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1 



THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XVL 



Printed by; Ni«iiOLS, Son, and Bbntlbv, 
Ked Lig£ Passaf e, Fleet StM»ct» Loiidoii. 



f 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY : 

CONTAINING 
AN HISTORICAL AND CBITICAL ACCOUNT 

or TBI 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

OF TRK 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PAKtlCUIASLT THE BRITISH AND IRISH i 
TROM THE EARUEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A. 



VOL. XVL 



LONDON'. 

IffgaiTEMi FOft J. NICHOLS AND SON} F. C. AND J. HTINQTON { t^ fAYNfi| 
OTRIDGE AND SON ; O. AND W. NICOL $ WILKU AND EOB1N80H | I. WALKBft f 
K. LEA ; W. LOWNDES ; WHITE, COCHSANBy AND CO. | t. EQERTON | 
LACElNGTONy ALLEN, AND CO.; J. CABPENTSE{ LOMGlfANy BVR8T, EBS8» 
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I. BOOTH; J. MAWMAN; QALB, CURTIS» AND PENNBR) R. H. EVANS f 
I. BATCH ARD; R. BALDWIN; CRADOCK AND JOY ; B. BENTLEY ; I. FAULDBR ; 
OOLE AND CO. ; J. DEIOHTON AND BON, fiRifBfttbOS; CONSTABUI AND «0. 
9PINB9R0H; AND WILtON AND SON, YORK* 

1814. 



A NEW AND GENERAL 
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



VriOTTO, an eminent punter, scnlptor^ tOxi architecti 
was bora in 1276, at a ~ mcfi, of pareobt 

who were plain countr a boy, he viaa 

Bent out to keep sbeep ii having a natural 

inclination for design, le himself with 

drawing bis flock after tl in the best man- 

ner be could. Cimabuf iiat way, found 

him at this work, and tl ;o good an opi> 

nion of hia genius for.painting, that he prevailed with \m 
father to let him go to Florence, and be brougbt up under 
him. He had not applied himself long to designing, be^ 
fbre he began to shake oS the stiffness of the Grecian 
wasters. He endeavoured to give a finer air to his beads, 
and more of nature to bis colouring, with proper actions to 
his figures. He attempted likewise to draw after the life, 
and to express the different passions of the mind; but 
could not come up to the liveliness of the eyes, the ten- 
derness of the flesh, or the strength of the muscles in naked 
figures. What he did, however, had not been done in 
two centuries before, with any skill equal to his. Giotto's 
reputation was so far extended, that pope Benedict IX, 
sent a gentleman of bis court into Tuscany, to bring him 
ajust report of his talents; and withal to bring him a de« 
■ign from each of the Florentine painters, being desirons 
tfi have some notion* of their skill. When he came to 
VocXVI. B 



a GIOTTO. 

Giotto, be told him of the pope's intentions, which vrere^ 
to employ him in St. Peter's church at Rome ; and desired 
him to send some design by him to his holiness. GiottK)^ 
who was a pleasant ready man, took a sheet of white paper, 
and setting his arm close to his hip to keep it steady, h% 
drew with one stroke of his pencil a circle so round and so 
equal, tha[t .^^rolfnd as, Giotjkp'^ O'' afterwarids became 
proverbial. Then,> presenting it to the gentleman, he told 
him smiling, that *^ there was a piece of design, which he 
might carry to his holiness." The man replied, *^ I ask 
for a design f' Giotto answered^ ^^ Go, sir, I tell you his 
hoUness i^^s.aotJbijpg else of me.'* T!be P^pf^t who under- 
stood something of painting, easily comprehended by this, 
how much Giotto in strength of design excelled all the 
other painters of his time ; and accordingly sent for him 
to Rome. Here he painted many pieces, and amongst the 
rest a ship of Mosaic work, which is over the three, gates^ 
of the portico, in the entrance to St. Peter's church, and 
is known to painters by the name of Giotto's vessel. Pp^ 
l&enedict was succeeded by Clement V. who transferred 
Che papal court to Avignon; whither, likewise, Giotto was. 
obliged to go.' After som^ stay there, having perfectly 
satisfied the pope by maqy fine specimens, of bis art, he 
was largely rewarded, and retfiriied to Florence full of 
riches and honour in 13161 He was soon invited to Padua, 
where he painted a new-built chapel very curiously ; thence 
he Went to Verona, and then to Ferrara. At the same time 
the poet Dante, hearing that Giotto was at > Ferrara, tfhd 
£eing himself then in exile at ^ayenna, got him over to 
Kavetina, where he executed several pieces ; and perhaps 
it inight b|e here that he drew Dante's picture, though the 
friendship between the poet and the painter was previotr^ 
^o this. In 1322, he was again invited abroad by Castruc-^ 
cio Castrucani, lord of Luca; and, after that, by Rgberl 
ling of Naples. Giotto painted much at Naples, and 
<;hiefly the chapel, where the king -was so pleased with 
iiim, that he used very often to go and sit by him while be 
ivas at work : for Giotto was a man of pleasant conversa-' 
tion and wit. One day, it being very hot, the king said 
to him, '* If I were you, Giotto, I wQuld leave off working* 
this hot weather;" "and ^o would I, Sir," says Giottc^^' 
V if I were you." He returned fropa Naples to Rome, and 
from Rome to Florence^ leaving monuments of his art ia 
almost every place through which he passed. There is ik 



tj I O T T O. 3 

fiicttire of hb in one of tbe churches of Florence, repre- 
seottDg^ tbe death of the blessed Virgin, with the apostles 
ftbout her : . the attitudes of which story, Michael Angelo 
tis^d to say, could not be better designed.. Giotto, how-» 
' ever, did not confine his genius altogether to painting : he 
was both a scillptor and architect. In 1327 he formed the 
design of a magnificent and beautiful monument for Guide 
' Tarlati, bishop of Arezzo, who had been the head of the 
Gfaibeline foction in Tuscany : and in 1334 he undertook 
the famous tower of Sancta Maria del Fiore; for which 
work, though it was not finished, he was niade a citizen of 
Florence, and endowed with a considerable yearly pension* 

His death happened in 1336: and the city of Florence 
erected a malrble statue over his^tomb. He had the esteem 
and friendship of most of the excellent men of the age in 
which he lived : and among the rest, of Dante and Petrarch* 
He drew, as already noticed, the picture of the former | 
and the latter mencions him in his will, and in one of his 
figUiiiUar epistles. 

Giotto is said to have been the inventor of Mosaic work^ 
and of crucifixes. The former has been disproved in our 
ArchsBologia. The latter rests on a story which we hope 
has as little foundation. It is thus related : ^' Giotto, in* 
tending one day to draw a crucifix to the life, wheedled a 
poor man to suffer himself to be bound to a cross for an 
hour, at the end of which he was to be released, and re- 
ceive a considerable rieward for it ; but instead of this, as 
aftn as he had £ustened him, he stabbed him dead, and 
then fell to drawing : when he had finished his picture, he 
•carried it to the pope, who liked it so well, that he was 
resolved to place it over the altar of his own chapels 
Giotto told him, as he liked the copy so well, he would 
show him the original. What do you mean, said the 
pope? Will yon show me Jesus Christ on the cross in 
person? No, said Giotto, but I will show your holiness 
the original ftam whence I drew this, if you will absolve 
^e from aU punishment. The pope promised this, which 
GicAto belreving, attended him to the place where it was : 
as soon as they were entered, he drew back a curtain, 
which hung before the dead man on the cross, atid told 
kirn wfaflt 1^ had done. The pope, troubled at so barbarous 
an actioii, repealed his promise, and told Giotto, that he 
should surely be put to an exemplary death. Giotto, with 
a seemiifg r6Big:uatioii> oulf b^ged l&aVe to^hr^' the 

B 2 



4 G I O T T O* 

' pi^ce before he died, which was granted hiaiy and a gtiard 
tet^pon him to prevent his escape. As soon as the pic- 
ture was delivered into bis hancis> he took a brush, and 
dipping it into a sort of stuff ready for that purpose, daubed 
the picture all over with it, so that nothing of the crucifix 
could be seen. This made his holiness stark mad, and he 
swore, that Giotto should be put to the most cruel death, 
unless he drew Another equal to the former; if so, h6 
would not only give him his^life, but also an ample reward 
in. money. Oiotto, as he had reason, desired this under 
. the pope's signet, that he might not be in danger of a 
second repeal. This was granted to him; and taking a 
wet spunge, he wiped off all the varnish he had daubed on 
the picture, so that the crucifix appeared the same in all 
respects as it did before. Upon this, the pope remitted 
his punishment. And they say, that this crucifix is the 
original, from which the most famous crucifixes in Europr 
are xlrawn." * 

GIOVIO. SeeJOVIUS. 

GIRALDI (LiLio Gregorio), in Latin Gyraldus, an 
ingenious and learned Italian critic, was born at Ferrara 
in 1479, of an ancient and reputable family. He learned 
the Latin tongue and polite literature under Baptist Gua- 
jrini; and afterwards the Greek at Milan under Demetrius 
Chalcondyles« He retired into the neighbourhood of Al- 
bert Picus, prince of Carpi, and of John Francis Picus, 
prince of Mirandula; and, having by their means access 
to a large and well-furnished library, he applied him^f 
intensely to study. He afterwards went to Modena, and 
thence to Rome, but being unfortunately in this city when 
it was plundered by the soWiers of Charles V. in 1527, he 
lost his all. in the general ruin; and soon after his patron 
tard jnal Kangone, with whom be had lived some time. He 
was then obliged to shelter himself in the house of the 
prince of Mirandula, a relation of the great Picus, but had 
the misfortune to lose this protector in 1533, who was 
assassinated in a conspiracy headed by his nephew. Gi^* 
raldi was at that time so afflicted with the gout, that he 
had great difficulty to save himself from the hands of th^ 
conspirators, and lost all which he had acquired since the 
iacking of Rome. He then returned to bis own country, 
4nd lived at Ferrara^ where be found a refuge from hU 



G I R A L D I. 9 

misfottunes. The gout, which he is said to have heightened 
by intemperance, tormented him so for the six or $eveft 
last years of his life, that, as he speaks of himself, he. 
might be said rather to breathe than to live. He veas stich 
a cripple in his hands and feet, that he was incapable of 
moving himself. He made, however, what use he could 
of intervals of ease, to read, and even write: and many of 
his books were composed in those intervals. He died at 
length of this malady in 1552 ; and was interred in the ca- 
thedral of Ferrara, where an epitaph, composed by himr 
self, was inscribed oipon his tomb. 

His works consist of seventeen productions, which were 
first printed separately ; but afterwards collected and pub- 
lished in 2 vols, folio, at Basil 1580, and at Leyden 1696« 
The most valued pieces among them are, '^ Historia de 
Deis Gentium,'* — ^^ Historian Poetarum tarn Grsecorum 
quam Latinorum Dialogi decem,''— and, ^^ Dialogi duo de . 
Poetis nostrorum.'' The first of these books is one of the 
last he. composed, and full of profound erudition. ^,The 
other two, which make up the history of the ancient and 
modern poets, are written with great exactness and judg- 
ment. Vossius speaks highly of this work, as the produc- 
tion of great judgment and learning, as well as industry, 
and observes, that though hi? professed design is to collect 
memoirs concerning their persoris, characters, and writ- 
ings in general, yet he has occasionally interspersed many 
things, regarding the art of poetry, which may. be useful 
to those who intend to cultivate it. Joseph Scaliger, in- 
deed, would persuade us, though not very consistently, 
that nothing can be niore contemptible than the judgment 
he passes on the poets he treats of : for in another place be 
allows all the wovks of Giraldus to be very good, and that 
no man knew better how to temper learning with judgment. 

There is a work also by Giraldus, <^ De annis & mensi- 
bus, csBterisque temporis partibus, una ,cOm Kalendario 
Romano &. Grseco," written with a view to the reformation 
of the kalendar, which was .afterwards effected- by pope 
Gregory XIII. about 1582. There are likewise among his 
works a few poems, the principal of which is entitled, 
*^ Epistola in qua agitur de incommodis, quse in direptione 
Urbaiia passus est ; ubi item est quasi catalogus suorum, 
amicorum Poetarum, & defieaiur interitus Herqulis Cardi- 
nalis Rangonis.'* This poem is annexed to the Florentine 
edition of the two dialogues concerning his contemporairy' 



d aiRALDL 

?oet5; ftn4 contains a curious literacy history o£ that time, 
'o other praises bestowed upon GiraJdus by authors of the 
first name, we may add that of Casaubon, who calls him» 
** vir solide doctus, & in scribendo accuratus,*' a maa: 
solidly learned and an accurate writer. Thuanus says^ 
that ** he was excellently skilled in the Greek and Latia: 
tongues, in polite literature, and in antiquity, which he> 
has illustrated in several works ; and that, though highly 
deserving a better fate, he struggled all his life with ilU. 
health and ill-fortune.*' His books he bequeathed to his- 
relatives John Baptist Giraldi and Pasetius.^ 

GIRALDI (John Baptist Cintio), an Italian poet, of 
the same family with the preceding, was born at. Ferrara. 
in 1504. His father, being ai man of letters, took great < 
care of his education ; and placed him under Ctslio Cal- 
cagnini, to study the languages and philosophy. He made 
an uncommon progress, and then applied himself to the, 
study of physic ; in which faculty he was afterwards a doc- 
tor. #ALt 21 years of age, he was employed to read pubUc 
lectures at Ferrara upon physic and polite literature. In : 
1542, the duke of Ferrara made him bis secretary; which* 
• office be held till the death of that priace in 1658. He 
was continued in it by bis successor : but envy having dona 
him som,e ill offices with his master, he was obliged to quit 
the court. He left the city at the same time, and removed 
with his family to M oodovi in Piedmont ; where he taught 
the belles lettres publicly for three years. He then went 
to Turin ; but the air there not agreeing with his constitu- 
tion, he accepted the professorship of rhetoric at Pavia ; 
which the senate of Milan, bearing of his being about to 
remove, and apprized of his great merit, freely offered 
him. This post he filled with great repute ; and afterwards 
obtained a place in the academy of that town. It was here 
he got the name of Ciutio, which he retained ever after, 
and put in the title*page of his books* The gout, which 
was hereditaj^ in his family, beginning to attack him se« 
verely, he returned to Ferrara*; thinking that bis native air 
might afford him relief. But he was hardly settled there, 
when he grew extremely ill; and, after languishing about 
three months, died in 1573. 

His works itre all written in Italian, except some orations, 
spoken upon extraordinary occasions, in Latin. They 

* t 

.i;Jtf(Hn^»^Niceros9 Tol, XKCC^^Roicoe'g Leo.^*-Sasii Ononu m Gyrtldqf. 



GIRALDt f 

insist chiefly of tragedies : a collection of which was pub«' 
$shed at Venice 1583, in 8vo, by his son Celso Giraldi j' 
who, in his dedication to the duke of Ferrara, takes occa- 
sion to observe, that he was the youngest of five sohs, ahd 
the only one wHo survived hii^ ikther. There are alsb soirid^ 
prose works of Giraldi: one particularly upoh comedy^' 
tragedy, and other kinds of poetry, which was prihted aV 
Venice by himself in 1554, 4to. Soitie make no scriifile 
to rank him among the best tragic writers that litaly has^ 
produced ; but perhaps the work by which he nOw is'best^ 
known is his ** Hecatommiti,^' an hundred noviefts in th^' 
nanner of Boccaccio, which have been frequently' printed. 
There is a scarce volume of His poems printed' at' Ferrara^ 
ih 1537, at the close of which is a treatise of Caelio Cal-' 
cagnini, <« De Imitatiorie," addressed to Giraldi.^ 

GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS, See BARRY. 

GIRARD (Gabriel}, an ingenious French writer^ waa' 
bom at Clermont in Auvergne in 1676, and educkied for 
the' church. In his youth he had a canonry ifi the colle-' 
giate church of Notre Dame de Monferrand, but resigned^ 
it to one of his brothers, that he might be at' liberty' to go' 
to Paris and devote his time to literary purstiiCs. llbere^ 
hj the interest of some friends be Wa^ made 'alopidner to the* 
duchess of Berri, daughter of the regent, and also ob*' 
tained the place of king's interpreter for the Sckvoniah' 
and Russian languages. In 1744 he was admitted a' mem-' 
ber of the French academy. He died Feb. 4^ 1748; The^ 
work by which he is best known, and to which inde^d'he^ 
chiefly owed his reputation in Francie, is his ** Synonymea^ 
Frangais/' 12mo, of ^hrch a new edition, with some post*^ 
humous pieces by Girard, was published by M. Beauz6e^ in'^' 
1^69, 2 vols. 12mo. No grammatical worJL was ever mora 
popular in France, nor more useful in defining the nreciise' 
meaning of words apparently syhohymotis ; ahd the ele« ' 
g^hce and moral tendency of the examples he produces ' 
have been much' admired. . Ttie abbd Rotibaud has siiice^ 
published " Les Nouveaiix Syrionymes Frangais,^* 1766^* 
4 vols. 8 vo, which may be considered as a supplemenit to 
Girard. Our author published also a grammar under the ' 
title of '^ Les vrais principes de la'langue Frangais/' 2'] 
vols. 12mo,'far inferior in ingenuity to his former, arid 

1 Moreri.— NiceroD, vol. XXIX.--<3io^en4 Hut. Litt. d*Itii]ie, T^I. VI. p. 4^. 
•*^axii Onomast. in Gjrraldui. 



< G I I^ A II p. , ♦ ■ 

full of jpi&taphysical whims on the theory of language^ not 
unmixisd with those infidel principles which were in his 
time beginning to be propagated.' 

QIRTIN (Thomas), an ingenious young landscape- 
painter, was born Feb. 18, 1773, and received his first in- 
structions from. Mr. Fisher, a drawing-master in Aldersgate- 
street, and was, for a short time, the pupil of Mri Dayes. 
He early made nature his model; but the first master that 
strucl^ bis attention forcibly was Canaletti, and, in the 
latter part of his life, he sedulously studied the colouring 
of Rubens. He was the first who introduce4 the custom of 
drawing upon cartridge-paper ; by which means he avoided 
that spotty, glittering glare so commpn in drawings made 
on white paper ; and some of his later productions have a;| 
forcible and spirited an effect as an oil*picture,. and are 
, more clear. In his first manner he made the outline wit:h 
a pen,, but afterwards did away that hard outline, whiqh 
gives ^o ^dgy an effect to drawings that are not, in other, 
respects, destitute of merit; and, having first given his 
general forms with Indian ink, finished his work by putting 
on his different tints. This, if judiciously managed, is 
certainly a great improvement in the art. It has beea 
said, that he made great use of the rule, and produced' 
some of hb most forcible effects by trick, but this was not 
the case. His eye was peculiarly accurate ; and by that 
he formed his judgment of proportions. Whoever inspected 
his pallet woiilc) find it covered with a greater variety of 
tints than almos||; any of his contemporaries employed. 
Mr. Moore was his first patron, and with him he went a 
tour into Scotland. The prospects h^ saw in that country 
gave that wildness of imagery to the scenery of his draw- 
ings by which they are so pre-eminently distinguished. 
He also wei^t with ^r. Moore to Peterborough, Lichfield, 
and Lincoln ; and, ipdeed, to many other places remark- 
able for their rich scenery, either in nature or architecture. ^ 
That gentleman had a drawii)g that Oirtin made of Exeter , 
(Cathedral, which was principally coloured on - the spo^ 
wher<^it was drawn; for he was so uncommonly indefatiga- 
ble, that^ when he had mfide a i^ketch of any place, h^ 
never wished to (juit it until be had given it all the proper 
tdnts. H^ was early noticed by lord Harewood, Mr. LaS' 
^|JleS| and Dr. Monro ; in whose collections are son&e of 

I Pkt. Bilk 



Q I R T I N. 9 

those fine specimens of the arts by the study of which he 
forioed his taste. The doctor has in his possession some of 
his earliest, and many of his finest, drawings. He painted 
two pictures in oil ; the first was a view in Wales, which 
was exhibited, and much noticed, in 1801 ; and the se- 
cond, the panorama view of London, which was exhibited; 
in Spring-gardens. About twelve months before his death 
he went to France, where be staid till May. His last, and 
indeed his best, drawings were the views of Paris, which, 
were purchased by lord Essex, and from which aqua-tinta 
prints by other artists have since been mslde. This pro-* 
mising young artist died Nov. 9, 1802, of an asthmatic » 
disorder, which Mr. Edwards seems to attribute to irregu* 
larity. * 

GIRY (Lewis), advocate to the parliament of Paris, 
and to the council, and inember of the French academy, 
was born at Paris in 1596. His abilities and probity re- 
commended him to some very honourable employments, and 
he particularly enjoyed the confidence of cardinal Mazarin. 
He was author of the following translations i *^ Dialogues 
des Orateurs,'* 4to.; " TApologie de Socrate;'\ ** THist, 
Sacr^e de Sulpice Severe ;'' " TApologetique de Tertul- 
lien,^* for which he was received into the academy ; ^Ma 
Cit6 de Dieu, de St. Augustin," I vol, 4to. ; ** Epitres 
Choisies de St. Augustin," 5 vols. i2mo. He died in 1665, 
' at Paris. His son, Francis, who was provincial of the 
Minim order, gained! great reputation by some devotioqal 
works; but deserves little credit for his principal publica- 
tion, ^* Les Vies des Saints," fol. which although esteemed 
ibr its piety^ is full of fables, and far from accurate as to 
facts. P. Raffron, of the same order, has written his life, 
12mo.* ^ 

GLABER (Rodoij>h), a Benedictine monk, first of St« 
Cermaine d^Auxerre, and afterwards of Cluni, and a man 
ef superstitious credulity, flourished in the eleventh cen- 
tury, and wrote a " Chronicle or History of France," in 
the L^tin language, tt consists of five books, of which th« 
first relate^ to the events of the monarchy previously to 
> Hugh Capet, and the four subsequent ones to those foU 
lowing it, as far down as 1046. This work is defective as 
a co^ippsitipn, and, at the same time, full of fat>uious 

> Gcttt Mag. LXXlfr.aod LXXUI — Pilkinirton.— Edwardt'f Sapplcment to 
Walpole. * Moreri.--*Dict. HiiU 



10 . G L A B E R: 

Stories^ yet it contains much valuable information relatire 
to those remote ages. It was printed in the collections of 
Pithou and Duchesne. He was author of a life of William, 
aibbot of St. Benignus at Dijon. ' 

GLANDORP (JoHN)^ a learned philologist of the six« 
teenth century, was born at Munster. He studied mider 
Melancthon at Wittemberg, and became rery distinguished' 
for his critical knowledge of Greek and Latin. In 1 533 he 
disputed publicly against the anabaptists at Munster. 
After visiting the principal German academies, be was 
elected rector of the college at Hanover, but, Upon some 
dispute, he quitted in 1555, and retiring to Goslar, was 
followed by most of his scholars ; but- here again h^ 
had the misfortune to render himself unpopular, and was 
obliged to leave the place in 1560, on which he went to 
Marpurg, and was made professor of history. He died'in 
1564. His works are, I. ^^ Sylva CarmimimElegiacorum;^*' 
2. <' Descriptio Gentis Antoniae ;" 3. ^' Familiae Julias 
Gentis ;^' 4. ^^ Disticha Sacra et Moralia ;*' 5. ^< Annotate 
in Jul. Ceesaris Comment.;'* 6. << Annotat in Ciceronis 
Epist. Famil.;" 7. <' Onomasticon Historian Romanaei.^" 

GLANDORP (Matthias), a German physician, was 
born in 1595, at Cologne, where his father f^as a surgeon. 
His first application to letters was at Bremen ; whence he' 
returned to Cologne, and devoted himself to philosophy, 
physic, and chirurgery. He studied four years under 
Peter Holtzem, who was the elector's physician, and pro- 
fessor in this city ; and he learned the practical part of 
surgery from his father. To perfect himself in these 
sciences, he went afterwards into Italy, and made< some 
stay at Padua ; where he greatly benefited himself by at- 
tending the lectures of Jerome Fabricius ab Aquapendente, 
Adrian Spigelius, and Sanctorins. He wad here made 
M. D. After having visited the principal townd of Italy, 
he returned to his country in 1 6 i 8 j and settled at Bremen ; 
.where he practised physic and surgery with so much suc- 
cess, that the archbishop of this place made him his phy- 
sician in 1628. He was also made physician of the re- 
public of Bremen. The time of his death is not precisely 
known; some say 1640, but the dedication of his last woric 
is dated Oct. 8, 1662. He published at Brei&en, <^ Spe-' 

A Moreri.--.NiceK>D, vol. XXVIII.-^Stxii OAwmtirCtm. 
' Mart rK— 3axii Oaomasiiceik. 






G L A N D O R p. 11 

CQlam Cfairargorum/' in'1619, 8vo ; reprinted in 162S, 4to; 
^ Metbodus Medendse Paronychiae," in 1139; '^Tractatut 
de Polypo Narium affecta gravissimo/' in 1628; and 
*' Gazophylacium Poljpusiucn Fonticulorum & Setoqum 
Reseratum/' in 1633. These four pieces were coliecCed 
and published, with emendations, under the title of bis 
Works, at London, in 1729, 4to, with his life prefixed^ 
and some curious tracts on Roman antiquities. It must 
needs suggest an high opinion of, this young physician^ 
that though he died a young man, yet his works should 
be thought worthy of a republication 100 years after; 
when such prodigious improvements have been made in 
philosophy, physic, and sciences of all kinds, of which he 
bad not the benefit.^ 

. GLANVIL (BARTHOLOMEWJi, a writer of the fourteenth 
century, was an English Minorite, or Franciscan, of the 
faimily of the earls of Suffolk. He is said to have studied 
et Oxford, Paris, and Rome, and to have been very fami- 
liar with the writings of Aristotle, Plato, and Pliny; from 
which, with bis own observations, he compiled his cele- 
brated work " De Propirietatibu* rerum,*' a kind of gene- 
ral history of nature ; divided into nineteen books, treating 
of God, angels, and devils, the soul, the body, animals, 
&iC. In some copies there is an additional book, not of his 
writing, on numbers, weights, measures, sounds, &c. Some 
*^ Sermons" of his were printed at Strasburgh in 1495. 
But his work ^' De Proprietatibtis'' appears to have heeti 
the chief favourite, and was one of the first books on which 
the art of printing was exercised, there being no fewer 
than twelve editions, or translations, printed from 1479 to 
14^4. . The English translation printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde is the most magnificent publication that ever^issued 
from the press of that celebrated printer, but the date has 
not been ascertained. A very copious and exact analysis 
of this curious work is given by Mr. Dibdin in the second 
volume of his *' Typographical Antiquities.''* 

. GLANVIL (Sir John), younger son of John Glanvil of 
Tavistocfein Devonshire, one of the justices of the com- 
mon pleas, (who died in 1600), was educated at Oxford^ 
and after serving for some time in an attorney's office^ 
studied law in Lincoln's-inn, where he preserved the re^ 

1 Moreri.—- NiceroD, Ttfl.^tXXVIII. < Tanner's BibUotbeca.—Dupiar 

j^DoDce'fl lUustratioDi of Shakspeare, voL li. p. 278.— Dibdin ubi supra. 



13 G L A N V I L. 

putation of I^gal ability for which his family had long been* 
distinguished^ When he had been a barrister of some 
years standing, he was elected recorder of Plymouth, and 
burgess for that place in several parliaments. In the 5th 
of Charles I. he was Lent reader of his uin, and in May 
1639 was made Serjeant at law. Being cbos^en speaker of 
the parliament which assembled in April. 1640, be shewed 
himself more active in the king^s cause, than formerly^: 
when he joined in the common clamour against the prero* 
gative. In August 1641, being then one of the king's 
Serjeants, he received the honour of knighthood; and 
'when his majesty was obliged. to leave the parliament, sir 
John followed him to Oxford. In 1645, being accused as 
a delinquent, or adherent to the king, he was deprived of 
bis seat in parliament, and afterwards committed to prison^ 
in which he remained until 1648, when he made a com^ 
position with the usurping powers. After the restoration 
he was made king's serjeant ags^in, and would have probably ^ 
attained promotion had he not died soon after, on. Oct. 2^ 
1661. He w&s buried in the church of Broad Hiuton in 
Wiltshue, the manor of which he had bought some years 
before. His works consist chiefly of speeches and argu- 
ments, most of which are in Rushworth's " Collections,*' 
His ^* Reports of Cases of controverted Elections," were 
published in 1775, by John Topham, esq. * 

GLANVIL (John), a grandson of the preceding, was' 
born at Broad Hinton in 1664, and became at the age of^ 
fourteen a commoner of Trinity-college, Oxford. He 
studied law afterwards in Lincoln's-inn, and was admitted 
to the b^r. Ha is known by some minor poems, the best 
of which may be seen in Mr, Nichols's Collection. He 
made the tirst English translation of Fontenelle's *^ Plu- 
rality of Worlds.'' He died at Broad Hinton in 1735.* ' 

GLANVIL (Joseph), a distinguished writer, was bora 
in 1636, at Plymouth in Devonshire, where he probably 
received the first rudiments of his education, and was enr ^ 
tered at Exeter-college, Oxford, April 19, 1653. He was- 
placed under Samuel Conant, an eminent tutor, and hav- 
ing made great proficiency in his studies, he proceeded 
B. A. Oct. li, 1655. The following year, he removed to 
Lin coin -college, probably upon some view of preferment. . 

1 Prince's Worthies of X>eTOii.—Ath. Ox. vol. IL— Fuller's Worthres.— Uoyd'i 
.Memoirs, fol. 585. ' 

« Prince's Worihiei.— Alb. Ox. vol. II.— NichoU's Poems, vol. IV. . 



G L A N V I L. 13 

Taking tbc ilegree of M. A. June 29, 1658> he assumed 
the priestljf office, according to the forms us6d by the sec- 
taries at that time, and became chaplain to Francis Rouse, 
•sq. then made provost of Eton-college, by Oliver Crom- 
welly and designed for one. of his house of lords. Had this 
patroQ lived a little longer, Glanvil's expectations would, 
.00 doubt, have been fully answered ; since according tQ 
Wood, he entirely complied with the principles of th© 
.then prevailing party, to whom his very prompt pen must 
needs have been serviceable. But Rouse dying the same 
"year, he returned to his college in Oxford, and pursued 
his studies there during the subsequent distractions in the 
state. ' About this time, he became acquainted with Mr, 
.Richard Baxter, who Entertained a great opinion of his 
genius, and continued his respect for him aftei* the restor- 
ation, .when they espoused different causes. The friend- 
ship, was equally warm .on Glanvil's side, who, Sept. 3^ 
.1661j addressed' an epistle to his friend, professing him- 
self to be an admirer of his preaching and writings; he 
also offered to write something in hid defence, but yielded 
to his advice, not to sacrifice his views of preferment to 
their friendship. 

, Accordingly, he had the prudence to take a different 
method; and turning his thoughts to a subject not only 
inoffensive in itself, but entirely popular at that time, viz. 
a defence of experimental philosophy against the nbtional 
way of Aristotle and the schools, he published it this year, 
under the title.of" The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or con- 
fidence in opinions, manifested in a discourse of the short- 
ness and uncertainty of our knowledge and its causes, with 
some reflections on Peripateticism, and an apology for 
philosophy,*' 1661, 8vo. These meetings, which gave rise 
.to the Royal Society, were much frequented at this time, 
and encouraged by learned men of. all persuasions; and 
this small discourse introduced him to the knowledo^e of 
the literary world in a very favourable light. He had an 
opportunity of improving by the weakness of an antagonist, 
whom he answered in an appendix to a piece called 
. "Scepsis Scientifica, or confessed ignorance the way to 
science, in an Essay on the Vanity of Dogmatizing, and 
confident opinion,'* 1665, 4to, Our author dedicated this 
piece to the royal society, in terms of the highest respect 
for that ipjst;itution ; and the f^ociety being then in a state 
•f ia£uicy, i^nd having many enemies, as might be' ex- 



14 G L A N V I L. 

peeled in an undertaking which seemed to threateh tfae 
ruin of the old way of philosophizing in the schools, the 
** Scepsis" was presented to the council by lord Breret#tfiy 
at a meeting, Dec. 7, 1664; when his lordship also pro- 
posed the author for a member, and he was elected acconl- 
ingly in that month. 

In 1663, the house of John Mumpesson of TedwH>rth, in 
Wiltshire, being disturbed by the beating of a drum in- 
\isibly cv^ry night, our author turned his thoughts to thdt 
subject, and in 1666 printed^ in 4to, " Some philosophi- 
cal considerations, touching the being of Witches and 
Witchcraft.'* In this piece he defended the possibility of 
witchcraft, which drew him into a controversy that ended 
only with his life : during the course of it, be propo^d lo 
con6rm his opinion by a collection of several narratives 
relating to it. But as he held then a correspondence with 
Mr. Boyle, that gentleman, ob^serving with how much 
warmth the dispute was carried on, gave him many cau- 
tions about managing so tender a subject ; and hinted to 
bim, that the credit of religion might suffer by weak argu- 
ments upon such topics. In answer to which, Glanvil pro- 
fesses himself much obliged for those kind admonition&y 
and promises to be exceeding careful in the choice of his 
. relations : however, he made a shift to pick out no less 
than twenty-six modern relations, besides that of Mr* 
Mumpesson's drummer. They were not, however, printed 
till after his death, in a piece entitled " Sadducismus 
Triumphans, in two parts,'' 1681, 8vo; and again in 168^, 
with large additions, by ©r. Henry More, the editor of 
both editions ; to whom our author had addressed a letter 
on the subject : and in an appendix to the first patt con- 
cerning the possibility of apparitions, there is added an 
account of the nature of a spirit, translated by our author, 
from the two last chapters of More's'^^ Enchiridion Meta-^ 
physicum." 

His defence of the royal society having procured him 
many friends, some of them obtained for him the rectory 
of the abbey church at Bath, into which he was inducted 
June the same year, 1666. From this time he fixed his 
residence in that city ; and, continuing on all occasions tof 
testify his zeal for the new philosophy, by exploding Aris-i' 
totle, he was desired to make a visit to Mr. Robert Gross^ 
vicar of Chew, near Pensford, in Somersetshire, a great 
zealot for the old established way of teaching in the sekK>lsi' 



G L A N V I L. IS 

Out avAckr wcepted the iovitation, and going to Pensfoid 
in 1677, happened to come into the room just as the vicar 
was entertaining bis company with the praises of Aristotle 
and bis philosophy. After their first civilities were paid^ 
be Wjeot on widi bis discourse, and, applying himself to 
Jilr. Glanvil, treated the royal society and modern philo- 
sophers with soiQe contempt. Glanvil, not expecting so 
sudden a» attack, was' in some measure surprized, and 
did not miswer with that quickness and facility as he other- 
if^ might probably have done. But afterwards, both ia 
conversation and by letters, be attacked his antagonist's 
assertion, that Aristotle had more advantages for know- 
ledge than jthe royal society, or all the present age had or 
ef}jSd haye, because, ** totam peragravit Asiam,'* be tra- 
Teljled oyer all Asia. 

Glanvil likewise laid the plan of a farther defence of the 
iroyal society ; but bishop Sprat's history of it being then 
^D the press, he waited to see how far that treatise should 
andcipatf^ his design. Upon its publication, in 1667, 
fijiding there was room left for him, he pursued bis reso« 
lution, and printed his piece the following year, with this 
^tle, expressing the motives of writing it : *^ Plus Ultra, 
or the Progress and Advancement of Knowledge since the 
(days of Aristotle, in an account of some of the most re- 
iparkable late improvements of practical useful learning, 
to encourage philosophical endeavours, occasioned by a 
conference with one of the national way,'' 1668, l2mo* 
|n some parts of this piece he treated the Somersetshire 
yicar with rough raillery, and this the vicar returned, in m 
piece whiph was denied the press both at Oxford and Lon^ 
don, for its scurrility. Glanvil somehow obtaining the 
intents, printed them at London, with proper remarks of 
bis own, under the title of ^* The Chew- Gazette," but of 
these there were only 100 taken off, and those dispersed into 
private hands, in order, as Glanvil said, that Crosse's 
^ame might not be made public, ,&c. After this letter 
iros pqbUi^ed> Crosse wrote ballads against our author and 
the royal society; while other wags at Oxford, pleased 
t^itb the controversy, made doggrel ballads on them both. 

This aiflbir also involved Glanvil in a scurrilous dispute 
^tb Heory St^ibbe, who was then, as Wood observes, a 
memer practitioner at Bath ; and bearing no good -will to 
the proceedings of Glsinvil, took Crosse's part, and encou- 
iVfedJum la wfUe against the virtuosi, and ^t the same 



16 fe L A N V I t. 

time entered the lists himself, and the following pamphlets 
passed between them. I. " The Plus Ultra reduced to a 
Nonplus," &c. 1670, 4to, Stubbe. 2. *' A prefatory An- 
swer to Mr. Henry Stubbe, the doctor of Warwick, where- 
in the malignity, &c. of bis Animadversions are discovered,'' 
-1C71, 12n)o^ Glanvih 3. " A Preface against Ecebolius 
Glanvil, F* R.S. subjoined to his Reply, &c. Oxford," 1671^ 
4to, Stubbe. The doctor also fell upon his antagonist, in 
his " Epistolary Discourse concerning Phlebotomy," 1671, 
'4to; upon which Glanvil immediately published "A farther 
Discovery of Mr. Stubbe, in a brief reply to his last pam- 
phlet," 1671, 8vo, to which was added, ^* Ad clerum So- 
mersetensem Epistola nPOS4»aNH2I2." And the doctor 
among other things, having censured the new philosophy, as 
tending to encourage atheism our authorpublished his ^'Ph^ 
losophia Pia," &c. 1671, 8vo-, which closed the controversy. 
When, however, Dr. Meric Casaubon entered the lists 
in his " Letter to Peter du Moulin," 1663, and managed 
•the argument with more candour and greater knowledge, 
Glanvil chose to be silent; because not willing to appear 
in a controversy with a person, as be says, of fame and 
learning, who had treated him with so much civility, and 
in a way so different from that of his other assailants. 
While he was thus pleading the cause of the institution in 
general, he shewed himself no unuseful member in respect 
to the particular business of it. ' The society having given 
out some queries to be made about mines, our author com- 
municated a paper in relation to those of Mendip hills, 
and such as respect the Bath, which was well received, 
ordered to be registered, and afterwards printed in their 
transactions. 

In the mean time, he was far from neglecting the duties 
of his ministerial function ; on the contrary, he distin* 
guished himself so remarkably by his discourses from the 
pulpit, that he was frequently desired to preach upon 
public and extraordinary occasions, and several of these 
«ermons were printed in a collection after his death. But 
in justice to his memory we must not omit to miention one 
which was never printed. His old antagonist Stubbe, 
going from Bath on a visit to Bristol^ had the misfortune 
on his return to fall from his horse into a riyer, which, 
though shallow, proved sufficient to drown him : hid corpse 
being interred in the abbey-church, our rector paid an 
honourable tribute to his memory, in a fuDeral sermon qq 



& L A N V i L. 17 

the oecasion. He also wrote an ** Essay concerning 
Preaching," for the use of a young divine ; to which he 
added, <* A seasonable Defence of Preaching, and the 
plain way of it." This was chiefly levelled against that 
affectation of wit and fine speaking which began then to be 
fashionable. This essay was published in 1678, and the 
same year be was collated by his majesty to a prebend in 
the church of Worcester. This promotion was procured 
by the marquis of Worcester, to whom his wife was re- 
lated ; and it was the more easily obtained, as he had been 
chaplain to the king ever since 1672 ; in which year he 
exchanged the vicarage of Frome for the rectory of Street, 
with the chapel of Walton annexed, in Somersetshire, an 
exchange which was easily accomplished, since both the 
livings were in the patronage of sir James Thynne. 

He published a great number of tracts besides what have 
been mentioned. Among which are, 1. ^' A Blow at Mo- 
dern Sadducism," &c. 1668, to which was added, 2. '^ A 
Relation of the fancied Disturbances at the house of Mr. 
Mumpesson ;^^ as also, 3. ^* Reflections on Drollery and 
Atheism^" 4. *^ Palpable Evidence of Spirits and Witch- 
draft," &c. 1668. 5, "A Whip for the Droll Fidler to 
the Atheist," 1668. 6. ^^ Essays on several important 
subjects in Philosophy and Religion," 1676, 4to. 7. " An 
Essay concerning Preaching," 1678, 8vo, to which was 
added> 8» *^ A seasonable Defence of Preaching, and the 
plain Way of it." 9. " Letters to the Duchess of New- 
castle." lOi Three single Sermons, besides four printed 
together, under the title of ^f Seasonable Reflections and 
Discourses, in order to the Conviction and Cure of the 
scoffing Infidelity of a degenerate age;" As he had a 
lively imagination, and a flowing style, these came from 
him very easily, and he continued the exercise of his pen 
to the last ; the press having scarcely finished his piece, 
entitled "The zealous and impartial Protestant," &c. 1680, 
when he was attacked by a fever, which baffling the phy- 
sician^s skilly cut him off in the vigour of his age. He died 
at Bath, Nov. 4th, 1680^ about the age of forty -four. 
Mr, Joseph Pleydel, archdeacon of Chichester, preached 
his funeral sermon^ when his corpse was interred in his 
awn parish church, where a decent monument and inscrip- 
tion was afterwards dedicated to his memory by Margaret 
lus widow, sprung from the Selyvins of Gloucestershire. 
She was his second wife ^ but he had no issue by either. 
Vol. XVI. G 



1 



18 OLA N V I L. 

Soon after bis deccasre, ffevcml of his tfemionSy noA 
other pieces, were coUected and published with the title of 
^^ Some Discourses^ Sermons, and Kemains/^ les^l, 4tOy 
by Dr. Heory Horneck, who tells us that death snatehed 
him away, when the learned world expected some of his 
greatest attempts and enterprizes. Horneck gave a large, 
and apparently very just character of Gianvil, who was un- 
questionably a man of learning and genius, and although 
he retained the belief in witchcraft, surmounted many of 
the other prejudices of his time.' 

GLASS (JaHN), a Scotch clergyman, and founder of & 
sect, was born at Dundee, 163^8, and educated in the 
New-college, at St Andrew^s, where he took his degrees, 
and was settled minister of a country church, near the 
place of his uativity. In 1.727 he published a treatise t0 
prove that the civil establishment of religion was incon- 
sistent with Christianity, for which be was deposed, and 
became the father of a new sect, called from him Glassites; ^ 
and afterwards from another leading propagator, Sande- 
tnanians. Some account of their teoets will be given under 
the article Sandeman. Glass wrote a great number of 
controversial tracts, wbkh have been* published ^t Edin- 
burgh, in 4 vols. 8vo. He died att Dundee, in 1773, aged 
seventy- five.* 

(aLASS (JoHif), son of the sb^ve, was born at Dundee, 
in 1725, and brought up a surgeon, in which capacity he 
went sev^al voyages to the West Indies, but not liking 
his profession, be accepted the command of a merchanl'a 
ship belonging to London, and engaged in the trade to* 
th€^ Brazilsr Being a man of considerable abilities, he 
published in 1 vol. 4U), ** A Deoription of TenerifFe, with 
the Manners aiul Customs of the Portuguese who are 
settled there.*' In I76S he went over to the Brasilsy 
taking along with him his wife and daughter ;^ and in' 1765 
set sail for London, bringing along with him all his pro- 
perty ; but just when the ship came within sight of the 
coast of Ireland, four of the seamen enteted into a con-^ 
spiracy, murdered captain Glass, his wife, daughter, the 
mate, one seaman, and two boys. These miscreants^ 
having loaded their boat with dollars, sunk the ship, and 
landed at Ross, whence they proceeded to Dublin, where 
ihey were apprehended and executed Oct. 1764.* 

* Gen. Diet— Biog. Brit—Ath. On. vol. U.— .Priuctr's Wortbieir 
9 PMceding edit, of tbis 0ict. * Ibid. 



GLASS I U& Id 

GLASSIUS (Solomon), an ^mioetit Getman divine and 
tritjc, was born May 20^ 1593, at SondershauseuV ia 
Tburingla, and after some education under a private tutor, 
was sent in 1612 to Jena, where he was admitted to the 
degree of D. D. and was made professor of divinity. Hm 
was also appointed superintendant of the churches ^ and 
schools in the duchy of Saxe-Grotba^ and exercised th« 
duties of these offices with great reputation. He died at 
Gotha July 27, k6B6. His principal work was published 
in 1623, 4to, entitled ^^ Philologia Sacra,^'. which is pro- 
nounced by Mosheim and Buddeus to be extremely useful 
for the interpretation ojT Scripture,, as it throws much light 
i^pon the language and phraseology of the inspired writers. 
There have been several editions, the last at Leipsic, in 
1776, by professor Dathius, under the title ^^ Philologia 
Sacra bis temporibus accommodata.*' He was author, like* 
wise, of " Onomatologia Messiae Propbetica ;" " Christo<» 
]ogia Mosaica et Davidica;'^ >^ Exegesis Evangeliorum el 
Epistolarum,'' and some other pieces.^ 

GLAUBER (John Rodolph), a celebrated chemist of 
Amsterdam, and called the Paracelsus of his age, was born 
in Germany in the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
He travelled much in the pursuit of chemical knowledge, 
and collected many secret processes ; and his experiments 
contributed to throw much light on the composition and 
analysis of the metals, inflammable substances, and salts. 
In fact be passed the greater part of his life in the labora.^ 
tory. He did tuH always see the proper application of his 
own experiments, and vainly fancied that he had disco- 
vered the panacea, and the philosopher's stone, which 
were at that time object(Sr of pursuit; and the disappoint- 
tient of many persons who had been seduced by bis pro- 
mises, contributed to bring the art of chemistry into con« 
tempt. His theory is full of obscurity^ but bis practice 
has perhaps been misrepresented by those who listened to 
bis vain and pompous pretensions ; and who accuse him of ' 
a dishonourable traffick, in first selling his secrets ta 
chemists at an enormous price, of again disposing of them 
to other persons, and lastly, of making them public iiv 
Ofder to extend his veputation. Glauber published about 
twenty treatises ; in some of which be appears in the cha« 
racter of physician, in others in that of an adept or metal- 

* Frekeri Theatrum.^^Moreru-— Saxii Onoaiast. 

C2 



20 GLAUBER. 

lurgist ; in the latter he most particularly excelled. How*- 
ever, it would be unjust not to give him, the praise of 
acuteness of mind, of facility and address in tl>e proseeu- 
tion of his experiments, and of extensive chemical knovr«- 
ledge. He was the inventor of a salt which to this day re^ 
tains his name in the shops of our apothecaries. The 
works of Glauber have appeared in different languages y 
the majority of editions are in German, some in Latin, and 
others in French. A collection of the whole. in Latin was 
published at Francfort in 1658, in 8vo, and again 1659^ 
in 4to. An English translation was published by Chriato-^ 
pher Pack, London, 1689, foK* 

GLISSO^ (Francis), an English physician, was son of 
William Giisson, of Rampisham, in Dorsetshire, and grand- 
son of Walter Giisson, of the city of Bristol. He appears 
to have been bom in 1596. Where he learned the first 
rudiments of his grammar is not known ; but he was ad- 
mitted June 18, 1617, of Caius college, in Cambridge, 
apparently with a view to physic. He first, however, went 
through the academical courses of logic and philosophy, 
and proceeded in arts, in which he took both degrees, that 
of B. A. in 1620, and of M. A. in 1624 ; and being chosen 
fellow of his college, was incorporated M. A. at Oxford, 
Oct. 25, 1627. From this time he applied himself parti- 
cularly to the study of medicine, and took his doctor's de- 
gree at Cambridge ia 1634, and was appointed regiuspro-* 
fessor of physic in the room of Ralph Winterton ; which 
office he held forty years. But not chusing to reside con- 
stantly at Cambridge, he offered himself, and was admitted^ 
candidate of the college of physicians, London, in 1634, 
and was elected fellow, Sept. 30, « the ensuing year. 

In the study of his art, he had always set the immortal 
Harvey before him as a pattern ; and treading in his steps, 
be was diligent to improve physic by anatomical dissections 
and observations. In 1639 he was appointed to read Dr. 
Edward Wall's lecture, and in executing that office, made 
several new discoveries of great use in establishing a ra« 
tional practice of physic ; but on the breaking out of the 
civil wars, he retired to Colchester, and followed the bu- 
siness of his profession with great repute in those times of 
public confusion. He was thus employed during the me- 

< 

1 Rtes's CyclopsBclia, from Eloy't Diet. Hist. 



G L I S S O N. 



21 



morable siege and surrender of that city to the rebels iti 
1648 ; and resided there some time after. 

Amidst his practice he still prosecuted his anatomical 
researches, and from observations iQade in this way pub- 
lished an account of the rickets in 16^0, in which he 
shewed how the viscera of such as had died of that disorder 
were affected*. This was the more interesting, as the 
rickets had been then first discovered in the counties of 
Dorset and Somerset, only about fifteen years before. In 
this treatise he had the assistance of two of his colleagues. 
Dr. George Bate, and' Dr. Ahasuerus Regemorter; and 
these with other fellows of the college, requesting him to 
communicate to the public some of his anatomical lectures 
which had been read before them, he drew those up in a 
continued discburse, printed with the title *^ Anatomia 
Hepatis,'' Loud. .1654, which brought him into the highest 
esteem among the facuhy, and he was chosen one of the 
electors x)f the college the year following, and was after- 
wards president for several years. He published other 
pieces besides those already mentioned; viz. 1. ^* De 
Lympbseductis nuper repertis," Amst. 1659, with the 
*^ Anatomica prolegomena & Anatomia Hepatis.'* 2, *^ De 
naturae substantia energetica,. seu de via vits nature 
ejusque tribus primis facultatibus," &c. Lond. 1672, 4td. 
His last work was a ^^ Treatise of the Stomach and Intes- 
tines,'' printed at Amsterdam in 1677, not long before his 
deathj which happened that year in the parish of St/Bride^ 
London, in his eighty-first year. 

Wood observes, that he died much lamented, as a per- 
son to whose learned lucubrations and deep disquisitions 
in physic not only Great Britain, but remoter kingdoms, 
owe a particular respect and veneration, and it is certain 
that he was exceeded in judgment and accuracy by none of 
the English anatomists, who followed the steps of Harvey* 
Boerhaaye terms him ^^ omnium anatomicorum exactii^si"" 
mus,'' ' and Haller speaks in praise of all his writings. Se- 



• The title of it is, " De Rftcbitide; 
tivemorbo puerilt qui vulgo the Rickets 
dicitar," Lond. 1650. But though 
this disease was then modern, yet a 
treatise had been publi^thed before this 
of our authar, in 1645, Svo, by Dr. 
Whistler, afterwards president of the 
college, with the title of « Ps&do- 
f|^lanchD9iteocace," Uom the Tiscera 



being judged to be the parts princi- 
pally affected. In which opinion he 
was followed by our author ; but the 
cause and nature of the disorder was 
belter explained afterwards by Dr. 
John Mayow, iu a small treatise pub- 
lished upon it in 16634 ^^vao, and agaii^ 
in 1681. 






52 GLOVER, 

i^eral of bis original cuanuscripts, which wei^ in sir Han^ 
Sloane's possession, are now in the British Museum.^ 
, GLOUCESTER. See ROBERT OF. 

GLOVl^R (Richard), an English poet, the son of Ri^ 
ehard Glover, a Hamburgh merchant in Lobdon, was born 
in St. Martin*s-lane, Cannon-street, in 1712. i Being pro- 
bably intended for trade, he received no other education 
than what the school of Cheam, in Surrey, afforded, which 
he was afterwards induced to in^prove by an ardent love of 
learning, and a desire to cultivate his* poetical tijents ac« 
cording to the purest models. His poetical efforts were 
,very early, for in his sixteenth year he wrote a poem to 
.the memory of sir Isaac Newton, which was supposed to 
Jiave merit enough to deserve ^ place in the view of that 
.celebrated author's philosophy, published in 1728, by Dr^ 
•Henry Pembertoo, This physician, a man of inueh sci- 
jence, and of some taste, appears to have been warmly at* 
Jtached to the interests of our young po6t, and at a time 
•when there were few regular vehicles of praise or criticisfii, 
^ook every opportunity of encouragifig his efforts, and ap* 
prizing the nation of this new addition to its literary ho^« 
nours. 

• At the usual period Glover became engaged in the 
Hamburgh trade, but continued his attachment to litera<^ 
ture and the muses, and was, says Dr. Warton, one of the 
best and most accurate Greek scholars of his time. It is 
inentioned in. the life of Green, that he published "The 
Spleen" of that poet, in which he is complimented on ac- 
count of hia study of the ancient Greek poets, and bis wish 
to emulate their fam^. Green bad probably seen some part 
of " Leonidas," which was begun when he was young»j 
and had been submitted in specimens to many of his friend$. 
This poem was first published in 1737, in a 4to volume, con- 
sisting of nine books. Its reception was highly flattering, for 
in this and the following year it passed through three edi- 
tions. It was dedicated to lord Cobfaam, one of his early pa- 
trons, and whom, it is supposed, he furnished with many of 
the inscriptions at Stowe, now erased. It was also strongly 
recommended by such of that nobleman's political friends 
as were esteemed the arbiters of taste. Lord Lyttelton, in 
the periodical paper called " Common Sense,*^ praised it 

1 Gen. Diet. — Wood's Fasti,, p. 238.— Aikin'sBiog. Memoirs of Medieiae.— 
Cole's MS AtheiUB in Brit. Mus. — Birch's History of the Rojtl Society. 



GLOVER* «S 

ia tbe warmest teraui, not ooly fpr its poetkal beftDties^ 
but it3 political tendeocy, ^' the whole plan and purposa 
of it being to show the superiority of freedofti oyer slavery ; 
sod how much virtue^ public spiriti and the love of lii- 
berty^ are preferable, both in tiiyeir nature and eiiects,. to 
riches, luxury, and the insolence of power." The stiBi^ 
Qobbn^ati also addressed verses to our author, in which be 
inveighs with much asperity against the degeneracy of the 
tijmesy but, not very consistently, compares {Ingland to 
Greece, and France to Persia. Other writers, particularly 
Fidding, in the paper called '^Tbe Champion," took up thft 
pen in favour of ** Leouidas," which being piiblished JusI 
sfter the prince of Wales had been driven from St James's^ 
and began to Jkeep a separate court, it was praibied by the 
whole of this new court, an^ by the adherents in general 
of opposition, not beyond its merit, but too evidently from 
a motive which could not always prevail,, and which ceaned 
to animate their zeal in its favour, when Walpote, the sup^ 
posed author of all our national grievances, was compelled 
to resign. 

Amidst this high encouragement, the services of Pf. 
I^emberton mu^t oot be foigotten. Soon after the appear^ 
aace of <' Leonidas," this steady frieud eodeavoured to ii«s 
ihe public attention on it, by a long pamphlet, enidtled 
f^ Observations on Poetry, especially Epic, oc^asipned bjr 
the late poem upon Leonida^," 1738, 12 mo. In this^ with 
many just remarks of a general kind, ihe author carries bja 
opinion of Glover^s production beyond all reasonable 
bounds. In the following year. Glover published ^^ Lour 
^00, or the Progress of Comnierce," and the more ceie« 
Wted ballad of ^^ Hosier's GhosV both written with H 
view to rouse the nation to reseat the conduct of the Sp^*- 
W'dsy and to promote what had seldom beei| known, a 
^f^ar called for by the people, and opposed by the miiiis** 
try« Puring the same polivicai dissentions, which, as «i^uaJ# 
?ere warmest in the ,city of London, Glover presided at 
several meetings called to •set aside* or censure l^ oooduci; 
of those city magistrates or members of parliament who 
voted for tliecoui-t. His speeches at those meetings, if 
«e may trust to the report of them in the periodical jour* 
uals of 1739 adid 1740, were elegant, spirited, and calcu^ 
lated to give him considerable weight in the deliberative 
si^sembliesof iiis £eUow-^is&ens. The latter were, indeejd. 

«9 f^y ej^nyiucedi of jam tabuu mi4 ^fsali M t^ AppQiol 



24 GLOVER. 

bim to conduct their application to parliament^ on the 
subject of the neglect shewn to their trade by the ruli-jg- 
administration. His services in this last affair may be seen 
in a pamphlet published in 1743, under the title of "A.* 
short Account of the late application to parliament made 
by the merchants of London upon the neglect of their 
trade ; with the substance of the evidence thereupon, as 
summed up by Mr. Glover." 

In 1744, he was offered employment of a very different 
kind, being nominated in the will of the duchess of Marl- 
borough, to write the duke's life, in conjunction iyith 
Mallet. Hef grace bequeathed 500L to each on this con- 
dition, but Glover immediately renounced his share, while 
Mallet, who had no scruples of any kind where his inte- 
rest was concerned, accepted the legacy, and continued 
to receive money from the late duke of Marlborough on 
the same account, although after twenty years of talk and 
boast,- he left nothing behind him that could shew he had 
ever seriously begun the work. Glover's rejection of tbi» 
legacy is the more honourable, as at this time his affairs' 
became embarrassed^ from what cause we are not told.^ 
It may be conjectured, however, that he had shared the 
usual fate of .those who are diverted from their' regular 
pursuits by the dreams of political patronage. From the 
prince he is said to have received at one time a complete 
set of' the classics, elegantly bound, and at another tiniie, 
during his distresses, a present of 500/. But it does not 
appear that when the friends of " Leonidas" came into' 
power; they made any permanent provision for the author. 

During the period of his embarrassment, he retired 
itom public notice, until the respect and gratitude of his 
humbler friends in the city induced them to request that 
he would stand candidate for the ofHce of chamberlain of 
London, which was vacant in 1751, but his application 
was unfortunately made when the majority of the votes, 
had already been engaged to sir Thomas Harrison. His 
feelings on this disappointment did him much honour, 
and were elegantly expressed in the speech he addressed 
to the livery on the occasion. In it he made an allusion 
to the favour of the prince of Wales, which was probably 
well understood at that time. By the death of that most' 
illustrious personage, he no doubt lost a powerful patron. 

In 175S, he began to try his talents in dramatic com- 
position, aad produced the tragedy of ^< Boadicea^*' which - 



O L O V E H. « 

was performed for nine nights at Drury-kne theatre. Dr, 
Pemberton, with his accustomed zeal, wrote a pamphlet 
p recommend it, and among the inferior critics, it Occa« 
sioned a temporary, controversy. Great expectations were 
formed of its success from the reputation of an author 
who had acquired so much praise from his ^' Leonidas.'* 
At the rehearsal, he. read his <' Boadicea" to the actors, 
but his manner of conveying the meaning of his poem was 
yery^inhappy ; his voice was harsh, and his elocution dis- 
agreeable. Mr. Garrick was vexed to see him mangle his 
own work, and politely offered to relieve him by reading 
an act or' two ; but the author imagining that he was the 
only person fit to unfold his intention to the players, per- 
listed to read the play to the end, to the great mortifiea- 
tion of the actors. In 1761 he published bis ^^ Medea/' a 
tragedy, written on the Greek model, and therefore unfit 
for the modern stage. The author, indeed, did not intend 
it for representation, but Mrs. Yates considered the ex- 
periment as likely to procure a full house at her benefit, 
and brought it forward upon that occasion. It was after- 
ward^ acted a f^vt nights, but without exciting much in- 
terest. 

From this period. Glover's a£Fairs took a more promising 
turn, although in what way we are not told. At the ac- 
cession of his preseat majesty, he was chosen member of 
parliament for Weymouth, and made a considerable figure 
in the many debates to which the confused state of affairs 
in India gave rise. In 1772, we find him an intelligent 
^nd active agent in adjusting the affairs of theHbank of 
Douglas, Heron and Company, of Scotland, which failed 
about that time ; and on other occasions, where the mer- 
cantile interests of London were concerned, he distin- 
guisbed hiraselfj not only by bis eloquence, but by that 
general knowledge of commerce which inclines to enlarged 
and hberal measures. In 1775, the West India merchants 
testified the sense they entertained of his services in their 
affairs, by voting him a piece of place of the value of 300/. 
The speech which \A delivered in the house of commons, 
Qn the application of these merchant^, was afterwards 
printed, and appears to have been the last of his public 
services. 

In 1770, he refhiblished his ^^ Leonidas,'' in two vols. 
12mo, extended from nine books to twelve, and the atten- 
tion, noiv bestowed on it| recalling bis youthful ideas^ 



t6 CLOVES. 

etrengtbened by tioie and obserratton, probably suggested 
*' The Athenatdy*' which, however^ he did not Lhre to pubo* 
lish. Soon after 1775, he retired from public bnsiiiess, 
but J^ept vp an intitmkcy with many of the most eminent 
. scholars of the day, by whom be was highly respected* 
After experiencing, for some time, the infirmities of age, 
be departed this hte at his bonse in Albemarle*street, No* 
vember 25, 1785. Glovei' was twice married. ^Uis second 

wife is now living, atid a daughter, married to U^lseyi 

esq. 

His character was drawn np by the latie Dr. Brocklesby 
tor the (^ntleman^s Magazine, And as far as respects bis 
^uniable disposition, was confirmed to us by Dr. Wartoo^ 
who knew him well. — ^ Through the whole of his life Mr; 
Clover was by ail good men nevered^ by the ^ise esteem'* 
ed, by the great sometimes caressed and even flattered^ 
and now his death is sincerely lamented by all who had the 
happiness to contemplate the integrity of his character. 
Mr. Glover, for upwards of 50 years p^iist through every 
idicissitude i)i fortune, exhibited the most exemplary sim* 
plicity of manners; having early attained that perfect 
equanimity, which philosophy often recommends in the 
doset, but which in es^periettce is too seldom exercised by 
other men in tb^ test of trial. In Mr. Gkwer were united 
a wide compass of accurate information in all mercantile 
concerns, with high intellectual powers of mind, joined to 
la copious flow of eloquence as an orator in the house of 
commons. Since Milton be was second to none of our 
English poets, in his disoriminaung judicious acquaintance 
with all ancient as well as modem litersU^ure ; witness his 
Leonidas, Medea, Boadicea, and London; for, having 
formed his own character upon the best models of the 
Greek wnters, he lived as if he ba^d been bred a disciple 
of Socrates, or companion of Aristides. Hence his poll* 
tical turn of mind, hence his unwarped affection and actire 
zeal for the rights and libeitieB of hia country. Hence fait 
heartfelt exultation whenever be had to paint the impious 
designs x>f tyrants in ancient times frustrated, or in modern 
defeated in their nefarious purposes to extirpate liberty, or 
ts> trample on the unalienable rights of man, however re- 
mote in time or space from his immediate presence. In a 
few words, for thei extent of hiai various erudition, for his 
unalloyed paliriotism, and for his daily exercise aiid oon« 
•jtant practice of Xenophou's phjlosophy, in his private $• 



GLOVER, 9f 

« 

well as in public Ufe^ Mr, Glover has left tiooe his equal 
in the city, aod some time, it is feared, may elapse before 
such another citizea shall arise, with eloquence,, with 
character, aiid with poetry, like bis, to assert their rights, 
or to vindicate with equal powers the just claims of free- 
bom men. Suffice this testimony at present, as the.weiU 
aarned meed of this truly virtuous man, whose conduct wa« 
4^arefiiUy marked, aD;d narrowly watched by ih^ writer of 
4be foregoing hasty skecchj for his extraordinary qualities 
iiuring the long period in human life of upwards of 40 
years ; artd now it is spontaneously q&red as a voluntary 
.tribute, unsolicited and unpurcluvsed ; but as it ,appear3 
justly due to the memory of so excellent a poet, statesman^ 
^d true philosopher, in life and death the same.^' 

Glover's ^ Leonidias^* amply entitles him to a distin,- 
^ished plane among the poets of his country, but the 
|>uUic has not held it in uniform estim,atipn, From the time 
of its first appearance in 1737, it went through six, if^nol 
^ven editions ; but for nearly forty years there has not 
been a xlemaad for another, ^Jthougb that published in 
i77Q was highly improved and enlarged. Its history may 
probably account in part for this singular finte, and public 
^aste must explain the rest. On its lirst pi^blicatioo, it 
9ms f«ad and praised with the utmost avidity. Besides the 
eni^ffiiuois it drew from Lyttelton and Pemberton, its fame 
^e^hed Ireland, where it was reprinted, and became as' 
much in fa^ion as it had been in England. ** Pray who je 
tbAt Mr. Glover,^' says Swift to Pope, in one of his letters, 
fVwho writ the efuc poem called Leonidas, which is re- 
priiM^ng here, and hath great vogue ?" UnfortunaU^y^ .''(,^>r 
Jaowever, the whole of this tribute of praise was not pai4 ^^sM'^ 
to the intrinsic merit of tbe'poem. It became the adojited' 
favourite of the party in opposition (to sir Robert Walpole) 
who had long endeavoured to persuade the nation that 
public liberty was endangered by the measures of that x 
miokter, an4 that they formed the chosen band who occu«* 
pied the straits of Thermopyls in defiance of the modern 
Xerxes* Leonidas therefore was recommended, to rouse 
an oppressed and enslaved people to the vindication of their 
yights. That this should be attempted is less wonderful ' 
than that it should succeed. We find very few passages in 
lilis poem which will apply to the state of public affairs in 
England at that time, if we except the common-place cen«- 
fttce^f^oortsaAd^caHrUersi and even that is appropriated 



«« GLOVER. 

-with so strict historical fidelity to the court of Xerxes, that 
St does not seem easy to borrow it for any other purpose.. 
** Nothing else," however, Dr. Warton informs us, " was 
read or talked of at Leicester-house,*' the illustrious owner 
of which extended his patronage to all poets who fahfned 
the sacred flame of patriotism. The consequence of aH 
this was, that Leontdas, which might have laid claim to k 
considerable rank among English poems of th^ highet- 
order, was pushed beyond it, and when the purposes foir 
which it had been extolled were either answered, or n6 
longer desirable, it fell lower than it deservech This is 
the more justly to be regretted, as we have no reason to 
think the audior solicited the injudicious praise of his 
friends and patrons, or bad any hand in building the airj 
edifice of popular fame. He was, indeed, a lover of liberty, 
which has ever been the favourite theme of poets, but h^ 
did not write for a temporary purpose. Leonidas had been 
the fruit of very early ambition to be known to posterity, 
and when be had outlived the party who pressed his poeni 
into their service, he corrected and improved it for a gene* 
ration that knew nothing of the partialities which first er- 
tended its fame. If his object, however, in this epopee, 
had been solely to inculcate a love of liberty, a love of our 
country, and a resolute determination to perish with its 
freedom, he could not have chosen a subject, at least from 
ancient times, so happily adapted to elevate the mind. 
The example was unparalleled in history, and thetefore 
the more capable of admitting the embellishments and atr 
tractions that belong to the epic province. Nor does it ap- 
pear that he undertook a task to which his powers were in? 
adequate, when he endeavoured to interest his readers ia 
the fate of bis gallant hero and faithful associates. He is 
not deficient either in the sublime or the pathetic, although 
in these essentials he may not bear an uniform comparison 
with the great masters of the passions. The characters are 
varied with much knowledge of the human heart. Each 
has his distinctive properties, and no one is raised beyond 
the proportion of virtue or talent which may be supposed 
to correspond with the age he lived in, or the station he 
occupied. 

His comparisons, * as lord Lyttelton remarks, are original ' 
and striking, although sometimes not sufficiently dignified. 
His descriptions are minutely faithful, and his episodes are 
in general so interesting^ that no critical exceptions would 



GLOVER. 3§ 

probably induce the reader to part with them, or to sup^ 
pose that they are not indispenl^able to the main actioir. 
He has likewise this peculiar excellence, that neither his 
speeches or descriptions are extended to such lengths as, 
in some attempts of the epic kind, become tiresome, and 
are the strongest indication of Want of judgment. He 
paints the rapid energies of a band of freemen, in a bar-* 
baroas age, struggling for their country, Strangers to the 
refined deliberation of later ages, and acqu$iinted with that 
eloquence only which leads to prompt decision. 

His " Athenaid" was published in 1787, exactly as it 
was found among his papers. It consists of the unusual 
number of thirty books, but evidently was left without the 
corrections which he would probably have bestowed had 
he revised it for the press. It is intended as a continua- 
tion, or second part to " Leonidas," in which the Greeks 
are conducted through the vicissitudes of the war with 
Xerxes to the final emancipation of their country from his 
invasions. As an epic it seems defective in many respects. 
Here is np hero in whose fate the mind is exclusively en- 
gaged, but a race of heroes who demand our admiration 
by turns ; the events of history, too, are so closely follow- 
ed, as to give the whole the air of a poetical chronicle. 

Of his smaller poems, that on sir Isaac Newton 4s cer- 
tainly an extraordinary production from a youth of sixteen^ 
but the theme was probably given to him. Such an ac- 
quainiance with the state of philosophy and the improve- 
ments of our immortal philosopher, could not have been 
acquired at his age. " Hosier's Ghost" was long one of 
the most popular English ballads ; but bis <^ London," if 
intended for popular influence, was probably read and un- 
derstood by few. In poetical merit, however, it is not 
unworthy of the author of •' Leonidas." Fielding wrote a 
very long encomium on it in his " Champion," and pre- 
dicted rather too rashly, that it would ever continue to be 
the delight of all that can feel the exquisiPte touch of poetry^ 
or be roused with the divine enthusiasm of public spirit, 

Since the above sketch of Glover was abridged from a 
more full account drawn up for another work, the attention 
of the public has been recently called to his history by the 
publication of a diary, or part of a diary, written by him. 
This, which appeared in 1813, is entitled ^^ Memoirs of a 
distinguished Literary and Political Character,, from the 
resignation of sir Robert Walpole in 1742 to the establish- 



so . Q L V E It. 

I 

jneDt of loi'd Cbathftm's second administralion in i^57j^ 
It . was immediately followed by ** An Inquiry concerning' 
,tbe Author of tbe Letters of Junius, with reference to tbe 
.Memoirs of a celebrated literary and political character/^ 
the object of which is to prove that Glover was tbe author 
of these Letters ; and although this is not the place to enter 
ioto this controversy, we are inclhied to think with the 
author of this ^^ Inquiry,*', that no one yet named as the 
author of Junius, and whose claim has been at all supt 
ported by facts, has much chance to stand in competitUm 
with Glover." 

GLOVEK (Thomas), a herald and heraldic writer, was 
the son of Thomas Glover, of Ashford in Kent, the place 
of his nativity. He was first made Portcullis Poursuivant^ 
and afterwards in 1571, Somerset herald. Queen Eliza«- 
betb permitted him to travel abroad for improvement., In 
15S2, he attended lord Willougbby with tbe order of the 
garter, to Frederick II. of Denmark* In 1584, be waited 
with Clarenceux on tbe earl of Derby, with that order to 
tbe king of France. No one was a greater ornament to th€ 
fCoUege than this gentleman ; the suavity of his manners 
wa/s equal to his integrity and skill: he was a most excellent^ 
and. very learned man, with a knowledge in his profession 
which has never been exceeded, perhaps been paralleled ^ 
to this, the best writers of bis own and more recent times 
bear testimony. He left two treatises, one '^ De Nobiii-* 
late politica vel civili;" the other ^^ A Catalogue of Ho^ 
nour ^" both of which were published by his nephew, Mr« 
Thomas Milles, tbe former in 1608, the latter in 1610, 
both folio, to ^^ revive the name and learned memory of 
his deceased firiend and uncle, whose private studies for the 
public good deserved a remembrance beyond, forgetful 
time.'' His answer to the bishop of Ross's book, in which 
Mary queen of Scots' claim to the crown was asserted, was 
never published. He made great collections of what had 
been written by preceding heralds, and left of his own 
labours relative to arms, visitations of twenty-four counties, 
and miscellaneous matters belonging to this science, all 
written by himself. He assisted Camden in his pedigrees 
for his Britannia ; communicated to Dr. David Powell, a 
copy of the history of Cambria, translated by H. Lloyd; 
made a collection of the inscriptions upon the funeral mo«^ 

4 

^ JohaaoB and Chalmers's Snglinh Poets, 1310* 



fc^- 



GLOVER. 31 

numents in Kcmt; and, in 1584, drew tip a most curiotis 
Mirfey of Herewood castte, in Yorkshire. Mr. Tboresby 
had his coltection of the cotinty of York taken in 1584, and 
his catalogue of northern gentry whose surnannes ended 
in son. He died in London, says Stow, April 14, (Lant 
and others, 10), I58S, aged only fmrty-fiTe years, and was 
buried in St. Gileses church, Cripplegate, His loss was 
severely felt by all our lovers of EiigUsh antiquities. His 
'^ Ordinary of Arms'* was augmented and improved by 
Edoiondson, who published it in the first volume of his 
Body of Heraldry.* 

GLUCK (Christopher), a musical composer of great 
originality, was bom in the palatinate, on the frontiers of 
Bdbemia,'in 1712, or as Dr. Burney says, in 1716. His 
father, a man in poor circumstances, removed, during the 
infancy of his son, into Bohemia, where he died, leaving 
his offspring in early youth, without any provision, so that 
bis education was totally neglected. He had, however, an 
instinctive love for music, which is taught to all children, 
with reading and writing, in the Bohemian schools. Hav- 
ing acquired this knowledge, he travelled about from town 
to town, supporting himself by his talents, till he had 
worked bis way to Vienna, where he met with a nobleman 
who became bis patron, took him into his service, and 
carried him into Italy, where he procured him lessons in 
counterpoint, at Naples, by which he profited so well^ 
that before he left Italy he composed several dramas for 
different theatres. These acquired him reputation sufficient 
to be recommended to lord Middlesex as a composer to 
the opera house in the' Hay market, then under his lord- 
ship^s direction. He arrived in England in 1745, and, in 
that year and the following, produced his operas of '* Ar^ 
tamene*' and ^* La Cadiita de Giganti,^' with indifferent 
success. 

From London he returned to Italy, and composed seve-*^^ 
ral operas in the style of the times, and afterv^rds en- 
gaged with the Italian poet Calsabigi, with whom he 
joined in a conspiracy against the poetry and music of the 
melo-drama then in vogue in Italy and all over Europe.' 
In 1764, when the late emperor Joseph was crowned king' 
of the Romans, Gluck was the composer, and Guadagni 
the principal singer. It was in this year that a species of 

I Koble's Coll. of AnMt-'Gent Mag. LXIIL p. dn.-^Falhir'& Worthies. 



se G L O C Hi 

dramatie music, different from that which tten feigned tti 
It^ly, was attempted by Gluck in his famous opera of' 
** Orfeo," which succeeded so well^ that it was soon after 
performed in other parts of Europe^ particularly at Parma 
and Paris, Bologna, Naples, and in 1770 at London. In 
1769 he produced " Alceste^'* a second opera on the re- 
formed plan, which received even more applause than thd 
first; and in 1771 " Paride ed Helena;*' but in 1774, his 
arrival at Paris produced a remarkable era in the ainnals of 
French music, by his conforming to the genius of the 
French language, and flattering the ancient national ta»te^. 
All his operas proved excellent preparations for a better 
style of composition than the French had been used to y 
as the recitative was more rapid, and the airs more marked^ 
than in LuUi and Rameau ; there were likewise more 
energy, fire, and variety of movement, in his aii's in gene^ 
tsAf and infinitely more force and effect in his expression of 
all the violent passions. His music was so truly dramatic,* 
that the airs and scenes, which had the greatest effect on 
the stage, were cold, or rudef in a concert. The situa-' 
tion, context, and interest, gradually etcited in the au-* 
diencej gave them their force and energy. He seemed 
indeed so much the national musician of France, that since 
the best days of Rameau, no dramatic composer had ex- 
cited so much enthusiasm, or had his pieces so frequently 
performed, each of them two or three hundred timesw 
The French, who feel very enthusiastically whatever music 
they like, heard with great rapture the operas of Gluck^ 
which even the enemies of his genre allcfwed to have great 
merit of a certain kind ; but though there is much real* 
genius and intrinsic worth in the dramatic compositions of 
this master, the congeniality of his style with that of their 
old national favourites, LuUi and Rameau, was no small 
merit with the friends of that music. The almost universal, 
cry at Paris was now, that he had recovered the dramatic 
music of the ancient Greeks; that there was no other 
Worth hearing ; that he was the only musician in Europe 
who knew how to express tiie passions ; these and other 
encomiums were uttered and published in the journals and 
newspapers of Paris, accompanied with constant and con- 
temptuous censures of Italian music, when Piccini arrived, 
and all the friends of Italian music, of Rousseau's doctrines^ 
and of the plan, if not the language, of Metastasio's dra- 
mas, enlisted in his service. A furious war brdke out at 



G L U C K. Si 

Paris; and these disputes, says Dn Burney, of musical 
critics, and rival artists throughout the kingdom, seem to 
us to have soured and diminished the pleasure arising from 
music in proportion as the art has advanced to perfection. 
When every phrase or passage in a musical composition is 
to be analysed and dissected during performance, all de* 
light and enthusiasm vanish, and the whole becomes a piece 
of cold mechanism. 

The chevalier Gluck, after returning to Vienna from 
Paris, and being rendered incapable of writing by a para- 
lytic stroke in 1784, only lingered in a debilitated state 
till the autumn of 1 7 87, when he died at the age of seventy- 
three. Gluck had great merit as a bold, daring, nervous 
composer; and as such, in his French operas, he was un- 
rivalled. But he was not so universal as to be exclusively 
admired and praised at the expence of all other composers 
ancient and modern. His style was peculiarly convenient 
to France, where there were no good singers, and where 
no good singing was expegted or understood by the public 
in general ; and where the poetry was set up against music, 
without allowing equality, or even an opportunity of mani- 
festing her most captivating vocal powers.^ 

GLYCAS (Michael), was one of the Byzantine histori- 
ans, but biographers are not agreed as to the period when 
he lived. Some years ago, professor Walchius published 
in the Gottingen Transactions an inquiry into this subject, 
but was obliged to confess that he could arrive at no pro- 
bable conclusion^ Some place Glycas in the twelfth, and 
some in the fifteenth century. No ancient record or writer 
mentions even his name, and all that is known of him has 
been gleaned from his works. It appears that he was a 
native of Constantinople ; but passed a great part of bis 
life in Sicily. Some have thought he was a monk, but this 
is uncertain, nor. do we know whether he lived in public 
life, or in retirement. His letters, however, show that be 
was a grammarian, and was acquainted with theology, his- 
tory sacrQjJ and profane, and other branches of know- 
ledge ; and such was his reputation that he was frequently 
consulted by monks, bishops, and the most celebrated 
doctors of his time. His '^ Annals/' by which only he is 
Dow known, codtain an account of the patriarchs, kiugs, 
and emperors, and, in a word, a sort of history of the 

1 Rces^s Cyclopaedia, by Dr. Burney. ^ 

Vol. XVL D 



S4 <j L y C A s. 

world as far as the emperor Alexis Comnenus, who died in 
1118, including many remarks on divinity, philosophy, 
physic, astronomy, &c. Leunclavius first translated this 
work into Latin, and the whole was published by Father 
Labbe, Paris, 1660, fol. Some of his letters have been 
published in the ** Delicise eruditorum/* Florence, l^SS^ 
and other collections. ^ 

GMELIN (John George), a physician and eminent 
botanist, was born at Tubingen August 12, 1709. He was 
distinguished by his diligence and early attainments at the 
school and university of Tubingen, and in 1727, took the 
degree of doctor of physic, and went to Petersburgh, 
where, in 1729, he was elected one of the members of the 
academy, and in 1731 was appointed professor of chemis- 
try and natural history. In 1733 he was selected for the 
department of natural history, in a commission formed by 
the Rnssiati government, for the purpose of exploring the 
boundaries of Siberia; and set out on the 19th of August^ 
with G. F. Muller, and* Louis de I'lsle de la Croyere, and 
a party of twenty-eight persons, consisting of draughtsmen, 
miners, hunters, land surveyors, and twelve soldiers, with 
a Serjeant and drummer. On his return to Petersburgh in 
1743, he resumed the offices which he had before filled. 
In the year 1749 he entered upon a new professorship, to 
which he had been appointed, while on a visit to Tubin- 
gen, but died of a fever in May, 1755. He published, 
** Flora Siberica, seu Historia Plantarum Siberise,*' Peters* 
burgb, 1747, 1749, in four parts, 4to, with plates: and^ 
in German, ** Travels through Siberia between the years 
1733 and 1743/* Gottingen, 1751, 1752, in four parts, 8vo, 
with plates. ^ 

GMELIN (Samcel Gottlieb), nephew to the preced- 
ing, was born at Tubingen in 1743; where he was edu- 
cated, atid took his medical degree in 1763. He gave 
early proofs of genius, and during his travels in France and 
Holland distinguished himself so much by his knowledge of 
natural history, that he was appointed professor in the 
academy of sciences at Petersburgh. Like his uncle, he 
spent several years in travelling through the distant pro* 
vinces of the Russian empire, for the purposes of scieutific 
investigation, but ultimately with a less fortunate result. 
Recommenced his travels in June 1768, and having tra- 

^ Moreri.-— Sa»i OBOViant^ • Di«t. Hist. — Rett's Cyclopedia. 



M E L I N. M 

» 

▼ened the proviBces of Moicow, Vorouetz, '^ew Ruma, 
Azof, Casan, and AstracaD, he vbitedy in 1770 and 1771, 
the differeet harbours of the Caspian ; and examined with 
peculiar attention those parts of the Persian provinces which 
border upon that sea^ of which he hasT given a circumstan- 
tial account in his travels. Actuated by a seal for extendi 
ing his observations, he attempted to pass through the west- 
em provinces of Persia, which were in a state of perpetual 
warfare, and infested by oumerous banditti. Upon this 
expedition he quitted, in April 1772, Einzillee, a small 
tniding place in Ghilan» vpon the southern shore of the 
Caspian ; a|id, on account of many difficulties add dangers, 
jdid not, until Dec. 2, 1773, reach SaJHian, a town situated 
. upon the mouth of the river Koor. Thence he proceeded 
to Baku and Cuba, in the province of Sbirvan, where he 
met with a friendly reception frooft Ali Feth Khan, the 
jK)vere%n of that district. After be bad bi^en joined by 
twenty Uralian Cossacs, and when he was only four days 
journey from the Russian fortress Kislar, he and his com^ 
paoions were, on Feb. 5, 1774» arrested by order of Usmei 
Khan, a petty Tartar prince, through who$e territories he 
was obliged to pass. (Jsmei urged as a pretence for this 
arrest, that, thirty years before, several families had escaped 
from his dominions, and had found an asylum in the 
Russian territories; adding, that Gmelin should not he 
released until these families were restored. As all arguing 
was in vain with this savage, Gmelin was removed from 
prison to prison,* and at length, wearied out with confine- 
ment and harsh usage, expired July 27, at Acbmet-Kent, 
a village of Mount Caucasus. Some of his papers had 
been sent to Kislar during bis confinement, and the others 
were not without great difficulty rescued from the hands 
of the barbarians. The empress -Catherine, would have 
rescued him by force, but this was rendered impossible at 
that time, by the rebellion of Pugatchef. She, however, 
expressed her regret and esteem for Gmelin by giving a 
gratification to his widow, of one yearns pay of the salary 
idle had assigned to her husband during bis travels, amount- 
ing to 1600 rubles. 

His works are : 1. ^^ Historia Fucprum," Petersburgh, in 
1768^ 4to.; a subject to which botanisu had paid little at- 
tention before him. 2. *^ Travels through Russia, for the 
purpose of exploring the three kingdoms of nature,^' three 
parts of which were published in his life-time. A fourth 

2 



56 G M E L I N. 

was edited after the author^s death, by profetsor Pallas. 
3. *^ Journey from Astracan to Czarizyn :*' and also a' 
"Second Persian Journey,*' 1772 — 74; ibid. 1786. Pallas 
prefixed GineUn*s Life to the fourth part of his travels. ' 

GMELIN (John* Frederick), of the same family,^!- 
though what relation to the preceding is not mentioned, 
was born at Tubingen in 1 748. He was the author of se* 
veral performances on vegetable physiology, and the clas- 
sification of plants; and likewise published numerous works 
on the materia medica, and chemistry, mineralogy, and 
every part of natural history. One of the most celebrated 
is his edition of the " System of Nature of Li<fM>8eus.'* He, 
however, is said to have introduced great disorder into the 
science, by multiplying the species. He was also the au- 
thor of a " History of Chemistry," forming a part of the 
history of arts and sciences undertaken by the professors 
of Gottingen. The world is indebted to him for the dis* 
covery of several excellent dyes, extracted from vegetable 
and mineral substances* He died in 1805. ' 

GOAD (John), an eminent classical teacher, the son of 
John Goad, of Bishopsgate- street, was born th^re Feb. 
1 5, 1 6 1 5. He was educated at Merchant Taylors^ school, 
and elected thence a scholar of St. John^s college, Oxford, 
in 1632. He afterwards received his master*s degree, be- 
came fellow of hii^ college, and took orders. In 1643 he 
was made vicar of St. Giles's, Oxford, and continued to 
perform his parochial duties, although at the risk of his 
life, during ' the siege of the city by the parliamentary 
forces. In June 1646 he was presented by the university 
to the vicarage of Yarnton, and the year following was 
created B. D. When the loyalists were turned out by th^ 
parliamentary commissioners, Mr. Goad shared their fate ; 
and although Dr. Cbeynel, who was one of the parlia- 
mentary visitors, gave him an invitation to return to his 
college, he refused it upon the terms offered. Yet he ap- 
pears to have been ' so far connived at, as to be able to 
keep his living at Yarnton until the restoration. He also 
taught at Tunbridge school until July 1661, when he was 
made bead master of Merchant Taylors' school. Over this 
seminary he presided for nearly twenty years, with great 
success and approbation, and trained for the college many 

1 Diet. Hist.— Coxe's Trarelf in Itastia«-<-Tooke*s View of the Russian Empire. 
« Diet. Hist, 



GOAD. 37 

youths who did honour to their teacher and to their coun« 
tiy; but in 1681 a suspicion was entertained that be in- 
clined towards popery; and it was said that the comment 
which be made on the Church Catechism savoured strongly 
of popish tenets. Some particular passages having been 
selected from it, and laid before the grand jury of London, 
they on March 4 of the above year, presented a complaint 
to the Merchant Taylors' company, respecting the cate- 
chism taught in their school. After be had been heard in 
his own defence, it was decided that he was *^ popishly 
and erroneously affected,*' and immediately was discharged 
from his office ; but such was the;ir sense of his past services, 
that they voted him a gratuity of 70/. It soon appeared 
that the court of th^ company had not been deceived in 
their opinion of his principles. After being dismissed, he 
taught a school in Piccadilly, and in 1686, the reign of James 
II. openly professed himself a Roman catholic ; which, 
Wood says, he had long been covertly. He died Oct. 28, 
1689, and was buried in the church of Great St. Helen's, 
Bishopsgate-street, his memory being honoured by various 
elegies. He published, besides some single sermons, 1. 
" Genealogicon Latinum,'* a sinall dictionary for the use 
of Merchant Taylors' school, 8vo, 1676, second edit. 2. 
** Declamation, whether Monarchy be the best form oif 
government ?" printed at the end of Richards's . ** English 
Orator," 1680, 8vo. 3. " Astro- Meteorologica, or apho- 
risms and discourses of 4he Bodies Celestial, their natures 
and influences, &c." 1686, fol. This gained him great 
reputation. The subject of it is a kind of astrology, 
founded, for the most part, pn reason and experiment, as 
will appear by comparing it with Boyle's " History of the 
Air," and Dr. Mead's book " De Imperio Solis et Lunae." 
4. " Autodidactica, or a practical vocabulary, &c." 1690, 
8vo. Aft^r his death was published *^ Astro-meteorologia 
sana, &c." 1690, 4to.' 

GOAR (James), a learned French Dominican, was born 
at Paris, of a reputable family, in 160J, and after a clas- 
sical education, took the habit of bis order in 1619. He 
then employed six years in the study of philosophy and 
theology, after which b^ was sent to Toul to instruct the 
young men of his order in these sciences. In the mean 

» Alh. 0«. tqI. II.T-Podd*8 Church History.-r^Srang cr.— rWilwn'i HiiU ^f 
Merchant Taylors' School. 



38 G O A R. 

time hi^ extreme partiality to the Greek, and his extensire 
reading in Greek literature, inspired him with a great de-^ 
sire to visit the country of the modern Greeks, and inquires 
into their sentiments and customs; and having obtained 
leave of his superiors, he set out in 1631, as an apostolic 
missionary, and was for the sake of local convenience, made 
prior of the convent of St. Sebastian, in the island of Chios. 
Here he resided eight years, conversing with the ablest 
of the natives, *and inquiring into their history, religion^ 
and manners. Before returning to France he went to 
Rome in 1640, where he was appointed prior of the con«^ 
vent of St. Sixtus, and being arrived at Paris, was maile 
master of the novices, and began to employ his time iii 
preparing his works for the press. This was an object sO 
much at neart^ that when elected in" 1652 vicar-general of 
his order, he accepted it with great reluctance, as likely to 
interrupt his labours. It is supposed, indeed, that his 
intense application^ and the various duties of this office, 
impaired his health, and brought on a slow fever, which 
proved fatal Sept. 23, 1653. His principal work wa$ his 
collection of Greek liturgies, published under the title of 
*^ Euchologion, sive rituale Graecorum," Paris, 1647, fol. 
a very curious and rare work. There is, however, a se- 
cond edition printed at Venice in 1730. Gear also trans- 
lated some of the Byzantine historians for the collection 
printed at the Louvre. * 

GOBIEN (Charles le), a learned Jesuit, and secretary 
to the Chinese missionaries, was born at St. Malo in 1653| 
f^nd having been educated in the academies belonging to 
his order, was made professor of philosophy and classics, 
^bich he taught for eight years with reputation. He then 
ipame to Paris, where he was appointed secretary and pro- 
curator to the Chinese missionaries. He died May 1709. 
He wrote many tracts on the progress of religion in China, 
and entered warmly into the disputes between the mis- 
sionaries on the worship of Confucius. The best known of 
his works are, his ^ Lettres sur les Progrds de la Religion k 
la Chine,'* 16d7, 8vo ; his " Hist, de TEdit de 1* empereur 
de la Chine en faveur de la religion Cbretienne,*' 1698, 
12mo, which makes the third volume of le Comte's Memoirs 
of China; his '* Hist, des Isles Mariannes,** 1700, 12mo; 

* Niceron, toI. XUC.<— Moreri. — ^Usher's Life and Leitersi p. 606.— Saxii 
Onomait. 



G O B I E N. 39 

and eight parks or volumes of the ^' Lettres edifiantes et 
curieuses^'' writtea by the Chinese missiooaries. Of these 
letters there was afterwards a collection made, extending 
to 34 vols. 12mo; and in 1780, the abbe de Querbeuf pub- 
lished a new edition in 26 vols. They are still consulted 
as affording information respecting the natural history, 
geography, and politics of the countries which the Jesuits 
had explored, although they are not unfrequently miMd 
with improbable tales. ' 

GOCLENIUS (Cot^RAD), a learned philologist, was 
born in 1485, in Westphalia. He acquired a high reputa- 
tion for learning, and taught for a considerable time at the 
college of Bois-le-Duc in Louvain, where he died Jan. 
25, 1539.. Erasmus, who was his intims^te friend, highly 
valued his character, and respected his erudition. He 
.wrote notes on Cicero's 0£Bces« edited a new edition of 
Lucan, and published a Latin translation of Lucian's ** H^- 
motinus,'' a dialogue on the sects of philosophers.' 

QODDARD (Jonathan), an English physician and 
chemist, and promoter of the royal society, was the son of 
a rich ship-bqilder at Deptford, and born at Greenwich 
about 1617. Bfeing industrious apd of good parts, he made 
a quick progress in grammar-learning, and was entered ^ 
commoner at Magdalen -hall, Oxford, in 1632, He staid 
at the university about four years, implying himself tp 
physic ; and then left it, without taking a degree, to travel 
abroad, as was at that time the custom, for farther im- 
provement in his faculty. At his return, not being quali- 
fied, according to the statutes, to proceed in physic at 
Oxford, he went to Cambridge, and took the degree of 
bachelor in the faculty, as a member of Christ college, in 
1638 ; after which, intending to settle in London, without 
waiting for another degree, he engaged in a formal pro- 
mise to obey the laws and statutes of the college of physi- 
cians there, Nov. 1$40. Having by this means obtained a 
proper permission, he entered into practice; but being 
still sensible of the advantage of election into the college, 
he took the first opportunity of applying for bis doctor^s 
degree at Cambridge, which he obtained, as a me^nber of 
Catherine^hali, in 1643 ; and was chosen fellow of the 
college of physicians in 164Q. In the mean time, he had 
the preceding year engaged in another society, for im- 

1 MorerL— »Diet. Hist. * Foppen BibU Bel.— ^xii Onomast. 



40 GODDARIX 

proving and cultivating experimental philosophy. This 
society usually met at or near his lodgings' in Wood-street, 
for the convenience of making experiments ; in which h& 
was very assiduous, as the reformation and improvement of 
physic was one principal branch of this design. In 1647, 
he was appointed lecturer in anatomy at the college ; and 
it was from these lectures that his reputation took its rise. 
As he, with the rest of the assembly which met at his lodg- 
ings, had all along sided with the parliament, he was made 
head-physician in the army, and was taken, in that station, 
by Cromwell, first to Ireland in 1649, and then to Scot- 
land the following year; and returned thence with his 
-master; who, after the battle of Worcester, rode into Lon- 
don in triumph, Sept. 12, 1651. He was appointed warden 
of Merton^college, Oxon, Dec. 9th following", and was 
incorporated Mv D. of the university, Jan. 14th the same 
year. Cromwell was the chancellor ; and returning to 
Scotland, in order to incorporate that kingdom into one 
commonwealth with England, he appointed our warden, 
together with Dr. Wilkins, warden of Wadham, Dr. Good- 
win, president of Magdalen, Dr. Owen, dean of Christ 
Church, and Cromwell's brother-in-law, Peter French, a 
canon of Christ Church, to act as hrs delegates in all mat- 
ters relating to grants or dispensations that required his 
assent. This instrument -hote date Oct. 16, 1652. His 
powerful patron dissolving the long parliament, called a 
new one, named the Little Parliament, in 1653, in which 
the warden of Merton sat sole representative of the univer- 
sity, and was appointed one of the council of state the 
same year. 

A series of honours and favours bestowed by the usurper, 
whose interest he constantly promoted, naturally incurred 
the displeasure of Charles II. who removed him from his 
wardenship, by a letter dated July S, 1660; and claiming 
the right of nomination, during the vacancy of the see of 
Canterbury, appointed another warden in a manner the 
most mortifying to our aruthor. The new warden was Dr. 
£dw. Reynolds, then kiog^s chaplain, and ^oon after bishop 
of Norwich, who was appointed successor to si^ Nathaniel 
Brent, without the least notice being taken of Dr. 6od- 
dard*. He then removed to Gresham college, where he 

* Our author, it is true, was strong- resentment upon him ; otherwiie». it 
ly attached to Cromwell ^ , which, no was not desftnred by bis'behinrioQr in 
flioubt, brought thi« mark oif the king's the collie. For this we have tht tos- 



O O D D A R D. 41 

had been cbotien professor of physic on Nov. 7, 1655, and 
continued to frequent those meetings which gave birth to 
the royal society ; and, upon their establishment by char* 
xerin 1663, was nominated one of the first council. This 
honour they were induced to confer upon him, both in 
regard to his merit in general as a scholar, and to his par- 
ticular zeal and abilities in promoting the design of their 
institution, of which there is full proof in the '< Memoin^* 
of that society by Dr. Birch, where there is scarcely a meet- 
ing mentioned, in which his name does not occur for some 
experiment or observation made by him. At the same time 
^he carried on his business as a physician, being continued 
a fellow of the college by their new charter in 1 663. Upon 
the conflagration in 1666, which consumed the old Ex* 
•change, our professor, with the rest of his brethren, re- 
moved from Gresham, to make room for the merchants to 
carry on the public affairs of the city ; which, however, did 
not hinder him from going on with pursuits in natural phi- 
losophy and physic. In this last he was not only an able 
but a conscientious practitioner ; for which reason he con- 
tinued still to prepare his own medicines. He was so fully 
persuaded that, this, no less than prescribing them, was 
the physician's duty, that in 1668, whatever offence it 
might give the apothecaries, he was not afraid to publish 
a treatise, recommending it to general use. This treatise 
was received with applause ; but as he found the proposal 
in it attended with such di6iculties and discouragements as 
were likeJy to defeat it, he pursued that subject the follow* 
ing year, in <^ A Discourse, setting forth the unhappy con- 
dition of the practice of Physic in London,*' 1669, 4to. 
Bot this availed nothing, and when an attempt was made 
by the college of physicians, with the same view, thirty 
years afterwards, it met with no better success. In 1671 
he returned to bis lodgings at Gresham college, where he 
continued prosecutingMmprovements in philosophy till his 
death, which was very suddens He used to meet a select 
number of friends at the Crown-tavern in Bloomsbury, 
where they discoursed on philosophical subjects, and in his 
return theooe in the evening of March 24, 1674, he was 

timony of Wood, who wai bred at Mer* poblisbed io 1659, and wwtfL it bim to 

toD^ aod alwayt mentions I)r. God- London, bound in blue Turiiey, with 

dardy a< warden, in terms, of kindness gilt leaves ; as we Qnd it carefully nti 

'and respect He was; indeed, tbe first down io tbe bistory of his own \\^ 

patran to that antiquary ; who, as such, publifibed by Mr. Heame. 
dadiealod hU brother's sermons to him, 



42 G O P D A R D. 

seized with an apoplectic fit in Cheapside^ and dropped 

down dead. 

His memory was long preserved by certais drops, wbich 
were his inventioo^ and bore his name ; but whidi, like 
all such nostrums) are now forgotten. His receipts ** Ar- 
cana Goddardiana," were published at the end .of the 
5^ Pharmacopoeia Bateana,'' 1691. He bad several learned 
treatises dedicated to him as a patron of learning, made by 
persons well acquainted with him, such as Dr.. Edmund 
Pickinson and Dr. Wallis, who highly praise his extensive 
learning, his skill in his profession, knowledge of public 
affairs, and generous disposition, his candour, affability^ 
and benevolence to all good and learned ipen. Of tlua 
last there is one instance worth presenting ; and that is, his 
ticking into his apartment, at Gresham, Dn Worthington, 
who lodged with him for the conveniency of preparing for 
the press the woirks of Mr. Joseph Mede, which be finished 
and published in 1664. According to Dr. Seth Ward^ 
bishop of Salisbury, be was the first EngUshman who 
made that noble astronomical instrument the telescope. ' 

GODEAU (Anthony), a learned French bishop and 
writer, was descended from a good family at Dreux, and 
born in 1605. Being inclined to poetry from his youtb^ 
he applied himself to it, an4 so cultivated his genius, that 
be made his fortune by it* His first essay was a paraphrase 
in verse of the Benedmie, which was much commended. 
He was but twenty -four wben be became a member of that 
society which met at the house of Mr. Conrart^ to con- 
fer upon subjects of polite learning, and to comiaunieate 
their performances. From this society cardinal. Richlieu 
took the hint, and formed the resolution, of establishing 
the French academy .for belles lettres ; and our author in a 
few years obtained the patronage of that powerful eccle- 
siastic. The bishopric of Grasse becoming vacant in 16S6, 
cardinal Richelieu recommended him to the king, who im- 
mediately conferred it upon him ; and as soon as the cerfe* 
mony of consecration was over, be repaired to his dioces^ 
and applied himself to the functions of his office. , He^ held , 
several synods, composed a great number of pastoral ini- 
structions for the use of his clergy, and restored eccle- 
siastical discipline, which had been almost entirely neg- 

1 Biog. Brit.— Ward's Gresham Profeuors.— Birch's Hist. aT the Royal So^ 
clety.— Ath. Ox, toK 1L 



G O D E A U. 4} 

tected. He obtained from pope Innocent X. a bull for 
uniting the bishopric of Venoe to that of Grasse, as hitf 
predecessor Wtliiani le Blore liad before obtained from 
Clement YIII. This arrangement, considering the pro* 
piaquity of the two dioceses, and the small income of both 
together (about 450/.) was not unreasonable; but when 
Godeau found the people and clergy averse to it, he gav€l 
up his pretensions, and contented himself with the bishopric 
of Vence onlj. He assisted in 3everal general assemblies 
ef the clergy, held in 1645 and 1655 ; in which he vigor* 
ously maintained the dignity of the episcopal order^ and 
the system of pure morality, against those who opposed 
both. One of his best pieces upon this subject, was pub^ 
lifthed in 1 709, with the title of *^ Christian Morals for thft 
Instruction of die Clergy of the Diocese of Vence :" and 
Was afterwards translated into English, by Basil Kennet; 
These necessaty absences excepted, he constantly resided 
upon his didc^e, where he was perpetually employed in 
visitations, preaching, rending, writing, or attending uport 
the ecclesiastical or temporal affairs of his bishopric^ till 
Easter-day, April 17, 1671; when he was seized with a 
fit of an apoplexy, of whfeb he died the 21st. 

He was a very voluminous author, both in prose and 
verse. Moreri, after giving a list of fifty' works, adds 
many fugitive pieces of devotional poetry. One of his 
principal workd is bis *^ Ecclesiastical History,*' intended 
to be comprized in 3 vols fol. The first appeared in 1658^ 
containing the " History of the first eight centuries ;" but 
as he did not finish the other two, they remained in manu- 
script. He was, however, the first person who gave a 
/* Church History** in the French language. He was the 
author also of a '< Translation of the Psalms into French 
verse,** which were so well approved, that those of the 
reformed religion have not scrupled to use them at home 
in tlieir families, instead of the version of Marot, which h 
adapted and consecrated to the public service. Of this 
work Basil Kennet has given a criticism in the preface to 
"An Essay towards a Paraphrase on the Psalms,** 1709, 
8vo. The Jesuit, Vavassor, wrote a piece on purpose to 
prove that our author had no true taste for poetry ; and 
BoUeau remarks several defects in his poetical perform* 



anc^i* 



> BupiU.«i4riecr0S, wit. XVIII. aad-XX.— MokrI; 



I 

[ 



44 



GODEFROl. 



GODEFBOI (Denys), an eminent lawyer, and one of 
the most learned men of his age, was born October 17^ 
1549, at Paris. He was the son of Leon Godefroi, coun* 
sellor to the Cb&telet He had acquired a great reputation 
in the parliament, but embracing the reformed religion, 
was obliged to retire to Geneva, and taught law both 
there and in some German universities. In 1618 be was 
sent by the elector palatine to Louis XHL who, among 
other marks of favour, presented him with his picture, and 
a gold medal. But being again obliged to quit the pala- 
tinate, during war, be went to Strasburgb, where he 
died September 7, 1622, leaving a great number of va- 
luable works ; the principal of which are, 1. ^' NotsB in 
quatuor Libros institutionum.*' 2. ^^ Opuscula varia juris.** 
3. " Corpus juris civilis, cum notis.** These notes, are 
fsxcellent : the best editions are those by Vitr6, 1626, and 
by Elzevir, .1683, 2 vols. fol. 4. " Praxis civilis, et 
antiquis et recentioribus scriptoribus.'* 5. *^ Index Cfaro- 
nologicus legum et novellarum k Justiniano imperatore 
compositarum.*' 6. ^< Consuetudines Civitatum et Pro- 
yinciarum Gallice, cum notis,*' foL 7. ** Qusestionels po- 
litico ex jure communi in Historia desumptas.'' S. *^ Dis- 
sertatio de nobilitate.'* 9.' ^' Statuta regni Gallise cum 
jure communi collata,** fol. 10. ^* Synopsis statutorum 
municipalium,*' an edition, Greek and Latin, of the 
** Promptuarium juris" of Harmenopules. ** Conjectures,** 
and several ^^ Lectures upon Seneca,*' with a defence of 
these Conjectures, which bad been attacked by Gruten 
*' A Collection of the ancient Latin Grammarians,*' &c. 
The following works are also ascribed to Denis Godefroi : 
** Avis pour reduire les Monnoies a leur juste Prix et Va- 
leur," 8vo: ^^ Maintenue et Defense des Empereurs, Rois, 
Princes, Etats, et Republiques ; contra les Censures Mo- 
nitoires, et Excommunications des Papes," 4to.. ^* Frag- 
menta duodecim Tabularum suis nunc primum Tabulis 
restituta," 1616, 4to. His '< Opuscula" have been col- 
lected and printed in Holland, foL^ 

GODEFROI (Th£ODORE), eldest son of the preceding, 
was born July 17, 1580, at Geneva, and went to Paris in 
1602, where he turned Catholic, was appointed counsellor 
of state 1643, and died Octobers, 1649, at Munster, in 
which city he then resided as counsellor and secretary to 

> Morari.— Kicerom ▼•!. XVII.— Diet Hiit 



G O D E F R O I. 4$ 

the French eqibassy for the general peace. He left many 
excellent works on law, history, the titles of the kingdom^ 
Slc, the principal of which are, I. '^ Le Ceremonial de 
France,^' 4to, a work much valued ; reprinted in 2 vols, 
fol. by his son Denvs Godefroi ; but this is unfinished} 
and the 4to edition must be referred to for the funeral ct^ 
remontes. 2. <* Genealogie des Rois de Portugal issua 
en Ligne directe masculine de la Maison de France qui 
regne aujourd'huis," 4to. 3. " Mem. concernant la Pre* 
seance des Rois de France sur les Rois d'Espagne, 4to« 
4. ^^ Entreveue de Charles IV. Empereur, et Charles V. 
Roi de France ; plus TEntreveue de Charles VII. Roi de 
France, et de Ferdinand, Roi de Arragon." &c. 4to. 5* 
'' Hist, de Charles. VI. par Jean Juvenal des Ursins ; de 
Louis XII. par Seyssell, et par d'Auton, &c. ; de Cha. 
VIII. par Saligny, et autres; du Chevalier Bayard, avec 
le Supplement, par Expilly,'* 1651, 8vo. €. *^ De Jean^ 
le Meingre, dit Boucicaut, Marechal de France,'* 4tD. 
7. " D'Artus III. Due de Bretagne,'' 4to. 8. " De 
Guillaume Marescot,'' 4to. 9. ^^ De la veritable Origine 
de la Msuson d'AutricheV 4to. 10. ** Genealogie des 
Dues de Lorrain,*' 4to. 11.^^ L'Ordre et'les Ceremonies 
observers aux Manages de France et d'Espagne," 4to. 
12. ** G^n£alogie des Comptes et Dues de Bar," 4to. 13. 
*^ Traite touchant les Droits du Roi tres Chretien, sur 
plusieurs Etats et Seigneuries, poss^des par plusieurs 
Princes Voisins,-' fol. under the name of. Pierre Dupuy.* 

GODEFROI (James), younger brother of the preceding, 
born in 1 587, at Geneva, was also a very learned lawyer, 
and rose to the highest posts in that republic. He was 
five times syndic, and died there 1652. He left several 
works much esteemed; the following are the principal 
ones: 1. << Opuscula varia, juridica, politica, bistorica, 
critica,'* 4to. 2. ^^ Pontes Juris civilis ; de diversis Re* 
gulis Juris,'' 1653, 4to. 3. ^^ De famosis latronibus in« 
vestigandis ; de jure praecedentias ; de Salario ; animad- 
versiones Juris civilis. De suburbicariis Regippibus ; de 
statu Paganorum sub Imperatoribus Christianis. Frag- 
menta Legum Julice et Papis collecta, et notis illustrata. 
Codex Theodosianus," 1665, 4 vols. fol. 4. " Veteris 
orbis descriptio Grsci Scriptoris, sub Constantio et Con« 
stante Imperantibus, Gr. et Lat. cum notis,'' 4to. 5. << De 

» Moreri.-— Niceron, vol. XVII. 



46 G O D E F R O I. 

CenotapUio ; de Dominio sen imperio maris et jure mtth- 
fcagii coUigendi.'* 6. Cooimentaries and Notes on several 
Orations of Libanius. 7. ^* L'Htst. Ecclesiastiqiie de Phi<- 
lostorge, avec un Appendix.^' 8. ^< Les Merctire Jesuite, 
ou Recueil des pieces concernant les Jesnites/* 1631, ^ 
vols.8va* 

GODEFROI (Denys), son of Theodore, was born Au^ 
gust 24) 1615, at Paris. He made use of Ms father's Me^- 
moirs, and like him studied the History of France. Louis 
XIV. appointed him keeper and director of the chamber df 
accounts at Lisle, in wbi^h city he died June 9, 1681. ' He 
published ^ Le C4r6monial de France,^' written by his 
father ; and the History of Charles VI. and Charles VIL 
printed at the Louvre, each in 1 vol. folio \ that of th6 
Crown Officers, from the time at which thitt of John le 
Feron ends; <^ Memoires et Instructions pour servir dans 
les Negociations et les Affaires concernant les Droits du 
Roi,^' 1665, fol. which had been attributed to chancellor 
Seguier, &c.' He left sev^al children who were eminent ; 
among them, 

GODEFROI (DekVs), Ae third of that name, honorary 
auditor and keeper of the books in the chambre des comptes 
at Paris, died 1719, and left Remarks on the Addition to 
lii43 History of Louis XI. by Naud£; an edition of the 
^* Satire Menip^e,'' 1 709, 3 vols. 8vo ; and other works. 
John GoD£FROi, director of the chambre des comptes at 
Lisle, was another son of the second Denys, who pub*- 
lished in 1706 an elegant edition of the '^Memoires de 
Philippe de Commines ;*^ and in 1711 a new edition of 
the ^' Satyre Menip^e.'' He also left the ^^ Journal de 
Henri III;** witli notes, and some new pieces, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
a very curious book against that by Pere Guyard, a Ja- 
cobin, entitled *^ La Fatalitd de St. Cloud ;" ** Mem. de 
la Reine Marguerite," 8vo, &c. No author has given so clear 
an account of the league, nor published so many curious 
pieces respecting the parties engaged in it. He died in 
February, 1732.' 

GODESCHALCUS. See GOTTESCHALCUS. 

GODFREY of VITERBO, the author of an ancient 
elironicle, is supposed to have been born in the twelfth 
century, at Viterbb, in Italy, and educated in his youth, 
at least, at Bamberg. He was afterwards chaplain and 

> Moieri.--Di€t. Hist. 3 ibid. 3 ibid. 



G O 1> F R E Y. \ 47 



\ 



secretary to king Conrad III. the emperor Frederick, and 
his son Henry VI. He informs os that he spent forty years 
in searching among the manascripts of the Greeks, Latins, 
Jews, Chaldeans, and barbarians, for materials proper for 
bis Chronicle, had made himself acquainted with all these 
languages, and performed many voyages and travels in the 
same pursuit This Chronicle, which does not, however^ 
gratify all the expectations that might be formed from such 
learning and industry, begins with the creation of the 
world, and ends with 11S6. It is written in Latin pros^ 
and verse, and entitled '* Pantheon.'* It was first printed 
at Basil, by Basilius John Herold, 1559, reprinted at 
Francfort in 1584, and at Hanover in 1613, in Pistorius's 
collection of German writers ; and Mnratori , has inserted 
in his great <x)Ueotion, that part which respects Italyv 
Lambecius speaks of another work by Godfrey, which 
exists in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna, entitled 
*^ Speculum regium, sive de genealogia regum et impera* 
torum a dikivii tempore ad Henricum VI. imperatorem.*^ 
Godfrey appears to have been a man of leari)ing and ob- 
servation, and is thought to 'deserve credit as to hisrela* 
tion of the events which occurred in his own time, and 
with which his situation at court enabled him to be ac- - 
quainted.' 

GODOLPUIN (John), an eminent civilian, the third 
son of John Godolpbin, esq. was descended from an ancient 
family of his name in Cornwall, and born Nov. 29, 1617, 
at Godolphin, in the island of Sctlly. He was sent to 
Oxford, and entered a commoner of Gloucester-hall, in 
1632 ; and having laid a good foundation of logic and phi-^ 
losopfay, he applied himself particularly to the study of 
the civil law, which he chose for his profession ; atid ac- 
cordingly took his degrees in that faculty, that of bachelor 
in 1636, and of doctor in 1642-S. He has usually been 
ranked among puritans for having written two treatises 
published by him in 1650 and^l651, entitled, 1. ^' The 
Holy Limbec, or an extraction of the spirit from the' Let ^ 
ter of certain eminent places in the Holy Scripture." Other 
copies were printed with this title, '^ The Holy Limbec, 
or a Semicentury of Spiritual Extractions,** &c. 2. ^* The 
Holy Harbour, containing the whole body of divinity, or 
the sum and substance of the Christian Religion." But 

o 
1 Moreri. — Voitiai de Hist. Lat.— S»xii OiMttast. 



ii/ G O D O L P H I N. 

whatever may be the principles maiDtaioed in these wor^ 
which we have not seen> it is certain* that when he went to 
London afterwards, he sided with the anti-monarchical 
party ; and, taking the oath called the Engagement, was 
by an act passed in Cromweirs convention, or short par* 
liament, July 1€53, constituted judge of the admiralty 
jointly with William Clarke, LL. X). and .dharles George 
Cock, esq. In July 1659, upon the death of Clarke, be 
and Cock received a new commission to the same placp^ 
to continue in force no longer than December, following. - 

Notwithstanding these compliances with the powers then 
in beipg, he was much esteemed for his knowledge in the 
civil law, which obtained him the post of king's advocate 
at the restoration : after which, he published several books 
in his own faculty then in good esteem, as '^ A View of 
the Admiral's Jurisdiction/' 1661, 8vo, in which is printed 
a translation by him, of Grasias, or Ferrand's ^' Extract of 
the ancient Laws of Oleron ;" *' The Orphan's Legacy, 
&c. treating of last wills and testaments," 1674, 4to. And 
'^ Repertorium Canonicum," &c. 1678, 4to. In this last- 
piece he strenuously and learnedly asserts the king's sii* 
premacy, as a power vested in the^crown, before the 
Pope invaded the right and authority, or jurisdiction. He 
died April 4^ 1678, and was interred in St. James's church, 
Cierkenwell. ^ 

GODOLPHIN (Sidney), earl of .Godolphin, and lord 
high treasurer of England, descended from a very ancient 
family in Cornwall, was the^ third son of Francis Godolphin^ 
K. B. by Dorothy, second daughter of sir Henry Berkley, 
of Yarlington in Somersetshire. He had great natund 
abilities, was liberally educated, and inheriting the un- 
shaken loyalty of his family, entered early into the service 
of Charles II. who after his restoration made him one of 
the grooms of his bed- chamber. In 166S, when attending 
his majesty to the university of Oxford, he had the degree 
of M. A. conferred upon him. In 1678, ,he was twice sent 
envoy to Holland, upon affairs of the greatest importance ; 
and die next year was made one of the commissioners of the 
treasury, which trust he discharged with^ integrity, and 
being cbnsidered as a man of great abilities, was sworn of 
the privy council. In 1680 he openly declared for th^ 
bill of exclusion of the duke of York ; and in the debate 

1 Ath. Ox^Yol. n.-^Ceo. Diet.— Coote'i CaUlogue of Civiliaiitf. 



G O X> O L P H I N. 49 

in eoonoil^ wb^tbisr tbe 4uke abpiiUL return to Scotlai^ 
before the parliwDent ael^ he jgin^d in th^ ^vice for. bis 
goingiaivny ; and though the re^t pf the council were of the 
iamtTBty ofrinioQ^ yet the king acquiesced in his ^nd lord 
Sundevland's 'reasons. In April 1664 be was i^ppointed 
oneof |;1» secretaries of state, which he soon res^gi^ed for 
ittm office of first commissianer of tbe treasury, and was 
xaKated baron Godolpbtn of Bialton.in Cornwall. H0 had 
hkhertaaat in the house of commons as representative fpr 
Helston and for 8t. Mawe*s. 

iOn the accession .of James II. be wm appoint lord 
chamberlain to the queen, and on tbe removal of the earl 
<tf Rochester, was again made one of the commissioners of 
the treasury. On the landing 9f tbe prince of Qrange, he 
iras one of the commissioners sent by king Jao^es to treat 
with that prince, which employment be discharged with 
great address and prudence. In tbe debate concerning the 
vacancy of tbe throne, after the abdication of king James, 
his lordship, out of a regard to tbe succession, voted for a 
regency; yet when king William was advanced to tbe 
throne, his majesty appointed him ione qf the lords com- 
missioiiers of >tfae treasury, aad a privy-councillor, and in 
16SK) he was appointed first lord of the treasury. In 1695, 
he was one of tbe seven lords justices for .the administration 
of the government, during the king's absence, as he was 
likewise the j^ear. folio wing, and again in 1701, when he 
•was restored to the place of first commissioner of tbe trea- 
aury^f com .which he had been removed in 16.1>7. On tbe 
iiceessi4Mi of Ijtteen Anne, he was constituted lord high 
tveasurer, jwhich post he had long refused to accept, tUt 
tbeieari of Maclborough pnessed him in so positive a man- 
ner, that hedfioianed, he eoqld not^go.to the continent to 
ceoNnaad.tiie aoaiiea, unless tbe treasury was put into his 
h«ids ; for xhcu be was sure that remittances would be 
punctually -made, to him. Under bis Jordsbip^s administra- 
tion of this high office, tbe public credit was raised, the 
war carriedon with success, and tbe nation satisfied with 
his prudent management. He omitted nothing that could 
engine the subject to bear tbe. burthen of tbe war wiUi 
eheiirfukiesa; and it was owing to hia advice, thf^t tim 
qaeen.coo^ihuted ope haodred thousand pounds out of 
htfc civil list towacdfl:i(. . He jvas aW oae of those faithful 
'and'abie connseUors, who advised her majesty to declare 
4d couiiciLagainst tbe sellkig of offices and places in hei^ 

V01.XVL E 



50 G O D O L P H I N. 

household and family, as highly dishonourable to herselfi 
prejudicial to her service, and a discouragement to virtue 
and true merit, which alone ought and should recommend 
persons to her royal approbation. And so true a frieod 
was his lordship to the established church, that considering 
how meanly great numbers of the clergy were provided 
for, he prevailed upon her majesty to settle her revenue 
of xht first-fruits and tenths for the augmentation of tlie 
small vicarages. In July 1704 he was made knight of the 
garter; and in Deceinber 1706, advanced to the dignity 
of earl of Oodolphin and viscount Rialton. But notwith- 
standing all his great services to the public, on the 8tb of 
August 1710, he was removed from his post of lord high 
treasurer. 

He died at St. Alban*s of the stone, on the 15th of Sep- 
tember 1712, and was interred in Westminster-abbey. Bj 
> his lady, Margaret^ daughter of Thomas Blague, esq. be 
bad is'due Francis, second earl of Godolpbin, on wnose 
death the title becanie extinct. 

Bishop Burnet says, ^ that be was the silentest and mo- 
destest man, whb was perhaps ever bred in a court. He 
bad a clear apprebensioR, and dispatched business with 
' great n[)ethod^ and with so much temper, that he had no 
'personal enemies. But his silence begot a jealousy, which 
•hung long upon him. His notions were for the court; 
but his incorrupt and sincere way of mouiaging the con- 
cerns of the treasury created in all people a very high 

* esteeda for him;. He had true principles of religion and 
virtue^ and never heaped iurp wealth* So that, all things 

' being laid together, he was one of the worthiest and wisest 
men, who was employed in that 4tge.'' In another place 
the same historian obftierves, ^ that he was a man of the 
clearest head, the calmest temper, and the most incorrupt 
of dl the ministers he hod ever known ; and that afjter hav- 
ing been thirty yeaiis in the treasury, and daring nine of 
those lord -treasurer, as he; was nevet* once inspected of 
corruption^ tpr of suffering his servants to grow rich under 
^im^ so in all that time his estate was not increased by hiin 

* tO'the* value of four thousand pounds.*' It is also said, ^hat 
'he had a penetrating contemplative- genius, a slow, but 
unerring apprehensioti^ and an exquisite judgment,; wkh 

'few words, though always to the purpose. : He was tern- 

'operate in his diet. His superior wisdom and spirit riaade 

kitn despis^^ the low arts of vain^glorit6us courtiers; for :be 



6 6 D O L P H t N. li 

fiever kept sailors unprofitably in suspense^ nor promised 
any thing, that he was not resolved to perform ; but as he 
accounted dissimulation the worst of lying, so on the other 
hand bis denials were softened by frankness and conde- 
scension to those whom he could not gratify. His great 
abilities and consummate experience qualified him for a 
prime minister ; and . his exact knowledge of all the 
branches of the revenue particularly fitted him for the 
management of the treasury. He was thrifty without the 
least tincture of avaricci being as good an ceconomist of 
the public wealth, as he was of his private fortune. He 
bad a clear conception of the whole government, both in 
church and state ; and perfectly knew the temper, genius, 
and disposition of the English nation. And though his 
stern gravity appearied a little ungracious, yet bis steady 
and impartial justice recommended him to the esteem of 
almost every person ; so that no man, in so many different 
public stations, and so great a variety of business, ever 
bad more friends, or fewer enemies. Dean Swift's charac- 
ter of him is not so favourable, and in our references may 
be found many other opposite oj^inions of his merit and 
abilities. He had a brother of some poetical talent, noticed 
by Mr. Ellis.* 

GODWIN (Mary), better known by the name of 
WooLLSTON£CRAFT, a lady of very extraordinary genius, 
but whose history and opinions are unhappily calculated to 
excite a mixture of admiration, pity, and scorn, was born 
in or near Loudon, April 27, 1759, of poor parents, who 
then resided at Epping, but afterwards removed to a farm 
near Beverley in Yorkshire, where this daughter frequented 
a day-*school in the neighbourhood. From this place her 
father again removed to Hoxton near London, and after- 
wards to Walworth. During all this time, and until Miss 
Woollstonecraft , arrived at her twenty-fourth year, there 
appears little that is interesting, or extraordinary in her 
history, unless it may be considered as such that she early 
affected an original way of thinking, acc6mpanied with 
correspondent actions, and entertained a high and romantic 
sense of friendship, which seems greatly to have prevailed 
over filial affection. In her twenty-fourth year, she formed 
the plan of Conducting a scbiool at Islington, in conjun^-> 

I Birch'f LiveLHrRapin's Koglan^t Contmuati.on.— Swift's Works; ite ht* 

.12 



52 G o D wan. 

tioa with her skters, whir.h iii the cpur^ of H ^few fdonthii 
she removed ^to Newington-^grreeii) where sbe^as hdnonfed 
by the friendship of Dr. Price. Of her opitiiotiB on reli- 
gious subjects at this tune, weh«ve the following singuhir 
account from her biographer : ^ Her religtoti was^ iHi 
reality, litUe allied to any system of forms, aiid'Wtfs rather 
founded in taste, than in the niceties of .poiemictd discus- 
sion. Her mind constitutionally attached itself to -the 
sublime and amiable. She found an inexpretoible delight 
in the beauties of nature, and in the splendid reveries of 
ihe imagination. But nature itself, she thought^ would be 
no better than a vast blank, if the mind of the observer 
did not supply it with an animating soul. When she 
Walked amidst the wonders of nature, she was accustomed 
to eonveirse with her God. To her mind be was pictured 
as not less amiable, generous, and kind, than great, wise, 
'and exaUed. In feet she had received few lessons of reli"« 
gion in her youth, and her religion wad almost entirely of 
her own creation. But she was not on that account the 
less attached to it, or the less scrupulous in discharging 
what she considered as its duties. She could itot recollect 
the time when she bad believed the doctrine o( future 
punishments,'^ &c. 

In 1785, a Mrs. Skeggs, with wbbm she had contracted 
an ardent friendship, and who resided at Lisbon, being 
pregnant. Miss \^oollstonecraft, shocked with the ideatbat 
she might die in childbed dt a distance froih her friends, 
passed over to Lisbon to attend her, leaving the schot^ 
under the management of her sisters ; an exeirtion of friends- 
ship the more entitled to prmse that it prored hurtful to 
her school, which soon after her return she was compelled 
to abandon. Perhaps, however, this was not wholly, ^a 
matter of compulsion, for we are told that *^ she had a 
rooted aversion to that sort of cbbabitation ^ith her sisters, 
which the project of thet school impoised." She now ap- 
pears to have meditated literary employment as a source of 
profit, and exhibited a specimen of her talems in a l2mo 
pamphlet, entitled ^^ Thoughts on the Education of 0augh«- 
ters," for the cdpy-right of which she obtained the sum of 
ten guineas from the late Mr. Johnson, booksellery of St* 
Paors church-yard, who afterwards proved one of her most 
liberal patrons. After this she was employed for somo; 
months, as a govenieeis, in the family of an Irish noble- 
nan, at the end of which she returned again to literary 



GODWIN, ^ 

pofBiisti^ and fitom 1787^ wheti she cayni^ tQ. reside in Lou- 
doo, pfodiioed << Mary^ a Fktiqthy^ <^ Origind Stories 
from real Kfe," made sQUie tranalatioof ftom the Fren<;by 
and compiled <^ The Female Reader/' oo the model of 
Dr. Enfidd's ** SpeaJ^er/* She wrote aUo some article*, 
in the '^ Analytieal Review^'* which was established by h&e 
puUiaber) in 178& 

In the Frenoh revidlation which took place, in the follow- 
ing year, and which let loose all l(inds of principles and 
opinions eascept what had stood the test of experience, 
M»8 Woollstonecraft found much that ws;$ congenial with 
her own ways of thinkings and much which it will appear 
soon she determined to introduce in her conduct She 
W.as therefore among the first who attempted to answer Mr.^ 
Borke's celebrated/' Reflections on the Frepch Revolution,'' 
and displayed a share, of ability which made her reputation 
more general than it had yet been. This was followed by 
her '^ Viisdication of the Rights of Woman," in whi^b she 
unfolded many a wild tbecnry on the duties and character of 
her sex. How well she was qualified to guide them ap- 
peared now in the practical use of her own precepts, of 
which the first specimen was the formation of a violent at- 
tachment for a veiy eminent artist, which is thus embel- 
lished by her biographer : '' She saw Mr. Fuseli frequency; 
he amused, delighted, and instructed her. As a painter,, 
it was imposBible she should not wish to see bis works, and 
consequently to frequent his house. She visited him ; her 
visits were returned. Notwithstanding the inequality of 
their years, Mary was not of a temper to live upon term^ 
of so much intimacy with a man of merit and genius, with- 
out loving khfL The delight she eojoyed in his society, 
she transferred by association to his persim. What she ex- 
perienced in this respect^ was> no doubt heightened, by the 
slate of celibacy and reslraini in which she had hitherto 
Kved, and to which the rules of polished society condetim 
an onmarriedi woman. She conceived. a personal and ar-r 
dent affection for him^ Mr. Fuseli was a married man, and 
his wife the acquaintance of Mary. She readily perceived 
the restrictions which this circumstance seemed to impose 
upon her, bnt she made light of any diificulty that might 
arise out of them;" Notwithstanding this contempt for 
difficulties, Mr. Fuseli was not to be won, and in order to 
get rid of a passion which he would not indulge, she went 
9ver to France in 1792. Here within a few months she 



fi4 GODWIN. 

found a cure in that " species of connection," says her 
fiiographer, ^^ for which her heart secretly panted, and 
which had the effect of diffusing an immediate tranquillity 
and cheerfulness over her manners." This was an illicit 
connection with a Mr. Imlay, an American; and we are 
gravely told, thfit ^' she was now arrived at the situation^ 
which, for two or three preceding years, her reaso7ihsA 
pointed out to her as affording the most substantial pro- 
spect of happiness." Her reason, however, unfortunately 
pointed wrong in this instance, as she was afterwards most 
basely and cruelly abandoned by the object of her affec* 
tions, whose conduct cannot be mentioned in terms of in- 
dignation too strong. She now made two attempts at sui- 
cide, on which we shall only remark that they were totally 
inconsistent with the character given of heir by her biogra- 
pher,'as possessing "a firmness of mind, an unconquerable 
greatness of soul, by which, after a short internal struggle^ 
she was accustomed to rise above difficulties and suffering.^'. 
Having overcdme two ardent passions, she formed a 
thirdy of which her biographpr, Mr. William Godwin, was 
the object. A period only of six months intervened in 
this case ; but, says Mr. Godwin, with a curious felicity of 
calculation, although ^^ it was only six months since she 
had resolutely banished every thought of Mr. Iralay (the 
former lover), it was at least eighteen that he oM^Af to have 
been banished, and would have been banished, had it not 
been for her scrupulous pertinacity in determining to leave 
no measure untried to regain him.** This connection, 
likewise, was begun without the nuptial ceremonies ; but, 
after some months, the marriage took place ; the principal 
reason was that she was pregnant, and ^< unwilling to in- 
cur that seclusion from the society of many valuable and 
excellent individuals, which custom awards in cases of this 
sort.*' But it did not produce the desired effect. Some 
who visited her, or were visited by her, and who regarded 
her as the injured object of Mr. Imlay's indifference, were 
not pleased to bestow their countenance on one who was 
^o eager to run into the arms of another man, and alike 
info^rmally. Mr. Godwin takes this opportunity of cen- 
suring the prudery of these nice people in terms of severity 
—with what justice our readers may determine. The hap- 
piness of this connection, however, was transient. In Au- 
gust 1797, she was delivered of a daughter, and died Sept. 
iO, of the same year. From the account given of her, by 



GODWIN. 55, 

lier biographer, in which we must condemn the laboured, 
vindication of principles inconsistent with the delicacy of 
the fem^e sez, and the welfare of society, Mrs. Godwin 
appears to have been a woman of strong intellect, which 
might have elevated her to the highest rank of English fe- 
male writers, had not her genius run wild for want of cul- 
tivation. Her passions were consequently ungovernable, 
and she accustomed herself to yield to them without scru- 
ple, treating female honour and delicacy as vulgar preju- 
dices. She was therefore a voluptuary and sensualist, 
without that refinement for which she seemed tp contend 
on other subjects. Her history indeed forms entirely. a 
warning, and in, no part an example. Singular she was, it 
must be allowed, for it is not easily to be conceived that 
such another heroine will ever appear, unless in a novel, 
where a latitude is given to that extravagance of character 
which she attempted to bring into real life. 

Besides the works already noticed, she published ^^ A 
moral and historical view of the French Revolution," of 
which one volume only was published, and ^' Letters from 
Norway.^' The latter contains nxuch elegant description 
and just rem^.rk. The former could be noticed only at the 
time of its publication. The gay illusions of the French 
Cieyolution soon disappeared. After her death some mis- 
cellanies, letters, and an unfinished novel, were published' 
by her husband, in 4 vols,. 12mo, with a Life of the au- 
thoress. Much of both had better been suppressed, as ill 
calculated to excite sympathy for one who seems to have 
rioted in sentiments alike repugnant to religion, sejise, and 
decency.* 

GODWIN ^Thomas), an English prelate, was born in 
1517 at Oakingham in Berkshire; and being put to the 
gramnuir-school there, quickly made such a progress as 
discovered him to be endowed with excellent parts. But 
his parents being low in circumstances, he must have lost 
the advantage of improving them by a suitable education, 
had they not been noticed by Dr. Richard Lay ton, arch- 
deacon of Bucks, a zealous promoter of the reformation, 
who, taking him into his house, and instructing him in 
classical learning, sent him to Oxford, where he was en- 
.tered of Magdalen college about 1538. Not long after, 
be lost his worthy patron ; but his merit, now become con- 

^ lL\f% 9S abOTe.---]Vlonthly and Critical K^viewis. — British Critic for 1*798. 



$6 O O D W 1 N, 

spiciious in the tniversity, Ikkd procured him other friends ; 
so that he was enabled to take the degree of fr. A. Jtily \^^ 
1543. The same merit released his friends from any far* 
ther expence, by obtaining him, the year ensuing, a fellow- 
ship of bis college ; and he proceeded Mk A. in r547. But 
be did not long enjoy the fruits of his merit in a college 
life ; his patron, the archdeacon, had taken csire to breed 
up Godwin in the principles of the reformation^ and tins 
irritating some popish members of the college^ they made 
his situation so uneasy, that, the free-school at Brackley in 
Northamptonshire becoming vacant in 1549, and being in 
trhe gift of the college, he resigned his fellowship, and ac- 
cepted it. In this station, he married the daughter of 
Nicholas Purefoy, of Shalston, in the county of Bucks, and 
lived without any new disturbance as long as Edward VI. 
was at the helm : but, upon the accession of Mary, bis re- 
ligion exposed him to a fresh persecution, and he was ob- 
liged to quit his s<:bool. In this exigence, although the 
church was his original intention, and he had read muchr 
with that view, yet now it became i^ore safe to apply to 
the study of physic; and being admitted to his bacbelor^s 
degree in that faculty, at Oxford, July 1555, be practised 
in it for a support till EHzabeth succeeded to the throne, 
when he resolved to enter into the church. In this he was 
encouraged by Bullingham, bishop of Lincoln, who gave 
)iim orders, and made him his chaplain; his lordship also 
introduced hini to the queeuy and obtained him the ft^vour 
6f preaching before her majesty ; who was so much pleased 
with the propriety of his manner, and the grave turn of 
hi^ oratory, that she appointed him one of her Lent- 
preachers. }le h^d discharged this duty by an annual ap- 
pointqoent, with much satisfaction to her majesty, for a 
series of eighteen year£^. In 1565, on the depriyation of 
Sampson, be was made dean of Christ church, Oxford, 
and had also the prebend of Milton-ecclesia in the church 
of Lincoln conferred on him by his patron bishop Bulling- 
ham. This year also he took his degrees of B. and D. D. 
at Oxford. In 1566, he was promoted to the deanery of 
Canterbury, being the second dean of that church : and 
queen Elizabeth making a visit to Oxford the same year, 
be attended her majesty, and among others kept an exer- 
t^ise in divinity against Dr. Lawrence Humphries, the pro- 
fessor ; in which the famous Dr. Jewel, bishop of Salis- 
l^ury, was moderator. 



6 O B W I ^ II 

In June (olbofmag he was appcnnteati by arefaiii8bop> Piar<* 
ker, oiie of his commissioners to visit the diocese of Nor« 
wtch ; and that primate having established a benefaotioa 
for a sermon on- Rogation Sunday ait Tfaetford in Norfolk 
and other places^, the dean, white engaged in this commi»^ 
sion, preached the first sermon of that foundation, on^ Sun* 
day Booming J^ily 20, 1567, in the Geeen*-yard adjoin^^ 
to the bishop'^ palace at Nopwick In 157$ he quitted his 
pn^nd of Miiton-ecclesia, oif being presented by Coopeiv 
then bishop of Lincohi^ to tfadt of Leigbton^Bosand, . the 
endowment of which is^ considered the b^t in the church of 
Lincoln. In 1576 he was one of the ecclesiasticab c6m«« 
missioners, empowered by the queen- to take cognizknics 
of aH olienced against the peace and good ordof of the 
dhnreb, and- to fmme such statutes as miglit conduce toata 
pposperijty. 

The see of Balfa and Wells had in 1584 been vaicaht 
since the death of Dr. Gilbert Berkley in Nov. 1 53 1. To 
this bishopric the queen now nominated^ dean Godwin, who 
aeGo^di^g'^y.was cotisecrated Sept. 13, 13841, |le immo'* 
diately resigned the deanery of Canterbary ; and as he ar-*^ 
rited at the epfsoopal dignity ^as well qualified,^' says his 
conten^porary^sif John Harrington, ^^for a bishop a^ might 
be, unreproveabie, withmu simony, gin^n tO' good hospi* 
tality, quiet, kind, and afiabte,** it is to be lamented that 
be was unjustly opposed in the enjoyment of what he de* 
served. At the time of bfs promotion tbiere .prevailed 
smong the Qoortrets no small dislike to the bishops; 
prompted by a desire to spoil them of their revenues. To 
eover tbeir unjust proceedings, they did not want plausi-* 
ble pretences, the eflP^tets of which Godwin too severely 
experienced. He was a widower, drawing towards se-* 
veiity, and much enfeebled by the gout, when he came 
to the see ; but in order to the management of his family, 
aud that be might devot^ his whole time to the discharge 
of his high office, he married a second wife, a widow, of 
years suitable to his own. An illiberal misrepresentation^ 
however, of this sdfFair was but too readily believed by the 
queen, who had a rooted aversion to the marriages of tlie 
clergy, and the crafty slanderers gratified their aim in the 
disgrace of the aged prelate, and in obtaining paft of bis 
property^. This unfortunate aifair,^ which affected his 

* A part of their slanders was that girl of tweaty. The earl of Bedford 
the old bishop had married a young happened to be at court when thii 



*S GO D W I N. 

public obaimcter as well as his private happiness, coniri* 
buted not a little to increase his infirmities. He continued^ 
however, attentive to the duties of bis function, and fre* 
^uently. gave proof that neither his diligence nor his obr 
^rvation were inconsiderable. During the two last years 
of bis life, his health more rapidly declined, and he was 
also attacked with a quartan ague. He was now recom-i 
mended by his physicians to try the benefit of his native 
Hir; Accordingly he came to Oakingham with this inten* 
tion, but breathed his last there, Nov. 19, 1590. He was> 
buried in the chancel of Oakingham church, where is a. 
adodest inscription to his memory, written by his son, the 
subject of the next article. 

The memory of bishop Godwin will ever be respected.. 
His own merit brought him into public notice, and when 
he rose in the church he adorned it by his amiable qualities. 
Though he was a distinguished scholar, yet he did not 
publish any of his labours. Among the Parker MSS. in 
Bene't ^college, Cambridge, is a sermon which he preached 
before the queen at Greenwich in 1566, concerning the 
authority of the councils and fathers. ^ 

GODWIN (Francis), son of the preceding, was born at 
Havington in Northamptonshire, 1561; and, after a good 
foundation of grammar-learning, wa9 sent to Christ Church 
college, Oxford, where he was elected a student in 1678, 
while his father was dean. He proceeded B. A. in 1580, 
and M. A. in 1583 ; about which time he wrote an enter* 
taining piece upon a philosophical subject, where ima- 
gination, judgment, and knowledge, keep an equal 
pace ; but this, as it contradicted certain received notions 
of bis times, be never published. It c^ame out about five 
years after bis death, under the title of ^^ The Man in the 
Moon ; or, a discourse of a voyage thither ;*' by Domingo 
Gonsales, 1638, 8vo. It has been several times printed, 
and shews that he had a creative genius. Domingo Gon- 
sales, a little Spaniard, is supposed to be shipwrecked on 
an uninhabited island, where he taught seversd ganzas, or 
wild geese, to fly with a light machine, and to fetch and 
carry things ''for his conveniency. He, ajfter some time^ 

Ktory was told, and said to the queen, woman is above twenty, but I know a 
'* Madam, I know not how much the son of hers is but little under forty." 

1 Oodwin de Prssulibus. — Ath. Ox. vol. I. — Biog. Brit — ^Todd's Deans of 
Canterbury.«-Strype*s Life of Parker, p. SBi, f 44, and of Wbitgift, p. 315.*^ 
Harrington's Brief Vjem— Faller's Worthies. 



G O D W I Nt n» 

Yentared to put himself into the machine^ and they carried, 
liim with great ease. He happened to be in this aisrial 
chariot at the time of the year when these ganzas, which 
were birds of passage, took their flight to the moon, and waa 
directly carried to that planet. He has giyen a very inge-^ 
nious description of what occurred to him on his way, and 
the wonderf u 1 things which he saw there. Dr. Swift seem^ 
to have borrowed several hints from this novel, in his Yoy*^ 
age to.Laputa; but it is more to Dr. Gk)dwin?s praise that 
he appears to have been well acquainted with the Coper* 
mean system. He suppressed areo another of. bis inven* 
tions at that time, which he called '^ Nuncius inanimatus,^^ 
or the '' Inanimate Messenger.'^ The design was to com*> 
municate various methods of conveyii^ intelligence se* 
cretly, speedily, and safely ; but although he asserts that 
by an agreement settled between two parties, a message 
may be conveyed from the one to the other, at the distance 
of many miles, with an incredible swiftness, yet he does 
not reveal the secret. It appears, however, to have given 
rise . to bishop Wilkins^s >* Mercury, or secret and. swift 
Messenger.'^ It is said that he afterwards comniunicated 
the secret to his majesty, but why it was not acted upon is 
not mentioned by his biographers. The pamphlet was 
published in 1629, and afterwards, in 1657, was translated 
by the learned Dr. Thomas Smith, and published witi^ 
^^ The Man in the Moon.** 

He had probably been sometime master of arts, when he 
entered into orders, and became in a short time rector of 
Samford Orcais, in Somersetshire, a prebendary in . the 
church of Wilts, canon residentiary there, and vicar of 
Weston in Zoylaad, in the same county ; he was also coU 
lated to the sub-deanery of Exeter, in 1587. In the mean 
time, turning bis studies to the subject of the antiquities of 
his own country, he becan^e acquainted with Camden; 
and accompanied him in bis travels to Walos, in 1590, in 
the search of curiosities. He took great delight in these 
inquiries, in which he spent his leisure hours for several 
years; but at length he con6ned himself to ecclesiastical 
antiquities and liistory. After some time, finding, with 
regard to these, that he could add little or nothing to Fox*8 
work on that subject, he restrained his inquiries to persons; 
and here he spared no pains, so that he bad enough to 
make a considerable volume in 1594. 

He became B. D. in 1593, and D. D. in 1595; in whick 



#0 aoBwrMi 

if^i fetigtoingtl^a ifiem%% of Weiton» he wm a^poiofead 
aeclbr of Btsb6p7s Liddiard^ id the same coui^. He 
aItU coptiooed aMtduoua in pursuing eeelesiasticai bio«« 
gsi^y ; and^ hiudog made an handsoine additimi to bii 
foroier eqUeotiona, pubHshed the whole in 1601, 4tci, 
toder tbe title^ <' A Catalogiie of the Bisbi^s of Eng*- 
laod^ sifioe the firat plantiiig of the Ghristiaa reUgioo ii» 
thia isbu!^'; together wiA a brief hiatory df their Kycs and 
aomnorabl^ action^ so near as can be gat;bered of ai^ 

£dty/* It apipeta^ by ti^ dedica^o'n to lovd Buckfaaral^ 
at our author was at this tme chaplain to this nobleooab^ 
#hOy being in hi|^ credit with queen EUzahetfa, imme- 
diateiy procured hi'm^ the bisrhopvio of Llaiuiaff. This waa 
said to be a royal reward for his^ Catdogue^ and thia suc^ 
cess of it encouraged him to proceed. The dengii vi^s so 
aradi iqpprored; that aftervwarda hef6und a patron in Jamei 
Ik ;^ aad sir John HarrifKgtoni a favourite of prince Ytevtry^ 
mote a treatise by way of supplement to i^ for thaa 
pdnce's use. This was. drawn purely for that purpose^ 
wiithotit any intentioo to publish it ; but it appeared after^ 
wards with the title of ^^ AbrieE view of the state of the 
Church of Englandl*' It is carried on only to the yea^ 
1608 (4)vben it was written) from the close of our autbor^s 
^orkis. Our author therefbre devoted all the time he could 
spare from the dudes of his function towards completing 
and perfecting this Catalogue ; and ptibli^ed another edi«i 
tion in 161 5, with great additions and aiteratfiDhs. But/ 
this being very erroneously printed, by reason of his dia* 
tance from tbe press, he resolved to turn that misfortane 
into an advantage ; and accordingly sent itabrosudtheyear 
after, in a new elegant Latin dress ; partly for the use of 
foreigners, but more perhaps to please the king^ to whom 
k was dedicated, and who in return gave him the bishop* 
ric of Hereford) to which he was translated rn 1617. His 
work has since been reprinted, with a continuation to the 
time of publication, 1743, by Dr. Richardson, in an ele* 
gant folio volume, with a fine portrait of Godwin, and 
other embelliabments. 

In 1616 he published in Latin, ^' Rerum Anglioarum 
Henrico VIIL &c." which was translated and puUcshed by 
' bis son, Morgan Godwin, under the title of ^- Annales of 
England, containing tbe reigns of Henry VIIL Edward VL 
and queen Mary," fol. These, as well as his lives of the 
bishops, are written in elegant Latin, and with much im* 



GODWIN. n 

jMUrliidi^. lo I6S0» he published a smatt tmlwe, ^M- 
titled '^ A compotation of ike mdlie of Ae itOmaii Setteree 
Md Akl^.T^au^' After ibis be fell into a low and laii^ 
gnidiiDg dUordef, and died in April 1633. He znnlmedy 
urben a young iMUiy ^ diuighter of WoHtod, bidiopof 
fizeter, by iiMboin be 'bad^nyany obHdfen. He appeaw to 
bave been a man of gnealrleamiag and penoaal Ms^h, and 
a aealons obampion for tbe dinrdb of England. His son, 
fir. Morgan Goamn, was arcbdeacon of SiMHopriiiirey and 
Uanslated, as we bare noticed. If is fadier^s ^ Anoales/' 
He was gected by tlie parliamentary comniissioners, and 
his family reduced to distress: be died in 1645, leaving 
a son of his own names, wbo was edoeated at Oxford, and 
afterwards became a minister in Virginia, under ^the go- 
Temment of sir William Berkeley, but was at last beneficed 
near London. When be died is not mentioned. He wtote 
some pamphlets, while in Virginia, on the state of reli- 
gion there, and die education of the negroes. The late 
vev. ObaclcB Godwin, an antiquary, and benefiictortofialiol 
college, Oxford, who died in 1 77*0, appears to have been 
a soft of Charles Godwin, of Monmouth, another son of 
bbhop Francis Godwin. * 

GODWIN (Dr. Thomas), a learned English writer, and 
te excellent schoolmaster, was bom in Somersetshire, in 
1587 ; and, after a suitable edacation in grammar- learn* 
ing, was sent to Oxford. He was entered of Magdalen- 
*batl in 1602 ; and took tbe two degrees -in arts 1606 and 
1609. This last yeair he removed to Abingdon in Berk- 
.^re, baling obtained the place gf chief master of the free- 
school there ; and in this employ distinguished himself by 
his industry and abilities so .much, that he brought the 
school into a very flourishing condition ; and bred up many 
youths who proved ornaments to . their country, both in 
church and state. To attain this oonunencfaible end he 
wrote his << Roman® Historiee Anthologia,'' an English 
exposition of the Roman antiquities, &c« and printed it at 
Oxiord in 1613, 4to. The second edition was published 
in 1623, with considerable additions. He also printed for 
the use of his school, a ^ Florilegium Phrasicon, or a sur- 
vey of the Latin Tongue.'' However, his inclinations 
leading him to divinity, he entered into orders, and be<- 
oajne chaplain to Montague bishops of Bath and Welfe^ 

1 Geo, l>iet**»Bios.^Brit.— Harrington'i Brief Vi«w.*->Atii. Oir. vol. I. 



M GODWIN- 

> He proceeded B. D.. in 1616, in which year he puiblisbed 

' at Oxford, '< Synopsis Antiquitatum Hebraicaruin; &c." d 
collection of Hebrew antiquities, iii thr'^e books, 4to. This 

. lie dedicated to his patron;, and, obtaining sotne time af- 
ter from him the rectory of Brightweil in Berkshire, he 

• resigned his school^ the fatigue of which had long been too 
great for him. Amidst his parochial diities, he prosecuted 
the subject of the Jewish antiquities ; and, in 1625, priated 
in 4to, *^ Moses and Aaron^ &c.*' which was long-esteemed 

\]|B usefiil book for explaining the civil and ecclesiastical 
rites of the Hebrews. He took his degree of D. D. in 1637, 
but did not enjoy that honour many years ; dying upon his 
parsonage in 1642-3, and leaving a wife, whom be had 
married while he taught school at Abingdon. 

Besides the pieces already mentioned, h.e published 
^* Three Arguments to prove Election upon Foresight by 
f^dth ;^' which coming into tbe hands of Dr. William 
Twisse, of Newbury in Berkshire, occasioned a contro- 
rersy between them, in which our author is said not to bave^ 
appeared to advantage. ^ 

GOERE'E (William), an eminent and learned book- 
seller, was born Dec. 11, 1635, at Middleburg. Losing 
his father early in life, he was so unfortunate as to have a 
harsh father-in-law, who, being no scholar himself, would 
not permit the young man to devote his time to study, but 
forced him to choose some business. Goer^e fixed on that 
of a bookseller, as one which would not wholly ekclud^ 
him from the conversation of the learned, nor from the 
pursuit of bis studies ; and he accordingly found tim^ 
enough, notwithstanding his necessary occupations, to cul- 
tivate his genius, and even to write several valuable books^ 
in Flemish, on architecture, sculpture, painting, engrav- 
ing, botany, physic, and antiquities. He died May 3, 
171), at Amsterdam. His principal works are, ^^ Jewish 
Antiquities,*' 2 vols.fol.; *^ History of the Jewish Church, 
taken from the Writings of Moses," 4 vols. fol. ; " Sacred 
and Propbane History,'* 4to ; ^^ Introduction to the prac- 
tice of universal Painting," 8vo ; ** Of the Knowledge of 
Man with respect to his Nature, and Painting," 8vo; 
•• Universal Architecture," &c.* 

GO£TZ£ (George^ Henry), a learned and zealous 
I^utberan, was bom at Leipsic in 1668, studied at Wit* 

< A<b. Ox. to). lI.^OeD. Diet. « M orerL—Dict. Hilt. 



G O E T Z E. «5 

' iemberg suid Jeoa^ and exercised his fiinctioDs as a minis* 
ter in various parts of Germany. He was the author of 
many very singular works in Latin and German, of which 
Moreri gives a list of 152, but the greater part of these aro 
dissertations; or theses, on various subjects of divinity, sa* 
cred criticism, and ecclesiastical history. He was lastly 
superintendant of the churches at Lubec, and died in that 
city, March 25, 1729. The most distinguished among his 
Latin works are^ ^ Selecta ex Historia Litteraria," Lu- 
becsB, 1709, 4to ; ^' Meletemata Annebergensia,*' Lubecse, 
1709, 3 vols. 12mo, containing several dissertations, which 
have appeared separately. ^ 

QOEZ (Damian De), a Portuguese writer of the six- 
teenth century, was born at Alanquar near Lisbon, of a 
noble family, in 1501, and brought up as a domestic in 
the court of king Emanuel, where he was considered both 
as a rnaii of letters and of business. Having a strong pas- 
sion for travelling, he contrived to get a public commission; 
and travelled through almost all the countries of Europe, 
contracting' as He went an acquaintance with all the learn* 
ed. At Dantzic he became intimate with the brothers 
John and Oiaus Magnus; and he spent five months at Fri- 
burg with Erasmus. He afterwards went to Padua, in 
1534, where he resided four years, studying under Laza- 
rus Bonamicus ; nut, however, without making frequent 
excursions ii^td different parts of Italy. Here; he obtained 
(be esteem of Peter, afterwards cardinal Bembus, of Chris- 
topher Madruciuts, cardini^l of Trent, and of James Sado- 
Jet. On hid return to Louvain in 1538, he had recourse 
to Conrad Goclenius and Peter Nannius, whose instruc- 
tions were of great use to him, and applied himself to 

'music and poetry; in the former of which he made so 
happy a progress, that he 'was qualified to compose for the 
f;hurches. He married at Louvain, and his design was to 
settle in this city, in order to enjoy a little repose after 
fourteen years travelling ; but a war breaking out between 
Charles V. and Hent'y II.' of France, Louvain was besieged 
in 1542, and Goez, who has written the history of this 
liege, put himself at the head of the soldiers, and contri- 
buted much to the diefence of the town against the French, 
when the other officers had abandoned it. When he was 
old, Jphn XIL of Portugal, recalled him into his country, 

1 Moreri— Niceron, toL XX1II» 



J4 fy^O E Z. 

in Older i;o «rnte |the*hMt!i>ry pf it:; buM> it l^jecme fiiiit 
tieeeisairy 4»o lunvkDge the Ai^i^esof the kM^dpi^^ ^hnah 
be found mtbe gmalee^ oonfpsiqny be had little leis^^ io 
ftooomidisb bi« work. The faypuvs al^o which tt^eking 
bestowed tipon him created him 00 fnucb envy, that his 
tiaaquillity was ai an end, aud he <(ame to be i^ccoaed ; 
aodf though he cleared himself from all iipputatiaos, was 
conBued to the town of Lisbon. Here, it is said that he 
was one day found dead in hi9 own house ; and in such a 
, manner as to make^i^ doubted whether he was strangled by 
his enemies, or died of an apoplexy ; but other accounts 
inform us, with more probability, that he fell into the fire 
in a fit, and was dead before the accident was discovered. 
Tliis happened in 15^0, and he was interred in tbecburoh 
of Notre Dame, at Alanquar. He wrote ^^ Fides, Religio, 
Moresque ^thiopum;'' *^ De Imperio et Rebus Lusita* 
norum ;'' ^^Hiapania;'* ^^Urbis PUssiponensisDescriptio;** 
^< Chronica do Rey Dom Emanuel ;"' <* Historia do Prin- 
CHpe Dom Juab-/' and other works, which have been often 
priiited, and are much esteemed. Antonio says, that, 
though be is an exact writer, yet he has not written the 
Portuguese language in its purity; which, howeirer, is opt 
to be wondered at, considering bow much time he spent » 
out of his own country. ' 

COFF (Thomas), a divine and dramatic writer, was 
born in £ssex, about 1592, and was educated at West- 
minster-sehoel, frgm which, at the age of eighteen, h^ 
entered as a student of Christ Church college) Oxford. 
Here be completed his studies, and, by dint of i^)plica- 
lion and industry, became a veiy ai^le scholar* pbtaioed 
the character of a good poet> and,- being endpw^d wiih 
the powers of oratoiy, was, after his taking orders, esteeoHKl 
ao e^eelleat pceaeher. He had the degree of B. D. con- 
ferred on him before he quitted the university, and, in 
1623, was preiierred to the living of East Clandpn, in 
Surrey. Here, notwithstanding that he had long been a 
professed enemy to tfa^ female sex, and even by some 
esteemed a wpman-bate^ ^e unfortunately tied himself to 
a wife, the widow of his predecessor, who was a Xantippe, 
and he being naturally - of a mild disposition, became at 
last unable to cope with so turbulent a. spirit, backed as 

1 Antonio Bibl. iIisp,«i«>01eoiMit Bibl. CantnSC^-^baufepie.—NicereBj rol. 
%XVL 



G O F F. «l 

Ae wvs by the cUidrta Ae had by ter former husband. It 
was bdieved by many, that the uneasiness be met with in 
dooiestic life shortened bis days. He died in July 1629/ 
being then only thirty •ftre years of age, and was buried on 
the 27th of the same month at bis own parish church. He 
wrote several pieces on different subjects, among which 
are. five tragedies ; none of which were published till some 
yeairs after his death. Philips and Winstanley have as<* 
oribed a comedy to this author, called ** Cupid's Whirli^ 
gig ;'* but with no appearance of probability ; since the 
gravi^ of his temper was such, that he does not seem to 
have been capable of a performance so ludicrous. In the 
latter part of his life he forsook the stage for the pulpit^ 
and wrote sermons, some of which appeared the year he 
died. With the quaintness common to the sermoiis of 
James Ist's time, they have a portion of fancy and vivacrity 
peculiar to himself. To these works may be added, his 
^ Latin Oration at the Funeral of sir Henry Savile/' spo- 
ken and (printed at Oxford in 1622 ; another in Christ 
Church cathedral, at the funeral of Dr. Godwin, canon of 
that church, printed in London, 1627.^ - 

GOGUET (Antpny-Yves), an ingenious French writei^ 
was born at Paris in 1716, where bis father was an advo^ 
cate, and himself became a counsellor to the parliament. 
By close study, and by great assiduity in his pursuits, be 
produced in 175S a work that obtained a temporary repu-^ 
tation, and was translated into English, entitled ^'Origine 
des Loix, des Arts, des Sciences, et de leur Progres che2 
les' aneiens Peuples,'' 3^ols. 4to; reprinted in 1778, in 
six volumes 12mo. This work treats of the origin and pro«- 
gress of human knowledge, fi^om the creation to the age of 
Cyrus, but displays more genius than erudition, and is 
rather an agreeable than a profound work. He died of 
die small-pox. May 2, 1758, immediately after the public- 
cation of his work; leaving his MSS. and library to his 
friend, Alexander Conrad Fugere, who died only three^ 
days after him, in consequence of' being deeply affected 
by the death of Goguet, who was a man 4>f much personal 
wordi. Goguet had begun another work on the origiti 
«nd progress of the laws, arts, sciences, &c. in France, 
from the commencement of the monarchy, the l68s of 
which the admirers of his first production much regretted.' 

t Ath. Ox. ToL I—Biog. I>rain.--<Q«>t Mag. Tol. UCVIIL p. 518. • Diet Hirt. 

Vol. XVi. F 



Ǥ G O L D A g T. 

GOLDAST (Meixhior HaiminsfeLi:)), a labatioxtm 
writer in civil law and history, was born at Bischoffsel in 
Switzerland, ii^ 1576, and was a protestant of the coofe8« 
sion of Geneva. ' He studied the civil law at Akofff under 
Conrade Rittersbusiusy witb whom be boarded ; amd re«* 
tiKQfed in 1598 to BiscbofFsel, where for some time he had 
no other subsistence 43ut wba|; he acquired by writingp 
books, of which, at the time of publication he used, to send 
copies to the magistrates aud people of rank, from whom 
he received something more than the real value; and some 
of his friends imagined th^y did him service in promoting 
this miserable traffic. In 1599 he lived at St. Gal, in the 
bouse of a Mr. Schobinger, who declared himself his pa- 
tron ; but the same year he went to Geneva, and lived at 
the bouse of processor Lectius, with the sons of Vassan, 
wly)se preceptor he was. In 1602 he went to Lausanne^ 
from a notion that he could live cheaper there than at Gre,* 
neva. His patron Schobinger, while be advised him to 
this step^ cautioned him at the same time from such fre^ 
quent removals as made him suspected of an unsettled 
temper. But, notwithstanding Schobinger^s cattftion, he 
;returned soon after to Geneva j and, upon the recommen'- 
dation of Lectius, was appointed secretary to the duke of 
Bouillon, which place he quitted with his usual precipita* 
tion, and was at Francfort in 1603, and had a settlement 
at Forsteg in .1604. In 1605 he lived at Bischoffsel; where 
be complained of not being safe on the score of his reli- 
gion, which rendered him odious even to his relations. He 
was at Francfort in 1606, where he married, and continued 
till 1610, in very bad circumstances. Little more is known 
of his history, unless that he lost his wife in 1630, and 
died himself Aug. 11, 1635. He appears to have been 
a man of capricious temper, and some have attributed ta 
bim a want of integrity. The greatest part of the writingis 
published by Goldast are compilations arranged in form, or 
published from MSS. in libraries ; and by their number be 
may be pronounced a man of indefatigable labour. Conrin^ 
gius says he has deserved so well of his country by publishing 
the ancient monuments of Germany, that undoubtedly the 
Athenians would have maintained him in the Prytaneum, 
if he had lived in those times ; and adds, that he neither 
bad, nor perhaps ever will have, an equal in illustrating 
the affairs of Germanyi and the public law of the empire. 



G L D A S T. 6» 

The following are €he most considerable anlong his va- 
rious works : A collection of different tracts on civil and 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, entitled << Monarcbia Sancti Ro- 
mani Imperii/' &c. 161 1^ 1613, and 1614, 3 vols. fol. ; 
'^Alamaniae Scriptores," 1730, .5 vols, fol.; '^ Scriptores 
aliquot rerum Suevicarum,*' 1605, 4to; ^' Commeittarius 
de Bohemise regno,'' 4to ; *^ Informatio de statu Bobeoiin 
quoad jus," 4to ; ** Sybilla Francica,*' 4to ; which is a col- 
lection of pieces relating to the Maid of Orleans : ^^ Parae^ 
nettcorum veterum pars prima," 1604, 4to* A curious 
collection of letters was published in 1688, under the title 
<' Virorura clarissimorum ad Melchior Goldastum Epis- 
tolae," 4to, Francfort* 

GOLDING (Arthur), a man of some poetical turn, 
but principally known as a translator, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was a native of London. In 1563 we find him living 
with secretary Cecil at his house in the Strand, and iu 
1577 in the parish of AUhaliows, London Wall. Amongst 
his patrons, as we may collect Arom his dedications, were, 
sir Walter Mildmay, William lord Cobham, Henry earl of 
Huntingdon, lord Leicester, sir Christopher Hatton, lord 
Oxford, and Robert earl of Essex. He was connected 
with sir Pliilip Sydney, for he finished an English transla- 
tion of Philip AAomay's treatise in French, on the '^ Truth 
of Christianity," which had been begun by Sydney, and 
was published in 1587. His religious turn appears afso 
from his translating many of the works of the early refor- 
mers and protestant writers, particularly Calvin, Cbytraeus, 
Beza, Marlorat, Hemingius, &c. He also enlarged our 
treasures of antiquity, by publishing translations of Justin 
in 1564; and of CsBsar in 1565. Of this last, a translation 
as far as the middle of the fifth book by John Brend^ 
had been put into his hands, and he therefore began at 
that place, but afterwards, for uniformity^ re-translated the 
whole himself. He also published translations of Seneca's 
Benefits, in 1577; of the Geography of Pomponius Mela; 
the Polyhistory of Solinus, 1587, and of many modern 
Latin writers, which were then useful, and suited to the 
wants of the times. Warton thinks his only original work 
is a '< Discourse of the Earthquake that happened in Eng- 
land aud other places in 1580," 12mo ; and of his original 

poetry, nothing more appears than an encomiastic copy of 

-• . • , 

> Gen. Diet.— Moreyl-«»Niceroo, toI. XXIX*— Clement Bibh Cttricuse.<«M 
Sftiii Ononast. 

F 2 






6» G O L i) I N G. 

verses prefixed toBafet^s "Alvearie" in 1580. His chief 
poetical translation is of ** Ovid's Metamorphoses,'* the 
first four books of which he published in 1565, and the 
tvbde in 1567. Pape, who read much in old English 
translations, used to say " it was a pretty good one consi- 
tlering tfhe time when it was written." The style is cer- 
tdnly poetical and spirited, and his versification clear ; his " 
Ttiahn^r ornamental and diffuse ; yet with a sufficient ob- 
*servance of the original. He has obtained a niche in thfe 
** Bidgraphia th-amatica" for having translated a drama of 
Beza's, called " Abraham's Sacrifice," 1577, ISmo.* 

GOLI>MAN (Nicholas), a mathematician, was born 
at Breslaw, in Silesia, in 1623„ and died at Leyden ih 
166S. The woAs by which he is generally kftown a^e 
*«Elemerita Architecturae Militaris,''' 1643, 8vo; " De 
Uso Ptoportionarii Circuli ;" " De Stylometricis,'* I'eeS ; 
itnd'anothertreatise " On Architecture," published in 1696, 
T>y 'Christopher' Sturm, with numerous engravings, and the 
life of the author. He had also improved the description 
<rf Solomon's Temple by Villapatid'us, but this was never 
^published.* 

'GOLDONI (Charles), an eminent modern Italian dra- 
matist, was born at Venice in 1707. In his infancy the 
'drama was his darling amusemenj:, and all his time was 
devotied to -the perusing comic writers, among whom wa^ 
Cicogntni, a Florentine, little known in the dramatic com* 
monwealth. After having well studied these, he ventured 
to sketch but the plan of a comedy, even before he went 
'to school. When be had finished his grammatical studies 
at Venice, and his rhetorical studies at the Jesuits' college 
in Perugia, he was sent to a bbardihg-schoolat Rimini, to 
* study philosophy, but be paid far more attention to the 
theatres, entered into a familiar acquaintance with the 
actors, and when they werQ to remove to ChiOzza, made 
his escape in their company. This was the first fault he 
committed) which, according to his own confession, dreW 
a great many others after it. His father had intended him 
to be a physician, like himself: the young man, however, 
was wholly averse to the study. He proposed a;fterwards 
to malLe him an advocate, and sent him to be a practitioner 
in Modena ; but a horrid ceremony of ecclesiastical juris- 

* Warton's Hist, of Poetry.— Phillip»»» Theatrum, edit, by sir E. Brydges.«» 
^pence's An^edbtes, MS. * toorari. 



G O L D O N I. 6» 

dictioDy at which he was present^ mspiced him with a me* 
lancholy turq, and he determined to become a Capuchin, 
Of this, however, he was cured by a visit to Venice, where 
he indulged in all the fashionable dissipation of the place. 
He was afterwards prevailed upon by bis mother, after the 
death of \\\^ father, to exercise the profession of a lawyer 
in Veaice> but by a sudden reverse of fortune he was com- 
pelled to quit at once both the bar and Venice. He then 
went to Milan, >ybere he was employed by the resident of 
Venice in the capacity of secretary, and becoming ac- 
quainted with the manager of the theatre, he wrote a farce 
entitled ** II Gondoliere Veneziano," the Venetian Gon- 
dolier ; which was the first comic production of bis that 
was performed and printed. Some time after, Goidoni 
quitted the Venetian resident, and removed to Verona^ 
where he got introduced to the manager of the theatre, for 
which he composed several pieces. Having removed along 
with the players to Genoa, he was for the first time seized 
with an ardent passion for a lady, who. soon afterwards be- 
came his wife. He then returned with the company to 
VenicCi where he displayed, for the first time, the powera 
of his genius, and executed his plan of reforming the Ita- 
lian stage, He wrote the *^ Momolo,^' '^ Courtisan," the 
*^ Squanderer," and other pieces, which obtained upiver- 
sal admiration. Feeling a strong inclination to reside some 
time in Tuscany, he repaired to Florence and Pisa, wher^ 
he wrote "The Footman of two Masters," and "The Son of 
Harlequin lost and found again." He returned to Venice^ 
and set about executing more and more his favourite 
scheme of reforp. He was now attached to the theatre of 
S. Angelo, and employed himself in writing both for the 
company, and for his own purposes. The constant toils 
he underwent in these engagements impaired bis health* 
He wrote, in the course of twelve mouths, sixteen new 
comedies, besides forty >two pieces for the theatre ; among 
these many are considered as the best of bis productions. 
The first edition of his works was publishigfl in 1753, in 10 
vols. 8yo. As he wrote afterwards a great numher of new 
pieces JPor the theatre of S. Luca, a separate edition of these 
was publisjiieds undjer the title of " The New Comic 
Theatre :" among thepe was the " Terence,'* called by the 
author his^v^z^n/!^, and judged to be the master-piece of 
bis works. He made another journey to Parma, on the 
invitation of duke Philip, and frpm thence he passed to 



70 G O L D O N r. 

Rome. He bad composed 59 other pieces so late as 17^1, 
five of which were designed for the particular use of Mar- 
que Albergati Capacelli^ and consequently adapted to the 
theatre of a private company. Here ends the literary life 
of Goldoni in Italy, after which he accepted of an engage- 
ment of two years in Paris, where he found a select and 
numerous company of excellent performers in the Italian 
theatre. They were, however, chargeable with the same 
faults which he had corrected in Italy ; and the French 
supported, and even applauded in the Italians, what they 
would have reprobated on their own stage. Goldoni wished 
to extend, even to that country, his plan of reforma- 
tion, without considering the extreme difficulty of the un- 
dertaking. His first attempt was the pi^ce called ** The 
Father for Love ;*' and its bad success was a sufficient 
warning to him to desist from his undertaking. He con- 
tinued, during the remainder of his engagement, to pro- 
duce pieces agreeable to the general taste, and published 
twenty-four comedies ; among which ** The Love of Ze- 
linda and Lindor" is reputed the best The term of two 
years being expired, Goldoni was preparing to return to 
Italy, when a lady, reader to the dauphiness, mother to 
the late king, introduced him at court, in the capacity of 
Italian master to the princesses, aunts to the king. He 
did not live in the court, but resorted there, at each sum- 
inons, in a post-chaise, sent to him for the purpose. These 
journeys were the cause of a disorder in the eyes, which 
afflicted him the rest of his life ; for being accustomed to 
read while in the chaise, he lost his sight on a sudden, 
and in spite of the most potent remedies, could never af- 
terwards recover it entirely. For iibout six months lodg- 
ings were provided him in the chateau of Versailles. The 
death, however, of the dauphin, changed the face of af- 
fairs. Goldoni lost bis lodgings, and only, at the end of 
three years, received a bounty of 100 Louis in a golci box, 
and the grant of a pension of four thousand livres a year. 
This settlement would not have been sufficient for him, if 
he had not gained, by other means, farther sums. He 
wrote now and then comedies for the theatres of Italy %nd 
Portugal ; and^ during these occupations, was desirous to 
shew to the French that he merited a high rank among 
their dramatic writers. For this purpose, he neglected 
nothio|; which CQald be of u^e to render himself master of 



Q O L D O N I. »l 

^e French language. He beardj^ spolre, and conTersed 
so much in it, that, in his 6 2d year, he ventured to write a 
comedy in French, and to have it represented in the court 
theatre, on the occasion of the marriage of the king« This 
piece was the ^^Bourru Bienfaisant;^' and it met with so 
^reat success, that the author received a bounty of 150 
Louis from the king, another gratification from the per- 
formers, and considerable sums from the booksellers who 
published it. He published soon after, another comedy in 
French, called <* L^Avare Fastueux.'* After the death of 
Lewis XV. Goidt)ni was appointed Italian teacher to the 
princess Clotilde, and after her marriage, he attended the 
late unfortunate princess Elizabeth in the same capacity. 
His last work was the '^ Volponi," written after he bad re- 
tired from court. It was his misfortune to live to «ee 
his pension taken away by the revolution, and, like thou- 
sands 4n a similar situation, he was obliged to pass his old 
age in poverty and distress. He died in the beginning of 
1793. As a comic poet, Goldoniis reckoned among the 
best of the age in which he flourished. His works were 
printed at Leghorn in 1788—91, in 31 vols. 8vo. He baa 
been reckoned the Moliere of Italy, and he is styled by 
Voltaire " The Painter of Nature.'* Dr. Burney says that 
he is, perhaps, the only author of comic operas in Italy 
who has given them a little common sense, by a natural 
plot, and natural characters ; and his celebrated comic 
opera of the " Buona Figliuola,'* set by Picctni, and first 
performed in London Dec. 'dth, 1766, rendered both the 
poet and composer, whose names had scarcely penetrated 
into this country before, dear to every lover of the Itaiian 
language and music, in the nation.^ 

GOLDSMITH (Oliver), an eminent poet and miscel- 
laneous writer, was born on Nov. 29, 1728, at a place 
called Pallas, in the parish of Forney and county of Long«- 
ford in Ireland. His father, the rev. Charles Goldsmith^ 
a native of the county of Roscommon, was a clergyman of 
the established church, and had been educated at Dublin 
college. He afterwards held the living of Kilkenny W^at 
in^tbe county of Westmeath. By bi« wife, Anne, the 
daughter of the rev. Oliver Jones, master of the diocesaa 
ichool of Elphin, he had five sons, an4 two daughters* 

^ Sketch by Mr. Damiaoi. — Rees's Cyclop8edia.«*Life of Qoldont, trans* 
Uted by Mr. Black, publUhed in 18U> 2 tols. 8yo* 



W GOLDSMITH. 

His eldest son, Henry, went into the church) and b the 
gentleman to whom our poet dedicated his " TravellcnV 
Oliver w^. the second son, and is supposed to have faith«. 
fully represented his father in the character of the Village 
Preacher in the " Deserted Village,*' Oliver was origi- 
nally intended for some mercantile employment^ as bis 
father found his income too scanty for the expences of the 
literary education which he had bestowed on bis eldest son. 
With this view he was instructed in readingt writing, and 
arithmetic, at a common school, the master of which was a^ 
old soldier, of a romantic turn, who entertained his pupil 
with marvellous stories of his travels and feats, and is ^up<^ 
posed to have imparted somewhat of that wandering and 
unsettled turn which so much appeared in his pupil's fu-* 
ture life. It ig ^^ertain that Oliver had not been long at 
this humble school before be proved that he was ^^ no vuU 
gar boy." He made some attempts in poetry when he wai 
scarcely eight years old, and by the inequalities of hi« 
temper and conduct, betrayed a disposition more fayou|r« 
able to the Rights of genius than the regiularity of business* 
This after some time became so obvious, that his friendsj 
who had at first pleaded for his being seni; to the univer** 
aity, now determined to contribute towards the expeuce^ 
and by their assistance, he was placed at a school of repu- 
lation^ where he might be qualified to enter the college 
with the advantages of preparatory learning. 

in June 1744, when in his fifteenth year, he was sent 
to Dublin college,, and entered as a sijser, under the rev« 
Mr. Wilder, one of the fellows, but a man of harsh temper 
and violent passions, and consequently extremely uiifit to 
win the affections and guide the disposition of a youth 
aimpley ingenuous, thoughtless, and unguarded. His pupil, 
however, made some progress, although slow, in academic 
cal studies. In 1747, he was elected one of the exhibi-* 
tioners on the foundation of Erasmus Smyth ; and in 1749» 
^wo years after the regular time, he was admitted to the 
degree of bachelor of arts. His indolence and irregularis 
ties may in part account for this tardy advancement to the 
reputation of a sdiolar, but much may likewise be attri- 
buted to the unfeeling neglect of his tutor, who contended 
only for the preservation ^ certain rules qf discipline, whilo 
he gave himself little trouble with the cultivation of the 
mind. On one occasion he thought proper to chastise 
Oliver before apar^ of young friends of both sexes, wbomt 



GOLDSMITH. 7« 

wUb hia i^usj imprudence, be was entertainiog. with a 
99pp^ and dance in his rooms. Oliver immediately dis^ 
posed of bis books and cloaths, left college, and com« 
meoced a wanderer^ without any prospect^ without friends, 
a^d without money. At length, after suffering such eic- 
Iremity of hunger, that a, handful of gray peas which a girl 
gave him at a wake, appeared a Tuxurious meal, he con- 
trived to acquaint his brother with bis situation, who im- 
Qiediately clothed bim, and carried h^m back to college, 
(effecting at tbe same time a reconciliation between him 
and his tutor^ which, it may be supposed, was more convey 
oient than cordial on either side. 

Soon after this event, bis father died, and his friends 
wished bim to prepare for holy orders ; but to this he de« 
clared bis dislike ; and finding himself equally uncomfort- 
able as tutor in a private family, to which he had been re- 
isompiended, be again left the country with about thirty 
pounds in bis pocket. After an absence of six weeks, be 
reti^rned to his mother^s bouse, without a penny, having 
expended the whole in a series of whimsical adventures, of 
which the reader will find a very ei\tertaining account in 
the Life prefixed to his Works. His mother and friends 
l^iiig reconciled to him, bis uncle the rev. Thomas Con- 
tariae, resolved to send bim to the Temple to study law ; 
hsk^ in bi9 way to London, he met at Dublin with a sharper 
who tempted him to play, and stript him of fifty pounds, 
with which fa^ bad been furnished for his voyage and jour- 
ney. His youth must furnish the only apology that can be 
ipade for this insensibility to the kindness of bis friends, 
who could ill afford the money thus wantonly lost. Again, 
however, they received him into favour, and it being now 
decided that he should study physic, he was sent to Edin^ 
burgb, for that purpose, about 1752 or 1753, but still big 
itkougbtle^s and eccentric disposition betrayed him into 
many ludicrous situationik He formally, indeed, attended 
^e. lectures of the medical professors, but his studies were 
^either reguW nor profound. There was always some- 
itog he hk^ better than stated application. Among his 
£eUpw-9t9d«Qt4» he wished to recommend himself, and he 
was not unsucces^fvil, by his stories and songs, as a social 
i99mjfVoiQUf and a m^n of humour ; and this ambition to 
Aiw in compKny by such means, never wholly left him 
iffa^ hfe came to iassociale with men who sur^ not charmed 



74 GOLDSMITHf. 

After be had gone through the usual course of lectures^ 
his uncle, who appears' to have borne the principal ex* 
pences of bis education^ equipped him for the medical 
school of Leyden, at which, however, he did not arrive 
without meeting with some of those incidents which have 
given an air of romance to his history. At Leyden he stu« 
died chemistry and anatomy for about a year ; but a taste 
for gaming, which he appears to have caught very early, 
frequently plunged him into difficulties, without any of 
the benefits of experience. Even the money which he was 
Compelled to borrow, in order to enable him to leave Hol- 
land, was expended on some costly flowers which he bought 
of a Dutch florist, as a present to his uncle ; and when he 
iset out on his travels, he ^ had only one clean shirt, and 
no money in his pocket/* In such a plight any other man 
would have laid his account with starving ; but Goldsmith 
bad *^ 2L Icnack at hoping,*' and however miserably provided, 
determined to make the tour of Europe on foot. In what 
manner he performed this singular undertaking, he is sup- 
posed to have informed us in ^^ The History of a Philosophic 
Vagabond," in chap. xx. of the "Vicar of Wakefield.*' 
He had some knowledge of music, and charmed the pea« 
6ants so much as to procure a lodging and a subsistence. 
He also entered the foreign universities and convents, where^ 
upon certain days, theses are maintained against any ad* 
ventitious disputant, for which, if the champion opposes 
with some dexterity, he may claim a gratuity in money, a 
dinner, and a bed for the night. At one time, he is said 
to have accompanied a young Englishman as a tutor ; bat 
his biographer doubts whether this part of the Philosophic 
Vagabond's story was not a fiction. It is certain, however, 
that in the manner above related, and with some assistance 
from his uncle, he contrived to travel through Flanders, 
and part of France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. It 
wasr probably at Padua that he took a medical degree, as 
he remained here about six months, but one of his earliest 
biographers thinks he took the degree of bachelor of medi- 
cine at Louvaine. His generous uncle dying while he was 
in Italy, he was obliged to travel through France to Eng- 
land on foot, and landed at Dover in 1756. 

He arrived in London in the extremity of distress, aqd 
first tried to be admitted as an usher in a school or academy^ 
and having with some difficulty obtained that situation, he 
remained for some time in it, submitting to mortifications. 



GOLDSMITH. 75 

r' 

of ^hich he has given^ probably, an exaggerated account 
in the story of the philosophic vagabond. He tiext pro- 
cured a situation in the shop of a chemist, and while here» 
was found out by Dr. Sleigh, one of his fellow-students at 
Edinburgh, who liberally shared his purse with him, and 
encouraged him to commence practitioner. With this view, 
he settled^ if any measure of our poet deserves that epi- 
thety in Bankside, Southwark ; and afterwards removed to 
the Temple or its neighbourhood. In either place his 
success as a physician is not much known ; his own account 
was, that he had plenty of patients, but got no fees. 

About this time, however, he appears to have had recourse 
to his pen. His first attempt was a tragedy, which he 
probably never finished. In 175S he obtained, by means 
of Dr. Milner, a dissenting minister, who kept a school at 
Peckham, which our author superintende J during the doc- 
tor's illness, the appointment to be physician to one of our 
factories in India. In order to procure the necessary ex«* 
pences for the voyage, he issued proposals for printing by 
subscription *^ The present state of Polite Literature in 
Europe,** with what success we are not told, nor why he 
gave up his appointment in India. In the same year, how- 
ever, he wrote what he very properly calls a catch-penny 
^^ Life of Voltaire," and engaged with Mr. GrifEtbs as a 
critic in the Monthly Review. The terms of this engage- 
ment were his board, lodging, and a handsome salary, all 
secured by a written agreement. Goldsmith declared he 
usually wrote for his employer every day from nine o'clock 
till two. But at the end of seven or eight months it was 
dissolved by mutual consent, and our poet took lodgings 
in Green Arbour court, in the Old Bailey, amidst the dwel- 
lings of indigence, where be completed his ** Present State 
of Polite Literature," printed for Dodsley, 1755, 12mo. 

He afterwards removed to more decent lodgings in 
Wine OflSce-court, Fleet-street, where he wrote his ad- 
mirable noyel, " The Vicar of Wakefield," attended with 
the affecting: circumstance of his beino: under arrest. When 
the knowledge of his situation was communicated to Dr. 
Johnson, he disposed of his manuscript for sixty pounds, 
to Mr. Newbery, and procured his enlargement. Although 
the money was then paid, the book was not published until 
some time after, when bis excellent poem ** The Travel- 
ler^' had established his fame. His connection with Mr. 
Newbery was a source of regular supply, as he employed 



ifr O O L D S M I T H 

bim in coitBpiUng or revising many of bis pablicaXions, paif« 
ticularly, " The Art of Poetry/' 2 vols. 12010; a " Life 
of Beau Nasl^," and ^' Letters on the History of England/* 
2 vols. 12mo9 which have been attributed to Lord LytteU 
t;oDg the earl of Orrery, and other noblemen, but were 
really written by Pr. Goldsmith. He bad before this beea 
eosployed by Wilkie, the bookseller, in conducting a 
^^ Lady's Magazine/' and published with him, a volume 
of assays, entiled " The Bee." To the Public Ledger, a 
xiewspaper, of which Kelly was at that time the editor, he 
contributed those letters which have since been published 
under the title of " The Citizen of the World.'* 

In 1765 be published " The Traveller," which at once 
established his fame/ The outline of this he formed when 
in Switzerland, but polished it«with great care, before he 
submitted it to the public. It soon made him kpown and 
admired, but bis roving disposition had not yet ieft him*, 
fie had for some time been musing on a design of pene-i 
trating into the interior parts of Asia, and investigating 
the remains of ancient grandeur, learning, and manners. 
When he yv^^s told of lord Bute's liberality to men off 
genius, he applied to that nobleman for a salary to enable 
bim to execute his favourite plan, but his application was 
Vnnoticed, as his name had not th^Q been mad^ known by 
bis Traveller. This poem, however, having procured bim 
the unsolicited friendship of lord Nugent^ afterwards earl 
of Clare, he obtained an introduction to the earl of 
^Northumberland, then lord Lieutenant of Ireland, who in-* 
vited our poet to an interview. Goldsmith prepared a 
complimentary address for bis excellency, which, by mis- 
take, he delivered to the groom of the chambers, and 
when the lord lieutenant appeared, was so confused that 
he came away without being able to e;isplaio the object of 
his wishes. Sir John Hawkiuis relates, that when the lord 
lieutenant said he should be glad to do bim any kindness, 
Goldsmith answered, that ^' he had a brother in Ireland, a 
clergyman, that stood in need of help; as for himself, he 
bad no dependence on the promises of great men; be 
looked to the booksellers ; they Vi^re his best friepds, and 
be was npt inclined to for«ake them for others.'* — ^This was 
Yery characteristic of Goldsmith, who, as sir John Haw- 
kins adds, was ^^ an ideot in the affairs of the world," but 
yet his affectionate remembrance of his brother on such an 
occasion merits a less barsb epithet. Goldsmith was grater 



GOLDSMITH. n 

ful for the kindness be had received from this brother, and 
nothing probably would have given him greater pleasure 
than if he had succeeded in transferring tne earl's patron- 
age to him. From this time, however, although be some* 
times talked about it, he appears to have i^eiinquished the 
project of going to Asia. " Of all men,'* said Dr. Johnson, 
'< Goldsmith is the most unfit to go out upon such an in- 
quiry ; for be is utterly ignorant of such arts as we already 
possess, and consequently could not know what would be 
accessions to our present stock of mechanical knowledge. 
He woald bring home a grinding barrow, and think. that 
be had furnished a wonderful improvement." 

In 1^64, Goldsmith fixed his abode in the Temple, and 
resided, first in the library staircase, aftef wards in the 
King^s-bench walk, and ultimately at No. 2, in Brick- 
court, where he had chambers on the first floor elegantly 
furnished; and where he was visited by literary friends of 
the most distinguished merit. When Dr. Johnson^s Lite^ 
rary club was founded, he was one of the first members, 
and his associates were those whose conversations .have 
given such interest to.Bosweirs JLife of Johnson. 

Having now acquired considerable fame as a critic, a 
tiovelist, and a descriptive poet, he was induced to court 
the dramatic Muse. His first attempt was the comedy of 
the ** Godd-natured Man,*' which Garrick, after much 
delay, declined, and it was produced at Covent-garden the- 
atre, in 1768, and kept possession of the stage for nine 
nights, but did not obtain the applause which his friends 
thought it merited. Between this period and the appear- 
ance of his next celebrated poem, he compiled " The Ro- 
man History,** in 2 vols. 8vo, and afterwards an abridge- 
ment of it, and " The History of England,*' in 4 vols. 8vo, 
both elegantly written, and highly calculated to attract and 
interest young readers, although it must.be owned, he is 
frequently superficial and inaccurate. His pen was also 
occasionally employed on introductions and prefaces to 
tK>oks compiled by other persons ; as " Guthrie's History 
•of the World,** and Dr. Brooks's "System of Natural 
History/' In this last preface, he so far excelled his au- 
thor in the graces of a captivating style, that the booksel- 
'lers engaged him to write a *' History of the Earth aad 
Animated Nature," which he executed with much ele- 
^nce, but with no very deep knowledge of the subject. 
•He idso drcfw up a " Life of Dr. Parnell," prefixed to fin 



78 GOLDSMITH. 

edition of his poems, which afforded Dr« Johnson an op« 
portunity of paying an affectionate tribute to his memory, 
when he came to write the life ofParnell for the English 
Poets. He wrote also a ^* Life of Bolingbroke," origin^ 
ally prefixed to the *^ Dissertation on Parties," and after*^ 
wards to Bolingbroke's works. In one of his compilations 
he was peculiarly unfortunate. Being desired by Griffin^ 
the bookseller, to make a selection of elegant poems from 
our best English classics, for the use of boarding-schools, 
he carelessly marked for the printer one of the most inder 
cent tales of Prior. His biographer adds '^ without read- 
ing it,^' but this was not the case, as he introduces it with 
a criticism. These various publications have not been 
noticed in their regular order, but their dates are not con* 
nected with any particulars in our author's history. 

In 1769 he produced his admirable poem '^ The De- 
serted Village," which he touched and re*touched with 
the greatest care before publication. How much it added 
to his reputation, it is unnecessary to mention. No poem 
since the days of Pope has been so repeatedly read, ad- 
mired, and quoted. 

At the establishment of the royal academy of painting 
in 1770, his friend sir Joshua Reynolds procured forjiim 
the appointment of professor of ancient history, a com- 
plimentary distinction attended neither with emolument 
nor trouble, but which entitled him to a seat at some of 
the meetings of the society. His situation in life was now 
comfortable, at least ; and might have been independent, 
had be mixed a little prudence with his general conduct ; 
but although this was not always the case, it is much to 
his honour that his errors were generally on the right side. 
He was kind and benevolent, wherever he had it in his 
power, and although frequently duped by artful men, his 
^eart was never hardened against the applications of the 
unhappy. And such was the celebrity of his writings, that 
be was even looked up to, as a patron and promoter of 
schemes of public utility. His biographer has published a 
very curious letter from the notorious Thomas Paine, ia 
which he solicits Goldsmith's interest in procuring an ad-» 
dition to the pay of excisemen. 

In the month of March 1773, his second comedy, '^ She 
Stoops to Conquer," was performed at Covent-garden^ 
and received with the highest applause, contrary to the 
opinion of the manager, Mr, Colmaii, It is founded upojx 



GOLDSMITH. 19 

an incident wbich, bis biographer informs us, happened 
to the author in bis younger days, when be mistook a gen- 
tleman's house for an inn. In the same year be appeared 
before the public iu a different character. A scurrilous letr 
ter, probably written by Kenrick, was inserted in the Lon- 
don Packet, a paper then published by the late Mr. Tho- 
mas Evans, bookseller in Paternoster- row. Goldsmith re- 
sented no part of the abuse in this letter but that which 
reflected on a young lady of his acquaintance. Accom- 
panied by one of bis countrymen, he waited on Mr. Evans^ 
and stated the nature of his complaint. Mr. Evans, who 
had no concern in the paper, but as publisher, went to 
examine the file, and while stooping for it, Goldsmith wa» 
advised by his friend, to take that opportunity of caning 
bim, which he immediately began to do; but Evans, a 
stout and high-blooded Welcbman, returned the blows 
with so much advantage, that Goldsmith's friend fled, and 
left him in a shocking plight. Dr. Kenrick, who was then 
in the house, came forward, and affecting great compas« 
sion for Goldsmith, conducted him home in a coach. Thia 
foolish quarrel afforded considerable sport for the news- 
papers before it was finally made up. 

One c^ his last publications was the ^^ History of the 
Earth and Animated Nature*' before mentioned, in 8 vols* 
8vo, for which he received the sum of 850/. and during the 
time be was engaged in this undertaking, he had received 
the copy -money for his comedy, and the profits of his third 
nights; but, his biographer iuibrms us, *^ he was so liberal 
in his donations, and profuse in his disbursements ; be was 
unfortunately so attached to the pernicious practice of 
gaming ; and from his unsettled habits of life, bis supplies 
being precarious and uncertain, he had been so little 
accustomed to regulate bis expences by any system of 
(Economy, that his debts far exceeded his resources ; and 
he was obliged to take up money in advance from the 
managers . of the two theatres, for comedies, which he 
engaged to furnish to each ; and from the booksellers, for 
publications which he was to finish for the press. All these 
engagements he fully intended, and doubtless would have 
been able, to fulfil with the strictest honour, as he had 
done on former occasions in similar exigencies ; but his 
premature death unhappily prevented the execution of his 
, plans, and gave occasion to malignity to impute thos(& 



so GOLDSMITH. 

feiiures to deliberate intention^ which were tncrely the re- 
sult of inevitahle mortality." 

Some time before bis death, although they were not 
printed until after that event, he wrdte his poems " The 
Haunch of Venison," « Retaliation," and «ome other of 
his smaller pieces. Biit the chief project be had at heart 
was, an " Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences," in 
the execution of which it is said he had engaged all his li«- 
terary friends and the members of the Literary Club ; but 
this was prevented by his death, which is thus related by 
his biographer : 

" He was subject to severe fits of the strangury, owinff 
probably to the intemperate manner in which he confined 
himself to the desk, when be was employed in his compi- 
lations, often indeed for several weeks successively, with- 
out taking exercise. On such occasions he usually hired 
lodgings in son^e farm-house a few miles from London, and 
wrote without cessation till he had finished his task. He 
then carried his copy to the bookseller, received his com- 
pensation, and gave himself up, perhaps for months with-^ 
out interruption, to the gaieties, amusements, and soci« 
eties of London. And here it may be observed once 
for all, that his elegant and enchanting style in prose 
flowed from him with such facility, that in whole quires of 
his histories, * Animated Nature,' &c. he had seldom oc- 
casion to correct or alter a single word ; but in his verses, 
especially bis two great ethic poems, nothing could ex-* 
ceed the patient and incessant revisal which he bestowed 
upon them. To save himself the trouble of transcription^ 
he Wrote the lines in his first copy very wide, and would 
80 fill up the intermediate space With reiterated correc- 
tions, that scarcely a word of his first effusions wais left 
unaltered. 

** In the spring of 1774, being embarrassed in his cir- 
cumstances, and attacked with his usual malady, his in- 
disposition, aggravated too by mental distress, terminated 
in a fever, which on the 25th of March bad-become exceed'- 
ingly violent, when he called in medical assistance. Al* 
thobgh he had then taken ipecacuanrha to promote a vomi^ 
he would proceed to the use of James's fever-powder, cou^ 
trai^r to'the advice of the medical gentlemen who attended 
him. From the application of these powders he had re- 
ceived the greatest benefit in a similar attack nearly two 
years before -, but then they bad beeo administered by Dr* 



GO L D S M I T H. %i 

James himself in person. This happened in September 
1772. But now the progress of the disease was as unfa« 
vourable as possible; for^ from the time above-mentioned 
every symptom became more and more alarming till Mon- 
day April 4th, wbea he died, aged forty-five." 

His remains were privately interred in the Temple 
barial-ground, on Saturday April 9 ; but afterwards, by a 
subscription raised among his friends, and chiefly by bis \ 

brethren of the club, a marble monument was erected to 
his memory in Westminster-abbey, with an inscription \}f 
Dr. Johnson, the history of which the reader may find in 
Boswell*s Life, vtrhere are likewise many curious traits of 
our poet^s variegated character. 

** He. was," adds his biographer, ** generous in the ex* 
tiQ^me> and so strongly affected by compassion, that he has 
been known at midnight to abandon bis rest in order to 
procure relief and an asylum for a poor dying object who 
was left destitute in the streets. Nor was there ever a mind 
whose general feelings were*more benevolent and friendly." 
He is« however, supposed to have been often soured by 
jealousy or envy, and many little instances are mentioned 
of this tendency in his character ; but whatever appeared 
of this kind was a mere momentary sensation, which he 
knew not bow like other men to conceal. It was never the 
result of principle, or the suggestion of reflection ; it never 
embittered his heart;, nor influenced his conduct Nothing 
could be more amiable than the general featuses of his 
mind ; those of his person were not perhaps sa engaging. ' 
His stature was under the middle size, his body strongly 
built, and his limbs more sturdy than elegant; his com* 
plexion was pale, his forehead low, his face almost rounds 
and pitted with the small-pdx ; but marked with strong 
lines of thinking. His first appearance was not capti- 
vating ; but when be grew easy and cheerful in company, 
be relaxed into such a display of good^humour, as soon 
removed every unfavourable impression. Yet it must be 
acknowledged that in company he did not appear to so 
much advantage w might have been expected from his 
genius and talents. He was too apt to speak without re- 
fleclipn, /and without a sufficient knowledge of the subject; 
which made Johnson observe of him, ' No man was more 
foolish when he had not a pen in his band, or more wise 
when he had.' Indeed, with ail his defects (to conclude 
aearly in the words of that great critic), as a writer be wad 

V0L.XVL G / 



M GOLDSMITH. 

of the tnoBt distinguished abilities. Whatever he com* 
posed he did it better than any other man could. Aud 
whether we consider him as a poet^ as a comic writer, or 
as an historian (so far as regards his powers of composition) 
he was one of the first writers of hi& titiiey. and will ever 
stand in the foremost class.'' 

Although this character may be thought in some respects 
exaggerated, it cannot be denied that the indelible stamp 
of geniuar rests on his^^ Vicar of Wakefield;'' and on his 
poems, " The Traveller," " Deserted Village," aad " Ed- 
win and Angelina." In description, pathos, and evea 
Sublimity,; he has not been exceeded by any of the poets 
of his age, except that in the latter quality he must yield 
to Gray.* 

, GOLIUS (James), professor of Arabic at Leyden, d%^ 
scended from a considerable family in that city, was born 
at the Hague, in 1596. At Leydea he made himself 
naster of all the learned languages, and proceeded to 
physic, divinity, and the mathematics. His education 
being finished, he topk a journey to France with the 
duchess de la Tremouille; and was invited to teach the. 
Greek language at Rochelle, which he continued to do, 
until that city was in the following year reduced again to 
Ibe. dominion of the French king, after which he resolved 
to return to Holland. He had early taken a liking to Er-* 
penius, the Arabic professor at Leyden ; by the help of 
whose lectures he made a great progress in the Arabic 
tongue, and having in 1622 an opportunity of attending 
the Dutch ambassador to the court of Morocco, he con* 
suited with Erpenius, who directed him to observe care- 
fully every production, either of nature, art, or custom, 
which were unknown in Europe ; and to describe them, 
setting down the proper name of each, anct the derivation 
gf it, if known. He also gave him a letter directed to that 
prince, together with a present of a grand atlas^ and a 
New Testament in Arabic. These procured him a very 
gracious reception from Muley Zidan, then king of Mo- 
rocco,, who expressed great satisfaction in the present, and 
afterwards read them frequently. ' 

,_ 1 Life prefixed to hii Works London, 1801, and. 1307, 4 volt. 8vo, priooiy 
pally written by Dr. Percy, bishop of Droaiore.*->JobD8on and Chalmers't 
iSni^lish Poets, lS10.4^Life of Goldsmith by Sir fi, Bvydgei, in th» Cenfura Liu^ 



G o L I u s. ay 

' In the tneati time (Gralius tnade so good use of EfpemusV 
odrice, that be attained a perfect skill iii the Arabic 
ibngue ; and in indulging^ his curiosity respecting the 
(Customs and learning of that country, contriTed to ntiake^ 
hiitiself very agreeable to the doctors and courtiers. By 
this means he became particuhirly serviceabl^e to the am- 
bassador, who growing uneasy because his affairs were not 
dispatched, was advised to present to his majesty a petition 
written by Golius in the Arabic character and language^ 
mid in the Christian style, both circumstances rather novel 
in that eomitry. The king was astonished at the beauty of 
the petition, both ais to writing and style; and having^ 
learWed from the ambtassador that it was done by Golius^ 
desired to see him. At the audience, the king spoke to- 
bita in Arabic, and Golius said in Spanish, that he under« 
stood' fais majesty very well, but could not keep up a con* 
versation in Arabic, by reason of its guttural pronunciation, 
to which his throat was not sufficiently inured. This ex<^ 
cuse was accepted by the king, who granted the ambas* 
sador^s request, and dispatched him immediately. Before 
his departure, Golius had an opportunity of examining the 
curiosities of Fes^, and took a plan of the royal palace, 
which was afterwardii communicated to Mr. Windus, and 
inserted in his "Journey to Mequinez," 1721, 8vo. Go- 
lius brought with him to Holland several books unknown in 
Europe ; and among dthers, \* The Annals of the Ancient 
Kingdom of Fes and Morocco,^ which he resolved ta 
translate. Re communicated every thing, to Erpenius, 
who well knew the valuie of them, but did not live long 
enough to enjoy the treasure ; that professor dying in Nov. 
1Q24, after recommending this his best beloved scholar to the 
curators of the university for his successor. The request 
was complied with, and Golius saw liimself immediately 
in the Arabic chair, which he filled so ably as to lessen 
their sense of the loss of Erpenius. Being, however,, still 
desirous of cultivating oriental languages and antiquities^ 
be applied to his superiors for leave to take a journey to 
the Levant'; and obtained letters patent from the prince of 
Orange, dated Nov. 25, 1G25. He set out immediately 
for Aleppo, where he continued fifteen months; -after 
whieli^ making excursions into Arabia, towards Mesopo-^ 
tamia; he went by land to Constantinople, in company 
with Cornelius Hago, ambassador from Holland to the 
Parte. Hens the governor of the coast of Propontis gave 

62 



84 G O L I U S. 

I)im the use of his pleasant gardens and curious library y in 
which retirement he applied himself wholly to the readinig 
pf the Arabic historians and geographers, whose wrking» 
were till then either unknown to, or bad not been perused 
by him. Upon his return to the city, discovering occa- 
sionally in conversation with the great men there a prodi- 
gious memory of what he had read, he excited such admi- 
r/ition, that a principal officer of the empire made him an 
offer of a commission from the grand signor to take a sur- 
vey of the whole empire, in order to describe the situation 
of places with more exactness than was done in such maps 
as they then had ; but he pretended that this would inter- 
fere with the oath which he had taken to the States, 
although his real fear arose from the danger of such an 
undertaking. In this place also he found his skill in physic, 
of infinite service in procuring him the favour and respect 
of the grandees ; from whom, as he would take no fees, he 
received many valuable and rich presents, and every liberal 
offer to induce him to settle among them. But after a re- 
sidence of four years, having in a great measure satisfied 
^ bis thirst of eastern learning, and made himself master of 
the Turkish, Persian, and Arabic tongues, he returned in 
1629, laden with curious MSS. which have ever since been 
valued among the richest treasures of the university library 
at Leyden. As soon as he was settled at home, he began 
to think of making the best use of some of these manuscripts 
by communicating them to the public )> but first printed an 
** Arabic Lexicon,'* 1653, folio; and a new edition of 
*^ Erpenius's Grammar, enlarged with notes and additions ;^* 
to which also ' he subjoined several pieces of poetry, ex- 
tracted from the Arabian writers, particularly Tograi and 
7. Ababella. One purpose on which he employed his know- 

ledge and influence cannot be too highly commended. He 
had been an eye-witness of the wr<3tched state of Chris- 
sanity in the Mahometan countries, and with the com- 
passion of a Christian, resolved,, therefore, to make hid 
^ . skill in their language serviceable to them. With this 
laudable view he procured an edition of the ^^ New Tea- < 
tament*' in the original language, with a translation into 
the vulgar Greek by an Archimandrite, which he prevailed 
with the States to. present to the Greek churchy groaning 
under the Mahometan tyranny ; and, as some of these 
Christians use the Arabic tongue in divine service, he took 
care to have dispersed among them an Arabic translsiitioiv 



G O L I U S. 



85 



oF the confession of the reformed pfotestantg, together 
with the catechism and liturgy *. 

Intent as he was in promoting religion and learning 
abroad, he did not neglect his duty at home, which was 
now increased by the curators during his absence confer- 
ring upon him, in addition to the former, the professorship 
of mathematics, to which he was chosen in 1626. HC'dis- 
charged, however, the functions of both with the highest re- 
putation for forty years. He was also appointed interpreter 
in ordinary to the States^ for the Arabic, Turkish, Persian, 
and other eastern languages ; for which he had an annual 
pension, and a present of a chain of gold with a very 
beautiful medal, which he wore as a badge of his office.^ 
He went through the fatigue of all these duties with, the 
less difficulty, as he always enjoyed a good state of health, 
which he carefully preserved by strict temperance; and 
his constitution was so firm, thatjn 1666, at the age of 
seventy, he travelled on foot from the Meuse to the Waal, 
a journey of fourteen hours. He died Sept. 28, 1667, as 
much respected for his virtue and piety, as far his talents 
and learning. 

Although entitled to the character of an universal scholar, 
his <:hief excellence lay in philology and the languages ; iri 
wbieh his application and skill were such, that though he 
•did not begin seriously to study the Persian language till 
he was fifty- four, he made himself so much a master, as to 
write a large dictionary of it, which was printed at London, 
in Castell's ^^ Lexlcpn Heptaglotton." He was not less 
acquainted with the Turkish language ; and made such a 
progress in «he Chinese, that be was able to read and 
understand 'their books; though he began late in life to 
this study. Besides the books which he finished and 
printed, he left several MSS. of others, which would have 
been no ways inferior to them, had he lived to complete 
them. He had begun a Geographical and Historical Die* 
tionary for the £astern countries ; wherein the names of 



* For thif purpose he employed an 
AnnenwD, who understood the volj^r 
Arabic, at well as the phrases conse- 
crated io religion ; and could accom- 
modate Golius'fl style to the capacity 
of .erery body ^ otherwise his expres- 
sion mifht probably hare been too 
sublime and abstruse. Golius' kept 
this Armenian two years and a half at 
his house ; and pron&ised him tbt same 



pension that the States had granted to 
the Archimandrite, who translated tha 
New Testament into vulgar Greek. 
Yet he did not know whether the States 
would be at the expence, nor did ha 
propose the matter to them till thii 
work was finished; however, they 
agreed to his proposal, and likewise 
made a hundsome present to himself. 



86 G O L I U 6. 

men and places throughput the ^ast w^ve expleiQed* He 
had long given expectations of a new edition of jthe ^* Ko- 
ran/' with a translation and confutation -pf it. 

Amidst ail this profound literature, his religiop 19 said 
to have been plain and practical. He l^oiented ajnd ab-* 
borred the factions and disputes, especially ^bout indif- 
ferent matters, which disgraced Christianity, and there- 
fore had no inclination to enter into the controversies of 
bis time. He married a lady of a very good family, and 
. well allied, with whom he lived twenty-four. years, aad 
who survived him, together with two sons, who studied 
the civil law at Leyden, and became considerable men in 
Holland. 

His publications, besides those already noticed, were, 
1. *' The History of the Saracens, by Elmacin." Erpenius 
began the version, which Golius completed, and it was 
translated into English by Simon Ockley, Arabic professor 
at Cambridge. 2. ** The Life of Tamerlane," v\:ritten in 
Arabic by an author of great reputation, Leyden, 1636. 
He had proposed a second edition of this some time be* 
fore his death, and to print the text with vowels, with a 
translation and commentary. 3. ^^ Alfragan's Elements of 
Astronomy,'' with a new version, and learned commentaries 
upon the first nine chapters, but he did not live to carry 
these farther, and what we have was published after bis 
death, in 1669, 4to.* 

GOLIUS (Peter), brother to the preceding, excelled 
likewise in the knowledge of the Arabic language, and 
taught it in the seminary belonging to the Carmelites at 
Home, into which order^ much against his brother's wUl^ 
he entered very early^ and now was of great service to 
those monks who were intended to be sent on missions 
into the east. Being himself appointed to this seryice, be 
visited every part of Syria and Palestine, and founded a 
monastery of his order on mount Libanus, over which he 
presided till he was recalled to Rome. While abroad he 
wrote a letter to his brother, informing him that instead 
of the opposition and persecution which he expected, he 
bad met with nothing but civilities and caresses from per* 
sons of distinction, when they found that he was the 
brother of James Golius, whom they still remembered with 
the highest regard. At Rome he .was employed as one of 

' Gea» Dict.-*-^roiiovii Funebr. Oratio Jac. GoIiL— Moreri.«— Saxli Ooomast. 



G O L I U S. %1 

th« principal MtistantB of Sergius RMus, archbishop of 
Dafliagciifi, in preparing bis edition of the Arabic Bible^ 
irhich wa^ p«A>lisbed in 1 67 1 by the direction of the col- 
lege ^^ De Propaganda.'' After k was completed, Golitit 
was appointed visitor of the missions of the East Indies^ 
and died at Surat about 167S. He was author of transla-* 
tions into Arabic of Thomas i Kempis' Imitation of Jesus 
Christ ; of seritions on the Evangelists ; an ** Historic Dis- 
course of St. G*«egory of Decapolis ;'' several small devo- 
tional pieces, and a translation from Arabic into Latin, of 
a " Cdlection of Parables and Proverbs." * 

GOLTZIUS {HfiKaY), a celebrated engraver and painter, 
was born in 1658, at Mulbrec, in the duchy of Juli^rs^ 
and learned bis art at Haerlera, where he married. An 
asthmatic disor-der afterwards inclining him to travel iti 
Italy, his friends remonstrated against this» but he an- 
swered, that <' he bad rather die learning something, than 
live in such a langaishing state." Accordingly, he passed 
tlirongh most of the chief cities of Germany, where he 
visited the painters, and the curious ; and went to Rome 
and Naples, whet^ be studied the works of the best mas- 
ters^ and designed a great number of pieces after them. 
To prevent his being known, he passed for his man's ser- 
vant^ pretending that he was maintained and kept by him 
for his skill in painting ; and by this stratagem he came to 
bear what was said of his works, without being known, 
which afforded him no small amusement as well as instruc* 
tion. His disguise, his diversion, the exercise of traveU 
ling, and the different air of the countries through which* 
be travelled, had such an effect upon his constitution, that' 
he recovered his former health and vigour. He relapsed, 
however, some time after, and died at Haerlem in 1617. 
Mr. Evelyn has given the following testimony of his merit 
a« a graver: "Henry Goltzius,'*" says he, *• was a Hol- 
lander, and wanted only a good and judicious choice, to have 
rendered him comparable to the profoundest masters that 
ever handled the burin ^ for never did any exceed this rare 
workman ; witness those things of his after Gasporo 'Celio, 
&G. ; and in particular his incomparable imitations after 
Lucas Van Leyden, in The Passion, the Christus Mortuus,' 
or Piela ; and those other six pieces, in each of which bo 
so accurately pursues Durer, Lucas, and some others of 

1 Moi«ri.««-Foppen Bibl. Bel(. 



81 . G O L T Z I U S. 

the old masters, as makes it almost impossible to discern 
the ingenious fraud.'' . As a paiuter he drew bis resources 
from the study of the antique, of Raphael, Polidoro, and 
Michael Angelo ; the last of whom appears to have been his 
favourite, but whose faults he exaggerated in an out* 
rageous manner, seldom attaining any of his beauties,' 
Hence bis style of design is inflated and^. caricature ; and 
bis expressions participate of the same taste ; but his 
sense of hue in colour is ril:h, vigorous, and transparent. 
It is as an engraver, however, that be deserves the highest 
commendation, having never been surpassed, and seldpm 
equalled in the command of the graver, and in freedom of 
execution. ^ 

GOLTZIUS (Hubert), a German antiquary, was born; 
at Venloo, in the duchy of Gueldres, in 1526. His father 
was a painter, and be was himself bred^ up in this art, 
leamiiig the principles of it from Lambert Lombard ; but 
he seems to have quitted the pencil early in life, having a, 
particular turn to antiquity,, and especially to the study of 
medals, to which he entirely devoted himself. He con-' 
sidered medals as the very foundation of true history; 
and travelled through France, Germany, and Italy, in 
order to make collections, and to draw iirom tbem what 
lights he could. His reputation was so high in this respect/ 
that the cabinets of the curious were every where open to 
him ; and on the same account he was honoured with the 
freedom of the city of Rome in 1567^ He was the author 
of several excellent works, in all which he applies medaU 
to the illustration' of ancient history, and for the greater 
accuracy, had them printed in his own house, and cor-t 
rected tbem himself He also engraved the plates for the 
medals with his own hands. Accordingly, his books were 
admired all. over Europe, and thought an ornament to any 
library; and succeeding antiquaries have bestowed the 
highest praises upon tbem.^ Lipsius, speaking of the 
*' Fasti Consulares," says, that '^ be knows not which to 
admire most, his diligence in seeking so many coins, bia 
happiness in finding, or his skill in engraving them.'- 
Some, however, have said that although his works abound 
^vith erudition, they must be read with some caution. Tb^ 
f^t seems to be, that all his works have many coini^ not yet 

» {Itrutt'ff DictiQiiar7.--PicU Hist, 



G O L t Z I U S. B9 

foiind in cabinets, because bis own collection was unfor-< 

tanatelj lost, yet the medals which he describes, and 

which were, once looked upon as fictitious, are yearly 

found really existent, and of undoubted antiquity. A 

French writer compares him to Pliny the natural historian, 

who was thought to deal much in falsehood, till time drew 

the truth out of the well ; so that as knowledge advances^ 

most of bis wonders acquire gradual confirmation. Yet it 

is certain that he was often imposed upon, and the caution 

above given is not unnecessary. His coins of the Roman 

tytants, for instance, are clearly false ; for they bea^ prek. 

and COG. on the exergue^ which marks never occur on the 

real coins. It has been also said that many errors of this 

nature must be committed by a man, whose love and vene-* 

ration for Roman antiquities was such, that he gave to all 

bis children Roman names, such as Julius, Marcellus, &c. 

so that he might easily receive for antiques what were not 

so, out of pure fondness for any thing of that kind. Upon 

this principle, it is probable, that he took, for his second 

wifip, tb^ widow of the antiquary Martinius Smetius ; whom 

he married more for the sake of Smetius's medals and in« 

ficriptions than for any thing belonging to herself. She 

was his second wife, and a shrew, who made his latter days 

unhappy. He died at Bruges March 14, 1583. 

. His works are, 1. ** Imperatorum fere omnium Vitae, ac 

vivae Imaging, a C' Julio CaBsare ad Carolum V. ex vete* 

ribus numismatibus," Antwerp, 1557, fol. afterwards trans* 

lated into French, Italian, and Spanish* 2. '^ Fasti ma*. 

gistratuum et Triumphorum Rpmanorum, ab urbe condita 

usque ad Augusti obitum,^' Bruges, 1566 and 1571, folio* 

3. ** De origine et statu populi Romani,^' &c. Bruges, 1566, 

fol. Antwerp, 1618. 4, *^ Thesaurus rei Antiquarii," Ant. 

iS79 and 1-618, 4to. 5. " Vita et res gestae C. Juliidae- 

saris.'V 6r " Vita et res gest^ Augusti Caesaris," Bruges, 

1580, fol. and Antwerp, 1617. 7. ^^ Historia Siciliae et 

Magnae GrsBciae ex antiquis Qumismatibus,'* Antwerp, 1 644, 

fol. which Mr. Pinkerton recommends as an introduction 

to the study of the Greek coins. His whole works were 

republished at 'Antwerp in 1644 and 1645, in 5 vols. fol. 

by Balthasar Moretus, whose predecessors, the Plantins, 

bad purchased Goltzius's printing-materials and plates.^ 

# 

^ Melchior Adam io Titit Philos. — Pinkerton^s Essay oil Medals, Pref* p. 1^ 
sad 18.«p]llorejri>^-*Foppen Bibl, Self •-«'Saxii OnomattMon. 



M G O M A R. . 

y 

GOMAR (FRAt^cis), eneoi the^great.oppofi^ii(» of Ar^ 
tnioivHs, and fron wiioxn the Caiviniste mere at one time 
called Gomarists^ V9bs born at Bruges, Jan. 30, 1563. His 

' father and mother, who were prote&tants, retired into the 
palaftinate in 1578, and sent him to Strasburgh to study 
under the celebrated John Sturmius. Three years after be 
went to prosecute his studies at Newstad, where tkte pro« 
feasors of Heidelberg found a vefn^e when Lewis, the ^ec* 
tor palatine, had banished thetn because they were not 
L.ti$berans« In 1582 he came to England, and heard at 
Oxford the divinity lectures ^f Dr. John Rainoide, and at 
Cambridge those of Dr. William Wbitsrker, and at this 
latter university be was admitted to the degree of bachelor 
of divinity, June, 1584., The'clector Lewis dying in 1583, 

N prince Cadoiir, his brother, reoitared tbe professors of 
Heidelberg, to wkicfa place Gomar returned from Cam* 
bridge^ and spent two years. In 1 587 be accepted an in- 
vitation from the Flemisfaf church at Francfort to be their 
minister, and exercised the functkms <of that office until 
1593, When his 3pck were dispersed by persecution. The 
following year he was appointed professor of divi<nity at 
Leyden, but before entering upon the office, he took bis 
degree of doctor at Heidelberg. Here be remained quietly 
until 1603, when liis colleague Arniinius began to place 
himself at the bead of a party, known by his name ever 
since, and Gomarus resisted him with a e^al which hi* 
enemies have construed into bigotry and intolerance. Tbe 
truth seems to have been that Arminiqs and his followers, 
while they disputed with equal warmth, chose to repre- 
sent the subjects of tbeir disputes as matters of indifference 
which need not interrupt diurch-fellowship, while Goma-^ 
rus considered them as essentials. Vorstius having sue-* 
eeeded Arminius, Gomarus fore3aw only a renewal of the 
controversy under such a colleague, and retired to Mid-> 
dleburgh in 1611, where he preached and read lectured 
until 1614. He was then invited by the university of Sau- 
mur to be professor of divinity, and four years after he 
exchanged this for the professorship of divinity and He* 
brew at Groningen, where be remained during the re^t of 
bis life. The only times when he was absent were, once 
when he attended the synod of Dort, where the errors of 
Arminius were condemned ; apd again when he went jto 
Ley den in 1633 to revise tbe translation of the Old Test^ 
meat. He died Jan. 11, 1641. His various works, most 



G O M A K. ^ M 

of which had ibeen publidied jieparatdy, were printed to- 
gether at AinsMsrda9i io d644,.foi. He was a man of ac- 
kuowi«dged abilities^, especially in the Oriental langui^es^^ 
GOMBAULD (John Ogier de), a French poet, was 
born in 1567^ M St. Ju»t de Lussac, near Brouage in 
Saintongue. He vm$ a gentleman by birth, and his breed- 
ing was suitable to it» After a foundation of grammar- 
learning, be finished his studies at Bourdeaux ; and having 
^one through most of the liberal sciences, under the best 
masters of his time, be betook himself to Paris, in the 
view of making tbe most of his parts ; for, being the cadet 
of a fourth marriage by his father, his patrimonial financ<M 
were a little short At Paris, he soon introduced himself 
to the knowledge of the polite world, by sonnets, epi- 
grams, and other jsmall poetical pieces, which were gene- 
rally a4>plaiidfed; biut, reaping -little other benefit, he was 
^li^ed to uae ihe strictest osconomy, to support a tolera- 
ble figure at court, till the assassination of the king by 
Ravillac, in 1610, provoked every muse in France. The 
subject was <to the last degree interesting, and our poet 
exerted his talent to the ^utmost in some verses which 
pleasfd the ^ueen-regent, Mary de Medicis, so highly, 
that 4(hp rewarded him with a pension of 1200 crowns ; nor 
was there a ma^i of his condition, that had more free access 
to her, or was more kindly received by her. He was also 
in the i^ame favour with the s«icceeding regent^ Anne of 
Austria, d,uring the miaorlty of Lewis XIV. 

lo thfi fiiean time, lie was constantly seen at those meet^ 
ings of all the persons of quality and merit, which were 
kept at thov bouse of Mad. ftambouiilet. This was like a 
$mall choice court, less numerous indeed than that of the 
Louvre, but, bad charms which entirely engaged the 
heart of Gpmbauld ; and be frequented it with great plea- 
Mire, as well as with more assiduity than any other, the 
Lwv^e not excepted. Thus he passed his time in a way 
the most agreeable to a poet, and at length devoted him- 
self entirely to the belles lettres. He published several 
tbiogs, of which the most admined was his /^ Endytoion,** 
a romance in prose. It was printed in 1624. 2. ^ Ama- 
r^tha, a Pastoral." S. A volume of <^ Poems." 4. A 
voluoie of *^ Letters," all pufalisibed before 1652. He was 
now aOfCOiinted one of those choice spirits, who make up 



in OOMBAULD. 

the ministry in the republic of lettersi und form the 
schemes of its advancement. In this employ We iind bini 
' atnong. those few men of wit, whose meetings in 1626 gave 
rise to the Academy of Belles Lettres, founded by cardinal 
Bichelieu ; and, accordingly, be became a member of that 
society at its first institution. He was one of the three 
who was appointed to examine the statutes of the new 
academy in 1643, and he afterwards finished memoirs for 
compIetiiSg them. On March 12, 1-635, he read a dis*- 
course before tbe academy upon ^^ Je ne sgai quoi,'* which 
was the sixth of those that for some years were pronounced 
at their meetings the first day of every week. 

He lived many years in the enjoyment of these honours, 
and had his fortune increased by an additional pension 
from M. Seguier, chancellor of France. I'hese marks of 
esteem do honour to bis patroris, for he openly professed 
the reformed religion, although in such. a manner as to 
avoid giving offence/ or shocknig the prejudices of those 
with whom he associated. He had always enjoyed very 
good health; but, as he was one day walking in his room^ 
which was customary with him^ bis foot slipped ; and, fall* 
ing down, be hurt himself so, that he was obliged almost 
constantly to keep his bed to the end of his life, which 
lasted near a century. However, in 1657, when at the 
age of 90, he published a large collection of epigrams ; 
and, many years after, a tragedj" called ^^ Danaides.^* 
This was some time before his death ; which did not hap<^ 
pen till 1666. In manners he was modest and regular, 
sincere in his piety, and proof agaiiist all temptations. He 
was of a hot and hasty temper, much inclined to anger, 
though be had a grave and reserved countenance. He was 
also a man of wit, and not always very guarded iti the use 
of it. Having shown one of hi« performances to cardinal 
Richelieu, he said ^^ Here are some thiugs 1 do not under*- 
stand.'" — '^That is not my fault," answered Gombauld, 
and the cardinal wisely affected not to hear him. His post* 
humous works wer6 printed in Holland in 1678, with this 
title,- ^^ Trait^s & Lettres de Monsieur Gombauld sur la 
Religion." They co^ntain religious discourses, and were 
9iost esteemed of all his works by himself: be composed 
them from a principle of charity, ^ith a design to convert 
the catholics, and. confirm the protestants in their faith. \ 

} 6ra« DicUwMor«ri«^fiiof. CaUicai V^ L^NicesoD, vol. XXXIV. 



GOMBERVILLE. 9i 

GOMBERVILLE (Marin le Roi), Sieurde, an ingeni- 
Qos French writer, was born at Cbeyreuse, in the diocese 
of Paris, or as some say in Paris itself, in 1599. He wa» 
early distinguished by some successful publications which, 
had given him a literary reputation, and made him be en- 
rolled among the number assembled by cardinal Richelieu 
for the purpose of founding the French academy in 1635. 
His first publications were romances and works of a light 
nature, but at the age of forty-five he formed the resolu- 
tion of consecrating his pen t6 religion, and adopted a 
penitentiary course of )ife, which some think was more 
strict at the commencement than at the termination of it. 
He died June 14, 1674. One of the most curious of his 
works, <* La doctrine des Mccurs, tir^e de la philosophie 
des Stoiques, representee en cent tableaux,^' 1646, fol. is 
perhaps now more admired f6r the plates than for the letter- 
press.^ They are engraved by Peter Daret from d^sign^ 
by Otho Vsenius. In this work Gomberville assumes the 
disgnised name of' Thalassius Basilides (Marin |e Roi) 
His romances were " Caritce,'* " Polexandre," ** Cythe-t 
rea,'* and " La jeune Alcidian^,'' published in 1733 by 
roadame Gomez, who says that Gomberville left merely an 
outline of it. His other works were, 1. ^^ Relation de la 
riviere des Amazones,^' 1682, 2 vols. i2mo. 2. ^^ Memoires. 
de Louis de Gonzague, due de Nevers,*' '1665, 2 vols. foU 
3. << Discours des vertus et des vices de Thistoire,^' I620> 
4to, and various pieces of sacred poistry, &c. * 

GOMERSAL (Robert), a divine and poet of the seven-« 
teenth century, was born at Lond6n in 1600, whence, he 
was sent by his fetberin 1614 to Christ church, Oxford, 
where, soon after his being entered, he was elected a stu^ 
dent on the royal foundation. At about seven years stand- 
ing, he here took ^is degrees of bachelor and master of 
arts, and before he left the university, which was in 1627^ 
he had the degree of bachelor of divinity conferred on him. 
Being now in orders, he distinguished himself as a preacher 
at the university. For some time, during the plague at 
Oxford, he resided at Flower in Northamptonshire, and was 
afterwafds vicar of Thorncombe in Devonshire, where it is 
probable that he resided till his death, which was in 1646, 
He was accounted a good preacher, and printed a volume, 
of ^^ Sermons,*' Lond. 1634, which were well esteemed. 

> NUtreo, ▼©!. XXXVm.— MOreri. 



r» 



94 G OTVI ER S A L. 

As a devotee to the Muses, be publisbed several poems $ 
J^articularly a sort of heroic attempt, called the ^^ LeviteV 
Revenge^" being meditations^ m v^se, on the Idth and 
20th chapters of Judges^ and a tragedy called ^* Leiomck 
. Sforza, duke of Milan/' 1632, 12mo. Both were reprinted; 
with a few occa»ional verses iir 1633, 12^10) reprinted 
in 1638. > 

GOMEZ DB CiviDAD RtAL (Alvabez), a Spanish La- 
tin poet, was born in 1488 at Guadalaxara in Spain, and 
was page of honour to archduke Charles, afterwards em- 
peror. He possessed a great facility in writing Latin verse, 
which is seen by his ** Thalia Christiana^'' or the triumph 
of Jesus Christ, in (wenty-five books : ** Musa Paulina," 
or the epistles of St. Paul, in elegiac verse : the Proverbs^ 
of Solomon, and other works of a similar kind; but his 
poem on the order of the golden fleece, published in 1 5^, 
8vo, entitled " De PrincipisBurgundi Militia quam. VeU 
leris aurei vocant," is perhaps the only one now read, and- 
more suitable to his talents than the preceding^ in which 
he introduced a tasteless mixture of pagan and Christian 
personages. He died July 14, 1538.' 

GOMEZ DE Castro (Alvarez), was born ^t St. Eulaiia, 
near Toledo, in 1515, and was educated at Alcala, where 
he obtained a high character for diligence and learning. 
He was patronized "by Philip 11. who engaged him to pre- 
pare an edition of the works of Isidore, wbich death pre* 
vented him from completing. It was afterwards finished 
and published by John Grialus. hm was author of many 
works ; but the most esteemed is a ^' Life of Cardinal 
Ximenes,V 1569, folio, and afterwards inserted in a collec- 
tion of the writers on Spanish history. Gomez died in 1 580,* 

GOMEZ (Magdalen Angelica Poisson db), a French 
lady, whose romanced and tales are known iti this country 
by translations, was the daughter of Paul Poisson, a piayer, 
and was born at Par^s in 1684. She was courted by M. de 
Gomez, a Spanish gentleman of small fortune, who, know- 
ing her talents, foresaw many advantages from an union 
with her, while she, in accepting him, appears to have 
been deceive^d concerning his circumstances. Her works, 
however, procured some pensions, by which she was ena- 
bled to live at St. Germain-en-Laye till 1770, in which 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Biog. Dram. — Gilchrist's edition of Corbet's Poems, p. 67. 

• Antonio Bibl. Hisp.r^Moreri. — Dicr. Hist. 

^ Ant. Bibl. Hisp.—j^tfreri.— Clement Bib). Ciirieuse. 



G O M £ Z. 95 

jear she died» respected by alt who knew her. This tady 
left some tragedies^ which may be found in her ^^ Miscel-> 
laneous Works^'' 12019^ but were all unsuccessful^ and a 
great number of romances. *^ Les Journ6es Aoausantes/* 
H vols. ; " Crementine/* 2 vols. ; " Anecdots Persanes/' 2 
vols. ; " Hist, du Comte d'Oxford,*' one vol. ; ",La Jeune 
Alcidiane,** 3 vols, (see Gomberville) ; ^< Les Cent Nou-* 
veiles Nouvelles,^' 36 parts comprised in 8 vols. These 
are all well written, and with great delicacy, and were at 
one time very popular in France..* 

GONDI. See RETZ. 

GONET (John Baptist), a learned Dominican,; was 
born at Beziers in 1616* After having gone into the churchy 
and been admitted to the degree of doctor of divinity by 
the university of Bourdeaux in 1640, he held the profes- 
sorship of theology in that university till 1671, when he 
was appointed provincial amopg the Dominican friars. He 
died at Beziers in 1681. He was author of a system of 
divinity, entitled " Clypseus Theologiae Thomisticse, contra 
novos ejus impugnatores,*' Bdurdeaux, 1666, in eighteen 
volumes, 12mo, afterwards enlarged in five volumes, folio. 
He was likewise author of a ^' Manuale Thomistarum, seu 
brevis TheologiaD Cursus,'' which has passed through dif- 
fbrent editions, of which the best was published at Lyons 
iii 1681 ; and *^ Dissertatio Theologica de Probabilitate." • 

GONGORA (Lewis de), a Spanish poet, was born al 
Cordova, in 1562, of a very distinguished family. H9 
atiidied at Salamanca, and was known to have a talent for 
poetry, though he liever could be prevailed on to «publisb 
any thing. Going into orders, he was made chaplain to 
the king, and prebendary of the church of Cordova, ia 
which station he died, in 1627. His works are all posthu-* 
mous, and consist of sonnets, elegies, heroic verses, a 
comedy, anragedy, &c. and have been published several 
times under the title of ^^ Obras de Dom. Louis de Gon* 
gora-y- Argore," 4to* The best edition is that with notes 
by D. Garcia de Salcedo Coronel, Madrid, 1636 — 1648, 
3 vols. 4to. The Spaniards have so high an idea of thi^ 
poet, as to entitle him prince of the poets of their nation,, 
and notes and commentaries have been written on his 
works ; but he is not free from affectation in the use of 
figures, a false sublime^ and an obscure and embarrassed 
diction.' ' 

> Diet. Hist. * Gen. Diet.-— Morcri. 

* Anlanie liibl. Hitp.— I^ortri. — Diet. Hiiu 



1 



99 • G d N 2 A G A. 

GO^ZAGA (LucRETiA), a lady of the sixteenth cett- 
tury, remarkable for her wit^ and high birth, is chiefly 
known, and that very imperfectly,, from a collection of 
her letters, printed at Venice in 1552. By these she ap« 
pears to have beeti learned, and somewhat of a critic in 
Aristotle and ^schylus. All the wits of her time are full 
of their encomiums on her : and Hortensio Landi, besides 
singing her praises most zealously, dedicated to her a 
piece, " Upon moderating the passions of the soul,'* writ-* 
ten in Italian. If, however, it be true that this Horatia 
Landi wrote the whole of the letters attributed to Lucretia, 
it is difficult to know what to believe of the history of the 
latter. Her marriage at thq age of fourteen with Johi> 
Paul Manfroni was unhappy. He engaged in a conspiracy 
against the duke of Ferrara; was detected and imprisoned 
by him ; but, though condemned, not put to death. Lu- 
cretia, in this emergency, applied to all the powers ini 
Europe to intercede for him ; and even solicited the grand 
signior to make himself master of the castle, where her 
husband was kept. During this time, although she was not 
permitted to visit him, they could write to each othen But 
all her endeavours were vain ; for he died in prison in 1 552^ 
having shewn such an impatience under his misfortunes a» 
made it imagined he lost his senses. She never would 
listen afterwards to any proposals of marriage, though se«> 
veral were made her. Of four children, which she had» 
there were bpt two daughters left, whom she placed in 
nunneries. All that came from her pen was so much es« 
teemed,^ that a collection was made even of the notes she 
wrote to her servants : several of which are to be met with 
in the above-mentioned edition of her letters. She died 
at Mantua in 1^76.^ 

GOODAL (Walter), a Scotch antiquary, the eldest 
son of John Goodal, a farmer in Banfshire, Scotland, was 
born about. 1706. In 1 723 he entered himself a student ia 
King^s college. Old Aberdeen, but did not continue there 
long enough to take a degree. In 1730 he obtained em- 
ployment in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh, of which 
he was formally appointed librarian in 1735. He now as« 
sisted the celebrated Thomas Ruddiman in compiling the 
catalogue of that library, upon the plan of the *^ Biblio- 
tfaeca C^rdinalis Imperialis,'' and it was published in foU^ 

» Gen. Diet. — ^Tiraboscbi. — ^Moreri. 



G O O D A L. 97 

in 1742. About the same time he projected a life of Mary 
queen of Scots, to whose cause he was inflexibly devoted ^ 
but this design appears to have been relinquished for his^ 
publication, entitled ** An Examination of the Letters said 
to be written by Mary to James earl of Boihwell/' 1754,^ 
2 vols. 8vo, in which he endeavoured to prove these letters 
to be forgeries. In this work it is said that he had done 
more, had he had less prejudice, and greater coolness. He 
certainly had diligence of research, sagacity of investiga- 
tion, and keenness of remark ; but his zeal sometimes car- 
ried him out of his course, his prejudice often blunted his 
acuteness, and his desire of recrimination never failed to 
enfeeble the strength of his criticism. In 1754 he pub- 
lished an edition, with emendatory notes, of sir John Scot's 
^^ Staggering state of Scots Statesmen,** and wrote a pre- 
face and life to sir James Balfour's ** Practicks.** He con-^ 
tributed also to Keith's ** New Catalogue of Scotch 
Bishops," and published an edition of Fordun's ^' Scotir 
chronicon," which was not executed with judgment. His 
introduction to it was afterwards translated into English, 
and published at London in 1769. He died July 2^9 1766, 
io very poor circumstances, owing to a habit of intemper- 
ance.' 

GOODMAN (Christopher), a noted puritan, who has 
been sometimes classed among the reformers of religion in 
Scotland, was born at Chester about 1520, and in 1536 
entered a student of Brazennase college, Oxford, where he 
took both degrees in arts. In 1547 he was constituted one 
of the senior students of Christ chufch, of the foundation 
of Henry VIlI. About the end of the reign of king Ed- 
ward VI. he was admitted to the reading of the sentences, 
and chosen divinity lecturer of the university. On the 
accession' of queen Mary he was obliged to quit the king- 
dom, with many other prptestants, and retire to Francfort. 
Here he became involved in the disputes which arose 
among the English exiles respecting forms of divine wor- 
ship, some adhering to the model of the church of Eng- 
land, as far as appeared in the Book of Common Prayer, 
and others, among whom was Goodman, contending for a 
more simple form. After these disputes had occasioned a 
separation among men whose common sufferings might 

have made them overlook lesser matters, Goodman went 

/ ■' • . • •,..»•••.*' 

1 Life of Rn^dimaQ^ by Mr. George Chalmen, pp. 127, 167. 

Vou XVI. H 



99 GOODMAN. 

to Genevfty where he and the celebrated John Knox were 
chosen pastors of the English church, and remained therci 
until the death of queen Mary. While there he assisted 
Knox in compiling ** The Book of Common Order," which 
was used as a directory of worship in their congregations, 
and he is said to have taken- a part in the Geneva transia* 
tion of the Bible. On the accession of queen Elizabeth^ 
he went into Scotland, where, in 1560, he was appointed 
minister at St. Andrew's, and in other respects by his pub- 
lic services assisted in establishing the reformation in that 
nation. About 1565 he removed to England, and accom- 
panied sir Henry Sidney in his expedition against the rebels 
in Ireland, in the character of chaplain. In 1571 he was 
cited before archbishop Parker, for having published, du- 
ring his exile, a book answering ^he question ^' How far 
iuperior powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects, and 
wherein they may be lawfully, by God's word, obeyed and 
resisted ?" This had been written against the tyrannical 
proce^edings of queen Mary ; but, as his positions were of a 
kind too general not to be applicable to sovereigns of ano-^ 
ther description, and become an apology for rebellion, he 
consented to a recantation, and an avowal of his loyalty to 
queen Elizabeth. He lived many years after this, and was 
preacher at Chester, where he died in 1601, or 1602. 
Besides the above mentioned, he wrote ^' A Commentary 
©n Amos," but not, as Wood says, **The first blast of the 
Trumpet against the monstrous regiment of Women,'* 
which was written by Knox.^ 

GOODMAN (Godfrey), an English prelate, and the 
only one who forsook the church of England for that of 
Home since the reformation, was born at Ruthvyn in Den- 
l>ighshire, 1583. He was educated at Westminster school, 
whence, in 1600, be went to Trinity college, Cambridge. 
After taking orders, he got the living of Stapleford Abbots 
.in Essex in 1607. Becoming acknowledged at court as a 
celebrated preacher, he obtained in 1617, a canonry of 
Windsor; in 1620, the deanery of Rochester, and in 1625 
was consecrated bishop of Gloucester. In 1639, he re- 
fused to sign the seventeen canons of doctrine and disci- 
pline drawn up in a synod, and enjoined by archbishop 
Laud^ who, after admonishing him three times, procured 

■ Ath. Ox. ToL I.— -Sirype's Life of Parker, p. 43, 49K— &k»>ttni lifCt of 
the Scotch RclbaDeiB.-*P€ok't Detid«r«ta, vol. !• 



GOODMAN. 99 

liim to be suspended, and it appeared soon after Chat he 
was in all principles a Roman catholic. After this, and 
during the rebellion, be lived privately in Westminster, 
employing much of his time in researches in the Cottonian 
library. He died, in the open profession of popery, Jan. 
19, 1655. He wrote, U *^ The Fall of Man, and Corroption 
of Nature, proved by reason/' 1616, 1624, 4to. 2. ** Ar- 
guments and Animadversions on Dr. George HackwiPs 
Apol<^[y for Divine Providence." 3. ^* The two mysteries 
of Christian Religion^ viz. the Trinity and Incarnation, 
explicated," 1653, 4to. 4. ^^ An Account of his Suffer- 
ings,'' 1650. 5. "The Court of King James by Sit An- 
thony Weldon reviewed," a MS. in the Bodleian. ^ 

GOODRICH (Thomas), an eminent English prelate, 
was the second son of Edward Goodrich of East Kirby in 
Lincolnshire. He was admitted pensioner of Bene*t col- 
lege, Cambridge, soon after 1 500, became fellow of Jesus 
college in 1510, commenced M. A. in 1514, and the fol- 
lowing year wais proctor of the university. Being of a 
studious turn, he n^ade gneat proficiency in several branches 
of learning, particularly in the civil and canon laws. In 
1529, he was appointed one of the syndics to return an 
answer from the university of Cambridge, concerning the 
lawfulness of king Henry VIII.'s marriage with queen Ca- 
therine : and from his readiness to oblige Che king in that 
business, was recommended to his royal favour. He was 
presented to the rectory of St. Peter's Cheap in London, 
by cardinal Wolsey, at that time commendatory of the 
monastery of St. Alban's ; and soon after was made canon 
of St. Stephen's, Westminster, and chaplain to the king* 
On the death of Dr. West, bishop of Ely, his nephew and 
godson Dr. Nicholas Hawkins, archdeacon of Ely, at that 
time the king's ambassador in foreign parts, was designed 
to succeed him ; but he dying before his consecration 
could be effected, the king granted his licence to the prior 
and convent, dated March 6, 1534, to choose themselves a 
bishop; who immediately elected in their chapter-house 
the 17th of the same month, Thomas Goodrich, S.T.P. 
-which was confirmed.by the archbishop April ISth follow- 
ing, in the parish church of Croydon. 
Being a zealous promoter of the reformation, soon after 

I FoUer't Clmrch Hilt. Book XI. p. 170.— Wortfaiei.— *Gent Mag. voU 
UCXVIII.— Lloyd's Memoirs, foiioi p.SOK— Vther^s Life and Letters, p« 
5S3«^IMd's Clu Hwt. toI. UL 

H 2 



100 GOODRICH. 

his arrival be visited the prior and convent of Ely ; and 
next year sent a mandate to all the clergy of his diocese, 
dated at Somersham June 27, 1535, with orders to erase 
the name of the pope out of all their books, and to pub-^ 
lish in their churches that the pope had no further, autho- 
rity in this kingdom. Thia mandate is printed in Bent- 
ham's ** History of Ely Cathedral," together with his in* 
juncdons, dated from Ely, Oct 21, 1541, to the clergy,'' 
to see that all images, relics, table-monuments of miracles, 
shrines, &c. be so totally demolished and obliterated, with 
all speed and diligence, that no remains or memory might 
be found of them for the future.** These injunctions were 
so completely executed in his cathedral, and other churches 
in the diocese of Ely, that no traces remain. of many fa- 
nous shrines and altars, which formerly were the objects 
of frequent resort, nor any signs at all that they had ever 
existed. . 

. In 1540 he was appointed by the convocation to be one 
of the revisers of the translation of the New Testament^ 
and St. John's gospel was allotted to his share. He was 
also named one of the commissioners for reforming the ec- 
clesiastical laws, both by Henry V HI. and Edward VI. as 
well as by the university of Cambridge ; and had a hand in 
compiling the ** Common Prayer Book" of tlie church of 
England, 154S; and likewise ''The Institution of a Chris- 
tian Man,'* which was called the Bishops' Book, as being 
.composed by archbishop Cranmer, and the bishops 
Stokesly, Gardiner, Sampson, Repps, Goodrich, Latimer, 
Shaxtou, Fox, Barlow, &c. Besides this, he was of the 
.privy council to king Henry VIIL and Edward VI. and em*- 
ployed by them in several embassies, and other business 
of the state. In 155 hy he, was made lord chancellor of 
England, in the room of lord Rich, which office he dis-« 
charged with singular reputation of integrity, though in 
matters of religipn he was suspected by some, of too much 
disposition to temporize ia favour of popery,^ upon the 
accession of queen Mary ; and Dodd, though . somewhat 
faintly, claims him as a popish bishop. It is certain he 
was.suffered to retain his bishopric, to hb death, although 
the seals were taken from him. He was esteemed a patron 
of learned men ; and expended large sums in building jind 
embellishing his palaces, particularly at Ely, where the 
long gallery carries tokens of his munificence. He died at 
Somersham May 10, 1554 ; and waa .buried in the middle 



G O O D R I C If . 101 

<rf the presbytery of his cathedral church, under a marble, 
with his effigies in brass, mitred, in his pontifical habit,' 
and the great seal, as lord chancellor, in one of his hands, 
and an inscription round it' 

GOODWIN (John), one of the most violent of the re- 
publican sectaries in the time of Charles I. but whom no 
sect seems to own, was born in 1593, and educated at 
Queen's college, Cambridge. In 1633 he was presented 
to the living of St. Stephen's, Coleman-street, from which 
he was turned out by what was called the *' committee for 
plundered ministers,'' because he refused to baptise the 
children of his parish promiscuously, and refused to ad- 
minister the sacrament to his whole parish. He was an 
independent, and carried on many warm disputes with the 
presby terian party. What was more singular in these days, 
was his embracing the Arminian doctrines, which he de- 
fended with great vigour both by the pulpit and press ; 
and such was the general turbulence of his temper, -and 
conceit in his own opinions, that he is said to have been 
against every man, and every man against him. Being a 
decided republican, he peculiarly gratified the satage spi- 
rit of the times by promoting the condemnation of the 
king, which he afterwards endeavoured to justify in a 
pamphlet called ^* The Obstructors of Jiistice," the wicked- 
ness, absurdity, and impiety of which Mr. Neal has very 
candidly exposed. At the restoration it was thought he 
would have been excepted from the act of indemnity, but, 
although he afterwards was permitted to live, a proclama- 
tion was issued in 1660 against the above pamphlet, and 
in that he is stated to have been ** late of Coleman-street, 
clerk," and to have fled. His pamphlet was burnt by the 
hands of the hangman. Returnipg afterwards, he kept a 
private conventicle in Coleman-street, where he died in 
1665. His works, now in very little repute, are chiefly 
theological, among which the following may be mentioned: 
" Redemption Redeemed," in folio. " The divine Autho- 
rity of the Scriptures," 4to ; " An Exposition of the Ninth 
Chapter of the Epistle of St Paul to the Romans," 4to.' 

GOODWIN (Thomas), a famous nonconformist of the 
independent class, was born in 1600 at Rotesby in Norfolk, 

1 Benthmm't Hist of Bly.'-^Matter's Hist of C. C. C. G.^Burnet'e Reforma. 
tioii,Tol II. p. S75.— Strype's Cranmer, pp. 30, 51, 134, 185, S38, S30, 233, 
857, 303, 504, 41 2.— Strype's Parker, p. 16, 30, 360. 

> Calamy.— Meal't Purium.'r-Bar low's Remaiot, p. 123. 



1©2 GOODWIN. 

\ 

and was sent, when he was thirteen years old» ta Christ 
Church college, Cambridge, where he took his bachelor^s de-^ 
gree in 1617, and applied himself with so much diligence to 
his studies, as to attract much notice in the university. Ja 
1619 he was removed to Catherine-hall, of which be be- 
came a fellow. Having taken orders, he was, elected lec<* 
turer of Trinity church, in Cambridge, in 1628 ; in 1630 
he took his degree of B.D. and in 1632 he was presented 
by the king to the vicarage of the same church. In these 
employments he was greatly admired and followed by the 
puritans, who began to look up to him as a leader, but be- 
coming dissatisfied with the terms of conformity, be re- 
linquished his preferments, and quitted the university in 
1634, and to avoid the consequences of his nonconform 
ipity, went afterwards to Holland, where be was chosen 
pastor to an independent congregation at Arnbeim. When 
the parliament bad usurped all church authority, he re- 
turned to London, and became a member of the Assembly 
of divines, with whom, however, he did not always agree* 
But his attachment to the independent party contributed 
to render him a favourite with Cromwell, through whose 
influence he was, in J 649, made one of the commissioners 
for the approbation of public preachers, and also appointed 
president of Magdalen college, Oxford. Here he formed 
a meeting upon, the independent plan, or rather converted 
the college into a meeting of that description, but was not 
inattentive to the interests of learning. His intimacy and 
favour with Cromwell seems to have been fatal to his good 
sense, and probably the usurper's hypocrisy deceived him* 
When he attended Cromwell upon his death-bed, he was 
overheard to express himself with presumptuous confidence 
on the protector's recovery ; and when the event proved 
him mistaken, be exclaimed in a subsequent prayer to 
God, " thou hast deceived us, and we are deceived." But 
he was not the only one of the nonconformists of that 
age who fancied themselves endued with extraordinary 
powers. After the restoration he was ejected from Ox- 
ford, and retired to London, where he was permitted to 
continue in the exercise of the ministry till his death in 
1679. He was buried in Bunhill-fields, where a monument 
was erected to his memory, with a long Latin inscription. 
He was certainly a considerable scholar, and a learned and 
eminent divine. In the register at Oxford he is described 
<^ in scriptis in re theologica quamplurimis Orbi notus.^' 



GOODWIN. 103 

He was a high Calvinist ; but, while he zealously enforced 
what he conceived to be the doctrines of CbristiaQity, he 
did not forget to enforce by every incitement in his power 
the necessity of pure moral conduct He was author of 
numerous pious and controversial pieces^ sermons, expa« 
sitipnsy &c. some of which were printed during his life-time^ 
and inserted, after his death, in a coll^ection of his works 
published in five volumes folio. ^ 

< GOOGE (Barnaby) was a celebrated poet and transla-« 
tor, who lived in the sixteenth century, but of whom little 
*is known, unless that be was educated at Christ's College^ 
Cambridge, whence he removed to Staples Inn. ' Mr* 
Ellis conjectures that he might have been born about 1538* 
We have no doubt that be was the same Barnaby Googe 
who ,was a relation and retainer to sir William Cecil, queen 
Elizabeth's minister, and who was gentleman -pensioner tQ 
the queen. Mr. Churton thinks, with great probability^ 
that he was the father of Barnaby Googe, master of Mag« 
dalen college, Cambridge, who was incorporated at Ox« 
ford in August 1605, when king James was there. In 1563 
he published a very elegant little volume, now of the 
greatest rarity, entitled ^^Eglogs, Epitaphs, and Sonnetes;*? 
One of the sonnets, superior, as the rest are, in point of 
harmony, to most of the productions of those days, is ad<» 
dressed to Alexander Nowell, aftervyards the. celebrated 
dean of St. Paurs, and reprinted in Mr. Churton's ela« 
borate life .of that divine^ It is said there are only two 
copies of this volume in existence, one in the possession of 
Mr, Heber, who purchased it at George Steevens's sale, and 
the other in the library of Trinity college, Cambridge* 
Cooge's principal translation was the ^^ Zodiakeof Life,** 
from Marcellus Palingenius Stellatus, a very moral, but 
tiresome satire, perfectly unconnected with astronomy, the 
author merely distinguishing each of the twelve books of 
his poem by the name of a celestial sign. The first three 
books appeared in 1 560, and the first six in 1561; the whole 
was printed complete in. 1565, 12mo. In 1570 he translated 
from. Naogeorgus, a poem on Antichrist ; in 1577, Here* 
baches oBcooomical treatise on agriculture; and in 1&79» 
Lopes de Mendoza's Spanish proverbs, and afterwards 
Aristotle's ^^ Table of the Ten Categories." The few spe-^ 

» Calamy.— rAth. Ox. vol. IL— Ncal'i Puritanf . 



104 G O 1R D O N. 

cimeiis published from these very rare works are highly^ 
favourable to the author^s talents and principles. ^ 

GORDON (Alexander), a native of Scotland, was an 
excellent draughtsman, and a good Grecian, who resided 
many years in Italy, visited mostparts of that country, and 
had also travelled into France, Germany, &c. In 1736 
he was appointed secretary to the society for the encoil- 
ragement of learning, witt^ an annual salary of 50/. which 
he resigned in 1739. In ihe same year (1736) he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Stukeley as secretary to the society of anti* 
quaries, which office he resigned in 1741 to Mr. Joseph 
Ames, and was for a short time secretary to the Egyptian 
club, composed of gentlemen who had visited Egypt, viz* 
lord Sandwich, Dr. Shaw, Dr. Pococke, &c. In 1741 he 
went to Carolina with governor Glen, where, besides a 
grant of land, he had several offices, such as register of 
the province, &c. ; and died about 1750, a justice of the 
peace, leaving a handsome estate to his family. He pub-' 
lished, 1. <^ Itinerarium Septentrionale, or a Journey 
through most parts of the counties of Scotland, in two^ 
parts, with 66 copper-plates, 1726," folio. 2. "Addi- 
tions and Corrections, by way of supplement, to the Itine- 
rarium Septentrionale ; containing several dissertations on, 
and descriptions of, lloman antiquities, discovered in Scot- 
land since publishing the said Itinerary. Together with 
observations on other ancient monuments found in the 
North of England, never before published, 1732,^' folio. 
A Latin edition of the '^ Itinerarium^' including the Sup- 
plement, was printed in Holland, in 1731. 3. "The Lives 
of pope Alexander VI. aiid his son Cse^ar Borgia, compre- 
hending the wars in the reign of Charles VIIL and Lewis, 
XII. kings of France ; and the chief transactions and revo- 
lutions in Italy, from 1492 to 1516. With an appendix of 
original pieces referred to in the work, 1729,*' folio. 4. 
*< A complete History of the ancient Amphitheatres, more 
particularly regarding the Architecture of these buildings, 
and in particular that of Verona, by the marquis Scipio 
MafFei; translated from the Italian, 1730,*' 8vo, after- 
wards enlarged in a second edition. 5. ** An Essay to- 
wards explaining the Hieroglyphical Figures on the Cof- 
fin of the ancient Mummy belonging to capt. WiUiam 

^ Phillips's Tbeatram edited by sir E. BiydgM.— Churton's Irfe of Nowell,— « 
WartOD's Hist, of Poe;ry.— Strype's Life of Parker^ p. 144.— Ellii^s Specsimeoi. 
•-^Censttra Iiteraria> vd. II. and V. 



i 

GORDON. 105 i 



LethieulHer, 1737," folio, with cuts. 6. "Twenty-five 
plates of all the! Egyptian Mummies, and other £gyptiaii 
Antiquities in England," about 1739, folio. ^ 

GORDON (Bernard), a French physician of the thir- 
teendi century, is said to have conferred honour on the 
medical faculty of Mt>ntpellier, where he began to teach 
and to {Practise m i^^5. As was the custom of the time^ 
he tot>k bis surname^from the place of his birth (Gordon, in 
Rouvergne), and AtUed himself Bernardns de Gordonio, 
and not Gordoniis, as it is commoiily written. According 
to the accounts of some writers, who place the death of 
this physician in 1305, be taught at Montpellier only twenty 
years ; but others say that he was living in 1318. He left 
aiconstderable number of treatises, which were published 
together at Ferrara in 1487, at Venice in 1494, at Paris in 
1542, and at Lyons in 1550.* 

GORDON (James), a Scotch Jesuit, of the noble fa- 
mily of Gordon, was born in 1543, and educated at Rome, 
where he became a Jesuit, Sept. 20, 1563, and was created 
D.D. in 1569.' He was professor of Hebrew and divinity 
for nearly fifty years in several parts of Europe, Rortie, 
Paris, Bourdeaux, Pont a Mousson, &c. and acquired 
great reputatfon for learning and acuteness. He was em-^ 
ployed as a missionary in England and Scotland, and was 
twice imprisoned for his zeal in making converts. He was 
also frequently employed by the general of his order in 
negociating their affairs, for which he had every requisite 
talent. Alegambe describes him as a saint, without a par- 
ticle of human frailty, but Dodd allows that he lived very 
much in a state of dissipation^ yet was regular in all the 
austerities of bis profession. He died at Paris, April 16, 
1620. His only writings are ^^ Controversiarum Fidei Epi- 
tome,'' in three parts or volumes, 8vo, the first printed at 
Limog^ 1612, the second at Paris, and the third at Co- 
logn io 1620. There was another James Gordon, of the 
family of Lesmore, also a Scotch Jesuit, who was born at 
or near Aberdeen in 1553, and died at Paris, Nov. 17, 
1641. He wrote a commentary on the Bible, ** Biblia 
Sacra, cum Comiiienttfriis, &c.'* Paris^ 3 vols. fol. 1632^ 
which Dnpin seems to think an useful ahd judicious work. 
He wrote idsp some historical and chronological works, 

*~Nic1iolt^ Bowyeir. 

* ten^ Cyclopedia, from El07.^MftGlL«ii>M>i Sootch WnUn, yl I. p. 439. 



106 GORDON. 

enumerated by Alegambe, aad a system of moral lheo«« 
logy, &c.* 

GORDON (Thomas), a native of Scotland, and once. 
distinguished by bis party writings on political and religious 
subjects, was born at Kirgudbrigbt in Galloway, about the 
end of the seventeenth century. He had an university 
education, and went through the common course of aca« 
demical studies ; but whether at Aberdeen or St. Andrew's 
i$ uncertain. When a young man he came to London^ 
and at first supported himself by teaching the languages,; 
but afterwards commenced party writer, and was employed 
by the earl of Oxford in queen Anne's time; but we know 
not in what capacity. He first distinguished himself in the 
Bangorian controversy by two pamphlets in defence of 
Boadly, which recommended him to Mr. Trenchard, an 
author of the same stamp, who took him into his house, at 
first as his amanuensis, and afterwards into partnership, as 
an author. In 1720, they began to publish, in coBJuncr 
tion, a series of letters, under the name of *^ Cato," upon 
various and important subjects relating to the public. 
About the same time they published another periodical 
paper, under the title of ^^ The Independent Whig,'* which 
was continued some years after Trenchard's death by Gor* 
don alone. The same spirit which appfears, with more 
decent language, in Cato's letters against the administra- 
tion in the state, shews itself in this work in much more 
glaring colours against the hierarchy in the church. It is» 
in truth, a gross and indecent libel on the established re- 
Iigion» which, however, Gordon was admirably qualified 
to write, as be had no religion of his own to check his in- 
temperate sallies. After Trenchard's death, the minister, 
sir Robert Walpole, knowing his popular talents,. took him 
into pay to defend his measures, for which end hd wrote 
several pamphlets. At the time of his death, July 28, 1750, 
'\ie was first commissioner of the wine-licences, an of- 
fice which he had enjoyed many years, and which di- 
minished his patriotism surprisingly. He was twice mar- 
ried. His second wife was the widow of his friend Tren- 
chard; by whom he had children, and who survived him. 
Two collections of his tracts have been preserved : the 
first entitled, ^< A Cordial for Lo\y-spirits,'' in ^hree volumes; 
and the second, << The Pillars of Priestcraft and Ortho- 

> Alagtmb* Bibl Script Societal. Jetui.— Dodd's Church Hiftsiy, vol. II. 



GORDON. 107 

doxy shaken,^' in two volumes. But these^ like many other 
posthumous pieces, had better have been suppressed. His 
translations of Sallust and Tacitus, now, perhaps, contri- 
bute more to preserve his name, although without confer*^ 
ring much reputation on it. His Tacitus appeared in 2 
vols. fol. in 1728, with discoursiss taken from foreign com** 
mentators and translators of that historian. Sit Robert 
Walpole patronised a subscription for the work, which 
was very successful; but no classic was perhaps ever so 
miserably mangled. His style is extremely vulgar, yet 
affected, and abounds with abrupt and inharmonious pe<« 
riods, totally destitute of any resemblance to the original, 
while the translator fancied he was giving a corre<^t imi-* 
tatioh. * 

GORDON (William), an Anglo-American divine and 
historian, and minister ait Roxburg in Massachusetts, was 
born at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, in 1729, and educated 
a^ a dissenting academy in or near London. He was afters- 
wards pastor of an independent congregation at Ipswich^ 
where he officiated for several years. In 1772 he went to 
America, and settled at Roxburg. When the revolution 
commenced in America, he took a very active part. against 
his native country, and was appointed chaplain to the pro- 
vincial congress of Massachusetts. In 1776 he appears first 
to have conceived the design of writing the history of the 
revolution and war, and began to collect materials on the 
spot, in which he was assisted by the communication of 
state papers, and the correspondence of Washington and 
the other generals who had made a distinguished figure in 
the field. In 1786 he came to England, and in 1788 pub* 
lished, in 4 vols. 8vo, " The History of the rise, progress, 
and establishment of the Independence of the United States 
of America.*' This, however, is rather a collection of facts, 
than a regular history, for the writing of which, indeed, 
the author had no talent ; his style is vulgar and confused, 
and his reflections common-place. The best parts of it 
occur where he made most use of Dodsley^s Annual Re* 
gister. The colouring he attempts to give, as may be 
expected, is entirely unfavourable to the English, nor does 
he endeavour to disguise his partialities. He is said to 
have published also some sermons ; a pamphlet recom- 

1 Bio|^. Brit. art. Trenchard.^WhistOD's MS notes M the first tditioa of 
this Dictionary. 



10$ O O R D o N: 

mending a society for the benefit of widows, another istgainst 
the doctrine of universal redemption, and an abridgment 
of Edwards, *^ on religious affections.*' He appears not 
to have returned to America after the publication of his 
history, but to have resided partly at St. Neots, and partly 
at Ipswich, at which last he died in 1807.^ 

GORE (Thomas), a heraldic writer, was bom of an an^ 
cient family at Alderton, in Wiltshire, in 1631, and was 
educated at Magdalen college, Oxford. Thence he went 
to Lincoln*s-inn, but probably with no serious purpose to 
study the law, as he retired afterwards to his patrimony at 
Alderton. ]9ere his property entitled him to the honour 
of being appointed high sheriff of Wiltshire in 1680, at 
which time some unjust aspersions on his character ibduced 
him to write a defence entitled '^ Loyalty displayed, and 
falsehood unmasked/' &c. Lond. 1681, 4to. He died 
March 31, 1684, at Alderton, leaving a variety of curious 
MSS. and printed collections on his favourite study of he- 
raldry. His publications were, 1. " A Table shewing how 
to blazon a coat ten several ways," 1655, a single sheet 
copied from Feme. 2. ^^ Series Alphabetica, . Latino* 
Anglica, Nomina Gentilitiorum, sive eognominum pluri- 
marum familiarum, quas miiltos per annos in Anglia ilo-* 
ruere,*' Oxoii. 1667, 8vo. A copy of this rare book is ia 
the British Museum. 3. << Catalogus in certa capita, seu 
Classes, alphabetico ordine concinnatus, plerorumque om- 
nium Authorum (tarn antiquorum quam recentiorum) qui 
de re Heraldica, Latine, Gallice, Ital. Hisp. &c. scripse- 
runt,'* Qx. 1668, reprinted with enlargements, 1674. 4. 
•* Nomenclator geographicus," &c. Ox. 1667, 8vo.* 

GORELLI or GREGORIO, the son of Raynier, of the 
family of Sinigardi, of Arezzo, in Italy, lived in the four-* 
teenth century, and was notary of Arezzo, an office of 
considerable rank. In his fiftieth year he formed the de* 
sign of writing the history of bis country in Italian verse, 
and unfortunately took Dante for his model, w^om be was 
unable to follow. The events he relates concern the pe- 
riod from 1310 to 1384, and may be consulted with advan- 
tage by those who will overlook the badness of the poetry. 
When he died is not known. Muratori has inserted hi^s 
history in his collection of Italian historians.* 

1 Siipplementaiyyol. to the Diet. Hist. 1819, which oonsiits chieflf of Attie* 
neaD lives, probably contributed by an Americao. 
* Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Gent. Maf. vol. LXII. * Morert. 



G O R G I A S. . IW 

GORGIAS (LeoN/Tinus), a native of Leontium^ in Sicily^ 
who floarislied in the fifth century B. C. was a celebrated 
orator of the school of Empedocles. He was deputed in 
the year 427, by his fellow-citizens, to request succour 
of the Athenians against the people of Syracuse, whom he 
so charmed with his. eloquence that he easily obtained 
what he required. He also made a display of his eloquence 
at the Olympic and Pythian games, and with so much 
success, that a statue of gold was erected to him at Delphi, 
and monej^was coined with his name upon it. In the lat- 
ter part of his life he established himself at Athens, and 
lived till' he had attained the age of one hundred and five 
years. He is reputed, according to Quiottlian, to be the 
author and inventor of extemporaneous speaking, in which 
art he exercised his disciples. Hermogenes has preserved 
a fragment of his, from which we may infer that his man- 
ner was quaint and artificial, full of antithesis and pointed 
expression.^ 

GORIO (Anthony Francis], a learned antiquary of 
Florence, was born in 1691, and died Jan. 21, 17i7, in 
that city. He was the author of an account of the grand 
duke's cabinet, entitled <^ MussBum Florentinum," Florene. 
1731, continued to 11 vols, fol.^ *' Musieiim Etruscum,** 
1737, Svols.fol. ; *' Musseum Cortonense,*' Romie, 1750, 
foi. He also published the ancient Inscriptions which are 
found in the cities of Tuscany; Florence, 1727, 3 vols. fol. ; 
and other books on Tuscan antiquities.^ His '^ Musaeum 
Fiorentinum*' contains in vol. L *^ Gemmae,*' dedicated to 
Gaston, 100 plates; vol. II. 1732, '^Gemmae," 100 plates; 
vol. III. 1734, << Statuae," dedicated to Gaston, 100 
plates; vols. IV. V. and VI. 1740, « Numismata," dedi- 
cated to Francis III. 115 plates. It is divided into three 
parts; one consisting of figures, two of dissertations; some- 
times bound in 2 vols, and sometimes in three. In 1 748, 
50 portraits of the eminent professors of painting were en- 
graved, with no farther explanation than their names, the 
year in which they were born and died ; but this part is 
freqiiently wanting, because these portraits may be found 
in the History of the Painters, 4 vols, with their lives, by 
Francis Mouck^. Vol. VII. is the first volume of the 
painters, 1752, 55 portraits. Vol. VIII. the second vo- 
lume of the painters, 1754, 55 portraits. Vol. IX. the 

1 Fabric. Bibl. Gnec-^Moreri.— Saxii Onomait. 



110 G O R I O. 

Ihifxl votame of the painters, 1756) 55 portraits. Vol. X. 
the fourth volonae of the painters, 1762, 55 portraits% 
VoU XI. contains 100 portraits of painters, which may be 
found in the abbi Pozzi, and their lives by the abb< 
Orazis Marrioi, Florence, 1764, 2 tom^eacb, divided int^ 
jtwo parts; the whole bound in 1 vol.' 

GORION. See JOSEPH BEN GORION. 

GORLiEUS (Abraham), an eminent antiquary, waa 
^born at Antwerp in 1549, and gained a reputation by col^ 
lecting medals and other antiques. He was chiefly fond (^ 
the rings and seals of the ancients, of which he published 
« prodigious number in 1601, under this title, <^Dacty«- 
liotheca, sive Annulorum Sigillariumi quorum apud priscdf 
tarn Grsecos quam Romanos usus ex ferro, aere, argento^ 
.&. auro, Promptuarium.*' This was the first part of the 
work ; the second was entitled *^ Variarum Gemmarum, 
quibus Antiquitas in signando uti solita, sculpturse." This 
work has undergone several editions, the best of which is 
that of Leydien, 1625 ; which not only contains a vast 
mumber.of cuts, but a short explication of them by Gn>* 
jDOvius. In 1608 he published a collection of medals; 
.which, however, if we may believe the ^^ Scaligerana,'' it 
is not safe always to trust. Some have asserted, that 
be never studied the Latin tongue, and that the learned 
pjreface prefixed to his ** Dactyliotheca,'* was written, by 
another. Peiresc, as Gasse^dus relates, used to say, that 
*^ though GorlsDus never studied the Latin tongue, yet be 
understood all the books written in Latin concerning medak 
find coins;" but this cannot be reconciled with the accounts 
of him in other authors, nor indeed with probability, 
porlaeus resided principally at Delft, and died there April 
15, 1609. His collections of antiques were sold by his 
heirs to the pirnce of Wales.' 

GORRIS (John de), in Latin Gorreus, a physician, 
was born at Paris in 1505. He took the degree of doctor 
x>f physic in that city about 1540, and was appointed dean 
of the faculty in 1548. He is said to have possessed both 
the learning and sagacity requisite to form an accomplished 
physician, and to have practised with great humanity and 
success. His works, which were published in 1622, folio, 
by one of his sons, contributed to support this reputaUoQ. 

1 Diet. Hilt— >Saxii Onomast.— Archeologia, toI. VII, 

s Gen. DicU— MQreri.«-JPoppeii Sibl. Bel^.^-SaiU QMontt. 



G O R R I S. 114 

Hie greater part of theai consists of commentaries on dif- 
lereBt portioifs of the writings of Hippocrates, Galen, and 
Nkander. During the civil war, which was fatal tonu- 
tnerous men of letters, John de Morris was stopped by a 
party of soldiers, when on bis journey to Melun to visit 
the bishop of Paris, and the fright which he sustained is 
said to ]iave deprived him of his reason. This occurred ia 
1561, and he lived in this deplorable condition until hia 
death at Paris, in 1577. His. father, Peter dj^ Gokr}£^ 
was a physician at Bourges, attained considerable emi- 
nence^ and left two works, one on the general ^^ practice 
of medicine,^' dated 1555; the other, ^* a collection ci 
brmvl3Sf\ 1560, both in Latin.' 

OORTER (John de), a physician, was born in 1689^ 
at EuJibuysen, and after having been a disciple of the ce- 
lebrated Boerhaave, became a distinguished teacher of 
medicine at Harderwick, in consequence of which he was 
elected a member of the academies of Petersburg, Rome, 
and Haerlem, and obtained the title of physician to Eii- 
satbetb, empress of all the Rassias. He died Sept. 1 1, 
1762. He was the author of several works, which are 
written with excellent method, and contain many interest- 
ing and original observations, relating to physiological and 
practical subjects, as well as to the practice of the ancients. 
The principal are, 1. " De Perspiratione insensibili," 
Leyden and Padua, 1725, 4to, often reprinted. 2. *^ De 
Secretione humorum in sanguine," ibid. 1727. 3. ^' Me- 
dicinae Compendium," 1731 — 1737, 2 vols. 4to. 4. "Exer- 
•citationes quatuor medicae," Amst. 1737, 4to, &c. His 
jon, David de Gorter, professor of physic and botany in 
Ae Dutch university of Harderwick, was author of Several 
'local Floras of that neighbourhood, and of Elenienta Bo- 
tanica. He died in 1783, aged sixty-six.' 

60SSELINI (Julian), an Italian poet and miscellaneous 
writer, was born at Rome in 1525, where he pursued his. 
studies in the bouse of the cardinal de Santa Fiora, but in 
liis seventeenth year was taken into the service of Ferdi- 
nand Gonzaga, then viceroy of Sicily, and governor of 
Milan, to which city he accompanied that nobleman in 
1546, and became his secretary. He was afterwards taken 
:to the court of Spain, where he obtained the esteem and 

^ NiceroD, toI. XXXVIII.— Rees's Cyc1o|)edia.— Saxii OnooMst. 
' Diet. Hitt.— Rces'fl Cyclopedia* 



I 



112 G O S S E L I N I. 

favour of Philip IL Under the duke of Albuquerque be 
was imprisoued on a charge of' conspiracy against the life 
of John Baptist Monti, but vindicated his own cause, and 
was not only released, but admitted to public employment 
under the succeeding governors of Milan. ^ He died Feb. 
12, 1587, leaving behind him several works, that obtained 
for him high reputation ; of these the principal are, ^^ The 
Life of Ferdinand Gonzaga," 1579, 4to. <' Three Con- 
spiracies,*' &c. 15Sd, 8vo. << Rime,'* or a collection of 
poems, several times reprinted. ^^ Discourses.** ^^ Let- 
ters,** &c. ; and he translated inta Italian a French work 
.entitled ^^ A true account of things that have ha^jpened 
in the Netherlands, since the arrival of Don Juan of 
Austria.** » " 

GOSSON (Stephen), a divine and poet, was bom in Kent 
in 1 554, and was admitted scholar of Christ-church, Oxford, 
in April 1572, but left the university without completing^ 
bis degrees, and came to London, where he commenced 
poet, and wrote some dramMic pjeces which were never 
published. He then retired into the country, as tutor to 
a gentleman*8 sons, and became by some means a bitter 
enemy to the' drama and all its concerns. This occasioned 
some dispute with the father of his pupils, whose service 
he thereifore quitted, and took orders. His first promotion 
was to the living of Gresit Wigborow, in Essex.; and his 
next in 1600, the rectory of St.Botolph, Bishopsgate-street, 
where he died Feb. 13, 1^23. He was a contemporary of 
Speuser and sir Philip Sidney, whom, he imitated, and 
was thought to have excelled in pastoral poetry. His un- 
published plays were, I. ^^ Cataline's Conspiracies.** 2. 
" The Comedy of Captain Mario ;'* and the " Praise at 
parting.*' In opposition to theatrical amusements be wrote, 
f^ Play confuted in five several actions,** 1580, and *^ The 
School of Abuse,** 1587; the latter a professed invective 
against poets, players, and. jesters, but with much good 
sense and gooxi temper He wrote also the '^ Ephemerides 
of Phialo,*' 1579, and a sermon entitled << The Trumpet 
of War." « 

GOTHOFRED. See GODEFROI. 

GOTTESCHALCUS, surnamed Fulgentius, and ce» 
lebrated for propagating and exciting a .controversy on 
the doctrines of predestination and free grace, was bora 

' Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— -Tiraboschi* 

* Atb. Ox. ToU I.— Gtot. Mag. ?ol. LXV.— Biog . Drainatio«« 



© O T T E S C HA 1- C U S. lis 

«a6erUa«lf, in the beginning, prdbably^ of the ninth t;e6- 
/tiify, Fsom au-ly Ufe be ha4 be^n a monk, and bad de- 
voled faudtetf to tbeolegieal inquiries. He was pecftliaitly 
i»fi^ Qrf tim ^ratings (of St. Apgttstiiie> and efitered with 
jo^efa sKial 'inte his sentinents. About the year 846, iie 
left 'his nteoasterj^ at FuMa, and went into Dalmatia and 
Panootiia, where be spread the doctrhies of St. Augustine, 
under a firetence, as his eneuiies said, of preaching the 
go8|)el to the iniideis. At his return, he reaiataed sokne 
iime m Looibardy, and in the year 847 held a confeience 
wiA Notingus, or Nothingus, bishop of Vietine^ concern* 
ing predestination, who prevailed on Rabamis, archbishop 
t)f MeitttZy to tiadertake the^ confutation of what was called 
a siewir ireresy. This the archbishop undertook, and was 
iopported by a syaod at M^Boiz, which condemned Gottes*- 
chaiciis. He was farther prosecuted by Himeniar, arch" 
hisfaop of fijieifiis, was degraded from the priesthood, and 
^idered «o be beaten with rods^ and imprisoned. But 
-as n^^biog was proved against him, except bis adhe^ 
iHeDoe ^ the sentiments of Augustine, which were still 
heldln.esiimalaott ia dse .church, tbiis shews, in the opitiion 
iof Dnpih, diat he was an injured man. He was, however, 
«a aemetaely whipped in the presence of the emperor Charles 
and the bishops, ^at his resohition failed him^ and be 
complied with their commands so far as to throw into the 
£re a wrttiog in which he had made a coUection of scrip- 
tuce tekts in order 4o prove his opinion. After this he 
was kept a close prisoiser by Hincmar in a monastery, 
wkeeehe ooatinued to maintain his opiotans until his death 
in ihe aanle prison in the year 870. Hincmar, hearing 
that be lay at the point of death, sent him a formulary, 
which he was to subscribe, in order to his being received 
iatothe eottimonion of tbe church ; Oottesbhalcus, however, 
jpgecled thec^er witb indignation, and therefore, by ord^i« 
ql Hinemar^ was denied Christian burial. But even in that 
a^ tiiere were men who loudly remonstrated against the 
faarbafily.with whiob he had been treated. Remigius, arch* 
hUkisp fOf Lyons, distinguished himself among these ; and^ 
im a^sftuneil held at Valence, in Daupbiny, in the year 
^65^ hol^h Ootteschalcus and his doctrine were vindicated 
jmd def^hded, and two subsequent councils confirmed the 
decrees x>f »this connciL The churches also af Lyons^ 
Vienne, and Aries, vigorously supported the sentiments of 
Gotteschalcus, whom nothing biit the secular influence of 
Vol. XVI. I ^ 



114 GO T T ESCHALCUS. 

Hincmar could have detained in prison, while bis catne 

• was thus victorious. The only wntii>g8 of this confessor 
that have reached the present limes are, two ^** Confessions 

. of Faith,'' inserted in archbishop Usher's^ ** Historia Qot- 
teschalci," printed at Dublin in 1641 ; an epistle to Ra- 
tramnus, published in Cellot's '< Historia Gotteschalci/' at 

eParis, in 1655, and some fragments of other jMeces, no- 
ticed by Cave. In 1650, the celebrated Maguin publish- 

red, at Paris, a collection of the treatises produced on both 
sides of this controversy, entitled ^^Veterum Auctorum 
qui nono saeculo de Prs&destinatione et Gratia scripserant, 

. &c/' 2 vols* 4to. * 

GOTTI (Vincent Lewis), a learned cardinal, was born 

'at Bologna Sept. 5, 1664. He was the son of James Gotti^ 
a doctor of laws, and professor in the university of Bologna* 
In 1680 he became of the Dominican order, and having 

.completed his course of philosophy at Bologna, was sent to 
study theology for four years at Salamanca in Spain. U^ 
on his return in 1688, he was appointed professor of phi- 
losophy in the university of Bologna, and was also made 
prior and provincial of his order, and inquisitor of Milan. 

,In 1728, pope Benedict XIII. created him a cardinal, and 
three years afterwards appointed him member of the con- 
gregation for examining bishops -, and such was his reputa- 
tion, that in the last conclave, held during his time, a con- 
siderable number of the cardinals were for his being raised 
to the papal throne. Soon after this he died at Rome in 
.1742. His works are much valued by the catholics m 
Italy, and display considerable erudition. Of these the 
principal are, 1. ^^De vera Christi Ecclesia," Rome, 17 19, 
3 vols, and reprinted with additions at Milan in 1734. 2. 
<^ Theologia Scholastico-dogmatica, juxta mentem divi 
Thomae Aquinatis, &c.*' 6 vols. 4to. S. ^' Colloquia Theo- 
logica-polemica, in tres classes distributa, &c." Bologna, 
4to. 4. '^ De Eligenda inter Dissidentes Christianos Sea* 
tentia,*' written in answer to a piece with the same title, 
by Le Clerc ; and an elaborate work in defence of the truth 
of the Christian religion against atheists, idolaters, Maho- 
metans, Jews, &c. 1735 — 1740, in 12 vols. He was em- 
ployed at the time of his death in writing '* A Commentary 
on the Book of Genesis.'' A long life of him, ^' De vita et 
atudiis, &c.'' 4to, was published at Rome in 1742.' 

1 Cs¥e<F-Diipiiii— Moreri.«-]IIiki«r'f Chnrcli Hitt. toU III. p. 242. * Morta. 



G O TT SX H E D. lis 

(srOTTSCHED (John Christopher), a German poet, 
father, however, in theory than practice, was born at Ko- 
Digsberg'in.1700, and attained the office of professor of 
philosophy, logic, and metaphysics at Leipsic^ where be 
. died in 1766. His works, both original and republished, 
contributed in a considerable degree to diffuse a taste for 
.-elegant literature in Germany, as well as to refine the 
: German language. Among these we find, 1. <^ An Intro- 
, duction to Dramatic Poetry, or a Review of all the trage- 
t dies, comedies, and operas, which have appeared in Ger- 
many from 1450 to the middle of the eighteenth century,'* 
Leipsic, 1757. 2. "The German Poets, published by 
John Joachim, a Suabian^'* ibid. 1736. He also compiled 
■ various books of instruction in style and elocuti«n adapted 

• to the then state of the German schools ; and might have 
' deserved the praise of an acute critic, had he not unfortu- 
nately illustrated his principles by his own poetical effu- 

^sions, in which there is only a mediocrity of taste and ge- 
nius.' He died in December 1766. — His wife, Louisa 
Maria, had also very considerable literary talents, and had 
studied philosophy, mathematics, the belles lettres, and 
music, with success. She published a metrical translation 
of Pope's " Rape of the Lock ;^' and since her death, in 
: 1762, a collection of her letters has been published, which 
is held in high esteem. Frederick the Great of Prussia, 
who preferred Gellert to Gottsched, speaks with greater 

• respect of this lady than of her husband, but seems to think 
that both discovered more pedantry than taste*^ 

GOUDELIN (Peter), a Gascon poet, was born at Tou- 
louse iti 1579, where his father was a surgeon. He was 
educated for the law, but the muses charmed him fron 
that profession, and he devoted himself to their service. 

• His verses and the wit of his conversation procured him 
easy access to the tables of the great, but he profited so 

' little by their patronage, that he would haVe been left to 
starve in bis old age, had not his fellow citizens bestowed 
' a pension on him from the ^blic funds, wjiich he enjoyed 
! until bis death, Sept. 10, 1649. Suc)i was his reputation 
that they also placed his bugt in the gallery of the town- 
hall, among those af other illustrious men whom Toulouse 
had produced ; and his works were long cited with delight 
and admiration. They were published in a single volume, 

• • .'Diet. Hilt. - • 

J 2 



116 C O U D E L I N, "~^ 

jmmI oftan fu&Bto^ .at Toulouse^ and at AmsteFdam in 170O. 
Hb rpoem .ob ^ttie 4eath of Henry <!¥. is ^ne -of bis best/ aiid 
•nefof the Ukv Jtbat has borne a itraodatioti from fbe 19^j^« 
lOcna language. ^ 

'GOUlilNIEL i(Ciw^i?DE% on^ iof tfce «arly and most ce-* 
l^hrated .cooiposers of mwc to tbe fnetHrksd Frencdi 'tratis* 
latioiis of tile psaloas for the use of the prot6«t«lnas, xrad a 
oatiTe of Franobe-Comt^, wbo iost his Mfe ^t -Lyons^ -on 
abe day of tke massacre of Fajrh in 1 5t2, ifbr bating set to 
music tber psalfns of Cieaaefit Marot. Goudimel bei^^en 
luudi celetbrated by the protesftants in France for fhis ami- 
'Sic, vbicb w^s .never used ia 47be church of Geneva, and by 
the catholics in' Italy for instructing Fdestriiia in 4be art «f 
QOB^fiasirion, though k is doubtful «wbether this gresBt bar* 
aaonisit and (Goudimel bad ever the least acquaintance or 
mtercouvse tc^etfaer. He set the ^^ .Chansons ^^ritueUes'* 
of ^be cekbrated Marc^ Ant. De Muret, in four parts, which 
m0te printed at Paris, 1555. We may suppose Goudimel, 
at ^s time, to have beein a catholic, as the learned Mu^et 
is never ranked aoEiong hieretics by French biographers. 
Ten yioars. a&Br, wheii be set tbe psalms of Clement Marot^ 
tbisvension wasstiU cegarded mth less horror by the cat^- 
liqs tbaa in later times ; for the music which Goudimei bad 
jfist to it was printed at Paris by Adrian Le Roy, and Robeirt 
BoUard, with a privilege, 1565. It was reprinted in Hot- 
iand, in 1^7, for the use of the protestants. His works 
jwre beooine so scarce, that bis name and reputation ai^ 
preserved by protestant historians, more in pity of his mis* 
fortunes, than by any knowledge of tlieir excellence. The 
emrliest mention of Goudimd, as a composer, is in a woiik 
/entttlfid ^^ liber quartus Eeclesiasticarum Cantionum 4}ua* 
tuor TOCittD vulgo Motets vocant,*' printed at Antwerp, by 
£usato, 1554, eighteen years before his death. These 
motets resemble in gravity of style, simplicity in ike sub- 
jects of fugue, and purity of harmony, the ecclesiastical 
compositions of our venerable countryman Bird* Some of 
bis letters are .printed anKMig the poems of bis intimate 
frioid Melissus, published under die title of ^'Melisai 
Scbediasmatum Reliquise/' 1575, 8vo.' 

GOUGE (William), a very celebrated puritan divine, 
was born at Bow near Stratford^ Middlesex^ Nov. 1^ .1575^ 

'1 Mpreri.— Diet Hist. 

< Gen. Diet.— Dr. Barney, m Refit's Cjrdsp«di«,— Hawkins'* Hist, of Music* 

r 



G a U G R lit 

aod edHfiQtoii at Eton iehotA, ^b^nce he nieat in 1595 to 
King's coUeg(e> Gambridgie. He vifat endowed wtA con^ 
sideivdble powers of mkid, and by close appiioation to sNidy, 
acGumnlated a great fund of learning. Sucb was bis ar^ 
doar and regularity in his ikerary pursuits, that during^ his 
first thrae yearS) he dept only one dight out of eollege^ 
and for nine years* never missed college prayers at half- 
pB9t frve in the morningt ufitess when froiti home* it wm 
hia invairiabie rule to read fifte^ chapters io die Bible 
eFery day, at three times. When bhosen reader of logio 
and philoiopby in the college, he was equally precise< id' 
regiUttffi^ of duty and attendanoe. Hamsg tsri^en bie de« 
greesy aad beenadoutied into orderS) he was iu 1606 pi^* 
ferred po* the rectory of St. AnneV ^cfcfriars^ London^ 
where he^ became extremely popular ; and* ha?ioge insti* 
tuted a leetimneon Wednesday morakigS|» it vra$ fi^iiented* 
by ntany persona of die first itmk Having, howie»ver, imw 
bibed jHMiieof the pjrejudififta whidi wereahen so coMmm^ 
agaiimt the. church of Englatod^- he was oceaiibwUr cii^U** 
sated, and at ^nH time threattened witba prosecudon m* 
the StaiMshamfaer for having beeone^ a* meanber ctf li soeietj^ 
for the piHchase of imjMtopriatioiis ; but' this'did not^takd^ 
effidct^ aiididie subiequeat disturbancea i<dieTed,hifiS (\rom^ 
any £iiitbei* molestation. In 164S> he was nooiioaited one- 
fit fht asiembly of divines, and took an active piArtin> die^ 
various pnooeedinge instituted by the then poling powon^* 
for the cefonnatioa of the church* But «i^eti in 1^46, be 
sav the: fevgcfas to whidi their reformations 'tevid^d^ be 
united with a large body of Im bretbrisn in dedaring against 
patting the hing to d^th. For forty^five yeairsj stsy^ 
Gyas^r, . he wan* the laborious, the exemplary, attd^: ih^^ 
nracb leifedi mtndster of St Anne*s Blacbfriaie,)^ wtbere^Me^ 
ever tboc^tor spoke- ill of him, but sueh as wei^inoliiDeid'' 
to thMi or speak ill of religion itself. He died 9ee^ P2f 
l$6&* He appears, indeed^ to have had the' suf&ages^ of 
ali his^ contemporaries, and is boeottrtAvly men^tkined' by 
many foreign divines*^ He was at one time 08ewd tbe 
prarofitship of King^s^ college^ but' declined it; Ma uauii^ 
saying was^ that it waa bis highest ambitkm ^ 4ol go firofii' 
Biaokfefars* .to beaitiea%** Be published several pious tmet^ 
and aomie serHipns^ which buhop WiUdns elas^ofr.ani4^iijgf 
the most excellent of his time ; but his principal work 
was <^ A Commentary on th^ Epistle to tjie Hebrews^'* 



Hi GOUGE. 

1655, fol. He had also a share in the commentairy on the 
Bible, usually called ^'The Assembly's Annotations.*' ^ 

GOUGE (Thomas), son of the preceding, was bom at 
Bow, Sept. 19, 1605^ and was educated at Eton school, 
whence he was chosen to King's college, Cambridge, in 
1626. Here, after taking his degrees, he was chosen fel- 
low of his college, and afterwards presented with a 'living 
at Colsden near Croydon, in Surrey, where he continued 
about three years. In 1638, he was removed to the living 
of St. Sepulchre's, London^ and the year after married one 
of the daughters of sir Robert Darcy. During a period of 
twenty-four years he diischarged the duties of his profession 
" with the most exemplary zeal. Besides preaching twice 
every Sunday, and often on we^k-days, he visited his flock, 
catechised their children, inquired into «nd relieved the 
wants of the poor, and devised plans for their employment. 
Such of the poor as were able to work, he employed in 
spinning flax and hemp, whi^h he bought for the puipose, 
and paying them for dieir work, got it worked into cloth, 
which he sold, as well as he could, chiefly among bis 
friends, bearing himself whatever loss was sustained. By> 
this wise and humane scheme he diverted. many from 
^^gs\^gf cmd demonstrated to them, that by industry they 
might soon become independent of charity ; and he thus 
is said to have given the hint which produced the humane 
and benevolent institutions of Mr. Firmin, which have 
been referred to in the memoir of that excellent citizen. 
When the act of uniformity took place, he quitted- his 
living of St. Sepulchre's, being dissatisfied respecting the 
terms of conformity ; but after this he forbore preaching, 
saying there was no need of him in London, where there 
were so many worthy ministers, and that be thought he 
Blight do as much or more good another way, which could 
give no offence. Accordingly his time was now zealously 
devoted to acts of beneficence and charity. He employed 
his own fortune, which was considerable, in relieving the 
wants of his poorer brethren, who, on account of their 
noncoafoirmity, were deprived of their means ef subsist- 
ence ; and be was a successful applicant to the rich, from 
whom he received large sums, which were applied to that 
humane purpose. In 1671, he set about a plan for intro^ 

I CUurke'i Li?e8 at the eii4 of |iis Hartyrokfyi^-Foneral Senoon by Jcnkyiu 
4to*«^Wood'i Fasti* vol. I. 



GOUGE. 119 

4atifig knbwledge and religion into the different parts of 
Wales» which at that period were in the most deplorable 
d^kness. He established schools in different towns where 
the poor were willing that their children should be taught 
the elei^ents of learaingi and he undertook to pay all the 
expences which were incurred in the outset of the business. 
By degrees these schools amounted, to between three and 
four hundred, and they were all annually visited by Mrr 
Gouge, when he carefully inquired into the progress made 
by the young people, before whom he occasionally 
preached in a style adapted to their age and circumstances 
in life, for, being in his latter days better satisfied with the 
terms of conformity^ he had a licence from some of the 
bishops ta preach in Wales. With the assistance of his 
friends, whose purses were ever open at his command, he 
printed eight thousand copies of the Bible in the Welsh 
language ; a thousand of these were distributed freely 
among those who could not afford to purchase them, and 
the rest, were s^nt to the cities and chief towns in the prin« 
<upality, to be sold at reasonable rates. He procured like- 
wise the English liturgy, the '^ Practice of Piety," the 
^' Whole Duty gf Man,'' the Church Catechism, and other 
practical pieces, to be printed in the Welsh language, and 
distributed among the poor. During the exercise of this 
benevolent disposition, he meddled nothing with the con- 
troversies of the times, and partook in no shape of the ran- 
cour of many of his ejected brethren against the church of 
England, with which he maintained communion to the last, 
and, as he told archbishop Tillotson, ^^ thought -himself 
obliged in conscience so to do.*' He was accustomed to 
say with pleasure, *^ that he had two livings which he would 
not exchange for two of the greatest in England." These ' 
were Wales, where he travelled every year to diffuse the 
principles of knowledge, piety, and charity : and Christ's 
Hospital, where he catechised and instructed the children 
iu the fundamental principles of religion. He died sud- 
denly Oct, 29, 1G81, in the seventy-seventh year of his 
age. His death was regarded as a public loss. A funeral 
sermon was preached on the occasion by Dr. Tillotson, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury ; who, at the conolu- 
sipa of an animated eulogium on his piety and virtue, ob- 
serves, tj^at ^Vall things considered, there have not, since 
the primitive times of Christianity, been many among the 
sons of men, to Whom that glorious character of the Son of 



IQCk G O U G K. 

God might be better applied^ that " he went about ji0ing 
good.*' And Mr. Ba:!(teF, ia his Narrative of his dwn LiU 
and Times, says of Mr. Gouge, ^' I never heard vaxy one 
person, of whatever rank,, sort,, or sect soever, sp^afe.one 
word to his dishonour, or ^ame any fault that they elnu^gedf 
on his life or doctrine ; no, not the prelatists theoMelvesy 
aave only that he oonfprmed nofe to their impositions; atid- 
that he did so much good with so much industry.*' Tbi» 
^ninent divine published a fqw practicid pieces, of twbicb 
the following may be mentioned^ : ^f The Prinoipli^s 06 Re- 
ligion expluned;" ^^ A Word to Sinners;'* '^ Cbristiaa» 
Sinections to walk with God ;" ^} The surest and safest 
Way of Thriving^ viz. by Charity to the Poor;'? «The 
Young Man's Guide through the Wildernessofthib World*'* 
Tbe^e were collected in an 8vo- volume ia> 1706, and^ pnb- 
lisbed at London, with a fine portrait, by Van dOP GiK^ht^ 
and archbishop Tillotson's Enneral SermoR and Life of hint- 
prefixed*' 

. GOUGH (RicHARD)t the Camden of> the eighteenth 
century^ and one of the most illustrious- antiquaries Eng- 
l^yod has produced, was the only son'Of Hanry Gough) esq^ 
of Perry-hall. This gentleman, for whom his ^on^Mrpre- 
served a reverential aflbction, was born Apsil 2, 16S1, and. 
in bis. eleventh year, went with his. node sir Riehar<l 
Gough, to China, where he kept hir aceounts^ In 1707, 
ha commanded the ship StreaJt^am, of which his younger 
brother Richard was purser in 1709. He cominued to 
command this ship till 1715, when be retired- with^ a de- 
cent competency, and was elected a director of the £«st 
India company about 1731. In this situation, his know- 
ledge of the company's afiairs, the result of hjs many 
voyages in their service, and bis zeal for their interests, 
joined to habitual activity and integrity, gave him great 
vi^eight. He became also a reprefsentative in parliament in 
1734, for the borough of Bramber, for which he sat until. 
hi$ death. His political career was marked by independence 
of spirit Although attached to, and in the confidence of, 
sir Robert Walpole, he refused several offices from that 
n^inister, and yet supported him to the last He died in 
17i51, and was bpried in the rector'9 vault in St.- Andrew's 
church, Holborn. in 1717, he purchased of the lady of 
sir Richard Shelley, one moiety of the Middlemore estafe 

1 Life by TiUoUoo. abi S9pnk<-»Calsaij«— Clarke's lirsB of Ssiidiy QwMit 
PersoDBi 1783| folio. 



G O U G IL 



Ul 



ip. 'Wajwtiiikrilim (die other moifety of wWch he before 
pQ8Mfi«ed% wbioh afterwards descended to hie soe wA bete 
Biic^d, tiQfgetber mtb« the property at Enfield^ whiAfa* he 
purehe^di in 1723» In 1719 he married Elisabeth^ 
4iit4gbt)er of A^Kgan Hyindei. esq» of London^ aneoiineQt^ 
biseweiw 

By tbi»le4y» who died May 27, 1774, be had an onlsr* 
soe^ the sufaijeet of this article, who was born Oct.dl, 1735, 
ip ^ large bouse in Wiacbester-street^. on the sitae of the 
monasteiy.of the Austin- friars^ He receiFed the fihit nt*^ 
diments of £.a{dn and Greek under the tuition of one Bac« 
oewitz, a Courlander ; and afterwards, on his deadly vraa* 
eommitted to the care of the rev. Roger Pickerings a< «Bs^ 
senting minister, a man unfortunate in life, but au acooiii«> 
phshed scholar, who died in 1755*; f^hen Mr. Gough 
finuihed hia Greek studies under Mu Samuel Dyer^ the 
frieud of Dr. Johnson ^)d of the oontemporairy liteiMbL 
Under these ins4arM9tpni> Mr. Goug^ baa eot left qsi tm 
question his pr^oiency, nor that early ambition to know 
and to ceoHmunieaie, which forms tbeiostructireeditGdr and; 
autbor^ At the very early age of eleven he commenced « 
task whtcbi wioiild have, reflected credit on any perbd eif 
li£s^ i^nri he completed it with a perseveranoe of, which, 
there ia.pjmoihably no other instance ia our literary anoalii« 
Thie «a» *^ The Hisliory of tl|e Bible, translated' from tbe^ 
French^'' (of 49 Aaisterdam edition, of 1700} ^* by. B..O. 
junior/* printed atv London in 1747. Of this curiotts 
voiumc^ consiatiog of 160 sbeetsvio folio^ his mother, 
delighted, at such a display of liuidable applicatioo^ bore 
the enpew^e of printing twenty •five copiee, aa presenta. 
to ai few friends; and when completed at the presa^. 
it wM.m^rliedy by way of colophon, ^^ Done at tiaelve yeava. 
and. Sk half old^*' after which, i» the copy now before us,, 
follow^ >^ A short Chronology of the HoJy Scripture,** m- 



* ''From this iqpst aecomplishedf 



ai w 



ell as learned man," tsays Mr. 



GMigbittafragniciitoffakowniMnioin, 
*' IliNiffl^lkyluwfpiedge myaelf to bare 
derived i^eat advantage ; and had be 
been left to indulge the liberality of 
hie . tfempei^ uacontroaled by femate 
and mateinal partiality ar^ peeulia* 
rity, I might have been forwarded in 
that styl* of 'lite to which it was bis 
ambition to train me, and to which I 
•ver after wanted both the spar and 



the guide." This may probably al- 
lude to some early view Mr. Gough 
entertained of risiofg inpvMiciffe; and' 
he .afterwards gives iiints , of. bttna lo«a 
restrained and contronled in the pjor? 
suits to which he subsequently was led 
by .inelination, and wfcicb beOMn« ba« 
bitual. In another place he safs# 
*' The year 1T74, by the death of mjr 
mother^ made mfi eanpletelj mnter 
of myself.*' 



12? G O U G H. 

three sheets. The style is throughout juvenile and simple ; 
and such were even at this early age our author's notions 
of literary honour, that be would receive no aid without 
acknowledgment, and therefore p^ge 24, which contains 
mn account of the furniture and inhabitants of Noah's ark, 
is introduced with these words i ^^ The printer gives you 
this explanation." It is impossible not to contemplate this 
volume with a strong impression of the excellent and 
amiable disposition which conducted a mere boy, unwearied 
and pleased, through so laborious a task. Mr. Gough 
himself, in his mature years, appears to have looked at it 
with complacency ; and the copy in Mr. Nichols's pos^ 
session is filled with corrections and improvements of the 
language. 

' It is not difficult to conceive that his parents and friends 
would be desirous to encourage a turn of mind which indi-> 
cated 80 powerful a sense of the value of time and instruc- 
tion ; and accordingly we find him in about three years 
completing a translation of ^^ The Customs of the Israelites^ 
translated from the Frenchrof the abbot Fleury, by R. G.^' 
1760, 8vo. This was also printed for distribution among^ 
friends. He had about this time fully prepared for the 
press, even to the title-page and preface, a work of great 
labour and research, under the title of ^ Atlas Renovatus, 
or Geography Modernized ; being a particular deseriptioa 
of the world as far as known to the ancients, and the pre« 
sent names of such places as now subsist ; containing alt ' 
the cities, towns, villages, castles, &c. mentioned in an-* ' 
ctent authors, with all the remarkable occurrences that 
happened at l^e several places ; the birth-places of famous 
men, the memorable sieges and battles, &c. the bounds, 
soil, air, manners, government, religion of each country. 
The whole being the most complete system ever composed be* 
/ore. . To which is annexed a list of the Roman ways, and 
a copious index to facilitate the whole. Drawn upon the 
plans of Hornius's and Cellarius's maps." This is a folio 
volume, dated 1751, fairly written, and now preserved in 
Mr. Nichols's library, as a memorial of his consummate 
industry. Such a compilation, indeed, at the age of six* 
teen, is probably without a parallel ; for much of the de- 
sign, arrangement, &c. is perfectly original, and sycli 
intenseness of^pplication could not have been recommended 
by any master. 



G O U G H. 1M: 

After the death of his father (July 1% 1751) Mr. Goilgb 
was admitted, in July 1752, feUoiv*coininouer of Bene't<^ 
college, Cjunbridge. The college tutor at this time was 
Dr. Joba Barnardiston, afterwards master; but Mr, GougVs 
private tutor was the rev. John Cott, fellow of the college,' 
and afterwards rector of Braxted, in Essex, ^^ to whom,*' 
says Mr. Gough, ** I regularly repeated my lesson, with-, 
out a grain of instruction on his part.'* To the university 
Itfr. Gough brougbt a considerable fund of classical litera** 
ture, and having already imbibed a curiosity after matters 
of antiquity, found his enthusiasm heightened by a con* 
nexion with a college eminent for producing a succession 
of British antiquaries ; and it is certain that he here laid 
the plan of his ^^ British Topography */' He applied, in 
the mean time, to academical studies, with an ardour 
which even at this age was become habitual, and the knom^ 
ledge he acquired in philosophy and the sciences was often 
displayed in his future labours ; some of which prove that 
he had paid no.little attention to subjects of theology atid 
sacred, cnticitm ; and indeed it was inferred by the friends 
w1h»Idb0W his acquisitions most intimately, that he might 
have passed into any of the Learned profes«ons by a very 
easy taransition. Before he left the university he had pre- 
pared for-lhe press, although they all remain still in MS. 
the following works : I. ^ Notes on Memnon, annexed'to 
the .abb6 Gedoyn's French translation.*' 2. <^Astro-my- 
tkologf^.otf a short account of the Constellations, with the 
names of the principal stars in each, and their connexion 
with mythelogy." 3. <^ The History of Bythynia, trans- 
lated from the French of the abb6 Sevin." 4. <^ Memoirs 
of celebrated Professors of the belles lettres in the aca« 
demy of inscriptions, &c. at PaHs, translated and abridged 
from the.Elogia, &e." 5. <* Reflections on the Egyptian 
Government; and also on the Jewish, Persian, Cretan, 
Carthaginian, Spartan, Athenian, and Roman Govern- 
xnents." 6. *^ Memoirs of the Life and Character of Mith- 
ridates, king of Pontus, extracted from various and ge- 
mine authors." All these, with many voluminous common- 
place bookS} were executed before our author had reached 

« 

* « While at college I had begun son's « English Topographer,'* till f 

to make additions to the list of writers fancied I might commence topographer 

OB the Topography of 'Great Britain myself. E formed a quarto volume/* 

and Ireland, prefixed to Gibson's &c. Fragment of his Memoirs, writ- 

(amden, I inserted these in Rawlin* ten by himself. 



12% 



GO U GIL 



his lnirenty-fii>st y^ar. Of amusement's he imiftt cff coiuAse 
hare.beeii' spano^, and this incessant pursuit. o£ kaow^ 
ledge^ while it acciimiilat:ed a- large fund- for tbe use of 
fatiire labouris^ preserved him frdm those associaftitiiis 
are so dai>g«rous^ta morals^ and enabled Um: to .pa» »longr 
life not oiAy untainted with vice, but unifeanly guided by 
»*sen«e of piety. 

Amidst all his academicallabcrnvS) hpwerer^^his peeidi&r 
attachment was to? thiat pursuit onii4iioli his fame*i« foanded, 
the stably of the history and antiqpiitjr of his native country,' 
which, he always acknowledged, was< fosteved mtlfin liie< 
wails of a colI^;e that had trained arcfabtsiiDp Parker^ the^ 
g^eat reviver of trhe* study of anttqui^*. In? July 1TS6, 
he finally left CamtSridge wttbouttsJdng a degiteey and en-, 
tered ont an; excursion to Peterborough, Groifiland, and 
(Stannfoord* Int bis. history of Groyland, pnhtisdied^ ^^owg- 
after, he infoi«is>iis that his cai«er of antiquanxii pwrsake 
began there, and at that time. Similar encurssona he 
afterwards made ; regularly thmogli tiie different parts^ ofi 
Eag^nd,. Walies^ . a»d Scotland, flrom 17*59 t(» 17QPI, oq1<*- 
leeting materials,, noting observations, and' examiniog wttb^ 
historical and: critical precision all the remarkable' sites* of^ 
national antiqnities ; and until within tlvo yseaiw 06 Ui' 
death, he repeated his visits to spots of particulatr krt itwe e t 
and curiosity.. Buring this penod he fi>rmed anteictensife 
acquaintance with the antiquaries of hts- time, i^htohpro«« 
dttced an equally extensive eorrespondeace^ la some otf - 
these tours'be made several drawings, whtchi, although he 
was not a. professed draftnnan, were not diseredilaUe ^t<r 
has > taste and accuracy, and he alao • amused himself ooca^ 
sionally. wi^ etefaing, which be did in^a'^sefy-iieflit ma»ner4 • 
A volume of these etchings^ now in our .possessienj by/the 
kindness of his biographer,, we'treasure ak a most pleasing 
and curious memorial* The result oflalLhis twenty* yeani - 
e»:ursions affpeaced afterwanis in hi$t new edition of Cami- ' 
den's ^< Britannia.'' . 1 . 



• << W9» it to be wondered at that 
(the pursuit of our uatioual antiquities) 
shbuld be foi^tere^ within these venerable 
watls, which owed their support and 
ipjeiidoar toti^rehhtfbep I^tfeer, and had 
naned a 9M8ee»uo» of British Anti« 
qaaries tQ< tii|>piicaent tkBe i or that> 
withwt aay tmv to a degirea ar a pro- 
fessiooi I should exceed the 



uHiaUfT sp^t io'a oolleyel or thstiiM) 
I was to return home again tor books 
and study, without any prospect sT 
•being able to gratify my wish of ▼!• 
sitiag iMeigii' owKilnesi that desiite 
shouMU by reooiU inf ^iBie poverfoHjr 
to raoiMe- orer my ^wn V* Frtigabnt 
QiMmaoin, as abare* 



!& D U G X. US 

fiKs fifst n^gokr publicatioii was oaonymoiM, <^ The 
Hisfeiinjr df Oarafiaimi ; oar an examination of what has been 
.BfbafNeedieD thai; subject by Geaelmer And Dr. Stubeleyv^' 
JM^ «4Mi a very ebiborate and <crittcal disquwiden. In 
Fehnaary 1767 be was elected a £&Uowof the society ^fae- 
Aiqeasies of LoitdQ% and in 177 1^ on the 'death of Dri Gns- 
fg9tty SbarfMs, maaler cf the temple, he was noaaiiiated 
4irecalar ef the society^ which office he held till I>ec. If, 
ll^^y when he quitted the soeiety altogether. Two years 
he£M^ he >qnilted cthe royal society, of which he had .'been 
ehoaeo fellow ip MarcAi ft77S* lo 1767 Jne commenced his 
^MunsrsfMUidieEiee with the iGentleiiian's Magaaine^ by -an ac* 
eouot-of the Tillage of Aldfriston, under the signatcue of 
D. H. Ae final letters of his name, which signatune he Pe« 
tainad tft the ilaat, bait not altogether uvifornly, nor is 
anotber aigsature in some later Tolames, with the same 
ktters^ to be mistaken for his. On the <leath of his fel* 
lew-e«l)e^taB, Mr. Duncombe, in i7S€, l^be d^fiartmeat 
citlm xemew m that miscellaoy was for the oMMt part oooi- 
mitted to hint. ^^ If," as he says hiaciselfy *' he criticised 
miA warmth and severity certain innovations atfeemp^d in 
€ikva:cik and state, he wr<Me his sentuneBts with siocerity 
aaid impadrtiality-^in the fnlloess of a beast deeply im- 
pressed with a sense of the excellence «nd happiness ef 
the Enghsb constitution both in church and state." Such 
indeed were Mr« Gough's steady principles during that 
period of itttelleot«al delusion which followed the French 
sefoletion; and'^hegave his aid with no mean effect, to 
.a saeiecotts body of writers and thinkers^ many of whom 
(and ^e wish his name <ould hare been added to the 
number) have lived to enjoy the full gratification of their 
hcqses^. We cannot, howevac*, quit, ^is subject without 
noticiiig that extensive knowledge which Mr, Gough dis- 
played ifi his critical labours in the Magazine ; he seems 
never to have undertaken any thing of the kind without 
such an acquaintance with the subject as siiowed that his 
studies had been almost universal, a^nd even occasionally 
directed to those points of literature which could be least 
expected to demand his attention ; we allude to the sub- 
jects of theology and criticism, both sacred and classical. 
The perusal of the classics in particular appears frequently 
to hav« relieved his more regular labours. 



126 G O U G H. 

la 1768 be published in 1 vol. 4to, his '^Anecdotes of 
British Topography^," which was reprinted and enlarged 
in 2 vols. 1780. To have published a third edition. With 

' the improvements of twenty-six years, would have afforded 

..him a high gratification; and in fact a third edition was 
put to press in 1806, and was rapidly advancing, when the 
destructive fire (of Feb. 8, 1808,) in Mr. Nicholses print- 
ing-office, and the then declining state of theauthor^s 
health, interrupted the undertaking. The corrected copy^ 
with the plates, was given by him to Mr. Nichols, who has 
since relinquished his right ; and it is hoped that the de- 
legates of the Oxford press will speedily undertake a new 
edition. On the utility of this work to British antiquaries 
it would be unnecessary to make any remark. It points 
the way to every future effort to illustrate local history. 

In 1773 he first formed the design of a new edition of 
Camden's Britannia, which he had partly begun to trans-* 

- late before, and accomplished in abotit seven years, and 
wlfich was at length published in three large folio volmAes, 
in 1789. Whatever incorrectness may appear in this la- 
boriotis and extensive undertaking, no trouble or expence 
was spared by the liberal editor in obtaining information. 
Added to his own personal inspection of every county, 
proof sheets of each were forwarded to those gentlemen 
who were likely to be most actively useful. Nor could 
any man be more fastidious than Mr. Gough in revising 
and correcting his labours ; and whatever discoveries some 
critics may affect to have made, it is certain that he always 
found it more difficult to satisfy himself than his readers^ 
and that a strict scrutiny by any person qualified for the 
task was to him the highest obligation. This may be safely 
averred, while at the same time it is allowed that he knew 
how to repel petulant remarks with a proper sense of whiat 
was due to his character, the extent o'f his industry, and 
the munificence of his expences. Of this valuable work 
it may not be superfluous to observe that Mr. Gough traris- 
lated it from the original, and supplied his additions mth 

.so little, interruption of the ordinary intercourse of life^ 

* « It was printed at Mr, Kichanl- The sale was rapid beyond - expecto- 

son's press — on credit; my allowance tioo;,and I was on the balance be- 

pot permitting^ any advance of money tween me and honest Tom Piayne» 

before publication. Mr. Richardson*' gainer of sef en pounds." Ptacmeil 

(this was the nephew to the celebrated of Meiuoirs. 
writer} '* refused interest on his labour. 



G O U G H- 127 

that none of his family were aware that he was at all en- 
gaged in so laborious an undertaking. The copyright be 
gaye (without any other consideration than a few copies 
for presents) to his old and worthy friend Mr. Thomas 
Payne, who defrayed the expence of engraving the cop- 
per plates ; and afterwards disposed of the whole of his 
interest in the work to Messieurs Robinsons. Mr. Gough 
superintended the /rx^ volume of a new edition ; but in 
1806, finding that the copyright had devolved from Mes- 
sieurs Robinsons to another person, he declined proceed- 
ing any farther than to complex the first volume, which 
they bad begun to print. Of this he announced his deter- 
mination in th§ newspapers, that no improper use might 
be made of his name ; and added, that it was now ^* of im- 
portance to his health to suspend such pursuits." 

Having heard of the difficulties under which Mr. Hutchins 
laboured respecting his ** History of Dorsetshire," Mr. 
Gough set on foot a subscription, and was the means of 
advancing a very valuable county history, which he super- 
intended through the press. It was published in 1774, 
2 vols. fol. Twenty years after, he contributed his aissist- 
ance to a second edition, three volumes of which have 
been' published, and a fourth is in a state of great for- 
wardness, under the superintendance of Mr. Nichols. In 
1779 Mr. Gough was the improver and editor of Martinis 
<' History of Thetford,'' 1 7 80, 4to ; published a new edition 
of Vertue^s Medals, Coins, and Great Seals, by Simon ; and 
in the same year contributed to Mr. Nichols's ^' Collection 
of Royal and Noble Wills.^' The .preface and glossary are 
by him. In 1786 he published the first volume of the 
/' Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, applied to iU 
lustrate the history of Families, Manners, Habits, and Arts, 
at the different periods from the Norman Conquest to the 
Seventeenth Century.'' This splendid folio volume, which 
contains the first four centuries, was followed in 1796 by 
a second, containing the fifteenth century ; and, in 1791^, 
by an introduction to it, with which he thought proper to 
conclude bis labours, instead of continuing them to the 
end of the sixteenth century, as originally intended. Of 
this truly magnificent work it is but justice to say, with his 
biographer, <' that it would alone have been sufficient to 
perpetuate his fame and the credit of tl|p arts in England, 
where few works of superior splendour have appeared.^* 
The independent master of an ample fortune, he was in 



US G O U G H. 

nU respects {M^e-enunentljr qualified for tfae Idboavs of tin 
4U[itiq.u«ry, which rarely ^meet with an adequate renfonerH* 
lioii. Indeed this work must iiave convinced )ibe ^R^Mid 
that be possessed not only the most indefatigable perse- 
■ Vterance^ but an ardour which no expence coiild possibly 
deter. One great object of Jiis wishes was to pitepanne 
^^ The Sepuldbral Monuments" for a new edition. Wiwh 
ihis constantly in v«iew, he spared neither troofale oor ex- 
pellee in obtaining an aai|irie store of new and accarate 
doamogs by tbe (first artists, aH wirioh, with the nuoAerous 
Md beautiful plates already engraved; fonm pant of 1ms {lo- 
Ue bequest %o tiie .univetisity «of Oxford. Among bis kuiedt 
Mfttrate pvcUieations weve, an Aooewtit of the beMitiftil 
Msaul 'preseated to Henty VL by 4;be dwcbcus of Bedford^ 
purchased at die dvcbess of Portland's sale by Janes G4- 
; wa^ds^ esq. in whose possession it remains ; ^ Tbe History 
«f Plediy^ in Essex/' 1 803, 4to ; and tbe same year, and 
in the same form, tbe '^ Plates 4>f the Coins of ike Seleii- 
• eidss." A few c^faer sepanU)e publications^ previous- lo 
these, will be noticed at the end of this article. 

Mrw' Goiugh drew up, at tbe united reqi»est of tbe pres4- 
ident and fiellows, the Histi»ry of the Society of Antiqisaries 
4»f Xoodon, prefixed to tbe first volume of their *^ Arebseo-* 
logia," in 1770, and to the eleven succeeding vcritunes of 
that irork, as well ^s to the ^ Vetustn MooifNBienta," eon- 
tributed a great many curious articles *. He was equally 
liberal in his communications to Mr. Nichols's *^ Biblio* 
tbecft Topograpbica," and to bis ^ History of Leicester- 
shire." Mr. Nichols relates with just feeling, that << for a 
ioiig series of years he had experienced in Mr. Gough tbe 
kind, disinterested friend ; the prudent, judicious adviser, 
the firm, unshaken patron. To bim every material event . 
iu liie was codfideotially imparted. In those that were 
prosperous, no man more heartily rejoiced ; in such as 
.viene less propitious, no man more sincerely condoled^ or 

* His Papers in the *' Archsologia^' On an antient Mosaic Pavement at 

are, On the Giants' Grave in Penrith Ely, p. 121; On a Roman Horolo- 

Cliui«h.3|Gard, to\. If. p. ISS ; On the gium, p. 172; On P^nts, p. 163; On 

Bese Matrei^ vol. III. p. 105; On the Analogy between certain . Moiw-^ 

Four Roman Altars found in Graham's ments, vol. XI. p. 33; On a Greek 

Dyke, p. 116; On the Invention ot Inscription in London, p. 48. 

Card-playing* vol. Vltf. p. 152; On la the «* Vetusta MonumtUta/' lie 

the Parian Chronicle, vol. IX. p. 157; wrote the Descriptions of vaUII. Platea 

On the Stamps of the antient Oculists, XXXVI. XXXVll. XXXIX. XL. XlA. 

p. 8S7; On aotieat Mansioftwhouses XLII. XLIII. XLV. L. LlU. LlV. 

in Northampton and Doreet Shires^ LV. Vol. I|L PSb|lM I-*-V. iKU^ 

tol. X. p. 7 i On Belalucader, p, 1 1 3 j XVII. XXV. 



G O U G H. 123 

itobre readily endeavoured td alleviate.'^ The deep con<* 
cern which be feH at the dreadful fire that destroyed Mr. 
Nichols's valuable property in 1806, was shewn in a series 
of the kindest consolatory letters, which were among the 
last be ever wrote. In one, dated September of that year, 
he requested Mr. Nichols to execute a confidential com* 
mission, '* which,'' he emphatically adds, *^may be the 
last office you will have to do for your sincere friend.'^ 
This was nearly prophetic, for there was little now to be 
done that could contribute to his comforts. '^ The bright 
gem of intellect," says bis affectionate biographer, 
*^ though frequently clouded, had intervals of its formei: 
splendour ; and the frequent emanations of benevolenee 
displayed through a long and painful illness, whilst they 
comforted and delighted those around him, added poig« 
tiancy to the regret they experienced for those bitter suf^ 
ferings which threatened to overwhelm a noble mind with 
total imbecility ; from which, however, he was mercifoliy 
relieved, without any apparent struggle at the last, oa 
Feb. 20, 1809, and was buried on the 28th, in the church* 
yard of Wormley, in Herts, in a vault built for that pur- 
pose, on the south sideof the cbanceF, not far from the 
altar which for several years he had devoutly frequented.^* 
The funeral, although, in conformity to his own directions^ 
as little ceremonious as propriety would permit, was fol- 
lowed from Enfield to Wormley by crowds whose lamenta* 
tions and regrets were unequivocally shown. The poor 
and the af&icted had indeed lost in Mr. Gough a father, 
protector, and benefactor. Enfield and its neighbourhood 
must loi^ cherish a lively and graiteful remembrance of his 
benevolence, which was at once extensive, judicious, and 
unostentatious. It was in him a principle and a system ; 
it began early, and continued to the last ; it embraced not 
only the present, but the future, and he had provided that 
bis charity should continue to be felt long after the heart 
that. dictated it had ceased to beat. His faithful domestics, 
when unable to continue their services, continued to re-* 
ceive their pay, in the shape of annuities ; and as he pos** 
sessed the attribute ascribed to '^ the merciful man,'* the 
generous steed, exempt by age from labour, and the cov« 
Jio longer useful in the dairy, were permitted to close theiff 
useful lives in a luxuriant meadow reserved for that express 
purpose. The genuine personal character of Mr. Gough 
eotttd only be appreciated by those who witnessed him ia 
Vol. XVI. K 



130 O O U G H. 

bis domestic and familiar circle. Tbougb bigbly and de- 
servedly distinguisbed as a scbolar, tbe pleasantry and the 
easy condescension of bis convivial hours still more en«* 
deared him, not only to his intimates, but even to those 
with whom the forms and customs of tbe world rendered it 
necessary that be should associate. 

In 1774^ soon after tbe death of bis mother, an event 
by which he came in possession of an excellent family re- 
sidence at Enfield, with the large estate bequeathed to him 
in reversion by bis father, be iadded greatly to all his other 
comforts, by marrying Anne, fourth daughter of Thomas 
Hall, esq. of Goldings, Herts ; a lady of distinguisbed 
merit, who after a long and affectionate union, has to 
lament tbe loss of him whose object through life was to 
increase her happiness. 

It is, however, as the learned and acute antiquary that 
he will be banded down to posterity ; and from the epitaph 
written by himself, he appears desirous to rest his fame on 
his three publications, tbe " British Topography,*' the 
edition of " Camden," and tbe " Sepulchral Monuments ;*^ 
sufficient indeed to place him in the very first rank of the 
antiquaries of tbe eighteei^th century. But while he gave 
a preference in point of value, labour, and utility to those 
works, be was ia no respegt ambitious of personal honours. 
He took no degree at Cambridge, and resisted the solici- 
tations of many members of the university of. Oxford to 
'receive an honorary degree; and when be withdrew from 
tbe Royal Society and that of the Antiquaries, from causey 
on which we shall not enter, but must ever regret, be no 
longer appended to his name the usual initials of fellow- 
ship. In politics, he was a firm friend to tbe house of 
Brunswick, and a stranger to the mutability of his con* 
temporaries. *^ That independence," he informs us him- 
self, *^ which he gloried in possessing as his inheritance, 
and which be maintained by a due attention to his income, 
discovered itself in bis opinions and bis attachments. A9 
he could not hastily form connexions, he may seem to have 
indulged strong aversions. But be could not accommodate 
himself to modern manners or opinions ; and he bad re- 
sources within himself, to make it less needful to seek 
them from without. And perhaps the greatest inconve- 
nience arising from this disposition was the want of oppor- 
tunities! to serve his friends. But he saw enough of tbe 
generi^I temper of mankind, to convince him that fayour^ 



G O U G H. 131 

should not be too often asked : and that as to be too much 
under obligation is the worst of bondage, so to confer 
obligations is the truest liberty.'' Such sentiments and 
fiuch conduct do no discredit to men like Mr. Gough. His 
talents, bis rank in society, and bis years, gave him claims 
to respect, which were, what he thought them, undeniable ; 
and feven where he shewed any symptoms of resentment, 
they were never beyond the limits which his superior cha- 
racter and long services amply justified. 

His library, with the exception of his legacy to the Bod-^ 
leian, was sold, agreeably to his own direction, by Messrs. 
Leigh and Sotheby, in twenty days, April 5 — 28, 1810, 
and produced 3552/. 3^. His prints, drawings, coins, nie<» 
dais, &c. were sold July 19, 1812, and the two following 
days, and produced 517/. 6s, 6d. By his last will, he be- 
queathed to the university of Oxford all his printed books 
and manuscripts on Saxon and Northern literature, for the use 
of the Saxon professor; all his manuscripts, printed books, 
and pamphlets, prints, and drawings, maps, aud copper- 
plates relating to British topography, (of which, in 1808, 
be had nearly printed a complete catalogue) ; his inter- 
leaved copies of the ** British Topography,'* " Camden^s 
Britannia," and the ^* Sepulchral Monuments of Great 
Britain,*' with all the drawings relative to the latter work ; 
and all the copper- plates of the '^ Monuments" and the 
"Topography;" with fourteen volumes of drawings of 
sepulchral and other monuments in France. All these he 
wills and desires may " be placed in the Bodleian library, 
id a building adjoining to the picture gallery, known by 
the name of the *^ Antiquaries closet." These were ac- 
cordingly deposited in the closet, and a catalogue has since 
been printed in a handsome quarto, under the care of the 
rev. B. Banidinel, librarian of the Bodleian. A more va- 
luable or extensive treasure of British topography was 
never collected by an individual. The MSS. are very nu- 
merous, and many of the most valuable printed books are 
illustrated by the MS notes of Mr. Gough and other emi- 
nent antiquaries. The remainder of his will, for which we 
refer to our authority, is not less in proof of his liberality, 
affection, and steady friendship. Such was the life of Mr. 
Gough, of which he says, in a memoir already quoted, 
*^ If I have rietieved the wants and distresses of the unhappy 
without ostentation, have done justice without interest,' 
have iserved the common cause of literature without vanity, 

K 2 



\^ G O U G H. 

{aaiotained my own independence without pride or fntd«? 
ence, bs^ve moderated my attacbinent to external objecls^ 
and placed my affections on the virtuoui^ and honest cha-» 
^acterj, and may trust to have so passed tbrough things 
^^;mporal as finally not to lose things eternal — I shall have 
Uvf^d enough,^^ 

• A few of ]V|r. Gough's publications yet remain to be no- 
ticed : 1. Nevtr editions of ^^ Description des Royaulmes d'An- 
gleterre et d*Ecosse, composed par Etienne Perlin," Paris^ 
][558 ; and of ^^ Histoire de Ten tree de la Heine Mere dans 
1$ Grandt Bretagne, par de laSerre," Paris, 1639; \yhich 
he illustrated with cuts, apd English notes ; and introduced 
by historical prefacec^ in 1775. 2. '^ A Csitalpgue of the 
Coins of Canute, king of Denmark and jglngland, with 
lyi^i^^iMSly" 1777, 4^0. 3. " An Essa^y on the Rise, and 
l^rogre^ of Geogrs^phy in Gipeat ]p!i^itain and Ireland ; illus^^r 
trs^^edt with specimens of our oldest ^»aps," 17^0, 4to ; and 
^* CaitiJogue of Sarum anid Yorl^ Missals," 17^0, both ex- 
tracted from the seqond ^^itipn of fajs^ ^* Britis^h Topogram 
phy." 5. " A gomparative view of th^. ar\pieot ]V{p(MimeQts 
of jlndiV he. 1785, 4to. 6. ^^ U&t of ^h^ i^embers of 
^e Society of Antiquaries o( j^ondon, from thieir revival 
in 1717 to June ]|796; arriang^4 in cbroix<?logical and al- 
phabetical order," 1798^ 4to. 7. In the sanxe year he 
amended a^d considerably enlarged, from the Paris edition 
qi 17&9, ac^ finglish tranij^tion of the '* Arabian Night» 
Entertainments," to ^hicb he. added notes of illustration, 
an4 9r preface,^ in which the supplementary tales published 
% Pom- Chavis, are prove4 to be a palpable forgery, 
8. ". A Letter to the Loi;d 5i^o.P of l^on^xxy by a Lay- 
iopa^n^" 1799, dvo, on various subjects connected with the 
prosperity c^ %\^ church. 9. " Rev. Kentiett Gibson^a 
CQipm^nt upoa part of the §fth journey of Antoninus 
^pugh Biit^Q/' ^c« I^OQ, 4to. 10. '^ liiUcriptioii of th^ 
]Byeauch^mp chapel^ adjoining to the chui;ch of Sit. Mary at 
Warwick," l^acH, 4to« As to his assistai^e to his friendu 
engaged in liter^f^y pursuits, . it was. more extensive tbaa 
probably will ev/^c be known; but some, particulars are 
stated by his biographer, to which wa re^r, and many other 
acknowledgments n^ay be found in yario.u3 works published 
within the last forty 3^ars. It i^ to be regretted that no 
portrait of Mr. Gough exists, nor is it known that he ever 
would oonsent to sit to any of the many artists with whom 
he was ^onne<?te,d, and to some of whom be was a ateady 
patron. His person was ahor^ iucUning to corpulence. 



G O U G H. ISt 

His features bespoke the enet-gy and activity of his miti^. 
In youth be was {Peculiarly shy^ which he attributed to & 
late entrance into the World, and an irresistible habit bf 
Application to books. As his intercourse with society ad- 
vanced^ his manner became niore easy, and his convena« 
tioU was always lively, often with a pleasant flow of hu- 
mour, and his disposition communicative. ^ 

GOUJET (Claude Peter), a canon of St James d^ 
I'Hopital, and an associated academician of Marsek4es> 
Roueti, Angers^ and Auxerre, was born at Paris, \ Oct. 19^ 
1697. His father was a taylor, with a tradesman-like 
averision to learning, in the pursuit of which, however, he 
foil^nd it impossible to prevent hts son from einploying bib 
fearly years, tie beg^n his studies at Paris, and carried 
tbetti on principally in the Jesuits* college^ and in the 
tbngregation of the oratory. In 1720 be obtained a ek- 
lionry of St Jauies de THojiital. He died at Paris, Feb* 
2i 1767. His whole lifb appears to haVe bten a tcetie of 
literary laboUr^ always Useful^ and ofteh condubted with 
great judgmeht. In otdbr to pursue his studies withoet 
interruption at home, or the necessity of having recourse 
to foreign assistance) he acCtinlulated a fine libiltry of 
10,000 volumes, in all branches df IttefatUre> but; parti- 
cularly litisrary hrstory and biography. For fifty years he 
continued to publish one toluihinou« compilatibn after 
andther; and by close application^ sb impaired his sight 
that he was almost blind ^eme titue before his death. The 
last editbt of Moreri divides hi6 publications into transla- 
tions, wbrks of piety, Wdrkii of literary history, lives and 
eloge^, papers in the literaty Journals, and lastly prefaces ; 
in all antounting to eighty-three articles. Of these the 
most useful appear to be^ l. ** Les^ Vies des Saints/' Parity 
1730, 7 vols. 12mo, dften reprinted in 4to, and other 
forms. 2. ^< Bibliotheque des autetirs ecclesiastlques du 
XVIII. siecle, pout* servif de .eoniinuation a celledeM. 
du Pin, &c." ibid. 1736,- S fols. 8i^o. S. « Supplefttent'* 
to Moreri*s Dictionary, ibid. 1735, 2 vols. fol. He alio 
pointed dut many hundred errbrs ifi the early (editions df 
that wdA. ♦. « Nouvfeau Supplement'* td (he same dic- 
tionary, ibid. 1749, fol. With a volume df «< Additiofis," 
1750^ fol. 5. « Bibliotheque F^ati^oi^e^ bn himidire de la 

1 Nichols's Bowyer, vol. VI. where, aad id the other Tolnmet of that intt* 
rettiog serie* of litorftrt history, will be found miny particulars relative to Mr. 
Gough'k connexioiit, «q4 a very oojuiderable eoUection of his epistolary conrt<^ 
spondenoe. 



134 G O U J E T. 

Ktterature Fraii5aise," from the invention of printing, 21 
▼ol& 12mo9 ibi^* ^'^^^ — 1759. This is the most useful of 
all bis works. It was undertaken at the request of M. 
D^ Argenson, the secretary of state. It in some measure 
resembles Niceron, whom he also assisted in his useful 
^^Memoires,^' and wrote bis life. 6. '^ De Tetatdes Sciences 
en France, depuis la mort de Charlemagne jusqu'aeelle 
du roi Robert," 1737, 12mo« This learned . dissertation 
chained the prize of the academy of belles lettres, and the 
members of this academy are said to have done for Goujet 
what they had never done for any other man. Withput 
any solicitation, or knowledge of the matter on his part^ 
they sent a deputation of six of their number to him, re* 
questing the honour of choosing him, in the room of the 
deceased abb6 de-Vertot. 7. A new edition of Richelet^s 
Dictionary, Lyons, 1756, 3 vols. fol. 8. " L'Histoire du 
College Royal de France,*' 4to. 9. ^^ Hist, du Pontificat 
de Paul V«" Amsterdam (Paris) 1765, 2 vols. 12mo. This 
was his last work, in which he is much less favourable to 
the Jesuits than might have been expected from one edu- 
cated among them. * 

GOUJON (John), an eminent sculptor and architect 
of Paris, lived under Francis I. and Henry II. and is sup- 
posed to have designed the fronts of the old Louvre. This 
artist's figures, in demi-relief, have never been surpassed ; 
nor can any thing of that kind be more beautiful than his 
Fountain of the Innocents, in the street of St. Denis at 
Paris. The cariatides which support a tribune in the hall 
of the Hundred Swiss at the Louvre are no less so. Many 
more of his works may be seen in that city, which are the 
admiration of connoisseurs, and remind us of the simple 
and sublime beauties of the antique style ; for which rea- 
son he is justly called the Corregio of sculpture. * 

GOULART (Simon), a protestant divine, and volu* 
mtnous writer, was born at Senlis, Oct. 20, 1543, and 
studied divinity at Geneva, where he was ordained in Octo- 
ber 1566, and i^a^ appointed one of the ministers of that 
city, a situation which he filled for the long space of sixty* 
two years. His residence at Geneva was never discontinued 
but on account of three journies be took to France, on 
matters relating to the protestant churches, the one in 
1576, when he went to Forez; the second in 1582, to 

r 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist • Diet. Hiat 



G O U L A R T. 135 

Cbampagnei and the third in 1 600, to Grenoble. The rest 
of bis life he devoted to his pastoral duties, and to his nu-* 
inerous works, which prove him one of the most indefati- 
gable writers of his time. He died Feb. 3, 1628, in his 
eighty-fifth year, and in full possession of his faculties. 
He preached but seven days before his death. Scaliger, 
who had a great esteem for him, says he was an ingenious 
man, who learnt all he knevy without the assistance of a 
master. 

Among the works which be edited and commented upon,, 
were those of Plutarch, St Cyprian, Seneca, &c. , He 
made a collection of ** Hemarkable Histories,^' in 2 Vols, 
8vo, and wrote several pieces relating to the history of his 
own times, particularly a *^ Collection of the most memo* 
rable. events which bccurred during the League, with notes 
and original documents," in 6 vols. 4to. Many of his 
pieces were anonymous, but to these he usually affixed the 
initials S. G. S. signifying ^* Simon Goulart Senlisien.'' He 
was so well acquainted with the secrets of literary history^ 
and of anonymous publications, that Henry III. of France, 
wishing to know the author of a piece published under the 
assumed name of Stepbanus Junius Brutus, and intended 
to propagate republican doctrines, sent a person to Geneva 
to consult Goqiart, but the latter refused to communicate 
the fact, for fear of exposing the author to serious injury. 
He had a son, who was a minister of the Walloon church 
at Amsterdam, and a strenuous assertor of Arminian tenets, 
but did not attain bis father^s reputation. * 

GOULSTON, GOULSON, or GULSON (Theodore), 
an eminent English physician in the seventeenth century, 
was born in Northamptonshire, and was son of Mr. William 
Goulston,^ rector qf Wymondham, in Leicestershire. He 
became probationer fellow of Merton college, Oxford, in 
1596, where he took the degrees of B. and M. A. and after- 
wards applied himself to the study of physic, which he 
practised first in Oxford, and afterwards at Wymondham, 
where he was much resorted to for hi^ advice. On April 
30, 1610, he took the degree of doctor of physic, and be- 
came candidate of the college of physicians at London^ 
being well approved by the president, censors, and fellows; 
and the year following he was made a fellow and censor 
of that college. He wi^ sgon introduced into very e:isten«» 

1 Cjen, Dict«-NictroD, voK^PUX. 



IS« G O U L S T O N. 

iite practice in the city of London, and distingui&hed hita^ 
self likewise to great advantage by his skill in the Latin 
arid Greek languages, and divinity, and by his writings. 
His affection to the public good and to the advancemetit of 
the fabulty of physic was such, that by his last will and 
testament he gave two hundred pounds to purchase a 
rent-charge for the maintenance of an annual ]ectur6 
within the college of physicians of London. This lecture 
was to be read from time to time by one of the four 
youngest doctors in physic of the college, and to be upon 
two, or" three, or more diseases, as the censors should 
direct ; and to be read yearly, at a convenient season betwixt 
Michaelmas and Easter, upon some dead body (if pro- 
curable) on three days successively, in the forenoon and 
afternoon. He left likewise several books to Merton col- 
lege, besides several other donations, which legacies wer^ 
punctually paid by his widow Ellen, who being possessed 
of the impropriate parsonage of Bardwell in Suffolk, pro- 
cured leave from the king to annex the same to the vi- 
carage, and gave them both to the college of St. John's, in 
Oxford. Our author died at his house within the parish 
of St. Martin Ludgate, May 4, 1632, and was interred 
^th great solemnity in the church of that parish. 

The public has been indebted on several occasions to 
the Gulstonian institution for ingenious dissertations, de- 
livered as lectiires ; as tho$e of Dr. Musgrave ; Dr. For- 
dyce's treii«ise on digestion ; Dr. Saunders, &c. Dr. GouU 
ston wrote, L ^^ Versip Latina et paraphrasis in Aristotelis 
rhetoricam," London, 1619, 1623, &c. in 4to. 2. "Aris- 
totelis de Poetic^ liber Latin^ conversus, et analytic^ 
methodo illustratus,'^ London, 1623, 4tQ. 3. " Versio, 
varisB Lectiones, et Annotatiohes criticce in opuscula varia 
Galeni,*^ London, 164p, 4to^ published by his friend Mr. 
Thomas Gataker, reotor of Rotberhithe, inSurrej'. ' 

GOULU (Jqhn), a'Frehch writer pf some note, was the 
son of Nicholas Goulu, royal professor of Greek in the 
university of Paris, in 1567, and author of a translation 
from Greek into Latin of Gregentius's dispute with the Jew 
Herbanus, which De Noailles, the French ambassador, bad 
brbiight from Constantinople, and of other works, a col-* 
lection of which was printed at Paris in 158Q. His son 
was born at Paris Aug. 25, 1576, and educated for tdie bar ; 

\ Aih. Oz. Tolf I.— Gen. Diet. 



G O U L U. 137 

buty having foiled in the first cause he pleaded, he felt the 
disappointment so acutely as to relinquish the profession^ 
and retire into a convent. He chose the order of the 
Feuillans, and entered amongst them in 1604. He was so 
much esteemed in his order that he always enjoyed soma 
office in it, and was at last made general. The name he 
took when he became a monk, was Dom John of St. Fran- 
cis. As he understood the Greek tongue, he translated 
into French Epictetus's Manual, Arrian^s Dissertations^ 
some of St. BasiPs treatises, and the works of Dionysius 
Areopagita; to which he added a vindication of this St. 
Dionysius*s works. He also revised his father^s Latin 
translation of St. Gregory Nyssen against Eunomius, and 
published it. He also wrote a book against Du MouKn's 
treatise of the calling of pastors, << De la Vocation des 
Pasteurs ;'' the Life of Francis de Salts, bishop of Geneva; 
and a Funeral Oration on Nicholas le Fevre, preceptor to 
Lewis Xni. ; but it is said that he never delivered it^ He 
did not, however, gain so great reputation by all those 
writings as by his angry controversy with Balzac, already 
noticed in our account of ^hat writer. Goulu died Jan. 

6,^629.* 

GOURNAY (Mary db Jars, lady of), a French female 
wit, the daughter of William de Jars, lord of Neufoi and 
Gournay, was bom either in Paris, or in Gascony, about 
1565. From her infancy she had a strong turn to litera- 
ture ; and Montagne publishing his first essays about this 
time, she conceited an enthusiastic veneration for the 
author. These declarations soon reached the ears of Mon-* 
tagne, who returned her compliments by corresponding 
regard for her talents. Her esteem by degrees growing 
into a kind of filial affection for Montagne, when her father 
died she adopted him in his stead, even before she had 
seen him; and, when he was at Paris in 1588, she paid 
him a visit, and prevailed upon him to accompany her and 
her mother the lady Gournay, to their country mansion, 
where be passed two or three months. In short, out 
young devotee to the muses was so wedded to books of 
])olite literature in general, and Montagne^s Essays in par-' 
ticular, that she resolved never to hate any other associate 
to her happiness. Nor was Montagne sparing to pay the- 
just tribute of his gratitude, and foretold, in the second 

) Qm. Dict.^-'Morerl. 



ISS G O U R N A Y. 

book of his EssayS| that she would be capable of great 
eminence in the republic of letters. Their affectionate 
regard extended through the family ; Montagne^s daughter, 
the viscountess de Jamaches, always claimed mademLoiselle 
<le Jars as a sister ; and the latter dedicated her piece, *^ Le 
Bouquet de Pinde,^' to this sister. Thus she passed many 
years, happy in her new alliance, until she received the 
melancholy news of Montague's death, when she crossed 
almost the whole l^ingdom of France to mingle her tears 
and lamentations, which were excessive, with those of his 
widow and daughter. Nor did her hlial regard stop here. 
She revised, corrected, and reprinted an edition of his 
^' Essays*' in 1634 ; to which she prefixed a prieface, full 
of the strongest expressions of devotion for his memory. 

jShe wrote several things in prose and verse, which were 
•collected into one volume, and published by herself in 
1^36, with this title, -^ Les avis et les presens de la 
Pemoiselle de Qournai.^' She died at Paris in 1645, and 
epitaphs were oopiposed for h^r by Menage, Valois, Patin, 
La Motbe Vayer, and others. It is not, however, very 
leasy to appreciate her real character from these. Living 
at a time when literature was not much cultivated by the 
females in France, it is prqbable that she earned her re- 
putation at no great ^xpence of talents, and it is certain 
that her writing? are little calculated to perpetuate her 
fame. It appears equally certain that she was as frequently 
the subject of ridipu|e fimpng the wits, as( qf admiration 
among the courtiers. Those, however, who think her cha- 
racter an object of curiosity, qiay find ^mple information 
in our authorities. ' 

GOURVII^LE (JpHN l{£|iAyLD D£), a French politician, 
was born at Rochf^foucauld in 1625, and was taken by the 
celebrated duke of that name into his service as valet de 
phambre, from which situation be cos^ to be his confidential 
friend. He was also equally honoured by the great Conde, 
and was employed by the superiqtendant Fouquet, in pub-^ 
lie business, and was involved in his disgrace. But such 
w$is the value put upon his political talents and integrity, 
that he was at pne time pvoposied to the king as successor 
to Colbert in the ministry. JJe died in 1705, leaving 
<< Memoirs of his Life from 1642 to 1698," 2 vols, l^mo, 
written with frankness and siinplicity ; and containing very 

> Gea. I>ict.-*Moreri in trt. J%n de Gonmai.— NiceroDi vol. XVI. 



G O U R V I L L £• n^ 

lively characters of the ministers and principal persons of 
his time, of which, it is said, Voltaire made much use ia 
^is « Siecle de Louis XIV." 

It was on Gourville that Boileau was said to have written 
an epitaph, in which he described him as speakingr well^ 
though be knew little ; as being a gentleman in manners^ 
although of low birth ; and as caressing all the world, al- 
though he loved nobody. He proved himself, however, 
the most sincere of all Fouquet's friends ; not only lending 
madame de Fouquet upwards of 100,000 livres for her sup- 
port, but settling the same sum on her son. ^ 

GOUSSET (James), an eminent protestant divine, was 
born Oct. 7, 1635, of a good family at Blois, and was 
iCousin*gerqaan to the celebrated I^aac Papin. He was 
appointed minister at Poitiers in 1662, and remained there 
till the revocajtion of the edict of Nantes in 1685. He then 
went to England, aivd afterwards to Holland, where he was 
phosen ininister of the Walloon church at Dort Five yeara 
after he was appointed professor of Greek and divinity at 
Groningen, where he died Nov, 4, 17Q4, leaving a great 
number of works, both printed and in MS. : the principal 
are, a Hebrew dictionary, or " Commentarii Linguae He- 
braicae ;^' a valuable work, the best edition of which is that 
of Leipsic, 1743, 4to; a refutation, in Latin, of rabbi 
Isaac's '^ Chi^zouck Emounak,'* or Shield of Faith, Dort, 
1688, Svp, and Amsterdam, 1712, fol. This refutation 
has been much praised by several among the learned ; but 
others doubt whether it merits such high encomiums : the 
book against which it was written may be foOnd in Wa- 
gensal's ** Tela ignea Satanae." He also published " Con- 
siderations th^ologiques et critiques centre le Projet 
4'm?e nouyelle Version de la Bible," 1698, 12mo. This 
last was written against Charles le Cene's project of it 
translation of the Bible, which should favour the Arminiaa 
doctrines. : 

GOUSSIER (John James), a leari)ed French physician^ 
professor of mathematics, and a member of several learned 
societies, was born at Paris March 7, 1722. His first pub» 
lie services in the literary world wefe the arrangement and 
preparation for the pre^s of M. la Condamine^s memoir 
on the measure of the first three degrees of the meridian 
in> the Southern hemisphere* In the Encyclopaedia he was 

1 Morcri.— Diet. Hiit. « Niceron, wot. 11. and X.— Morcri, 



liO G O U S S I-£ R. 

chosen fbr the department of the mechanic arts^ and his 
Dumereni articles are remarkable for accuracy and perspiw 
cuity. He had a great turn for mechanics^ and ihveht^d 
A&veral machines still employed in agriculture and che« 
inistryj &c. in France. In connexion with the unfortunate 
b^ron de Marivetz^ he published a learned and elaborate 
work entitled " Physique du monde," five voluriifes of 
i^hich he published duritig the life of his cdtleagiie, and 
afterwards three others. The whole Was to havfe been 
comprized in 14 Vols. 4to, but of these eight only have 
appeared. In 1779 he published "Prospectus d'un trait6 
de geomietrie physique particuliere du royaume de France,'* 
4to. He died at Paris in 1 800. * 

GOUTHIER, or GUTHIERES (James), in Latin Gt;- 
THEitiuSy £i learned and judicious antiquary, and l^nvybt, 
was born at Chaumont in Bassigny, and was admitted kd« 
▼ocate to the parliament of Paris. After having attended 
the bar with honour for forty years, he^retihed into the 
couiitry, and devoted himself wholly to study. He died 
in 1638. His principal works ate, 1. " De Vetere Jurfe 
Pontificio urbis Romee," 1612, 4to, which gave so much 
-satisfaction at Rome, that the senate conferred the rank of 
Konian citizen on him and his posterity. 2. ** De Oflficiiis 
domCls Augustae, publicsB et privatsfe," 1628, 4to, and 
Leipsic, 1672, 8vo, &c. 3. " De jnre Manium,** Leip- 
*ic, 1671, 8vo. He wrote also two small tracts, one " De 
Orbkafe toleranda ;" the other, ** Laus caecitatis,'* &c. 
These works are all esteemed, and ^otne Latin verses which 
he wrote have been admired for their elegance. • 

GOUVEST DE MAUB£RT. See MAUBERT. 

GOUX (Francis le) De la BouLaye, a celebrated tra- 
veller in the 17th century, wa^ the son of a gentleman af 
Batig^, in Artjou, where h6 w£ls hbtn abbut 161Q. How, 
or for what profession he was educated, does not appear, 
but he seems to have been of a rambling disposition, and 
ifpent ten yeats in visiting most parts of the world. He 
published an account of his travels, 1653, 4to, which c<7d-* 
tain sortie particulats that are not miinteresting. Whea 
he returned from his first voyage, he was so altered, that 
his mother would not own him, and he was obliged to cotti- 
Hience a suit against her to recover his right of eldetdbip. 
B6ing i^ent ambassador to the Turks, and the great mogul, 
in 1668, he died in Persia during his journey. I 

1 Diet. Bifl. 9 Moi9eri.^Dict. Hiit f Moreri.— Did. Hift. 



G O U Y E. 141 

GOUYE (Thomas), a French mathematician^ was bom 
JSept. 18, 1650, at Dieppe, and entered among the Jesuits 
in 1667. He early acquired reputation for his skill iix ma- 
ibematics, and was admitted into the academy of sciences 
in 16S9. He assisted constantly at the meetings pf that 
academy, whose members entertained a high opinion of 
his geniusu He died at Paris, in the professed house of 
the Jesuits, March 24, 172^, aged seventy>five. His prin- 
cipal work is entitled, ** Observations Physiques et Mathe*- 
tnatiques pour servir h la perfection de PAstronomie, et de 
la geogifa^phie, envoy6es de Siam, a 1' aoademi^ des sciences 
de Paris, par les P. P. Jesuites missionaires ;*' with notes 
and remarks, in 2 vols, the first, 8vo, the second, 4to. 
These remarks may also he found in torn. 7. of the ^^ Me- 
B^oires'^ qi the above academy. ^ 

GOVEA (Andrew), in Latin GoViEAKi^s, a learned 
Portuguese, of the fourteenth century, was born at Bej^ 
and appointed principal of the college of St. Barbe at Paris, 
where be educated three nephews, who became celebrated 
for their learning. Martial Govea, ^he e>dest, was a 
good Latia poet, and published a *^ Latin Grammar'^ at 
Paris. Andrew, his next brother, a pviest, born m 14d^ 
succeeded his uncle as principal of St. Barbe, and gained 
so grcsat a reputation there, that he was invited to acoept 
the same office in the college of Gnienne, at Bour-deaux* 
This invitatioD be accepted in 1534, and coatia»ued at 
BourdeaucK till 1547, when John HL king of Portugal, re- 
called him to his dominions, to establish a college at Cqim- 
bra^ similar to that of Guienne ; and Govea took with him 
into Portugal the celebrated Buchanan, Grouchi, Guerenti^ 
Fabricius, la Costa, and other men of learning, well qua- 
lified to iusti^uct youth. He died June 1548, at Coimhpa> 
leavingi no printed work, Anthony Govea^ the youngest 
of these three brothers, and- the most eminent of all, wrote- 
several pieces on phijo'sopby and law, and is mentioned 
with great encomiums by l%uanu8^ Rons^rd^ and all'lhe 
learned* He taught with reputation «t Bourdeaux, after- 
wards at Gahors, and Valence in Dauphiny, and died in 
1565, aged sixty, at Turin, to which place Phiiibert had 
invited him. His principal works are, an ^' Apologetical 
Discburse'' against Calvin, who bad accused' him of atheism 
iu his treatise on scandal^ some works on law, fol.; ^< Va- 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hiit. 



142 G O V E A. 

liarum lectionum Libri duo/' fol. ; editions of Virgil stnc( 
Terence, with notes ; " Epigrammatum Libri duo,'* and 
'^ Epistoiss." The whole was printed at Rotterdam, lt6($f 
fol. Manfred Govea, his son, born at Turin, became 
distinguished for his knowledge of the belles lettres, civil 
and canon law, and was counsellor of stale at the court of 
Turin. He died in 1613, leaving " Consilia;" "Notes 
on Julius Florus ;" some "Poetry," and a funeral oration 
on the death of Philip II. king of Spain. ^ 

GOWER (John), one of the few poets who floarished 
in the first periods of our poetical history, is supposed to 
have been born before Chaucer, but of what family, or in 
what part of the kingdom is uncertain. Leiand was in* 
formed that he was of the ancient family of the Gowers of 
Stitenham, in Yorkshire^ and succeeding biographers ap* 
pear to have taken for granted ^hat that eminent antiquary 
gives only as a report. Other particulars from Leiand are 
yet more doubtful, as that he was a knight and some time 
chief justice of the common pleas; but no information re* 
specting any judge of that name can be collected either in 
the reign of Edward II. during which he is said to have 
been on the bench, or afterwards. Weever asserts that he 
was of a Kentish family; and, in Caxton's edition, of the 
<^ Confessio Amantis," he is said to have been a native of 
Wales. 

He appears, however, to halve studied law, and was a 
member of the society of the Middle Temple, where it is 
supposed he met with, and acquired the friendship of 
Chaucer. The similarity of their studies, and their taste 
for poetry,, were not the only bonds of union. Their poli- 
tical bias was nearly the same. Chaucer attached himself 
to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Gower to Thomas 
of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, both uncles to king 
Richard II. The tendency of the ^^ Confessio Amantis,'' 
iti censuring the vices, of the clergy, coincides with Chau« 
cer's sentiments, and although we have no direct proof of 
those mutual arguings and disputes between them, which 
Leiand speaks of, there can be no doubt that their friend* 
ship was at one time interrupted. Chaucer concludes his 
Troilus and Cressida with recommending it to the correc- 
tions of ^ moral Gower," and ^< philosophical Strode ;'* and 

^ Moreri ia Goutrea. — Gen. DicL-^-Clement BibL Curieufe.— Freheri Th«a«<'^ 
inim.— ^xii Ooomast. 



G O W E IL 14* 

Gdwer^ ih the Coiifessio Amantis, introduces Yiinus prais^^ 
ing Chaucer *^ as her disciple and poete.'' Such was their 
mutual respect ; its decline is less intelligible. Mr. Tyr* 
whit says, *^ If the reflection (in the prologue to the Man of 
Lawes Tale, ver. 4497) upon those who relate suchstoriei 
as that of Canace, or of ApoUonius Tyrius, was levelled at 
Gower^ as I very much suspect, it will be difficult to re* 
concile such an attack to our notions of the strict friend- 
ship which is generally supposed to have subsisted between 
the two bards. The attack too at this time must appear 
the more extraordinary on the part of our bard, as he is 
just going to put into the mouth of his Man of Lawe a tale, 
of which almost every circumstance is borrowed from 
Gowen The fact is, that the story of Caoace is related 
by Gower in his Confessio Amantis, B. III. and the story, 
of ApoUonius (or Apollynus, as he is there called) in the 
Vlllth book of the sam6 work : so that, if Chaucer really 
did not mean to reflect upon his old friend, his choice of 
these two instances was rather unlucky." 

" There is another circumstance," says the same critic, 
'^ which rather inclines me to believe that their friendship 
suffered some interruption in the latter part of their lives. 
In the new edition of the ' Confessio Amantis,^ which 
Gower published after the, accession of Henry IV. the 
verses in praise of Chaucer (fol. 190, b. col. 1, ed. 1532) 
are omitted. See MS. Harl. 3869. Though perhaps the 
death of Chaucer at that time had riendered the compliment 
contained in those verses less proper than it was at first, 
that alone does not seem to have been a suflicient reason 
for omitting them, especially as the original date of thd 
work, in the r6th of Richard II., is preserved. Indeed the 
only other alterations which I have been able to discovery 
are towards the beginning abd end, where every thing 
which had been said in praise of Richard in the first edi- 
tion, is either left out or converted to the use of his 
successor." 

As this is the only evidence of a difference between 
Chaucer and Gower, we may be allowed to hope that no 
violent loss of friendship ensued; As' to their poetical 
studies, it is evident that there was a remarkable difference 
of opinion and pursuit. Chaucer had the courage to eman- 
cipate bis muse from the trammels of French, in which it 
was the fashion to write, and the genius to lay the founda- 
tipn of English poetry, taste, and imagination. Gower, 



144 G O W £ R. 

probably from bis closer intimacy with the French and La- 
tin poets, found it more easy to follow the beaten track* 
Accordingly the first of bis works was written in French 
measure. It is entitled <' Speculum Meditantis. Un Trait* 
iit6f selonc les aucteurs, pour ensampler les amants ma-> 
rietz, au fins qils la foy de lour seints espousailies, pour- 
roBt per fine loyalte guarder, et al boneur de Dieu salve- 
ment tener.'' Of this, which is written in ten books, there 
are two copies in the Bodleian library. It is a compilation 
of precepts and examples from a Variety of authors, in 
&vour of the chastity of the marriage bed. 

Hid next work is in Latin, entitled <^ Vox Clamantis.** 
Of this there are many copies extant ; that in the Cot- 
tonian library is more fully entitled ** Joannis Gower Chro- 
nica, qusB Vox Clamantis dicitur, sive Poema de Insur- 
rexione Rusticorum contra ingenuos et nobiles, tempore 
regis Richardi IL et de Causis ex quibus talia contingunt 
Enormia; libris septem." Some lesser pieces are annexed 
to this copy, historical and moral. That in the library ot 
All Souk college, Oxford^ appears to have been written^ 
or rather dictated, when he was old and blind. It has an 
epistle in Latin verse prefixed, and addressed in these 
words: Hanc epistolam subscriptam corde devoto, roisit 
senex et csecus Johannes Gower, reverendissimo in Christo 
patri ac domino suo principi D. Thorns Arundel Cantuar. 
Archiepiscopo, &c. Pr. Successor Thomas, Thomas humi- 
lem tibi do me.*' This, therefore, is supposed to have 
been the kst transcript he made of this work, probably 
near the close of bis life. Mr. Warton is of opinion that 
it was first written in 1397. 

The '^ Confessio Amantis,*' which entitles him to a place 
among English poets, was finished probably in 1393, after 
Chaucer had written most of his poems, but before he 
composed the Canterbaiy Tales. It is said to have been 
begun at the suggestion of king Richard It. who meeting 
him accidentally on the Thames, called him into the royal 
barge, and enjoined him ^' to booke some new thing." It 
was first printed by Caxton in 1 49 S. In 15 1 6, Barclay, the 
author of the Ship of Fools, was requested by sir Giles 
Alyngton to abridge or modernize the Confessio Amantis; 
Barclay was then old and infirm, and declined it, as Mr. 
Warton thinks, very prudently, as he was little qualified 
to correct Gower. This anecdiote, however, shews that 
Gower had already become obsolete. Skelton^ in the 



G O W E R. 145 

** Bote of Philip Sparrow,** says, " Gower's Englitihe is 
t)lcl." Dean Colet studied Gower, as well as Chaucer and 
Lydgate, in ofdef to improve his style. In Puttenham's 
age, about the end of the sixteenth century, their lan- 
guage was out of use. In the mean time a second edition 
of the Confessio Amantis was printed by Bartbelet in 
1532, a third in 1544, atid a fourth in 1554. At the dis- 
tance of two centuries and a balf> a fifth was published in 
the late edition of the English Poets. The only stain on 
his chafactef, which Mr. Ritson has urged with asperity, 
but which is obscurely discernible, is the alteration he 
made in this work on the accession of Henry IV. and his 
consequent disrespect for the menifofy of Richard, to whom 
he formerly looked up as to a patron. 

The only other circumstances of his history are, that he 
Was esteemed a man of great learning, and lived and died 
in afBuence. That he possessed a munificent spirit, we 
have a most decisive proof in hi« contributing largely, if 
not entirely, to the rebuilding of the conventual church of 
St. Mary Overy, or, as it is now called, St. Saviour*s 
churcB, Southwark, and he afterwards founded a chauntry 
in the chapel of St. John, now used as a vestry. He ap- 
pears to have lost his sight in the first year of Henry IV. 
and did not long survive this misfortune, dying ac ah ad- 
vanced age in 1402. He was interred in St. Saviour's 
church, and a monument was afterwards . erected to his 
memory, which, although it has suffered by dilapidations 
and injudicious repairs, still retains a considerable portion 
of antique magnificence. It is of the gothic style> covered 
with three arches, the roof within springing into many 
angles, under which lies the statue of the deceased, in a 
long purple gown ; on his head a coronet of roses, resting 
on three volumes entitled Vox Clafnantis, Speculum Medi^ 
tantUj and Confessio Amantis, His di^ess has given rise to 
some of those conjectures respecting his history which can* 
not now be determined, as his being a knight, a judge, &c. 

Besides these larger works, some small poems are pre- 
served in a MS. of Trinity college, Cambridge; but, pos- 
sessing little or no merit, are likely* to remain in obscurity. 
Mr, Wartpn speaks more highly of a collection contained 
in a volome in the library of the marquis of Stafford, of 
which he has given a long account, with specimens. They 
are sonnets in French, and certainly are more teiider, par 
thetic, and poetical than bis larger poems. As an English 

Vol. XVI. ^ L 



1|6 J&OW E R. 

I 

• poet, however, bis reputation must still rest on the '^ Con- 
fessio Amantis ;^' but, although he coDtributed in some de- 
gree to bring about a beneficial revplution in our ]an* 
guage, it appears to be the universal opinion of the critics 
that he has' very few pretensions to be ranked among in«- 
yeiitors. It seems Ip have been his ambition to crowd all 
.his erudition into his f^ Confessio,'' and therefore the most 
interjecting parts are his stories brought as moral examples 
from various authors.,^ 

GOZZOLI (B£NOZZo), an artist, boni at Florence in 
. 1400, was the disciple pf Fri Angelico, buttbe imitator of 
Masaccio, tp whom he was little inferior ip most, and sa- 
perior in some parts of the art^ He lived long at Pisa, 
where his best wor^s still exist, and appear less loaded 
. yrith the gaudy ej^travagance of that missal style which de- 
luded the age. The Bible-histories, with which be filled 
. one entire side of the Cs^mpo Santo at Pisa, are by Vasari 
styled '^ a terrible work, performances to intimidate a le- 
gion of painters.^' It is in that place where he displays a 
pow^r of coiQposition, a truth of imitation, a variety of 
character and attitude, a juicy, lively, lucid colour, and a 
.pathos of expression that places him next to Masaccio. 
The inequality of the work, however, s^ems to betray 
more than one band. He died at Pisa in 1478, and a se- 
.piulchre, erected to his memory by the gratitude of his 
.employers, is placed near the above work, with an epitaph 
in his praise. His works were engraved by Lasinio, and 
published in 1805 and 1807.* 

, GRAAF (Reonier be), a celebrated physician, was born 
f^t Schoonhaven, • in Holland, where his father was an 
eminent architect, July 30, 1641. After having laid a 
proper foundation for classical learning, he went to study 
jpbysic at Leyden ; in which science he made so great proi* 
gress, that in 1668 ,ke published a treatise f^ De Succo 
Pancreiatico," which did him the highest honour. Two 
ye^Mfs alter he went to France, and was made M. D^ at 
Angers ; but returned to Holland the year after, and settled 
At v^lft, where, he had very extensive practice. He mar- 
ried in 16VS, and died* Aug. 17, 1673, when he was only 
thiity-twp years of age. He published three pieces upon 
.ibe. organa of generation both in men and wom^tiy upon 

1 Biog. Brit.-— WartOD's Hist, of Poetry.— Johnson and Chalmers's English 
Poefcs, 1610. 
/. ^ Pitiu0gtQfi«<»*!Biog. Universellc in Beaozza* 



G R A A F. 147 

which subject he bid a very warm controversy with S wain-> 
inerdam. His works, with his life prefixed, were pubf 
lisbed in 8vo^ at Leyden, in 1677 and 1705; and were 
translated into Flemish, and published at Amsterdam ia 
1686.* 

GRA AT, or GRAET BARENT, was an historical painter* 
whose name is remembered principally upon account of 
bis close imitation of the works of Bamboccio, and of his 
having founded an academy at Amsterdam^ where he was 
boru. The best artists of bis time resorted here to study 
after living models; by which means much improvement 
was obtained by those who cultivated taste and science ia 
the arts* He died in 1709, aged eighty-one.* 

GRABE (John Ebnest), the learned editor of the 
*^ Septuagint,'' from the Alexandrian MS. in the royal 
library at Buckinghamrhouse, was the son of Martyn SyU 
vester Grabe, professor of divinity and history in the uni« 
versity of Koningsherg^ in Prussia, where his son Ernest 
was born Jan. 10, 1666. He had his education there, and, 
took the degree of M. A. in that university ; after which^ 
devoting himself to the study of divinity, he read the worka 
of the fathers with the utmost attention. These he took 
as the best masters and instructors upon the important 
subject of religion. He was fond of their principles and 
customs, and that fondness grew>; isio a kind of unreserved 
veneration for their authority. Jki&ohg these he observed 
the uninterrupted succession of the sacred ministry to be 
universally laid down as essential to the being of a true 
church : and this discoveary so powerfully impressed his 
mind, that at length he thought himself obliged, in con* 
science, to quit Lutheranism, the established religion of 
his country, in which he had been bred, and enter with-» 
in the pale of the Roman church, where that succession 
was preserved. In this temper he saw likewise many other 
|>articular8 in the Lutheran faith aiid practice, not agrees 
able to that of the fathers, and consequently absolutely 
erroneous, if not heretical. 

Being confirmed in this resolution, he gave in to the 
electorid college at Sambia in Prussia, a memorial, con- 
taiuing the reasons for his change, in 1695 ; and, leaving 
Koningsberg, set out in order to put it in esecotien iit 

t NiGeron, vol. XXXIV.— Foppeiii Bibl. BtL 
* Pilking^ton.— Real's Cyclopasdia. 

1.2 



148 G R A B £. 

«oine catholic country. He was in the road to Erfurt in 
this design, when there were presented to him three tracts 
ifi answer to his memorial, from the elector of Bran den* 
burgh,, who had given immediate orders to three Prussiark 
divines to write them for the purpose. The names of these 
divines were Philip James Spener, Bernard Van Sanden, 
and John William\Baier. The fii*st was ecclesiasiical coun- 
sellor to the elector, and principal minister at Berlin ; and 
the second principal professor at Koningsbergi The three 
answers were printed the same year: the first at Berlin, 
the second at Koningsberg, both in 4to, and the third at 
Jana, in 8vo. Grabe was entirely disposed to pay all due 
respect to this address from his sovereign ; and, having 
peruised the tracts with care, bis resolution for embracing 
popery was so much weakened, that he wrote to one of 
the divines, Spener, to* procure him a safe-conduct, that 
he might return to Berlin, to confer with him. This fa* 
vour being easily obtained, he went to that city, where 
Spener prevailed upon him so far as to change his design 
of going among the papists, for another. In England^ 
says this friend, you will meet with the outward and nnin* 
terrnpted succession which you want : take then your route 
thither ; this step will give much less dissatisfaction to 
your friends, and at the same time equally satisfy your 
conscience. Our divinei yielded to the advice; and, ar* 
riving in England, wasri^ceived with all the respect due 
to his merit, and presently recommended to king William 
in such terms, that his majesty granted hijn a pension of 
100/. per annum, to enable him to pursue hts studies. 

With the warmest sense ef those favours, be presently 
shewed himself not unworthy of the royal bounty, by the 
many valuable books which he published in England; 
which, from this time, he adopted for his. own country ; 
and finding the ecclesiastical constitution so much to his 
mind, he entered into, priest's orders in that church, and 
l^ecame a zealous advocate for it, as coming nearer in his 
opinion to the primitive pattern than any other. In this 
spim he published, in 1698, and the following year, "Spi- 
eitegium SS. Patrum, &c.'! or a collection of tlie lesser 
^orks and fragments, rarely to be met with, of the fathers 
and herei^e& of .the three, first, centuries; induced to this 
compilation, as he expressly declared, by th^e considera- 
tion, that thei*e could be no better ejipedient for healing 
the divisions of the Christian churchy than to reflect on 



G R A B E. 149 

the practice and opinions of the primitive fathers. Both 
these volumes were reprinted at Oxford in 1700, 8.vo, ahd 
some remarks were made upon tb<e first in a piece entitled 
"A new and full method of settling the Canonical Authority 
of the New Testament, by Jer. Jones, 1726," 8vo. From 
the same motive he printed also Justin Martyr's " First 
Apology'* in 1700; and the works of Irenaeus in 1702; 
both which were animadverted upon by Thirlby, the editor 
of^Justin Martyr, and Massuet, the editor of Ireneeus. 
Upon the accession of queen Anne to the throne this year^ 
besides continuing his pension, her majesty sought an oc- 
casion of giving some farther proofs of her special regard 
for him ; and she was not long in finding one. 

The *< Septuagint" had never been entirely printed from 
the Alexandrian MS. in St. James's library, partly owing 
^ to tbe great difficulty of performing it in a manner suitable 
to its real worth, and partly because that worth itself had 
been so much questioned by the advocates of the Roman 
^opy> that it was even grown into some neglect. To peri 
form this task, and to assert its superior oierit, was an honour 
marked out for Grabe ; and when her majesty acquainted 
him with it, she at the same time presented him with a 
purse of 60/. by the suggestion of her minister Harley, to 
enable him to go through with it. This was a most arduous^ 
UBdertakiug, and he sparied no pains to complete it. In 
the mean time he employed such hours as were necessary 
for refreshment, in other works of principal esteem. In 
1705 he gave a beautiful edition of bishop Bull's work.^, 
in folio, with notes ; for which he received the author's 
pariicutar thanks ; and he had also a hand in preparing for 
the press archdeacon Gregory's edition of the New Testa- 
ment in Greek, which was printed the same year at Ox- 
ford, revising the scholia, which Gregory, then dead, had 
collected from various authors, and making the proper 
references. 

From his first arrival he had resided a great part of hii 
time in that university, with which he was exceedingly de- 
lighted. Besides the Bodleian library there, he met with 
several persons of the first class of learning in tiieologi* 
cal and sacred criticism, among whom he found th^t free- 
dom of conversation and communication of studies which 
is inseparable from true scholars; but still the Alexandrian 
MS. was the chief object of his labour. He examined it 
with his usual diligence, and ;:ompaiing it with a copy 



ISO G R A B E. 

from that of the Vatican at Rome, he found it in so rvMi^ 
places preferable to the other, that be resolved to print ift 
as soon as possible. With this view, in 1 704, he drew tip 
a particular account of the preferences of this to the Vati-* 
can MS. especially in respect to the book of '* Judges,'*- 
and published it, together with three specimens, contain-* 
ing so many diflfei'ent methods of his intended edition, 
wishing to be determined in his choice by the learned. 
This came out in 1705, with proposals for printing it. by 
subscription, in a letter addressed to Dr, Mill, principal of 
£dmund-hatl, Oxford; and that nothing might be wanting 
which lay in the power of that learned body to promote the 
work, he was honoured with the degree of D- D. early the 
following year, upon which occasion Dr. Smalridge, who 
then officiated as regius professor, delivered two Latin 
speeches, containing the highest compliments to his inerit. 
The success was abundantly answerable to bis fondesi 
wishes : besides the queen's bounty, he received anotbe? 
present from his own sovereign the king of Prussia ; ancj 
subscription^^ from the principal nobility, clergy, and gen-« 
try, crowded daily upon him from all parts. 

In the midst of these encourageqiients, the first volume 
of this important work came out in 1707, at Oxford, in 
folio and 8vo. This volume contained the Octateuch, and 
his design was to print the rest, according to the tenor of 
the MS. but, for want of some materials to complete the 
historical and prophetical books, he chose rather to change 
that order^ and to expedite the work as much as possible. 
The chief materials for which he waited not yet coming to 
hand, he was sensible that the world might expect to see 
the reasons of the delay, and therefore published a disser- 
t-ation the following year, giving a particular account of it, 
under the title of " Dissertatio de variis viijis LXX Inter-^ 

Eretuqi ante B. Origenis aevum illatis, & remediis ab ipso 
[eyapl^ri ejusdem versionis additione adhibitis, deque hu« 
jus edition^ reliquiis tam manuscriptis tam pr^lo excusis.'' 
The hplps h^ >vanted, as above intimated, were a Syriac 
MS. of the historical books of the Old Testaonent, with 
Origenis ms^rks i^poi^ th^m ; besides two MSS. one bdong-* 
jng to caifdinal Cbig^, and the other to the college of Lewis 
le Grand. He receivecj iiU afterwards, and made collations 
from them^^ as also for a volume of annotations upon the 
whqle work, as well asf for the prolegomena; all which 
xequirio^ some tune to digest into a proper method j|; the 



G R A B E; 15] 

iOMDd voloiiie did not come oat till 171 9, when the fourth 
also aippeared, and was followed by the third the ensuing yean 

In the mean time, he fell into a dispute with WbistOD^ 
who had not only in private discourses^ in order to support 
bis own cause by the strength of our author's cbaracter^ 
but also in public writings, plainly intimated, <^ that the 
doctor was nearly of his mind about the Constitution of 
the Apostles, written by St. Clement, and that he owned 
in general the genuine truth and apostolical antiquity of 
that collection/' This calumny was neglected by our au-* 
thor for some time, till he understood that the story gained 
credit, and was actually believed by several persons wha 
were acquainted with him. For that reason he thought it 
necessary to inform the public, that his opinion of the 
Apostolical Constitutions was quite different, if not oppo- 
site, to Mr. Whiston^s sentiments about them ; this he did 
in '^ An Essay upon two Arabic Manuscripts in the Bod- 
leian Library, and that ancient book called the Doctrine 
of the Apostles, which is said to be extant in them, whereia 
Mr. Whiston's mistakes about both are plainly proved." 

This piece was printed at Oxford, 1711, 8 vo. In tbe- 
dedication, he observes, that it was the first piece which 
be published in the English tongue, for the service of the 
church. He was assisted in it by Gagnier, who, about ten 
years before, had come over to the church of England front 
that of France, and then taught Hebrew at Oxford ; and^ 
being well skilled in most of the Oriental languages, bad 
been appointed the year before, by Sharp, archbishop of 
Yotkf to assist Grabe in perusing these MSS. having en-^ 
gaged the doctor to write this treatise against Whiston's 
notion. But as the result of the inquiry was, that the 
Arabic ** Didascaliu" were nothing else but a translation of 
the ffrst six entire books of the ^' Clementine Constitu- 
tionsy^' with only the addition of five or six chapters not in 
the Greek, Whiston immediately sent out *^ Remarks upon 
Grabe^s Essay,'' &c. 1711; in which, with his usual perti- 
nacity he claims this MS. for a principal support of hi^ 
own opinions, and declares, the doctor could not have' 
served him better than he had done in this essay. Nor has 
almost, says he, any discovery, I think, happened so for- 
tunate to me, and to that sacred cause I am engaged in 
f«pm the beginning, as this essay of his before us. How- 
ever this may be, Grabe's essay was his last publication, ' 
being prevented in the desigu he bad of publishing many 



152 G KA B:E) 

othem by. his! death, wWdi happened Nov. 12, 1712> in 
the vigour of his age. He was interred in Westniiu3ter-« 
abbey, where a marble monumeot, with his effigy at full 
length, in a sitting posture, and a suitable hi«cription un- 
derneath, was erected at the expence of the lord-treasurec 
Harley. He was attended in his last illness by Dr. Smal- 
ridge, who gave ample testimony of his sincere piety, and 
fully refuted the aspemons cast on bis moral character by 
Casiiiiir Oudin. He desired upon his death-bed that his 
dying in the faith and communion of the church of. England 
might he made public. He thought it a sound anH pure 
part of the catholic church, notwithstanding some defects 
which be thought he perceived in the reformation. He 
expressed also his most hearty wishes for the union of all 
Christians, according to the primitive and perfect model. 
He was, however, a little scrupulous about communicat- 
ing publicly in the English church, at least unless he pould 
place an entire confidence in the priest that was to offioi- 
ate, or ejccept . in case, of necessity. Yet, with all these 
scruples, which in our days will not be clearly understood, 
he always professed more esteem for the church of Eng- 
land than for any other part of the catholig church. He 
had so great a zeal for promoting the ancient government 
and discipline of the church, among all those who had se- 
parated themselves from the corruption and superstitions 
of the church of Rome, that he formed a plan, and made 
i^ome. advances in it, for restoring the episcopal order and 
office in the territories of the king of Prussia, his sove* 
reign ; and he proposed, moreover, to introcTuce a liturgy 
much after the model of the English service, into that 
king's dominions. He recommended likewise the use of 
the English liturgy itself, by means of some of his f rife nds,^ 
to a certain neighbouring court. By these methods, his 
intention was to unite the two main bodies of Protestants 
in a more perfect and apostolical reformation than that upon 
which either of them then stood, and thereby fortify the 
common cause of their protestation against the errors of 
popery, against which he left several MSS, finished and 
unfinished, in Latin, of which the tithes in English are to 
be found in Dr. Hickes's account of his MSS. Among 
these also were several letters, which he wrote with success 
to several persons, to prevent their apostacy to the cburcti 
gf Rome, when they were ready to be reconciled to it j 
apd in his letters be challenged the priests to meet h^^m ix\ 



G B A B E. 153 

eonferences before the persons whom they bad led astra}' ; 
bat ihey knowing, says Dr. Uickes, the Hercules with whom 
they mujst have conflicted, wisely declined the challenge. 

He left a. great naniber of MSS. behind him, which he 
bequeathed to Dr. Hick«s for his life, and after his decease 
to Dr. George Smalridge. Th& former of these divines 
carefully performed his request of making it known, that 
he had died in the faith and comniunion of the church of 
England, in an account of his life, prefixed to a tract of 
our author's, which he published with the following title : 
^^ Some Instances of the Defects and Omissions in Mr. 
Whiston's Collections of Testimonies, from the Scriptures 
aiid the Fathers, against the true Deity of the Holy Ghost, 
and of misapplying and misinterpreting divers of them, by 
Dr.Grabe. To which is premised, a discourse, wherein 
some account is given of the learned doctor, and his MSS. 
and of this short treatise found among his English MSS. by 
George Hickes, D. D." 1712, 8vo. There came out afters- 
wards two more of our author's posthumous pieces : 1 . << Li* 
turgta Graeca Johannis Ernesti Grabii." This liturgy, 
drawn up by our author for bis own private use, was pub- 
lished by Christopher Matthew Pfaff, at the end of ^Mre* 
nasi Fragmeata Anecdota," printed at the Hague, 1715, 
Svo. 2. '^ De Forma Consecrationis Eucharistia^, hoc est, 
Defensio Ecclesiae Gr8ec8B,"'&c. i. e. *^ A Discourse con- 
cerning the Form of Consecration of the Eucharist, or a 
defence of the Greek church against that of Rome, in the 
article of consecrating the Eucfaaristioal Elements ; written 
in Latin, by John Ernest Grabe, and now first published 
with an English version." To which is added, from the 
sama author's MSS. some notes concerning the oblation of 
the body and blood of Christ, with the form and effect of 
the eucharistical consecration, and two fragments of a pre- 
face designed for a new ^ition of the first liturgy of Ed- 
ward VL with a preface, of the editor, shewing what is the 
opinion of the church of England concerning Uie use of the 
fathers, and, of its principal members, in regard to the nmt* 
ter defended by Dr. Grabe in this treatise, 1721, 8vo. 

Tbirlby and Le Clerc are the only writers of reputation 
who have endeavoured to undervalue Grabe's abilities, 
which have received due tribute from bis other learned- 
contemporaries. It is, however, with regret we find by a 
letter lately published from the Harleian MSS. that the 
ye^r before bis d^atb| he was sinking udder %k§ oomplU 



I5i G B A B £) 

cated Ipad of {penury and iU*^ealtb« We eia^nly bop^ 
that the lord treasurer, Hadiey, to whom the letter fra» ad- 
dressed, administered such relief as was in bis pofwer ; and 
this is the more probable from his having honoured bis re* 
mains by a monument in Westminster-abbey. It remain* 
yet tQ be noticed that bis '^ Collatio codtcis Cottoniani 
Geue3eds cum editione Romana,'' which lay long unnoticed 
in the Bodleian library, had ample justice done to it in 
}778, hy the attention and accuracy of Dr. Henry Owenj 
and that the whole of the Alexandrian MS. has since been 
very accurately published in fac-simile by the late rev. Or. 
Woide of the British Museum.^ 

GRACIAN (Baltasar), a celebrated Spanish Jesuit^ 
was born at Catalaiud, formerly Bilbilis. He taught the 
belles-lettres, philosophy, and theology, in his society » 
preached during some years, and was rector of the college 
at Tarragona, where he died December 6, 1658, leaving a 
considerable number of works in Spanish, published at 
Madrid in 1664, but which are not much suited to the pre-^ 
sent taste, 2 vols. 4to. The chief of those that have been- 
translated into French a?e^ <* Le Heros/' by P. de Gourhe-^ 
ville, a Jesuit j Rotterdam, 1729, 12mo; ^' Refiexion& 
politiqqes sur les plus grands princes, et particulierement 
sur Ferdinand le Catholiqtte,'* by M. de Silhouette, Am- 
sterdam, 173], 12m6, translated also by P. de Courbeville> 
under the title of ^^ Le Politique Dom. Ferdinand le Ca^ 
thpjique," Paris, 1732, 12mo, with notes. >* L' Homme' 
Universel,** by P. de . Courbeville, 12mo. ** L' Homme" 
detromp6, ou le Criticon," by Maunoy, 3 vols^ 12iDO, 
•^ UHomme de Cour,'* by Amelot de la Houssaye^ with 
notes, ] 2mo. P. de Courbeville has likewise translated it, 
with the title of ^^ Maximes de Balthasar Gracian, aveO' 
des Reponsesaux Critiques de L'Homme Universel/' Paris, 
)730, 12mo. His ^^ Manual on the Art of Prudence,'* was 
published in English,, in 1694, 8vo,' 

G&SMK (John), a young man of Scotland whose ge<# 
nius i^nd learning have been most injudiciously heightened, 
was born at Carnwarth, in Lanarkshire, in 1748. He waa 
the youngest of the four sons of a poor farmer^ and having 
discovered an uncommon proficiency in the learning taught 
at the school of the village, it was resolved to educ^e him' 

1 Biog. Brit.— Gen. Dict,i-*Nidiolft'K Bowjer.-*>Ssxii ^noaast* 
? M«reru«»Pict. Hist* 



A 



O n M tA E;# 155 

for the church. At the age of foarteeu h0 was placed at 
the school of Lanark, where bk progress in grammatical 
learning is said to have been rapid, and, considering his 
earJy disadvantages, incredible. In 1766 he was removed 
fo the university of Edinburgh, where, we are likewise told 
that in classii?al learning be surpassed the most industrious 
and accomplished -students of bis standing, and spoke and 
Composed in L^tin with a fluency and elegance that' had 
few examples. And, of mathematics, natural philosophyi 
and metaphysics, his knowledge was considerable. To this 
was owing a certain proneoess to disputation and metaphy- 
sical refinement, for which he was remarkable, and which 
be-oft0n indulged to a degree that subjected him to the 
imputation of iipprudence, and of free^tbinking. His torn 
for elegant composition first appeared in the solution of a 
philosophic question, proposed as a college-exercise, which 
^ he chose to exemplify in the form of a tale, conceived and 
executed with all the fire and invention of eastern imagi- 
nation. This happened in 1769 ; and his first attempts in 
poetry are of no earlier date. 

About this time be was presented to an eKhibition (or 
bursary, as it is called) in the university of St. Andrew^ 
which be accepted, but found reason soon after to decline, 
upon discovering that it subjected him to repeat a course 
of languages and philosophy; which the extent of his ac« 
quisitions, and the ardour q( his ambition, taught him to 
bold in no great estimation. In 1770, therefore, he re- 
stimed bis studies at E^dinburgh, and, having finished the 
usual preparatory (^ourse^ was admitted into the theologi-^ 
cal class : bqt the state of his health, which soon after be^* 
gan to decline, did not allow him to deliver any of the ex- 
ercises usually prescribed to students in that sdciety. In 
autumn 1771, bis ilUhealtb, that bad been increasing 
almost, unperceived, terminated in a deep consumption } 
the complicated distress of which, aggravated by the indi- 
gence of bis situation, be bore with an heroic composure 
and magnanimity, and continued at intervals to compose 
verses, and to correspond witb bis friends, until after a 
tedious struggle of ten months, he expired July 26, 1772y 
in the 24th year of bis age. His poenaa, consisting of ele- 
gies and miscellaneous pieces, were collected, and printed 
at Edinburgh, 1773, Svo. There are few of tbem entitled 
to superior praise, and certainly none that can justify the 
leqgth to which the detail of bis life and opinions has been 



156 G R JE M E; 

extended. Unfortunately als®, thiese poems were reprinted 
in a late collection, and among them a specimen of his 
Latin poetry, called a Sapphic ode, and styled *[ a correct 
and manly performance for a boy of fifteen.** But so far 
from being correct, it is not even a decent attempt, and the 
lines are formed with such total ignorance of the Sapphic 
measure, that it has justly been said, " a boy producing 
such at one of our public schools could only be considerea 
as intending to insult the master." It seems difficult, there- 
fore, to form any judgment of the illiteracy of those ** most 
industrious and accomplished students of his standing,*' 
whom he surpassed in " classical learning.'** 

GR.EVIUS, or GREVIUS (John George), a cele- 
brated Latin critic, was born January 29, 1632, at Naum- 
bourg, in Saxony ; and, having laid a good foundation of 
classical learning in his own country, was sent to finish his 
education at Leipsic, under the professors Rivinus and 
Straucbius. This last was his relation by the mother*s side^ 
and sat opponent in the professor*s chair, when our author 
performed his exercise for his degree ; on which occasion 
he maintained a thesis, " De Moribus Gerraanorum.*' As 
bis father designed to breed him to the law, he applied 
himself a while to that study, but not without devoting 
much of his time to polite literature, to which he was early 
attached, and which he afterwards made the sole object of 
his application. With this view he removed to Deventer 
in Holland, attended the lectures of John Francis Grono- 
vius,. whose frequent conversations and advice entirely 
fixed him in his resolution. He was indeed so much pleased 
with this professor, that he spent two years in these stijdies 
under his direction, and frequently used to ascribe all hia 
knowledge to his instructions. Being desirous in the mean 
time of every opportunity of enlarging his acquaintance 
with the ablest men of his time, be went from Deventer, 
first to Leyden to hear Daniel Heinsius, and next to Am- 
sterdam ; where, attendfng the lectures of A lexander Monus 
and David Blondel, this last persuaded him to renounce 
the Lutheran religion, in which he had been bred, and to 
embrace Calvinism. 

His reputation for literary talents and acquirements wad 
so high before he had reached his twenty-fourth year, that 
he was judged qualified for the chair; and, upon tbe'deatti 

,. ' * Anderson's 4>oet8.— British Criiici to), VJIr . 



J-- 



G R iE VI V fi. I5t 

of Schnltingi actually hominsfcted to the professofsbip bf 
Duisburg by the elector of Brandenburgh : who at the 
same time yielded (o his desire of visiting Antwerp, Brus- 
sels, Lorrain, and the neigbbouiing countries ; in order to 
complete the plan he had laid down for finishing his studies 
before he entered upon the exercise of bis office. Young 
as he was, he appeared every way qualified for this office, 
but held it no longer than two years ; when he closed with 
an offer of the professorship of Deventer, which, though of 
less value than Duisburg, was more acceptable to him on 
many accounts. He had a singular affection for thef place 
where first he indulged his inclination for these studies, 
and he had the pleasure of succeeding his much-beloved 
Groi>ovius, and that too by a particular recommendation, 
on his removal to Leyden. It must be remembered also, 
that be was a proselyte to Calvinism, which was the esta- 
blished religion at Deventer, and scarcely tolerated at 
Duisburg ; and in Holland also it might occur to him that 
there was a fairer prospect of preferment, and in this he 
was not disappointed, as in 1661, the States of Utrecht 
made him professor of eloquence in that university, in the 
room of Paulus JEmilius. 

, Here be fixed his ambition, and resolved to move no more, 
and rejected solicitations both from Amsterdam and Ley- 
deo. The elector Palatine lik^wi^e attempted in vain to 
draw him to Heidelberg, and the republic of Venice to 
Padua, but he bad become in some degree naturalized to 
Holland : and the States of Utrecht, being determined not 
to part with him, added to that of eloquence the profes- 
sorship of politics and history in* 1673. In these stations 
be had the honour to be sought after by persons of different 
countries ; several coming from Germany for the benefit of 
his instructions, many from England. He had filled all 
these posts, with a reputation nothing inferior to any of 
bis time, for more than thirty years, when he was suddenly 
carried off by an apoplexy, Jan. 1 1, 1703, in his 71st year. 
. He bad eighteen children by his wife, whom he married 
in 1656, .but was survived only by four daughters. One 
of bis sons, a youth of great hopes, died 1692, in his 23d 
year, while he was preparing a new edition pf Callima- 
cbus, which was finished afterwards by his father, aqd 
printed in 1697. 

. . GjTtievitts did great service to the republic of letters,' not 
80 much by original productions of his own, as by proc.ur- 



4 



15$ Q n JEV IM S. 

* « ■ 

ing^ many editions of 9utborS| which he enriched \vith notes 
and excellent prefaces, as Hesiod, Callimachus^ Suetonius, 
Cicero, Fiorus, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, «f ustin, C»« 
sar, Lucian. He published also, of the moderns, Casau*^ 
bon^s "Letters," several pieces of Meursius, Huet^s " Poc- 
roata,'* Junius " De pictura veterum," £remita " De Vita 
aulica & civili,'' and otliers of less Tkote. But his chef 
jd'ceuvre is his '' Thesaurus Antiquitatum Komanarum," in 
12 vols, folio; to which he added afterwards " Thesaortrs 
Antiq. & Histor. Italise,^" which were printed after hi« death, 
J 704, in 3 vols, folio. There also came oot in 1707, " J. 
G. Graevii Preelectiones & CXX Epistolds colleotic ab Alb. 
Fabricio;'* to which was added '^ fiurmanni Oracio dicta 
in Graevii funere,'' to which we are obliged for tlie parti^ 
culars of this memoir. In 1717 was printed " J. G. Grae^ 
vii Orationes quas Ultrajecti habuit,'* 8vo. A great num^ 
ber of his letters were published by Burman in his ** Syl- 
loge Epistotarum," in 5 vols. 4to. And the late Dr. Mead, 
who had been one of his pupils, was posi>es6ed of a collec-* 
lion of original letters in MS. written to GrsBvlus by the 
most eminent persons in learning, as Basnage, Bayle, Bur- 
man, Le Clerc, Faber, Fabricius, Gronovius, Kuster, Lien* 
boFch, Puffeadorff, Salms^iusi, Sp^nheim, Spinosa, Tollius^ 
iBeutley, Dodwell, Locke, Potter, Abb6 Bossuet, Bignp% 
]9arduin, Huet, Menage, Spon, Vaillant, &c. from 1670 to 
the year of his death.* 

GRAFIGNY (Frances d^Isembourg D'HAPPONCotjRT, 
Dame de), a French lady of literary reputation, was tb^ 
daughter of a mihtary oiEcer, and born about the year 1€94« 
She was married, or rather sacrificed to Francis Hugot de 
Grafigny, chamberlain to the duke of Lorraine, a man c^ 
violent passions, from which she was often in danger of her 
life ; but after some years of patient suffering, she was al 
length relieved by a legal separation, and her husband 
finished his days in confinement, which his improper 
conduct rendered necessary. Madame de Grafiguy now 
came to Paris, where her merit was soon acknowledged, 
although her first performance, a Spanish novel, did not 
pass without some unpleasant criticisms, to wbidi, says 
our authority, she gave the best of all possible answers, by 

' > Botvtianni Oratio ubt supra. — Niceron, vols. II. and X.*— Gen. Diet.— ->Bnr.. 
manni Trajectum Eruditum. — Saxii Onomasticon. — Dr. Mead's coilection of 
letters, meutioDed above, were sold at bis sale for twenty-x)iie g^uin^as, but we 
have not learned who was the purchaser. They amouated to tbrte Ibottsand 
tw« huadrad letters, all orisinals. 



O R A F I G N y. 159 

rwriting a batter, which ivss tor ** Lettres d*utte Peruvicnhe,^* 
•2 vols. l2ino. This bad great success, being written with 
spirit, and abounding in those delicate sentiments which 
are so much admired in the French school, yet an air 
of metaphysical speculation has been justly objected, as 
jthrovving a chill on her descriptions of love. She aUo 
wrote some dramatic pieces, of which the comedies of 
^* Cenie'' & " La Fille d'Aristide" were most applauded. 
Having resided for some tio^e at tlie court of Lorraine, she 
became known to the emperor, who had read her ^^ Pe- 
ruvian Letters'' with much pleasure, and engaged her to 
.write some dramatic pieces proper to be performed before 
.the empress and the younger branches of the royal family 
at court. This she complied with, and sent five or six 
:Sucb pieces to Vienna, and in return received a pension of 
1500 livres, but with the express condition that she was 
not to print thes^^dramas, nor give copies to any other 
theatre. She long retained the esteem and patronage of 
the court of Vienna, and was chosen aix associate of the 
acadeo^y at Florence. She died, much esteemed by all 
classes, at Paris in 1758, A complete edition of her works 
.was published at Paris in 17S8, 4 vols. 12mo; and her 
:*^ Letters of a Peruvian Pi^ncess,'* were published iii 
.English, by F. Ashworth, 1782, 2 vols. JJvo.* 

CRAETON (Richard), an English printer and historian, 
was descended of a good family, and appears to have beea 
brought up a merchant, and his works, as an author, evince 
him to have had a tolerable education. He tells us him«^ 
self that he wrote the greatest part of Hallos chronicle 
•(who died in 1547), and next year printed that work, en- 
titled ^^ The anion of the two noble and illustre fameliey 
of Lancastre and Yorke," foe. continued to the end of the 
Feign of fienry VIIL from Hall's MSS. according to Ant. 
\Vbod. It had been printed by Berthelat in 1542, but 
br^Hight down only to 1532. In 1562 Grafton's ^^ Abridge 
ment of the Chronicles of England,*' was printed by R. 
Tottyl, and reprinted the two succeeding years, and in 
1572. And as Stowe had published his ^' Summarie of the 
flnglyshe Chronicles'' in 1565, Grafton sent out, as a 
rival, an abridgement of bis abridgement, which he entitled 
<f A M^Quell of the Chronicles of England ;" and Stowe, 
not lo be behind with hisa^ published in the same year bis 

i Diet, Hilt. 



*J60 tJ R AFT ON. 

*** Summarie of Chronicles abridged.** This rivalship was 
accooipained by harsh reflections on each other in their re- 
spex^tive prefaces. In 1569 Grafton published his " Chro- 
nicle at large, and meere History of the affaires of Eng- 
land," &c. some part of which seems to have been unjustly 
Censured by Buchanan. In the time of Henry VIII. soon 
after the death of lord Cromwell) Grafton was imprisoned 
six weeks in the Fleet, for printing Matthews's Bible^ and 
what was called "The Great Bible" without notes, and, 
before his release, was bound in a penalty of lOO/. tbat be 
should neither sell nor print, or cause to be printed, any 
more bibles, until the king and the clergy should agrefe 
upon a translation. As Whitchurch was concerned with 
him in printing those Bibles, he very probably shared the 
same fate. Grafton was also called before the council, oil 
a charge of printing a ballad in favour of lord Cromwell ; 
and his quondam friend bishop Bonner "being present, ag- 
gravated the cause, by reciting a little chat between them, 
in which Grafton had intimated his " being sorry to hear 
of Cromwell's apprehension ;" but the lord chancellor Aud** 
ley, disgusted probably at this meanness .of spirit in Bon- 
ner, turned the discourse, and the matter seems to have 
ended. In a few years after, Grafton was appointed prin- 
ter to prince Edward, and he with his associate Whitchurch 
had special patents for printing the church-service books, 
and also the' Primers both in Latin and English. 

• In the first year of Edward VI. Grafton was favoured 
with a special patent granted to him for the sole printing of 
air the statute books, or acts of parliament; and in Dec. 
154S, he and Whitchurch were authorized by another 
patent, to take up and provide, for one year, printers, 
compositors, &c. together with paper, ink, presses, &c. at 
reasonable rates and prices. Ames seems to be of opinion 
that he was also a mentfoer of parliament, but Herbert, ap- 
parently on good grounds, doubts this. It does not appear 
with certainty in what circumstances he died. Strype sup- 
poses him to have been reduced to poverty, and tliere is 
not much reason to think that he died in affluent circum- 
stances. No particulars, however, have been handed down 
to us of bis sickness, death, or interment, nor do we find 
any account qf him after 1572, when* by an accidental fall 
he broke his leg.> He printed .seme of the earliest, most 
correct, and splendid of the English Bibles, and many 
otjher works of great importance in the infancy of the 



G E A F T O N. 161 

r^foi'iiiation. His ^< Chronicle'' has not preserve its re- 
putation^ and has been usually sold at a price very inferior 
to that of the other English Chronicles; but upon that 
account, howeyer, it appears to have obtained a wider cir« 
Gulation. ' 

GRAHAM. SeeMACAULEY. 

GKAHAM (George), clock and watch maker, the most 
ingenious and accurate artist in his time, was born at Hors- 
gills, in the parish of Kirklinton in Cumberland, in 1675. 
In 1688 he came up to London, and was put apprentice 
to a person in that profession ; but after being some time 
w^th his master, he was received, purely on account of , his 
merit, into the family of the celebrated Mr. Tompion, who 
treated him with a kind of parental affection as long as l^ie 
lived. That Mr. Graham was, without competition, the 
most eminent of his profession, is but a small part of his 
Ghai*acter : he was the best general mechanic of his time,^ 
and had a complete knowledge of practical astronomy ; so 
that he not only gave to various movements for measuring 
time a degree of perfection which had never before been 
attained, but invented several astronomical instruments, 
by which considerable advances have been made in that 
science: he also ojiade great improvements in those which 
had before been in use ; and, by a wonderful manual dex- 
terity, comtructed them with greater precision and accu- 
racy than any other person ia the world. 

.A great mural arch in the observatory at Greenwich was 
made for Dr. Halley, under Mn Graham^s immediate inspec*! 
tion, and divided by bis own hand : and from this incomparable 
original, the best foreign instruments of the kind are copies, 
made by English artists. The sector by which. Dr. Brad- 
ley first discovered two new motions in the fixed stars, was 
of his invention and fabric. He comprised the whole 
planetary system within the compass of a small cabinet; 
from which, as a model, all the modem orreries have beea 
constructed^ And when the French academicians were 
sent %o the north, to make observations for ascertaining 
the figure of the earth, Mr. Graham was thought the fittest 
person in Europe to supply them with instruments; by 
which means they finished their operations, in one year; 
wk^e those who went to the jiouth, . not being so well fur*** . 

* Ames and Herbert's Typoi^aphjical Antiquities. « 

Vol. XVI. IVI 



t«3 C K A H A M. 

nished) were very mnch embarrassed and retarded in tbeitf^ 
dperalions. 

Mr. Graham was many years a member of the royal soei^ty« 
to which he communicated several ing^iLous and important 
discoveries, viz. from the 31st to the 42d volume of thdi 
Philos.Transactions, chiefly on astronomical and philosophi- 
cal subjects ; particularly a kind of horary alteratifOR of the 
magnetic needle ; a quicksilver pendulum, and many cu-» 
rious particulars relating to the true length of the simplei. 
pendulum^ upon which he continued to make esrperiment^ 
till almost the year of his death, which happened Nov. 20^ 
1751, at his house in Fleet^street. He was inlerved inf 
Westminster abbey in the same grave with his predeeestoi^ 
Tompion. 

His temper was tiot less communicative than his genian 
was penetrating ; and his principal view was the advance^ 
ment of science, and the benefit of mankind. As be wa^r 
. perfectly sincere^ he was above suspicion ; as he was above 
envy, he was candid ; and as be bad a relish for true plea^*- 
sure, he was generous. He frequently lent money^ but 
could never be prevailed upon to take any interest ; and for 
diat reason be never placed out any money upon govern*^ 
ment securities. He had bank*notes, which were thirty 
years old, in his possession, when he died } and his whole 
property, except his stock in trade, was found in a strong* 
box, which, though less than would have been headed by 
avarice, was yet more than would have remained to pro* 
digality. ^ 

GRAIN (John Baptist le), a French historian^ waa 
born in 1^65, and, after a liberal education, beeame ooun^i* 
seller and master of the requests to Mary de Medieis, queeti 
of France. He frequented the court in his youtb^ and d^ 
voted himself to the service of Henry IV. by whom be wal^ 
much esteemed and trusted. Being a man of probity, andl 
void of ambition, he did not employ his interest witk^ 
Henry to obtain dignities^ but 6pent the greatest part of 
bis life in literaiy retirement. Among other w^rks wbiclit 
be composed, are " The History of Henry IV," and " The 
History of Lewid XIII. to the death of the Marshal d'An-^ 
ere," in 1617; both which were published in folio, tinder 
the 'title of << Deteade6." The former he pi-esented «q 
LewijB XIII. who read it over, and was infinitely charmed 

I QtaL May. toI. liXI»— Butcbioioa'i Hiit of Cuab^iUftOi 



G RvA I N* 168 

mth tbe fraokaess of tbe author : but the Jesuits^ who 
never were friendly to liberality of sentiment^ found means 
to have 'this work castrated in -several places. They served 
" The Hist(H-y of Lewis XIII." worse ; for, Le Grain hav- 
ing in that performance spoken advantageously of the 
prince of Cond^, hisi protector, they had the cunning and 
malice to suppress those passages, and to insert others, 
where they made him speak of the prince in very indeco« 
rous terms. Cond6 was a dupe to this piece of knavery, 
till Le Grain had ti$ne to vindicate himself, by restoring 
this as well as his former works to their original purity. 
He di€fd at Paris in 1643, and ordered in his will, that 
none of his descendants should ever trust the education of 
their children to the Jesuits ; which clause, it is said, ha(» 
been punctually observed by bis family. ^ 

GftAINDORGE (Andrew), an ingenious Frencliman, 
was a native of Caen in the. seventeenth century, and tha 
discoverec of the art of making figured diaper.. He did not^ 
however, bring it to perfection, for he only wove squares 
and flowers; but his son Richard Graindorge, living to^ 
tbe age of eigtity-two, had leisure to complete what his ' 
fsither bad begun, and found a way to represent all sorts 
of animals, and other figures. This work he called Haute" 
lice, perhaps because the threads were twisted in the 
woof. They are now called damasked cloths, from their 
resemblance to white damask. This ingenious workman 
also invented the method of weaving table napkins ; and 
bis son, Michael, established several manufactures in dif-* 
ferent parts of France, where these damasked cloths are 
become very common. Tbe same family has produced se- 
veral other persons of genius and merit ; ^among these is 
James Graindorge, a man of wit and taste, and well skilled 
in antiquities : he is highly spokei\ of by M. Huet, who 
was bis intimate friend. His brother Andrew, also, 
doctor of physic of the faculty at Montpellier, was a learned 
phtloi^opberj who followed the principles of JCpicurus and 
Gassendi. He died January 13, 1676, aged sixty. He 
left, ^' Traits de la Nature du Feu, de la Lumi^re, et des 
Couleurs,^^ 4to j " Traits de I'Origine des Macreuses,'^ 
1680, l'2mo, and other works. M. Huet dedicated bi$ 
book '^ De Interpretatione" to this gentleman.* 

U 2 



1«* GRAINGER. 

' GRAIN6ER (James)^ an English poet and physicianr, 
was botn at Dunse, a small town in the southern part of 
Scotland, about 1723. His father, a native of Cumber- 
land, and once a man of considerable property, had re- 
moved to Dunse, on the failure of some speculations in 
mining, and there filled a post in the excise. His son, 
after receiving such education as his native place afforded, 
went to Edinburgh, where he was apprenticed to Mr. Law- 
der, a surgeon, and had an opportunity of studying the 
various branches of medical science^- which were then 
begun to be taught by the justly celebrated founders of the 
school of medicine in that city. Having qualified himself 
for such situations as are attainable by young men whose 
circumstances do not permit them to wait the slow returns 
of medical practice at home, be first served as surgeon to 
lieut.-general Pulteney^s regiment of foot, during the re- 
bellion (of 1745) in Scotland, and afterwards went in the 
same capacity to Germany, where that regiment composed 
part of the army under the earl of Stair. With the repu- 
tation and interest which his skill and learning procured 
abroad, he came over to England at the peace of Aix-la«* 
Chapelle, sold his commission, and entered upon practice 
as a physician in London. 

In 1753 he published the result of his experience in 
some diseases of the army, in a volume written in Latin, 
entitled ** Historia Febris Anomalse Batavce annorum 1746, 
1747, 1748,^' &c. Id this work he appears to advantage 
as an acute observer of the phenomena of disease, and as 
a man of general learning, but what accession he had 
been able to make to the stock of medical knowledge was 
unfortunately anticipated in sir John Pringle's recent and 
very valuable work on the diseases of the army. During 
his residence in London, his literary talents introduced 
him to the acquaintance of many men of genius, particu- 
larly pf Shenstone, Dr. Percy the late bishop of Dromore, 
Glover, Dr. Johnson, sir Joshua Reynolds, and others^ 
who by Mr. BoswelPs comprehensive biography, are now 
known to have composed Dr. Johnson^s society, and it is 
no small praise that every member of it regai-ded Dr. 
Grainger with affection. He was first known as a poet by 
bis ** Ode oti SoliQide,*' which has been universally praised, 
and never beyond its merits; but professional success is 
aeldom promoted by the reputation of genius. Grainger's 
practice was insufficient to employ his days or to provide 



(3 R A I.N G S R» US 

for tbem, aid be is said to h$^e accepted the office, of ttitor 
to a young gentleo^an who se^itled an annuity \ipon M91 ; tipr 
did he disdain such literary employment as the booksellers 
suggested. Smollett, in the coi^rse of a controversy which 
will be noticed hereafter, accuses him of working for bread 
in the lowest employments of literature, and ai the lowest 
prices. This, if it be not the loose assertion of a calum- 
niator, may perhaps refer to the assistance he gave in pre- 
paring the second volujne of Maitland's ^^ History of Scot* 
land,^' in which he was employed by Andrew Millar, who 
has seldom been accused of bargaining with authors for 
the lowest prices. Maitland had left materials for the vo* 
lume, and as Grainger's business was to arrange them, and 
contin^e the work as nearly as possible in Maitland's plan- 
ner and style, much fame could not result from his best 
endeavours. 

In 1758 be published a translation of the *^ Elegies of 
Tibullus,^' begun during the hours he snatched from busi- 
ness or pleasure when in the army, and finished in Lon- 
don, where he had more leisure, and the aid and encou- 
rageoient of his literary friends. This work involved him 
in the unpleasant contest with Smollett, to which we have 
just referred. Its merits were canvassed in the ^^ Critical 
Review^* with much severity. The nates are styled <^ a 
huge farrago of learned lumber, jumbled together to Very 
little purpose, seemingly. calculated to display^the trans- 
lator's reading, rather than to illustrate the sense and 
beauty of the original.^' The. Life of Tibullus, which the 
translator prefixed, is said to contain *^ very little either to 
inform, interest, or amuse the reader.'* With: respect to 
the translation, ^' the author has not found it an easy task 
to preserve the elegance and harmony of the original.'* 
Instances of harshness and inelegance are quoted, as. well 
as of the use of words which are not English, or not used 
by good writers, as noiseless^ redoubtablet /eudf ^&c. The 
author is likewise accused of deviating not . only frpm the 
meaning, >but from the figures of the original. Of these 
objections some are groundless, and some are just, yet 
even the latter are by no means characteristic of the whole 
work, hut.excepttans which a critic of more.Oiandour would 
have had a right to state, after be h^ bestowed the praise 
due to its general merit Ju this review, however, although 
unqualified censure was all the Critic had in view, no per- 
sonal attack is made on the author, nor are there any allu^ 
sions to his situation in life. 



U6 ti^RAINGElt 

This appeared in tbe *^ Critical Review** for Decetnlber 
1758. In the subsequent ilamber for January 1759, the 
reviewer takes an opportunity, as if answerits-g a corre- 
apondent, to retract his objection agai nvt* the word n^ff« 
iessj because it is found in Sbakspeare, ^t observes very 
fairly, that the authority of Shakspeare or Mikon will not 
justify an author of the present times for intradcicing harsh 
or antiquated words. He acknowledges himself likewise 
^o blame in having omitted to consntt the errata subjoined 
'(prefixed) to Dr. Grainger's performance, where some things 
are corrected which the reviewer mentioned as inaccuracies 
in the body of tbe work. But this acknowledgment, -so ap* 
pairently candid, is immediately followed by a wretched at- 
tetupt at wit, in these words : '< Whereas one of the Owis 
bekmging to the proprietor of the M(on)ihly R(erie)Wy 
which answers to the name of Grainger, hath suddenly broke 
from his mew, where he used to hoot im darkness and peace, 
and now screeches openly in the faee of day, we shall take 
the first opportunity to chastise this troublesome owl, and 
*4iive liim back to his original obscmrity.^ The allusion 
here is to Dr. Grainger's •* Letter to Tobias BmoHett, M.13. 
looeasioned by his <;riticism on a late Translation of Ttbul- 
kis,*' a perfoftmance some parts of which every friend to 
the author must wish had not been published. In tfhis 
letter, however, Grainger, after quoting a passage from 
tbe plan or prospectus of the " Critical Review," in which 
the authors promise to revive the true spirit of cjriticism, 
to act without prejudice, &c. &c. endeavourS' to proye, 
that they have forfeited their word, bycnotoriously depart- 
ing from the spirit of just and candid criticism, and by in- 
troducing gross partialities and malevolent censures. And 
these assertions, which are certainly not without founda* 
«tion, are intermixed widi reflections on Dr. SmoHettHt 
loose novels, aud insinuations that his partialities arise from 
causes not very honourable to the cfharacter of an indepen- 
dent reviewer. 

But whatever truth ma^ be iu all this, the letter was an 
<iHrwise and hasty prc^action, written in the moment of tlie 
strongest inritation. The review appeared in December^ 
tad the letter in January. There was no time to cod, and 
perhaps no opportunity of consulting his friends, who could 
liave told him that notbityg was to be gained hy an ^- 
cbange of personalities with Smollett The 'latter required 
He f;reat kngtfi -of time ot -consideration to prepare an an- 



fiwer, whioh* appe^urjed 9i»}ordiiigly in ibe review for Fe*^ 
bruary, and in which every insinuation or accii^ation is 
iQtFCKlucecl that coutd ieod to lessen Dr« Grainger in the 
^yea of ihe puNic^ both as a writer and as a man. But 
the objections which Grainger took are by lU) meaoB satis» 
foctoiily answered, and the "review is stiU liaUe to «he 
suspicion of partiality. No reader of candour ox of taste 
ca9 peruse the Translation, without allowing that the aui(> 
tbor deserved praise, not only for the attempt, but for the 
elegant manner in which he has in general transmitted the 
tender sentiments of Tibullus into our Ungua^. But this 
the Reviewer has wholly overlooked, confining himself te 
the censure of a few defects, part of which he has not 
proved to be so, and part were typographical errors. 

It has been supposed that some personal animosity 
prompted Smollett to such hoaitlity, but of what nature, 
or excited by what provocation, is not known. All wje cam 
learn fropn the Lettei^ and the Answer is, that the parties 
were once upon friendly terms, but that mutual respect 
bad now ceased. One circumstance, indeed, we find, 
.which may account for much of Smollett's animosity : he 
siipposed Grainger to be one of the Monthly Reviewers, 
«nd this was provocation enough to the mind of a man, wlie 
from the commencement of the Critical Review toQk everjr 
opportunity, whether in his way or not, of ^reviling the pro- 
prietor and writers of > that journal. As the latter selddm 
deigned to notice these attacks, no better reason, we are 
ftfraid, can be assigned for Smollett's conduct than the 
jealousy of rival merit and success, in both which respects 
•the Monthly Review had a decided superiority. Whether 
Grainger was a Monthly Reviewer is not an unimportant 
question, in collecting the inaterials of his literary life ; 
yet his biographers have hastily subscribed to Smollett's 
assertion, without examining the Review in question. The. 
article of his Tibullus in the Monthly Review may convince 
any person that Grainger could have little or no interest or 
influence with the .proprietors. Although woitten with 
^lecency apd urbanity, it has nothing of partiality or kind^ 
4iess ; the reader is left to judge from the specimens ez)- 
4;raoted, and what praise we find is bestowed with that 
iaint reluclaoce, which is more blasting to the .hopes of an 
authcr than open hostility. — Even the opinion of the 
-Monthly Reviewer on HGrrainger's letter to Smollett, is ex- 



1^ GRAINIER. 

pressed with the brevity of one who wishes not to interfere . 
in the contest. 

Soon after the publication of TibuUus, Dr. Grainger 
embraced the o6er of an advantageous settlement as phy- 
sician on the island of St Christopher^ s. During his pas- 
sage^ a lady on board of one of the merchant-men bound 
for the same place^ was seized with the sma)i>-poXy attended 
with some alarming symptoms. He was sent for, and not 
only prescribed with success^ but took the remainder of 
his passage in the same- ship, partly to promote the reco- 
very of his patient, but principally to have an opportunity 
of paying his addresses to her daughter, whom he married 
soon after their arrival at St. Cbristopher^s. By his union 
with this lady, whose name was Burt, daughter to Matthew 
William Burt, esq. governor of St. Christopher^ s, he be- 
came connected with some of the principal families on the 
island, and was enabled to commence the practice of phy- 
sic with the greatest hopes of success. It is probable^ 
however, that this was not his first attachment In his 
preface to the translation of TibuUus, he insinuates that 
his acquaintance with the passion of love gives him a pre- 
ference over Dart, who had attempted to transfuse the ten- 
der sentiments of that poet into English without the same 
advantage. 

The transition from London to a West India island must 
have been very striking to a reflecting mind. The scenery 
and society of St Christopher^s was new in every respect, 
and Grainger seems to have studied it witlr those mixed 
and not very coherent feelings of the poet and the planter, 
which at length produced his principal work, ^^ The Sugar 
Cane.*' On his return to England, at the conclusion of the 
war, he submitted this poem to his literary friends, and 
having obtained their opinion and approbation, publishecl 
.it in a handsome quarto volume, in 1764. To the asto- 
nishment of all who remembered his dispute with Smollett, 
the ^^ Sugar Cane" was honoured with the highest praise 
in the '< Critical Review." But Sraiollett was now on his 
travels, and the Review was under the care of Mr. Hamil- 
ton, the proprietor and printer, a man who took no plea- 
sure in perpetuating animosities^ and who, with great re- 
spect for Dr. Smollett's memory, did not deny that his 
vindictive temper was of no great service to the Review; 

Mr. Bos well, in his life of Johnson, informs us that when 
the Sugar Cane ^ was read in manuscript at sir Joshua 



GRAINGER: 169 

Reynolds's^ tbe assembled wits burst out into a laugb, when^ 
after much .blank*verse pomp, tbe poet began a new para» 
graph thus : 

' Now Muse, let*s sing of rats J/ 

And what increased the ridicuie was, that one of the com- 
pimy, . who slyly overlooked the reader, perceived that th$ 
word had originally been vnce, and had been altered to rats 
as more dignified." ** This passage/' adds Mr. Boswell, 
« does .not appear in the printed work. Dr. Grainger, or 
some of his friends, tt shmdd seeml having become sensible 
that introducing even rats^ in a grave poem, might be 
liable to banter. He, however, could not bring himself 
to relinquish . the idea; for they are thus, in a still more 
ludicrous manner, paraphrastically exhibited in his poem 
as it now stands : 

' Nor with less waste the whiskered vermin race, 
A countless clan, despoil the lowland cane*.** 

Of this incident. Dr. Percy furnished Mr. Boswell with 
ihe following explanation. ^' The passage in question was 
not originally liable to such a perversion ; for the author 
having occasion in that part of his work to mention the 
havoc made by rats and.mice^ had introduced tbe subject 
in a kind o^mock heroic^ and a parody of Homer's battle of 
the frogs and mice, invoking the muse of the old Grecian 
bard in an elegant and weiNturned manner. In that state 
I had seen it ; but afterwards, unknown to me and other 
friends, he had been persuaded, contrary to his better 
judgment, to alter it so as to produce the unlucky effect 
above mentioned.'' Mr. Boswell tells us that Dr. Percy 
bad not the poem to refer to, when he wrote this explana- 
tion ; and it is equally evident that Mr. Boswell bad not 
read the whole passage with attention, or considered tbe 
nature of the poem, when he objected to the introduction 
of rats* If we once allow that a manufacture may be sung 
in heroics, we must no longer be choice in our subjects; 
as to the alteration of mice to ratSj the former was pro- 
bably an error of the pen, for mice are not the animals in 
question, nor once mentioned by the poet. But it is some- 
what strange that Grainger should have ever thought it 
prudent to- introduce an episode of the mock-htroxc kind 
in E poem which his utmost care can scarcely elevate to so« 
lemnity. 

In the same year (1764) Dr. Grainger published '< An 
JBssay «ii the more common West India Diseases ; and the 



17(1 G R A I N 6 E ft. 

irem^dies wbich^tliat coantry ksieU^ jfroivBces: To whk^ 
are Ad4e<i, aome hmts on the managiement of Negroes.*' 
To this pamphlet he did not affix his name. Many of di^ 
remarks it container, particularly those which concern the 
choice and t]>eataieni of the negroes, may be found id ^^Th^ 
Sugar Calne/' After a short residence in Engkad, he re<*' 
tiurqed to St. Christopher's, to which, it appears by bia 
poeiB} he became much attached; and continued his prac«- 
ticeas a physician until bis death, Dec. 24, 1767, whidi 
wa^ occasioned by one ctf those epidemic fevers that fre* 
qaently rage in the West India islands. 

Although k' is impossible to deny Grainger the credit of 
poetical genius, it must ever he regretted that where be 
willed mcMTt to excel, he was most unfortunate in the 
choice of a subject. The effect of his ** Sugar Cane,** 
either as to pleasure or utility, mlist be toeal. Connected 
as an English enerchaiRt may be with the produce of the. 
West Indies, it wiUl not be easy to persuade the reader of 
Soglish poetry to study the cultivation of the sugar plant 
merely that he may add some new imagery to the more 
ample stores whioh he can contemplate ^without study or 
trocible. In the West Indjses this poem might have charms, 
if readers could be found ;• but what poetical fancy can 
dwell on the 'Oeconomy of canes and copper- boilers, Or find 
interest in the transactions of planters aod sugar- brokers? 
His invocations to his muse are so freq^uent and abrupt, thaet 
*^ the assembled wits at sir Joshua Reyndlds's'^ migbt have 
found many passages as ludicrous us that wjiiph -excited 
their mirth. The solemnity of these iuvocations ejuiitei 
expectation, which generally ends in disappointment, and 
at best the reader's attention is bespoke w^hout being re- 
warded. He is induced to look for sometbing grand, and 
is told of a contrivance for destroying monkies, or a recipe 
to poison rats. He smiles to fintt the da^es called by the 
happy poetical name of swmnsy and the plantieirs itrged to 
devotion ! The iinages in this poem are in general low, 
and the allusions, where tbe poet would . bye minutely de* 
scriptive, descend to things tittle and Tamilian Yet this is 
4n some measure forced upon him. His mu&e sings of 
.matters so new and uncouth to her, that it is impos^ble 
^^ her heavenly plumes'' should ^escape being ^^ soiled.'* 
What muse, indeed, could give a receipt for a con^ost df 
*^ weeds, mouldy duJig;, and s^e," or a lively descrifition 
of tjbe :syQ»p(0!B)s and cui:eof the yaws; and >preierye iuu: 



G R A I N Q E R. 'itl 

4^gattce 'Or porky ? Wiere, howei«er, he quit^ fhe plain 
track ^ n^chanical instraetions, we have maay of diose 
effasiotis of faney whicfi wilt yet preserve this poem in our 
collections. The description of the hiarricane, and of the 
earthquake, are truly grand, and heightened by circnm- 
«taiices of Jiorror that are new to Europeans. The episode 
of Montano in the first book arrests the attention very 
forcibly, and many of the occasional reflections are elegant 
and pathetic, nor ought the taleof Junioand Theaua to be 
omitted in a list of the beauties of this poem. The '^ Ode 
to Solitude,'^ already noticed, and the ballad of ftryan and 
Pereene," are sufficient to attest our au thorns claim lo 
poetical 4ionours ; and the translation of Tibullus gives proofs 
of clas»ical taste and learning. * 

GRAMAYE (John Baptist), an eminent antiquary, was 
a native of Antwerp, and bom in. Ifhe end of the six- 
teenth century. He studied at Louvain, where he toofk 
his inaster^s degree in 1596, and became professor ot rhe« 
toric and law ia that university. He was afterwards his« 
toriographer to the Low Countries, and for three years 
employed himself in examining their records. He then 
travelled through tbe greater part of Germany and Italy, 
bin, wlifle proceeding from the latter country to Spain, he 
was ui^foptunately made captive by an Algerine corsair, «ntl 
carried to Africa. How he obtained his release does not 
appear, %ut upon hrs return to his native land he was pre- 
ferred by the archduke Albert to be dean of the collegiate 
church of Leusa, in Heinault, and afterwards by the same 
•patronage was made president of t\e college at Loifvain. 
Some years after he travelled into Moravia and Silesia, and 
in the latter province he was, by cardinal Dietrichstein, 
placed at the head of a college. He died at Lubec in 1635. 
He published many Latin poems, and theses on a variety 
ef wbjects ; but his historical and topographical works have 
been found of most value. These are, 1. ^' Asia, sive his- 
-toria universalis Asiaticarum gentium, &c.'' Antwerp, 1 604, 
4ito. ^. .'^Bruzeila cum suo coraitatu,'* Brux.,16a6, 4to. 
3. ^^ Arscotum Ducatus cum suis Baronatibus,'' ibid. 1606, 
•4to. 4.^ Then® et Brabantias ultra Velpem, qute olim 
•HarfbaniiB pars," ibid. 1606, 4to. 5. " Grallo-Brabantia,'* 
8 part» or Tols. ibid. 1 606. 6. " Antwerpiae Antiquitates,'* 
ibid« 1610. 7. ** Antiquitates ducatus Brabaatiae/' ibid. 

\ Johnson and Chalmerses English Poets, 1810* 



172 G R A M A Y E. 

1«10^ 4to. 8. « Taxandriai,** ibid. 1610, 4to. 9. " Antiqui- 
tates Gaudenses/* Ant. 1611, 4to. 10. ^* Africa illustrata/' 
Torn. 1622, 4to. 11. '^ Diarium rerum Argel® gesta- 
rum," Col. 1623, 12ibo. These are bis obsertations da* 
ring his captivity. 1 2. ^^ Respublica Namurcensis," Am^ 
1634, 24^. ]^. ^^ Specimen Litterarum et Linguarum 
universi orbis,'* Athi. 4to. * 

GRAMM (John), a learned philologist, antiquary, and 
bifttcM'ian of Copenhagen, was born at Aalburg in Jutland, 
Oct. 2S, 1685. His father, who was a clergyman, carefully 
superintended bis education until he was £t to go to the 
university. He went accordingly in 1703 to Copenhagen, 
where he very soon distinguished himself as a classical 
scholar and critic. In 1 705 he took his bachelor's degree 
'With great credit, and in 1707 published the first speci* 
men of his learned researches, entitled *^ Arcbytae Taren- 
tini fragpientum s-^i td; fiadnfialutng, cum disquisitione chro-» 
nologica de setate Arcbytae.'' This was followed by other 
dissertations, which raised bis fame so highly that he was 
made professor of Greek at Copenhagen, and was also 
appointed counsellor of justice, archivist, historiographer, 
and Ubrarian, to the king, whom he had taught when a 
youtb. In 1745, he was made counsellor of state, and 
died March 19, 1748, leaving an elaborate work, ^^ Corpus 
diplomatum ad res Danicas facientium." This work, which 
be undertook by order of Christian VI. is still in MS. and 
probably consists of several folio volumes. Gramm laid 
the first foundation of the academy at Copenhagen, and 
contributed very frequently to the literary journals of his 
time. He was a man of very extensive learning, but par- 
ticularly skilled in Greek and Latin, and in history, and 
of such ready memory that he was never consulted oo 
books or matters of literature without giving immediate 
information. He corresponded with many of the literati of 
Germany, England, Italy, and France, but was most ad- 
mired by those who were witnesses of his amiable private 
character, his love of literature, and his generous patronage 
of young students.* 

GRAMONT (Gabriel Bartholomew, Seignbur de), 
in Latin, Gramondus, president of the parliament of 
Toulouse, and son of the dean of the counsellors to the 

> Foppen Bibl. Belg. — Clement BibU Curieuse. ' 
* BiAtM de Vitis Philologonim^ toI. IIL 



,* 



e R A M o N T. ni 

a 

same parliament^ descended from an ancient family in 
Rouergue^ who were long in possession of the estate of 
Gramont. He wrote in Latin a History of the reign of 
Louis XIIL from the death of Henry iV. to 1629. This 
history, the best edition of which is 1643| fot. may be con* 
sidered as a supplement to that of the president du Thou» 
although much inferior both as to style and fidelity : the 
author flatters cardinal de Richelieu because he hoped for 
his favour; andabusesArnauldd'Andilly, and others, from 
whoni he had no expectations. He died in 1654. In 1623 
be publii^ed his M Historia prostratae a Ludovico XHL 
Sectariorum in Gallia rebellionis/' 4to, which contains 
^me curious and interesting facts, mixed with strong pre- 
judices i^ainst the protestants, which lead him to such 
excess, of bigotry as to vindicate the hcNrrible massacre of 
St. Bartholomew. ^ 

GRAMONT. {Philibert, Count of), scm of Antony 
duke of Gramont,. served as a volunteer under the prince 
of Cond6, and Turenne, and came into England about 
two years after the restoration. He was under a necessity 
of leaving . France for having the temerity to pay his 
addresses, to a lady to whom Lewis XIV. was known to have 
a tender attachment. He possessed in a high degree every 
qualification that could render him agreeable to the licen- 
tious court of Charles IL . He was gay, gallant^ and per- 
fectly well-bred, had an inexhaustible fund of ready wit, 
and told a. story with extraordinary humour and effect. 
His vivacity infused life wherever he came, and was ge- 
nerally inoffensive. He had also another qualification very 
well suited to. the company he kept. He had great skill 
and success in play ; and seems to have been chiefly in- 
debted to it for suppbrt. Several of the ladies engaged 
his attention upon his first coming over; but miss Eli- 
zabeth Hamilton, whom, he afterwards married, seems to 
have been his favourite, though some say he endeavoured 
to break ofi* the connection. She was the daughter of sir 
Creorge Hamilton, fourth son of James first earl of Aber- 
corn. His ^* Memoirs'* were written from his own infor- 
mation, and probably in much the same language in which 
they are related, by his brother-in-law, Anthony, who, fol- 
lowing the fortunes of James IL entered the French ser* 
vice^ and died at St. Germain's, April 21, 1720. He was 

1 Gen. DiGt.«T»Moreri,«-*Clemeitt BibU Curieuse^ 



174 O R A M Q N T. 

I 

* 9 

generatty called Coimt Haiinilton. CoHixt Oramont dieil 
Jan, 10, 17Q7. There have lately been geveral editions of 
the ^^ Memoira" printed here, both in French and Englisb, 
and in a splendid form, illustrated with portraits. They 
contain many carious particulars respecting the intrigaes 
and amusements of the court of Charles II. but present 
vpon the whole a disgusting picture of depraved manners. ^ 
GRANCOLAS (John), a Parisian, doctiDr of the Sor- 
bonne^ to which honour he was adncritted in 1685, waa^ 
author of many works on eccle^astical rites, cerenionies, 
and general history, the principal of which are, 1. ^ De 
TAntiquit^ des Ceremonies des Sacreroens." 2. " Trait^ 
de Liturgies." 3, ^< L'Ancien Sacramentaire de PEglise.'* 
4. ^ Traduction FVangoise de Cat^cheses de S* CyrilJe de 
J^usalem." 5. ^' Commeiitaire historique sur le Btieviaire 
Romain," &c. This last is much esteemed. 6. ^ Cri- 
tiqite des Auteurs Eeclesiastiques," 2 vols. 8vo. 7. ^^ La 
Science dea Confesseurs," 2 vols. J2mo. 8. ^^ Hist^ abv6« 
g6e de TEglke de Paras,'^ 2 vols. i2Qio. This history was 
suppressed because of ihe freedoms the author took with 
the cardinal de Noailles. He died August' 1, 173^, at 
Paris. The whole of bis. works are more valuable for the; 
matter than tlie manner; ^ 

GRAND (Ax^THONY Lfi), a Franciscan friar, was born 
at Douay, in the early part of the seventeenth oentmry, 
and has been^styled the abbreviator of Descartes. He was 
an eminent professor both of philosophy and divinity in the 
university of Ikouay, where he associated much with the 
English, and was sent by them as a missionary into £ng« 
land. His residenee was chiefly in Oxfordshire, where he 
led a retired life. He is said to have ^en the first who 
ileduced the Cartesian system to the method of the schools, 
and his work on this subject, which was frequeiuly printed 
in England,, first in 1671, 12mo, and afterwards, much 
enlarged in 4to, was also translated and published in folio^ 
He carried on a controversy for some time with a Mr. John 
Serjeant on metaphysical subjects. H^ was sUive in Ox- 
fordshire in 1695^ but no farther particulars of his history 
are now known. Among his works we find the following 
mentioned: 1. ^^ L'homme sans passion^ selon les semi« 
m^is de Seneque,'' Hague, 1662, 12mo« %. <' Scydro* 

> Moreri.-*Prefac« to the Meinoirs.-*CoUini's Peerage by sir £« Brydges. 
9 li^oreri. 



GRAND. 175 

fliecKa, S6U Seniio quern Alpboosus de la Yida habnit^ €D« 
ram Comite de Falmouth, de manarcdiiia,'' 1^69, leino* 
B. *^ Apologia Renatt des Cartes eoBira Sam. ParkemiD^'* 
London^ 16t9, 12nx>r 4. ^^ Historia naturs Tariia expe^^ 
riotientid ducidBtay'' dbid. 1G73, 8va, reptfiated there in 
l€fH^j and at Norimb. 1678. 5. ^^ CompctrKliufn rerom 
jucundarum, et meimnrabiltum naturae/' Notfioib. 16^1^ 
^vo. €. << Dissertatfo de carentia s«mu0 et cogniilioais in 
Bfutis/' Leyden, 1675, 8yo. 7. ^<L'£pmtBe Sf>Lritttal» on 
Ptmpire de la voiupd;^ snr les TertMs/' Paris^ ftvo. 8. <^ Hia-* 
toria sacra^a mundo coodito ad Gondtantuiuiii magnuai/* 
whicb is said to be hit best perforfnance. *■ 

GRANI> (Joachim Le), a French lustarical wnter, wm 
bom Feb. 6, 1653, at St. Lo, in Normandy. . After study* 
mg philosophy at Caen, he entered mto the coDgregatioa 
of the oratory in 1671, whete he applied to the belies lettrei 
and tfae4ilogy, hot quitted it ia 1676, and went to Paiia^ 
where he engaged in the edueafeion of two young mea of 
Hank, the marquis de Vins, and the duked'fistrees, and 
at the satne time applied himself to the study of histoiry 
under the direction of father Le Coitite, who formed a very 
high opinion of him. He first appeared as a visiter in 1688, 
ill ^^ A History of the Divorce of Henry YIII. aM Caliban 
rine of Arragon," in three vols. l2mo. The main objest 
•ef this work is to refute certain facts and ai)guments con** 
taiaed in the first two books of Burnet's History of the Re«* 
formation. In 1685, when Burnet was at Paris, be had aa 
intetview with Le Grand in the presence of Messrs. Thew 
iMinot and Auzout, in which the latter proposed his doubts, 
and the former answered them, both preserving a tone o£ 
elegance and mutual respect. The publication of the 
4bove work, however^ produced a controversy, in the 
course of which, in 1691, Le Grand addressed three lettera 
to the bishop, to which he replied. How long the control* 
versy might have continued is uncertain, as Le Grand was 
iieceseraruy diverted from it in 1692, when he .received the 
appoifittMnt of secretary to the abbe d'Estrees, in his em« 
bassy to Portugal. In this situation he continued till 1697. 
The leii(i)Ye which his diplomatic functions allowed waa 
employed in translations of voyages and travels from the 
P6rtuguese# In 1702 he accompanied the same ministat 
i« SpcUti) trh^e he remained about two years as secretary. 



17f GRAN D. 

Soon after this, the marquis de Torci, minister of state, took 
him into bis service, and employed his pen in drawing np 
several memorials concerning the Spanish monarchy, and 
other political topics, in which h^ acquitted himself with 
great ability, but most of them were printed without his 
name. He employed much of his time in writing a life of 
Louis XI.; but, although this was quite finished in 1728, it 
still remains in manuscript. In that year, however,, be 
published his translation of Lobo's History of Abyssinia, with 
many additions ; and about the same time his treatise ^* De 
I4 succession a^ la Couronne de France.'* H& died of an 
apoplectic stroke, April 30, 1733. He had been possessed 
of church preferment,! and had held, for a time, the office 
of censor royal of books. ^ 

GRAND (JoHK Baptist Le), was born at Amiens, June 
S, 1737, and was surnamed d'Aussy, because his father 
was a native of Auxy-le-Ch£lteau, in the department of 
Pas«de- Calais. > He received his education in the college 
of the Jesuits • at Amiens ; at the age of eighteen entered 
into the society of his preceptors ; and, a few years after* 
wards^ bad the honour of being elected to the rhetorical^ 
chair at Caen. At the age of twenty-six he was thrown oh. 
the world by the dissolution of the order^ and was soon 
employed in the elaborate work of the French Glossary, 
projected by Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, and in an.exami* 
nation of the very rich library ^f the marquis de Paulmy.* 
In 1770 he was appointed secretary in the direction of the. 
studies of the military school. He afterwards co-operated,: 
under the marquis de Paulmy, and again with the count 
de Tressan,. in the 5< Biblioth6que des Romans ;'* after 
which he became still deeper engaged in collecting, trans* 
lating, extracting, and. commenting upon the ^^ Fabliaux^**, 
or tales of the old French . poets of the twelfth and thir* 
teenth centuries. In 1782 he published, in three volumes, 
8vo, his '^Histoirede la Vie priv^e des Fran$ais;'' and ia 
1788 his far more celebrated *^Tour to Auvergne,'' which 
province he visited the preceding year, at the entreaty of 
^is Jesuit brother Peter Theodore Lewis Augustin, who 
was then prior of the abbey of Saint Andr6, in the town of 
Clermont. This Tour he first published in one volume, 
8vo; but he afterwards enlarged and republished it, in 
179iy in three volumes of the same size. His contribution^^ : 

> Nicttoo, Vol. XXVI.«*Morerk 



GRAND. 177 

to the Iiistityte were numerous^ and^ for the most part, 
possessed of merit. For some years before bis death, be 
had conceived the plan o( a complete history of French 
poetry, and had even begun to carry it into execution ; an4 
as he stood in need of ail the treasures of the national li- 
brary, he was fortunately nominated, in 1796, conservator 
of the French MSS. of this library ; and he now not only 
renewed his intention, but enlarged his scheme : he in^ 
eluded in it the, history of the French tongue ; that of lite- 
rature in all its extent, and all its various ramifications ; as 
well as that of science, of arts, and their utility in different 
applications — a monument too vast for the life and power 
of an individual to be able to construct. He bad, however, 
accomplished some part of his design, when, after a slight 
indisposition which caused no alarm, he died suddenly in 
l-SOi. : He was upon the whole a retired and taciturn scho« 
lar. " His life," says his biographer, "like that of most 
oth^r men of letters, may be comprized in two lines : What 
were his places of resort ? The libraries. Among whom did 
he live ? His books. What did he ever produce ? Books^ 
What did he ever say? That which appears in his books.'* 

In 1779, he published his " Fabliaux,'^ or Tales of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Paris, 1779, 5 vols. 8vo. 
His object in this collection appears to have been an ar- 
dent zeal for the reputation of his country, to which he 
has successfully restored some tales claimed by other na- 
tions, and particularly the Italians. Whether these tales, 
which shock all probabilit}^ were worth his pains, the Eng- 
lish reader may discover by a prose translation published 
in 1786, 2 vols. 12mo, or by Mr. Way's metrical transla- 
tion, 1800, 2 vols. 8vo. These were followed by ** Contes 
devots. Fables et Romans anciens, pour servir de suite aux 
Fabliaux," 1781, 8vo. He published also "Vie d' Apollo- 
nius de Tyanes," 2 vols. 8vo.* 

GRANDET (Joseph), was a pious and learned curate 
of St. Croix at Angers, whose memory was long revered 
in that city, and throughout the diocese, for the benefits, 
both spiritual and temporal, which he procured to his 
parish. He died in 1724, aged seventy-eight. He left 
the following works : 1. " La Vie de M. Cret^, Cur^ de Nor- 
mandie;" 2. " La Vie de Mademoiselle de Melun, princesse 
d*£pinoy, Institutrice des Hospitalieres de Baug£ et de 

' Memoirs of the Nationel Institute— Diet* Hist. 

Vol. XVI. N 



178 G R A N D E T. 

Beaufort en Anjou ;'* 3. " La Vie du Comte de Moret/fils 
natUrel de Henri IV. ;'* 4. " La Vie de M. Dubois de la 
t'erte/' and the lives of sontie other persons held in great 
esteen> in the Romish church.* 

GRANDIER (Urban), curate and canon of Loudun in 
France, famous for his intrigues and tragical end, was the 
son of a notary royal of Sable, and born at Bouvere ne^r 
Sabl^, in the latter paH of the fifteenth century, but we 
Icnow not in what year. He was a man of reading and 
judgment, and a famous preacher; for which the monks of 
Loudun soon hated him, especially after he had urged the 
necessity of confessing sins to the parochial priests at Eas- 
ter. He was a handsome man, of an agreeable conversa* 
tion,. neat in his dress, and cleanly in his person, which 
made him suspected of loving the fair sex, and of beii»g 
beloved by them. In 1629, he was accused of having had 
a criminal conversation with some women in the very 
churcli of which he was curate ; on which the oi&cial con- 
demned him to resign all his benefices, and to live in 
penance. He brought an appeal,, this sentence being an* 
encroachment upon the civil powef; and, by a decree of 
the parliament of Paris, he was referred to the presidial of 
Poitiers, in which he was acquitted. Three years after*^ 
some Ursuline nuns of Louidun were thotight, by the vul- 
gar, to be possessed with the devil ; and Grandler's ene- 
mies, the capuchins of Loudun, charged him with being 
the author of the possession, that is^ with witchcraft. They 
thought, however, that in order to make the charge succeed 
according to their wishes, it was very proper to strengthen 
themselves with the authority of cardinal Richlieu. For 
this purpose, they wrote to father Joseph^ their fellow- 
capuchin, who had great credit with the cardinal, that 
Grandier was the author of the piece etititl^d " La Cor- 
donnierre de Loudun," or " The Wonwin Shoemaker of 
Loudon,*' a severe satire, upon the cardinal's person and 
family. This great minister, sfmOng many good qualities, 
harboured the most bitter resentment against the authors 
of libels against him; and father Joseph having persuaded 
him that Grandier wa# the author of ** La Cordon niere de 
Loudun," he wrote immediately to De LaubardemoBt^ 
counsellor of state, and his creature, to n^ake a diligent in- 
quiiy into, the affair of the nuns. De Laubardemonit ac- 

* Morerk-— Diet. HJst^ 



G R A N D I E R. 17* 

tordingly arreted Grand ier in Dec. 1633; and, after h^ 
bad tboroijghly examioed the affair, went to meet the car* 
dinal, and to take proper roeasutes with him. In July 
1634, letters patent were drawn up and sealed, to try 
Grandier ; and were directed to De Laubordemont, and to 
twelve judges chosen out of the courts in the neighbour- 
hood of Loudun ; ail noen of honour indeed, but very cre« 
dulous, and on that account chosen by Grandi^r's enemies. 
In Aug* 18, upon the evidence of Astaroth, the chief of 
possessing devils ; of Easas, of Celst:^, of Acaos, of Eudon, 
&c. that is to say, upon the evidence of the nuns, who as*- 
serted that they were possessed with those devils, the com- 
missanes passed judgment, by which Grandier wasdeclared 
well and duly attainted, and convicted of the criiue of 
magic, witchcraft, and possession, which by his means 
happened on the bodies of some Ursuline nuns of Loudun, 
and of some other lay persons, mentioned in his trial ; for 
which crimes he was sentenced to make the amende honor^ 
dble^ and to be burnt alive with the magical covenants and 
characters which were in tbe register-office, as also with 
the MS. written by him against the celibacy of priests ; 
and his ashes to be thrown up irnto the air. Grandier heard 
this dreadful sentence witbouit any emotion ; and, when he 
went to the place of execution, suffered his punishment 
with great firviness and courage, April IS, 1634. 

Tbe story of this unhappy person shews how easily an 
innocent mian may be destroyed by the malice of the few, 
working upon the credulity and superstition of the many : 
for, Grandier, though centainly a bad man^ was as certainly 
innocent of the crimes for which he suffered. Renaudot, a 
famous physician, and the fir^t author of tbe French ga* 
zette, wrote Grandier's eulogium, which was published at 
Paris in loose sheets, it was taken from Menage, who 
openly defends the curate of I^oudun, and calls tbe pos- 
session of those nuns chimerical. In 1693 was pubUshed 
at Amsterdam ^^ Histoire des Diables de Loudun;^' from 
whkii very curious account it appears, that tbe pretended 
}>os8ession of tbe UrsuUnes was an horrible conspiracy 
against Grandier's life. As an author he is known only for 
a funeral oration for Scsevola de St, Martha, which is said 
io be an eloquent perfoi;mAnce.' 

GRANDIN (Marti{^), a learned Frenoh divine, was 
born at St. Quentin, Nov. 11, 1604, and was educated in 

^ Moreri.— Gen. Diet 

N 2 



no G R A N B I N. 

classical learning at Noyon and Amiens. At the age of 
seventeen he came to Paris, where he studied divitvity 
under the Jesuit Mairat, and afterwards taught a course of 
philosophy in the college of cardinal Le Moine. He was 
then admitted a doctor of the Sorbonne^ and in 1638 
appointed professor of divinity, which office he retained 
until his death, Nov. 16, 1691. He was a man of piety 
and talents, and an elegant and correct speaker. His 
course of theological lectures was published by M. du 
Plessis d'Argentre, 1710 — 1712, in 6 vols. 4lo, under the 
title of "Opera Theologica.'* » 

GRANDIUS, or GRANDI (Guido), a philosopher and 
mathematician, waaborn Oct. 1, 1671, at Cremona, where 
his father, a branch of a decayed family, carried on the 
business of an embroiderer. His mother, a woman of con.- 
.siderable talents, taught him Latin, and gave him some 
taste for poetry. Beiog disposed to a studious life, be 
chose the profession of theology,, that he might freely in- 
dulge his inclination. He entered into.the religious order 
of Camaldolites, at Ravenna, in. 1687, where he was dis- 
tinguished for his proficiency in the different branches of 
literature and science, but was much dissatisfied with the 
•Peripatetic phi l-)sophy of the schools. He had not been 
here long before he established an academy of students of 
his own age, which he called the Certanti, in opposition 
»to another juvenile society called the Concordi. To his 
philosophical studies he added those of the belles lettres, 
music, and history. It appears to have been his early am- 
bition to introduce a new system in education, and with 
that view be obtained the professorship of philosophy at Flo- 
rence, by the influence of father Carameili, although not 
without some opposition from the adherents lo the old 
. opinions. He now applied himself to the introduction of 

• the Cartesian philosophy, while, at the same time, he b^e- 
came zealously attached to mathematical studies. The 

• works of the great Torricelli, of our countryman Wallis, 
and of other celebrated mathematicians, were his favourite 

« companions, and the objects of his familiar intercourse. 

';His first publication was a treatise to resolve the problems 
of Viviani on the construction of arcs, entitled '^ Geome- 
trica Demoustratio Vivianeorum problematum,'' Florence, 
16i^d^ 4to. ! He dedicated this. work to the grand duke, 

» Moreri.— Diet. Hiit. 



G R AN D I US. 181 

Cosmo III. who appointed the author professor of philoso- 
phy in the university of Pisa. From this time Grandius pur- 
sued the higher branches of mathematics w'nh the utmost' 
ardour, and' had the honour of ranking the ablest mathe- 
maticians among his friends and correspondents. Of the 
number may be named the illustrious Newton, Leibnitz, 
and Bernouilli. His next publications were, ** Geometrica 
demonstratio tbeorematum Hugenianorum circa logisticam, 
seu Logarithmicam lineam,'* 1701, 4to, and '* Quadratura 
circuli et hyperbolas per infinitas hyperbolas et parabolas 
geometrice exhibita," Pi^, 1703, 8vo. He then published 
'^ Sejaui et Rufini dialogus de Laderchiana historia S.' 
Petri Damiani," Paris, 1705, aad ** Dissertationes Camal- 
dulenses,'' embracing inquiries ifito the history of the Ca-' 
maldolites, both which gave so much offence to the com- 
munity, that he was deposed from the dignity of abbot of 
St. Michael at Pisa; but the grand duke immediately ap^ 
pointed him his professor of mathematics in the university.' 
He now resolved somd- curious and difficult problems for 
the improvement of acoustics, which bad been presented 
to the roy^l society in Dublin, and having accomplished 
his object, be transmitted the solutions, by means of the 
British minister at the court of Florence, to the Royal 
Society at London. This was published under the title of 
*^ Disquisitio geometrica in systema sonorum D.. Narcissi * 
(Marsh) archiepi&copi Armachaui,'' in 1709, when he was' 
chosen a fellow of the royal society. This was followed 
by his principal work, ^* De infinitis iniinitorum, et in- 
finite parvorum ordtnibus disquisitio geometrica," Pisa, 
1710, 4to, and by many other works' enumerated by his 
biographer, few of which appear in the catalogues of the 
public libraries in this country. Among other subjects be 
defended Galileo^s doctrine respecting the earth's motion, 
and obtained a complete victory over those who opposed 
it. He was deeply versed in subjects of political economy ; 
and various disputes were referred to his decision respect- 
ing the rights of fishery, &c. He was appointed commis- 
sioner from the grand duke and the court of Rome jointly^ 
to settle some differences between the inhabitants of Fer- 
rara and Bologna, concerning the works necessary to pre- 
serve their territories from the ravages of inundation. For 
these and other important publiciservices, he was liberaHy ' 
r^varded by his employers. He died at the ag^ of . se- 
venty-two, in July 1743.V . ^ -. - -. 

* Morcri.— Fabroni Vita Italoruim 



182 , G R A N E T. 

GRANET (Fhancis), deacon of the cfatirch of Aix, was 
born in 1692, at Brignolles in Provence, of a mercantile 
family. He was educated ia bis own country, but came 
young to Paris, where bis literary taste and taletits pro- 
cured him many friends, by whose assistance he increased 
his stores of knowledge, and as his income was very 
limited, entered upon a course of literary labours. He 
was a contributor, as far as vol. XIX. to the ^^ Bibliotheque 
f'ranfoise," a well-known journal printed in Holland ; and 
when Desfontaines was obliged to discontinue his^< Noa-» 
velliste du Pamasse,'' (in which Granet had written) and 
obtained permission to carry it on agltin under another 
title, he engaged Granet' s^services in this new undertaking^ 
called '< Observations sur les edrits modernes." It began in 
173 Ji, and was published weekly until Sept. 174S, when the 
King revoked the privilege. Busied as Granet was on thi« 
work, he found leisure to undertake in 1738 the continua* 
tion of ajeurdal entitled ^^ Reflexions sur les ouvrages de 
litterature.*' This be extended as far as twelve volumes.' 
It contains many extracts and remarks given with taste 
and judgment, but others that are merely repetitions of 
what he had written for the '' Observations sur les ecrits 
x^Qdernes/* He bad also a trick of inserting letters to 
himself, when he wished to publish satire without being 
accountable forjt, but it is not thought that this disguise 
was of much avail. It was perhaps his misfortune that he 
was obliged by the narrowness of his circumstances to em* 
ploy himself thus on the labours of others, and in preparing 
new editions, when he might have executed original works 
that would have done hiin credit. Indeed a few months 
before his death he fainted to his friends that necessity- 
only had forced him to this drudgery, wd that he had no 
consolation but in the hope that he should one day'or othet 
be at liberty to employ his talents in a more creditable 
way. He had learned English, and in order to make that* 
a source of profit, translated sir Isaac Newton^s *^ Chrono- 
logy,*' which he published at Paris, in 1728, 4to^ with an 
excellent preface, of which he took care to speak very 
highly in the I4tb vol. of the ^* Brbliotheque Frangoise,'* 
and, probably by way of blind-, speaks very dtfBerently 
%het^ of some of his contemporaries, from what he had 
advanced in bis preface. In short be appears to have per- 
fectly understood the trade of reviewingk One of his best 
editious is that of the works of M. da iCantioy, which wa^ 



G R A N E T. Hi 

puUUbed 4t GeneviL, lO vols, fol. with a valuable prefacei 
a life, aad a '* JLauiioiana/' consisting of very curious ar* 
ticles. Moreri gives a nudierous list of other editions and 
publications to which be wrote prefaces and notes. Hq 
died at Paris April 2^ 1741, and a spirited eloge was writ^ 
ten on him by the abbe Desfontaines. ' 

GRANGE (Joseph pe Chancel de la), a French sa« 
tiristand dramatic poet, was born 1676, in Perigord. He 
wrote a little comedy in three acts, when but nine years old^ 
which was performed several days successively in the coU 
lege of Bourdeaux, where he was a scholar; and at six- 
teen, produced his tragedy of *^ Jugurtha ;'' but the work • 
^hich has made him most known, is a satire against the 
duke of Orleans, then regent, entitled, ^* .The Philip- 
picks,'' in which be accused that nobleman of the most 
atrocious crimes. To avoid the punishment this work de- 
served, be 6ed to Avignon, in which city was a French 
x>fficer, who had taken refuge there in consequence of 
having committed a murder, and received a promise of 
pardon if he could entice the author of the ^^ Pbilippicks'* 
auto the French dominions. His attempt succeeded, and 
I^ Grange was conducted to the isle of St^ Margaret ; but 
finding means to make frieuds of his keepers, escaped in a 
boat to Villa Franca, notwithstanding a violent^ storm. 
The king of Sardinia gave him a considerable sum of mo«> 
ney, and he went from thence into Spain; afterwards intp 
Holland, where he remained till the duke of Orleans was 
dead. He was then permitted to end his days in France^ 
where he died in 1758, at the castle of Anton iat, his family 
seat. His works have been collected in 5 vols, small ISmo, 
and his tragedies have been as much admired, as his lyric 
efforts have been depreciated.' 

GRANGER (James), a well-known biographer, but 
who has been himself left without any memorial, was the 
son of Mr. William Granger, by Elizabeth Tutt, daughter 
of Tracy Tutt. Of the cooditiou of bis parents, or the 
place of his education, we have not been able to recdvei: 
any particulars. He studied, however, for some time at 
Christ-church, 0:$ford, which lie probably left without 
taking a degree ; and having entered into holy orders, was 
presented to the vicarage of Shiplake, in Oxfordshire, a 
living in the gift of the dean and chapter of Windsor. He 

1 Moreri. — Diet, Hist. ' Dick Hist. . 



1S4 G R A N G E R. 

informs US, in the dedication of his "Biographical His- 
tory," that his name and person were known to few at the 
time of its publication (1769), as he had " the good for- 
tune to retire early to independence, obscurity, and con- 
tent" He adds, that " if he has an ambition for any 
thing, it is to be an honest man and a good parish priest,'* 
and in both those characters he was highly esteemed by all 
who knew hinl. To the duties of his sacred office, he at- 
tended with the most scrupulous assiduity and zeal, and 
died in the performance of the most solemn office of the 
church. Such was his pious regard for the day appointed 
for religious observances, that he would not read the 
proofs of his work while going through the press on that 
day ; and with such an impression of what was bis duty, 
found no great difficulty in resisting the arguments of hjs 
bookseller, Tom Davies, who endeavoured to persuade 
bim that this was a " work of necessity." It appears that 
some time before his death he was anxious to obtain ^ 
living within a tenable distance of Shiplake, but did not 
succeed. In 1773 or 1774 he accompanied lord Mounts 
Stuart, now earl of Bute, on a tour to Holland, where his 
lordship made an extensive collection of portraits. In 
1772 he published a sermon entitled ** An Apology for the 
Brute Creation, or Abuse of Animals censured." This 
viras preached in his parishrchurch, Oct. 1 8, 1772, and, as we 
are informed in a postscript, gave almost universal disgust; 
** the mention of horses and dogs was censured as a pros- 
titution of the dignity of the pulpit, and considered as a 
proof of the author's growing insanity ;" but more com- 
petent judges, and indeed the public at large, applauded 
bim for exerting his humanity and benevolence in a case 
which is so often overlooked^ the treatment of the brute 
creation. Mr. Granger, who was a man of some humour^ 
and according to the evidence of his friend and corre- 
spondent the rev. Mr. Cole, a frequent retailer of jokes, 
dedicated this sermon ** To T. B. Drayman,*' for which 
he gives as a reason that he had seen this man exercise 
the tash with greater rage, and heard him at the same time 
^wear more roundly and forcibly, than he ever heard or 
saw any of his brethren of the whip in London. Mr. Gran- 
ger appears to have taken some pains with this man, bu^ 
to little purpose. He was, however, afterwards killed by 
9L kick from one of the horses whom be delighted to tor- 
jmn%9 which gave Mr. Granger an opportunity of stren^tt^^* 



on A N G E R. 185 

euiffg his arguments with his parishioners by a warning 
like this, which could not fail, fpr som^ time at least, to 
make an impression on their minds, in 1773 he printed 
another sermon, entitled ** The nature and extent of In* 
diistry,^' preached before his grace Frederic, archbishop 
of Canterbury, July 4, 1775, in the parish church of isbip- 
lake. This was gravely dedicated, ^' To the inhabitants 
of the parish of Shipiake who neglect the service of th« 
church, and spend the Sabbath in the worst kind of idle* 
ness, this plain sermon, which they never heard, and pro- 
bably will never read, is inscribed by their sincere well* 
wisher and faithful minister J. G." Both these discourses 
were favourably received by the public, and many clergy- 
men and others purchased quantities of them for distribu* 
tion. His memory, however, is best preserved by his 
**« Biographical History of England from Egbert the Great 
to the Revolution," at which he employed himself for 
many years, and lived to see two editions sold, and a taste 
created for collections of portraits, which is indeed the 
principal intention of the author, his biography including 
only those persons of whom some engraved portrait is ex- 
tant. It was first published in 4 thin 4to vols, in 1769, but 
the second and subsequent editions have been printect in 
8vo. The preparation of such a work could not fail to 
yield the author much amusement, and likewise procured 
him the correspondence of many eminent scholars and gen-^ 
tlemen who were either collectors of portraits, or conver-> 
sant in English biography. He had amassed cbnsiderable 
materials for a continuation of this work, which was pre- 
vented by his sadden and much-laipented death. ^ On 
Sunday April 14, 1776^ he read prayers and preached ap- 
parently in good health, but while afterwards at the com^. 
mumon- table, in the act of administering the sacrament, v 
he was seized with an apoplectic fit, and notwithstanding 
immediate medical assistance, died next morning. This 
affecting circumstance was happily expressed by a friend 
in tbe^e lines : 

'f More happy end what. saint e'er knew ? 

To whom like mercy shown i 
.His Saviour's death in rapturous view. 

And unperceived his own.** 

He was, if we mistake not, about sixty years old. His 

brother John died at Basingstoke in 1810, aged 80. His 

very numerous collection, of upwards of fourteen thousand 

portraits^ was sold by Greenwood in 1778^ but the sile is 



186 G K A N G E R* 

wd to have been not very productive. That l^is e<Ie«- 
brated work, the " Biographical History," is an amusing 
one, cannot well be denied ; and its principal excellence 
consists in the critical accuracy and conciseness with which 
he has characterized the persons, who are included in hiis 
plan ; but, as he includes all persons without distinction, of 
vrhoni any portrait is extant, w^ find hioi preserying the 
loemory of many of the nnost worthless and insignificant of 
mankind, as well as giving a value to specimens of the art 
of Engraving which are beneath all contempt. Mn Wal^ 
pole said that Granger had drowned bis taste for portraita 
in die ocean of biography ; and though he began with elti'* 
cidating prints, he at last only sought prints that he might 
write the lives of those they represented. His work waa 
grown, and growing so voluminous, that an abridgment 
only, could have made it useful to collectors. Perhaps lu 
more serious objection might be offered, which the author 
could not have foreseen. While this work has excited a. 
taste for collecting portraits not only harmless, but useful^ 
when confined to men of probity, it has unfortunately at 
the same time created a trade very little connected with 
the interests of literature or common honesty, a species of 
purveyors who have n^ only lessened the value of books 
by robbing them of their portraits, but have carried their 
depredations into our publrc libraries, and have found en'- 
couragement where they ought to have met with detectioa 
and pnnishm^t' 

GRANT or GRAUNT (Edward), a man of eminent 
learning in the sixteenth century, was educated at Westr 
minster-school, from whence he was removed either to 
Cbrist*church or Broadgate's-hall, in the university of Ox;-- 
ford, where he took the degree of B. A. February* 27^ 
1 571, and that of master the 27th of March, 1 572 ; about 
which time he was appointed master oi Westminster school^ 
where a great many peirsons who wcte afterwards eminent 
in church and state, were educated under his care. In 
1575 he published at London in 4to, ^^ Groooae Linguae 
Spicilegium,'' which was afterwards ejMtomized by his 
learned usher, Mr. William Camden, and printed at Lon* 
don, 1597, in 8vo, under the title of "Institutio Grsecie 

1 Granger*! Hist^— dorrespondenee published by Mr* Malcolin.-^oniHBua- 
tioB of his History by the Rev. Mark Noble, 1S06, 3 toIb. Sv4iu-^Cole*B MS 
Corretpoodeiioe, in the BfiUfh Mttseum. •— G«Bt Mae. voli. XLVI. Ll|. 
l.XXiII. and LXXX. 



GRANT. 187 

Grammatices cooipendiaria in usum Regise Scbolrs' West- 
monasteriensis." In 1577 our author was made pre- 
beudary of the twelfth stall in the coilegiate church of 
Westminster, in the room oF Dr. Thomas Watts ; and about 
that tim0 being admitted B. D. of Cambridge, was incor* 
porated in the same degree at Oxford in May 1519. He 
was afterwards doctor of that faculty ^i Capibridge. He* 
iiesigned his mastership of Westminatelr*«ciiool about tbe 
month of February 1591, and was succeeded in March foK 
lowing by Mr. Camden ; he was then presented to the Iiviii|^ 
q{ Barnet, in Middlesex, and to the rectory of Toppers- 
field, in Essex, in 1598. He died August 4, 1601, atul 
was interred in St.. Peter's church at Westminstar. He- 
collected aod. published, the Letters and Poeois of Roger 
Ascham, to which be subjoined a piece of his own, en« 
^tled ^^ Oratio d^ Vita & Obitu Rogeh Aschami, ac die- 
tionis elegant]^ cam adhortatione ad adolesceiitulos,** 
Loadon, 1577, in 8vo. He was an excellent Latin poet, 
as appi^ars from severd copies of vecses v. ricten by him, 
and printed io various books 9 and was exceed^ingly well 
versed in all parts of {jolite literature, fieatham says he 
had been vicar of South Benfleet, in Essex, in 1584, but 
resigned it soon, and that he was a prebendary of £iy in 
J589.* 

GRANT (Francis), lord Culleo, an eminent lawyer 
an(i judge in Scotland, was descended from a younger 
branch of the ancient, family of the Gran^ts, of Grant, in 
that kingdom ; his ancestor in a direct line, being sir John 
Grant, of Grant, who married lady Margaret Stuart, 
daughter of the earl of Athol. He was born about 1660, 
aud received the first part of his education at Aberdeen ; 
but, being ii^teoded for the profession of the law, was sent 
to finish his studies at Ley den, under the celebrated Voet, 
with whom he becamie so great a favourite by his singular 
application, that many years afterwards the professor men-* 
tioned him to his pupils, as one that had done honour to 
the university, and recommended his example to them. 
On his return to Scotland, he passed through the exami-* 
nation requbite to his being admitted advocate, with sndi 
abilities as to attract the particular notice of sir George 
Mackenzie, then king's advocate, one of the most inge- 
nious men, as well as one of the ablest and most eminent 
lawyers, of that age. 

y^iog. BiitrM5«A, Pict^^-m. Ox«Y0U Ir-Tatuer.-^'Bentliain's Elf. 



188. GRANT, 

Being thus qualified for practice, be soon got into fuH 
employ, by the distinguishing figure which he made at the 
Revolution in 1688. He was then only twenty -eight years 
of age; but, as the measures of the precedieg reign had 
led him to st\idy the constitutional points of law, he disco- 
Yered . a masterly koowledge, when the convention of 
estates met to debate that important affair concerning the 
vacancy of the throne, upon the departure of king James' 
to France. Some of the old lawyers, in pursuance of the 
principles in which they had been bred, argued warmly 
against those upon which the Revolution, which had taken 
place in England, was founded ; and particularly insisted' 
on the inability of*tbe convention of estates to make any' 
disposition of the crown. Grants opposed these notions* 
with great strength and spirit, and about that time pub->» 
lished a treatise, in which he undertook, by the principles 
6f law, to prove that a king might forfeit his crown for 
himself and his descendants ; and that in such a case the 
states had a power to dispose of it, and to establish and 
limit a legal succession, concluding with the warmest re- 
commendations of the prince of Orange to the regal 
dignity. 

This piece, being generally read, was thought to have 
had considerably influence on the public resolution^, and 
certainly recommended him to both parties in the way of 
his profession. Those who differed from him in opinion' 
admired his courage, and were desirous of making use of 
bis abilities; as on the other hand, those who were friends' 
to the revolution Were likewise so to him, which brought him 
into great jbusiness, and procured him, by special com- 
missions, frequent employment from the crown* In all 
these he acquitted himself with so much honour, that, as 
soon as the union of the two kingdoms came to be seriously 
considered in the English court, queeif Anne unexpectedly, 
as inrell as without applicatiQn, created him a baronet in 
1705, in the view of securing bis interest towards complet- 
ing that design ; and upon the same principle her majesty 
about a year after appointed him one of the judges, or (as 
they are styled in Scotland) one of the sen«itors. of the col- 
lege of justice. 

. From this time, according to the custom of Scotland, be 
was styled, from the name of his estate, lord CuUen, and 
the same good qualities which had recommended him to 
this post were very conspicuous in the discharge of it ; in 



GRANT. 189 

which he continued for twenty years with the highest re- 
putation, when a period was put to his life, by an illness 
which lasted but three days ; and, though no violent symp- 
toms appeared, yet his physicians clearly discerned that 
bis dissolution was at band. They acquainted him with 
their opinion, which he received not only calmly, but chear- 
fully ; declaring that he had followed the dictates of his 
conscience, and was not afraid of death. He took a tender 
farewell of bis children and friends, recommended to them 
earnestly a steady and constant attachment to the faith and 
duty of Christians, and assured them that true religioa 
was the only thing that could bring a ms^n peace at the last. 
He expired soon after, March 16, 1726, in his sixty-sixth 
year. 

He was so true a lover of learning, and was so much ad- 
dicted to his studies, that, notwithstanding the multiplicity 
of his business while at the bar, and his great attention to 
his charge when a judge, he nevertheless found time to 
write various treatises, on very different yet important sub- 
jects ; some political, which were remarkably well-timed, 
and highly serviceable to the government; others of a 
most extensive nature, such as his essays on law, religion, 
and education, which were dedicated to his late majesty 
-when prince of Wales, by whose command, his then secre- 
tary, Mr. Samuel Molyneux, wrote him a letter of thankis, 
in which were many gracious expressions, as well in rela- 
tion to the piece as to its author. He composed, besides 
these, many discourses on literary subjects, for the exer- 
cise of his own thoughts, and for the better discovery of 
truth, which went no farther than bis own closet, and, 
from a principle of modesty, were not communicated even 
to his most intimate friends. 

In his private character he was as amiable as be was re«« 
spectable in the public. There were certain ciircum- 
stances that determined him to part with an estate 'that 
was left him by his father ; and it being foreseen that he 
would employ the produce of it, and the money he had 
acquired by his profession, in a neW purchase, there were 
many decayed families who solicited him to take their lands 
.upon his own terms, relying entirely on that equity which 
they conceived to be the rule of his actions. It appeared 
•that their opinion of him was perfectly well grounded ; for, 
being at length prevailed upon to lay out his money on the 
estate of an unfortunate fan>ily, who bad a debt upon it of 



190 GRANT. 

more tfaan it was worth, bo first put their affairs into ord^r^ 
and by classing the different denaands, and compromising si 
yariety of claims, secured some thousand pounds to the 
heirs, without prejudice to any, and of which they never 
could have been possessed but from his interposition and 

' vigilance in their behalf, so far was he either from making 
any advantage to himself of their necessities, or of his own 
skill in bis profession ; a circumstance justly mentioned to 
his bonoar, and which is an equal proof of bis candour^ 
generosity, and compassioo. His piety was sincere and 
unaffected, and bis love for the church of Scotland was 
shewn in his recommending moderation and charity to tbft 
clergy as well as laity^ and engaging the foroter to insist 
upon moral duties as the clearest and most convincing 
proofs of men's acting upon religious principles; and his 
practice, through his whole life, was the strongest argu^ 
ment of his being thorouglily persuaded of those truths^ 
which, from his love to mankind, he laboured to inculcate. 
He was charitable without ostentation, disinterested in bis 
friendships and beneficent to all who bad any ihiiig to do 
with him. He was not only strictly just, but so free from 
any species of avarice, that his lady, who was a woman of 
great prudence, finding him' naore intent on the business 
committed to him by others than on bis own, too]c the care 
of placing out his money upon herself; a^nd, to prevent 
bis postponing, as be was apt to do^ such kind of affairs, 
when securities offered, she caused the circumstances of 
them to be stated in the form of cases, and so procured his 
opinioa upon his own concerns, as if .they bad been those 
of a client. These little circumstances ase mentioned as 
more expressive of his temper than aeiiws of another kind 
could be ^ because, in matter^ of importance, men ei£her 
act from kabity <vr from nK>tives that the world cannot pene- 
trate ; but, in things of a trivial natare, ajre less upon their 
guard, shew their true disposition, and stand confessed for 
what they ace. He passed a long life in ease and .honour. 
His sincerity and steady axtacha>eot to hts principles re- 
conunended.him to all parties, even to those who difiered 
from him most ; and his charity aifecl foodjeralion* coni^rted 
this respect into affeotion, so that not many of his muk 
had more friends, and pechaps nomt could boast of hmog 
fewer enemies. He left behind hind three sons and fivi? 
ilajLighters,-, his eldeH 4Qn> Arobihald firant, esq. in im 

* father's li^«>time, represeated in pafAtamcat tdoe shire of 



.1 



> GRANT. 191 

Aberdeen; and becoming by hia demise sir Archibftldl 
Grant, bart* was chosen again for the same county in 17 it* 
His second son, William, followed his fatl^r'a professiot^, 
was several years lord-advocate for Scotland ; and, in 1757^ 
one* of the lords of session, by the title of lord Preston* 
grange. Francis^ the third son, was a merchant, and three 
»f the daughters were married to gentlemen of fortune. * 

GRANVILLE, Greenvile, or Grenville (George), 
viscount Lansdowiie, an English poet^ was descended of a 
family distinguished for their loyaJty ; being second son of 
Barnard Granville, esq. brother to the first earl of Bath of 
this name, who had a principal share in bringing about the 
restoration of Charles IL and son of the loyal sir Bevil 
Greenvile, who lost his life fighting for Charles L at Lans-* 
downe in 1643. He was born in 1667, and in his infancy 
v?as sent to France, under the tuition of sir William EUys^ 
a gentleman bred up under Dr. Busby, and who was after- 
wards eminent in many public station^. From this excel- 
lent tutor he not (»nly imbibed a taste for classical learning, 
but was also instructed in all other accomplishments suit'^ 
able to his birth, in which he made so quick a proficiency, 
that after he had distinguished himself above all the youths 
of FVauce in martial exercises^ be was sent to Trinity-col* 
lege, Cambridge, in 1677, at ten years of age; and before 
be was twelve, spoke some verses of his own €K>mposing to 
the duchess of York, afterwards queen-consort to James Ih 
at her visit to that university \€k 1679. On account of his 
extraordinary merit, he was created M. A. at the age of 
thirteen, and left the college soon after. 

In the first stage of hi$ life, be seems irather to bave 
made his Muse subservient to his am^bition and thirst after 
military glory, in whfch there appeared such a force of 
genius as raised the admiration 6f Mr. Waller. But his 
ambition shewed itself most adtive on tlie duke of Mon^ 
gnouth^s rebellion ; and be requested his father to let him 
arm in defence of his ^vereign; but being then only 
eighteen years of age, he was thought too young for such 
an enterprise. It was not without extreme reluctance that 
he submitted to the tenderness of paternal restraint ; which 
was the more mortifying, as his uncle the earl of Bath had 
iDU this occasion raised a regiment of tobl for tbe king's 
^tririte; with the behaviour and discipline of w4ncb bis 

4 

> Bio;, firlt. 



f^ 



Vm GRANVILLE. 

majesty was so well pleased, that, on reviewing ih^m tt 
Hounslow, as a public mark of his approbation be epn^ 
ferred the honour of knighthood upon our author's elder 
brother Bevil, who was a captain, at the head of the regi- 
ment. Thus, forbidden to handle his pike on this impor- 
tant occasion, he took up his pen after the rebellion wasi 
crushed, and a<ldressed some congratulatory lines to the 
king. 

When the prince pf Orange declared his intended expe- 
dition to England, our young hero made a fresh applica- 
tion, in the most importunate terms, to let him prove his 
loyalty. His letter to his father, on this occasion, which 
is printed by Dr. Johnson, is an elegant composition ; but 
this was likewise unavailing, as the danger was now in- 
creased in a greater proportion than bis age. The king'd 
affairs were.become so desperate, that any attempt to serve 
bim could, only have involved him in his royal master's, 
ruin. On this he sat down a quiet spectator of the revolu- 
tion, iu which most of his family acquiesced, but was cer- 
tainly far from being pleased with the change ; he saw no 
prospect of receiving any favours from the.new administra- 
tion; and resolving to lay a^ide all thoughts of pushing bis 
fortune either in the court or the camp, be endeavoured 
to divert bis melancholy in the company and conversation 
of the softer sex. His adopted favourite was the countess 
of Newburgb, and he exerted all his powers of verse in 
singing the force of this enchantresses charms, and the 
sweets of his own captivity. But he sang in vain, hapless 
like Waller in his passion, while by his poetry hQ endea- 
voured to raise his Myra to the immortality which Waller 
iiad given to Sacharissa. In the mean time soni[e of his 
friends were nauch grieved at this conduct in retiring from 
t)usiness, . as unbecoming himself, and disgraceful to bis 
family. One of these in particular, a female relation, 
whos.e name was Higgins, took the liberty to send to hinoi 
an expostulatory ode in 1690, in hopes of shaming him 
out of hi^ enchantment; but this was his age of romance, 
and he persisted in asserting that his resolution was un- 
changeable, and that he would barter no happiness for 
that of a lover. 

In this temper he passed the course of king William^s 
reign in private life, enjoying the company of his Muse, 
which he employed in celebrating the reigning beauties of 
that age, as Waller, whom he strove to imitate, ha d done 



«R A N'V 1 LJL E. M3 

4ho0e of di0 preceding. We have also peyelral dramatic 
pieces written in this early part of Jife, of which the 
<< Briti^ Enchanters/' he tells us bimsdf, was the first 
essay of a very infant Muse ; being written at his first en- 
trance into his teens, and attempted rather as a task in 
hxmrs free from other exerciser, than with any view to pub- 
lic exhibition. But Betterton, the celebratied actor, hav- 
ing accidentally seen it many years i^r it was written, 
^gg^4 i^ for the stage, where it found so favourable a 
reception, as to have an uninterrupted run of at least forty 
days* His other dramatic pieces were also well received ; 
but although we are assured they owed that reception to 
their own merit,^as much as to the general esteem and 
respect which all the polite world professed for their author, 
that intrinsic merit is not now discoverable. Addison, 
however, joiued with Dryden in sounding Granville^s 
praises ; the former, in the *^ Epilogue to the British En- 
chanters;'' and the latter, in some verses addressed to him 
upon his tragedy of ^' Heroic Love." 

Upon the accession of queen Anne, he stood as fair in 
the general esteem as any man of his years, now about 
thirty-five. He had always entertained the greatest vene- 
ration for the queen, and he made bis court to her in the 
|K>litest manner in Urga^nda's prophecy, spoken by way of 
epilogue at the first representation of the ^' British Enchan- 
ters," where he introduced a scene representing the queen, 
and the several triumphs of her reign. He entered heartily 
into the measures for carrying on the war against France ; 
and, with a view to excite a proper spirit in the nation, he 
translated the second ** Olynthian" of Demosthenes, in 
1702. This new specimen of his learning gained him 
many friends, and added highly to his reputation; and, 
when the design upon Cadiz was projected the same year, 
he presented to Mr. Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford, att 
authentic journal of Mr. Wimbledon's expedition thither, 
in 1625; in order that, by avoiding the errors committed 
in a former attempt upon that pli^ce, a more successful 
plan might be formed. But, little attention being given 
to it, the same mistakes were committed, and the same 
disappointment ensued : with this diiFerence only, that 
the duke of Ormond had an opportunity to take his Ire* 
venge at Vigo, and to return with glory, which was not 
Wimbledon^s fate. 

By a laudable (sconomy Granville bad hi^erto pre^-* 

Vol. XVI. fi 



1S4 Q » A N V I L L E. 

t 

served himself from those embarrassments, which in nm^ 
advanced life he is said to have incurred,- and his father, 
who was just dead, had made some provision for him, 
which was increased by a smalL annuity left him by his 
nnqle the earl of Bath, who died not long after. These 

' advantages, added to the favours which his coustn John 
Grenville had received from her majesty in being raised to 
the peerage by the title of lord Grenville of Potheridge, 
and his l>rother being made governor of Barbadoes, with a 
fixed salary of 2000/. the same enabled him to come into 
the house of commons, as member for Fowey in Cornwall, 
in the first parliament of the queen. In 1706, his fortune 
was improved farther by the loss of his ^eldest brother, sir 

. Bevil^ who died that year, in his passage from Barbadoes, in 
the flower of his age, unmarried, and universally lamented. 
Hence our younger brother stood now as the bead-branch 
of his family, and he still held bis seat in the house of com* 
mons, both in the second and third parliaments of the 
queen. But the administration being taken out of the 
hands of his friends, with whom he remained steadily con- 
nected in the same principles, he wa$ cut off from any pro- 
spect of being preferred at court. 

In this situation he diverted himself among his brother 
poets ; and we find him at this time introducing Wycherley 

• and Pope to the acquaintance of Henry St. John, esq. 
afterwards lord viscount Bolingbroke. This friend, then 
displaced, having formed a design of celebrating such of 
the poets of that age as he thought deserved any notice, 
had applied for a character of the former to our aujihor, 
who, in reply, having done justice to Mr. Wycherley's 
merit, concludes his letter thus : <^ In short. Sir, FU have 
you judge for yourself. I am not satisfied with this imper- 
fect sketch ; name your day, and I will bring you together; 
I shall have both your thanks ; let it be at my lodging. I 
can give you no Falernian that has out-lived twenty con- 
sulships, but I can promise you a bottle of good claret, 
that has seen two reigns. Horatian wit will not be wantii^ 
when you meet. He shall bring with him, if you will, a 
youngpoet newly inspired in the neighbourhood of Cooper's- 
hili, whom he and Walsh have uiken under their wing,^ 

'His name is Pope, he is not above seventeen or eighteen, 
years of age, and promises miracles. If he goes on as he 
has begun in* the pastoral way, asi Virgil first tried his 

' strength, we may hop6 to see English poetry vie with the 



G R AN V i L^L E. 19S 

Itoman^ and this Swan of Windsor sing as sweetly as* die 
Mantuan. I expecl^your answer.'' 

Sac&everelPs trial, which happened not long after, 
brought on that remarkable change in the ministry in 1710, 
when Mr. Granville's friends came again into power. He 
was elected for the borough of Helston, but, being returned 
at the same time for the county of Cornwall, he chose to 
represent the latter; and on September 29, he was de- 
clared secretary at war, in the room of Robert Walpole, 
esq. afterwards the celebrated minister. He continued in 
this office for some time, and discharged it with reputation ; 
and, towards the close of the next year, 1711, he married 
the lady Mary, daughter of Edward Villiers, earl of Jersey, 
at that time possessed of a considerable jointure, as widow 
of Thomas Thynne, esq. He had just before succeeded to 
the estate of the eider branch of his family, at Stow ; and 
December 31, he was created a peer of Great Britain, by 
the title of lord Lansdowne, baron of Bideford, in the 
county of Devon. In this promotion he was one of the 
twelve peers who were all created at the same time; and so 
numerous a creation, being unprecedented, gave much 
offence, although but little in his case. His lordship was 
now the next male-issue in that noble family, in which two 
peerages, that of the earl of Bath, and that of lord Gren- 
ville of Potheridge, had been extinguished almost toge- 
ther : his personal merit was universally allowed ; and as to 
his political sentiments, those who thought him most mis- 
taken, allowed him to be open, candid, and uniform. He 
stood always high in the favour of queen Anne; and with 
great reason, having upon every occasion testified the 
greatest zeal for her government and the most profound 
respect for her person. For these reasons, in the succeeding 
year, 1712, he was sworn of her majesty's pirivy-council, 
made controller of her household, about a year after ad- 
vanced to the post 6f treasurer in the same office ; and to 
bis other honours, says Dr. Johnson, was added the dedi- 
cation of Pope's " Windsor Forest." His lordship con- 
tinued in his office of treasurer to the queen, until her 
death, when he kept company with his friends in falling a 
sacrifice to party- violence, being removed from his trea- 
surer's place by George I. Oct 11, 1714. 

His lordship still continued steady to his forn^er connec- 
tions, and in that spirit entered his protest with tbem 
against the bills for attainting lord Boiiugbroke and the 

o 2 



i9« ^t^^'vittlL 

1 

duke of Ormofid, in 1715. He evf^ti «nMfed dteply into 
the scheme for raiting an imnn^l:ftiol|^in tlflfe Wetft of Eng^ 
land, and was at the head of it, if W^ ttiaj beliieve lord 
Bolingbroke, who represents hitn pos^eils^ now with the. 
tame political fire and frenzy for the Pretender as he had 
shewn in his youth for the father. In conseqoenee, how- 
ever, of being suspected, he was apprehended September 
26, 1715, and committed prisoner to tbeTow^r of London^ 
where he continued untilFebruary S, 1716-17, when he Wis 
released without any form of trial or acquittal. Howevtftr 
sensible he might be at this tim^ of the mistake in his con- 
duct, which had deprived him of his liberty, yet be was 
far from running into the other' extreme. He seems, in- 
deed, to be one of those tories, who are said to have be<^ 
driven by the violent persecutions against that party into 
jacobitism, and who returned to their former principles as 
soon as that violence ceased. Hence we find him, In 
1719, as warm as ever in defence of those principles, the 
first time of his speaking in the bouse of lords, in the 
debates about repealing the act against occasional con- 
form ity. 

His lordship continued steady in the same sentiments, 
which were so opposite to those of the court, and incion- 
sistent with the measures taken by the administration, that 
he must heeds be seiistble a watchful eye was kept ever 
iipon him. Accordingly, when the flame broke out again^ 
his friends, on 'account of what is sometimes called Atter- 
bury*s plot, in ^722, his lordship, is some say, to avc^d a 
second rmprisonment in the ToWer, withdrew to France, 
but others attribute his goirfg thither to a degree of ptofu- 
sion which had embarrassed 'bis circumstances. He had 
been at Paris but a little while, when the first volume of 
Burnetts " History of his ow^ Times** was published. 
Great espectadons had heen raised of this work, which ac^ 
cotdingly he perused with attention ; and finding the cha- 
racters of the 'duke '6f Albemarle and the earl of Bath 
treated in a 'manner he thought they did not deserve, he 
formed the design of doing them justice. This'led him fo 
consider what had been said by other historians coneerning 
his family; and, as Clarendon and Echard had treated his 
uncle sir Richard Granville more roughly, his lordship, 
being possessed of memoirs from which his conduct n>ight be 
set in a fairer light, resblved to ibllow the dictates of duly 
and inclination, by publishing bis sentiments upon tkoif 



GRANV{I,t.E» 197 

* • • • 

liMds. These pieces are printed ifi bis w^rks, under the 
tiile of <* A Vindication of General Mopk," &c. and '^ A 
Vindication of Sir Richard Greenyille, General of the West 
to King Charles I/' &c. They were answered by Old* 
mixon, in a piece entitled " Reflections historical and 
politic,'' &€. 17S2, 4to, and by judge 3urnety in <* Re* 
marics,'' &c. a pamphlet. His lordship replied^ in '* A 
Letter to the author of the Reflections/' &c. 1732, 410, 
and the spring followingi there came out a very rough 
answer in defence of Echard, by Dr. Colbatch, entitled 
** An Exaqdinatiou of Echard's Account of the Marriage 
Treaty," &c. ' 

. He continued abroad at Paris almost the space of ten 
years; and, being sensible that many juvenilities had es* 
caped his pen in his poetical pieces, made use of the opr 
portunity furnished by this retirement, to revise and cor- 
rect them, in order to republication. Accordingly, at hif 
return to England in 1732, he published these, together 
with a vindication of his kinsman just mentioned, in two 
volumes, 4to. To these may be added a tract in lor^ 
Somers's collection, entitled ** A Letter from a nobleman 
abroad to bis friend in England,^' 1722. The late que^^ 
Caroline having honoured him with her protection, th^ 
last verses he wrote were to inscribe two copies of his 
poems^ one of which was presented t/o her majesty, an4 
the other to the princess royal Anne, late princes^ dowager 
of Onuige. The remaining years of his life were passed 
in privacy and retirement, to the day of his death, which 
happened January 30, 173^, in his sixty-eighth year ; hav<* 
tRg lost his lady a few days before, by wnom having no 
pale issue, the title of lAusdowne became in him extinct. 
His character, as drawn by Dr. Johnson, seems now un* 
contested. He was, says that eminent critic, a man illus- 
trious by birth, and therefore attracted notice; since he is 
atyled by Pope *^ the polite," he must be supposed elegant 
in his maimers, and generally loved -, he was in times of 
contest and turbulence steady to bis party, and obtained 
aliat /esteem which is always conferred upon firmness and 
consistency. As a poet. Dr. Johnson has appreciated his 
taierit with equal justice. * He wasandeed but a feeble imi- 
tator of the feeblest parts of Waller, and is far more to be 
praised for his patronage of^ poets, and the judgment he 
shewed in the case of Pope, than for any pretensions to 
rank among them; His prose style, howeveri is exceUeuti 



198 G R^A N V I L L E. 

and far beyond that of his early contemporaries. DrJ 
Warton notices, as proofs of this, his " Letter to a young 
man on his taking orders ;'* his " Observations on Burnet/* 
his " Defence of his relation sir Richard Greenville," his. 
translation of some parts of Demosthenes, and his Letter 
to his father on the Revolution, written in 1688. The 
same critic, who must have been acquainted with some 
who knew him intimately, adds that his conversation was 
most pleasing and polite ; and his affability, and universal 
benevolence and gentleness, captivating.' 

GRASSWINKEL (Theodore or Thierrt), a learned 
lawyer, was born at Delft in 1600. He wrote various 
works upon legal and political subjects, by which he ac- 
quired a considerable reputation. Among these are '* Li- 
bertas Veneta, seu Yenetorum in se et suos imperandi 
Jus." This was published in 1634, and in 1644 he de- 
fended the republic of Venice, in a dispute with the duke 
of Savoy concerning precedence ; for which service, that 
republic created him a knight of St. Mark. He had also 
before this, attempted to confute Buchanan^s treatise ** De 
Jure Majiestatis,^' in a work dedicated to Christina, queen 
#of Sweden, who Was known to be a great assertor of regal 
privileges. Grasswinkel defended the liberty of the seas 
against Selden, and Burgus, a native of Genoa, in bis work 
" Maris Liberi Vindiciae,*' and with so much judgment, in 
their opinion, that the States of Holland gave him a pen- 
sion of 500 florins, with the title of Advocate-gen ecal of 
the marine, until an opportunity offered of rewarding his 
merit with a more honourable employment; which was 
afterwards'that of advocate of the exchequer, and register 
and secretary of the chanibre-mi-partie. He was author, 
likewise, of a treatise in two volumes, 4to, **On the Sove- 
reignty of the States of Holland.^' He died of an apo- 
plexy at Mechlin, Qct 12, 1666.* 

GR ATAROLUS (William), a learned physician of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Bergamo in Italy in 1510^ 
iand was educated at Padua,, where he took his degrees 
with great reputation ; but having embraced the doctrines 
of the reformers, with which Peter Martyr made him 
acquainted, be was obliged to make his escape, and 
went into Germany, that he might live undisturbed in the 

1 Biog. Brit. — Johnson and Chalmers's Poets, 1810. — :]p,owles'8 edition of 
Po|>« ; sec lD<lex.---Park*8 edition of Lord Orfoi'd's Royal a^d ^Mt Authors, 
* Morer'u-r-Geo. Diet — Fopipei]{ Bib]. Belg. 



G R A T A R O L»U S. 199 

inrotestant religion. After some stay at Basil; be was in- 
vited to Marpurg to be physic-professor ; but in a short 
time returned to Basil, and died there in 1562, or as some 
think in 1666, or 1668, which last seems most correct 
He wrote a great many books, as, ^< De Memoria repa-> 
randa, augenda, conservanda, ae Reminiscentia. De 
Praedictione Morum, Natu^arumque Homininn fatili, 4^* 
Inspectione parti urn corporis. Prognostica Natoralia de 
Temporam mutatione perpetua, ordine Literarum. De 
Literatorum & eorum qui Magistratibus funguntur^ con- 
servanda, preservandaque valetadine. De Vini Natura^ 
artificio & usu ; Deque omni Re Pptabili. De Regimine 
iter Agentium, vel Equitum, vel Peditum, vd Navi» vel 
Curru viatoribus quibusque Utilissiipi Libcii.duo.** He 
likewise made a collection of several tracts. jtouching the 
sweating-sickness in England. , Some of these works are 
honourable to his talents, and -evince a large share of 
knowledge ; but in others he shews an attachment to the 
absurdities of alchemy, much superstition, aod opinibns 
which do not imply a sound judgment.'. 

GRATIAN, a celebrated Benediqtine of tbe twelfth, 
century, was bom at Cbiusi, and spent near twenty-four 
years at the monastery of Bologna in = composing a work 
which has gained him great fame, and which he published 
about 1 151, under the title qf ** Decretal,'* or ** Concor- 
dantia discordantium Canpnum,^' in which be endeavours 
to reconcile those canons, wfaioh seem to contradict each 
other ; hut as this author has been guilty of some errors, 
l^ mistaking a canon of one coiincil, or a passage of one 
father, for another, and has frequently quoted spurious de- 
cretak, several writers have endeavoured to correct these 
faults, particularly Anthony Augustine in his valuable 
work entitled ^^ De emendatione Gratiani,'' an excellent 
edition of which was published by Baluze. The popes 
are indebted principally to Gratian^s Decretal for the high 
authority, they exercised in the thirteenth and following 
centuries ; but all their pretensions are supported in this 
work upon suppositious canons, which that age was too 
ignorant to suspect. This work forms one of the principal 
parts of the canon law. The editions of Rome, 1582, 4 
vols, folio, and of Lyons,. 1671, 3 vols, folio, are the best. 
There is a separate edition of this Decretal, Mentz, 1472, 
folio.* 

* Niccron, yo\, 2DCXI.-— Gen. Dic^— -^Moreri.-— Frtheri Tbestrum.— .Saxii 
Ooomafttioon. * Ca?e.— Dupiq.— Moreri.— Saiii ODOUiasticoD. 



200 O'R A T I A N I, 

OHATIAKl (Antonio Maria), a learned bishop of 
Amelia^ was born in 1536 in the little city called Borgo-^ 
dirsan^Sepulcro in Tuscany. He w^s educated by cardi^ 
nal Commendo, who trusted him with the most inlportanC 
affairs, and gave him a rich abbey. After this CardinaPi 
death, Gratiani was secretary to pope Sixtus V. then to 
pardinal Montalto ; and Clement VIII. who was partly in-* 
debted to him for his elevation to the papal chair, made 
him bi^^op of Amelia, sent him to Venice as nuncio, and 
' would have even created him cardinal, but was dissuaded 
from it by cardinal Aldobrandino, because Gratiani was 
the duke of Florence's subject. The air. of Venice not 
Agreeing mih his health, he retired to Amelia, devoted 
himself to ->tbe' duties of a holy bishop, and died there, 
1611. He>l^ <^ Synodal Ordinances;" "The Life of 
Cardinal Comdiieiido," 4to, which has been translated into 
French by M. Flecbier ; « De Bello Cyprio," 4to ; « De 
Casibus adversis illustrium virorum sui sevi," 4to, trans- 
lated into French by le Pelletier. In 1745, a posthumous 
work was published at Florence, *^ De Scriptis in vita Mi- 
nerva ad Albysmm fratrem libri viginti,** 4to. * 

GRATIUS (FalIscus), an eminent Latin poet, is sup-' 
posed to have been contemporary with Ovid, and pointed 
pu^ by him in the last elegy of the fourth book <^ De 
Ponto," " Aptaque venanti Gratius arma dedit.'* We 
have a poem of his, entitled << Cynogeticon, or. The Art 
of hunting with Dogs ;" which in strictness can only be 
called a fragment. The style of this poem is reckoned 
pure, but without elevation ; the poet, like Others who 
have adopted the didactic plan, having been more soli- 
citous to instruct than to please his reader. He is also 
censured by the critics as dwelling too long on fabler; 
and as he is counted much superior to Nemesianus, who 
has treated the same subject, so he is reckoned iii all 
points inferior to the Greek poet, Oppian, who wrot^ his 
Cynogetics and Halieutics under Severds and Caracalla, 
to whom 'he presented them, and who is said to have re- 
warded the poet very magnificently. The. first edition of 
the ** Cynogeticon^ was published in 1504, Bonon. folio, 
along with Nemesianus, and often reprinted ; but the best 
edition is that of London, 1690, in 8vo, ** cum Notis per« 
petuis ThomsB Jonson, M. A.*^ * 

* Moi«ri.-*Erythnei Pinacotheca. 

* Vottittftda Poet. Lat— 'Fabric Bibl. Lat. 



G R A T I US. 201 

GRATIUS (OnTUiRUs), a nttlve of Holhwic in the dio- 
eese of Muiitteri whose tittaie W9m Graes^ taught etbid 
and pbiloftpphy at Cologn, in a college of which be became 
the bead, and died there May 92^ 15424 His attachment 
to the catholic rellgidn involved him in disputes with 
Reachlin, Hutten, and other professors ; who/ to ridicule 
the style of the Romish divines, the monks, and some re« 
ligious ceremonies, are supposed to have published *f Epis^ 
tolie obscurorum virorum ad Dominum Magistrum Ortui-*> 
nnm Gratium,*' 1516 and 1517, 4to, in two parts^ of which 
there have been editions since» But it ia more probable that 
this book was really written by Van Hutten and John Joeger^ 
afias John Crotns, Luther's contemporary and friend, and 
who afterwards returned to the church of Rome, and was the^ 
reproached by Christopher Olearius for writing such a satire, 
Erasnsns is said to have been so pleased with it, as to be thrown 
into a violent fit of laughter, which burst an imposthume in 
hia'face. In 1710, a beautiful edition was published in I2md, 
at London, dedicated to the author of the Tatlen It wab 
condemned by Leo X. March 15, 1517 ; and Gratius wrotfe 
in opposition to it, ^ Lamentationes obscurorum viroruth 
lion prohibitoe per Sedem Apostolicam,'' Cologn, 1518, 
tvoj reprinted in 1649. He also* published ^'Triumpbus 
B. Job,*' in elegiac verse^ in three books, Cologn, 1537, 
folio ; ** Fasciculus rerom expetendarum et fugiendarum,*^ 
Cologn, 1535, folio, reprinted under the inspection of Ed- 
ward Brown, London, 1690, 2 vols. foMo; which isacu* 
rious collection of pieces respecting the council of Basil. ^ 
GRAUNT, EDWARD. See GRANT. 
GRAUNT (John), the celebrated author of the << Ob- 
servations on tiie Bills of Mortality,^* was the son of Henry 
Graant of Hampshire, who being afterwards settled in 
Bfrchin-lane, London, had this child bom there, April 94, 
1620» ' Bdiug a rigid puritan, he bred him up in all the 
itricfoeiss of those principles; and designing him for trade, 
gave bim no more education than was barely necessary for 
that purpose ; so that, with the ordinary qualifications of 
reading, 'Writing, and arithmetic, he was put apprentice to 
a indberdaslier in the city, which trade he afterwards fol- 
lowed, bdt become a freeman of the Drapers' company. 
He came early into business, and in a short time grew so 
ttuch into the - esteem of his fellow^iti^ens, that he was 

* M«r6ri.— Foppen Bibl. Belg. 



302 G R A U N T. 

frequently chosen arbitrator for cooDponng differences be^* 
tween neighbours, and preventing law-suits. With this 
reputation be pa3sed through all the offices of his ward, as 
far as that of a common council- mani which he. held two 
years, and was 6rst captain and then major of the train 
bands* These distinctions were the effects of a great share 
of good sense and probity, rendered aqiiable by. a mild 
and friendly disposition ; which was all that was in those 
days expected from a tradesman of no great birth, and of 
small breeding. But Graunt's genius was far from being 
confined within those limits : it broke through all the. dis- 
advantages of his slender education, and enabled him to 
form a new and noble design, and to execute it with as 
much spirit as there appeai:ed sagacity in forming it. 

The exact time is not known when he first began to col- 
lect and consider the Bills of Mortality; but he tells us 
himself, that he had turned his thoughts that way several 
years, before he had any design of publishing the disco- 
veries he had made. As bis character must have been emi- 
neutly distinguished in 1650, when, though not above 
thirty years of age, his interest was so exten^ve, as to 
procure the music professor's chair at Gresbam, for his 
friend doctor (afterwards sir William) Petty ; so it is more 
than probable, that his acqaain|anQe and friendship with 
that gentleman, was the consequence of a similarity, of 
pursuits; and that our author had then communicated 
some of his thoughts upon this subject to sir William, who, 
on his part, is likewise said to have repaid the generous 
confidence with some useful hints towards composing .his 
book. This piece, which oontained a new and accurate 
thesis of policy, built upon a more certain reasoning than 
Was before tliat time known, was first presented to the 
public in 1661, 4to, and met with such an extraordinary 
reception, that another edition was called for in . the fol- 
lowing year ; and our author's fame, and the usefulness of 
bis book, began to be spoken of both at home and abroad. 
Immediately after the publication of it, Lewis XIV* of 
France, or his ministers, provided, by a law, for the most 
exact register of births and burials, that is any where in 
Europe ; and in England Charles IL conceived such a high 
iesteem for his abilities, that at the first institution of the 
royal society, his majesty recommended him to their 
choice for a member ; with this charge, that if they found 
any more such tradesmen^ they should be sure to admit 



G R A U N T. 205 

them jEctt, Qe had dedicated tbe. work to sir Robert Moray, 
president of the royal society, and had sent fifty copies.to 
be dispersed among their members, when he was pro- 
posed (though a shopkeeper), and admitted into the so^ 
ciety, February 26, 1661-2; and an order of council 
{fassed, June 20, 1665, for publishing the third edition, 
which was executed by the society's printer, and came out 
that same year. After receiving this honour, he did not 
long continue a shopkeeper, but left off business ; and on 
September 25, 1666, became a trustee for the manage- 
ment of the New-river, for one of the shares belonging to 
sir William BackKbuse, who dying in 1669, his relict; 
afterwards countess of Clarendon, appointed Mr. Graunt 
one of her trustees. 

This account of the time of our author's admission into 
the government of the New-river is taken from the minute 
books, or registei", of the general court of that company, ^ 
and sUflSciently clears him from an imputation thrown upon 
his memory by bishop Burnet; who, having observed that 
the New- river was brought to a bead at Islington, where 
there is a gr^at room full of pipes that conveys it through 
the streets of London, and that the constant order was to 
set all the pipes running on Saturday night, that so tbe 
cisterns might be all full on Sunday morning, there being 
a more than ordinary consumption of water on that day, 
relates the following story, which he says was told him by 
Dr. Lloyd (afterwards bishop of Worcester) and the coun^ 
tess of Clarendon : " There was,'* says he, " one Graunt^ 
a papist, who under sir William Petty published his Ob<* 
servations on the Bills of Mortality. He had some time 
before applied himself to Lloyd, who bad great credit with 
the countess of Clarendon, and said hb could raise that 
estate considerably, if she would make him a ,trustee for 
'her. His schemes were probable; and he was made one 
of the board that governed that matter, and by that he 
'had a right to come as often as he pleased to view their 
^works at Islington. He went thither the Saturday before 
-die fire broke out, and called for tbe key where the head^ 
of tbe pipes were, and turned all the cocks of the pipe^i 
that were then open, stopt the water, and went away and 
carried the keys with him ; so, when the fire broke but 
<next morning, they opened the pipes in the streets to find 
water, but there was none. Some hours were lost in send* 
ing to Islington, where the door wa3 broke open, and ihe 



f04 GH A U K T. 

codes turned^ and it was long before ibe Water got to Loii* 
don. Graunt, indeed, denied that be bad turned the 
cocks ; but the officer of the works affirmed^ that be badv 
according to oarder, set them all running, and that nci piar-f 
son had got the keys from bim besides Graunt, wbo coit** 
fessed he bad carried away the keys, but said he did it 
without design/' This, indeed, as Burnet observes, is but 
a presumption ; and, we may add, a groundless calumny ; 
aince it is evident,^ from the above account, that Graunt 
was not admitted into the government of the New^river 
company till twenty -three days after the breaking out of 
the fire of London, to which may be added a farther proof 
that the parliament met September 18, 1666^ and, on the 
very day that be was admitted a member of the New-river 
company, they ap|)ointed a comniittee to inquire into the 
causes' of the fire. 

The report made by sir Robert Brooke, cbairt^an of 
that committee, contains abundance of extraordinary re* 
latioiis, but not one word of the cocks being stopped, or 
any suspicions of Graunt It is true, indeed, that be 
changed bis religion, and was reconciled to the cbur<:b of 
Kome some time before bis death ; but it is more than 
probable be was no papist at this juncture, since, in the 
title»page of his book in 1665, be is styled ca^aifi, and 
.Wood informs us, that he had been two or three years a 
major when he made this change, which therefore could 
not have iiappened before 1667 or 1668 at soonest. How^ 
ever, the circumstances of the countess of Clarendon't 
saying he was her trustee oiakes it plain that the atory was 
not invented till some years aftar the fire, when> Graunt 
was known to be a papist. It was apparently not invented 
till after his^ death. . The first time of its appearance in 
public seems to have been in Ecbard's '* History of Eng- 
land.'* And according to bishop Burnetts account, the 
story could not be told to him till after 1667, when Graunt 
was s^ypcKnted trustee for the countess of Clarendon. The 
report, however, never reached his ears, and so could not 
disturb him in the prosecution of his studies, which he c«> 
tied on after this change in his religion with the aanie asiJK 
duity as before, and made some considerable obsenrationa 
within two years of his death, wbicfa happened April 18, 1674/ 
in the vigour of his age^ hatingnot quite completed :bis 54th 
year. He was intended on the 22d of the same month in 
St Dunstan^ cburch) ia Fleet-street, the corpse being 9t^ 



6 R A U N T. SOS 

tieaded by many cff the most ingenious and laamed persona 
^ the tintt^ and particularly by sir Williain Petty, wtio 
paid his last tribute with tears to his memory. He left 
his papers to this friend, who took care to adjust aad in- 
aert them in a fifth edition of his work, which he published 
in 1676, 8vo, and that with so much care, aiMl so. much 
improved, that he frequently cites it as his own : which 
probably gave occasion to bishop Burnet's mistake, who, 
as we have seen, called it sir William's book, published 
under Graunt's name. It is evident, however, that his 
observations were the elements of that useful science, 
which was afterwards styled *' Political Arithmetic,'' and of 
which Graunt must have the honour of being the first 
founder ; and whatever merit may be ascribed to sir Wil« 
liam Petty, Mr. Daniel King, Dr. Davenant, and others, 
upon the subjeet, it is all originally derived from the first 
author .^ the ** Observations on the Bills of Mortality." ' 

GRAVELOT (Henr¥ Francis Bourionon), a French 
Artist, well known in this .as well as his own country, was 
born at Paris March 26, 1699. He does not appear to 
have had much edacaticm io his profession, but soon made 
some figure as a draughtsman. He accompanied La Rochh- 
lard, who was appointed goveriior<-general of St. Domingo, 
>«nd meeting in that island with the artist Frezier, was em- 
ployed by hhn on a map of the country. Gramelot re- 
turned to France in 1745, Where he applied principally to 
<lrawing ; but finding^ himself in the midst of a nomber 4»f 
eminent artists, among whom he despaired of distinguish- 
ing himself, he came over to London, where he lived thir- 
teen years. He possessed great fertility of invention, and 
-composed, with much judgment, small subjects for vig- 
nettes and other book ornaments ; he drew also admirably 
ancient buildings, tombs, and prospects, and was much 
"Maployed in all these branches by the artists of London. 
fle drew the monuments of the kings for Vertue, and gave 
^ designs, where invention was necessary, for Pine?a 
plates of the tapestry in the house of lords. He was also 
for some time employed in Gloucestershire, drawing 
ehmrche^ and antiiquities. Vertue compares his neat man- 
ner to Picart,^ and owns that in composition and^eidgn, be 
even excelled his favourite Hollar. ' He sometimes at- 
tempted painting small histories and conversations, and he 

I BiOf « BTit.-«Ckni. Dtet.— Dodd's dniroli Hitt. 



^OB G,R A y E L O T. 

designed sts. well as engraved some of the prints to sir Thtr*' 
mas Hanmer's edition of Shakspeare^ and those belpngii^ 
to Tiieobald's edition : but the finest specimen of. his aibi- 
lilies as an engraver, is his large print of Kirkstall abbey* 
He returned to France about the beginning of the precept 
reign, and executed for the booksellers of Paris, the beau- 
tiful designs with which they ornamented the works of 
Corneille, Racine, Voltaire, Boccaci:io^ Arioato, Marmon- 
tel, &c. He died at Paris in, 1 773, He is. said to ha^ve 
been a man of wit and talents, and perfectly acquainted 
with the history and theory of bis artV 

GRAVEROL (Francis), a very eminent French anti- 
quary and lawyer, was born at Nismes in the beginning of 
1635, and being educated for the profession of the law^ 
became an advocate of the parliament of Toulouse, and^ of 
the presidial court of Nismes, and director and secretary of 
the academy of that place. During his researches ^ in to 
loatters of history and antiquities, he made a very fine col- 
lection of medals and manuscripts, among which were the 
originals of the proceedings of the popish inqui^tors 
against the Albigenses. So highly was Qraverol esteemed 
for learning, that no strangers of distinction visited Nismes 
without paying their respects to him, and such was his re- 
putation in Italy that, in 1691, he was elected an associate* 
of the Ricovrati of Padua; and when, the states of Langue- 
doc formed the plan of collecting their records respecting^ 
their fiefs and seignories, they considered Graverol as the 
. only person fit to execute the work, which he was earnestly 
requested to undertake by the cardinal Bon^zi. But bis 
adherence to the protestant religion impeded his advance- 
ment in Ufe, and involved him in serious troubles*, He 
retired first to Orange in 1685, where he was very &vour-. 
ably received, but not thinking that a place of safety, left 
it for Swisserland or Holland. During this jouroey he 
was arrested and confined at Montpellier for about two 
months. After this he must have been released, and per- 
mitted to go bome> as we find he died at Nismes Sept 10, 
1694. Anaong the works which contributed most to -his 
reputation, are, 1. ^^ Observations sur les arrets du parle- 
ment de Toulouse recueilles par la Rocheflavin,^' Toulouse, 
1682. 2. <^ Notice ou abreg^ historique des vingt-^deux 
' villes chefs des dioceses de.la province de Languedoc,'^ » 

. 1 Diet. Hist.«*Stnitt.— Walpole's Bnfraveri. 



G R A V E K L. 207 

)ri>8thumoas work published in 1696. 3* '^ Sorberiana, 
sire exeerpta ex; ore Samuelis Sorbiere,*' Toulouse, 1691, 

1714, Paris, 1694, and 1732. His other works were dis- 
sertations on medals and antiquities, most' of which are 
printed with the '^ Sorberiana.** In the Journal des Savans 
for March 1685, two considerable works are announced by 
him, which the persecution he -afterwards met with pro- 
bably, prevented him from completing ; the one was a col- 
lection of letters to several crowned heads, written by car- 
dinal Sadblet in the name of Leo X. ; the other, a '^ Bib- 
liotheqtie du Languedoc,*' a kind of literary journal, in 
which he was to give the lives of the eminent men of that 
province, and particulars of its history, &c.* 

GRAYEROL (John), a learned protestant divine, bro- 
ther to the preceding, was born at Nismes, September 11, 
1636. He was minister at Lyons, but left that place on 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and went to Amster- 
' dam, and afterwards to London, where he exercised the 
"ministerial office, and died in 1718. His works are nume^ 
rous ; the principal one is, '* Moses vindicatus,^' Amster- 
dam, 1694, 12mo, in which he brings proofs of the crea- 
tion, and of the acqount given by Moses, agrainst Dr. Tho- 
mas Burnetts " Arcbeeologia Philosopbica.** * 

GRAVES (Richard), an English divine and miscella- 
neous writer, was a younger son of Richard Graves, esq. 
of Mickletoh, in Gloucestershire, where he was born in 

1715. His father, who was an able antiquary, died in 
1729. HiB son, Richard, was educated partly at home, 
under the rev. Mr. Smithy curate of the parish in which his 
father resided, and partly at a public school at Abingdon, 

' in Berkshire, whence, at the age of sixteen, he was chosen 
a scholar of Pembroke college, Oxford. Soon after his 
atirival he joined a party of young men who met in the 

* evening to read Epictetus, Theophrastus, and other Greek 
authors, seldom read at schools ; and a short time after 
became the associate of bis contemporaries, Shenstone 
the poet, and Anthony Whistler, who used to meet to 
read poetry, plays, and other light works. In 1736 he 
was elected a fellow of All Souls college, where he sic- 
quired the particular intimacy of sir William Blackstone ; 
but instead of pursuing the study of divinity, according to 
his original intention, he now devoted his attention t(^ 

I Moreri, > (bid. 



20S GRAVES. 

physic, and atlended ip London two courses of anatoiQy* 
A severe illness, however, induced him to resume, tbye 
study of divinity, and in 1740, after taking l^is pa^ter^s 
degree^ he .entered into holy orders. About the saniie 
time he removed with Mr. Fitzherbert, £a.^er of .lord St, 
Helen's, to the estate of that gentleman at Tifisington, in 
Derbyshire, where he remiiined three years :^pjoying 'w^ 
his housQ the highest pleasures of rf 6ned society. At the 
end of that period, he set off to vaake the tour of the nortb^ 
and while at Scarborough, ^cidentally ip^t ivith a dfistant 
. relation, Dr. Samuel Knight, archdeacon of Bprkshirj^^ 
and the author of the Lives of Colet and Erasmus, by 
whose recommendation he obtained a curacy near Oxford, 
This was particularly gratifying to JVIr. Giiaves, who was 
then coming, by turn, into o^ce in t^e coUege, ai^d bad 
been for some tinie desirous of procuriqg st^ch a situation. 
He immediately tg^k possesf jon of his cpracy, but as the 
parsonage-house wiu» out pf repair,, be took a lodging wit^ 
a gentleman -^^rcper in the neighbpurhood. The attrac- 
tions of the farmer^s youngest daughter 9iade such a power- 
f al impres^^on on the he^rt of Mr. G^vfui that lie resigned 
h^s fellowship and married faer« After residing ^bout two 
years on his curacy* he v^as presented by^ Mr. SkriuiO 
to the rectory of Clav^rton, where hie went to Reside in 
1730, and till his death, was never abj»ept from it a monUi 
at a tim^. A$» the narrowness of his circjuimstances obliged 
him to superintend in person the education of his chikir^|iy 
he likewise resolved to take other pupils imder: hi^ tuition p 
and this practice he continued, with great <uredit to him* 
self, upwards of thirty years.* In 1763, through the in* 
terest of Ralph Allen, esq. of Prior-Park, he was pre* 
sented to the living of Kilmersdon, in addition to that of ' 
. Claverton, and that gentleman likewise procured l^n^ the 
appointment of chaplain to lady Chatham. His caqyersa- 
tion was rendered highly agree^tble by th^t epigrapoiiatic 
turn which points his writipgs of the lighter kind. E(is 
constant good humour rendered him an acceptable com- 
panion in every society, his colloquial impromptus^ being 
frequently as happy as the jeux d'esprit of bis pen, yf\nie 
both were invariably the unmeditated effusions of a t^portiv^ 
fancy and guileless heart. He died at Claverton, Nov. 
.23, 1804, at the advanced age of ninety. 

Mr. Graves's publications were very numerous. His first 
was *^ The Festoon; or, a collection of Epigrams, with an 



G A A V te S. 209 

Essay on tfe'at species ojf copi'position," In 1772 he pro- 
duced "The Spiritual Quixote," in 3 vols, intended as a 
satire, on the itinerant arid iUiterate preachers among the 
hie^hodis'ts, and which ihight have been pronounced one 
of the most amusing and interesting novels of his time, had 
he not, in pursuit of his main object^ incautiously intro7 
duced the language of scripture, which, whether used by 
methodists, or others, can never be a legitimate subject of 
ridicule, rie next published " A Tk-anslation from the 
Ifaliah of Galates j or, a treatise pn Politeness, by De 1^ 
Cask, arclibiSbop of bfehevento." He soon after publi8he4 
" Columella, or the dikressed Anchoret,*' in 2 vols, to 
sboiv the consequeiice of a person of education and talents 
retiring to solitude and indolence in the vigour of yout^i : 
in this It is thought he alluded to his friend Shenstone. H^ 
flso publishe'ci two volumes of poems undler the title of 
" Eu^hrosyne,** which have gone through several editions, 
but he is rather entitled to the merit of an agreeable ver- 
sifier, .than that of a genuine poet. Then appeared his 
"Eugeriius; or. Anecdotes of the Golden Vale," in 2 
vols. In 1778 appeared "Recollections of some particu- 
lars in the life of William Shenstone, esq. in a series of 
letters to W. Seward, esq. F. R. S.'* This was published 
to vindicate the character of his friend from the criticisms 
and censure of Dr. Johnson, Mr. Gray, and Mr. Mason. 
The following is a list of his subsequent publications, al* 
thougii probably not in chronological order. " Plexippus ; 
or, the aspiri^ig Plebeian,'* in 2 vols. ; " Hiero on the 
^^oridition of , Royalty," from the Greek of Xenophon ; 
" Fleiirettes, -' a translation of Fenelon's Ode on Solitude, 
and other French authors ; *' The Life of Commodus,'' 
froiri the Greek of lierodian ; " The Rout," from a young 
man in town to his friend in the country; ^' The Medita^ 
trons of Antoninus, translated from the Greek;" "The 
Reveries of Solitude,*' consisting of pieces of prose and, 
verse ; " The Coalition ; or. Opera rehearsed," a comedy 
in three acts ; " The Farmer's Son," a moral tale, in the 
ballad metre ; 'f Sermons on various subjects," in 1 vol. ; 
** Senilities/' consisting of pieces in prose and verse. His 
last publicatipn was *^ The Invalid, with the obvious means 
of enjoying Life, by a Nonagenarian." The above, we 
briieve, is a tolerably correct list of the publications of Mr. 
Graves ; whose works, although the *« Spiritual Quixote" 
only will be much called for hereafter, will always be read 
Vol. XVL P 



210 GRAVES. 

with pleasure, there being a sprightliness and epigram*' 
matic turn in his writings which was peculiar to himself, 
and which he retained to the last. In Mr. Graves ended 
the bright associates of their time, composed of Shenstone, 
Whistler, and Jago. * 

S'GRAVESANPE (William James), an eminent Dutch 
philosopher, was born Sept. 26, 1688, at Bois-le-duc, in 
Holland, of an ancient and honourable family. He was 
educated with the greatest care, and very early discovered 
an extraordinary genius for mathematical learning. He 
was sent to the university of Leyden, in 1704, with an in- 
tention to study the civil law ; but at the same time he 
cultivated with the greatest assiduity his favourite science. 
Before he was nineteen, he composed his treatise on per- 
spective, which gained him great credit among the most 
eminent mathematicians of his time. When he had taken 
his doctor's degree in 1707, he quitted the college, and 
settled at the Hague, where he practised at the bar. In 
this situation he contracted and cultivated an acquaintance 
with learned men ; and made one of the principal members 
of the society that composed a periodical review, entitled 
** Le Journal. Litt6raire." This journal began in May 
1713, and was continued without interruption till 1722. 
The parts of it written or extracted by Gravesande were? 
principally those relating to physics and geometry. But 
he enriched it also with several original pieces entirely of 
his composition, viz. " Remarks on the construction of 
Pneumatical Engines ;'* " A moral Essay on Lying ;^* 
and a celebrated " Essay on the Collision of Bodies;*' 
which, as it opposed the Newtonian philosophy, was at- 
tacked by Dr. Clarke, and many other leariled men. 

In 1715, when the States sent to congratulate George I. 
on his accession to the throne, Gravesande was appointed 
secretary to the embassy. During his stay in England he 
was admitted a member of the royal society, and became 
intimately acquainted with sir Isaac Newton. On bis re- 
turn to Holland, when the business of the embassy was 
over, he was chosen professor of the mathematics and 
astronomy at Leyden; and he had the honour of first teach- 
ing the Newtonian philosophy there, which was then in its 

infancy. The most considerable of his publications is 

>• 'I 

1 G«iit. U9%. rol, LXXIV.— Seuitities, p«Mim.— DodsUy's and PtarohV 
PocoDf.— Ni«faol«*8 Bowyer, where is an accouQt of his father. 



G R A V E S A N D E. 211 

'^ An Introduction to the Newtonian Philosophy; or> a 
treatise on the Elements of Physics, confirmed by experi*^ 
ments/' This performance, being only a more perfect 
copy of his public lectures, was first printed in 1720; and 
has since gone through many editions, with considerable 
improvements. He published also *^ A small treatise on 
ihe Elements of Algebra, for the use of young students.^' 
After he was promoted to the chair of philosophy in 1734, 
he published '^ A Course of Logic and Metaphysics.'' He 
bad a design too of presenting the public with ^^ A System 
of Morality,^' but his death, which happened in 1742, 
prevented his putting it in execution. Besides his. own 
works, he published several correct editions of the valuable 
works of others. His whole mathematical and philosophical 
works, except the first article above, were collected an^ 
published at Amsterdam, 1774, in 2 vols. 4to, to which is 
prefixed a critical account of bis life aad writings, by pro* 
fessor Allamand. 

He was amiable in his private and respectable in hif 
public character ; for, few men of letters have done more 
eminent services to their country. The ministers of the 
republic consulted him on all oqcasions in which his talents 
were requisite to assist them, which his skill in calculation 
often enabled him to do in money affairs. He was of great 
service also in detecting the secret correspondepce of their 
enemies, as a decipherer. And, as a professor^ none ever 
applied the powers of nature with more sucqess, or to mor^ 
useful purposes. ' 

GRAVINA (John Vincent), an eminent scholar, and 
illustrious lawyer of Italy, was born of genteel parents at 
Roggiano, February 18, 1664; and educated under Gre-. 
gory Caloprese, a famous philosopher of that time, .and 
his cousin-german. He went to Naples at sixteen, and 
there applied himself to the Latin and Qreek languages, 
and to civil law; which application, , however, did not 
make him neglect to cultivate, Y^ith the utmost exactness, 
his own native tongue. He was so fond of iitudy,. that he 
pursued it ten or twelve hours a.day» tQ.the very lasjtyear^ 
of his life ; and, when his friend^ remonstrated agaiR)$t thin 
unnecessary labour, he used to tell theiQ that be kqew of 
nothing which could afford him more pleasure. He went 
to Rome in 1689, and some years after was .made, p^rofessor 

... - ' 

^ Protp«r Marcband, vol. II. — Diet. Hist.— Huttoa^f Dictionarf. 

P 2 



112 GRAVINA, 

of canon law, in the college of Sapienzia, by Innocent 
XL who esteemed him much ; which employment he held 
as long as he lived. He does not, however, seem to have 
been of an amiable cast; at least be had not the art of 
making himself beloved. The free manner in which he 
spoke of all mankind, and the contempt with which he 
treated the greatest part of the learned, raised him up many 
enemies; and among others the famous Settano, who has 
made him the subject of some of his satires. It is said that 
he missed a cardinals bat because of his satirical turn of 
mind. When at Rome he used to bow to coach-horses, 
'^ because," said he, '^ were it not for these poor beasts, 
tfaetie great people would have men, and even philoso- 
phers, to draw their coaches." There were ^t one time 
doubts of bis religious principle6> ai)d his pupil Metastasio 
seems inclined to jtt^tify these^ by sinking this part of his 
history. Many universities of Germany would have drawn 
Gravina to them, and made proposals to him for that pur* 
pose ; but nothing was able to seduce him from Roitie. 
That of Turin offered him Uie first prdfessor^hiji of law, at 
die very time that he waft attacked by th<^ distemper of 
which he diisd, and which seeoi^ to haVe beeh a ihortifica- 
tion in his bowels. He ^tts ttidubl^d with pains in thosd 
parts for many years befdrej bat they did hot provfe fatal 
to him till Jan. 6^ 1718; He had mfetde his ilirill iii ApHl 
171^) in which h0 Ordered his body tb bO opened and 
embalmed. 

His first publication was a piece entitled '^ Pirlici Ceii- 
sorini Photistici Hydra Mysiica; liive, de cdrriit)ta itio^ali 
docttina dialogus,'' Cotonieb, 1691^ 4to ; but really priilttid 
at Naples. ThiA was withoilt a ham^, atld is verjr scsli-c)^ ; 
the author having pritlled only fifty eopies^ whii:h he dis- 
tributed dmong bis friends. 2. ** L'Endidiione di Erilo 
Cleoneo^ Pastore Arcstd^i con Uii Diseofso di Biotie Cr^- 
teo," Rome, 1692; 12mo. The fendymioh i^ Aleicind^i^ 
Guidl^s, who, Ih the academy of th^ Arcadiati^j weht titl^ 
der the name of £i^ild Cleooeo ; And the discourse annekdd, 
wbil:h illustrates the beauties of this pastoral, is Gravina^s, 
who conceals himself Undei* that of Bioiie Crialt^o. i. 
<< Delia Antlche FavdlV' Rome^ 1696^ i2mo. 4. A €61- 
lectioa of pieced under the nabie df ^' Opuscula," at Roitie 
in 1696, 12mo; containing, fitst^ *' An Essay iipon ati kn-i 
cient Law ;'* secondly, ^ A Dialogue concerning the ex- 
C^^ence of the Latin Tongue V thirdly^ ^^ A Discourse of 



O R A V I N A. 215 

tb^ chaiag^ wlilch has haftpened in the Sciences^ particu- 
larly in Italy ;'' fourthly, " A Treatise upon the Contempt 
of De^th;" 6fthly, upon "Moderation in Mourning ;•* 
sixthly, " The Laws of the Arcadians*** A collection of 
isuch of these as regard literary history and study was pub- 
lished in 1792, £or the use of young students, by the pre- 
sent learned bishop of St. Davidf s. But the greatest of all 
his works, and for whjch he will he ever memorable, is, 
^. Bis three books, ^' De Ortu et Progressu Juris Civilis ;'» 
the first of which was printed at Naples, ia 1701, 8vo^ 
and at Leipsic in 1704, 6vo. Gravina afterwards sent 
the two other books of this work to John Burehard. Menc- 
ken, librarian at Leipsic, who had published the first there, 
and who published these s^lso in 1708, together with it, in 
one volume 4to. They were published also again at Na- 
ples io 1713^ in two volumes, 4to, with 'the addition of 
a book; *^ De Romano Imperio ;^* and dedicated to pope 
Clement XL who was much the author's friend. This is 
reckpned the best edition of this famous work ; for, when 
it was reprinted at Leipsic with the ^* Opuscula'* above* 
mentioned, in 1717, it w^s thought expedient to call it 
in the title-page, ^* Editio novissima ad nuperam Nea- 
politanam emen.data et aucta.'' Gravina's view, in this 
*^ History of Ancient Law," was to induce the Roman 
youth to study it in its original records — in the Pandects, 
the Institutes, and the Code, and npt to content them- 
selves, as he often complained they did, with learning it 
frorn modern abridgments, drawn up with great confusion, 
and in very barbarous Latin. Such knowledge • and such 
language, he said, might do well enough for the bar^ where 
a facility of speaking often siipplied the place of learning 
and good sense, before judges who had no extraordinary 
share of either; but were what a real lawyer should be 
grieatly above. As to the piece *^^De Romano Imperio," 
J-e Clerc pronounces it to be a work in which Gravina 
has shewn the greatest judgment and knowledge of Roman 
antiquity. The next performance we find in the list of his 
works is, 6. " Acta Consistorialia creationis Emin.Jet Re^-f 
Cardiualium institutae k S. D. N. Clemente XL P. M. diebus 
17 Maii et 7 Junii anno salutis 1706. Accessit eorundem 
Cardinaliura brevis delineatio," Colonise, 1707, 4to. 7. 
" Delia Ragrone Poetica Libri duo," Rome, 1 708, 4to. 
To a subsequent edition of this in 1716, was added a letter 
^^ De Poesi," from which Blackwell, in his ^nquiry into 



214 G R A V I N A. 

the life and writings of Homery has taken many observa-» 
tions. Dr. Warton says that Gravina's remarks have a 
novelty and penetration in them. 8. " Tragedie cinque,** 
Napoli, 1712, 8vo. These five tragedies are, " II Pa* 
piniano;^* " II Palamede ;" " L' Andromeda ;" " L*Appio 
Claudia;" " II Servio Tullio." Gravina said that be com- 
posed these tragedies in three months, without interrupting 
lus lectures; yet declares in his preface, that be should 
}ook upon all those as either ignorant or envious, who 
should scFuple to prefer them to what Tasso, Bonarelliy 
Trissino, and others, bad composed of the same kind. 
This at least shews that Gravina, great as his talents were, 
bad too high an opinion of them. They could not, it is 
true, have been written by Sophocles himself in a more 
Grecian style ; but he is entitled to more fame from having 
educated and formed the taste of Metastasio, who was his 
pupil, and to whoih hef'left a legacy, amounting in our 
money to nearly 4000/. with his library, and a small estate 
in the kingdom of Naples. D. '^ Orationes,^' Nap. 1712, 
12mo. These have been reprinted more than ODce, and 
are to be found with his " Opuscula*' in the edition of 
** Origines Juris Civilis,'* printed at Leipsic, in 17 17. 10. 
" Delia Trageclia Libro uno," Napoli, 1715, 4 to. This work, 
his two books " Delia Ragione Poetica," his discourse 
upon the " Endymion'* of Alexander GuiJi, and soir.e 
other pieces, were printed together at Venice in 1731, 
4to, but a more complete: edition of his works was pub- 
lished at Naples by John Antony Sergi, 1756 — 1758, 3 
vols. 4to. * % 

GRAVINA (Peter), an excellent Latin poet, was born 
at Palermo, ■ in Sicily, of a family originally of Gravina, a 
city in the kingdom of Naples; He was canon of Naples, 
and died at Rome of the plague, in 1528. It isthouo-ht 
that the greater part of his works were lost when the 
French went to Naples under Louis XII. in 1501, but a 
collection of what remained was published there in 1532, 
4to ; a few of them are also inserted in the " Carm. Illust. 
Poet. Ital." His epigrams are preferred by Sannazarius 
to those of all his contemporaries. Paul Jovius and others 
also bestow high encomiums on bis poetry.' 

' Niccron, vol. XXIX — Fabr<«ni Viiae Italorom.— Warton's Etsay on Pope, 

— Burney'i Life of Metaslasio, vol. 1. p. 12, 
* Moroii. — Diet. Hist.— >Roscoe's Leo X. 



GRAY. 215 

GRAY (TitOMAs), an eminent English poet, was the 
fifth child of Mr. Philip Gray, a citizen and money-scri- 
vener of London, and a man of such brutal manners, that 
his wife (whose maiden name was Dorothy Antrobus) was 
obliged in 1735 to apply to an eminent civilian for his ad- 
vice as to a separation. Thomas was born in Cornhill, 
Dec. 20, 1716, and was the only one of many children who 
survived. The rest died in their infancy, from suffoca- 
tion, produced by a fulness of blood ; and he owed his life 
to a memorable instance of the love and courage of his 
mother, who removed the paroxysm which attacked him, 
by opening a vein with her own hand ; an instance of af- 
fection which he long remembered with filial reverence. 
Indeed it was to her exertions when her home was rendered 
unhappy by the cruelty of her husband, that our poet was 
indebted for his education, and consequently for the hap- 
piness of his life* We may readily, therefore, believe 
what' Mason has told us, that ** Gray seldom mentioned his 
mother without a sigh.*' 

He wa? educated at Eton, under the protection of Mr. 
Antrobus, his maternal uncle, who was at that time as- 
sistant to Dr. George, and also a fellow of Peter-house, 
Cambridge, where Gray was admitted as a pensioner in 
1734, in his nineteenth year. At Eton his friendship with 
Horace Walpole.(the late earl of Orford), and more parti- 
cularly with Richard West, commenced. In the latter, 
who was a son of the Irish lord chancellor West, he met 
ivith one whose proficiency in literature was considerable 
for his age, whose mind was amiable and ingenuous, whose 
disposition was similar to his owp, but whose loss he had 
to deplore, after a strict friendship of eight years. When 
Gray removed to Peter-house, West went to Christ cHurch, 
Oxford, and Wklpole to King's-college, Cambridge. It 
is difficult to trace the line of study which Gray pursued 
at college. His correspondence at that time treats chiefly 
of his poetry, and other private pursuits; and he seems to 
have withdrawn himself entirely from the severity of ma^ 
thematical studies, white his inquiries centered in clas- 
sical literature, in the acqtiisition of modern languages, in 
history and other branches of polite literature. During 
bis residence at college from 1734 to 1738, his poetical 
productions were some Latin verses entitled '* Luna habi-^ 
tabiiis," inserted in the ** Musae Etonenses;" a poem " On 
the n)arriage of the prince of Wales ;" and a " Sapphic 



^16 GRAY. 

Ode to West," bp.th in Latin ; also a Latin v)^r,sioQ <?f the 
" Care selve beate" of the Pastor Fido, apd fraygoxents of 
translations in English iron) Statins and Tass^. 

In 1738 Mr. Gray removed from Pe^er-bo use to, London, 
intending to apply himself to the study of the law in ihe 
Inner temple, where his friend Mr. West had begun tl^cr. 
same pursuit some months before, but on an iiivitatiai> 
which Mr. Walpqle gave him to be his companion in hisf 
travels, this intention was laid aside for the present, anct 
never after put in execution. From his letters to Mr. West, 
he seei^s to have been a very diligent traveller, his j^tten- 
tion being directed to every work of art that was curious 
and instructive. Architecture both of Gothic and Grecian 
origin, painting and music, were all studied by him, witli 
the manners and customs of the inhabitants. Their tour 
was the accustomed one through Fran,ce and Italy. In 
April 174Q they were at Reggio, vyhere an unfortunate 
difference took place betweeh them, and they parted. 
Much has been said of this famous quarrel, t>ut the real 
cause has never been sufficiently explained. Walpole, 
however, affected to take the blame on l^imself, and pro- 
bably spoke truth j and it is certain that the parties were 
afterwards reconciled, as to outvyard respect, which no 
man knew better than Walpole h9w %o pay in such pro- 
portions as suited his convenience, and in such \yarm and 
animated language as could not fail to be successful where 
he was not known. Cole, however, says, that when mat- 
ters were made up between Gray and Walpole, the latter 
asked Gray to Strawberry-hill, and when he came, l^e 
lyithofUt any ceremony told Walpole, that he came to yirait 
on him as civility required, but by no nieans would be 
ever be there on the terms of his former friendship, which 
he had totally cancelled. Cole's narratives are sometimes 
to be received with cautiop, and although Gray's late ex- 
cellent editor and biographer thinks this worthy of credit, 
and not inconsistent with the independence of Gray's cha-r 
racter, yet if he did address Walpole in such language, it 
is difficult to conceive that there could have ever beeii 
any intercourse between them aftervtrards, which we are 
certain was the case. 

Gray returned by himself to England in 1741, in which 
year his father died. With a small fortune, which her 
husband's imprudence had impaired, Mrs. Gray and a 
ihaiden sister retired to the house of Mr^. Rogers, another 



G R AY. 217 

fister, alt S^oke, neai; \yinds9r ;: a;^c!l Gtd^y thinking bis 
i^rtune not aufficieiU tq enabjte. him 19 pcosecute the study 
i^ tb^ law, and yet unwiHing ^o Ymxi the. feelings of bis 
onotber, by appearing entirely to forsake bis profession, 
pcetended to change tbe line of study, and went tQ Gam- 
bridge to take bis degree in civil law, but had certainly no 
t^figbts of that as a pi:o;fi^ssiop. He went accordingly to 
Caoibridge, in the winter 1742, where be took bis degree 
of bachelor of civil law, and employed himself in a perusal 
of tbe Greek authors with sucb assiduity, that in tbe space 
of ab.Qut six years there were ba,rdly any writers of note in 
that language, whom be bad not only read but digested ; 
i^em^rking, by the mode, of common-place, their contents, 
their difficult and corrupt passiages, and all this with the 
^curacy of. a critic, added to tbe diligence of a student. 
^0 bis first year also he translated some parts of Proper*, 
tins, and selected for his Italian studies the poetry of Pe- 
trarch. He wrote a heroic epistle in Latin, in imitation 
of the manner of Ovid ; and a Greek epigram which be 
communicated to West; to whom, also, in tbe summer, 
when he retired to b^s family at Stoke, be sent bis ^^ Ode 
to Spring," which was written there, but which did not 
arrive in Hertfordshire till after the death of his beloved 
friend, who expired June 1, 1742, aged twenty -six. In 
the autumn of this same year. Gray composed the ode on 
♦* A distant prospect of Eton College," and the " Hymn 
to Adversity," and began the " Kle^';y in a Country Church 
Yard." Aq affectionate sonnet in iMiglisb, and an apo- 
strophe which opens the fourth b(M>k of his poem '^ De 
principiis cogitaiidi" (his last compi>>ition in Latin verse) 
bear strong marks of the sorrow left on his mind from the 
death of West ; and of the real aflFectioji with which he ho- 
noured the memory of his worth and of his talents. 

In 1744 the difference between Walpole and Gray was 
adjusted by the interference of a lady who wishexi well to 
both parties. The lapse of years had probably softened 
their mutual resentment in a sufficient degree to admit 
again of correspondence on amicable terms. About this 
time Gray became acquainted with Mr. Mason, then a 
scholar of St. John^s college, whose poetical talents he had 
noticed, and some of whose poems he revised at the re* 
qbest of a friend. His bequests to Mr. Masoii show 
that this intimacy was improved into tbe strictest friend- 
ship and confidence. He maintained also a correspond- 



Hit G R A Y. 

ence with another friend, Dr. Wharton of Durham, and 
seems to have been on familiar terms with the celebrated 
Dr. Middleton, whose loss he afterwards laments. " I find 
a friend," he says, " so uncommon a thing, that I cannot 
help regretting even an old acquaintance, which is an in- 
different likeness of it.** 

In 1747, Gray appeared first as an author, by the pub- 
lication of the " Ode to Eton College," folio, of which, 'ac- 
cordmg to Dr. Warton, little notice was taken. Walpole 
now wished him to print his own poems with those of his 
deceased friend West, but this he declined, thinking the 
materials not sufficient; but he complied with another 
wish of Walpole, in commemorating in an ode the death 
of his favourite cat. Soon after this he sent to Dr. Whar- 
ton a part of his poem " On the alliance of education and 
govern mejit," which he never pursued much further. It 
was indeed Gray's misfortune seldom to execute his plans. 
Iji 174il he finished his *' Elegy," which we have seen he 
began seven years before, and vvhi(?!h being now handed 
ahopt in manuscript, was read with great applause, and 
when printed, was, as it continues to be, the most popular 
of all his'works. Mason iustlr attributes this to the af- 
fecting and pensive cast of the subject. Tliat it has not 
ceased to be admired even by scholars appears from the 
many translations which it has undergone, into Latin, by 
Messieurs Anstey, Roberts, and Lloyd, and into Greek 
by Dr. Cooke, Dr. Norbnry, Dr Coote, and Messieurs 
Tew and Weston. This elegy was soon aft^r added to a 
well-known edition of his pi>ems printed in 4to, with de- 
signs by Mr. Bentley. In March 1753 he lost his mother, 
whom he had so Jong and so affectionately loved, and 
placed over her remains an inscription which strongly 
marks his filial piety and sorrow. . 

In 1754 and 1755 he appears to have written "An ode 
to Vicissitude," that " On the progress of Poetry," the 
** Bard," and probably some of those fragments with which 
he seems to have amused himself u;ithout much design of 
completion. About this period he complains of listless- 
ness and depression of spirits, which prevented his appli- 
cation to poetry ; and from this time we may trace the 
course of that hereditary disease in liis constitution which 
embittered in a considerable degree the renrainder of his 
days ; and whose fatal strength not even the temperance 
and regularity of a whole life could subdue. In 1756 he 



G R A ¥• 219 

lefi Peter-house, where he had resided above twenty years, 
on account of some incivilities which he met with, which 
Mason thus mentions. Two or three young men of for- 
tune, who lived op the same staircase, bad for some time 
inteniionally disturbed him with their riots, and carried 
their ill-behaviour so far as frequently to awaken him at 
midnight. After having borne with their insults longer 
than might reasonably have been expected even from a 
man of less warmth of temper, Gray complained to the 
governing part of the society, and not thinking that his 
remonstrance was sufficiently attended to, quitted the col- 
lege. He now removed to Pembroke-hall, which he de- 
sciibes ^^ as an sera in a life so barren of events as his.*' 

In July 1757 he took his " Odes*' to London for publi- 
cation, but they were first printed at the Strawberry-hill 
press. It seems agreed that they did not succeed with the 
public, although they have since deservedly entitled him 
to rank among the greatest of our lyric poets. In the 
same year, on the death of Cibber, the office of poet- 
laureat was offered to him by the duke of Devonshire, then 
lord chamberlain, which he politely declined. In 17^8 
he composed for his own amusement the little book which 
he calls " A Catalogue of the Antiquities, Hojuses, &c. in 
England and Wales," which after his death was printed 
for private distribution by Mr. Mason, and in 1787 for sale. 
About this time the study of architecture seems to have 
employed much of his time, and some very acute obser- 
vations by him on this subject appeared afterwards in 
Bentham's '* Histo'y of Ely,*' a work which was m a great 
measure the fruit of " voluntary contributions.*' In Ja- 
nuary 17,59, the Briiish Museum was opened to the pub- 
lick ; and Gray went to London to read and transcribe the 
ma!)uscripts of the Harleian and Cottonian collections. A 
folio volume of his transcripts was in Mr. Mason's hands, 
out of which one paper alone, the speech of sir Thomas 
Wyat, was [)ublished in the second number of lord Orford's 
" Miscellaneous Antiquities." In 1762 the professorship 
of modern history at Cambridge, a place worth -400^ a 
year, became vacant, and Gray, by the advice of his friends, 
applied to lord Bute for it, which was however given to 
Mr. Brocket, the tutor of sir James Lowther. 

In the summer of 1765 he took a journey into Scotland, 
to improve his health, which was then weak and uncer- 
tain, and to gratify his curiosity with the natural beauties 



220 GRAY. 

aad aotiquities of chat wild and romaptic cojinUy. He 
went through Edinburgh apd Perth to Gian^es-castle, the 
s/eat o( lord Strathmore, wbepe h§ re^id^d soip^ ti}ja^> and 
afcervyards went to the north, where he ^raied an ai^c^uainr 
taoce with Dr. !^eattie, " vvhoi??," ^y§ D/:. Johnson, " h^ 
found a poet, a philpsppher) and a good tp^n,'^ but ajt 
that time Uttle kuown be>ond (he circle of his fiiends a^ 
Aberdeen. Gray's account of this journey, says Dr. John- 
son, ^^ so far as ijt extends, is curious and elegant; for as 
his comprehension ^as ample, his curiosity extended to 
all the works of art, all the appearanpes of nature, and ail 
tlie monuments of past events." Part qf the summer of 
1766 and 1767 he passed in journies in England, and had 
intended a second tour to Scotland, but returned to Lon- 
don without accomplishing his design. At Dr. Beattie^a 
desire, a new edition of his poems was printed by the 
Foulis's of Glasgow, then the most elegant printers in the 
island ; and at the same time Dodsley was also printing 
them in London. In both the^^ editions, the ^^ Long 
Story'' was omitted, as the plates from Beptley's designs 
which illustratecf it were worn out, but some pieces of 
Welch and Norwegian poetry, written in a bold and ori- 
ginal manner, were inserted in its place; of which the 
** Descent of Odin" is undoubtedly the most valuable^ 
though in many places it is obscure. This bis late biQ«* 
grapher attributes to his having translated only that pari 
of it which he found in the Latin version of Bartbolinus. 

In 1768, the professgrship of modern history again bjs- 
came va.cant by the accidental death of Mr. Brocket, apd 
the duke of Grafton, then in power, bestowed it upon 
Mr. Gray without the smallest solicitation, although the 
contrary was at that time reported ; and in the following 
year, when his noble patron ^v:as installed as chancellor of 
the university, Gray wrote the Ode that was set to music 
pn that occasion. When this ceremojiy was past, he weot 
on ^ tour to the lakes of Cumberlai>d and Westmoreland, 
of which he has given an account in his correspondence. 
^* He that reads hi,s epistolary narrative," says Dr. John- 
son, *^ vyishes, th.it to travel, and to tell his travels, bad 
been more of his employment : but it is by staying at home 
that we must oijiriin the ability of travelling with intelli- 
gence and improvement." In April 1770, he complains 
much oKadepressipn of spirits, talks of an intended tour 
into Vv^ales in the sumimer, aqd of meeting his friend Dr« 



G 11 A Y. 221 

Wharton at Mr. Mason's. In July, however, he was still 
at Catobridge, and wrote to Dr. Beaitie, complaining of 
itiilesrs and pain in his head; and in this letter, he sent 
him some criticisms on the first book of the " Minstrel,'* 
Which have since been published. His tour took place in 
the autumn, but he does not appear to have written any 
jliarttal of it. In May 1771 he wrote to I/r. Wharton, 
just sketching the outlines of his tour in Wales and some 
of the adjacent counties. This is the last letter that re- 
mains in Mr. Mason's collection. He there complains of 
an incurable cough, of spirits habitually low, and of th^ 
ttneasiness which the thought of the duties of his profes- 
sorship gave him, which, Mr. Mason says, he had now a 
determined resolution to resign. He had held this office 
nearly three years, and had not begun to execute the du- 
ties of it, which consist of two parts, one, the teaching of 
ihodern languages ; the other, the reading of lectures on 
Modern History. The former he was allowed to execute 
by deputies, but the latter he was to commence in person, 
by reading a public lecture in the schools, once at least 
in every term. He was at liberty to chuse his language, 
ahd chose the Latin, which Mr. Mason thought somewhat 
injudicious; and "although we do not find that he proceeded 
farther than to draw up a part of his introductory lecture, 
he projected a plan of very great extent, of much greater 
?ndeed than from his inactivity, whether the effect of illness 
or inddlence, he would probably have been able to execute. 
His death, however, prevented the trial. A few days after 
Writing the letter just mentioned, he removed to London,' 
^hi^re \i\i health more and more declined. Hlfe physician, 
Dr. GisbOrne, advised freer air, and he went to Kensington. 
Therift h^ in Isbmfe degree revived, and returned to Cani- 
brid^fe, irilehding to go from th^t place to Old Park, near 
btrfham, th6 i"^sld'ericd of his friend Bh Wharton. On 
th^^4th df Jhiy, hoWever, while at diiiner in^he college- 
hall, he was seized with an attack of the goiit in his sto- 
ixlach, of whifch hte died in the evening: of the 30th, 1771, 
in £he fifty-fifth yfeac of his age, Sensible almpst to the! 
last; aWk^e of hi^ dangl^i*, dnd feJcjiressing no visible cdn- 
t^'c^ at the thdhght of his approaching death. Hi^ ^t^s 
ihtei^red by Ihl^ sidfe of his mbther, ih the church-yard of 
Stbke. 

lU hii^ private character many vittUes were united ; be* 
nevofenid^, temperance, integrity, and oeconomy, patience 



222 GRAY. 

under the contempt of hjpercriticism^ and a friendly and 
afFeclionate disposition. He had also some failings, among 
which are enumerated a want of personal courage, a re- 
servedness and caprice of temper, and a foppish attention 
to dress. This was somewhat singular in one who to his 
other qualities, added a great portion of humour, and had a 
quick sense of the ridiculous. His sensibility was even mor** 
bid, and very often fastidious and troublesome to his friends. 
He seemed frequently overwhelmed by the ordinary inter- 
course and ordinary affairs of life. Coarse manners, and 
vulgar or unrefined sentiments, overset hiiii. Mason's ex- 
cuse for all this will not perhaps be thought the excuse of a 
friend ; he attributes it rather to " an affectation in delicacy 
and effeminacy, tban the things themselves," and says 
that Gray " chose to put on this appearance before persons 
whom he did not wish to please." ' 

Gray appears to have written in a desultory manner; his 
efforts were such as he could accomplish probably at one 
time, and he had not in many instances affection euougti 
for his subject to return tor it. Hence no poet of modern 
times has left so many specimens or samples, so mush 
planned, and sp little executed. Activity and labour it ap- 
pears he could never endure, unless rn storing his mind, 
with various knowledge for his own curiosity and satisfac- 
tion. Hence, although he read itiuch and read critically^ 
and amassed a vast fund of general learning, his reput9.tion 
in this respect has hitherto stood upon the evidence of those 
who know him most intimately. He was above fifty y^ars 
of age before he became sensible of the necessity of con- 
centrating his knowledge in one pursuit, and as he had 
never accustomed himself so to regulate his acquisitions as 
to render them useful to others, he apparently sunk under 
the task which his professorship imposed ; and it is much 
to the credit of his independent spirit, that when he found 
It impossible to execute the, duties, he determined to re* 
sign the emoluments of his place. 

As a poet, it may be sufficient here to refer to our au- 
thorities, which are in the hands of every reader, with 
perhaps theexception of an excellent edition of his works, 
just published, by the rev. John Mitford, which we can 
re^commend with perfect confidence. Dr. Johnson's cha- 
racter of his poetry has excited a controversy, from which 
it may be truly said that Gray has emerged with additional 
lustre, yet if mere popularity were to determine the ques*. 



GRAY. 22$ 

tion, that critic has iu some instances spoken the senti- 
ments of the majority, as well as his own. It were, how- 
ever, to be wished for his own sake, that in his general 
colouring of .Gray's life and works, he had attended more 
to what he calls ** the common -sense of readers, uncur- 
rupted with literary prejudices.'* Had this been the case, 
while some of his strictures might have been allowed, he 
would have been a povferful ally of those whose superior 
minds know how to feel and how to appreciate the merit 
of Gray, and who have assigned him one of the highest 
places among the English poets of the eighteenth century.' 
GRAZIANI. See GRATIANIS. 
GRAZZINI (Antony Francis), an Italian scholar and 
poet of considerable eminence, was born at Florence 
March 22, 1 503, of a noble family, which can be traced as 
far as the thirteenth century, but was now decayed, as we 
find that Grazzini in his youth was brought up as an apo- 
thecary. He had, however, studied philosophy and the 
belles lettres, and from the timethatbe acquired some re- 
putation in the literary world, gave up his medical busi- 
ness. In 1540 he became one of the founders of the 
academy of Florence, which was first called the academy 
of the Humides, and each meniber distinguishing himself 
by some appellation relative to the water, Grazzini adopt- 
ing that of Lasca, which signifies a roach. From the first 
establishment of this academy, he was appointed chancellor, 
and when, some months after, the grand duke changed its 
name to that of the academy of Florence, he was chosen 
ovefseer, or superintendant, an office which he afterwards 
filled three times. As the number of members, however, 
increased, the juniors began to make new regulations with- 
out consulting the founders, and a schism broke out, at- 
tended with so many unpleasant circumstances, that Graz- 
zini withdrew, and became the founder of a new academy, 
known still by the name of La Crusca. T\^e object of this 
society was to polish the Italian language, to Bx a standard 
for it, to point out such authors as might be always models 

* Mason's Life and Works of Gray. — Mitford*t, whose arrangement of the life * 
we have most generally followed.-— Lord Ovford's Works, vol.'IL p. 39?, IV. 
p. 445, V. p. 137, 147. — BeattieN Life, by Sir W. Forbes. — Johnson's PoeU.— 
Bos well's Life of Johnson. — Cole's MS Aihense and Correspondence in Brit, 
Mas.— ^Bowles's edition of Pope ; see Index. — Censura Literaria. Mr. Mathias. 
has aiuiottneed selections from Mr. Gray's manascript*, which will probably 
throw 'Diach light on those learned researche;^ that employed so much of hi^i 
time. See also Mr. Tyson's Letters in Nichols's Bowyer, rol. Vlll. 



21S4 G 11 A 2 2 I N I 

for those ^ho chose to improve their styte^ to opp6se the 
progress of false taste; and to sift the flour from the bran 
of literature, crusca signifying bran, Grazzini was well 
qualified to assist an academy instituted for these purposes. 
He had enriched the language with several choice phrases 
and new modes of expression, and the academicians have 
very justly ranked him among those authors to whom they 
have been obliged for examples, in correcting their great 
vocabulary. In iJie mean time his growing fame induced 
his frieVid Leonard Salviati to endeavoui* his re-introduction 
into the academy of Florence, which was successfully ac- 
complished in 1566, twenty 3'ears after he bad left it; iri 
return for which he prociared admission for Salviati among 
the Cru&canti. Grazzini died at Florence in February 
1583. tie was a man of unquestionable genius, spirit, and 
humour, and wrote with great elegance, and although 
there are some indelicate passages in his poems, which 
wa& the vice of the times, he was a man of strict morals^ ^ 
and ev^ti, says his biographer, very religious. Many of 
' his works are lost, and among these some prose tales, and 
iiiany pieces of poetry. There remain, however, twenty-* 
6he tales, six comedies, a great number of capitoli, or 
satirical chapters, and various poems, of which the best 
edition is that of Florence, 1741, 2 vols. 8vo. His Tales 
6r Novels were printed at Paris, 1756, 8vo, from which 
some copies have been printed in 4to, under the title of 
London. An excellent French translation of them appeared 
in 1775, ^ vols. 8vo, in which nine histories wanting in the 
third evening are said to be inserted from an old French 
translatibn in MS. He wrote also " La guerra di Mostri, 
Poema giocosb,'* Florence, 1584, 4io. Grazzini pub- 
lished the 2d book of Beriii, Florence, 1555, 8vo; and 
'* Tiitti i trioii'fi, carri, mascherate o canti carnascialeschi 
dal tempo di Lorenzo de Medici a questoanno 1559,'' Svo; 
1 00 pages are frequently wanting in this work, page 297 
being pasted iipori page 398. These pages contained 51 
canzoni, by John Baptist dell Ottomaio, which had been 
inserted without his consent, and which his brother, by 
authority from the magistrates, had cancelled. They were 
priUted sepal-ately by the iuthor, in a similar size, the 
jear following, and must be added to the mutilated copies ; 
but though they consist of 55 sbtigs instead of 51, those 
found in the origiiial collection are preferred, as the othera 
*have been altered. This collection was reprinted in 



G R A !2 2 I *I t 225 

i?509 2 tols. 8vOi Coiftindpolij but this impression is not 
▼alupd. ' 

GREATRAKES (Valentine)^ an empiric, whose won- 
<}erful cures have been attested by some of the most emi* 
nent niert of the seventeenth ceiituryj was the son of Wil- 
liam Greatrakes, esq. and born at AfFane^ co. Waterford, 
in Ireland, Feb* 14, 1628. He was educated a protestant 
in the free-school of Lismore, until the age of thirteen, 
when his friends intended to have removed him to Trinity 
college^ Dublin, but the rebellion breaking out, bis mo- 
ther took refuge with him in England^ where he was kindly 
received by his great uncle Edmund Harris, brother to 
sir Edward HarriSj knt. his grandfather by the mother's 
tide. After his uncle's death he spent some years in the 
study of the classics and divinity und^r a clergyman in De- 
vonshire, and then returned to Ireland^ which was at that 
time in so deplorable a state that he retired to the castle of 
Caperquin^ where he spent a year in contemplation, and 
ieems to have contracted a species of enthusiasm which 
never altogether left hiiti. In 1649 hie entered into the 
service of the parliament^ and continued in the army until 
3656^ wben> a great part of the English being disbanded, 
he retired to bis native country of AiTane, and by the in- 
terest of the governor there, was made clerk of the peace 
for the coUtity of Cork, register for transplantation, and 
justice of the peace. At the Restoration all these places 
were taken from him, and his mind being disturbed partly 
with this disappointment, and partly for want of any re- 
gular and useful occupation, be felt an impulse, asj)e calls 
it, that the gift of curing the king^s evil was bestowed upon 
him ; and accordingly he began his operations, which were 
confined to praying, and stroking the part affected; and 
such wonderful cures were effected, that he determined 
not to stop here. Three years after, he had another im- 
pulse that he could cure all kinds of diseases, and by 
the same simple remedy, which must be administered 
by himself. When however he pretended to some super- 
natural aid, and mentioned the Holy Ghost with irre- 
verent presumption, as his assistant, he was cited to the 
bishop's court, and forbid to take such liberties. This 
probably was the cause of his coming to England in Ja- 
nuary 1665, where be performed many cures, was invite4 

1 Gingueni Hist. Lit. d'lUtic— Tiraboscbi.-^Dkt. Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol. XVI. Q 



826 G K E AT RA K E S. 

by tbe king to Whitehall, and hifi imputation apread. mosft 
extensively. Even Dr. Henry Stubbe, an eminent phy-* 
sician, published a pamphlet in prais^e of bifi skitt. Ha«ing 
failed in one instance, that of a Mr. Cres$et i« Charter* 
bouse square, there appeared a pamphlet entitled '< Won« 
ders no miracles : or Mr. Valemine Gr^ai;rak<es Gift of 
Healing examined," &c. Lofid. 166$, 4tx)« This was writ- 
ten by Mr. David Lloyd, reader to the Cbarter-^house, who 
treated Greatrakes as a cheat. In answer to tbis, he pub<- 
lished '^ A brief account of Mr. Valentine Greatrakes, and 
divers of his strange cures,*' &c, iUd. 1666, 4to. This 
was drawn up in the form of a letter to the rigbft bon. Ro<- 
bert Boyle, who was a patron of our physician, as waa abo 
Dr. Henry More, and several othier members of the royal 
society, before whom Greatrakes ww$ examined. To his 
cures we find tbe attestations of Mr. Boyle, sir Wiiiiam 
Smith, Dr. Denton, Dr. Fairdongb, Dr. Faber, sir Na-* 
thaniel Hobart, sir John Godolphin, Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Whicb* 
cot (a patient). Dr. Cudwortb, and many other persoos of 
character and reputation. The truth se^ms tx> be, that he 
performed cures in certain cases of rheumatism, stijff joints^ 
&c. by friction of tbe band, and long perseTemoce in that 
remedy.; in all wfaicb there would have been nothing ex-«> 
traordinary, as the same is practised till this day, bad he 
not excited the astonishment and enthusiasm of bis patients 
by pretensions to an extraordinary gift bestowed upon him, 
as be insinuates in one place, to cure the people of atbeisnk 
When he left England or died is Rot known. Mr. Harris 
says he was living in Dublin in 1681.* 

GREAVES (John), an eminent mathematician and an* 
tiquary, was eldest soo of John Greaves, rector of CoU 
more, ne^r Alresford, in Hampsbijne, where bis son was 
born in 1602, and probably instructed in grammar learning 
by bis father, who was the most celebrated school-master 
in that country. At fifteen years of age he was sent to 
Baliol college, in Oxford, where be proceeded B. A. July 
6, 1621. Three years after, his superiority in classical 
iearning procured him the first place of five in an eleetioo 
to a fellowship of Merton-coUege. On June 25, 1628^ 
he commenced M. A. and, having completed bis fellowship, 
w^s more at liberty to pursue the bent of his inclination^ 

1 Biog. Brit, id art. Stabbe.^—Accooat ^f him, 1 $66, 4to.^Harris*8 edition 
•f Ware's ttidtorjrof Irelmt^. 



GREAVES. 227 

wbtch leading biin chiefly to oriental learning and the ma- 
thematics, he quickly distinguished himself in each of 
tl)e$e studies ; and fats eminent skill in the latter procured 
him the professorship of geometry in Gresbam coiiege^ 
which be obtained February 22, 1630. 

At this tim^he had not only read the writings of Coper- 
nicus, Regiomontanus, Purbach, Tycho Brahe, and Kep* 
ler, with other celebrated astronomers of that and the pre** 
ceding age, but bad made the ancient Greek, Arabian, 
and Persian authors familiar to him, having before gained 
an accurate skiirio the oriental languages ; but the ac^ 
quisitions he had already made serving to create a tkirst 
for more, he determined to travel for farther improvement. 
Accordingly he went to Holland in 1635, and having at*> 
tended for seme time the lectures of Golius, the learned 
professor of Arabic at Ley den, he proceeded to Paris^ 
where he conversed with the celebrated Claiuiius Hardy> 
about the Persian language ; but finding very scanty aid 
in that country, he continued his journey to Rome, in or^^^ 
derto view the antiquities of that eity. He also visited 
other parts of Italy ; and before his departure,^ meeting 
with the earl of Arundel, was offered 200/. a year to live 
with kts lordship, and attend bim as a companion in his 
travels to Greece ; the earl also promising every other act 
of friendship that might lie in his power^ A proposal so 
advantageous would have been eagerly accepted by Mr. 
Greaves, b ut he had no w projected a voyage to Egy pt^ aivd was 
about to return to Enghind, in order to furnish him^f with 
every thing proper to complete the execution of his design. 

Immediately after his return, he acquainted archbishop 
Laud, who was bis liberal patron, with his intentions, and* 
being encouraged by his grace, set about making prepa- 
rations for it. His primary view was to measure the( py-> 
ramids with all proper exactness, and also to tnake astro^ 
nomical and geographical observations, as opportunities 
offered, for the improvement of those sciences. A large 
apparatus of proper mathematical instruments was conse* 
quently to be provided ; and, as the expence of purchasittgr- 
these would be considerable, he applied for assistance to 
the city of London, but met with an absolute denial. This 
be very much resented, and in relating the generosity of 
bis brothers upon his own money falling short, he observes. 
*' That they had strained their own occasions, to enable 
him, in despite of the city, to go on with his designs.** 

'q 2 



f28 GREAVES. 

He had been greatly disappointed in his hopes of ndeeCing 
with curious books in Italy ; he therefore proposed to make* 
that another principal part of his business ; and to compass 
jt in the easiest manner, he bought several books before 
his departure, in order to exchange them with others in 
the east. Besides his brothers, he had probably some 
help from Laud, from whom he received a general discre- 
tionary commission to purchase for him Arabic and other 
MSS. and likewise such coins and medals as he could pro- 
cure. Laud also gave him a letter of recommendation 
to sir Peter Wyche, the English ambassador at Constan- 
tinople. 

Thus furnished, he embarked in the river Thames for 
Leghorn, June 1637, in company with his particular 
friend Mr. Edward Pococke, whom he had earnestly so- 
licited to that voyage*. After a short stay in Italy, he 
arrived at Constantinople before Michaelmas. Here he 
met with a kind reception from sir Peter Wyche, and be- 
came acquainted with the venerable Cyril Lucaris, the 
Greek patriarch, by whom he was much assisted in pur- 
chasing Greek MSS., and who promised to recommend 
him to the monks of Mount Athos, where he would have 
the liberty of entering into all the libraries, and of coU 
lecting a catalogue of such books as either were not printed, 
or else, by the help of some there, might be more cor- 
rectly published. These, by dispensing with the ana-'' 
themas which former patriarchs had laid upon all Greek 
libraries, to pre^rve the books from the Latins, Cyril 

* Our «utbor*8 (cnerosity on this gre«9, fall down upon the butineu of 

^>ccasion desenres particular mention, the coBsaUhip, and how honourable a 

In a leUer to this friend» Dee. 23, 1S36, thing it woald be if you a'ere sent out 

be writes thus : ** I shall desire your a second tine, as Golins, in the Low 

^vour in seading up to me, by my Countries, was by the States, aftey he 

brotbei^ Thomas, Ulug Beig's astro* had been once there before. If ray 

Bomical tables, of which I purpose to lord should be pleased to resoWe and 

make this use. The next week I will compass the business, I khall like it 

fthew them to my lord's grace [Laud] well ; if not, 1 shall procure 300/. for 

tod highly commend your care in pro- you and myself, besides getting a dia- 

curing those tables, being the most penaation for the allowances of our 

accurate that ever were extant ; then places in our absence, and by God's 

will I discoirer my intention of having blessing, in three years dispatch the 

them printed and dedicated to his whole journey. It shall go hard, bat 

grace $ but because I presume that I will Loo get some citizen in, as a be* 

there are many things which in these nefactor to the design ; if not, 300/. of 

parts cannot perfectly be understood, miner whereof I give you the half, to- 

J shalLAC<|uaint 0^ lord with my de> gether with the return of our stipends, 

sirf of taking a journey into those will, In a plentiful manner, if I be not 

countries, for the more emendate ^ceiTed, in Tuitey matatain iiai. 
edition of them^ afterwards, bji de- 



GREAVES. 229 

« 

fimposed to . present to archbishop Laud, for the better 
4>rosecution of his designs in the edition of Greek authors ; 
bujt ail this was frustrated by the death of that patriarch, 
who. was barbai^ously strangled June i6S8, by express 
command of the grand signior, on pretence of holding a 
correspondence with the emperor of Muscovy. 

Nor was this the only loss which our trareller sustained 
by Cyril's death ; for having procured out of an ignorant 
monastery which depended on the patriarch, fourteen good 
MSS. of the fathers, he was forced privately to restore the 
books and lose the money, to avoid a worse inconvenience; 
Thus CoDstantinople was no longer agreeable to him, and 
the less so, because he had not been able to perfect him* 
self in the Arabic tongue for want of sufficient masters, 
which be hoped to have found there. In these circumr 
stances, parting with his fellow-traveller Pococke, he em- 
braced the opportunity then offered of passing in company 
with the annual Turkish fleet to Alexandria, where, having 
in his way touched at Rhodes, be arrived before the end 
of September 1638. This was the boundary of his in* 
tended progress. The country afforded a large field for 
the exercise of his curious and inquisitive genius ; and he 
omitted no opportunity of remarking whatever the heavens, 
earth, or subterraneous parts, offered, that seemed any 
way useful and worthy of notice ; but, in his astronomical 
observations, he was too often interrupted by the rains, 
whicbi contrary to the received opinion, he found to be 
frequent and violent, especially in the ijaiddle of winter; 
He was also much disappointed here in his expectations of 
purchasing books, finding very few of these, and no learned 
men. But the principal purpose of his coming here being 
to take an accurate survey of the pyramids, he went twice 
to the deserts near Grand Cairo, where they stand ; and 
having executed his undertaking entirely to his satisfac- 
tion, embarked at Alexandria in April 1639. Arriving in 
two iBonths at Leghorn, he made the tour of Italy a se- 
cond |:ime, in order to examine more accurately the true 
state of the Roman weights and measures, as he was now 
furnished with proper instruments for that purpose, made 
by the best bands. 

From Leghorn be proceeded to Florence, where he was 
received with particular marks of esteem by the grand 
duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand II. to whom he had inscribed 
a h^titi poem from Alexahdria, in which be exhorted that 



MO G E « A V E S. 

fr\nat to clear those seis of plratesi with whool tb^ were 
extoeoiely infested. He obtained, likewise^ admittance 
into the Medicean library, which had been denied to bin 
as a stranger whea be was here in his former tour. Frooft 
Florence he went to Rome^ and took roost exact measure- 
nients of all the ancient remains of that city and neigh'* 
bourhood ; after which he returned to Leghorn, where 
taliiog bis passage in a vessel called tbe Golden Fleece, at 
the end of March, he arrived at London before Midsummer 
1^40, with a curious collection of Aiabic, Persic, and 
Greek MSS. together with a gtfeait nuadber of gems, coins, 
and other valuable anciquitiesy having spent full three 
years in thia agreeable tour. 

But upmt his return, the ensuing national trotiblen 
proved greatly detrimental to his piivate affairs, and he 
suffered much for his loyalty to tlie king and his gratittide 
to Lattol. After a short stay at Gresham college, which 
was no longer a place of safety for him, he went to Oic* 
ford, and set about digesting his papers, and preparing 
suish of them as might be most useful for the pre^. In . 
this business he was assisted by archbishop Usher, to whom 
he bad been long known ; and here .he drew a map of 
X^iesser Asia at his grace's request, ^vfao was writing his dis- 
sertation of that country, printed in 1641. 

All this white he gave himself no concern about bis Gre« 
sham lecture, from which the usurpitig powers removed 
bim on November iS^ 1643. But this loss had been more 
than abundantly compensated by the Savilian ppofessor$hip 
<^ astronomy^ to which he was obosen tbe day before, in 
the Toom of Dr« Bainbridge, lately deceased ; and be had 
a dispensation from the king, to hold his fellowship at 
Merton-oollege, because the stipend was much impaired 
by means o£ the civil wars. The lectures being also im- 
practicable on the same account, he was at full leispre to 
continue his attention to his papers ; and accordingly we 
find that he bad made considerable progress by September 
the following year ; some particulars of which may be seen 
iu a letter of thsit date to archbishop Usher. Among other 
things, it appears that be. had made several extracts from 
them concerning the true length of the year ; and happ^en- 
ii&g, in 1645, to fall into discourse with some persons of 
figure u the court then at Oxford, with whom he moefi 
associated, about amending the Kalendar, be proposed a 
laediikdjof^ing it by omitting tbe intefeaiary ^y in the 



6 R e A V E ^ £31 

|eap*ycAl- for forty yc»r», «am1 Io fender il conformable t^ 
the Gregoriiiii *, He. drew up a scheme for that purpoa^, 
which was approved by the kiog and council ; but the state 
of the tifD«a would not permit the execution of it. The 
publicatioii of bis ^ Pycaoiidegrapbia/' and the ^^ Descrip-* 
tioQ of the Booian Foot and Denarius/' employed him the 
two.ftubsequem years: he determined to bc^in with these, 
as they contained the fruit of bi^i labours io the primary 
view of htft travels f, aod he W9S not in a condition to pro- 
ceed any farther at present* 

Hitherto he bad b«en able^ in a considerable degreey t9 
eurmouBt his dif&ouUies, there being still left some memr 
bers in the house of commons who bad a regard for learn* 
ing, . among whom Selden made the greatest figure. That 
gentleman was biirgess for the university of Oxford ; and, 
being well known to our author before his uavels, be de* 
dicated his *' Roman Foot*' to him» uuder the character of 
his noble and learned frlei^ : and bis friendship was veiy 
aerviceable to Greaves^ in a prosecution in the parliament, 
in 1647, occasioned lv)r bis executorship to Dr. Bainbridgeb 
Thia trust had so involved him in law^suita as entirely to 
firustrate bis design oS going Io Leydem to consult some 
Persian MS^S* neeesaacy for pfubltsbing some treatises iju 
that language^ Upon the arrival of the parliamentary com* 
missionera at O&ford, several Qomplaints wefe made t9 
them against him on the same account ; which being sent 
by tbem tathe conraitttee of the house of comoaons, our 
autbor, probably by the iaterest of Selden (wbo was a 
member of that committae), was there acquitted, after 
which be applied ' to the court of aldermen and the com** 
mittee of Camdea>*house for restitution. But though be 
evaded this farther difficulty by the assistance of some 
pow^rftil fviends, yet this res(Hte was but short ; however, 

* The same method had b^^ii pro- Greaves is in the Phil. Trans. No. 257^ 
posed to pope Gregory, who rcjetitecf f These are the most gencraHy-nse- 

it, M Mf. Graaves myf, that fate might fiii pa^ q( hit wovkf. Th« latter i$ 

kiv Ui9 liflnour of floiof it 9t oof <|, ranked among the classics, and is 

and thereby o^ calling that year Annus nearly allied to the former; the exact -^ 

Gregorianus, wfrich our author did net ness of which is put beyond all doubt 

doubt nrifkt juiU^ Ike cail^. Anaits ii|4ipieot of sir Isaac Neir|on» pub* 

ConfiuipAis» as the ancienus called that lished .ilong with the most correct edi- 

year m which Julius Caesar corrected tions of it, in 1737, 8vo. Mr. Greaves 

thecaleildarrVir asubtrttctianofdaye, toek care to pmscrvie, ta t^e latest 

aiWr tK sffpQ manner. But we h^rf times, the pcesent standard of the mea- 

lately seen this method of doing it at sures used in all nations, by taking 

ctoce p'ut io praetiee, iirit^out any ill the ^meations of th^ inside of the 

csMic q ttB n Ofsat slit ..This pifoe 9ik ^r. h^tP^ pinuQid witk (lie J^nfUsh foot 



2Z^ GREAVES; 

be made use of that time in publishing a piece begun :by 
'Dr. Bainbridge, anc) completed by himself, -printed atOxr 
ford in 1648, under the title of ^' Jobunnis Btinbriggit 
Canicularia, &c.^' He dedicated this piece to doctor (af*- 
tefwards sir George) Ent, with whom he bad commenced 
an acquaintance at Padua, in Italy ; and that gentleman 
gave many proofs of hi^ sincere friendship to oar aiitboc, 
as well a's to Dr. Pococke, in these times. 

But the tyrannical violence of tbe parliamentary visitors 
was now above all restraint, and a fresh cfaavge was drawn 
up against Greaves. Dr. Waltei* Pope informs u«, that, 
considering the violence of the visitors. Greaves saw k 
would be of no service to him to make any defence; sxid^ 
(inding it impossible to keep his professovship, be made it 
his business to procure an able and worthy person ta suc- 
ceed him. By the advice of Dr. Charles Scarborough ^® 
physician, having pitched upon' Mr. Seih Ward, be opened 
the matter to that gentleman, whom he soon met witii 
tber6 ; and at the same time pvoposed a method of com- 
passing it, by which Ward not only obtained the place, 
but the full arrears of the stipend, amounting to 500/. due 
to Greaves, and allowed him a considerable pan of bis 
salary. The murder of the king, which happened sodn 
after, was a sliook to Greaves, and lamented by. him m 
pathetic terms, in a letter to Dr. Pococke : ^f O my^ good 
friend, my good friend, never waa aof row like our sorrow ; 
excuse me now, if I am not able to write to you, attd^tQ 
anf^wer your questions. O Lord God, avert this great sin 
and thy jildgments from this nation.-' However^ he bore 
vp against his own injuries with admirable fortitude ; and, 
iixing his residence in • Londop, he married, and, liviog 
upon his patrimonial estate, went on as before, and pro* 
duced some other cDvious Arabio and Persic treatiseri 
translated by him with notes, every year. Besides wbtcb, 
he had prepared s^vepl Qtbers for tbe public view, and was 
meditating more when he was seized by a fatal disorder^ 
which put a period fo his life, October 8^ 1652, before be 
was full fifty years of age. He was iqter^ed iq the church 
of St. Bennet Sberehog, in London. His loss was lauch 
lami^nted by his frjei^ds, to whom he wa§ particularly en- 
deared by joining the gentleman to the scholar, lie was 
endowed with great firmness of mind| steadiness in friendr 
s^ip, and ardent zeal in the interest which he espoused, 
though, asf he declares himself, not at all inclined to.ooiNr 



O H E A V E S. ess 

feniSon. He was highly esteemed by the' learned in fo- 
reign parts, with ftiany of wbom he corresponded. Nor 
was be \eu valued at home by all who were judges of his 
great worth and abilities. He had no issue by bis wife, to 
wbom he be<)iieatbed bis estate for her life.; and having 
left his • cabinet of coins to bis friend sir John Marsham, 
author of the ^* Canon Chronicusy" he appointed the eldest 
of his three younger brothers (Dr. Nicolas Greaves^, 
bis executor, who by will bestowed our mftor^s astrono- 
mical instruments on tbe Savilian library at Oxford, where 
they are reposited, together with several of his papers ; but 
many others were sold by his widow to a bookseller, an^ 
lost or dispersed. 

• Besid^ bis papers in the Philosophical Transactions, his 
works printed separately am, 1 . '^ Pyramidologia ; or a 
description of the Pyramids in Egypt,*' Lond. 1646, 8vo. 
•^. ^* A Discourse of the Roman Foot and Denarius,'* ibid. 
1647, 8vo. 3, ^ Elementa Unguse Persicae," ibid. 1649, 
4to. 4. *^ EpocfasB celebriores astronemis, historicis, chro- 
tiologis Chataiornm, Syro-grsecorum, Arabum, Persarum, 
&o. usitatse, ex traditione Ulug Beigi ; Arab, et Lat.'' ibid. 
il4S0f 4to. 5. ** Chorasmis et Mawaralnabne, hoc est, 
regionum extra fluvium Oxiim^ descriptio,'* ibid. 1 GSa, 
j4to. • 6. '^ Astronomicm quasdaro, ex traditione Shah ChoU 
git Persse, una cum bypotbenbus pianetanim,'' &c. ibid. 
>65>2, 4to. In 1737 Dr. Birch published tbe '^Miscella* 
oieous Works'^ of our author, 2 vob. 8vo, containing some 
of the above, with additions, and a life. 

Mr. Greaves - had three brothers, Nicholas, Thomas, 
and Edward, all men of distinguished learning. — Dr. Ni* 
■CHQLAS Greaves was a commoner of St. Mary's Hall, in 
Oxford, whence in 1627 he was elected fellow of All-Souls 
college. In 1 640 he was proctor of that university. No* 
vember 1 st 1 642 he took the degree of B. D. and July 6th 
the year following, that of D. D. He was dean of Dro- 
more in Ii«land.-*-Dr. Thomas Greaves was admitted a 
scholar of Corptis Christi college in Oxford March 1 5th, 
1637, and chosen fellow thereof in 1636, and deputy 
reader of tbe Arabic during the i^bsence of Mr. Edward Pd- 
eock in 1637. He took the degree of B.- D. October 22, 
1641, and was rector of Ditnsby ki Lincolnsbh-e during the 
times preceding the Restoration, and of another living near 
Lqndoli. October 10th, 166 1, he had tbe degree of D. D. 
conferred iipon him, • and a prebend in tbe church of Pe- 



hH <& £ E A Y £ a 

lerborough in 1666, being then rector of.Benefteld in Nor- 
tbampjbombijrey ^* which benefice he resjigned lome yean 
before bis death through trouUie fi^om fads pmshionera^ who, 
«becaoae of ihit sbwnesft of speech and bad uttoranee^ held 
ium uittufficient for it,, notwithstanding he was a man of 
^eat learning.^* In the latterpairt of his life he retired to 
Weldou in NtMrthamptonshire, where he bad purchased an 
estaibe^ and diedv there May .22, 1676^ in tbe sixty-fifth 
.year of his age, and was interred in the chancel of the 
«bur<}h. tbers. His writings are, <^ De Lingua Arabics^ 
titilitate et pnastantt^, oratio Oxonii faabita 19 Julii 1637/' 
Oxford,. 1637, 4to ;: ^^ Obserrationes qoadam in Persicstt 
Pentateuchi versionem,'* printed in tbe sixth volume of the 
Polyglot Bible.; ^^ Annotationes qnsedam in Persicam in-* 
iterfMretationem ETangeliorun," prinlod in the same vw- 
lume. These annotauioos were translated into Latin by 
JMn ^dJSiuel Clarke. It appears likewise, by a letter of \m 
.to the celebrated n6nconfonaiist Baxter, that he bad made 
considerable progress in a refutation oi Mahometanisaa 
from the Alcoran, upon a plan that was likely to have been 
.useful in opening the eyes of the Mahometans to tbe im- 
postures of their founder. He corresponded much with 
the learned men of his time^ particularly Selden, and 
Wheelocke, the Arabic professor at Cambridge. — ^Dr. Eo** 
WAao Greaves^ the youngest brother of Mr. John Greaves^ 
was bom at oe near Croydon. in Surrey, and admitted pro- 
bationer fellow of All<^uls college in Oxford in 1634; 
and studying physic, took tbe diegree of doctor of that 
fsculty July 8, 1641, in which year and aftarwards he prac- 
tised with good success about Oxford. In 1643 he was 
elected, superior, lecturer of pJ»ysic in Mertoo college, a 
chair feundod by Dr. Thomas Lioacre. Upon tbe de^ 
dining of tbe king's cause he vetired to London, and prac*- 
tised there,. and sometimes at Bath. In March 16^2 he 
was examined for the first time before the college of pby«> 
siciaas at London, and October J, 1657^ was elected 
fellow. Afber the Restoration be was appointed physioiau 
in ordinary to king Charles XL and waa. created a bmonet. 
Ml, Wood styles him a pretended baroUct ; but we &od 
.that he . takes this tkle in hiv oration beibre the college of 
physicians ; and in the sisth edition of G«iUim*s Herakdry 
are his arms in that rank. He died at his house in Covent 
Garden, November 11, 1680, and was interred in thepai- 
riih church there. He wrote and published << Morbus 



G R EAVES. 295 

icas, itiio. 164$; or, the New DiBease, wHb mg^ 
causes, lefMcUes/' &€. Oxfiscd, 1943| 4to, written u|Mm 
occasion of a disease called ^VMorbut Campestrb/' which 
laged in Oxford ' while the king and cxnirt were there. 
<' Ofatio babita in £dibtts OoUegii Medicmruni Londinen- 
sium, 25 July, 1661, die Harreii memori« dicato,'' Lend. 
1667, 4to.* 

GRECINUS (Juiiius), a Roman senator, and a man of 
letters, flourished in the oeign of Caligula, and was greatly 
distingubhed for eloc[uence, and for the study of philo« 
sopby, as well as foramoital conduct surpassing that of 
many of his comtemporaries.: He refused to obey the com^ 
mand of the emperor to appear as the accuser of Maraus 
Silaoiis, and suilered' death in consequence, in the 40tk 
year of the Chrisciae sera. Seneoa, who never speaks of 
htm wi^ut admiration, saya, that he was put to death 
because he was too good a man to be permitted to live 
under a tyrant. He is said to haire written a treatise oon- 
ceming agrioulture and the management of vioes. He 
was the father of the illustrious Cn. Julius Agricola* * 

GREEN (John), an English prelate, tints bom about 
1706, at Beverly, in Yorkshire^ and received the rudi« 
menta of his education at a private schooL From this he 
was admitted a aiaar in St. John's college, Cambridge ; 
and after taking his degrees in arts, with great credit as a 
dasnciil scbolaf, engaged himself as usher to a school at 
Lichfield, before Dr. Johnson and Mr. Garrick bad left 
that oi^, with both of whom he was of course acquakited, 
but he continued here only one year. In 1730 he was 
elected fellow of St. John's, and soon after the bishop of 
Ely procured him the vicarage of Hingeston from Jesus 
college, which was tenable with a fellowship of St. John's^ 
but ooold not be held by any fellow of Jesus. In 1744| 
Charles duke of Somerset, chancellor of the univemty, 
appointed Mr. Green (then B; D.) his domestic chaplain. 
In Jenuairy 1747, Green was presented by his noble patron 
to the rectory of Borough-green, near New-market, which 
he held with liis fellowship. He then returned to coUegeji 
and wet appointed bursar. In December 1748, on the 
death of Dr, 'Whalley; he was elected regiua professor of 
divieity, with w.hkh office hb heM die living *of Bamyw in 

Biog» Brit.— Usher»s ijfe and Letters.— Life by Dr. Birch.— Ward's Grethan 
ProwwMTs. t Monrii - ' 



its G R E E N. 

SafFolk, and soon after was appointed one of his majeBiy'a 
chaplams. In June 1750, oii the death of dean Castle^ 
master of Beoe^t college, a majority of the fellows (after 
the headship had been declined by their president, Mr. 
Scottowe) agreed to . apply to archbishop Hercing for his 
jrecvmniendation ; and his grace, at the particular request 
of the duke of Newcastle, recomniended professor Greetv 
who was immediately elected. Among the writers on the 
subja^t of the new r^gulations pcoposed by the cbaoceUor^ 
and established by the senate, Dr» Green took an active 
pert, in a pamphlet published in:the following winter, 1750, 
without his name, entitled *^ The Academic, or a disputa- 
tion on the state of the university of Cambridge.'' On. 
March 22, 1731, when his friend Dr. Keene, master of 
St. Peter's college, was promoted to. the bishopric of Ches- 
ter, Dr. Green preached the consecration«'sermon in £ly* 
houae chapel, which, bv oider of the archbishop of York, 
was soon after published. In October 1756, on the death 
of Dr. George, he was preferred to the deanery pf yncolii, 
and resigned his professorship^ Being, then eligible to the 
qffice of vjce«cbaocellor, he was chosen in November fol- 
lowing. In June 1761, the dean exerted his polemical 
talents in two letjbers (published without his name) *^ on the 
principles and practices of the Methodists," the first bA^, 
dressed to Mr. Berridge, and the second to Mr. Whitfield, 
Qn the translation of bishop Thomas to the bishopric of 
Salisbury, Green was promoted. to the see of Lincoln, the 
last mark of favour which the duke of Newcastle had It in 
his power to shew him. In J 762, archbishop Seeker (who 
had always a just esteem for bis talents and abilities) be* 
ing iudisposed, the bishop of Lincoln visited as his proxy 
the diocese of Canterbury. In 1763 he preached the 30th 
of. January, sermon before the house of lord9» which was 
printed. 

The bishop resigned the mastership of Bejie't college in 
July 1 764. After the death of lord Willopghby of Parbam 
in It65, the literary conyersation meetings of the royal 
^ocieiy^ &c. which used to be held weekly at his. lordship's 
house* ^ere transferred to the bishop of Lincoln's in Scot-, 
land yard, as one of their most accomplished membera. 
In July 177I9 on a repr^seotation to his majesty » that, with 
distinguished learning and abilities, and a most extensive 
diocese, bishop Green (having no commendam) had a very 
inadequate income^ he vras presented to the residentiary^. 



G' K e: E W. fl$t 

ship of St. Paul's, which bishop Egerton facacted on- bb 
translation to the see of Durham. He now removed tk> his 
residentiary-house in Amen-corner, and took a small eoun-^ 
try-house at Tottenham. It has often been noticed ^ a 
circumstance conducing to our prelate's honour, that, iti 
May 1772, when the bill for relief of protestant dissenters^ 
&c. after having passed the house of commons, was re« 
jected, on the second reaiifing, by the house of .lord§ 
(i02 to 27), he dissented from his brethren, and was the 
only bishop who voted in its favour. Without any parti- 
cular previous indisposition, his lordship died suddenly in 
fats chair at Bath, on Sunday, April 25, 1779. This ele« 
gant scholar was one of the writers of the celebrated 
** Athenian Letters/* published by the earl of Hardwicke 
in 1798, 2 vols. 4to. * 

GREEN (Matthew), an ingenious Engli^ poet, was 
descended from a family in good repute among the dis« 
sehters, and had his education in some of the sects into 
which that body is divided. He was a man of approved 
probity, and sweetness of temper and manners. His wit 
abounded in conversation, and was never known to give 
offence. He had a post in the custom-house, where he 
discharged his duty with the utmost diligence and ability^ 
and died at the age of forty-one years, at a lodging i» 
Nag's-head' court, Gracechurch-street, in 1737. 

Mr. Green, it is added, had not much learning, but 
knew a little Latin. He was very subject to the hip, had 
some free notions on religious subjects, and, though bred 
amongst the dissenters, grew disgusted at the preciseness 
and formality of the sect. He was nephew to Mr. l^ner, 
clerk of fishmopgers'-hall. His poem entitled *^ The 
Spleen," was written by |Aece-meal, and would never 
have been completed, had he not been pressed to it by his 
friend Glover, the celebrated author of ** Leouidas,'* &c. 
By this gentleman it was committed to the press soon after 
Green's death. / 

This very amusing author published nothing in his life«» 
time. In 1732 he printed a few copies of " The Grotto," 
which was afterwards inserted in the ith volume of Uods^- 
ley-s Collection. • 

TbQ following anecdotes are given from indisputable 

I <3ent. Mag. -1779 ; see Index. *«^le*8 MS Atheno in the British MtisQiim. 
r-NichoU*s Poems, vol. VXlI.-^See alsQ Mr. T^soa** Letters in the ** l,ii«rary 
AttccdoMi/' fpli VIII. - 



338 G K £ C N« 

aiathority :-*-Mr. Sylvanus Bevan, a qaaker and a friend of 
Mr* Green, was mentioning, at Bataoii^s coffee-house^ that, 
while b^ was bathing in the river, a waterman saluted him 
with the usual insult of the lower class of people, by call* 
iiig out, ^^ A quaker, a quaker, quirl !** He at the samp 
expressed bis wonder, how his profession could be known 
while be was without his cloa^tbs. Green immediately re^ 
plied, that the waterman might discover him by bis swim'^ 
ming against the stream.-^The department in the custom- 
house to which Mr. Green belonged was under the con troul 
of the duke of Manchester, who used to treat those imaie<* 
diately under him once a year. After one of these enter-* 
tainments^ Mr. Green, seeing a range of servants in the 
ball, said to the first of them, ^' Pray, air, do you give 
tickets at your turnpike ?" — In a reform which took phice 
in t^e custom-house, amongst other articles, a few pence, 
paid weekly for providing the cats with milk, were ordered 
to ba struck off. On this occasion, Mr. Green wrote* a 
humourous petition as from the cats, which prevented the 
regulation in that particular from taking place.— -Mr. Green's 
conversation was as novel as his writings, which occasioned 
one of th^ commissioners of the customs, a very dull man^. 
to observe, that he did not know how it was, but Green 
always expressed himself in a different manner from other 
people. 

Such is the only information which the friends of this 
poet have thought proper to band down to posterity, if w^ 
except Glover, the author of ^be preface to the first edi* 
tion €^ ^< The Spleen," who introduces the poem in these 
words : 

'^ The author of the following poem bad the greatest part 
of his time taken up in busitfess ; but was accustomed at 
his leisure hours to amuse himself with striking out small 
sketches of wit or humour for tiie entertainment of his 
friemls, sometimes in verse, at otlier times in prose. Tbe 
greatest part of these alluded to incidents known only 
within the circle of fiis acquaintance. The subject of the 
following poem will be more generally understood. It 
was at first a very short copy of verses ; but at the desire 
of the person to whom it is addressed, the author enlarged 
it to its present state. As it was writ without any design 
of its passing beyond the hands of his acquaintance, so 
the author's unexpected death soon after disappointed 
mai^y of bis most intimate friends in their design of pre^ 



Be £ N.^ 439 

vaiUag pn fcia). to iteview and prdpiurejt for tte sight of the 
public. It tbarefboe now appears under all the disadvan** 
tages that can attend a posthasaous work. But it is pre^ 
sumed every imperfeotiou of thisktad is abundantly overt- 
balanced by the peculiar and unborrovred cast of tfapugJiS 
and expressioni which mamfests iti»df throughout, and se*- 
cures to this performance the first and principal character 
necessary to recoxnmend a work of genius, that of being 
an original'* 

^^ The Spleen" had not been long published before iC 
was admired by. those whose opinion was at that tune de*- 
cisive. Pope said there was a great deai . of originality ia 
it ; and Cray, in his private corre6poDd<enoe with the lattf ' 
lord Orford^ observes of Green's poems, then published vx 
Dodsley's Collection, <^ There is a profusion of wit every 
where; reading would have formed hb judgment, audi 
harmonized his verse, for eveo his wood^ootes ofteh break 
out into strains of real poetr}^ aud.music'* ^' The Splee^^ 
was first printed in 1737, a short time after the .author's 
death, and afterwards was taken, with his other pbemsy 
into Dodsley's volumes, where they remained until the 
publication of the second. edition of Dr. Johoson^s Poeta. 
In 1796 a very elegant edition was published by Mes$i& 
Cadeil and Davies, which^ besides some beautiful engrav* 
ings, is enriched with a pre£BU;ory essay from the pen of 
Dr. Aiktn. ^ 

GREENE (Maurice, Dr.), an eminent Ekiglish musi* 
cian, was the son of the. Rev. Thomas Greene, vicar of St* 
Olave Jewry, in Loudon, and nephew of John Greene, 
Serjeant at law. He was brought up in the choir of Sl 
Paul, and when his voice broke w^s bound apprentice to 
Brind, the organist of that, cathedrai He was early m><* 
ticed as an ekgant organ«player and composer for the 
church, and obtained the place of organist of St. Dunstan 
in the West before be was twenty years of age. In 1717, 
oh the death of Daniel Purcell, he was likewise elected 
organist of St. Andnew's, Holbom ; but the next year^ his 
master, Bricid, djring, Greene was appointed his successor 
by the dean and chapter of St. Paut*s ; upon which event 
he quitted both the places he bad pretiously obtained. In 
1726, on the death of Dr. Crofts, he was appointed orgaiw 
}st and composer to the chapel royal ; and on the deatb of 

' Jobiuon «Qd Cbalniirt^ £nglUh Poets. 18 10. 



240 d R £ It K E. 

Eccles, 1795, master of bis majesty's banfd; Iti^ ll^i^S 
obtained the degree of doctor in music at Cambridgey and 
was appointed public music professor in the same university^ 
in the room of Dr. Tad way. Greene was an intelligent 
man, a constant attendant at the opera, and an acute ob« 
server of the improvements in composition and performance^ 
which Handel and the Italian singers employed in his 
dramas, had introduced into this conntry. His melody is 
therefore more elegant, and harmony more pure, than 
those of his predecessors, though less nervous and original. 
Greene had the misfortune to live in the age and neigh* 
bourhood of a musical giant, with whom be was utterljr 
unable to contend, but by cabal and alliance with his 
enemies. Handel was but too prone to treat inferior artists 
with conteaipt ; and for many years of his life never spoke 
of Greene without some injurious epithet. Greene's figure 
was below the common size, and be had the misfortune to 
be very much deformed ; yet his address and exterior man-^ 
ners were those of a man of the world, mild, attentive, and 
well-bred. 

Greene had the honour, early in life, to teach the dn^^ 
chess of Newcastle, which, joined to his professional me-^ 
rit, and the propriety of his conduct, was the foundation 
of his fevour witli the prime minister and the nobility. In 
1730, when the duke of Newcastle was installed chancellor 
of the university of Cambridge, he was appointed to set 
the ode, and then not only obtained his doctor's degree, 
but, on the death of Dr. I'udway, he was honoured with 
the title of professor of music in that university. As an 
exercise for his degree, he set Pope's ode for St. Cecilia's 
day ; having first had interest sufficient to prevail on the 
author to make new arrangements in the poem to render 
it more fit for music, and even to add an entire new stanza, 
between the second and third, which bad never appeared 
in any of the printed editions. 

Greene had sense and knowledge sufficient, in his 
younger days, to admire and respect the abiliti^ of the 
two great nnqpsical champions, Handel and Bononcini, but 
owing probably to Handel's contemptuous treatment ojf 
him, became a partizan on the side of Bononcini. Greene's 
merit and connections were such, that he soon arrived at 
the most honourable appointments in his profession : for 
besides being organist of St. Paul's, in 1727, on the death 
of Dr. Croft, he was appointed organist and composer of 



GREENE. 84t 

the cbapel royal; and in 1735 he succeeded Eccles as 
eomposer to his majestyi and master of bis band, in which 
fUtioa he set all the odes of the laureat CoUey Ctbberi 
as long as he lived. 

The compositions of Dr. Greene were very tiumerous^ 
particularly for the church. Early in bis career he set a 
Te Deum, and part of tlie Song of Deborah, which were 
never printed ; but the anthems and services which he pro« 
duced for St. Paul's and the king^s chapel he collected 
and published in two vols, folio; and of these the merit is 
so various as to leave them open to much discrimination 
and fair criticism. There is considen^ble merit of various 
kinds in his catches, canons, and two-part songs ; the com- 
position is clear, correct, and masterly ; the melodies, for 
the times when they were produced, are elegant, and de- 
signs intelligent and ingenious. The collection of harpsi* 
chord lessons, which he published late in his life, though 
they discovered no great powers of invention, or hand, 
had Its day of favour, as a boarding-school book ; for being 
neither so elaborate as those of Handel, nor so difficult as 
the lessons of Scarlatti, or the sonatas of Alberti, they 

Eve but little trouble either to the master or the scho- 
. During the last years of his life he began to collect 
the services and anthems of our old church composers^ 
from the single parts used in the several cathedrals of the 
kingdom, in order to correct and publish them in score ; a 
plan which he did not live to , accomplish, but as he be* 
queathed his papers to l!>r. Boyce, it was afterwards exe- 
cuted in a very splendid and ample manner. Dr. Greene 
died in 1755. » 

GREENE (Robert), an English poet and miscellaneous 
writer of the Elizabethan age, and memorable for his ta- 
lents and imprudence, was a native of Norwich, and bom 
about 1560. His father appears to have been a citizen of 
Norwich, the fabricator of his own fortune, which it is 
thought he bad accumulated by all the tricks of selfishness 
and narrow prudence. He educated his son, however, as 
a scholar, at St. John^s college, Cambridge. Here he took 
ihe degree of A. B. in 1578^ and for some time travelled 
into Italy and Spain. On his return, he took his master^s 
degree at Clare-hall, in 1583, and was incorporated in the 
same at Oxford in 1588^ no inconsiderable proof that his 

* Bonitty and Hawkmt'i Hist of Mask.— Rvei'« Cy«l0p94it %y Burnflf * 

Vo^. XVI. R 



,2*2 e ji i: i: N f:. 

prQjJMji^cy in jixis jtpdies had b^^n vgry ^OR^pjpuQus, ^j^^ 
|ha|t th.ere was nothing at this time g^rassly objpptioi^blj? i{i 
hi3 nao^aj d.en^efLno.ur. It is supposed thft ^e t;ook 9rd€^79 
after his return from his travels, and th^t h^ wfis the ^?i^ 
I^oliert Greeny ^yho wj^s pr/es^enj^d to the vill^e pf ^pjles- 
bury, in pssex, June 19, 1584. Jf this be the casp, iti|8 
probable tha^ he did not long reside, or was perhaps dfiyqn 
from Tolleshury, ])y hi^ irregular life, the greater pii^rt*^ 
wbicl^ was spent in ^ondpn. Here, from some pa^^a^^ 
cited \^y Mr. Beloe, it would appear that ^le gave hvns^ejif 
up to writing plays a.pd lov^ painphlpts, a^nd fropa the d^^tf 
of his " JVJyrrqur of ]>Iodesti,e," 1584, it is pvat^ahl^ %\x^ 
from tliis tinrj^ he became an author by profe^sjpp ; buf 9jf 
jTonr years aft^r he was incorporated M. A. j^t Qxfor^j W 
are still willing to believe that his career of fpUy had p^ 
comm^oced so ao.Q^i^ oif been so generally known as it ly^ 
sometime after. It was his fate t^o fn^U ^mong diss.oIi^ 
cpinpa(iion$j who, ^^lough men of g^piu3 like himself^ prp«' 
^^^^y^ ipncoui*<7.g^d each other in every sensual en^oyipaien^ 
An^png |:bese v^ere Christopher M$irloiy, G.e9i;g.e P^l^ 
and Thpmas Nash; for D?. Thiopas Lodg(9, ap^othJ^r of tb^J^r 
asspciate^ is n.ot lo9,ded ^ifb the ^^nje stigtpa.. " The his- 
tory of gePiius," say$ ong of our authorities, with eq^^al jiy^r 
tice ana fueling, " is too oft^n a deliail of immoral ii:x;egU7 
larjties, followed by indigence a^i.d misery. Such, ii? aUef 
tini^s^ was the meI?gn.choly tale of Otw^y ?^nd Lee, of Sa.-^ 
va^e^ Bpys^,, Sn?art, Burns, Dero^ody, and pnai^ otheiSt 
Pertiaps th^ writers of the draoi^ haye^ of all pthers,. l>i?($f) 
the i^ost unfortunate in this respect \ perh^p^ ^ere i^ 
something which more immediately seizes ail tb« ayenuq^ 
of th^e fancy in the ^prgeou9 ^Kshihitioos of (b^ sn^age; 
wjxich leads mep ^way frpjp the re9l circumsita^^es pf theii; 
fp.rtune, to th,e d.eltisipn? of hope, and to pursue the fajry 
lights so hps^le to sobejc truth.^' }n what species of 4i^i^ 

f>atipn^ ^nd to vvhat d^gr^e Greene ind^lg<^a, i^ w^r^ 14^1^ 
ess now to inquire : his f|ult^ vk^er^ probably ^^a^gier^^Q^ 
by the rival wits o( l^is day ; ajid (lis pccupatipn s^ a pli^y^ 
writer being in itself ^t that tiha^ Ipojied ifpon as qrimin^ln 
was barely tojei-ated* Amon^ his errors, abqi^t wbipl^ w€( 
%r^ afraid there is qo\^ no doubt, may bjs [peruipned b^ 
nia^rying an amiable Hdy, whooi he deserted a]|4 iUri^e$|| 
pis career, however, was short. He died Sep^ ^, 1 j^^^;?* 
at ah obscure lodging near Dowgate, not without signs of 
cozitiitiQD,^ nor indeed without leaving behind hm written 



O R E E N £ •«• 

leflitifBotiies that he was more frequently conscious Cif all 

}H-speui life thati able or willing to amend it. In some of 

his works also, he made strenuous exertions to warn the 

lin thinkings and escpose the tricks, frauds, and devioetof 

bis miscreant companions. His works, says one of bis 

hiographera, contain the i^eeds of virtuei while his act^ 

display the tares of lolly. From such of hid writings ai 

hare ^llen *in our way, he appears to possess a rich and 

glowing foicy, great command of languagei aiid a perfect 

knowledge of the manners of the times. As a poet he hai 

considerable merit, and few of his contemporaries yield a 

more pleaaaot employment to the collectors of specimens* 

Bis writlngsi attained great popularity in his day, but until 

▼ery lately, have been seldom consulted unless by poetical 

antiquaries. The following list of bis works, by Mr. Hasle^ 

Wood^ is probably complete : 1. '* The Myrrour of Mo<' 

destjic,'' 1584. 2. <^ Monardo the Tritameron o^ Love,*^ 

]5S4, 1587. $. << Planetomacbia,'' 1585. 4. Translation 

of a funeral Sermon of P. Gregory XIII. 1585. 5. <* £u- 

pbuea^a censure to Pbilautus,'* 1587, 1634. . 6. << Arcadia. 

Or Menaphon, Camiilae^s alarm to slumbering Eupbues/* 

1587,1589, 1599, 1605, 1610, 1616, 1634. 7. " Pan-* 

dosto the Triumph of Time,'' 1588, 1629. 8. *^ Peilmedes 

tke hiackesmith,'' 1538. 9. " The pleasant and delightfiil 

history of Domstns and Fawnia,'' 1588, 1607, 1675, 1703, 

1723, 1735. 10. << Alcida, Greene's Metamorphosis,^ 

1617. 1 1. " The Spanish Maaquerado," 1589. 12. « Or- 

pkarion," 1599. 13. <* The Royal Exchange^ contayning 

sundry aphanisins of Pbilosophie," 1590. 14. ** Greene's^ 

Qiaurnifig garment, given him by Repentance at tbe fune^^ 

wis of Love," 1590, 1616. 15. "Never too late," 1590^ 

1600, 1607, 1616, 1631. 16. ^< A notable discovery ol 

Cooaenage," 1591, 1592. 17. ^< The ground work ol 

Conny Catching," 159K IS. << The second and last pa vf 

rf Conny Catchiiig," 1591, 1592. 19. *^The third and 

last port ef Conny Catching," 1592. 20. '< Disputation 

between 4k hee conny-catcber and a shee conny-catcker,'* 

1592. ■ 21.' " Greene's. Groatsworth of wit bought with ik 

ITriUkw of repentance," 1592, 1600, 1616, 1617,. 1621, 

16^9^ 16371 Of this a beautiful edilsion was hifeiy printed 

by sir Egentoo Bifydges^ M. P. at tbe private psesa at Lea; 

Priory, (only 6 1 copies for presents], with a biographicfil 

preface, to. which this article is essentiailly indebted : bia 

and Mn Haslewood's account of Greene, aia oettpod^tate^ 

B2 



U4 GREENE. 

dictated by true taste and discrimination^ and by Jast 
liloral feeling* 22. <^ Philomela, the lady Fitzwalter'^ 
nightingale/' 1592, 1615, 1631. ^ 23. <^ A quip for air 
upstart courtier,^* 1592, 162(>, 16^5*, 1635, and reprinted ior 
the Harleian Miscellany. 24; ^* Ciceroni» amor, TuUie'd 
love,'* 1592, 16H, 1615, i616, lfr2S, 1639. 25. " New^ 
both from heaven and bell," 1593. 26. ^ The Black 
Book's Messenger, or life and d^eath of Ned Bfowne," 1592.^ 
Tf. " The repentance of Robert Greeae," 1592. 285, 
** Greene's vision at the instant of bi» deathy'^ no date.. 
29. '^Mamiilia, or the triumph of Pallas," 1S93. SO. 
*^ Mamillia, or the second part of the triumph of Pallas,*^ 
15'93. 31. " Card of Fancy," 1593, 1608. 32. <* Greene** 
funerals," 1594; but doubtful whether his. 33. <<Tbe 
honourable history of Fryer Bacoi» and Fryer Bongay, 9 
comedy," 1594,1599, 1630, 1655. 34. ** The history ol 
Orlando Furioso, a play," 1S94, 1599. 35. ^< The comical 
historic of Alphonsus king of Arragon, a play," 1597, 1599. 
36. ^^ A looking-glass for London and England," a comedy, 
jointly with Lodge, 1594, 1598. 37. " The Scottish His- 
toric of James the Fourtbe, slaine at Flodden, intermixed 
with a pleasant comedie," }598, 1599. 38. " Penelope's 
Webb," 1601. 39. « Historic of Faire Bellora," no date, 
afterwards published, as ^^ A paire of Turtle doves, or the 
tragical bistoiy of Bellora and Fidelio," 1606. 40. '< The 
debate between Follie and-Love, translated out of French,'* 
1608. 41. ^< Thieves falling out, true men come by theiv 
goods," 1615, 1637, and reprinted in the Harleian Miscel* 
lany. 42. " Greene's Farewell to Folic;' 1617. 43. « Ar* 
basto, the history of Arbasto king of Denmarke," 1617, 
1626. 44. *<Fair Emme, a comedy," 1631. 45. "The 
history of lobe/' a playj destroyed, but mentioned in War* 
burton's list. A few other things have been ascribed tOt 
Greene on doubtful authorhy.* 

GREENE (Thomas), a worthy English prelate, wa& the 
son of Thomas Greene of St. Peter's Mancroft in Norwich, 
where he was horn in 1 658. • He was educated in the free* 
•chool of that city, and in July 1674, admitted of Bene*! 
college, Cambridge, of which he obtained a scholarship^ 
and in 1680 a fellowship, and became tutor. Be took bi» 
degree of A. B. in 1679, and that of A. M. in 1682. Hi» 



_„„. account by sir E. Bridget,— «nd by Mr. Ha«l«wood in Cent. tSt^ 
T0I. VIlL-rSee aho ToU V. and yoU IX.— Iel9f'i Anecdottt. ToU il.— 4>*li>- 
raeU's Calaaitiet, flic 



GREENE; A4r 

first fitep from the university was into the fiunilj of sir Ste*^ 
phen Fox, grandfather of the late hon. Charles Fox, to 
whom he was made domestic chaplain through the interest 
•of archbishop Tenison, who soon after his promotion to 
the see of Canterbury, took him under the same relation 
into his own palace; and collated him April 2, 1695, to 
the vicarage of Minster in the isle of Thanet ; he b^ng, 
since 1690, D. D. by the archbishop's faculty. To 'the 
same patron he was likewise obliged for a prebend in tbe 
cathedral of Canterbury, into which he was installed in 
May 1702; for the rectory of Adisham cum Staple in 
Kent, to which he was collated Oct 28, 1708, and for the 
iNrchdeaconry of Canterbury, into which he was installed 
^e next month, having been chosen before one of the 
proctors of the clergy in convocation for that diocese. 
Upon these preferments he quitted the vicarage of Minster, 
as he did the rectory of Adisham upon his institution (in 
Feb. 1 7 Ifi) to the vicarage of St. Martin's in the Fields, 
Westminster ; to which be was presented by the trustee* 
of archbishop Tenison, for the disposal of his options, of 
whom he himself was one. This be held in commendam 
with the bishopric of Norwich, to which he was consecrated 
Oct 8, 1721, but was thence translated to Ely, Sept 24, 

^, 1723. 

^ Long previous, however, to these high appointments,. 

)ie was elected. May 26, 1698, master of BeneU college, 
upon the recommendation of his friend Tenison, and 
proved an excellent governor of that society. Soon after 
lie became master, he introduced the use of public prayers 
in the chapel immediately after the locking up of the gates, 
jkbat he might know what scholars were abroad, and if ne- * 
,fDessary, visit their chambers : this practice was found so 
heneficial as to be continued ever since. In other respects, 
when vice-chancellor, which office he served in 1699 and 
1713, and at the public commencement, he acquitted him- 
self with great skill and dignity. The zeal also which he 
•be wed for the protestant succession in the house of Hano* 
ver, upon the death of queen Anne, and his prudent con« 
duct at that juncture, were so acceptable to the court, 
that they are thought to «have laid the foundation of his 
churc}i preferments ; an earnest of which George I. gave • 
. him in appointing him one of his domestic chaplains the 
yeaff following. Dr. Greene resigned tbe mastership of 
lus college in 1716. He married Catherine sister of bishop 



U9 G B E E N lu 

Tnnintil, by wbdm be bad two sdnt tnd s^reo jaiighi«rs« 
Having fnad^ a bandaoine provisian for this family^ he dtad 
ia a good old age. May 18, 173H» and waa buried in bis 
oatfa^ral. Those who knew him most intimately itifdrin us 
that it was his unfeigned and uniform endeavour to exer* 
CHae,a conscience void of offence towards God aad mian» 
and to discbarge his duty, in the several retations be horn 
to his fellow creatures, to the best of bis judgmeat and abi*^ 
lities, with the same faith and spirit which appeal* through 
all bis writings. These writings are, I. *^The Siu^rtoent of 
the Lord's Supper explained to the meanest capaeities^'^ 
Lond. 1710, lemo, in a familiar dialogue between aminis^ 
t^r and parishioner. 9. ^^ The principles of reiigion er<- 
plained for the instruction of the weak," ibid. 1726, l'9niQ» 
3^ *^ Four discourses on tbe four last things^ viz. Deaths 
Judgsaent, Heaven, and Hell,'' ibid. 1754^ ISsMi; and 
seven occasional sermons.' * 

GREEN-HAM (RicfiAKB), a puritan divine of consider^ 
' ajble talents and popularity, was born about 163.1^ anil 
. ^ucated at Pembroke«ball, Cambridge, where be took kia 
dfgl^ees in arts, and became a fellow. Quitting the «fti« 
viafisity, he was appointed to the living of Dry Drayton 
^ear Cambridge, where be continued about twenty-one 
years, after which he reiAoved to London, and died twa 
yiears aft^r, in 1591, of the plague, according to Fuller, 
ni^hO) as weU as Strype, bishop Wilkins, and others, giv« 
him a high character for piety, useluliiess, and moderation 
of smiiment, although a nonconformist in so«ne. poJnls* 
His works, conststiag of sermons, treatises^ and a commen- 
tary on Paalm cxix. were collected into 9ne, volume^ folmv 
and published in 1^01, and again in 1612.' 

GREENHILL (John), a very ingenious Englisfa painter^ 
vi(«# deseended from a good family in Salisbury, where be 
itas bora. He was tbe most successful of all the disciples 
of sir Peter Lely, who is said ta have considered hio^ so. 
mucb as a rival, tba^ lie never suffered him to see hioi 
paint. Greenbili> however, prevailed with sir Peter to 
djsaw hb wife^s picture, and to^k the opportunity of oh* 
sieving bow <he managed his peoeil ; which was die gseat 
point aimed aft. He* ie said to bajre been equaily 4|iiahfied 
by oatare foi tbe sister-arls of painting «id poetry:; but 

1 M^iten 'i Bht. of Corpus Chriiti Co]|e|f » Cmxkhn^ 
^ CUrfc'iLivei at. tbe eqidof.his MsrtffsT9nr.---Broi»lt'iIifSSsf(&e?ttriians. 



b RE El* rf I L L. 



kii 



IHsl to6^ ina un^intf^d^a m^Angf of liVing ^Arsts pl^bl^biy tli'^ 
biMtAati erf hts e^Ty dfentH i hfid only snflei^d KiiVi ink i6 
WtiVd ertottgh <rf bis fcintf, to iriake tis wish he hard bl5^ii 
more cafeful of a life so hkely to do honotrr to his cotintr*y, 
Mi*s. Btfthfi, #ith whorfi Vre wa^s a great fa:vdtirite; ertctei-* 
iotntA to perpettidtfe hh lueinory by anf degy, to b^ fouricf 
aitioiigr htr <«^ofks. H^ jSaititfed st portraft of bishop Wii^d; 
HAHkh is notf irr tihe tdwn-haH of SatHsBury. He di^d Ma^ 

If, 1 ei6} 

' GREENVILLE (Sit Richard), a gallaiti naVal offifcdi^, 
*iy tbfc sM of iit Roffer, of an ancient fantify, Ifi the w^st 
•f EhgUtid^ and was bdrn abont 1540. At the a^e* of iit-t 
<*6iv, bf the petmhudtf of qiieert Elizabeth, he sei*ved in 
** iiiipelri^ afmy irt Htin^giry, agdiist the Turks. Upbri 
6fe ftttfrtt; he engaged with the troops empfoyerf tor thrf 
yedtrctfo^ 6f Ireland ktid obtim^d so mtitrh reptftatiohr as 
ttt'be tfppointeJ sheriff of the city of Cork, and iti f5f I, 
he I'e^tteirted the cdurity of CornwatH in p^rHattie^ht. tte 
^^ ifter'vi^afds Mgh sheriff of the county, ind fedmedt 
tbe bonbtir df knighthood ; btit the bias dt hi.^ trtind'^ \frai' 
diiefiy dxeA ttptm pisins of foreign discovery atid i^etrfe-' 
jHeftt, prop'6^dd by his relation sir Watfer Rale?gh, M& 
vAten tfv6 patf^trtrf were tnade outf, hef obtairiedf the' 6dttf- 
Bidnd of St sicjtfadrott fitted' ottt for the ptirp-ose; consist- 
ing of sevifeii stfitfff ^es^ls. With these' he sailed' irt th^ 
spritrg 6t f ^85, andf feathing the coast of Florid'a iii Jane, 
he ten thefe i Colofty <rf one hiftiif<fred men; and then sailed; 
h'aiiieW4r<fs. Me* Aiade dther voyages, anrf oti occasion of 
thfrSpaiAh invasion-, was aj^rnted on6' Of a cbiin^il df 
War; tbcc/neert mearis cf defence*, andf received' th6 qife^i^n'V 
coiA^atitis' not to^ quit the cotrnty of Coyh\vaH: In I89t 
y^Wats jippoirtted Vice-admiral of a sqtfad'ron; fitted btft 
fw the ptirpose of rnterceptS'rt'g a rich Spanish fleet fVom ' 
the WestI Irfrfies. Thi^ fleet, wfienf it appeated, wis <f6h- 
vbyed by a: vety superior force, and Greentilie' Was tivged 
t6 tatet ^out ; but he prtefenredv and no do^abtfcis'sAiFors 
agreed with him', taking cbantie of bfe^kirtg* throtigfii -the 
ctitftfiy's* flec^, which almost itnnrtted^ately sim^otrttlea' hita'. 
'l*be' Spatttl^h ddmiraf , wkh fbur other ships, began t cfos^* 
attack 4t' three iit tSre afternoon-; the engagettiie'nt Idsferf 
tifl* hteAot diy rtext morning; dWing Which the Sjniiiiarrfs, 
notwithstaotling their vaJSt superiority, were' dtiveh* dff tiU 

1 Walpole's Alil^adte^.^Pilkington. 



S48 GREENVILLK. 

teen tines. At length the greater part of the Engli^ 
crew being either killed or wounded, and the ship reduced 
to a wreck, no hope of escape femained. The brave com- 
mander had been wounded at the beginning of the actioa^. 
but he caused his wounds to be dressed on dfeck, and re- 
fused to go down into the hold, and in that state he was 
shot through the body. He was now taken to the cabioi^ 
and while in the act of being dressed, the surgeon was 
killed by his side. The admiral still determined to hold 
out, wishing rather to sink the ship than surrender, but 
the offers of quarter from the Spaniards induced the men 
to yield. Sir Richard was tsJien on board, the Spanish ship, 
and honourably treated, but died of his wounds in about 
three days. He has sometimes been blamed for rashness, 
bfut of this his censurers appear to be very imperfect judges.*; 
GREENVILLE (Sir Bevjl), a brave and loyal officer, 
grandson of the preceding, was born in 1596. He was 
educated at Exeter college, Oxford, where his accomplish- • 
ments were acknowledged, and his principles of loyalty, 
and relieion indelibly fixed, under the care of Dr. Prideaux.. 
After taking possession of his estate he sat in parliament ; 
and in 163d attended the king with a troop of horse, raised 
at his own expence, in an expedition to Scotland, on which. 
Occasion he received the honour of knighthood. Abhorring, 
the principles which then broke out in open rebellion, he> 
joined the royal army, and had a command at the battle of 
Stratton, in 1643, when the parliamentary forces were de- 
feated^ and greatly distinguished himself in other engage^ 
ments, particularly that at Lansdown, near Bath, fought 
successfully against sir William Waller, July 5, 1643, but 
received a fatal blow with a pole-axe. Many of his brp-. 
ther officers fell with him, and their bodies were found 
surrounding his. Lord Clarendon says, ^^ That which, 
would have clouded any victory, was the death of sir Be- 
vil Greenville. He. was, indeed, an excellent person, whose 
activity, interest, and reputation was the foundation of 
^what had been done in Cornwall, and his temper and affec- 
tion so public, that no accident which happened could 
make any impression on him ; and his example kept others 
from taking any thing ill, or at least seeming to do so ; in 
a wordy a brighter courage and gentler disposition were 
. sever married together, to make the most cheerful and 

? Bioff, Brit. 



O U £ E N V I L L C« 249 

ifiiioeent conventation/'^ His desicendaeit, lord Laii9downe» 
eittcted a monument on the spot where be was killed.' 

GREENVILLE (Denis), a younger son of the pre- 
ceding, and brother to sir John Greenville first earl of Bath 
of bis name, was bom in Cornwall, admitted gentleman 
commoner of Exeter college, Sept. 22, 1657, actually 
ci:eated in convocation master of arts Sept. 28, 1660* 
About this time he married Anne, the daughter of Dr. 
Cosin, bishop of Durham, who conferred several prefer<- 
ments on htm, as the rectories of Easington and Elwick ia 
the county palatine of Durham ; the archdeaconry of Dur* 
ham, to which he was collated on the death of Dr. Gabriel 
Clarke, Sept. 16, 1662, and to the first sull of preben- 
daries of the church of Durham, Sept 24, 1662, from 
whence he was removed to the second, April 16, 166S» 
On Deoember 20, 1670, he was created doctor of divinity, 
being then one of the chaplains in ordinary to Charles II. $ 
and on the 14th of December, 1684, he was installed dean 
of Durham in the place ctf Dr. John Sudbury deceased. Ia 
the register of Eton college we find that immediately 
after the restoration, Dr. Greenville was recommended in 
very strong terms to the master and fellows for a fellow* 
ship, by three several letters from the king, but for what 
reason this recommendation did not take effect, does not 
appear; probably he might wave his interest on account 
oiJF other preferment which was more acceptable to hiau 
On the 1st of February 1690, he was deprived of all his 
preferments upon his refusal to comply with the new oaths- 
of allegiance and supremacy to the prince of Orange then 
in possession of the throne, a change which he utterly ab« 
borred, always considering the revolution as a rebellion 
and usurpation. Soon after the prince of Orange's landing, 
he left Durham in order to retire into France ; and some«> 
times lived at Corbeil (from whence it is supposed his fa- 
mily originally sprung), but more frequently at Parib and 
St. Germain's, where be was very civilly treated and much 
countenanced by the queen-mother, as we find in several 
of his 4>wn letters, notwithstanding what has been falsely 
asserted by Mackay in an account of the court of St Ger- 
main's. He owns he was sometimes attacked by the 
priests, but with much good manners and civility, Mr« 
Wood says, that during his retirement, he was, on the 

I Fiojip, Brit"— ClarendOB'i History, 



&«» G Jt i & K V 1 1 L e. 

d«Mb 6f Dr. Ldtnptitgb^ liotniMted io ttl« ite «C Tirrk, l^f 
' king Jame0 II. though nevtt dotfseeirftMd; tnic tttto ftMOln 
"ftry doubtfnl. In April 1695 he canfife iMognitif iMo Efig- 
liiAd ; but MMHi retmrned. For *aiti6 tilM b^fof^i hi4 detftik 
he «fyj<>]f «d but II T«ry fttdifferent 8«ftte ef h«dklfl^ b4tii^ 
been mtich troubled with a sciMct, mA otb^ toflfttikiesi 
He died at Pftris, nft6r a series 'of^ ffltifty duffifrittgs^ 6:^ 
A]f]hrii 7, 1703, N< S. and Was buried l»i the loW^r ei^d ef 
Ibe Hdly IfinoGetit®' cbureb in tbinc city. Lord LMsdown^ 
ill a leuer to a nephew of his, who tfM gtAng to mtet itii^ 
boljr orders^ 9*ys of hii», << You bad ati uncle WhO^e i6e-« 
«K>ty I shall ever revere : make bim your eicample. SMt-^ 
tity sate so easy^ 90 unaffected^ afid so ^rae^fdl U|>oti Mtet, 
that in bim nve b^^ld the very beauty of bdKness.r Hd 
was as eheerM, ea fatiiiliaf, m condeseending t* bis Mtt^ 
Tersation, as be was striet, regolir, and exeoiptory iil hM 
piety ; as well bred and aceompHshed aa a eoortier, and 
AS reverend and venerable as an apostle.. He wns indeed 
upost^ticat in every thing, for he abandoned dl to feKovif 
ftis Lord irnd Master." Tbere seenfis littte reason' to doubl 
ibis ebsinieter, as ht as it respects Dr. GreenvtHe's priwB^ 
ebaracter, bat in bigotry for restoration ef Jajo^eS' II. h^ 
yyobably excelled ail his -contemt^oraiies^ afld frofii s6ni# 
eorrespondence la^ly pufblbbed in the Li^ Of Dr< €oix^bery 
Ilia successor in fbe deanery of Durhaiti, there is reason td^ 
deubt whether in bis htter days bis mind «^as net uiMmind.* - 
' Me pubfisfaed^ I. <^The Con^plete Confermist^ or se^ 
aonable advice concerning strict conforo^ity and frecftfentf 
eelebration of che Holy Comeiunionf/* preached ew Ibe 7^ 
of January, being the frrst Sunday after the t^fAphtityi 
3%$^y in the cathedral chdrch of Ddrbatti, on Joh» i. 29^,^ 
Lond. 1 6S4, 4to. Td whieh is added ** Adviee : o# s( le^ei^ 
written to tbe clergy of the swrtjideaconry of Durbltitf,** te> 
the same purpose. 0. ** A Sermon preached In fbe cetbe^ 
dra^ ehur^b of Durbam, open the revival of' the Mcietlt: 
' aind taudabfe practice of thai and sdi)fie other eatliedruk, kt 
having sermons on Wednesdsys and Fridays^ d«ring Adveff# 
atifd Lent," oir Ron)^. KtVu 11, Lend. 1686y 4t0. 3. "CoUrt*' 
seh and Divections divine and moral : in pfain arrd^ femili«r 
letters, of ddvice to a young gentleman^ his nephew^ sOOfl- 
after his admisstow into a college in O^^ford,*' Lond.^ ($^5y 
aro; BesFfdes these pfecesi wbich we beve just ei^tioned^ 
our author, immediately after bis retiring into France, pub« 
lished some small tracts at Rouen^ wbicfii are very scarce^ ' 



GREENVILLE. 



2Sh 



Slid Mt very correctly primed ; and perhaps it k i'eaiark«' 
«Me that Btich an ttnosottl faroiir should he petaiitfced in t 
popish eoiinrtry to a dignified elergytnati of the churcfar of 
£»giiiiMl. The title* of the {Neces printed at Rottea are, 
vte. 4< <<The resigned attd resolved Cbridtian and faitfafuil 
and ttfidaunted lojralist : in tvro plaine fareirelt sermons, 
add a Wjral forewell visiutioii speech. Both delivered 
aaofidst the laiftencable cofifusions occasioned by the late 
f«reigvi tfi^^ion end home-defeotion of his tnajestie^tf stib-' 
jeeM in England. By Denis Oranville^ D. D. deatie and 
arohdkeAoon of Durham, now in exile^ chaplaine in ordinary 
th bis iiiajestie....Whereamo are added certaine Letters to 
his reldtioos and friends in England, shewing the reasoni^ 
and milliner of his witbdrawiog but of the kingdom.'' ^ A 
Letter to bis btiQther the e^rl of Batbe.^ ** A Letter to 
bis bbbep t»he bishop of Durbatfi.'' ** A Letter to bis bre-* 
tkreit-lhe prebendaries.'* '* A Letter to the clergy of bitf 
afvitidetteotffy.'' <* A Letter to his curates, at Easington 
and SedgeAeld," printed at Ro«ien, 1689. 5. ^* The 
chiefest matters contained in. sundry Discourses made to* 
the cl^gy'of the archdeaconry of Durham, since his ma- 
jestie^s eomiog to the crown. Summed up arid seasofiaUy ' 
broogbt again to their view in a loyal farewell visreatioti 
speech on tlie I3tb of November b^t, 98, being ten day« 
s^lUir the landing of tbe prince of Orange.'' This is datetf 
frott bf* study at Roaen Nov. 15, 1689. Witb a preface 
to Ae reedet and an ad^ertisemeiit. 6. " A copy of a 
paper penned at Durham, by the author, Aug. 27, 1688, 
by way of reflection on tiie ttien disiHal prognostics of the 
time.^ 7. *• Directions wbicb Dr. GtanviBe, archdeacfon 
o# Durham, rector of Sedgefield and Easingcon, enjoins to' 
be- observed by the curates of those bis parishes, given 
tfaetti in charge at Easter-visitation held at SedfgeBelrd, in 
tbe year i(W9."* 

GRBOORY, sumamed the GafcAT, Was b<^n ^ a pa- 
tricliin family^ equally conspicuous for it* virtue and nabi- 
lily al RoiAe, vrhei^ his father Oordian was a senator, and 
efttrem^y rich ; tod, marrying a lady of distiaction, <5aHed 
S^tai, bad by ber this son, about the year 544. From 
bfa* earliest ^eart^ be diseovere'd genius and judgment ; and, 
applying himself particularly to the apophthegms of cfte 

1 CtoB. Dwt— Biof. Bdt—Ath. 0x.^6l. Ik— H«tolanwrfS X^hmiH *•!• » 
p«I6T.— <^m6€r'8jSfe of GomUsr, pp.139, 909. 



452 IG R E G O R Y, 

ancients, he fixed evexy thing worth notice in bis memoffy^ 
where it was faithfully preserved as in a stere-house ; he, 
also improved himself by the conversation of old men, ia; 
which he toctk great delight. By these methods be made, 
a great progress in the sciences, and there was not a mw 
in Rome, who surpassed him in grammar, logic, and rhe- 
toric ; nor can it be doubted but he had early instructions 
in the civil law, in which his letters prove him to have, 
been well versed : he was nevertheless entirely ignorant of 
the Greek language. These accomplishments in a young 
nobleman procured him senatorial dignities, which he filled 
with great reputation; and he was afterwards appointed 
prsefect of the city by the emperor Justin the Younger; 
but, being much inclined to a monastic life, he quitted 
that post, and retired to the monastery of St. Andrew,. . 
which he himself had founded at Rome in his father^ 
bouse, and put it under the government of an abbot, called 
Valentius. Besides this, he founded six.other convents ia 
Sicily ; and, selling all the rest of his possessions, be gave 
the purchase- money to the poor. » 

He bad not, however, enjoyed his solitude in St. An« 
drew^s long, when he was removed from it by pope Pela4 
gius II. who made him his seventh deacon, and sent him as 
his nuncio to the emperor Tiberius at Constantinople, . to . 
demand succours against the Lombards. The pope, it i^ 
said, could not have chosen a man better qualified than Gre- 
jgory for so delicate a negociation ; but the particulars of 
it are unknown. Meanwhile, he was not wanting in exertr 
ing his zeal for religion. While he was in this metropolis, 
he opposed Eutycbius the patriarch, who had advanced an 
opinion bordering on Origenisra, and maintained, that, 
after the resurrection the body is not palpable, but more 
subtile than air. In executing the business of his embassy, 
he contracted a friendship with some great men, and so 
gained the esteem, of the whole court, by the sweetness of 
bis behaviour, that the emperor Maurice chose him for a 
godfather to one of his sons, born in the year 583. Soon 
after this he was recalled to Rome, and made secretary t6 
the pope ; but, after some time, obtained leave to retire 
again into his monastery, of which he had been chosen 
abbot. 

Here he had indulged himself with the hopes of gratify- 
ing his wish, in the enjoyment of a solitary and unraflled 
lite, when Pelagius II. dying Feb. 8, 590, be was dbctei^ 



ORE GORY. 25$ 

pope by the clergy, the senate, and the people of Rome ; 
to whom he had become dear by bis charity to the poor. 
Whom the overflowing of the Tiber, and a violent plague, 
had left perishing with hunger. This promotion was so 
disagreeable to him, tl^at he employed all possible methods 
to avoid it ; be wrote a pressing letter to tbe emperor, 
conjuring him not to confirm his election, and to give 
orders for the choice of a person who had greater capa« 
city, more vigour, and better health than he could boast ; 
and hearing bis letter was intercepted by the governor of 
Rome, and that his election would be confirmed by the 
imperial court, he fled, and hid himself in the most solitary 
part of a forest, in a cave ; firmly resolved to spend bis 
days there, till another pope should be elected : and, the 
people despairing to find him, a new election ensued. la 
this <^ase, the Roman clergy, always fond of miracles, tell 
^s that Gregory would never accept the papal chair, till be 
bad manifestly foQnd,bysome celestial signs, that God caljed 
him to it. It is pretended, that a dove flying before those 
who sought for him, shewed them the way they were to go; 
or that a miraculous light, appearing on a pillar of fire 
over his cavern, pointed out to them the place of bis re- 
treat - 

However that be, it is almost as certain that his reluct* 
ance was sincere *, as that be at length accepted the dig- 
nity, and was enthroned pope, Sept. 3, S90. And it ap- 
peared by hi;} conduct, that they could not have elected a 
person more worthy of this exalted station; for, besides 
his great learning, and the pains h.e took to instruct the 
church, both by preaching and writing, be had a very 
happy talent to win over princes, in favour Of the tempo* 
fal as well as spiritual interests of religion. ^ It would be 
tediqus to run oyer all the particulars o£ his conduct on 
these occasions ; and his converting the English to Chris- 
tianity, a remarkable fact in our history, is on that account ' 
generally known f. In this attempt Gregory owed his 

*^ Hit famoiiB paftoral is alledsed appelUtioo, ''Your Beatitude, ^•'^ 

(SB the fide ef his slncerily. Gregory which had been girtn to his predeces* 

wrote it in answer to John, bishop of son. 

%avennai who had giren him .a friendly f He first set oat on his mistioB 

rsfUVMif for hiding fainself, in order to himself; while he was a monk only^ 

avoid the pontificate. This condnet is and was adranced three days' joamey. 

aseribad, and not nndesenredly, to his when Pelagias, then pope, reokltM 

Wmiiity ; and, after his promotion, he him to Rome at the instigation* of th* 

f^re another evidence of his sincerity, people, who etea elamorously prassa^ 

Jacoli8taDtlydicIariaghJi4itlil(«ofthe hint^it. 



jM s » E o R y. 

•uc^^f^ -to the nasiflitiatio^ qF qwen £tbelI>lHr|^ wko no^ 
only prompted th^ king Etb«lbert her consort, tp Irent the 
pope's missionaries kiiHlIyi but also to becooio tumsdtf s 
f:onvert.. 

The new pope, according to custpm, h«ld a 9yiiod at 
Kome.ihe same year, 591 ; whence he sei^t letten^ to thm 
iioor patriarchs of the East, with a confession of hip. faitb^ 
declaring his reverence to the four general coue^ils^ and 
the fift]^ too, a$ weU as the four gospels. In tbie mo4esty 
he ^Wk pot followed by bis successors ; and he even ex-* 
iseeded pome of his predecessors in that and other virtuea, 
f^bich for many ages pa^t have not approached the chair 
pf St« Pete5 A^ he had governed his: monastery with jn 
^verity u|)paralle)ed in those times; so now be was partis 
f{|ilar)y careful to reguUte his house and person according 
tp 3t. Pa^l^s direptions to Timothy. Even in performing 
divine worsjiip, he jused ornameati of bet a moderate 
prif;es and hip common garments were still noore simple* 
Nothing was moipe dectol iban the furniture of his boMSOf 
fmd hie reteiiied none but clerks and religious in his servicer 
$y this mei^as his palace became a kind of monastery, io 
vbich theie were na \19eless people; every thing ip his 
house bad the appearance of an angelic life, and his cha^ 
rity surp^ed all description. He employed the revenues 
^ the ehurch entirely for the relief of the poor ; be wan 
a cpmitant ^nd indefatigable preacher, and devoted all Ua 
talents f9r the inatructioo of his flock; 

In the oaesin timOt be extended bis care ^ the otbec 
eburfhea updear bis pontifical jurisdiction, and aapeciatlji 
tbQ%e of Sicily, for whom he had a particukar respect ; be 
put i^n end ^ the scbiati in the chutch of Iberia tbe sfime 
yesM^ : tbia was. effected by the gentle methods of pertmn 
^ion^ to wbicb^ however, he had not recourse tiU after be 
bl4 beeu hindered from uaiug violence. Upoo this ae^ 
9oqnt be is censured as an intolerant^ and it ia oeitain iua 
maxima en ibat bead were a little inconsistent. He dbi^ 
not, for instance, approve of forcing the Jews to receive 
baptism, and yet he approved of compelling heretics tg^ 
return to the church. In some of bis letters too he e»r 
claims against vielence 111 the method of making eonvertsy 
yet at the same time was for laying heavier taxe;;^ on sucb^ 
2ia would not be ooovefted by penutasive means ; and i» 
the year 599^ he sejit ^ nuncio tp Constantinople, and 
wrote a letter the same^year to the empttr^ JDdauxicet de«> 



j^r§9.^hp^^ the «fime resp^t to (b^ kiogf pf Italy, (bpugb 
'tbipy we^ie hqretica. 

[ The sim^ ye^r hQ coiuposeid hit ^' DUlogueS)^' a wort: 
j5II^d with fabulous mir^'cle^ and iacredible stari^t; tb^ 
Myl^ is al^o Ipw, and the narra^on coarse \ yet they ww$ 
jTQceiv^d with astonishing appUuse^ and Tbeqdi|tio4% 
i^uei^il of the Lombard^! having cqnvert^d b«r bu«banU t0 
ibe catholic faith, the pope rejoiced at % aud aent hi$ 
^' Dialogu^V' c^ompoaed th^ following y^ar, to Uv^t prU^ 
c^$s.. 3h9 i9 thought to have noade x\m^ of bia book at tbi$ 
iipfie for (he pon version of that pepplo^ who were ea^ilj^ 
j|pSu4^ap§d by «uqh compositions. For tbe wijm r^aaoa 
ppp^ ^^haryi about 150 year3 after, tf^nal^itod it iatu 
yi^ek for tbi^ i^e of those people^ who wer# 90 4eligb<)94 
ivitb it» that they gave St. Gregory tb^ avrnaweof Oia* 
fogist. Still t^h^sje di^tpgu^^ b^iug (he ^ooipoaition of 
{^r^ory i$ a ppint, now thought v^y doub^fui la the 
y^at Jt94| biE^ ^QomiQunicated find sKspi^aded the bi»bp|l 
of Sa(9na» tb^ o^iropplis of PaLmatia^ wh^^ hQw^var, panl 
DOt X^^^^ to the e^^rci^ q( his^ px^w^r ia tb^s^ «^i;\9^K(if« 
T^fi papa'e year W laboured tp cmveiift t^e i^fidfU in Si^r^ 
^ini^ by gpntle wethqd?, according to bis sy^tenft : wbioki 
^^ io punish ber^tiqs, ^specially s^t ^tbeir iirat ri9e» ad 
XQ})i^h. and tcaitor^^ but to coippel infidels ooly iodirecitty 9 
£b^t 19^ greatlng the obstinate with saqfiq rigoar» ainl per-* 
suadipg tb^o^ as nc^u<;h by proooisieSf . tbreat^j an4 g^n^il^ 
i^everi^^s, as by arguoieut and reason. Thvs v^as the dia^ 
tLU<;tip.Q he made io treating with th^ Mai^icheei&and pagai^w 
Ivy th^.yj^ja^ 5dj^> be refused to s^nd the efpp^es^t Coiir 
st,^jni.(ia apy reUQ9^ pf St. Paul» .isfbich she had ijeque^/t^ 
desufing tP look; at the body of that apostle. On tbia ocn 
^asioa he cel^jte^ several miraculous piinishments for sudla 
a r^sh attempt^ a}l as simply devised as tbo^e in hj/» *< Dii^ 
logue$/' The sam^ ye^r he warmly opposed Johp pa^ 
tjri^rch of Cojn^^ntinopl^, for assuming ti)^ title of oeiQuoa^ 
uical px UQJ;vQ^$al». which he himself disclaimed, a^ having' 
DO ri^bjt to i;educe the other bishops to be bis subfi^itute« ;. 
and. aftejr^ards. forbad his nuncio there to CQ0imui^<;j8^e 
^iib th^ft paf^rl^rchi) till he sboi^d renpuaee tb^ (title. Hia 
humility^ bowevec, did not keep him from veseatin^ aJ9b 
affroat^ pxit, i^ppn b^^ understanding, as be thpqght^ by th^ 
emperor, for proposing terms of peace (o the Lombamk^ 
who b^ieg^d Rpipe this year : the samayei^r he epceou^tod 



S$6 GREGORY. 

l|ie fiiinous mission into England ; and as Bninehaut^ qneeft 
of France, had been very serviceable in it, he wrote ^ 
letter of thanks to her. on the occasion. The princess is 
represented as a profligate woman, but very liberal to the 
ecclesiastics ; founding churches and convents, and even 
iueing to the pope for relics. This was a kind of piety 
which particularly pleased Gregory; and accordingly, he 
wrote to the queen several letters, highly commending her 
conduct in that respect, and carried his complaisance so 
far as to declare the French happy above all other nations 
in having such a sovereign. In the year 598 j at the re« 
quest of the Christian people at Caprita, a small island at 
the bottom of the gulph of Venice, he ordered another 
bishop to be ordained for that place, in the room of the 
present prelate, who adhered to the Istrian schism. . This . 
was done contrary to the orders of the emperor Maurice^ 
against taking any violent measures with schismatics. 

In the year 599, he wrote a letter to Serenus bishop of 
Marseilles, commending his zeal in breaking some images 
which the people had been observed to worship, and throw* 
iBg them out of the church ; and the same year a circular 
letter to the principal bishops of Gaul, condemning simo^ 
niacal ordinations, and the promotions of laymen to 
bishoprics : he likewise forbad olerks in^holy orders to live 
with women,' except such as are allowed by the canons ; 
and recommended the frequent holding assemblies to re« 

Jrulate the affairs of the church. The same year he re^ 
used^ on account of some foreseen opposition, to take 
ijbgnizance of a crime alleged against the primate of By- 
;Eacena, a province in Africa. About the same time he 
wrote an important letter to the bishop of Syracuse, con- 
cerning ceremonies, in which he says, '* That the church 
of Rome followed that of Constantinople, in the use of 
ceremonies ; and declares that see to be undoubtedly sub- 
ject to Rome, as was constantly testified by the emperor 
and the bishop of that city.*' He had already this year 
reformed the office of the church, which is one of the most 
remarkable actions of his pontificate. In this reform, as i| 
is called, he introduced several new customs and supersti* 
tions; amongst the rest, purgatory. He ordered pagan 
temples to be consecrated by sprinkling holy water, and 
an annual feast to be kept, since called wakes in England, 
on that day ; with the view of gaining the pagans in Eog* 
land to the church-service* Besides other least importaat 



G ft E G O R Tf . 



tsi 



^er0inoTii^9 a4<led to the pabiic fornas of prayier, be mad* 
it hU chief care to reform the psalmody^ of which he vfa$ 
excessively fond. Of tbis kind he composed the ^' AntU 
phone */' and sUch tunes as best suited the psalms, th^ 
hymnS) the prayers, the verses, the canticles, the lessonsi 
tike epistles and gospels, tlie prefaces, and the Lord's 
prayer. He likewise instituted an academy of chanters fo^ 
1^1 the clerks^ as far as the deacons exclusively : he gav$ 
them lessons himself, and the bed, in which he continued 
to chant amidst bis last illness, was preserved with great 



* It is to tbit pope that t^e dire the 
ifiVJentioB, if^ed tn this day, of etprestf- 
tegp mu8ica4 souods by tte teTv^n firsi 
letters of the alphabet. Indeed the 
Qreeki* lAade use of ihe lettert of theif 
al|»lmbaet to tbe like ptWpoee : but id 
tb^ir scal« ihev wanted more signsi or 
nmrkf, than there were letters, which 
%ert fttppHed oat of th« same adphS'^ 
bei, by ititfcmg the sajne fetter exprett 
different notes, as it was placed upright, 
bf Reversed, 6t otherwise put Out of the 
•omnion p<»sition $ alto makiiig them 
liaperfeot by cutting off sometbiugf or 
by doubling some strokes, ^or exaiti- 
)>lr, tbt letter Pi ftitpfeMes different 
notes in alt these posiiioot o«d forftts, 
ft n C G rt n &c. Tbey who are 
fkiired io musii*, oeed not be totd what 
A task the iebolar hod in this method 
to loam, la Boethiiis's time the Ro- 
miins eased themselves of tbis diffi- 
oiiky at onoecOHary, by making o«e 
•oly of tbo ffrst 15 letters of tfaoir al- 
phabet. But afterwards, this pope, 
Coftsiderinjr that the octavo #H8 the 
iftoto iit effSset with the first noto, add 
thftt tbo order of degrees was the same 
in the upper and lower octave of the 
4iagnim> introduced the use of seven 
letters* whiicbwera repealed in a differ- 
rent character. Malcolm on Music, 
ebdip. tit. § 4. Dr. Burntiy ftayft on 
lhl» aokijeety ** Baclesiaatioal writers 
leem unanimous in allowing that it was 
the loarrned and active pope Gregory 
tiie Great, whooollected the iiHtf»idal 
lM|;0ientoof tuoh AUcient hymns ami 
psalmt as the first fathers of <he church 
llOil dpproted, and recoitfniended to 
llMr ^imitivo CtaristioM j mA thot ^e 
aelected, methodized, and arranged 
fheito irt the order which was long con- 
ffHued at Rotde, and ioo» adopted by 
^ ekief pari Of tbo. weotfra ehiirch. 
TUo anouymous aotbor of bis Ufe« 

Vot. XVI. 



published by danisiust speaks of thif 
transaction in the following Wot-ds & 
'* This pobtiff oompostd, arran^ad^ 
aiKl coosntu'ed the Aniiphonarium and 
chants nsed io the mornjog and even^ 
ia^ service." Fleuryt in his HM 
EcOl. todi. VI [, p. 1 5U, <ivf B a cii oual* 
stantial accouut of the Scola Cantorum^ 
inaUtuted by St. Oregtn y. It stiliftigu 
ed dOO years after tihe death tif that 
pontiff, which happenexl in the yeaf 
604, ab *d are inroriAed ISy ^ohn Dia- 
codnS) author of his life. Tw^ ook 
leges wece appropriated to these st-ti« 
dies ; one near the church of St. Pe^k 
ter, and one near that of ^. Jdhi> Ln^ 
teran ^ both of trhieb woro teidowoA 
with lands. 

*< It hab b«eb inlagined that Sit. dfe-» 
gofy was rather a compiler tb<in « 
composer of ecelesiastioal chanU, a# 
music had been established in tlio 
church loi)g before hfs pooti6cate ; atwl 
Joiia Diaconu?, hi biit life, (lib. u ■ 
cap. 6.) calls his collection * Anlipho* 
niLrium Ceiltonem,* the grOund-Worlt 
of whioh *as the ancient Gr^k ehiKitf 
upon the principles of which it wA« 
formed. This is the opinion of the 
abhig Lebceuf, (Traitfc Historitjoe et* 
Pratic^ue sur ie Chant Bociesiaatii^UV^ 
chap, iii.) and of many others, Tho 
derivatioil \% respectable ; but if th^ 
Romans in the time of St< AiabFOM 
had any music, it must have t>«eq 
composed upon the Greek system : all 
the arts at Rome, during the time of 
the emperors, were Q reek, and chte6yi 
cultivated b'y Greek artists; and wo 
hear of nr> mtlslcal systetti id ds6 
amoog ttie RooMuS, or at leAlt^dOM 
is mentioned by their writers oo tbo 
art, but that of the Greeks.^' fiur-% 
noy'» Hist, of Musio, and Hett^A Cy« 
olcq^adiai art*Q^|iooaT. 



«5f 6 a £ G O & Y. 

veneration in the palace of St. John Lateran for at long 
time, together with the whip with which be used to threa* 
ten the young clerks and singing boys, when tbey sang 
out of tune. He was so rigid in regard to the chastity of 
ecclesiastics, that he was unwilling to admit a man into the 
priesthood who was not strictly free from defilement by any 
commerce with women. The candidates for orders were 
according to his commands questioned particularly on that 
subject. Widowers were excepted, if they had observed 
a state of continency for some considerable time. 

At this time, as well as the next year 600, he was con* 
fined to his bed by the gout in his feet, which lasted for 
three years ; yet he celebrated mass on holidays, al* 
though with much pain. Thi$ brought on a painful bnru- 
ing heat all over his body, which tormented him in the year 
601. His behaviour in this sickness was very exemplary. 
It oiade him feel for others, whom he compassionated^ ex- 
horting them to make the right use of their infirmities^ 
both by advancing in virtue and forsaking vice. He was 
always extremely watchful over his flock, and careful to 
preserve discipline ; and while he allowed that the misfor- 
tunes of the times obliged the bishops to interfere in 
worldly matters, as he himself did, he constantly exhorted 
them not to be too intent on them. Thi;^ year he held a 
council at Rome, which made the monks quite independent 
by the dangerous privileges which he granted them. Gre- 
gory forbad the bishops to diminish in any shape the goods^ 
lands, and revenues, or titles of monasteries, and took from 
them the jurisdiction they ought naturally to have over the 
converts in their dioceses. But many of his letters shew, 
that though he favoured the monks in some respects,, he 
nevertheless knew how to subject them to all the severity 
of their rules. The same year he executed a second mis- 
sion into England, and, in answer to. the bishop of Iberia, 
declared the validity of baptism by the Nestorians, ai 
being performed in the name of the Trinity. 

The dispute about the title of Universal Bishop and the 
equality of the two sons of Rome and Constantinople still 
subsisting, and the emperor Maurice having declared for 
the latter, our pope saw the murder of him and his family 
without any concern by Phocas. This usurper having sent 
his picture to Rome io the year 603, Gregory received it 
with great respect, and placed it with that of the empress 
his consort (Leontia) in the oratory of St. Cassarius in the 



R E G R Y. 25^ 

}>a;tdte ; and soan after congratulated Pbocas^s accession to 
the throne. There are stiil extant, written upon this oc« 
caaioDy by the holy pontiff, three letters, wherein be ex- 
presses his joy, and returns thanks to God, for that e^e* 
crabie parricide's accession to the crown, as the greatest 
blessing that could befall the empire ; and^ he praises God, 
that, after suffering under a heavy galling yoke, bis sub- 
jects begin once more to enjoy the sweets of liberty under 
ills empire : flatteries. unworthy a man of honour, and es- 
pecially a pope ; and for which his historian, Maimbourg, 
condemns thein. But Gregory thought himself in con- 
science obliged to. assert the superiority of bis see above 
that of Constantinople, and he exerted himself much to 
secure it. In general he had the pre-eminence of the 
holy see much at heart; accordingly this same year, one 
Stephen, a Spanish bishop, having complained to him of 
an unjust deprivation of his bishopric, the pope sent a 
delegate to judge the matter upon the spot, giving him. a 

. -memorial of his instructions, in which among other particu-^ 
]ars he orders thus : ** If it be said, that bishop Stephen 
bad neither metropolitan nor patriarch, you must answer^ 
that he ought to be tried, as he requested, by the holy see, 
which is the chief of all churches.'* It was in the samb 
spirit of preserving the dignity of his pontificate, that he 
resolved to repair the celebrated churches of St.Peter and 
SU Paul ; ' with which view, he gave orders this y^ar to tha 

. subdeaeon Sabinian (afterwards his successor in the pope? 
dom), to fell all the timber necessary for that purpose in 

» the country of the Brutii, and send it to Rome : he wrote 
several other letters on this occasion, which are striking 
.proofs of his zeal for carrying on the repairs of old churches, 
although he built no new ones. . . 

i But while he was thus intent in correcting the mischiefs 
of the late war, he saw it break out again in Italy, and $till 
to the disadvantage of the empire, the affairs of which 
were in a critical situation, not only in the . provinces. pf the 
west, but every where else. Gregory was much afflicted 
with the calamities of this last war, and.at the s^me time 
his illness increased. The Lombards made a truce in No- 
vember 603, which was to continue. in forc« till April $05. 
Some time after, the pope received letters from queen 
Theodiiinda, with the news of the birth atid baptism of hec 
son Adoaldus. She sent him also some writings of. the 
abbot Secundinus upon the fifth council, and desired hioi 

S 2 



t«0 O R E G O K T. 

CO answer them. Gregory ^< congratttlates faer on bamg. 
eausied the young prince^ destined to reign over die Loin-» 
bards, to be baptised in the catholic cfaurch." And as to 
Secnndinus, he excuses himself on account of his iUness; 
^^ I am afflicted with the gout^'' says he, *^ to soch a de«^ 
gree, that I aiq not able even to speak, as yjour envoys' 
know; they found ine ill when they arrived here, and left 
me in great danger when they departed. If God restcnrea 
siy healtb> I will return an exact answer to all that tbm 
abbot Secundinus bas written to nie« In the mean time, I 
send you the council held under the emperor Justinian^ 
that by reading it he may see the ftilsity of all that be baa 
beard against the holy see and the catholic church* God 
forbid that we sfaoul4 receive the opinions of any heretie, 
or'^depart in any respect from the letter of St. Leo, aa4 
the four councils :\' he adds, '> I send to the prince Ado« 
aldus, yt^t ^on, a cross^ and a book of the gospel in a Per« 
iian box ; and to your daughter three rings, desiring yoa 
to give them these things with^ytitor own band, to enhance 
tbe falue of the preisent I likewise beg of you, to cetum 
|liy> thanks to tbe king^ your coosoct, £of the peace he made 
for us, and engage him to maintsUn it, as you have akready 
done.'' 

t This letter, wyitjten in January 604, is the last of Gre« 
gory^s that bas any date to it; he died tbe 12th of Mareb 
feUowiftg, worn out: with violent aiyd almost incessant ill* 
ne^. His remains were interred in a private manner, near 
the old sacristy of St. Peter's church, at tbe end of tb^ 
great portico, in the same place with those of some.pre^ 
ceding po{>es« It is thougti^ he was not above sixty yean 
of age. W4> ^all oaly add one particular rehiting to our 
own country. Augustin the missionary having followed 
the rule approred by former popes of dividing the revenues 
of all the English chprches into four parts, the first for tb« 
hhhfgifpf the second for the elergy, the third for the pooi^ 
mnd the fourth for repairing the church ; this divisioa mm 
cobflmed \fy Gregory, who directed farther, tbat die 
bisho^*s share should be not only for himself but likewise 
for all his nedessary^ attendants, and to keep np hospital ity» 
. It remains to be observed, in justice to thi^pope^ ttnit^ 
ib^ ebat^ of bis causing tbe noble monuments of the an^ ' 
tient splendour of tbe Roimans to be destroyed, in ordct to 
prevent tboee who went to Rome from paying more atteii>» 
tion to .tb# triumphal archesi &ew thao to ibingt saored^ m 



O R £ C O R Y. 261 

bj P)iitin» aa a ca1umi>y. Nor is the story, tboagh 
^rediied by several learned autbors, particularly by Brucker, 
0i bis reducing to ashes the Palatine library founded by Au- 
•gQstiw, and the burning an infiuite number of pagan bocjcsy 
particularly Livy, absolutely certain. However, it is un* 
deaiable, be bad a great aversion to all such books, which 
be carried to that excess, that be flew in a violent passios 
with Didier, archbishop of Venice, fur no otber reason 
tbun because he sufiered gramnfiar to be taugbt in bis dio^ 
Mse. In this he followed the apostolical constitutions: 
Ibe compiler whereof seeros also to have copied froa Gre^ 
gory Nasiaazien, who thought reading pagau books would 
tttjra the minds of yo«tb in favour of their idolatry ; aiKt we 
bave seen more recently the same practice zealously de^ 
fended) and upon the same principle too, by Mr. Tilleoiont. 
Yet Julian tbe apostate is cb^trged with using the same 
probibitioni as a good device to effect the ruin of ChriSf- 
|iamty» by rendering tbe professors contemptible on ac«- 
eouut of tbeir ignorance^ Dupin says, that bis genius ,waa 
well suited to morality, and be bad acquired an inexbaus^ 
^le fand of spiritual ideas, which be expressed noUj 
tnoiigb, generally in periods, rather than sentences; bis 
eompcu^ition was laboured, and bis languid inaocurate^ but 
easy, well connected, and aWays equally supported. H# 
ieft more writic^ behind him than any otber pope from 
ibe foundation of tbe see of Rome to tbe present penod. 
Tkiese ooasist of twelve bac^s of ^' l^etters," amounting to 
lifMrards of eigbt buudred in number^ ^' A oonmienfe om 
Ibe book of Job,'* generally k0own by tbe naviQ of ** Gre* 
geory^s Morals on Job.'' <^ A PastoraV* or a. treatise oil 
tbe dtuties of a pastior, This work was held in sucb vene« 
f ation by tbe Galliiean cburcb^ that all tbe biahopa were 
obliged, by tbe canona of that church, lo be thoroughly 
aoquainted with it, aad punctually to observe the rules 
eoatuiHed in it He was author also of '^ Homilies^ on tb« 
prophet Ezekiel-; and on the gospels, aad of four books 
ftf (' CisJogues.'^ Bis works have been printed over and 
ovtti again, in almost all forma, and at a numbeir of differ 
rem pbcea on ibe continent, as Lyons, Paris, Rotten,. Basils 
Antwerp^ Venice, and Rome. Tbe best edition, is tbat of 
Pafis> is 1705, in 4 vols, fotio.^ 

1 Qfn, Diet.— Bower's Hist, of the Popes.— Cave,, vol. I.— Pii|ini,— -Milacr^ 
^liureh History, in which Iris works «r«> jumlyzed^ 



262 G R E G O R Y. 

GREGORY XIII. the principal event in whose life i» 
the reformation he introdUiced in the Roman calendat, was 
l>orn at Bologna in 15012. Hi$ name before his promotion 
was Hugh Buoncompagno. He was brought up to the 
study of the civil and canon law, which he taught iii his 
irattve city with uncommon reputation. He was afterwards 
appointed judge of the court of commerce at Bologna. 
From this city he removed to Rome, where, after variouik 
preferments, he was on the death of Pius V. in 1572, una- 
nimously elected his successor, and at bis consecration he 
took the name of Gregory XIII. His reformation of the 
calendar, was according to a method suggested by Lewis 
Lilio, a Cala/brian astronomer, which after his death was 
presented to the pope by his brother. This method, which 
was immediately adopted in all catholic countries, but was 
rejected by the protestants and by the Greeks, was intended 
to reform the old or Julian year, established by Julius 
Csesar, which consisted of S65 days 6 hours, or 365 days 
and a quartefr, that is three years of 365 days each, and 
the fourth year of 366 days. But as the mean tropical 
year consists only of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 57 se^ 
conds, the former lost 1 1 minutes^ 3 seconds every year, 
.which in the time of pope Gregory had amounted to "lO 
.days, and who, by adding these 10 days, brought the ac- 
count of time to its proper day again, and at the same time 
appointed that every century after, a day more should b6 
added, thereby making the years of the complete centu- 
ries, viz. 1600, 1700, 1800^ &c. to be common years of 
•365 days each, instead of leap-years of 366 days, which 
makes the mean Gregorian ye£lr equal to 365 days 5 hours 
.45 minutes 36 seconds. This computation was not intro- 
cluced into the account of time in England, till 1752, when 
the Julian account had lost 11 days, and therefore the 3d 
of September, was in that year by act of parliament ac^ 
counted the 14th, thereby restoring the 1 1 <lays which had 
thus been omitted. 

In 1584 Gregoiy incurred the suspicion^ although some 
think without foundation, of having encouraged the assas* 
sination of Elizabeth queen of England, by Parr,, an Eng« 
lish <;atholic, who was detected in a conspiracy against the 
queen's life. This pope contributed greatly to correct and 
amend Gratian's decretals, which he enriched with learned 
DOtes. He died of a quinsey, in the eighty-fourth yeay of 



GREGORY. 26S 

Usage, and the l4thof his pontificate, in 1566. Several 
of his '* Letters,'* << Harangues," &c, are said to be in' ex* 
istence.* 

GREGORY (Nazianzen), was born A. D. 324, at Azl- 
anzum, an obscure village belonging to Nazianzuao, . a 
town of the second Cappadocia, situated in a poor, barren, 
and unhealthy country. His parents were persons of rank, 
and no less eminent for their virtues : his father, whose 
name was also Gregory, had been educated in a religion 
called Hypsistarianism *, to which, being the religion of hit 
ancestors, he was a bigot in his younger years ; and the 
{deserting it not only lost him the liindness of his friends, 
jbut estranged him from his mother, and deprived him of 
bis estate. This, however, he bore with great cbearfuU 
Jiess for the sake of Christianity, to which be was converted 
byhis wife, though not without the help of an emphatical 
diceam ; be was afterwards made bishop of Nazianzum, 
being the second who sat in that ch^ir, where he behaved 
with great prudence and diligence. Nor was our author's 
mother less eminent; descended of a pious family, she 
was herself, for piety,. so much the wonder of her age, that 
Ibis son was said to have been the pure effect of bet 
prayers, and of a vow to devote him to God, after the ex-* 
ample of Hannah : and upon his birth she was careful to 
perform her vow. 

Thus advantageously born, he proved a child of preg-^ 
nant parts ; by which, and the advantage of a domestic 
institution under his parents, he soon outstript his contem- 
poraries in learning. Nature had formed him of a grave 
and serious tempier, so that bis studies were not obstructed 
by the little sports and pleasures of youth. After some 
time, he travelled abroad for his farther improvement ; in 
which rout, the first step be took was to Csesarea, and having 
riBed the learning of that university, be travelled to Ca^sarea 
Philippi in Palestine, where soipe of the most celebrated 
masters of tliat age resided, and where Eusebius then sat 
bishop. Here he studied under the famous orator Tbespa- 
sias, and bad among pther fellow<-pupils, Euzoius, afterwards 

* This wai a kind of Samaritan abstinence from some kind of meats, 

mixture, made of Judaism and Pagan- but disowned circumcision. They 

iuQ, or rather some select rites of each, pretended to worship no other deitjr 

With the Gentiles, they did honour to but the almighty, supreme, and most 

hre and burning lighu, but rejected high God; whence they assumed 

ideU and sacriieet; with the J«ws, their character'istic aboTe-mentioned, 

tbey ebserred the nbbaUi* and a strict v^itlot, signifying The Most Hi^k. 

A Moreri.-«>Dvpiu.— Bower. 



114 a R E G O R V, 

1^ Arian bishop of that place. He it|l]^Ited htflnsbiif pi^v 
tlculariy to rhetoric, minding t^e elegance, not the iranity 
and affectation, which then too much disgraced that pror 
feBsion. Hence he removed to Aieicandrid', who^ schooU 
were famous nest to those of Athens, which he designe4 
^r his last stage ; and therefore went ahoard a ship be*' 
longing to £gina, an Island not far from Athens, the )iia«- 
yiners of which were bis familiar acquaintance ; but it being 
about the middle of November, a season for rough weather, 
they were taken with a storm in the road near Cyprus; an4 
the case was become desperate, when suddenly the tem^ 
jpest, it was affirmed, ceased by the prayers of Gregory. 
Thu^ miraculously preserved, he arrived safe at Athens^ 
where he was joyfully entertained, his great abilities ren* 
dering him the admiration both of the scholars and profesr 
aers. Here he commenced a friendship with St. Basil, tb« 
great companion of his life; here too he became acquainted 
with Julian, afterward9 emperor and apostate, ao even^ 
which he remarkably foretold, althoegb at tbi^t time JuV 
lian bad given no ground for suspicion. 

After the departure of his friend, Nazianzen was prer 
Tailed upon by the students to undertake the professor'flf 
place of rhetoric, and he sat in that chair with great ap? 
piauee for a little while ; but being now thirty years of age» 
and mi:)ph solicited by his parents to return botne, he com<« 
j)Iied, taking his journey by lend tb Constantinople. Here 
he met his brother CsBsarius, just then arrived from Alex« 
andi'ia, so accomplished in all the polite learning of thaf 
age, and especially in physic, which he had made his par<« 
tieular study, that he had not been there long before be 
had public honours decreed him, matches proposed iVoi^ 
noble families, the dignity of a senator offered him, sind a 
^mmittee appointed to wait upon the emperor, to tntreal 
him, that though the city at that tinle wanted no leamec!! 
men in any faculty, yet this might be added to all its otliev 
glory, to have Cesariu^ for its physician and inhabitant 
But Nazianzen's influence prevailed against all thesa 
temptations ; and the two brothers returned honie together, 
to the great joy of their aged parents, 

Nazians^en ocxw thougl^t it timp to fulfil s^ vow whiph blS 
had made during the storm aboye-mentioaed, to oonse*' 
cnite himself to God by baptism. Afterwards he was or* 
cfattiuMl a presbyter by his father, who soon had occasion 
to ayaii himself of his assistance. Gregory, the father, 



G R E G R 7. t€B 

#iii(in^ 8«Wrft} of the eastern bishops, had reoeiveiJi a creed 
i^ompoeied by a convention at Constantinople, in the jear 
^9Sf in which the word consubstantial being laid aside, 
ihat-article was expressed thus : ^^that the Son was in all 
things like the Father, according to the Scriptures.** In 
consequence, the monks of Cappadocia, in denying him 
communion, were foliowe<l by a great part of the' people. 
Nazi^n^en, therefore, zealously endeavoured to make up 
4his breach. He first convinced his father of the error, 
•ivhich he found him as ready to recant, and give public 
satisfaction to the people ; then he dealt with the other 
p^ty, whom he soon prevailed with to be reconciled ; and, 
pb bind all with a lasting cement, he made on this occasion 
bis first oration, ** Concerning Peace.'* 
. Julian had now ascended the throne ; and in order to 
^oppress Christianity, published a law, prohibiting Chris- 
tians not only to teach, but to be taught the books and 
learning of the Gentiles. The defeat of this design, next 
U> the two ApoUinarii in Syria, was chiefly owing to Na- 
^ianzen, who upon this ocpasion composed a considerable 
p^rt qf Jhis poems, comprehending all sorts of divine, grave, 
arid serious subjects, in all kinds of poetry; by which 
paeans the Christian yoi^th of those times were completely 
funiisbed, and found no want of those heathen authors 
ifaat were taken from them. Julian afterwards coming to 
Csosarea) ip the roM to his Persian expedition, one part 
pf the ^my was quartered at Nazianzum, where the com^ 
mander peremptorily required the church (which the elder 
Gregory had not long since built) to be delivered to him. 
JBut the old m^n stoutly opposed him, daily assembling the 
people to public prayers, who were so affected with the 
common cause, that the officer was forced to retire for his 
ewp safety. : Jiihan being slain not long after, Nazianzen 
published, two ipvective orations against him, which are at 
onee remarkable proofs of hi^ wit and eloquence, but which 
qualities were mixed with %o,o much virulence and acri* 
mony. ' 

Haying by Julianas death obtained some^ respite from 
pnblie concerns, he amade a visit to his friend Basil, 
who. was then in monastic solitude upon a mountain in 
iVuMto^, whither he had often solicited Naeianzen*s com* 
pany. The Utter was naturally inclined to such a course 
oi life, and always looked upon his entering into orders as 
m kipd of force an4 tyranny pqt upon him, wbieh he coal4 



26€ GREGORY. 

bardly digest ; yet he knew not bow to desert bis parei^ 
But his brother Csesarius being now returned frosd coart, 
where he bad heen for some years^ with a purpose to fix in 
his possession, at home, gave him an opportunity to in« 
dulge his inclination. He accordingly retired to his old 
companion, with whom in bis solitary recess be reqoained 
several years, passing the time in watching, fasting, and 
alt the several acts of mortification. He waa thus employed 
when the necessity of affairs at home obliged bim to quit 
his retirement. His father laboured under the infirmities 
of age, and being no longer able to attend his charge, pi^e* 
vailed with bim to come home ; he retorned accordingly 
about Easter, and published a large apologetic in excuse 
of his flight, which bad been much censured. He bad 
not long entered upon his charge of assistant to his father, 
when the family had the misfortune to lose his brother 
Csesarius, who departed this life October 11, 358. Somie 
time after, died of a malignant fever, his sister Gorgonia^ 
whose funeral-sermon be preached ; as he did also that 
of his father, the aged bishop of Nas^ianzumy who died not 
long after, uear one hundred years old, having been for ty-* 
five years bishop of that place. In the conclufiion of tbif 
latter oration he addressed himself to his mother Norma, 
to support her mind under so great a loss, consolations 
which were proper and seasonable : for she, being. tbuB 
deprived of her affectionate partner, and being nearly of 
equal years to her husband, expired, as may probably be 
conjectured, soon after. 

By these breaches in the family, Nazianzen was suf- 
ficiently weaned from the place of his nativity ; and, though 
he was not able to procure a successor to his father, he 
resolved to throw up his charge, and accordingly retired to 
Seleucia, famous for the temple of St« ThercU, the virgin* 
martyr ; where, in a monastery of devout virgins dedicated 
to that saint, he continued a long time, and did not return 
till the death of St. Basil, whom he deeply regretted be 
could not attend at his last hours, being himself confined 
by sickness. About this cinae be was summoned to ^coun* 
cil at Antioch, holdea anno 378, « to consider the em-^ 
peror's late edict for tolerating the catholics, in ordef to 
suppress Arianism ; and, being ordered by the council to 
;^x himself for that purpose at Constantinople, be preaeatlj 
repaired thither. Here be found the catholic interest at 
the lowest ebb : the Ariansi favoured by Yalens, bad posf* 



GREGORY. 467 

'•esfied themselves of all the churches, and proceeded to 
ftiich extremities that scarcely any of the orthodox dsured 
AVOW their faith. He first preached in his lodgings to 
those that repaired thither, and the congregation soon 
growing numerous, the house was immediately consecrated 
by Nasianssen, under the name of the church of Anastasia, 
or the resurrection ; because the catholic faith, which in 
'.that city bad been hitherto oppressed, here seemed to 
have its retMirreetion. The opposition to his measures but 
increased bis feme, together with the number of his au- 
ditors, and even drew admirers and followers from foreign 
parts ; among whom St. Jerom, lately ordained presbyter, 
caoie on purpose to put himself under his tutelage and 
jdiscipUna; im honour in which Jerom glories on every oc- 
casion* As the catholics grew more considerable, they 
xshose him for their bishop, and the choice was confirmed 
by Meletus of Antioch, and Peter who succeeded Athana- 
«ius at Alexandria; but be was opposed by the Arians, 
-who consecrating Maximus, a famous cynic philosopher 
and Christian, gave him a great deal of trouble. The 
Arian bishop, however, was at length forced to retire, and 
:his successor Demophilus was deposed by the einperbr 
Theodosius, who directed an edict to the people of Coni- 
stantinople, February 27, 380, re*establishing the ortho- 
>dox faith; and afterward coming thither in person, h^ 
treated Nazian^eu with all possible kindness and respect, 
atid appointed a day for his instalment in the see. 

But this ceremony was deferred for the present at his 
own request; and falling sick soon after, he was visited by 
crowds of his friends, who all departed when they had 
made their compliments, ex<:ept a young man with a 
pale look, long hair, in squalid and tattered cloaths, who, 
standing at the bed's feet, made all the dumb signs of 
the bitterest sorrow and lamentation. Nazianzen, start- 
ing, asked him, '^ Who he was, whence he came, and 
what he wanted ?" To which he returned no answer, 
but expressed so much the more passion and resent- 
ment, howling, wringing his hands, and beating his breast 
in such a manner that the bishop himself was moved to 
teaiv. Being at length forced aside by one who stood 
by, he told the bishop, ^^ This, sir, is the assassin, whom 
tome had suborned to murder you ; but his conscience has 
^molested him, and he is here> come ingenuously to confess 
bis fault, and to beg your pardon.'* The bishop repliedi 



»as Q E E G O R y. 

y Friendy God Almighty be propiuoqs to you, bU gmciooi 
preservation of me obligQ^ me freely to forgive you ; tbr 
desperate attempt you designed has made you mine^ nor 
do I r^uire any other reparation^ than that bencefortb yov 
desert your party, and sincerely give vp yourself to God." 

Theodosius being highly solicitors abouit the peace of the 
churchi summoned a council to meet at Constantinople in 
May anno 3^43. This is called the seoopd general council^ 
in which the Nicene Creed w^s ratified ; audi because the 
article concerning the Holy Ghost was but. barely ineiir 
tioned, which was become one qf the principal QontrOf 
irersies of the age, and for the determination pf whidb the 
council had been chiefly summoned, the fathers now drew 
up an explanator}^ creed, composed, as it iai»id> by Grer 
gory of Nyssen, and is the same which in our litjjrgy ia 
called the Nicene Creed. The see of Constantinople waa 
ulso now placed nea^t in precedence to ib^ of IWme. Ouir 
ftutbor carried a great sway in tbat council, where aU 
things went on smoothly, till at last they fell into disturi* 
b^pces on the following occasion. 

There had been a schism for some time in tbe..ehurQb ef 
Antioch, occasioned by the ordination of two bishops to 
that see ; and one of those^ named Melitus, happening to 
die before the end of the council, Na^ianzen proposed tia 
continue the other, named Paulinus, then grown old, for 
bis life. But a^ strong party being mafle for one Fl^vianusb 
presbyter of the church, these last carried it ; aed, not 
content with that, resolved to deprive their grand, opp^ser 
of his se^t at Constantinople. To prevent this he made> 
formal resignation to the emperor, ^nd went to his paternal 
estate at Na^ianzum, resolving never to epiacopise any 
more; insomuch, that though, at bis* return, be.foiiQdtbe 
see of N^zianzum still vacant, and over^run with.the heresy 
of Apollinarius, yet he pertinaciously resisted all io,trealies 
that were made to take that cbfurge upon him* And,, whett 
be was summoned to the re-s^sembUng of thie couucil tbe 
following year, he refused to give bis attendance, and even 
did not stick to ceu^ure all such qteetillgs as factious, %iid 
governed by pride wA f^mbition. I|i tbe ivieao timo» tft 
defence of his conduct, he wrote letters tQ the lUwan pnr^ 
torian pr^efect, and the consul ; assuring tbemn ^^al, 'though 
he had withdrawn himself from public afikirs, it wtia pel, aa 
some im^ginedi Arom any discontent for tbe losa ol tht 
great place he h^d quitted { and that he WQiild ftot^ibiwiiditji 



q^ R £ G O R Y. Mf 

U^tt 600)0100 intek-^iU of religion ; that his retireineoi wtit 

ann^ter of choice more thaii necetsiiy, in n^hich he took 

at great pleasure as a man that has been tossed in a long 

atorxD at sea does in . a safe and quiet harbour. And^ in*" 

dtf^dy being now freed from all external cares, he entirely 

gave himself ap to solitude and contenaplauon, and the 

exercise of a strict and devout life. At vacant hours be 

cefresbed the weariness of his old age with poetry^ which 

be generally employed upon divine subjects, attd serious 

reflections upon the former passages of his life ; an ae* 

couat of which he drew up in iambics^ whence no incon* 

sideyable part of his memoir is derived. Thus be passed 

the remainder of his days till his death in the year 3S9« 

He made a will, by wbicbi except a few legacies to some 

relations, lie bequeathed his whole estate to the poof of 

the diocese of Naaiaazum. In this spirit, daring the three 

years that he. enjoyed the. rich bishopric of Constantioople» 

be never .touched any part of the revenues, but gave it alt 

to the poor, to wliom he was extremely liberal. 

. He- was one of the ablest champions of the orthodox faith 

cioiicerning the Trinity, whence he had the title given hint 

of i,dsi>(n!^f ^^ The: Divine/' by unanimous consent. His 

mav^X and religious qUalitieft were attended with tiie natural 

graces of a sublime wit, subtle apprehension, clear judg-^ 

ment) and easy, and ready elocution, which were all set off 

vdiik as great a stock of huodan learning as the schools of 

the £asii, as Alexandria, or Athens itself, was able to afford. 

AH these excellences are seeu in his works, of which we 

have the following character by Erasmus ; who, after bav<* 

log enriphed the western church with many editions of the 

anueien^ Catbera^ confesses^ that he was altogether discou*' 

raged from attempting the translation of NazLanzen, by 

the acumen arid smartness of his style, the grandeur and 

sisbUmity of his matter, and those somewhat obscure allu«» 

aions that sure frequently interspersed among his writings* 

Upoa the whole, Erasmus doubts not to affirm, that, as he 

lived .in the most learned age-of the church, so he was the 

beat scholar of that age* His works consist of sermons, 

letters, and poems, tbe latter evidently imbued with ge^ 

Aitti, and have been printed in Greek and Latin, Paris, 

IM9 and 1^11,2 vols. fol. with notes by the learned abbo« 

4e Billi, who was also author of tbe Latin translation. Thie 

edition is more esteemed than tbe new one of 1630. There 



»10 GUtGOnt, 

are some poems by St. Gregory in ^^ Tollii insignia idtteM 
rarii lialici,'* Utrecht, 1696, 4to, never printed before. * 

GREGORY (Nyssen), was the younger brother of St* 
Basil, and had an equal care taken of bis education, being 
brought up in all the polite and fashionable modes of leartir* 
ing; but, applying himself particularly to rhetoric, he 
valued himself more upon being accounted an orator than 
^ Christian. On the admonition of his friend Gregory 
Naziauzen he quitted those studies ; and, betaking him** 
self to solitude and a monastic disciplinei he turned his 
attention wholly to the holy scriptures, and the contro- 
yersies of the age ; so that be became as eminent in the 
knowledge of these as^ he had before been in the course of 
more pleasant studies. Thus qualified for the highest dig** 
nity in the church, he was placed in the see of Nyssa, » 
city on< the borders of Cappadocia. The exact time of his 
promotion is not known, though it is certain he was bishop 
in the year 371. He proved in this station a stout cham-* 
pioQ for the Nieene faith, aDd so vigorously opposed the 
Arian party, that he was 6oou after banished by the em- 
peror Valens ; and, in a synod held at Nyssa by the bishop 
of Pontus and Galatia, was deposed, and met with very 
hard usage. He was hurried from place to place, heavily 
fined, and exposed to the rage and petulance of the pb« 
pulace, which fell heavier upon him, as he was both un^ 
used to trouble, and unapt to bear it. In this condition 
be remained for seven or eight years, during which, how- 
ever, he went about countermining the stratagems of the 
Arians, and strengthening those in the orthodox faith ; and 
in the council of Antioch in the year 378, he was» among 
others, delegated to visit the eastern churches lately ha- 
rassed by the Arian persecution. 

, He went not long after to Arabia; and, having dis- 
patched the affairs of the Arabian churches, be proceeded 
to Jerusalem, having engaged to confer with the bisht^s of 
those parts, and to assist in their reformation. Upon his- 
arrival, finding the place overrun with vice, schism, and 
faction, some shunning his communion, and others setting 
up altars in opposition to him, he soon grew weary of it, 
and returned with a heavy heart to Antioch : and being on 
this, occasion ' consulted afterwards, whether it \vas an es- 
sential part of religion to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem 

I Cave.— Da^in.— •Moreri.— Milner's Cburcb Hist.— Stxii OdmmiI. 



GREGORY. f?l 

i(whkh, it seems, was the opinion of the monastic discipli- 
narians at th^t time), he declared himself freely in the ne« 
gative. After this, he was summoned to the great council 
at Constantinople, where he made no inconsiderable figure, 
his advice being chiefly relied on in the most important 
cases ; and particularly the composition of the creed, called 
by us the Nicene creed, was committed to his care. He 
ccrmposed a great many other pieces, commentaries on 
different parts of the scriptures ; sermons; liyes, and let- 
ters. There is a good edition' of his works by Fronton da 
Due, 1615, 2 vols. fol. and another of 1638, 3 vols. fol. 
more ample, but not so correct. They are, however, ia 
'less estimation than the works of almost any of the fathers^. 
He lived to a great age, and was alive when St. Jerom 
wrote his ** Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers" in the year 
392 ; and two years after was present at the synod of Con- 
stantinople, on adjusting the controversy between Agapius 
and Bagaditts, as appears by the acts of that council. He 
died March 9, 396. He was a married man, and lived 
with his wife Theosebia, even- after he was bishop. Gre- 
gory Nazianzen, in a consolatory letter to his sister on her 
death, gives her extraordinary commendations.' 

GREGORY {THEODORDS)^surnamed Thaumaturgus, was 
descended of parents eminent for their birth and fortune, 
at Neo-Cesarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia, where he 
was born. He was educated very carefully in the learning 
and religion of the Gentiles by his father, who was a warm 
zealot; but, losing this parent at fourteen years of age, he, 
enlarging his inquiries, began by degrees to perceive the 
Vanity of that religion in which he had been bred, arid 
turned his inclinations to Christianity. Having laid the 
necessary ground-work of his education at home, and 
stiidied the law for some time, to which he bad no great 
inclination, be resolved to accomplish himself by foreign 
travels, to which purpose he went first to Alexandria, then 
become famous by the Platonic school lately erected there. 
Departing from Alexandria, he came back probably through 
Greece, and staid awhile at Atb^n^.; whence returning 
home, he applied himself to his old study of the law ; but 
again growing weary of it, he turned to the more agreeable 
speculations of philosophy. 

* The fame of Origen, who at that . time bad opened a 

■ ' / 

. 1 Cart't Lires.of tke Fathers.— Milaec's Charch Hist. — Saxii Onomasticon, 



2ii Gregory. 

schdol at C«er&re», id Palestine^ ami vrho9^ retiOfrfl m 
doubk was great at Alexandrk, «oon reached bis Mrs. Tqr 
Ibat city therefore he betook himself, wbi^e itfeettng wkb 
Fermilian, a Cappadocian gentleman, aod Hfter^ards bi^bop^ 
of Caraarea, in that counti^y he eooimenced H frieiidsfaiil 
with him, tbefe being an rxtfaordinary sympanhy and 
agreement in their tempers and studies ; aod they jointly 
put themselves, together witb bis .brother AtbenodmriM^ 
under the tutorage of that celebrated master. Origen en^ 
deavoured to settle him in tbe full belief of Cbristiamtyi 
of which he had some insight before, and to ground him ia 
the knowledge of the holy jcriptur es, as the best sysleaa eS 
true wisdom and philoso^y. 

Neo^Caesarea was a large and popuknis place, but being 
miserably overgrown with superstition and idolatry, Cbris^ 
tiaiiity had as yet scarce made its entrance .tbere» How«» 
ever, our young pbilxMopbet was appointed lo be a gitid^ 
of souls in the place of his nativity. Pfasedinius^ bishop of 
Amasia, a neighbouring city in that province, east his. eye 
upon him for that purpose ; and it was thought biavela^ 
tion to the plaee would more endear the emp)oyfireii>t to 
him. But,' upon receiving the first iniimiattofi of the. de? 
sign, he shifted his quarters, gnd^ as oft as soogbt for, .0ed 
from one desert to another ; so that the btshcq^ by all bis 
arts and industry i^ould* not obtain inteiligeiice of him ; be 
therefore constituted bim bishop of the plate in bii ab* 
sencey^and bow averse soever he seemed to be befose, be 
now accepted the charge, when perbapa he bad a ntkote 
formal and solemn eonsecration. The proriace be entefdd 
upon was difficult ; the city and neighbourhood beii^ 
wholly addid^rd to the worship of demons, arid there not 
being above sevente^i Christians in those parts^ so that he 
must find a church befone be could govern it. The couo* 
try was overrun witb heresies ;^ and fatmielf, though ae^ 
complished sufficiently in bQQMua learnings was. allogetfaer 
unexercised in theological studies and the mysteries of re^ 
ligion. But here again be had immediai:e asMstance frool 
heaven ; for, one night, as it is related by his biographer^ 
Gregory of Nyssen, with the sttperstkioas. ^fmrit then pre^ 
Talent, while he was naussng upon tliese tthiogs^ «iid dis« 
cussing matters of faith in his own mind, he had a visionjt 
in which St. John the evangelist and the. blessed virgiqL ap- 
peared in the chamber where he was, and discoursed be- 
fore him concerning those points, tn ootiset[ueiite, after i 



G R E o o a T. im 

their departure, be immediately penned that canon and 
jrule of faith vrbicb they bad d^atred. To this creed be 
always kept himself, and bequeathed it as an inestimable 
deposit to bis successors. The original, written with his 
own hand, we are informed, was preserved in that church 
in bis ntoie. It is cited by Dr. Waterland, as express and 
eii:plicit respecting the doctrine of the Trinity* There can 
be no doobt of its authenticity, although the Socinians 
hare taken much pains to ,proTe the contrary. 

Thus furnished, be began to apply himseif more directly 
to the cbai|;e ccmimitted to him, and be was said to be en- 
dowed with the power of working miracles : hence the title 
of Thaumaturgus, or wonder-worker, is colistantly ascribed 
ta him in the writings of the church. St. Basil assures 
us, tliat upon this account the Gentiles «sed to call him a 
aecbnd Moses. In thk faithful and successful government 
of his flock he continued quietly till about anno 2 JO, when 
lie fled from the Decian persecution ; but, as ^oon as the 
storm was over, he returned to his charge, and in a general 
visitation of his diocese, established in every place anni- 
versary festivids asd solemnities in honotft of the martyrs 
wbo had soflered in the late persecution. In the reie^ of 
GaHenus, about the year 260, upon the irruption of the 
Aorthera nations into the Roman empire, the Goths breaking 
into Pontus, Asia, and some paru of Greece, created such 
/confusion, that a neighbouring bishop of those parts wrote 
to Gregory for advice what to do : our author's answer, 
sent by Eupbrasymus, is called bis ^^ Canoivical Epistle,*^ 
still extant among his works. Not long afterwards was 
convened that synod at Antioch, wherein Paul of Samosata, 
bishop of the place, which he dUd not care to losei, made a 
feigned recantation of bis heretical opinions. Our St. Gre- 
gory was among the chief persons in this synod wbith met 
«n the year 264, but did not long survive it, dying either 
this or most probably the following year. 

St. Ba»l says he was an evangelical man in bis whole 
life. In his devotion he shewed the greatest reverence : 
yea and nay, were the usual measures of bis communica- 
tion. He weas also a man of uncommon meekness and hu- 
mility, and a firm adherent to truth. With respect to the 
miracles ascribed to him, they do not rest upon the autho- 
rity of his contemporaries, and are more num^erous and 
extraordinary than ^ili now be readily credited. His works 
we^e printed in Greek and Latin, 1626, folio^ and in the 

VolXVL T 



f^4 c a t G o R r 

library of the fathers. Gerard Vossiut ^it^d prtih«d M 
edition at Mentis in I664, 4to. Many of his mttitlgs 
however, are supposed to be lost* - ^ • 

GREGORY of Toufs, St or frequently called Oeoroiub 
FLoa£NTiDS Gregorius, an eminent bishop and writer af 
the sixth century, descended from a npbie family of Ao^ 
▼ergne, was born about the year 544. He was edfu;i||tfll 
by his uncle Gallus, bi»hop of Cle^mont,^ and beoanie so 
eminent for learning «nd virtue, as to be appointed bishoip 
of Toura in the year 573. He assisted at the coutieti bei4 
at Paris in the year 577, respecting Pretextat, bishop xlf 
Rouen, and strongly opposed the violence of some of the 
members of that assembly, particularly Chilperic and Fr^ 
degonde. He went afterwards to visit the tomb of the 
apostles at Rome, where he formed a friendship wkh St. 
Gregory the Great, and died November 27, 595^ Tkk 
bishop wrote a. *< History of France,** in ten booka^ ^igiit 
books of <<The Miracles, or Lives of the Sainta;V ami 
other works, in the library of the fathers. The bc^edii. 
lion Is that by Dom Ruinart, 1699, fol. His history is^very 
useful; for though the style is dry aud^cmrsey and the 
author extremely aimple aad cjpedulous, yet atr iagenkMlt 
critic may easily separate the truths contained ilk it frcKk 
the fiilsehoods. This work has been tmnslated into Freoeh 
by the abbi de Mavolles, 1668, 2 vols^ 8va* ^'^- 

GREGORY of Rimini, general of the Augustinei 1357, 
who died in 135B, was a celebrated scholastic dtvsine, stir- 
named the Authentic Doctor, and wrote a .'^ Comtn^itaiy 
on the Master of the Sentences,*' Vaientia, 1500^ foi^ ^ith 
an addition, printed at Venice, 1522, fol.; *^ A Treatise 
on Usury,'* and other works, Rtmtni, 1522, foL' 
. GREGORY of Sc Vincent, a Flemish geometrician^ was 
born at Bruges in 1584, and became a Jesuit at Rome at 
twenty years of age. He studied mathematics' under the 
learned Jesuit Clavius. He afterward became a reputable 
fyrofessor of those sciences himself,^ and his instructions 
were solicited by several princes : he was called to Prague 
by the emperor Ferdinand II. ; and Philip IV. king of Spua 
was desirous, of having him to teach the mathematics toiiis 
SOB, the young prince John of Austria. He was not :le$s 

' . - 

» CaYC-^Motbeim. — ^MiJner't Cburcb Hiit — Douglas's Criteriun, p. 397.—- 
9s»t] Onomast. 
, • Papio.-^Momri.— Vostiat dt Hist« L«t.<««CtTC, roL I. 



6 R E R Y. f 7« 

tttimable for bis virtues than his skill iii the sciences. His 
lipeU*nieaRt endeavours were very commeudablei when his 
holy zeal, though for a false reli^ioP) led him to fuUow the 
jurmy in Flanders one conipaign^ to confess the wounded 
and dying soldiersi in which he received several wounds 
jiimself. He died of an apoplexy at Ghent^ in 1667, at 
eighty-three years of age. 

Asa writer, Gregory of St Vincent was very diffuse and 
voluminous, but he was an excellent geometrician^ He 
fiublisbed, in Latin, three mathematical works, the prin* 
cipal of which was his ^^ Opus Geometricum Quadraturas 
iSirculi, et Sectiooum Coni,*^ Antwerp, 1647, 2 vols, folio. 
^Idioogh he has not demonstrated, in this work, the' qua* 
drature of the circle, as he pretends to have done, the 
book nevertheless contains a great number of truths and 
^portaiit discoveries ; one of which is this, viz. that if one 
a^mptote of an hyperbola be divided into parts in geome? 
incal prog^ression, and from the points of division orditiates 
be-drawn parallel to the other asymptote, they vjrill divide 
the space between the asymptote and curve into equal por« 
liona; from whence it was shewn by Mersenne, that, by 
iaking the continual sums of those parts, there would be 
ejbcained areas in arithmetical progression, adapted to ab« 
f eissea in geometrical progpressioo, and which therefore 
were analogous, to a system of logarithms. ' 

GREGORY (James), the first, of an emment family of 
learned men in Scotland, was the son of the Rev. Mr. John 
{Gregory, minister of Drumoak in the county of Aberdeen, 
aiid was born at Aberdeen in November 1638. His mother 
was a daughter of Mr. David Anderson of Finzaugb, or 
Finshaugh, a gentleman who possessed a singular turn for 
mathematical and mechanical knowledge. This mathema- 
lical genius was hereditary in the family of the Andersons^ 
fuid from them it seems to have been transmitted to their 
descendants of the names of Gregory, Reid, &c. Alexr 
ander Anderson, cousin -german of the said David, wa^ 
professor of mathematics at Paris in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and published there several va- 
luable and ingenious; works; as may be seen in our vol. IL 
The mother of James Gregory inherited the genius of her 
family ; and observing in her son, while yet a child, a 
strong propensity to mathematics, she instructed him her- 

1 lloreri.— Hutton't OicUoasi^. 
T 2 



i7» O R E G O H Y. 

ilelf in the elements of that science. His edueattcm in iim 
languages be received at the gramniar»6chool of Aberdeeoi 
lind went through the usual course of academical studies at 
Marischal college, but was chiefly delighted with pbilosa* 
phical researches, into which a new door bad been lately 
opened by the key of the' mathematics. Galileo, Kepler^ 
and Des Cartes were the great masters of this new method; 
their works, therefore, Gregory made his principal study, 
tind began early to make improvements upon their disco*^ 
Teries in optics. The first of these improvements was th^ 
invention of the reflecting telescope, which^still bears hit 
name; and which was so happy a thought, that it bas 
given occasion to the niost considerable improyemifents 
made in optics, since the invention .of the telescope. Ha 
published the construction of this instrument in bis ^^ Optica 
jpromota,^' 1663, at the age of twenty-four. This disco* 
very soon attracted the attention of the matbematiciansi 
both of our own and foreign countries^ who immediately 
perceived its great importance to the sciences. Sut the 
manner of placing the two specula upon the same axis ap« 

t^ >earing to Newton to be attended with the disadvantage of 
osing the central rays of the iai^er speculum, he proposed 
an improvement on the instrument, by giving an oblique 
jposition to the smaller speculum, and placing the oj'e^glast 
in the side of the tube. It is observable, however, that 
the Newtonian construction of that instrument was long 
abandoned for .the original or Gregorian, which is now 
always used when the instrument is of a moderate sijce^ 
though Herschel has preferred the Newtonian form for the 
conistruction of those immense telescopes which he has of 
late so successfully employed in observing the heavens. 
About 1664 or 1665, coming to London, he became ac« 

auainted with Mr. John Collins, who recommended him to 
le best optic glass-grinders there, in order to have bis 
telescope executed. But as this could not be done for 
want of skill in the artists to grind a plate of metal for the 
object speculum into a true parabolic concave^ which the 
design required, he was much discouraged; and after a 
few imperfect trials made with an ill-polished spherical dQe, 
which did not succeed to his wish, be dropped the pursuit, 
and resolved to make the tour of Italy, then the mart of 
Mathematical learning, in the view of prosecuting bis &•* 
Tourite study with greater advantage. 

He had not been long abroad when tlie same inventive 



G R I G O K Y« t77 

g^enids, tvht<$h Kad before Aewo itself in practical mslhe^ 
itiatict, Carried him to some new improvements m the spe«< 
culative part. The ftublime geometry on the doctrine of 
curves was then hardly passed its infant state, and the 
femed problem of squaring the circle stiil continued a re- 
proach to it ; when our author discovered a new analytical 
method of summing up an infinity converging series, by 
which the area of the hyperbola,- as well as the circle,'may 
be computed to any degree of exactness. He was then at 
Padua ; and getting a few copies of his invention printed 
there in 1667 under the title ^^ Vera Circuli et Hyperbola 
Quaclratura/' he sent one to his friend. Mr. Collins, wh6 
communicated it to the royal society^ where it met with 
the commendation of lord Brounker and Dr. Wallis. He 
teprinted it dt Venice, and published it the following year, 
1668, together with another piece entitled '^ Geometric 
pars universalis, inserviensquantitatum curvarum transmu* 
tationi et mensurfis," isi which he is allowed to have shewn, 
for the first time, a method for the transmutation of curves. 
These works engaged the notice, and procured the author 
the correspondenee of the greatest matbemati<fian8 of the 
age, Newton, Huygens, Wallis, and others. An account 
of this piece was also read by Mr. Collins before the royal 
society, of which Gregory, being returned from, his travels, 
was chosen a member, admitted the 1 4th of January: this 
year, and communicated to them an account of the contro* 
versy in Italy ^bout the motion of the earth, which waa 
dented by Riccioli and bis followers. 

The same year, hir quadrature of the circle being at* 
tacked by Mr* Hnygens, a controversy arose between those 
two eminent mathematicians, in which our aUthot pro« 
doced some improvements of his series. But in this dis^ 
pute it happened, as it generally does in most others, that 
the antagonists, though setting out with decent temper, 
yet grew too much heated in the combat. This was the 
case here, especially on the side of Gregory, whose de^ 
fence was, at his own request, inserted in the *^ Philoso* 
phical Transactions;^' but Leibnitz, who allows Gregorf 
the highest merit for his genius and discoveries, is of opi* 
nion, that Huysens has pointed out, though not errors, 
sonde considerable deficiencies in the treatise above-men-^ 
tiofled, and has shewn a rnnch simpler method of attaining 
the same end. Gregory also received from Mr« GoUine, 
about this time, an account of the series inreoted by sk 



97* GEE GO R Y. 

Iiatfc Newton ; who th tbat bad actually elfedted wbat'ovf 
muthor was stiffly contending against Huygent to be utterly 
impossible : that is, the ratio of tbe diameter of a circum-' 
ference, expressed in a series of simple terms, indepetidenl 
of each otber, and entirely freed froni the magic vinottluixi 
of sards, in which they had till then been tndissoiubly held* 

In 16j68 our author published at London another werk^ 
entitled ^f Exercitationes Geometricie," which contributed 
still much farther to extend his reputation. About thi4 
time he was elected professor of mathematics in the iini?er4 
sity of St. Andrew's, an office which he held for six years. 
During bis residence ^there he married, in 1669» Mary, 
the daughter of George Jamesoo^ thie celebrated painter^ 
whom Mr. Walpde has termed the Vandyke of Soot^ 
)and, mid wl|o was fellow discij^e with that great artist 
in the schoof of Rubens at Antwerp. His fame piaoed btqi 
in so great esleem with the royal academy ^t Pftris, tbat| 
in the beginning of 1671, it was resTolved by t\^% aca<» 
demy to recommend htm to their grand monarch fpr J| 
pensidn ; and tbe ^design was approved even by Mr. Hay? 
gens, though he said he had reason to think himself ink^ 
properly treated by Mr. Gregory, on account of the gon-r 
trorersy between them. Accordingly, several members of 
that academy wrote to Mr. Oldenburg, desiring him to ae» 
quaint the council tf tbe royal society with their proposal i 
iqforining him likewise, that the king of France wa« willing 
to allow pensions to one or two learned Engltshmeui whom 
they should recommend. Biit no answer was ever made 
to t)iat proposal ; and our author, with respect to this par* 
tieular, looked ppon it as nothing qiore than a compliment, 

In 1678 he published ^* The great and new art of weigh* 
jng Vanity : or a discovery of tbe ignorance and arrogance 
of the gi^at and new atrtist, in bis pseudo-philosophical 
vfrifings. By M. Patrick Mathers, arch^bedal to the um« 
Tersity of St. Andrew's. To which are annexed some ten-» 
tamina de naotu penduli et projectorum.'^ Under this 
assumed name, our author wrote this little piece to expose 
tbe ignorance of Mr. Sinclare, professor at Glasgow, in 
his bydrostatioa^l writings, and in return for some ill-usage 
of that author to a colleague of Mr. Gregory's. In the 
same year, sir Isaac Newton^ on his wonderful discoveries 
ill thp nature of light, having contrived a new refliecting 
leliefcopey and made several objections to Mr. Gregory^'S, 
thisgave birth tp i^ duipute between thqse two pbUMoph^n;^ 



GREG O R Yv 2» 

vilmlibiiqtt, ooatniued during that and the following year^ in 
ibeiDoscaaiii^le manner on each side; Mr. Gregory de« 
li^adiag bis Qivn construction so far, as to gi\'e his anta-^ 
gowist the whole honour of having made the catoptric te«^ 
ktspopes preferable to the dioptric ; and shewing, that the 
itnperfectioBs.in|hese ii^truments were not so much owing 
^jk defect in the object^speculum as to the diflPereut re- 
^aogthiJity of the rays of light. lii the course of this dis* 
po^y oAir author described a . burning concave mirror^ 
whieh was approved by sir Isaac, and is still in good 
esteem. Several letters that passed iu this dispute ar4s 
priiited by Dr. Uesaguliers, in an appendix to the English 
edition of Dr. David Gregory^s ^^ Elemeau of Catoptrica 
and . Dioptrics.^' AU ibis .while he attended the proper 
{Misijness of his professorship with great diligencoi which 
^ing up the greatest part of his time, especially in the 
jfioiter season^ interrupted him in th^ pursuit of his propet 
s|iidies» These, however, led him to &rtber improvementi 
jfft the iaveotion of infuute series, which be occasionaUyi 
comiDunicated to his intimate frieod and correspondent 
Mr. Collins. In 1674 Mr. Gregory was .called to Edia* 
burgh, to fill the chair of mathematics in that.ttniversity« 
This place he liad held but little more, than a yeap, when, 
ia October 1675, being employed in shewing the satellites 
of Jupiiter through a telescope to some of his pupils, . he 
^sy| suddenly struck with total blindness, and. died a few 
daysjtfter, to. the great loss of the mathematical world, at 
only thirty-seven years of age. 

. The most shining part of Gregory^s character is that of 
his. mathematical genius as an inventor* In this view, par« 
iicalarly, he merits a place in these memoirs } aodthere^ 
fore we /shall conclude this article, with .a list of the tnpsl 
leaiarkableof his inventions. His reflecting telescope ; bumir 
ing concave mirror; bis quadrature of the circle, by an infi- 
oi4^ converging series ; and his method for transformation of 
eurvesy have been already mentioned. Besides these, h% 
was the first who g^ve a geometrical deinonstration.of lord 
Brounker's series for squaring the hyperbola, aa it had 
been explained by Mercator in his *^ Logarithraotechnia.** 
He was likewise the first >yho demonstrated the meridian 
line to be analogous to ^> scale of logarithmic tangents, of 
the half compliment of latitude*. He also invented and 

' * yh\% intention it of great us* in inYeqlor of'lhe deiqonitratioa of it mf% 
aavrf ation $ S«l bit just mtrit i»9 Ctie aficrwarcltsMertcdli/Or.HstlejiWhi^ 



aftO G.KEO O R Y. 

demonstrated geometrioally, by the help of the bypeibbia, 
a very simple converging series for making the iogartthmSf 
and therefore recommended by Dr. Halley as very proper 
for practice. He also sent to Mr. Collins the solution of 
the famous Keplerian problem by an infinite series. He 
found out a method of drawing tangents to curves geo-» 
metrically, without any previous calculations. He gave a 
rule for the direct and inverse method of tangents, which 
Stands upon the same principle (of exhaustions) with that 
of 'fluxions, and differs not much from it in the manner of 
applicatipn. He likewise gave a series for the length of 
the arc of a circle from the tangent, and vice versa; a* 
also for the secant and logarithmic tangent and secant, and 
vice versa. These, with others, for certifying, or measor* 
ing the length of the elliptic and hyperbolic curves, were 
sent to Mr. Collins, in return for some received from htm 
of sir Isaac Newton^s ; and their elegance being admirable, 
and .above whatever he had produced before, and after the 
manner of air Isaac, gave room to think he had improved 
himself greatly by that master, whose example be foUowedi 
in delivering his series in simple terqns, independent on 
each other. 

We are assured, that at his death he was in pursuit of a 
general method of quadrature, by infinite series, like that 
of sir Isaac. This appeared by his papers, which came 
into the hands of his nephew, Dr. David Gregory, who 
published several of them ; and he himself assured Mr. 
Collins, be bad found out the method of making sir Isaac's 
series; who thiereupon concluded he must have written a 
treatise upon it. This encouraged Mr. Stewart, professor 
of mathematics in Aberdeen, to take the trouble of- exa* 
mioing his papers, then in the hands of Dr. David Gre« 
gory, the late dean of Christ church, Oxford ; but no such 
treatise could be found, nor any traces of it, and the same 
had been declared before by Dr. David Gregory ; whence 
it happens, that it is still unknown what his method was of 
making those serieses.. However, Mr. Stewart affirms, 
that, in turning oyer his papers, be saw several curioi^ 

however, at the same time obsenrcs. Curios, vol. If. 1727. The truth i% 

that it wair performed, not without a Gompiieation, tediousness, and intri* 

IcMig train ef eonseqneneet, and com- caoy, were fanlti compiatned of in all 

l^licatioQS ef nroportioni, whereby the bis seriett before be had learned to ifli« 

evidence ef the demoostration was in a prove them by a sight of those of sir 

freat measure lost, and the reader Isaac Newtoo. Comm/^rCi EpistoL No* 

wearied before he attains it. Miscel. 53. 



GREGORY. Mh 

onei irpoif particalar subjects, not jet printed. On the 
contrary, some letters which he saw confirmed Dr. David 
Gregory^s remark, and made it evident, that our author had 
never compiled any treatise, containing the foundations o( 
this general method, a very shoit time before his death ; 
so that all that can be known about his method can only be 
collected from his letters, published in the short history of 
his *^ Mathematical Discoveries,** compiled by Mr. Collins^ 
and his letters to that gentleman in the ^^ Comtnercium Epi* 
stolicum." From these it appears,, that, in the beginning of 
1670, when Mr. Collins sent him sir Isaac Newton's series 
' for squaring the circular zone, it was then so much above 
every thing he comprehended in this way, that after hav- 
ing endeavoured in vain, by comparing it with several of 
fais own, and combining them together, to discover the 
m^hod of it, he concluded it to be no legitimate series ; 
till, being assured of his mistake by his friend, be went 
again to work, and after almost a whole year's indefatiga- 
ble pains, as be acknowledges, he discovered, at last, that 
It might be deduced frdfil one of bis Own, upon the subject 
of the logarithms, m wtfieb he had given a' method .for 
finding the power to any given logarithm, or of turning 
the root of any pure power into ^n infinite series^ and in 
the same manner, viz. by comparing and combininig his 
own series together, or else by dediiction therefrom, he fell 
upon several more of sir Isaac's, as well as others like them^ 
in which he became daily more ready by continual prac* 
tice ; and this seems to have been the utmost he ever 
actually attained to, in the progress towards the discover* 
ing Any universal method for those series.^ 

GREGORY (David), elder brother of the preceding, 
was born in 1627 or 1628, and although he possessed all 
the genius of the other branches of his family, was edii* 
cated by bis father ifor trade, and served an apprenticeship 
CO a mercantile house in Holland. Having a stronger pas* 
ston, however, for knowledge than for money, he aban* 
doned trade in 1655, and returning to his own country, he 
succeeded, upon the death of an elder brother, to the estate 
of Kinardie, situated about forty miles north of Aberdeen^ 
where he lived many years, and where thirty«two children 
were born to him by two wives. Of these, three sons made 

^ Bm^. Brit — ^Hutton's Oici.-«-M«vtiii*8 Biog. PkUmk— Pre&et to Dr. Joha 
Gregory's Works, &l]t, 1788, 4 tols. 12mo. 



sm GREGORY. 

a conspicuous figure in the republic of letters, hetng aH 
professors of matheoiatics at the same time in three of the 
British universities^ viz. David at Oxford,. James at Edin^ 
'burghy and Charles at St Andrew's* 

Mr. Gregory^ the subject of this memoir, while he lived 
at Kinardie, was a jest among the neighbouring gentlemea 
for his ignorance of what was dpipg about his pyrn farni^ 
but an oracle in matters of learning pnd philosophy, and 
particularly in medicine, which he had studied for his 
amusement, and began to practise among his poor oei'gh- 
hours. He acquired «uch a reputation in that science, 
that he was employed by the nobility and gentjemeu of 
that county, but took no fees. His hours of study. were 
singular. Being much occupied through the day with 
those who applied to him as a physician, he went early to 
bed, rose about two or thr;ee in the morning, and, after 
upplying to his studies for some hours, went to bed^agaiu^ 
and slept an hour or two before breakfatt. He was thi^ 
first man in that country who had a barometer; and bav^ 
ing paid great attention to the changes in it, and the cor** 
responding cbaAges in the weather, he was once in danger 
of being tried by the presbytery for witchcraft or conjura- 
tion. A deputation of that body waited upon him to an<» 
quire iuto^ the ground of certain reports that had come to 
jtlieirears; but, affording them ample satisfaction, a prose« 
putio^i was prevented, 

. About the beginning of the last century, he removed 
with his family to Aberdeen, and 19 the time of queen 
Anne's wars employed his thoughts upon an improvement 
in artillery, in order to make the shot of great guns more 
destructive to the enemy, and executed a model of the 
engine he had contrived. The late Di*- Reid, in his adr 
ditions to the lives of the Gregorys, published in Hutton*s 
dictionary, informs us that he conversed with a clock- 
maker at Aberdeen, who had been eipployed in making this 
model ;. but having made many different pieces by direction 
without knowing their intention, or how they were to be 
put together, he could give x\o account of the whole. After 
making some ei^periments with this model, which satisfied 
him, Mr, Gregory was so s^qgpine in the hope of being 
useful to the allies in the war against France, that he set 
about preparing a field equipage with a view to make a 
tampaign in Inlanders, and in the mean time sent his model 
to his son the Savilian professor, the subject of our next 



GREGORY. 2«S 

ftrtiele, that he might have hiS| and sir Isaac Newton's opi« 
hion of it. His son shewed it to Newton without letting 
hiai know that his own father was the inventor of it. Sir 
Isaac was much displeased with it, saying, that if it had 
tended as much to the preservation of mankind, as to their 
destruction, the inventor would have deserved a great re- 
ward : but, as it was contrived solely for destruction, and 
would soon be known by the enemy, he rather deserved 
to be punished, and urged the professor very strongly to 
destroy it, and if possible, to suppress the invention. It 
is probable the professor followed this advice, as he died 
'soon after, and the model was never found. Sir Isaac's 
f^ljection, however, appears rather to be fastidious, and 
might apply with equal force to any improvement in rous* 
keis, Sec. or to gunpowder itself.-^Wheh the rebellion 
broke ^ out in 1715, Mr. Gregory went a second time to 
Holland, and returned when it was over to Aberdeen, 
where he died about 1720, aged liinety-three, leaving be- 
hind him a history of his own time and country, which was 
never published. One of hisidaughters was mother to the 
late celebrated Dr. Thomas Reid of Glasgow, by whointhe 
above particulars were first communicated.' 

GREGORY (David), son of the preceding, and nephew 
to the inventor of the reflecting telescope, was born June 
24, 1661, at Aberdeen; where be also received the first 
grounds of bis learning, but was afterwards removed to 
Kdinburgb, and took his degree of M* A. in that university, 
l^he great advantage of his uncle^spapers induced his friends 
to recommend the mathematics to him ; and he had a natu«» 
ral subtilty of genius particularly fitted for that studj', to 
which he applied with indqlatigable industry, and suc- 
ceeded so well that he was advanced to the mathematical 
chair, at Edinburgh, at the age of twenty-three. The 
same year he published a treatise, entitled *< Exercitatio 
Geometrica de dimensione figurariim,^' Edinb. 1684, 4to^ 
in which assuming the doctrine of indivisibility, and the 
arithmetic of infinites, as already known, he explained a 
method which not only suited his nucleus examples, left by 
him without any way of finding them, but discovered others^ 
by which an infinite number of curve-lines^ and the areas 
contained between thpiu and righ^ lines (such as ho other 
itoethod then known extended to) might be measured. He 

> Htttton'tf Pick.— Oleig's $applemeut to the Eoeypl, Brit«nDica-. 



8S4 



GREGORY. 



bad already seen some hints in bis und^^s papers 'conc($m# 
ing sir Isaac Newton's method, of which he made the best 
use he could * ; and the advantage he found thereby raised 
an ardent desire in him Xo see that method puhlished. 
Under this impatient expectation, the ** Principia'^ was ho 
sooner out in 1€S7, bnt our author took it in band, and 
presently made himself so much master of it as to be able 
to read his professorial lectures upon the philosophy con** 
tained in it, and, causing his scholars to perform their ex** 
ercises for their degrees upon several branches of it, be^ 
eaihe its first introducer into the schools. 
. .He continued at Edinburgh till 1691, when, bearing of 
Dr. Bernard's intention to resign the Savilian professorship 
of astronomy at Oxford, he left Scotland, and, coming to 
London, was admitted a member of the royal society : and 
paid bis addresses to sir Isaac Newton, who took the first 
opportunity of recommending him to Mr. Flamstead (masf 
ter of the mathematical school in Christ's- hospital, Lon* 
don), with a letter, recommending his mathematical merit 
,ebove all exception in these terms : ** Sir, it is almost a 
fortnight since I intended, with Mr« Paget and another 
friend or two, to have given you a visit at Greenwich ; but 
sending to the Temple coffee-house, I understood you had 
not been in London for two or three weeks before, wbioh 
maide me think you were retired to your living for a time. 
The bearer hereof, Mr. Gregory, mathematic professor <tf 
Edinburgh coll<^e, in Scotbmd, intended to have given 
you a visit with us. You will find him a very ingenious 
person, and a good mathematician, worth your acquaint*" 
ance.'* In proceeding, be mentions our author as a fit 
person, in case of Mr. Flamstead's death, to carry on his 
astronomical views. Thus recommended, the royal astro«- 
Bomer used his best interest to procure him success at Ox»- 
ford, where he was elected astronomy-professor this year, 
bavine been .first admitted of Baliol college, and incorpo* 
rated M. A. February 8, and he was created M. D. on the 



* In his Latin <* Treatise of PracU- 
tal Geometry," there is a series of 
Jiis vncle's, vbieh be reeeoBmeods for 
jH)uaring die circle>'thimigh it eonfevf •• 
so slow, as to be otteHy of no use in 
pr»etiee» without some farther artifice'. 
This is obserred by Mr. Maclaiirtn, 
who published an English translation of 
it in 1745,8¥0, with additions, and the 
second edition vat printed tt Edin* 



burgb, 1751, 8vo. However, Mr. Mao* 
laiirin*s remark shews our author's «^in 
in infinite series to be eery iai|>erftfot» 
at the time of reading those leetores, 
from which the tract waa compiled 
after his death ; and Mr. Celes. of Caw- 
bridge, spohe alighUy of bit abilities hi 
that doctrine. Gen. Diet. fol. IV, p^ 
144. 



G R E G O R T. 



99$ 



19th of the •atne month, but he had no relUh for the tech* 
nical part of hia profession, and was seldom seen in the 
abserratory. His genius lay more to geometry, and in 
that way he succeeded very well, both in his elements of 
optics*, and of physical and geometrical astronomy. This 
last is reckoned his master-piece ; and, having finished it 
in 1702, folio, he immediately engaged in carrying on the 
noble Resign of his predecessor, Dr. Bernard, to print all 
the works of the ancient mathematicians, the first-fruits of 
which appeared in an edition of Euclid's works in Greek 
and Latin, folio, the following year. In the same design 
he afterwards joined with his colleague. Dr. Halley, in. pre- 
paring an edition of '^ Apollonius's Conies f * Dr. Bernard 
had left materials for the four first books, which our author 
undertook to complete, but was prevented by his deaths 
which happened October 10, 1708. He died at the Grey- 
hound-inn, at Maidenhead, in Berkshire, in his way from 
London to Bath. His disorder was a consumption. He 
was interred at Maidenhead, but there is a handsome 
marble monument erected to his memory in St. Mary*s 
church at Oxford, by his wife. 

• Our professor's genius lay chiefly in inventing new and 
elegant demonstrations of the discoveries made by others^ 
He gave the first demonstration of that curve, which is well 
known since by the name of catenaria, or the curve that is 
formed by a chain fastened at each end ; and first disco* 
vered, that thi?* curve iuverted gave the form of a true and 
legitimate arch, all the parts supporting each otherf* There 
are several other papers of his in the *^ Philosophical Trans- 
actions," vols. XVIII. XIX. XXI. XXIV. and XXV. He 
left also in MS. " A short treatise of the nature and aritb* 
metic of Logarithms," which is printed at the end of Keill*^ 
translation of Commandine's Euclid ; and the <' Treatise of 
Practical Geometry" menUoned in the note, as published 
by Mr. Madaurin. .His explication of sir Isaac Newton's 



. * It »«« published in 1^95, in La- 
tio, entitled ** CatoptricB & Dioptrics 
Spherics Eleraenta, Ox<».^Bro, and 
vat codBiMled from' hw leotttKi* read 
at fidinhursh in 1684. In H he g^ivet 
the preference to lir Isaac Newton's 
rafleeclng telescope^ above thatofhli 
fade James Oregory. It was much 
fsteemed for the neatness and easiness 
tf the demonstrations ; and a seoond 
edition ir' fiofiish came ovt in 1703, 



by Dr. Browne ; and a third in 1*735, 
by Dr. Desa|:uliers, who added an ap- 
pendix, containinif the history of tlio 
two reAootins tolesoopet, with theU 
seTeral improvements at that time. 

t This is printed in the Phil. Trans. 
No. Sdl. He obsarrtts, that arches af 
all othar fotms, in stone* bfick. and ihe 
1ilce» are only supported by incladim 
jomecatenary curve, within the breadth 
of their farming stones. 



i$e O R E G O R r. 

method, to construct the orbit of a comet by three. ncoci^tM 
observations, is commended by Dr. Halley. Oar author wa« 
a most ioiimate and confidential friend of sir 'Isaac, and 
was intrusted with a manuscript copy of the ^' Principia,** 
for the purpose of making obsenri^ions on it. Of these 
Newton availed himself in the second edition, they having 
come too late for his first publication, which wa? exceed- 
ingly h«rried by Dr. Halley, lest Newton's backwardness 
might not let it appear at all. There is a complete copy 
of these observations preserved in the library of the vni- 
vemty of Edinburgh, presented to it by Dr. James Gre^-. 
gory, the present professor of the practice of medicine* 
These contain many sublime matlinematical discussions^ 
many valuable commentaries on the ** Principia,*' and 
many interesting anecdotes. There are in it some para^ 
graphs in the band-writing of Huygens relative to his 
theory of light. 

Dr. David Gregory married, in 1695, Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Mr. Oliphant of Langtown in Scotland. By 
this lady he bad four sons, of whom, the eldest, Davip, 
was elected, from Westminster school in 1714» student of 
Christ church, Oxford ; became rector of Semly in Wilt* 
shire; was installed canon of Christ church, June 8, }7S6| 
and dean, May 18, 1756. He was appointed the first pro^ 
fessor of modern history and languages on the foundation 
of that professorship by George I. prolocutor of the lower 
house of convocation, and master of Sherbuni hospital^ 
near Durham. He died and was interred in Christ church 
cathedral, 1767, in the seventy-first year of his age, in the 
same grave with his wife Mary (Grey), who died in 176^. 

When Dr. David Gregory, the Savilian professor, quitted 
Edinburgh, he was succeeded in the professorship at that 
university by his brother Jam£S, likewise an eminent ma- 
thematician ; who held that office for tbirty-three ye&rs^ 
and, retiring in 1725, wss succeeded by the celebrated 
Maclaurin. A daughter of this professor James Gregory, 
IT young lady of great beauty and accomplishments, was 
the victim of ah unfortunate attachment, that furnished the 
subject of Mallet^s welUknown ballad of ^* William imd 
Margaret." Another brother, Charles, was created prcM 
fessor of mathematics at St. Andrew^s by queen Anne, in 
1707. This office he held with reputation and ability for 
thirty^two years; and^ resigning in 1739, was succeeded 



G RE G O It T. 4t9 

hfhu 9on^ who eminently inherited the tttentt of hiii fa^ 
mily, and died in 1763.* 

GREGORY (John), professor of medicine in the oni* 
Tersity of Edinburgh, was born at Aberdeen in 1724. He 
was the third son of James Gregory, M. D. professor of 
medicine in King's college, Aberdeen, by Anne, daughteir 
of the rev. George Chalmers, principal of King^s college 
there. His grandfather was David Gregory of Kinardie, 
and his grand-uncle the James Gregory, whose life we 
have first given, the inventor of the reflecting telc^scope. 
Though the father of Dr. John Gregory died when he wai 
very young, his education was carefully superintended, and 
be made a rapid progress in his studies, and like the rest 
of bis ancestors became deeply versed in mathematical 
knowledge. He also cultivated an elegant and just taste, 
(dearoess and beauty of expression, with precision of 
judgment, and extensive knowledge. He was the early*, 
iatimate, and constant friend and associate of Drs. Grerard, 
Beattie, and the other eminent men. who belonged to the 
university of Aberdeen. In 1742, he went to Edinburgh 
to prosecute the study of medicine, and thence to Leydeii 
in 1745, and to Paris in 1746, for further improvement; 
On his return lie was appointed professor of philosophy in 
King's college, Aberdeen, and had at the same time the 
degree of M. D. conferred upon him. He held this pro^ 
fessofship for a few years. In 1754, he went to London, 
frberehe cultivated the acquaintance, and fixed the esteem 
atid friendship of some of the most distinguished literati 
|bere. Edward Montague, esq. an eminent matheniatician^ 
iQaintaiued a firm friendship for the doctor, founded on a 
similarity of manners and studies. His lady the celebrated 
Mrs. Montague, and George lord Lyttelton, were of the 
number of his friends; and it is not improbable that he 
would have continued in London, and practised there in 
bis profession, if the death of bis brother Dr. James Gre-* 
gory, professor of physic in King's college, Aberdeen, in 
1756, had niot occasioned his being recalled to his native 
university to fill that chair. His occupations in physic now 
began; to be active ; be gave a course of lectures in physic^ 
aad practised in his profession^ with great success. ' In the 

* Biof . Brit.— »Hutton't I^iCtionary.— Gleig's Supplemeot to the Eneyclop, 
Britari.— -Letters by Eminent Persout> 1S13, 3 rols 8?o, by which we have 
heen enabled to eprrect the date of Dr. Gregory *»<leatb|' giren erfontouily by 

all his biographer*. . ... > 



,SW G K £ O O K T. 

Above-meDtioncd year, while at London, he was elected e 
fellow of the royal seciety. In 1766, on the death of Dr. 
Robert Wbytt, the ingenious professor of the theofy of 
physic at Edinburgb| Dr. Gregory was called to succeed 
him, as his majesty's first physician in Scotland ; and about 
the same time he was chosen to fill the chair of professor of 
the practice of physic, which was. jast resigned by Dn 
Rutherford. Dr. Gregory gave three successive courses of 
.practical lectures. Afterwards by agreement with his in* 
genious colleague, Dr. Cullen, they lectured alternate ses- 
sions, on the practice and institutions of medicine, with 
just and universal approbation, till the time of Dr. Gre- 
gory's death. j 

The doctor having attained the first dignities of his pro- 
fession in bis native country, and the most important me^ 
dical station in the University, far from relaxing firom that 
attention to the duties of his profession which had raised 
bim, endeavoured to merit the rank he lield in it, and in 
the public esteem, by still greater exertions of labour and 
assiduity. It was during this time of business and occupa* 
tion, that he prepared and publbbed his practical Syllabus 
for the use of students, ifrhich, if it bad been finished, 
would have proved a very useful book of practice ; and 
likewise, those admired ^* Lectures on the Dutte^ Office^ 
and Studies of a Physician.^' 

Dr. Gregory, for many years before his death, fek the 
approach of disease, and apprehended, from an hereditary 
and cruel gout, the premature death, which indeed too 
soon put a period to his life and usefulness. In this anSEious 
expectatioa, he had prepared ^' A Father's Legacy to his 
Daughters.'' But for some days, and even that preceding 
his death, he had been as well as usual ; at midnight, he 
w%9^ left in good spirits by Dr. Johnstone, late physician in 
Worcester, at that time his clinicid clerk; yet at nine 
o'clock in the morning of the 10th of February, 1773, be 
was found dead in his bed. 

Pr. Gregory was taU in person, and remarkable for the 
sweetness of his disposition and oountenance, as wdl as for 
the ease and openness of his maimers. He was an univer- 
sal and (elegant scholar, an experienced, learned, sagadou% 
and humane physician — a professor, who had the happy 
talent of interesting his pupils, and of directing their at- 
tention to sttl^jects of importance, and of explaining diffi- 
culties with simplicity and clearness. He- entered with 



GREGORY. 28$ 

groM mnmh into the interests and conduct of his heare^^ 
and gave such as. deserved it every encooragement and as« 
sistaace ia bis power : open^ frank, soKcia!, and'tindisgaised 
in his life aad manners, sincere in his friendships, a ten«- 
der husband and father : and an unaifected> cheerful^ can- 
did^ benevolent man. 

Dr. Gregory married in 1752, Elizabeth, daughter of 
William lord Forbes-: he lost this amiable lady in 1761 : 
she left the doctor three sons and three daughters. HiA 
eldest son, James Gregory, M. D. now professor of medi- 
cine in £dinborgh, is likely to perpetuate the honours of 
this learned family, which has given sixteen professors to 
British universities. 

Dr. Gregory published : 1. ** Comparative View of the 
state and faculties of Man with those of the Animal World,** 
8vo, This work was first read to a private literary society 
at Aberdeen, and without the most distant view to publica- 
tion. Many bints are thrown out in it oii subjects of con- 
sequence, with less formality, and more freedom, than if 
pnbUcation bad been originally intended. The author put 
bis -name to the second edition of this work ; many additions 
are 4I90 joined to it; and it is dedicated tb George lord 
Lyttelton, who always professed a high esteem for thist 
author and his writings. This work, indeed, if the author 
bad left no other, must convince every one, that, as a man 
of science, he possessed extensive knowledge, exquisite 
taste and judgment, and great liberality of mind. 2. " Ob- 
servations on the duties and oflBices of a Physician, and oft 
the method of prosecuting inquiries in Philosophy," 177O', 
9vo, published by one who heard the professor deliver them 
in lectures ; but they were acknowledged, and republished 
in a more correct form, by the author^ in the same yean 
3. ^^ Elements of the practice of Physic for the use of 
Students,** 1772, republished 1774, and intended as a text 
hook, to be illustrated by his lectures on the practice of 
physic ; but be died before he had finished it, and before 
he had finished the first course of lectures which he gave 
on that text. 

The doctor's death happened while he was lecturing^ oh 
the pleurisy.-— His son, Dr. James Gregory, finished that 
course of lectures, to thd general satisfaction of the uni- 
Veisity ; and published in 1774, a small tract of his father's, 
entitled << A father's Legacy to bis Daughters ;** which 
was written solely for their use (about eight years before 

Vol. XVI. U 



150 G fl t dr O R T. 

the author died) ii^ith the tei^derest aflPeetioii, and deepest 
concern for their happiness. This work evinces great 
kndwiedge of huaaafii nature, and of the worlds and mani'- 
fests such jtoUcitude for their welfare as strongly recoai- 
mends the advice which he gives. In 1788,^ all his works 
were published together in 4 vols* 8?o, with a life of hixxt^ 
nelif and an accotint of his fainilj.' 

GREGORY (Johk)» a learned divine of a different fa^ 
mily from the preceding, was born November lOy 1607, at 
Agmondesham^ in Bttckinghamshire. There appeared in 
his infancy such a strong inclination to learning, as reccmi- 
mended him to the notice of some persons of the best rank 
in the town ; and, his parents being well respected for their 
piety and honesty, it was resolved to give him a liberal 
education at the university, the ezpence of which they 
were not able to support. To thi» purpose^ he was chosen 
at the age of fifteen, by Dr. Crooke, to go with sir William 
Drake to Christ church, in Oxford, whom he attended in 
the station of a servitor, and be was soon after retained by 
sir Robert Crook in the same capacity ; Dr. George Mor*- 
ley, afterwards bishop of Winchester, was their tutor. Mr. 
Gregory made the best use of this favour, and applied 
8o closely to his studies, for several years at the rate 
of sixteen hours each day, that he became almost a pro* 
digy for learning. He took his first degree in arts in 1628, 
and commenced master in 1631 ; about which time, enter* 
ing into orders, the dean, Dr. Brian Duppa, gave him 
a chaplain's place in that cathedral. In 1634, he published 
a second edition of sir Thomas Ridley's ^^ View of the Civil 
and Ecclesiastical Law," 4to, with notes ; which was weU 
received, and afforded the world eminent proofs of his ex« 
tensive knowledge ; the notes shewing him well versed in 
historical, ecclesiastical, ritual, and oriental learning, and 
a considerable master of the Saxon, French, Italian, Spa- 
nish, and all the eastern languages. All these acquisitiona 
were the pure fruit of his own industry ; for he had no as* 
iistance, except for the Hebrew tongue, in which Mr. Joha 
Dod, the decalogist, gave him some directions, during on« 
vacation that he resided with him near Banbury. Hia me- 
rit engaged the farther kindness of Dr. Duppa; and, when 
that prelate was promoted to the bishopric of Chichett^ 
in 1638, he made Mr. Gregory his domestic chaplain^ Md 

I Life prefixed t* his YfotkM^^^mi m tbe Mandietter Umoin^ 1786. 



O R E O O R T. f91 

'teme time after gave him a prebend in that church. His 
^patron also continued his favours after his translation td the 
see of Salisbury in 1641, when he seated him in a stall -of 
that cathedraL 

But he did not enjoy the benefit of these' preferments 
long : being a firm loyalist, as well as his patron, he was 
deprived of both by the tyranny of the usurpers, and was 
reduced some years before his death to great distress. In 
these circumstances, he was taken into the bouse, of one 
Sutton, to whose son he had been tutor ; this was an ob* 
scure ale-house on Kiddington-green, near Oxford^ where 
he died March 13, 1.646, of an heredkary gout, with which 
be had been troubled for above twenty years, and which 
at last seized his stomach. His corpse was carried to Ox- 
ford, and interred, at the expence of some friends, in that 
cathedral. He was honoured with the acquaintance and 
favour of the greatest men of the age, and held a corre- 
spondence with several eminent persons abroad, as well 
Jews and Jesuits, as others. His works are, ^' Notes. and 
Observations oh some passages of Scripture,^' published a 
little before his death in 1646, 4to, and besides being re- 
printed four times in the same form, were translated into 
Lalin^ and inserted in the ** Critici Sacri.^' • His posthu- 
mous works were published by his friend Mr. John Gur- 
gany, B. D. of Merton college, in a quarto volume, entitled 
«<Gregorii Posthuma," 1650, 1664, 1671, and 1683. This 
volume contains, I. *^A Discourse of the LXX Interpreters; 
the place and manner of their interpretation." II. ** A 
Discourse declaring what time the Nicene Creed began to 
be sung in the Church." III. ^^ A Sermon upon the Re- 
surrection, from 1 Cor. xv. verse 20." IV. " Koiiw JaJry®-, 
or, a Disproof of him in the third of St. Luke, verse 36.? 
V. '* Episcopus Puerorum in die Innocentium.^' YI. *^ De 
Mtis & Epochis, shewing the several accounts of time 
among all nations from the creation to the present age.'f 
VII. ^^ The Assyrian Monarchy, being a description of its 

* rise and fall." VIII. ^* The description and use of the 

: Terrestrial Globe." Besides these, he wrote a tract en^ 
titled ** Alkibla," in which he endeavoured to vindicate the 

. antiquity of worshiping towards the East. There is a 
manuscript of his entitled ^^ Obseirvationes in Ip^a qusedam 

;l excerpta ex Johannis MalelsB chronographia," in the pub- 
lic library at Oxford ; and he intended to have published a 
l4ttin translation of that author with annotations. He 

u 3 



traislaftefl Mke^int^trota Greeds ititc^ latin, 1. ^^Palladitis de 
Gc»tib«M Iniim A BraebmanibiM ;'* 2. << S. Ambrosiiis de 
Moribiis BracbmannoFum 9^' S. '^ Anonymus de Braeh-^ 
manibus t^* wbich translations came after his deatb into 
die bands of Mr. Edmund Cbilmead^ cbaplaki of Cbrist 
chnrcby Oxfofd, and then into those of Edward Byshe, esq; 
who publiflbed tbetn in bis own name at London, 1665, 4tOv 
I GREGORY (Gboroe), D. D. a divine and miscella* 
iieous writer, was descended from a family, originally from 
SeotUnd, but a branch of wbich was settled in Ireland^ 
His father, w&o had been educated in Trinity college, 
Dublin, held, at the time of his son^s birth, the living of 
£dernin, and' a prebend in the cacbedral of Ferns. Pr< 
Gregory was born April 14, 1754, and after bis father's 
death io 1766, was removed to Liverpool, where his mo- 
ther fixed her residence. He passed some time under thd 
tuition of an excellent schoolmaster of the name of Holden, 
Iby whom be was much distinguished for his proficiency ia 
learning. As it was his mother^s desire that bcf should be 
brought up to commerce, be spent some years in mer-? 
eantile employments ; but a taste fbr literature, which con-^ 
tinned to be his ruling propensity, produced a final deter- 
mination in favour of a learned profession. Although the 
regular process of education for this purpose had been in- 
terrupted, tbe intervening variety of pursuit and observa^ 
tion proved the foundation of a great store of information 
relative to the arts and sciences, to commerce, 'manufac- 
tures, and political institutions, that was very useful in his 
subsequent compilations. When his destination was fixed, 
be passed an interval of study at the university of Edin- 
burgb, and in 1776 entered into holy orders. He first ofli- 
ciated as a curate at Liverpool, where he distinguished 
himself as a preacher, and wrote some occasional pieces in 
the periodical journals and magazines, particularly against 
the slave trade, which he had the spirit to attack in tbe 
principal seat of that traffic. In 1782 he removed to Lon-« 
don, and obtained the curacy of St. Giles's Cripplegate> in 
which parish he became very popular, both in that capa- 
city and afterwards as their morning preacher. His t>ther 
London preferments, if they toay be so called, were the 
curacy and lectureship of St. Botolph's, the lectureship of 

1 Life prefixed to hi* PosUmmoat Worki.— Gen. Diet— Biog. Brit Sttppl^ 
musaX.-^AOu Ox. foL II.— Uojd'i Memoir*, folioi p. 86.— FuUer^i WoiUuci. 



6 b:e G O B Y. in 

St. L^ke%:QBe <>{the weekly lectureships of St Aiitholin*s. 
^nd a small, prebend jq St. Paul's, which he relinquished 
fQr the rectory o£ Stafdeford in Hertfordshire. He was 
also spme. time one of the evening. preachers at the E'ound^ 
ling hospital. . In 1804 he was presented by Mr. Adding-^ 
ton, now ;lord Sidmouth^ to the valuable living of West 
Ham in Essex, where in a little .tinie the powers of his 
Gonstitutiopy, although apparently a strong one, suddenly 
gave way, and he died, after a short confinement, March 
12, 1808. 

. The. greater part of Dr. Gregory's time, after his arrival/ 
in London, was spent in literary employment, rand princi« 
pally in compilations that were successful and useful* He 
was tb^ first who, about 1762-3, suggested a. series efex^ 
tracts from eminent authors, which were published by the late 
i/Lr, Kearsley of Fliaet-stve^ under the name of -^^ Beau- 
tiiss," and Md a very .extensive sale. He afterwards pub^ 
lished an original work, entitled ** Essays historical and 
iDonU/* nSSf 8vo, which introduced him very favourably 
to the notice of the ;public, and Ieacbed^a second edition 
in 178S. This was followed by, l.A translation of Lowtfa'a 
Lectures on the sacred poetry of the Hebrews, 17S7.** 2.. 
*« Church History," 1788, and 1795, 2 vols. 3. *Mife rf 
Chattertpn," 1766, 8vo, inserted afterwards in the <* BiO* 
graphia Britannica," for which it was originally intended. 
4. " Sermons," 1769. 5. A translation of Telemachus, or 
rather a reWsal of Hawkesworth^s translation, 1796, 4 to. 
C. " The Economy of Nature," 3 vols. 8vo. 7. <« A Dio- 
tionary of Arts and Sciences," 1 806, 2 vols. 4to. To some 
of these it is supposed he contributed little more than his 
Dame; but the number of works which he compiled with- 
put bis name, would furnish perhaps a more numerous li^. 
Among others he was many years editor of the ^^ New An- 
nual Register," conducted through the whole of the French 
wmx with bitter hostility to the meai^ores of the British go- 
viernment. He took advantage, however, of the short in- 
terval of peace, to give it a turn favourable to the then ad- 
ministration, which it is said procured him the living of 
West Ham. He left in the press '< Letters on Natural aiM 
Experimental Philosophy," and a ^' Series of Letters to 
}iis Son,"' which have since been published.^ 

GRENADA (Lewis de), a celebrated Dominican in the 
sixteenth century, one of the greatest masters of what 

1 Athensum^ vol. III.—GeDt, Mas* ▼ol. LXXVIII* 



ft9^ 6R E N A da: 

Roman catholics call the spiritaal life, was born in 1504, at' 
Grenada. He was educated in the house of the marquis 
de Mondejar, and acquired great reputation by his piety^ 
preaching, and writings. The kings of Portugal and Cas- 
tile had a particular esteem for him, and would have raised 
him to the highest ecclesiastical dignities, but he per- 
sisted in refusing their offers. He died December 31^ 
1588. His works have been translated into French by 
Mr. Girard, in 2 vols, folio, and 10 vols. 8vo. They are 
said to be written with uncommon eloquence of style, and 
contain solid instruction. The principal are, '^ The Sin- 
ner's Guide,** 1 vol. ; the ** Memorial of the Christian Life,** 
with the supplement, 3 vols. ; a ** Treatise on Prayer,'* 2 
vols. ; an excellent '< Catechism," 4 vols. ; the edition of 
1709 is more complete than the preceding ones. ^'In- 
structions for Preachers,*' 8vo, a treatise on the duties of 
bishops; '< Sermons,** 6 vols. 8vo, Antwerp, 1604, in 
Latin ; the Life of the Holy Priest, Avila, &c.^ 

GRESHAM (Sir Thomas), descended of an ancient 
family distinguished by many honourable persons, which 
took its name from a town so called in Norfolk, was the 
younger son of sir Richard Gresham, knight, silderman, 
sheriff, and lord mayor of London, an opulent mer^^hant, 
and a man of great public spirit, who died in February 
1548. His brother, sir John Gresham, was also an opu- 
lent merchant, and had served the offices of alderman, 
sheriff, and lord mayor. He died of a pestilential fever in 
1556, after, among other acts of munificence, endowing the 
free school of Holt in Norfolk, and bestowing the govern- 
nent of it on the fishmongers* company in London. Tho- 
mas, the son of the preceding sir Richard, was born in 
1519 at London, and bound apprentice to a mercer -there 
while he was young : but, to enlarge his mind by an edu« 
cation suitable to his birth and fortune, was sent to Gains 
college, then Gonvil-hall, in Cambridge; where he re- 
.mained a considerable time, and made such improvements 
in learning, that Gains the founder of the college s^les 
him '* doctissimus mercator,** the very learned merchant 
However, the profits of trade were then so great, and such 
large estates had been raised by it in his own family, chat 
)ie afterwards engaged in it, and was admitted a member 
pf th^ Mercers* company in 1543. About this time hQ 



V Diet, Hist.«^Moreri, 






6 R E S R A M. 29C 

ttnried Anne, fhe daughter of William Fernley, esq. of 
West Creling, in Suffolk, and widow of William Reade, of 
Falbam, in Middlesex, esq^ by whom he had a son named 
Richard, who not long after succeeded his father in the office . 
of agent to king Edward for taking up money of the mer- 
chants at Antwerp, and removed to that city with his family 
in 1551. 

The business of his employ gave him a great deal of 
trouble and much uneasiness. The usual method in which 
the business of taking up money of the merchants at Ant- 
werp for the king's use, had been managed, was greatly to 
the prejudice of the crown of England, as well by giving a 
very large interest for the money borrowed, as other in« 
conveniencies, when the principal was not paid Within the 
time of the contract > And as the money which was now 
taken up in Mr. Gresham^s agency, was not paid at the 
time agreed on, this gave him great uneasiness, his busi- 
ness being then to get it prolonged, which was not to be 
done without the consideration of the king's purchasing 
jewels or some other commodities to a large amount, as a 
consideration for prolonging the debt, besides continuing 
the interest. But this way of proceeding he neither thought 
for his majesty's honour nor his own credit, as his agent, 
and therefore projected the following scheme to bring the 
king wholly out of debt in two years — Provided the king 
and council would assign him 1200^. or 1300/. a week, to 
be secretly received at one man's hands, that so it might 
he kept ctecret, he would so use that matter in Antwerp, 
that every day he would be seen to take up in his own 
name 200/. sterling by exchange, which would amount in 
one year to 73,000/. and so doing it should not be per- 
ceived nor give occasion to make the exchange fall. He 
proposed farther, that the king should take all the lead 
into his own hands, and making a staple of it, should put 
out a proclamation or shut up the custom-house, that ho 
iead should be conveyed out of the kingdom for five years; 
by which the king might cause it to rise, and feed them at 
Antwerp from time to time, as they should have need. By 
which means he might keep his money within the realm, 
and bring himself out of the debts which his father and the 
late duke of Somerset had brought upon him. This scheme 
being put into execution, had the proposed effect in dis- 
charging his majesty's debts, which were very consider- 
^le^ as well as in raising his majesty's credit so high 



296 



G R E S H A U 



ftbroad> that be might have boirowied #hat wois he jfleased; 
and| by the adrants^geous turn which by ibis m^ans was 
given to the exchange in favour of England, not only the 
price of all foreign commodities was greatly sunk and 
abated ; but likewise gold and silver, which before had 
been exported in large quantities, were mosjt pientifuDy 
brought back again. 

In the performance of ^h^se servic^s^ -Gr^bam often 
stretched his own credit,, and kept up the eKcbanige at 
his own risk, by which be frequently losit several hundred 
pounds at a time; and on one particular time he iook up 
50,000/. for the king's service.. In the course of thesSe 
transactions, he had frequently occasion to meddle wiih 
political affairs, as well as those immediately committed to 
his charge, through the application of the empieror's Stis- 
ter, then regent in .the Netherlands, as well as that of 'tiie 
king his master ; so that be made at least forty joitrneys 
from England to Antwerp during ihe remainder cif the 
short reign of Edward VL These services werje so acc^- 
able to the young monarch, that abcmt three weeks before 
his death, be granted to Mr. preshatn, as a mark of his 
favour, lOOZ. a year to him and his ^irs for evert Mr. 
Gresham also obtained, in t|ie course of that reign .grants 
of estates and reversions to the value of about 300/. a;year. 
fie was but a young man when first employed by king Ed* 
ward; and the skill and prudence ^displayed in the various 
matters in which he was employed, discovered an uncom- 
mon knowledge of mercantile affairs. But notwithstanding 
his abilities, and the considerable services he had rendered 
to the crown, he was, upon the accession of queen. Mary^ 
removed from his agency. This induced him to. draw up 
a memorial of his services to the late king, which he sent 
to a minister of state to be laid before her majesty ; and 
the services represented as done, not only to the king, but 
to the nation in general, by the increase both of money 
and trade, and the advancement of the public credit, being 
observed to be fact, be was taken soon after into the 
queen^s service, and reinstated in his former employment, 
its appears by the commissions given him at different times 
during, that reign. After the decease of queen Mary, in 
1558, he was taken immediately* into the service of queeh 
Elizabeth, who employed him on her accession to provide 
and buy up arms; and in 1559 she conferred on him the 
bonoor of knighthood, and appointed him her agept m 



G'R E S H A M. 297 

Mtign paiti. In tbis stttte ctf cte&it bnfl rieputation, ht 
thou^tfvrdper to prdvide himself with a mansion -^^hmise in 
die city, snitable to his station attd dignity ; and with tbb 
spivk built a large and sumptoous 'house for his ewn dWelU 
ingy on the west-side of Bishopsgate-street, London, af^ 
terwards called Gresham-college, where he 'maintained an 
establishment becoming bis character and station. Bai 
this fiow of profiipemy received a heavy check by the lost 
6£ bis only son, aged 16 years, who died in 1564, and 
was buried in St Helen's church, opposite to his mansTod 
boose. 

At this time the merchants of London met in Lombard^ 
street, exposed to the open air and all the injuries of the 
weather. To remedy which inconvenience, sir Thomases, 
fieither during his shrievalty wrote a letter to ^ir Thomas 
Audeley then lord-privy-seal, acquainting him that there 
were certain houses in that street belonging to sirOeorg^ 
Monoux, which if purchased and pulled down, a bandslom^ 
exchange might be built on the ground ; he therefore de«- 
sired his lordship to move his majesty, that a letter might 
be sent to sir George, requiring him to srell those houses 
io the mayor and commonalty of the city of London for 
that purpose. The building he supposes would cost up- 
wards of 2000/., 1000/. of Which he doubts not to raise 
before he was out of his office : but nothing effectual was 
done in it. Sir Thomas therefore took up 'his father's de- 
sign, dnd improving upon his spirit, proposed that if the 
citizens would give him a piece of grbund in a proper 
place large enough for the purpose, he would build an 
exchange at his own expence with large and covered 
walks, where the merchants and traders of all sorts might 
daily assemble and transact businiess at all seasons, without 
interruption from the weather or impediments of any kiud. 
This generous offer was gratefully accepted, and in 1566 
several houses upon Cornhill and the back of it, with three 
alleys, called Swan-alley, New-alley, and St. Christo- 
pber'is <Llley, containing in all eighty houses, were purchased 
by the citizens for more than 3532/. and sold for 478/. on 
Condition of pulling them down, and carrying off the stuf£ 
Tbis done, the ground- plot was made plain at the charges 
of the city, and possession given to sir Thomas, who wad ' 
Atyled " Agent to the queen's highness ;** and who, on the 
7th of June, laid the first stone of the foundation ; and 
Ifce^^ork was forthwith followed with such diligence, that 



t98 G R E S H A M. 

by Not. 1567, the same was covered with slaiei and the 
abell shortly after fully finished. It is said that the tiinbec 
of which this fabric was built, was first framed aod put to- 
gether at Battisford, near Ipswich, in Suffolk, and dkence 
1>l'ought tQ London. 

The plan of this edifice was formed from the exchange 
at Antwerp, being an oblong square, with a portico sup- 
ported with pillars of marble, ten on the north and south 
fides> and seven on the east and west ; under which stood 
the shops each seven feet and a half long, audi five feet 
broad, in ail 120, twenty-five on each side east and west^ 
^nd thirty-four and.an half north, and thirty-five and an 
half south, each of which paid sir Thomas 4L lOs, a year 
upon an average. There were likewise other shopa fitted 
up at first in the vaults below, but the dampness and dark- 
ness rendered these so inconvenient, that the vaults were 
soon let out to other uses; upon the roof stood at each 
corner, upon a pedestal, a grasshopper, which was the 
crest of sir Thomas's arms. This edifice was fully com- 
pleted, and the shops opened in 1569; and Jan. 29, 1570, 
queen Elizabeth attended by her nobility, came from Somer- 
set-house thither, and caused it by a trumpet and a herald 
to be proclaimed *^ The Royal Exchange.'' The story, how- 
ever, of sir Thomas's having on this day reduced a costly 
pearl to powder, and drank it up in a glass of wine, seems 
to rest on very .slender foundation, and is very incon- 
sistent with his character, who knew' how to unite the 
magnificence of the nobleman with the prudence of the 
merchant 

In the mean time he had scarcely entered upon the exe- 
cution of this noble design, when in 1566, he vrsa sent 
over to Antwerp to take up the sum of 14,667/. Flemish 
money, for her majesty, and prolong the time of payment 
for 34,385/. more; and in December of the same year, 
there was another debt of the queen's prolonged of 8532/* 
Flemish. Sir Thomas, however, perceiving the disad- 
vantage of borrowing money from foreigners, at an exor- 
bitant iaterest, advised her majesty to take up what money 
she wanted of her own merchants ; which advice, however, 
was not imqnediately adopted, but in 1569 an opportunity 
occurred which rendered his advice necessary. The quar- 
rel which at this time took place between <|ueen Elis^abeth 
and the king of Spain, obliged the English merchants to 
«end th^ir effects to Hamburghi on which the duke of 



GUjCSHAM. 3M 

iliva, goyetnor of the Netherlands, prohibited all com^ 
merce with England. Upon this, secretary Cecil, who was 
then at the head of the exchequer, had his fears lest the 
merchants would not have money enough to carry on their 
trade, and the queen lest the falling off in the duties on 
cloth might prevent her paying her debts abroad. Sir 
'Thomas, however, when consulted, told the secretary that 
in his opinion the queen needed be at no difficulty to pay 
her creditors, if she saw her merchants well paid in London 
their first payment, which was half of her debt to them ; 
for by the time the other half should be payable, the mer- 
chants would have plenty of money both here and at Ham- 
Irargh* He assured him, that the commodities shipped by 
•our merchants from Hamburgh were well worth 100,000/. ; 
and those shipped hence with our goods thither, were 
i¥orth upwards of 200,000/< so that the duty upon cloths 
'(10,000/. at least) would enable the queen to discharge her 
debt. As to the secretary's fears respecting the mer« 
chants, sir Thomas observed that there was no foundation 
.for them, considering the great vent our commodities had 
at Hamburgh already, and were likely to have, and there- 
fore he advised that the first payment agreed on at Ham- 
burgh should above all things be provided for ; assuring 
the secretary, that he knew certainly that the duke of Alva 
was more troubled with the queen's great credit, and with 
the vent of her commodities at Hamburgh, than he was 
with any thing else, and ** quaked for fear ;'* that this was 
one of the principal hindrances to the payment of the tenth 
penny, then demanded by the duke for the sale of any 
kind, of goods in the Netherlands ; which he believed would 
be his undoing. He then renewed his advice respecting 
'borrowing of her own subjects in preference to foreigners, 
urging many reasons grounded on facts. When, however, 
the motion of lending money to the queen was first pro- 
posed among the merchants by sir Thomas, it met with 
great opposition, and was negatived in the common-hall; 
but upon more mature consideration afterwards several of 
the merchants and aldermen lent her majesty various sums 
• of money, to the value of 16,000/. for six months, at 6 per 
cent, interest for that time. She gave bonds to each of 
them separately for re-payment, and likewbe other accus* 
tomed bonds to discharge them of the statute of usury; and 
when the six months were expired, she prolonged the pay- 
' went for six months more, paying the same interest, whk 



900 O !R £ S H A M. 

brokag&r A$ her majesty was thus: enabled to borrow 
money of her own subjects, instead of foreigners^ ,aad;the 
commerce with Flanders, particularly Ant werp» wf» nom 
prohibited, sir Thomas's office as agent, for her majes^ n 
those parts, (leased of course. . But in 1^72, to sh^w b&c 
regard for him, she was pleased to. appoint him, together 
with the archbishop of .Canterbury, tbe^bi^^P of*. London, 
jind other persons of eminence, assistants jto the lord mayor 
for the government of the city .of Loudon .dpring her iur 
tended progress that summer. . This , method wfts.afterr 
wards .continued on similar, occasions^ and sir Thoauus 
Gresham wasjoinedin-the commission till 157S. .. 

Though sir Thomas had purchased very large estates, io 
several counties of England, yet he thought a country seait 
near London, to which he might retire from business And 
the burry of the city as often as he pleased, would be veiy 
cotivenient. With this view he bought Osterleyrpark, aesir 
Brentford, in Middlesex, where he built a large magni&- 
cent seat within the park, which he impaled; .beipg well 
wooded, and furuished with many ponds stocked witk fish 
and fowl, and of great us^ for mills, as paper-^mills, oil- 
mills, and corn-mills. In 1578, queen Elizabeth visited 
Osterley, where sir Thomas entertained her magnificently. 
On this occasion, having given it as her opinion that the 
court before the house would look bettet divided mth a 
wall, sir Thomas in the night sent for workmen from Lon- 
don, who so speedily and so silently performed ^their task, 
that before morning the wall was finished, to the great 
surprize of the queen and her courtiers, one of wbon^^ 
however, observed, that it was no wonder that he who 
could build a change should so soon change a building. 
This became afterwards the property of the family of 
Child, and is now that of the right hon. the earl of Jersey, 
by marriage into that family. 

Before Osterley was completed, sir Thomas projeefeed 
and executed that noble design of converting his ntansioii- 
iiouse in Bishopsgate-street into a seat for the muses, :aad 
endowing it with the revenues arising from the royai ex- 
change ^fter his decease. While he was meditating this 
design, the university of Cambridge wrote him an elegant 
-Latin letter, reminding him of a promise, as they had 
l>een informed, to give them 500/. either towards building 
A new college there, or repairing one already built. This 
iette^^was dated A^ch 14,^ 1574-5^. and it was foUowol 



G R E S H' A M. sot 

by another of the 2Sth, to acquaint him with a report they 
had heard, that he had promised lady Burghley both to 
foand and endow a college for the profession of the seven 
liberal sciences. They observe, that the only place proper 
for such a design, was either London, Oxford, or Cam- 
bridge ; they endeavour to dissuade him from London, lest 
it sbdaid prove prejudicial to the two universities ; and 
they hope he will not make choice of Oxford, since he was 
himself bred at Cambridge, which might presume upon a 
superior regard from him on that account. At the same 
time, they wrote another letter to the lady Burghley, in 
which they earnestly request that she will please to use 
her interest with him, to fix upoA Cambridge for the place 
of his intended college. 

But these letters had not the desired eifect ; he persisted 
in his resolution to settle it in his house at London ; an<l 
accordingly, by an indenture dated May 20, 1575, he 
made a disposition of his several manors, lands, tenements^ 
and hereditaments; with such limitations and restrictions^ 
particularly as to the royal exchange and his mansion- 
house, as might best secure hfe views with regard to the 
uses for which he designed them. This indenture was soon 
followed by two wills, one of his goods, and the other of 
bit real estates : the former &{ these bears date July 4tk 
ensuing, whereby he bequeaths to his wife, whom he 
makes his sole executrix, all his goods, as ready money^ 
plate, jewels, chains of gold, with all his stock of sheep 
and other cattle if within the realm of England, and like- 
wige gives several legacies to his relations and friends and 
to all his servants, amounting in the whole to upwards of 
2000^. besides some small annuities, 'the other will is 
dated July the 5th, wherein he gives one moiety of the 
royal exchange to the mayor and commonalty of London, 
and the other to the Mercers company, for the salaries of 
seven lecturers in divinity, law, physic, astronomy, geo- 
metry, music, and rhetoric, at 50/. per annum for each, 
with bis house in Bisbopsgate-street for the lecturers* re- 
sidence, where the lectures were to be read. He likewise 
leaves 53/. 6s. 8d. yearly for the provision of eight alms- 
folks residing in the alms-houses behind his house, and 
Ip/. yearly to each of the prisons in Newgate, Ludgate, 
King^s-bench, the Marshalsea, and Compter in Wood- 
street, and the like sum to each of the hospitals of Christ- 
church, St. Bartholomew, Bedlam, Southwark, and the 



S02 Q R E S H A M. 

Poultry ^compter ; and 100/. yearly to provide a dinner for 
tbe whole Mercers company in their hall on eveYy of their 
quarter days, at 25L each dinner. By this disposition suf- 
ficient care was taken that the two Corporations, to whom 
the affair was trusted, should receive no damage by tbe 
execution of it ; for the stated annual payments amount to 
no more than 603/. 6s. Sd, and tbe yearly rents of the ex<*^ 
change received by sir Thomas were 740/. besides the ad- 
ditional profits that must arise from time to time by fines, 
which were very considerable. But the lady Anne his 
wife was to enjoy both the mansion-house and the ex- 
change daring her life if she survived sir Thomas, and then 
they were both vested in the two corporations for the uses 
declared in the will for the term of fifty years ; which limi- 
tation was made on account of the statutes of mortmain^ 
ibat prohibited the alienation of lands or tenements to any 
corporation, without licence first had from the crown. And 
that space of time the testator thought sufficient for pro- 
coring such licence, the doing of which he earnestly re- 
commends to them without delay ; in default whereof, at 
the expiration of fifty yeait, these estates were to go to^his 
heirs at law. 

Having thus settled his affairs so much to his own honour, 
the interest of the public, and tbe regards due to his fa- 
mily, he was at leisure to reap the fruits of his industry 
and success. But be did not long enjoy this felicity, for 
Nov. 21, 1579, coming firom the exchange to his house in 
Bishopsgate-street, he suddenly fell down in bis kitchen, 
became speechless, and presently died. He was buried 
in his own parish church of St. HelenV His obsequies 
were performed in a very solemn manner, tbe corpse being 
attended by l6o poor men, and the like number of poor 
women, whom he had ordered to be cloathed in black 
gowns of 5s. Sd, per yard at his own expence. The charges 
of the funeral amounted to 800/. His corpse was deposited 
in a vault at the north-east corner of the church, which he 
had before provided for himself and family, with a curious 
marble tomb over it ; on the south and west sides of which are 
bis own arms, and on tbe north and east the same impaled 
with those of his lady. The arms of sir Thomas, together 
with the City of London and Mercers company, are like- 
wise painted in the glass of the east window of the church, 
above tbe tomb, which stood as be left it without any in- 
scription, till 1736, when the following words^ taken from 



• \ 



G R E 3 H A M. SOS 

the parish register, were cut on the stone that covers it, 
hy order of the church-wardens : '^ Sir Thomas Gresham^ 
jknight, was buried December 15, 1579.'' By his death 
aoaany large estates in several counties of England, amount<« 
ing at that time to the clear yearly value of 2300/. and up- 
wards, came to his lady, who survived him many years^ 
and continued to reside after his decease in the mansion- 
house at London, in the winter, and at Osterley^park in 
the summer season, at which last place she died Nov. 23, 
1596, very aged. Her corpse was brought to Laadoo, and 
buried in the same vault with her husband* 

Mr. Ward has drawn sir Thomas's character at lai^, 
and observes, that he had tl\e happiness* of a mind every 
way suited to his fortune, generous and benign; ready to 
perform any good actions and encourage them in . others* 
He was a great friend and patron of our celebrated mas- 
tyrologist John Fox. He was well acquainted with the 
ancient and several modern languages ; he had a very 
comprehensive knowledge of all afislrs relating to com- 
merce, whether foreign or domestic; and his success was 
not less, being in his time esteemed the richest commoner 
in England. He transacted queen Elizabeth's mercantile^ 
affairs so. constantly, that he was called ** The Royal Mer- 
chant,"^ and his house was sometimes appointed for the re- 
ception of foreign princes upon their first arrival at London. 
As no one could be more ready to perform any generous 
{ actions which' might contribute to the honour of this 
country, so he very well knew how to make the best use 
of them for the most laudable purposes. Nor was he less 
serviceable both to the queen and her ministry on other 
occasions, who often consulted him, and sought his ad- 
vice in matters of the greatest importance relating. to the 
welfare of the government. But the most shining part of 
his character appears in his public benefactions. The 
royal exchange was not only a lingular ornamefit to the 
city of London, and a great convenience to the merchants, 
who wanted such a place to meet and transact their affairs 
in,, but likewise contributed very much to the promotion of 
trade, both by the number/of shops erected there, and the 
much greater number of the poor, who were employed in 
working for them. And the donation of his own mansion- 
iiouse for a seat of learning and the liberal arts, with the 
handsome provision made for the endowment and support 
of it| was such an instance of a generous and public spirit 



804 G R S a H A Af; 

9A bas been equalled by few, and must p^rpehiate hta me« 
mory with the highest esteem atid gratitude so long as any 
regard to learning and virtue is preserved among us. Not 
ought his charities to the p^oi^, his alms-houses/ and tii^ 
bteral contributions to the ten prisons and hospitals in 
(.otidpn and Southwark, to be omitted. . 

His public benefactions, the royal exchange, and his 
mansion-house on the decease of his lady^ immediately 
cattle into the hands of the two corporations, the City of 
London^and* the Mercers' company, who, according to their 
trust, obtained a patent from the crown, dated Feb. dr, 
1614, 12 iacobi I. to botd thiem for ever upon the. terms 
expt^ssed in the will of the donor/ 

GRESSET (John Baptwt Lewis), a French poet of 
considerable emitieHCe, was born 1709, at Amiens, en- 
tered among the Jesuits at 1 6, and quitted the society at 
the age of 26, about the end of 1735. It was about this 
lime bis << Ver Vert'' furst came out, which hists been sb 
justly admired, as tbe production of a geiiius (in Rousseau^'s 
judgment) *^ at oncd refined, embellished, ornamented ;** 
iappearing in short, << in all its perfection.?' This great 
poet considers the author as . ** displaying in his familiar 
style, whatever is 'most brilliant in poetry, and every idea 
with which a complete knowledge of the world could for- 
nisb a man who had passed his whole life in it.'* He thought 
the same of the ^' Chartreuse,'' anotiier of his productions, 
but accused its author of negligence in his other pieces, 
being of opinion that the familiar style did not exclude the 
perfection of poetry. M. Gresset was admitted into the 
French academy in 1748, and gave up poetry that he 
might devote himself wholly to works of piety, and died 
June 16, 1777, at Amiens, after having received letters of 
nobility, and been appointed historiographer of the order 
of St. Lazore., He married in 1751, mademoiselle Gal- 
land, daughter of a merchant of Amiens, but had no 
children. Besides the pieces above-mentioned, he wrote 
« Le Lutria vivant;" « Les Ombres;" « Epistles;'^ 
** Odes ;" a poetical translation of Virgil's Eclogues ; 
** Edward III." a tragedy ; " Sidney," and " Le Mechant,'* 
comedies ; the latter of ' which is deservedly admired. 
They have all been collected in 1748, 9 vols. 12mb. Two 
little poems in the style of " Ver Vert" were found among 

1 Biof. Brit— 'Ward*! Gicsham Aofctson,— Liodge's lUvitcatioMi Tal.L ' 



G R £ S S E T» > S0« 

his papen, one entitled ** Le Gassetin ;*' Ibe other^ ^ Le 
Parfain Magnifique/' but not the two cantos which be bad 
added to the Ver Vert. This last poem has been versified 
in English by Gilbert Cooper, and by Dr. Geddes.' 

GRETS£R (James), a learned German, was bom at 
Marcdorf about 1561, and entered among the society of 
Jesuits at the age of seventeen. When he bad finished his 
stadi^ss, be was appointed a professor at Ingolstad, where he 
spent twenty-four years, teaching philosophy, morality, and 
schools-divinity, employments which did not hinder him from 
composing an unusual number of books. The catalogue of 
them, as given by Niceron, consists of near 153 articles; 
which, he tells us, were copied by him from the proposals, 
published in 1753, for printing an edition of all Gretser*s 
works at Ratisbon, in 17 vols, folio. His great erudition 
Was equalled by bis modesty, and we are told he could not 
bear to be commended. The inhabitants of Marcdorf 
were desirous of having his picture ; but when iqform^ of 
the earnest application they had made to his superiors for 
that purpose, he expressed bis diagrin, and told them, 
diat if they wanted his picture, they need but draw that 
of an ass. Still, however, to shew their regard, and in a 
way more acceptable to him, they purchased all his works, 
and devoted them to the use of the public He died at 
Ingolstad, in 1635. He spent his whole life in writing 
' against foreign and English protestant authors (See Tho* 
MAS Jam£S), and in defending the order to which be be^ 
longed. Some authors have bestowed very great enco«i 
miuras upon biro, but others think his works only compila^ 
tions of materials that may be useful to writers of more 
judgment. They were printed according to the proposads 
above-mentioned, at Ratisbon, 1739, 17 vols, folio.' 

GREVILLE (FULK or Foulk), lord Brooke, an inge* 
nious writer, was the eldest son of sir Fulk Greyille, of 
Beauchamp-court (at Alcaster) in Warwickshire, and' bora 
there in 1554. It is conjectured, that he was educated at 
the school in Shrewsbury ; whence he was removed to 
Cambridge, and admitted a fellow-commoner at. Trinity « 
college ; and some time after, making a visit to Oxfordy 
he became a member of that university, but of what col- 
lege is not certain. Having completed his academical^ 

1 Diet. Hiit— Eloge by Baaiy. 

« Dapin.— Geo. Dict,-*-Moren.^NicerDD, rol. XXVIQ.*-^^! OaomiisU 

Vol. XVI. X 



S06 G R £ V I L L E. 

studies, he travelled abroad to finish his education ^ ami 
upon bis return, being well accomplished, was introduced 
Co the court of queen Elizabeth by hi» uncle Robert Gre« 
ville, where he was esteemed a most ingenious person, and 
particularly favoured by the lovers of arts and sciences* 
He was soon nominated to some benefictal employment 
in the court of marches of Wales by hi» kinsman, sir 
Henry Sidney, then lord-president of that court and prin* 
cipality. 

Our author was not then above twenty*two years of age^ 
so that this post may be esteemed an honourable attestatioa 
of his merit. But the nature of it did not please him ; bi» 
ambition prompted him to another course of life. He had 
already made- some advances in the queen^s favour, had 
attained a competent familiarity with the modern languages, 
and some expertness in the martial exercises of those 
times ; these were qualifications for a foreign employmen^:^ 
whiob was more agreeable to the activity of his temp^r^ 
and promised a quicker access to some of the first posts^lr 
the state. In reality he was so eager to advance his for-* 
tune in this line, that to gratify bis desire, he ventured 
to incur his royal mistress's displeasure, and made sevc^ral 
attempts in it, not only with, but even without her ma- 
jesty's consent. Out of maiiy of these we have an account 
of the few following from. his own. pen. . First, .when. the 
two mighty armies of Don John and the duke Casimire 
were to meet in . the Lowrcountries, .he , applied and. ok* 
tained her majesty's leave tinder her own hand, to go thi* 
ther ; but after his horses with all other preparations were 
shipped at Dover, the queen (who always discouraged 
these excursions) sent her messenger, sir Edward Dyer, 
with her mandate to stop him. He was so much vexed at 
this disappointment, that afterwards, when secretary Wal<5 
singbam was sent ambassador in 1578, to treat with those^ 
two princes, an opportunity of seeing an affair in which so 
much Christian blood and so many Christian empires were 
concerned, was so tempting, that he resolved not to risque 
a denial, and therefore stole away without leave, and went 
over with the secretary incog. The consequence was, 
that at his return the queen forbade him her presence for 
«iany months. To the same ambition ma^alspbe referred 
his engagen^ent with sir Philip Sidney to accompany sir 
Francis Drake in his last expedition but one to the West^ 
Indies iii 1515, itx which they were both' frustrated by th« 
same authority. 



G R E V I L L £. 907 

Again, when the earl of Leicester was sent general of 
her majesty's forces the same year, and had given Mr. 
Grevilie the command of one hundred horse^ *' Then I,'^ 
to use his own words, ** giving my humour over to good 
order, yet found that neither the intercession of this gran-- , 
dee, seconded with my own humble suit, and many other 
honourable friends of mine, could prevail against the con- 
stant course of this excellent lady (the queen) with her 
servants, so as I was forced to tarry behind, and for this tm* 

' portunity of mine to change my course, and seem to press 
nothing before my $ervice about her ; this princess of go- 
vernment as well as kingdoms made me live in her court a 
spectacle of disfavour too long as I conceived/' 

During his excursions abroad, his royal mistress granted 

bim the reversion of two of the best offices in the court. of 

the marches of Wales, one of which falling to him in 1580^ 

4ie met with some difficulties about the profits. In this 

.^ontest he experienced the friendship of sir Philip Sidney, 

^ivho by a letter written to his father's secretary, Mr. Moly- 
neux, April 10, 1581, prevailed on him not to oppose his 
cousin Greville's title in any part or construction of his 
patents ; and a letter of sir Francis Walsingham to the 
president, the next day, April 11, put a^ end to the op-^ 

; position that had been made from another quarter. This 
office appears to be clerk of the sigtiet to the council o£ 
Wales, which is said to have brought him in yearly above 
2000/. arising chiefly from the processes which went out of 
that court, ail of which are made out by that officer. He 
was also constituted secretary for South and North Wales 
by the queen's letters patent, bearing date April 25, 1583. 
In the midst of these civil employments he made a con-* 
spicaous figure when the French ambassadors, accompanied 
by great numbers of their nobility, were in England a se-« 
cond time to treat of the queen's marriage with the duke 
of Anjou,in 1581. Tilts and tournaments were the courtly 
entertainments^ in those days ; and they were performed in 
the most magnificent manner on this occasion by two noble- 

' men, beside sir Philip Sidney and Fulk Grevilie, who with 
die rest behaved so bravely as to win the reputation of a 
most gallant knight. In 1586 these two friends were se- 
parated by the unfortunate death of the former, who be^ 
queathed to his dear friend one moiety of his books. , 
In 1558 Mr. Grevilie attended his kinsman, the earl 

' oi EiseXy to Oxford^ iin4 among other persons in that 

X 2 



tOB OREVILLR 

favourite^s train was created M. A. April 1 1, that year. In 
1558 he was accused to the lords of the council^ by a cer- 
tificate of several gentlemen borderers upon Farickwood in 
Warwickshire^ of having made waste there to the value of 
14,000/. but the prosecution seems to Iiave been dropped^ 
and, October 1597, be received the honour of knighthood. 
In the beginning of March the same year, he applied for 
the oflSce of treasurer of the war ; and about two years af^ 
terwards, in the 41st of Elizabeth, be obtained the place 
of treasurer of marine causes for life. In 1599 a commis- 
aion was ordered to be made out for him as rear-admiral of 
the fleet, which was intended to be sent forth agaiBst 
another threatened invasion by the Spaniards^ 

During this glorious reign he frequently represented 
his county in the bouse of commons, together with sir 
Thomas Lacy; and it has been observed that a better 
choice could not have been made, as both of them were 
learned, wise, and honest. He continued a favourite of 
queen Elizabeth to the end of her reign. The beginning 
of the next opened no less in his favour. At the corona^i^ 
tfon of James I. July 15, 1603, he was made K.^B. and fai$^ 
office of Secretary to the council of the court of marches of 
Wales was confirmed to him for life, by a patent bearing 
date July 24. In the second year of this king he obtained 
i grant of Warwick qastle. He was greatly pleased witb 
this favour ; and^ the castle being in a ruinous condition^ 
h^e laid out at least 20^000/. in repairing it. 

He was afterwards possessed of several very beneficial 
places in the marches court of Wales, and at this time he 
seems to have confined his views within the limits of these 
officesb' He perceived the measures of government quite 
altered, and the state waning froin the kistre in which he 
had seen it shine ; besides, be had little hopes of being pre* 
ferred to any thing considerable in the ministry, as he 
met witb some discouragements from sir Robert Cecily the 
secretary, and the persons in power. In this position of 
affairs be seems to have formed some schemes of retire* 
kient, in order to write the history of queen Elizabeth's 
life. With this view he drew up a plan, commencing with 
the union of the two roses in the marriage of Henry VH. 
and had made some progress in the execution of ii ; but 
the perusal of the records in the council chest being denied 
him by the secretary, as he could not complete his work 
ill that authentic and substantial manner which wodd d(> 



GSEVILLE 600 

faim credit, he broke off the design, and disposed himself 
to revise the product of his juvenile studies and his poeticiA 
recreations with sir Philip Sidney. 

During the life of the treasurer Cecil, he obtained no 
advancement in the court or state; but, in 1615, some 
time after his death, was made under-treasurer and chan^ 
ceUor of the exchequer ; in consequence of which he was 
called to the board of privy-council. In 1617 he obtained 
from the king a special charter, confirming all such liberties 
as had been granted to any of his ancestors in behalf of tb# 
town of Alcester, upon a new reserved rent of ten shillings 
a year; and, in 1620, was created lord Brooke of Beau* 
champ-court. He obtained this dignity as well by hid 
merit and fidelity in the discharge of his offices as by his 
noble descent from the Nevils, VViiloughbys de Brook, and 
Beauchamps. In September 1 62 1 ^ he was made one of the 
lords of the king^s bed-chamber; and on this, resigning his 
post in the exchequer, he was succeeded therein by Richard 
Weston, afterwards earl of Portland. After the demise of 
king James, he continued in the privy-council of Charles 
I. in the beginning of whose reign he founded a history-* 
lecture in the university of Cambridge, and endowed it 
with a salary of 100/. per annum. He did not long survive 
this last act of generosity ; for, though he was a munificent 
patron of learning and leanied men, he at last fell a sacri« 
fice to the extraordinary outrage of a discontented domes« 
tic« The account we have of this fatal event is, that his 
lordship, neglecting to reward one Ralph Hey wood, who 
had spent the greatest part of his life in his service, this 
attendant expostulated thereupon with his lordship in hii 
bed-chamber, at Brook-house in Holborn ; and, being se-* 
verely reproved for it, presently gave his lordship a mortal 
stab in the back with a knife or sword ; after which ha 
withdrew into another room, and, locking the door, mur^ 
dered himself with the same weapon. He died September 
30, 1628, and his corpse being wrapt in le^d, was conveyed 
from Brook-house, Holborn, to Warwick; where it was 
interred on the north side of the choir of St. Mary's churdt 
there, in bis own vault, which had formerly been a cbap*^ 
ter-house of the church ; and where, upon his monument^* 
there is this inscription : <^ Fulke Grevitle, servant to 
queen Elizabeth, counsellor to king James, and friend 
to sir Philip Sidney. Tropheum peccati.*^ He uAde that 
dear friend the great exemplar of his life in every thing ; 



I 
f 



SIO G R E V I L L E. 

i&nd Sidney being often celebrated 93 the patron of tfaa 
jnuses in general, and of Spenser in particular, so we are 
told, lord Brooke desired to be known to posterity under 
no other character than that of Shakspeare^s and Ben Jon- 
son's master, lord*-chanceIlor Egerton and bishop OveraFs 
patron. His lordship also obtained the office of clarepcieux 
at arms for Mr. Camden, who very gratefully acknowledged 
it in his life-time, and at his death left him a piece of plate 
in bis will. He also raised John Speed from a mechanic 
to be an historiographer. 

His lordship had an inclination to history and poetry. 
Hence, with respect to the former, it was that lord Bacon 
submitted his ^^ Life of Henry VII.'' to his perusal and 
animadversions. And his extraordinary kindness to sir 
William Davenant must be added to other conspicuous 
evidences of the latter ; that poet he took into his family 
yvrhen very young, and was so much delighted with his pro* 
mising genius, that, as long as the patron lived, the poet 
bad his residence with him, and probably formed the plan 
of some of his first plays under his lordship's encourage- 
ment, since they were published soon after his death. This 
noble lord was never married, so that his honour falling 
by the patent to his kinsman Robert Greville, he directed 
bis estate also by his will to go along with it to the same 
relation, being next of kin to him. 

Notwithstanding lord Orford's flippant and detracting 
estimate of lord Brooke's talents and character, he appears 
to have cherished a taste for all kinds of polite learning, 
though, as just noticed, his inclination led him more parti- 
cularly to poetry and history. Phillips, or Milton, remarks^^ 
^hat in all his poems is observable a close, mysterious, and 
sententious way of writing, but without much regard to ele- 
gance of jstyle or smoothness of verse. His principal works 
are, l. ^*Tbe Life of the renowned sir Philip Sidney," Lon- 
don^ li652, 12mo, rather a kind of dissertation than a life> 
but sufficiently ^xpressive of his connection with, and at- 
tachment to that eminent character. 2. *^ Certaine learned 
luid elegant wprkes of the right hon. Fulke lord Brooke, 
lyritten in his youth, and familiar exercise with sir Philip 
Sidney," Lond. 1633 ; all the copies extant of this work 
want twenty-two pages at the .beginning. These pages 
are said to have contained *^ A treatise on Religion," 
aiid weie cancelled^ as Mr. Malone i^o bis Histoi^r of tto 



GH E V I L L E. SIJL 

S^age) surmises, by order of archbishop Laud. The rest 
of the ¥okiine consists of poetical treatises and letters, and 
the tragedies of Alaham and Mustapha. 3. '^ The Remains 
of sir Folk Greville, lord Brooke ; being poems of Monar** 
chy and Religion, never before printed/' Lond. 1670, 8vo^. 

The Robert Greville, whom we have mentioned as the 
adopted heir of lord Brooke, was educated by him as be- 
came the estate and dignity to which he was to succeed ; 
but when the civil war commenced, he joined the parlia- 
ment army, in whose cause he had written some treatises, 
and was killed in battle at Litchfield, in 1643, in the thirty- 
fifth year of his age. He wrote, 4. ^^ The Nature of Truth ; 
its union and unity with the soule, which is one in its es- 
sence, faculties, acts; one with truth,'' Load. 1641, 12mOy 
an abstruse piece of metaphysical reasoning, which, how- 
ever, Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Wallis, professor of geometry^ 
understood so well as to be able to answer it, in 1643. 2. 
^^A Discourse opening the nature of that Episcopacie 
which is exercised in England," ibid. 1641, 4to. 3. <<Two 
Speeches, spoken in the Guildhall, London, concerning his 
^oaj^sty's refusal of a Treaty of Peace," ibid. 1642. 4. 
^Answer to the Speech of Philip earl of Pembroke, con«. 
cerning Accommodation, in the house of lords, Dec. 19, 
1642," printed by order of the house, and reprinted in 
lord Somers's tracts ; but which appears to have been 
drawn up by lord Clarendon, as containing the substance 
of lord Brooke's sentiments. 5. ^* Speech at the Election 
of his captains and commanders at Warwick-castle," Lon- 
don, 1643.1 

GREVIN (James), a French poet and physician^ was 
* born at Clermont, in Beauvoisis, in 1538. He began %^rly. 
to write, producing his tragedy of the ^^ Death of Caesar'* 
in his fifteenth year ; and practised physic with success.' 
He was long retained in the service of Margaret of France^ 
duchess of Savoy, whom he followed to Piedmont He 

^tiordOrford erroneously attributes 4to, which was evident)]^ written by 

to him " Sir Fnlke Greville's Five one of the presbyterian party, and was 

Yeares of king jnoes, or the condition afterwards republished, with additions^ 

of the slate of Englandj, and the rela- under the title of " The first Fourteen 

tion it 'bad to other proTinces," 1643, Years of king James,*' 1^1, 4to. 

I Biog. !Brit.'-*Uoyd's State Worthies.— Park's edition of lord Orfofd's Royal 
4Ad N^ble Atttbora.-^Censtira ii^ria, vol. I.->Uidge*s Illustrations, toU II. 
I— Ellis's SpecimeDs**— Cqo|»^8 Mines Libr&ry.— >Lord Qiareadon's Life anU^ 
kistory. 



sit G R E V S N. 



> 



died at Tarin thi 5th of November 1573i Ttere iM three 
plajs extant of bi» : ** The Treasii^rer^ft Wife^** a comedy, 
in 1558; the << Death of CsBsar/' a tragedy; and the 
<< Frighted Ones, (Les Esbahis)*' a comedy, both acted th6 
same day at the college of Beauvais in 1560. GreTin, 
though snatched away by a premature death, bad acquired 
a great reputation, not only as a poet, but a^ a physician. 
Some of bis countrymen, speaking of bis drama$, give him 
tiiis favourable testimony, ^^ that be effaced alt who pre* 
ceded him on the French stage, and that eight or teh such 
poets as he would have put it on a good footing, hi^ versi- 
fication being easy and sodootb, especially in his comedies, 
and his plots well contrived.'* His poems and plays were 
printed at Paris, 1561, 8vo. He left also a <' Treatise on 
Poisons/* and another ** against Antimony," both translated 
i^to Latin, and printed iti 4to. It was by his means that 
the absurd decree of the faculty of Paris, afterwards con- 
firmed by parliament, against the use of antindony in mie- 
dicine, was passed. He was a Calvinist, and united with Ro- 
chandieu and Florence Christian in their ingenious poem 
chtitled ^ The Temple," which they wrote against Ron- 
sard, who had abused the Caivinists in his discourse on the 
« Miseries of Time." * 

GREViyS. See GR^VIUS. 

GREW (Obadiah), a worthy parish priest, wa^bornin 
November 1€07, at Atherscon, in the parish of Manceter, 
Warwickshire; and, having been well g^tinded in gram- 
mar-learning under his uncle Mr. John Denison, was ad- 
mitted a student of Baliol college, Oxford, Id 1624. Here 
pursuing his studies carefully, he became qualified for 
academical honours ; and, taking both his degrees in arts 
at the regular times, he was ordained at twenty-eight years 
of age by Dr. Wright, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. 
In the beginning of the civil wars he sided with the par- 
liament party, took the covel^ant, and, at the request of 
the corporation of Coventry, became minister of the great 
parish of St. Michael in that city, in which station he was 
admired for his conscientious performance of all his duties. 
The soundness of his dpctrine according to his perauasioni 
the prudence and sanctity of bis conversation, the vigilancy 
and tenderness of his care, we«e of that constant tenor^ 
that he seemed to do all which ihe best writers upon the 

• 1 ViceroDi vol* :S3nri«>--Moreri.-*Freliv»Theianiiii*^--Saxii baomait. 



fJWtditd office tA\ QB should be done. Ashe sided with 
the presbyterians ugainst the hierarchy^ so he joined with 
chat party alsd against the design of destroying the king. 
Iti tbiS) as in other things, he acted both with integrity and 
courage, of which we have the following remarkable in- 
stances. In 1648, when Cromwell, then iieutenant-gene^ 
ltd, was at Coventry upon his march towards London, Mr. 
Grew todk this opportunity to represent to him the wicked- 
ness of the design, then evidently on foot, for taking of 
his majesty, and the sad consequences thereof, should it 
take efFdct; earnestly pressing him to use his endeavours 
to prevent if, and iiot ceasing to solicit him till he ob- 
tained his promiise for it. Noir was he satisfied with this ; 
for afterwards, when the design became more apparent, he 
Inldresised a letter to him, reminding him of his promise, 
thd took care to have his letter delivered into CromwelPa 
own bands. At another time he was required to read in 
the church the proclamation against sir George Booth, and 
threatened by Lainbert^s soldiers, then in Coventry, with 
fte loss of his place if he refused, yet he determined not 
to read it. Of his liberality we have this instance : When 
Mr. Panton, a minister of the royalist party, was obliged 
to sell his library. Dr. Grew bought some of the books, 
and being afi:erwards requested to return them, with aa 
offer of the money be paid, he returned the books, but 
refused the money, as be knew that Mr. Panton could not 
yet afford the money so well as himself. 

In 1651 he accumulated the degrees of divinity, and 
completed that of doctor the ensuing act, when he preached 
the '^ Concio ad Clerum**' with applause. In 1654 he was 
appointed one of the assistants to the commissioners of 
Warv^ickshire, for the ejection of such as were then called 
scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient ministers and school- 
masters. He continued at St. MichaePs greatly esteemed 
and beloved among his parishioners, till his majesty's re- 
storation ; after which he resigned his benefice in pur^ 
suance to the act of conformity in 1661,. although bishop 
Hacket was urgent with him to conform, and allowed him 
to preach a month beyond the prescribed time, but be de* 
livered his farewell sermon, and afterwards restricted hi$ 
labours to a few {Private hearers. Even in this, howevel^ 
he was carefully watched, and underwent some severe 
triak, particularly an imprisonment of six months. He still, 
iiowever, preserved the respect and affection of the citizens 



ili GREW. 

of Coventry till bis death, which bappeaed October 22^ 
1689. He published *^ A Sinner's Justification by Christ, 
&c. delivered in several Sermons on Jer. ii. 6, 1670/' 8vo; 
and <^ Meditations upon our Saviour's Parable of the Pro« 
digal Son, &c. 1678/' 4to, both at the request, aiid for 
the common benefit, of some of bis quondam parishioners."; 
GREW (N£H£MiAi|), the first and most universal vege- 
table anatomist and physiologist of this country, the son of 
the preceding, was born at Coventry. The year of his 
birth is not mentioned, but from some circumstances ap- 
pears to have been 1628. He was brought upapresby- 
terian, bis father having taken the covenant ; and on the 
change of the national form of religion, at the restoration 
of Charles II. he was sent to study in some foreign univer- 
sity, where he took his degree of doctor of physic. He 
settled first at Coventry, and probably resided there in 
1664, when, as he informs ps in the preface to his Anatomy 
of Plants, he first directed his thoughts to the subject of ; 
that work, ^^ upon reading some of the many and curious 
inventions of learned men, in the bodies of animals. For 
considering that both of them came at first out . of the same . 
hand,, and were therefore the contrivances of the same wis- . 
dom; I thence," says he, ^', fully assured myself, that it 
could not be a vain design to seek it in both. — ^Tbat so I 
might put somewhat upon that side the leaf which the best 
botanicks had left bare and empty." Four years afterwards 
he consulted his brother-in-law. Dr. Henry Sampson, who 
encouraged him to go on, by pointing out a passage in 
Glisson's book " De Hepate," chap. 1, in which the ana« 
tomy of plants is hinted at as an unexplored, but very 
promising line of study for a practical observer. For some 
time he resided at Coventry, but determining to settle in 
London, he came thither about 1672. Before this his first 
essay on the anatomy of plants was communicated to the 
royal society in 1670, by bishop Wilkins, under the title 
of an"^^ Idea of a Philosophical History of Plants." It was 
received with the honour and attention it deserved, be- 
ing ordered to be printed, and its author, in that year 
also, on the recommendation of the same learned divine, 
became a. fellow of the royal S9ciety. He was appointed 
secretary in 1677, in which capacity he published the Phi- 

} Biog. Brit, note in art. Nehemiah Grew.— Calamy.-^lkltiBellaneoas Anti- 
qojtiM, in continuation of the Bibliotbeca Topogmphica Britannicai No* X hf' 
Beojfuain Bartietty esq, F* S. A, 



OREW.^ 31* 

IcMophical Transactions from Jan. 1677-8, to F^b. in the 
following year. In 1680 he was made an honorary fellow 
of the college of physicians. — He is said to have attained 
to considerable practice in his profession, nor did his being 
a nonconformist deprive him of the credit justly due to hi3 
piety and philosophical merit, even in the worst times. He 
lived indeed to see various changes of opinions and pro- 
fessions, apparently with the tranquillity becoming a phi- 
losopher and a good man^ and died suddenly^ March 
85, 1711. 

Dr.Grew's Anatomy of Vegetables, of Roots, and of 
Trunks, originally formed three separate publications in 
8vo, but were subsequently collected into a folio volume, 
and published in 1682, with 83 plates. In this work, truly 
original, though Malpighi had about the same time, or ra- 
ther before, pursued the same line of inquiry, scarcely any 
thing relative to the vegetable anatomy is left untouched. 
It was the character of Grew to observe every thing, and 
if a more philosophical observer, more aware of what is 
best worth remarking, be, in general estimation, a supe- 
rior character, the latter is more likely to see through the 
false medium of dazzling theory. The works of Grew are 
a storehouse of facts, for the use of less original and more 
indolent authors. They seldom require correction, except 
where theory is interwoven with observation, and even his 
theories have passed current till very lately. His chemis* 
tty is, of course,, that of his time, but his remarks on ve- 
getable secretions, and their multifarious and peculiar pro- 
perties, abound with ingenuity and originality, as well as 
nis comparative examinations of the various kinds of fruits 
and seeds. If he had no correct ideas of the propulsion or 
direction of the sap, we must not forget that he was one of 
the first who adppted and illustrated the doctrine of the 
sexes of plants, nor did even the principles of methodical 
arrangement entirely escape his notice. 

In 1681 Dr. Grew published a folio volume, entitled 
^^ Museum Regalis Societatis,'' or a catalogue and deserip«. 
tion of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the 
Royal Society, and preserved at Gresham college. This 
is a scientific and descriptive catalogue, with learned refe- 
rences to preceding writers. It is accompanied by ** the 
Comparative Anatomy of Stomachs and Guts begun, being 
several lectures read before tb'e Royal Society in 1676.** 
Twenty«two plates illustrate the first part of this volume^ 



51^ e R E w. 

atid nine the latter, which were given to him by Daniel 
CoUvell, esq. the founder of the collection. The latest 
publication of our author was ^' Cosmographia Sacra, or a 
Discourse of the Universe, as it is the creature and king- 
dom of God/* He was an illustrious proof that it is the 
fwA^ and i^ot the philosopher^ '^ who hath said in his heart 
there is no GodJ** The works of Grew were soon translated 
into French and Latin, but the latter very incorrectly. His 
funeral seunon was preached at the meetfng in the Old 
Jewry by the rev. John Shower. It appears by this dis* 
course that Dr. Grew illustrated his learned character by a 
life of strict piety, humility, and charity. * 

GREY (Lady Jank), was an illnstrious personage of the 
blood royal of England by both parents : her graudmother 
on her father^s side, Henry Grey marquis of Dorset^ 
being queen-consort to Edward IV. ; and her grandmother 
on her mother's side, lady Frances Brandon, being daughter 
to Henry VIL queen-dowager of France, and mother of 
Mary queen of Scots. Lady Jane was born, 15S7, at Brad- 
gate, her father's seat in Leicestershire, and very early 
gave astonishing proofs of the pregnancy of her parts; 
insomuch that, upon a comparison with Edward VI. who 
was partly of the same age, and thought a kmd of miracle^ 
the superiority has been given to her in every respect. 
Her genius appeared in the works of her needle, in the 
beautiful character in which shje wrote ; besides which, she 
played admirably on various instruments of music, and ac* 
companied them with a voice exquisitely sweet in itself,* 
and assisted by all the graces that art could bestow. 
These, however, were only inferior ornaments in her cha- 
racter; and, as she was far from priding herself upon 
them, so, through the rigoar of her parents in exacting 
them, they became her grief more than her pleasure. 

Her father bad himself a tincture of letters, and was a 
great patron of the learned. He had two chaplains, Hard- 
ing, and Aylmer afterwards bishop of London, both men 
of distinguished learning, whom he employed as tutors to 
his daughter ; and under whose instructions she made such 
n proficiency as amazed them both. Her own language 
fshe spoke and wrote with peculiar accuracy : the Freneb^ 
Italian, Latin, and it is said Greek, were as natural to her 

1 Biog. Brit.— 'W«rd*i Qresham Profeuora.— 'Reea's Cyclop»duu<7»Fimeral 
SfnaQBi by Sbover, 



O R E y. ut 

9M her own. ' She not only understood them, bn{ spoke and 
wrote them with the greatest freedom ' she was versed 
likewise in Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic, and all this 
while a mere child. She bad also a sedateness of temper, 
a quickness of apprehension, and a solidity of judgment, 
that enabled her not only to become the mistress of Ian* 
guages, but of sciences ; so that she thought, spoke, and 
reasoned, upon subjects of the greatest importance, in a 
manner that surprized all. With these endowments, she 
had so much mildness, humility, and modesty, that she 
set no value upon those acquisitions. She was naturally 
food of literature, and that fondness was much heightened 
as well by the seventy of her parents in the feminine part 
of her education, as by the gentleness of her tutor Aylmer 
in this : when mortified and confounded by the unmerited 
chiding of the former, she returned with double [Measure 
to the lessons of the latker, and sought in Demosthenes 
and Plato, who were her favourite authors, the delight that 
was denied her in all other scenes of life, in which she 
mingled but little, and seldom with any satisfaction. It if 
true, her alliance to the c^own, as well as the great favour 
in which the marquis of Dorset her father stood both with 
H^nry VIII. and Edward VI. unavoidably brought her 
sometiaies to court, and she received many marks of Ed* 
ward's attention ; yet she seems to have continued for the 
most-part in the country at Bradgate. 

Here she was with her beloved books in 1550, when the 
famous Roger Ascbam called on a visit to the family in 
August ; and all the rest of each sex being engaged in a 
bonting-party, he went to wait upon lady Jane in her 
apartment, and found her reading the ** PbsBdon'' of Plato 
in the original Greek. Astonished at it, after the first 
compliments, he asked her, why she lost such pastime r«s 
there needs must be in the park ; at which smiling, she 
answered, *^ I wist all ttieir sport in the park is but a sha« 
dow to that pleasure that I find in Plato. Alas,^ good folk, 
they never felt what true pleasure meant.** This naturally 
leading him to* inquire how a lady of her age bad attained 
to such a depth of pleasure both in the Platouic language 
aad philosophy, she made the following very remarkable 
reply : " I will tell you, and I will tell you a truth, which 
perchance you will marvel at. One of the greatest bene- 
fits which ever God gave me is, that he sent me so sharp 
and severe parents^ and so gentle a schoolmaster. For 



S18 GREY. 

wtien I am in presence either of father or mother, whetl^ef 
I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go, eat, drink, be 
merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing any 
thing else, I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, 
yea presently sometimes with pinches, rips, and bobs, and 
other ways (which I will not name, for the honour I bear 
them), so without measure misordered, that 1 think myself 
in hell, till time come that I must go to Mr. Aylmer, who 
teacheth me so gently, so pleasantly, with such fair allure-^ 
ments to learning, that I think all the timel nothing while 
I am with him ; and, when I am called from him I fall on 
weeping, because whatsoever I do else but learning is fall 
of grief, trouble, fear, and wholly misliking unto me. 
And thus my book bath been so much my pleasure, and 
bringetb daily to me more pleasure and more, and that in 
respect of it all other pleasures in very deed be but trifles 
and troubles unto me.** What reader is not melted with 
this speech ? What scholar does not envy Ascham's felicity 
at this interview ? He was indeed very deeply affected with 
it, and to that impression we owe the discovery of some 
farther particulars concerning this lovely scholar. 

At this juncture he was going to London in order to 
attend sir Richard Morrison on his embassy to the emperor 
Charles V. and in a letter wrote the December following to 
Stormius, the dearest of his friends, having informed him 
that he had had the honour and happiness of being ad* 
xnitted to converse familiarly with this young lady at court^ 
and that she had written a very elegant letter to hiito, he 
proceeds to mention this visit at Bradgate, and his surprise 
thereon, not without some degree of rapture. Thence he 
takes occasion to observe, that she both spoke and wrote 
Greek to admiration ; and that she had promised to write 
him a letter in that language, upon condition that he would 
send her oi^e first from the emperor's court. But this 
rapture rose much higher while he was penning a letter 
addressed to herself the following month. There, speak* 
ing of this interview, he assures her, that among all the 
agreeable varieties which he had met with in his travels 
abroad, nothing had occurred to raise his admiration like 
that incident in the preceding summer when he found 
her, a young maiden by birth so noble, in the absence of 
her tutor, and in the sumptuous house of her most noble 
father, at a time too when all the rest of the family, both 
Male md female^ were regaling themselves with the plea* 



G R E T. S19 

sores of thechace; ^'I found,^' continues he, ^^ «l Zct; hcu 9e<^ 
O Jupiter and all ye gods I I found, I say, the divine vir- 
gin diligently studying the divine * Phaedo' of the divine 
Plato in the original Greek. Happier certainly in this 
respect than in being descended, both on the father and 
mother's side, from kings and queens." He then puts her 
in mind of the Greek epistle she had promised ; and 
prompted her to write, another also to his friend Sturmius, 
that what he had said of her, whenever he came, might be 
tendered credible by such authentic evidence. 

If lady Janereceived this letter in the country, ft is pro- 
bable she did not stay there long after, since some changes 
happened in the faiqily which must have brought her ta 
town ; for, her maternal uncles,- Henry and Charles Bran- 
don, both dying at Buckden, the bishop of Lincoln's palace, 
of the sweating sickness, her father was created duke of 
' Suffolk, October 1 551. Dudley earl of Warwick was also 
created duke of Northumberland the same day, and in No- 
vember the duke of Somerset was imprisoned for a conspi«* 
. racy against him as privy -counsellor. During this interval 
came the queen-dowager of Scotland from France, who, 
, being magnificently entertained by king Edward, was also, 
among other ladies of the blood royal, complimented as 
her grandmother, by lady Jane, who was now at courts 
and much in the king's favour. In the summer of 1552 
the king made a great progress through some parts of 
England, during which, lady Jane went to pay her duty 
to his majesty's sister, the lady Mary, at Newhail, in Essex ; 
and in this visit her piety and zeal against popery prompted 
her to reprove the lady Anne Wharton for making a cur- 
tesy to the host, which, being carried by some officious 
person to the eat of the princess, was retained in her heart, 
so that she never loved lady Jane afterwards ; and, indeed^ 
. the events of the following year, were not likely to work » 
reconciliation. 

The dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland, who were 
now, upon the fall of Somerset, grown to the height of 
their wishes in power, upon the decline of the king's health 
in 15^3, began to think how to prevent that reverse of 
fortune which, as things then stood, they foresaw must 
happen upon his death. To obtain this end, no other re- 
medy was judged sufficient but a phange in the succession 
of the crown, and transferring it into their own faniiiies. 
What other stepjs were taken, preparatory to this bc^d 



S30 G H £ Y. 

■ 

^lempti may be seen in the general bistQiy, and Is foreign 
to the plan of this memoir^ which is concerned only in re* 
lating the part that was destined for lady Jane to act in the 
intended revolution : but this was the principal part ; in 
reality the whole centered in her. Those excellent and 
amiable qualities, which had rendered her dear to all who 
had the happiness to know her^ joined to her near affinity 
to the kingy subjected her to become the ch^^f tool of an 
ambition, notoriously not her own. Upon this very ac- 
count she was married to the lord Guilford Dudley, fourth 
son to the duke of Northumberland, without being ac- 
quainted with the real design of the match, which was ce- 
lebrated with great pomp in the latter end of May, so much 
to the king^s satisfaction, that h^ contributed bounteously 
to the ezpence of it from the royal wardrobe. In the mean 
time, though the populace were very far from being 
pleased with the exorbitant greatness of the duke of Nor-^ ' 
thumberland, yet they could not help admiring the beauty 
and innocence which appeared in lord Guilford and his 
bride. 

. But the pomp and splendor attending their nuptials was 
the lastigleam of joy that shone in the palace of Edward, 
who grew so weak in a few .days after^ that Northumber- 
land thought it high time to carry his project into execu-< 
tiori. Accordingly, in the beginning of June, he broke the 
matter to the young monarch ; and, having first made all 
such colourable objections as the affair would admit against 
bis majesty's two sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, as well as 
Mary queen of Scots,, he observed, that, '^ the lady Jane, 
who stood next upon the royal line, was a person of extras 
ordinary qualities ; that her zeal for the reformation was 
unquestioned ; that nothing could be more acceptable tp 
the nation than the prospect of such a princess ; that in 
this case he was bound to set aside all partialities of blood 
and nearness of relation, which were inferior considera- 
tions, and ought to be over- ruled by the public good.'^ 
To corroborate this discourse, care was tsdken to place 
about the king those who should make it their business to 
touch frequently upon this subject, enlarge upon the ac« 
complishments of lady Jane, and describe her with all 
imaginable advantages : so that at last, the king's affec- 
tions inclining to this disposition of the crowp, he con« 
sented to overlook his sisters, and set aside his father's wilL 
Agreeably to whieb, « deed of settlement being dravrn uf 



6 R £ T. il2i 

la form of law by the judges, was signed by his majesty^ 
and all the lords of the council. 

This difficult affair once accooiplished, and the lettera 
{hitent having passed the seals before the close of the months 
the next step was to concert the properest method for carry* 
ing this settlement into execution, and till that was done to 
keep it as secret as possible*. To this end Northumberland 
formed a project, which, if it had succeeded, would hav« 
made all things easy and secure. He directed fetters to 
the lady Mary in her brother's name, requiring her at- 
tendance at Greenwich, where the court then was ; and 
ftbe bad got within half a day's journey of that place when 
the king expired, July 6, 1553 ; but, having timely notice 
of it, khe thereby avoided the snare which had been so 
artfully laid to entrap her. The two dukes, Suffolk and 
Northumberland, found it necessary to conceal the king^s 
decease, that they might have time to gain the city of 
London, and to procure the consent of lady Jane, who wat 
so fsLV from having any hand in this business, that as yet 
she was unacquainted with the pains that had been taken 
to procure her the title of queen. At this juncture, Marj^ 
sfent a letter to the privy council, in which, though she did 
not take the title of queen, yet she clearly Asserted her 
right to the crown; t6ok notice of their concealing her 
brother's death, and of the practice iuto which they had 
iince entered ; intimating, that there was still room foif 
reeoticiliation, and that, if they complied with their dutf 
in prockttming her queen, she could forgive and even for*- 
get what was past : but in answer to this they insisted upon 
the indubitable right, and therr own unalterable fidelity to 
queen Jane, to whom they persuaded the lady Mary t6 
rfubmit. 

These previous steps being taken, and the totver aird city 
of London secured, the council quitted Greenwich and 
came to London; and July 10, in the forenoon, the fw6 
last mentioned dukes repaired to Durham-house, whleri 
the lady Jane resided with her husband, as part of Nor« 
thuiiAberland's family. There the duke of Suffolk with 
much solemnity explained to his danghter the disposition 
the late king had made of his crown by letters patent ; the 
clear sense the privy-council had of her right; the con«> 
s^nt of the mag^istrates and citizens of London ; and, ia 
eoncluision, himself and Northumberland fell on their knees, 
and paid theif homage to her as quef n of £ngl$nd. Thd 



324 



GREY. 



However, the strictness of their confinement was mitigated 
in December, by a permission to take the air in the queeii^s 
garden, and other little indulgence!. This might give 
some gleams of hope ; and there are reasons to believe the 
queen would have spared her life, if Wyat's rebellion had 
i^ot happened ; but her father^s being engaged in that re- 
bellion gave the ministers an opportunity of persuading 
the queen, that she could not be safe herself, while lady 
Jane and her husband were alive ; yet Mary was not brought 
without much difficulty to take them o(L The news made 
no great impression upon lady Jane : the bitterness of death 
was passed ; she had expected it long, and was so well 
prepared to meet her fate, that she was very little discom- 
posed. 

But the queen^s charity hurt her more than her justice. 
The day first fixed for her death was Friday February the 
9th ; and she had, in some measure, taken leave of the 
world by writing a letter to her unhappy father, who she 
heard was more disturbed with the thoughts of being th^ 
author of her death than with the apprehension of his own ^. 
In this secene frame of mind. Dr. Feckenbam, abbot of 
Westminster, came to her from the queen, who was very 
desirous she should die professing herself a papist, as her 
father-in-law had done. The abbot was indeed a very fit 
instrument, if any had been fit for the purpose, having, 
with an acute wit and a plausible tongue, a great tender- 



* There it sometbing so striking in 
ihib letter, and so much above her 
years, that we caaaot debar the rea- 
der from it. It is in these terms.: 
*' Father, although it pleassth God to 
fasten my death foy you, by whom my 
life should i^ther have been length- 
ened i yet can 1 so patiently take it, 
as I yield God more hearty thanks for 
shortening my woeful days than if all 
Uie world had been given into my pos* 
session with life lengthened to my will. 
And albeit I am well assured of your 
impatient dt>lors, redoubled many 
ways, both in bewailing your own wo, 
^nd also, as 1 hear, especially my un- 
fortunate estate; yet, my dear father, 
if I may without offence reJ9ice in my 
mishaps, methinks in this I may ac- 
count myself blessed; that, washing 
my bands with the inooceocy of my 
faot, my guiltless blood may cry be- 
fore the Lord, mercy to the innocent ; 
And yet, though I must needs ackttow* 



ledge, that being constrained* aod» as 
you well know continually assayed in 
taking the crown upon me, T seemed 
to ocmsent, and therein grievoasly of- 
fended the qaeen and her laws ; ye^ do 
I assuredly trCist, that this my offenc^i 
towards God is so much the less, in 
that, being in so royal an estate as I 
was, mine enforced honour never mix- 
ed with my innocent heart. And thus, 
good fatherri have opened my state to 
you, whose death at hand, although te> 
you perhaps it may seem right woful, 
to me there is nothing that ean be morQ 
welcome than from this vale of miseiy 
to aspire to that heavenly throne of all 
joys and pleasure with Christ our Sa- 
viour ; in whose stedfast faith, if it bo 
lawful for the daughter to write so to 
her father, the Lord, that hitherto hath 
strengthened you, so continue you, 
that at last we may meet in heaven, 
with the Father, Son, and Holy GbosU** 
Fox's Acts and MoBuneats* ' 



G R E ¥• 32S 

ness in his nature. Lady Janie received him with much 
civility, and behaved towards him with so much calmness 
and sweetness of temper, that he could not help being> 
overcome with her distress : so that, either mistaking or 
pretending to mistake her meaning, he procured a respite 
of her ekecution till the 12th. When he acquainted her 
with it, she told him, ** that he had entirely misunder- 
stood her sense of her situation ; that, far from desiring 
her death might be delayed, she expected and wished for it 
as the period of her miseries, and her entrance into eternal 
happiness." Neither did he gain any thing upon her in re« 
gard to popery; she heard him indeed patiently, but an- 
swered all his arguments with such strength, clearness, and 
steadiness of mind, as shewed plainly that religion had 
been her principal care *. On Sunday evening, wiiich was 
the last she was to spend in this world, she wrote a letter 
in the Greek tongue, as some say, on the blank leaves at 
the end of a testament in the same language, which she 
bequeathed as a legacy to her sister the lady Catharine 
Grey ; a piece which, if we had no other left, it is said, 
were sufficient to render her name immortal. In the morn* 
ing, the lord Guilford earnestly desired the ofBcers, that he 
might take his last farewell of her ; which though they wiU 
lingly permitted, yet upon notice she advised the contrary, 
^* assuring him that such a meeting would rather ado to his . 
afflictions then increase his quiet, wherewith they hiid pre- 
pared their souls for the stroke of death ; that he demanded 
a lenitive which would put fire into the wound, and that it 
was to be feared her presence would rather weaken than 
strengthen him ; that he ought to take courage from his 
reason, and derive constancy from his own heart; that if 
his soul were not firm and settled, she could not settle it 
by her eyes, nor conform it by her words ; that he should 
do well to remit this interview to the other world ; that 
there, indeed, friendships were happy, and unions indis- 
soluble, and that theirs would be eternal, if their souls 
carried nothing with them of terrestrial, which might hin-, 
der them from rejoicing.'' All she could do was, to give 
him a farewell out of a window, as he passed to the place 
of his dissolution, which he suffered on the scaffold on 

* Tbe partictilars that passed be- dispute with him about the real pre- 

t«iat her and Feckenham are weU seuce is printed ia the '* Pboeiiix '* 

worth the reader's jierusal in Fox ; and Vol. II. p, 28, 
ap account drawn up by herself 9f b^r 



326 



GREY. 



Tower-hill with much Christian meekness. She likewise 
beheld his dead body wrapped in a linen cloth, as it passed 
tinder her window to the chapel within the Tower *. 

And, about an hour after, she was led to a scaffold : sh6 
was attended by Feckenham, but was observed not to give 
much heed to his discourses, keeping her eyes stedfastly 
^sed on a book of prayers which she had in her hand. 
After some short recollection, she saluted those who were 
present, with a countenance perfectly composed: then, 
taking' leave of Dr. Feckenham, she said, ^* God will 
abundantly requite' you, good Sir, for your humanity to 
me, though your discourses gave me more uneasiness than 
nil the terrors of my approaching death/^ She next ad" 
dressed herself to the spectators in a plain and short 
Speech; after which, kneeling down, she repeated the 
Miserere in English. This done, she stood up and gave to 
her women her gloves and handkerchief, and to the lieu- 
tenant of the Tower her Prayer-book. In untying her 
gown, the executioner offered to assist her ; but she de- 
sired he would let her alone ; and turning to her women, 
they undressed, and gave her a handkerchief to bind about 
her eyes. The executioner, kneeling, desired her pardon, 
to which she answered, ** most willingly." He desired 
her to stand upon the straw ; which bringing her within 
sight of the block, she said, " I pray dispatch me quickly;*' 
adding presently after, " Will you take it off before I lay 
toe down ?" The executioner answered, ** No, madam." 
Upon this, the handkerchief being bound close over her 
eyes, she began to feel for the block, to which she was 
guided by one of the spectators. When she felt it, she 
stretched herself forward, and said, ^' Lord, into thy hands 
I commend my spirit;" and imuiediately her head was 
separated at one stroke. 

Her fate was universally deplored even by the persons 
best-effected to queen Mary; and, to a woman of any 



* Aftfr this sad sight, she wrote 
three short sentences in a table-hook, 
in Greek, L^tin, and English, to this 
purport. In Greek : " If his slain 
body shall give testimony against me 
Isefore men, his mos^ blessed soul shall 
Tender an eternal proof of my inno* 
cence in the presence of God." In 
Latin to this efiiect : " The justice of 
man took away his body, but the di- 
viQ« mercy bas preserved his fQul.'* 



The £nglish ran thus : " If my fauH 
deserred punishment, my youth at 
least and my imprudence were worthy 
of excuse. God and posterity will 
shew me favour."— -This book she gave 
te sir John Bridges, the lieutenant of 
me Tower, on the scaffold, at bis in- 
treaty to bestow some memorial upon 
bim, as an acknowledgement of liis 
civility, Heylin. 



C R E Y. 827 

feeling, it must certainly have given much disquiet to begiii 
her reign with such an unusqal effusion of blood ; espe- 
cially in the present case of a near relation, one formerly 
honoured with her friendship and favour, who had indeed 
usurped, but without desiring or enjoying, the royal dia- 
dem which she assumed, by the constraint of an ambitious 
father and an imperious mother, and which at the first 
motion she chearfully and willingly resigned. This made 
her exceedingly lamented at home and abroad; the fame 
•of «4ier learning and virtue having reached over Europe, 
excited many commendations, and some express panegy- 
rics in different nations and different langpages. Imme- 
diately after her death, there came out a piece, entitled, 
" The precious Remains of Lady Jane Grey," in 4to. 

Besides the pieces already mentioned, there are three 
Latin epistles to Bullinger printed in the " Epistolae ab 
Ecclesise Helvetica; reformatoribus vel ad cos scriptae," 
1742, 8vo, and the letter she wrote the night before her 
death to her sister Katherine which is here printed in Latin. 
Of her writing also are four Latin verses from her prison^ 
and her speech on the scaffold. Holinshed and Baker 
say she wrote other things, and Bale mentions " The Com- 
plaint of a Sinner," and " The Devout Christian." A 
letter to Harding, her father's chaplain, on his apostatizing. 
to popery, is in the " Phoenix." Other notices respect- 
ing fragments of her writing may be seen in our authori-i 
ties. * 

GREY, or GRAY (Nicholas), a learned schoolmaster 
of the seventeenth century, was born in London in 1590, 
and was educated at Westminster- school, whence he w*as 
elected student of Christ-church, Oxford, in 1606. Here 
be made great proficiency under the tuition of Dr. Samuel 
Fell, and was considered even at this early period as emi- 
nent for his learning in the Greek and Latin languages. 
Having taken his degrees in arts, he was in 1614 appointed 
first master of the Charter-house, or Sutton's new founda- 
tion of the hospital school ; but some years afterwards, 
liaving rendered himself incapable of holding that office by 
marriage, the governors gave him the living of Castle 
Campus in Cambridgeshire. ^On the 29th of January 1624, 
he was admitted chief mastCT^ of Merchant Taylors' school, 

' Bi«g. Brit.-^Fox'i Acts and Monuments. — Ballard^a Memoirs. — Strype's 
Craumer, p. 295^, 303. — Park's edition of Walpolc's Royal and Noble Authors. 
*— ArcbcBol. vol. Xlll.-^See also Nichols's JLeicestei shire, ubUci B/adgate Faric. 



Hi G » B Y. 

on a disputed election^ whtcli, however, terminati^d iaii^ 
favour, and he enjoyed the place with much reputatkm 
until 1631, when be resigned and was elected head <n)«iter 
of Eton school, and a feIlow«^ He was ejected hy th«r 
usurping powers from both his mastership and livings wid 
reduced to much distress. At length . he obtained the 
mastership of Tunbridge school, in which he contiaued 
until the restoration, when he was re-appointed ip bis for-» 
mer preferments, but did Qot long live to enjoy tbeim 
He died very poor at Eton in October 1660, and wa9 
buried in the choir of the chapel, near the stairs leading to 
the organ-loft. He published 1. ^^ A Dictionary" in Latin 
and English, and English and Latin, an improveiSQeDt on 
Rider's, but afterwards superseded by Holyoak's. 2. *^Lo* 
cuienta e saera scriptura testimooia, ad Hugonis Grotit 
baptizatorum puerorum institutionem,*' Lo^id. 1647, Svo» 
dedicated to bis learn.ed and excellent fellow, collegian 
John Hales. This catechism of Grotius, which was writ- 
ten in Latin verse, was such a favourite as to be translated 
into Greek verse by Christopher Wase, 9«nd ipto- English 
verse by Francis Gouldsmith, of Gray's-ian, esq. 3. " Pa- 
rabolie evangelicae, Lat. redditae carmine paraphrastico: 
varii generis in usum scholas Tunbrigiensis," Lond. &vo,^ 
no date. Of the second article above-mentioned, we bavei 
an edition of 1668, the title of which is, ^^ Hugonis Grotii: 
Baptizatorum Puerorum Institutio, alternis interrogation!- 
bus et responsionibus.'^ This contains Wase's transiatioa 
into Greek, with grammatical notes, and other notes by 
Barth. Beale, and Gouldsmith's English version. ' 

GIIEY (Dr. Richard), an ingeniQus<and learned Engli^. 
divine, the son of John Grey of Newcastle, was born there, 
in 1694, and in 1712 was entered of Lincoln college, Ox- 
ford, where he took the degree of B. A, May J 5, 1716^ 
and that of M. A. January 16, 171^-15^. May 1^ be waa 
ordained deacon, and priest April 10, 1720, by Crew bi* 
shop of Durham, to whom he was chaplain and secretary, 
and who gave him, in 1721, the rectory of Hinton, near 
Brackley, in Northamptonshire ; and obtained for him, from 
lord Willoughby de Broke, the rectory of Kimcote in Lei- 
cestershire. . He was also a prej^dary of St Pattl's. In 
1746^ he was official and comtaK^»y,o{ the arcbdeacomy. 

1 Atbcn. Oxon. toI. II,— Wilson's HUtory o{ Merphant T»yloriS«hool»-« 
Hamouil'ii Alumni Jp:itoBeuf««f 



OBEY. 32SI 

6f Leicester. In 1730, be published at Oxford a ** Vtsi- 
tatien- Sermon ;'' and, the same year, ^* Meraoria T^M^h* 
nica ; or a new Method of artificial Memory :" a fourth 
edition of which came oul in 1 756. At this • time also^ap- 
peared his *^ Sjrstem of English Ecclesiastical Law, ex- 
tracted from the Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani** of 
bishop Gibson, Sto. This was for the use of young stu* 
dents designed for orders ; and for this the university gave 
him the degree of D. D. May 28, 1731. He printed an 
assize sermon in 1732, called ^' The great Tribunal,'' and 
ia 1736, was' the author of a large anonymous pamphlet, 
uuder the title of *^ The miserable and distracted State of 
Religion in England, upon the Downfall of the Church 
established,'' 8vo ; and, the same year, printed another 
Visitation- Sermon. He also published '^ A new and easy 
Method of learning Hebrew without points, 1738 ;" ^^ His- 
toria Josephi," and '^ Paradigmata Verborum, 1739;" 
** Liber Jobi, 1742 ;" "Answer to Warburtou's Remarks,'* 
1744; "The last Words of David," 1749; "Nova Me- 
thodus Hebraice discendi diligentius recognita & ad Usuni 
Scholarum ac.commodata, &c." 1751 ; "A Sermon at the 
opening of Steane chapel, Northampt«" 1752; and, lastly, 
an English translation of Mr. Hawkins Browne's poem " De 
Animi Immortalitate," 1753. He died Feb. 28, 177), in 
his 77th year. He married Joyce, youngest daughter of 
the rev. John Thicknesse of Brazen-nose-college, Oxford, 
and sister of the late. Philip Thicknesse, esq. by whom he 
left three daughters, the eldest of whom married Dr, 
iPhilip Lloyd, dean of Norwich, and was well-known for 
her genius in working in worsted, and for her painted win-* 
dow4 in that cathedral. Dr. Grey was buried at Hioton,. 
as is bisf widow, who died Jan. 12, 1794, aged eighty-nine^ 
His " Memoria Techaica" was at one time a very popular 
hook, and the system has lately in part been revived by a 
foreigner, which has been the means of again directing 
the public attention to Dr. Grey's book; but it seems 
agreed that such helps areof very little substantial efficacy, 
and that attention and exercise are the only means to 
assist or prolong memory. Dr. Grey was a man of piety 
and liberality, as appea^^ by his frequent correspondence 
widi Dr. DoddridgOv * ^ 

GREY (Zachahy), LL. D. an English divine, and mi^ 
cellan^ous writer^ was of a Yorkshire family, originally 

> Niehob't Bowyir.— DodfUidce'f UtUn, p. 123, 323-*dSJl. 



8 3b GREY. 

from France. Hfe' was born in 1687, and was adrtaitted ii 
pensioner in Jesus college, Cambridge, April 18, 1704, 
but afterwards removed to Trinity-hall, where he was ad- 
mitted scholar of the house, Jan. 6, 1706-7 ; LL. B. 1709 ; 
LL. D. 1720; and though he was never fellow of that 
college, he was elected one of the tfustees for Mr. Ay- 
loffe's benefaction to it. He was rector- of Houghton 
Conquest in Bedfordshire : atid vicar of St. Peter's and St. 
Giles's parishes in Cambridge, where he usually passed 
the winter, and the rest of his tiine at Ampthill, the neigh- 
bouring market-town to his living. * He died Nov. 25, 1766, 
at Ampthill, and was buried at Houghton Conquest. Very 
little of his history has descended to us. How he spent 
bis life will appear by a list df his works. He is said to 
liave been of a most amiable, 6weet, and communicative 
disposition ; most friendly to his acquaintance, and never 
better pleased than when performing acts of friendship 
and benevolence. Being in the commission of the peace, 
and a man of reputable character, he was much courted 
for his interest in elections. He was not, however, very 
active on those occasions, preferring literary retirement. 
His works were, 1. " A Vindication of the Church of Eng- 
land, in answer to Mr. Pearce's Vindication of the Dis- 
senters ; by a Presbyter of the Church of England," 1720, 
Svo. 2. " Presbyterian Prejudice displayed," 1722, 8vo. 
^ " A pair of clean Shoes and Boots for a Dirty Baronet ; 
or an answer to Sir Richard Cox," 1722. ^. "The 
Knight of Dumbleton foiled at his own weapons, &c. In a 
Letter to Sir Richard Cocks y knt. By a Gentleman and 
no Knight," 1723. 5,. " A Century of eminent Presby- 
terians : or a Collection of Choice Sayings, from the pub- 
lic sermons before the two houses, from Nov. 1641 to Jan. 
31, 1648, the day after the king was beheaded. By a 
Lover of Episcopacy," 1723, 6. " A Letter of Thanks to 
'Mr. Benjamin Bennet," 1723. This Bennet published 
<* A memorial of the Reformation," full of gross prejudioes 
against the established church, and '^ A defence of it." 
^. " A Caveat against Mr. Benj. Bennet, a mere preten- 
der to history and criticism. By a lover of history," 1724, 
Svo. 8. <^ A Defence of our ancient and modern Histo- 
rians against the frivolous cavils of a late pretender to^ 
Critical Historj", in which the false quotations and unjust 
inferences of the anonymous author are confuted and ex- 
posed in the manner they deserve. In two parts," I725| 



O R E T. S3i 

f V6. In reply, Oldmixoiv, the critical hislbrian alluded 
to, published f^ A Review of Dr. Zachary Grey's' Defence 
of our. ancient and modern historians. Wherein, instead 
of dwelling upon bis frivolous cavils, false quotations, un- 
just inferences, &c. it is proved (to his glory be it spoken)' 
that there is not a book in the English tongue, which con- 
tains so many falsehoods in so many pages. Non vitiosuf 
homo es, Zachary, sed vitium. By the author," &€. 9. <^ Aa 
Appendix by way of Answer to the Critical Historiau's 
Review," 1725. 10. ** A Looking-glass for Fanatics, ot 
the true picture of Fanaticism ; by a gentleman of the uni^ 
versity of Cambridge," 1725. U. " The Mkiistry of th^' 
Dissenters proved to be null and void from Scripture and 
antiquity," 1725. LS. In 1732 he wrote a preface to hii? 
rdation dean Moss's sermons, " by a learned hand." Mr^ ' 
Masters in bis history of C. C. C. C. asctibes this to Dr. 
Snape, who might perhaps have been editor of the ser-» 
mons, but it was written by Dr. GTey. JjJ, " The spirit 
of Infidelity detected,' in answer to Barbeyrac, with a da- 
//23 fence of Dr. Waterland,'^1735, 8vo. U. " English Pres- 
byterian eloquence. . By an admirer of monarchy and epis«> 
copacy," 1736, 8vo. 15. " Examination of Dr. ChandlerV 
History of Persecution," 1736, 8vo. 16. "The true pictur«^ 
of Quakerism," 1730. 17- *^ Caveat against the Dissen* 
ters," 1736, 8vo. IS^ " An impartial Examination of the 
second volume of Mr. Daniel Neal's History of the Puri- 
tans," 1736, 8vo. The first volume of Neal had been ex* 
amined by Dr. Madox, assisted in some degree by Dr. 
Grey, who published his examination of the third volume 
in 1737^ aad that of the fourth in 1739^ 19. ** An exa- 
mination of t[)e fourteenth chapter of Sir Isaac Newton'i 
Observations upon the prophecies of Daniel," 1736, 8vo. 
This is in answer to sir Isaac's notion of the rise of Saint* 
worship. 20. '^ An attempt towards the character of the 
Royal Martyr, king Charles I. ; from authentic vouchers," 
1738. 21. '^ Schismatics delineated from authentic vouch* 
ers, in reply to Neal, with Dowsing's Journal, &c. By 
Philalethes Cantabrigiensis," 1739, 8vo. 22. " The Quak* 
ers and Methodists compared," &c. 1740. 23. ^^ A Re- 
view of Mr. Daniel Neal's Histojry of the Puritans, with & 
Postscript. In. a letter to Mr. David Jennings;" a pam* 
phlet, Cambridge, 1744. ^. ** Hudibras — with large an* 
notations, and. a preface,"<&c. 1744, 2 vols. 8vo. 26. "A 
serious address to Lay Methodists^ : by a siucere Protestant^'^ 



332 GREY. 

1745, Bvo. 27. ** Popery in its proper colours, with a list 
of Saints invocated in £ngland before the\RetbniiatiDn/' 
17—, 8vo. 28, ** Remarks upon a late edition of Shak^ 
speare, with a long string of emendations borrowed by ti>e 
celebrated editor from the Oxford edition without acknow* 
ledgement. To which is prefijced, a Defence of the late 
sir Thomas Hanmer, hart, addressed to the rev. Mr. War- 
burton, preacher of LincolnVInn,'' 8vo, no date, bat 
about 1745. 29. " A word or two of Advice to Willian* 
Warburton, a dealer in many words ; by a friend. With 
an Appendix, containing a taste of William's Spirit of Rail- 
ing,'' 1746, Svo. 30. '^ A free and familiar Letter to that 
great refiner of Pope and Shakspeare, the rev. William 
Warburton, preacher at Lincoln's-Inn. With Remarks 
upon the epistle of friend W. £. (query ? if not T. £• i. e. 
Thomas £dwards). In which bis unhandsome treatment of 
this celebrated writer is exposed in the manner it deserves. 
By a Country Curate," 1750, 8vo. 31; ^< A Supplement 
to Hudibras,'' 1752, 8vo. 32. *^ Critical, historical, and 
explanatory notes on Shakspeare, with emendations on the 
text and metre," 1755, 2 vols. 8vo. 33. *^ Chronological 
account of Earthquakes," 1757, 8vo. In 1756 he assisted 
Mr. Whalley in his edition of Shakspeare ; he had also con- 
tributed te Mr. Peck'« " Desiderata," and " Life of Crom- 
wdl," and collected some materials for a Life of Baker, 
the Cambridge antiquary, which were afterwards enlarged 
and published by the rev. Robert Masters. Dr. Grey left 
some other MSS. and a collection of letters, now in Mr, 
Nichols's possession. 

From this copious account of Dr. Grey's literary em- 
ployments, an idea may be formed of his character and 
sentiments. It would appear that in early life he had 
studied the history of the chiirch to which be belonged, 
particularly during the seventeenth century when she suf- 
fered the severest shock; and having examined into the 
personal history of the artful agents, as weH as the more 
artful means by which the hierarchy and civil government 
were overthrown, conceived an implacable dislike to the 
whole body of non-^conformists, which by an easy tran*- 
sition, he continued towards their immediate successors, 
the dissenters. Finding the latter frequently employed in 
vindicating the cause of republican church-government, 
and bestowing all their pity on those who suffered by the 
restoration, without any notice of those whom tbey made 



GREY. 333 

to nulfer by the previous revolution, be directed bis poweri 
of controversy to some of those advocates, and by bis la«- 
borious researches intb the private history, annals, and pam- 
phlets of the Cromwell period, was enabled to become a 
very formidable antagonist. His Examinations of Neal are, 
in this respect, the most valuable of his writings, and strict 
impartiaUty will be found to recjuire a close attention, in 
the readers of Neal, to what Dr. Grey and bis precursor 
bishop Madox have advanced. The same researches which 
Dr. Grey had occasion to pursue in answering Neal and 
others of that party, seem to have furnished him with the 
matter of the notes by which he afterwards illustrated his 
edition of Butler's Hudibras, a work which will probably 
preserve his memory to a very long date, as his plan was 
entirely new. Yet, he did not escape attacks, both seri- 
ous' and jocular on this publication. Warburton, in his 
preface to Shakspeare, ^* hardly thinks thereover appeared, 
in any learned language, so execrable an heap of nonsense, 
under the name of Commentaries, as hath la^tely been 
given us on this satiric poet :'' and Pielding, in the pre«- 
fece to his " Voyage to Lisbon," has introduced ** the 
laborious much-read Dr. Zacbary Grey, of whose redundant 
notes on Hudibras he shall only say, that it is, he is con- 
fident, the single book extant, in which /above 500 authors 
are\quoted, not one of which could be found in the colloca- 
tion of the late Dr. Mead.'* But Dr. Warton has very well 
observed, that, ^^ if Butler is worth reading, he is worth 
explaining ; and the researches used for so valuable and 
elegant a purpose merit the thanks of genius and candor, 
not the satire of prejudice and ignorance." 

The above attack by Warburton produced, from Dr. Grey^ 
the pamphlets mentioned above, No.28, 29,and 30, in which 
there is ^luch of the grossness as well as the acuteness of 
the controversial spirit. Warburton's conduct, howeveri 
appears wanton and unprovoked, for he not only was at 
one time on good terms with Grey, and had bimsdf some 
thoughts of illustrating Hudibras, but had actually supplied 
Gr^y with the result of his own inquiries, and was there^ 
fore a contributor to ** so execrable an heap of nonsense ;" 
for which Grey makes very grateful acknowledgment in his 
preface. To account for Warburton's contempt for a com** 
mentator whom he had thus assisted, and for a plan which 
he meant to have executed (perhaps as he executed his 
plan on Shakspeare), we are inclined to prefer the ^onjec- 



334 GREY. 

Uire of a gentleman whom extensive reading, reflectiot^ 
and taste have constituted an able umpire in literary quar- 
rels. Mr. D' Israeli thinks that Warburton's motive was 
jealousy, and that ^ though he had half reluctantly yielded 
the. few notes he had prepared, his proud heart sickened 
when he beheld the amazing subscription Grey obtained 
for his first edition of Hudibras ; he received for that work 
1500/.; a proof that thi$ publication was felt as a want by 
the public." Grey, however, may be entitled to a higher 
merit than that of gratifying the public taste by his edition 
of Hudibras. He was unquestionably the founder of that 
species of commentary which has since been so success- 
fully employed in illustrating Shakspeare, by bringing to- 
Sitber all the information, the contemporary writing, and 
e style, manners, prejudices, and peculiarities of the 
age, however distant, in which the author to be explained 
wrote. And although this example has been followed^ 
perhaps in some instances, to a degree of minuteness that 
exposes the commentator to the ridicule of the wits, and 
^though it must be allowed that some of the Shakspeare 
commentators have ^* bestowed'all their tediousness" upon 
us with a too liberal hand, yet it cannot be controverted^ 
that they have pursued the only just and legitimate process 
for elucidating the writings of distant ages. The merit of 
this example, therefore, is due to Grey, and is that on 
which his fame as a writer and literary antiquary will rest, 
long after his other publications, with the exception per* 
baps of his Examinations of Neal, are forgotten. He had 
^ViO made some progress in an edition of Shakspeare upon 
the plan of his Hudibras, which we presume his advanced 
age prevented his completing. What he bad collected^ 
bowever, appeared in his ** Critical, historical, and ex- 
planatory notes" above-mentioned. Of this work Dr* 
Johnson s^ys that ^^ what Dr. Grey undertook he has well 
enough performed, but as he neither attempts judicial nor 
emendatory criticism, he employs rather his memory than 
his sagacity ;" and he adds, ^^ It were to be wished that 
all would endeavour to imitate his modesty, who have not 
been able to surpass his knowledge." ' 

GRIBALDUS (Matthjbw), surnamed Mofa, was a 
learned civilian of Padua, who, after being a law professor 

1 Nichols's Bo vyer^-^-DUsra^li's Calamities of Authors. — Cok'« MSAtbena 
In Brit. Mu.seuau 



G.R I B A L P U S. J34? 

%tPadda, Pka^, and Pavia, as far as 1557, left Italy, in 
order to make a public profession of the Protestacnt reH* 
gion; :batwho, like some other Italian converts, imbibed 
the heresy, of the Antitripitarians. After having been pro* 
fessor of civil law at Tubingen for some time, he quitted 
the employment, in order to escape the punishment be 
would have'incurred, bad he been convicted of his errors 
He was seized at Bern, where he .feigned to. renounce his 
opinions, in order to escape very severe treatment; but, at 
be relapsed again, and openly favoured the heretics, who 
bad been driven from Geneva, he would, as Beza inti^. 
mates, cert;ainly have been put to death, if he had not died 
of tho: plague in September 1567, or as others say in 1564. 
In a journey to Qeneva, during the trial of Servetus, he 
desired to have a conference with Calvin, which Calvin at 
first refused, but afterwards granted ; and then Gribaldus^ 
though be came according to the appointed time and places 
refused to confer, because Calvin would not give him his 
band, till they, should be ag^'eed on the articles of the 
Trinity. He was afterwards cited, to appear before the 
magistrates, in order to give an , account of bis faith ; but^ 
his answers not being satisfactory, he wa^ commanded to 
leave the city. He wrote several works, which are esteemed 
by the public; as « Comment^rii in legem de remm 
mistura, & de jure fi^ci," printed in Italy.. *^ Commen- 
.tarii in pandectas juris,'' at Lyops. ^^ Commentarii in ali- 
quot praecipuos Digesti," &c. Francfort, 1377, fol. " His* 
toria Francisci Spiree, cui anno 1548, familiaris aderat, se^ 
cundum qu£B ipse vidit & audivit,'' Basil, 1550. Sleidan 
declares, that G ribald us was a spectator of the sadcondi^ 
tion of the apostate Spira, and that he wrote and published 
an account of his case and sufferings. ^^ De methodo ae 
ratione studendi in jure civili libri tres,'' Lyons, 1544 and 
1556. He is said to have written this last.book in a week.^ 
GRIBNER (Michael Henry), an eminent professor of 
law, was born in 1682, at Leipsic. His father, who was 
minister in that city, dying in 1685, the celebrated Mencke 
married the widow, and took great care of her son's educa« 
tion. Gribner assisted in the " Leipsic Journal," was pro- 
fessor of law at Wittenburgh, then at Dresden, and finally 
at Leipsic, w'here he was chosen to succeed M. Mencke* 
He diecl in 1734. Besides several academical dissertations. 

\ Gep. I)ltt--;-M(»r«ri.77<I>cipiA^'^Saxu Onomast i 



iSS CRIBNIR. 

lie left *^ Pclncipia pracessQs Judiciarii ;'^ <^ Principia JariV^ 
prodentiae naturalis;^' a small work much esteeaved^ 
** Opuacala Juris publici et privati.** He was also a bene- 
factor to the university of Leipsic, by leaving a consider* 
able legacy to the library, a sum of money as a provision 
for the widows of the professors, and an annual sum as kM 
exhibition for a law student.' 

GRI£RSON (Constantia), a very extraordinary wo- 
man, (whose maiden name is nowhere mentioned), was borii 
in the county of Kilkenny in Ireland, and married to Mr. 
George Grierson, printer in Dublin. She died in 1733^ 
at the age of twenty-seven ; and was allowed to be an ex- 
cellent scholar, not only in Greek and Roman literature, 
but in history, divinity, philosophy, and mathematics. She 
gave a proof of her knowledge in the Latin tongue by her 
dedication of the Dublin edition of Tacitus to lord Carte- 
ret ; and by that of Terence to his son, to whom she like* 
wise wrote a Greek epigram. Dr. Harwood esteems ^ler 
Tacitus one of the best edited books ever published, 
^mong the editions of her husband's press, is a very fine 
one of Dupin's Ecclesiastical History, 1724, 3 vols, folio, 
a rare book in this country. Mrs. Grierson composed some 
poems in English, several of which are inserted by Mrs. 
Barber amongst her own. When lord Carteret was lord* 
lieutenant of Ireland, he obtained a patent for Mr. Grier^ 
■on, her husband, to be the king's printer ; and, to dis- 
tinguish and reward her uncommon merit, had her life in- 
serted in it. Besides her parts and learning, she was also 
a woman of great virtue and piety. Mrs. Pilkington hai 
recorded some particulars of her, and tells us, that» ^* when 
about eighteen years of age, she was brouglit to her father, 
to be instructed in midwifery ; that she was mistress of 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French, and understood the 
mathematics as well as most men : and what,^' says Mr^. 
Pilkington, ** made these extraordinary talents yet more ^ 
aurprifiing was, that her parents were poor illiterate coun^ 
try people ; so that her learning appeared like the gift 
poured out on the apostles, of speaking ail the languages 
without the pains of study.^^ Mrs. Pilkington inquired of 
her, where she bad gained this prodigious knowledge : to 
which Mrs. G^^ievson said, that ** she had received some 
little instruction from the minister of the parish, when she 



I Bibl ^MBMtiqu^, ro). XKIX.— Moreri.— Saxu Onomast. 



R I B H S O K. 837 

tliuTd: ^aa^ time from her needle-work, to whicli she wsui 
deseiy kept by her mother/' Mrs. Pilkington adds, that 
^^ahe wrote elegantly both in verse and prose; that her 
tara was chiefiy to phiiosc^hical or divine subjects ; that 
her piety was not inferior to her learning ; and that soma 
^ the most deiigfatfui hours she herself had ever passed 
veve in the eonversation of this female philosopher." Her 
•bn^ who was also hk majesty's printer at Dublin, and in* 
atnieted by her, ^m a man of uncommon learning, great 
m% and vivacity. He died in Germany, at the age of 
twenty-seven. Dr. Johnson highly respected his abiiitieS| 
^d often observed, th^t be possessed more extensive know* 
ledge than any man of his years he had ever known. His 
induatry was equal to his ts^ents, he particularly excelled 
in every species of philological learning, and was perhaps 
tbe^best critic of hi» time.^ ^ 

GRIFFET (Henry), a French writer of conslderabk 
reputation, was born October 9, 1698, at Moulins. H^ 
entered early among the Jesuits at Parb, was professor of 
helles lettres in the college of Louis le Grand, and distin* 
giitah^d himself afterwards in the pulpit On the dis$olu« 
lion of his order, he retired to Brussels, where he died of 
a- nephritic cfaolio, February 22, 1*775; His works are, 1. 
An edition qf DaniePs " History of France,'* Paris, 1756, 
If vol*. 4to, in which the reign of Louis XTIL occupying 
Ittree Tolumes, is entirely his own. 2. ** Trait6 des dif- 
fierentes sortes de preuves qui servent a etablir la verit6 de 
PHi^toirey'' Liege, 1769, 12mo, a very judicious perform- 
ance^ 3. <• Sermop^,^' Li^ge, 1767, 4 vols. 8vo, not re- 
markable fbr spirit or eloquence. 4. Several pious works, 
^mongi whieb the most popular is his ^^ Ann^e du Chfetien,'^ 
Paris, 1747, 18 vols. 12mo. 5. " Latin Poems," written 
at cotlegie, of indifferent character. 6. An improved edi- 
tion of \D'Avrigny*8 Memoirs, 1757, 5 vols. 12mo. 7. 
^ Insuffisance de la religion naturetle," Liege, 2 vols. 
12010. i^. An enlarged edition of the '* Delices des Pays 
Bas,'' Liege, 1769, 5 vols. 12mo.* 

GRIFFIER (John), a landscape painter, born at Ams- 
terdam in 1645, was a pupil of Roland Rpghman^ whose 
nanuder he relinquished after he became acc^umhted with 
the more perfect one of A* Vandervelde apd Lingelbach. 

■ Ballard's Memoirs. — Gibber's Uvw.'— Prefm t9 Mrs. Barber's Tosms.— * 
Bos^vetrs Life of JobttSOR, ^ Diet. Hist. 

Vol. XVL Z 



338 G R I F F I ETtt 

He settled in England, and made views of many of tfae 
principal places, which are highly wrought, but with ra- 
ther an artificial tone of colouring. His execution was 
minute and laboured, but his pictures are very well com- 
pleted in that style. He likewise employed his talents iu 
imitations of Rembrandt, Rysdael, Polemburg, and Te- 
niers ; and so successfully, that his productions are often 
taken for originals. He died in the seventy-third year of 
his age, in 1718. He was known by the appellation of the 
old Griffier. — His son, RoBfiRT Griffier, or the young 
Griffier, practised the same profession as his father, and in 
the same style. He resided chiefly upon the continent 
and produced a great number of elaborate pictures of views 
on the Rhine, &c. with many figures in them* He was 
alive in 1 7 1 3.* 

GRIFFITH (Elizabeth), a lady once of some note as 
a writer of novels and plays, wnose maiden name was 
Griffith, was of Welch descent, and early in life married 
Richard Griffith, a gentleman of a good family, but T^ 
duced fortune, in Ireland. The first performance by whicb 
$he became known was entitled *^ I'he Letters of H^nrj 
and Frances,'' which are said to contain the genuine corre- 
spondence between her and ber husband before tbefr mar« 
riage, and for some years after. They were published al 
the particular request of Margaret countess of Cork, who 
was one of her friends, and privy to her connexion whb 
Mr. Griffith, which was at first kept secret. From thes^ 
letters, a few particulars of the private history of the par^ 
ties may be collected. Mr. Griffith appears to have re* 
ceived no regular education, although in his yonth he bad 
evinced some talents for poetry ; he introduced himself, 
however, by degrees into ** the genteelest and most repu- 
table company ;'* but tired of a city life, passed several 
Jl^ears with a relation in the country of Ireland, where h^ 
read, learned French, and " studied husbandry pbiibso- 
phically." He then engaged iu a farm and the Hneu ma- 
nufacture; and about 1760 appears to have received a 
place from the duke of Bedford, at that time lord lieute- 
nant of Ireland. His acquaintance with Mrs. Griffith was 
accidental, and commenced on his part, to use his owi^ 
phrase, " as an act of gallantry ;" but finding ** no proba-^ 
bility of success," a strange declaration ! — and being ena- 

1 4lr(eaviUe, vol. IXI.^Pilktfi|toaaQd Strtttt'— Wa<poIe*t Aaecdotef, fcc» 



G RJ F F.I T H S. 93$ 

nioiur^d with her writings, conversation, and character, be- 
came, at last, a real and honourable lover, but declined 
matrimony for several years, as she had no fo'rtune, and hi^ 
expectations from his father were much larger than they 
were likely to turn out At length, however, they married, 
aibout the year 1752; and their first publication was thi9 
correspondence, published by subscription, and not very 
successful with any class of readers, not even the senti- 
mentalists, for whom it was chiefly calculated. Some of 
the letters, however, are of a superior cast, and contain 
many sensible remarks on books, men, and manners. Their 
next publication, which was also written in conjunction, 
was '* Two Novels, in Letters, 4 vols. ; jthe first and second^ 
eatitled Delicate Distress^ by Frances ; the third and fourth, 
entitled the Gordian Knot, by Henry,^' 1769, 12mo. JBoth 
these are of astrict moral tendency ; but, like the corresponds^ 
ence of the authors, too much tinged with the pedantry of 
^quotation and philosophizing, instead of natural descrip^ 
ition and feeling. Previously to this, Mr. Griffith had pub- 
lished in 1764, *^ The Triumvirate ; or the authentic Me* 
Soirs of A. B. and C." 2 vols. 12mo, a novel of so loose a 
lid, that even his wife could not venture to recommend it 
,to the fair sex, and yet adds her opinion that '^ every genr' 
tieman will read it with pleasure, and I trust without any 
injury to his morals/* Of Mr* Griffith's performances wp 
^oar no more, nor have been able to ascertain the time of 
^is death. Mrs. Griffith's other novels were " Lady Bar- 
.{pn,*' and ^'Juliana Harley." She also wrote some dramas 
,which had various success, but none of them have pre« 
^^erved their station on the stage. One of her most agree^ 
able publications was '* The Morality of Shakspeare'js 
l]>fam a illustrated,'* 1775, 8vp. She published also some 
^translations, "The Adventures of Pierre Viaad," and the 
** Letters of Ninon de L'.Enclos," &c. She died Jan. 3^ 
J793, atMillecent, in the county of Kildare. She was on- 
.questionably a woman of considerable literary talents, but 
does not appear to have found in her lover and husband 
the judgment which could give them a proper direction. 
Nor did he contribute much to heir happiness in his latter 
days. He had long accustomed himself to the cant of sen- 
. timeut, which is too frequently mistaken for genuine moral 
feeling. When in his grand climacteric, be seduced a girl 
of fortune and consequence, with*whom he lived the r^* 
mainder of bis days. The libertine notions ijtx his *^ Trif^m^ 

^2 



• S40 G R I F F I T H. 

tWatrf* ^pp^^tf t6 have heeri riiore pt^Jominalit tihan <Ee 
sense he affected to entefta^rn o/ pure iAoiMs in bib ^^Let" 

GRIMALDI (JoHiv F*Ai^cis), called BoLOt5*'iisE, \va'$ 
borrf at Fotogna* in 11606, and! studfed u'nder A. Cara'cci, 
'to v^homf he wa^ related'. He wai a go6tf designer of 
figiir^s, but be<»iattie chiefly distitt^tri^he^cPfoVhis Brtdicafjies. 
Wb^^fn he ari»ived^ tit Romej Irfn'oeentrX. d?d- justrce to hf» 
flierit, emploj^etf Writt to paritif in the YMt^ti and th^ Qiii'- 
riaaljj- and eveiV ita ehufch^s. This pope tt^edf to vfsit tinfi 
When aft WoVk, aW(f tfalfe femiliiELrly Vi^i^h fimi. Hfo feputa* 
tion I'^dhed (r^rdinaf M^zarii^ ^t Pari^, who ^nt f6t hiitfy 
ilettteds/ la^rgejp^nislon'on' hiii)/ ^itd^th'pfoy^d' hHb^r three 
y^stt^ iti embeffishing hi$ palace and' itie Louvrey by th^ 
cftdtr of Lewis XIll The troul^les- of the siate, arid th* 
eliatnottr^ rdiitfed againsft the cai'diri^f, ^hose4)arfy he #ai^ml^ 
espoused, put him so niuch in dainfger, ithstt hfis ffieird's sid- 
fis^d hini to retire atriong fhe Jesuits, foi \Vhoh) hfe pBitkU^ 
i decorttion fot thfef expo^itfdit of the Satraitieht duriiirg the 
boly dky^, according to the custditi of Rom^. Thi^pieck 
wa^ ttiuc}^ relkhed at Parts : the king honoured it v^ith two 
tisjts/diid cbmhfadd^d hitii' to^ ptiuii a similar piece for hi^ 
chapel at the Lontre. Gridmldi tftet th^t r^urned td' 
It^ly, and at his arrivai at Rome fotind bisr gr^at patroa 
Irinocent X. desld ; but his two snccesiors Alexander VII. 
tod Clemeht IX. hfortoujTed him equally with their friend- 
ship, and found hitri variety of employment His chief^ 
jiower lay in laiidscape, though he designed figures well,^ 
jS^iid his pencil eqaailed his design, light, and flowing with 
great depth of colour, bolder in Tb^ masses and the dash of 
bashy foliage than Caracci^s, but perbapS too green. Tht 
gallery Colonha, at Rome, has many of his views, which 
remained chiefly in Italy, less known on this sidie of the 
•Alps than those of Poussin and Claudb. He understood 
•ai*chitecture, and has engraved in aqua ibttid fo)rty-twO' 
landscapes in an excellent manner, five of which are after 
Titian. Grimaidi wa^ amiable in hi^ tlianners, as well as 
i^klU'iil in his profession: be wii^ generous without profu-i^ 
sion, respectfbl to the great without meanniiss, and cha- 
Titable to the poor. The foJlb\Virig instaiice of his benevo^ 
J^nce may serve to characterise tiie man. A Sicilian gen* 

. 1 Gedt. Mas. vpl. XL; p.2fl4, \Xm. p. 104.— Vwtor»a Wcrkt; roK T. p. 
903~.3i3,.334.--&lt^ Stiwaidft Lett^i, vol Ui. p. 313^l4.-nfiittr. i)raxQjUic«. 



<9 * I M A I, D J. ?4i 

l)ep[iaQ, >i«bo lifid T^ir^ed from Messina ^^th I^is d^^ght/^/r, 
duria^ th^ tcoqble;? of J^iat .country, m9s i^ed^^d ^to i\i,f 
.misery of ^vi^anting ^ead* As he lived over-^^.in$t \i\m, 
.Qnmaldi w^as soon .iaformed ,af ^t ; and in ^(xe .^usk of t\xf 
^evqning, knocking at tl^e Sicili^n^ door, without peaking 
faimselt' known, tossed in money and retired. The thing 
ihappenii^ Oi^re than once, raised tli^ Sicilian's curipsiiy 
to know his. benefactor ; who, finding bipi out, by hiding 
himself behind the door, f^U do^n on his knojes to thanjf: 
the band th^t had relieved him: .Qqqialdi remained con r 
fused, offered bim his house, and continued his friend tiU 
.his dqath. Qe died of a dropsy at Jdome in 1660, and left 
.ja.cpixsiderable fortune among six children ; of which th^ 
youngest, named Alexander, was a pretty gpod.pai^itier.*' 
GHIMANi (Oominick), a learned cardinal, was born.svt 
yenice in 1460. His fiather being procur^tpr of St. Mark, 
,and ^ter^vards.dpge of the city, the son w^assoon brougI|t 
,into p.u|i>lic notice, and epiployed ^y the state in important 
oflS^es. ,Ifi .];49? he w^ raised (o the piurple by pop^s 
Alex.and;er VI. having previously ai^quired grpat fame op 
accqunt of the pjety whic^ he displayed tpw^rds jiis fjgk* 
theif, fv}^o .Wias,coxaix\a(ider of a fleet, ajod being defeated by 
tbe Turks, .was jfppriaoped and t;r^at^d with grejat rigoiM*. 
The s.on offefedto.t^lfe his place, whjch.b.eing fefus^, l^ 
attCQc^ed I)|fn in pr^on, and r,^ndered hjm.all the service ip 
pis jpp^eXy Qrin^api jsras al^ ;ap eipinent patron pf the 
fine arjts : he cpllecited a choice and valua]i))e library, con- 
sisting of eight thqps9.nd vol^uqn^s in all langu^e>s wt^icfa, 
at his (jeceajse, in 1523, he l^equeathed tp the canpos re- 
jgixl^t q{ St. Salvadore, in Venice. Jt j*:as ^^f^erw^rds ia- 
cre^sed by the a4ldiMon of many valua)){^ i^rorks by the c^- 
dii^i^l patrifirch Maripo Qrunani, and was preserved until 
f nearly the epd of tt^e ^pventeenth centpry, when it w^s 
jQif fortunately destroyed by fire. Popijnick Grimani sis(> 
made a fine cpUection of. statues, and, other retnains of an- 
tiquity. In 1509, he was visited by Ei-asmus, who relati^s 
tl}e particulars of bis reception, in one of his letters, wit)i 
interesting minuteness, and afterwards dedicated to hiffi 
his ^* Paraphrasis in Epistol. Pauli ad Rom^nos." On an- 
other occasion, we find Erasnius soliciting cardinal Orixx>ai|i 
for a copy pf Origen*s commentai^ on the P&atms, a trans- 
^tj^n of irbich he h^d been urged to undertake i^y \V^- 



Ut mSLiMt 6 L 0. 






bam» archbishop of Canterbary. Grimani is said to hattr 
translated from the Greek some homilies of Cbtysoslom:' 

GRiMBOLD, GRIMBALD, or GRIMOALD (NfCHd- 
LAs), a poet of Considerable rank in his time, was a natire 
of Huntingdonshire, and received the first part of his aca* 
demical education at Christ's college in Cambridge, where 
he became B. A. in 1539 or 1540. Removing to Oxford 
in 1542, he was elected fellow of Merton college; but^ 
about 1547, having opened a rhetorical lecture in the re. 
fectory of Christ church, then newly founded, he was 
transplanted to that society^ which gave the greatest epcou- 
ragement to such students as were distinguished for their 
proficiency in criticism and philology. The same year 
be wrote a Latin tragedy, which probably was acted in the 
college, entitled " Archipropheta, sive Joaniles Baptista,** 
'dedicated to the dean, Richard Cqx, and printed Colon* 
1548, 8vo. In 1548, he explained all' the four books of 
VirgiPs Georgics in a regular prose Latin paraphrase, in 
the public hall of his college, which was printed at Lon'-« 
don in 1591, 8vo. He wrote also explanatory commenta* 
ries, or lectures, on the '* Andria" of Terence^ the Epis- 
tles of Horace, and many pieces of Cicero, perhaps for the 
same auditory. He translated Tuliy*s Offices into JEdgHsh, 
which he dedicated to the learned Thirlby, bishop of Ely, 
printed at London, 1553, 8vo, and reprinted in 1574 and 
1596. He also made translations from some of the Greek 
classics; but these, Mr. Warton thinks, were never pub- 
lished; among others was the " Cyropaedia.'^ B^le ipen* 
tions some plays and poems, but hot with sufficient pre- 
cision to enable us to know whether they were in Latin or 
English. It is allowed, however, that he was the second 
English poet after lord Surrey who wrote in blank verse, 
and added to Surrey's style new strength, elegance, and 
modulation. In the disposition and conduct of his ca- 
dences, says our poetical historian, he often approaches (o 
the legitimate structure of the improved blank verse, al* 
though he is not quite free from those dissonancies and as- 
perities, which in his time adhered to the general character 
and state of English diction. Both Mr. Warton and Mr? 
Ellis have given specimens of his poetry from " Tb« 
Songes written by N. G.*' annexed to the " Songes an^ 
Sonnettes of uncertain Auctours" in Tottell's edition oj^ 



1 Tiraiyoscbi.-^Moireri.— Clretw«n*s Politian.— >Roicoc'i .Lto^ 



6 R I M B O L D. S43 

I tf rd JSairqr** Poema (reprinted^in the late edition of the 
£nglish poets). As a writer of verses in rhyme, Mr. War- 
ton thinks that Grimbofd yields to none of his contempo- 
Yaries, for a masterly choice of chaste expression^ and the 
concise elegancies of didactic versification ; and adds that 
some of the couplets in his *^ Praise of Measure-keeping," 
or moderation^ have all the smartness which mark the mo* 
dern style of sententious poetry, and would have done ho- 
nour to Pope^s ethic epistles. It is supposed that be died 
about 1563. Wood and Tanner, and after them, Warton, 
are dedidedly of opinion that he is the same person, called 
by Strype ^* one Grimbold,^' who was chaplain to bishop 
Hidley, and who was employed by that prelate while in 
prison, to translate into English ijaurentius Valla^s book 
against the fiction of Constantine's Donation^ with some 
other popular Ladq pieces against the papists. In Mary^s 
ceign, it is ^d itbat he xras imprisoned for heresy) and 
aaved his life ^by recantation. This may be true of the 
^rimbold mentioned by Strype, but we doubt whether be 
he theisame with our poet, who is mentioned in high terms 
by Bale» on account of his zeal for the reformed doctrines, 
jwithout a syllable of his apostacy^ which Bal^ must have 
Imown, and would not have concealed.* 

GRIMSTON {Sir H^lrboxtle)^ a celebrated lawyer^ 
.and master of the rolls in the se^eiiteenth century, de- 
scended from a very ancient family, was born at Bradfield- 
Jiall, near Manaingtree, in Essex, about 1.594.. Where 
lie had hjs early education is not known^ but he sjtudied 
law in lincoln^s-inn, and practised with considerable suc- 
.cess. In August 1638 he was chosen recorderof, Colchester, 
und representative for that place in the parliament which 
met at Westminster April 13, 1640, and again in the par* 
Jiament which met Nov. 3 of the sa^e year. The n^ea- 
sures he at first supported were ,those of the party which 
finally overthrew the government, and although he argued 
chiefly against such abuses as might have been reformed 
by a better understanding between the conflicting parties, 
yet bis violence against the court, and particularly a bitter 
speech he made against archbishop Laud, seem to prove 
ithat he was too much swayed by the popular clamour of 
the times, and too readily became one of the committees 

1 Bate and Taoner.— Warton'i Hist, of Po«try.— Bllis's Specioittas.— Atben. 
^xon. vol. I. new edit, by Bliii. 



»44 G R I M 5 T O N. 

for ike iH^V^s of grievances, real or iim^^fy, las wfdH^m ^ 
for bringing those to punishtnent who -were me&t <ri[)a€dcmiK 
to the people. In 1 642 he was made one of Abe lieilAeiiantt 
of the couhty of Essex, in pursuance of the pavKaimnfft 
ordinance for the miflitia, and in August the smne yeai^ 
Came down to Colchester and proclainied sir John iMBsm 
traitor, for intending to assbt the king. When be ^rnxoBf 
howerer, to penetrate more deeply into tbe designs of tke 
reformers, he "began to withdraw his countenanoe from 
them, and when in 1647 be was appointed one of tfafecom«- 
snissioners to treat with the king at Newport, nn tbeisle idf 
Wight, his majesty had erery reason to be pleased nirith 
bis candour and mod^ratidn« On his return to parliamedt, 
he argued for accepting* the king's conces^iona, and being 
at the Banle itlnve one of the commissioners for disbanding 
the army, was, among others, forcibly excluded from ibe 
bouse by a party of soldiers. After the murder of the 
king, he went abroad for some time, but in 1656 we find 
biih elected to Cromwell's parliament asone of the sixteen 
representatives for the eounty of Essex, but not approved ^y 
the council, against whose decision he signed a-spirited ns^r 
monstrance. In February i 659*60 he was chosen one^f the 
newcouncil of state, in whom tlie executive power was iodgel| 
hy the remains of the long parliament that restored Cbatles 
II. ; and a few months after, he was also chosen spealier^lf 
the house of commons in what was called tbe^^<Heiili^ 
parliament*' ^hich met April 25, 1660. In May foliowiug, 
lie waited on the king at Breda, atid on his m^ajestjr^^s ar- 
rival, and the settlement of the government, ^nas appointeU 
master of the rolls Nov. 3, 1^60, which bffice'be iilled^ibr 
•nearly twenty-foitr years with gre^t ability and integrity. 
He was also appointed in the siame year chief steward of 
the borough of St. Aiban's, and recorder of Barwkhy'anid 
'from the riestoratit)n'to the time of his death, continued to 
'represent Colchester in parliament. For^seteral years kei 
entertained Dr. Gilbert Burnet, afterwards bishop <^ Sa- 
lisbury, a^ his chaplain, or preacher at tfae rolls ^ and mnidtk 
assisted him in his <' History of the Reft)rmation.'' 'Bm*- 
net in his ^^ Own Times" has given an affectionate and 
probably faithful character of sir Harbottle, wbo ^pMTi 
to have been a ipan of real wor^b, piety, and moderation 
i'^ his latter days. Sir Harbottle died Dec. 31, 1683, aged 
about ninety, and was buried in the chancel of St. Michael's 
ehurch, St. AlbaaV He was twice instfriedi first to Mary, 



CRIM8T0K ^U 

.^lighter «f »ir iGeer^ (Dndsr, an loditioTi of whose ^ fi«hr 
(|a9fl»'* 4fee ipoUished, 3'vok. folio ; :End Becondly to 4A»ei 
4laiightier of sir Nathaniel Sacon, 0f Cutford-haU, in SiiC^ 
iblkr Other iparticulais of his family tnay be seen in ouf 



<7KINJ>A«L (EpMUNB), atx^fabishop of Canterbury, wa| 
ibom in 1519, at HlnBii»ghain, a amall v^illage 'in Cumber- 
4and. Afjter a isuitable foundation of learning at scbodlji 
lie was sent to Magdalen-eoUege, in Cambridge, but re* 
moved tfaeuoe to Christ's, and afterwards to Pembroke- 
JiaU.; where, haiRing taken his first degree in arts, be was 
chosen fellow in 1538, and commenced M. A. in iS41y 
^ving served ithe office of junior bursar of bis college the 
^ec^ng year, in 1546 he was appointed senior prootor 
<of the univeiBity, and is said to have often sat as assessor 
«lo Jihe viee-chancd^lor in his courts. In 15^9 he became 
^president {<vioe^master] !of his college ; and ^being novf 
JB. D. was unanimously chosen lady Margaret's public 
;|MnBaoher at<Oambridge ; as be was also one of the four dis- 
putants in a theological extraordinary act, performed -that 
y4sar/for the.entertaijimqnt ofking iEdward's visitors. 

Thus distinguished in the university, his merit was ob* 
faeitfed by Ridley, 'bishop of London, who made him his 
'jBbaplain in 1550 ; perhaps by the recQmmenda|;ion of Bu« 
per, the king's professor of divinity at Cambridge, who 
r|K>on 'after his removal) to (>ondon, in a letter to that pre- 
.iate, styles our divine '^;a. person eminent for his learning 
find. piety.*' -And thus a door being opened to him into 
jchunch^.preferments, he rose by quick advances. His 
•patron the bishop w^s so much pleased with him, that he 
t^desigaed'fi^r him the prebend < of Cantrilies, in St. Paulas 
«(shuitoh, and wrote to the council (some of whom had 
(Procured it for furnishing the king's stables) for leave 
'Aq give' thisi living, as he says; ^^ to his well deserving chap- 
kuo, who was without preferment, and to whom he would 
graatfit with all his heart, that so he might have him con- 
tinually .mihriiim and in bis diocese to preach," adding, 
^faat ^^ he w!^ known to be both of virtue, honesty, discre- 
tion, wssdom, and learning." What effect this application 
bad does not appear, but the pvsscentoif^s place becoming 
vacant soon after, his lordship on August 24, 1551, coU 

y Uio$. Brit.— Buniiet;» Own TioiM.— CoUins^s Peerage, by Sir £• Bryds«i> 
art. Vcf ulftOtTrCUreadoufi Hiitoryr^hstt«m's Bcrtfoiditure* 



346 O R I N D A L. 

fluted bim to that office, ..which was of much, greater 

.value, and likewise procured bim to be made one of bia 

.majesty's chaplains, with the usual salary of 40/. in Decem^i^, 

ber of the. same year. On July 2, 1552, he obtained a 

stall in Westminster-abbey ; which, however, he resigned 

rto Dr. Bonner, whom he afterwards succeeded in the 

•liishopric of London. In the mean time, there being a 

.design on the death of Dr. Tonstall, to divide the rich see 

^f Durham into two, Grindal was nominated for one of 

'these, and would have obtained it, had not one of the 

courtiers got the whole bishopric dissolved, and settled as 

a temporal estate upon himself. 

In 1552, he fled from the persecution under queen Mary 
into Germany ; and, residing at Strasbourg, made him- 
self master of the German tongue, in order to preach iu 
the ehurcfaes there ; in the disputes at Francfort about a 
new model of government and form of worship, which waji 
to be different from the last liturgy of king Edward, he 
Ifided with Cox and others against Knox and his followers. 
Jteturning to England on the accession of Elizabeth, in 
1558, he was employed among others, in drawing up the 
new liturgy to be presented to the queen's first parliament; 
-|tnd was also one of the eight protestant divines, chosen to 
bold a public dispute with the popish prelates about that 
< time. His talent for preaching was likewise very service- 
able, and he was generally appointed to that duty on all 
public occasions. On May 15, 1550^ he preached at St. 
PauPs at the first reading iof the common-prayer before 
the privy-council, nobility, lord mayor, and aldermen. 
About the same time he was appointed one of the ebmmis* 
sioners in the north, on the royal visitation for restoring 
the supremacy of the crown, and the protestant faith and 
worship. This visitation extended also to Cambridgei 
where Dr. John Young being removed for refusing the 
oath of supremacy, from the mastership of Pembroke* hall^ 
Grindal was chosen by the fellows to succeed him in 1559. 
This ofHce, however, he accepted with reluctance, and 
finding that he could riot reside, he resigned it in May 
1562, if not before; yet so highly was he beloved by th^ 
society, that the three succeeding masters were chosen by 
bis recommendation.- , 

In July the same year, he was nominated to the bi- 
shopric of London, vacant by the deposition of Bonner. 
T'he juncture was very t:ritical, and the fate of tbe chprcl;^ 



G R 1 N D A L. S4r 

jrerenoes depended upon the event. An act of parliament 
had lately passed, whereby her majesty was empowered 
tio exchange the ancient episcopal manors and lordahipa 
£>r tithes and impropriations; a measure extremely re- 
gretted by these first bishops^ who scrupled whether they 
should comply in a point so injurious to the revenue of 
their respective sees, which must suffer considerably by 
thede exchanges ; and which too would cut off all hope of 
restoring the tithes, so long unjustly detained from the 
respective cnurches, for the maintenance of the incum- 
bents. In this important point our new-nominated bishop 
consulted Peter Martyr in a letter dated August of this 
year ; nor did he accept of the bishopric till he had re* 
cieived an opinion in favour of it from that divine, who 
said that' the queen might provide for her bishops and 
clergy in such manner as she thought proper, that bring 
none of Grindal's concern. He also communicated to that 
divine his scruples concerning the habits and some cus* 
toms then used in the church, on both which Martyr gave 
him the advice of a sensible and moderate man who re* 
garded more weighty matters. Before this answer could 
be received, Grindal was consecrated Dec. 1, but the ex- 
change of lands with the queen not being fully settled^ he 
could not compound for his first fruits, and consequently 
|ie was hindered from exercising his episcopal function, 
and was obliged to have the queen's express authority for 
that purpose. We may here remark that Cox bishop of 
Ely, Barlow of Chichester, and Scory of Hereford, were con* 
secrated at the same time by archbishop Parker^ with whom 
they all joined in a petition to her majesty to stop these ex- 
changes, and they offered her as an equivalent, 1000 marks a 
year during their lives. In 1 560, be was madci one of the ec» 
^lesiastical commissioners, in pursuance of an act of parlia- 
ment to inspect into the manneni; of the clergy^ and regulate 
all matters of the church; and the same year he joined with 
Cox and Parker^ in a private letter to the queen, persuading 
her to marry. In 1561, be held his primary visitation. In 
1 563 he assisted the archbishop of Canterbury, together with 
some civilians, in preparing a book of statutes for Christ 
jchurch, Oxford, which as yet had none fixed. This year 
he was also very serviceable, in procuring the English 
merchants, who were ill used at Antwerp and other paru 
of the Spanish Netherlands, and who had been very kind 
iff (he English ej^jles in the late reigui a new settleneut at 



SidI & Sills 'O AL. 



fioibdeD, in ^oat-'FriedAn^ ; And tbe name year, 0t tbe 
jsoqueat.of lur Williaoi KiiJecil, /C^eoretairy of^tate^ :be wxofee 
;i|DimadvQcsions ufion la ^rea^i^ .eptVil^d ^SCJb^ri^aiu flo* 
-iniuis Norma/* .&c. ^^^ T^ Rule of a CbrijttiaD MaD,f* 
Abe audxur <of wbioby One Justus YeUiu^ a Dui^h «n(hii- 
•iast) bad iinpudenti.y> in $oo^A€^ters;tOitbe,queeQ> used 
fbenaces to ier m?^e»tg ; .but b^ng M ^t eked b^Eooe 
fthe ;e€clesiaslical rCouuDisaioiiy ^93 Qbarged to dapast >ibe 
Idngdora. 

^n' April .16^ .15649 be JtQok :ibe:degi:ee qf D. D. .at iQasi* 
.{iridge, and tbe same year eocecuted the queen> e^xprc^ 
«ccanniaDd, ^for eocacting junifoxnoity in>tbe cler^ ; tbut.pro- 
•oeeded sottendecly and slowly^itbat tbe arcbbiabop^tbougl^t 
c&t^o^accitie and quicken bim.; wbenceitbe' puritans sup- 
iposed him inclined to , their ;party. Howevec, ;be brougbt 
:ae^ierai nouoonforinisjto ;to .CQinply ; fto .wbkb.^^iQd be pub* 
ili^hed a-letkoriof sHenry ^BuUingi^r, ..minister ^pf Zurich, m 
•Switzerland, ko^tfi^e tbelawfujoiess of cpmpliance, :Wbich 
diad a ^ery good i effect. The satne year, -October 3, on 
^e 'Oelebralion .of >tbe letiuperor Ferdiu9<Hi*;S funeral, :be 
«p«eached a sermon at; St Paur$, afterwards printed, froip 
-which Strype .has given €;«s.trac^. In .ld$7, be executed 
'ihe queen's orders in ipropQ^ec^ing ^against the probibil;ed 
(andu|:ili€ensed .>pr^<^bers ; ibut .^va^^spitre^ti^d by ^ome ;wicb 
reproaches ai^ wAe ilangiuage» tbatit abatadtmnch ^of bis 
i&vourable inclinaiipna tQVVf^vifi them^ vrbiQh.vcas-fett AOtd 
i|pesented< on thdr , part* £ven . although ^ot^e ye^cs after* 
*juvaTds he.botb^proicur^d the liberl^y of sonie separati^s mho 

k^ been 'ip&prUonegd according toriaw, :and*iodu}ged.theit 
'Biintsteirs with a licence to preach, pn their promising. nat 
ito^act againsit the laws, yejt .they ijxHned^ately^abpsed *tbMt 
•liberty, and when he pfo,ceed^d -against tbe^ for it, itb^j 
badt^e boldoess to lodge a conjplaint in tbPipviyy.cpunoil 
^representing bis dealings ^iib thein. Tbe archbiBbop, 
touched with their in^atitude, jpined with tbe cojancil in 
opinion that sueb men. ought. to be severely punished as .a 
warning ' to otben. Gfindai was als,o tbre^tene^ fvitb a pre- 
wunire by spme of bis clergy for raiding A cpfitribauon 
upon them tbe preening yi^ ;f(»r the pjer^ciHed Pro- 
testants abroad, {without tbe qpeeo^s Ucei)ce. But this, did 
not discourage him> and bavii^ procured a cpanmission 
fro^i her majesty? to visit the Savoy, tbe hospital Appoiinted 
for the relief i and en tertaiuioe^it of poor travellers, he de-^ 

E rived the oaaster, who. had almost rruined the cbaf ity by 
. is abuses and mismanagement. 



A§ waar ^ UA: pi«ce of seMee h€ pekfottheS fbt Ut 
tfiocese, b^ing on May I', f 570^ translated tfo the see of 
York. He owed this j>rothotiO» to' secrete^ Ce^il smd 
ifercMiAop Panrker, wtio^ hkefA kis rettib^al froth^^ Lot^doit, 
8$' not being resolute et^Ottgb f6t iht go^^rrinrent ttiere". 
The same year he wrote ar lector to bis* pa^HrOtt Cecffy that 
Cartmigbt the* ftmsfoob non^ttformist nri^ be sifeneed ; 
and in 1571, at his metropolitica) vi^Mdon^ bO ifbewed it 
beaVty tesA^ by bisi iiij^uinttinrt^y'for thid d!l^i]^rie Md good 
gorernttient of the chaych. In 1572 bd petitiOued dv* , 
queen to renew the^ ecelel^asticaft Oodimission. In lSn4 
be held one for the pntpOse of proceeding against pa/pist^y 
wfao^e jramber daily diti^inisbed in bis diocese, which b6 
Was partfctftarly careM to prorido With le&fnfed p\f^i2ti6bet^^ ^ 
as beiOg in bis opinion the best ihetiiod of attaining that 
tad. He rejected therefore such as camd for institutioii 
to livings if they were foand deficient in learning, artd itk 
ihu policy be wasr encouraged by the q%ieen, to whom it 
Wa$ higbly agfeeslble. In other respects be had fVequentI jr 
to contend with the avftrice of the courti^fs, sonie of whofi^ 
wonM have greiitly ifibpoterfsh^d the church, if ht and 
fvther prelates had not opposed them. 

His patron, Cecily then lord treasurer, rOcommeoded. 
him to the first chair in the church, which became vacant 
by the death of archbishop Parker. Accordingly he was 
translated to the see of Canterbury, in which be was con* 
firmed, February 15, 1575. On May 6, 1576, he began 
bis metropolitical visitation, and took measures for thi 
better regulation of bis courts ; but the same year fell under 
her majesty's displeasure, upon account of the favour ht 
abeWed to what was called the exercise of pm[ihesying. 

These prophesyings had been used for some time, the 
fule^ of which were, that the ministers of a particular di« 
vision at a set time met together at some church, and therO 
eatib in tbeir order explained, according to their abilities, 
kottke portion of scripture allotted to them before; this 
'done, a moderator made bis observations on what had been 
teid, and determined the true sense of the place, a cer- 
tain time being fixed for dispatching the whole. The ad« 
yantage was the improvement of the clergy, who hereby 
Considerably profited in the knowledge Of the scripture ; 
but this mischief ensued, that at length confusions and 
disturbances took place at those meetings^ by an ostenta^ 
tion of i^ujierior parts in aome, by advancing heterodox 



350 -O R I N O A L* 

opinions, and by the intrusion of some of the sileated M^ 
paratistS) who took this opportunity of declaiming agatnsff 
the liturgy and hierarchy} and even speaking against states 
and particular persons. The people also, of whom there, 
was always a great conflux as hearers, fell to arguing and 
disputing much about religion, and sometimes: a layman 
vrould take upon himself to speak. In short, the exercises 
degenerated into factions. 

Grindal laboured to redress these irregularities by setting 
down rules and orders for the management of these ex- 
ercises ; however, the queen still disapproved of them, as 
seeing probably bow very apt they w^re to be abused. . She 
did not like that the laity should neglect their secular af&irs 
bv repairing to those meetings, which she thought ,m^C 
fill their heads with notions, and so occasion dissentiont 
and disputes, and perhaps, seditions in the state* - And the 
archbishop being at court, she particularly declared herself 
offended at the number of preachers as well as the exer^ 
cises, and ordered him to redress both ; urging, that it 
ivas good for the church to have few preachers, that three 
pr four might suffice for a county, and that the reading of 
the Homilies to the people was sufficient. She tterefmre 
required him to abridge the number of preachers, and put 
down the religious exercises. This did not a little afflict 
him* He thought, and very properly, the queen infringed 
pppn his office, to whom, next to herself, the highest trust 
of the church of England was committed ; especially as 
i^his command was peremptory, and made withopt at all 
advifiiing with him, and that in a matter so direcUy coot 
.cerping religion : he wrote a letter to her majesty, de« 
daring, that his conscience would not suffer him to cooi:^ 
ply with her commands. 

. This refusal was dated December 20, 1576. The queeii 
therefore having given him sufficient time to consider well 
his resolution, and he continuing inflexible, she sent let* 
ters next year to the bishops, to forbid all exercises aod 
prophesyings, and to silence all preachers and teachers not 
JawfuUy called, of which there were no small number ; an4 
in June the archbishop was sequcBtered from his effi^^e, 
and confined to his bouse by an order of the court of star? 
chamber. In November the lord-treasurer, wrote to hio)L 
about making his submission, with which he not thinking 
lit to comply, his sequestration was continued ; and 10 
January there were t|iought8 of depriving him, which, hpw* 



<J R 1 N D A L; 55t 

tirer^ were laid aside. June 1579, his confinement was 
either taken off, or else he had leave to retire to his house 
mt Croydon ; for we find him there consecrating the bishop 
of Exeter in that year, and the bishops of Winchester, 
and Lichfield and Coventry, the year following. This part 
of his function was exercised by a particular commisstoil 
from the queen, who in council appointed two civilians to 
manage the other affairs of his see, the two of his nomina- 
tion being set aside. Yet sometimes he had special com- 
mands from the queen and council to act in person, aiid 
issued out orders in his own name ; and in general was as 
active as he could be, and vigilant in the care of his diocese 
as occasion offered. In 1580, for instance, when there 
happened a violent earthquake, our archbishop having 
issued an order for prayer and humiliation, composed ^ 
prayer for families throughout his diocese, which was al^ 
lowed by the council, who in a letter to him commended 
his great zeal, and required him to enjoin the observation 
of his new order of prayer in all other dioceses. The 
council also referred to him the decision of a disptite that 
happened the same year at Merton college, Oxford, of 
which he was visitor, as archbishop ; and soon after he was 
emfl<ijed by the lord treasurer in a controversy between 
the university and town of Cambridge. 

This year (1580), a convocation met at St. Paul's, at 
which, though he could not appear, yet he had a principal 
•hare in the transactions of it. He drew up an expedient 
for preserving the authority of the spiritual courts in the 
point of excommunications; he laid before them also k 
new form of penance to be observed for the future, better 
calculated than the former to produce a proper effect oii 
offenders. It was moved in this convocation, that no bu« 
finess should be entered upon, nor any subsidy granted^ 
till he was restored, and although the motion was nega- 
tived, yet they unanimously presented a petition in bis 
liavour to her majesty, which they thought was a more re* 
«pectful proceeding. This, however, proved ineffectual, 
nor was he restored until after he made his submission, in 
which, among other things, to clear himself of the chat'ge 
of a refractory disobedience in the matter of the exercises^ 
he proved that in his own bishopric, and other peculiar 
jurisdictions, he never suffered the practice after the time 
of her majesty's command. 
The precise time of his restitution does not clearly ap« 



35* O it I N D A L 

pear, yet several of hi» proceedings sbew^i that be was ni 
the full possession of the metropalitical power in 158^ in 
which yet it is also certain be lost bis eye- sight. Sir Jobs 
HarringtoD imagines that bis being blind was only a teporl 
circulated by bis frieadsy in order to conceal bis being in 
confinement by the qaeen'^ order in bis o#ft bousey but 
Strype has ampky refuted fbia supposition. He was also 
much broken down by hard study and infirmitiesy especially 
the strangury and colic, with which he bad long beeo 
a^icted ; and losing all hopes of recovering his sight, bei 
^resigned bis see towards the Utter end of 1582» and aU 
though by no means a favourite with bis royal oiiatress a^ 
this time^ she thought proper to grant bim a pension for 
bis life. With this provisipn be retired to Croydon, wbend 
be died July 6, 1553, and was interred in that churchy 
^bere a stone monument was erected to bis taemory* 

Strype has ably vindicated his memory from the misre^ 
presentations of Fuller and Heylin, who consider bim as 
too much inclined to puritanism ; and observes, that in th^ 
times in which he Kved, when he was better known, bis 
episcopal abilities, and admirable endowments for spiritual 
government, as well as bis great learning, were much ce- 
lebrated. He was a man, says Strype, of great iirmnesa 
and resolution, though of a mild and afbble temper, and 
friendly disposition ; in his deportment courteous and en* 
gaging, not easily provoked, well spoken, and easy of 
access j and in his elation not at all aiFecting grandeur or 
state, always obliging in his carriage, as welt as kind and 
grateful to his servants, and of a free and gei^erous spirit^ 
Strype allows, what indeed is obvious, that be used great 
moderation towards the puritans, to whose interest in the 
cabinet, joined to bis own merits^ bis preferment was in r 

freat measure owing; and had they repaid this moderation 
y a corresponding behaviour, he would have less seldom 
incurred the dis^pleasure of the court ^, who thought bis: 
favours ill-besiowed on men of restless and turbulent dis* 

* Grindal had the misfortuoe to of Leicester^ who was perhaps in- 
ferve a queen who meddled fcoo much dehted-to him for serrlces of thia kind, 
in matteri above her compreheosioD ; was excessively attached to hi^l.; aad 
but it was not on account of religion through that nofaleowo's intciferepoi^ 
only that he lost her favour. At one Grindal, who bad condenxired tlie mar- 
time, Julio Borgamcci, an Italiaaphy- I'iage of Jalio to aaotber maB'a m§e, 
sician, was in great estimation in this lost the queen's favour for ever.f 
cpontry with the people of quality. Lodge's Illustrations, vol. II. p. 157. 
though infamans for his proficiency in See also Harrington's Brief View, ani, 
the composition of poi«ons# Xhc^tari jCamdca'f Ami«ls« 



G R I N D A L- S$9 

positions. He had a great respect for the eminent re^ 
fprmers abroad^ Calvin^ Lutber, Melanctbon, Bucer> Peter 
Martyr, BulUnger^ Zanchius^ and others, with whom he 
had contracted a friendship during his exile, and always 
carried on a correspondence ; and he was very instrumentU 
* in obtaining a settlement for the French protestants ia 
their own way of worshipi approaching to . th$ ;Genevan^ 
who were allowed to assemble in the Walloon church in 
Thread needle-street, which has ever since been a French 
church. 

. Collier, whose authority is of some consequence in thU 
case^ clears Grindal from all imputations of puritanism^ 
und speaking of the articles at one of his metropoliticat 
visitations, observes, that he was no negligent governor^ 
nor a person of latitude or indifference for the ceremonies 
of the church ^ but, on the other hand, he was mor^ 
deeply concerned for her doctrines, and a strenuous as- 
sertor of them. He was celebrated as a preacher in king 
Edward VI.'s time, Isoth at court and in the university ; 
^tid in the beginning of queen Elizabeth^s reign, when the 
Protestant religion was to be declared^ and inculcated to the 
people^ he was one of the chief persons employed in the. 
pulpit at St. Paul's, and before the queen and nobility. 
. Besides what have already been noticed, Grindal as- 
sisted Fox in lys Martyrology, in which is printed^ a com- 
position of his entitled a *^ Dialogue bejtween Custom and 
Truth,'' written in a very clear manner, in refutation of 
the doctrine ^of the corporal presence in the sacrament. 
He lived and died unmarried, yet does not seem to have 
amassed much wealth amidst all his preferments.r At his 
death, however, he became a considerable benefactor to 
learning. He left So2L per annum for the maintenance of 
a free grammar-school at St. Begh's, in Cumberland, near 
the place of his birth ; and for the building, &c. of it 3^6/* 
13i. 4>d; various sums to several colleges at Cambridge, 
and cups, pictures, &c. to various friends. It may be 
worth noticii^, that Grindal, who, by the way, is the 
jffgrind of Spenser, first brought the tamarisk to England, 
so useful in medicine, when he returned from bis exile. * 

GBiSAUNT (William), a physician, astronomer, and 
matbematiciao, and like his countryman, friar Bacon, vio- 

^ Stiype*g Life of Grindal.— Bios^. Brit. — Hatchinsoo'g Cumberlaad, toI. lU 
d5,«— Harrington's Brief View.*-Le NeTe's Lives of the Bishops, 

VouXVL Aa 



$S% G R I S A U N T. 

fently snspected of magic, lived in the fourteenth tenixtff^ 
He studied at Merton college, Oxford ; and, probably Uf 
escape the disagreeable consequences of such suspictObs^ 
went into France, where he devoted himself entirely to the 
study of medicine, first at Montpelier, and then at Mar- 
seilles. In this city he fixed hi» residencev and lived by 
the practice of his profession, in which he acquired mucb 
skill and eminence. There is no greater proof of his ge- 
siusy besides the imputations he laboured under in his' 
youth, than his assiduously pursuing the method instituted 
by the Greek physicians, of investigating the nature and 
cause of the disease and the constitution of the patient. 
The time of his death is not known ; but we are told that 
he was an old man in 13^50, and that he had a son, who 
was first an abbot of canons regular at Marseilles, and at 
length arrived at the pontificate under the name of Urban 
V. Bale and Pits both give lists of bis works, none of 
which are known to be extant^ ^ 

GRIVE (John de la), a French topographer and en- 
graver, was^born in 1689 at Sedan, and going to Paris,^ 
entered the congrega&on of the priests of St. Lazare, and 
was sent by tbem into Poland, to be professor of divinity 
at Cracow. In a short time, however, he returned, and 
afterwards quitted his congregation to devote himself en* 
tirely to mathematics and topography. He published the 
^^ Plan of Paris,'' 1728, a very good work in itself, but 
the engraving was too imperfect ; at which the abb€ de 
Grive was so vexed, that he broke the plates, and deter-^ 
mined, in future, to engrave his works himself, which re- 
solution he executed punctually. Being appointed geo* 
grapher of Paris, he drew the course of the river Seine^ 
from its source to its mouth. M. de la Grive assisted IVL 
Cassini in determining the meridian of Paris, and under- 
took a very particular and circumstantial, account of that 
capital, which work was far advanced at the time of his 
death, which happened April 1757. The first two drawings; 
of this vast plan have^ been published by M. Hugnin, his 
pupiL The other most esteemed works of the abb£ de la 
Grive are, his •* Environs de Paris ;" Jardins de Marly ;'• 
*^ Terrier du Domaine du Roi aux Environs de Paris ;** 
^ Plan de Versailles," &c. He also left << Le Manuel de 
Trigonometric Sph6rique,'* published in 1754.* 

1 £ale.-^Piu.— Aikio's Bi^g. Memoirff of Medicine* * Morerti^^Mct. Bist« 



G R O C Y N. «5? 

CrROCYN (WiLUAM), a man eminently learned in hiii 
day, and one of the revivers of literature, was born at 
^Bristol in 1442, and educated at Wiuchester-school. He 
was elected thence to New college, Oxford, in 1467; and 
in 1479, presented by the warden and fellows to the rec- 
tory of Newton-Longville, in Buckinghamshire. But hia 
residence being mostly at Oxford, the society of Magdalen 
college made him their divinity reader, about the begins 
ning of Richard the Illd's reign ; and that king coming 
soon after to Oxford, he had the honour to hold a dis- 
putation before him, with which his majesty was so 
pleased, that he rewarded him graciously. In 1485 he 
was made a prebendary of Lincoln, and in 1488 he quitted 
his reader's place at Magdalen college, in order to travel 
into foreign countries ; for though he might be reckoned a 
great master of the Greek and Latin languages in England^ 
where the former especially was then scarcely understood 
at all, yet he well knew that a more perfect knowledge of 
it might be attained ; . and accordingly he went into Italy^ 
and studied there some time under Demetrius Cfaalcondyles 
and Politian. He returned to England, and fixed himself 
in Exeter college, at Oxford, in 1491, where he took the 
degree of B. D. Here too he publicly taught the Greek 
language, and was the first who introduced a better pro^^ 
nunciation of it than had been known in this island before^ 
But the introduction of this language alarming many, as a 
most dangerous innovation, the university divided itself 
into two factions,.distinguishedby the appellation of Greeks 
and Trojans, who bore eac^ other a violent animosity^ and 
proceeded to open hostilities. Anthony Wood says, <^ I 
cannot but wonder when I t^ink upon it, to what a strange 
ignorance were the scholars arrived, when, as they would 
by no means receive it, but rather scoff and laugh at it; 
some ag^nst the new pronunciation of it, which was en« 
deavoured to be settled ; others at the language itself^ 
having not at all read any thing thereof. It is said that 
there were lately a company of good fellows (Cambridge 
men as 'tis reported) who, either out of hatred to the 
£rree1^ tongue, or good letters, or merely to laugh and 
sport, joined together and called themselves Trojans : one, 
who was the senior, and wiser than the rest, called himself . 
Priam, another Hector, a third Parys, and the rest by 
some ancient Trojan names ; who, after a jocular way, did 
oppose as Grecians, the students of the Greek tongue.'* 

AA 2 



S56 G R O C Y N. 

In this situationi Grocyp wai, when Erasmus came t9 
Oxford ; and if he was not this great man's tutor, yet he 
certainly assisted him in attaining a more perfect know- 
ledge of the Greek. He was, however, very friendly to 
Erasmus, and did him many kind offices, as' introducing 
him to archbishop Warham, &c. He also boarded him 
gratis in his house, although he was by no means in af- 
fluent circumstances. We cannot be surprized therefore 
that Erasmus speaks of him often in a strain which shews 
that be entertained the most sincere regard for him, as well 
as the highest opinion of his abilities, learning, and-< inte- 
grity. About 1 590 he resigned his living, being then made 
master of AUhallows college, at Maidstone, in Kent, though 
he continued still to live mostly at Oxford. Grocyn had 
no esteem for Plato, but applied himself intensely to Aris- 
totle, whose whole works be had formed a design of trans- 
lating, in conjunction with William Latimer, Linacre, and 
More, but did not pursue it. While his friend Colet was 
dean of St. Paul's, Grocyn gave a remarkable evidence of 
the candour and ingenuousness of his temper. He read in 
St. PauPs cathedral a public lecture upon the book of 
Dionysius Areopagita, commonly called ** Hierarchia Ec- 
clesiastica ;" it being customary at that time for the pub- 
He lecturers, both in the universities, and in the cathedral 
churches, to read upon any book, rather than upon the 
scriptures, till dean Colet reformed that practice. Grocyn, 
in the preface to his lecture, declaimed with great warmth 
Against those who either denied or doubted of the autho- 
rity of the book on which he was reading. But after he 
had continued to read a few weeks, and had more tho- 
roughly examined the matter, be entirely changed his 
sentiments ; and openly and candidly declared that he had 
been in an error; and that the said book, in hisjudgment^ 
was spurious, and never written by him who, in the Acts 
of the Apostles, is called Dionysius the Areopagite. But 
When dean Colet had introduced the custom of reading 
lectures upon some part of the scriptures at his cathedral^ 
he engaged Grocyn, according to Dr. Knight, as one of 
the most learned and able men he could meet with, in that 
useful employment. 

Grocyn died at Maidstone in 1519, of a stroke of the 
palsy, which he had received a year before, and which 
inade him, says Erasmus, <^ sibi ipsi superstitem f ' that is^ 
outlive hb faculties. Linacre^ the celebrated physician 



G R O C Y N. Wt 

just mentioned, wa& his executor, to whom he left aeon* 
itiderable legacy, as he did a small one to William Lilly, 
the grammarian, who was his godson. His will is printed 
in the appendix to Knight's ^' Life of Erasmus.^' He had 
indeed but little to leave, having never enjoyed prefer- 
ment equal to his worth * ; yet he was a man of great ge- 
nerosity, which at one time obliged him to pawn his plate 
to Dr. Young, who generously returned it by his will witth- 
out taking principal or interest A Latin epistle of Gro» 
cyn^s to Aldus Manutius is prefixed to Linacre's translation 
of *^ Proclus de Sphaera," printed at Venice in 1449, fol. 
iErasmus says, that ^* there is nothing extant of bis but this 
epistle : indeed a very elaborate and acute one, aud written 
in good Latin.*' His publishing nothing more seems to 
have been owing to too much delicacy ; for, Erasmus adds^ 
<^ he was of so nice a taste, that he had rather write nothing 
than write ill.'' Some other things, however, of his wjriu 
ing are mentioned by Bale^ Leland^ and Tanner, as ^< Trac- 
tatus contra hostiolum Joannis Wiclevi ;" ^* Epistolae ad 
Erasmum et alios ; ^^Grammatica;" ^^Vulgariapuerorum;" 
** Epigrammata ;" ** Nota in Terentium," and " Isago« 
gicum quoddam.*' ^ 

GROENVELT (John), a physiciitn, and member of the 
royal college -of London, in the seventeenth century, was 
bom at Deventer, in the province of Overyssel; he studied 
and graduated at Utrecht, where he began the practice of 
his profession. He likewise studied under a celebrated 
litbotomist of Amsterdam, from whom he learnt that arl^ 
and whose esteem he acquired by the dexterity with which 
be performed the operation, insomuch that by his will thii 
master bequeathed all his instruments to Groenvelt, with a 
request that be should employ them for the good of man- 
kind. After this time he practised this art almost exclu»> 
Mvely. He left three treatises ; the first entitled ^^Disser* 
tatio litbologica variis observationibus et figuris illustrata,**' 
Lond. 1634. 2. ^^ Practica qua humani morbi describun- 
tur," Francfort, 1688. 3. << Tractatus de tuto Canthari* 

* In the new edition of Wood's Athe- in 1517 the vicarage of St. Lawrence 

&e we find that he became prebendary Jewry. He is also said to have suo- 

of South Searle in the chnrch of Lin- ceededCathbert Tonstall in thechurdi 

cola i in 1493 he appears to have re- of East Peckhanip in the diocese of 

signed the rectory of Depden ; in 15 13 Shereham. 
that of Shepperton in Middlesex ; and 

1 Leland. — Bale.—Tanner.— Ath. Ox. vol I.— nasr edit, by Bliss.— Jorfcti't 
and Knight's Lives of Srasmyg, aad Knight's Life •£ C^ei,— Wood's Annals. 



i^ GROENVELT. 

Aum ill M'edicina iisu interno,*' Lond. 1693, &c. These 
works were translated into English in 1691, 1706, 1710^ 
and another of his works entitled ^^ The grounds of physic.*' 
In all these the author's name was changed to GreenfieLiDw 
None of our authorities specify the time of his death.^ 

GROLLIER (John), an eminent patron of literature^ 
was born at Lyons in 1479; and very early displayed a 
propensity towards those elegant and solid pursuits, which 
afterwards secured him the admiration and esteem of his 
contemporaries. His address was easy, his manners were 
frank, yet polished ; bis demeanour was engaging, and his 
liberality knew no bounds. As be advanced in years, be 
advanced in reputation ; enjoying a princely fortune, the 
result, in some measure, of a faithful and honourable dis« 
4;harge of the important diplomatic situations which he 
filled. He was grand tre^urer to Francis I. and ambassa- 
•dor from that monarch to pope Clement VII. During bis 
abode at Rome he employed the Alduses to print for him 
an edition of Terence in 1521, 8vo, and another of Bu- 
dssus'swork '^De Asse,*^1522, 4to. Of bis liberality while 
in this city, Egnatio gives the following instance : *^ 1 dined 
along with Aldus, his son Manutius, and other learned mea 
Sit GroUier^s table. After dinner^ and just as the dessert 
had been placed on the table, our host presented each df 
hb guests with a pair of gloves filled with ducats.'* De 
Thou speaks very highly of his character. During his tra- 
vels he had secured from Basil, Venice, and Rome, thie 
most precious copies of books that could be purchased, 
which he bound in a peculiar style, described in our autho- 
rity. Every librai^y and every scholar has boasted of a 
book from Grolliec's library since it was dispersed, and 
during his life-time it was his pride to accommodate his 
friends with the use of them. He died at Paris in 1565.* 

GRONOVIUS (John Frederic), an eminent civilian, 
historian, and critic, was born at Hamburgh in 1613. He 
had a strong inclination to learning, which induced him 
to apply to books with indefatigable diligence from his in- 
fancy ^ and, having made great progress in his studies in 
his own country, he travelled into Germany, Italy, an4 
France, where he searched all the treasures of literature 
that could be found in those countries^ and was returnins 

1 Rees's CyclopBdia.— Maiifet and Haller. 
f MorerifT-DibdIn'i Bil>li9maiua, 



G R O N O V I u s. zsn 

^ome 1)y the way of the United Provinces, when he was 
*stopt at Deventer in the province of Over-Issel, and there 
ina«le professor of polite learning. After acquiring great 
reputation in this chair, he was promoted to that of Ley* 
4len in 1658, vacant by the death of Daniel Heihsius. He 
died at Leyden in 1672, much regretted. By his wife^ 
whom he married at Deventer, he had two sons that sur- 
vived him and were both eminent in the republic of let- 
ters: James, who is the subject of the ensuing article; 
and Theodore Laurent, who died young, having published 
^^ Emendationes Pandectarum, &c. Leyden, 1605,'' Svo^ 
and '^ A Vindication of the Marble Base of the Colossus 
erected in honour of Tiberius Caesar, ibid. 1697," folio. 

Frederic Gronovius was the author of many critical 
works. Besides his edition of Casaubon's Epistles, Hague^ 

1638, in 4to, he published the folio witig : 1. ^^ Diatribe in 
8tatii Poet® Sylvas," Hague, 1637, 8vo. This being at^ 
tacked by Emeric Crucaeus, who under the name of Mer« 
curius Frondator published an *' Anti-Diatribe" at Paris, 

1639, 24mo, Gronovius published, 2. ^' Elenchus Anti- 
Diatribes Mercurii Frondatoris ad Statii Sylvas,'* Paris, 
<1640, 8vo. This occasioned Crucaeus to publish ^' Mus« 
carium ad Statii Sylvas," Paris, 1640, 8vo. 3. <^ De Ses« 
tertiis, sive subsecivorum Pecunis veteris Graecae &. Ro- 
manas - Libri IV. Accesserant Lucius Volusiu£^ Maecianus, 
J. C. & Balbqs Mensor de Asse," &c. Deventer, 1643, 
6vo, Amsterdam, 1656, 8vo, and Leyden, 1691, 4to, in 
which last edition, published by his son James Gronovius, 
are added ^ rPaschasii Grosippi, (i. e. Casparis Schioppii) 
Tabulae Numerariae ; Johannis Freder. Gronovii Mantissa 
pecunisB veteris, & tres *Aimiim^&g de'Foenere Unciario & 
centesimis Usuris ; item de Hyperpyro ; Salnasii Epistola 
& ad eajn Responsio; & Aoyopuui TLJMta jm Nec^ Graece & 
Latine." 4. ^* Notae in Senecam Philosophum & Rheto- 
rem;" first printed separately .at Leyden, 1649, 12cbo, and 
afterwards reprinted in the Elzevir edition of '* Seneca cum 
Notis Variorum," 1673, 3 vols. 8vo. 5. ** Monobiblos £<?• 
clesiasticarum Observationum," 1651, 12mo. 6. *^ Obs^r* 
vationum Lib. IV." Deventer, 1652, 12mo. 7. " Statius 
ex recensione J. F. Gronovii, cum ejusdem Notis," Am- 
sterdam, 1653. Our author's notes were reprinted in the 
edition of Statius published byJobn Veenhusius at Ley- 
den, 1671, in 8vo. And Statius as revised by him was pub- 
lished by Christian Ddumius with the Commentarie« <rf 



860 G R O N O V I US: 

Barthiut in 2 vols. 4to. at Zwickaw iix 1664. 8. ** Seaeeife 
TragcsdisD. cum Notts Jobanim Frederic! GrotH>vii & mtm 
aliorum/' Leyden, 1661, 8vq. His Notes were reprioted 
with improvements in tbe edition of Seneca's tragedies 
published by bis son James Gropovius at Amsterdam^ 1632^ 
3vo. 9. ^^ Observationum Libri tres,'' Leyden, 1662, Svo. 
10. '^ Plautus ex recensioue Job. Fred. Gronovii, cum 
Nc^is Variorom/' Leyden, 1664, and 1684, Sro. 11. 
f^ Titus Livius ex recensione & cum N<>tis Job* Frid. Gro* 
iiovii, additis integris Caroli Sigonii & selectis Variorumi 
J^otis," Amsterdam, 1665, and 1679, 3 vols. 8vo; which 
last edition of 1679 is preferable to the former, on account 
of. the notes of Henry Valesius and James Gronovius, which 
nrere added to it.< Our author had published an edition of 
Livy revised by him at Leyden in 1645 and 1654 in 3 vols. 
12mo, and in 1661 and 1673» in one volume, 12m6. His 
Notes upon Livy were printed separately at Leyden in 
1645, 12mo« But several things in this edition of 1645 
ure omitted in the larger editions of 1675 and 1679. 12. 
^^Plinii Historia Naturalis," Leyden, 1669, 3 vcds. 8vk>. 
13. *^ Tacitus/ 'Amsterdam, 1673, 2 vols. 8vo, reprintied 
Ht Amsterdam, 1685, 2 vols. 8vo« 14. ^^ Notae in Hugo&is 
Grotii Libros tres de Jure Belli & Pacis," Amsterdam^ 
1680, Bvo. 15. ^^ Observationes ad Bened. Petrocorii de 
Vita B. Martini carminum libros sex," published in J>ati- 
mius's edition of Petrocorius, Leipsic, 1682, 8vo. 16. 
^ Auli Gellii Noctes Atticas," Leid. 1687, 8vo. His notes 
are reprinted in his son's edition, Leid. 1706. 17. '^ Not» 
ill Pheedri Fabulas,'* published by his son in the edition of 
Leyden, 1703, 8vo. 18. *^ He Musseo Alexandrine Dis* 
sertatio," inserted in his son's ^* Thesaurus." 19. ^< OratK) 
de lege regia, &c.'' Leyden, 1678. A translation of tlus 
in French was published by Barbeyrac with Noodt's trea-' 
tise upon liberty of conscience, Amst. 1714, 8vo. A great 
many of Gronovius's Letters -are published in Burman's 
« Sylloge Epistolarum." * 

GRONOVIUS (James), son of tbe preceding, was born 
October 20, 1 645, at Deventer, and learned tbe elements 
of the Latin tongue there ; but, going with the £uiiily in 
1658 to Leyden, he carried on his studies in that univer- 
sity with incredible industry under the eye of his fathef, 
who had the greatest desire to make him a complete sctKH 

\ Gen, DicU<— Moreri.— -Foppen Sibl* Bel;.<«-SazU Onomast. 



CKONOVIUS. S61 

ht* In this view he not only read to hint the best classic 
audiocSf but instructed him in the civil law. About 1670, 
be made the tour of England, and visited both the tiniver- 
fiitiesy consiilting tbeir MSS. ; and fornoed an acquaintance 
imh several eminent scholars, particularly Dr. Edward 
Pocock, Dr. John Pearson, and Dr. Meric Casaubon, which 
last died in his arms. He was much pleased with the in- 
BtitQtion of the royzi society, and addressed a letter to thein 
in approbation of it.* After soiaie months' stay in England, 
he returned to Leyden, where he poblisbed an edition of 
Macrobias that year in 8vo, and another of Polybins the 
same year at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. 8vo. The same year 
he was also offered the professorship held by Hogersiu9; 
but, not having finished the plan of his travels, he declined, 
though the professor, to engage his acceptance, proposed 
to hold the place till his return. 

He had apparently other views at that time, for havings 
eKperienced many advantages to his literary pursuits by his 
visit to England, he resolved to see France. In his tour 
thither, he passed through the cities of Brabant and Flah-^ 
ders ; and arriving at Paris, was received with all the re- 
elect due to his father's reputation and his own merit, which 
piesently brought him into the acquaintance of Chaplain, 
d'Heibc^ot, Tbevenot, and several other persons of distin- 
guished learning. This satisfaction was somewhat damped 
by the news of his father's death in 1 672 ; soon after which 
he left Paris to attend Mr. Paats, ambassador extraordinary 
from the States-general to the .court of Spain. They set 
out in the spridg of 1672; and our author went thence 
into Italy, where, visiting Tuscany, he was entertained 
with extraordinary politeness by the great duke, who, 
among other marks of esteem, gave him a very considera- 
ble stipend, and the professor's place of Pisa, vacant by 
the death of Chimentel. This nomination was the more 
honourable, both as he bad the famous Henry Norris, af- 
terwards a cardinal, for his colleague ; and as he obtained 
it by the recommendation of Magliabecchi, whom he fre- 
quently visited at Florence, where he had an opportunity 
of consulting the MSS. in the Medicean library. 

Having spent two years in Tuscany, he quitted his pro- 
fessorship ; and visiting Venice and Padua, he passed 
through Germany to Leyden, whence he went to take pos* 
session of an estate left him by bis mother's brother, at 
Deventer. Here he sat down closely to his studies, and 



8€fi G R O N O V 1 U S- 

was employed in pn^paring an 'edition of Livy in 1679, 
when be was nominated to a professor's place at Leyden^ 
which be accepted ; and by bis inaugural speech obtained 
an augmentation to the salary of 400 florins a year, which 
was continued to his death. He was particularly pleased 
with the honour shewn to his merit ; and Leyden being the 
xity preferred by him, as the place of his education and 
liis father's residence, he resolved never to leave it for the 
sake of any other preferment. In this view he refused the 
chair of th^ celebrated Octavio Ferrari at Padua, and de- 
clined the invitation of Frederic duke of Sleswick to accept 
a considerable stipend for a lecture at Kell, in Holstein. 
This post was offered him in 1696, and two years after- 
wards the Venetian ambassador at the Hague made him 
larger offers to engage him to settle at Padua ; but he 
withstood all attempts to draw him from Leyden, as his 
father had done before him ; and, to engage him firmer to 
them, in 1702, the curators of that university gave him the 
lecture of geography, with the same augmentation to the 
stipend as had been given to his predecessor Philip Clu* 
yerius. 

He was revising Tacitus in order to a new edition, when 
he lost his youngest daughter, September 12, 1716, and 
he survived her not many weeks. The loss proved insup- 
portable ; be fell sick a few days after it, and died of grief, 
October 21, aged seventy-one. He left two sons, both 
bred to letters; the eldest being a doctor of physic, and 
the youngest, Abraham, professor of history at Utrecht* 
His valuable library, long retained in the possession of the 
family, and for which 30,000 florins had been offered by 
the late empress of Russia, was sold by auction at Leydeu 
about 1785, and produced only 5000 florins. It is re- 
marked of James Gronovius, that he fell short of his father, 
in respect of modesty and moderation, as far as he exceeded 
him in literature : in his disputes, he treated his antagonists 
with such a bitterness of style as procured him the name of 
the second Scioppius, the justness of which censure apr 
pears throughout his numerous works, although they must 
be allowed to form a stupendous monument of liteniry in- 
dustry and critical acumen. The following list is pro- 
bably correct: 1. '* Macrobius, ctim notis variorum,^' Leyd. 
1670, 8vo, London, 1694, 8vo. 2* ^^Polybius cuip suis 
ac ineditis Casauboni, &c. notis," Gr. & Lat." Amst* 1670, 
£ vpls. 8vo. 3. << Tacitus,'' ibid. 1612, 2 ygls. Svo, and 



ORONOyiUS, S6S 

Utrecht, 1721, 4 to, enlarged by his son Abraham. Harwood 
aays it is an infinitely better and more useful edition than 
that of Brotier. 4. ^^ Supplementa lacunarum in ^nea 
Tactico, Dione Cassio, et Arriano,*' Leyden, 1675, 8vo« 
5. ^^ Dissertationes Epistolicae," Amst. 1678, 8vo, consist- 
ing of critical remarks on various authors. Those he made 
pn Livy involved him in a dispute with Fabretti, who faav« 
ing attacked our critic in his work ^^ De Aqiiis et Aquaeduc- 
.tibus veteris Romae," Gronovius answered him in, 6. <^ Re« 
^ponsio ad cavillationes R. Fabretti,'' Leyden, 1685, 8vo. 
Fabretti, who is treated here with very little ceremony, 
jtook his revenge in a work, the title of which is no bad 
specimen of literary railing, '^ Jasithei ad Gronovium Apo- 
logema, in ej usque Titivilitia seu de Tito Livio somnia 
animadversiones," Naples, 1686, 4to. 7. '^ Fragmentura 
Stephani Byzantini Grammatici de Dodone, &c.'' Leyden, 
1681, 4to. 8. " Henrici Valesii Notse, &c. in Harpocra- 
tionem," Leyden, 1682, 4to, reprinted in Blancards edi- 
tion of Harpocration, in 1683. 9. ^^ Senecs Tragedies,** 
^Arnst. 1682, 12 mo. This is the edition which his father 
was preparing when he died. 10. ^^ Exercitationes aca« 
4emic8B de pernicie et casu Judae,'' Leyden, 1683, 4to, an 
endeavour to reconcile the accounts of St. Matthew and 
St. Luke of the death of Judas. This involved him in a 
quarrel with Joachim Feller, agaii>st whom Gronovius de- 
fended hin&self in a second edition, of this tract published 
at Leyden in 1702, and opened there a controversy with 
Perizonius. This produced from Gronovius, 11. ^^ Notitia 
et illustratio dissertation is nuperae de morte Judas,'' Ley- 
den, 1703, 4to; to which Perizonius replied, but the com- 
batants became so warm that the curato/s of the university 
p{ Leyden thought proper to silence them both. 12. 
** Castigationes ad parapbrasim Grscam Enchiridii Epic- 
teti ex codice Mediceo," Delft, 1683, 8vo. This includes 
the notes published in Berkelius's edition of 1670. 13. 
^ Dissertatio de origine Romuli," Leyden, 1684, 8vo, in 
which he treats the commonly received notion of the ori« 
gin of Romulus and Remus, and. their being nursed by a 
wolf, as fabulous, 14. '^ Gemmae et sculpture antique, 
i&c." a Latin translation of Leonard Augustini's Italian de- 
scription of these antiquities, with a learned preface by 
our author. 15, ** Pomponii Melae libri tres de situ orbis,'^ 
l^eydeo, 1685, 8vo, without his name, and containing an 
^ttack on Vossius^s obsexvations on that author. Vossius 



164 G R O N O V I U S. 

baring defended himself in an appendix to bis ^^ Observa* 
tiones ad Melatn,'' printed at London in 1686, 4tO) Gro-* 
novius replied in, 16. '^ Epistola de argutiolis Isaaci Vosi^ii/* 
1687, 8vo, with his usual severity, which be incieased m 
fats notice of Vossius in a nevr edition of P. Mela, in 1696. 
This edition, besides the extracts of the cosmography of 
Julius and Honorius, and that ascribed to ^thicus, which 
were inserted in the former edition, contains the anony- 
mous geographer of Ravenna. 17. '^ Epistola ad Johan- 
vem Georgium Grsevium V. CI. de Pallacop^, ubi De«» 
scriptio ejus ab Arriano facta liberatur ab Isaaci Vossii frus- 
trationibus," Leyden, 1686, dvo. IS. ^^ Not® ad Lucia- 
num,'' printed in Graevius^s edition of Lucian in 2 vols. 
Amst. 1686, 8vo. 19. ^^ Vari» Lectiones & Notes in Ste* 
pjianum Byzantinum de Urbibus :*' inserted in the edition 
of tbiat author published by Abraham Berkelius at Leyden 
in 1688, folio. 20. ^< Cebetis Thebani Tabula Graded & 
Latine," Amst. 1689, 8va 21. " Auli Gellii Noctes At- 
tics, cum Notis & Emendationtbus Johannis Frederici 
Gronovii," Leyden, 1687, Svo, 1706, 4to. 22. «« M. T. 
Ciceronis Opera quse extant omnia,'* Leyden, 1692, 4 vols. 
4to, and 11 in 12mo. 23. <^ Ammiani Marcellini Rerum 
gestarum, qui de XXXI supersunt, Libri XVIII.'* Leyden^ 
1693, in folio and 4to. 24. ** Johannis Frederici Gronovii 
de Sestertiis seu subsecivarum Pecuniae veteris Greecae & 
Romanae Libri IV. &c." Leyden, 1691, 4to, with several 
additions. 25. << De Icuncul^ Smetiaak qu& Harpocratem 
indigitarunt," Leyden, 1693, 4to. 26. " Memoria Cosso- 
niana; id est, Danielis Cossonii Vita breviter descripta, cui 
annexa nova Editio veteris MonumentiAncyrani,'' Leyden^ 
1695, 4to. 27. ^' Abrahami Gorlsei Dactylotheca cum Ex« 
plicationibus," Leyden, 1695, 4to. 28. '^ Harpocrationis 
xie Vocibus Liber; accedit Diatribe Henrici Stephani ad 
locos Isocrateos," Leyden, 1696, 4to. 29. ^^ Oratio de 
primis lucrementis Urbis Lugduni," Leyden, 1696, 4ta^ 
30. " Thesaurus Grsecarum Antiquitatum," Leyden, 1697, 
&c. 13 vols, folio. Gronovius cannot be sufficiently com- 
xnended for having undertaken this work after the example 
of Grevius, who published a body of the Roman antiqui^ 
ties. Laurent Beger, having found some things to object 
to iu the three first volumes of this work, published at Ber« 
lia in 1702, in folio, ^^ CoUoquii quorundam de tribus pri- 
mis Thesauri Antiquitatum G^rdecarum voluminibits, ad 
eorum Auctorem Relatio.*' $1. << Geograpbia aatl^a^ 



G B O N O V I U 3. S65 



M 



Iioc esty Scylacis Periplus Maris Mediterranei, &c. &cJ 
Leyden, 1 697^ 4to. 32. '^ Appendix ad Geographiam an- 
tiquam/' Leyden, 1699, 4to. 33. ^' Manethonis Apoteles- 
aaticorum Libri sex, nunc primom ex Bibliothec4 Medi- 
eek eruti," Leydcn, 1698, 4to. 34. " De duobus Lapi- 
dibiifi in agro DuyTenvoordiensi r/epertis," Leyden, 1696, 
41:0. 35. ^^ Rycquius de Capitolio Romano, cum Notia 
Gronovii/* Leyden, 1696, 8vo. 36. " Q. Curtius cum 
Gronovii & Variorum Notis," Amsterdam, 1696, 8vo. 37. 
^ Suetenius a Salmasio recensitus cum Emendationibus J. 
Gronovii," Leyden, 1698, 12mo. 38. <* Phaedri Fabul» 
com Joan. Fred. Gronovii & Jac. Gronovii Notis & Nicolai 
DispoQtiDi coUectaneis,^' Leyden, 1703, 8vo. 39. " Ar- 
riani Nicomediensis Expeditionis Alexandri Libri septem*^ 
& Historia Indica," Leyden, 1704, folio. This edition is a 
very beautiful one ; and Gronovius displays in it the same 
extent of learning, which he does in all his other writifigs, 
and the same rude censure of all men of learning, who are 
WA of his opinion. 40. ^* Minutii Felicis Octavius : acce« 
dniit Caecitius Cyprianus de Idolorum Vanitate, & Julius 
Firmicus Maternus de Errore profanarum Religionum,'* 
Leyden, 1709, 8vo. 41. " Infamia Emendationum in Me- 
naadri Reliquias nuper editarum. Trajecti ad Rbenum', 
auctore Phileleuthero Lipsiensi. Accedit Responsio M. 
Lucilii Profuturi ad Epistolam Caii Yeracii Philellenis, quse 
extat parte IX Bibliothecae selectse Jo. Clerici,'* Leyden^ 
1710, 12mo. In this he attacbs Dr. Bentley, who had as-» 
«amed the name of Phileleutherus Lipsiensis ; and Le Clerc, 
who had published an edition of the fragments of Menander 
and Philander, and to whom he ascribes the letter inserted 
iff the ^^ Babliotheque cboisie,'' which he animadverts upon. 
42. *^ Decreta Romana & Asiatica pro Judaeis ad cultum 
divinum per Asioe Minoris urbes secure obeundum, a Jose- 
pho coliecta in Libro XIV. ArchsBologisB, sed male inter- 
leersa & expuncta, in publicam Iticem restituta. Accedunt 
Suidse aliquot loca a vitiis purgata,*' Leyden, 1711, 8vo. 
The notes on Buidas are levelied against Ludotfus Kuster, ^ 
who had published an" edition of Suidas at Cambridge in 
1705 in 3 vols, folio, and who wrote in vindication of him- 
telf, ^^ Diatriba L. K. in qu& Editio SuidsB Cantabrigiensis 
contra Cavillationes Jacobi Gronovii Aristarchi Leydensis 
deifenditur," inserted in the 24tb tome of the Bibliotheque 
choisie, p. 49, and printed separately in 12mo. There wat 
Ukewise a new edition with additions published at Amster- 



866 G R O N O V I U & 

dam in 1712^ 8vo, under the title of " Diatriba Anti-GrcM 
noviana," 43. " Ludibria malevola Clerici, vel Proscrip* 
.tio pravsB Mercis ac Mentis pravissimae, quam exponit ia 
Minutio Felice Joannes Clericus tooi. 24. BibliotheccB se-* 
lecta," Leyden, 1712, 8vo. 44. " Recensio brevis Miiti-*^ 
lationum, quas patitur Suidas in Editione nuperd. CantE'* 
brigiBB anni 1705, ubi varia ejus Auctoris loca perperam in-» 
teUecta iUustrantur, emendantufi & supplentar,^ Leydeni 
J7I3, 8vo. 45. " Severi Sancti, id est^ Endeleichii Rhe- 
toris de Mortibus Boum Carmen ab Eli& Vineto & Petm 
Pithaso servatuipy cum Notis Job. Weitzii & Wolfgangi Se<« 
beri/' Leyden, 1715, 8vo, with a preface, though without 
his name. 46. ^^ Herodoti Halicarnassei Histbriarum Li- 
bri IX. Qraece & Latine, cum Interpretatione Laurentii 
Vallae ex Codice Mediceo,". Leyden, 1715, folio. This 
edition bad not the general -approbation of learned men^ 
who discovered very gross errors in it. The reader may 
see upon this subject a piece of Kuster, entitled ^^ Examea 
Criticum E^itionis novissimaB Herodoti Gr6novia68B>'' in- 
serted in the 5th tome of M. le Clerc's Bibliotheque an*^ ^ 
cienne & moderne., p. 383, and another of Stephen Ber« 
gler in the Acta Eruditorum of Leipsicfor 1716, p. 20 1^ 
337, and 417. Gronovius in this edition has attacked in 
the most furious manner several of the greatest oien in the 
republic of letters, particularly Laurentius Valla, ^milius 
Portus, Henry Stephens, Holstenius, Dr. Thomas Gale^ 
lEzechiel Spanheim, Salmasius, Isaac Vossius, Tanaquil 
Faber, John le Clerc, Kuster, Bochart, Graevius, 3^c. He 
had a very extensive correspondence with the men ef learn* 
ing in Europe, and the utmost that can be said for his in-* 
temperate treatment of so many learned contemporaries^ 
is, as we have been told, that his thoughts of many of them 
were kinder than his words.* 

. GRONOVIUS (John Fredeuick), a physician and bo- 
tanist of considerable learning, the. son, we presume, of the 
preceding, was born in Holland, in 1690. He took his 
doctor's degree at Leyden in 1715, on which occasion he 
published a dissertation upon camphor, of the natural his« 
tory and preparation of which he gives much new informa* 
tion. He settled at Leyden, and became one of the chief 
magistrates. He adopted the prevailing taste of his coun« 

■-% 

' Niceron, toI. II. — Gen. Diet. — Moreri, — Baillet ^ugemeos des S^aTani»— 
Jiorhoff Polybistor.o^Saxii Onomaift. 



G R O N O V I U a 367 

frymen for making collections of natural history, and ia 
1740 published his ^^ Index Suppellectilis Lapides/' or a 
scientific catalogue of his own collection of minerals, drawn 
up under the inspection, and with the assistance of Ltn- 
nseus. In a letter to Haller, in 1737, Linnaeus mentions 
Gronovius, with Burmann and Adrian Van Royen, as prin- 
cipally anxious to increase their collections of dried plants, 
instead of studying genera ; which study Linnaeus was de- 
stined to revive. Gronovius received from Clayton various 
specimens of Virginian plants, which he, with the assist- 
ance of Linnseus, then resident in Holland, arranged ac- 
cording to the sexual system, and with proper specific cha- 
racters, . descriptions, and synonyms^ published under the 
title of '^ Flora Virgiuica,^' 1739, 8vo. A second part or 
supplement of the same work appeared in 174?, and a third 
was preparing when he died. This last being afterwards 
incorporated with the two former, the whole was published 
in 1762, 4to, by his son. 

In 1755, came out his '^ Flora Orientalis,** 8vo, the ma- 
terials of which were afforded by the collection made by 
Jftauwolf, in his travels in the East during 1573, 1574, and 
1575, and which, by favour of queen Christina of Sweden, 
•came afterwards into the hands of the learned Vossius, who 
allowed the chief British botanists of his day to study and 
quote it. Gronovius determined by it above 330 species of 
oriental plants, which was a valuable addition to the know- 
ledge of that day. The work is arranged after the Lin^ 
jiflean method, but trivial names^ though invented and pub- 
lished in the first edition of the ^^ Species Plantarum,** twq 
years before, are not adopted, nor does the author appear 
to have used this publication. He was, however, in frequent 
correspondence with Linnseus, whom he furnished with nu- 
merous specimens of Americati plants sent by Clayton, and 
with whom he conferred on the subject of fishes amongst 
others, Haller mentions him as having written learned 
notes to the 20th and following books of Pliny. He con- 
tinued to enrich his museum, and to devote it to the use of 
all who were desirous of consulting it, as long as he lived. 
In 1750 Gronovius is represented as labouring under the 
gout, as well as a hernia, but he lived to the age of se- 
venty-two, dying in 1762. His herbarium was, after the 
death of his son, purchased by sir Joseph Banks.^ 

*• 

1 Rees's Cyclopaedia, to which we are indebted for the whole of this andtba.. 
Mzt arUcIfy DQt bavins found a notice of either in any other work. 



868 G R O NO V I U S. 

GRONOVIUS (Laurence Theodore), 'son of tbe pVe- 
ceding, was born at Ley den iu 1730. ^ He took tbe degree 
of doctor of laws, and, like bis father, attained to the chief 
civil honours of his native place. From him be imbibed a 
taste for natural history, and, as we have already toiem^ 
tioned, edited the latest and completest edition of tbe 
*^ Flora Virginiea*?* He particularly excelled in the 
knowledge of fishes ; but most departments of systematic 
feoology engaged his attention. He pcrblisbed in 1754, his 
'VMuseom IcbthyologiGum,** a handsome folio, with' ample 
descriptions of the species. The second part appei^ed ki 
1756, acconpaoied by descriptions of the serpents in> hi# 
father's museum. In 1763 appeared the <^ 'Zoopb^Mii 
Gronoviam fasciculus primus," containing descriptions of 
a few quadrupeds, more amphibia, and a still greater nUifr^ 
ber of fishes, all from the same museum ; the latter iltus^ 
trated by IS good plates, exhibiting 38 species, l^be se- 
cond fasciculus of the same work, published in 1764, de^ 
scribes the insects of his collection, of which numerous 
species are engraved on four copper plates. A third and 
last, with three plates, caa>e out in 1781, after the death 
of tbe author, which happened in 1777. He published in 
1760 a very valuaUe work in 4to, entitled ** Bibliotheca 
Regni Animalis atque Lapidei," on the plan of tbe ** Bib- 
liothecsB Botanies*' of Linnaeus and Seguier, with an ex-* 
eellent Index Rerum, highly useful in such a publicatiom 
He furnished, moreover, an appendix of 65 quarto pages to 
the ^id work of Seguier.* 

GROS (Nicholas le), a learned French theologian^ 
wa^ born in December 1675, at Rheims, of obscure and 
poor parents^ The religious of St. Genevieve, who served 
the parish of St. Denis at Rheims, undertook his educsr-^ 
tion, and he was admitted doctor of divinity in that city m 
1702, and became successively chaplain at Notre Dame^ 
canon of tbe collegiate church of St. Symphorien>, and, iv 
1704, canon of the cathedral at Rheims. He was at9» 
made governor of tbe little seminary of St. Jam^s by SI 
Le Tellier, but was deprived of that office on this gentle^ 
man's death in 1710, and forbidden to preach or cocrfessi 
on account of his zealous opposition to the bull UnigeniiHS. 
Being afterwards excommunicated by M. de MaiHe, wbo^ 
succeeded NL le TeHier sfcs archbishop of Rheims^ he weaft^ 

A Reel's Cyclopaedia. 



G R S. 369 

ta- Paris, Imd afiterwfirds to HoUandfi where he remained 
about a year with father Quesnel and Messrs. Petitpied 
and Fouillou ; but when Louis XIV. died, the proceedings 
at Rheims were declared nuil, and M. le Gros returned 
thither in 1716. He was a zealous promoter of the appeal 
to a future council, and was the soul of the faculty of theo- 
logy ; but M. de Mailli obuined a Uttre de cachet against 
hioi in 172], by which he was banished to St. John de Luz. 
Thb sentence, however, he evaded, by living concealed 
fojir or five years. In 1725, he went into Italy to observe 
what passed in the council appointed by Benedict XIII. 
mA at length retised to Holland, and there spent the last 
twenty^five years of his life, excepting a voyage he made 
to .England. The archbishop of Utrecht chose him pro- 
fessor of divinity in his seminary at Amersfort, and he 
died at Rhiowick, near Utrecht, December 4, 1751, aged 
76. His principal works are, I. ^' Le Renversement dea 
Libert^ de PEglise Gallicane dans Taffaire de la Constitu*- 
tion Unigenitus,*' 2 vols. 12mo. 2. '< La Sainte Bible tra^ 
dttite sur les textes originaux, avec les differences de la 
Vulgate,'.' 1739, 8vo. M. Rondet published a new edition 
of this work 1756, in 6 small vols. 12mo.; but, on account 
of some alterations, it is not esteemed. 3. ^^ Sept Lettres 
Th^ologiques contre le Traits des Pr6ts de Commerco, et 
en g^n^ral contre toute Usure," 4to. 4. <^ Dogma Eccle« 
sisB circa Usurum expositura, et vindicatum ;^' with several 
other pieces in Latin against usury, 4to. 5. <^ Observa* 
tions sur une Lettre attribute a feu M. de Launoi sur 
rUsure," 4to. 6. '< Eclaircissement historique et dogma*- 
tique sur la Contrition," 12mo. 7. ^^ Motifs invincibles 
* d'jVttaobement jL I'EgUse Romaine pour les Catholiques^ 
ou de Re-union pour les pretendus tleform^s," 1 2mo. 

9. '^ Meditations sur la Concorde des Evangiles," 3 vols. 
I2ma. 9. << Sur PEpftre aux Romains," 2 vols. 12m0. 

10. ^< Sur les Epttres canoniques," 2 vols. 12mo. 1 1. << M£- 
snoim sur les Droits du second Ordre," 4to. 12. << M£- 
moire sur TAppel au futur Cohcile," 4to; several tracts 
on the Constitution, the Miracles, ascribed to M. Paris; 
tiie Convulsions, &c. 13. ^^ Manuel du Chretien," which 
contains the Psadms, the New Testament, and the Imita*- 
tton, 24to. A book in twelves, entitled ^^ Eclaircisse^ 
nent sur les, Conciles g6ii6raux," is also attributed to M. 
le Gros. * 

1 Moceri.— L'Arocat's Diet. BitU 

Vot. XVI. B B 



/ 



jw G no SE. 

• GROSE (Francis), an eminent English antiquairy,' WJ^ 
the son of Mr. Francis Grose, of Richmond, jewetter, wtio 
'died in 1769. He was born in 175^ and having a taste 
for heraldry and antiquities, his father procured fahn a place 
in the college of arms, which, however, he resigned in 
1763. By his fether he was left an independent fortune, 
which he was hot of a disposition to add to, or even* to pre- 
serve. He early entered into the Surrey militia, of wbick 
be became adj Man t and paymastef; but so much had dis- 
sipation taken possession of him, that in a situation wfaick 
above all others required attention, he was so careless a^ 
to have for some time (as he used pleasantly to tell) only 
two books of accounts^ viz. his rrght and left hand pockets 
In the one he received,' and from the other paid ; and this 
too with a want of circumspection which may be readily 
supposed from* sueh a mode of book-keeping. His losses 
on this occasion roused his latent talents : with a good 
classical education he united a fine taste for drawing, which 
be now began again to cultivate; and encouraged by his 
^'friends, he undertook the work from w4rich he derived both 
profit and reputation : his Views of Antiquities ih England 
and Wales, which he first began to publish in numbers in 
1773, and finished in 1776. The next year he added two 
more volumes to his English views; in which be included 
the islands of Guernsey and Jersey, which were completed 
in 1787. This work, which was executed with accuracy 
and elegance, soon became a favourite with the public M 
large, as well as with professed antiquaries, from the neat)- 
ness of the embellishments, and the succinct manner in 
•which he conveyedhis information, and therefore answered 
bis most sanguine expectations ; and, from the time he be^ 
gan it to the end of his life, he continued without inter* 
inission to publish various works, generally to the advantage 
of his literary reputation, and almost always to the benefit 
of his finances. His wit and good-humour Were the abun- 
dant source of satisfaction to himself and entertainment to 
bi& friends. He visited almost every part of tAe kingdom^ 
and was a welcome guest wherever he went. In the. sum«> 
met of 1789 he set out on a tour in Scotland ; the resok 
•of which he began to communicate to the public in 1 790^ 
•in numbers. Before he had condaded this work, be pro- 
ceeded to Ireland, intending to furnish that kingdom with 
views and descriptions of her antiquities, in the sdme man« 
Ber he had executed those of Great Britain , but soon after 



G R O S £# 371^. 

bis atrivftl in Dublin^ beitig at the bouse of Mr. Hone 
th^re, hes&ddenly was seized at table with an apoplectic 
nt, on the 6th May 179 15 and died immediately* He wa% 
interred in Dublin. 

-. ** His literary history,^' says a friend, "respectable a» 
it IS/ was exceeded by bis good-humour, conviviality, and 
friendship. Living much abroad, and in thc^ best company 
at home, he bad the easiest habits of adapting himself to 
all tempers; and) being a man of general knowledge, per- 
petually drew out sopie conversation that was either useful 
to himself) or agreeable to the party. . He could observe 
upon most things with precisipn and judgqnent ; but his na^ 
lural tendency was to hiimour, in which he excelled botfi 
by the selection of' anecdotes and bis manner of telling ' 
them! itmaybe si^id top, that bis figure rather assisted 
faim, '- which v^as in fact the. very title-p^ge to a joke. H^ 
bad neither rthe pride nor malignity of authorship : he felt 
the independency of his own talents, and was satisfied with 
thein> without degrading others. His friendships were of 
the s$m9e .cast ; constant and, sincere, overlooking som^ 
fattks,.ar)d seeking out greater virtues.' ' . ^ 

Gc<^$e, to a stranger, says Mr. Noble^ might have been 
fiupposed, not a surname, but one selected, as significant of 
bis figure: which was moi'e of the form ojT Sancho Paii9a 
than FalstafF; but he partook of the properties of both* 
He was as low, squat, and rotund as the former, and not 
les^> sloven ; -equalled him too in his love of sleep, and 
nearly so in his proverbs. In his wit he was a Falstaff. He 
was.tb^. butt for other men to shoot at, but it always re*- 
i^unded with a double force. He could eat with Sancho, 
g^d. drink with the knight In simplicity, probity, and a 
l^ompassionateh^art, he was wholly of the Pan^a breed ; 
bia jocularity could have pleased a prince* In the ^^ St. 
ijfames's Evenings Post/' the following was proposed as an 
epitaph; fbc him : 

' ^< Here lies 'Francis Gaosfi. 

Qn Thursday, May 12, 179I, 

Death put an end to his 

Views SLtid prospects ** 

Mr.Crose married Catherine, daughter of Mr^Jordan, 
qf Cantertiury, by whom he had two sons and five daughters ; 
1. Ff/incis Grose, of Croydon- Crook in Surrey, esq. a co* 
lonel in the army, governor in 1790 of New South Wales; 
^. Onslow Grose, esq. captain of the pioo«er corps on tba 

*B 3 



573 G R O S E/ 

Madras establishmetity who died very lately in Indian :aiid' 
four daughters, one of whom married to Anketel Singleioiiy 
esq. lieu tenant-governor of Landguard-Fort, in £s9e:(^r: • 

His works are, I. *^ The Antiquities of EngiaQd and 

Wales/' 8 vols.' 4to and 8vo. 2* " The Antiquities^ of 

ScotlaiidyV 2 vols. 4to and 8vo. 3. " The Antiquities <^ 

Ireland/* 2 vols. 4to' and 8vo, a postbuBious work* edited 

by Mr. Ledwich, 1794. 4. " A Treatise on ancient Ar-* 

mour and Weapons/' 1785, 4ta. 5. << A Classical Dtc« 

tictoary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1785, 8vo. €. ** Military 

Antiquities ; being a History of the English Army from tfai^ 

Conquest to the present Time/' 1786, 1788^ 2 vols. 4l6i 

7. "The History of Dover Castle, by the; rev. William 

* Darell," 1786, 4to. 8. 'f A Provineial Glos^ry, with it 

Collection of local Proverbs and poptdaf Sut>er8titioti8,'* 

1788, 8vo. 9. << Rules for drawing Caricatures," 17a8^ 

8vo. 10^ " Supplement to the Treatise on aqcieiit Ar^ 

mour and Weapons/' 1789, 4to. tl. "A guide to Health, 

Beauty, Honour, and Riches,-' being a collection of but 

Biorotis advertisements, pointing out the means to obtain 

those bll^ssings ; with a suitable introduetory preface^ 8voi 

12. *^ The Olio, a collection of Essays/' jests, small pieeea 

of poetry, all highly characferistic of Mr, Grose, but dto 

. collection was not made by him, and we suspect all die 

contents are not from his pen ; 1T93, 8vo.^ 

GROSLEY (Peter John), a French antiquary and pD«* 
lite writer, was born at Troyes Nov. 18^ 1718, and was 
educated in the profession of the law, but a decided turn 
for literary pursuits interrupted bis legal studies, and in^ 
duced him, in search of knowledge, to travel twice inta 
Italy, twice into England, and once into Holland, .besidea 
passing a considerable part of every year at Paris, where 
he was received into the best company, bat would never 
settle. His disposition appears to have been amiable and 
liberal, as when yet a youth he gave up a legacy of 4D,00d 
livre^ in favour of his sister. At his oivn ex pence, too, be 
undertook to embellish the saloon of the t6wn house of .his 
native city, Troyes, with marble busts of the eminent 
natives of that city, executed by VassOy the king^s sculps 
tor; and the first put up were those of Pttbou, le Comte^ 
i'aSserat, Girardon, and Mignard. He died iu that city, 
Nov* 4, 1785y being then an associate of the academy of 

1 £«ropeaii Jd^af, 179k*««6taU Mis. 1791. 



G 11 S L E Y. %1i 

iiitfdripttons and belles lettres, and a member of our rtfyat 
society. 'His principal works are, 1. ** Recherches pouf 
rhisjtoire du Droit Fran9ais,'* Paris, 1752, 12m(^ a work 
highly esteemed. 2. *< Vie de Pithou/' ibid. 1756, 2 vols^ 
I2fno. 3. ^ Observations de deux gentil-hommes Suedois 
aur ritali^'* 1774, 4 vols. 12mo, a very lively work, ana 
tall of interesting anecdotes. 4. ** Londres,^^ 1770, 3 vols. 
12mo, of wliicb nearly the same may be said, although aU 
}owances must be made for the mistakes into which a fo- 
reigner is very liable to iall. It was translated in 1772, by 
Dr. t<ltigent, 2 vols. Svo. 5. ^' Essais bistoriques sur la 
Champagne.*' 6. *^ Ephemerides Troyennes," continued 
A»r several yeafs, and epntaiping papery relative to tba 
history of Troyes« He had also a part in the ^* Memoirea 
d^ Pacadenie de Troyes,*' and in the last translation of 
Davila ; and was an useful contributor to the ^' Journal En** 
cyclopedique/* from 1771 to 1785, and to the *^ Diction- 
naire Historique.*' A Life, written by himself, and some 
fposthumous pieces, have been lately published. ' 

GROSSETESTE (Robeut), an English prelate^ and 
the moat learned ecclesiastic of his time, was born probably 
spoilt 1175, of obscure parents at Stradbrook in Suffolv. 
He studied at Oxford, where he laid the foundcLtion of his 
skill in the Greek tongue, and was thus enabled to make 
himself master of Aristotle, whose works had been hitherta 
read only 4;i translations: at Oxford too be acquired a 
knowledge of the Hebrew. He afterwards went to Paris, 
where he prosecuted his studies of Greek and Hebrew^ 
aud made himself master of Freneh. Here he also studied 
ihc' divinity ;and philosophy of the age, his proficiency in 
which was so remarkable as to draw upon him the suspicion 
«f being a magician. At Oxford, on bis return, he be^. 
came celebrated as a divine, and was the first lecturer in 
the Fritnciscan school in that university. In 1235 he was 
elected^ by the dean and chapter, bishop of Lincoln, which 
see was jtben, and continue still, the largest in England^ 
althongh Ely, Oxford, and' Peterborough have 'been since 
taken irom it. Orosseteste, who was of an ardent and ae- 
eive spiiit, immediately undertook to reform abuses, ex^ 
horting both clergy and people to religious observai^ce% 
And perhaps would have been in a considerable degree suc- 
'€es9fvAf had he not confided too much in the Dominicaa 

* Diet. HJ8toffique^««>Niif ent't Frefaec. 



iT4 G R O S S E T E S T E. 

and Franciscan friars, as bis helpers in the good work. fiTtit 
they being appointed by him to preach to the people, heap 
their confessions, and enjoin penance, abused these op-r 
portunities by exercising dotninion over- the superstitious 
minds of the laity, and enriched themselves at their ek« 
pence. Although, however, the hypocrisy of the Domini- 
cans and Frj^nciscans in this instance escaped bis pehetra-» 
tion, he could not be deceived in the dtssofute cbaracteF 
and ignorance of the more ancient orders, and was very 
strict in his visitations, and very severe in his censures of 
their conduct. Partly through this sense of his duty, and 
his love of justice, and partly from his warmth of temper, 
he was frequently engaged in quarrels with convents, and 
other agents of the pope. At one time he was even ex- 
communica'ted by the convent of Canterbury ; but treating^ 
thi» with contempt, he continued to labour in promotifig 
piety, and redressing abuses with his usual zeal, firmne^, 
and perseverance. Although the friars continued to be bia 
favourites, and he rebuked the rectors and vicars of his dio-p 
cese, because they neglected to hear them preach, and Her 
cause they discouraged the people from attending and con-^ 
fessing to them, in time he began to see more clearly inta 
the character of those ecclesiastics. In 1247, two English 
Franciscans were sent into England with credentials to ex- 
tort money for the pope; and when they applied, with some 
degree of insolence, to Grosseteste, for six thousand marks, 
as the contribution for the diocese of Lincoln, he answered 
them that (with submission to his holiness), the demand 
was asdishonourable as impracticable; that the whole body 
of the clergy and people were concerned in it as well a^ 
himself; and that for him to give a definitive answer in ai> 
instant to such a demand, before the sense of the kingdom 
was taken upon it, would be rash and absurd. 

He continued afterwards to exert himself in promoting 
the good of the church as to c|octrine and morals, with th& 
most upright intentions, and to the best of his knowledge, 
although it must aflPord the present age but a poor opinion 
of his knowledge in such matters, when we find him trans- 
lating, and illustrating with commentaries, such works as 
those of John Damascenus, and of the spurious Dionysius 
the Areopagite ; and even y\ The Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs,'' which he thought a valuable monun^ent of 
sacred antiquity, and equal in importance with the scrip- 
tures. But tb6 ignorauce of the times/ find the di^cultie<| 



GROSSETESTK 37« 

hf acquiring divine knowledge, were in that age greatly be-* 
yond what can now be con'ceived. In the case, however^ 
0f external morals, Grosseteate showed more discernment* 
In 4048 be obtained, at a great expence, from pope In- 
nocent IV. letters to empower him to reform the religious 
orders, fortified by this authority, he first turned his at- 
tention to the waste of large revenues by the monastic 
orders, and deteioiiiied to take into his own hand the rents 
of lAie religtouc houses, probably with a design to institute 
and ordaio -vicarages in his diocese, and to provide for the 
, more general instruction of the people. But the monks 
baving appealed to the pope, Grosseteste, in bis old age, 
was (^liged to travel to Lyons, where Innocent resided, 
and where he immediately decided against our bishop, and 
treated him with much harshness of language, to which 
Grosseteste replied with great spirit, and went so far as to 
insinuate the power of money at the court of Rome. All, 
however, that he could do was to leaive a kind of remon« 
strance, in tbe shape of a long sermon, one copy of which 
jbe delivered to the pope, and others to two of the cardir 
nals, in which he sharply inveighed against the flagitious 
practices of the court of Rome, particularly the appropri- 
ation of churches to religious houses, the . appeals of the 
religious to the pope, and the scandialous clause in the 
Jbulls of non obstante, which was the great engine of the 
f)ope*6 dispeasing power, and enabled him to set aside ait 
statutes and customs. He was for some time so dejected 
with the disappointment he had met with, that he intended 
to resign his bishopric, but upon more mature refieotion,* 
thought it his duty to remain in his office, and do all the 
good which the bigotry and ignorance of the times would 
permit. »; 

At home he stijl opposed the lasy Italians, who had 
procured the pope's letters for ppoviswnsj and were the ob- 
jects of Grosseteste's greatest detestation, for he said ^^ if 
he shquld commit the care of souls to them, he should be 
the firiend of Satan.'' Upon such principles he would often, 
with ipdigoation, cast the bulls out- of his hand, and abso*^ 
lutely refused to comply with them. He was suspended at- 
one time fot disobeying a papal mandate of this kind. 
Pope Innocent, persisting in his old courses, notwithstand-^ 
ing ail the fair promises ^nd assurances he had given to the 
.contrary, commanded the bishop to admit an Italian, en-^"« 
Urely ignorant of the English language, to a rich benefice^' 



87f. O R O S Sr E T E S T E. 

inhiB diocesei and. be reftniog to conipiy) ulras sttspend^dl 
ibr it the Lent following. This sentence^ however, seems 
to have been soon relaxed, as we find the bishop sio^ng 
mass at Hales the same yean A more remarkable installed 
of Gro8seteste!s spirited 'Op|)osition to the pap^l usurpations 
occarcedin 1253, wheii Innocent ordered bia nephew, aa 
Italiao youth, to be promoted to the first canon ry that 
should be' vacant in the cathedral of Lincolni and declared 
that uuy other disposal of the canonry should be null and 
void ; and that he would excommunicate every one who 
should dare to disobey his injunction. The pope also wrote 
to the. archdeacon of Canterbury, and to one Mr. Innocent, 
both Italians, to see this business completed, with a clause 
of nan obstante ; and. to cite all coniraveners to appear be- 
fore him without any manner of plea or excuse; and under 
another clause of non obstante, in two months time* 
. Grosseteste wrote immediately to the. pope, or to liis 
•gents, in the most resolute and spirited terms, alnaost re^ 
torting, as Brown in his *^ Fasciculus rerum ei^petendarum,'* 
&c. observes, '^ excommunication for excommunication." 
This epistle, of which we have many copies now extant, 
both in manuscript and printed, is a most celebrated per- 
formance, and has immortalized the bishop^s memory, and 
endeared it to all generations; ^ He insists, that the papal 
mandates' cannot be repugnant to the doctrine of Christ 
and his apostles, and that, therefore, the tenor of his boli* 
sess'S epistles was not consonant to the sanctity of the holy 
see^ on account of the accumulated clauses of non obstante. 
Then, that no sin can be more adverse to the doctrine of 
the apostles, more abominable to Jesus Christ, or more 
hurtful to mankind, than to defraud and rob those souls, 
which ought to be the objects of the pastoral care, of that 
. ihsitruction which by the scriptures they have a. right to, 
&d. Hence he infers that the holy isee, destined to edify 
and not to destroy, cannot possibly incur a sin of this kind } 
and that no one that is not an excoi&muntcate, ought to 
obey any such absurd mandate, though an angel from hea* 
yen should command him, but rather to revolt and oppose 
them, &c. 

The pope, on receiving this Bat denial, which he little 
expected, written, as our readers may perceive, in a sar- 
castic style implying much more than is expressed, fell into 
a furious passion, exclaiming, with a stem countonane, and 
with all the pride of Lucifer, ^^ Who is this old dotafd, deai^ 



GR O S S ET E s Ti; m 

iDd absurd, that tl^s msbly presumes to judge of ray^« 
tions? By Peter and Paul, if the goodness of my own 
heart did not restrain tne,- 1 should so cbastbe him, as ta 
make him an example and a spectacle to all tbewortdl la 
«ot the king of England my rassal, my slave, and for a 
ivord speaking, would throw him into prison^ and load him 
with infamy and disgraced* And, when the cardinals 
interposed, they had much ado to mollify him, by tellin|r 
him, '< It was little for his interest to^ think of animadvert- 
ing on the bishop ; since, as they must all own, what he 
said was true, and they could not condemn or blame bim» 
&o.'' giving the bishop, at the same time, a most noble 
testimony, in respect of his piety, learning, and general 
clKiraet^, as acknowledged by all the world : in all which, 
they confessed frankly, they were none of them to be com- 
pared to hifti« The pope, however, excommunicated the 
bishop, and even named a^occessor to his see; but the 
bishop,' on his pai^, contented himself with appealing from 
the sentence to the tribunal of Christ, after which he 
troubled himself no more about it, and remained quietly ia 
possession of his dignity. 

Towards* the end of this summer (1353) he fell sick at 
his palace at Buckden, and sent for friar John de St. Giles^ 
who was a physician and a divine, jn both which capacities 
be wanted his assistance, as he ibresaw, to the great uii- 
easittess of his mind, the troubles that' would shortly bei^ll 
the chuTch. He then gave orders to the clergy of his dio- 
cese to renew the sentence of excommunication upon all 
who should infringe the magna charta concerning the li- 
berties of the kingdom, which made the incumbents very 
obnoxious to many of the courtiers. In all his conversations 
on this subject in his last illne3s, he appears to have re- 
tained the strength of his understanding, and consciousvof 
the uprightness of his conduct towards the pope, he still 
fully approved it in his heart ; nor was his cours^e in the 
least broken, or his spirits dejected, by any fuiminalions 
that bad been launched against him from that quarter. 
His conversations pn this occasion, given by his biogra- 
pher, display his real sentiments on the depravedand cor- 
rupt state of the papacy in his time, the particulars or ar- 
ticles on which be grounded his charge, and that abhor- 
rence of its proceedings which does^ him so much honour. 

He died at Buckden, Oct. 9> 125^, and the corpse was 
carried to Lincoln^ where it was met by archbishop Boni« 



tn CR08SETE8TS* 

/nee, who attea4ed the fimeraL He was iatenred in the 
»upper 9Qiitb transept. For aq account ot his tomb, &c. 
.yre must riefer to our principal autliority. The pope^ wbo 
.jrejoiced at bis deatbt ordered a letter to be written to king 
Henry, enjoining bin) to take up tbe bishop's bones, cast 
•them out of (be cburcb, and burn, them, but this letter 
ivaa not ^nt« As Gro^eteste was a person of acknowledged 
piety and strictness of manners, be easily arrived at tbe 
.beatitude, or title of Meatus, and even at sanctity^ in 
the general estimation ; but be could pever obtain these 
jionours.from the churchy though they were solicited for 
him. in |be strongest terms. Indeed, as Dr. Fegge ob^ 
serves, i( would have been 'improper and absurd for the 
popes to repute and proclaim a person to b^ now an holy 
jbeatified saint in heaven^ wbo in their opinion bad so 
openly traduced, insuHed, and vilified both, the see and 
cojurt of Borne, Ivhicb yt^te still pursping the very same 
pleasures he condemned, and continued^ tp b^ invariably 
the same depraved* venal, and c^orrppt body. Il is, how* 
ever, for tbe honour of bishop Crosseteste^ that for hia 
piety and integrity, his learning and abilities, he still livef 
valued and revered in the breasta gf all sober and reason- 
able mpn. It is plain thai; he did not su$er the least in 
the esteem of the world, any ipore than be did in his own 
opinioo, by the anathema which pope Innocent had de? 
pounced against him. Indeed the papiM censures, of which 
our prelates stood so much in dread at l^yons, in 1245, 
had been of late, so infamously. prostituted, that they seem 
to have lost their efficacy. Grosset^ste, in particular, paid 
«M) regard to tba^ which wa& denounced against him, for 
he sjuU coatinued to exercise his function ; bis clergy ako 
made do scrupje of obeying him wheii under the sentence ^ 
and bis exequies were solemnized not only by ^be secular^ 
but even.by tbe regular clergy of his diocese. 

Few authors, ;^ncient or modern, ever meption bishop 
Grosseteste without an eulogium, apd from, the mi^ny evi* 
deuces brought by his biographer, he appears to have ex-? 
celled all his contemporaries in learning, piety, judgment, 
and conscientious int^rity in the discharge of his epispopaj 
duties, and to have powerfully aided ip producing what 
we may term the preliminaries of that reformation which 
was afterwards to take place in a church so corrupt, and so 
)veak, that even at jdiis time it wfis not able to support 

itself against the arguments of one! SngUsh. prelate* I» 



<^: R'o s s"E t: e a r e: iVV 

'froiht bf religion, the papists are very desirous of ha^n|; 
bisbop Grosseteste far their own ; and it must be acknow^ 

^ ledg^ that he was much with them doctrinaily, and at 

' iirst entertained a higk opinion of the power of the keys, 
aifd the personal authority of the pope; but at last, in a 
case manifestly linscriptural and injurious to the welfare of 
religion, he openly coT^temned it, and did not even regard 
dying in a state of excommunication. He bad also at one 
time conceived a most elevated idea of the hierarchy in 
general, thinking it superior to the rfgal dignity. To this 
he was led, exceeding in this respect even Becket himself, 
by the authority of the ** Testaments of the Twelve Pa- 
triarchs," and this is the best excuse that can be made for 
him; thq biindoess of the times being such, that men of 
the best learning, and the greatest acuteness, had not cri«^ 
tical. skill sufficient, though this be tlie first and proper 
object of criticism, to distinguish a spurious composition 
from thfe true word of God. But, however, he afterwards 
changed his mind in regard to the hierarchy. Had he 

-lived in more enlightened times, when points formerly 
"taken for granted as principles not to be controverted, 
were mote maturely canvassed and considered, his ideas 
6n tMny reHgk>us topics wonki have been greatly enlarged/ 
and ha would not have been at all averse to a separation 
from a church so venal and corrupt as that of Roiif^e, noi^ 
to a reformation both of her doctrines. and discipline. 
- Bishop Grosseteste was a severe student to the very end 
ef life« He was a master of languages, of some that were 
not then generally knoivn, and also of every branch of 
learning, both hnman and divine, as they were then usually 
studied and professed ; and h'e improved many of them by 
the pi'oduction$ of his own pen. His erudition was truly 
multifarious, so that he may justly be said, bpth in respect 
of himself ^nd bis own acquirements, and of that general 
patronage and enpouragement which he afforded the li-^ 
terati of his time, to stand at the bead in this country at 
least, 'of all the learning of the age. His forte seems to 
have been logic, philosophy, and theology, and bis ktiow-^' 
ledge of the scriptures was very intimate. 

' ' For a list of his works, both published, which are but 
few, and unpubli$b^(l» we must necessarily refer to Dr* 
Pegge's elaborate life pf our prelate, where it occupies 
twenty-five closely printed pages in quarto. It is thought 
prosseteste was the most voluminous writer of any English* 



S8)> G It O S it E T E 8 T.E. 



tnaO) tt teast wrote mo^e tractor «Dd on a greater Tali^ 
of siibject8| than any one. Arcbbi^op Williams had once 
an iatentioD of cpUecting them for pubbcataon > but «» Dv. 
Pegge has very justly remarked, it is not much to be re«* 
greued that the design was not executed, when we coA- 
sider the superior light and knowledge of our times, ^nd 
how much better every thing i» understood. His style im 
copious and verbose, and bordering frequently upon tur-. 
gidity, abounding with uaoouth w<Mrds, which, thougk 
formed anaiogically, ase yet new, and not very pleasing to 
a reader of the classics ; but he expresses himself in ge*? 
ueral very intelligibly, particularly in his booths ^* De 
Sphs&ra'* and ** De Cessatione.Legaliunl." He proceeds 
also in his compositions very methodically and perspicu* 
OQsly.^ 

OROSVENOB, or GRAVENOR (B£NJAB|iv)» » pious 
dissenting divine, was born in London Jan. J, 1675, where 
bis father was an upholder. In 1693 he was plac^ under 
the tuition of the rev. Mn Jollie, of AttefcUffe, in York-p 
ahire, with whom he went, through a course of studies pre-t 
paratory to ordination among the dissenters; «nd afterwards 
atudied Hebrew under Gapell, fonnerly professor of ori* 
^ntal languages at Saumur^ but at this time a refugee in 
London. In 1699 Mr. Grosvenor was admitted into the 
ministry, and officiated first as assistant to Mr. Oldfield, ia 
Southwark, and afterwards was joint preacher of a lectnro 
hi the Old Jewry meeting. His biographers seem all un« 
willing to tell us tliat he was at first ^f the baptist persua^ 
sion, and having been baptised in 1689 by Mr. Benjamin 
Keacb, became a member of his meeting for about seven 
or eight years ; but in the course of his studies he changed 
bis opinions, and was *^ dismissed in a general manner 
from his membership with'' the baptists. In 1703 or 1704 
he was chosen to succeed Mr. Slater in the meeting in 
Crosby-square, to which he was formally ordained in July 
1704. In 1716 he was chosen one of the lecturers at 
Salter*a*ball, which added much to his reputation, but 
which he resigned in 1740. In 17'iO the university of 

1 Life of Kobeit Gross^test^, by Sanwel Pcgge> LL. D. 1'793, Ata^ lyliich 
tnpanedes tht necessity of any other references, except, perhaps, to Milner's 
Charch History, irh<^ has ably analy2ed the bishop's character as a diTine, aad 
.the Arcfaseolof ia, voU XIII. where he is iotroducod as aa Analo-Normaii ppet. 
J>r. Pegge's work, one of k^is last and best, throm great iifl|( apon the history 
o( the tvdftb and thirteenth centarisfc 



GRO S YEN OR, 8#i" 

Sdmbnrgk conferred the degree of D. D. upon hini. Afiter 
this be continued to preach until 1749, wben^the increasing 
iufirmitres of age obliged him to desist from all public ser-^ 
▼ices. \ He continued^ howerer^ his private ^tidies, .and 
kept up an amicable intercourse with his friendly until bis 
deatby Aug: 27, 1758. Dr. Grosvenor possessed great mild-^ 
ness uf temper, lively and brilliant wit, a candid disposition 
towards those wiio dilFered from him, and an habitual 
cheerfulness which rendered bi^ visits peculiarly acceptable. 
He published various single sermons preached on funeral 
and other occasions ; an^^ Essay on Health," 1748, Svo;' 
and a treatise on consolation, entitled ** The Mourner,** 
which has been repeatedly printed, and still preserves his 
fnemor}'.^ 

GROTESTE (Clav0E, Sieur de la Mothe)) a French 
protestant clergyman, bom at Paris in 1647, was eddcated 
HI tbe- reformed religion, and after applying with suceess 
to olttisicai studies, was advised by his father to follow the 
law. In 1664, accordingly, he was admitted to the title' 
and 'privilege of a doctor of the civil and canon law,- and 
the year following was received as an advocate at Paris,' 
and was distinguishing himself^ vrhen 'by the persuasion of 
some friends, be quitted bis profession, and began to sthdjr 
divinity at Saumur. In 1675 he was appointed minister 
of the church of Lisy, and was Ordatired. In 1677 and 
li978 he received pressing invitations from die churches d? 
Gien and Amiens, both which he declined, as it was his 
intention to' spend a few more years in close study. At 
length, however, in 1682, he accepted an invitation from' 
Ae' church at Rouen, but did not remain Idng connected 
uritb it, a decree of council having separated him from his 
flock^ and forbid him to come nearer the place than seven 
leagues. He was confined by sidcness atjthe time thisde^ 
cree arrived, and on his recovery went to England in 1685, 
and connected himself in the exercise of his ministerial 
functions with Messieurs AUix and Lombard. In 4694 he 
became minister of the Savoy, which office he he\d until 
bis death, Sept. 30, 1713^. His widow is said to have given 
bis library to the Savoy church, on condition of its being 
open to the public certain dax^s in every week. He piib- 
lished ** Trait6 de Pinspiratioii des livres sacr^es,^' Amst» 

1 Prbtestftiyt Difselit Mag. wbert^ hit name is tpA << CrrQVtfBor.^'-^Foiftca^ 
S«rmon krjr Barkciv— Cn>»by'f ^itr. of lilt SspCisU. 



9H G ROT E S T E. ' 

1695, and several sermons and pious tractsi Be ap^aM 
to have been a very active meinber of the society for pro^ 
pagating the gospel.^ 

GROTIUS (Hugo), or Hugo de Oroot, one of the 
most eminent names in literary history, was descendkd 
from 8 family of the greatest distinction in the Low Couiw 
tries : his father^ John de Groot, was bOrgoroaster of Delft^ 
and curator of the university of Leyden^ and in 1582, mar«< 
ried Alida Averschie^ a lady of one of the first famihes it^ 
the country^ by whom he bad three sons and a daughter^ 
His son Hugo, the subject of this article, was born at Delft 
on Easter- day, April lOi 1589, and came into the world 
with the most happy dispositions; a profound genius, d 
solid judgment, and a wonderful memory. These extraon* 
dinary natural endowments had all the advantages that edu- 
cation could give tbem^ and he fouod in his own father a 
pious and an able tutor, who formed bis mind ana his ino^ 
rals. He was scarce past bis childhood, when be was setit 
to the Hague, and boarded with Mr/Utengobard, a cele-» 
brated clergyman among the Arminians, who took gfeat 
eare of his trust ;and^ before be had completed his twelfth 
year, was removed to Leyden, under tbd learned Francis 
Junius. He continued three years at this university, where 
Joseph Scaliger wa& so struck witli his prodigious capacity^ 
that he condescended to direct his studies ; and in 1597^ 
Grotius maintained public theses in the matbematicsi phi^ 
Josophy, and law, with the highest applause. 

At this early age he ventured to form plana which re^ 
quired very great learning, but which he executed with 
Auch perfection, that the republic of letters were struck 
with astonishment. These^ however, were not publiahed 
till after his return from France. He had a strong inclina«^ 
tion to see that country, and an opportunity offered at thit 
tinie of gratifying it. The States-^general came to a reso-^ 
lution of sending, on an embassy to Henry iV. in lB9Sf 
count Justin of Nassau, and the grand pensioner Barne* 
▼elt : and Grotius put himself into- the train of those an^ 
bassadors, for the latter of whooi he had a particular e»r 
teem*. His own reputation having preceded him in France^' 

* Their bosinesf was, in conjunc- * France, againsl Spain ; hot tbif waft 

tion Wttk lord Cecil, oo the part of not successfnl: Orotiui ^res a histoiy 

^agland, to negociate a triple ai- of thia embassy ia the 7th book «f hi» 

liaace betweta J^Und, floUand, and . Annals. 

t Morarir* 



G R O T I U & 3H 

M. de Bnzanvalf who bad been ambassador in Holland, in«. 
trodiice^ him to the king, who presented him with his pic^ 
ture and a gold chain, with which Grotius was so highly 
flattered, as to have a print engraved of himself, adorned 
with' the chaio« After almost a year's stay in France he re« 
turned home, much pleased with bis journey ; one thing 
only was wanting to complete his satisfaction, a sight o^' 
the celebrated M. de Thou, or Thuanus, the person among 
all the French whom he most esteemed. He bad eagerly 
•ought an acquaintance with that great man, and as he did 
not succeed, he now resolved to open a literary corre-* 
spondeoce, and present him with the first-fruits of, his stu-i 
dies in print, which he had just dedicated to the prince of 
Cond£. This was }xh edition of ^^ Martiaiius Capella." Ha 
had formed the plan of this work, when only fotirteen year^ 
old, almost finished it before he left Holland^ and pub-^ 
lished it presently after his return in 1599. M. de Tboa 
«ias extremely well pleased with this address^ and from 
this time to bis death there subsisted an intimate corre* 
tpondence between them. In 1600, Grotius sent de Thou 
an epithalamium he bad written on the marriage of Henry 
IV* with Mary of Medicis, but this is not in the coUection 
of his poems. 

Grotius, having chosen the law for his profession, had 
taken an opportunity before be left France, to obtain a 
doctor> degree in that faculty ; and upon his return he 
attended the law-courts, and pleaded his. first cause at 
Delft with univei^al applause, (hough he was scarcely se* 
veiiteen ; and he maintained the same reputation as long' 
as he continued at the bar. This employment, however, 
not filling up his whole time, he found leisure to publish 
the same year, 1599, another work, which discovered as 
^uch knowledge of the abstract sciences in particular as 
the former did of his learning in general. Stevin, mathe* 
matician to prince Maurice of Nassau, composed a small 
treatise for the instruction of pilots in finding a ship's place 
atsea^ in wjaich be drew up a table of the variations of the 
needle, according to the observations ofPlancius, a cele«r 
Crated geographer, and added directions bow to use it« 
Grotius translated into Latin this work, which prince MaU'^ 
l*ice had recommended to the college of admical^y, to be 
studied by all officers of the navy ; and^ because it might 
be equally useful to Venice, be dedicated his translation 
IP that republic. In ^600, he published his << Phenomena 



«84 G R O T HJ S, 

of Aratus,^' which discovers a great knowledge in pbysicti 
and especially astronomy. The corrections he made in 
the Greek are esteemed very judicious : the notes shew 
that he had reviewed several of the rabbies, and had some 
knowledge of the Arabic tongue ; and the verses he made 
to supply those of Cicero that were lost have^been thought 
▼ery happy imitations of that writer^s style. In the midst 
of these profound studies, this extraordinary young man 
found time to cultivate the muses, and with such success^ 
that he was esteemed one of the best Latin poets in Europe. 
The prosopopoeia, in which he makes the city of Ostend 
speak, after having been three years besieged by the Spa^ 
niards, was reckoned a masterpiece, and was translated 
into French by Du Vaer, Rapin, Pasquier, and Malherbe; 
and Casaubon turned it into Greek. Neither did Grotius 
content himself with writing small pieces of verse ; he ros6 
to tragedy, of which he produced three specimens; the 
first, called '^Adamus Exul,^^ was printed in Leyden, in 
1601, with which, however, he beoame afterwards dissatis- 
fied, and would not let it appear in the collection of hit 
poems published by his brother. *^ Christus patiens/* his 
second tragedy, was printed at Leyden in 1608, and much 
approved: Casaubon greatly admires its poetical firei 
Sandys translated it into English verse, and dedicated it 
to Charles L It was favourably received in England, and 
in Germany proposed as the model of perfect tragedy. 
Hi^ third was the story of Joseph, and its title '^ Sophom^ 
phanoeus,*' which, in the Itoguage of Egypt, signifies the 
Saviour of the World; he finished this in 1633^ and the 
following year, at Hamburgh. 

In 1603, the glory which the United Provinces had ob- 
tained by their illustrious defence against the whole power 
of Spain, after the peace of Vervins^ determined them, to 
transmit to posterity the signal exploits of that memorable 
war ; and for this purpose they sought out a proper histo* 
rian. Several made great interest for the place, and 
among others Baudius, the professor of eloquence at Ley^ 
den. But the States thought young Grotius, who had 
taken no steps to obtain it, deserved the preference ; and,. 
what is singular, Baudius himself did not blame their 
choice, because he looked upon Grotius to be already t 
very great man. In the execution of this office, he under- 
took his " Annals," which were begun in 1614, though not 
finished long before his death, and not published until 
twelve years after. 



G K o T I u s.. ns. 

t 

All this while his principal employment was that of an ad* 
Toeate^ in which he acquired great honour; but, upon the 
whole, the profession did not please hioi, though tbebrilliant 
figure he made at the bar procured him the place of advo- 
cate-general of the fisc for Holland and Zealand, whicb^ 
becoming vacant, was immediately conferred on him by 
those provinces. He took possession of this important 
office in 1607, and filled it with so much reputation, that 
the States augmented his salary, and promised him a seat 
in the court of Holland. Upon this promotion, his father 
began to think of n wife for him, and fixed upon Mary 
Reigesberg, a lady of great family in Zealand, whose fa- 
dier had been burgomaster of Veer. The marriage was 
solemnized in July 1608,. and celebrated by him in some 
Latin and French verses, the former of waicu he trans- 
ited hito Dutch. On this occasion his father likewise 
wrote an epithalamium, and another was composed by 
Heinsius* At the time of his marriage he was employed 
in writing his " Mare liberum," i. e. " the Freedom of the 
Ocean, or the Right of the Dutch to trade to the Indies.** 
The work was printed in 1609, without his knowledge or 
consent. Indeed he appears not to have been quite satis* 
0ed with it: and though there came out several answers^ 
particularly that of Selden, entitled ^^ Mare clausum, seu 
de dominto maris,'' yet, being soon after disgusted withhia 
country, he took no farther concern in the controversVt 
The ensuing year, he published his piece ^^ De antiqm* 
tate Reipublicae Batavae," designed to shew the original 
independence of Holland and Friesland against the Spanish 
claim ; and he accordingly de^licated it to those States, 
March 16, 1610, who were extremely pleased with it, re* 
turned thanks to the author, and made him a present* 
While it was in the press, Grotius and his father, who 
usually assisted him in his writings, translated it i;)ita 
Dutch. 

JClias Oldenbarnevelt^ pensionary of Rotterdam, and 
hrother to the grand pensionary of Holland, dying in 1 6 1 3, 
the city of Rotterdam offered that important place to Gro-* 
iiu9 ; but it was some time before he yielded to the offer. 
^y the ferment of men^s minds he foresaw, that great com- 
motions would speedily shake the republic, which made 
him insist,' that he should never be turned out; aivd, lapoa 
^_ promise of this, be accepted of the post, which gave him. 
a seat in the aatesdtyly of the States of Hollandi and after- 

VOL. XVL C c 



iis G R T i u s7 

» » 

wards in that of the Sutes-General. Hitherto be had but 
very little connexion with the grand pensionary Barnevelt ;" 
but from this time he contracted an intimate friendship 
with him, and it was even reported that Barnevelt design- 
ed to have his friend succeed him as grand pensionary of 
'Holland*. . , 

At this time a dispute arose between the English and 
the Dutch, concerning the right of fishing in the Northern 
seas* Two Amsterdani vessels, having caught some whales 
in the Greenland ocean, were met by some English ships 
bound to Russia; who, finding that the Dutch had no pass- 
ports from the king of England, demanded the whales, 
which the Dutchmen, unable to resist, were obliged to de- 
liver. On their arrival in Holland^ they made their com- 
plaint ; and the affair being laid before the States, it was 
resolved that Grotius, who had written on the subject, anct 
was more master of it than any one, should be sent to Eng- 
landy where his demands were refused. On this the Dutch 
determined not to send* to Greenland for the future with- 
out a force sufficient to revenge themselves on the English, 
or at least to have nothing to fear from them. The dis- 
pute growing serious, to prevent any acts of hostility, a 
conference was held, in 1615, between the commissioners 
of England and Holland, in which the debate turned chiefly 
on the whale-fishery ; but, the English still insisting on the 
right to Greenland, which the Dutch refused, the confer- 
ence broke up without any success, Grotius, who was oi>6 
of the commissioners from Holland, gives the history of 
this conference, in a letter to Du Maurier, dated at Rotter- 
dam, June 5, 1615. On this occasion, however, he had 
reason to be well satisfied with the politeness of king James, 
who gave him a gracious reception, and was charmed with 
his conversation. But the greatest pleasure he received at 
this visit, was the intimate friendship he contracted with 
Casaubon. Their esteem for each other was increased by 
a similarity of studies and sentiments, and they both enter- 
tained hopes of a scheme, which human agency at least 
will never render practicable, that of uniting all Christians 
in one-faitb. In tlie midst of these occupations, Du Mau- 
rier, the French ambassador in Holland, and his particular 

* The bntinest «f tbif. officer is to and secrefcaiy to tbe Sliiites; alid 

manage prosecutioDf, receive dit- though he has no deliberatiTe Toie^ 

'patches, aod answer Uiein, so that he and is the lowest in rank, yet hif ia» 

is in «• mannec boiH attorney -general flnence is the greatest. 



(J il 1 1 tr d: sat 

l^nd, r^olving to begin a course of sttidy^ applied to him 
fbr directions, and Grotius laid down that excellent plan 
printed by Elzevir in* 1637^ in the work ** De omni genere 
•tudtorum recte instituendo," but the author informs us 
that it was printed without bis consent. 

Hitherto Grotius had passed bis life with uninteri^upted 
honour and fame; but a reverse was now approaching. 
The United Provinces bad been kindled into a warm dis- 
pute about grace and predestination^ from 1608, when 
Arminius 6rst broached his opinions. = His doctrines, being 
directly opposite to those of Calvin, gave great offence to 
that party, at the head of which appeared Gomar, who 
accused .his antagonist before the synod of Rotterdam. 
Gomar's party prevailing there, Arminius applied to the 
^ates of Holland, who promised the disputants to have 
the affair speedily discussed in a synod. The dispute still 
continuing with much bitterness, in 1611 the States or^ 
i]ered a conference to be held- between- twelve ministers 
on each sidet but the consequence of this was^ that men's 
minds were the more inflamed. Arminius died October 
19, 1609, some time before this conference ; and Grotius 
maiJe his eulogium in verse. He had hitherto applied little 
to these matters, and ingenuously owns he did not ufider^- 
<stand a great part of them, being foreign to his profession; 
and certainly every admirer of his unrivalled taien^ts must 
wish that he never had involved himself; but having once 
studied the controversy, he embraced the Arminian doc^ 
trine. In 1610, the partisans of Arminius drew up a 
remonstrance, setting forth their' belief; first negatively 
against their adversaries, and then positively their own 
sentiments, each comprehended in six articles. This res 
monstrance was drawn up by Utengobard, minister at the 
Hague, and was probably made in concert with Grotiud, 
the intimate friend and quondam pupil of that minister. 
To this the Gomarists opposed a contra- remonstrance^: 
the former proposed to end the matter by a toleration, the 
latter to decide it by a national synod ; and, the disputes 
increasing, the States, at the motion of the grand pen- 
sionary, with the view of putting an end to them, revived 
an obsolete law made in 1591, placing the appointment of 
ministers in the civil magistrates. But this was so far from 

. -answering the purpose^ that the Contra-remonstranta re- 
solved not to obey it. Hence grew a schism^ which occa« 

. sioned a sedition^ and many riots. 

CO 2 



$99 G B O T I U 5. 

It wail at tbk time that Grotiiis was oooiinated pensionarf 
at Rotterdaoa^ as mentioned abovie ; and ordered to go tt 
Eogiaudy witL secret inslxuctions, as is thought, to v^* 
fuade the kiag and principal divioes of that kingdom to 
favour the Arminians, and approve the eonducit of tiM 
States. He had several conferences with Idng James on 
that subject^ and while here he wrote his tiract in faiFour ef 
the Arminiaos, entitled ^* A reconcUiatioa of the different, 
opinions on Predestination and Grace,'" which is printed 
among his theological works. On his return to Hollai)d 
tie found the divisions increased : , Barpevelt and he had 
^be direction of the States' proceedings in this iwti^j 
and ha was appointed to draw up an edict which migbl 
jrestore tranquillity, the djraught of which was approaed 
hy the. States ; but it was so fevourable to the Arouoiaw 
that it gavie great offence .to the Cootra-remonstraiits^ «bt 
iietermined to pay no regard to it. Hence this edict a^tf^ 
ing to increase, the trDttble$» by driving the GronKarista to 
^esjMiir, the grand pensionary Bamevelt, in hourly eur 
fuectation of fresh riots, proposed to the States of Holland 
jtbat their magistrates should be empowered toxaise troji^Ts 
for the suppression pf the ripters, and the security of tbeir 
lowQiS. Dort, Amsterdam, and three others of the mos^ 
&vourable to the Gomarists, protested against this step^ 
.wbioh jthey regarded, and in &ct it was, as a declariati^Ml 
-of war against the Cjontra-sremon^trants. Barnevelt's m^ 
iion however was agreed to, and, August 4, 16^7, tb^ 
^States issued a placort accordingly. This fatal decr^ ocr 
•casioned the death of die grand pensionary, and the ruin 
^f Grotius, by incensing prince Maurice of Nassau against 
Jtbem, who looked upon the resolution of the States, t^n 
without his consent, to be derogatory to bis dignity, as 
governor and captain-general. 

Amsterdam, almost as powerful singly as all Holland, 
rfavpnred tbe Gomarists, and disapproved the toleration 
which the States wanted to introduce. These resolved 
therefore to ^end a deputation to that city, in order to 
^0concile them to their sentiments. Grotius wa^ one of 
these deputies : they received their iostructioqs Apiil 
2U l^i^ ; 9Lwif arriving at Amsterdam ueiut day^ met the 
4owi>*council o^ the 0d, when Grotius was their spokea* 
ooftn. But neither im speech nor all his other endeavoucp 
^eould avail any thing. The burgomasters declared their 
opinion for a synod^ and that tbey could not receive tbi 



G R O T I U S. 369^ 

« 

ctchelof 1614 Without endaogering the ehurcb, and ris- 
quiiig the ruin of their trade. The deputies wished to an-' 
swer, bat were not allowed. Grotius presented to ther 
States on his return an account in writing of all that had 
pasaed at this deputation, and be ftattered himself for some 
time with the hopes of good electa from it ; but his disap-' 
pointment ehagrined htm so much, that he was seised with 
a violent fever, which had almest proved fatal. He was' 
removed to Delft, where he recovered, but, being forbid 
to do any thing which required application, he wrote to 
Voscrius, desiring bis company, as the best restoratire of^ 
bis health. The thne of his recovery he employed in ex-^ 
sRHining the pait he had acted in the present disputes; 
and, the more he reflected on it, the less reason he had 
for akei" ng his sentiments ; and al though he foresaw the 
danger he incurred, his resolution was, not to change his' 
conduct, but to refer the event to Providence. The* 
States of Holland, wholly employed in endeavouring to' 
compound matters, came to a resolution, February 21,' 
1:617, to make a rule or formula, to which both parties 
should be obliged to conform ; and such an instrument waa 
accordingly drawn up at their request by Grotius, who 
presented it to prince Maurice. But the project did not 
please him; he wanted a national synod, which was at 
length determined by the States General, and to be con- 
voked in Holland at Dort. In the mean time the prince, 
who saw with the utmost displeasure several cities, agreeably 
to the permission given them by the particular States, levy 
» new militia, under the title of attendant soldiers, without 
bis consent, engaged the States General to write to the 
previnees and magistrates of those cities^ enjoining them, 
to disband the new levies. This injunction not being com«* 
plied with, be considered the refusal aa a rebellion ; con^ 
certed with the States General, that he should march in 
person with the troops under his comn»and, to get the at- 
tefydant soldiers disbanded, depose the Arminian magis- 
tiales^ and turn out the minister» of their party. He ac*» 
cordingly set out, accompanied by the deputies of the 
States General, in 1618; and, having reduced the pro- 
vince ofGueldres, he was proceeding to Utrecht, when, 
the States of Holland sent thither Grotius, with Hooger- 
betz, pensionary of Leyden> to put that city into a posture 
q£ defence against hiin^ But, their endeavours proving 
ineffectual) the prince reduced .the place ; and aoon after* 



S90 O R O T I US. 

t^fards sent Grotius and Hoogerbetz to prison in the castle 
at the Hague, where Barnevelt also was confined, August 
5;9tb this year. After this the States of Holland consented 
tp the national synod, which was opened at Dort, Nov. 
1^, 1618, which, as is well known, ended in a sentence, 
icondemning the five articles of the Arminians, and in im* 
prisoning and banishing their ministers. This sentence 
was approved by the States General, July 2, 1619. 

After the rising of that synOd, our three prisoners were 
brought in order to their trial, the issue of which was the 
execution of Barnevelt, May 13, 1619. Five days after 
pame on the trial of Grotius. He had been treated, as well 
as his fellow-prisoner, with inconceivable rigour during 
their imprisonment, and also while their cause was de- 
pending. He tells us himself, that, when they were known 
tp be ill, it was concerted to examine them ; that they had 
not liberty to defend themselves ; that they were threat- 
ened and teazed to give immediate answers ; and not suf^ 
fered to have their examinations read over to them. Gro- 
tius, having asked leave to write his defence, was allowed 
only five hours, and one sheet of paper ; he was also told, 
that if he would own be bad transgressed, and ask pardon, 
be might obtain bis liberty; but, as he bad nothing to 
reproach himself with, he wowld never take any step that 
might imply consciousness of guilt. His wife, his father, 
brother, and friends, all approved this resqlutiqn. Uia. 
sentence, after reciting the several reasons thereof, con- 
cludes thus : " For these causes, the judges, appointed to 
try this affair, administering justice in the name of the 
States General, condemn the said Hugo Grotius to per-r 
petual imprisonment, and to be* carried to the place ap- 
pointed by the States General, there to be guarded witl^ 
all precaution, and confined the rest of his days ; and de- 
clare his estate confiscated. Hague, May Ifi, 1619^.''- 
In pursuance of this sentence he was carried from the 
Hague to the fortress of Louvestein near Gorcum in South 
Holland, June 6, 1619, and 24 sols per day assigned for 
bis maintenance, and as much for Hoogerbetz ; but their 

# Bates tellR us, that six of the nine of which no men