly became a member of 
both, and, after having passed same time at the one, he 
removed to the other. Thence he returned to town, where 
he became the darling expectation of all the polite wri-^ 
ters, whose eDCOuragement he acknowledged, in his oc- 
'casional poems, in a manner that will make no small part 
of the fame of his protectors. It also appears from his 
works, that he was happy in the patronage uF the most 
illustrious characters of the present age. Encouraged by 
such a combination in liis favour,, he published a book of 
poems, some in the Ovidian, some in the Horatian, mau- 
ner ; in both which the most exquisite judges pronounced 
he even rivalled his masters. His love- verses have rescued 
that way of writing from contempt. In translations he has 
given us the very soul and spirit of his authors. His odes, 
his epistles, his verses, his love-tales, all are the most per- 
fect things in all poetry '' If this pleasant representation 
(rfour author's abilities were just, it would seem no won- 
der, if the two universities should strive with each other 
for the honour of his education. Our author, however, 
does npt appear to have been a mean poet ; he had cer- 
tainly, from nature, a good genius ; but, after he came to 
town, he became a votary to pleasure ; and the applauses 
of his friends, which taught him to overvalue his talents, 
perhaps slackened his diligence ; and, by making him trust 
solely to nature, slight the assistance of art. Prefixed to 
the collection of his poems is *^ A Dissertation conceruing 
the Perfection of the English language, the State of 
Poetry," &c. 

Mr. Welsted married a daughter of Mr. Henry Purcell, 
iriio died in 1724; and by whom he had one daughter^ 
who died at the age of eighteen, unmarried* His second 
wife, who survived him, was sister to sir Hove<fen W^alker^ 
and tx>< Mr. Walker, the defender of Londonderry. He had 
an official house in the Tower of London, where he died in 
1747. • His works were regularly collected in one octavo 
Yoltime, and bis fair fame as a man completely vindicated, 
ky Mr. Nichols, in 1787.^ 

WELWOOD (James), a Scotch physician and histo>^ 
rtan, was born near Edinburgh 1652, and educated atQias-* 
Igow; whence he went over to Holland with his^ parents, 
» 

1 Life and Works by Mr. Nichols. 



W E L W O O D. 819 

tipbo were driven from Scotland in consequence of iiavipg 
beeo suspected as accessary to the murder of arcbbisbop 
Sharp, ill 1.679. Having speot some 3*ears at Leyden, he 
took bis degrees in, physic, an<l came over with king Wil- 
liam at the revolution. He was then appointed one of the 
king's physicians for Scotland, and settled at Edinburgh, 
and became very eminent in his profession, acquiriug a 
considerable fortune. Strongly attached to republican no- 
tions of civil government, he wrote a volume of ^'Memoirs 
of England from 1588 to 1688,'* which although extremely 
well writien, yet betray plain marks of a party-spirit. He 
died at Edinburgh 1716, aged sixty-four. ' 

WENTWORTH (Thomas, Earl of Strafford), an 
en)inent, but unfortunate statesman, of an ancient family, 
the sou of sir WilKam Wentworth of Yorkshire, was born . 
April 13, 1693, in Chancery-lane, London, at the house 
of his maternal grandfather, a barrister of Lincoln's-inn. 
Being the eldest of twelve children, and destined to inherit 
the honours and estate of the family, be was early initiated 
in those accomplishments which suited his rank ; and com- 
pleted his literary education at St. John's college, Cam^ 
bridge; but of the plan or progress of his early studies, 
no particulars have beeo preserved. ,His proficiency at the 
university seems, however, to have impressed his friends 
with a favourable opinion of bis talents, and at a future 
period of his life, we find him patronising the cause of Iris 
university with much earnestness, and receiving their ac- 
knowledgments of his favours. Having occasion to repre- 
sent som/fe misconduct of $> church dignitary who had been 
educated at Oxford, be could not help adding that such « 
divine was never produced at Cambridge. Notwithstand- 
ing this, somewhat illiberal, sentiment, it was not from his 
own university that he was destined to receive a tutor, 
when be commenced his travels. That office fell upon 
Mr« John Greenwood, fellow of University college, Oxfocd^ 
of* whom he long after spoke in the highest terms, and 
while he could retain him in his family, uniformly con- 
suited him in all matters of importance. With this gen- 
Ueman he spent upwards of a year in France. 

Tbe characteristic ardour of Wentworthts affections he^ 
gan to \>e very early remarked ; and as be was devoted to 
tbe imerests of bis friecidsy he proved .ik> less d^ided ia 
» 

1 Pfecedins.cdiii^D of tkis Dict# — Ccns. Lit. vol. III. 



280 WENTWORTR 

the prosecution of his enemies. Habituated^ to the indnl- 
gencies of a plentiful fortune,, and unaccustomed to oppo- 
sition, he was choleric in the extreme, and the sudden vio- 
lence of his resentment v^as apt to transport him beyond 
all bounds of discretion. • Yet this defect was in a great 
measure atoned for by the manhnfsi> and candour mt\^ 
which it was acknowlt^dged. When liis friends, who per- 
ceived how detrimental it must prove to his future welfare, 
frequently admonished him of it, their remonstrances were 
always taken in ^ood part He endeavoured, by watching 
still more anxiously his infirmity, to ct^vince them of 
bis earnest desire to amend : and h'm^ attachment was in- 
creased tovvarijs those who advised him with sincerity and 
freedom. Sir George Radcliffe, the most intimate of his 
friends, informs us, that he never gained more upon his 
trust and affection than when he told iiim of his weaknesses. 
On his return from abroad Wentworth appeared at court, 
and wa^s knighted by king James, and about the same time 
married Margaret Clifford,- the eldest daughter of the earl 
of Cumberland. In the following jiear (1614) he suc- 
ceeded, by the death of his father, to a baronetcy, and an 
estate of 6000/. a year. His time was now occupied with 
the pleasures and cares which naturally attend a country 
gentleman of distinction, but he seeths to have qtnckly 
attracted the notice of his county and of government ; for 
be had not above a year enjoyed his inheritance when he 
ivas^sworn into the commission of. the peace, and nominated 
1)y sir John Savile to succeed him as custos rotulorum, or 
keeper of the archives, for the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
an office bestowed only on gentlemen of the first conside- 
ration. The resignation of Savile, although apparently 
voluntary, proceeded from some violent quarrels with his 
.neighbours, the result of his restless and turbulent dispo- 
sition; and even Wentworth soon became the object of his 
.decided enmity. Having found means to interest in his 
favour the duke of Buckingham, who at that period go- 
verned the councils of king James, Savile meditated a 
restoration to his former office. At his instance the duke 
wrote to Wentworth, informing him that the king, having 
again taken sir John Savile into his favour, had resolved to 
employ him in his service; and requesting that be vi^ould 
freely return the office of custQs rotulorum to the man whd 
bad voluntarily consigned it to his hands, Wentworth, in« 
stead of complying, exposed the misrepresentations of his 



W E N T W O R T H. 2il 

antagonist ; shewed that bis resignation had been wrings 
from him by necessity, and indicated bis intention of 
coming to Lopdon to make good his assertion. The duke, 
though very regardless of giving offence in the pursuit of 
his purposes, did not, howevier, judge this a sufficient oc- 
casion to risk the displeasure of the Yorkshire gentlemen. 
He therefore replied with much seeming cordiality, as^ 
suring Wentworth that his former letter proceeded entirely 
from misinformation, and that the king had only consented 
to dispense with his service from the idea that he iiimsetf 
desired an opportunity to resign. This incident is chiefly 
remarkable as it laid the first foundation of that animosity 
with Buckingham which was the cause of many questionable 
circumstances in the conduct of Wentworth. The duke 
was not of a disposition to forget even^the slightest oppost* 
tion to his will ; and Wentworth was not a man to be in- 
jured with intpunity. 

A parliament having been summoned to meet in \t2\^ 
Wentworth was returned for the county of York, and ap- 
peared in the House of Commons at a period when an un- 
usual combination of circumstances drew forth a singular 
display of address, intrepidity, and eloquence. The part 
which Wentworth acted during the two sessions of this par- 
liament, was circumspect and moderate^ We indeed find 
him active in promoting the expulsion of a member who 
had spoken with much irreverence of a bill for repressing 
those licentious sports on the sabbath, which the royal: 
proclamation had authorised ; and when the king hazarded 
the assertion that the privileges of the commons were en- 
joyed by his permission, and their deliberations controul- 
able by his authority, Wentworth urged the House to de- 
clare explicitly that their privileges were their right and 
inheritance, and the direction of their proceedings subject 
solely to their own cognizance. The abrupt dissolution of 
the parliament, he followed with expressions of regret and 
apprehepsion. Yet his language towards the court wa^ 
always respectful, and his eloquence more frequently em- 
ployed to moderate than to excite the zeal of his col* 
leagues. Two years after, in 1624, another parliament 
was called, in which Wentworth, again returned, appeart- 
to have refrained from any particular activity. On the 
accession, however, of Charles I. be took his station among 
%e tnost conspicuous of the party in opposition to the 
measures of the court. But this did not last long. Buck<!- 



?; 



28i> W E N T W O R T H. 

inghana found means to coociliate' bim by expressions of 
esteem, and promises of future 'favour. , Tbese ov^ertures 
were tiot unacceptabie to Wentwortb. To- the request for 
his good offices, he replied ^^ that he honoured the duke's 
person, and was ready to serve him in the quality of an 
honest man and a gentleman/' The duke replied by cor- 
dial acknowledgments ; and during the short remainder of 
the. session Wentwortb exerted himself to moderate the 
resentment of his party. ' This, however, did not remove 
the apprehensions of Buckingham, and therefore, when in 
1^25 another parliament was called, he took care that 
Wentwortb should be nominated sheriff of the county, 
which office then included a disability to serve in parliament. 
Wentwortb did all he could to avert this blow, but in vain; 
and be was^ flattering himself that he bore it with great 
composure and resigfiation, when Buckingham made him 
new overtures. Alarmed at the accusations preparing in 
parliament, and fearful of the general indignation bursting 
around him, Buckingham deemed it high tifne to conciliate 
some of those angry spirits whom, his former insolence had 
exasperated. To Wentwortb, whose vigour and influence 
were objects of dread, he forgot not to apply his arts^; and^ 
having called him to a personal interview, assured bim that 
his nomination as sheriff had taken place without his know- ' 
ledge, and during his absence; and begged that all former 
mistakes should be buried in a contract of permanent friend^ 
ship. The protestations of his grace were evidently false, 
his proffer of amity ^probably insincere; yet Wentwortb 
met his advances with cordiality ; and having again waited 
upon the duke, and experienced the most obliging repep* 
tion be departed in full satisfaction for Yorkshire, to await, 
ainidst his private and official avocations, the result of these 
favourable appearances. 

. These appearances, however, were delusive, and Went«- 
iworth either did not know Buckingham, or was blinded by 
lus own ambition. Within a few days be received his ma- 
jesty's order to resign the office of cusios rotulorum to bk 
old antagonist sir John Savile^ accompanied with circum- 
atances which he felt as^ an insult. Yet we are told that 
he did not allow his passion to silence the voice of discue*^ 
t^Hiy^but took pve'oaiiitions that his quarrel with Baching* 
ham should not prejudice him with the king^ whom he 
alight hope hereafter to serve in a superior capacity ; and 
intimacy with air Kichavd Westpn, chanceUcar of the 



W E N T W O R T H. 2SS 

^xcbequer^ furftisfaed him with the means of executing 
these intentions. He particularly solicits bis friend, at 
some favourable opportunity, to represent to bis majestjr 
the estimation in which he was held by the late king, bia 
ardent attachment to his present sovereign, bis unfeigned 
grief at the apprehension of his displeasure^ and his eager 
desire to shew his affection and zeal by future services* 
To those friends who were acquainted with all this, it 
seemed strange and incomprehensible, when they saw 
Wentworth, not many months afterwards, boldly stand for- 
ward as the assertor of the popular rights, and resist tb^ 
crown in its most favourite exertions of power. But this 
measure, says his late biographer, whom we principally 
follow, though to them it might bear the aspect of impru^ 
dence and temerity, was dictated by a profound apprecia^ 
tion of the intervening circumstances. Whatever may be 
in this, it is certain that when the king endeavoured to 
raise a loan without the aid of parliament, Wentwor^bf 
w^hether, as his biographer says, animated by patriotism^ 
or led by a skilful ambition, refused to pay the demanded 
contribution; and having, before- the privy council, per* 
sifted in justifying his conduct, he was first throwi) into 
prison, and afterwards, as a mitigated punishment, sent to 
Dartford, iu Kent, with a prohibition to go above two milet 
from rbe town. Tbis confinement did uot la^t long, f^ 
on the calling of a new parliament in 1628, he was re* 
leased, and re*-elected for the county of York. 

In this parliament Wentworth condemned the arbitrary 
Ineasures that had been adopted since they last met, anil 
maintained that they were alike pernicious * to the sa* 
vereign and the subject. He also was a.strenuous advocate 
for that memorable declaration which was called a petitiodi 
of right, and prevailed on the House to resolve, " that 
grievances and supply sbould go band in hand, and the 
latter, in no case, precede the former," Whensome pro^ 
poised to rest satisfifKi with the king^s assurances of future 
adherence to law, without pressing the petition of rights 
he strenuously opposed tbis dang'erous remission. "There 
hath beeil," said he, *^a public violation of the laws bjr 
bis Uliajesty^s mifiisiters; an^ nothing shall satisfy me but 9 
publtc amends. Our desire to vindicate the «ubjecl**s 
righto exceeds not what is laid down in former laws, mtii 
some modest provision for instruction and performances/^ 
When the lords jpropdsed to add to the petition a saving 



284 W E N T W O R T H. 

-I 

clause, importing that all their pretensions for liberty still 
left entire the claims of royal authority^ and using the new 
term " sovereign power," instead of " prerogative,*' Went- 
, worth eitelaimed against the evasion. ^' If we do admit of 
this addition," 6aid he, " we shall leave the subject in a 
worse state than we found him. Let us leave all power to 
his majesty to bring malefactors to legal punishn^ent ; but 
our laws are not acquainted with * sovereign power.* We 
desire no new thing, nor do we offer to trench on his ma- 
jesty's prerogative; but we may not recede from this pe- 
tition, either in whole or in part." 

Such were the sentiments which Wentworth was^soonto 
abandon for the support of and a share in the measures of 
the court. It has already been seen that Wentworth, though 
violent, was not inflexible, and the ministers calculated 
right when they supposed he might be detached from his 
party. Possessed of an uncommon influence with that 
party, which bad been evinced by their ready acquiescence 
in his suggestions, he had formerly shewn a willingness to 
engage in the service of the court, and had repaid its 
neglect by a bold, keen, and successful opposition. These 
and other considerations in favour of Wentworth were 
strengthened by the good ofiices of his friend Weston, who 
bad lately been promoted to the office of lord high trea- 
surer, and who now repaid his former confidence by a 
zealous patronage. But it was not by empty overtures, or 
some flattering professions ,of Buckingham, that Went>- 
wortb, often deceived, and repeatedly insulted, was to be 
won from a party that yielded him honour by its esteem^ 
and authority by its support. To an immediate place in 
the peerage, with the title of baron, was added the as« 
surance of speedy promotion to' a higher rank, and to the 
presidency of the council of York. 

Itwiirbe diflScult to vindicate lord Wentworth in this 
proceeding, although the attempt has been made by some 
of his biographers. Hume speaks of it with mildness and 
impartiality, and most readers will concur in his opinion. 
*' His fidelity to the king," says this historian, '< was un- 
shaken; but as he now employed all his counsels to sup- 
port the prerogative, which -he had formerly bent all his 
powers to diminish, his virtue seenis not to have been en- 
tirely pure, but to have been susceptible of strong impres- 
sions from private interest and ambition." 

That his genius was better adapted to bis present than 



W E N T W O R T H. ; 285 

his former situation, and that, in fact, he had hitherto bejen 
only acting a part ^ soon appeared from his conduct as pre- 
sident of the council of York. The council of York, or of 
the North, was peculiarly suited to the genias of an abso-^- 
lute o^onarchy. The s^rne forms of administering justice 
had prevailed in the. four northern counties, as in other 
parts of England, till the thirty -first year of Henry VIII. ; 
when an insurrection, attended with much bloodshed and 
disorder, induced that monarch to grant a cotnmission o£ 
oyer and terminer to the archbishop of York, with some 
lawyers and gentlemen of that county, for the purpose of 
investigating the grounds of those outrages, and bringing^ 
the malefactors to punishment according to the laws of the 
land. The good effects of the commission in restoring 
tranquillity^ caused its duration to be prolonged ; and, On 
the re-appearance of commotions in those quarters, it was, 
in succeeding times,, frequently renewed. An abuse gra- 
dually, arose out of a simple expedient. Elizabeth, and 
after her, James, found it convenient to alter the tenour 
of the commission, to increase the sphere of its jurisdic- 
tion, and to augment its circumscribed legal authority by 
certain discretionary powers. And to such an ascendancy 
was this c^urt raised, by the enlarged iiistructions granted 
to Wentworth, that the council of York now engrossed the 
whole jurisdiction of the four northern counties, and em- 
braced the powers of the courts of common law, the chan-' 
eery, and even the exorbitant authority of the star-cham- 
ber. Convinced that the monarch. would in vain aspire to 
an independent supremacy, without imparting bis unli- 
mited powers to bis subordinate officers, Wentworth still 
felt bis extensive authority too circumscribed, and twice 
applied for an enlargement of its boundaries. His com- 
mission, says Clarendon, ^^ placed the northern, counties 
entirely beyond the protection of the common law; it in- 
cluded hfty-eigbt instructions, of which scarcely one did 
not exceed or directly violate the common lew ;, and by its 
natural operation, it had almost overwhelmed the country, 
under .the sea of arbitrary power, and involved the people 
in a labyrinth of distemper, oppression, and povert^O' It 
is allowed also that the office bad a bad effect on his tem- 
per, which, although, naturally warm, had been long cor- 
rected by a sound and vigorous judgment; but now his 
passions often burst forth with a violence, neither dematjided 
by the importance of the occasion, nor consistent with the 
former moderation of his character. 



2»6 W E N T W O R T H. 

In 1631 he was appointed lord-deputy of Ireland; and 
the following year, after burying his second wife and mar- 
rying a third, he went over to his new government, in- 
vested with more ample powers than had been granted to 
his predecessors. This, however, did not prevent him 
from soliciting a farther extension of those powers ; and 
which accordingly he obtained. He found the revenue of 
Ireland under great anticipations, and loaded with a debt 
of 106,000/. This occasioned the arm}' to be both ill 
clothed and ill paid, and the excesses of the soldiers, were 
great. He set himself, however, in a short time, to re- 
medy these inconveniences ; and having procured the con- 
tinuance of the voluntary contribution of the nobility, gen^ 
try, and freeholders, he was very punctual in the payment 
of the soldiers, which put a stop to many of their disorders ; 
and he was very successful in restoring military discipline. 
In July 1634, he assembled a parliament at Dublin, which 
granted six subsidies, payable out of lands and goods, each 
subsidy consistii\g of about 45,000/. to be raised in four 
years; the greatest sum ever known to be granted to the 
crown in that kingdom. The disposal of this money being 
entirely left to lord VVentworth, he judiciously employed 
it in paying the ^rmy, in reducing the incumbrances upon 
the public, and in aril branches of government. These 
services greatly recommended lord Wentworth to the king, 
who testified his satisfaction in^ what he had done ; but it 
has been complained that his government was not equally 
acceptable to the people* He had greater abilities than 
policy, and by a haughty behaviour irritated some of the 
most considerable persons in the kingdom. 

Before he had been many months in Ireland, he solicited 
the king to raise him to the dignity of an earl, but bad the 
mortification to meet with a repulse. The king seems to 
have been unwilling to bestow this honour on one who had 
incurred a considerable share of popular odium, and whose 
misconduct .his majesty would have l)t*en thought to ap- 
prove had he given such a decided proof of royal favour. 
About two years after, he made the same application to the 
king, who again declined the request, but now in a man- 
ner so pointed and decisive as seemed to bar all hopes of 
co.mpliance. He assured Wentworth that the cause of bis 
request, namely, to refute the ma[licious insinuations of 
bis enemies, and prove that his majesty disl)elieved their 
Calumnies, would, if known, rather encourage than silence 



W E N T W O R T H. 287 

bU enemtes, who would become more bold and dangerous 
when they found that they, were feared. But this did not 
reconcile Wentworth to the ^isapppiotment, which he 
continued to feel bitterly, until the king sending for him 
in September 1639, ,he was in January following raised to 
his long-desired dignity, the earldom of Stratford. At the 
same time he was raised from the title of deputy to that of 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and was likewise made a knight 
of the garter. 

On his return to Ireland, where he remained about k 
iFortnight, he sat iii parliament, had four subsidies granted, 
appointed a council of war, and gave orders to levy SOOO 
nien, which with 2000 foot, and 1000 horse, which was 
the standing army in Ireland, and 5000 horse to be joined 
with t,hem, were to be sent into Scotland, under his lord- 
ship*s command, to reduce that country to obedience. 

He then embarked for England, although at that time 
labouring under serious indisposition. On his recovery, 
he was made lieutenant-general of the English forces in 
the North, but the king having agreed to a truce with .the 
Scots, his lordship had business of a more serious nature 
to attend to. On Nov. 3, 1640, the parliament, called 
afterwards the long parliament, met, and was composed of 
men who were determined to redress what they called 
abd^es, by their own authority. In this design, the only 
dangerous obstacle which they feared to encounter, was 
the vigour and talents of Strafford. While the popular 
leaders detested him as a traitor to their cause, and the 

^ Scots as the implacable enemy of their nation, all eqjually 
dreaded those abilities which had laid Ireland prostrate at 
his feet, and which had almost inspired the royal counsels 
with decision. While he continued at the head of an army, 
there was no security that he might not, by some sudden 
movement, confound and crush their projects ; and nothing 
seemed, therefore, possible to be achieved, till his de- 
struction was first accomplished. 

The apprehensions of the king soon brought their dreaded 
adversary into their power. When he compared the roa- 

. nagement of an Irish parliament by Strafford, with. bis own 
'abortive attempts in England, Charles, w'ithoutduly weigh- 
ing the difference of circumstances, was led to expect 
from this minister's assistance, r an issue no longer possible. 
Strafford hesitated to incur certain dangers in so hopeless a 
struggle. To the roj-al summons for his attendance in 



288 W E: N T W O R T H. 

parliament, he replied by an earnest request that be might 
be permitted to retire to his government in Ireland, or 
to some other place where he might promote the service of 
his majesty; and not deliver himself into the hands of his 
Enraged enemies. But to these representations Charles 
refused to listen ; and, with too much confidence in a 
firmness which had so often failed him, he encouraged bis 
minister by a solemn promise, that '^ not a hair of his head 
should be touched by the parliament/* 

Strafford at length prepared to obey these repeated man- 
tlates; and having discovered a traitorous correspondence, 
ill which his enemy Savile and some other lords had invited 
the Scots to invade England, he resolved to anticipate and 
confound his adversaries by an accusation of these popular 
leaders. But no sooner were the Commons informed that 
he had taken his seat among the peers, than they ordered 
their doors to be shut ; and after they hadx:ontinued several 
hours in deliberation, Pym appeared at the bar of ^he 
House of Lords ; and in the name of the Commons of 
England, impeached the earl of Strafford of high treason. 
This charge was accompanied by a desire that he should 
be sequestered from parliament, and forthwith committed 
to prison ; a request which, after a short deliberation, waa 
granted. A committee of thirteen was chosen by the 
lower House, to prepare a charge against him. The arti- 
cles of impeachment, produced at his trial, were twenty- 
eight in number, and regarded his cpnduct, as president of 
the council of York, as lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and as 
counsellor or commander in England. It would be impos- 
sible to detail all the circumstances of his trial, which was 
conducted with great solemnity ; but though four months 
\yere employed by the managers in framing the accusation, 
and all Sirafford^s answers were extemporary, it appears 
from comparison, not only that he was free from the crime 
of treason, of which there is not the least appearance, but 
that his conduct, making allowance for human infirmities, 
exposed to such severe scrutiny, was innocent, and even 
laudable. The masterly and eloquent speech he made on 
his trial has always been admired as one of the first com*- 
posiiions of the kind in that age. " Certainly," say Whit- 
locke, who was chairman of the impeaching committee, 
'^ never any man acted such a part, on such a theatre, with 
more wisdom, constancy, and eloquence, with greater rea- 
son, judgment, and temper, and with a better gtace in all 



W E N T W O R f H. M* 

ms words and actions, than did this great affid eitcdleht 
person ; and he moved the hearts of ali his auditors, ^otHtf 
few excepted, to' remorse and pity." But his fate was de^- 
fermined upon. His enemies resolved to hasten it, at the 
^xpence of justice, by adopting a proceeding, which over- 
a^tepped the established forms and maxims of law, and 
against which innocence could form no protection. Dread-' 
ing the decision of the lords, if the charges and evidefice 
were to be weighed by the received rules, they resolved to 
proceed by a bill of attainder: and to enact that Strafford 
was guilty of high treason, and had incurred its punish- 
ment. The commons endeavoured to veil the infamy of 
(his proceeding, by an attempt, not less infamous, and 
sAll more absurd, to satisfy the legal rules of evidence! 
The advice of Strafford about the employment of the Irish 
army, and which, by a forced interpretation, was construed 
}nto a design to subdue England by that force, had hither- 
to been attested by the solitary evidence of sir Henry 
Vane; but an attempt was now made to maintain the 
charge by two witnesses, as the laws of treason required* 
The younger Vane, on inspecting some of his father^^ii 
papers, discovered a minute, as it appeared, of tho.cbO* 
sultation at which the words imputed to Strafford were 
alleged to have been spoken ; and this minute was recOg^ 
niised by the eld<^r Vane, as taken down by him at thl$ 
time, in his quality of secretary. In reporting this disco- 
very to the Rouse, Pym maintained, in a solemn argument, 
that the written evidence of sir Henry Vane, at the peridd 
of the transaction, and his oral evidence at present, ought 
to^be considered as equivalent to the testimony of two wit- 
nesses } and this extravagant position was actually sanc- 
tioned by the House, and adopted as a ground of their 
proceedings. 

Several members, even among the personal enemier of 
Strafford, remonstrated against this complicated injustice, 
but in vain ; and no obstacle could restrain the commons 
from pursuing their victim to death, nor were they without 
means to accelerate the progress of the bill of attainder iii 
the upper House. As a warning to the lords, the naults of 
the Bfty-niue commoners who had voted against it, were 
posted up in conspicuous places^ with this superscription, 
^^ The Straffordians, the men who to save a traitor would 
betray their country.** The populace, indeed, were ex- 
cited to every Species of outrage, in order to intimidate the 

Vol. XXXI. U 



/ 



990 W E N T W O R T ». 

Hoote of Lords as well as bis Majesty, and they succeed^ 
too well in both cases. Out of eighty lords who bad been 
present during the whole trial, only forty- six now Tea* 
tured to attend; and when the bill came to a vote, it was 
carried with eleven dissenting voices. The king, who 
dreaded that himself and family might fall victims to the 
vindictive rioters, summoned bis privy-council to devise 
means for his safety, and they declared no other cQuld be 
found but his assent to the death of Strafford ; he repre- 
sented the violence which he should thus impose on his 
'conscience ; and they referred him to the prelates, who, 
trembling under their own apprehensions, earnestly con- 
curred in the advice of the privy-counsellors. Juxon alone, 
whose courage was not inferior to his other virtues, ven- 
tured to advise him, if in his conscience he did not ap« 
prove of the bill, by no means to assent to it. 

Strafford, hearing of the king's irresolution and anxiety, 
wrote a letter, in which he entreated bis majesty, for the 
nuke of pubflic peace, to put an end to his unfortunate, 
however innocent life, and to quiet the tumultuous people 
by granting, them the request for which they were so im- 
portnnate. The magnanimity of this letter made little im- 
pression on the courtiers who surrounded the king ; they 
now urged, that the full consent of Strafford to his own . 
death absolved his majesty from every scruple of con- 
scietice; and after much anxiety and doubt, the king 
granted a commission to four noblemen to give the royal 
assent, in his name, to the l>ill, a measure ultimately as . 
pernicious to Charles as it was now to Strafford, for with ft 
was coupled his assent to the bill which rendered this par- 
liament perpetual. But so much was bis majesty at this . 
time under the presence of terror, or regard for Strafford^ 
that he did not perceive that this last bill was of fatal con- 
sequence to himself. In fact, in comparison with the bill , 
of attainder, this concession made no figure in his eyes. . 
A circumstance, says^Hume, which, if it lessen our idea 
of/his resolution or penetration, serves to prove the iti- , 
tegftty of his heart, and the goodness of bis disposition. 
It is indeed certain, that strong compunction for his con- [ 
sent to Stfafford^s execution attended this unfortunate / 
prince during the remainder of his life ; and even at his 
own fatal end, tbe memory of this guilt, with great sorrpw 
and remorse, recurred upon him. 

Strafford, notwithstanding his voluntary surretider.of bis , 



WE N T W O R T H.' 391 

life, in tbe letter he wrote to the king, was not ^\iitte. pre- 
pared to expect 80 sudden a dereliction by his sgyereigp. 
When secretary Carlttton waited on him with the intejli« 
gence, and stated ins own consent as the circumstance that 
bad chiefly moved the king, the astonished prisoner in- 
quired if his majesty had indeed sanctioned the bill? and 
when assured ufthe fatal truth, he exclaimed: '* Put not 
your trust in princes, nor in the sons of men ; for in them 
there is no salvation." Resuming, however, his accus- 
tomed fortitude, he began now to prepare for his fate, and 
employed the short interval of three days, which was al- 
lowed him, in the concerns of his friends and his family. 
He humbly petitioned the House of Lords to have com- 
passion on his innocent children. He wrote his last in- 
structions to his eldest son, exhorting him to be obediept 
and grateful to those entrusted with his education ; to be sin« 
cere and faithful towards his sovereign, if he should ever be 
called into public service ; and, as he foresaw that tbe ve^^ 
^nues of the church would be despoiled, he charged him 
to take no part in a sacrilege which would certainly be fol- 
lowed by the curse of Heaven. He shed tears over the 
untimely fate of Wandesford, whom he had entrusted with 
the care of hjs government, and jthe protection of his fa- 
mily, and who, on learning the dangers of his friend and 
patron^ had fallen a victim to gi'ief and despair. In a part- 
ing letter to his wife, he endeavoured to support her cou- 
rage; and expressed a hope, that his successor, lord Dil- 
lon, . woul<l behave with tenderness to her and her orphans. 
On being refused an inteririew with sir George Radcliffeatid 
archbishop Lau(i, his fellow -prisoners in the 7^ower, be 
conveyed a tender udieu to the one, and to the other ati 
earnest request for his prayers and his parting blessing. 

His latent biographer remarks, that the day of Strafford^s 
execution threw a brighter lustre over his name, than his 
njost memorable transactions. As he passed along to Tower 
Bill, on which the scaffold was erected, the populace, who 
eagerly thronged to the spectacle, beheld his noble de- 
portment with admiration. His tall and stately figure, tlH^ 
grave» (iignified symmetry of his features, corresponded 
with thf general impression of his / character: and the 
mildness, which had^ taken place of the usual severity of 
bis. forehead, expressed repentance enlivened by bope^ 
and fortitude teippered by resignation. In lijs address to 
the people from the scaffold, he assured them that he sub- 

V 2 



afro W^t4TW 6 Kt K{ 

mltted t6 brt sertlcnoe with pefffe<^t resignation ; that freefy* 
atid from his heart he forgave all tht world. **I tpcak,** 
«tid he, " in the presence of Almighty God, before whom 
I fttand : there is not a displeasing thought that ariaeth i^. 
ihe to any man.'* He declared that, howevei' brs actions 
might have been misinterpreted, his intentions badalwayr 
been uprig.ht : that he loved parliaments, that he was de- 
Voted to the constitution and to the church of England: that 
he ever considered the interests of the king and people ay 
ilhseparably united-; and that, living or dying, the prospe- 
rity of his country was his fondest wish. But he expressed 
bis fearsy " that the omen was bad for the intended refor- 
mation of the state, that it commenced with the shedding 
of innocent blood.'' Having bid a last adieu to his brother 
and friends who attended him, and having sent a blessing 
to bis nearer relations who were absent, " And now," said' 
he, "I have nigh done! One stroke will make my wife 
^ widow, and my dear children fatherless, deprive my poor 
servants of their indulgent master, and separate me iVom 
my affectionate brother and' all my friends. B^t let God 
be to you ami tliem all iti all.'* Going to disrobe, and 
prepare hinvself for the block, *' I thank God,'* said' he, **that 
I am tio wise afraid of deatlf^ nor am daunted with any 
terrors ; but do as cheerfiilly lay down my head at this time, 
a» ever I did when going to repose.'* He then stretcked 
out his hands as a signal to the executioner; and at one 
blow his head was severed from his body. - 

His execution took place Mtiy 13, 1641, in the fony- 
ninth year of his age. Though his death, says Huine^ was 
Ibudly demanded as a satisfaction to justice, and an atone- 
ifti^nt for the many violations of the constitation, it may be 
safely afBrmedj that, the sentence by which he fell veas^an' 
^ormity greater than the worst of those which his impla- 
cable enemies prosecuted with so mnch cruel indiistry.' 
The people in their rage had totally mistake!) the propej*; 
dbject of thein reset^ttnent. All the necessities, oif, ntore 
properly speaking, the difflctilties with which the king had 
been ihduced to use violent expedients for raising supply, 
were the result of measures previous to Strafford^s favour : 
^itA iPtbey arose from ill conduct, he at least was entirely 
infiocem. Even those violent expedients themselves which 
occasioned the complaint that the constitution was subreit-* 
ed; bad been, all of them, conducted, so f^r as appeared, 
without Iris courrsel or assistance. And whateVerlils pri-' 



W E N T W O R T U. 293 

'vate advice might be, this salutary .,inaxiai ite failed ^^, 
ofteH) and publicly, to inculcate in the king^s pr^em:;^, 
th.at» if any inevitable necessity ever obliged the sovereign 
10 vi^ate the law$, tbia licence ought to be practised wit|i 
Extreme reserve, and as soon as possible a just atonement' 
be made to the Constitution for any injury that it might s^^^ 
tain from such dangerous precedeius. The first parliament 
%t'ter the Restoration reversed the bill of attamder; and 
eveo a fi^w weeks after StraiFord's execution, this, very par- 
liament remitted to hi^ children the more severe qon^e- 
quences of his sentence, as if conscious of the violence witb 
which the prosecution had been conducted. 

Strafford's general character may be collected frorn iiie 
preceding sketch ; but is more fully illustrated iahis ^'JUft- 
ters,*' published in 1739, 2 vols, folio; and in an interest- 
ing sequel, published lately by Dr. Whitaker, iu the *' l^ife 
.an4 Correspondence of Sir George Radcliffe," i91Q, 4to. 
A few particulars yet remain, gleaned by Dr. fiircb from 
various authorities. Lomi Strafford was extremely i^ai- 
perate in his diet, drinking, and recreations ; but natiarally 
very choleric, an infirmity which he endeavoured to cot>* 
troulf thpugh upon sadden occasions it broke through ^11 
restraints, ^e was sificere and zealous in his friendshipi- 
Whitelocke assures us, that, ^^ for natural parts and aMii- 
ties,, and for improvement of knowledge by experience ki 
tfa« greatest affairs, for wjsdom, faithfulness, andgaUaptry 
of mind, he left few behind him, that might be ranked 
ecjtial with htm.'V Lord Clarendon acknowledges, indeed, 
that the earl, in his government of Ireland, had beeo 
compelled, by reason of state, to exercise many acts i|f 
.power^ and had indulged some to hh own appetite and pAa- 
si on ) and as he was a man of loo high and severe a d^-- 
portraent, and too great a contemner of ceremony, to b<me 
many friends at court, so he could not but have euemifs 
enough. But he was a man, continues that noble hiatpr 
ri^n, of great parts and extraordinary endowments of dh^ 
lure, fK>t unadorned with some addition of art and lea^cH- 
ang,. though that again was more improved and illustrate^ 
by the other i for he bad a readiness of conception, m4 
cbarpness of expression, which made hi^i learning thQHg^ 
more than in truth it was. He was, oo doubt, of greait 
observation, and a piercing judgment, both in things and 
•peVBOiM ; \mi fait too great skill in personn made Mm j^.dge 
the worse of thing$;;fbr it was his misfi^jrtiana to live i» i 



2*4 W E N t W O R T H. 

time Wherein very few wise men were equally employed 
witli him, and scarce any but the lord Coventry (whose 
trust was more confined) whose faculties and abilities were 
eqnal to bis. So that, upon the matter, be relied wholly . 
upon himself; and discernino many defects in most men, 

* he too much neglected what they said or did. Of all his 
passions pride was most predominant ; which a moderate 
exercise of ill fortune might have corrected and refortnect, 
and which the hand of heaven strange!} punished bv bring- 
ing his destruction upon him by two things that he most 

^^espised, the people, and sir Harry Vane. In a word, 
the epitaph, which Plutarch records, that Sy I la wrote for 
himself, may not unfitly be applied to him, ^* that no man 
did ever exceed him, either in doing good to his friends, 
or in doing mischief to his enemies ;*' for his acts of both 
kinds were most notorious.' 

WENT WORTH (Thomas), the supposed author of a 
law work of great reputation and authority, was bom in 
1567, in Oxfordshire, of the family of the Weniworths, of 
Northamptonshire. He was entered of University college, 
Oxford, in 1584, and after remaining three years there, 
removed to Lincoln^s Ion, studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar. In September 1607 he was elected recorder of 

. Oxford, and in 1611 was Lent reader at Lincoln's Ion. 
He also sat in several parliaments in the reigns of James 
L and Charles I. for the city of Oxford. Wood says that 
in parliament he shewed himself ^' a troublesome and imc- 
tious person," and was more than once imprisoned. Ac- 
cording to the same writer, he behaved so turbulehtly at 
Oxford, that he was discommoned with disgrace, 1>ttt was 
afterwards restored. His restless spirit, however, return- 
ing, his friends advised hini to retire, which he did to 
Henley. Some time after he went to London, and died 
in or near Lincoln's Inn, in *Sept. 1627. Such is Wood's 
account. The work attributed to him is entitled '^ The of- 
fice and duty of Executors," &c. which, according to Wood, 
was published in 1612, 8vo, and has been often reprinted'; 
the last edition in 1774, revised, with additions by thelate 
sei^eant Wilson. But there seems reason to doubt whether 
Wentworth was the original writer, for it ha^ been ascribed 
by sevei-al authors to judge Dodtleridge.* 

1 Biog. Brit— Mc^iarmMI'B Lives of British Statesneoi-^Stfafford's I<ttt«rf. ; 
t-Life of Radciiffe: — Birch's Lives.— Hunse's Histoiy. 
* Ath. Ox. vol. I. — ^Bridgman's Legal Bibliography. ' 



W E P F E R, 295 

WEPFER (John James), a celebrated physician^ was 
born at Scbaffhauseh, Dec. 23, 1620. He studied at Stras>^ 
bufgh and Basle for eight }^ars, and after having attended 
some of the learned niedicai professors of Italy for two more 
years, returned to Basle, and took his doctor^s degree in 
July 1647. In practice he was so successful, that his ad* 
vice was in great demand, not only through Swisser!and, 
bot \x\ the German courts. In 1675 the duke of Wirtem- 
berg appointed hin) his physician, and some time after- 
wards the marquis of Dourlach, and the elector Palatine^ 
bestowed the same title on him. His care and anxiety, in 
'attending upon the duke of Wirtembergin 1691, and upon 
the soldiers of the imperial army commanded by the duke^ 
was of great prejudice to his own health, which was at last 
iktdXXy injured by his attendance on the army of the em« 
peror Leopold, in which an epidemic fever prevailed. He 
contracted an asthmatic disorder, ending in a dropsy, of 
which be died January 28,. 1695. His works, most of 
which have been often reprinted, are highly valued for 
practical utility, abounding in accurate and judicious ob- 
servation. Among these we may enumerate his, 1. <^ Ob* 
servationes anatomicae ex cadaveribus eornm quos sustuiit 
Apoplexia ;'* this, after goin^j throU;:h three editions^ w:^s 
published, at least twice, under the title of ^^ Histpria Apo- 
plecticorum," Amst. 1710, 1724, 8vo. 2. *^ Obseryatione^ 
Medico-practicee de afFectibus capitis internis et exter- 
nis,*' 1727, 4to, published by his grandsons, with his life, 
and a history of the disorder of which he died. This work 
was the result of fifty years observation. ' 

WERENFELS (Samuel), an eminent protestant divine, 
was the grandson of John James Werenfeis, a clergyman 
at Basil, who died November 17, 1635, leaving ^ Sermons'* 
in German, and '^ Homilies on Ecclesiastes^* in Latin. He 
was the son of Peter Werenfeis, iike%vise an eminent pro- 
testant divine, born 1627, at Leichtal; who, after having 
been pastor of different cbnrcbes, was appointed arcbdea- 
con of Basil in 16j»4, where be gave striking proofs of bis 
piety and zeal during the pestilence which desolated the 
city of Basil in 1667 and 1668« His sermons, preached at 
that time from Psalm xci. have be«n printed. He was ap^ 
poihted professor of divinity in 1675, and died May 2S, 
1703, aged seventy-six, leaving a great number of valuable 

1 SnceroB, ToT. Xr**-Eloy Ditt Hist. d« Medccine. 



896 W ERE N F E L S. 

'f Dissertations/^ some " Sermons," and other works. His 
son» the immediate subject of the present article, w^ bom 
March I, 1657, at Basil. He obtained a professorship of 
logic in 1684, and' of Greek in the year following, and 
soon after set out on a literary journey through Holland and 
Germany, and then into France, with Burnet, afterwards 
bishop of Salisbury, and Frederick Battier. At his return 
to Basil he was appointed professor of rhetoric, and filled 
the different divinity chairs successively. He died in that 
city, June 1, 1740. His works have all been collected and 
printed in 2 vols. 4to ; the most complete edition of then) 
is that of Geneva and of Lausanne, 1739. They treat of 
philology, philosophy, and divinity, and are universally 
esteemed, particularly the tract '^ De Logomachiis Erudi- 
tprum.'' In the same collection are several poems, which 
show the author to have been a good poet as well a$ an 
tble philosopher and learned divine. We have also ^ vol. 
8yo, of his *' SermOns,^' ywhich are much admired.' 

WESLEY (Samuel), an. English divine, of whom some 
account may be acceptable, preparatory to that of his 
inore celebrated son, was the son of a noncotiformist mi- 
nister, ejected in 1662. He was born about 1662. He 
i|as educated in nonconformist sentiments, which h^ soQn 
relinquished, owing to the violent prejudices of some of 
Jiis sect in favour of the murder of Charles I. He spent 
some time at a private academy, and at the age of si^^teeo 
valked to Oxford, and entered himself of Exeter college, 
9s a servitor. He bad at this time no more than two pounds 
sixteen shillings, nor any prospect of future supply but 
from his own exertions. But by industry, and probably 
hy assisting his fellow students, he supported himself until 
he took his bachelor's degree, without any preferment or 
.i^ssistance from his friends| except five shiUings. He now 
caiiae to London, having increased his little stock to 10/. 
Hs^ Here he was ordained deacon, and obtained a en- 
' ntpyy whicli he held one year, when be w^s appointed 
chaplain of the Fleet. In t;^s sitq^tlon he remained bMt a 
jefir, and reti>rned to London, where be again .served a 
(;uraqy for two years, during which time he married 9.n4 
h9-d ;^.son. He now wrote several pieces which brought 
l^m into Bo^ice Apd esleeof, and a sipall livi^gj w^.giveo 
him ifi the potyiitry, thajt, if w^ mUt^e OQV ^f SwtV 



_i 



W E S I- 8 Y. 89? 

Ormesby, rn (be covin ty of Lib col n^ He was sicoogly so-r 
licited by the friends of James II. to support the .measures 
of the court in favour of popery, with promises of preferr 
m.ent if be would comply with the king*s desire. But he 
absolutely refus/ed to read the king's declaration ; an4 
though surrounded with courtiers, soldiers, and informerSf 
be preached a bold and pointed discourse against it, frooof 
Daniel ili. 17^, 18. ^^ If it be so, our God whom we serve 
is able to deliver us from the burning Bery furnacet and h« 
will deliver us out of thiue hand, O king. But if not, be 
it. known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve tby 
gods^ nor worship the golden image which thou hast set 
up." When the revolution took place he wrote a work id 
defence of it, dedicated to queen Mary, who, in cpnsc* 
quence of it, gave him the living of Epworth, in Lincolny 
shire, about 1693; and in 1723 he w?is presented to tb« 
living of Wroote, in the same county, in addition to Ep^ 
wortb,^ which last be h^ld upwards of forty years. 

In the beginning of 1705 he printed a poem on the b^t^ 
tie of Blenheim, with which the duke pf Marlborough w«;i 
so well pleased, that he made him chaplain to colonel hfy^ 
pelle's relgiment, which was to remaiji in England som^^ 
time. In consequence of the same poem, a noble lofd s^pt 
for him to London, promising to procure him a prebend ; 
but unhappily he was at ibis time engaged in a contro-^ 
versy with the dissenters, who being in favour at que^ii 
Anne's court, and in parliament, ha4 iufluenqe enough to 
obstruct his promotion, and even to procure his renioy^U 
from the chaplaincy of the regiment. 

As a parish priest he was very exemplary in the discbargf 
of bis duties, which did not, however, divert him from \i^ 
terary pursuits, the most serious of which was the study of 
the scriptures in. the original language^. One con§Qquenc# 
of thi» was his Latin commentary on the Book of Job^ *^ Oia* 
^ertatione$ in librum Jobi/' This, which did not appeapr 
until, after bis death, was printed by Mr. Bowyer ia f 
be.auj:iful type, illustrated with cuts, and supporteclby ^ 
respectable list of subscribers. It appears to havebew 
the i^ost laboured of its author's works. He collated ail 
the copies be could meet with of the original, and ^hf 
Greek and other versions and editions ; and, after bi« lar 
bour$ ^nd his library had been burnt with his bouse (wbid^ 
had suffered the like fate once before, about 1707), he re- 
sumed the Jkas.k in th« deelineof lif^^-opprest with gout and 



. ! 



298^ W E S L E Y. 

palsjr through long habit of study. Among other assist- 
ances, he particularly acknowledges that of bis three hous, 
and his friend. Maurice Johnson. 

As he had received much applause, and even promotion 
for his poetical efforts, we are not to wonder that he exercised 
this talent rather frequently, producing **The Life of Christ, 
an heroic poem/' 1693, folio, dedicated to the queen, and 
reprinted with large additions and corrections in 1697 ; 
'^ The History of the Old and New Testament attempted 
in verse, and adorned with three hundred and thirty sculp- 
tures, engraved by J* Sturt/* 1704, 3 vols. 12mo, addressed 
to queen Anne in a poetical dedication ; '* Maggots, or 
Poems on several subjects,** 1685, 8vo; and '^Elegies on 
QJMary and Abp. Tillotson," 1695, folio. His poetry, 
which is far from excellent, has been censured by Garth 
and others, but all concur in the excellence of bis private 
character. His last moments, says Dr. Whitehead, were 
as conspicuous for resignation and Christian fortitude, as 
his life had been for zeal and diligence. He died April 
30, 17S5, leaving a numerous family of children, among 
whqm were his sons Samuel, John, and Charles, and a 
daughter Mehetabel, a young lady of considerable literary 
talents and poetical fancy, who was unfortunately married 
to a Mr. Wright, a low man, who broke her heart. Some 
of her poems are printed in the sixth volume of the *' Poe- 
tical Calendar.^ 

WESLEY (Samuel, the younger), son of the preceding, 
was born about 1692, and sent to Westminster-school in 
1704, and admitted a king's scholar in 1707, whence be 
was elected to Christ-church, Oxford^ in 17 U. Here, as 
well as at Westminster, he acquired the character of an 
excellent classical scholar. He was the author of two 
poems of considerable merit, ** The Battle of the Sexes,** 
and ^< The Prisons opened ;'* and of another called ** The 
Parish-Priest, a Poem, upon a clergyman lately deceased,*^ 
a very dutiful and. striking eulogy on bis wife's father ; 
which are all printed among his poems, and several humor- 
ous tales, in 1736, 4to, and after his death in 1743, 12mo. 
He gave to the Spalding society an annulet that had touched 
the beads of the three kings df Cologne, whose names 
"were in black letters within. When he took his master's 

deg^e, he was appointed to officiate as usher at Westmin- 

• ,,,,.' .. • • 

> Whiteh0^>t tile of W«slej._Niclioli't Bowyer.. -'m 



WESLEY. 29» 

ster-school ; and soon after be took orders, under the pt'- 
tronage oF bishop Atterbury, to whom he was ever greatly 
attached, and the banishment of that celebrated preiatie 
made no change in his friendship for him, as he was fullj 
convinced of his innocence. This attachment, and bis op. 
position to sir Robert Walpole, barred all hopes of prefer- 
ment at Westminster, but in 1732 he was appointed mas- 
ter* of Tiverton -school in Devonshire, over which he pre- 
sided till his death. Samuel Wesley was unquestionablj 
the best poet of his family, but he was a very high^church- 
man, and totally disapproved of the conduct of his brothers, 
John and Charles, when they became itinerant preachers, 
being afraid that they would make a separation from the 
church of England. He died at Tiverton Nov. 6, 1739, 
and was buried in the church-}'ard there, with a long epi- 
taph. * 

WESLEY (John), the most celebrated of the family, 
and the founder of the society of Methodists, \Vas the s6- , 
cond son of the rev. Samuel Wesley, and was born at Ep- 
worth in Lincolnshire, June 17, 1703, O. S. His mother 
was the youngest daughter, of Dr. Samuel Anneslej^, an 
fminent nonconformist, and appears to have been a woman 
of uncommon mental acquirements, and a very early istu- 
dent of religious controversies. At the age of thirteen she 
became attached to the church of England, from an exa- 
mination of the points in dispute betwixt it and the dissen- 
ters; but wbeii her husband was detained from his charge 
at Epworth by his attendance on the convocation in Lon-' 
don, she tised to admit as m Ay of his flock as his house 
could hold, and read a sermon, prayed, &c. with them\ 
Her husband, who thought this not quite regular, objected 
lO'it, and she repelled his objections with considlerable in- 
genuity. It is not surprising, therefore, that she after- 
wards approved 9f her sons^ extraordinary services in the 
cause of religion. 

In bis sixth year John almost miraculously escaped the 
'fltoes which consumed his father's house, a circumstance 
which was alluded to afterwards in an engraving made ct 
liim,' with the inscription ** Is not this a brand plucked out 
of the burning?",' After receiving the first rudiments of 
education from his mother, who also carefully instilled int# 

I Whitehead's Life of Weiley.— Nichols's Bowyer, and Aiterbvi^'s Corre- 

spoodiUice. ... 



S0O WESLEY- 

bet children the principles of religion, he was^ in 17149 
placed at the Charter-house^ and became distinguished for 
his diligence and progress in learning. In his seventeenth 
year be was elected to Cbrist-cburcb, Oxford, where he 
pursued his studies with great advantage ; his natural tem- 
per, however, was gay and sprightly, and he betrayed a 
considerable turn for wit and humour. He amused himself 
occasionally with writing verses, mostly imitations or trans- 
lations from the Latin. When he conceived the purpose 
of enterini]^ into holy orders, he appears to have been sen- 
sibly struck with the importance of the office, and became 
more serious than usual, and applied himself with great 
diligence to the study of divinity ; and as the character of 
his future life was in a great measure formed by bis early 
studies, it m^y not be superfluous to mention that two of 
his most favourite books were Thomas a Kempis and bishop 
Taylor's " Holy Living and Dying;" and, although he 
differed from the latter on some points, it was from reading 
him that he adopted his opinion of universal redemption, 
which he afterwards uniformly maintained. He now be- 
^an to alter the whole form of his conversation, and endea* 
Tburefl to reduce the bishop's advice on purity of intention, 
svad holiness of heart, into practice. After his father bad 
removed some scruples from bis mind respecting the dam-> 
natory clause in the Athanasian creed, he prepared him- 
self for ordination, and received deacon's orders Sept. 19, 
J725, from Dr. Potter, then bishop of Oxford. And such 
was his general good character for learning and diligence, 
that on March 17, 1726, he was elected fellow of Lincoln- 
college, though not without encountering some ridicule on 
account of his particularly serious turn. In April be left 
.Oxford, and resided the whole summer at Epworth and 
Wroote, where he frequently 61Ied his father's pulpit. 

On his return to the university in Sept. following he w^ 
chosen Greek lecturer, and moderator of the classes, Nov. 
7, although be had only been elected fellow of the college 
in March, jvas little more than twenty-three years o^ agc^ 
^nd bad not yet proceeded master of arts. Such hononrab^ 
distinction appears to have increased bis diligence; be- 
sides his theological studies, he studied the classics criii- 
cnUy, and his occasional attempts in English poetry ba4 
beauty and excellence enough to be approved by the best 
jttdget of ktS'time. On Feb. 14, 1727, he proeecded M. A. 
and acquired considerable credit by his disputation for tiiii 



WESLEY. 3dl 

degree. He began about this time to separate himself 
irum society, that he might not be diverted from those 
rieKgrous inquiries which now pressed upon his mind. His 
religfous sentiments were not yet fixed ; he had read much, 
perhaps as much as was necessary to be acquainted with 
the most common distinctions between Christians, but thie 
principles on which he afterwards acted, were not yet settled. 
He appears to have had some thoughts of accepting the. 
offer of a school in Yorkshire, and his chief inducement 
wa<s its being represented as seated in a frightful, wild, and 
altiiost inaccessible situation, where he could run no risk of 
/ftany visits. The school, however, was otherwise disposed 
of. In the interim he laid down the following plan of study, 
from which, for some time, he never suffered any deviation': 
Mondays and Tuesdays were d*evoted to the Greek and 
Roman classics, historians, 'and po^ts-. Wednesdays ta 
logic and ethics. Thursdays to Hebrew and Arabic. Fri- 
days to metaphysics and natural philosophy. Saturdays to 
oratory and poetry, chiefly composing. Sundays to di- 
vioitj. Mathematics, optics, and the French language, ap- 
pear likewise to have occupied his leisure hours. 

fa the month of August 1727, he left Oxford to become 
bis father's curate at Wroote, where he found time to pur- 
sue the above plan of study. In July 1728 he returned to 
Oxfon! with a view to obtain priest's orders, and was ac- 
cordingly ordained Sept. 22, by Dr. Potter. He imme- 
diately set out for Lincolnshire, and did not again vi«it Ox- 
ford till June 1729, where he found that his brother Charles, 
Mr. Morgan, and one or two more, had just formed a llltle 
society, chiefly to assist edch other in their studies, and to 
consult on the best method of employing their time to ad- 
vantage. He Joined them every evening until his return, 
to Wroote, where he remained until Dr. Morley, rector of 
bis college, induced him to quit his curacy and reside at 
Oxford, where he might get pupils, or a curacy near th6 
city. His presence, however, being required by the sta-, 
tute, was Mr. Wesley's principal inducement for leavijig, 
tile situation, however humble, which he enjoyed under 
Iris father. 
^ At Oxford he resided from Nov. 1729 to Oct. 1 735, and 
it' was during this period that the first Methodist society 
«i%s established, or rather begun. I^ the mean time he 
obtained" pupils, and became, a tutor in'LiiTColn college; he 
also presided in the halloas md^derator in the disptita^ions^ 



3#2 WESLEY. 

lietd six ttmesa week, and had the chief direction of the relt« 
gious society, which, as we have already observed, had at first 
DO other view than their own benefit. By the advice of one 
of the number, Mr. Morgan, a commoner of Christ Church, 
they began to visit some prisoners in the jail, and thence 
extended their visits to the sick poor in the city. In this 
diey first met with some degree of encouragement^ but 
afterwards had to encounter considerable opposition and 
much ridicule; and, among other names, were called &- 
cramentarianSy because they partook of the sacrament once 
a week. But their principal name was Methodists^ alluding 
to a sect of ancient physicians so called, who were the dis- 
ciples of Themisoi), anci boasted that they found out a more 
easy method of teaching and practising the art of physic^ 
In the mean time the society, which consisted only of John 
and Charles Wesley, Mr. Morgan before-mentioned, Mr. 
Kirkman of Merton college, Mr. Ingham of Queen's, Mr. 
Broughton of Exeter, Mr. jClayton of Brasenose, Mr. James 
Hervey, and George Whitfield, continued to visit the pri- 
soners, and some poor families in the town when they 
were sick ; and that they might have wherewith to relieve 
their distress, they abridged themselves of all the super-' 
fiuities.and of manj' of the conveniencies of life. They also 
took every opportunity of conversing with their acquaint- 
ance, to awaken them to a sense of religion ; and by argu- 
ment defended themselves as well as they could against 
their opponents, who attacked them principally because 
they thought all this superfluous, mere works of superero- 
gation. But it does not appear that either they or the so- 
ciety itself^ bad fear or hope of the important consequences 
that would follow. 

In 1732 we find Mr. Wesley at London, whence he went 
to Putney, on a visit to the celebrated William Law, with 
whose writings he was greatly captivated. From this time 
also he began to read the ^'Theologia Germanica/' and 
o^her mystic writers, with whose opinions he coincided, .'as 
making religion to consist chiefly in contemplation, and in- 
ward attention to our own mind ; but, says his biographer, 
it does not appear that he was less diligent in the instituted 
means of grace, nor less active in doing good to others 
than before. He was now known to many pious and re- 
spectable persons in London, who began to take notice of 
him. He heartily approved of the conduct of those w^ll- 
disposed persons who associated, together to carry on a plan 



WESLEY. 30S 

for the suppresuon of vice, and spreading religion and vir- 
tue araoog the people ; and in August 1732 was admitted 
into the society for the propagation of Christian knowledge. 

By reading Law's " Christian Perfection," and his " Se- 
rious Call to a holy Life," Mr. Wesley was confirmed in the 
views he before had of the effects which the gospel is in- 
tended to produce on the minds of those who sincerely em- 
brace it; and was fully convinced of the absurdity and 
danger of being an half Christian. On Jan. 1,1733, be 
preached at St. Mary's, O.xford, before the university, on 
the ''circumcision of the heart.'' His biographer says, 
that in this serition ** he has explained with great clearness, 
and energy of language, his views of the Christian salva« 
tion to be attained in this life ; in which he never varied, 
in any material point, to the day of his death." In this 
month he set out for Epworth; and the declining state of 
his father's health occasioned his parents to speculate on 
the pussibiiiiy of obtaining the living of Epworth for him, 
in case of his father's demise. But to this he seems to have 
been indifferent, if not reluctant; he still wished to go 
back to Oxford, where in his absence there had been a great 
falling-olf in his society; and when in the following year 
bis father wrote to him, requesting him to apply for the 
next presentation, he answered he was determined not to 
accept the living if he could obtain it, and gavef the prefer- 
ence to Oxford, as the place where he could improve him- 
self more than elsewhere, and consequently contribute 
tiKMt to the improvement of others. It was in vain that his 
father and brother Samuel engaged in a controversy with 
him on tl^e subject. His father died in April t735, and the 
living was given away in May, so that he now considered 
hinvself as settled at Oxford, without any wish of beiqg 
further molested in his quiet retreat. 

But a new scene of action was soon proposed to him, of 
which he had not before the least conception. The trustees 
of the new colony of Georgia weye greatly in want of pro- 
per persons to send thither to preach the gospel, not only 
to the colony, but to the Indians. They fixed their eyes on 
Wesley and some of his friends, as the most proper per- 
sons, on account of the regularity of their behaviour, their 
abstemious way of living, and their readiness to endure 
hardships. In August 1735, being in London, he was in- 
troduced to Mr. Oglethorpe, and the matter proposc^d to 
him. For some time he hesitated, in order to consider it. 



304 WESLEY. 

iud take the advice of his friends, and then c6n^^ntea/ and 
began to prepare for bis voyage, along with bis brother 
Charles, Mr. Ingbaaij and Mr. Delamotte, the son of a 
merchant in London. But bis expedition was unsuccessful. 
The Indians were the intended objects of his ministry, but 
be found no opportunity of going among them, for general 
Oglethorpe wished to detain him at Savannah, where the 
£nglish had formed their settlement. Even here, however, 
he became frequently involved in disputes with the colo- 
nists. High-church principles, says one of his biogra- 
^phers, continually influenced his conduct; ''an instance 
6f which was his refusing to admit one of the holiest men 
in the province to the Lord's Supper, though he earnestly 
desired it,^ because he was a dissenter, unless he would 
siibmiit to be re-baptized.*' He also refused the communion 
to a married lady, whom he had himself courted fpr a wife, 
which excited a powerful hostility against him, and occa- 
sioned his return to England, after a ministry in Georgia 
of about a year and nine months. He allows himself that 
all he learned was, what he least of all eKpected^ that he 
** vvho went to America to convert others, w^s never him- 
self converted to God." 

During his voyage to Georgia he had met with a com- 
pany of Moravians, with whose behaviour he was greatfy 
delighted ; ^nd on his return to England he met with a new 
company who had just arrived from Germany. Froni them 
be seems to have learned some of bis peculiar doctrines, 
particularly instantaneous conversion, and assuranceof par- 
don for sin. These discoveries n^ade him desirous to go to 
the fountain-head of such, and accordingly he went to Ger- 
many, and visited the settlements of the Moravians. Iti 
f738 he returned to London, and began with great dili- 
gence to preach the doctrine which he had just learned. 
His*" Journals,** in which he records the vyhole progress of 
his ministry, discover a surprising state of mind, which it 
fs di'fiicultt to characterize : considerable attention to the 
sacred Scriptures, with an almost total abandonment to im- 
pressions of mind, which would go to make the Scriptures 
useless : some appearance of scrupulous regard to the real 
sense of scripture, while an enthusiastic interpretation i^ 
put upon passages, according as they happen first to strike 
the eye on opening tbe Bible. Great success, we are told^ 
attended his preaching, and yet some are said to have been 
^ bora again" in a higher sense, and some ooily in a[ lower. 



WESLEY. 305 

But in this anomalous spirit he was called to assist Mr. 
Whitfield, who had begun his career of field-preaching at 
Bristol, and was now about to return to Georgia. Mr^ 
Wesley -trod in Whitfield's irregular steps at Bristol; 
though he confesses that he had been^ so tenacious of de-^ 
cancy and order, that he should have thought the saving of 
souls almost a sin, if not done in a' church. The multi-^ 
tudes which attended the preaching of Wesley were great, 
though not so great as those which had flocked to Whitfield $ 
but the sudden impressions, loud cries, and groans of the 
hearers, were far greater than any thing we find recorded in 
the life of Whitfield. It was in the neighbourhood of Bris* 
tol that the first regular society of methodists was- formed, 
in May 1739, and laid the foundation of that unlimited 
power which Wesley afterwards exercised over the whole- 
sect. The direction of the building at Kingswood was first 
committed by him to eleven feoflPees of his own nomination. 
But for various reasons, urged by his friends, this arrange- 
ment was changed. One of those reasons, he says himself^ 
*^ was enough^ viz. that such feoffees would always have it 
in their power to controul me, and if I preached nota^ 
they liked, to turn me out of the room 1 had built.'* He 
therefore took the whole management into his own hands : 
and this precedent he ever after followed, so that from time 
to time the whole of the numerous meeting-houses belonging 
to the methodists were either vested in him, or in trustees 
who were bound to admit him, and such other preachers 
as he should appoint, into the pulpits. Whitfield was one o£ 
those who advised this plan in the case of the Kingswood 
meeting, and was himself afterwards excluded from this very 
pulpit. Whitfield and Wesley had run their course toge- 
ther in amity, but on the return of the former from America, 
in 1741, a breach took place between them, both of them 
having now become more decided in their principles. 
Whitfiield was a Calvinist, and Wesley an Arminian« " Yout 
and I," said Whitfield, "preach a different gospel ;" and' 
after some unavailing struggles, principally on the part of 
their friends, to bring about a recbnciliation, they finally 
parted, and from this time formed two sects, different in 
their form as well as principles, for Whitfield seems -to have 
trusted entirely to the power of his doctrines to bring con- 
gregations and make co]>verts, while Wesley bad already 
begun and soon perfected a gigantic^stem of connectior^ 
of which his personal uifluence was dR sole mover. 
Vol. XXXI. X ^ 



300 W E 8 L E Y. 

. Although it is not our intention, and would indeed b^ 
impracticable, within any reasonable bpunds, to give afi 
account of the progress of the Wesleyan methodism, we 
may, mention a few links of that curious chain which binds 
the whole body. The first division of the society is a class. 
All those hearers who- wish to be considered as memberi^ 
must join a class. This is composed of such as profess to 
^ seeking their salvation. About twelve form a class, at 
fhe head, of which is the most experienced person, called a 
riict^^r/dwfer, whose business Mr. Wesley thus defines: *• to 
fee each person in his class once a week, at least, in order 
10 inquire how their, souls proisper; to advise, reprove, com*' 
fort, or exhort, ^s occasion may require: to receive what 
they may be willing to give to the poor; to meet the mi* 
nister and. the stewards of the society, to inform the minis- 
ter of any that are sick, or disorderly, and will not be re- 
proved,. and to pay to the stewards what they have received 
of the several classes in the week preceding.'^ These 
class^, according to the present custom, meet together 
once a week^ -usually in the place of worship, when each 
one tells his experienc^e, as it is called, gives a penny a 
week towards the funds of the society, and the leader con-; 
cludesithe meeting with prayer. The next step is to gaih 
admission intp lAaebandSi the business of which seems to be 
l^ch tlie same with the other, but there is more ample 
confession of secret sins here, and consequently admission 
into these hands implies the members having gone through 
a higher degree of probation. They have also watch-nights^' 
and byvC'-feastSy which are merely meetings for prayer, ex- 
hortation, and sihging, and are more general, as to admis- 
sion, 'than the preceding. Against, the classes and the 
bands^ as far as confessidn of secret sins and temptations to 
sin are concerned, verysertocis objections have been urged, 
but they are too obvi6us to be specified. Wesley had al- 
ways great diflidulty in preventing this from being con- 
sidered as equivalent to popish confession. Besides these 
subordinate societies, the m^hodists have a kind of par- 
liamenury session, under the vi^imboi v^ confer ertce^ it^ which 
the affairs of the whole body are investigated, funds pro- 
vided, and; abuses Corrected. The origin of thejconference 
is said to have been:this. When the preachers at first wen^ 
oot to exboift and preach, it was; by Mr. Wesley's permi$» 
sion and direction ; some from one part of tbte kingdom, 
itnd some from another -, ^nd though frequently strangera 



WESLEY. 807 

to each other, and to those to whom they were sent, yet 
on his credit and sanction alone tbey were received and 
provided for as friends, by the societies wherever tbey 
came. But having little or no communication or inter- 
^oui^se with one another, nor any subordination among 
themselves, they must have been under the necessity of 
recurring to Mr. Wesley for directions how and where they 
were to officiate. To remedy this inconvenience, he con- 
o^ived a design of calling them together to an annual con- 
ference : by this means he brought them into closer union 
,with each other, and made them sensible of the utility of 
acting in concert and harmony. He soon found it neces- 
sary also to bring their itinerancy under certain regulations^ 
and reduce it to some fixed order, both to prevent confu- 
aion and for his own ease. He therefore. took fifteen or 
twenty societies, more or less, which lay round some prin- 
cipal society in those parts, and which were so situated, 
that the greatest distance from the one to the other was not 
much more than twenty miles, and united them into what 
was called a, circuit. At the yearly coirference be appointed 
two, three, or four preachers to one of those circuits, ac- 
cording to its extent, which at first was very often con- 
siderable; and here, and here only, they were to labodr 
for one year, that is, until the next conference. One of 
the preachers on every circuit was called the assistant^ be- 
cause he assisted Mr. Wesley in superintending the so- 
cieties and other preachers : he took charge of the societies 
\vithin the limits assigned him : he enforced the rules every 
where, and directed the labours of the preachers associated 
with him, pointing out the day when each should be at the 
place fixed for him, to begin £^ progressive mo^on round 
it» according to a plan which he gave them. ' There are 
few parts of Mr. Wesley*s sj'stem that have been inore ad- 
mired, as a trick of human policy, than his perpetually 
changing the situations of his preachers, that they might 
neither, by a. longer stay, become more agreeable, or dis- 
agreeable to their flock, than the great mover of all wished. 
The people felt this as a gratification of their love of va- 
riety ; but it had a more important object, in perpetuating 
the power of the founder. The first of these conferences 
was held in 1744, and Mr. Wesley lived to preside at forty- 
seven of them. 

. In order to form the numerous societies of which the 
Melhodiits coosistj. Mn Wesley*8 lahoiirs as a preacher are 

X2 



308 WESLEY. 

witbout precedent. During the fifty years which compos 
his itinerant life, be travelled about 4500 miles every year, 
one year with another, which amount, in the above space 
of time, to 225,000 miles. It had been impossible for bim 
to perform this almost incredible degree of labour, witbout 
great punctuality and care in the management of bis time. 
He had stated hours for every purpose, and his only re- 
laxation was a change of employment. For fifty-two years, 
pr upwards, be generally delivered two, frequently three 
or four, sermons in a day. But calculating at twosermons 
a day, and allowing, as one of his biographers has done, 
fifty annually for extraordinary occasions, the whole num- 
ber during this period will be 40,560. To these may be 
added, an infinite number of exhortations to the societies^ 
after preaching, and in other occasional meetings at which 
h.e assisted. 

At first it has been supposed that Mr. Wesley's intention 
%vas to revive a religious spirit with the aid of regular cler- 
gymen; but be soon* found it impossible to find a number 
sufficient for the extensive design he had formed. He 
therefore, although at first with some reluctance, employed 
laymen to preach, who soon became numerous enough to 
carry on bis purpose. Ordination, he long hesitated to 
grant, but at length the importunities of his coadjuroiFS 
overcame his scruples, and he consented to give orders in 
imitation of the church of England, which, we believe, is 
now the practice y\hh his successors. There were, bow- 
ever, but few things in which he gave way during what 
may be termed his reign. His most elaborate and impar- 
tial biographer, Dr. Whitehead, allows, that " During the 
time that Mr. Wesley, strictly and properly speaking, go- 
verned the societies, bis power was absolute. There were 
no rights, no privileges, no offices of power or influence, 
but what were created or sanctioned by liim ; nor could 
any persons hold them except during his pleasure. The 
whole system of mct/wdisniy like a great and complicated 
machine, was formed under his direction, and his will gave 
motion to all ius parts, and turned it this way or that, as he 
thought proper." To Mr. Wesley's other labours we foay 
add his many controversial tracts again3(t the bishops La« 
yiugtou and Warburton, Drs. Middleton, Free, and Taylor, 
Hall, Toplady, &c. and his other works, on various subjects 
d£ divinit^^ .ecclesiastical history, sermons, biography, &c. 
wbiob were printed together in. 1774^ in 32 vols. 8vo. 



WESLEY. 809 

These and his other labours he continued to almost the 
last of a very long life. He died at his house near the 
eliapel in the City-road, March 2, 1191, in the eighty- 
eighth year of his age. 

His public, and much of his private character, have been 
appreciated according to the views of the parties who were 
interested in bis success. He was unquestionably a good 
scholar, and as a writer was entitled to considerable repu- 
tation. His talents for the pulpit have also been praised, 
and it is certain they were successfully employed. He is 
said to have succeeded best in his studied compositions, 
but bis many engagements seldom afforded him time for 
such. He has been praised for his placability, but some 
of those in controversy with him reluctantly subscribe to. 
this. That he was extremely charitable and disinterested 
has never been denied. He died comparatively poor, after 
having had in a principal degree the management of the 
whole funds of the society. He lived upon little himself, 
and his allowance to his preachers was very moderate. On 
the past or future effects of the vast society he formed, we 
shall not hazard an opinion. That be originally did good, 
great good, to the lower classes, is incontestable. He cer- 
tainly contributed to meliorate tliat important part of so- 
ciety, and to produce a moral effect that had never before 
been so evident, or so extensive. In bis system, however, 
his great machine, we see too much of human policy acting 
on, the imperfections of human nature, to admire it much. 

John Wesley has. had no successor. Even at the time 
of his decease dissentions existed: and an interval of six 
years produced an actual separation of the society. The 
liberties of their church, and the rights of the people, 
formed the grounds of dispute. On pretence of giving 
due support to the plan of itinerancy, some leading minis- 
ters bad endeavoured to obtain an exorbitant degree of 
power over the community and junior preachers ; and they 
managed the conference in a way. which tended to secure 
this power. Disgusted at these arbitrary proceedings, a 
Mr. Kilham, and other members of the sect, applied to 
the general assembly for a redress of grievances, and for 
an. admission of the laity to a proper share in the gene- 
ral government of the society. Repeated applications and 
remonstrances being wholly fruitless^ and Mr.Kilbam being: 
expelled from the fraternity by the ruling party, about 5000 



SIO WESLEY. 

difcofitehted tnieixibers seceded from the connection in 1797, 
and formed independent arrangements on a popular basisi 
Dr. Whitehettd allows that at present {1196) the preachers 
of the old society ^^ claim unlimited powers, both ta make 
laws and execute them, by themselves or their deputies, 
without any intermediate authority existing to act as a 
check in favour of the people. But what is still much 
worse than all the rest, is, that the prr^^n/ systen>. of go- 
vernment among the methodists, requires such arts of hu-> 
man policy and chicanery to carry it on, as, in my opinion, 
are totally inconsistent with the openness of gospel sim- 
plicity. It is happy that the great body of the preachers 
do not enter into the spirit of it, and indeed know little 
about it : being content with doing their duty on the cir^ 
cuits to which they are appointed, and promoting the spi- 
ritual welfare of the people." This bad form of goTern^ 
ment, however, has probably been changed, as we under- 
stand that the society is now harmonious and increasing. 

Mr Wesley's brother and coadjutor, Charles, was bom 
at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1708. He was first educated at home, 
under the care of his mother; but, in 1716, was sent to 
Westminster-school. In 1721 be was admitted a scholar on 
the foundation ; and at length became captain of the school. 
In 1726 he was elected to Christ-Church, Oxford ; at which 
time his brother John was fellow of Lincoln* Here be pur- 
sued his studies with remarkable diligence, and became 
more and more of a religions turn of mind* He proceeded 
master of arts in the usual course; and, in 17S5, was pi;e- 
vailed upon by bis brother John to accon^pany him in his 
mission to Georgia. Charles accordingly engaged himself 
as secretary to general Ogletborpe, im which character he 
left England ; but he was first of all ordained both deacon 
and priest. After preaching to the Indians, and mnder^ 
going various difficulties and hardships, be returned to 
England in 1736. In England he officiated as a ptiblic 
minister among those of the Methodist persuasion with 
great popularity ; sometimes residing in the metropolis,' but 
generally as an itinerant preacher. In some points of dis* 
cipline he differed much with bis brother John. He died in 
1788, in the 79th year of bis age. He was of a warm and 
lively character, well acquainted with all texts of scripture; 
and his discourses were greatly admired. He was also re- 
spectable as a ^holar and a poet, and was the author of the 






W E S S E L U S- 311 

Hynins now used ifi thfe society .^ He left two flont, of gr^at 
reputation in the n^usical world. ^ 

WESSELUS (John), one of the most learned men 
of tke fifteenth century, was born at.Groningen about 
1419, and having lost his- friends in bis infancy, was sent 
by a benevolent lady, along with her only son,.. to be edu<» 
Gated at a college at Swell, which at that time happened to 
be in greater estimation than thatof Groningen. This col- 
lege was superintended by a community of monks, and 
Wesselus had at one time an inclination to have embraced! 
the order, but was disgusted by some superstitious prac-^: 
tices. After having studied hi^re with great diligence^ hW 
removed to Cologne, where he wag raiich admired for his 
proficiency, but already betrayed a dislike to the senti-' 
ments of the schoolmen. Being invited to teach theology^ 
at Heidelberg, it was objected that he had not received fots 
doctor's degree; and when beofiered to |be examined for' 
that degree, he was told that the canons did not permit' 
that it should be bestowed on a lay (nan. Having therefore 
a repugnance to take orders, he confined his servi<^ to the/ 
reading of some lectures in philosophy; after which he reU 
tnrned toCologne ; and afterwards visited Louvain and Paris;- 
The philosophical disputei; being carried on then with great- 
warmth between the realists, the formalists, and the nomi-^ 
nalists, be endeavoured to bring over the principal' cham^ 
pions of the formalists to the sect of the realists, but at last - 
mmself sided with the nominalists. . He appears, however,' 
to have set little value on any of the sects into which philo'^ * 
sopby wa;5 at that time divided ; and to a young man who*' 
consulted him concerning, the best method of prosectiting 
fats studies, he said, ^<¥oa, young man, will live to see'the^ 
day when the doctrines of Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, > 
and other modern disputants of the sanie stamp, will be' 
espioded by all true Christian' divines, and when the irre^ • 
/ragable doctors themseflves will be little regarded.^* A' 
pvedietion, says Brocker^ which discovers so m^ch good^ 
sense and liberality, that Weasel ought to be immortalrzed'> 
ufider the appellation of the Wis^ Doctor. Brucker admits ■ 
him in bU History of Philosophy, from the penetratton 
which, in the midst iof^ the scholastic: pbrenzy of his a^e^^ 
enabled him to discover the futility of the controversies 
w'fiich agitated the foHowers of Thomas, Scotus, and Occam* - 

1 Whitehead's Life of the Wesley familyi 1796, 2 vols. Svo. 



312 W E S S E L U S. 

Some say that Wesselus travelled into Greece, to acquire 
a more perfect acquaintance with the Greek and Hebrew 
languages than was then to be found in Europe. It is cer- 
tan that he gained the esteem and patronage of Francis 
jelia Rovera^ afterwards pope Sixtus 1 V. who, in ao inter- 
vie^v at Koine, offered him preferment. Wesselus desired 
oul\ \ <'opy of the Bible in Hebrew and Greek; and when 
the |)> ;>e asked why he did not solicit for a bishopric, our 
phiinstipher replied, *' Because I do not want one." Oa 
his nanrn he taught philosophy and philology at Gronin- 
gen with great approbation, and died here Oct. 4, 1489. 
On his death-bed he was perplexed with doubts,' which* 
were soon relieved. His biographer says, that, ^^ Being- 
visited, in the sickness which brought him to his end, by a 
friend, who inquired after his health, he replied, that * be 
was pretty well, considering his advanced age, and the na- 
ture ot his indisposition ; but that one thing made him 
ver) uneasy, viz. that being greatly perplexed with various 
thoughts and arguments, he began to entertain some little 
doubts with respect to the truth of the Christian religion^* 
His Iriend was much surprised, and immediately exhorted 
him to direct all his thoughts to Christ the only Saviour; 
but, finding that such an admonition was displeasing, he 
went away deeply afflicted. But an hour^or two after, 
Wesselus seeing his friend come back to him, he said, with 
an air of fis much satisfaction and joy as one in his weak 
condition could discover, ^ God be praised ! all those vain 
doubts are fled ; and now, all I know is Jesus Christ, and 
Him crucified ;' after which confession he resigned his 
soul to God.*' It appears that his religious sentiments 
were in many respects contrary to those of the Homish 
church, and some even called him the forerunner of Lu* • 
ther. Many of his MSS. were burned after his death by 
the contrivance of the monks, but what his friends saved 
were published at Groningen in 1614, consisting of ^'Trac- 
tatus de Oratione — de cohibendis cogitationibus — de 
causis incaruationis— de sacramento eucharistis — Farrago 
rerum Theologicarum -<^ epistoloB,'* &c. Foppens, how* 
ever, mentions an edition prior to this, published by Luther 
in 1525, and another at Marpurg in 1617, 4to.^ 

* Vit« Profess. Groningae, fol. 1654, p. 12. — FreheriTbeatrum. — Gen. Diet— 
Toppen Bibl. Belg^.— ^xii Onomast. — Heussenii Hist. Episcopal. Belgii Foede- 
rati, Tol. II. 



WEST. 313 

' WEST (Gilbert), a very estimable writer* was the son 
of Dr. West, the editor of "Pindar" in 1697, who died in 
1716, and his mother was sister to sir Richard Temple, 
afterwards lord Cobham. His father, purposing to educate 
him for the church, sent him first to £ton, and afterwards 
to Oxford ; but he was seduced to a more airy mode of life 
by a commission in a troop of horse, procured him by his 
uocle. He continued some time in the army, but probably 
never lost the love, or neglected the pursuit of learning ;- 
and afterwards, finding himself more inclined to civil em^* 
pioyment, he laid down his commission, and engaged in 
business under lord Townshend, then secretary of state, 
with whom he attended the king to Hanover. His adber* 
ence to lord Townshend ended in nothing but a nomination 
(May 172^) to be clerk-extraordinary of the Privy Council, 
which produced no immediate profit; for it only placed 
him in a state of expectation and ri^ht of succession, and 
it was very long before a vacancy admitted him to profit. 

Soon afterwards he married, and settled himself in a 
very pleasant house at Wickbam in. Kent, where he devoted 
himself to learning and to piety. Of his learning his works 
exhibit evidence, and particularly the dissertations whicjft 
accompany his version of Pindar. Of his piety the influ- 
ence has probably been extended far by his " Observations 
on the liesurre(:tion," published in 1747, for which the 
university of Oxford created him a doctor of laws by di« 
ploma, March 30, 174S, and would doubtless have reached 
yet further had he lived to complete what he had for some 
time meditated, the Evidences of the Truth of the New 
Testament. Perhaps it may not be without eS'ect to tell, 
that he read the prayers of the public liturgy every morn- 
ing to his family, and that- on Sunday evening he called 
his servants into the parlour, and read to them first a ser- 
mon, and then prayers. Crashstw is now not the only maker 
of verses to whom may be given the two venerable names of 
poet and saint. 

He was very often visited by Lyttelton and Pitt, wh©, 
when they wer^ weairy of faction and debates, used at 
Wickham to find books and quiet, a decent table, and lite- 
rary conversation. There is at Wickbam a walk made by. 
Pitt ; and, what is of far more importance, at Wickham 
Lyttelton received that conviction which produced his 
** Dissertation on St. Paul." These two illustrious friends 



314 



W E S T. 



bad for a while listened to the blandishments of infidelity*; 
and when West's book was published, it was bought by 
spme who did not know his change of opinion, in ea^pecta* 
tion of new objections against Christianity ; and, as infidels 
do not want malignity, they revenged the disappointment 
by calling him a methodist. 

West^s income was. not large; and his friends endea- 
voured, but without success, to obtain an augmentation. 
It is reported, that the education of the young prince, 
now George III. was offered to him, but that he required 
a more extensive power of superintendance than it was 
thought proper to allow him. In time, however, his re- 
venue was improved. He lived to have one of the lucra- 
tive clerkships of the privy-council in J 752, and Mr. Pitt 
afterwards made him treasurer of Chelsea-hospital. He was 
now sufficiently rich, but wealth came too late to be long^ 
enjoyed, nor could it secure him from the calamities of 
life. In 1755 he lost his only son; and on March 26, of 
the year following, a stroke of the palsy brought to the 
grave, says Dr. Johnson, *^ one of the few poets to whom 
the grave might be without its terrors.'* 

Of his poetical works, his version of Pindar, although it 
discovers many imperfections, appears to be the product 
of great labour and great abilities. His '^ Institution of the 
Garter^' is written with sufficient knowledge of the man- 
ners that prevailed in the age to which it is referred, and 
with great elegance of diction ; but, for want of a process 
of events, neither knowledge nor elegance preserve the 
reader from weariness. His *^ Imitations of Spenser^' are 
very successfully performed, both with respect to the me- 
tre, ^he .language, and the fiction; and being engaged at 
once by the excellence of the sentiments, and the artifice 
of the copy, the mind has two amusements together. But 
such compositions, says Johnson, are not to be reckoned 
among the great atchievements of intellect, because their 



♦ We*t, in one of his letters to the 
ahthor of Ihe " Life of Colonel Gar- 
diner," says, '* One (lesson) T cannot 
help taking notice of to you upon this 
occasion, viz. your remarks upon the 
Advantage of an early education in the 
pnnciples of religion, because 1 have 
myself most happily experienced it. 
Since I owe to the eariy care of a most 
exoallent woman, my mother (whose 
cbar«cter I dare say you are no stran- 



ger to) that bent and bias to religion, 
which, with the co-operating grace of 
God, hatli at length brought me back 
to those paths of peace, from whence J 
might have otherwise been in danger of 
deviating for ever. The paruliel be- 
twixt me and colonel Gardiner was in 
this instance too striking not to affect 
me exceedingly." — Lelier'to Dr. Dod- 
dridge, dated March 14, 1747.8. 



WEST. /^IS 

effect 18 local and temporary : tbey appeal not to reason or 
passion^ but to memory, and pre-suppose an accidental or 
artificial state of mind. An imitation of Spenser is nothing 
to a reader, however acute, by whom Spenser has never 
been perused. Works of this kind may deserve praise, as 
proofs of great industry, and great nicety of observation ; 
but the highest praise, the praise of genius, they cannot 
claim. The noblest beauties of art are those of which the 
effiect is co*extended with rational nature, or at ^east with 
the whole circle of polished life ; what is less than this can 
be only pretty, the plaything of fashion, and the amuse* 
ment of a day. 

The private character of Mr. West was truly amiable 
and excellent. In him the Christian, the scholar, and the 
gentleman were happily united. His private virtues and 
social qualities were such, as justly endeared him to his 
friends and acquaintances. . In his manner of life he vvas very 
regular and exemplary. He corresponded on very intimate 
and friendly terms with Dr. Doddridge, whose ^< Family 
Expositor" was ushered into the world by a recommenda« 
tion from him ; and he also wrote the doctor's epitaph.^ 

WEST (James), a gentleman of literary talents, and 
long known for his 6ne library and museum, was the son of 
Richard West, esq. of Alscott, in Warwickshire, said to be 
descended, according to family tradition, from Leonard, a 
younger fwn of Thomas West, lord De la Warr, who died in 
1525-. He was educated at Baliol college, Oxford, where he 
took his degree of M. A. in 1 726. He had an early attach* 
nrrent to the study of antiquities, and was elected F. S. A. in 
1 726, and was afterwards one of the vice- presidents. Of the 
Royal Society likewise he became a fellow in the same year, 
and was first treasurer, from Nov. 1736 to Nov. 1768, when 
he was elected president, and held that honourable office 
until his death, July 2, 1772.. In 1741- he was chosen one 
of the representatives in parliament for St. Albatrs, and, 
being appointed one of the joint secretaries of the trea- 
sury, he continued in that office until 1762. His old pa« 
tron, the duke of Newcastle, afterwards procured him a 
pension of 2000/. For what services so large a sum was 
granted, we are not told. 

Mr. West married the daughter and heiress of sir Tho- 
inas Stephens, timber-merchant in Souihwark, who brought 

1 Eofliflb Po^f.-*>Ni«hoi8'»Bowyer. — Doddridge'* Leiten. 



316 WEST. 

him a valuable estate in Rotherbithe; and by her'be bad a 
son, Jamesy who was^ auditor of the land-tax for the coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Cbester, and Derby, and 
sometime member of parliament for Boroughbridge in 
Yorkshire ; and two daughters, one of whom, Sarah^ mar- 
ried the late lord Archer, and died his- widow a few years 
ago. The other is still livinot in London. Mn West's 
curious collection of MSS. were sold to the late marquis of 
Lansdowne, and wefe lately purchased by parliament, widi 
the rest of his lordship's collection, for the British Museum. 
Among them is much of his correspondence with the anti« 
quaries of his time ; and in the first volume of the ^' Resti- 
tuta," some curious extracts are given of letters to. and 
from Hearne. His valuable library of printed books, in^ 
eluding many with copious MS notes s by bishop Kennet, 
was sold by auction, from an excellently digested catalogue 
by Sam. Paterson, in 1773; and the same year were dis- 
posed of, his prints, drawings, coins, pictures, &c. Mr. 
West's catalogue is still in demand as one of the richest iii 
literary curiosities. ' 

WEST (Richard), lord-chancellor of Ireland, a lawyer 
of whom we have very little information, stodied his pro- 
fession in one of the Temples. He married Elizabeth, 
one of the two daughters. of bishop Burnet. He wa& ap- 
pointed king's counsel the 24th of October, 1717 ; and in 
1725, advanced to the ofBoie of lord-chancellor of Ireland. 
This high post he did not long enjoy, but died the 3d of 
December, 1726, in circumstances not adequate to the 
dignity which he had possessed. He left one son, a very 
promising young gentleman, who is sufficiently known to 
th^ public by his friendship-with Mr. Walpole, afterwards 
lor/d Orford, in whose works is his correspondence, and 
with the celebrated poet Gray. — Our author, the chancellor, 
wrote, " A Discourse concerning Treasons and Bills of 
Attainder," 1714. He also compiled, chiefly from the Pe- 
tyt MSS. in the Inner-Temple library, entitled " De Cre- 
atione Nobilium," 2 vols. fol. a work called ** An Inquiry 
into the Manner of creating Peers," 1719. He wrote 
some papers in the '* Freethinker," a periodical essay ; and 
Whincop says, he was supposed to have written, " Heeuba," 
a tragedy, 1726, 4to. 

Of his son, we are. informed that he was educated at 

> NichoU'tf Bovyer.— 'Reititua, rol. I.— Graogcr't LeUen, p. 33^-3$. 



WEST. 317 

Etotiy and went thence to Oxford about the same time that 
Gcay removed to Cambridge. Each of them carried with 
him the reputation of an excellent classical scholar ; and 
Mr. Mason was told, what beseems unwilling to allow, that 
Mr,. West's genius was reckoned the more brilliant of the 
two. In April 1738, Mr. West left Christchurch for the 
Inner Temple ; but, according to his own account, in a let-> 
ter to Walpole, he had no great relish for the study of the 
law, and had some thoughts of exchanging that profession 
for the army. When Gray returned from his travels in 
174 ly he found his friend West oppressed by sickness, and 
a load of family misfortunes, which had already too far af^ 
fected a body originally, weak arid delicate. West died 
June 1, 1742, in the twenty-sixth year of his age. Whait 
remains to give an idea of his talents, may be found in lord 
Orford's Works, and Mason's Life of Gray.* 

WEST (Thomas), the ingenious author of <* The His- 
tory of Furness," published in 1774, 4to, and the ** Guide 
to the Lakes," is supposed to have had the chief part of 
his education in the Roman catholic religion on the con- 
tinent, where be afterwards presided as a professor in some 
of the branches of natural philosophy. He belonged to 
the society of the Jesuits at the time of their suppression, 
and afterwards ofiiciated as a secular priest He had seen 
many parts of Europe, and considered what was extraor- 
dinary in them with a curious eye. Having, in the latter 
part of his life, much leisure-time, he frequently accoin^ 
panied genteel parties on the tour of the lakes; snd after 
he had formed the design of drawing up his guide, which 
is said to have been suggested to him by Dr. Brownrigg 
(See Brownrigg), besides consulting the most esteemed 
authors on the subject (as Messrs. Gray, Young, Pennaintj 
&c.) he took several jourueys on purpose to examine the 
lakes, and to collect such information concerning them from 
the neighbouring gentlemen, as he thought necessary to 
complete the work, and make it truly deserving the titl,e. 
He resided at Ulverston, where he was respected as a worthy 
and ingenious man ; and died July 10, 1779, at the ancient 
seat of the Stricklands, at Sizergh, in Westmorland, in the 
Bixty*third year of his age; and, according to t^is own 
request, was interred in the vault of the Stricklands, in 
Kendal church. Among Gale's MSS. in the British Mu* 

1 Biog. Drftra.-^Lord Orforfrs Works, vol. II.-^Mason's Life of Gray. — 
Gent. Map. vol. LXXII, , 



318 WEST. 

seum is a letter from him to col. Townley, giving an ac* 
count of some bodies found buried at Gogmagog hills, near 
Cambridge. In the " Arcbaeologia, vol. V. is by him " An 
account of Antiquities discovered at Lancaster.'^ ^ 

WESTFIELD (Thomas), a native of Ely, was educated 
in Jesus-college, in Cambridge, where he was scholar and 
fellow some time ; but, appearing in public, was, first, 
assistant to Dr. Nicolas Felton, at St. Mary-le-bow, Lou- 
don, and then presented to this church ; and soon after to 
St. Bartholomew's, London ; made archdeacon of St. AU 
ban's 'y and at length advanced to the see of Bristol, as one 
of those persons whom his majesty found best qualified for 
»o great a place, for soundness of judgment and unblame- 
ableness of conversation, for which he had before preferred 
Dr. PrideaUx to the see of Worcester, Dr. Winniffto Lin- 
coln, Dr. Brownrig to Exeter, and Dr. King to London* 
He was offered the same see in 1616, as a maintenance, 
bnt he then refused it; but, having now gotten some 
wealth, he accepted it,' that he might adorn it with hospi- 
tality out of bis own estate. He was much reverenced and 
respected by the earl of Holland, and other noblemen, be- 
fore the troubles came on ; but was as much contemned, 
when the bishops grew out of favour ; being disturbed in 
bis devotion, wronged of his dues, and looked upon now 
as a formalist, though he was esteemed not long before one 
^f the most devout and powerful preachers in the kingdom ; 
but this we may suppose not to be done by the parlia- 
ment's authority ; because we find an order of theirs, dated 
May 13, 1643, commanding his tenants, as bishop of Bris- 
tol, to pay him the rents, and suffer him to pass safely 
with bis family to Bristol, being himself of great age, and 
a person of great leai^ning and merit. He was afterwards 
ejected, and died June 25, 1644. He preached the first 
Latin $ermQn at the erection of Sion- college ; and, though 
be printed nothing in his life-time, yet two little volumes 
of his sermons were published after his death, entitled, 
^^ England's Face with Israel's Glass;'* containing eight 
sermons upon Psalm cvi. 19, 20, &c. and ''The white 
robe or Surplice vindicated, in several Sermons ;" the first 
printed in 1646, the other in 1660. He was buried in 
Bristol cathedral near Drv Paul Bush, the first bishop, and 
has a stone with an epitaph over him. ' 



J eent. Maf^. LXXXII.— Googh's Topog — Golems MS Atbentt m Brit. Mw. 
s T i»«4>g Memoirs^ foL— Wtlk«r*i SvfferiDgs.— Cole's MS AtbeMe.r-LyfOB8> 



Ettvironf. 



WESTON. 3\S 

WESTON (Elizabeth Jane), a learned lady of tb« six- 
teenth century, was born about the beginning of the reign 
of Elizabeth, and is supposed by Dr. Fuller to have been a 
branch of the ancient family of the Westons, of 6utton, in 
Surrey. She appears to have left England at an early 
age, and to have settled at Prague, in Bohemia, where she 
married one John Leon, who is said to have rcsioed there 
in the emperor's service. She was skilled in the languages^ 
particularly in the Latin, in which she wrote with elegance 
and correctness. She was greatly esteemed by learned 
foreigners. She is commended by Scaliger, and compli* 
mented by Nicholas May in a Latin epigram. She is 
placed by Mr. Evelyn, in his " Numismata," among learned 
women; and by Philips* among female poets. She is 
tanked by Farnaby with sir Thomas More, and the best 
Latin poets of the sixteenth century. She translated seve- 
ral of the fables of £sop into Latin verse. She also wrote 
a Latin poem in praise of. typography, with many poems 
and epistles, on ditferent subjects, in the same language^ 
which were collected and published. She was living in 
1605, as appears from an epistle written by her, and dated 
Prague, in that year. The only work we can point out of 
hers, as published, is, '* Parthenico Elizabetbse Jo^nee 
Westonise, virginis nobiiissimaB, poetris florentissimas, lin-t 
guarum.plurimarum peritissimae, libri tres, opera el studio 
G. Mart, a Baldhoven, Sii. collectus, et nunc denuo amicis 
desiderantibus communicatus," Praga^, typis Pauii Sissii, 
12mo, without date, but probably about 1606. ^ 

WESTON (Stephen), bishop of Exeter, was born at 
Farnborough, in Berkshire, in 1665, and educated at Eton, 
where ha was admitted into King's college, Cambridge, in 
1682. There he took his degrees of B: A. in 1686, and 
of M. A. in 1690, and was elected a fellow both of his col- 
lege, and of Eton. He was for some time an assistant, and 
then under-master of Eton school. He was afterwards 
vicar of Maple*Durham, in Oxfordshire, and collated to a 
stall in Ely in 1715. He was also archdeacon of Cornwall. 
Having been at school and college with sir Robert Walpole^ 
and, as soxne say, his tutor at one or other, he was supposed 
to have owed his farther preferment to that minister, and 
bis conduct did honour to his patronage. He was conse-* 
crated bishop of Exeter, Dec. 28, 1724, and dying Jan. 

1 Ballard'i British Ladies.— I^uUer's V^oribies. 



320 WESTON. 

16/ 1741-2, aged seventy -seven, was buried in his own 
cathedral. Bishop Sherlock published, in 1749, 2 volumes 
of his sermons, several of which the author had himself 
prepared for the press. ** The style of these discourses,". 
say$ th^ editor, ^' is strong and expressiva; but the best 
Greek and Roman writefs were so familiar to the author, 
that it leads him frequently into their manner of construc- 
tion and expression, which will require, sometimes^ the 
att'eption of the English reader." 

The son of bishop Wejrton, styled from his being a privy 
counsellor, the Right hon, Edward Weston, was born 
and educated at Eton, and afterwards studied and took his 
degrees at King's college, Cambridge. His destination 
was to public life, at the commencement of which be be- 
came secrttary to lord Townshend at Hanover during the 
king's residence there in 1729, and continued several years 
in the ofBce of lord Harrington, as his secretary. He was 
also transmitter of the state papers, and one of the clerks 
of the signet. In 1741 he was appointed gazetteer; and in 
1746, when he was secretary to lord Harrington, lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, he became a privy-counsellor of that 
kingdom. Our authorities do not give the date of his 
dealli, but it happened in the early part of the present 
reign. In 1753 he published a pamphlet on the meiporable 
Jew bill; in 17c 5, ** The Country Gentleman's advice to his 
Son;" and in 1756, **A Letter to the right rev. the lord 
bishop of London," on the earthquake' at Lisbon, and the 
character of the times. He published also ^^ Family Dis« 
courses, by a country gentleman,'* re-published in 1776 
by his son, Charles, under the title of *^ Family Discourses, 
by the late right hon. Edward Weston," a name, we are 
properly told, ** very eminently distinguished for abilities 
and virtue, and most highly honoured throughout the whole 
course of life, by the friendship and esteem of the best and 
greatest men of his time." He left twp sons, Charles, a 
clergyman, who died in Oct. 1801,, and the rev. Stephen 
Weston, now living, well known as one of the most pro- 
found scholars, and what seldom .can be said of men of 
that character, one of the first wits of the age. ' 

WETENHALL (Edward), a learned and pious prelate, 
was born at Lichfield, Oct. 7, 1636. He was educated at 
Westminster school . under the celebrated Dr. Busby, and 

I Ntcholt'i Bowyer.-^Harwood'B Aiumni Etoi\eD8et. 



WETENHALL, 82i 

• 

was admitted a king's scholar in 1651, and went to Trinity 
college, Cambridge, on being elected a scholar on the 
foundation. In 1660 he removed from Cambridge to Ox* 
ford, and was made chaplain of Lincoln college, and after* 
wards became minister of Longcomb, in Oxfordshire, and 
then canon residentiary of Exeter, to which he was collated 
Jfune 11, 1667, being then only master of arts. While 
here he was appointed master of a public school. 

In 1672 he was invited into Ireland by Michael Boyle, 
then archbishop of Dublin, took his degree of D. D. in 
Dublin university, became master of a great school, cu- 
rate of St. Werburgh's parish, and afterwards chanter of 
Christ Church. In 1678 he was promoted to the bishop* 
ric of Cdrk and Ross, and in April 1699 was translated to 
the see of Kilmore smd Ardagh. While bishop of Cork 
and Ross he suffered much by the tyranny of the Irisb^ 
from 1688 until the settlement under king William. He 
Tepaired at his own expence the ruinous episcopal houses 
both of Cork and Kilmore, and rebuilt the cathedral church 
of Ardagh, which was quite demolished. He died in Lon-> 
don, Nov. 12, 1713, and was buried in Westminster-abbey, 
where, is an inscription to his memory. 

Bishop Wetenhall appears to have been a zealous, but 
not a bigotted supporter of the church. He says in bis will 
that ^* he dies a protestant, of the church of England and 
Ireland, which he judges to be the purest church in the 
; world, and to come nearest to the apostolical institution ; 
although he declares his belief that there are divers points 
which might be altered for the better, both in her articles, 
liturgy, and discipline ; but especially in the conditions oC 
clerical communion." Besides various single sermons on 
important topics suited to the state of the times in which 
he lived, he wrote, 1. ** A method and order for Private 
Devotion,*' Loifd. 1666, 12mo. 2. "The Catechism of the 
Church i)f England, with marginal notes," ibid. 1678, 8vo. 
J. " Of Gifts and OflSces in the public worship of God,'* 
ibid, and Dublin, 1678, 8vo. 4. " The Protestant Peace* 
maker," ibid. 1682, 4to, with a postscript, and notes on 
Mr. Baxter's, and some other late writings for peace. Bax-* 
ter answered what related to himself in this postscript. 5; 
^* A judgment of the Comet, which became first generally 
visible at Dublin, Dec. 13, 1680," ibid. 1682, 8vo. 6. 
^' Hexapla Jacobsea ; a specimen of loyalty towards his 
present majesty. James IL in six pieces," Dublin, 1686^ 

vot.xxxi. y 



32i W E T E N H A L L. 

8vo. 7. *^ An earnest and compassionate, si/tt for forbear^' 
atice to the learnfed Writers of some Controversies set prer 
5*nt,'*'Lond. 1691, 4to. This tract was occasioned by 
Stillingflee^'s publishing his vindication of the doctriire of 
the Trinity. Stillingfleet having afterwards published his 
** Apology for writing against the Socinians," our author 
animadverted upon it in, 8. "The Anti-apology of the me- 
lancholy standef-by, in answer to the dean of St. PauPs 
Apology for writini^ against the Socinians," Lond. 1693, 
4to. 9, " A brief and modest reply to Mr. Penn's tedious, 
scurrilous, and unchristian defence against the bishop of 
Cork,'* Dublin, 1699, 410. He published also a Greek and 
A Latin grammar, the latter often reprinted; arrd a transla- 
tion of the t€nth satire of Juvenal, in Pindaric verse, "by 
a person sometime fellow of Trinity college, Dublin,'^ but 
bis name is signed to the dedication.' 

WETSTEIN (John James), a very learned divine of 
Germany, was descended from an ancient and distinguished 
fariiiily, and born at Basil in 1693. He was trained with 
great care, and had early made such a progress in the 
Greek and Latin tongues as to be thought fit for higher 
pursuits. At fourteen he applied himself to divinity under 
his uncle John Rodolpb Wetstein, a professor at Basil, and 
learned Hebrew and the Oriental languages from Buxtorf. 
At sixteisn, he took the degree of doctor in philosophy, and 
four years after was admitted into the ministry ; on which 
Occasion he publicly defended a thesis, " De variis Novi 
Testamenti Lectionibus,'* in which he demonstrated that 
the vast variety of readings in the New Testament are no 
argument against the genuineness and authenticity of the 
text. These various readings he had for some time made 
the obj^^ct of his attention ; and, while he was studying the 
ancient Greek authors, as well sacred as prpfane, kept this 
point constantly in view. He was also very desirous of ex- 
amining all the manuscripts be could come at ; and hi^ 
curiosity in this particular was the chief motive of his tra-. 
veiling to foreign eountries. In 1714 be went to Geneva, 
and, after some stay there, to Paris ; thence to England ; 
in whioh last place be had many conferences with Dr. Bent- 
ley relating to the prime object of his journey. Passing 
through Holland, be arrived at Basil in July 1717, and 
applied bimsel/ to the business of the ministry for severaj 

1 Harris's edition of Ware's IreUttd. 



W fe T*S T E t N. 52i 

yeafs. Still he went on with his critical disquisitions and 
iiniinad versions upon the various readings of the New Tes- 
tament ; and kept -a constant correspondence * with Dr. 
Bentley, who was at the same time busy in preparing an 
edition oF it, yet did t)ot propose to make use of any ma- 
nuscripts less tlian a thousand years old, which are not 
ieasy to be met with. 

In 1730 Wetstein published^, in 4tOj " Prolegomena ad 
Novi Testamenti Greeci edition^m accuratissimam e vetus- 
tissimls Codd. MSS. denuo procurandam.^' Before the 
publication of these " Prolegomena,'* some divines, froai 
a dread of having the present text unsettled, had procbred 
a decree from the senate of Basil, that Mr. Wetstein's 
^^ undertaking was both trifling and unnecessary^ and also 
dangerous;*' they added too, but it does not appear upon 
what foundation, that his V^ New Testament savoured of 
Socinianism.** They now proceeded farther, and, by va- 
rious means procured his being prohibited from officiating 
as a minister. Upon this, he went into Holland, being 
invited by the booksellers Wetsteins, who were his rela- 
tions ; and had not been long at Amsterdam before the re- 
monstrants, or Arminians, named him to succeed Le Clerc^ 
now superannuated and incapable, in the professorship o^f 
philosophy and historj'. But though they were perfectly 
satisfied of his innocence, yet they thought it necessary 
that he should clear himself in form before they admitted 
him ; and for this purpose he went to Basil, made a pub- 
lic apology, got the decree against him reversed, and re- ^ 
turned to Amsterdam in May 1733. Here he went ardently 
on with his edition of the New Testameut, sparing nothing 
to bring it to perfection, neither labour, nor expence, nor 
even journeys ; for he came over a second time to England 
in 1746, when Mr. Gioster Ridley accommodated him with 
bis manuscript of the Syriac version of the New Testa- 
ment. At last he published it ; the first volume in 1751, 
the second in 1752, folio. The text he left entirely as be 
found it; the various readings, of which he bad <;ollected 
more than any one before him, or all of them together^ 
he placed under the text. Under these various readings 
fae subjoined a critical comnientary, containing observa- 
tions which he had collected from an infinite number of 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, writers. At the end of his 
Hew Testament he published two epistles of Clemens Ro- 
maausy with a Latin version and preface, in which he eii- 

Y 2 



534 W E T S T E I N; 

deavouri to establish their genuineness. These ep.istle» 
were never published before, nor even known to the 
learned, but were discovered by him in a Syriac manuscript 
of the New Testament. 

This work established his reputation over all Europe; 
and he received marks of honour and distinction from ser 
veral illustrious bodies of men. He was elected into the 
iroyal academy of Prussia in June 1752; into the English 
society for propagating the gospel in foreign parts, in Feb. 
1752-3^ and into the royal society of London in April folr 
lowing. He died at Amsterdam, of a mortification, March 
24, 1754. Besides his edition of the New Testament, he 
published some things of a small kind ; among the rest, a 
funeral oration upon Mr. Le Cierc. He is represented not 
only as having been an universal scholar, and of consum-* 
mate skill in all language, but as a man abounding in gpo() 
tLfkd amiable qualities. 

John Rqdolph Wetstein^ mentioned above as one of 
the tutors to John James Wetstein, was born Septenaber 
1, 1647, at Basil, and was grandson of John Rodolphu^ 
Wetstein, burgomaster of that cUyy a man of great merits 
who rendered important services to his country at the peace 
of funster, in the Imperial court, and in his native place, 
John Rodolpbus, the. subject of this article, succeeded his 
father as professor of Greek, and afterwards of divinity, 
and died at Basil April 21, 1711, leaving two sons, one 
of whom, Rodolphus, was professor of divinity at Basil, 
and the other, John Hei^ry, a bookseller at Amsterdam* 
'He had published, in 1673, with notes, Origen's ^< Dia- 
logue against the Marciouites," with the '^ Exhortation to 
Martyrdom,*' and the letter to Africanus concerning the 
<^ History orSusanna,*' which he first took from the Greek 
MSS. We have several other valuable discourses or dis« 
sertations of his. Henry Wetstein, one of his brothers^ 
also well acquainted with Greek and Latin, settled in Hol- 
land, where be followed the business of a bookseller, be* 
came a celebrated printer, and died April 4, 1726. His 
descendants long remained in Holland. * 

WHALLEY (Peter), an English divine and critic, 
the son of Richard Whalley, of an ancient Northampton- 
shire family, was born at Rugby, in the county of War-* 

1 Cbaufepie, and referenoes by bim, wbo bas f iren tht fttll«tt aoaount jal 
ipublisbed of W«Utciii.-»-Saxii OnosMf t. 



W H A L L E y. $2S 

wick, Sept. 2, 1722. He was admitted at Mercbant-Tdy« 
lor's-school, London, Jan. 10, 1731, whence, in June 
1740, be was elected scholar of St. Jobn*s*college, Ox* 
ford, and, in 1743, was admitted Fellow. On quitting 
the university, he became vicar of St. Sepulchre*s, North- 
amptonshire. It was here that he probably laid the foun- 
dation of that topographical knowledge which, in 1755, in* 
duced a committee of gentlemen of that county to elect 
him as the proper person to prepare for the press Bridges's 
and other MSB. for a History of Northamptonshire. 

In 1766, he applied to the corporation of London te 
succeed Dr. Birch in the rectory of St. Margaret Pattens ; 
and in his address to them said, ^^ I have neither curacy 
tior lectureship, but a small country vicarage, whose cleat 
annual income is under seventy pounds; and which, if I 
merit your indulgence, will be necessarily void." He ob^ 
tained this rectory, to which was afterwards added the vica- 
rage 'of Horley in Surrey, by the governors of Christ^s- 
hospital. In January 1768 he took the degree of bachelor 
of laws, and in October following was chosen master of 
the grammar-school of Christ's- hospital, which he resigned 
in 1776 ; but afterwards accepted that of Saint Olave's, 
Southwark, and acted as a justice of peace there. It was 
chiefly at Horley that he employed himself on the History 
of Northamptonshire ; but an unfortuirate derangement in 
his afikirs, and the inattention of the gentlemen of the 
bounty, delayed the completion of the publication from 
1779, when it was announced to appear, till 1791, in which 
year, June 12, he died at Ostend, in the sixty-ninth year 
of his age. Before he went abroad, he received subscrip- 
tions, at a guinea each, for a quarto History of the several 
Royal Hospitals of Londoo. His previous publications were,^ 
I, *^ An Essay on the method of writing History,^' London, 
1746. 2, ^^ An Inquiry into the learning of Shakspeare, 
with remarks on several passages of his plays," 1748, 8vo. 
3. ** A Vindication of the Evidences and Authenticity of 
the Gospels, from the objections of the late lord Boling- 
broke, in his letters on the study of history," 1753, 8vo. 
'4. " An edition of the Works of Ben. Jonson, with notes,** 
1756, 7 vols. 8v6. This was long esteemed the best, pro- 
bably because the most commodious edition ; but will now 
be superseded by that of Mr. GifFord. Mr. Whalley pub- 
lished also a few occasional sermons. ' 

1 OeDt. Mag. vol. LXI.-^Nichols^s Bowyer. 



sad W H 4 P T O N, 

. WHARTON (Thomas, Marquis of Wh^rtoij), was eld* 
fist aoD of Philip lord Wharton, who disiinguisbed himself 
on the side of the p^irliament during the civil wars, by his 
second wife, Jane, daughter and heiress of Arthur Good^ 
wyn, of Upper Winchendon,. in Buckinghamshire, esq. 
He was bbrn. about 1640, and sat in several parliaments 
during the reigns of Charles IL and James IF, in which he 
appeared in opposition to the court. In 1688, he is sup- 
posed to have. drawn up the first sketch of the invitation of 
the prince of Orange to com^ to England, which, being 
approved and subscribed by several peers and commoners, 
was carried over to Holland by the earl, afterwards duke, 
of Shi^ewsbury : and joined that prince at Exeter soon after 
•bis landing at Torbay. On the advancement of William 
and Mary to the throne, Mr. Wharton was made comp- 
troller of the household, and sworn of the privy*council 
Feb. 20j 1689. On the death of his father, be succeeded 
to the title of lord Wharton, and in April 1697 was made 
chief justice in Eyre on this side of the Trent, and lordr 
lieutenant of Oxfordshire. In the beginning of 1701, upoi> 
the debase in the House of Peers about the address relative 
to the partition-treaty, his lordship moved an addition to 
it, to this purpose, that as the French king had broke that 
treaty^ tbey should advise his majesty to treat no more with 
bin>, or rely on his word withoqu further security. And 
this, thoi)g(i muph opposed by all who were agains); en- 
gaging in ^ new war, lyas agreed to by the majority of the 
|iouse. 

. On ib,e accession of queen Anne, bis lordship was re- 
jnovfed from bi^ employments, and in December 1702 be 
)vas.one of the mans^gers for the lords in the conference 
with the House of Commons relating to the bill against 
pccasipnal conformity, which he opposed on all occasions 
with great vigour and address* In April 1705 he attended 
the quejen at Cambridge, when her majesty visited tbat 
university, and was admitted, among other persons of 
rank, to the honorary degree of. doctor of laws. In tbe 
latter end of tl^at year, bis (ordship opened the debate in 
the House of Lords for a regency, in case of the queen^s 
demise, in a manner which was very much admired. He 
bad not been present at tbe former debate relating to tb^ 
invitation of tbe princess Sophia to come over and live in 
England ; but, he said, he was much delighted with wba^ 
he heard concerning it ; since be ha$l ever looked upoq 



W H A R: T O N. aaij 

the seeuring a Protestant\succession to the crown/ as th;»t 
which secured the nation's happiness. His proposition 
for the regency contained these particulars, that the re^ 
gents should be empowered to act in the name of the suc- 
cessor, till he should send over orders : that, besides those 
whom the parliament should name, the next silceessor 
should send over a nomination, sealed up, and to be op^ened 
when that accident should happen^ of persons who should 
act in the same capacity with the persons named by par* 
Jiament« This motioii being supported by all the Whig 
Jords, a bill was ordered to be brought into the House 
upon it. 

In 1 706, he was appointed dne of the commissioners for 
the union with Scotland ; which being concluded, he was 
one of the roost zealous advocates for passing the bill en« 
dieting it; and in December the same year, J;ie was created 
earl of Wharton i.q the couQty of Westmorlaudh Upon 
the meeting of tbe parliament in Oct. 1707, the earl sup- 
ported the petition of the merchants against the conduct 
of the admiralty, which produced an address to the queen 
on that subject. In the latter end of 1708, his lordship was 
appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, where be ^rived April 
2, 1709, and opened a session of parliament there, with ^ 
speech ret^lnding them of tbe inequality with respect to 
numbers, between the protestants and papists of t^at king- 
dom, and of the necessity of considering, whether any new 
bills were wanting to inforce or^ e^cplain thos^e good laws 
already in beiug, for preventing tbe growth of papery ; 
and of inculcating and preserving ^ good i^mderstanding 
amongst all proteataats there. He shewed likewise his tet- 
derness for the dissen.ters, in the speech which he made to 
both Houses at the close of the session Aug. 30, in which 
lie told them, that he did not question, but that they under- 
stood too well the true interest of the proteatant religion in 
that kingdom, not to endeavour to make all such protestants 
as easy as they could, who were willing to contribute what 
they could to defend the whole against the common enemy ; 
and that it was not the Taw then past to ^•prevent the 
growth of popery," nor any other law that the wit of man 
could frame, whiph would secure them from popery, while 
they continued divided atnong themselves; it being de- 
monstrable, that, unless there be a 6rm friendship and 
confidence amoj[)gst tbe protestants of Ireland, it was im- 
possible for them either tp be happy, or to be safe. ' Arid 



ii6 



W H A ft T O N. 



he concluded with declaring to them the quecm^s fixed re^ 
solution, that as her majesty would always maintain and 
support the church, as by law established, so it was her 
royal will and intention, that dissenters should not be per* 
liecuted or molested in the exercise of their religion. His 
lordship's conduct was such, as lord lieutenant of Ireland^ 
that the Irish House of Peers^ in their address to the queen, 
returned their thanks to her majesty for sending a person 
of ^^ so great wisdom and experience'' to be their chief go- 
vernor. His lordship returned thither on May 7, 1710, but 
in Oct. following, delivered up his commission of lord lieu*- 
tenant, which was given to the duke of Ormond. 

Soon after this event, Wharton was severely attacked in 
** The Examiner,^' and otber political papers, on account 
of his administration of that kingdom; and by no writer 
with more asperity than Swift % who endeavoured to exo 
pose him under the character of Verres, although he bad, 
not long before, solicited in very abject terms to be ad-' 
initted his lordship's chaplain. Swift's character of him in 
Vol. V. of his Works, is perhaps the bitterest satire ever 
"written on any man, but it may be observed that it relates 
in some measure to his morals, and those have been gene- 
rally represented as very bad. On the other hand, the au« 
thor of the Spectator, who dedicated the fifth volume of 
that w^rk to him, affords a very favourable idea of his con- 
duct in public life. He (probably Addison) observes that 
it was his lordship's particular distinction, that he was mas- 
ter of the whole compass of business, and had signalized 
himself in the different scenes of it ; that some are admired 
for the dignity, others for the popularity of their behaviour; 
some for their clearness of judgment, others for their hap- 
piness of expression ; some for laying of schemes, and others 
for putting them in execution ; but that it was his lordship 
only, who enjoyed these several talents united, and that too 
in as great perfection, as others possessed them singly; 
that his lordship's enemies acknowledged this great extent 



* Tbe foUowing curious account 
is gWen by Dr. Warton in a note on 
Pope's Works, from tbe aulbority of 
Dr. Salter, tbe leanied master of the 
Charter- house. Lord Somers recom- 
mended Swift at his own very earnest 
request to lord Wbaiton, but without 
success ; and the answer Wharioo is 
aaid to have given, which was never 



forgotten or forgiven by Swift, laid the 
foundation of that peculiar ran<$oar 
with which he always mentious lord 
Wharton. The answer was to this 
purpose, «« Oh, my lord, ^e must not 
prefer or countenance those fellows : 
we have not character enough oar^ 
selves.*' 



WHARTON. 32» 

ifi his character, at the same time that they used their ut- 
fiiost industry and invention to derogate from it ; but that 
it was for his honour, that those who were then bis ene- 
mies, were always so ; and that he had acted in so much 
Consistency with himself, and promoted the interests of bis 
cduntry in so uniform a manner, that even those who would 
misrepresent his generous designs for the public ^ood, 
could not but approve the steadiness and intrepidity with 
which he pursued them. The annotator on this character 
quotes an eminent historian as saying that lord Wharton 
** had as many iriends as the constitution, and that only its 
enemies were his ; that be made no merit of his zeal for 
bis country ; and that he expended above 8.0,000/. for its 
aervice," &c. 

The earl continued in a vigorous opposition to the mea- 
sures of the court during the last four years of queen 
Anne^s reign, and particularly against the schism bill ; and 
in June 1713, moved the address in the House of Lords, 
that her majesty should use her most pressing instances 
witl^ the duke of Lorrain, and with all the princes and 
-states in amity and correspondence with her majesty, that 
they would not receive the Pretender, or suffer him to con- 
tinue within their dominions. In Sept. 1714, soon after 
the arrival of king George I. in England, his lordship was 
made lord privy seal, and in the beginning of January fol- 
lowing, was created marquis of Wharton and Malmsbury 
in England, and earl of Rathfarnham and marquis of Ca- 
tberlough, iu Ireland. But be did not long enjoy these 
distinctions, as be died at bis house in Dover-street, April 
.12, 1715, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 

Dr. Percy attributes to the marquis, the famous Irish 
ballad of ^* Lilliburlero,'' which is said to have had a more 
powerful effect than the Philippics of Demosthenes or Ci^- 
4:ero, and contributed not a little towards tho revolution in 
1688. He is also said to have been the author of a pre- 
tended letter of Machiavel to 2enobius Buondelmontius, in 
"vindication of himself and bis writings, printed at the end 
of the English translation of Machiavel's works, 1680, fol. 

The marquis of Wharton was twice married, and both 
bis wives bad literary pretensions. The lirst was Anne, 
'daughter and coheiress of sir Henry Lee, of Ditchly in 
Oxfordshire, by whom bis lordship had no issue. She 
wrote some poetical essays of considerable merit, and was 
a pleasing letter-writer. His second lady was Lucy, daugh- 



S30 W H A R T O N; 

ter of lord Lisbarne, by whom he bad his celebrated ^bn} 
th^. subject of our next article, and two daughters. This 
marchioness wrote some verses, inserted in Mr. Nichois,^i 
eoUectipii. Swift, in his scancfalou^ character of the mar- 
quis, has not besiuted to blacken the character of this lady 
in a most infamous manner, if unfounded. ' > 

WHARTON (Philip, duke of), son to the preceding^ 
was born about 1^99. He was educated at home; and, as 
what was calculated to distinguish him most, his fatber*s 
prime object was to form him a complete orator. The first 
prelude to his innumerable misfortunes may justly be 
.reckoned his falling in love with, and privately marrying 
at the Fleet, when he was scarcely sixteen years old, a 
young, lady, the daughter of major*general Holmes; a 
match by no means suited to his birth and fortune, and far 
less to the ambitious views bis father had entertained for 
him. However, the amiable lady deserved infinitely more 
happiness than she met with by an alliance with his family; 
and the young lord was not so unhappy through any mia« 
cojiduct of hers as by the death of his father, which this 
precipitate marriage is thought to have occasioned about a 
year after. The duke, being so early free from paternal 
restraints, and possessed of a fortune of 16,000iL a year, 
plunged into those numberless excesses which beciiipe at 
last {'dt^l to him ; and proved, as Pope expresses i^ 

" A tyrant to the wife his heart approves, 
A rebe^p ^be vpry kif}g h^ iQves." 

-In 1716 he indulged bis' desire of travelling and finishing 
bis education abroad; and, as he was designed to be brought 
up in the strictest Whig principles, Geneva was judged k 
proper place for his residence. He took the route of Hol- 
land, and visited several courts of Germany, that of Han- 
over in particular. Being arrived at Geneva, he conceived 
to great a disgust to the austere and dogmatical precepts 
of his governor, that he soon decamped, and set out fdr 
Lyons, where he arrived in Oct. 1716. His lordship some- 
where or other had picked up a beards cub, of which he 
was very fond, and carried it about with him. But, when 
he determined to'abandon bis tutor, he left the cub behind 
him, with the following address to him : ^' Being no longer 
able to bear with your ill usage, I think proper to be gone 

» Birrh's Lives. — Barnei':! Own Ticnei. — Park's Edition of Royal and No- 
ble Aiiihon. — N chbh'siPoemi.— Swifi'j Woiks by Nichols^ See Index. 



WHARTON; 331 

from you ; however, that you may not want compaay, I 
have left you the bear, as the most suitable companion in 
the world 4hat could be picked out for you.^' 

When the marquis was at Lyons, be took a very strange 
step, little expected from him. He wrote a letter to the 
chevalier de St. George, then residing at Avignon, to whom 
he presented a very fine stone-horse. Upon receiving this 
present, the chevalier sent a man of quality to the marquis, 
who carried him privately to his court, where he was re- 
peived with the greatest marks of esteem, and had the title 
of duke of Northumberland conferred upon him. He re<r 
mained there, however, "but one day ; and then returned 
post to Lyons, whence he set out for Paris. He likewise 
piade a vi^it to the queen-dowager of England, consort to 
James IL then ngsiding at St. Germains, to whom he paid 
his court, pursuing the same rash measures as at Avignon. 
It was reported that he told the queen he was resolved to 
^tone. by. his own services for the faults of his family, and 
would exert'all his endeavours to subvert the Hanover 8i>c* 

4 

cession, and promote the interest of the exiled prince ; but 
as he complained that being under age, and kept out of his 
, estate, be wanted money to carry on the design, the dow-? 
ager-queen, though poor, pawned her jewels to raise him 
j200p/. We shall afterwards find that the chevalier accom- 
modated him with the same sum long after the dowager's 
(death. 

During his stay at Paris, bis winning address and asto- 
nishing parts gained him the esteem and admiration of all 
.the British subjects of both parties who happened to be 
there. The earl of Stair, then the English ambassador 
there, notwithstanding all the reports to the marquis's dis'* 
advantage, thought proper to shew some respect to the re^ 
presentative of so great a family. His excellency never 
failed to lay hold of every opportunity to give some admo- 
nitions, which were not always agreeable to the vivacity of 
his temper; and someiimes provoked hiui to great indisorc^ 
tions. Once in particular, the ambassador, extolling the 
merit and noble behaviour of the marquis's father, added, 
that be hoped he would follow so illustrious an example of 
'fidelity to his prince and love to his country : on which the 
marquis immediately answered, that '* he thanked his ex- 
cellency for his good advice, and, as his excellency had 
also a worthy and deserving father, he hoped he would 
likewise copy so bright an original, andafeadhin his steps." 



43S 



WHARTON. 



This was a severe sarcasm, as the ambassador's father bad 
betrayed his master in a manner that was not very credit- 
able. Before be left France, an English gentleman expos- 
tulating with him for swerving so much from the principles 
of his father and whole family, his lordship answered, that 
" he had pawned his principles to Gordon, the Pretender's 
banker, for a considerable sum, and, till he could repay 
bim, he must be a Jacobite ; but, when that was done, be 
would again return to the Whigs.'* 

In Dec. 1716, the marquis arrived in England, where he 
did not remain long till he set out for Ireland ; in which 
kingdom, on account of his extraordinaty qualities, be had 
the honour of being admitted, though under age, to take 
bis seat in the House of Peers as earl of Rathfarnham and 
marquis Catherlough. He made use of this indulgence to 
take possession of his estate, and receive his rents, asking 
bis tenants *^ if they durst doubt of his being of age, after 
the parliament had allowed him to be so F" In the Irish 
parliament he espoused a very different interest from that 
ivhich he had so lately embraced. He distinguished him- 
self, in this situation, as a violent partizan for the ministry; 
and acted in all other respects, as well in his private as 
public capacity, with the warmest zeal for government ^. 
In consequence of this zeal, shewn at a time when they 
stood much in need of men of abilities, and so little was 
expected from him, the king created him duke of Wharton; 
and, as soon as he came of age, he was introduced into the 
llouse of Lords in England, with the like blaze of reputation. 
Ifet a little before the death of lord Stanhope, bis grace 
again changed sides, opposed the court, and endeavoured 
to defeat the schemes of the ministry. He was one of the 
most forward and vigorous in the defence of the bishop of 
Rochester, and in opposing the bill for inflicting pains and 
penalties on that prelate ; and, as if this opposition was not 
sufficient, he published, twice a week, a paper called '^The 
True Briton," several thousands of which were dispersed 
weekly. 



* It was probably while the doke 
was ID Ireland that be became ac- 
qoaiuted with Swift, who had a high 
opinion of bis great abilities, and was 
no less esteemed by the duke. It is 
isaid that one day dining together, 
when the duke had recounted seTeral 
^xtrafagaseeff be bad riw through. 



Swift said, "You have had your frolics, 
my lord, let me reeoaimend one more 
to you : take a frolic to be virtuoas ; 
take my word for it, that one will do 
you more honour than all the other 
frolics of your whole life," PeLany's 
Observations on Lord Orrery's ^q- 
marks. 



WHARTON. 331 

'. In the mean time his boundless profusion had so bur<^ 
thened bis estate, that a decree of chancery vested it in the 
hands of trustees for the payment of his debts, allowing a 
provision of 1200/. per annum for his subsistence. This not 
being sufficient to support his title with dignity at home, he 
resolved to go abroad till his estate should be clear. But in 
this he only meant, as it should seem, to deceive by an ap« 
pearance ; for he went to Vienna, to execute a private 
commission, not in favour of the English ministry; nor did 
he ever shine to greater advantage as to his personal cha- 
racter than at the Imperial court. From Vienna he made 
a tour to Spain, where bis arrival alarmed the English 
minister so much, that two expresses were sent from Ma- 
drid to London, upon all apprehension that his grace way 
received there in the character of ao ambassador; upon 
which the duke received a aummpns under the privy seal 
to return home. His behaviour on this occasion was a suf- 
ficient indication that he never designed to return to Eng- 
land whilst affairs remained in the same state. This he had 
often declared, from his going abroad the second time; 
which, no doubt, was the occasion of his treating that so- 
lemn order with so much indignity, and endeavouring tc[ 
inflame the Spanish court, not only against this person who 
delivered the summons, but also against the court of Great 
Britain itself, for exercising an act of power, as he was 
pleased to call it, within the jurisdiction of his Catholic 
majesty. After this he acted openly in the service of the 
Pretender, and appeared at his court, where he was re- 
ceived with the greatest marks or favour. 

While thus employed abroad, his duchess, who bad 
been neglected by him, died in England, April 14, 1726, 
and left no issue behind hen Soon after this, he fell vio«- 
lently in love with madam Obyrne, then one of the maids 
of honour to the queen of Spain. She was daughter of an 
Irish colonel in that service, who being dead, her mother 
lived upon a pension the king allowed her ; so that this 
Jady's fortune' consisted chiefly in her personal accomplish- 
ments. Many arguments were used, by their friends* on 
both sides, to dissuade them from the marriage. The 
queen of Spain, when the duke asked her consent, repre- 
sented to him, in the most lively terms, that the conse- 
quence of the match would be misery to them both; and 
absolutely refused her consent. Having now no hopes of 
obtaining her, he fell into a deep melancholy^ wbick 



$34 W k A ft T O N. 

* • 

brought on a lingering fever. This circiimstaif'6e fdached 
her majesty^s ear: she was moved with his distress, and 
sent him word to endeavour the recovery of his Udaltfa ; 
and, as soon as he was able to appear abroad, she would 
speak to him in a more favourable manner than at theii' 
last interview. The duke, upon receiving this news, ima- 
gined it the best way to take advantage of the kind dispo- 
sition her majesty was then in; and summoning to his 
assistance bis little remaining strength, threw himself at 
her majesty's feet, and begged of her either to give him 
M. Obyrne, or order him not to live. The queen con- 
sented, but told him he would soon repent it. After the 
solemnization of his marriage, he passed some time - at 
Rome ; where he accepted of a blue ribband, aflfected to 
appear with the title of duke of Northumberland, and for 
a while enjoyed the confidence of the exiled prince. But; 
as be could not always keep himself within the bounds of 
Italian gravity, and having no employment to amuse his 
active temper, he soon ran into his usual excesses ; which 
giviryg offence, it was thought proper for him to remove' 
from that city for the present, lest he should at last fait 
into actual disgrace. 

Accordingly, he quitted Romcj and went by sea to Bar- 
celona ; and then resolved upon a new scene of life, which' 
few expected he would ever have engaged in. He vfrote 
a letter to the king of Spain, acquainting him, that he 
would assist at the siege of Gibraltar as a volunteer. The 
king thanked him for the honour, and accepted hi^ service: 
but be soon grew weary of this, and set his heart on Rome. 
In consequence of this resolution, he wrote a letter to the 
chevalier de St. George, full of respect and submission, 
expressing a desire of visiting his court; but the chevalief 
returned for answer, that he thought it more advisable for 
his grace to draw near England. The duke seemed re- 
solved to follow his adyice, set out for France in company 
with his duchess, and, attended by two or three servants, 
arrived at Paris in May 1728. Here he made little stay, 
but proceeded to Rouen, in his way, as some imagined,' 
for England ; but he stopped, and took up his residence at 
Rouen, without reflecting the least on the business that 
brought him to France. He was so far from making any 
concession to the government, in order to make his peace, 
that be did not give himself the least trouble about his 
personal estate, or any other concern in England. The 



\»%f 



\V H A B T O N. 335 

duke had about 6001. in his possession when he arrived at 
Rouen, where more of his servants joioed him from Spain. 
A bill of indictment was about this time preferred against 
him in England for high treason. The chevalier soon after 
sent him 2000/. for his support, of which he was no sooner 
iu possession -than he squandered it away. As a long jour- 
ney did not well suit with his grace's finances, he went for 
Orleans; thence fell down the river Loire to Nantz, iu 
Britany ;' and there he stopt some time, ^ill he got a remit- 
tance from Paris, which was dispersed almost as soon a». 
received. At Nantz some of his ragged servants rejoined 
him, and he took shipping with them for Bilbba, as if he 
had been carrying recruits to the Spanish regiments. From 
Bilboa he wrote a humorous letter to a friend at Paris, 
giving a whimsical account of his voyage, and his manner 
of passing his time. The queen of Spain took the duchess 
to attend her person. 

In JaOr 1731, the duke Reclined so fast, being in his 
quarters at Lerida, that he had i)ot the use of his limbs so 
as to move without assistance ; but, as he was free from 
ps^in, did not lose all his gaiety. He continued* in tkis^ ill 
state of health for two months, when he gained a little 
strength, and found benefit from a certain mineral water in 
the mountains of Catalonia; but he was too much exhausted 
to recover. He relapsed the May following at Tarragona, 
whither he removed with his regiment : and, going to the 
above-mentioned waters, be fell into one of those fainting^ 
fits, to •which be had been for some time subject, in a 
small village ; and was utterly destitute of all the necessa* 
rites of life, till some charitable fathers of a Bernarcfine 
convent offered him what assistance their house afforded* 
The duke accepted their kind proposal ; upon which they 
removed him to their convent, and administered all the 
relief in their power. Under this hospitable roof, after 
languishing a week, the duke of Wharton died May 31, 
1731, without one friend or acquaintance to close his eyes. 
His funeral was performed in the same manner which the 
fathers observed to those of their own fraternity. Dying 
without issue, his titles became extinct His widow sur- 
vived to a very advanced age, and died in Feb. 1777, and 
was buried in St. Pancras church-yard,. 

Pope has drawn his character in these masterly lines : 
" Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days. 
Whose ruling passion was the lust of praise : 



536 W H A B T O N. 

Bom with whatever could win it from the wo^ • \ 

Women and fools must like him or he dies ; 
Tho* wond'ring senates hung on all he spoke. 
The club mulst hail him master of the joke. 
Shall parts so various aim at nothing new ? 
He'll shine a TuBy^ and a Wilmot too. 
Then turns refientant, and his God adores^ 
With the same spirit thstt he drinks and whorcs> 
Enough, if alkaround him but admire, 
And now the punk applaud, and now the frjer* 
Thus with each gift of nature and of art. 
And wanting nothing but an honest heart ; 
Grown all to all, from no one vice exempt ; 
And most contemptible, to shun contempt > 
His passion still, to covet general praise. 
His life, to forfeit it a thousand ways ; 
. A constant bounty, which no friend has made z 
An angel tongue, which no man can persuade > 
A fbol, with more of wit than half mankind. 
Too rash for thought, for action too refin'd : ^ - 

A tytant to the wife his heart approves ; . * s 

A rebel to the very king he loves j > 

He dies, sad outcast of each church and state^ 
And, harder still I flagitious, yet not great. 

Like Buckingham and Rochester, says lord Orford^ be 
*^ comforted ^U the grave and dull by throwing away the 
brightest profusion of parts on witty fooleries, debauche-r 
ries, and scrapes, which may mix graces with a great eha-* 
racter, but can never compose one." It is difficult to un- 
derstand a sentence composed of such incoherent materials^ 
but bis lordship is more intelligible when he tells us tha^ 
*^ with attachment to no party, though with talents to go- 
vern any party, this lively man exchanged the free air of 
Westminster for the gloom oif the Escurial ; the prospect of 
king George^s garter for the Pretender^s ; and with indif- 
ference to all religion, the frolic lord who had written the 
ballad on the archbishop of Canterbury, died in the habit 
of a capuchin." For this last particular, however, there 
appears no foundation. Lord Orford proceeds to mention 
that there are two volumes in 8vo, called his ^' Life and 
Writings," but containing of the latter nothing but seventy-^ 
four papers oif the True Briton, and his celebrated speech 
in the House of Lords, in defence of Atterbury. But there 
are two other volumes 12mo, without date ; and with th^ 
same life as in the 2 vols. 8vo. (1731) the title of which is 
« The Poetical Works of Philip late Duke of Wharton ; 
and others of the Wharton family^ and of the dake*8 yiti« 



W H A R T O N. ist 

t 

mate acquaintance, &c. with original letters, novels, Jcc*'* 
In this farrago are some few poetical pieces which have 
generally been attributed to the duke, but the gp'eater part 
are by other hands, and the whole, given without any ap* 
parent authority. The late Mr/Ritson had formed the 
design of publishing Wharton's genuine poetry, with a 
life. What he prepared is now before us, but does hot 
amount to much. He probably began the collection in bis 
latter days. Wharton appears to have been at one time a 
patron of men of letters. He certainly was such to Dr. 
Young, who dedicated the tragedy of the *^ Revenge^' to 
him, in a style of flattery which must excite surprise in all 
who observe the date, 1722, and know that long before 
that period Wharton's character was decided and notorious. 
Young might perhaps blush now, and it is certain that he 
lived afterwards to be' completely ashamed, and to suppress 
his dedication. ^ 

WHARTON (Sir George), a loyal astrologer of the 
seventeenth century, was descended from an ancient family 
in Westmoreland, and born at Kirby^Kendal in that county 
April 4, 1617. ' He passed some time at the university of 
Oxford, but was more studious of mathematics and astro*- 
nomy than of any other academical pursuits. After this, 
having some private fortune, he retired from the university, 
until the breaking out of the rebellion, when* he converted 
his property into money, and raised a troop of horse for his 
majesty, of which he became captain. After other eii*- 
gagements, he was finally routed at Stow-on-the*-Would in 
Gloucestershire, March 21, 1645, where sir Jacob Astley 
was taken prisoner, and Wharton received several wounds, 
the marks of which he carried to his grave. He then 
joined the king at Oxford, and had an office conferi'ed 
upo.n him in the ordnance, but after the decline of the 
royal cause, he came to London and gained a livelihood 
by his writings, chiefly by that profitable article, the coin* 
posing of almanacks, with predictions. In some of his 
productions he gave. offence by his loyal hints and witti« 
cisms, and was several times imprisoned, particularly in 
Windsor-castle, where he found his brother conjuror Wil- 
liam Lilly. Lilly showed him much kindness, which Whar-, 
ton repaid afterwards by saving him from prosecution as 

1 Life prefixed to his Prose Works.— Bip;, Brit->-Park'9 edition of the Rojal 
mnd Koble Authors*— ^Nichols's Poems. 

Vol. XXXI. Z 



WHARTON. 

a republican prophet. Upoti the i^storation^ Whartotsfs 
loyalty wis rewarded by the place of treasurer and pay* 
natter of llie ordnance, tind he was also created a baronet. 
He died Aug. 12, 1681. He wrote, besides his Almanacks, 
Bfercuries, astronomical pieces, and chronologies of the 
^events of his time. His works were collected and pub- 
lished by Gadbury in 1683, 8to. ^ 

WHARTON tHENEY), an English divine, of most un- 
common abilities, was born ^ Not. 9, 1 664, at Worstead 
in Norfolk; of which parish his father Edmund, who sur- 
Tived him, was vicar. He was educated under his father; 
and made such a progress in the Greek aud Latin tongues, 
^faat, from bis lirst entrance into the university, he was 
.thought an extraordinary young man. On Feb. 17, 1679*^ 
^0, he was admitted into Caius-coUege, Cambridge, of 
<«iiich his father bad been fellow, under the tuition of John, 
afterwards sir John Ellys, one of the senior fellows. Here 
lie prosecuted his studies with the grea;test vigour, and was 
insU'ucted in the mathematics by Mr. ^afterwards sir) fsaae 
Nenrton, then fellow ef Trftnity*college and Lucasian pro^ 
lessor, amongst a select company, to whom that great 
man read lectures in his own private chamber. He took a 
Jbachelor of arts degree in 1683-4, and resided in the col- 
lege till 1-686, was a scholar on the foundation of his great 
ttiicle Stockys, but,- observing no probability of a vacancy 
among .the fellowships, he left it, and was recommended 
by Dr. Barker, afterwards chaplain to archbishop Tiilotson-, 
40 Dr. Cave, whom he assisted in compiling his '^ Histpria 
Literaria." Of the nature of that assistance, and the man*- 
Ber in which be conducted himself, we shall have occasion 
to speak afterwards. In ]687 he was ordained deacon^ 
and the same year proceeded master of arts by proxy ; 
'which favour was indulged him on account of being then 
dangerously ill of the smalUpox at Islington. About this 
time the reputation he had acquired recommended him to 
the notice of Dr. Tenison, vicar of St Martin's in the Fields^ 
London, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, who emr 
ployed him to prepare for the press a manuscript on '^The 
incurable Scepticism of the Church of Rome," Written in 

* He U laid tq have been born with of the tame size; this i$ meotioDed ia 

two tongues, one of which gradaally the Philosophical TrausacUoos, No. 486, 

lessened- until it became no way iocon- for 1748. 
venlen^ though both were originally ' 

< Cihber's LiTCf«<^Ath. Os« toU Il.^Ceiis, Lit. toI. YJL 



' 



WHARTON. hi 

Latin by Placette of Hamburgh. This Wharton translated 
into English and epitomized. Tenison also recommendea 
him to lord Arundel of Trerice, as tutor for his son. Soon 
after being presented to archbishop Sancroft, his grace pu^ 
into his hands, in April 1788, the manuscript of archbi* 
shop Usher's dogmatical history of the Holy Scriptures, 
which he published, in 4to, under the title, ^^ J. Usserii^ 
&c. Hist. Dogmatica controversies inter orthodoxos et pon-* 
tificios de scripturis, &c." to which he added an *^ aucta-^ 
rium," or supplement. He also published before and abou( 
this time several treatises against popery, among whicl^ 
are, 1. ** The Speculum Ecclesiasticum considered, in itf 
false reasonings and quotations," Lond. 16,87, 4to. Tba 
'* Speculum Ecclesiasticum** was a production of Thomas 
Ward, whom we have noticed already. 2. *< A treatise 

? roving Scripture to be the rule of Faith, writ by Reginalcl 
^ecock, bishop of Chichester, before the reformation, 
about 1450," Lond. 1688, 4to. This, to which Mr. Whar- 
ton prefixed a preface on the same subject, is-the onl]^ 
production of that learned prelate which has been pub- 
lished. 3. ^< A treatise of the Celibacy of the Clergy,' 
wherein its rise and progress are historically considered,'! 
ibid. 1688, 4to. In this he proves that the celibacy of the 
clergy was not enjoined either by Christ or his apostles;, 
that it has nothing excellent in itself; that the imposition 
of it is unjust, and that, in point of fact, it was never uni- 
versally imposed or practised in the ancient church. 5. A 
translation of Dellon's ^^ History of the Inquisition of Goa.'' 
6. About the same time he translated somobomilies of St. 
Macarius, the prologue and Epilogue of Euronius to his 
*' Apologetic Treatise'* (formerry transcribed by him out of^ 
a manuscript of Dr. Tenison) with U treatise of ^^Pseudo* 
Dorotheus," found by Mr. Dodwell in the Bodleian library^, 
out of Greek into Latin, and the famous Bull ^* in Coena 
Domini" out of Latin into English ; annexing a short pre-* 
face containing some reflections upon the Bull„ and ani^. 
xnadversions on the account of the prQceedings of the par- 
liament of Paris. 7. He gave his assistance likewise to a 
new edition of Dr. Thomas James's ^^ Corruption of the 
Scriptures, Councils, and Fathers, by the Prelates of the 
Church of Rome for the maintenance of Popery ;" apd at 
the request of Mr. Watts he revised the version of << Chila- 
}ethe & Philirene/' fitting it jfor the press. 8. <^ A. brief, 
declaration of the Lord's Sapper, written by Dr. Nicholas 

^2 



340 WHARTON. 

Ridley, bishop of London* during bis imprisonment. . With 
some otber determinations and disputations concerning the 
6ame argument, by the same author. To which is annexed 
an extract of several passages to the same purpose out of 
a book entitled ^ Diallecticon/ written by Dr. John Poynet, 
bishop of Winton in the reigns of Edward VI. and queen 
Mary," 1688, 4to. 9. << The Enthusiasm of the Chorch 
of Rom^ demonstrated in some observations upon the Life 
of Ignatius Loyola,'* 1688, 4to. 

In this year (1688) although as yet no more than a dea- 
con, he was honoured by Sancroft with a licence to preach 
through the whole province of Canterbury; a fietvour 
granted to none but him during Sancroft's continuance ift 
that see. In Sept. following, the archbishop admitted him 
into the number of bis chaplains, and at the same time (as 
his custom was) gave him a living ; but, institution to it 
being deferred till he should be of full age, the vicarage 
of Minster in the Isle of Thanet fell void in the mean 
time, and afterwards the rectory of Chartham, to both 
which he was collated in 1689, being ordained priest oa 
his own birth-day, Nov. 9, 1688. 

In 1692 he published, in 8vo, '^ A Defence of Plurali- 
ties," in which the subject is handled with great ingenuity; 
and the same year was printed, in two volumes folio, his 
** Anglia Sacra, sive Collectio Historiarum, partim anti- 
quittls, partim recenter, scriptarum, de Archiepiscopis &. 
Episcopis Anglis, a prima Fidei Chrbtianse susceptione 
ad annum mdxl." He has been generally commended for 
having done great service to the ecclesiastical history of 
this kingdom by this work : yet bishop Burnet, in his 
<* Reflections" on Atterbury^'s book of <<The Rights, Pow- 
cfrs, and Privileges, of an English Convocation," tells us^ 
that *^ he had in his bauds a whole treatise, which con- 
tained only the faults of ten leaves of one of the volumes 
of the * Anglia Sacra.* They are, indeed," adds he, ^^ sa 
ihany, and so gros^, that often the faults are as many as 
the lines : sometimes they are two for one." This may be 
perhaps asserting too roach, but unquestionably the errors 
in transcription, from haste, or from employing improper 
amanuenses, are so considerable as to render it necessary 
to peruse it with great caution, otherwise it is a truly ya* 
luable collection. There is a copy of it in the Bodleian 
library, among Mr. Gough^s books, with an inamense ad- 
dition of MS notes by bishop Keunet. In 1693^ Whartoa 



J 



WHARTON. U\ 

l^bHsbed, in 4to, <^ Beds Venerabilis Qpera qUcedam 
Tfaeologica, nunc primum edita; nee non Historica antea 
ifemel edita :*^ and tbe same year, linder the name of 
Anthony Harmer, ^* A Specimen of some errors and 
defect9 in the . History of tbe Reformation of tbe Church 
of England, written by Gilbert Burnet, D. D." 8vo. In 
the answer to this, addressed by way of letter to Dr. 
Lloyd bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Dr. Burnet ob- 
serves, that **he had not seen any one thing relating to hia 
history which had (sleased him so much as this specimen. 
It is plain," says he, *^ that here is a writer, who has con« 
sidered those times and that matter with much application ; 
and that he is a master of this subject. He has the art of 
Writing skilfully; and how much soever he may be wanting 
in a Christian temper, and in the decency that one . who 
owns himself of our communion owed to the station Lhold 
in it, yet in other respects he seenL> to be a very valuable 
man ; so valuable, that I cannot, without a very sensible 
regret, see such parts and such industry like to be soured 
and spoiled with so ill a temper.**' And afterwards, in hif 
^ Reflections*' upon Atterbury's book just mentioned, he 
speaks of the specimen in these words : '^ Some years ago, 
a rude attack was made upon me under the disguised name 
of Anthony Harmen His true nam^ is well enough knpwn^ 
as also who was his patron :-^but I answered that specimen 
with the firmness that became me ; and I charged the writer 
home to publish the rest of his '^Reflections.*' He had in- 
timated, that he gave then but the sample, and that he had 
•great store yet' in reserve. I told him upon that, I would 
expect to see him make that good, and bring out all he h^d 
to say ; otherwise, they must pass for slan<^er and detrac- 
tion. He did not think fit to write any more upon that, 
though he was as much solicited to it by some as he was 
provoked to it by mysplf.'* In 1695 he published, in folio, 
''The History of toe Troubles and Trials of Archbishop 
Land ;** the second part or volume of which was published 
after his death by bis father, the Rev. Edmund Wharton, 
in 1700. This is one of tbe most useful collections of facta 
illustrative of the times in which Laud lived, that we are in 
possession of. He published also a new edition of Beca- 
telli's Life of Cardinal Pole, in Latin, with the contest be- 
tween the ambassadors of England and France at the coun- 
cil of Constance. He published in 9vo, '^Historia deEpis- 
iCopis & Decanis Londinensibus, nee non de Episcopis & 



542 



WHARTON. 



IDecunitt Assareh^ibus^ i priikia ledis titriusque fdn^litioQe 
ad HYinunfi mdxl»'' Besides these works he leift several 
pieces behind him, about wrhich he had taken great pains : 
and two volumes of his ** Sermons'' have been printed ia 
Svo sinee his death. Among his MSS. are several English 
hiHoriani^ not yet published, which he bad transcribed and 
' o(>lkted with the originals, and prepared for the press ; viz. 
1. '^ Benedictus Abbas de Gestis Heninci secundi Regis 
AnglJse, A. D. 1170." 2. "Chronicon Nicolai Tribetti 
(vulgo de Trebeth) Dominicani, ab ann. 1136 ad ann. 
1307." 3. "Chronicon Petri Ickham, Compilatio de Ges- 
tis Britonum & Anglorum.'* 4. ^^ Stephani Birchington 
Monachi Cantuariensis Historia de regibus^nglise post 
Conquestum.'^ 5. ** Liber nonus de miraculis Anglorum.*' 
In some of these are contained vast collections out of the 
ancient and modern records relating to church aflFairs* 
Among his manuscripts was likewise *^ An Account of the 
MSS. in Lambeth Library;*^ in which, besides giving a 
^ost exact catalogue of them, he had under every book 
transcribed all those treatises contained in them which were 
iiot yet published. . Among the printed bboks^ towards a 
sew and tpore correct edition of which Wharton had con- 
Mderably contributed, were the following: 1. '< Historia 
Mutt t^ftrkeri Archiepiscopi Cantuar. de antiquitate Bri« 
tannicse Ecclesise,'' &c. enlarged with notes, collections, 
and additions, partly made by Parker himself, -and partly 
by others, and several by Wharton; together with the Life 
of the said Archbishop, as also that of St. Austin of Can* 
terbury, written by George Aoworth. 2. **Franciscus God- 
^inus de Preesulibus Anglis,'' with some notes. 3. Floren- 
tius Wigorniensis and Matthetv of Westminster, both with 
itiany notes, corrections, and additions. He had likewise 
made notes on several of his own books already published 
by him ; which it is probable were designed for additions 
to those books whenever they should receive a new impres- 
sion. All these, which were purchased by archbishop Te- 
nison, are now in the Lambeth Library. 

Wharton*s biographer represents him as a man of great 
'natural endowments, a quick apprehension^ solid judg- 
ment, and faithful memory. As to his person, he was of a 
Tuiddle stature, of a brown complexion, and of a ^rive and 
comely countenance. His constitution was vigorous and 
healthful ; but his immoderate application and labours, to-, 
gether with the too violent operation of a medicine which 



W H A & T O N. 84S 

weakiened hi« stomach, so far broke it, that all the skill and 
•rt of the most experienced physicians could do nothing 
for him. The summer before be died be wisnt to Baib, 
aud found some benefit by the waters ; but, falling immo« 
derately to bis studies on his return to Canterbury, he liras 
presently reduced to extreme ireakness, under which he 
languished for sdme tinAe, and at last died at Newton in 
Cambridgeshire, March 5, 1694*5| in his thirty-first year* 
He was greatly lamented, especially by the clergy, to wfaotn 
bis labours and publications had been very acceptable* As 
a testimony of their esteem for him, they attended in great 
numbers at his funeral, with many of the bishops; and, 
among the rest, archbishop Tenison, and Lloyd bishop of 
Lichfield, who both visited him in his 'last sickness. He 
was interred on the South side of Westminster abbey^ to* 
wards the West end^ where, on the wall^ is fixed up ^ 
small tablet to his memory. 

Having adverted to the assistance he gave to Cave in his . 
<< Historia Literaria,*' we may now throw some light oh 
that matter from an authentic document preserved among 
the valuable MSS. in thd Lambeth Library. This is a Uet^ 
ter from Cave to archbishop Tenison, in Oct. 1697. 
« My Lord, 

'< I should not presume to give your grace this trouble 
but that lately I met with an accident that gave me some 
disturbance. At Mr. Gery's I chanced to see Mr. Whar* 
ton^s book (copy) of the Historia Literaria, wherein I found 
ceveral notes blotted out, and two of three added, since I 
saw the book last, which was about a year before he died<. 
The notes that he added are highly iujurious to me, and 
afford one of the most unaccounuble instances of unfair 
and disifigenuoas dealing that perhaps ever passed among 
hien of letters. I hope therefore that your grace will not 
be ofiended if, in as few words as the thing is capable of, 
' I set things in their true light ' 

** Page 2^2, there is this note : Ah hoc loco vmnia nigro 
j^umto Tum notata ejusAsm sunta uihoris (sci H. W.) e^us 
ilia ^ua hue usque notata sunt > ei vicissim qute Unea dmis^ 
9ata notattturf jtmcta uirmsque nosttuim opera sunt coji- 
scripta. — This note, if taken in its latitude, as it is obvious 
CO understand it, is so extravagantly untrue, that he might 
with equal justice challenge, the entire work, as in effect he 
has done the greatest part. Mr. Wharton was with me but 
seven or eight months (and those winter months) after I had 



S«4 W H A ft T O N. 

resumed wbat I had long thrown aside ; a time much too 
short for a work of that bigness, if be had claimed the 
whole. The four first sacvia I had drawn up, and stiH 
have by me under the hand of my then amanuensis some 
years before Mr. Wharton ever saw an university,: to which 
I added several things afterwards, mostly extracted out. <tf 
the English lives which I had published long before I ever 
heard of Mr. Wharton^s name. . Nay, there are some pas- 
sageS) and those pretty large, bookt by Mr. Wharton within 
the compasse of his note, v^hich I particularly remember I 
drew up several months after he left me, having then got 
fM>me books which I had not before. And for ail the rest 
(more than in the sense wherein things are acknowledged 
in this paper) I am as sure they were of my own doing, as I 
am sure of my right hand. 

*^ The whole foundation of any pretence at all was no 
more than this. Mr. Wharton lived with me as an ama*- 
nuensis at that time I resumed my design of the Hist. 
Liter. Besides his writing, as I dictated to him, I em- 
ployed him to transcribe several things, particularly the 
titles of the fathers* works, as they stand before their 
several editions, adding myself what short notes I thought 
fit to any of them : and sometimes, though not very often^ 
Inhere the opinion of an author concernmg an ecclesiastvcal 
writer was large, I sei him down to draw it into a few lines^ 
but still under my own direction and alteration. This, for 
instance, was the case of Origen's works, and of what he 
pleasantly calls, p. 81, Dissertaiionem de Origents, qperibus 
propria marte compositanij which was no more than thus. 
I sett him to collect the writings of Origen mentioned in 
Huetitis's Origeniana adding, what I thought fitt to them, 
as also the heads of his Dogmata, as they stand in the several 
sections of Huet's book, and which accordingly, p. 82, I 
have acknowledged to have been extracted thence. In 
Cyprian I set him to take out his works as they are placed 
•according to order of time in the Oxford edition, and to 
jpeduce the titles of the last Paris edition to them. In St. 
Augustine, I sent him to look over three or four volumes, 
(which wiere all could then be had) of the New Benedictine 
edition, and observe what alterations they had made from 
former editions, and they are mentioned up and down in 
the account of St. Augustin*s works. In St Chrysostom, 
I employed him to transcribe the titles of his works as they 
•stand before the several volumes of sir H. Savil, and to re* 



Wharton. sis 

duce those of Fr. DucaBus to them, which accordingly are 
aett down coium nowise, p. 255, &c. In reading to me out 
of bittbop Usher's BibUoiheca Theological concerning Chry- 
aostooi, (and the like concerning some others), I ordered 
him to copy oot several passages which you have in the 
^i$hop*s own words from p. 270, and so on. In Tbeodo* 
ret, I directed bijn to collect his works as they are reckoned 
up in Garnerius's dissertation De VU. et Idhris Theodoriii^ 
which I refer to p. 319. Thus I sent him to your grace^s 
library, St. Martin's, to collate "a new edition of Zonares 
with the former, and he brought me an account of what 
was in the new ; as also to the library at Lambeth, to run 
over three or four volumes of Lambecius/ His extracts I 
have still by me somewhere, but in my own words and way 
I made use of. 

''These are the chief and most (if not all) that he did, 
and this he did as my amanuensis, as maintained, em- 
ployed, and directed by me, and are no more than whtft 
(if I had kept no amanuensis) I could easily have had dobe 
by the hand of any friend : and shall this be thought suffix 
cient to ground a claim to any part of an author's book ? It 
would be a wofull case with writers, who are forced to 
make use of amanuenses, if the transcribing a few passages 
for the author's use, or the making a short abridgment of 
a passage or two, shall be foundation enough to set up a 
title for copartnership in the work. I hope after so many 
^volumes of church antiquity, published by me long before 
I saw Mr* Wharton's face, the world will oot have so mean 
-an opinion of me, as to think that I needed either to be 
beholden to a young man of twenty-one years, and who 
by bis own confession had never looked into the fathers till 
he came to me ; or that I was so lazy as to sit still, aiid 
employ another to do my work ; a thing as far from my 
temper, as light from darkness, and from which all that 
know my course of studying will sufficiently acquit me. I 
might add that there is so plain a difference between hia 
style and mine (whether for good or bad it matters not) 
that it would not be bard for any that would attend to it, to 
Inake a near guess which is which, though indeed in the 
progress of the work he was ever and anon offering to 
thrust in his own words and phrases, so that I was forced 
very often to reprimand him, and soinetimes positively to 
over-rule him, whereof I then once and again' complained 
t» several frtenda, some whereof are still alive to justify it. 



$»$ WHARTON. 

This I then thought was only the effect of the heat and 
forwardness of his temper; and perhaps it was no more^ 
Though, comparing it wUh what has happened since, it 
looks oddly. What Mr. Wharton did towards the real be^ 
fiefit of the works prcprio niartej as be speaks, viz. trah«- 
scribiflg Greek fragments out of MSS. translating them, 
and the like, is readily acknowledged iu their plac^ up 
jkvkd down the book, and more particularly in the Proleg^ 
meoa, , Sect. 3, p. 7, in expressions more comprehensive, 
than what he did really deserve. My lord, I am ashamed 
to mention these things, but tbkt necessity enforces it. 

^^P. 743, ad ann. 1280, there is this note. Omnia de Unc 
tudfinem tisque a me scripfa sunt, a Cavo postmodum jc/m^ 
tinnata^ I believe nobody that reads this note but would 
snake this conclusion, that from thence to the end of tUb 
.teculilm, And the beginning of the appendix was written 
by Mr. Wharton^ and afterwards only lickt over and re- 
vised by me. This obliges me to let your grace into the 
•knowledge bow Mr. Wharton came to b^ concerned in the 
appendix. When I was come to the year 128k), I fell sick 
at Windsor, and not knowing whether I might recover, and 
Iteing unwilling that so much pains as I had taken should 
be wholly lost, I delivered my papers to Mr. Wharton, and 
what materials I bad prepai*ed for the two follov^ing stecnlsi, 
and. desired him out of them, and the Chartophylax^ to 
draw up some kind of continuation agreeable to the rest, 
'bidding to it wb&t he could meet with in my books. This 
.1 did as a pro tempore provision in c^se of the. worst, dd- 
signing, if I ^covered, to finish it afterwards. Accord- 
ingly he parted from me, and went to my house at Isling- 
ton, where be was maintained for three months at my 
charge, and his salary duly paid him. At my return he 
shewed me what be had done, without taking any further 
notice.. Six months after, when the book was in the press, 
and about twenty sheets printed, he came to me, and in a 
.peremptory manner demanded that the latter part of the 
book might be published in bis name. I was much sui^ 
prised, and represented to htm the unreasonableness of 
such a demand ; that what was done, was done in my ser- 
vice, by my direction, at my cost, and upon my^ bottom ; 
and that I had thought of taking it iti pieces and doring it 
<<iver again, with some other considerations which Iha^ 
now forgot. Howiever, because J did not much stand upon 
it^ so the book might be useful to. the ends detigoed, who 



W H A B: T O. N- a4T 

fi«d the credit of this or tbit piM of it, and be being a 
yoang man, if it might be a means to let him into public 
notice (upon which account he seemed to insist upon it) I 
was content he should have the last two sactUM by veay of 
appendix. Whereto he afterwjurds added several things^ 
making use of the scattered notes I had prepared, and 
what was before in the Cbartophjiax, without taking any 
notice whose they were, nor did. 1 much expect it, or de* 
sire he should. And because there were two or threck 
sheets from ann. 1280 to the end of that speculum, whictk 
he said he had done, I cut out these leaves (and for any 
thing I know, they amy be among his papers at th,is hour) 
and did it entirely ^over again, wherein there was not one 
word of Mr. Wbarton^s made use of^ more than what will 
necesss^rily fall in, where two persons make use of the same 
books. in prosecution of the same design. I further told 
him (for now I began to perceive his humour and what he 
aimed at) that to the end there might bft no farther dispute 
ibout this matter hereafter, if there was any other part to 
which he could make out a claim, I would stt'ike it out and 
do it over again, and that I all along designed to own in 
Ih^ prefate what real help he had contributed, shewing 
that part of the Prolegomena wherein I had done it ; with 
which he was satisfied, and never afterwards spoke of it to 
me, or that I know of to any one else, though he lived 
'{Bore than seven years after. 

^* Thus, my lord, I have truly and sincerely laid the 
whole case before you ; and I thought myself obliged to do 
it in, order to the doing myself rigbu For I should haye 
been uhpardonamj^ wanting to myielf had I suffered myself 
to be undeservedly transmitted to posterity as. one that had 
published another man's labours under my oivn name^ a 
thing from which I was ever most averse, knd have oom- 
mdnly erred 6n the other hand. I know not^ into whose 
hands Mr. Wharton's booke may hereafter fall, Or what -use 
•may be made of these notes ; if therefore your grace shall 
think fitt to lett these two or three notes stand as tb^y are, 
J humbly beg the favour and justice^ that this paper may 
be fastened into Mn Wharton's book, that fto impartial per* 
sons may be rightly informed in the state of things. I Want 
not an opportunity at tliis time of publicly doing myself 
right, but since the notes are kept private under yotfr 
.grace's custody, I did not thinks fttt to make my defence 
'any more public than by this, address to your gra^e, if^ 



n$ WHARTONT, 

when I am dead, any use shall he made of these notes ta' 
my prejudice, I hope this pap^r will fn some measure 
plead for me, or that some friend will stand up to do me 
right J however that, there^s a time coming when God will 
bring forth my righteousness as the light, and my integrity 
as noon-day. Mr. Wharton was one for whose worth I ever 
bad ajust value, and if I have exceeded in any thing it has 
been upon all occasions in over^Iavish commendations of 
him. But he was subject to one weakness (which all his 
friends that intimately knew him, could not but take notice 
of) viz< a vanity of magnifying his own performances, and 
an overweening conceit of himself, joinM with an unsa-* 
liable thirst after fame, which 'tis like his reduced age 
might have corrected, as I remember I once told one of 
your grace's predecessors, who was his great patron, when 
Le was pleased to ask my opinion of him. With pardon, 
humbly begg'd, for the trouble of this tedious account, I 
am, my lord, &c. &€.■* 

This letter seems to confirm what Burnet had asserted of 
Wharton's temper, and which, indeed, will be found con- 
firmed by other passages in our authorities. But Wharton, 
upon the whole, is certainly a man to be venerated for his 
Uncommon zeal as an ecclesiastical antiquary, and his in- 
cessant labours. Perhaps no man ever applied so dili- 
gently, or produced so much in the short space allotted to 
him, for he was little more than thirty years old. He pro- 
bably began his researches early, and it is certain that he 
was a mere youth when Cave employed him, and conceived 
that high opinion of his talents which he so liberally ex- 
pressed in the preface to bis <^ Historia Literaria.'* The 
secoud edition of this work, it must not be forgot, has 
many additions from Wharton's MSS. at Lambeth, which 
bave improperly been ascribed to.Tenison. Mr. Wharton 
bad some property, and by his will ordered the greatest 
part of it " to be disposed of to a religious use in the parish 
of Worstead, in which he was born." His executors were 
bis father, the rev^ Edmund Wharton, the rev. Dr. Thorp, 
one of the prebendaries of Canterbury, and Mr. Charles 
Battely. His biographer informs us that ^ he never un- 
dertook any matter of moment without first imploring the 
divine assistance and blessing thereupon,*' and that ^' in 
all his journeys, which his learned designs engaged him 
in, he was ever wont so to order his affairs, as not to omit 
being present at the monthly sacrament wherever he came.'' 



. * ■ 



M 



iv ^ 



It 



WHARTON. J4f 

To such a man some irregularities of temper and display* 
of conceit may be forgiven. ' 

WHARTON (Thomas), an eminent English physician, 
was descended from an ancient and genteel family of that 
name in Yorkshire. He was educated in Pembroke coU 
lege, Cambridge, whence he removed to THnity college, 
Oxford, being then tutor to John Scrope, the natural and 
only son of Emanuel earl of Sunderland. Upon the break« 
ing out of the civil wars he retired to London, where he 
practised physic under Dr. John Bathurst, a noted phy- 
sician of that city. After the garrison at Oxford bad sur- 
rendered to the parliament in 1646, ho returned to Trinity 
college, and as a member of it was actually created doctor 
of physic May 8, 1647, by virtue of the letters of general 
Fairfax to (he university, which said that *^ he was some^ 
lime a student in that university, and afterwards. improved 
bis time in London in the study of all parts of physic.'* 
He then retired to London, and was admitted a candidate 
of the college of physicians the same year, and fellow in 
1650, and for five or six years was chosen censor of th^ 
college, he being then a person of great esteem and prac- 
tice in the city, and one of the lecturers in Gresham col-' 
lege. In 1656 he published at JU)ndofl, in 8vo, his ** Ade- 
oographia, seu Descriptio Gtandularum toiius Corporis," 
which was reprinted at Amsterdam, 1659, in Svo. In thig 
be has given a more accurate description of the glands of 
the whole body^ than had ever been done before; and 
as formermuthors had ascribed to them very mean uses (as< 
supporting the divisions by vessels, or imbibing the super- 
fluous humidities of the body) he assigns them more noble 
uses, as the preparation and depuration of the succus nu- 
tritius, with several other uses belonging to different glands, 
&c. Amongst other things, he was the first who disco<» 
yered the ductus in the glandulse maxillares, by which the 
saliva is conveyed into the mouth ; and he has given an ex- 
cellent account of morbid glands and their differences, and 
particularly of strumie and scrophulae, how new glands are 
often generated, as likewise of the several diseases oJF the 
glands of the mesentery, pancreas, &c« Wood tells ^us 
that he died at his house in Aldersgate>street in October 

t Life prefixed to his *' SermoQt^>* 1697, 2 inAs. 8vo.<— Bio^. Brit.->Birch's 
lilft of TiUotaon,— BorMt's Hist, of the Refuroiatioii, pref. to foI. 111,-^Nicoi- 
■on's Letters, vol. I, p. 12» 18.-*Letters concerning, in Gent. Mag. vol. LX» aM 
X.2:L-rStryp«*s Crapoier, Appendix, p. 95Z. 



^ fkr £^'c<' ffnJl^ ^'^»^ ^ .^rr^^t' Jft^ ^«.«^% 



3S0 



W ft A t £ t Yv 



1 



* ... . • T 

1^3, and was buried in tbe churcli of StBotolph without 
Aldersgate ; though others say that he died November the 
I5tb, and was buried in Baslrigshaw church, in a vault. But 
Mr. Ri9bard Smith, in his Obituary, published by Peck; 
observes, that he died on Friday November tbe 14th, at 
midnight, at his bouse in Aldersgate-street, and was buried 
on the 20th in the ruins of the chiirch of St. Michael B^i- 
»haw, where he formerly bad lived. ^ 

WHATELY (William), an eminent puritan divine, wa& 
born^at Banbury in Oxfordshire, iti May 1583, where his 
father, Thomas Whately^^ was justice of the peaee, and had 
been several times teayor. He was educated at Christ's* 
college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Mr. Potnuan, a 
man of learning and piety, and was a constant hearer of 
Dr. Chaderton, Perkins, and other preachers of the Puri- 
tan-stamp. It does not appear that he W.as originally de* 
stined fqr the church, as it was not until after his marriage 
witb the daughter of the Rev. Georgia Hunt that he was 
persuaded to study fot that purpose, at' Edmund -hall/ 
Oxford. Here he was incorporated bachelor of arts, and^ 
acoordine to Wood, with the foundation of logic, philoso- 
phy, and oratory, that he had brought with him from Cam- 
bridge, he became a noted disputant aiid a ready oraton 
In 1604, he took his degree of M. A. as a member of 
Edmund-ball, *^ being then esteemed a good philosopher 
and a tolerable mathematician.^' He afterwards entered 
into holy orders, and was chosen lecturer of Banbury, his 
native place. In 1610, be was presented by king James' 
to tbe vicarage of Banbury, which he enjoyed until his' 
death. He also, with some of his brethren, delivered a 
lecture, alternately at Stratford-upon-Avon. In' bis whole 
conduct, Mr. Leigh says, he ** was blameless, sober, just, holy, 
temperate, of good behaviour^ given to hospitality ;" &c. 
Fuller calls bim ^' a good linguist, philosopher, matiiema- 
tician, and divine ;*' and adds, that be ^^ was free from 
faction^ Wood, who allows that he possessed excellent' 
parts, was a noted disputant, an excellent preacher, a 
good orator, and well versed iii the original text, both' 
Greek and Hebrew, objects, nevertheless, that, ^* being a 
zealous Calvinist, a noted puritan, and much frequented' 
by the precise party, for his too frequent preacbing* be 
laid such a foundation of f action at Banbury, as wiU not 



> AUi. Ox. ToL IL«->GeB. ]>ict.— Peck's XkiidtMtA, 



W H A T E L Y. «5l 

MttMy b<s' removed.** Granger, who seems to have con^ 
sidered ail these characters with some attention^ says^ 
that *^ bis piety was of a very extraordinary strain ; and his 
repatatioo as a preacher so great, that numbers of different 
persuasions went from Oxford, and other distant places^ 
to bear him. As he ever appeared to speak from his hearty 
his sermons were felt as well as heard, and were attended 
with suitable effects.'* In the life b( Mede, we have an 
anecdote of him, which gives a very favourable idea of his 
character. Having, in a sermon, warmly recommended hif 
bearers to put in a purse by itself a certain portion front ^ 
every pound of the profits of their worldly 'trades, for 
wcuHks of piety, he observed, that instead of secret grudg* 
iilg, when objects ef charity were presented, they woiild 
iook out for them, and rejoice to find them. A neighbour* 
ing clergyman hearing him, and being deeply aflPected * 
with what he so forcibly recommended, consulted him as ta 
what proportion of his income he ought to give. *^ As to 
that,'* said Whately, ^'lam not to prescribe to others; 
but 1 will tell you what hath been my own practice. Yoa 
know, sir, somes years ago, I was often beholden to you 
for the loan of tea pounds at a time ; the truth is, I could 
not bring the year about, though my receipts were not 
despicable, and I was not at ait conscious of any un-* 
necessary expenses. At lengtlr, I inquired of my family 
what relief was given to the poor ; and • not being satisfied^ 
I instantly resolved to lay aside evei*y Ufith shilling of all 
my receipts for charitable uses ; and the Lord has made} 
Hie so to thrive since I adopted this method, that now, if 
you have occasion, I can lend you' ten times as much as I 
have formerly been forced to borrow.'* 

Mr. Whately died May 10, 1639, aged fifty •six, and 
was interred in Banbury church-yard, where is a menu* 
ment to his memory, with a Latin and English inscrip- 
tion. His works consist of a considerable number of see-, 
mons, printed separately, oue of which, *^The Bride* 
Bush, or Wedding-Sermon,^' 1617, 4to, brought upon, 
him some censure : in this he maintained, that adultery. 
Or desertion, on the side of either of the married persons, 
dissolved and annihilated the marriage. For a doctrine so 
contrary to the laws, and pernicious in itself, he .was sum- 
iponed before the high commission-court, where he ackuo^v- 
ledged his error, and was dismissed. Among his other 
publications^ are, 1.^^ A pithy, short, aud methodical waj 



•' 



$st W H E A tt £. 

of opening the Ten Commandinenu," Lond. 1622> i 
2. "The Oil of Gladness," 1637» »vo. 3. •* The poor 
man's Advocate/' 1637, 8vo. 4. which seems his gtisatest 
work, " Prototypes^ or the primarie Precedent out of 
the book of Genesis/' 1 640> fol. with a fine portrait, pob^^ 
lished by £^dv(rard Leigh, esq. To this is prefixed a lifie of 
him by the Rer. Henry Scudder. ' > : 

WHEARE (Degory), Camdenian professor of history 
at Oxford, was born at Jaoobstow, in CorilwaU, 1573, and 
admitted of Broadgate-hall in that university. He took 
the degrees in arts, that of master being completed in 1600; 
and, two years after, was elected fellow of Esteter-coUegle. 
Leaving that house in 1608, he/ travelled beyond the seas 
into several countries; and at his return found a patrop in 
lord Cbandois. . Upon the death of this nobleman, he re- 
tired with his wife to Gloucester-hall in Oxford, where, by 
the care and friendship of the principal, he was accommo- 
dated with lodgii^s; and there contracted an intimacy with 
the celebrated mathemaitician, Thomas Allen^ by whose in- 
terest Camden made him the first reader of that lectuits 
which. he had founded in the university. It was thought 
no small honour, that on this occasion he was preferred to 
Bryan Twyne, whom Camden named as his successor^ if 
be survived him, but Twyne died first. Soon after, he was 
made principal of that ball ; and this place, with his leo^ 
ture^ he held to the time of his death, which happened 
Aug. 1, 1647. He was buried in the chapel of £xeter-> 
college. Wood tells us, that he was esteemed by some a 
learned and genteel man, and by others suspected to be^a 
Calviuist. He adds, that he left also behind him a widow 
and children, who soon after became poor. 

He published ** De Ratione et Methodo legendi Histo- 
rias Dissertatio," Oxon. 1625, in 8vo. This was an useful 
work, and the first regular attempt to investigate the .sub- 
ject ou proper principles. It long went through several 
editions, with the addition of pieces upon the same sub- 
ject by other hands: but the best is th&t translated into 
English, with this title, ^^The Method and Order of read- 
ing both Civil and Ecclesiastical Histories;, in which tbc^ 
most excellent historians are reduced into the order in 
which they are successively to be read; and the judgmepts 

1 Life ag aboTe.— Ath. Oz. rol 1. d«.w *editr— FoU«r'« Woftiiici aad A)>«1 
RfldifiTvs. 



W H E A T L E Y. ^5S 

•^letTtied men coocerniog eacb^of ibem subjoined. By 
•Oegory Wheare, Camden reader of history in Oxford. 
«To which is added, an appendix concerning the histo* 
tiana of particalar nations, ancient and modern. ' By Ni- 
nidaa Horseman. With Mr. Dod weirs invitation to gen- 
tlemen to acquaint themselves with ancient history. Made 
English, and enlarged by Edmund Bohun, esq.'* 'Ldnd. 
leSB, in 8vo. 

^ Besides this work, Mr. Wheare published, << Parentat{e 
Hweoriea : ^ive, Commemoratio vitae et mortis V. C. G41- 
liel. Gamdeni Ciarentii, facta Oxonise in Schola Historic^ 
1« Nov. 1626/' Oxon. 1628. *<Dedicatio Imaginis Cam- 
denianse in Schola Historica, 12 Nov. 1626,'' Oxon. 1628. 
^^' dBpistolarum Eucharisticarum Fasciculus." << Chariste- 
ria." These, two last are printed with ^^ Dedicatio Ima-» 
ginis," &#J. ' ^ 

WHEATLEY (CHARLEa), the^ author of an excellent 
iliustrstion of the Book of Common Prayer, was born Feb. 
6, 1686, ia Paternoster-row, London. His father was a . 
reputable tradesman, and bis mother, whose maiden name 
was White, was a lineal descendant of Ralph, brother to 
air Thomas White, founder of St. John's college, Oxford, 
where Mr. Wheatley afterwards claimed a fellowship. •■ On 
Jam 9, l69Bj be was entered at Merchant Taylors school, 
where for some time he was placed under the care of Dr. 
Matthew Shorting. * In 1706 he was entered a commoner of 
St John's, Oxford, and in the following year was admitted 
to> a frilowship as of founder's kin. At St. John's his 
tusmnwas Dr. Knight, afterwards vicar *of St. Sepulchre's^ 
Letidon, and of whom it was Mr. Wheatley's pride to boast, 
that ^^he continued his pupil to his dying day." He used 
to add ; <' to this great and good man, under God, I must 
heartily profess, that, if I have made any knowledge, or 
have made any progress, itiao«ring; and, if I have no^ 
upon myself only be all the sha^." This was the friend 
to whom, with doctors Waterland and Berriman, be sub*^ 
mitted his sermons on the Creeds, and from whom he ac« 
koowledged havitig received very useful and instructivi^ 
Unts, when he came to prepare them for the press. 

. In Jan. 1709^ he took the degree of B. A. and proceeded 
M. A. in March 1713. Soon after taking his master's de« 

>< ' .A4h. Oica vol. li(«^Life by Bohtto.-^Bios* Brit. $upp1ei]X>^iit. ^ ' 

Vol. XXXI. A a 



35* W H E A T L E Y. 

f^tecyhe resigned his fellowabipy and in August of ibe fkONf 
jear, married -Mary, daughter of Dr. WilUaai FindaiL Noft 
long ftfteii his marriage be removed to. a curacy in London; 
and in 1717 .waa chosen lecturer of St. Mildred's in ibe 
Poultry. He afterwards was presented by. Dr. Astry, Ue^ 
«urer of St. Paiirs, to the vicarages of Brent and Furneaax 
Pelbam, in Hertfordshire, at ivhich last be built at his ovq 
expence a vicarage bouse, and as his livings lay contiguous, 
he supplied theih both himself. Having procured severid 
benefactions for them, he obtained their augmentatioo 
from. queen Anne's bounty, and as a farther incremeot.left 
thetii at bis death 200/. He spent the last fourteen yeans 
of bb life at Furneaux Pelbam, and died ther^ of a dropajr 
aad iisthma. May 13, 1742. He left some valuable books 
and MSS. to the library of St. John's college. 

Of his works his ^'Rational Illustration of the^ Book of 
Common Prayer," 17^0, has been the roost admired and 
the moat successful, having gone through at least eight 
editions. Besides which he published, 2. <^ An Historical 
vindication of the 85th Canon ; shewing that the form of 
bidding'>tprayery . before sermon, has been. prescribed and 
enjoined «ver since the reformation/' . Lond. 1718, 8f0i 
Among Rawlinson's MSS. in the Bodleian are. *' Some re- 
marks'* by the rev. Mr. Lewis of Margate, on this workr 
3. ^^Christian exceptions to the plain account of the na* 
tune and end of -the Lord^s Supper. With a method pco^ 
posed of coming at the true and aposjiiolic .sense of th^t 
holy sacrament," 8vo. 4. ^* Private devotions at the holy 
communion, adapted to the public office in the Liturgy/* 
|i single, sheet, printed .in different forms, adapted to die 
different editions of the book of CoBsmon-prayor. 5. 
** The Nicebe and Atbanteian creeds, so far as tbey are 
expressive of a.co-equid and co<>eter;ial Trinity in Unity, 
and of perfiecft Godhead iSAdinanhood in one, only Chriat, 
^splaSned and confirm&'d^rr&c^ in eight sermons preached 
at lady Mbyer's Lecture, in th^ years 1733 and 173V* 
Lond. 1738, 8vp. Aiuet bis death .three volumes of bia 
^ Sermons,*' 8vo, were published, ia 1746 by Dr.Beni-* 
man. ' 

WHEATLEY (Francis), a late elegant artist,, was bom 
in Londonin 1747 ; the only regulariinstruction which ht 

I Nichols's Bowyer.««>Oeiit. lln* ▼<>>• tZXI.«-Wilaoii'f Hbt. ct. M€fchliiit 
Tttf lofff School. 



WHEAT LEY. 355 

\ 

ruceived w&s at a drawtng«schooI. He acquired bis know« 
ledge of painting without a master ; but be had the ad- 
Tantage of seeing much of what wast.then practised in the 
arty by the friendship and instructions of Mortimer, whom 
be assisted in painting the ceiling at Brocket Hall, Hert- 
^rdshire, the seat of lord Melbourne. He also associated 
mucb with young men who were or had been under the 
tuition of the most eminent artists of that period. His iki« 
clination appeared to lead him equally to figures and to 
landscape ; but the profit likely to be derived from the 
fornAer, caused him to make that his particular pursuit. lu 
the early part of bis life, he had considerable employment 
in painting some whole-length portraits. After practising 
several years jn London, he was induced to remove to Ire- 
land, and was much employed in Dublin, where be painted 
a large picture representing the Irish House of Commons 
lissembled, in which portraits of many of the most remark- 
able political characters were introduced. From Dublin 
be returned to London, where he painted a picture of the 
riots in 1780, from whic& Heath engraved a very jeKcelleiit 
print for Boydell. This jHcture was unfortunfitelyburiit 
in the house of Mr. Heath, who then resided in Lisle*-' 
street, Leicester-square, it being too large to be moved. 
Mr. Wfaeatley continued to paint portraits, but he was 
chiefly engaged in painting rural and domestic scenes^ 
for which he appeared* to have a peculiar talent, and his 
works of that kind became very popular, although in his 
fanales he adopted too much of the French costume. 
ApBLU early period of life, he was attacked by the gout, 
«lhich gradually deprived him of the use of bis limbs, and of 
which he died, Juue 28, 1801, at fifty-four years of age. 

Mr. Wheatley was electa associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy, Nov. 1790, and Royal Academician, Feb. 10, 1791» 
He was a handsome man, of elegant manners, and gene- 
rally a favourite in genteel company. He understood bis 
art, and spoke with great taste and precision on every 
branch of it. His greatest efforts were the pictures he 
painted for the Shakspeare and Historic galleries. ^ 

WHEELOCKE (Abraham), a learned orientalist, and- 
first professdr of the Arabic and Saxon tongues in the Uiii- 
versity of Cambridge, was born at Loppiogton^ in Shrop- 
shire (of which county likewise was his patron and founder, 

* Edwardf'i Supplement to Walpole.— Pilkiogton,— « Oent. Maj. vol. LXXI. 

A A 2 



356 W H E fi L O C K E. 

sir Thonas Adams) and admitted of Trinity college. Cam* 
bridge. There he became B. A. in 1614, M. A. in 1618, 
and was admitted fellow of Clare-hall the year foliowirig. 
In 1623 he was appointed one of the university preacher*, 
and in 1625 commenced bachelor of divinity. In 1622 he 
was made minister of St. Sepulchre^s church, which he held 
until 1642. About the same time (1622) he read the Ara*^- 
bic lecture for Mr. (afterwards sir Thomas) Adams, though 
it was not then settled, but he received for the «ame forty 
pounds a year, remitted to him by quarterly payments. 
He read also the Saxon lecture for sir Henry Spelnaan, for 
wfaicb he received an annual stipend, not settled, but vo- 
luntary : together with this, sir Henry gave Mr. Wheelocke 
the vicarage of Middleton, in Norfolk, wortb fifty pounds 
a year, which was intended to be augmented out of the ap- 
propriate parsonage, and to be the ground of his intended 
laundation, if sir Henry's death, which happened in 1641, 
had not prevented it. Multiplicity of literary business, and 
severity of application, probably shortened Wheelocke's 
days : fo^ he died at London whilst he was printing his 
Persian gospels, in the month of September 1653. He is 
said to have been sixty years old. He was buried at St. 
Botolph's Aldersgate. His funeral sermon was preaich^d 
and published by William Sclater, D. D. 1654, 4to. Whee* 
lockers was a great loss to the gentlemen concerned in the 
celebrated Polyglot, who knew how to value his services. 
His province was to have corrected the Syriac and Arabic 
at the press. 

His <' Quatuor Evangelia Dom. nost. Jesu Christi, Per- 
sice/' appeared at Lond. 1652, fol. For this work, wbi<;h 
was intended to have been introduced into Persia, as the 
foundation of a missionary scheme, the celebrated Pocock 
lent him a. MS. so good, that Wheelocke, in a letter to him, 
professes, that had it not been for his fear of oppressing 
bis amanuensis, he would have begun his work again. He 
also published in 1644, fol. Bede's ^^ Historise Ecclesias- 
tics gentis Anglorum libri quinque,*' &c. and with it 
^* Lambardi Archaionomia, sive de priscis Anglorum legi* 
bus,*' with a learned preface. ' / 

WHELER, or WHEELER (Sir Gboroe), a learned 
traveller^ was the sou of colonel Wheler of Charing in 

* T«elli»f Life of Pococke, p. 50. — ^Lloyd's Memoirs, fpl. — PulIer^s Worthies. 
— BsrkM&le't MemerMls, Decade the third*— Usher*8 Life and Letters. 



W H E L E ft. 3S7 

t 

Kent, and bom in 1650 at Breda in Hollliind, his parents 
being then exiles there for having espoused the cause of 
Charles I. In 1667 he became a commoner of Lincoln- 
coHege in Oxford, under ^the tuition of the learned Dr. 
Hickes, the deprived dean of Worcester; but, before he 
had a degree conferred upon him, went to travel ; and, in 
the company of Dr. James Spon of Lyons, took a voyaige 
from Venice to Constantinople, through the Lesser Asia^ 
and from Zante through several parts of Greece to Athens, 
and thence to Attica, Corinth, &c. They made great use 
of Pausanias as they journeyed through the countries of 
Greece ; and corrected and explained several traditions by 
m'eans of this author. The primary object of these leatned 
travellers ivas to copy the inscriptions, and describe the 
antiquities and coins of Greece and Asia Minor, and par-^ 
ticuiarly of Athens, where they sojourned a month. Sdme 
time after bis return, he presented to Lincoln college, Ox- 
ford, a valuable collection of Greek and Latin MSS. which 
he had collected in his travels; upon which, in 1683, the 
degree of master of arts was conferred upon him, he beiti]g 
then a knight. H^ then took orders; and, in 16.84, was 
installed into a prebend of the church of Durham. He was 
also made vicar of Basingstoke, and afterwards presented 
to the rich rectory of Houghton-le-Spring by bishop Crew 
his patron. He was created doctor of divinity by diploma. 
May 18, 1702; and died, Feb. 18, 1723-4.' He was in- 
terred at the west end of the nave of Durham cathedra), 
and by his own desire, as near as- possible to the tomb of 
the venerable Bede, for whom he had an enthusiastic ve* 
Deration. In 1682, he published an account of his ^^ Jour* 
ney into Greece, in the company of Dr. Spon of Lypns, in 
six books," folio. These travels are highly valued for their 
authenticity, and are replete with sound and instructive 
erudition to the medallist and anti<!]|uary. Sir George also 
appears, on all occasions, to have been attentive to the 
natural history bf Greece, and particularly to the plants, 
of which he enumerates several hundreds in this volume, 
and gives the engravings of some. These catalogues suf- 
ficiently evince bis knowledge of the botany of his time. 
He , brought from the East several plants which had not 
been cultivated in ^ritain before. Among these, the Hy- 
pericum Olympicum, (St. John's Wort of Olympus) is a 
well-known plant, introduced by this learned traveller* 



358 W H E L E R, " 

Raji Morisop, and Plukenet, all acknowledge their obli* 
gations for curious plants received from biro. 

After sir George Wbeler entered into the church, he 
published, in 1689, ^^ An Account of the Churches and 
Places of Assembly of the primitive Christians, from the 
Churches of Tyre, Jerusalem, and Constantinople, de- 
scribed by Eusebius ; and ocular observations upon several 
very antient edifices of churches yet extant in those parts ; 
with a seasonable application.'' We have also a third piece 
of his, entitled, "The Protestant Monastery, or Christian 
Oeconomics," which contains directions for the religious 
conduct of a family, and shews him to have been a re- 
markably pious and devout man. 

Sir George married a daughter of sir Thomas Higgons 
of Grewell in Hampshire, who died in 1703, and left a nu- 
merous issue. The rev. Granville Wheler, of Otterden- 
place, Kent, and rector of Leak in Nottinghamshire, who 
died in 1770, was his third son, and became his heir. He 
likewise distinguished himself as a gentleman of science, 
and a polite scholar. He was the friend and patron of Mr, 
Stephen Gray, who, jointly with him, coritrrbuted to revive 
the study of electricity in England. Sir George Wheler's 
name is preserved in London, from his having built a cha- 
pel on bis estate in Spital- fields, known by the name of sir 
George Wheler's chapel, which has lately been repaired 
andrefitted for public worship. ^ 

WHETHAMSTEDE (John), a learned abbot of St. 
Albans, was ordained a priest in 13B2, and died in 1464, 
when he bad been eighty-two years in priest's orders, and 
above an hundred years old. He wrote a chronicle of 
twenty years of this period, beginning in 1441 and ending 
in 1461. It contains niany original papers, and gives a 
very full account of some events, particularly of the two 
battles of St. Alban's. 'More than one half of his chronicle 
is filled with the adairs of his own abbey, to which he was 
a great benefactor, particularly to the altUr of the patron 
saint, which he adorned with much magnificence, About 
1430 he employed Lydgate to translate the Latin legend 
of St Alban's life into English rhymes, for the purpose of 
familiarising the history of that saint to the monks of bis 
convent. He enriched the library by procuring transcripts 

^ Aih, Ox. Tol. II.— Biog. Brit— -Pulteney'i Sketehef »— HoiduAsaa's Dot- 



W H E T H A M S T E D 5. 359 

•of Qsefu) books, and was on account of such pursuits in 
high favour with duke Humphrey, who, wjbeii about to 
found his library at Oxford, often visited St« Alban's, and 
employed Whethamstede to collect valuable books for 
bim. ' 

WHETSTONE (George), is an author of whom very 
little is known. From the circumstance of his being a 
kinsman to serjeant Fleetwood, recorder of London, it is 
probable that he was of a good family. It appears that be 
first tried his fortune at court, where he consumed bis pa^ 
trimony in fruitless expectation of preferment. Being now 
destitute of subsistence, he commenced soldier, and served 
abroad, though in what capacity is unknown. Such, how- 
ever, was bis gallant behaviour, that his services were re- 
warded with additional pay. He returned from the wars 
with honour, but with little profit ; and his prospect of ad- 
vancement was so small, that he determined to turn farmer, 
but being unsuccessful in that undertaking, was under the 
necessity of applying to the generosity of his friends. This 
be found to be ^' a broken reed, and worse than common 
beggary of charity from strangers. Now craft accosted 
bim in his sleep, and tempted him with the proposals of 
several professions; but for the knavery or slavery of them, 
he rejected all : his muniiicenee constrained him to love 
money, and his magnanimity to hate all the ways of getting 
it/' At last he resolved to seek his fortune at sea, and ac- 
cordingly embarked with sir Humphrey Gilbert in the ex- 
pedition to Newfoundland, which was rendered unsuccess- 
ful by an engagement with the Spanish fleet. From this 
period, Mr. Whetstone s6ems to have depended entirely on 
his pen for subsistence. Where or whefn he died has not 
been ascertained. He is entitled to some notice as a writer 
whose works are in request as literary curiosities, but of 
little intrinsic value. Mr. Steevens pronounced him *^ the 
most quaint and contemptible writer, both in prose and 
verse, he ever met with/' He wrote, 1 . " The Rock of Re- 
gard," a poem in four parts. 2. " The Life of George Gas- 
coigne," 1577, 4to. A reprint of this may be seen in the 
late edition of the " English Poets," 1 8 1 0, 2 1 vols. 8 vo. The 
only original copy known of late years, was purchased by 
Mr. Malone for forty guineas ! 3. " Promus and Cassandra,'* 
a comedy, 1578, 4to, on this play Shakspeare founded his 

1 WartoD*s History of Poetry, and references there. 



L^ 



* 



I 



36a WHETSTONE. 

<< Measure for Measure.'' 4. ^^ Heptameron of eivil 4i»«i 
courses," 1582» 4to. 5, *^ The remembrance of the lifo 
and death of Thomas, late earl of Sussex," l5S3y 4to, 6* 
^< A mirrour of true honour, &c. in the life and death, &c, 
of Francis earl of Bedford," &c. 1585, 4to. 7. **The En^ 
glish mirror, wherein all estates may behold the conquest 
of error," 1586. This contains much of the state history 
of the times. 8, " Censure of a dutiful subject of certain 
noted speech and behaviour of those fourteen noted tray- 
tors at the place of execution on the 2Qth and 21st of 
Sept." no date. 9. A poem ^^on the life and death of sir 
Philip Sidney" by him, and supposed unique^ a very few 
leaves only, was lately sold at Messrs. King and Lochee's 
to Mr. Harding for 26/. 3s. An account of som^ of these 
curiosities may be Seen in our. authorities. ^ 

WHICHCOTE (Benjamin), an English divine of great 
uame, was descended of an ancient and good family in the 
county of Salop, and was the sixth son of Christopher 
Whichcote, esq. at Whichcote-hall in the parvsh of Stoke^ 
where he was born March 11, 1609-10. He was admitted 
of Emanuel-college, Cambridge, in 1626, and took the 
degrees in arts: that of bachelor in 1629; and that of 
master in 1633. The same year, 1633, he was elected 
fellow of the college, and became a most excellent tutor ; 
many of his pupils, as Wallis, Smith, Worthington, Cra- 
dock, &c. becoming afterwards men of great eminence, 
lo 1636 he was ordained both deacon and priest at Buck-*, 
den by Williams bishop of Lincoln ; and soon after set up 
an afternoon-lecture on Sundays in Trinity church atCam*!' 
bridge, which, archbishop Tillotson says, lie served qear 
twenty years. He was also appointed one of the univer- 
sity-preachers ; and, in 1643, was presented by the mas- 
ter and fellows of his college to the living of Nor^h-Cad- 
bury in Somerset^ire. This Yachted his fellowship ; and 
upon this, it is presumed, he married, and went (;o his 
living ; but was soon called back to Cambridge, being ap- 
poid ted to succeed the ejected provost of King^s-coll^ge, 
Dr. Samuel Collins, who had been in that ofl^ce thirty, 
years, and was also regius professor of divinity. This 
choice was perfectly agreeable to Or. Collins hioiself ; 
though not so to Dr. Whichcote, who had scruples about: 

1 Life drawn up by Mr. Steevens for Dr. Berkenhout..— Warton'i Hist of 
PoeU7."i*<^n8urA fAt, vote. lU IV, and V. — Bibliograpben 



W H I C H C O T E. 3^1 

ftccepting what wa» thus irregularly offered him : bo^Krever,' 
after some demurring, he complied, and was admitted |!>ro- 
vost, March 16, 1644. He had taken his bachelor of di- 
vmity^s degree in 1640 ; and he took his doctor^s in 1649. 
He novir resigned his Somersetshire living, and was pre-* 
sented by his college to the rectory of Milton in Cam- 
bridgeshire, which was void by the death of Dr. Collins*. 
It must be remembered, to Dr. Whichcote's honour, that, 
during the life of Dr. CoUins, one of the two shares out of, 
the common dividend allotted to the provost was, not only 
with Dr. Whichcote^s consent, but at his motion, paid 
punctually to hiq^ as if he had still been provost. Dr. 
Whichcote held Milton as long as he lived ; though, after 
the Restoration, he thought proper to resign, and resume 
it by a fr^sh presentation from the college. He still con* 
tinued to attend his lecture at Trinity- church with the same 
view that he bad at first set it up ; which was, to preserve 
and propagate a spirit of sober piety and rational religipn 
in the university of Cambridge, in opposition to the style 
of preaching,, and doctrines then in vogue: and he may- 
be said to have founded the school at which many eminent 
divines after the Restoration, and Tillotson among them, 
who had received their education at Cambridge, were 
fprmed, and were afterwards distinguished from the more 
orthodox by the epithet latitudinarian. In 16118 he wrote 
verses upon the death of Oliver Cromwell, which, his bio- 
grapher supposes, were done entirely out of forQi> and not 
out of any regard tp the person of the protector. Nor had 
Dr. Whichcote ever concurred with the violent measures 
of those times by signing the covenant, or by any injurious 
sayings or actions to the prejudice of any man. At the 
Restoration, however, he was removed from his provost- 
ship by especial order from the king ; but yet he was not 
disgraced or frowned upon/ On the contrary, he went to 
London, and in 1662 was chosen minister of St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars, where he continued till his church was burned 
down in the dreadful fire of 1666. He then retired to Mil-' 
ton for. a while; but was again called up, and presented 
by. the crown to the vicarage of St. Lawrence Jewry, va- 
cant by the promotion of Dr. Wilkins to the see of Ches- 
ter. During the building of this church, upon invitation 
of the court of aldermen, in the mayoralty of sir WilHam 
Turner, he preached before the corporation at Guildhall 
dhapel^ with great approbation, for about ?even years. 



969 W H I C H C O T E. 

Wb6n St Lawrence^s was rebuilt^ be preached there twice 
8 week, and had the general love and respect of his parish^ 
and a very considerable audience, though not' numerous^ 
owing to the weakness of his voice in his declining age. A 
Ihtle before Easter in 1683, he went down to Cambridge; 
wl^ere, upon taking cold, he fell into- a distemper, which 
in a few days put an end to his life. He died at the house 
of his ancient and learned friend Dr. Cudworth, master of 
Christ's- col lege, in May 1683 ; and was interred in the 
church of St. Lawrence Jewry. Dr. Tillotson, then lec- 
turer there^ preached his funeraUsermon, where his cha- 
racter is drawn to great advantage. Burnet speaks of him 
in the following terms : ^' He was a man of a rare temper ; 
very mild and obliging. He bad credit with some that had 
been eminent in the late times ; but made all the use be 
could of it to protect good men of all persuasions. He was 
much for liberty of conscience; and, being disgusted with 
the dry systematical way of those times, be studied to raise 
those who conversed with him to a nobler set of thouights,- 
and to consider religion as a' seed of a deifurm nature (to 
use one of his own phrases) *. In order to this, he set 
young students much on reading the ancient philoso- 
phers, chiefly Plato, Tully, and Plotin ; and on consider- 
ing the Christian religion as a doctrine sent frorti God, 
both to elevate and sweeten human nature, in which he 
was a great example as well as a wise and kind in- 
structor. Cudworth carried this on with a great strength 
of genius, as well as a vast compass of learning." Baxter 
numbers him witlv '^ the best and ablest of the con- 
formists.'* 

But his character is drawn most at length by Tillotson 
in his funeral sermon. ^^ I shall not," says Tillotson, 
** insist upon his exemplary piety and devotion towards God, 
of which his whole life was one continued testimony. Nor 
wilt I praise his profound learning, for which he was justly 
had in so great reputation. The moral improvements ci 
his mind, ^ a god-like temper and disposition' (as he was 
wont to call it), he chiefly valued and aspired after; that 
universal charity and goodness, which he did continually 
preach and practise. His conversation was exceeding kind 
and affable, grave and winning, plrudent and profitable* 

* Dr. Wtiichcote, in commoa con- boys figbiiog in the street, he went up 

versation aud on the most coaamon oc- and parted them, exclaiming, ''What; 

casions, dealt much in pompous, com- moral entities, and yet pof oaeiouB f" 
pouiKL words. One day seeiug two 



' / 



W H I C H C O T E. *63 

He was slow to declare his judgment, and modest in de- 
livering it. Nevec passionate, never perenjptory; so far 
from imposing upon others, that he was rather apt to yield. 
And though he had a most profound and welUpoised judg- 
ment^ yet he was of all men I ever knew the most patient 
to hear others diifer from him, and the most easy to be con- 
vinced, when good reason was offered ; and, which is sel- 
dom seen, more apt to be favourable to another mah^s rea- 
son than his own. Studious and inquisitive men commonly 
at such an age (at forty or fifty at the utmost) have fixed 
and settled their judgments in most points, and as it wer6 
made their last understanding ; supposing that they have 
thought, or read, or heard what can be said oir all sidesof 
things; and after that they grow positive and impatient 
of contradiction, thinking it a disparagement to them to 
alter their judgment. But our deceased friend was so 
wis6, as to be willing to learn to the last, knowing that no 
man can grow wiser without some change of his mind, 
without gaining sOciie knowledge which he had not, or 
correcting some error which he had before. He had 
attained so perfect a mastery of his passions, that for 
the latter and greatest part of his life he was hafdiy ever 
seen to be transported with anger; and as he was ex- 
tremely careful not to provoke any man, so not to be 
provoked by any, using to say ^ If I provoke a man, 
he is the worse for my company; and if I suffer my- 
self to be provoked by him, I shall be the worse for his.* 
He very seldom reproved any person in company otherwise 
than by silence, or some sign of uneasiness, or some very 
soft and gentle word ; which yet fromthe respect men ge- 
nerally bore to him did often prove effectual. For be un- 
derstood humSm nature very well, and how to apply him- 
self to it in the most easy and effectual ways. He was a 
great encourager and kind director of young divines, and 
one of the most candid hearers of sermons, I think, that 
ever was ; so that though all men did mightily reverence 
his judgment, yet no man had reason to fear his censure. 
He never spake of himself, nor ill of others, making good 
that saying of Pansa in Tully, * Neminem alterius, qui 
siiae confideret virtuti, invidere,' that no man is apt to ^nvy 
the worth and virtues of another, that hath any of his own 
to trust to. In a word, he had all those virtues, and in a 
high degree, which an excellent temper, great condescen- 
rioHi long care and watchfulness ovef himself^ together 



86# W H I C H O O T E. 

with the assistance of God's grace (which be continually 
implored and mightily relied upon) are apt to produce* 
Particuiarly he expelled in the virtues of conversation, hu- 
manity, and gentleness, and humility, a prudent .and 
peaioeable and reconciling temper/' Tiilotson likewise in- 
forms us that as he bad a plentiful estate, so be was of a 
very charitable disposition ; which yet was not so well 
known to many, because in the disposal of bis charity he 
very much affected secrecy. He frequently bestowed his 
alms on poor house-keepers, disabled by age or sickness 
to support themselves, thinking those to be the most pro- 
per objects of it. He was rather frugal in ex pence upon 
lumself, that so he might have wherewithal to relieve the 
necessities of jothers. And he was not only charitable in 
bis life, but in a very bountiful manner at his death, be- 
queathing in pious and charitable legacies to the value of 
a thousand pounds : to the library of the university of 
Cambridge fifty pounds, and of King's college one bunr 
4red pounds, and of Emanuel college twenty pounds; to 
which college be had . been a considerable benefactor 
before, having founded three several scholarships there 
to the value of a thousand^ pounds, out of a charity 
with the disposal whereof he was intrusted, and which not 
without great difficulty and pains he at last received. To 
the poor of the several places, where his estate lay, and 
where he bad been minister, he gave above one hundred, 
pounds. Among those, who had been his servants, or. 
were so at his death, he disposed in annuities and legacies 
in money to the value of above three hundred pounds. 
To other charitable uses, and among his poor relations, 
above three hundred pounds. To every one of his tenants 
he left a legacy iaccording to the proportion* of the estate 
they held by way of remembrance of him ; and to one of 
them, who was gone much behind, he remitted in his will 
seventy pounds. And as became his great goodness, he 
was ever a remarkably kind landlord, forgiving his tenants, 
and always making abatements to them for hard years or 
any other accidental losses that happened to them. He 
made likewise a wise provision in his will to prevent law- 
suits among the legatees, by appointing two or three per- 
sons of the greatest prudence and authority among his re- 
Jations final arbitrators of all differences that should arise. 

The fate of his ^^ Sermons," which have been so much 
admired, was somewhat singular. They were first ushered 



W HI C H C OlTfi. tSf 

tiito the world by ooe Wha- could noi ? be .supposed ^ery 
eager to propagate the doctrines of Ohristianity, tbe^cele* 
brated earl of Shaftesbury, author of the ^^ Characteristics,'^ 
&c. In 1698 bis lordship published ** Select Sermons pf 
Dr. Wfaichcote, in two parts,*' 8vo. He employed on this 
occasion the rev. William Stephens, rector of Sutton, id 
Surrey, to revise, and probably superintend the press; 
bot the long preface is unquestionably from his lordsbtp« ' 
In addition to every other proof, we may add the evidence 
of the late Mr. Harris of Salisbury, who informed a friend 
that his mother, lady Betty Harris, fwho was sister to the 
earl of Shaftesbury) mentioned her having written the pre- 
face from her brother's dictation, be being ai that time too 
ill to write himself. That his lordship should become the 
voluntary editor and recommender of the sermons of any 
divine, has been accounted for by one of Dr. Whichcote's 
biographers in this way : that his' lordship found in these 
sermons some countenance given to his own peculiar sen- 
timents concerning religion, as sufficiently practioable by 
our natural strength or goodness, exclusive of future re- 
wards or punishments. To this purpose lord Shaftesbury 
bas selected some passages of ^ the sermons, and adds^ 
^^ Thus speaks our excellent divine and truly Christian 
philosopher, whom for his appearing thus in defence of 
natural goodness^ we may call the preacher of good nature. 
This is what he insists on everywhere, and to make tbts 
evident is in a manner the scope of all his discourses. And 
ia conclusion it is hoped, that what has been here sog-^ 
gested, may be sufficient to justify the printing of these 
sermons." Whatever may be in this, it is rather singular 
that the same collection was republished at E^dinburgh in 
1742, 12mo, with a recommendatory epistle by a presby- 
tgerian divine, the rev. Dr. William Wisbart, principal of 
the college of Edinburgh. 

Three more volumes of Dr. Whichcote*s sermons were 
published by Dr. Jeffery, archdeacon of Norwich, in - 
1701 — 3, and a fourth- by Dr. Samuel Clarke in 1707. 
The best edition of the whole was published in 1751, at 
Aberdeen, in 4 vols. Svo, under the superintendence of' 
Drs. Campbell and Gerard, tv^o well-known names in the 
literary history of Scotland. Dr. Jeffery also published in 
1703, ** Moral and religious Aphorisms" collected from 
Dr. Whichcote*s manuscript papers. Of these an degant 
edition was reprinted in 1753 by Dr. Samuel Salter^ with 



S€6 W H I C H C O T E; 

large additions, and s correspondence with Dr. Tuckn^ 
which we have already noticed in our account of that di* 
Tine* Long before this, in 1688, some *' Observations and 
Afopbtbegms^' of Dr. Whichcote^s, taken from his own 
mouth by one of his pupils, were published in 8vo, a>id 
passed through two editions, if not more. Wbichcote ex^ 
celled in moral aphorisms, and many might be collected 
from his sermons. \ 

WHISTON (William), an English divine of very un- 
common parts and more uncommon learning, but of a sin* 
gular'and extraordinary character, was boro Dec. 9, 1667, 
at Norton near Twycrosse, in the county of Leicester ; of 
which place his father Josiah Whiston, a learned and pious 
man, was rector. He was kept at home till he was seven- 
teen, and trained under his father; and this on two ac« 
counts : ' first, because he was himself a valetudinariaD, 
being greatly subject to the Jlatus hypocondriqcus in various 
shapes all his life long; secondly, that be might serve 
his father, who had lost his eye-sight, in th<& quality of an 
amanuensis. In 1684, he was sent to Tarn worth school, 
and two years after admitted of Clare-hall in Cambridge, 
W<bere he pursued bis studies^ and particularly the mathe- 
matics, eight hours a day, till 1693. During this time, 
and while he was under-graduate, an accident happeodDd to 
him, which he relates for a caution and benefit to others 
in the like circumstances. He observed one summer, that 
his eyes did not see as usual, but dazzled after an auk ward 
manner. Upon which, imagining it arose from too much 
application, he remitted for a fortnight, and tried to reco- 
ver his usual tight, by walking much in* green fields ; but 
fotind himself no better. At that time he met with an ac- 
count of Mr. Boyle^s having known a persoti, who, having 
new-whited the wall of his chamber on which the sun shone, 
and having accustomed himself to read in that glaring light, 
thereby lost bis sight for some time ; till, upon hanging 
the place with green, he recovered it again : and this, he 
says, was exactly his own case, in a less degree, both as to 
the cause and the remedy. 

In 1693 he became master of arts, and fellow of the c<d- 
lege ; and soon after set up for a tutor ; when, such wtts 
kis reputation for learning and good manners, that arch- 

1 Gen. Diet.-— Biog. Brit. — Sailer's editiqii of the Apborisins. — Baraef s Ova 
Times. — Life prefixed to the edition of his Sermons, IT^I.^-Piineral Sermon 'br 
TUletsoiu 



W H I S T O N. 367 

oUbop. Tillotsod (sent bim hjs nephew for a pupil. But bU 
iiealtb did not permit bim to go on in that way ; and there- 
fore^ re»igQing bis pupils to Mr. Laughton, be became 
ebapUin (for be bad takeo orders) to Dr. Moore, bishop 
of Norwich. D.uring the time of his being chaplain to 
bishop Moore,, which was from 1694 to IGdS, he published 
his first work, entitled " A new Theory of the Earth, from 
its original to the consummation of all things; wherein 
the Creation of the World in six days, the universal deluge, 
and. the general conflagration, as laid down in the Holy 
Scriptures, are shewn to be perfectly agreeable to Reason 
and Philosophy,'' 1696, 8vo. Whiston relates, that this 
book was shewed in manuscript to I>r. Bentl^y, to ^ir « 
Christopher Wren, and especially to sir Isaac Newton, on 
whose principles it depended ; and though Mr. John Keill 
soon after wrote against it, and demonstrated that it could 
not stand the .test of mathematics and sound philosophy, 
yet it brought no small reputation to the author. Thus 
Locke, mentioning it in a letter to Mr. Molyneux, dated 
Feb. 22, 169$, says, " I have not heard miy one of my 
acquainti^nce speak of it but with great commendations, as 
I think it deserves ; and truly I think it is more to be ad- 
mired, that he b^9 l^id down an hypothesis, whereby lie 
has explained 'SO 4]»any wonderful and before inexplicable 
things in the; great changes of this globe, than that some 
of them should i^ot easily go down with some men ; when 
the whole .was entirely Jlie.w to all. He is one of those sort 
of writers, that I always fancy should be most esteemed 
aod encouraged : I am always for the builders, who bring 
some addition to our . knowledge^ or at least some new 
things to our thoughts." This work of Whiston has gone 
through sis editions; but no coosiderabie additions, as he 
informs us, were made to it after the third. 

In 1698, bishop Moqre gave bim the living of Lowe- 
ftoftcum Kessingland, by the sea-side, in Suffolk; upon 
which he quittad his place of chaplain, and was succeeded 
by Mr. (afterwards the celebrated Dr.) Clarke, who was 
then about four-and-twenty years of age. He went to re- 
fido QpQn his living, and applied himself most earnestly 
«nd conscientiously to the duties of the station. He kept 
ncurale, yet preached twice a Sunday himself; and, all 
the sumoier season at least, read a catechetic lecture at the 
^lipel io the. evening, chiefly for the instruction of the 
Adult. He ha9 recorded an instance or two, which shew 



S«8 W H I S TO N. 

hovir zealot^ he was for the promotion of piety ami go^d 
-manners. The parish-officers applied to him once for bia 
band to a licence, in order to set up a new aiehoase; to 
whom he answered, '' If they would bring him a^paper lo 
sign, for the pulling an alehouse down, he would cer- 
tainly sign it ; but would never sign one forsetting an ale- 
house up." ' 

In the beginning of the last century be was called to be 
sir Isaac Newton*s deputy, and afterwards bis successor in 
the Lucasian professorship of matbematies; when he re^ 
signed his living, and* went to Cambridge. In 1702 he 
published ** A short view of the Chronology of the Old 
Testament, and of the Harmony t>f the Four Evangelists,-" 
in 4to; and in March 1702-3, ^^Tacquet's Euclid, with 
select theorems of Archimedes, and practical corollaries,^ 
in Latin, for tbe use of young students in the university. 
This editio;n of Euclid was reprinted at Cambridge in 1710 ; 
•and afterwards in English at London^ under bis own in* 
spection. He tells us that it was the accidental purchase 
of Tacquet^s 6wn Euclid at an auction, which occasioned 
bis first application to mathematical studies. In 1706 be 
published an ^' Essay on the Revelation of St. John ;" in 
1707, '^ Prselectiones astronomicce ;*' and sir Isaao New^^ 
ton*8 ^^ Arithmetica Universalis," by the author^s permis^ 
sioii. The same year, 1707, he preached eight sermons 
upon tbe accomplishment of Scripture Prophecies, at the 
lecture founded by the honourable Mr. Boyle; which he 
printed tbe year after, with an appendix to* tbe same pur* 
pose. About August, 1708, be -drew up an ^< Essay upon 
the Apostolical Constitutions," and offered it to the vice-- 
chancellor, for his licence to be printed at Cambridge ; but 
was refused it. He tellsr us that he had now read over the 
two first centuries of the church ; and found that the Euse- 
bian, or commonly called Arian, doctrine was, for the 
main, the doctrine of those ages ; and, as he thought it a* 
point of duty to communicate what he bad thus discovered*, 
^e his heterodox notions upon tbe article of the -Trinity 
were now very generally known. 

'. In 1709 he published a volume of '^ Sermons and Essays 
en several subjects;" one of which is to prove that di:i^ 
blessed Saviour had several brethren and sisters properly 
Bo called, that is, the children of hi^ reputed (atiier Jo- 
seph, and of his true mother, the Virgin Miaryw Dr. 
Clarke, he says, wrote to him to suppress this ^^iece, i^ 



W H I S T O N. 3S9 

t>n accotuit of its being false, bot that the common opinion 
'might go undistnrbed ; bat, he adds, *• that such sort of 
inotives were of no vireight with him, compared with- the 
discovery and propagation of truth. In 17 10 he published 
'* Praslectiones Physico-Mathematics ; sive Pbiiosophia 
clarissimi Newtoni iMathematica illustrata;" which, to- 
gether with the *' Priclectiones Astronomicas" before men- 
tioned, were afterwards translated and published in Eng- 
lish ; and it may be said, with no small honour to the me- 
inory of Mr. Whiston, that he was one of the first, if not 
-the very first, who 'explained the Newtonian philosophy in 
a popular way, and so that the generality of readers might 
comprehend it with little difficulty. About this year, 1710, 
Menkenius, a very learned man in Germany, wrote- to Dr. 
Hudson, the keeper of the Bodleian library at Oxford, for 
an account of Mr. Whiston ; whose writings then made, as 
he Said, a great noise in Germany. He had some time 
embraced the Arian heresy, and was forming projects to 
support and propagate it •, and, among other things, had 
translated the '< Apostolical Constitutions^*- into English, 
which favoured that doctrine, and which be asserted to be 
genuine. His friends began to be alarmed for him ; they 
represented to him the dangers he would bring upon him- 
self and family, for he had been married many years, by 
proceeding in this design ; but ajl they could say availed 
nothing: and the consequence was, that, Oct. 30, 1710, 
be was deprived of his professorship, and expelled the 
* university of Cambridge, after having been formally con- 
vened and interrogated for some days before. 
< At the end of the same year he published his *< Histori- 
cal Preface ;** setting forth the several steps and reasons 
of his departing from the commonly-received ndtions of 
the Trinity; and, in 17 1 1, his 4 vols, of *^ Primitive Chris<-> 
tianity revived,'' in 8vo. The first volume contains ** The 
Epistles of Ignatius, both larger and smaller, iii Greek 
«nd English ;'' the third, *^ An Essay on those Apostolical 
Constitutions ;" the fourth^ <* An account of the Primitive 
Faith, concerning the Trinity and Incarnatiqh.'V In March 
171 1, soon after the publication of bis '* Historical Pre- 
face," he was attacked in the convocation, of whose pro- 
ceedings, as well as those of the university, against him, hc^ 
published distinct accounts, ia two appendixes to that pre- 
face, when it was reprintad with additions, and prefixed 
to bis volumes of ^* Pritaitive Christianity revived.'* After 
Vol. XXXI. B B 



$70 w H I a T O N. 

ibis expulsion from Cambridge be went to Loodon ; wbe#e 
he had conferences with Clarke, Hoadly^ .and otbiNr 
learned men, ivho endeavoured to moderate hiszeal^ but 
be proved the superior tenderness of bis conscience^ by 
assuring tbem that he would not suffer his zeal to be 
tainted or corrupted, as be imagined it would be, with the 
least mixtuf e of prudence or worldly .wisdom. • He teUs us 
of those eminent persons, that, with regard to his account 
of the primitive faith about the Trinity and incarnation, 
' they were not much dissatisQed with it ; and .tbl^t, though 
•they were far less convinced of the authority and genuine- 
nesa of the '* Apostolical Constitutions," yet tliey were 
willing enough to receive them, as being much better and 
snore authentic than what were already in the church. 

Wbiston was now settled with his family in London; and 
though it does not appear that he had any certain means of 
subsisting*, yet he continued to write books, and to pro- 
pagate'his primitive Christianity, with as much cheerful- 
ness and vigour ,as if he bad been in the most flourishing 
circumstances. During March 1711-12, prince Eugene 
of Savoy was in England > and because Whiston believed 
himself to have discovered, in his ^^ Essay on the Revela^ 
tion of St. Jobn,^' that some of the; prophecies there had 
been fulfilled by that general's victory over the Turks in 
1697, or by the succeeding peace of Carlowitz in 16^8, 
he printed a short dedication, and fixing it to the cover of 
a copy of that essay, presented it to the^ prince. The 
prince has been said to have replied, that *^ he did n6t 
know he had the honour of having been known to St. 
John ;!'* however, he thought proper to ta.ke so much no- 
tice of Wbiston* s well-nieant endeavours, as to send bima 
' present of fifteen guineas. The dedication runs thus: 

^^ Uliistrissimp'PrincipiJEugenio l^abaujdiensi, vaticinioirum 
Apoealypticorom unum, Turcarum vastattonibus .finiendis 
destinatum^ dudum adimplenti ; alterum etiam,t de Gall^ 
rum imperio subvertendo, magna ex parte,- uti spes est, 
iiiox adimpletgro ; bunc libelliim, summa qua (jlecet revts- 
re^tia,- dat, dicat, . consecrate 

8 id. Marl. 1711-12. Gulielmus Wbistpn.^* 

In 171^, 1716, 1717, a society for pron^oting primitive 
Christianity met weekly at his bouse ^ in Cross-street, Hat- 

* Thif sMDis Qot quite correct. Hi< which brought him in near '401. « yiar 
i^m ioforms ut that he had a smafl and he taufht tnathuattici. as. to 
#ttiU in the <90tt|il7 9f Cambridge,- private j^npUs. 



W H I S T O N. 371 

loo-g«Tdeti, composed of about ten or twelve penons; to 
which society Christians of all persuasions were equaUy 
admitted. Sir Peter King, Dr. Hare, Dr. Hoadly^ and 
Dr. Clarke, were particularly invited ; but none of tbein^ 
he says, ever came. In 1719, he published ^* A Letter of 
Thanks to Robinson, bishop of London, fur his late Letter 
to his Clergy against the use of new Forms of Doxology.'* 
The common forms having been changed by Whiston, and 
indeed by Dr. Clarke, was the occasion of Robinson's ad- 
monitory letter to his clergy : and this admonitory letter 
tempted Whiston to do a thing, he says, which he never 
did before or since ; that is, to expose him in the way of 
banter or ridicule, and to cut him with great sharpness^ 
Upon the publication of this ^' Letter of. Thanks^' to the 
bishop of Londotn, Dr. Sacheverell attempted to shut him 
out of St. Andrew's, Holborn^ which wias then hU parish* 
church; and Whiston published an account of it. He re« 
lates, that Mr. Wilson, a lawyer, who did not love Sache« 
verell) would willingly have prosecuted him for the insult^ 
aud promised to do it without any costs to him ; but Whis- 
ton replied, ^^ if I should give my consent, I should shew 
myself io be as foolish and as passionate . as Saoheverell 
faiqoself.'* In the same year, 1719, he pablished a letter 
to the earl of Nottingham, ^^ concerning the eternity of the 
Son of God, and his Holy Spirit ;" and, in the second ai^d 
jfoIlowii>g editions, a defence of it ; for lord NottingfaiuDii 
bad published ^' an Answer'' in 1721, for which be was 
4)ighly complimented by addresses from both the univ^r^ 
sities, and from the London clergy* In 1720 he waspro* 
posed by sir Hans ISloane and Dr. Halley to the royal so-t 
ciety as a member, for he was publishing something or 
other in the way of philosophy.; but was refused admittaacc{ 
by sir Isaac Newton, the president. He teUs us he^ bad 
enjoyed a larg.e portion of sir Isaac's favour for? twenty 
years together; but lost it a^ last by contradicting him 
Mrheo he was old. ^^ Sir Isaac," adds he, ^' was of the. 
inost fearful, cautious, and suspicious temper, that I ever 
knew; aqd, had he been alive when I wrote against his 
Chronology, and so thoroughly confuted it that nobody. 
ha« ever since ventured to vindicate it, I should not havei 
thought proper to publish my confutation ; because I knew 
his temper so well^ that I should have expected it would, 
bave killed him : as Dr. Bentley, bishop Stillingfleet^s chap*- 
fatin, told me that he believed Mn Cocke's thorough con- 

B B 2 



1 



37« W H 'I S T O N. 

■fuUition of the bishop's metaphysics 'about the Trinity b^ 
tehed his end also.'* ^ 

In 1721 a large subscription was made for the support 
fit his family, but principally, his son says, to reimburse 
bim the expences he had been at in attempting to disco- 
ver the longitude, on which he had expended above 300/. 
This subscription amounted to 470/. and was, he tells us,^ 
by far the greatest sum that ever was put into his hands by 
tiis friends. It was upon contributions of this naturie that 
lie seems chiefly to have 'depended ; for, though he drew 
profits from reading lectures upon philosophy, astronomy, 
ftud even divinity ; and also from bis publications, Which 
were numerous; and from the small estate above men-* 
tioned, yet these, of themselves, would have been very 
insufficient ; nor, when joined with the benevolence and 
ehatity of those who loved and esteemed him for his learn- 
ing, integrity, and piety, did they prevent him from being 
frequently in great distress. He spent the remainder of 
his long life in the way he was now in ; that is, ifi talking 
and acting against Athahasianism, and for primitive Chris- 
tianity, and in writing and publishing books from time to 
time. In 1 722 he published ^' An Essay towards restoring 
the true Text of the Old Testament, and for vindicating 
the citations thence made in the New Testament ;'* in 
1724, " The literal Accomplishment of Scripture-Pro- 
phecies,*' in answei^to Mr. Collins^ book upon the ^'Grounds 
and reasons of the Christian Religion ;*' in 1726, *<Oftbe 
thundering Legion, or of the miraculous deliverance of 
Marcus Antoninus and his army on the prayers of the Chris- 
tians,** occasioned by Mr. Moyle^s works, then lately pub- 
lished; in 1727, ** A collection of authentic Records be- 
•longing to the did and New Testament," translated into 
English; in 1730, <* Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Samuel 
Clarke;** in 1732, " A Vindicsltion of the Testimony of 
Phlegon, or an account of the great Darkiiess and Earth- 
quake at our Saviour's Passion, described by Phleg6ni'* in 
answer to a dissertation of Dr. Sykes upon that eclipse and 
earthquake; in 1736, '^ Athanasian Forgeries, ImpositionSa 
and Interpolatioas ;*• the same year, ** The Primitive Eu- 
charist revived,** against bishbp Hoadly*s " Plain account 
' of the Lord*s Supper;" in 1737, "The Astronomical Year, 
or an account of the many reniarkable celestial phaBoomena 
6f the great year 1736," particularly of the comet, which 
was foretold by sir Isaac Newton, and oame accordingly ; 



W H I S T O N. 37^ 

the aajneyear, '^ The genuine works of FlaTius Josephus^ 
the Jewish historian, in English, as translated from the 
original Greek according to Havercamp^s accurate edition : 
illustrated with new plans and descriptions of Solomon*)!^ 
Zorobabers, Herod^s, and Elzekiers, temples, and with 
correct maps of Judea and Jerusalem ; together with pro- 
per notes, observations^ contents, parallel texts of scrip- 
lure, five complete indexes, and the true chronology of 
the several histories adjusted in. the margin : to which ar^ 
prefixed eight dissertations, viz. 1. The testimonies of Jo- 
seph us vindicated ; 2. The copyof theOld Te&tament, made 
use of by Jpsephus, proved to be that which was collected by 
Nehemiah ; 3. Concerning God*^ command to Abraham 
to offer up his son Isaac for a sacrifice ; 4. A large inquiry 
into the true chronology of Josephus. 5. An extract out 
of Josephus'S exhortation to the Greeks concerning Hades, 
and the resurrection of the dead ; 6. Proofs that this ex-. 
hortation is genuine ; 7. A demonstration that Tacitus, the 
Rom^n historian^ took his history of the Jews out of Jose- 
phus ; 8. A dissertation of Cellarius against Hardouin, in Vin- 
dication of Josephus^s history of the family of Herod, from 
coins; with an account of the JeyvLsh coins, weights, an^ 
measures,'^ in folio, and, since reprinted in 8vo. This is 
reckoned th^ most useful of all Whiston's learned labourai, 
and accordingly has met with the greatest encoijragement. 
In 17i3d he put in bis claim to the mathematical profes- 
sorship at Cambridge, then vacant by the death of Saun- 
derson, in a letter to Dr. Ashton^ the master of Jesus col- 
lege, who, his son avers, never produced it to the beads 
who were the electors, and consequently np regard wa^ 
paid to it. In t745, be published his *^ Primitive 'New 
Testament, in English;" in 1748, his ^^ Sacred History of 
the Old and New Testament, from the creation of the 
world till the days of Constantine the Great, reduced intp 
Annals ;*'and the same year, '* Memoirs of his own Life and 
writings," which are curious as a faithful picture of an in- 
genuous, enthusiastic, and somewhat disordered mind. He 
continued long a member of the Church of England, and 
regularly frequented its service, although he disapproved 
of many things in it ; but at last forsook it, and went over 
to the baptists. This happened when he was at the house 
of Samuel Barker, esq. at Lyndon, in Rutland, who had 
married his daughter ; and there it was that he dates the 

following memorandum : ^^ I continued in ,tlie cooimunion 

• • • 



/ 



374 W H I S T O N. 

of the Church of England till Trinity Sunday, 1747 : for, 
f bough I still resolved to go out of the church -if Mr. Bel* 
grave continued to read the Athanasian Creed, so did he 
by omitting it, both on Easter-day and Whitsunday this 
year, prevent my leaving the public worship till Trinity- 
Sunday, while he knew 1 should go out of the church if he 
began to read it. Yet did he read it that day, to my 
great surprise ; upon which I was obliged to go out, and 
go to the baptist-meeting at Morcot, two miles off, as I 
intend to go hereafter, while I am here at Lyndon, till 
•ome better opportunity presents of setting up a more pri- 
mitive congregation myself.'** 

In this manner Whiston went on to the last, bewildering 
himself in a maze of errors and changes, more,^ one would 
think, from temper than conviction. A short review of the 
progress of his opinions, with which a late eminent divine 
has furnished us, will not be without its use. 

It was, as we have seen, in June 1708, that he began 
to be first heard of as a reputed Arian. In the August fol- 
lowing, he offered a small essay on the apostolical consti- 
tutions to the licenser of the press at Cambridge, and was 
refused the licenpe. In 1709 he published a sermon against 
the eternity of hell-punishments In 1710 ht- boldly as- 
serted the apostolical constitutions to he *^ of equal authority 
with the four gospels themselves ;** and a tract included 
in them, and called the doctrine of the apostles, to be ^' the 
inost saQ;*ed of the canonical books.'' In 1712 he published 
in favour of the Anabaptists; and the next year printed ^'A 
book of Common Prayer," that had been reformed the 
backward way into Anabaptism and Arianism, and, two 
years afterward, set up a meeting-house for the use of it; 
having strangely drawn up his liturgy before he had pro- 
Tided his church. But he had still farther to go in his no- 
Telties. In 1723 he published a dissertation to prove the 
Canticles 910/ a canonical book of scripture; in 1727 another, 
to prove the apocryphal book of Baruch canonical ; in the 
same year another, to prove the epistle of 3aruch to the 
nine tribes and a half equally canonical ; in the same year 
another, to prove the second book of Esdras, equally ca- 
nonical ; in the same year another, to prove eighteen 
psalms of a second Solomon equally canonical ; in the same 
year another, to prove the hook of Enocb equally canoni- 
cal ; in the same year another, to prove ** The Testamenu 
of Uie Twelve Patriarchs** equally canonical ; and another 



W H I S T O N- 875 

to prove an epUtie^the Corinthians to Su Paul»,wikh St. 
Paul'^ answer to it, equally canonical In 1743 he- pub* 
lisbed bis *^ Priaritiv:e New Testament in. English^ in four 
parts/' and added a. page at the end *^ exhibiting the titles* 
of the rest of the books of tbe New TeatMkeoti notyjet; 
'known by the body of Christians.'* Among tbe^e were* 
specified, besides tbe works above recited, *f the Epistlea 
of Timothy to Diognetus, and the Homily;*' tb.e ^ftwo 
Epistles of Clement to tbe Corinthians ;*' ^^ JosephjusU bo* 
mtly eoncerning Hades ;*' the '' Epistles of Barnabas, Ig«: 
natiosy and Polycarp ;" the *^ Shepherd of Jiermas,'' and* 
the " Martyrdom of Polycarp." He thus, according to his 
own enumeration, enlarged the number of the canonical 
books in the New Testament, from twenty^seven to fifty*: 
six. la 1749 he gradually reached . (sily^ the. historian of 
Arianism) the highest point of faereliGai\^i;fection. . He 
gravely asserted, first, that •<' neither a bisn^p, a presbyter,, 
nor a deacon, ought to be more than once married ; that 
^^ primitive Christianity also forbad either . bishops^ pres* 
byters, or deacons, to marry at all after their Qirdi^ation ; 
and that, ^^ in the. days of the apostles, a fou;:th marriage 
was entirely rejected, eten in the laity." He. alsp ven- 
tured upon the bold presumption of ascertaining, the very 
year, *' according to the scripture prophecies," for certain 
events of the highest consequence to the world ; and, such 
was tbe in^^enuous simplicity of the man, was coafident 
enough to name a year at no great distance. In this way 
be prophesied that the Jews were to rebuild their tecnple, 
and the millenium was to. commence before tbe year 1766. 
But such a spirit as Whiston^s could not stop even hercs 
and in the same year he ventured to assert the falsehood of , 
^ome things in St; Paul's epistles, as *^ no part of Cbrist^s 
revelation to. him," namely, where the. aposjtle speakf of 
original siu. Wbistou says, tbey are rather *^ w^ak reason- 
ings of [his owBy accommodated to the weak Jews at that 
time only !'* 

Mr. Whiston died after a week's illness, Aqg^ 22, .1752, 
in the eighty'^fifth year of his age, an4 was buried at Lyn- 
don in Ruilandshire» . Of hrs character little more need be 
added. He enjoyed a certain degree of celebrity during a 
very long life, but that he produced muchinfluence on the 
state of public opinion may be doubted. He was not well 
calculated to form, or to support, a sect already formed ^ 
bis absurdities were too many and too glaring, and he re^* 



tfe W H I S T O N,. 

.cei?ed na applause, even from the Arians of his.day, that 
was not mixed with compassioo. StiH bis profound eru- 
dition, and his disinterested attachment to Arianism, sup* 
ported by an ostensible love of truth, were likely to at-> 
tract the notice of young men, who,- in the ardour of free 
inquiry, did not immediately perceive the pernicious ten^ 
dency of their new opinions. That these were sometimes 
eagerly imbibed was a grateful compliment to his vanity ; 
and that they were as readily renounced, provoked the 
most pointed invective, which he scrupled not to use with 
intemperate indulgence, whenever his cause declined by 
the secession of his proselytes. Having himself renounced 
secular emoluments, as incompatible with his idea of pri- 
mitive Christianity, he considered them as the only barrier 
to the general reception of his tenets. And he therefore 
upbraided those who afterwards relinquished them, as yields 
ing only to the. bias of interest: too coniident to suspect 
a possible fallacy in his opinions, or a detection of bis- own 
misrepresentationa of the Holy Scriptures. Nor was bis 
mind, ample and strong as it certainly often appeared to 
be, uninfluenced by the most consummate vanity.. He 
flattered hin^self, that he was one of those luminaiies, by 
whose etberial light we are happily assisted in the pursuit 
of reason and the divine truths. But it would be uncandid 
to deny, that he exhausted a4ong life in scholastic labour 
and self*denial,'in elaborate investigations of abstruse doc* 
trinal positions, which he inculcated with indefatigable di« 
ligence, in inflexible integrity, and a resolute contempt 
of wealth acquired at the expence of conscience. His mo- 
ral character was blameless, but not amiable. His severe 
manners and systems are more readily admired than imi- 
tated; while we- must yet lan>ent his want of orthodoxy, 
and his pertinacious scepticism. 

Whiston was occasionally exposed, as appears from the 
works of Swift and Pope, to the ridicule of these wits; but 
he was not himself without some portion of humour. The 
two following instances may be given on the authority of 
his son. ''Being in company with Mr.* Addison, sir Ri« 
chard Steele, Mr. secretary Craggs, and sir Robert Wal« 
pole, they were busily engaged in a dispute, whether ase* 
cretary of state could be an honest man. Mr. Whiston, not 
intermeddling in it, was pressed to declare his, opinion, 
whfch at length he did, by saying, he thought honesty was 
the best policy, and if a prime ininister would practise it, he 



,W H I JS T ON. Ml 

woold-find It 80. To which Mr^ Craggs replied : ^ it might 
do-for a fortnight; but would not do for a month,* Mn 
Wbiston asked him, ^if he had ever tried it for a fort*" 
night?* To which he making no reply, the company 
gave it for Mr. Whiston/* 

<' He waa much esteemed by the late queen Caroline, who 
generously ma<ie him a present of 50/. every year from the 
time she became queen, which pension his late majesty 
continued to him so long as he lived. The queen usually 
sent ibr him once in the summer, whilst she was out of 
town, Co spend a day or two with her. At Richmond it 
i»appened she who loved his free conversation, asked him 
what people in general said of her. He replied, that they 
justly-esteemed her as a lady of great abilities, a patron of 
learned men, and a kind friend to the poor. < But,' says 
she, ^ no one is without faults, pray what are mine ?* 
Mr. W. begged to be excused speaking on that subject;, 
but she insisting, he said, her majesty did not behave with 
proper reverence at church. She replied, the king would 
talk with her. He said a Greater than kings was there 
only to be regarded. She acknowledged it, and confessed 
her fiiuit. ' Pray,' says she, * tell me what is my next ?* 
He replied, * When I hear your majesty has amended of 
that fault, I will tell you of your next;- and so it ended.'* 
This last anecdote Whiston often repeated. 

Whiston married, in 1 699, Ruth, the daughter of the ReT. 
Mr. Antrobus,. master of Tamworth-sohool, by whom he had 
several children, three of whom survived him. The eldest 
a daughter, Sarah, was married to Samuel Barker of Lyn«* 
den, in Rutlandshire, esq. at whose house he died. This 
lady died in 1791. His surviving sons were George and 
John, the latter an eminent bookseller^ who died in 1780. 
Whiston had a younger brother, the Rev; Daniel Whiston^ 
frequently mentioned in his *' Memoirs," and who appears 
to have entertained an equal aversion to the Athanasian 
Creed. He was curate at Somersham for fifty-two yeara i 
but his principles did not permit him to accept of any Uv« 
ing. He died in 1759, leaving a son, the Rev. Thoinaa 
Wiiiston, who died in 1795. Of this Daniel Whiston, we 
have heard nothing more remarkable than that he left be* 
bind him. several hundred manuscript sermons, which he 
bad never preached. ^ 

» Whiston*t Memort, 2 vols.— Biog . Brit.— Wbitakftr's Hjst. of Ariaoitn.^ 
Dallaway's Life of Kundle, p. 31, &c. 



S^t W H I T a: K E R. 

WHITAKER (John), a learned English diviii^; and 
able antiquary, v^as born at Manchester, about 1736. He 
went early to Oxford, where he was elected fellow of Cor- 
)^as Christ! college, and where he discovered, in a very 
short time, those fine originalities, those peculiarities- of 
mind, which afterwards 86 strongly marked htm as an au- 
thor and as a man. tie took the degree of M. ^. 1759; 
and proceeded B«D. 17^7. His uticommon vigoor of tn<^ 
tellect at once displayed itself among his acc|uain4atice ; 
but, whilst his animated conversation drew many'arotind 
him, a few were repelled from the circle by his impatience 
of contradiction (a failing which frequently accompanies 
}K>wert» like bis), and by the consciousness, his biographer 
thinks, of their own inferiority. The character of his ge- 
nius, however, was soon decided in literary composition. 
In 1771, Mr. W. published the first volume of his ^^ His- 
tory of Manchester," in quarto ; a work which, for acute- 
nesa of research, bold imagination, independent sentimetof, 
and correct information, has scarcely its parallel in the lite* 
cature of the country. Nor does its composition less merit 
Dur applause, whether we have respect to the arrangement 
bf the materials, the style, or the lai|pguage. In some pas- 
sages there is ^ supreme elegance ;" in others a magni- 
ficence of thought, a force of expression, a glow of die* 
tion, truly astonishing. The introduction of Christianity 
into this island, in particular, is. uncommonly beautiful. 
With regard to ttie general subject of the ^ Manchester,'* 
he was the first writer who could so light up the- region of 
antiquarianism as to dissipate its obscurity, even ^o the eyes 
of ordinary spectators ^ his ^VManchester** being perhaps 
the book in which the truth of our island history has been 
best elucidated. It is rather singular that this work was 
In the order of merit, as Well as time, the first of Mr. Whit- 
fiker^s publications. In proportion as he advanced in life, 
biji imagination seems, by a strange inversion of what is 
characteristic of our nature, to have gained an ascendancy 
over his judgment; and we shall perceive more of 4ancy 
und passion, of conjecture and hypothesis, in some of his 
subsequent productions, than of just opinion, or deliberate 
investigation. Mr.Whitaker's <* Genuine History of the 
Britons asserted," an octavo volume, published in 1772, 
inay be considered as a sequel to the.** Manchester." It 
contains a complete refutation of **the unhappy Macpher^ 
<Qo/' whose ** Introduction to the History of Great Brttaia 



W ft 1 T A k E R. «7ft 

and Ireland** is full of palpable mistakes and misrepresen- 
tations. 

In 1773 we find Mr. Whitaker tbe morning preacher of 
Berkeley cbapd, London ; to which office be had been ap« 
pointed in November, by a Mr. Hughes ; but in less than 
two months he was removed from that situation. This gave 
occasion to '^The Case between Mr. W. and Mr. Hoghesj 
relative to the Morning Preacbership of Berkeley Chapel ;'^ 
in which Mr.W. declares himself ** unalterably determined 
to carry the matter into Westminster-hall.'^ But the feir-^ 
▼our of his refsentment threw him off his guard ; and he est^ 
pressed himself so indiscreetly, that his Case was considered 
as a libel by the Court of King's Bench. During his re* 
sidence in London, he had an opportunity of conversing 
with several of our most celebrated writers ; among whom 
were Dr. Johnson, and Gibbon, the historian of the Roman 
Empire. It does not appear, indeed, that Johnson was much 
attached to Whitaker. Both strong in understanding, 
equally tenacious of opinion, and equally impassioned in 
conversation, it is not probable that they should amicably 
coalesce on all occasions. In the Ossianic controversy 
they were decidedly hostile. With Gibbon Mr. Whitaker 
was well acquainted ; and the MS. of the first volume of 
*^ The Pecline and Fall of the Roman Empire'- was sub- 
mitted to bis inspection. But he was greatly surprised 
Vhen, as be read the same volume in print, that chapter 
which has been so obnoxious to the Christian world, wa$ 
then first introduced to his notice! That chapter Gibbon 
had suppressed in the MS. overawed by Mr. Whitaker*^ 
high character, anxl afraid of bis censure. And, in fact, 
that tbe deist should have shrunk from his indignant eye, 
may well be conceived, when we see his Christian princi- 
ple and his manly spirit in the rejection of a living of con-* 
siderable value, which was at this* time offered him by an 
Unitarian patron. Of his integrity, however, some recom<» 
pense was now at hand : and about 1778, he succeeded as 
fellow of Corpus Christi college, to the rectory of Ruan- 
Lanyborne, one of the most valuable livings in tbe gift of 
that College; and into Comwallhe went, to reside upon 
his rectory. There, it might have been expected that re- 
tirement and leisure would greatly favour the pursuits of 
literature; and that, though "the converser'' (to use an 
expression of Mr.Whitaker^s) had disappeared, the author 
woul4 break forth with new energies. But Buaa*l4hj^ 



5tO >► W H I T A K E R. 

home wasy for .several years, no tranquil seat of., the muses^ 
That pleasant seclusion was noW the scene of unavoidably 
contest }VIr. W. had proposed a titbe-cooipositipii with 
his parishioners, by no means unreasonable. This they,re7 
fused to pay : but he .was steady to his purpose. A rnp« 
ture ensued between the parties; the tithes were demanfl^d 
in kind ; disputes .arose upon disputes ; animosities were 
kindled; and litigations took place. That Mr.Whitakef 
was 6nally victorious, afforded pleasure to the friends of 
the rector, and to the friends of justice and truth ; yet it 
was long before harmony was restored to Ruan-Lanyhprne. 
That his literary schemes had been so sadly interrupted, 
was the subject of general regret. But the conscientious 
pastor looked with a deeper concern to the spiritual weU 
fare of his parishioners. He saw with sorrow their a.v<er« 
sion to his preaching; their indifi^erence to his instructions.; 
their repugnance to bis authority ; and '* he laboured more 
abundantly ;^^ till, after a few years» be had the satisfaction 
to perceive a visible alteration in the behaviour of the prin- 
cipal parishioners ; and a mutual good understanding was 
established between the pastor and his flock. His cordial, 
bis familiar t^anner, indeed, was always pleasing to thos^ 
whom prejudice bad not artned against him ; and, in pro- 
portiop as they became acquainted with his kind disposi* 
tion, the transitoriness of bis resentments, and, after in^ 
juries, his promptness to forgive, and anxious wish to be 
forgiven; they endeavoured more and more to cuUivatie 
his friendship, and at length loved an4 revered him as 
their father. Nothing can more fully display the warmth 
of his affections, his zeal as a minister of Christ, or his im^ 
passioned style of eloquence, than those '^ Sermons^'' upoii 
death, judgment, heaven, and hell, which he published in 
1783, after having preached them to his parishioners, we 
doubt not, with a voice and manner calculated to pene- 
trate the conscience. That he should have published so 
little in the line of bis profession, is perhaps to be re« 
gretted. His ^' Origin of Arianism,^' however, is a large 
volume, full of erudition and ingenious argumentation. 
We have read no other work of Mr. W. in divinity, except 
**Tbe Real Origin of Government'^ (expanded. into a con- 
siderable treatise, from a sermon which he had preached 
before bishop Buller, at his iordship^s primary visitation), 
and ''The Introduction to FlindelPs Bible.!' This has 
been much admired as a masterly piece of eloquence. 



W H I T A K E R. 381 

' • • - . . . « 

In the mean time the antiquary was not at rest. Hr« 
'^'Mary, queen of Scots," published in 1787, in 'three oc- 
tavo volumes; his "Course of Hannibal over the Alps;*'' 
tiis " Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall ;" and his " Supple- 
ment to Polwhele*s Antiquities of Cornwall ;" furnish good 
evidence of an imagination continually occupied in pur- 
suits which kindled up its brightest flame; though not 
always of that judgment, discretion, or candour, which (if 
huniai) chciracters had been ever perfect) we Should have 
expected from a Whiiaker. But not even here were his 
aniiquarian slbres exhausted. " The Life of St. Neot,*^ 
<• The History of Oxford," and «* The History of London,*' 
were works all at once projected, and no sooner projected 
than executed in imagination, and more thati half executed 
in reality. 

In criticism, (where writing anonymously he would pro- 
bably have written with the less restraint) we find him for 
the most part candid and good-natured, not sparing of 
censure, yet lavish of applause; and affording, in nume- 
rous instances, the most agreeable proofs of genuine bene- 
volence. Even in the instance of Gibbon, where he has 
been thought severe beyond all former example, we have 
a large mixture of sweet with the bitter. It was his ciri- 
tique on Gibbon which contributed principally to the repu- 
tation of the " English Review ;*' in which Mr. W, was 
the author of many valuable articles. To' his pen afso 
the " British Critic," and ** The Antijacobin Review,*? 
were indebted for various pieces of criticism. But; the 
strength of his principles is no where more apparent than 
in those articles where he comes forward, armed with the 
y)anoply of truth, in defence of our civil and ecclesiastical 
Constitution. He was also a poet. That he contributed 
some fine pieces of poetry to " The Cornwall and Devon 
Poets,*' is well known. These were published in two small 
octavo volumes. He occasionally displayed his powers in 
the several departments of the Historian, the Theologist^ 
the Critic, the Politician, and the Poet. Versatility like 
Whitaker's is, in truth, of rare occurrence. But still 
more rare is the splendor of original genius, exhibited in 
walks so various Not that Mr. W. was equally happy in 
them all. .Ilis characteristic traits as a writer were, acute 
discernment, and a velocity of ideas which acquired nevr 
force in composition, and a povver of combining images in 
k manner peculiarly striking, and of flinging on ^ery 



Mi WHITAKEB* 

topic of disctioion the strongest . illustration* ^tb little 
scruple, therefore^ we hazard an opinion, that though hi* 
chief excellence be recognized in antiquarian research, he 
would have risen to higher eminence as a poet, had he.cuU 
.iivated in early youth the favour of the Muses. Be thi% 
however, as it may ; there are none who will deny him the 
praise of a " great'' literary character. That be was 
''good'' as well as gresit, would su6Sciently appear in the 
recollection of any period of his life; whether we saw him 
abandoning preferment from principle, and heard him 
*^ reasoning of righteousness and judgment to come," until 
a Gibbon trembled; or whether, among his parishioners, 
we witnessed his unaffected earnestness of preaching, his 
humility in conversing with the poorest cottagers, bis sin** 
cerity in assisting them with advice, his tenderness in ofier- 
ing.them consolation, and his charity in relieving their dis^ 
tresses. It is troe, to the same warmth of temper, together 
with a sense of good intentions, we must attribute an irri- 
tability at times destructive of social comfort; and an im* 
petuousness that brooked not opposition, and bore down 
all before it. This precipitation was in part also to be 
- traced to his ignorance of the world ; to his simplicity in 
.believing others like himself — precisely what they seemed 
to be ; and, on the detection of his errx>r, his anger at dis« 
simulation or hypocrisy. But his general good humour, 
his. hospitality, and his convivial pleasantry, were surely 
eobugh Ijo atone for those sudden bursts of passion, those 
flashes, which betrayed bis human frailty, but still argued 
genius. And they who knew how ^' fearfully and wonder- 
fully he was made," could bear from a Whitaker what they 

> would certainly have resented in another. We should add, 

i that in his family Mr. Whitaker was uniformly regular; 

por did he suffer, at any time, his literary cares to trench 

I on his domestic duties. 

! Not many months before his death the writer of this 

article heard him speak of <^ Notes on Shakspeare,'^ an^ 
'^ Illustrations of the Bible." But he wished to finish hi^ 
«* Oxford," his " London," and his " St. Neot,"^ (already 
mentioned as projected publications) before he resumed hif 
^^Shakspeare,^' on which he had occasionally written notes; 
and!, to lay aside his '^ Shakspeare," before he took up hif 
I' Bible." To the Bible he meant at last to withdraw him-* 
self from all other studies. 

With a view to the last three antiquarian w.orks, (bu( 
chiefly to ** the London,"} he determined to travel to the 



W H I T A K £ R. SM 

metropplis : and thither he traTcHed, with all the ardour of 
youthful spirits. But even for his athletic (rame he had a 
mind of too restless an activity. Amidst his indefatigable 
researches into the antiquities of the city, bis friends de- 
tected the first symptoms of bodily decay. . His journey t^ 
London, his vast exertions there in procuringinformatiop^ 
his energetic and various conversation with literary charaor 
ters, brought on a debility which be little regarded, till it 
alarmed him in a stroke of paralysis. . F.rom this stroke, not 
long after bis return into Cornwall, he recovered so far aa 
to be able to pursue (though not mapy hours in a day) his 
accustomed studies : and it was the Life of St. Neot that 
chiefly occupied his attention, and which was published 
after his death. He died Oct. 30, 1808.^ 

WHITAKER (William), one of the most eminent dir 
vines of the sixteenth century, was born at Holme, in the. 
parish of Burnley in Lancashire, in 1547, and was the der 
scendant of an ancient family. His mother was Elizabeth 
Nowell, sister to the celebrated Dean of St. PauPs, who 
married Thomas Whitaker, gentleman, in 1530, and surr 
viv^d her marriage the wonderful , period of sev.enty*srx 
years. He acquired the elements of grammar ^at BurnlejK, 
where Mr. WUIiam Hargrave ^as at that time master, to 
whom in bis declining years he was a kind benefactor. He 
was sent for, in his thirteenth year, by Dean Nowell, who 
maintained him in his own house, and placed him at St. Paul^a 
school, where he made such rapid and satisfactory progreaa 
that, at the age of eighteen, his pious kinsman sent him to 
Trinity college, Caipbridge, under the tuition of Mr. after- 
wards Or. Robert West. His progress here beipg equally 
adimired, be was first chosen scholar and then fellow. He 
soon procured high esteem and great fame by bis learned 
disputations and other exercises, which afforded a proof 
both of his talent^ and application. It was his practice, aijDd 
that of several other eminent persons of his time, to stand 
while employed in study. In 1569 he published the 
Prayers of the Church of England in. Greek, a small vo- 
lume printed by Reynold \Volf; a circumstance wbic|i 
Tequi/es to be mentioned, because most of his biographers 
assert that he was first known by his translation of Nowelk> 
catechism; but that translation was not printed till 1573;^ 
four years after this version of the Prayers. He had about 

i Britiih Critic, Ian. 1810.— Gent. Mag. Tol. LXXYIII. 



384 W H I T A K E R. 

this time iofliered long and severely by a quartan agu« | 
and as be could not live without some literary employment, 
lie made choice of this. The book contains the morniog 
and evening prayers, the litany, the catechism, ihe col- 
lecbi, and, to fill a vacant page or two, the prayer after 
receiving the holy communion, accompanied with trhe Latin 
version, (the work, as is supposed, of Walter Haddon,) 
which had been published by the queen^s authority a few 
years before. It is dedicated, in a prefatory address in 
Latin, to bis uncle and patron, tbe dean of 8t. Paurs ; 
from whom he had received, from his childhood, innu- 
merable favours ; to whom therefore, he says, of right 
belongied whatsoever he could perform ; and he intreats htm 
to protect his labours, and expresses a hope, that, if he is 
indulgent in this his first attempt, be may one day produce 
something not unworthy of bis acceptance. The transla- 
tion achieved under such circumstances, when tbe author, 
a bachelor of arts, had barely entered his twenty- first year, 
roust have raised great hopes, which his future progress 
and celebrity did not disappoint. 

He also, as just noticed, translated NowelPs Catechisms 
into Greek, the larger of which was printed in 157^, and 
dedicated to tbe lord treasurer, sir William Cecil, and 
the smaller in 1575, dedicated to NowelK He also trans- 
lated into Latin, bishop Jewel's reply to Harding. These 
increased bis reputation, extending it to Oxford, where he 
was incorporated doctor of diVinity. On the preferment 
pf Dr. William Chaderton to tbe bisboprick of Chester, 
Dr. Whitaker succeeded hrm in 1579 in the office of regius 
professor at Cambridge. Although considered by many as 
rather too young for a place to which many of his seniors 
bad pretensions, he proved, by his course of lectures, that 
he was deficient in none of the qualities of an able divine 
and accomplished professor. He soon displayed copious 
reading, sound judgment, and an eloquence and vigour 
which greatly increased the number as well as quality of 
his hearers. While in this office he remained tbe inde- 
fatigable student, making hiniself acquainted with the 
writings of the fathers, both Greek and Latin, and of the 
eminent divines^ and ecclesiastical historians. In his lec- 
tures, he began with various select parts of the New Tes« 
tament, and then entered upon the controversies between 
the papists and protestants. The latter were matters of 
tbe first importance at that time, and Whitaker accord- 



W H IT A I^ E R: 3«# 

ifagly took an ample share in confirming the protestant' 
establbhment, and carried on a successful controversy 
Mirxth some of the champions of the Romish church, par- 
ticularly Campian, Dury, Saunders, &c. Cardinal Bellar-, 
mine, though often foiled by his pen, honoured his picture 
with a place in his library ; aud said, be was the tnost' 
learned heretic he had ever read, 

Ih the same year (1579) the queen gave him the chan-; 
cellorship of St* PauPs, and he was afterwards preferred 
to the mastership of St John's college, Cambridge, by 
mandamus, although not without' opposition from some of 
the members, whom he soon reconciled to his administra- 
tion. He governed the college with great prudence and 
m6deration, and sacrificed his own interest for the advan- 
tage of the public. He also greatly revived the reputation of 
the house, and increased the number of its members, which 
led to an increase in the buildings. He was now again in- 
volved in controversy with the popish writers, particiilarly 
Bellarmine and Stapletou ; and some of his pieces on the ' 
subjects in dispute were printed. Having arrived at great 
celebrity, he is mentioned by Bakdr and other historians 
as being concerned in most of the public transfictions of 
the university of Cambridge. 

In 1587 he resigned the chancellorship of St; Paul's, for' 
what reason does not appear; but in 159 1 Dr. Goad, "pro- 
vost of King's college, presented'a request to dean Nowell,' 
in behalf of Dr. Wbitaker, that he might be |)referred to ' 
some more valuable benefice. The venerable dean, Anxious' 
to serve his friend and kinsman, forvtrarded Dr. Goad's let- ' 
ter, the day he received it, together U'ith one of his own, . 
to the lord treasurer ; reminding his lordship of Dr. Whita- 
ker's great learning, well known at Cambridge by the pro-' 
ductious of his pen in Greek and Latin ; and not uifkhown 
to his lordship, to whom several of bis works had been 
dedicated. His fitness for 'presiding Over a learned society 
(Trinity college was in view, then abbut to be vacant) had ' 
partly appeared, from the quietness arid good order which^ 
had been established in St: John's college since h^ became' 
master ; and as to his circumstainces, they were so far from' 
being alBuent, that the dean, in consideration of his. p6- ' 
Terty, had now for two years past taken upon him the' 
maintenance of one of bis sons. This application, hbw^' 
ever, for whatever reason, proved unsuccessful. 

In 1589, an assembly was held at his college, by tha 

Vol. XXXI. C c 



386 W H I T A K E R, 

celebrated puritan Cartwright and others, for the purpose: 
of promoting a purer form of discipline in the ehurch. 
Whitaker, as appears by a letter to Whitgift, was by.no 
means a favourer of Cartwright's opinions, many oF which 
l^e thought intemperate and intemperately expressed ; but 
when, in consequence of this meeting, some imperfections 
in the ^^ Book of Discipline^' were corrected, altered, and 
amended, he had no objection to join in subscribing the 
Book thus amended. The year following, he was charged, 
with holding or forming a presbytery in bis college, and 
with other accusations, which he appears to have repelled 
with success, although the particulars are not upon record. 
Some have doubted whether he was a puritan, or ought to 
be classed with those who were hostile to the form3 of the 
church. But upon the whole, although far more moderate 
than many of his contemporaries, he not only associated 
with, but countenanced the objections of some of the 
leaders of the puritans to certain points of church discipline 
and government. He held many meetings in the university 
with Fulke, Chaderton, Dod, and others ; but the purpose 
of these was only to expound the scriptures. In 1595, 
however, there were some warm disputes about points of 
Christian doctrine; and when these began at Cambridge 
Dr. Whitaker bad no inconsiderable share. Deeply rooted, 
says Mr. archdeacon Churton, in the principles of Cal- 
vinism, he is yet to be commended for his candour in 
acknowledging, at the very time when the predestinarian 
dispute ran high, that ^' these points were not concluded 
and defined by public authority in our church." 

That controversy, however, appears to have cost him 
his life. For coming up to London with the five Lambeth 
articles, as they were called, and pursuing that business 
warmly, but without success, and having paid what proved 
to be a farewell visit at the deanery of St. PauPs, on his 
return to Cambridge, fatigued and disappointed, he fell 
sick, and within a fortnight died, in the forty-seventh year 
of his age, Dec. 4, 1595. Of the dignity of his person 
and eloquence of speech (besides innumerable allusions in 
the verses on bis death) we have evidence in the pointed 
appeal of Bishop Hall, who knew him well, to his corre- 
spondent Mr. Bedell, who also knew him well : ** Who,*' 
says he, " ever saw him without reverence, or beard him 
without wonder?" Of his unwearied industry and pro- 
found karniaghls variaus works afford a pregnant proof;, 



W H I T A K E R. 3S1 

nor were bis charity and humility less conspicuous. When 
he lay on his death-bed^ and was told of the symptoms of 
his approaching dissolution, he said, ^^ Life or death is 
welcome to me ; and I desire not to live, but so far as I 
may be serviceable to God and his churcb.'* Gataker, who 
wrote his life, says, " He was a man very personable, gf a 
goodly presence, tall of stature, and upright ; of a grave 
aspect, with black hair, and a ruddy complexion ; a solid 
judgment, a liberal mind, an affable disposition ; a mild, 
yet not remiss governor ; a contemner of money ; of a 
moderate diet; a life generally unblameable, and (that 
which added a lustre to all the rest) amidst all these endow- 
ments,^ and the respects of others, even the greatest, 
thereby deservedly procured, of a most meek and lowly 
spirit.*' Wood says, he ** was one of the greatest men his 
college ever produ6ed ; and the desire and love of the pre- 
sent times, and the envy of posterity, that cannot bring 
forth a parallel.'' 

Dr. Whitaker was twice married,, to " women of good 
birth and note," and had eight children by them. His 
surviving wife, described as ready to lie-in when he ex- 
pired, caused her child to be baptized on Dec. 11, the 
day after her husband's funeral, by the name of Jabez, 
doubtless for the scriptural reason, <^ because," she said, 
" I bare him with sorrow." A few particulars of hi& 
family may be seen in our authorities. Mr. Churton, who 
has furnished much of the preceding information, in his 
excellent Life of dean Nowell, has also embellished that 
work with a fine portrait of Whitaker, and a view of the 
house in which he was born, now the property of the Rev. 
Thomas Dunham Whitaker, LL. D. Dr. Whitaker's corpse 
had a public funeral, and was interred in the chapel of St. 
John's college. 

Hi^ works, besides the translations already noticed, 
were, 1. ** Answer to Edmund Campian his ten Reasons." 
2. " A defence of his answer against John Durye.'' .3. " A 
refutation of Nicolas Saunders his Demonstration, whereby 
he would prove that the Pope is not Anticbfist." 4. ** A 
collection thereto added of ancient heresies raked up again 
to make the popish apostacy." 5. <* A thesis propounded 
and defended at the commencement in 1582, that the Pope 
is the Antichrist spoken of in Scripture." 6. " Answer to 
William Rainolds against the Preface to that against Saun- 
ders in English." 7. " A disputation concern iug the 

c c 2 



388 W H I T A K E R. 



i 



Scripture against the Papists of these tidies, p^rticulaiply, 
Bellarmine and Stapleton." 8. ** A defence of the autbo* 
rity of the Scriptures, against Thomas Stapleton liis defence, 
of the authority of the Church." 9. " Lectures on the. 
Controversies concerning the Bishop of Rome." 10. " Lec- 
tures on the Controversie concerning the Church." 11. 
'^ Lectures on the Controversie concerning Councils." 
12. '^ A treatise of Original Sin, against Stapleton/s three, 
former books of Justi6cation." The last four articles were 
published after the author's death, by John AUenson. IS^ 
**A lecture on I Tim. ii- 4. read on Feb. 27, 1594, before 
the earl of Essex, and other honourable persons." 14f 
** Lectures concerning the Sacraments in general, and the 
Eucharist, and Baptism in particular." This last was taken 
down by John Allenson, and published by D.r> Sainqel. 
Ward. Whitaker's works were afterwards collected and 
published in Latin, at Geneva, in 1610, 2 vols. fol. ' 

WHITBY (Daniel), a learned divine, but of unsteady, 
character, was born in 1638, at Rusbdeo, or Rusden,.in 
Northamptonshire, and was in 1653 admitted of Trinity, 
college, Oxford, of which he was elected a scho^r in June^ 
•1655. He took bis degree of B. A. in 1657, and that of 
M. A. in 1660. In 1664, he was elected fellow of bis 
college, and the same year he engaged in controversy with 
the popish writers, by publishing, 1. ^< Romish Doctrines 
not from the beginning : or a Reply to what S. C. (Sere* 
nus Cressy), a Roman catholick, hath returned to Dr. . 
Piercers Sermon preached before bis Majesty at Whitehall, . 
Feb. 1, 1662, in vindication of our Church against the 
novelties of Rome," Lond. 4to. This was followed in 1663 
by another piece against Serjeant, entitled, 2. *^ An Answer 
to Sure Footing, so far as Mr Whitby is concerned in it," &c. 
8vo. 3. ** An endeavour to evince the certainty of Christian . 
Faith in general, and of the Resurrection of Christ in par- 
ticular." Oxford, 1671, 8vo. 4. "A Discourse concern* 
ing the idolatry of the Church of Rome; wherein that 
charge is justified, and the pretended Refutation of Dr. 
Stillingfleet's Discourse is answered." London, 1674, 8vo. 
5. "The absurdity and idolatry of Host- Worship proved, 
by shewing how it answers what is said in Scripture and 

I Life by Oataker in Fuller's Abel Redi?ivus.— Clark's Ecclesiastical Hif- 
tory« — Melcbior AdaiD.-»Chunon's Life of Nowell.—- Stripe's Wbitgift, p. 67, 
S38, 271. d53, 370, 434, 453.-'FuUejr>« Wonhiet and Holy State.— Brook'a 
VoriUDt* 



WHITBY. 389 

the Writings of the Fathers ; to shew the folly and idolatry 
committed in the worship of the Heathen Deities. Also a 
full answer to all those pleas hy which Papists would wipe 
oiF the charge of Idolatry; and an Appendix a^^amst 
Transubstantiation ; with some reflections on a late Popish 
book, called. The Guide of Controversies/' London, 1679, 
8vo. 6. ** A Discourse concerning the Laws Ecclesiasti- 
cal and Civil made against Heretics by Popes, Emperors, 
and Kings, Provincial and General Councils, approved by 
the Church of Rome. Shewing, I. What Protestant sub- 
jects may expect to suffer under a Popish Prince acting 
according to those Laws. II. That no Oath or Promise of 
such a Prince can give them any just security that he will 
not execute these laws upon them. With a preface against 
persecuting and destroying Heretics,'* London, 1682, 4to, 
Reprinted at London, 1723, in 8vo, withan Introduction by 
bishop Kennet, who ascribes this piece to Dr. Maurice, 
but it was reclaimed by Dr. Whitby himself in his ** Twelve 
Sermons preached at the Cathedral of Sarum." 

Thus far Dr., Whitby had proceeded with credit to him- 
self, and with satisfaction to the church to which he be- 
longed, and the patron who had befriended him. Dr, 
Seth Ward, bishop of Salisbury, who made him his chap- 
lain, and in Oct. 1668 collated him to the prebend of 
Yatesbury in that cathedral, and in November following 
to the prebend of Husbora Tarrant and Burbach. He was 
also in September 1672 admitted precentor of the same 
church, about which time he accumulated the degrees of 
B. D. and D. D. and was preferred to the rectory of St, 
Edmund's church in Salisbury. But in 1682 he excited 
general censure by the publication of, ** The Protestant 
Keconciler, humbly pleading for condescension to Dis- 
senting Brethren in things indifferent and unnecessary, for 
the sake of peace ; and shewing how. unreasonable it is tQ 
make such things the necessary conditions of Communion, 
By a well-wisher to the Church's Peace, and a Lamenter 
of her sad Divisions," Lond, 1683, in 8yo. What kind of 
work this was, will appear most clearly by his own decla-r 
ration hereafter mentioned. It was published without his 
name, but he must have been soon discovered. The first 
opposition made to it was in the way of controversy, by 
various divines who answered it. Among these were, Lau- 
rence Womack, D. D. in his " Suffragium Protestantiuui : 
wherein our governors are justified in their impositions and 



390 W H I T. B Y. 

proceedings against Dissenters, Meisner also^ and the Ver^^ 
diet rescued from the cavils and seditious sophistry of the 
Protestant Reconciler," Lond. 1683, 8vo; David Jenner, 
B. D. sometime of Caius college in Cambridge, afterwards 
irector of Great Warley in Essex, prebendary of Sarum, 
and chaplain to his majesty, in his " Bifrons : or a new 
discovery of Treason under the fair face and mask of Reli- 
gion, and of Liberty of Conscience, &c." Lond. 1683, 4to; 
the author of "An awakening Word to the Grand-jury 
men of the nation," Lond. 1683, 4to, to which is added, 
** A brief comparison between Dan. Whitby ^nd Titus 
Gates: the first protected in his virulence* to. sacred ma- 
jesty by one or two of his fautors : the second punished for 
his abuses of the king's only brother by the loyal chief- 
justice Jefferies. The first saved harmless in many pre* 
ferments (three of which are in one church of Sarum :) the 
second fined in mercy no more than 100,000/." Samuel 
Thomas, M. A. in two pieces printed without his naipe, 
viz. " Animadversions upon a late treatise, entitled, the 
Protestant Reconciler,*' &c. Lond. 1683, 8vo, and ** Re- 
marks on the Preface to the Protestant Reconciler, in a 
letter to a friend : dated February the 28th, 1682," Lond. 
1683, 4to. The author of the pamphlet entitled " Three 
Letters of Thanks to the Protestant Reconciler. 1. From 
the Anabaptists at Munster. 2. From the Congregations 
in New England. 3. From the Quakers in Pensylvania.". 
It does not appear that Dr. Whitby made any reply to. 
these ; and the disapprobation of his book increased so 
much, that at length it was condemned by the university 
of Oxford in their congregation held July, the 21st, 1683, 
and burnt by the hands of the university-marshal in the 
Schools Quadrangle. Some passages, likewise, gave such 
oflPence to bishop Ward, that he obliged our author to 
make a retractation, which he did in the following form : 
" October the 9th, 1683. I Daniel Whitby, doctor of 
divinity, chantor of the church of Sarum, and rector of the 
parish church of St. Edmund's in the city and diocese of 
Sarum, having been the author of a book called *'The 
Protestant Reconciler,* which through want of prudence 
and deference to authority I have caused to be printed and 
published, am truly and heartily sorry for the same, and 
for any evil influence it hath had upon the Dissenters from 
the Church of England est^blised by law, or others. And 
whereas it containeth several passages, which I am con- 



WHITBY. 391 

vinced in my conscience are obnoxious to the canons, and 
do reflect upon the governors of the said church, I do 
l^ereby openly revoke and renounce all inreverent and un- 
meet expressions contained therein, by which I have justly 
incurred the censure or displeasure of my superiors. And 
furthermore, whereas these two propositions have been de- 
duced and concluded from the said book, viz. 1. That it is 
not lawful for superiors to impose any thing in the worship 
of God, that is not antecedently necessary; 2. The duty 
of .not offending a weak brother is inconsistent with all hu- 
man authority of making laws concerning indifferent things : 
I do* hereby openly renounce both the said propositions, 
being false, erroneous, and schismatical, and do' revoke 
and disclaim all tenets, positions, and assertions contained 
in the said book, from whence these positions can be in- 
ferred. And whereinsoever I have offended therein, I do 
heartily beg pardon of God and the church for the same.'* 
This retractation is styled by one of his biographers ** an 
instance of human weakness,^' but it was of such weakness 
as seems to have adhered to this divine throughout life, for 
we shall soon find him voluntarily retracting opinions of far 
greater consequence. In the mean time he carried the 
same weakness so far, as to publish a second part of his 
" Protestant Reconciler, earnestly persuading the Dissent- 
ing Laity to join in full Communion with the Church of 
England ; and answering all the objections of Noncon- 
formists against the lawfulness of their submission unto the 
rights and constitutions of that Church," Lend. 1683, 8vo. 
His next publications were two pamphlets in vindication of 
the revolution, and the oath of allegiance. He also pub- 
lished some more tracts on the popish controversy, and an 
excellent compendium of ethics, *' Ethices compendium 
in usum academical juventutis,'' Oxford, 1684, 12mo,' 
which has often been reprinted and used as a text-book. 
In 1691 he published " A Discourse concerning the truth 
and certainty of the Christian faith, from the extraordinary 
gifts and operations of the Holy Ghost, vouchsafed to the 
Apostles and primitive professors of that faith." 

His most important publication was his ^^ Paraphrase and 
commentary on the New Testament," which appeared in 
1703, 2 vols. fol. and was the fruit of fifteen years study. 
He published afterwards the following pieces as a sequel to, 
or connected with his commentary : " Additional annota- 
tions to the New Testament i" with seven discourses; and 



852 W .fl I T B Y. 

an Appendi^t, entitled /' Examen variantium Lectioniun 
^ohatinis Millii in Novum Tiestamentum ;" or, " An Exa*- 
xnination of the various readings in Dr. Mill^s New Testa- 
ment;" >* The necessity and usefulness of the Christian 
Revelation, by reason of the corruptions of the principles 
of natural religion among Jews and Heathens/' London^ 
17059 8 vo; '' Reflections on some assertions and opinions 
of Mr. Dodwell, contained in a book entitled ^ An Epis- 
tolary discourse proving from the Scripture and first fathers, 
that the soul is a principle naturally mortal. Shewing the 
falsehood and the pernicious consequences of them. To 
which is added an answer to a pamphlet, eatitled, somf 
]()assages in Dr. Whitby's paraphrase and annotations on 
the New Testament contrary to Scripture and the received 
Doctrine of the Church of England," London, 1707, 8vo. 

He now published his refutations of Calvinism, first, 
*^ Four Discourses, shewing, I. That the Apostle^s words, 
Romans the ninth, have no relation to any persdnal Elec- 
tion or Reprobation. II. That the Election mentioned in 
l^t. Paul's Epistle to the Gentiles is only that of the Gen- 
tiles to be God's Church and People. III. Tbat these two 
assei'tions of Dr. John Edwards, viz. 1. That God's fore- 
knowledge of future contingencies depends on his decree, 
and that he foreknows them, because be decreed them : 
2. That God did from all eternity decree the commission 
of all the sins in the world : are false, blasphea)Ous, and 
render God the author of sin. IV. Being a Vindication of 
my Annotations fromi the Doctor's cavils. To which is 
added, as an appendix, a short answer to the Doctor's dis« 
course concerning the fixed term of human life,'' London^ 
1710, 8vo. And secondly, " A Discourse concerning, 1. 
The true import of the words Election and Reprobation ; 
and the things signified by them in the Holy Scriptures. 
i. The Extent of Christ's Redemption. 3. T\\e Grace of 
God : where it is inquired, whether it be vouchsafed suffi- 
ciently to those who improve it not, and irresistibly to 
those who do improve it ; and whether men be wholly pas- 
sive in the work of their regeneration ? 4. The Liberty of 
the Will in a State of Trial and Probation. 5. The Per- 
severance or Defectibility of the Saints : with some reflec- 
tions on the state of the Heathens, the Providence and 
Prescience of God," London, 1710, 8vo. 

Some extracts from the preface to this work will shew 
by what process Dr. Whitby was led to those changes of 



WHITBY. 393 

opinion, which end^d at last in a denial of all he .had writ- 
ten on many other important points. It is a curious pro- 
cess, and not, we are afraid, peculiar to him only. In this 
Preface he observes, <^ That what moved him narrowly to 
isearch into the principal of the Calvinistical Doctrines, 
especially that of the imputation of Adam^s sin to all bis 
posterity, was the strange consequences which attended 
It. After some years study he met with one who seemed 
%o be a Dei&t ; and telling him, that there were arguments 
f uffi^ient to prove the truth of the Christian Faith and of 
the floly Scriptures, the other scornfully replied, ^ Yes, 
and you will prove your doctrine of the imputation of ori- 
ginal sin from thie same Scripture ;' intimatiug that he 
thought that doctrine, if contained in it, sufficient to in- 
validate the truth ^nd authority of the Scripture. The ob« 
jection of this Deistical person our author reduces into thif 
foro^ : the truth of the Holy Scripturci can no otherwise be 
proved to any one who doubts it, but by reducing him to 
somp absurdity, or the denial of some avowed principle of 
reason ; but the doctrine of the imputation of Adam's sin 
to all bis posterity, so as to render them obnoxious to 
God's wrath and eternal damnation, seems as contrary to 
^e pommoo reason of mankind as any thing can be, and 
90 contains as strong an argument against the truth of 
Scripture, if it be contained in it, as any that can be 
offered for it. Upon this account our author searched far- 
ther into the places usually alledged to confirm that^oc- 
^rine, and upon inquiry found them fairly capable of othei^ 
interpretations. One doubt remained still, whether anti- 
quity did not give suffrage to this doctrine ; and though 
Yossius roundly asserts this, yet our author upon inquiry 
found, that all the ps^s^ges, which he had collected, were 
either impertinent or at least insufficient to prove his point. 
And having made a collection of these matters, our author 
finished a treatise of < Original Sin' in Latin about twenty 
years before, though he did not think proper to publish it. 
He tells us likewise, that he discoursed another time with 
s^ physician, who was of opinion, that there was «ome 
^ause to doubt of th^ truth of Scripture, because it seems 
plainly to deliver the doctrine of ^ absolute Election and 
Reprobation' in the 9th chapter of the Epistle to the Ro- 
mans; which doctrine is attended with more absurdities than 
can be charged on them Who question the truth of the 
i^riptures, ^nd seems as repugnant to the common notiona 



- \ 



Z94 WHITBY- 

which mankind have received of the divine justice, good<^ 
nes8, and sincerity, as even the saying^.that God consider- 
ing man ' in mass& perdit^/ as lost in Adam, may dehide 
him with false miracles, seems repugnant to his truth. 
And reading in Mr. Dodweil that bold stroke, that St. 
Paul being bred a Pharisee, spake in that chapter < ex 
inente Pharisseorum,' according to the doctriue of the Pha- 
risee? concerning fate, which they borrowed from the 
stoics; this gave 6ur author occasion to set himself to make 
the best and exactest search he could into