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err 



THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XXIX. 



Printed by Nichols, Son, and Bentley» 
Ked lion Passagei Fleet Street, London* 



THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



CONTAINING _J: ^ — 

AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

O.F THB 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

/ OF THE 

MOST EMINENT PERSON^ 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISHi 
FROM THE EARLIESTS ACCOUNT TO THE PRESENT TIME. 




A NEW EDITION, 

. REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, E; S. A. 



VOL. XXIX. 



LONDONt 

PRIKTEO FOR J. NICHOLS AND SON ; F. C. AND J. RIVINOTON | T. PAYNE ; 
OTRIDGB AND SON; O. AND W. NICOL ; O. WILKIE ; J. WALKER; W. 
LOWNDES; T. EGERTON; LACRINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J.' CARPENTER | 
LONGMAN, HtJRST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN; CADBLL AND DA VIES; LAW 
AND WHITTAKER ; J. BOOKER ; J. CUTHELL ; CLARKE AND SONS ; J. AND 
A. ARCH; J. HARRIS; BLACK, PARBURY, AND ALLEN ; J. BLACK; J. BOOTH; 
J. MAWMAN; GALE AND FENNER; R. H. EVANS; J. HATCHARD ; J. MURRAY | 
BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AMD JOY; B. BENTLEY ; OGLE AND CO.; W. GINGER; 
RODWELL AMD MARTIN; P. WRIGHT; J. DBIOHTON AND SON, CAMBRIDQX| 
CONSTAB]LB AND CO. EDINBURGH; AND WILSON ANp SON, YORK. 

1816. 



A 



«> 



A NEW AND GENERAL 



BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



OUAREZ (FfiANCis)y A Spanish Jesuit, born at Grenada, 
Jan. 5, £548, was a professor of reputation at Alcala, at 
Salamanca, and at Rome. He was afterwards invited 
to Coimbra in Portugal, where he became the princi- 
pal professor of divinity. He is an author of the most 
voluminous kind: his works extended to twenty -three 
volumes, in folio ; and so extraordinary was his memory, 
that if any passage was cited from them, he could imme* 
diately go on to the end of the chapter or book. Yet, 
with all his talents, his examiners had such an indifferent 
opinion of him, that it was with some diiBcuity he gained 
admission into the order of Jesuits. He died at Lisbon, 
Sept. 215, 161 7. B^ order of pope Paul V. he wrote u 
book *' against the errors of the English sect,*' which 
James I. caused to be publicly burnt at St. Paul's. ^* Happy^ 
should I be," said he, '^ could I seal with my blood the 
truths I have defended with my pen." Yet unpopular aa 
this work must have rendered his name in this country, 
his treatise on law, '* Tractatus de Legibus,'^ was printed 
in London in 1679, in folio. His works are chiefly on 
the subjects of metaphysics, morality, and theology ; and 
what seeois to recommend them is, that he alAiost every 
where relates and explains, with great fidelity and precis 
sion, the different sentiments of divines concerning the 
subjects on which he treats. The Jesuits consider Suarez 
as the greatest and best scholastic divine their order has 
produced, and lavish the highest encooiiums upon him. 
He was the principal author of the system of Congruisi^, 
which is at bottom only that of Molina, although, perhaps, 
better adapted to the method and language of the theo- 
VOL. XXIX. B 



S S U A R E Z. 

logiansy and disguised under a less offensive form* Father 
Noel, a French Jesuit, made an abridgment of the works* 
of this commentator, which was published at Geneva in 
1732, in fo\io. There is a prolix life of him by Antony- 
Ignatius Deschamp», printed at Perpignan in 1671, a 4to 
of 800 pages. * , - 

SUCKLING (Sir John), an accomplished courtier, scho- 
lar, and poet, was the son of sir John Suckling, cooop- 
troller of the royal household, and was born at Whitton in 
Middlesex, where his father resided, in 1609. His bio- 
graphers have hitherto fixed the time of his birth in 1612, 
but, according to some extracts from the parish-register 
of Twickenham, in Lysons's '< Environs,^* it appears, that 
he was baptised Feb. 10, 1608-9. Lloyd, from whom we 
have the first account of this poet, mentions a circumstance 
relating to his birth, from which more was presaged tbai>. 
folbwed. He was born, according to his mother^s compu« 
tation, in th^ eleventh month, and long life and health, 
were expected from so extraordinary an occurrence. Du- 
ring his infancy he certainly displayed an uncommon fa- 
cility of acquiring every branch of education. He spoke 
Latin at five years of age, and could write in that language 
at the age of nine. It is probable that he was taught more 
languages than one at the same time, and by practising 
frequently with men of education who kept company with, 
bis fiither, soon acquired an ease and elegance of address 
which qualified him for the court as well as for foreiga 
^travel. His father is represented as a man of a serious turiv 
and grave manners ; the son volatile, good-tempered, and. 
thoughtless ; characteristics which be seems to have pre- 
^inerved throughout life. His tutors found him particularly 
tuboiissive, docile, easy to be taught, and quick in learn- 
ing, it does not appear that he was sent to either uni- 
versity, jret a perusal of his prose works can leave no doubt 
that be laid a very solid and extensive foundation for va- 
rious learning, and studied, not only such authors as were 
suitable to the'vivacity of his disposition, but made him- 
self acquainted with those political and religious controver- 
sies which were about to involve his country in all the mi- 
series of civil war. 

'After continuing for some years Under his father^s tutor- 
age, he travelled over the kingdom, and tbeo went to the 



SUCKLING. J 

cantinent, where, his biographer informs us, '^ he made an 
honourable collection of the virtues of each nation, withr 
out any tincture of theirs, unless it were a httle too much 
of the French air» which was indeed the fault of bis com* 
plexion, rather than his person." It was about this time» 
probably in his twentieth year, that he joined the standard 
of the illustrious Gustavus Adolphus, and was present at 
three battles and (ive sieges, besides lesser engagements^ 
within the space of six months. 

On his return he employed his time, and expended his 
fortune, among the wits of his age, to whom he was re- 
commended,- not only by generous and social habits, but 
by a solid sense in argument and conversation far beyond 
whati might be expected from his years, and the apparent 
lightness of his disposition. Among bis principal asso* 
ciates, we find the names of lord Falkland, Davenant, Ben 
Jonson, Digby, Carew, sir Toby Matthews, and the "ever 
memprabje'* Hales of Eton, to whom he addresses a lively 
invitation to come to town* His plays, " Aglaura,** 
^^ Brennoralt,*' "The Goblins/' and an unfinished piece 
entitled " The Sad One," added considerably to his fame^ 
although they have not been able to perpetuate it. The first 
only was printed in his life-time. All bis plays, we aretoldj 
were acted with applause, and he spared no expence in 
costly dresses and decorations. 

While thus seemingly devoted to pleasure only, the un- 
fortunate aspect of public affairs roused him to a sense of 
duty, and induced him to offer his services, and devote 
bis life and fortune, t^^the causes of royaltyl ^ How justly 
be could contemplate the unfortunate disptite between the 
court and nation, appears in his letter to^Mr.Germaine (af- 
terwards lord Albemarle), a cooipo^tion Almost unrivaned 
in that age for elegance of styl^ andHepth of obse/vation. 
It was, however, too much the practice ; with 4%%9e^ who 
made voluntary offers of soldiers, to equip them in Sa 
expensive and useless manner. Suckling, who was mag- 
nificent in all his expenses, was not to be outdone in an 
article which be had studied more \han became a soldier, 
and which he might suppose would afford unquestionable 
proof of his attachment to the royal cause ; and, having 
been permitted to raise a troop of horse, consisting of aii 
hundred, he equipped them so '"richly, that they ari said 
to have cost him the sum of twelve thousand pounds. 



A SUCKLING. 

Thi$ exposed him to soine degree of ridiculei a weapotk 
ivliioh the republicans often wielded with successfol dex«- 
terityi and which, in this instance, was sharpened by tli« 
-misconduct of his gaudy soldiers. The particulars of this 
Afiair are not recorded; but it appears, that in 1639, the 
royai army, of which his troop formed a part, was defeated 
by the tScotch, and that sir John*s men behaved remark^ 
ably ill. All this is possible, without any imputation on 
the courage of their commander ; but it afforded his ene- 
mies an opportunity of turning the expedition into ridi- 
cole with an effect that is yet r emembered* The lines in 
Dr. Percy's collection, by sir John Mennis, are not the only 
specimen of the wit of the times at our author's expense. 

This unhappy affair is said by Lloyd to have contributed 
to shorten his days ; but Oldys, in his MS notes on Lang^^ 
4>aine, attributes his death to another cause. Lord Oxford 
informed Oldys, on the authority of dean Chetwood, who 
feaid he had it from lord Roscommon, that sir John Suck- 
ling, in his' way to France, was robbed of a casket of gold 
%nd jewels, by his valet, who gave him poison, and besides 
utttck the blade of a pen-knife into his boot in such a inan«> 
tier, that sir John was disabled from pursuing the villain, 
And was wounded incurably in the heel. Dr. Warton, in a 
«K)to to bis Essay on Pope, relates the story somewhat 
differently : <* Sir John Suckling was robbed by his valet- 
^e^diambre ; the moment he discovered it, he clapped on 
liis boots in a f>as9ionate hnrry, and perceived not a large 
fusty nail that was concealed at the bottom, which pierced 
fm feed, and brought on a mortification.^* He died May 7, 
'1641, in the thirty-second year of his age. That he was 
■on his way to France, when he met mih the occasion of his 
<dealh, seems to be confirmed by a ludicrous poem, lately^ 
re-printed in the " Censura Literaria," entitled "ALet- 
<ter sent by sir John Suckling from Franoe, deploring bis 
«ad estate and flight : with a discoverie of the plot and 
conspiraeie, intended by him and bis adherents against 
England. Imprinted at London, 1641.*' This poem is 
dated Paris, June 16, 1641, at which time the author pro- 
l»ably had not learned that the object of his satire was be- 
yond his reach. 

As a poet, he was one of those who wrote for amuse- 
inent, Imd was not stimulated by ambition, or anxious for 
fame. His pieces were sent loose about the world ; and 
not having been collected until after his death, they are 



SUCKLING. 1^ 

probs^ly le!is correct than be left them; Jtlany of hU yerscm 
are as rugged and unharmonioiis as thos^e of Donne ; butbia 
aongs and ballads are elegant and graceful. He was par- 
tictilarly bappy and original in expressing tba feelings of 
artificial love, disdain, or disappointmeDt. The ** Session, 
of the Poets/' tbe << Lines lo a Rival/* the *'< HoMb 
Lover/' and the ^rfiallad upon a Wedding/' are sufficient 
td entitle hipa to the honours. of poetry, which the autho( 
of tbe lives published under the name of Cibber,isestreiKiely 
anxious to wrest from him. 

His works have been often reprinted ; first in 1646, 9vQ| 
again in 1 6i9^ and 1 676 ; very correctly by Tonscm in 1 7 I9f 
and elegantly, but incorrectly, by Davies in 1770. Tb9 
edition of Tonson has been followed in the late edition of 
the ^' English Poets/' with the omission of such pieces aa 
were thought degrading to his meoiory, and insulting to 
publio decency *. But whatever opinion is entertained of 
Suckling as a poet, it may be doubted whether his prose 
writings are not calculated to raise a yet higher opinion of 
bis talents. His letters, with a dash of gallantry piore 
free than modern times will admit, are shrewd in observa«* 
tion, and often elegant in style. That addressed to Mr. 
Germaine has already been noticed, and bis ** Account <4 
Religion by Reason/' is remarkable for soundness of argu* 
ment, and purity of expression, far exceeding the oon« 
troversial writings of that age. This piece affords a pre^ 
sumption that he was even now no stranger to those re-» 
flections which elevate the human character, and that if 
bis life had been spared, it would have been probably d^«« 
voted to more honourable objects than those in which b^ 
had employed his youthful days.^ 

SUETONIUS (Caius Suetonius Traijouiiaus), an 
ancient historian and biographer, was born at Rome aboul 
the beginning of the reign of Vespasian, perhaps in th<| 
year 70, as may be collected from his own words in the 
life of Nero. His father Suetonius Lenis was tribune of 4 
legion, in the service of the emperor Otho, against Vitel** 
lius. He passed his first years probably at Rome; mkA 
when groyvn up, applied himself to the bar. He appears 
to have very early acquired tbe friendship of the youngev 

^ There is m manuscript poem from is of that gross kin4 w^ich delicacy 
his pen ia the British Maseura* re- ivill not now tolerate.) 
^lete wiUi humour 1 but tbe subjeot 

1 En^lith Poetf, 21 ▼ob.Sro, IS 10, k<i* 



6 SUETONIUS. 

Pliny, /who procured for him the office of tribune; and 
afterwards, upon his resignation, transferred it to his kins- 
than, at Suetonius*s request. He obtained also for him 
the " Jus trium Hberorum;" a favour seldom granted, and 
which Pliny could not have obtained, if, beisides his great 

Interest at court, he had not very earnestly solicited the 
fenperor Trajan, in a letter written from Bitliynia, of 
which he was at that tihfft oovernor. In this letter he de* 
Scribes Suetonius as a man of great integritjf, honour, arid 
learning, whose manners and studies were^ the same with 
his own ; and he aiids, *' the better I have known him, the 
more I have loved him. He has been rather unhappy in 
bis marriage ; and the privileges of those who have tl^ree 

' children are upon several accounts necessary. He begs 
through mej therefore, that your bounty will' supply what 
bis ill fortune has denied him. 1 know, sir, the high value 
of the favour I ask ; but I am asking a sovereign whose 
indulgence to all my wishes I have long experienced. How 
desirous I am to obtain it, you wiih easily conclude, from 
iny applying to you at this distance; which Ishould not 
have done, if it had been a matter of indifference to me.** 
Suetonius advanced himself to be afterwards secretary to 
the emperor Adrian ; but he lost that place, fo^ not paying 
a due respect to the empress. Spartian, speaking of him 
and others involved in the same blame, uses the words 
^ quod apud Sabinam uxorem, injussu ejus, familiarius se 
tunc egerant, quam reverentia domus aulicse postulabat.*' 
On the nature of this disrespect, or " too great familiarity,** 
critics are not agreed. Their offence probabl}- rose only 
from the capricious temper of the emperor, who, we are 
told, treated her with great contempt himself for some 
reason, and permitted others also 'to do so uiider certain 
limitations; which limitations Suetonius and others might 
ignorantly transgress. 

' We know nothing more of Suetonius, nor of the time of 
bis death. He wrote many books, none of which are come 
down to us, except his Lives of the first twelve emperors, 
and part of his treatise concerning the illustrious gram- 
marians and rhetoricians ; for he applied himself much to 
the study of grammar and rhetoric, and many are of opi- 
nion that he was a teacher. Suidas ascribes to him seve- 
ral works of the grammatical kind ; and observes, that he 
wrote a book respecting the Grecian games, two upon the 
shows of the Romans, two upon the laws and customs of 



« U ET ON I U S. f 

itome, one upon the life of Cicero, or upoB. btr booin 
'' De Republic^* and *' A catalogue of the illustrious meo 
4»f Roine.^ Matiy other pieces of his are cited by variotti 
authors; and the lives of Terence, Horace, Juvenal, Per* 
sius, and Lucan, have usually gone under his naoiey and 
been printed at the end of his works, though it is not aln 
sdutely certain that they are his. His ** History of tb# 
Emperors" is a work of great value, as illustrative <^ thft 
manners of the times, and the particular character of thes^ 
sovereigns, but is not written strictly either in the bistort* 
jcal or biographical form. It consists of a continued series 
of curious facts, related succinctly, without digressions or 
tTeflections. There is in it a character of sincerity^ wbicli 
^bews very plainly, that the author feaced and hoped for 
nothings and that his pen was not directed ^y hatred or 
ilattery. Suetonius, says Politian, ** has given us evident 
proofs of his dttigence, veracity, and freedom. There is 
DO room for any suspicion of partiality in bis books ; no* 
thing is advanced out of favour, or suppressed out of fear : 
the facts themselves have engrossed bis whole attention, 
and he has consulted truth in the first place/' Politian is 
also of opinion, that he forbore writing the lives of Nerva, 
Trajan, and Adrian, the emperors of his time, because be 
would not be tempted to disregard the love of truth. Some 
have blamed him for his descriptions of the horrid debau* 
cberies of Tiberius, Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, which 
Erasmus is willing to excuse on the score of bis care and 
.fidelity as an historian ; but certainly such descri|)tions caB* 
Aot be defended, because they cannot be necessary even to 
fidelity itself. A goad4£nglish translation was published in 
1796 by Dr. Alexander Thomson, in which he softened or 
suppressed Suetonjus^s indelicacies, without any injury to 
the general effect of the narrative. Suetonius speaks dis« 
respectfully of the Christians, catling them ** genus boroi- 
niim superstitionis novae & maleficae, a sort of people of a 
new and nviscbievous superstition f ' but Lardner has se* 
lected froip him some important corroborations of the facts 
of gospel history. 

Suetonius was first printed at Rome in 1470, fol. and 
was often reprinted in tb^t century, with and without dates; 
since when, the best editions are : those of Stepbanua^ 
1543, Svo : *< Cum notis jc numismatiboa a Carolo Patin/' 
Basil, 1675, 4to : ^* Cum notis integris Isaaci Casauboni, 
Laevini Torrentii, Joannis Georgii GrsDvii, & selectis alio* 



I SUETONIUS. 

niin,*^ HagnCooiit 1691, 4to. << Cum notis varioMtn A 
Pirisci," L. Bat. 1692, 2 torn. 8vo. And, " Cum hotis 
•ttctioribus Pitisci,'' Leovard. 1714. This last is by far 
the best; but tbere is another printed at the Hague in 
1727, 4to; " In usttm Delphini," Paris, 1684, 2 torn. 4to ; 
•^^ Cum notis Burmanni," 1736, in 2 vols. 4to; << Emesti,^* 
l^ipsic, 1748—75, 8vo. " Oudendorp," Leyden, 1751, 
•S vols. 8 vo ; and <* Wolfius," Leipsic, 1 808, 4 vols. 8 vo. ^ 
' SUEUR (EuSTACHE le), one of the best painters in his 
-time which the French nation had produced, was born at 
Paris in 1617, and studied the principles of his art und^r 
Simon Vouet, whom he infinitely surpassed ; and although 
he was never out of France, carried the art to a very 
'high degree of perfection. His style was formed upon 
antiquity, and after the best Italian masters. He invented 
.with ease, and bis execution was always worthy of his de- 
signs. His attitudes are simple and noble, and bis ex-i- 
-pr«ssion well adapted to the subject. His draperies are 
; designed after the manner of Raphael's last works. Al- 
.though he knew little of the local colours, or the chiaro 
scuro, he was so much master of the other parts of paint- 
. ing, that there was a great likelihood of his throwing off 
Vouet's manner entirely, had he lived longer. Itnmedi- 
ately after Vouet's death, he perceived that his master had 
ied him out of the way : and by considering the antiques 
that were in France, and the designs and prints of the best 
Italian masters, particularly Raphael, he contracted a more 
refined style and happier manner. Le Brun could not 
' forbear being jealous of Le Sueur, who did not mean, 
however, to give any man pain ; for he had great simpli- 
' city of manners, and much candour, and probity. He 
died at Paris April 30, 1655, at no more than thirty-eight 
years of age. The life of St. Bruno, in twenty pictures, 
' originally preserved iu the Chartreux, and which employed 
him for three years, have, as Mr. Fuseli informs us, been 
- ** lately consigned to the profane clutch of restoration in 
the attic of the Luxembourg, and are now little more than 
the faint traces of what they were when issuing from thig 
liand of their master. They have siiflered martyrdom more 
; than ovroe. It is well that the naturae of the subject per- 
, mitted little anore than fresco in the colouring at first, and 
Aat the grent merit of their execution consisted in that 

» Geo. Diet— riiou U^fiuU-^Voumi de Hjpt Lat.— te»i PsOiMsU 



8 U EC IL 9 

breadth of vehicle which monafttic drapeiy demands, else 
we shddd have lost even the fragments that remain. The 
old man in the fore-ground, the head of St. Bruno, and 
some of the disputants in the hack-ground of the Predica- 
tion ; the bishop and the condemned defunct in the fune* 
fal ; the apparition of St. Bruno himself in the camp ; the 
female figure in the eleemosinary scene, and what has suf* 
fered least of all, the death of St. Bruno, contain the leatt 
disputable marks of the master's primitive touch. The 
subject of the whole, abstractly considered, is the'persoin* 
fication of sanctity, and it has been represented in the 
series with a purity which seems to place the artist's heart 
on a level with that of his hero. The simplicity which telb 
that tale of resignation and innocence, despises vll contrast 
of more varied composition, though not always with equal 
anccess. St. Bruno on his bed, visited by angels, build- 
ing or viewing the plan for building his rocky retreat ; the 
iiunting-scen^, and the apotheosis ; might probably ^ave 
admitted happier combinations. As, in the difiPerent re* 
touchings, the faces have suffered most, the expression 
hdust be estimated by those that escaped ; and Arom What 
still remains, we may conclude that it was uot inferior to 
the composition.** * 

SUGER, theabb^, a celebrated minister under Louis VII. 
was born at Tguri in Beauce, in 1082, and being bred up 
at St. Denis with the young prince, afterwards Louis le 
Gros, became his principal guide and counsellor. On the 
death of Adam, abbot of St. Denis, in 1122, Suger ob- 
tained his* place, and even in his abbey performed the 
duties of a minister. He reformed and improved not only 
his own society, as abbot, but all departments of the state 
as minister, and obtained sa high a reputation, that after 
his death it was thought sufficient to write on his tomb, 
" Cy git rabb6 Suger." " Here lies the abb6 8uger.F» 
He died' at St. Denis, in 1152. His life has been written 
in 3 vols. 12mo, by a Dominican of the name of Gervaise, . 
and some works which he wrote have been inserted by Du 
Chesne in his historical collections.* 

SUICER (John Gaspard), a learned Gernnm divine, 
was bom at Zurich June 26, 1619 ; became professor there 
of the Greek and Hebrew languages ; and died at HeideU . 
berg Nov. 8, 1634, according to Saxius. He Was the 

1 ArgtBTille^ vol. IV.-- FilkiHgtoii. • Morari.— Diet. Hist. 



ja « U I C E R, 

compiler of a very useful work, called ** Lexicon, sive 
Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus Patrum GraecoruiB :*' the beat 
cditipo of which is that of Amsterdam, 1728, 2 vols, foU 
He bad a son, Henrv Suiper, distinguished by some lite-* 
rary productions, who wjm a professor, first at Zurich^ tbcB 
at Hi^delberg, and who died in 1705.* 

SU19AS, author of a celebrated Greek Lexicon, is a 
personage of whom we are unable to give manyij^rticulars. 
Who be was, or when be jived, are points of great uncer* 
tarnty ; no circumstances of bis life having been recorded, 
either by himself or any other writer. Politian and some 
others have been of opinion that no such person ever ex«* 
isted ; but that Suidas was ^ real person, appears, not only 
from his namejbeing found in all the manuscripts of his 
Lexicon, but from bis being ofteui mentioned by Eusta* 
tbius in bis Commentary upon HomeVt% The learned have 
differed in the same manner concerning the age of Suidas ; 
some, as Grotius^ supposing him to have lived under Conr 
stantinus, the son. of Leo, emperor of the East, who begao 
to reign in the year 912; while others have brought him eveii 
lower than Eustatbius, who is known to have lived in 1 ISO. 
The learned Benlley thinks that as he has referred a point 
of chronology to the death of the emperor Zimisces, that 
is, to the year of Christ 975: we may infer that he wrote 
bis Lexicon between that time and the death of the suc- 
ceeding emperor, which was in 1025. This Lexicon is a . 
compilation of matters from various authors, sometimes 
made with judgment and diligence, but often from bad 
copies ; and he therefore sometimes gives his reader cor- 
rupt and spurious words, instead of those that are pure 
and genuine. He also mixes things of a different kind, 
and belonging to different authors, promiscuously ; and 
some of his examples to illustrate the signification of words 
are very little to the purpose. His Lexicon, however, is a 
very useful book,- and a storehouse of all sorts of erudition. 
Scholars hy profession have all prized it hijghly ; as exhi- 
biting many excellent passages of ancient authors whose 
works are lost. It is to be ranked uith the Bibliotbeca of 
I^hotius and works of that kind. The ^^ Etymologicon 
Ma|i;num^' has been ascribed to Suidas, but without suffi- 
cient authority, though it may have been composed in the 
same period with the Lexicon. 

1 Moreri. — Diet. Hiit.— Saiii Ooomait. 



S U I D A S. n 

Suidas^s Lexicon was first published at Milan, 1 499, ia 
Greek only : it has since been printed with a Latin ^tt^ 
sion : bat the best edition, indeed the only good one, it 
that of Kuster, Gr. & Lat. Cambridge, 1705, 5 vols, folie* 
To this should be added Toup^s v^oable *^ Emeodationct 
in Saidam," Oi[on. 1790, 4 vols. 8va Mr. Taylqr had 
begun an appendix to Snidas, four sheets only of which 
were printed off at the time of bis death, April 4, 1 766. 
It had the following title, ^'Appendix notarum in Suidae 
Lexicon, ad paginasedit Cantab^ 1705, adcommodatarum ; 
colUgente, qui et suas etiam aliquammultas adjecit, Joanne 
Taylor." This, we believe, was never fihisl^d.' 

SULLY (Maximiuan de Bethume, duke of), one of the 
most able and honest ministers that France ever had, was 
descended from an ancient and illustrious house, and bom 
in 1 SS9 at Rosni, descended from a younger branch of the 
ancient counts oif Flanders. His Either was the baroo de 
Rosni. He was bred in the opinions and doctrine of the 
reformed religion, and continued to the end of his life 
constant in the profession of it, which seems to have fitted 
him for the important services to which Providence bad 
designed him. The queen of Navarre, after the death of 
her husband Antony de Bourbon, returned to Beam, where 
she openly professed Calvinism. She sent for her son 
Henry from the court of France to Pan in 1556, and put 
him under a preceptor, who trained him up in the Protea* 
tant religion. She declared herself the protectress of the 
Protestants in 1566 ; and went to Rochelle, where she de- 
voted her 6on to the defence of the Reformed religion. In 
that quality Henry, then prince of Beam, was declared 
chief of the party ; and followed the army from that time 
to the peace, which was signed at St. Germains, August 
11, 1570. He then returned to Beam, and made use of 
the quret that was given him, to visit his estates and his 
government of Guyenne, after which« he went and settled 
in Rochelle,' with his mother. 

The advantages granted to the Protestants by the peace 
of St. Germains, raised a suspicion in the breasts of their 
leaders, that the court of France was acting treacherously, 
and that in reality nothing else was intended by the p^ace, 
than to prepare for the most dismal tragedy that ever was 

1 Moreri.— Saxii OaoBiaft.— >Berringion>s Middle Afei. — Clarke'i Bibliofra- 
phicat Dictionary. ' 



M SULLY. 

ftfited ; tnd the truth was, that the queen dowager Catha-* 
rine de Medicts, and her son Charles IX. being now con- 
vinced that the Protestants were ,too powerful to be sub** 
dued by force, were determined to extirpate them by stra« 
tagem. They, however, dissembled their intentions ; and, 
during the whole ye^f 1571, talked of nothing but faith-* 
fully observing the treaties ef entering into a closer cor-* 
respondence with the Protestants, and carefully preventing 
all occasions of rekindling the war. To remove all possi* 
ble suspicion, the court of France proposed a marriage 
between Charles the IXth's sister, and Henry prince of 
Beam; and feigned, at the same time, as if they would 
prepare a war against Spain, than which nothing could be 
more agreeable to Henry. These things, enforced with 
the appearance of great frankness and sincerity, entirely 
gained the queen of Navarre ; who, though she continued 
irresolute for some months, yet yielded about the end of 
1571, and prepared for the journey to Paris, as was pro* 
posed, in May J 572. 

Sully's father was one of those who doubted the sincerity 
6f the court, and conceived such strong apprehensions, that 
when the report of the court of Navarre's journey to Parit 
first reached him, he could not give credit to it. Firmly 
persuaded that the present calm would be of short conti* 
nuance, he made haste ta take advantage of it, and pre* 
pared to shut himself up with his effects in Rochelle, when 
every one else thought of leaving it. But the queen of 
Navarre having informed him of her design, and requested 
him to join her in her way to Vendome, he went, and took 
Sully, now'in his twelfth year, along with him. He found 
a general security at Vendome, aud an air of satisfaction 
on every face ; to which, though he durst not object in pub«- 
lie, yet he made remonstrances to some of the chiefs in pri- 
vate. These were considered as the effects of weakness 
and timidity ; and therefore, not caring to seem wiser than 
persons of greater understandings, he seemed to incline to 
the general opinion. He went to Rosni, to put himself into 
a condition to appear at the magnificent court of France ; 
but, before he went, presented bis son to the prince of 
BeWn, in the presence of the queen his mother, with great 
solemnity, and assurances of the most inviolable attachment* 
Sully did not return with his father to Rosni, but went to 
Paris in the queen of 'Navarre's train. He applied himself 
closely to his studies, without neglecting to pay a proper 



S U L L T. 13 

* 

tovat to the prince his master ; and liwd witk a governor 
and a valet de chambre in a part of Paris where almost ati 
the colleges stood, and continued there till the bloody ca- 
tastrophe which happened soon after. 

Nothing could be more kind than die reception which 
the queen of Navarre, her children, and principal servants, 
met with from the king and queen; nor more obliging, thafi 
their treatment of them. The queen of Navarre died, and 
•ome' historians make no doubt but she was poisoned; 
yet the whole court appeared sensibly affected, and went 
into deep mourning. Still many of the Protestants, among 
whom was Sully*s father, suspected the designs of the court; 
and had such convincing proofs, that they quitted the court, 
and Paris itself, or at least lodged in the suburbs., They 
warned prince Henry to be cautious ; but he listened to 
nothing ; and some of his chiefs were as incredulous, and 
the admiral de Coligni in particular, though one of the 
wisest and most sagacious men in the world. The fact to 
be perpetrated was fixed for the 24th of August, 1572, and 
is well known by the name of the massacre of St. Bartholo* 
mew. The feast of St. Bartholomew fell this year upon a 
Sunday ; and the massacre was perpetrated in the evening. 
All the necessary measures having been taken, the ring- 
ing of the bells or St. Germain T Adzerrois for matins was 
the signal for' beginning the slaughter. The admiral de 
Coligni was first murdered by a domestic of the duk6 of 
Guise, the duke himself staying below in the court, and his 
body was thrown out of the window. (See CoLtGNi.) The 
king, as Daniel relates, went to feast himself with the sight 
of it ; and, when those that were with him took notice that 
it was somewhat offensive, is said to have used the reply of 
the Roman emperOT Vitellius, '* The body of a dead enemy 
always smells sweet.*' All the domestics of the admiral were 
afterwards slain, and the slaughter was at the same time be* 
gun by the king's emissaries in all parts of the city. Ta-*- 
vanes, a marshal of France, who had been page to Francis L 
end was at that time one of the counsellors and confidants 
of Catharine de Medidis, ran through the streets of Paris, 
crying, *' Let blood, let blood ! bleeding is as good in th^ 
month of August, as in May !" Among the most distin- 
guished of the Protestants that perished was Francis de la 
Rochefoucault ; who having been at play part of the night 
with the king, and finding himself seized in bed by n^en in 
masques, thooght they were the king and hisxourtiers, whe 



14 SULLY. 

came to divert themselves with him. During this carnage^ 
SuHj^*s safety is thus accounted for by himself: ** I was in 
bed/' says he, ^^and awaked from sleep three hours after 
midnight by the sound of all the bells and the confused cries 
of the populace. My governor, St. Julian, with my valet de 
chambre, went hastily out to know the cause ; and I never 
si(terwards heard more of these men, who, without doubt, 
were among the first that were sacrificed to the public fury. 
I continued alone in my chamber dressing myself, when in 
a few moments T saw my landlord enter, pale, and in the 
utmost consternation. He was of the reformed religion ; 
and, having learned what the matter was, had consented to 
go to mass, to preserve his life, and his house from being" 
pillaged. He came tu persuade me to do the same, and to 
take me with him : I did not think proper to follow him, 
but resolved to try if I could gain the college of Burgundy, 
where I had studied ; though the ^reat disunce between the 
bouse where I then was, and the college, made the attempt 
very dangerous. Having disguised myself in a scholar^s 
gown, I put a large prayer*book under my arm, and went 
into the street. . I was seized with horror inexpressible at 
the sight of the furious murderers ; who, running from all 
parts, forced open the houses, and cried aloud, * Kill ! kill ! 
massacre the Huguenots !^ The blood which I saw shed 
before my eyes, redoubled my terror, I fell into the midst 
of a body of guards ; they stopped me, questioned me, and 
were beginning to use me ill, when, happily for me, the book 
that I carried was perceived, apd served me for a passport. 
Twice after this I fell 'into the same danger, from which 
I extricated myself by the same good fortune. At last I 
arrived at the college of Burgundy, where a danger still 
greater than any I had yet met with awaited me. The por« 
ter having twice refused me entrance, I continued standing 
in the midst of the street, at the mercy of theifurious mur- 
derers, whose numbers increased every moment, and who 
were evidently seeking for llieir prey ; when it came into 
my mind to ask for La Faye, the principal of this college, 
a good man, by whom I was tenderly beloved. The porter, 
prevailed upon by some small pieces of money which I put 
into his hand, adniitted me ; and my friend carried me to 
his apartment, where two inhuman priests, whom I heard 
mention Sicilian vespers, wanted to forpe me from him, that 
they might cut me in pieces; saying, the order was, not to 
spare even infants at the breast All t&^ good man could 



SULLY. IS 

do was to cohdact me prirately to a distant chamber, wbero 
be locked. me up; and here I was confined three days, un- 
certain of my destiny^ seeing no one but a servant of my 
friend, who came from time to time to bring me provision." 
Henry king of Navarre, who had been married to Charles 
the IXth's sister but six days before, with the greatest so<* 
lemnity and with all the marks pf kindness and aiTectioll 
from the court, was awaked two hours before day by a great 
Dumber of soldiers, who rushed boldly into a chamber in 
the Louvre, where he and the prince of Cond^ lay, arid in« 
solently commanded them to dress themselves, and attend 
the king. They would not suffer the two princes to take 
their swords with them, who, as they went, saw several of 
their gentlemen massacred before their eyes. This was 
contrived, doubtless, to intimidate them ; and, with the same 
view, as Henry went to the king, the queen gave orders, 
that they should lead him under the vaults, and make him 
pass through the guards, drawn up in files on each side, and 
'Sin rmenacing postures. He trembled, and recoiled two or 
three steps back; but the captain of the guards swearing 
that they should do him no hurt, he proceeded through, 
amidst carbines and halberts. The king waited for them, and 
received them with a countenance and eyes full of fury : he 
ordered them with oaths and blasphemies, which were fa- 
miliar with him, to quit a religion, which he said had been 
taken up only for a cloke to their rebellion : be told them 
in a fierce and angry tone, ** that he would no longer be 
contradicted in his opinions by his subjects; that they by 
their example should teach others to revere him as the 
image of God, and cease to be enemies to the images of his 
mother;*' and ended by declaring, that <Mf they did not 
go to mass, he' would treat them' as criminals guilty of trea* 
son against diviniB and hupnan majesty." The manner of 
pronouncing these words not suffering the princes to doubt 
the sincerity of them, they yielded to necessity, and per« 
formed what was required of them : and Henry was even 
obliged to send an edict into his dominions, by which the 
exercise of any other religion but the Romish was forbidden. 
In the niean time the court sent orders to the governors 
in all the provinces, that the same destruction should be 
made of the Protestants there as had been at Paris;' but 
many of them nobly refused to execute these orders ; and 
the viscount d'Ortbe had the courage to writie from Bay* 
onoe to Charles IX. that, ^ be found many fo«d soldiem 



16 JrU L L Y. 

in his gamsoii) but not one execationef t and begged biia 
to commantl their lives in any service that was possible/' 
Yet the abettors and prime actors in this tragedy at Paris- 
were wonderfully satisfied with themselves^ and. found much 
comfort in having been able to do so much for the cause of 
God and bis church. Tavanes, mentioned above, who ran 
about the streets crying ^* Let blood ! let blodd !*^ .being 
upon his death-bed, made a general confessibn of the sins 
of bis life ; aften which his confessor saying to him with an 
air of astonishment, *^ Why ! you speak not a word of St« 
Bartholomew;'* he replied, '^I look upon that as a meri-* 
torious action, which ought to atone for all the sins I have 
ever committed." This is related by his son, who has writ* 
ten memoirs of him. The king himself must have supposed 
real merit to have been in it ; for, not content with setting 
bis seal and sanction to these detestable butcheries, he is 
credibly affirmed to have taken the carbine into his own 
hands, and to have 'shot at the poor Huguenots as they at-* 
tempted to escape. The court of Rome did all they could 
to confirm the Parisians in this horrid notion : foi: though 
Pope Pius V. is said to have been so much afflicted at the 
massacre as to shed tears, yet Gregory XI IL who succeeded 
bim, ordered a public thanksgiving to God for it to be of- 
fered at Rome, and sent a legate to congratulate Charles 
I^. and to exhort him to continue it. Father Daniel coo- 
tents himself with saying, that the king's zeal in his ter- 
rible punishment of the heretics was commended at Rome ; 
und Baronius affirms the action to have been absolutely 
necessary. The French writers, however, have spoken of 
it in the manner it deserves; have represented it as the 
most wicked and inhuman devastation that ever wss com<« 
emitted: ^'an execrable action,*' says one of th^m, Prefixe, 
*^that never had, and I trust God will never have, its like.'' 
Seventy thousand, according to Sully's Memoirs, was the 
numberof Protestants massacred, duringeight days, through- 
out the kingdom. 

At the end of three days, however, a prohibition against 
murdering and pillaging any more of the Protesjlants was 
published at Paris ; and then Sully was suffered to quit bis 
cell in the college of Burgundy. He immediately saw two 
ioldiers of the guard, agents to his father, entering the col- 
lege, wlio gave his father a relation of what had happened 
to b!m ; and^ eight days after, he received a letter from 
him, advising bim to continue in Paris, since the prince h# 



-SULLY* 17 

served was not at liberty to leave it; and adding, thatb# 
should follow the princess example in going to mass. Tbougb 
the king of Navarre had saved bis life by this submission, 
yet in other things be was treated very indifferently, and 
suffered a thousand capricious insults. He was obliged, 
against his will, to stay some years at the court of France; 
he knew very well how to dissemble his chagrin ; and he 
often diverted it by gallantries, and the lady de Sauves, 
wife to one of the secretaries of state, became one of his 
chief mistresses. But still he did not neglect such politi- 
cal measures as seemed practicable, and he had a hand iii 
those that were formed to take away the government from 
Catharine de Medicis, and to expel the Guises from court ; 
which that queen discovering, caused him and the duke of 
Alen^on to be arrested, set guards upon them, and ordered 
them to be examined upon many heinous allegations. They 
wercisetat liberty by Henry III. for Charles IX. died, 1574, 
io the most exquisite torments and horrors, the massacre of 
8t. Bartholomew's r day having been always in his mind. 
Sully employed his leisure in the most advantageous man* 
ner he was able. He found it impracticable in a court to 
' pursue the study of the learned languages, or of any 
'thing called learning ; but the king of Navarre ordered him 
to be taught mathematics and history, and^ali those exer- 
cises which give ease and gracefulness to the person ; that 
method of educating youth, with a particular attention to 
tiie formation of the manners, being peculiar to Henry, 
who was himself educated in the same way. 

In 1576,. the king of Navarre made his escape from the 
court of France, while on a hunting-party near Senlis; 
from whence, his guards . being dispersed, he instantly 
passed the Seine at Poissy, and went to Tours, where he 
no sooner arrived than he resumed the exercise of the Pro- 
testant religion. A war was now expected ; and Catharine 
de Medicis began to tremble in her turn : and, indeed, 
from that time to 158^, Henry's life presents us only with 
a mixture of battles, negociations, and love-intrigues, ifhich 
kst made no inconsiderable part of his business. Sully was 
one of those who attended him in his flight, and who con- 
tiniled to attend him to the end of his life, serving him in, 
the different capacities of soldier and statesman, as the va- 
xiout conditions of bis.aiiairs required. Henry'^ wife, whom 
•Catharine had brought to him in 1578, was a great impedi- 
saent ta bim ; yet by bit management she was someiimti 

Vol. XXIX. C 



IS SULLY. 

of use also. There were frequent ruptures betvreeti hitn 
afid the court of France; but at last Henry IIL confede- 
rated with him sincerely, and in ^;ood earnest, to resist the 
League, which was more furious than ever, after the death 
of the duke of Guise and the cardinal his brother. The 
reeoncihation and confederacy of these two kings was con* 
eluded iii April 1589 : their interview was at Tours the 30th 
of that month, attended with great demonstratton'of mutual 
satisfaction. They joined their troops some time after to 
lay siege to Paris : they besieged it in person, and were 
upon the point of conquering that great city, when the king 
of France was assassinated by James Clement, a Dominicati 
friar, the Ist of August, at the village of St, Cloud. " The 
league,'' says Henault, ^Ms perhaps the most extraordinary 
event in history; and Henry IIL may be reckoned the 
weakest prince in not foreseeing, that he should render 
himself dependant on that party by becoming their chief. 
The Protestants had made war against him, as an enemy 
of their sect; and the leaguers murdered him on account 
of his uniting with the king of Navarre, the chief of the 
Huguenots/' 

Henry III. upon his death-bed declared the king of Na<* 
varre bis successor, who accordingly succeeded him, but 
not without very great difficulties. He was acknowledged 
king by most of the lords, whether catholic or protestant, 
who happened then to be at court ; ' but the leaguers re« 
fused absolutely to acknowledge his title till he had re^ 
nounced the protestant religion ; and the city of Paris peir- 
aisted in its revolt till the 22d of March, 1594. H^ em- 
braced the catholic religion, as the only method of putting 
an end to the miseries of France, by the advice of Sully, 
whom he had long taken into the sincerest confidehce; 
and the celebrated Du Perron, afterwards cardinal, was 
made the instrument of his conversion* He attempted also 
to convert Sully, but in vain : ** My parents bred me,'* said 
the minister, *^ in the opinions and dottrines of the re- 
formed religion, and I have continued constant in the pro- 
fession of it ; neither threatenings, promises^ variety of 
events, nor the change even of the king my protector, 
joined to his most tender solicitations, iiave ever been able 
to make me renounce it." 

This change of religion in Henry IV. thdugh it tieeoted 
4o create a present satisfaction, did not secure bifti froiti 
continual plots and troubles ; and beirrg made ttpon poUf^ 



I 

\ 



fi U L L Y* }0 

<pcal asiQtives, it was natural to suppose it not sincere. 
Thus, Dec. 26, 1594, a scholar, named John Chastel, at- 
^napted to assassinate tbe king, but only wounded bim iti 
the 9>outb ; aud when he was interrogated concerning tbe 
Qriiue, readily apswered, ^^ That he came from the college 
of 1;he. Jesuits,*' and then accused those fathers ofhs^ving 
instigated him to it The king, who was present at his 
i^aminatioq, said with much gaiety, that '^ he bad heard, 
froiQ the mouths of many persons, that the society never 
lQv§d him, and he was now convinced of it by his own^'* 
l^ome writers have related, that this assassination was at- 
tempted when he was with the fair Gabriel le, his mistress, 
at t;be hotel d'Estr6es ; but SuUy, who was with him, says 
^hat it was at Paris, in his apartments in the Louvre. This 
Ga.brie)le wm the favourite mistress of Henry JLV. and it is 
said, that the king intended to marry her ; but she died in 
1^99, tbe year that his marriage with Margaret of Yalois^ 
sister of Charles IX. was declared null and void by the 
pope^s commissioners, with consent of both parties. Hf 
married Mary of Medicis, at Lyons> th^ year after, and 
appointed madame de Guerchevilie, to whom he had made 
Ipve without success, to be one of her ladies of honour ; 
saying, that ^^ since she was a lady of real honour, she 
should be in that .post with tbe queen his wife.'' Henry, 
though he was ^ great monarch, was not alv^ays successful 
iu his addresses to the fair ; and a noble saying is recorded 
by many writers of Catharine, sister to tbe viscount de 
JS^o^an^ who replied tq a declaration of gallantry from this 
priuce^ that ^^ she was too poor tp be his wife, and of top 
good a family tp. be his mistress." 

Sully was n^w the first minister ; and he performed all 
lb? p4Eie.e4 of a great and good minuter, whil^ Henry per- 
formed the offices of a great and good king. He attended 
to every part of the government ; prosecuted extortioners^ 
aud those who were guilty of embezzling the public money; 
and, in short| restored the kingdom, in a few years, from 
a moft desperate to a most flourishing condition ; whicb^ 
however, be could not have done, if tbe king had ndt re- 
•oiutely supported him agsfinst favourite mistresses, the 
^skbals of court, ^nd tbe factions, of state, which would 
otherwise have overwhelmed him. The king himself turned 
bi^ wjiole application to every thing that might be useful, 
9r eveiV' convenient, tp bis kingdom, without suffering 
a^j^^ j^bat hi^ppened oi^t of it to pass unobserved, ^# j^ooa 

c 2 



20 SULLY. 

as he had put an end to the civil wars of France, and had 
conciuded a peace with Spain at Vecvins, on the 2d of 
May, 1 598. The state of the finances of BVance was at this 
time in a wretched situation, as many of the provinces were 
entirely exhausted, and none of them in a condition of 
bearing any new imposition. The standing revenues 
brought into the king's coffers no more than thirty millions, 
though an hundred and fifty millions were raised on the 
people : so great were the abuses of that government in 
raising mdney ; and they were not less in the dispensation 
of it. The whole scheme of the administration was a 
scheme of fraud, and all who served cheated the public, 
from the highest offices down to the lowest ; from the com-^ 
tnissioners of the treasury, down to the under farmers and 
under treasurers. Sully beheld this state of things, wheu 
he came to have the sole superintendency of affairs, with 
horror; he was ready to despair: but zeal for his master 
and for his country animated his endeavours, and he re- 
solved to make the reformation of abuses, the reduction of 
expences, and a frugal management, the fund for the pay- 
ment of national debts, and for all the great things he 
intended to do, without overcharging the people. This 
plan fully succeeded. The people were immediately eased, 
trade revived, the king's coffers were filled, a maritime 
power was created, and every thing necessary was pre- 
pared to put the nation in a condition of executing great 
designs, whenever great conjunctures should offer them- 
^Ives. "Such," says Bolingbroke, "was the effect of 
twelve years of wise and honest administration : and this 
effect would have shewed itself in great enterprises against 
the house of Austria, more formidable in these days than 
the house of Bourbon has been in ours, if Henry IV. had 
not been stabbed by one of those assassins, into wbDse hands 
the interest of this hou.se, and the frenzy of religion, had 
p'ut the dagger more than once." 

Henry was murdered the ITth" of May, J6I0; and, it 
appears> had many presages of his cruel destiny, which, 
"Sully tells us, " were indeed dreadful and surprising to the 
last degree." The queen was to be crowned purely to 
gratify her, for Henry was vehemently argainst the corona- 
tion ; and, the neai*er the moment approached, the more 
his terrors increased. "In this state of overwhelming hor- 
ror, which," says Sully, " at first I thought an unpar- 
donable weakness, he opened his whole heart to me : his 



SULLY; 21 

own words will be more affecting than all Tcati say. * Oh ! 
my friend/ said he, ' this coronation does not please me : 
I know not what is the meaning of it, but my heart telU me 
some fatal accident will happen.' He sat down, as he spoke 
these words, upon^ a chair in my closet; and, resigning 
himself some time to all the horror of his melancholy ap- 
prehensions, he suddenly started up, and cried out, * Par 
Dieu, I shall die in this city; they will murder ipe here; 
I see plainly they l>ave made my death their only re- 
source !** for he had then great designs on foot against 
Spain and the house of Austria. He repeated these fore^ 
bodings several times, which Sully as often treated as chi- 
ifneras; but they proved realities. 

' After the death of his master, by which he was greatly 
afflicted, Sully retired from court; for, a new reign intro- 
ducing new men and new measures, he was no longer re- 
garded. The life he led in retreat was accompanied with 
decency, grandeur, and even mlijesty ; yet it was, in some 
measure, embittered with domestic troubles, arising from 
the extravagance and ill conduct of his eldest son, the mar- 
quis of Rosni. H^ died J>ec, 22, 1641, aged eighty.three, 
and his duchess caused a statue to be erected over his 
burying^place, with this inscription :• " Here lies the body 
of the most high, most puissant, and most illustrious lord, 
Maximilian de Betbune, marquis of Rosni, who shared in 
all the fortunes of king Henry the Great ; among which 
was that memorable battle, which gave the crown to the 
victor; where, by his valour, he gained the white standard, 
and took several prisoners of distinction. He was by that 
great monarch, in reward of his many virtues and distin- 
guished merit, honoured with the dignities of duke, peer, 
and marshal of France, with the governments of the Upper 
and Lower Poitou, with the office of grand master of the 
ordnance; in which, bearing the thunder of his Jupiter, 
be took the castle of Montmelian, till then believed im- 
pregnable, and many other fortresses of Savoy. He was 
likewise made superintendant of the finances, which office 
he discharged singly, with a wise and prudent oeconomy ; 
and continued his faithful services till that unfortunate day, 
when the Caesar of the French nation lost his life by the 
hand of a parricide. After the lamented death of that gre^at 
king, he retired from public affairs,, and passed the re- 
mainder of his life in ease and tranquillity. He died at 
the castle of Villebon, Dec. 22, 1641, aged 82." 






2i ^ U L L T., 

Though he lived to such an age, no life could be more 
frequently exposed to perils than that of Sully. One of 
these wa^ of a very extraordinary kind, and deserves to be 
particularly mentioned. It was at the taking of a town ifi 
Cambray, in 1581, when, to defend the women from the 
brutality of the soldiers, the churches, with guards about 
them, were given them for asylums; nevertheless, a very 
beautiful young girl suddenly threw herself into the arms 
of Suily, as he was walking in the streets, and, holding 
him fast, conjured him to guard her fronfi so^e soldiers^ 
who, she said, had concealed themselves as soon as they 
saw him. Sully endeavoured to calm her fears, and offered 
to conduct her to the next church ; but she tpid him she 
had been there, and had asked for admittance, which they 
refused, because they knpw she had the plague. Sully 
thrust her from him with the utmost indignation as well as 
horror, and expected every moment to be seized with the 
plague, which, however, did nof; happen. 

The character of Sully, as it was given by his master 
Henry IV. is thus preserved in his memoirs. ** Some per- 
sons,'* said Henry, " complain, and indeed I do myself, 
sometimes, of his temper. They say he is harsh, impa* 
tienty and obstinate : he is accused of having too enter- 
prising a mind, of presuming too much upon his own 
opinions^ exaggerating the worth of his own actions, and 
lessening that of others, as likewise of eagerly aspiring 
after honours and riches. Now, although I ani well con- 
vinced that part of these imputations are true, and that I 
ani obliged to keep a high band over h'ltfi, when he offends 
me with those sallies of ill humour ; yet I cannot cease to 
love him, esteem him, and employ him in all affairs of con- 
sequence, because I am very sure that he loves my person, 
that he takes an interest in fs\y preservation, and that be 
is ardently solicitous for the honour, the glory, and gran- 
deur of me and my kingdom. I know also that he has no 
malignity in bis heart; that he is indefatigable in business, 
and fruitful in expedients; he is a careful manager of my 
revenue, a man Iabo|*ious and diligent, who endeavours to 
be ignorant of nothing^ and to render himself capable of 
coiuiucting all affairs, whether of peace or war ; who writes 
and speaks in a style that pleases me, because it is at once 
that of a soldier and statesman. In a word, I confess to 
you, that, notwithstanding all his extravagances and little 



S U t L Y. 13 

transport^: of f^assipn, I 6nd no one so capable as he it of 
ponsoHng me under every uneasiness.^' 

The ^' Memoirs of Sully*' have always been ranked among 
the best, jand certainly are among the most interesting and 
.authentic books of French history, replete with good 
sense and virtuous remark. They contain a particular ac- 
count of whatever passed frooi the peace in 15.70, to the 
death of Henry IV* in 1610 ; a period of time, which has 
supplied ihe most copious subjects to the historians of 
France* They are full of numerous and various events ; 
war9, foreign and doeiestic ; interests of state and religion ; 
inaster*;$trokes of policy; unexpected discoveries; striig* 
gles of ambition ; stratagems of policy ; embassies and ne- 
^ociatiofis. Tiiese memoirs take their value, perhaps' their 

freatest value, from the imiumerable recitals of a private 
ind^ which scarcely belong to the province. of history; 
^or, at the same time that they treat of the reign, they 
describe the wbo)e life of Henry the Great. They are 
jaot;, however, either in the form or language in which they 
were left by Sully: the form has been digested aiid me- 
thodized^ aiKl the language has been corrected and po- 
lished. The best edition in French is that of Paris, in 8 
vols. 4to, and also in 8 vols. 12mo. They have been trans*- 
jated into Engljish by Mrs. Charlotte Lennox, and pub- 
lished both in 4to and 8vo. 

SULPICI A, an .ancient Roman poetess, the vt^ife of Ca*> 
lenus, flourished about the year 90, and was so admired 
as to be thought worthy of the title of the Roman Sappho. 
'We have nothings left of her but a satire, or rather frag- 
ment of a satire, against Domitian, who published a decree 
for the banishment of the philosophers from Rome. This 
isatire was published at Strasburgh, with other poems, by 6. 
Morula, 1 509, 4to,and may be found in other collections, but 
has usually been printed at the end of the ^' Satires of Ju- 
venal," to whom, as well as to Aiisonius, it has been attri- 
buted by some critics. Graingerlikewiseaddeditto his **Ti- 
buUus,'' with a translation and notes. From the invooatroii 
}t should 9eem, that she was the author of many other poems, 
j^nd the first Roman lady who taught her sex to vie with the 
Greeks in poetry. Her language is easy and elegant,- and 
ahe seems to have bad a happy talent, for satire. She is * 
inentioned by Martial and Sidonius ApoUinaris, and is said 
to have addressed to her husband Calenus, who was a Ro- , 
znah knight^ ** A poem oii conjugal love," but this is test. 



24 S U t ? 1 CI A. 

Her. satire hai b^eiv reprinted by Wernsdorf in the tbTr3 
volume of the " Poeta Minofes Latini," where may bte 
seen some useful remarks respecting her works. ' 

SULPICIUS SEVERUS (surnamed the CifRiSTiAir 
Sallust), an ecclesiastical writer, who flourished about tfao 
beginning of the fifth century, was a disciple of 8t. Martin 
of Tours, whose life he has written ; and friend of Pauliw 
ims, bishop of Nola, with whom be held a constant and 
intimate correspondence. He was illustrious fpr his birth, 
his eloquence, and still more for bis piety and virtue. Af- 
ter he had shone uitb great iustr^ at the bar, he married 
very advantageously ; but, losing his wife soon after, he 
quitted the world, and became a priest. He was born at 
Ageh, in the province of Aquitain, which at that time pro* 
duced the best poets, the best rhetoricians, and the best 
orators of the Roman empire, of those at least who wrotv 
in Latin. He lived sometimes at Elisso, and sometimes 
at Toulouse. Some have affirmed, that he was bishop of 
the Biturices ; but they have erroneously confounded biuri 
with another Severus Sulpicius, who was bishop of that 
people, and died at the end of the sixth century. Sulpi** 
cius lived till about the year 420. He is said to have been 
at one time seduced by the Pelagians ;'and that, returni«r 
ing to his old principles, be imposed a silence upon h\ah* 
self for the rest of his days, as the best atonement be 
could make for his error ; but some think that this silence 
meant only his refraining from writing or controversy. Th^ 
principal of his works was his " Historia Sacra,*^ in twd 
books; in which he gives a succinct account of all the re-^ 
xnarkable things that passed in the Jewish or Christian 
churches, from the creation of the world to about the 
year 400. He wrote, also, the *' Life of St. Martin,'* as 
we have said already ; " Three Letters upon the death and 
virtues of this saint j" and "Three Dialogues;" the firsfc^ 
upon the miracles of the Eastern monks, and the two last^ 
upon the extraordinary qualities and graces of St* Martin. 
These, with seven other epistles never before printed with 
his works, were all revised, corrected, and published with 
notes, in a very elegant edition, by Le Clerc, at Leipsic^ 
in 1709, 8vo. There is another by Jerom de Prato, printed 
. at Venice in 1741^ — 54, 2 vols. 4to, the text of. which i^ 
tl^ougbt the most correct. ^ 

. . 1 Voasius de Poet. Lat.— iFabric. Bibl. Lat.— Saxii Onomait. .. ' 



S U L P I C I U S. 25 

Stilpicms has a purity in his style, far heyond the age in 
!«vhich he lived. He has joined a very concise manner of 
expressing hifnself to a remarkable perspicuity, arid in this 
bas equaiied even^SaHnst himself, whom he always imitates^ 
«nd sometimes quotes. He is nor, indeed, correct through- 
out in' his " History of the Church ;" and is very credulous 
vipon thB point of miracles. He admits also several opi- 
nions, which have no foundation in Scripture; and he is 
in some instances defective, taking no notice, for example, 
of the reign of Julian, &c. His ** Dialogues** contain 
many interesting particulars, respecting the manners and 
sinoularities of the Eastern monks; the disturbances which 
the books of Origin had occasioned in Egypt and Pales- 
Une, and other matters of some curiosity.* 

SULZER (John George), a very Eminent German, or 
rather Swiss, plJilosopher, was bom at Winterthour, in the 
•canton of Zurich, October 16, 1720, and is said to have 
been the yonngest of twenty-five qbiidren. Both his pa- 
rents died on ihe same day in 1734, and left, him barely 
enough to die^ray the expence of his education. His ta- 
lents ilid not develppe themselves early ; and, at sixteen, 
he had not even acquired a taste for study. Wolfe's Me- 
taphysics was the first book thiit awakened in him a love of 
philosophy ; and the counsels and example of the cele- 
JE^rated Gesner soon after incited him to a[)ply himself ea- 
gerly to mathematics and general science, and to re- 
sume the study of Grecian and Oriental literature. In ' 
1739, he bicame an ecclesiastic; and a favourable situa- 
tion for examining the beauties of nature, made him an 
enthusiast in that branch of knowledge. -He published^ ' 
therefore, at twenty-one, ** Moral contemplations of the 
works of Nature;'* and, in the same year, 1741, "A De- 
scription of the most remarkable Art tiqui ties in the Lord- 
-ship of Knonau," written in German. The year after, he 
jpublished an account of a journey which he took in the 
Alps; in which he displayed, not only his sensibility of 
jtfae beauties of nature, but his profound sense of the ih- 
£nite power and goodness of its author. Becoming a tutor 
fii Magdeburg, he obtained the acquaintance of Mauper- 
tuis^ Euler, and Sack ; in consequence of which his merits 
Itecame more known, and he obtained, in 1747, the ap- 
pointment of mathematical professor in the royal college 

I CavCf vol. L— Dupin,— Laidser's Works.— Gen. Dict.-*SaxD OnomasU 



i 



%^ S U L Z E R. 

at Berlin ; and beei^me a menober of ihe Royal Acadnmj 

there in 17 0. 

, Tbe works of Sulzer are numerous ; bal the most irn<9 
portant is, liis ** Universal Theory pf the &i\e Arts,'* (Aij* 
jgetneine Theorie der schbncn Kunste, &c.) which is ^ 
dictionary in two volumes, quarto, containing all the tern^s 
of, the various arts digested into one alphabet. In this jta 
appears at once a profound thinker, and a man of singular 
^orth. The first volume appeared at Leipsic in 1771 ; th^ 
^econd in 1774^ He wrote also, ^* Remarks on the Ptiilo*^ 
lophicdi Essays of Uume;^^ a work in which he both ac- 
knowfedges the acutenes^, and detects th^ sophistry of oujr 
celebrated sceptic. The king of Prussia distinguished him 
by many marks of bounty and favour, but it so happened 
that he never saw him till near tbe end oH 1777, although 
be had been member of the academy from tbe year 175Q. 
$uizer lived only to tbe age of sixty ; and died February ^5, 
1779. His character is of the purest kind ; amiable, vir« 
tuous, sociable, and beneficent. His philosophy was th«^ 
of a true Christian, and the support be derived from it 
was proportionably ui>iform and steady. His dying nfia* 
ipents were calm, humble, and sublime ; and his couii'- 
lenance, when he expired, wore the composurje of sleftp. 
He had no enemy, aiid his friends were numerous and af« 
fectionate. ' 

SUMOROKOF (Alexander), denominated tbe founder 
of tbe Russian theatre, was the son of Peter Sumorokof, ^ 
Russian nobleman, aad was born at Moscow November 14, 
1727. He received the first rudiments of learning in h^ 
fatjher's bouse, where, besides a grammatical knowledge oi 
bis native tongue, he was well grounded in the Latin lan- 
guage. Being removed to the semiuary of the cadets at . 
St. Petersburgh, he prosecuted bis studies with unwearied 
application, and gave early proofs of bis genius for poetry. 
Even on holidays be would retire from his companions, who 
were engaged in play, and devote bis whole time to the 
perusal of tbe Latin and French writers : nor was it long 
before he himself attempted to compose. The first efforts 
of his ger)ips were love-songs, whose tenderness and beaur- 
iies, till then unexpressed in the Russian tongue, were 
greatly ado^ired, and considered as certain prognostics qf 

' Eloge by Formey ia the Berlin Memoirs for 1779.^Meister'i Portraiti des 
fiommei lUustres de la Suisse. 



S U M O R O K O r. 8f 

bfi rathhe fknicf. Upon quitting the seminary, he was ap** 
pointed adjutant, first to count Golovkin, and afterwards te 
coimt 'Rosomduski : and being soon noticed and patrbnized 
by count Ivan Shuvalof, he was introduced by that Mascenai 
to the empress Elizabeth, who took him under her protecw 
tion. About the twenty-ninth year of his age, an enthast»- 
Astic fondness he had contracted for the works of Ractne^ 
turned his genius to the drama ; and he wrote the tragedy 
of <' Koref/' which laid the foundation of the Russian 
theatre. This piece was first acted by some of his former 
schoolmates, the cadets, who had previously exercised their 
talents in declamations, and in acting a French play. The 
empress Elizabeth, informed of this pnenomenon in the 
theatrical world, orderied the tragedy to be exhibited in her 
bresence, upon a small theatre of the court, where Ger- 
man, Italian, and French plays had been performed. The 
appjause and distinction which the author receKed on this 
occasion, encouraged him to follow the bent of his genius, 
nnd he produced other tragedies, several comedies, and two 
operas. With respect to his tragedies, Racine yvas his 
model; and the Russian biographer of Sumorokof, who 
seems a competent judge of his merit, allows, that tboagb 
in some instances be has attained all the excellence of the 
French poet,- yet he has failed in many others ; but it 
would be uncandid to insist upon such defects in a writer 
lyho first introduced the drama among his countrymen. 
The French overlook in their Corneille still greater faults. 
*^ His comedies,'' continues the same author, '* contain 
mnch humour; but I do not imagine that our dramatic 
writers will adopt him for their model: for he frequently 
excites the laughter of the spectator at the expeiice of his 
cooler judgment. Nevertheless, they preiient sufficient 
passages to prove, that he would have attained a greater de* 
gree of perfection in this line, if he had paid more atten- 
tion to paint our manners, and to follow the taste of the biest 
foreign writers," 

Besides dramatic writings, Sumorokof attempted every 
species of poetry, excepting the epic. He wrote love- 
songs, idyllia, fables^ satires, anacreontics, elegies, versions 
of the Psalms, and Pindaric odes. Superior to Lomonozof 
in the compositions of the drama, he yet was inferior to 
him in Pindaric writitigs. Though his odes, adds his bio* 
grapher, are distinguished by their easy flow of versiiica^ 
tion; by their harmony, softness, and grace, yet they 



S8 S U M O R O K p F. 

4 

far from reaching that elevation and fire which characterize 
those of Lomonozof. These two great poets had each 
their peculiar talents : the one displayed in his style all the 
majesty, strength, and sublimity of the Russian tongue; 
and the other all its harmony, softness, and elegance. The 
elegies of Sumorokof are full of tenderness.: his idyls give 
a true picture of the pastoral life in all the (ileasing simpli- 
city pf unimproved nature, without descending to vulgarity; 
and may serve as models in this species of composition, in 
all things excepting in strict morality. His satires are the 
best in the Russian language, but are extremely unequal, and 
deserve to have been wrought with more plan and regu- 
larity. In writing his fables, his pen seems to have been 
guided by the Muses and Graces ; and his biographer seems 
inclined, if not to prefer them, at .least to compare them 
with those of Fontaine. Sumorokof was also author of a 
few short and detached historical pieces. 1. " A Chroni- 
cle of Moscow,'* in which he relates the origin of that city; 
and abridges the reigns of its monarcbs from Ivan Danilo- 
Titch to Feodor Alexievitch. 2. ** A History of the first 
insurrection of the Strelitz in 1682, by which Ivan was ap- 
pointed joint-sovereign with Peter the Great, and the prin- 
cess iSophia regent." 3. " An account of Stenko Kazin's 
rebellion." His style in these pieces is sa,id to be clear 
and perspicuous, but somewhat too flowery and poetical 
for prose. Sumorokof obtained by his merit the fiivour 
and protection of his sovereign. Elizabeth gave him the 
rank of brigadier; appointed him director of the Russian 
theatre, and settled upon him a pension of 400/. per annum. 
^Catherine II. created him counsellor of state; conferred 
upon him the order of St. Anne;, and honoured him with 
many instances of munificence and distinction until his 
death, which carried him off at Moscow, October 1, 1777> 
in the fifty-first year of hh age. 

With respect to his disposition, says his biographer, it was 
amiable; but his extreme sensibility, an excellent quality in 
a poet when tempered with philosophy, occasioned that 
singularity and vehemence of character, which gave so 
much trouble and uneasiness to all his acquaintance, but 
particularly to himself. He was polite and condescending 
towards those who treated him with respect, but haughty 
to those who behaved to him with pride. He knew no de- 
cei£; hq was a true friend, and an open enemy ; and could 
neither forget an obligation nor an injury. Passionate, 



SUM OR O K O F. 



29 



and frequently inconsiderate in his parsuitSy he could not 
bear the least opposition ; and oftentimes looked upon tb« 
most trifling circumstance as the* greatest evil. His ex- 
traordinary fame, the many favours which the empress 
conferred upon him, with the indulgence and veneration of 
his friends, might have made him extremely fortunate, .if 
be bad understood ihe art of being so. He had conceived . 
a great, perhaps too great, idea of the character atid 
merits, of a true poet ; and could not endure to see with 
patience this noble and much-esteemed art, which had 
been consecrated by Homer, Virgil, and other great men^ 
profafied by persons without judgment or abilities. Thesie 
pretenders, he would say, shock the public with their jion- ' 
sense in rhyme ; and clothe their monstrous conceptions ia 
the dress of the Muses. The public recoil from them with 
disgust and aversion ; and, deceived by their appearance, 
treat with irreverence^ tbos^ children of heaven the true- 
Muses. The examples of Lomonozof and Sumorokof have 
teilUed to diffuse a spirit of poetry, and a taste for polite 
learning, among the Russians; and they are succeeded by 
a numerous band of poets. ^ 

SURENHUSIUS (Wiluam), a celebrated Hebrew and 
Greek professor in the university of Amsterdam, is most 
known for his edition of the Mischna of the Jews, with 
notes, and a Latin version, which he began^to publish io 
1698, and completed in 1703, in 3 vols, folio. It contains 
also the commentaries of the Rabbins, JMaimonides^ and 
Bartenora. The period at which he«flourished is ascer- 
tained by this pubhcation ; but, *in the books which we have 
been able to consult, we do not find any account of th# 
time when he was born or died. The latter event must 
have, however, been posterior to 1713, when he published 
a learned work in Latin, '^ in which the passages Of the 
Old Testament, quoted in the New, are vindicated and re* 
conciled, according to the forms of quotation, and the se«. 
veral ways of interpreting the scripture, used by the aa^ 
cient Hebrew Theologers," Amst 4to.* 

SURITA, orZURlTA (Jerome), a Spanish historian; 
was born at.Saragossa, Dec. 4, 1512,, of an ancient family.'' 
He made great progress in Greek and Latin, under a very 
able master, at Alcala de Henares; but bis particular i^v&m 
4ilection was for the study of history. Hef afterwards 



y Coxe's Trarelf in F«siia. 



• Diet. HUt—Saxii Oaofliait^ 



30. 8 U R I T A. 

became secretary to the inquisition, but employed his timift 
chiefly in writing numerous works which procured hioi a 
irery high reputation, not only with his countrymen, but in 
the Of'inion of the learned of other nations. He died Oct. 

31, 1590, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. His prin-t 
cipal historical work is his ^' Anales de la corona del Reyno 
de Aragon," 7 vols. fol. first printed at Saragossa in 1562^ 
but th£ third edition of 1610 is accounted the most com- 
plete. He published also in Latin ^* Indices rerum ab 
Aragonias regibus gestarum, libri tres,'' Sarag. 1578, with 
the addition of ** Gaufredi Monachi de acquisitione regni 
Sieiiise, Calabrias, &c. per Robertum Guiscardum et fratreti. 
NortmaoDos. principes,*' and Celesinus ^^De.Roberti Si<^ 
ciiiiB regis rebus gestis, libri <)uatuor," both before un- 
published. He was the editor also of Antoninus's Itinerary, 
and bis notes were adopted by Dr. Thomas Gale in hi» 
edition. He left many other learned works in MS. parti-^ 
eularly commentaries on Julius Caesar, and on Claudian.^ 

SURIUS (Laurentius), a voluminous compiler, was 
horn at Lubeck in 1522, and entered the Carthusian ordet^ 
in that city, where he became ceiebraited for his virtues 
ind learning. He died May 25^ 1578, at Cologn, aged 
fifty-six. The principal among his numerous works are/ 
"A Collection of Councils," 1567, 4 vols, fol.; <^ The 
Lives of the Saints,^' Cologn, 1618, 7 vols, fol.; and ^^Aii 
History of his Own Times from 1500 to 1566,'* 1569, 8vo ; 
Vanslated into French, 1573, 8vo. Snrius did not want 
learning, but those of his own communion are willing to 
allow that he gave credit blindly to fables^ and was defi^ 
cient in critical knowledge.' 

: SUTCLIFFE, orSOUTCLIFFE (Matthew), an En- 
glish divine of considerable abilities in controversy, wai 
ediicaaed at Trinity •college, Cambridge, but of bis early 
history we have no acconnt. In 1586, he was installed 
archdeacon of Taunton, and on Oct. 22, 1588, coniirmc^d 
•dean of £xeter. He had been admitted a civilian in 1 582* 
He died in 1629, leaving a daughter his heiress, who, 
^fhince thinks, was married to the son and heir of the Halse 
family in Devonshire ; and as the estates Dr. SotclilFe left 
to/Chels€a«€X)llege were in that country, it probabljr was. 
his ^birthopiace. He ^was esteemed a very learned wfitei^ 
,• • , ' .^ . , . . . . ....*- 

I Antonio-Bibl. Hisp.—Clctnent. Bibl. Curlense. — Vouius de Sclent Matk* 
•^Thuaul HisU -^ Moreri.— Diet. tlUt.— Saxii Oaomiist. 



SUTCLIFFE. SI 

ifki defence of the protestant establishment; butaltbough 
long in favour with James I. upon that account, we find 
ibrat tbi&prince, in 1621, ordered him to be taken into cus*^ 
Mdy for the freedom of his remarks upon public affairs* 
On the other hand Strype, in his life of Whitgift, has 
published a long letter from that eminent prelate to Besa, 
defending SutclifFe against some disrespectful ezpressioiw 
used by the reformer. Among his works, may be noticed^ 
1. ^' A treatise of Ecclesiastical Discipline,*' Lond. 1591, 
4to. 2. ^' De Presbycerio, .ejusque nova in Ecclesia Chris-* 
tianiL Foliteia," the same year, 4to. 3. ^* De Turco»Pa« 
piamo,'' or, on the resemblance between Mahometanism 
and Popery, London, 1599, 4to. 4. *^ De Purgatorio, ad« 
versus Beliarminum," the same year, 4to. 5. ^' De vera 
Christie Ecclesia," 1600, 4to. 6. *^ De Missa, adversus Bel« 
larininum," 1603, 4to. 7. << The Laws of Armes,'' 1593, 
4to. 8. ^f Examination of Cartwright's Apology," 1596, 
4to ; and many other works, enumerated in the Bbdleiaa 
eHialogue, of the controversial kind, against Bellarminj 
Parsons, Garnet, and other popish propagandists. 

But. what has rendered Dr. butclitfo most celebrated was 
bis project for establishing.a college o^ polemical divines^ 
to be employed in opposing the doctrines of papists and 
*^ Peiagianizing Armtuians^ and others, that draw towards 
popery and Babylonian slavery, &c.'' And as this college 
has been incidentally mentioned in various parts of these 
volumes, we shall now give part of the succinct and per-* 
spicuous account furnished by Mr. Lysons. 

At first the undertaking seemed attended with good 
omens : prince Henry was a zealous friend to it: the king 
consented to be deemed the founder, called the- college 
after his own name, *^ King James's college at Chelsea^^ 
endowed u with the reversion of certain lands at Chelsea^ 
which were fixed upon for its site, laid the first stone <tf 
the buddmg, gave timber out of Windsor forest, ismed his 
royal letters to encourage his subjects throughont the.kingb 
dom to contribute towards the completion of the stsociurn 
and as a. permanent endowment, procured an act of parliiif 
meUt to enable the college to raise an annual rent, by stip3t 
}»lyii»^<tbe City of Loodon with water from the river Leal 
\i ftppeafs by the charter of ntcorporatioo, dated. May t^ 
1610, that the college consisted of a provost and twenty 
ftHcfwi^, eighteen of whom were required to'^be in holy 
' Qrders; the other two, who might be either laj^ men or 



S8 SUTCLIFFE. 



/ 



divines, were to be employed in writing tte annals of tbei^ 
limes. Sutclifie himself was t-be first provost; Camden 
^ and Haywood the first historians ; and among the felio^s 
we find the well-kn^n names of Overall, Morton, Field, 
Abbot, Hovvsoii, Spencer, Boys, &c. When a vacancy 
bappened in any department, the successor was to be no- 
noinatedand recommended by the vice-chancellor and heads 
of colleges in the two universities, and approved by the 
archbishop of Canterbury, the chancellor of each univer-* 
"sity, and the bishop of London. The charter granted the 
college the power of using a common seal ; 4rarious privi* 
leges and immunities, and licence to possess lands in mort- 
main to the vali!ie of 3(>00/. per ann. 

With these good omens Dr. SutcliflFe began to erect tfa^e 
college at his own expence, and built one side of the first 
quadrangle: *^ which long range alone (says Fuller) made 
not of free-stone, though of free -timber, cost, Othe dear- 
Dess of college and church work I full three thousand 
pounds.** Such was the progress of the work at Sutcliffe'^ 
death, who, by his will, dated Nov. t, 1628, bequeathed 
to the college the greater part of his estates, consijsting of, 
lands in Devonshire, the benefit of an extent on sir Lewis 
Stukeley's estates valued at more than SOOO/., a share in the 
great Neptune (a ship at Whitby in Yorkshire), at enemeni 
at Stoke Rivers, and other premises^ all his books and 
goods in the college, and a part of his Hbrary at Exeter; 
but all these bequests were subject to this proviso, ^^ if the 
Wttrk of the college should not be hindered." 

The total failure of pecuniary resources soon proved a 
very eifectual hindraBce to any farther progress iir this un- 
dertaking. The national attention had been so much en- 
gaged \>y the extensive repairs of St. Paulas cathedral, that 
the college saw little hopes of success from the circulation 
of the king's letters for the purpose of promoting a public 
contribution; and at the time of his death no collectiona 
bad been made under their sanction. The success of sir 
HughMiddietoa'sproject for supplying London with water, 
which took place the very year after the act of parliament 
in favour of the college, and the total inability of ita mem- 
bers to avail themselves of the privileges they enjoyed, for 
want of money to carry on such an undertaking, destroyed 
all hopes of advantage from that source. Of ail Dr. Sut- 
diffe's .benefitfctions, the college never possessed more 
than a house and premises, worth about 3.4>/. per anauait 
the greater part of which yvas expended in repairs. 



SUTCLIFFE. 



33 



After SotclifiFe^s detth, Dr. Featly (sec Featly), who 
was recommended by the dean, as his successor,^ becaipie 
provost; but so little was the original intention of the in* 
stitution regarded, even at this early period, that one. 
Richard Dean, a young ^merchant, was made one of the 
fellows. Such was the state of the foundation, when the 
court of chancery, in 163], decreed that Dr. Sutcliffe'a 
estates should revert to the right heirs, upon th(?ir paying: 
to the college the sum of 34Q/. Under these difficulties^, 
which were afterwards increased by a dispute with lord 
Monson about the lease of the land on which the college, 
stood, no farther progress,N it may be supposed, was evef 
made in the building. That part which was already com* 
pleted>' consisted of a library, and a few rooms, :Occupied 
by the provost and two fellows. For the subsequeot re** 
verses which this project met with, as they are not con- 
nected with the suhj;ect of our memoir, .we jrefer to our 
authorities. On the site is now the Royal Hospital foe' 
soldiers*^ 

SUTTON (Richard), the co-founder of Brasen-nose 
college, Oxford, descended from the ancient family of the 
Sut^cnis of Sutton near Macclesfield in tbe<county palatiea 
of Chester, was the younger son of sir William Sutton^ 
koight. Of the tiqae or. place of his birth, we have no oer^* 
^uii account, nor whether he was educated in the*univer« 
sity to which he became so bountiful a beoefactor. He 
practised as a barrister of the Inner Temple, and probably 
with success. In 1490 he purchased some estates in Lei<< 
cestershire, and afterwards fncreased his bnded property iu 
different couaties. In 1498, if not earlier, he wasa mem« 
her of Henry Vllth's privy council, and attended the courl 
for many years after. In 1 505, he was one of the govern 
Qors of the Inner Temple, and was in other years choseu'to 
this annual offijoe. 

It is uncertain at what time be became steward of the 
monastery of Sion near Brentford in Middlesex, but ke 
occurs in. this* office in* 1513, and had johambecs in the mo^ 
oastery, where be frequently resided. Besides bestowing 
estates and money on this religious bouse, he borotbe ex* 
pense of publishiug a splendid, and aow very, rare book»ia 
honour of the house, called <^ The Orcbarde of Syon.'^. - 

..'' 1 I. '"•* "* 

*' Coolers Catalogue of Civilians.— Fuller's Cb. HistW.— ^ysons'5 Environs.. 
-^Faulkner's History of Chelsea. ^ ' **'* * 



History 

Vol. XXIX. 



D 



34 SUTTON. 

' tn 1512, be was employed in purchasing the manor of 
Pinchepolles in Farriiigdon, Berkshire, with lands in Watt** 
brook and Farnbam in that county, which were given by 
Mrs. Morley, and constituted the first permanent benefac- 
tion bestowed on Brasen^nose college. He appears to have 
received the honour of knighthood in 1 522, about two years 
before his death, but the exact time of the latter event ia 
not known. As an annual commemoration of him is oh* 
served by the society on the Sunday after Michaelmas, it 
may be inferred that he died about that time.^ His will, 
drawn up March 16, 1523-4^ was proved November 7, 
1524 ; and he is supposed to have been buried, either at 
Macclesfield, tjr in the monastery of Sion. His bequests 
are almost all of the religious or charitable kind. To these 
scanty niemoirs we may add, in the grateful language of 
his biographer, that, ^^ Unmarried himself, and not anxious 
to aggrandize his family, which had long ranked among 
the best in a county justly proud of its ancient gentry, sir 
Richard Sutton bestowed handsome benefactions and kind 
remembrances' among his kinsmen; but he wedded the 
public, and made posterity his heir. An active coadjutor 
from the first to the bishop of Lincoln in laying the foun- 
dation of Brasen-nose college, he completed the building,, 
revised the laws, and doubled the revenues of the growing 
^minary, leaving it a perpetual monument of the 4:onso- 
hdated wisdom and joint munificence of Smyth and of 
Sutton." 

' The estates given by sir Richard Sutton were, the manor 
of Burgh or Borawe or Erdeborowe, ia the parish of So-» 
merby in the county of Leicester, and other estates in the 
same parish and neighbourhood ; an estate in the parish of 
St. Mary, Strand, London, which in 1673 was sold to the- 
commissioners for enlarging the streets after the great fire, 
for the sum of 1700/. and with this an estate was purchased 
at Burwardescot or Burscot 4n Oxfordshire, which has re* 
, cently been exchanged for other lands at Stanford in the 
vale of Wfiite Horse. He gave also the manor of Cropredy 
in the county of Qxford, and certain lands there, and an 
estate in North Ockington or Wokyndon, in the county of 
Essex. All these sir, Richard granted to the college by 
lease, July 18, 1519, and on Not. 29th following, by a 
conveyance under his own hand and seal, he released them 
to the society for ever.' 

A Churton's LiTei of the Fottiidecs.--Chalmerft's Hipt. of Oiford* 



SUTTON. , S5 

SUTTON . (Thomas), foandfflr of the Charter-boase 
school and ' hospital, was descended of the ancient family 
of the Suttons of Lincolnshire^ atid was born at Knaith, in . 
that county, in 153^. He received the first part of his 
education at Eton school, whence it is supposed he was 
sent to Cainbridgp, and matriculated of St. John's college, 
Nov. 27, 1551, but this seems very doubtful, at least there 
is no direct proof, and his being afterwards a. benefactor to 
Magdalen and Jesus colleges ^ould incline us tp give them 
the preference, but his name does not occur in the registers 
of either. He is said to have removed afterwards to Lin- 
coln^s-inn, for the study of the law ; but this not suiting 
his disposition, 'or what we think extremely probable, his 
father, and perhaps himself, inclining to the reformation, 
he evaded the miseries of queen Mary's reign, by employ* 
log almost the whole of that disastrous period in travelling 
on the continent. 

His father Richard Sutton, steward of the courts in Lin« 
qdn, died in that city in 1558, and his son, on bis return 
home in 1562, found himself in possession of considerable 
property. He was now about thirty years of age, and rec* 
koned an accomplished gentleman. He was first retained 
by the duke of Norfolk, whose favours he acknowledges in 
his will by a legacy of 400/. ; and afterwards became se- 
cretary to the earl of Warwick, and Occasionally also to his 
brother the earl of Leicester. In 1569, the earl of War- 
wick being master-general of the ordnance, appointed Mr. 
Sutton master of the ordnance at Berwick, a post of great 
trust at that time, Berwick being a frontier garrison "to Scot- 
laud. In this situation he distinguished himself much on 
the breaking out of the rebellion in the north by the earls 
of Northumberland and Westmoreland ; and by the re- 
cotmneudatkin of his two patrons, he obtained a patent the 
same year for the office of master-general of the ordnance 
in the north, for life; and in 1573, he commanded one of 
the five batteries, which obliged the strong castle of Edin- 
bulrgh to sui'render to the English. It is probable, that, 
as master-geoeral of the ordnance, he attended the earl of 
Sussex, president of .the North, into Scotland, with an 
army in 1570^ though he is not expressly named iu Cam- 
den's annals for that yean But in 1573, he is named as 
one of the cbi<$f of. those 1500 men who marched into 
Scotland to the assistance of the regent, the earl of Mor- 
. ■ D 2 



36 SUTTON. 

ton^ by order of queeti Elizabeth, and laid siege to Edlfi* 
burgh castle. 

While thus employed in oiiiitary affairs, k appears that 
be made a very considerable accession of fortune, by pur* 
chasing of the bishop of Durham the manors of Gateshead 
and Wickbani, with their valuable coaUmines, and in 157<> 
obtained a lease from the crown for the term of seventy* 
nine years : and this speculation was so successful^ that in 
ten years afterwards he was reputed to be worth 50,000/. 
a very great sum in those days. He was not less successful 
in 1582, when some time after his return to London, he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John Gardiner, esq. of 
Grove-place in the parish of Chalfont St. Giles in Bucking- 
hamshire, and widow of John Dudley of Stoke Newington 
in Middlesex, esq. a near relation of the earl of Warwick. 
By this lady he had a considerable estate, and a moiety of 
the manor of Stoke Newington, where he resided as his 
country house. In the city about the same time he pur- 
chased a large house near Broken Wharf, Thames-street, 
where he began the business of merchant, and with such 
skill and success, that' he was soon considered as at the 
head of his profesMon, and had vast concerns abroad. 
These last he contrived to be of importance even to his 
country, for when the design of the Spanish armada was 
first discovered by sir Francis Walsingham, Mr. Sutton had 
a chief hand in so draining the bank of Genoa, as to im- 
pede the Spanish monarches supplies, until England had 
time to prepare her defence. Mr. Sutton was likiiwise one 
of the chief victuallers of the navy, and is thought to have 
been master of the bark called Sutton of 70 tons and SO 
Qien, one of the volunteers which attended the English 
fleet against the Armada in 1588. He is likewise said to 
have been a commissioner for prizes under lord Charles 
Howard, high admiral of England, and going to sea with 
letters of marque, he took a Spanish ship worth 00,000^^ 

In 1590, having married his wife's daughter by Mr. Dud-t 
ley, to Francis Popham, esq. son and heir to the lord chief 
justice of that name, and being now without any children^ 
or prospect of any by Mrs. Sutton, he gradually quitted bu- 
siness and London, and resided at one or other of his coun- 
try seats, for he had now purchased seTeral estates. He 
also in 15^4 surrendered his patent of master of the ordi 
nance in the north, and. about the same time conveyed in 
trust all his estates in Essex to found an hospital at HoU 



SUTTON, 37 

Irng^Ury Bouchers iti tbatcounty, but with a power of re« 
vocation during life, which actually took place, when he 
mediiated his greater foundation of the Charter-house. In 
1602 his wife died at Balsham in Cambridgeshire, where he 
l^aci for some time resided with great splendour. She ap* 
pears to have been a woman of great good sense, arfd to 
have contributed so much to his comfort, . that after her 
death, he b^an to wean himself from the world, reduced 
his household establishment, and lived in a comparatively 
private manner. 

The disposition of his great property towards some cba-^ 
ritable purpose seems now to have engrossed all his thoughts. 
Fuller, gives it as a well-authenticated fact, that ^' Mr. Sut- 
ton used often to repair into a private garden, where be 
poured forth his prayers to God, and was frequently over- 
heard to use this expression, ' Lord, thou hast given me a 
large and liberal estate, give me also a heart to make use 
thereof.' " A man of his property, hesitating only how he 
was to dispose of it in his life-time, could not be long without 
advisers. It appears indeed to have been a general topic 
of curiosity, in what planner Mr. Sutton would beatow bis 
wealthi, and in 1608 a very singular instance of impertinent 
interference occurred. At that time a report was spread 
that be meant to leave his vast property to the duke of 
York, afterwards Charles I.; and. in order tq confirm bim in 
this resolution, a peerage was to be offered to him. This 
repon, and the mean trick of the peerage, so revolting to 
an independent mind, he traced to sir John Harrington, 
who defended himself but weakly. The matter, however^i 
rested there. Among advisers of a better kind, was the 
pious and worthy Hall, afterwards bishop of Norwich, who 
wrote to biin a long letter, exciting him to come to some 
determination respecting his intended charity. This pro- 
bably was successful, as it certainly was acceptable, for 
soon after the receipt of it, he abandoned bis design of 
building an hospital in Essex, and purchased of the earl of 
Sufiblk, Howard- house, the late dissolved Charter-house 
near Smithfield, for the sum of 1 3,000/. and upou that in 
1611 founded the present hospital, and endowed it with 
the bulk of bis property. He intended to have been him- 
self the first master, but soon after the foundation, being 
seized with a slow fever, and perceiving his end to ap- 
. proach, be executed a deed, nominating the Rev. John 
Hutton, vicar of Littlebury in Essex, to that office. He 



38 SUTTON. 

died at Hackney Dec. 12, 1611, and was interred wiik 
great magnificence in the chapel of the Charter- boose, 
where a monument was erected to his memory. At his 
death he was the richest untitled subject in the kingdom, 
having in land 5000A a year, and in money upwards of 
60,000/. His will contains many individual legacies of the 
charitable kind. Soon after his death, his nephew, Simon 
Baxter, to whom he left an estate worth 10,000/. and 300/* 
in money, all which he squandered away, made an ineffee* 
tual attempt to set aside the will ; the matter was brought 
to a fair hearing, and in 1613 it was determined that the 
foundation, incorporation, and endowment of the hospital 
was sufficient, good, and effectual in law« This attempt of 
Baxter^s was much censured at the time, and it is to be 
regretted that much of the odium fell on sir Francis (after- 
ward lord) Bacon, then solicitor- general^ who was his chief 
adviser. 

Of Mr. Sutton's personal character, we are told, that ''he 
was strong-built and compact, of a middle stature, with a 
good complexion and agreeable mien ; neither nice nor 
negligent in his apparel, but modest and clean, enjoying a 
good state of health till the decays of old age broke in upon 
it. He was a very affectionate tender husband, an exact 
but kind master, a good natured honest man, sober and re- 
ligious both at home and abroad, very compassionate and 
very grateful." As a public benefactor, Sutton deserves to 
• be held in honourable remembrance, and it is pleasing to 
reflect that his design has never been interrupted or im-* 
peded by improper administration, and that few schools 
have produced men of more eminence as teachers or 
scholafs. ' 

SUWORROW, or, as pronounced, SUVOROFF, RIM- 
NIKSKI (Count Alexander), an eminent Russian gene- 
ral, of an ancient Swedish family, was born in 1730, or as 
some think in 1732, and was originally intended for the 
profession of the law. His inclinations, however, leading 
him to the army, he entered as a private in 1742, and in 
1754 had attained the rank of lieutenant. He made his 
first campaign in the seven years war against the Prussians 
in 1759, and entered upon actual service under' prince 
Wolgonski. He marched against the Prussians with the 
rank oflfirst major ; and was at the battle of Kimnersdorf, 

1 Life by Bearcroft.— Hearne'fl ** Domus Carthasiana."— Biog. Brit.— Mal- 
colm's Ltndiniam RediviTam, vol. I.—- ^uHer^s Worthies. 



8 U W O II R O W. 39 

and at the taking of Berlin. He this campaign signalized 
himself by many acts of valour, until the year 1762, when 
a truce was made between Prussia and Russia, which was 
followed by a peace. Although he was attached to the in- 
fantry service, count Romanzow presented him at the gene- 
ral promotion as colonel of cavalry, from his superior know- 
ledge in that department of the army ; but there were cer- 
tain obstacles which caused that line of promotion to be 
abandoned. Soon after, the count Panin, who commanded 
in Pomerania, sent him to Petersburgh with an account of 
the return of the troops. On this occasion be gave him a 
special letter of recommendation to the empress, who pre- 
aented him a coloners commission, written with her own 
hand. 

In August 1762 he was appointed colonel of the regi- 
ment of infantry of Astracan, which was in garrison at. 
Petersburgh ; and when the ceremonial of her coronation 
called the empress to Moscow, she ordered him to remain 
at Petersburgh, where she charged him with the execution^ 
of some very important commissions. After her return, his 
regiment was sent to distant service, and was replaced by 
the infantry of Susdal, consisting of more than a thousand 
men, of which he received the command in 1763. In au- 
tumn of the following year he went into garrison at Ladoga. 
In 1768 he was advanced to the rank of brigadier; and as 
the war was just commenced against the cori federates of 
Poland, he was ordered to repair with all speed to the fron- 
tiers of that kingdom in the course of November, and in 
the most unfavourable season of the year. During the 
winter he was continually engaged in improving his regi- 
ment in their manoeuvres, and habituating them to every 
action that would be required, and every circumstance that 
might happen in a state of actual service. In the follew- 
ing summer of 1769 these troops were stationed on the 
frontiers of Poland, from whence they were sent to War- 
saw, a march of eighty German miles, which he completed 
in twelve days. He overcame Kotelpowski, near Warsaw,' 
and defeated and dispersed the troops commanded by the 
two Pulawskis. He afterwards took up his quarters at Lub- 
lin ; and the Russian army in Poland requiring the estab- 
lishment of four major-generals, he was advanced to that 
rank on the 1st of January, 1770. 

In the middle of the summer, when colonel Moschinski 
had gained a jreinfercement, our general gained a second 



40 SUWOHROW. 

victory over him ; and in the autumn of the same year he 
attempted an operation on the Vistula, but from the rapi- 
dity of the current he missed the pontoon in leaping from 
.the bank, and falling into the river, was in gr^at danger of 
.being drowned. After many fruitless attempts^to save him, 
a grenadier at length seized a lock of his hair, and drew 
))im to the bank ; but in getting out of the water he structc 
.his breast against a pontoon, which caused a violent coti« 
tusion, that threatened his life, and from which he did not 
recover for several months. Towards the end of the year 
,the empress sent him the order of St. Anne. 

We shall not detail all the various exploits of the gener 
ral; it will be sufficient to take notice of the principal of 
them. He afterwards fought and beat the army of the cour 
federates under Pulawski and Nowisi, and the empress con- 
ferred on him the order of St. George of the third class, as 
a testimony of the satisfaction she had received from bis 
services. A second confederation being formed in Lithuar 
Ilia, the general again defeated the army under Oginski ; 
and this victory was considered so important that the em-r 
press sent him, as conqueror of the grand marshal, the or- 
der of Alexander. This victory was obtained on the 1 Ith 
of September, 1771. * 

The confederates soon after surprized Cracow, which 
obliged Suworrow to hasten and blockade the place. After 
some time it capitulated. On this occasion he shewed his 
magnanimity to Mons. Choisi, on« of the French officers, 
to whom he said, on being offered his sword, "I cannot 
receive the sword of a gallant man in the service of a king, 
who is the ally of my own sovereign." Tranquillity was 
soon ^fter restored to Poland, where Suworrow served du- 
ring four years withoi|t interruption. Independent of the 
nuxnerous inferior actions and multiplied skirmishes, in 
which his courage was always displayed, and his military 
capacity never failed to appear; he was covered with glory 
by the victory of Stalowiz and the capture of Cracow: 
which gave the promise of that brilliaat career that he 
.afterwards run. 

In September 1772 he was attached to the corps ofge- 
^neral. Elippt, ordered to Finland by the way of Petersburg, 
where he arriyed in the winter. In Feb. 1773, he was em- 
ployed in inspecting the frontiers of Finland, where he 
heard every complaint^ and made every necessary commu- 
nication to redress them. Towards the spring the congress 



S U W O E H O W, 41 

of the Turks at Soczan separated ; the truce was at an end^ 
and it appeared as if war would be rekindled. Our gene-> 
ral now received orders to join the army in Moldavia, where 
be served under tield marshal Roymanzow. The years 1773 
and 1774 included the first Turkish war. In ]Vlay 1773 be 
arrived at Jassy, and received a command. He. then passed 
the Danube, and defeated the Turks atTurtukey. On this 
victory he dispatched an account to marshal Romanzow, iii 
the following terms : 

** Honour and glory to God ! Glory to you Romanzow J 
We are in possession of Turtukey, and I am in it. 

"^UWORROW.'* 

As a recompence for this victory the empress transmitted 
to him the cross of the order of St. George. During the 
reoiainder of the war, which was of short continuance, Su- 
worrow was constantly engaged and constantly successful ; 
and after the peace was ordered to Moscow, to assist in ap- 
peasing the troubles occasioned by the famous rebel Pu- 
gatcbefF, whom he took prisoner, For several years after 
this Suworrow was employed in the Crimea, on the Cu« 
ban, and against the Nogay Tartars, in a kind of ser« 
vice which, however important to the empress, furnished 
no opportunities for that wonderful display of promptitude 
and resource which bad characterised his more active cam- 
paigns. 

In the end of the year 1786, Suworrow was promoted to 
the rank of general-in-chief ; and at the breaking out of the 
war with the Turks in 1787, he shewed how well he Was 
entitled to that rank, by his masterly defence of Kinburn; 
a place of no strength, but of great importance, as it is si- 
tuated at the mouth of the Dneiper, opposite to Oczakow. 
At the siege of Oczakow he commanded the left wing of 
the army under prince Potemkin, and was dangerously 
wounded. In 1789, be was appointed to the command of 
the army which was to co-operate with the prince of Saxe 
Cobourgin Walachia, and on the 22d of September, gained, 
in conjunction with that prince, the memorable victory of 
Rymnik, over the Turks, dne of the greatest that has ever 
been achieved. According to the least exaggerated ac-' 
counts, the Turkish army amounted to 90,000 or 100,000 
men, while that of the allies did not exceed 25,000. The 
carnage was dreadful, no quarter having been given to the 
Turks, and on this account the Russian general has been 
charged with savage barbarity. It is said, however, that 



4« BUWORROW: 

the commanders of the allied army, aware of the immensii 
foperiority of their enemies, had resolved, before the en- 
gagement, not to encumber themselves with prisoners, whom 
they could not secure without more than hazarding the fate 
of the day. The taking of Bender and Belgrade were the 
immediate consequences of the victory of Rymnik, for bis 
share in which Suworrow was created a count of the Roman 
empire by the emperor Joseph, and by his own sovereign, 
a cou^t of the empire of Russia with the title of Rymnik« 
ski, and the order of St. Andrew of the first class. 

His next memorable exploit was the taking of Ismailow 
in 1790, which he accomplished after a most furious assault 
in about eleven hours. In this dreadful space of time, the 
Ottomans lost 33,000 men killed or dangerously wounded : 
10,000 who were taken prisoners: besides 6000 women and 
children, and 2000 Christians of Moldavia, who fell in the 
general massacre. The plunder was immense ; but Suwor-* 
row, ^ho was inaccessible to any views of private interest, 
did not appropriate to himself a single article, not so much 
as a horse, of which about 10,000, many extremely beau* 
tiful, were fbund in the place. Having, accofding to his - 
custom, rendered solemn thanks to God for his victory, he 
wrote to prinbe Potemkin the following Spartan letter ; 
** The Russian colours wave on the ramparts of Ismailow.^' 

Peace being concluded with the Turks in December 
1791, no political events occurred from that period to call 
forth the tnilitary talents of Suworrow till 1794, when he 
was sent to disarm the Poles in Red Russia, as a step to- 
wards the partition of Poland then concerted between the 
empress, the emperor, and the king of Prussia. He after- 
Wards stormed and took Praja, with immense slaughter, 
and Warsaw having consequently capitulated, the king- 
dom of Poland was overturned. Suworrow's character has 
suffered by the conduct of the taking of Praja as well as 
that of Ismailow; but it is not our purpose to enter into a 
discussion on the subject, still less on the policy of the 
partition of Poland. Suworrow never appears to have en- 
tered into the niceties of political deliberation. He was a 
mere soldier who obeyed the commands of his superiors, 
and we have every reason to think, tempered them with as 
much lenity as the difficult circumstances in which he was 
frequently placed, would admit. For his services in Po^ 
land, the empress advanced him to the rank of field-marsh&l- 
general, loaded him with jewels^ and presented him with 



S U W O R R O W, 4S 

an estate of 7000 peasants, in the district of Kubin, which 
had been the scene of his first batite iii the course of this 
campaign. 

From the subjugation of Poland we hear little more of 
Suworrow, until he entered upon his career in Italy, when 
the emperor Paul, who had succeeded his mother on the 
throne of Russia, joined in the confederacy against France 
in 1799, He assumed the command of the combined army 
of Russians and Austrians, and such was his success that 
the French lost, one after another, all the principal towns 
in the north of Italy, and were defeated in the bloody bat**^ 
tie of Novi. After that action, Suworrow crossed the Alps, 
and marched into Swisserland, driving the French from 
mount St. Gothard. But here bis gallant career was inters 
rupted by the defeat of another division of the Russians, 
who were attacked by the French general Massena near 
Zurich, and obliged to cross the Rhine intp Germany. 
This disaster, with the failure of the expected aid from the 
Austrians, obliged Suworrow, who was opposed by Moreau, 
to commence a fighting retreat towards the lake of Con-* 
stance; and after prodigious exertions of valour, he arrived 
there with a much diminished army, and effected a junction 
with the remainder of the troops that had been defeated by 
Massena. He was now recalled home, and under the pres- 
sure of fatigue, vexation, and fever, reached Petersburgh, 
where he soon fell into a childish state, and died May IS, 
1800<i His capricious master is said to have displayed his 
resentment by refusing the usual military honours to his re- 
mains, and even deprived his son of his rank of major-ge- 
neral. The present emperor Alexander, however, repaired 
t]iis injustice to the memory of an officer so brave and faith- 
ful, by erecting his statue in xhe imperial gardens. Ano- 
ther account says that Paul, although he endeavoured to 
disgrace Suworrow at the end of his life, ordered him. a. 
magnificent funeral. 

In his person Suworrow was tall, considerably exceeding 
six feet, and full chested. - His countenanqe was" stern ; 
but among his friends his manners were pleasant, and his 
dispositions were kind. His temper was naturally violent;, 
but that violence he constantly laboured to moderate, though 
he was never able completely to extinguish it. According 
to Mr. Antbing, an effervescent spirit of impatience pre« 
dominated in his character; and it perhaps never happened 
(says that author) that the execution of his orders equalled 



44. ^ U W O R R O W. 

the rapidity of his wishes. Though he di^lik^d all pubUc: 
^tUeriainnientSy yet when circumstaiuses led him to any of 
them, he appeared to partake, and endeavoured to promote, 
the general pleasure. Sometimes he condescended even 
to dance and play at card's, though very rarely, and merely 
that he might not interrupt the etiquette of public man* 
ners, to which, when, not in the field, he was very attentive. 
In the field he may be said to have spent the whole of hia 
life from the period at which he first joined the army in the 
seven years^ war ; for during the time he was not engaged 
in actual warfare, and that tio^e, taken altogether, did not 
exceed twelve years, he was always placed at the head of 
armies stationed on the frontier of some en^my^s country* 
He was therefore a mere warrior, and as such had no fixed 
habitation. With respect to his (able and lodging,, bei 
contented himself with whatever he found, requiring no- 
thing but what absolute necessity demands, and what might 
be transpprted with ease from one place to another. His 
couch poDsisted of a heap of fresh hay sufficiently elevated^ 
anc^ scattered into considerable breadth, with a white sheet 
spread over it, a. cushion for his pillow, and a cloak for his 
coverlid. For the last twenty years of his life, he never 
made use of a looking-glass, or incumbered his person with 
either watch or money. 

He was sincerely attached to the religion of his country, 
and a strict observer of its rites, which he.. equally strictly 
enjoined on all under his command. His biographer as* 
sures us that from his earliest years he was enamoured of 
the sciences, and improved himself in them ; but as the 
military science was the sole object of his regard, those 
authors of every nation who investigate, illustrate, or im-r 
prove it, engrossed his literary leisure. Hence Cornelius 
Nepos was ivith him a favourite classic ; and he read, with 
great avidity and attention, the histories of Mohtecuculi 
and Turenne. Cssar, however, and Charles XII. were 
the heroes whom he most admired, and whose activity and 
courage became the favourite objects of his imitation. The 
love of his country, and the ambition to contend in arms 
for its glory, were the predominant passions of his active 
life ; and to them he sacrificed every inferior sentiment, 
and consecrated all the powers of his body and.mind.^ 

SUZE, Countess. SeeCOUGNI. 

1 H»tory^ of his Campaigns by Anthiog.— -Encycl. Britao. 



SWAMMEItDAM. ♦« 

i 

' SWAMMERDAM (John), an eminent naturaliiBt and 
anatomisty was born at Amsterdam in 1637, where bit fa« 
ther was an apothecary, and had a museum of natural hifr* 
lory. He intended his son for the church, and with this 
view gare him a classical education, but the boy prevailed 
upon him to let him apply to physic. He was therefore 
kept at home, till he should be properly qualified to en- 
gage in that study, and frequently employed in cleaaiog, 
and arranging the articles of his father's collection. From 
this occupation be acquired a taste for natural history, ^nd 
soon began to form a museum of his own. Entomology 
having particularly struck his fancy, he became indefi^tt- 
gable in discovering, catching, and examining, the flying 
insects, not only in the province of Holland, but in those 
of Goeldreland and Utrecht. In 1661 he went to Leydeti, 
to pursue his studies, which he did with so much success, 
that, in 1663, he was admitted a candidate of physic, after 
undergoing the examinations prescribed on that occasion. 
On his arrival at Leyden, he contracted a friendship with 
the great anatomist^ Nicolas Steno, and ever after lived 
with him in intimacy. 

The arcana of anatomy now exciting his curiosity,, one 
of his first objects was to consider how the parts of the 
body, prepared by dissection, could be preserved in a state 
for anatomical demonstration ; and in this he succeeded^ 
as he had done before in his nicer contrivances to dissect 
and prepare the minutest insects. After this, he made a 
journey into France, where he spent some time at Saumur 
with Tanaquil Faber, and made a variety of observations 
upon insects. From Saumur be went to Paris, in 1664, 
where he lived in the same house with his friend Steno. 
He likewise contracted an intimacy with Thevenot, who 
strenuously recommended him to Conrad Van Beuningen, 
a senator and burgomaster of Amsterdam, and at that |ime 
that republic's minister at the court of France : Beuningen 
obtained leave for Swammerdam, at his return home, to 
dissect the bodies of such patients as should happen to die 
in the hospital of that city. 

He returned to Leyden to take his degrees ; and took the 
occasion of his stay there to cultivate a friendship with Van 
Home, who had been formerly his preceptor in anatomy. 
It was at this time, Jan. 1667, that in Van Home's house, 
Swammerdam first injected the uterine vessels of a human 
subject with ceraceous matter,, which most useful art he 



46 S W A M M E R D A M* 

afterwardf brottght to great perfection. la February the 
same year, he was admitted to bis degree as doctor of pby« 
sic, after having publicly maintained his thesis on respira-* 
tion; which was then conceived only in short and con- 
tracted arguments, but appeared soon after with consider- 
able additions, with a dedication to Thevenot. It was thus 
that &wammerdam cultivated anatomy with the greatest art 
and labour, in conjunction with Van Home ; but a quartan 
ague, which attacked him this year, brought him so very 
low, that he found himself under a necessity of discon* 
tinuiog these studies ; which, on his recovery, he entirely 
neglected, in order to give himself up to his favourite pur* 
suit of entomology. * 

In 1668, the grand duke of Tuscany being then in Hoi-' 
land with Mr. Thevenot, in order to see the curiosities of 
the. country, came to view those of Swammerdam and his 
father ; and on this occasion, our author dissected some 
insects in the presence of that prince, who was struck with 
admiration at his uncommon dexterity in handling those 
minute objects, and especially at his proving, that the fu-r 
ture butterfly lies with ail its parts neatly folded up in a 
caterpillar; by actually removing the integuments that 
cover the former, and extricating and exhibiting all its 
parts, however minute, with incredible ingenuity, and by 
ineans of instruments of an inconceivable fineness. On 
this occasion his highness o£Fered him 12,000 florins for his 
share of the collection, provided he would remove them 
into-Tuscany, and live at the court of Florence ; but Swam- 
merdam, from religious motives, as well as a dislike of a 
court life, declined the proposal. He now coiitinued-his 
researches into the nature and properties of insects, and in 
1669, he published a general history of them, a work which 
afterwards proved the lasting monument of his talents. 
But, in the mean time his father resenting his neglect of 
his profession, endeavoured to recall him to it by refusing 
him any pecuniary aid. This induced him at last to pro- 
^ mise to resume his profession ; but, as he had injured his 
health by the closeness of his studies, a retirement to the 
country for some time was* requisite that he might recover 
" his strength," and return to his business with new force and 
« spirits. He was, however, scarcely settled in his country 
retirement, when, in 1670, he relapsed into his former 
occupation. Thevenot, in the mean time, informed of the 
disagreement betweeji Swammerdam and bis father^ did 



3WAMMERDAM. 47 

a)l thftt lay in his pawer to engage tbe former to retire into 
France, and probably some amicable arrangement mi^bt 
have been made, had not Swammerdam, in 1673, formed 
ft connection with the then famous Antonia Bourignen, and 
became totally absorbed in all ber mystieitm and devout 
reveries. After this he grew altogether careless of the 
pursuits in which he bad so much delighted, and withdrew 
himself in a great measure from the world, and followed 
and adopted all the enthusiasms of Antonia. In this per* 
s.uasion he neglected his person, wasted away to the figure 
of a skeleton by his various acts of mortification, and died 
at Amsterdam in 1680. , 

Tbe works of thi& celebrated anatomist and naturalist, 

are, 1. *^ Tractatus Physico-Anatomico-Medicus de Respi- 

ratione," Leyden, 1667, 1677» and 1679, in 8vo, and 17aS, 

4tou 2. ^< General History of Insects,*' Utrecht, 1669, 4to, 

in Dutch, but published there in 1685, 4to, in French, and 

at Leyden, in Latin, 1685, with fine engravings. 3* ^< Mi- 

taculum Naturae, seu, uteri muliebris fabrica," Leyden^ 

1672, 1679, 1717, 1729, 4 to,, with plates. He was im-> 

polled to this publication by Van Horne, who bad claimed 

9ome of bis discoveries. 4. '^ Historta Insectorum gene* 

ralis; adjicltur diluctdatio, qu& specialid cnjusFis ordittis 

exempla figuris accuratissimd, tarn uaturali magnitudine, 

quam ope microscopii aucta, illustrantur,'* Leyd. 1733, 

4to. This translation of his history of insects is by Hen- 

pinius, but the best edition of this valuable work is that 

which appeared at Leydeu^in 1737, 2 vols, folio, under the 

title '* Biblia Naturae, sive, Historia Insectorum in daises 

certas reducta, &c.*' - The learned owe this to Boerhaave, 

for the manuscript having been left by tbe author to his 

executors, had been banded about till it was difficult to be 

traced. Of this an English translation was published in 

1757, folio, by sir John Hill and others, and with Boer* 

baave*s plates.' 

SWANEVELT '(Herman), an eminent Flemish land- 
scape painter, was born in 1620, and is generally said to 
have been the disciple of Gerard .Douw ; but he went very 
young to Italy, and placed himself with Claude Lorraine, 
and soon proved worthy of so distinguished a master. He 
studied nature incessantly ; and very frequently, along with 
Claude, observed the tingings of the morniog^light on tbe 

I Life Vj[r Bo«riiMTe.-^BIojr* Diet.. Hist, dt M«d«ciB«. 



4S S W A N E V E L T. 

surfaces of different objects, on the monntains, rocks, trees, 
skiesy and waters; and the various effects of light at noon 
and evening; by which he was enabled to give his own', 
works so much truth and nature, as wiH for ever render 
them extremely estimable, and in his life-time they were . 
sold for very high prices. He also enriched his ideas j»f, 
frequenting the elegant remains of antiquity about Rome,, 
and in that study spent all his leisure hours, and from his 
rattted manner of life, although he was by birth a Fleming, 
he was distinguished by the name of the Hermit of Italy. 
The reputation whiefa his pictures procured him, and the \ 
demand he had for them, excited in some degree the jea^ 
lousy of Claude, which is a proof bow near he approached 
him. He etched also in a bold, free, and mai^teriy style, 
and ptdbtished, from his own designs, various sets of land- 
scapes, amounting in all to one hundred and fourteen. He 
died tn 1 6ao.' 

8WEDENBORG (Emanuel), a Swedish entbVisiast, . 
and the founder of a wel(«known; although, we t^iist^ de- 
ctiniiig sect, was born ^t Stockholm Jan'. 2d, 1-6^9. ' His 
fatb«r was;bishop of WHt Gotbia, and it may be supposed 
that his eoucHion was g'ood, since be published a volunre *' 
of Latin poetry when he was only twenty years old; TUe 
titte was, **Ludtts Heliconios, siveOarmina IMfiscellanea,' 
^use variis in lociscecinit.^' The same year he began 'hi%; 
travels ; and having visited 'England, Hx)Hand| France, and,\ 
Germany, returned in 1714 to Stockholm^ wher6 t^o yeafft 
after,' he was appointed by Cltarles'^II; assessor of 'ibe^t 
metallsa cotlcge.- His studies during thi^'prart of 'hi^ life,' 
were chiefly devoted to tnathemahcs and lit^tnral phtloso- ' 
phy ; wad'he was essentially useful to hrs king jby enabliti^ / 
him to convey his heavy artillery by wat^r, Vh0re 'they ' 
could not. go by land* He publish^ abotit thh pWio'c^ 
xuany acientifical and philosophical works ; artd succeedin 
to the favour of queen Ulrica Eleandra,' after'the death 6 
Charles XIL was by her ennobled in 171'^; In ^ursuimcd^ * 
of bis duty, as belonging to the metallic ct)Hegej he tra* 
veiled to vie%v the mines, and then in^peeted also'itbe ma-'* 
|)u6ictuKes of bis country.* In consequence of thts, he 
pubU3bedi.several tracts on subjects ;felatrt{^ to tK'^ pfailb-' , 
sophy of die arts. He returned to.Sh>ckhohn'tri itl^^ and 

divided: bis time between ' the duties'^f iih*afRce ind lAk 

1 . ..• .' ... 



t 

I I 



I ArftnTiUe, vol. |U.-Ml»ilklttgtoa iiid StralUl i : 



8 W £ O £ N B O R <^. 49 

fKittim sladies. In 173S, he had coaifdcted his great 
MFork^ entitled ** Opera Phiiosopbica et Mineralta," which 
WES piinted mider bia direction in 1734, partly At Dresden^ 
«nd partly at Leipsic. It forms 3 vols, foliar is iUustrateA 
by: plates^ and is written with great strength ofi judgment* 
In 1 7^, be bad heen admitted ii^o the society of sciences 
at Upsal; and between that and 1724^ had received a 
aimttar honour from the royal academy at Steckhokni and 
that of Petefsburgb. He corresponded also with many 
learned foreigners* But the time was now approaching 
when all the desire of baron Swedenborg, for literary or 
other worldly distinction^ was 'to be absoi^d in feelii^ of 
• soblimer natore* Whether too intense an, application to 
study had disordered^ or a natural tendency to enthusiasm 
bad inflamed his mind, he conceived himself miraculously 
called to the office of revealing the most hidden arcanv* 
^'Itt the year 174V' ^^ '^P^ ^^ o^^ of his works, <<tbe 
Lord was graciously plei^ed to manifest himself to me, tn 
4t pcnoHidl uppemranct ; to open in me a sight of the spiri- 
tual wdrld, and to enable me to converse with spirits and 
angels ; and this privilege has continued with me to this 
dlty.^^ From this time, he .devoted his ymry able pen to 
aiicfa subjects as this most extraordinary state of mind sug* 
geated^ He published, '' De cultu et Amore Bei," Lend. 
1T4S, 4to; *< De telluribus in mundo nostro solari," 1758; 
^ Oe Equo albo in Apocalypai,*' |758 ; << D^ nova Hiero- 
aoljrmaj^* <^ De Ccelo et Inferno ;" ^^SapientiaangeUcfa d^ 
Dmna Promlentia," Amsterdam, 1764 \ ^^ Vera Christianfa 
religio,^* Amat 1771; and piany other books. He parti^ 
colariy visited Amsterdam and London, where these ex^ 
travagant works were published, and where they have since 
been tmuslated by his admirers. One of bis fancies about 
the spiritual world is, that it admits not of space : yet' he 
teUs us, that a man is so little changed after deaths that he 
does not even know that be is not living in the present 
world ; that he eats and drinks^ and even enjoys conjugal 
ifelightB^ as in the present world; thai the resemblance 
between the two worlds is ao great, that in the spiritual 
there are cities, - palaces, houses, books, merchandise '&c. 
&o«f-^UolverMl Theology, voL L p. 734. . ' This extraordi^ 
nary man died in London, March 29, 1771^; his remains 
lay in state, and were afterwarda deposited in a vault in the 
Swedish church near RadcIifF-highway. 

Swedenborg was, in himself, a harmless^ ttiough a very 
Vox. XXIX. E 



M S W ED E N B O R 01 

omidsrmueii progress daring. bis Hfey but is i¥>w.«»tabU9heKi 
ia^Englaod, (tnnder ^betitie of Tha Nmv JtrjMUmn Qm^h. 
JiiMia Mod .<of>ChrisU»nttyy ^modified aecovdiog^ta tb* 
.whifw oi die nutlior; jacknowledging a Triiiiiy^ ,b«|l..i^t 
«ili«ul]r in , thai 4ense 0f any other chiu^^ and >an jiqi^ in 
A peculiars s^Btfe 9lso>; pretending tbat the spiritual «Qn$^ pf 
iJur Soriptuccfi was oenrei ktioim till it waarev^^JM.io^Sw^'*' 
(dflubprg. Tbft cMtiiuiad intarcoorsens^f apivils with meo it 
iMft0ipaifit>Df>bt$ixk>ctriBe!; mth.many otber r^evierieftr ^'vtoii 
inroald hardly appear to deceive npdoe, w^ereibsy i|o$ a^li 
considered by many, as tbe nesnh 0I intpimiiGdl./ Thai 
4tii»se4traag«>driii9ionft ibenld «ib$i<t in ^tiine:wib9li>trae 
.#aitb bus wavered witlnou^ reasQn^/is.eiif^^actfndiiMtf)}^* ,1^ a 
reasonable person^, the inspection oi any oive p^h\%, 9Ay^-r 
.cal bMks seen^ a* suffieient presc^rvati^e ixwR^'uH^t^^^f^ 
Some of bi$ foUoiwerB i)a¥i h^m bold ^ enough <taM|^^^nt 
h^m as a mm) wilhoiiife entbuiUMo)/ \ . [ t a \o 

SWERT^ 4r SWERTIUS (*IaAl«ais)y.« FlemW&tAirto^ 
mn and aoiiquaiyy waa< bQrA.atiilnQpafp(inuli6^7v .^^ 
jlMLl^a^&Or>pafticl»Uf9:of bis. literary .,pr9gffQ^ vbi(i04og^$M 
<diaracteii'lb>t:be iiras at mwti^i scie»i:e:aiid^l^imtngj>idfian 
ihwaabid diflfM»ilionf>iandjCio6ii«ianally'^ <KiV>i^ 11 

j»mi;qf ;btisinffla«j -Bp dieyotedAiinifd^ of ibW. Am^ 
jtpd.publiabcsi a^^reat msiiy vt^rksrwbi^biJM^Pglliii^bifEiiciin^, 
jidamble. repuitaticui^ > Satiuis jm]^>ha idoasi not kM«i wJ^e^ 
lfa€»r be JBa«ii€i$bieHii! Uved; s]90^l jmr, b^ lSi^^i|tr,af 

jaacbrimpoctanoe^; T?bi4i^ J bnoi^, (^at be:idom>i9pt(rfyp$»1^ 
iWrjr r^peielluJUfy^of otb^ hdi^a atid. tjic^t CQftip^l^y4jorH« 
siqrs -of Jaousb<D6iisav4ibfiit^b0r^ :tbi/b.(iij)r^ ^i^ralttrn^d 

.^eaaoA &i^ert badj'foriJMipg/iJiisisxpfesaioat ;8aiM}|tibra|^ht 
hsm»,kni»wu ftoea ^^V^i^femua AodfrejSA* oj^fr^miFc^p^nifl^t 
Jie>»iarrjed Suaanna^iVaii lErpr and hlHi^0rJawil^<'^i^^3^ 
y^bildcant R^.AmAiAh9itm^i'ml^2%y:»%^9^ . 

jx'iiMv principal ?woi:fc« : are^ l« 'f NarjraiA^aesi j^^$9fki^ 4a 
^jBormin* £)earum<|pM jcapi ta^. abi Oiielio ?w}gatftf P >}<9 V»l^t^ 
3lk$(^fl» 4tOk ; i^. f/ B^lgiiitotittii aiw X:Vili^pr^>ii4llPi»TOni 
GeirnMiiM) iafenoriA.>breTia, iacicrip^iQr'' CiW^* .'i^t V4^« 
ci4mflB in fudere iUx. On^Ui^ cuoivOrMUi v,iia,';i4i»ftbi?af«>^ 
4. " Meditationes J. Cardinalis de Turrecr^t^Mln^iin^vHEiiixi 
^brisfci^ coin yita Card. .&^v! Cologn^ Ig^^^^i^SflifV 5> 

V Hit works paisiiii.---£iicy«l. BcjtaiwiK^ Aic« 



S W EiK t: ' 51 

tii|»b^, iiYseriptidris &c. ' ibid. 1 m^, acii} 1 ^2^, «vb;^ -^^ 
^AlMunWitta Seffllchralia Birftb«r»tdie^^^ 'Anu 16 td; '8iro. 
"1t< ^ NmeB in HieroHy«li Magit €^ie Timiftnabulift titellcitn 
fsioslbdmuifvy/* 1608» and 1664^ ^o. ' ^^ *^ ftfusie eifv&rires 
iii^ri Li^iH** A<tnv^: 1609, 4to. 9.^ ♦«^'FI<M!*s Liplialifj** , 
Cerfogn, ¥(?l4i «ffd 16110. lo, *^ AtheD» Selgio^,*** At)tw. 
l6Sf8^fot^, a MTork on Ibe platif aod-itiitcti of it bon-owcid 
fromi ^^tedm AMredR. To these Sftxitmadds ^^ iCenkn 
^'B€%icariitn Ani^ies^ Obi'onjei et b)A(»Hcifatiti(|t]i>«t'rd(^<^'- 
tiorei»,^* Fttinefon, 1690^ 3 tote foto>*^ > • ' i^ ' ' ' 
•■i^SWim^EWv SfecVAN SWIETBH.:'? I> - - 

eelebrar^^'^iiltf^'f^'htspoVmcai Itnowtedge,' was de.^cdnded 

frowti a Vel^r '«fkriiet|(k ftuiifityy and borb NoviiSQ, 1667. His 

'gnivifS^Altb^jiMn ^otDi» Swift, • was mftv of Ooodridb in 

'U^ii(miMit$i^^MiM;rrwd Mrsi. EHsateeirh* Dryden, atrht 

of Dryden the poet; by-Mr4iom ht^had^'iiY ^ons,* Oodwiin, 

T4ldmlK»»"Drydi^iV WttKum, Joiiatlitfn, ^d Adaii; Tfatima^ 

^-^i^s br€?d at OnfoMl, but'died 5^o«mg:; 'Go^miy' way a bar- 

' i<^6^^f: Q^'04m \' flmd WilHamj Dryvkfi, ' 'Joqatbati; and 

^(lAthia^iiwev^ aiTtdfritie^. Gbd^^id* hairiivg nialtied a relation 

'; 4^4ihe ^&\Ai nmrdbibiiteira of Oritiond^ the old dul^-e of Orrnond 

vriM^ hifitt^aN^toiriie^genanil ih > the p^lattnaia 9f< mppemry 

4^ ^Imlitn^ 4f ^()d- Mrtfs f a« « Ws/ tt«f»e l^mcxsr WilHoilt iaWy er$|^ 

^^ ^d^i^'hftviag Goovertod'fxien of «H condittbnn into 

^<^QMie]'s. ^Oddwin, thter^lbrcv detoi^mindd to aittarhpt thei 

^' WtfUi^liim^ of a fotftune* in thai kin gdom^^and'Hbe u^me 

tt)oti^«4t{dU)ced4ii^fcmr broib^ts to g6 witfb bfnti J<inatbanj, 

'W^ib« a;g^ 4^f(-aboi»t-twenty^thi>efe, awd-befombd wetn to 

''I#6tond, ma^Hed Mrs^ A<bigail Ei4dcy a gentlewonittti^pf 

'^Irtttcestmibira ; amk abottftwo years after left ii^i* a widow" 

'4Ub^^|i«bild,^a' daughter^ and pregnant with ano«b^r, 

ba44ngi w»^nieana of iftubsistenee but an annniiy 0f "Sb^. 

y/fMehilMt biM^mnd'had purciiased for her in l£ngfanid, im- 

' inediM^y kf^f Us marriage. In t bt^ dmresft sbe wmi taken 

lifir«d«lie f4xifi^<i{ &tiAMiu her btisbat^d's^etde^t bnodter; 

'^iftlMftvttei'^^^qallot^t/' seven month* after his death, deliveped 

'^i son, whom «he calted JonatUanv- itf t^membrancne^of 

his fitMr, ahd who. waa afterwai^dW' the celebrated dean of 

•8fc.^Patrf^k'tfL>" ^ •• - ■'"'''' ''■'' -'^''''^ ' 

fl'hiippened, byirbaUver accident that J^aaatban waa 



&» SWIFT. 

t>ot suckled hy bis mother, but by a nune^ wbo ma» a pm^ 
tive of Whitehaven ; and when be was about a year oldi 
her affection for bim waa become so strong, jtbal, finding 
it necessary to visit a sick relation there, me, <:arried him 
with her, vi^itbout the knowledge of bis mother or uncle* 
At this place he cootinued abmit three years^ for^ wbea 
the matter was discovered, his mother sent ordf rs nol to 
hazard a second voyage, till he shoiald be better able to 
bear it. Mrs. Swift, about two years after her huibapd't 
-death, quitted the family of Mr. Godwin Swift in bMsxkd^ 
and retired to Leicester, the place of her nativily ; but her 
son was again carried to Ireland by bis nui*8€^ and veplaced 
under the protection of his uncle Godwip* It has been 
generally believed, that Swift was born in England ;• and# 
when the people of Ireland displea^ed^imy be has been 
heard to say, ^*I am not of this vile country j, I am an 
Englishman :" 4E>at this account of bis birth is taken, from 
one which he left behind bim, in bis own hand*writing# 
Spme have also thought, that be wasi a natural .son of sir 
William Temi^e, because sir WilUa^ exp^iessed a pard^r 
eular regard for bim ; but that was impossible ; for sir Wil-( 
iiam was resident, abroad in a pjublio. charaoter. from 1665 
%Q 1670 ; and bis mother, who was nevei? out of the British 

.dominions, brought bim w^o tbQ w^d in Ifiei. i 

At about six yeaics of age^ be i|fa^ sent to t^^. school of 
Kilkenny, and having /^ootitm^. there e%bt years^ h^^welst 
admitted a student of Trinity college in Dublin ^. Here 
applying himself to bo^ks pf history and poetry, to th^ 
neglect of academic leaKoing, be wasy at the end lof four 
years, refused his degree of bachelor of arts foir insuffi<<« 
^|§ncy ; and was at last admitted spmdli gratH^. whioh is 
there considered as the highest d^ree of reproach and 
dishonour* Stuug with the disgraqe, he stiudied eight hourf 
a day, for seven years following. He commeneed these 
studies at the university of Dublin, where he' continued^ 
themj three years; and during this time he drew up tb^ 
%tsketteb.pf his " Taleof a Tub;'' for Wase^ndon Warren^ 
es()» a gentleman of fortune near Belfast in Ireland^ who^ 
was chamber- fellow with Swift, declared that be then saw^ 
a JQdtpy of i^ ioc Swift> f^i^ hand*writing. 

* For some particulars explanatory . separately in 1808, and &1so adi^ed 
d^BWrffl conduct kt college, see «« An to Mr. Nicbols'» new edition of tliat 
StM^rott tte EadroR paitaf hi« Life^ ytar., 
Il ,th^, {tfTvPr^aaJuelt,'' pn^bliytied * 



V S W I F T. S3 

^ Yn VBM, lib ilncle Godwin was seised witb a lethargy, 
and soon aftet was deprived both of bis sfteech and oie^ 
nlory : by which accident Swift being left without soppoit^ 
tdok a journey to Leicester, that he nfight consuk with his 
nibther what course of life to pursue. At this time air 
William Temple was in high reputation, and honbured 
with the confidence and familisurity of king William. His 
fiitber sir John* Temple, had been 'master of the Rolls in 
Ireland, and contracted an intimnte friendship with Gt^ 
wlu Bwlft, wfaicK continued till his death ; and sir Williani^ 
wiib ihheiited his title and estate, had msirried aladytii 
Whom^ MK swift was relaled: she therefore « advised her 
BOti to cbmmunicate his situations tb'si^ Williaad, and solicit 
bis direction what to do. Sir WiHiaih received him with 
great kf fidness, and Swift^s fir&t visit continued two years. 
Sir WflHam bad beeff ambassador and uiediator of a gene* 
«al p(^ace at Nimegueii before tfa« Revolution ; in which 
character hb beciattie kndwn to the prince ef Orange^ who 
fi*equefitiy visited him It ISheeu, after his arrival in Eng« 
Ikn&y and took his advice in afilairs^ of the utmost impor* 
tance.'^ Sir WHliatti being then llMAe with the gout, Swift 
u^ed to attend hiii majesty* in the walks abouc ^e garden^ 
who ildmitted hinfi to such a familiarity, that he shewed 
him how to cut asp^ra^gua after die Daicb maaner; <and 
once ofiei^ to ra^ke hfiu a captain of horse ; bat 8«^ft bad 
.fisred his mind upon sin ^cdesiasticaMife. . . 
"'About thiij time a biir w» brought into the hcdse for 
triennial parliani^nts, to' which the king was very averse; 
but sent, hotrevet, to consult sir William Temple, who 
adon aft^rrWai^s sent Swift to Kensington with the whole 
tfccmint in writing, to convince the king how ill he was ad* 
vised: TMis was Swift^s first embassy to court, who, though 
be understood Englii^h history, and the matter in hand very' 
%eli| ^et did not prevail* 8bon after Ibis transactiotf, be 
Ws sbized with the return of a disorder, which he had eoh« 
ifscied in Il*eland by eating a great quantity of fruit, and 
wfaidi* Afterwards gradually increased, though with irregu« 
Mf^interniissions, till it terminated in a total debility of 
bbdy aid mind. / . 

' About a year after his return freim Ird^nd, he thought it 
expedient to take his master of , arts degree at Oxford ^ and 
accordingly .w;as admitted ad eundem in 1692, with many 
civilities. These, some say, proceeded frcmi a misundef*' 
standing. cf tihe words speciali graiid, in hlstestimoniai friSlL 



u 



s w r F T. 



Dnbliri, Whieh wtte there supf)o6ed to be a ^otaifplihMffif 
pi&id to uncommon merit; b«it are more probiiUy liiicribddr 
by otbei^ to bis known connection with »ir WHliiam ^P#m^ 
pie. h is easy to coneeitey bovipever, that Sutrift, aft^r iii& 
reputation. was estaUisbed, might, while he wai -spivttftti^ 
wkh^hts incident in the gaiety of bis bearti pnstebd^ii'ttiiiM^ 
take which never happened. From Oxford be relurtol^dl^li^ 
m William Temple, and assisted^ bim in revisifyg bit ^^kaf> 
b6 also corrected and improved bis bis oWn <* T«te^ oP^itf 
Tnb,^ ^tid added the digressions. From tb^ <)ont^«rii|titt# 
of sif Wi}Ham, Swift greatly increased h1S'\fMiilMa^fc^vi^ 
ledge; hut, sospecting sir WHliam «tf negtectiii'gjio^iH^vilta^ 
ftk himj merely that be might keep bim in bis ibmitji^nb^ 
9t length i-esented ft so warmly^ ttmt in 1694'« quanreiieoM 
sued, and they parted; ^ ^-^ 

Swifr^ during his residence with sir Witdafii/bad mnv^it 
iUHed to visit his mother at 'Leicester- once a y^al-, und^^M 
msihner of travelling was very ejttraordinftry( Ue4i#iiy«k 
went on foot, except the weather was^ ^i^btfd^ ^stid Vbte 
he wonld sothetimeL take shelter in Ibl waggdn/ lle'^(»s# 
td*dltte 'kr obsfCune ^le^hcf^seH^vatawg pedbtrti and^ Ostliirdy: 
an^ td He where hh saw tfrfeten over thi dttor,< ">Li&Jgiii(gs^ 
f^a pe^nVf ^ btkl Rinsed ^o'^iibe tbeMaidf%i4b }^itpevum 
for^ & sFh^e4ed and clelan'iibeets. 'J* ^ : 

-' Hi^fi^Tlvliiottwk^'Adw to'take't>fddr^j %nd'be aMti tft«t 
<$btai^d'^ f bcbttflD^ffaion to 4otA €^^t, tbeifi tovd^ d«eM3 
'^nty of 'Ii^ktid^ "Mho^'g^te bim tbd ^r^bend 4of Kilitoi^, ^i^ 
tb^ dioeeieMof' Connor^ worth about i 00/. per<bn4iUto*') BMt 
sif'WHliditi, #ho 'find befen iHsed to* tb* e^n^i^touimi c^t 
SWift^ sodh found that be ebukt not be eontent to live wkb-^ 
otic'bitn; and tberefai^ ui*ged bim to resign bid preb«nd*itf. 
flivour'Of a friend, promisirig to obtatti preferment for^binJi 
iW'£ngfand| if be w6atd return* Swift confiiefited; 4nd «ir. 
\VHIiatti^was ' sof iaxtxth pieased with this act ^ kiitfd nesa^ 
tb^liltairitig^tMe'^efm^indeir bf bis life,, wbic^ Wbs abdiK faf«r 
^^ri; ')tf8fbtH)avionrMw:as shcb as prodeiebd tbb ii«tfrpstibbr<i' 
K^f^y- Between theW/ Swift, as a te^itii^E^nV'Of 'hH tiist^A^ 
Ibi^/lbd'^tiiteebi, wiV)te tbe <« Battle" ^ihe >&mUs," df 
^iyfi^irKVHrtina 'is' tbe bero^; and sir'Wiirittm,^ WbeiyA^ 
<fi^^l^ mtPh^j^^iSixoiify legaey» ^anii Us 'pos^tnoub 

'''^Up!6i>>fHe Q^aA' of sir'Williftni Temple,- JBMfi'^Mtedi: 
hf petition to king WiUfanf^,'fdr ilbe A^i« >vlicam p««b^Kd. 
of Canterbury or Westminster, for which th^^lOyiiP. 



S W I F, T^ J*. 

1 

Hi^rllftiM^^eiit^olMRiiQed by ^ la^^tr^i^ irbose pQ9fibii^ 
iti9^9^^0r}i$^^k^ii^d\QHmd u> bis laaje^^y, tp facilitate tto^ 
ainiocissr/ol ^hfitt applkatioa, B^tr it doa^ notappeac, that/ 
^ler^i^ djOiLiJi^c sir WilUanoi tlie-ki<ig tpok the least no^ 
tipet0|(j}wi^ ,4(ft^ this be acq^^ted ^ iQvitation from; 
^riiwufif'S^rliL^tffj appQiot04rPO&^Qf tbe Lords justices of 
llebfi4M't^'«^^^IM bim as^xfoaplgij^ a,Q4 priyate secretary;" 
biitiM w^ |(M9 reinovi9d.fi^M»»,tbisipQst^ ^xpoo a pnetofice 
%bi^ Jt^lv^ not St .ior a.clergym^« Tbis di$appointonent[ 
^IMipfff»^n|ly foUqtv^ by AiKitber ^ for wb^n ,the dean^ry^* 
Q^/I^ry bA€(Mpe vaaa#t, aod it<%vas tbe earl of BerkieleyV 
Hirfv<l«[di9p^e»«i it^ Swift^ ^ ii^tead of. receiving it as aii^ 
^ilnea)€Hit'for«ibisiaie»usage) ms put off witb tbe livings; 
of <X»afai?or^ #i|4 Ratibb^ggiA, in tbe diocese of Meath^^. 
wliicb togetber did not amount to half ii*. value. He went 
tO) r«ai<t«;.4t Lat^qk^ 4M)d parforined tbe duties, of a parish 
yldeMhwitt^t^^jUfmpst punctuality and devotioo. He was,* 
iiMfaw{lt:4tways y»iy. A»vouty.>oot only in bU public and* 
$oUAiEifei'liyddi^sea,u><jrfMl, hiU io bU domestic and private 
W^Hoisflf: at)4;^!Q^r v^ith>,aUtb is. piety it) bis beart, b^ 
cmUi'OOi^ f9rl»^r.Wl^^ng tbe.peouliari^.af bis hu^ouiV' 
v|#k^lM .^portmiit^ioSefedy .v^bate^er oiigbt be ,tbe im* 
pni|iq«|y of tbc) umt^ and piaqe.' Upon b^ coming to La^ 
racor, be gave public notioet .tbai .be ^ould.ire^d prayers 
aBil^ediieidfsjrA.itndiFridajf^ ^vbicb bad not been tbe cas-> 
Ms ;l iwl 4«Dordipply tb« bell was rxwfgf ^^pd J^ asicenfied 
ihe^dmb' :TftMtb'1^9(vif)g is^KDained.«9Q(ie, ^ime^ iviritb no other 
audtton^bWcbia cl^k R9igeafy be b^gafii ^^ Dearly belov^ 
RpgfdT^ ; <b(^ S^^rifMjure mov^sth ypu .and me in sundry^ 
plli<N»s^Vi>aiidi^ pf^^atc^odedipt of tbe service* Of 

thelfjM*A(^iii4 rff^ bis r^^e witb IXr.. Raymond, vicar. of 
'ii«iiNolsiw>fiiififtei"<.b« was a of St« PatriQieV 

6vJili]^a^ill§dft(^^eSi^dayiwit,b.Raympnd^ »nd when |bct 
^fttold<tane:y?iogif>g % e^;>ij;ig prayers, ** V^yipj&w^j^ 
wgrt fiwtf^ e^vJ iiwtt l^y ypu^i^^ qrowfv ^^ I ^^gi.n pfajffiis 
brf*rfto3W«» M§ ^ftfeMftWia.? j DT-R^ywnp^ accepted. tj^ 
«ts|^ird suNl ^MP^iiiy} h9f^ san as f^ .as Uk^^/qq^IiI t^ 
lbe",(^y^l«*•eciR%^n§fMill^fhe *ijnl#r, .of .^bp |;f o^ sfriy^ 

6*tfi^lb^(dflflfiWnd<,w|lw»^ b^f fltWll^^t>^S J?bMWb, ! -w«yfs^ 

bis pace, but running up' the aile, left Raymond bebif^d 
Wi4k|l)8dfl»W|)RyiKfi^tp ^lM^,.>vitiiqiit.ppmng 9f^ jbe 



H SWIFT. 

. During Swift^s resideace at Laracar^ he ifiviuid' to Itfi« 
knd a laay whom he ha& celebrated by, the name of SteUa* 
'yVith this lady he became acquainted while he lived wiik 
air William Temple : she was the daughter of his atQwardt 
whode name was Johnson ; and sir WiUiamy whea be diiM^ 
left her 1000/. in consideration of her father's faithful s^r-^. 
ifices. At the death of sir William^ which happened im 
1699, she was in the sixteenth year of her agc^} and it we* 
about two years afterwards, that at Swift's invitation »bfii 
left England, accompanied by Mrs. Dingley, a^ lady wW 
was fifteeri years older, and whose :wb9le £gjrtiiii6,>tbeugb;i 
she was related to sir William, was no more tbap an ai^. 
nuity of 27/. Whether Swift ^t this time desired the epmi^i 
pany of Stella as a wife, or a friend, it is not cextaio ; but' 
the reason which ^he and her companion then gave, for 
their leaving England ws^s, that in Irelaiid. th^ interest of. 
iponey was higher, and provisions werecheap«. Buiv>what« 
(Over was Swift's attachment to Miss Jo][uwoo» every IposaiK 
ble precaution was taken , to prevent scandal a thfy. nevieft 
lived in the same hoqse;(when 3wiftf .waa abaenfc Mkf» 
'Johnson and herVriend resided <it the passons^e; Avbep be> 
returned, they Removed eitbei;.tQhis fr^nd^Qr* C^ipood'sy 
or to a lodging; neither were th^ji ever kapwi^r/lo mM^- 
hut in the presence of a thi^d perstvi. Swift. n»^e;fren 
quent excursions to Dublin, and sQaie to Lpp4fl9 : Jbut^ , 
JMiiss Johnson was buried in aoUt^ud^. and, Qbf|Curi^.)csheri 
was known only to a few of 3«vift!s mo^t i^tiooMe 4i^ 
quaintancd, and bad no female. cooip^niQfiie^Qept Mrsk?. 
©ingley. . ^, . » 

Iti 170 Ij^ Swift tooK his doctor's de^rfe, ^nd ia 1?Q2# 
aoon after 'the death of king. William, he w0at into Eng^* 
land for the first time after bis sfdtMing^t Lavaccur; a jour* 
Bey which he frequently repeated diariag the refgn- of 
queen Anne. Miss Johnson was once in EpglaAd in X7QS^ , 
but returned in a few months, and, neveir. crossed, the chaii'*' 
nel afterwards. He soon became emine^it at^a wrjj^r, an«l 
»n th^t character was knpwn to both whigs and toriesi H« . 
had beeii educated a^iong the fo^fper, j^ut ^t leiag^^b at«« . 
lached faithself to the {atter ; beca^se the whig;«> ^ bo said^^ 
had renqiinc^d their. ^oldpxip^^ipL^, apd n^cfiiyddotbersn 
Vhiph thejr fbrefathers^bhorred* H^pubHi$hed, j^p.^lQii. 
<^ A discourse of the oontests a^d disseotiqnsj^etavfi^i th^ , 
ttobles and commons ^n Atjbens.and Rome,, with ibe^coc^iCK 
Quences tfeeV haid upop.))gtjii tbpSQ states :V. >t{ua. Vftsitt b^ 



ft W I F T- *» 

Mf of *ki«^' WiHUm and fats mibisterj, against the violent 
fNcbct^diogs of the House of Commons ; but from tbat.yetr 
io 1708, hedid not write any political pamphlet. 
. In 17J0| being then in England, he was empowered bjr 
lli^ priola^of Ireland, to solicit the queen to release tba 
etevgy horn payittg the twentieth pairt and first-fruits ) and 
i|io6 ttilfr^ocoasiotit his aeqtiaintance with Mr. parley com^ 
ttfebded. • Asaaon as he had received the primate^s instruct 
•kins, he resolved to apply to Mr. Harley; and, before he 
#lAted bii him^ got himself represented as a persbn whof 
h4d been ilt nsed by the last ministry, because he would 
B#l'go such lengths as they n^ould have bad him* Mr» 
Hariey received him^ith the utmost kindness and respect;^ 
kept him with him two hours alone ; enjgaged in, and sooa 
after aecomplisbed his business ; bid him come often to see. 
bim privately; and tdd .him, that he most bring him to. 
the knewkdgd' of -Mr. 8t. John. Swift presently became, 
iKMjuainted with the rest 6f the ministers, who appear te, 
liaveF*^ourted and caressed bim with uncommon assiduity* 
He'Siined every Sattirday at Mr. HarleyV, with the lordi 
kl^epi^^ Mr. secretary St. John, and lord Rivers: on tbait. 
d»y tio ottrer person was for some time admitted ; but thia, 
i|d»oi dooojpany was at length enlarged to sixteen, all mea> 
oftho'&rst elasi^ Swift included, Frpm this time he sup<». 
pOi4ed the interest of his new friends with all his power, ioC 
paibphletsj poemsj and peiiodical papers : his intimacy . 
with tWdoi was so remarkable, that he thought not only to 
d#fe6d, J>ut hi some degree to direct their measures ; and 
such was his importance in the opinion of the opposite 
party, that many speeches were made against him in both 
. bt0|ies of pariiairient : a reward was also offered, for dis* 
cov^tt-ing the author of ^ The Public Spirit of the Whigs.'^ . 
Amidst ail the business and honours that crowded upon , 
hiod) he wrote every day an account of what occurred, to . 
Bt#Hil; and BSBt her a journal regularly, dated every tortf 
night, *d^riYig the whole time of his connection with queen 
Anne's ministry.' From these unrestrained effusions of n|s . 
helit't maifty particulars arb knowjR, ^hich would QtberWise j 
)iaVe4ein Bid; and by these it appears, t(iat he was n6t|, 
eaiy employed, but trusted, even^ by Harley himself, who^ 
to aU others was reserved atid mysterious. In the mean 
l»iii}e, Swift had no escpectations of advantage from his cooi- , 
pejstion with'ihese persons^ he knew the/y could ^Jojtlpjioj 
preserve «th6ir powef'.'Md he did ^ nbt hoixpur k whlfe it 



S;W1FT. 

oiKBOcbdat; of the ^violent tneasuvM wfaiicb «vere fMir^ 
med by both sicbs. ^< I lUe the mirtistry^'* uiyK he^ <*^'IUm^ 
dogVy baceioMs I cucpect they wiit use me sq. 1 nerer kilewif 
attsfaiiilry do-aiiy.thing.for those whom tfaey made eeAiA/ 
pciii(SM m their fsleasianes; but I cam not.^' In tfaeMtn*< 
flier of 1711 y he ibresasr the ruia of the mifiutry. by itikoil«i 
misiindenUndiogB aiooog thenDselresy *wbushailr bstiefiected; 
k; endit'wav'not only his optnion, but theit own,* tbal'i^ 
tbey touid not carry, a peeLce, they iBlist< sooar be Bafit'4iQ^ 
the Tower^ Oven «bocigb ^they ibould: tSgrisOit In osder. 
Cheirerfore to #ftcilttatethia. great' event, StKift waoteotba^ 
VCondqot ^f the Allies;;*' a piece, whifcbi bet iconfimil^: ^ 
cost him much pains, and which succeeded even beyoo'd. 
, his exfieetations. It was published Novudflf IVi li^aiuiHa 
two months tioote above 1 1,000* »rere sold ofiy sevatt* ediMiir 
bavkig beefi piinted iu England, andbifaaree m 4rillandL 
The toif^ members in both bouses, wko spoken dreiv^/tbsiiP' 
arguoients from it ; add the nesokitiot»s,'Wbicb ^were ptinteib 
in xUe totd$« axid would, tiever.^ have pkaa^d ^bnt fof *tbia^ , 
yamphlet^''w«reJittlttMru«fthan qisotations fromut.d .Froii^ 
ibis time' to ItV^ be eisarfceff bimielf^ilrttbtumKearied'diUw 
genceUh the ^rvitfe o^tbcj^miaJBi^'? and whiletbeiwa^ttfcr 
Wibd9iD4^ jixst at ihe eoiic|u9i0n}ioC:Lthe/ f)toae ^^Ihfoch^ 
h^ Apix^ m^ffis^sknitkt' otrMjAu'bisitotf ^f tbe fisur Anb 
j»ani 4pf ^eed )AMie."' ' TAiis>:be afterwalrds ^aishtted^ aadk 
eamp 4dt<^ fiiigkod>ia pofaUsfaiiij but ^laiiifdissMaded.- (rmtt^ 
bykiM^B^o^iopkev who tbid^bim,'Jt|leiiwhda)waa8diiniMii 
iCi'4h€^'«{ilrit 9|f'i|^ty«wrQ;in{^ >th^^<dityugh! it tat^ht: Hjehw . 
wade^ sea^i^iOipadAphkat mihe^.tiiDm\ot dseir/adanoi*^ 
ktnf^Xf, (itiwoaid?- bevkj^diGduraonrxta^jisit history, r «Swiii; 
seeii^s'fo'havie b^en leodrism^ly !-foad> of i^^thia work, by.ide>' 
ckrili^tb«^ JliirW^tbe fceBtrtbiag he^adiever wriuop ; bntj^ 
skyce bir^ftidnd'^idifioU appmveijt^ betwonld oasfc jbsinta 
ibe^tpi It^d i»Bt^^ &okeV4»,' iind£Srgoi:llHa. fitter bttt^waa 
p^dbiiibed'liyilDrl Lu6«9|(U> tbe disappointmealt of all thastd 
who ^ptM}tbd'«9y ^bi^ofp great ^ front 4t. ? i < ^ ^ 

^^lOmrinif'^^w ttdaae, J|a' recdfirexl/.noigratliitjtarfreiitarii 
tijl^7^l3'f ii^d'tiieniUe.aeneptadathe :dean«ry of ).iSc; Bau 
iri^k^j^^t^Bilblili; -A iawihcipfrc faad^.^mfceniaopne ttoK be&ea 
iii€tfltodifoi[«^bim'^by itbet)queefi;'biit archlMshop Sharpie 
bii^Qg'^t^p^i^Mfcwteiihjfm'to'bcr^aiajesty as «jnalitiviMrboaB 
chi'itBtiauii^ »vua«^vei^qabstionabley tiid : beings isapported 'ia 
tUs 4^ If^eertain bea^fri9e8t<l)ildypiit»wa9«givdn?dtO(7anaftben. 
U^ 4ftiii^()i«U»^'<yoi»ied:rtb9(d^ to ttake pdsaesaioar^al 



SW iFTi 4* 

tiifrnew ^gnity ; hnt did uot stay id trdand indre than « 
foi^€ntghtv''^^i»g urged by an hundred letters to basteit 
back/' and reconcile the lords Oxford and Bolb^roke^ 
Wiien be returned^ he found their anioiosjtj incrassedi 
andj ^"fin^ predicted their mip from this very saiise,' b« 
labdw-ed to bring about a reconciliation, a3 that u}3K^n'Mrhich 
tbanpirholedntereat of their party depended.' Havibg' at4' 
dttnptidd'tbis by various methods in Taioi he went lo • 
feitetid^s hoiiae in fierkfbirey where he eontinudd -till tho 
qoketk*s deaths aod^ while be was at this place, 'Wfote • 
cbtfeourae^called' '' Free thoughts on the present etane oi 
afiatns," winch, however, was not publisbod tiU some tioae 
after* ■•.-/',..,. v. - • • 

Before :W% attend fimft to Ireland^ it 19 necesaijry toi 
gire a Iktla Ustdry iof his Vaiiessa, because his coiineotiona 
w^b> hor were^ made in. England. > Among other per$ooa 
witfe wtaoiA he^was initim^itely acquaioted dofiflig the gay 
^^sn/ofi bis \jfe^ was.Mrs.iVanhomriglu She was a kidy of 
g4XKl famiiy in Jbaeknd) al^d becameL the iri^ off Mr. Van?*; 
bomrigb, iirst a merdMnt- of Amsterdodi, tb^H'of. Dublin^ 
where' be 'Was raised by kiagi Wtiliamy'iupoci hie :eJepf)ditioi» 
imo^^keidndii^to^very .grcati.plades. i>yiQ|^ biul/TO^, hei 
l^fitjcwixsdfeis and' ft wo daughters i:)bfit 4heiAQtisirsQi3ia tafteif 
dy«lig,''bist»«i4ioile foc4mney.(iArhichowa9jedasid^4^Uie,/l9ll la 
ibe( daxatf^tsits. In 17i!)8, the <wldb\ir SiImI' thof^l/^oiiy^ung 
hidaies i^sunbiFtafin^and^ wbem ilhey wel^ vislt^4>byiwr^ 
aim.iof rtbe^ifirsit i«)i»lUy ; and' BwiSt^ iwtigjat^ a^r.r ibem^ 
iwedi t^>|iie< muoh thtoe^jcomtngiaod gpiaiii^ witb»uii*any 
oeremboy^r at( if hAthadbeen imeio£< tbelfamily>:)^ Dulii^ 
tiir^aii^hifity^ faebeduneinaenlNbly a kind, of pneioeptor 
taUie yqoliig ladies,. pamiculaHy theyeldesi^'< wbot'v^^s ttbeii 
^boost twenty lyearsr old,; was^ medl atidipl^d i^nrejfduxg^ 
aild*a gnaat iuiaiirer of poetry^ . HMcia iadmirtngHKis ytksi 
ttti^taiy sQOii a«hacqi3tBr.as that^of Swifi^ bkfe ji>onfj)asse4 
frmd'slduiiraliionri.to lore-; and, urgiadi.al hf9le;|MTJMl{)$.rbj( 
vanity, which would ha^e 'been:, li^gbiy\gfAi&6d<(;t^ 
Mamgemitbthei^rtt w&ref the agb, .<sbe meteHioiP^dojsnakc^ 
tisMdodtdpa^^ao^ial oG mmiriagei . iHe affected ^tgfiTst to 
bftlftaKb jiefiioajeatp'iteri)^ isdy^.ibiatr A)n sto^l^lEQ^ical a 
ekphris^ qodi^ai last tatput bmr jfiff tiv^itliaiitijsb^ol^terff^fusal ; 
and^ivwhilyn be anasr uo; itbis ^ jituatietn^' W)JwaQ^c[lhe :;poeai 
talfas^-idt^f^Q^rmdnidiy^nejaai^^jc: Ji|}W|i^ wfit^efi iins 1 7 1 3^ 
ai^tdasati^timertbfJ^rer.bejtleGtllilaitM^ i^r|$al /^ bi% 

Ici^iaaMspdSq^ibdj:. aoi(l(ri9^^ tbsdioipli(#eT^tal&«3(U^ 



«0 SWIFT 

a9 be used frequently xo call it. In 1714, Mrs. Vanbbih- 
ffgh died ; and, having lived very expensively, left some 
clebts, which it not -being convenient for her daughters, 
who b^ also debts of their own, to pay at present, to 
avoid an arrest they followed the dean into Ireland. 

Upon his arrival to take possession of his deanery, he had 
been received with great kindness acid honour ; but now, 
«ipon his return after the queen^s death, he experienced 
every possible mark of contempt and indignation. The 
tables were turned ; the power of the tories and the dean^s 
credit were at an end; and as a design to bring in the 
pretender had been imputed to the queen's ministry, so 
Swift lay now; under much odium, as being supposed to 
h^ve been a welUwisher in thitt cause. As soon as he' was 
settled at Dublin, Miss, or Mrii. Johnson, removed froitt 
the country to be near him, but they still lived in separat<» 
bouses ; his residence being at the d^a^nery, and hers in 
lodgings on the other side of the river Liffy, The dean 
kept two public dsiys evety week, oh which the dignity of 
his station wba sustained with the utmost elegance and de-^ 
corum, under the direction of Mrs. Johnson. As to his 
employment at hoiiie, h^ seems to have had no heart to 
ap|)ly himself to study of any kind, but.tb hare resigned 
hfmsetf wholly to such jailiusements and such com|)ai!iy as 
offered, that he might not think of h|is situation, the mis^i* 
fbrtune$ of his friends, and • his disappointments. *^ I was 
three yefers,** says he to Gay, ** ireconciUng myself lo the 
scene and business to which ifbrtune Uad condemned hie ; 
^nd stupidity was what Ihad ¥ecdurse to.'*' ^ 

Theiirst remarkdble event of bis life, after his settle- 
ment at the deanery, was his marriage to Mrs. Johnson, 
after a inost intiiliate friendship 6f mdre than sixteen years. 
This was in i? 16 ; and the ceremony was performed. by Dn 
Ashe, then bishop of Cldgher, to whom the dean had been 
^ pupil in Trinity college, Dublin. But, whatever were 
the oiotive^ to this mai'riage, the dean and the lady cour* 
tinned to live afterwards just in* the same maViner as they 
bad lived before. Mrs. Dingley was still the inseparable 
eompanion of Stelhi 'wherever she went ; and sh^ i>ever re* 
tided at the deanety, except Wheh the dean had his fits of 
giddiness and deafness. Titi tbiit time he bad continued 
hisVishift to Vanessa, who* pi*ederved her reputlttibn kijd 
friends, and was visited by many persons of rank, chairaeter^ 
and foiftune, p{ both sexes i but now Jbis visits were les* 



a WITT- §1 

ire<|Qeiit» In 17 17 her sitter died ; and the wfaole remain* 
of the family fortane centering in Vanessa, she retired t6 
Selbridge^ a small bouse and estate about twelve miles froai 
Dublin^ which bad been purchased by her father. Front 
this place she wrote frequently to the dean ; and he an* 
iwered her letters: she pressed him to marry her, but her 
iaUied, aiid' still avoided a positive denial. She pressed 
htm still morei either to acceptor refuse her as a wife] 
npon which he wrote an answer, and delivered it with bis 
own band. The receipt of this, which probably commu-^ 
Bjcated the fatal secret of his marriage with Stella, the un- 
happy lady did ndt survive many weeks; she waa, how« 
ever, sufEcientty composed to cancel a will she had made 
in the dean^s favour, and to make anot(ier, in which she lefi 
her fortune to her two executors. Dr. Berkeley, bishop of 
Ooyne, arid MK. Marsball, one of the king^s sergeants a» 
law. ' •/'.'■* 

Frooi^ Iti6'to 1720, is a chasoi in the dean^s life which 
it has beevi found difBcuIt to fill up ; lord Orrery thit)ks|; 
with griSat reason, that he emplbyeo this time upon '^ Gulf 
Kver^sr Travels.^* 'ftiift work is a moral and political ro- 
mance, in wnich Swift had exerted the strongest efforb of 
f fine'irreguTar genius:^ but wbit^ bis' imagination ^nd wic 
delight, it is hardly p6ssit)1e not to be sometime^ p^ended 
i^ith his satire^ which ^ets not only all human actiops^ but: 
human nature itself, in the worst light. The truth is, j^wift^t 
disappointments bad rendered bim splenetic and angry 
W'Uh the whole world ; and he frequently indulged himself 
in a mbantbropy thiat is ihtolerabfet : he has done so pa,rti-' 
cu^arly in some parts of this work* About this time the 
dean, who had already acquired the chafacteir of a hu^ 
mourist and wit, was first regarded, with general kindnes^^ 
as th^ |)atriot of Ireland. He wrote ^^ A proposal for tbo 
ii^e of Irish manufactures,^ which made him very popular.; 
the more so, as it immediately raised a vi'olent name,, so 
that a prosecution was commenced against tb^ printer, lit 
itjri he wrote the " I>rapier*s Letters^^*' those Bra,zep *ijf)p-/ 
^jliments of his fame, as lord Orrerv calls them, A.pateiijt 
Eavipg^ be'ei^ iniquitously procured by one.\Vo6d tip qpfa 
TftO,'Cfo6t. tin copper, for the use of Irelahcl, Wwliigfa he' 
would nave acquired e^orbita^t gain, and proportJotvaEjy* 
impoverished the nation : the dean, in the, character of i 

?iS^?f Filr Y'^^ta ^t?!^*^%^f letters to |lie R^pple^ F^^fij?.- 
Inem not to rec<>ive this cjopper mone^^ Thjese Mtfers' 



0% a WITT* 



mihed'th^ HMe natixm i6 bis pnuae^ filled merjr ^iMsiisricft 
liU eflig^, ' and ei^erj voice whb iMsdamations ; sod Wood^ 
^oogb snppoi^ted for some timey vasat lengtb cotiipelledi'to 
Mrilbdraw bis pateiity atidbis money was:totadl7>su|qir4eneri)t« 

tJFrom tbi^'time ihedean^s itifloeoce in .Ireland vraa almeft 
without bounds : be was consulted in whatever velateikto 
domestic policy, aod -partiodlarly to.^trad^* Tfae weavers 
filways considered bior as itbeir patron and legislator, after 
bis proposal for the tise of dhe Irisb tnannfifctures ; and 
when elections were depcfnding for tb^ city of Dublioy 
many corporations ; t*efu;$ed to declare .th'efmseltes till tbey 
•knew bis sentiments and inclinations, Orer the populace 
he wias' the mdstabsoltite monarch that evet' governed* -and 
be wa^ regarded by persbgs of eve^y r^nk with teneratichs 
and esteem. .,. ' 

. Re wassefveral times in Englatid on ti visit to Pifpp, ^er 
his settlement at the dedn^iy^ particularly ift 17i26 and 
n27. oil Jan. 28, 17127, died hlsbfefov^d SteHa, invlrtr 
forty-fourth year, regretted by tlie d^n irttb^^ticb Ifewessi 
of affection as the liveliest si^nslbflityali/h^cotildTefef,' and 
the n)ost Excellent ebarsictW excite : siie fa^d beei<^d<ee(iti-i 
Sng from 1724. Stellk was a most aA^i^M^ wbman%6tfr-in 
person >nd mind. Her stature waal tal)/1ji^rhkit atlcPeyes 

^black,"her complexion fair aiid deHca?i:i, b«fr feature 'fi^ 

"gular. Wt, and animated, bef Aapife eksy"ai]?d''el«|tfrit, 
and'h^rrtianner fieminme, pojite, and gfdeeiM: -tbd^^Waa 
natural' music in her voice, aiid compldber^cy ihlidtf tr^i^t; 

^be abounded with wit, which was always accbm|)iib(4dr 
with good-nature ; her virtue was fbunded upon htiA^Mijr, 
a^nd ber religion up<in rdason ; biir mforali W6i*e tftriin»Mi^ 
but not rigid, and hdr devotion was babitiikii); bdthot osl^^ 

' latious. " Why th^ dean did not soont^'marryftw tt^ 
excellent person ; \vby he married heir'at aU ; why Ws tor-- 
riage was so cautiously concifeiftetfy ^nd vrhy He wW^ neifejr 
known to nieet her bat in the presebce 5f -a: thWdfifev^iii ; 
are enquiries which no man cart answer^"* iays^ tU€ vfrWifer 
bfhisirfe, *^ without absurdity/* :♦ ^■'^' ^'"^^^^ -'^^^^ ; 

' ; Supjjosing Swift to have bfeeA * gfeidgff lk ibfe VkJ»^%y 
iriere capricft and hum6ari b6 c^nhot btit^b4^ie4iH"Ih%r^6Afet 

' ungracious light, and considered as a Wa(f 'bVtei>1|^'a<d^d 

of bumanUy ; for it is generally agreteU, lEbii^ ^Sf^^Hi^^lBi* 

* But tee this aflbir cleared from comprehensire and well authenticBteit 
^mifV^ groflt misrepreteiitatioiis, Mid iriifr»iiT« of Mr. Coxe, ia big life of 
placed inajery difi^rentUfhty byUif (|ir Robert Waliiole. 



matort .4«fttli was oocauoned by the peouliltrtag' «li¥a «M- 
duct towards b«r. It appears, by ^evero] [iqapi^oWyi (|mK 
■he regretted ftnd duRpproTcd llus conduot, Md^tb^t,^}^ 
•ometjaie*' reproached him with unkiudfLtetA; foFilo Mfth 
regret wd reproach he oertaiol; aUttdes^ W)' (he.ioUAW^ 
Tonesoa bert^b-dty, ia 173<: .■!.•:, -t 

*'0, then, whatcter hearlk btemh, ' ' 
tUw pi^ on your pitfuig friBD^B i . . ..^ -> : . - i 
Nor let your ills nfibct your m^^ .j, '. ;.j . i 
To,fiu»cy-they caa be w^lund f ,. 

' Me, Burely me, yoti ought to spare. 

Who gladly would your auEterings share." *" ' 
It is said ibe dean d\d at length earnestly desire^ that site 
might he publicly qwned as his, wife ^ but, as ber beallh 
was then dei^liniag, she said, " it is too late," and insisted, 
that they should continue to live as the; bad lived before. 
To this tbe,deap i.n,his (urn consented, and sufTeiM her to 

-clispose entirely of her CHvn fortune, by £ef o^i^ i'snie,! to 
^ public. charity w)ien she died.,' . , , , - 

. Tli^ most in^xpusable part of Sw^ffs conduct certainty 
^pp^ars in this unhappy, affair, for tybiclt no pro^r apology 

.canl^eip^e; ^lulwbicl) llie va^n at,t<;mpta of hi?' f^ien^ 
)lfiV4 only,teu(4{fLl tojigg^ravate*. Q^ attritput^s his siiicu- 
l^r GOi)(UiiQt ,to a peculiarity, ii^ his copgtittiiion^^tfiit', if ha 
fcnevy that be vfa$ un&t to enter into tiie riiarrieif^tati^' now 

..came.Up to.upite, one, lady to hi[n,3i;lfliy;^Be' ' ^pnyfef 
jnarriage, and explicitly to declare Jhjsp^'ssion t p otherj 

' What caa lye^think alijoof the seDsill»i])Iy of f ui, who, 
ctrongly :a^ached as he seem^ to. bay^'be^n'ib b, could 
silently throw dowu a papei;,befpi['e,t{i^ onCi- w r jiroved 
kpe "j deatjti-warri^t/'.and'/^piildjthr^w tIieoL..w. [his be- 
Iwed ^lelliij into unspeakable agonie,?. in'H«r,'Jast, illness, 
and quit her for ever, 7, only Tor acyurThg'bi.m;^ by t(ieir 
friendship, to let her hare ,thp satisfaction of dylng^at least, 
though she. had npt lived^,. his, atfliiibwl^dietl wife?* Alio- 
ther apol9gist Insinuates, upor\ soinetbui^TiK'e evidence, 
that Stella bore a son to Swifl^' aryj yet JaboHrs''iS?'e's«iiati 
bim for Jjpt declarioR h?r bis ;»i\t^ 
>t the marriage tliai^t should rei 

:dis(^very.^ould be demanded I 
.what could be meant by urgent^jjj 
to the birth of children, be coh 

'■""'■■ ;■«.-■-. ..■—,-, ...I --..^In MsJtu .-.u s-^:- ':a ■ 



say* 1* (itf tnith 19^ pro1>aUyi what bai been said by thi 
Johnson, that the man wbom Stella bad the migfortune ta 
l(yre, vras fond of singularity, and desirons to make a mode 
of happiness for himself^ different from the general course 
ef things, and- the order of Providence* He wished for all 
the pleasures of perfect friendship, without the uneasiness 
of conjugal restraint. But with this state poor Stella wa» 
not satisfied ; she was tiever treated as a wife, and to the 
world she had the appearance of a mistress. She lived sul- 
lenly on, hoping that in time he would own and receive 
her. This, ^as we have seen, he did at last offer to do ;. 
but pot till the change of his manners, and the depravation 
of his mind, made her tell him that it was too late. 

From the death of Stella his life became much retired^ 
and the austerity of his temper increased ; he could not 
enjoy bis public days; these entertainments were therefore 
discontinued, and he sdmetimes avoided the company of 
his most intimate friends ; but in time he grew more de« 
sirous of company. In 1732 he complains, in a letter to 
Mr. Gay, *' that be had a large boose, and should hardly 
find one visitor, if he was not able to hire him with a bottle 
of wine;'* and, in another to Mr. Pope, that *' be was in 
danget* of dying poor sind friendless, even bis female friends 
having forsaken him ; which," as he says, ^* vexed him 
most.*' 'These complaints were afterwards repeated in k 
strain of yec greater sensibility and self-pity: ^*A11 mj 
friends iiave forsaken me -^ 

'' Vertiginosus ^> inops^ surdusj male gratus amidSp 
Deaf, giddy, helpless^ left alone. 
To all my fiiehds a hurden grown.** 

As be lived much in solitude, be frequently amus^di 
himself with writing; and it is very remarkable, that al- 
though his mind was greatly depressed, and his principal 
enjoyment was at an ^nd when Mrs. Johnson died, yettbero 
is an air of levity and trifling in some of the pieces bo 
wrote afterwards, that is not to be found in any other ; 
such in particular are his '* Directions to Servants,*^ and 
several of his letters to his friend Dr. Sheridan* In 173^^ 
when the attempt was made to repeal the test act in Ire« 
land^ the Dissenters often affected to call themselves bro- 
ther-protestants^ and fellow-christians, with the members 

^ Scholars bare long remarked a groit error in qoaatity, in thia-firrit word> 
~ fjdUibltUf itbelD^ long. 



8 W I F Tv 6S 

yf the established church. UfM>n this^oeeasion the deati 
wrote a short copy of verses, which so provoked ooe,B*et« 
tesworth, a lawyer, and meaiber of the Irish pariiamenti 
that he swore, in the bearing of many persons, to revenge 
himself either by murdering or maiming the author; und, 
for this purpose, he engaged his footman, with two rutfians, 
to secure the dean wherever he could be found. This 
being known, thirty of the nobility and gentry within the 
liberty of St. Patrick's waited upon the dean in form^ and 
presented a paper subscribed with their names, in which 
they solemnly engaged, in behalf of themselves and the rest 
of the liberty, to defend his person and fortune, as the 
friend und benefactor of his country. When this paper 
was delivered. Swift was in bed, deaf and'giddy, yet made 
a shift to dictate a proper answer. These Bts of<leafness 
and giddiness, which were the effects of bis surfeit before 
he was twenty years old, became more frequent and violent 
in proportion as he grew into years : and in 1736, while he 
was writing a satire on the Irish parliament, which he called 
•* The Legion Club," he was seized with one of these fits, 
the eflect of which was so dreadful, that he left, the poem 
unfinished, and never afterwards attiempted a composition, 
either^ in verse or prose, that required a course of thinking, 
or perhaps more than one sitting to finish. 

Fvom this time his memory was perceived gradually to 
decline, and his ^ssions to pervert his understanding; 
and in 1741, he«was so very bad as to be utterly incapable 
of conversation. Strangers were not permitted to approach 
him, and hia friends found it necessary .to have guardians 
appointed of bis person and estate. Early in 1742, his^ 
reason was subverted,. and his rage became absolute mad« 
ne*^ In October his left eye swelled to the size of an 
egg, and several large boils broke out on his arms and body; 
the extreme pain of which kept him awake near a month, and 
doftng one week it was ^ith difficulty that five persons re- 
strained him, by fn^re force, from pulling out his leyes. 
Upon the subsiding of these tumours, he knew those about 
him ; and appears so far to have recovered his understand- 
ing and temper, that there were hopes he^might once more 
enjoy society. These hopes, however, were but of stiort 
duration ; for, a few days afterwards, he sunk into a state 
of total insensibility, an^^ could not, wiAout grentdiffi'^ 
culty, be prevailed on to walk across the room. This w^ 
the effect of another bodily disease, his b|ain h^U^S lQa4f4i 

Vol. XXIX. F 






I 



«6 



s w I F t: 



with water. Mr. Stevens, ao iagenious clergyman oC Dubr 
lin, pronounced this to be the case during his illness f 
and, upon opening bis body, it appeared that be was not 
mistaken. After the dean bad continued silent a. whole 
year in this state of helpless idiotism, his housekeeper went 
into his room on the 30th of November in the morning, 
and told him, ^^ it was his birth-day, and that bonfires and 
illuminations were preparing to celebrate it as usual :" to 
which he immediately replied, ^^ It is all folly ; they had 
better let it alone/* Some other instances of short inter- 
vals of sensibility and reason, after bis madness ended 112 
stupor, seem to prove, that bis disorder, wb;atever ic was, 
had not destroyed, but only suspended, the powers of hit 
mind. In 1744, he now and then called his servant by 
name; and once attempting to speak to him, but not being 
able to express his meaning, he shevved signs of much un* 
easiness, and at last said, *' I am a fool.'' Once afterwards, 
as his servant was taking away his watch, he said, ^^ Bring 
It here :" and when the same servant was breaking a large 
bard coal, he said, *^ That is a stone, you blockhead.'^ 
From this time he was perfectly silent till the latter end of 
October 1745, and then died, without the least pang or conr 
vulsion, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. 

His works have been printed often, and in various forms, 
and from them it is easy to collect his character. Of these 
the most elegant is in fourteen vols. 4to ; a kind of vario** 
rum edition, of which eight were published by Dr. Hawkes* 
worth, three by Deane Swift, esq. and three by Mr. Ni<» 
chols. These have been reprinted in twenty-five volume*^ 
large 8vo^ in twenty-seven volumes of a smaller Svo; 
and also iu twenty-seven volumes ISmo. In 1784 a new 
edition was printed, in seventeen volumes 8voy with ati 
elaborate, but most /injudicious Life, or rather panegyric 
on. him, by the editor, T. Sheridan, which occupies the 
first volume; since which two editions, very much im- 
proved, have been published, in nineteen volumes 8vo, 
under the superintendence of Mr. Nichols, whose original 
care and judgment in collecting information respecting 
Swift, and ^ procqring inedited portions of bis works, has 
never relaxed, and never been exceeded. 

: There are some particulars relating to Swift's conversa- 
tion and nianners which may not improperly conclude this 
article. He had a rule never to speak more than a minute 
at a time, and to wait for others to take up the conv^rsa- 



SWIFT. 6f 

tibn. He gppeatly excelled in punning; and be used to 
say, ^^that none despised that talent, but those who were 
without it.*' He excelled no less in telling a story, but 
in the latter part of his life he used to tell the same' 
too often: he never dealt in the double entendre, or pro- 
faneness upon sacred subjects. He loved to have ladies in 
the company, because it preserved, he said, the delicacy 
of conversation : yet it is certain there are in his writings' 
the greatest indelicacies^ He kept his friends in some de-' 
gree of awe, yet was more open to admonition than flat- 
tery. Though he appeared churlish and austere to his ser- 
vants, yet he was in reality a most kind and generous mas- 
ter ; and he was also very charitable to the poor. In the 
mean time, it must be owned, that there was not any great 
softness or sympathy in his nature ; although, perhaps, 
not quite so much misanthropy as appears in his writings : 
and all allow, that he grew covetous, as he grew old. As 
an ecclesiastic, he was scrupulously exact in the exercise 
of his function, as well with regard to spiritual as temporal 
things. His manner was without ceremony, but not rustic ; 
for he had a perfect knowledge of all the mode^ and varia- 
tions of politeness, though he practised them in a manner 
peculiar to himself. He was naturally temperate, chaste, 
and frugal ; and being also high-spirited, and considering 
wealth as the pledge of independence, it is not strange that 
his frugality should verge towards avarice. 

As to his political principles, if his own account may be 
taken, he abhorred Whiggism only in those who made it 
consist in damning the church, reviling the clergy, 
abetting the dissenters, and speaking cdntemptuously of 
revealed religion. He always declared himself against a' 
popish successor to the crown, whatever title he might have 
by proximity of blood ; nor did he regard the right line upon 
any other account, thkn as it was established by law, and had 
much weight in the opinions of the people. That he was 
not at any time a bigot to party, or indiscriminately trans- 
ferred his resentment from principles to persons, was so 
evident by his conduct, that be was often rallied by the mi- 
nisters, for never coming to them without a Whig in his 
sleeVe; and though he does not appear to have asked any 
thing for himself, yet he often pressed lord Oxford in fa- 
vour of Addison, Congreve, Rowe, and Steele. He fre- 
quently conversed with all these, choosing his friends by 
their personal merit, without any regard to their political 

F 2 



6B SWIFT. 

principles ; and, in particular, bis friendship with Mr. Ad« 
dison continued inviolable, and with as much kindness, as 
when they used to meet at lord Haiifax*s or lord Somers's, 
who were leaders of the opposite party. 

By his will, dated in May 1740, just before he ceased to 
be a reasonable being, he left about 1200/. in legacies; and 
the rest of his fortune, which amounted to about 1 1,.000/, 
to erect and endow an hospital for idiots and lunatics. He 
was buried in the great aile of St. Patrick's cathedral, under 
a stone of black marble, inscribed with the following Latin 
epitaph. It was written by himself, and gives a dreadful 
picture of the state of mind which could dictate such worda 
an such an occasion : 

" Hie depositum est corpus 

JoVAJHJkV SwiPT, 8. T. P. 

Hujus eccksiae cathedralis decani> 

Ubi sseva ij^dignatip ulterius cor lacerare nequit*' 

Abi^ viator, et imitare. 

Si poteris, 

Strenuum pro virili libertatis vindicatorem. 

Obiit, &c.* 

SWIFT (Deane), a near relation to the celebrated dean 
of St. Patrick's, being grandson to Godwin Swift, the dean^s 
uncle, wa$ in 1739 recommended by Swift to the notice of 
Pope, as " the most valuable of any in his family.** — *' He 
was first,** says the dean, ^' a student in this university 
[Dublin], and finished his studies in Oxford, where Dr. 
King, principal , of St. Mary Hall, assured me, that Mr. 
Swift behaved with reputation and credit: he hath a very 
good taste for wit, writes agreeable and entertaining verses, 
and is a perfect master, equally skilled in the best Greek 
and Roman authors. He hath a true spirit for liberty, and 
with all these advantages is extremely decent and modest. 
Mr. Swift is heir to a little paternal estate of our family at 
Goodrich, in Herefordshire. He is named Deane Swift, 
because his great grandfather, by the mother*s side, was 
admiral Deane, who, having been one of the regicides, had 
the good fortune to save his neck by dying a year or two 
before the Restoration.** He published, in 1755, " An Es- 
say upon the Life, Writings, and Character of Dr. Jonathan 
Swift;** in 1765, the eighth quarto volume of the dean*s 

1 Life by Halrk«iworthl — Sheridan,—- aod Johoioi.— Works Uj Nichoti.' ^ 
iiKlcx;-*->Pop«*« Workt, BowIm'i cdii'um. 



/ 



SWIFT. «* 

^orks; and, in 1768, tw'o volames of his " Letters." Mr. 
Swjift.died at Worcester, July 12, 1783 : be had long me- 
ditated a complete edition of his reiation's works, arid had 
by him many new materials for that purpose. ^ 

SWINBURNE (Henuy), a law writer, of the seven- 
teenth century, was tiie son of Thomas Swinburne of the city 
of York, where he was born. In his sixteenth year he was 
sent to Oxford, and entered a commoner of Hart-ball, 
whence after some time he removed to Broadgate-ball, now 
Pembroke college, and there took his degree of baehelor 
of civil law. Before he left the university he married He*' 
lena, daughter of Bartholomew Lant, of Oxford, and being 
then obliged to quit the college, he returned to York, and 
practised in the ecclesiastical courts as proctor. He after- 
wards commenced doctor of civil law, and became very 
eminent in his profession. On Feb. 10, 1612, he was ad- 
vanced to be commissary of the Exchequer, and judge of 
the prerogative court of the province of York, in which 
office he continued till his death. Of this event we have 
no direct memorial ; but, as bis will was proved June 1 2, 
,1624^ we may presume he died about that time. He 
was buried in the cathedral of York, leaving his dwelling 
.house in York to his son Toby, and a beuefaction to the 
poor of the eity. It appears he was twice married, and that 
his second wife's name was Wentworth. He wrote a 
'^Treatiseof Spousals, or Matrimonial contracts,'* which 
was not published until 1686, 4to; but his more celebrated 
work was his ^^ Treatise of Testaments and Last Wills, com- 
piled out of the laws, ecclesiastical, civil, and canon, as 
also out of the common laws, customs, and statutes of this 
realm.'' This work has passed through seven editions, 4to. 
1590, 1611, 1635, 1677, 1728, fol. corrected and much en« 
. larged in 1743, and lastly in 1803, with valuable atinota* 
tions illustrative of the subject to the present time, by the 
late John Joseph Powell, esq. and prepared for the press 
by James Wake, esq. in 3 vols. 8vo. Mr. Hargrave ob- 
serves, that there is a curious dissertation on the customs 
of York, in respect to filial portions, which forms a valuable 
part of the wprk, but which is not contained in the first edi- 
tion, having been afterwards added by Swinburne. Mr. 
Hargrave also complains that his later editors have not 
been careful to distinguish their own enlargements from 

« Swift's Work! hf Nwholt, k^ 



T0 SWINBURNE, 

what belongs to tb6 author, but this is not the case in Pow- 
ell's edition, whose annotations are printed distinct from 
Swinburne^s text. ^ 

SWINBURNE (Henry), a learned traveller, and pro^* 
bably a descendant of the preceding, was the youngest son 
of the late sir John Swinburne, hart, of Capheaton, in Nor- 
thumberland, the long-established seat of that ancient Ro* 
maa Catholic family. He was educated at Scorton school, 
in Yorkshire, and afterwards stu(lied at Paris, Bourdeaux, 
and in the royal academy at Turin. He made the usual 
tour of Italy ; and, in 1774, travelled with his lady on the 
Continent, for the express purpose of indulging their taste 
for antiquities and the fine arts. He spent six years in 
France, Spain, Italy, and Germany; formed an intimacy 
with some of the most celebrated literati of those coun-^ 
tries, and received spme signal marks of esteem from the 
sovereigns of the courts he visited. On his return to Eng- 
land he retired to his seat at Hamsterleyy in the bishopric 
of Durham, which thenceforth became his principal resi- 
dence. He published his Travels in Spain in a quarto vo- 
lume, 1779 ; four years after, vol. I. of bis Travels in the 
Two Sicilies, and a Ild two years after. Both these 
' works have been reprinted in octavo, the first in two, the 
other in four, volumes, with improvements. The learning ^ 
and ingenuity of Mr. Swinburne have been generally ac- 
knowledged, and the warmth and animation of his descrip- 
tions discover an imagination highly susceptible of every 
bounty of nature or art ; but he is perhaps too apt to re- 
linquish simplicity for profusion of ornament. He was the 
first who brought us intimately acquainted with Spain, and 
the arts and monuments of its ancient inhabitants. By the 
marriage of his only daughter to Paul Benfield, esq. he be- 
came Jn vol ved in the misfortunes of that adventurer, and 
obtained a place in the newly-ce$led settlement of Trini- 
dad, where be died in April 1303. His library had been 
sold by auction, by Leigh and Sotheby, the preceding 
year. * 

SWINTON (John), a very celebrated English anti^ 
quary, was a native of the county of Chester, and the son 
of John Swinton, of Bextoh in that county, gent. He was 
born in 1703. The circumstances of his parents were pro* 

^ Atb. Ox. vol. I. — Drake's Eboracum. — Bridgman's Legal Bibliography. 
' Nichols's Bowyer. 



S W I N T O N. 71 

bably not afflaent, as he was entered at Oxford in the rank 
of a ser?itor at Wadbaoi college, in October 1719. It may 
be presumed that he recoiliinended himself in that society 
by his talents and behaviour, for, on June 30, 1723, he wa^' 
elected a scholar on a Cheshire foundation in the colleget 
In the December following he took his first degree in arts; 
Before he became tnaster of arts (which was on Dec. 1, 
1726), he had chosen the church for his profession, and 
was ordained deacon by the bishop of Oxford, May 30f 
1725 ; and was afterwards admitted to priest's orders on 
^ay 28, }727. He was not long without some preferment, 
being admitted to the rectory of St. Peter le Bailey in Ox* 
ford (a living in the gift of the crown), under a sequestra* 
tion, and instituted to it in February 1728.. In June the 
same year, he was elected a fellow of his college ; but, de* 
sirous probably to take a wider view of the world, he ac- 
cepted, not long after, the appointment of. chaplain to the 
English factory at Leghjorn, to which he had been chosen* 
In this situation be did not long enjoy his health, and^ 
leaving it on that account, he was at Florence in April 
1733, where he attended Mr. Coleman, the English envoy, 
in his last moments. Mr. Swinton returned through Ve-» 
nice and Vienna ; and, in company with «ome English gen» 
tlemen of fortune, visited Presburg in Hungary, and was- 
present at one of their assemblies. 

It is possible that he had not quitted England in the 
summer of 1730, for he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in June that year, and admitted about three months 
later. It was probably while he was abroad that he was 
admitted into some foreign societies, namely the academy 
degh Apaiisti at Florence, and the Etruscan academy of 
Cortoua. On his return be seems to have taken up his 
abode at Oxford, where he resided all the latter part of bis 
life, and was for many years chaplain to the gaol in that 
city. It may be prissumed that he married in 1743 ; it was 
then at least that he gave up bis fellowship. In 1759 be 
became bachelor of divinity ; in 1767 he was elected Cuj- 
tos Archioorum^ or keeper ^ the university records ; and, 
on April 4, 1777, be died, in the ^venty ^fourth year of his 
age, leaving no diildren. His wife survived till 1784, and 
both were buried, with a very short and plain inscription, 
in the chapel of Wadbam college. 

The monuments of bis literary life were numerous, and 
learned, but not of great magnitude. He published, u 



Tl S W I N T O N. 

'< De Lingus Etrari» Regalis verntcula Dissertatto,'* 
Oxon. 1738, 4to, 19 pages. 2. ^ A critical essay coo-i 
cerning the words Aoi/ioiy and Aot^iowov, occasioned by two 
late inquiries into tbe meaning of the Demoniacks in the 
Iblew Testament/* London, 1739, 8vo. 3. ** De priscis 
Romanorum Uteris dissertatio/' Oxon. 1746, 4to, 20 pages* 
4. ^* De primogenio Etrascorum alphabeto, dissertatio,*' 
Oxon. 1746. 5. ** Inscriptiones Citieae : sive in binas In- 
scriptiones Phoenicias, inter rudera Citii nuper repertas, 
GonjectursB. Accedit de nummis quibusdam Samaritaais 
et Phceniciis, vel insolitam prse se iiteraturam ferentibus,' 
vel in lucem hactenus non editis, dissertatio,*' Oxford, 
1750, 4to, 87 pages. 6. ** Inscriptiones Citiese : sive in 
binas alias inscriptiones Phoenicias, inter rudera Citii nu« 
per repertas, conjectursB," 4to, 19 pages. 7. " De num- 
mis quibusdam Samaritanis et Pbceniciis, vel insolitam pras 
se Iiteraturam ferentibus, vel in lucem hactenus non editis, 
dissertatio secunda,'* 4to, 36 pages. 8. ** Metilia : sive de 
quinario Oentis Metiiise, i nummis vetusti» c»teroquin mi- 
nimum notsB, dissertatio," Oxon. 1750, 4to, 22 pages. 9. 
Several dissertations published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society. As, <<A dissertation upon 
a Parthian coifi ; with characters on the reverse resembling 
those of the Palmyrenes," vol. xlix. p. 593. ** Some re- 
marks on a Parthian coin, with a Greek and Parthian le- 
gend, never before published," vol. i. p. 16.. ''A disserta- 
tion upon the Phoenician numeral characters, anciently' 
used at Sidon,'^ vol. i. p. 791. ^< In nummom Parthicura 
hactenus ineditum conjecturap, vol. li. p. 683. <' A disser- 
tation upon a Samnite Denavtus, never before published, 
vol lii. p. 28. ^* An account of a subsrated Denarius of 
the Pltetorian family, adorned with an Etruscan inscription 
on tbe reverse, never before published or explained,*' vol; 
Ixfi p. 60. ** Observations upon five ancient Persiistn coins, 
struck in Palestine or Phosnicia, before the dissolution of 
the Persian empire, vol. Ixii. p. 345. Other papers by him 
may be found in the general index to the Philosophical 
Transactions. 10. A part of the ancient universal history, 
contained in the sixth and seventh volumes of that great 
work. Tihe particulars of this piece of literary history 
were communicated by Dr. Johnson to Mr. Nichols, in a 
paper printed in the Gentleman's Magazine for December- 
1784, p. 892. The original of that paper, which affords a 
atrong proof of the steady attachment of Johnson to the 



SWINTON. W 

1 

t 

interests of literature, has been, according to his desire, de- 
posited in the British Mnseum. The letter is as follows: 

« To Mr. Nichols. 

" The late learned Mr. Swinton of Oxford having one 
day remarked, that one man, meaning, I suppose, no man 
but himself, tould assign all the parts of the Universal His- 
tory to their proper authors, at the request of sir Robert 
Chambers, or of myself, gave the account which I now 
transmit to you in his own hand, being willing that of so 
great a work the history should be known, and that each 
writer should receive his due proportion of praise from pos- 
terity. I recommend to you to preserve this scrap of lite- 
rary intelligence, in Mr. Swinton's own hand, or to deposit 
it in the Museum, that the veracity of the account may ne- 
ver be doubted. I am, sir, 

your most humble servant, 
Dec. 6, 1784. Sam. Johnson.** 

The paper alluded to, besides specifying some parts 
written by other persons, assigns the following divisions of 
the history to Mr. Swinton himself. ** The history of the 
Carthaginians, Numidians, Mauritanians, Gaetulians, Ga« 
ramantes, Melano-Gsetulians, Nigritse, Cyrenaica, Marma- 
rica, the Regie Syrtica, Turks, Tartars, and Moguls, In- 
dians, and Chinese, a dissertation on the peopling of Ame- 
rica, and one on the independency of the Arabs." * 

In ,1740 Mr. Swinton was involved in a law-suit, in con- 
sequence of a letter he had published. It appears from one 
of the newspapers of the time, that a letter from the Rev* 
Mr. Swinton, highly reflecting on Mr. George Baker, hav- 
ing fallen into the bands of the latter, the court of King*t 
Bench made the rule absolute for an information against 
Mr. Swinton. These two gentlemen were also engaged for 
some time in a controversy at Oxford ; which took its rise 
from a matter relative to Dr. Thistlethwaite, some time war- 
<len of Wadham, which then attracted much attention. Mn 
Swinton had the manners, and some of the peculiarities 
often seen in very recluse scholars, which gave rise to 
many whimsical , stories. Among the rest, there is one 
mentioned by Mr. Boswell, in the Life of Johnson, as 

* This lilt it f iveo in PeshalPs His- the Modern Univerial History the Life 

lory of the city of Oxford, p. 171, and of Mobamined and the History of Um 

very probably from the author's autbo- Ara)>s. 
lity ; but it is added that bt wrote ia 



7* SWINTON. 

having happened in J 754. Johnson was then on a visk in 
the university of Oxford. '^ About this time/* he says, 
'* there had been, an execution of two or three criminals at 
Oxford, on a Monday* Soon afterwards, one day at. din- 
ner, I was saying that Mr. Swinton, the chaplain of the 
gaol^ and also a frequent preacher before the university, a 
learned man, but often thoughtless and absent, preached 
the condemnation sermon on repentance, before the con- 
victs on the preceding day, Sunday ; and that, in the close, 
he told his audience that be should give them the remainder 
of what he had to say on the subject, the next Lord's-day. 
Upon which, ope of our company, a doctor of divinity, and 
a plain matter-of-fact man, by way of offering an apology 
for Mr. Swinton, gravely remarked, that he had probably 
preached the same sermon before the university : ** Yes, sir, 
(says Johnson,) but the university were not to be hanged 
the next morning !'*' 

SYBRECHT (John), a landscape painter, was born at 
Antwerp, about 1630, and brought up in that city under 
his father. He was a close imitator of nature in alt his 
landscapes*, and in his younger days went upon the Rhine 
and other adjacent places, where he drew several plea- 
sant views in water*colours. Having spent more of his 
Kfe in that way, than in painting, his drawings were more 
valued than his pictures. The duke of Buckingham, pass- 
ing through the Netherlands, in his way home from his 
embassy into France, stayed some time at Antwerp; where, 
meeting with some of this master's works, be was so well 
pleased with them, that he invited him oyer to England, 
and employed him atCliefden. Sybrecht continued in his 
service three or four years, and then worked for the nobi- 
lity and gentry of England, continuing in vogue a long 
time. He drew several sorts of cattle remarkably well, 
and usually contrived to place some of them in his land- 
scapes. He died in London about 170S, and was buried 
in St. James's church. There are some of his pictures at 
Newstede-abbey, lord Byron's, and in other houses belong- 
ing to the nobility. In 1686 he made several views of 
Cbatsworth.' 

SYDENHAM (Floyer), deserves a fuller account than 
can now be given of a learned and diligent man, unfortu- 
nately altogether unpatronized, who undertook, and ii^ 

1 PreoediD^r edit of this Diot. > PaktBc;toii.— Walpole's Aa«cd«tcs. 



S Y D E N H A M. 7S 

part executed, a translation of the works of Plato. His 
proposals for this great undertaking were published in a 
quarto tract in i759 ; and he produced successively, be* 
tween that time and 1767, translation of Ihe '^ 15, a dis- 
course on poetry," of " The Greater Hippias," " The 
Lesser Hippias," " The Banquet, Part I.*' and " The Ban- 
quet, Part 11.'' He is said to have lived /or some years, 
and finally to have died, in great indigence. The Gentle- 
man's Magazine places his death on April' the 1st, 17S7, 
and' adds, that he was born in 1710, and educated at Wad- 
ham college, Oxford, where he took the degree of M. A. 
April 30, 1734. In an account published by the society 
called the Literary Fund, the following narrative of his 
death is given : *^ During the summer recess of the year 
1788, an event took place, which tarnished the character 
of £nglish opulence and humanity, and afflicted the vo- 
taries of knowledge. Floyer Sydenham, the well-known 
translator of Plato, one of the most useful, if not one of 
the most competent Greek scholars of his age; a man re- 
vered for his knowledge, and beloved for* the candour of 
bis temper and the gentleness of his manners, died in con- 
sequence of having been arrested, and detained, for a debt 
to a victualler, who had, for some time, furnished his fru- 
gal dinner. At the news of that event, every friend of 
literature felt a mixture of sorrow and shame ; and one of 
the members of a club at the prince of Wales^s coffee- 
bouse proposed, that it should adopt, as its object and 
purpose, some means to prevent similar afflictions, and to 
assist deserving authors and their families in distress.*' 
Whether the account reported to these gentlemen, of the 
time and manner of Sydenham's death was accurate or not, 
the friends of literature and humanity will feel great conso- 
lation in finding that it gave occasion to a society so bene- 
volent in its designs ; which arosej after a few changes and 
Bolodifications, out of the proposal above-mentioned. The 
society is now in a flourishing and improving state, and has 
given very timely and important assistance to many deserv- 
ing authors.^ 

SYDENHAM (Thomas), a very eminent physician, and 
one of the most eminent as an improver of the art that 
England has produced, was born in 1624 at Winford Eagle 
in. Dorsetshire, where bis father William Sydienham, esq.^ 

> Prteedio^ edition of this Dictuwary. 



76 SYDENHAM. 

bad 8 Imrge fortune. Under whose ca^re he was educated, 
or in what manner he passed his childhood, is not known. 
At the age of eighteen, in 1642, he entered as a com* 
inoner of Magdalen-ball, Oxford, where it is not probable 
that he continued long ; for he informs us himself, that he 
was withheld from the university by the commencement of 
the war; nor is it very clearly known in what state. of life 
be engaged, or where he resided during that long series of 
public commotion. It is indeed reported, that be had a 
commission in the king's army*, but no particular account 
is given of bis military conduct ; nor are >ye told what rank 
be obtained (unless that of a captain), when he entered into 
the army, or when or on wbat occasion be retired from 
it. It is certain, however, that if ever he took upon htm 
the profession of arms, he spent but few years in the camp ; 
for in 1648 he obtained at Oxford the degree of bachelor 
of physic, for which, as some medical knowledge is neces- 
sary, it may be imagined that he spent some time in qua« 
lifying himself. 

His application to the study of -physic was, as he himself, 
relates, produced by an accidental acquaintance wfth Dr. 
Cox, a physician eminent at that time in London, who in 
some sickness prescribed to bis brother, and, attending him 
frequently on that occasion, inquired of him wbat profes- 
sion he designed to follow. The young man answering 
that he was undetermined, the doctor recommended physic 
to him, and Sydenham having determined to follow his ad-' 
vice, retired to Oxford for leisure and opportunity to pur- 
sue bis studies. 

It is evident, says bis biographer, that this convert^ation 
must have happened before bis promotion to any degree in. 
physic, ~ because he himself fixes it in the interval of hi)B 
absence from the university, a circumstance which will en- 
^able us to confute many false reports relating to Dr. Syden-* 
'ham, which h^ve been confidently inculcated, and impli- 
'citly believed. It is the general opinion, that he was made 
\ pbrsician by accident and necessity ; and sir ttichard 
Blackmore reports in plain terms (in the preface to bis 
•* Treatise on the Small- Pox**), that be engaged in prac- 
tice without any preparatory study, or previous knowledg^, 

i * Sarety not . in the king's army, which he had % brftther,' an ofllder 4f 

.This is .^ontrary to ali authority. Hit high rank noentioaeil bere^ft«i) intit 

tfommissio'ty, if he had any, must have \% in some measure confirmed 9^j 

•^Mn flii tit pariMOitiflary army, in Wood, Our earKeit autbbiHy. •*- " 



.SYDENHAM. 77 

•f the medicinal sciences ; and affirms, diati when he was 
consulted by him what books he should read to qualify him 
for the same profession,' he recommended Don Quixote. 
That he recommended Don Quixote to Blackmore, we are 
not, continues Dr. Johnson, to doubt ; but the relator ifl 
hindered by that self-love which dazzles all mankind, from 
discovering that he might intend a satire very different 
from a general censure of all the ancient and modern wri* 
ters on medicine, since he might perhaps mean, either se* 
riously or in jest, to insinuate, that Blackmore was not 
adapted by nature to the study of physic, and that, whe* 
tfaer be should read Cervantes, or Hippocrates, he would 
be equally iniqualified for practice, and equally unsuccess* 
ful in it. Wha.tever was his meaning, nothing is more 
evident, than that it was a transitory sally of an imagina* 
tion warmed with gaiety, or the negligent effusiotv of m 
mind intent on some other employment, and' in haste tp 
dismiss a troublesome intruder ; for it is certain that Syden- 
ham did not think it impossible to write usefully on medi^ 
cine, because he has himself written .upon it ; and it is not 
probable that he carried his vanity so far, as to imagine 
that no man had ever acquired the same qualiBcations be- 
sides himself. He could not but know that he had rather 
restored than invented roost of his principles, and therefore 
could not but acknowledge the valbeof those writers whose 
doctrines he adopted and enforced. 

That he engaged in the practice of physic without any 
acquaintance with the theory, or knowledge of the opinions 
or precepts of former writers, is undoubtedly false, for he 
declares that after he had, in pursuance of his conversation 
with Dr. Cox, determined upon the practice of physic, be 
applied himself in earnest to it, and spent several years ia 
the university, before he began to practise in London. 
Nor was he satisfied with the opportunities of knowledge 
which Oxford afforded, but travelled to Montpellier, ^B 
Desault relates ('^ Dissertation on Consumptions^'), in quest 
of farther information, Montpellier being at that time the 
most celebrated school of physic. It is a common opipipn 
that he was thirty years old before he formed his reaoUi- 
tion of studying physic ; but this arises from the mj^srepi;^- 
sentation of an expression in his dedication to Dr. Maple- 
toft, in which he observes that from his conversation With 
Dr. Cox to the publication of that treatise thirty years h^d 
intervened. The facts already related sufficiently confuie 



7» 



SYDENHAM. 



Uua etrotf since it appears that Sydenham, after baring 
beeii fo^ some time absent from the university, returned t^ 
it in order to pursue his physical inquiries before he was 
twenty- four years old; for in 1648, when exactly of that 
age, be was admitted to the degree of M. B. 

Among other reports respecting this great man, it ha» 
also beeh said that he composed his works in English, but^ 
wM obliged to have recourse to Dr. Mapletoft to translate 
them- into Latin. This has been asserted by Ward in his 
Lives of the Gresham professors, but without bringing any 
proof* ; and it is observable that his *^ Processus Integri,*' 
published after his death, discovers alone more skill in the 
Latin language than is commonly ascribed to him. It is 
likewise asserted by sir Hans Sloane, with whom he was 
familiarly acquainted, that Dr. Sydenham was. particularly 
versed in the writings of the great Roman orator and phi* 
losopher; and there is evidently such a luxuriance in his 
style, as may discover the author who gave him most plea- 
sure, and most engaged his imitation. 

About the same time that he became bachelor of physic, 
be obtained, by the interest of a relation, a fellowship of 
All Souls^ college, having submitted, by the subscription . 
required, to the authority of the visitors appointed by the 
parliament, upon what principles, or how consistently with 
bis former conduct, it is now impossible to discover f. 
When he thought himself qualified for practice^ he fixed 
his residence in Westminster, became doctor of physic at 
Cambridge, received a licence from the college of phy- 
sicians, and lived in the first degree of reputation, and the 
greatest afBuence of practice, for many years, without any' 
other enemies than those which he raised by the superior 
merit of his conduct, the bright lustre of his abilities, or 
his improvements of his science, and his contempt of per- 
nicious methods supported only by authority in opposition 
to sound reason and indubitable experience. These men 
are indebted to him for concealing their names, when he 



^ Dr. Ward did bring his proofs, 
in\ letter sent to the Gent Mag. vol. 
XUT. in which however be endeavours 
to obviate the conclusion that might 
be drawn from his first assertion, 
namely that Sydenham was not ca- 
pable of translating his works into 
Latin, and this he has done very can- 
didly and very satisfactorily. 



f This mistake is founded on that 
mentioned in the last note but one. 
Wood informs us that he would not, 
from the first, join the young students 
who took up arms in defence of thQ 
king. There was nothing therefore in 
his present conduct inconsistent witb 
his former. 



Y D E N H AM. 



'^9 



records their malice, since tbey have thereby eseapf$4 the 
contempt and detestatioa of posterity*. 

Dr. Sydenbami however, was not destined for long \\(e. 
His health began to fail in the fifty-second year of his age^ 
by frequent attacks of the gout, to which ^he had long been 
subject, and which afterwards was accompanied with the 
stone in the kidneys, and its natural consequence, bloody 
urine. These were distempers, says his elegant biogra* 
pber, which even the art of Sydenham could only palliate, 
without hope of a perfect cure, but which, if he has not 
been able by his precepts to instruct us to remove, he has, 
at least, by his example taught us to bear ; for he never 
betrayed any indecetit impatience, or unmanly dejection^ 
under his torments, but supported himself by the reflee- 
tions of philosophy, and the consolations of religion, and 
in every interval of ease applied himself to the assistance 
of others with his usual assiduity. After a life thus usefully 
employed, he died at his house in Pall-mall, Dec. 29, 
1689, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, and was buried in 
the aile, near the south door, of the church of St. James's^ 
Westminster. 

His works have been collected and frequently printed at 
London in one volume 8vo. The last edition is that by 
John Swan, M. D. of Newcastle in Staffordshire, 1742. 
To this is prefixed a life of Dr. Sydenham, by Dr. Johnson, 
which we have chiefly followed in the preceding account. 
His works were also printed at Leipsic in 1711, at Geneva 
in 1716, in 2 vols. 4to, and at Leyden in Svo. They were 
written by himself in English, but translated afterwards 
into Latin, of which it is our opinion he was fully capable, 
although these translations, as already noticed, have been 
attributed to Dr. Mapleto ft and others. The last English 
edition is that by Dr. George Wallis, 1788, 2 vols. Svo, with 
notes and opinions of subsequent medical writers. 



* *« The great Sydenham, for all 
bis labours, only gamed the sad and 
uojuftt recoiBpence of calumny and 
ignominy: and that from the emula- 
tio]!i of some of his collegiate breth- 
ren and others, whose indignation at 
length arose to that height, that they 
endeavoured to banish him, as guilty 
of medicinal heresy, out of that illus* 
trious society ; and by the whispering 
of others he was baulked the employ- 
ment of the royal family, where before 
be was called among the first physi- 
ciaai. .Yet some patrons this great 



and good man had among his breth- 
ren, as Goodall, Brady, Gaman, and 
Dr. Cole of Worcester, as may be 
seen by their epistles in bis works. 
Dr. JVIickletbwait a little before hia 
deaths did profess, notwithltanding all 
the attempts of several against the 
methods of Sydenham, that these 
Would prevail, and triumph over all 
other methods : and the event has 
fully verified this prediction of Dr. 
MicklethwaiU" MS. communicated 
by C^r. Lettsom to the Qent. Mag. to!, 
LXXI. p. 684. 



ei) SYDENHAM. 

Sydenham has frequently been called the father of pby- 
aic among the moderns. He tells us, in the preface to his 
works^ that '^ the increase and perfection of the medical 
^rt is to be advanced by these two m^ans : by composing 
an history of distempers, or a natural and exact descrip- 
tion of distempers and their symptoms ; and by deducing 
and establishing a method of cure from thence/^ This is 
the way which that great delineator of the right road to 
real knowledge in all its various branches, lord Bacon, had 
pointed out ; and its being more closely pursuecl by Syden- 
ham than by any modern physician before him^ is what has 
justly entitled him to those high encomiums which have 
ever been paid him. Sir Richard Blackmore allows, and 
all are now convinced, that Sydenham, *^ who built all his 
masims and rules of practice upon repeated observations 
on the nature and properties of diseases, and the power of 
remedies, has compiled so good an history of distempers, 
and so prevalent a method of cure, that he has improved 
and advanced the heating art much more than Dr. Willis 
with all his curipus speculations and fancifut hypotheses .^^ 
He relates of himself, in his dedication to Dr. Mapletoft, 
that ever since he had applied himself to the practice of 
physic, he bad been of opinion, and the opinion had been 
every day more and more confirmed in him, that the me- 
dical art could not be learned so surely as by use and ex- 
perience; and that he, who should pay the nicest and 
most accurate attention to the symptoms of distempers, 
would infallibly succeed best in searching out the true 
means of cure. **' For this reason," says he, " I gave my- 
self up entirely to this method of proceeding, perfectly se- 
cure and confident, that, while I followed nature as ray 
guide, I could never err." He tells him afterwards, that 
Mr. Locke approved his method, which he considered as 
no, small sanction to it; and what he says upon this occa- 
sion of Mr. Locke is worth transcribing: ^* Nosti prse- 
terea, quern huic mese methodo sufFragantem habeam, qui 
earn intimius per omnia perspexerat, utrique nostrum con- 
junctissimum dominum Joannem Locke ; quo quidem viro, 
live ingenio judicioqne acri & subacto, sive etiam antiquis, 
hoc est, optimis moribus, vix superiorem quenquam^ inter 
•OS qui nunc sunt homines repertum iri confido ; paucissi- 
mos certe pares.^* There are some Latin elegiac verses by 
Mr. Locke, addressed to Sydenham^ prefixed to bis '^Tr«a- 
tis« ujjMn fevers/* 



StDEKHAM. ii 

Mt. Granger has remarked that Sydenham received 
' higher honours from foreign physicians than from his coun* 
trymen* This, however^ applies only to his contempo« 
raries, for no modern English physician has ever mentione4 
Sydenham unless in terms of high veneration. The enco* 
miums of Boerhaave and Haller are well known to medical 
readers. His great merit consists in the accurate descrip* 
tions which he has left us of several diseases which first 
became conspicuous in his time. His account of the small- 
pox, and of his medical treatment of that diseases, is admi«- 
rable, and contributed in no small degree to establish his 
celebrity. He was the first person who introduced the 
cooling regimen in fevers, a method of treatment frequently 
attended with the happiest effects^ though it must be ac- 
. knowledged that be did liot sufficiently distinguish between 
the typhus and the inflammatory fever, and on that ac« 
couot he sometimes carried his bleedings to an excess. He 
contributed also essentially to introduce the Peruvian bark 
as a cure for intermittents. 

He had nn elder brother William, who was some time 
gentleman commoner of Trinity college in Oxford, and, 
entering into the parliament's army, acquitted himself so 
well, that be rose, by several gradations^ to the highest 
post and dignities. In 1649, he was appointed governor of 
the Isle of Wight, and made vice-admiral of that isle and 
Hampshire. In 1653, he was summoned to parliament for 
Dorsetshire; in 1654, made commissioner of the treasury, 
and member of the privy-qouncil ; and in 1658, summoned 
to parliameint by the protector Richard Cromwell. This 
connection, together with his own principles and former 
engagements, would probably binder Dr. Sydenham from 
being a very popular pbysician, during the period of his 
. flourishing, that is, iu the reigns of Charles IL and 
James II. ; yet he seems to have owed more of his neglect to 
the envy of bis contemporary brethren. 

His biographer remarks that Dr. Sydenham's skill in 
physic ** was not bis highest excellence; that his whol^ cha-* 
racter was amiable ; that his chi^f view was the benefit of 
mankind, and the chief motive of his. actions the will of 
God, wbom be mentions with reverence, well becoming 
the most enlightened and most penetrating mind. He was 
benevolent, candid, and communicative, ^incere» and re^i-^ 
gious ; qualities^ which it were happy if they f Qf||f^ HRI^F 

VOL.XXIX, G 



S2 & Y K E S. 

from him, who emulate his knowledge, and imitate hb 
inetbpds." * 

SYKES (Arthur Ashley), a divine of the. church of 
England, but to whom that church was little indebted^ was 
the son of Mr. Arthur Sykes, of Ardely or Yardly in Hert- 
fordshire, and was born in London about 1684^ He was 
educated at St. Paul's school under the celebrated Mr. 
Postlethwayte, and was admitted of Corpus Christi college, 
Cambridge, in 1701, under the care of the rev« Charles 
Kidman, B. D. tutor of that college. In Feb. 1701-2 be 
was appointed a scholar of the house. While an under-^ 

fraduate he wrote some Hebrew verses on the death of 
ing William, which were printed in the Cambridge coU 
lection on that occasion. He took the degree of B. A. in 
1704*5, and proceeded M. A. in 1708. After leaving col- 
lege he was employed for sopie time as one of the assistants 
at St. Paul's school, but quitted this situation as ioconsist* 
ent with the prosecution of his private studies. In 1712-1 3 
be was collated to the vicarage of Godmersham in Kent by 
archbishop Tenison, who had a great personal regard for 
him, and was a generous patron to the members of Corpus 
Christi, of which he had himself been fellow. In April 
1714 he was instituted to the rectory of Dry-Drayton in 
Cambridgeshire, on the presentation of the duchess dow- 
ager of Bedford^ and in August followiog he resigned his 
vicarage of Godmersham in Kent. In Nov. 1718, be was 
instituted to the rectory of Rayleigh in Essex, which he 
retained to his death, but now resigned the living of Dry- 
Drayton. In Dec^ following, at a meeting of the gover-^ 
nor% and directors of King-street chapel^ Golden-square, 
be was unanimously appointed afternoon preacher at that 
place, which is a chapel of ease to St. Jameses Westmin- 
ster, of which his friend Dr. Clarke was then rector. la 
.1721, on the morning preachership becoming vacant by 
. Dr. Wilcocks's promotion to the see of Gloucester> Mr. 
Sykes was unanimously appointed to -succeed him. In 
January 1723-4 he was collated to the prebend of Alton- 
Borealis in the cathedral of Salisbury, by bishop Hoadly, 
and three years afterwards his lordship appointed him to 
the prsecentorship of the same cathedral, yacant by the 
^eatb of their common friend Dr. Daniel Whitby. Iii 

1 Life by Dr. JohBiOB.—Biog. Brit.— Birch'f Livet.— A^L Ox. T©1. II.— 
ThMBioB'ft liift. of ih« Royal Society. 



S Y K E S. SS 

Ajpril 1725, upon the nomination of Dr. Clarke, he was 
appointed assistant preacher at St. James's church, West- 
minster. In 1726 he proceeded to take the degree of 
D. D. in the university of Cambridge. In Feb. 1739 he 
was advanced to the deanry of St. Burien in Cornwall, 
which is in the patronage of the crown ; and on October 
15, 1740, he was collated to a prebend in the cathedral of 
Winchester, through the friendship of his former patron 
bishop Hoadiy, who had been translated to the see of 
Winchester in 1734. His ecclesiastical promotions seem 
to have ended here. 

Duruig many years Dr. Sykes had been greatly afBicted 
ivith the gout and stone, but had received much relief from 
the pains of the latter disorder, for fifteen or sixteen years 
before his death, by the medicine purchased by parlia- 
ment of Mrs. Stephens, for the public use. And upon the 
whole be enjoyed a general state of good health and spirits, 
until he was seized with a stroke of the palsy, while attend- 
ing the funeral of a friend, on Monday evening, Nov. 15, 
1756, and died, at his house in Cavendish-square, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon of Tuesday the 23d, in the seventy- 
third year of his age. He was buried near the pulpit in 
the parish church of St. James*s Westminster on the 30th 
of November. Dr. Gregory Sharpe, who succeeded him 
in King-street qhapel, and was afterwards master of the 
Temple, and who had long been in habits of friendship with 
the deceased, officiated upon this occasion. 

Dr. Sykes had been married many years to Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Williams, a widow lady, and a native of Bristol, but 
bad no children by her. He left the whole of his fortune,^ 
which was considerable, to her for life, and afterwards to 
.his brother the rev, George Sykes, rector of Rayleigh in 
Essex, and vicar of Preston in Kent. Mrs. Sykes died in 
January 1763, and was buried near her husband in St. 
James's church. 

; Dr. Sykes .was a divine of the school, of Clarke and 
Hoadiy, who, while they made it the business of their lives 
to oppose the distinguishing doctrines of the established 
church, were content to enjoy both its dignities and emo- 
lument8« . Such men have been well represented by an in- 
geni9us. critic*, as holding a grand debate between con- 
victioQ «nd interest^ and endeavouring to accommodate 

♦ Monthly Reritw, to). LXXill. p. 807. 

02 



84 S Y K E 8. 

matters with As much ease as possible between both; a 
sort of half-way reformers^ who endeavour to find out the 
secret band which will unite the two opposite extremes^ 
and coalesce, in one mass^ the most heterogeneous quali* 
ties of inward persuasion and outward profession. Tbejr 
subscribe articles which they do not believe^ and reconcile 
it to their conscience by calling them articles of peace and 
not oi faith; and by this principle of accommodation they 
endeavour to secure the character of the ^ children of 
light,^* without wholly relinquishing the good things whidi 
fall to the share of the " children of the world." 
' Such was Dr. Sykes, who in all his controversial writings 
(and the greater part of his writings were of that kind) en- 
deavoured to lay open the church to persons of the most 
opposite sentiments, especially those approaching the So- 
cinian scheme, and therefore argues in one of his tracts, 
that <^ ajatitude of opinion is intended and allowed by the 
legislature to subscribers, as thfey are members of the 
church of England,'' which the more recent author of 
'^ The Confessional" has amply refuted. It was of course 
very natural for Dr. Sykes, at a subsequent period, to main- 
tain, in other pamphlets, that the fences which the church 
has determined to secure against innovfiition are of no im- 
portance. 

His publications amount in the whole to sixty-three. 
Most of these are only pamphlets on temporary topics, and 
are now little known or sought after; but the following 
have been thought to possess a more permanent character: 
'^ Essay on the Truth of the Christian Religion; wherein 
its real foundation upon the Old Testament is shown ;'* 
this was published in 1725 against Collins; and ^^The 
principles and connexion of Natural and Revealed Religion 
distinctly considered," 1740, 8vo.^ 

SYLBURGIUS (Frederic), a learned German, emi- 
nent for his great skill in Greek, was born at Marpurg, in 
"the landgraviate of Hesse, in 1546, or, as Saxius says, 
1536. His father, who was a farmer, gave him a liberal 
education, of which he inade so good a use, as to become 
pei^fect in the Latin, French, and Greek languages, at a 
time when the latter was understood by very few. He was 
a school-master at Licfaa, for some of the first years of hit 
life ; but afterwards quitted that employment, and applied 

' Memoirs of th« life and Writings <$f Dr. Syl^es, by Br. Disney, 17S5, St*. 



SYLBURGIUS. 85 

hioiself wholly to the revision and correction of ancient 
authors, the Greek particalarly ; many of which, still held 
in estimation, were published by him, from the presses of 
Wecfael and CommeUn« Among these were Aristotle^ 
Herodotus, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Dion Cassius, Jus* 
tin Martyr, Clemens Alexandrinus, Theodoret, &c. He 
gave some assistance to Henry Stephens in compiling his 
^ Tt^esaurus GrseccB lingusB ;" and was also the author of a 
Greek grammar, which was much valued, a Hebrew gram- 
mar, notes upon Clenardus^ &c. For these and other ser« 
vices, he had an annual stipend allowed him by the uni- 
versity of Marpurg. He was universally well spoken of by 
the learned, and died much lamented by them in 1596. 
*^ Unhappy event,*' says Casaubon, *^ to the republic of 
letters ! for, a few days before his death, he sent me word 
by Commelin of many new labours projected and begun* 
The lovers of Greek have more especially reason to deplore 
the loss of him." ' > 

SYLVESTER (Joshua), the laborious and quaint trans- 
lator of Dtt Bartas, was born in 1563, and died Septem- 
ber 28, 16I8, His death happened at Middleburg in Hol- 
land. By what circumstances he was induced, or com- 
pelled, to quit his native country we have not discovered ; 
but John Vicars, his friend, who styles him ** the best of 
Poets," speaks of it as a reproach to his country* 

And hadst thou dy*d at home it had been better ; 

It would (at least) have giv'n thee much content i 

But herein England's worthy to be shent^ 
Which to thy worth did prove so bad a debtor. 
Nor minde I this, but then I blush for shame^ 

To think, that though a cradle thee it gave. 

Yet (O unkinde) deny'd thy corps a grave j 
Much more a statue resold to thy name« 

He was, in 1597, a candidate for the office of secretary 
to the company of merchant adventurers at Stade, of which 
he was a member ; on which occasion the unfortunate earl 
of Essex interested himself in his favour, and wrote two 
letters in his behalf, dated from the , court on the last of 
April ; a private one to Mr. Ferrers, the deputy -governor, 
recommending Mr. Sylvester as an able and honest man ; 
and a general one to the company, to the same purpose, 
in which he mentions that he had received a very good 

1 Melchior Adam«^-Scaligftr in Scaligeraais Secundii— Fabric* Bibl. Grac— 
8txii ODomasL 



86 SYLVESTER. 

report of his sufficiency and fitness for the post of secretary, 
being both well qualified with language, and many other 
good parts, and honest and of good conversation ; two 
especial motives of his lordship's request in bis behalf. 
Sylvester's translation of DuBartas is dedicated to l^ing 
James ; and among those who pay him the highest compli- 
ments appears Ben Jonson, whom tradition makes an inti- 
mate friend, and, as some think, a relation. He translated 
also the Quatrains of Pibrac, and many other pieces of 
French poetry ; with some from the Latin of Fracastorius, 
&c. One of his own pieces has the ridiculously quaint; 
title of ^^ Tobacco battered, and the pipes shattered, (about 
their ears that idlely idolize so base and barbarous a weed ; 
or at least-wise over-love so loathsome a vanitie :) by a vol- 
ley of holy shot thundered from mount Helicon.'* This may 
be supposed to have been written to please the great enemy 
of tobacco, James L Not much can now be said in favour 
of his compositions, either the translations, or those that 
are original, although he gained greater reputation from 
the former than the latter. Dryden tells us, in the Dedi- 
cation to the Spanish Fryar, that *^ when he was a boy, he 
thought inimitable Spenser a mean poet, in comparison of 
Sylvester's Dubartas," and ^* was wrapt into an ecstacy 
when he read these lines : 

" Now when the winter's keener breath began 
To crystallize the Baltic ocean ; 
To glaze the lakes, to bridle up the floods^ 
And periwig with snow the bald-pate woods.*' 

He seeo^s to have been always in great poverty, and 
very earnest in courting the great for relief. He appears, 
in a dedication to the parliament, to allude to some person 
of the name of Bowyer, as the cause of bis ruin ; for he 
subscribes, 

*^ Your under-clarke, unworthily undon 

By over trusting to a starting Boto^ 

Yer — while too strong^^ to my poor wrong and woe.'* 

He was apparently much admired in his time, and yet was 
neglected ; so that the most probable cause for his exile 
was the fear of a gaol at home. ' 
SYLVESTRE* 

* A referenee was made from Ferrarietuis to Sylvestre, but this person ap- 
pears too iusi^uificant for notice. 

1 Ath. Ox. Tol. I. — Phillips's Theatrum, by sir £. Brydges. — Cens. Lit. vol. II. 
— Dudster's Considerations on Milton's Early Reading, 1800.— Geot. Mag. vol* 
LXX and LXXV.— Ellis's Specimeos, &c. 



SYLVIUS. 87 

SYLVIUS, or DUBOIS, or DELEBOE <James), a ce- 
lebrated physician of France, was the son of Nicholas dur 
Bois, a camblet- weaver, who had eleven sons and four 
daughters. He was born at Amiens in Picardy, in 1478, 
and went through a course of classical learning, under bis 
elder hrother Francis Sylvius; who was principal of the 
college of Tou'rnay at Paris, and was a great promoter of 
letters in that age of barbarism. There he learned the 
Latin language, in much greater purity than it had been 
taught for a long time ; and hence it was, that his writings 
are distinguished to such advantage by the elegance of the 
style. ^ He became a very accomplished scholar in Latin 
and Greek, and had some litde knowledge of the Hebrew ; 
and applied himself also to mathematics and mechanics so 
succesisfuUy, as to invent machines, which. deserved public 
iiotipe. When the time was come for giving himself en*- 
tirely up to ph^'sic, to which study hid inclination had 
always led him, he traced it to its sources ; and engaged 
so deeply in the reading of Hippocrates and Galen, that 
he scarcely, did any thing but examine and translate those 
two authors. He discovered from thence the importance 
of anatomy, and applied himself to it so ardently, that he 
became as great a master as tbat^ge would permit. He 
studied pharmacy with no less care,vai»d took several jour^ 
neys to see, upon the spot, the medicines which different 
countries produce. Upon his return^ to Paris, he read 
lectures, and explained in two years a eourse of physic 
from Hippocrates and Galen ; which. so much extended his 
reputation, that scholars from all parts of Eurpp^ resorted 
to. him. But being prohibited at last from teachmg as not 
having taken his degree, he went to Montpellier in 1520 
for that purpose, but not being willing to pay the expences 
of graduation, he returned to Paris, and by an agreement 
with the faculty, recommenced his lectures, although only 
a bachelor of pby.8ic. In .1535 he taught in the college of 
Treguier, while Fernelius taught in that of Cornouailles ; 
but the latter had few scholars, while the former had about 
five hundred. The reason of this difference was, that 
Sylvius dissected bodies, and read lectures upon botany 
and the preparation of medicines, advantages which the 
scholars of Fernelius had not. The professorship of physic 
in the royal college becoming vacant in 1548, Sylvius wa:i 
nominated to fill it ; which he did, after hesitating about 
it two years. He continued iu it till his death, which hap- 



«S S Y L V I U S^ 

pened Jan. 13, 1555* He was never married,' and shev^ed 
^ven an arersiou to women. His personal character was 
particularly obnoxious. His behaviour was rude and bar*' 
|>arous. He bad nothing social in bis temper^ or ever de- 
parted from a certain pompous stiffness; and it was observed 
that when be attempted to relax, be did it aukwardly. 
The only witticism related of him is, that *^ he had parted 
with three beasts, bis cat^ bis mule, and his maid.'* His 
avarice was extreme, and he lived in the most sordid man- 
ner : he allowed his servants nothing but dry bread, and 
bad no fire all the winter* Two things served him as a 
remedy against cold ; he played at foot^rball, and carried 
9. great log upon bis shoulders : and he said that the beat 
which he gained by this exercise was more beneficial to 
bis health than that of a fire. He was most rigid in de- 
ikianding bis fees from bis scholars, yet was puzzled often 
what to do with bis money, for when, in 1616, hia hbpse 
in the rue de St, Jacques was pulled down, the workmen 
found many pieces of gold, which be had probably hid and 
knew not where to find. This avarice, which was bis rul- 
ing passion, exposed him to the wit of his contemporaries. 
Buchanan has a distich on him, beginning '' Sylvius bio 
situs est, gratis qui nil dedit unquam, &c.*' and a dialogue 
was published under the title of <^ Sylvius ocreatus,'* or 
'^ Sylvius booted," of which it was thought that Henry 
Stephens was the author, by the assumed name of Ludo-* 
vicus Arrivabenus Mantuanus. It is founded on this sup- 
position that Sylvius, wishing to pass Acheron without 
paying anything, went in boots that be might ford it. 
This satire was answered by John Melet, one of his pupilsy 
who adopted the name of Claudius Burgensis, and entitled 
bis performance ^* Apologia in Lud. Arrivabenum pro D. J« 
Silvio." 

The various works of Sylvius which had been published 
separately were collected by Ren6 Moreau, under the 
title ^' J. Sylvii opera medica in sex partes digesta, Casti- 
gata, &c.'' Geneva, 1630, foL with a life of the author, 
the sathre and answer just mentioned, and Sylvius's Latin 
poetry, which firsi appeared in 1584, 4to. He was a 
strenuous adherent to Galen, except in his love of judicial 
astrology,^ which Sylvius opposed* The French have some 
translations from his works, to which may be added, not 
in the preceding volume, a Latin and French grammar 
printed at Paris in 153 L He lived upon very bad terms 



SYLVIUS- 



S9 



with Vesaliufy who occasioned him the greatest vexation 
lie ever suffered. Sylvius, whose exceUence lay in ana<^' 
lomy, liad prepared a work upon that subject, which he 
considered as a master-piece. Upon this, Vesalius pub« 
lished, in 1541| his ^^Opus Anatomicunii'* which was so 
well written, and illustrated with so many beautiful figures^ 
that it was universally admired. Two circumsta.nces ag« 
gravated this grievance; Vesalius had been Sylvius^s pupil; 
und he had attacked Gsden, whom Sylvius defended,, even 
in his errors.^ 

SYMMACHUS (Quintus Aureuus), a citizen and se« 
nator of ancient Rome, and consul in the year 391, has 
left us ten books of epistles ; from which, as well as from 
other tbiogsj we collect, that he was a warm opposer of 
the Christian religion. This he shews particularly in the 
sixty-first .epistle of the tenth book, addressed io the em* 
petor Valentihian, whom be petitioned in iavour of pa« 
ganism. He was very unfortunate, after having enjoyed a 
high degree of favour at court. The emperor Theodosiu* 
thought proper to desire that he would protiounce his pa- 
negyric before him ; but when be heard that Symmachus 
had been equally liberal in his praises of the tyrant Maxi» 
mus, who reigned before him, and to whom Theodosius 
himself had submitted from political Motives, he banished 
Symmachus, and persecuted him so even tn his exile, that 
with all his prejudices in favour of paganism, he was 
obliged to take refuge in a Christian church to save his life. 
AmmianusMarcellinuS' speaks of him as a man of great 
learning and modesty ; and his epistles shew him to have 
been a man of acute parts, and of eloquence, such as elo- 
quence was in his time, that is, vei^bose and florid. Sci- 
oppius, Parens, and other learned men, have written notes 
upon the epistles of Symmachus : but we know of no later 
Edition of them than that of Leyden, 16S3, l2mo. The 
first edition, which has no date, but probably was printed 
between 1503 and 1S13, is veiy rare and valuable. Am- 
brose, bishop of Milan, wrote against Symmachus ; and so 
did the Christian poet Prudentius.' 

SYNESIUSy an ancient father and bishop of the Chris«; 
tian church, flourished at the beginning of the fifth cen- 
tury. He was born at Cyrene in Africa, a town situated 

^ £loy D'ltU Hitt de MedeciDe.— Bi<{g. Udit. art. DuboU.— NiMroDy vol* 
XXIX. 
! CftTty vol. I.-«Fabrtcii Bibl. Lat.— Bkrant't Censnra.-^Saxii Onomait. 



90 S Y N E S I U S. 

upon the borders of Egypt, and afterwards trarelied to the 
neighbouring couutry for improTement, where be happily 
succeeded in bis studies under the celebrated female philo^ 
sopher Hypatia, who presided at that time over the Pla« 
tonic school at Alexandria, where also the eminent mathe^p 
maticians Theon, Pappus, and Hero ti^ught. Nicephorus, 
patriarch of Constantinople, who wrote annotations, on a 
piece of Synesius, called ^* De insomniis," represents hioi 
as a man of prodigious parts and learning ; and says, that 
'' there was nothing he did not know, no science wherein 
he did not excel, no mystery in which he was not initiated 
and deeply' versed." His works are in high esteem with 
the curious ; and his epistles, in Suidas's opinion, are ad-* 
mirable, and in that of Photius, as well as Evagrius, ^*ele*. 
gant, agreeable, sententious, and learned." Synesius was 
a man of noble bicth, which added no less weight to his 
learning, than that reflected lustre on his quality ; and 
both together procured him great credit and authority. He 
went, about the year 400, upon an embassy, which lasted 
three years, to the emperor Arcadiusat Constantinople, on 
the behalf of his country, which was miserably harassed 
by the auxiliary Goths and other barbarians ; and it was 
then, as he himself tells us, that ^< with greater bold- 
ness than any of the Greeks, he pronounced before the 
emperor an oration concerning government.'* About the 
year 410, when the citizens of Ptolemais applied to Theo- 
pbilus of Alexandria for a bishop, Synesius was appointed 
Und consecrated, though he took all imaginable pains to 
decline the honour. He declared himself not at all con- 
vinced of the truth of some of the most important articles 
of Christianity. He^ was verily persuaded of the existence 
of the soul before its union with the* body ; he could not 
conceive the resurrection of the body ; nor did he believe 
that the world should ever be destroyed. He also owned 
himself to have such an affection for his wife, that be 
would not consent, either to be separated from her, or to 
live iti a clandestine manner with her; and told Theophilus^ 
that, if he did insist upon making him a bishop, be must 
leave him in possession of his wife and all his notions. 
Theophilus at length submitted to these singular terms, 
*' upon'a presumption," it is said, ^^that a man, whose 
life and manners were in every respect so exemplary, could 
not possibly be long a bishep without being enlightened 
with heavenly truth. Nor," continues Cave, " was Theo- 



8YNESIU9. 9t 

]^hilus deceived ; for Synesius was no sooneir seated in his 
bishopric, than he easily acquiesced in the doctrine of the 
resurrection.'* Baronius says in his Annals, <^ that he does 
hot believe these singularities x)f Synesius to have been his 
real sentiments ; but only that he jpretended them, with a 
view of putting a stop to the importunities of Theophilus^ 
and of warding off this advancement to a bishopric, which 
was highly disagreeable to him.'* That the advancement 
was highly disagreeable to Synesius, is very certain ; but 
it is likewise as certain, that Baronius's supposition is 
without all foundation. There is extant a letter of Syne « 
sius to his brother, of which an extract may be given, as 
illustrative of his character and opinions. 

'^ I should be exceedingly to blame if I did not return 
most hearty thanks to the inhabitants of Ptolemais, for 
thinking me worthy of such honours, as I own I do not 
think myself worthy of : yet it is highly incumbent on me 
to consider, not only the great things they offer, but 
how far it may be prudent in me to accept them. — Now, 
the more I reflect upon it, the more I am convinced of my 
own inability to sustain the ofHce and dignity of a bishop ; 
and I will frankly tell you my thoughts upon this occasion. 
— While I had nothing to support but the character of a 
philosopher, I acquitted myself, I may say, with tolerable 
credit ; and this has made some imagine that I am (it to be 
a bishop. But they have not considered, with what dif* 
ficulty the mind acquires a new bent ; that is, adapts itself 
to a province it has hitherto been a stranger to. I for my 
part am afraid, that by quitting the philosopher, and put- 
ting on the bishop, I should spoil both characters, that my 
new honours should make me arrogant and assuming, de- 
stroying at once the modesty of the philosopher ; and yet 
that I should not be able to support them with a becomings 
dignity. For only consider my way of life hitherto. My 
time has always been divided between books and sports. 
In the hours of study nothing can be more retired, but in 
our sports every body sees us ; and you know very well, 
that no man is fonder of all -kinds of recreations than my- 
self. You know also, that I have an aversion to civil em- 
ployments, as indeed my education, and the whole bent of 
my studies, have been quite foreign to them. But a bishop 
ought to be, as it were, a man of God, averse to pleasures 
and amusements, severe in his manners, and for ever em- 
ployed in the concerns of his flock. Jt requires a happy 



92 SYNESIUS. 

complication of qualities to do all this as it should be dofie ; 
to sustain such a weight of care and business; to be per- 
petually conversant with the affairs of men ; and yet to 
keep himself unspotted from the world. It is true, I see 
this done by some men, and I highly admire and re^re 
them for it ; but I am myself incapable of doing it ; and I 
will not burthen my conscience with undertaking what X 
know I cannot perform. But I have still farther reasons 
for declining this charge, which I will here produce ; for 
though I am writing to you, yet I beg this letter may be 
made public : so that, whatever may be the result of thit 
r aflfair, or which way soever I may be disposed of, I may^ 
at least, stand clea^r with God and man, and especially 
with Tbeophilus, when I sl^U have dealt thus openly and 
fairly. I say then, that God, the laws of the land, and 
the holy hands of Tbeophilus, have given me a wife : but 
I declare to all men, that I will neither suffer myself to be 
separated from her, nor consent to live like an adulterer in 
a clandestine manner : the one I think ipipious, the other 
unlawful. I declare further, that it will always be my 
earnest desire and prayer, to have as many children by her 
as possible. Again, let it be considered' how difficult, or 
rather how absolutely impossible it is, to pluck up those 
doctrines, which by the means of knowledge are rooted in 
the soul to a demonstration. But you know, that philo* 
sophy is diametrically opposite to the doctrines of Chris* 
tianity ; nor shall I ever be able to persuade myself, for 
instance, that the soul had no existence before its union 
with the body, that the world and all its parts will perish 
together, and that the trite and thread-bare doctrine of 
the resurrection, whatever mystery be couched under it, 
can have any truth in it, as it is professed by the vulgar. A 
philosopher, indeed, who is admitted to the intuition of 
truth, will easily see the necessity of lying to the people ; 
for light is to the eye^ what truth is to the people. The 
eye cannot bear too much light; nay, if it is under the 
least indisposition, it is actually relieved by darkness : in 
like manner fable and falsehood may be useful to the people^ 
while unveiling the truth may do them hurt. If, therefore^ 
this method be consistent with the duties of the episcopal 
dignity; if I may freely philosophize at home, while I 
preach tales abroad ; and neitherv teach nor un teach, but 
suffer people to retain the prejudices in which they were 
educated, I may indeed be consecrated ; but if they shall 



SYNESIUS. 8S 

say, that a bishop ought to go farther, and not only apeak, 
but think like the people, I must declare off, &c.'^ 

Besides rejecting the doctrine of the resurrection of the 
body, in bis <^ Hymns" Synesius adapts the triad, or rather 
quaternion of the schools, to the received Christian doc» 
trine of the Trinity. If the language of these mystical 
odes, -says Brucker, be compared with that of the gnostics 
and cabbalists, with the theology of Proclus, and the Zo- 
roastrean oracles, it will be easily seen that Synesius was 
a more worthy disciple of Hypatia than of Jesus Christ. 
His work^ were published, together with those of Cyril of 
Jerusalem, by Petavius at Paris, 1612; and afterwards, 
with an addition of notes, in 1633, folio. . They are far 
from being voluminous, consisting only of about one hun- 
dred and 6fty epistles, and some small pieces. He is 
chiefly celebrated for his eloquence, an elegant specimen 
of which remains in his '< Dion/' a treatise on the manner 
in which he instructed himself. ' 

SYNGE (Edward), a pious and leari^ed archbishop of 
Tuam in Ireland, was the second son of Edward, bishop of 
Cork, &c. and was born April the 6tb, 1659, at Inishonane, 
•of which parish his father was then vicar. He was educated 
at the grammar school at Cork, and thence admitted a 
commoner at Christchurch, Oxford, where he took the 
degree of B. A. but on bis father's death returned to Ire- 
land, and finished his studies in the university of DubliBt 
m& first preferment was two small parishes in the diocese 
of Meath, both together of about the yearly value of 100/* 
These he exchanged for the vicarage of Christchurch in 
the city ofOork, of the same value, but one of the moit 
painful and laborious cures in Ireland. This lie served 
for above twenty years, mostly without any assistant; 
preached twice every Sunday, catechised, and discharged 
all the other duties of bis function. Some ecclesiastical 
jireferments, tenable with bis great cure, were given him 
at different times by the bishops of Cork and Cloyne, which 
at last increased bb income tO' near 400/. per annum. In 
this situation an offer was made him. by government, in 
1699, of the deanery of Derry ; but, although this was a 
dignity, and double in value to all that be had, yet he de« 
clined itfrom a motive of filial piety. He would not se« 
.parate himself from an aged mother, who either could not, 

i Cafe, T»|. l.«»F:«brio. BibL 0]»o«-*Dttpio.— Bruck«r«-«-SaxM OoQinasU 



\ 



M S Y N G E. 

or was unwilling, to be removed. Hemaining therefore 9t 
Corky he was chosen proccor for the chapter^ in the con^ 
vocation called in 1 703. Soon after, the duke of Ormond, 
then lord'lieutenaot of Ireland, gave him the crown's title 
to the deanery of St. Patrick's, in Dublin. But the chap- 
ter disputed this title, and claimed a right of election in 
themselves ; and to assert this right, they chose Dr. Jobn 
Sterne, then chancellor of the cathedral, their dean. The 
title of the crown being thus thought defective, and, after 
a full discussion of the point, found to be so,Dr. King, arch- 
bishop of Dublin, proposed an accommodation, which took 
place, and in consequence Dr. Sterne continued dean, and 
the archbishop gave the chancellorship to Mr. Synge. 

This brought Mr. Synge to Dublin, though withoiit any 
addition of income, or relaxation from labour, for the 
chancellor of St. Patrick's, as such, has the care of the 
parish of St. Werburgh, one of the most populous in Dub- 
lin. This great cure Mr. Synge served for eight years^ 
preaching almost constantly to a crowded audience. Du- 
ring this period he took his degree of D. D. and a new con- 
vocation being summoned in 1713, he was chosen proctor 
for the chapter of St. Patrick's. On Dr. Sterne's pro^ 
mbtion to the see of Dromore, the archbishop of Dublin 
appointed Dr. Synge his vicar-general, in which office he 
continued until he was made bishop of Raphoe, in 1714. 
His distinguished zeal for the revolution, and the Hanover 
succession, which had effectually obstructed his prefer- 
ment in the latter years of queen Anne's reign, now as 
effectually promoted it, for, in 1716, he was made arch- 
bishop of Tuam, over which see he presided about twenty- 
five years. He died at Tuam, July 24, 1741, aged eighty- 
two, and was buried in the church-yard of his own cathedral. 

It is remarkable; of this prelate, that he was the son of 
one bishop ; the nephew of another, namely, George Synge, 
bishop of Cloyne ; and the father of two bishops, Edward^ 
bishop of Elphin, and Nicholas, bishop of Kiilaloe. This 
learned divine, in the course of bis ministry, composed 
and published several excellent treatises f6r the promotion 
of piety and virtue ;'they are written in a sensible, easy, 
and rational manner; and have been so well received by 
the public, as to. go through many editions. His works 
form altogether 4 vols. 12mo, but consist of small tracts, 
which are all printed separately for Rivingtons and others. 
It has been said of archbishop Synge, that his life was aa 



S Y N G 1. »4 , 

exemplary as bU writings were instractive ; and that, ** What 
lie wrote he believed ; and what he believed he practised." ' 
SYRUS PUBLIUS.— See PUBLIUS. 



T. 



Jl ABOUROT (STfiPHEN), a French author, generally 
known by the name of the sieur des Accords, was born in 
1549^ was proctor for the king in the bailiage of Dijon, 
and has obtained a kind of fame by some very eccentric 
liublications. That which is best known, and is said to be 
least exceptionable, though certainly far from being a 
jQQodel of purity, was first published by him at the age of 
eighteen, but revised and much augmented when he was 
about thirty 'five. It is entitled ^^ Les Bigarrures et Touches 
du. Seigneur des Accords ;'' to which some editions add 
'' avec les Apophtegmes du Sieur Gaulard et les escraignes 
Dijonoqises ;'* and the Vest of all (namely, that of Paris, 
in 1614), ^^denouveau augmentees de plusieurs Epitaphes, 
Dialogues, et ingenieuses equivoques." It is in two vo- 
lumes^ 12mo, and contains a vast collection of poems, co- 
nundrums, verses oddly constructed, &c. &c. The author 
died in 1590, at the age of forty >one. Having one day 
sent a sonnet to mademoiselle B^g^r, he wrote at bottom, 
*^ A tons *Accords,'* instead of his name ; the lady in her 
answer called him the Seigneur des Accords, and the pre- 
sident B^gar frequently giving him that title afterwards, 
Tabourot adopted it. The Dictionnaire Historique places 
his birth in 1547, and makes him forty-three years old at 
his death ; but in his own book is a wooden cut of him in- 
scribed, setat. .35, 1584, which fixes his age as we have 
^iven it, if the true time of his death was 1 590.* 

TACHARD (GoY), a Jesuit, and a missionary from 
J^rance to the court. of Siam, who died in Bengal of a con- 

t Harris's «dition of Warc^Biog, Brit« • Diet. Hist 



«S < T A C H A ft D. 

itegioos dUsofder in 1694| is recorded as the anUiof of twd 
tvoyages to Siam, io 2 vols, at Paris, 1686 and 1689. tt 
Uku^-boffeyeTf been since proved, that he was credulous 
in the Extreme ; was much flattered and imposed upon^ 
and has given a most exaggerated account of the power 
and wealth 6f the king of Siam ; other narratives are there-' 
fore preferred to his. He went first with the two French 
ambassadors, the chevalier de Chamont, and the abb£ de 
Choisi. ' 

TACITUS (Caius Cornelius), one of the ^ most emi- 
nent Roman historians, was born, most probably, in the 
year of Rome 809 or S 10, or about 56 of the Christian 
sera ; but the place of his nativity is no where mentioned. 
H/e was the son of Cornelius Tacitus, a procurator ap» 
pointed by the prince to manage the Imperial revenue, and 
govern a province in Belgic Gaul. Where he was edu« 
<eated is not known ; but it is evident that he did not imbibe 
the smallest tincture of that frivolous science, and that vi« 
cious eloquence which in his time debased the Roman ge- 
siius. He most probably was formed upon the plan adopte4 
in the time of the republic ; and, with the help of a sound 
•cbeme of home-discipline, and the best domestic exam^ 
pie, be grew up, in a course of virtue, to that vigour of 
•mind which gives such animation to his writings. His first 
ambition was to distinguish himself at the bar. In the year 
^ef Rome 828, the sixth of Vespasian, being then about 
eighteen, be attended the eminent men of the day, in their 
inquiry concerning the causes of corrupt eloquence, and is 
supposed to have been the author of the elegant dialogue 
concerning oratory, usually printed with bis works. 

Agricola was joint consul with Domitian in the year of 
Rome 830, for the latter part of the yean His name does 
not appear in the Fasti Consulares, because that honour 
was reserved for the consuls who entered on their office 
on the kalends of January, and gave their name tQ tha 
whole year. Tacitus, though not more than twenty, had 
given such an earnest of his future fame, that Agricola 
chose him for his son-in-law, and, thus distinguished, our' 
author began the career of civil preferment. The circum- 
stances of his progress, however, are not precisely mienr 
«tioned, although Mr. Murphy has given us some ingenious 
5K)nJ6€tures to supply this deficie.ucy. He was favoured 

J Diet. Hift. 



TACITUS. «r 

by Vespasian atid by Titui^ and rose to prtfferaieat eveia 
under the tyrant Domttian, It would be difficult, says bit 
biographer, to account for the success ^ a man who iadl^ 
whole tenourof bis conduct preserved an ttobleiiMslie4cha*- 
meter, if he himself had not furnished a "Solution of the 
problem. Agricola, he liells us, had the address te restrain 
the headlong violence of Domitian, by bis prudence, and 
the virtues of moderation : never choosing to imitate the 
zeal of those who, by their intemperance, provoked their 
£sce, and rushed on sure destruction, without renderiny 
any kind of service to their country. The conduct ^ 
Agricola plainly shewed that great men may exist in safety 
under the worst and most barbarous tyranny. We may be 
•ure, that he who commends the mild disposition of his 
father-in-law, bad the prudence to observe the 'same line 
of conduct. Instead of giving umbrage to the prince, and 
provoking the tools of power, he was content to display bis 
eloquence at the bar Domitian, however, certainly ad>- 
vanced our author's fortune. It is no where mentioned 
that Tacitus discharged the office of tribune and asdile, but 
it may be presumed that he passed through these station^ 
to the higher dignity of prsetor, and member of the quin* 
deoemviral college, which he enjoyed at the secular 
l^aaies in the year of Rome 841, the seventh of Dooai^ 
tian. 

In the course of the following year, our author and bis 
wife left the city of Rome, and absented themselves more 
than four years. Some writers, willing to exalt the vinue 
of Tacitus, and aggravate the injustice of Domitian, aa* 
sert, that Tacitus was sent into banishment* This, baw«- 
ever, is mere conjecture, without a shadow of probability 
to support it. Tacitus makes no complaint against DomU 
tian : be mentions no personal injury : he received marks 
of favour, and he acknowledges the obligation. It may, 
therefore, with good reason be affirmed, that prudential 
considerations induced our author to retire from a city, 
where an insatiate tyrant began to throw off ail reserve, and 
wage open war against all who were distinguished by their 
talents and tlieir virtue. 

Tacitus had been four years absent from Rome wben he 
received the news of AgricoU's death, which happened ia 
the year of Rome 846, and of the Christian sera M. A report 
prevailed that be was poisoned by the emperor^s orders ; 
his rapid course of brilliant suacess in Briuin faaviog 

V0L.XXIX. H 



}98 T AC I T U S. 

-alarmed tbe jealousy of Domitian, who dreaded nothing^so 
much tLs a great military character : but Tacitus acknow- 
ledges., that this report rested on no kind of proof. After 
^ this event, however, Tacitus returned to Rome, and from 
•that tiitie saw the beginning of the most dreadful aera, in 
which Domitian broke out with tinbridled fury, and made 
the city of Rome a theatre of blood and horror. At length 
this tyrant fell the victim of a conspiracy, and war succeeded 
%y a virtuous emperor, Nerva, in whose reign, in the year 
of Rome 850, Tacitus succeeded the celebrated Verginios 
Rufus, as consul for the remainder of the year, and for 
that reason, as before noticed, his name is not to be found 
in the Fasti Consulares. In honour of Verginius, the se- 
nate decreed, that the rites of sepulture should be per- 
formed at the public expence. Tacitus delivered the fune- 
ral oration from the rostrum, and the applause of such an 
orator, Pliny says, was sufficient to crown the glory of a 
well-spent life. 

Nerva died Jan. 27, in the year of Rome 851, having,' 
about three months before, adopted Trajan as his successor. 
In that short interval the critics have agreed to place the 
publication of the ** Life of Agricola," by Tacitus, but 
Mr. Murphy assigns very good reasons for referring it to 
the reign of Trajan. The "Treatise on the Manners of 
the Germans,'' it is generally agreed, made its appearance 
in the year of Rome 851. The " Dialogue concerning 
Oratory" was an earlier production, and probably was 
published in the reign of Titus or Domitian, who are both 
celebrated in that piece, for their talents and their love of 
polite literature. 

The friendship that subsisted between Tacitus and the 
younger Pliny, and which is well known, was founded on 
the consonance of their studies and their virtues. When 
Pliny says that a good and virtuous prince can never be 
sincerely loved, unless we shew our detestation of the 
tyrants that preceded him, we may be sure that Tacitus 
vras of the same opinion. They were both convinced that 
"K striking picture of former tyranny ought to be placed in 
contrast to the felicity of the times that succeeded. Pliny 
acted up to his own idea in the panegyric of Trajan, where 
we firtd a vein of satire on Domitian running through the 
whole piece. It appears in his letters, that he had some 
thoughts of writing history on the same principle, but bad 
pot resolution to- undertake that arduous task. Tacitus had 
more vigour of mind: he tljought more intensely, and 



TACITUS. 99 

with deeper penetration, than his friend. We find that he 
had formed, at an early period, the plan of his history, 
and resolved to execute it, in order to shew the horrors of 
slavery, and the debasement of the Roman people through 
the whole of Domitian's reign. From the year of Rome 
853,' when along with Pliny, he pleaded in the famous 
cause of Priscus, the proconsul of Africa, and in behalf 
of those who bad been oppressed by him, Tacitus appears 
to have dedicated himself altogether to his history. At 
what time it was published is uncertain, but it was in some 
period of the reign of Trajan, who died in the year of Rome 
St70, A. D. 117. In this work he began from the accession 
of Galba, and ended with the death of Domitian, i. e. from 
the year of Rome 822 to 849, a period of twenty-seven 
years. Vossius says that the whole work consisted of no 
less than thirty books ; but, to the great loss of the literary 
world, we have' only four books, and the beginning of the 
fifth. In what remains, we have little after the accession 
of Vespasian. The reign of Titus is totally lost, and Do- 
mitian has escaped the vengeance of the historian's pen. 

The " Annals" followed, including a period of fifty-four 
years, from the year 767 to the death of Nero in 821; 
but of these have perished, part of the fifth book, contain- 
ing three years of Tiberius, the entire four years of Cali- 
gula, the first six of Claudius and the last two of Nero. 
Thestyleof these "Annals," Mr. Murphy observes, differs 
from that of the History, which required stately periods, 
ponip of expression, and harmonious sentences. The '^An- 
nals'' are written in a strain more subdued and temperate; 
every phrase is a maxim ; the narrative goes on with ra- 
pidity ; the author is sparing of words, and prodigal of sen- 
timent; the characters are drawn with a profound know- 
ledge of human nature, and when we see them figuring on 
the stage of public business, we perceive the internal spring 
of their actions ; we see their motives at work,' and of 
course are prepared to judge of their conduct. 

Tacitus intended, if his life and health continued, to 
review the reign of Augustus, in order to detect the arts 
by which the old constitution was overturned to make way 
for the government of a single ruler. This, in the hands 
of such a writer, would have been a curious portion' of 
history ; but it is probable he did not live to carry his de- 
sign into execution. The time of his death is not men- 
tioned by any skncient author. It seems, however, highly 

H2 



J < w -> 



100 TACITUS. , 

probable that he died in the reign of Trajan, and we maj 
reasonably conclude that he survived his friend Pliny. 
The commentators assume it as a certain fact, that he must 
have left issue, because they find that M. Claudius Tacitus, 
who was created^ emperor in A. D. 275, deduced his pedi- 
gree from, our historian ; and Vopiscus tells us that he 
ordered the image of Tacitus, and a complete collection of 
his works, to be placed in the public archives, with a spe- 
cial direction that twelve copies should be made every year, 
at the public expence. But when the mutilated state, in 
which our author has come down to posterity is considered^ 
there is reason to believe that the orders of this prince, 
who reigned only six months, were never executed. 

Without entering on the merits of Tacitus as a historian, 
which have been the subject of very extensive discussion, 
we may refer to Mr. Murphy's comprehensive view of his 
life and genius. It is universally acknowledged that his 
works are among the most precious remains of antiquity, 
and it is not much less universally acknowledged that he 
exhibits the defects as well as excellencies ef the historian. 
The first edition of bis works was published at Venice by 
John de Spira in 1468, containing the last six books of the 
" Annals," four books of the " History," with part of the 
fifth, the treatise on the ^' Manners of the Germans,'' and 
the " Dialogue concerning Oratory," which we see has 
always been printed with Tacitus's works, although many 
critics have doubted whether it was hist Another edition 
was published in a year or two after by Franciacus Puteo* 
lanus^ more correct and elegant than the former, with the 
addition of the life of Agricola. The first six books ot the 
^^ Annals" had not then been found, but diligent search 
being made in all parts of Eur<!>pe, they were at length dis» 
covered in the monastery of Corby in Westphalia. Leo X. 

' purchased this treasure, and, under his patronage, BeroaU 
dus, in 15 i 5, gave the world a complete edition of the 
whole, the manuscript having beeo deposited in the Flo- 
rentine library. The principal subsequent editions were 

' tlmse of Froben, 1519, 1533, and 1544, fol.; several by 
Lipsius, 1574 — 1619 ; by Freinsheim, 163B and 1664, Svo; 

' Elzivir, 1634, 1640, 2 vols. 12mo; the Variorum, 1672 awd 

• 1685, 2 vols. Svo; by Rickius, . 1687, 2 vols. 12mo; by 
Gronovius, 1721, 2 vols. 4to; by Mrs. Grierson of l>ubUii, 
1730, 3 vols. Svo; by Ernest, 1752, 1772, 2 vols. Svo; by 
Lallemajid, 1760, 3vols..l2mo; by Broti^, 1771, 4 vols. 
4to; byCrellius, 1779 — 92, 4 vols. Svo; by Homer, 1790, 



TACITUS. 101 

I 

4 vols. Svo; at Edinburgh, 1796, 4 vols, 4to and dvo; 
and by Oberlin, 1801, 2 vols. «vo. Brotier's, undoubtedly 
the best edition, is the model of all that followed. There 
have been translations of Tacitus in most European Ian* 
guages. His whole works have been published in English, 
with large political discourses annexed, by Mr. Gordon. 
The style of Gordon is, however, so vicious and affected, 
that it is impossible to read him with patience ; and Ta- 
citus has lately found a much more elegant and judicious . 
translator in Mr. Murphy, whose work in 4 vols. 4to, was- 
published in 1793, and has met with very general appro- 
bation. There have been in all, four English translatiols 
of Tacitus ; that of Greenway and sir Henry Saville in the 
reign of Elizabeth ; that performed by Dry den and others; 
the translation by Gordon ; and that of Murphy.* 

TACQUET (Andrew), a Jesuit of Antwerp, known for 
his skill in the mathematical sciences, published, among o^her 
things, a good treatise on astronomy ; an edition of Eu- 
'Clid's Elements, with the application of the problems and 
theorems to practical use. In matters of astronomy, the 
prejudices of the times seem to have prevented him from 
more effectually defending the system of Copernicus. He 
died in 1660. His works were published collectively, at 
Antwerp, in 1669 and 1707, in one volume, folio.* 

TAFFI (Akdrea), an ingenious artist, born at Florence 
in 1213, was the person who introduced into Italy the art 
of designing in Mosaic, having learned i^ from spme Greek 
artists, who were employed in the church of S. Mark at 
Venice. The chief of these artists was a man whose name 
was ApoUonius. With him Taffi became associated, and 
they worked together at Florence, with great success. The 
most famous work of Taffi was a dead Christ, in a ch^p^l 
at Fk>rence ; it was seven cubits long, and executed with 
abundance of care. He died in 1294, at the age of eighty 
one.* 

TALBOT (John), a name mentioned with distinguished 
honour in the English annals, was second son to Richard 
lord Talbot, and was born at Blechmore in Shropshire, in 
the reign of king Richard II. Hrs first summons to parlia- 
ment was in the eleventh year of the reign of king Henry 
IV. He married Maud, the eldest of the two daughters 

1 Lift prafijifd to Mnrphy'i traBiladoo. 

' Mpreri.— Diet. Hist. — Hutton's Diet, i^ew edit.— 'Phiipt. Transact* vol. lU. 

* Bullaffl'a Academte des Sei«n«es.— Diet. Hiat. 



102 Talbot., 

4 
/ 

and coheiresses of sir Thomas Nevil, by Joan, sole daugh- . 
ter and heiress to William lord Furnival. In the first, 
year of Henry V. he was committed to the Tower, but for 
what reason we are not informed. He was, however, soon 
released, and constituted, in Feb. following, lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, and had letters of protection sent him thither 
by the name of sir John Talbot, knight, lord Furnival. 
While in this office, he took Donald Mac Murghe, an Irish 
rebel of considerable note and powers, and afterwards 
brought him prisoner to the Tower of London. 

Although we capnot fix the exact time of his going to 
France, it appears that he attended Henry V. at the siege 
of Caen in 1417 ; and the following year, in conjunction 
with Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, lord Talbot 
took the strong castle of Dumfront : and was afterwards 
present at the siege of Rouen, on all which occasions be 
was esteemed one of the bravest of those officers who had 
contributed to the conquest of France. About 1422 we 
find him again in England, employed in suppressing some 
riots, in the counties of Salop, Hereford, &c. : but he re- 
turned again to t\^e continent before the year 1427, at which 
time he regained possession of the city of Mans, which had 
been a considerable time in the hands of the English, but 
bad in part been retaken by the French, who were now at- 
tacked with such impetuosity, that all their troops were 
either kiUed or taken prisoners. The unexpected recovery 
of this important place, the capital of the province of Maine, 
as it was entirely x)wing to lord Talbot, contributed not a 
little to encrease his military fame. He then made himself 
master of the town of Laval, and having joined the earl of 
Warwick in the siege of Pontorson, carried that place too, 
which had before been the grand obstacle ,in preventing 
the regent, the duke of Bedford, from carrying the war be- 
yond the Loire. On its surrender, the earl of Warwick 
appointed lord Talbot and lord Ross governors of it. 

In 1428, the earl of Warwick having returned to. Eng- 
land, on being appointed governor to the young king 
Henry, Thomas Montacute, earl of Salisbury, arrived in 
France, and, accompanied by lord Talbot, sir John Fastolf 
(See Fastolf) and others, undertook fche memorable siege 
of Orleans, in the course of which lord Talbot exhibited 
such striking proofs of uncommon valour, that his very 
name would strike terror into the French troops. The 
siege was long cj^rried on with great valour on the part of 



T A L B p T. l(Ml 

the. Frj^Qch^ and th.e English, had much.rffispn to thiolc 
that eyea if it concluded in their favour^ the victory would 
be dearly purchased. They continued however, to be ap- 
parently advancing towards the accomplishment of this im- 
portant object, when the relative positions of the besiegers 
and the .besieged began to assume a new appearance, ia 
consequence of one of the. most singular occurrences that 
is to be met with in history, namely the intervention of the 
celebrated maid of Orleans^ Joan of Arc, who^e actions 
have been already detailed. (See J[oan.) It .may suffice 
here to add, that when this heroine, whose valour was at- . 
tributed to supernatural agency, had spread dejection 
throughout the English army, the earl of Suffolk raised the 
siege, and retreated with all imaginable precaution. He 
afterwards retired with a detachment of his. army to Jer-* 
geau, where he .was besieged by the French, attended by; 
Joan of Arc, and, the place being taken,..his lordship waa 
m^de prisoner. 

After the siege of Orleans was raised, lord Talbot re-t 
tired to Meun, which he. fortified, and then seized another 
town in the neighbourhood, and threw a reinforcement into 
Bangenci, and on the disaster of Suffolk, he succeeded to 
tb^ command of the remainder of the British troops. He 
was now however doomed to sustain a fatal reverse in the 
bajttie of Patay, which the French, encouraged by their en-' 
thusiasm, began in so sudden a manner that the English 
had no time to form themselves, and were still so possessed 
with the opinion that their enemies were assisted by a su^ 
pernatural .power, that all the efforts of lord Talbot were 
insufficient to make them sustain the attack of the enemy. 
He did all that became a brave man and an able general,, 
and his enemies were astonished at his valour,' for in con* 
junction with the lords Scales and Hungerford, and sir 
Thomas Rempstone, he sustained almost the whole fury of. 
the French attack; but the general rout of his army was at 
last conppleted by the French with great slaughter, and lord/ 
Talbot, who was wounded in the neck, was taken prisoner, 
together with some other officers of distinction. 

Lord Talbot had sustained a tedious captivity of three 
years and a half in the hands of the French, when the duke 
of Bedford found means to have him ex^changed, Feb. 12, 
HS3, for Xaintrailles, a French officer of great reputation y 
and after p&y^ng a short visit to England, his lordship, re- 
suj(Q.ed^ bisi cojniiiafid in France, and Joan of Arc^s magic . 



ia4 TALBOT. 

hftving no longer any influence^ »he having, aeoordliig lo 
the common accountSi been p»l to death as an iroposter^ 
or a witch. Lord Talbot, whose name was stilt an object of 
terror, extended bis conquests, and took several fortifiedl 
places, with bis accustomed skill and bravery. lo some 
instances he is accused of having treated the garrisona 
with improper severity, and perhaps the long duration of 
his captivity might bave contributed to increase his ani- 
mosity against the enemy. Among the places he took 
were the castle of Joigny, Beaumont upon the Oise, Cret), 
Pont de Maxeme, Neufville, Rouge Maison, Crespi in Va-* 
lois, Clermont, St. Dennis, and Gisors. One of his exploits 
was performed in a singular manner. In the beginning of 
1437, the weather was so extremely cold, that the generak 
on both sides could not undertake any regular operation in 
tike field, yet even this lord Talbot contrived to turn to ad- 
vantage. He collected a body of troops, and putting white 
cloths, or shirts, over their other clothes, marched with 
them all night, and brought them to the very walls of Pon- 
toise, unperceived by the garrison, who did not distinguisli 
them from the snow with which the ground was covered. 
They then mounted the walls by means of scaling-ladders, 
and seizing the chief gates, lord Talbot made himself mas* 
ter of this important place, which exposed the Parisians to 
the continual incursions of the English garrison up to the 
^^ry g&^B of Paris. 

His next conquests were Harfleur, Tankerville, Crotoy, 
where he defeated the troops of the duke of Burgundy,, 
who had deserted the English interest, Langueville in N^- 
mandy, Carles, and Manille, and performed feats of great 
bravery, when the French attempted to recover Pontoive. 
In truth, all the reputation which the English arms in 
France stilt retained appears to have been almost whoity^. 
owing to the abilities, courage, and activity of lord Tattot : 
and in consideration of so great merit, be was advanced to 
the dignity of earl of Shrewsbury, his patent of creation 
bearing date May 20, 1442. In the following year, he 
was constituted one of the ambassadors to treat of peace 
with Charles VII. king of France ; and the yea/ after, the 
king acknowledging himself indebted to him in the sum of 
10,426/. 4tS, and a farthing, in consideration of his {great s^r-> 
vices, as well to king Henry V. (his father) as to himself, 
.. both in France and Normandy, granted^ that after the sam 
ef twenty- one thousand pounds, in which he stood indebted 



T A L B O T* 101 

«ntp Henry the cardinal bisbop of Winchefltery were paid,* 
he should receive, y^^rly, four hundred marks out of the 
eurtoma and dotiet issuing from the port of Kingston 
upon HuIL He was, the same year, again retaiiied to serre 
the king in his wars of France, vitii one baron, two knights, 
fooraeore and sixteen men at arms, and three hundrea 
archers, the king having given him ten thousand pounds in 
band. 

IiK]444 he was again constituted lieutenant of Ireland, 
where he landed in 1446, and soon after held a parliament 
at Trim, in which several good laws were enacted for the 
security of the English. On July 17, the same year, hav- 
ing then the titles of earl of Shrewsbury, lord Talbot, Fur* 
nival, and Strange, ** in consideration of his great servicei 
and blood spilt in the wars ; as also considering the devas- 
tation and spoil done iif the county and city of AVaterford, 
and barony of Dungarvan, in the realm of Ireland, by se- 
veral hostilities of the rebels; to the end that the said 
realm of Ireland might thenceforth be better defended and 
preserved, he was advanced to the title and dignity of 
earl of Wexford and Waiterford ; having the said city and 
county of Waterford, with the castles, honour, lands, and 
barony of Dungarvan, granted to him, with jura regalia^ 
wreck, &c. from Yooghal to Waterford, to ho)d to himself, 
and the heirs male of bis body ; and that he and they should 
thenceforth be stewards of that realm, to do and execute 
all things to that office appertaining, as fully ^s the steward 
- of England did perform." Which patent was granted by 
writ of privy. seal and authority of parliament. He returned 
to England the next year, leaving his brother Richard TaU 
'bot, archbishop of Dublin, his deputy. 

In 1450, being again in the wars of France, where the 
good success of the English then more and more decline, 
he was at the surrender of Falaize, and quitted that place 
on honourable terms. In 1451 he was made general of the 
English fleet, then going out, having four thousand soldiers 
with him in that expedition; and the year following, 1452, 
lieutenant of the duchy of Aquitaine, having under him 
. these captains of his men at arms and archers, viz. John 
' VisGoant Lisle (his eldest son by his second wife), sir Ro- 
bert Hungerford, lord Molins, sir Roger Camoys, sir John 
Lisle, and the bastard of Somerset : and in consideration 
of his great charge in that high employment, had a grant 
of the third«^ and third of the thirds, which were reserved 



i06 T A L B O T. 

to the. king upon bis retainer therein. He then marched 
thither ; took Bourdeaux, and put a garrison into it, which 
success caused several remote cities to submit to his autho* 
rity. Hearing that the French bad besieged Chastilion, 
he advanced thither, and gave them battle, on July 20;, 
but the event of that day (though for a while it stood doubt-^ 
ful) at length proved fatal to the English; this renowned 
general being killed by a cannon ball, and his whole 
army routed. 

He died on Ju)y 20, .1453, aged eighty, as the inquisi* 
tion after his death shews ; but the inscription, on a noble 
monument, erected to his memory at Whitchurch, in. 
Shropshire, (to which his body was removed from Roan) 
makes his death on the 7th of that month. 

He was first buried at Roan in France, together with his. 
eldest son, and the inscription for him is thus translated : 
^'Here lyeth the right noble knt. John Talbot, ^irl of- 
Shrewsbury, earl of Wexford, Waterford, and Valence, 
lord Talbot of Goderich and Orchenfield, lord Strange of 
Blackmere, lord Verdon of Alton, lord. Cromwell of Wing- 
field, lord Lovetofte of Worsop, lord Furnival of Sheffield, 

. lord Faulconbridge, knight of the noble orders of the garter, 
St. Michael, and the golden fleece, great marshal to Henry 

VI. of his realm of France,, who died in the battle of Bour- 

deaux, 1453/' 

It has been observed of this gallant soldier that he bad> 

been victorious in forty several battles and dangerous skir->^ 

mishes. He was usually called the Achilles of England. 

Camden, .in his ^^ Remains,*' says that his sword was <^not 

long since found in the river of Dordon, and sold by a pea. 

sant to an armourer of Bourdeaux, with this inscription; 

but pardon (he adds) the Latin, for it was not his, but his 

camping chaplain's : 

" Sum Talboti m. mi. c. xliii. 
Pko vincere inimico meo/** 

TALBOT (Chables), lord high chancellor of Great 
Britain, descended from the noble family of Talbot, was 
the son of William*, bishop of Durham, and was born «in 

1 Coll.iiis'i Peerage.*- MoD8trelet*s Cbreiv — ^Kapin's Hist.— British Biogra- 
pby, &c. 

* William Talbot, bisbop of Dor- second earl of Shrewsbury, and was 

bam, was descended from sir Gilbert grandson of Sherrington Talbot of SaU 

Ta!bot of Grafton, knight banneret, warp in Worcestershire, esq. and son 

and Itnight of the most noble order of William Talbot of Stourton castle 

of the garter, third son of John the in Staffordshire, hyt Mary daughter * 



T A L B O T. 107 

168.4. Id. 1701 he was admitted a gentleman commoner 
of^ Oriel .college, . Oxford, where he proceeded A.B. in 
1704) at three years standing, a privilege allowed him as 
the son of a bishop. In November of the same year, he 
was elected a fellow of All Souls, but voided this by mar- 
rying, in a few years, Cecily, daughter and heir of Charles 
Matthews, of Castle Munich, in the county of Glamorgan, 
leisq. and great grand-daughter, by. the mother's side, of 
the famous judge Jenkins. 

From his first admission into the university, he had fixed 
upon the law as a profession, and leaving Oxford before he 
proceeded farther in arts, was admitted a member of the 
society of Lincoln's-inn, . and was. called to the bar a con-^ 
siderable time before his course of reading was expired. 
He set. out with great success, and in 1719 was chosen 
member of parliament for Tregony in Cornwall. In April 
17.26 he. was made solicitor-general, and likewise was 
chosen member for the city of Durham, probably assisted 
by his father's interest, who was then bishop of that see. 
In Nov. 1733, George IJ. delivered to him the great seal, 
and he was then sworn of his majesty's privy council, and 
likewise constituted lord high chancellor, and created a 
baron of Great Britain. by the title of lord Talbot, baron of 
Hensol, in the county of Glamorgan. On these promotions, 
he resigned the chancellorship of the diocese of Oxford^ 
which had been given him by his father, when bishop of 

of Thomas Doughty of Whittiogton Durham^ of which county he was made 

id Worcestershire, esq. He was born lord lieutenant and custos rotulorum. 

at StourtOQ castle in 1659, and in the He died October the 10th. 1730. H*; 

beginning of 1674 entered a gentle* marrfed Catharine, daughter of 

man commoner of Oriel college in King, esq. one of the aldermen of Lon- 

Ozford. On October the 16th, 1677, don. He had eight sons, and several 

he took the degree of bachelor of arls, daughters ; of whom those who lived 

and June the ^3d, 1680, that of mas- to maturity were, 1. Charles, the. 

ier. He afterwards entered into holy lord Chancellor. ^. Edward, archdea- 

orders, and in the reign of king James con of Berks, who died in 1790. 3^ 

II. preached and acted with great zeal Sherrington, a captain of foot. 4. 

againsi popery. lu April 1691 he was Henry, one of the commissioners of 

nominated to the deanery of Worces- the salt office. 5. Henrietta Maria, 

ter, in the room of Dr. George Hickes, married to Or. Charles Trimnel, late 

ejected for refusing the oaths to king bishop of Winchester. 6. Catharine, 

William and queen Mary; and in married to Exton Sayer, LL.D. chan- 

1699 was advanced to the bishopric of > cellor of Durham, and surveyor of his 

Oxford, to which he was consecrated majesty's land revenues. There are 

September the 24th, having leave to in print two' speeches of his in the 

hold bis deanery in commendam. In • House of Lords, one in favour of the 

1715 he was translated to the bishop- union between England and .Scotland, 

ric of Sarum, in which he was confirmed and the other upon the trial of Dr. 

April the 83d. In September ,1722 Sacheverell. He published likewise a 

htf.wai translated^ t» the bishopric of .Tolume of sermons in 8vo. 



lOS TALBOT; 

ihatsM; and an August 1735, the honorary degree of doc«- 
tor of lavfB was conferred upon him by that university. He 
diedy in the height of his fame and usefulness, of an ill- 
ness of only five days, Feb. 14, 1737, at his house in Lin« 
coln*a4nn«>fields, in the fifty«third year of his age. He 
was interred at Harrington in Gloucestershire, where his 
estate was, in the chancel of the church. 

It has been said of lord chancellor Talbot, that eloquence 
never afforded greater charms from any orator, than when 
the public attention listened to his sentiments, delivered 
with the most graceful modesty ; nor did wisdom and 
knowledge ever support it with more extensive power, nor 
integrity enforce it with greater weight. In apprehension 
he to hr exceeded the common rank of men, that he in- 
stantaneously, or by a kind of intuition, saw the, strength 
or imperfection of any argument ; and so penetrating was 
his sagacity, that the most intricate and perplexing maxes 
of the law could never so involve and darken the truth, m 
to con<ieal it from his discernment. As a member of each 
.house of parliament, no man ever had a higher deference 
paid to his abilities, or more confidence placed in his in- 
flexible public spirit; and so excellent was his temper, so 
candid his disposition in debate, that he never offended 
those whose arguments he opposed. When his merit, 
and the unanimous suffrage of his country, induced hi9 
prince to intrust him with the great seal, bis universal affa- 
bility, his easiness of access, his humanity to the distress, 
which his employment too frequently presented to his view, 
and his great dispatch of business, engaged to him the 
affection and almost veneration of all who approached him. 
And by constantly delivering with his decrees the reasons 
upon which they were founded, his court was a very in- 
structive school of equity, and bis decisions were generally 
attended with such conviction to the parties, against whose 
interest they were made, that their acquiescence in them 
commonly prevented any farther expence. As no servile 
expedient raised him to power, his country knew h^ would 
use none to support hinoself in it. . He was constant and 
regular in his devotions both in bis family and in public. 
His piety was exalted, rational, anc^ unaffected. He was 
firm in maintaining the true interest and legal rights of the 
church ^of England, but an enemy to persecution. When 
be could obtain a short interval from business, the pompous 
formalities of his station were thrown aside y bis table w»s 



TALBOT. 10^ 

a scene where witdom and science dhonei enlivened nod 
adorned with elegance of wit. There was joined the ut«> 
most freedom of dispute with the highest good breedings 
and the vivacity of mirth with primitive simplicity of man* 
ners. When he had leisure for exercise, be delighted ia 
fieid'Sports ; and even in those trifles shewed, that he was 
formed to excel in whatever he engaged ; and had he in- 
dtilged himself more in them, especially at a time when be 
found his health unequal to the excessive fatigues of his 
post, the nation might not yet have deplored a loss it could 
ill sustain. But though he was removed at a season of life 
when others but begin to shine, be might justly be said, 
^^ satis & ad vitam & ad gloriam vi&isse ;^' and his death 
united in one general concern a nation, which scarce ever 
unanimously agreed in any other particular ; and notwith- 
standing the warmth of our political divisions, each party 
endeavoured to outvie the other in a due reverence to bis 
momory.' 

' TALBOT (Catherine), a very ingenious lady, the only 
child of Edward Talbot, second son of William, bishop of 
Durham, and nephew to the chancellor, was born in May 
1720. She was born five months after the decease of her 
' father, who died at the e^rly age of twenty-nine, and being 
a younger brother, lefi his widow in a situation very in« 
adequate to his rank in life. She was the daughter of the 
vev. George Martyn, prebendary of Lincoln^ aod had been 
*1barried to Mr. Talbot only a few months. Happily, how- 
ever, for her, the kind attentions of a dear and intimate ^ 
friend were not wanting at that critical period. CathariaCt 
siMer to Mr. Benson, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, who 
bad been the companion of her early youth, and whose 
brother was upon an equally intimate footing with Mr. Tal- 
bot, was residing with her at the time of his death, and was 
her great support in that heavy afBiction ; and they conti- 
nued to live together and bestow all their joint attention 
upon the infant Catherine. But before she was ive years 
of age, this establishment was broken up by the marriage 
of Miss Benson to Mr. Seeker, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury (See Secker), but then rector of the valuable 
living of Houghton-le- Spring in Durham. Mr. Secker, 
mindful of his obligations to Mr. Edward Talbot, as men- 
tioned in our account of him, immediately joined with his 



I Oca. Oict«-BMf . Brtr. 



no "f A L B O T. 

wife in the request that Mrs. and Miss Talbot would from 
that time become a part of bis faintly. The offer was ac- 
oepted) and they never afterwards separated; and upon 
Mrs. Secker^s death, in 1748, they still continued with him, 
and took the management of his domestic concerns. 

Besides her mother's instructions, which were chiefly 
confined to religious principles. Miss Talbot enjoyed the ' 
benefit of a constant intercourse with the eminent divine 
with whom they lived ; and his enlightened mind soon dis- 
covered the extent of her early genius, and was delighted 
to assist in its improvement. Hence, although she never 
studied the learned languages, unless perhaps a little Latin, 
she reaped all the advantages of Mr. Seeker's deep and 
extensive learning, of his accurate knowledge of the Scrip- 
tures, and of his critical and unwearied research into the 
sciences and languages more immediately connected with 
that important study. Yet though so much attention was 
bestowed on serious pursuits^^ the lighter and more orna- 
mental parts of female education wer6 not neglected ; and 
for the acquirena'ent of these there was abundant oppor- 
tunity in the different situations in which Mr. Seeker's ra- 
pid progress in the church placed him. From the time that 
she was seven years old, she lived, almost constantly, in 
or near large cities ; and was consequently enabled to ac- 
quire every useful branch of education, and all elegant ac- 
complishments'. She made some progress in music, but 
much more in drawing and painting in water-colours. Nor 
were the sciences and modern languages neglected ; she 
had a competent knowledge of French and Italian, and late 
in life she taught herself German. She studied also geo- 
graphy and astronomy with much care and attention, and 
her master in the latter of these sciences, a Mr. Wright, was 
the m6ans of her becoming acquainted with the celebrated 
Mrs: Carter, with whoni she formed a strict friendship, the 
amiable turn of which may be seen in their correspondence 
lately published. Miss Talbot formed also other friendly 
connections with persons of m^rit and rank, vvho highly 
esteemed her. 

At what age^he began to compose does not appear ; but 
certainly it was early in life, for her poem on reading 
Hammond's elegies was written when she was not more 
than twenty- two years of age; and though not one of the 
best of them, it shows that she was familiar with composi-* 
tion, and that her powers of mind had been accustomed to 



TALBOT. Ill 

^exertion. Tfafere are no dates, however, to her different 
productions, and therefore we cannot trace her progress in 
composition or sentiment, nor could she be prevailed upon 
by her friends either to arrange her papers, or to piiblish 
them herself. This is much to be regretted, for the world 
has been sufficiently inclined to do justice to Miss Talbot's 
talents; and few books of moral and religious instruction 
have had a greater sale, and gone through more editions 
than the little posthumous volume of her miscellaneous 
•works. Of the " Reflections on the Days of the Week," 
published separately, upwards of 25,O0Q copies have been 
sold ; and of the collection of her works, that now before 
us (1812, 8vo) is the seventh edition. This is a circum- 
stance not less creditable %o the age, than it is to the author ; 
and it also proves the correctness of her friend's judgment 
into whose hands they were put by Mrs. Talbot. Mrs. Car* 
ter published them upon h^r own account and at her own 
hazard, and the event shewed that she bad formed a just 
isstimate both of their merit and the reception they would 
meet with. 

But Miss Talbot ought not to be considered by posterity 
merely as an author. Great as her talents, and brilliant as 
her accomplishments were, she possessed qualities of in- 
finitely more importance, both to herself and society. Her 
piety was regular, constant, and fervent. It was the spring 
of all her actions, as its reward was the object of all her 
hopes. ' iHer charity, including the whole meaning of the 
word, in its apostolic sense, was extended to all her ac- 
quaintance, rich as well as poor ; and to the latter she 
gave, not only such * relief as her circumstances would al- 
low (for she was never rich) but what was infinitely more 
valuable to her, no small portion of her time. There is 
reason to believe that she was often Dr. Seeker's almoner, 
for there can be no doubt that he, who when he became 
arqhbishop of Canterbury, constantly bestowed in charity 
' upwards of 2,000/. a year, had been equally bountiful be- 
fore in proportion to his income. 

On the death of this affectionate friend in 1768, who 
bequeathed Mrs. Talbot and hier daughter about 400/. a 
year, they removed from Lambeth-palace to a hou^e in 
Grosvenor-street, but in the following year the declining 
state of Miss Talbot^s health obliged them to leave London 
for a cooler and better air. Their kind and constant friend, 
the late marchioness Grey, lent them for this purpose her 



lit T A L B T. 

hou^e at Ricbmood, togeiber with everj thing she could 
think of to contributiB to their comfort or amusement^ aad 
from this delightful retreat Miss Talbot only returoed io 
time to breathe her last in her mother's house in town^ 
Jan. 9, 1770, in the forty-ninth year of her age. H^ 
.chief disorder, added to a very weak, and now completely 
worn-out constitution, was a cancer, which had beqo £^ 
three years preying upon her enfeebled frame* 

These particulars we have extracted from an elegant 
memoir of her life prefixed to the last edition of ^pr ^orka 
by ^he rev« Montague Pennington, but must refer lo^il;.fpr 
much interesting information respecting Misfi Talbot^^ 
amiable character and disposition* Her works consist of 
** Reflections on the Seven Days of the week;'* ^' Essayf 
on various subjects;** '^ Letters to a friend on a Futufie 
Stat^ •'* " Dialogues ;'? " Prose Pastorals ;", " Imitationa 
of Ossian ;" /^^Aflegoriea ^ and " Poetry*'' ' . 

TALBOT (Pfi^ER), a Roman catholic writer, of coc^si* 
derabje <;elebrity in ^is day, was the son pf sir WilU^ift 
Talbot, and was born in 1620, of an ancient family in tjm 
county of Dublin. He wa« brother to colonel Richard 
Talbot, commonly called, 8||bout the court of Englaii^dp 
^< Lying Dick Talbot,'* whom James IL creaied diike ^ 
Tyrconnell, and advaiuced t^ tb^ tieotenaiicj of IreJan^. 
Peter was received into the society of ibe Jesuits in Port^ 
gal in 1635, and after studying philosophy and divinity^ 
Went into holy orders at Rome, whence he returned tp 
Portugal, and afterwards to Antwerp, where be read lec^* 
tures on moral theology. He was supposed to. be thf.prer- 
son who, in 1656, reconciled Charles IL then at CciQgjf^ 
to the popish religion, and Charles is reported to hav^ 
sent hioi secretly to Madrid tfO^ intifnate to the c)0ttrt4lf 
Spain bis conversion. He wa§ also sent by bis auperiora lo 
JlnglaiDd to promote the interests of the Romisfa churcli| 
which he appears to ha'ge attempted iu ayery singular waj^ 
^y paying bis court to Cromwell^ at whose funeral be -a^ 
tended as one of the mourners, and even joined Lambeit 
io. opposing general Monk's declaration for the king. He 
Aed^b^refore at the restoration, but was enabled to retttrh 
Uie year following, when the king married the infanta of 
pQi:ltttgal, and be became one of the priests who officiated 
io ber family. His intriguing disposition, however, created 

> Life AS above.— -Mrs. Carter's Life and Corresp«ndeii«e.. 



tome confusipn at court, and be was ordef^d to d(*part the 
kingdom. The Jesuits, too, among whom he bad bete 
educated, thought him too busy anj^ factious to be re- 
tained in their society, and it . is supposed that by theic 
interest pope Clement IX. was prevailed upon to dispense 
with his vows, and to advance him to tb^ titular. archbishop-^ 
ric of Dublin, in 1669. On his return to Ireland he( 
recommenced his services in behalf of the church of ^Rome, 
by excommunicating those regulars and seculars of his 
^wn persuasion who had signed a testimony of their loyalty 
to the king* His ambition and turbulence led him also to 
<|Qarrel with Plunket, the titular primate, a quiet man^ 

Sver whom be claimed authority, pretending that the king 
ad appointed him overseer of all the clergy of Ireland ; 
huiT when this authority was demanded, he never could pro* 
dace it. In 1670, when lord Berkeley landed as lord lieu- 
tenant, Talbot waited upon him, and being courteously 
received, had afterwards the presamption t^ ippeaic befoi^, 
the council in his archiepiscopal x:b.aracter, a thing without 
S precedent sinee the reformation. He was, however, dis<* 
toissed without punTshment \ but when the popish plot was 
^covered in England in 1678, he was imprisoned in the 
castle of Dublin, pn^ suspicion of being concerned in it^ 
wd^'^died there in 1680: He was a man of talents and 
learning, bi& ^iaiiru^ mibitioQs, and turbulent. Sotwell, 
Harris, and Dod J mive enumerated several of his publica* 
iions, which, says. Dodd, are plausible, and. generally in 
defence of the Jesuits, but some of them are virulent 
against the English church. ^ 

Talbot (Robert), one of our earliest antiquaries, was 
born at Thorp, in Northamptonshire, and was educated at 
Winchester school, whence he was admitted of New college, 
Oxford, in 1525. He left the university in 1530, but 
took the degree of D. D. either there or in some other 
place. In 1541 he was made a prebendary of Wells, and 
April, 9, 1547, treasurer of the cathedral church of Nor- 
wich, which he possessed at the time of his death, Aug. 
27, 1558. He was a very diligent searcher into the anti- 
quities of his country, and bis collections proved of great 
service to Le}and, Bale, Caius, Camden, and others.' He 
aho furnished archbishop Parker with many Saxon bocjc^f 
some of which he had from Dr. Owen, physician to Henry 

1 Harris'i edition of Ware.^X)oda'» Cb. Hist. 

VOL.XXIX. i ^ 



U4 TALBOT, 

VIII. Ue left bis MSS. to New college. He was the fint 
of our countrymen who illustrated Antoninus's Itinerary 
with various readihgrg and notes, which were of great use 
to Camden, and are printed by Heame at the end of the 
third volunde of Leland's Itinerary from a MS. in the Bod-^ 
leian library, which belonged to John Stowe> and is in his 
handwriting; but Talbot's notes reach only to the sixth 
ken Two other copies are in Bene^t college library ; a 
fd'urih is in Caius college library, with additions by Dr.. 
Caius ; and a fifth in the Cotton library. Camden followed 
bis settlement of the stations in most instances, but Wil^- 
}iam Burton frequently differs from him in his ** Commen* 
tary otfi* Antoninus his Ittnerary/* His other MSS. are ^ Au- 
inm ex Stercore ; vei de iEnigntaticis et Prophettcis,'' in^ 
, C!orpus college, Oxford ; and *^ De cbartis qutbusdam Re- 
gum Britannorum,*' in Bene't college, Cambridge.^ 

TALIACOTIUS, of TAGLIACOZZO (Gaspab), pro- 
fessor of medicine and anatomy in the university of Bo^ 
logna, was bom in that city in i 546, and died there Nor*. 
7, 1599, in the fifty- third year of his age. There is little 
recorded of his life ;- his fame depends on his having prac*^ 
lised the art of restoring lost parts of the body by tnsition^ 
particnlarly the 'nose, which has been a topic of ridicule 
ever since it was mentioned by Butler in his Hudibras, 
<< So learned Taliacotius from, key Addison has also a 
humorous paper on the same subject in the Tatler (No. 
260), and Dr. Orey some remarks in his notes on Hudi-^ 
l^ras. TaIiacotius> however,, was not the inventor of tfaii^ 
art, for he allows that Alexander Benedictus and Vesaliutr 
had given* some account of the same art before him, tod 
Ambrose Par6 mentions a surgeon who practised it much 
and successfully. Charles Bernard^ seijeant-surgeon to 
^een Anne, asserts, that though those ivbo have not ex-- 
amined the history may be sceptics, there are incontestable 
-proofs that this ari; was actually practised with dexterity 
and success. Other writers have doubted whether Talia- 
cotius did more than write on the theory, but there seem» 
no foundation for depriving him of the honours of success 
in practice also. Our readers may, indeed, satisfy themi-' 
Selves as to the practicability of the art, as far as the nose 
is concerned, by perusing a very recent treatise, "An 

account of two successful operations for restoring a lost 

t 

■ 4 

^ Ath. Ox. ToL I,— Leland in Encom.— -Bale.— Cough's To^iography. . 



T A 1, r A C O T I U S. Ill 

Nose, fram the ixiteguoieifts of the forehead, inthecaass 
of two officers of bis majesty's army," by J. C. Carpue^ 
aiirgeon, 1815, 4ta The lips and eai% were the otber 
parts which Taliacotins professed to restore } and bis writ- 
ings on the subject are, 1. ^^ Epistola ad Hieronymum Mer^ 
culiarem de naribus, multo ante abscissis, reficiendis,*^ 
Francf. 1587, 8vo. 2. ^^ De Gurtornm Chirurgia per insi« 
tionem libri duo," Venice, 1697, fol. and reprinted at 
Francfort, 1 598, 8vo, under the title ^* Chirurgia nova de 
narium, aurtum, labiorumque defecto, per insitioneln gu<> 
tis ex bumero, arte hactenus omnibus ignpta, sarciendo.^ 
The magistrates of Bologna bad such a high opinion of 
Taliacotius's success, that they erected a statue of him, 
holding a nose in bis hand. ' 

TALLARI) (CAitfiLLE p^HosTUN, count of), an admired 
general, and mareschal of France, was born Feb. 14, 1653, 
the son of Roger d^Hostun, marquis of la Beaume. ' Like 
other young nobles of France, be chose the army for fai^ 
profession, and at the age of sixteen had the royal regiment 
of Cravates, in which command he signalized himself for 
ten years. In 1672 be attended Louis XIV. into jHolland, 
obtained soon after the confidence of Tur<^ne, and dis<« 
tioguisbed himself on several occasions. He was rsnsed ib 
the rank of lieutenant-general in 1693, and in 1697 was 
employed in an embassy to England. On the renewal of 
war, he commanded on the Rhine in 1702, and soon after 
was created mareschal of France. He distinguished him- 
self in the ensuing year against the Imperialists, and 
gained a brilliant advantage, which, however, be rather 
disgraced by bis pompous manner of announcing it. He 
was less fortunate in 1704, when being engaged against 
the English in the plains of Hochstedt, near Blenheim^ he 
was defeated and brought a prisoner to England, where he 
remained for seven years. Soon after this battle, be said,, 
in a kind of peevish compliment to the duke ef Marl* 
borough, ** Your grace has defeated the finest troops in 
Europe ;^* ** You will except, I hope," said the duke, 
*' the troops who beat them.*' His residence in England, 
say the French historians, was not without its use to France ; 
as he very much assisted in detaching queen Ani»e from the 
party of the allies, and causing the recall of the duke of 

* Eloy Diet. Hist, de Mct^icine,— Ndtcs on the Tatltr, ssd wQnftHu; 

clibr«s. 

I 2 



llf T A L L A R D. ' 

Marlborough. He returned to Paris in 17 15, and waif" 
created aAluke. In 1726 be was named secretary of states 
^hkh booQur he did not long retain, but died March 3^ 
1728^ at the age of severity-six. He was a man' of good 
talents and character ; bis chief fault being that he was 
rather inplined to boasting./ ^ 

TALLENTS (Fbancis), a non- con for mist divine of con- 
siderable eminence and learning, was born at Paisley, near 
Chesterfield, Nor.' 16 19, and educated at the public schools 
at MiCnsfietd and Newark, whence he went to Peterhouse, 
^ambridf;e,. but being chosen sub-tutor to the sons of the 
eapl of Suffolk, removed for that purpose to Magdalen 
college, and in 1642 travelled with them on the continent 
On his return he was chosen fellow of Magdalen college^ 
and afterwards became senior fellow and president. In 
1648 be was'ordained at London, in the presbyterian forok 
In 1652 he left the university, and went to Shrewsbury, 
where he became minister of St J Mary^s. At the restora- 
tion, an event in which he rejoiced, he was inclined to 
conform, but pt'obably scrupling to be re-ordained, whicn. 
was thtt chief obstacle Vvith many other non-conformist», 
he was ejected. In 1670 he again visited the continent's 
tutor to two yotmg gentlemen, and about three years after- 
wards returned to Shrewsbury, and preached in a dissent- 
ing meeting there, while unmolested ' Uk lived also some 

Affet reaching thb 




sermon- was preached by the cel^rated Matthew Henry, 
who, in anaccount appended, gives him a Very high cha- 
«racter f6r.piety, learning, and moderation. He was one i!X 
those of whom the great Mr. Boyle took early notice, and 
;lived in^ friendship with all his life. He published a fe^ 
religiQti|s, chiefly eoutroversiM, tracts, bpt .i^ principalty 
.Remembered as the editor. of aVork once iu'V^ry High re«- 
jiutation, " A view of Universal History; ^'r, chrolholo^icitl 
.Tables,'' engraved iii his bouse and mider biis particulai: 
inspectiion) on sixteen large' copper-plates. * / - >' i 

TALLIS (Thomas), one of the greatest Jhlisicikns di 
ibis country, err'of Europe, in his time, Nourished abbilb 
the middle of 'ibe^xteenth century. He is said to hai^ 
been oi^anist of Ae f oyai chapel to king Henry Vlll. king 



T A L 1 1 S. lit 

SJd ward VI. queeo Mary y and ^cj^qeeo Elizabeth; bat the 
Inscripooii on bis graye-stoiTewarniiits .no 8ii€b assertion; 
p[n tii9 two reigns of Edward Vt, and queen Mary^ he was 
simply a geutlen)an of the^jcbap^l^ and served for seven- 
pence halfpenny a day ; but under, £lizabetb| he and Bird 
were gentleman of the chapel apd'^r^pists. The studies 
of Tallis seem to have been wholly devoted to the service 
of the churchy for bis natne is not to be found to any mu- 
sical poQipositions of sougs, ballads, madrigals, or any of 
tbos^ lighter kinds of mu^c framed with a view to private 
recreation. Of the many disciplfes who had profilied by his 
iinstruction,.Bird seems to have possessed the greatest share 
of his affection, one proof of which' was a joint publicatipii 
hy them of ctne of the noblest eollectionsof hymns and 
o|her comppsitioHs for the service of the church that ever 
appeared io any age or country. Thjs was printed by Vau* 
troliier in l?75f with the title of '^ Can tioAes quss ab ar^ 
^upiientio sacrs^ vocantur quinque jet sex partium, . Autori-* 
.bus Thomas, Talii^io et Gulielmo Birdo,^ Anglis, sereuissi* 
mae reginai majestati^a.prtyato sacello genqjrosis et organ.<^ 
istisy^' and was published under the protection of a patent 
x>f queen Elizabeth, the first of the kiiod that bad ever beea 
;gr^rited. ,5^ 

Though it has beeA commonly said th^t Tallis was orm 
(ganist to Henry VIIL and the three fiuccieec||ng princes 
liis (|espenda[^s,, it may. well be dqubted wbet^^r any ky^ 
fiQan were iemployed in ;|bat office till. the begini^ing of the 
oreign of queen El jizahe|b,. vHsen Tallfs and Bird were se^ 
verally appointed mrgaoisj^s of the royal chapel. Notwith*- 
'staqfipling be ^as. a diligent collector, of .q^usical antiquities, 
and a careful peruser. of the worics.pf .other men, the com** 
;pj[^itiQns.of TaUis, learui^d and elegf^nt as they are, are so 
truly original, that hemay justly, be. 9aid to be the father 
«f tbQ cathedral style?; and, ^thi^ugl} a,,like appeUatioa is 
givi^n by the Italian/; tbil^lejstrioa, it is much to be ques- 
tioned, considering t|iiejbtaie,.^{ien Tallis flourished, whether 
he could derive t^e least mlvj^niiage from the improvements 
" of that gre^ ajaq. Perhapp. i%e. laid %he foundation of his 
studies in the wq^karof the'ol^ qs^thedralif ts of this king*- 
dom, ahd^.probabtl}^ in those^ pf the Gemiau musicians, 
.w))o ^n bis tiipe .ha,d the iNrere^Lueopfi ^j^he Italians ; 
and that he had an emulation to excel even these^ may 
be presumed frc^m the foUowing pactieulan John Oken- 
heim^ a native of the Low Countries, and a disciple uf 



lis T A L L I & 

lodoeus Prtt€Qsi»y had made a conpofition for no fewer 
that! thirty*stx Toicfes, which, Glareanos says, waa greattyi 
admired Tallis composed a motet in forty parts, the bis^ 
tory of which stupendoas composition, as ^r b» it can now 
be traced, is given by sir John Hawkins. Notwithstanding 
his supposed attachment to the Romish religion, it seems 
that Tallis accommodated himself and his stisdies to the 
alterations introduced at the reformation. With this view, 
he set to music those several parts of the English litargy, 
which at that time were deemed the most proper to be 
stmg, namely, the two morning services, the one compre* 
bending the " Venite Exnltemus,** « Te Deum,'* and 
*' Benedictus ;*' and the other, which is part of the com« 
tnunion^officO) consisting of th^ ^ Kyrie Eleison,*' *^ Ni- 
eene Creed,'' and ** Sanctus :" as aUo the evening service, 
containing the *^ MagniBcat,*' and ^^ None dimittis.** AU 
these are comprehended in that which is called Tallis's 
first service, as being the first of two composed by hsm« 
fie also set musical notes to the Preces and Responses, 
and composed that Litany which for its excellence is sung 
on solemn occasions in all places where the choral service 
is performed. As to the Preces of Tallis in his first ser*- 
vice, they are no other than those of Marbeck in his book 
of Common-prayer noted: the Responses are somewhat 
diffeient in the tenor part, which is supposed to contain 
the melody ; but Tallis has improved them by the addition 
mf three parts, and has thus formed a judicious contrast 
between the supplications of the priest and the suffrages of 
^e people as represented by the choir. The services of 
Tallis contain dso chants for the *< Venite Exultemus,*' 
mnd the ^< Creed of St. Athanasius :" these are tunes thait 
divide each verse of the psalm or hymn according to the 
pointing, to the end that the whole may be sung alter- 
nately by the choir, as distinguished by the two sides of 
the dean and the chanter. Two of these chants are pub^ 
lished in Dr. Boyce's Cathedral Music, vol. I. The carl^ 
of selecting from the Comilft)d-prayer the ofiices most pro- 
per to be sung was a matter of some importance, especially 
as the rubric contains no directions about it ; f9r this rea- 
son it is supposed that the musical part of queen Etiza- 
beth's liturgy was settled by Parker, archbishop of Canteie^ 
bwy, who was not only it great divine, an i&xclrtloiit'Catibft- 
lawyer and ritualist, and a general scholar, but also- a 
skilful musician. Besides ^be offices above-mentioned. 



T A L L I 8. 119' 

conttitoting what am now term^ the Morniof , Commas 
ntoQ, knA Evening Senriees, in ibar parts^ with the Precet» 
Responses, and Litany, Tallis composed many anthems. 
He died Nov. 23, 1585, and was buried in the^ parish- 
church of Gre^i wich in Kent ; where there is a brass plate 
for him in the chaocet ; the mscription on which was. re^ 
paired by dean Aldricb, and may he seen in Strype's Stow> 
fcnt no memorial now remains. ^ 

TAMERLANE, or Timwr Bec, the great conqiieror of 
the East, was born in I3S5, in the village of Kesch, be- 
longing to the ancient Sogdiana« His name of Tamerlane 
is derived by some writers from Tinmr Lenc^ (mt Tirnur the 
iame^ as he had some defect in his feet. His origin is un«- 
certain, some reporting him to be the son of a shepherd, 
«nd others, of the royal blood. He mised himself, how* 
ciwr, by his personal courage and ttJents. He was dktin«» 
fished early foy these qualities; and, having acquired 
some followers devoted to bis fortunes, his first oonqnest 
was that of Balk, the capital of Khorasan, on the frontiers 
of Persia. He then made himself ma^er of the whole pre^ 
vince of Gandahar, and returning to subdue the people 
beyond the Oxus, took Bagdad; He now determined to 
undertake the conquest of India ; bat his soldiers, fatigued 
by their former efforts, refused at first to follow him; On 
this occasion he employed a pretended prophet to exhort 
them in the name of heaven; and having made them 
itthamed of their reluctance, and filled them with a strong 
enthusiasm, led. them on to greater victories. Delhi feM 
before him, and he became possessed of the immense trea- 
sures of the Mogul empire. Returning from his Indian 
exploits^ he entered Syria and took Damascus : and Bag^ 
dad having attempted to revolt, he made a terrible exam- 
ple^ by putting many thousands of the inhabitants to the 
eword, and delivering, the city to pillage. Bajazet, em- 
peror of the Turks, now attracted his notice, and to him 
he sent an embassy, requiring'him to do justice to some 
Mahometan prinoes whom he had deposed, and to abandon 
the siege of Constantinople. This haughty message being 
as haughtily answered,, war was commenced between them* . 
Tamerlane marched towards Bajazet, whom, in 1402, he 
engaged^ conquered, and took prisoner, in the plains of 
Ancyra near Phrygia. The haute lasted three days. Tlie 

\ Hawkins and Bwrncjr'e Hittmrkt of Maiic 



120 T AM ER L A N E. 



Turkish vfptmn 8ay» that after tMs emat, Tmaedwa&utkKA 
.Biy^et ft hat he would have (lone to him^ jS he ^mA be«a 
.victorious.^ ^i I would. have shut yo«r?4tiVf said Bajas€t» 
•^^ in an iron cage.** Upon which he Was ktmaelf com^ 
demned to the same puuisfament. Some ^mters, houieirer^ 
boast of the generosity aad magnaotmitjr of aheconqueiisc; 
JBe this as it may, he certainly carried his vietorieBito»'« 
wonderful extent : while he wasriengaged in ; the> war >witb 
Bajazet^ he vanquished Egypt, and adzed the imok^se 
treasures of Grand Cait^o^ nor* could any thing in the East 
withstand hioir He died about three years •after his ivit^ 
Aory,. on the first of April, 1405, in, :tbe seventy-firstryear 
of.,4is age, and the thirly-siaih nf -his rdgnJ> .When he 
found death approaching, he called the princes togedsier,^ 
4^>pointed his grandsou^to.hfs hiaMir,»anfd diec^ ^xtifessing , 
liis.ampiioit fa^h inrtbeKara^ iiad.ir<9f^eetio^j(he.8ttcnMk 
words of .the Mahpmetao^ << TbefOria moiGodtbMiiSodv^ 
and Mahomet is bis pro[4iet»*\ > . ii ^ .-^.p ' - 

Timur, according tp^^Arabsbab, waai^l ^asid ebspiilifti^ 
wi.ih a fair ,complexioa,.;i^d agreeaMoiooiifitfeiiance^i4Ie 
was, very strong, tand well made, <ex0ep^-;his llameni^, 

^ which .was on the right side ^f and as -vigosousi in xronstitili^ 
tioqi as. undaunted in .courage. He I'etaioed'^Jiiaiikciiikiesi 

' tOrtba^la^t, Zn bis«Minners(he appears to/havoheeilisftrim^^ 
faa4n|(. not on^y /alsi«ibood, hut* even jestiilg; eiHis.hi^Oovy^ 
aJ^Kds a wofi^rlul example of long andun«ariai^leisuflcesa 
atJbeadiog ooemaiifi :. He «c#iiquered.se sanch jts^AlesamlefV - 
but with far Iwi buplmnitj&f^. - , *.• . ^ 1 . 
^ TANCRED (GiUiiSToraw^, a gentltmasrwbatdlcscirMB 
to,. bO; reBorded)a<uftPg> the «benefafiftor8. :to literature,^ 
v9Mi grfiat gi^audson tO' sir Richard. ^Taffcred/ ^who . was . 
luigbted for bi§ servicea and a^eye siiffisringa during tbe- 
rebellion* Tbi^v.sir ilicbard< was the son of GharJjosTian^ * 
cr^nd, esq. who pi^Fch^ed the manor and rectory of ^Hmi^> 
ley) anciently QuipcJef, situated bctweea Yorkiand AU-^ 
boipougb. Christofj^r Tancred, the sqb^ecl^of this article^ ^< 
died[in.l754 unosarried, and left :biis house and < estate at; 
Whixley for the; maintenance of tv^telvie deeafjedgefitlesMii > 
who bave borne arms in tbe'S^F^H<re.of abeir oounti^, eaotai 
of whom receive twentyTtlwo^guioeaa amnnally^ jBid>a 
s^mrate apai^tment is asHgiied^ta each ><rf tbeni,;bat the*^ 
whole di^e ioipomaton*, liealso founded feurcmedicaitexbi^i 



«/ 



} DBiT. Hai|,.n9i«»^. 



TANeRI/*D. lit 

l»kioD^at'Alni»'caltege;<'fbiir in ditrinity it'difisfs^cqU 
Jb|^ CMibMc%e^i«iid four law studc^tdiips at Lin^ohiV 
jMi oR wbkfa he was ca^ beneher. Tb^fte were origihftn^ 6f 
tbe yearljr value of SOl., bol ftre imht lObk^ee^ch. The trua- 
(eeaio tbiS'feflndiaiionaire the roasters 6( Caius and Cfarist^i 
oeliage^ the president '^nghe eoUege of Pbysicians, tbe 
treasofer of Lincoln VIiin,vtahe master of ' the Cfaarter- 
li^se^ the.'president of Cfartst's^'hospital, and* tHe governor 
of Greenwich ' botpitai. These ekhibitions co&ticioe f^ 
about eight years, three years after taking the degree of 
M. A. or M. B. and after being caUed to the Bar ; and a 
Latin oration is spoken annually, by one of the exhibition- 
«s and students, in coflsmemoration of their liberal beue* 
faetor** 

TANNER (ThomjlS), an excellent antiquary, was the 
eon ofra father of both his names, ticar of Market Laving^ 
-ton in Wilts, and was born in 1674. He beeilnie a stu- 
dent in Queen^s-college, Oxford, in Michiteltaas-term, 
IMfi ;• adaskted clerk in that house, 1690; B. A. 1693; 
aiftered inse beigr orders at Christmas, 1694; and became' 
chaplain •ofAiUsouls^coUege in January following ; chosen 
feUow of the same, .1697 ; chancellor of Norfolk, and rec* 
tor of Thorpe near Norwich in 1701; He was installed 
prebendary of Ely, Sept. 10, 1713, (which he quitted in 
.1?23}; made archdeacon of Norfolk, Dec. 7, 1721 ; candQ 
of Cbrist-ichurch, Feb. 3, 1723-4; and proloentor of the 
lower bouse of convocation,, which was' convened anno 
4727.' To this honour he was unanimously elected on ac-- 
coiint*of his great abilities, however contrary to his pwo 
inwliliatioBs ; and ; was consecrated' bishop of St. Asaph, 
Jan^ 23, . 1 732. Bishop Tanner died at Christ-church, Ox^ 
faad, ])ec« 14, 173d ; and was buried in the nave of that 
catbeldsal,* near the pulpit; without any funeral pomp, ac- 
cording to his own direction. He or'dered his body to be 
.wuapp^ tip in the coarsest crape, and his cofBn to be 
covered with sevge, not cloth : the pall-bearers to have 
eachvof them one of Baskett-s folio bibles; the under- 
bearers a Sherlock upon Death ; to the dean of Cbristr 
cbur^, he left five pounds; to the eight canons fivesbil- 
iiogs each ; eighty pounds to buy coats for eighty poor 
men; and one hundred pounds to the college, towarda 
their#iibsacy:tbeii building. A monument to his -memory 



) HargroTe^s Hist of Koftmbeiw^.— pent. Ma|^. toI. LXXVII* 



123 TANNER. 

ia affixed to one of the pillars, with an intcription« AncMher 
inscription, aini a translation of it, may be seen in the 
** Anecdotes of Bowyer.'* He was thrice married, first, to 
Rose, eldest daughter of Dr. Moore, bishop of Ely^ and 
by her, who died March 15, 1706, aged twenty-five, be 
had a daughter who died in her infancy; secondly, to 
Frances, daughter of Mr. Jacob Preston, citizen of Lon- 
don« She died' June 11, 1718, aged forty, and left two 
daughters, who both died young, and bis son and heir, tbe 
fer. Thomas Tanner, who died in 1760, at that time pre- 
centor of St. Asaph, rector of Kessingland, and vicar of 
LowestofF. The bishop married, thirdly,^ in 1733, Miss 
Eliaabetb Scottow, of Thorpe, near Norwich, with a fmv 
tune of 15,000/. She survived him, and married Robert 
Brittffe, esq. recorder of Norwich, aad M. F. She died 
in 1771. 

Bishop Tanner^s character seems to have descended to 
posterity without any blemish. His virtues are acknow«- 
ledged by his contemporaries, and .of his learning a» an 
antiquary, which was very exien^ive, he was most readily 
communicative to all who were engaged in publications of 
that nature. He had a eonsiderable .hand in the second 
edition of Wood's *^ Athenae,'* but appears to have givea 
offence to some of Wood's firiends, by softening certain of 
bis prejudices as. well as bis coarse language. This pro* 
duced something like a eontroveray, which the reader may 
. find detailed in the life of A. Wood, prefixed to his ^ An^ 
nals,'^ or in the preface to the new edition of the ^< Athe- 
iise,'* by Mr. Bliss. Of the publications more particularly 
belonging to himself, the first appeared before he was 
twenty years old. It formed an excellent compendium of 
our religious houses, setting forth, when and by whom 
they were founded, their dedications, orders, and value^; 
and was entitled, *^ Nbtitia Monastica, or a short History 
the Religious Houses in England and Wales,^* 169^, 8v0. 
This was so favourably, received that it became very scarce^ 
and at the request of bis friends he set aboiit revising and 
enlarging it in 1715, but the duties of his station, aird 
afterwards his infirmities, prevented him from leaving it 
quite complete. It appeared, however, under the care of 
the rev. John Tanner, his brother, in 1744, folio, under 
the title of '* Notitia Monastica; or an Account of all the 
Abbies, Priories, and Houses of Friers, heretofore iq Eng- 
land and Wales; and also of all the Colleges andHospitsds 



TANNER- t2S 

founded before A. D. 151 1. By the right rev. Dr. Tbomiis 
Tanner, late lord bishop of St Asaph. Published by Joha 
Tanner, A. ML vicar of Lowestoft in Saflblk, and precentor 
of the cathedral church of St. Asaph.*^ Of this a much 
improved edition was published in 1787^ by Mr. Nasmith; 
but the greater part of the impression having been con- 
sumed in Mr. Nicholses fire, it now ranks among scarce 
books. His << Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica/' which 
employed him forty years, was published in 1748, folio, 
with a posthumous preface by Dr. Wilkins. He left large 
collections for the county of Wilts, and large notes oa 
Richard Hegge's Legend of St. Cuthbert, 1663. His im« 
mense and valuable collections are now in ibe Bodleian 
library at Oxford. His portrait was engraved by Vertue 
in 1736, at the expence of the Society of Antiquaries* 
The portrait prefixed to the '* Notitia," is inscribed, ** He- 
verendns admodum Thomas Tanner, Asaphensia Episco- 
pus, PrimsevsB Antiquitatis Cultor. G. Vertue sculp. 1748.** 
This print was a copy of that engraved by Vbrtue^ with 
aome difference in the decoration, ana this addition to the 
inscription : ** Hoc ectypum fratris sui dignissiofii antiquis 
moribus ornati posteris sacratum esse voluit Soc. Ant. 
Lond. 1736."* 

TANSILLO (Lbwis), an Italian poet, whose works were 
once proscribed by the inquisition, and having become 
acarce, are therefore accounted valuable, was born at Nola 
about 1520. He passed a great part of his life attached to 
the service of don Pedro de Toledo, viceroy Of Naples, and 
don Garcias de Toledo, commander of the gatlies in the 
same kingdom. The period of his death is not precisely 
known, but he is said to have been judge of Gaieta in 
-1569 ; and, as he was then in a very bad state of health, 
it supposed to have died soon after. He had the reputa- 
tion of a very good poet, and bis productions, as far as 
they are now known, are these: 1. '^11 Vendemmiatore,^* 
'the Vintager, a poem ; in which he described in too free 
M manner, the licence of the inhabitants in the vicinity of 
Nola, at the time of the vintages; Naples, 1534; Venice, 
•1549, 4to. On this £iccount all his poems were put into 
'the Index expurgatorius. Mortified at this rigour, he ad- 

dressed an ode to the pope, asserting, that, though his poem 

c 

* Ath. Ox. vol. 11.— Biog. Brit — LeUers from Emiaeot penooi, 1813, 3 volf. 
^fo.—- Gougb's Topogri^by.— Sip. NicelsoB*0 Lfittn» vol. L p. ^7.-- Ni«holB*i 
Bowyer. • 



Itt T A N $ I L L O. 

vas licentiousi his life had not been so; remonsifatinf 
against the inclusion of hia innocent productions in the.aeuy- 
tence with the culpable piece; and declaring that be, w^^ 
employed in a poem upon the tean of St. Petisrt ivb^ 
jneritSy be trusted, would atone for bis ofEence, , aad pro« 
cure him deserved honour* In consequence of this od|S» 
iivhen the next edition ,of tbe Ind^x espurgatorius ap- 
peared^ not only the innoxious pp^;iii9f but the Veodemmi* 
.atore also, were omitted, as if .tbe repentance of the pf>&L 
bad purified his poem I 2. ^^ ll,.CavallarizzQ/VVijceDS9» 
Svo. 4. Sonnets, Songs^ Stanj^as, and some Copaediea. 
Lastly, .in 17^7, professor Ra'nza published an. j^edi^ed 
poem of Tans^illo's, entitled '^ Balia/' ji^hich ba» be^ ^|^ 
fgantly translated into Euglisb i^ji Mr* BOS9O0, jindeq the 
title « The Nurse," 1758, 4to,* . , ; ♦ j 

TARIN (P£T£a), a French phj^cian, boraat.CQur^enai« 
died in 1761, at what age is uncertain,, H^twas.knowm^by 
various works, of which the followMig,were.]tbet;hief r.^. 
•^Elements of Pbysiplogy," translated, from ^bci X^auifk pf 
Haller, 1752,. Syo. ?. *• Adversiria <Anatj:)a)g^a, I75j(?, Ug^ 
with a medical, BibIiogra4>by, «i&tracted fro^ the << Mt^lbor 
,dus Studii Medici V pf Hf^ller* 4^ .".Qst^agjp-a|xbia,'VParMv 
1753, 4to, a compilation, illustratea by, ongraxiogs, .^^^ 
" Aothropqtomie,'' pcjjh^ ,art qt dissiecUng^a75Q» 2^j^oI^ 
l2ou>.. 6. ^^ Desi9i>gr^pli^e» ' or a.treati^e^.po .U^unWntil^ 




bious. tie wrote also 9Pi^e. medical .articles for tb^fȣi)^ 

cyclopedia.* , , , / ,n 

TARTINI (Joseph),, styled by Dr. Bur;>iByj^ "Oi^iaOr 

]nirable,'\was born in April 1692, j^t.^iranpjp tb(e:pi;Qf 

vince of Istria. His father, bavjng j>.i^/^a a great bei)dfa% 

tor^cto.tbe cathe<jlral at Pare^zo, was enifobledfor hiis/juetx* 

Joseph ^as intended fpr the Uw« bu^ t^l^ing ^p tb|9 siudj 

of music, among his other pursuits, it .prfivaijed pvj^,,a^ 

the rest ia gaining bis attachment, {a^ljip, ,be yvaa j^ent 

' to the university of Pa4ua» to study as a Jpivili^n^ ^t^ bet 

fore he was twenty, having married without.the con$e|9t pjt 

j^is parents, they wholly abandoned him. After wandering 

for some time in search of an asylum, be twas Veceiv^d in^li 

coi^yent at Assjssi, by a monk to wbo^ifi be,wfia:rela^^j^ 

^ * « Timb6Mbi.<»RMoe's ptefac*. < £loy/I)l^« Hist, dt iMUdecinW 



TART IN I. X2S 

Here be amused himself by prae^sing the violioy till betog 
inccideiitaUy discovered by a Paduan acquaintance, family 
differences were accooimodated, and be settled with his 
#ife at Ventee. While he femaihed there, he heard, in 
1iy'i4f the celebrated Veractni^ whdse performance, exceI-» 
iifig every thing he had then heard, excited in his mind a 
wonderful emulation. He retired the very next day to An- 
iHina, to study the use of tb^ bow with more tranquillity, 
Mdahain, if possible, those poi/i^fers of energy and expres- 
sion wfajch he had so greatly admired. By diligent study 
'and practicb,^be apquited such skill aod reputktion, that in 
i7il^,*he was itivitedto the place of first violin, and n>aster 
t>f the bs^nfl, in the fettiOus church of St. Antony of Faduk* 
He Incd^ 41sb freqqen^ invitations, \yhich he declined, to- vi« 
lit PaKkWd London.^ By ^12% he had made, many excel- 
lent scholars, and formed a scb'ooY, of method oif pjcactiee, 
that^ wtis tfehftBrated*aU ovef^Europe^ and increased iii fame 
lb the ^nd of his life. Ih 1T44, be is s&id to l^ave changed 
Mis $iyiej^froai extremeKf' difficult execution, to graceful 
^i ^j^ressive; istntl'Fai^dalino Bini^ on'e of his best scho- 
ktl, Wvln^ h^ird M the change, placed' himself afresh 



\ 
I 




' / 



regret 

td^d near ftfty years'; antl wberehe'wasnbt\'oiTly. regarded 
i^4t^'chief and most attractive ornkD^nt,1^ut as ti philosp^* 
|Aer, and even a saints having devoted .'himseljf to the ser- 
vifce*of bis jiatroti St. Antony orPdclua, ' 

^'Tfatf first book of solos by TaVtini, wa^ published at Am* 
tfterdam, in 1734, the second at Rome; in 1745'; and Dr. 

2urney relates tljat he possesses the third, slxth,^j&v^eath, 
h[9 Ainth of^^^ublicalious, besides two books printed in 
Srtgland, ambtinting toupwards of fifty solos; exclusive pi 
id&tiusdripts. fiis <ioncertos amount to t\yo butidr^^d'^ but 
afstiH'eptitious copy of two sets having appeared iu Ho|p 
*^' d'y he would never own tbem. OPthese, which are yet 
iposed to'bd certa^61y genuine, six were composed i^ 
UiS'fifs^ matin^r, and sixaft^r^ 1744, when be had improve^ 
h^tr 9tyti^. B\it his mojbt celebrated work is his *f Trattato 
lU Mli^ca,** or treatUie on music, iii ^hich, though His sys- 
«ifiH,-'ai^'to the scientific part, has since been confuted, he 
kp^e^t^^B bhe ,6f the most ingenious theorists of this ceri- 
tW^ '^If Wks pVjblished in 1754, in 4to. "Republished, in 
^^^T^oaiaPJiB^^M^*?^^ ^^^ prineipi dell' Armonia Musicale; 



12« T A R T I N L 

•ontanata nel Biatonieo genere/' aiuHber theoretical workL 
Tartini was so ambitious of being thougbt a follower of 
Coretli's precepts and principles, that, after bis own repu* 
tation was in its zenitb, be refiised to teach any other mil* 
sic to bis disciples, till the^ bad studied the opera quinia^ 6i 
solos of Corelli. His masical character is thus drawn by 
the very able judge to whose account we have already re** 
'ferred : f* Tartini, on a recent examination of his works^ 
seems, to my feelings and conceptions, io have had a larger 
portion of merit, as a mere instrumentil composer, than 
any other author who flourished during the first fifty or 
sixty years of the present century. Though be made Co^ 
relii his model in the purity of bis harmony, and simplicity 
of bis modulation, be greatly surpassed that composer in 
the fertility and originality of bis invention ; not only in 
the subjects of his melodies, but in the truly cantabUe man^ 
ner of treating them. Many of his adagios want nothing 
but words to be excellent, pathetic, opera songs. His aU 
legros are sometimes difiicult ; but the passages fairly be**' 
long to the instrument for which they were composed, and 
were suggested by bis consummate knowledge of the finger* 
board, and powers of the bow. He certainly repeats bis pas** 
sages, and adheres to bis original motive^ or thetne, toe 
much for the favourite desultory style of the present times; 
but it must be aHowed that, by his delicate selection and 
arrangement of notes, bis passages are always good ; play 
them quick, or play them slow, they never seem unmeaning 
or fortuitous. Indeed, as a harmonist, be was, perhaps, 
more truly scientific than any other composer of his time, 
in the clearness, character, and precision of bis bases; whicli 
were never casual, or the effect of habit, or auricular pre- 
judice and expectation, but learned, judicious, and cer- 
tain."* 

TARRANTIUS (Lucius), surnamed Firmanus, beclkuse 
be was a native of Firmum, a town in Italy, flourished at 
the same time with Cicero, and was one of bis .friends. 
He was a mathematical philosopher, and therefore -wan 
thought to have great skill in judicial astrology. He was 
particularly famous by two horoscopes which he drew, the 
one the horoscope of Romulus, and the other of Rome. 
Plutarch says, '< Varro, who was the most learned of the 
Romans in history, had a particular friend named Tarran- 

^ Burney'fHistrOfMosio. 



T A R R A N T I U S. 127 

tfire, wbo^ out curiosity, applied himself to draw fabtoscopesy 
by means of a'stroaomical tables, and was esteemed the 
most eminent^ in his time.*' Historians controvert some 
|Mirticular circumstances of bis calculations ; but all agree 
in conferring'on himthe bonorarytitle Prince of astrologers.*^ 

TARTAGLIA, or TART A LEA (Nicholas), a noted 
mathematician, was born at Brescia in Italy, probably to- 
vfrards the conclusion of the fifteenth century, as we find 
ht was a considerable Ulster or preceptor in matbematics 
iff 1521, when the first of his collection of questions and 
answers was written, which he afterwards publislied in 
1546, under the title of ** Quesiti et Inventioni diverse," at 
Venice, where he then resided as a public lecturer on ma* 
theniatics, he having removed to this place about 15S4* 
This work consists of nine chapters, containing answers to 
ft number of questions oi^ all the different branches of ma« 
thematics and philosophy then in vogue. The last or ninth 
#f these, contains the questions in algebra, among whicK 
taee chose celebrated letters and communications between, 
Tartalea and Cardan, by which our author put the latter in 
possession 'of the rules Sor cubic equations, which he first 
diacoTered in 1530. 

The fiv^t work of Tartatea^s that was published, was his 
** Nova Seientia itiventa,'' Venice, 1537, in 4to. This is a 
treatise on the theory and prai^tise of gunnery, and the 
first of the kind, he being the first writer on the flight and 
path of balls and shells. This work- was translated into 
£nglish by Lucar, and printed at London in \6S^, folio, 
with many notes and additions by the translator. « Tartale& 
f^ublished at, Venice, 1 543, in folio, the whole books of 
Euclid, accompanied with many curious notes and com- 
mentaries. But the last and chief work of Tartalea was hit 
^Trattatodi NumerietMisure," 1556, and 1560,fol. This is 
an universal treatise on arithmetic, algebra, gecHuetry, men- 
SQration, &c. It contains many other curious particulars 
af the disputes between our author and Cardan^ which 
ended only with the death of Tartalea, before the last pare 
ef this work was published, or about 1 558.' 
^ TASSIE (James), a very ingenious artist, in the mqdeU 
Kng department, was born in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
gow, of obscure parents, and began life as a country stone* 

« 

• * Geo. Dict-*-HuttQD*s Dictionary. 
I Bullart's Academie d«t Scieoces.— Gen, 0iet»— Huttoo'S' DictioDary* 



•I 



128 . T A S S I E. 

BiMon^ without the etpectttion of ever ri«ng h^(iier: Ga« 

ing to Glasgow on a fair-day, to enjoy himself with bltf 
companions, at the time when the Fouiis^s were attempting 
to establish an academy for the fine arts in that city, \m 
saw their collection of paintings, and felt an irresistible im- 
pulse to became a painter. He accordingly removed to 
Glasgow y and in the academy acquired a Knowledge of 
drawmg, which unfolded and improved hit natural taster 
He was frugal, industrious, and persevering; but he was 
poor, and was under the necessity of devoting himself to 
atone-cutting for his support ; not without the hopes that 
he might one day be a statuary if be could not; be a painter. 
Resortii^ to Dublin for employment, he became known to 
Dr. Quin, who was amusing himself in his leisure hours 
witb endeavouring to imitate the precious stones in coloured 
pastes, . and take accurate impressions of the engnMrin|^ 
that were on them. 

That art was known to the ancients, and. many specimens 
from them are now in the cabinets of the curious. It seemi^ 
to have been lost in the middle ages ; was revived iu Ttalj 
under LeoX. and the Medici family at Florence ; and be« 
cam^ more perfect in France under the reg(^ocy of the^ 
duke of Oileaiis, by his labours and those of BoQsb^rg. 
By those whom they instructed as assistants in the labora- 
tory it continued to be practised in Paris, and was carried 
to Rome. Their art was kept a secret, and tlieir collec- 
tions were small. It is owing to Quin and to Tassie that it 
has been carried to such high perfection in Britaip, au4 
has attracted the attention of Europe.^ . a 

Dr. Quin, in looking out for an assistant, soon discpvered 
Tassie to be one in whom he could place perfect confi- 
dence. He was endowed witb fine taste.; he was modest 
iand unassuming ; be was patient; and possessed the highest 
integrity. The doctor committed his laboralorv and ex^ 
periments to his care. The associates were fully succfi^s-. 
fill V and found tliemselves able to imitate all the gems^ and^ 
take accurate impressions of the engravings. As the doc-^ 
tor had followed the sublect only for ^is amusement, wheo^ 
the discovery was completed, be encouraged Mr. Tassie t« 
repair to London, and to devote himself to the preparatioQi 
and sale of those pastes as bis profession. Accordingly, m, 
1766, he arrived in the nietropolis ; but he was diffideot 
and modest to excess ; very unfit to introduce himself to 
the attentiou of persons of raok and of afioencsie ; besides. 



T A S 8 I E. 129 

the number cff engraved gems in Britain was small ; and 
those few were little iioticed. He long struggled under 
llifficulties which would have discouraged any one who was 
not possessed of the greatest patience^ and the wartiiest at- 
tachment to the subject. . But he gradually emerged from 
obscurity, obtained competence, and what to him was more^ 
he was able to increase his collection, and $icid higher de- 
grees of perfection to his art. Jiis name soon became r©»' 
*spected, and the first cabinets in Europe were open for 
bis use ; and he uniformly preserved the greatest attention 
to the exactness of the imitation and accuracy of the en- 
graving, so that many of his pastes were sold on the con- 
tinent by the fraudulent for real gems. His taste led him 
to be peculiarly careful of the impression ; and he uni- 
foronly destroyed those with which he was in the least disr 
sQttisfied. 'The art has been since practised by others ; and 
many thousauds of pastes have been sold as 7'assie^s, which 
he would have considered as injurious to his fame. Of the 
fame of others be was not envious; for he uniformly spoke 
with, frankness in praise, of those w|3o executed them well, 
ibough they were endeavouring to rival hUnself. 

To tixe ancient engravings be added a numerous collec* 
tfon of the most eminent modern ones ; many of which ap* 
proach in excellence of workmanship, if not in simplicity 
of design and chastity of expression, to the most celebrated 
of the ancients. Many years before he died he had a 
Commission from the empress Catherine of Russia, for above 
15,000 different engravinp;s, which being executed in the 
k;est and most durable manner, were arranged in aJegant 
Cabinets, and w^re placed in the apartments of the palace 
of Czarsk Zeb. In executing this commission, Mr. Tassie 
availed himself of all the advantages which the improved 
state of chemistry, the various ornamental arts, and the 
knowledge of the age, seemed to afford. The impressions 
were taken in a beautiful white enamel composition, whi9h' 
h not subject to shrink, or form air-bladders ; which emits 
fire when struck with steel, and takes a fine polish^; and 
which sljews evefy stroke and touch of the artist in highe]: 
fiferfection than any other substance. When the colours^ 
mixed colours, and nature of the respective originals, coi)Id 
bli ascjertained, they were imitated as compfetely as art can 
iitiits^te them : insomuch that many of the paste intaglios 
and came6s in this collection are such faithful imitations,., 
that ahlstfc^emsl^fv^^ haVe owned' they" could hardly be 

Vol. XXIX. K 



•» 'S 



130 T A S S I E. 

distinguished froiki the originals. And when the colottr 
and nature pf the gems could not be authenticated^ th« 
pastes were executed in agreeable, and chiefly transparent 
cqlours : constant attention being bestowed to preserve 
the outlinesy extremities, attributes, and inscriptions. It 
Yft^as the learned Mr. Raspe (from whom this account is 
taken), who arranged this great collection, and made out 
the descriptive catalogue, (See ^^A Descriptive Catalogue/^ 
&c. 2 vols. 4to, 1791.) 

Mr. T^ssie died in 1799, at which time his collection of 
engravings amounted to 20,000. For a number of years 
he pn^ctised tl:^ modelling of portraits in wax, which he 
afterwards moulded and cast in paste. In taking likenesses 
he was, in general, uncommonly happy : and it is remark- 
able, that he believed there was a certain kind of inspira- 
tion (like that mentioned by the poets) necessary to give 
bim full success. The writer of his life in the Encyclopan'* 
dia Britannica, in conversing with him on the subject, 
always found him fully persuaded of it. He mentioned 
many instances in which he had been directed by it : and 
even some, in which, after he bad laboured in vain to 
realize his ideas on the wax, be had been able, by a sud- 
den flash of imagination, to please himself in the likeness 
several day^ after he had seen the original. He possessed 
also an uncommon fine taste in architecture, and would 
have been eminent in that branch if he bad followed it. In 
private life Mn Tassie was universally esteemed for his uni- 
form piety, and for the simplicity, the modesty, and bene- 
iK>lence, that shone in the whole of his character. ' 

TASSO (ToRQUATO), a most celebrated Italian poet, 
was descended from the illustrious bouse of the Tassi of 
Almenno, abo^it five miles from Bergamo, a family which 
bad supported itself by alliances till the time of Bernardo 
Tasso, whose mother was of the bouse of Cornaro. Th6 
estate of Bernardo, the father of our poet, was ik) wise 
equal to his birth ; but this deficiency, in point of fortune, 
was in some measure compensated by the gifts of under- 
tianding. His .\yorks in verse and prose are recorded as 
iQonuments of his genius ; and his fidelity to Ferrante of 
Saiiseverino, prince of Salerno, to whom he was entirely 
devoted, entitled lum to the esteem of every osian of ho- 
iHHir. This prince had made him his secretary, a»nd taken 

1 Dr. ei«if '« .Sup|>le«Kut to the JgncycUp, BritMnien. 



T A S S a 131 

• 

faim with him to Naples, where he settled, i^d married 
Portia di Ro$si, of one of the moi(t illustrious families in 
that city. 

Portia was six months gone vtqth child, when she was in* 
yited by her sister Hippoiita to Sorrento, ta pay her a 
visit. Bernardo accoaipanied her thither : and in tbia 
place Portia was delivered of a son, on the 1 1th day of 
March, 1 544, at noon. The infant was baptised a few 
days after, in the metropolitan church of Sorrento, by the 
name of Torquato. Bernardo and Portia returned soon 
after to Naples with him, concerning whom historisms re« 
late incredible things of his early and promising genius. 
They tell us, that* at si'x months old, he not only spoke 
and pronounced his words clearly and distinctly, but 
thought, reasoned, expressed bis wants, and answered 
questions ; that there was nbthing childish in his words, 
but the tone of his voice ; that be seldom laughed or pried ; 
and that, even then, he gave certain tokens of that equality 
of temper which supported him so welt in his future mis* 
fortunes. 

Toward the end of his third year, Bernardo bis father 
was obliged to follow the prince of Salerno into Germany, 
which journey proved the source of all the sufferings of 
Tasso and his family. The occasion was this : Don Pedro 
of Toledo, viceroy of Naples for the emperor Charles V, 
bad formed a design to establish the inquisition in that' 
city. The Neapolitans, alarmed at this, resolved to seodi 
a deputation to the emperor, and made choice of the prince 
of Salerno, who seemed most able, by his auihority and 
riches, to oppose the viceroy. The prince havit)g con- 
sented, Bernardo Tasso accompanied him into Germany ; 
but, before his departure, committed the Qwe of his son 
to a man of learning ; under whom, at three years of age, 
they tell us, he began to study grammar; and, at four, 
was sent to the college of the Jesuits, where he made so 
rapid a progress, that at seven he was pretty well acquainted 
with the Latin and Greek tongues; at the same age he 
made public orations, and composed some piex^es of poe- 
try, of which the style is said to have retained nothing of 
puerility. 

The success the prince of Salerno met with in his em- 
bassy greatly increased his credit amongst the Neapolitans, 
but entirely ruined him with the viceroy, who so much 
exasperated the emperor against the prince of Salerno^ 

K 2 . » 



1S3 T A S S O. 

that Ferrante, finding there was no longer any security fot 
bim at Naples, and having in vain applied to gain an ai|' 
dieuce of the emperpr, retired to Rome, and renounced 
his allegiance to Charles V. Bernardo Tasso would not 
abandon his patron in his ill fortune ; neither would he 
leaye his son in a country where he himself was soon to be 
declared an enemy ; and foreseeing he should never be 
able to return thither, be took Torquato ^ with him to 
Rome. 

As soon as the departure of the prince of Salerno was 
known, he, and all his adherents, were declared rebels* to 
the state ; and Torquato Tasso, though but nine years of 
age, was included by name in that sentence. Bernardo, 
following the prince of Salerno into France, committed 
his son to the care of his friend and relation Maurice Ca- 
taoeo, a person of great ability, who assiduously cultivated 
the early disposition of his pupil to polite literature. After 
the death of Sanseverino, wh^ch happened in three or four 
years, Bernardo returned to Italy, and engaged in the ser* 
vice of Guglielmo Gonzaga, duke of Mantua, who bad 
given hiii9 a pressing invitation. It was not long before 
be received the melancholy news of the decease of hjs' 
wife Portia, which determined him to send for his son, 
that they might be a mutual support to each other in their 
affliction. He was now his only child, for his wife, befdt;'e 
her death, had married his daughter to Martio Sersale^ a 
gentleman of Sorrento. He was greatly surprised, on his 
son's arrival, ta see the vast progress he had made in hi» 
studies. Although but twelve years of age, he bad, ac- 
cording to the testimony of the writers of his life, entirely 
completed his knowledge in the Latin and Greek tongues : 
h« was well acquainted with therules of rhetoric and poe(;ry, 
aed completely versed in Aristotle^s ethics. Bernardo soon 
determined to send him to .the university of Padua, \o 
study the Jaws, in company with the young Scipio Gon- 
zaga, afterwards cardinal, nearly of the same age as him-> 
self. With this nobleman Tasso^ then seventeen years of 
age, contracted a friendship that oever ended. but with his 
life. He prosecuted his studies at Padj^a wit^greax dili- 
gence and success: at the same time employing his leistire 
hours upon philosophy and poetry, be soon gave a public 
proof of his talents, by his poem of " Ripaldo," Which he 
published in the eighteenth year of his age.. T^ls i>oem, 
which is of the romance kind, is divided into twelve books 



y A s s o. ii^ 

in ottava rima, a<ld contains the adventures of Rinakilf^ 
the famous Paladin of the court of Gharlemain, who mak^i 
so principal a figure in Ariosto^s work, and the Brst achie?e<- 
xnents of that Knight for the love of the fair Clarice, whom 
he afterwards marries. The action of this poem precedes 
that of the ** Orlanda Furioso:" It wiis composed in ten 
months, as the author himself infdrnis us in* the preface, 
and was first printed at Venice in 1562. Paolo Be^ii speaks 
very highly of this performance, which undoubtedly is not 
unwdrthy the early efforts of that genius which afterwards 
.produced the " Jerusalem." 

-Tasso^s father saw with, regret the success of his son's 
,poem : he was apprehensive, and not without reason, tbut 
the charms of poetry would detach him from those more 
,soiid studies which he judged were most likely to raise him 
in the world : and he knew well, by his own experience, 
that the greatest skill in poetry will not advance a man^s 
private fortune. He was not deceived in his conjecture ; 
Torquato, insensibly carried away by his predominant pas- 
sion, followed the examples of Petrarch, Boccace, Ariosto, 
and others, who, contrary to the remonstrances of their 
friends, quitted the severer studies of the law for the more 
pleasing entertainment of poetical composition. In short, 
h^ entirely gave himsif up to the study of poetry and phi- 
losophy. His firkt poem extended his reputation through 
all Italy ; but his father was so displeased with his conduct 
that he went to Padua on purpose to reprimand him. Though 
he spoke with great vehemence, and mad^ use of several 
harsh expressions, Torquato heard him without interrupting 
him., and his composure contributed not a. little to increase 
his father's displeasure. " Tell me,*' said Bernardo, " of 
what use is that vain philosophy, upon which you pride 
yourself so much ?" " It has enabled me," said Tasso 
modestly, "to endure the harshness of your reproofs.'*' 

The resolution Tasso had tike n to devote himself to the 
Muses was known all over Italy ; the principal ^persons of 
the, city and college of jpologna invited him thither by 
meai)s of Pietro Doiiato Cesi, then vice-legate, and after- 
wards legate. ^ But Tasso had not long resided there, when 
he was pressed 4>y Sci'pio GoUzaga, elected prince of the 
academy established at Padua, under the name of Etherei, 
to return to! that city. He could not wirtfastand this sohbita- 
tion ; and Bolosgina being at that time the sgeue of civil 
compnotion, he was the more willing to seek elsewhere for 



1S4 T A 8 S a 

tbe repose be loved. He was received- with extreme joy 
by all the abAdeaiy, and being incorporated into that so- 
ciety, at the age of twenty years, took tipon himself the 
name of Pentito ; by which he seemed to show that he re- 
pented of ait the time which he had employed in the study 
of the law. In this retreat he applied himself afresh to 
philosophy and poetry, and soon became a perfect master 
of both : it was this happy mixture of his studies that made 
him an enemy to all kinds of licentiousness. An oration 
was made one day in ihe academy upon the natare of love; 
the orator treated his subject in a very masterly manner, 
but with too little regard to decency in the opinion of 
Tasso, who, being asked what he thought of the discourse, 
replied, ^' that it was a pleasing poison.'* 

Here I'usso foniied the design of his celebrated poem. 
*' Jerusalem Delivered f' be invented the fable, disposed 
the different parts, and determined to dedicate this work 
to the glory of the house of Este. He was greatly esteemed 
by Alphonso II. the last duke of Ferrara, that great patron 
of learning and learned men, and by his brother, cardinal 
Luigi. There was a sort<of contest between these two bro-- 
tfaers, in relation to the poem : the cardinal imagined that 
be had a right to be the MsBcenas of all Tasso's works, as 
<^ Rin^ildo," his iirst fMece^ had been dedicated to him: 
•the duke, on the other band, tbooght that, as his brother 
had already received his sliere of honour, he ought not to 
be otfended at seeing the name. of Alpbonso at the head of 
the ** Jerusalem Delivered.*' ' Tasso for three or four years 
.suspended his determination : ut length, being earnestly 
pressed by both the brothers to take up iiis residence in 
Ferrara, he suffered himself to be prevailed upon. The 
duke gave him an apartment in his palace, where he lived 
'141 peace and affloencei end pursued his design of i39m- 
pleting his ^^ Jerusalem," wktcb he now resolved to dedi- 
cate to AlphoDSO. The duke, who was destroos of fixing 
TasBo near binl^ had thonglils of marrying hist advanta- 
geously^ bttt he always evaded, aiiy proposal of that kifid : 
though he appeared peculiarly devoted to Alphonso, yet 
he neglected wot to pay his co«rt to the oirdinal.' 
• The name of Tasso now became faiaiobs; tht^oa^h all 
Europe : and the caressea he iteceived from Charles IX. in 
a journey he made to France with tardinal Lufigi, who went 
thither in quality of legate, show that his reputation was 
not cettfined to. his ovai country. '.The cardinal's legation 



T A 8 S O. 136 

being finished, Tasso returned to Ferrara, where he applied 
himself- to finish bis '^Jerusalem," and in the mean time 
published his <' Aminta/' a pastoral comedy, which was 
received with universal applause. This performance was 
looked upon as a master-piece in its kind, and is the ori* 
ginat of the " Pastor Fido'* and " Filli di Sciro.'' It was 
not easy to imagine that Tasso eould so well paint the 
effects of love, without having himself felt that passion : 
it began to be suspected that, like another Ovid, he had 
raised his desires too high, and it was thought that in many 
of his verses he gave bints of that kind. There were at 
ike duke's court three Leonoras, equally witty and beau- 
tiful, though of different quality. The first was Leonora 
of Este, sister to the duke, who having refused the most 
advantageous matches, lived unmarried with Lauretta, 
duchess of Urbino, her elder sister, who was separated 
from her husband, and resided at her brother's court. 
Tasso had a great attachment to-this lady, who, on her side, 
honoured him with her esteem and protection. She wasi 
wise, generous, and not only well read in elegant litera- 
ture, but even versed in the more abstruse sciences All 
these perfections were undoubtedly observed by Tasso, 
who was one of the most assiduous of her courtiers * and it 
appearing by his verses that he was touched with the charms 
of a Leonora, they tell us that we need not seek any fur-> 
ther for the object of his passion. 

The second Leonora that vmM given him for a mistress 
was the Gfountess of San Vitale, daughter of the count of 
Sala, who lived at that time at the court of Ferrara^ and 
passed for one of the most accomplished persons in Italy. 
Those who imagiued that Tasso would not presume to lift 
his eyes to his master^s sister, supposed ttmt he loved this 
kdy. It is certain ihat he had fre(}aent opportunities of 
discoursing with her, and that she had frequently been the 
subject of his verses. The third Leonora was a lady in the 
service of the princess Leonora of Est^a ' This person was 
thought by some to be the most proper object of the poet^s 
gallaptry. Tasso, several times, employed his muse in 
her service ; in one of his pieces he confe»ises that, con- 
sidering the princess as too high for his hope, be had fixed 
bis affection upon her, as of a condition more suitable to 
bis own. But if any thing can be justly drawn from this 

E articular, it seems rather to strengthen the opinion, that 
is desires, at least ^t one time, had aspired to a greater 



156 T A S 8 O. 

height. It appears, however, difficult to determine with 
certeinty in relation to Tasso's passion ; especially wlien 
we consider the privilege allowed to poets : though M. 
Mirabaud makes no scruple to mention it as a circdimstaoc« 
almost certain, and fixes it without hesitation on the prin- 
cess Leonora. Tasso, himself, in several of his . poems, 
seems to endeavour to throw an obscurity over his passion. 
. In the mean while Tasso proceeded with his '* Je- 
rusalem," which h^ completed in the thirtieth year of his 
age : but this poem was not published by hiii own autho- 
rity ; it was printed against his \vill, as soon as he had 
finished the last book, and before he had time to give the 
revisals and corrections .that a work of such a nature re- 
quired. The public bad already seen several parts, <whicb 
bad been sent into the world by the authority^ of his pa- 
trons. The success of this work was prodigious : it 'was 
translated into the Latin, French, Spanish, and even the 
oriental languages, almost as soon as it appeared *, and it 
piay be said, that no such performance ever before raided 
its reputation to. $uch a height in so small a space of time. 
But the satisfaction which Tasso must have felt, in spite of 
' all bis philosophy, at the applause of the public, was soon 
disturbed by a melancholy event. Bernardo Tasso, who 
spent his old age in tranquillity at Ostia upon the Po, the 
government of which place had been given him by the duke 
of Mantua, fell sick. As soon as this news reached his 
son, he imuaediately vi^ent to hitn, attended him with the 
most filial reg-ard, and scarce ever stirred from his bed- 
side during the whole time of his iUness: but all these 
cares were ineffectual ; Bernardo, oppressed with age, aild 
overcome by the violence of his distemper, paid the un- 
avoidable tribute to nature, to the great affliction of Tor-* 
quato. The duke of Mantua, who bad a sincere esteem 
ibr Bernardo, caused him to be interred, with much pomp, 
-ia the church of St, Egidius at Mantua, with this simple 
inscription on 4iis tomb : 

^' dsSA BfeRNARDI TaSSI." 

' This death seemed to forebode other misfortunes to 
Tasso ; foV the remainder of his life proved almost one con- 
tinued series of vejcation and arffliction. About this time a 
swarm of criticsbegan to attack his " Jet-usatemj^'arid the 
'fldaddmy d^lTk' Crusca, in particular, published a criticism 
*oV his poem, in which they scfupled not to prefer the rhap- 



T A S S O. 1ST 

* 

Bodies of Palci and Boywrdo to the '^ Jerosalem Delivered*'* 
During Tush's residence in the^ duke's coort, he had 
contracted an intimacy with a gdntlenan of Ferrara, and 
having entrusted him with some transactions of a^verydeli** 
cate oatore^ this person waa so treaeherous as ta speak of 
them again. Tasso reproached bis friend with his indis* 
cretiopi who received his ejipostuUtion in such a manner, 
that TassOrWas so far exasperated as to strike him : a cbaU 
lenge immediately ensued ; the two opponents met at St. 
Leonard's gate ; but, while they were engaged, three bro* 
diers of T'asso's antagonist came in and basety fell, all at 
once upon Tasso, wIk> defended himself so gallantly that 
he wounded two of them, and kept his ground against the 
others,- till some people came in and , separated them. 
This affair made a great noise at Ferrara : nothing was 
talked of but the valour. of Tasso; and it became a sort of 
proverb) '^ That Tasso with his pen and his sword was su* 
perior to all men.** The duke, being informed of the 
quarrel, expressed great resentment against the four bro- 
thers, banished them from bis domioiofis, and coo6scated 
their estates ; at the same time he caused Tasso to'be put 
under arrest, declaring he did it to screen him from any 
Mature designs of his enemies. Tasso was extremity mor- 
tified to see himself thus con&ned ; he imputed his deten- 
tion to a v^ry diifevent cause from what was pretended, and 
feaced an ill use might be made of what bad passed, to ruin 
him in the duke^s opinion. i . 

Though writers have left us very much in the dark with 
regard to the real motives that induced the duke to keep 
Tasso in confinement, yet, every thing being weighed, it 
seems highly probable that the affair of a delicate nature, 
said to have bi|en divulged by his friend, must have related 
to the princess Leonorai, the duke's sister * : and indeed it 
will be extremely. difficult, from any other considei^tioo, 
to account fw the harsh treatment he reoeived frem a 
prince, who had before shown him such peculiar pnarks of 
esteem and friendship. However, Tasso himself had un* 
doubtedly secret apprehensions that increased upon him 
every day, while the continual attacks which were made 

^ ft must be obserTed that bis late whom the reader may be refbrr^d for 

biographer, Serassi, denies that there many particulars respecting the dis- 

was ever any intrigue between Tasso puiabie events of Tasso's life, on which 

and the princess Leonora. — ^Tbe ques- it would be impossible to entet n^ • 

lion is ditcufsed at* great length, and woik like. the present. 
#ith much acuteness^ by Mr. Black, to 



118 T A 8 S O. 

Upon bii tfrcidit A» ati author^ not a litUe c<>Qtributad tm 
b«igbten bis oiolancboly. At length be resolved to take 
the first opponunity U> fly from bis prison, for so be es* 
teeesed it, which after about a year's detention be effected, 
and retired to Turin, where be endeavoured to remain con<» 
celled ; but notwithstanding all his precautions, he was 
soon known, and recofnaiended to the duke of Savoy, who 
received him into his palace, and showed him eVery miirk 
of esteem and affection. But Tasso's apprehensions still 
continued ; he thought that tbe duke of Savoy would not 
refuse to give him up to the duke of Ferrara^ or sacrifice 
tbe friendship of that prince to the safety of a private per- 
.son. Full of these imaginations he set out for Rome, alone 
and unprovided with necessaries for such a journey. At 
his arrival there he went directly to his old friend Mauritio 
Cataoeo, who received him* in such a manner as entirely 
to obliterate for some time the remembrance of tbe fatigue 
and uneasiness be had undergone. He was not only weU 
corned by Cataoeo, but the whole city of Rome seemed 
to rejoice at tbe presence of so extraordinary a person. 
He was visited by princes, cardinals, prelates, and by all 
tbe learned in general. But tbe desire of revisiting bis 
native country, and seeing his sister Cornelia, soon made 
him uneasy in this situation. He left his friend Mauritio 
Cataneo one evening, without giving him notice ; and, be- 
ginning his journey on foot, arrived by night at tbe mottn<* 
tains of Veletri, where he took up his lodging with sous* 
shepherds : tbe next morning, diftgruising himself in the^ 
\ habit of one of these people, he continued bis way, and m 
four days time reached Gaieta, almost spent with jpatigoe : 
here be embarked on board a vessel bound for Sorrento, at 
MyiiUiU p4ace be arrived in safety tbe next day. H^ entered 
tbe city and went directly to his sister's house ; she was a 
widow^ and tbe two soqs she had by her husband being at 
that titne absent, Tasso found her with only some of her 
female attendants. He advanced towards her, without dis« 
covering himself, and pretending be came with news from 
her brother, gave her a letter which he had prepared for 
tJiat purpose^ This letter informed her that ber brother's 
life was in great danger, and that he begged her to make 
use of all tbe interest her tenderness might suggest to her^ 
in order to procure letters of recommendation from some 
pQwerfi^i person, to avert the threatened misfortune. For 
further particulars of the affair, she was referred to the 



T A S S O. rt9 

% 

mesienger who brought her this intefiigence. The lady^ 
terrified at die nevrs, earnestly entreated him to give her 
a detail of her brother's misfortane. The feigned mesw 
senger then gave her so interesting an account of tbe ' pre*- 
tended story, tbat^ unable to contain her affliction, she 
fainted away. Tasso was sensibly touched at this eonvin^ 
cing proof of bis sister's affection, and repented that be had 
gone so far : he began to oomfort her, and^ reitioving her 
fears by little and iittle, at last discovered bioaseif to her. 
Her joy at seeing a brother whom she tenderly loved, was 
inoKpressible : s^ter tbe first salutations were over, she was 
very desirous to know the occasion of his disguising him^ 
self in that manner. Tasso acquainted her with his rea- 
sons, and, at the same time^ gi^i^g her to understand, that 
be would willingly remain with her unknown to the world, 
Cornelia^ who desimd nothing further than to acquiesce in 
bis pleasure, sent for her children and some of her neareert 
relations, whom she thought might be entrusted with the 
secret. They agreed that Tasso should pass for a relation 
of theirs, who came from Bergamo to Naples upon his pri- 
vate business, and from thence bad come to Sorrento to 
pay them a visit. After this precaution, Tasso took up his 
residence at bis sister's house, where he lived for some 
time in tranquillity, entertainiiig himself with his. two 
nephews Antonio and Alessandro Sersale, children of great 
hopes. Tbfe princess Leonora of Este, however, who was 
aioquainted with tbe place of his retreat, invited bim tb 
return to Ferra^-a, which he did in company with Gualingo^ 
ambassador from the duke to the pope. Concerning the 
motive of Tasso's return to Ferrara^ 8om6 authors think 
tbat, weary of living in obscurity, he had resolved to throw 
himself upon the duke^s generosity. This opinion seems 
indeed drawn ftxMiA Tasso's own words in a letter written by 
him to the duke of Urbino, in which he declares, ^^ that, 
he had er^eavoured to make his pleace with the duke, and 
had for tbat purpose' written severally to htm, tbe ducbess 
of Fermra, the duchess of Ui^inoy and tbe princess Leo^ 
nora ; ye< never received any answer hot- from the last, who 
assured him it was not in her power to render htm any fier«> 
vice." We see here that TasSo acknowledges hims^f the 
receipt of a letter from the princess ; and in regard to wbat 
he says to be the purport of it, it is highly reasonable to 
suppose^' that be would be very cautious of divulging the 
real^ con tents- «o the duke of Urbino, when his aflairswith 



140 



T A S S O. 



that lady i^ere so delicately circumstanced. This apparent 
bare to conceal the nature of his correspondence with her, 
seems to corroborate the former suppositions of his un- 
common attachment to her ; and when all circumstances are 
considered, it seems more than probable that be returned 
to Ferrara at the particular injunction of Leonora. 

The duke received Tasso with great seeming satisfaction, 
and gave him firesh marks of his esteem : but this was not 
all that Tasso expected ; his great desire was to be master 
of his own works, and he was very earnest that his writings 
might be restored to him, which were in the duke's pos- 
session ; but this was what he could by jio means obtain : 
his enemies had gained such an ascendancy over the mind 
of Alphonso, that they made him believe, or pretend to 
believe, that the poet had lost all his 6re, and that in his 
present situation he was incapable of producing any thing 
new, or of correcting his poems : he, therefore, exhorte^ 
bim to think only of leading a quiet and easy life for the 
future : but Tasso was sensibly vexed at this proceeding, 
and believed the duke wanted him entirely to relinquish 
his studies, and pass the remainder of his days in idleness - 
and obscurity. "He would endeavour," says be, in hi^ 
letter to the duke of Urbino, " to make me a shameful 
deserter of Parnassus for the gardens of £picurus, for sceneis 
of plea!sures unknown to Virgil, Catullus, Horace, and even 
Lucretius himself.'* Tasso, therefore, reiterated his , jen- 
treaties to have his writings restored to him, but the duke 
Continued i'nflexible, and, to complete bur poet's vexation, 
all 'access to the princesses was denied him: fatigued a;t 
length with useless remonstrances, he once more quitted 
Ferrara, and fled (as he expresses it himself) like anothe.r 
Bias, leaving behind him even his books ^hd manuscripts. 

He then went to Mantua, where he found duke GugU- 
elmo in a decrepid age, and little disposed to protect hiqi 
against the duke of Ferrara : the prince Vincentio Gonzaga 
received him indeed with great oaresses, but was too 
young to take him under his protection: From thence he 
went to Padua and Venice, but carrying with him in every 
part his fears of the duke of Ferrara, he at last had recourse 
to the diike of Urbino, who shewed him great kindness, 
but perhaps was very little inclined to embroil hitnself with 
his brother-in*law, on such an accouu^t: he advis,ed Tassp 
rather to returfa to Ferrara, which counsel he tooS, resolv^- 
iah once more to try his fortune with the duke. 



T A S S O, 141 

Aiphbnso, it may be, exaspejrated at Tasso's flight, and! 
pretending to believe that application to study bad entirely 
disordered bis understanding, and that a sttict regimen 
was necessary to restore him to his former state^ caused 
him CO be strictly conflned in the hospital of St Anne. 
Tasso tried every method to soften the duke and obtain 
bis liberty; but the duke coldly answered those who ap- 
plied to him, *^ that instead of concerning themselves with 
the complaints of a person in his condition, who was very 
little capable of judging for his own good, they ought 
rather to exhort him patiently to submit to such remedies 
as were judged proper for his circumstances.'' This con* 
finement threw Tasso into the deepest despair; he abau* 
done.d himself to his misfortunes, and the methods thai 
were made use of for the cure of his pretended madnesa 
had nearly thrown him into an absolute delirium. His 
imagination was so disturbed that he believed the cau^e of 
his distemper was not natural ; he sometime^ fancied him- 
self haunted by a spirit, that continually disordered his 
books and papers ; and these strange notions were perhaps 
strengthened by the tricks that were played him by his 
keeper. This second confinement of Tasso was much 
longer than the first ; but after seven years confinement, his 
release was procured by Vincentio Gonzaga, prince ol 
Mantua^ who took him wit|i him to Mantua. It is said th^t 
the young prince, who was naturally gay, being desirous to 
authorize his pleasures by the example of a philosopher, 
introduced one day into Tasso's company three sisters, to 
sing and play upon instruments : these ladies were all very 
handsome, but uot of the most rigid virtue. After some 
short discourse, he told Tasso, that he should take two of 
them away, and wouM leave one behind, and bade bim 
take his choice. Tasso answered '^ ibat it cost Paris very 
dear to give the preference to one of the goddesses, and, 
therefore, with bis permission, he designed to retain the 
three." The pV*ince took him at his word, and departed ; 
when Tasso, after a little conversation, dismissed them all 
handsomely with presents. 

At last, weary of living in a continual state of depend- 
ence, he resolved to retire to Naples, and endeavour to 
recover his mother's jointure, which had been seized 
upoa by her relations when he went injtp exile, with his 
father Bernardo. This appeared the only meaus. tp place 
him in the condition of life he so mucji d^ired. . He 
applied to his friends, and having procured favourable 






14a T A 1^ s a 

letters to tbe vieeroyi he took leave of the dulse of 
Mftcitua and repaired to Bergamo, where he stayed some 
time, and thence went to Naples. While bere» dividing 
bis time between bis studies and the prosecution of bis 
law*Buit, the young count of Palena, by whom be wa» 
highly esteemedy persuaded him to take up his resideo^^e 
with him for some time ; but in this affair be had not con- 
sulted .the prince of Conca, his father^ who, though he had 
a value fat Tasso^ yet could not approve of his son^s re^ 
ceiviag into bis boose tbe only person that remained of a 
family once devoted to the prince of Salerno. A conten- 
tion being likely to ensue, on this account, between tbe 
father and son, Tasso, with his usual goodness of dispo** 
sition, to remove all occasion of dispute, withdrew from 
Naples, and retired to Bisaccio with his friend Manso, in 
whose company he lived some time with great tranquillity. 
In this place Manso had an opportunity to examine the 
singular effects of Tasso's melancholy ; and often dispsteci 
with him concerning a familiar spirit, which he pretended 
to converse with. Manso endeavoured^ in vain, tm per* 
saade his friend that tbe whole was the illusion of a disturbed 
imagination ; but tbe latter was strenuous in maintaining 
tbe reality of what he asserted ; and, to convince Manso, 
desired him to be present at one ot those mysterious con- 
. versations. Manso had the complaisance to meet him the 
next day, and while they were engaged in discourse, on a 
sudden be observed that Tasso kept his eyea fixed upon a 
win^w, and remained in a manner immovable : he called 
him by bis name, several tinges, but received no answer : 
at last Tasso cried out, ^^ There is the friendly spirit who 
is come to converse with me : look, and you will be con- 
vinced of the truth of all that I have said.'* Manso beard 
him with surprize : be looked, but saw nothing except the 
sun-beams darting through the window: he cast bis eyes 
all over the room, but could perceive nothing, and was 
just going to ask where the pretended spirit was, when be 
heard Tasso speak with great earnestness, sometimes put- 
ting questions to the spirit, and sometimes giving answers, 
delivering the whole in such a pleasing manner, and with 
such elevated expressions, that be listened with admiration, 
and had not tbe least inclination to interrupt bim. At last, 
this uncommon conversation ended with the departure of 
tbe spirit, as appeared by Tasso's words; who turning to* 
ward MansOy asked him if his doubts were removed. Manso 



T A » 8 a us 

wras more amaawd than enr ; be scarce knew what to 
think pf bis friend'& situaticw, and wayed any furtber con* 
versation op the subject. 

At the approach of wiater they returned toNaples, wheq 
the prince of Palena again pressed Tasao to reside with 
him; but Tas$o, who judged it highly uoadvisaUe to com-' 
ply with his request, resolved to retire to Rome, and wait 
there the issue of bis law-suit. He lived in that city about 
a year in high esteem with pope Sixtus V ; when, being 
invited to Florence by Ferdinando, grand duke of Tusicany, 
who had been cardinal at Bx)me when Tasso first resided 
there^ and who now employed the pope's interest to pro- 
cure a visit from him, he could not withstand such solicita- 
tions, but went to Florencei fthere be met with a most 
gracious reception. Yet not all the caresses be received 
at the doke's court, nor all the promises of that prince^ 
eould overcome bis love for bis native country, or lec&sett 
the ardent desire be had to lead a retired and independent 
life. He therefore took his leave of the grand duke, who 
would have loaded him with presents; but Tas80, as uaiiaiy 
couid be prevailed upon to accept of no more than was ne- 
cessary for his present occasions. He returned to Naples 
by the way of Rome, and the old prince of Gonca dying 
about this time, the young count of Palena prevailed upon 
TassQ, by the mediation of Manso, to accept of an apart- 
ment in his palace. Here he applied himself to & correc- 
tion of his Jerusalem, or rather to compose a new work 
entitled ^^ Jerusalem Conquered," which he had begun 
during his first residence at Naples. The prince of Conea, 
being jealous lest any otie should deprive him of the poet 
and poem, caused him to be so narrowly watched that 
Tasso observed it, and being displeased at such a proceed- 
ing, left the prince's palace, and retired to his friend 
Manso' s, where be lived m^^ster of himself and bis actions; 
yet he still ccmtinued upon good terms with the prince of 
Conca. ^ 

In a short time after he published his ^^ Jerusalem Con- 
quered," which is a sufficient proof of the injustice of the 
criticisms that have been passed upon his ^^ Jerusalem De- 
livered ;" since the ^^ Jerusalem Conquered,'* in which he 
endeavoured to conform himself to the taste of his critics, 
was not received with the same approbation as the form^^r 
poem, where he had entirely given himaelf up to the en- 
thusiasm of. his genius. He bad likewise designed a third 



144 T A a S O. 

correction of the sume*poemf wbicb, as we are informed^ 
was to-have been partly compounded of the Jerusalem 
Delivered and Conquered ; but this work was never coai*^ 
pleted. In all probability, this last performanee would not 
have equalled the first : and indeed our poet seems to owe 
bis fame to the ^^ Jerusalem Delivered/' the second poem 
upon tbat subject being little known. 

Manso^s garden commanded a full prospa(6t of the sea. 
Tasso and bis friend being one day in a sumnier^hqu&tt 
with Scipio Belprato, Manso's brother-in-law, observing 
the waves agitated with a furious storm, Belprato said, 
** that be was astonished at the rashness and folly of men 
who would expose themselves to the rage of so merciless 
an element, where such numbers had suffered shipwreck.'* 
•* And yet," said Tasso, " we every nigbt go without fear 
to bed, where so many die every hour. BeKeve me, death 
will find us in all parts, and those places that appear the 
least exposed are not always the most secure from his at- 
tacks." While Tasso lived with his friend Maoso, cardinal 
Hippolito Aldobrandini succeeded to the papacy by the 
name of Clement VIII. His two nephews, Cyntbio and 
Pietro Aldobrandini, were created cardinals : the first, after- 
wards called the cardinal of St. George, was the eldest, a 
great patron of science, and a favourer of learned men : 
he had known Tasso when he resided last at Kome, and 
had the greatest esteem for him ; and now so e£u*nestly in- 
vited him to Rome, tbat he could not refuse, but once 
more abandoned, his peaceful retreat at Naples. As in 
consequence of the confines of the ecclesiastical state being 
infested with banditti, travellers, for security, used to go 
together in large companies, Tasso joined himself to one 
of these ; but when they came within sight of Mola, a lit- 
tle town near Gaieta, they received intelligence that 
Sciarra, a famous captain of robbers^ was near at band 
with a great body of men. Tas$o was of opinion, that they 
should continue their journey, and endeavour to defend 
themselves, if attacked : however, this advice was over- 
ruled, and they threw themselves for. safety into Mola, in 
which place they remained for some time in a manner 
blocked up by Sciarra. But this outlaw, hearing that 
Tasso was one of the company, sent a message to assure 
him that he might pass in safety, and offered himself to 
conduct him wherever he pleased. Tasso returned him 
thanks, but declined acceptjn^ the offer, not choosing. 



T A S S O. 145 , 

perhaps, to rely oh the. word of a person of such character* 

Sciarra upon this s^nt a second message, by which be ia« 

formed Tasso, that, upon bis account, be would withdranr 

his men, and leave the ways open. He accordingly did i 

so, and Tasso, continuing bis journey, arrived without anjT 

accident at Rome, where be was most graciously welcomed 

by the two cardinals and the pope himself^ .Tasso applied 

himself in a particular manner to cardinal Cynthio, who 

had been the means of bis coming to Ilome ; yet be n^- 

lected not to make his court, to cardinal Aldobrandini, and 

be very frequently <;onversed with both of them. One day 

the two cardinals held an assembly of several prelates, to 

consult, among other things, of some, method to put a stop 

to the license of the pasquinades. One proposed that Pas* 

quints statue should be broken to pieces and cast into ibe 

river. But.Tasso's opinion being asked, he said, /' it 

would be much more prudent to let it remain where it was; 

for otherwise from the fragments of the statue would be 

bred an infinite number of frogs on the banks of the Tyber, 

that would never cease to croak day and night." The pope|, 

to whom cardinal Aldobrandini related what bad pasised, 

interrogated Tasso upon the subject. " It is true, holy i 

father,** said he, *^ such was my opinion ; and I shall add 

moreover, that if your holiness would silence Pasquin, the 

only way is to put such people into employments as may 

give no occasion to any libels or disaffected discourse.** 

At last, being again disgusted with the life of a courtier, 
he obtained permission to retire to Napl& to prosecute bis 
law-suit. At his arrival there, he took up bis lodging in the 
convent of St. Severin, with the fathers of St. Benedict* 
Thus was Tasso once nK>re in a state of tranquillity and re- 
tirement, so highly agreeable to his disposition ; when car* 
dinal Cynthio again found means to recall him, by prevail- 
ing on the pope to give him the honour of being solemnly 
crowned with laurel in the fcapitol. Though Tasso himself 
was not in the least desirous of such pomp, yet he yielded 
to the persuasion of others, particularly of bis dear friend 
Manso, to whom he protested that he Went merely at his 
earnest desire, not with any expectation of the promised 
triumph, which he had a secret presage would never be.' 
He was greatly affected at parting from Manso, and took 
his leave of him as of one he should never see again. la 
his way he passed by Mount Cassino, to pay his devotion 
to the relics of St. Benedict, for whom he had a particuUr 

Vol. XXIX. L 



146 T A S S O. 

reneration. He spent the festival of Christmas in that mo-* 
nasteryi and thence repaired to Rome, where be arrived in 
the beginning of 1595. He was met at the entrance of that 
city by many, prelates and persons of distinction, and was 
afterward introduced, by the two cardinals, Cynthio and 
Pietro, to the presence of the pope, who was pleased to 
tell him, '^ that his merit would add as much honour to the 
laurel he was going to receive, as that crown had formerly 
given to those on whom it had hitherto been bestowed.*' 

Nothing was now thought of but the approaching so- 
lemnity : orders were given to decorate not only the pope'» 
palace and the capitol, but all the principal streets through 
which the procession was to pass. Yet Tasso appeared 
little moved with th^se preparations, which he said would 
be in vain : and being shewn a sonnet composed upon the 
occasion by his relation, Hercole Tasso, he answered by 
the following verse of Seneca : 

Magnifica verba mors prop^ admota excutft. 

His presages were but too true, for, while they waited 
for fair weather to celebrate the solemnity, cardinal Cyn* 
fhio fell ill, and continued for some time indisposed : and^ 
as soon as the cardinal began to recover, Tasso himself was 
seized with bis last sickness. 

Though be had only completed his fifty- first year, bi»^ 
studies and misfortunes had brot^ght on a premature old 
age. Being persuaded that his end was approaching, he 
resolved to spend the few days he bad yet to live in the 
monastery of St. Onuphrius.' He was carried thither in 
cardinal Cynthio's coach, and received with the utmost 
tenderness by the prior and brethren of that order. His 
distemper was now so far increased, and his strength so 
exhausted, that all kind of medicine proved ineflPectual. 
On the lOth of April he was taken with a violent fever, 
occasioned perhaps by having eat some milk, a kind of ali- 
ment he was particularly fond of. His life now seemed in 
imminent danger : the most famous physicians in Rome 
tried all their art, but in vain, to relieve him: he grew 
-worse and worse every day. Rinaldini, the pope's physi- 
cian, and Tasso's intimate friend, having informed him that 
bis last hour was near at hand, Tasso embraced him ten- 
derly, and with a composed countenance returned him^ 
thanks for bis tidings ; then looking up to Heaven, he ^* ac- 
knowledged the goodness of God, who was at last pleased 



T A S S O. 147 

to bring bim safe into port after so long a storm/' From 
that time his mind $eemed entirely disentangled from 
earthly affairs : he received the sacramerit in the chapel of 
the monastery, being conducted thither by the brethren. 
When he was brought back to bis chamber, be was asked 
where be wished to be interred ; he answered, in the church 
of St. Onuphrius : and being desired to leave some memo- 
rial of his will in writing, and to dictate himself the epitaph 
that should be engraven on his tomb, be smiled and said, 
** that in regard to the first, he had little worldly goods to . 
leave, and as to the second, a plain stone would suffice to 
cover him.*' He left cardinal Gynthio his heir, and desired 
that his own picture might be given to Giovanni Baptista 
Manso, which had been drawn by his direction. At length 
having attained the fourteenth day of his illness, he received 
the extreme unction. Cardinal Cynthio hearing that ha 
was at the last extremity, came to visit him, and brought 
him the pope's benediction, a grace never conferred in this 
manner but on cardinals and persons of the first distinction. 
Tasso acknowledged this honour with great devotion and 
bumilityj and said, ^* that this was the crown he came to re- 
ceive at Rome." The cardinal having asked him '^ if he 
' had any thing further to desire," he replied, " the only fa- 
vour he had now to beg of him, was, tliat he would collect 
together the copies of all his works (particularly his ^^ Je- 
rusalem Delivered," which he esteemed most imperfect) 
and commit them to the flames : this task, he confessed, 
might be found something difficulty as those pieces were 
' dispersed abroad in so many different places, but yet he 
trusted it would not be found altogether impracticable." 
'He was so earnest in his request, that the cardinal,^ unwill- 
ing to discompose him by a refusal, gave bim such a doubt- 
ful answer as led him to believe that bis desire would be 
complied with. TasSo then requesting to be left alone, the 
'cardinal took his farewel of him with tears in his eyes, leav- 
ing with him his confessor and some of the brethren of the 
monastery. In this condition he continued all night, and 
till the middle of the next day, the 25th of April, being the 
festival of St. Mark ; when, finding himself fainting, he em- 
braced his crucifix, uttering these words : In manus tuas^ 
. Domine — but expired before he could finish the sentence. 
Tasso was tall and well-shaped, his complexion fair, jbut 
rather pale through sickness and study; the hair of bis 
head was of a che^nut colour, but that of his beard some* 

L 2 



14$ T A S SkO. 

what lighter, thick and bushy; his forehead square and 
high, his head large, and the fore part of it, towards the 
end of his life^ altogether bald ; bis eye-brows were dark '^ 
his eyes full, piercing, and of a clear blue ; his nose large, 
bis lipa thin, his teeth well set and white ; his neck well 
proportioned ; bis breast full ; his shoulders broad, and 
all bis limbs more sinewy than fleshy. His voice was strong, 
clear, and solemn ; he spoke with delibera.tion, and gene- 
rally reiterated his last words : he seldom laughed, and ne- 
ver to excess. He was very expert in the exercises of the 
body. In his oratory, he used little^ action, and rather 
pleased by the beauty and force of his expressions,, than 
by the graces of gesture and utterance, that compose sq( 
great a part of elocution. Such was the exterior of Tasso: 
as to his mental qualities, he appears to have been a great 
getiius, and a soul elevated above the common. rank of 
mankind* It is said of him, that there never was a scholar 
more humble, a wit more devout, or a man more amiable 
in society. Never satisfied with bis works, even when they- 
rendered his name famous throughout the world ; always 
satisfied with bis condition, even when be wanted every thing ^ 
entirierly relying on Providence and his friepds; without 
malevolence towards his greatest enemies; only wishing 
for riches that be might be serviceable to others, and 
making a scruple to receive or keep auy thing himself that 
was not absolutely necessary. So blameless aqd regular 
a life was ended by a peaceable death, which carriedhim 
off in 1595, in the fifty-second year of his age. 

He was, buried the same evening, without pomp, ac-. 
cording to his desire, in the church of St. Onuphrius, and 
bis body was covered with a plain stone. Cardinal Cyn« 
thio had purposed to erect a magnificent monument to bis 
memory; but the design was so long prevented by sickness 
a^nd other accidents, that, ten years after, Manso coming 
to Rome, went to visit bis friend's remains, and would bare 
taken on himself the care of building a tomb to him ; but 
this cardinal Cynthio would by no means permit, having 
determined himself to pay that dut;^ to Tasso. However^ 
Manso prevailed so far as to have the following words en- 
graven on the stone : 

HIC lACET TORQVATVS TASSVS. 

Cardinal Cynthio dying without putting his design in^ 
execution, cardinal Bonifacio Bevilacqua, of an illustrious 



T A S S 0. lit 

I 

fkmily of Ferrara, caused a stately sepulchre to be erected, 
]« the church of St. Onuphrius, over the remains of a fuan 
whose works had made all other monuments superfluous. 

As to hi» works, we have mentioned his principal : his 
**Rinaldo,'* **Aminta/* and " Gierusalemme liberata," an 
epic poem in twenty-four books. This poem had been 
published in an imperfect state, through the importunity 
and authority of some, of his noble patrons, but the first 
complete edition of it appeared at Ferrara in 1581, 4 to^ 
The critics failing upon this work, he proposed to give a 
hev^ and corrected edition of it, or, more properly speak- 
ibg, to write it over again, which be did, and published at 
Rome, under the title of ** Gierusalemme conquistata," in 
1593, 4to. But the poem, thus accommodated to the taste, 
and ,butnour of bis critics, was not received by the world at 
large with the same applause as the first edition had been, 
which. is the only one now read. Many writers, especially 
among the Italians, have compared Tasso to Virgil; and 
their partiality has, perhaps, made Boileau criticize him 
more severely than he would otherwise have done : he calls 
Tasso^s verges tinsel, when compared with the gold of Vir- 
gil; land censures the simple judgment of those, who pre- 
fer " le clinquant du Tasse a tout Tor de Virgile." In the 
mean time some virtuosi of Italy have made it a question 
for a long while, whether Ariosto does not deserve the pre- 
cedency of Tasso: a comparison which more judicious cri- 
tics think r/ever ought to have been instituted; and Tira- 
boschi says we may as well compare Virgil's £neid with 
Qvid's Metamorphoses. Tasso's " Jerusalem ".is regularly 
epic in its whole construction, and ranks deservedly among 
t^e few of that species of composition, ancient or modern, 
Which all a;ges will probably acjmire. A little too much of 
the marvellous, one or perhaps two of the episodes, and 
part of his machinery, are the only subjects to which the 
, ihost rigid criticism has ventured to object. Where some 
of his ifefectSy some of his conceits, are visible, they have 
been referred to his age, but these are not frequent, and 
it seems^ generally acknowledged that while he is inferior 
to Homer, in simplicity and fire, to Virgil, in tenderness, 
and to Milton, in daring sublimity of genius, he yields to 
no other in any poetical talents. 

T,he %irorks of Tassa have been often printed separately, 
at various tunes and places. The abb6 Serassi has enu- 
merated 132 editions of the <^ Jerusalem Delivered," of 



150 T A S S O. 

which be thinks the best was that printed at Mantua by 
Francisco Osanna, in 1584, 4to. The '^ Jerosalem Con- 
quered^* had but thirteen editions, of which the last is in 
1642. ** Rinaldo" had fifteen, and "Aminta" fifty-eight, 
without reckoning those which appeared -out of Italy. Of 
the translations of the first poem, Serassi mentions eleven 
in the different dialects of the Italian, and twenty-threb in 
the other languages in Europe, but he has omitted some, 
particularly the French translation in Alexandrian verses, 
by M. Montenlas.. Tasso*s whole works, together with hit 
life, and several pieces for and against his '^ Gierusalemme 
Liberata,** were published at Florence, 1724, in six volumes, 
folio. The lijTe was written by his friend Battista Manso, 
and printed at Rome in 1634 ; of which that by the abb6 
de Charnes, printed at Paris. in 1690, 12mo, is only an 
abridgment. But the best edition of the whole works, in 
Mr. Black's opinion^ is that of Venice, 12 vols. 4to, al- 
though it does not bear so high a price. His " Aminta,'* 
and '* Gierusalemme liberata,'' have been translated into 
English ; the former being published at London in 1628 ; 
the latter in 1713; and again, with the true Spirit of the 
Original, by Mr. Hoole, in 1762. Within these few yean 
English literature has been enriched by a very valuable 
and elaborate *^ Life of Torquato Tasso ; with an historical 
and critical account of his writings, by John Black," ISIO, 
2 vols. 4«to. In this the reader will receive ample ^atis-* 
faction as to the disputed parts of Tasso's eventful history^ 
and many illustrations of the times in which he lived, and 
of the lives of his contemporaries, the relative state of li- 
terary history, ai^d, indeed, will find an asseihblage of 
every kind of evidence that can now be expected to throw 
light on the genius of this truly great poet. " 

TASSONl (Alessandro), an Italian poet of great fame, 
was born al Modena, in 1565. He was early left an or* 
phan, and exposed to many difficulties, yet be cultivated 
the knowledge of the learned languages with great assi- 
duity, and, in 1597, entered into the service of cardinal 
Ascdnio Colonna, as his secretary. With him he went 
into Spain ; and, after the death of that patron, contrived 
to be introduced into the court of Charles Emanuel duke 
of Savoy. Not agreeing with the prince cardinal, son of 
the duke, he retired^ after a time^ and sought an asylum 

1 Life by Hool«, prefixed (o hit Translation.— Life, as above, by Mr. Black. 



T A S S O N I. tit 

witb cardinal LudovUio, who gave him a pefnsion of iOfk 
Roman crowns, and apartments in his palace. After tbo 
death of this cardinal, he had recourse at length to hia 
natural sovereign Francis I. d'^ste, duke of Modena, from 
whom he received an honorary salary. He died in 1635^ 
and was buried in St. Peter^s. He was a member of the 
academy of the Umoristi. His character was lively an4 
agreeable, notwithstanding his turn for satire. 

His works are, 1. his '' Secchia rapita,^' or rape of the 
bucket, which the Italians in general consider as the first 
liiodel of a mock^beraic poem that was given in their Ian* 
guage. It seems, say the critics of that nation, that the 
graces clothed this poem with all their ornaments. A de^ 
licate burlesque, with the art of joining great things te 
amall ; an unaffected lightness, and consummate elegance^ 
concurred in it to form a complete Italian model of an 
beroi-comtc poem, which will in tinie be admired by 
strangers. Tb^ edition most valued is that of Ronciglione 
in 1624. It was translated into French by Peter Perrault^ 
1678, in two vols. 12aiD; and again by M. de Cedars, ia 
1759, in three volumes. 2. ^^ Considerazione sopra il Pe* 
trarca." He thought Petrarch, great as be was, too much 
imitated, and tried in this publication to lessen the rag^ 
for that kind of imitation. In that he succeeded. 3. He 
published also " Pensieri diversi," which he made,a very 
amusing book^ ^His ^tack upon the imitators of Petrarch 
occasioned a contest between him and Gius. Aromatari ; 
and that produced finally, 4. *^ La Tenda rossa, risposta 
di Girolamo Nomisenti (Alessaudro Tassoni) ai dialoghi de 
Falcidio Melampodio,'' (Giuseppe de gli Aromatori,) Franc* 
fort, 1613, 8vo. His will is also cited as a piece of hu« 
mour, and there are some productions by him still remain-^ 
ing in manuscript ; among the rest, one entitled '< Esequie 
della monarchia di Spagna." Many interesting particulars 
respecting Tassoni, accompanied with contemporary liter 
rary .history, and much sound criticism, has just been given 
in ^^ Memoirs of Alessandro Tassoni, &c* By the late Jo- 
seph Cooper Walker, esq. M. R. LA.'* 1815, 8vo, edited 
by his brother, Sam. Walker, esq. No other reference 
can hereafter be wanting. * 

TATE (Francis), an English lawyer and antiquary, the 
son of Bartholomew Tate, of Delapre, in Northamptonshire^ 

1 Memoirs by Walker. 



IM T A T R 

was born in that couoly in 15^0, and etrter^d of Magdalen 
college, Oxford, in 1577. After ^bitie application to study 
he left the university without taking a degree, went to the* 
Middle Temple, and after bis admission' to the bar, ac^v 
quired great reputation as a coun^eUor, not only learned in' 
the law, but as a good antiquary, and Saxon scholar. He 
had a seat in parliament aboat the end of quef^n ElizabethV 
reign, and in the 5th James I. was Lent-reader of the Mid- 
dle Temple, and about that time became one oF the justices 
itinerant for Wales. He dited Nov. 16, 161^, leaving va-' 
rious manuscripts on legal antiquities, the Aite of whtch^ 
seems unknown, but the following have been printed in 
Gutch's " Collcetanea CuriOsa t'* 1. •* The antiquity, use, 
and privileges of Cities, Boroughs, and Towns.'* 2.^' The 
antiquity, use, and ceremonies of lawful Combats in Eng- 
land*" And in Hearne*s " Curious Discourses'* are, 3. ^* Of 
Knights made by Abbots. 4.-^* Questions about the an- 
cient Britons." 5. '< Of the antiquity of Arms in England.*' 
6. ** Of the antiquity, variety and ceremonies of Funefais 
in England :" and 7. ^ The antiquity, authority, and suc- 
cession of the High Steward of England." ^ 

TATE ^ (Nauum), a well known Psalmodist, was born 
in Dublin in 1^52. His father, Dr; Faithful Tate, was also 
son to a Dr. Tate, a clergyman, and was born in the county 
of Cavan, and educated in the college of Dublin, where 
he took the degree of D.D. In 1641, being then minister 
of Bally hays, in that county, he was a great sufferer by the 
rebels, against whom he had given some informatidn, and 
in his way to Dublin was robbed by a gang, while about 
the same time his house at Ballyhays was plundered, and 
all his stock, goods, and books, burnt or otherwise de- 
stroyed. His wife and children were also^o cruelly treated^ 
that three of the latter died of the severities inflicted upon 
them. After this he lived for some time in the colles:e of 
Dublin, in the provost's lodgings. He became then preacher 
of East Greenwich, in Kent, and lastly minister of St. 
Werburgh's church, in Dublin. He was esteemed a man 
of gi*eat piety ; but, as Harris says, was thought to be 

* He was matriculated by the name babiy, when he came fco EogUndi^ 

of Nahum Teat, which Mr. Malone adopted the new spelling of his name.*' 

seems to think was his real ivame; but On tbfs we haye only to remark, that 

'* being called by the lets polished of the name is spelt both vays in Ib^ title* 

bis countrymen, 7a/e, according to the pages of his father's works, 
ordinary XrisTi pronunciation, he t>ro- 

1 Ath. Ox. Tol. I. new edit. — Archaeologia, Vol. !• 



TATE, ISS 

puffitm)i<¥9lly incUftedy as perhaps may be stiriniscd front 
his own and bis son's Christian oaoofes, names taken from' 
the Scriptures being very common with a certain class of the- 
puritans. He was living in 1672, but the time of his death 
we have not been able to fix. Besides two occasional ser-^ 
iDpfiSy be publisbedi 1. ^' The doctrine of the three sacred 
per$oas of the Trinityy'* Lond. 1669^ 8vo ; and, 2. ^* Me- 
ditations/' Dublin, 1672) 8vo. 

His son» Nahum, at the age of sixteen, was admitted of 
Dublin college, but does not appear to have followed any 
profession. It is observed by Wacburtoo, in the notes to 
t)ie Dunciad, that he was a cold writer, of no invention, 
but translated tcderably when befriended by Dryden, with 
whom he sometimes wrote in conjunction. He succeeded 
Shadwell as poet«laureat, and continued in that office till 
hi^ death, which happened Aug. 12, 1715, in the Mint,- 
where he < then resided as a place of refuge from the debta 
which he had contracted, and was buried in St. George*flf 
church. The earl of Dorset was his patron ; but the chie^ 
use be made of him was to screen himself from the per* 
secutions of his creditors. Giidon speaks of him as a man 
of .great honesty and modesty ; but he seems to have been 
ill qualified to advance hiijuself in the world. A person 
who died in 1763, at the age of ninety, remembered him 
well, and said he was remarkable for a down-cast look, and 
had seldom much to say for himself. Oldys also describes^ 
him as a free, good-natured, but intemperate companion. 
With the^ qualities it will not appear surprising that he 
was poor and despised. He was the author of nine dra- 
matic performances, and a ]great number of poems; but' 
is at present better known for his version of the Psalms, 
in which he joined with Dr. Brady, than any other of his 
works. Bis miscellaneous poems are enumerated in Gib- 
ber's *^ Lives,'' and by Jacob, who says Tate's poem on 
the Death of queen Anne, which was'one ofithe last, is 
'^ one of the best poems he ever wrote." His share in 
the *^ Second Part of Absalom and Achitophel" is far from 
inconsiderable ; and may be seen in the English Poets. He 
published also *^ Memorials for the Learned, collected out 
of eminent authors in history," &c. 1686, 8vo; and his 
'' Proposal for regulating of the Stage and Stage Flays," 
Feb. 6, 1698, is among bishop Gibson's MSS. in the Lam« 
beth library. * 

. 1 Gibber's Lir^s.—Nichols'i Poemt.— Jacob's liTes.-— Harris'! edition of Ware^ 
—Malone's Drydeo, toL I« p. Ul. 



IS4 T A T I A N, 

TATIANi a writer of the primitive church, was a Sy«f 
riau by birth, and flourished about the year 170. He wat 
a sophist by profession, very profound in all branches o£ 
literature, and acquired great reputation by teaching rhe* 
torie. Being converted to Christianity, he became the 
scholar of Justin Martyr, ivhom he attended to Rome, and 
partook.with him of the hatred of the philosopher Crescens : 
for he tells us himself, that Crescens laid wait for his life, 
as well as for. Justin's. While Justin lived he continued 
steady in the orthodox belief, but after his death becamd 
the author of a new set of fanciful opinions, which, after 
propagating them for some time at Rome, he carried into 
the east, and opened a school in Mesopotamia, and otheff 
places* Nothing is certainly known concerning his death. 

His apology for Christianity, entitled ^^ Oratio ad Grae*^ 
cos,'' ^< An address to the Greeks," the only genuine work 
of Tatian which remains, every where breathes the spirit 
of the Oriental philosophy. He teaches, that God, after 
liavifig from eternity remained at rest in the plenitude of 
his own light, that he might manifest himself, sent forth 
from his simple nature, by an act of his will, the Logos^ 
through whom he gave existence to the universe, the es- 
sence of which had eternally subsisted in himself. ** The 
Logos," he says/ '^ through the will of God, sprang from 
his simple tiatiire." This first emanation, which, after the 
Alexandrian Platonists, he calls the Logos, and which, like 
the Adam Kadmon of the Cabbalists, is the first medium 
through which all things flow from God, he represents as 
proceeding, without being separated from the divine na- 
ture. Matter is conceived by Tatian to have been the pro- 
duction of the Logos, sent forth from his bosom. And the 
mind of man is, according to him, reason produced from 
a rational power, or an essential emanation from the divine 
Logos. He distinguishes between the rational mind and 
the animal' soul, as the Alexandrian philosophers between 
nig and -i^ix^, and the Cabbalists between Zelem and Ne- 
phesh. The world he supposed to be animated by a sub- 
qrdinate spirit, of which all the parts of visible nature 
partake : and he taught that daemons, clothed in material 
vehicles, inhabit the aerial regions ; and that above the 
stars, aeons, or higher emanations from the divine nature, 
dwell in eternal light. In fine, the sentiments and lan- 
guage of Tatian upon these subjects perfectly agree with 
those of the ^Egyptian and the Cabbalistic philosophy. 



T A T I A N. US 

wbetice it may be presumed that hei derived tbemi in a 
great measure, fram these sources. After Plato, this Chris« 
ttan father maintained the imperfection of matter as tho 
cause of evil, and the consequent merit of rising above ail 
corporeal appetites and passions ; and it was, probabljTf 
owing to this notion, that, with other fathers, he heid tha 
superior merit of the sute of celibacy above that of mar« 
riage; and that he adopted, as Jerooi relates, the Gnostic 
opinion, that Christ bad no real body. The tenor of 
Tatian's Apology concurs with what is known of his his* 
tory, to prove, that he was a Platonic Christian. His *^ Ora« 
tio" was first printed at Zurich in 1546, together with the 
Latin version of Conradas Gesner. It was afterwards sub* 
joined to Justin Martyr^s works, printed at Paris in 1615 
and 1636, folio ; but the best edition of it is that of Ox« 
ford, 1700, in i2mo. ' 

TATISICHEF (Vassili), a modern historian, inr 1720 
began to collect materials for a complete history of Russia ; 
and continued bis researches without intermission for the 
space of thirtiy years. This indefatigable compiler finished 
bis account to the reign of Feodor Ivanovitch ; and was 
bringing it down to this century, when death put a period 
to his labours. Part of this great work was consumed in a 
fire ; and the remainder was published after the author's 
death by Mr. MuUer. It consists of three large volumes in 
quarto. The first contains several curious dissertations re«v 
lative to ihe antiquity of the Sclavonian nation ; while the 
second and third comprise the history of the Russian empire, 
from its earliest origin to 1237. 

It can hardly be called a regular history, but is rathet a 
connected series of chronicles, whose antiquated Sclavo* 
nian dialects are only changed into the Russian idiom ; anjl 
the author is justly censured for not regularly citing tbe 
various annalists as he abridges or, new models them, and 
for not assigning the reasons which induced him to prefer 
the writers whose relations he has adopted, to those which 
he has rejected. ' 
. TATIUS (Achilles), an ancient Greek writer of Alex- 
andria, is supposed to have lived in the third century, but 
this is uncertain. According to Suidas, who calls him 
8tatius, be embraced Christianity in the latter part of his 
life, and became a bishop. He wrote a book ^* Upon tbe 

1 Cave, ro% I.-*-F«bric. BiM. GrtBC^Bmciser. ^ Coxe^ TnTelk in Ituiiim. 



iS6 T A T I U S. 

Sphere,** ^ which seems to have been nothing more than « 
commentary upon Aratus. Part of it is extant, and has 
been translated into Latin by father Petavius, tinder the 
title of ^* Isagoge in pheenomena Arati." He wrote alio s 
romance, probably from its licentiousness when he was a 
beatben, entitled, ^* Of the Loves of Clitopbon and Len^ 
cippe,*' in eight books, which were first published iky 
Latin only, at Basil, 1554. This Latin rersion, made by 
Annibal Cruceius of Milan, was repubtisbed by. Comme-^ 
IiJius, with the Greek, at Heidelberg, 1608, 8vo, with Lon-i' 
gm and Parthenigs, writers of the same class : aftet whieh^ 
a more correct edition of the Greek was given by Salota* 
•fus at Leyden, 1640, in l2mo, with Cruceius's version* 
The best edition is that of Boden, Gr. and Lat. Leipsic,"^ 
1776, 8vo.* 

TAUBMAN (Frederic), an eminent German critic, was 
bom at Wonscisch in Franconia, about 1565. His father, 
who was a tradesman of the lower order, died while Taub«' 
man was a child, and his mother married a taylor,' who, 
however, had sense enough to discern the boy's capacity, 
uid resolved to bring him up to letters. For that purpose 
besenthim to/CnImbtfch, a town of Franconia, to school, 
where he remained until be was sixteen years of age, and ' 
snade aq uncommon progress in literature. The circum* 
Btances of his parents, however, were so very indifferent, 
that they were unable to funiish him with much, and it is 
aaid that'he was frequently constrained to beg his bread 
from door to door. While he was ait this school his mothet* 
died, and his father-in-law married another wife, who 
^ proved very kind to one now become an orphan iu every 
way. 

In 1582, George- Frederic, marquis of Brandenburg, 
baving founded a college at Heilbrun, a town of Suabia, 
collected the promising youth out of all his states, and 
Taubmao among the rest, whose great capacity recom- 
ynended him to public notice ; and who, besides his skill 
in the Xatin and Greek authors, had acquired much fame 
by bis poetry. After staying ten years at Heilbrun, he 
went in 1592 to Wittemberg, whefe he soon distinguished 
himself; and Frederic William, the prince of Saxony, con- 
caved so high an esteem for him, as often to admit him 
into his company. The professorship of poetry and the 

! VotBiuf de Soieat. Math.— rubric. Bibl. Qmc^Mo^n^m HiA. MaUi. ' 



T A U B M A N. i5T 

beiles UUres becoming vacant in 15^5^ the university asked 
it of the court for Taubimn, who accordingly took pofr* 
session of it in October that year, and held it, with great 
honour to himself, and advantage to the public, as long as 
he lived. He died of a fever in 1613, leaving five children 
ai^d a wife, whom he had married in 1596. He was ono 
of' those few happy men who had qualities to make himself 
beloved as well as admired. His very great learning pro« 
c^red him the adoiiration of mankind ; and the liveliness 
of bis disposition, and many private virtues, secured to 
bki^ tbeir esteejn and affection. 

. . His works are, I. *^ Commentarius in Plautum, Francof* 
1605 ;" and in 1612, not only enlarged, but more correct* 
A third edition, with additions, by Janus Gruterus, was 
published after his death in 1622. In these editions, which 
ace all in quarto, Taubman has greatly contributed towards 
the restoration of the tri^e text of Plautus. Joseph Scaliger 
complimented Taubman upon his Commentary on Plauti^s ; 
and tells him, that it has all the marks of penetration, 
judgmi^ut, and industry. The learned have since ever con* 
sidered it in tilis light ; and many consider the second and 
third editions, not,withstanding the labours of any later cri* 
tic, as the best we still have of Plautus. After his death 
was published, by his son, bis 2. '^ Commentarius in Vir* 
gilium ;^' which Tanaquil Faber scruples not, in one of his 
letters, . to call the best commentary we have upon Virgil ; 
but this is not the general opinion. 3. '^ De lingu^ Latini 
dissert^tio,^' published by biipself at Wittemburg in 1602. 
He ^Isp published other small pieces, and some Latin 
poetry. , Taubmanniana came out at Leipsic in 1 703 : 
Taubman had a great turn for raillery, but whether any of 
bis genuine witticisms can be found in this collection mjay 
reasonably admit of a doubt. ^ 

TAULERUS (John), a writer famous among the mysti* 
cal devotees, flourished in the fourteenth <?Qntury, \y''e 
have no certain account of the year or place of his birth*. 
He was born in Germany, and bepame a monk of the Do^ 
minican order, and acquired great skill in philospphy ^nd « 
sqbooUdivinity ; but he applied himself pvincipally to myisr^. 
tical divinity ; and as it was believed that h^ was , favoufed . 
with revelations from heaveo, he was styled the illu,xniwiU4^c 
dMoinei He had great talents for preachings and there %^, 



i$i T A U L E R U S. 

ibo preacher in that age more followed than he. He re- 
proved with great zeal and great freedom the. faults of 
every body; and this made him odious to some monka^ 
whose persecutions of him he bore patiently. He sub* 
mitted with the aame resolution to other trials, and it was 
thought that he was thus visited by God, that he might 
not grow proud of the extraordinary gifts which he bad 
received from heaven. The two principal cities in which 
he preached, were Cologne and Strasburg. He died in 
the latter after a long sickness, May 17, 1361, and , was 
honourably interred there in the academical college, near 
the winter-nuditory. He wrote several books ; concerning 
which different judgments have been formed; somecatho* 
lies have censured them, and some protestants have com^ 
mended them. Among the latter, we may mention our 
Dr. Henry More, who exceedingly admired Taulerus^s 
work entitled << Tbeologia Germanica,^* which Luther also 
praises. This was first translated from the German into 
Latin by Surius, and then by Sebastian Castalio, and went 
through a great many editions from 1518 to 1700, when it 
was printed in French at Amsterdam. ^ 

TAURUS (Calvisius), of Beryta, who flourished under 
the reign of Antoninus Pius, is mentioned as a Platonist of 
some note. Among his, pupils was Aulus Gellius, who has 
preserved several specimens of his preceptor's method of 
philosophising. He examined all sects, but preferred the 
Platonic : in which he had at least the merit' of . avoiding 
the infection of that spirit of confusion, which at this pe- 
riod seized almost the whole body of the philosophers, 
especially those of the Platonic school. In a work which 
he wrote concerning the differences in opinion among die 
Platonists, Aristotelians, and Stoics, he strenuously apposed 
the attempts of the Alexandrian philosophers, and others, 
to combine the tenets of these sects into one system. He 
wrote several pieces, chiefly to illustrate the Platonic phi- 
losophy. He lived at Athens, and taught, not in the 
schools, but at bis table. A. Gellius, who was frequently 
one of his guests, give^ the following account, in his << Noc- 
. tes Atticse," of the manner in which they were conducted: 
*^ Taurus, the philosopher, commonly invited a select num^ 
her of his friends to a frugal supper, consisting of lentils, 
an4 a gourd, cut into small pieces upon an «arthen dish; 

> Gen, Dict**Biof . Brit, art, M9r6,«*JPfehcri Thsatrvm; 



TAURUS, IS9 

and during the repast, philosophical conversation, upon ra** 
rious topics, was introduced. His constant disciples, f^hom 
h6 called his family, were expected to contribute their 
fthare towards the small expence which attended these 
simple, repasts, in which interesting conversation supplied 
the place of luxurious provii^ion. Every one came fur^ 
nrshed with some new subject of inquiry, which he was 
allowed in his turn to propose, and which, during a limited . 
time, was debated. The subjects of discussion, ifi the^ 
conversations, were noft of the more serious and important 
kind, but such elegant questions as might afford an agreed- 
able exercise of the faculties in the moments of convivial 
enjoyment; and these Taurus afterwards frequently iltas* 
trated more at large with sound erudition.** ^ 

TAVERNER (Richard), a pious layman of the reigna 
of Henry VI IL Edward, Mary, and ElistiJ^eth, descended 
from an ancient faitiily in Norfolk, and, was the eldest son 
of John Taverner of Brisley, where he was born in "^1505. 
He is said to have studied logic for some time in Oorpua 
Cbristi college, Cambridge, and, if so, must have been 
contemporary with archbishop Parker. He afterwards re«- 
moved to Oxford, and was one of the learned scholars in- 
vited by cardinal Wolsey to his nev college there. Wood 
informs us that he took the degree of A.B. on May 21, 
1527, and that of A.M. in 1530, having been made oner of 
the junior canons the yea¥ before. Having thus acquired 
ii competent knowledge in the sciences and learned lan- 
guages, he studied law in the Inner Temple. In 1534 he 
was introduced to court, and being taken into the service 
©f sir Thomas Cromwell, principal secretary of «tate, he 
was recommended by him to the king for one of the clerks 
of the signet tn 1537, which place he held until the reign 
of queen Mary, notwithstanding his commitment to the 
Tower about four years after for ** slandering the ladic 
Anne of Cleve," or rather on account of his being deemed 
one of the gospellers^ as they were termed, of his college. 
He certainly was a friend to the reformation, and in order 
to promote it undertook a new translation or edition of the 
English bible, " recognized with great diligence after most 
faithful examples," Lond. 1539, fol. It was dedicated to 
the king, and allowed to be read in churches. But in 1543, 
his patron^ lord Cromwell, being then dead, the popish 

1 A«in6eH»^Nl»ot.Atlic9.— BruGker. 



r ' 



160 T A y E R N B R. 

bishops caused the priatefs to be imprisonedl and punished f 
and the edilor hhtoself also was oomaniited to the Tower* 
Here however be acqailled himself so well^ that he was not 
only soon after released, but restored again to the king's 
iarour, and chosen a member of parKameat in 1 545. Bale 
calls TaTeraer's edition of the Bible^ ** Saerornai Bibliorom 
recognition sen pottos versio nora;" bst it is neither » bare 
revisal of the preceding editions, nor a new version, but 
between both. It is a correction of what is called Mat« 
thewe's Bible ; many of vi4»ose marginal notes are adqptedy 
and many omitted, and others inserted by the editor. Arch-* 
bishop Newcome thinks it probable that Tavenier's patron^ 
Cromwell, encouraged him to undertake this work, on ao^ 
count of his skill in tiie Greek toi^e ; bot it is miwe pro*^ 
bable that he was principally induced to it by the printers, 
as we learn frcnn a passage in the dedication, in which, aftev^ 
telling the king that a correct or faultless translation of the 
Bible must be the production of many learned men, and of 
much tio>e and leisure, he adds ; ** but forasmuch a$ the 
printers Were very desirous to have the Bible rome forth as * 
faultless and emendately as the shortness of the time iwt 
the recognising .of the same would require, tbey desirsd 
him, for default of a better learned, diligently to overlook - 
and peruse the whole copy, and, in case be should find any 
notable default that needed correction, to amend the 
saaae, &c" 

/ On the accession of king Edward, Taverner, although a 
layman, had a special licence in 1 552 to preach through* 
out the king's dominions. Good preaching was at that 
time ao rery scarce, that not only the king's chaplains were 
obliged to make circuits round the country to instruct the 
peoploy aad to fortify them agiiinst popery, but even lay^ 
men, who waKT scholars, were employed for that purpose. 
From this however he was obliged to desist when queen 
Mary came to the\brone, and therefore retired to Norbiton 
hall, near Kingston in Surry, where he lived quietly du« 
ring the whole of her reign. As soon as Elisabeth became 

Jueeog to whom he presented a congratulatory epistle in 
■akin upoa that happy occasion, he resumed his preaching 
in Oxford and elsewhere. Her majesty had a high respect 
for him, and besides ofiering him knighthood (which Tan« 
ner jthioks he aeeepted), put him into the commissioa oi 
the peace for the county of Oxford. Here numerous con* 
cams were intrusted to biai| and in 1569^ he was made bigii 



•f 



T A V E R N E K. i^i. 



\ 



•iveriff of A^comtty. Hm »m1 was mHI nmrn agftiiiU fio*- 
pery, profattUy «MriD);r to tfae frtghtfitl «ifc<cts of popish bi** 
Ig^ty wbicfa fa^ bad witnetaed in Mary^s rekgfi, a^id not- 
witbstaiMliiDg fais tiew office, be contkitied his preachirig. 
Ev^m white bigb dieriff, iie afsfieaied in St. Mary's piiipit, 
wirb ills goU cfaata about bis mcckf and bis aanoixl by bis 
tidti, and is AAid ta have' b^«» oine of bis seraions w tbe 
Mii^wing saardfi : *^ ^jrivHig aut tfae b»04Mi4 ef St« Mary's, it 
the fet«M»y stage * wbefie I now aland, I have brought yoa 
'9mae ^ne biakaiis, ibakod in the ai^n of eiiarity, ai^d oare^ 
fiiHy coajKuved fit tiie chockens of thefobureb, tke sparroifB 
of 4be apim, and die sweet swaliows of aalvailion.*' This 
atyle was nraab ^adaaired in 4iis daya aveii <by the generaiky 
of the aeboiam, and indeed soch alUtertttion wtm long after- 
wards a favonriDe both with speakers rand bearers, lie also 
eodeavottned io promote tbe reforoMitioQ by bis wrttiaga 
aod translatioos ; of which, besides bis BiUe, we *hai^e the 
follow4f»g iist : 1. *< The saan and ptdi lof cc PsttlaiS of Da^ 
Tid, reduced into a form of fnrayers and mediiatiiNHiSy wMn 
certain other godly orisons,'* Lond. IM^, ^q. g. ^ Tbb- 
£f»stles BiaA Goapek, with a brief pcatiU apsm ibe«aaie, 
froas- Adi^m to Low 'Suti'day ; and from £aster«o Adrent," 
Lo^d. 1 540, two parts, 4to. 3« ^< Fmtit lof Faiife, con*ain>» 
ing all the prayers of the pa^riarchs^ he, iii. the Old -and 
New Tesianent," ibid, 1562, 12nio. 4. ^< Tbe Garden ef 
Wysdoflie, &c. containing the sayings of prinoea^ pbdoso* 
pbera, 4ic.'' XS^j 2 books. 5. ^* F4ores aliqwot sentential 
ruoi ex vartis aeriptoril>tts," transited foots Srasmtis. S, 
<* CtttoOis Diistieha MomliSi," Lond. 15&a,.d9o, 1555» 4fto. 
7. «<io MhiMikn F^btianum lib. 1," li^. 6. '' €ateei|t»* 
mud 6dei." 9. ^* Provei4>s «r adagies gatheaad 'Oai of the 
Chitiadcs of Crasaaus,'' \54S. Uis tfwisbtie«8. wese, 
^ Gresteie's Pra3/«i« on thefsalim ;" ^vCkiiiiesston el -the 
Gerpaaos, with the apology of Melaoethon^'* ukil^ aosiM 
tracts from Erasroiak ^ 

In tbe latter part of his life, Taaerner lived at a seaH bo 
bad built at Woodeatoa in OKfordsfdre, snbeace he daaes a 
letter to itrchbishop Parker in J46£« excuainghianseif ^tn 
lending the queen 100/., from inability. «t that time* He 
died lit tbta piace^ July 14^ IS76, in the seventieth yetar 
of his age, »nd was boried in tbe cbeiioal of thieoiiitrch 
with great solemnity. He married two wiYes^ Margaret 

• St. Mary'g puTpft wM tht n ^t tC^tfe. 

Vol. XXIX. M 



16« TAVERNER. 

the daughter of Walter Laonbert, esq. ; aoil after her de« 
cease, Mary, the daogbter of nr John Harcpurt, and bad 
issue by both. Ward gives some account of bis fomily and 
descendants in bis ^* Lives of the Gresbam Professora.*' ^ 

TAVERNIER (John Baptist), a Frenchman, fan^otis 
for his travels, was born at Pads in 1605. His father,. who 
was a native of Antwerp, settled at Paris^ and traded very 
largely in geographical maps, so that the natural incltna^ 
lion which Tavern ier had for travelling was greatly in» 
creased, by the conversations which daily passed in hia fa- 
th^r^s house, concerning foreign countries. He began to 
gratify bis passion so early, that, at the age of two and 
twenty years, he had seen the finest countries of Europe^ 
France, England, the Low Countries, Germany, Switaech 
land, Poland, Hungary, and Italy. During tlh^ space of 
fwrty years he travelled six times into Turkey, Persia, and 
the East Indies, and by all the different routes he codd 
take. In the course of these peregrinations, he gained a 
great estate by trading in jewels ; and, being ennobled by 
Louis XIV. purchased the barony of Aubonine, near the 
lake of Geneva, in 1668. He bad collected a great uuaDM> 
ber of observations, but be had nut learned either to speak 
or write well in French ; for which reason he was forced 
to employ others in drawing up his relations. M. Chap* 
paseau, with whom he lodged at Geneva, lent htm bis pen 
for the two first volumes of his travels ; and M. Cbspeile 
for the third. They have frequently been printed, an4 
eontain several curious particulars; yet not without some 
fables, which were told him purely to impose upon hts 
simplicity. . He is charged also with stealing fromothc^rs 
to fill, up bis own accounts : thus Dr. Hyde, having cited » 
irery long passage from Tavernier, tells us thai) <^he bad 
taken it like a downright plagiary from a book printed at 
Lyons, 1671, in 8vo, and written by father Gabriel de Chftt 
Aon, who had lived in Persia thirty years." 
■» Tasemier's aflairs became embarrassed at theJatteriBiid 
of 'bis life; by reason of the miamanageinent and ill con4 
dwct Jof^a nephew, who had in the Levant the direeuoU'Ol^ 
a cargo purchased in France for 222,000 livpes, stnd. wbjob 
should- have pmdaced above a- milK^n. Tavevniervjtbeyii^ 
fiDre under«cM>k a seventh jouruey lalo the Eaat, to reet^/ 

» Ath Oxvol. I.-— Ma ters'sHisl.of C.G.C.C.— W«rd'8Grash»niFrof€sior». . 
--N«wcombe'f English Biblical TrgmUtionJk 



taver;N1|:k. les 

ibis disorder ; for wbic^ purp<^e he saki^bis \fm^fmyjd.^*f 
bonne in 1687 to the otar^^uis Dn Que«ne, bu^bn^i^^oa 
bis mjr^ at Moscovir^io Juiy 16^^ aged^igbty-foufj eafiSi. 
He was of tbe Protestaiiit religfOR^ Several pariie^^ acoxirog 
wbicb %vere tbe JDutcb and tW.Jct^i^its, were ofFeiKkid at 
oertaun things ins^erted in, his travel^i, and be has basin 
abii$ed in . print oa.tbat accotuit. He has one chapiar 
wfaere he cofisiclers tbe conduatfof tbe Hollanders inAa^a; 
and is. very severe upon tbe directors of their East India 
company^ by wbooi he represents bimself to have sMflFeeed : 
but iie declares at tbe beginning that be does nut blame 
tbe conduct of tbe.Dutcb in general. The firj^t editioaof 
tiia^* Travels" was printed at Pari*, 1$76 — 79, 3 vols. 4to» 
That fnostcoaunon is in 6 vols. 42mo. ^ 

TAYLOR (Brook), a celebrated philosopher. and ma* 
tbematician, was born^ at Edmonton in Middlesex, Aug. 
2Bf 1685. His grandfatberi Nathaniel Taylor* was one-of 
Cfae Puritans whom . Cromwell elected by letter, June l^^ 
1653^ to represent tbe county of Bedford in*. parliament. 
His father^ John Taylor, .esq. of Bifron^i in Kent, U said to 
have stiH retained some of the austerity of tbe puritanic 
eharacter, but was sensible of the power of rnQsic ; in con* 
sequence of which, bis son Brook studied that science 
early, and became a proficient in it, as he did also in draw* 
ing. He studied the classics and mathematics with a prif» 
vate tuibr at home, and made so successful a progress, that 
At fifteen be was thought to be qualified for the miiversity. 
in 1701 be went to St. John's college, Cambridge,, in tbe 
rank:of a fellow-commoner, and immediately appHed him* 
telf ^itfa z^eal to the study of mathematical science, which 
alone could gain distinction there. *It was not long, before 
be became/an author in that science, for, in 17ds^be wrote 
bis i* Treatise on the Centre of Oscillation/' though it:;was 
not published till it appeared some ye^rs after jn tt^et Phi^ 
losopbical Transactions. In 1709,, he took thi^dc^^eaif 
baefaeior of :kwB ;;. aiid about tim same time ^ommeafied a 
eorcespondence with professor I^eil, ou^M^jepifs gjEiltJieinbdm 
ld)!>ti^se mathematical dii^qnisition. An i74Sih]ei\wsie>leel]ed 
into the Royal Society, to which. i«) tbsit {yeaiiibfi.«pre$,eRted 
tbree papers,, one, ^f On the. Ascent of: Wiater, be44f\reea tmo 
Qiass Planes.'' 2.. '* Oa -the C^»tve of OsiclMation.!' *• 
** On tbe Motion of a stretched String." He presented 

» Mor<fl^f.M&ifct Hist.' ' .■''*-■' 



■*/ * '><- 



M 2 



IM *r A Y L O lU 

«bo, in If 'll| A ^ftp^r on hti fiiiioiirlte science of tmittt^ 
hnt thhj though mentioned in fak correspondettce with 
Kei), does not appear in the Transa<:tion8. 

His distinguished abilities as a mathematician bad notr 
reoomiftiended him particularly to the esteem of the Royal 
Society, who, in 1714, elected tiiin to the office of secre- 
taty* In the tame year, he took the degree of doctor of 
iaw9) at Cambridge. In iliS, he published his *< Methoo 
ivm incrementorufn/' and a curious essay in the Philoso* 
(ihtcid Transactions, entitled, ** An Account of an Experi^ 
«ient for the Discovery of the Laws of Magnetic Attract 
- tiot) ;^* and, besides these, his celebrated work ou perspec- 
tive, entitled ** New Principles of Linear Perspective : or 
the art of designing, on a plane, the representations of all 
sorts of objects, in a more general and simple method than 
has hitherto been done.^^ This work has gone through se- 
veral editions, and received some improvements f^om Mi*. 
Colson, Lucasilin professor ftt Cambridge. In the same 
year Taylor conducted a controversy, in a coi^respondence 
with Raymond count de Montmort, respecting the tenets 
of Malbranche, which occasioned him to be noticed aftet*- 
wards in the eulogium pronounced t)n thftt celebrated ltn(^<- 
tapbysiciimv In 1716, by invitation frott several learned 
fAen, to whom his merits were well known, t>r, Taylor 
i^sited Paris, >her^ he was received with every tiaark of 
inspect and distinction. Early in 1 7 17, he returned to Lou- 
don, «t}d composed three treatises, which are in the tbir- 
tietb volume of the. Philosophical Transactions. Bui: bis 
Jiealth having been impaired hy intense application, he w?i8 
now advised to go to AiX'-la-chapelle, and resigned his 
office of secretary to the Royal Society. After his return 
1o £figl«Bd in 1719, it appears that be applied bis mind to 
iHidiesof a religious nature, the result of which were found 
tnsome dlssersaftions preserved among his papers^ '^On 
Ibe Jewish Sacrifices," t&c. He did not, howevet, neglect 
hiaifbrmer pursuits, but amused himself with drawings im«- 
proiFed his treatise on linear perspective, and wrote a de- 
Csmeeof it against the attacks of J. Bernouilli, in a paper 
HfHkk appears in the thirtieth vohime of the Philosophical 
Transactional^ Bernouilli objected to the work as too ab**- 
a^rusej and denied the author the merit of inventing liis syn- 
tern* It is indeed acknowledged, that though Dr. B. 'f'ay- 
-rior I'discov^red it for himself, he was not the ficst who ha4 
-moiitim^sme path, as it had been.4we,^x.G!wi^ ybaJ^'t 



I / 



TAYLOR. l$f 

I 

in % beok ^n peiff^aeliTt, published at P^s^ra i^ 16Q0« Tini 
abftvusi^ness of his wofk has been pbviatec} by atu>tber an^ 
^hof, in a work #ntHi#4> ^* Dr« Brook Taylor's inethod of 
f^npwnver made eaay, bpib in iheory and practice, {^c/ 
by Joshua Kirby, painter '^ and this publication ha« c^aa* 
.tinged to be the roaniia) both of artists and dilettanti. To^. 
ward) the end of 17^0, I>r, Taylor visited lord Bolingbroke, 
naar Orleans, bul retqrnpd the next year, and published 
bis last paper in the Pbilosopbical Transactions, which d^ 
scribed, '^ An Evperim^u Q>ade to ascertain the Proport 
%iw of Estpansion in tb0 TberoKkaieter, with regard to thff 
l>egree of Heat." 

Dr. Brook Taylor was twief married, and both tinses s0 
unfortanate as to losa bi^ wife after a very short period. 
The first lady was a Miss fridges, of Walliogtw in Surry, 
to whom he was united in 1 72 1. Aa this lady, though ef a 
good family, bad little fortune, bis marriage with bev 
eecasioned a rupi;ure with his father, whi^b lasted till aftet 
the birth of a son, who unhappily did not long surmt. 
'Be became a widower in 1723. The two following^ yean 
he resided with his father at ^ifront ; and, in 1795^ formed 
a new marriage with the daughter of John Sawbridge, esqi^ 
ofOlantigbtn Kent. In 1799, he succeeded to his £a-r 
tber*s estate at Bifrons^ but in the following year had ibe 
misfortune to lose hia second wife in ebtld*bed; ablevv 
which, in the impained state of his bealtb, he was unable te 
sustain* His remaining days were days of imbecUity an4 
sorrow, and be anrvived little meve than a year- On ib« 
'*29th of December, 1731, he died of a dediBe, in the 
ferty-siatb year of hia ajge, and waa buried at ^/Anne'Sj 

in the interval between 1721 a^d bi$ deaiib, be ibppeiil . 
te^ haw been in part disabled by ill healthy and in pari 49^ 
verted by otber objects from severe piudy. ** A Treatiat 
on Ldgaittfonbs," addreaaed to bi# friend lerd Pauley, ajSieck 
aterda lord Abercom, ii almoat tlie only frui^ of ibi« labni^r 
Which has been Scfmi to beiof^g to that period ) And tbia 
baa never been publiabed. Aftei ^e Idsa ^^f bil^ nwim^ 
We, he aeema tobave endeavcKnred to diver|.bis,eij^4 by 
study^; and an essay, entitled ^* Conlemptatio Pbilosopbiiais'' 
pkinted^ but net publmbed, by bb grandaaiiiy air WillMMi 
Voung, in 11»%9 wajs pirobaWy wfiweft m^tifnt^f and lor 
this piit-pose. It was the effort of a strong mind, and affords 
a most remarkaMe^ escampte of tb^ close t^eel^heilaaalMh^ 



U6 T A Y L O H. 

tnati«iatiy applied to metaphysics. ^ Tbe^€fibrty' h<»rrref, wts 
Tain, and equally vain were tb^ eartiest endeavourt of bis 
friendsi to amtise and comfort him by sdcial gratificatioiib. 
Dr* Taylor is proved, by his writings to have bean afinisblMl 
scholar, and a profound mathematteian : h^ is recorded to 
have been no less a polished gentlemaD, and a' sound and 
serious Christian. It is sald'of him, that *^ he inspired pitT- 
tiality on his first address ; be gained'itnpercepcibljrcm ae- 
quaintance ; and the favourable impressions whitb be^ma4e 
from genius and accomplishments^ be fixed in farther in- 
timacy, by the fundamental qualities of benevolence Md 
integrity.** His skill in drawing is also commended in ^le 
highest terms. ** He drew figures,*' says his biographiM'y 
^^ with extraordinary precision and beauty of pencil; band- 
scape was yet his favourite branch of design. His origiflial 
landsc^apes are mostly painted in water-colours, but wkb'dl 
<tbe richness and strength- of oils. They have a force of 
colour, a freedom of touch, a varied dispbsitten of planes 
of distance, and a learned use of aerial as welt as linear 
perspective, which all professional men who have seen these 
paintings have admired*. Some pieces are compositioiitf; 
some are drawn from nature : and the general cbaracteris- 
tic of their effect may be exemplified, by sopposii^ - tBe 
bold fore-grounds of Sal vator Rosa to be bached by the 
succession' of distances, and mellowed by* the saber bar- 
mony which distinguishes the productions of Gaspar Pouii^ 
sin. The small figures, interspersed in the tatidscapes, 
wpuld not have disgraced the pencil of the correct ^and dstf* 
•sic Nicolas.*' • ^- :. * 

• The daughter of Dr. Brook Taylor, by bis second wife, 
survived him ; and it is to her son, sir William Yoivng, 
that the public is indebted for the account of that emi« 
nent man, from which the present narrative bas been drawn 
up. * « L t , : 

* TAYLOR (Jeremy), a very learned and celebrated pre- 
late, the son of Nathaniel and Mary Taylor, was bom:(ti 
t*H^ pttrtA of the Holy Trinity in Cambridge, where bis 
father was in the humble station of a barber : and was bnp^ 
iise**Ail^r P5,- 1613: He was educated' from the age of' 
•tb^^ee'^tb that of thirteeti at Perseus free^scheo}^ in Caitf- 
bi^d'gei aiidihen entered a sizer of^Oaius-eollegCv^n Ai^^- 
gUbt 1^26; tinder Mr/ Bacbcrofl. ' In tbis society be took 



:.ii»^n> iij^ pf^e4,M»*^ ^'Jf^^f!V^^J^^^l^^i& -^-^ -^-r- 



Taylor: i«7 

bis degree of feaiehelor in 1631, ani) bi«hap JUisl: »«)?% ib^t 

^as soon eg be wa» graduate, be wa& chosen fellow. Tbe 

improvement which be made in bis infancy was now foi^. 

lowed lip wilb increasing assiduity ; and to sucb an extent 

bad be- carried his theological studies, as to be tbougfat 

worthy of admission, like Usbel*, into holy orders befoiie 

be bad attained the age of twenty-one. About tbe same 

iime be took bis degree of master of arts, and removed to 

^Xondon, where, being requested by bis obamber-feUow, 

Mr. Rbden, to supply his turn, for a short time^, at the 

Jectnrein 8u FmuVs cathedral, bis talents attracted. tbe at- 

. tention of arebbisbop Laud, wbo prefeired bim to a fellow* 

,«bip at All Souls college, Oxford, <^ where be might ban^ 

tiflie> books, and company, to complete himself in those 

aeveral parts of learning into* which be bad made so fair 

nn entrance." Into this fellowship be was admitted in 

.January 1636 ; but, as Wood remarks, k was an arbitral^ 

ao^ contrary to tbe statutes. 

^ About this time also be was appointed chaplain in ordi- 
nary to tbe^ king) having already been made chaplain to 
archbishop Laud ; and in March 16S8, be was instituted to 
tboi rectory of Uppingham, in the county of Rutland, by 
Francis Dee, bbhop of Pet^borougb, on tbe presentation 
of William Juicon, bishop of London. He bad no soon^ 
yeoei^v«d institution into this preferment than be commenoed 
Usohai^ over it, and continued to reside at Uppingham 
.until 1642. In May 1639 be was married in tbe church of 
iJiat town to Pbosbe Landisdale, or Langsdale, a lady of 
whose family little is known, unless that she had a brothejT 
of tbe medioal professimi, a Dr. Langsdale of Gainsbo* 
fOugU By her Mr. Taylor bad four sons and three daugb^ 
ters. Of the exemplary manner in which be administered 
tbe spiritual oooeerns of his parish, a fair ^oncluision may 
be drawn, both from his ardent piety, and from the way 
iD which be himself speaks of bis expert^ce- in the conduct 
of souls. He was Ao less attentive and. useful in n^anaging 
theaecular affairs of bis parish, of which many proofs e«ist 
in its records. * • > • - . . ^ 

The tranquillity )of bia life here wassobn disturbed bjr 
4be progress of that commotion ^,bieh finally aiif^ompUahfd 
tbe destruotlon of tbe monarchical and episcopal govern- 
ments. As yet he bad appeared as an author ^oKdyiiiia 
'^ Sermon on the anniversary of the Gunpowder Treason,^* 
{irinted at Osfift'd' id i 639^ but had ti^w inore. urgent 



f9 T A Y L O B. 

fMasioii to ttnploy bb peii» wbile airg«Mpl<aeiM4 to p«^ 
mise any etfect, in defence of tbe cbnrch. Wkb thta view 
be proiittceti in 1642, bis <' £pis«op8cy aticrted," wbicb' 
WM {Hiblisbed at Oxford by the king't (ioiiioi»nd| and ran 
in course wiib tbe vrorka of bishop Hall and otbera on .tbe 
•aiBe subject. This ia dedicated to bis friend and petroo, 
sir (^briiitopber Hattoo, afterwards lord Hatton of Kirby^ 
whose son be afterwards assisted io preparing am editioii 
of tbe Psalms, according to tbe authorized version* This 
appeared in 1 644, aitd was entitled ^' Tbe Psalter of Da* 
vid, with Titles and Collecu according to the matter of 
each P&alm, by tbe r^t beo. Christopher HaAton." His 
biographer says, that ^^ all that ia new in tbia publicalioo 
was the production of Taylor. The preface, wbtoh bearp 
hit neoie, and the titles and collects adapted to each pseUiSy 
were tbe efforts of his oiind.^' This was a very popular 
w«rk daring tbe whole of the seicenteenth century ^ but in 
tbe tenth edition, now before u% Lond. 168S, botii Het* 
ton^s and Taylor's names are omitted from tbe title and 
preface, yet it appears even then to have been sold by the 
eame c^ ^^ Hatton's Psalms,'' as tbe Uader has so titled it 
lHQ tho back. 

Jn August 1 642, wbea tbe king went to Oxford, Taylor 
was ealled upon to attend him. in bis capacity of cbaplaiot 
Md was there honoured with a doctor's degree^ but pro* 
bably lost bis living, as after tbis time there is no trace of 
tiiaa 9^ Uppingham ; yet though it was sequestered^ it doet 
iM>t appear that be relinquid^ bis olaMa to it, oer, in 
l^int of fact, does any rector occur between his departim 
and tbe year t66l, when John Allingtoo aigos himself as 
such. Being one of tbe king's retinue. Dr. Taylor p ro b e * 
biy aeeoaapanied tbe arasy, but there are no distinct par«> 
tieulars of his progress at this unfortunate period, and it ia 
prebaMe that be vetircxl into Wales, cstben in the semmer 
of 1645, or the spring of the following yeiar. We ca% 
however, more certainly trace his pen in the controvec^ies 
jof tbetimeis. When the asseaably of divines at WeaifBtn<- 
ster published their ^< Directory," which abolished the 
wsual forms of prayer, Dr« Taylor published *^ A Discourse 
eeneermng Prayer eitca»pQ(re, or by prelenoe of tbe Spirit^ 
in justification of authorbed and set forms of iJtiirgie^^^ 
This was {NEioted. in 1646, bwt without the place beseg 
fpeeafted« it 'bad b^en preceded, probably about 1644, 
t|{ith*^^Akrep6Jbgy for attthouaed and setfoBoa of Liturgy.^ 



T=A"Y Lt> R. Aft 

agptinst the. {>n0tM0e of tbe Spirit/* Tbeyr iWm;« '9e^y 

able defence of liturgy. 

While in Wales^ be was obliged to maintain huMelf #nd 
family by keepings school, at Newtani in Caraiartbett9btf^ 
wbere be was assisted by Mr. Williaoi Wyatt of Sl« Jobo*<i 
(^oHege, Oxfcud, and tbey jointly produced, in 1647, ^^A 
i^ew and easie instimtioa of Grammar/' London, l2m(H 
This seance little Kolame has two- dedieattons, one in Latin 
to lord Hatton by Wyatt, the other in English, by Taylor, 
addressed to lord Hatcon's son* The eminenoe of On 
Taylor's learning, and the integrity of bis principles pro-* 
fiured him sebolars, who^ as bisbiopapber says, ^< baving^ 
as it were, received instsuction from this prophet in. the 
wilderness, were transplanted to tbe universities.** He 
loiiAd also a generous patron in Richard Vaugbafti, .ea#I o^ 
Carbery, who resided at Golden Grove^ the seat 'of his 
ancestors, in the parish of Lianfibangel Abefbythiek, Mar 
LbtfdiilQ Ifawr, in Carmarthenshire. Into this faospitabte 
faj»ily be was received as chaplain, iaad had a stipend 
allotted bim, as he himself intimates in bis dedication to 
lord Carbery, prefixed to bis '^ Course of Sermons.*' It 
would appear that persecution bad followed him iQt4^ 
Wales, before he obtained bis present comfortable asyKim, 
but in what manner or to what extent is not koown^ 

The i|rst production of the quiet be now enjoyed, was 
bis ^^ Liberty of Propbecying,*' 1647, 4to, lyritten in be* 
half of the clergy of tbe church of England, wbo were aoiw 
genei«lly excluded from their benefices, and f<Mrbidden to 
minister according to her liturgy. This was republished 
in 1650, along with his preceding works, and with the ad^- 
dition of the '< Life of Christ/' in 2 vols. 8vo. Of his 
^ liibeny of Propheoyrng,'* bis biographer nemarks that 
tl^re are few writings in which learning and sBodestyy 
charity and argument, are more happily blendec) *. His 

* Tl)t8 work, however, did DOt escape transcribed. ^Mn tbe wrttisg of tb% 

insure. In it he was supposed to lay book, Or. Taylor made use of a like 

«lswtt socAi principles, as struck at the atratagem as Hales did th writing his 

faundatioii of att hitrarehy ; and or book ^f Sohisn, to break the Presby^ 

Ihat account gave offence to several terian power, and so countenance (JU* 

aMisbers ef the church of England^ " visions between the factions, whick 

Willie nsany of its adTenmries thought were tod much VBitei afaiast'theloyll 

themselves cooAtenanced by these prin- dieigy. For in the said book he insisti 

ei|)lef, and even jn^t^fipd in thnr ho9- on the same topics of schism and 

^iKtteaagaiMiit. Woodbasdestfanted bereay, of tne incompetency of couti«- 



ttpon this work ; and what he says is cits and fathers, td defermme our eodc^ 

" " ,ri 

V .1 



so ewriooSj that it well deservat to b« siasiical cootrarerates, aod of .Mropv- 



170 T A Y L O ft. 

next production was " The Gfeat Exemplar,'* the purpose 
of which he states to be, ^^ to advance the necessity, and 
to declare the manner and parts of a good life ; to invite 
some persons to ibe consideration of all the branches of it, 
by intermixing something of pleasure with the use ; and 
others by such portions, as would better etitertain them 
than a romance." In 1650 be published one of bis most 
popular and standard works, <^ The Hule and Exercises of 
Holy Living,*' of which the twenty- eighth edition was 
published in 1810. In Oct. 1650, be lost his valuable pa- 
troness the countess of Carbery, and delivered a funeral 
sermon on that melancholy occasion, which was published 
the same year. 

Previous to the death of the countess of Carbery, Tay* 
lor bad been occupied in writing his ** Rule and Exercises 
of Holy Dying," and that part of his volume of *^ Sermons^" 
wbieh was preached at Golden Grove, in the summer half- 
year. These, with the addition of the funeral sermon 
lately delivered, and a ** Discourse of the Divine institn* 
tion, necessity, and saiiredness of the office Ministerial," 
be published in 1651. His ** Holy Living" and *< Holy 
Dying" have been supposed by tbeir late editor, the rev. 
Thomas Thirwall> to have been Dr. Taylor's favourite 
works, and tbey are certainly elaborated with more than 
bis usual care; and the latter, a^ being occasioned by the 
eouniess of Carbery *s illness, comes more from the heart. 
His *' Sermons" bave been ably analysed by his biographer, 
and are indeed to be recommended to the attention of the 
present age, rather in ^he.form of extracts or selections, 
than as oYiginally published. 

In 1652 Dr. Taylor published *^ A short Cateofoism, 
composed for the use of the schools in South Wales^'* 
which be afterwards reprinted under the head *^ Credenda^* 

lous conscience9 ; and urgetb far more denomioating the action, I see no caoj^ 

cogent argool^ents than Mr. Hales did, why our author, whose ends w«re for 

but slill had prepared hb Sc^oir ^ap* the restoring of peace, seeing he t^ 

i0MtM, or Antidote to prevent any dan* presented the caMsea of the var.so hi- 

gerous effect of bis discourse: for the volous and i neons id erabie, ought to be 

judicious reader may perceive such a represented as a criminal or adver!i« 

preserve, though it lie in ambuscada, sary." If Mi« fuel be aigh^y aUedgMb 

and is compacted in a narrow compass, the excuse certainly, is not v^iUd. la 

as may easily rouse those troops, the mean time, Dr. Taylor's book. has 

which began too soon to cry victoria, ever been admired i hod those, mko 

and thought of nothing else but divid> bave not approved pf mapj^ thiAgs,.^^ 

ing the spoil. And if the learned au- vanced in it, bave allowed it to abound, 

thor (Hales) did this and was blameless, as indeed all his works do, with ^nse, 

the goodness of the end jn such ^ases wit, «|id ^pf^hvf^^S^epfmPt** ■ ..I 



TAYLOR. 11^1 

in his ^<* 6old«n Grove*^' In the same year he consented 
to the publication of a ** Discourse on Baptism, it» tnsti- 
"tntion, and efficacy upon all believers/' which was only 
part of a projected work of a larger description. This wns 
followed, in 1653, by another collection of "Twenty-five 
Sermons" for the winter season^ making, together iirtth vhe 
former, a course of sermons for the whole year. Thetie, 
with ten additional, preached after the restoration, were 
ipepublished in one volume folio, and before 1678 had gone 
through five editions. In 1654, he published ^^ The Real 
Pi%&ence and Spiritual of Christ in the blessed sacrament 
Tproved against the doctrine of Transubstantialion." . Thff 
he dedicated to Warner, bishop of Rochester, with whom be 
afterwards engaged in controversy. In 1655, thei short 
^eatechism he had published for the youth of Wales, conf- 
siderably enlarged, was republished under the title of 
" The Guide of Infant Devotion, or the Golden Grove, a 
manual of daily prayers and litanies fitted to the days of 
the week : containing a short summary of what is to be be- 
.lieved, practised, and desired. Also festival by ni as, ac* 
cording to the manner of thp ancient church." 

In the same year appeared his " Unum necessarium, or 
the Doctrine and Practice of Repentance." This, says his 
iHOgrapher, led him into the consideration of original sin, 
and its effects ; points which were at that time much con- 
troverted between the Arminian and Calvinistic parties, 
and he adopted the opinion of the former, carrying it to a 
degree that -the latter utterly condemned, and which the 
ehurch of England does not approve. His sentiments with 
.regard to the doctrine of original sin were then, and Bth 
tftjMresent, generally considered heterodox ; and are irre-^ 
conei table to the tenets of our church, as laid down iti 
her liturgy, articles, and homilies. It was this, therefore, 
which drew him into controversy. His friend, the bishop 
of ^ Rbchester, Dr. Warner, shewed his disapprobation of 
tbe chapter of original sin, in a letter addressed to Dr. 
Taylor, dated July 28, 1656. It was also censured by Dr. 
Sanderson, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, and others, to 
#faoni be endeavoured to reply in two tracts, the one 
** Deus justiiicatus, bra Vindication of the Glory of the 
dM^ine attributes,^ &c." and the other <^ A further explica- 
tion of the d^dtrioe of original sin, &c." 

During some part of this controversy, he was in con* 
finement ifi €kepMm ^^vstle, froin a suspicion tbttt he^al 



ua TAYLOR 

f^POcerned in th# insurrection of th^ royalusu 9X Salitbtiry» 
btti appears to have beea released after the autumn of 16 ji$« 
when he was at home^ and lost two of his sons by tbe small 
poK. After this, in tbe beginning of 1 657, be went to 
I^ndoo, baving determined to relinquisb altogetber bii 
aituatioii in W Jes ; and oflSciated to a private congrega- 
tion of loyalists, but not witbout gre»t danger from tbe 
prevailing party. During tbe preceding year, a treatise 
appeared whicb bis biographer says is attributed to Du 
Taylor by Anthony Wood, and still occupies a place in the 
list of bis writings, entitled '*A Discourse of auiciliary. 
Beauty, or artificial bandsomenesse* In point of con- 
acieikce betweei^ two ladies f* but this appears to be aa 
eversigbt, for Anthony Wood attributes this little volume 
to Dr. Gauden, and not to Dr. Taylor, and gives 166(2 
aa the date, and not I6£^6. 

lo 1657 Dr. Taylor collected several of bis smaller pieces, 
with ivUaUrnl improvements, into a folio volume, and pub- 
lisbed them under the title of ** A collection of Polemical 
and Moral Discourses ;^* adding two hitherto unpubli$bed^ 
a " Discourse on Friendship,'* and ^' Two letters to per- 
aons changed in their Religion.'* Tbe former was ad- 
dressed to Mrs. Katberine Philips, and is in point of style 
and sentiment one of tfie best of Taylor's pieqes, who ia 
never more excellent than when on subjects qf moraU. 
This volume reached a third edition in 1674, but consists 
of sosaewbat diff<erent materials, and 'has a different title» 
being now called ^* Symbolum Theologicum, &c.*' 

lo this year, 1647, Dr. Taylor was induced by a nefv 
friend and patron, lord Conway, to go, over to Ireland, 
and reside at Portmore, the mansion of* that nobleman in 
^he county of Antrim* Thia situation being adapted to 
ftiidy and contemplation, was to him a delightful retreat ; 
a^d bere be employed his time in arranging tbe treasure* 
with which bis mind was ttored, and in correspondency 
with m^ of literature* Here be accomplished the largeat 
and i|K>st laborious of bis works, tbe '* Ductor Dubitantium, 
or the Kule of Conscience in all her general measures; 
lerving as a greai instrument for tbe determination of 
(^9pes of conscience," l£60, fol. Of this work it has been 
saidf witbout exaggeration, that it is the produ^ioo of re.« 
tentive memory and laborious research, of learning variotis 
and proGound, and of reaaoniog closa and dispiissionatel 
Tbe ikaiaiid Son tbis vork bas lat<^ rieeo f exy coimcler-* 



T A T L O It , Its 

aWy; and what we can remember holding a very ttiferior, 
If any place, in sale catalogues, is noir a prominent article 
with a handsome price. ,It is undoubtedly a very interest- 
ing work to men that delight in the exercise of tlie reason- 
ing power, but its real utility in satisfying scruples of con- 
science is, we think, not quite so apparent. 

This work was dedicated to Charles II. the restoration 
having taken place. Dr. Taylor appears to have left Ire- 
land early in the spring of 1660, and arriving at London, 
subscribed the declaration of the nobility and gentry that 
adhered to the late king in and about that city, and when 
the vacant sees came to be filled up, bishop Lesley was 
proipoted to that of Meath^ and Dr. Taylor succeeded him 
in that of Down and Connor. While yet bishop*elect, and 
liefore he left London, he published his book on the sacra- 
ment, entitled " The Worthy Communicant, &t.'* Hte 
then went over to Ireland^ and was consecrated, and abot^ 
the same time he was chosen vice-chancellor o( the uuk 
terity of Dublin, an office which he held until his death. 
On opening the parliament in May t661, he preached be- 
fore the members of both houses at St. Patrick's, and hili 
sermon was printed at London in 4to. Thi^ same year, 06 
the translation of Dr. Robert Lesley to th^ see of Raphotf, 
the king, by grant of June 21, committed to the bishop of 
Down and Connor, the administration of the see of Dro- 
more ; which he held till his death. But it was no desire 
of enriching himself that induced the bishop to accept of 
this new charge. The dilapidated state of the church and 
ecclesiastical property at this juncture clearly evince his 
conduct to have been grounded upon a higher principle; 
frnd finding not only the spiritual affairs of this diocese ih 
disorder, but the choir of the cathedral of Dromore jo 
rqins, he undertook to rebuild it, and on this otcasion^is 
daughter Joanna preserited the plate for the communion. 
JTn the same year he held a visitation at Lisnegarvy ; at 
which he issued " Rules and advices to the clergy of his 
diobese for their deportment in their personal and publio 
capacities," These form a very useful compendium of 
ministerial duty^ and have been often recommended by 
subsequent prelates. 

, Tn th0 ;iutumn of 1661, bishop Taylor, foreseeing a va- 
cancy in the deinery^ of Connor, wrote to Cambridge for 
fome able person, who might fill that dighity, aric| the pr6- 
po$ition,bein|; made to Dr. George Rust, he was preferrcil 



IM T A Y L O H. 

«8 sooo at Uie ^aeaticy took place (See Rcrsr) ; and thus a 
friendship commenced between these two great men, 
which continued with mutual warmth and admiration till it 
was interrupted by death. Dr. Rust was the survivor, and 
succeeded bishop Taylor in the see of Dromore, and 
preached his funeral sermon. In 1662*3, bishop Taylor 
published '^ Three Sermons" which he had preac^hed at 
Christ^s church, Dublin ; ** Eleven Sermons," preached 
since the restoration ; and his '^ Discourse on Confirma*? 
tion." In July 1663, he preached the funeral sermon of 
Dr. John Bramhall, archbishop of Armagh, from whose^ 
hands he had received confirmation. This was published, 
and contains a well-drawn character of the primate* . In 
the same year, at the request of the bishops of Ireland, he 
published ** A Dissuasive from Popery, addressed to the 
people of Ireland." This work went through several edi« 
lions, and some answers being published by the popish 
party, he wrote a second part of his *^ Dissuasive," which 
however, did not appear until after his death. He bad 
also began a discourse on the beatitudes, wheniie was at* 
tacked by a fever, which proved fatal in ten days^ He 
died at Lisbum^ August 13, 1667, and was interred in the 
choir of the cathedral' of Dromore. Dr. Rust, as we have 
already observed, preached his funeral sermon, and en<» 
tered largely into his character. He was indisputably, as 
,Dr. Rust represents him, a man of the acutest penetration 
and sagacity, the richest and most lively imagination, the 
ioiidest judgment, and the profoundest learning. He was. 
perfectly versed in all the Greek and Roman writers^ and 
was not unacquainted with the refined wits of later ages, 
whether French or Italian. His skill was great, both in 
civil and canon law, in casuistical divinity, in fathers, and 
ecclesiastical writers ancient and modern. He was a man 
of the greatest humility and piety : it is believed, says Dr;. 
Rust, that he spent the greatest part of his time in heaven, 
and that his solemn hours of prayer took up a considerable 
portion of his life. He was indeed a great devotee, and 
had in him much of natural enthusiasm. Dr. Rust, con^ 
eludes his character with observing, that " he had the good-« 
humour of a gentleman^ the eloquence of an orator, the 
fancy of a poet, the acuteness of a schoolman, the pro-, 
foundneiis of a philosopher, the wisdom of a chancellor, 
the sagacity of a prophet, the reason of an angel, and the 
piety of a saint. He had devotion enough for a cloister, 



T A ¥ Ii O m IT* 

iearauig enough for an university^ and wit enough for n 
college of virtuosi;* and bad his parts and endowmenti 
been parcelled out among bis. clergy that be left behind 
biniy it would, perhaps, have made one of the best dio« 
ceses in the ivorld/' Yet amidst the blaze of this pane* 
gyric, we must not forget that dispassionate criticism will 
assign as bishop Taylor's highest excellence, his powers of 
moral suasion. He is always seen to most advantage ag 
a moral writer, and his genius is every where, inspired and 
invigorated by a love of what is good. Nor roust it^be for- 
got that he was one of the reBners of our language. His 
biographer bas justly said that ^< English prose was in his 
time in a progressive state. It bad been advanced very far 
by the genius of Sidney and the wisdom of Hooker ; but 
the pedantry of the reign of James bad done much to 
eclipse its lustre. In Taylor it broke out from its obscu-* 
rity with energy and brightness. His polemical discourses 
exhibit a specimen of English composition superior to any 
ibat bad gone before.^' 

It is not ascertained whether bis wife survived him ; but 
it 'is well known that he left three daughters, Pfaoabe^ 
Joanna, and Mary. The eldest died single ; the second 
married Mr. Harrison, a barrister in Ireland, and the 
youngest became the wife of Dr. Francis Marsh, afterwards 
archbishop of Dublin. In this sketch of bishop Taylor's 
life, we have principally followed a recent valuable public 
cation, " Tbe Life of the Rt. Rev. Jeremy Taylor, D. D# 
&c. By the rev. Henry Kaye Bonney, M.A. of Christ's 
college^ Cambridge, prebendary of Lincoln, and rector of 
King's Cliffe, in the county of Northampton," 1815, 8vo.^ 

TAYLOR (John), usually called the Water- Poet, from 
bis being a waterman as well as a poet, and certainly more 
of the former than the latter, was born in Gloucestershire 
about 1580. Wood says he was born in the city of Glou^ 
.cester, a^id went to school there, but he does not appearto 
have learned more than his accidence, as appears, by some 
lines pf bis own. From this school he was brought to Lon« 
don, and bound apprentice to a waterman, -Mrbenoe be WaiT 
either pressed or went voluntarily into the naval service, 
fcr he was at the takiftg of Cadiz unrier the earl of Essex,; 
in 1^596, when only sixteen years old, and was afterwartls 
in Ger^nany, Bohemia, Scotland, as may be collected from 

> Life as ab«Te. 



/ ; 

IW f A V L O «. 

^amiii pttfMftges in iii« wtnrkt. At bom6 lie was «Aftfiy ym^ 
eollectof, for tile lietitenant of the Tower, of the wine^ 
w'bicfa were hn fee from all ships which 'brought them trp 
the Thames ; hot was at last dbtbarged beeause he wouM 
not purchase the place at more than it was worth. H6 
calls bi09self the <* King's Water Poet/' and the *<Queen*8 
Waterman,*' and wore ^e badge of the royal arms. White 
a waterman, he very natural iy had a great hatred to coaches, 
and besides writing a satire agstnst thetn, he fancied that 
the watermen were starring for want of employment, and 
presented' a petition to James I. which was i^erred to cer-^ 
tain commissioners, of whom sir Francis Bacon was one, to 
obtain aprohfibttion of all phiy^houses except those on the! 
Bank-aide, that the gt^ater pattof the inhabitants of Ion- 
don, who were desirous of seeing plays, might be com- 
pelled to go by water. Taylor himself is said to have un- 
dertaken to support this singular petition, and was pre- 
pared to oppose before the commissionets the arguments of 
the players, but the commission was dissolved before it 
came to a hearing. 

When the rehellion oOmmenced in 1642, Taylor left 
London, and retired to Oxford, where he was much no- 
ticed, and esteemed for his facetious turn. He kept a 
eommon victuaHtng house there, and wrote pasquiis against 
the roend-heads; by which he thought, and Wood too^ 
aeems to think, that he did great service to die royal Cause. 
After the garrison at Oxford had surrendered, he Vetired 
to Westminster, i&ept a public-house iti Phoenix-alley, near 
Long-acre, and continued constant in his loyalty to the 
king; after whose death, he set up a sign over his doOr of 
a mourning crown ; but that proving oflfensive, he pulled 
it down, and hung ep his own picture, with tbeae versitk 
under it : 

*' There's many a heaci stands for a sign. 
Then, geutte i^eader, why not mine V* 

And on the other side, 

"Tho* I deserve not, I desire 
The laurel wreath, the poet's hire/* 

He died in 1654^ i^ged seventy- low» as Wood w«i isK 
formed by his nepheW| a painter of O^iford, who gave i^ 
portrait to the picture-gallery there in 1655. This ni- 
phew'9 own portrait, also by himself, is on the staircase. 
His works were published under the title of << All th^ 



TA^rLOa 177 

Wol:kes of Jobn Taylor tbe watofwpoet) betn^ sixty and 
three in nuoaber) coHeeCed toto one voludie by the author^ 
with sundry nev additions ; corrected^ revised, and newly 
imprinted/' 1630^ folio. Tbe^ pieces, which are not des^ 
titute of, natural humour, aboondi with low jingling wit, 
which pleased and prevailed in the reign of James I. and 
which too often bordered upon bombast and nonsense. He 
was countenanced by a few persons c^rank and ingenuity ; 
but was the darling and admiration of nmaiibers of the rabble. 
He was himself the father of some cant words, and he has 
adopted others which were only in the mouths of the lowest 
vulgar. From the date of this volume it is evident that it 
does not contain those '^ pasquils*' and satires which Wood 
says he wrote at Oxford, and which perhaps it might have 
been unsafe to avow, or re^publisb, ^as be did not survive 
the times of the usurpation. Five articles, however", whose 
titles may be seen in the '^ Bibliotbeca Anglo-Poetica,^' 
were published between 1637 and 1641. One of them iff 
the life of old Par, printed in 1635, when Par is said to 
have been living at the age of one hundred and fifty*two.^ 

TAYLOR (John), a learned dissenting teacher, was born 
near Lancaster in 1694, and educated at Whitehaven. He 
settled first at Kirkstead in Lincolnshire, Where he preached 
to a Very small congregation, and taught a grammar school 
for the support of. bis family, near twenty years^butin- 
1733, his merit in this obscure situation being known, be 
was unanimously chosen by a presbyterian coog^gation at 
Norwich, where he preached many years, and avowed his 
sentiments to be hostile to the Trinitarian doctrine. From 
this city he was, 'in 1757, invited to Warrington in Lan- 
cashire,, to superintend an academy formed thene ; being 
judged tbe fittest person to give this new institution a pro* 
per dignity and reputation in the world. With this invita* 
tion, which was warmly and importunately enforced, he 
complied ; but some differeuces about precedency and au- 
thority, as well as some disputes about the principles of 
morals, soon involved, and almost endangered, the very 
being of the academy, and subjected him to such treatment 
as he often said, *^ would shorten his days :" and so it 
prored. ' He Irad a vtfry good constitution, which he had , 
prayer yed by temperance, but it was now undermined by a 

< ALb. Of. FoK lI.--.HarleiaB Cat. No. 3517, vol. III.--Cibber'« .Lives — 
^IriDger. . ,-» ;i ' % 

Vol. XXIX. N 



178 TAYLOR. 

oompHcaiion of disorders. '^The last time'I taw- inoi^'' 
' says Dr. Harwood^ ^^ he bitteriy lamented bia unhappy si« 
tuacion^ and hiii being rendered (all proper autfaoritjr, aar 
a tutor^ being taken from bim) utterly intapahie of beinfg 
any longer useful, said his life waanot any object of desim 
to hinii wheii his public usefulness was do mure ; and re* 
peated with great eaiotion some celebrated lines to tbit 
purpose out of Sophocles/' 

He di«d March 5» 176 !» 'tiaving gone to bed as well a^ 

usual the night before^ only complaining a little of a pres^ 

sure on his stomach. Of his writings, the first be puMish<!d- 

was '^ A prefatory Discourse to a Narrative of Mr. Joseph 

Rawson's Case ;** who was excluded from communion with 

the congregational ^church at Nottingbai^, for asserting the 

unity and supremacy of God the Father. In 1740, ^ Tb0 

Scripture doctrine of Original Sin," in which thai ^doetrilie^ 

is denied. This has gone through three editbns. In 1745^ 

*^ A Paraphrase on the Romans-/' republished by bishop 

Watson in bis <^ Tracts/' and recommended by Dr: Ben^ 

tham in his ^^Reflections on the study of Divinity;" and 

the same year, ^^ A Scripture Catechism with Pix>t)fs." Iti' 

1750, ^^A Collection of Tunes in various Airs/ /with *: 

Scheme for supporting the spirit and practioe of Psalmody^ 

in oongriegations;" In 1751, '^ The Imporlmtice ^ Cbil»' 

dren \ <ix^ Motives to the good Education of Cblldseii:'^ In^ 

1753, " The Scripture Doctrine of Atonement." In 1754, 

bis great work^ the labour of his whole life, ^^ An^Aebr^w 

English Concordance," in 2 vols, folio, whtoh' wiilKretnain 

a lasting monument of his indefatigable industry'ai>d^criei^' 

cal «kili« The same year, ^^ The Lord's SupfRer.explaini&d' 

upon Scripture principles." In 1755, ^*T4ia Covenant 4)f 

Graoe in defence of infant bapttsaa." Itv 1757, ^< A Obiai;gi0' 

delivered at the ordination o£^Mr« Smiiifafon.!' i .la ii^dfi,- 

*<tA Sermon," preached at- the openingof idie new^<d}a)8lel>' 

iR^Norwicb^i la i.759, ^' An Examioatipaof \^k>> UotoheKinW' 

Scbeitie oiMoratity." His last pecGormailcttv Bi>i?6Ay/^i^'' 

^^ km^xxk of Mol»lPhiio5ophy;'^1rin0h'ibe,tklel«>upi1fcn(> 

thotus«e jof his^wo ^pupils, andjaai intruduc^ay to^rfi^Wol^-' 

laMdnVHeligion' of Nature^" < -, :? o: f-^ •- flfii?:ai>. 

.Sx4^ hi^jfirstaetitiitigat. Wardngtonos talJor,7bb spbim' 

alLhisjJtfistiffe) hours- ift ceviewia^ lue ^ft(!MiiHlneknicB$^.'Qo|>4i : 

latir^vjifuisage&in aaalpfaabeticai'oqddr^^aad'Xtinreotiitg theorr 

English translation. He had made a considerable advance 

\n this ^sefof ^work, when d>ath sdt*df WM:'* D^.T^ylor 



- f- 



T AY LOR. 179 

tomposed^ and fairly iratiseribed, a nofnber o£ tUsooursctf 
on oaorai^ • crilical, and practicai subjects, sufficient to 
make four volumes in dvo, wbidi be designed for the press, 
and intended to be published after his death : aiKt accord -^ 
ingiyhis ^^Sebeoieof Scripture. Divinity'' was afterwards 
published by his son* .Dr. Taylor deviated very early from 
theortbodoG^ systeiA, at first adopting the sentroients of 
Dr.* Clarke on the subject of the Trinity, but became at last 
a.Sboidian^ which Dr. Clarice waii not Gilbert Wakefield 
givesia. aiaguiar character of Dr.Tayfat: " The reader,'* 
sl^ya Wakefield, ^^ who is acquainted with the writings of 
tbis.v^ry I^aroed^ lifa^ral, and rational divine, cannot fail 
to be iiK^pressed wittieentiments^ bighiy favourable to the 
genil^ness and forbearance of their author : for even tbd 
meekness of Cbristianrty itself is exhibited in his prefaces 
aad ocoa^pnal addresses, to the reader. But he was, iir 
reality, al very peevish ahd angry disputant in conversation^ 
atidjtJidtatorial even to intolerance. So imperfect a judg- 
ment piay be formed of the mildness or asperity of any 
author from tbe. correspondent quality of his writings*.'* 
But an authority^ equally valid with that of Mr. Wakefield, 
praises Dn Taylor's ^^ agreeable deportment in society, free 
frein pedatitry and superciliousness^ and marked by ktnd^ 
ness and a&foiHty ;" yet Mr. Wakefield's character of him x 
is a curious document^ as affording a perfect cont?rast to his 
own.^ . 

.TAYLOR (JoilN),.^a learned critic and philologist, wa^ 
boru at Sbrew^ury, and baptised at St: Alkmund's choreh 
June 2ii, 1704. His father followed the humble occu]:»M;ion 
of a barber, an^' his son was designed for the same business; 
bkt a strong passion for letters, which early displayed it^ 
s^i, being providentially fostered by the generous patron- 
age. 06 ft) neighbouring gentkman, enabled young Taylof 
t(lt£jl;a far higher station in society than that to whictSi he 
iii^si.efitiiled by his birth.. The steps which led to this 
happy ch&Dgfe iB hiasitaaupn are worthy ofnoticei Tay« 
Iofvitk|3jfailier,'beingiaccustomed to attend £dwaM Owen, 
oflQMdover, 'esq. in his capacity of a barber, that gen^^ 
ileman used to inquire occsisionally into th& state* of bis 
fainitj^ fiir.what ^ade he designed* bis son,- dtci* The^ 
iD^oirieaneictrfiEdled to produce a lamentation firem t1ieold'< 
inanj f^^this>«itD^«rdx&position of Jiis son Jadev ^^wfaoonj*'* 

,, } Harvroi^d's Foiwri) fteraiQ^.for J?r. Xaylpx.-^Wakf field'* >IeWQi:^s. .^ . , . ^ 

If 2 






180 TAYLOR. 

said be, ^f I cannot get to dress a wig or shave a beardi so 
perpetually is be poring overbooks/' Sach coroplaints^ 
often repeated, at length awakened the attention of Mr. 
Owen, who determined to send bina to the university, 
chiefly at his own expence< St. John's in Cambridge, 
which has an intimate connection with the free-school of 
Shrewsbury, naturally presented itself as the place of his 
academical education; and Mr. Taylor was doubtless * as- 
sisted by one of the exhibitions founded in the college for 
the youth of that school. Under this patronage he pursued 
his studies in the university*, and regularly took bis de- 
grees, that of B. A. in 1727, andofM. A. in 1731, and in 
the preceding year was chosen fellow. Thus employed in 
his favourite occupations, the periods of his return into his 
native country were the only times which threw a transient 
cloud over the happy tenor of his life. On such occasions 
be was expected to visit his patron, and to partake of the 
noisy scenes of riotous jollity exhibited in the hospitable 
mansion of a country gentleman of those days. The gpra- 
titude of young Taylor taught him the propriety of making 
these sacrifices of his own comfort ; but it could not pre- 
vent him from sometimes whispering his complaints into 
the ears of his intimate friends. A difference of political 
opinion afforded a more serious ground of difference* A 
great majority of the gentry of Shropshire vva» at that pe- 
riod strenuous in their good wishes for the abdicated family* 
Though educated at Cambridge, Taylor retained his at- 
tachment to toryism, but did not adopt all its excesses ; and 
he at length forfeited the favour of his patron, without the 
hc^es of reconciliation, by refusing to drink a Jacobite 
toast on his bare knees, as was then the custom. This re- 
fusal effectually precluded him from all hopes of sharing in 
the great ecclesiastical patronage at that time enjoyed by 
the Condover family, and inclined him, perhaps, to aban- 
don the clerical profession for the practice of a -civilian. 
But.however painful to his feelings this qnarrel with jbis 
benefactor might prove, he had the consolation, to reBect 
that it could not now dieprive him of the prospec^t of an e^sy 
^KMnpeteoce. His character asr a scholar was established in 
• the uhiversity ; he was become.- a fellow and tiutor of his 
college; and on the 30th of Jan. 1730, he was appointed , i 

"i^ I« the Gent. Mag. 1719, p. 250, ^' in»d« by a prettjr oiode«t lad one ' 

is a copy of Latin vcr^ei od the deatli Taylor, a junior $%pbii" | 

(»f a Mr«£ylet> ale^low of'St.Joho's, 



TAYLOR. 



181 



to deliver the Latin oration then annually pronounced in 
St, 'Mary's before the university on that solemn anniversary; 
and at the following comn^encement he viras selected to 
speak the music speech, both of which were printed. This 
last performance, of which but two instances occur in 
the last century, viz. 1714 and 1730, was supposed to 
require an equal share of learning and genius: for, besides 
la short compliment in Latin to the heads of the university, 
the org,tor was expected to produce a humourous copy of 
£nglish verses on the fashionable topics of the day, for the 
entertainn^iant of the female part of his audience ; and in 
the execution of this office (derived like the Terras filius of 
Oxford, from the coarse festivities of a grosser age) some-^ 
times indulged a licentiousness which surprises one on per- 
usal. The music speech of Mr. Taylor is sufficiently free ; 
and, though it does some credit to his poetical talents, is 
not very civil to his contemporaries of Oxford, (whom he 
openly 4^xes with retaining their fellowships and wives at 
the expence of their oaths) or to the members of Trinity 
college, in his own university, whom he ironically repre- 
sents as the only members of Cambridge wh\> could wipe off 
the stigma of impoliteness imputed to them by the sister 
university. This speech was printed by his young friend 
^nd fellow collegian Mr. Bovvyer, and the publication con-* 
eludes, with an ,ode designed to have been set to music. 
These were not the only effusions of Mr. Taylor^s muse, 
for in the Gent. Mag. l779, p. 365, are some verses by him 
on the marriage of Lady Margaret Harley to the duke of 
Portlaivd, and others reprinted by Mr. Nichols. 

In March 1732, he was appointed librarian, which office 

he held but a short time, being in 1734 appointed registrar 

'of the university. From this time Cambridge became his 

principal residence, but he was in London in 1739, at 

which time his celebrated edition of *^ Lysias'' appieared^. 



* On this subject Mr, Clarke writes 
thus to Mr. Bowyet : ^* T am glad Mr. 
Taylor is got into your press : it will 
make his Lysias more correct. I hope 
yott will not let hita prim too great 
a number of copies, It will encourage 
a young editor, to have his first at- 
tempt rise upon his hands. I fancy 
yon have got him in the press for life, 
if ha has any tolerable success there; 
he is too busy a man to be idle." It 
was published under the titia Of <* Ly- 



shb Orationes & Fragmenta, Gitec^ ke 
h%imh. Ad fldem Oodd. Manoacrip- 
torum receosuit, Notts criticis, Intor- 
pretatione nora, cseteroque apparata 
necessaritt dooavit Joannas Taylor^ 
A. M. Coll. O. Joan. CanUb. Soe, 
Academiac olim a Bibliothects. hodio 
a Commentariis/ Accedont €1. Jen 
Marklandi, Col. D. Pet. Soc. Conjee-* 
tnrae. Londini, ex Officioi^ Qnlielmi 
Bowyer, in ssdibos olim Carmeiitacis^ 
1739." Of Uiiti arvr^i which u no«r 



1S2. TAYLOR. 

This edition, which evinces his intimate knowledge of the 
Greek language and of Attic law, is executed, as to the ex-> 
ternal enDbellishments of type and paper, in a manner which 
reflects great credit on the press of Mr. Bowyer, from which 
it proceeded. Mr. Taylor's subsequent publications issujed 
from the university press of Cambridge. In 1740 he took 
his degree of LL. D. The subject which he chose for his 
act, is curious, and worthy of our author. A. Geilius had 
related, on ihe authority of the ancient jurists, that by the 
laws of die ten tables the body of the insolvent debtor was 
cut in pieces and distributed among his creditors. JDr. 
Taylor undertook to set this in a new light, and to shew 
that it was the property and not person of the debtor, that 
was liable to this division; and if he did not succeed in 
producing complete conviction, his treatise was at (east 
calculated to increase the opinion already entertained of 
his erudition and ingenuity* It was published in 1742, 
under the title of '* Commentarius ad legem decemvira-r 
lem de inope debitore in partes dissecaudo,'' with an ap« 
pendix of curious papers. Although he was admitted of 
Doctors Commons in this year 1742^ it does not appear ^hat 
be practised as a civilian, but about this time tber^ was 9, 
desigu to employ his talents in a civil station, as under^sevi 
cretary of state to lord Granville. 

, In the following year the learning and critical abilities 
pf Dr. Taylor were again called forth. The late earl of 
Sandwich, on his return from a voyage \o the Greek islands^ 
of which his own account has been published since his death, 
and which shews him to have been a nobleman of consider* 

* 

able learning, brought with him a marble frpm Delc^. That 
island, ^^ which lay in the very centra of the then trading 
world,'* (to use the words of our learned cpuntrymin, Mr. 
Clarke,) ^^ was soon seized by the Atheaia^s and applied to 
the purposes of a commercial repository : and this subtle 

become scarce, no more flian 500 co- were ad^eHii»t; M jitit jptubHiiied, 
pte$ were pridtfd on demy paper, 75 '' i^roponldi ^rpfiDtiDg'by;fu|)fQrip« 
frnro^al paper, and *25 on /H fine writ- tioo, f new an4 correct edition of Do- 
ing royal. The doctor always enter- mosthenes and JE^chines, by' Joha 
taioed a fond hope of reprinting it, like Taylor, A. M. fellow of St. Jobo/s col- 
bia-Deniostheiie«» with an equal quan* lege, and registrar of thj^.uoifefAity of 
tity of note* to both p^g%%, U was in Cambridge.**— N. B, Ou or before the 
part republished at Cambridge, 1740, S4th day of December neict, 'lyjil b^ 
in 8tOy under the titl« of ** Lysiae Athe-» published, (and^ . deliverefl. t;o/,i sub^ 
^ aifiitis Oratiooes G|ra9c6 &I<atin^,.ex scribers if desired) ' Oratio contra Lep- 
luterprelatione & cum brevibus Notis tiuem,' which begins the third Vuliliq)Q 
Joaonis Taylori |u ustim stt^diofie #u- of the above*>ineuifO]ieUM:^rkJf . ^' 
veutulis." At the end of this volume 



TAYLOR. 183 

... . , 

and entc^rprizing people, to encrease tb^ sacreduess and 
inviolability of its character, celebrated a solemn festival 
there once in every olympiad." The marble in question 
contained a particulac of all the revenues and appointments 
set apart for that purpose. From the known skill of Dr. 
Taylor on all points of Grecian antiquity it was submitted 
to his inspection, and was published by him in 1743, under 
the title .of *'Marmor Sandvicense cum commentario et no- 
tis ;*' and never probably was an ancient inscription more 
ably or satisfactorily elucidated. In the same year he ^Iso 
published the only remaining oration of Lycurgus, and one 
of Demosthenes, in a small octavo volume, with an inscrip- 
tion to his friend Mr. Charles Yorke. 

This volume i$ printed on the same type with, an.d was 
intended as a specimen of, his projected edition of all the 
works of that great orator; a task which ^* either the course 
of bis studies, or the general consent of the public, had," 
he says, "imposed upon him." While he was engaged in 
this laborious undertaking he received an accession of dig- 
nity and emolument ; being in the beginning of 174-4 ap-. 
pointed by the bishop of Lincoln, Dr, John Thomas, to the 
office of chancellor of that extensive diocese, in the room 
of Mr. Reynolds. For his introduction to- thiis prelate he 
was indebted to the kindness of his great patron lord Gran- 
yille, as we learn from the dedication of the third volume 
of his Demosthenes, which came out in the spring of 1748, 
the publicatioi) of the first volume being postponed, that 
^ the fife of the great orator and the other prolegomena might 
appear \yith more correctness. 
.In April 1751, Dr. Taylor succeeded the rev. Christo- 
/ pber Anstey, D. D. in the rectory of Lawford in Essex, a 
living belonging to St. John's college, and the only paro- 
'* <?hial -cure he ever enjoyed ; and in Jan. 1753, he became 
j archdeacon of Buckingham. After he took orders he wa^ 
'' esteemed a very eminent and successful preacher; but he 
' <h^ i^Mf^ two occasional sermons in print. When the late 
^'ni^m[uisof Bath and his brother were sent to St. John's, 
,%)^fiej? were placed under the care of our author by bis pa- 
■' iron. lord Granville^ maternal grandfather of these two young 
• no^li^men. This charge led to his work on the " Elem^ts 
.1 o^l[JivU Law," 1755, in 4to,! and which was forhned from 
[ the papers drawn up by him to instruct bis noble pupils in 
{ the origin of Natural law, the rudiments of civil life, and of 
social <iutie». If the work, as published, partalces soipe- 



184 



TAYLOR. 



whBt too much of the desultory character of 6ucb loose pa-v 
pers; if its reasoning is oqcasionally confased, aod ir^ dit 
gressions soonetimes irrelevant, it is impossible to deny it 
the praise of vast reading and extensive information oa vo-r 
lious subjects of pqlite learning and recondite antiquity* It 
quickly came to a sepond edition, aod has also been pub-* 
lished in an abridged form, It did not however escape 
without some severe animadversions* 

The learned world at Cambridge was at that tiqi^.divided 
into two pi^rties : the polite scholars and the pbilologi$ts. 
The former^ at the head of which were Gray, Mason, ^c* 
superciliously confined all merit to their own circle, and. 
looked down with Yasttdious contempt on the rest of tbei 
world. It is needless to observe th^it Dr. Taylor belonge4 
to the latter class* Dr. Hurd, a member of the former, ^ 
writer of celebrity, and eminent for his attachment to War- 
burton, of whose ^^schooP' he was a distinguished disciple, 
in a most unjustifiable pamphlet, published the same year, 
1755, and directed against the amiable and modest Jortin ^j 
steps out pf his way to express his contempt of Taylor, 
whi(^h was but the prelude to a more severe attack froni 
Warburtoq himself. Our author f in his Elements had ex** 
pressed his opinion ths^t the persecutions which the fir^( 
Christians experienced from the Roman emperors prOf> 
ceeded not from any peculiar disapprobation of their te- 
nets, but from a jealousy entertained of their nocturnal ast 
semblies. In expressing this opinion, Taylor did not men* 
tion, and perhaps did not even think of Warburton ; but as 
the latter in his Divine Legation had derived these persecur 
tions from another source, the absurdities of Pagan religion 
and the iniquities of Pagan politics \ the holding, and much ' 
more the publishing, of a contrary notion by any contem- 
porary was too great an offence for that haughty dogmatist 
to pass with impunity. His prefaces and notes were, a$ 
was wittily observed of him, the established places of exe- 
cution for the punishment of dll who did not implicitly 



* The offence of Jortin was similar 
to that of Taylor. He had dared tp 
dissent from Warbarton's strange, and 
now exploded hypothesis on the de- 
scent of lEneBS in tlie 6th JEnetd. 

f The real offence said to have been 
given by Taylor was an opinion which 
|ke h94 t^foifB opt in company dero- 
gatory to tlie chaficter of ArYarbutton 



as a scholar : this reached the ears ot 
the other, who with a frankness peco- 
liar to himseif, interrogated oar critic 
on \he subject. Dr. Taylor is report* 
ed to have replied that he did not re- 
collect ever saying that l!>r. Warburton 
was no scholar, but that indQ6d he had 
^ways ikpught so. 



/ 



TAYLOR, 18S 

adopt bis sentiments, and having occasion soon after (in 
1758) to pubikh a new edition of that celebrated \vork| he 
seized that opportunity to chastise Taybr, with all the 
vhruience, wit^ and tngenuity of distortion, which he could 
command. 

An attack so insolent and unprovoked could not injure 
ibe established character of Dr. Taylor, or ruffle bis tem^ 
per, and he wisely abstained from taking any notice of it. 
There appeared however in 1758 a pamphlet, entitled 
^^ Impartial Remarks upon the preface of Dr. Warburton, 
in which he has taken uncommon liberties with the cha* 
racter of Dr. Taylor;" but it is said to be a poor perform- 
ance, the only information which it contains being the 
anecdote in the preceding note as to the real origin'^ the 
dispute. Taylor seems at this time to have been better 
employed than in controversy, as the second volume of bit 
** Demosthenes" appeared in May 1757, and in the fol- 
lowing July he was made a canon residentiary of St. Pauro. 
For this appointment, which was the summit of his prefer- 
ment, he was indebted to his steady and active patron lord 
Granville, who was now a member of administration. In 
consequence of this dignity, he resigned the office of regis- 
trar, in 1758, and quitted Cambridge to reside in London* 
|iere he still proceeded to collect and arrange the mate« 
rials for the first volume of his Demosthenes*, but the ex- 
pectations of the learned were frustrated by his death, which 
took place on the 14th day of April, 1766, at his house in 
Amen Corner, Paternoster Row. He was buried in the 
vault under St. Paul's, under the litat^y desk, where is an 
epitaph. 

Dr/ Taylor used to spend part of his summers in bis na- 
tive county, taking for that purpose a ready-furnished 
house, in which he might enjoy the society of bis friendtf. 
For several years he rented the curate's house at Edge^ 
mond, his equipage in the mean time standing at livery in 
the neighbouring town of Newport. 

As Dr. Taylor had been for many years in the receipt of 
an ample^ and even splendid income, it might have been 
expected that he should die in affluent circumstances. But 
this was by no means the case. He Uved in a handsome 
«tyle» and expended a large sum of money in books. His 

* The two volamcis of Demoithenet title pages, and conTerted tb# thtitt 
arenowiold as the first and second, volame into the first. 
The booksellers have sspplied »tw 



188 TAYLOR. 

library ftt the time of bis death was large an4 vftliiable* 
This, with die residue of bis fortuae, for the sppport of 
an exhibition at St. John's, be bequbealhed to the school 
where be had received his education; reserving; boiv^v^r^ 
to his friend and physician Dr. Askew all his M$§* * Mi 
»i3ic*h of his printed books as eontained bis insHrgioal ^ooo- 
taiions. 1'he u»e which Askew made of this bequest has 
been severely censured. The latter clause was enforced 
with the utmost rigour, so as to include a vast number of 
books, which the testator intended to form part of .bis do- 
nation to the schools ; and Dr. Askew is thought to haveb^n 
still more reprehensible in putting into Reiska's hatnls the 
indigested and unfinished mass of papers belonging) to 
Taylor's proposed first vol ume, who printed them JMstas 
\fe had received them, and then attacked the critical sJiill 
of t'jeir author. 

. In private life, Dr. .Taylor's character was. Extremely 
amiable: his temper remarkably social, and his talents 
fitted to adorn and gladden society. The eveo,tenour.of 
bis employments furnished him with an uninterrupted «fipw 
of spirits. Though be was so studiously devoted to letters, 
I — though as an intimate friend and fello^^•'Collegian of his 
informs us, ** if you called on him in college. after dinft^r,^ 
you were «ure to find him sitting at an oid oval w^^^ut 
xable,- covered with books, — ^yet when you beg^ to.Jins^e 
apologies for disturbing a person so well etAploy/?4> ^be 
imme^diately told you to advance, and called out,. /^ Jo^n, 
John, bring pipes, and glasses,'* and iostantly ^pp^ai'^d^^as 
cheerful and gopd-bumoured as if he had not h?e^:M.all 
eiigaged or interrupted. Suppose now you h$^d il^i4i:$s^s 
long a« yqu would, and been eniert^ained by bifl). ^iM^st 
agreeabfy, you took your leave and got balf-wiyj./ij^ojffp.^be 
^taifis, but recollecting somewhat tlut y:ou ba^.tlp. s^,fto 
bioi, yott.goiii again ;^ the bottles and glasses jvi^re^^pde, 
ibe books had expanded themselves so as to re^oQ^up^^^e 
whole tabic, and he was just as much bturied ,in.:i^e)9a(Tas 
wi)ea ypo 'first came in.'' > » ^A 

' He iored a game at cards, and we are told t^^i^e 
. i ' '- ' ' . •'-■'■■;* 

* Tho^e oo pbilolo^^ical subjects him, oF modern customs derived from 

vere sold to tKe university of Cam- Grecian and Roman ant^uiiyr^deitne 

>d%<S' Ml ^Dr.' Askf^v^i deatfau Be- smgulji^r ing^aces o^ nki^}pifjiie\^\ist4 

sides these, our author had many pa- there adduced. Various particulars 

?t^r$ 4)11 /^^t>j^t»,Al^f English anUjiiQity; respecting his .MSSj. are in Mr. ^i- 

n his Civil Uw, p. ^7, be mention* chols's " AnecdotesJ^' ' ^ 

* plentiful collection whidi he had by ' ' '" ^^' '^ ^""' ^'^ ""• 



T A Y L O R. 187 

l^tajred welL fie ^^^ ako an excellent relator of a .story; 

>of which he had' a lapge and entertaining collection ; but 

like most • ^torj'^'teliers was somewhat too apt to repeat 

^jtbetil> 'His friend, the facetious atid good-bumoured Henry 

-i^uBbard of E^ifiannely with whom he greatly associated, 

"^vonid sometitneif, in the evenings which they used to past 

-alolie together, use the freedom of jocosely remonstrating 

^ ^tti himti^oH the subject, and when the Doctor began one 

^ of his' anecdotes, 'woulrf cry oat, *'Ah, dear Dociior, pray 

" <io not let US have that story any more, I have be0rd it S9 

'^ <^feen ;'*• to which Taylor often humouroasiy replied, 

7<< (3om<^ Harry, let me tell it this once more," and would 

' then gb on ^itb hit narration. Many other curious anec*^ 

^ dotes, otf Dr. Tay>or, with much of his correspondence, 

may- be seen \\\ Mr. Niclvok^s third volume along with the 

Jives of many of his learned contemporaries.' 

V * TAYLOR (Silas), an able English antiquary, who is. in-r 

traduced by Anthony Wood with an alias DoMViLLfi or 

-D'OMviLLE, we know not why, was the son of Sylvanus 

' Taylor, one of the commissioners for ejecting those of the 

clergy, who were called ** scandalous and insufficient mi* 

lii^lers,^' and one of the pretended high court of justice 

fop the trial' of Charles I, Silas wa« born at Hariey near 

M<idi#enlock in Shropshire, July 16, lf»24, and after 

**otfje 'ecfecation at Shrewsbury and Westminster-schools, 

'^'becat^e a- commoner of New-Inn^hall, Oxford, in 1641. 

'-He had given proof of talents fit to compose a. distinguished 

^^scbolar, both fn the classics and matbeoifiiftica, -when bis 

faAer- tcfok him from the university, and made him join 

the parliamentary army, in which he bore a captaAin's con)- 

' ^^ission. When the war was over^ his father procured him 

tb be made a sequestrator of the royalists in Herefordshire, 

btit althbugb he enriched himself » comideraWjr in this 

• oflfce, afnd had a moiety of the bialjop's palace at Here* 

'ford* settled on him,' be conducted himself jwith snob kind* 

^pe^af and moderation as to be beloved of. the Jtim^'spdrty: 

At the restoration, he of course lost ali he had gaiocdas 

' the'^ager^t'of usurpation, but his mild behaviour in that 

ungracious office was not forgot, ,and by the interest of 

.fi^om^ .w.hqm he had obliged, he was appointecj commissary, 

pf amnnunition, &c. at Dunkirk, and about 166/5 was made 

^ 1 NicMsV Bowyer.— History of vShrewsbiiry, 1810," 12mo, « ^ery *«n «rifc. 
itn article, wbicti we have generaliy fotlo^ea xtk^ prtcettng^ a<Jc«int ' 



188 T A r L O R. 

1 

keeper of the king's stores and storehouses for shippings 
&c. at Harwich, The profits of this situation were proba^ 
biy not great, for he was much in debt at the time of* his 
death, w^hich occasioned his valuable collections and MSS. 
to be seized by his creditors, and dispersed as of no value. 
He died Nov« 4, 1678, and was buried iii the chancel of 
the church of Harwich. 

He appears to have been an early inquirer into the an- 
tiquities of his countr}', and while in power ransacked the 
libraries of the cathedrs^ls of Hereford and Worcester for 
valuable MSS., among which was the^original grant of king 
Edgar, whence the kings of England derive their sove- 
reignty of the seas. This was printed in Selden's " IVUre 
clausum.*' He left large materials for a history of Here«- 
fordsbire, which Dr. Rawlinson understood to have been 
deposited in lord O:xford'$ library ; but in the Harleian 
catalogue we find only part of bis history of Herefordshire^ 
at the end ,of MS. 6766, and extracts f^om Doomsday, 
No. 6856. Mr. Dale, who published a *^ History gf Har- 
wich" from Taylor's papers, in 1730, speaks of these col- 
lections as being lately^ if not noWi in the hands of sir Ed- 
ward Harley of Brompton-Brian, grandfather of the first 
carl of Oxford. The only work Taylor published, wj^s the 
'^ History of Gavelkind, with the etymology thereof; conr 
taining also an assertion, that our English laws are, for the 
most part, those that were used by the ancient Brytains^ 
notwithstanding the several conquests of the- Romans, Sax- 
ons, Danes, and Norn^ans. With some observations and 
remarks upon many especial occurrences of British and 
English history. To which is added, a short history of 
William the conqueror, written in Latin by an anonymous 
author in the time of Henry I." Lond. 1663, 4to. In this 
work he carries both the name and custom of Gavelkin4 
further back than was done by his predecessor on the same 
fsubject, Somner. In all material points he confirms the 
opinion of Somner, who answers bis objections in marr 
ginal notes on a copy of bis book, which, with a correct 
copy of his own, is in Canterbury library. Tayloir's work 
we should suppose oi great rarity, as no copy occurs in 
Mr. Cough's collection given to Oxford, or in that sold in 
London. Wood says, that Taylor wrote mauy pamphlets 
before the riestoration, but as they were without his name, 
he did not think proper to acknowledge them. . He speak$ 
ajso of Taylor's abilities not only in tbe theory^ but pirac-' 



Taylor; i8§ 

lice of music, and as a composer of anthems, and the editor 
of " Court Ayres, &c.'* 1655, 8vo, printed by John PJay* 
ford. His name, however, seems to have escaped the at« 
tention of our musical historians. ' 

TAYLOR (Thomas), one, of the tnost eminent and 
learned of the puritan divines, was bom at Richmond in 
Yorkshire, in 1576, and was educated at Christ's-coilege, 
Cambridge, of which he became a fellow, and acquired 
great fame for his literary accomplishments. He was 
chosen Hebrew lecturer of bis college. At what time he 
took holy orders is .not mentioned, but he appears to have 
incurred censure for non-conformity in one or two instan- , 
ces. On leaving the university, he settled first at Watford 
in Hertfordshire, then at Reading in Beckshire, and after* 
wards, in 1625, he obtained the living of St Mary Alder- 
inanbury, London, which he retained for the remainder of 
his life. Id bis early days he had preached at Paul's cross 
before queen Elizabeth, and afterwards before king James,* 
and was every where admired and followed for the plain- 
ness, perspicuity, and soundness of his doctrines, and the 
great zeal and earnestness with which he laboured in the* 
pastoral office for the space of thirty years. While he par-^ 
took of the zeal, common to all his brethren, against 
popery, he was also an avowed enemy to Arminianism and 
Antinomianism. He died in the beginning of 1632, in the 
fifty*fifth year of his age, and was interred in St. Mary'tf 
church. Leigh, Fuller, Wood, and all his contemporarie* 
unite in giving him a high character for learning, piety, 
and usefulness. He was likewise a voluminous writer ; hif 
works, most of them printed separately, were collected iit 
3 vols. fol. 165*9. They consist of commentaries, which 
were generally the substance of what he had preached on 
particular parts of scripture; and single sermons, or trea- 
tises. He and Dr. Thomas Beard of Huntingdon, were 
joint compilers of that singular and once very popular coU 
lection of stories, entitled ^* The Theatre of God'^s Judg-* 
ments," 1648, &c. fol.* 

TEDESCHL See TUDESCHL 

TEISSIER (Anthony), a learned and laborious French 
writer, was born at Montpelliet Jan. 28, 1632. He stddietl 
at Lunel, Orange, and other places, and having acquired 

'^ Ath. Ox. tqI. n.**«GoHg;fa*ff Topography. 

« Life prefixed to his Works.— Clark V Uvea at Uieeiid of bit Martyrolofy.-r. 
9\in»rH Worthies.— AUi. Ox, to). I. 



ISO T E I S S IE R. 

a knowledge of Greek, Hebrew, and theolo^^ he went to 
Paris, where be fortnecl an acquaintance wiib some emi** 
sent men of the day, Pelisson, Conrart, Meimgef and 
others, and on his return received the degree oC doctoi* of 
laws at Bourges. He then went to Nismes, ami practised 
at the bar, became a counsettor of the city, and a member 
of the Protestant consistory, and a member also of th^ 
tiewly-founded academy. In 1685, on the revocation of 
the edict of Nantz, he found it necessary to retire to Swit* 
^erland, and finally to Berlin, where the elector of Bran- 
denburgh gave htm^ the title of counsellor of embassy, and . 
historiographer, with an annual pension of 300 crowns^ 
which was afterwards increased. He died at Berlin, Sept.:: 
7, 17] 5, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. He piib-^ 
lisbed sevetal translations, from the works of St. Cbry-^ 
sostom; the lives of Caiviaand Beza, from the Latin of 
Gakacius Carraccioli, and of Francis Spira ; the eloges of 
eminent men, from Tbuanus, of which there have been four 
editions, tlie best that of Leyden, 1715, 4 vols. ISaio;: 
the epistle of St. Clement to the Corinthiaos, from the 
Greek ; a treatise on martyrdom, from the Latin of Heideg* 
ger, &c. &c. This most useful work is entitled *' Gate*' 
logos auctorum qui librorum catalogos, indices, bibliothew 
Caa^ viromm iiteratorum elogia, vitas, aut oratibnes ftme*- 
bres scriptis consignarunt," Geneva, 1686, 4to, with a. 
fuppleioent, in 170)5.. This is a greatly improved editien . 
of Labbe's ^* Bibliotbeca Bibliotbecarom.'* * * 

TELESi US (Bernard), a modern philosopher, vms bon>^ . 
at Naples in 1.508, and received the first part of his edu-M 
cation .at Milan, where he acquired a perfect knowledge 
of the Latin and Greek languages. After futssing twd^ ! 
years at Rome, where he made great proficiency in j^oiitO' *x 
learntfkg, he refmoved to Padua, and appliedf^^ritb inden" ^ 
fati^able assiduity tx) the study of mathematics and pbHo^'J 
sophy. He very judiciously employed mathematical learo-r^ 
ing.iia explaining and establishing tbeJawsofpbysics^ and % 
was particularly successful in investigating traUiSf beforer: ^ 
unknown in the doctrine of optics. Accustomed to ma^beh ,'' 
mauoal accuracy, he grew disflati»fie{bMfHb the admject^i'A 
explanation :of natural aptpearano^^gucetiby, Afisftotile^ 4$uiro« 
ex|2fessed great surprise that thia^ pbiJoso^bisefshoiri^ baW(/^ 
been, for so many ages, followed in oiaiQutnerQiafi! erfOfadt 

* NicerOD, v©l. V. — Moren, , f. .• * 



TELES rUiS. isi 

by: sxrifKiiiy learned itien^ by wfaoie nations^ and almost by 
the whole- human racse. He pursued his: researehes widi 
great ingenuity a5 well as freedotjiy and wrote two books 
** Ort 'Natiire," iu which he attempted to overturn thepby- 
sieal doctrine of the Peripatetic school, and to explain the^ 
phenottiena of the material world upon new principles; 
When this- treatise was first published at Rome, it obtained 
great .aiiid unexpected applause, and Telesius was prevailed 
uponHby tbe importunity of his friends at Naples, to open 
a aclidol of philosophy in that city. The Telesian school 
soon became famous, not only for the number of its pupiU, 
but for the' abilities of hs professors, who distinguitihefi 
themselves by their bold opposition to the doctrines of 
Ari^tle^ and by the judicious manner in which they dis- 
tributed their labours, in order to enlarge the bouttdanen 
of natural knowledge. The founder of the school was highly 
esteemed by all who were desirous of ^studying nature* 
rather than dialectics; aud he. was patrohi^edby several 
great nieu, particularly by Ferdinand duke of Nuceri. But 
his popularity soon awakened the jealousy and envy of the 
monks, who leaded him and his schoql with oahtmny, for 
no joihet oHence than that he ventured to call in question* 
the aotbority of Aristotle. The vexationsr which he suf- 
fered from this quarter brought on a bilious disorder, whicb^ 
in 1588, terminated in his death. 

Although, during the life of Telesius, his innovations 
were patiently borne, both in Rome and Naples, after his • 
death bis wrjA;iAgs were proscribed iri the Index Eicpurga- 
torijUs^of'the inquisition. Notwithstanding whichi his phi- - 
loso^by corytinued to have many a<>mirers^ and his works>^ 
were republished at Venice in 1590, by his friend An()o< 
nios Persitis, who also: wrote a compendium of his philosoMt 
pby in tbeveirnaaaiar tongue. Besides^his prinuipal work(> 
De Natura Reram, «** On the Nature -of Things," he wriite 
on the airy tbe^sea^ comets, the milky way, the ria^ubow, 
cotoiiirsy resfpiraei^M^ sleep, and otlier subjects. Lord Bav 
couiokai^ given a brief explanation of the philosophy; fd 
TetesfQS; ' •• *'*'.;•, ■,,'.... ^. 

The physical systetui, wbieh Tetesius attempted to 'sub^ 
jkitute m the room of tte sabtleties ami fictions of tha^ S«a^ 
gyttM} wasibunrdfed upoti ^he Parmetiidean doetiiile,< timt 
the^fitue principlei iimature, by means of whieta aU tiaturBl^ 
phenomena are produced, are cold and heat. The sum of 
his theory is this : m&tter, which is in itself incapable of 



192 T E L £ S t U S. 

action, and Admits neither of increase nor dimination, i^ 
acted upon by two contrary incorporeal principles, beat 
and cold. From the perpetual opposition of these, arises 
the several forma in nature ; the prevalence of cold in the 
lower regions producing the earth and terrestrial bodies ; 
and that of beat in the superior, the heavens and celestial 
bodies. All the changes of natural bodies are owing to 
this conflict ; and according to the degree in which each 
principle prevails, are the different degrees of density^ 
resistance, opacity, moisture, dryness, &c. which are found 
in different substances. In the heavens heat has its fixed 
residence, without any opposition from the contrary prin^ 
ciple : and within the earth, and in the abyss of the sea, 
cold remains undisturbed, heat not being able to penetrate 
thither. At the borders of each of these regions, that con-* 
test between the opposite principles begins, which is car^ 
ried on through all the intermediate space. All animal and 
vegetable life is from God. This system, which Telesiua 
evidently borrowed from Parmenides, is but a baseless fa- 
brie raised upon a fanciful conversion of mere attributes 
and properties into substantial principles, and did not long 
survive its author, who would have deserved credit for the 
boldness of bis attack upon the principles of Aristotle, bad 
be avoided constructing a new system of tiatural philosophy, 
liable to the same objection which he had brought against 
that of Aristotle, ' 

TELL (William), one of the heroes of Swiss liberty, in 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, a tnan of pro-^ 
perty, and of good, though not distinguished family, was 
an inhabitant of the village of Burgeln in the country of 
*Uri. In 1307 he was one of the persons engaged in the 
eoospiracy against the Austrian governmentr The bailiff, 
or governor, Herman Gesler, either 6rom a' suspioious dis-' 
position, or having received some intimation of an impend^ 
ing insurrection, resolved to ascertain who would most pa* 
tiently submit to bis dominion. For this purpose he is said 
to have raised a hat upon a pole^ as an emblem of liberty, 
and commanded Tell, among others, to pay obeisance to 
it. << The youth Tell," says Mailer^ << a friend to freedom, 
disdained to honour in a servile masiaer, and on an arbitrary 
command, eVen its emblem." Then it was that, according 
to the current story, Tell was conunaoded by Gtifer t# 

I Brocker. — ^Tirabofehu—Nioeroo^ Tol. "XX^ 



\ 



TELL. l»i 

sboot an a^rrow at an apple placed on the bead of his own 
son ; andy though reluctant, compelled to do it, by the 
menace of immediate death, .both to him aiid the infant if 
be should refuse. Tell cleft the apple without hurting the 
child ; . but could not refrain from informing the tyrant that; 
bad his aim. proved less fortunate, he bad another arrow in 
reserve, . wbicb be should have directed to the heart of bis 
oppressor. . By this manifestation of bis courage and sen- 
timents, be induced thebailiflP to confine him ; who, after- 
wards,, mistrusting the friends and relations of Tell, re- 
solved to carry him. opt of tb^ country of Uri, across the 
lake of Lucern ; thoiagh contrary to the acknowledged pri- 
vileges of bis countrymen. On the lake, as they were 
crossing, a violent storm arose ; aud Gesler, who knew 
Tell to be very $kilful in the management of a boat, or-* 
dered bis fetters to.be taken off, and the helm committed 
to bim. Taking advantage of this circumstance. Tell 
steered the boat close to a rock, leaped upon a -flat part of 
it, scrambled up the precipice, and escaped. • Gesler also 
escaped the danger of the water, but, landing near Kus- 
nacht, fell by an arrow from the bow of Tell, whose skill 
be thus proved a second time, to his cost. Gesler tfauk 
perished by the indignation of a private man, without any 
participation of the peoplci and before the day appointed 
for their insurrection. Tell retired to Staoffacher, in the 
canton of Schwitz^ and on the new yearns day ensuing, all 
the Austrian governors- were seized and sent out of the 
country. . In- 1354, forty-seven years after this event, TeH 
is supposed to have lost hi»life in an inundation at Burgeln. 

A ichapel has been erected by bis countryman on the 
spot where hp resided, and another on the rock where he 
landed : but, from the simplicity o\^ the people, and of the 
times ip which be lived, no particular honours or emolu- 
ments were assigned to his progeny, who appear to have 
lived in obscurity. Tbe last male of bis race, of wboin we 
have any .aocount, was John Martin Toll, * of Attinghausen, 
who died in 1684« His desoent in the fbmale line became 
extinct in .1720.^ Grasser^ a Swiss wr.hiei*,' long ago re- 
marked the resemblance between tbe incident of the apple, 
as commonly related of Tell, and that * told of Tocco; a 
Dane, by Saxo Grammaiicus ; and from this coincidence, 
some bave sup\)osed tbe latter*, at least, to be fictitious ; 
this, however, does not tfmount to a proof. It is possible, 

Vol. XXIX. O 



494 T E L L I E R. 

though perhaps not ^probable, that it maj have happened 
twice.* 

TELLIER (FRAM901S Michel le), marquis de Louvois, 
-by which title he is generally known, was bom at Parb, 
January 18, 1641. He was the son of Michel le Tellier, 
secretary of state, and afterwards chancellor of France, and 
keeper of the seals. The great credit and power of the 
father gave an early introduction to the son into the offices 
of state, and he was only twenty-three when the reversion 
of the place of war-minister was assigned to him. His 
vigilance, activity, and application, immediately marked 
him as a man of superior talents for business ; lind two 
jfears afterwards, in 1666, he succeeded his father as se- 
cretary of state. In 1668 he was appointed post*master«« 
general, chancellor of the royal orders, and grand vicar of 
the orders of 8t Lazarus and Mount Carmel ; in all which 
places he fully justified the first conception of bis talents. 
By his advice, and under his care, was built the royal hos- 
pital of invalids ; and several academies were founded for 
the education of young men of good families in the military 
line. After the death of Colbert, in 1683, Louvois was 
appointed superintendant of buildings, arts, and manufac- 
tures. Amidst this variety of occupations, to which his 
genius proved itself fully equal, he shone most particularly 
in the direction of military affairs. He established maga- 
zines, and introduced a discipline which was felt with ad- 
vantage in every department of the army. He several 
times acted in person as grand master of the ordnance, and 
in that branch of duty signalized his judgment and energy 
no less than in every other. The force of his genius, and 
the success of his most arduous undertakings, gained him 
an extreme ascendant over the mind of Louis XIV. but he 
' abused his power, and treated his sovereign with a haughti- 
ness which created disgust and hatred in all who saw it. 
One day, on returning from a council, where he had been 
very ill received by the king, he expired in his own apart- 
ment, the victim of ambition, grief, and vexation. This 
1 happened when he was no more than fifty-one, on the 16 th 

of July, 1691. 
; .Louvois, with all his talents, was not regretted either by 
the king or the courtiers. His harsh disposition, and very 
. haughty manners, bad irritated every one against him« He 

\ Mailer's Hiit of Switzerluicl, toU I. p. 611. 



T S L L I S B. I9h 

{B«yHals<x be Reproached for the crueltief exeifeiied in the 
Palatinate, and for other sanguinary proceeding He 
wished not to be outdone in any severities.. *^1( the enemy 
bums one Til Uge within your government,'^- said he, in a 
letter to the marshal de Bouflers^ <' do you burn ten Jn 
his.'* Yet, notwittistanding every exception which may 
Justly be made to his chairacter, has talents were of more 
advantage than his faults were of injury to his country. In 
no one of his successors was found the same spirit of detail^ 
united with complete grandeur of views ; the same promp- 
titude of execution in defiance of all obstacles ; the same 
.firmness of discipline, or the same profound secrecy in de- 
sign. Yet he did not support ill fortune with the same 
firmness as. his master. When the siege of Coni was raised, 
he ca Tied the news to Louis XIV. with tears in bis eyes. 
<^ You are easily depressed," said the king ; *^ it is not 
difficult to perceive that you are too much accustomed to 
success. I, who have seen the Spanish troops within the 
walls of Paris, am not so easily cast down.'' His sudden 
death is mentioned by madame de Sevign6, in her letters, 
in her own characteristic style. ^* He is dead, then ; — this 
great minister, this man of so high consideration ; whose 
Moi (as M. Nicole says) was of such extent ; who was the 
centre of so many affairs, . How much business, how many, 
designs, uqw many secrets, how many interests to de- 
,veIope! How many wars commenced, how many fine 
strokes of chess- to make and to manage ! — ^Oh, give me 
but a little time ; — ^I would fain give check to the duke 
of Savoy, check-mate to the prince of Orange.— ^No, no ; 
not a moment Can we reason on this strange event i No, 
.truly ; we must retire into our closets, and there reflect 
upon it !" 

A book entitled ^^ Testament politique du marquis de 
Louvois," was published in his name, 1695, in 12mo, but 
the author of it was Courtils, and no just judgment of the 
marquis can be deduced from such a rhapsody. He left 
prodigious wealth, a great part of which he owed to bis 
-wife, Anne de Souvri, marchioness of Courtenvaux, the 
richest heiress then in the kingdom, ^ 

TELLIER (Michael), a celebrated Jesuit, was bora 
December 16, 1643, near Vire in Lower Normandy, and 
after teaching the belles lettres and philosophy with credit, 

1 Diet. Hist 
02 



196 T E L L I E R. 

rose grftdually to the highest offices in iTis society, was ap« 
pointed confessor to Loais XIV. on the death of father de 
la Chaise, 1709, and chosen an honorary member of the 
academy of inscriptions and belles lettres. He procured 
the constitution Unigenitus, engaged warmly in the dis- 
putes which arose concerning that bull, and after the king's 
death, in 1715, was banished to Amiens, and then to la 
Fleche, where be died, September 2, 1719, aged seventy- 
six. His works are, ^^ Defense des nouveaux Chretiens et 
des Missionnaires de la Chine, du Japon, et des Indes,** 
12mo. This book made much noise. ^^ Observations sur 
la nouvelle Defense de la Version Fran^oise du Nouveau 
Testament imprim6 a Mons/' &c. Rouen, 1684, 8vo. The 
latter is afi apology for M. Mallet's writings. Father Tel- 
Iter was author of several other works^ particularly the 
Delphin Quintus Curtius, which is esteemed. He did not 
belong to the same family with Teliier, mentioned in the 
preceding article. ^ 

TEMPESTA (Antonio), a Florentine painter, was born 
at Florence in 1555, and was a disciple of John Strada, or 
Stradanus. He proved in many respects superior to bis 
master, and especially in, the fertility of his genius, and th^ 
vast number and variety of bis figures, tie painted chiefly 
landscapes, animals, and battles. He invented with ease, 
and executed with vigour ; but not always with delicacy 
of colouring. He died in 1630, at the age of seventy«five. 
He sometimes engraved, but bis prints are not prize4 in 
proportion to his paintings. * 

TEMPESTA (Peter), otherwise called Molyn, and 
Pi£TRO MuLiER, another artist of note, was born at Haer- 
Jem in 1637, and according to some authors, was the dis- 
ciple pf Snyders, whose manner be at first adopted, and 
painted buntings of different animals, as large as life, with 
singular force and success. He afterwards changed both 
his style and subjects, and delighted to paint ten^ests^ 
storms at sea, and shipwrecks, which he executed ad-^ 
mirably, and therefore got the name, by which he is gene- 
rally known, of .Tempesta. After travelling through Hol- 
land he went to Rome, and having changed his religion 
from protestantism to popery, became greatly caressed as 
aaartist, and received the title of cavaliere. After passing 
HOiQe years at Rome he visited Genoa, where he was like- 

1 Moreri.-*-Dict. Hist. < Pilkingcon.— Strutt. 



T E M P E S T A. 197 

wise highly honoured, and fully employed, but appears to 
have lost all sense of principle or shame ; for, in order to 
marry a Genoese lady, be caused bis wife, whom be bad 
left at Rome, to be murdered. This atrocious affair being 
discovered, be was sentenced to be banged, but by the 
intervention of some of the nobility, who admired his ta- 
lents, his sentence would probably have been changed to 
perpetual ^imprisonment. From this, however, he con- 
triv'ed to escape, after being confined sixteen years, and 
died in 1701, in the sixty-fourth year of bis age. It was 
from this crime that he obtained the name of Pietro Mix- 
LIER, or De MuLiERiBUS. His pictures are very rare, and 
held in great estimation, and those be painted in prison 
are thought to be of very superior merit. He executed 
also, by the graver only, several very neat prints, in a 
style greatly resembling that of Vander Velde. Tbey con- 
sist chiefly of candle»light pieces, and dark subjects. ^ 

TEMPLE (Sir William), a very eminent statesman and 
writer, was the son of sir William Temple, of Sheen, in 
Surrey, master of the rolls and privy-counsellor in Ireland, 
in the reign of Charles II. by a sister of the learned Dn 
Henry Hammond. His grandfather, sir William Temple^ 
the founder of the family, was the ^younger sonof the 
Temples, of Temple-ball, in Leicestershire. He was fel- 
low of King^s college, in Cambridge, afterwards mastet o£ 
the free-school at Lincoln, then secretary successively to 
sir Philip Sidney, to William Davison, esq. one of queeti 
Elizabeth's secretaries, and to the celebrated earl of Essex, 
whom he served while he was lord-deputy of Ireland. la 
1609, upon the importunate solicitation of Dr. James Usher^ 
he accepted the provostship of Trinity college, in Dublin ; 
after which he was knighted, and made one of the masters 
in chancery of Ireland. He died about 1626, aged se- 
venty-two, after having given proof of his abilities and 
learning^ by several publications in Latin. 

The subject of the present memoir was born in London 
ip 1628, and first sent to school at Pensburst in Kent, 
under the care of bis uncle Dr. Hammond, then minister 
of that parish. At the age of ten he was removed to a 
school at Bishop Stortford, in Hertfordshire, kept by Mr. 
Leigh, where he was taught Greek and Latin. At the age 
of fifteen he returned and remained at home for about 
two years, from some doubts, during these turbulent times, 

i PilkiogtoD.— Stirutt. 



198 T I MP L E. 

M to the proprtetfy of tending him to any oaiiFeraitjr. Tbesv 
having been remoTed, be wm about, two years after en* 
tered of Emanuel college, Cambridge, under the tuttiou 
ef the learned Cadvrortb. His fiitber intending him for 
political life, seems not to have tbougbt a long residence 
here necessary ; and therefore about 1M7, or 1648, sent 
him on bis traTels, While on bis way to France he visited 
ibe Isle of Wight, where bis majesty Charles L was then a 
prisoner; and there formed an attachment, to Dorothy, se^ 
coifed daughter of sir Peter Osborn, of Obicksand, in IBed- 
fordsbire, whom he afterwards married. 

His travels extended to France, Holtaad, Flanders, a^ 
Germany ; during wbteh be acquired a facility in speaking 
and reading those modern languages, which tbew formed 
a necessary accomplishment in a statesman. In 1654, on 
his return, he married the above«mentioned Mrs. Osborn, 
and passed his time for some years with bis father and fa-: 
mily in Ireland, improving himself in the study of history 
and philosophy, and cautiously avoiding any employment 
during the usurpation. At the restoration, in 1660, bewaa 
chosen a member of the convention in Ireland, and first • 
distinguished himself by opposing the polUbill, a very un- 
popalar ministerial measure; which be did with so much 
independence of spirit, as to furnish a ptiesage of his future 
character. In the succeeding parliament, in 1 66 1 , he was 
chosen, with bis father, for the county of Csrlow, where 
he distinguished himself by voting and speakingx indif* 
ferently, as he approved or disapproved their measures, 
without joining any party. In 1662 he was cbosei^ one of 
the commissioners to be sent from that parliament to the 
king, and took this opportunity of waiting on tbe lord 
lieutenant, tbe duke of Ormond, then at Lonikm, and seems 
at the same time to have now formed tbe design of quitting 
Ireland altogether, and residing in England. It was ne- 
cessary, huwever,^ to return to Ireland, where on a second/ 
interview with tbe 4nke of Ormond, then at Dublin, the 
duke made extraordinary professions of respect for him, 
complaining, *with polite irony, that he was- the only man 
in Ireland who had never asked him any thing : and when 
he found him bent on going to England, insisted on giving 
him letters of recommendation to Ciarendoni ^e lord 
chancellor, and to Arlington, secretary of state* 

This recommendation was eiFectual with both these 
statesmen^ as well as with the king^ although be was not 



TEMPLE. ^wd 

immediately employed. Sir Willtan^ Temple was never 
forgetful t)f this obligation : be constantly kept up a cof'^ 
respondence with the duke of Ormond, and afterwards 
eealousiy defended him against tbe attempt of tiie earl 
of Essex to displace btm from the government of Ireland. 
In the mean time, during his interviews with lord A rling-* 
toD, who seems to have had his promotion at hearty he 
itook occasion ta hint to bis lordship, that if his majesty 
thought him worthy of any employment abroad, be shoi^ld 
be happy to accept it ; but begged leave to object to the 
northern climates, to which be bad a great aversion. Lord 
^Arlington expressed bis regret at this, because the place 
of envoy at Sweden was the only one then vacant. In 
1665, however, about tbe commencement of tbe first Dutch 
war, lord Arlington commuhicated to bim that his majesjty 
wanted to send a person abroad upon an affair of great im* 
portance, and advised htm to accept the offer, whether in 
all respects agreeable or not, as it would prove an intro- 
duction to bis majesty's service. This business was a se- 
cret commission to the bishop of Munster, for the purpose 
of concluding a treaty between the king, and bim, by which 
the bishop should be obliged, upon receiving a certain sum 
of money, to join bis majesty immediately in the war with 
Holland. ' Sir William made no scruple to accept this co^i- 
mission, which be executed with speed and success, and in 
the^most private manner, without any train or official cha- 
racter. In July he began his journey to Coesvelt, and 
not long after it was known publicly, that be had in a very 
few days conoluded and signed the treaty there, in which 
> his perfect kooyvledge in Latin, which he had retained, lyas 
of no little advantage to him, the bishop conversing in ^po 
other, language,, > After signing tbe treaty, he went to Bras- 
-seb, saw the ^firat) f)ayment made, and received the news 
that the bishop was* in the field, by whicb this negotiation 
began fir^t^to be discovered ; but. no pcfrson suspected the 
part be bad in- it; (and he continued privately at Brussels 
till it wais whispered to the marquis Castel-Rodrigo the 
governor, that he came upon some particular errand (which 
be was then at liberty to own]. Tbe governor immediately 
/aent to desire bis acquaintance, and tnat he might see him 
in private, to whicb be easily consented. Soon after a 
commission was sent bim to be resident at Brussels, a situ- 
< ation which be bad long cobtemplated with pleasure, and 
bis commission was accompanied with a baronet's patent. 



000 T E M P L E. 

Sir William now sent for his family (April 1666); but, 
before their arrival, was again ordered to Monster, to pre- 
vent the bishop's concluding peace with the Dutch, which 
be threatened to do, in consequence of some remissness in* 
the payments from England, and actually signed it at Cleve 
the very night sir William Temple arrived at Munster. On 
ibis he returned to Brussels ; and before be bad been there 
a year» peace with. the Dutch was concluded at Breda. 
Two months after this event, his sister, who resided with 
him at Brussels, having an inclination to see Holland, be 
went thither with her incognito, and while at the Hague^ 
became acquainted with the celebrated Pensicnary De 
Witt. 

In the spring of 1667, a new war broke out between 
France and Spain, which rendering Brussels a place of in- 
security, as it might fall into the hands of the French, he 
seQt his family to Eugland, but remained himself until the 
end of the year, when the king ordered him to return pri- 
vately to England, and in his way to go secretly, to the 
Hague, and concert with the states the means of saving 
the Netherlands. Sir William^ whom, Hume says, philo- 
liophy had taught to despise the world, without rendering 
him unfit for it, was frank, open, sincere, superior to the 
little tricks of vulgar politicians ; and meeting in De Witt 
with a man of the same generous and enlarged sentiments, 
be immediately opened his master's intentions, and pressed 
a speedy conclusion. A treaty was from the first nego- 
tiated between these two statesmen, with the same cordi- 
ality as if it were a private transaction between intimate 
companions. Deeming the interests of their country the 
same, they gave full ^cope to that sympathy of character 
which disposed them to an entire reliance on each otber^s 
professions and engagements. The issue was the famosa 
triple alliance between England, Sweden, and Holland; 
which being ratified Feb. 15, 1668, sir Willianpi Temple 
bad orders to return to Brussels, and protpote the treaty 
of peace between France and- Spain, then carrying oaa| 
, Aix-la-Cbapelle, He was accordingly sent thither in April, 
as his majesty's ambassador-extraordinary and mediator, 
and brought the affair to a happy conclusion. Soon after, 
he was sent ambassador-extraordinary to the States-Gene- 
ral, with instructions to confirm the triple alliance, and so-« 
Kcit the emperor and German princes, by their ministers, 
to enter intoit.^ Being the iirst English ambassador that 



TEMPLE. « 501 

had been there since king James's time, be was. received 
«nd distinguished by every mark of regard and esteem 
they could express for his character and person ; and, by 
the good opinion he had gained, was able to bring the 
States into such measures, as, M. de Witt said, he was sure 
•was not in the power of any other man to do* He lived in 
confidence with that great minister, and in constant and 
familiar conversation with the prince of Orange, then eight- 
leen years old. Yet, although he had a diflScuk part to 
act, h^ compassed the chief design of his embassy, in 
engaging the emperor and Spain in the measures that were 
:then desired ; but by this time the measures of his own 
court took a new turn ; and though he had observed a dis- , 
position before, to complain of the Dutch upon trifling oc- 
casions, yet he suspected nothing till lord Arlington^ in 
September 1669, hurried him over, by telling him, as soon 
as ;he received his letter he should put his foot into the 
stirrup. When he came to his lordship, whom he always 
saw the first, and with great eagerness desired to know the 
important affair that required his sudden recall, he found 
that his lordship had not one word to say to him ; and, 
after making him wait a great while, only asked him seve- 
ral indifferent questions about his journey ; and next day 
he was received as coldly by the king. . The secret, how*-' 
jever, soon came out ; and sir William Temple was pressed 
to return to the Hague, and make way for a war with Hol- 
land, which, less than two years before, he had been so 
much applauded for preventing by a strict alliance: but 
he excused himself from having any share in it, which so 
much provoked the lord treasurer Clifford, that he refused 
to pay him an arrear of two thousand pounds, due from his 
embassy. All this passed without any particular unkind- 
ness from the king; but lord Arlington's usage, so unlike 
iQ the friendship be had professed, was resented by sir 
William Temple with much spirit. He now retired to his 
bouse at Sheen, and employed this interval of leisure in 
writing his '^ Observations on the United Provinces," and 
pne part of his *^ Miscellanies/' 

In 1673, the king, becoming weary of the second Dutch 
war, at^d convinced of its unpopularity, sent for sir Wil- 
liam Temple, and wished him to go to Holland, with the 
offer of the king's, mediation between Frahce and the con* 
liederates then at war, which was not long after accepted; . 
and in Jime 1674, lord Berkley, sir William Temple, and 



SOS TEMPLE. 

tir Lioline Jenkins, were declared ambassadcnrf utA medUU 
fttorsy and Nimeguen appointed, by general consent, as the 
place of treaty. During sir William's -stay at the Ha^ne, 
the prince of Orange, who was fond of speaking English, 
and of English habits, constantly dined and supped onoe 
or twice a week at his house. Sir William insensibly ao- 
qoired his Highness's confidence, and had a considerable 
hand in his marriage with the princess- Mary, of which be 
has said so much in his ** Memoirs.*' One instance of. his 
employing his influence with the prince, he used to reckon 
amongst the good fortunes of his life. Five Englishmen 
happened to be taken and brought to the Hague wliUst he 
was there, and in the prince's absence, who were immedi* 
ately tried, and condemned by a councU of war, for de- 
serting their colours : some of his servants had the cari- 
osity to visit their unfortunate countrymen, and came 
home with a deplorable story, that, by what they had 
heard, it seemed to be a mistake ; and that they were all 
like to die innocent ; but, however, that it was without re- 
medy, that their graves were digging, and they were to 
be shot next morning. Sir William Temple left nothing 
vnattempted to prevent their sudden execution; andsent 
to the officers to threaten them, that he would complain 
first to the prince, and then to the king, who, he was sure, 
would demand reparation, if so many of his subjects suf- 
fered unjustly : but nothing would move them, till he made 
it his last request to reprieve them one day^ during which 
the prince happened to come within reach of returning an 
answer to a message he sent, and they were released. The 
first thing* they did was to go and look at their graves ; and 
the next, to come and thank sir William Temple upon their 
knees. 

In July 1676, he removed his family to Nimeguen, where 
he* passed that year without making any progress in the 
treaty, which, owing to various circumstaooes,^ was then at 
a stand; and, the year after, his ison was sent over with 
letters from the lord treasurer, to order him to return and 
succeed Mr. Coventry in his place of secretary of states 
which the latter made some difficulty of resigning, unless 
he had leave to name his successor, which the king re* 
fused. Sir William Temple, who was not ambitious of thie 
change at this time, requested his' majesty would defer it 
until all parties were agreed, and the treaty he was then 
concerned in concluded* This business^ howev er^ required 



TEMPLE. ^M 

kts (iresence in England, and be did not retarn to Nime« 
gnen that year. About the same time the prince of Orange 
came over and married the lady Mary, which seems to have 
occasioned a coolness between sir William Temple and lord 
Arlington, the latter being offended at sir William's inti* 
macy with the lord treasurer Osbom, who was related to 
lady Temple, they two being the only persons intrusted 
iwith the affair of the marriage. 

Iq the mean time, in 1678, the king, finding that affairs 
were not likely to come to any conclusion with France, sent 
for sir William Temple to the council, and told him, that 
he intended he should go to Holland, in order to form a 
treaty of alliance with the States ; and that the purpose of 
k should be, like the triple league, to force both France 
and Spain to accept of the terms proposed. Temple was 
sorry to find this act of vigour qualified by such a regard 
to France, and by such an appearance of indifference and 
neutrality between the parties. He told the kmg, that the 
yesolution agreed on, was to begin the war in conjunction 
with all the confederates, in case of no direct and immei« 
diate answer from France ; that this measure would satisfy 
the -prince, the allies, and the people of England ; advan^" 
tages which could not be expected from such an alliance 
with Holland alone ; that France would be disobliged, and 
Spain likewise; ^nor would the Dutch be satisfied with such 
a faint imitation of the triple league, a measure concerted 
when they were equally at league with both parties. For 
these reasons sir William Temple declined the employ- 
ment; and Lawrence Hyde, second son of the chancellor 
Clarendon, was sent in bis place ; and although the mea- 
sure was notpaliitable to the prince, the States concluded 
the treaty in the terms proposed by the king. Just after- 
wardii we find the king a little out of humour with sir Wil- 
liam Temple; and when the parliament would not^pass 
the suppUes without some security against the prevaiesce 
of the popish party, the king thought proper to reproach 
Temple with his popular notions, 'a^ he termed them ; and 
asked him how he thought the House of Commons could 
be trusted in carryingon the war, should it he entered on, 
when in the very commencement they made such declara- 
tions i Sir William, however, was not daunted by tUs re- 
proach ; and when the king, thwarted by his parliamtet^ 
began to lend an ear to the proposals of the king of Fraace, 
who offered him great sums of money> if be wouidi consent 



£04 TEMPLE. 

to France's making an advantageous peace with the allies^ 
sir William^ though pressed by his majesty, refused to have 
any concern in so dishonourable a negociation. He in- 
forms us that the king said, there was one article proposed, 
which so incensed him, that as long as he lived, he should 
never forget it What it was, sir William does not men* 
tion ; but dean Swift, who was the editor of his works, in- 
forms us, that the French, before they would agree to any 
payment, required as a preliminary, that king Charles 
should engage ^never to keep above 8000 regular troops in 
Great Briuin ! 

Sir William appears frequently to have retired from 
court disgusted with the fluctuating counsels which pre- 
vailed there, but was ever ready to lend his aid to measures 
which bore the appearance of public advantage : and in 
July 1678, upon the discovery of the French design not to 
evacuate the Spanish towns agreed on by the treaty to be 
delivered up, the king commanded him to go upon a third 
embassy to the States, with whom he concluded a treaty, 
by which England engaged, upon the refusal of the French 
to evacuate the towns in forty days, to declare immediate 
war with France : but, before half that time was run out, 
one Du Cros was sent from our court into Holland, upon 
an errand that again embarrassed the relative state of af- 
fairs; and such sudden and capricious changes in our 
councils, which sir William Temple had seen too often to 
be astonished at, increased his growing distaste to all pub- 
lic employment. 

In 1679 he went back to Nimeguen, where the French 
delayed signing the treaty to the last hour; and after he 
had concluded it, he returned to the Hague, from whence 
he was soon . sent for to enter upon the secretary's place, 
which Mr. Coventry was at last resolved to part with ; and 
my lord Sunderland, who was newly come into the other, 
pressed him with much earnestness to accept. He very 
unwillingly obeyed his majesty's commands to come over, 
as he had long at heart a visit he had promised to make 
the great duke, as soon as his embassy was ended ; having 
begun a particular acquaintance with him in England, and 
kept up a correspondence ever since. Besides, having so ill 
succeeded in the designs (which no man ever more steadily 
piirsued in the course of his employments) of doing his 
country the best service, and advancing its honour and 
greatness to the height of which he thought it capable, he. 



TEMPLE. 203 

resolved t6 ask leaVe of the king to retire. At this time^ 
indeed) no person could engage in public aflPairs witb a 
worse prospect ; the Popish plot being newly broke out, 
and the parliament violent in the persecution of it, aU 
though it is now generally allowed to baVe been an absurd 
imposture. On these accounts, although the king, who, 
after the removal of the lord treasurer Danby, whom the 
parliament sent to the Tower, had no one with whom he 
could discourse witb freedom on public affair^, sir Williatn, 
alarmed at the universal discontents and^ jealousies which 
prevailed, was determined to make. his retreat, as soon as 
possible, from a scene which threatened such confusions* 
Meanwhile, as he could not refuse the confidence with 
which his master honoured him, he represented to the 
king, that, as the jealousies of the nation were extreme, it 
was necessary to cure them, by some new remedy, and to 
restore that mutual confidence, so requisite for the safety 
both of the king and people ;^ that to refuse every thing to 
tl^ parliament in their present disposition, or to yield 
every thing, was equally dangerous to the constitution, as 
well as to public tranquillity ; that if the king would intro- 
duce into his councils such men as .enjoyed the confideu^*e 
of his people, fewer concessions would probably be re- 
quired ; or if unreasonable demands were made, the king, 
under the sanction of such counsellors, might be enabled, 
witb the greater safety, to refusie tbem;> and. that the heads 
of the popular party, being gratified with the king's favour, 
would probably abate of that violence by which they ea<- 
deavoured at present to pay court to the mpltitude. 

Tbe king assented to these reasons ; and, in concert 
with Temple, laid the plan of a new privy-council, without 
whose advice he declared himself determined for the future 
to take no measure of importance. This council was to 
consist of thirty persons, and was never to exceed that 
nunober. Fifteen of the chief officers of the crown were 
to be continued^ who, it was supposed, would adhere to the 
king, and, in case of any extremity, oppose the exorbitances, 
of faction. The other half of the council was to be com-* 
posed, either of men of character, detached from the court, 
or of those who possessed chi^f credit in both Houses. 
The experiment seemed at first to give some satisfactida 
to the people ; but as Sbaftesbury was made president of 
the council, contrary to the advice of sir William Temple, 
the plan upon the whole was of little avail. Temple often 



20$ TEMPLE. 

joiiied tbem, though he kept himself detached from poUiie 
business. When tiie bill was proposed for putting restric** 
tions on the> duke of York, as successor to the throne, 
fibaftesbury thought them insufficient, and was for a total 
exclusion ; but sir William Temple thought them so rigo- 
rous as even to subvert the constitution ; and that shackles, 
put upon a Popish successor, would not afterwards be 
easily cast off by a Protestant. 

. In 1680, when the council was again changed, sir Wil- 
liam gradually withdrew himself, for reasons which he has 
assigned in the third part of his Memoirs ; but soon after 
the king sent for him again, and proposed his going am- 
bassador into Spain, and giving credit to an alliance pre- 
tended to be made with that crown, against the meeting 
ot the parliament ; but when his equipage was almost 
ready, the king changed his mind, and told him, he would 
have him defer his journey till the end of the session of 
parliament, of which he was chosen a member for the uni« 
▼ersity of Cambridge, and in which the factions ran so 
high, that he saw it impossible to bring them to any tern* 
per. The duke of York was sent into Scotland : that 
would not satisfy them, nor any thing but a bill of exclu- 
aion, against which he always declared himself, being a 
legal man, and said, his endeavours should ever be to unite 
the royal family, but that he would never enter into any 
counsels to divide them. This famous bill, after long ooo- 
tests, was thrown out, and the parliament dissolved ; and 
it was upon his majesty^s taking this resolution without the 
advice of his priyy-oouncil, contrary to what he had pro- 
mised, that sir William Temple spoke so boldly there, aild 
was so ill-used for taking that liberty, by some of those 
friends who had been most earnest in promoting the last 
change. Upon this he grew quite tired with public busi- 
ness, refused the offer he had of serving again forthe uni- 
versity in the next parliament, that was soon after called 
and met at Oxford, and was even uneasy with the name of 
a privy •counsellor, but this he soon got rid of ; for the 
duke beine returned, and all the councils changed, lord 
Sunderland's, Essex^s, and sir William Templets names 
were by the king's order all struck out of the council-book 
together. On this occasion he. informed his majesty that 
he would live the rest of his life as good a subject as any 
in bis kingdom, but never more meddle with public affairs*. 
The king assured him that he was not at aU angry^ and 



TEMPLE. floy 

«ver after received his^visits, when he came lata the neigh- 
bourhood of Sheen, with respect : nor was less attention 
shewn to sir, William by king James, wb^ used to address 
his conversation to bito the moment be s^w him enter the 
room of the palace at Richmond* 

After this retirement, which occurred in 1685, sir WiW 
liam Temple continued a year at Sheen, and, having par« 
chased a small seat called Moor-^Park, near Farnbam in 
Surrey, which he preferred for its retirement, and the 
healthy and pleasant situation, and being much afflicted 
.with the gout, and broken with age and infirmities, be re- 
fMslved to pass the remainder of his life there ; and in No« 
vember 1686, in bis way thither, waited on king Janes^ 
jthen at Windsor, and begged bis favour. and protection to 
one that would always live a good subject, but, whatever 
happened, never enter again, upon any public employment; 
and desired his majesty never to give credit to whatever he 
might hear to the contrary. The king, who used to say 
sir William Templets character was always to be believed, 
promised him what he desired, made him some reproaches 
for not coming Into his service, which he said was his own 
fault, and kept his word as faithfully to sir William Tem* 
pie, as he did to his m^esty during the turn of aSiairs that 
soon after followed by the prince of Orange's coming over, 
which is said to have been so great a secret to bin), that he 
was not only wholly unacquainted with it> but one of the 
last men in England that believed it. 

At the time of this revolution in 1688, Moor Park gpow* 
ing unsafe by lying in the way of both armies, he went 
back to the house he had given up to his son at SbeeOt 
whom he would not permit to go and meet the prince of 
Orange at bis landing, as this might appear a breach . of 
his engagement, never to join in any measure. that seemed 
to divide the royal family. After king Jamei^'s abdication, 
and the prince's arrival at Windsor, however, sir William 
Temple went to wait upon his highness, along with bis son. 
On this occasion the prince pressed him to enter into bis 
service, and to be secretary of state ; said, it. was in kind* 
jiess to him that be had not been acquainted with his de- 
sign ; came to him two or three times at Sheen^ and seve* 
ral of his friends made him very uneasy, in urging how 
much the prince (who was bis friend), bis country, and bis 
religion, must suffer by his obstinate refusal to engage in 
their defeaee;' adding, that his conduct would give the 



2eg TEMPLE. 

world an onfavoorable opinion of this great urtdertaking; 
and make tbeoi mistrust spme bad design at the bottom^ 
which a man of his truth and honour did not care to be 
concerned in. Sir William, however, continued unshaken 
in his resolutions, although very sensible of the trouble and 
uneasiness the prince and all his friends expressed ; and 
was the more anxious to return to his retirement at Moor 
Park, about the end of 1689, that he might be less exposed 
ta similar solicitations. 

From that time he employed himself wholly in the cares 
and amusements of a country life, and saw little company, 
but had the honour of being often consulted by king WiU 
liam in some of his secret and important affairs, and of a 
visit froQ^ him in his way from Winchester, and used to 
wait upon his majesty at Richmond and Windsor, where- 
he was always very graciously received with that easiness 
and familiarity, and particular confidence, that had begun 
in Holland so many years before. . . • 

Sir William Temple died towards the end of 1700, in his ' 
seventy-second year, at Moor Park ; where, according to 
express directions in his will, his heart was buried in a stU "- 
yer box, under the sun-dial in his garden. This sun«dial/ 
we are told, was opposite to the window whence he used 
to contemplate and admire the works of nature with his sis-i- 
ter, the ingenious lady Giffard * ; who, as she shared and 
eased the fatigues of his voyages and travels during hia 
public employments, was the chief delight and cotafort ef 
his retiren[>ent in old age, as he had the misfortune to lose 
his lady in 1694. As to his person, bis stature was above 
the middle size : he was well-set and well-shaped ; his hair 
chesnut brown, bis face oval, his forehead large, a <!|irick 
pieroing eye, and a sedate and pMlosophical look. ' Those 
who have endeavoured to set sir William's <^haracter in^ the 
best light, have allowed him to have had some tincfure of 
vanity and spleen^ Bishop Burnet has painted him most 
unfavourably, allowing him to possess a true judgment in 
all affairs, and very good principles with' relation to" govern* 
ment, but in nothing else. The bishop adds, that <* he 
seemed to think, that things were as they are from all eter- 
nity ; at least, he thought religion was fk only for the mob. 
He was a great admirer of the sect of Confucius in Cbina> 
who were atheists themselves, but left religion to the rab« 



« Lady Giffard died io I'^S, at the tgc of 84.^ 



»^'* ••* 



T £ M P L B. sDt 

Ue. He was a corrupter of all that came near him : and 
he delivered himself 'up wholly to study, ease, and plea«- 
sure." Burnet's dislike to sir William Temple seems^ 
therefore, to hare ^ arisen from a very sufficient cause; 
from bis holding and propagating irreligious principles ; but 
this, others have not only doubted, but peremptorily de- 
nied, and have cited. his beautiful letter to lady Essex, .as a 
proof of his piety. Burnet, however, we perceive, allows 
him to have been a great statesman ; and, in the very next 
words to those just cited, refers his reader for ** an account 
of our affairs beyond sea, to his letters ; in which," says 
Burnet, *^ they are very truly and fully set forth.*' 

Sir William Temple was not only a very able statesman 
and negotiator, but also a polite and elegant writer. As 
maiiy of his works have been published, at different times, 
as amount to two volumes in folio; which have also been 
printed more than once in octavo. His '* Observations 
upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands," were 
published in one volume, 8vo, in 1672. His '^Miscella- 
nea," consisting of ten tractsupon different subjects, were 
originally published in two volumes, 8vo. One of these 
trscts is upon ancient and modern learning ; and what he 
advanced there, as it in some measure gave occasion to, so 
it involved him in, the controversy, which was soon after 
agitated here in England, concerning the superiority of 
the ancients and the moderns. His ** Memoirs" also, of 
what bad passed in his public employments, especially those 
abroad, uiake a very interesting part of bis works. They . 
were wriiteo in three parts ; the first of which began with 
faiii jourrtey to Munster, contained chiefly his negotiations 
of the triple alliance, and ended with his first retirement 
from public busiiiess, in 1671, a little before the second 
Dutch war. He began the second part with the approaches 
of the peace between England and Holland, in 1673, and 
concluded it with his being recalled from Holland in Fe- 
bruary 1^78-9, after the c<jnclu$i6n of that of Ntmeguen. 
The third part contains what passed from this peace to sir 
William's retirement. The second part of these '' Me- 
moirs" was published in his life* time, and, it is believed, 
with bis< consetis ; though it is pretended that cbey were 
written only for the use 6f his son, and isent into the world 
without his knowledge. The third part was published by 
Swift, in 1709, many years after his death. The first 

Vol. XXIX. P 



210 TEMPLE. 

jpart was never pi^blishe^ at all ; apd Swift, in the preCace 
to the third, tells us, that *' Sir William often assured 
him he had burnt. those Memoirs; and for that reason was 
content his letters during bis embassies at the Hague ao^ 
AiK-la-Chapelle (he ii>jgbt have added Munster) should 
be printed aft^r his death, to supply that loss. What, it 
was," continues Swift,, " that moved sir William Temple 
to burA those first Memoirs, may, perhaps, be conjectured 
from some passages in the second part formerly printed, 
luione place the author has thes^ words : * My lord At^r 
Ijpgton, who made so great a figure in the former part of 
tbf^se Memoirs, was now grown but of all <:redit/ &c. la 
other parts he tells us, ' That that lord was of the ministrj 
which broke the triple-^nlliance, advised the Dutch war ana 
French alliance ; and, in sbqrt, was. at th^ bottom of .aU 
those ruinous measures which the court, of England was 
Uien taking; so that, as I have been -told from a good 
hai^d, and as it seems very probable, he ,could not think 
that lord a person fit to be celebrated for his ,parc in. for^ 
fir^ding that famous league, while he was secretary Jq^ 
j^tate, who had made such counterpaccs to destroy it."' ^ i 
In 1693, sir William published an answer to a scurrilous 
pamphlet, entitled " A Letter from Mr. du Cros to the lprc[ 
— — ." This Du Cros bore very impatiently the chjaractei; 
which sir William had given him in the second part qf hts 
M Memoirs," and wrote the above letter to abuse him for 
it* In 1695, he pubUshed << Ad Introduction to the Hjstgry 
of. j^ngland :*' in which some few mistakes have been dis- 
covered, .as his speaking of William, the, Conqueror abolisk,- 
ing the' trial of camp-fight, or duel, who, oh the contrafy^^ 
introduced it. Not long after his death, pr. Swift, theo 
domestic chaplain to the earl of Berkley, who Uved mapy 
years as an amanuensis, iu . sir William Temple's family, 
pujblished two volumes of his V Letters," containing an acr 
coji^pt of the most important transactions that passed in 
Christendom, from 1667 tp 1672; and, in 1703^, a third 
Yptyme^ containing ^^Letter^ tp king Charles II. the prince 
of Orange, the chief ministers of state, and other persons,'* 
in octavo. The editor informs us, that these papers were 
the last of this or any kind, about which be hi^d received 
bis p^artioular commands; and that they ijvere corrected by 
hiift)self, and transcribed i,n bi^ lijertime. The lyhol^e .of 
bis w9rks were . handsojo^ely reprinted ip A vols. 8vq^. ia 



• 



TEMPLE. > 211 

- Sir William Temple had one son, John Temple, esq^ a 
fnan of great abilities and accompUsbmentSy and who, »oon 
after the Revolution, was appomted secretary at war by 
king William ;' but be had scarce been a week in that of- 
fice, when he drowned himself at London-bridge. Thi$ 
extraordn.ary affiiir happened the I4th of April, 1689; 
when Mr. Temple, having spent the whole morning ar his 
office, took a boat about noon, as if he designed to go to 
Greenwich ; when he had got a little way, he ordered the 
waterman to set him ashore, and then finisliing some dis- 
patches which he had forgot, proceeded. Before he thre^ 
himself out, he dropped in the boat a shilling forthe water- 
wsan, and a note to this effect : 

** My folly ill undertaking whsft I was not able to per- 
form, has done the king and kingdom a great deal of pre^ 
jadice. I wish him all happiness, and abler servants than 

JaHN Temple.'* 

It was thought, at first, that he meant by this, his inca- 
pacity for the secretaryship at war, which he had asked the 
king leave to resign the day before ; but the fact was,^ that 
he had been melancholy for some months before, and the 
great prejudice to the king% affairs, mentioned in his note^ 
could not be occasione/i by mistakes committed in a place 
in which he had yet done little or nothing. Another cause 
of bis melancholy is assigned, which carries nK>re probabi- 
lity. General Richard Hamilton being upon suspicion 
confined in the Tower, Mn Temple visited him sometimes 
u]pOn the score of a former acquaintance: when discourse 
ing upon the present juncture of affairs, and how to pre- 
fent the effusion of blood in Ireland, the general said, 
**That the best way was, to send thither a person in whom 
Tyrconnel could trust ; and he did not doubt, if such a 
person gave hnn a true accoant of things in England, he 
woiild readily submit/^ Mr. Temple communicated this 
overture to the king, who approving of it, and looking upon 
general Hamilron to be the properest person fdr such a 
service, asked Mr. Temple whether he cfould be trusted^ 
Temple readily engaged his word for him, and Hamilton 
was sent to Ireland ; but, instead of discharging his com- 
mission and persuading Tyrconnel to submit, he encou- 
raged him as much as possible to stand out, and offered 
him his assistance, which Tyrconnel gladly accepted. Mr. 
Temple contracted an extreme inela^choly upori R^miU 
ton's desertion ; although the king assured him he was coiik 

P 2 



214 T E M P L E M A N. 

oret with proper encoumgement from the public, it was 
bif intention to bare extemied the work to twelve vokuBes, 
with an additional, one of index, and that he waa prepared 
to publish two such volumes every year. Histransl8tii>n of 
*^ Nofden's Travels" appeared in the beginning of 1757 ; 
aYid in that year he was editor of *- Select Cases and Con** 
sultations in Physic, by Dr. Woodward," 8vo. On the 
astablishment of the British Museum in 1753, he was ap- 
pointed to the ofiice of keeper of the reading-room, wbick 
he resigned on being chosen, in 1760,* seetetary to €h<$ 
then newly instituted Society of Arts, Manufactures, an4 
Commerce. In 1762 be was elected a corresponding mem^ 
ber of the Royal Academy of Science of Parts, and aisi^ of 
the CEconomical Society at Berne. Very early in life I>r; 
Templeman was afflicted with severe paroxysms of an 
asthma, which eluded the force of all that either bi«r owil 
skill, or that of the most eminent physicians then livings 
could suggest to him ; and it continued to harass ^hitk^ till 
his death, which happened September 2S, 1769. 'He wtt 
esteemed a man of great learning, particularly with reaped 
tb languages; spoke French with great fluency^ and left 
the character of a humane, generous, and poUte member 
t>f society. 

. It may not be improper to distinguish Dr. Tempienan 
from Mr. Thomas Templeman, the author of ^< Eogva^ed 
Tables, containing calculations of the number Of scjtiatre 
feet and people in the several kingdoms «^ the World f^ 
who was a .writing-master in the town of St. Edmund'a 
Bury,' where he died May 2, 1729. Both are^often con- 
founded, and the latter often appears In quotations with 
the doctor's degree of the former. ' 
' TENCIN (Claddine, Alexandrine, Gtreotsi,' de), a 
lady of considerable talents, tobk the habit of a religious 
St the monastery of Montfl«uri, near Grenoblei Becoming 
tired of that mode of life, she went to' Paris, where she 
lived in the world, and solicited a bull from the pope to 
authorize this unusual proceeding. With cardinal Lam- 
bertini, afterwards Benedict XIV. she was on good terms^ 
and he gave her no molestation. Her bouse at> Pavts' was 
the general meeting' of all who had wit, or wished to have 
mke credit of it. The gaiety of her society was« however, 
disturbed by some unfortunate adventures ; particularly by 

* 

* Nichols's Bowyer. 



T E .N C I N. 



2l#. 



tbe» death of La ^Fre^aye, a counsellor of sl^ate^ who ws^^ 
killed in jier.apart^aient. Mademoiselle TeDcin waa prpsci-. 
€bted as coni^erned in the murder, and was confined 6fSit 
in the Chatelety and afterwards in the Bastille; but was, at. 
length discharged as innocent. She died at Paris in 1749, 
being then a good deal advanced in years. She appeared 
as an author in several instances, and produced, 1. ^^ JLe. 
Siege de Calais," a romance, of considerable delicacy and 
g^ius, thoughjiQt without faults. 2. '^ Memoires de Com- 
mingesy" i2mo, another novel which has had its admirers* 
^ nephew of M..de Tenoin, M. Pont-de-veste, had some 
share, in both. these productions. 3. ^^ Les Malheurs de 
yAjDour," a novel, ^ia which some, have supposed that she 
describes a part of her own history, 4. *^ Anecdotes oC 
Sdward Il.'Va posthumous work, published in 1776. All 
berwprks wece published at Paris in 17S6, in seven small 
yoiumes^ ]2mo.' 

T£NI£RS (David), a< Flemish painter, was born ^t 
Antwerp, in 1582, and received the first rudiments of his 
afjbXram the famous Rubens, who considered him, atlength, 
i«s;;his most deserving scholar. On leaving Rubens, he 
iifigan io be muck employed ; and, in a little time, was in 
a condition to take a journey to Italy. At Rome he fixed 
iMmself with Adam Elsheimer, who was then in great vogue ; 
bi* whose manner he became a. thorough master, without 
«ieglecting at. the same time the study of other great 
H^asteri, and endeavouring to penetrate into the deepest 
.mysteries oftheir practice. An abode of tea years in Italy 
eiiobled.bim to become one of the first in bis style of paint- 
ing; aoda happy union in the schools of Rubens and £1* 
sheimer formed in him a manner as agreeable as divertiug. 
When Teoiers retiJMrhed to his own country, he entirely 
employed Irimself in painting small pictures, filled with 
figures of persons drinking, chemists, fairs, and merry- 
makings, with a number of country meo aad women. He 
.spread so much taste and truth through his pictures, that 
£bw painters have ever. produced a juster effect. The de- 
maad for them was universal ; and even his master Ruben& 
thought them an ornament, to bis cabinet,; which wfis^ 
^'higfa.a compliment as could belaid tbem. Teoi^r^. drew 
Jbia own cbiiracier. in Ua pictures^ and in all hi)> ^bjfiiRts 
crvery thing tends to joy and pleasun?. ^fi^ wasj ^)^f ^^ em- 



I Diet. HJitj-^hesterfi^ld't Mistellanies. 



ii« 



t E N I E R 8. 



ptoy«d in eopjring after aatiire, Whatooefer preflenled iuelf; 
and be accustomed bU two sons to follow bit example, ^ui 
to paint nothing but from tbat in&llible models by wbiob 
iDeans they botb became excellent painters. Tbeseara 
the only disciples we know of this David Tenters, styled 
the elder, who died at Antwerp in 1649, aged sijffty-eeven. * 
TENIERS (David), son of the precedingy was born at 
Antwerp in 1610, and was nick<>named <' The Ape oi 
Painting;** for there was no manner of painttog tbat be 
could not imitate so exactly, as to deceive even the nicest 
jadges. He improved greatly on the talents and merit oC 
bis father, and his reputation introduced him to the fairour 
of the great. The archduke Leopold William made bmk) 
gentleman of his bedchamber; 'and all the pictures of bis) 
gallery were copied by Teniers, and engraved by bis di<iC 
rection* Teniers took a voyage to England,' to buy several: 
pictures of the great Italian masters for count Fuenaain 
degna, who, on his return, heaped favours on hi m^ Dfon 
John of Austria, and the king of Spain, set so great. al 
value on his pictures, that they built a gallery on ^uirpose^ 
for them. Prince William of Orange iKmoured bim withe 
his friendship ; Rubens esteemed his works, and assisittfA 
him with his advice. In his tbirty^fifth year be was io hia 
zenith of perfection* His principal talent was landscape, ^ 
adorned with small figures. He painted men. drinking and: 
smoking, chemists, and their laboratories, country fairr,\ 
and the like : bis small figures are superior to 4)ia large 
ones. The distinction between the works of the £siber 
and theaon is, fhatih the son's you discover a finieir ceticb. 
and a fresher pencil, and a greater choice, of attiiades, and 
a better disposition of figures. Tbe father retained some* : 
thing of the tone of Italy in his colouring, wbicb was; 
stronger than the son's, but his pictures bave less barmonjr^ 
and union; besides, the son used to put at tbe bottom of * 
bis pictures, *< David Teniers, junior.'' He died at Aiit* 
werp in 1 694, aged eighty*four. Sir Jostuia Reynolds says, : 
that the works of this artist are worthy tbe elosest attention 
of a painter who desires to excel in. the opecfaanical know-' ' 
ledge of bis art^ His manner of touching, or wbat we caU \ 
bandling, has perhaps never been equalled : there is in hia z 
pictures tbat exact mixture of softness and sbatpaess, wbiclK . 
is difEii;iiU to execute. . -\ : : r. 



T E N 1 E B a; iif 

Hfa wither AlRiiflAJf was « good painter ; 4^l]fi1; if nol 
superior, to bis iuiber and brother in- the expression of bis 
(Dbaractersy and knowledge of the chiaro-scuro, though in- 
ferior in the sprigbtUness of his touchi and the lightness of 
bis pencil. ' 

TENISON (THOMAff), a learned and worthy prelate^ 
tiM^ son of the rev. John Tenison, B. D. by Mary, daughter 
6§ Tboinas Dowson of Cottenbam inr Cambridgeshire, wi^ 
born at that place Sept; 29, 1636. His father was reotoe 
of Af uncksley in Norfolk, whence be was ejected for bit 
adberewee to Charles I. At the restoration, according to 
Dr. Kenned, be became rector of Bracon-Ash, and died 
there in V671, bat Mr. Masters apprehends that he was rec« 
tor of Toperoft in Norfolk in 1646, and by Le Neve wia 
find ibat in 1712, hie son, the subject of the present ar-* 
tiele, at the exp^ftce of 340/. rebuilt the chancel of Top«* 
oeoft church, where bis father and mother, are buried. 
" Young Tenison was first educated at the free-school «t 
Norwich, whieh was then in great reputation, under Mr. 
Loyering , the master. From this school, at the age of 
seventeen, be was admitted a scholar upon archbishop 
Barker's foundation, of BeneH college, Cambridge, where 
be look bis degree of A. B. in Lent term, 1656-7 ; and thef 
stw^y of diniriiy being at that time interrupted, at least as 
to its ordinary process, he began to study medicine, but 
on the eve of the restoration he procured himself to be pri- 
vately ordained at Richmond in Surrey, by Dr. Duppa, 
bisbop of Salisbury. In 1660,^ the year following, he pro-» 
ceeded M. A. and being by virtue of a pre-election, ad-* 
mitted felbw of bis college, March 24, 1662, be became 
tutor, and in J 665 was chosen one of the university 
preachers, and about the sanae time was presented by the 
dealt and chapter of Ely to the cUr^ of St. Andrew the^reat 
in Cambridge. 

Ht had not long held this last situation before t<be plague 
broke out and dispersed the members of the college, and 
probably soone ofitbe inhabitants of his parish, but Mr. Te- 
nison remained' fa^cQllege, with only two scholars, and a 
few servants, dering the whole of the calaoiity, and con- 
scientiously perfohned bis parochial duties, without neg* 
lettcing sooh'^ipracautions as the faculty at that time pre- 
scribed. His parishioners were so sensibly struok with this 

1 Argenville, y^l 2II.-->Pilkin^n.«-3ir J. Reynoldv** Works. 



« 

/ 



SIS r E N I S O N. 

efibrt o( piety and courage, as to prevent him with- a band- 
some piece of plate when be left tbem in 1667. * In pensem^ 
brance of their kindness, he gave them, a short time before 
bis death, the sum of 50/. towards repairing their church. 

In this last mentioned year, 1667, be proceeded B. D» 
He bad for some time served bis futher's cure at Bracon« 
asbe, and quitted St. Andrew's in Cambridge on being pre- 
sented to the rectory of Holywell and Nedingwoitb in Hun- 
tipigdonshire, by Edward, earl of Manchester. This noble^ 
liian had before that time placed his son Thomas under bis 
tuition in the college, and afterwards appointed Inm hiit 
chaplain, in which relation he was likewise continued by 
bis successor,' earl Robert. About the same time be mar« 
ried Anne, daughter of Dr. Richard Love, some time mllst-^ 
ter of .Bene't college. In 1670 his first publication ap«9 
peared, under the title of '* Th6 creed of Mr. Hobbea eis^ 
amined, in a feigned conference between him and. a sin-v 
dent in divinity," 8Vo* This, which is said to have beeaii 
{Published to obviate an absurd calumny, that .be^iwas a fa>* 
vourer of Hobbes, affords a very excellent refutation! c»l 
that autbor^s principles. v-'v 

' In 1674, the parishioners of St. Peter's Manscrofti^ in 
Norwich, chose him their upper minister, with a.salary^of 
100/. a year. In 1 678 he published his .^^Diseourse of Iife^ 
]atry/' and the year following, some irapubbshed.remaio^of 
lord Bacon, under the title *^ Baconiana," witb^a ptefMH 
giving an excellent analysis of his lordship's works. la I48Q 
he took his degree of D. D. and in Ootoberof <the«ame yiiat^ 
was presented by Charles II. being then one of bis m»h 
jesty's chaplains, to tbe vicarage of St. Martians ^i<n the 
Fields. Here he cotitinued the measures wliiebDri Lloyd 
his predecessor had adopted to cheek tbe gsevn^tb of 4>opery, 
abd became the founder of our parochial cb^rity-aGboola. 
He also founded a library. Dr. Kennethsays that in this 
office, Dr. Tenison did as much good as pferbaps it was. 
possible for one man to do, and the writer -<of bis life assttres 
us that there were not above two persons in bis parishwbo 
turned Roman catholics while be was vicar. Indeed tbia 
large and important cure extending to Whitehall, and .the 
whole court, rendered an unusual portion of xrourage. aa4 
perseverance necessary in watching the pcoeeedings of the 
popish party, who bad too many friends in the highest sta* 
tion. Dr. Tenison, however, undautu^i^lily:, to6R SfeSsliiife 
in the controversy which their conduct procfuced, and wils 



T E N I S O N: 219 

sooti fnatked as arixantagonistjiot to be despised. In 16^1 
be preached and pubiisiied ** A Sermon of Discretion in 
giving alms," wMich being attacked by Andrew Pulton, who 
was at the head of the Jesuits in the Savoy, Dr. T^iison 
wrote a defence of it. In June 1684 an attempt was made 
to entrap him into an obscure house, on pretence of his 
receiving there some information respecting the murder of 
sir Edmondbury Godfrey ; but by the precaution he took, 
this des'rgh, whatever it might be, was defeated. In this 
year h<f published "The difference between the protestiant 
and the Socinian methods,'' in answer to a book written by 
a ^api^t entitled *♦ The Protestant's plea for a Socinian.'* 
In f^emean titne, in 1683, be had rivalled that party in 
their grace of charity, by distributing upwards of 300/. for 
the relief of his poor parishioners during the hard frost. 
He also now completed tbe designs before mentioned, of 
endowing a charity-school, and setting up a public library, 
both which still exist. 

^ In I6S5, he attended the unfortunate duke of Monmoutb, 
l^y bid glee's desire, both. before, and at the time of bis 
execution ; and Burnet tells us that he spoke to his grace 
with a freedom becoming his station, both as to the duke's 
|nibtic conduct and private life, yet with such prudence 
and circumspection, as to give no offence.- In 1687, Dr^ 
TetMsbn held^a^'Conference with Andrew Pulton, his oppo- 
nent'before Uientioned, respecting the pr^testant religion, 
il^taii of which be afterwards published under the title of 
**iA true account of a Conference held about Religion at 
hamiMky tSept. 29, 1687, between Andrew Pulton*, Je&juit, 
iiltd 'IThomas -Tenison, D. D. as also that which led to it, 
and ibltd^^ after it," Lond. 1687.- Soon aftier Dr. Teni- 
^on fmblished the following tracts, arising from this con*- 
ib^Moe, or connected with the popish controversy in ge- 
neral: ** A Gaide in matters of Faith, with respect espe*- 
dially to the Romish practice of such a one as is ibfallible ;" 
^ Mr. Pulton considered in his sincerity, reasonings, and 
sititfaorities ; or, a just answer to what he has hitherto pub- 
lished in his true and full account of a conference, &c. his 
i^marks, and in them his pretended confutation of what he 
calls Dr. T.'s (Dr. Tillotson's) Rule of Faith ;"« Six Con- 
ferences concerning the Eucharist, wherein is shewed, that 

ft 

-« : ■ • • ■ 

, *^ Dodd, 10 his Ciiarch,Hi)S,torf, meDtioQt ibis Andrew Pulton sligbily, and 
•« dfstini^uishedoikly for his cottfertioce with Dr. Tenlson. See Dodd, vol. III. 



120 T E N 1 S O N. 

the doctrine of Traiisubstantiation overthrows the proofs of 
the Christian religion/' frotn the Flrench of La Placette ; 
*<The Difference between the Church of England and the 
Church of Rome ; in answer to a book written by a Ro- 
manist, entitled The Agreement between them ;" and *^ An 
Examination of Bellarmine*s tenth note of holine;»s of life.** 

About this time Dr. Tenison preached a sermon at the 
funeral of the famous Nell Gwynn, one of Charles II.'s 
mistresses, whom he represented as a penitent. This drew 
upon him some censure ; and perhaps the measure was not 
a very prudent one, even supposing the fact of her peni- 
tence to be as be represented. His enemies, however, 
could hot have many just objections to what he said, as 
they were reduced to the meanness of publishing a false 
copy of the sermon, against which Dr. Tenison advertised. 
In 1680^ a considerable sum of money, we are not told by 
whom, was deposited in bis hands, jointly with Dr. Simon 
Patrick, to be laid out in works of charity, according to 
their discretion; and after distributing some part of it ac- 
cordingly in charitable uses, they settled the remainder as 
a kind of fund for augmenting the insufficient maintenance 
of poor vicars. This they managed themselves for some 
years, dividing the sum of 100/. among twenty vicars, half 
of the diocese of Canterbury, the other of Ely, at the equal 
rate of 5L to each vicar; but in 1697 they assigned over 
the whole stock, amounting to 2400/. to sir Nathan Wright, 
lord keeper of the great seal, and other trustees, ft^r the. 
^ame purposes. 

Resuming his pen against popery. Dr. Tenison now pub- 
lished five more treatises or tracts on the subject, entitled 
**The Introduction to Popery not founded in Scripture;" 
** An answer to a letter of the Roman catholic soldier;'' 
** Speculum Ecclesiasticum ; or an ecclesia^itical prospec- 
tive glass considered in its faUe reasonings and quotations ;** 
"The incurable Scepticism of the Church of Rome," trans- 
lated from Placette; and <*The Protestant and Popish way 
gf interpreting Scripture, impartially compared, in answer 
to Pax vobis, &c." alt in 4to, and published in 1688 or 
1689. We are told that, notwithstanding his zeal in this 
cause, he was so much respected at court, thdt James IL 
was induced, out of regard to him, to take off the suspension 
which that infatuated monarch had laid upon Dr. John Sharp 
(See SHAttP, vol. XXVII. p. 400) ; "but there is more reason 
to think that this, on the king^s part, was an attempt at 



T E N I S O N. £21 

•oaciliation^ when he found ho^ unpopular that and bk 
other measures in favour pf popery were. 

In the succeeding reign, Dr. Tegison is said to have acr 
quired favour at court, on account o£ his moderation towards 
the dissenters. He was one of those who dwelt fondly oft 
the hopes of a comprehension, as it was called, to be effect* 
ed partly by a review of the Liturgy. Immediately after 
the revolution, he was promoted to be archdeacon of Lou* 
•don, and was appointed one of the commissioners to pre- 
pare matters towards reconciling the dissenters for the con- 
vocation. He even wrote a defence of it, entitled ^^ A Dis- 
course on the Ecclesiastical commission, proving it agree- 
able to the word of God, useful to the convocation, &c.** 
168i), 4to, but he soon found the main object to be un- 
attainable, neither party being satisfied with the proposed 
alterations in the liturgy* It was this endeavour to conci- 
liate the dissenters which is said to' have induced queen 
Mary to solicit that he might have the bishopric of Lincoln, 
to which be was accordingly nominated Nov. 25, 1691, and 
consecrated at Lambeth, Jan. 10 following. The writer of 
his life, in Bvo, tells us that the earl of Jersey, then master 
pf the horse to her majesty, endeavoured as much as pos- 
sible to prejudice Dr. Tenison in her majesty's opinion, in. 
order to gain her interest for his friend Dr. John Scott, rec- 
tor of St* Giles's in the fields ; and represented to her ma- 
jesty, who was speaking of Dr. Tenison in terms of respect, 
that he had preached a funeral sermon, in which he had 
spoken favourably of Mrs. Eleanor Gwyn, one of king 
Charles lid's mistresses. *^ What then ?" said the queen, 
^/ I have beard as much. This is a sign, that that poor 
unfortunate woman died penitent; for if I can read a man's 
heart throt^gh his looks, had she not made a truly pious 
and Christian end, the doctor could never have been in- 
duced to speak well of her.*' 

He bad ho^ been seated in this see above two years, 
^hetijt upon the death of Dr. Marsh, he was offered the 
archbishopric of Dublin; but be made it the condition of 
bis . acceptance, that the impropriations belonging to the 
estates itben forfeited to the crown, should be all restored 
to the respective parish churches. The king thought this 
yery reasonal^le, but the difficulties were found so grea| 
t^at i^ never could b^ carded into execution ^ and Instead 
f^ft being translated into Ireland, bishop Tenison was raised 
i^ I694^.fippp the de^th of Dr. Tillolson, to thp see ol 



ISS T £ N I S O N. 

Canterbury. Dr. Kentiet observes, that upon the death dt 
archbishop Tillptson, ** it was the solicitous care of the 
Court to fill up the see of Canterbury. The first pei:son 
that seemed to be offered to the eye of the world, was Dr. 
StillingBeet, bishop of Worcester; but his great abilities 
had raised some envy and some jealousy of him : and, in- 
deed, his body would not have borne the fatigues of such a 
station. Even the bishop of Bristol, Dr. John Hall, mas* 
ter of Pembroke college, Oxford, was recommended by a 
great party of men, who had an opinion of his great piety 
and moderation. But the person most esteemed by their 
majesties, and most universally approved by the ministry, 
and the clergy, and the people, was Dr.Tenison, bishop of 
Lincoln, who had been exemplary in every station of his 
life, had restored a neglected large diocese to some disci*- 
pline and good order, and had before, in the office of a 
parochial minister, done as much good as, perhaps, was 
possible for any one man to do. It was with gre-at impor* 
tunity, and after rejecting better offers, that he was pre- 
'vailed with to take the bishopric of Lincoln ; aird it was 
with greater reluctancy, that he now received their majesties' 
desire and command for his translation to Canterbury. 
Burnet speaks much to the same purpose, although his 
opinion of Dr. Tenison seems never to have been very 
high ; and adds, that at this time ** he had many friends, 
and no enemies." 

* Soon after his promotion to the archbishopric, queen* 
Mary was seized with the small pox, which proved fiactal,' 
and at her desire archbishop Tenison attended her during 
her illness, was present at her death, and preached a fune* 
ral sermon, which is said to have given some offence, and 
was severelycensured in a letter to his grace by Dr. Ken^ 
the deprived bishop of Bath and Wells, who maintained 
that the archbishop was guilty of neglect of duty in not 
having represented to her majesty when on her death-bed 
" the gr«^at guilt she lay under by her conduct at the re* 
volution.-* Of this letter, Dr.Tenison took no notice, for 
which few will now blame him. A ** Defence of his Ser- 
irtort" wail afterwards published by his friend Dr. John 
Withams. But if Dr. Tenison failed in bringing the queen 
to repentance for ** the revolution,'* he is said to have pro- 
duced some good effects on the king's disposition.* W*hen 
the queen died, William was deeply affected, and impressed 
With ^rf sefious notions, which, we are told, Dr.Tenison 



' TEN ISDN. 229 

■ 

^ncourag^d^ * aud .in one ioslnnce (the king^s iliieit. om^ 
nectioo with iaiiyVilliers) urged the beinousness o£ that 
crime with suqh power, that, if we may believe Whi«totS^ 
bis majesty promised nev^ tO; seetbat lady more. Tbe 
archbishop is also said to have been instrumental in healing 
some differences in the royal family, especially respecting 
tbe settlement of the princess Anne of Denmark. . 
1 The several injunctions and circular letters to his clergy 
for preserving .the order and discipline of the church, and 
for healing tbe animosities that arose in bis time respect?- 
ing the doctrioe. of tbe Trinity, are such as have been 
thought to reflect honour on his high station. It was in 
his timej too, that tbe disputes occurred respecting the 
distiuct powers of tbe two^houses of convocation, which 
proved ultimately tbe ruin of that assembly, so that, as has 
been justly remarked, while every other church and every 
sect, has its synods, or other assemblies of tbe kind, the 
church of England has no longer any thing preserved but 
the mere forqa.of meeting and breaking up. 
^ In 16^6> be gave a signal proof of his zeal for the re-i 
vplivtion in tbe ^ase of sir John Fenwick's attainder. Oil 
this occasion,, when the celebrated Mr. Nelson requested 
bis vote against that bill, the equity of which was much 
disputed, the aixbhisbop said, ^^ My good friend, give me 
leave to tell you, .that I know not what spirit this man, noi> 
I, am of. i wish for his, nor no man's blood : but bow can 
I do my dut^ to Cod and the king, should I declare a man 
innocent (for my. not being on. the side of the bill will conw 
vince the world that I think him so) when I am satisfied in my 
conscience,, not only from Goodman's evidence, but all the 
convincing testimonies in the worlds that he is guilty. Laws ' 
ex post facto jn^y indeed carry tbe face of rigour with them; 
but, if ever, a law was necessary, this is.V . :. 

In 1700| bis grfice obtaiued a commission, authorizing, 
liimy jointly .with the archbishop of York,, and four othec 
prelates,. vi^. Bprnet.of Salisbury, Lloyd of Worces^r, Pa-<> 
trick. pf £ly, and Moor .of Norwich, to cecoooimend to Jhi». 
majesty,, proper persons for all the eccle&iasudal pr^feiK* 
ment^ inj his. gift, above (be. value of 20/. pen an».<in the; 
book.of first fruits and tenths. He, continued in the/stmer 
favo.qr at court until the death of king William, whomhcw 
cpQ^antly attended. in his illness, aod preivailed, with hioii. 
t^ put tbe ia^t hand. to a bill for tbe beti^r security of tbe^ 
pi^ote^tant ^ucce^sion* In conaequenoe of hi* s^a«ioj>, be 



tSi T E N I S O N. 

had the boROiir of crowning queen An net ^^^ ^ iMit en* 
joj much favour at her court. During the first three yean 
of her reign he steadily opposed the bill to prevent occa^ 
•ional conformity. At the same time he was not neglectful 
of what concerned the welfare of the established churcbyi 
and engaged Dr. White Kennet, afterwards bishop of Peter« 
boruugh, to write ** The case of Impropriations^ &c." in, 
consequence of the queen's halving given the first fruitt 
for augmenting the maintenance of the poorer clergy. Iq 
1705^ he wrote a letter to the princess Sophia, acquaint* 
ing her with his own zeal in particular, and that of ber» 
friends, for the security of the Hanover succesttion, to 
which he received au answer, in which her highness gave 
some intimation of her desire to come *to England at that 
juncture. Tbis letter of hers was published some time 
after, together with one from sir Rowland Gwynn to the . 
earl of Stamford, upon the same subject of the princess'f 
coming over ; which last being voted by both houses to be 
a scandalous libel, tending to create misunderitandinga be* 
tween her majesty and the princess Sophia, the publisher^ 
Charles Gitdon, was fined 100/. by the court of queen's 
bench. But notwithstanding that our archbishop'* aeal in 
this matter could not.be very agreeable to her mi^ty, 
who was always averse to the notion of a visit firom the 
electress, yet in April 1706 he was nominated first com* 
jnissioner in the treaty of union between England and 
Scotland. The same year, he concurred with the majo- 
rity of the lords in their resolution against those who iu* 
sinuated that '^ the church was in danger," 

On the death of queen Anne he was appointed one of the 
three officers of s^ate in whose bands were lodged, by au« 
thority of parliament, one of those instruments empower-- 
ing her successor, if abroad at the time of her demise, to 
appoint auch regents as be should think proper, to continue 
the administration in his name till his arrival. He had 
afterwards the honour of crowning George I. and of being 
admitted to a private conference \«ith him. This was, how- 
ever, bis last attendance on that prince, as his infirmities, 
and particularly frequent attacks of the gout, rendered it 
necessary for him to live as retired as possible at his palace 
at Lambeth, where he died Dec. I*!*, 1715, in the seventy* 
ninth year of bis age. He was interred privately in the 
chancel of the church of Lambeth, and in the same vauh 
with his wife,^ who died the Receding year, leaving him 



T E N I S o N.. aas 

I 

.without issue. By hi$ will he bexju^atbed very large sums 
to charitable purposes, and proved a liberal benefactor to 
.Bene't college, Cambridge, the library of St, Paul's ca« 
ihedral^ the society for the propagation of the gospel, 
queen Anne's bounty, Bromley Ci^Hege^ &c. The residue 
of his fortune, which was very considerable, he ord^r^d to 
be equally divided among the children of bis kinsmen, Dr. 
Edward Tenison (afterwardsbishopofOssory), Mr. Richard 
Tubby, and Mr. George Fage. 

■' The author of the ** Memoirs of his Life*' says, he was a 
]kelate ^^ who, through the whole course of his life, always 
practised that integrity and resolution ha first set out with; 
Xior was he influenced by the changes of the age he lived 
in-, CO act contrary to the pure and peaceab^ti spirit of Ui^ 
gospel, of which he was so bright an ornament." , He add% 
that he was *^ an exact pattern of that exemplary piety, 
charity, steadfastness, and good conduct requisite in a go* 
vernor of the church." Dr. Richardson, in bis e(i|ition of 
Godwin's Lives of the Bishops, at first brought a serious 
charge against Dn Tenison for neglecting the fairest opt 
portunity of introducing the ecclesiastical polity of the 
church of England into the kingdom of Prussis^ ; but h^ 
w«s afterwards so fully convinced of the injustice of tbi# 
jcfiafge, a^ to alter the page of his wprk in which it wa$ 
brought forward, and lay the blame upon those to whom 
it more ptoperly belonged. Swift appears to have spokeu 
wi Ai' great di^espect of archbishop Teoison, for which no 
better reaa(on can be given than his prejudices against the 
whigS| to which p$rty Tenison was supposed to belong ; 
^iid is s'aiii to have furnished some hinjts for Steele's me« 
morttble ** Crisis," for which the latter was expelled the 
House of Commons. The archbishop, however, had ad <^ 
milkers in many of bis contemporaries^ especially Dr. Garth, ' 
who has introduced him in the 2nd canto of the Dispen-: 
sary, with a handsome compliment, in the form of a com^ 

pbiint from E'^ivy : ■ ' 

.1 

^' Within this isle for ever must I find 
Disasters to distra^^t my restless liiind ? 
Good Tenison *s celestial piety 
/At last has raised him to the sacred see.** 

The celebrated nonconformist Baxter likewise held bjm; 
in admiration. Besides the works already mentioned, he 
pobHflihed sonfe occasional sermons, anel'i^suppOi^ed to have, 
be«n the au^bpr of a trafct entitled '< Grievances 9f tbe*^ 
Vol. XXIX. Q 



S26 T E R B U R G H. 

Cburcfa oF England, which are not in the power q( the g<^ 
pernors to remedy/* ' 

TERBURGH (Gbrard), a Dulch painter, was born in 
I608^at Zwol^ nearOTeryssel. He learned ibe artof painting 
ander his father, who had passed some years at Rome. He 
travelled over the chief part of Europe, and was every 
where much encouraged. His subjects were usually con^ 
▼ersations, persons employed in games, or in humorous 
adventures. His colouring is lively, and bis pictures highly 
finished. But he is not thought equal ^ther to Mieris or 
Gerard Dow, in the same style. He died in 1681, at the 
age of seventy «three. • 

TERENTIANUS (Mauaus), was a Latin poet and gram^ 
marian, whose age is not ^cactly known, unless be Vas the 
Posthumus Terentianus to whooi Longinus dedi^atlEsd * his 
admirable treatise on the sublime, and wbdm^Martial ^e«» 
}ehrates as prasfect of Syene, in Egypt. Both these.tfaifi^ 
are uncertain, hut both have been affirmed by Vossilis, 
and others. Some have also ealled brm a'Canhaginfaa; 
that he was a Moor, he himself tells us, and thence be ia 
called Maurus. Certain it is, that he was earlier than St; 
Augustin, who quotes him, De Civ« Dei, ri.. 2. He wrote 
a most el^ant poem in various measures, ^^ De Uteris^ syl*> 
labis, pedibus, et metris," addressed to his son Bissinnii^ 
and his son-in-law Novatemus, which gives a tridy pleasing 
impression of his genius, and admirably exemplifies tbh 
precepts it delivers. This poem is stUl estanlV' having 
been found in a monastery at Bobbio, in the Milanese^ bj 
G. Morula. It was first published by him at Milan, with 
Ausonius, in 1497^ afterwards by Janus Parrhastu8,>and 
Nic. Brissoius ; then by Jacobus Micyllus, at Francfort^ 
1584, in 8vo. It appeared also in the ** Gi*ammatici ve^ 
teres," of Putscbius, published at Hanau, in 1605^ 4 to; 
*knd in the *^ Corpus omnium veterum' Poetarum Romanoi^ 
mm," Geneva, 1611, 2vols. 4to.^ 

TERENTIUS (PuB*.ius), or TERENCE, an aneient 
dramatic writer among the Romans, was a native of Car<^ 
thage, and bora in the year of Rome 560. ^ He was brought 
earlj to Rome, among other slaves, and fell into the bands 
of a generous master, Terentius Lucanus, a Roman se* 
aator, who was to taken with his uncommon parts, that be 

, '^1 Memoirs of the L\h hb^ Tiol^i of, Svo, ao date.— Bio;. Brit.-*— MMls^'a 
Hist, of C. C. C. C. 
.^ Kilh&DfiMi^ » MorcrK-i^VottHiP.— >Sa»i Qaoiaact. 



fEttriSTTlUS. 327 

gaveliidi foster goad lectoeatioiiy mud afterwards bis liberty. 
He received his name, as well as hi^ libert^^ from Teren-i' 
tiur iiuoanus, as the oosufm ivasr; and thii?, by a singular 
fatality, says inafdain Bacier/ urfaale he faas imaiortalized tlie 
aiame of bis master, bebas not been abie to preserve his own. 
ihs merit soosi recqmdiencled him to the acquaintance and 
iamiliartty^of' the ehief Tiobility ; and such was his friend- 
ship, with Scipio and LeeHus, that his rivals iand enemies 
(ooko<K»isi0n from tbeoce to say that his plays were com- 
posed b^y tbeae noblemen. Suetonius relates a story from 
£)ortieiius Nepos,. whtbli may ^eem to confirm such a sur« 
mise: it is, that on the 1st of March, which was the feast 
<if-«tfieHoman ladies, Lselius being desired by his wife to 
sup a little soouer than ordinary, he prayed her not to 
distari) him; and that, coming very late to supper that 
lught, h^^aid ke bad nerer composed any thing with more 
{deasuneand siiccess ; when, bekig asked by the company 
what it was, be lepeBZeA some verses out 4^f the third scene 
ot'tbe loQftfa aet in the ^* Heaulpntimoromenos." Terence 
takes tiertice of this report in his prniogiie to the ^^ Adeipbi;'- 
and does ttot offer to refute it; but Snetonius says that he 
forboreyin complaisance to his patrons, who might possibly 
not be displdjtsed with it; and, indeed, in the prologue to 
ihe *^ HeautoHtfrnorumenos,^' Terence desired the auditors 
potf to credit the slanderous reports of bis brother writers. 
it is very possible that Scipio and Ltelius might sometimes 
amuse themselves with composing a scene or two for u 
poet, with wboar they conversed, so familiarly ; but the 
plays were certainty Terence's. 

^ We have six of them remaining, and probably one or 
(wp are lost^ for the ^'Andria" does not Seem to have been 
has first4 The very prologue to this play intinrates the 
contrary; and thecircumstuicejrelatedby Saetoriiias, about 
Tenenc^^s readtiig^ his fira^ piece Co Csecilin^, proves the 
** Andria^' not to have been it, « and: that Suetonius Jias mis^ 
tdken ihe:nai3t)e of the play ; 'for ^GefGiliicsLUied twb years 
before the *^ Andria'^ was brought one the stage; CaBcitius 
was th6 best poet of the age^ and near founridore nh»ti 
Terenee oiiened fab fir^ play ; mndv'Tegardiiwiib'patdto 
Im judgment, and ^ ^erefpre>the sediie .ofitfRed Kierent^tl 
H» wait upon Ceeoihus.with bis play Jbidfofa be, woi|ld veni^ 
ture to receive it. The old gentleman, being at table, 
biff the "young autlioir take k stool, a:nd begin, to read ..it 
to him. .it. is<,jCii)flerved.bd^Suetonius, that Terence's dress 

a 3 



S2« T E R E N T I U 8. 

was mean, so that his outside did not much recotemen^ 
him; but he bad not gone through the first scene when 
Caecilius invited him to sit at table with him, deferring 
to have the rest of the play read till after supper^ Thtis^ 
with the advantage of Ciecilius's recommendation, did Te* 
rence*$ first play appear, when Terence cotild not be twen« 
ty-five ; for the " Andria" was acted when he was but 
twenty-seven. The ** Hecyra'' was acted the year follow- 
ing ; the ** Self- tormentor, or Heautontimoramenos,*' two 
years after that ; the <' Eunuch" two years aftei^ the *^ Seif^ 
tormentor ;'' the ^^ Phormio," the latter end of the same 
year; and, the year afterwards, the ^'Addphi, or Bro-* 
thers," was acted; that is, 160 B.C. when Terence was 
tbirty-<three years of age. 

After this, Terence went into Greece, where he stayed 
about a year, in order, as it is thought, to collect some of 
llen^nder^s plays. He fell sick on his return from thence^ 
and died at sea, according to some; at Stympbalts, a 
town in Arcadia, according to others. From the above ac« 
count, we cannot have lost above one or two of Terence's 
plays ; for it is impossible to credit what Suetonius repona 
fronr one Cbnsentius, an unknown author, namely, thai 
Terence was returning with above an hnndred of Metian*-- 
der^s plays, which he had translated, but that he lost them 
by shipwreck, and died of grief for the loss. Terence was 
of a middle size, very slender, and of a dark (^omplto^on. 
He keft a daughter behind him, who was afterwards mar* 
ried to h Roman knight. He left also a house and gar- 
den$ on the Appian way, near the Villa Martls, so that the 
notion of his djnng poor is very improbable. If -fa'e'cotrid 
be supposed to have reaped no advantages frdm the frieni}*-' 
ship of Kcipio and Lselius, yet his plays must have brought 
him in ^considerable sums« He received eight thtiQsand 
sesterces for his '* Eunuch,'* which was acted twice in one 
day; a piece iff good fortune which perhaps never hap- 
pened to any! other plaj^, for plays with 'the Ronfaraui Werts 
never designed to serve above two or thr^e times.- There 
i$ no doubt that he was well paid 'for the rest ; fcfr it ap- 
pears from the prologtie to the *< Hecyra,'* thtt the poets 
used to be pind every time their play was acted. At this 
pate, Terence must have made a handsome fortune before* 
i)e died, for most of his plays Wereitcted more than once in 
Sis^ife^itme. * 



•.'. ' • •-•' .. 



4 



T E R E N T I U & 229 

" It xirould Ims endless to mention the testimonies of thd^ 
ancients in his favour^ or the high commendations bestowed 
upon him hj modern commentators and critics. Menander 
was his model, and from him he borrowed many of his ma* 
terials. He was not content with a servile imitation of 
Menander, but always consuhed his own genius, and made 
such alterations as seemed to him expedient. His enemies 
bUined bi^ conduct in this; but in the prologue to the 
^' Andria," be pleads guilty to the charge, and justifies 
ti^hat he had done by very sufficient reasons. The come* 
dies of Terence were in great repute an^ong the Romans ; 
ihough Plautus, having more wit, more action, and more 
vigour, was sometimes more popular upon the stage. Te* 
pence's chief excellence consists in these three points, 
beauty of characters, politeness of dialogue, and regularity 
of scene. His characters are natural,^ exact, and finished 
to 'the last degree ; and no writer, perhaps, ever came up 
to him for propriety and decorum in this respect. .If he 
bad laid the scene at Rome, and made his characters Ro* 
man, instead of Grecian; or if there had' been a greater 
variety in the general cast of his characters, the want of 
both- which things have been objected to him ; his plays 
might have been more agreeable, might have more affected 
those for whose entertainment they were written ; yet in 
what he attempted be has been perfectly successful. Tbe 
elegance of his dialogue, and the purity of his diction, are 
acknowledged by all : by Caesar, Cicero, Paterculus, and 
Q.uintilian, among tbe ancients; and by all tbe moderns. 
If Terence could not attain all the wit and, humour of 
Menander, yet, he fairly equalled himii^ chasteness and 
correctness of style. 

The moderns have been no less united in their praise of 
the style of Terence. Erasmus says, that " the purity, of 
the Roman language cannot be learned frpm any ancient 
author sq well as from Terence; and many have, given, it 
as their opinion, that the Latin tongue cannot.be lost while 
the comedies of Terence remain. This Roman, urbanity 
and purity of diction shews Terence to hare been made a 
slave very young, and his education to have been wholly 
Roman, since otherwise bis style could never have been so 
Jree from tbe tincture of his African origin* Regularity 
of scene, or proper disposition and conduct of the dramsk, 
is a third excellence of Terence. His scene, as Conjgreve^ 
who calls him the correctest writer in the world, has well 



230 T E R E WT ru s; 

observedy:a1wny8 proceeds in a regular contiddion^ tb% 
persons going off and on for visible reasons, and to carry^ 
on the action of the pia^f, and, upon the whole, the faults 
and imperfections are so few, that they scarcely deserve ta 
be mentioned. Scaliger said, there were not three in the \ 
whole six plays : and the comica visj which ^Cssar wiMiea 
for bim, would probably have suited our taste less than^ 
his pcesent delicate humour and wit. Madam Dacier baa 
observed, that ^* it would be difficult to determine whi^hr 
of nis six plays deserves the preference, since they hav^ 
each of them their peculiar excellencies. The ** Andrta**^ 
and "Adelphi," says she, "appear to excel in cbafacliers'' 
and manners; the "Eunuch*' and '♦Phofmio,'* In vigtr* 
rous action and lively intrigue ; the " Heautontimortrme- 
nos'* and " Hecyra/* id sentiment, passion, and tfimplieity. 
of style.'* ^ 

The best editions of Terence are, the Elzevir, 16S^, 
12.no; that " cum integris notis Donati, et selectis vari- 
orutn, 1686," 8vo; thatof Westefhoviutf, in two'vt>lume8, 
quarto, 1726; and of " Bentley,*' thci skihe year^ 4to; 
the immaculate Edinburgh editioh of 175&;' l^md, aud the 
edition of Zeunius, in two volumes^ Leipsld,- 1774, Bv6^' 
with very copious hotefe and index. Madatki !>acier'ha^ 
given a most beautiful French version of this author ; vxiK 
in English we have a translation in blank-verse, by €l6lman, * 
which is justly esteerted. * ' ■' * ' . x ^» 

TERKASSON (Andrew), the first o^a literary iairiily* 
of considerable note in France, was th^ eldest bf tlte^ four' 
sons of Peter Terrasson, a lawyer of LybRs; s^ndf became it' 
priest of the oratory, preacher totheking^ and aJFtefr ward* ^ 
preacher to the court of Lorraiu; His pulpit servfces wei^-' 
much applauded, and attended by the nlost crowded coiw- 
gregationis; ' "His eicertions during Lent in the metropolitan* 
church Mt ?aris threw him itito an iUness of which he died- 
April 25, 1723. His " Sermons" were-printed ina^Sfe, 
4 vftls.'l 2*0^0/ 'and reprinted in 1736/*^ l 

TEHliASiJON (John), brother to the preceding, was ' 
born at Lj/btife in 1670, and educated at the house of the' 
oratory at Pdris, which he quitted very soon. He after* 
wairds ehtoretl into it again, and then left it finally, a proof 
oPTinsteadiness,\at which his father wa» so angry, having 



t 't . ^ .. • / 



1 Crnsius's Lives of ttie Roman Poets.— Vosstut.— Fabric. Bibl. Lal.-^Saxii 
Oaoaiast. • . ^ 0ict. Hilt. < 



T E R R A S S O N, «l 

ne^oWed ()Q>reed up all his sons to the church, that he re* 
dMced bisa by bis will to a very moderate iucome ; whichj 
hQw<;yery Joba bore without complaining. He. went to 
Paris, .and obtaix>ed the apquaintance of the abbiS Bignon, 
who became hij» projector and patron, and procured him a. 
plac« in the academy of sciences in 1707. In 1721, be 
Wias. elected d processor in the college royal. W^en the. 
disputes about Hi^mer between LaMotteand madam Da-^. 
cier were at tbeir height, he thought proper to enter the 
lists, a;id wrote ^' Upe Dissertation contre Flliade,^^ in 2 
"^s^ 19mOy. which did yery little* credit to his taste or 
judgment. He bad, however, better success in his /^ Se- 
thos/* which, as a learned and philosophical romance, has 
considerable merit. It has been translated into English, 
Another work of Terrassoo is ** A French Traoslation of, 
Piodorus Siculus, with a preface and notes,'' which lias 
been much commended. 

.He died SepI;. 15, 1750, with the iieputation of having, 
been one of the best practical philosophers of his age. Ac- 
cording to D'Alembert, in bis ^^ History of the Members 
of the French Academy," he was absent, simple, totaljjr. 
ignorant of the worlds with much learning, and original, 
wit .and humour. He suddenly became very rich, by the 
Mississ^ppi-scheito^, in favour of which he wrote a pamphlet 
of ^^ lleilejKions ;" but was neither affected by bis sudden 
riches, nor by the sudden ruin which followed. He said 
be, bad now got tid of many difficulties in which wealth had 
ii^volved him,, and, lie; should enjoy the comfort and con^, 
venience of, living on a little. At the latter end of his life 
he totally lost his memory, and when any question was asked . 
him, ha^saida. '^ Inquire of Mrs. Luquet, my housekeeper;'^ - 
and eveii jwb^n-the, priest, who confessed him in bis last.- 
illness, interiro^^d him concerning the sins which he had* 
cfimmitted,, be pould get no other answer from, him than 
« A^k Mrs. Lnquet.V » 

TERRA SSON (Gash'arb), brojther of the two preceding,, 
waa.bor^ October .5, 16.80^. at Lyons. At the age of eight- 
een, he was^ent by his father to the bouse of the oratoiy .; 
at PariS]^ where be immediately devoted himself tei the stu^y 
of scripture and- the fatbem, and taiiffbt afterwardit in dif-.. 
ferent houses of bis oi^fier, cbie0y at Troyes, where he spo^ce . 
a funeral oration for the dauphin, son of Louis XIV. in the 

iDict. Btft. 



a« T E R R A S S O N. 

FrftttGiscan church. , Notwithstanding fcb^ toQc^as wfaich- 
attended. this hrst essay of his talents for the pulp|it^ he did 
not continue to preach, but only delivered exhortations in tiie 
seminaries fiut after his brother's deaths heiAg solicited 
to biipply several j.ulpits where the deceased had engaged 
himself, be soon acquired a degree of reputation superior 
to that which Andrew Terrasson bad enjoyed, l)e preached 
at Paris during 6ve years, and, among other ocpasipi>^» a: 
whole Lent in tbe metropolitan church, to a very num^rouji 
congregation. • Various circumstances^ particularly hia^t* 
tacbnient to the Jansenists, obliged him afterwards to quit 
both the congregation of the oratory and the pulpit at thf 
same time ; but M. de Caylus, bishop of Auxerre^ mad^ 
him curate of Treigny in 1735. Persecution, however, stilli 
following him, he was sent to the Bastille, which he quitted 
ill 1744, to be confined with the Minimes at Argent^uik 
At length, when his weakened faculties ipade him con^i* 
^ered as usi^less to bis party, be was set at liberty, and 
died at Paris in tbe bosoin of his family, Jan* 2, 1752, 
leaving ^^Sermons^'* 4 vols. 12mo, and an anoriympu^bo^itk 
entitled, *' Lettres ftnr la Justice Chr^tiennep*' which has 
been censured by the Sorbonne. ' 

TERRAB80N (Matthew), an. eminent advptcate to the 
parliament of Paris, was born August 13., 1669, and i^ras 
related to the same family as the preceding, H^ was adt 
mitted advocate at Parts in 1691, where his merit and 
abilities soon proeared him many clients, and having made 
the written law hh peculiar study, he be^amc^ is it were, 
the oracle of the Lyonnois, and all the provinces wlier0 
tbe law is fotfdwed. He assisted in th^ >< Journal de 8a* 
vans'* during five years^ and was several years ceaaori- 
royal of books of law and literature. - He diedvSe^ceinbef 
30, 1734, at Paris, aged sixty-six. He left a collection ^ 
his own discourses, pleadings, memoirs, and consultation^ 
under the title of <^ CEuvres de Matthieu Terrasson,'' &q. 
4to. This collection, which v(rasf much .'valued, w^ pub,« 
lished by his only son> Anthony Ti^rrisson,' advocate ^ th^ 
parliament of Paris, and author ^f ^'L'HIstolre de la W 
risprudence Romatne/' pritoied at Paris> 1750, fol ^ There 
i» an edition of the wark^ of Henrys in 4 vols. ffil. with 
notes by Maubew Terrabsou) priut^d by Br«toe»iief til 



t > 



t Diet. UfU .,,,,.,, ; » JXf-t. J^iit^Morerl. 



T E R t R E. in 

TChTHE i(FftAKcis JOACltiM Duport liu), a French 
irriter of more industry than genius^ was born at St. Malo's, 
ih 1715; He entered for a time into the society of the 
Jesuits, where he tanght the learned languages. Return- 
ing into the world^ he was employed with Messrs! Freron 
and de la Pdrte, in some periodical publications. He was 
also a member of the literary and military society of Be-^ 
mn^on, and of the academy at Angers. He died April 17, 
I75d, at the age of forty-four. Besides his periodical 
writings, he made himself known by several publications: 
f. " An Abridgment of the History of England,** 3 vols. 
t2mo, which has the advantages of a chronological abridg- 
ment, without its dryness. The narration is faithful, sim- 
ple, and clear ; the style rather cold, but in general, pure, 
amd of a good taste; and the portraits dra\vn with accu- 
rtlty t yet the abridgment of the abb6 Millot is generally 
[Preferred, as containing more original matter. '2. " His- 
tbire des Conjurations et des Conspirations celebres,^* l6 
volis. l^mtr; an unequal compilation, but containing some 
ifiterestihg matters. S, The two last volumes of the ** Bifai- 
libthec)ue amusanre.*' 4. ** L* Almanach des Beaut-Arts,** 
afterwards known by the thle of *« La France liieraire.** 
He pubtfsheda very itnperfect sketch of it in 1752; but 
ithafs since been extended to several vols. 8vo.' 5. **Me- 
ift^ireii du Marquis db Choupes,** 1753, 1 2mo. He had 
al!to a hand' In the " History of Spain,'* published by M. 
Desoriiiailic. 

* His son MARG^tyfiRitE-Louis-FttANdis Dijport. Duter- 
TRB, "Was one of the moderate revolutionists in 1789, and 
strflTei^d under the guillotine in 1793^ when moderation 
became a crime.* 

TERTREtJorii^ Racist r>u), a French Ddmirtican, wais 
born at Calais ih Id 10. Re quitted his studies to go intd 
the ttinfy and visited the various countries in a Dutch sbi[5, 
but returning to France entered the Domintttin order at 
Parb in 1«3S. Five years after this he was^iint' as a miS-r 
aionary to the America^ islands, where he laboured zea- 
iohsly^ but returned to his native country in 1658, and 
died at Paris 1(587, having first revised his general his^ 
tory of the islands of St. Christopher, &c. and published 
it mncb more complete under the title of ** Histoire g6- 
ni^rale des Antilles habitues par les Francois/^ 1667, 

*' Diet. Pitt.— Biog. Kloif. in Du?oiif . 



S34 T E R T U D L i A.N. 

167 i, 4 t?ok» 4tv It motk ivbicb was loog cootidered m of 
auchoricy. ' . . ) f 

TERTULLIAN (dviKTUS Septimaw Fl.OiiftN8), th^ 
fir»t Latin writer of ihe primilive church whos^.writiogt 
are comedown to.us^ was. an Africaiii and born at Car'*:- 
thage in the seoond oenturj. His father was. a oenutrien in 
the .troops which served und^r the proconsul of Africa^ 
TertuUian was at first an heathen, and aiinan# as be hini<» 
self owns in various parts of hia work% of loose maaaers; 
but afterwards embraced the Christian religion,, tlioagbu^ 
is not known when, or upon what occasion> * He flour^eil 
chiefty utider the reigns of the emperor Severua and Canii- 
callai from about the year 194 to 216; aodiC; u.probaUetbaa' 
h^ lived several yeari^ since Jerome iiientions.a're|^ont^ffail»< . 
having attained to a decrepit old age./. There tStnb|iasi^« 
sage in his writings whence it can be cono}u^ed.lhat>b#. 
was a priest; but Jerome affirms it so positiveljr^<.tbat ib 
cannot be doubted. He had great abilities and lenroio^ 
which he employed vigoroasiy ia the cause of. Ohristiamay^v 
and against heathens and heretics; but .towailds .th«r.Mter 
part of his. life tquiued the cborch to follow the .JMbantanisis^' 
which is the reasou why bis name has not ifaeen ;tfaiiSmiited.. 
to us with the title of saints The caiiae^of bia«eparalMui: 
is not. certainly Known. Baronius has altcibaied it to jea«<< 
lottsy, because Victor was preferred befeore bias -to nhe isee 
of Rome; Pamelius hkHs at bis disappoioftment,; beoause 
be could not get the bishopric of Carthage ;. aaid JeuN>oM) 
says, that the envy which the Bomad desgyhomhiaSr'Md 
the outrageous manner with . which they treatetd bitn,<eRH^ 
asperated him against lihe. church, and proYoked.bioi. tar 
quit it. What perhaps had as much weight aS any c^itheadi. 
reasons was the extraordinary austerily^whiob^tfieseetiof 
Montanus affected^ which suited bis oionaaticttimofm^aflL: 
Whatever the caose^ he not only joined them, hut wrote in* 
tl^ir defence, and' treated the church from which he de«> 
parted, with unbecoming contempt*. . ErMr, however^ says ' 
a modero ecclesiastical historian^ is very inoonstaot; for< 
TertuUian afterwards left the Montanis^ or nearly^ so, and i 
formed a ^ect of his own, called Tertulliaoisia, whocoo^^ 
tinned in Africa till Augustine^s time, by wfaosei laboun j 
tbeir existence^ as a distinct body^ «a^ brooght.^o a. close. 
The character of Terlullian is very strongly delittie^ted by^^ 

■ OjC^ Hist.— Biog, ViMF> in DuTitnTWt 



TEH T O L r IAN. 235 

liioi^ff ia bfe dvm ^firings; if there 4)ad*be6ric»nf thFng 
peculiarly Christian, which he bad learned from the Mon-^ 
latiiists, his works cdast httve shown it ; but the only change 
dilcoverabie is, that^he increased in his austerities. He ap« 
pears to have been married, and lived ail his hfe, without 
separating^ rfrcgn bis wife upon bis coonnenciHg priest^ if^ 
indeed, he did not marry her after. The time of hia death 
i8:no vd)er# mentioned. 

^ JVf any hiitorians have spoken highly of the abilities and 
learning of this father, particularly Eusebius, who says that 
b&was one df the ablest Latin writers, and particularly in<> 
sitta 4lpon bis being thoroughly conversant in the Roman 
laiws ;'^ which may incline us to think that^ like his scholar, 
Cyprian, be^as bred to the bar. Cyprtan used every day 
thread part €^ his works, and; when he called for the book^ 
sard, ^Gi^e me my master,*' as Jerome r^^lates. Lacta^ntina 
allows him ta have been skilled in all ktnds of learnings yet 
censur0»hima»an harsh, inelegant, and abstruse writer. Je- 
ranie,iiihisOatalogueof ecclesiastical writers><:aHBhimaiiiait 
oi^qnitk aftd^sbarp wit -, and says, in his epistle ta Magnos^ 
time noautihbrhad more learning and subtlety ; but in other 
pdacei fa0 Tepi^eUetids his errors and defects; and, in bis^ 
apoldgy against Knffinus^ ^'commends bis witv bat- oon- 
dtmins/ bis^iyere^iiei." Vicentius Lirinensis givesi this cha- 
racter 'df him: '^^Tertullian was,*' says he, ^< among the 
LoEtiii^, what Odgen was among the Greeks ; that is to say, 
the &%% a'nd most considerable man they bad. For who 
ismore leartfed than he i who more versed botfa m eccle*- 
siasti^al^nSd pfofane knowledge? ^ Has^bO' not comprised 
in his vast^eapaoiotts mind all the philosophy of the sages, 
tbe maxims of the. different sects, with their histoiries, and: 
vjbatever pei^tained to tfaon ? Did he ever attack any 
tbtfkg wbich he has not almost always either pierced by the 
vivacity of hi&wit) or overthrown by tbe force and we^ht 
of his reasonings f And who can sufHoiently extd the 
beiuitiea of bis . discourse, which i^ so w;eil gjiarded and: 
linked together b^C a continual chain of argum^ntsi^tbat he 
even forces the consent of those whcAn be cannot peisuadei? 
His words are so many sentences; his aiiswers almost so^* 
many victories." • . .^ . • i 

Of the moderns, Malebrancbe says^ ^''T^t«Uii8^^ was^^ 
man of profoand learning; but he had more memoi^ithah'' 
judgment, greater penetration and extent of imagination 
than of understsCndihg. There is no doubt that he was a 
visionary^ and had all the qualities I have attributed to 



iU T E R T U L L I A N. 

Visionaries. The respect be had for the Tisions of Monta* 
nusy and for his prophetesses^ is an incontestable proof of 
the weakness of his jadgment. His fire, bis transports, bis 
enthusiasms upon the most trifling subjects, plainly indi- 
cate a distempered imagination. What irregular motions 

'ire there in his hyperboles and figures ! How many 
pompous and magnificent arguments^ that owe all their • 
force to their sensible lustre, and persuade many merely 
by giddying and dazzling the mind.*' He then gives er* ' 
amples out of his book *^ De Pallio;** and concludes with 
saying, that ''if justness of thought, with clearness and ele-* 
gance of expression, should always appear in whatever a 
man writes, since the end of writing is to manifest the 
truth, it is impossible to excuse this author ; who, by the 
testimony of even Salmasius, the greatest critic of our 
times, has laid out all his endeavours to become obsciare ; 
and has succeeded so well in what be aimed at, that this 
commentator was. almost ready to swear, no man ever un<« 
derstood him perfectly." 

Balzac thus expresses bis sentiments of Tertullian in a 

' letter to his editor, Rigaltius : '' I expect,^' says be, *' the 
Tertuliian you are publishing, that he may learn me iktU 
patience, for which he gives such admirable instructions. 
He is an author to whom your preface would have recon- 
ciled me, if I had an aversion for him ; and if the barsh-^ 
ness of his expressions^ and the vices of bis age, had dis- 
suaded ine from reading him : but I have had an' esteem 
for him a long time ; and as bard and crabbed as be is, 
yet he is not at all unpleasant to me. I have found itt 
bis writihgs that black light, which is mentioned in one 
of the ancient poets ; and 1 look upon his obsourlty with 
tbe same pleasure as that of ebony which is very bright 
and neatly wrought. This has always been my opinion ; 
for as the beauties of Africa are no less amiable, though 
they are not like ours, and as Sophonisba has eclipsed 
several Italian ladies, so the wits of that country are not 
less pleasing with this foreign sort of eloquence ; and i 
shall prefer him to a great many aflfected imitators of Ci-* 
Cero. And though we should grant to nice critics thatbi^ 
style is of iron, yet they must likewise own to us, that 
out of this iron be has forged most excellent weapons: 
that he has defended the honour and innocence of Chris- 
tianity ; that he has ^uite routed the Valentinians, and 
^trucK Marcion to the very heart." Ouf learned coun- 
ryman, Dn Cave, has likewise shewn himself, still more 



T E R T U I. L I A N. 23? 

thaoBalzac^ an advocate for Tertullian^s style ; and, with 
$ubaiission to Lactantius, who (as we have seen above) cen- 
sured it us harsh, inelegant, and obscure, afBrnns, that ^^ it 
has a certain majesty peculiar to itself, a sublime aoil 
noble eloquence seasoned abundantly with wit and satire^ 
which, at the same time that it exercises the sagacity of 
a reader, highly enteiftains and pleases him." The style/ 
however, of Tertullian, is a matter of less consequence 
than those other merits which give him a rank among th^ 
fathers : but in this respect it seems difficult which of th^ 
|wo were predominant, his virtues or his defects. He .was 
endued with a great genius, but seemed deficient in point 
of judgment. His piety was warm and vigorous, but at 
the same time melancholy and austere, and his credulity 
and superstition, learned as he was, were such as could 
only have been expected from the darkest ignorance. Hq 
placed religion too much in austere observances ; and in 
this respect, the littleness of his views appears conspicuous 
in the very first tract in the volume of his works, *^ Da 
Pailio," the purport of which is to recommend a vutgac 
and r^istic kind of garment for Christians in the place of 
the Roman toga; but a more remarkable instance is giv^ 
of bis absurd scrupulosity about such trifles, in which ho 
wttrmly approves the conduct of a Christian soldier who 
refused to wear a crowrr of laurel which bis commander had 
given him with the rest of the regiment, and was punished 
for bis disobedience. Upon the whole, although bis woikti 
throw some light on the state of Christianity in bis time^ 
they contain very little matter of useful instruction. 

The principal editors of this father, who have giveit 
editions of his works in one collected body, are Rhenanus, 
Pameliu9, and Rigaltius, Rhenanus first published them 
at Basil in 1521, from two manuscripts which he had pro* 
eured from two abbeys in Germany. As this editor was 
well versed in all parts of learning, and especially in eccle- 
siastical antiquity, so none have laboured more success- 
fully than he in the explication of Tertullian ^ and RigaU 
tius has observed, with reason, that he wanted nothing to 
hitve*made his work complete, but more manuscripts: and. 
though^ says Du Pin, his notes have been censured by the 
Spanitsh inquisition, and put at Rome into the Index ex-- 
purgaCorius, yet tliis should not diminish the esteem we, 
onght to have for him. Rhenanus^s edition had beeu 
printed a great number -of times, when Parnfelius porblished 



S38 T E R T U L L I A N. 

^^rtutlkti witb f«ew comotentaries^ dt AfHXvlsrp^Mn lOT^^; 
«od although t bis editor has been blatiWd ' fdr 4%iNS<6^f^ 
40O o^ach to tbihgs foreign to bis points; yet bis tiote^ ^ 
use&l and ieftrned. His edition, as widt' ^s'R'beiiahiiF^ 
has been printed often^ in varioug {>biees. 'Aft^ri:lkedtef^'tb^ 
learned Rigaltias produced hh ^ition in ;l^^,'>^bich'T» 
£ar preferable to either of the former ; for; bavirfjg sdfn^ 
0)ai3ti<»cripts, and other advantages which the foriMi^r edUdrs ^ 
ivantedy be has given a inore correct text. He hi^ ^e 
accompanied it with notes, in which he has explaineddif^ 
licak passages, cleared some ancient custoifiYS, a^vd^df^* 
cussed many curious points of learning. The greatest d&i 
jection to this editor has been made by the Roman teath<^ 
Jios, who say that be has occasionally made obserration^ 
not favourable to the presem practice of the ohorch :'• bnt^ 
says Du Pin, *^ whatever exceptions tnay be niade ^ hhi 
divinity, his remarhs relating to grammar, orittoi^n), and " 
the explication of difficult passages, are e^celleht:- • ^M 
new edition of Tertullian was begun at Halle, by ^e^l^,^ 
in 1770, and six parta published in small Svo^ahd. thte ^tne 
was reprinted mth a view to be continued by Ob#rthbr^' fi^ 
17 80-^^1, ^vofs. Svo, but neither the offe i^r lfa^4dth>6\^ 
bave j>een completed. Detached pieciiss of ^itylltSrntlS^iff 
been edited byvery learned critics, ^alinasilid b<e^tdiretf 
a. very vQluminou^ comment upon biil^ inMll^ piee^*A^€)e 
PalliD/^ the best edition of which is that ^ Li^yd'eny^^O^^ 
in 8Vo ; but some <sq under- rate it a^totbii^Ii thd^il^'^^nh^ 
cipal value is a fine print of Salmasim, plaM4 btp'^Sl^ I96P 
ginning of it His ^< ApoIogetiQua,'*- as it lla« i^^^tf'lGiSt^l^ 
xead, so it has been ^be oftenest pobKsbod of 4lt^^l|i^ f&^^ 
tber's works^ This apology for Cbristta^lliy ^sitid^it^'^^ 
f^ssofs was wricren abotit the year SOOf ih th^ begitffiM^ 
of the persecution under the emperor Sev^ki^. ^« {t^ i^ <^6mf> 
luonly believed that he ^oteit at Rome, atvd ftddr^ii8<ed^f# 
to the senate : but it is more probable that i^wftii ^(itnp^^^^ 
inAfriica, as, ihdeed^ be does not address bimc^f toUt^ 
senaae^ but to the procomsul of Africa, and th^ g^^rfi^^i^ 
of the.pro^iiices*^^ 'The best edition of it is that hyHH^^^ 
camp^ Htiieyded, 1718, Svo.^ ■ '■'' -^"^s 

TE&I^. (ihfiTRo)/ jiti Italian painter and^ ^gr«f^^ 
was b^RBjac lAsedA in li6tl. It is thought^ ttoilti#b^gftA^, 
hi»stodaeaiin;his n^th^ cityi but be 4«^aifpjUti#lit'id §^€l^ 

1 DopiD.— CaTe.— TillemQflt^^^Mostieim and Milaer's C|i. Hist» 



T E S T A» Q$9 

Bone, where he became a diseiple of Dominichiao. He 
was to attached to the pursuit of bis profession, that while, 
he was eopyirig the antiques at Rome be forgot to provide 
fpv his omi subsistence. He was relieved from great wreteli- 
edtiess by the compassioo of Sandran, who recooioiended 
him effectually ta prince Giustiniani, aud other patrons. 
He was uofortunately drowned in the Tiber, at tbe age of 
tbirty^nine, in 1&50, endeavouring to recover his faat^ which 
liatd be^n biown into tbe river. 

* The style of Pietro Testa as a designer, Mr. Fuselt pro* 
noonees unequal ; ** he generally tacked to antique torsos 
ignoble heads and extremities copied from vulgar models. 
Of female beauty be seems to have been ignorant* Of his 
compositions, generally perplexed an4 crowded, the best 
known and most correct, is that of Achilles draggi^Dg Hec- 
tor from the walls of Troy to tbe Grecian fleet. He de*- 
lighted in allegoric subjects, which are mines of picturesque 
effects and attitudes, but in their meaning as obscure as 
the oeeasiens to- which they allude. Of expression ' he 
knew only the extremes, grimace^ or loathsomeness and 
horror (* but tbe charge of having been a bad colofufist^ ia 
fooadedion igborances bis tone is geaid, faarikionious, and 
warm^-as his pencil outrrowy and dree ; supported: by pow« 
erfu) imasses.of ohiaroscuro and transparent shades." * 

TEXKII^A (Jk^sph Peter), a learned Portuguese Do«. 
ntinioan^ Was> bern in I54S. He was prior of the content 
at.$sptareui il7^ when king Sebastian undertook the Afri*^ 
caoi .e^xpeditisA in wbicb be perished. Cardinal Henry, 
wi^ipucceeded) bim> dying eoon after, Texeira joined she 
friends oliAni^hoi^, who had been proclaioied king by the 
people, and. constantly adhered to him. He aceompamed 
this prinee into France, 1581, to solicit belp against Pbitifir 
n^who disputed the crown with bim. Though Anthony V 
ildmon^r^ be 'was honoured wiih tiie title of preacher aud^ 
OQuoseUor to Henry III; and after tbe d«ath of- that ttio« 
n^ircb, atiaabed himself to Henry IV;. with wkon» hebe*^ 
oaoie agreat&Tourite. He died about 1620. Te3pera%^ 
worki clearly discoverhis hatred of the Spaniards, fndhts 
aversion to Philip II. who took Portugal from prince An^ 
tbonyt It h asserted^ that as he was preaching one. day ton 
the love of OAir neighbour, he said, <^ We are obliged to 
love all joieo of whatever religion, sect^ of nation^ eveu^ 



I PDkUiftM, 



•^ > 



^40 T E X E I R A. 

. Castiliani.*' His ppliticali historical, and (btelogici^l vvril- 
ings ara very nuoierous. ^* De PortugaUi» ortu/* Pari*, 

I582»4to,70paget|5carce. Atreati&e ^^OnibeOnBanunV' 
1398, 1 20)0 ; ** Adventurei of Don Sebastiao/' 8vo•^ 

TKXTOR. SpeTlXIER. 

I'UALES, a celebrated Gr^k pbiloaopher^ and the fint^ 
of the seven wise men of Greece, was born at Miletus aboift 
640 years B» C* After acquiring the usual learning of hi» 
own country, he travelled into Egypt and several parts of 
Asia, to learn asironomy, geooietry, mystical divinity, na« 
tural knowledge, or philosophy, &c. In Egypt he mefe 
for some time great favour from the king, Amasis ; bul be 
lost it again by the freedom of bis remarks on the eonduct 
' of kings, which, it is said^ occasioned hit return to his owb 
country, where he communicated the knowledge be hii4 
acquired to many disciples, among the principal of. whpm 
, were Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Pythagoras, and wm» 
the author of the Ionian sect of philosophers. He always^ 
however, lived very retired, and refused the proffered fa^ 
▼ours of many great men% He was often visited by Solon; 
and it is said he took great pleasure in the conversatioA of 
.Thrasybulus, whose excellent wit made him forget that he 
was Tyrant of Miletus. 

Laertius, and several other writers, agree that he waa 
the father of the Greek philosophy ; being the first that 
made any researches into natural knowledge^- an;|l mathef 
matics. His doctrine was, that water was tbf principle of 
which all the bodies in the universe are composed ; tbttt 
the world was the work of God ; and that God sees th% 
most secret thoughts in the heart of man. He said, that 
in order to live well, we ought to abstain from what we find 
fault with in others ; that bodily felicity consists in health ; 
and that of th^ mind in knowledge. That the moat ancient 
of beings is God, because he is uncreated ; that nothing is 
more beautiful than the world, because it is the work of 
God ; nothing more extensive than space, quicker than 
spirit, stronger than necessity, wiser than time. He used 
to observe, that we ought never to say that to any oii# 
which may b^ turned to ovuc pr^udioe ; and that we should 
)ive with our friends as with persons that may become out 
enemies. , . • ; 

• lu geometry, it has been said, be was a Gonsiderabte 

1 Gea. Diet.— X:bAuiep^.f«»]liMiMi> Vii. V. 



T H A L E S. 241 

ttiYentor, as virell as an improver; particularly in triatigles. 
'And all the writers agree that he was the first, even in 
Egypt, who look the height of the pyramids by the shadow. 

His knowledge and improvements in astronomy were 
very considerable. He divided the celestial sphere into 
five circles -or tonesy the arctic and antarctic circles, the 
two tropical circles, and the equator. He observed the 
api^arent diameter of the $iu>9 which he made equal to half 
a degree; and formed the constellation of the Little Bear. 
He observed the nature and course of eclipses, and calcu- 
IkXed them exactly ; one in particular, memorably recorded 
by Herodotus, as it happened on a day of battle between 
the Medes and Lydians, which, Laertius says, he had fore^ 
told to the lonians. And the same author informs us that 
h^ divided the year into 36 i days. Plutarch riot only con- 
firms his general knowledge of eclipses, but that his doc^ 
trifle was, that an eclipse of the sun is occasioned by the 
intervention of the moon, and that an eclipse of the moon 
is caofsed'by the intervention of the earth. 

fiis morals were as just as his mathematics well grounded, 
and his judi^ment in civil affairs equal to either. He was 
Very averse to tyranny, and esteemed monarchy little better 
in any shape. — Diogenes Laertius relates, that walking to 
contemplate the stars, he fell into a ditch ;^ on which a 
go^ old woman, that attended him, exclaimed, ^* HotV 
canst thou know what is doing in the heavens, when thou 
seest hot what is at thy feet ?" — He went to visit Croesus, 
who- was marching a powerful army into Cappadocia, and 
enabled him to pass the river Halys without making a 
bridge. ' Thales died soon after, at abpve ninety years of 
a^e, it is said, at the Olympic games, where, oppressed 
with heat, thirst, and a bad of years,- he, in public view, 
flun^c' intt) the afms of his friends. 

Concernin«*hi» writings, it remains doubtful whether he 
left any behind him ; at least none have come down to us. 
Augustine mentions some b(>oks of natural philosophy ^ 
Simphcins, ^ome written on nautrc astrology ; Laerttusj 
two 'treatises on the tropics and equinoxes; -and Suidasr, a 
treatise on meteor^, written in verse. * 

THP^MLSTIUS, an ancient Greek orator and philoso*' 
pher, whose eloquence procured him the name of Eu* 

' Diog. Laertias.—- HqUod^s Diet.— Fenelon's Lives of the Philosophers.-*-^ 
Stanley. — Brucker. % ^ ..,*. . . 

Vol. XXIX. R 



M2 T B E MI S Tl U S.' 

phrades, was of Papblagonia, and flourished in the fotliPtil 
century. His fiither, Eugenius, was a man of noble birtb, 
and educated bis son under bfs own care. After teacfahig 
pbilosopbj twenty years at Constantrioopte, and acquir- 
ing a great reputation, he went to Homey where the 
emperor offered any cofiditions if be would fix himself ill 
that city ; but he returned soon, and settled at Constan-^ 
tinople, where he married, and had children. Themistios 
was a peripatetic, and tells us in one of his orations that he 
bad chosen Aristotle for the arbiter of bis opinions, and 
the guide of his life ; yet he was not so bigotted to tbiA 
master, but that he was well versed in Plato, and was par- 
ticularly studious of the diction and manner of this pbild'^ 
soplier, as appears from his works. He bad a great opinioii . 
of the necessity of sacriBcing to the graces ; and be sayA 
in another oration, ** I often converse with the divine Pla^ 
to, I live with Aristotle, and I am very unwiUiAgly sepa- 
rated from Homer." 

He had great interest with several succeeding emperors. 
Constantius elected him into the senate in the year 355, 
ordered a brazen statue to be erected to him in 361, and 
pronounced bis philosophy *^ the ornament of his reign.** 
Julian made him prefect of Constantinople in the year 362^ 
and wrote letters to him, some of which are still extant^ 
Jovian, Valens, Valentinian, and Gratian, shewed bim many 
marks of esteem and affection, and beard him with plea^* 
sure haranguing upon the most important subjects. Valen§ 
in particular, who v^as inclined to favour the Arians, suf-^ 
fered himself to be diverted byThemistius from per^cuting 
the orthodox ; who represented to him the little reason 
there was to be surprised at a diversity of opinions among 
the Christians, when that was nothing in comparison of the 
differences among the heathens ; and that such differenceH 
ought never to terminate in sanguinary measures ; and by 
such arj^uments be is said to have procured universal tolera^ 
tion. Though himself a confirmed heathen, he maintained 
correspondences and friendship with Christians, and par« 
licularly with Gregory of Nazianzen, who, in a letter to 
him, still extant, calls him ^* the king of language and 
composition.*' Lastly, the emperor Theodosius made him 
again, prefect of Constantinople in the year 534; and^' 
fidien be was going into the west, placed his son Area* 
dius with him as a pupil. He lived to a great age; but 
the precise time of his death is not recorded. He has 



T H E M 1 ST t U ST. i4% 

I 

BQHiediiies been oonfounded with another Themistitis, who 
was much younger than he, a deacon of Alexandria, and 
the founder of a sect aoipng Christians* 

Morp than thirty orations of Themistius are still extant^ 
eight of which were published at Venice in 1534, foUo, but 
the best edition of the whole is that, with a Latin version 
by Petavius, and notea by father Hardouin, at Paris, 1684, 
in folio. He wrote also commentaries upon several parts 
of Aristotle's works ; which were published in Greek at 
Venice, in 1534, folio; Latin versions were afterwards 
made by Hermolaus Barbarus, and others.* 

THEMI8TO0LES, the great preserver of Athens at 
tbe Ume of the Persian invasion, owed no part of his cele* 
brity or influence to the accident of bia birth. He was born 
libout 530 B. C. his father being Neocles, an Athenian of 
no^illustrious family, and his mother an obscure woman, a 
Thracian by birth (according to the best authorities), and 
not of the best character. His disposition was naturally 
wbement, yet prudent ; and .Plutarch says that be was pro* 
noiunced very early by his preceptor, to be a person wh6 
would bring either great gpod or great evil to bis country. 
Some. of the ancients have »aid that be was dissolute in bit 
youth, and for that reason disinherited ; but this is posi* 
tively denied by Plutarch. His ardent but honourable am-* 
bition was soon discovered ; and contributed to put him on 
bad terms with Aristidies^ and some other leading men. He 
pushed hinn»elf forward in public business, and^ seeing that 
it was necessary for Athens to become a maritime power, 
persuadied the people to declare war against iEgina, and 
to build an huiidred triremes. In these ships he es^ercised 
the peoplOf and thus .gave them those means of defence 
and aggrandizemtent which they afterwards employed wikh 
so much success. Yet it happened that he bad no oppor- 
tunity of distinguishing his military talents in his youth, 
being forty years ^of age at. the time of the battle of Mara- 
thon; after whicb be was frequently heard to say /< that 
the trophies of MUtiades disturbed his rest." As^a judge, 
be wa^ strict and severe ; in which oflSce, being asked by 
Simooides to make some stretch of power in his behalf, he 
replied, '* Neither would you be a good poet if you trans* 
gressed the laws of numbers, nor should 1 be a good judge, 
if I should hold the request of any pne more sacred tbaa 

' Fabticii Bibl. Grec— Brucker.-^Saxii Onoaast. 

a 2 - 



I 



« 



341 TBEMISTOCL K S. 

the laws." Themistocles bad so much credit with the peo* 
pie, as to get bis rival Aristides bauisbed by ostracism* In 
the Persian war, it was he who first interpreted the wooden 
walls mentioned by the oracle, to mean the Athenian ships : 
by his contrivance the fleet of Xerxes was induced to figh^ 
in a most disadvantageous situation off Salamis, where it 
8u({iered a total defeat. For his whole conduct in this 
action he gained the highest honours, both at home and in 
Sparta. This was in 480^ ten years after the battle of 
Marathqo. 

The power of Themistocles in Athens was confirmed for 
a, time by this great exploit, and be earnestly pressed the 
rebuilding of the city, and the construction of new and' 
more complete fortifications. The latter step gave alarm 
to the jealousy of Sparta ; but Themistocles, employing all 
h^s prudence to deceive the Lacedaemonians, and even 
going to Sparta in person as an ambassador, contrived to 
gain so much time, that the walls were nearly completed 
before the oegociation was settled. Wiih equal vigilance, 
patri.otism> and sagacity, he superintended the improve* 
ment; of the Atheniian port named Piraeus. After these,- 
and other services to bis country, Themistocles met with 
the return almost itivariable in democratic goverotpents, 
ingratitude* He was accused of aggrandizing his own 
power and wealth in a naval expedition, was finally impli* 
cated in the accusations, proved against Pausaniasin Sparta, 
and banished. He sought first the patronage of Admetus, 
king of the Moloasi, ,and afterwards that of the king of 
Persia, by whom he was magnificently supported to bis 
death, which happened about 465 years before our aera. 
His bones, in pursuance. of bis dying request, were carried 
ir>to Attica, and privately buried there. The blemishes in 
the character and conduct, attributed to this great man, 
cannot, perhaps, with strict historical fidelity, be com- 
pletely denied; yet much allowance must be made for that 
party spirit, by which political worth so frequently :suf- 
fered in Greece. In abilities, and in his actions, be waa 
certainly one of the greatest men whom that country ever 
produced. " The mind of Themistocles,'* says the great 
historian Thucydides, " seems to have displayed the ut- 
most force of , human nature; for the evident superiority 
of his capacity to that of all other men was truly wonderfuL 
His penetration was sucb^ that from the scantiest informa- 
tion, and with the most instantaneous thought, he formed 



T H E M I S T O C L E S. 24J 

the most accurate jndgment of the past, and giaiii16d thS 
clearest insight into the future. He had a discernment 
that could develope the advantageous and the pernicious 
in measures proposed, however involv^jd in perplexity and 
obscurity ; and he had, no less remarkably, the faculty of 
explaining things clearly to others, than that of judging 
clearly himself. Such, in short, were the powers of his 
genius, and the readiness of his judgment, that hd 
was, beyond all nrten, capable of directing all things, ott 
every occasion." He died, according to Plutarch, in his 
sixty-fifth year; leaving a large progeny, to whom the 
bounty of the Persian monarch was con^ifiued. Many of 
them were, however, restored to their country. It is vefry 
commonly said, and Plutarch favours the notion, that he 
died by poison voluntarily taken : but Thucydides does not 
seem to credit the opinion^ but rather to consider his death 
as natural.* 

THEOBALD (Lewis), a miscellaneous writer and cri- 
tic, was born at Sittingbourn in Kent, in which place his 
father was ah eminent attorney. His grammatical learning 
he received at Isleworth in Middlesex, and afterwards ap- 
plied himself to the law; but, finding that pursuit tedioUs 
and irksome, he quitted it for the profession of poetry. 
According: to the editors of the " Biog. Dramatica,'* hii 
first alppearance in this profession was not mudh to his 
credit. One Henry Mestayer, a watchmaker, had written 
a play, which he submitted to the correction of Theobald, 
who formed it into a tragedy, and procured it to be acted 
and printed as his own. This compelled the watchmaker 
to publish his own performance in 1716, with a dedication 
to Theobald. The editors of the Biog. Dram, who appear 
to have examined both pieces, observe that Theobald, 
althqtigh unmercifully ridiculed by Pope, never appeared 
so despicable as throughout this transaction. " We had 
seen him before only in the light of a puny critic: 

" But here the fell attorney prowls for prey." 

Theobald engaged in a paper called " The Censor," pub- 
lished in Mist's " Weekly Journal ;" and, by delivering 
bis opinion with too little reserve concerning some eminent 
wits, exposed himself to their resentment. Upon the pub- 
lication of Pope's Homer, he praised it in the most extra- 
vagant terms ; but afterwards thought proper to retract his 

» Mitford's Greece. -^Plutarch.— Thucydides. 



S4« THEOBALD. 

opinion, and mbnsed the very performance he had before. 
afTected to admire. Pope at first made Theobald the heror 
of his ** Dunciad ;*' but afterwards thought proper to dis* 
robe him of that dignity, and bestow it upon another. In 
1726, Theobald published a piece in Svo, called '* Shake* 
ap^ar Restored :*' of thi», it is said, he was so v6tn as to' 
aver, in one of Mist^s "Journals,'* "that to expose any' 
errors in it was impracticable ;*' and, in another, '^ thaJr 
whatever care might for the future be taken, either by^ 
Mr. Pope, or any other assistants, he would give above five 
bundi'ed emendations, that would escape them all." Pur-^ 
ing two whole years, while Pope was preparing his editicVh, 
he published advertisements, requesting assistanee, and 
promising satisfaction to any who would contribute to its 
greater perfection. But this restorer. Who was at thai time 
soliciting favours of him by letters, wholly concealed that 
be had any such design till iafter its publication ; whidh he 
owned in the •' Daily Journal of Nov. 26, 1728.*' Theo- 
bald was not* only thus obnoxious to the resentment of 
Pope, but we find him waging war with Mr. Dennis, who 
treated him with more roughness, though with less satire. 
Theobald, in "The Censor,'* N* 33, calls Dennis by the 
iiame of Furius. Dennis, to resent this, in his remarks- on, 
Pope*a Homer, thus mentions him : "There k a notorious 
idiot, one Bight Whacum ; who, from an under-spur-lea«* 
tber to the law, is become an understrapper to th^ play-^ 
bouse, who has lately burlesqued the Metamorphoses of: 
Ovid, by a vile translation, &c. -This fellow is concenfied 
in an impertinent paper called the Censor.'* Such wdsT 
the langusige of Dennis, when inflamed by contradiction. '^ 
In 1720, Theobald introduced upon the 8t%e a tragedy 
called " The Double Falshood ;*' the greatest part of which- 
be asserted was Shakspeare's. Pope insinuated to the 
town, that it was all, or certainly the greatest part, Mrritten, 
not by Shakspeare, but Theobald himself; and quotes thia 
line, 

*' None but thyself can be thy parallel 5" 

which he calls a marvellous line of Theobald, .'^ unless,^* 
says he, "the play, called *The Double Falshood,^ be (as. 
he would have it thought) Shakspeare's $ but, whether this 
is his or not, he proves Shakspeare to have written as bad.** 
The arguments which Theobald uses to prove the play to 
be Sbakspeare's^ are indeed^ far from satisfactory, and it 



f 



TH E O B A L D* 8*^ 

^W8ft aftetwardgi Dr» Farmer's opinion that it jvas Shi^rliey's,. 
li WAS) however, Ttndtcated by Theobald, who was attacked 
agaiin in *< The Art of Sinking in Poetry.'* Tbeobald en^ 
diaavoured to prove false criticisins, want of uoderstandixig. 
Sbakspeare's manner) ahd perverse cavilling in Pope: JiQ 
justified himself and the great dramatic poet, and attempted, 
t^ prove the tragedy in question to be in reality <Shak^T 
speare's, aad apt i^nvrorthy of him* Tbeobald, besides bi$* 
cijcUtion of Shakspeace's plays, in which he collated tbe,an<»; 
cient copies, and corrected with great pains ai^d iogenuit]^ 
many faults, was ih^ author of several dramatic pieces. Nqtf 
less than, twenty, printed or acted, are ^i^umeratedio.tber- 
'* Biogratpbia Dramatica." He was. also concerned, in vari^f 
ou^ translations, and at his death in Sept. \1^^\^ had m^di^ 
some progress in an edition of Beaumont and f l<^tcher. ; ..^ 

• As the name is not very common, it may b^ necessary tpl 
mention a later writer, a John Theobald, who hafl tb^ ^e^ff 
gree of a doctpr of physic, but doe$ not appe^i;(tQ ba^ 
been of. the London college of physicians* , Ue publisbedj 
a little volume of poetry in 1753, called; "^MiisaPanegy'*^ 
rica,?' and died May 17, 1760. Ampngatmany ptjier p^^i^y^ 
formamcesy be produced a translation of Merope, trsinalat^^ 
ffomVoUiMre^ 1744, Svo.V -^ : ,t 

. THECMIIRITUS, an ancient Greek p9el:, wa9^ a Si^ilian^ 
and born at Igyracuse, the son of Praxagoi^ and>Pbilina,f 
He is said to>bave been the scholar of Pbiletas,. aad^ Asclet^ 
piades, .or SiCjeUdas : Philetas was an elegiac po/^t, of tb^ 
illand^of Cos, bad the honour to be preceptor tp Ptotep9y> 
£biladelphus, and is> celebrated by QvJd and.Pxopertius,^^ 
^iceiidas wasaSamian, a writer of epigrams^: Theocrituf^ 
Ojientionsbptjlft these with honour in his seveirthldy Ilium. 
As to the age in which be fionri^hedj it seems indisputably^ 
to be ascertained by two Idylliutas that remain : w^ is,ad^« 
dressed to Hiero^Jcing of Syracuse^ and the other tp Ptpl/e-* 
my Philadelphus, the Egyptian, mqnikrch. Hierp- t^ega^H 
his reign, as Casaubon asserts in his observations on Poly**; 
hius, in the second year. of the- 126th olympiad, or about 
275 years before Christ; and Ptolemy in the fourth year 
of the \%%A olympiad. Though the exploits of >Hiero aria 
redorded greatly to his advantage by Poly bins, in tbe .first- 
bpdk Pf bis history ; though he had many virtues, had fre«-l 

■7'' > • . ' • , « 

> Cil).b«r'ft LiTes.<^Biog* Dram.-— D'IfiraeU'» Quarrels^ toI.. I,— Bowles's edi«^ 
tipo <||fPope.^ Johnson's Works. \ 



MS THEOCRITUS. 

> 

qnently sig'nalized bis courage and conduct, and distki-* 
g.uished himself by several achievements in war; yet he 
seems, at least in the early part of his reign, to have ex- 
pressed no great affection tor learning or men of letters c 
and tb!S is supposed to have given occasion to the 16ih 
IJyUi'un, inscribed with the name ot Hiero; where rhe 
poet asserts the dignity of his profession, complains that it 
met witti neither favour nor protection, and in a very artful 
manner touches upon some of the virtues of this prince, 
and insinuates what an illustrious figure be would have 
made in poetry, had he been as noble a patron, as be was 
an argument for the Muses. 

His not meeting with the encouragement be expected in 
his own country, was in all probability the reason that in* 
duced Theocritus to leave Syracuse for the more friendly 
climate of Alexandria, where Ptolemy Philadelphus then 
reigned in unrivalled splendour, the great encourager of 
arts and sciences, and the patron of learned men. In his 
voyage to Egypt he touched at Cos, an island in the Ar-< 
chipelago not, far from Rhodes, where he was honourably 
entertained by Pbrasidamus and Antigenes, who invited 
him into the country to celebrate the festival of Ceres, as 
appears by the seventh Idyllium. There is every reason 
to imagine that he met with a more favourable reception at 
Alexandria, than be had experienced at Syracuse, from 
bia encomium on Ptolemy, contained in the 17th Idyllium; 
where he rises above his pastoral style, and shows^ that be 
could upon occasion (as Virrgil did afterwards) exalt bis 
Sicilian JMuse to a subtimer strain, paulo^majora : he de- 
rives the race of Ptolemy from Hercules, he enumerates 
bis many cities, be describes his great power and immense 
riches, but above all be commemorates his royal munifi- 
cence to the sons of the Muses. Towards the conclusion 
of the 14th Idyllium, there is a short, but very noble pane- 
gyric on . Ptolemy : in the 1 5th Idyllium he celebrates 
Berenice, the mother, and Arsinoe, the wife of Ptolemy. 
Little else of this poet^s life can be gathered from his 
works, except his friendship with Aratus, the famous au- 
thor of the *^ Phsenomena ;" to whom he addresses his 
sixth Idyllium, and whose amours be describies in the 
seventh. It is mentioned by all bis biographers, that be 
suffered s^n ignominious death, and they derive their in- 
formation from a distich of Ovid in his Ibis. 

- Utque Syracosio praestriot^ fiaiuce poets. 
Sic animsB laqueo sit via clausa tuee. 



•»»' 

*. rt 



TH E O C R I T U S. 249 

* / 

t 

But it does not appear, that by the Syracusan poet, Ovid 
means Theocritus ; more probably, as socne commentators 
on the passage have supposed, Empedoctes, who was a 
poet and philosopher of Sicily, is ttie person pointed at: 
others think that Ovid by a s.nait mistake or slip of his me- 
mory might confound Theocritus the rhetorician of Chios, 
who was executed by order of kmg Antigonus^ with Tlieo^ 
critus the poet of Syracuse. 

The compositions of this poet are disiinofuished amon|;; 
the ancients by the name of ** Idyllia,'* in order to express 
th6 smallness and variety of their natures ; they would now 
be called " Miscellanies, or Poems on several Occasions. 
The nine first and the eleventh are confessed to be true^ 
pastorals, and hence Theocritus has usually passed for 
nothing more than a pastoral poet: yet he is manifestly 
robbed of a great part of his fame, if his other poems have 
not their proper laurels. For though the greiuer part of 
his '^ Idyllia^' cannot be called the songs of shepherds, yet 
they have certainly their respective merits. His pastorals 
doubtless ought to be considered as the foundation of his 
credit. He was the earliest known writer of pastorals, and 
will be acknowledged to have Excelled all his imitators, as 
much as originals usually do their copies. There are, 
says Dr. Warton, *' few images and sentiments in the Ec- 
logues of Virgil, but what are drawn from the Idylliums of 
Theocritus : in whom there is a rural, romantie wildiiess 
of thought, heightened by the Doric dialect ; with such 
lively pictures of the passions, and of simple unadorned 
nature, as are infinitely pleasing to lovers and judges of 
true poetry. Theocritus is indeed the grpat store-house of 
pastoral description ; and every succeeding painter of rural 
beauty (except Thomson in his Seasons) hath copied his 
images from him, without ever looking abroad upon the 
face of nature thenns'elves." The same elegant critic, in 
his dissertation on pastoral poetry, says, " If I might ven^ 
tore to speak of the merits of the several pastoral writers, 
I would say, that in Theocritus we are charmed with a 
certain sweetness, a romantic rusticity and wildness, height- 
ened' by the Doric dialect, that are almost inimitable. 
Several of his pieces indicate a genius of a higher class, 
far superior to pastoral, and equal to the sublimest species 
of poetry : such are particularly his Panegyric on Ptolemy, 
the fight between Aniycus and Pollux, the Epithalamiuia 
of Helen, the young Hercules, the grief of Hercules for 



aSO T H £ O C R I T U S. 

Hylas, the death of Pentheus, and the kiiliog 'of the Ne^. 
mean Lion.^* At the same tiaie it mus^.be allowed that*. 
Theocritus descends sometimes into g;ro8s and mean ideai^. 
and makes his shepherds abusive and immodest, which isf* 
sever the case with Virgil. • / , v 

This poet was first published in fo)io at Milan in li^3^. 
again by Aldus at Venice, in 1491, aiwd by {jienry.Ster 
phens at Paris, in 1566, with other Greek pooip,./sod withr% 
out a Latin version : a good edition also in Greeji pnly/wai; 
printed at Oxford, by bishop Fell, .in 1676, 8vo.> Th^rOt 
are, since, the editions of Martin, Lond. 1760, Svo^ tbA. 
very splendid one of Thomas Warton, 1770» 2 vols. .4|o; 
and of Vjklckenaer, Leydeu, 1773, 8vo. Dr. TbomaaJ&iW 
wards also published a very correct and critical editi«n;o|> 
^^ Selecta qusdam Theocriti Idyilia," 1779, 8va^ > •;. 

THEODORE.ANTHONY L king of Corsica, baroiv 
Niewhoff, grandee of Spain, bstron of England, peer of. 
France, baron of the holy empire, prince of the Papal 
throne: for thus he styled himself; ^^ a man whoseclaiqir 
to royalty,** says lord Orford, ^^ was as indisputable, as 
the most ancient titles to any monarchy can pretend to< 
be;*' was born at Metz about 1696. The particulars of 
his eventful history are thus related. In March 1736^* 
whilst the Corsican mal-con tents were sitting in council,]; 
an English vessel from Tunis, with a passport from our 
consul there, arrived at a port tlien in the possession of the 
inal-conten^ts. A stranger on board this vessel, who ba4. 
the appearance of a person of distinction, no sooner wefii- 
on shore, but was received with singular honours by thet 
principal persons, who saluted him with the titles of exceU 
lency, and viceroy of Corsica. His attendants consisted^ 
of two officers, a secretary, a chaplain, a few domestics 
amd Morocco slaves. He was conducted to the bisbop*r 
palace; called himself lord Theodore; whilst tb^ chiefs^ 
knew more about him than they thought convenient to de«>.v 
clare. From the vessel that brought him were debavkiedii 
ten pieces of cannon, 4000 fire-locks, 3000 pair of sbpes^t 
a great quantity of provisions, and coin to the.amo^Mofi 
200,000 ducats. Two pieces of cannon were placed before^ 
his door, and he had 400 soldiers posted for*.his guards 
He created officers, formed twenty- four companies of aol«3 

> Votsius Poet. Grec^Fabric. Bibl. Grsc — Life prefixed to Fawkes's Traoc/^ 



THEODORE. «l 

HetB, dfsttibiited among the mal-oonteots the arms knd 
•boes he had brought with him, conferred knighthood on 
one of the chiefs, appointed another bis treasurer, and pro«» 
fe^sed the Roman Catholic religion. Various conjectures 
were formed in different courts concerning him. The 
^(dest son of the pretender, prince Ragotski, the dokje do 
Ripperda, oomte de Bonneval, were each in their turns 
supposed to be this stranger ; all Europe was puzzled ; but 
tbe country of this stranger was soon discovered : he was, 
in.fiaict, a Prussian, well known by the name of Theodore 
Antony, baron of Niewhoff. 

Tlieodore was a knight of the Teutonic order, had suc- 
cessively been in the service of several German princes, 
bad seen Holland, England, France, and Portugal ; gained 
tbe confidence of the great at Lisbon, and passed there for 
a'cbarg6 des aflaires from the emperor. This extraordinary 
man, with an agreeable person, had resolution, strong 
natural parts, and was capable of any enterprise. He wasi 
about fifty years of age. Upon his first landing, the chiefs 
of the Oorsicans publicly declared to the people, that it 
was to him they were to be indebted for their liberties, and 
that he was arrived in order to deliver the island from the 
tyrannical oppressions of the Genoese. The general assem- 
bly offered him « the crown, not as any sudden act into 
which they had been surprised, but with all the precaution 
that people could take to secure their freedom and happi<» 
nesg under it. Theodore, however, contented himself whb 
tbe title of governor-general* In this quality he assembled 
the people, and administered an oath for preserving eternal 
p^ace among themselves ; and severely did he exact obe«* 
dience to this law. 

He was again offered the title of king : he accepted it 
the 15th of April, 1736, was crowned king of Corsica, and 
received the oath of fidelity from his principal subjects, 
And the ^cUroations of all the people. The Genoese, 
iatarmed at these proceedings, publicly declared him and 
bis adherents guilty of high treason; caused it 16 bere«>' 
ported, that he governed in the most despotic 'manner, 
even to tbe putting to death many principal inhabitants, 
merely because they were Genoese ; than which nothing 
could be more false, as appears from his manifesto, iu 
answer to the edict. Theodore, however, having got toge* 
tber 25,000 men, found himself master of a country wberu 
Ih^ Genoese durst not appear: he carried Por^o VecchiO| 



232 Theodore. 

ind, May the Sd, blocked up the city of Bastia, but was 
soon obliged to retire. He' then separated his force, was 
' Buccessfttl in his conquests, and came again before Bastia, 
.. which soon submitted to hirn» His court grevir brilliant^ 
and he conferred titles of nobility upon his principal cour- 
tiers. 

Towards July, murmurs were spread of great dissatisfac* 
tions, arising from the want of Theodore's promised sue* 
cours : on the other hand, a considerable armament sailed 
from Barcelona, as was supposed in his favour. At the 
same time France and England strictly forbade their sub« 
jects in any way to assist the mal-contents. Sept. the 2d, 
Theodore presided at a general assembly, and assured hid 
subjects anew of the speedy arrival of the so much wanted 
succours. Debates ran high ; and Theodore was given to 
understand, that before the end of October he must resigrt 
the sovereign authority, or make good his promise. : He 
received in the mean time large sums, but nobody knew 
whence they came: he armed some barques, and chased 
those of the Genoese which lay near the island. He now 
instituted the order of Deliverance, in memory of his de- 
livering the country fronrj the dominion of the Genoese. 
The monies he had received he caused to be new coined ; 
and his affairs seemed to have a j)romising aspect : but 
the scene presently changed. . 

In the beginning of November, he assembled the chiefs ; 
and declared, that he would not keep them longer in a 
state of uncertainty, their fidelity and confidence demand-* 
ing of him the utmost efforts in their favour; and that he 
had determined to find out in person the succours he had 
so long expected. The chiefs assured him of their deter- 
mined adherence to his interests. He named the principal 
among them to take the government in his absence, made 
all the necessary provisions, and recommended to them 
pnion in the strongest terms. The chiefs, to the number 
of forty-seven, attended him with the utmost respect, on 
the day of his departure, to the water-side, and even on 
board his vessel ; where, after affectionately embracing 
them, he took his leave, and they returned on shore, and 
went immediately, to their respective posts which he had 
assigned them ; a demonstrative proof this, that he was 
not forced out of the island, did not quit it in disgust, or 
leave it in a maoner inconsistent with his royal character. 



THEODORE. 25S 

Thus ended the reign of Theodore, who arrived in a few 
<}ays disguised in the habit of an abbd at Livonia^ and 
thence, after a short stay, conveyed himself nobody knew 
v^bither. The next year, however, he appeared at Paris ; 
wak ordered to depart the kingdom in forty*eight hours; 
precipitately embarked at Rouen, and arri^^ed at Amster- 
dam, attended by four Italian domestics; took up his quar- 
ters at an inn ; and there two citizens arrested him, on a 
olaim of 16^000 florins. But he soon obtained a protection, 
and found some merchants, who engaged to furnish him with 
a great quantity of ammunition for his faithful islanders. He 
accordingly went on board a frigate of fifty-two guns^ and 
150 men; but was soon afterwards seized at Naples in 
the house of the Dutch consul, and sent prisoner to tbl» 
fortress of Cueta. This unhappy king, whose courage had 
raised htm to a throne, not by a succession of bloody acts, 
but by the free choice of an oppressed nation, for many- 
years struggled with fortune; and 'left no means untried, 
which policy could attempt, to recover his crown. At 
length he chose for his retirement this country, where he 
ifiight enjoy that liberty, which he had so vainly endea- 
voured to fix to his Corsicans : but his situation here, by 
degrees, grew wretched ; and he was reduced ^o low, as to 
be several years before his death, a prisoner for debt in the 
King's-bench. 

To the honour of some private persons, a charitable 
contribution was set on foot for him, in 1753; and, in 
1757, at the expence of the late lord Orford, a marble 
monument was erected to his memory in the church-yard 
of St. Anne's, Westminster, with the following inscription : 

Near this place is interred 
Theodore king of Corsica ; 
who died in this parish Dec. 11, 
■ 1756, 

immediately after leaving 
the King's-bench prison, 
by the benefit of the Act of Insolvency : 
In cbnsequence of which, 
he registered his kingdom of Corsica « 
for the use of his creditors. 
The grave, great teacher, to a level brings 
Heroes and beggars, galley slaves, and kings. 
But Theodore this moral learn'd ere dead : 
Fate pour*d its lesson on his living head ; 
Beslow'd a kingdom^ and deny*d him bread. 



} 



S5« THEODORE. 

Theodore had a son, known by the name of colonel 
Frederick, who, after following bis father into £ugland^ 
entered xinto the army in foreign service, but appears t9 
have been disappointed in his bopes of rising, or acquiiing 
even a competence, and after sustaining many distresses^ 
without timely relief, put an end to his life, by a pistol^ 
near the gate of Westminster Abbey, Feb. 1, 1797. He 
was a man of gentleman-like manners, and accomplish* 
ments, and much regretted by those who knew him inti« 
mately. He was interred in the church-yard of St. Anne^a 
Soho, by the side of his father. He published in 1768, 
**Memoires pour servir a THistoire de Corse,*' 12mo, of 
which there is an English translation ; and, ^ A Descrip* 
lion of Corsica, with an account of its temporary union 
to the crown of Great Britain, &c«" 8vo. ' 

THEODORE, archbishop of Canterbury, was a ni^nk 
of Tarsus. He was ordained bishop by pope VitalianHa, 
and sent into England in the year 668, to govern the 
church of Canterbury. Being kindly received by Lia^ 
Egbert, he restored the faith, and promoted, or rather 
founded, a form of ecclesiastical discipline, which he ia 
•aid to have exercised with great rigour, placing and dis« 
placing several bishops in an arbitrary manner, particularly 
those belonging to the diocese of York. He died Sepc 
19, 690, aged eighty-eight. He is said to have imported 
into England a great many valuable MSS. Godwin men«» 
tious a Homer, extant in his time, of exquisite beamy. 
He is also the supposed founder of the school celled 
Greekiade, whence arose the university of Oxford, but 
this isr somewhat fabulous. What remains of his form of* 
discipline, called the ^* Penitential," and of his other woiks^ 
has been collected by James Petit, and printed at Paris^ 
1677, 2 vols. 4to, with learned notes.* 

THEODORE of Mopsuestia, so called from his being 
bishop of Mopsuestia, a city in Cilici^, was educated and 
ordained priest in a monastery, and became one of the 
greatest scholars of bis time, and bad the famous Nestoriua 
for a disciple. Be died iu the year 429, or 430. This 
bishop wrote a great number of learned works, of which 
are now only extant, '< A Commentary on the Psalms,*' 
which is in father Cordef s ^^ Catena,*' the authenticity of 

> Memoires deCorse.— -Floyd ■ Bibliotheca Bio^.— Lord Orford's Works^ vol. 
I. p. 151.— Gent. Mag. vol. JLXVII.— Aanaal Necrotofy for 1797-S» 
* Godwin dt Prsiiulibas.— Wb«rton*i An^lm Sacim. — ^Dupin. 



THEODORE. 255 

Which WAS verified, iii one. of bis dissertations by the dijike 
oFOrleansy ^fao died in 1752, at Paris, one of the most 
teamed princes Europe has produced. Theodore left also 
a *' Commentary*' in MS. on the tweWe minor prophets; 
and several *^ Fragfmencs/* enumerated by Dnpin, which 
are printed in the ^'Bibliotheca^'of Pbotius. Those parts 
of his works supposed to contain the distinction of two 
personal in Christ, the letter from Ibas, bisboj} of Edossa^ 
who defended him, and the anathemas published by the 
celebrated Tlieodoret, bishop of Cyrus, against St. Cyril, 
i^ favour of Theodore of Mopsoestia-, occasioned no little 
disturbance in the church. This dispute is, called the 
affair of the ^* Three Chapters,'' and was not settled tilt * 
the'Bfth general council, in the year 553, when he and hid 
writings were anathematized. His confession of faith may 
be found in father Garnier's Dissertations on Marins Mer* 
eator. * 

THEODORET, an illustrious writer of the church, wai 
tfaorn at Antioch about the year 386, of parents who were 
both pious and opulent. His birth has been represented as 
at'cotnpanied with miracles before and after, according to 
his own account, in his ** ReUgious. History ;*' in which he 
gravely informs us, that it was by the prayers of a religious 
man,' trailed Macedonius, that God granted his mother to 
toncef?e a' son, and bring him into the world. When the 
holy anchorite promised her this i>lessing, she engaged her* 
se^f linher part to devote him to God; and accordingly 
Called him Theodoretus, which signifies either given hy 
God, or devoted to God. To promote this latter design, he 
was sent at seven years of age to a monastery, where he 
learnt the sciences, theology, and devotion.' He had for 
iHsfinttsters Theodore of Mopsuestia, and St. John Chry«» 
sostom, and made under them a very uncommon progress. 
His leartlifi^ and piety becoming-known to' the bishops of 
Antioch^ they admitted him into holy orders ; yet he did ^ 
n^ npon that account change either his habitation oi* man- 
oer of-litiiVg, but endeavoured to reconcile the exerciser 
^f a religious life with the function of a clergyman. After 
Hie 'death of bis parents, he distributed his whole inbefit>- 
aneU to the poor, and reserved nothing to himself. The 
Bt^hdprrc of Gyrus becoming vacant about the year 420^ 
the bjshop of Antioch ordained Theodoret against his wiif, 

1 Dupia io Cave, toI,^ I. , . . 



tS6 T H E O D O R E T. 

and sent him to govern that church. . Cyras was a city of 
Syria, in the province of Euphratesia, an unpleasant and 
barren country, but very populous. The inhabitants coixi-» 
monly spake the Syriac tongue, few of them understand* 
ing Greek; they were almost all poor, rude, and barbarous ; 
many of them were engaged in profane superstitions, or in 
such gross errars as shewed them to be rather Heathens 
than Christians. Tiie learning and worth of Theodoret, 
which were really very great, seemed to qualify him for a 
better see ; yet he remained in this, and discharged all the 
offices of a good bishop and good man. He was afterwards 
engaged in the Nestorian dispute, very much against his 
will ; but at length retired to his see, spent bis life in 
composing books, and in acts of piety and charity, and died 
there in the year 457, aged seventy and upwards. He 
wrote ^^ Commentaries upon the Holy Scriptures ;*' an 
*' Ecclesiastical History ;*' a " Religious History,'* con-» 
taining the lives and praises of thirty monks, and several 
other things, which are still extant. 

Great encomiums have been bestowed upon this wHter^ 
particularly b}' Dupin, who asserts that <^ Of all the fathers 
who have composed works of different kinds, Theodoret is 
one of those who has succeeded the very best in every 
kind. Some have been excellent writers in matters of 
controversy, but bad interpreters of Scripture; others have 
been good historians, but bad divines; some have hiad 
good success in morality, who have had no skill in doctrinal 
points ; those who have applied themselves to confute Pa-« 
ganism by their own principles and authors, have usually 
had little knowledge in the mysteries of our religion ; and 
lastly, it is very rare for those who have addicted them<* 
selves to works of piety to be good critics. Theodoret had 
all the^e qualities ; and it may be said, that he has equally 
deserved the name of a good interpreter, divine, historian^ 
writer in controversy, apologist for religion, and author of 
works of piety. But he hath principally excelled in his 
compositions on Holy Scripture, and has outdone almost 
all other commentators, according to the judgment of the 
learned Photius. His style, says that able critic, is very 
proper for a coihmentary ; for he explains, in just and sig^* 
nificant4erms, whatsoever is obscure and difficult in the 
text, and renders the mind more fit to read and understand 
it by the elegance of his style. He never wearies his 
reader with long digressions, but on the contrary labours 



T H E O D R E T, 257 

to instruct him clearly, neatly, and methodifcally, in every 
thing that seems hard. He never departs frotti the purity 
and elegance of the Attic dialect, unless when he is obliged 
to speak of abstruse matters, to which the ears are not ac* 
customed : for it ts certain that he passes over nothing that 
needs explication ; and it is almost impossible to find any 
interpreter who unfolds all manner of difficulties better, 
and leaves fewer things obscure. We may find mnny 
others who write elegantly and explain clearly, but we 
shall find few who have forgotten nothing whicji needed 
illustration, without being too diffuse, and without running 
out into digressions, at least such as are not absolutely ne^ 
cessary to clear the matter in hand. Yet this is what 
Theoddret has observed throughout his commentaries, in 
which be hath opened the text admirably well by his ac- 
curate inqtiiri^s." Other writers, however, have not ex- 

Sressed so high an opinion of Theodoret. Beausobre, in 
is History of the Manichees, says that "Theodoret is, in 
my opinion, one of the most valuable of the fathers, fle 
is learned ; he reasons well, especially in his dialogues 
against the Greek heresies of his times : he is a good lite- 
ral interpreter of the Scriptures. I cannot help admiring 
bis prudence and moderation, when I consider that he 
ended bis Ecclesiastical History at the time when the Nes*- 
torian quarrels, in which he was so deeply interested, be- 
gan. But, I fear, his zeal against heretics imposed upon 
him almost as much, as his admiration for the heroes of the 
ascetic life, uith whom he was charmed. Monasteries 
Ivave undoubtedly sent forth great men into the world, but 
these disciples of the monks contracted there in their youth 
a superstitious disposition, which is hardly ever thrown ofFj 
and the weak side of this able man seems to have been an 
excessive credulity." In truth, Theodoret surpasses all 
other writers in admiration of monastic institutions, and is 
creduldus beyond measure in subjects of that nature. Yet 
he was undoubtedly one of the most learned and best meti 
ill the Eastern church. His pacific conduct displeased the 
bigots, during the Nestbrian and Eutychian controversies, 
and because he inclined to healing methods, he was con^ 
demned at one of the synods, and was 'not without difficulty 
reinstated. " His works,*' says Milner, " are large, on a 
variety of subjects ; but they speak not for him equally 
with his life; and it will be sufficient to say, that his the- 
ology, with a stronger mixture of superstition, was of the 

Vol. XXIX. S 



•% 



4W THEODORE T. 

same kind as that of Cbrysostom. But his spirit iiras humble,* 
heavenly, charitable ; and be seems to have walked in the 
fiaith, hope, and love of the gospel, a shining ornament io« 
a dark age and country/' 

The works of Tbeodoret were published in Greek and 
Latin, by father Sirmond, at Paris, 1642, in 4 vols, folio; 
a work not of much pecuniary value unless when joined 
with a fifth, which the Jesuit Gamier added, in 1684^ 
consisting of other pieces, which had never been printed, 
before, of supposititious pieces, learned dissertations, and 
an account of the life, principles, and writings of Theodo- 
ret. A new edition has since been published by Schultze, 
Halse, 1768 — 74, in 5 vols. 4to, or in 10 vols. 8vo. The 
*^ Ecclesiastical History^' of Theodoret, which is divided 
into five books, is a kind of supplement to Socrates and 
Sozomen^ as being written after theirs, about the year 45Q^ 
It begins where £usebius leaves off, at the rise of the 
Arian heresy in 322, and ends with 427, before the be- 
ginning of the Nestorian heresy. It has been translated 
and published by Valesius, with Eusebius and the other 
ecclesiastical historians, and republished with additional 
notes, by Reading, at London, 1720, in 3 vols, folio. ^ 

THEODORIC. See THIERRY. 

THEODOSIUS, called Tripolites,, or of Tripoli, wa* 
a celebrated mathematician, who fiourished, as Saxius seem« 
inclined to think, in the first century. He is mentioned 
by Suidas, as probably the same with Theodosius, the pbi« 
losopber of Bytbinia, who, Strabo says, excelled in matbe- 
roatics. He appears to have cultivated chiefly that part of 
geometry which relates to the doctrine of the sphere, oa 
which he wrote three books containing fifty-nine propo- 
sitions, all demonstrated in the pure geometrical manner 
of the ancients, and of which Ptolomj* as well as all suc- 
ceeding writers made great use. These three books were 
translated by the Arabians out of the Greek into their owa 
language, and from the Arabic the work was again trans- 
lated into Latin,' and printed at Venice|. But the Arabia 
version being very defective, a more complete edition waf 
published in Greek and Latin at Paris, in IS58, by John 
Pena (See P£Na) professor of astronomy. . Tbeodosius'a 
works were also commented upon by others, and lastly bj 
Pe ChaJes, in his << Cu^sus Mathematicus.'' But that edi^ 



THEODOSIUS. 259 

tioti of Theodosius's spberks which is now most in use, was ■ 
translated and published by our couutryman the learned 
Dr. Barrow^ in 1675, illustrated and demonstrated in anew 
and concise method. By this author's account, Theodosius. 
appears not only to be a great master in this more difficult 
part of geometrj', but the 6rst considerable author of an- 
tiquity who has written on that subject. Theodosius also 
wrote concerning the celestial houses; and of days and 
nights ; copies of which, in Greek, are in the king's li- 
brary at Paris, and of which there was a Latin edition, pub- 
lished by Peter Dasypody in 1572.^ 

THEODULPHUS, a celebrated bishop of Orleans, one- 
of the most learned men of the ninth century, was born in 
Cisalpine Gaul. Charlemagne made him abbot of Fleury, 
then bishop of Orleans about the year 793, and chose him 
to sign his will in the year 811; Louis le Debonnaire had 
also a high esteem for him. But Theodulphus being ac- 
cnsed of having joined in the conspiracy. formed by Be- 
renger, king of Italy, was committed to prison at Angers, 
where he composed the hymn beginning Gloria, laus, et 
honor, part of which, in the catholic service, is sung oa 
Palm Sunday. It is said that Theodulphus singing this 
hymn at bis prison window while the emperor passed by, 
that prince was so charmed with it that he set him at liberty. 
He died about the year 821. In the Library of the fathers, 
d'Acheri's " Spicilegium," and father Labbe's " Councils,'* 
is a treatise by this prelate on baptism, another on the Holy 

^Ghost, two ** Capitulariu," addressed to his clergy, some 
** Poems," and other works ; the best edition of which is 
by father Sirmond, 1646, 8vo ; the second of ihe " Capitu- 
laria" is in the ^* Miscellanea," published by Baluze. * 

THEOGNIS, an eminent Greek poer, was born in the 
fifty-tnintb olympiad, orabout 550 years before Christ. Hq 
calls himself a Megarian, in one of his verses ; meaning, 

. most probably, MegarH, in Achaia, as appears also from 
Ilis.own verses, for he prays the gods to turn away a threat- 
ening war from the city of Alcathous ; and Ovid calls the 
same Megara, Alcatboe. We have a n^oral work of his 
exta\;it, of somewhat more than a thousand lines, which is 
licknowledged to be an useful summary of precepts an4 
leflactions; which, however, has so little of the genius and 
' ' ' 

» Voaslus de Scient. Malth.-— Fabric. Bibl. Gi«c.— HuUon's Diet.— Saxii 
OnoiDast. 
• Ca¥«, vol. i. — Dupin. 

S 2 



S60 T H E O G N I S. 

fire of poetry in it, that, as Plutarch said, it may more 
properly be called carmen than po'ema. These '' Twfia$f 
SententisyV or ** Precepts,*' are given in the simplest 
manner, without the least ornament, and probably were 
put into verse merely to assist the memory* Athenscus 
reckons this author among the most extravagant volap- 
tuaries, and cites some of his verses to justify the censure ; 
and Suidas, in the account of his works, mentions a piec« 
entitled ** Exhortations, or Admonitions,'' which, he says, 
was stained with a mixture of indecency. The verses wa 
have at present are, however, entirely free from any thing 
of this kind, whence some have supposed that they were 
not left so by the author, but that the indecencies were 
' omitted, and the void spaces filled up with graver sentences. 
They have been very often printed both with and without 
Latin versions, and are to be found in all the collections of 
the Greek minor poets. One of the best editions, but a 
fare book, is that by Ant. Blackwell, Lond. 1 706, 12mo. ^ 

THEON, of Alexandria, a celebrated Greek philoso- 
pher and mathematician, flourished in the fourth century, 
about the year 3 SO, in the time ofTheodosius the Great; 
but the time and manner of his death are i/nknown. His 
genius and disposition for the study of philosophy were 
very early improved by a close application to study ; so 
tihat he acquired such a proficiency in the sciences as to 
render his name venerable in history ; and to procure him 
the honour of being president of the famous Alexandrian 
school. One of his pupils was the celebrated Hypatia, his 
daughter, who succeeded him in the presidency of the 
school; a trust, which, like himself, she discharged with 
the greatest honour and usefulness. (See Hypatia.) 

The study of nature led Theon to many just |u>nceptiony 
concerning God, and to many useful reflections in the 
science of moral philosophy ; hence, it is said^^ he wrote 
with great accuracy on divine providence. And he seems 
to have made it his standing rule, to judge the truth of 
certain principles, or sentiments, from their natural or ne* 
cessary tendency. Thus, he says, that a full persuasioa 
that the Deity sees every thing we do, is the strongest in-^. 
centive to virtOe ; for he insists, that the most profligate 
have power to refrain their hands, and hold their tongues^ 
when they think they are observed, or overheard, by some 

I Vosftlus dc Post. Qrec.— Fabric. Bibl, Grsca.— Saxii OoaoMtt^ 






t » 



y 



THE ON. 261 

person whom they fear or respect. ** With how much more 
reason then/' says he, *^ should the apprehension and be- 
lief that God sees alt things, restrain men from sin> and 
constantly excite them to their duty?" He also represents 
this belief concerning the Deity as productive of the great- 
est pleasure imaginable, especially to the virtuous^ who 
might depend with greater confidence on the favour and 
protection of Providence. For this reason, he recommends 
nothing so much as meditatioo on the presence of God ; 
and he recommended it to the civil magistrate, as a re- 
straint on such as were profane and wicked, to have th^ 
following inscription written in large characters at the 
corner of every street : ** God sees thee, O sinner." 

Theon wrote notes and commentaries on some of the 
ancient mathematicians. He composed also a book entitled 
** Progymnasmata," a rhetorical work, written with great 
judgment and elegance ; in which he criticised on the 
writings of some illustrious orators and historians ; pointing 
out, with great propriety and judgment, their beauties anct 
imperfections ; and laying down proper rules for propriety 
of style. He recommends conciseness of expression, and 
perspicuity, as the principal ornaments. This work was 
printed at Basle in 1541, but the best edition is that of 
Ley den, 1626, 8vo. ' 

THEOPHANES (Prokopovitch), an historian who may 
be ranked among those to whom Russia is chiefiy indebted 
for the introduction of polite literature, was the son of a 
burgher of Kiof; born in that city, June 9, 1681, and 
baptised by the name of Elisha. Under his uncle, Theo^ 
phanes, rector of the seminary in the B^atskoi convent at 
Kiof, he commenced his studies, and was well grounded 
in the rudijBents of the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew tongues. 
Though h^ uncle died in 1692, he completed his educa^ 
tion in that seminary ; and in 1698, in the eighteenth year 
of his age, he travelled into Italy. He resided three years 
at Rome, where, beside a competent Icnowledge of Italian, 
he acquired a taste for the fine arts, and improved himself 
in philosophy and divinity. Upon his return to Kiof be 
read lectures on the Latin and Sclavonian art of poetry in 
the same seminary in which he had been educated : and, 
with the monastic habit, assumed the name of Theophanes* 
Before he had attained the twenty-fifth year of his age h» 

> Hutton'f Diet.— ^Saxii Onomatt, 



262 T H E OP H A N E S- 

was appointed pwtefect, the second office in the seminaiy, 
and professor of philosophy. In 1706 he distinguishj^ 
J:\imself by speaking a Latin oration before Peter the Great; 
and still more by a sermon, which in I70y he preached 
before the same monarch after the battle of Pultawa. Hav- 
ing once attracted the notice, he soon acquired the pro- 
tection of Peter, who was so captivated with his great ta- 
lents, superior learning, and polite address, as to select 
him for a companion in the ensuing campaign against the 
Turks-; a sure prelude to his fuiure advancement. In 1711 
Theophanes was nominated abbot of Bratskoi, rector of 
the seminary, and professor of divinity. His censures 
against the ignorance and indolence of the Russian clergy, 
and his endeavours to promote a taste for polite literature 
among bis brethren, rendered him a fit instrument in the 
hands of Peter for the reformation of the church, and the 
6nal abolition* of the patriarchal dignity. He was placed 
at the head of the synod, of which ecclesiastical establish- 
ment he liimself drew the plan; was created bishop of 
Plescof; and, in 1720, archbishop of the same diocese: 
soon after the accession of Catharine he was consecrated 
archbishop of Novogorod, and metropolitan of all Russia; 
and died in 1736. Beside various sermons and theological 
disquisitions, he wrote a treatise on rhetoric, and on the 
rules for Latin and Sclavonian poetry ; he composed verges 
in the Latin language; and was author of a ** Life of Peter 
the Great," which unfortunately terminates with the battle 
of Pultawa. In this performance the prelate has, notwith- 
standing his natural partiality to his benefactor, avoided 
those scqrrilous abuses of the contrary party, which fre- 
quently disgrace the best histories ; and has been parti- 
cularly candid in his account of Sophia. P#ter, from a 
well-grounded experience, had formed such a good opi- 
nion of the talents of Theophanes, as to employ him in 
composing the decrees which concerned theological ques- 
tions, and even many that 'related to civil affairs. Theo- 
phanes may be said not only to have cultivated the scienceS| 
and to have pi*omoted them daring bis life, but likewise to 
have left a legacy to his ecu s try men, for their further pro- 
gress after his decease, by maintaining in his episcopal 
y)alace fifty hoys, whose education he superintended : un*- 
'der his auspices they were instructed in foreign lawguagos, 
anJ in various branches of polite ki^owledge, whieh tiad 
bepn hitherto censure^d by* many as profane acquisiiious : 



THEOPHILE. 



263 



Ibutf transmilting the rays of learning to illuminate future 
ages and a distant posterity. * 

THEOPHILE, a celebrated French poet, surnamed' 
ViAUD, was born about 1590, at Clerac in the diocese, of 
Agen, and was the son of an advocate of Bousseres Sainte- 
Hadegonde, a village near Aquillon. Having come early 
to Paris, be was admired for bis genius and fancy, and was 
the first who published French works with verse and prose 
intermixed. But his impiety and debaucheries obliged 
bim to go into England in 1619, whence his friends pro- 
cured his recall, and he turned Catholic. This change, 
however, did not make him more regular in his conduct, 
und be. was at last burnt in effigy for having published in 
1622, ^^ Le Parnasse Satyrique.'' Being arrested at the 
Chatelet, he was placed in the same dungeon of the Con- 
eiergerie where Ravaillac had been confined ; but, on bit 
protestations of having had no share in the above mentioned 
publication, received only a sentence of banishment. He 
died September 25, 1626, in the Hdtel de Montmorenci 
at Paris, leaving a collection of *^ Poems'* in French, con- 
taining ** Elegies, Odes, Sonnets, &c.;" a treatise "on the 
Immortality of the Soul,*' in verse and prose ; " Pyrame 
ct Thisb^," a tragedy ; three " Apologies ;" some " Let- 
ters," Paris, 1662, 12mo; his "New Works," Paris, 1642, 
«.vo;.^* Pasiphae," a tragedy, 1628, &c. * 

THEOPHILUS, a celebrated patriarch of Alexandria, 
who succeeded Timotheus about 885, has the credit of 
having completely destroyed the remains of idolatryv in 
Egypt, by pulling down the temples and idols of the false 
deities; and be also terminated happily the disputles which 
bad arisen between Evagrius and Flavianus, both ordained 
bishops q| Antioch* He zealously defended the faith of 
the Catholic church ; but quarrelling afterwards with Chry- 
sostom, caused bim to be deposed, and refused to place 
hi« njame in the Dyptics, Of this violence and injustice 



* Coze's T/ay^ls into Russia, rol. 
II. — Mr, Coxe, in the history of Theo- 
phaiMS, fias followed implicitly Mul- 
Ist, whose fidelity and accuracy alwaya 
appear to him unquestional^le. Mons. 
JLe Cterc differs from Mr. Mullet in 
.relatioi; tbe earliest part of this pre- 
late's life. lie aUo ioforais us, that 
Theophanes persuaded Peter to intro- 
4ttQa iba prokeatant religion into Rus*. 



sia ; and that the emperor vras iBcline^ 
to follow his advice, but was prevented 
by bis death. This important anecdote 
Mr. Coxe would not venture to adopt 
(though he could not controvert it), aa 
the ingenious author has not cited his 
authority. See Le Clere's Hist. Anc 
de Russie, p. 362; apd Hiit. Mod. p. 
65, 66. ' ' 



•Diet. Hist.— <Mortri. 



264 T H E O P H I L U S. 

I^upin thinks be never repented ; but some eompmictton 
he felt at last, on account of bis otber failings, for on hia 
death-bed, reflecting on the long penitence o( St. Arsenius, 
be <t:xclaiii]ed, *' How happy art thou, Arsenius, to have 
bad this hour always before thine eyes." We have some 
of this patriarch's works in the Library of the fathers, which 
seem of very little value. Dupin says,, be knew better 
bow to nmnage a court-iutrigue than to solve a point in 
divinity.* 

THEOPHILUS, of Antiocb, a writer and bishop of 
the primitive church, was educated a heathen, and after^ 
wards converted to Christianity, Some have imagined that 
he is the person to whom St. Luke dedicates the '' Acts of 
Vhe Apostles j'' but this is impossible, as he was not or- 
dained bishop of Antiocb till the year 170, and he governed 
this church twelve or thirteen years, at the end of which 
be died. He was a vigorous opposer of certain heretics of 
bis time, and composed a great number of works, all of 
which are lost, except three books to Autolycus, a learned 
heathen of his acquaintance, who had undertaken to vindi^ 
cate bis own religion against that of the Christians. The 
first book is properly a discourse between him and Autoly** 
cus, in answer to what this heathen bad said against Chris* 
tiatiity. _ The second is to convince him of the falshood of 
bis own, and ti)e truth of the Christian religion. In the 
third, after having proved that the writings of the heathens 
are full of absurdities and contradictions, he vindicates the 
(joctrine arid the )ives of the Christians from those false and 
scandalous imputations which were then brought against 
them^ Lastly, at the end of bis work, he adds an historic- 
cal chronology from the beginning qf the world to his own 
time, to prove, that the history of Moses is at once th^ 
most ancient and the truest ; and it appears from this little 
epitome, that he was well acquainted witii profane history. 
In these books are a great variety of curious disquisitions 
^ concerning the opinions of the poets and philosophers, but 
few things in them relating immediately to the doctrines 
of the Christian religion, the reason of which is, that bav« 
ing composed his woiks for the conviction of a Pagan, be 
insisted rather on the external evidences of Christianity, 
9.S better adapted, in his opinion, to the purpose. . His style 
il elegant, and he was doubtie^s a man of considerable 

I Dupio,^<— Mosheim. 



T H E O P H I L U S. 265 

|)afts ahd' learning. These' books were published, with a 
Latin version, by Conradus Gesner, at Zurich, in 1546. 
They were afterwards subjoined to Justin Martyr's works, 
printed at Paris in 1615 and 16S6 ; then published at Ox* 
ford, 1684, in 12 mo,, under 'the inspection of Dr. Fell ; 
and, lastly, by Jo* Christ. Woliius, at Hamburgh, 1723, 
in 8vo« It has been said, that this Theophilus of Antioch 
was the first who applied the term Trinity to express the 
three persons in the Godhead.^ 

THEOPHRASTUS, a celebrated philosopher, was a 
native of Eresiurii, a maritime town in Lesbos, aud was 
born in the second year of the 102 olympiad, or B.C.* 371.. 
After iome education under Alcippus in his own country, 
he was sent to Athens, and there became a disciple of 
Plato, and after his death, of Aristotle, under both whom 
he made great progress both in philosophy and eloquence. 
It was on account of his^ high attainments in the latter, that 
instead of Tyrtamus, which w'as his oiiginal name, he was 
called Theopbrastus. During his having charge of the 
Peripatetic school, he had about two thousand scholars ; 
among whom were, Nicomachus, the son of Aristotle, 
Erasistratus, a celebrated physician ; and Demetrius Pha- 
lereus. His erudition and eloquence, united with engaging 
manners,' recommended him to the notice of Cassadder 
and Ptolemy, who invited him to visit Egypt. So great a 
favourite was he among the Athenians, that when one of 
his enemies accused htm of teaching impious doctrines, 
the accuser himself escaped with difficulty the punish- 
ment which he endeavoured to bring upon Theopbrastus. 
, Under the arcbonship of Xenippus, Sophocles, the son 
of Amphiclides, obtained a decree (upon what grounds we 
ar« not informed) making it a capital offence for any phi- 
losopher to open a public school without an express li* 
cence from the senate; on which all the philosophers left 
the city; but the next year, this illiberal legislator was 
himself fined five talents, and the philosophers returned to 
their schools, and Theopbrastus, among the rest, now con- 
tinued his debates and instructions in the Lyceum. 

Theopbrastus is highly celebrated for his industry, learn- 
ing, and eloquence ; and for his generosity and public spi^ 
rit. He i$ said to have twice treed bis country from the 
oppression of tyrants. He contributed liberally towards^ 



S«« THEOPHRASTUS. 

defraying the expence attending thd public meefctogs of 
pbiiosopbers, which were held, not for the sake of show, 
but for learned and ingienious conversation. In the pub- 
lic schooisy he comoionly appeared, as Aristotle had done, 
in an elegant dress, and was very attentive to the graces of 
elocution. He lived , to the advanced age of eighty-five ; 
towards the close of his life, he grew exceedingly infirm, 
-and was carried to th6 school on a couch. He expressed 
great regret on account of the shortness of life, and com* 
plained that nature had given long life to certain animals^ 
to whom it is of little value, as stags and crows, and had 
denied it to man, who, in a longer duration, might have 
been able to attain the summit of science, but now, as 
soon as he arrives within sight of it, it is taken away* His 
last advice to his disciples was, that since it is the lot of 
man to die as soon as be begins to live, they would take 
more pains to enjoy life as it passes, than to acquire post- 
humous fame. These reflections, and this advice, do not 
appear to correspond with the character usually bestowed 
on this philosopher. 

Tbeophrastus, although he held the first place among 
the disciptes of Aristotle, did not so implicitly follow his 
master as. to have no peculiar tenets of his own. In seve- 
ral particulars he deviated from the doctrine of Aristotle; 
and he made some material additions to the system of the 
Peripatetic school. He taught, that the predicaments, or 
categories, are as numerous as the motions and changes to 
which beings are liable ; and that, among motions or changes 
are to be reckoned desires, appetites, judgments, and 
thoughts. In this opinion he deviated widely from Aristo- 
. tie : for, if these actions of the mind are to be referred to 
motion, the first mover, in conteinplating himself, is not 
immovable. He maintained, that ail things are not pro« 
duced from contraries; but some from contraries, some from 
'similar causes, and some from simple energy : that motion 
is not to Ue distinguished from action ; and that there is one 
.divine principle of ail things, by which all things subsist. 
By this divine principle Theophrastus probably meant the 
First Mover, without whom other things could not be moved^ 
.and therefore could not subsist. 

To these theoretical tenets might be added sefcral moral 
apothegms, which are ascribed to Theophrastus ; but thejr 
are too trite and general to merit particular notice, except 
perfaapff'the' following: ** llespect yourself, and you will 



V 



T. H E O P H R A S T U 1S. ai^T 

never have reason to be ashamed before others." "Love 
k the passion of an indolent mind/' ^^ Blushing is the 
complexion of virtue.'* 

In imitation of his master Aristotle, he composed a great 
number of works ; and, indeed, we do not find that any 
of the ancients exceeded him in this respect. Diogenes 
Laertius reckons up more than two hundred different tracts, 
and the subjects of which they treated ; but the greatest 
part are lost. Those that remain are^ nine books of the 
•* History of Plants-," six of the " Causes of Plants;" a 
bopk « Of Stones ;" « Of ' Winds ;" ** Of Fire ;" " Of 
Honey ;" ** Of the signs of Fair Weather ;" " Of the signs 
of Tempest;" <' OH the signs of Rain;" "Of Smells;" 

^ ^ Of Sweat ;" " Of the Vertigo ;" " Of Weariness ;" « Of 
the Relaxation of the Nerves;" " Of Swooning;" "Of 
Fish which live out of water;" " Of Animals which change 
their colour;" "Of Animals which are born suddenly ;" 
** Of Animals subject to envy ;" and, " The Characters of 
Men/' 

In his botanical works, " The History of Plants,*' and 
the " Causes of Plants," which have come down to us 
almost entire, he mentions, and endeavours to describe^ 
about 500 species ; but his descriptions are very imper- 
fect and'daubtful, although Sprengel, in his " Historia Rei 
JHerbarisB," has bestowed uncommon pains in endeavouring 
to ascertain them. These works were first published in* 
the fourth volume of the Aldine edition of Aristotle, Ven, 
1497, and have been since reprinted separately, particu- 
larly by BodaBus, 1644. There is an edition of his entire 
works by Heinsius, 1613, folio; and there are editions of 
his tracts, " De Igne," " De Ventis," &c: But the work 
of Theophrastus most generally known,- and oftenest re- 
printed, is his " Characters," which give him the merit ot 
having been the first who drew characters from common 
life, anil with somewhat of what we might call modern hu* 
mour. Of this entertaining work the most ancient editions 
contained only fifteen chapters, to which Camotius, in the 
Aldine edition of 1551, added eight, and the remaining 
five were discovered in a MS. at Heidelberg, by Marquard 
Freher, from whose copy Casaubon inserted them in his 
second edition of 1659, which, however, is the least cor- 

I rect of the two. The best since are those of Needham^ 
Cambridge, 1712, 8vo ; Pauw, 1737, Svo; Newton, 1757, 
Oxou. ; Fisdier, Cobourg, 1763, Svo; Goezius, Nurim- 



W8 THEOPHYLACT. 

b«rg, 1798, 8vo; and Coray, Paris, 1799, 8fo. There 
are translations of this work into almost every European 
Tanguajre. * 

THEOPHYLACT, archbishop of Acbridia, and metro- 
politan of all Bulgaria, an eminent ecclesiastical writer,' 
flourished in the eleventh century. He was born and edu^ 
cated at Constantinople. After be was made bishop he 
laboured diligently to extend the faith of Christ in hit 
diocese, when there were still many infidels ; but met with 
much difficulty, and many evils, of which he occasionally 
complains in his epistles. He was bishop in 1077, and 
probably some years earlier. How long he lived is uncer- 
tain. The works of this bishop are various : 1 . *' Com^ 
mentaria in quatuor Evangelia,*' Paris, 1631, folio. These 
as well as the rest of his commentaries are very much 
taken from St. Chrysostom. 2. << Commentaries on the 
Acts of the Apostles,'* Greek and Latin, published with 
some orations of other fathers, Colon. 1568. S. ''Com- 
mentaries on St. Paul's epistles," Greek and Latin, Lond. 
1636, folio. 4. *' Commentaries on Four of the Minor 
Prophets :" namely, Habbakuk, Jonas, Nahum, and Ho* 
sea, Latin, Paris, 1589, 8ro. The commentaries of Theo* 
phylact on all the twelve minor prophets are extant in 
Greek, in the library of Strasburgh, and have been de* 
scribed by Michaelis in his '* Bibliotheca Orientalis." $, 
** Seventy-five Epistles," published in Greek, with ndtes, 
by John Meursius, Leyden, 16L7, 4to. They are also in 
the Bibliotheca Patrum. 6. Three or four smaller tracts, 
some of which are rather doubtful.* 

THESPIS, an ancient Greek poet, is entitled to some 
notice as the reputed inventor of tragedy. He was a native 
of mount Icaria in Attica, and flourished in the sixth cen- 
tury Bl C. He introduced actors into his tragedies, who 
recited some lines between each verse of the chorus, where- 
as, till that time, tragedies had been performed only by a 
company of musicians and dancers, who sang hymns in 
honour of Bacchus while they danced. Thespis wrote sa- 
tirical pieces also, and Horace says that this poet carried 
his actors dbout in an open cart, where they repeated their 
verses, having their faces besmeared with wine-lees, or, 

^ Diogcnei Laertius.— 'Fabric. Bib!. Grace. — Brucker.— I>ibdiD*t Classics.— 
Thomson's Hht, of tlie Royal Society. — Saxii Onomast.-^Bruyere's French 
Translation. 

* DupiD.— Cavei vol. II.— Lardner's Works.— Saxii Oiomast. 



T H E V E N O T. 26r 

r 

according to SuidaSy with white-lead and vermillion. .His * 
poems are lost. ^ 

' THEVENOT (Melchisedec), librarian to the king of 
France, and a celebrated writer of travels, was born at, 
Paris in 1621, and bad scarcely gone through bis acade- 
mical studies, when he discovered a strong passion for 
visiting foreign countries. At Brst be saw only part of 
Europe; but accumulated very particular informations 
and memoirs from those who had travelled over other parts 
of the globe, and out of those composed his " Voj^ages. 
and Travels." He laid down, among other things, some 
rules, together with the invention of an instrument, 4^or 
the better finding out of the longitude, and the declinatiou 
of the needle ; which, some have thought, constitute the 
most valuable part of his works. Thevenot was likewise a 
great collector of scarce books in all sciences, especially in 
philosophy, mathematics, and history ; and in this he may 
be said to have spent his whole life. When he had the 
care of the king^s library, though it is one of the best fur- 
nished in Europe, he found two thousand volumes wanting 
in it, which he bad in his own. Besides printed books, 
he brought a great many manuscripts in French, English, 
Spanish, Italian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, 
Turkish, and Persic. The marbles presented to him by 
Mr. Nointel, at his return from his embassy to Constan- 
tinople, upon which there are bas-reliefs and inscriptions 
of almost two thousand years old, may be reckoned among 
the curiosities of bis library. He spent most of his time 
among his books, without aiming at any post of figure or 
profit; be had, however, two honourable employments; 
for he assisted at a conclave held after the death of pope 
Innocent X. and was the French king's envoy at Genoa. 
He was attacked with a slow fever in 1692, and died Oc- 
tober the same year at the age of seventy-one. According 
to the account given, he managed himself very improperly 
in this illness : for he diminished his strength by absti- 
nence, while he should have increased it with hearty food 
and strong wines, which was yet the more necessary on ac- 
count of his great age. " Thevenot's Travels into the Le- 
vant, &c." were published in English, in i687, folio; they 
had been published in French, at Paris, 1663, folio. He 
wrote also " L' Art de nager,** the Art of Swimming, 12mo^ 
1696.* 

« 

* Vouitti d« Po€L Grac. — Moreri. * Journal des Saraat, to]. ^. 



ifO T H E V E T. 

I 

THEVET (Andrew), a writer of son?e note in the 16tk 
century, swas born at Angoulesme, and entered the Fran* 
ciscan order, and afterwards Tisited Italy, the Holy Land, 
Egypt,. Greece, and Brasil. At his return to France im 
1556, he quitted the cordelier^s habit, took that of an ec-' 
ctesiastic, and was appointed almoner to queen Catherine- 
de Medicis. He had the titles of historiographer of France, 
and cosmographer to the king, and received the profits of 
those offices. He died Nov, 23, 1590, aged eighty- eight,, 
leaving ** Cosmographie de Levant," Lyons, 1554, 4to> 
*^ A History of illustrious Men," 1671, 8 vols. 12mo, or 
1684, 2 vols. fol. a work of very little merit; but the folia 
edition is esteemed of some price on account of the por- 
traits. He wrote also '^ Singularit^s de la France Antarc- 
tique," Paris, 1558, 4to, and several other books, from 
which the author appears to have been a great reader, but^ 
at the same time, to. have possessed great credulity, and 
little judgment. * 

THEW (Robert), an excellent engraver, wa^rborn m 
1758, at Pattrington, in Holderness, in the East Riding o£ 
York, where his father was an innkeeper. At a proper age 
be was placed as an apprentice to a cooper, at which bu«« 
siiiess, on the expiration of his apprenticeship, he worked 
some time. During the American war he became a pri- 
vate in the Northumberland militia ; at the conclusion of 
which, in 1783, hie came to settle at Hull, where he coin- 
menqed engraver of shop-bills, cards, &c. One of his first 
attempts was a card for a tinner and brazier, executed in » 
very humble style. He engraved and published a plan 
of Hull, which is dated May 6, 1784, and afterwards soli- 
cited subscriptions for two views of the dock at thafe 
place, which, it is thought, be shortly after published. He 
also engraved, while there, a head of Harry Rowe, the fa- 
mous puppet-showman of York, after a drawing by J. Eng- 
land. Another account says, that an engraving of an old 
woman's head, after Gerard Dow, was his first attempt, and 
appeared so extraordinary, that on the recommendation of 
the hon. Charles Fox, the duchess of Devonshire, and lady 
Duncannon, he was appointed historical engraver to the 
prince of Wales, In 1788, the marquis of Carmarthen^ 
whose patronage he first obtained by constructing a ver^ 
curious camera obscura, wrote him a recommendatory let« 

1 Moreri. — Diet. Hist 



T H E w. m. 

r * * 

ler to Alderman Boy dell, who immediately offered bim 300 
guineas to engrave a plate from Nortbcote's. picture of Ed- 
ward V. taking leave of his brother the duke of York. He 
afterwards engraved, for Boydell, a number of capital plates. 
Crom the Shakespeare gallery, and from the paintings by 
sir Joshua Reynolds, Shee, Westall, Smirke, Fuseli, North-; 
cote, Peters, &c. all which are very extraordinary speci- 
mens of graphic excellence, and have been highly and de-. 
served ly approved by the coni\oisseur, and well received by. 
the public. Of Boydell's Shakspeare, nineteen of the large 
plates are from his hand. He had received very little in- 
struction, but depended solely on native genius^ aided by 
an intense application, by which he suddenly arrived at great 
excellence in the art. Almost at the outset of his career 
be became connected with Messrs. Boydell by extensive 
engagements on their Shakspeare, a work which will long, 
bear ample testimony to his rare merit and talents. The 
distinguishing characteristics <of his practice consisted in 
most ^ithfully exhibiting the true spirit and st:yle .of each, 
master ; a most minute accuracy, a certain polish, and ex- 
quisite delicacy of manner; with the appropriate character, 
given to all objects, while a mildness of tone and perfect 
harmony pervaded the whole piece. The Cardinal Wol- 
sey entering Leicester Abbey, from Westall, is certainly 
the greatest effort of bis skUI, and. is, by many of the best-* 
informed connoisseurs and artists, held to be a first-rate 
specimen in that style of engraving. This ingenious artist 
died in July 1802, at Stevenage in Hertfordshire. ^ 

THIERRI, or Theodoric de Niem^ a native of Pader- 
born in Westphalia, who was under- secretary at Rome to 
Gregory XI. Urban VI. &c. attended John XXIII. to the , 
couiicil of Constance,' as writer of the Apostolical Letters, 
and abbreviator ; but after that pontiff^s flight, wrote a 
very violent invective against him, and died about 1417,, 
leaving the following works: "A History of the Schism," 
which is very curious, and ends in 1410, Noremberg, 1592,. 
fol.; a book concerning ^'The Privileges and Rights of the 
Emperors in the Investitures of Bishops," printed in 
** Schardii Syntagma de Imperiali Jurisdictione," Argent. 
1609, fol. 3 «' A History of John XXIH." Francfort, 1620, 
4to; and ^^ A Journal of the Council of. Constance." Tbi» 
author's styU in Latin is dry and unpleasant, but very 

> Gent. Ma|^. 1802. 



972 T H I £ R R-I. 

forcible, and bis narrations are accurate and faithful. Sofne 
attribute to him tlie treatise '^ On the necessity, of Refori^ 
Illation in the Church, both with respect to its head an4 
its members," which others give to Peter d'Ailli.' • 

THIERS (John Baptist),, a learned doctor of the Sor-t 
bonne, and a celebrated writer of the seventeenth century,| 
was born at Chartres, about 1636. He professed belles* 
lettres^ at Paris, and became curate of Vibrty, in the djo-* 
cese of Mans, where he composed several of bis works^- 
and where he died February 28, 1703, aged sixty-five. He 
left a great many works, which are now but seldom read^, 
though they are very learned^ and very often singular. 

" The History of Perukes" is one of bis most known, 
and curious books. He designed it again&t those ecclesi- 
astics who were not contented to wear their own hair,* 
The year 1629 (says he) is the epoch of perukes in France.^ 
He maintains, that no clergyman wore a peruke before 
1660, and pretends that there is no instance of it in anti-r, 
quity. He observes, that cardinal de Richelieu was the 
first who wore a calot; and that the bishop of Evreux hav- 
ing prefixed to the life of St. Francis de Sales (which he* 
presented to pope Alexander VIIL) a print wherein that, 
-saint appeared with a leather cap on, the pope bad mucin 
ado to accept that book, attended witli such an irregularity.^ 
M. Thiers exclaims against those ecclesiastics, who. powder, 
their perukes, and wear them of a different colour from , 
their own hair. He answers the arguments that may be, 
alledged in favour of. the clergy. As for what concerns, 
their beard and their bands, he says, no ecclesiastic wore, 
a band before the middle of last century. There have, 
been many variations about their beard. Sometimes sbav- j 
ing was looked upon as a kind of effeminacy, and a long s 
beard appeared very suitable with the sacerdotal gravity ; ; 
add sometimes a venerable beard was accounted a piece of ^ 
pride and stateliness. When cardinal d'Angennes was about » 
to take possession of his bishopric of Mans in 1556, he 
wanted an express order from the king to be admitted with 
bis long beard, which he could not resolve to cut. M. 
Thiers acknowledges those variations about the beard ; but 
he maintains that the discipline has been constant and uni- 
form as to perukes ; and therefore, be -says, tiiey ought to 
be Uid aside, and beseeches the pope and the king to sup- ' 
press such a novelty. 

1 Dupin.— MorerL 



T H I E R S. i7S 

Among bis otber works are, 2. '' Traill des Superstitions 
i|ui regardent lesSacremens/* 4 vols. 12fno, a book esteemed 
agreeable and useful by those of bis own communSn. S. 
^ Trait^ de Texposition du ^aint Sacrement de TAuteV 
1663, 12nio. Some have esteemed this his best produc- 
tion. Miny. other articles are enumerated by his biogra- 
phers, but few of them interesting in this country. ^ 

THIRLBY (Styan), LL. D. a very ingenious and learned 
English critic, was the son of Mr. Thirlby, vicar of St. 
Margaret*s in Leicester, and born about 1692* He re- 
ceived his education first at the free-school of Leicester, 
under the rev. Mr Kilby, then head usher, from which 
school he was sent in three years to Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge, and shewed early m life great promise of excel- 
lence. From his mental abilities no small degree of future 
eminence was presaged : but the fond hopes of his friends 
were unfortunately defeated by a temper which was na- 
turally indolent and quarrelsome, and by an unhappy ad- 
diction to drinking. Among his early productions of id* 
genuity was a Greek copy of verses on the queen of She* 
ba*s visit to Solomon. Iir 1710 he published ** The univer- 
sity of Cambridge vindicated from the imputation of dis- 
loyalty it lies under on account of not addressing ; as also 
from the malicious and foul aspersions of Dr. Bentley, late 
master of Trinity college, and of a certain officer and pre- 
tended reformer in the said university,'' Lond. 1710. This 
was followed in 17 12 by ^' An answer to Mr. Whiston's 
seventeen suspicions concerning Athanasius, in his His- 
torical Preface *,*' and by two other pamphlets on the 
same subject. He obtained a fellowship of his college by 
the express desire of Dr. Charles Ashton, who said ** be had 
bad the honour of studying with him when young ;*' though 
he afterwards spoke very contemptuously of him as the 
editor of '* Justin Martyr," which appeared in 17!23, in 
folio ; and the dedication to which has always been consi- 
dered as a masterly production, in style particularly. After 
Thirlby's publication of Justin, Dr. Ashton^ perhaps to 
shew him that he had not done all that might have been 
done, published, in one of the foreign journals, *' Some 

* " VTritten by one rery young, tnffer hira to bestow upon them." Pre- 

an*!, h« may add, at such bniken houri face. — It appears by another tract in 

as many necessary avfcatiuns and a this controversy, that Mr. Thirl by was 

very unsatUed ktate of health would then *' abojtiit twenty years old." 

> Moreri.— Oict. Hist. 

Vol. XXIX. " T 



«»♦ T'H IB L B Y. 

fioetidaUons ofhtAty passage^/' wbieb fvbenHiirii^jp Avvr, 
1^^ said, slighUDgly, tb?t ** ai>y man wfao wauldi might bava 
made jtbepiy and a bundred more.'' Tbiw far Mr. Tbirlby 
Wfut od in tbe study. of divinity; but bi^ FettatUity led 
bim to cry tbe round of tbe otber learned professions. Hii 
next pursuit was physio^ and for a while be was calledl 
** Doctdn" Wbile be was a nominal pbysician^ be liveA 
4Pipe iime witb tbe duke of Chandos, ^as librarian, and is 
reported to bave affected a perverse and indolent ipde* 
pendeQce, sp as caplticio^lsly to refuse bis company wbeii 
It was desired. It may be supposed tbey were soon weary 
of escb other. ... 

Tbirlby then studied tbe civU Htw, in wbich be lectueed 
while the late sir Edward Walpole was his pupil ^ but be 
v^as a careless tutor, scarcely ever reading lectures. Thm 
late learned Dr. Jortin, who was one of bis pupils, waa very> 
early in life recommended by bim to traiislate some of 
£ustatbius's notes for tbe use of ^^ Pope's Homer," aodr 
complained ^* that Pope having accepted and approved bis^ 
performance, never testified any curiosity or desire to soft 
hinpl." The civil law displeasing bim,- he applied to com«s 
m.oo law, aod bad chambers taken for bim in tbe Temple; 
by bis friend Andrew Reid, with a view of being epteredr 
of tb^sQciety, and being called to tbe bar; but -of tbis^ 
scheme be likewise grew, weary. He came, boweveri to^ 
l^ndoo, tO;thehous^ of his friend sic £dward Walpole^: 
who procured for him tbe oflSce- of a king's waiter in bbei 
port of Londopy in May 17419 a sinecure place worth about» 
100/. per annum* While be was in. sir Edward's house hei 
kept a miscellaneous book of memorables, containing i^bat- 
evex was said or done amiss by sir Edward or any part of ■ 
his family^ The remainder of bis days, were passed in pri-r< 
li^ate lodgings, where, be lived in a very retired mannefy.: 
seeing only a few friends^ and -indulging occasionally in < 
esccessive drinking, being sometimes in a state of intoxica- 
tion for. five or sis w<eeks together ; and, as is usual with 
siicb ipeUf appeared to be so even when sober ; and in his ' 
cups be was jealous and quarrelsome*. An acquaintance 
Mrbo found bim one day in the streets harmiguing the crowd, 
and took him home by gentle violence, was afterwards 
highly esteemed by Tbirlby for not relating the story. He 
contributed some notes to Theobald's Sbakspeare; and 
afterwards talked of an edition of his own. Dr. Jortin un- 
dertook to read over that poet, with: a view to mark the 



T i! I R L ti fi i^* 

fmalBLgen wheie be biid either ittiitatl^d 'Gf^e^ atid^ Latlh 
writers, or at least had faUen into the sannnfe thoughts and 
expresaidns. Vbirlby, boturerer, dropped his design ;* hvtt' 
left a Sfaatep^re^ with soitie abusive reniaHcs on Watbui'- 
ton in the margin of the fitst volume, aftd si Very fe^v" iit« 
tenvpts at emendations, and those perhaps all in the first 
vohune. In the other volames be had only,' with great di-* 
ligenee, ieoviiited the lines in every page. When thisi was 
told to Dr. Jortin, <<I have known him/' said be, ^* amuse 
bimcielf wi^h still slighter emploiyment: be would write 
down all the proper names that he could call into hTs- me- 
mory.** His mind seem^ to have been tumultuous arid d^- 
sfiltorv, and be was glad to catch any emt)Ioymdnt that 
ifoigbi ptfaduce attention witbouft smxiety. - Tbe copy, such 
as it was,- became the property of sir Edward Walpnle^tb 
wbom be bequeathed ^11 his books and pap^re, and who* 
lent it td Dr. Johnson when be was preparing his valuable 
edition of " shakspeare** for the ffress ; accordingly thd 
imme of Thirlby appears in it as a eomfhehtato'r. He died 
Dec. 19, 1753* One of Dr; Thirlby»s coHoqtiial tdpics 
may be quoted, as in it he seeriis to^ have dfa^n bis own 
chatacten with one of those Reuses for which self-conceit 
H never at a tosi. ** Sonfetime^," liaid he, ^* Nature sends 
into the world a man of powers superior to the' rest, of' 
quicker intuition, and wider comptehen^ioi^ ; this nian has 
all other men for his enemies, and Wotild not h6 sn^refd 
to live hh natural time, biH that his excellen^ctes are hi- 
lanced by his failings. He that, by intellectual exaltation, ' 
thus towers above his conteMp^oraries^ is Smitkeft, or lazy^ 
Of capriciom; or, by some defect or othter, Is hindered 
from exerting bis soveVeignty of Aftrfd ; Ke' is tlhns kept^ 
upon. <he level, and thus preserved from the destruction 
which would be the 'tiatuM tioHsequence of i^iiiversai 
hatred'* 

Aa the edition of 9 JPustin Martyi*^ was Che magnum opus ' 
of Dr. Thirlby, and be is a wriferof whom little has^evqr' 
hitherto been said, this article may be enlarged with the 
opinions of some eminent scholars on that performance. 

« The learned Mr. Thirlby," says Mr. Bowyer, « fellov^ 
of Jesus college, is publishing a new edition of ^Justin 
Martyr's two Apologies,* and bis ^ Dialogue with Trypho 
the Jew.' The Greek text will be J^rinied exactly a:ccjoi*d- 
ing to R. Stephens's edition. The version is Langius's, 
corrected in innumerable places. On the same page with 

T 2 



270 T H IR LjB Y. 

the ttxt and version are primed tbe notes and eiiiendttion» 
of tbe editor, with select notes of all the foraier editors, 
and of Scaliger, Casaubon, SaUnasius, Capeilus^ Vale»iHs, 
and other learned meor. Tbe most selected places have^ 
been collated witli the MS. from which R. Stephens's edi- 
tion was taken, and the variation^ are inserted in their 
proper places. At the f nd are bishop Pearson's notes from 
the margin of his book, and, Drr Davb's notes upon the 
first ^Apology ;* both now first printed*" 

<^ You are much mistaken," says Dr. Asbton, inanun- 
printed letter to Dr. Moss, *^ in thinking Tbirlby wants 
some money from you (though in trtuh he wants) : ypa 
are only taken in to adorn hiifr tviumph by a letter of ap- 
plause, though I think you may spare that too; for be 
is set forth in his coach, with great ostentation, to. visit 
bis patron. I have not bad tbe patience to read all his de<» 
dication, but have seen enough to observe that.it is stuffed 
with self-conceit, and an insolent contempt of others, Bent- 
ley especially, whom he again points out in. p. 18*. He 
sticks not to fling scorn upon- Justin himself, as a. trifling^ 
writer, beneath his dignity to consider, and so absurd a 
reasoner as only pemvfue litura can mend. I have. read 
aboutsizty pages of his performance, and^m.really ashamed 
to find so much self-sufficiency, and insufficiency. I am 
almost provoked to turn critic myself, and let me te^upt 
you to a little laughter, by promising to shew you some 
conceits upon Justin \ wbich aie under no name io Thirlby'a 
edition.'' 

In a letter from Mr. Clarke to Mr. Bowyer, dated Mavch 
10, 17 6 8^ he says, << i think somebody has tokl me, thai 
*• Justin Martyr's Apology' has been lately published from 
Dr^ Ashton's papera; by whom I know not His * Hie- 
rocles' shews that Needbam was not equal to that vifoi^k t 
has this the same view with regard to Tbirlby ? 1'bat man 
was lost to the republic of letters very surprizingly ; be 
went o£^ and returned no more." ^ 

^ He treats Dr. Bentley in that page fuit, neque esse potuit, atpote neque 

with the bigbe&t contempt* as be bad ingenfe, neque judicir», neqae si ve- 

dooe before in hit prefiice. • He treats rum dioere licet dtMtriod, satis ad earn. 

Meric Casaubon and Isaac Vossius in rem ioitructus." How different i« this> 

a maDner not much different^ and of from the character given- him by that 

Hbfi learned Dr. Orabe bespeaks ill bit learaed and truly good man Mr. NeU 

preface as toltows: ** Grabius vir bo- son, in bis ** Life of bishopBull/' p.. 

nos, nee iodtx^tus fuit, et in scriptis 402. 
patrttiii apprime versatus, criticus noii 

1 Miebob'f Bowyer— sad Poems, taK VI. p. lU. 



THOMAS. k7i 

* * 

THOMAS (Antony, Leonabd), ' a member of the 
French academy, was born in 1732, at Clermont in Au-^ 
vei^ne, the country of the celebrated Pascal. He received 
from his mother a severe, and almost a Spartati education. 
The three children of that estimable woman were brought 
up chiefly under her own eyes. His two elder brothers 
died, the one in 1748, the- other in 1755, both young men, 
and both having signalized themselves in literature. Jo- 
seph, the eldest, had produced a comedy ; and John, the 
second, excelled in Latin poetry. The death of bis second 
brother, impressed Antony very early with a strong sense 
of the vanity of worldly cares; and with a profound piety, 
which enhanced the value of fats character. He had a de- 
cided taste for poetry, but was designed for the bar. In 
obedience to the wish of his mother, he went to CJermont, 
to follow a study repugnant to his taste; but going with 
her to Paris, waen John was at the point of death, his 
friends offered him a professorship in the college of Beau-' 
vais. This, therefoi^, he accepted, as more congenial to 
bis' feelings, though less splendid in appearance, than the 
profession for which he had been designed. He was 
M>on'in high estimation for his talents as a poet and an 
onCtor ; and M. Watelet, a rich man, and a man of letters, 
offered him a pension' as a tribute to his merit ; but he' 
efabde, vnth becoming pride, to owe bis subsistence to his 
' own talents, rather than to the generosity of any one. He 
vras afterwatxls^ secretary to the duke de Praslio,- minister 
* for foreign affairs ; secretary to the Swiss cantons (an in- 
dependent place in the gbveniment) ; and fihally secretary 
to the duke of Orleans. He was also a' member of the 
academy, though it is said that he once refused to be 
chosen, when he found that he was proposed chiefly out of 

{lique to another candidate, M. Marmontei. Without any 
ortune but his pension from the court, and the trifling re- 
ward he received for his assidnbus attendance at the aca- 
demy, he continued to reside at Paris ; and latterly, with 
a »ister who superintended his domestic concerns. But^ 
bis health being impaired by excessive application, he was 
obliged to seek the more favourable climate of Nice, where 
for a time he recovered the use of all his powers. But his 
lunigft had always been weak, and being seized also with a 
fef«r, he died September 17, 1785, in the house of the 
^ archbishop of Lyons, and was buried at the neighbouring 
village of Oalins« At the time of his death he was em- 



^^t > S O M A S: 

ployed 10. WEitiag.,a'po€m or the e«ar Petor tiie 6fMt| 
styled the <^ P6trtode/' which has never bean piibliriied. - 
The peraoual, cbajracter of M. Thomas, was held sttU 
higher tha^ ev«n the merit of his wovks couid claini# Vm 
had that amiable simplicity of manners which prevents a 
man of g^niop ,fcom offending others by his superiority^ 
He was just^ moderate, gentle, an «nemy to noise and 
ostentation, a good firiend, aiid an affeotionate son* H^ 
wa^ not indifierent to commeodi^tion or censure, hut re* 
reived the .one without, vanity, and theoth^r without anger* 
It w^s in 1756, that be first appei^red as an author, by 

?ublishing, 1. ^< Refleixions bistoriqeea et Iti^rai^es sur le 
otme de la Religion natnaelle^de Voltaire,'' ISmo, hv 
t^ts able tcaot h^ defended revalaiion wilhont bigotry ; a^d^ 
aUowing t^^ great ti^lenta ol bis anMigpaistv lamjaoted hia 
^rrofs, and treated him with pc4itenesf» 2> Iq lli9 he 
iprrote and pfV)npunced his '< Elpge du Maresehal de $axe,'' 
1^ pertbrmance; whici^ gained him the crown from tbeacat 
demy, and the credit of uniting the prepiaion of Tacitua 
with the elevation of Bossuet. He pjMlueed i^t^ward^ 
similar orations in praise of d* AgueMeai^ da Guai Trouin, 
Sully, and Descartes, whieb. wer^ equ^^Uy admired ; and 
with aq additipqM eiiloginm on Mi^nsiis Anretms, pnlilishcid 
together. by him^f„ with very valuable- notesr 5; Ii^ 17?9 
l|.e piwtfluced his. *^ JE^ssai suf le« caraqtdre^ l0s. moears,. et 
I'esprit di^s Fjpmmesr ' ft^mu This. 19 not esteeiped oqcialiy 
jodicipos. ^ 4p ^^E^Bi sor le% Eloges^" 1773, 2 vob. Bvo* 
This is A wofk .of g^eat geniiis; and dloquefice ; and oontaina 
many able pprtri^i of iUiistrious persons* He produced 
4^so, >. Several poem^^; a% >< Epitre au Feup]^,*' ^' Ode 
aur ks temps,*' a^dv<< JumonviUe," with some others. ^ 
A ballet ii> three actSf called ^Ampbion;^' but thi^ is not 
reckoned one pf the best powers in .hi»< orewn. : It was 
played in L767. His prpse^wprks were published eeUec^ 
tively m 1773 ; and form 4 vols^ 12mQf but a B^ore caau 
plete edition appeared in I18O2, 7. vols, dvo.^ 

THOMAS (Christian), a modern philosopher, was bora 
at Leipsic, in 1653, and was well educatedi Brst under bit 
father, and afterwards in the Leipsic university^ At fiffst^ 
he acquiesced iu.the. established doctrines of tbe» schools; 
but, upon reading Puffendorrs <^- Appleby for rejecting tbe 
ScjlioliMStic Principles pf Mprals^ and Law^" hOi detenpiueA 

! Diet* Hist.— Europ. Mag. 1792.— Life by Deleire. 






T tt a SI « s: fif I 

thi^EMbimoe all implioit defenehce tb ahtteftl'dognills' I^i 
reid iectores upon tbe iubject of nattiral law^fifrt frotai tb^ 
text of Grotius, and' after\^l^rd8 from that of Puffendorf, 
flatly exercising his own judgment, and bbldly adTsCncing 
/new opiniM8* Whilst bis father was living, pater^af pru[4' 
(denee »iid< modectttion restraiif^d tbe natural i^eb^menci 
end acrimony of 'the yoiing^nian'fi temper, which v^as too 
apt to break otts^ Men in his public lectures. But wbeii 
iie was teft lo himself, tbe bdldtess with which b^advahcel 
unpopular ttoets; and ibe severity with which be dealt out 
his satirical censures, soon brought upon* hitri' the violeTft 
reftentment of theologians and prdfestoirs; 

An << lotrodtietadn to Poffend6rf^'' wbich^ Tbbortas pbU- 
lisbed in 1687,in whiob kededUb^ thl^ obligation of mehiHtjr 
from mrtuMl principles, ocbaiioned gr^t ofiFeilce, #btich 
be increased in tbe folidwing yeaf,' . by commencing a 
inouti»ly> journal wbicb' be cf ailed <*Fre^ Tbbnglits: bt 
Monthly Diaioguea on varioUH^ bookis, chiefly ildw^^' ifi 
urtkich be attacked many of bl^ tontemjdoraH^i^ with such 
severky,' and probably with sueb injustice, thatf bti heit^- 
rowly escape pitni^ment from' the ecofledastldt) cbbii df 
DresdetK A chai^ also of content^ df t'ellgrmi wah 
brought against him, but niras^ dot prbs^ctkted. ^ A sMtiriciA 
review, wfaicb he irrote^ of a tr^alis^' << Oh' tbef Diririe rigKt 
of Kings," pabli^ed by a Danish divine; << A De^ce ctf 
the. Sect of tbe Pietists,^' «Ad otb^r ^afeiridal pi^blieattonii^ 
at lafrt e>kciti5d tbe resentment df the clei^y aj^instTbomaif, 
and be ftittud it neeessary to leave L^sic, a^d by the 
pttirmisfii^n of this dlector of Brtndenburgb^ read privatb 
feetureHi ih tdie eity of Hall. After a sb(^' interval,' be was 
appointed' pubHc'pix>fes^dr of jurisprudfehce, first in Bei^- 
Itd, atid aftehvards at Hal4. In tbese situations, hi^tbouglft 
bimselfat fulitibert^ to indulge bis satirical bmhour, and 
to engage 4n the controversies of tbd times ; and, as Ibng 
as'be lived,' be^ohtitiued to tttake uto df this liberty in i 
manner wbitsh ilttbje<ited hini to-much odium. He died at 
Hrflin'l/728i 

Be6idi;a i^e satirical journal already mentioned, Thomai 
wrote seV^rat treatises oh logic, morals j and jurisprudence; 
in Wbicb be advanced many dogmas contrary to received 
opinions. In his writings on physics, b^ leaves tbe ground 
<rf expetiment ahd rational invest^tidn^ and appears 
among tbe mystics. His later pieces are in many particu- 
lars intonsiSteAt wit)^ the former. His princtpar pbiloso* 



ta» rmouAifSk 



watkM ire << Ad lotKodaotnm to Avlk Vmomphfi «r 
^iltlines to the An of Thiiikieg and Reasoning;** ^^In^ 
trodu^tiou to Rational PiiiloBopby ;*V <* A Logical Pmxts;*^ 
<< Introduction to Mpral Pbibsophy ;'* ^ A Core for Ivre* 
gular Passions, and the Doctrine of Self-Knowtedge;^^ 
^ The new Art of disooTOciog the aeofet Thoughts of 'Men ^^ 
<^ Divine Jurisprudence;'' ^' Koulddations of the Law: of^ 
>Iature and Nations ;" ^^ Dissertation on. live Crime of Ma« 

fie;". <* Essay on the Nature. and Essence of 8pitfit» ot 
rinciples of Natueal and Moral Science ;'-' << History of 
Wisd(^m and Folly.*' 

Brucker gives the following brief apeoimefi of the more 
peculiar tenets of this bold, eccentric^ and inconsistent 
philosopher. *^ Thought arises firom 'images inspr^ssed 
upon the brain; and the action eftbiinkiiig is perfonned Vk 
the whole brain. Brutes are destitute of sensation. ' Mall 
is a corporeal substance, capable of thifiking«and nio^iit^^ 
4>r endued with intellect aiMl will Mao^ does not always 
think. Truth is the agreement of thought with the natuffe 
of things. The senses are not deceitful,^ but^all %lhicy Is 
the effect of precipitatioa and prejudice. ^ Fn^m percept 
lions arise ideas, and their relations ; and from these, rea^- 
aonings. It b impossible, to disco¥er troth' by the syllo^ 
fistic art. No other rule is necessary in« reas^niRg, thah 
|h«it of following the natural order of investigation ; be^ 
ginning from those thiaga which are best known, and pro- 
ceeding, by easy ateps, to those, which airie more difiicult,^ 
** Perception, is a passive affection^ produeed by some 
external object, either in the intellectual sense, or in th^ 
iuqlination of the will. Essence is that 'without which a 
thing, cannot be perceived. God is not perceived by. the 
intellectual sense, but by the inclination of the will: for 
creatures affect the brain ; but Qod, the heart. All crea^ 
turesare.in God : nothing is exterior tohim. Creation k 
extension produced, from nothing by the divine power- 
Creatures are of two kinds, passive Und active ; the. former 
is matter ; the latter, spirit. Matter is dark and cold, and 
capable of being acted upon by spirit, which is light, warm^ 
and active. Spirit may subsist without matter, but desires 
a union with it.. All bodies consist of matter andrspirii, 
and have therefore some kin J of life. Spirit attracts sfiirk, 
and thus sensibly operates upon matter united to spipt. 
This attraction in man is called love ; in other bodies, sym- 
pathy. A finite spirit may .be considered' aa, a Umiteni 



T H O M A Si 



St» 



• 

«|i)KNPCf ;»- wMcb fay V himinous^ wmnta, ani ftbdve, fliMf 
ffom a centra* Spirit is tbe regtoo of the body to wbich it 
isuDitecl. .The region of finite spiriis is <70d. The hu-i 
m^n soul is a ray from tbe divine nature; whence it de- 
sires union with God| wbo is love. Silioe the essence of 
spirit consists in action, and of body in passion^ spirit may 
Insist without thought: of this kind are light, ether, and 
other active principles in natu>e.'* . Fortunately, says 4 
^€ry. >udiciuus writer^; this jargon. is aa uninteiUgihle aa tb^ 
^ategori^s of Kant, and the blasphemies of Spinosa*^ i 
THOMAS (EUZABETH), known to tbe world by th€ 
same of C^rinoji, with which Dryden flattenrd her, was 
born in 1675; and, afeer a life of ill health and* varioiai 
disappointments, died Feb. 3,. 1730, in. her fifty-sixth yeai^ 
jsnd was buried in tbe cbuccb of St. Bride. Among ber 
jather misfortunes, she laboured under the displeasure off 
Popje, whom she bad offended, and who took care to place 
Jier in bis /^ Duociad.'' He oooepaid her a visit, in conv^ 
jiany witb Henry Cromwell, esq. whose tetters,t'by some, 
accident, fell into her bands, with seme of Pope's answers. 
As. soon as that gentleman died, Curll found me^tns tb 
wheedle. th^o^ from her, and immediately coi;amitited theiH 
.to tlie press 9 whieh so enraged Pope^ tbathe never forgave 
ber» Corinna, considered as an aiitbor, has very few 
claims to notice : she had not so much wit as Mrs. Behn dr 
JMUis* Manley, nor so happy a gift at intellectual . painting;; 
but her poetry was once thought soft and debcate, and her 
letters sprightly and entertaining. Her poems^ were pub« 
Jished after her death, by Curll; and two volumes of le^ 
ters (under tbe title of <^ Pylades and Corinna,'') which 
passed betiireen ber and a Mr. Gwynnet, who was to havte 
,been ber bjusband, but died befoi:e matters could be atf* 
^ompliiifhed. .. In this last publication she gives ah account 
Qf her own life, which has been abridged in Cibber's 
^* Lives,*' and other collections ; but which Mr. Malone h^s 
proved sucfb atissue of improbabilities and falsehoods, that 
,a mere reference to it may be thought sufficient. ' 
, THOMAS (John), bishop of ;Rochester, the. eldest of 
three squs of the rev. John Tuomas, many years vicar of 
Brampiou in Cumberland, was born at Carli&le Oct. 14, 
.1712. Many of bis ancestors, both on the paternal and 

* Brncker^-^Suppl. to the Eocycl. Brit. 

• Life as aboTe.— Malone^s Dryden, vol. I. p. 347. II. p. 9S, 108.— iJowlM's 



T HO H AS. 

«atenml udi^ were re«»rkable fer Aeir longief i^'; sd^tkfilt 
iie migfat .be cdnsidered as* <^ born with sooaeiihat Hkis ei^ 
liereditary claiAi to leogtb of daya^/' Being designed for 
tfav church, at a proper age be was plac^ in tbe gram* 
ttiar-'school at Carlisle, whence he was sent to Oxford^ \h 
173(V ^aady on tbe I23d of November, i«as adiiiitied a edm- 
ittoner of- Queen' t^eoU^e. Soon after bis admissiciU' be 
had a ^i^rksbip* given bitti by Dr. Smitb, then prbtost 
'Having discharged tUsoffioe, and ooosplet^ bis terms^ 
he put on a civilian's gown, and, leairtpg Oxford, becatail^. 
SMt assistant at tbe olassical academy in Sobo^square. In 
this situation be acquitted bisMelf so weU, as to-be r^oem^ 
mended lobe privaife tutor to ibd younger son of sir Wil*' 
liam Clayton, bart. a charge which led to his' future cAe^; 
'vatian. How longbe retnainedanit, is not precisely known, 
but probably till he had completed bis pupil's educilion'. 
His conduct, however, was so well approved^ that shortly 
aftep, with the consent of sir William Claylori, the sisteir 
of bis pupil, on the death of faiev first busbftndy sir Cbarteifr 
Blackweli, of Sprowston-hall, Noifolk^ beearme bis l^^ife. . 
Mr. Thonaas lived in habits of tbl§ closest friendship with 
bis brother-in-law, until about 1784, when tbat gemle^ 
nan n^et a premature- death, occa^oned by a fall from' bis 
horse; . ^ 

On the ^7tb of March, 1 7 »7v Mr. ThoAlas Wilis ordained 
a dea<^>n, by sir George Fledfing, bishop of t^arlisle, at ., 
a special ordination bolden in^ tbe thapeV of John the 
Baptist, within the preokicis of tbe^ Savoy; In the Strand-; :> 
and, on the 25th of Sepcembet, in the samls year,- be wak\ 
ordained prieit, by Dr. Joseph Wilooehs, bishop 6f Rb^ 
Chester, at a general ordination bolden iti tbe parish c^Beb 
of Bromley, in the xM)unty of Ketft, The prooiotitfn of 
Dr. Herring (afterwards archbisbop of Ganterbtiry) in tbii, 
same ycj^r to the see of Banger,* occasiensid a vacancy iik 
the rectory of Blechingley) to wtridh Mt» Thontas wIBk? ^e- . 
sented by bis majesty, Geoi^ IK • through tbef ititerest^- of ' 
sir W. ckyton, and was instituted, on tbe 27tb of Janui^y', f 
by Drv Benja«mn Hoadly, bishop of Win<:faester. Durmg 
his incumbency 00 this preferment, wbich Was tfalrCy-stx 
years,^ Mr. ThoiAas chiefly resided in tbe rbctbifiaKbou^t^ 
wfaiob he enlarged, improved/ and enibelilsb^ afr a^ V^jr " 
considerable expence. In the discharge of his parx>cbiai ^ 
duties, in wbicb he never omitted any thing whidi he con- 
ceived might conduce to the ti^poridior spir^iud interest! z 



THOMAS: i0» 

bif* |»ar)ifai0j9ei!8) he vma fotr some tiitia HM&sted %y hb 
bfot^h^ ; and, afiev his pmMnotion t» a vicavag^ in Nor* 
folk, by Ibe rev» WiUiam Tbompsoo, the poet. 

On tba^5tb o£ Bfoy, 174^» ACr. Thomas took the degrae 
of D* C» L« ; in tbe year following hismairriage took placed; 
on the idtiiof January, I748| be was appointed oii^)laiii 
in ordinary to bis late majesty, George 11. ; on tbe d3d of 
Aprils 1754, be was made prebendary ol Westminster; 
4MI the i2tibof Deeeodber, l7€eQ, he was appointed chaplain 
tto^ bis, present ma^esly, by the king*S: o^er, and withont 
any applieatton^ Xn 1*76(2^ he wafr appointed snb^aiinoneY 
to tht ardbbisbcip :<rf York, an oflke rather bonorary tfaaii 
Incnutive; »nd in I766v was instituted to tile vicarage df 
3tk BrideS in London, oH tbe presentation of the dealt and 
ebapter of Westiminster. In 176^^ be socceeded Dr. Pearee 
as dean^^' Weatminster, atKl soon after was chosen thearefa^ 
bishop of Canterbury's prolocutor- to the lower *^house of 
Doa^oca^om In 4772, he met with a severe shock m tbe 
death of bis wife,; and , in 1774, lost bis valuable friend 
Dr. Peafce. fa November foMowing be succeeded- him, 
^< aceondUng- 1» bis- (Dr; Pearce'?) most eam^t: wish;*' ih 
the bishopric of Rochester. On the anaient palace at 
BiTomley^ which be fonnd in a ruinous and dilapidatad con- 
dtticih,. be expended upwards of three thousand pounds'; 
displaced' gfvat oMinifioetiGe in repahring anti rebiiildiftg 
k^, and in dispoatng and embelliabing the epi^c^pal de- 
meanea; and, fddni bis regard for social wersbtp, a little 
before bis death he gave BOOL towards enlarging the parish 
4Bbiiiiei» at ByomkiF. 

The bishop added one to tbe many instances bf men \yfae 
baviO' bee« peculiarly fortunate in their first mahriagie/andv 
deeply»>c0«eemed at ita dissoiutiony seek^f^g ^^nselaition in 
a^seeondw SuebeensoliHiikMidid bis V>irdahip seek in ase?- 
cendaaaertage- with lady Etiaa^etb Yates, relict of air Jot- 
aeph Yates^ late one of tbe judges of the court of King^s*-. 
benob, to whom bewaemanried^ by. speciaMicence, on tbe 
ISlh ef January, 1<775, at Westminster^abbey. In this 
oniony be waa aa happy aa the* great- disparity of age would 
permit* Though twice msurried, he had no issue; but 
eaebt of bis» ladies bhmgbt him a son and a daughter by 
tbeif foMser husbands^, and to these he shewed a parentsd 
effseiiom 

. Agfir and! its. natufal.eoacomitants^ for some few years 
before- bis death, almost incapacitated the bishop from any 



au THOMAS. 

bborious chity ; ^tit, so zealous was he in the discharge bf 
hk function, that he held a general confirmation not long 
before his last lingering and fatal illness, and continued to 
preach both at court and* at Brooiley, till near bis eightieth 
year. He expired, in great composure, about eleven o'clock 
on the mortiing of Thursday, August 22d, 1793, having 
completed his eightieth year on the preceding 14tb of Oc- 
tober, 1 792. The manner of his death was perfectly agree- 
able to his wish, expressed in a letter written to bis brother 
on the death of his first lady, ** without a sigh or a groan.'* 
Tbe bulk of bis fortune wa» bequeathed to bis relations, in 
such proportions as corresponded with the proximity of 
kindred, and the expectations which he had encouraged; 
bonds and notes, from diiFerent friends and acquahitances, 
lo tbe amount of 5000/. were cancelled ; legacies^ mourn- 
ing, 8cc. were presented to his servants ; and several sums 
were appropriated to charitable purposes. In bis last wiH 
and testament, the bishop had made no provision for the 
manner or place of his interment : but, in a cancelled will, 
made as far back as 1774, he had directed his remains to 
be deposited by those of his first lady, and this direction 
was conseqtiently carried into effect. 

In 1803 a valuable collection, in 2 vols. 8vo, of his <* Ser- 
mons and Charges,'* was published by the rev. G. A, Tho- 
mas, bis lordship's chaplain and executor, with a Memoir >^ 
of his Life, to which we are indebted for the preceding 
particulars, as well as for tbe following sketch of bis cha- 
racter. ' 

*^ His lordship was in stature above tbe middle height, 
standing about five feet eleven inches. In the early part 
of his life he^was slender, and of so delicate a constitution, 
that bifr father used to say, he was propped up by art and 
medicine. But, as he advanced to maturity, his constitu- 
tion acquired strength : yet be never increased to any de- 
gree of corpulence. His figure was elegant and manly, 'and 
Its dignity comported with die natural elevation of bis mind : 
at all times inspiring respect and veneration, but particu* 
larly when he was engaged in any of tbe sacred offices of 
religion, which he always performed with such a devotional 
ardour and fiMrvenciy, as seemed to add a peculiar sanctity 
and spirit to the native gracefulness of bis appearances 
His countenance was the faithful index of his soul, opeuy 
platcid^ and benevolent. His features were regular^ and 



TH O M AS. 



2»$ 



geMrmlly softened with tbe most gracioas smile of com- 
plaeeucy and benignity. . 

^^ His, intellectual abilities w^re above mediocrity ; and 
ibe endowments of nature were improved by tbe appliea* 
Jtion of art and ;study. He had a lively and chaste^imagt'^ 
nation, a qnick apprehension, a sotind and penetrating 
judgment, and a retentive memory. He excelled equally , 
in learnings science, and the polite, arts. He was an adept 
in niusic, and a connoisseur in. painting. He was, in his 
^arliei; days, perfectly acquainted with the practice as well 
as the theory of music ; having been a performer on two 
difficult instruments. For this agreeable art he entertained 
s^ passion to his latest days. He was a great lover of anti* 

3uity, and well skilled in the knowledge of coins and me« 
als, and of these, as also of prints and paintings, be left 
valuable collections. There was no feature more promi- 
oent in ^his good bishop's character, than a zealous and 
uniform attachment to our unrivalled constitution. It was 
the, warmest wish of his heart, to see our excellent and 
happy form of government, both in church and state, pre*> 
served free from ^ the contagious influence of superstitious 
tyranny on the one hai\d, and licentious, anarchy on tbe 
other." 

It is somewhat. singular that there were three prelates of 
tihe saine nadnes, John Thomas, who ran their course nearly 
together ; Dr. John Thomas, successively bishop of Peter- 
borough apd Salisbury, who died in 1766 ; Dr. JohnTlio^ 
mas, successively bishop of Peterborough,- Salisbury^ and 
Winchester, w1m> died in 17&i *» and the sabjedt.of the 
preceding article. * 

THO^JLAS THE RHYMER.— See LERMONT. 

THOMAS (Willum), a learned writer of the sixteenth 
century,, was born in Wales, and was at least of Welsh ex» 
traction,, and educated. at Oxford. Wood says that one of 
both bis names was, in 1529, admitted bachelor of canon 
law, but does not say that it was this person. In 1544, 

1 Life as above. 



* *' There were at that time two 
Dr. Thomas's, who were hot easily clis- 
tipguisbed; for fiomfbody was .speak- 
ing of Dr. Thomas. It was asked^ 
which Dr. Thuroas do yon mean } Dr. 
Jobo Thoma*: — ^Tbey are. both, named 
John. Dr. Tboma& who has a liviof 
in the city,— They hare both livings 



in tbe city. Dr. Thomas who is chap- 
lain to the king.-— They are both chap- 
lains to tbe klof . Dr. Thomas who is ' 
a very good preacher.— They are both 
very good preachers. Dr. Thomas 
who squ iDts.^-They both sq u I nt They 
were afterwards both bishops." Bi^boyt 
Newtpn's Life. 



«t ^ THOMAS; 

h^fh§ ObJiged to quit tbe kiogdofli on aecouftt of 80m«( iiifN^. 
fortune, he went to Iialy^ and in 1546 was at Bologne^ and 
affterwards at Padua. 1» l$4f9^ be wu again in Lon<i^6t^ 
aod on ac^^ounl of bit knowledge of modern languages, wui 
made clerk of tbe council to king Edwurd VI. who soon' 
aft^ gave him a prebend of St. Paiit\ and tlie living of 
Prestbend in South Wales. According to Strype^ be teted 
yery ui^iairly in procuring the prebend> not being a Vpi* 
ritual person ; and tbe same objecsioir undoubtedly resta 
against bis other promotion*. On the accession of queen 
Mary, be waa deprived of bis eoployaseDt at eouft, and i^ 
said to have meditated tbe death of tbe queen; init Bale 
says it was Gardiner whom be formed a design of murder^ 
iDg. .Others think that be was con<ierned in" Wyat'a re<^' 
I^lHon. . It is certain that for someof these charges, be was 
committed to the Tower in 1 55S, together with Williaih' 
Winter and sir Nicholas Throgmorton. Wood ssys^ *^ He^ 
was a. man of a hot- fiery spirit, bad sucked in damnable' 
principles by his frequent conversations with Cbristopber 
Croodmau, thai violent enemy to tbe rule of women.'* It 
appeara thaA be had no rule over hinrsetf^ ^r about a week 
a^ter bb coimmitmeaty be attempted sutdde, but the wonud^ 
not proving mortal, he was arraigned at Guildhall^ May 9,^ 
1553, ahd banged at Tyburn, on tbe IStb. * 
' His works are, 1. ^^he History of Italy,'' Lond. 15^9, 1 J6!/ 
4lo, 2. ^ The principal rules of tbe Italian Gramihiar, with] 
a^dictiQuary for the better understanding of Bbecacce, Pe- 
tfareht and Dante,'' ibid, 1550, 1561, 1567, 4td; S. <^Le* 
Peregrynne, or a defence of king Henry VIII. to Aretine 
tbe Italian poet," MS. Cott. Vesp. D. IS, and in Bodl.^ 
Library. This, Wood says, was about to be - published in 
the third volume of Brown's ♦* Fasciculus." 4. " Comnron 
Places erf State," written for tbe use of Edward VI. MS. 
Cott 5. *^Of the vanity of the World,'^ Lend. 1549, 8vo. 
5. ^< Translation' of Cato's speech,' and Valerius's answer, 
fj[om the 4th .decade of Livy,^' ibid, 155 f, 12m6; Re aiso 
made some translations from the Italian, which are still in 
manuscript. ' 

THOMAS (William), bishop of Worcester, was son of 
Mr. John Thomas, a linen-Klrsper in the city of Bristol, who 
Kved in a house of bis own on the bridge in that tQwii, where 
the bishop was born on Thursday, February 2, 1613, and- 

1 Sale.— TaiHier«^^4b. QSi ToK L nesr €dit. . . . -» 



THOMAS Mf 

lyap^i^ied there in St. Nicholases ohnrch, on the Friday fol« 
lp,\f]ag^ H^: was of a very aBcieot and noble «fainiiyi m 
^l>pears by a pedigree taken out > of the iieralds'-qffice by 
Wiliimn Tbomfas lord bishop of Worcestf r« in 16as, to 
prove bis. right to the Herbert arias. His osotfaer was £U« 
l^i^belb B(oiU)t, descended from tbe Blounta of Eldersfieicly 
in the county of , Worcester* His grand&tberi WiHian^ 
Tbon»as^ was pe^ordi^r of .Caermarthea, where lie and his 
£a,9)ily had for a long time. lived in ^reat credit; and the 
eai"! pf NortbamptODy then lord president of Wales^ g^^^ 
WfB this character, ^' tbat^he was- the wisest and most pniw 
deo^ person he ever knew member of a codrpdration 9^ tfaie 
geatlejoaao^ after the death of their son, undertpok the cani^ 
^f hi^ graedson ; which trust he eseeated with the greatest 
c^e atid attention, placing him under the taition of MrJ 
Morgan Owen, master of the public school at Cdermai^heny' 
^terwards bishop of Landaff: iiere he continaed tiH he: 
went to St John's college^. Ox^ord^ in the eaxteeath year 
of his age, iu Michaelmas- term, 1629; from hence he res 
moved to Jesus. college, where he took liis degree of B. A. 
1632^ and soon after was. chosen fellow of the' college, andt 
appointed tutor by the priocipaL Here, aecoidtng to tbw 
fashioa of the times, he studied mweh achool philosophy, 
and divinity, epitpaiiziag with his own band all tbe worksf 
of Arisiotle: be took his degree o£ M.A. Feb. 12, ier34„ 
was ordained .deacon by. John Baaeooft,* bishop of Oxford^ 
at Christ phurcb, Ji^ne 4, 1637, and priest in the year fbU 
luwihg at tbe same place,, and by tbe same bishop/ Soon 
aftes be was appointed vicar. of Penbryn, in Cardiganshire, 
and chaplain to tfaeearl of Noitfaumberland, who presented 
him to. tbe vicarage of Laugharn, with tbe rectx)«y of Lan«: 
s^durnen annexed. This presentation^ being disputed, he 
determined . to give it up; but the earl encoutaged htm to- 
persevere, assuring him that he would be at all the ezpence 
and trouble; inconsequence of which^ the dispute was soon* 
ended, and Mr. Thomas instituted : here he determined to^ 
reside^ having no other thought but how best to perforin bis 
duty; and that he might be more fixed, and avoid the in- 
conveniences of a solitary single life, be resolved to marry. 
The person he chose was Blanch Samyne, daughter of Mr.* 
Peter Samyne, a Dutch merchant in Lime-street, London, 
of an ancient and good family^ by whom he had eight child- 
ren ; William, who died young, feter, John, Blanch,'Bridger, 
William, Sarah^ and' Elizabeth* Here he . religiously per-^ 



SH T H aMik& 

fofttied areiy duty of a parbh prietly eilMMAg.kiii«M4 
pbyjiioit not a timde, lint a triMt, lill about 1644^ a fiairl|r 
of the parliamem borse came to La«iglparii| and ifN|«ifMBf4 
whether that popMi priest Mr. Thomas was stUI .thiiii^ 
and whether he contitoed reading the liturgy^ mtAmnftgrn 
iag for the queen ; aod one of them adding, tint he afaotild 
go to church next Sunday, and if Mr* Thomiw perswvwre4 
in pra3ring for that drab of the whore of Bal^loii, be wuiid 
certainly pistol bioi. Upob this, M«^ Thooias^s fnMdi^MMNr 
nestly pressed bioi to absent himself ; but be^rsftisedf Mkitfp 
ing it would be a neglect of duty. ' He no sponer liegam 
tbe service, than the soldiers came and placed 'tbemsemHl 
in the next pew to him, and when be prayed for tim*qMlHi| 
one of them snatched tbe bode out of bis band^ «n1 tfardw 
it at his head, saying, *^ What do yon meaa by pray iag* fbt 
a whore and a rogue V^ The preacher bore it with pattsnue 
and cmnposure; but the soMief who bad^coounitted^tlie 
affiront was instantly seized' With muAi ansciety am^ea<N 
punction, that bis compacioBS were forced . to emfry^atik 
away. ' Mr. Thomas continued the sfrviee,' and* dflivwiM 
tbe sermon with his -uiual emphasis mid pvepiie^^^ uatf 
when be returned to his house, he there feutid dfteusotdtem 
ready to beg his pardon, and desiring bis prayers to CM 
for them. When this happened, he was about tbirly-dfree 

J ears old. Soou after, the parlisuttent eemmitcee ^deprtredt 
im of tbe living of Laugharn; and theogh a piftnoipa| 
member of that body bad been bia pupU and patticubRr 
friend, yet he refused, to shew him any 'fawur, aaying, ^*tf 
be was bis father, be would do him no service uutosa h# 
sNiold take the coreoaut.'* From this time tiH ^tbe restora« 
tiou, Mr. Thomas endured great ba^dshipsv being • suf* 
hater -to the amodnt of above fifteen hundred pounds, and^ 
for the support of his family, obliged to teaefaa private 
sebool in the country; and though bis frienda often made 
bim liberal presents, yet his wife and nomeroua family 
were firequentiy in want of common necessaries. 

At the restoration Mr, Thomas was re-instat^d in bis 
living, and by the king's letters patent made chanter of StC 
David's. In this year he took bis doctor's degree in dirt«» 
ntty, carrying with him a letter from the chancellor, who 
said thus of him : ^' I have beard o^ his great worth and 
deserts, as well in respect of his learning and orthodox 
judgment, as of his most exemplary life and conversation.^' 
In 1661, be was presented to the rectory of Lladbtder itf 



tUeUKSL |8» 

flw^Viiey; in ifat^c^My ^»mihmlti^ Uy fen* dbtJktOht 
Uf4$9 uilf*ifti(t «btpWti to %te dtike <^ Yoiik, w|m>«i h^ 
i nin i irf fBJib^ifiij^^^ lo SMiairkyiii wh0ie f««ilj^b^ coik 
#mtd MMie Mi^ iin4 Math: wlMHibe twis in one of xht m^ 
#Wgt| <«i » f> agakiil tiie !)iiiitii.> By the interast of ibd 
^iriB« Aiul dHietaMe#tto»f h« nm {MrDttoied to ifae ilMiierjr 
#f Mnhmmm^ Nw* H^^ l#60^ tn.lbe worn oi Dr. ThMioii 
lATiraMvit^ 40M^^. iieroi though a straogev, he he^ 
Iit«t4 MMelf w Mcli « nuMr u lo g«in the «ffectaou» of 
dft iiN( ||«aii«fii*a of the county, pwrttculariy th« dnW of 
8 iii» |p fi» lord WI»(kof, mfiservmrdhi creMd carl of Ply:, 
iiomb^ and ^r J#kii PaJ Ma g tw : the l«st,' ^at he ' might 
(fmfii^y meee of hia- etm^m^ ppeeeotcMi Um tt» the reeiory 
^ Hanjieoii Lo«6t m the haftniiHig of lOTO. Upon thia 
4mi Milled his limg at L4nfhani, and re»eved hisfcinily 
W mmmpumk, He«e he ei^eyed an eaayiaed pleasant m- 
Meeieni, mui he was «fteii h^^d aa tay that this wai th^ 
|rieeeeaee9ti pact of 4Ha Ufe^ ahd (hat here he had vaoi^ 
4|iiiM eed aatiaiMtieK whbitt hiniell 4tee when he waa 
«Jher«Mds mh thw. h^{heat ooAer ^t the xdnuieb. Jiere also 
km fi a e ^M d ^fa>w> ta a et r e h tteiat aiiti^Mkyt to «)tevgebia aftied^ 
indr leeMRsh; it wifeh faeilfial hoowledge : butliSa piea t tt ^ 
mece «M wiihwiitidlaf, ^9' dmoglw naaidenoe hene ia 
4$7f, hii hetaneid wiie'<yed, juid wa^ buried hi onwof the 
eidi iilet ^ the ^aihedaai wbuvoh of Woreeaten ^ In thia 
Mw 9im he ffea-preaaottd to the seaof St.Di|vid'ay wd 
weld the^aawtrfi.ef. Weroe«Mr ia coneieiidaiD* He waa 
wry wpeaplaMe to thwi geetry awd clarf^ of thati^liotfeie^f 
km had^hwe• hiwd ap mmtmg; thfrai, apake their leageage^ 
ami had heee m hilhi w iaflhitif with mmoj jof «beaii it tthf^ 
ieie tjeehtiwinwft tiaieai liia jbalneiqwDoanfirawd tfa#r ws- 
fiaelatiieeii hia genefena t e i e f e i i^teed edth.theiva, biithip^ 
thief >^aecer»./aMa «at to* mmch .to<ipleaie 4faeir hipjomn^ «t^ 
t» OBr«ett Aek «Meal% ^eod aal»e theiri'SeiiU ; to fvumofm 
i|poefiitl|F^taid^oda«f%eed to aew the ■etda ef holkieia 
amooff ^eai^- iici hegna to jrepair the palicici al Biwek* 
aochiamd dkbwrgwi%i* he paeached Ineq^^^y i^ aetfend 
pMia* aif hia di t e e io aa.<tbe latgaafw of the opantry^ and 
waa very iaalru«iettal:ia piweriagtbe twuadatiou of the 
BiUe into Webb;, HeewdetiMKired all he could, to remove 
the eathedaal aanrioe froai.St> David*a to Caenaactbea ; the 
|Qnatr<heia9.a plaoeofaa trader little fraqa^tted^ situated 
ia a. ooraer of the kingdom, twelve Jong miles from any 
ipwrtwv tflgtOf . Ifae eattedral ruinous, the bishqp's palace 
Vol. XXIX, U 



«W T 010 MAS. 

^n4iniK» ^ceptjiajreceine (their r^vaottAs^ and/ bdI; oui».iiMI^ 
icing Uii ottt»iii r«piHriiig.Uie6albhc4i»Vaft9r>^eJ'e4torAt}aii. 
.Oil the cpntiwry, Gaermaiibaobe kA^«v4o.4»eia.K«i9h;iHHl p^^t^ 
{^diIqiis i««vp i th« .gi'Mt church, cdf^^ble^ of hcingfOiade: da^ 
psnt and handsome, and the epUcefpai/boAue jȣ Aberg^uiUjr. 
\0Xy near, where the bUhop conMaptliy iresid^iM .-QfiplhaBe 
«K»tives.be set abQut the work very bearuAjr^bi^t avei wHh 
llie fiuaoe aucciess as bishop Bariow hadidona t^^afere. 

Having been bishop of Ht. Davcid's M jf^eawio be ii«as 
iranslated to ,the see of Worcester, in the fd^i^^i hM^^p 
f l^etweod.i. As seen as he knemr 9i tt^iappoinliiMiil^ ^bp« 
Jeiidsbip» .livlio.jseyer waa a ioves' ^ .ioQ.My,><deBisted|qeisi 
any further ireaty with several .ieisi^iitsr^f'tbd'bil^opi?ic<of 
St. David'sy aed refused .Ti^y.cxie^iidbsiwULer. finest. e&erv 
iwards> xeoeived;by bishop Woiiiark. . fb^fSftn^itoWofnam*' 
tex in August 4683,^ and. was condAiafted iio :biaipalaM<'i99^ 
tfaip gentjry and clergy of ^ts dibces^ wbiire - they : w««e 4»lr 
t^tainedvery bandaocaelyy and..«ver .s£ier ifi^sndtiarpliMkr 
ti/ol table aud. hearty welcome ;< he being. aiwagNBi<of 'Opit- 
;aipa that, in order to^amend the.niorqAs#£)!^he.pebpi|a9iliie 
Axst step mis to;g^iii iheic iaoyN^inianne ,^nd^ ^affe ct i ei fc 
.Upon this prineipl% lite was a great leyeff.o£4aofq»iUdily 
Md charity^ the poor of theneigbbo9rh.oMi)iMMre<daiiy>fed 
etJbisdoor, a;id be sent pravisioiiaJtwii)0>a.we^k^;tOTiMi(e 
MtnOAon prison, besides <very large, sttiest^gtve^ ,^heria>jpi^ 
aaw occasion. &iMae may tbiuk that hO'.oasffied^ibis feeftr 

ter to excess^ for thongh be fnequesiAly'^vas be#i44iO'8ejn 
,M be dreaded, debfe m a;iin," through bis ttxteosiife ^harii^^ 
fod the necessary. oaUs oS a naeieMHis fiiflMiiyy he a9iMli«sei 
brought bioMelf to theveiige of it, be laMk|io|ruprfoeifaiiaifr 
aelf or bis children ) and» when "cbargediby S6»)eral S»n ne^ 
jirQvidftng for bis jown honsehoU, hm a^siaeff alwifips jwafi 
^'^ that no bishop or priesfe:waa.4o «einiiieb hiaisel^ieilii, or 
jraise his iaBiily out of the revenuea' of ^bei cbtveb i tha& 
ibe sacred cauoaf fonbade (it ; ^and that S^f bis^part ij^waa 
taKdved that none of his sboidd be tberiri|?r for^eai, as 
ke.was only 6od*» steward, and bouadto'^pease tfaeOEiJf 
bis glory in works of obaidty andpiety*'^ He mm eictveoiely 
<€ar«€fil wbat persons be ordained/; bis cefMur6»«irere siisb 
«:qpi;essed ia the softest words^ anditiv'kh'aa bomM^mr^i 
such tenderness and brotherly compassion as always gainedf 
the more iDgenqoua, and left the incorrigibie without- es^* 
cttse. H|e oiMstantly attended six o^elock praQFcnrs m the 



T ti O H A S. tM 

tfMkednili io>4tiifg^ M bid faeft1ifar#&iiM permiii ihdtifMn 
oooiplHint froitiniH5fabhftn>p Sheldon, dated Jiine 4, 1670)tfanBt 
the^dlilies of teMJingthfe chureh'service and adoiinkfesrhtf^ 
tdi^ Mcrameivts were too ttodh -he^etmi by dignified p6v» 
ifMtff ^ the d«an^ i^d ^Hnonsy ai if ifc m^e an office bele# 
ttiM^ and lefe fof tto WIum paril te be perfomed bj theit 
¥teaf9drpeUy€atTdns', totheo^noeof the cburcb's frieiild% 
ahll the- advantage of sectaries, And tbetr own jaet r^t* 
proach ;?* hCf tifgethpt^ with the prebendertet, so orleKed^ 
lAie ^eiid^ee, that one ov two of tb^m genecaily officiated 
At Ihd cemiiilitii<»n. The bishopi at bis iirst visitation Af 
tte dtftfM^iandeltaf^ler; b^ bis own autberity, and their ceni 
%«Mehel»,- firoommd a chapter act to-be nide, to. oblige tiie 
|^«b(^ttries to be' rc^sident two ata«ime in every a9ontb( 
ttii4'be^4oiM'wM>^eeo|Hmrrenc« of Dr. Hlckvsy tbeil 
ttotttiy iod^Dh Hoptiins, si wonby pi^bendary of tbef cbirrdi) 
fAs£^dd'^#4tfap(Hlt' the 'foMt appearance ef uneasiness in anf 
«M lii«ttibtfr of the society. The money, which at fotnet 
Vliib|tidnA%as^usyal(y eapended ^m entertaining the bkbo^} 
lia^rtleWd fe^ be-Md out in books for tbc^ library, and tmi 
aiM»tgiin#d'|btt '^b«^ttfhf at his own charge; be was besides a 
tlM^sldll#ab^1>eifefaMiirto the library, the boots about tilft 
thMibetAfr bt*oi}gbt< from an inconvenient room err the sotitik 
bide 0f'lh(S chui^y and placed in the chapter-bouse/a vet^ 
%(^gat)t room^ capable of- containing a noble collection 6{ 
^f^dkif. The blstop was often pre^^ent in the Consistory 
cotfvt, ^hereby^be much prevented the frHrolous suitto, ank 
expedited the di4ato¥y proceedings, which at that time wera 
muefe 'Odnf ptainetd of. in 1683, arcbbisbop Sancroft wrott 
tt'tettetf'to tb^bvshop, complaining ef a custom wbicfa tbdk 
aMd for4iWny years a#ter continued^ of preaeMng Ib^ sdr^ 
moii in the body of tbv cathedral; the prayers being read ill 
tile choir: tbe^rigin ef this costom wasi that as third waa 
tio s^mon in the pariah ebnrcbes, «he several parishioners 
might, after their own prayers, attend the sermon of som# 
eonnemtpteaeher in tbe cathedrals fie was a< great patrod^ 
of thO French proteatants^ and contributed largely totb^ 
•apport. In l6iS7, when the king made his progjress tbfougft 
part of England, tbe bishop aent his servant to Bath, to in- 
vite bis majesty to bis palace at.Wbrceste/:, wiiere hd'had 
the taenonr of entertaining bim on tbe 23d day of Augtls^ 
th6 eve of St. Bartholometr. He met him at the gattd oi 
Jiis palace, attended by bis clergy, and in a shorts Latia 
speech, welcomed bim to the eity. fii# msges^ waHiad 

u 2 



titm T H ni li «. 

at m^ caif; all aiMv«d.ilBtth:;Aow#f$>'ii^J? Yea(^il(/i(^ 

«s be went along, be Mdd|.^ My>fUM^ ibt» k»oli9 Uke White- 
ti»lLr Haviiqf mfMshei^ 4ii9Mi& after^ M^jo^meiy , . hfi jiyent 
to tee the 4»Kheilral^ tbefcloaQ'«lfcM)dtiig.iM$ Kti«j^y Mi^ilbr 
ooUege gstr, froi&ivb^Dce^ w0iilil^/$6e ibei ^rip«i(i<MMf 
Ike iHyvD, and, ataxMig tl^««8ty;«i«i9be«Ma,>¥i^€(C9fl^bj% b^lije 
jvas fougbi Jbe»re«B> Oliver /and Jkis «<ljr#l :b«#l)^: **>ui i- .' 

•The next mrning being the feaHt of<.$lt.,S^|h^4^«^ic^ 
the-'kiog weiHvta Uear maaa^ tlMS: papi|ibt.qbeMlaKb'i|))M* 
iii«aooeMidn to ibe oro^Niy Q&^^ik^(fi^a$c^^fllMx¥^§!SfM^ 
mmetf attended by tfa^^mayoaatid aidtMaeni Yfkfmi Wbf^ 
tlieyi cametto the gM0;<rfl iIm ebapet^.ibt^ 9HU«^)iiaM|9|d4)if 
tibej wouldnotf o ia iwifh hiqi ;{ Hoi i«bicb tbe^iUftj^ fii^l^ 
beMwi^g^piric refriied^ '^ Itbtiikfiir^iia«r9(a|l)w4ied.^Mr 
Bftajetty too iar alfead{jr.M» ThiajvKortbf ^.umgistrft^ ^bo 
f>fiefenred hisTeligiaay^atididtttjr loubaiKMUPtsyjy Mi^Wfy 
other MBiidec«tton> shooU-faaMa hiatMine jr^pcNrdfidcJ^ffotr 
ter0 of: geld c-Dn Hasti^ took pai*f Xm Sodi^mt^ Y^bOiit: «HPi9» 
aaid beluEvedcft todbe eitbertTb9ui«i(9ea«ieiDoft.i:ir lib^ntM 
Sharwia; tlie!fbiniw«ra»«lectod]by /tbe< iie^Vsf^d)^ 
latver by: the «oldi tbataer wMtoised^ Upon: ibia ^nf^^er. Bm4t 
hy-the m9j6ri tbe kiQ^jwentiintd the popiah ^topft^ ta||d 
$be Diayorv ^itb aUthe^preteicaiita wJliq atA«i)(i^d .bifpK.netot 
%o'lbe eollege tdwroh,^ vnhere, wben dm^iS^i^iofi^.} 9*^ 
endedE, this bishop waited.ai .bi»\inaje«ty:'t*114i<H)«r<^me 
in; and the ^eati^eing.teton tbe table be, 'OjSer^ M^^/ifyr 
gtaee;-biit the>kiiig vni$ pleaaed to aay.tbat^m v(p94d:«^# 
bim: that trouble, :& be ^ad aiohtplaintoftbm avvq^ ijip^ 
i^bioh theffoad^old oMUfr.aritbikew^: iiot,wkivH»A:lfWrs ii\ bia 
ij^ear' As^Boo^'as'tbe'iliBficrwaa^weri'AliU.ii^^estjt^fjFi^ 
eeeded ia .hiaf>ffogreu te.Ladfew» jkariog i»^pME^^Bmi - bifiir 
ielf weU'|>leaBafd With, the aatendanoetolotb^tgi^oMw^Ap .5^ 

^Wcoimiy, and his enaertaiaifliefil by- tb«* b}#b9M Yii^^fi^ 
lus lordriit]»^iaya.in afmaaeiaitliea t«i.a &iMdi.tj|^l) wiy 
diargeable ^te. bini^ yethe did^notgfttdgeriif' ats ji§.4^f|i 
be .bad done the ^hoaelraaiiieiCredktW'it« .llberwbit&Mqiifl 



f. ^ . ')''j< j{ 



* Tbe kiog*g escape after the Je- ont his own horse ready saddled,^ upon 
feat in this battle U thus rerated : hit yg^im As nrajesfy fled'lHroti^ Si iMf- 

la^jesty beiag forctd'tft alight fhssl. ^lia^s.gaic^.aEiitf'av' I^JiM^Al^Ti^* 
hisiiomlofpit jstoSi4b«ry>gate,.a|K|[ Tbomaf, when.d^.p4 JVorpfst^ 
a cry being made for a hcirse to Vje- married his eldest son to i. dnij^fer 
monvlt the k%, a Mr. WiMtam 9ag. ol^hia Mr.' BifvAU - »' ^:il>. ^1 



t fl %) M A S. t9i 



tlie^ skkfrd leBtdfni^ttl tiM^gntat^liKUy «eit Us Iwi^ip ^t. : it 

^ '' WiiMethe feing' wa^'li^ WiMWftiit^^t/tb^iieigbbottrin^ 4i»* 
«ehe^»of ftH djdnlifoiiiMlmii'stetrdheir'iRikliresses t&<hkD^ 
WbieU the Mri df f^lyiAdotly$ hitim^^ lafd-dieiit«wiiit,:^wa*.y> 

two first tlHi liiHg'Aihtd iiiw-^wiiat ireiigicm ibemen mho 
iwmfgHt ^iheki'i^eht ^ *t ^.lU^^oedy ain," .replied ttmJosd^ 

tM^;lai«6%iMth^r^yt»«f;i^etigiga|'Qcnr qiiiiew>' But oow the 

hhts kirt^:^tmi%t^d1:Uittf/ lMlshopGiitoUtikei>Qa^& ttiat ;bi» deoI»* 

^^ £€M} <illtd^«27|(iri0i^thei^baid imoiV-afii in all ^Qtfaer 
Cteij^b^ atUllbi^ekiitto Sifdi^nAiLbtk of, Jbh^ Tiie erob* 
4iM)5p^^ild'^lc;4<Mi6p»* pN^eilt^d.a petittonagaitist.U; 
cRiir cbifiii^u^li^e^t^ whicii i«a% ^ ib«t tbej ^were sf nt to the 
^I^fii^; ^ifaUMvlrWb^a^mit g^ief ^^t^ ciio ftN«b«py> not ibat.fao 
*«i^<idli^^^(bit>iiiiy'fau^64a-Miii»^lwm bia brethi- 

^^efi', oV'A^l!bl^id4l«tm|ty tbatiiadlMefollflMihem, forbeoftoft 
^isfacld't6A9 l|i«'i|ttd 4)0leo with theo^ . la boar his iirsbittOAjr 
i^'^cx^gb^i d^a^vkstf ^fid toiimvmB„siaAjre wiibtbfiin io tbcte 
1kMiWiiibl«' 800ctibg0^ bcit be iftM thiubkil tp tbink 0Q:tb«i; 
1ftlf>^hdibg'«<Mit(,wbi«b^be fotssaivr^iQi tho choiobc 

bbW^er^ iiJMi >he' aivd the deafi*(Drj Hiokea^ resolved Tiqt 
;i4]^d4spe^e cbe^d€^l«nKtioi»^.«od 'dignified to ^^11 the dtrgy, 
tA^: nti^r disUtte iif-'itw ^iBteii after ^e MC^i«ed « letter from 
*tb\HtfiMiMi^i^'*^^'flspnmi^ obejpiqg the king^fl 

OiiAers ; tbie^aMlWer'Vi^vidricbsviis^ as^ohieia^ witbMt 

sifiy-tlritstiivei'trf fiottoisioe^ Jibt dediaratpry of bis finn:ne^ 
Vbluttoti lidtnoiboibpijftj u.Vpotfe img'WfiUiafBtfl acoeasiQiiy 
JK^'ill btiiibh^'WiMlldYdol'aiUiMPV'haar^'aittead tl|e oonven^ 
iiad; .^Mfifidwd' 4)o aei^ ^Bfipfmed lof the prince of 
lOmnge^b Vei%ii<eobMrodtkbig/>and nuicb lets of that act 
Vbkb'*dbKge>IUl^ipef^iia^lati»keiOtttbs of allegiance H^ 
king William and queep Mary, or to forfeit their offices^ 
tfaiaif IivMig^^Vnd,ibeir Wmpor^l subsistence. .For his gWa 
part, be #as» resolved to forsake. aU,.ratheir tbain actjco«K 
txijy Xo bis forcoer oaths, and boo^age, which he had paid 
to king Jaine8;:iADd«aUhoMgb j»e writer to KettIeweU> an4 
9ajr8|. ^* If R>y heart do not deceife me, and God's gr^ae 



«f 4 THOMAS. 

4^ not^ h\\ mfif t think I coold suflRtr at a stake rather 
dian tak({ tbb oath,** jret it doea not appear that lie aitfd 
any persuasions to prdvent others from taking it, '\otfiy 
freely gave his opinion, and advised tlrem sincerely to ttM-^ 
suit tbeiif own consciences. This was what he said to'the 
elergy ; and when a grandson of his, Dr. William ThcV'* 
Afasy of whom we shall /speak hereaftei^, theti a student iif 
Trinity «dl^lege, Cambridge, consulted hitn on this erftibat 
pdtnt, he left him to his own liberty, and thie^fedin'gs'<yf 
hW own eenscience« In one of his sermons he s«ys,* -"Am* 
Btimble man submits, suspects hfs own jtfdgment, lilith a* 
l^nerable esteem for bis superiors; if startled by any cofnT-' 
sfeitutions in church and state, he frequently prays) sen^iou^ly 
fKscourses, modestly counsels with others'; if after ^lesif- . 
pedients be remains dissatisfied, ifhe-caiinDt siftDtwichrh^ 
Stream, he will not trouble the waters." * / * 

' The limited time for taking the oaths drawing n^at, he 
prepared himself for leaving the pahce, and «nieathi|^' tbb' 
see. He had agreed with Mr. Martin, then vtcai^ bif WM.; 
i»erly, to come afnd live with him ; and fa^ wrote to {>r.'^tili' 
lingfleet, telling him that he would use afi^his tntereit *tMM' 
he might succeeci<him. White ' be was thiis preparing ' ilf 
sbings for bis retirement, God was pleased t6 pr^p^e better 
ht him, for, about the 20th of June, afker W't^ry sei^reflt tf 
the gout, he grew contitiuaUy weaker and weaker/ tbon^k- 
kk friends did not think htm in any immediate dangeyj- 
The bishop, however, p^ceiving himself decaying; err 
Stfnday the 23d, received the sacramene in his^own cbapieAv 
4n Monday all his servants were called in^ tfnd*iie gav^ 
^ery one of them his blessing ; that uight hreendeavt>ured. 
io sleep, but in vain ; his daughter-in-law, Mrs^ Annt^ 
't'-homas, sat up with him, and was much edified by hiln,' 
fcPt the most part of that restless night be spent in cja^u}«^ 
liG^s, and prayer to God, that he would be pltesed to t€^ 
tease him from his miseries, and the troubles* of -Miis' vai^ 
#orld : there was no weight or clog on Ws conseienee'f' 
death did not appear at all troublesome to him, tfae'stii^g^ 
was gone, his earnest desire wais to depart, ud 'be wii&' 
Ohrist. Thus he passed the few remi^intng boors 6f b\9 
Mfe, being senHible to the last; bul, growing still weak^t^- 
arid weaker, about three o^clock the next day^ bel«>g «h*r 
if^th, he patiently submitted to the stroke of 'death, iM A' 
resigned bis spirit into the handa of God that gave ic " ' ' 
^-U^ died'-io 'the aeventy-sixtb year df Ws 4ge^ -and flSK- 



T 1& O M i, a M4L 

cpfcUng tQ IkU ^n 4|^piot|n^.at; liefti t](ii^;r^4<i4^iihie p^b-^tst 
coHi^t of t^c^ojoi^lers q| Wpr^i^^tev ^^(f^tbe^r^lf ai tb« 
bot(/9in of thp^t^ps.iif&r t)^e. agtuth, dooti being Used 
to saj.Uisu )b^»c)4UJriqj;iiWiss.,£or. t^e livings ^^^ hot for the 
deadr * pi^ ^^ueral was (;u:^dre4..bv. ,bi(n$e}f, as manj old 
ia<^p goJ,Mg b^fo^e bis cQr.p9Q,,€;W,tWl in. black.. as corre« 
9pp^4^!wj(h tbey^ar^.qC bisage wben he died. Tbe in<^ 
sQrjg(i^j9i:derie(}^Uy hijipse^f, wa$ agreeably to his ex^raor^ 
^io*ry .MmnUii*^i4..V D^positum, QuUeloai Thoinasy S. T, PI 
c^^xl^Dqc^I ,Wigo|-^psis indigQi, postea Episcopi MincM 
Tei^i|^.in4i§oiorM|,t{|ndeafi Episcopi Wigoriiiensis indigpia-» 
^iff^f^ W^ri'^if t^fit^Q Cbris.ti.i:esurrectk)nis ad vitam sterw^ 
Q^^.x^f^^didati.'' , Siow^lJiiogjfartber was. added afterwards 
kSr 44#tt. ,lSi<Jh«s^ w4 ^ .iparWei . ippauineot was plaoe<f 
lyitbio; tbe.cbyrckby .bi^young^l.sony Mr. WiUiam Thomai 
Qf: Hackney. ' ., , 

,j)yU.;i^ii^o|d.^t^t^;ifll9uaj^ to butSOO/. He left behind 
Up^ t9JH9 ^^kh Jlpbn w4 William ^ atd iiveigvand-childi^^ji 
fviy^y.biA d^gbti^r Elisabeth^ who married Mr« Jopathao 
AndFe.Wb (9f.3arA^«-baU neiir Worcester, and one by hii 
s<|f|. fTohm: vKb9 'fi^aft .tb& Wojocest^sbire antiquary, of wboin 
Wft &b9M. Pf ^i^nidy; sp^ 

^« ^bli^b^d i^k^ iii^ life-tioey *^An Apoktgy for tbe 
<;rJ^^ncb.pfJ;t)g^nd,,^67S-99" avQ. '^ A Sermon preached 
;^ (^a^^ikiC^e^. A^izes^'' pointed to 1657. ^^ The Mam*- 
n^K^ pf U^^bteoufi^spi,'' a. sermon preached at the cathe^ 
dkftl cbur.ixb of. W9rceater when be was in a.yery languisbiB^ 
stf^^^f >i9^>tjt)r Hisk << Letter to tbe Clergy r" and an im<« 
l^feci.wfi^j^, ^titlj^d ^^ Roman Qracles silenced/' were 
published after bis death. All. these shew bim to have 
M^/^ tW^ bi^bop and industrions divine, but nob a writer 
qI p^rtA4)r geniua;. bis style is barder and more antiquated 
tb9^. tbfkl of mosit waiters of bis time ; but bis matter shewil 
tbfPr sivaplioi^y and bmrnility q£ bis he;itrt ; for. meekness asd 
i^ij^iQieAtftd tbunpiiity ^4re hi^ ehiel ornain^nts. These ^en^ 
dared bim peaceable avid. quiet, yifumit of contmdiciion^ 
a^ coi^tented in all conditions, tbe same eaay man when 
ap^(ifest#red $» wben bishop ; and with the same easy tran- 
qip^llifg/! a4id cheerfulness of mind he prepared to lay down^ 
bis^bisb^ipfric, aa in bis younger years be had done hia. 
^If^rage^ • He waa never known to have been in a passion, 
Wjl^n be was deitn of Woiicester, one pf the prebendaries 
in«chapter fell into a sudden and violent emotion upon no 
gre^t provocation, which made the d6an ^^y to bim^ 



a^e THOMAS. 

which tb^ftOf^-genilMiaii DepHed, -^^Mil Pcltfl; MrJiDesiH 
.Ood gir^ y^tt^iMre.fi^kro/f Tile gMA^ibaafiUlUIS^iio 
xe]g\ff hut'hf a v^mite. lb* meniofy «i«m very good/ ftr 
thougb^h^ p^Qntdl^i9.»^rinPD9^Hii»itb t^he^^dearaEcjTy yei4ie 
ilwwyn delivered t^iem memcriUr. He fwairi«£ a tiaedre 
■oibevHba^ ^H ^nd $lend^rf iof a loiigTi6iig9^::htf foteb^ad 
brip, his o9|wt^4ime^riMsefuU aiMi his aipebti>vi8ii«v«bld 
jbe co9D«titOitipii,of .:hi» body to ki^. yolniger ^eirn' wtn 
«trong and b^lthful, tbMgh af leciiwdiil hm^ bmkeir^bif 
{requeiu infirouti^i p^ma\%riy the' gout; t^ frequiEOii \kni 
yioienit .iito of which be was ^objecfc for opvrardvdf fo«ir)«tid 
twepty.yeara: apd -that, dittorder v<Hiid nnch soobd^iwre 
brought him to an,<^, if it had not beefn cfaettted^ijr iiii 
gi»at t^a^^ec^j^e^-aad rep^t|)d abftineiice. ^' 'i '*^^'^'- ^ 
, TUO^lA^ii (ViLUAM), boro in i&70, wm grandaeoi^tMi 
the bisbpgai ^aiid only ac^ipr' John Thoono' and Mnry(Bi|^ 
^V d^i^ghtef to .Mn 90gnaU» n)«»tionediify<tfae txremdfaig 
ai:tic^6..,rVYfi,Uian]i4/)h0rUed hot iitlleiVM) his gmiidatMi 
H^.W^aa^edncaied .iit Westmin»ter«8oboolv<irDfii>»»bi^iici^''h% 
.ijfdkel^ed.iQTrim^^ Cambridge, Jw^e^M^'^i€9i^ 

being, t^ysn ^venteea y^ars aid, as appeartLfc^ the aeoemib' 
a£ aim^i>49as ill that coilegte. . Here/ he(/to6t ; insr •mauaer'a 
degre^: :f^4i9on after ii»e»t into ordetfs^ lie bed tbe^iimg 
of £xal in Warwickshire, given bimby theiiiitefeatraf ^onl 
l^om^i]pj^ :to who8a:he.«es distantly nehrted ^«tlA%berslbanill 
t^ iiaa^rXouQtyV he had a coo»iden»ble«0tAt^ a»>be<(bitt 
Iib9wi^.^\th4. G^ i^ar Toddiiig!M» rndSiomihOMirl 

iiakey^^^^ijm^jf; p^me: %o biip by.hia wjf^> thedatnir hy 

..'C^ae^D^^^UfiwasweU disppteduc^hliqi and oiaidr'ftieny 

]bq^i/f^^.aft^ihin|y hi»/g^n^ Itonfiag %>^eh 

fbrmeriy her prec^to^^^ut hfedi^|iQ^t(ni^inuit^w^ 

j;i^sM)^:«t icoifit; rBei ijia^i^d r^^l^f^U^iifeaQyi^kl^) 4knly 
idajB^^r of Qiporg^.Qa^r^ es(||^Aofr3|nitl^in,ihe!eDdnC9ru)f 
%pl^f yi^bjMil^bm b©>haA* ^cMp^idi^bkiior^naei ' %»*« 
h(^ IM^ a^iMp^i^ikx&iip^iyir -nipe-. daj^gh^ini'Mid ^e^'soai'; 
pf the latf^i^.on^ qnl^^u rvivfd M^- ah4mtf>eigbi ijtears^ -lind 
cjied nntn^^iie^ vtf^jtbi? f^ga^^iiii^ 
P^, Tfho^as, W48j^ed^,|q gg.ip, Wjttfc#fltni^. ,iri»flbihir^^ 
qgljf did ,111 oj a }^ ajjd) Jim . ^Tj^ t^as-^^iiimenl^. ie >t|eiof«<i- 
t<?r)t.i3>f.^ $^^9^oft« il^ t^a|K,€ity,J^y ?bij4mp^Hougbi.^ii:s^^ 



> Nafb'f Worct8^]^i;9|^iif^^^pa[-i«i|li«^4;^. Ox. vol. ^I, 



T'H O fit A S. «T 

hW detjMl»d&if!f AMfquftjCites'Piiomm' miliar Mtrlverne/' 
fMBteCid^ IQM4 JiM«tiifiM of <'iBisgilllte'«l>W&r^ick8hire 
imif Bi9^r BBdiiftwmseiils ^'Survey ^f theCft^edftiiebtirch 
idi >^Koo«9eaf«rf'V^inrti^> t(i t^36 : to^'Ditgdale be macle 

* tTlMnkQ^'goeariyrra^ '* «^ 

.^^iridfait ]r0bi|fpE^^yea|9^< niifTtely in 170CT, he travelled to 
JS^ihf#ceiivdriiak^ ^uRhiwcp b<» ddAtmcted a partiisufar tnti^ 
mmcykiMi/Blii m^Jvkopf B^'itfi^toiii ^ he«^as wetl skilled in tire 
^eirklmd liainv iMgwogeti^ 06 whi^eh be added the Prefvcb* 
iMid Itidi«i&''{ fie:likefri9^nfiiide himself nva^er of the Saxon^ 
Ac€a8h<e.t tha^iimciiifioosaiei^y as*at pt^esenty when we have 
#v|^d'.dhrtiatrffr5r^ nk^M gdOti^gfandtiiar v the former would 
iti^ereavBiil JEtJctft gveat laboiiv, ais^ Dr. Naah^w one he made 
himself for hi^ oamvuie^: whiefa <-cost him gr^ar pains: his- 
4i9diBatH^^viQdeed» dirasiaibiaaiiig ;- as he hardly allowed htsi^ 
sjj^:! time ier* istnapy^hleacay oranMvsement. ti^'foUy in^ 
^ded^if Ptovidenceiiad spared bis life, to have pablished 
t(h«(5Jlislory of 'Worce8terdh4re9 and with ' this ' view had 
^reMfyexaaihied and- transcribed many of the registers 
|)& (be ;i)iisliops, and the church of Worcester. To these 
iihw i fs > Dn. Nishv owns himself indebted, and says, he 
sheidd beMgUy ungratefal if be* did not take* /every oppor-* 
ta»ity of hekhroiwledging his obligations. He visited like- 
Jml^)«^ry?ishur6fa in- the county about fifty years ago, 
MhidHi^ogether wttte the eburch gatherings of old Habing- 
ikiii,^were crf^gniait service to Dr. Nash, by expbining de<- 
teittA avmsjaad aMf^eraied inscriptions : indeed the accoant 
el tto^paiinedrgiass is chiefly taken from their MS& as it 
is now, by time and other accidents, almost all broken, or 
f<NideKdDkii!niMelli^ble, by the glaziers. He died July 26; 
!J.fM»r:BgaRlsisty«eight, and is buried in the cloisters of 
•^Woacestcvcatliedral, iiear his grandfather. ' 
V THOMA8SIN (Lewis)^ a learned French divine, was 
^msAc^.iM, 1619, at Aix in Provenoe, of a good and 
igditftit famiy^ and adihitied at the age of fourteen into 
thfioeoBg#ega«ioft of the oratory, where he bad been edu- 
ealedi -After teaching ethics in his congregation, and 
phiksopiKf, be was appointed professor of divini^ at Sau« 
miirymslifitwiduced in his school the method of treating 
tkecdogfcal subjeets according to the scriptures, the fathers, 
asukeoimciti* ^Beiog invited to Pans in 1654, he began 

', ^ *^ Nasli't HJttory of W&rcesterfhi?*. 



tat * T H O M;AtS.gi N. 

t6 boU ooafetfMMs of fiosiiive >ibtplpgy mi thiumimay ol 
St IVbgloirfef aqcoflding ta theflBieibbo^ be; hud ^dopU^dm 
fl^uaHiTy 4ilicl oQotittueci ibe»iil^ 1668, •%% .wbi<^ time. ))i«r 
»op0i\ioft and several, eminent prekte^. p^rfttnid^d him W 
give tke fruilt of bi0 laboufft U) tbe public^ HeiCiooipiHwW 
aod afterwards became so celebrated hy bia wqi)i% tktt^ 
|Mipe InomcDt XI. endeavoQced. to dravr .btsa* to ^itie« 
wi^ an iBleQiiop of giving hm ^ «ardHiar$ ba^ and 
iMkiDg use of biaulena; but tbe king q6 '¥r9i»^» rmffiieiA 
that so leameda mail i^as^ oeceawry io Ins d«BHiioii«v ^Tiie 
Freaab clergy gave hiia a pensioii af l^OQCK Uvjies^ . wjiikib 
the poor always shamd with bioi-^ He iiaa oiild^ m<^e»t^ 
active, agreeable in his manners,! and very assiduous ia^ftl^ 
kU. panutiis. Ha died December. 2.^^ IW^ skff^dmf^en^^ 
saveoi iHJs principal works are: !« A<. large NHaalis0 on 
*> Ecclesiastical Diaoiplioef" reprimed I72jf, d^y^ln* fek.kt 
Ffieneb; of which be made. a Inatm ttaaalaaoii^ veprintied ' 
iTso ID 1706, 3 vol««iol . Thia work is. highly praised b$» 
pciaoaa in ibe ' catbollc coaununiiy. 2. ^^ TJi^eoiogiml' 
Dogmas," l6ao, 3. torn* foi. itk Latin. 8. '^ Tracm on ^lie 
Siviaecffice, isro;. on the Feasta, 8ve^; <N»^ Fast^, 8vo^ Q» 
TfutMand Falaeheod, $vo; oa A\mh ^^9 ooiU^Hdenad'Oii 
Uaavy,> 8vo; .4. ^^ Tr. doi^niatique des Mpyens dwirOBfa'tfiii 
servi daea tpm les ^ma pour maintenir Taail^. ditPJCg^ise^'V 
1 703, 3 yoh^ 4lo« Tatbese may be addedy ^' DireotioaariiDa 
sludying anditeaebiag pbilosopby in a Cbiisiitaa maiwAr^^. 
8iro ; the sancie ^^ for the pnofane bistorkiaa)" Svasi ^ piaa 
o£ tbeaaoie kinAior gsamnar or tba ilwigiiagesbW^ mfhitr 
tion tot the Uol)p S^splures, 2 vols* Hwr ^^ AUniversfdr. 
Hebaew GlossMy*'' . priaiied at ithe Loa«re^c|^97^^^EBiL;^^ 
f*'IHftaartaliaisi</on ;4lie Cottocils^'' 'mhMfh ]S^7y lii^l 
4lo; ^^JMomotresaurle Grace,'' 1682, ^to^x.&Oo' jllis Life^t 
wriUen by fadiec Border* is^pfft fixed to ists BbbireDrdbak 
aaay.** .■•:., K^i.; : j 

Iffeaipiia pktkisophfr^ waa born.ini hl^i iQ^iipiA Ammittm ? 
Biiafaaiilyy ^ finglk^ o>rigini bad.ioi^il^en-fttliriedr ioj 
New HaaqpsbtDe, at: the plaeei formeidyealledt Bum^Medi .- 
aad^naw Goaoardt; aad posaeseed there 8itmfi;laiiid pcevtom i 
#0 the war o£ the revolotion. Fik)bi bis HiAwoy bis-atkaaH| 
^iott.f^peara to bair^ lasen directed toivwrda ri)^e«ttt«.i>f 
aeigaaei. Tbfci Ailhiir aioae of bit ^ly efiM^amona^ a clant f 

* Nic«roDy Tol. III. — Sensolt^i lias ItauMt lUustveflk— AforerL—Dlct, Hist. . 



THOttfS O. N. in 



fblrrlMt), M4llMi made «lifitpiMt progr^a it^ tbii bfmabi»f 
sliriiy'tobe oble^ without aMMttnoe^ to cakubM and t<^ 
tjemi^ gmiibiMUyiibe phases of a«i eolifMe of ibe^Q. Ha 
bad<baeii ^deatified to busiuesa $ but from tbe p^rfod of tbii 
little etattt bi»'pa9^n forleamin]^ beeaoittarraMlibUiy ind 
hi»49aiatd apply hkifts^M to iiotbf ng ban to U»favMrii« objwM 
ofaibdyi 'H«fiWtefi4kdt(]^ie684»tt»^afDf. Willie aftar^ 
vr^Ytshr tbtEfie o# Oh Winthorp> at ibe oaHega of HavanI; 
aisd tiaele^ ftot^^abW-maiiar howiado ooa^idawible prb^ 

>He "appmtf^, ^ow^ver, to^hat^ beetle oarfy atsquainied 
^tih : mttlbnade^ Soon affce^tha iteadi of Mis "Wittier, bio 
nyidtber eotitraot^d a second marriage^ Mritha/<^i»ai» wbo 
tunned him away from her while yataobild; aod an u»eie^ 
wbb survived bis' fnth^t only i few aAOtufas^ aoarc^ly left 
Uiffi' whevebn to M?e. He was tbtis^ in a very <early periody 
launched into a world wbicb waaalmoit imkDawn«te iiiiad^ 
and k; became iiecetsai?y for bif» to acqitii^ tbebabit of 
fe|itehi4tg and aatflng^ fdl: bitnaelf, and of li^ng 0a bis own* 
acqtiirefheftii; **> My ideas/' said h<s to a faend^ << wera 
not yei'fiiced'; otie aabedie succeeded another, aivd per^^- 
bap» I >ibou)d bave acquired a babit of ii^eeisioA aad in^ 
cOfittianey^ pa«kapa I should ha^e lived poor and aoiserable 
t<» tfaie endof oigrdaj^y If a vromati bad not loved me, if sfae^ 
had not given me Jiatateoce^ a babitalion> aad- an^mdepen^ 
daat fortikoe. itodka wife, or vatbev sbe took »«, at 
ninleteflo yeas9 o# age»* I married tbe widows of ootooeli 
iieife^ ^e' ditugbter e< the reiuerend Mr. A¥albery a mokt; 
reapectabte olei^ym^u^ and onei ol^ the ^first iiibahiiCiant& of 
R«oi&rd»^ Hb bad ^inade three '^Hoyaged lo^Sngbind^ isM 
trusted with public business ; he was well informed, aud m 
most lih«r4iMeSifi^dcd nian^ Hei heamly }a|^prov^ of tbe 
cbifias»'^ fafied^ght^ dndbioMelf> united lour UMidaaod . 
cMir desiMiest .' ^fa^it cxceUeiit i»af» was- situ:el[«ly ^aiasehed 
to>^me; hedintpatsadi^ rstudies, i|e ^foriaed ^y tai*^^ »bA 
my aJxtiMfieii arasi >fii avwy Tespee% ftbe'bappfostwhiehdtta-^ 
pwdlle-to eoaebivet/'^ '»• ^»' ■ '' ^* -• "•*>' 

-'UudterestenreieraiBstaiicesMrittadvciw bim lionr bis peaces' ' 
firf setseaty and from 'the faroifrita<atitdiee'whldvprobab^ 
would have formed the chief occupation of bis Ufe, to maka 
bimsK^^ oil ibt theatre of the great irorFd^ 1^ pari £br wMois. 



Apparently 'he yrii not prepstrbd.'' AV tbe c6ihinencetB6p$ 
at ibe trmbleft dPAtti^ticvL^ which pTt!ce&eAwA brought toA' 
ifhe war of the ifidepfeml^nce, llibrnpson, timn t^mitV 
jemti of iige, wattisrtUed1>y^friend^bip'witb*tbe^bveh!ior't^ 
the prbifine^, nhd attmched to tbe ^vernni(eht. ^- ^bedrri^' 
«iid DDitilMry «tnp1oyiiiet)t6, v^b wbttb, l!h«tfgb stAf yotmg; 
h^ «vtis invested^ iiatoraltj^ drew hith to tbelroyali^^d^^} 
and wh«/i iftie opporite party icqtnredtlfae^seelidant^b^Vfi 
prevtnee^ be wm fereed to ^baiidon' hM^bM^) '<«cYid to s^^K 
an asyiom at Boston^ theti t>dc6pt^ l^'lfccf'Eii^l^''trt^(ifli 
It was'ioMitl tbr^end df th« tio^W df Kd^^!^ YTtrdf 
that be tfecretly quitttKl' iitt babhkttbh, Wfi^'U^^Uffif'fitl 
wife, ^tb a daughter, of trfroiti sbe' Iftd'tiiit^IaltyW^deli 
deli^red: He^eVer agidn^awrtbeVoriiiirpftba^tb^U^ 
lo^d<5Mld ^om ftbe^ bad ^ttiftt* fittti f^eH^^da t^BVtlA 
twenty years after, wb^' kbe niame* i6 tiYp W It^^ffiiibief i'^ft 

Tbompson wa^ retr^Ved iHth d&t?6dti<Ar* lyf ^b^"^ c&ii^ 
nfiinder ifi dttief oP tbe Bt^tt^ army'; irn'd ii^l^d tp fillS i 
regimenli for tbe service oftbe'ldHg.'^Bdttb^eV^i^ b^Wi 
war baling dccasioned the evactnrtSdiy Ytf'fib^iityi^/i^^Bit 
spfH^goF 1776, be tfaen tepkired t6%hj|f^ttd;^^iiB'iiil^ifi 
beaf^of ittiportaot dispatches to kdveti^ehfS'^'l^tiH^n 
soon atb<}atfed tbe eorrfidenee of the secftikkf}r ol'^ti^ 
thiT ci^totiiiesy aM ^oitie d^ys after Ms ^iVtf ifi^^i^M'Bg 
Kiwi appomtcfd ^secfelkry of tbe prdvittce of iQ^giilf ^^ 3ri 
gee vhi^h be Wextt esreneised: tie te^afii^ W^bjldbtt: 
contieaeed fvith tfie offiere of the coloiilei.J '"^' '^^\ "-^'^ '] 

DuHiig the iltilttK^n of the year l^tT, hia U^SlBy^m 
nring'disordered/ he Went tb Baffi to' take^hirSeHtt^^^'" f " 
there resufhed' bis; 'favourite pordtihs, ;^bd''bllrf^i^;^ 
iiitereniin^ set 6^ estperhneiits oir thfe ii<^Mn ^iffdWHk 
bedieft. On bb reMrn to tolidbn ^6 cdfoiiiUbltJl^tl ^''f^ 
Aifti of tbem to-»r Joseph Siltikk;^Tid''frt^tliate^^ 
ttseMi to date tbe intimate IHendidii^ ^iii(£VUn^sd6si^ea' 
between Mm *iitid the iilnstyibns president (^^tbejBte^ai^Sb-^ 
ciety of Lpndoti. In \tf% he was adikift<4d aiitelbb4)r'or' 
the sdetety, tod he made, k) the sadie^j^eir, nit fiVsre:r.*t 
perimettts on gnn-povMey. The reshltswhiebhii obtained: 
grestly extdted bis cvriosit^, and raised me de^i^i oif_re^ 
pMtiVig tHe same expeiiments wit 
^Aitftte(ngtHatt6ccasi6n to sfiidy atsb 

•Hshitecture. •With^ttt^^ie'*^,*'^'^ 
wMt dii Voard Yh^ Vitti»vTt x^hi 





T ti VF ^O N.^ 301 

I^e^pf^^se4 ,t^»t^,wUcU^r^fiq9pa^igtt. with ti^, jff^nA fleet frf 
•»»4tiplx% -bis .^isjpfuripp^aiif , , ami »r^e*,tv]^ the^i oq, 4tfr 

§ji^^)r.<,9fi^ii|>IP^ffMif^,,j^Hl^ the folMmg 

Q^y^^^j^i,^^ p^blUljetJ, ,. Seeing appointed 

-mi^\*fJ^i ^fi ^^f^ .«» ^ begif>^tig;.9f i^^.year 1789, 

comfpandaiit. Tliis circumstance determined fai[n..>^Qvr0«. 
VHfj^ t^,4ini?fi<^^jj»^?r^ yif\}i^ ^j^ ^^/nfiP|. ; . aft«l wjafii at 

P|§fi<e|t9^Q; ^? W *PJW^^ of tb^iw- 

Wftif^ gfj.t^ qftifiajr*. in jtbp^rpyal.aripy, ,theni.u|>dei; tbe 0«- 
lf§p H^f M^tpfl«V^8P?^wl Jl^sli^r r Xbif P<>»V .wUh^ «fsia 
|B?***%i?/?^W»«'^ 35f^t9nWiLsp^ily,;j 9^ g#ip^4 itsc«ri».. 

W^S"?'^ i^i^d.i4Efii^Qft^i^.%t^j^ei^^W^^^ Ha- 

8|?Hi?3L^ttt^. iib9^q|t^9^,of. the a|r«y*,^^/uriu#b^d w* 

^ecpnpajMdeir^y^ Tiipmp*(3mspf.i?|i*t4ii ib^^pr^^g 

of 1782 for New X^if}^, wh^p )i^ |i§if«gpi^4,t^e i;o|d;Miay^ 

?^> ,^a^4yj4f5»ftr6^^ tU.^4^iR^d^gftt 

p«»5l/jwve4nf»ofl^^ 



ir • -• 




Mt TB0Mf>80 9. 

r 

*ttdr>faei»o-lfarMNHU« BDMgbta obcaki fctllMM victiint>tf 
their attachnieiit to the metropolMiui ctoaiilry^ tbeeemiKet^ 
iMitkiDi whidi febeif taoriiseip had tiesen^ed/ By^a adtoin 
aet of the iegiBiatare an koooarable proviiion was snoored 
to amnehmdredB of brave ofikeni^ notwttbtftanditi^ a jMFectjr 
•fipofig oppoiiiioni wfaidh nendeeed thofSMite of idak MtfgKy-^ 
tialton ver^ doobtful ; and gerrersl €4riuwi bifrhtg ttien^ 
turned Thonopsbn in bit diapatcbes lai"aa officer ot- extra- 
ordinary merit, the king, upoi tbit teoooimeiidaiioii) aiade 
hin iiakm«]y though it if at but two years amee Itehadbtea 
aaade Nent^nant^cotoneh 

< Wbenr tbe American wiar tevminaied^ Tbdmpton- t<Ai>^ 
eitedto be employed wib bit regitaient *i» ttie Eaat lodiea^ 
but the^peaiee having oooifctidned tbereddoiion of tbit oorpf^ ' 
togetber ^aiiith dmt^sevttffal otber%'bie 'oboiined^ frotii tbe 
king fiermiation to travel on tbe continent , * wb^e, » sttiiio*' 
iated at be then atiU %«aa by tbe military patsien, be' hoped 
ao find ani opportmiity of terring at a volunteer in- tbe 
Austviaor araty' against the Tui^t. ^ I owe it to a beaief^ 
-ioent' Stvittity/' said be to bis biographer, ^ that i was 
elf ed in tieMP of that martial folly. I met^ at the 'priHee 
de KaiinitE'«i with a, bidy seventy years of age, ami. en w 
4owed with 'great' senceaod knowledge; She was tber wife 
elgisaerfcil de Bor^bansen; and the ^emperor Joiefib li. 
often eaine to ^pendLthe evening with her. ^Tfaat -eireei- 
leapt {lerson -ibtxied* an- fmaebmetit to me; she j^aveme 
wise: «d Vices ; Mi^ imparted a new turn to. my^ideais, by 
pret eii tt ng ^of ase^ifl.*'per9pective otherspeciei of glory than 
•that df ciMtqtieFfog in batttet.*^ • ' 

Otf qilftting £ii^and in the month of September 1783^ 
kelanded at'-Bbnlogite^' along with tfae'celdbratdd Gibboni 
who .^deacvibes'^bim by tbrte vpitlieta'.frbich skew bow 
quickly^' be bad been 'able to appreciate, him. He calls 
•llith'^^tbeaoMkar,' phflosopfa^r/stateflman^TbohipsoR'.''' He 
'afterwafda arrived at- Straaborg,- where the prince Maxi« 
ittliian do Denx-Ponts, iiow^Iidctor of fia variety tbcsi mares^ 
chal du'^aatjiln the serrtce'of - France^ vms t» garrison; 
cl^t priffcey ^co^mmarrdiiig tbe parade^ diccdvered aJonong 
idbe tpectiuors anx>fieef in a foreign trntfornfi, motrnted on 
a 'findEn^lsb horse; atid aceoart^ him ; Thompson infermefl 
Irtm that be bad'jmrt been* employle^ in tbe Atoeriean war^ 
tibwpftikee^ pointing oiht to jjum several officers wbo snrv 
fotindedhiiif^ ^^Tfaese ge^ttemefij^^^ said? he, ^ flferved^ih tb6 
aame w&r, b^i against you. They belonged to tbe' royil 



T H O M P & <& ir. 808 

t 

itrgiinent Beua-pcmtsy sdDt co cAmcriea tnider liuer eofnoiaiid 
of^^be eoiMit deiiocbaaabi^aq." . .< 

p Th% coiiters^ian became close and anittiat^d. Coionei 
ThooipscMi, invited, in> ^eonsequenccy to *dtii6 with tbe 
frntee^ feutid tberera number of French ofikers agaitiA 
^rhoia ike bad fmight hi America. The convertation turned 
ot^the^erents o£ that vrar.- The colonel setit lor his porN 
foVtor^ whieb o^otained exact fAwnw of all the principal a*c^ 
tmns, o£'tke strong^places, of the siege», and an evceUent 
eoUedticMi wi maps ; ^^veryone irecognized the places wherfe 
events interesting to himself had happened* The conver>- 
saibienftiasced' a^ grbat while, and they parted, promising to 
see bne an ether again.' The prinde was an enthusiast iii 
bb> prdlession^ ^and. passfouateiy^fond of instrnetion. Bte 
kohrited^the eoloilel »^ict day* They resumed^ the e^nver'*^ 
satton of- th^''evefmSk^g''W«th die same^ ardour; and'wfa^n cba 
IbraveHei) atf^kat^took bi^ 4eai^e,' the prhioe eaf;aged him t6 
pissithreogh Mianich^ and ^avebimik letter of recommeni* 
dfUtioD to^ his utroie* tile elector of Bavaria*. The season was 
far aklva^ced, and be was in haste to arrive in Vienaa; Hk 
ioteuded'to stop ab Munich t\vo or three daysatmost. ttt 
remlNined itfikeiNi,iifi'd qml^ted^ not without regret, thatcity^, 
wheve^tbe <te8talertonie$ of the favour of the sovereign, and 
the pavtidlities tif the different classes of society,' baid bete 
lifviaiied'tipon him^HKith that cordial frankness, which a9 
emi»eotiydistingtii^es the Bavarian charaeter. At'Vren^ 
tia, in the san»e manner he met witb t^e most ftattetlin^ 
reception, and wis presented at court, and rn' the- first com^ 
panics. He spent there a part of the winrer;' and, team* 
ing chat the wai^ against the Turks would* not take place, 
he yiislded tO'the attraction of the reeoHeotibnts of Mtinicb^ 
mod passing through Veniee, where hestoppedipme Week^ 
ai>d thixiugh the Tyrol, be returned to th^t residence to« 
wdrd the end of the winter of 1 784. Henflwrteceived ffoiii 
the elector a positive invitation to enter into his setrice^ 
and instead of returfiing to Vienna, be sM oat for'London 
with tbe intention ofsoliciting permission froofr the king ti^ 
accept the oflers of the elector palatine. Not only was^ thidi 
favour granted him, but the. king joined to it an faRHiourabte 
distinction, hy creating hhn a knight. He accordingly 
returned to 9avaria ^r^Beftjamin' Thompson > and was 6ik 
his arrival appointed colonel' of the horsey and' general 
aid-d^»ca«ip lo^ttal^ sovereign who waiited to secure HH 
Mrviceft ^ .... 



304 THOMPSON. 

Sir BQii}4o)io employed tbe four fimt years of his nbode 
at Munich in acquiring the.poiitioal and stati^ticai know^ 
ledge' necessary for realising the plans which his philan- 
thropy suggested to him for improving the condition of 
tbc^ low^r orders. He. did not neglect in the mean time 
his faVoui^ite stodie^i; and it was iu 1786, in ajc^urney to 
Manheim^ that bemade his firstexperiinecHaon heat Po*- 
Jitic^l and literary honours poured in upon bim during that 
inlerval. In 1785 be was made, chamberlain of the.elec- 
.tor, i^nd admitted a member of the academies of science of 
Munich and Manheim. In 1786 he received from the king 
of Poland the order of St. Stanislaus ; in 1787 be made a 
journey io Pru^^^ia* during which he ivaa elee^ a member 
x>f th^; a<^ad^nny of Berlin. In 1788 be was i^ppoiated* Mar 
jorTgeQeral of cavalry and privy counselkn' of state. He 
wvas placed, at the head of 0e war department^ and parti* 
x^Jarly. charged with the execution of the plans which he 
liad propoiieu fpr improving the stsne.o^' the Bavarian army. 

At last, the foIIcMving y0?ii' (1789) ivitnessed ibeaccom^ 
plisbtneot of ^e Dunver^us prp}ects meditated during those 
which preceded. The b/9U($e of iinltistry of Manheim was 
established; th.e islands of Mulbao aear lilanheimy wbicb 
iill: that time had bi^n nothing but a pestiiietitiaimomss, 
•usel^sis for cultorcy. and perniciQu^ to ibe health of the in* 
liabitantp of the city, were joined togetiher, surrounded by 
a mquud and ditch, and transformed i^to a fertile gsrden> 
eonsecrated tp the industry of tbe garrison* The tiffiie.es« 
tablisbmeot of tbe military academy of Muiricb was found- 
.ed; a scheme of military policy was formed to deliver the 
eouatry from the n^meTous gangs a£. vagabonds, i>obbers, 
and beggars, wbo infested it; schools of iad^wcy, beloogr 
ing to evei'y regiment, were estabUsbed^ tp erilploy tbe 
wives and cbildren of the soldjers; > veterinary school was 
institmed^aild astud^of.ho^es provided fpr imprpyin^ ^ 
breed of tbe country, ^t the beginuingof 17,^. the boose 
of industry at Munich, that fine establishmegost, wbicli the 
eotint himself tms described at lengths in hi» essays, was 
formed, fpr bettering the cbnditioii of the ppor^and men^ 
dicity was compile ly abolished : nor b9s it again made its 
appearance in Bavaria,, siiK^p that me.m^ri4>Ie ^epoeh. Tbe 
beautiful EngKsb garden pf Manieb W?s, begun; aed military 
gardens establisbied in ail tb^.garrispniSv; The sovjex^gpn ex- 
pressed bispbl^ation for th^se numerous; services^ by. con«r 
ferring on sir Benjamin the rank of lieutenant* gene^l of bis' 
armies, and giving him a regiment of artillery. 



T H M :P 8 O N. $05 

In J 79 1 be WAS crated a couot of the holy Rocnaii em^ 
fiire, and honoured with the order pf the wbit^t €agl?« He 
tempioycsd that year and the foUQwiog in completing hi$ pr(h- 
jectf ) «nd ia removing the obstacles by which attempts ware 
made to interrupt their progneais. This species of labaKr^ 
and the anxiety of miiid inseparable, from it, impaired bis 
health to such a degree, that bis physicians declared ^at 
bis life was in danger, unless he r^tlited, for some time, 
from, business, and .had recourse to a change of qlimate. He 
obtained pern^ission from the elector to take a journey into 
Italy ; and before leaving him, communicated, in a de«- 
tailed account, the principal results of his four years ad- 
ministration, compared with the four years which bad pre*- 
ceded his entrance into office*. After having travelled oyer 
all Italy, and a part of Switzerland, he returned to B9^ 
Taria in the month q{ August 1794. He bad been. attacked 
with a dangerous illness in Naples, iand his slow recovery 
did not. permit him, to resume, on his return, the tranwi^'- 
tion of the business of bis department, over which he con'- 
tented* himself with exercising a general snperiutendaniQe. 
He laboared in bis closet; and it was at this time that be 
prepared the first five of the. essays which he published. 

In the. month of September 1795 he returned to England, 
after ^tt absence of more than eleven years. The prinQi^ 
pal object of his journey was to publish bis essliyd^ and to 
direct the attention of the English nati(m towskrd the plan« 
of public and domestic cBconomy whicb he had c<>nceiired 
and reidized in Germany. Lord Pelbam was then aecref- 
tai^ of state in Ireland. The count complied with bi^ in*- 
vitation in the spring of 1796, and took that occasion o( 
visiting that interesting country. He introdiM^ed, at Onh^ 
lin, sevieral important improvemeDts into the hoapitais aad 
houses of industry, and. left thenemodelsof a number of 
useful mechanical inventions. £very testim.aoy of honour 
and grpttitude^ was lavished upon him in that oounliiy* The 
royal academy of Ireland, the society for the encourage* 
ment of arts and manufactures, both elected him an bonoi» 
rary jnember ; and after having left the country, he re<f 
ceived a letter of thanks from the grand jury of the county^ 
of Dublin, an official letter from the lord mayor of the city, 
and one from the lord lieutenant of Ireland ; ail filled with 
the most flattering expressions o£ esteem and of gratitude* 

On his return to London he directed the alterations, 
which had been adopted, on his recommeodatiou, in Ibf 

Vol. XXIX. X 



506 ' THOMPSON. 

Foandling-hospital ; and he presented td the Board of agri- 
culture several machinesi as models for imitation. Tiie 
philanthropic activity which distinguished this epoch of his 
life manifested itself in every form. It was at this time 
be placed in the English and American funds, two sums of 
1000/. sterling each, to establish a premium to be given 
every two years to the author of the most useful discovery, 
inade respectively in Europe or America, on light, or heat^ 
The premium is a gold medal worth J 500 francs, to be 
adjudged in Europe by the royal society of London, and 
in America by the academy of sciences of America. 

Nothing seemed sufficient to withdraw him from these 
tranquil and important occupations, when the events of war 
called upon him to display bis military talents for the ser« 
vice of his adopted country. General Moreau, having 
crossed the Rhine, and defeated several bodies, of soldiers 
who disputed with him its passage, advanced by.quicfc 
marches to Bavaria. Count Rumford, on receiving this 
intelligence, immediately set out to join the elector* His 
arrival at Munich was eight days previous to the epoch 
when the sovereign was called upon to quit his residence, 
and to take refuge in Saxony. Rumford remained iu Mut- 
nich with instructions from the elector to wait events,, and 
to act according to the exigency of circumstances : they 
were not long in requiring his interference. After/ the 
battle of Freidberg, the Austrians, repulsed by the French| 
fell back upon Munich : the gates of the city were shot 
against them. They marched round it, passed the Inn by 
the bridge, and posted themselves on the other side of the 
river on a height which commanded the bridge and th^ 
tttwn. There they erected batteries, and firmly waited for 
the French. In this situation, some inconsiderate transac- 
tions which happened in Munich, were interpreted by the 
Austrian general as an insult pointed against himself, and 
he demanded an explanation of them from the council of 
regency, threatening to order the town to be fired upon if 
a single Frenchman entered the city. At this critical mo-^ 
ment the count made use of the eventual ,orders of the 
elector, to take the command in chief of the Bavarian forces^ 
His firmness and presence of mind awed both parties; 
neither the French nor the Austrians entered Munich ; and 
that city escaped all the dangers with which it had beea 
threatened. t . , . ■ 

po the return of the elector, the count was placed at the 



THOMPSON. 807 

laead of the department of the general police in Bavaria. 
,The services wh^ch he rendered in that capacity, though 
Jess brilliant than, military exploits, were not less valuable, 
or less conspicuous. But the excessive labour to which his 
zeal and activity betrayed him, the opposition which he 
often experienced in the exercise of his office, again af« 
fected his health to such a degree as threatened his life. 
The elector, impressed with esteem and gratitude towards 
him, wished not to allow him to sink under a labour too 
severe for him^ and desired to find the means of procuring 
him the repose which he required, without altogether de« 
priving himself of his services : he appointed him his en- 
voy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at the court 
6f London. But the rules of England not permitting a sub- 
ject of the king to be accredited as. a foreign minister, the 
count did not exercise that office, and continued to live 
in England after his return in 1798 as a private individual. 

It being reported in America that he had quitted Bavaria 
for ever, the government of the United States addressed 
to him, through the medium of the American ambassador 
at London, a formal and official invitation to return to his 
native country, where an honourable establishment was 
destined for him. The offer was accompanied with the 
most flattering assurances of consideration and confidence. 
He replied, declaring at the same time his profound gra<» 
titude for such a mark of esteem, ^^ That engagements, 
rendered sacred and inviolable by great obligations, did 
not permit him to dispose of himself in such a manner as to 
be able to accept of the offer which was made to himg'' 

The historical society of Massachusets, on electing count 
Rumford a megnber, communicated to him, by their pre- 
sident, about the same time, their unanimous desire of 
seeing him return to his own country, and take up his resi-^ 
dence among them. His answer, which is to be found in 
the American papers of that time, was very much admired. 

Toward the autumn of 1800, count Rumford went to 
Scotland. The magistrates of Edinburgh paid him a visit 
of ceremony ; gave a public dinner on his account, and to 
these marks of distinction added the freedom of the city, 
conceived in terms the most flattering. They consulted him 
on the means of improving the existing charitable institu- 
tions, and on the measures proper for abolishing mendicity. 
The work was undertaken without loss of time, and that 
great enterprize was finished in a few months with com- 

X 2 



•308 THOMPSON. 

ptete success* The royal society of Edinburgh, and the 
college of pbysicidns, elected him at the same time, ri^^' 
spectively, an honorary member ; and the university be- 
stowed upon him the degree of doctor of laws. During his 
Irtay in that city he employed himself in superintending 
the execution, in the great -establishment of Heriot^s hos- 
pital, of improvements which he invented with regard to 
the employment of fuel in the preparation of food ; and the 
Inanagers, to shew their gratitude, sent him a silver box, 
with a very flattering inscription, having on one of its sides 
ft representation, in relief of gold, of the principal front of 
the building to the improvement of which be had so emi- 
nently contributed. 

Count Rumford quitted England for the last time in the 
month of May 1802, for Paris. He went that summer to 
Munich, and returned to Parts in the winter. In the sum- 
mer of 1 803, be made a tour of part of Switzerland and Ba^ 
varia with the widow of the celebrated Lavoisier, a woman 
of highly cultivated mind and capacious understanding ; 
whom shortly after their return to Paris he married ; but: 
their union proved unhappy, and they at length separated, 
the count retiring to a house at Auteuil, about four miles 
ttbm Paris, where be passed the rest of bis days in philo* 
sopbical pursuits and experiments, almost secluded from 
the world ; for after the death of his worthy friend, the il- 
lustrious Lagrange, he saw only his next-door neighbour, 
the senator Lecouteux Caneleux, Mr. Underwood, the 
member of the royal institution, who assisted him in the 
experiments, and an old friend, Mr. Parker, a learned Ame- 
rican. He ceased to attend the sittings of the National In- 
stitute; but for the perpetual secretary Cuvier, he always 
preserved the highest admiration and esteem. One object 
of bis latter occupations was a work not finished, " On the 
Nature and Effects of Order ;** which would probably have 
been a valuable present to domestic society. No man in 
all his habits had more the spirit of order : every thing was 
chissed ; no object was ever allowed to remain an instant 
out of its place the moment he had done with it ; and he 
was never beyond his time in an appointment a single in- 
stant. He was also latterly employed on a series of expe- 
riments on the propagation of heat in solids. He had by 
him several unpublished work#, particularly one of consi- 
derable interest on Meteorolites, in which he demonstrated 
that they came irom regions beyond the atmosphere of the 
earth. 



THOMPSON, 



.309 



* This very ingenious philosopher died August 21, 1814, 
when on the eve of retiring to England. The literary pro. 
dttctioBs of count Ruoiford have obtained a wide circula- 
tion, having been trandlated* into various languages. His 
papers in ihe '^ Philosophical Transactions," chiefly on mat- 
ters connected with the object of his beneficent investiga- 
tions, were rather distinguished for the useful application 
€x£ which they were susceptible, than for their, number. 
Among them are, 1. ^* Experiments on Gun-powder, with 
a method of determining the velocity of projectiles, and the 
forci^ of gun-powder.*' 2. ^'Experiments on Heat; by 
which it is proved to pass more slowly through the Torri- 
cellian vacuum, than through the air.*' 3. '< Experiments 
on the production of dephlogisticated air (oxygen gas) by 
different substances, exposed under water to the action oi 
light." 4. " Experiments on the relative and absolute quan- 
tities of moisture absorbed by difii»'ent substances^ employed 
as garments." 5. '< Experiments on the communication of 
heat in air." This memoir procured to the author the gcild 
jnedal of the royal society. 6. <* The description of a pba* 
tometer, and experiments on the relative quantity of light 
furnished by different combustible substances, and their i^*- 
lative prices." 7. ''Experiments on coloured shades, apd 
the optical Ulusioos produced by the contrast of colours 
actually present/* 8. " Experiments on the force of Gun- 
powder, by which it. is proved that this force is at least 
60fiQ0 times greater than the mew weight of the atmo- 
sphere, and that it is probable that the force of gun-powder 
(lepends chiefly on the el^ticity of the vapour of water.'* 
9. " A letter to sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal So* 
ciety, offering a capital of 1000/. sterling destined for a 
fund ta furnish a premium every two years to the author 
of the most useful discovery made in Europe with regard 
to light or heat.*' 10. " Inquiries into the cause of heat 
excited by frietien, &c. &o." 

His only distinct publication was a series of detached 
f' Essays, experimental, political, economical, and phiLo- 
jopbical," which appeared at different times since 1796, 
and now amount to eighteen, forming four octavo voliimes. 
The c<H)teats are. Essay l. Account of ^n Establishment 
lor tbe Poor at Munich^, together with a detail of vari<^s 
public measures connectednvith that institution, which h^ave 
been adopted and carried into effect, for putting ah end 
to mendicity, and introducing order and useful industry 



SID Thompson.' 

among the more indigent of the inhabitants of Bayaria.'— « 
2. Of the^ fundamental principles on which general estab* 
lishments for the relief of the poor may be formed in a|l 
countries. — 3. Of Food, and particularly of feeding the 
poor. — 4. Of Chimney Fire-places, with proposals for im- 
proving them to save fuel ; to render dwelling-houses more 
comfortable and salubrious; and effectually to prevent 
chimneys from smoking. — 5. A short account of several 
Public Institutions lately formed in Bavaria.—^. On the! 
Management of Fire, and the Economy of Fuel. — 7. Of 
the Propagation of Heat in Fluids. — 8. Of the Propagation 
of Heat in various substances, being an account of a num«<' 
ber of new experiments made with a view to the investiga* 
tion of the causes of the warmth of natural and artificial 
clothing. (First published in the Phil. Transactions.) — 9« An 
experimental inquiry concerning the Source of the Heat 
which is excited by friction. — 10. On the construction of 
Kitchen Fire-places, and Kitchen Utensils, together with re« 
marks and observations relating to the various processes of 
cookery, and proposals for improving that most useful art. 
1 1. Supplementary observations concerning Chimney Fire- 
places. —12. Observations concerning the Salubrity of 
Warm Rooms in Cold Weather.— 13. Observations con* 
cerning the Salubrity of Warm Bathing, and the principles 
on which Warm Baths should be constructed.-— 14. Sup* 
plementary observations relating to the management of 
£res in closed Fire-places. — 15. Of the use of Steam as 
a vehicle for transporting heat from one place to another. 
— 16. Of the management of Light, in illuminations; to- 
gether with an account of a neW portable lamp. — 17. An 
inquiry concerning the source of the Light which is mani«- 
fested in the combustion of inflammable bodies. — 18. Of 
the excellent qualities of Coffee, and the art of making- it 
in perfection. * 

THOMPSON (Edward), a miscellaneous writer of no 
great fame, was the son of a merchant at Hull, where he 
was born about 1738. He was educated it Beverley, undel* 
the Rev. Mr. Clarke, and thence removed to Hampstead, 
under the care of Dr. Cox. He early embraced a mari- 
time life, and in 1750 sailed on a voyage to Greenland. 
In 1754 he was engaged' on board an Indiaman, and be* 

* Memoirs published by his friend Pictet, «nd given in Baldwin's Literarv 
Jpurpal.— Gtnt. Mag. vol. LXXXIV. 



T H O M P S O N. 311 

\ 

Qupe what is called ^'a guinea pig/' though othoraccountg 
%ag that he went to the East Indies with sir Peter Dennis, 
on bioarJ the Dorsetshire, and was in the memorable action 
off Quiberon Bay. By his " Sailor's Letters," it appears that 
he was at Madras, Ceylon, and Bengal. In 1759 he was en- 
gaged in Uawke's celebrated jbattle with (!)onflans. His other 
naval movements seem to have been of little importance ''^^ 
and on the peace in 1762 he became unemployed. He novr 
wrptea licentious poem, celebrating the most remarkable 
women of the town, which he published under the title of the 
" Meretriciad," This seems to have been the means of in- 
troducing him to the acquaintance of Churchill, with whoip 
he boasts on many occasions tp have lived on terms of inti- 
macy, and with whose principles, political and moral, he 
appears to have been at perfect agreement. Of this, hi« 
subsequent poems, "The Soldier,'- "The Courtezan," and 
the "Demirep," afford sufficient proof. In 1765, he was 
more laudably employed in soliciting parliament for an in^ 
crease of half-'pay for the lieutenants of the navy, an ap-^ 
plication which was attended with success. 

In 1767 he published his "Sailor's Letters," 2 vols, 
12mo, in which there are many particulars of his life, froo^ 
17^4 to 1759, told in a rambling and desultory manner, 
lie afterwards edited the works of Oldham in 3 vols, and ior 
1777, those of Paul Whitehead, in one vol. 4to, and of An- 
drew Marvell, in 3 vols. 4to, none, of which add^d much ta 
his reputation, either for judgment or correctness. WhcA 
the war with France commenced, he was, in 177S, appoint?? 
ed to the command of the Hyeena, and was in Rodney'3 
famous action off Cape St. Vincent, of which he is said to 
h^ve brought home the intelligence; but this, and other ac- 
counts of his progress, as related by his biographer, are 
certainly erroneous. There was a capt. Thompson, of the 
America, who brought home the news of Rodney's having- 
captured a valuable Spanish convoy, but this -was capt/ 
3amuel Thonipson, a much older officer ; and as to Rodw 
iiey's action off Cape St. Vincent, a reference to the Ga-? 
z^tte will show that it was capt. Uvedale, of the Ajax, who 
brought home that intelligence. We are told, which may 
]be XMtrjcect, that be was soon afterwards appointed commpt- 
dore of an expedition against Demerara, and afterwardu 

* They might still have heea de- dered it a difficult matter to separate 
tailed if we had not discovered sach tmth from error* 
•aacciiracita in our auttiocitieB, as reo« 



$i» T H O MP S O K.' 

eonveyed home a fleet of merchantmen ftom St. Euatathim* 
In 1785 he was appointed commander of the Grampus, and 
tent to the coast of Africa, where he died on boanl of bis 
ship, Jan. 17, 17S6. He was considered as a brave itnd 
skilfol commander, and had that infallible test of merit, the 
affection of, his crew. It must also be noticed to his ho- 
nour that when he acquired some degree of opulence, he 
with great alacrity and liberality repaid his obligations to 
many persons who had before as»sted him. The most im- 
partial of his biographers concludes with observing thai 
^ the merits by which capt. Thompson will be best known 
to posterity, are his sea songs, which are still on every 
one's lips : more espe<iially those three beautiful and af* 
fecting compositions, beginning <^ Loose every aaii to the 
breeze,^' *^ The topsail shivers in the witid,** and '^ Behold 
upon the gallant wave.*' ^ 

THOMPSON (WiLUAM), a scholar and poet of conai- 
derable merit, is said to have been the second son of the rev. 
Francis Thompson, B. D. of Queen's college, Oxford,* and 
vicar of Brough in Westmoreland, who died August 31| 
1735, aged seventy. His mother, who died two years after, 
in the sixty-fiftb year of her age, was the widow of the 
rev. Joseph Fisher, M. A. fellow of Queen's college, Ox^ 
ford, vicar of Brough, and archdeacon of Carlisle, by whom 
she had no children. Our author was born probably in the 
early part of the last century, but the year cannot be as* 
eertained. ^ He was young, when in 1734 and 1736^ hi 
wrote " Stella, Sive Amores, Tres LibrI," and ** Six Pas- 
torals," none of which he thought it proper to include in 
bis published works. In his poem, entitled ^^ Sickness,^* 
he laments the want of a mother's tenderness, and a fit* 
tfaer's eare ; but, as they died in advanced age, he could not 
have lost them before he had attained at least his twentieth 
year. 

It was on the banks of the Eden, which runs near 
Brougb, that ^^ bis prattling muse was first provoked to 
numbers," and where, we may suppose, he wrote most of 
those smaller pieces which he thought worthy of preserva- 
tion. In these he frequently addresses an lanthe^ who was 
probably a real mistress. At the usual age he went to 
Queen's college, Oxford, and on February 26, 1738, took 
the degree of master of arts. He afterwards became a fel- 

. \ Censura Literaria, vol. ^V..— Biog. 0ram> 



THOMPSON. SIS 

low of bis college, antl succeeded to the livings of Soath 
Weston and Hampton Poy(e, in Oxfordshire. > It waa pro^ 
babiy during his residence on his living that be publisbed 
** Sickness,'* in 1746. The origin of this poem may be 
found in a note subjoined to the fifth book, but much of it 
must have been written just before publication, as be pays 
tribute to the memory of Pope and Swift, who died abom 
that time. 

In 1751, he is said to have been an unsuccessful candid 
date for the poetry professorship, against Hawkins. In 
1756 he published ^*Gratitude,*Va poem, on ait occasion 
which certainly required it from every true son of Oxford. 
In the preceding year Henrietta Louisra, countess dowager 
of Pomfret, daughter of John, baron Jeffrys of Wemm, and 
relict of Thomas, first earl of Pomfret, prt^enled to the 
university ntore than one hundred and thirty statues, &c; 
which the earl*s father, William, baron of Lempster, had 
purchased from the Arundel collection, and preserved at 
bis seat at Eston Neston in Northamptonshire. On the 
525th February, 1756, this lady received the thanks of the 
university ; and the year fallowing, the university cele^ 
brated a public eiicosnia, on which occasion, ih an oration by 
Mr. Thomas Warton, professor of poetry, she was again 
complimented in the most public manner for ber noble and 
generous benefaction. Besides Thompson, an anonymous 
Oxonian offered a poetical tribute to ber liberality ; and in 
IT60, Mr. Vivian, afterwards king^s professor o^ modem 
history, published ^*A Poem on the Pomfret Statues.'* 
Thompson's poem is added to the late collection, without, 
it will perhaps be thought, adding much to his poetical re* 
putation. 

In 1757 he published two vdumes, or, as be quaintly 
terms them, two tomes of poems, by subscription, with pre* 
faces and notes which give us a very high idea of the ao* 
thor's modesty, piety, and learning. He became afler* 
>vvards dean of Rapboe in Ireland, where, it is presomed, 
be died sometime before 1766 or 1767. 

It has already been mentioned, in the life of bishop 
Hall, that in' 1753 Thompson superintended the publica« 
tion of an edition of the ^ Virgidemiamm.** To bis own 
w>lumes of poems was added, <^ Gondibert and Bertba,*^ a 
tn^edy, the subject taken from Darenapt's poem of 
** Gondibert." This tragedy was written, he informs us, 
when << he was an undergraduate in the university, as an 



f 14 THOMPSON; 

innocent relaxation from thbse severer and more useful 
studies for which the college* where he had the benefit of 
his education, is so deservedly distinguished.'' He re- 
printed it with all its j-uvenile imperfections, but, although 
it is not without individual passages of poetical beauty, it 
has not dramatic form and consistency to entitle it to higher 
praise. • > 

Of Thompson's personal character, a very high opinion 
may be deduced from the general tenour of his acknow- 
ledged works. He appears to have been a man of warm 
ailectioos in the relative duties of life, an ardent admirer 
of merit, with an humble consciousness of his own defects ; 
a man of real piety, and of various learning. His studies 
lay much among the ancient £nglish poets, in whose his- 
tory and writings be was critically skilled. As a poet, al- 
though he has not been popular, he may be allowed to rank 
above some whose writings have been more anxiously pre- 
served. Having been in early life an admirer of Spenser, 
lie became a studied imitator of that father of English poe- 
try; but like most of his imitators, while he adopted his mea- 
sure^ he thought his imitation incomplete without borrow- 
ing a greater number of antiquated words and phrases than 
can be either ornamental or useful. But if be be censur- 
able on this account^ it must be allowed, that in his <* Na-^ 
tivity" he has not only imitated, but rivalled Spenser in 
the sw|Qetiiess and. solemnity which belong to his canto. 
His imagery is in geiieral striking, and appropriate to th^ 
elevated subject, nor is he less happy in his personifica- 
tions. . His ^^ Hymn to May*' has received more praise 
than any of his other pieces. It is certainly more finislied, 
but there are many luxuriancies which sober judgment 
would have removed, and. many glittering epithets, and 
Verbal conceits, which proceeded from a memory stored 
with the ancient poets, and. not yet chastened into simpli** 
city by the example and encouragement of the moderns. 
The poein on ^' Sickness" is the longest,, and altogether, 
perhaps the m^Qst successful effort of bis muse. He chose 
a new subject, and discovers considerable powers of inven* 
tion. * ; » • 

THOMSON (James), a very eminent poet, was. the son 
of a minister in Scotland, and bom at Ednam in the shire 
of Roxburgh, Sept. the 11th, 1700. His mother's name 

• * 

> Effglisb PoetSj 1810» 91 toU. Sfo, 



T H O M son: 315 

was'Beatirix Trotter, and not Hume, as Dr. Johnson says, 
Hume being the name of his grandmother. His father was 
minister 6f Ednam, with a family of nine children. A 
neighbouring clergyman, Mr. Riccarton, discovering in 
James uncommon promises of future excellence, mider- 
took to give him instructions, and provide him with books; 
and, after the usual course of school education at Jed- 
burgh, he was sent to the university of Edinburgh. In 
the second year of his admission, his studies were for some 
time interrupted by the death of his father ; but his mother 
soon after repaired with her family, whiph was very nu-^ 
merous, to Edinburgh, where she lived in> a decent and 
frugal manner, till her favourite son had not oniy finished 
his academical course,' but was even distinguished and pa- 
tronized as a man of genius. Though the study of poetry 
was about this time become general in Scotland, the best 
English authors being universally read, and imitations of 
them attempted, yet taste had .made little progress; this 
major part criticized according to rules and forms, and 
thus were very able to discern the inaccuracies of a poet, 
while all his fire and enthusiasm esoaped their notice^ 
Thomson believed that be deserved better judges than 
these, and therefore began to turn his views towards Lon- 
don, to which an accident soon after entirely determined 
bim. 

The divinity-chair at Edinburgh was then filled by Mr. 
Hamilton, whose lectures Thomson attended for about a 
year, when there was prescribed to him, for the subject 
of an exercise, a psalm, in which the power and majesty 
of God are celebrated. Of this psalm he gave a para- 
phrase and illustration, as the nature of the exercise re- 
quired, but in a style so highly poetical, that it surprized 
the whole audience. Mr. Hamilton complimented him 
upon the performance; but at the same time told him, 
smiling, that if he thought of being useful in the .ministry, 
he must keep a stricter rein upon his imagination, and ex- 
press himself in language more intelligible to an ordinary 
congregation. Thomson concluded from this, that his ex- 
pectations from the study of theology might be very pre- 
carious, ev6n though the church had been more his free 
choice than it probably was: so that, having soon after 
received some encouragement from a lady of quality,' a 
friend of his mother, then in London, he quickly prepared 
}^im§elf for bis journey, in 1795 ; and although this encau« 



Sie THOMSON. 

ff»gemeht etided in uothiog beneficial,, it senred Iben for a 
good pretext^ to cover the imprudence of committiDg him- 
eelf to the wide world, unfriended and unpatronized, and 
with the slender stock of money be possessed. 
- But his merit did not lie long concealed. Mr. Forbes, 
afterwards lord^president of the session, received him verj 
kindly, and reeoounended btoi to some of his friends, par* 
ticutarly to Mr. Aikman, whose premature death he has 
with great affection commemorated, in a copy of verses 
written on that occasion. The good raceptioo he evpe* 
.rienced wherever be was introduced, emboldened him to 
risque the publication of his '< Winter,'* in March 1726, 
which was no sooner read than universally admired ; and 
from that time his acquaintance was courted by all men of 
taste. Dr. Bundle, afterwards bishop of Derry, received 
him into bis intimate confidence and friendship ; promoted 
his reputation every where; introduced him to his great 
friend the lord chancellor Talbot ; and some years after, 
when the eldest son of that nobleman was to make bis tour 
of travelling, recommended Mr. Thomson as a proper 
companion for him. His affection and gratitude to Dr. 
Bundle are finely expressed, in his poem to the memory of 
lord Talbot In the mean time, the poet's chief care had 
been, in return for the public favour, to finish the plan 
which their wishes laid out for him ; and the expectatioiis 
which his <^ Winter" had raised were fuUy satisfied by the 
successive publication of the other sessons ; of ^^ Suiamer^^ 
in 1727; of '< Spring," in 1728; and of << Autumn," in a 
4to edition of his works, in 1730. Some very interesting 
remarks on the variations introduced int6 these, -in subse- * 
qoent editions, may be seen in the Censura Lit^raria, vols. 
II. III. and IV. 

Besides these, and bia tragedy of ^^ Sopbonbha,"' written 
and acted, with i^q>lause in 1729, Thomson bad, in 1727, 
published his <* Poetn to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton,'' 
then lately deceased. The same year, tbe resentment of 
euT merchants, for the interruption oif their trade by tbe 
Spaniards in America, running very high, TbomsfMi aesh< 
lonsly took part iis it; and wrote his poem named ^ Britan- 
nia,*' to rouze the nation to revenge. His poetical pnrsiiiltf 
were now interrupted by his attendance on the honourable 
Mn Charles Talbot in bis travels, with whom be visilfid 
most of tbe coitrts and capital cities of £u»ope« How p«r« 
ticulaf and judicious his observations abroad were^ a]ppea<s 



THOMSON. 317 

from his poem on ^* Liberty," in fire parts, thus entitled^ 
•* Ancient and modern Italy compared;" ** Greece/* 
^« Korae ;" « Britain ;" " The Prospect," While be was 
writing the first part of *^ Liberty/* he received a severe 
shock, by the death of his noble friend and fellow- traveller^ 
and thi^ was soon followed by another still' more sevd^^re, 
and of more general concern, the death of lord Talbot 
himself; which Thomson so pathetically laments, in the 
poem dedicated to his memory. At the same time, he 
found himself from an easy competency reduced to a state 
of precarious dependence, in which he passed the remain* 
der of his life, excepting only the two la^t years of it ; 
during which he enjoyed the place of surveyor-general of 
the Leeward islands, procured for him by the generous 
friendship of lord Lyttelton* Immediately upon his return 
to England with Mr. Talbot, the ebancellor had made him 
his secretary of briefs, a place of little attendance, suiting 
his retired indolent way of life, and equal to all his wants. 
This place fell with his patron ; yet could not his genius 
be depressed, or his temper hurt, by this reverse' of foT'^ 
tune. He resumed, in time, his usual cheerfulness, and 
never abated one article in his way oif living, which, though 
simple, was genial and elegant. The profits arising front 
bis works were not ineonsiderable ; his '^ Tragedy of Aga^ 
aiemnon," acted in 1738, yielded a good sum. 

But his chief dependence^ during this long ititerval, wa^ 
on the protection and bounty of his royal highness Frederic 
prince of Wales, who, upon the recommendation of lord 
Lyttelton, then his chief favourite, settled on him an 
handsome allowance, and always received him very gra- 
ciously. It happened, however, that the favour of his 
royal highness was, in one instance, of some disadvantage 
to Mh Thomson, in the refusal of a licence for |iis tragedy 
of ** Edward and Eieonora," which he ^ had prepared for 
the stage in 1739. This proceeded from the misunder- 
standings, which then subsisted between the court of the 
prince of Wales and that of the king his father. His next 
dramatic performance was the masque of *^ Alfred,** written 
jointly with Mr. Mallet, who was his good friend on many 
occasions, by command of the prince of Wales, for the 
eiUertainment of bis royal highnesses court at his suntmer 
itesidence. In 1745, his <* Tancred and Sigismunda," taken 
from the novel in GTil Bias, was performed with applause* 
He had, in the mean time^ been finishing his ** Castle of 



318 THOMSON. 

I , 

Indolence/* an Bllegorical poem, in two cantos ; the stanza 
whicb be uses in this work is that of Spenser, borrowed 
from the Italian poets. This was the last piece Thomson 
himself published, his tragedy of ** Coriolanus*' being ovAy 
prepared for the theatre, when a fever seized him, and 
deprived the world of a very good man, as well as of an ad-' 
mirable poet. His death happened Aug. the 27th, 1748. 
His executors were lord Lyttelton and Mr. Mitchel ; and 
by their interest, the orphan play, ^'. Coriolanus,*' was 
brought, on the stage to the best advantage : from the pro- 
fits of which, and from the sale of his manuscripts and 
other effects, all demands were duly satisfied, and a hand- 
some sum remitted to his sisters. His remains were de- 
posited in the church of Richmond in Surrey, ^under a 
plain stone, without any inscription; but in 1762 a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory in Westminster-abbey. 

Thomson himself hints, somewhere in his works, that hia 
exterior was not the most promising, his make being ra- 
ther robust than graceful. His worst appearance was^ 
when he was seen walking alone, in a thoughtful mood ; 
but when a friend accosted him, and entered into conver- 
sation, he would instantly brighten into a most amiable 
^pect, his features np longer the same, and his eye dart- 
ing a peculiarly animated fire. He had improved his taste 
upon the best originals, ancient and modern, but could 
not bear to write what was not strictly his own. What he 
borrows from the ancients, he gives us in an avowed and 
faithful paraphrase, or translation, as we see in a few pas- 
sages taken from Virgil ; and in that beautiful picture from 
the elder Pliny, where the course and gradual increase of 
the Nile, are figured by the stages of a man*s life. The 
autumn was bis favourite season for poetical composition, 
and the deep silence of the night the time he commonly 
chose for such studies : so that he would often be heard 
vi^alking in his study till near morning, humming over, iii 
his way, what he was to correct and write out the next day» 
The amusements of his leisure hours were civil and natural 
history, voyages, and the best relations of travellers ; and^ 
bad his situation favoured it, he would certainly have ex- 
celled in gardening, agriculture, and every rural improve- 
ment and exercise. Although he did not perform on any, 
instrument, he was passionately fond of music, and would 
sometimes listen a full hour at his window to the nightin- 
gales in Richmond-gardens. Nor was bis taste less ex(]^ui-^ 



THOMSON. 313 

(site ia the arts of paintings sculpture, and architecture. 
In bis travels, he had seen all the most celebrated monu- 
•ments of antiquity, and the best productions of modern.art, 
and had studied them so minutely, and with so true a 
judgment, that, in some of his descriptions in the poem of 
.'' Liberty,*^ we have the masterpieces, there mentioned, 
placed in a stronger light than, many visitors, can see them 
with their own eyes. As for the more distinguishing qua- 
lities of his mind and heart, they are better represented in 
his writings, than they can be by the pen of any biogra* 
pher. Inhere his love of mankind, of his country^ and 
friends; bis devotion to the Supreme Being, founded on 
the most elevated and just conceptions of his operations 
and providence, shine out in every page« So unbounded 
was his tenderness of heart, that it took in even the brutb 
creation : he was extremely tender towards his own species. 
He is not indeed known, through his whole life, to ha^'e 
given any person one moment^s pain by his writings, or 
otherwise. He took no part in the poetical squabbles of 
his time, and so was respected and left undisturbed by 
both sides. These virtues did not fail to receive tbeir due 
ceward. The best and .greatest men of bis time honoured 
liim with their friendship and protection; the applause of* 
the public attended all his productions; his friends loved 
him with an enthusiastic, ardour, and sincerely lamented 
his untimely death. 

.- As a writer, says Dr. Johnson, he is entitled to one praise 
of the highest kind : his mode of thinking, and of express- 
ing his thoughts, is original. His* blank verse is no more 
|he blank verse of Milton, or of any other poet, than the 
rhymes of Prior are the rhynfies of Cowley. His nlumbers^ 
his pauses, his diction, are of his own growth, without 
transcription, without imitation* He thinks in- a peculiar 
train, and he thinks always as a man of genius ; he looks 
round on Nature and on Life with the eye which Nature 
bestows only on a poet; the eye that distinguishes, in every 
thing represented to its view, whatever there is on which 
imagination can delight to be detained, and with a mind 
that at once comprehends the vast, and attends to the mi- 
nute. The reader of the *' Seasons'* wonders that he never 
saw^ before what Thomson shews him, and that he never 
yet has felt what Thomson impresses.. His is one of the 
works in which blank verse seems properly used ; Thom- 
aon*s wide expansion of general views, and his enumera- 



S20 THOMSON. 

lioo of circumstuntial varieties, would have been obstructed 
and embarrawed by the frequent interruptions of the sens#^ 
which are the necessary effects of rhyme. His ^ascriptions 
of extended scenes and general effects bring before us the 
whole nagnificence of Nature, whether pleasing or dread** 
fuL The gaiety of Spring, the splendour of Summeri the 
tranquillity of Antuoin, and the horror of Winter, take in 
ihehr turns possession of the mind. The poet leads us 
through the appearances of things as they are successively 
varied by the vicissitudes of the year, and imparts to us so 
much of bis own enthusiasm, that our thoughts expand with 
bis imagery, and kindle with his sentiments. Nor is the 
naturalist without his part in the entertainment ; for he is 
assbtod to recollect and to combine, to arrange his disiCO<* 
veries, and to amplify the sphere of his contemplation^ 
The great defect of the ^ Seasons'* is want of method ; but 
finr this, perhaps, there was not any remedy. Of many 
appearances subsisting all at once, no rule can be given 
mhj one should be o^endoued before another ; yet the m'e-» 
mory wants the help of order, and the curiosity is not e%^ 
cited by suspense or expectation. His diction is in the 
highest degree florid and luxuriant, such as may be said to 
be to bis images and thoughts both their lustre and their 
Uiade ; such as invests them with splendour, through wfaidi, 
perhaps, they are not always easily discerned. ' It is ^ too 
exuberant, and sometimes may be charged with filling th€ 
ear more than the mind. The highest praise, adds Dr. 
Johnson, which he has received, ought not to be sup«> 
pressed : it is said by lord Lyttelton, in the prologue to his 
posthumous play, that his works contained ^^ No line wbich^ 
dying, be could wish to blot" 

It would be unnecessary to enumerate the various edi'»' 
tions of Thomson's works. Perhaps the most elegant is 
that published by Millar in 1761, in 2 vols. 4to, from the 
profits >of which, partly, the expences of his monument in 
the abbey were defrayed.^ 

THOPHAIL. See JAAPHAR. 

THORE8BY (Ralph), an eminent antiquary, descended 
from a very ancient family, was bom at Leeds in Yorksfaire^ 
Aug. 16y 1658, and was the son of a reputable merchaTity 
and after some education at the grammar-school of that 
place^ was sent, in 1677, for further improvement, to Lon* 

' Xjfe by Mttidock, prefixed to hU Workf.^-JohiuMi'ft Poota* 



T H O R E S B Y. . 321 

don. The father possessed a good share of learning, 
and had a peculiar turn for the knowledge of antiquities ; 
which being inherited by the son, he employed his leisure 
hours in visiting remarkable places, copying monumental 
inscriptions, studying their history, and particularly col- 
lecting accounts of protestant benefactions. His father, 
designing him for his own business, sent him in 1678 to 
Rotterdam, in order to learn the Dutch and French lan- 
guages, and to be perfected in mercantile accomplish- 
ments : but he was obliged to return the year following, on 
account of his health. On the death of his father, in 1680, 
he entered on his busiiiess : \aod, though merchandize was 
his profession, yet learning and antiquities took so firm a 
possession of his heart, that, contenting himself with a 
moderate patrimony, he made those researches the great 
employment of his life. There is a circumstance relating 
to him, in the unhappy times under James II. which we 
cannot pass over. He had been bred among the presby- 
terians ; but, never imbibing -any of their rigid principles, 
bad always occasionally conformed to the established 
church : and now, when popery began to threaten the na- 
tion, he more frequentfy attended its worship, with a view 
of promoting an unioa among the protestants for their mu- 
tual preservation. His presbyterian pastor was highly dis- 
pleased with his compliance, and treated him with a very 
indiscreet zeal. This prompted Tboresby to examine 
more closely the arguments on both sides, and. apply to his 
diocesan and friend archbishop Sharp (who, by the way, 
had a good taste for coins and medals, and collected a cu- 
rious cabinet of them), who treated him very affectionately, 
and by letters and personal conversation settled him in full 
communion with the established "church. 

Tboresby was well respected b^ the clergy and gentry of 
bis town and neighbourhood, and by all the eminent anti- 
quaries and men of learning of bis time. .It would be al- 
most endless to enumerate the assistances which he gave in 
one way or other to the works of the learned. When Gib- 
sen piriilished his new edition of Camden's Britannia, Mr. 
Thoresby wrote notes and additional observations on the 
West-riding of Yorksliire, for the use of it ; and trans- 
mitted above a hundred of his coins to Mr. Obadiab Walker, 
who undertook that province which related to the Roman, 
British, ahd Saxon monies. Hearne often acknowledged 
in print the favour of his correspondence. He coinmuoi- 

VOL. XXUL Y 



J^-w 



32« T H O R E S B Y. 

cated to Strype som^ original letters in bii colleoiion. He 
.imparted to Calamy memoirs of several northern divines 
ibr bis abridgment of <^ Baxter's Life and Times ;^ us be 
did also of tbe worthy royalists to Walker, for his *^ Suffer--, 
ings^of tbe Clergy,'* which was published as an antidote to 
Calamy's book ; esteeming good men of all parties worthy 
to have their names and characters transmitted to poste* 
rity. His skill in heraldry and genealogy rendered him a 
very serviceable correspondent to Collins in his ^^ Peerage 
of England." By these kindnesses, sweetened with the 
easiness of access to his own cabinet, h^ always found tb^ 
like easy admission to those of others ; which gave him fre- 
quent opportunities of enlarging his collection, far beyond 
what could have been expected from a private person, not 
wealthy. He commenced an early friendship with the ce* 
lebrated naturalist Dr. Martin Lister. To this friend he 
sent an account of some Roman antiquities he had disco* 
vered in Yorkshire, which being communicated by him and 
Dr. Gale, dean of York, to the Royal Society, obtained 
him a fellowship qf that learned body in 1697 : and the 
great number of bis papers, in th^ir TransactiofiSi r^latiog* 
to ancient Roman and Saxon monuments in the Nocth.of 
England, with \ notes upon them, and the inscripttoiis of 
coins, &c. shew how deserving he was of that honour. 

He died in 1725, in his sixty-eighth year, and was in-' 
terred among his ancestors in St. Peter's church at Leeds* 
Qis character for learning is best seen in the books be pub^ 
lisbed, which shew him to have been a great master «f the 
history and antiquities of his own country ; to attain which, 
it became necessary for him to be skilled, as. he was, in 
genealogy and heraldry. He appears from these books to 
have been also an industrious biographer : but that which 
sets his reputation the highest as a scholar, was his uncom- 
mon knowledge of coins .and medals. He had long formed 
a design of doing honour to his native town and its en* 
virons, by writing the history of them ; and had accumu* 
lated a vast quantity of materials for the work, whioh wajp 
published in 1715, under the title of *^ Ducatus Leodiensis ; 
or, The Topography of Leeds and the parts adjacent,*' fol. 
To which is subjoined, ^'Museum Thoresbeianum ; or, a 
Catalogue of the Antiquities, &c. in the Repository of 
Ralph Thoresby, gent. &c." In the former piece, he fre- 
quently refers to the historical part, intended for giving a 
riew of the state of the northern parts of tbe kingdom 



T H O R E S B Y. 



323 



during the dark ages of the Britons and the Romans ; and' 
of the alterations afterwards made by. the Saxons, Danes, 
and. Normans ? aiid be proceeded so far, as to bring his 
narration iii a f^ir copy nearly to the'end of the sixth cen- 
tury, illustrating and confirming his history by his coins. 
This^tiurious unfinished manuscript is inserted in the- Bio- 
grapbia Britannica,. in order to excite some able writer to 
carry it on, and complete the noble de^gn of the author*. 
His advancement in years hindering him from completing 
this work, he contented . himself with committing to the 
press bis ^^ Vicaria Leodiensis : or, The History oJF the 
Church of Leeds, &c." which was published in 172i, 8vo. 
The subject of this work being narrow and confined, hey 
has enriched it with observations on the original of paro- 
chial ehurches, and the ancient manner of building them ; 
as also on the old way of passing estates by delivery of 
pledges,' subscription of golden crosses, pendent seals, &c.; 
and, besides the memoirs of many worthy divines succes* 
sively vicars of Leeds, he has added the lives of the doc- 
tors, Matthew Hutton, Edwyn Sandys,, Tobie Matthews, 
John Thoresby, archbishops of York, and of Henry earl 
of Huntingdon. His character is thus given by his bio- 
grapher : *^ However diligent he wa3 in cultivating the 
laudable accomplishments of the gentleman and the scho- 
lar, yet he never suffered his beloved studies to interfere 
with his religion, but managed all his affairs iti subser- 
viency to it. He often lamented the great consumption 
of time, occasioned by the numerous visitants to see his 
museum, but took care that they should not hinder his pri-. 
vate or public worship. In his principles, after his conver- 
sion, he was ' orthodox ; in his affections, catholic, com- 
prehending therein all denominations of Christians. He 
was modest and pure, temperate, and. abstemious tq, an un- 
common degree ; though, being one of. the lojcd^ of the 
manor, and a governing - member of the. corporation, he 
could not/ always avoid public meetings ai>d festivities, yet 
he was a sparing partaker, even of innocent divei^ions* 



* While this mrticle was going 
through the press, we read with plea- 
sure the notice of a new, edition of the 
«* Ducati|s,'' " with corrections and nn- 
merous additions, together with an en- 
tire Volume of original matter; cod- 
taining an accouni of the district sup- 
posed to be comprehended by Venera- 
iile Bc!d9, under the terms Loidii and 



Elmete, containing the modern parishes 
of Berwick, Sherburne, Methley, Swil- 
lington, Castleford, Wakeaeld, Tfooru-' 
hill, Dewsbury, Mirdeld, Batley, Hud- 
dersfield, Almonbury, Bradford, Ha- 
lifax; &c.« By Thomas Dunham Whi- 
Uker, LL. D. F. S. A. vicar of Whalley, 
and rect6r of Heysham, in Lancashire.'' 



Y 2 



t84 T H O R E S B Y. 

fie was constant and regular at his private devotions, which 
were invigorated with an unusual degree of fervency. Ex 
emplary in the government of his familyi he called them 
together morning and evening to prtiyer, and reading the 
Scriptures. Extremely careful of the religious instruction 
of his children, he was not unmindful of the moral beha- 
viour of his servants. He was a kind relation, compro- 
mising the distressed affairs of some that were very near to 
him, by expensive journeys, irksome applications, and 
money almost beyond his abilities. He was very charitable 
to the utmost of bis power, not seldom solicited others, and 
was always a faithful dispenser of whatever was entrusted 
to his care.'' - 

Mr. Thoresby's widow survived him near fifteen years. 
By her he had ten children, of whom three only, a daugh- 
ter and two sons survived him. The eldest son, Ralph, 
was of Queen's college, Cambridge, vicar of Rickmans- 
worth in Hertfordshire, and rector of Stoke Newington in 
Middlesex, where he died in 1763. The younger, Richard, 
was of Catherine-hall, and rector of St. Catherine Colman, 
London, and died about 1774.^ 

THORIE, or THORIU8 (John), one of a family of 
that name, of foreign extraction, but settled in England, is 
said by Wood to have been the son of John Thorius, a phy- 
sician, who called himself *' Balliolenus Flandrus," a na- 
tive of Bailleul in Flanders. It is more probable, however, 
that his father's name was Francis^ whom Foppen calls 
<' Balliolenus, Flander," who published, in 1 562, <* Joannis 
Straselii Comment, in aurea Carmina Pythagorse," 8vo. 
He published also, according to the same biographer, a 
poem on peace, translated into Latin from the French, and 
wrote some epigrams and satires. According to Wood, 
John Thorius was born at London in 1568, and in 15^6 
became a member of Christ church, Oxford, , but whether 
be took a degree^ Wood says, '< appears not, though ih 
one of his books he writes himself ' a graduate of Oxen- 
ford.' " When he died is uncertain. He published << A 
Spanish Dictionary," Lond. 1590, 4to, along with a trans^ 
lation of Anthony de Corro's << Spanish Grammar." He 
translated from the Spanish ^ The Councellor ; a Treatise 
of Councils and Councellors of Princes,^' Lond. l58Sf, 4to, 
written by Barth. Phillip. It is iq. this he calls himself> 



T H O R I E. S«S 

not " a graduate of Oxenford," but " graduate in Oxford." 
It is dedicated to the right hon. John Fortescue, master 
of her majesty^s wardrobe. He also translated from the 
Spanish of Valdes, ** The Serjeant Major : or, a Dialogue 
of the office of a seijeant major/^ Lond. 1590^ 4to, ^ 

THORIUS (Raphael), whether of the same family with 
the preceding we know not, for Wood, says he wns a French- 
naan born, and called Thoris, became a physician and Latir^ 
poet, and admired in both characters in the reign of 
James I. He appears to have studied medicine at Oxford, 
but took no degree in that faculty. He afterwards settled 
in London, and was yery successful in practice. If\ the 
first year of the reign of Cb'arles I. when the plague raged 
in London, his humanity led him to expose himself too 
much to the infection, and he died of that dreadful disorder 
in July or August 1625, and was probably buried in St. 
Bennet Fink church, as his^ residence was in that parish. 
It is related of this physician that he was immoderately ad- 
dicted to wine, and seldom saCtisfied unless he made his 
friends keep p&ce with him in prinking. Gassendi informs 
lis, that Thorius being in company with Peiresc, whom be 
strongly pressed to drink a large glass of wine, the latter 
at length consented, upon condition that he would promise 
to pledge him in return. When it came to the turn of 
Peiresc be filled a large glass of water, and drinking it ofi^ 
insisted that Thorius should do the same. This, with much 
hesitation, and after pouring out execrations against the 
vile liquor, and citing a multitude of classical invectives 
against it, he at length performed. The story reached 
kinor James I. and much amused him. 

His works, all Latin poems, were mostly published after 
his decease: 1. " Hymnus Tabaci," which, Wood says, was 
first published at London in 1627, 8vo; but Eioy men- 
tions' two editions at Leyden in 1622 and 1623, 4to. it wa^ 
afterwards reprinted at the same place in 1628, 4to; and 
at Utrecht in 1644, li2mo, in a collection mentioned^ by 
Haller, under the title of " Colle<:tio opusculorum de Ta- 
baco.** 2. " Cheimonopegnion, a Winter Song,'* pub- 
lished with the London edition of the " Tobacco,'* 1627, 
and both were translated into English by Peter Hausted, 
M. A. and afterwards D. D. of Cambridge, 1651, Svo. 
He wrote also ^* Epistolas duae de Isaaci Casauboni m«rbi 

> Ath.Ox.T0l. I.— Foppoi Bibl. Belg. 



326 T H O R I U S. 

mortilKjue capsa/' inserted in Gronorius's edition otStCm- 
' saubon^s epistles. Tborius's deat(i was lamented in a poem 
printed in. 1626, a sing}e sheet, 4to, entitled ^^ Lessus in 
funere Rapbaelis Thorii medici et poeti preBstantisstmi^.qai 
Lbndini peste extinctus bonis et doctis omnibus iriste sni 
desiderium reliquit, anno 1625." He left a son Jdhn, 
who studied at Magdalen-college, Oxford, and became a 
physician in Dublin. He was^ incorporated M. D. atOxford 
in 1627, but we find no further mention of him.^ 

THORNDIKE (Herbert), a learned divine in the seven- 
teenth century, was educated in Trinity-college, in the 
university of Cambridge, of which he. was fellow. In 1638 
he Was proctor of that university. In July 1642 he was ad- 
mitted to the rectory of Barley in Hertfordshire * ; and, 
upon the death of Dr. Samuel Ward, in September 1643, 
he was elected ntaster of Sidney-college in Cambridge, 
from which, Dr. Walker says, he was kept out *^ by the 
oppressions of the times ;*' but there was also somewhat of 
court-intrigue in this affair, as related, in Walter Pope's 
life of bishop Ward. He tells us, that upon the death of 
the latter, the fellows of the college assembled to choose 
a new master. ^^ Mr. Seth Ward, with nine of them, gave 
their suffrages for Mr. Thorndike of Trinity-college y for 
Mr. MinshuU there were eight votes including< bis own. 
But while they were at the election, a band of s>oidiers 
rushed in upon them, and forcibly carried away Mr. Par- 
sons, one of those fellows, who voted for Mr. Thorndike, 
so that the number of suffrages for Mr. lyiinshuU, his own 
being accounted for one, was equal to those Mr. Thorndike 
had. Upon which Mr. MinshuU was admitted mastef, the 
other eight only protesting against it, being ill-advised, 
for they should have adhered to their votes. Two of them, 
whereof Mr. Ward was one, went to Oxford, and brought 
thence a mandamus from the king, commanding Mr. Mio^ 
sbull, and the fellows of Sidney-college, to repair thither, 
and give an account qf their proceedings* as to that elec- 
tion. This mandamus, or peremptory sumodons, was fisced 
upon the chapel-door by Mr. Linnet, who was afterwards 
a fellow of Trinity -college, but at that time attended on 
Mr. Thorndike. On the other side, one Mr. Bertie^ ^ 

^ Alb. Ox. vol. I. new edit.-^Eloy Diet. Hist, de Medicioe. — Gassendi Vita 
IPeiresci, lib. II.— Moreri.— Halter Bibl. Med.-<-Geii. Diot. 

* Calamy sayi he was miaifter of Claybrooke in Laicestenhire, but does not 
•taia when. 



T H O R N D I K E. 327 

kiiifiCnaii of* the e«rl of Lindsey, being one of those \ih& 
voted for Mr. Minsfaull, was also sent to Oxford on bis- 
b^ftlfrf This gentleman, by the assistance and mediarion 
of my lord of Lindsey, procured an order from the king to 
confirm Mr. Minsbuirs electioi^ ; but be, not thinking this 
tide . sufficient, did corroborate it with the broad seal, to 
which Mr. Thorndike consented, Mr. Minshull paying him 
and the rest of the fellows the charges they had been a^ 
in the management of that affair, amounting to about an^ 
hundred pounds.*' This was therefore evidently a matter* 
in which >* the oppiressions of the times" (which are usually 
understood to mean those which arose from the usurpation) 
were not concerned. He was, however, afterwards, to 
experience the latter also, and was ejected .from his living- 
of Barley; which was given to the rev. Nath. 1^1 of King's' 
college, Oambridge, who, . Calamy informs us, punctually 
paid a fifth part of the income to Mr. Thorndike. At the 
restoration he was replaced in this living, but resigned it 
on being made a prebendary of Westminster. He very 
much asMsted Dr. Walton in the edition of the Polyglot 
Bible, particularly in marking the variations in the Syriac 
version of the Old Testament; and wrote several treatises: 
^' A Discourse concerning the primitive Forme of the 
Government of Churches," Cambridge, 1641, 8vo; ^'A 
Discourse of Religious Assemblies. and the Publike Service 
of God," Cambridge, 1642, 8vo; *< A Discourse of the 
Right of the Church in a Christian State, with a Review 
byway of Appendix," London, 1649, 8vo; "Just Weights 
and Measures; that is, the present State of Religion 
weighed in the Balance, and measured by the Standard of 
the Sanctuary," London, 1662, 4to; ^^A Discourse of the 
Forbearance of the Penalties, which a da^ Reformation re* 
quires," London, 1670, 8vo; ^' Origines Ecclesise, seu 
de ratione ac jure finiendi Controversias Ecclesi^," Lond. 
]f7X). To- these we<may add, what is called bis famous 
book, published in .1659, under the title of^^An Epi- 
logue to the Tragedy of the Chorcb of England, in three 
books, viz. 1. Of the Principles of Christian Truth. 2. Of 
the Cownant of Grace. 3. Of the Laws of the Church.'' 
By' a letter from chancellor Hyde, in the appendix to Dr. 
Barwick^s Life, it would appear that this work had given 
offence, as being unseasonable and injudicious. Hyde says, 
'^ Pray tell me, what melancholy bath possessed poor Mr. 
Thorndike ? And what do our friends think of his book ? 



32S T H O R N D I K E^ 

And is it possible that he would publish it, without ever 
iflnparting it, or commuoicating with them ? His name and 
reputation in learning is coo much made use of, to the dis- 
countenance of the poor church ; and though it might not 
be in his power to be without some doubts and scruples, I 
do not know what impulsion of conscience there could be 
to publish those doubts to the world, in a time When he 
might reasonably believe the worst use woujd be made^ 
and the greatest scandal proceed from them." This seems 
to allude to some opinions he held that were unfavourable 
to the measures of the court: and wejfind that there was 
some difficulty in admitting him into the convocation in 
1661, ** on account of bis speaking much of the Bohemian 
churches, called Unitoi Fratrum.^^ He was a member of 
the Savoy conference, and in the little he said completely 
undeceived the non-conformists, who, from his early pub- 
lications, had supposed he was of their side. There was 
also a suspicion that he had a little too much leaning to 
the church of Rome, so that his character has not de- 
scended to us with all the evidences of consistency ; but 
that he was a man of great learning, and an able oriental 
scholar, seems indisputable. 

He died July 1672, and was interred in Westminster- 
abbey* There were some remarkable passages in bis last 
Will, dated July 8d that year; particularly these words: 
** My will b, that if my nieces, or either of them, shall 
return to New-England, after my decease, or shall marry 
with any that goes to mass, or any of the new licensed 
conventicles, then whatsoever is given them by this my 
will, exceeding the four hundred pounds, which I have 
absolutely given them by deed, shall be void and not due ; 
so that when either or both of them shall be married here 
to such as sincerely cleave to the church of England, then 
the payment to be made. — As for my body, I charge my 
executor to write these words upon my grave-stone : ' Hie 
jacet corpus Herberti Thorndike, prebendarii hujus eccle- 
sis, qui vivus veram reformandas ecclesias rationem ac 
modum precibusque studiisque prosequebatur. Tu, lector, 
requiem ei et beatam in Christo resurrexionem precare.' 
It is evident, from this last clause, that he believed in the 
efficacy of prayer for the dead. * 

.^ Ges. Dict<— Walker*8 Sufferings of the Clergy ^Burwick't Life.^KeOMt'ft 

Chraoide.— Usher's Life and Letters, p. 616. 



.T H O R N H I L L. 32» 

. THORNHILL (sir Jam£s), an eminent English painter, 
was born in 1676. He was the son of a gentleman of an 
ancient family and estate in Dorsetshire ; but the father's 
imprudent conduct having reduced him to sell his estate, 
the son was under the necessity of seeking for a prdfes^ 
sion which might support him. He came to London, where 
the famous physician, Sydenham, who was his uncle, sup« 
plied him with the necessary assistances Cor studying under 
a middling painter. Such a master, however, doing but 
little for him, he was driven to trust to hi& own judgment 
and application ; and having naturdly genius and taste, he 
made, by. the strength of these, a surprising progress in 
the art of painting. He travelled through Holland and 
Flanders, whence he went into Friince, and there bought 
several good pictures; among others, a Virgin, of Annibal 
Carrache, and the history of Tancred, by Poussin. If he 
had seen Italy, his works would have had more delicacy and 
correctness. His only view in travelling seemed to be 
acquiring a knowledge of the tastes of different nations, 
and buying up good pictures, in which he was very curious. 
ThornhilPs merit soon spread his character, and raised his 
reputation to %he greatest height. Queen Anne appointed 
him to paint, in the dome of St. PauPs church, the history 
of that saint, which he executed in a grand and beautifiil 
manner, on eight pannels, in two colours, relieved with 
gold : her majesty also nominated him her first history^ 
painter. He afterwards executed several public works, 
particularly at Hampton-court, where he painted an apart*- 
ment, in which the queen and prince George of Denmark, 
her husband are represented allegorically ; as also another 
piece painted entirely on the wall, where the same subject 
is treated in a different manner. The other parts of the 
paintings there are done by Antonio Verrio, a Neapolitan. 
He painted also in the chapel at AH Souls, Oxford, the 
portrait of the founder over the altar, and the cielrng lind 
figures between the windows ; an altar-piece for Wey- 
anouth church, which was engraved by a young mao, his^ 
scholar, whom he set up in business : the hall at Blenhehn, 
the chapel at lord Oxford's, at Wimple, in Cambridge- 
shire, the saloon and other things for Mr. Styles, the then 
owner of More-park, in Hertfordshire. 

These great works, having established his reputation, 
procured him much employment among people of quality 
and fortune. His master-piece is the refectory and saloon 



S32 T H O R N H I L L. 

for the use of students, but this work never appeared. At 
his sale the smaller set was sold for seventy-five guineas, 
the larger for only 200/. a price we ought in justice to 
suppose was owing to the few bidders who had spaces in 
their houses large enough to receive them. They were 
purchased by the duke of Bedford, and placed in the gal- 
lery at Bedford -house, Bloomsbury-square ; and when that 
house was pulled down a tew years ago, the late duke, 
Francis, presented them to the royal academy. ^ 

THORNTON (Bonnell), a miscellaneous writer of 
genuine humour, and the colleague of Mr. Colman in many 
of his literary labours, was the son of an apotbecfary, and 
born in Maiden-lane, London, in 1724. After the usual 
course of education at Westminster school, he was elected 
to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1743. The first publication 
in which he was concerned, was " The Student, or the Ox- 
ford Monthly Miscellany ;*' afterwards altered to " The 
Student, or Oxford and Cambridge Monthly Miscellany.'' 
This entertaining medley appeared in monthly numbers, 
printed at Oxford, for Mr. Newbery, in St. Paul's church- 
yard. Smart was the principal conductor, but Thornton 
and other wits of both universities occasionally assisted. 
Thornton's first attempt appeared in the first number, 
** The Comforts of a Retired Life," an elegy in imitation of 
Tibullus. Mr. Thomas Warton was also a wrker in the 
poetical department; and Dr. Johnson, probably at Mr. 
Newbery's request, wrote bis " Life of Cheynel," in one 
of the latter numbers. The whole were afterwards col- 
lected and published in 1748, 2 vols. 8vo. In 1752 he 
began a periodical work entitled ^* Have at ye all, or the 
Drury Lane Journal," in opposition to Fielding's " Covent- 
garden Journal." It contains some humorous remarks on 
reigning follies, but with too frequent mixture of personal 
ridicule. How long it lasted is uncertain. The copy be- 
fore us contains only twelve numbers. 

Our author took his degree of M. A. on April 7, 1750, 
and as his father wished him to make physic his profession, 
lie took the degree of bachelor in that faculty, May 1 8, 1 754 ; 
but his bent, like that of Colman, was not to the severer 
studies, and they about this time ** clubbed their wits" to 
establish the periodical paper entitled ** The Connoisseur." 

« Biogr. Brit. SuppUmetft.— W»lpo1e's ijModotef.— Hutchint'i Hktory •f 
Donetohife. 



THORNTON. 3$a 

As they did not distinguish their respective papers by any 
mark, Thornton's share cannot now be ascertained, but it 
is believed to be less than that of his partner. His habits 
were early relaxed, and although not naturally indolent, he 
was easily led from regular pursuits, and was consequently 
not remarkable for puuctuaJity in his periodica^ supplies. 
Of this we have the following instance : when the Con- 
noisseur, No. 101, came to town for publication, Colman, 
who happened to be in London, saw it at the publisher's, 
and found it contained the production of a correspondent 
of very inferior merit, which Thornton had sent to press to 
save himself the trouble of writing one. But as the day 
for the appearance of this paper was the first of January, 
Colman was enraged at this carelessness and inattention to 
so remarkable an opportunity for a good essay, and came 
to Mr. Say's printing-office late at night to inquire if it 
was possible to have a paper printed in time for next day's 
publication. Being told tba^ it was barely possible, he 
immediately sat down in his publisher (Mr. R. Baldwin's) 
parlour, and wrote the paper which now stands as the 10 1st, 
cancelling the other *. 

As an occasional writer, however, unfettered by times 
and seasons, Mr. Thornton was profuse in his contributions 
to magazines and newspaper^. Scarce any popular topic 
offered of whatever kind, which 4id not afford him a sub- 
ject for a pamphlet, an essay, a piece of poetry, or some 
whimsical paragraphs for the newspapers. His contribu- 
tions to the Public Advertiser were very considerable, and 
when the St, James's Chronicle was projected (and the first 
thought of it was imparted to him) he became a proprietor, 
and a valuable contributor. A collection of the best pieces 
of the first year of that paper was published at the close of 
it, under the title of << The Yearly Chronicle for 17^1 ; or 
a collection of the most interesting and striking essays, &c. 
with a diary of events," &c. This was handsomely printid 
in an octavo rolume, but notwithstanding the convenience 
of the plan, and the popularity of the contents, it did not 
succeed so well as to encourage a continuation. 

* Dr. Kenrick who hated Colmaii, leur, bnt a letter ioteoded for the St. 

aod every theatrical maoagar who re- Jaoei's Chronicle : Loodoa Review, 

jected hit dramat, relates tbii story vol. III. We prefer, however, the an- 

in a very different inaBner» as if CoU thority of the late Isaac Reed, and Uie 

man had traosoribed Thornton's paper late Henry Baldwin, esq. of Kingston, 

to make it pass for hit own; with him who well knew the circumitanoe. 
too, it it not a paper in the Connots* » 



334 



THORNTON- 



About this time our author had it in contemplation to 
treat with Mr. Rich for the patent of Coven t-garden theatre, 
but the negpciation proved abortive. He ha^l now given 
tip all thoughts of the employment to which he was bred, 
and became an author by profession, and a general satirist, 
nor was it with his pen only that he exercised his humour. 
He projected an exhibition of sign paintings, a scheme 
which at first appeared preposterous, beyond all hopes of 
encouragement, but which actually took place at his house 
in Bow*street, Covent-garden. The object was to convey 
satire on temporary events, objects, and persons, and for 
tome time it had considerable success. It was, however,' 
one of those odd schemes which could not be expected to 
last, or to be repeated, and which the public, at a less 
good-humoured period, might in all probability be disposed 
to consider as an insult. 

The " Ode for St. Cecilia^s Day," above mentioned, was 
another effort of the burlesque kind, from Mr. Thornton's 
sportive muse, and afforded much entertainment. The 
sternest muscles must relaix where it is read. It was pro- 
fessedly adapted to '' the ancient British music," viz. the 
salt-box, the Jew's harp, the marrow-bones and cleavers, 
the hum- strum or hurdy-gurdy, &c. Dr. Johnson praised 
its humour, and seemed much diverted with it; nor could 
it be less diverting to hear him repeat the following pas- 
sage, which he frequently did : ' 

'' In strains more exalted the salt-box shall join, 
And clattering and battering and clapping combine ; 
With a rap and a tap, while the hollow side sounds^ 
Up and down leaps the flap, and with rattling rebounds *." 

In such compositions Mr. Thornton's imagination was' 
particularly original and fertile, and so various that no 
writer has ever excelled in so many species of wit, both of ^ 
the superior and inferior kinds, although his inchnation and 
sometimes his subjects led him more frequently to the lat- 
ter. What reputation this might have conferred, however. 



* Boswell's Life of Johnson. In a 
note on the last edition of this work, 
Dr. Burney informs us that he 'set this 
piece to music. It was performed at 
Hanelagh in masks, to a very erowded 
andience. Beard sun|^ the. salt -box 
$ong^ which was admirably aceompa- 
aitd on that instrument by Brent the 
fencinf . maitar, and father of iniss 



Brent the celebrated singer: Skeggs* 
on the broom-stick, as bassoon; and 
a remarkable performer on the Jew's- 
harp. Cleavers were cast in bell metal 
for this entertainment. AH the per- 
formers of the '* Old Woman's Ora- 
tory" employed by Foote, were em- 
ployed at Hanelagh on this occasion^ 



THORNTON. 335 

has been in a great measure lost, from his writing anony- 
mausly, and, upon .subjects, that had no perinaQent intere$t 
with the public, and from no collection having been made 
of hi^ pieces when they could be ascertained, . and attri- 
buted to the proper author. Mr. Colman once announced 
to his friends a design to collect all his partner's works, 
but neglected it, until his other engagements rendered it 
impracticable. In. 17 6 6 Thornton published two volumes^ 
afterwards. completed in five, of a translation.of "Plautus," 
in blank verse, assisted by Warner ^nd Colman ; a work^ 
which, although not very successful, was generally approved, 
and Warburtoa said/^ h^e never read so just.a translatiqn in 
so puce and elegant a style." In 1767 he published ^f Th« 
battle pf the Wigs," as an additional canto to Garth's '^ DiiH 
pensary," the subject of which was the dispute then sub* 
sisting between the. fellows and licentiates of the college 
of physicians. This was followed by his " City Latin," in 
ridicule of. the inscription on Bl^ckfriars Bridge. Besides 
these publications, he is said to have written the papern . 
in the " Adventurer," marked A. 

^ In 1764, Mr. Thornton married. Miss. Sylvia Brathwaite> 
youngest dajughter of colpnel Brathwaite, who was gover- 
nor of Cape Coast Castle in Africa, and. who, when tl^e 
ship in which he was returning. to England, was taken by 
a Spanish privateer, fell under, a treacherous blow by one 
of the sailors, who had observed a.valuable brilliant on his 
finger. With this lady, Mr. Thornton appears to have en- 
joyed the highest domestic felicity, for which he was ;emi- 
nently qualified by a most affectionate heart, until hi« 
prospects were closed by bad health, which hurried him to 
his grave in the forty-fourth year of his age. May 9, 17,68. 
He left a widow, a daughter and two sons, of whom Dr- 
■JThornton, physician, is the only survivor. 

His character may be taken, from the epitaph written in 
Latin by his friend Dr. Joseph Warton, .and placed on his 
monument in the cloisters of Westminster-abbey. /^ His 
genius, cultivated most. happily by every kind of polite 
literature, was accompanied and recommended by manners 
open, sincere, and candid. In his writings and conversa- 
tion he had a wonderful livelinesi^, with a vein of pleasantry 
peculiarly his own. In ridiculing the failings of men, 
without bitterness, and with, much humour, he was singu- 
larly happy : as a companion he was delightful." \ 

1 British Sisayists, toI. XXX. Preface. 



THORPE (John), a pkysioian and aoti^pMy,.dticcllM'#cl 
from au ancient KeotUh family, was the tkdmtwma ef^fkmh 
Thorpe, esq* and bora at Newbouse, in the-paaah of* Pg iuii4 
hurst, March 12, 1§82. After aebool^ediicatioii atWieatev^^ 
hap in Kent, he was, in April 16#8,. umtriovJiatei 'BM^^^ 
commoner of University-college, Oxford,^ whefe ii^-niM^ 
under the tuition priucipally of -Dr. CochmaB; af— r n wi y di># 
master of that college. In 1701 he took bit degreeaf 6.«A^< I 
and in 1704, that of M. A. Having «gtv«B » pr«fcreMe^ toi{ 
tb^ medical profession^ be was admitted R. M. Hi'^yi(W,'v 
and took bis doctor's degree in 1710. In. 1705'4le%iMiii 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society, to *hatrdMaGtiMii|^ 
of which be had itf 1704 contributed a letter' ^' ooucemnif^'i 
worms in the heads of sheep," &c. and afterwiirda ^^An4 
account of a great quantity of Hydatides found ia>theiab«>'f 
domen.'* He was also assistant to Dr. (afterwards air) -Haas* * 
Sloane, in the publication of the '* Pbilosopbical Transact* ^ 
tions.** He then resided in Ormond-street, London, neitr y 
his friend Di;. M^ad, and contracted ap intimate acquiiint^ 
ance with the most eminent pbysiciansi, BaMiralists,^nd tow ^ 
tiquaries of that time; but at the earnest solicitations of • 
many of his relations^ and friends, be quitted London 4n - 
1715,. and settled at Rochester, where be practisad tbiotj^^* / 
five years, with great snccets, and with equal bnmamty' lA ^ 
all cases where the poor- were concerned. 'Hedied-No#. 
1750 at Rochester, and was buried in a obapd oa the ^ 
north-side of the church of Stockbury in Kent > ' ' 

- At such hours as be could spwe fram 4iis pradtice, 4k ; 
apg^ied himself to bis fa?ourite study, the kistavy and 'anK ^ 
tiqaities of bis nati?e country, and especiaUy«:tho8e YaiatMg < * 
to the ecclesiastical aflhirs of the diocese of Baebeslar. CH ^^ 
all these be made very extensive oolieetians; but prt««ed''« 
only << A List of Lands contributory t6 Rochester^bndga,^' ^ 
a folio sheet. ^< A collection of Statute* concerning' Ro^ ^ 
chester-bridge;** and <* Articles of the High Court of Cfaah-^^ 
cerjf for settling and governing sir Joseph Willlanfton^ - : 
mathematical school at Rochester.'' He published also a 
▼olume of Scheuchzer's " Itinera Alpina," in 1708, having ; 
corresponded with Uiat eminent naturalist ^ 

Dr. Thorpe married Elizabeth, daughter of John Wood- ^ 
bouae, of Shobdon, in the coun^ of Hereford, by whom f 
he Jbad tha labjeat of the following article. [ ^3 

' Kiekoli*f liswyer. 



T K O KFX $n 



" TWMMi (MttM), won of ^he preceding, and also m 
— tt^iiaiy, WM bofo io 1714, «nd edocated at Ludsdourn ia 
%0mu wlMUce he Ptnioved to Uiiiversity-colleg^o, Oxford, 
mkef% be took bit waater'a degree iii 1738, and had an in-' 
KMlteo to Immto liMidiod physic, but was diverted from tho 
JpMMiili Olid ittemtM lo bare deputed his life, to the study of 
tliqiiuiia. lie wm eleeDed F. S. A. in 1755, and pub* 
liabed frooi bit &tber^s MS&. and indeed what his father 
ln4 in a great; fideaaure prepared, the ^* Registrum Roifense^ 
«r ft eoUeotioQ of ancient reoords, &c. necessary forillus^ 
iVMeg the eoclesiaatical history and antiquities of the 
difoeae m^ oelbedral church of Rochester, &c. *by John 
Tb»C|>e» iete of Rochester, M. D. F. R. S. and published 
liy bia aoii Jobii Thorpe, esq. j}i. M. F. 8. A.** Loud. 1769,' 
M. Pursuing the siime plan, he publisbed in 1788, in 
aoeiber auoiptaous folio, the ^^ Custumale K offense^ from 
tbe evtgtoal MS& in tbe archives of the dean and chapter 

ef 8^be«KENr." 

lu the ^^ Pbiioaopbical Transactions'* is a letter by Mr. 
Tborpe on *^ Cbea^ut Trees ;'* and he communicated to 
ibe *^ Bibl« Topograpbica Britannica,** ** Illustrations of 
aeveral aoiiqukiea in Kent, which have hitherto remained 
mdi e c fibed,*' and several smaller articles, both in that 
l^blicatioQ and iotibe Qentteman^s Magazine. 

filr. Tbovpe married the daughter of Lawrence Holker, 
M. Jl>« • phyaictan at Milton near Gravesend ; and after her 
deaiht I7^^> to whom be bad been united forty-two years,' 
he ttacvied iti 4790 Mrs. Holland, a lady who lived with 
kiea aa bAUatdieeper, and whs the widow of an old college^ 
ae<|H«iamece. Soon after his first marriage, he purchased 
iiigb-atreet^boMse, in Bexiey, which after his first wife'a 
deeib be quiued for a house oo Richmond-green, Surrey^ 
4^ at last removed to Cbippenhitm in Wiltsuirej where he. 
^d Ai^f. 2, 1792, in the seventy-eighth year of bts age. 
lie wet buried, according to his own desire, in tbe cburcb« 
jerd of* Harden Huish, Wiltshire. Mr. Thorpe^ by the 
report of one ^bo knew him well, *' was happy in a reten»»« 
live memory, and could quote whole pages of hi*$ favourite 
iPope, with tbe utmost facility. He was courteous, btitL 
WQi Q<Hirtly, in bia manners ; hospitable, but not extrava« 
^fjant et bis tables skilful and curiou:» in bis garden ; tntelli«» 
HtlM and communMUivteia bis library; seou^ el#jiiui^ hA 



iWt . T B O U. 

iiifoffiiiing in bb general convenalioiii Mid oti . astiifaiirtet 
topics almost an eaibusiast.** ' 

THOU, or THUANUS (James Augustus), aa illui^^ 
ous biscorian of France^ was ton of a fim pnesident^^ ti^ 
parliament of Parisi and boru there, the 9ib of Qc^bflr^ 
IS53. He was so exceedingly weak. aad'iiiipm«<m bis .in* 
iancy, tbi^t tbere was no bope of r^sarintg binv for t(i#,fiifet 
Are years bf bis life; and to tbis-it is owiit|^. tbsil abMr* 
4antly more care was taken to pret^s^ve bis body, tban^io 
cultivate bis mind, altbough be then appear^, to Wfa^tH:>y 
ef uncommon talents; for be was. not addkted to liie 
amusements of childhood, bat aimed at somesbing higb<ir» 
ind would divert himself with drawing and paintiiigi^ for 
which be bad always a very good tasie* When he ^ was t#ft 
years old, be was put to booksy and placed ii| the coUege 
ef Bourgogne; but in less than a year be was atiaoked 
with a violent fever, and taken home* The pbysiciaM gs^e 
him over for many months ; bat he recovered, 'and applied 
again to books, though wkh great moderalioo; for* bis 
eonttitutien was not able lo undergo (be ieast fatigue*! He 
was afterwards placed under the case of private • t«(0fs ; 
and regard seema to have been bad^ in the cboiee of tbajp), 
to the weakness of bis nature, as well as to tbe ioipiiioife-* 
aaent of his understanding ^ for tbey w'ere pbysieisesf: SMid. 
sueeessively four of them. Then be studied uyider tbe fa- 
mous Dionysios Lambinas, and Joannes Felterieusi^ mho 
was professor of tbe Greek language in 4be CoUfge^soynl. 

In 1570 he went to Orlesns^ to puiebe she law; wd 
tkefe the writings of ^Cujacius inspired bim with suehrnu 
esteem for tbat celebrated professor, that he quitted Qr^ 
leans, and repaired to bim into Daupbiny* He stopiped' 
upon tbe road at Bourges sia months, for the sake of bsi^r* 
itig the fiimotis civilian Hotomannus ; and then proQee40d 
to Valende, where Cujacius was reading lectures^ Hi^re 
be met with Joseph Scaliger, who was upon a visit to Cu* 
jacfus ; and commenced a ^iendship with .him, whicb.iie 
eultivatsd ever after with the greatest care. His father, 
enwiUing to have him long at a distance from bina, reeatbmt 
him in about a year; and be returned to Parb sQmetipe 
before that terrible massacre of tbe ProtestantS|r wbiob wae 
pei^petrated on St Bartholomew's day in 1^72. As be m$n$k 
designed far tbe ehuitsb^ be went to live with his^vMltt 

1 Ki^olt'f sawyer, and QntU Mi«, vah. LXlUaaS UCflU * 



T H tlr. %3i 

1 

•n^ltffe^ie Th^ iHui, h^ng jdsf )iiade^bistiof:f oPChati* 
tresy resigned to bim a canonry of Notre Dame. He be- 

^gaiy nowuo <Hi4tet5t that Itbi^ary, wbicb lifterwards became 

-«o laiDOU». In- 157*3 he accompanied Paul de Foix into 
ilalyy and vivrted' the "principal towns, cultivating acquaint^ 
ance« wilb the l^amed as he passed. On his return to 

'Parki be appli^ himself to readitig for four years; yet 
timif beius^ to say, was not: of so much* use to him asr 

-eoi^fersiog w]«b learned men, whkh he did daily. About 

\dite'^e«id of 15^6, when civil tumiiits threatened the state, 

-M. de Tbott was employed in certain negotiations, which 
tie.^K>ecut«d SO' w^li, as'«o establish the reputation of a 
inaa fit- for ^fensitfess; He afterwai^ds went into the LoW- 
Cotmtrte^, and in \&7S was made counselloV-derk to the 

>^i*ttffmeryt; an iv»rK>urab(e post, but accepted by bim with 
>«iiietftnce, onaccoiJnt of'his great love for retirement and 

^ aliidy^ ' In 1579 he ac^ompatiied his eldest brother to th$ 
heiSslff of Plombieres in Lorrain ; and this gentleiAan dyiii^, 

' ^e 90O0 after qmfted the ebdesiasticat state. 
• The^i^tagoe *ert;fe6ing*at Paris in I5»a, he retired to 

. IFomaifiib, and to6k- an ©|>portAnity of seeing Normandy 
mm\ Britmny^ and on bis return i& Paris, after the (blague 
aite(i{»0d,"WasrsMt;wftb-ocher Counsellors in pdrHament, to 
aMlmiiiiiat^jmtide^n Giiyennef. He bame again to Paris iu 
|58Q, atitt^ h«td i^m misfortune not to arrive till the day 
aftetffcis' ftithferw<a»- buried. To make amends, boweve'r, 
fbf hot 4>eifig able to p«iy bis last duU^i^ to hitn, he erected 
mr mcyst nobl^ moitument to his menf>oi^, 'And adorned it 
^th*'eu4^g*uiite written by the first wks of' the age; lii 
1*584* heiwa^ made me^er of the requests; and at that 
time, late as it «iay^eem, entered u^on a new course of 
fttvdy. 'He took in«o hi^* ht^se Bressieu, the professor 
foyal of mathematics ; and under bis direction applied, 

'^ this year and the foilovi^ing, to read the Greek Euclid with 
the notea of Prodna. The affectioi) which the cardinal 'de 

" Veodome bad coticei^^ for him induced him to spend 
iOtne time at court $ but this affection abating; he with* 
drew from a place he *did iiot at all like, and devoted bim- 

' self entirely to the composing his History, which he had 

-begun two years before. In 15^7 be took a, wife, having 

* fimt by the official of Paris been thoroughly absolved from 

- #11 eeclesiastictal .engagements ; foi* he bad taken the^^r 

leaser /carders. He lost his mother in 158S; and other 

troubles jbl a Bi€Nr« -public kind exercised him this yean 

Z 2 



f49 tirOU.- 

Tk0 tfj^r^ fff tb^ l^»gpe bad seiMd Vmm Mdi /oMigif 
]|'aYirjj h. tP qifit tb^ city. ,Tbuww folionrod ibif^^Ufmr 
and, w^ntj by jiU.Q|rder in^o Normaridy, ta sonadUifKiQ^tWHL 
noK9 aVid npii^Utrateft ; to.a(;quaii)t ibem witbiivhaMbaidTftafk^ 
P^ned al Paris; tdcoiifirrn them io .lbeir-4l»4M^iando«s(' 
make knoyvn his inteiuions of asscmHUi^ tbe 8tatf #• < U||<|tr 
his return, bje. ,was mad« f^ Qoviis^ll^r of «tat€. ; * r- i^.^^nr 
puriiig the hol(iiog of jtb^ sUtea at BlffU, M« r§^^mB^ 
to Pftisy yvbere b^ was in danger of bMing biiH Uf^i fQri4b^ 
lieW of the duke of GuUe'^s <leatb«arrivingy alb «vba Mfofn? 
of. know^ /E^^tacluDeat to the Mng w#i|9. obliged .it(> i)id^ 
tbefi^f^Iyef. '^huaniH was aiaoog ,tbaaiy, : buitM bsiplpiijl 
escaped undeir tjne disg/uisc of a 8oliiier«. Ve i^)aireUrMi^ 
the ki/igt who^ being removed tQ Tours, rea<4i'ed<a«( «i8tt'> 
blisb a pafliaoiisnt tbere, to oppo^ that of, tine isfwgut^y 
and Dje.Thout woold jia^^ been madetbe first pcfi^d^nt frf* 
it, if be bad qo|^ bc^ fixed agai;»sc . acc«pik3<g ihai oAcer 
Be. afterwards accoropajnied Mr.d^ £k:hQmbf)rgrin«p>^pieir4. 
many, to assist in raisii^ forces for the kingt and 4raifMg^> 
succgnrsfrom the Gei:oia^ p^ii^ces^ : be |>9fi$ed by ltaly^<^ 
and" was at Venice, when tb^ i\9wa .pf . HfiMry Uid'^ •df»tlk-t 
mada bim tmrn^iatcily. vatura ta Favaoe^^ 1H«i)rjs ]V« Jie«'^ 
ceiyed him very kindly, to whom, be gavi^iaiVieisacta^CMitft^' 
•f all tbat t^ad beeiQ don^ and QontiMue4 ^Wiy? fi^lbfiuUyiini^^ 
bis servico ; while the hii^g placed tli« grea^fpst rCQitfidMiHifc 
in^'hioi, and employed \iim in many jimp^tiini weg^iaiiMa^* 
After the battle of Yyry,. wbicb Heu/fy iVf gyiiued .ia..iii$iM^ f 
De Thou obtained Ij^ye to visit bi« < wit^at Si^plifl, ^whmn { 
b^ bad not seen. above a year; apfi. artiveA ibamiiaftbr'^ 
having been detained aome time.URO|v,tbe,fvail by ,a ieMeie&. 
His. purposet waa to 0eule> at Tour^; apd^ be wl^.i^xia't 
evening 19 povi the road tbitbf$r,i wbeo.a>pail^yi9f'tbe eoj^oqiri^ 
carried off his wife Ai;id equipsgii^,. while .bf(.^spa|p^ byiahift «; 
swiftness of his horse, aoc^ found mwas 9f9on>aft^i! m^j[&^\ 
cover bis lady. , In 1 592, b^ bad tbei pla^SH^ a#)4ideipattBd -" 
of life, but was happily cnred bry.tba.infi^i^ oj^ibiesoai^ .<: 
stone into atrong waters* Tbe.yef^r aft^,^ tho king taad^ ^ 
him his first librarian, whi^cb |4ajce became vacaul by, ibe ^ 
death of the learned James Amyot, faim^s for bis laaaslanft 
tion of Plutarch and other aiacieat Gkreek authors. la- 
1592, the duke of Guise having made bis peace with abe 
king,.. Thnanus was one of the persona appointed tp fQgtt«i 
lale the conditions of the treaty : be becaose tbe tawe yswi . 
2^J?l'^V}L^^f^S^^?^^ by the deMb of bia< UA«l«!j^Mguatii^d^ 



tnbu. 

'TiNltl^ wAf^ AoTtcmr hatt long We^f prSA^lseJ fifhi.* H^: 
utassi^afWwar^' eoticertied in many tiegonattiohi With the 
Biore^sfcnt parly, M<^ivsls greatly instrumental in hringing"^ 
<bf«i^iH!l>^<lh6'«dict'of 'Nantes ' which -was signed in AJ)»*il* 
M9^y* 4rKi«ifier«rdnisTev^ed, as is well knomi, by Lonii* 
XlV^^io tiSBd^ }nvl'£k>t,"tte lost his wife, wbotn be im-* 
mortaiissed bya!eg4e* ;**iHt soon aftef recovered so far from* 
bift'llg^ri^^^ gh*ftt as^U #ai^, a^ to take anothet. During the 
ffg^n^^ of^qii^rViMai^y of Medicis, Thuanus was 'one'of 
th9!^*^eH^fal^irddtors of the finances; and Was, to the end' 
<^M^ lifei' ede^ged'hioreor less in the service of the state. 
Hifrdicfd tbe47Dit of May, 1617*, and wa6 interred with his' 
fMiily 'id ihle cWapel ^f St. Andrew of the Archei?. ^ 

<(Ss# left ' beiniHi bim* a general history of his own times 
friAii }64S^^o 1608; writ^it in very clear and excellent La- 
tin*:*^ A«rH)ngniany things," says Grotlus to him, ** which^ 
posijtffcy will^'mif^, this ^^fte all astonishes tee, how you, ' 
aMviys as* it shotrtd seem engaged in business, should find' 
]^siiir» and ind«rfktigftble foree of mind to kn6«^ so many 
ap^i^^ gl^eattbitfgs as. yon' have Icno^^, and to write them' 
ip«Mh amimnev-asr you hwt written them.** And in ano-' 
tber plalc^ep' ^^^ Tou ^ blive - comprised a' history of thef ^hole^ 
iwbrid' in<'8^»dl'!» maitmer, as codld not have been expected 
fwooti^idiMtf*bfi1(8e most Idanre'.'svch is the plenty of ydor^ 
mmumi^imii§h 'tbe«^I«gabce of your iangaage.*^ Isaac Ctf'*^ \ 
8aob0il'^y^>^ibi^t'l%oantts seems to him to have been pro- ^ 
v^A^ofUaiiy gvteil* for an e)cample to the age in which he . 
liivd^crf ^tyi Mneer4ty; probity, aiid in'sfaorrof all virtue 
and. goodoeH.*' Tbuaniis has acquired immortal glory by 
hisiiiiit^ry; vifhii^h, says Perranit, ia^written Whh an exact- 
ness and •'ficteMty beyond example. This biographer adds, ' 
tbfS>*he *>tie^r df^t^m^d dr concealed the truth ; but had'' 
a ^«*b(6 andi generous bokhiess, ' for which he has been 
pwised by-all'^bis ^fvat tneh of bts time.^-r-This work is 
.wOfxlijr 0f Vh^ aherems^, •. and perhaps wouM have exceeded 
a gwttat js^artsof w4iat the ancient Romans have left us in the 
W9f^^ Jaw si^ry;* If Ite 'had'not affected to Imitate them too ' 
cWs^ly^f for ^s ha:s fmt faiib upon Latinizing the proper 
nameir ' of men, towtis, t:ountries, and other things, in so 
strange a manner, 'M to make a glossary necessary, in order 
to^kaow frequently What he means." 

Part of this History was. first printed at Paris m 1604,'; 
a deditdttoir to Henry IV. which is thought to be as"^^ 
p!iftsc#i*fy»%M»mpO0ttifm in its ^ kind, aB the declidation ef ^ 



9*?^ 



thou:. 



Ct<auboA*ti Polybivi to tiikfatnfe tndnareli, ftnitllHeof^Mr^' 
«< Inftcicutioties Cbrwiinna'* of Calvifn til>>f iMfom 1i 14N^ 
publie^iifm.of the bistoryi in teparate pai^s, wattttKfter<^lirtli 
qonttnped by the author, who, however, doev not seeffi'lfr 
have published it nU m his life-time; or otiy {furiof Ji, 
ejficept the volume just nsenticHied,- im a biant^r cMfovw^ 
able to bis original copy, which, tbktWore; be'^epMifeA^ih 
the haoda of a friend, that it might be prtiftM ithm^Uk 
death, j list a» he wr^te it. It was ioiig, bdwbter, bdfore 
t^is could be effebted* Tbuanus was anhofiest hlsHclfM/i^ 
aad with respeet lo thiiiigs aod personsboldly AeliMiM tlm 
^u^h* . There would ef course be many excepiioaaMe pai« 
sages in bis wotk, many that would highly ofEM^^ f(l^i4- 
4ualsbp4H in qburch a«d- state; and lliis«iwa« thercfhson 
irhy, tboogb'pitinted-frequemiy andl iir ditteetnn t&aMfM^^ 
• if: nevtr- came out free from dasrratidns^ and" agee^abte to 
the A^uthor'tt erig^nal cecpyy liM 179^. f t avaa iheft^lM^*^ 
spmely printed'^ LondoA^ and ptiMfsbed tinder the'dtf6l$- 
tion^ and chiefly at the e?0peaee^ of the et^ceWem DriMe&l, 
in se^ten voiumes' folio; to which are preftieed^fMi' 'Latth 
lettersi inscribed to that celebrated patroa of l^ttersj ilird 
giving aiynHioonnt of the variotia chaogeifiand bbSffo^ tllfs 
History has uiiidergone; of the 'different editiom; tvhiit 
each (|f ithem contain^ and. how they vary; And>by'#hlit 
m^tenaU and afisist^iioes the editors htfve* ao leffgtfoiH^i^ 
enabled t(l give a< very eompleteand perfecC'COpy of tt<.'' 
'/ Thuenu^ exce41ed in poetry >es weii aa ^isCcfihy, ttnd'pCib- 
]isbed severiil prbductions of that kind, as ** Meia^mMs 
po^tic» librorium sadrorutn aliquot,^ 1<&BI, in 41^0. Tb^e 
par<vphrsi^9 are upon* the books t)f Job^ Ect4es!ie^eB^ the 
l^afnentations of Jerelhiab, ' asid* tbe'^i^t* les^tt pi^b^cs. 
^^ De re ac^ipitrai^ia,^' Parisv 1^14, 4tjr>» Voiisiosand^oilbM 
h^ve much cpnimemied this woric, and have not licry^ted, 
Oil the merit of it) to rank: TbnanuH with the be» po^s 6f 
his age. ^> Ci1atiibe,< Violii, Lititim, Phtogte,'^7erpjriiiMie, 
Paris, 1611,^' in4to7«a 'iiiMtoe4ianeoii»' tollectiotv. ' IHli^fe 
are also '* Thuana ;*' but it may be said of tb^nff, as inf tibe 
Anas in gi^neral, that they 'comain:iittte thai is Wortby^of 
the name of their supposed' author. ' ^ 

• Tbuanus bad no cbililren by hisfirsc wife; but ihfee*»^is 
by the second, the eldest ctf whom, Francis A^ootwnusThii- 
a{iU5» a Very excellent man, was beheaded at Lydns in 
1642,. fur not revealing a conspiracy^, whicli bad/bcen en*' 
ti^idted; "to. bim, agatnsV ciirdiiial HioheH^u.^ Thf <r$r#(tikl 



1 



T ft O 17. «43 

- fUte^ supposed n.<it' to be sorry for the opi^rt^iiily ibat of^ 
lor^ df revs^ging, upon the son, what the father bad i^aid 
ilf.bis great unol^ Antony Duplessis de Richelieu, in the 
foUowingvpa^^age of his history: ^^Antotiios Plessianuft 
Riobeliiisi vqlgo djieltis Monachos, quod eato ▼itam pre- 
iask95ia fuisset ; d6tny vDtoe}urato, omni se Hcientife ac M^ 
.bi^isrgeiiece coolaminasset.-* This unfortunate geade- 
4lii^ar.wfis ^irty*ftve yeara of age. * 

4 ^HRfii-KKLD (tCALEB), a natural historian, waa.borii 

^l^f %\^ lj$!7i»M Keiberg, in the parish of Kirkosv^ald ki 

rJOugttbefiatui. In I6i>8 he Gommeoced master of arts in ibe 

Juriiveraliy^ of Olasgow, and sooi» after settled at Low G(ud* 

.illeseeuj^h^ nefir the plaee of his birth, in the charaeter cf 

ift .dissenting minister. In this situaticm he m^ide a consi* 

(cterabie pri>gress in the study of physio, and contracted n 

^{eve for plants ; insomueb^ that in* 1713, be took a doctoifii 

4^ree 411 medicine at Edinburgh; and the next spriog^ 

j6avihg a narrow income^ and a large faniily, he renio?ed ib 

2)ul)lin(' and settled there in both characters, as a diving 

iftnd a pbysiciaitv His family, consisting of a wi£tf and thr^^ 

;ew$, Md as many daughters, did not follow till more thifa 

,11 ^year bad elapsed ; when, finding himself vlikely to ft^c^ 

)<Qieed, be sent for them over. His practice in me'dicip^ 

«90Qn inereas^d, so far as to enable him to drop bis oth#r 

/eb«r«Qter endrely, and devote himself whoHy to pbysif ; 

but bodied after a. short sickness of a violent fever, at his , 

bouse in Mi^rk'^^IIeyf Frances^street, April 2S, iTdBi and 

o«|rftft buried ill the new burial ground belonging to St. P|i* 

^iir^ik'S) near .C^avan Street, to which plac^ his obse^uiek 

5, wefe attended . by a set of children educated by a society 

?ef geotJeraeu. >He was much regretted by the poor, to wbood 

sb# bad beer^ both as a man, and as a phydcian^ a kind b^ 

/fi^^&Qtor. 

'-. . It does net « appear that Dr. Threlkeld published aay 

,iHber book than his ^'Synopsis Sfirpium Hibernicaram al- 

^pfaabetice dispositarum, sive Commentatio de Plantis indi^ 

sgeais, prcesertim Dubliniensibus, instituta;'' 1727, 12mo, 

\ being > a short treatise of native plants, especially suph 

as grow spontaneously in the vicinity of Dublin, with 

tbehr Latin, English, and Irish names, and an abridgment 

of their virtues, with several new discoveries; with an ap- 

^ NiceroD. — Life which mccompaoies his History. — For a more araple accoadt, 
the English reader may bi satisfactorily referred to a *' Life of Tbt&anus/* pub* 
ImImi^ IB 1107, St«, by Um Rtr. J. C<^iotOB, M. A. of Q«c<n'i colttg^, Osfdrd. 



3f« T %n,5,l>KS»LTD. 

^Q46*^.kingij<)m pi irel^ud. In tliis.,worJt,.ajier » de^jcar 
U9n 'uf.W book .toftie qrclibubep of.^TD^|iyapd,»^£^ff 
face, i^'lucb, tboitgh vyiiiien ia a qif^inb^s^l^, proves, l^ipt.ff) 
be 4 man nf, cuit^iderfible. erudilion, he ei^urnf rAfe^.&U tifi 
^TaiiM b<;,ha(i observed in the eiivirpn^ of iDi^bliDf.py giy^ 
• ing, lir,i, the old Lattn iiaine, get^raily EinjBi Cwp^r, ^ftWa 
|jiii,^V t*itifts; tbeji the English, nf me, nod, sff^rward^.^h^ 
Jrisli ; iii)bj(/liiii)g» t«bt'revt;r it geeoas ^Knesiitrj^-, t>oifae,4«ta 
count ,oC tl(e^ (jiiaijiy of the plant, and its vfe int [fD«4fCiqf| 
^I}li oqcpticmy, Besides tl^eae li« hfts bere «nd tb?re '^Dowfi 
in I* cnriou; ob^erraumi ; lo inntancc^.ufi^ei: fhc vtu^^.loe^ 
tula,,lift'S^ys, ',',Tlt« Imh granvnariiins rfMi»rk t^a« »U.t[bfl 
naiueit of ti>« hkh letters are nam^iuf irefni.". lie3ttBf!^.H 
lw*wer»,«»ijave b^en better acquaititpd, M(itl( tiw; tli*tp''J 19? 
plwUf iban ^')tb {ilants Ui^w^elve!' ; a*he.Be^it nijt tp haTj^ 
tiuuied them in a stsiematic *ay- He incurred^lh^^^^^. 
pleuture uf the learned proffvaor Qr.,Uilleitiuf^b^^Wiig 
tl^COj^U^OUl, Jn.ttiis b9vkt.librt;e,qc Iqiit «ilif:^ap(a^iiff}[|l)^ac 
fjieiiut^an"^ iiurQdttciiw.of new n^!?s ,jnxo.hQtai»^,.,n)i Jjjfi 
«dU.0li •»'.Mr.Baj'> ^^.fiynpp^iV', p«)b)i^>(J «,b4^t,, l^M 
Jf.m bsf'HetW-i 4^9-9'K ^'W,^n^lupl>'^,^^]spg^■ie^^ 
nL-.»U,^Lin«?^sfril>'.; b,ui Uiljepiu^ .^.^yt (^i^k ^^ ^ 
,*pUlW)Ji«vrMniijJab!^,eO(^Uiit*jfor.(» reply-,,',, ;,, „ ),>/-nj))» 

'.n»s. W^je^^ itb^y, Qteur, n#>„probii^ly, piff ife ,%09i^ ,?mf^ 
Q^iiy.arttir his paw^ ty^, bprn ,19, ^^^*{i■■^. pf^|f^p4);,^iia* 
*-00'.-rK,WT UA^ftJfiHt., %.yas ,(pr pi^i»; 3(R^| R^ftisfc 

parp^, fU),(i., inut^, la.luifl|^J^,f ijrjqsit^. , I),ui;itig ^he,.TW^8^ 

tutjep yt a,lift!jr^o»«^^Jyi ^lia^qwercf/^.lift.^flider^d^^imTt 

B'elPci>nsi>icu(}nf as a druugbumaii ?ifii,tf)|]{)^a)l^fr.. .^^q^- 

po^ntjitpi.i, tnp\w8,?*<^*'^fri 

three, P.pdl^ - I-™,.'-. ....-, -.-.p.. ^-..TJ?.,xs■''^■J'.'Jov'^«t 

St. JV|i";i)«.A,^,,#VF-"ri?f,'i,'*,9f;* Kfa'^eaN^ "iluR; s((|pr^ft 
whu ti,ved7e->Pj;;f;te(|, ^nd.^diefji an huniyie netnb^ p^.t^^e^ 



\ * 



T^u^i^d§^i^^ ' *4i 



««^KWC!iriih'' WJs pubKcraiibn's w^c,-1.^*1TJc«cJ 
ttib^l-^Wf (^e^frnvrjir^d County of-Leicefeter," ll7t; 6 Yolsi 
riftiitfr^ 2. *^iMct5t Views in Leicestersbire, fVoiii driginaf 
%!>}&Aitgkf'iW*Jy'^ih:'^'S: **A Siifiplementary volume W 
ftijEf 'U^ifcest^^ilift^i Vref^sycontainhig a series of fixctlf-sidns^, 
fti itr*Srqr, tb^tHieHvBlagcrf anrcl'praces of note id the county/* 
l^^/ittJ: >i^^ Tbe'flinoryand AntiqoitWof theanci^na 
tiWrf df 4i^t^est%r;'^ I'T^l, +10/ 5. « tetters on tbc Romair 
9ii6d&ji*^'ije'tc€kitry'* 1793. It is almost needless to' add.* 
tfr^^t^ th6$e' Works on Leicestcrslfirie baire beeii since kiw 
j^^H^d^d by Mt. Nichols's elaborate tistory of 'that''cotJnty^ 
fl.' '^^-iTbbuf^hts on the Provincial Corps raised^ and noir 
ir^ib^, tn Vtlpport of- the British constitution at this ti^ftit 
pt^ric^'* 179^5, 8Yti. 7. **Tiw>w>ton'5 History of 'Nbttlng- 
katinshn^^ repiibtished with Ikrge additron^, and embetiishn 
^ with |iidrare.<:qne and select views of sektsofth^nbliitiiy 
^fd giyIltr5^ to^vils; vHlageS; churches, and rbins,** \^^7^ 
3^'V6li' 4rp. * ' J . j . I • 

3TfifUitfNUS. S^eDETHOU. . ^ 

.^-YaOCYDH>ESi an 'aocieiit Gnfe^k historian, #« a di, 
^^nr of Athetis^^and bom in the second year of tBet7ct^ 
$f^pviii^ drbiht^ Chci&rt 469: ' tie Was of royal extrit^ 
Aodt fdii;Viir Wri^d relate, that bi^ father 04arifs,%r OfoX 
n^/Wak ttes^hfdc^d {r6in Oloriis, kfng'of Thrace. He wai^ 
educated in philosophy by Ana^agora'Sy and in'eToqoeDCi^ 
Hf •A'nfpWn/ '»Saidas artd IPhatim r^te k circiin^stance^ 
mi?6h «flf]fe^/»)at lie had f ^Om ^{s youth a libble ei^ulati<s^;^ 
A^Niir&^tf HtrVbJbtus ri^cited hi^ Hfetory rn public, apractice^ 
til -m^ fli^n atid' matiy ages after, it drew' tear^ from him ;* 
MfMf H^rt^y btuV hlm'sdf notrcin]g, cingrattrtated 'his fath(fer^ 
<fl4'%aving^a ibti* '^4io shewed to wonderful aa affedtion to^ 
t^b rbuses. H^rodbnVsVas'th^if twenty-hlne years of age i* 
'Piilicydid^^Wfoiitf^ifWW.' •^^^->' • . . . • .' . .^': 
^'WheW thfe Pb16p<Wne^ian tikr btcan to break out, Thui-" 
cfjj^didp^ cof^bctii^^a^ tltily; that it^wonld prdve an argiii' 
sfi&M^wdi'ihybf'Btb fobWj and ft no kdotier'domtoenc^d* 
ttrah I'le 'b'^^am hU Aisiory, notihg ddwn'eveiitg and circurh«( 
st&rKt^s;^ as tUb*^ happened uAdel^ hU ey^, or came to his* 
W6Mb^^. W^his^ own'^life we* know nbtbing with ccf-*- 
tih\\yi b6i v»hat '6e hiibself ttatf delrvei'eU in' bis liistory.J 
Bb wk^ si t6vei^6f'contembUtton,aAd'ret)retnent, yeth^ did'* 
i^(^Rf«'iB^sdrvite^'of th^ skate, iiind ircb^^tfecla'd'dord^^ 






S4« T H U C YD I D E S. 

ingfy « cbtndiand hi tfac Briny. This, however, proved Bttv 
fortndBtf tD:biin ; for while be resided in the Isle of Tha^ 
Am, it ba|»petied that Brasidas^ the Laeedemoniant besieged 
ilmipbtpoUs, a city belonging to the Atheniani, about half 
a day'» sail from Thasua. Thucydides being one of ^he 
fttrategi, or of those who bad authority to raiat fonoes in 
those parts for Ae aerviee of the comoaonwealtb^.she Atbob* 
•ian captain sent to him to levy apoweri and haaten^to* bia 
l%lief : aa he did not arrive till too late^ and when the city 
was already yielded up, be was afterwevds punished, aa if 
he had done this either through negligence or fear of die 
eaemy. For this suspicion, however, there was no jostrea*^ 
aon, for he put himself into the city of Eioe, and presewed 
it to the Atfaeniansi with the repulse of firasidas, who caatif 
down the next morning from Amphtpolts, and beaieged tl; 
After bis banisbment, which happened in bk forty-eighth 
yearv he lived in Scapte-Hyke, a city of Thrace, where be 
had married a very opulent wife ; and large possessions mil 
rich mines of gold, as be himself professes in Us fomrth 
book. 'He was not however so afleeted with bia disgrace, 
es ID' ahua hi maelf up from the world, but was present at 
4he actiens of the rest of the war, as appears fnom the fifth 
book of his. History. In compiiing his History, which oc<- 
tmpwi a .greati share of hta time while in exile, :he ia said 
so have employed considerable sums of money in pse** 
cviieg authentic memorials, not only from the lAtheniafis, 
bet the Lacedemonians* It comprebetsda tbe P^lopanne* 
aian war, which lasted one and twenty years; . for' thcgagb 
aome writers make it continue six yeara longer, yet others 
more rightly j^udg^ what followed to be rather the eooae- 
qtiences of the war, than a part of it. - Some cvitica have 
imagined, from the dtfierenee of style and manner^ tbetiJjfe 
eighth book, according to the ordinary .'.divisioe, vt&Etaioot 
written by Thucydides, bnt added afterwands by another 
band; but this is not the general opinion^ and^ as Hobbes 
ai^'s, it ia very probable, that it is left the aame aa it wps 
when be first wrote it, that is, in the way of commeetanjrf 
neither beautified with orations, nor so well cemented ia 
the ti'ansitions as tbe former seven books are^ Xenopboii*^ 
^ Hellenica*' are a supplement to Thucydides's History. 
. It does not appear, that after bis exiie Thucydides ever 
again et^oyed bis country,; nor is it clear from any author, 
where, or when, or in what year of his age, he died. Most 
agree^ that be died in;banishment; yet some h^ve related^. 



T H U CTI> ID E a 14* 

tli»t;<^tter ihe 4tfeai kt Sicily,' the AtbimUini ^edrmd a 
^oneral revocalton of>al^ banJBfaed peiMiw, and tfhat ke then 
cct4»riMld, aad was afterwards pat to death at Athens. Tbia 
istnotdthely ; aitd natty other ccreamstaticea ar^ rriaaeA 
i9bif h have no stores piBbabiHtj. HeUrea thtnks^ that in ttaM 
ymttyi oi' cmijeetarea there is notfaiiig moFe probable itfaa« 
^hat^ivhich we haveirom PaaaaDJas, who, imditloriUiig tb# 
jttionuafaeatt of' vthet Athenian city, says, ^^ Tbe^ wonky aet 
of'CbtiobniSy ittrfthe) behalf of Thucydi^^ is hot Wfthcmt 
'faonoor, for Oenobius obtained to have a decree pass^ tat 
'idb re^unn : who* fetor liing wsa slain by treaeheffy, aad fais 
aapulchre is near the gate edked' Mehrides;'' He it reek-*' 
qmed to have been shrty*etgbt years of age when he (tietf; 
Ue; left /a. sun^ adioseMiiaine is* hardly knowity kiit supposed 
tja kav^ been Timotheita. ' 

"He exceiied inj the two^ gr^at pofaita wksebfotsi « j«it 
hislevian, truth* and ekiquctiee;' The ftdth of km Hiatmy 
has. tie¥ef* been ipaUed into t]uestton. He wanted no ^(p^ 
poitonkiesiof kno^iaf; thettfoth,,aQd he ^aes not appear 
toihavd niarepitesebt^'it; 'aad tbeagk somi hi^se faneied 
him. a liiUe* matevkitem tot^aads 4iii ceitatry, beeaese tkef 
aaage^ ;he kad^ recti vaid wovM^feave made most fieoplGi ao/ 
yet he Jias v6t wtitlen any tkrag iliat dtseovers each a pspi* 
'sion. . His aaanoer of wrising is Mhesreilty perspicuoos, aimi: 
pi^suasi ve, jret ch)se^^ strongvaad' pitby. The 8neients*faav« 
Sicken of hftni in :the highest terms; > and if HeiodotsM^ aa 
bt« seniofy obtained: the title'** father of history^" yet the 
'greater tpart' have aHewed that Tbwcydidha is the better 
hiatorkin. Plmareh^ says, m <bnr tneatise De Oieria Aithe-^ 
sieQsiaar, Khaa Thoc5^tiide» ^ anas alwayis at tfaisv to make 
his auditor si spectator; and to excite in hisMeader thesiHtte 
passions with 'those, who 'were beholders." Then enume^ 
* rating sooae exairspies, *< chiase things^'* be seys, <^ Btti'M 
^liescribed, and so - evidently set before our eyes^ that the / 
^hd of the reader i» no less afleoted^ than if he had beetr 
jfresent ffltfae^ctions.v And it was probably for his skill 
in painting, certatnlynot for his eloqnwnee (for, as Cieevo 
says, ^* what greas rbetorioian ever borrowed any thing of 
Thneyciides }'*> that the famoas orator Demosthenes wmtar 
over his Hissory, accordtnig to Lncian, eight times with his 
'owa hand. The same Luoian, in his book ** How a bsitory 
nought to be written," <:omsnoaHy exeospUBes the virtnea 
required in an bistoriographer by Thucydides; and it seems 
M if the^image-ef ThiioydfdkB^s ^tory, preoonceived in 



/ 



S4t T H U C iY D 1 D E »; 

Jtnebii^tvofitfidy fluggestdd to bfan M the pretepiA he tlicW 
deliTert. As to bts sty le, Cicero speaks erf it thtis f *^Tbtt«» . 
cydides in< the art of speaking, in my opiiHony bai far ex-*' 
€eeded them all. For be is so full of matter, tfiat tfa^ num- 
ber of bis sentences almost equals the nmnber of his words f 
and .in has words he is so apt, and so oloi^,'thlKt iti^'b^r<f 
to saj% whether bis words more illastraie' bis senteiices; oi* 
hsB. sentences his words.*' The Roodatis ihongfat higrbtyof 
Thocydides^s >vork ;* and Sailust evidently took him ibt^fais' 
model. * ' ' J - * 

' It is. remaiiupible, that Dionysins Haliearnassetistir Mter« 
taioed unreasonable prejndiees against thitf historian,- Ih'fii-'' 
y^iDur of his conntryman Herodotus, whom he wasr de$i\roui^ 
iabvre considered as superior to him, and bad-'rai^d tt^-^ 
cordingly many objections to his work. -<^The prhitipakF 
aaal nott neeessary office of any man that Intendeth to 
write an history,'* he says, *^fs to chose a noble argumetif;^ 
and gtatefiil to sueh as shall read it.; and this Herodoio$ ^ 
has.4loue, in my opinion, betuer than Tbucydtdes. Fbf^' 
Herodotus hatk wvttsen tbe joint history both t)f the Greeks'; 
and 'BaAerians ; but 'Hioeyiiides' wvrteth only one war/* 
lathis, as well as toDtonystnsVotber obje^lofOiT, Bobbeii^ 
roplii»e ^ Let any man consider, whether it be not morei^ 
reasonable tonay, thet the pirrneipal and most n^cessaiy^'' 
office of Irns tb^ will write an history is 'tor take snicb iin* 
avg^iolont as is both wishin his power weli' to handle, atid^ 
profiubte to posterity that shall- rcM it i which Thbcydides, 
in* tbe opinion of all men, has done better than Herodotus. ' 
For HecodotBs undertook to write of tbose tfairt^s, of n^ich 
it was iflspossible for biiH to kMwtbe tirotb, and vKhtdi de* 
light mose tbe ear with labulons narrations, than satisfy: thb 
inind with truth ; but Thucy^des writes pne war, whicb^/ 
hqw it was carried on from ^tbe beginning to the end, be ^ 
was able certainty toinform himsetf.^' > Tbe single ciVctini* 
stance here urged in favour of Thucydides, gives Idi^d t!la^ 
reodon's History of our Civil Wars, (^ferhaps, the |iHeferdnce^ 
to any btsbory that is extant in aiiy language. 'SiHfie mo>-']^ 
dem critics have, however, formed an opinion' Af^Thucy* 
dides iporeaccording with that of Dionysius tfaab qfHobbes. " 
The emperor Charles V. is said to have been so fond of this 
historian, chat be always carried him with him' into the 
camp, ^nd used to talk of him with wonderful pleasure to 
those about him. 

Thwcydides was iirst printed by Aldus, in \50^ f^io,^ 



T H U C Y D I D E Si i« 

^oce wbicb the best editions are, I. That printed by Henry 
Stephens, with a Latin version of ^* Laureiuius Valla, Paris> . 
1 5a8,'Vfolio. 2. That of Oxford, ** Greek and Latin, ciim 
HQtis yanbriMtt & Job. Hudsoni, 1696," foHo. S.^< Grsoci 
&, La^ine,. cum notis .^varioruBl & Jos* Wasse. Accedunt 
QineAi^fitipi^Can Au^d. Dukeri, Amst. 1732,** 2 vots. folio. 
4/. Tjbie Qia^f^ow , ediu 1759, S vots. I2aio. 5. A elegant 
«ir)d C9rrect ^|^(»n in Jivo^' 1786, at Deux-ponts, from the 
ediiioi^of Duker, ^ vols. ; and lastly, tliat of £din. 1903 — 6, 
€ vols, edited by the rev. Peter Khnsle)^. 

.Wa., bmve a. good English translation of this author by 
Hobbes, whose^accouQt of Thucydides has been of service 
t^ qs in tb(^. course of this memoir* But a translatiou noiv 
inq^^ea^i ose'^and estimation is that of Dr. Smith, dean of 
Cbe^er,, whU'h was published in 175$, 4to, and 1781, 8vo.' 

..Tf'EmLHER (ViNCBNT), a Benedictine of the congre*- 
g^Uqo de St.Maur, was born in 1685 atCoucy in tbedio- 
c^e.of Loon, and taught philosophy and theology in the^ 
d|b^y of St. Ger0iain*des-Pres at Paris. He afterwards 
beeaxpe^sub^prior-of tliat nbbey^ and died there, Jan. 12»! 
1736* Jtlis best performanve is an exceRent Freueh trans^^- 
lajLioia .^ Polyblusy with a commentary by tbe chevalier. 
Fqll^idy. 6 vols:: 4tQ» £le ais^ aoquirod fame ^as a theolO'-' 
gl^u bj( tvvx) <^^ Letters,*.' ou the revooaJtion . of his ftppeai^ 
frpm ;t^e buU UnigeuUus; and «omeothec>pief^s, chiefly > 
ii^ffiyou^.of thi|^ Qoi^titution Unigenttus, after be had re-« 
voK^jiis appeal i <whicbiixiad6'a'great aoiae in -his emigre^* r 
gation.? ^ .. I .,,..'-. . 

XJtiU^LOE (Joii^t 09q.^^ seevetaryof state to the two 
prc^teotor^/Oliver and Eieivard CiromweU, was soa of Tbo* ; 
n^ . T^iurjoe, rector of AbbatSrRotdingy Essex, whcure be 
wa^ l^gni ill Jl 6 1 6« He was- educated to tJie law, and after-» 
Ivf^icfls ^eQOinine^dec). to iJbe patronage of Oliver St. Jebn^ . 
esc|^^a,|>erson of gneat eminence in that .profession^ and . 
'9U4^qe|p8^V^ly;^^9^ci^rf$eneral lo Charles L and lord chiefs 
jtt&U^if offbe^pmq;)pnp|^a».; b^wboae intjerest, ^^^ 1$45| . 
be v^s.j^j;ipinted,one pf the siecretAnes to the parliament 
cOiiiai|f{sW>9ers/at l^e treiity.of CJxbridge. In 1.647, he wis 
ikdoutt^4:of Liflcoln^srinn : and. March 1648^ made re* 
peiy^r^or clerk 9f tbecursHor 6nes, under the earl of Kent, 
lord Grey of VVeirke, sir Thomas Widdrington^ and BuU- 

irdde Whitelocke^ esq. cpipn^issionera of the great seat 

«. . ■" ^ 

I » Life by HobbM.-^Fabric. BibL Grec.^J>ibdla's ClMsacs.^BlMr't Uciurm^ 



<fiO T a W R L E. 

> < 

Tboi^b bU nUacbmento w«rt «iHir4»ly oit tb« iMe "of fii» 
pjMrlitmeiUy yet, wiUi regard to tbe denth of kktg' Ctorles, 
li« 'declares himself, that be wa» altogether a stratigiit ik> 
tbe ;facc<^ and to all tbe couoffeis about it) kftving not had 
.the least coBu&uQication with any penson w4iatkoever on 
Ibat a&ir. Yet, aftfur that extraordinary event, atid tbe 
im^blUbment of tbe pew caminon wealth, he wa^'diierlied 
hqm his employments in the law, and engaged in {yubtie 
business* In M^i'ch I6il, he attended tbe lord ehief jea^ 
tice St. John, and .Walter Strickland, esq. aMba^sadets t» 
dlte^taAes of the United Provinces, asr their secretary; with 
jivboiii he returned to Engiandin I6dl, and, Apiil 165S, 
waa preferred to the office of secretary to the co<itK5tl of 
atate ; and, upon Cromweirsaasttmingtiie protectorship in 
1654^, became secretary of state. In Feb. 1654, he was, 
cbosea one of tbe.masters pf tbe.upper bench of the society 
of ]UocQbrs*tnn p apd, in Aug. 16^55, had the care and 
cbfLrgjs fdf.tbe po^ge, both foreign and inland, commilMd 
. to bio^ by tbe protiectpr^ . In 1656, he was chosen member 
. of padiaoi^iiA fqr the )ale of £iy ; and jn April I657'^re- 
ceived the thanks of the parliament, for his vigilance in 
detec^ng the plot of Harrison and other fifth-monarchy- 
meo, . and for ii^any .gieat.aervicea «o the ptrbUc. On Ja4y 
.)i of the same, year, be was sworn pne of the ^my toilii* 
4pil tfO tl^^fHTotector, accondiog. to the ^' huovble petitidn and 
adf if:e ;" and in Noveoiber H'as elected oiie of the ^^e« 
yernors of the Cbarier-house. Burnet relates a story, v^mth 
probably happened about this time, of his having rteilrijf 
£arfeited Crem well's goiMl eph>i«A, by liot b^iug v'^lant 
e<iP9g^ in listwing tO'.aocouifits of plots against 1m» (Crom^^ 
]|PF^U's) Ufe, but.be sq<»D efiected a reconciliation, aad:ai{>* 
Pilars to have itiduced .Cramweil to think as hedid^ that tt>o 
fnucb .ciirH>sity after such matters argued, au undigniAed 
^ (fear. 

In I'eb, 1^58 be was made cbancellor of the ontverskyof 

. pMt4gow ; and, ip June following, concurred with Wfaite-^ 

)qc^ in advising the protector, to leave the persons who 

^y^ been detected in a plot, to be proceeded agaJMtia 

ibe ordinary course of trials at the common lanv, and not 

by M Ikigb court pf JAistice; it being always bis opinion^ 

ibctttbp fipraos.and rules of the old constitution should, on 

. jlffry p^casipu^ be inviolably preserved^ espeoially in tbe 

c. administration of justice. Upon the death of Oliver, he 

X 4|pas continued in the post of secretary and privy counsellor 



T H U E L O £• tSi 

ta bis sueccftior Richard ; though be was rery toboosnoog 
t9 the pripcipal persons of ihe aroiy^ to ^bose iofterests, 
whenever they interfered with those of the civil govern-^ 
.qieut^ be w^ a declared enemy : and their resentment 
, against him. on that account was carried to so great 4i 
heigh^^ tUat they accused him as an, evil counsellor, and 
one who was justly formidable by the ascendant he had 
gained over the new protector. For this reason, in Nor. 
1658, be desired leave to retire from public business; in 
^ hopes that this might tend to quiet things, >and facilitate tlae 
. proteotQr's affairs with the army : but he^^ induced stUl 
.toconpnue in his employment ; and, in December, was 
. chosen member of parliament for the luiiversity of Cam* 
bridge. He was returned likewise for the town and bo- 
xough of Wisbecb, and fcH* the borough of Huntingdoii; 
,but .made his election for Cambridge^ where he bad^ a 
greater number of votes tban had ever been known on a 
similar occasion. In April 1659, ha used his utmost effocts 
to dissuade the protector from dissolving the parliament^ a 
step which proved fatal to bis authority ,, though,- upon bis 
quitting it, Tburloe. still continued, in his^office of secretary 
. till Jan. 1 4, 1 660^ It was then conferred on Thomas Scott, 
\ 9sq.9 but op Feb. 27 f upon a report of fcbe council of state, 
the parliameiHt resolved^ that Thurloe should be again otie 
^qf the aecretarjes of state,. and J^hn Thomson^ 'esq. the 
other. Jn April 1660, be made an offer of his service.for 
the restoration of Charles IL as. appears from a letter of 
chancelkH; Hyde to sir John.Grenville, in which his lordahqs 
observes, that Mr* Thurloa's offers weret very frank, aad 
accompanied with many great professions of resoivii^ te 
,lherve bis m^esty, not only in his own endeavours, but like<» 
wise by the services of. bis friends ; hut that these offers 
were inixed with somewhat of curiosity in Mr. Thurloe, 
who was very inquisitive to know whether his majesty bad 
any confidence in general Monk, or had approaicbed him 
in the right way : which he desired to know, only tofitush 
what was left undone, or be able the better to advise his 
majesty. The king returned such answers as were proper, 
^nd desired to see some effects of bis good affection ; and 
that then he would find his services move acceptable, 
however, on May 15 following, he. was committed by th^i 
House of Commons to tbe custody of their serjeantat ^rma, 
J upon a charge of high treason ; but was soon released, and 
- retired to Great MlHon in Oxfordshire, where he generally 



9SSL T U R L O e. 

resided, except in terRi-timei when be eeilie t&hkxXitf^^ 
bers at Lincoln*8-inn« He hm of great use oee«4^irfl^ « 
tg the cbaticellor Clarendois by the instructions be smrv 
bim witb respect to the state of foreign afikirs ; of wtNcir 
tbere is a very remarkable instance annHig bis state-fMipefB^- 
in the recapitulation be Urear op of all the ne^ociationa be^* 
tmeen England, France, ^nd Spain, from the time of Crom* . 
well's taking upon him the protectorship till the restoraiioft. ^ 
He was likewise often solicited by Charles II. to eegafpe in - 
tke administration of public business, but thought proper 
to decline those ^fFers. He died suddenly, at 1h)» chandbemv} . 
IB LincolnVinn, Feb. 21, 1668, aged fit'ty-one; aiid waaV 
interred under the chapel there with an iuKcriptiun over 
his grave. He was twice married, first to a lady of the • 
pame of Peyton, by jvfaom be bad two sons who died be« 
fore him ; and secondly to Anne, third daughter of sir Joha 
Lytcute of East Moulsey in SurVey, by whom be bed four . 
aoes and two daughters. 

He was a man of a very amiable character in private life ; . 
end in the height of his power exercised all possible mode^ 
ration towards persons of every |>arty. In bi^ eiaaner of' • 
writing he is remarkable above most of his conteoi^Kirttrt^ .> 
for conciseness, perspicuity, and strength. But the eiest • 
iethentic testimony of his abilities is that vast eoUeetiVv) of i 
bis *' State Papers,** in 7 vols* folio, publisbed by Ot. fiirdi v 
m 1742, which places the history of Europe in geeeralf at ' 
well as that of Great Briuin audita domiotonft, diMring^bat I 
femarkable p^riod^ in the clearest lights and shews at the i 
aame time lus astonishing industry and a{>p|icatio|i in 4he < 
flutnagement of so great a variety of important aiFntrs^ wbidb * 
passed entirely through his bands, with seoreey and tttcecfse I 
eot to be paralleled under any. other government,^ ^ « 

. THURLOW (Edward), Lord THuatow^ a diatie^ i 
guished^ statesman and lawyer, was the secoinl son ef tbe t 
lev. Thomas Thurlow, rector of Ashfieid ia Saffolky ^and . ! 
was born about 1^32. He was entered uf, jind couiifieed 
for some time at Caius college, Cambridge, where nfilgar 
report has made him idle and dissipated. Of this, we bevar 
eo proof, nor of his having been equally careless of hir 
Studies after he entered the society of the Middle TeHnple^ i 
Lord Thurlow may have been indebted to what are cafied 
Ufiky coincidences for some of bis promutiona, bet m be 

I i^ k/ Bircl^-^Biof . Brit; Appendix.^Bunet's Owft TioKf* 






Mite 



wpralW)ps^fohffd'«Kn|)1y' qualified For ilie'higk sfaUonV hp 
hn^i^ h* e^nklilc^t bav^ aiuQfa neglected, the. cult|vatiou 6f ' 
hm np^tdral abilities, or been remiss in accumulating that! 
koiMwledge bjr ^bich alone he could rival his contempo- 
raftei.' 'Reappears to have been called to the bar in liSB, 
<ail(lfDti^have'is$tpidly attained distinction in his profession^ * 
fdrii'ifi^tlrefe^reftrs after, chiefly owihg to the talent he* 
difl^yiEKl'io the Douglas cause, be was advanced to the/, 
•rank Q^I^Hig*^ counsel. His voice, person, and manner^ ; 
w(nRB--fiet if)t caleuiated to give his efforts an air of conse* 

Koe fB^vtite bar, and his practice became extensive. In 
ib* 1770 'he Ivas appointed soIicitor*general, and in 
,Jijn^'l771 attorney-general. He now sat in , parliament 
foe; the^ borough of Tamworth, where he had many oppor^ 
tuaities -of justifying the cfaoice of his patrons, and of 
£r0M»in^'tha| speqies of character and interest \lrhjch gene* . 
rally leach- to' the higbest legal appointments. As a poli- 
.tician, he uniformly, and with commanding vigour, siip* 
^orttd tb^ 'MQaliares adopted with respect to America^ &e* 
auri»g'lord';Nf>ft^'i^ administration. In June 1778, he was 
Ap(loiated*t#fiitce^d Idrd Apsley, as lord high chancellor 
i>f <}fMt Btftii^, ahd' the jkatne day wa^ raised to the 
pedrailfa t^^ tHe^titl6 <tf Lord - Thurlow of Afclifield in Su£* I 
folk*' • Tbirdfllce4iie^re«ignedin April 1783, when the seals' \ 
mett^pfok kliofdonhilissicf;^ but was re-appointed when Mr^ 
Pitt4va9''tMimitiHed'priinde miiiister'in December, following. 
He)ag4ia^'f«sigaed ibem ioTJune 17iE^2, and on the I2th of ^l 
tka9>maiilifa wtfs'dri^ated Lord Tfaurlow of Thurlow in Suf- ' 
folki' wtlh'^ coltaberal teinainder of this honour to the issuQ 
laali^ kia l«t» tw6 brdthers, \the bishop of Durham, aud 
John Tbitrloif of Norwich. After this retirement, till a ^ 
abort period before bis death, he took an active part, and 
had grMitwaigbt, m 'the House of Lords; and having re- 
taiivA' cbiilpleiie possession of his faculties, with accumo* ' ^ 
latell ^'wMote^ 'aiid experience, his latter speeches wer^ 
4>fteil mOM' th^ shbfect of admiration, than any that had 
been 'neflnemtyerfed ia his earlier days. He died in the se- 
¥enl)r-fbiirtfa'year of his age, Sept. 12, )806, without male 

iuua« '•• ^ ' * ' » - 

Ldrd'Tbiirtaw, says the candid autlior of the Biogra- 
f>biclii ^Peera^e^ '^ was a man of whose talenis opinions have ^ 
beeif 'va^ous; His faculties were strong and direct; and- "' 
the results of his mind decisive. His ni$rrou» maopf r^ and 
imperious temper, gave an arti&eial strength to what be 
Vol, XXIX. A a 



54f6 T M W A I T E S. 

Saieon version of ^'boethius de Consolatione PMlosof>hltt,^^ 
the professed editor of which was Mr. Christopher Rawh'o- 
son. Mr. Thwaites also rendered much assistande to Dr. 
Hickes in his '^-Thesaurus/* which is amply acknowledged 
in the epistolary preface. In 1706, be was eli^cted by the 
university, reader in moral philosophy, and the next year 
appointed regius professor of Greek. Hts last wort, 
^'Grammatica Anglo-Saxonica ex Hickesiario lingtianun 
Septentrionalium Thesauro excerpfa," appeared at Oxiord 
in 1711, on the I2th of December, 8vy>, itif^biclt year Ife 
died, and was buried at Iffley church near Oxfbni. He 
was only forty-four years of age, and his death is soppoaed 

* to have been hastened by the amputation of his leg. Of 
this affair, the accounts in our authorities differ ^ the oae 
imputing thfe necessity for amputation to his having broke 
his leg by a fall from his horse, the other to* a growing on 
one of bis knees, perhaps what is called a white swelKd^, 
which is a very frequent cause fbratnputation. Both; how* 
ever, agree in the extraordinary <!alini\es^ with which he 
bore the operation, and in his having stopped the bleeding 
in the night when it broke out aff^sb, without help. * It is* 
•aid that when his surgeon, Mr. Charles Bernard,^ related 
kis behaviour to queen Anne, sh^ ordered him a pension, 
and to be made Greek professor; but in these ctrcum* 
stances likewise our accounts differ. A consumption en- 
sued; and deprived the university of *^the best Septen«^ 
trionalist,*' next to Dr.. Hickes, a man, to6, << beautiful in. 
his personage, pleasant in conversation, of great vivacity, 
and of a most agreeable natural behaviour." — ^ Besides 
these excellencies, be wrote,'* says Mr. Btowne, ** the 
finest hand I ever saw."* » - . 

THYNNE (Francis), an antiquary, and herald, of the 

^ iixteenth century, descended from an ancient branch of 
the noble family now having the title of marquis of Bath, 
%ras the son of William Thynne, chief clerk of the kitchen, 
and afterwards marquis of the household to Henry VIIL 
He was born at Strettbn, in Shropshire, and educated at 
Tunbridge school, under Mr. Proctor, the learned, master,, 
who is gratefully remembered by him as one of the Englisb 
historians. From thence he was sent to Magdalen college^ 
Oxford, where he was entered a commoner ; and, as him<^ 

1 Nicboli's Bowycr, an article from the accurate pen of Mr, VXWf^. — Lettera 
by Emines^ Persooa, 1813, 3 Tois. Sro.<— Biog. Brit, note on the Life of Smiifii 
UieeditQrofBcdt««-'KicoliOB'8Z«eUera» ToL i. p. 105. 



T H Y N N E. J« 

tdf ioforms'tisi was afterwards a member of Liocoln's Infi. 
Camden, in tbe preface to bis JBritannia, gives him the^ 
ample character c^ having prosecuted the study of anti« 
quittes with gr^ak honour* In that ofheraldic and genealo- 
gical pursuits, be was particularly an enthusiast, and prer 
seuted a petition to lord Burleigh, then presiding at th^ 
liead of tbe commission for executing the office of es^rl 
marshal, requesting to be admitted into the college of he« 
raids, and offering himself to tbe strictest examination. 
This was accordingly instituted, and his merit being act 
ktK)wledged, be was preferred to be blanche lyon pour* 
auivaply after which, when he was fifty-seven years or age^ 
be was^ on April 22, i602, with great ceremony, creat94 
Lancaster herald at arms, having previously obtained a p^« 
tent for that office^ dated Oct. 23, 44 Eliz. Wood, Jq 
his ** Atfaeoae,** and Hearne, after him, place tbe de^th of 
Mr. Tbynne in 1611, but it must have happened sooneri 
since he never surrendered his patent, and, that granted 
to ills successor in office bears date Nov. 1608^ which wa^ 
more probably the year of his death. 

Hearne published ^^ A discourse of the Dutye and Officeof 
aa He^aulde of Armesy ' written by Thynne, tbe 3d day of 
Marcby 1^0>^k In l^^l were printed nis <* Histories con* 
ceroing. Ambassadors and their Functions," dedicated to hi# 
good f fiend WiHiami lord Cobham. He continued ^be 
Chronicle^ known by tbe name pf Holingsbed's^ finishing 
the annals t>f Scotland, from 1586 down to where they now 
end. H^ drew up a list of English cardinals, added to tho 
reign of Mary I* He wrote the catalogue of English liis- 
torical writers; but his ^* Discourses'' upon the earls of 
Leicester, archbishops of Canterbury, lords Cobham, ^nd 
the catalogue of tbe wardens of tbe Cuique ports, were 
suppressed. He also wrote tbe history of Dover Castle 
ami the Cinque Points; the genealogical history of tbe 
Cobbams; discourses of arms, concerning tbe. Bath and 
bachelor knights ; tbe history and lives of the lord trea^ 
sttrers, mentioned in a manuscript life of him in the col- 
lection of sir Joseph AylofFe, hart. Numerous as tl\ese 
works are, yet there are various other literary productions 
.of lus : some of them are preserved in tbe Cotton library, 
others were possessed by Anstis, sen. garter. His heraldic 
collections are in the college of arms, and in tbe Ash- 
molean Museum at Oxford. Some of his manuscripts are 
collections of antiquities, sepulchral inscriptions, taken by 



4i« THYNNR 

Him from E^nglish cliurches, and dsewbercf. ' He intefiifea 
to have |)ublisbed an edition of Chaucefs ^orfcf, btit db- 
clioing that, gave bis labours relative to it'to'l^pegbt; 'i^6 
published them in bis edition of that poet'^i wdrk^^ iViiti'Uik 
own notes^ and^ose of his father, who printed an bU}^}6fi 
of this at>cient writer in 1542. Thynn'e bad m'eatit'lo btive 
written a comment upon the text, and sonde Yer^es df iill 
are prefixed to Speght*8 edition.' . . .in.^i^ 

THYSIUS (Antony), a celebrated Dutcli j^HMH^^f, 
born about 1603, at Harderwyck, was professor of poetry 
and eloquence at Leyden, and librarian toitbat uriiVersflfy. 
He died in 1670. Besides being an excellent cornmeniatoV 
on ancient authors, he published several other productiot^sf^ 
as 1. " Historia Navalis ;** a history of the naval wars be- 
tween the Putch and the Spaniards, 165t, 4to. 2.***C6np['- 
pendium Uistoris iBatavics,^^ 1645. 3. ^* Ex'ercitationes 
Jliliscellaiiea>','* these are dissertations on sacred history, 
mnd on mythology, 1639, ]2mo. 4. Two tracts on 'ib^ 
government and on the laws of Athens, subjoined to •^ ?o- 
stelli^ de Kepublica, sen Magistratibus Atheuiensiuni ;** 
and published also in Gronovius^s collectibti. 5. Editions 
of many classic authors, as Paterculus; ll66S^ ^Salla'st, 
'l665 ; Valerius Maximus, 16^70, which is ftiig best v^/iorditi 
edition;' Seneca^s tragedies, 1651, Wnd Lactahti^sJ V&Si'i 
Anlus Gellius. 1661, all at Ley den. fe.'Ao edition C« 
Tolydore Vergirs flistory of Ertglahd: • ' '' ' ' ' '' ' '"''' 
^ TIBALm, otherwise PfeLLEGRlNO,inferfiiA'eWV(ttisi, 
was. of Milanese extraction, but probably k'hati^ 6t ^8^ 
'tbgna, and from the date of his earliest pictur^ khowh^tb 
*iis, the Nativity in the palace Bdrghe$6* at Rofoe, ^palnteH 
1^49, in his twenty-second year, tnm^V h^i^ beerif^odrn' in 
1527. He entered the school of Bagnac^vallo, a^d ei)- 
deavoufed to ifa^fove biAself, accotdffli'* tb^VWsAfi, by 
designing from the picttired of'th^t hiasterlit tb~^ ft^fectt^iV 
of S. Michele in Bbsco rbut^depaned'fe^'ifofAe''i(i^l3*f, 
cbteily to study th^ wprk^ of ;Mi£bA<^),^f^g|ej^. ., T!w^ ^ 
#as pfttfdtvised l^ Monsf]g^ anerw«iHPdtf cairdifilil Boffffi^ * wtK> 
^ sent him back to Bologna to combjeftf^iftife'mfip^^f Ifis 
'pfttace, at present tbe Academical tAStUiu&i^. deK»»lite4(pRky 
hU bicturesj and the prfecipal tttbiioifleirt? of 'Ms^^aft^te 




/ s 



T I B AX D X 5» 

f ti^y rf. thpygb ^1^ Carracci seeixied to prc/eft jif bbjiects of 
Aii^^ta^n k>c,jiii»o)selyes,and their scholars, the pajntings 
,%v^ii which jae bafl tilled the sides and compartments oi that 
])Qblf '^bapfsl qppstrujcied by him in S. Giacopo of th^e Aa« 

^^^tia^friar^v.r': . . ^ 

, ..I'r^ip BolpgM-jhe went to Loretto, and in the church * 

,tb^ce huitt ana ornamented a. cbapei with stuccos and 

paintings ; from thence he was called to Ancona to operate 

in,, the ph^rche^ of S. Ago^tino and Ciriaco^ iu the last of 

^yhlch he painted a Christ highly relieved and larger than 

life; the. Merchants^ ball received its stuccos and paintings 

^rqm bis hand. He superintended the' fortifications of the 

j)taQe as miluarj architect, about 1560; and two years 

afterwards came to Pavia, where, by the order of gardinal 

J^orrgmeo, be constructed the palace of the Sapienza ; be 

then visited Milan, built the temple of S. Fidele, and be- 

fpxe U70 was elected architect of t|ie cathedral. AftQ^ 

iliseQcumbering the dome of numerous empty gothic ino* 

iiufiients, siepuTchral urns, and trophies, and embenishinj? 

it IQ their s(ead with various elegant chapels and a majestjfe 

.choir; Pellegrino was commissioned by Berardino Marti* 

Tano, > SpaQJiard in the confidence of Philip II. to pr^par^i 

^.designs and. platis for the Escurial. He followtd th^i 

' Ihimself to Spain in 159$, and superintended'. that enor- 

'^oys fipibric ,41s <^rchi tec t and painter, , during nine year's f , 

when, satiated with^gjiory, riches, and honours, be re^iiriic^ 

to Milaon; wbere.be died at %x\ advanced" ag^^ aQ^\>waa 

bufi^4 in a tomb which be had selected foir biii^self Mq his 

,^ej5cendapts in the. dome. The precise year!of nis^^de^^ 

4^, disputed, bjut bis demise may safely tie p,l2uc;|ed !uiif^^ 

^the,p9alifiGatip,pf JClement. Vlu. zxi\ ^ sodp think '4b9Ul 

1592 ' • • -,'*.-:*'/ .^f '>l 

,^^ I?eUe|Jri«W| had V.brpther, I)Qmepico Tibaldi^^w^^^ Wjas 

yWf 5*^^%4'i V^ ^^ a»j ^ arcpUect and^'^n 

fpgfa^p^^ Jpl9an^,;rfhat.>e..w j^mer ,of ^i^^rtt .we 




nis " Historia c!e la ordeo \\-p, Gero-^ ilrin^ in ^aib,' may oe nK«\irige toatia 

eaipioyed by Pbilip Ii. : a compilation toria brieve dell Augustissinia Cas» 

^from tbit work tnr Mazzolari, waapub^* . d'Austria, ^c. CQp \% detcriptione delta 

=fl&iiP^Af?''B(a?/JM;^&a^ ^li^ iV " raVa al i6QxMi^Tii^^m^¥^t 41 

said of Pell«i8RS^iikfeWife \^'tt^' i»ptlpns/> 4tQ; . mM%1 ^^"^^ '* ' 

FrJMoesoo dc Lv Stntos, in hti «< Pe- • -" '^ ^^ ^ '^ 



360 T I B A L D I. 

are told hy Jiis epitaph in the church dell' Aonunciata) )m% 
epitaphs are doubtful autboritiesy and of Domeniqo thp^k 
is not even a portrait renoaining. In engraving be was>ch0 
iAaster of Agostino Caracci. 

Pellegrino Tibaldi is considered, and with sufficieBt.^i!- 
dence from his works, as the greatest designer of the Bo^ 
lognese and Lombard schools. He approaches the line of 
Michael Angelo nearer than all the rest of hW imitators j 
but, as he had decidedly adopted the technic without always 
penetrating the moral principles of his model, the manner 
of the master frequently became the stifle pf the piipil; 
thoughvit cannot be denied that he often united energy of 
attitude and grandeur of line with sublimity of conceptioiii 
and dignity of motive. Of these he has given no where 
jDore signal proofs than in the cielings and compartments 
4A the Academical Institute at Bologna; they represent 
various scenes of the Odyssey in a kind of monumental 
etyle, which it would be improper to judge by the esta- 
blished rules of regular history. Polypheme waking under: 
the pangs of the fiery 'point nestling itself into his eye, 
though with a sentiment of original expression, is evidently: 
imitated from the new-created figure of Adam in the Sis- 
lina; but the same Cyclops groping at the entrance of bis 
•cave to prevent the escape of Ulysses and bis associates^ 
is in conception of the whole, and in the detail of all the 
parts, a self-invented being ; a form, than which Michael 
Angelo himself never conceived one of savage energy^ 
, provoked by sufferings and revenge, with expression, attt* 
tude, and limbs, more in unison. With these may be 
placed that wonder of foreshortening, of conglobation, and 
eccentricity, the figure of Elpenor on one of the archi- 
traves of the Salotto, represented in the mpraent when^ 
yet dreaming, he loses his hold and is precipitated from 
the roo£ The air of originality which this figure every 
wrhere presents, and the elegance with which the imitator 
has reversed the figure in the Last Judgment of M, Apgelo^ 
from which he borrowed the principal limb of hjs,ojvn> 
place him on a level with the inventor.^ 

It was, however, less for the powers exerted by Pellet 
^ino in the decoration^ of the Institute, thab forthe,ecIec-^^ 
tic principle which they discovered in bis subseque|i{ . 
works, that the Carracci gave him the epithet of ^* MicheU 
^9gio^^fanBato,V ,and. ^oipmended . ^ r ^ <^> .. Oit* (^ 

'' Del Tibaldi il decoro €^ 11 foadamento/* 



T I B A L D I. 361 

iPbe compositions of the chapel Poggi in S. Giaconio, 
Wht^re the imitation of Michael Angelo is blended with that 
df Raphael, Coiteggio, Daniel di Volterrai &c. contain th<$ 
rudiments of their own system. 

Pellegrino Tib^di is more known by his works in frescOit 
than by his pictures in oil, which are extremely scarce: 
one of the earliest is the Nativity already mentioned, in 
the palace IBorghese, of which the cartoon still exists in a 
private collection of drawings. It is painted in a sober 
unaffected tone ; and, considered as the work of an artist 
zealous of his line, with great mellowness of touch. Th^ 
figures of this are considerably less than the size of life; 
but there are pictures of his to be met with of diminutive 
dimensions, with all the finish of miniatures, though ric& 
in figures, touched with great spirit and equal vivacity of 
colour : they are generally set off by back-grounds drawa 
from his favourite branch of art, architecture.' 

TIBULLUS (Albius), a Latin poet, is. supposed to have 
been born at Rome, in the year of Rome 690, six yeara 
after the birth of Virgil, and one after that of Horace.. Hig 
father was of the equestrian order ; and he himself set out 
into the world with all the advantages of fortune, and the 
greatest accomplishments of mind and person. Among 
the great men of his age, he singled out Messala Corvinus 
for his patron ; who was a brave and accomplished Romaq^ 
admired by Cicero, mentioned with great respect by Horace^ 
and ranked by Quintilian among the masters of oratory,' 
He was to TibuUus, what Maecenas was to Horace. Thj* 
poet had a country seat at Pedum, a town in Latium not 
fii'r from Rome. He was a great sufFe.rer in the civil wars^' 
yet does not seem to have been concerned in any party. . 
He was, like Ovid, a man devoted to ease and pleasure; 
and his time was divided between the Muses and his 
mistresses. He seems indeed to have abandoned himself 
entirely to the passion of love, as some think, even to the 
neglect of his affairs. His regard for Messala, however^ 
miide him forget bis love of ease and pleasure, and follow 
that^nobleaian into Gaul, who was there victorious, and 
bad a triumph decreed him upon his return to Ronie. lie , 
was attending Messala on a second expedition to Syria, 
when he fell sick by the way, and was forced to stay in the 

1 Pifl^'iRftoB, bf Fuseli. — StruU'f Dict--Arg«nTnie, vol. II.--Reyi)d(is*i 
Worki. 

^ « < . .... • * ; 



Mi T I B U L L U a 

blMd of PbceBcia or Corcyra. On this «cct»ioiii be conr* 
fK>9ed the third elegy of the fourtb^ book, «tid desired tbdl 
if he should die of his illoess, he might have this epitikpli 
engraven on his monument : . -. . : 

*' Hie jacet immiti consumptus mort« Tlbulhis, ' - 

Messalam terra dum sequiturque tnari.**' * >• '^ 

Though he recovered from this attack, death did not spair^ 
him much longer, but carried him off in theforty-fburiH 
year of his age. ' ' ^'' 

i\s to his character, Horace, with whom he was intf- 
ihately acquainted, as well as with the other wits of the 
Augustan age, gives him that of a fine writer and good 
critic : 

. . '' AXhi, Dostrorum serqionum candide judex, 

* Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ^ ' 
Scribere quod Cass! Parmensis opuscula vincat.*' - 

' Epist. iv.fib.l8. 

Nor is Ovid sparing of his praises of TibuUus ; the ninth 
elegy of the third book is written to bewail his death. 
There Ovid finely describes the sweetness and elej;anc& of 
this poet's elegies, by introducing Cupid antl Venu$ t6 
inourn over him ; after which he places him in' the Etysiati 
fields, in company with Calvus, Catullus, and Gallus. The 
best critics have preferred TibuUus even to Ovid biitiself^ 
for elegance and correctness of style ; and C^uintilTaii sets 
bim at the head of all the writers in elegy. *^'lii elegy,? 
says he, ** we challenge also the Greeks, in which Way of 
Writing, TibuUus, according to my iudgmerit, is-by fat 
ihe most neat and elegant. Some indeed givie Propertius 
the preference ; Ovid is more indecent than either of thenr, 
as Gailus is more harsh and unpolished*" There is cer- 
tainly in his poems an admirable mixture of passion arid 
purity, of simplicity and elegance, "and' be ts thoa^bt to 
surpass ^Uothers not only in tenderness and sentitti^iti^'Bdrt 
in graceful ease and harmony of '^etn\)er», "^Bef has^Ieft 
four books of** Elegies.** His panegyric iiifort^'MfessaffJir^ 
censured by Scaliger, and suspected hd^to^'bfe^'hls^itfla 
the snidH pieces at the end bf the fburth t»i(ibk, -it*ibh 1S<6ft 
ligercdlis *^ hard, languid, andtbugh^^^^eftb^ dd t^Ot«^- 
Ibng toTibullns, or never received his list cfbft^ciicftis."^* 
" Tills diitiio^ ha$ usually b6en if>rirtted1n %b% saitie^*&n«4 
with tJatuHus^ and Propertius; and onfe oFthS'b^stedteibife 
of him in conjunction witbtlienn is that by Greevius, *^ cuoft 
notis variorum/' Ley den^ 1^89, in 2 vols. 8vo, But h« 



T I B U L L U & tsS 

WM^ftcrwartifly 11) ITOS^ publisbjBd separately ^ Aoiater- 
llatQ,' in 1 vol. 4to, by Janus firouckbusms^ a v^)r |K>litf^ 
a(i]|fi!«iegattt critic^ who corrected many places from ib^ 
best manuscripts, and added his own to the notes ysMioruok 
This editiguii^ v^ry neat, and adorned with copper- plates. 
An excellent edition in quarto was published by Vuipius, 
<l j)fpfesjsoD al; Padua (who also published Catullus and Pro« 
per^it^s)^ la 1749. Tins was long esteemed the, best, aki(jl 
IS so still if we take splendour into the account; but two 
editions Jn dvo^ have since, been published by the cele« 
brated professor Ueyne^ of which the second of 1777 is^ 
for us^f one of the best editions of a classic author that has 
ever appeared. Tibullus has been translated into English 
with most success by Grainger, but some have thought it 
easy to' suppose a better transfusion of his spirit into ouir 
language. I 

TICKELL (Thomas), son of the rev. Richard Tickell, 
was borri in 1686 at Bridekirk inCumberlaad ; and in April 
1701 became a member of Queen^s college^ in Oxford; m 
J 70S be was made M. A. and two years afterwards was 
chosea fellow ; -for which^ as he did not comply with tb^ 
. ^^tatutes'bj takiag orders, he obtained a dispensation froni 
the crown. He held his fellowsliip till 1726, and then va^ 
^.atea it by marry i^og in that year, at Dublin. Tickeli waf» 
not one of those scholars who wear away their lives id 
closets ; be entered early into the world, and was long busy 
in pu}>Uc ajBTairs, iu wbicb he was initiated under the par 
tronage of Addison, whose notice he is said to ba^ve gained 
by bis versjes ift praise of ** Ro^amoncL" He pi'oduce^ 
another pi^pq'jgdf the^ same kind at the appearance <» 
^^ Cato,'' witb eqii^J skill, but qot equal happiness. Wben 
|tbe mini^stera of .q^9^o Anne wer^ negociating witi^ France, 
Tic^U pubbsl^ed| *^,Tbe Prospect of Peace,'* a poem, qf 
«^bicb .^be, t^i^^pcj was. to (jrecljalqai the nation from th0> 
jiiidg^pf 'iy)n<ji|§^,to, "t^e jpl^^jUr^ of tranquiUity. 'Mr. 
A4di#ai;y %)raef e^ Jie lifU;^. we men tljen ia po^^er^ 'su&- 
i(pi«'d ^bjs ./^ieAd^p^^^ py^r the pu^Wfc splri.^, an4 

eW?>qif*JP *V^fiPStftqif'\4MVb ;pr?i^e^ of ti^lr^ poeonj, 
^^^^«R» m^l hav4qgioi^ wished tp- peruse i;, Jt)r.. Jobiir 

*ftWiWs,ffi^icfc|ii^/^l^irecfived^ ^rid fo^ipd 'f ft P^pc^.«^ *>e 

•^[i lull ■ .ovd alcy ^ n: ,\.;v;-L ,•»,•-,/. '^ui ", :n-j?oj:^;- cr:.j- ' 



S€# T I C K It L L; 

work 6t geniuir, being general and indefinitei is rarefy - 
gratified. It was read at that time with so much favour 
that six editions were sold. At the arrival of king GeofgQ 
lie sung " The Royal Progress ;'* which, being inserted in 
the ** Spectator/' is well knbwn. The poetical incident of 
most importance in Tickell's life was his publication, of 
tb<^ first book of tbe ^' Iliad/* as translated bj^himself, in 
apparent opposition to Pope's " Homer," of which the first 
part made its entrance into the world at the same time. 
Addison declared that tl^ rival versions were both good ; 
biit that TickelPs was the best that ever was made ; and vAih 
Addison those wits who were his adherents and followers, 
wiere certain to concur. Pope does not appear to have 
been much dismayed ; ^^ for," says he, " I have the town, 
that is, the mob, on my side." But he remarks, that it 
is common for the smaller party to make up in diligence 
what they want in numbers ;" he " appeals to the people 
as his proper judges ; and if they are not inclined to con^ 
demn him, he is in little care about the high-flyers at But* 
ton's." Pope did not long think. Addison an impartial 
judge;, for he considered him as the writer of TickeJPs 
version. The reasons for his suspicion we shall literally 
transcribe from Mr. Spence's collection. " There . had 
been a coldness between Mr. Addison and me for some 
time ; and we had not been in company together forag<t6d 
while, any where but at Button's cofTee-faouse, where' I 
used to see him almost every day. On fais txieeting me 
' itbere, one day in particular, he took me aside, andnaid 
be should be glad to dine with me at such a tavern^ if I 
stayed till those people were' gone (Budgell and Philips). 
We went accordingly ; and after dinner Mr* Addison said 
^ that be had wanted for some time to talk with me ; t&at 
bis friend Tickell had formerly, whilst at Oxford, tranidat^d 
tbe first book of the Iliad ; that he tlesigned to print ^t^ 
and bad desired him to look it over ; that he must tbei^ 
fore beg that I would not desire him to look over my first 
book, because, if he did, it would have tbe air of double- 
dealing.^ I assured him that < 1 did not at all take it ill of 
JAr. Hckell that he was going to publish his translation; 
that he certain!}^ had as much right to translate any author 
as myself; and that publishing both was entering on a fair 
^atage• I then added, that Iwould not desire bim to. look 
over my first book of the ^ Iliad,' because he had looked 
over Mr. Tickell's; but cpuld liisli to have the benefit of 



*r I C K R. I. I^ s«$ 

J 

bis observations oa my second^ which I had then 'fini9he4» 
aad whjch Mr. Tickell had not touched upon,* Accojrd« 
i<^gly I sent him the second book the next morning ; and 
Air, Addison a few days after > returned it, with very higk 
€oiiUDandatiQns.-^So<»n after it waa generally known that 
JUr. Tickell was pnblishing the first book of the ^ Iliad/ J 
^et Dn Young in the street; and, upon our falling inta 
ihat^suhject, the doctor expressed a great deal of surprise 
at Tickeirs having had such a translation so long by him* 
He saidi that * it was inconceivable to him, and that there 
smist be some mistake in the matter; that each used to 
communicate to the other whatever verses they wrote, even 
Xo the least things ; that Tickell could not have been bustedl 
in so long a work there without his knowing somethiog 9f 
the matter; and ihat he had never heard a single word of 

• it till on thig occasion.' This surprise of Dr. Young, to« 
gether with what Steele had said against Tickell in relatioii 
^othis aflPair, makes it highly probable chat there was some 

. miderbaiul dealing in that business ; and indeed. TickeU. 
himself, who is a very fair worthy man, has since in a 
inanner as good as owned it to me* — [When it was intro- 
duced into a conversation between Mn Tickell and Mr. 
Pope by a third person, .Tickell did not deny it ; ^icli» 
considering his hopour and . zeal for his departed friend, 
was the. same as owning it.]'^ Upon these suspicions, with 

. 'Which Dr* Warbnf'ton bints that other circumstances con- 
purred. Pope always, in his '< Art of Sinking,*' quotes this 
book as the work< of Addison. (See Pope, vol. XXV* p. 
468.) When the Hanover succession was disputed, TickeU 
f ^ve what assistance his pen would supply. His *^ Letter 
-to Avignoo*' stands high among party-poems ; it expresses 
^sontempt without coarseness, and superioriwy without in* 
aolence. It had the success, which it deserved, being five 
times printed^ He was now intimately united to Mr. Ad*- 
^dison, who, when he-went into Ireland as secretary to the 
lord Sunderland, took him thither, and employed him in 
f^ttblip business; and, when (1717) afterwards he rose to 
be secretary of state, made him under-secretary. >Their 
^endship seiems to have continued without abatement ; for 

. wben Addison died, he left him the charge of publishing 
bis works,;, with asolemn recommendation to the patronage 
of Craggs. . To these works he prefixed an elegy on the 
author, which could owe none plf its beauties t«) the assist- 
ance which might be suspected to have .strengtheaied or 



W6 f I C K E L t: 

Mibettfibed his earlier compositiens $ but tteiiber He nbr 
Addison ever produced nobler lines tbati are eontattKed^iii 
the third and fourth paragraphs, nor isa more imbKnie dr^ 
More elegant (iineral poem to be found in the #bole toi»- 
p9LS9 of EngKsh literature. He was aflerwsrds (in June 
4724) made secretaiy to the lords justices of Irebndv 4 
place of great ' honour ; in wWh he continued tilt 1740» 
'when he died April 23, at Bach. 1\> Ticfaell cannot be 
refused a high place among the minor poets ; nor sbonld it 
he forgotten that be was one of the conttilmloni to %ht 
** Spectator/* With respect to his persoftai tdmraotef) be 
is said to have been a man of gay convex satioo^ at least' a 
temperate loter of wine and company/ and- in bis domestit 
relations without censure* * ■■; 

TICKELL (Richard), an ingenious . writer^ wha iwH 
appeared as an author about niSj in a poem entitled^ 
^* The Project/* is supposed to have been a descendant of 
the preceding, or mtber of his brother Richard Tickel^ 
esq. who was appointed secretary at war in 1724, and held 
that post till his death in 1740. Another account states 
that our author was the son of Richard Tickell, esq. who 
died in 1795, who was the son of Addison's friend* ^Sooft 
ifter the appearance of Mr. Ticheirs' <^ Project,*' lift 
** Wreath of Fashion^' was publisbed, and was alio wed- 1^ 
liave considerable naerit. But that which raised Mm to 
immediate celebrity was bis admirable political potophtet, 
called ^< Anticipation ;*' in which, with the most sucoes»* 
ful humour, he imitated the ananner of the principal speaki- 
ers then in parliament, and defeated thef force of tbe avgu^ 
ment of th6 opposition, by pi^eoccupying tbem. This ap* 
peared in 1778. Two other political pamphlets ar^ attri* 
buted to him; namely, '^The English Green-bos/' 177^ 
and <' Common^place Arguments,*' in 1780* ' He pvoduoed 
also for the theatre, an alteration.of Allan Ramsay's ^^Qea^ 
tie Shepherd,'' which was acted at' Drfiry4ane^ in 17St'|i 
and "Tbe Carnival of Venice," a comic opera, writtien h^ 
bimsdf, and acted tbe same year ; but of these two ^Me4 
only the songs were printed. I ' 

Mr. Tickell was twice married, first in- 1780 tO msA 
Mary Linley, sister to Mrs. Sheridan, by whom he had 
three children. After her death he married a daughter 

^ Life by Johni on. — Biog. Brit Suppl.«-BowIes's edition of Pope. See Index* 
— Speace*$ Anecdoteg, Mit:. ^ J 



Tr h O K ELL. U1 

f^f captfAn Leigh) of tba Berriogton^ £ast-Iiidiamaii^ wb^ 
survived bim. His death, which happei>ed Nov. 4| 1793^ 
vwa« occasioned by a fall frpm the window of bis apartr 
Jttents at Hainpton-'Court ; in consequence of ivhicb be es* 
f»ir0d, even before Mrs. Tickell could reach the spot, tbougU 
.«he b/ad lefl bim only for a moment. He bad been for soma 
tipe one of ibe coromissioners of tbe>staQ3p-office. ^ 
. TIEDEMANN (Dieterigh), a modern German pbila* 
^of^bepef considerable eminence^ was born ApriL 3, 174S| 
al BremefY^orcje, in the duchy of Bremen, of which place 
his feil^er was a burgomasier* His father intended bim for 
the study of divioity, but he devoted the principal part of 
bis^wly years ti> the study of the classics, and soon. made 
great progress in the learned languages* As be .became 
0iore acquainted with French and Geripan literature and' 
]>l^ik>sopny, he gave up all thoughts of studying divinity 
«ritb a view to the churchy imbibing by degrees the fashion^ 
able infidelity .of his contemporaries. In X772 he published 
tit Riga- his ^* Essay on the Origin of Languages/' and ii} 
i^776, biy ^^ System of the Stoic Philosophy/^ >a work that 
has bieeo much praised abroad, and in which be was eof 
4iM)uraged by the celebrated Heyne, wlio about the. saoe 
liiiie procured for him the professorship of the Gj;eek and 
l»9iUn Mr^gijag^)^ in the Collegium Caroiinum 9X Cassel. 
'file ' was HOW} >ve are told, inclined to. materialism, but 
enred by the essays and conversation of the learned Tetans* 
!Id 177s be published his ^* Invi^stigatiou of Mae, 3 voln* ; 
ifi 1780, <<The iirst Philosophers of Greece," and com« 
. meeced' bis ^^ Spirit of Speculative Philosophy/' . 

. Jn h7S6, he^ together with tbe^tber teachers of the coir 
Jege^ wa^reipoved to Marburg^ and appointed professor 4)f 
phiiosoipby* . Hex§ be taught w|tb applause logic, metapby -t 
l^ics^ ^eopirjoal psjpbology^ Abe. l^w of nature, moral pbi-* 
i^sophy^ lbe.:hii|tory of philosophy and of man^ and ex* 
j)|iHned the /ptr^ef^k; -^la^^i^* Of tiiese he is i^aid to have 
^Of ited; pr^^pallj? io. the lustory.of philosophy, and em- 
4^|iic9i 99yo^4^eyi* His religiooi . we are told, consisted i 11 
moral purity and rectitude of conduct: be attached no im-* 
|)Qr^anqe,>o .external tvror&hip, thoi^gb he did not deny its 
4ditai^^ge& to. the great body of the people. He was an 
^P!fteo)y/^t9 f very^kind of fanaticism^ a word which we doubt 
cot was in his creed comprehensive enough to embrace the 

1 Gent. Mfg.Tsl. I^XIII.— 6i«s. Dian. 



S68 T T E D E MA M N. 

doctrines of revealed religion. It is more tcT hU httndur^ 
bowever, that he was a man of most extensive learning, 
particularly in the Greek language. His last performaBO^ 
was a translation of Denon*s 'travels in Egypt, illustrated 
irith notes. He died May 24, 1803, in the fifty-fifth yeac 
of his age. A proUx account of his studies and his philo- 
sophy appeared soon after in the foreign journals, from 
which we have abridged the present article. His works 
have never been niuch known in this country, and were not 
all very favourably received in his own. ' 

TILENUS (Daniel), a learned protestant divine of the 
French church, was born at Goldberg in Silesia, Feb. 4, 1565. 
He came into France about i 590, and was naturalized by 
Henry IV. He at first distinguished himself as an opponent 
of the tenets of Arminius, but afterwards changed his opiaioo, 
and enlisted on the side of the remonstrants. His principal 
controversy was with Peter Du Moulin, which was carried on 
with so much warmth, that those who were friends to the 
peace of the church, and admired both writers for their 
respective excellencies, interposed to reconcile them, or 
pot a stop to the dispi^te. James I. of England, amoog 
others, wrote a letter in 1614 to the synod of Tonoeins oa 
this subject, which with the answer and proceedings of that 
assembly, may be seen in Quick's '^ Synodicon," vol. I. 
Tilenus had, before this, been appointed by the mareschal 
de Bouillon, to be professor at the college of Sedan, whidi 
de Bouillon had founded, but about 1619, or 1620, Tilo- 
nus was obliged to resign in consequence of persisting in bis 
peculiar sentiments, and came to Paris, where he lived on his 
property. He afterwards had a personal controversy at a 
country house near Orleans, with John Cameioil, divinity 
professor at Saumur, concerning the subject of grace and 
free will. This lasted five days, and an account of it was 
published, under the title of <' Collatio inter Tileoum fc 
Cameronem, &c.'* (See Camirom). Some time after, 
Tilenus addressed a letter to the Scotch nation, disapprov«- 
ing of the presbyterian, and commending the episcopal form 
of the reformed church, as established in England. This 
pleased king James so much, who hated presbyterianisin, 
that he invited the author to England, where he received 
him very graciously, and offered him a pension. Tile<- 
niM accepted the offer, and only begged leav# to returat 

• Sm also Diet. BIfl* 



^ ; T I L E N U S/ $69. 

to Fitftice to settle bis af&ifs ; but his cbftracterbecoloiing^ 
hy 8OBI0 means obnoxious in this country, he was dis- 
eonrarged from returning, and died at Paris, Aug. 1, l£r33. 
His latter .days were spent in defending the Arminian te- 
.pels against the reformed church of France, and he wrote 
severai books, the titles of which may now be dispensed 
ivitfa, but may;^be found in our authorities. ^ 
• TILLEMANS (Peter), a landscape-painter, who had 
l^t works that sustain their character even in capital coi« 
lections, was born at Antwerp about 16S4, and made him* 
ae)f tt painter, though he studied under very indifferent 
masters. In 1708, he was brought to England, with his 
brother-iurlaw, Casteels, by one Turner, a dealer in pic- 
tures^ And was employed by him in copying Bourgognon 
and other masters, in which he succeeded admirably, par- 
ticularly Teniers, of whom he preserved all the freedom 
and spirit. He generally painted landscapes with small 
figures,. sea*ports and views, but when he came to be 
known, he was patronized by several men of quality, and 
drew views of their seats, huntings, races, and horses ia. < 
perfection. In this way he was much employed, both in: 
the west and. north of England, and in Wales, and drew 
ni^ny prospects for Bridges's History of Northamptonshire. 
T))e duke of Deyopsbire, in whose collection is a fine view 
of Qh^di^ortk by Tillemans, and lord Byron, were his chief 
p^tr^s.. He '.also instructed the latter in his art, who did 
grpat 2 cicc^dit to his ipasten After labouring many y^rs 
upder, s^Q aathgia^ forwbif^h he chiefly resided at Rich- 
n^ofid»vhiP died at< Norton in Saffblk, Dec. 3, 1734, and was 
biiried ,in the cburch.iof Stow-l>angtoft. * • 

.TIUI,EM0NT.(Lew^3 Sebastjan Le Nain db), whom 
LJAvQCfijt^prQnQiiiicas ojne of the most judicious and accu- 
i^^^^riticsiavd historians that France has produced, was 
bgirntiiijl.P^ilp Novb 30^., 1^37. His fatUer, John Le Nain, 
vas.9»#st(^ Qf 1^ ^quest9. . Abput the age of ten, he was 
sentt9i^l|e &m(|U%'>€^i^iAfy of (he Port Royal, where his 
at|;eQtiqf),to ii^tructiqn, and hia proficiency, were very ex- 
tr%prdinary, and where hie very e^rly became fond of the 
study I of bisfpry. ^This partiality seems to have been 
first ejj^cited Jby aperusal of Baronius, .and while thus en[i- 
ploye4 he was perpetually putting questions to his master 

' Morern— Iftrandt't History of the Reformatioo.-— Quick's Synodicon.-— Diet. 
Pist. 

t Walpole't Aneedotei. 

Vol. XXIX. Bb 



$70 T I L L E M O N T. 

Nicole, who at first gave him such answers as came in bis 
bead at the moment, but soon found that his papil was not 
so easily satisfied ; and Nicole, although by no means ig- 
norant of history, used to dread his approach, lest be might 
ask questions for which he was not fully prepared/ At the 
, age of e'ghteen Tillemont began to read the fathers, the 
Fives of the apostles, and their successors in the primitive 
church, and drew up for hi.mself an account of early eccle- 
siastical history, in the manner of Usher's Annals, a book 
be much admired, and formed his own somewhat on the 
same plan. In the mean time he was successfully in- 
structed in other branches ; but it was a considerable time 
before he made choice of a profession. In this he was at 
last influenced by M. Choart de Buzanval, bishop of 
Beauvais, who determined him in favour of the church, 
and gave him the tonsure. About 1665, he went to re-* 
side with M. Herniant, a canon of the cathedral of Beau- 
vais, and remained there five or six years. He then re- 
turned to Parifi, and lodged with M. Thomas de Fossd, an 
old school-fellow, for about two years ; but although in all 
these situations he was constantly employed in study, and 
bad the quiet enjoyment of his time, be removed to the 
country, and, after receiving the other orders of his 
church, and being ordained priest in 1676, he settled at 
Tillemont, whence he took his name, about a league from 
Paris. About this time be was employed, along with bis 
friend M. de Sacy, on a life of St. Louis, and two years 
after he travelled in Flanders and Holland. After hia re- 
turn, he continued his studies, and, in 1690^ began to 
publish his ** History of the Emperors,'* wliicb was very 
favourably received, and made the public more anxious to 
see his history of the church, on which it was well l^nown 
he had been for some time employed: His ** History of 
the Emperors'' was, in fact, a part of his ecclesiastical 
history ; but when he printed a volume, as a specimen, it 
fell into the hands of a licenser of the pfress, who made so 
many petty objections, that M. Tillemont determined to 
suppress the work rather than submit to the proposed al- 
terations and omissions, as none of the objections were in 
any way contrary to the received doctrines of the church. 
He then, by the advice of his friends, published the his- 
tory of the emperors separately; and there being no oc- 
casion in this case for a theological licenser, he published 
vol. I. in 1690, 4to; and completed^ the work in five vols* 



T I L L E M O N T. «7l 



\ 



in 1701, which had abundant success; was reprinted at 
Brussels, aiid translated into English. This Aras followed by 
his ecclesiasticalhistory, *^ M emoires pour servir a THistoir^ 
ecclesiastique des six premiers siecles,'* &c. 1693, &c. com^' 
pleted in sixteen volumes, quarto. Extreme accuracy of 
facts and dates constitute the great merit of this work, and 
the want of a more methodical arrangement, and of a bet-*' 
ter style, its chief objections. Dupin wishes he had reduced 
his work to the form of annals, in imitation of Baronius; and 
this opinion having been conveyed to M. Tillemodt, he 
^aid he could not think of going over the materials anew, 
but was very willing to give his manuscripts to any persoa 
who would take the trouble to put them in the form of an- 
nals. No such person offering his services, M. Tillemont 
proceeded in his own way, in which he met afterwards 
with very little opposition, except a short controversy, of 
no great importance, with father Lamy. 
' Tilleniont was intimate with M. Hermant, doctor of the 
fk>rbonne, l^aillet, Nicole, and many other learned men^ 
who frequently consulted him. To a complete knowledge 
of ecclesiastical history, he joined an exemplary humility, 
and regularity of conduct. His humility, indeed, was so 
great, that Bbssuet, seeing one of his letters to father 
Lamy, besought him, *^ not to be always upon his knees 
before his adversary, but raise himself now and then up.'' 
He was solicited to push himself in the church, and his 
friend the bishop of Beauvais wished to have him for his 
successor : but Tillemont, regardless of dignities, wished 
for nothing but retirement, and there his perpetual watch- 
ingt and austerities brought him into a state of languor, 
which terminated in a disease, of which he died, January 
lo, 169S, aged sixty-one. He was interred at Port-royal 
agreeably to his desire, but when that abbey was destroyed 
in 1711, his remains were removed to St» Andr^ d6s Arcs, 
bis parish church. 

M. Troncfaai, canon of Laval, published Tillemont's life 
in 1711, 12mo, At the end of this, are ^' pious reflections, 
and instructive Letters,^' by M. de Tillemont, from which 
we learn that be was a zealous devotee of the church of 
Rome. The ^* Life of St. Louis,** by M. de la Chaise, was 
compiled from his f* Memoirs;*' and many writers of the 
lives of the fathers found their best materials in that same 
work. He left in MS. a Memoir concerning William de 
Saint- Amour, and the disputes between the DomiBicaM 

B B 2 



S7« T I L L E M O N T. 

and the university; a life of Isabella, sister of St. Louis; 
remarks on the*breviaries'of Maiis and Paris; a legend for 
the breviary of Evreux, and the history of the Sicilian 
kings of the house of Anjou. 

His brother PfiiER L£ Nain de Tillemont was bom 
Marcij 25, 1640, at Paris. Having chosen the ecclesias- 
tical profession, he entered at St. Victor at Paris, but re- 
tired to la Trappe in 1668, being enamoured of the auste- 
rities o( that order, and was a long time sub-prior. He 
died there in 1713, aged seventy-three. His works are, 
*^ Essai de V Histoire de Pordre de Citeaux," 9 vols. 12mo; 
'^ Homeiies sur Jeremie,*' 2 vols. 8vo; a French translation 
of St. Dorotheus, a father of the Greek church, 8vo ; *^ The 
Life of M. de Ranee, abbot and reformer of la Trappe," 
3 vols. l2mo. I'his life was revised by the celebrated M« 
Bossuet, but not published as le Nain wrote it; some sati- 
rical strokes being inserted, of which the author was inca- 
pable. ^^ Relation de la vie et de la mort.de plusieurs 
Religieux de la 1 rappe,'' 6 vols. 12mo; ^'Elevations a 
Dit u pour se preparer a la Mort ;*' two small tracts, one 
entitled, " De l*6tat du monde apr^s le Jugement dernier;'* 
the other, '* Sur le Scandale qui put arriver m£me dans le 
Monast. le mieux regl^s,^* &c. These works, says L'Avo- 
cat, contain a spirit of true piety, but little criticism, and 
their style is too diffuse. The author^s life has been writ- 
ten by M. Darnaudin, in 12mo. ^ 

TILJLOTSON (John), archbishop of Canterbury, was 
descended of a family anciently of the name of Tilston, of 
Tilston in Cheshire, and born at Sowerby in Yorkshire, 
in Oct. 1630. His father, Mr. Robert Tillotson, was^a con- 
siderable clothier there, a man of good understanding, and 
uncommon knowledge of the Scriptures ; but so zealously 
attached to the system of Calvin^ as not to be moderated 
by the reasonings of his son, whom he lived to see dean of 
Canterbury. He gave bis son, however, a liberal educa- 
tion, who, after passing through a school, was sent iti 1647 
to Cambridge, being then seventeen ; and admitted a pen- 
sioner of Clare-hall. He took his bachelor of arts degree 
in 1650, and his master's in 1654, having been chosen 
feDow of his college in 1651. 

His first education and impressions were among Puritans; 
from whose principles he gradually seceded, and is said to 

^ Ghauf(pie ia art Nain.— PerraoU's Lei Hommes Itlustres.— L*AvooaV 



T I L L O T S O N. 873 

» 

have felt a great repugnance to read the works usually put 
into the hands of youth. Mr. Chillingworth's works are 
said to have first given his mind a new bias, and directed 
nim to a new method of study, and about the same time he 
entered into friendship with some ^reat men, which con- 
tributed riot a little to give him new views of theological 
matters. Cambridge then could boast of the celebrated 
names of Dr Cudworth, master of Christ's-colie-^re ; Dn 
More, and Dr. Rust, afterwards bishop of Dromore in 
Ireland, fellows of the same ; Dr. Whichcot, provost of 
King's; Dr. Worthington, master of Jesus ; and Mr. John 
Smith, author of the " Select Discourses,*' fellow-^of 
Queen's. Tillotson enjoyed also a close and intimate 
^friendship with Dr. Wilkins, afterwards bishop of Cluster; 
he adopted all the best studies of this great man, but so as 
to perfect every one of them; for, though Wilkins had 
more general knowledge, yet Tillotson was the greater 
divine. 

In 1656, Tillotson left hi's college, and went upon invi- 
tation to Edmund Prideaux, esq. of Ford-abbey in Devon- 
shire, to be tutor to hitf son. Prideaux had been commis-, 
sioner of the great seal under the I6ng parliament, and was 
then attorney-general to the protector Cromwell. How 
long he continued in this station does not appear; but he 
was in London at ihe time of Cromwell's death, Sept. 3, 
165S ; &nd was present about a week after at a Very re- 
markable scene in Whitehall palace, which we have already 
related from Burnet in our account of Dr. Owen. The 
ti.me of his going into orders, and by whom he was or- 
dained,' are particulars not known. Some have supposed, 
that he was curate to Dr. Wilkins at St. Lawrence Jewry, 
before the restoration ; but Wilkins wasN^ot admitted to 
that vicarage till 1*662. The first sermon of his that ap- 
peared in print was in Sept. 1661 : it was preached at the 
morning exercise at Cripplegate, on *♦ Matth. vii. 12." and 
published among a collection with that title, but not ad- 
mitted among his works till the edition of 1752. At the 
time of preaching this sermon he was still among the Pres- 
byterians, whose cominissiooers he attended, though as an 
auditor only, at the conference held at the Savoy for the 
review of the Liturgy, in July 1661 ; but he immediately 
submitted to the act of uniformity, which commejnced on 
St. Bartholomew's*day the year following. Upon thus 
becoming a. preacher in the church, he was very little dis- 



S74 T I L L O T S O N. 

posed to follow the patterns then set him, or indeed of 
former times ; and therefore. formed one to himself, which 
was long esteemed as a model, ^e certainly began his 
course of divinity with the true foundation of it, an exact 
study of the Scriptures, on which be spent four or five 
years. He then applied himself to the reading of %ll the 
ancient philosophers and writers upon ethics, and among 
the fathers chiefly St. Basil and $t. Chrysostom, with Epitr 
co]3ius among the moderns, whom he made the pattern 
both of his principles and eloquence. With these pre* 
parations, he set himself to compose the greatest variety qf 
sermons that any divine had yet undertaken. 

His first o^ce in the church was the curacy of Cheshunt 
in Hertfordshire, in 1661 and 1662; where he is said, by 
bis mild and gentle behaviour, which was natural. to him, 
and persuasive eloquence, to have prevailed with an old 
Oliverian soldier, who preached among the Anabaptist^ 
there in a red coat, and was much followed, to desist from 
that, and betake himself to some other employmeotr The 
short distance of Cheshunt from London allowing him often 
to visit his friends there, he was frequently invited into 
their pulpits. Accordingly we find that his sermon on 
Eccles. xii. 1. ^^ Upon the advantages of an early piety,^* 
was preached at St. Lawrence Jewry in 1662; Dec. the 
1 6th of which year, he was elected minister of the ac^oining 
parish of St. Mary Aldermanbury, upon the deprivation of 
Mr. Edmund Calamy. He declined this, but did not con- 
tinue long without the offer of another beneBce, which he 
accepted, being presented, in June 1663, to the rectory 
of Keddington in Suffolk. His residence there, however, 
was but short, being called to London by the society of 
Lincoln's-Inn, who chose him their preacher the 26th fol- 
lowing: his election was owing to his being accidentally 
heard at St. Lawrence Jewry, by Mr, Atkyns, one of the 
benchers of that Inn, and afterwards lord chief baron of 
the Exchequer. He determined to live among them, and 
therefore immediately resigned his living in Suffolk ; but 
his preaching was so little relished there at first, that ht^ 
fot some time entertained thoughts of leaving them. They 
maintained, that ^^ since Mr. Tillotson came, Jesus Christ 
had not bieen preached among them." To this accusation, 
he seems to allude in his sermon against evil-speaking, 
preached near thirty years after; towards the close of 
which. he says: ^^ I foresee what will be said, because I 



T I L L O T S O N. 8T5 

have heard it fio often sai^ in the like case, that there is 
not one. word of Jesus Christ in all this ; no more is there 
in the text: and yet I hope that Jesus Christ is truly 
preached, when his will and laws, and the duties enjoined by 
the Christian religion, are inculcated upon us.** 

Theiyear aft^r, 1664, he was chosen Tuesday lecturer at 
St. Lawrence Jewry : and being now settled in town, and 
having established the character of an excellent jpreacher^* 
be contributed his share to oppose the two growing evils 
of Charles the Second^s reign, atheism and popery. He 
preached a sermon before the lord mayor and court of alder- 
men at St. Paul's, in 166^^, " On the wisdom of being re* 
ligibus ;" which was pjublished in 1664, much enlarged^ 
and has been allowed to be one of the most elegant, per« 
spicuous, and convincing defences of religion, m our own 
or any other language, in 1664, John Sargeant (see Sar* 
oeant), who had deserted from the church of England to 
that of Rome, published a book, called '^ Sure footing in 
Christianity; or, Rational Discourses on the rule of Faith.'' 
This being highly praised by the abettors of popery, TiU 
lotson answered it, in a piece entitled ^* The rule of Faith,'* 
which was printed in 1666, .and inscribed to Dr. Stilling* 
fleet, with whom be was intimately acquainted. Sargeant 
replied to this, and also in another pief:e attacked a passage 
in Tillotson's sermon ^*On the)¥isdom of being religious;'* 
' which sermon, as well as his ^' Rule of Faitb,'* Tillotson 
defended in the preface to the first volume of his sermons^ 
printed in 1671, Svo. 

The same year, 1666, he took a doctor of divinity^s de- 
gree ; and in 1668 preached the sermon at the consecration 
of Wilkins to the bishopric of Chester. He was related to 
Wiikins, by having, Feb. 23, 1664, married his daughter- 
in-law, Elizabeth French, who was niece to Oliver Crom«> 
well; for she was. the daughter of Dr. Peter French, canon 
of Christ church in Oxford, by Robina, sister to Cromwell, 
which Robina was re* married, about 165^, to Dr. Wilkrns, 
then warden of Wadham college. In 1670, he was made 
a prebendary of Canterbury; and, in 1672, advanced to 
the deanery of that church : he had some time before been 
preferred to a prebend in the church of St. Paul. He had 
now been some years chaplain to the king, who is yet sup- 
posed, by Burnet and others, to have had no kindness for 
liim; his zeal against popery was too great for him cobe 
mttch of a favourite at conrt. When a declaration for 



S76 T I L L O T S O N. 

liberty of conscience was published in 1 672, with a riew tm 
indulge the papists, the bishops were alarmed, and directed 
their clergy to preach against popery; the king complained 
to archbishop Sheldon of this, as doqe on purpose to in- 
flame the people, and alienate them from himself and his 
government ; on which that prelate called together some of 
the clergy, to consider what he should say to his majesty, 
if be pressed him any farther on that head. Dr. Tillotson 

' suggested this answer, tbat, ** since his majesty professed 
the protestant religion, it would be a thing without precC'^ 
den^ that be should forbid his clergy to preach in defence 
of it.*' In the mean time, he observed great moderation 
towards the protestant dissenters, and, early in 166S, had 
joined in a treaty for a comprehension of such as could be 
brought into the communion of the church ; but this at* 
tempt proved abortive, as did another made in 1674. In 
1675, he published ** The Principles of Natural Religion, 
by bishop Wilkins/' who bad died at his house in 1672, 
and committed all his papers to him, to dispose of as he 
pleased. The first twelve chapters only having been tran- 
scribed by Wilkins for the press, be finished the remainder 
out of the bishop's papers, an.d wrote a preface. In 16S0, 

' he published " The Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy, by 
Dr. Barrow," who dying in 1677, left all his manuscripts to 
the care of *Dr. Tillotson. lie had the year before converted 
Charles earl of Shrewsbury, afterwards created a duke by 
king William, to whom he was secretary of state, froni 
popery to the protestant religion. 

On the 2d of April, 1680^ he preached before the king 
at Whitehall, a sermon on Josh. xxiv. 15, which was soon 
after published by his majesty's special command, under 
the title of ** The Protestant Religion vindicated from the 
charge of singularity and novelty." But this discourse 
happened to contain some incidental assertions, which of- 
fended all parties, particularly the following passage : ^* I 
cannot think, tilt I be better informed, which I am always 
ready to be, that any pretence of conscience warrants any 
man, that is not extraordinarily commissioned, as the apos- 
tles and first publishers of the Gospel were, and cannot 
justify that commission by miracles as they did, to affront 
the e&tablished religion of a nation, though it be false ; and 
openly to draw men off from the profession of it, in con** 
teftipt of the magistrate and the law. All that persons of a 
different religion can in such a case reasonably pretend to. 



T I L L O T S O N. 377 

is to enjoy the private liberty and exercise of their own 
conscience aind religion ; for which they ought to be very 
thankful, and to forbear the open making of proselytes to 
their own religion, though they be never so sure that thej 
are in the right, till they have either an extraordinary com- 
mission from God to that purpose, or the providence of 
God makes way for it by the permission of the magistrate." 
Dr. Hickes, who wrote a virulent libel against Tillotson after 
his death, styles this downright Hobbism ; and tells us^ 
that a witty lord, standing at the king^s elboW when it was 
delivered, said, ** Sir, do you hear Mr. Hobbes in the puU 
{)it ?" Dr. Calamy*s account is, that the king having slept 
the most part of the time while the sermon was delivered, 
a certain nobleman stepped up to him, as soon as. it wa^ 
over, and said, *^ It is pity your majesty slept, for we have 
had the rarest piece of Hobbism that ever you heard in 
your life." To which the king answered, ** Odds fish, he 
shall print it then ;" and immediately gave orders to that 
purpose.. Some animadversions were made upon it, and 
printed ; but it does not appear that the dean took any 
further notice, except only to apolo>gize privately among 
bis friends, for having advanced an assertion which be saw 
could not be maintained. He excused himself by the hurry 
he was in, being called unexpectedly, and out of turn, to 
preach. It is indeed surprising that a man of Tillotson's 
good sense should be hurried, by his zeal against popery, 
.to advance against the papists what equally struck at oui^ 
first reformers. 

In 1682, the dean gave the pliblic, from the manuscripti 
of bishop Wilkins, a volume in 8vo, of fifteen sermons ; 
which he introduced with a' preface, in defence of that pre- 
late's character, against the reflections cast upon it in the 
>' Historia & antiquitates universitatis Oxoniensis.*' This 
was printed in 1674, under the inspection of bishop Fell^ 
who is supposed to have made the alterations and additions, 
which are seen in that edition of Anthony Wood's work. 
The task of preparing. " Dr. Barrow's Sermons" for the 
press, which had employed the dean for several years, and 
icost him as much pains as would have produced many* more 
of bis own, was now finished ; and the edition published at 
London in 1633, folio. The laborious office of an editor 
of such voluminous writings as those of Barrow, under* 
taken by one who had many years before appeared to so 
much advantage as an original writer, was as clear an evu 



$78 T I L L O T S O. N. 

dence of modesty, as it was of sincere friendsbip, in- Dr. 
Tillotfon. The discovery of the Kye-honse plot the same 
year opened a melancholy scene, in which he bad a large 
share of distress, on account of bis friendship for lord Rus- 
sel. He and l)r. Burnet were sent for by that lord, and 
both attended him till bis death : and it is remarkable, that 
they both urged bim.to disown the principle of resisting 
the powers above, for which they were severely censured^ 
and doubtless afterwards felt reason to censure themselves. 
He published a discourse agieiinst *' transubstantiation,*' in 
the latter end of king Charles's reign, and another against 
^^ purgatory" in the beginning of king James's. The for- 
mer debate upon that doctrine gave occasion to several 
tracts on both sides of the question, published during the 
Gontroverby with the papists, which subsisted through king 
James's reign ; and which produced so many pieces, that 
the vast collection, in three volumes, folio« published many 
years ago, under the direction of Gibson, bishop of Lon^ 
don, is only a part of those written by protestants^ 

During the debate in parliament concerning the settle- 
ment of the crown on king William for life, the dean was 
consulted upon that point by the princess Anne of Den* 
mark ; who was pressed by the Jacobites to form an opposr* 
tion ; and who, till lady Russel and Dr. Tillotson had dis* 
coursed with her, had refused to give her consent to it, as 
prejudicial to her own right. He was afterwards admitted 
into an high degree of confidence with: king William and 
queen Mary ; and their majesties bad the greatest reason to 
confide in him, for he was a true friend to their establish- 
ment on the throne of England. The vacancies of some 
bishoprics soon turned the thoughts of bis majesty and his 
ministers upon the dean ; but a bishopric was so far from 
being agreeable to bim, that he used all possible solicita* 
lions to avoid it. He had been appointed clerk of the closet 
to the kiug, the 27th of March, 1689 ; in August he was 
appointed by the chapter of his cathedral, to exercise the 
archiepiscopal jurisdiction of the province of Canterbury, 
devolved to himself and that body, on the 1st of that month, 
by the suspension of Sancroft, for refusing the new oaths ; 
and the king soon fixed upon him to succeed him. Tillot* 
son's desires and ambition had never extended further than 
to the exchange of his deanery of Canterbury for that of 
St. Paul's, which was. granted him in September, upon the 
promotion of Stillingfle^t to the bishopric of Worcester : 



T I L L O T S O N. S7f 

\ 

buty at the very tim^ that he kissed the king's hand for this, 
bis majesty named the archbishopric to him. There is a 
letter of his to lady Russel, dated April 19, 1689, which 
shews how he stood affected to this proposal, and also clears 
bishop Burnet from many a grievous censure, as if he nim- 
^eif had had a view to the archbishopric. After acquainting 
her ladyship with the disposal of several church prefer- 
ments, he proceeds : ^* but now begins my tropble. After 
J had kissed the king's hand for the deanery of St. Paul's, I 
gave bis majesty my most humble thanks, and told him^ 
that now he bad set me at ease for the remainder of my life* 
He replied, No such matter, I assure you, and spoke plainly 
about a great pl^ce, which I dread to think of; and said, it 
was necessary for his service, and be must charge it upon 
. my conscience. Just as he had said this, he was called to 
supper, and I had only time to say, that when his majesty 
was at leisure, I did believe I could satisfy him, that it would 
be most for his service that I should continue in the station 
in which he had now placed me. This hath brought me into* 
a real difficulty ; for, on the one hand, it is hard to decline 
his majesty's commands, and much harder yet to stand out 
against so much goodness as his majesty is pleased to use 
towards me: on the other, I can neither bring my inclina- 
tion nor my judgment to it. This I owe to the bishop of 
' l^alisbury, one of the best and worst friends I know ; best 
for his singular good opinion ef me, and the worst for direct- 
ing the king to this method, -which I know he did; as if 
his lordship and I had concerted the matter, how to finish 
this foolish piece of dissimulation, in running away from a 
bishopric to catch an archbishopric. This fine device hath 
thrown me so far into the briars, that, without his majesty's 
great goodness, I shall never get oflP without a scratched 
face. And now I will tell your ladyship the bottom of my 
heart. I have of a long time, I thank God for it, devoted 
Jtiyself to the public service, without any regard for myself, 
and to that end have done the best I could, in the best 
manner I was able ; of late God hath been pleased, by very 
severe ways, but in great goodness to me, to wean me per- 
fejctly from the love of this world ;" (he alludes here, not 
only to the death of his friend lord Russel, but to the loss of 
two daughters, which were all his children;) *^ so that 
worldly greatness is now not only undesirable, but distaste- 
ful to me. And I do verily believe, that I shall be able to 
do as moch or more good in my present stationi than in » 



8S0 T I L L O T 8 O N. 

higher, and shall not have one jot less interest or inflnenee 
upon an J others to any good purpose: for the people oa- 
turally love a man that will'take great pains and little pre* 
ferment. But, on the other hand, if I could force my in* 
ciination to take this great place, I foresee that I should 
sink under it, grow melancholy and good for nothing, and, 
after a little while, die as a fool dies.'* 

A man of Dr. Tillotson*s disposition and temper, which 
jwas mild, gentle, and humane, had certainly the greatest 
reason to dread the archbishopric ; since whoever should 
succeed Sancroft must be exposed to tlie attacks of the 
Nonjurors. Accordingly, he made all the struggle, and all 
the opposition to it, which a subject could make against his 
king ; and, when all would not do, he accepted it with the 
greatest reluctance. Of this we have the following ac* 
count, in another letter to lady Russel, dated October the 
25th, 1690; for there was ever a strict intimacy and cor- 
respondence between this lady and Dr. TiHotson, after the 
ideath of lord Russel, and there passed several letters be- 
tween them upon this occasion. *^ I waited upon the king 
at Kensington, and he took me into his closet, where 1 told 
him, that 1 could not but have a deep sense of his majesty's 
great grace and favour to me, not only to offer me the best 
thing he had to give, but to press it so earnestly upon me. 
I said, I would not presume to argue the matter any further, 
but I hoped he would give me leave t^^be still his humble 
and earnest petitioner to spare me in that thing. He an- 
swered, he would do so if he could, but he knew not what 
to do if I refused him. Upon that I told him, that I ten- 
dered my life to him, and did humbly devote it to be dis- 
posed of as he thought fit : he was graciously pleased to 
sa>-, it was the best news had come to him this great while. 
I did not kneel down to kiss his hand, for, without that, I 
doubt I am too sure of it, but requested of him, that he 
would defer the declaration of it, and let it be a secret for 
some time. He said, he thought it might not be amiss to 
defer it till the parliament was up. I begged further of 
him, that he would not make me a wedge to drive out the 
present archbishop; that some time before I was nomi* 
nated, his majesty would be pleased to declare in council, 
that, since his lenity had not had any better effect, he would 
wait no more, but wduld dispose of their places. This I 
told him I humbly desired, that I might not be thought to 
^.ny thing harsb» or which might reflect upon me : fov 



TIL L .O T S >0 N. J8l 

t|Ow that his majesty bad thought fit to advance me to this 
station, my reputation was become his interest. He said 
he was sensible of it, and thought it reasonable to do as I 
desired. I craved leave of him to mention one .thing more, 
which in justice to my family, especially my wife, I ought 
to do,- that I should be more than undone by the great and 
necessary charge of coming into this place, and must there- 
fore be an humble petitiouer to his majesty, that, if it should 
please God to take me out of the world, that I must un- 
avoidably leave my wife a beggar, he would not suffer her lo 
be so ; and that he would graciously be pleased to cousiider, 
thatthe widow of an archbishop of Canterbury, which would 
now be an odd figure « in England, could not decently be 
supported by so little as would have contented her very^ 
well if I had died a dean. To this he gave a very gracious, 
answer, I promise you to take care of her.'' — His remark to 
the king, itbat ^' the widow of an archbishop would now be 
an o^d figure in England,'' was founded upon this fact, that 
only two, who had filled the see of Canterbury, had hitherto 
been married, Cranmer and Parker. 

The king's nomination of him to the archbishopric was. 
agreed between them, as it appears, ^o be postponed till 
after the breaking up of the session of parliament, whicti- 
was prorogued the 5th of January 169.1 ; and then it was- 
thought proper to defer it still longer, till the king should 
return from Holland, whither he was then going. Hear*, 
rived at Whitehall the 13th of April, and nominated TiU 

.' lotson to the council on the 23d, who was consecrated the 
31st of May, being Whitsunday, in Bow-church, by Mews, 
bishop of Winchester, Lloyd, bishop of St. Asaph, Burnet, 

* bishop of Sarum, Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester, Iron* 
side, bishop of Bristol, and Hough, bishop of Oxford, in 
the presence of the duke of Norfolk, the ^narquis of Car- 
marthen, lord-president of the council, the earl of Devon- 
shire, the earl of Dorset, the earl of Macclesfield, the' 
carl of Fauconberg, and other persons . of rank ; and 
four days after his consecration was sworn of the privy- 
council. His promotion was attended with the usual com* 
pUments of congratulation, out of respect either to him-, 
self or his station, which, however, were soon followed by 
a very opposite treatment from the nonjuring party ; the 
greatest part of whoin> from the moment of his acceptance 
of the archbishopric, pursued him with an unrelenting 
rage^ which lasted during his life, and was by no means 



312 T I L L O T S O N. 

• 

appeased after bis death. Before his consecration, the 
learned Mr. Dudwell, who was afterwards deprived of Cam- 
den's historical lecture at Oxford, wrote him a letter, dated 
the 12tb of May, to dissuade him from being, says be, ** the 
aggressor in the new«designed schism, in erecting another 
altar against the hitherto acknowledged altar of ydur de-* 
prived fathers and brethren. If their places be not vacant, 
the new consecration must, by the nature of the spiritual 
monarchy, be null and invalid, and schi»matical." This 
letter of Mr. Dodweli was written with much greater mild- 
ness and moderation than another which was sent to the 
archbishop's lady for him, and a copy of it to the countess 
of Derby, for the queen ; and printed soon after. It called 
upon him to reconcile his acting since the Revolution with 
the principles either of natural or revealed religion, or with 
those of his own letter to lord Russel, which was reprinted 
upon this occasioo. The writer of it is said, by Dr. Hickes,. 
to be a person of great candour and judgment, and once a 
great admirer of the archbishop, though he became so much 
prejudiced against him as to declare after his death to Dr. 
Hickes, that he thought him ^^an atheist, as much as a 
man could be, though the gravest certainly,'' said he, ** that 
ever was." But these and other libels were so far from 
exasperating the archbishop %gainst those who were con^ 
cerned in dispersing them, that when some were seized on 
that account, he used all his interest with the government 
le screen them from punishment. 

After he had been settled about a year in his see, he 
found himself confirmed in the notion he had always enter- 
Uined, that the circumstances attending grandeur make it 
not near so eligible, with regard to the possessor's own 
ease and happiness, as persons at a distance from' it are apt 
to imagine. To this purpose he entered reflections in 
short-hand in his common-place book, under the title of 
** Some scattered thoughts of my own upon several subjects 
and occasions, begun this 15th of March, 1691-2, to be 
transcribed :'' and his remarks concerning a public and 
splendid way of living, compared with a private and retired 
li#e, deserve to be inserted, as they did not result frooa 
spleen and disappointment, but from the experience of one 
who at the time actually possessed the highest honburs of 
his country, in his own profession. .** One would be apt 
tp wonder^" says he, " that " Nehemiah should reckons 
biigir bill of jfare) and a vast number of promiscuous guest% . 



T I L L O T S O N. 88S 

among his virtues and good deeds, for which he desires 
God to remember him ; but, upon better consideration^ 
besides the bounty, and sometimes charity of a great table, 
provided there be nothing of vanity or ostentatioir in it, 
there may be exercised two very considerable virtues ; one 
in temperance, and the other self-denial, in a man's being 
contented, for the sake of the- public, to deny himself so 
much, as to sit down every day to a feast, and to eat con« 
tinually in a crowd, and almost never to be alone, espe- 
cially when, as it often happens, a great part of the com« 
pany that a man must have is the company that a man would 
not have. I doubt it will prove but a melancholy business 
when a man comes to die, to have made a great noise and 
bustle in the world, and to have been known far and near, 
but all this while to have been hid and concealed from him* 
self. It is a very odd and fantastical sort of life, for a man 
to be continually from home, and most of all a stranger at 
his own house. It is surely an uneasy thing to sit alwayg 
in a frame, and to be perpetually upon a man's guard, not 
to be able to speak a careless word, or to use a negligent 
posture, without observation and censure. Men are apt to 
think that they who are in the highest places, and have the 
most power) have most liberty to say and do what they 
please; but it is quite otbeHvise, for they have the least 
liberty, because they are most observed. It is not mioe^ 
own observation^: a much wiser man, I mean Tully, says^ 
^ In maxim! qu&que fortun! minimum licere ;' that is, they 
that are in the highest and greatest condition have, of all 
others, the least liberty." All these, and many more, are 
the evils which attend on greatness; and the envy that 
pursues it is generally the result of ignorance and vanity. 

Dr. Tillotson, fromv^his first advancement to the archi« 
episcopal see, had begun to form several designs for the 
good of the church and religion in general ; and in these 
be was encouraged by their majesties. With this view he 
joined with the queen in engaging the bishop of Salisbury 
to draw up his ^^ Discourse of the Pastoral Care," in order 
to prepare the way for perfecting some parts of our eccle^ 
siastical constitution. This was bishop Burnet's favourite 
tract, and it was published in 1692. In the few Duomeet* 
of his leisure, Tillotson revised his own sermons; and, in 
1693, published four of them, concerning the divinity and 
incarnation of our blessed Saviour. His chief design in 
this was to remove the imputation of Socioianisa^ wbioll 



S84 T I L L O T S O N. 

hftd long beeri) and was then more than ever^ fixed itjMm 
bim by those who did not love his principles, and thought 
that his defending religion upon what were called rationai 
grounds, and his holding friendship and correspondemie 
with Locke, Limborch, Le Clerc, and others who did the 
same, were circumstances liable to suspicion. Of this he 
indirectly complains in one of his sermons : ** I koow not 
bow it comes to pass, but so it is, that every one that offers 
to give a reasonable account of his faith, and to estaUiah 
religion upon rational principles, is presently branded for 
a Socinian ; of which we have a sad instanqe in that 
incomparable person, Mr. Chiliingworth, the glory of this 
age and nation, who for no other cause that I know of) Imt 
his worthy and successful attempts to make Christian re- 
ligion reasonable, ainl to discover those firm and solid foun* 
dations upon which our faith is built, hath been requited 
with this black and odious character. But if this be So- 
cinianism, for a man to inquire into the grounds, and rea- 
sons of the Christian religion, and to endeavour to, give, a 
satisfactory account why he believes it, I know no way but 
that all considerate inquisitive men, that are ajboy^ fancy 
and enthusiasm, must be either Socinians or Atb^)^ts. . 
» The good of the church, >ud tbc^ rfsfor^atiojn of ^11 
abuses among the clergy, were, the coi|^Untif>bj^ect of the 
archbishop's thoughts, and, anxofig. otber resolutions .^ad 
projects for this purpose, que was^ to oblige,tthe.crergy to 
a more strict reisidence upon their cures : but there waa 
such an evil and active spirit at work against nim, that 
fault was. found with every thing he said pif did, and all 
opportunities were taken to blast and defaine hiin^ which 
made a •considerable impression on bis spjrfts^.so that he 
grew very uneasy in his high post. The.mo^icq an^ pa^ty 
rage, which he bad felt iD some measur^,b^q^re,^bipke out^ 
after his advancement, in ail fornas.of opep insult. One 
day, while a gentleman was with him^ who c^^e to pay bis. 
compliments, a packet was brought in, sealed and directed 
to him, upon opening which there aq»peared *a mask, but 
nothing . written. The archbishop, without any signs of 
emotion, threw it carelessly among his papers on the table j^ 
hot o/i the gentleman's expressing great surprise at the 
affrptit, he only smiled, and said, that/Hhis.was a geql^lft 
itebuke, (ioiApared with some others, that lay there in black 
and white,'' pointing to the papers uppn the table* Yet 
ajl this injurious treatment^ and all the calumnies spread 



/ 



T I L L O T S O N. 88S 

agaiDst hiiQ^ caold never provoke bim to the least temper 
M revenge; nor did be ever indulge himself in any of 
these liberties of speaking about otbers, which were to so 
•nraieasaralile a degree made use Qf agaiost himself : and 
upon a bundle of libels found among hi^ papers after bis 
deatli, be put no other inscription than this, ^< These are 
libdsy^ I pray God forgive them, I do f ." 

He concurred again with the queen, in engaging the 
bishop of Salisbury to undertake his *^ Exposition of the 
tbirty^ttine Articles of the Church of England ;'' which that 
indefistigable prelate performed in less than a year, though it 
wwA not published till 16 9i^. He sent the manuscript to the 
nrcbbisbopi who, bavingrevisedandaltereditin several places^ 
returned it, with his judgment, in the following letter : 

**My Lord, Lambeth-house, October 23, 1694. 

'* I have, with great pleasure and satisfaction, read over 
the great volume you sent me, and am astonished to see so 
vast a work begun and finished in so short a time. In tb^ 
article of the Trinity you .have said all that, I tfatnk^ can 
tie said upon so obscure and difficult an argument. The 
iSocinians have just now published an answer to us all, but 
I have not had a sight of it. The negative articles against 
the church of Borne you have very fully explained, and 
with great learning and judgment : concerning these you 
will meet with no opposition among ourselves. The great- 
est danger was to be apprehended from the points in dif- 
ference between the Calvinists and Remonstrants, in which 
you have shewn not only great skill and moderation, but 
great prudence, in contenting yourself to represent both 
sides impartially, without any positive declaration of your 
own judgment. The account given of Athanasius^s creed 
seems to me no wise satisfacto^; I wish we were well rid 
of it. I pray God to preserve your lordship, to do more 
such services to the church. 1 am, my lord, 

" Your*s most affiectionately, " Jo. Cant." 

* TIte Mhmht% aMcdqU from tfaie tbt archbitbop, ' art my own penonal 

RicbardsooiMia wiU ferthtr coofirm the friends i aud, which ii mare, whoor 

excetleaee 6f hii temper. *' Arch- I have myitlf made sach (for they 

beacon Recvea* of ^ Norwich, makiof meant to he my enemiet) by Uie use 



a visit ooce to archhithoip Tillotton« I have made of thote hinta which their 

he obaervea id bis library one shelf malice hath suggested to me, and from 

of Vooks of rarious forms and sizes, which 1 have received more proit than 

all richly hoimd* and Anely gilt and from the advice of my hast and mott 

lettered : and asked, whatextraordioary cordial friends ; and therefore you see 

authors they were so remarkably dist I have rewarded them accordingly/' 
liagttished by his grace. • Those/ sAid 

Vot.XXIX. C c 



3^6 TILLOTSON. 

He did Dot.k>ng survive the writing of. ftbit letter r&ci 
Nov. 1 nth fojlowiog, he was suddenly seized witb nn illnesi^ 
wbicbi turning to a dead palsy, put an end to bis life on lU^ 
S4tb, in tbe sixty-iiftb year of his age. He was atteadtfd 
the two Itiat nights of his illness by his dear friend Mr. 
Nelson^ in whose arms be expired. Tbe sorrow for biis 
death was more universal than ever was known for a^ub^ 
jeet : and his funeral was attended by a numerous ttrain of 
coaches, filled with persons of the first quality, who w«nf: 
Tolttntarily to assist at tbe solemnity. His faoeral-serBioii 
was preached by the bishop of Salisbury; and, being. aooa 
after published, was remarked on by Dr. Hickes, in a<pieoe 
entitled, *^ Some Discourses upon Dr. Burnet and. Dr. TiU 
lotson, &€.'' The acrimony of this piece is scafceto.be 
snatched among the invectives of any age or language : bi- 
shop Burnet, however, gave a strong and clear answer to 
these discourses, in some Reflections on them ; and shewed 
them to be, what th^y really are, a malicious and iscurrilou^ 
lib^l. But whatever attempts were made against arch- 
bishop Tillotson, his character may safely be trusteci to 
posterity ; for bis life was not only free from blemishes^ 
but exemplary in all parts of it, as appears from facu 
founded on indisputable authority. In bis domestic cos^ 
lations, friendships, and the whole commerce of busioess, 
be was eaay and humble, frank and open, tender-hearted 
and bountiful to such an. extent, that, while be was in a prir. 
vate nation, be laid aside two tenths of bis income for cha- 
ritable uses. He despised money, too much, insomuch that 
if the king had oot forgiven his first-fruits, bis debts coul^ 
not have be^o paid ; and he left nothing to bis family but 
tbe copy of bis posUmmous sermons, which were sold for 
2500 guineas; a 'poor maintenance tor the widow of an 
archbishop, if the king had not inpreased it by an annuity 
of 400/; in 1695^ and the addition ^f 200L ti^ore in'l698. 

The death of the archbishop was Ja^niented >by Mr* Locke, 
in a letter to Limborch, not only as a considerable loss to 
himself of a aeaious and candid inquirev after truth, wliom 
he consulted freely upon all doubts in theological subjects, 
and of a friend, whose sincerii.y be had experienced for 
many years, but likewise jas a very important ^^oe to the 
l^ngUsh option, arid the whole body of tbe reformed churches. 
He had published in his life-time as many sermons as, with 
bis *' Rule of faith,'* amotinted to one volume in folio ; and 
as many were published after his death, by his chaplain^ 



t i L L O t S O N. ui 

lOk; Barker,. «» tmounted to two more. They hav^ been 
often printed, and translated into several languages ; and 
tfad reputation of them in foreign countries wdsi partly owing 
t|BM. Le CieK, who, in his ^< Bibliotheque Chois6e far 
1(^0 V' g^^^ ^^ account of the second* edition, in 1699^ 
folio, of those that were published in his life-time. He 
declares there, that ^^the archbishop's merit was above any 
commendation'^ which he could give ; that it was formed 
front the union of an extraordinary clearness of head, a 
great |>enetititioo, an exquisite talent of reasoning, a pro«^ 
found knowledge of true divinity^ a solid piety, a most sin- 
gular perspiciMtyand^unafFected eleganceof style^ witib every 
other. quality tbac oould be desired in a man of his order ; and 
tbatj v^ereas compositions of this kind are commonly merely 
rhetorical II nd popular declamation, and much better to W 
beard' from che pulpit, than to be read jn print, his are for 
thc'iBOst part exact dissertations, and clipable of bearing 
the test of the most rigoreiis examination." 

As>good sense, sound reasoning, and profdund knowledge, 
justly entitled archbishop Tillotson to the character of at: 
great and exeellent divine, so copiousness of style, and easd 
of composition, have made him alsQ esteemed and admired 
aaan oratorv Yet a polite writer of our own country, Mel-^ 
moth,' in '^ Fitaosborne's Letters,^' cannot allow, this to him^ 
bu^ on the 'contrary, ^'thinks that no man had ever less 
pretensions to genuine oratory, than this celebrated preacher.. 
One cai^not' indeed but regret," says he, ^'tfaat Dr. Tilbt-^ 
son,, who'abounds with such noUe and generous sentimental 
should "want the art of setting them off with all jthe advah^ 
ta^^ they deserve i that the sublime in morals should not 
be ^attended with a suitable elevation of language. The 
truth, however, is, his wondst'arefrequently ill chosen,. and 
al^post always ill placed; his* periods 4re both tedious and 
un^armonioHB'; as bis metapbon are generally mean, and 
omn ridiculous." He imputes this chiefly to bis ^.< having 
had no sort of notion of rhetorical num.ber8,". which seems, 
indeed,, to have been in some meHsure the case; and, as. far 
as this can detract from the ebaracterof a/ complete orator,i< 
it is necessary <to make some abatement :• yiet- there is cer- 
tainly great cc^ousness, and, aa this getitldman^lows, .'^ a 
noble simplicity,*' in his diacpurses* As for. Ins language, 
notwithstanding^ seme' exceptionable passages with regard 
to the use of metaphors, incident to the best authors, Dry- 
den frequently owned with pl^a^ure, that, if he had any 

cc 2 



iM T I L L O T S O N. 

ulent for English pme (as c^ruioly be IukI a vary grmt 
one), it wM owing to bis having oAeo read the writinga of 
archbishop Tlllotson. Addisoo likewise coasidered Tilbi* 
son's writings as th^ chief standard of our language i and 
accoidingly marked the particular phrases in ihe sermons 
published daring bis Hfe-time, as tbe ground-work of an 
English dictionary, which be bad projected. But there are 
some very just sentiments of TilloCson in one of Warbuv* 
ton's letters, which deserve more attention. Tillotson, War*- 
burton says, ** was certainly a virtuous, pious, humane, and 
moderate man, which last quality was a kind of rarity in 
those times. His notions of civil society were but confused 
and imperfect, as appears in tbe affair of lord Russel. As 
tp religion, be was aosong the class of latitudinarian divines* 
-—I think the sermons published in bis life*time are fine 
moral discourses. They bear indeed the character of their 
author, simple, elegant, candid, clear, and rational. No 
orator in the Greek and Romao sense ^of tbe word, like 
Taylor ; nor a discourser in their sense, like Barrow: free 
firoui their irregularities, but not aMe to reach their heights. 
On which account I prefer them iufinitely to him. You 
'cannot sleep with Taylor; you cannot forbear thinking with 
Barrow. But you may be much at your ease in tbe midst 
of a long lecture from Tiliotson : clear, and rational, and 
equable as he is. Perhaps tbe last quality may account 
for it.^' 

Tillotson^s sermons have been often reprinted in folio 
and 16nBOc to the last edition iu folio is prefixed a good 
Ufa of ^io^ compiled with car« and judgmeoi, by the rtr. 
Or. Birch> from which me have extracted the present-ac* 
count. * 

TILLY (John TzEaiCtAis, Couat de), son of Martin Tser- 
dais, herediury sSn^hal of the county of Namur, was de- 
scended from an ancient and iUostrieo^ family, H4ntb was 
one of tbe seven patrician families of Brussels. ^ It isseid 
that he was originally a Jesuit ; bu-t, going into tbe army, 
he commanded tbe Bavarian troops under the duke Max- 
imilian. He had a great share in tbe victory gained at 
Prague, November S, 1620, over tbe uAfortunate elector 
palatine Frederic. V. and afterwards defeated succasstmely 
tbe armies of count Mansfeldt, the duke of Brunswick, and 
tiie margnave of Baden Dourlaeh. At^abe battle of Lutt^r 

^ I«tf« bj Birch • 



TILLY. 989 

in Lutienlmrgf 16S6| he conquered the Danbh army, which 
their king commanded in person. In 1629, he was sent to 
Liibeck, as plenipotentiary for concluding a peace with 
Deditfark, had the sole command of the imperial forces the 
following year, insfcetd of WaUtein, and took the city of 
•Magdeburg by IMoirmy in 163 1, where his soldiers committed 
the most horrid cruelties, barbarities, and ravages during 
ttiree days. This unhappy city, after having been given 
up to pillage, was destroyed by fire, and Bimost all the in- 
habitants, men> women, and children, murdered in the most 
inhaoian manner; a barbarous massacre, which will for 
ever tarnt»h the' glory of this celebrated general. He then 
^iikvaded Saxony, and took Leipsic ; but was defeated three 
days after, Sept. 17, the same year, l^^l» by Gustavus 
A4olphu8y king of Sweden. Having rallied his forces he 
Depalsed Horn, chief of the protestant party. General 
Tilly wi)s at length wounded by a cannon ball while de- 
lending ifhcpassage of Lech against the Swedes, and died 
of' his wound, April 30, 1632. Tilly is said to have been 
reil^arlcbUe foi* two virtues, seldom found in his profession, 
^he strictest chastity and temperaace. He was likewise 
«ery poptilar with his troops, to whom he was always kind 
and liberal, and at last (bequeathed sixty thousand crowns 
tothe old regiment which had served under hinw^ 

TiMiSUS, the LocitlAN, was a philosophev' o^the Italtd 
school, during the time of Plato, who was indebted to him, 
among other Pythagoreans, for his acquaintancfe with the 
dostrineof Pythagoras, and who wrote his dialogue, en* 
tilled ^* Tifhwisf^' on the groutid of hift hoxiiki <^ On the Na-^ 
tmre oi TUngis.*- A small piece, which' he' #rote concern* 
ing the ^^ Soul of the World,'' is preserved by Proclus, and 
is in aone editkrns' prefixed to Plato's) ** Tiiliteus.'^ In this 
treatise, tbotrgh general^ following Pythag6nas, he departs 
from him in two partfteulai^s ; the -first, that instead of one 
whole, or moMUl, he' supposes two^indepehdent causea of 
nature, God, or mind^ the fountain of intelligent nature, 
9Md -neoeafeity^ or matter,^ the^ souroe of bodies ; the second, 
that be eiqplains thufe cause' of the formation of the v^orid, 
f real the extetnalaeHibii of God upon matter, after the 
patteni or ideas eti^ing in * bis own mind. From coo^r^ 
ing tiiis piece widi I^liito^ a 'dialogue, it Will- be ^und that 
the Athenian 'pbiltiao]iher baa obscured tfa^ si m|>l^:doe trine 

1 l^et Hift. 



890 TIMANTHES. 

of the Locrian with fancies drawn from bis ownr. imagiiift« 
tion, or from the Egyptian schools. ' 

TIMANTHES, a celebrated Grecian painter, was bom 
at Sicyon, or, according to some writers, at Citbnus) one 
of tll^* Cyclades. He flourished towards the close of Alext^ 
ander the Great's reign, had a fertile inrention, andthe 
art of conveying ideas to the spectators beyond what -bis 
pictures represented. All the ancients bestow the highest 
encomiums on that of Iphigenia prepared to be sacrificed* 
In this celebrated picture the princess appeared with alllhe 
charms and grace belonging to her sex, age, and rank, 
with the dignity of a great soul devoting itself for its coun-> 
try, yet with the agitation which the approach of the sa* 
crifice must necessarily cause. She ^as standing before 
the altar, the high priest Chalcis attending, whose coun**- 
tenance expressed that majestic sorrow becoming his office. 
Menelaus, Iphigenia's uncle, Ulysses, Aja:!r, and the other 
Grecian princes were present at the sad spectacle, and tiie 
painter seemed to have so entirely exhausted every difi» 
ferent species of grief, that he had no way left to deaoiibe 
that of the father, Agamemnon ; but, by a stroke equailjr 
ingenious and touching, he covered the face of this prince 
with a veil, thus leaving the pitying spectator's imj^'gihation 
to paint the dreadful situation of the unliappy parent. His 
idea has been several times adopted with success, and it 
has been the theme of unlimited praise from the orators 
and historians of antiquity, but the justice of this praise 
has been questioned by modern criticism, by sir Joshua 
ileynolds, in his " Eighth < Discourse,** and by Mr. Fuseli, 
in his ^* First Lecture,-' in which last, the question is eat« 
amined elaborately and scrupulously.^ 

TIMON, the Petliasian, one of the chief disciples of 
Pyrrho, flourished in the time of Ptolemy Pfailadelphus. 
He early visited Megara, to be instructed by Sttipo in dia- 
lectics, and afterwards removed to £lea, that he might be- 
come a hearer of Pyrrho. He first professed philosophy at 
Chalcedon, and afterwards at Athens, where be remsiaed 
till'his death. He took so little pains to imrite disciplea to 
his schooF, that it has been said of him, that, as the Sty^ 
thians shot flying, Timon gained pupils by vunning &6m 
thetn. Tbis'indiflerence to the profession which be' bad 



* Brucker. — Fabric. Bib!. Graec. — Saxii OooDiast. 

* Pliny.— Reynolds's Works*-— JFu^fl^'s (iectures, 1801, 4to. 



'''• • i .>.♦•::» 



T I M O N. 391 

msBttoied vnu probably oiriog to fats love of ease aiid indul- 
gence ; for he was fond of rural retirement, aiKl was so 
much addicted to wine, that be held a successful contest 
With several celebrated champions in drinking. It was this 
fUsposttion, probably, which tempted him to embrace the 
indolcat doctrine of scepticism. Timou appears to have 
Tiewed the opinions and disputes of the philosophers in the 
same ludicrous point of light, in which Lucian afterwards 
contemplated them ; for, like him, he wrote with sarcastic 
humour against the whole body. His poem, entitled 
^^ Silli,'' often quoted by the ancients, was a keen satire^ 
full of bitter invective both against men and doctrines. The 
remiatning fragments of this poem have been industriously 
collected by Henry Stephens, in his *^ Poesis Philosophica." 
This Timon (ivho is not to be confounded with Timon the 
misanthrope) lived to the age of ninety years. ' 

TINDAL (Dr. Matthew), an English deistical writer, 
was the son of a clergyman of Beer-ferres, in Devonshire, 
and born' about 1657. He became a commoner of Lincoln 
college^ in Oxford, in 1672, where he had the famous Dr. 
fitckes for his tutor, and thence removed to Exeter college. 
in 1676 he took the degree of bachelor of arts, and was 
afbeeivards elected fellow of All Souls college. In 1679 be 
took a-baoheipr of laws degree ;- and in July 1685, became 
a doctor in that faculty. In the reign of James II. he de- 
clared himself a Roman catholic, but afterwards renounced 
that religion. Wood says that he did not return to the 
profeestant religion till after that king bad left the nation; 
but, according to his own account, he returned to it before 
that memorable epocha. In 1694 he published, at Lon- 
don, in 4to, ^^ An Essay, concerning obedience to the su- 
preme powers, and the duty of subjects, in. all revolutions; 
with some considerations touching the present juncture of 
affiiirs-;" and ^^ An Essay coucerning the Laws of Nations 
and'the right of sovereigns," j&c. He published also some 
totbep pamphlets ^on the same subjects, particularly one cour 
cerrhng the doctrine ^of the Trinity and the Athanasian 
creed; but unas first particularly noticed for a publication 
which oame ont in 1706, with this title, ^^ The Rights of the 
Gfaristian Cburdb aas^ted, against the Romish and all other 
priests, > who daitn an independent power over it ; with a 
^eface concerning the government of the Church of Eng-. 

I Pipg. L»«rt«— Snicker. 



392 T I N D A L. 

land, as by law establisbed," 8to. Tindal was aware 6i 
the offence this work would give^ and even took some plea- 
sure in it ; for, as Dr. Hickes relates, be told a gentieinan 
who found him at it wiib pen in hand, that <^ he was wriU 
ing a book which would make the clei^^mad." Pei^mfte 
few. books were ever published whiah they more reseated; 
and, accordingly, numbers among tbemimmediateiywvotie 
against it. Among the most distinguished of his aniwmrew 
were, I. ^^Tfae Rights of the Clergy in the Christian Oborch 
asserted in a sermon preached at Newport Pagaell in Book- 
inghamshire, Sept. 2, 1706, at the primary vbitation uf Ihe 
right reverend father in God, William lord bishop of Lift- 
€oln } by W. Wotton, B. D." U. << The second part of the 
Wolf stripped of Shepherd's cloathing, in answer to a late 
book entitled The Righu of the Christian^Church assented, 
pablished at London in March," 1707. III. ^* Two treatises^ 
one of the Christian Priesthood, the other of the dignity 
of the Episcopal Order, formerly written, and tiow ^pv^ 
lished to obviate the erroneous opinions, fisUaeiotts reasos^ 
ings, and bold and false assertions, in « late book entitled 
The Rights of the Christian Church ; with a Ui^e pDebteiy 
discourse, wherein is contained an Answer .lo ti^^asdboDk; 
all written by George Hickes, D. D.'* London, tf!07\ IV. 
'^ A thorough examination of the false principlesand fal- 
lacious arguments advanced against the Christian Chuick, 
Priesthood, and Religion, in a late pernicious book, isonr** 
cally entitled The Rights of the Christian Church aaserted-, 
&c. ; in a dialogue between Demas and Hierarchar bumbiy 
offered to the consideration of the nobility and gentiy of 
England y by Samuel Hill, rector of Kilmington, and areb^ 
deacon of Wells.'' London, 1707, 8vo. V. "Three shert 
treatises, viz. 1* A modest plea for the Ci^gy, &c.!S. A 
Sermon of the Sacerdotal Benediction, &c. 3. A Discootse 
published to undeceive the people in poir.t of Tithes^ &c. : 
formerly printed, and now again published, by Dr.<7eorge 
Hickes, in defence of the priesthood and true rights of the 
church against the slanderous and reproachful treatment of 
The Rights of the Christian Church,'' London^ 17e9y Svoi 
VL *' Adversaria ; or truths opposed to some of the fiiise^ 
floods contained in a book called The Rights of 'tte Chris* 
tian Church asserted," &c,; by ConyersPiaceyM«A.Lon* 
don, 1709, 8vo. YIL << A Diabgue between Timodiy iand 
Philatheus ; in which the principles and projects of a late 
whimsical book entitled The Rights of the Christmo Churchy 



T I N D A L. 398 

&c« aire ftttriy stated, and answered in tbeir kinds, &c. : 
written v|By^i a iayfidMi/' London^ 3 vols. 8vo. Mr. Oldis* 
^wolrfek ivas tbe author. Swift al»o wrote '^ Remarks'' gn 
Ttndftl's book, wiiicb are in his works, but were left un^ 
fiaisbed by tbe author. — But, whatever disturbance this 
vv«rk might create at hof&ei and whatever prejudices Jt 
oitgbt raise against its author, among tbe clergy of tbe 
ebureb of England, some of the protestants abroad judged 
vexy difierently, and e^eti spoke of it in terma of approba-- 
tioa and appiaose. Le Clerc gave an account of it in his 
^^Btbliothequecfaoisie," which begins in these words :^^W^ 
bear diat thb book has made a greats noise. in England, 
ami it is not at all surprising, since the author attacks, with 
all his mighty the pretensions of those who are called high-* 
eharrtoien ; - that is, of those who carry tbe rights of bi« 
shops so far a% to make them ihdependent in' ecclesias* 
%\{^i affairs of prince and people, and who consider every 
thing that has been done to prevent the dependence of 
she laity on bishops, as an usurpation of the laics agwnst 
divine ri|^t;*'*-^I am far from taking part in any particular 
disputes, whieh the learned of England may have' with one 
another, concerning the independent power and authority 
df their bishops, and farther still from desiring to hurt ia 
any way the church of England, which I respect and ho- 
^UMir as the most illustrious of all protestant efaurches ; but 
Isam persuaded that the wise and m«»derate members of 
diis ehurchi can never be alarmed at such a book as this, 
as if the church was actnaUy in danger. I believe tb^ 
author, as himself says, had no design against the present 
establtshaftent^ . whkh be approves, bat. only agaioat some 
eseessive pretensions, which are even contrary to the laws 
6f the land, and to the authority of the king and parlia- 
iiamem. As I da# not know, nor have any connection -with 
him, i have iio particular interest to serve by defeftdtfig 
Um, and 'I do not ondertake it.**— His book is too full of 
BiatteF isr me to give an exact abridgmeot of it, and they 
tlvho understand English will do well to read the original : 
they havenevarr read a bocd^ sa strong and so supported in 
ftivMr of the principles which protestants on this side the 
water hold in common.*' 

Hie lower house of convocation, in queen Anne's feign,* 
thought that sqcdva ebaracter of <^ The Rights of the Cbris^ 
UBLtk Chbrch," &c. from a man of Le Clerc's reputation far 
parts Jind Itaaming, most bav^ no small inflnence in recom-* 



SM T I N D A L. 

mendinpf the booky and in sug^^esting favourable notions of 
^be principles advanced in it; and therefore, in tbeir re* 
presentation of the present state of religion, tbey judged 
it expedient to give it this turn, namely, *^tbat tbose in* 
fidels" (meaning Tindal and others) '* have procured ab« 
stracts and commendations of tbeir own profane writings, 
and probably drawn up by themselves, to be inserted in 
foreign journals, and that they have translated them into 
the English tongue, and. published tbem ber€^ at home, in 
order to add the greater weight to tbeir wicked opinions.'* 
Hence a notion prevailed in England, tbat Le Clerc had 
been paid for the favourable account he gave of Tindal's 
book; upon which he took occasion to declare, in a subse- 
quent journal, that there never was a greater falsehood, and 
protests as an honest man before God, ^' that, for making 
mention of that or any other book, be had iieyer bad either 
promise or reward." It wilt easily be imagined that, in 
the course of this controversy, Dr. Tindai's antagonista 
would object to him his variableness and mutabilityan mat^ 
ters of religion, and insult bim. not a little upon bis first 
apostatizing to the church of Rome, upon the prospect of 
a national conversion to Popery, and then, at the revalu«t 
tion, reverting to Protestantism. To this be replied, iik^i 
<' Coming, as most boys do, • a rasa tabula to the university^ 
and believing (his country education teaching bim^no 
better) that all human and divine knowledge was to be. had 
there, he quickly fell into the then f>revailing notion^ of 
the high and independent powers of th^ clergy ; and nieet-* 
ing with none, during his long ittay there, who* questioned 
the truth of them, they by degrees became so fixed, and 
riveted' in him, that he no more doubted of them tbaq^of 
bis own being : and he perceived not the eonsequence of 
them, till the Roman emissaries (who were busy in makiog 
proselytes in the university in kiiig Jameses timd, and 
knew how to torn the weapons of high church against themji 
caused him to aee, that, upon these notions, a separation 
from the church of Rome could not be justified; and thai 
they who pretended to answer them as to those points, did 
only shuffle, or talk backward and forward. This made 
him, for seme small time^ go to the Popish mass^bouse^ 
till meeting, upon his going into the world, with people 
who treated that notion of the independent power as it de-» 
served) and finding the absurdities of Popery to be niuch 
greater at hand than they appeared sit a distance^ he began 



T I N D A L. ^95 

to e^ramine the whole matter with all the aHendon he was 
capable of; aifd then he quiekly found, andw^s surprised 
lit the discovery, that all bh till then undoubted maxims 
were so 4ar from having any solid foundation, that they 
were built On as great a contradictiofi as can be, that of 
two independent powers in the same society. Upon this 
he returned, as be had good reason, to the church of Eng- 
laiid, #7hich he found, by examining into her constitution, 
disclaimed all that independent power he had been bred 
up in the belief of; Candlemas 1687->8 being the last time 
he saw any of the Popish tricks, the very next opportunity 
(namely, Easter) he publicly received the sacrament (tb« 
warden giving it him tirst) in his college chapel, &c. And 
thus having made his escape from errors which prejudice 
of education had drawn him into, be resolved to take no- 
thing on trust for the future ; and, consequently, his no*, 
tidns concerning our civil, as well as religious liberues^ 
became very different from those in which he was educated." 
What Dr. Tindal says here may be true ; yet it is observ- 
able, that his conversion to Popery, and re-conversion to 
Protestantism, lay between February 1685, and February 
16S8, that is, between the twenty->seventh and thirtieth 
year of bis age ; and many will be ready to suspect, that a 
man of his reasoning and inquiring turn mnst^ before then, 
have been too much fixed and settled in his principles, 
either to be a dupe of Popish missionaries, or then to dis- 
cover first the absurdity and falsehood of fundamental prin* 
eiples. In the mean time he endeavoured to defend hi# 
work, in a '^ Defence of the Rights of the Christian Church 
against a late visitation seritoon, entitled The Rights of the 
clergy in the Christian Church asserted^ preached at New- 
port- Pagnell in the county of Bucks by W. Wotton, B. D. 
and made public at the command dnd desire of the bishop 
of Lincoln, and the clergy of the deaneries of Buckingham 
and Newport,'* London^ 1707, in 8vo, and in his" Second 
Defence of the Rights of the Christian Church, occasioned 
t»'y two late indictments against a bookseller and his servant 
for selling one of the said booker. In a Letter from a genr 
tleman in London to a clergyman in the country. To which 
are added two tracts of Hugo Grotius on these questions ; 
I. Whether the Sacranitent of the Lord's Supper may bo 
administered where there are no pastors? 11. Whether it? 
be necessary at all times to communicate with tihe, ^ymbolsi' 
As also some tracts of Mr. John Hales of Eaton, viz. Of 



99$ T I N D A. L. 

the Lord's Sopper^ the Power of the Keys, of Scbiun^ 

&c.*' Londoo, 1707, in 8vo. In 1709 be published ^t 

London in 8vOy a pamphlet entitled, ^' New High Cbar<^h 

turned old Presbyterian ;*' and in 1710 several pamphlet^ 

viz. ** An High Cburcb Catechism ;*' ^* The jacobitisin^ 

perjury, and popery of High Church Priests^". *^Tbo^ 

merciful judgmenla of High Church-triumphant on offend«- 

ing clergymen and others in the reign of Cbaries I." ' I^ 

1711 and 1712 be published at London in Svo^. ** The N«^ 

tion vindicated from the aspersions cast on it in a lale 

pamphlet entitled^ A representation of the present State of 

Religion^ with regard to the late excessave .growth qf inflr 

delity^ heresy, and profanenessi as it passed the Lowe? 

House of convocation/' in two parts. In 1716, and some 

follow