Skip to main content

Full text of "The general biographical dictionary. Revised by A. Chalmers"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 








*xio\ . e - 1^ 



ry 




' 






* 



m 



THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL PICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITJON. 



VOL. IL 



Nichols, Sob, and Bentley, Printers, 
Und lion Passage, Fleet Street, Lofidon* 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: 

CONTAINING 

AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

a 
OF THE 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH; 
FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME, 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A. 



VOL. n. 



LeNDONi 



^PRINTED FOR J. NICHOLS AND SON ; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON ; T. PAYNE ^ 
W. OTRIDGE AND SON ; G. AND W. NICOL ; WILKIB AND ROBINSON | 
J. WALKER ; R. LEA ; W. LOWNDES ; WHITE, COCHRANE, AND CO. } 
1. DBIGHTON ; T. EGERTON ; LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CQ. ; LONGlIf AN, 
HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN; CADELL AND DAVIES ; C. LAW; 
J. BOOKER ; CLARKE AND SONS ; J. AND A. ARCH ; J. HARRIS ; BLACK, PARRY, 
AND CO.; J. BOOTH ; J. MAWMAN ; GALE AND CURTIS; R.H.EVANS; J. 
BATCHARD; J. HARDING ; J. JOHNSON AND CO. ; E. BENTLBY; AND J. FAULDER. 

1812. 




A 



y 



A NEW AND GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AlLEMANT. See LALLEMANT. 

ALLEN ^Anthony), an English lawyer and antiquaiy, 
was born at Great Hadbam in Hertfordshire, about the end 
of the seventeenth century, and was edu<?^ted at ffton; 
whence he went to King's college, Cambridge, and took 
his bachelor's degree in 1707, and his master's in 1711. 
He afterwards studied law, was ciiJI^d.to' the bar, and bjr 
the influence of Arthur OnsloW^ speaker of the house of 
commons, became a roaster in chancery. His reputation 
as a lawyer was inconsiderable, Jbiut he was Esteemed a good 
classical scholar, and a man of Wit: and -convivial habits. 
He became afterwards an alderman of the corporation of 
Guildford, and an useful magistrate in that neighbourhood, 
fie died April 11, 1764, and was buried in the Tentple 
church* He collected a biographical account of the mem«- 
bers of Eton college, which by his will, dated 1753, he or-, 
dered to be placed in the libraries of the two colleges, and 
a third copy to be given to his patron, Mr. Onslow. He 
also compiled, at his leisure hours, or rather made collec- 
tions for, an English dictionary of obsolete words, of words 
which have changed their meaning,''as villamj knavCy and of 
proverbial or cant words, tLs helter-skeUery wUch he ddrived 
from hUariter celeriter. It is not known what became of 
this manuscript. He bequeathed his fortune, and probably 
his books, to a brother who wa$a Turkey merchant.' 

ALLEN (John), archbishop of Dublin in the reign of 
Henry VIIL was first educated at Oxford, whence he re* 

^ Harwood's Alumni Etonenses.— Whiston's MS additions to the first edition 
M this Dictionary. 

VoL.lI. B 



9 ALLEN. 

moved to Cambridge, and took the degree of master of arts ; 
or, as Wood rather thinks, that of bachelor of laws. He 
was afterwards sent to Rome to the pope, by Wairbam, 
archbishop of Canterbury, to manage some afFail-s relating 
to the church. He continued there about nine ye^rs, and 
was created doctor of laws in some Italian university. On 
his return he was made chaplain to cardinal Wolsey, and 
commissary or judge of his court, when he 'was legate it la- 
tere, but he was accused of great dishonesty in the exe- 
cution of that office. He assisted the cardinal in 6rst vi* 
siting and afterwards dissolving forty small monasteries, for 
the erection of his colleges at Oxford and Ipswich.. His 
church-preferment was considerable. Archhishop Warham 
gave him Aldyngton, with the chapel annexed, March «6, 
1510, in which he was succeeded by Erasmus; and in the 
following year his grace presented him to Riseburgh, in the 
deanery of Riseburgh. In 1524 he was presented to the 
perpetual vicaifige of Alborne, and he had, by the favour of 
Wolsey, the church of Dalby on theWoulds in Leicestershire, 
though it belonged to the master and brethren of the hospi- 
tal of Burton Lazars. In the latter end of the year 1525, 
he. was incorporated doctor of laws of the university of Ox- 
ford; and March 13, 1528, upon the death of Dr. Hugh 
Inge, be was consecrated archbishop of Dublin, and about 
the same time was made chancellor of Ireland. In 1 534* he 
was barbarously murdered in an insnrrection, by Thomas 
Fit^-gerald, eldest son of the earl of Kildare, in the fiftieth 
year of his age. He wrote some treatises on ecclesiastical 
affairs, which remain in manuscript. ' - 

ALLEN (Thomas), an eminent mathematician of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Uttoxeter in Staffordshire| 
Dec. 21, 1542, and was a descendant, through six gene- 
rations, of Henry Allen, or Alan, lord of the manor of 
Buckenhall in that county. He was admitted scholar of 
Trinity college, Oxford, June 4, 1561, became fellow in 
JSBS, and in 1567, took his master^s degree. From a 
strong indination to a retired life, and a dislike to entering 
into holy orders, to which, according to the statutes, he 
must have been called, he quitted the college, resigned his 
fellowship, and went to Gloucester*hall (now Worcester col- 
lege), in 1570. Here be studied very closely, jftod acquired 

V Wood'f Atb«o«.<^«^en. Diet— Biog. Brit. — ^Tanner. — Fiddes's I^ife of WoU 
fley.—-Stry)>«*8 Memorials, voi I. pp. 73. 125.-— Nichols's Uist of I^icestf}cshii«B 
TOl. «I. p. 95S. 



ALLEN. .« 

a high reputation for bis knowledge in antiquity^ philosoe, 
phy, and mathematics. Having received an invitatbn from 
Henry earl of Northumberland, a great friend and patron 
of the mathematicians, he spent some time at the earl's 
h6use, where he became acquainted with those celebrated 
mathematicians Thomas Harriot, John Dee, Walter War- 
ner, and Nathanael Torporley. Robert earl of Leicester 
bad a particular esteem for Mr. Allen, and would have con- 
ferred a bishopric upon him, but his love of solitude and 
retirement made him decline die offer. He was also highly 
respected by other celebrated contemporaries, sir Thomaa. 
Bodley, sir Henry Savile, Mr. Camden, sir Robert Cotton, 
air Henry Spelman, Mr. Selden, &c. His great skill in 
the mathematics made the ignorant and vulgar look upon 
him as a magician or conjuror; and the author of a book^ 
intituled *^ Leice$ter's Commonwealth," has absurdly ac- 
cused him of using the art of 6guring, to bring about the 
earl of Leicester's schemes, and endeavouring, by the 
black art, to effect a match betwixt him and queen Eliza- 
beth. It is more certain the earl placed such confidence in 
Allen, that nothing material in the ^tate was transacted 
without his knowledge, and he had constant information^ 
by letter from Allen, of what passed in the university. 
Allen was very curious and indefatigable in collecting scat- 
tered manuscripts relating te history, antiquity, astronomy, 
philosophy, and mathematics, which collections have been 
quoted by several learned authors, &c* There is a cata<- 
logue of them, bearing date 162^, among Anthony Wood's 
papers^ in the Ashmolean museum- He published in Latin 
the second and third books of Ptolemy, ** concerning the 
Judgment of the Stars," or, as it is commonly called, of 
the quadripartite construction, with an exposition. He 
wrote also notes ou many of Lilly's books, and sooie on 
John Bale's work, '* De scriptoribus Maj. Britanniae.** 
Having lived to a great ag^, he died at Gloucester-hall, Sept 
^0, 1632, and was buried with a solemnity suited to the 
greatness of his character. He bequeathed a valuable por- 
trait of himself, which has since been engraven, to the 
president of Trinity college and his successors. Mr. Bur* 
■ton, the author of his funeral oration, calls him not only 
l!he Coryph^us, but the very soul and sun of all the nuthe- 
maticians of his time. Mr. Selden mentions him as <^ omoi 
eruditionis genere summoque judicio ornatissimus, cete- 
berrimae acadeoii?^ Oiconiensis decus insignissimum : a 

B 2 



* , A L L EN. 

f^ersQD of tib^ most extensive learning and consummale 
judgment, t^ brightest ornament of the university of Ox* 
{bra.*' Camden says, iie wbs ^ Piurimis optimisque arti* 
Ims omatissimus ; skilled in most of the be«n; aru and sci* 
ences.*' Mr. Wood has transcribed part of his character 
^m a manuscript in the library of Trinity college, in these 
words : ^ He studied polite literature with great applica-* 
iaon ; he was strictly tenacioiis ^ academic discipline, al- 
<wi^8 highly esteemed both by foreigners and those of the 
university, and *by all of the highest stations in the church 
of £ ngbnd and the university of Oxford. He was a saga^ 
^ious observer, and an agpreeable companion*^ 

ALLEN (Thomas), a learned divine, was born in the 
year 1578, educated in the king's school at Worcester, and 
#rom thence removed to Brazen-^nose college, Oxford, 
i589. He was elected a probationer fellow of Merton col- 
lege in 1593 r He afterwards went into orders; but, instead 
of preaching, he applied himself to the more abstruse and 
critical parts of learning. This pecoromended him to the 
esteem of sir Henry SaHle, by whose interest he obtained 
a fellowship of Eton college in 1604, and whom he assisted 
In his elaborate edition of St, Chry$ostom. While at Eton, 
lie assisted the studies of Dr. Hammond, then a school-boy, 
|>articularly in 4^e Greek language. He wrote ** Obser- 
vationes in libellum Chrysostomi in Esaiam.** He died 
Oct. 10, 1638, and was buried in Dton college chapel. 
ile was a benefactor in books to the libraries of Brazen^* 
nose and Merton colleges.' 

ALLEN (Thomas), a non-conformist clergyman of 
Norwich, was bom in that city in 160S, and educated at^ 
daius college, Cambridge. He appears to have been mi- 
nister ef 8t. Edmund's, Norwich, where he was silenced by 
l>i^p Wren,, in 1636, for refusing to read the book of 
Sports, and other non-compliances peculiar to the times. 
Two years afterwards he went to New England, and was a 
preacher at Charlestown until 1651, when he returned to 
Norwich, and had the rectory of St. George's, from whidi 
fie was ejected for nonconforiiifity in 16^2, and during the 
1$«ne period he preached in a meeting csfUed the congre*- 
gaHonal church. He afterwards preached in the latter 
place^ as he had opportunity, and without molestation, till 

1 G^n. Diet— Biof. Biit^WMon't Life of Sir Ti)Q«M8 Pope, p. 416.r;*-Atlu 
0Sj^fn\W9 Woithics. ' 

> AUu Ox«wpHarwood'8 Alamm Stoaessef, f. Sf^jst-Biofr. Brttr 



i 



A L L X nr. s 

the time of his death, Sept. 21^ 1671 He pii&tighed »e«- 
vetsil pions pvacUcal trettises ; hut the work which obtaiued 
lUffi moBt reputotioB, was his ** Chain of Scripture Cbro--' 
ikoiogy, from the creation to the death of Christy in seren 
period^'' 1639, 4ta On«r of his biographets compares 
hin to Bucboh^ery wbo, being weary of controversy^ betook 
Kmsetf to clMronology, sayii^g that be would rather com* 
pute tban dispote. > 

. ALLEON (DtiLAC John Lfiwis) was born at Lyons,* 
and for a long tiine was a practitioner there at the bar. He 
united, however, a knowledge of the law with a taste for 
natural hiftary, which last induced him to retire from busiw 
ness to St. Ettenne in Forez, where be could more conve- 
niently .pursue his inqisiries into the properties of fossilsf 
and mineTBlagy in general* He accordingly publisbed 
^* Memoires poor servir a I'histoire naturelle du Lyonnois, 
Forez, et Beaojolais," 2 vols. 12 mo, 1765 ; and << Melanges 
d'histoiire n^tnrelle," which first appeared in 1763, 2 vols. 
12mo, but afterwards there was a new edition in 6 vols. 
He died at St. Etienne in 1768,* 

ALLESTElY (Jacob), an English minor poet of thei 
seventeenth century, was the son of James Atlestry, a book«. 
fieiler of London, who was ruined by the great fire in 1666^ 
and related to provost Allestry, the subject of the next ar<« 
ticle. Jacob was educated a« Westminster school, and en^ 
tered at Cbrist-^duirch, Oxford, m the act*term 1671, at 
the age of crighteen, and was elected student in 1672. Het 
took the degree in arts; was music-reader in 1679, an^ 
terr^ filins in 1681 ; both which offices he executed with 
great applause, being esteemed a good philcdogist and 
poet. He had a chief hand in the verses and p^storak 
spoken in the theatre at Oxford, May 21, 1681, by Mr. 
William Savile, second son of the marquis of Halifax, and 
George Cbolmondeliey, second son Of Robert viscount Kells 
(both of Christ-church), before James duke of York, hig 
duchess^ and the lady Anne; which verses and pastoralil 
were aftei'ward^ printed in the '< Examen Poeticura." He 
died of the consequence of youthful excesses, October 1 5; 
16^6, and was buried, in an obscure manner, in St. Tho^ 
mas's church-yard, Oxibrd,* 

1 Calamy,->-Matber*r History of Ntw £iiglMid» book iii. p. S15. 
• Diet Hiat— Biog. Unirerselle. 

i AtK Oje«^,<^JHiclM>U'i PotKB^i Tol. |IL «tttf« trt sptcime&ier fail poefi^. 



6 A L L E S T R V, 

ALLESTRY, or Allestree (RicharI)), aii eminent 
English divine, jtvas born in March 1619, at Uppington 
near the Wrekin in Shropshire. He was at first educated 
at a free-school in that neighbourhood, and afterwards re- 
inoved to one at Coventry, taught by Philemon Holland 
the tran^ator. In 1636, he was sent to Oxford, and en* 
t^red a commoner in Christ- church, under the tuition of 
Mr. Richard Busby, afterwards master of Westminster 
school. Six months after his settlement in the university, 
Br. Fell, dean of Christ-church, having observed the part» 
and industry of young Allestry, made him a student of that 
college, where he ajipUed himself to his books with great 
assiduity and success. When he had taken the degree of 
l^achelor of arts, he was chosen moderator in philosophy, 
in which office he continued till the disturbai>ces of the 
kingdom interrupted the studies and repose of the univer- 
sity. In 1641, Mr. Allestry, amongst other of the Oxford 
students, took arms for the king, under sir John Bdron, 
and continued therein till that gentleman withdrew from 
Oxford, when he returned to his studies. Soon after, a 
party of the parliament forces having entered Oxford and 
plundered the colleges, Mr. Allestry narrowly escaped be- 
ing severely handled by them. Some of them .having 
attempted to break into the treasury of Christ-church, and 
leaving forced a passage into it, met with^ nothing hut a 
single groat and a halter, at the bottom of a large iron 
chest. Enraged at their disappointment, theyVent to th^ 
deanry, where having plundered as much as they thought 
fit, they put it all together in a chamber, locked it up, and 
retired to their quarters^ intending next day to return and 
dispose of their prize ; but, when they came, they found 
theniselves disappointed, and every thing removed out of 
the chamber. Upon examination it was discovered^ that 
Mr. Allestry had a key to the lodgings, and that this key 
had been made use of. Upon this he was seized, and would 
probably have suffered severely, luul not the earl of Essex 
called away the forces on a sudden, and by that means res* 
cued him from their fury. In October following, he took 
^rms again, and was at the batde fought betwixt the king 
and the parliament's forces under the command of the earl 
of Essex upon Keinton-field in Warwickshire ; after which, 
understanding that the king designed immediately to march 
to. Oxford, and take up.hi^ residence at the deanry of 
Christ- church, he hastened thither to mako preparatiQos 



•A L L E S T R Y. 7 

for his majesty's- reception; but in his way was taken 
prisoner by a party of horse from Boughton-house, which 
was garrisoned by lord Say for the parliament : his con- 
finement, however, was but short, as the garrison surren- 
dered to the king. And now Mr. Ailestry returned again 
to his studies, and the spring following took his degree of 
master of arts. The same year he was in extreme danger 
of his life by a pestilential distemper, which raged in the- 
garrison at Oxford ; but as soon as he recovered, he entered 
once more into his majesty's service, and carried a mus- 
quet in a regiment formed out of the Oxford scholars. 
Nor did he in the mean time neglect his studies, ^^ but 
frequently (as the author of the preface to Dr. AUestry's 
Sermons Expresses it) held the musquet in one hand ^nd 
the book in the other, uniting the watchfulness of a soldier 
with the lucubrations of a student." In this service he 
continued till the end of the war; then went into holy or- 
ders, and was chosen censor of his college. He had a 
considerable share in that test of loyalty, which the uni- 
versity of Oxford gave in their decree and judgment against 
llie Sk)len^n League and Covenant. In 1 648, the parlia- 
ment sent visito/s to Oxford, to demand the submission of 
that body to their authority : those who refused to comply 
were immediately proscribed ; which was done by writing 
their names on a paper, and affixing it on the door of St. 
Mary's church, signifying that such persons were, by the 
authority of the visitors, banished the university, and re- 
quired to depart the precincts within three days, upon pain 
of being taken for spies of war, and proceeded against as 
such. Mr. Ailestry, amongst many others, was accordingly 
expelled the university. He now retired into Shropshire, 
and. was entertained as chaplain to the honourable Francis 
Newport, esq. and upon the death of Richard lord New- 
port, that gentleman's father, in France, whither he had 
fled to avoid the violence of the prevailing party, was sent 
over to France to take care of his effects. Having dis- 
patched this affair with success, he returned to his employ-^ 
ment, in which he continued till the defeat of king Charles 
II. at Worcester. At this time the royalists wanting an in- 
telligent and faithful person to send over to his majesty, 
Mr. Ailestry was solicited to undertake the journey, wliich 
he accordingly did ; and having attended the king at Roan, 
and received his dispatches, returned to England. In 1659, 
he went over again to his majesty in Flanders , and uppa 



» ALLESTRY. 

bis return was seized at Dover by a party of soldiers^ buti 
be had the address to secure his letters, by conveying them 
to a faithful hand. The soldiers guarded him to London^ 
and after .being examined by a committee of the council o£ 
safety, he was sent prisoner to Lambeth-house, wheve he 
contracted a dangerous sickness. About six or eight week& 
after, he Was set at hberty ; and this enlargement was per* 
baps^ owing to the prospect of aa approaching f evolution;. 
fi>r some of the heads of the republican party, seeing every 
thing tend towards bis majesty's restoration, were willing 
by . kindnesses to recommend themselves to the royal 
4>arty. 

Soon after the restoration, Mr. Allestry was made a ca- 
non of Christ-church ; at the same time he undertook one 
of the leptureships of the city of Oxford, but never received 
any part of the salary.; for he ordered it to be distributed: 
amongi^t the poor. In October 1660, he took the degree 
t)f D.'D. and was appointed one of the king's chaplains ia 
ordinary, and in Seprt 1663, regius professor of divinity, in, 
which chair he gat seventeen years, and acquitted himself 
with honour. In 1665 hewas appointed provost of Eton col-; 
lege, where he raised the school, which he found in a low 
condition, to an uncommon pitch of reputafion. The west 
side of the outward quadrangle of that college was built from 
the ground at his expense. The excellent Dr. Hammond, 
who was his intimate friend, left him his valuable library, 
which he bequeathed himself to his successors in the divinity 
chair. His eagerness for study^ and his intention of mind 
while he was employed in it was so great, that it impaired * 
his constitution,, and hastened his deaths In 1630, find-, 
ing his health and sight much weakened, he resigned his. 
professorship of divinity to Dr. Jane. And now the decay 
of, his constitution terminating in a dropsy, he removed to 
London, to have the advice of physicians; but medicines, 
proving ineffectual, he died January 27th, 1680; and was 
buried in Eton chapel, where a marble monument, with ai^ 
elegant Latin inscription, was erected to his memory. 

Ther§ ar,e extant forty sermons by Dr. Allestry, for thct ' 
most part preached before the king, upon solemn occa<b' 
sions, fol. 1684. Mr. Wood likewise mentions a small . 
tract, written by him, entitled, " The Privileges of the 
University of Oxford, in point of Visitation,'* in a letter 
to an honourable personage, 1647. The first eighteen of 
liis sermons were publijihed in 1669, foL for a benevolent 



ALLESTRY. 9 

purpose. He gave them to Allestrj the faooks^er, inen«« 
tioned in the preceding articte, who was his kinsman^ and 
was mined by the great fire. ' These^ with the others^ wer^ 
afterwards published by Dr. Fell, bishop of Oxford, whQ 
has donegreat justice to his memory in the life prefixed. * 
ALL£tZ (Pons Auoustjn), a French advocatei was^ 
born at Montpellier, aivd died at Paris, March 7, 1785^ 
in the eighty-second year of bis age. Having no talentt 
to ma&e a figure at the bar, he became an author by prot* 
fession, and compiled a sreat number of works . for th^ 
booksellers, some of which nad considerable success. The 
principal productions of his industry were, 1. Several dic*^. 
tionaries, particularly ^^ L' Agronome,'* 2 vols. 8vo ; a good 
abridgment of the ^' Maison Rustique ;'* a ^^ Dictionnaire 
Theologique/* and another " Des Conciles," both in 8vo, 
concise, but not remartiable for perspicuity. 2. ^^ Manael 
(ie Fhomme du monde," 8>vo; and ^^ UEncyclopedie de 
Pensees," Svo; compilations made with little care. 3. ** Sy- 
nopsis Doctrinae Sacrse,'* dvo, a collection of the passages 
in the Bible which regard the articles of belief* 4. " Ta- 
bleau de rhistoire de France," 2 vols. 12mo, which was 
adopted into some schools, and although negligently written, 
and with little attraction, gives the principal facts of the 
French history with fidelity and simplicity. 5. " Les 
Princes celebres qui ont regn6 dans le monde,*' 4 vols. 
1 2mo. 6. L'Histoire deB P^apes," 2 vols. 1 2mo. 7. " L*His- 
toire des Singes,'' 2 vols. 12aio, This transition from the 
Ivistory of "pnnces and popes to that of apes and monkeys, 
may be thought a proof of the versatility of our author's 
genius : his history of princes, however, is the best of the 
three ; that of popes is said tq be superficial, and not very 
impartial. 8. ^^ Les ornamens de la memoire/' 12mo, ia 
which the title is more happy thaifi usual in such works, is a 
collection of the beauties of the French poets, and has been 
often repriated and enlarged. 9. " Les Lemons de Thalie,'* 
3 vols. 12mo:> these are portraits and characteristic pieces* 
from the comic poets, iO. " Connoisances des Poctes Fran- 
coises," 2 vols. 12mo. H. " Catechiame d^ Tage mur," 
12nio, an abridgment of tHe proofs of relig^oa by ques« 
tion and answer. 12. " L' Albert modetne," 2 vols. l2mo.. 
13. *^.L'jE§pritdesJournalistes de Trcvoux^" 4vok I2rao« 

^I.ifiB prdBttd U> his Serflioi».«-*^Glett« D!ct. — Bkf^^ Die4.-«Atbv 0)^9n.-.-H»r«^ 
wood's AluaiBJ^ p< 24.— His great niece, wlio very much resembled bis picture 19 
GMsi-cl^ttrch hail, died lSa9. ' GeaU Mag.: Toi. UQCIX. 9* Vd-;?. 



10 A L L E T Z. 

14. " L' Esprit des Journalistes de Hollande,'' 2 vols. 
13nio. The former of these is a judicious selection. He 
compiled likewise several books for schools, and abridg- 
ments of the Greek history, the *^Magasin des Adoles- 
f*ens," lives of the saints, &c* &c. This copious list, in 
which we have not given all his compilations, is no small 
testimony to the industry of M. Alletz, who was at least 
virtuously, and often usefully employed, and whose cha- 
racter made his death, although at a very advanced period, 
be much regretted by hi$ friends and family. » 

ALLEY, or Alleigh (William), bishop of Exeter in 
the reign of queen Elizabeth, was born at Great Wycomb- 
in Buckinghamshire, and educated at Eton school. In 
J 528 he went from thence to King's college, Cambridge, 
where he took a bachelor's degree, but removed to Oxford, 
and spent some time in the academical studies of that uni- 
versity. He afterwards married, was presented to a living, 
and became a zealous reformer. On queen Mary's ac- 
cession he left his cure, and retired into the north of Eng- 
land, where he maintained himself by keeping a school 
and practising physic. On queen Elizabeth's accession, 
when he could avow his principles with safety, he went to 
London^ and was appointed to read the divinity lecture at 
St. Paul's, in which he acquired great reputation ; and in 
July 1560, was consecrated bishop of Exeter. He was 
not created doctor of divinity until November 1 56 J . He 
died April 15, 1570, and was buried at Exeter. He wrote, 
I. ** The Poor Man's Library," 2 vols, folio, 1571. These 
volumes contain his twelve lectures at St. Paul's, on the 
first epistle of St. Peter. 2. ** A Hebrew Grammar," but 
it is uncertain whether it was ever published. He translated 
the Pentateuch in the version of the Bible undertaken by 
command of queen Elizabeth. Three epistles of Alley to 
Matthew Parker, in Latin, are preserved among the MSS, 
of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge. His " Judgment 
cjoncerning the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church" is in 
Strype's Annals. Wood and Godwin agree in placing 
bishop Alley's death in J 570; but Tanner says, that it 
wasron April 15, 1571, and Fuller carries it down so low 
as 1576. He left a son, Roger Alley, who was archdea« 
con of Cornwall ; and his great grandson, the rev. Peter 
Alley, died so lately as August 1763, at the very extraor- 

^ Diet fiitft.— BiOf r»jphi« Univ«r»elk^ 



ALLEY. 11 

dinary age of ooe hundred and ten years and two months. 
He was for seventy-three years rector of Donamow, in 
Qaeen's County^ Dublin^ and served his own cure till 
within a few d^ys of hi; death. 

The following particulars of bishop Alley's personal. 

history are given by a contemporary. He was well stored, 

and his library well replenished with all the best writers ; 

which most gladly he did impart, and lay open to every 

good scholar and student requesting the sanle^ whose 

company and conference he did desire and embrace. He 

seemed at the first appearance to be a rough and austere 

man, but in truth was a very courteous, gentle, and af* 

fable man ; at his table full of honest speeches, joined 

with learning and pleasantness, according to the time, 

place, and company ; at his exercises, which for the most 

part were at bowls, very merry and pleasant, void of all 

sadness, which might abate the benefit of recreation, loth 

to offend, ready to forgive, void of malice, full of love, 

bountiful in hospitality, liberal to the poor, and a sue- 

courer of the needy ; faithful to his friend, and courteous 

to all men ; a hater of covetousness, and an enemy to all 

evil and wicked men ; and lived an honest, godly, and 

virtuous life. Finally, he was endued with many notable 

good gifts and virtues ; only he was somewhat credulous, of 

a hasty belief, and light of credit, which he did oftentimes 

mislike and blame in himself. In his latter time he waxed 

somewhat gross, and his body was full of humours, which 

abated much of his wonted exercise. Queen Elizabeth, 

out of the great respect she bad for this bishop, sent him, 

yearly, a sUver cup for a new year's gift. The mayor of 

Exeter much opposed him, on his obtaining a commission 

to be a justice of the peace within the same, contrary to 

the charters and liberties thereof. ^ 

. ALLEY N (Edward), a celebrated comedian in the 
seigns of queen Elizabeth and king James, but more justly 
celebrated as the founder of the college at Dulwich, in 
Surrey, was born in London, in the parish of St. Botolph 
without Bishopsgate, Sept. 1, 1566, as appears from a 
memorandum of his own writing. Dr. Fuller says, that he 
was bred a stage«>playeip ^ and that his father would have 

* Biog. Brit.— Gen. Diet.— FuHer^s Worthies.— Harwoo4*» Alumni ^ton.— 
Ath.Ox. — Tanner. — Strype's Life of Partter, pp. 67, 103, 156. — Strype's Annals^ 
VOL I. p. 201.— St. James's Chronicle, Sept. 3, 1703.— Pol whele's Hist, of De- 
viDiiiJure.-^Uack«'s Aaiiqoitiet of l^xeter.^ 



12 A L t E Y N. 

given him a liberal edupaition, but that be was not 
turned for a serious course of life. He was^ however, a 
youth of good capacity, of a cheerful temper, and tenia-; 
clous memory, and in bis person of^ a stately port and as«: 
pect ^ all 'which advantages are 4^^''^^<^^^^i^& foi'> ^nd 
sometimo^ incitements to, the theatrical profesMon. By* 
several authorities ^^e fiad be must have beeo on the sttagidt 
^me time before 1592; for at this lime he was in higfar 
favour with the town, and greatly applauded by the besft 
judges, particularly by Ben Jdnson. Haywood, in fai» 
prologue to Marlow's Jew of Malta, caUs him Proteus for 
shapes, and Roscijis for a tongue. He usually played tfao 
capital parts, and was one of the original actors in Shak-' 
speare^s plays; in some of Ben Jonson^s he was also di 
principal performer : but what characters he personated in 
either of. these poets, is diiEcult now to determine. Thitf 
is owing, to the inaccuracy of theit editors, who did not 
print the names of the players opposite to the character 
they performed, as the modern custom is, but gave on^ 
general list of actors to the whole set of playsj as in the 
old folio edition of Sbakspeate ; or ^divided one from th<^ 
other, setting the dramsltis personam before the plays, and 
the catalogue of performers after them, as in Jonson's. 

It maj' appear surprising, how one of Mr. Alleyn's pro-* 
fession should be enabled to erect such an edifice as thil^ 
wich college, and liberally endow it for the maintenanGo 
of so many persons. But it must be observed that he bad 
some paternal fortune, which, tliough small, probably laid 
the foundation of his future affluence ; and it is to be^ pf e^ 
sumed that the profits he received from acting, to one» of^ 
his provident and managing disposition, and one who \>y 
bis excellence in playing drew after him such crowds o^ 
spectators, must have considerably improved bis fortime v 
besides, he was not only an actor, but master of a play- 
house, built at his own expence, by which he is said tis 
have amassed considerable wealth. This was the Fortune 
play-house, near Whitecross street, by Moorfields.. There 
is a tradition in tbe neigbbourboi>d: of this place, tbat iw 
digging the foundation of this hoose, there was fo«(iid a* 
considerable treasure ; so that it is probable the whole or 
greatest part of it might fall to Mr. AUeyn. He was also 
keeper of the king's wild beasts, or master of the royal 
bear-garden, which was frequented by vast crowds of 
spectators : and the profits arising from these sports are said 



A L L E Y H. nl3 

to hare smounted to 50Q/. per annunL He was thride 
Qianried ; and the portions of his two first wives, they 
leavijig him no issue to iiiherit, probably contributed to this 
benefa^ioD. Such donations have been frequently thought 
to proceed more from vanity and ostentation than real 
charity ; but this of Mr. Alleyn has been ascribed to a very 
singular cause* Mr. Aubrey mentions a tradition, that 
Mr. Alleyn, playing a daemon with six others, in one of 
•Sbakspeare's plays, was, in the midst of the play, stir- 
prised by an apparition of the devil, which so worked on 
his &ncy, that he made a vow, which he performed by 
building Dulwich college. Whatever may be in this story^ 
he began- the foundation of this college, under the direc- 
tion of Inigo Jones, in 1614; and the buildings, gardens, 
&c. were finished in 1617, in which he is said to have ex« 
pended about 10,000/. After the college was built, he 
met with some difficulty in obtaining a charter for settling 
his lands in mortmain ; for he proposed to endow it with 
.900/. per annuniy for the mainteriance of oiie master, one 
warden, and four fellows, three whereof were to be cler- 
gymen, and the foutth a skilful organist; also six poor 
men, and as many wemen, besides twelve poor boys, to 
be educated till the age of fourteen or sixteen, and then 
piA out to some trade or calling. The obstruction he met 
with arose from the lord chancell(M!' Bacon, who wished 
^ing James to settle part of those lands for the support of 
two academical lectures; and he wrote a letter to the mar^ 
quis of Buckingham, dated Aug. 18, 1618, entreating him 
to use Jiis interest with his majesty for that purpose *. Mr. 
Alieyn's solicitation was, however, at last complied with, 
and he obtained the royal licence, giving him full power 

• 

* The letter is as foUovs : " I now tores, the one in Oxford, the oUier ift 

write to give the king an account of a Cambridge, foundalions of singular 

patent I have stayed at the seal ; it is honour to his majesty, and St which 

0f lioence to give in mortmain 800/. there is great want ; whereas hospitali 

l^ndy though it be of tenure in chief, to abound, ond beggars abomid never 9. 

Allen that was the player, for an h^s- whit the less. If bis majesty do like 

liitaL X like well that Allen playeth !• pass the book at all, yet if he would 

•Ihe last act of his life so well ; but if be pleased to abridge the 800/. to 500f. 

his majesty give away thus to amortize and then give way to the other tw(» 

Ikis tennres, his court of wards will books for the university, it were a 

ilacay ; which I had wel| hoped ^llOQld princely work ; and I would make «t / 

hnpr^ve. But that which moved mc humble suit to the king, and desic* 

chiefly, is that his miyesty now lately vour lordship to join in it, that it Qkight 

4id aibsoUitely deny sir Henry JSavile . he so«" The works of Francis loit| 

for 200/. and sir Edward ^ndys for ISacon, yoi, IV. foU n4iO, j^. ^^ 
|00i to the perpetMatiQ|; of two lee- 



14 A L L E Y N. 

to lay his foundation, by his majesty's letters patent, 
bearing date th^ 21st of June, 1619; by virtue where- 
of he did, in the chapel of the said new hospital at Dul- 
•wich, called "The College of God's Gift," on the I3tb 
of Septennber following, publicly read, and published, 
a quadripartite writing in parchment, whereby he created 
and established the said college; he then subscribed it 
with his name, and fixed his seal to several parts thereof, 
in presence of several honourable persons, aud or- 
dered copies of the writings to four different parishes. 
- Those honourable persons were Francis lord Verulam lord 
chancellor ; Thomas earl of Arundel, earl marshal of Eng- 
land ; sir Edward Cecil, second son to the earl of Exeter ; 
sir John Howard, high sheriff of Sussex and Surrey ; sir 
£4ward Bowyer, of Camberwell ; sir Thomas Grymes of 
Peckbam; sir John Bodley, of Stretham ; sir John Tonstal, 
of Carshalton ; and divers other persons of great worth 
and respect. The parishes in which the said writings were 
deposited, were St. Botolph's without Bishopsgate, St. 
Giles's without Cripplegate, St. Saviour's in Southwarfc, 
and the parish of Camberwell in Surrey. The contents or 
heads of the said statutes, or quadripartite writings, con- 
taining the laws and rules of this foundation, axe as follow : 
1. A recital of king James's letters patent. 2« Recital of 
the founder's deed quadripartite. 3. Ordination of the 
master, warden, &c. 4. Ordination of the assistant mem^,. 
bers, &c^ 5. The roaster and warden to be unmarried, 
and always to be of the name of Alleyn or Allen. 6. The 
master and warden to be twenty-one years of age at least 
7. Of what degree the fellows to be. 8. Of what degree 
the poor brothers and sisters to be. 9. Of what condition 
the poor scholars are to be. 10. Of what parishes the as- 
sistants are to be. 11. From what parishes the poor are 
to be chosen, and the members of this college, 12. The 
form of their election. 1 3. The warden to supply when 
the master's place is void. 14, The election of the war- 
.den. 15. The warden to be bound by recognizance. 
16. The warden to provide a dinner for the college upon 
his election. 17* The form of admitting the fellows: 
18^ The manner of electing the scholars. 19. Election of 
the poor of Camberwell. 20. The master and warden's 
oath. 21. The fellow's oath. 22. The poor brother's and 
sister^s oath. 23. The assistant's oath. 24. The pronua- 
ciation of admission. 25. The master*s oflSce/ 26. The 



A L L E Y N. IS 

warden's office. 27. The fellow's office. 2a. The poor 
brother's and sister's oifitb. 29. That of the matron of 
the poor scholars. 30. The porter's office. 31. The of- 
fice of the thirty members. 32, Of residence. 33. Orders 
of the poor and their goods. 34. Of obedience. 35. Or- 
ders for the chapel and burial. 36. Orders for the school 
and scholars, and putting them forth apprentice. 37. Or* 
derofdiet 38, The scholars' surplices and coats. 39. 
Time for viewing expences. 40. Public audit and private 
sitting days. 41. Audit and sitting chamber. 42. Of 
lodgings. 43. Orders for the lands and wopds. 44. Al- 
lowance to the master and warden of diet for one mB,n a 
piece, with the number and wages of the college servants. 
45. Disposition and division of the revenues. 46. Dis- 
position of the rent of the Blue-house. 47. The poor to 
be admitted out of other places, in case of deficiency in 
the parishes prescribed. 48. The disposition of forfeitures. 
49. The statutes to be read over four several times in the 
year. 50. The dispositions of certain tenements \n St 
Saviour's parish, Southwark. 

He was himself the first master of his college^ so that, 
to make use of the words of Mr. Haywood, one of his con- 
temporaries, '^ he was so mingled with humility and 
eharity, that he became his own pensioner, humbly sub- 
mitting himself to that proportion of diet and clothes which 
be had bestowed on others.'' We have no rei^son to think 
he ever repented of this distribution of his substance ; but 
ofi the contrary, that he was entirely satisfied, as appeart 
from the following memorial in his own writing, found 
amongst his papers: ^^May 26, 1620, My wife and I ac- 
knowledged tbe fine at the common pleas bar, of all our 
lands to the college : blessed be God that he hath given 
us life to do it" His wife died in 1623 ; and about two 
years afterwards . he married Constance I^inchtoe, who 
survived him^ and received remarkable proofs of his affec- 
tion, if at least we may judge of it by his willy wherein he 
left her considerable property. He died NoVi, 25» 1626, 
in the sixty-first year of his age ; and was buricKl in the 
chapel of bis new college, where theite is a tomb-stone 
over his. grave^ with an inscription. His original diary 19 
still preserved. ^ 

> Biog.. Brit, origtiiany Written by Mr. OMyt ; but flurny tdditionml paitieiilart 
my be seen to Lytons't £avjroos of Loadoo, ro\. I. end M^fcme'i History of (ha 
jftage, pjrefixed to kii» Md t» Jehnfoa nd SiMVtBi'f t^tmk of Sbak^Wh 



16 ALLlBb'N*-D. 

ALLIACO. SeeAIlLY. 

ALLIBOND (John), D. D. of Magdalen college, Ox- 
ford, was a native of Buckinghamshire, and master of the 
free- school adjoining to Magdalen college. He was after- 
wards rector of Bradwell in Gloucestershire, where he died 
in 1658. He is principally known in the literary annals of 
Oxford by an exquisite piece of poetical humour, which he 
had the courage to publish in 1648, in ridicule of the par* 
Hamentary visitors and their party: it was entitled *^Rus- 
tica academiae Oxoniensis nuper reformatae descriptio : 
nnsL cum comitiis ibidem, 1648 habitis.'^' Notwithstanding 
the danger of publishing a satire of this description, two 
editions were eagerly bought up, but it is now very rare. ' 

ALLIBOND (Petbr), father of the preceding, was bom 
in 1560 at Wardenton, near Banbury, in Oxfordshire, of 
an aucient family, and studied at Magdalen-hall, where 
he took his bachelor's and master's degrees, and then 
travelled on the continent. On his return he became 
rector of Cheyneys in Buckinghamshire, where he died 
March 6, 1628-9. His publications, according to Wood, 
were mostly translations of pious works by foreign divines* 
1. 'V Comfort for an afflicted conscience,*' Lond. 1591, 
Svo, from the French of John L'Espine, 2. *^ Confutation 
of the Popish Transubstantiation," Lond. 1592, 8vo, 
3. ** The golden chain of Salvation,'* from the Latin of 
Harman Renecker, Lond. 1604, 4to.* 

ALLI0NI (Charles), a celebrated Piedmontese phy^ 
$ician, and professor, of Botany, in the university of Turin, 
was born in 1725, and died in 1804. On account of his 
high reputation for learning, he was elected a member of 
many scientific societies, such as the institute of Bologna, 
and th6 royal societies of London, Montpellier, Gottingen, 
Madrid, fee. Of his numerous medical and botanical pub-- 
licatio^s, the following are the principal : 1. " Pedemontii 
stirpium rariorum specimen primum," Turin, 1755, 4to, 
containing the * description and figures of thirty plants, 
either new or little known, ^which grow on the moun- 
tains of Piedmont. 2. ^* OryctographioB Pedemontanafc 
specimen,** Paris, 1757, 8vo ; an account of the fossils 
in Pieduiont, 3. " Tractatio de miliar! um origine, pro- 
gressu, natura, et curatione," Turin, 1758, 8vo; a me- 
dical treatise much esteeofed.. '4. ^' Stirpium. prabc^mafinn 

1 W904'«FMli, vol. Ih|ik40^.«Awuam voll^pp. ^i 58)1 . 
? Atl;i.Ox.Toi.I. p.525^ 



A L L I O N 1. 1» 

uUoiris et agri Nicaeensis enunieratio xnetbodica, cum 
elencho aliquot animalium ejusdem maris/' Paris, 1757, 
8vo. This work is often quoted hy naturalists under the 
abridged title of " Enumeratio stirpium Nicwensis.' • The 
principal part of it was collected by John Giudice^ a bo- 
tanist at Nice, and a friend of Allioni, to whom he be-^^ 
queathed his papefrs. 5. " Synopsis methodica horti Tau-^ 
rinejisis,'* Turin, 1762, 4to, a methodical catalogue of the 
plants in the botanic garden of Turin, divided into thir- 
teen classes. 6* ^' Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio 
methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii," Turin, 1785^ 
3 vols. foL This splendid work, which is illustrated with 
ninety-two plates, was the fruit of long labour and study^ 
and added greatly to the author's reputation. In it he 
describes 2813 plants, which he found growing wild in the 
duchy of Piedmont, of which those in the ttiird volume 
are new. It has been, however, said, that those already 
known acquire a kind of novelty by his descriptions, which 
are drawn from nature, and not from books ; and the work 
derives an additional value, especially on the spot, from 
the very cautious manner in which he speaks of the me- 
dical properties of any of these plants. The arrangement 
resembles that of Haller in his history of the .Swiss plants. 
Haller had a great regard for AUioni, and corresponded 
with him till his death, 7. " Auctuarium ad Flora Pede- 
montana,'* Turin, 1789, containing some additions and 
corrections to the former. Besides these works, he wrote 
several papers in the memoirs of the academy of Turin ; 
and from all his writings seems to deserve an honourable 
place among those who have contributed to the advance- 
ment of the botanical and medical sciences. Loeffling 
consecrated a genus to his memory, under the name of 
AUionia, which Linnaeus has adopted. It is a genus of 
the monogynia order belonging to the tetrandria class of 
plants. ^ 

ALLIX (Peter), a very learned and eminent divine of 
the church of England, although a native of France, and 
well kno^^ti by his numetous and excellent writings, was 
born in 1641 at Alen^on; and having received a liberal 
education, which highly improved his great natural, parts, 
he became minister of the reformed church at Roued. At 
tbisplacci before he was thirty* five yeai'sof age, be distin- 

* Blog. Univers«llt» 

Vgt. It Q ^ . 



18 ,A L L I X. 

fished hiiriself by pubtishing some rery able pieees^ which 
excited mach notice, and he was invit€fd to Charenton, theri 
the principal church the reformed ha4 in France, and 
whither the most considerable persons of the Protestant 
religion constantly resorted. As he now saw himself in a 
eondition to promote the interest of the ehureh, he applied 
himself to the task with all imaginable zeal, and preached 
several valuable sermons in defence of the faith, . against 
the artful attempts of the bishop of Meaiix, who was* then 
labouring to overturn the reformed religion, by Seeming 
concessions to its professors. Upon the revocation of the 
edict of Nantz, Mr. AUix found himself obliged to quit 
France, and had prepared a pathetic discourse, which he 
intended to have delivered as hi^^arewell tahis congrega- 
tion, but was obliged to omit it, although it was afterwards 
printed. 

In 1685, when tl^e above edict was revoked, and the 
Protefstant religion banished from France, Mr. AUix came 
into England, either in that or the following year, and met 
with a riiost favourable reception, on account of his exten- 
sive learning, and especially his knowledge in ecclesiastical 
history. Soon after his arrival, his first object was to ac- 
quire the English language, which he attained in a high 
degree of perfection. In 1690, he was complimented with 
the degree of D. D. by the university of Cambridge, and in 
the same year he had the treasurership of the church of 
Salisbury given to him ; and some foreign memoirs say he 
was made canon of Windsor, but this does not appear to 
have been the case. It was proposed that he should have 
Published here an authentic " History of the Councils,'*! 
for which laborious and important work he was well quali-^ 
fied : but by sOnae accidents intervening, and for want of 
encouragement, this undertaking miscarried. He wrote 
^nd published, however, several treatises relating to eccle- 
siastical history, which displayed great learning, were very 
interesting, and very useful to the Protestant cause, which 
was then in considerable danger. These pieces, of which 
we shall give a list, were remarkably well received, and the 
author became in as great credit here, as ever he had been 
in France, for his ingenious and solid defences of the re- 
formed religion, from reason and authority, and from the 
practice of early ages, as well as the precepts of the gos- 
pel. In 1699 he wrote a very learned treatise in defence 
pf the Trinity, which has always been considered bh^ an able 



A L L I X. 19* 

MnA arjgumentative performance, and is mentioned with 
great respect by the late bishop Horsley, in his letters to 
Dr. Priestley. He wrote several other learned and inge-^ 
nious treatises on curious and important subjects, and was^ 
for upwards of thirty years, a strenuous and affectionate 
defender of the established church. Some of these pieces 
exposed him, however^ to very severe censures ; and among 
the rest, Bayle, who had formerly complimented him very 
highly, attacked him with contemptuous language; but the 
opinion of Bayle, where orthodoxy is concerned, is not 
deserving of much respect. One of his antagonists, Mr. 
Stephen Nye, rector of Hormead, accuses him of Tritheism ; 
and in Moreri's Dictionary, printed in 1740, it is insinuated 
that he was inclined to Socinianism, a charge the most 
absurd and incredible that could be brought. Dr. Allix, 
however, continued steady and fixed in his principles, and 
was so well known to be a zealous defender of the doctriQe 
of the church of England on that subject, that Whiston 
thought proper to consult him, when he first proposed 
writing in support of his own opinions, as appears by what 
he says on this subject in his " Historical Preface,*' which, 
however, Dr. AUix found it necessary to correct in a short 
relation of his interview with Whiston. 

Dr. AUix ei\joyed a very uncommon share of health apd 
spirits^ afi appears by his latest writings, in which there is 
not only adl the erudition, but all the quickness and 
vivacity that appeared in bis earliest pieces. Those who 
knew him, derived the same pleasure from bis conversa- 
tion, that the learned found \n his productions ; for, with 
an extensive share of learning, he had a remarkable liveli« 
hess of temper, and expressed himself on the driest sub* 
jects with much sprightliness, and in a manner out of the 
common road. He was consulted by the greatest men of 
his age, on the deepest and most intricate parts of learning, 
and received the praise of the ablest critics of his time. It 
was not any single branch of literature, or a few related to 
each other, that could occupy his thought^, but the whole 
circle of sciences which fall, under the cognizance of a 
general scholar and sound divine. His sermons shew him 
to have been an admirable orator, and at the same time a 
profound scholar, and the several ancient authors whose 
writings he publislxed, testify his skill in criticism, and his 
perfect acquaintance with antiquity. His treatises on 
4ci^^iastical l^istory discover a vast fund of reading, and 

c 3 



to ALL IX. 

an exact comprehension of his subject, with a vrarm zfsal 
for the JProtestant religion. He, laboured also to serve it 
by the tracts he rescued from oblivion, to shewj which they 
did effectually, that the charge of novelty oh which^ the 
Papists insisjted so loudly, was not only unreasonable, but 
entirely groundless. His thorough acquaintance with He- 
brew and Rabbinical learning was displayed in his labo- 
rious performance in defence of the doctrine of the Trinity, 
in which his sincerity is as conspicuous as his learnhig. If 
in the. prosecution of those deep and recondite studies, he 
sometimes mistook his way, and erred in his computations, 
as when he fixed the year of Christ's second coming at 
1720, it was no more than had befallen the greatest men 
who have travelled this road before him, particularly Jo- 
seph Mede and bishop Lloyd ; neither have these instance* 
conviiiced other eminent men that the roads are impassable, 
since the very learned dean Prideaux, and the sagacious 
sir Isaac Newton, have devoted many of their hours to the 
like inqumes. Dr. AUix continued his application to ihe 
last, and died at London, Feb. 21, 1717, in the seventy - 
sixth year of his age, leaving behind him the reputation of 
a man, equally assiduous in the right discharge of all the 
offices of public and private life, and every way as amiable 
for bis virtues and social qualities, as venerable from his 
uprightness and integrity, and celebrated for his various 
ind profound learning. 

His works are, I. " Response h, la Dissertation sur Ber- 
tram et Jean Scot, ou Erigene," printed at the end of 
Claude's answer to M. Arnaud's Perpetuity of the Faith, 
1670. 2. " Ratramne, ou Bernard, Pretre, dii Corps et 
du Sang du Seigneur," Lat et Fr. JElouen, 1672, 12mo. 
3. ^' Dissertatio de Trisagii origine,*' Rothoma^i, 1674, 
Avo. Maimbourg erroneously ascribes this to another per-' 
son, 4. " Dissertatio de Sanguine D. N. J. Christi," date 
uncertain. 5. " Dissertatio de Tertulliani vita, et scriptis." 
6. " Dissertatio de Conciliorum quorumvis definitionibus 
ad examen revocandis," 8vo, circa 1680. 7. ** Anastasii 
8inait8B contemplationum in Hexahemeron liber xii hac- 
t^nus desideratus,** Gr. et Lat. cum notis, &c. Lond. 1682, 
4to. 8. " Douze Sermons sur divers textes," Rotterdam, 
1685, 12mo. 9. " Les Maximes du vrai Chretien,'* which 
was printed at Amsterdam, 1687, and joined with " Bonnes 
et sahites pens^es pour touts les jours du mois." 10. ** L' A- 
4ieu de St. Paul aux Ephesiens, Sermon," Amst. *168S^ 



A L L I X. 21 

t 

l2mo. Thb was his int;ehded farewell sermon noticed 
above. 11. " Reflections upon the books of the itolj. 
Scripture, to establish the truth of th^^ Christian Religion,** 
Lond. 1688, 2 vols. This work was dedicated to king 
James II. from whopa the author had received some obli- 
gations. The dedication, which is wanting in some edi- 
tions, may be seen in the Biographia Britahn^ca. Bishop 
Wati^on, in his late " Tracts,'* republished these Reflec- 
tions, which he says have always been held in, great repute 
for the plainness and erudition with which they are written. 
12. ^' Determipatio F. Joannis Parisiensis demodo. exis* 
tendi Corpus Cbristi in sacramento Altaris, &c. cni est 
prefixa prefatio historica de dogmate Transubstantiar 
tionis,'* Lond. IB86, 8vo. 13. " Some remarks upon tha 
ecclesiastical history of the ancient Churches of Pied- 
nidnt,** Lond. 1690, 4to. This is a very elaborate work, 
in which the author traceis the history of opinions with 
great acuteness and fidelity. 14. " Remarks upon the ec- 
clesiastical history of the ancient Chutches of the Albi-^ 
genses,** Lond. 1692, 4to ; a performance of a similar kind 
with the foroier, and throwiiig much light on the opinions 
of the reformed churches. 15.^*^ The judgment of the 
ancient Jewish Church, against the Unitarians, in the con- 
troversy upon the Holy Trinity, and the diviiiity of our 
blessed Saviour,*^ Lond. 1689, 8vo. This was occasioned 
by the controvetsy betweenTjishop Bull and the Unitarians, 
and is the able defence of the doctrine of the Trinity to 
which we have already alluded. 16. " De Messiae duplici 
adventu dissehtationes duae adversiis Judeos," Loiid. 1701, 
12mo. It was in this treatise our author fell into the erro- 
neous cotnpiltation respecting ' Christ's second comings 
tf ..} ■ 17. ** Prefsice. and arguments on the Psalms." 18. "Nee- 
tarii Patriarchse Hierosolymitani confutatio Imperii Papw 
in Ecclfesiam,'''*/'Lond. 170^, 8yo; a translation frem the 
' original in Gr^ek. 19^,' ** Aug, Hermanni Franke manur- 
ductio ad lectioh^iri' Scrip. Sac.** Lond. 1706, 6vo ; our 
author wrote'bniy a short prefatory riecommendation to this- 
book. 20. ^ Dissertatio de J. 'C. Domini nostri anno et 
Aense natali,** Lohd. 1707 ahd' 1710. . '21. ** The Prophe- 
cies which Mr. Whiston applies tb. the times immediately 
following the appea^aqce 6f the Messiah, considered and 
examined,** Lond. 1767^ 8vo. ' 22. ** Preparations a la 
Cene,'* 8 vo, often p|inted,^ti Geneva, 2S. ^^ Remarks upon 
tome placed of Mr. Whiston*s books, either printed or ia 



aa ALL IX. 

'■ . • • • 

mauuscripV Loud. 1711, .Svo. This, pamphlet isiinconi* 
monly scarce. Besides these, the late Dr. Flesmai;i as-, 
slir^d Dr. Kippls that the following pieces may be attri-i 
bnted to our author, " Theses Theologicae de ultimo judi- 
ibio,*' Salmur, 1660, 4tQ, probably academical exercises; 
.•*A discourse concerning Penance,^' Lond. 1688, 8vo; 
** An historical discourse concerning the necessity of thet 
Ministers* intention in administering the Sacrament,** 1688^ 
Svo ; " An Examination of the scruples of those who re- 
fuse to take the Oaths,** 1689, 4 to; ** Animadversions on 
Mr. Hill's Vindication of the primitive Fathers, against th^ 
fight rev. Gilbert, bishop of Sarum, 1695, 4to.* .^ 

ALLOISI (Balthazar), called Galanino> ah eminent 
painter of history and portraits, received hjs ediiqatioit in[ 
the school of the "Caracci, aiid iii all his compositions re- 
tained the admirable style of his master. He had naturally 
a melancholy turn of mind, and was of a retired and soli- 
tary disposition : this induced him to avoid the conve^rsar 
tion of his friends, and devote himself to the study o^ hi$ 
^rt; but by this plan he became so necessitous, thatb^wai( 
compelled to paint portraits to procure a subsistence.. la 
this branch, however, his success was astonishing ; and h^ 
grew into* the' highest esteem, not only for the resemblanpe 
visible at first sight, and the beauty of his colouring, but; 
also for a new and unusual boldness of manner,, by which; 
his portraits seemed absplutely to breathe. None of hi$k 
contemporiaries could enter irito competition with him; and 
the Italian writers place him in the same rank of merit with. 
Vandyck. He was born at'Bologna in 1578, and died iri 
163S.« • • j^ 

ALLORI ( Alexander), called Bronzing, an eminent 
|>ainter, was born at Florence in 1535,. and was the ais.ciple 
of Agnolo Brdnzino, likewise a distinguished painter, who 
educated him with ail the tenderness of a parent, Allo^ri^ 
having been deprived of his owa f^^tber, when be was but. 
five years old. He was very studious, and applie4 hiins^tf 
diligentlj^, not only to imitate the manner of hi^ master, 
but the different manners of those masters who were in th^ 
greatest reputation. When he commenced painter, his. 
first work was a crucifixion, intended for an altar-piece, 
which was much praised, but hi$ success in portrait-paint- 
ing induced him to employ a great de^ of hip tivaSe in that 



Blor^ Brit » Pincingtoii'8 Diet. 



.(■ 



A L L O R L ?S 

branch. Michael Angelo waa the master whose works be 
studied with the greatest attention^ and he designed a pig- 
ture of the Last Judgment^ after, the manner of that great 
genius, which is preserved at Rome, and will perpetuate 
the honour of Allori. He died in 1607, aged 72. It is 
said that he wrote some burlesque poems, and a. dialogue 
on Design, The* existence of this last is denied by his 
French biographer, but we fipd its title in Haym's Biblio- 
teca Italiaaa^ '^ Dialogo di Alessandro Allori pittore Flq- 
rentino sopra Parte del disegnare le figurie principiando da 
MuscoU, Ossa^ Nervi, Vene, Membra, Notomia^ . e figiu*a 
perfetta,** Florence, 1590.* .; 

ALLORI (Chistophano), called also BRONZiNPy wa5 
the son and disciple of the preceding, and born in Flo- 
rence in 1577. For some time he followed the manner of 
Alexander^ but, afterwards studying design from the work^ 
of Santi di Titi, and colouring from the lively and elegant 
tints of Cigoli, be formed to himself a manner entirely dif- 
ferent. He executed several large designs for altars, ye% 
had a particular excellence in painting small pictures, in 
which he introduced a number of minute figures, so exqui*- 
site for correotness oU drawings so round and relieved by 
the colouring, and touched with so much delicacy, that it 
seemed surprising how either the band or. the eye could 
execute them. His portraits were also in high esteem. 
His best pictur4&s were those of Judith, St. Francis, and 
St. Julian. The. last mentioned, long one of the chief or*> 
naments of the Pitti palace, is now in the imperial coUec* 
tion at Paris, and shews him to have been one of the finest 
colourists of the Florentine school. He died at the age of 
forty-two, in consequence of a wound in his foot, Ampu« 
tation Was recommended^ but he refused his consent, and 
ppntinu^d delibera.tely using his pencil to the last moment 
of his life.* 

ALMAIN (James)^ professor of divinity in the college 
of Navarre, at Paris, and one of the most able scholastie 
writers of bis time,^ was a native of Sens, and died young at 
Paris in 151$> Buriog his. short life, he published a con« 
siderable numbeir of worl^^, on logic, physics, morality, and 
divimty. The two which, procured him most fame are, 
1. '^ De e^ntoritate Ecclesiee, &c.'' Paris, 1512, 4to, in which 
he defends the doctrine of the council of Pisa, against 

A Pinmi|^*s Dict.*^Bios^. UDiT«r«ellr. « IbkU 



M A L M A I N. • 

Cajetan', who had raised the pope's authority above that of 
the councils. 3. " De potestat« ecclesiastica et laicali 
contra Ockam." — ^These are both in the edition of hh 
works, published at Paris, 1517, foL; bnt in that edition 
we do not meet with his " Moraha,'* Paris, 1525, Sro, ' , • 

ALMAMON, caliph of Bagdat, a philosopher and astro- 
'iK)mer in the beginning of the ninth century, ascended the 
-throne in the year 814. He was the son of Harun-AI- 
-^Rashid, and the grandson of Almanzor. His name is 
otherwiise written Mamon, Almaon, Almamun, Alamoun, 
or Al-Maimori. Having been educated with great cate, 
and with a love for the liberal sciences, h6 applied himsetf 
^o cultivate and encourage them in his own country. For 
"this purpose he requested th^ Greek emperors to supply 
him with such books on philosophy as they had among 
them; and he collected skilful interpreters to translate 
them into the Arabic language. He also encouraged hist 
subjects to study them ; frequenting the meetings of the 
learned, and assisting in their exercises and deliberations. 
He caused Ptolemy's Almagest to be translated in the year 
-S27 ; and in his reign, and doubtless by his encouragement, 
an astronomer of Bagdat, named H^bash, composed threi^ 
sets of astronomical tables. Almamon himself, however, 
made many astronomical observations, concerning the obli- 
quity of the ecliptic, and caused skilful observers to pro- 
cure proper instruments to be made, and to exercise them- 
selves in such observations. Under his auspices also a de- 
gree of the Meridian was measured ; and he revived the 
sciences in the East so successfully that many learned men 
were found, not only in his own time, but after him, in a 
country whfere the study of the sciences had long been for- 
gotten. This learned king died near Tarsus irt Cilicia, by 
having eaten too freely of date^, on his return from a mili- 
tary expedition, in the year 833, in the 48th or 49th year 
of his age. * 

ALMARUS (Elmarus, Elmbrus, or iELMfeRUs)^ was 
abbot of the monastery of St. Austin in Canterbtiry, at the 
time that Alphage, the arohbishop, was barbarously mur- 
dered by the Danes, in 1011, whc|n the oity was betrayed 
to them. Almarus, however, wUs suffered by those plun« 
derers to go at liberty ; and in the year 1022, was made 

• Moreri. — Du Pin. — Cave, vol. II. — Biog, Uniyerselle. 

* yoiy. Ilistory. — Brucker. — ^liuttOA^ Mathematical Dictionarf . • 



A L M A R U S. 25 

bishop of Sherborne ih l)orsetshire, which bi^boprit wak 
afterwards translated to Salisbury. Godwin mentions 
bim as a bishop, but JEidds that he knows nothing of hiih 
bat his name. Almarus was not inclined either to leave 
his abbey, or to become a bishop; but was 'at last pre- 
vailed on to take upon hiitt that dignity, which he dis- 
charged with great confstafncy and vigour, iiritil he had thfe 
misfortune to lose his sight. On this he resigned his bi- 
shopric with more alacrity than he had accepted it, return- 
ing back to his abbey, where he lived in a cell in the in- 
firmary, in great innocence and devotion to his last hour. 
When he was near his death, he directed that he shoi^d 
be buried not as a bishop, but as a monk, which was com- 
plied with. He was interred in the church of the monas- 
tery, before the altar of St. John, and his memory held in 
great veneration. The chronicles relate some sujserstitious 
stories of him, to which little credit will now be given. * 

ALMEIDA (Francis), count d'Abrantes, a Portu^ 
gueze, was the first governor of India, to which place he 
was dispatched in 1505, by king Emanuel, with the high 
character of viceroy. His fleet had a dangerous passagib 
out, and alnjost continual storms off the Cape df Good 
Hope, without being able to make it, but at last reache'd 
Quiloar The king of that place having given some cause 
to suspect his conduct, Ahneida resolved to besiege the 
city, and after landing 500 men, the natives fled, &nd the 
Portugueze entered and plundered it. The plunder wais 
however deposited in one house, and shared among the 
soldiers, Almeida" taking as his own share, only one ar- 
row. He- then began to build a fort, and offered the peo<« 
pie the protection of the Portugueze, which they accepted, 
aiid received a king from them, who promised to be^ obe- 
dient to king Emanuel; 

From hence they sailed to Mombassa, and immediately 
attacked that place. A shot from the Portugueze set fir^ 
to the powder magazine, which s6 terrified the inhabitants 
that they abandoned thef fort. Having caUsed the port to 
be sounded, and. finding water sufficient, he entered the 
harbour, arid theit sent a ittessage to require the king to 
submit himself to the king of Portugal ; but the messenger 
was refused admittance. — ^ Ahneida then endeavoured* to 
peize some of the natives, and took prisoner a domestic of 



Sfi A L M £;! D A. 

the kipg, from whom be had intelligence that thf( king had 
received into bis pay 4000 anxilis^ries, afid expected .mpr^« 
,On this intelligence he resolved to (^esieg^, the place ; and 
set fire to a part of the ci^y.. The natives .attacked the 
Portugueze^ although at th^ .same.tiipe emploj^ed in ex- 
.tinguishing the flames; whic^ however prov^^d their best 
.friends, and obliged the eni^my tq i^tire. Nextday, when 
the flames abated, the Portu^ueze again entered the city, and 
were much annoyed by the n^urro^vuess of the streets, and 
the darts of the enemy flung from the houses. However^ 
Almeida having soon secured the palace^ the Portuguese 
39iu,ed their strength, and obliged the natives to ^eek their 
^{afety by flight, and betake themselves to, ^ Avood, to 
which. the king had retreated. The city v^s plundered^ 
b^t most of the valuable efl*ects bad been carried away. 
The Portugue^^ writers tell us, they killed in this action 
1500, and took 2000 prisoners^ with, the loss only of five 
men killed, and several wounded. 

From hence he sailed with his fleet for Meli^d^, but by 
tempestuous weather was driven three leagues beyond ; 
from thence they proceeded to the islan4, oC Anchidive^ 
where he built a fortj and sent some of his ^ ships out to 
jcruize^ Here he received deputies from tlie king of Onpr, 
jto treat of peace^ and also the submission of a piratical 
johietf of the name of Timoia; but a circ^nistance soon 
happened to shew the former was not sincere, and the 
▼icerpy sailed to.Onor, and burned some ships in the har*- 
bour. A day or two after, he. sent his son to burn th^ 
.other ships, when a smart action ensued, and the Portu« 
gueze were obliged to retreat. Aln^eida sailed next day to 
Cananor, where he found it nece^^ary to build a strong 
fort, to protect his countrymen figainst the Arabians, who, 
jealous of the Portuguese, did them every injtiry i^i their 
power. While Almeida remaii^ed here^ b^ had the hap- 
piness to receive an embassy f^om the king of Nsgrsinga, 
pffeiring friendship, and his daughter as a wifp for Jphn th^ 
son of Emanuel. He had also a visit from the king of 
Cananor, from whom he obtaified libeity to build his fort; 
jFrom this place he dispatched l^i^.sQn on an ^pedition to 
Caulan. 

On the arrival of Cugna witha reinfqrcement from Por^ 
tagaij and on receiving intelligence of several. Arabian 
riiips richly laden being in the port of Panama (about 50 
niles off) escorted by a fleet of ships o£ war of Calicut, be 



ALMEIDA. 27 

resolved, to attacl^ ^em in tba harbour. He sailed. for that 
purpose with 12 ships of wan On his passage he was in* 
formed that the ships were not yet afloat, but lay in tb^i 
docks, under cover of a rampart, and a strong garrison o^ 
4000 men. Almeida had only 700, and with these he 
resolved to attack the enemy. He attempted to land ancl 
burn the ships; and after a violent conflict succeeded.. 
This was a strong proof of the superiority of tlie Portu- 
gueze at this time in war, for the enemy fought with des- 
perate courage, there being many among them who hadj^ 
taken an oath to conquer or die. These devotees had all 
their heads shaven, and were destroyed to a man. AU- 
meida, having made good his landing, advanced to the city^ 
and set it on fire, being fearful of the consequences of per-v 
mitting his men to plunder it. The men murmured at 
being deprived of such a rich booty, but this the vicerpy 
disregarded ; and to keep them employed, dispatched hii^ 
son with a squadron to cruize against the Arabians, who i];i 
an engagement with the enemy's fleet lost his life. Al- 
meida, who had often shewn that he possessed great forti« 
tude, now gave a striking proof of it; ^nd to those wha 
lamented the death of young Almeida with too much sor«^ 
row, he said, " That he had never wished a long^ but i, 

J glorious life for his son ; and for his part, he thanked tioc^ 
or honouring him with so glorious a death.^' 

While he commanded in India, Albuquerque was mak*- 
ing conquests for his country to the northward, but as he 
did not act under Almeida's instructions, the latter was 
offended, and even wrote to some of the. enemy's chiefsi; 
that Albuquerque acted without his orders. Notwitbstand«; 
ing tliis, the exploits of the latter drew Che attentiou of th« 
court of Portugal, and he was appointed to supersede. AU 
meida in his viceroyship. When the order for the viceJ 
roy'sf return was brought, he was employed in fitting out ^^ 
fleet to revenge the death of his son. . This furnished him* 
with an excuse for not delivering up his government ; and 
be sailed on an expedition to Babul, landed there, de-f 
feated the enemy, and made a most dreadful slaughter,^ 
not sparing even the infants. The next day the city was 
given up to be plundered, and afterwards burned. Thi^ 
was the fate of many other places on these shores. Hq 
then cruized along the coast until he fell in with the ene-, 
my's fleet, and engaged and totally defeated it, killing 
4000 men. Hie sultan had taken great pains in fitting out- 



« A L M E r D'A. 

this fleet, and it is supposed had engaged . Europeans of 
several nations to act on board it, as books in the Italian,' 
German, French, and Spanish languages were /ound on 
board the captured ships. This victory procured a peace. 

In the mean time a set of men, who had their own ad- 
vantage in view, inflamed the animosity between Almeida, 
and Albuq^uerque ; and the former not only still refused to, 
deliver up hiii government, but ordered Albuquerque to be 
<jonfined. Contigna, however, another commander, arriv- 
fng from Portugal, reconciled them to each otherj and 
Almeida to the surrender of his government. The viceroy 
immediately embarked, artd soon after sailed for Portugal. 
Unfbrtunately stopping at a place not far from the Cape of 
Good Hope, a flight quarrel arose between the Portiigueze 
and natives, and in an action with them, Almeida received 
a wound in his throat with a javelin, March 1, 1509, and 
died immediately. — Thus expirefd this brave, honest, and 
renowned cominander by his own imprudence. Before he 
went to India, he had distinguished himself greatly in the 
wars of Grenada. In India his exploits haVe been spoken 
6f. As soon as he fell, the rest of the Pbrtugueze fled. 
Two ofiicers who saw him fall endeavoured to persuade 
their countrymen to recover his body ; but finding entrea- 
ties ineffectual, they rushed upon the enemy, were soon 
overpowered by numbers, and fell. * 

ALMElpA (Lawrence) was son of the former, and 
had he enjoyed longer life, would probably have equal- 
led him in fame. His first exploit was against Caulan, 
in India, whithei* he was dispatched by his father to 
destroy all the ships in that harbour ; he executed his or- 
, ders with so much 'expedition, that he came in sight of the 
fown before they were apprized of his arrival, and de- 
stroyed 27 ships. Soon after he was sent on a cruize 
dgainst (he Malldive islands, to intercept all Aribian ships. 
The strfength of the currents in those seas, drove him as 
far south as Cape Comorin, and the island of Ceylon, and 
he put into ^ port in the latter. The king hearing of his 
arrival, and having before heard of the fam^'of the Portu- 
gtieze in those parts, treated him with great respect, and 
entered into a treaty, by which he agreed to pay a yearly 
iribute to the king of Portugal, on condition of receiving 
prbtectioR and defence. The tribute was to be 250,0001b. 

* Modem UniT. Hiftory. 



A L JM £ I D A. M 

weight of cinnamon ; and the first year's payment "was im-> 
mediately put on hoarii. On his return, he was ordered 
to tlie Anchidiye islands ; when being informed of a large 
fleet fitting out a,t Calicut, Lawrence immediately sailed 
to that ^ap^, engaged it, and after a fierce confiict, gave 
them a total defeat. He then returned to Cananor, whera 
he was i*eceived by the king of that place, who was a 
friend of the Portugueze, with great honour t he after* 
wards continued with his father, i^ntil he sailed on the 
fatal expedition in which he lost his life. He was dis- 
patched with eight ships to annoy the Arabians, and at 
first was successful. He put into the port of Chaul, n 
large and opulent city, adjoining to the kingdom of Cam- 
baya. Here he received advice that the sultan of Egypt 
had fitted' out a considerable force, manned, with his brav- 
est soldiers. It consisted of five large ships, and six gal« 
leys, to which the king of Cambaya joined 30 sloops of 
war. When they appeared off" Chaul, the Portugueze 
concluded they were the ships of Albuquerque, and made 
no preparation to engage; the Egyptian admiral entered 
the river, but his allies remained out at sea. 

The next day Lawrence Almeida weighed anchor and 
attacked the admiral's ship, but in the action he was 
wounded. His officers, finding they were becalmed, and 
could not come to close quarters with the enemy, advised 
him to return. This he declined^ and soon received ano- 
ther desperate wound in the face with a dart The action 
continued at a distance, Almeida not being able to get 
near his enemy. Other captains were more fortunate, as 
they boarded and took two ships. The next day, the fleet 
from sea came in and joined the enemy. The Portugueze 
held a council, and were almost unanimously of opinion, 
that they ought to put to sea in the night, which they en- 
deavoured to effect^ but the enemy pursued and came up 
with the admiral's ship, in the rear, a,nd surrounded her. 
An unfortunate shot rendering it impossible to steer her, 
she ran agroiuid. The Portugueze captains had a strong 
desire to assist their admiral, but the violence of the tide 
prevented them. However,, they sent a boat to bring Al- 
meida away ; but he refused to quit his fellow-soldiers in 
this distress, hoping also that be should be able to defend 
himself until tlje tide returned. The enemy did not dar^ 
to board his vessel, but continued a fierce cannonade at a* 
distaucei which was returned with spirit. Almeida at last 



^0 A L M1E I D A. 

receired another wound^ in his diigh, which quite diis«» 
abled him, and being placed in a chair which was lashed 
to the mast, he continued to animate his men, until a shot 
in the breast killed him. The Portugueze on board this 
tinfdrtuhate ship were now reduced to 20, who still con- 
tinued to defend themselves, but the enemy succeeded in 
boarding her, and to their honour, treated the few brave 
survivors with great humanity. * 

ALMEIDA (Mangel or Emmanuel), a Portuguese his^ 
torian, v/as born at Vizeu in that kingdom, in 1580, and 
after an education among the Jesuits, was sent to the In- 
dies, where, having completed his studies, he became rec- 
tor of the college of Bacaim. In 1622, Vitteleschi, gene- 
ral of the Jesuits, sent him as ambassador to the king of 
Abyssinia, who received him with much respect ; but his 
successor having banished the Jesuits from his dominions^ 
Almeida returned to Goa in 1634, and became provincial 
6f his order in India, and inquisitor. He died at Goa in 
1 646. His works' are : 1 " A history of Upper Ethiopia,** 
to which his brother Jesuit, Bathazar Tellez, added many 
facts and documents, and published it at Coimbra, 1660, 
fol. 2. " Historical letters/' written from Abyssinia to 
the general of the Jesuits, and published at Rome, in 
Italian, 1629, 8vo. He left also some manuscripts on the 
errors of the Abyssinians, and the misrepresentations of 
the dominican Urreta in his history of Ethiopia. * 

ALMEIDA (Theodore), a Portugueze priest, who had 
the courage in Portugal to study and teach philosophy, 
tipon more rational and experimental principles than had 
ever been known in that country, was born in 1722. His 
itiost celebrated work, written in Portuguese, and entitled 
^Recreaceo Filosofica," 5 vols. 8vo, 1751, occasioned a 
revolution in the philosophical studies of the Portugueze* 
And would probably have involved the author in much 
danger, had not the Jesuits been soon after banished from 
that kingdom. He was nevertheless a zealous advocate 
for the pretensions of the court of Rome, at the time of 
the famous rupture between Joseph II. and that court ; and 
Ais rendered him so obnoxious to the marquis de Pombal, 
that he was obliged to seek an asylum in France, during 
the ministry of that nobleman. On his return to Portugal, 

ihe royal acadenty of sciences of Lisbon was eager to ad- 

' J. ■ 

'9 Modern Udjt. Histbrx* * Biof. VnirorseUe.* 



A. L ME IDA. «I- 

tait him a member ; but it was soon evident that Almei^la 
had not kept pace with the progress which the nation had 
made in twenty*ofive years^ and he was suffered to eclipse 
himself, although without losing any of the respect due to 
his former services in promoting liberal science. He pub- 
lished, after his return to Lisbdn, a moral romance, call^ 
"The Happy Independant,*' which bad little success; 
and it was said that a better tide would have been ^* The 
Happy Impertinent.'' He died in 1805, leading behind 
him several manuscripts, for the publication of which he 
had obtained the pennission of the Censor. His works 
altogether are said to amount to forty volumes, besidi^s 
five of translations; but we have not been able to obtain a 
list of their titles or subjects. At the time of his death he 
was a member of the Royal Academy of Lisbon, and of 
the Royal Society of London. * 

ALMELOVEEN (Theodore Jansson Van), an emi- 
nent Dutch physician, but more eminent as a general scho-- 
lar and editor, was born July 24, 1657, at Midrecht, or 
Mydregt, near Utrecht, where his- father was a Protestant 
clergyman. His grandfather was Cornelius Almelbveen^ 
a senator of Utrecht, who di^d in 16 58. His mother wa» 
Mary Janson, daughter of the celebrated Amsterdam prin- 
ter, so well known for his many fine editions, and for the 
atlas which he published - in six folio volumes. As the 
printer had no male is&ue, the nsmie of Janson was ^dded 
to Almeloveen, probably by our autbor^s father. He 
studied fii'st at Utrecht, and then at Goude or Tergou, 
where James Totiius was at the head of the schools of that 
place, and when Tollius removed to Noortwick, near Ley- 
den, Almelbveeo followed him, and it appears by his 
writings that he always acknowledged him as his master. In 
1676, he rieturned to Utrecht, and studied the belles let- 
tres in that city under the celebrated Orsevius, and as hiiL 
lather intended him for the church, he also studied He* 
bre# tlnd^ Leusden, and philosophy under De Uries ; 
but, taking disgust at the violence and illiberality with, 
which theological disputes were sometimes conducted, he 
gave a preference to medicine, and attended the instruc- 
tions of Vkllan'and Munniks, In 1680, he maintained a 
thesis bti S'leep^ and the following year, one on the asthma, 
and' was th^n admitted -to his doctor's degree in that fa^ 

1 Bk%, ywT€4ricU#.--<3erit4 Mag. 1^. LUV. p.€7t. 



ALMELOVEEN* 

€ulty> In'1687, he went to reside at Goude, wher6 he 
mi»Ti/ed. In 1697, he was invited to Harderwic to be-^ 
come professor of Greek and history ; and in 1702, he was 
appointed professor of medicine, and remained in both 
offices until his death in 1712. He bequeathed to the 
public library at Utrecht his curious collection of the edi- 
tions of Quintilia^, which he had made at a great expence, 
and of which there is a catalogue in Masson's critical his<* 
tory of the Republic of Letters, vol. V* BibUography 
was J:iis favourite study, in which he was My assisted by 
bis grandfather Jansson ; and to this we probably owe the 
number of editions, with commentaries, which he pub- 
lished. Among these are: 1. '^ Hippocratis Aphorismi, 
Gr. Lat." Amsterdam., 1685, 12mo. 2. " Aurelii Ceisi de 
medicina,^' with his own additions and those of Constan- 
tine and Casaubon, Amsterdam, 16S7, 12mo; 1713, 8vo; 
Padua^ 1722, 8vo ; with " Serini Sammonici de medicina 
preecepta saluberrima.'' 3. Apicii Caelii de obsoniis et 
condimentis, sive de arte coquinaria libri X/' with the 
notes of Martin Lister, Hamelbergii(s, Vander Linden, &c« 
Amsterdam, 1709, Svo. 4. ^^ Aurelianus de Morbis acutis 
et chronicis," Amsterdam, 1709, 4to. 5, " Bibliotbeca 
promissa efc latens,^* or an account of books promised, and 
never published, with the epistle^ of Velschius pn such 
medical writings as have not been edited, Goude, 1688, 
1698, Svo; 1692, 12mo; Nuremberg, 1699, Svo; with 
the additions of Martin Melsuhrerus. 6. "The anatomy 
qf the Muscle,'^ in Flemish, with observations anatomical^ 
medical, and chirurgical, Amst. 1684, Svo: 7. " Ono- 
masticon rerum inventarum et Inventa nov-antiqua, id 
est, brevis enarratio ortus et progressus artis medicse,'* 
ibid. 1684, Svo; a history of the discoveries in medicine, 
with a marked preference to the merit of the ancients. 
8. "Opuscula sive antiquitatum e sacris profauarum spe- 
cimen conjectans veterum poetarum fragmenta et plagia-* 
rprum syllabus," ibid. 1686, Svo.. 9. A new edition of 
pecker's work, " De scriptis adespotis, pseudepigraphis, 
et supposititiis, conjectur^e," ibid. 1686, 12mo. 10. An 
edition of " C. Rutilius Numantianus," ibid. 1687, i2mo« 
11. ^^ Amoenitates theologico-pkilologicse," ibid. 1694, Svo.. 
Besides some critical pieces, this volume contains several 
letters of Bochart, Erasmus, Baudius, Scriverius, and others^ 
and an attempt to prove that Erasmus v^s a native of 
Goude, and not of Rotterdam ; because, acc9rding to t^ 



A L M E L O V E E N. SS 

^ * 

lawS) the place where children are born accidentally, is 
not accounted their country. 12. " Dissertationes quatuor 
de mensisy lecticis, et poculis veterum," Harwick, 170l, 
4to. These are theses composed by Alstorf^ and maitl- 
tained during the presidency of Almeloveen. 13. "Fasti 
Consuiares/' Amst. 1705, Svp. 14. A beautiful, but not 
very correct edition of " Strabo," ibid. 2 vols. fol. 15. 
" De vitis Stephanorum,'* 16B2, 8vo. Besides sqme other 
contributions of notes, &c. to editions of the classics, he 
assisted Drakestein in the publication of the sixth volume 
of the *' Horius Malabaticus.'* * . 

ALMICI (Peter CamIlle), a priest of the oratory, was 
born at Brescia, of a noble family, Nov. 2, 1714, and 
studied theology, And the Greek and Hebrew languages^ 
in both which he became an excellent scholar. He ap- 
plied himself chiefly to an iiivestigation of thie text of the 
sacred scriptures, and read with great care the Greek and 
Latin fathers. His studies were also diversified by an ac- 
quaintance with chronology, history both sacred and pro- 
fane, antiquities, criticism, and whatever belongs to the 
character of a general scholar. In his own country, he 
obtained such fame that his advice was thought to be ora- 
cular. He died Dec. 30, 1779, in his sixty-fifth year. He 
published " Critical Reflexions'* on Febronius*s Work, en- 
titled ** De Statu Ecclesise, et legitime potestate Romani 
Pontificis ;*' some dissertations and other works, particu* 
larly one on the " manner of writing the lives of illustrious 
characters,'* with an appendix oti that peculiar species of 
biography, writing one's own life. He left also some un- 
published works, ahd among them '^ a comparison between 
the Italians and French," and " Thoughts on the life and 
writings of father Paul Sarpi.'' * 

ALMODOVAR (Duke d'), a diplomatic character, de- 
serves some notice here, as a man of literature, although 
we know but little of his personal history. After having 
been ambassador from the court of Spain to the courts of 
Petersburgh,. Lisbon, and St. James's, he filled an honour- 
able station at Madrid, where he employed his leisure 
hours in literary pursuits. In 1781, ht published a kind 
of journal, entitled " Decada Epistolen," where he gave 
periodical accounts of French works, &c. He then, un« 

^ 1 Moreri.-*-Bidg.UBlTerselU^ The latter makes him nephew, iastead of gratis* 
iCMi, to Jansson. 
.*Biog. yiiiverselle.—MaadeUJ's Collection d' opuscles, vol. XXXV ill. art. S. 

Vol. II. D 



34 A L M 6 D O V A R. 

der the name of M alode Luque, undertook a translation 
of the abbe Rayna^s celeT)rated philosophical and political 
history of the two Indies, a work proscribed in Spain, and 
j[:onse,quenlly almost unknown, and he made such altera- 
tions as satisfied the inquisition itself that it would not be a 
dangerous publication. He died at Madrid in 1794. * 

ALMON (John), a bookseller, author, and editor, was 
born at Liverpool, about the year 1738, and was educated 
at Warrington. About 1748 he was put apprentice to a 
bookseller at Liverpool, hut in 1756 he went to sea, as a 
common seaman. In 1758 or 1759, he returned to Eng- 
land, and came to London^ where, it is said, he soon lie- 
came known to several wits of the day, as Dr. Goldsmith, 
'Churchill, Lloyd, apd Wilkes. His turn, however, was 
foi: political writing; and in 1759 he published "The 
conduct of a late noole commander (lord George Sackville) 
examined." This was followed ^y a compilation, in six- 
penny numbers, of " A Military Dictionary,'' or an ac- 
count of the most remarkable battles and siegts from the 
reign of Charlemagne to the year 1760. Soon after, hjB 
wrote various political letters in the Gazetteer newspaper, 
which he collected and published under the title of " A 
collection of init resting letters from the public papers.'* 
About the same time he published ** A Review of his Ma- 
jesty (George iVs) reign ;" arid when Mr. Pitt resigned iii 
1761, he wrote *^ A Review of his Administration." Hfs 
ptlier publications were, ^^ A Letter to the right honl. 
George Grenville ;" "An history of the Parliament of 
Great Britain, from the death of queen Anne to the death 
of George 11.;^' " An impartial history of the late War 
from 1749 to 1763 ;" "A Review of lord Bute's adminis- 
tration." When Wilkes's infamous essay on woman was 
brought to light, Mr. Almon wrote an answer to Kidgell,^ 
Ihe informer's, narrative. In 1763, he commenced book- 
seller in Piccadilly, and published "A Letter concerning 
libels, warrants, and seizure of papers, &c. j" **. A history 
of the Minority during the years 17i52 — 1765 j*' "The 
Political Register,", a periodical work, and the general re- 
ceptacle of all the scurrility of the writers in opposition to 
government; " The New Foundling Hospital for Wit," a 
collection of fugitive pieces, in prose and verse, mostly of 
the party kind : <^ An Asylum," a publication of a «imiluc 



A L M O N. 35 

«ort ; " CoUection of all the Treaties of Peace, AUhiiicey 
and Commerce, between Great Britain and otl^ier powers, 
.from the revolution in 1688 to the present time ;" " The 
Parliamentary Register/' an account of the delf^t^. in par- 
liament; " The Hemembrancer,'' another mpntbly collec- 
tion of papers in favour of the American cause ; "A col- 
lection of the Protests of the House of Lords ;" " Letter to 
tlie earl of Bjate," 1772.; ." Free ParUam/ents, or a vin- 
dication of the p^rliamentar}' constitution of Englaqd, in 
answer to certain visionary plans , of modern, reformers ;'* 
'^ A parallel between the siege of Berwick and the siegtt 
of Aquilea," in ridicule of Hqcne's tragedy, the Siege of 
Aquilea ; ^' A Letter to the right hon. Charles Jenkinson," 
1732. These were mostly, if not all, anonymous, and 
they ^re enumerated here for the information of ^bo^ who 
form coUectipns of political pamphlets. . . 

The works which be more, publicly avowed ^re^ "Ai>€C- 
dotes of the Life pf the Earl of Cha,thafn/' 2 ^pU^fto, ^nd 
3 V0I& 8vo ; ^^ Biographical, Literary, and Political Anec- 
dotes of several of the most eniin^nt persons, of .^^.piT^ent 
age, never before priuted,"' 3 vojis. 8vo, 1797. ^q^-pontain 
many curious particulars of ti}e political char^Qt^^ s^i^d con* 
teats of his day, picked, up from the varipus ipenfib^s pf par- 
liament who frequented bis shop, aivd confided. ;4n him. His 
last publication, ;vajs a cpllect^on of Mn \yi|k^!s>pan:^phlets 
and tetters, with a. life, in w^hipb he praises tj^at.g^iUJemW 
in the mp^t, extravagant manner, while h^ K;el,$rtef f^o%» 
concerning his character ,that el^where might ^^y^ b§ea 
accounted ^ef^matipn. In . al| biis polijtical ^are^r he was 
attache4. ta ^he party which supported Wilkes, and opposed 
the measures of government in the early part of tjie present 
feign. At that time it. was not surprising th^t inai)y of bis 
pamphlets were, popular, or that he should be ab]e to boa,st 
pf an intiniacy with n^en of rank in the politipa} w;prld. lE]# 
had the hardihood to publish writings which bopk^djerspf 
established reputation would hiave rejected,, f^pd, he r^an 
Ijittle risk, a^.the expence of pmiting was d^ffs^ed by hi9 
^ployers,,|,firhile he had the profits of thesale, l^ven pf 
^se which, upon his own a\ithprity, we h^ve giv^QifSiS bis 
productions, it is highly probable be was rather this ^u^x 
dan the aut^9rn In those wbi^h mprp rec^tly appeiired 
under his name, there is very little of the ability, either 
argumentative or narrative, which could give con$eau#nce 
to a political effusion. 

I» 2 



^ A L M O N, 

About the year 1782, he retired from brrsiness as a boot- 
seller; but in a few years he married the wrdow of Mr, 
Parkfer, printer of a newspaper called the General AJver* 
tiser, of which he then was proprietor and editor : the spe- 
culation however injured his fortune, and he became a pri- 
soner in the king^s bench for a libel, and was afterwardg 
an outlaw. Extricated at length from lus difficulties, he 
retired stgain into Hertford»lnfe, where he died December 
12, 1805, leaving hrs widow in great distress. * 

ALPHERY (Mekepher, so pronounced, though pra- 
perly spelt, Nikepwok, Nicephorus) was born in Russia, of 
the imperial line. When thart: country was disturbed by 
intestine quarrels, in the latter end of the 1 6th century, 
and the royal house particularly was severely persecuted 
-by impostors, this gentleman and his two brothers were 
sent over to England, and recommended ta the care of 
Mr. Joseph Bidell, a Russia merchant. Mr. Bidell, when 
they were of age fit for the university, . sent them all three 
to Oxford, where the small-pox unhappily prevailing, two 
of them 'died of it. We know not whether this surviving 
brother took any degree, but it is very probable he did, 
siuce he entered into holy or<iers; and, in the year 1618, 
bad the rectory of Wooley in Huntingdonshii'e, a living of 
na very consideriEible value, being rated ait tinder 10/. irf 
the king^s books^ Here he did his duty with great cheer- 
fulness imd dlacrity ;. and notwithstanding fae« was twice 
invited ba<;k to his native cJoiintry, by some who would 
have ventured their utcnost to have set him on the throne 
of his ancestors, he chose rather to remain with his flock, 
and to serve God in the hun>ble station of a parish 
priest. Yet in 1643 he underwent the severest trials from 
the rage of 'the fanatic sojdiery, who, not satisfied witb 
depriving hitn of hia living, insulted him in tlie most bar- 
barous manner; for, having procured a file of nrasqueteers 
to pull him ont of bis pulpit, as he was preaching on a 
Sunday, they turned his wife and young children out inta 
the street, into which also they threw his goods. The poor 
inan in this distress raised a tent under some trees in 
the church-yard, over against his house, where he and hisr 
family lived for a week. One day having gotten a feur 
eggs, be picked up some rotten wood and dry sticks, and 

^ G«pt Mag. vol. LXXV.— Public Characters f0f 180S-4» where is » 
iatiering life> cficdtotly CQntribiited by himstlf. 



A L P H E R Y. 37 

with these mack a fire in the church porch, iii order ta 
boil them ; but some of his adversaries, to show how far 
they could carry their rage against the church (for this 
poor man was so harmless, they could have none against 
him), came and kicked about his fire, threw down his 
skillet, and broke his eggs. After this, having still a little 
money, he made a small purchase in that ueiglibourhoody 
built a house, and lived there some years. He was en- 
couraged to this by a presbyterian minister who came in 
bis room, and honeytly paid him a fifth part of the annual , 
income of the living, which was the allowance made by 
parliament to ejected ministers, treated him with great 
humanity, and did him all the services in his power. It is 
a great misfortune that this gentleman^s name is not pre- 
served, his conduct in this respect being the more laudable, 
because it was not a little singular. Walker calls him Mr., 
B— , and the living is not mentioned by Calamy. . Afters- 
wards, probably on the death or removal of this gentleman,, 
Mr. Alphery left Huntingdonshire, and came and resided at 
Hammersmith, till the Restoration put him in possession o^ 
his Kving again. He returned on this occasion to, Hun<* 
tingdonshire, where he did not stay long ; for, being up- 
wards of 80, and very infirm, he could not perform the 
duties of his function. Having therefore settled a curate,, 
he retired to his eldest son's house at Hammersmith, where 
shortly after he died, full of years and of honour. It must 
be owned that this article is very imperfect ; but the sin- 
gularity of a Russian prince's being a country minister in. 
England is a mattei' of too much curiosity to be wholly, 
omitted. 

Mrs. Alphery, the last descendant of the family, married 
one Mr. Johnson a cutler at Huntingdon. She was Uving 
in 1764, and had eight children. By her the facts con-> 
tained in the preceding article, first related by Walker, were 
confirmed to lord Sandwich^ and were likewise known to 
be true by old people in the neighbourhood. His lordship 
informed Dr. Campbell, tliat such was the respect paid this 
woman on account of her illustrious descent, that no per- 
sons, of whatever station, chose to be seated in her pre-. 
sence : on the contrary they rose, i^nd remained so till she 
bad taken her chair. * . 

» Biog. Brit.— Walkers Sufferings of tke Clrrgf, 



38 ALPHONStJS. 

ALPHOlSrSUS X. kiitg of Leon and Castile, who hni 
been surnamed The Wise, on account of his attachment 
to literature, is how more celebrated fot having b6en art 
astronomer than a king. He was born in 1203, succ6efded 
his father Ferdinand III. in 1252, and died in 1284, con- 
sequently at the age of 81. The affairs of the reign of 
Alphonsus were very extraordinary and unfortunate, but 
we shall here only consider him in that part oif his 
character, on account of which he has a place in this 
i^orky namely, as an astronomer and a man of letters. He 
acquired a profound knowledge of astronomy, philosophy, 
and history, and composed books upon the motions of the 
heavens, and on the history of Spain, which are highly 
commended. ** What can be more surprising," says Ma- 
riana, " than that a prince, educated in a camp, and 
handling arms from his childhood, should have silch a 
iuowledge of the stars, of philosophy, and the transafctiohjl 
of the wbrld, aV men of leisure can scarcely acquire in 
their retirements ? There are extant some books of Alphon- 
fTus on the motions of the stars, and the histoty of Spain, 
written with great skill and incredible care." In his astro- 
nbmical pursuits be discovered that the tables of Ptoleiily 
were full of errors, and was thfe first to undertake the task 
of cdrrecting them. For this purpose, about the yeaf 1240, 
afid during the life of his father, he assembled at Toledo 
the most skilful astronomers of his time. Christians, Moors, 
or Jews, v^hen a plan was formed for constructing hew 
tables. This task was accomplished about 1252, the first 
yciar of his reign ; the tables being drawn up chiefly by the 
skill and pains of Rabbi Isaac Hazan, a learned Jew, and 
' the Work fcalled the Alphonsine Tables^ in honour of the 
prinee, who was at vast expences concerning them. He 
fiied the epoch of the tables to the 30th of May 1252, 
being the day of hi6 accessicDn to the throne. They were 
printed for the first time irt 1483, at Venice, by Radtolt, 
i^ho excelled in printing at th^t time ; an edition extremely 
jrarer thei'e are others of 1492, 1521, 1545, &c. 

We must not omit a memorable saying of Alphonsus, 
which has been recorded for its boldness and impiety; 
namely, ^* That if he had been of God's ptivy council when 
he made the wbrld, he could have advised him better.** 
His biographers have endeavoured to vindicate him in this 
instance, by assuring us that he meant only to reflect on 



ALPH<>NSUS. ^ 

the absurd pfailosopby by wbicb the hv^s of nature were 
then ei^pUined. Perhaps their wUer course would have 
beqn to consigq .^t to obUvioo, as there it no direct proo|^ 
of his not having used this irreverent language. ^ 

ALPHONSUS (Pj^ter), a Spanish Jew of the I2tb 
century, was converted to the Christiaii religion in 1106^ 
in the 44th year of bis age. Being severely censured by. 
bis coun.trymen, be published a -^^ Dialogue between a 
Jew and a Christian," which seems to have been no coc^-» 
temptible defence of Christianity against his countryonen. 
He wrote also ^.On science and philosophy/' and was 
eminent for sacred and profane literature. The time of 
his death is not known. The first menti9ned work is i^ 
the "Bibl. Patruro."* 

ALPHONSUS TOSTATUS. Sec TOSTATUS. 

ALPINI (Prospeuo), a celebrated physician and bo^ 
tanist^ was born the 23d of November 1553, at Marostica,. 
in tlie republic of Venice. In his early years he was in-* 
ciined to the profession of arms, and accordingly served 
in the Milanese; b^ut being at length persuaded by his 
father, who was a physician, to apply himself to learning, 
he went to Padua, where- in a little time he was chosen 
deputy to the rector, and syndic to the students, which 
offices lie discharged with great prudence and address. 
This, however, did not hinder, him from pursuing his.stud^if 
of physic, in which faculty he was created doctor in 1578. 
Nor did he remain long without practice, being soon after 
invited to Campo San Pietro, a little town in the territories 
of Padua. But such a situation, was too confined for one of 
bis extensive views ; he was desirous of gaining a know-^ 
ledge of exotic plants, and thought {be best way to succeed 
in his inquiries, was, after Galen's example, to visit the 
countries where ^they grow. He s.pon had an opportunity 
of gratifying his curiosity, as George Emo, or Hemij being 
appointed consul for the republic of Venice in Egypt, 
chose him for his physician. They left Venice the 12th 
of September 1580; and, after a tedious and dangerous 
Toyage, arrived at Grand Cairo the beginning of July the 
year following. Alpini continued three years in this coun » 
try, where he omitted no ppportunity of impjcoving hi;^ 

' Univ. History.-^Moreri. — SiEixu Onomasticon.— Gen, Diet, in art. Castille. 
• XJaTe vol. ll-^Fabricii Bibl. Lat. Med.— JDupin. 



40 A L P I N I. 

knowledge in botany, travelling along the banks of the 
river Nile, and as far as Alexandria, and other parts of 
Egypt Updfi his return to Venice, 'in 1584, Andrea 
Doria, prince of Melfi, appointed him his physician ; and 
he distinguished himself so much in this capacity, that he 
was esteemed the first physician of his age. The republic 
of Venice, displeased that a subjeet of theirs, of so much 
merit as* Alpini^ should continue at Genoa, when he^ might 
be of very gfeat service and honour to their state, recalled 
him in 1593, to fill the professorship of botany at Padua, 
where he had a salary of 200 florins, afterwards raised to 
750. |le discharged this office with great reputation ; but 
liis health became very precarious, having been much in^ 
jured by the voyages he bad madb. According to the 
registers of the university of Padua, he died the 5th of 
Feoruary 1617, in the 64th year of his age, and was buried 
the day after, without any funeral pomp, in the church of 
St. Anthpny>, 

His works, some of which are still held in esteem, wercj^ 
1. ** De Medicina Egyptiorum, libri IV." Venice, 1591, 
4to, Paris, 1645, and Leyden, 1735, 4to. 2. ^^DeBalsamq 
dialogus," Venice, 1591, Padua, 1640, 4to. In this he 
describes the plant in Asia Minor which produces the white 
balsam. 3. ** De Plantis Egyptii liber," Venice, 1592, 
Padua, 1640, 4to. 4. **De Plantis exoticis, libri II.'' Ve- 
nice, 1627, 1656, 4to. 5. ** Historic naturalis Egypti, li- 
Jbti IV." Leyden, 1735, 2 vols. 4to. 6. ^* De praesagienda 
yita etmorte aegrotantium, libri VII.'' Padua, 4io, Leyden, 
1710, edited by Boerhaave; the most oqnsiderable of aH 
]^is works, of which there have been various editions, and 
an English translation by Dr. James, 2 vols. 8vo. 1746. 7. 
f^De Medicina methodica, libri XIII." Padua, foi. 1611, 
Leyden, 1719, 4to, a work in which he evinces his pre- 
dilection for the n^etbodists. 8. ^^ Dissertatio de Rbapon- 
tico,'- Padua, 1612, 4to. AH these works have been firer 
fluently repriiited. Towards the end of his life Alpini be- 
came deaf, and in consequence turned his thoughts to- 
wards the causes of that privation, and the possibility of 
cure. The result of his researches he communicated in a 
treatise on the subji^t, whicb, with some other works, still 
remain in manuscript. He left four sons, one of whom 
was a lawyer, and another^ phy^ici^u, and. the publisher 
of his father's posthumous works. The Alpinia, s^ gejQu^ 



A L P I N I. 41 

ef the monogynia order, of which there is but one species, 
derives its name from him. * 

ALREDUS, Alfredus, of Aluredus, an ancient Eng-* 
lish historian, was born at Beverley in Yorkshire, and re-' 
ceived his education at Cambridge. He returned after* 
wards to the place of his nativity, where he became a secu« 
lar priest, one of the canons, and treasurer to the church of 
St. John, at Beverley. Tanner, in a note^ inf&rms us, that 
he travelled for improvement through France and Italy, 
and that at Rome he became domestic chaplain to cardinal 
Othoboni. According to Bale and Pits, he flourished under, 
king Stephen, and continued his annals to the year 113G. 
Vossius is supposed to come nearer the truth, who tells us 
that he flourished in the reign of Henry I. and died in 1 126^ 
in which same year ended his annals. His history, how* 
ever, agrees with none of these authors, and it seems pro* 
bable from thence that he died in 1123 or 1129. He in- 
tended at first no more than an abridgment of the history 
of the ancient Bfitons ; but a desire of pursuing the thread 
of bis story led him to add the Saxon, and then the Nor* 
man history, and at length he brought it down to his own 
times. This epitome of our history from Brutus to Henry I. 
is esteemed a valuable performance ; it is written in Latin, 
in a concise and elegant style, with great perspicuity, and 
a strict attention to dates and authorities : the author has 
been not improperly styled our English Florus, his plan 
and execution very much resembling that of the Roman 
historian. It is somewhat surprising that Leland has not 
given him a place amongst the British writers : the reason 
seeips to have been that Leland, through a mistake, con^ 
siders him only as the author of an abridgment of Geoffrey 
of Monmouth's history ; but most of the ancient writers 
having placed Geoffrey's history later in point of time than 
that of Alredus, we Iiave reason to conclude that Alredus 
composed his compendium before he ever saw the history 
of Geoffrey. We have also the authority of John With* 
amsted, an ancient writer of the fifteenth century, who, 
speaking of our author, says, that he wrote a chronicle of 
what happened from the settlen^ent of Brutus to the time 
of the Normans, in which be also treated of the cities an* 
cieotly founded in this kingdom, and mentioned the names 

» Gen. Diet— MorerL^Haller Bibh Med.— Manget. Bibl.— Freyeri Tkea? 
^auL^^SaxU pnomast. 



M A L R E D U S. 

by. which LondoD, Canterbury, and York were called in. old 
times, when the Britons inhabited them ; and this tes>,ti- 
Qiony agrees with the book, as we now have iu Some other 
pieces have been ascribed to Alredus; but this history, 
and that of St. John of Beverley, seem to have been all that 
be wrote. This last perforoiance was never printed, but it 
is to be found in the Cotton library ; though not set down 
in the catalogues, as being contseined in a volume of tracts : 
it is entitled ^^ X/ibertates ecclesise S. Johannis de Bever- 
lik, cum privilegiis apostolicis et episcopalibus, quas ma- 
giater Alueredus sacrista ejusdem ecclesiap. de An^^lico in 
Ls^inum transtulit : in hoc tractatulo dantur cartae Saxonicao 
R, R. Adelstani, Eadwardi Confessoris, et Willelmi, quas 
feceruQt eidem ecclesise, sed imperito exscriptore mendose 
scriptse. The liberties of the church of St. John of Be- 
Terley, with the privileges granted by the .apostolic see, 
or by bishops, translated out of Saxon into Latin, by master 
Alared, sacrist of the said church. In this treatise are 
contained the Saxon charters of the kings Adelstan, Ed* 
ward tKe Confessor, and William the Conqueror, granted 
by them to this church ; but, through want of skill in the 
transcriber, full of mistakes.'^ Mr. Hearne published an 
edition of Alredusf s annals of the British History, at Ox- 
ford, in 171$, with a preface of his own. This was taken 
from a Boanqscript belonging to Thomas Rawtinson, esq. 
which Hearne says is tlte only one he ever saw.^ 

ALSAH ARAVIUS. See ABULCASIS. 

ALSOP (Anthony), a poetical and miscelUtneous Eng- 
lish writer, was educated at Westminster school, and thence 
elected to Christ-church, Oxford, where he took the degree 
of M. A. March 23, 1696, and of B. D. Dec; 12, 1706. On 
his coming to the university, he was very soon distinguished 
by dean Aldricb, and published *^ Fabularum iEsopicarurn 
delectus,'* Oxon, 1698, 8\t>, witli a poetical dedication to* 
lord viscount Scudamore, and a preiiace in which he took 
part against Dr. Bentley in the famous dispuce with Mr* 
Boyle. This book. Dr. Warton observes, is not suffix 
ciently known. It was better known at one time, how- 
ever, if we may credit bishop Warburton, who, in one of 
his letters to Dr. Hurd, says that ^^ ^ powerful cabal gave 
it a surprising turn.** Alsop passed through the usu^l 
offices in his college to that of censor, with considerable 

^ Biog. Brit. 'from Bale, Pits, Tanner, &c. • 



A L S O p. 

.refutation ; and for ^ome years had the principal ndble* 
men and gentlemen belonging to the society committed tof- 
bis care. In this useful employment be continued till bia 
merit recommended him to sir Jonathan Trelawny^ bishopi 
of Winchester^ who appointed him his chaplain, and sooti 
after gave him a prebend in his own cathedrali together 
with the rectory of Brightwell, in the county of Besks^ 
which afTbrdod him ample provision fbr a learned retira^ 
ment, frOm which he coald not be drawn by the repeated 
solicitations of those who thought him qualified for a more 
public character and a higher station. In 17 i 7 an action 
was brought against him by Mrs. Elizabeth Astrey of Ox- 
ford, for a breach of a marriage contract ; and a verdict 
obtained against him for 2,000/. which probably <^ccasioned 
him to leave the kingdom for some time. How long this 
exile lasted is unknown ; but his death happened, June 10, 
1726, and was occasioned by his falling into a ditch that 
led to his garden-door, the path being narrow, and part of 
it giving way. A quarto volume of his was published in 
1752, by the late^ sir Francis Bernard, under the title of 
^^ Antonii ALsopi, sedis Christi olim ainmni, Odarum libri 
duo.*' Four English poems of his are in Dodsley's collec- 
tion, one in Pearch*s, several in the <?arly volumes of the 
GeUtleman^s Magazine, and some in the ^* Student." He 
seem§ to have been a pleasant and facetious companion^ 
not rigidly bound by the trammels of his profession, and 
does not appear to have published any sermons. Mr. AU 
sop is respectfully mentioned by the facetious Dr. King of 
the Commons (vol. I. p. 236.) as having enrichied the com- 
monwealth of learning, by *^ Translations of fables from^ 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic ;" and not less detractingly bjr 
Dr. Bentley, under the name of " Tpny Alsop, a late edi- 
tor of the ^sopean Fables.*' Sir Francis Bernard, bis 
editor, says, that among the various branches of philological 
learning for which he was eminent, bis singularly delicate 
t^te for the classic poets was the chief. This induced him 
to make use of the Sapphic numbers in his familiar corre- 
spondence with his most intimate friends, in which be 
shewed a facility so uncommon, and a style sk> natural and 
easy, that he has been, not unjustly, esteemed not inferior 
to his master Horace. ^ 

> Beroatd'fl Proporals for printing tbe Oief j issued July 27, 17^8. — ^Nidiela's 
£Uf pS Bowy er, toI. 1 1, p. )»3. 



44 A L S O P- 

ALSOP (Vincent), an English nonconformist of con* 
siderable note, was a native of Northamptonshire, and edu- 
cated at St. John's college, Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of master of arts. He afterwards received deacon's 
orders from a bishop, and settled at Oakham in Rutland* 
shire, as assistant to the master of the free school. Being 
a man who possessed a lively pleasant wit, he fell into gay 
company, but was reclaimed by the admonition of the rev. 
^Mr. King, a Puritan minister at or near Oakham, whose- 
daughter be afterwards married ; and becoming a convert 
to his principles, he received ordination in the presbyterian 
way, not being satisfied with tliat of the bishop, which ex- 
tended only to deaeon^s orders, and he was no longer wiUing 
to conform to the church by applying for those of a priest., 
He settled at Wilby, in the county of Northampton, 
whence he was^ejecjted in 1662, for nonconformity. After 
which he ventured to preach sometimes at Oakham and at 
Wellingborough, Where he lived ; ^nd was once committed 
to prison for six months, for praying with a sick person. 
The hook he wrote against Dr. Sherlock, in a humorous 
style, made him first known to the world, and induced Mr. 
Cawton, an eminent nonconformist in Westniinster, to 
recommend him to his congregation, as his successor. Oji 
receiving this invitation, he quitted Northampton, and came 
to London, where he preached cunstan):ly, and wrote seve- 
ral pieces, which werp extremely well received by the pub- 
lic. His living jn the neighbourhood of the court exposed 
him to many incou>ift3ni^nces, but he had the good fortune, 
to escape imprisonment 9,nd fines, by the ignorance of the 
informers, wlijo did npt know his Christian name, which he 
studiously concealed; and even Anthony Wood, who c^lls. 
him Benjamin, did not know, it. His sufFerings, however, 
ended with the reign of Charles H. at least in the beginning 
of the next reign, when his son, engaging in treasonable, 
practices, was frequently pardoned by king James. Afterthis, 
Mr. Alsop went frequently to court, and is generally sup- 
posed to have been the person who drew up the Presbyterians* 
very fulsome address to that prince, for his general indul* 
g^nce } a measure, however, which waj> condemned by the 
majority of nonconformists. Affer the revolution, Mr. 
Alsop gave very public testimonies of his affection fof the^ 
government, but on all occasions spoke in the highest terms 
of i'espect and gratitude of kingJamc*, and retained a vfeiy 
high sense of hi^ clemency, in sj^ajring his 6n}y son. ^The 



A L S O p. 45 

remainder of his life he spent in the exercise of the minis- 
try, preaching once every Lord^s day ; besides which he 
bad a Thursday lecture, and was one of the lecturers at 
Pinner's hall. He lived to be a very old man, preserved 
his spiritft to the last, and died May 8, 1 703. On grave 
subjects be wrote with a becoming seriousness ; but where 
wit might be shewn, he displayed it to considerable advan- 
tage. His funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Slater, atid 
his memory will always be remembered by his own learned 
and elegant writings ; the most remarkable of which are : 
1. " Antisozzo,*' in vindication of some great truths op- 
posed by Dr. Sherlock, in whose treatise " Con<;erning 
:the knowledge of Jesus Christ," he thought be discovered 
a tendency towards Socinianism, and therefore entitled this 
♦work, which was published in 1675, '* Antisozzo," from 
the Italian name of Socinus. Sherlock and he had been 
pupils under the same tutor in the university. Dr. South 
allowed Alsop*s merit in this contest of wit, but Wood 
undervalues his talent. 2. " Melius Inquirendum," in 
answer to Djr. Goodman's Compassionate Inquiry, 1679, 
«vo. 3. " The Mischief of Impositions ;" in answer to 
Dr. Stillingfleet's Mischief of Separation, 1680. 4. ** Duty 
and interest united in praise and prayer for Kings,'* 
5. " Practical godliness the ornament of Religion," 1696 ; 
and several sermons. ' 

ALSTEDIUS (John Henry), a German protestant di- 
vine, and a voluminous writer, was some time professor of 
philosophy and divinity at Herbom in the county of Nas- 
sau ; afterwards professor at Alba Julia in Transylvania, 
yrhere he continued till bis death, which happened in 1633, 
in his 50tb yean Of bis public character, we only know 
that be assisted at the synod of Dort. He applied himself 
chiefly to reduce the several branches of arts and sciences 
into systems. His " Encyclbpaedia" has been much es- 
teemed even by Roman catholics : it was printed at Her- 
born, 1610, 4to, ibid. 1630, 2 vols. foL and at Lyons, 1649, 
and sold very well throughout all Frapc^e. Vossius men- 
tions the Encyclopdedia in general, but speaks of his trea- 
tise of Arithmetic more particalarly, and allows the author 
to hs^ve been a man of great reading and universal learning. 
Baillet has the following qiiotation from a German author : 
¥AlstedittS'bas indeed many good things, but he is not suf^ 



46 ALSTEDIUS. 

ficiently accurate ; yet his Encyclopcedia was received with 
general applause, when it first appeared, and may be of 
use to tliose who, being destitute of other helps, and not 
having the original authors, are desirous of acquiring some 
knowledge of the terms of ^ch profession ^nd science. 
Nor can we praij^e too much his patience >and labour, his 
judgment, and his choice of good airtfaors : and the abstracts 
.he has4»iade are not mere scraps and unconnectiad rliapso- 
dies, since he digests the principles of arts and sciences 
into a regular a.nd uniform order. Some parts are indeed 
better than others, some being insignificant and of little 
tralue, as his history and chronology. Jc must be allowed 
.too, that be is often confused by endeavoufing to be clear ; 
>bat he is too full of divisions aod subdiymons ; and that . 
he affects too constrained a method.'^ Lorenzo Brasso 
says, ^^ that thotigh there is moreJlabour than .genius in AU 
stedius's works, yet they are etileemed ; and his in^iustry 
being admired, has gained him admittance into the temple 
of feme.'* Als^edius, in bis ** Triumphax BibliocumiSa* 
x:rovum, seu Encyclof)a5dia Bihlica," Francfort, 1620, 1625, 
.1642, 12mo, endeavours to prove, that the materials .and 
principles of all the arts and^ sciences niay be found in the 
scriptures, an op^inion which has been since adopted by 
others. Jolvn.Himmelius wrote a. piece against his "The- 
ologia Polemica," which was one of the best performances 
of Alstedius. He also published in 1627, a treatise entitled 
'^ De Mille Annis,'^ whereip be asserts that the faithful 
sliall reign with Jesus Christ upon earth a thousand yeairs^ 
alter which will be the general resurrection and the last 
judgment. In this opinion, he would, not have been singular, 
as it lias more or less, prevailed in all ages of the churchy 
had he not ventured to predict. that it would take place in 
the year 1694. Niceron has given a more copious list of 
his works, which are now little known or consulted. * 

ALSTON (Charles)^ an ingenious physician and: bo^ 
tanist, was the son q( Mr. Alston, of Eddlewood, >.a .gen- 
jtleman of small estate in the west of Scotland, and allied 
to the noble family of Hamilton, who, aftevJiaving studied 
physic, and travelled with several gentlepien, declined 
the practice of his profession^ and reared to his patri- 
mony. His son CJiarles was bom in 1683, and at the 
tixue uf his father^s death was studying at th$ oniveriity. o^ 



ALSTON. 41 

Glasgow. On this event, the duchess of Hamilton took 
him under her patronage; and recoimnended to him thfe 
profession of the law, but' his inclination for botany and 
the study of medicine siij^erseded aU other schemes; and 
from the year 17J16, he ehtirely devoted himself to medi^- 
cine. In that year he went over to Leyden^ and studied 
wnder Boerhaave for three years ; and having here formed 
nn acquaintance with tiie celebrated Dr. Alexander Monro, 
the first of that name, on their return they projected the 
revival of medical lectures and studies at Edinburgh. For 
this purpose they associated themselves with Drs. RuthcJr- . 
ford, Sinclair, and Plummer, and laid the foundation of 
that high character, as a medical scrhool, which Edinburgh 
has so long enjoj-ed. Dr. Alston's department was botany 
and the miateria medica, which he continued to teach with 
unwearied assiduity until his death, Nov. 22, 1760, in the 
seventy-seventh year of his age. 

In 1740, he published for the iise of his pupils : 1. ** In- 
dex Plantarum pr&cipue officinali^m, quas in horto medico 
Edinburgensi, studibsis detnonstrantu^,'* Svo. 2. ^ Index: 
Medicamentbruoi simplicium triplex," 1752, 8vo. 3. "Ti- 
rocinium Botanicum Edinburgense,'* 1753; his principal 
work, containing a republication of his " Index'* with the 
" Fundamenta Botanica** of Linnaeus ; in this, however, 
he made an uftavailing attempt to overthrow Linnoeus^s 
system ; doubtless from ii fond attachment to his early in- 
structors, Tournefort, Ray, ^and Boerhaave. Be^ades 
these, he published in the Edinburgh medical essay^^ 
three papers on Tin as* an anthelmintic, on Opium, and 
on a case of extravasared blood in the pericardium ; and 
separately in 1752, 1754, and 1757, a *• Dissertation on 
Quick-lime and Lime-water.** His " Lectures on -the 
Materia^ Medica'* were published after his death by Dr. 
Hope, 2 vols. 4to, 1770, which did not contribute much 
to his fame, being, as Dr.. Pukeney justly observes, rather , 
aii account of the state of the materia medica, as it was, 
thana;$ it is, in the worlds of Lewis, Bergius, 'Murray, and 
Cullen. ' 

ALSTROEMER (Jonas), the reviver of Industry and 
commerce in Sweden, was born in 1685; in the small town 
of Alingsa's in West Gothland,' of poor parents. After 

struggling fpr a Ibng. time with the evils of want, he ean^e 

..J.I " .''■'.''.. , '•,"'. 



48 A L S T R O E M E R/ 

ta London^ where he paid particular attention ro conuner- 
cial speculations ; and from his inquiries into thci pros* 
perity of England^ be deduced the importance of manu* 
&ctures and . commerce. His native country^ for several 
centuries engaged in war, bad made little progress in the 
arts of industry, but was now endeavouring to promote 
them ; and Alstroemei^ having formed bis plan, returned 
to Sweden to assist his fellow-citizens in this undertaking. 
In 1723, he requested of the states a licence to establish 
manufactures in the town in which he was born, and it 
soon became the seat of activity and industry, which spread 
over other parts of the kingdom. In the mean time he 
travelled to acquire a knowledge of the inventions and the 
methods practised in Germany, Holland, and Flanders, 
collected able workmen, and the best models, and pub- 
lished several instructive papers. At the same time he 
cari'ied on trade, in partnership with Nicholas Sahlgren, 
at Gottenburgh. Here- he established a sugar-house, 
traded to the Indies and the Levant, and bestowed so much 
attention on rural oeconomy, as to introduce some very- 
essential improvements, cultivating plants proper for 
dying, and extending the culture of potatoes, then a no- 
.i?elty in Sweden. He also improved the wool- trade by 
miporting tlie sheep of Spain and, England, and even the 
Angora goat. The manufacture of cloth, and other ar- 
ticles from wool, was now much encouraged, and gave 
employment to a great number of hands, who manufac- 
tured to the value of three millions of livr^s tournois per 
annuviy and relieved the country from the necessity of 
baying recourse to foreign markets ; but in other rnanu^ 
factures, as the siljj, they did not succeed so well. AI- 
stroemer has been accused of not paying sufficient atten- 
tion to local circumstances in some of his schemes, and of 
having encouraged notions that were more showy than 
solid ; but hisdesign was truly patriotic, and his country 
readily acknowledged the benefit it has derived from his 
labours. The king Frederic bestowed on him the title of 
counsellor of commerce, and the order of the polar star; 
Adolphus Frederic granted hin^ letters of nobility ; and the 
academy of sciences chose him a member, while the States 
decreed that his statue should be placed on the exchange 
at Stockholm, with this inscription : ^^ Jonas Alstroemer, 
artium fabrilium in patria instaurator.'* " J. A.-tbe reviveij 
of manufactures." He died in 176 1> leaving a consider- 



A L S T R O E M E R. *9 

» 

Cible fortune. His four sons, Claude, Patrick, John, and 
Augustus, were distinguished for talents and patriotism, 
and the first three were members of the apademy of Stpck«> 
holm. * 

ALSTROEMER (Clauj>e)| son of the preceding^ was 
born in 1736, studied natural history, and was a pupil of 
Linnaeus. He travelled over a considerable part of Eu- 
rope, beginning with Spain, whence he sent some plants 
to Linnaeus, who mentions him in his ^^ Species plantaruft^.'^ 
On landing at Cadiz, he saw in the house of the Swedish 
consul the flowers of a plant, a native of PerUi Struck 
with their beauty, he asked and obtained some seeds, which 
he immediately dispatched to Linnaeus, with whom they 
succeeded, and became generally cultivated under the 
name of the lily of Alstroemer, or of the Incas. Linnaeus 
perpetuated the name by calling the genus Alstroemeria« 
Alstroemer communicated with several societies for agri* 
culture and natural history^ but one paper only is men*, 
tioned of his in the memoirs of the academy of Stockholm \ 
giving a description of the Simla Mammon, a species of 
ape* He died in 1794** 

ALT (Francis Joseph Nicholas Baron d'), the de- 
scendant of an ancient patrician family of Fribourg in 
Swisserlaod, was born there in 1689, and died Feb. 17, 
1771. In 1718 he was a captain in the Austrian service, 
but returned to hi$. country, over which he long presided 
as avoyef, or magistrate, an appointnient conferred upon 
him in 1737. He published e " Histoire de la Suisse'* 
Fribourg, L750 to 1753, 10 vols. 8vo, of which baron 
^urlauben, a competent and impartial judge, says, that 
it would have deserved more praise, if besides the many 
faults of the language (French), he had supported his 
facts by proofs ; if he had omitted matters foreign to the 
history of Swisserland, which occupy a great, deal of the 
work ; if he had made his readers better acquainted with 
the Swiss government; and had described some of the 
cantons with more accuracy ; if he had passed over in si- 
lence events not compatible with the plan of a general 
history, and if he had not espoused with too much warmth 
the cause of the catholic cantons^ ^ 

ALTER (Francis Charles), a German clii.s3ical scholar 
and critic, was born at Englesberg, in Silesia, in 1749, 

^ 1 Biog«t7niTenelt«» < IbkU » Ibid. 

Vol. IL E 



50 A L T E R. 

and dijsd at Vienna M^rch 29, 1S04. He entered the so- 
ciety of the JefeuitS", arid was Greek teacher in the school 
of St. Anne, and the academy of Vienna, until his death. 
He has published two hundred and fifty volumes and dis- 
sertations, the' titles of which are given in J. G. Meusel's 
\ Allemagrie Savante* One of his principal publications was 
<< Novum 'Testamentum, ad codicem Vindobonensem' 
^Grdece expressum : varietatem lectionis addidit Franc. 
C. Alter." vol.1. 1786, vol. H. 1787, 8vo. The ground^ 
work of this edition is the codex Lambecii in the imperial 
library at Vienna, with which the author has collated other 
manuscripts in that library, and the Coptic, Sclavonic, and 
Latin versions ; the latter froto the valuable fragments of 
the Vulgate, anterior to that of Jerome. It is thought 
that he would have succeeded better, if he had adopted 
as a basis the text of Wetstein or Griesbiaich, and if he blad 
been more fortunate in arranging his iriaterials. The 
merits of this edition are examinefl, with his usual acute-' 
iiess, by Dr. Herbert Marsh in his supplement to MichaeHs's 
introduction to the New Testament. Of Alter's other 
works, those in most esteem abroad are: 1. A German 
translation of Harwood's View of the various editions of 
the Glassies, with notes, Vienna, 1778, 8vo. 2. Various 
readings from the manuscripts in the imperial library, which 
be used in the editions printed at Vienna, of Lysias, 1785 ; 
Ciceroni's Quaest. Acad.- Tusc 1780, 8vo ; Lucretius, 
1787, 8vo; Homeri Ilias, 1789 — 1790, 2 vols. ;* also with 
various readings from the Palatine library ; Homeri Odys- 
sea and min. poem. 1794. 3. Some of Plato's Dialogues, 
1784,, 8vo. 4. Thucydides, 178S, 8vo. 5. The Greek 
Chronicle of George Phranza or Phranzes, not before 
printed, Vienna, 1796, fol. 6. Notices on the Literary 
history of Georgia, in German, 1798, 8vo. His nunyerous 
essays and dissertations, which are upon curious and re- 
condite subjects, illustrations of Oriental and Greek ma- 
nuscripts, &c. have appeared in the German literary 
journals at various periods, particularly in the Memora- 
bilien of M. Paulus, and the AUg. Litt. Anzei^er d« 
Leipzig. * 

ALTHAMERUS (Andrew), a celebrated Lutheran mi- 
Ulster at Nuremberg, published in the sixteenth century 
•everal works in Divinity, as *^ Gonoilifitiones locontm 

1 Biog. UnivcrMlltt. 



ALTHAMERUS. $1 

scriptarse,*' 1528, 8vo, Latin and Geirman; ^' Annota- 
tiones in Jacobi Epistolam ;** ** De Peccato Originali ;'*.: 
and '^ De Sacramento altaris." He likewise published 
** Sylva Biblicorum nominum," Basil, 1535 ; and " Notes 
upon Tacitus de situ, moribus, et populis Germaniae>^' 
Nuremberg, 1529, 1536, and at Amberg, 1609, '8vo. 
He was at the conferences at Berne in 1528, which paved 
the way to the reformation of that canton. His principle 
appear to have inclined to Antinomianism, and he attacked 
the authority of the Epistle of St. J&mes with great inde- 
cency : this afterwards was introduced in the dispute be*, 
tween Grotius and Rivet, of which an account may be seen 
in Bayle. Althaiuerus, who died about 1 540, was some-t 
times called Andrew Brentius from the place of his na- 
tivity, Brentz, near Gundeliingen, in Swabia ; and some? 
times he assumed the fictitious name of Palaeo Sph}nra; 
L Arnold Ballenstad published a life of him in 1740. * 

ALTHUSEN, or ALTHUSIUS (John), a German Pro- 
testant lawyer, was bom about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, and became law-profess(Hr at Herborn, and 
syndic at Bremen. He wrote some treatises in the way of 
his profes;iiion, *^ De Jurisprudentia Romana," and *^ 1)% 
civili conversatione ;" but what made him principally 
known, was his ^^ Politica methodice digesta,*' 1603; ia 
which he maintained the sovereignty of the people, and 
their right to put kings to death, and those other doctrines, 
the efiects of which were so extensively displayed in Eng- 
land iii the seventeenth, and in France in the eighteenth 
century. A recent French biographer, Michaud, observes 
that ** these strange opinions produced by the revolu- 
tionary spirit which prevailed in the sixteenth centuryj^ 
have been revived in ours by the demagogues, who fancy 
that they are advancing something new*" Althusen died 
in the early part of the seventeenth century. * 

ALTICOZZI (Laurence), of an illustrious family at 
Cortona, was born there, March 25, 1689. He entered 
the society of the Jesuits in 1706, and died m 1777, ajt 
Ron^, where he had lived many years. He was esteemed 
a man of great learning, piety, and amiable manners. Hia 
principal work is his ^^Sum of St. Augustine/' Rome^ 
1761, 6 vols. 4to, in which he gives* a history of Pelagi« 

^ G«n. Diet— SockendorPs Hist, of LutheraDisni.— Sasii Onomattieoik 
t O4M1. Diot.— Michaud, ia Bj^g, .Uoiverscile. . 

B 2 



bt A L T I C O Z Z 1 

anism, drsLwn from the best authorities in the ancient 
ecclesiastical writers. He wrote against Beausobre's his- 
tory of Manicheism, and other works against the modern 
philosophers and adherents of the doctrine of mate- 
rialism. * 

ALTILIO (Gabriel), one of the Latin poets who 
flourished in Italy in the fifteenth century, was born at 
l^silicata, in the kingdom of Naples, or as some think, at 
Mantua. He studied, however, at Naples, whtch he made 
his residence, and associated with Pontanus, Sannazarius, 
and the other literati of that time and place, and acted as 
preceptor to pjince Ferdinand, who came to the throne in 
1495, by the resignation of his father Alphonsus II. Ac* 
cording to UghelH in his " Italia sacra,'* Altilio was 
appointed bishop of Policastro in 147 1, and died in 1484 ; 
but according to Mazzuchelli, whose authority in this in- 
stance appears preferable, he was not bishop until 1489^ 
and died about 1501. He has left but few specimens of^ 
his poetry, but they are of acknowledged merit. The 
most celebrated is the epithalamium he wrote on the mar- 
riage of Isabella of Arragon, daughter of Alphonsus IL 
with John Galeas Sforca, duke pf Milan. This is published 
'in the Carm. Illust. Poet. Ital. and with a few of his other 
pieces, at the close of the works of Sanhazarius, byComimv 
1731, 4to, where numerous testimonies are collected of 
the merits of Altilio. Some of these pieces had, however, 
been before printed with the works of Sannazarius, Daniel 
Cereti, and the brothers of the Amalthei, illustrated by 
the notes of Peter Vlamingii, Amst. 172^, 8vo, which may 
be united with the variorum cliassics. Notwithstanding the 
praises generally bestowed on Altilio, there are some 
critics who have undervalued his talents. In particular, 
Julius Scaligier think^ there is too great a profusion of 
thought and expression in this performance : " Gabriel 
Altilius,'^ says he, *^ composed an excellent epithalamium, 
which* would have been still better, had he restrained his 
genius ; but, by endeavouring to say every thing &pon the 
subject, he disgusts the reader as much in some places, as 
he gives him pleasure in others : he says too much, which 
Li a fault peculiar to his nation, for in all that tract of Italy 
Ihey have a continual desire of talking.*' It may appeac 
iSingular that hi^ Latin poetry should have raised him t«r 

*miof. Uahr6rt«llei 



\ 



A L t I L I O. M 

the dignity of a prelate ; yet it certainly did, in a great 
measure, to the bishopric of Policastro. Some have also 
reproached him for neglecting the muses after his prefer- 
ment, though they had proved so serviceable to* him in 
acquiring it : ** When he was made bishop," says Paulus 
^ovius, *^ he soon and impudently left the muses, by whose 
means he had been promoted : a chost heinous ingratitude, 
unless we excuse him from the consideration of shis order, 
which obliged him to apply to the study of the holy 
scriptures." * 

AL'FING (Henry), an eminent German divine, was 
born at Embden, Feb. 17, 1583, of a family of considerable 
Bote in Friesland. His father, Menso Alting, was one of 
the first who preached the doctrines of the reiPormation in 
the territory of Groningen, about the year 1566, and under 
the tyrannical government of the duke of Alva. He faith- 
fully served the church of Embden during the space of 
thirty -eight years, and died Oct. 7th, 1612, His son was 
from a child designed for the ministry, and sent very early 
to school, and afterwards into Germany in 1602. At Her-^ 
born he made such uncommon progress under the cele- 
brated Piscator, Matthias, Martinius, &c. that he was 
allowed to teach philosophy and divinity. While prepar-* 
ing for his travels into Switzerland and France, he was 
chosen preceptor to three young counts, who studied at 
Sedan with the electoral prince Palatine, and took posses- 
sion of that employment about September 1605; but the 
stornn which the duke of Bouillon was threatened with by 
Henry IV. obliging the electoral prince to retire from Se-' 
dan with the three young noblemen, Alting accompanied 
them to Heidelberg. Here he continued to instruct his 
noble pupils, and was admitted to read lectures in geogra* 
phy and history to the electoral prihce till 1608, when he 
was declared his preceptor. In this character he accompa- 
nied him to Sedan, and was afterwards one of those who 
were appointed to attend the young elector on his journey 
into England in 1612, where he became acquainted with 
Dr. Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. King, bishop of 
London, Dr* Hackwell, preceptor to the prince of Wales ; 
and also had the honour of an audience of king James. 
The marriage between the elector and the princess of Eng- 
land being solemnized at London in Feb. 1613, Alting left 

1 Biog. Cmverselle.^Roscoe's Life of Lea-^en. Diet. 



54 A L T I N G. 

England, and arrived at Heidelberg. In the ensuing 
August he was Appointed professor of the common places 
of divinity, and to qualify himself for presiding in theolo- 
gical contests, he took the degree of D. D. In 1616 be 
had a troublesome office conferred upon hini, that of direc* 
tor ol the collegium sapienfia of Heidelberg. In 1618 h^ 
was offered the second professorship of divinity, vacant by 
the death of Coppenius, which he refused, but procured . it 
for Scultetus. 

He distinguished himself by his learning, at the synod 
of Dort, wliither he was sent with two other dej>uties^ of 
the Palatinate, Scultetus and Tossanus. He appears to 
have conceived great hopes soon after his return to Hei-» 
del berg, the elector Palatine having gained a crown by the 
troubles of Bohemia, but he met with a dreadful dlsap« 
pointment. Count Tilli took Heidelberg by storm iti 
Sept. 1622, and allowed his soldiers to commit every spe-* 
cies of outrage and violence. Alting escaped almost by a 
miracle, which is thus related : He was in his study, wheh 
news was brought that the enemy was master of the towo^ 
and ready to plunder it. Upon bis bolting his door he bad 
I recourse to prayer. One of his friends, accompanied by 
two soldiers, advised him to retire by the back door into 
the chancellor^^ house, which was protected by a strong 
guard, biecause count Tilli designed the papers that were 
lodged ther^ should cotne entire into his hands. The lieii«> 
tenatit-colonel of the regiment of HohenzoUen ^as upon 
tills guard) and addressing himself to Alting, said, ^^ With 
this axe I have killed to- day ten men, and Dr. Altitig shaU 
be the eleventh, if I can dricover where he has hid him* 
Relf," and concluded this barbarous speech by asking Al* 
ting, " who are you?" Alting, with great presence of 
Inind, answered, ** I have been regent in the collie of 
Sapience." This expression the savage miirderet did not 
tmderrstand, and > permitted him to escape. On thi^ he 
contrived to retire to his family, which be had; sent some 
•time before to Heilbrun. He rejoined it at Schorfidori^ 
but was uot allowed to coiitintie there more thto a few 
toonths, owing to the illiberal cqnduct of some Luthemb 
ministers. In 1623 he retired with his fexnily tb £mbdeo^ 
aiid afterwards to the Hague, where the king of BcJoieiHia 
'engaged him to instruct his eldest son, but permitted hjfli 
at the same time to accept a professorship of divinity at 



A L T I N G. Si 

GroningeDy which he entered upon, June 16, 1627| and 
kept to the day of his death. 

The last years of his life were embittered by domestic 
affli<;tions, and by bodily disease. The loss of an affection- 
ate d^ug^ter, and ^fterward$ of his wife, preyed upon a 
coQstitutiop that had been shaken by the ricissitudes of his 
former life, and brought on a lethargic disorder, of which 
he died) Aug. 25, 1644, leaving behind him the character 
of a man of gneat piety and learning ; and it appears that 
few men of his time were more highly honoured for their 
personal worth. He went.yearly to wait upon the king of 
Bohemia, and to insipect the studies of the royal family. 
He contributed very lyiuch to the collfs^ctions that were 
made throughout all the Protestant countries for the 
churches of Germany. He was also employed in two other 
important comqaissiQns : one was the revisal made at Leyden 
of the pew Dutcb translation of the Bible.; ^nd the other the 
visitation of the county of Steinfurt. In the first he had 
^ome*coUe|igAie8» but in the second he was the only gene- 
ral iofipector, the count of Bentheim haying sent him to 
regulate t^e churches, and particularly to counteract the 
progress, qf Spcinianiam, which had. crept in. Alting, by 
his temperatj^ character and his abilities as a reasoner, 
taking all his .a^rguments from scripture, appears to have 
been well Ratified for these and other important trusts as- 
signed to him. He married at Heidelberg in 1614, and 
bad seven pbiildreh, of whom a daughter ^nd two sons sur- 
vived hiiP' The eldest son was professor of civil law at 
Djavf Qtef ; tbe.Qth^r is the subject of the next article. 

H^LS works ai^} 1. ^^ Notae iii Decadem Problematum 

Joai^ni^. BfdhJB de glorioso Dei et beatorum ccelo,'* Heidel- 

b^fgt |618. 2. ^^ JLqci compiunes,'' Amst. 1646, 3 vols. 

.3. <^ Exege^s Augustanse Confessionis,'' Amst. 1647. 

4. ^^ Meth^d^s Theologise,'' Amst 1650, or 1654, 4to. 

5* *^ ExpjAc^tip catacheseos PalatinsB,^' ibid. 1646, 4t0c 

,ji. '^ Hisjtoria ecoles^astica Palatina,'' ibid. 1644, 4to.^ 

. ALTING (Jaj4^6), son of the above Henry, was bom 

fit Ijieid^erg th^ 27th of September 1618| at which time 

bis father \tras de^puty at the synod of Dort. He went 

through hya ^t^4i®3 ^t Groningen wit;^ great success; aod 

Jbieing cjesjki^PU^ to aqquir^ . knowledge, in the Oriental Ian- 

\^uage^, j|'^uK>ved to ^mbden in 1633, to improve himself 

1 O^n. Wei* itt wbidi Bayle has given an erroneous list of hh wOrks.<^Ma- 



56 A L T I N G. 

under the rabbi Gamprecht Ben Abraham. He came over 
to England in 1640, where he became acquainted with 
many persons of the greatejst note ; he preached here, and 
was ordained a priest of the church of England by Dn 
Prideauxi bisihop of Worcester. He liad once resolved to 

Eass his life in England, but afterwards accepted the Heb- 
rew prdfessorship at Grohingeh, offered him upoa the 
death of Gomarus. He entered upon this office the I3th 
of January 1643, the very day that Samuel des Marets was 
installed in the professorship of divinity, which nad been 
held by the si^me Gomarus. Alting was admitted doctor 
of philosophy the 2 1st of October ^645, preacher to the 
academy in 1647, and doctor and professor of divinity in 
1667. He had visited Heidelberg in 1662, where he re- 
ceived many marks of esteem from, the elector Palatine, 
Charles Lewis, who often solicited him to accept of the^ 
professorship of divinity, but he declined this ofler. In a 
little time a misunderstanding arose betwixt him and Sa- 
muel des Marets, his colleague, owing to a difference in 
theiir method of teaching, and in many points in their prin- 
ciples. Alting kept to the scriptures, without meddling 
with scholastic divinity: the first 'lectures which he read at 
his house upon the catechism, drew such vast crowds of 
hearers, that, for want of room in bis own chamber, be wasi 
obliged to make use of the university hall. Hrs colleague 
was accustomed to the method and logical distinctions of 
the schoolmen, had been a long time in great fei^teem, had 
published several books, and to a sprightly genius had added 
a good stock of learning : the students* who were of that 
country adhered to him, as the surest way to obtain church- 
preferment, for the parishes were generally supplied with 
•^iuch as had studied according to his method. This was 
■ sufficietit to raise and keep up a misunderstatiding betwixt 
the two professors. A Iting had great obstacles to surmount : 
a majority of voices and the authority of age were on his 
adversary's side. Des Marets gave out that Alting was ah 
: innovator, and one who endeavoured to root up the boun- 
daries which our wise forefathers had made between truth 
and falsehood ; he accordingly became bis accuseF, and 
chai'ged him with one-and^-tbirty erroneous propositions* 
The curator^ of the university, without acquainting the 
parties, sent the inlbrmatida aind the answers to the divineis 
of Leyden, de^ring their opjnion. The judgment, they 
gave is rei{iark^bl^ : Alting was ac(]uitte4 of all heresy, but- 



A L T I N a 67 

his itnprudence was blamed in broaching new hypotheses ; 
on tne other hand, Des Marets was censured foi* acting 
contrary to the laws of charity and moderation. The latter 
woiiiQ not submit to this judgment, nor accept of the si* 
lencf wuich was proposed. He insisted on the cause being 
heard before the consistories, the classes, and the synods; 
but the heads Wuiild not consent ^ to this, forbidding all 
writings, either for or against the judgment of the divines 
of Leyden ; and thus the work of Des Marets, entitled 
** Audi et alteram partem," was suppressed. This contest 
excited much attention, and might have been attended with 
bad consequences, when Des Marets was called to Leyden, 
but he died at Groningen before he could take possession oif 
that enipioy ment. There was a kind of reconciliation effecteii 
betvvixt him and Alting before his death : a clergyman of 
<7roningen, seeing Des Marets past all hopes of recovery^ 
proposed it to him ; and having bis consent, made the same 
proposal to Alting, who answered, that the silence lie had 
observed, notwithstanding the clamours and writings of his 
adversary, shewed his .peaceable disposition ; that he was 
ready to come to an agreement upon reasonable terms, but 
that he required sadsfection for the injurious reports disse* 
roinated agaiqst his honour and reputation ;. and that be 
could not conceive how any. one should desire hiS' friecid* 
ship,, whilst be thought him such a man as he had repre* 
sented him to be. The person, who acted as mediator, 
some tifiie after returned, with another ^lersyman, to. Al- 
ting, and obtiiined from him a formulary of the satisfaction 
he desired* This formulary was. not liked by Des Marets, 
who drew up another, but this did not please Alting :. at 
last, however, after .some alterations, the; reconciliation was 
effected ; the parties only retracted the personal /injuries^ 
and as to the accusations in point of doctrine, the accuser 
left them to the judgment of the church^ Alting, however; 
thought he had reason to complain, even after he :was de« 
livered from so formidable an adversary. His complaint 
was occasioned by the last' edition of Des.Marets's system^ 
in which he was very ill treated: he. said, bis adversary 
should have left no mbnuments of tbe ^piarrel ; and that 
his reconciliation had not been sincere,- since he had not- 
suppressed such an injurious book. The clergy were .coa<i 
tinually murmuring against what they called innovations ; 
bi^t the secular power wisely calmed those storms, which 
the convocations and synods would hift'e raised, threaten- 



A L.T I N G. 

ing to interdict those who should revive whait hsd obtained 
the name of die Maresio^Altingian cooti'oversy. Alting 
enjoyed but Iktle health the last thi^ee years of his life ; 
and being at length seieed tvitb a violent fever, was carried 
off in nine days^ at-Groningen, August 20, 1679. His 
yvCHrks^ which consist of dissertations on variqus points of 
Hebrew < and Oriental antiquities; commentaries on many 
of • the books of the Bible; a Syro-Ghaldaic Grammar; a 
treatise on Hebrew punctuation, &c. &c. were collected in 
5 vols. foL and. published by Balthasau: Qoeker, Amst. 1687, 
mth ^ life by the same editor. ' 

. ALTING (Menso), the father of Henry and grandfa- 
ther of James Alting, was boraat Fleda in West-Friesland 
in 1541, and died, first pastor and president of the consis- 
tory at £mbden,.in 1617, The study of St. Paul's epistle 
io the .Romans is said to have brought him from the opi<k 
pions of Luther to those of Calvin^ in whose derfence he 
wrote against Ligorius and Hunosus^ His life was written 
by Ubbo Emmius. ^ . j ^ : . 

ALTING (M'EHSO), probably of ^he same family^ was a 
learned burgomaster of Groningen^ celebrated for his to- 
pographical skill and writings* Heiwasborn in k^'6^f and 
died in 1713.. His principal woricis are,i 1. .^^ Notiiia Ger** 
maaiflB inferioris/' Amst. L697, foL 2. ^^ Descriptio Fri- 
stflB inter Scaldis pcurtum velerem et Amiaiamj'' ibid. 1701, 

ALTISSIMO, an Italian poet of the fifteenth century, 
wiiose writings do not justify that honouirable name, was 
accoirding to Crescimbini, a native of Florence,' his name 
Christopher; but on account of his .merit, he received a 
poetic crown, and the surname lofAltissimo. . LeQuadrio, 
however, thinks that this wasi bis family. name, that his 
Christian name was Angel, and that he was a priest, lie 
was one iof the* inost admired improvimtbri of his time, and 
his verses are ^aid to^have been often coUacted, and pub- 
lished. ' He Jv^as. living in 1514.. Of his poems we have 
pnlya tranriatioii of > the firat book of tiie famous romance^ 
V.i.Riali.di Frahnia," Venice, 153il, 4to, enough to prove 
that he was a very indifferent poeti'^ 

iALTMANN :(Jaim Geobo^)^ a Swiss historian and dir 
vive, was born in ld97^ and^ accordifig (to one anthority, at 

'. I Gen. Diet, — Foppep Bibl. ^elg^rrMoreri. ' Biog. UniTcvselle. 



A L T M A N N. ^» 

Berne, where his father had been rector ; or. accoi^ditig to 
another at Zofinguen, and died in 1758) curate of Inns, i^ 
village in the canton of Berne. In 1735 he was appointedT 
moral and Greek professor at Berne, and afterwards piub^ 
lished some valuable works on the geography, history, an4 
antiquities of Swisserland. In conjunction with Breitinger, 
he compiled the collection entitled ** Tempe Helvetica," 
Zurich, 1735 — ^43, 6 vols. 8vo. His other works are, 
2. <^ Metelemata philologico-critica, quibus difHcilioribu» 
N. Test, locis ex antiquitate lux aflPunditur," Utreehti 
1753, 3 vols. 4to. 3. «^ A Description of the Glaciersi" In 
German, Zurich, 1751—53, 8vo. 4. **^ Principia Etbica, 
ex monttis legis natursD et prseceptis religionis Christianoi 
deducta,'* Zurich, second edition, 1753, 2 vols. 8va * ; j 
ALTOMARI {DonatoAktonio ab),. an eminent Ne* 
apolitan philosopher, physician, and professor of ^medicine 
of the sixteenth century, was born at Naples^ was dme of 
the most learned medical writers of liis tiAae, . and et^o^ed 
very high reputation, it being only objected to him: that he 
was too servile a copyist of Galen. We know little else ef 
his history, unless that he had certain etiemies who obliged 
him to take refuge in Rome, and that be did not venture /b«» 
return to NapW until, be had obtained the protiection of 
pope Paul IV^ to whom he had dedicated one of his woi*ksf 
Most of them were published separately, as appears by. a 
catalogue in Manget slnd Hailer; but the whole were col- 
lected and published in folio at Lyons, 1565 at)d 1597; lA 
Naples' in 1573 ; Venice, 1561, 1574^, and IJSOO. So ma»y 
editions of so large 'a volume are no inconsiderable testi* 
mony of the esteem in which this writbr was held. He is 
said to havfe died in 1 5 56. ^ 

ALTORFER or Altdorfer (Albrecht or Ai^bbut), 4 
very eminent artist, was born in 1488, at Altdorff in Bava* 
ria, and rose to be a member of the senate of Ratisben, and 
architect to the town, where he died in 1578. His merit as 
a painter appears to have^een very considerable> but much 
more as a designer and engraver. His works in wood and 
metal are as numerous as, in general, remarkable for dimi* 
native size, though neither his conceptions nor forms werl$ 
puny, The«cBts of *^ The Passion," " Jael and Sisemb,!* 
" Pyi^attius and Thisbe," " Judah and Thamar,'* if we >a)U 
low for the ignorance of costume in the three last, show a 

> Biog. UniverseM^i — Diet. Hist.<^Saxii Onomastic«ii.. 
' Ibid.— Hailer Bibi. Med.— MaD^^t BibU 



«0 A L T O R F E R. 

sensibility of mind, and a boldness of design, which per* 
haps none of his German contemporaries can boast. HoU 
hein is said to have drawn great assistance from him, 
evident traces of the style of Aitorfer appearing in the 
prints of that inimitable artist, although certainly much 
improved. * 

ALUNNO (Francis), an Italian scholar and mathema* 
tician, was a native of Ferrara, and lived in the fifteenth 
century. The three vvorics on which his fame rests are, 
1. " Observations on Petrarch," which are inserted in the 
edition of that poet, Venice, 1339, Svo. 2. ** Le Richesse 
della Lingua Volgare," Venice, 1545, fol. in which he has 
collected, alphabetically, the most elegant words and 
phrases used by Boccaccio. 3. ** Delia Fabbrica del 
Mohdo," Venice, 1526, 1556, 1557, 1558, 1562, consist- 
' ing of ten books, in which are enumerated all the words 
used by the earliest Italian writers, but with no very happy^ 
arrangement. Alunno was likewise distinguished for a ta* 
lent perhaps more curious than useful, tha( of being able 
to write an exceeding small hand. We are told, that 
when at Bologna he presented Charles V. with the belief 
and the first chiapter of the gospel of St. John, in the size 
of a denier, or farthing ; and Aretine adds, that the empe* 
ror employed a whole day in decyphering this wonderful 
manuscript. ^ 

ALVAREZ (Diego), a Spanish dominican, was born at 
Rio Seco in Old Castille. He was professor of theology in 
Spain and at Rome, and afterwards archbishop of Trani in 
tne kingdom of Naples. In concert with Lemos, his bro- 
ther in profession, he supported the cause of the Thomists 
against the Molinists,' in the congregation De Auxiiiis, 
held in 1596. He died in 1635, after publishing several 
treatises on the doctrines which he defended ; among these 
are, " De anxiliis divinae gratia^," - Lyons, 1611, folio; 
^* Concordia liberi arbitrii cum predestinatione,'* Lyons^ 
1622, 8vo; ** A commentary on Isaiah," 1615, foK &c.^ 

ALVAREZ (Emanuel), a celebrated Portuguese gram- 
marian, was bom in the island of Madeira on the 4th of 
June 1 526. Having entered into the society of the Jesuits, 
he distinguished himself by his probity and his prudence, 
and became rector of the colleges of Coimbrai Evora, and 

* Strutt and Pilkington's Dictionaries.— Bioj;. Universelle. 
^ Bio^. UoiTcrselie., ^ lbi<).— Moreri.'--Dict Hist. 



ALVAREZ. CI 

Lisbon. He was well acquainted with polite literatare^ 
and for many years applied himself to the instruction of 
youth in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He died at the coU 
lege of Evora on the 30th of December 1582. His Latin 
grammar is much esteemed ; it is entitled, '^ De Institu- 
tione Grammatici," and has had many editions; the first, 
Lisbon, 1572, 4to. Kess, Kicardi, and Tursellinus have 
published abridgments of it. His work ^^ Demensuris, 
ponderibus et numeris," is in less esteem. * 

ALVARES (Francis), a Portuguese priest, born at Co- 
imbra, about the end of the fifteenth century, was chaplain 
to Emanuel king of Portugal, and ambassador from that 
prince to David king of i£thiopia or Abyssinia. David had 
sent an ambassador to Emanuel, who in return thought 
proper to send Alvares and Galvanus to David, but the lat« 
ter died before he arrived in i£tbiopia. Alvares continued 
six years i# this country; and, when be returned, brought 
letters to king John, who succeeded Emanuel, and to popa 
Clement VII. to whom he gave an account of his embassy 
at Bologna in January 1533, in the presence of the empe* 
ror Charles V. Alvares died in, 1540; and left behind 
him, in Portuguese, an account of bis embassy, with a 
description of the manners and customs of the i£thiopi-> 
ans. It was printed at Lisbon the same year in which 
the author died, and was translated into French, and pub'* 
lishc^ at Antwerp in 1558. The work was abridged by 
Ramusius. Bodinus savs, that Alvares was the first who 
gave a true and accurate account of ^Ethiopia, and that it 
was appi-oved by the best writers, and read with the great*^ 
est satisfaction. ^ 

ALVARES DE ORIENTE (Ferdinand), one of the 
most esteemed Portuguese poets, was born at Goa in the 
Indies, in the fifteenth century, about the commencement 
of the reign of king Sebastian. We have few particulars 
of his life. It is said that he served in the royal navy, and 
was captain of one of the vessels belonging to the squadron 
which admiral Tellez commanded in India, during the 
viceroyalty of Moniz-Barreto. His principal work, •* Lu- 
titania Transformada,'' is on the plan of the Diana of 
JVIontemajor. The language is pure and harmonious, and 
tbe descriptions striking and naturaL It was printed, for 

' BiQg. Uaivertelie.-^Moreri.— Diet. Hist, ojid GtD. Diet. > IbMt 



ea^ . A L V A R E s. 

the iirat timei at Lisbon, 1 607, 8vo. A few years after, a 
more correct edition was published by father Foyos, of the 
oratory. Our poet also wrote an elegy, which has been 
highly praised, and the fifth Stnd sixth parts of the romance 
of PaJmerin of England. * 

ALVAROTTO (Jamks), a celebrated lawyer of Padua, 
flourished in the fifteenth century. His family was origi- 
pally of Hungary, and allied to the Speroni, both of which 
have produced very eminent men. The subject of this 
short article was very learned both in the civil and canon 
law,, which he bad studied under Barthelemi Saliceti and 
Francis Zabarella, who was afterwards cardinal. . He then 
became professor at Padua, where he wrote several trea- 
tises, and among them '^ Commentaria in Libros Feudo- 
rum," a work long held in estimation, and frequently 
Quoted by the Italian lawyers. He died June 27, 1452, 
and was interred in the church of St. Anthony. ^ 

ALVENSLEBEN (Philip Charles Count d*) a Prus- 
sian statesman, knight of the orders of the red and black 
eagle, lord of Hundisburgh, &c. was born Dec. 12, 1745, 
at Hanover, where his father was counsellor of war. Du- 
ring the seven years war he was brqught up at Magdebourg 
with the prince, afterwards Frederic- William II. He then 
studied law at the university of Halle^ and was appointed 
referendary in the court of accounts at Berlin, and in 1775, 
was sent as envoy extraordinary to the elector of Saxony, 
with the title of king's chamberlain. This proved the 
commencement of a diplomatic career, for which he was 
thought qualified by his extensive knowledge and accom- 
plishments, and the address with which he retained the 
good opinion of Frederic II. During the war for the suc- 
cession of Bavaria, he acted as intermediate agent^between 
the king of Prussia and the old electorate court, and be-« 
tween the army of Frederic and that of Prince Henry. 
After having been engaged in this office for twelve years, 
be was sent as ambassador, in 1787, to the court of France. 
In 1788 he was sent, in the same capacity, to Holland ; and 
in 1789 to England. In 1790 he was recalled from the 
latter, and appointed minister for foreign affairs, and his 
zeai and activity rendered him highly acceptable in the 
court of Berlin. During his administration he founded 

. * ^ Biog. Universelle. \ Morari.— DicU Hiit. 



A L V EN S L EB 1 IC. j6t 

several benevolent establishments. He died at Berlin hit 
1 802. As a writer he is known by a historical work en*-^ 
titled << Essai d^un tableau chronologiqae des evenements 
de ia guerre, depuis la paiic de Mun'iter, jusqu^a celle de 
Hubertsbourg," Berlin, 1792, 8 vo. * 

ALXINGER (John Baptist d*) a modern German 
poet, was born at Vienna, Jan. 24, 17S5; his father was al 
civilian, and consistory counsellor to the bishop of Passau. 
He studied the classics under the celebrated antiquary 
Eckbel, keeper of the medals at Vienna, and while with 
him, imbibed such a taste for reading the ancient poets^ 
that he knew most of their writings by heart, and was al* 
ways so fond of this study, that he remembered with grati-* 
tude, to the last hour of his life, the master who had ini-> 
tiated him in it, nor did he neglect his favourite authors, 
even when obliged to attend the courts of law. When the 
death of }fis parents had put him in possession of a consider- 
able patrimony, he made no other use of his doctor's and ad- 
vocate's titles, than in reconciling the differences of such 
clients as addressed themselves to him for advice. His first 
poetical attempts appeared in the Muses* Almanack, and 
other periodical publicatious at Vienna, and o'f these he 
published a collection at Leipsic in 1784, and at Klagen- 
furth in 1788, vtdiich procured him the honour of being 
ranked among the best poets of his country for elegance^ 
energy, and fertility of imagination. In the ^^ New Col- 
lection of Poetry," printed at Vienna in 1794, he contri- 
buted some pieces not so favourable to his character ; but 
he completely re-established his fame by the publication 
of ** Doolin of Mentz,'* and ** Bliomberis," two poems of 
the romantic cast, in imitation of Wieland, to whom the 
last was Cledicated. In 1791, he published a German trans* 
lation of Florian's " Niima Pompilius," which some have 
thought equal to the original, but in many parts it is defi- 
cient in elegan'ce. It was, however, his last performance, 
except the assistance he gave to some literary contempo- 
raries in translating the foreign journals. During the three 
last years of his life, he was secretary artd inspector of thd 
court theatre, and died May 1, 1^797, of a nervous fever. 
He was a man of warm affections and gaiety of temper, and 
of his liberality he afforded a striking instance in the case 
of Haschka the poet, whom he regarded as one of the prin- 

f Biog. Uaiverielle.— Oeot. Mag.- toI. LXXtl. 



ci{>al supporters of Germaii literature. He not only kc^ 
commodated him with apartments in his house, bu^ made 
bim a pifesent of 10,000 florins. Of his faults, it is only 
recorded that he was a little vain, and a little given to the 
pleasures of the table. ' 

ALYPIUS, of Antiocb, of the fourth century, was an 
architect in the service of Julian the apostate5 who com- 
mitted to his care the rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem^ 
which he was forced to abandon, by fires which issueU from 
under the earth, and rendered the place inaccessible^ 
Eight years after> he found himself involved in an accusa- 
tion of magic, and with a great many^others condemned 
without proof and banished, after his goods had been con- 
fiscated. His son Hierocles^ *cond^mned to death on the 
same accusation, made his escape when they were leadingf 
bim to execution ; and the news of this happy circumstaiied 
softened the affliction of Alypius in his banishment. He is 
the reputed author of a geographical work published by 
Godefroy, at Geneva, in Gr. and Lat. 1628^ 4to, but there 
is no good authority for attributing it to him.* 

ALYPIUS, a philosopher of Alexandria, flourished in 
the fifth c^ ntury, and was contemporary with Jamblicus^ 
He was one of the most subtle dialecticians of his time, 
was much followed, and drew away the hearers of Jagabli-^ 
cus. This occasioned some conferences between them^ bu^ 
no animosity, as Jamblicus wrote bis life, in which he 
praised his virtue and steadiness of mind. Alypius died 
very old, in the city of Alexandria* In stature he was so 
remarkably diminutii^e as to be called a dwarf. * 

ALYPIUS, bishop «f Tagasta, a city in Africa, of which 
he was probably a native, was the friend of St. Augustine^ 
and baptized with him at Milan in 388.- He was promoted 
to the bishopric of Tagasta in the year 394, and in the 
year 403 was present at the council of Ciarthage, where it 
Was endeavoured to bring the Donatists to \inity. In the 
year 4 1 1 he was the only one of the seven Catholic pre- 
lates who disputed with seven Catholic bishops, in the 
famous conference held at the same place. In the yeaif 
419 he was deputed by the African churches to Ho- 
norius, and pope Boniface received him with great friend* 
ship, and employed him in confuting the Pelagians, in which 
he was not a little assisted by the secular arm. St. Augus- 

* Biog. Uaiverseller » Gen, Diet.. • Ibid. 



A L Y P I U S. €5 

tine bestows very high praise on this bishop, ud seems to> 
have intended to write his life. The tinfie of his death i$ 
generally fixed at 430. ^ 

AMAIA (Francis), a Spanish lawyer of great reputa- 
tion in his country, was a native of Antequera, and after- 
wards professor of law at Ossuna and Salamanca. He was 
lastly a counsellor at Valladolid, where he died in 1640 or 
1645. He wrote '^ Observationes juris/' Salamanca, 1626, 
and '^ Commentaria in posteriores libros codicis Justini- 
ani," Lyons, 1639, Geneva, 1655.* 

AMALARIUS FORTUNATUS, from being a monk of 
liladeloc, rose to be archbishop of Treves, in the year 810^ 
and the following year re-established the Christian religion 
in that part of Saxony which is beyond the Ebro, conse-' 
crated the first church in Hamburgh, and in the year 813' 
went as ambassador to Constantinople to ratify the peace* 
"l^hicii Charlemagne had concluded with Michael, the emi- 
peror of the east. He died the year following in his dio- 
cese. His only work is a '^ Treatise on Baptism,'* which 
is )[>rinted among the works and under the name of Alcui'* 
nus. It is the answer to a circular letter in which Charle- 
magne had consulted the bishops of his empire respecting 
that sacrament. From a similarity of names this writer has 
sometimes, particularly by Trithemius, Possevin, and Bel- 
larmine, been confounded with the subject of the next 
article ^ 

AMALARIUS SYMPHOSIUS, was successively dea- 
con and priest vof the church of Metz, director of the school 
in the palace of Louis de Debonnaire, abbot of Hombac, 
coadjutor -to the bishop of Lyons, and then to that of 
Treves, and according to some was made bishop ; but this 
seems doubtful. Some authors likewise attribute to him a 
work which appeared in the year 847, in favour of the 
opinions ci Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, on predesti- 
nation ; but it is probable that Amalarius was dead ten years 
before that. He was, however, esteemed a man of great 
learning in liturgical matters; and his acknowledged works 
procured him much reputation in the Romiah church. 
The first meutioned is a *^ Treatise on the Offices,*^ written 
in the year. 920, but re*written with many improvements in 
the year 827, in coni^quence of a visit to Rome for the 

1 0«p. Diet * Moreri.— Antonio Bibl. Hisp. 

9 IToreri.— ^CttV«f t«1. 1.— Saxii Onomasticoh. 

Vol. II. F . . 



es A M A L A HI US. 

purpose oi^.hccpming better acquainted with the rites of- 
t^t cbureb^ The most correct editioa of this work is in 
the Bibl. Patrum of Lyons. His object is to give the ra- 
tiiQ>9i9ie pf the pr«Lyers andcerenionies which compose the 
s^ryice^ mixed, however, with what is less reconcileahle to 
r^eason^.the mystie.al use of tbem, and some scruples about 
tfifles wbif^b oow Afi^iU hardly bear repetition. 2. " The 
qrder* of ^be> Antiphonal," in which he endeayooini> to re- 
cx^npil^ j;l)^ irlti^S o^ ithe Roman wkh the Gallican church. 
This is usually printed with the preceding. 3. " The Of* 
ftce of theJVU^iV 4. " Letters," whidb are in the Spiei- 
I^giciQi of d- Aicbery, and Msurtenne's Anecdotes. His 
iiforks met with^cohsiderable opposition, and Agobdrd, arch-* 
fai^hctp^Qf .L]^(m$i wrote against the ti^ first-mentioned 
works^ Fkwrasi deacorn of Lyons, accused him of heresy 
iN^fore tb^ council of Thionville, where he was acquitted, 
aadtW /council at Quierci, where some expressions of his 
resp^PUng' the a^ucrament were adjudged to be dangerous^ 
but his f^putatiou did not suffer much bythe decision. * * 
AMAiiRIC AU'GtRIj a historian, or rather biogra- 
pher, of .the. fourteenth ceoiary, wrote and dedicated to 
pop^ UrbAU.V. a history of the popes, ending at pope John 
XXI|. ivbi&h be entitled ^* Chronicum Pontificale," and 
which, he says, he compiled from above two hundred 
authors. ^ Crom the pre&ce he appears to havi^ been of 
the order of St. Augiifetine, but his work has not beeft 
pointed;* . , 

: AMALTHEI (Jerome, John Baptist, imd Cqhnelius) 
%vere brotheiss.who flourished in the early part of the dx^ 
teentb ceti^ury, and distinguished themselves as men of iet-^ 
ters. The pteeof .their birthfwas Oderztr, a oity of the Ve- 
n^etiah terriljoty. rHieronymns, the elder, united in his owrf 
p^r^oii the <^hliracters of-a skilful physician aikl a pkasin^ 
poet. His Latii^ipoeiBs are ip general written in a style of sin-** 
gujlar dj^^nce^aftd purity. The celebrated Frenoh critic and 
©oEftm^ftta^Qr,. Marc-Antoine Muret, in his correspondence 
with LtoJbin, .classes them, among the best prodtictidns of 
the It^Uann^uin that species of compositi<m. In poems of 
th^ light ^id epigrammatic kind, he particularly excelled. 
This. Jes^rited mat! is also much conmiended for his ur]>ariity 
^f nH^uners, and the suavity of his dispositioa^ He cultii 
vated his talent for poetry at an advanced age with undi- 
minished spirit, as appears in his vers^^ to* bis frieod 

• Biog. Universelle.— Dupin. — CaTet«»Moreri. 
t Moreri.-— Vogfiius d« liisU LaU 



A M A L T H E t. i67 

I 

IMcUor, notmibstanding the complaint tbey .breathe of 
decaying powers. He died at the place of his nativity, in 
Id74> in his sixty-eighth year. His felloW-citizens are said 
to hare inscribed an epitaph on his tomb, in iivhich they re- 
present hioi as another Aptdio, equally skilled in poesy and 
the belling art. His poem^, together with those of his 
brothers, were first collected iand published entire by Hie- 
ronymus Aleander, at Venice, in the year 1627, and after- 
wards by Grsevius with those of Ssluiiazarius at Amster* 
dam in i689; . .. <. 

The poetical talent* of Joannes or Giotanni Battista, 
the Second brothei', were flot inferior to those -of Hiero- 
oymns. We remark in »hfis compO}^tions equal harmony, 
combdtied with equal spirit; and critics have u,nited thenl 
under the flattering title of " Musarum Delici^e." Be- 
f»ide9 the poems writteii in Latin, others by Giovanni Bat- 
tista. occur in his^ native kingnage, which rank him among 
ike best Italian /p6ets. Some unfinished pieces of his. are 
said to hiareb^en discovered at"Hdme, in the library of car- 
dinal Ottoboni. Eminentty didtinguished for his accurate 
knowledge of ikie Greek and Latin languages, he passed 
the gresitefr part of his life at thel.courtbf Rome, and stood 
kTghih the favoiit of three* statrcesrive pontiffe. He dis- 
eharged the office of- sefcifetttry tkH the cardinals who were 
deputed to <he cfifuntil bf Tient. We hate his own evi- 
dence to prove that he.Waii thcrs^ff^bled to attain, if not to 
the most spl^dtd .and'ittrposing affluence, at least to that 
moderate degree of it, which,- Combined with temperance 
and integrity, conduces most-to'real happiness.^ He died 
at Bdme at? the -eaily age of forty-seven years. 

CoRNMLius, the youngest of the Amalthei, has left a 
few Latin poems, whiclv serve to manifest t:he conformity of 
hi* taste aird talents wiAr those of hi^ karned brothers. He 
probably dii^d in the pririfje'<)f lifey^atid some accounts fix 
the debase of ja\\ thte tfetee brothers in the same year., 
Bfit thesc^^ according to the- editor of the General Diction- 
ary, itiusft hotbe^coiifbdhded'whh'Araaltheus Attilius, arch- 
Mshop of Atb^Tite, whb was born of a! family in Italy eminent 
for producing men of the gfeate^ itie^it and learnhig. He 
Hired ifi the sixteenth centary,- and made a considerabte 
progress in the. study 6f the civil' and canon law, and iil 
that of divinity. He W2^§ a man of a noble, generous, and 
Asinterested spirit, was raised to the see of 'Athens by pope 
Paul V. and sent to Cologne in the character of nuncio, 

F 2 



6& A M A L T H £ I. 

which office he discharged with mu^ applause ; tod diid 
about 1 600. * , 

AMAMA (SiXTiKUs)^ profesAor of the Hebrew tongue 
in the university of Franeker, was born in Frieskud in the 
end of the sixteenth century (according to Saxius in 1593)^ 
and studied under Drusius. The university of Leyden en« 
deavoured, by offering him a larger salary, to draw him 
from the university of Franeker, in ordefr to succeed £rpe« 
nius : Amama, without absolutely refusing ibis ofier, yet 
would not accept of it unless he obtained jpermission from 
his superiors of Friesland, which they refused^ and perhaps 
^ave him such additional encouragement^ that he had nd 
reason to repent of not going lx> Leydi»n. The first book 
he published was a specimen of a great design he intended^ 
viz. to censure the Vulgate translation) which the counoii 
of Trent had declared authentic i but before he had fi- 
nished this work, he publisheda criticisQ» upon the transA 
lation of the Pentateuch, entitled <^ Censura Vulgates 
XatinsB editiqnis Pentateuchi/* ^to, 1620» FraudKr, as «< 
specimen of his more elaborate work. Whilst he was car« 
tying on this, he was obliged to eng^;e in another work, 
which was, to collate ^he Dutch translation of the 4icripture 
with the originals and the exactest translations : this Dutch 
translation had been taken firom Luther's versioRw He gave 
the public an account of this labour, in a work which ap* 
peared at Amsterdam, entided, *^ Bybekche eonlerencie>" 
Amsterdam, 1623. I'his emplovment of collating so much, 
engaged Amama, that he was hmdered for a considerable 
time from applying to his intended general censure of the: 
Vulgate. However, be resumed his undertaking upon: 
hearing that father Mersennns had endeavoured to refute 
his critical remarks on the first six chapters of Genesis; 
and he gave himself up entirely to vindicate his criticisms 
against that author. His answer is one of the pieces con- 
tained, in the ^^ Anti-barbarus Biblicus," which be pub- 
lished in 1628 ; the other pieces are, his Censure, of thet 
Vulgate on the historical books of the Old Testament, on 
Job, the Psalms, and the bopks of Solomon^ with some 
particular dissertations, one-of which is on the famous pas« 
sage in the Proverbs, <^ The Lord created me in the he^. 
ginning of all his ways/* wherein he sbew&ikhat those who, 

» 6re«8weU*s Memoirs «f Polttianui> l6C.«^Moren.-^Chaufrjiic.— Gen; D^cK 
— -Kryttirsei P^acotheca.—- Saxii Onomastioaiu 



A M A MA. <» 

mceused Drusius of favouring Arianism irere notorious ca« 
lumniators. The *' Anti-barbarus Biblicus'' was to have 
consisted of two parts, each containing three books ; the 
author, however, onlj published the first part. It was re* 
pr'mted after his death in 1656, and a fourth book was 
added, containing the criticism of the Vulgate upon Isaiah 
and Jeremiah. It is ilnpossible to answer Ae reasons, bj 
which he shews the necessity of consulting the originals. 
Tbisbe recommended so earnestly, that some synods, being 
influenced by his reasons, decreed that none should be n 
admitted into the ministry, but such as had a competent 
knowledge of the Hebrew atid Greek text of the scripture. 
He published also another dissertation, entitled ^^ De No- 
« mine Tetragrammiato,*^ Fisaneker, 1620, ^vo. When Sixti* 
nas came to Fran^ker^ drunkenness and debauchery reigned 
in that univertity to a very great degree ; he tells us, that 
all the new stoaents were immediately enrolled in the s^r* 
vice of Baocstius, and obliged to swear, with certain cere* 
monies, ky a wpoden statue of St» Stephen^^ that the3r 
would ^spend all their money : if any one had more regard 
to the oath be had taken to the rector of the university 
than to this bacchanalian oath, he was so persecuted by the 
other studet\ts, that he was obliged either to leave tl)ie. 
university, or comply with the rest. Sixtinus contributed 
greatly to root out this vice, and he inveighed against it 
with great energy in a public speech made in 1621. He 
was so much beloved by the people of Friesland, that after 
his deaths ihey shewed theo^selves very generous to his 
children ; as Nicholas Amama, who was one of them, ac- 
knowledges in the epistle dedicatory to his ^^ Dissertatio-^ 
num Marinarum decas,*' 1651. For one circumstance in 
the life of Amama, we are indebted to Anthony Wood, who 
informs us that about the year 1613, he came over to Eng- 
land, and resided for some years at Oxford, in Exeter col- 
lege, under the patronage of Dr. Prideaux, the rector of 
that college, after warcis bishop of Worcester. Amama 
died in 1629, in* the thirty-sixth year of his age^ if the date 
of the birth above assigned, be correct. * 

AM AND. SeeST. AMAND. 

ASMARA- SING HA, a learned Hindoo, and counsellor to 
the celebrated rajah Vikramaditeya^ lived in the first cen- 

1 Gsd. Diet.— Moveri.— Foppen Bibl. B«lg. wfa«f« there it ft mcMTt eumjpleto 
^Btalofue of lus work«.^Weod'« AUmmt* toU U' ^ 



TO,, A M A R A- S I N G H A. 

tury B: C. He is the author of a Dictionary of the Saw-^ 
scrit, which is esteemed very correct and complete. It 
i& called ^^ Amara-Kocha/' or the treasure of Amara, and 
is not in the alphabetical order^ but divided iota sectiopfl^ 
as the names of the gods, the surs^ the element^, .&c. in 
the manner of some vocabularies* It is written in a species 
of verse, ai>d the ey plan^tions are given in . the different 
Indian languages. Father Paulin, of St^ Bartholomiew^ 
published at Rome in 1798, the first part of this dictionary 
under the title '^ Aniara-Singha, sectio prima, de cseloy ex, 
tribus ineditis codicibus manuscriptis,'' 4to« There is a 
manuscript of the whole in the imperial library of Paris. ^ 

AMASEO (HoMULUs), the son of Gregory Amaseo^ La-» 
tin professor at Venice, was one of the most celebrated 
Italian scholars of the sixteenth century. He was born at 
Udina In 1489, and educated at first by bis father and 
uncle, but finished bis studies at Padua, and in 1 50S had 
begun to teach the belles iettres there, when the war, oc- 
casioned by the league at Cambray, obliged himr to leave 
the place. He then went to Bologna, continued to teachy 
and married, and had children, and was^ so much respected 
that the city admitted him as a citizen, an honour which 
his ancestors had alsp enjoyed. In 1 530, he was appointed 
first secretary to the senate, and was chosen by pope Cle« 
ment VII. to pronounce before him and Charles V. a Latin 
harangue on the subject of the peace concluded at Bo^ 
logna between the two sovereigns. This he accordingly 
performed, with great applause, in the church ofStPe- 
troua, before a numerous audience of the first rajik. He 
continued to teach at Bologna, with increasing popularity, 
until 1543, when he was invited to Rome by pope Paul IIL 
and his nephew cardinal Alexander Farnese. The pope em-, 
ployed him in many political missions to the court of the 
emperor, those of the German princes, and that of the king( 
of Poland ; and in 1550, after the death of bis wife, pope 
Julius III. appointed him secretary of the briefs, a place 
which he did not long enjoy, as he died in 1552. He wrote> 
Latin translations of ^^Xenophon's Cyrus," Bologna, 1533> 
fol. and of '< Fausanias,*' Rome, 1547, 4to ; and a volume 
entitled *^ Orationes,'' consisting of eighteen Latin speeches 
on various occasions, BoApn. 1590,. .4to. His contempo-. 
raries bestow the highest praises on his learning and elo- 



A M A S fi cy. 11 

^nence* His soii Pompilio had' perhaps lebs reputations 
but he too distioguished himself as 4Slre*ek professor at Bo-* 
}ogiia, where he died in 1584. He'transkted two frag- 
ments of Polybios, Bologna^ 164SV ^nd wrote a history of 
his own time in Latin, which has' not bebn'pubiished.^ 

AMATUS (John BoDBRiao Amato)^ a Portuguese phy- 
sician, and medical writer, of Jewish origin, was born in 
1511 at Castel-lManco. He studied ifnedicine at Salamaiica, 
and afterwards travelled through France, the Netherlands, 
Germany, and Italy, and taught medicine with success in 
Ferrara and Ancona. His attachment to the Jewish per- 
suasion having I'endered him suspected by the catholics,, he 
narrowly escaped the inquisition, by retiring to Pesaro in 
1555, from which he removed to llagusa, and afterwards to ^ 
Thessalonica. From the year 1561 ^e hear no more of 
him, nor has the time or place of his death been ascertained, , 
but it is said that when he went to Thessalonica, he avowed 
Judaism openly. His works, although few, give proofs of 
extensive learning in his profession. 1. " Exegemata in 
priores duos Dioscoridis de materia medica libros," An- 
twerp, 1536, 4to. The second edition greatly enlarged, 
with learned notes by Constantin, was published under the 
title ** Enfirrationes in Dioscopidem,'' Veriide, 1553, 8vo, 
Strasburgh, 1554, and Lyons, 1557. There is tnuch in- 
formation in this work respecting exotics used in'medicine, 
and some plants described for the first time, but it is not 
free from errors; and the author-having imprudently at- 
tacked Mathiol^s, the latter retorted on him in his " Apo- 
logia advevsus Amatum," Venice, 1557, fol. declaring hini 
an apostate atid a Christian 'only in aj)pearance; but what 
coniiexion this hud with the errors in his book, is not sd 
easy to discover. Anvatus, ln>Wever, intended to have an- 
swered him in the notes pi^pared for a cotnplete edition of 
Dioscorides, which be did not live to publish. ' 2. " Cura- 
tionnm mediekialium centuriee septem," published sepa- 
rately^ and' f»ptifated,at*Florence,' Venice, Ancona, Rome, 
Ragttsa, Thessalonica, &o. In this^ work, are many useful 
facts and^obsfervAtibns, but not entirely' uninixed with cases 
whieb ^t>& •thought'' to hav^ been' fictitious. Few books, 
howev»r^*weref atonetime more popular, ' for besides the 
separate eiiliioni^ of the CetHuries; tliey were collected and 
published at Lyons, 1580, 12p[io, Paris, 1613, 1620, 4to, 

» t 

I Jilorerl."—Blog» UniyerseHe*— Oeii< Diet.— Saxii Onomasticoii* 



la A IVf A T U S. 

-J 

and Francfort, 1646, foL Amatus had also made some 
progress in a commentafy oii-Avicenna, but lost his manu«» 
soripts in the hurry of his escape from Ancona, where pope 
Paul IV. had ordered him to be apprehended. Antonio in 
his BibL Hisp. attributes to him a Spanish translation of 
f^utropiusy but it does not appear to bare been ever pub-* 
lished. * 

AMAURI, or more commonly AMALRIC or ALMERIC 
(!>£ Chaetres), professor of logic and theology at Paris, 
in the thirteenth century, was a native of Bene in the dio-^ 
cese of Chartres, and rendered himself famous for the sin^ 

fularity of his opiQiona, and the multitudes who became 
is followers^ and suffered for their adherence. Adopting 
the metaphysics of Aristotle, he formed to himself a new 
system of religion, which has been thus explained. Aris* 
totle supposes ' that all beings are composed of matter, 
which has in itself neither form nor idiape : this he calls the 
first matter^ This, Amauri called God, because it is a ne-- 
cessary and infinite being. He acknowledged in God, 
three persons. Father, 8on, and Holy Ghost, to whom be 
attributed the empire of the world, and whom be regarded 
as the object of religious worship. But as this matter was 
endowed with a property of continual motion, it necessarily 
followed that this world must some time have an end, and 
that all the beings therein must return to that first matter, 
which was the supreme of all beinga^ — th^ first existing, 
and the only one eternal. Religion, according to Amauri^s 
opinion, had three epochas, which bore a laimilitude to the 
reign of the three persons in the Trinity, ^be reign of 
God had existed as long as the law of MosesJ^ The reign 
of the Son would not always last ; the ceremonies and sa* 
crifi.ces, which according, to Amauri constituted the essence 
of it, would not be eternal. . A time would ccJme when the 
sacraments should cease, and then |be religion of the Holy 
Ghost would begin, in which men would have no need of 
sacraments, and would render a spiritual worship to i^ie 
Supreme Beingi This epocha was the reigia of the Holy 
Ghost, which according to Anmuri was foretold by the scrips 
ture, ar)d which would succeed to the Christian religion, as 
the Christian religion had succeeded to that ^MtHiea^ Tb^ 
Christian religion therefore was the reign o£ Jesus Christ 

1 Biof . UniTerselle.— Astriio oo tb« Venereal disea8e.-<p>Maiiset. ^ibt^— Ha^ 
ier Bibl. Med.<— Moireri. 



A M A R I. T9 

io the world, and every man under that hiw ought to look 
on himself as one of the members of Jesus Christ. Amauci 
had many proselytes, but his opinions were condemned by 
pope Innocent III. His disciples added that the sacra* 
ments were useless^ and that no action dictated by charity 
couid be bad. They were condemned by the council of 
Paris in* 1209^ and many of them burned. Amauri ap- 
pealed to the pope, who also condemned his doctrines ; but; 
for fear of a* rigorous punishment he retracted his opinions^ 
retired to St. Martin des Champs, and died there of chagria 
and disappointment. His bones were afterwards dug up 
* and burnt by order of the council of Par^. As there is 
much confusion in the accounts given of Amauri*s system, 
it may be necessary to add, that Spanheim, Fleurv, and 
others, are of opinion that most of the heresies iinputed to 
him,, are without'foundation, and represent him aa having 
only taught that every Christian ought to believe himsteif m 
member of Jesus Christ, otherwise tbey cannot be saved, 
and that Binatit and bis other disciples fell into those er« 
rors which he was accused of having taught. It seems not 
improbable that his inveighing against the worship of saints 
and images would in that age form the principal article 
against him; and it is certain that many of his disciples^wera' 
m&n of distinguished piety, remarkable for the gravity and 
austerity of their lives, and for suffering death, in all its 
dreadful forms, with the utmost resolution. ' 

AMBERGER (Christopher), a painter of Nuremberg, 
of the sixteenth century, was the disciple of the younger 
Holbein, and a successful imitator of his manner. His de* 
signs were correct, the disposition of the figures admirable^ 
itnd the perspective excellent, nor was he deficient in co* 
louring. His chief reputation rests on. a composition of the 
history of Joseph, whidi he described in twelve picture. 
He also painted ji portrait of the empefor Charles V. which 
that monarch, according to the testimony of Sandrart, ac- 
counted equal to any of the portraits of him painted by 
Titian ; and to eicpress his hi^ approbation of that per- 
formance, be not only paid the artist three times as much 
as he expected, with a liberality truly royal^ but he bo- 
soured hua also W9th a rich diain of gold and a medal. 
There ar« several of his pictures in the royal gallery of 
Munich. The abbe MaroUes, ai»d, after him, rlorent le 

^ Moshtim't Eeel. m^twTg^^finuu 



74 A M B E R G E R. 

Coitite mentioii; Amberger,. as an cngfai'cr, without spe- 
cifying his works ; but Basan tells us, t^t be engraved in 
wood several prints^ from his own compositions* He died, 
ia 1550/ : ^ 

AMBOISE (Feancis i>') lived ia the latter «id of th«5 
sixteeutb, and begiutiing of the seventeenth centuries, and 
acquired in his, own time considerable fame, upon account 
^f his leariiicig, and some portion of the spirit of literary 
research. He was the sou of a surgeon, bifb became a 
great favourite in the courts of Charles IX. of France, and 
his brother Henry III., and was gradually advanced to of* 
fices of high trust in the state. From bis childhood, he * 
said,. he had been always fond of looking into old libraries^ 
end turning over dusty manuscripts. lu some of these te«- 
iiearches he laid his hands on the letters of Abeiard and 
Heloise, which he read with much pleasure, and was in<« 
duced to pursue his inquiries. He found other works of 
the same author ; but they were ill-written, and not to be 
unravelled without great labour, yet nothing can withstand 
the indefatigable toil of a true antiquaay. Amboise pro^ 
cured other- manuscripts ; collated them together, and 
finally produced one fair copy, which m»de ample com- 
pensation, he sayis, for all the labour he had endured* 
Even posterity, he thinks, will be grateful tx> him^ and 
know how to value tlie pleasure and the profit, tliey will 
derive from his researches. Not satisfied, however, with 
the copy he possessed, he still wished to enlarge it. He 
a|>plied to differeost monasteries, and he again searched the 
libraries- in Paris, and not without success* His friends 
applauded hm zeal, and gave him their assistance^ His 
manuscripts swelled to a large bulk, and he ready arranged^ 
and selected what pleased him best. The risibg sun, he 
says, often found, him .at. his task. So far fbrtune bad 
smiled upon his Ikbours, but soosewhat was iwantdng to give 
them the last finish^ He went over to the Pairaclet, where the 
abbess, Madam« de Rochefoucsuuld, received • bi|n with the 
greatest politeness. ' He deolaxed the motive of his journey*; 
Retook him by the hand, > and r led him to the tomb of 
Abeiard and ^i^oise.^ Together they examinedthe library 
of the abbey, and) she- shevued . hsm. many^ hymns, and 
pitayers, and homfilies^.wEittini by Iheif fotinden^wdiich were 
still used in their, ^urch*' A^^^^^^^-^I^^^^ *®^^^^d ^ Pavis^ 



A M B O I S E, W 

.and prepared bis work for the press.' As the repiitalaon of 
his author, he knew, had been muph aspersed by isdmo 
contemporary writers, he wished to remove the undeserved 
stigma, and to present him as immaculate as might be, be^ 
fore the eyes of a more discerning age. Witli this view 
he wrote a long *^ Apologetic preface," which he meant 
should be prefixed to the work. In this preface, an indew 
gant and affected composition, be labours much to shew 
iJiat Abelara was the greatest and best man, and Heloise 
the greatest and best woman, whom the annals of humaa 
kind had recorded. He first, very fairly, brings the testi- 
mony of those, who had spoken evil of them, whom he en-> 
deavours to combat and refute. To these succeeds a list 
of their admirers. He dwells on. their every word, and 
gives more weight to their expressions, and the result is 
what we might expect from the pen of Ainboise. The com-* 
pilation, however, although unsuccessful in its main de- 
sign, contains some curious matter, and may be read with 
pleasure. But he did not live to see it published, for it was 
not printed till the year 1616. He died before this, but 
the> exact time is not known. The editor of the Diction- 
naire Historique places his death in 1620, which must be a 
mistake. His works are^ 1. ^^ Notable Discours, en forme 
de dialogue, touchant la vraie et pariaicte amitie," tran- 
slated from the Italian of Piccolomini, Lyons, 1577, 16mo. 
2. ^^ Dialogue et Devis des Damoiselles, pour les rendre 
vertueuses.et bienheureuses en la vraye et parfaicte amitie,^* 
Paris, 15a 1 and 15SS, 16mo. 3. ^^ Regrets facetieux et 
plaisantes^ Harangues funebres sur la mort de divers ani- 
maulx,'' from the Italian of Ortensio Lando,. Paris, 1576, 
1583. These three works were published under the name 
of Tbierrj de Thymophile, a gentleman of Picardy, which 
has procured him a place in Baillet^s catalogue of disguised 
authors. 4. ^^ Les Neapolitaines,*' a French comedy, 
Parj^, 15$4, 1.6mQ.. 5. An edition of the works of Abe- 
lard. 6» ^' Desesporades, ou Eglogues ainoarouses," Paw 
ris,. 1573, 8vo. His younger brother Adrians, who was 
boraat Pairis 1551, and died bishop of Treguier, July28, 
1616^ wvote in hi» youth, a speqies of sacred drl^ma, en- 
titled ^Mlolophernes," printed at Paris, 15B0, 8vo.* 

AMBQISE (QfiOEOfi d') a French card&naL and 8fta|:es^ 
mau of the illustrious house of Amboise iiv France,, so caiied 

I Gen. I>icitv--PrefacietoB«rnii|;t0n'8aitUofAbeliurdr--Bio|r.^Univer9^1)ct . 



7t A M 1^ I s il: 

from tbeir possessing the seignory of that name, was bom' 
in 1460. Being destined at a very early age for the 
churchy be was elected bishop of Montauban when only' 
fourteen. He was afterwards made one of the almoners to 
Lewi^ XI. to whom he behaved with great prudence. After 
the death of this prince in 1480^ he entered into some of 
the intrigues of the court with a design to favour the duke 
of Orleansi with whom he was closely connected ; but 
those intrigues being discovered, d'Atnboise and his pro- 
tector were both imprisoned. The duke of Orleans was? 
at last restored to his liberty ; and this prince having ne^ 
gotiated the marriage of the king with the princess Anne 
of Britanny, acquired great reputation and credit at court. 
Of this his favourite d* Amboise felt the happy effect as, 
toon after, the archbishopric of Narbonne was bestowed on 
bim ; but being at too great a distance from the court, he 
changed it for that of Rouen, to which the chapter elected 
bim in 1493. As soon as he had taken possession of 'his 
new see, the duke of Orleans, who was governor of Nor- 
mandy, made him lieutenant-general, with the same power 
as if he had been governor in chief. This province was 
at^that time in great disorder : the noblessie oppressed the 
people, the judges were all corrupted or intimidated ; the 
soldiers, who had been licentious since the late wars, in- 
fested the high-way8, plundering and assassinating all 
travellers they met ; but in less^than a year, d' Amboise by 
his care and prudence established public tranquillity. The 
king dying in 1498, the duke of Orleans ascended the 
throne, by the name of Lewis XII. and d* Amboise became 
his prime minister. By his first operation in that ofEce, he 
conciliated the affection of the whole nation. It bad been 
a custota when a new monarch ascended the throne, to lay 
an extraordinary tax on the people, to defray the ex-r 
pences of the coronation, but by the counsel of d'Amboise 
this tax was not levied, and the imposts were soon reduced 
one tenth. His virtues coinciding with his knowledge, he 
made the French nation happy, and endeavoured to pre- 
serve the glory they had acquired. By his advice Lewis 
XIL undertook the conquest of the Milanese in 1499» 
Lewis the Moor, uncle and vassal of Maximilian, was then 
in possession of that province. It revolted soon after the 
conquest, but d* Amboise brought it back to its duty. Some 
time after he was received at Paris with great magni^ 
ficence^ iQ qualitj^ of legate from Che pope. During hi^ 



A 1^ B G I 3 R tt 

legation, he kboured to reform many ol the religious 4r« 
den> lis the jacobins^ the cordeliers, and thoteof St, Ger» 
main des Pres. His disinterestedness was equal to his zeaL 
He never possessed more than one benefice, two thirds of 
which he employed for the relief of the poor and the sup^ 
port of the (iburches. Contenting himself with his arch* 
bishopric of Rouen and his cardinal's, hat, he was not, 
like his contemporaries, desirous to add abbeys to it. A 
gentleman of Normandy having offered to sell him an estate 
«t a very low price, in order to portion his daughter, be 
made him , a present of a sum sufficient for that purpose, 
and left him the estate. He obtained the purple after the 
dissolution of the marriage between Lewis XII. and Joan 
of France, to which he greatly contributed : and, on having 
procured for Caesar Borgia, son of pope Alexander VL 
the duchy of Valentinois, with a considerable pension, his 
ambition was to be pope, with a view to the reform of 
abuses, and the correction of manners. After the death of 
Pius III. he might have succeeded in his wishes, and 
took measures to procure the tiara, but cardinal Julian de 
Rovera (afterwards Julius II.) found means to circumvent 
him ; and the Venetians having contributed to his exclu* 
sion, he took the first opportunity to excite Lewis XII. to 
make war on them, a circumstance which seems not a little 
to detract from his character. This celebrated cardinal 
died in 1510, in the convent of the Celestines at Lyons,, 
of the gout in his stomach, aged 50 years. It is reported 
that he often repeated to the friar who attended him in his 
illness, '< Brother John, why have I not during my whole 
life been brother John ?'' This minister has been gristly 
praised for having laboured for the happiness of France ; 
but he has been equally censured for having advised his 
master to sign the treaty of Blois in 1 504, by which France 
ran the risk of being disnaembered. He governed both 
the, king and the state ; laborious, kii^d, honest, he pbs-' 
sessed good sense, firmness, and experience, but he wa^ 
not a ereat genius, nor were his views extensive. The 
desbe ne had to ease^ the people in their taxes, procured 
him during his life, but much more after his death, the 
title of father of the people. He merited this title stttt 
more, by the care he took to reform the administration oi 
justice. Most of the judges were venal, and the poor, 
and those who had no support, could never obtain justice^ 
when their opposers were either powerful or rich. Another 



»f A W B O 1 S t. 



net \tt^ endrmous troubled th^ kingdom; kW^^suiii' 
were spun out to such a length, were so eicpensit^c,' Wfd 
ac4:oaipanied by so much trick and chicanery, that most 
people rather chose to abandon tlieir rights than engage ih 
the recovery of them by suits wjiich had no prospect of 
eomifig to an end. D'Amboise resolved to remedy thi^ 
abuse. He called to his assistance many lawyers and ci- 
vilian^, the most learned and of the greatest integrity; 
and charged them to form a plan, by which justice might 
be administered without partiality, the duration of law* 
suits abridged and retidered less ruinous, and the corrupt 
tion of the judges prevented. When these commissionerar 
had made their report, d^Amboise undertook the laboriouis 
task of examimng into the changes tfa^y had proposed in 
the old laws, and tjie new regulations they desigtied to 
establish ; and after having made some changes, these view 
iregttlations w^re published throughout the kingdom. As- - 
he was governor of Normandy, he made a progress through 
that province for the express purpose of seeing his nev# 
code properly established. * 

AMBOISE' (James d*), a brother of the preceding 
Francis and Adrian, followed his father's profession, that 
of medicine, and obtained a doctor's degree in 1594. Aftef 
Benry IV. had reduced Paris to its loyalty and submission, 
Ambeise became rector of the university, which Cr^vi^i* 
says he found in great decay and disorder, add which hef 
left in a renovated and flourishing state: He began by 
making the members of the university take an oath of al^ 
}egiance to Henry IV. He afterwarrds supportefd the uni- 
versity in the law-suit with the Jesuits, which was giverf 
against the latter, and they were e^gpelled ; Jie even ac-* 
eused them of being enemies to the Saliqtie law, and tor 
the royal family. He died of the plague in 1606. Hisr 
only works are, ,** Orationes duje," against the Jesuits, 
Paris, 1595, 8vo, and " Questionesr Medicales,'* mentioned 
in CjH^rere's *' Bibliotheque de la Medicine." Haller at- 
tributes other medical treatises to one of the same name, 
but does not notice the " Questiones." ' 

AMBOISE (Michael d'), a miscellaneous French writer, 
who, in his works, assumed the title of signior de Che- 
idlion, was the natural, son of Chaumont d'Amboide, aid-- 

1 Oen. Dictv— Moreri.— Life, by the Abbe l^ Oendre, 1791, 4lo,«Dd1l voli«r 

|8ino. His Letters to Lewis XIL were printed at Brnssels, 171^ 4 roU, Ij^ipOa^ 

^- ae«« Bict-^Bioip. UaiTeneUe^-^Maoget Bibl.-^H&lJer Bibl. Med. ^^ 



A M B- O I "S E. ' f« 

miralof Fhuiee> and Uentenafit^geiidral in Lombardy. He 
was born at Naples in the beginning of the sixteenth cen^ 
tary, and was- educated witsh the legitimate son of hii 
father, but the latter died suddenly, in 1511, before he 
had mode any promion for MichaeL He then went to 
Paris, and was intended for the profession of the law, but 
was so attached to poetry, although his lirst performances 
were unsuccessful, that heponld not beprerailed onto 
study law, 'and his friends abandoned him, *He married 
also imprudently, and his accumalated disappointments 
and distresses are suppOMd tohave shoiftened^his life. Hd 
4ied in 1547. Niceron has giten a large catalogue of hia 
works, all nottrinally poetical, tbut withckit any character^* 
istios of the art^. and which- probably procured him somts 
small degree of r^p«iatidn, chiefly from the rapidity wiA 
which he wroto and 'published. ^ ' 

AMBROGI (AOTorwE Marie), an eminent Italianf scho^ 
lar, was born at Florenco^June 13, 1713; and died at'Rbm6 
in 1788, where he had- beett professor of eloquence for 
tiiirty years with great reputation. Most of the present 
Italialn. literati are indebted to him for their taste for study 
and the happy manner in which he taught them to employ 
theic talents. He pidriished a ^^ Translation of Virgil into 
blank verse,'^ of which thf^ edition printed at Rome, 8 vols* 
fel. 176S, a most swperb book, fes very scajrce : he trans- 
lated likewise some qf the tragedies of Voltaire, Florencei 
1752^ and a selection o^ Cicero^s epistles; he published 
a Latin 'oratioH on the election of Joseph II. to be king of 
the Boixtans ; but be is pfrincipally known for the ** Mu* 
seum Kicheranum," in iJ^ yols. folio, 1765. The care of 
this valuable museum: Wa^ )6ng confided to him, and h^ 
prevailed Uport the learned cardinal De Zelada to enrich it 
by his coileettons. He feft in manuscript, a Latin poem 
pn the cultivation of the Idmon-tree. One other publica- 
tion ^remains, to b^ noticed^ his traneJation of the Jesuit 
Noq8ti*8'iwo poems oil the Ir»is and the Aurora Bore^lis^ 
which were printed in the, same magnificfent manner wiA. 
bis Virgil. * ' • 

AMBROGIOy or AMBR9SIUS (THESEtrs), a learned 
kalianorieiiialist^ v^as-bbrn in 1469,'a descendant of the 
noble family of the counts of Albanese. At fifteen mOfithj^ 
be is said to have ^pokeq. his native language with facility. 



4 «.•«.,•• 



I Miog; Vuivertelltf.— Gen, Diet. • Bio(; Uniyerselle.— Diet. Historiqus. 



«9 AMBROGIO. 

and ftt fifteen ^ars^, to have spoken and written Ghreek and 
Latin with a {»ron]()titude equal to the best schohirs of bis 
time. He entered young into the order of regular canons 
of St. John of Lateran^ but did not come to Rome until 
1512, at tiie opening of the fifdi session of the Lateran 
council. The great number of ecclesiastics from Syria, 
£thiopia» and o^er parts of. the East, who attended that 
iBOunciiy afforded him an opportunity of prosecuting his 
studies with advantage : and at the r<9{uest of the cardinal 
Santa Croce^ he was employed as the person best qualified 
to translate from the Chaldean into Latin the liturgy of 
jtlie eastern clerg^^, previously to the use of it being ex- 
pressly sanctioned l^ the pope. After having been em^ 
ployed by Leo X* for two years in giving instxuctions in 
JLatin to the subdeacon Elias, a legate from Syria to the 
council^ whom the pope wished to retain in his court, and 
from whom Ambrogio received in return instructions in the 
Syrian tongue, he was appointed by the pontiff to a pro* 
fessor's chair in the university of Bologna, where he de- 
livered instructions in the Syriac and Chaldaic languages 
fqr the first time that they had been publicly taught in Italy. 
He is said to have understood no less than eighteen lan- 
guages, many of which he spoke with the ease and fluency 
of a native ; but from the letter quoted by Mazauchelli, it 
appears more probable that he was master of at lea$$t ten 
languages, and understood many others partially. In the 
commotions which devastated luity after the death of Leo X^ 
Ixe was despoiled in 1527 of the numerous and valuable 
eastern manu^pipts, Chaldean, Hebrew, and Greek, which 
he had collected by the industry of many years, and of the 
lypes and apparatus which he had prepared for an edition 
of the Psalter in the Chaldean, accompanied with a disser- 
tation on that language. He afterwards, however, came 
to Venice, in the prosecution of this object; and, in 1539^ 
published at Pavia, his *' Introduction to the Chaldean, 
Syrian, Armenian^ and ten other tongues, with the alpha- 
Jbetical characters of about forty different languages,'*' 4t09 
which is considered by the Italians themselves as the 
Earliest attempt made in Italy towards a systematic ac- 
quaintance with the literature of the East, H^ died the 
year following. * 



A M fi R O S S. hi 

■ 

AMBROSE (Sr.) one of the most eminent fathers of 
the church, was by descent a citizen of Rome, but bora 
at Aries, in France, then the metropolis of Gallia Nar« 
bonensis, in the year 333, according to Cave, or ac- 
cording to Du Pin, in the year 340. His father was the 
emperor's lieutenant in that district ; one of the highest 
places of trust and honour in the Roman empire. Am- 
brose was the youngest of three children, Marcellina and 
Satyrus being born before him. After his father's death, 
his mother, with thelfamily, returned to Rome, where he 
made himself master of all the learning that Greece and 
Rom^ could afford ; and at the same time profited in re- 
ligion by the pious instructions of his sister Marcellina, 
who had devoted herself to a state of virginity. Wh6n 
grownup, he pleaded causes with so much ability, as to 
acquire the good opinion of Anicius Probus, pretorian 
prefect, or emperor's lieutenant in Italy, who made choice 
of him to be of his council ; and having authority to ap- 
point governors to several provinces, he gave Ambrose 
one of these commissious, saying : ^^ Go, and govern more 
like a bishop than a judge.'' In this office, Ambrose re- 
aided at Milan for five years, and was applauded for his 
» prudence and justice; but his pursuit of this profession 
was interrupted by a singular event, which threw him 
into a course of life for which he had made no preparation, 
and bad probably never thought of, and for which he was 
no otherwise qualified than by a character irreproachable 
in civil life, and improved by the pious instructions of hia 
youth. 

In the year 374, Auxentius, bishop of Milan, died, and 
immediately the bishops of the province met together to 
elect a successor. The emperor, Valentinian, sent for 
them, and told them, that they, as men acquainted with th^ 
scriptures, ought to understand better than himself the 
qualifications necessary for so important a station ; that 
they should chuse a man fit to instruct by life as well a$ 
4k>ctrine, in which casoj he (the emperor) would readily 
submit his sceptre to his counsel and directions; and, 
conscious that he was liable to human frailty, would re- 
ceive his reproofs and admonitions as wholesome physic. 
The bishops, however, requested his majesty to nominate 
the person, but Valentinian persisted in leaving the de- 
cision W their choice. This was at a time when factions 
werf sttbng, acid wlien- the Ariaa party were very desirous 
Vol. IL >G 



S9 AMBROSE. 

o£ Meeting one of \heir number. The city, accordingly, 
was divided, and a tumult seemed approaching, when An»« 
brose, as a magistrate, hastened to the church of Milan^ 
and exhorted the people to peace and submission to the 
laws. On concluding his speech, an infant's voice in the 
crowd was heard to say : " Ambrose is bishop ;" and im- 
mediately the whole assembly exclaimed : ^' Let Ambrose 
be bishop," a decision in which the contending factions 
agreed unanimQusly. 

Ambrose, in the greatest astonishment, endeavoured^ to 
refuse the offer, and afterwards took some measures of ah 
Extraordinary, and certainly unjustifiable nature, to evade 
the office. By exercising unnecessary severity on some 
hialefactprs, he endeavoured to give the people a notion 
of his savage and unchristian temper ; and by encouraging 
strumpets to come to his house, he thought to obtain the 
character of a man pf loose life. This singular species of 
bypocrisy, however, was easily detected. He had then 
no other means left to prove his repugnance to the pro- 
fered office of bishop, than by retiring from Milan ; but, 
mistaking his way, he was apprehended by the. guardjt, 
and confined until the emperor's pleasure should be known, 
without which no subject could leave his office. Valen- 
tinian immediately consented ; but Ambrose again made 
his escape, and did not return until it was declared cri* 
minal to conceal him. He then, with great reluctance, 
entered upon his new office, in the thirty -fourth year of 
his age. 

The first step he took, which probably confirmed the 
good opinion to which he owed his election, was to give 
to the church and to the poor all his personal property, 
aud his lands in reversion, after the deatli of his sister 
Marcellina. ' His family he committed to the care of liis 
brother Satyrus. He now applied himself to the study, of 
theology, under Simptician, a presbyter of Rome, a maoi 
of great learning and piety, whom he invited to Milan^ 
and who was afterwards his successor in that see. His 
studies he pursued with ardour and perseverance ; but it 
has been uniformly regretted that he made the workS of the 
fanciful Origen so much the object of his study, for to this 
all the extravagant opinions in his writings may be referred^ 
He soon, however, commenced preacher, and officiated every 
Sunday, and as head of the church of Milan,' he Iflpboured 
Unremittingly in discouraging the Arian heresy in Italy, in 



A M B RO S E. :$i 

which, it will soon appear, he would have made little- 
progress, had he not been endowed with an uncommon 
share of heroic firmness. 

In his general conduct he was distinguished for his sin-^ 
cerity, charity, and piety, but he could not withstand all 
the superstitious practices of his time. His encomium^ on 
virginity were certainly extravagant and pernicious. Thii 
has been attributed to the little acquaintance he had with 
the scriptures before his ordination, and to the influence 
of his sister Marcellina, a zealous devotee, to whom he 
was aflectioiiately attached, and who had received the veil 
from the hands of pope Liberius. He wrote several trea- 
tises on tbi^ subject, and attempted to reduce the rules of 
it to a kind of system, and probably induced many young 
women, who might otherwise have been ornaments of sp- 
tiety, to become the victims of solitary restraint, and 
fanciful continence. In other respects he inculcated the 
essentials of Christianity with fervour and success, and 
uniformly practised its virtues. When the ravages of the 
Goths afforded him aii opportunity to exercise his libe- 
rality, he scrupled not to apply the vessels of the church 
-to redeem captives, and vindicated himself against those 
who censured bis conduct. In the instruction of catechu* 
mens, he was remarkably indefatigable, and his character 
rose to such estimation, that his person was supposed to 
be sacredly guarded. Some stories to this effect are re- 
lated in his life by Paulinus, which perhaps may not now 
obtain credit. On one occasion, when a woman in- 
sulted him, he told her that '^ she ought to fear the judg- 
ment of God," and she died next day* On another 
occasion, when two Arians, of the court of Gratian^ in- 
tended to pass a ridicule upon him^ they were both thrown 
from their hor^s, and died before they could accpmplish 
their purpose. These stories, questionable or not> at least 
show the veneration paid to his character, while a modern 
reader is left to draw what other inference he pleases* 

His steady adherence to the Catholic doctrine of the 
Trinity, in opposition particularly to the Arians, induced 
him to take very active measures, and involved him in 
much trouble. About the year 'SSI, he condemned, in a 
council held at Aquileia, Palladius and Secundianus, two 
Arian bishop's, and the chief supporters of that heresy in 
the west, and they were formally deposed. Justina, the 
empress^ waii a decided patroness of Arianism^ and after 

<5 2 



S4 AMBROSE. 

the death of her husband, she endeavoured to instil those 
principles into her son Valentinian, and to induce him to 
threaten Ambrose, who exhorted him to support the docr 
trine received from the Apostle's. In a rage the young 
emperor ordered his guards to surround the church, and 
commanded Ambrose to come out of it ; but when the 
latter told him, that although his life was in his hands, he 
could not obey such an order, Valentinian desisted, and 
Justina was obliged to have recourse to more secret hos- 
tilities, dreading, probably, the people, who were gene- 
rally inclined to support their bishop. 

About this time Ambrose had to contend with an attempt 
of another kind. The Pagans, taking advantage of the 
minority of Valentinian, and the confusions of the empire^ 
endeavoured to recover their ancient establishment. The 
senate of Rome contained still a considerable proportion 
of Gentiles, and many of the great families piqued them- 
selves on their constancy, and contempt for the innovations 
of Christianity. Symmachus, one of their number, a man 
of great learning and powers of eloquence, applied to the 
emperor for permission to restore the altar of victory to the 
senate-hou^e. Ambrose immediately discerned that this was 
a request for something more than toleration. ^^ If,'' said he, 
in his letter to Valentinian, *' he is a Pagan who offers )'ou 
this advice, let him give the same liberty which he takes him- 
self. You compel no man to worship what he does not ap- 
prove. Here the whole senate, as far as it is Christian, is 
endangered. Every senator takes his oath at the altar; and 
every person who is obliged to appear before the senate 
upon oath, takes his Oath in the same manner. The di- 
vinity of the false gods is evidently allowed by the practice, 
and Christians are by these means obliged to endure a 
persecution." The address of Symmachus, with Am- 
brose's reply, are still extant ; but Ambrose was success- 
ful, and lived to defeat Symmachus when he made a 
second attempt, in the reign of Theodosius. 

Still, however, Justina, the empress, continued his 
enemy, although he had, by his talents in negociation, 
averted for a time the invasion of Italy from the court of 
Milan. In the year 386, she procured a law to enable the 
Arian congregations to assemble without interruption ; 
and Auxentius, a Scythian, of the same name with the 
Arian predecessor of Ambrose, was now introduced, under 
the protection of the empress^ into Milan. He challenged 



AMBROSE. 85 

Ambrose to hold a disputation with him in the emperor^s 
court, but the latter denied that it was any part of the 
emperor's business to decide on points of doctrine ; add- 
ii)g, '^ Let him come to church, and upon hearing, let 
the people judge for themselves ; and if they like Auxen- 
tius better, let them take him ; but they have already de- 
clared their sentiments." Auxentius then demanded that 
a party of soldiers might be sent to secure for himself the 
possession of the church called Basilica ; and it was re- 
presented as a very unreasonable thing, that the emperor 
should not be allowed one place of worship agreeable to 
his conscience. This, however, was not the fair question, 
for the emperor, if he chose to exert his authority, might 
have commanded any, or all the churches* The fact 
was, that Ambrose was now requested to do what be could 
not do conscientiously; namely, by his own deed to resign a 
church into the hands of the Arians, and thereby, indi- 
rectly at least, acknowledge their creed. He therefore 
refused, telling the officers that if the emperor had de- 
manded his house or land, money or goods, he would 
have freely resigned them, but that he could not deliver 
up that which was committed to his care. And although 
another attempt was made to obtain forcible possession 6( 
one or two churches, and violent commotions were about 
to ensue, Ambrose persisted in his principles of duty, and 
his resistance was effectual. 

Notwithstanding this weight of personal character, which 
crushed every attempt of his enemies, we find some ac« 
counts of superstitious practices upon record, which it is 
difficult to reconcile to his general conduct. Being called 
upon by the people to consecrate a new church, he an- 
swered that he would comply, if he could find any relics 
of martyrs there, and we are told that it was reve^aled to 
him in a vision at night, in what place he might find the 
reliqs ; but this last circumstance is not to be found in the 
epistle which he writes on the subject. He describes, 
however, the finding the bodies of two martyrs, Protasius, 
and Gervasius ; the supposed miracles wrought on the oc- 
casion ; the dedication of the church ; the triumph of the 
orthodox'; and the confusion of Arianism. If these mi- 
racles were not real, we know not how to exculpate Am- 
brose from at least conniving at the imposture, or being 
deluded himselfi neither of whicb are very consistent with 



S6 AM BR O 8 E. 

the strength of understanding and independence of mtud 
which he displayed on other occasions. 

The hews of Mas^imus^s intention to invade Italy ar- 
riving at this time (387), Justina condescended to employ 
Ambrose again on an embassy to the usurper, which he 
cheerfully undertook, and executed with great fortitude, 
but it was not in his power to stop the progress of the 
enemy. Theodosius, who reigned in the east, coming at 
length to the assistance of Valentinian, put an end to the 
usurpation, and the life of Maximus, and by his means 
the young emperor was induced to forsake his mother's 
principles, and to embrace those of Ambrose. After his 
death, in the year 392, Ambrose composed a funeral ora- 
tion to his praise, in which he seems to believe the real 
conversion of his royal pupil. The oration is not worthy 
of Ambrose, and perhaps the best excuse that can be 
made for him, is that he praised-one when dead, whom he 
never flattered when living. 

A more unpardonable instance of his weakness occurred 
at the beginning of the reign . of Theodosius. This em- 
peror, from a sense of justice, ordered some Christians to 
rebuild, at their own expence, a Jewish synagogue, which 
they had tumultuously pulled down* But Ambrose pre- 
vailed on him to set aside this sentence, from a mistaken 
notion, that Christianity should not be obliged to contri- 
bute to the erection of a Jewish synagogue. His eloquence 
on this occasion was, as usual, vigorous, but must surely 
have been used in support of arguments that could be lis- 
tened to only in an age of remarkable superstition. Am- 
brose appears, however, to more advantage in another 
transaction with the emperor Theodosius, of a very ex- 
traordinary kind. At Thessalonica a tumult happened 
among the populace, and one of the emperor's officers 
was murdered. Theodosius, who was of a passionate 
temper, ordered the sword to be employed. Ambrose in- 
terceded, and the emperor promised forgiveness ; but the 
great officem of his court persuaded him to sign a warrant 
for military execution, and seven thousand persons were 
massacred in three hours, without trial or distinction. 

Ambrose immediately wrote a letter to Theodosius, in which, 
be stated his own duty, and the emperor's crime, and refused 
to admit him into the church at Milan. The emperor 
jlloading the qa^ of |)avid, Apibrose desired bin) to i.mif 



AMBROSE;. 19 

t^e David in his nepentance as wdl as in hu tin, and k^ 
acccnrdingly submitted, and kept from 'the churofa eight 
inontbs, nor was he at last admitted without signs of peni«^ 
tence, and the performance of public penance. One coiji* 
dition which Ambrose imposed cannot be mentioned witlit 
out approbation ; it was, that the emperor should suspend 
the execution of capital warrants, for thirty days, in order 
that the mischiefs of intemperate anger might be pre* 
vented. Although in these public penances we see more 
of superstition than real compunction, and perhaps what, 
might now be reckoned an immoderate exercise of epis* 
copal power, yet it is probable in the then state of society, 
l^heodosius lost nothing by submission in the case of so 
flagrant a crime, nor Ambrose by performing what not 
only he conceived, but was then acknowledged, to be his 
duty* 

8uch are the outlines of the life of this eminent father,* 
which might have perhaps been filled up with many col- 
lateral events in which he was partially concerned; but 
for these our readers may be referred to Cave,, in his lives 
of the fathers,, and other ecclesiastical historians. Some of 
these, indeed, seem inclined to depreciate his character 
by a common error, of estimating the characters of distant 
and dark ages by the opinions which now prevail, and in 
this they have been followed by all who are, hostile to. ec-' 
clesiastical establishments. 

It remains that we conclude this, article with a short, 
notice of his death* In the' year 392, Valentinian the 
emperor being assassinated by the contrivance of Argo- 
bastus, and Eugenius Msitrping the empire^ Ambrose was 
obliged to leave Milan, but returned the year following, 
when Eugenius was defeated. He died at Milan the 4th 
of April, 397 ; and was buried in the great church at Mi^ 
Ian. He wrote several works, the most considerable of 
which is that ** De officiis," a<liscourse, divided intotfafae 
books, upon the duties of the clergy. It appears to have 
been written several years after he had been bishop, send 
very probably about the year 390 or 391, when peace was 
restored to the church, after the death of the tyrant 
Maximus. He has imitated in these three books the design 
and disposition of Cicero's piece De ofEciis. He confirms, 
says Mr. Du Pin, the good maxims which that orator has 
advanced, he corrects tbos^ which are imperfect, he. re-s 



91 A M B R O a ]& 

{oitdft those which are fstbe, and ^ds a gi^edt many 
ftth^is which are more excellent, pure, an4 elevated. 
He is concise and seateniious in his manner of wilting^ 
and full of turns of wit ; his terms are well chosen, and 
his expressions noble, and he diversifies his subjects by 
in admirable copiousness of thought and language. He is 
Tery ingenious in giving an easy and natural turn to every 
thing he treats, . and is frequently iK)t without strength and 
pathos; This is part of the character which Du Pin gives 
him as a writer ; but Erasmus tells us that he has many 
quaint and affected sentences^ and is frequently very obh* 
scure ; and it is certain that his writings are intermixed 
with many strange and peculiar opinions ; derived, as we 
have already remarked, from his early attachment to the 
manner of Origen. He maintained, thai; all men indif* 
ferently are to pass through a fiery trial at the last day ; 
that even the just are to suffer it, and t(y be purged from 
their sins, but the unjust are to continue i<> for ever ; that 
the faithfiil will be raised gradually at the last day, ac- 
Gcnrdiug to the degree of their particular merit ; that the 
bow which God promised Noah to place iti the firmament 
after the deluge, as a sign that he never intended to drown 
the world again, was not to be understocki of the rainbow, 
which can nev<er appear in the night, but some visible 
token of the Almighty » He: carries the esteem of virginity 
and celibacy so far, that he seems^ to regard matrimony as 
an indecent thing. But it inust be observed with regard 
to all those selections of opinions, that great injustice baa 
been done to his memory by friuds and interpolations, anj 
•ntire works have been attn^tited t6 blm, which he never, 
wrote. His wprks^ indeed, are divided into, 1. Those 
diat are genuine. 2. Those that are doubtfhl: 3. Those 
that are fictitious: and 4.* Those that are not extant. 
PauUnus', viik> was his amanuensis, wrote his life, and 
dedicated it to St. Augustin ; it is prdixed to St. Ambrose^S 
works } the best edition of which is reckoned to be that 
piiblished by the benedictine monks, in two volumes itt 
folio, at Paris^ in 1686, and 1690. His life was also pub- 
lished in 167a, by Godfrey Herment. * 

AMBROSE, deacon of Alexandria, the intimate friend 
md admirer of Origen, was a .man of great learning and 

1 Cavf's Uy«t of the Fi^tiicrs^— Milpec!ft <%urok ^ji^. vol. II. p. ji73«*«9dflu 
iffoshelm.— Ge^» Diet.'— Saxil Obomasticoii. 



AM B ft O S 2^. §i 

^ « 

jpietyv and . worthy- of being recorded, although his his- 
loiy has not in all particulars been exactly ascertainecf. 
Eusebius says that he followed the Valentinian heresy^, 
but was brought ov«r to orthodoxy by the preaching^ of 
Origen. St. Jerome says that he was at first a Marcionite^ 
but being convinced of his error by Origen, he became i 
deacon of the church, and had the honour of suffering for 
Christ, as a confessor. To him, he adds,, and to Protoc^ 
tetus, Origen inscribed his book on Martyrdom, and de- 
dicated to him many other volumes which were published 
at his desire and expence. Ambrose was a man of a good 
femily, and of considerable wit, as his letters to Origen 
show.. He died before Origen, and is blamed by many, 
because,, though he was rich, he did not at his death re- 
member his friend, who was not only poor, but in hi* 
old age. 

Of these two accounts of Ambrose*s first opinions, Di*, 
Lardner prefers that of Eusebius, and thinks that Ambrose*!^ 
conversion from the heresy of Valentin us, tookjilace 
about the year 212. Eusebius says nothing of his being a 
deacon of the church of Alexandria, which we have named 
him, and Dr. Lardner is inclined to think he held tha:t 
office in the church of Caesarea. Origen, in a letter of 
which a fragment only remains, calls him '^ a man indeed 
devoted to God,'^ and speaks of his earnest desire to un- 
derstaivd the- scriptures, and of his great application to 
them. He had a wife, named Marcella, by whom he had 
several children ; she is commended by Origen as a true 
Christian, and. faithful wife. Eusebius also informs us, 
that Ambrose was the person who excited Origen to write 
commentaries upon the scriptures, and that not only h^ 
words and entreaties, but by supplies of all things neces* 
tary, furnishing him with amanuenses, whom he paid li- 
berally. With respect to his bequQatbing nothing to 
Origen^ Tillemont thinks that Ambrose knew his friend'a 
mind, and that Origen chose to be poor, and to live in a 
dep^idence on providence. St. Jerome speaks of Am- 
brose's *' Epistles ;'' but there are none of them extant. 
It appears by the best conjectures, that he lived nearly to 
the yoar 250. ^ 

AMBROSE, a monk, and general of the monks of Ca-. 
malduli, was born in 1378, at Portico in the Romagnai. 

■» Oen. Pict^^Lardner's.WorkSj vol. III. p. 1S>1.— Moreru 



fp AMBROSE. 

Eugene IV. sent him to the couocil of Basil, where he 
much distinguished himself, as well as at those of Ferrara 
and Florence. He acquired a high degree of reputation 
by his profound knowledge of the Greek language, by 
his uncommon acquaintance with Grecian literature, b^ 
the zeal and industry he discovered in the attempts be 
made to effectuate a reconciliation between the Greek and 
Latin churches. He was no less admired for his candid and 
liberal spirit, . and placid and serene temper. Having 
failed in an attempt to reconcile those literary rivals Pog- 
gius and Valla, he told them that men who m^atde use of 
abusive language could not be supposed to possc^ss either 
the charity of Christians, nor the politeness of men of 
letters., His talents would have recommended him to the 
purple, which the pope intended, but this was prevented 
by his death, Oct 23, 1439. He was employed, by order 
of pope Eugenius IV. to reform several convents of both 
sexes, which had become irregular; and he has described 
the result of his labours in this difficult work in his ^^ Ho« 
da^poricon,'' which contains particulars of the behaviour 
of the inhabitants of those convents, which he found it ne- 
cessary to express in Greek. This was printed at Florence, 
14:$ 1 and 1432, 4to, both scarce editions, and 1678, Svo. 
The other works of this learned monk were Latin transla- 
tions from the fathers. Martenne, in his ^' Collectio am* 
plissima,*^ has published twenty hpoks of his letters, which, 
contain many curious particulars of the history of his time. 
He also translated Diogenes Laertiusinto Latin, which was 
printed at Venice, 1475, and is a book of great price, as 
being prior in date by nearly sixty years to any edition of 
that author. ' 

AMBROSE DE LoMB^z (Pere), a pious and learned 
capuchin, whose family name was la Peirie, was born at 
Lombez in 1708^ and died the 25th of October 1778, at 
St. Saviour, near Bareges, at the age of 70. His order 
was sensible to his merit, and he was successively pro- 
fessor of theology, guardian, and deiinitor. His tract on 
^* Inward Peace,'* and his " Lettres Spirituelles,'- each 
in one vol^ 12mo, are said by persons of his communion, 
to be full of light and unction, and breathe that gende 
piety that characterised their author. We are told by pere 
Mayeul, that he had great talents as a spiritual director, 

^ Bios. UQiverselk,*-Dict. Hist.*-Gen. Diet in Camaldoli-i— Moceru 



A M B R O S E. fl 

%Tid was an instrument in the hand of God for converting 
sinners, and consoling the just. Pere Ambrose had hj 
nature a self«love by tar too sensible^ with an exuberance 
of delicacy, and an ardent desire of public esteem : but an 
adherence to the precepts of the gospel effectually cured 
him of all these defects. To his native pride he opposed 
humility and self-contempt. ** It is self-love/* said he, 
^^ that corrupts our virtues, and spoils our happiness. Of 
a hundred things that offend us in society, ninety*nine 
were never meant to offend. But pride takes all things in 
their strictest rigour." " Let it take things," added he, 
^ as it will ; I will suffer all. If they should spit in my 
iace, have I not a handkerchief to wipe it off?"^ 

AMBROSE (Isaac), a noted presbyterian teacher in the 
times of the usurpation, was son of a clergyman, and de-* 
scended from the Ambroses of Ambrose-hall, in Lancashire* 
In the beginning of the year 1621 he was admitted of Bra*' 
zen-nose college in Oxford, where he took the degree of 
bachelor of arts. Afterwards he went into holy orders, and 
officiated in some little cure in his own county. Being in 
very low circumstances, he was often obliged to the bounty 
of William earl of Bedford for the relief of himself and ia« 
mily. Mr. Wood thinks that lord procured him to be 
inserted in the list of his majesty's preachers, appointed 
for the county of Lancaster. Afterwards, when the times 
changed, in 1641, he left the church of England, and went 
over to the presbyterian party, took the covenant^, and 
became a preacher at Preston, and^afterwards at Garstang, 
in his own county. He was very zealous and very active 
against the clergy of the estabUshed church, especially 
after he was appointed assistant to the commissioners for 
ejecting such whom they called scandalous and ignorant 
ministers and school- masters. In 1662 he was ejected for 
nonconformity. It was usual with him to retire every year 
for a month, into a little hut in a wood, when he shunned 
all society, and devoted himself to religious contemplation. 
He had, according to Calamy, a very strong impulse on 
bis mind of the approach of death : and took a formal leave 
of bis friends at their own houses, a little before his de^* 
parture> and the last night of his life, he sent his ** Dis«< 
course concerning Angels,^' to the press. Next day be, 
-Aut himself up in his parlour, where, to the surprise and 

I Qict, Hist,— Bios. UijmMUe, 



kt AMBROSE. 

• 

fegrct of bis friebds^ he wis found expiring. The time of 
liis death is sta4:ed to have been in 166S-4, in the seventy- 
second year of his age, but at the bottom of the portrait 
prefixed to bis works, is the inscription " aetat. 59. 1663.** 
This cdntradictioD has not been reconciled by Granger. 
His works were printed in a large folio volume, in 1674^ 
16S2, and )6S9, and often since. They consist of pious 
tracts on various subjects, and have ever been popular* * 

AMBROSINI (Bartholomew), was a physician of con- 
ftderable eminence and professor of botany at Bologna, 
where he died in 1657. He was also director of the bo- 
tanic garden, and was appointed by the senate sUperin- 
tendant of the museum of natural history belonging to the 
fepublic. His principal botanical work was entitled " De 
Capsicorum varietate cum suis iconibus: accessit panacea 
ex herbis quae a Sanctis denominantur,** Bologna, 1650, 
12H10. He was also distinguished as a successful medical 
practitioner; and during the plague in 1630, his extensive 
experience furnished the materials of a work on that sub- 
ject, **'Mod(i, e facile preser>'a, e cura di peste a beneficio 
de popolo di Bologna," 1651, 4to. He published after- 
wards, " Theorica medicina in tabulas digesta," 1632, 4to, 
ibid. **De Pulsibus," 1645, 4to; ** De externis malis 
opusculum,'^ 1656; " De'Urinis," &c. He likewise dis- 
csovered great ability as an editor, in the publication of 
the 9th, 10th, nth, and 12th vdumes of the works of Al- 
iircHrandus. * 

AMBROSINI (Hyacinth), brother to the preceding, 
pnd his successor in the direction of the botanic garden at 
Bologna, in 1657 published the catalogue ** Hortus Bo- 
poniae studiosorum consitus," ibid. 1654, 1657, 4to; and a 
little before his death, ** Phy tologia, hoc est, de plantis. 
partis primse tomus primus, &c.*' ibid. fol. 1666. This 
.contains the names, synonyms, and etymologies of the 
plants, with a botanical lexicon, and index in three Ian- 

fuages. It has been often consulted for the synonyms, 
at the etymologies are thought to be sometimes fanciful. 
The second volume, which was to include trees, never 
Appeared. The Ambrosini were skilful botanists, but living 
before the science was so well understood as it has been 
lince the time of Linnaeus, their works are deficient in 

* Biog. Brit— Calamy.— Ath.. Ox.— Granger. 

s Biog. Universelle.-^Maiige^ BibL-^Oiet; Histortqite^ 



A M B R O S I N I. 99 

«rder and precision. Bassi dedicated a genus of plants to 
tbeir memory, under the name of Ambrosinia, a g^nus of 
the polyandria order, of which there is but one species^ « 
native of Turkey. ' 

AMELINE (Claude), a French ecclesiastic, born at 
Paris about 1629, for a few years practised at the bar, but 
from some disgust with the world, entered the congrega* 
tion of the oratory in April 1660, and having repaired t^ 
the university of Saumur to study divinity, became thero 
intimately acquainted with father Malebranche. He waft 
ordained a priest in 1663, and about the same time was 
appointed grand chantor of the church of Paris ; but this 
situation affording no scope for his zeal, he exchanged it 
for that of grand archdeacon, an office which placed under 
his inspection the greater part of the curates of the diocese. 
He published^ 1. <' Traite de la volenti," Paris, 1684» 
12mo, the fruit of his intimacy with Malebranche, but 
whicb^ Bayle has erroneously attributed to IVJ. Nicole, 2. 
** Traite de Tamour de souverain bien, &c." Paris, 1699, 
12mo^ against the Quietists. Some also think he wiote 
^' Uai-t de vivre heureux^'^ Paris, 1690, which others give 
to Louis Pascal.* 

AMELIUS GENTILIANUS, an eclectic philosopher 
of the third ' century, was a native of Tuscany, and th« 
contemporary of Porphyry, and studied the principles of 
the Stoic philosophy under Lysimachus. He became after«> 
wards acquainted with the writings of Numenius, and from 
him learned and adopted the dogmas of Plato, but at last, 
about the year 246, became the disciple of Plotinus. For 
twenty-four years he associated with this master, and pro- 
bably never would have quitted him, if Plotinus, on ac-* 
count of his health, had not been obliged to go to Cam**' 
pania. Amelius then settled .at Apamea in Syria, and it 
was no doubt his long residence here which led Suidas intQ 
the mistake that he was a native of the place. The word 
Amelius in Creek signifies negligent, but no epithet could 
ever be worse applied than to bim^ Porphyry therefore 
tells us tliat he preferred being called Amenusj and he is 
accordingly recorded under this name by Eunapius in his 
lives of the Greek sophists. His disciples also, bestowed 
on him the title of noble. He wrote nearly an hundred 

> Biog, UniVersellc. — Manget. Bibl. — Diet. Historique. 
3 MorerL— -Bayle Rep^blique ^i Isttres, Jan. 1685. 



irl^ AM ELI US, 

treatisesi none of which have descended to our times, dt^ 
of them was a discussion on the difference between the 
doctrines of Numenius and Plotinus. Eusebius^ Theodoret, 
and St. Cyril, quote a passage from Amelius in which h& 
brings the beginning of the Gospel of St. John in confir- 
mation of the doctrine of Plato on the divine nature. He 
bad an adopted son, Justin Hesycbius, to whom he left his 
writings. The time of bis death is not known. * 

AMELOT DE LA HOUSSAYE (Nicholas), called 
by some Abraham Nicholas, but, according to Niceron, 
Nicholas only appears in his baptismal register, was bom 
February 1634, at Orleans. He wa^ much esteemed at 
the court of France, and appointed secretary of an em- 
bassy which that court sent to the commonwealth of Venice, 
as appears by the title of bis translation of father PauPs 
history of the council of Trent ; but he afterwards published 
writings which gave such offence, that he was imprisoned 
in the Bastile, The first works he printed were the " His- 
tory of the Government of Venice, and that of the Uscocks', 
8 people of Croatia:'' in 1683, he published also transla- 
tions into French of Macbiavel's Prince, and father Paul's 
history of the council of Trent, and political discourses of 
his own upon Tacitus. These performances were well re- 
ceived by the public, but he did not prefix his own name 
to the two last mentioned works, but concealed himself 
under that of La Mothe Josseval. His translation of father 
Paul was attacked by the partisans of the pope's unbounded 
power and authority. In France, however, it met with 
great success ; all the advocates for the liberty of the Gal- 
ilean church promoting the success of it to the utmost of 
their power ; though at the same time there were three 
memorials presented to have it suppressed. When th& 
second edition of this translation was published, it w^s 
violently attacked by the abbe St. Real, in a letter he wrote 
to Mr. Bayle, dated October 17, 1685, and Amelot de^ 
fended himself, in a letter to that author. In 1684, he 
printed, at Paris, a French translation of Baltasar Gracian'» 
Oraculo manual, with the title of ^^I'Homme de Cour;^*- 
In his preface he defends Gracian against father Bot^houi^ 
critique, and gives bis reasons why he ascribes this book, 
to Baltasar and not to Laurence Gracian. He also meii- 
lions that be had altered the title, because it appeared to(^ 

^ Blog. UaiverseUe.— Morcri.— Geo. Dictj.— Brooker. 



A M E L O T. 9S 

«6tentatiou» and hyperbolical ; that of <* 1' Homme de Cour;*^ 
the Courtier, being more-proper to erpress the subject of 
the book, \ffaich contains a collection of the finest maxims 
for regulating a court-life. In 1686, be printed ^^ La Mo- 
rale, de Tacite;^' in which he collected several particular 
tacts and maxims, that represent in a strong light the ar* 
tifices ofcourt-^flatteries, and the mischievous effect of their 
conversations. In 1690, he published at Paris a Frenoh 
trauslatien of the first six books of Tacitus's annals, widi 
his historical and political remarks, some of which, ae* 
cording to Mr. Gordon, are pertinent and useful, but many 
of tbem insipid and trifling. Ametot having employed his 
pen for several years on historical and political subjects^ 
began now to try his genius on religious matters ; and in 
16dl printed at Paris a translation of <^ Palafox's theolo- 
gical and moral Homilies upon the passion of our Lord.**-^ 
Frederic Leonard, a bookseller at Paris, having proposed, 
in the year 16i^2, to print a collection of all the treaties of 
peace between the kings of France and all the other princes 
of Europe, since the reign of Charles VII. to the year 1690, 
Amelot published a small volume in duodecimo, containing 
a preliminary discourse upon these treaties ; wherein he 
endeavours to show the insincerity of courts in matters of 
aegociation. He published also an edition of cardinal 
d^Os8at*s letters in 1697, with several observations of his 
own ; which, as he tells us in his advertisement, may sen- e 
as a supplement to the history of the reigns of Henry III. 
and Henry IV. of France. Amelot died at Paris, Dec« 8, 
1706, being then alfi)ost 73 years of age, and left several 
other works enumerated by Niceron, who objects to his 
style, but praises his fidelity. The freedom with which 
he wrote on political subjects appears to have procured for 
him a temporary fame, unaccompanied with any other ad« 
vantages. Altl^ough be was admired for his learning and 
political knowledge, he was frequently in most indigent 
circumstances, and indebted to the bounty of bis friends. ^ 
AMELOTTE (Denis), a celebrated French writer, was 
born at Saintonge in 1606, He maintained a close corre- 
•pondenoe with the Fathers of the Oratory, a x^ongregation 
of priests founded by Philip of Neri. He wrote the " Life 
of Charles de Gondren," second superior of this congre-f 
. gation, and published it at Paris in 1643. In this pieced 
■ ' • .. ». 

.,\ Gen. . Diet.— phaufepie.—M'iren.—SaxiiC^D9maiticon. 



m. AM EL G T T K 

ifitrodooed .ft passage respecting the fiftinous M}6 de Slt^ 
Cyran, which greatly displeased the gentlemen of Port 
Boyal ; who» out of reveage, published a pamphlet 
against him, entitled *^ ld6e generate de Pesprit et du livre 
de pere Amelot,^' and h^ was so much provoked by this sa^* 
tire, that he did all in his power to injure them^ They had 
fipished a translation of the New Testament, known by the 
name of the Mons New Testament, and were desirous t<x 
have it published, for which purpose they endeavoured to 
procure an approbation from the doctors of the Sorbonne, 
and a privilege from the king. They had some friends iu 
tiie Sorbonue, but at the same time very powerful enemies^ 
and as to the privilege, it was impossible to prevail with 
the chancellor Seguier to grant them one, as he hated them $ 
so that father Amelotte, whose advice the chancellor gene-^ 
rally followed in matters of religion^ easily thwarted ali 
their measures, iK)t only out of zeal for what he thought tho 
true doctrine, or out of aversion to the Port Royalists, but 
also from a view to bis own interest ; for he was about to 
publish a translation of hia own of the New Testaflaenl;;^ 
which, accordingly, with annotations, in four volumes 8vo^. 
was printed in the years 1666, 1667, and 1668, but^ accord- 
ing to F. Simon, it contains some very gross bluoderSi lu 
was dedicated to M« de Perefixe, archbishop of Paris, wbomr 
he addresses in these words : '^ You will be confirmed in 
that zeal which obliged you to take up the holy arms to 
defend the true grace of God, and the decrees of the boly^ 
see, against the new heresy : you will daily strengthen 
yourself against these blind rebels, whose fury, impo8« 
tures, and calumnies, add new splendour to your glory, 
which they endeavour to blemish. They place you in thd 
same rank with the Athanasiuses and Hilaries, when- they' 
abuse you in the same manner as the Arians did those 
great and holy bishops.'' In this translation he endea« 
vQured to find expressions more, proper and elegant thaa 
those of the former versions ; for which reason he com- 
mitted bis work into Mr. Courart's hands, to polish and Cor- 
rect whatever he should judge inelegant or impropi^r: 
Amelotte wrote also an ^^ Abridgment of Divinity,^^ » 
^^ Catechism for the Jubilee,'' and a kind of ^* Cbrhtian 
Manual for every day, (Journee Chretienne.)'* Though ho 
had always been a very zealous Anti-Port- Royalist, y«t ho 
was but poorly rewarded for all his labour and trouble,* 
since towards d£e end of his life he sued fot -a v^ry small 



A M E L T T E. ST 

bishoprip, th^t of Sarlat, and met witb a. rd£iisal» though 
•«»e bad all the qualities requisite to a bishop. He could 
not forbear complaining of this usage to his friends;^ telling 
them that those^ whom he had often served effectually, had 
been very cold to him on this occasion. He entered into 
die congregation of the Oratory in 1650, and continued 
amongst them till his death, which happened at Paris^ 
Oct 7, 1678. His dedication .to M. Perefiace was sup*- 
pressed after his death and the death of Perefixe, and one of 
a diflferent cast substituted by M« de Hariay, in the edition 
of 16^8, 2 vols. 4to, and the work lias been often reprinted 
with and without notes. The chief objection made: ^ him, 
on the score of veracity, is that he boasted of having con- 
sulted all the manuscripts of Europe^ which he afterwards 
confessed he had not seen ; but it is answered, that although 
he had not seen these manuscripts, he took great pains in 
procuring transcripts of their various readings. ^ 

AMENTA (Nicholas), an Italian lawyer a^d miscella* 
neous writer, was born at Naples in 1659, , and for the first 
Fourteen, years of his life, was obliged to be confined in a 
dark room, owing to a complaint in his eyes. On his re* 
covery, h& made very capid progr^^ss in general science, 
went through a qqurse of law, and had very considerable 
practice at Naples. His leisure hpurs \ke dedicated to'po* 
iite literature, and particularly cultivafted the Tuspan lan- 
guage, which he wrote with the greatfsst purity,, and used 
in all his works. He died at Naples, July 2 i , 1 7- 1 9. His 
principal writings are, li Seven prose comedies, La Cos- 
tanza, il Forca, la Fante, &c. whicl^ are> Baretti says^ per* 
haps the wittiest we have io It^ian ; but the author makes 
some of his actors appear masked and speak, the different 
dialects of Italy^- especially the Neapolitan, 2* " Rapporti 
di Parnas80,V part I. the oi^ly one ever published, Naples, 
1710, 4tol The^e.are somewhat in the manoer of Bocca-* 
lini's advertiseoieiits, b^t u^Ufe them in, their subjects, 
which ar^ matters of litert^ture and literaxyljiistory. ,3. "II 
Torto e it Dbritto del non sd puo, &c, es?|mihato da Ferrante 
Longobardi,'^ i» e. father jDjaniel Bartoli, whose work is 
here reprln^d with Amenta's Observation^ Naples, 1717, 
8vo, 1728,.,8vo; the latter eaitionhas tjie rewavksof th^ 
abbeCit6.J^4.>*" t)ella lingulaj NiV^l^ d^Italia,. 4^." aoo- 
ther work on language divided into parts, Naples, 1723, 

» Oen. but— Mor^--Bk».«ft»f»!M'liril«.«-Ut Uh BiW-Sior. 

Vot.II. H 



»ft AMENTA. 

4to. 5. The lives of Scipio Pasquali, and Lionardo^ a 
Neapolitan poet 6. Twenty-four " Capitoli/' or satirical 
kneces, in tke style of the capitoli of Bemi^ and other bur'- 
fesque poets, Naples, 1721, 12nio. 7. *<Rime/' or poetical 
pieces, published in various collections. ^ 

AMERBACH (John), a learned printer of the fifteenth 
century, was bom at Rutlingen, in Suabia^ and settled at 
Basil. He was the first who made use of the round type, 
instead of the Italic and Gothic. In 1506, He published 
the first edition of the works of St. Augustine, corrected by 
himself, with a type known long by the name of the St. 
Augustine t3rpe. He began also the works of St. Jerome ; 
but his death, which took place in 151S, prevented his 
finiisihing them, and he left them to the care of his sons, by 
whom they were published. All his editions are valued 
for their accuracy. Boni&ce, his eldest son, who died in 
1562, was for thirty years law professor at Basil, five times 
rectcNT of the university, and went through the difierent 
offices of magistracy with the reputation of a man of great 
integrity. In 1659, was printed at Basils 4to, the ^^ Biblio* 
theca Amerbachiana,** a scarce work, which throws consi<> 
derable light on the history of printing, and mentions many 
early editions omitted in our largest catalogues. ' Krasmu^ 
and Boniface Amerbach contributed to this Bibliotheca. 
Boniface had a son Basil, al^ a mati of learning, syndic of 
the city, and rector of the university. He contributed much 
to the cabinet of pictures, and medals, and to the library 
whitAi his father had founded. He founded likeyise sofne 
charitable establishments, jsind a new pro(fessor$fai]i) in the 
university, called the Amerbachian.* * * 

AMERBACH (Vitus) was born at W^dingiien in Ba- 
varia, and studied law, philosophy, and diviiiity, atWit- 
temberg, where he professed to be a foHbwerof Ijuther i 
but on returning to his own country, he became a Hotidah 
catholic, and professor of phildsojfliy at Ingoldstadt, where 
be died in 1 557, at the age of TO. He translated into La- 
tin the orations of Isocrates and Demostheties ;. the ty^atisfe 
of St. Chrysostom on Providence, and that of Kpipharihii 
on the catholic faith. He published also comthentarieS on 
Cicero's Offices, on the poems of Pythagorttiland PhoCyU 
tides, oil the Tristia of Ovid, and Bforace **.i)e arte bbeti- 

» 

1 Biog. UniveiteUe.— Kftym Bibl. Ita].-4Sai«tti't Italian Libraiy. 



A M £ R B A C a $9 

ca.^' To much learning he added a considerable talent for 
poetry^ in which \ie left various small pieces, epigrajns, epi* 
taphs. His philosophical works ^* De Anima, de pbilo<> 
Sophia naturflui, &c.'' are less known ; buA a list of them 
may be seen in Teissier's Essays, vol. I.^ 

AMERICUS. See VESPUTIUS. 

AMES (Jossph), the celebrated typographical histo-* 
nan, was descended from an ancient family in Norfolk, 
where they are to be traced back as far as the middle pf 
the sixteenth century. He was born at Yarmouth, Jaq. 23, 
1688-9, and removed by bis father, who spears to have 
been the master of a merchant ship trading from Yarmouth 
to London, and placed at a little grammar*scbool at Wap-» 
ping. At the age of fifteen, it is said, he vcas put appien- 
tice to a plane*maker in King or Queen-street near GhiH^* 
hall, LondcMi; audit is added that after serving out liis time 
with reputation, be took up his freedom, and became a 
liveryman of the Joiners' Company, but on inquiry both at 
Joiners' hall and at the Chamberlain's office, it does ndt 
appear that he ever took up his freedom : be aettled, how* 
ever, near the Hermitage, in Wapping, in the business of 
a ship-chandler, or ironmonger, and continued there till 
his death. 

Mr. Ames very early dbcovered a taste for English his« 
tory and antiquities, in which h& was encouraged by his 
two friends Mr. Russel, . preacher at St. John's Wapping, 
alid Mr. John Lewis, minister of Margate, an eminent di- 
vine and antiquary. Some time before 1720, in attend-* 
ing Dr. Desaguliers' lectures, he formed an i^cquaintance 
with Mr. Peter Thompson, an eminent Hamburgh meN 
ehant, and member for St. Alban's, a gentleman of great 
humanity, and strong natural parts, who supplied the want 
of a liberal education by a conversation with men and . 
books. He was also a lover of our national antiquities, and 
many years fellow of the royal and antiquary societies. 
This frieodshijp coptinued uninterrupted till the death of 
Mr. Ames. Some time before 1730, Mr. Lewis, whohad 
himself collected materials for such a^ subject, suggested to 
Mr. Ames the idea of writing the history of printipg in Eng- 
land. Mr. Ames declined it at first, because Mr. Ps^lmer, 
a printer, was engaged in a similar work, and because he 
thought himself by no means equal to an undertaking of 

> lAorerL— >Bio|p. UniTeraelle.-«»Saxii OnaiDut. 

H 2 



lOQ AMES. 

so much extent But when Mr. Palmei'^s book came ont^ 
it was far from answering the expectations of Mr. Lewis^ or 
Mr. Ames, or those of the public in general. Mr. Ames, 
therefore, at length consented to apply himself to the task, 
and after twenty-five years spent in collecting and arrang-^ 
ing his materials, in which he was largely assisted by Mr. 
Lewis and other learned friends, and by the libraries of 
' lord Oxford, sir Hans Sloane, Mr. Anstis, and many«otheirSy 
published, in one vol. 4to, 1749, " Typographical Antiqui- 
ties, being an historical account of Printing in England^ 
with some memoirs of our ancient Printers, and a register 
of the books printed by them, from the year 1471 to 1600; 
with an appendix concerning printing in Scotland and Ire- 
land to the same time.'* In his preface he speaks with' 
great humility of his work, and of its imperfections ; but it 
certainly has no faults but what may well be excused in the 
first attempt to accomplish an undertaking of such vast ex- 
tent. He inscribed this work to Philip lord Hardwicke, 
lord high chancellor of Great Britain. Mr. Ames was at 
this time fellow of the royal and antiquary societies, and 
secretajry to the latter of these learned bodies. He was. 
elected F. A. S. March 3, 1736, and on the resignation of 
Alexander Gordon, previous to his going to settle in Caro- 
lina, 1741, was appointed secretary. In 1754, the rev* 
W. Norris was associated with him, and on his decease 
became sole secretary till 1784. This office gave Mr. 
Ames further opportunities of gratifying bis native curio- 
sity, by the communications as well as the conversation q{ 
the literati ; and these opportunities were further enlarged 
by his election into tiie royal society, and the particular 
friendship shewn to him by sir Hans Sloane, then presi- 
dent, who nominated him one of the trustees of his will. 

Besides his great work, Mr. Ames printed a ^< Catalogue 
of English Printers, from 1471 to 1700^* 4to, intended to 
accompany the proposals for the former ; '^ An Index to 
lord Pembroke's Coins ;^' <^ A Catalogue of English heads^ 
or an account of about 2000 prints, describing what is pe-^ 
culiar on each, as the name, title, or office of the person, 
the habit, posture, age, or time when done, the name of 
the painter, graver, scraper, &c. and some remarkable par** 
ticuUirs relating to their lives,'* 1748, 8vo. This was a kind 
of index to the ten volumes of English portraits, which had 
been collected by Mr. John Nickolls, F. R. and A. SS. of 
Ware in Hertfordshire, in four volumes folio, and six in 



A M E & lOl 

4to ; and which after bis death in i 745, were purchased, 
for 80 guineas, by the late Dr. Fothergill. The last of 
Mr. Ames's literary labours was the drawing up the '^ Pa- 
rentalia, of Memoira of the family of Wren," 1750, in one 
volume folio, from the papers of Mr. Wren. At his ex- 
pence two plates were engraved, one of a Greek inscrip<^ 
tion |u honour of Crato, the musician of Pergamos; the. 
other an ancient marble pillar, in his possession, with ther 
Cufic inscription. 

Mr. Ames died suddenly of a fit of coughing, Oct. 7, 
1759, and on the 14th was interred in the church*yard of 
St. George in the East, in a stone coffin, on the lid of which 
is an inscription in Latin by* the rev. Dr. Flexman; and 
over the grave was placed a ledger-stone with two inscrip* 
tions, one in English, the other in Latin. His collection 
of coins, natural curiosities, inscriptions, and antiquities, 
were sold by Mr. Langford, Feb.. 20 and 21, 1760: his 
library of books, manuscripts and prints, on May 5 — 12, 
1 7 60. Many of the books had notes by him, and Mr. Gough 
has enumerated many valuable articles among his collec- 
tion, with the buyers' names. 

Mr. Ames married April 12, 1714, Mary, daughter of 
Mr. Wrayford, merchant of London, who died August 12^ 
1734, and by lyhom he had six children, one only of whom, 
a daughter, survived him, and was married to Edward Dam- 
pi^r, esq. lately deputy surveyor of shipping to the East 
India Company, and descended from, or related to the 
voyager of that name. 

Of Mr. Ames's character, the opinion seems to be tini-» 
form, that he possessed an amiable simplicity of manners, 
and exemplary integrity and benevolence in social life. 
Mr. Cole, who bears him no good will, because, as he as- 
serts, he was an Anabaptist, sdlows that he ^' was a little, 
friendly, good-tempered man, a pe|:son of vast application, 
and industry in collecting old printed books, prints, and 
other curiosities, both natural and artificial.^' It is con- 
fessed, on the other hand, that he had not much of what is 
, called literature, and knew nothing of composition. His 
prefac(e to the ^'Typographical Antiquities^^ commences 
in the form of a preamble to an act of parliament, " Where- 
as it appears from reason and ancient history,'* &c. His 
style, indeed, very much resembles that of his brother an- 
tiquary and equally laborious collector, Strype. With all 
this, be appears to have been a man entitled to high re- 



102 AMES. 

spectjor his acquisitions ; they yrere entirely his own, and 
instigated by a laudable desire to be useful. The dates in 
the preceding account of his life will be sufficient to prove 
the absurdity of Horace Walpole^s flippant notice of hiniy 
in which he says, that Mr. Ames took to the study of anti* . 
nquities ** late in life," and that he was " originally*' a 
ship-chandler. The truth is, and it is to the honour of his 
industry, that he w^ always an antiquary, and always a 
$hip-chandler, but principally in articles of ironmongery. 
It is necessary to add that an enlarged edition of the 
'^ Typographical Antiquities" was published by the late 
learned and industrious, Mr. William Herbert, of whom 
0ome account will be given in its proper place. This was 
exiipnded to three volumes quarto, the first of which ap- 
peared in 1785, the second in 1786, and the third in 1790^ 
a work of inestimable value to the antiquary, the historian, 
and the general scholar. To the first volume, Mr. Gough 
prefixed ^^ Memoirs of Mr. Joseph Ames," from which all 
that is valuable in the present article has been taken; and 
the same has been retained, with many additional particu- 
larsy in the new and very splendid edition of Ames and Her- 
bert, by the rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, F. S. A. of 
which one volume was published in IS 10 and a second 
in 1812, which promise ample gratificatioh to the lovers of 
typographical antiquities.^ 

AMES (William), a divine in the reigns of king James 
and Charles I. and famous for his casuistical and contro- 
versial writings, hut much more so abroad than in his own 
ebuntrys was descended from an ancient family, which is 
said to remain in Norfolk and Somersetshire, and was born 
in 1576. He was educated at Christ-church college, in 
Cambridge, under the celebrated champion of Calvinism^ 
fAr, William Perkins, and this gave a rigid strictness to 
his opinions, which was not agreeable to some of his asso-* 
ciates in the university. One instance of this is given by 
Fuller, which we shall transcribe as recording a feature in 
the manners of the times. He says, that ^' about the year 
1610-11, this Mr. Ames, preaching at St. Mary's, took 
occasion to inveigh against the liberty taken at that time ; 
tespecially in those colleges which had Jords of misrule, a 
Pagan relique ^ which, he said, as Polydore Vergil haa 

' Ames and Herbert's Edition.— Dibdin's.-pCole's MSS. in Brit. Mus.— W^U 
'|>ole't Catalogue of Engraven. 



AMES. lot 

observed^ remains only in England. Hence he proceeded 
to condemn dl pla3dng at cards and dice ; affirming that 
the latter, in all ages, .was accounted the derice of the 
devil ; and that as God invented the one-and-twenty letters 
whereof he made the bible, the devil, saith an authoi^ 
found out the one-and-twenty spots on the die ; diat canon 
law forbad the use, of the same ; spying Inventio DiaMi 
mdla ctmsuetudine potest vaUdari. His sermon,^* continues 
our author, <* gave ilauch offence to many of his auditors ; 
the rather because in him there was a concunrence of much 
nonconformity; insomuch that, to prevent an expulsion 
from Dr. Yal. Gary, the master, he fairly forsook the col 
lege, v^ich proved unto him neither loss nor disgrace ; 
being, not long after, by the States of Friesland, chosen 
Professor of their university.*' There seems^ however, 
some mistake in this, and Dr. Maclaine has increased it by 
asserting in his notes on Mosheim's Ecclesiastical history, 
that Ames fled to Franeker to avoid the persecution of 
archbishop Bancroft. This prelate certainly pressed con- 
formity on the Puritans as much as he codd, but a 
man who only preached against cards aqd dice could 
have nothing to fear from him. The fact was, that 
the archbishop died some months before this sermon at 
St. Mary^s. 

It might not, however, be long after, that he went to 
Holland, the common refuge of many of the divines of 
this period who were strong opponents to church dis* 
cipline, for in 1613, his dispute with Grevinchovius, mi- 
nister at Rotterdam, appeared in print. From thence, we 
are told, he was invited by the stages of Friesland, to the 
divinity chair in the university of Franeker, which he filled 
with universal reputation for many years. He was at the 
synod of Dort, in 1618, and informed king James's am* 
bassador, from ttee to time, of the debates of that assembly. 
After be had been at least twelve years in the doctor's 
chair at Franeker, he resigned his professorship, and ac« 
cepted of an invitation to the English congregation at Rot« 
terdam, the air of Franeker being too sharp for him, who 
wi« troubled with such a difficulty of breathing, that he 
concluded every winter would be his last Besides, he 
was desirous of preaching «o his own countrymen, which 
he bad disused for many years. He held many public 
discourses, published many learned books, and acquired'a 
great degree of popularity among all classes. Upon his 



10% A M £ S. 

removal to RotterdsAn, he ^wrote Iris ** Fresh suit dgainst 
Ceremonies," but did not Ihre to publish it himself, for 
his constitution was so shattered, that the air of Holland 
was of no service, upon which, he determined to remove 
to New England ; but his asthma returning at the begins- 
xiing of winter, put an end to his life at Rotterdam, where 
he was buried, Nov. 14, (N. S.) 1633, aged fifty-seven. In 
the spring following, his wife and children embarked for 
New England, and carried with them his valuable library 
of books, which was a rich treasure to that country at that 
time. Of his private character we know little, but it is 
generally agreed that he was a man of very great learning, 
a strict Calvinist in doctrine, and of the persuasion of the 
Independents, with regard to the subordination and power 
of classes and synods. As a teacher he was so much ap-* 
proved, that students came to him from many parts of Eu- 
rope, particularly Hungary, Poland, Prussia, and Flanders. 
Mosheim, who, upon what authority we know not, calls 
him a Scotch divine, says, that he was one of the first; 
among the reformed who attempted to treat morality as a 
separate science, to consider it abstractedly from its con- 
nection with any particular system of doctrine, and to in- 
troduce new light and a new degree of accuracy and 
precision into this master-science of life and manners. 
The attempt, he adds, was laudable, had it been well 
executed ; but the system of this learned writer was dry, 
theoretical, and subtle, and was thus much mor« adapted 
to the instruction of the studious, than to the practical di- 
rection of the Christian. 

His works are: 1. <^ Sermons, preached at St. Mary's 
Cambridge,'* but whether printed is uncertain. 2. " Pu*? 
ritanismus Anglicanus,'' 8vo, 1610; and in English, Lon* 
don, 4to, 1641, containing the chief doctrines of the Pu* 
ritans. 3. *^ Disceptatio scholastica inter Nic. Grevin- 
chovium and GuL Amesium,'' 8vo, Amst. 1613^ concerning 
Arminnis's opinions on election, &c: 4. ^^ Disputatio 
inter Amesium et Grevinchovium,'* Rt>tter. 8vo, 1615 ; 
Lugd. Bat. 1617, J 63 3, on reconciliation by the death of 
Christ. 5. *^ Coronis ad collationem Hs^ensem,'* ISmo^ 
Lugd. Bat. 1618, 1628, 1630, confuting the answers given 
by the Arminians to the Dutch pastors. 6. ^^ Medulla 
Theolog^ca,^' Frank. 1623, reprinted four times at Am- 
sterdam, and translated into English. 7. ^' Explicatio 
utriusque EpistolsB S. Petri/' 12mo^ Amst 1625| 1635, 



ft 



AM E S« lOS 

and also translated into English, Lond. 1461, 4to. S. << De 
■Incaraatione Verbi,** Franek. 162 6, 8vo, against tke Soci^ 
nians. 9. " Beilarminns enervatus," 8vo, often reprinted 
at Amstei'dam, Oxford, and London. 10* '* De Consci- 
entia^'* thrice printed at Amsterdam, and in English with 
this title, *^ A treatise on Con^eience, with the power and 
cases thereof/* Lond. 4to^ 1643 ; this book is still much 
read. 11. ^^ Antisynodalia/' Franek. 1629, 12mo, against 
the Remonstrants. 12; ** Demonstratio logicae versB, 
]2mo, Lug; Bat. 1632. 13« *^ Disputatio Theologica, 
ibid, against metaphysics. 14. '^ Technometria,*' Amst. 
1632, 8vo, on the purpose and bounds of arts. 15. •* A 
reply to Bishop Mofrton/' on his lordship^s defence of the 
surplice, the cross in baptism, and kneeling at the 
sacrament, 4to, 1622, which he followed up, by 16. ** A 
fresh Suit against Roman ceremonies/^ 1633, 4to. 17. <' A 
First and Second Manuduction." 18. Rescriptio ad re- 
sponsum Grevinchovii de Redemptione generali,** Lugd, 
Bat. 1634, 8ro. 19. '^ Christianas Catechesis Scio* 
graphia," Franek. 1635, Svo. 20. ^^ Lectiones in omnes 
Psalmos Davidis/' Amst. 1635, 8vo; Lond. 1647. These 
last five were posthumous publications. Besides these, he 
wrote some prefaces, &c. to the works of others. IJis 
Latin works were reprinted at Amsterdam in 1658, 5 Tob» 
8vo, by Matthias Nethenus. ' 

AMHERST (Jeffery, Lord Amherst), was the second 
son of JefFery Amherst, of Riyerhe.ad, in Kent, esq. and 
of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Kerrill, of Hadlow, ia 
Kent, esq. and was born Jan. 29, 1717. He devoted him* 
self yery eariy to the profession of arms, having received 
an ensign^s commission, in the guards, in 1731, when be 
was only fourteen^ years of age ; but about ten years after* 
wards he was aide-^de^cafnp to general, afterwards lord 
Ligonier, and in that capacity vras present with the general 
at the battles of Roucox, Dettingen, and Fontenoy. He was 
afterwards admitted on the staff of the duke of Cumberland^ 
with whom he was present at the engagements of LafFeld and 
Hastenbeck. In 1756, he was appointed to the command 
of the fifteenth regiment of foot, and in two years more 
obtained the rank of major-general in the army. 

When the war broke out between France and England, 

} Biog. Brit.-*»Cole'8 MS^ Athene Cantab, in Brit. Mu9.— Mosheim's £ccL 
History. 



IOC A M H E R S T. 

of which North America was the principal theatre, ger 
neral Amherst was appointed to serve in that country^ 
where he soon had opportunities of displaying his talents* 
The courage and mihtaiy skill which entitled him to the 
iru0t thus reposed in him, were not long unattested by the 
featrs of his enemies, and tl^e £clamations of his country. 
In the summer of 1758, he undertook the expedition 
against Louisbourg, which, together with die island of 
Ciq>e Breton, on which it is situated, in the gulph of St. 
Lawrence, surrendered, with all its dependencies, to his 
victorious arals, July 26 of that yean Thi^ conquest not 
only deprived the enemy of an important place of ^strength, 
on which the prosperity of their most valuable possessions 
in America depended, as it was the guardian and protector 
of their trade in that part of the world, but it also put 
Great Britain in possession of the navigation of the river 
St. Lawrence, cut off France from the advantages of her 
fishery, and by that means considerably distressed her 
West India islands, and finally opened . the road for the 
reduction of Canada. The same campaign was distib«< 
guished. by another very important atcbievement ; for in 
the month of November following, a plan being laid by 
general Amherst for ^e capture of Fort du Quesne, one 
of the keys of Canada, situated on the lakes, and the 
execution being intrusted to brigadier- general Forbes, the 
assault proved successful, and the fortress was accordingly 
taken ; measures being adopted at the same time with so 
much spirit and wisdom, that the liidians were so far de«> 
tached from the alliance of the^enemy, as to give no ob* 
slaructioii to the expedition. In the ensuing campaign 
another strong station was reduced, under the prudent 
auspices of general Amherst. Sir WilUadn Johnson, to 
M^om the command of the expedition against Niagara 
devolved, in consequence of the accidental death of bri* 
gadier Prideanx, on the 24th July, 1759, having defeated 
and taken M. D^ Aubrey near that place^ 4he fort surreii<* 
dered the next day. This important victory threw the 
whole of the Indian fur trade into the hands of the Englicdii ; 
and also secui-ed the Briti^ dominioua in that quarter from 
all hostile annoyance. 

Some timie before this, general Abercrombiii had made 
an unsuccessful attempt on Ticonderoga, in which, toge- 
ther with a considerable number of men, the Sritish army 
had been deprived of those gallant young oflicers, lord^ 



AMHERST, lOT 

Hovtfei aod cd. Roger Townsend. On the 26th July 1759^ 
bowcTer, the day after the reduction of Niagara, Ticon->> 
d^roga surrenderedy and this payed the way for the sub* 
jectioD of Canada ; accordingly, we find that on the i 4th 
of the following month, the long and obstinately dbputed 
post of Crown Point surrendl^ed to the Britbh forces ; the 
18th of the ensuing September, beheld the chief settlement 
of the enemy in this part of the globe, the ever-to-^be-re-' 
membered Quebec, surrendered upon capitulation to our 
commandei»; and in the month of August, 1760, the 
French army evacuating Isle an Noix, abandoning the Isle 
Gallot, and Picquet's island,' at the approach of generals 
Ajodherst, Isle Royale being taken by him, and Montreal, 
the last remaining port of the foe, surrendering oo the 8 th 
September following, the whole provitkce became subject 
to the British government. In the mean time, the island 
of Newfoundland . having been reduced by the French, 
general Amherst projected an expedition for its recovery* 
The command of this was intrusted to the late major-ge- 
neral William Amherst (then lieutenant colonel), who, 
giving effect and action to his. brother's plan, happily re- 
stored the island to its British owners, and captured the 
various garrisons which had been stationed by the enemy 
in the respective posts. 

General Amherst now seeing that the whole . continent 
of North Ameirica was reduced in subjection to Great 
Britain, returned to New York, the capital of the Britbh 
empire^ aad was received with all , the respect due to his 
public services. The thanks of the House of Cominons 
had already been transmitted to him ; and, among other 
honourable testimonies of approbation, in 1761, he was 
created a knight of the Bath. He had also some time be- 
fore been appointed commander in chief of all the forces 
in Ajaerica, and governor-general of the British provinces 
there. But shortly after the peace was ^concluded, he 
resigned his command, and returned to England, arriving 
in London December 1763. His Majesty received him 
with most gracious respect and approbation, and the go-* 
vernment of the province of Virginia was conferred upon 
him, as the first mark of royal favour. In 1768, there 
appears to have been a temporary misunderstanding be- 
t^ireen him and his royal master, which, however, soon 
terminated, as in the end of that year he was appointed 
cpbnel of the third regiment of foot, with permission to 



\ 



108 A M H E R S' *r. 

t 

iTontinue his command of the sixtieth; xyr royal Ameriican 
leghnent^ of four battalions ;* and in Oct. 1770,' h^ Wa^ 
appointed governor of the island of Guernsey, and'tk^ 
castle of Cornet, with all its dependencies. - To these 
promotions was added the office of lieutenant^^general of 
the ordnance, in Oct. 1772, at which time he wassw<irti 
of the privy council. From' this period, also, ^to the be-* 
ginning of 1782, he officiated as commander in ehcef of 
the English forces, though he was not promoted > to < the 
rank of general in the army till March 1778, from whiob* 
period to the time of his resignation, in Murdi 1782^ be 
acted as eldest general on the staff of England. Un(il hw 
sailitary promotion in 1778, he had no higher appointment 
in the army than that of eldest lieutenant-general: on the 
English staff. In 1780, he resigned the command of die 
third regiment of foot, and was promoted to the second 
troop of horse grenadiers. Besides thesemilitary honours, 
be received the dignity of the British peerage on the '20th 
May, 1776, by the title of baron An^erst, of Holmesdale, 
in the county of Kent. His last public services were the 
means he adopted in quelling the dreadful riots in London 
in the month of June, 1780. The regulations and instrtic* 
tions of his lordship on this occasion were not less distin-^* 
guished by wisdom and promptitude than by humanity. 

Itt 1782, on the change of the administration usually called 
that of lord North, the command of the aro^y, and the 
lieutenant-generalship of ordnance, were put into other 
hands. In 1787, he received another patent oi peeri^ey 
as baron Amherst, of Montreal, with remainder to his 
nephew, William Pitt Amherst On the staff being re- 
established, he was, Jan. 22, 1793, 'again appoint^ to 
the conimand of the army in Great Britain, although at 
that time, general Conway, the duke of Gloucester, sir 
George Howard, the duke of Argyle, the hon« John«Fitz-- 
william, and sir Charles Montagu, were his seniors. On 
the 10th of February 1795, the command of the army 
being given to the duke of York, an offer of earldom, and 
the rank of field marshal, were made to lord Amherst, who 
then declined accepting them, but on the 30th July 1196^ 
Accepted the rank of field-marshal. His increasing age 
and infirmities, bad, however, rendered him unfit for 
public business nearly two years before this period, and 
he now retired to his seat at Montreal in Kent, where he 
died August 3, 1797, in the eighty-first year of his age^ 



« 



A M H E R S r. 109 

nd was interred in the family vault in Seven Oaka cfaitrcii, 
on the 10th. . Lord Amherst had been twice married; firsty 
to Jane, only daughter of Thomas Dfllison, of Mantem, 
in Lincolnshire^ esq. who died Jan. 7, 1765 ; and second! j^ 
to Elizabeth, eid^ daughter of general .George Cary, 
brother to viscount Falkland, who survived him ; but by 
neither had he any issue. . His two brothers had dUdn** 
guished themsdves in the service of their country ; John, 
9UI admiral of the blue, died Feb. 12, 1778 ; aiid William, 
already mentioned, a lieutenantrgeneral in the army, died 
May 13, 1781* His son inherits lord Amherst*s title and 
estate. ... 

The character of lord Amherst' may be collected froai 
the particulars of his life. His personal merits, howjdvec^ 
havie been universally acknowledged. He was a firm diB-- 
ciplinarian^ but. ever the.soldier^s friend;' a inaai.of strict 
oeconomy, and of a collected and temperate mind, .wu|^ 
ready at all times to hear, and redress the. complaints, of the 
army in general. No ostentation of her^ip mai^^ed any 
of his action^ ; but the whole of : his conduct . eviaoed the 
firm simplicity of a brave mimd, animatjRci«by the Qonsciraa- 
aess of what was.due .to himself and. to his /country, la 
private life, .Jus charactel: lias been jretur^entied ai truly 
amiable..^ 



.u 



AMHUBST (MiCHOliAS), an English i political and m»- 
cellan^ous. writer, was «b^n..at Marden.inijiCenti but ia 
what year is uncertain, altbough.by a^pv^sage in his Terjca^ 
Filtusy it *woald appear to . be about 1706. Under the 
tuition of his: graii(d£atber, .a clergyman, b^ >repeived /b«s 
ipmmatical education- at Mercha'ut-Taylor^s s4ihaol in 
Eondon ; and thence was removed tp ^t. John's college^ 
Oxford, whence he. was expelled on a charge of UberMnism, 
irr^ularity, and his insulting behaviour towards the pre<- 
sident of the college. Fromthis o^fn account of, the matter, 
in the .dedication of his poems to Dr. Pelaune, president 
of St John's, and in his ^' Terrsa Filius," we may'^oUect 
that he wished to have it understood, that he was solely 
perse'cnted.for the. liberality of his sentiments, and his at- 
tachment to the cause of the Revolution and of the Hauo*- 
v^rsuQoessiofi. Whatever were the <pisf s| of his eKpulsion, 
his j^sentment, ,on the account of it, although violent, vi{%5 

> Gent Hagi 1797.--^molIett'fi CQQitmuatioQ.<>---A»nu{illleg:isterj and coil* 
temporary p«riodical pttblicatiotts.' }* ' ' ■ 



no AM HUB ST. 

r impotent. He made it his busaaess to tatftize the leanung 

and discipline of the unirersity of Oxford, and tm libel 

. the characters of lis principal members. Th^s he did in a 

. poem published in 172^4, called '^ Oculus Britamiis^'* and 
in his " Tarrae Filius/* a work in which is displayed a con- 
siderable portion of wit, intermixed witib intemperate sa» 
tire. The foU title of the work is, ^^ TerrsB Filim ; or the 
r secret history of the university of Oxford ; in several es* 
^says. To which are added, Remarks upon a late book, 
entitled, University Education, by R. Newton, D. D. pdai- 
oipal of Hart Hall,'' 2 vols. 12mo, printed for R, Eraiick« 
lin, r726. Amidst all the malignity and exaggeraticm witb 
wjuch the Terr» Fiiius abound, it contains some euiious 
-aneedotes relative to the principles, maniieys^ and conduct 
of several membess of the unFrersity, for a few years after the 
accession of king George I. ; but they are to be read with 

i^caution. It had been an ancient custom in the univennty of 
Oxford, at public acts, for B&me person, who was called 
Terrie Ifilius, to mount the rostrum, and diveit a large 
crowd of spectators, who flodked 4to hear him frcmi all parts, 
-mkh a merry oration in th# fescennine manner, inter^ 
'«persed with secret histoiy, raillery, and sarcasm, as iim 
Qcoasions of the times supplied him with matter. Wood, 
in his Athene, mentions several instances of this oustbm ; 
4iiid hence Mr. Amhurst took the title of his work. It was 
4iriginally written in 1721, in a pmodical paper, which 
cuue out twice « week, and x^onsitts of fifty numbers. • 

Soon after Mt Amhurst quitted Oxford, he seems to 
have settled in London^ as a writer by profession. He 
ipuUished a volume of ^ Miscellanies,** (principally writtgii 
<Qt ihe university),' on a variety of subjects ^ partly ori^- 
'iials, and partly paraphrases, imitations, and translations ; 
-and consisting of tales, epigrams, epistles, love*verses, 
-elegies, and satires. They begin wi^ a beautiful para- 
phrase on the Mosaic atconnt of the creation, and>end 
with a very humorous tale upon the discovery of that 
useftil instrument a^ bottle«^crew. ' Mr. Amhurst was the 
author, likewise, of an *^ Epistle to sir John Blount," bart. 
-one of the direfetors of the South-Sea Company in 1720; 
«f the ^^ BritishrO^ileral,** a poem sacred to the memory 
of bis grace John -duke of Marlborough; and -of *' Stre- 
phon's revenge,*' a satire on the Oxford toasts. Our poet, 

'who had a great enmity to the clergy, and who bad early, 
at Oxford, displayed his zeal against what he called 



▲ M H U R S T. lu 

piieitlj powtflTy discovered this purticularly in a pdem en^ 
titled the ^ Convocatbn/* in five cantos ; ar kind of satire 
gainst all the writers who had oppo^pd bishop Hoadly, in 
the fiuftOtts Baiigorian controversy* He translated also, 
Mr. Addison^s Resurrection, ' and some other of his l^atin 
poems* But the principal literary undertaking of Mr. Am- 
hurst vnkj his conducting <* The Craftsman/' which was 
carried on for a numb^ of years with great spirit and 
success ; and was more r^ad atid attended to than an v pro^ 
duction of the kind which had hidierto been published in 
England. Ten or twelve thousand were sold in a day; and 
the- effect wbich it had in raising the indignation of the 
people, and in controlling the power of the Walpoie ad- 
ministration, wa^ very considerable. Thi$ effect was not, 
however, entirely, or diiefly, owing to the abilities of Mr. 
Affihurst. He was assisted by lord Bolingbroke and Mr. 
Pulteney, and by -odier leaders of the opposition, whole 
fame and writings were ^h'e grand support of the *' Crafts- 
)SiaA.*' Nevertheless,' Mr. An^urst^s own papers are al- 
lowed t6 tkave been composed with aUlity and spirit, and 
he conducted the '* Craftiman** in the very zenith of its 
^ prosperity, with no small reputation to himself. July 2,^ 
1737, there appeared in that publication an ironical letter, 
in the name of Colley Cibber, the design of which was to 
ridicule the act that had just passed for licensing plays* 
In this letter, the laureat proposes himself to the lord 
chamberlain to be made ^uperintendant of the old plays, as 
standing equally in need of correction with the new ones ; 
and produces several passages from Shsikspesre, and othef 
poets, in relation to kings, ^eensy princes, and ministers 
* of state, wiiich, he iays, are not now fit to be brought 
on the stage. The print-er, &c. having %een laid hold of 
by order of government, Mr. Amhurst hearing that a war- 
rant fr6m the duke of N^^castle was issued against him, 
surrendered himself to a messenger, and was carried be- 
fore bis grac^ to be examined. The' crinae imputed to 
him v^SLSy that *^ he was suspected to - be ' tiie author of a 
paper suspeeted to be a libel." , As no proofs were alleged 
against him, nor witnesses j^toduced, an e:ra!mi nation of 
thi^ kind could not Ust iong. ' As«sebfi as it was over, he 
was told tfasit the crime f>^ing baLilable, he should foe bailed 
upon 'findin^g sufficient secu^ies to answer lor his^appeay-i 
ance and trial ; but these terms being imposed upon hin^ 
he absbldtejiy 4 re£ased« Upoo tUs reft»ai, he Ivasret* 



•^ 



>14 AMHUR:ST. 

manded back into custody, and the next ddf • l^rougfat his 
habeas corpus, and was then set at liberty ,. by coDsent^ 
till the twelve Judops should determine the ^question, 
*^ Whether he was obliged to give bail for his good be-> 
baviour, as well as his appearance, before he .wa^; entitled 
to his liberty .'' This determipation • was in^patiently ex<- 
pect^d by the .public, and several days wexe. fixed for 
hearing counsel qp boUi sidesi, but no proceedings pf : that 
kind took place, and the questiMi remained undetermined 
iintil the days of Wilkep. 

, Notwithstanding this show of firmness^ and his otlier ser- 
vices, Mr. Amhurst was totally neglected by his <;oadjutors in 
the Craftsipan, when they made their terms with the crown ; 
and he died soon after, of a fever, at Twickepb^m. His death 
happened April 27, 1742 ; and his disorder was probably oc- 
casioned, in a great measure, by the ill usage he had receiv- 
e^T^Mv. Ralph, in his ^^Case of AuthprB,^'sp^ak^\yith much 
indignation irpon the subject. ** Poor Amhty?^t, ^fter bav* 
ing been the dri^dg^ of his party, for the best .par;!; pf tw^ty 
years together, was as piuch forgptten in the fa^ipps; cpm* 

Eromise of 1742, as if he had pfver lueen bpijn.!, ^4 when 
s died of what is called a broken I^eatt, whiph Ji^ppened 
a. few months raftenyards, became indebted to the ch?grify 
of a bookseller for ^ grave ; not' to' be traced^ uow, b^ause 
then no otherwise .to be distinguished, than by the fresh* 
i^ess of the tprf, borrowed fron^ the next common t;p cover 
it.'' Mr. T. .Payi^s the bookseller, . in hi^ characvter of 
Mr. Pulteney^ qxpi^esses himself concerning the tireatment 
of Mr. Amhurst in the following terms : '' But if the earl 
of Bath had his list of pensioners, how comes it that Am- 
hurst was forgottep ? The fate of this poor man is singular :• 
He was the able assoqiate of Bolmgbroke aiid Pulteney, 
in writing the celebrated weekly paper called ^ The 
Craftsman.' , His abilities were unquestionable : be had 
almost as much wit, learning, and various knowledge, as 
his two partners : and when those great mas t|&r$; chose not 
to appear in public themselves, he s^upplied < their places 
so ^ell, that his essays were often ascribed to them, .Am-, 
hurst survived the downfall of .Walpole's power^.^and had 
reason to expect a reward for his labouri^, ; If we excuse 
Bolingbrpke, ^who had only saved th^ shipwr^k of his 
fortunes, we shall be at a loss to justify Pult^gey^ :wha 
could, with ease have given thi&man aconsideri^b^e income. 
The utmost of bis generosity to Amhurst, t^sx I je]^ pr Ipi^ar^ 



AM H U R 6 T. llj 

]af,,w&s SLtbogphead of claret ! He died, it is supposed, of a 
i>roken heart, and was buried at the charge of his honest 
printer^ Richard FranckUn.". Mr. Amhurst was, however, 
one bf those imprudent and. extravagant men, whose irre- 
f^ularities, in spite of their talents, bring thetn at length 
into general disesteem and neglect ; although this does 
not excuse ;the conduct of his employers. His want of 
purity in morals was no objection to their connection with 
him, when he could serve their purpose. And they might 
ha^^ easily provided for him, and placed bim above 
necessity during the remainder of his' days.. The ingrati- 
tude of statesmen to the persons whom they jnake us^ of 
as the instruments of theiir ambition, should furnish an in- 
struction to men of abilities in future times ; and engage 
them to build their happiness on the foundation of their 
own personal integrity, discretion, and virtue. ^ 

AMICO (Antonine d'), of Messina, canon of the ca* 
thedral of Palermo, and historiographer to Philip IV. king 
of Spain, acquired much reputation for his knowledge in 
the history and antiquities of Sicily. Of bis numerous 
works on this subject, some have been printed, and the 
manuscripts of the rest were after his death deposited in 
the libraries of the duke of Madonia and of Palafox, arch« 
bishop of Palermo. Those published are, 1. " Trium 
orientalium Latinorum ordinum, post captam a duce 
Gotbofredo Hierusalem^ &c. notitiae et tabularia,** Pa* 
lermo, 1636, fol. 2. ^^ Dissertatio historica et chronologica 
de antiquo urbis Syracusarum archiepiscopatu," Naples, 
1640, 4to. This relates to the serious disputes between 
the, three churches of Syracuse, Palermo, and Messina, 
jpespecting the metropolitan title* and rights, and was in« 
«erted, with the answers, in the 7 th vol. of the *' Thesaurus 
antiquitatum SiciUae," Leyden, 1723. 3. " Series amr 
miratorum insulse Siciliae, ab ann. 842 ad 1640," Paler- 
mo, .1640, 4to. 4. ^^ De Messanensis prioratus sacrse 
hospilttatis domus militum sancti Joan. Hierosolymitani 
origine,'* Palermo, 1640, 4to. 5. " Chronologia de los 
Virreyes, &c. de Sicilia," Palermo, 1640,. 4to. Amico 
died Oct 22 in the year following the publication of th« 
four la8t«>mentioned works. ' 

1 Biog.Brit— I^rd Chesterfield't Characters revicwcidr. 
• "* Moferu--*Bioe. UaiTer^ell*. 

Yot.U. I 

» 



lu A M I e a. 

AMieO (Bartboudmbw), a Iwmtd JtsQit^ hmn «l 
Anro in Lucaoia in 1362, vpu piofes6€»r of pbilMopliy 
and theology in the college at Naples, and its preiidentt 
for some years. He died in 1649. His fiune^ as fiur aa 
he can now be allowed a share, rests principally on a tOf 
luminous work on the writings of Aristotla, entitled ^.ta 
universam Aristotelis philosopbiam notss et dispotationei^ 
quibus illustrium scholarum, Averroi% D. ThomsB, Sooti, 
el/KoQiinalium yententiae espendantui^ eanunque titan* 
darnm probabiles modi afFeruntur,'' 7 voUvfoi l^iS-*-1^4a. 
He wrote other works, of which a catalogue is J^ymi by 
Alegambe, Blbl. Script. Soo. Jesu. ^ 

AMICO (JBEaKAHDiNB), an artist aad an author, was % 
Franciscan of Gallipoli, in the kingdom of Naples, and 
prior of his order at Jerusalem. During a residmice of fi«# 
year^ there, he made drawings and wrote descriptions of 
that city and neighbourhood ; and on bis return to Itaiy, 
published a magnificent volume, entitled << Trattato deUe 
Piante e immagini de' sacri edifisi di Terra Santa,'* 
Rome, 1620. The plates were engraved by the odehrated 
Callot.^ 

AMICO (Vito-Maria), a nobleman of Catania in 
Bicily, born in 1693, was for many years professor of phi- 
losophy and theology, and was not less distinguished for 
genersd learning, than for his acquaintance with the an« 
tiquities of Sicily. He was chosen prior of his order in 1 14&^ 
His publications are : 1 . ^^ Sicilia sacra, disquisitionibus et 
notitiis illustrata,'* Venice, (although in the title Palecmo^ 
1738, 2 vols. fol. Of this, however, he only wrote the 
second part, and being dissatisfied with this edition, hm 
reprinted that part, under the title of ^^ Sicilis sacrae ^hii 
IV. integra pars secunda,'' 1733, fol. 2. <* Catana illui* 
trata,'' Catania, 4 vols. fol. 1741—1746. The tin|e of 
his death is not specified* * 

AMICONI (GiACOMO), a painter well known in Eiig» 
land, was a native of Venice, and cams to fii^^and ia 
1729, when he was about forty years of age. He had 
studied under Bellucci in the Palatine court, and had beea 
some years in the elector of Bavaria's service* Hiaaianner 
was a still fainter imitation of that nerveless master 8e» 
bastian Ricci, an4 as void of the glow of life as the Nea« 
politan Solimeni. His women are mere chalk ; nqt ^fts 



A M I O N I. 115 

^iiis his worst defect : his figures are so entirely without 
expression^ that his historical compositions seem to repre* 
sent a set of actors in a tragedy, ranged in attitudes againsl 
the curtain draws up. His Marc Antonys are as free, from 
passipu as his Scipios. He painted some staircases o( 
noblemea's bouses, and afterwards practised portrait-paint- 
ing with rather more success. In 1736 he made a journey 
to Paris with the celebrated singer Farinellii and returned 
with him in October following. His por.trait of Farioelli 
was ^agraved. He then engaged with Wagner, an en* 

?uyer, in a scheme of prints from Canaletti's views of 
enice, and after mfirrying an Italian singer, returned to 
his own <;ountry ^n 1739, having acquired h^re about 
^OOOL At last he settled in Spain, was appointed paiutet 
to the^king, and died in the 63d year of his age, at Madrid^ 
l^eptemher 1752. His daughters, the signora Belluomini 
^n4 the signora Castellini, the latter a paintress in crayons^ 
were living at Madrid in 1772, as Mc Twi^s informs us io 
his Travels, p. 167, 1775, 4ta 

Such is lord Orford^s account of this painter. Mr. PiU 
kington^s character is rather mpre favourable, although 
perhaps modern coniioi^s^urs will place less dependance on 
it Amiconi possessed, says this writer, a very fertile in<^ 
▼entiou ; his taste of design was considerably elegant ; and 
the air and turq of some g^ his figures, in his best compo-* 
^tioofi^ were allowed t2> have somewhat engaging, natural^ 
IDd even graceful. He confesiedly had many of the ac- 
^inplishments of a good painter ; but, although his merit 
must in many respects be allowed, and his drawing, in 
particular, is generally correct^ yet his colouring is ahun«? 
HJLantly too cold, too pale, and (as it is termed by the artists) 
too mealy. * 

AMIOT (FATHia), one of the most learned French 
missrionaqes in China, and a Chinese historian, was born 
at Tqulqp in 1.7 1 8 . The last thirty years of the last century 
have be^n those ia which we have ao(}uired most knowledge 
Qf Chilli* The French missionaries during that time have 
tf^en every pains to he able to answer the multitude of 
inquiries sent to them from Europe, and among them 
fi^ister Amiot mu^t be coi^sidered as the fli^t in point of 
^uracy, and extensive knowledge of the antiquities, 
|M^cy> languages, and arts of China. Thb learn<^Q Jesuit 

1 9rf«ra*i Wwka, toI. IU<--.pilkiiigto«» 

I 2 



U« A M I O T. - 

I 

arrived'at Macao in 1750; and at Pekin, to which be wa# 
invited by order of the emperor, in August 1751, and re- 
maiined in that capital for the long space of forty-three 
years. In addition to the zeal which prompted him to be- 
come a missionary, he was indefatigable in his- researches, 
and learned in those sciences which rendered them useful. 
He understood natural history, mathematics; had some 
taste for music, an ardent spirit of inquiry, anda retentive 
memory; and by continual application soon became fa- 
miliar with the Chinese and Tartar languages, which en- 
abled him to consult the best authorities in both, respecting 
history, sciences, aind literature. The result of these la- 
bours he dispatched to, France from time to time, either in 
Volumes, or memoirs. His principal communications in 
both forms, were : 1. ** A Chinese poem in praise of the 
city of Moukden," by the emperor Kien Long, translated 
into Ffencb, with historical and geographical notes and* 
plates, Paris, 1770, 8vo. 2, ^* The Chinese Military- 
Art,*' ibid. 1772, 4t05 reprinted in vol. VII. of " Memoires 
sur les Chinois ;'* and in vol. VIII. is a supplement sent 
afterwards by the author. The Chinese reckon six clas- 
sical works on the military art, and every soldier who 
aspires to rank, mu^st undergo an examination on them alL 
Aniiot translated the first three, and some parts of the 
fourth, because these alone contain the whole of the Chi- 
nese principles of the art of war. 3. " Letters on the- 
Clrintese characters," addressed to the Royal Society of 
Ldidon, and inserted in vol. I. of the ^^ Memoires sur left 
Chijiois," and occasioned by the following circumstance : 
in 176'!, the ingenious Mr. Turberville Needham pub» 
lished some coBJectures relative to a supposed connectiorr 
between the hieroglyphical writing of the ancient Egyp* 
tians, and the characteristic writing now in use among the 
Chinese ; founded ppon certahi symbols or characters in- 
ftcfibed- dn the celebrated bust of Isis, at Turin, wbich 
appeared to hrm to resemble several Chinese characters^ 
Frotti this he conjectured ; firsts that the Chinese charac* 
terl are the same, in many respects, as the hieroglyphics 
of tgyptj and secondly, that the sense of the hiero-» 
gtyphics may be investigated by the eotnparative and ap- 
propriated ' signification of the' Chinese characters. But 
as tbe> similarity b^etween the two species of writing was 
.:.*-^on tested, ixn appeal was made to the literati of China, 
ATud the secxetary of the Boyal Society, Dr. Charles Morton, 



A M I O T. m 

addressed, himself on tbe subject to the Jesuits at Pekin^ 
who appointed Amiot to return an answer, which may be 
seen in the Phil. Transactions, vol. LIX. It in general 
gives the negative, to Needhani's opinion, but refers the 
complete (i|^cision of the question to the learned socie^ty, 
which he furnishes with suitable documents, copies of in* 
scriptions, &c« 

His next communication was, 4. ^' On the music of the 
Chinese, ancient and modern,^' which fills the greater part 
of vol. VI. of the " Mempires sur les Chinois." 5. " The 
Life of Confucius," the most accvii*ate history of that phi- 
losopher, and taken from the most authentic sources, with 
a long account both of his ancestors and descendants, who 
yet exist in China^ a genealogy which embraces four cen* 
turies. This life, which is illustrated with plates from 
Chinese designs, occupies the greater part of vol. XII. of 
the " Memoires, &c.'* 6. " Dictionnaire Tatarmant- 
cheou-Fran9ais," Paris, 1789, 3 vols. 4to, a work of great 
value, as this language was before unknown in Europe. 
The publication of it was owing to the spirit and liberality 
of the deceased minister of state, M. Bertin, who bore 
the expence of the types necessary, and employed M. 
Langles, a learned orientalist, to superintend the press. 
Amiot also sent over a grammar of that language, which 
is printed in the Xlllth volume of the " Memoires." lie 
pubhshed in the same work, a great many letters, pb*| 
servations, and papers, on the history, arts, and sgiexices; 
of the Chinese, some of which are noticed in the Montbly^ 
Review (see Index), and in the index to the " Memoires,'' 
in which his contributions fill many columns. He died at 
Pekin, in 1794, aged seventy -seven. * 

AMMAN (John Conrad), a Swiss physician, born at 
SchaiFhausen in 1669, applied himself particularly to the 
leaching- of those to speak who were born deaf, and.ac* 
quired great reputation for this talent both in France and 
Holland, as well as in his own country. He publisl^ed 
the method he had employed, in two small tracts, which 
are curious, and much sought after : one under the title of 
" Surdns loquens,'' Harlemii, 1692, 8vo ; the other, 
"De Loquela," Ainst 1700, 12mo.; which last, translated 
into French, is inserted in Deschamps' " Cours d' education 

1 Biog. Universelle.— Monthly Review ubi lupra.— •Phllot. Trewtacttons, 



lis AMMAN. 

des sourds et muets/* 1779, l2mo. Amman also pub^ 
lisfaed jt gbod edition of the works of Cofelius Aorelianus, 
1709, 4to, with Janson D'Almeloveen*s notes. He died 
at Marmund, in Holland, in 1724. His son, John, borii 
in J 707, was also a physician, but particnlarly skilled in 
Botany, on which he gave lectufes at Petersburgh^ whet^ 
he was elected a member of the academy of sciences. 
He was also a member of the Royal Society of London. 
Being desirous of extending the knowledge of those plants 
which CJmelin and other travellers had discovered in thfe 
different countries of Asiatic Russia, he published ** Stir- 
pium rariorum in imperio Rutheno sponte provenientium 
ifcones et descriptiones," Petersburgh, ITS 9, 4to, which 
would have been followed by another Vbliime, if the author 
had not died in the prime of life, in 1740. * 

AMMAN, (JosT, or Justus), a painter and engraver, 
was bom at Zurich, June 1539. His youth and studies 
are involved in obscurity, ttnA tbte first notice Wfe have of 
him is in 1560, when he went to Nuremberg, where he was 
admitted a burgess, and where he died in 1591. Here he 
began in designs on wood, paper, and copper, that career 
ci incessant and persevering exertion ^ich bver-rtm all 
Germany. Histoty, allegoty, emblem, «fcienc<is, trades, 
arts, i]frofe8sions, rural sports, heraldrVt portrait, fashions, 
were all served in their turns, and onen served so well, 
dxat his inventions may still be consult^ by the artist with 
advahtage. He painted with great brHliaticy on g)ass« 
Slis drawings hatched with the pen, or washed, have Italian 
characteristics ot style and execution. 

The multitude of designs which h^ m&de, and the num- 
ber of plates which he engraved, are incredible. He lived 
at a time when almost every book Which made its appear « 
ance was drnamented with prints, and he was employed 
mostly by the great booksellers, especially by Feyeraband. 
There are editions of Livy, Tacitus, Diogenes Laertius, 
and many other classics, with his prints. His portraits of. 
the kings of France, with short methoirs, appeared in 
1576. He engraved also for the New Testament, and a 
**Theatrum nmlierum,*' Francfort, 1586, 4to. One of 
his most curious works is the *^ Panoplia omnium liberalhim, 
mechanicarum et sedentiarium artium genera continens," 
Francfort, 1564, a collection of one hundred and fifteen 

1 Biog. UniTenelle.— Diet. Hist-^Hah. Bibl. Med. ' 



AMMAN. 115 

|^)Mi% €9cliU»fting the T«rioiis artificers at work. In the 
plate of the art t>f engraving, he introduced k portrait of 

AMMAN (Paul), a learned German physician aod 
bottauti vna bora at Breslaw in 1634. After studying in 
JrariQUs Genoum universities, he travelled to Holland and 
Skif^md^ received his doctor's degree at Leipsic, and was 
adodtned a aaember of the society of natural history 
(racadeoiie de cuiiettx de la nature) under the name dF 
Orjrander. 3n 1674, an eKtraordinary professorship was 
eslaMidiad ^ him, from which he was promoted to that 
of botanj, and in i6S2, to that of physiology. Amman 
mm It man of a lively and somewhat turbtrient cast, and 
Althongti idl h» writii^s discover great learning and talents 
IB his {irofession, yet he is often harsh in his remarks on 
dtherst ^^^^ of paradox, and affects a jocular humour not 
Very well suited to die nature of the subjecu on which he 
treats. His first work was a critical extract from the dif * 
ferent decisions in the registers of the faculty of Leipsic, 
Erfwt^ 1670, 4t0 ; on /vi^ich they tliought proper to pass 
a public censure, in their' answer published in the same^ 
j^ar, under the title '^ ilacultatis medic9& Lipsienns ex- 
cusatio, «&€»" His otfaenr productions were, 1. <^ Parasnesis 
ad docentes occUpata circa institutionum noedicarum eraen«> 
dationen,'^ Audulstadt, 1673, 12mo, a vehement invec* 
tive against medical systems, especially the Galenic, in 
whiph he certainly points out errors and abuses ; hut, as 
Haller observes, without pointing out any thing better. 
iieichner and others wrote against this work, whom he an«* 
sweredy in 2. ^^ Arcbaeas syncopticus, £coardi Leichneri, 
&c. oppositus," 1674, 12ma 3. <' Irenicum Numse Fom- 
pilii com Hippocrates quo veterum medicorum et philo«> 
sophorum hypotheses, &c. a prteconceptis opinionibus 
vindioa&tur," francfort, 1689,. 8vo, a work of a satirical 
cast,, and much m iiie spirit of the former. 4. ^^ Praxis 
vulnerum letbalium," Francfort, 1690, 8vo. As a bo<> 
tanist, he publ^hed a description of the garden at Leipsic, 
and ^< Charaoter naturalis plantarum,'* 1676,. a work which 
eatitles him to rank among those who have most ably con* 
tributed to the advancement of the science of botany as 
we now have it Nehel published an improved edition of 
this work in 1700. Amman, who^m, we mayadd;| Ualler 

} StruU and Pilkington^s DiclioiMiries. 



120 AMMAN. 

characterises as a man of a caustic turn^ and som6What 
conceited, died in 1691, in bis fifty-fifth year. ^ 

AMMANATI (Bahtholomew), a celebrated architect' 
and sculptor, was born at f'lorence in 1511, and was at first 
the scholar of Baccio Bandinelli, and then of Sansoviao 
at Venice ; but on his return to his own country, he studied 
with much enthusiasm the sculptures of Michael Angelo in 
the chapel of St. Laurence. His first works are at Pisa ; 
for Florence he executed a Leda, and about the same time^ 
for Naples, the three figures, large as hfe, on the tomb »t^ 
the poet Sannazarius. Meeting with some unpleasant cir- 
cumstances here, he returned to Venice, and made the 
colossal Neptune, which is in St. Mark^s place. At Padua 
he made another colossal. statue, of Hercules, which is still 
in the Montava palace, and has been engraved. He then 
went to Rome to study the antique, and pope Julius IIL 
Employed him in works of sculpture in th6 capitol. Some 
time after, in conjunction with Vasari, he erected the tomb 
of cardinal de Monti, which ddded very considerably. to" his 
fame..' Besides these, he executed a great number, of 
works for Rome, Florence, and other places. The porti- 
coes of the court of the palace Pitti are by him, as well as 
the bridge oft^e Trinity, one of the finest structures that 
have been raised since the revival of the arts, the facade of 
the Roman college, and the palace Rupsoli on the Corso» 
This architect composed a large work, entitled " La Cita,** 
comprising designs for all the public edifices necessary to a 
great city. This book, after having passed successively 
through several hands, was presented some time in the 
eighteenth century to prince . Ferdinand of Tuscany, and 
it is now among the collection 'of designs in the gallery of 
Florence, after having been long inquired after, and sjup- 
posed to be lost. After the death of his wife, he devoted 
the greater part of his wealth to pious purposes, and died 
himself in 1592. His .wife, Laura Battiferri, an Italian 
lady of distinguished genius and learning, was the daugh- 
ter of John Antony Battiferri, and was bora at Urbino in 
1513. She spent her whole life in the study of philosophy 
and polite literature, and is esteemed one of the best Ita- 
lian poets of the sixteenth century. The principal merit 
of her poems,. " L'Opere Toscane," 1560, consists in a 
Aohle elevation, their being filled with excellent momU^ 

} Biog. UnWerseile.— H»U«r BU)L Med^^Maaget Bibl. 



A M M A N A T I. 121 

«ad dieir breathing a spii^it of piety. The academy of In- 
tronati, at Sienna, chose her one of their members. She 
jdied in November 1589, at seventy-six years of age. ^ 

AMMIANUS (Marcellii^s), a Roman historian of the 
fourth centttry> was a Greek by birth, as we may collect 
from aeveral pass^es in bis history; and from a letter 
which the sophist Libanius wrote to him, and #hich is still 
extant, he appears to have b^en born at Antioch. In bis 
youth he followed the profession of arms, and was enrolled 
among the /^ proiectores domesticiy^'* a species of guards 
consisting of young men of family. From the year 350 to 
359,' he served in the East, and in Gaul, under Urficinus, 
master of the horse to Cpnstantius. In the year 363, he 
was with Julian in his Petsian exj^edition, after which he 
5eems to have continued in the £ast, and to have lived ge- 
nerally at Antioch. In the year 374, hov^ever, be left An- 
tioch, and went to Rome, where he wrote his history of the 
Roman affairs from Nerva to the death of Valens in the 
year 378. This consisted of thirty-one books, but the last 
eighteen only remain, which begin at the seventeenth year 
of Constantius, A. D. 353. His style is rough, which is 
not perhaps extraordinary in a soldier and a Greek writ- 
ing in Latin, but there are many splendid passages, and he is 
allowed to be faithful and impartial. From the candid manner 
in which he speaks of Christianity, some have thought him 
a Christian, but there being no other foundation for such a 
supposition, the question has been generally decided in'tbe 
negative,' especially in the preface to Valesius's edition of 
his works, and in his life in the General Dictionary by 
Bayle. Lardner is of opinion, that as he wrote under 
Christian emperors, he might not judge it proper to pro- 
fess bb religion unseasonably, and might think fit to be 
somewhat cautious in his reflections upon Christianity. 
Mosheim thinks that Ammianus, and some other learned 
men of his time, were a sort of neuters, neither forsaking 
the religion of their ancestors, nor rejecting that of the 
Christians; but in tliis Dr. Lardner cannot coincide. It is 
evident that he defended idols and the worshippers of them, 

that he makes Julian the apostate his hero, and appears to 
be unfriendly to Constantius. It is generally allowed, 

however', that he deserves the character which he gives of 
himself at the conclusion of his work, that of a faithful 

* Baldiaacciy notiziode' prof«iiori del disegQO.«-More^i.««-Biog. UnWtrsolle. 
T«-Dict. Hist. 



i2a A MM lATS V & 

hidtiDirim. Lnrdnet hay qooted «om« i mpo f tenl |9liAagMi 
Irom hiflD) ia bis '^ TemmMies ^ Ancient Heathen^.* 
His death is supposed to bave taken place abmt the ftM 

Tfaene are m^y editioBs of Ammiani^s : the first, Roixi^, 
1474, a rare book, was edited by Sabiftiis, with scrtrpalbtisr 
fidelity to the maauscripts €aisteUi!» publiiAied one i'fi 
1517, at Bologna, and Frobenicis iiMtber ftt Baril, tSI^, 
all in folio, but comprising only thirteen books. The other 
five were added to Accnvsim! edition, 15BS, in wbicfa he 
boasts of having corrected five hundred ^errors. 1%^ best, 
perhaps, is that of Grenovius, Leyden, 169S,'{bl. and 4t6. 
There at« differences of opinion among bibliographers re- 
specting the early editions, which we have not been ablets 
reconcUe, some making the frineeps editie to f^on^sl x>nly 
of eleven books.* 

AMMJRATO, or AmwibAtTI (Scipio), an eminent hi$to« 
rian, was bom at Lucca, in the kingdom of Naples, the ^th 
of September 1531. 'He studied first at Poggiardo, after- 
wards at Bfundusinm:; and^ in 1547, he went to Kaples, 
in order to go through a course of civil lew. Whenlte was 
at Barri with ibis father^ he was deputed by that city to 
manage some a&drs at Naples, which he executed widi 
great success. Some time irfber, he determined to enter 
into the church, and was acc<mling)y ordained by the 
bishop of Luoca, who conceived so high an esteem for 
him, as to give him a canonry in his church ; 'but ttot meet- 
ing afterwards with the preferment he expected, be formed 
a design of going to Venice, and entering into tdie service 
of some ambassador, in order to visit the ^veral coorts of 
Europe. Alexander Contarini^- however, dissuaded bfan 
from this resolution of travelling, and engaged Mm to con« 
tinue with him at Venice ; where he had an opportunity ot 
contracting a friendship with many learned' men. But he 
was prevented by a very singular circumstance. The wife ' 
of Contarini, who used to take great pleasure in AmnriratO^s 
conversation, having sent him a present as a token of het 
friendship, some ill-natured persons represented this civi* 
lity in a light suiBcient to excite the resentment tff a jea- 
lous husband, and Ammirato was obliged immediately t<» 
fly, in order to save his liie» He tetumed td 'Lucca, and 

4 

I Moreri.— -Biog. Uiiiverselle. — Lardner'B Works, voL VUI.— Carr, vol Lr— 
Saxii OnomasticdB. 



A M M I R A T Q. its 

bk fa.Att being tteh at Bani^ he wimt tUther 10 Uti, irat ' 
ntbt with a terjr cool receptioii^ as he wot dissatisfied ix> 
find him in no probable vray of making a fortune^ from 
having neglected the study of the law ; and wtth this he 
reproached him very frequently. 

Mareellus Mareiei being chosen pope in 1 ^i^h, luider 
the name of Marcelles il. Ammirato, who knew dist Ni«« 
cobo Majorano, bishop of Molfetta, a city near Banri, haii 
been formerly a friend of the pope^s^ persuaded him to ga 
to Rome, and congratulate him upon his election, with a 
vieWi by attending the bishop in his journey, to procurer 
some place under the nephews of that pope 4 bat, as tbef 
were preparing for this journey, the death of Mareellus 
put a stop to their intended scheme, and destroyed their 
hopes ; upon which Ammirato retired to a country <-seat of 
his father's, where he applied himself closely to his studies. 
At last he was determined to return to Naples, in order t0 
engage again in the study of the law, and to take his de* 
grees in it; his relish for this profession was not in the 
least increased, but he thoaght the title he might procure 
would be of advantage to iu^. He bad not, however, 
been six months at Naples, before he grew weary of it^ 
and entered successively into the service of several nobie-* 
men as secretary. Upon his return to Lucca, he was $f^ 
pointed by this city to go and present a petition to pope 
Pius IV. in their favour, which office he discharged widi 
success. Upon his return to Lucca, he was appointed by 
the city of Naples to settle there, and write the histoty of 
that kingdom ; but the cold reception he met with from the 
governors who had sent for him, disgusted him so much, 
that he left the city with a resolution to return no more,- 
and although they repented afterwards of their neglect of 
him, and used all possible means to bring him baek^ b^ 
continued inflexible. He then went to Rome, where be 
pr6cttied a great many friends ; and, having travelled over 
p«rt of Italy, visited Florence, where be resolved td settle^ 
being engaged by the kind ret;eption which the Grand 
Dnke gave to men of letters^ He was appointed to write 
the history of Florence, and recmed many iostamces of that 
prince's bounty, which he increased after this pnMicatron^ 
by presenting him veith a canonry in the cathedral of Flo<^ 
rence. This easy situation now gave him an opportuniqr 
of applying himself more vigorously to his stuaies, and 
writing the greatest part of his works. Ha died at Fie- 



124 A MM I R A T O. 

rence the 30th of January, 1601, in the 69th year of hb 
age. His works are as follow : 1. ^'Arguments,'' in ka- 
lian verse, of the cantos of Ariosto^s Orlando FuriosOji 
which were first published in the edition of that poem at 
Venice, in 1548, in 4to. 2. "II Decalione dialogo del 
poeta," Naples, 1560, 8 vo. 3. " Istorie Florentine dopo 
la fondatione di Fierenze insino alP anno 1574,*' printed 
at Florence, 1 600, in 2 vols, folio. 4. ^^ Discorsi sopra 
Comelio Tacito," Florence, 1598, 4to. 5. " Delle fa- 
miglie nobili Napolitane,'' part I. at Florence, 1580^ 
in folio; part II. at Florence, 1651, folio. 6. ** Dis- 
corsi delle famiglie Paladina et TAntoglietta,"^ Florence, 
1605, in 4to. 7. *^ Albero et storia della famigtia de conte 
Guidi, col? agiuntc de Scipione Ammirato Giovane," Flo- 
rence, 1640 and 1650. 8. *< Delle famigiie Fiorentine/* 
Florence, 1615, folio. 9^. " Vescovi de Fiesoli di Volterra, 
e d' 'Arezzo, con Taggiunta di Scipione Ammirato il Gio« 
Tane," Florence, 1637, 4to. 10. " Opuscoli varii," Flo- 
rence, 1583, in 8vo. II. " Rime varie," printed in a 
collection of poems by different authors. Venice, 1 553^ in 
8vo. 12. « Poesi Spirituali," Venice, 1634, in 4to. 
13. ^^ Ahnotazioni sopra la seconde parte de Sonetti di 
Bernardino Rota fatti in ijaorte di Porzia Capece sua mog- 
lia,V Naples, 1560, in 4to. He left a manuscript life of 
himself, which is said to have been deposited in the library 
of the hospital of St. Mary. He made his secretary, Del 
Bianco, his heir, on condition of taking his name, who 
accordingly called himself Scipio Ammirato the younger. 
He was editor of some of his benefactor's works, particu- 
larly of bis history of Florence, a performance of great 
accuracy and credit. ^ 

AMMONIUS, son of Hermias the peripatetic philoso- 
pher, flourished at the beginning of the sixth century, and 
was the disciple of Proclus. He is said to have excelled 
in mathematical learning, and wrote a '^ Commentary on 
Aristotle De Interpretatione,'' which was printed by Aldus 
at Venice, 1503; and a ^^ Commentary In Isagogen Por* 
.phyrii,'* first printed in 1500, and often reprinted. He 
has been sometimes confounded with Ammonius the gram* 
marian, but the latter flourished in the fourth century, and 
wrote a valuable work on Greek Synonymes, which may 
be seen in Stephens^s Thesaurus and Scapula*% Lexicon. ^ 

1 Gen. Dict.->-Moreri.-~Siixii Onomasticoiu 



A M M O N I tr S. 123 

AMMONIUS (Andrew), a native of Lucca, born in 
1477, was educated in all the polite literature of Italy, and 
became apostolic notary, and collector for the pope in 
England. Here he spent the latter years of his life, in the 
society and intimacy of the most eminent scholars of that 
time, as Colet, Grocyn, Erasmus, &c. and studied with 
them at Oxford. He was also Latin secretary, and in 
much favour with Adrian de Castello, bishop of Bath and 
Wells, who is said to have made such interest as procured 
him the secretaryship to Henry VIU. He was also made 
prebendary of Compton-Dunden in the church of Wells, 
and, as some report, rector of Dychiat in the same diocese. 
By the recommendation of the king he was also made a 
prebendary of Salisbury, and in all probability, would have 
soon attained higher preferment, had he not been cut oflf 
by the sweating sickness, in the prime of life, 1517. Eras* 
mos, with whom he corresponded, lamented his death in 
most affectionate terms. • He is mentioned as a writer of 
poetry, but his poems do not exist either in print or manu- 
script, except one short piece in the ^* Bucolicorum auc- 
tores,'' Basil, 1546, 8vo. There are some of his letters in 
Erasmus's works. According to Wood he was buried in 
St Stephen's chapel, Westminster. * 

AMMONIUS, surnamed Saccas, one of the most cele- 
brated philosophers of his age, was born in Alexandria, 
and* flourished about the beginning of the third century. 
His history and his opinions have been the subject of much 
dispute among modern writers, to some of whom we shall 
refer at the close of this article, after stating what appears 
to be the probable account. In the third century, Alex- 
andria was the most renowned seminary of learning. A 
set of philosophers appeared there who called themselves 
Eclectics, because, without tying themselves down to. 
any one set of rules, they chose what they thought most 
agreeable to truth from different masters and sects. Their 
pretensions were specious, and they preserved the appear- 
ance of candour, moderation, and dispassionate inquiry, 
in words and declarations, as their successors, the modern 
free- thinkers, have since done. Ammonius Saccas seems 
to have reduced the opinions of these Eclectics to a sysr 
t«m. Plato, was his principal guide ; but he invented many 

' ' Gcih Dict.-p-Ath. Ox. toI. I.— JortiQ's Life of Erastnui.— Ilo$coc*i'L«).-*- 



»3$ AMMONIUa 

things of which Plato never dreamed. What bis religkmt 
profession was, is disputed among the learned. Undpubt^ 
^ly be was educated a Christian ; and although- P^hT'^ 
fhyry^ in his enmity against CbrisLianity^ observes that he 
ibrsook the Go^el, and returned to Gentilism, yet the tes« 
^mony of Eusebius, who mnst have known the iact, proipes 
Ijdat he continued a Christian s^l bis days. His tracts on 
'^e agreement of Moses and Jesus, and his harmony of th€^ 
46ur gospQJ^, dciinanstrate that he desired to be considered 
as a Christian. (lis opinion^ however, w^s, that all rail* 

J;ions, vulgar and philosophical, Grecian a^d barbarousj^ 
iewish and Qentile, mei^nt the same thing at bottom. H^ 
uiidertook, by allegorizing and svibtilizing various fables 
and sy^tems^ to make up a coalition of all sects and reli-* 
^Qn$ ; aqd from his labours, continued by his disctpl^^ 
spme of whose works still remain, his followers were taugh* 
tp Ipok on Jev^f, philosopher, vulgar Pagan, and Christian^ 
^s a|l, of the ^me creed. Longinus and Plotinos appear 
to have been the disciples of Ammonius, who is supposed 
to have die4 abont the year 24S. His history i^d prin- 
^les are discussed by Dr« Lardlner, in his Credibility^ 
^d by Mosheim in his history, the translator of which dif*^ 
fers from Dr. Lardner in toio^ and has been in this respect 
followed by Mihaer in his Church History recently pi^b* 
lished.7 

AMNER (Richard), sl diss^ting divine, was born ^% 
Hinckley in Leicestershire in 1736, and was for, manjf 
years ^ preaqher at Hampstead, near London, and after^^ 
wards at Cpseley, in Staffordsbi^ e^ f>^in which he retirt4 
UK his latter ^3.y& to his t^ative towim where he died June 9« 
)803« He was a naanof some learning in biblical criticism^. 
^8 appears by his various publications on theological sub- 
j^ts. Hq wrote, 1. ^^ An account of the occasion a^ci 
design of the positive Institutions of Christianity, extracted 
from the Scriptures only,'' 1774, 8vo<, 2. ^^ An essay to* 
wards ap interpretation of the Prophecies of Daniel, witl% 
occasional remarks upon spine of the most celebrated corn^ 
mentaries on them," 1776, $vo. 3. << Considerations ooit 
the doctrine of a Future State, aud ^e Resurrection, as re« 
sealed, or supposed to be so, ij^ tb^ Scriptures } .oa thfi| 
inspira^on and authority of the Scripture itself; on sqsaa 

— G«n. Diet— Saxii ODOoiMficoB, 



A M N £ It, Ut 

yw^tiil^Dii. in 8l. Pwl'a Epistles ; on the propbeci^s of 
Staiffl 9ficl St. Jobn, &p. Tq which are added, some stric** 
tmi^ Vk tbe propbf!<;i^ of Isaiah/' 1798, 8vo. In tbi« 
work) which ia aa devoid of elegance of style, as of strength 
of argwnoiU, and which ^hows how far a man may gp, to 
wh^m «I1 eaiablished belief is obaoxious, the inspiration of 
Itm Iji^if Testament writers is questioned, the geni;ine« 
msa of the Apocalypse is endeavoured to be invalidated ; 
and the evangelical predictions of Isaiah are transferred 
fr«an the Messiah to the political history of our own timet^ 
The most aiogalar circumstance of the personal history of 
Mjc- Amner^ was his incurring the displeasure of George 
Sceevensy the celebrated commentator on Shakspeare^ 
This tie probably did very innocently, for Mr. Steevens 
was one of those meii who wanted no motives for revengo 
or malignily but what he found in his own breast. He bad^ 
bftwever, contracted a dislike to Mr. Amner, who was his 
neighbour at Hampstend, and marked hiip out as the vie* 
iioi of a species of malignity which, we believe, has no 
pauaUeL This was his writing several notes to the tnde« 
«ent passages in Sfttak^peare, in a gross and immoral style^ 

d {facing Mr» Amner's name to them. These appeared 
in the edition of 1793, and are still continued. ^ 
AMONTONS (WiJLLUM)^ an ingenious French me^ 
ebanic^ waa bom in Normandy the last day of August, 
M63. Hia father haidug removed to Paris, William re- 
f>eiv^ the first part of his education in this city. He was 
in the third form of the Latin school, when, after a con-^ 
sUerable illness, he contracted such a deafness as obliged 
lum to renounce almost all conversation with mankind. In 
this situation he began to think of employing himself in 
Ihe invention of machines : he applied therefore to the 
study of geometry ; audit is said, that he would not try any 
remedy to eyre his deafness, either because he thought it 
incurable^ or because it increased his attention. He stu« 
died also jdie arts of drawing, of surveying lands, and of 
building, and in a short time he endeavoured to acquire a 
knowledge of those more sublime laws which regulate the 
universe. He studied with great care the nature of baro^ 
aetem and thermometers; and, in 1687, he presented a 
new bygroscope to the royal academy of sciences, which 
was very much ap{)toved. He conununitated to Huhin^ 

1 Gent Maf. 119%, 1803. 



121 A M O N T O N S. 

a famous enameller, some thoughts he bad c&nC^ived^ coti^ 
cerning new barometers and thermometers ; but Hubin 
had anticipated him in some of his thoughts, and did not 
much regard the rest, till he made a voyage into England, 
where the same thoughts were mentioned to him by some 
fellows of the Royal Society. Amontons found out a me^ 
thod to communicate intelligence to a great distance, in a 
very little time, which Fontenelle thus described: Let 
there be people placed in several/ stations, at such a dis- 
tance from one another, that by the help of a telescope a 
man in one station may see a signal made in the next be- 
fore him ; he must immediately make the same signal, 
that it may be seen by persons in the station next after 
him, who is to communicate it to those in the following 
station ; and so on. These signals may be as letters of the 
alphabet, or as a cypher, understood only by the two per«* 
sons who are in the distant places, and not by those who 
make the signals. The person in the second station making 
the signal to the person in the third the very moment he 
sees-it in the first, the news may be carried to the greatest 
distance in as little time as is necessary to make the signals 
in the first station. The distance of the several stations, 
which must be as few as possible, is measured by the reach 
of a telescope. Amontons tried this method in a small 
tract of land, before several persons of the highest lank at 
the court of France. This apparently is the origin of the 
telegraph now so generally used ; but there exists a book, 
entitled "De Secretis," written by one Weckerus in 1582, 
where he gives, froni the authority of Cardanus, who flou- 
rished about 1 530, the following method by which the be^ 
sieged party in a city may communicate their circumstances 
to 'the surrounding country : Suppose five torches to be 
lighted, and held in a horizontal line ; the first torch upon 
^be left hand of the looker-on to represent A, the second 
E, and so on for the five vowels. The consonants arc per- 
formed thus ; inclining the first torch to the left represents 
. B, to the right C, elevating it above the line D, and de- 
pressing it below F. By the second torch brandished in 
the same manner, the four succeeding consonants may be 
represented^ &c. which will comprehend in all twenty let- 
ters. Cardanus says, that the historian Polybius, who 
flourished above a century before Christ, in one of hit 
fragments gives an obscure and mutilated description of^a 
method to effect the above" purpose. Probably, adds the 



A M O N T O N S. i29 

gentleman to whom we are indebted for this comtslunjca-* 
tioti, a copy of this De Secretis, or the obscur6 description 
of Polybius, might, unacknowledged, have ihfused Anion* 
tons with the idea of the modern telegraph ; and, after the 
primary hint was given, the application of the telescope 
might easily occur. What, however, is most remarkable, 
is, that in neither case was the invention followed up, but 
lay dormant until the commencement of the revolutionary 
war of France in 1 7 9 3. 

In 1695, Aroontons published " Remarques et expe- 
riences physiques sur la construction d^une nouvelle clep- 
isydre, sur les barometres, thermometres, et hygrometres ;'* 
and this is the only book he wrote, besides the pieces which 
he contributed to the Journal des Sgavans. Though the 
bour-glasses made with water, so much in use among the 
ancients, be entirely laid aside, because the clocks and 
watches are much more useful, yet Amontons took a great 
deal of pains in makit^g his new hour-glass, in hopes that it 
might serve at sea, bein^ made in such a manner, that the 
most violent motion could not alter its regularity, whereas 
a great agitation infallibly disorders a clock or watch. 
When the royal academy was new regulated in 1699, 
Amontons was admitted a member of it, and read there his 
new theory of Friction, in which he happily cleax^ed up a 
very important part of mechanics. He had a particular 
genius for making experiments : his notions were precise 
and just : he knew how to prevent the inconveniences of 
his new inventions, and had a wonderful skill in executing 
them. He enjoyed perfect health, and, as he led a regu- 
lar life, was not subject to the least infirmity, but was 
suddenly seized with an inflammation in his bowels, which 
occasioned his death, 11th of October, 1705," aged 42. 

The eloge of Amontons may^ be seen in the volume of 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences for the year 1705, 
Hist. p. 150. And his pieces contained in tha different 
irolumes of that work^ which are numerous, and upon 
various subjects, as the air, action of fire, barometers^ 
thermometers, hygrometers, friction, machines, heat, cold, 
rarefactions, pumps, &c. may be seen in the volumes for 
the years 1696, 1699, 1702, 1703, 1704, and 1705. > 

AMORT (EusEBius), a canon regular of the order of 
St Augustine, distinguished himself in Bavaria by the putk)** 

t Gen. Dict.i-«>Moreri.—-Foniettell« Hist, dt i'Aqad. dss Scieocei, 1T0^,«* 
Button's Mathematical Dictf 

Vol.. IJ. K 



J39 



AMOR T, 



ber and vdine of bis writings, ^though ooeny of tbem vixc 
pa subjects tbft); will not now be thought interesting. He 
was esteemed 9> wise and modest man^ but rather singular 
in some points. He published, i^mong other works, ^< Phir 
Josophia Pollingana/' Augsburg, 1730, fol, at the end of 
which is m extraordinary attempt to deny the earth^s mo-* 
tion ; ^^ A theological history of Indulgences,^' fol. ; a 
supplement to ** Poatas's Dictionary of cases' df Con- 
science ;'' ^^ Rules from holy scripture, councils, and tha 
fathers, res$pecting revelations, apparitionsy and visions,'' 
2 vols. 17^4, 4to ; " A dissertation on the author of The 
imitation pf Jesus Christ, usually attributed to Thomas ^ 
Kempis.'' All these works, of which, except the first, we 
Jiave not been able to recover the exact titles, were written 
in Liatin. Amort died Nov. 25, 1775, at the age of eighty i- 
two. * 

AMORY (Thomas), a dissenting minister of consider- 
9ble note, was the son of a grocer at Taunton jn Somerset-^ 
shire, where he was born Jan. 28, 1701 ; and at that place 
acquired bis classical learning, under the care of Mr, Cha,d^ 
wick. From Taupton he w^s removed to Exeter, that he 
might be instructed in the f rench language by M^ Mar 
jendie, a refugee minister in that city. After this, he re-* 
turned to Mr* Chadwick, where be had for his schoolfellow 
Mr. Micaiab Towgood ; and at Lady-day 1717, they were 
l>oth put under the academical instruction of Mr, Stephen 
James and Mr. Henry Groyen the joint tutors at Tauntoii 
for bringing up young persons to the dissenting ministry. 
Under these preceptors, Mr. Amory went through the usual 
preparatory learning ; s^nd in the summer of 1722 was ap-r 
proved of as a candidate for the ministry *. Being desirous 
pf improvement, be removed, ip the November following^ 
$0 London, and attended a course of experimental {Philo- 
sophy, under Mn John Eames, Upon his return tf) Taudr 



* When young men, among the dig-' 
I fillers, have passed through, or neaiiy 
flnUhed tli^eir academical course, they 
^dergo an examination either of the 
trustees and tutors of the seminaries in 
irbicti they>baTe been educated, or of 
some other mii^isters fixed upon for 
that purpose. Upon the«e occasions, 
they usually deliver a sermon, mm-* 
tain a thesis, and submit to such ezer- 
eiies besides as are thought needful 



and proper^ If their qualifications 
and moral characters be approved o^ 
they receive a testimonial signifyinf 
that approbation, accompanied with ^ 
recommendation of them to those so- 
cieties among whom tbey may b« 
called to oilicjate. Tbis method Qif 
proceeding may be considered as an- 
swering, in a great measure, to the 
conferring of deacon's orders in Uif 
church of England. 



i.Dlat. Hi9t.-^Bk)g. Universeile. 



^ 



AMORT. l»i 

loS) he preached alternately at sereral places in the 
neighbourhood; till, upon Mr. James's death in 1724 or 
1725, Mr. Amory was fixed as a stated assistant preacher 
to Mr. Datch of Hull Bishops ; besides which, he had one 
monthly turn at Lambrook near South Petherton, and ano- 
ther at West Hatch, four miles from Taunton. At the same 
time, he was requested by his uncle, Mr. Grove, to take a 
part in the instruction of the pupils, in the room of Mr. 
James, with which request he complied. The business 
assigned bim he discharged with great ability and dili* 
gence ; being well qualified for it by his profound acquaint- 
ance with the Greek and Roman languages, his correct 
taste in the classics, and by his thorough knowledge of the 
best and latest improvements in sound philosophy. In 
1730, he was ordained at Paul's meeting in Taunton, and 
from this time was united, in the congregation at Taunton, 
with Mr. Batsen ; but that gentleman keeping the whole 
salary to himself, several of the principal persons in the 
society were so displeased with him, that, early in th^ 
spring of 1732, they agreed to build another meeting** 
house, and to choose Mr. Amory for their pastor. In the 
beginning of 1738, on the death of Mr. Grove, he became 
chief tutor in the academy at Taunton, and conducted the 
business of it with the same abilities, and upon the same 
principles. He had the advantage of the lectures and ex^ 
perience of his excellent uncle, added to his own : and 
many pupils were formed under him, of great worth and 
distinguished improvements in literature. In 1741, he 
married a daughter of Mr. Baker, a dissenting minister in 
Southwark; an excellent lady, who survived him, and 
'with whom he lived in the greatest affection and harmony. 
By tbid lady he had several children, four of whom sur- 
vived him. During his residence in Taunton he was held 
in the greatest esteem, not only by his own society, but 
by all the neighbouring congregations and ministers ; ^nd 
even those who differed the most from him in religious 
opinions, could not avoid paying a tribute of respect to the 
integrity and excellence of his character. He was much 
respected, likewise, by the gentlemen and clergy of the 
established church, ' and was particularly honoured, when 
fety young, with the friendship of Mrs. Rowe, with whom 
he kept up a correspondence by letters. Orfe instance of 
Ae respect entertained for hrm, and of his own liberal and 
honourable conduct, cannot be omitted. When tome . of 

K 2 



^Sfi A M O R Y. 

the priiioipal persons of the Baptist society in Tftunton, 
.^owingto the disgust they bad received at their then pastor, 
would have deserted him, and coiumunicaiXed to Mr. Amqiy 
their intention of becoming his stated hearers, be gene"- 
rously dissuaded them from the execution of their design^ 
as a step which would prove highly injurious to the reputa^ 
tion, ipembers, and interest of the congregation they ior 
tended to leaye. Mr. Aipory was so happy with bis people 
ixt Tauutpn, and so generally respeCJted and beloved hqth 
in the town and the neighbourhood, tb^it, perhaps^ it may 
be deemed strange that hie should be induced to quit bis 
jsituation, This, howeveri he did, in October 1759, at 
which time he repioved to London, to be afternoon preacher 
to the sopiety in the Old Jewry, belonging to I)r« Saiyiuel 
Chandler, But the grand mptive, besides the hope of 
inore extensive usefulness, seems tp h^ve been^ th^t he 
plight advantageously dispose pf his children, in whiqii 
respect he succeeded. It must, indeed* be sicknowleilged;^ 
that h^ did not, in the metropolis, meet with all that po^ 
pularity, as ^ preacher, tp Vrhich he w^s entitled by bi^ 
rea) merit. His delivery was clear and distinct, and his 
discourses excellent ; but his voice was npt powerful enough 
to rouse the bulk pf mankind, who are struck with poise 
jfand parage: jand his sermon^, though practical, serious, 
and affecting to the attentive hearer, were rather too phi- 
losophical for the common run of congregations, But Mr. 
Ajpoiy enjoyed a general respect; and he received every 
piark of distinction which is usually paid, in London,* tQ 
the if^ost eminent ministers of the presbyterian denominaT 
^ion. In 1767> be wasi chosen QM^ of the trustees to tb^ 
charities of Dr. Daniel Williani^. Jn 1768^ the uniYersity 
qf Edinburgh ponferred upon him the degree of p, D, aft4 
in the same year be was elected one of the six Tuesday 
lecturers at Salter's Hall. It ought to have been oientioped, 
that previouis to these last events, he was ebosen, s^t the 
death of Dr. Chandler, in 1766, a pastor of the society ai 
^he Pld Jewry ; in which situa^tion he continued tiU bis; 
decease. In J 770, he becanie mq|-ning-prejicher fit New? 
pgton f^reen^ and colleague yviih the tcv* Pr. .Ilichar4 
Price. When the dissenting minister?^ in 1772, formed ^ 
de§igp of pndeavouring to propure ?in ^nla^rgement of the 
Jqleratipn act, Pr. Aniory ^as one of the conimittee ap- 
ppin|:ed fo^r tb^t purpose ; and none co^dd b^ Xf^ors zealouui 
for the prosecution of the scheme. 



Di*. Amory had the felicity of being able td continue hig 
public services nearly to the last. June 16th, 1774, he was 
seized with a sudden disorder which left him nearly in a 
state of insensibility till his death, which happened an the 
24th of that mouth, and in the 74th year of his age^ He 
was interred in Bunhill Fields, on the 5th of July ; and his 
funeral was attended by a respectablie number of ministers 
and -gentlemen. The discourse, on the occasion of his 
death, was preached in the Old Jewry, on the 10th of tbo 
sam<e month, by the rev. Dr. Roger Flexman of Rother- 
hithe, who had been connected with him in an intimate 
friendship for more than 40 years ; which friendship. Dr. 
Flexman assures us, had never once been interrupted by 
distaste, or darkened with a frown. 

Dr. Amory's character was. excellent in every view. It 
seems, says Dr. Kippis, to have been formed upon that of 
his uncle, Mr. Grove ; with whom he had been closely 
connected from his infancy, and his connection with whom 
he considered as the principal felicity of his life. His piety 
was equally rational and fervent. It was founded on the 
most enlarged sentiments concerning the divine pi*ovidetice 
and government ; and was, therefore, displayed in a spirit 
of cheerful devotion, love, and confidence! None could 
excel him as a husband, a father, a master^ and a friend. 
He was distinguished for his general benevolence and hu« 
inanity ; and as a companion he was remarkably pleasing 
and engaging. He abounded with a number of short 
stories, drawn from an extensive knowledge of books and 
men, which, while they were entertaining, were calculated 
and designed to convey instruction. 

In his public character, as a teacher of religion, Dn 
Amory was greatly respectable. The devotional part of 
worship was conducted by him with admirable propriety, 
seriousness, and fervour. His sermons were close, 9ccu* 
rate, solid, and affectionate. * He never devoted the pulpit 
to trifling subjects. If any thing disputable was ever in- 
troduced by him, it was to expose the doctrines of rigid 
Calvinism ; ' as his sentiments, with regard to both natural 
and revealed religion, nearly agreed with those of Dr. 
Slimuel Clarke, and of the divines who were his coadjutors. 
As to )iis learning, it was solid, judicious, and extensive. 
He was well acquainted with every part of theology, and 
much conversant with ethics, natural and experimental 



IS4 A M O K Yi 

philosophy, tnd tk^ best an^^ents^ espficiaUy their moral 
writings. Nor was he above amusing himself with histoiypr 
books of travels, poetry, and other entertaining species of 
composition. But his general application was to thoM 
more serious and important parts of study, that were im- 
mediately suited to his profession. 

His works consist principally of Sermons preached on 
various occasions, some of which were after their first pub-^; 
lication collected into volumes, and a volume was published 
after his death. Besides these be published ^ A Dialogue 
on Devotion," 1733 ; " Forms of Devotion for the closet^" 
1763, 8vow JHe was also the editor of Dr. Grove's post* 
humous worksji and wrote his life, and the Life of Dr. Ben* 
sou, and of Dr. Samuel Chandler. Some poetical pieces, 
have been attributed to him, particularly a poem on die 
praises oS Taunton^ the place of his birth, pubhshed itk 
1724. * 

AMORY (TaoMAS), esq* the son of counsellor Amory^ 
who attended king William in Ireland, and was appointed 
secretary for the forfeited estates in that kingdom, where 
he was possessed of a very extensive property in the county 
of Clare. Our author was not bom in Irdand, aa it hair 
been suggested. It has been conjectured that he was bred* 
to some branch of the prclessionof physic^ but it is not 
known that he ever followed that or any other pro&tsion. 
About 1757 he lived in a very reduse way on a small for** 
tune> abd his remdence was in Orchard street, Westmhi-/ 
ster.. At that tie^^ ako he had a country lodging for occav* 
sional retiremi^iit in the suomaer, at Belfont, near Hoon- 
slow. He had then a wi{e> who bore a very vespectaUe. 
character, and' by whom he had a son, who practised 
nasny years ae a physician in tbe north of En^nd. On 
tjie saaae au^thority we tx» told, that he wa^. a maot q£ a 
very peculiar look auji aspect, though at the same tine he 
bore <^ite the ap^deavaMO of a geaitkaoiAO*. He read much, 
an4 scaree e^er stixredi abroad ; bat in the dusk of the 
jpvening wotadd take bis usual walk, and seemed alweys to 
he ruminating en: speculative subjects, eveu wbcB passing 
along the fldoat crowded streets. 

lu; 1751, oa due publication of Wd Orrery's remarks oit 
the life and writings of Dc. Swift,, the fdSioning adwr* 

1 Biog. Brit. 



A M O A V* l3i 

lis^ment ±ppetted In tht Whitehall Svening Post, Dec; 
12, 1751 ; hurt we; have tiot been able to diseover that the 
pkmphlet was etet printed : 

"Soon Will be published, A Letteif to lord Ofrery, in an- 
swer to what bii lordship say^ in Ms late refnarks iti praise of 
Swift's sermon on the Trinity ; being an attempt to vindi-- 
cate the divinity of God, the Father Aintiighty ; aild to cbn^ 
vince his^ lordship, if he has a . mind open to conviction, 
that the tritheistic discoarse preached by the dean of St* 
Patrick^s, is so far from being that masterpiece ofiy lord 
Orrery calk it, that it is in reality the most seitseless a.hd 
despicable perfarmance t^t ever was produced by ortho"* 
doxy to corrnpt the divjtie religion of the bfessed Jesus* 
By Thomas Amory, esq.'* 

In 175# he published "Memoirs, Containing the lives of 
several ladies of Great Britain*" " A history of antiquities, 
productions of nature, and monuments of aft." *^ Observiai- 
tions on the Christian religion, as professed by the esta;-^ 
blished church and dissenteris of every denomination.'* 
^ Remarks on the writings of the greiatest English divines : 
and a review of the Works of the writes called Infidels^ 
from lord Herbert of Cherbury to the late lord viscount 
Bolingbroke. With a variety of disquisitions and opinions 
relative to criticism atid mannei;s ; and many extraordinary 
actions* In several' letters," 8Vo» 

The characters of the ladies celebrated in this.Virork are 
truly ridiculous, and probably the offspring of fiction. They 
are not only beautiful, learned, ingenious, and religious 
but they are all zesiildus Unitarians in a. very high degree i 
as is the author hiinself. At the eud of the history of these 
memoirs, he promised a continuation of them, , which was 
Co contain what the public would then have received with 
great satisfaction, and certainly ^ould still, should the 
MSS. luckily remain in being. His words are as follow : 

" N. B. In an appendix to the second volume of this 
work, the reader will -find an account of two very extraor- 
dinary persons, dean Swift, and Mrs. Constantia Grierson^ 
of Dublin. 

" As to the dean,, we have four histories of him, lately 
put>lrshed : to wit, by lord Orrery, the Observer on lord 
Orrery, Deane* Swift, esq. and Mrs. Filkington ; but after 
all the man is not described. The ingenious female writer 
comes nearest to his character, so far as she relates j but 
Iter relation Lsr an imperfect piece. My lord and the re* 



136 A.pO, R Y. 

marker bn his lordship^iiave given us mere critiques on bis^ 
writings, and not ^^|^isfactory as one could wish. They 
are not painters. 4[pd;^s to Mn Swift, the dean's cousin^ 
his essay is an odd ^i^i. of history of the doctor's family, 
and vindication of the dean's high birth, pride, and pro- 
ceedings. His true character is not attempted by this 
writer. He says it never can he di^j^ up with any degree 
of accuracy, iso exceedingly sire^i^gfe^' various, and. per-* 
plexed it was ; and yet the materiajl are to be gathered 
from his Writings. All this I deny, I think I can draw bis 
/ cbaracter; not from his writings,' but from my own near 
observations on the man. . I "knew him well, though I never 
was within-side of his house; because t could not flatter, 
cringe, or meanly humour the extravagancies of any man. 
I am sure I knew him better than .any of those friends he 
entertained twice a week at the deanery, Stella excepted. 
I had him often to myself in hi^ rides and walks, and have 
studied his soul when be little thought what I was about. 
As i lodged for a year within a few doors of him, I knew 
his times of going out to a minute^ and generally nicked 
the opportunity. He was fond of company upon these 
Occasions ; and glad to have any rational person to talk to : 
for, whatever was the meaning of it, he rarely had any of 
his friends attending hiin at his exercises. One servant 
only and no companion he had with him, as often as I have 
met him, or came up with him. What gave me the easier 
access to him, was my being tolerably well acquainted with 
our politics and history, and knowing many places, thingi^ 

1)eople and parties, civil and religious, of his beloved Eng* 
and. Upon this account he was glad I joined hinv We 
talked generally of factions and religion, states and revo- 
lutions, leaders and parties. Sometimes we ha^ other sub-* 
jects. Who I was he never knew; nor did I seeim to know 
he was the dean for a long time ; not till one Sunday even- 
ing that his verger put me into his seat at St Patrick's 
prayers, without my knowing the do.ctor sat there. Then 
I was obliged to recognize the great man, and seemed in 
a very great surprise. This pretended ignorance of mine 
as to the person of the dean had given me an opportunity 
of discoursing more freely with, and of receiving more ia^ 
formation from the doctor than otherwise I could have en- 
joyed. The dean y/as proud beyond all other mortals I 
have seen, and quite another man when he was known. 
'^ This may appear strange to many ; but it must be. to 



A M O R Y. ' 1ST 

those vAjLO are not acquainted with nie« I was so fat from 
having a "(-anity to be known to Dr. Swift, or to be seen 
among the fortunate at his bouse (as I have heard those 
who met there calledy^ that t am sure it would not have 
been in the power of any person of consideration to get me 
there. What I wanted in relation to the dean I had, TliU 
was enough for me. I desired no more of him. I was en- 
abled by the means related to know the excellencies and 
the defects of hi$ understanding ; and the picture I have 
dra^n of his mind, you shall see in the appendix afore* 
named; with some remarks on his writingS| and on the 
cases of Vanessa and Stella. 

** As to Mrs. Grierson, Mr. Ballard^s account of her in 
his memoirs of some English ladies, lately published, is not 
worth a rush. He knew nothing of her ; and the impertect 
relation he ^t from Mrs. Barber is next to nothing. I wasi 
intimately acquainted with IV^rs. Grierson, and have passed 
a hundred afternoons with her in literary conversations ia 
her own parlour. Therefore it is in my power to give a 
very particular and exact account of this extraordinary 
woman. In the appendix you shall have if 

These promised accounts, however^ have not yet appealed. 

The monthly reviewers of the time having given an ac- 
count of this work unsatisfactory to the author, he publislied 
(for there can be little doubt but he was the author) a 
pamphlet entitled ^' A letter to the Reviewers, occasioned 
by their account of a book called Memoirs. By a lady.'* 
Svo. 1755. This lady signs herself Maria de Large; and 
subjoined are some remarks signed Anna Maria Cornwallis. 

In 1756 he published the first volume of '^ The life of 
John Buncle, esq. containing various observations and re- 
flections made in several parts of the world ; and maiiy 
extraordinary relations,*' 8vo, which may be considered in 
some measure as a supplement to the Memoirs; and in 
1766 appeared the second volume. Both parts exhibit the 
same beauties, the same blemishes, and the same eccen- 
tricities* It has been thought, that in the character and 
adventures of Mr. Buncle, the author intended to sketch 
his own picture ; and perhaps there may be some truth in 
the conjecture. Both die Memoirs and Life have been re- 
printed in 12mo, the former in two volumes, the latter in 
four. It is said also that he published many political and 
religious tracts, poems, and songs. 

Counsellor Amory, t,he grandfather of the doctor, and 



ist 



A M O R Y. 



father of our author, was the youngest brother of Affioryi 
or Darner, the miser, whom Pope calls the wealthy and the 
wise ; from whom came lord Milton, &c. He married the 
daughtei" of Fitz Maurice, earl of Kerry ; sir William P^tty^ 
another daughter; and the grandfather of the duke of 
Leinster, a third. He died at the age of ^7, in 17S9*. 

AMOUR (St.) See St. AMOUR. 

AMPHIBALUS, one of our early confessors in tihe third 
century, of whom all the accounts we have seeii appeal*^ 
doubtfal, is said to hare converted our British proto-martyf 
St. Alban to the Christian faith, and both suffered in the 
tenth persecution under the emperor Dioclesian, some 
think aboilt the latter end of his reign, but Cressj^, on 
better authority, fixes it in the third year of that emperor's 
reign, or 286. Boethius, with other Scotch historians, 
msd^e Amphibalus to be bishop of the Isle of Man; but 
Gyraldus Camhrensis, with many of the writers of out 
church history, say he was by birth a Welchman, and 
bishop of the Isle of Anglesea ; and that, after converthig 
Alban he fled from Verulam into Wales to escape the exe-» 
cution of the severe edict made by Dioclesian against the 
Christians, and was there seized and brought back to Red- 
barn in Hertfordshire, where he was put to death in 
the most cruel manner. Archbishop Usher, however^ 
explodes this story as a piece of monkish fiction, and 
says his name no where occurs till Jeffery of Monmouth's 
time, who is the first author that mentions it. Fuller, in 
his usual quaint manner, wonders how this compounded 
Greek word came to wander into Wales, and thinks it might 
take its rise from the cloak in which he was wrapped, or 
fronv changing vestments with his disciple Alban, the better 
to disguise his escape. It is certain that the venerable 
Bede, who was a Saxon, and to whom most of our monkish* 
historians are indebted for the history of St. Alban, makes 
. no mention of his name, only calling him presbyter, d 
priest, or clerk. He is said to have written several ho- 
milies, and a work ^' ad instituendam vitam Christianam,'* 
and to have been indefatigable in promoting Christianity, 



\ "^ This account is mach abridged 
from the preceding edition of this work; 
but the editor hesitated long in adtnit- 
ing even what is now given. If we may 
jadge from Mr. Amory's writings, the 
amusement they may afford cannot 
fail to be checked by the recoUectkm 



that tiwy are the effutioni of a mind; 
evidently deranged. He appears t» 
have travelled in search of Unitarians, 
as Don QuisCote in search of ehivalroas' 
adventures, and probably from a simi- 
lar degree of insanity.— -See Gent. Mag. 
vol. LVHI. 1062, LIX. 107, Zn, S7t. 



A M P H I L O C H I U S, iSf 

but Mthentic particBlan of his life are now beyond wd 
resbcfau ' 

AMPHILOCHIUS, a native of Cappadocia, bishop of 
Iconium ia the fourth century, was the friend of St Gre^ 
gOfy Nazianzen and St. Basil, He assisted at the first ge- 
neral council of Consti^ntinople in the year 381, and pre- 
sided at the council of Sidae. In the year 383, he contrived 
the following method of persuading the emperor to profaibii; 
the assemblies of the A nans : observing that Theodosius 
encouraged the Arians, he went to his palace, and ap^ 
proacbing Arcadius, his son, caressed him as if he had 
been an infant, but did not treat him with the customary 
respect. Theodosins, enraged at an affront offered to him^ 
self in the person of his son, ordered the bishop to be thrast 
Qut of the palace, when, turning to Theodosius, he cried, 
*\ My lord, you cannot bear that your son should be injured, 
and are dupleased at those who do hot treat him with re-* 
^pect ; can you then doubt, that the God of the universe 
also, abhors those who blaspheme his son?" Theodosius, 
upon this, called back the bishop, begged his pardon, and 
soon after published severe laws against the assembliea 
of the Arians. St AmpUlochius died about the year 394. 
V^y few of his works remain. Jerome mentions but one, 
GOQceraing the '* Divinity of the Holy Spirit,*' which is 
Mt exiam. The principal is an Iambic poem of consi- 
derable length, in which is inserted a catalogue of the. 
hooka of the Old a^d New Testament. Cave and Dupin 
say that it was the production of Gregcury Nazianzen, but 
Coeabesis and TiUcsnont contend for its belonging to Am^ 
philochiiks. The fragments which remain of his other worka 
are ia the Bshl. Patinm, and there is a letter of his con- 
GC^rning synods, published by Cotelerius. Father Com- 
besis, pttUltthed all be could collect, in L644, foL Greek and ^ 
La^, biit he has inseifted some pieces on very doubtful 
authority.* 

I AMPSINGIUS, or AMPSING (John Assuerus), a na-^ 
tive of the 'pcovioce of Ovec-yssel, was first a clergyman at 
Haarlem, hot afterwards studied medicine and practised 
in Lower Saxoay, having also been appointed medical pro* 
feasor atRoatock, and physixian to the duke of Mecklen- 
»..-.■.■'... 

^ BoetlMUS Hist. Scot. Hb. e.— 'Pitts.—- Tanaer, &c. 

^ CttNfft'vol. I.»«*Morerii — lArduer's Works^ vol. IV* — ^SaxU Onomastican*- 



140 A M P S I N G I U S^ 

Imrgfa^ He died at Rostock in 1642, aged eighty-thm^^ 
He wrote^ 1. '^ Dissertatio iatromathematica,'* Rostock^ 
1602, 16iS, 4to; 1629, &vo. In this, after preferring me- 
dicine and astronomy to all other sciences, he contendsr 
for the -necessity of their union in the healing art. 2. " De 
Theriaca, otatio," 1618, 4to. 3. " De Morborum dif- 
ferentiis,^^ 1619^ and other works, in which his practice ap^ 
pears rather more rational than his theory. ^ 

AMSDORF (Nicholas), an associate of Lather in the 
reformation, was born in 1483, near Wurtzen in Misnia, 
d a noble family^ After studying divinity, he became 
one of the clergy of Wittemberg, and preached also at 
t^gdebnrgh and Naumburgh. In 1527, he accompanied 
Lu^er, to whose doctrines he was zealously attached, to 
the diet of Worms, and on his return, was in the same 
carriage with that reformer, when he was seized by order 
©f the elector of Saxony, and conducted to Wartburgh. In 
1573^ he concurred in drawing up the articles of SmaU 
calde, and was, in 1542, appointed bishop of Naumburgh 
By the elector John Frederick, who disapproved of the 
choice which the chapter had made of Julius de Pflug. 
But,' five years after, when his patron was taken prisoner 
by Charles V. he was obliged to surrender the bishopric 
to Pfiug, and retire to Magdeburgh. He afterwards assisted 
iu founding the university of Jena, which was intended as 
.a rival to that of Wirtemberg, and died at Eisenach, 
May 14, 1565. The principal thing objected to- him by 
the popish writers, and by some of his biographers, is, 
thiit in a dispute with G. Major, he maintained that good 
works were hurtful to .salvation : but however improper 
this expression in tl|e heat of debate, it is evident from his 
writings, that he meant that good works impeded salvation 
' by being relied on as the cause of it, and that they were 
the fruit and efi^ct of that faith to which pardon is pro- 
• mised. He was one of the boldest in his time in asserting 
the impiety and absurdity of the principal popish doctrines, 
but from his bigotted adherence to Lutheran principles, 
had too little respect for the other reformers who were of 
different sentiments in some points. Moreri is wrong in 
asserting that he formed a sect called by his name. The^ 
same principles were held by many of the Lutheran di- 

^ Biog. Uoivenelle.— Manget. Bibl. Script Med.— »Haller. Bibl. Med. Pnd. 



A M S D O A F. 14t 

irln^s. He wrote On the '* Lord's Supper,** and som^ 
other controTersial pieces enumerated by Melchior Adam, 
Joecfaer, and Adelung. ^ ' 

AMTHOR (Christopher Henry), a Danish political 
«ad miscellaneous writer, was born at Stolberg in 1678, 
W2» educated at Riindsburgh by one of his uncles, and in 
1704, was appointed professor of law and politijaal science 
at Kiel, where he acquired great reputation. Some verses 
which he wrote in praise of tlie Danish ministers having 
given offence to the court of Holstein-Gottorp^ he entered 
into the service of Denmark in 1713, and was appointed 
•historiographer to the king, and counsellor of the chancery 
of the duchy of Holstein Schleswic. Iil this situation i^ 
wrote, at the king's request, several pamphlets on the dif^ 
jFerences which existed between Denmark, Sweden, and 
the duchy of Holstein* Gottorp, which were published itt 
German, 1715, 4to. These were so much approved of^ 
jtbat in 1715 he was invited to Copenhagen, appointed 
' (Counsellor of justice, and had apartments in the royal castle 
pf Eosembouj^ until liis death, Feb. 21,1721. He wrote 
jBilso ^^ Meditationes philosophical de justitia divinaet ma<* 
jtedis cum ea connexis;'' and a volume of ^^ poems and 
laudations," in German, Flensburgh, 1717.^ 

AMULON, AMOLON, or AMOLO, was archbishop 
pf Lyons, and illustrious for his learning and piety ; he 
wrote against Godeschalkus, and against the Jews, and 
^me pieces on free-will and predestination, which were 
printed by P* Sirmond, 1 645, 8 vo, ainl are also in the 
^^ Bibliptbeca Patrum." He died in the year 854. ^ 

AMY (N.)^ an advocate in the parliament of Aix, who 
died in 1760, is known by some works in natural science: 
1. ^^ Observations experimentales sur les eaux des riTieres 
de S^inCi de JVfarne, &c." 1749, 12mo. 2. ^* Nouvelles 
fon^ines SUrantes," 1757, 12mo. 3. <^ Reflexions sur les 
vaisseaux decuivre, de plomb, et d'etain," 1757, l2mo. &c. 
His works discover the author to have been a great friend 
to fuankiudy employing his knowledge in the investigation 
of whatever may prove useful or noxious to his fellow* 
9reatuires.^ 

AM YN-AHM£D, Jiaifyf or native of the city of Rey in 
A^^bf44i^^ ^^^f^ ^ ^^T l^^ned Persian who flourished 

1 Melchior A^<ini.r— Bios* UiuvenelIe.<«-»FuUer>8 Abel RediTiTU8.-!f7Moreri.i<-^ 
^axii Onomasticon. 
*Biog. Uaivei9tl(e* > Oen. pMt.— >Morfn« * Diet. Histarique^ 



142 A M Y N . A H M E D. 

iiboiitthe comaieaeement ctf the elerenth ocntttry of the 
Jbegira, or the seyenteeuth of the Christian »r». We hare 
no particulars of his Ufe, but his extensive learning is ap- 
parent from a geographical and biographical work, com- 
posed by hun, under the title ^^ Heft iclym/' the *' Seven 
clioaates," containing a description of the principal coun- 
tries and cities of the East, with biographical notices of the 
most eminent persons. The dates, and the lists of the 
works of each author are said to be very correct. It con- 
cludes with the year 1002 of the begira. There is a very 
fine copv of it in the imperial library of Paris, a large folio 
of 582 leaves, copied in the year 1094 of the hegira, or 
1683, A. D. M. Langles gave several extracts from it 
in the notes to his French translation of the Asiatic re- 
searches, and some also in the new edition o£ Chardin*t 
voyages. * 

. AMYOT (James), bishop of Auxerre and grand almoner 
of France, was born Oct 1514, of an obscure family at 
Melun. The following particulars of his^ origin are from 
various authors. Varillas affirms, That at the age often 
years> Amyot was found lying sick in a ditch oh the road to 
P^s, by a gentleman, who was so singularly compassionate, 
as to set him upou his horse, and carry him to a house, where 
he recovered, and was furnished with sixteen pence to bear 
h^ ,charges home. This goodness met with an ample 
reward, as Amyot left to the heirs of this earty benefactor 
the sum of 1600 crowns a year. It' is also saidj that as 
Henry II. was making a progress through his kingdom, he 
stopt at a small inn in Berry to sup. After supper a yoang 
man sent in to his majesty a copy of GredL verses. The 
king) being no scholar, gave them to his chancellor to 
read, who was so pleased with them, that he desired him 
to order the boy who wrote them to come in. On inquiry 
he found him to be Amyot, the son of a mercer, and tutor 
to a gentleman's spn in that town. The chancellor recom- 
mended his majesty to take the lad to Paris, and to make 
him tutor to bis children. Thi» was complied with, and 
led to his future preferments. 

By what means he was educated is not certaihly known, 
but be studied philosophy at Paris in the college of the 
cardinal le Moine, and aUbongh naturally of slow capacity, 
his uncommon diligence enabled him to accumulate a larg« 

^ Bi9f . Uaiv«r8«U«. , 



AM Y O T. 148 

4 

itock of cfosskal and general knowledge^ Having taken 
the degree of master pf arts at ninieteen, he pursued his 
Studies under the royal professors es^blisbed by.Fr9»iei5 I. 
viz. James Tuseh, who explained the Greek poets ; Peter 
Pon^s, professor of rhetoric ; and Oronce Fin^ professor 
of mathematics. He left Paris at the age of twenty*-tbree, 
Itnd went to Bourges with the sieur Colin, who had the 
abbey of St; Ambrose in that city. At the recomo^endation 
of this abbot, 4^ secretary of state took Amyot into his 
house, to be tutor to his children. The great improve«^ 
pients they made under his direction induced the secre- 
tary to veeommend him to the princess Margaret duchess 
pf Berry, only sister of Francis I. ; and by means of this 
recommendation Amyot was made public professor of Greek 
and Latin in the university of Bourges : he read two lec« 
jtures a day for ten years ; a Latin lecture in the morning, 
and a Greek one in the afternoon. It was during this time 
he trantdated into French the '^ Amours of Theagenes and 
Cbariclea," with which Francis L Was so pleased, that he 
conferred upon him the abbey of Bellosane. The death of 
this prince happening soon after, Amyot thought it ^rould 
be better to tiy his fortwie elsewhere, than to expect any 
preferment at the cpurt of France ; he' therefore accom* 
panied Morvillier to Venice, on his embassy from Henry IL 
to that republic. ^When Morvillier was recalled from his 
embassy, Amyot would not repass the Alps with him ; 
choosing rather to go to Rome, where he was kindly re<^ 
ceived by the bishop of Mirepoix, at whose house be lived 
two years. It was here that, looking over the manuscripts 
of the Vatican, he discovered that Heliodoros^ bishop of 
Tripca, w^ the author, of the Amours of Theagenes ; and 
.finding also a manusqript m^re correcit and complete, than 
that which he had transjl^ited, be was enabled to give a 
betteir edition of this work. His labours, however, in this 
w^y, did not engage him so as to divert him irom im« 
proving his situation, and he in^nuated himself so for into 
the favour of cardinal de Tournon, that his eminence re^ 
commended him to the king, to be preceptor to his two 
younger sons. While he was in this employment he finish-* 
ed his translation of ^^ I^lutarch's Lives,^' which he dedi-( 
cated to the king ; and afterwards undertook that of ^' Plu«> 
tarch^s Morals,'' which he finished in the reign of Charles 
)X. and dedicated to that prince. Charles conf^rediipoti 
him the abbey of St. Cornelius de CoQxpeigne, although 



U4 - AMY .7": 

much against theificHnation of the c^ueen, whd had another 
person in hef eye; and he also made him grand almoner of 
France and bishop of Auicerre ; and the placel of gi-and 
atmoner and that 6f curator of the nniversity of Paris hap- 
pening to be vacant at the saine time, he was also invested 
.in both these employhients, of which Thuatins complains. 
Henry III. perhaps vrould have yielded to the pressing so- 
licitatio^ns of the bishop of St. Flour, who had attertded him 
on his journey into Poland, and made great interest for 
the post of grand almoner; but thfe duchess of Savoy, the 
ling'saantjPecommfehdedAmyot so earnestly to him, when 
he passed through Turin, On his return from Poland, that 
he was not only continued in his employment, but a new 
honour was added to it for his sake : for when Henry IIL 
named Antyot commander of the order of the' Hoiy Ghost, 
he decreed at the same time, as a mark of respect to him, 
that all the grand almoners of France shonld^ be of "course 
commanders of that ordef. ' Amyot did not neglect his 
atudies in the midst of his^ hononrji, but revised all bis trans- 
hiti<M!)s with great care, compared them with the Greek 
text, and altered mahy passages: he designed to ^ve a- 
more complete edition of them, trith the various readings 
of divers manuscripts, but died before he had finished that 
work* He died the 6th of February, 1593, in the 79th 
year of his age. 

His character has been variously represented. He has 
been accused of ambition, from his many promotions, and 
of avarice, from the riches he left behind him ; but these 
are equivocal proofs, and we have given one instance of 
gratitude which marks something more estimable in his 
character. Another proof may be brought from his will, 
that his preferments had not elevated him beyond the re- 
collection of his mean origin. In his will is the following 
dause : ** I leave 1200 crowns to the, hospital of Orleans, 
in acknowledgment of the relief I formerly received there.** 

It is generally allowed that Amyot contributed essen* 
tially, in his translation of Plutarch^ towards the polish and 
refinement of the French language. Vaugelas, a very 
competent judge, gives him this praise; and adds, that no 
writer ^uses words and phrases so purely French, withont 
any mixture of provincialisms. It has been said, however, 
that he was a plagiarist, and there are two opinions on 
this subject ; the one, that he took his Plutarch from ai> 

Italiau trapsls^tioQ ; the other, that the work was ei^egut^d 



ky a Idwiis^' ^V^ V^^^ ^^^9 whptn he hired; But both 
these of>iaioo6 w^ra caatisidicted by, an hi^p^ction of the 
copies of. Fhitarch in his possessions I9afiy of which »re 
BMxkedwith notQ&'aia,d various readings, which shew^ an 
intimate acquainti^Qce with the Qreek. It may, hpweyer^ 
be aliowed^ that his tcans^icui is not always faithful, and 
tha learned Meziriao pretends to have discovered nearly 
two thpi^and errors in it. Yet it has not been eclipsed 
by any subsequent altei^pt, and notwithstandiDg many 
of his expressions are obsolete, Racine pronounced that 
there is a peculiar charm in his style which is* not surpassed 
by the modern French. 

His worlds are, I. His translation of ^' Heliodorus," 1547, 
foL and 1549, 8yo, republished and retouched in 1559, foL 
in consequence of his meeting with a complete manuscript 
of Heliodorus in the Vatican; and from this Ja^t edition 
all those of Lyons, ; Paris, and Rouen have been copied. 
2. ^^Pio.doptts Sicuhi£,'^ Paris, 1554, fol. and 1587, con* 
tainkig only seven books, via. book XI. to XVII. 3 /< Daph« 
nis f^nd Cioe,^' from Longus, 1559, Svo, of which there 
have been many, and some very splendid editions, ftas* 
ti^idarly that cc^lled the Regent's edition, 1718, 12mo, cme 
by J>idot, I7d8., large ^^to, and one at Florence, 1810, 
large 8^vo> by M^ Courier. 4. ^* Plutarch's Lives and Mo- 
rals," I55i^, 2 vols. fol. Va^osan's edition in 13 vols. 12mo9 
1567r— 1574> lyas long in the highesit estimation ; the Lives 
occuf^ six €d these, and the - Morals seven, , but vol. VI* 
oQghA to contain the Uk^es of Hannibal and Scipio by 
L'Ecluse, , which is. not the case in all the copies. There 
have sijace, however, appealed two more valuable editions^ 
the pne m)i2 vols. 8vo, 1 7 83-^87, with the notes of Brottier 
and Vauvilliers, and the other in 25 vols. 1801 — 1806, 
edil;ed by M* Clavier, with considerable additions. 6. ^^ Let- 
tre ^ M. d0 MorvUUer," dated Sept. 8, 155i, containing 
an. acopu^ of the author's journey to Trente. This is 
printed in Vargas and Dupuy's histories of the Council of 
Trent. 7. *^ CEuvres ro6l6es," 1611, 8vo, is mentioned in 
!^j[ic^ran, but it is doubtful whedier such a coUection-existtf. 
8. " Projet de F Eloquence. ro3^ale, compost pour Henry III 
roi de francei" printed for the first time in 1805, Svo and 
4to. Not long before his' death be was solicited to write 
the history of his country, but bis answer was» ^ I lave 
n^y spwreigi^S' too well to writetheir^ liv^s." * 

> Gen. Diet— Moreri.--'Q»a«fepie.— Biog. UnivewUe.— W^^iJMf ^^^» 
rdi h p. 53. 

VoL.IL L 



U^ AMY R A JJ r. 

AMYRAUT (Moses), an eminent French diviiie, wail 
born in September 1596, at Bourgtieil, a small town of 
Touraine, of an ancient family originally from Orleans. 
Having gone through his course of philosophy, he was sent 
to Poictiers, to read law ; to which he applied himself with 
great assiduity, and is' said to have spent fourteen hourd a 
day in that study. At the end of his first year, h6 took the 
degree of licentiate ; but Mr. Botichereau, minister of Sau- 
mur, advising him to study divinity, and the reading of 
Calvin's Institutions having strongly inclined him to foUowr 
this advice^ he acquainted his father that he earnestly 
desired to be a clergyman, and obtained his assent, though 
liot without difficulty. He then Went to study at Saumur, 
where he continued a considerable time as student of di-^ 
vinity. Upon his admission into orders, he was presented 
to the church of St. Agnau, in the country of Mayne, and 
eighteen months after, he was invited to Saumur, to suc- 
ceed Mr. I)aill6, appointed minister of Charenton. About 
the same time that the church of Saumur desired him for 
their minister, the academic council fixed upon him for 
professor of divinity ; and his admission to the professorship, 
his previous examination, and his inaugural thesis *^ De 
sacerdotio Christi,'^ redounded much to his reputation. 

In 1631, he was sent deputy to the national council at 
Charenton ; and by this assembly was appointed to address 
the king, and lay before his majesty their complaints con^ 
cerning the infraction of the edicts : he was particularly- 
charged not to deliver his speech upon his knees, as the 
deputies of the former national synod had done. He ma* 
naged this afiair with so much address, that be was intro* 
duced to the king according to the ancient custom, and in 
the manner that was agreeable to the assembly : and it wag 
on this occasion that he became acquainted with cardinal 
Richelieu, who conceived a great esteem for him, and im^ 
parted to him the design he had formed of re-uniting the 
two churches. The Jesuit who conferred with Mr. Amyraut 
upon this subject was father Audebert. Mr. de Villeneuve, 
lord lieutenant of Saumur, having invited them both to 
dinner, took care they should confer in private, but Mr. 
Amyraut protested, thiit he could not forbear imparting to 
his colleagues all that should pass between them. The 
Jesuit told him he was sent by the king and his eminence^, 
to propose an agreement in point of religion ; that the Ro« 
man catholics were ready to sacrifice to the , public tran* 
quilfity the invocation of saints^ purgatory, and the merit 



AMVRAUr* U7 

^tgooA works ; that tbey would set bounds to the pope^ii 
power, and in case they met with opposition from the 
couit of Rome, they would lay hold on that occasion to 
create a patriarch ; that the laity should be allowed the 
communion in both kinds ; and that they would give up 
aereral other points, provided they found in the Protes- 
tants a sincere desire of peace and union. But he de« 
clared, when Mr. Amyraut touched upon the doctrines of 
the eucharist, that no alteration would be admitted there ; 
and Amyraut immediately answered, that then they could 
come to no agreement This conference lasted about four 
hours : the Jesuit still required secrecy ; but Mn Amyraut 
protested, according to the declaration he had made first 
to Mr. Villeneuve, that he would communicate the whole 
matter to his colleagues, and that he would be answerable 
for their prudence and discretion. About this time he 
published a piece, in which he explained the mystery of 
predestination and grace, according to the hypothesis of 
Camero, which occasioned a kind of civil war amongst 
the protestant divines of France. Those who disliked the 
hypothesis, derided it as a novelty, especially when they 
saw themselves joined by the great du Moulin, who ac* 
cused Amyraut of Arianism. The authority of tbi^ fa* 
mous divine, to whom the people paid a great respect 
and veneration on account of the many books of contro- 
versy he had published, made so deep an impression in 
the minds of many ministers, that, though Amyraut had 
published a piece, wherein he maintained Calvin to have 
held, universal grace, yet many deputies at the national 
synod of Alengon came charged with instructions against 
bim, and some were even for deposing him. The depu- 
ties of the provinces beyond the Loire were the most vio* 
lent against him ^ but the synod, after having heard Amy- 
raut explain his opinion, in several sessions, and answer 
the objections, honourably acquitted him, and enjoined 
silence in respect to questions of this nature. This, 
however, was not strictly observed by either side ; for 
complaints were made against Amyraut, in the national 
synod of Charenton, for having acted cpntrary to the re- 
gulations concerning that silence ; and he, in his turn, 
complained of infractions of the same nature. The assem- 
bly, by a kind of amnesty, suppressed these mutual com- 
plaints ; and having i^enewed th^ injunction of silence, sent 
.back Aipyraut (^ lus employment, permitting him to op«t 

I. 2 



14* AMV-R^UT. 

posa flifetgiMrs w1k> should attac): bim, in i^t- mmfter 
the' sjnod of Anjon sbouM tbmk proper^ and this synod 
allowed him to puhlisb an answer to the three i^olumes <&§ 
Spanhetnius upon univecsal grace^ which occasioned the 
writing of several others. 

• SuctI was the consequence of hi^ interference in thi« 
controversy ; but as the history of opinions is perhaps one 
of the most interesting branchos of biography, we shall 
more particularly state Amyraut's hypothesis : It may be 
briefly summed up in the following propositioBS : ^ Thab 
God desires the happiness of all men, and that no mortal 
is excluded by any divine decree, firom the beneiite ihsit 
are procured by the death, sufferings, and gospel of 
Christ ! That, however, none can be made a partaker of 
the blessings of the gospel, and of eternal salvation, unless 
be believe m Jesus Christ : That such indeed is the immense 
and universal goodness of the Supreme Being, that he re^ 
fuses to none the power of believing ; though he does not 
grant ukito all his assistance and succour, that they may^ 
wisely improve this power to the attainment of everlasting 
salvation ; and That, in consequence of this, multitudas 
perish, through their own fault, and not from any want of 
goodness in God." Mosheim is of opinion that this is 
only a species of Arminianism or Pelagianism artfully dis* 
guised under ambiguous expressions, and that it is not 
very consistent, as it represents God as desiring salvation 
for allj which, in order to its attainment, requires a degree 
of his assistance and succour which he refuses to marn/, 
Amyraut's opinion was ably controverted by Rivet, Span- 
heim, De Marets, and others; and supported afberwards 
by Daille, Blondel^ Mestrezat, and Claude* 

Amyraut, beuig a man well acquainted with the world^ 
Was very entertaining in conversation, which contributed 
no less than the reputation of his learning to render him 
the favourite of many persons of quality, though- of opposite 
principles in religious matters : among those who particu- 
larly distinguished him, were the marshals de Brez6 and de 
la Meilleriac, Mr. le Goux de la Berchere, first president 
of the parliament of Burgundy, and cardinal Maasarin. 
What gained him the favour of this cardinal was, in all 
probability, his openly declaring in favour of the obedience 
due to sovereigns, which proved very advantageous to the 
court of France during th^ troubles of the league againat 
cardinal Maaarin, calkd de la Fitmde* In his . Ap^gy^ 



^bUfdied in 1647, in behalf of the.protestknts^ he ex« 
Qtrtes very plausibly the civil wars of France ; but he 
declates at the same time, that he by no means intends 
to justify the taking up of arms against the lawful so- 
vereign upon any pretence whatsoever; and that he 
always looked upon it as more agreeable to the nature of 
tike gospel and the practice of the primitive church, to use 
BO otlier arfns but patience, tears, afid prayers. Yet, not* 
withstanding his attachment to this doctrine, he was not . 
for obeying in matters of conscience, which plainly ap- 
peared when the seneschal of Saumur- imparted to him ati 
order from the council of state, enjoining all those of the 
reformed religion to hang the outside of their houses an 
Corpus Christi day. The seneschal notified this order to 
him the eve of that holiday,' entreating him at the same 
time to persuade the protestants to comply with it. To 
this Amyraut made answer, that, (m the contiary, he would 
go directly and exhort his parishioners against tomplying 
with it, as he himself was resolved not to obey such orders: 
that in all his sermons he had endeavoured to inspire his 
hearers with obedience atid submission to superior powers*! 
but not when their consciences were coocerndd. Having 
thus acquainted the seneschal with his resolution, he went 
from house to hq-use, laying before his parishioners the 
reasons why he thought they ought not to obey the order 
of the council, and the hinges lieutenant not thinking it 
proper to support the seneschal, the mliitter «nded without 
disturbance. , 

Amyraut was a man of such charity tin^ compassion^ that 
he bestowed on the poor his whole salary ddring the last 
ten years of his life, without distinction of catholic or pto* 
testant. He died the 8th of February 1664, and was in* 
terred with the usual ceremonies of the acadertij'.' .H« left 
but one sbn, who was one of the ablest advoc^ates of the 
parliament of Paris, but fled to the Hague after the rev(>- 
catioo of the edict of Nantes : he had also a daughtier, who 
died in l€45^ a year and a half after she had been married* 
His works are dhiefly theologioal, arid very voluminous ; 
but, notwithstanding hife fame, few of them were printed a 
aecmid tihie, and they ar6 now therefore scarce, and per-r^ 
haps we may add, not in much request. He published in 
t Q$ 1 his ^< Traite des Religions," agaitist those ^ho think 
alt-religions indifferent, and five years after, six " Sermons 
upofi the nature, extent, &c. of the Gospel^** •and several 



IW AMYRAUT. 

others at different times. His book of the exaltation of 
Faith^ and abasement of Reason, ^'De ^elevation de la foi^ 
&c." appeared in 1641 ; and the same year was published 
in Latin the ** Defence of Calvin with regard to the doc- 
trine of absolute reprobation,^' which in 1644 appeared in 
French, He began his *♦ Paraphrase on the Scripture" in 
1644: the Epistle to the Romans was paraphrased the 
first; then the other Epistles ; and lastly the Gospel : but 
like Calvin, he did not meddle with the Revelations, nor 
did he prefix his name to his Paraphrases lest it should 
deter the Roman Catholics from perusing them. He pub- 
lished in 1647 an "Apology for the Protestants,*' "A treatise 
of Free Will," and another " De Secessione ab Ecclesia 
Romana, deque pace inter Evangelicos in negotio Reli* 
gionis constituenda." But he treated this subject of the 
re-union of the Calvinists and Lutherans more at length in 
his ** Irenicon" published in 1662. His book of the " Vo- 
cation of Pastors" appeared in 1649. He had preached on 
thia subject before the prince of Tarento, at the meetings 
of a provincial synod, of which he was moderator. The 
prince desired the sermon might be printed, and the sub- 
ject treated more at length, it being then the common 
topic of all missionaries. Mr. Amyraut, therefore, not only 
printed his sermon, but published a complete treatise upon 
that important controversy, and dedicated them both to 
ike said prince. His Christian Morals, *^ Morale Chre-^ 
tienne,** in six vols. 8vo, the first of which was printed in 
1652, were owing to the frequent conferences he'had with 
Mr. de Villornoul, a gentleman of an extraordinary merit, 
and one of the most learned men of Europe, who was heiv 
|n this respect also to Mr. du Plessis Mornai his grandfather 
by the mother^s side. He published also a treatise of 
dreams, "Traits des Songes;'* two volumes upon <*the 
Millenium,'* wherein he rentes an advocate of Paris, called 
Mr, de Launoi, who was a zealous Millenarian ; the <^ Life 
of the brave \sl Nou6, surnamed Iron-arm," from 156^0 to 
the time of his death in 1 59 1, Leyden, 1661, 4to ; and several^ 
other works^ particularly a poem, entitled << The Apology 
of St, Sitephen to hia Judges.'^ This piece was attacked 
by the missionaries, who asserted that the author had spoke 
irreverently of the sacrament of the. altar ; but he published 
ft pamphlet in which be defended himself with great ability,^ 



A M Y R U T Z E a If I 

AMYRUTZES, a peripfttetic philoioph^r, of the fifteentli, 
century, and a native of Trebi^ond^ was at first in grea^ 
esteem at the court of the emperor David his niaster, and 
signalized himself by writing in favour of the Greeks 
against the decisions of tbe council of Florence ; bu); at 
last forfeited^ by his apostacy, all the reputation he had 
gained. He was one of tho9e who accompariied the ^ax* 
peror David to CSonstantinopie, wbither th«it prince was 
carried by ordi&r of MahcMinet < IJ, after the reduction of 
Trebizond, in I46il, and. there^; seduced by the promise^ 
of the Sultan> be .renounced the Chiristiap r^iigion^ and. 
embraced Mahometi^mi togetlier vr ith his <;hi}dr0n,;one.of 
which/ under thet.nam^ of;Mehemet-Beg^ tjran*«lated many, 
books of the Christians into Arabic, by the orc^lcr of Ma-» 
jbometll. That prince honoured AmyrutZjes with consi-» 
^lerable employments in the set^aglio, aod used som^timef 
to discourse with bioB and his s<>n about poiuts of learning 
and religion. By the manner. Allatiu$» . expresses himself^ 
it would appear tha^ this philosopher had b<;^rne tbe e^iploy* 
xaent of prptoff^stiarius jn tbe cQuft pf the emperor of Tre-r 
bizond, but this emperor was not the first priQce that shewed 
aparticulaiC v^lue for An^yrut^es, as be bad l^een^greatly 
esteemed at the court of Constantinople long b^forcj 
He was oneof the learned men> with whom the /emperor 
John Paleologus advised about his journey, into Italy, and 
he attended him in that jpurney, Of his death we have 
po account} and Bayle «e^ms tp think tber^ w^re : two of 
the name. ^. , 

ANACHAR8IS, a famous . philosopher^ .was born, in 
ScyUiia* He w^^. brotbcfi:, tp .Cadovides king Qf Scythia^ 
ana the <soi^'i;)fQnuru3 by a,!Cfe.ek womatn^; vv^hich gave bir^ 
th^ opportunity of learningbpth lapgij^ges to p^rfectioiif 
Sosicvates, acepMing.to L^i^rtins; afi[iraijBd> that h^ came 
po Athens in the forty-sevepth olympiad, or .391? Bi,C. unde? 
Eucratea tbe Archon» And tierpijppus tell? us,..U^at.$^ 
f^on ap h^ a^ived, there, be went to SoIqU'S bouse, and 
{^nocked at hia di^^r, and bid, the servant, who opened it, 
go >n4 tell his. niasteri tbj^t An^ohafsis was tberoy i^^d «vai 
^0m^ on puppqsf^ tQ .•e^ him, and continue with hiip fox 
some tinie«f. Sqlon returned him an answer,, tha^t it wa4 
l^ettef to contact friendship at; h^^^^v • An^barsis wwt jj} 
fifOJ^ <^.s, imd mi \Q SqIoUi Hk^^ ^inpe h^:WS^$ th^^ it\ bii 



r, . c .^ 



.} tttn, Pkt.-»Allatias deFerpetuo Con«6qsu, pp, 183, 9^1^ 



]j^ A N A C H ]KX 9rt«. 

dwii ^UTitry ^ad in hiiov^nhdnrnf it was his (itty Ibb 6n« 
tJ^tiain hirn as bis guest^ ^m^ therefore he : desired him to 
^tier into to intimdte ftieiidship with him.' Soton, sur- 
prized at the vivacity of his tepart^ge, itnmddiMely engaged 
ih a friendship widi him, which lasted as long as they 
lived. Solon instrndteS hitA in <^'bedt discipline, fe- 
commended him to the faviDcnr of the noblest persons^ and 
sought all mean§ of givii^g^hitn' (respect and 'honour. Ana* 
cihatsis was kindly 'receivisd {>j ^ev^iy- oiie for his sake, and, 
as Theoxenias atteite, was Ih^ only stranger whom they 
incorporated into theii^ cityj H^ mus a* mistn of a very 
quick and lively 'genius, and of H istrong and masterly 
eloquence, and Was resolute in whsft^Ver he undertook. 
He constantly wore a coarse double -garment. He was very 
temperate, and his diet wa^ nothiD*^ bat milk and cheese. 
His speeches were delivered in a ooncise andpathetic style, 
tad as he was inflexible in^tte pui<stiit^ his pointy he never 
failed to gain it, tod his resolute nmd eloq^ient manner of 
speaking passed into a proverb ; ^nA %hbse who imitated 
him were said to speak in tiie Scythian phrase. He wan 
extremely fond of poetry, and Wrote the laWs of the Scy- 
thians, and of those things which he had observed among the 
Greeks^ and a poem of 900 verses upOn 'war. Croesus, 
having lieard of his repdlia^n^ sent to efSer him money) 
tod to desire him to come to see Mm tit 8'ardis ; but the 
{ihi)oik)i>her answered, that he was cohie to Greece in Otd^ 
to learn ^he language, ma'toe^s, 'and'ia#s'<^'tlBiateoufiFtry, 
that he had no occasion for gold or silver, and idiat it 
would be suffi£fieht for'l£m<l0 return to Soythia abetter 
lAan and moi^iinteiKgenttfaftaiiJ ^h^ti ke ^iMAeiAim «hence& 
He told the king> however, i)^ hfi ^vOuld take to e^pot^ 
tensity of ^eein«^ Hitti^ mnce h^^»d«L «trMg.d«sire of beinj^ 
tanked ^n ^h^ number oiMi Mebd^. Aft^ fee h#d ^xa^ 
tinned a^ldi^ while ih Greee^^H^^ptttedtd tetu^n heme^ 
tod^sah^ th^^i^h Cyrlemnj'^ found th4 pec^Ie^thatt 
feity -eetebratihg in a 'Ve¥y soteftm 'nktfne^' i$ie fta^t ^• 
Oybe)^. :'Thi^ 'excited hitn to' mkt?e% v^e^Ue^tiblift ^Odde»si 
thM' be w6^id '^erforito the ^alne'sa^i'ifte^, 'Mnldi^Atfblisj^ 
lhfe«ttriie4\BHs%to honotit^^f^herih 'his ^oWfi^tJWhtry, if h% 
A6uU ]?e.tiini «itther4ft artftfty. IPpoAhte arrival InSeyiha 
hfe^i^tttffJtedte'cljange^hfe toeitot cusfcoiil*ctf ^httt^iftrtfiyi 
Md to^^s^bMAi ^d^of Greece, butthi^^jii^oViRl ek^ei^ 
displeasing to, the Scythians. an4 fatal to himsel£ As he 
had one day entered mto a thick wood called Hylsaa^ in 



A N A € H A R IS I S. 15-3 

Qprdte to accomplish his vow to Cjrbele in Che Kxiost $ecr^ 
manner possible, and was performing the whole ceremony 
before an image of that goddess, he was discovered by a 
Scythian, who went and informed king Saulius of it. The 
king came immediately, and surprised Anacharsis in the 
midst of the solemnity, and shot him dead with an arrow. 
Laercius tells us, . that he was killed by hh brother with an 
lOiDW as he was bunting, and that he expired with these 
words : ^* I lived in peace and safety in Greece, whither 1 
went to inform myself of its language and manners, and 
edvy has destroyed me in my native country .'* Great re- 
spect, however, was paid to him tffter his death by the 
erection of statues. <He is said to have invented the 
potter's wheel, but this is mentioned by Homer Jong before 
keliv^, yet he probably introduced it int-o his country. 

The apophthegms related of Anacharsifi are numerous, 
and in general shrewd and apposite, but ^me are of a 
strong satirical cast. He used to say, that the vine pi^- 
daoed diree cioptts of grapes, the first of pleasure, the se- 
cond Vif drunkenness, and the third of repentance. He 
ex^nbssed his surprize, that in all the public as^embliek 
at Athens, wise meti should- propose business, and fools 
df^:eviivine it. lie could not comprehend the reason why 
thwe were punished, who abused others with their tongue, 
aiyd yet gveat rewards were given to the wrestlers, who 
tnsaitsed oitfe 'another witAi the utmoi^ 611^ and barbarity. 
Ife imiR u4i l«ess cLStonisbed that the Greeks at tiie begins 
Bidg of itbeir banquets should mak^ use of 'glasses, which 
^Bte of amodterate size, ^ftud yet ^louid call for very larg^ 
oMs at the ^lose of . thtt f eaiM;, when tihey ha^^ dtunk suf-* 
ficianily^ ^He- cbnld h^ no^m^ans appj*<>v^ of the liberties 
wUah >&i^Ty parson thoitgiit were aliowa^blfe m t>anquets. 
Being^^ftsked one day what method was to be tkken in ordeir 
to fifttvent one from m^t drinking wine, h^ r^lii>d, "Ther^ 
xnio'^bei^ier means than H^ vkw a drunken man wi^ all hi^ 
estrnvagimce of behayMMHr.^ As he was one day considering 
tlte thidkiMit» of the ptaaks of a ship,^ he cx4ed tout, Alas ! 
tkoie wbo go t6tsea, ar€l km. four inehcfs distant from d^th. 
ftstn^' 'aidc^ what %asi the mo^t secUr^ ship, he replied, 
fllfcat ^iih it amved in «he port. He vci*y often repeated 
it, that 'e40ty man sfaduld uk^ a particular care to make 
himself master of his tongue and hi§ belly. He had always 
Whcfh l^e sliept his right l>and upon his mouth, to shew that 
there is nothing which we ought to be so cautious of as the 



154 , A JTA C fl A R S I S. 

tongue. An Atfaehiaa reproaching him one day with bcin^ 
a Scythiai), he replied. My country is a disgrace to me; 
but you are a disgrace to your country. Being asked what 
was the best and what the worst part of a man, he an* 
&weredy The tongue. It is much better, said he, to have 
but . one friend, if he be but faithful to us, than a great 
Dumber, who are always ready to follow the change of for-* 
tune. When he was asked, whether there were more per^ 
^ns living than dead, he answered. In which number do ye 
rank those who are at sea i He used to say, that the forum 
was a place which men had established in order to impose 
upon each other. It remains to be noticed, that the letters 
published under his nam9> Bari$, 1552, Greek and Latin» 
4to, are unquestionably spurious. * , 

ANACREONj a Greek poet of great celebrity^ wat^ 
boru at Teqs, ^ siea-port of Ionia, Madam Dacier endea- 
VQursi to prove from Plato, that he was a kinsman of Solon's^ 
and consequently allied to the Codridas, the noblest family 
IP Athens; but this is not sufficiently supported. The 
time when he flourished is uncertain ; EusebiuS' placing it 
in the 62d, Suidas in the 52d, and Mr. le Fevre in the 
72d olympiad. He is said to have been about eighteen 
years of age, when Harpagus, the general of Cyrus, came 
with an ai*my against the panfederate cities of the Ionian^ 
and iEolians. The Milesians immedif^t^ly submitted them^. 
selves ; but the Phocaeans, when they found themselves 
unaBle to withstand the enemy, chose rather to abandon 
their country than their liberty; and getting a fleet to- 
gether, transported themselves and families to the qQ8|St oi 
France, where, being hospitably received by Nannus the 
Jting of the country, they built Marseilles. The Teians 
soon followed their example ; for, Harpagus having toade 
himself master of their walls, they unanimously w^nt on 
board their ships, and,, sailing to Thrace, .flxed themselves 
in the city Abdera. They had not been there long, when 
the Thracians, jealous of theii: new neighbours, endear 
vovired to give them disturbance; and in these conflicts 
it seems to be, that. Anacreon lost thpse friends, wham he 
celebrates in his epigrams. This ppet had much wi^ but 
was certainly too fond of pleasures^ for love and wine had 
th^ disposal of all his hoyrs. In the edition of AnacrcQiv 

' Diogenes Laertius. — Bruckcr. — Gen. Diet— rFenelon's I^ives of t^ie lfh^gb 
vo^keri, vol, I,— Fabric. Bibl, Griec.'criSaxu Onomasticgi, 



A N A C R E O N. 155 

andSappho published in 1789 by Fred. 6. Qorn, of Leipsick^ 
this editor endeavours to defend Anacreon against the 
charges of inebriety and. unnatural lust, and with consi- 
derable success. These imputations^ hQwever, have been 
cast on his memory by Ihe majority of wiiters, except, 
perhaps^ ^lian. How long Anacreon continued at Samos 
is uncertain, but it is probable he remained there during^ 
the greatest part of the reign of Poly crates ; for Herodotus 
assures us, that Anacreon was with that prince in his 
chamber, when he received a message from Oraetes gover« 
nor of S^rdis, by whose treachery Polycrates was soon 
after betrayed and inhumanly crucified. It seems to have 
be^en a little before this, that Anacreon left Sanios and 
removed to Athens; having been mvited thither by Hip« 
.parchus the eldest son of Pisistratus, one of thp most vir- 
tuous aud learned, princes of bis time ; who, as Plato as« 
sures us, sent an obliging letter, with a vessel of fifty oars 
to convey him over the £gean sea. After Hipparchus 
was slain by the conspiracy of Harmodius and Aristogiton, 
Anacreon returned to Teos, where he remained till the 
revolt of HistisBUs, when he was obliged once more to re* 
move to Abdera, where he died. The manner of his deaths 
is said to have been very extraojrdinary ; for they tell us he 
was choaked with a grape-stone, which he swallowed as he 
was drinking some new wine. A small part only of Ana^* 
creon^s works remain* Besides odes and epigrams,, he 
composed elegies, hymns, and iambics : the poems which 
$ire extant, consist chiefly of bacchanalian songs and love* 
sonnets; and with respect to such subjects, they have 
been long regarded as standards of excellence. They are 
distinguished by their native elegance and grace from 
every other kind of poetical composition : and the volup* 
tuous gaiety of all his songs is so characteristic, that his 
style $md manner have produced innumerable imitation^ 
called Anacreontics, Little can be said^ however, of the 
iQoral purity of his sentiments, and it is to be feared that 
the fascinations of the Anacreontic school have been most 
destructive to the mor^ils and prudence of the young and 
gay, 

The pd^tiqns of Anacreon are too numerous to be spe«- 
cifted here. They were printed fgr the j&rst Mnie by Henry 
Stephens, Paris, 1554, 4to, who had found the eleventh ode 
on the cover of an old book. Until then we had nothing 
cif Anacreon but what was in Aulus Gellius^ or the Antbo* 



15$ AN AC R EON. 

logy. Stephens^ hc^werer, had the good forti»»etdWl<t 
with tmo manuscripts, which he compared trkh skfirtipuloiak 
citre. These were the only MSS. known for «i long period % 
but as Stephens, who some time before his death fell int6 
mental decay, neglected to ooftimunicate to ^tfy {yersoi!! 
where they were, they are snppo^d to have bee<i de- 
stroyed with many o^er valuable origitiate. This circum- 
stance was the ca:u9e of some ^uspictoti attaching to the 
Editio Prtnceps as deficient in actthemieity. _ It was, how^ 
ever, generally followed in the sttbs^^uent editions, of 
which those of Madame Dacier and Barnes were loi^g es- 
teemed the best. But the most stngalii^r and Oi^gnmeent 
edition of modem times is l^at of Jodefih Spaletti, y/Adi^ 
was printed at Rome in 1781, in ii»peti^^uano, \dth 3t» 
fine plates, exclusive of Id plates m\fii^simigte. In tifi6 
preface, the editor remarks, that some hy^efr-critiics, ias L^ 
Fevre^ Dacier, and Baxter, had dodbt^ liie ti^tb^ticit^ 
of Anacreon : and that Cornelius Pau had even Suspected 
Jiis odes to have been productions of fiJie isixteent'h «ent«ftry. 
To confatethis, iSpaletti now published di^ p<)^ms Y)f Ana* 
creon in/ac^simile, from a MS. in th^ Vatican, hf( Ae tenti 
centiary, as is psdipable, from its oatiigraphy^ to toy pet^oh 
ftcquainted with GnE?ck archieiolbgy. The Latin trtinsfetion 
by Spaletti is said to be muck more %iccutste than tin^ 
other. -^ There ane liialiy Enghsh tran^hctiot^^ of Ana- 
cceon, who has ever t^en a fevourit* with yoting^ets. 
Cowley is thought to faiaure been the first 9ilc«es^fi!^lti*ans- 
laton The Fi«nah also have many translators, and som^ 
of diem faithful and spirited.^ 

ANANIA, or AON AN V {iom «'), ^as ^ taWy^ <tf 
much refnrtsKtioii in tbe ^teenth c^maiy. Ilk origin ^^ 
obscure, and «ms that ikccofifft) k is suid, Ue^odk the n)Mh^ 
of Anania, a to«^ 6f the ancient Latium, instead of thiit'ctf 
bis family. Hebteoame afterwdlrdi^ ptofe^i^oi* 6f cl^il and 
canon law ^ Bologna^ and archdeacon^ and "^^ highly «s'^ 
tetoiedfbt piety and learning. Hi* *< Cdmmfentiwies oh 
the fifth Book of the Decretals,'* a voluttie of "' Cbnsulta^ 
kions,'* and his treatise oh feudal rights^ " D^e t^Tocatlbn^ 
feudi alienati," Leyden, 1546, 4to, are among his prin- 
cipal worl*. Jt iu rather suprifeing that a man of his 'leitrn- 
ing and sens^ should have alsb writVeh bti- the subject tX 

1 Gen. Bict^— Barnes's AtwcreOn.-^]PiML yiiiT.er0eUe.«r-V««iui^-H^tbDi«i 
«ibl. Gr«c» 






A N A N I A. U1^ 

xMgi^ andk demosia^ '^JDe magia et malefi^its, LeyAeoy 
L66d^ 4 to; if indeed this belongs t<^ hkn, and not to the 
dufaffect of the Allowing aiticle. He «kied in 1458^ at an 
adxABced^age. ^ 

ANcAKIA (John Lorenzo n'), a native of Tarama in 
Qalabrisy Hred abo<U> the end of the sixteenth century, 
lie wrote a hook of geographjit in Italian ; and a woik in 
Latiai, ensiled ^^ £>e iiatora Deemonuih/* which was print-* 
ed at Veoice iu 15^, Svow The other work bearai the 
tkle f^^Cosknographia, overo P universale Fabrica del Mon- 
do," and was published at Venice in 15T6, 4to. This au- 
thor is not mesitioned by Vossius in his catalogue of geo- 
grapke¥& ' 

ANASTASIU'S. Bibliothecarius, so called because he 
was Mfbrariad of the church of Rome, was a native of Greece, 
and one of the most learned men of his age. He flourished 
ilboat themiddlie of the ninth century, and was abbot of 
St» Mary^^s trans Tiberim. His chief work, the. ^* Liber 
Poatiificali^/' ov the lives of the Popes from St. Peter ta. 
Nicholas I. is of a doubtful character : Blondel and iSal^ 
masiiis^ bestow great encomiums on it, while Hailing, a 
]ftoman catholic writer of note, depreciates it as much. To 
thekist edition of this book is joined Ciampinius'^ exami- 
nation of -the validity of the facets therein mentioned ; and 
fisom thii^ -we learn thckt he wrote only the lives of Gregory 
IV. Sergius IL Leo IV. Benedict III. and Nicholas I. and 
that the lives of the other popes in that book were done by 
diff^reiit aoUftors* Anastasius is said to have assisted at the 
eigjhtb general council held at Constantinople in the year 
869y of whieh he, translated the acts and canons from Greek 
mto Latin. The time of his death is a disputed point, as 
indeed are many pisirticulars relating to him. Bayle has a 
veiry elaborate article on bis history, which Cave had pre- 
viously examined, and Blondel, in his " Familier eclaircisse- 
nient/' and Boeder in bis " Bibl. critica,'* have likewise 
entered deeply into the controversy. He wrote a great 
numbier of translations, more valued for their fidelity than 
eleganciE;, yet they have all been admitted into the popish 
CoUections of ecclesiastical memoirs and antiquities. The 
first edi4aon of the **- Liber Pontifiealis** was printed at 
ISS^^ntZf 1602 f 4t0, and two more editions appeared in the la^t 
century, one in four vols. fol. by Francis and Joseph Bian«* 

I BIqi;. UniverseUe. • Gen. Dkt. 



15« A N A S T A S I U S. 

cbiniy 171^^—1735, and the other in three vok. 4t09 by the 
abbe VigQoli, } 724-^1 753, besides an edition by Mura^ 
tcrri, in his collection of Italian writers, enlarged by leam^ 
ed dissertations, from which.it would appear that AnHsto* 
siuswas rather the translator^ or compiler of thosielive8» and 
that he took them from the ancient catalogues of the pc^es, 
the acts of the. martyrs, and other documents preserved 
among the archives of the Roman church* The Vatican 
library then consisted of little eke, although it appears that 
there was before his tiiQe a person honoured with the title 
of librarian.' 

ANASTASIUS, caHed the Sinaite^ because he was a 
monk of mount Sinai, flourished in the seventh century. 
We have several writings of this recluse : 1. •* Odegos,*' 
or the Guide on the true way, in Gr. and Lat. Ingoldstadt,* 
1606 j 4ta. 2. ^^ Contemplationes in Hexameron^'' Graeeo- 
Lat» Londini, 1682, 4to, published by AUix. 3. ^^ Cinq 
Kvres dogmatiques de Theologie^'* 4. " Some sermonsi.*' 
His works were published at Ingolstadt, 1606, 4to, by the 
Jesuit Gretser, and inserted in the Bibliotb. PP. * 

ANATOLIUS, St. born at Alexandria, bishop of Lao- 
dicea in Syria, in 269, cultivated successfully arithmetic, 
geometry, grammar, and rhetoric. Some works of his are 
still remaining ; among others, a tract on Easter, printed 
in the Dpctrina temporum of Bucherius, Antwerp, 1634, 
folio. » 

ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomene, one of the most emi- 
nent of the ancient philosophers, was bom in the first year 
of the seventieth olympiad, B. C. 500, and was a disciple 
of Anaximenes. He inherited from his parents a patri« 
mony which might have secured him independence and 
distinction at home ; but such was his thirst after know- 
ledge, that, about the twentieth year of his age, he left his 
country, without taking proper precautions concerning his 
estate, and went to reside at Athens. Here he diligently 
applied himself to the study, of eloquence and poetry, and 
was particularly conversant with the works of Homer, whom 
he admired as the best preceptor, not only in style, but in 
morals. Engaging afterwards in speculations concerning 
nature, the fame of the Milesian school induced him to leave 

^ Gen. Diet. — Biog. Universellc— Ginguenc Hist. Litt. d'ltalle, Yol. I. p. 97-^ 
too.— Saxii Ono(na8tic»ii. 
» Moreri.— -Cave.— Fabr. BibU Or.— Saxii OMniMticttt. 
3 Gen. Dict.«-C9Te. 



A N A X A G R A S. 15» 

Athens^ that he might attend upon the public instructions 
of Anaximenes. Under him he became acquainted with 
his doctrines, and those of his predecessors, concerning 
natural bodies, and the origin of things. So ardently did 
he engage in these inquiries, that he said concerning him^ 
self that he was bom to contemplate the heavens. Visiting 
his native city, he found that, whilst he had been busy in 
the pursuit of knowledge, his estate had run to waste, and 
remarked, that to this ruin he owed his prosperity. One 
of his fellow-citizens complaining that he, who was so welt 
qualified, both by rank and ability, for public offices, had 
shown so little regard for his country, he replied, " My 
first care is for my country," pointing to heavien. After 
remaining for some years at Miletus, he returned to Athens^ 
and there taught philosophy in private. Among his pupils 
were several eminent men, particularly the tragedian Eu- 
ripides, and the orator and statesman Pericles ; to whoni 
some add Socrates and Tbemistocles. 

The reputation Which he acquired, at length excited the 
jealousy and envy of his contemporaries, and brought' upon 
him a cruel persecution. It is generally agreed, that he 
was thrown into prison, and condemned to death ; and that 
it was with difficulty that Pericles obtained from his judges 
the milder sentence of fine and banishment ; but the nature 
of the charge alleged against him is variously represented. 
The most probable account of the matter is, that his offence 
was, the propagation of new opinions concerning the gods, 
and particularly, teaching that the sun is an inanimate 
fiery substance, and consequently not a proper object of 
worship. As he was indefatigable in his researches into 
nature, on many occasions he might contradict the vulgar 
opinions and superstitions. It is related that he ridiculed 
the Athenian priests, for predicting an unfortunate event 
from the unusual appearance of a ram which had but one 
horn ; and that, to convince the people that there was no- 
thing unnatural in the affair, he opened the head of the 
animal, and showed them, that it was so constructed, as 
necessarily to prevent the growth of the other horn. 

After his banishment, Anaxagoras passed the remainder 
of his days at Lampsacus, where he employed himself in 
instructing youth, and obtained great respect and influence 
among the magistrates and citizens. Through his whole 
life he appears to have supported the character of a true 
philosopher. Superior to motives of avarice and ambition. 



iea ' A K A X A G 6 R A S« 

tioa of tiih air; that tbe^ rainbow is ti^e effect of tbe* re« 
flection of the solar ray sr from a thick cloudy placed oppa- 
site to it like a mirror ;. that the moon is an opaque body, 
enlightened by the snu^ and an habitable region, divided 
into bills, vales, and waters;, that the* comets are wander* 
ing stars; and that the fixed stars are in a region exterior 
to thosiB of the ^un 2Xkd mocm. But the .writers who report 
Uiese pai:ticulaFs hav^ mixed with them such strange absur<- 
.ditiesjtas' weaken the jCire^it bf>their whole relation. When 
we ajle told, that Anaxagora^ thought, the sun: to be a flat 
circular mass of hot iron, somewhat bigger than the Pelo* 
ponnesus } aiul the £tars to have been ibrmted from stones 
whirled from the earth by the violent circumvolution of its 
surroi&nding ether, we.cannot but suspecttbat in the course 
«f traditionary report, his opinions must haVe been igno- 
rantly Biisconcerved, or designedly misrepnesented. ^ .:. 

ANAXANJftRiDES, a Greek comic poet, bom at Ca^ 

'^limis^fiik thcisle of Rhodes, 'flourished inithe lOlst olym* 

•piad^ B«jC..4O0, and was- the first, if Suidas^ may be ere* 

dited^ wba.introduced love adventures on the stag«, which 

JSayl^lhiaks doiibtfuK He was. a man Iconqeited of his 

person^ wore rich iipiparei, and affected pomp and gran* 

deur.to such, a degree, .that being once engaged to rcaxl a 

po^n at Athens, he. wient ti^the appointed place on hoitse^ 

.back, and rehearsed part of ihis pei^formance in thatpos* 

^tuoeri Such a behaviour renders prbbabl^ .wbat/is further 

4iaid of hiin,. via{. that )lije waa extremely grieved . when his 

pieces did Aot carry the' prize. He nbver u€|ed, like other 

^ets^ :to. polish or corroct them, theUr they might appear 

^gam lb a better condition ; and this disrespect fgr bis 

(tpectatora occasioned the loss of sevevaL fine comedies* 

OwingiJtQ the same circumstance, he woatbe prize butrteti 

:li)Oies> wlmreas we fint^. above twenty^ of his .plays quoted^ 

tUdd i^ wirote in all sixtyefive. Thei Atheniansi condemned 

%ita to he starved for censuripg theijr govercuBent.) Nuoe 

jQ^bis productions are extant, but some.io£ ibh^m are nien^ 

ftion^ by AristQtle and othen authors;. ^ ^ i< ' 

. ANAXARCHUS, ^a.: philo^^hdr ofi Ahdora, in tbe 1 10th 
plympiad, BwC. 34Q, was the favouritei^df Alexander the 
^reat, au4{ u^d a libesty, ia speaking to hm» that waa ,wi^« 
thy of the philosophy of Diogenes. That prince .being 

■ Almost literally from the abridgment of Bracker««»])iO|;f nt^ Ifacrtlai,-*^ 
l9^a.I>}ct.—Fenelon'8 Lives of l^ePbftoso^h^tt/^' 



\.' 



A N AX A R CH U S. I6i 

Woanded^ Anaxarchus put his finger to the wound, and 
looking him in the face, said, *^ This is human bteod ; and 
not of that kind which animates the gods." Once this 
prince asked him at table, whstt he thought of the feast ? 
He answered) ^^ that there was but one thing wanting, the 
head of a great nobleman, which ought to have been served 
in a dish :" and in saying this, fixed his eyes on Nicocreon, 
tyrant of Cyprus. After the death of Alexander, this 
Nicocreon, in his turn, caused him te be put in a mortar^ 
and beat with iron pestles. The philosopher told the 
tyrant to pound his body as much as he pleased, but h^ 
had no power over his souL Nicocreon then threatened 
to have his tongue cut out. <^ Thou shalt not do ^ it, 
wretch !" said Anaxarchus ; and immediately spit it in his 
£Ace, after having bit it in two with his teeth. Anaxarchus 
was of the sect of the Sceptics. Such is the common ac« 
count of this philosopher, but it is wholly inconsistent with 
his character, which was that of a man softened by effemi* 
nate pleasure, and a flatterer of kings. The same story i$ 
told of Zeno. ' 

ANAXIMANDER, an ancient philosopher, was the first 
who taught philosophy in a public school, and is therefore 
often spoken of as the founder of the Ionic sect. He was 
born in the third year of the 42d olympiad, or B. C. 610* 
Cicero calls hiin the friend and companion of Thales; 
whence it is probable, that he was a native of Miletus* 
That he was en^ployed in instructing yoath, may be in* 
ferred from an anecdote related concerning him; that^ 
being laughed at for singing (that is, probably, reciting 
his verses) ill, he said, ** We must endeavour to sing bet- 
ter, for the sake of the boys.** Anaximander was the first 
who laid aside the defective method of oral tradition, ' and 
committed the principles of natural science to writing. ' It 
is related of him, which, however, is totally improbable, 
that he predicted an<earthquake. He lived sixty-four years* 
. The general doctrine of Anaximander, concerning na- 
ture- and the origin of things, was, that infinity is the first 
principle of all things ; that the universe, though variable 
in its parts, as one whole is immutable ; and that all things 
are produced from infinity, a'hd terminate in it. What this 
philosopher meant by infinity, has been a subject of a dis« 

1 Bnicker.— Morerl-i^Bios* Uuivenelle.— I«uzac's Leetioncs AUicss^ Le/^ 

M 2 ' . 



1 



164 A N A X I M A N D E R. 

pate productive of many ingenious conjectures^ which are^ 
however, too feebly supported to merit particular notice* 
The most material question is, whether Anaximander on* 
derstood by infinity the material subject, or the eflicient 
cause, of nature. Plutarch asserts, the infinity of Anaici* 
mander to be nothing but matter* Aristotle explainB it in 
the same manner, and several modern writers adopt the 
tame idea. But neither Aristotle nor Plutarch could have 
any better ground for their opinion than conjecture. It is 
more probable, that Anaximander, who was a disciple c^ 
Thales, Would attempt to improve, than that he would 
entirely rgect, the doctrine of bis master. If, therefore, 
*the explanation, given above, of the system of Tbales be 
admitted, there will appear some ground for supposing, 
that Anaximander made use of the term infinity to denote 
&e humid mass of Thales, whence all things arose, toge« 
ther with the divine principle by which he supposed it to 
be animated. This opinion is supported by the authority 
of Hermias, who asserts, that Anaximander supposed ati 
eternal mover or first cause of motion, prior to the humid 
mass of Thaleis. And Aristotle himself speaks of the in- 
finity of Anaximander ad comprehending and directing all 
things. After all, nothing can be determined, with cer^ 
tainty, upon this subject. 

' There can be little doubt, that mathematics and astro- 
nomy were indebted to Anaximander. He framed a cod-> 
nected series of geometrical truths, and wrote a summary of 
his doctrine. He was the first who undertook to delineate 
the surface of the earth, and mark the divisions of land and 
water, upon an artificial globe. The invention of the 
sun-dial is ascribed to him ; but it is not likely that man^ 
kind had remained, till this time, unacquainted with sa 
useful an instrument, especially considering how vmcb 
attention had, in many countries, been paid to astronomy, 
and how early we read of the division of time into iioun; 
Herodotus, with much greater probability, ascribes thia 
invention to the Babylonians. Perhaps he made use of a 
gnomon in ascertaining, more correctly than Thales had 
done, the meridian line, and the points of the soistioea. 
Pliny says, that be first observed the obliquity of the eclip* 
tic ; but this cannot be true^ if Thales was acqusdnted 
with the method of predicting eclipses, which supposes 
the knowledge of this obliquity. 

Other opinions ascribed to Anaximander are, that the 



AN AXIMANDER. le^ 

stars are globular collections of air and fire, bom^ about 
in the sfdieres in which they are placed ; that they ar^ 
gods, that is, inhabited and aminated by portions of the 
ditinity; that the sun has the highest place in the bM-> 
Tens, the moon the next, and the planets and fixed stars 
the lowest ; that the earth is a globe placed in the middle 
of the universe, and remains* in its place ; and that tbe sun 
is twenty-^igbt times larger than the earth. > 
' ANAXIMENES, a Milesian, who was born about the 
fifty«Mxth olympiad, or B. C. 556, was a hearer and com- 
panion, of Anatximander. He followed the footsteps of hu 
master, in his inquiries into the nature and origin of 
things, and attempted to cast new. light upon the system. 
He taught, that the first principle of all things is air, which 
he held to be infinite, or immense. Anaximenes, says 
Simplicius, taught the unity and immensity of matter, but 
under a more definite term than Anaximander, calling it 
air. He held air to be God, because it is difiused through 
ftU nature, and is perpetually active, Tlie air of Anaxi- 
menes is, then, a subtle ether, animated with a divine prhb* 
eiple, whence it becomes the origin of aU beings, and iq 
this sense Lactantius understood his doctrine. 

Anaximenes was probably the continuator of the doctrine 
of Tfaales and Anaximander, concerning the finest principle 
of nature, with this difference only, that he supposed the 
divine energy to be resident in air, or ather. Chiefiy at- 
tentive^ however, to material causes, he was silent con- 
cerning the nature of the divine mind. 

Anaxifoenes is also said to have taught, that all min^ 
are air 3 that fire, water, and earth, prooeed from it, by 
rarefaction or condensation ; that the sun and moon are 
fiery bodies, whose form is that of a circular plate ; that 
the stars, which also are fiery substances, are fixed in the 
heavens, as nails in a crystalline plane ; and that tHe 
earth is a plane tablet resting upon the air. ' 
' ANAXIMENES, the s<m of Aristocles of Lampsacus, aii 
orator, was the disciple of Diogenes the cynic, and of 
Zoilns of Ampbipolis, the absurd critic on Homer. He 
was preceptor to Alexander of Macedon^^ and followed him 
to the wars. When the king was incensed against the 
pe^^Ie of Lamipsacus, because they had taken the part of 
the Persians, and threatened them with grievous putiish- 

1 Brucker.— Diostnei Laertins.-— Geo. Dict,«— ^oreri, * Ibid« 



f.« 



166 A N A X I M E N E «. 

ments, 'he saved them by a trick. The peoplci in dang^v 
of losing their wives, children, and country, sent Anaxi«« 
laenes to intercede for them, and Alexander knowing tha 
cause of his coming, swore by the gods, that h^ would do' 
the very reverse of what he desired of him. Upon this 
Anaximenes said to him, ^' Grant me the favour, O king,: 
to enslave the wives and children of the people of Lampr 
sacus, to burn their temples, and lay their city even v^th 
the- ground .^^ Alexander, not being able to retract his 
oath, pardoned Lampsacus against his will, Anaximenes 
xevenged himself on his enemy Theopompus the son of 
Damostratus in a manner not much to bis credit. Being a 
sophist, and able to imitate the style of sophists, he wrote 
4 book against the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, care- 
fully framing a railing story, and setting the name of Theo-; 
pompus to it, sent it to those cities. Hence arqse an uni- 
versal hatred of Theopompus throughout all Greece*' 
Anaximenes is said to be th& inventov of speaking ex tem^ 
pore, accordiog to Suidas, although it is not easy to com-^^ 
piehend what he means by th^t being an invention. He 
^srrote the lives of Philip and Alexander, and twelve books 
on the early history of Greece, but none of these have de-?. 
tended to u$, ? 

ANCHABANUS, or ANCARANO (Peter), an emi, 
nent civilian of the fourteenth century, was born at Bor* 
logna in Italy, and descended from the illustrious family o£ 
the Farneses. Besides his uncommon knowledge in the 
civil law, he was a philosopher and politician and an elo- 
quent speaker^ These qualifications raised his reputation, 
and gave him a great authority among his countrymen. 
He was likewise in high esteem with the princes of Italy, 
and applied to by many cities and universities* He stu- 
died cbie^y ujcider Baldus, whose intimate friendship he 
gain^4» and wl^o instructed him in the most abstruse parts 
of the civil law. He read public lectures upon the law at 
firsj; in Padua, and afterwards at, Bologna, in conjunction 
with Bartholomew Salicetus, with the greatest applause o£ 
his auditors. He flouris^hed about 1 3SQ, and the following 
years; for in May, 1382, Salicetus, who was his contem<n 
porary, . began his conamentaries in IX Libros Codic. at 
Bologna. Our author died there about the year 1410, and 
9fas^i|rie4 in the church of .S:t. Beuedict; tjiough ^om^ 

' } Gen. Diet.— MorerL—Spidas. 



A N C H A R ANUS. 167 

wrttisrs pretend^ that he lived till 1497, which th^y infer' 
from his epitaph, which was only repaired in that yean 
But the manuscript of his Ifecture upon the Clementines ' 
and Rescripts, which is preserved in the library at Augs- 
burg, appears to have been written in 1397 ; and another 
manuscript of bis lecture upon the second book of the 
Decretals, which is likewise in that library, shews that it 
was finished at Venice in 1392. He wrote, 1. *^ Commen- 
taria in sex Libros Decretalium ;'* with the Scholia of 
Codecba and John, de Monteferrato, at Bononia, -1581, foL 
2. ** Lectura super Clementinas,*' with the additions of 
Cathar. Pariel and others, Lyons, 1549 and 1553, fol. 
3« ^' SelectiB Quaestiones omnium prsestantissimorum Juris* 
oo&sukorum in tres tomos digestse, Francfort, 1581, fol. 

4. " Consilia sive Responsa Juris," with the additions of' 
Jerom Zanchius, Venice, 1568, 1585, 1589, 1599, folio, 

5. " Repetitiones in C. Canonum Statuta, de Constit.'*. 
Venice, 1587t* 

ANCHER (Peter Kofod), a Danish lawyer of the 
eighteenth century, filled several situations of importance 
la the Danish administration, and about the end of that 
century bore the title of counsellor of conference. He 
wrote many elementary works on the civil and crimittal 
law of Denmark, which differs from the Roman in many 
particulars; but his principal and most learned and useful 
woii:, is "The History of Danish law from the time of 
king Harold to that of Christian V." 1769, 3 vols. 8vo, 
which is in the Danish language. * 

ANCILLON (David), an eminent divine, of the re- 
formed church at Metz, was born March 17, 1617. He 
studied from the ninth or tenth year ^of his age in the 
Jesuits* college, then the only one at Metz where there 
was an bpportuntifty'of being instructed in polite lit:erature. 
In this college he gave such proofs of genius, that the 
heads of the society left nothing unattempted in order to 
di^w him over to* thei^ religion and party ; but he con- 
timied 'firm: against their attacks, and that he might be th& 
more enabled to withstand them, took the resolution of 
studying divinity, in which he was so indefatigable, that 
his father was often obliged to interpose his authority to 
interrupt his continual application, lest it should injure 
his health. He went to Geneva in the year 1633, and per*^ 

1 Gert. Diet. — Moreri. * Bioff. Unirerselle. 



*' 



16S ANCILLON. 

formed his course of philosophy there under Mr. da Pao^ 
and his divinity studies under Spanheim^ Diodati, and. 
Troncbin, who bad a great esteem for him. He lefi Ge- 
neva ill April 1641 1 and offered himself to the synod of 
Charenton, in order to take upon bim the office of a minis- 
ter. His abilitdes were greatly admired by the examiners^ 
and his modesty by the ministers of Paris; and the whole 
assembly was so highly satisfied with bim, that they gave 
him one of the most considerable churches, which was un- 
provided for» that of Meaux, where he exercised his minis- 
try till the year 1653, and became extremely popular, 
raising an extensive reputation by his learning, eloquence, 
and virtue, and was even highly respected by those of the 
Roman catholic communion. He displayed his talents 
with still greater reputation and success in his own country, 
where be was minister from the year 1653, till the revo- 
cation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. He retired to 
Francfort after that fatal blow ; and having preached in 
the French efaureh at Hanau, the whole assembly was so 
edified by it^ that they immediately called together the 
heads, of tb^ families, in order to propose that he might 
be desired to accept of the office of minister among tbem» 
The prop6aition was agreed to ; and they sent deputies 
who, prevailed on him, and he began the exercise of his 
ministry in that church about the end of the year 1685* 
Jt was now that several persons who had quitted the 
French church, for some disgust, returned to it again* 
The professors of divinity, and the German and Dutch 
ministers, attended frequently upon his sermons. The 
count of Hanau himself, who bad never before been seen 
in that church, came thither to hear Mr. Ancillon. His au- 
ditors came from the neighbouring parts, and even from 
Francfort, and people, who understood nodiing of French, 
flocked together with great eagerness, and said, that they 
loved to see him speak ; a degree of popularity which ex- 
cited the jealousy of two other mijiisters, who at length 
rendered his situation so uneasy that he was induced to 
abandon voluntarily a place from which they could not 
force him. If he had chosen to rely upon the voice of the 
people, he might have still retained his situation, but it • 
was his opinion that a faithful pastor ought not to establish 
bis own intereifts upon any division between a congregation 
and its ministers, and as through his whole life he had 
been averse to parties, and had remonstrated often against 



A N C I L L O N. 16a 

cabals and factions, he would not take advantage of tbe 
disposition which the people were in towards him, nor 
permit them to act Having therefore attempted every 
method which charity suggested without success, he re-^ 
solved to quit Hanau, where he had to wrangle without 
intermission, and where his patience, which had supported 
several great trials, might possibly be at last overcome ; 
and for these reasons he left it privately. He would now 
have returned to Francfort to settle, but in consideration 
of his numerous family, he preferred Berlin, where he re- 
ceived a kind reception from the elector of Brandenbourg, 
He was also made minister of Berlin, and had the plea* 
sure of seeing his eldest son made judge and director of tbe 
French who were in that city, and his other son rewarded 
with a pension, and entertained at the university of Franc- 
fort upon the Oder, and at last minister in ordinary of the 
capital. He had likewise the satisfaction of seeing bis 
brother made judge of all the French in the states of 
Brandenbourg, and Mr. Cayart, his son-in-law, engineer 
to his electoral highness. He enjoyed these circumstances 
undisturbed, till his death at Berlin, September 3, 1692, 
aged seventy-five years. His marriage was contracted in 
a very singular way : The principal heads of families of the 
church of Meaux seeing how much their minister distin- 
guished himself, and hearing him' sometimes saying, that 
he would go to Metz to see his father apd relations, whom 
he had not seen for several years, were apprehensive lest 
they should lose him. They thought of a thousand expe- 
dients in order tq fix him with them for a long time ; and 
the surest way in their opinion was to marry him to some 
rich lady of merit, who had an estate in that country or 
near it One of them recollected he had heard, that Mr. 
Ancillon having preached one Sunday in the morning at 
Charenton, he was universally applauded ; and that Mr. 
Macaire especially, a venerable old gentleman, of very 
exemplary virtue and piety, and possessed of a consider- 
able estate at Paris and about Meaux, had given him a 
thousand blessings and commendations, and said aloud to 
those who sat near him in tbe church, that he had but one 
daughter, who was an only child, and very dear to him ; 
but if that gentleman, speaking of Mr. Ancillon, should 
come and ask her in mairiage, he would give her with all 
his heart Upon this, they went to ask him, whether he 
still jcositimied in that favourable opiuipn of him ; be re- 



170 A >I C ILL O N. 

]^icd, that he did ; and accompanied that answer with new 
expressions of his esteem and affection for Mr. Ancillon ; 
so that the marriage was concluded in the year 1649, and 
proved, a very happy one, although there was a great dis- 
parity of years, the young lady being only fourteen. 

His library was very curious and very extensive, and he 
enlarged it every day with all that appeared new and im- 
portant in the republic of letters ; so that at last it was one 
of the noblest collections in the hands of any private per- 
son in the kingdom. Learned foreigners used to visit it, 
as they passed through the tity of Metz, as the most valua- 
ble curiosity there. When he saw the catalogue of pre- 
tended heretical books, published by the archbishop of 
Paris, he laid aside all those books which were ordered 
to be suppressed, and they composed his library in the 
foreign countries which he retired to, for his own was 
plundered after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, nor 
would he have had a book remaining, if those which he had 
hid, had not been concealed from the persons who seized 
the rest of his library. The monks and ecclesiastics of 
Metz and the neighbouring towns had long coveted the 
library of Mr. Ancillon, and his being obliged to depart on 
a sudden gave them a feir pretence to take possession of it. 
Some of them proposed to buy the whole together, and 
others required, that it should be sold by retail ; but the 
issue was that it was completely plundered. 

His writings are but few, 1. " Relation fidele de tout ce 
qui s'est pass6 dans la conference publique avec M. Beda- 
cier, eveque d' Aost," Sedan, 1657, 4to. This dispute 
which he carried on with M. Bedacier, is concerning tra- 
ditions, and was inanaged on the part of our author with 
great success, but they had agreed not to print it, and it 
. would have remained unknown, had not a spurious account 
appeared, in which it \vas stated that Ancillon had been 
defeated. 2. ** Apologie de Luther, de Zulngle, de 
Calvin, et de Beze,'- Hanau, 1666, which is part of an an- 
swer he had prepared against cardinal de Richelieu, 
3. " Vie de Guil. Farel,*- or the idea of a faithful minister 
of Christ, printed in 1691, Amst. 12mo, from a most erro- 
neous copy. He published al$o one fest sermon, 1676^ 
entitled "The Tears of St. Paul.'* But the wotk which 
contains the most faithful picture of' his, learning, princr- 
ples, and talents, in conversation, was published by his^ 
fton, the subject of the next artide, at* Basil, 169t| 3 vols, 



A N C I L L O N. 171 

l2mo9 entitled <^ Melange critique de Litterature> re-* 
cueilli des conversations de feu.M.Ancillon." There was 
Ukewiae a new edition of it published at Amsterdam in 1702, 
ill one volume i2mo, which was disowned by the editor^ 
because there were several things inserted in iii^ which, 
were injurious tp his father's memory^ and his own charac* 
ter. This collection of AdiiCilion was formed from what he 
heard his father speak of in conversation, and he has di- 
gested it under proper beads. It contains a great number 
of useful and curious remarks, although not wholly free 
from mistakes, some of the sentiments having been con-; 
▼eyed to the editor by persons who probably did not rQ- 
^lember them exactly. * . . * 

ANCILLON (Charlbs), son of the above, was born at 
Metz, July 29, 1659: he began his studies in that city, 
and went to Hanau for the prosecution of them. He after-^ 
wardis applied himself to the civil law at Marpurg, Geneva, 
and Paris, in the last of which cities he was admitted an 
advocate. Upon bis return to Metz, in 1679, he followed 
the bar, where he began to raise himself a considerable 
reputation. After the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 
l&S5f the prot^stants of Metz deputed him to court, in 
order to represent that they ought not to be compre- 
l^ended in this revocation. But ail that he could obtain 
was, that this city should be treated with more lenity and 
favour, fie followed his father to Berlin, where the elec- 
tor of Brandenbourg appointed him judge and director of 
the French in that city. In 1695, that' prince gave him 
new marks of his confidence and favour, by sending him to 
Swisserland in order to negociate some affairs of import- 
ance. The marquis of Baden Dourlach, who was then at 
' 3stsil, having bad an opportunity of seeing him, entertained 
so great an esteem for him, that he chose him fgr his 
CQunsellor, and desired the elector of Brandenbourg tq 
give Ancillon leave that he should serve him for some time. 
Our author did not return to Berlin till the end of the 
year 1^99, and was then appointed inspector of all the 
courts of justice whicl> the French had in Prussia, and 
counsellor of the embassy. The elector, being crowned 
Jfing of Prussia, made him likewise his historiographer and 
^uperinttndant of the French school, which had .been 
^iwdpd ^^ Berlin^ according to the sqheme which he ha4 

* Gen, Diet. 



p2 A N C I L L O N. 

Imned. He died in that city the 5th of July, 1715, being^ 
fifty-six years of age. His works are, 1. " V Irrevoca- 
bility d^ PEdit de Nantes prouv£ par les principes du droit 
& de la politique/' Amsterdam, 168S, 12nio. 2. '^Re-» 
flexions politiques, par lesquelles on fait voir que la per- 
secution des reformez est contre les veritable interets de 
la France,*' Cologne; 1686, ]2mo. Mr. Bayle is mistaken 
in supposing, that this work was written by Sandras det» 
Courtils, the author of the *^ Nouveaux Interets des 
Princes." 3, " La France interess6e a r6tablir I'Edit de 
Nantes," Amsterdam, 1690, 12mo. 4. " Histoire de 
PEtablissement des Frangois Refugiez dans les Etats de 
son altesse electorale de Brandebourg," Berlin, 1690, 
8vo. He wrote this out of gratitude to the elector for the 
generdsity which he had shewn to the French Protestants. 
It appears from this piece, that the elector's humanity ex- 
tended to all the different ranks of persons among them. 
The men of learning tasted all the satisfactions of ease 
notwithstanding the pressure of misfortune and distress, 
and enjoyed the charms of society in the conferences which 
were held at Mr. Spanheim's, their patron and Maecenas,, 
who was one of the ornaments of that court, as well as of the 
republic of letters. 5. " Melange Critique,'* mentioned 
before in his father's article. 6. " Dissertation sur 
I'usage de mettre la premiere pierre au fondement des 
edifices publics, addressee au prince electoral de Brande- 
bourg, a I'occasion de la premiere pierre, qu'il a pos6e lui 
m6me au fondement du temple qu'on construit pour les 
Frangois Refugiez dans le quartier de Berlin nomita^ Fri- 
derichstadt," Berlin, 1701, 8vo. The author having given 
an account of every thing which his knowledge and read- 
ing would supply him with on this subject, acknowledges 
at last, that this custom is very like those rivers, whose 
source is unknown, though we may observe the course of 
them. 7. " Le dernier triomphe de Frederic Guillaume 
le Grand, electeur de Brandebourg, ou discdurs sur la 
Statue Equestre ^rig^e sur le Pont Neuf du Berlin," Ber- 
lin, 1703. Mr. Beauval says that this piece is an oration 
^nd a dissertation united together, and that the style is a 
little too turgid. 8. ^^ Histoire de la vie de Solimau IL 
empereur des Turcs," Rotterdam, 1706, 8vo; a work not 
very correct, but the preliminary matter is valuable, and 
contains, among other particulars, some curious informa* 
tion respecting Thuanus, taken from the ^^ BibliotbequfL 



A N C I L L O N. 171 

l*olitique Heraldique Chdisie," 1705, 8vo. 9. « Trait* 
des Eunuques, par C. Dollincan/' 1707, 12ino. Dollin" 
can is an assumed name, and the work unworthy of our 
author's abilities. 10. ^^ Memoires concernant les vies 
et les outrages de plusieurs modernes celebres dans la 
Repubhque des Lettres,*' Amst. 1709, 12mo. This piece, 
which he was induced to undertake by the persuasion of a 
bookseller of Rotterdam, as a supplement to Bayle's dic*^ 
tionarj-, contains the lives, somewhat diffusely written, of ' 
Valentine Courart, whose article contains 133 pages; 
Bartholomew d'Herbelot, Urban Chevreau, Henry Justel, 
Adrian Baillet, James Aubery, Benjamin Aubery Sieur 
du Maurier, Lewis Aubery, John Aubery, Claudius Au« 
bery, John Baptist Cotelier, and Laurence Beger. 
11. " Histoire de la vie de M. Ltscheid,'* Berlin, 1713.* 

ANCOURT (Florent-Carton d'), an eminent French 
actor and dramatic writer, was born at Fontainbleau, Nov, 
1, 1661. He studied in the Jesuits' college at Paris, 
under father de la Rue ; who, discqverlng in him a re- 
markable quickness and capacity for learning, was ex« 
tremely desirous of engaging him in their order, but d' An- - 
Courtis aversion to a religious life rendered all his efforts 
ineffectual. After he had goi^e through a course of phi- 
losophy, he applied himself to the civil law, and was ad- 
mitted advocate at seventeen years of age, but falling in 
love with an actress, he went upon the stage ; and, in 
1680, married this woman. As he had all the qualifications 
necessary for the. theatre, he soon greatly distinguished 
himself, and began to write pieces for the stage, many of 
which liad such success, that most of the players grew rich 
from the profits of them. His merit in this way procured 
him a very favourable reception at coutt, where Lewis XIV. 
Aewed him'tnany marks of his favoun His sprightly Qon- 
versation and polite behaviour made his company agreeable 
to all the men of figure both at court and in the city, and 
Ae most considerable persons were extremely pleased -to 
liave him at ' their houses. Having taken a journey to 
Dunkirk, to' d^e his eldest daughter who lived there, he 
took the opportunity of paying his compliments to the 
elector of Bavaria, who was then at Brussels^ This prince 
received hitn with the utmost civility ; and, having retained 
him a considerable time, dismistted him, with a present of 

*' Gets: 0bt. 



174 AN C O U R T. 

a di^m€md valued at a thousand pistoles ; he likefrise' it€^ 
warded him in a very generous manner, when, upon his 
coming to Papis, d^Ancourt composed an entertainment foa 
his diversion. At length grown weary of the theatre^ 
which he quitted in Lent, IT.IS^ be retired to his estate of 
Courcelles le Roy^ in Berry ; where he applied himself 
wholly to devotion^ and composed a translation of David^s 
psalms in verse, and a sacred tragedy, which were never 
printed. He died the 16th of December, 1726^ 65 yearsi 
€>f age. His plays consist of fifty-two, of which twenty- 
^ve are said to keep their reputation on the stage* They 
were published in 1710 and 1750, in d vols. 12mo9 and the 
best of them in 3 vols. 1 2mo, under the title of " Chefs* 
d'oBuvre de d'Ancourt." ^ 

ANDERSON (Adam)^ a n^itive of Scotland, was brother' 
to the rev. James Anderson, D. D. editor of the " Royal 
Genealogies,'* and of ^* The Constitutions of the Free Ma- 
sons,? to whom he was chaplain. He was likewise many 
years minister of the Scotch Presbyterian church in Swallow-* 
street, Piccadilly, and well known among the people of 
that persuasion resident in London by the name of bishop 
Anderson, a learned but imprudent roan, who lost a con* 
siderable part of his property in the fatal year 1720. His 
brother Adam, the suhject of this article, was for 40 year^ 
a clerk in the South Sea house, and at length was ap-- 
pointed chief clerk of the stock and. new annuities, which 
office he retained till his death. He was appointed one of 
the trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in 
America, by charter dated June 9, 5 Geo. H. He was also 
pne of the court of assistants of the Scots* corporation in 
London. He published his ^^ Historical and Chronological 
deduction of Trade and Commerce," a work replete with 
useful information, in 1762 — 3, 2 vols./fol. He was twice 
married ; by the first wife he had issue a daughter, married^ 
to one Mr. Hardy, a druggist or apothecary in Southamp- 
ton-street in the Strand, who hoth died without issue ; he 
sfcfterwards became the third husband of the widow of Mr. 
Coulter, formerly a wholesale linen-draper in Cornbilly by 
whom he had no issue ; she was, like him, tall and grace- 
ful, and her face has been thought to have some resemhlance 
to that of the ever-living countess of Desmond, given in 
Mr. Pennant's first Tour in Scotland. Mr. Anderson died 

I Diet. Histori%a«,«»Q«m DieU— Moreru 



ANDERSON. 1^5 

at his hotise in lled-Iion*street, Clerkenwell, Jan. 10^ 1765, 
aged 73. He had a good library of books, which were sold 
by his widow, who. survived him several years, and died in 
1731. His History, of Commerce has been lately very 
much improved in a new edition,. 4 vols. 4 to, by Mr. 
M*Pherson. " » ^ 

ANDERSON (Alexa^dsr), an eminent mathema* 
tician, was born at Aberdeen towards the end of the six- 
teenth century* Where he was educated, or under what 
inasters, we have not learned : probably he studied the 
belles'lettres and philosophy in the university of his native 
city, and, as was the practice in ttiat age of all who could 
afford it, went afterwards abroad for the cultivation of other 
branches of science. But wherever he studied, his progress 
must have been rapid ; for early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, we find him professor of mathematics in the .univer- 
sity of Paris, where he published several ingenious works^ 
and among others, ^^ Supplementum ApoUonii Redivivi, 
&c.'' Paris, 1612, 4to; " Ailio^oyia, pro Zetetico Apollo* 
niani problematis a se jam pridem edito in supplemento 
ApoUenii Uedivivi, &c/' Paris, 1615, 4to; " Francisci 
Vietas de £qu9^onum recognition^ et emendatione trac-> 
tatus duo,'' with a dedication, preface, and appendix 
by himself, Paris, .1615, 4to; " Vieta's Augulares *8ec- 
tiones,:" to whicli he added demonstrations of his own. 

Our professor was cousin german to Mr. Da^vid Ander- 
son of Finshaugh, a gentleman who also possessed a singu- 
lar turn for mathematical knowledge. This matheniatical 
J genius was hereditary in the family of the Andersons ; and 
rom them jt seems to have been transmitted to their de- 
scendants of the name of Gregory, who have for so many 
generations been eimnent in Scotland, as. professors, either 
of mathematics, or,.more lately, of the. theory and prac<^ 
tice of physic. The. daughter of the David Anderson just 
mentioned, was the mother of the celebrated James Gre- 
gory, iuyentor of the reflecting telescope ; and observing 
in her son, while yet a child, a strong propensity to mathe- 
maticali studies, she inst;ructed him in the elements of that 
science herself. Froni the same lady descended the late 
Dr. Reid.of Gla§g^<Mr, who was not less eminent for his 
^knowledge of mathematics than for his metaphysical writ- 
ings. The precise dates of Alexander Anderson's birth 

1 Gent. Mfts* ToK LIIL p. 41. ' 



/ 



in A N D E K S O N. 

and death, we have not learned either from DeiDpstetV 
Mackenzie, or Dr. Hutton, who seems to have used every 
endeavour to procure information, nor are such of his re-^ • 
Ifltions as we have had an opportunity of consulting, so 
well acquainted with his private history as we expiected to 
find them. * ^ 

ANDERSON, (Sir Edmund), a younger brother of a 
good family, either of Broughton, or of FUxborough in 
Lincolnshire, descended originally from Scotland. He re- 
ceived the first part of his education in the country, and 
went afterwards to Lincoln college in Oxford : fromlhenc^ 
he removed to the Inner Temple, where he read law with 
great assiduity, and in due time was called to the bar. la 
the ninth of queen Elizabeth, he was both Lent and Sum'- 
mer reader ; in the sixteenth of that queen, double reader, 
notes of which readings are yet extant in manuscript > and 
in the nineteenth year of queen Elizabeth, be was ap« 
pointed one of the queen's serjeants at law. Some time 
after, be was made a judge; and, in 1581, being upon 
the Norfolk circuit at Bury, he exerted himself against tb^ 
famous Browne, the author of those opinions which were 
afterwards maintained by a sect called from hint Brown- 
ists : for this couduct of judge Anderson, the bishop of 
Norwich wrote a letter to treasurer Burleigh, desiring the 
judge might receive the queen's thanks. In 1582, .he wai 
made lord chief justice of the comman pleas, and the year 
following received the honour of knightiiood. In 15S6^ he 
was appointed one of the commissioners for trying Mary 
queen of Scots; on the 12th of October, the same year, 
he sat in judgment upon her; and on the 25th of tive 
same, month, he sat again in the star-chamber, when seu*^ 
tence was pronounced against tbts unhappy queen. In 
1587, he sat in the star-chamber on secretary Davison, 
who was charged with issuing the warrant for the eirecution 
of the queen of Scots, contrary to queen Elizabeth's com* 
mand, and without her knowledge. After the cituse had. 
been heard, sir Roger Manwood, chief baron of the eK« 
chequer, gave hi^ opinion first, Wherein be extoUed tbe 
queen's clemency, which he said, Davison bad incoft* 
siderately prevented ; and therefore he was for fining bittiL 
ten thousand pounds, and imprisonment during the queen's 

1 Gleig^s Supplement to the £ncyclop. Britan.--Hutton's Mathematical Die- 
lionary. 



ANDERSON. l»t 

]>leasure. Chief justice Anderson spoke nett, and said 
that Davison had done justuniy nan Just i ; that is, he had 
done what was right, but not in a right manner, which. 
Granger observes, is excellent logic for finding an in- 
nocent man guilty. 

In the proceedings against those who endeavoured to set 
np the Geneva discipline, Anderson shewed much zeal ; 
but in the case of Udal, a puritan minister, who was con- 
fined in 1589, and tried and condemned the year following, 
we find him unjustly censured by Mr. Pierce in his " Vin- 
dication of the Dissenters,^' and yet more unjustly by Neal, 
hi his History of the Puritans, who asserts that Anderson 
Iried and condemned Udal, which is a direct falsehood. 
Still it cannot be denied that he was severe in such cases, 
althbugh^rom his conduct in other matters, it is evident 
that he acted conscientiously. In 1596 we have an account 
of his going the northern circuit, where he behaved with 
the same rigour ; declaring in his charges, that such per- 
sons as opposed the established church, opposed her ina* 
jesty's authority, and were in that light enemies to th« 
state and disturbers of the public peace, and he directed 
the grand juries to inquire, that they might be punished. 
He was indeed a very strict lawyer, who governed himself 
entirely by statutes : this he shewed on many occasions, 
particularly at the trial of Henry Cuffe, secretary to the 
earl of Essex, where the attorney-general charging the 
prisoner syllogistically, and CufFe answering him in the 
same style, lord chief justice Anderson said, ** I* sit here 
to judge of law, and not of logic:" and directed Mr. 
attorney to press the statute of Edward III. on which 
Mr. Cuffe was indicted. He was reputed severe, and strict 
in the obsei*vation of what was taught in courts, and laid 
down as law by reports ; but this is another unfounded re- 
port to his discredit, for we have his express declaration 
to the contrary, and that he neither expected precedents 
in all cases, nor would be bound by them where he saw 
they wero not founded upon justice, but would act as if 
^re were no such precedents. Of this we have a proof 
from the reports in his time, published by Mr. Goldesbo- 
rough : " The case of Resceit wis moved again ; and Shut- 
fleworth tiaid, that he cannot be received, because he is 
^■amed id the writ; and added, that he had searched all 
the bo6ks, and there is not one case where he who is named 
in the writ may be received. What of that > said judge 

Vol. 1L N 



I7« A N D 1| R S O N. 

Anderson ; shall we not give judgment, because ife is not 
adjudged in the books before ? we will give jadgment ac-» 
cording to reason ; and if there be no reason in the books^ 
I will not regard them.'' His steadiness was so great, that 
he would not be driven from what he thought right, by 
any authority whatever. This appeared in the case of 
Cavendish, a (Creature of the earl of Leicester ; who had 
procured, by his interest, the queen's letters patent for 
making out writs of supersedeas upon exigents in the court 
of common pleas, and a message was sent to the judges to ^ 
admit him to that office : with which, as they conceived 
the queen had no right to grant any such patent, they. did 
not comply. Upon this, Mr, Cavendish, by the assist* 
ance of his patron, obtained a letter from the queen to 
quicken . them, but which did not produce what was e^-« 
pected' from it. The courtier again pursued his pouit^ 
and obtained another letter under the queen's signet and 
sign manual ; which letter was delivered in presence of 
the lord chancellor and the earl of Leicester, in the he* 
ginning of Easter term. The judges desired time, to con** 
sider it, and then answered, that they could not comply 
with the letter, because it was inconsistent with their duty 
and their oaths of office. The queen upon this appoiitted 
the chancellor, the lord, chief justice of the queen's bench, 
arid the master of the rolls," to hear this matter ; and the 
queen's serjeant having set forth her prerogative, it wa* 
shewn by the judges, that they could not grant offices»by 
virtue of the queen's letters, where it did not appear to 
them that she had a power to grant; that as the judges 
were bound by their oaths of office, so her majesty was 
restrained by her coronation-oath from such arbitrary in-* 
terpositions : and with this her majesty was satisfied. He 
concurred also with his brethren in remonstrating boldly 
against several acts of power practised in Elizabeth's reign. 
On the accession of king James he was continued in his 
office, and held it to the time of his death, which hap-> 
pened August 1, 1605. He was interred at Ey worth ia 
Bedfordshire. .The printed works of this. great lawyer, 
besides his ^^ Readings/' which are still in manuscript, are, 
1. ^^ Reports of many principal Cases argued apd adjudged 
in the time of queen Elizabeth, in the Commpo Bench/* 
London, 1664, folio. 2. ^^Resolutions and Judgements Oft 
the Cases and Matters agitated in all the courts of West* 
miuster, ixk the latter ^nd of the reignpf queen Elizabeth;'! 



ANDERSON. 179^ 

pabUshed by John Goldesborough, esq. prothonotary of 
the common pleas, London, 1653, 4to. 

Chief justice Anderson married Magdalen, daughter of 
Nicholas Smith of Aunables in Hertfordshire, by whom 
he had three sons, Edward, Francis, WilHam, and six 
daughters, two of which died young. Of those that sur- 
vived, Elizabeth married Sir Hattdn Farmer, knt. ancestor 
to the earl of Pontefract; Griselda espoused sir John 
Shefeld, knt. from whom descended the late duke of Buck- 
inghamshire. Catherine became the wife of sir George 
Booth, hart, ancestor to the earls of Wamngton ; and 
Margaret, by sir I'homas Monson, hart, established the 
family of the lords Monson. As for the sons, Edward the 
eldest died without issue. Francis the second son was 
knighted by queen Elizabeth, and his youngest son by his 
second wife, sir John Anderson, of St. Ives, in the county 
of Huntingdon, was created baronet in 1628. William, 
the chief justice's youngest son, left one son Edmond, 
who was created baronet by king Charles II. and his family 
still flourishes at Kilnwick Piercy, in the east-riding of 
Yorkshire. Stephen Anderson, esq. eldest son and heir 
of Stephen Anderson, esq. son and heir of sir Francis 
Anderson before mentioned, was likewise raised to the 
dignity of a baronet, in the sixteenth of Charles II. and 
his honour was lately possessed by his direct descend* 
ant, sir Stephen Anderson, of Broughton in Lincolnshire^ 
and E jTworth in Bedfordshire, but the title is now extinct. \ 

ANDERSON (George), a traveller, was born at Tun- 
dem, in the duchy of Sleswick, about the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. It does not appear that he had 
enjoyed a regular education, but by strong sense, and 
powers of memory, he acquired a great stock of knowledge* 
He travelled in the east from the year 1644 to 1650^ 
through Arabia, Persia, India, China, and Japan, and re- 
turned by Tartary, northern Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria,^ 
and Palestine. When he came home, he entered into the 
service of tlie duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who, not being 
able to obtain from him a written account of his travels^ 
invited him every day to his house, and drew from him in 
conversation the particulars of it, which were taken down 
in writing by Adam Olearius, who was concealed for the 
purpose behind the tapestry. The duke afterwards pre*- 

1 Biog. Britaimica, originally written by Dr. Campbell*— IJoyd^ yrorthie8.«<» 
Afh. Ox. Tol. |.-^trype's Annalsi vol. Ill, p» 16^ 128. 

N 9 



ISO ANDERSON. 

vailed on him to revise the manuscript, and it was pub-* 
lished at Sleswick, by Olearius, 1669, in German, fol.* 

ANDERSON (George), a young man of extraordinary 
talents, was born at Weston, a village near Aylesbury, in 
Buckinghamshire, in Nov. 1760. His father was a peasant 
of the lower order, who died when his son was young, 
leaving him to the care of providence : from his mother 
and an elder brother he received some little instructioi)^ 
and particularly by the latter he was taught the rudiments 
of arithmetic. His chief occupation, however, was in thd 
field, where his family were obliged to procure a subsist* 
ence, and here, like his predecessor in early fortune, 
James Ferguson, he became enamoured of mathematical 
science, and devoted what hours he could spare to this 
study, although with disadvantages which in mo^t men 
would have prevented the attempt, or interrupted the pro- 
gress. Yet such was his application, that in 1777, he 
transmitted to the London Magazine the solution of some 
problems which had appeared in that work, and he had the 
satisfaction to see his letter admitted. As he had signed 
this letter with his name, and dated it from Weston, it hap- 
pened to fall under the inspection of Mr. Bonnycastle, the 
well-known author of various mathematical and ' astrono- 
mical works, and now mathematical master to the Rbyal 
Academy, Woolwich, who was not less pleased than sur- 
prised at this attempt of a young man from the same 
cotinty with himself, of whom he had never heard. Mfr. 
Bonnycastle, accordingly, oh his next visit in Bucking- 
hamshire, procured an interview with the young genius, 
whom he found threshing in a barn, the walls of which were 
covered with triangles and parallelograms. Such was young 
Anderson*s bashfiilness, however, that Mr. Bonnycastle 
could not draw him into conversation, until he won his 
heart by the loan of Simpson^s Fluxions, and two or three 
other books. 

Mr. Anderson^! extraordinary talents becoming now the 
talk of the neighbourhood^ he soon found a generous aad 
steady patron in the Rev. Mr. King, then vicar of WTiit- 
church, who determined to send him to the university: 
and, after some preliminary instruction at the grammar* 
school belonging to New College, Oxford, he entered of 
Wadbam CoUege. Here he applied himself to the study 



ANDERSON. isi 

of classical learning, but his principal acquirements con? 
tinned to be in his favourite science. At the usual time^ 
he took the degree of M. A. and was admitted to deacon's 
orders, but whether from the want of a successful prospect^ 
or from disinclination, he gave up all thoughts of the 
church, and came to London in 1785, in consequence of 
an invitation from Scrope Bernard, esq. M. P. brother-in- 
law to Mr. King. After two or three months, Mr. Ber-r 
nard introduced him to Mr. now lord Grenyille, and he 
recommended him to Mr* Dundas (lord Melville), who was 
then at the head of the board of India controul, in which 
he obtained an appointment. His salary was at first small, 
but he soon discovered such ability in arithmetical calcu- 
lations and statements, that his salary was liberally in- 
creased, and himself promoted to the office of accountant- 
general. While employed in preparing the complicated 
accounts of the India budget for 1796, he was seized with 
^n indisposition, which was so rapidly violent as to put an 
end to.his useful life in less than a week. He died Satur- 
day, April 30, of the above year, universally lamented by 
his friends, and was interred in St. Pancras church-yard. 
His character was in all respects truly amiable : although 
his intercourse with the learned and polite world had taken 
off the rust of his early years, yet his demeanour was sim- 
ple and modest. His conversation, which, however, he 
rarely obtruded, was shrewd ; and he appeared to possess 
some share of humour, but this was generally repressed by 
a hesitating bashfulness, of which he never wholly got rid. 
His death was latnented in the most feeling and honourable 
terms by the president of the India board, as a public loss ; 
and by his interest, a pension was procured for Mrs. An- 
derson, a very amiable young woman, whom Mr. Anderson 
married in 1790.- — Mr. Anderspn published only two works, 
the one, " Arenarius, a treatise on numbering the sand." 
This, which appeared in 1784, was a translation of the 
Arenarius of Archimedes, from the Greek, to which Mr. 
Anderson added notes and illustrations. The design is tp 
demonstrate the possibility of enumerating the particles of 
sand which would compose a mass equal in bulk to the 
whole solar system, or any other determinate magnitude 
whatever. The translator, in his preface, gives some ac* 
count of the knowledge of the ancients in arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, and of the Pythagorean or Aristarchian 
system of the world ; and to render his publication as com- 
plete as possible, he added, from the I^tin, the Disser- 



182 ANDERSON. 

tation of Christopher Clavius, on the isame subject as the 
Arenarius. — Mr. Anderson's other publication "was a very 
candid and dispassionate " General view of the variations 
which have taken place in the affairs of the East India 
Company since the conclusion of the war in India in 17 84,** 
8vo. 1791.* 

ANDERSON (James), a Scotch antiquary, was the son 
of the rev. Pat. Anderson, of Edinburgh, where he was 
born Aug. 5, 1662. He had a liberal education at the uni- 
versity of that city, which was much improved by genius 
and application. When he had finished his studies, he 
was placed under the care of sir Hugh Paterson, of Ban- 
nockburn, an eminent writer to the signet, and made such 
progress, that in 1690 he was admitted a member of that 
society, and during his practice discovered ^o much know- 
ledge joined with integrity, that he probably would have 
' made a very distinguished figure had he remained longer 

* in this branch of the law profession. The acquaintance 
with ancient writings, however, which he had been obliged 
to cultivate in the course of bis practice, gratified a taste 
for general antiquities ai^d antiquarian research, which he 
seems to have determined to pursue, and he happened to 
liave an early opportunity to prove. himself well qualified 
for the pursuit. In 1704, a book was published by Mr. 
William Atwood, a lawyer, entitled " The superiority and 
direct dominion of the Imperial Crown and Kingdom of 
England over the Crown and Kingdom of Scotland." In 
this, Mr. Anderson, although altogether unknown to Mr, 
Atwood, was brought in by him as an evidence and eye- 
witness to vouch some of the most important original char^ 
tcrs and grants by the kings of Scotland, which Atwood 
maintained were in proof of the point he laboured to esta* 

* blish. Mr. Anderson, in consequence of such an appeal, 
thought himself bound in duty to bis country to publish 
what he knew of the matter, and tp vindicate the memory 
of some of the best of the Scottish kings, who were accused 
by Atw6od of a base and voluntary surrender of their so- 
vereignty. Accordingly, in 1705, he published " An Esr 
say, shewing that the Crowi> of Scotland is ixnperial and 
independent,'* Edinburgh, 8vo, which was so acceptable 
to his country that the parliament ordered him a reward, 
and thanks to be delivered by the lord chancellor in pre- 
sence of her majesty's high commissioner and the estates} 

> yecrqlofyy p« $4^, pommuaicated by bis frieiuls.-^ent. Mag. 



ANDERSON. 183 

» 

which was done, and at the same time they ordered At-^ 
wood's book to be burnt at Edinburgh by the hands of the 
hangman. 

In the courise of this inquiry, Mr. Anderson had made 
large coHectiops of ancient charters, and was now esteemed 
«o well acquainted with antiquities of that kind, that the 
parliament ordered him to collect and publish a series of 
the charters and seals of the kings of Scotland (in their 
original characters, or fac simile) preceding king James 
the First of th^t kingdom, with the coins and medals down 
to the Union in 1707; promising to defray the expences 
;of the work, and to recommend him to queen Anne, as a 
person meriting her royal favour for any oiEce or place of 
trust in lieu of his employment. On this, in 1707, he 
gav^ up his professional engagements, and came to Lon«> 
don to superintend the execution of the work. In 1715 
he was made postmaster general of Scotland^ which he 
-enjoyed, for whatever reason, only to 1717. 

During his inspection of the records and archives neces- 
sary to be consulted for his work, he was induced by a curi- 
osity which is not yet satiated in his countrymen, to examine 
what he happened to meet with respecting the conduct and 
character of the beautiful and unfortunate M^ry queen of 
Scotland. But, without ^gaging on either side in this 
contested part of history, he contented himself with pub- 
lishing what might be serviceable to others, ** Collections 
relating to the history of Mary, queen of Scotland," 4 vols. 
4to, Edinb. 1727. He had then very nearly finished, and 
meant soon to have published, the diplomatic work recom- 
mended by parliament, when he was prevented by a stroke 
of apoplexy, of which he died, April 3, 172S. The work, 
however, was at length given to the publick in 1739, under 
the title of ^< Selectus Diplomatum et Numismatum Scotiae 
Thesaurus," a most splendid folio volume, enriched with 
fee similes of charter, &c. beautifully engraven by Sturt, 
and a very elaborate preface in Latin from the classical 
pen of Thomas Ruddiman, A. M. Th^ copper plates were 
sold by auction, Dec. 4, 1729, for the sum of 530/. but 
the price of the book, originally four guineas the co|nmon 
paper, and six guineas the fine, is now raised to more than 
double.* 

1 MSS. Birch in Brit. Mtis.— A Life and examination of Andersoa^s merits, far 
more unfavourable than the above, has sinc« been published by Mr. Oeor^ 
Citalmers in bis Life of RuddioiaPy pu 151, etteq. 



W4 A N D E R S O N. 

ANDERSON (James) LL.D. an eminent agricultural 
writer, was born in 1739, at Hermiston, a village near 
Edinburgh. His ancestors were farmers, and had for 
many generations occupied the same land ; a circumstance 
Which may be supposed to have early introduced Mr. An- 
derson to that branch of knowledge which formed the chief 
occupation of his life. 

Mr. Anderson lost his parents when very young : and as 
his guardian destined him to occupy the farm when be 
should be of age, a learned education was noiy thought ne- 
cessary. But he soon discovered, from pierusing bboks of 
f^griculture, that few pursuits can be extensively culti- 
vscted without elevating the mind beyond mere mechanical 
knowledge; and in the first instance, he perceived that it 
would be necessary to study ohemistry. To chemistry he 
added the study of other collateral branches ; and entered 
upon his farm at the age of fifteen, with knowledge supe- 
rior to moist of his neighbours, and an enterprising spirit, 
which induced him to attempt, iqiprovements, wherever 
they could be introduced ' with apparent advantage* 
Among these was the small two^horse plough, now so 
common in Scotland. 

In a few years, he left Hermiston, and took a long lease 
of a large farm of 1300 acres, in Aberdeenshire, which 
was almost in a state of nature. While endeavouring to 
cultivate this unpromising soil, be began his literary ca- 
reer by publishing, in 1777, "Essays on Planting," which 
he had written in 1771, in the Edinburgh Weekly Maga- 
zine, under the signature of Agricola. AH his early works 
were composed during a residence of more than 20 years 
at Monksbill, the name of this farm. The fame of these 
works procured him a very extensive acquaintance and cor- 
respondence with persons of eminence, who wished to 
profit by the knowledge of so able a practical farmer. In 
1780, the- degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
the University of Aberdeen, in a manner highly honour- 
able to him, and without the least solicitation on his part. 

In 1783, having previously entrusted the management 
of his farm to proper persons, he removed to the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh ; partly with a view to the educa«* 
tion of his numerous family, and partly to enjoy the so- 
ciety of those literary persons with whom he had corre- 
ifponded. About this time, he printed and circulated a 
tract amon^ his friends^ on the subject of the establish- 



ANDERSON. Ui 

meot of die North British Fisheries, which, although not 
publish^ed, drew the attention of government ; and be was 
requested by the treasury to take a survey of the western 
coast of Scotland, for the purpose of obtaining informa- 
tion on this important subject. He readily acquiesced, 
and performed the task in 1784. The report of the Com- 
mittee appointed to inquire into the state of the British 
Fisheries, May 11, 1785, makes very honourable mention 
of Mr. Anderson's services/ 

After his return, he resumed his literary labours in va- 
rious shapes ; and, among other schemes, projected a pe^ 
nodical work, intituled ^^The Bee," to be published 
weekly, and to consist of the usual materials of a Maga- 
zine. Its encouragement was for a considerable time such 
as to enable him to carry on this work with advantage. 
Agriculturists, scholars, men of taste and fancy, became 
occasionally his correspondents in the Bee ; which, how« 
ever, owing to some difficulties in the mode of publication, 
he was compelled to relinquish. He wrote much in this 
work,: not only the principal part of the papers that are 
without signature, but numerous others signed Senex, 
Timothy Hairbrain, and Alcibiades. 

Among other papers in the Bee was a series of Essays 
on the Political Progress of Great Britain. Thejje having 
been published during the democratic rage which prevailed 
&t Edinburgh, soon aftdr the breaking out of the French 
revolution, the sheriff sent for Dr. Anderson, and de- 
manded the name of the author. This he refused to give 
up, and desired to be considered as the author ; a circum- 
stance the more singular, as his sentiments were well known 
to be directly opposite : but his conduct in this case pro- 
ceeded from his peculiar notions on the subject of literary 
secrecy ; and as he had admitted those letters, he thought 
himself bound to take the blame upon himself. After a 
second and .third application, he still refused ; and when 
the printers were sent for, he charged them, in the face of 
the magistrates, not to give up the name of the author. 
Respect for his talents and character induced the magis- 
trates to let the matter drop. The real author was a Mr. 
Callender, who died afterwards in America. 

About the year 1797, Dr. Anderson removed to the vi^ 
cinity of London, where, at the request of his friends, he 
again took up his pen, in a periodical work, entitled 
f^ Recreations. in Agriculture;*' the first number of which 



186 A N 1) E R S O N. 

appeared in April 1799. The greatest part of this woric 
was composed by himself, except what was enriched by 
correspondence frotn abroad, and a very few qontributions 
from his friends at home. The same difficulties, however, 
occurring as in the case of his '^ Bee,*' with respect to the 
mod^ of publication, he pursued this work no longer than 
the sixth volume, March 1$02, 

From this time, except in the publication of his corre* 
spondence with general Washington, and a pamphlet on 
Scarcity, he devoted himself almost entirely to the relaxa- 
tion of a quiet life, and particularly the cultivation of his 
garden, i/vhich was now become the miniature of ail his past 
laboilrs. For some time before his death, his health and 
powers suffered a very sensible decline. He died Oct. 15, 
1608, aged 69, 

He was twice married. First, in 1768« to Miss Seton of 
Mounie, an amiable and accomplished woman, by wboni 
he bad 13 children. She died in 17S8. Secondly, to a 
lady of Wiltshire, in 1801, who survived him. Of hi% 
numerous family only five sons and a daughter, Mrs, Ou* 
tram, the widow of Mr. Benjamin Outram, are alive. 

In his younger days, Dr. Anderson was remarkably hand- 
some in bis person, of middle stature, and robust make. 
Extremely moderate in his living, the country exercise 
toimated his cheek with the glow of health ; but the over- 
strained exertion of his mental powers afterwards shook 
his constitution, ultimately wasted his faculties, and bur* 
ried him into old age. He was a man of an independent 
mind; and in the relative duties of husband' and fatheF, 
exhibited a prudential care, misled with affection, from 
which he had every reason to have expected the happiest 
results, had Providence spared the whole of his family. 
In thqse who remain, it is not too much to say, that his 
integrity and talents have been acknowledged by all who 
know them. One of his sons, who latc^ly died, is remem- 
bered by the connoisseurs, as having brought the be^uti<« 
ful art of wood-engraving to great perfection. 

Of Pr. Anderson's abilities, his works exhibit so many 
proofs, that they may be appealed to with perfect confi- 
dence. Although a voluminous writer, there is no subject 
connected with his favourite pursuit, on which he has not 
thrown new light. But his knowledge was not confined to 
t>ne science. He exhibited, to give only one instance, a 
very strong proof of powers of research, when in 1773, t\e 



J 



A N O E Ql 8 O N. 187 

{mbliflhed, in the first edition of tbe Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica, an article under the head Monsoon* In this he 
clearly predicted the result T)f captain Cook's first voyage ; 
nainely, that there did not e^ist, nor ever would be found^ 
any continent or large island in the southern hemisphere 
near the tropics^ excepting New Holland alone : and this 
was completely verified on captain Cook's return, s^vea 
months afterwards. / 

In his style, Dr. Anderson was abundantly copious, and 
sometimes, perhaps, inclined to the prolix ; but, on per- 
using his longest works, it would be found difficult to 
omit any thing, mthout a visible injury to his train of rea« 
soning, which was always perspicuous and guarded. In 
conversation, as well as in writing, he had the happy fa» 
culty of not only entering with spirit and zeal on any 
fovourite subject, but of rendering it so intelligible, as to 
command attention in those to whom it might be of less 
importance, and convey instruction to those who sought 
it His manners were gentleman-like, free, and uncon« 
strained, and, in the social circle, had a dash of pleasantryi^ 
from the many anecdotes he had stored up in his travels 
and long experience; and with respect to the principal 
object of his attention, he had the happiness to see agri- 
culture, in all its branches, become the favourite study of 
{lis country. 
The following is a correct list of his works : 
I. ^' A practical treatise on Chimneys; containing full 
directions for constructing them in all cases, so as to draw 
well, and for removing smoke in houses," London, 1776, 
12mo. 2. "Free Thoughts on the American Contest,'* 
£din« 1776, 8v6. 3. ^^Miscellaneous observations on 
planting and training Timber-trees, by Agricola," £din«* 
Durgh, 1777, 8vo. 4. " Observations on the means of excit- 
ing a spirit of National Industry," Edin. 1777, 4to. 5. "An 
enquiry into the nature of the Corn Laws, with a view to 
the new Corn Bill proposed for Scotland,** 1777, 8vo. 
6. <* Essays relating to Agriculture and rural affairs," 1777^ 
Ivo. 7. ^^ An enquiry into the causes that have hitherto 
retarded the advancement of Agriculture in Europe ; with 
hints for removing the circumstances that have chiefly ob-* 
structed its progress," 1779, 4to. 8. "The interest of 
Great Britain, with regard to her American Colonies, con* 
fiidered," 1782, 8vo. 9. "The true interest of Great 
BritaiQ considered; or a proposal for establishing the 



188 ANDERSON, 

Northern BritUh Fisheries,'* 1783, 12(no. 10. "An ac- 
count of the present state of the Hebrides and Western 
Coasts, of Scotland ; being the substance of a report to the 
JLords of the Treasury," Edin. 1785, 8?o: 11. " Obser- 
yations on Slavery ; particularly with a view to its effects 
on the British Colonies in the West Indies/' Manchester, 
1789, 4to. 12. " Papers drawn up by him and sir John 
Sinclair, in reference to a report of a committee of the 
Highland Society on Shetland Wool," 1790, 8vo. 13. 
f ' The Bee ; consisting of essays, philosophical, philological, 
and miscellaneous," 18 vols. Edin. 1791 — 1794, 8vo. 14. 
V Observations on the effect* of the Coal Duty," Edin. 1792, 
8vo. 15. "Thoughts on the privileges and power of 
Juries ; with observations on the present state, of the coun- 
try with regard to credit," Edin. 1793, 8vo. 16. " Re- 
marks on the Poor Laws in Scotland," Edin. 1793, 4to, 
17. "A practical treatise on Peat Moss, in two essays,'* 
J794, 8vo, 18. " A general view of the Agriculture and 
rural oeconomy of the county of Aberdeen ; with observa- 
tions on the means of its improvement. Chiefiy drawn up 
for the Board of Agriculture; in two parts," Edin. 1794, 
8vo. 19. ^*An account of the different kinds of Sheep 
i^ound in the Russian dominions, &c. By Dr. Pallas ; with 
five appendixes, by Dr. Anderson," Edinburgh, 1794, 8vo. 
20. ** On an Universal Character. In two letters to Ed- 
ward Home, esq." Edin. 1795, 8vo, 2^1. "A practical 
treatise on draining Bogs and swampy grounds ; with 
cursory remarks on the originality of Elkington's mode of 
Draining," 1797, 8vo. 22. <^ Recreations in Agriculture, 
Natural History, and Miscellaneous Literature," 6 vols. 
.8vo. 1 799 — 1802. 23. " Selections from his own correspon- 
dence with general Washington," London, 1800, 8vo. 
24. <^ A calm investigation of the circumstances that have 
led to the present Scarcity of Grain in Britain ; suggesting 
the means of alleviating that evil, and of preventing the 
recurrence of s^uch a calamity in future," London, 1801^ 
' 8vo. 25. *^ A description of a Patent Hot-house, which 
operates chiefly by the heat of the sun ; and other sub- 
jects," London, 1803, 8vo. 

The foUowmg are also of his composition : — ^An account 
of the antient monuments and fortifications in the High- 
lands of Scotland ; read in the Society of Antiquaries, 1777 
and 1780. On the antiquity of Woollen manufactures of 
jEngfamd, Gent. Mag. Aug. 1778, and other papers ia 



A N'D E' R S O N. I8» 

that work. A letter to J. Burnett, esq. on the present 
state of Aberdeenshire, in regard to prorisions, 1783. A* 
letter to Henry Laurens, esq. during his confinement in 
the Tower, Public Advertiser, Dec. 6, 1781. Several 
articles for the Encyclopaedia Britannica, first edition, Edin- 
burgh ; among which are, under the heads, Dictionary^ 
Winds and Monsoons^ Language^ Sound, He contributed 
numerous essays, tinder a variety of signatures, in the 
early part of the Edinburgh Weekly Magazine ; the prin- 
cipal of which were Agricola, Timoleon, Germanicus, 
Cimon, Scoto-Britannus, E. Aberdeen, Henry Plain, Im- 
partial, A Scot. He also reviewed the subject of Agri-^ 
culture for the Monthly Review for several years. * 

ANDERSON (Joh:n), a learned German, and a mem- 
ber of the Imperial Academy, was bom at Hamburgh^ 
March 14, 1674. His father was a rich merchant, who 
spared no expence in cultivating his talents, which were 
particularly directed to the study of the canon law, lan- 
guages, and natural history, which he studied at Halle, 
Leipsic, and Leyden. Soon after his father's death, in 
1708, he was appointed syndic of the republic of Ham- 
burgh, was employed in various negociations with the 
principal courts of Europe, and was always eager to make 
himself acquainted with whatever was interesting in the 
countries he visited. On his return in 1725 he was made 
burgomaster, and chief of the city and territory of Ham« 
burgh ; a situation which, however, did not interrupt his 
studies, nor his correspondence with the learned of Ger- 
many and France. He studied especially the history of 
the northern nations, not contenting himself with what 
had been published, but visited them ; and not only ac- 
quired more knowledge than books contained, but was 
enabled to separate fabulous reports and traditions from 
genuine authorities. His principal publication was printed 
in 1746, and translated into French at Paris, in 1753, 2 
vols. ** Histoire naturelle de Islande du Groenland, du 
detroit de Devis, et d'autres pays situ6s sous le nord, tra- 
duit de TAIlemand de M. Anderson." He wrote also, 
" Glossarium Teutonicum et Alemanicum ;'* ** Observa- 
tions philological and physical on the Bible,** in German ; 
and **Observationes juris Germanici," which last remains 
in manuscript. He died May 3, 1743.* 

^ Gknt. Mar. 1808, communicated by tht Cuniljr. 
* M«rarK— Bio;. tFMiren^Ue. 



1 



IW " A N D E R S O N4 

ANDERSON (Walter), D. D. a native of Scotland^ 
and for fifty years minister of Chirnside, wbare he died at 
a very advanced age, July 1800, deserves some notice 
in this work as the author of the History of France, which 
was published in 1769, under the title of •* The History 
of France during the reigns of Francis II. and Chariest IX* 
To which is prefixed, a Review of the General History 
of the Monarchy, from its origin to that period,'^ 2 vdlfl« 
4 to. The success of these volumes was very indifferent ; 
yet in 1775, the author published "The History of 
France, from the commencement of the reign of Henry 
III. and the rise of the Catholic league ; to the peace of 
Vervins, and the establishment of the famous edict of 
Nantes, in the reign of Henry IV." 1 vol. 4 to. In 1783, 
he published two more volumes, containing his history 
'^ From the commencement of the reign of Lewis XIII. ta 
the general peace of Munster." The reception of this 
was equally discouraging with that of the former works. 
Dr. Anderson displays none of the essential qualities of 
historic writing, no research into the secret springs of 
action, no discrimination of character, and no industry in 
accumulating and examining authorities. Even as a com-- 
piler^ he is guided only by one set of materials which he 
found in the French writers, and may therefore be con» 
3ulled by the English reader, as a collector of their opi- 
nions, while he is highly censurable in not having recourse 
to original papers and documents respecting the affairs 
occasionally introduced pertaining to his own country* 
His style is uniformly tame and defaced by colloquial bar-» 
barisms. 

His next publication deserves to be mentioned in more 
favourable terms. It was entitled " The Philosophy of 
ancient Greece investigated, in its origin and.progress^ 
to the aeras of its greatest celebrity, in the Ionian, Italic, 
and Athenian schools, with remarks on the delineated 
systems of their founders," 4to. His principal object a^» 
pears to have been to supply the deficiencies in Mr. Stan* 
ley's work, and to give place to remarks upon the reason- 
ing employed by the most eminent of the Grecian philo^. 
sophers, in support of their physical, theological, and mo» 
ral systems ; to give a fuller and more connected display 
of their theories and argument;s, and to relieve the frigidity 
of their bare details, by interspersing observations. In 
this work he displays much learning, and is in general 



ANDERSON. ^ ' X9l 

\oih accurate and perspicuous, although he is still defi- 
cient in the graces of style. Perhaps it would have been 
more successful, had it not appeared at the same time 
vith Dr. Enfield's excellent abridgement of Brucker's his- 
tory of philosophy. In his youth he is said to have published 
'* The Life of Crc£sus,'l 12mo, which he sold himself; and 
is now become scarce. ^ 

ANDIER. See DESROCHERS. 

ANDLO (Peter d'), a lawyer and professor at Basil, 
was rectof . of the university in 1471, and many of his ma«» 
nus^ripts are preserved in the library. His work, " De 
Imperio Romano,^' was printed at Strasburgh, J 603, 4to^ 
and reprint^ 1612. He wrote also a historical chronicle 
in German, from the creation to the year 1400; but it is. 
doubtful whether it was ever published. There is another. 
Andlo^ an assumed name, of which some account will be 
given in the life of De» Marets.' 

ANDOClDES, an Atheniap orator, the son of Leogo- 
ras, was born at Athens in the year 468 B. C. He was^ 
^arly employed in public affairs, and was one of those who 
in 445 B. C. negociated the peace of thirty years with the 
Lacedaemonians^ which preceded the Peloponnesian war. 
^ome time after be had the joint command with Glaucon 
of a fleet which the Athenians sent to the assi^ance of the 
Corcyrians against the Corinthians. His connexion with 
Alcibiades, and other young men, gave occasion to a 
suspicion that he had profaned the Eleusinian mysteries, 
and from this he escaped by accusing certain persons^ 
He was afterwards banished and recalled, and twice in dan- 
ger of his life from popular commotions. Four of his ora- 
tions, in a simple unornamented style, have descended^ 
tons, although not without some suspicion of their au- 
thenticity. They are published in the " Oratores Graeci 
veteres,'* of H. Stephens, 1,575, fol.; and in those of 
Reiske. ^ 

ANDOQ.UE (Peter), and not Androque, as in some 
authors, was a counsellor of the presidial court of Beziers 
in France, where he died in 1664, He published, 
1» f* jHistoire de Languedoc, avec Tetat des provinces 
foisines^" Beziers, 1648,. fol. Le Long inentions a pre- 
vious bdition of 1623, the existence of which is doubted 
iu our authority. 2. <^ Catalogue des eveques de Beziers,''; 

» Gent Mag. vol. LKX, &.C. « Biog. UniverseUc.-— Gen. Diet. 

^ F«br. BibL'Ori»c.-*-^oreri,«-Sftxu Onomasticeo. 



1»2 A IJ D O Q U E. 

1650, 4to. The history of Langnedoc cotnes down to the 
year 1610, and the list of bishops to the time of publica* 
tion. * 

ANDRADA (Alphonsus d'), a Spanish writer, wai 
born at Toledo in 1590, and taught philosophy in that 
city before he entered the society of the Jesuits in 162^^ 
He was likewise ' professor of moral philosophy, and died 
at Madrid, June 20, 1672. His principal works were: 

1. ** An Historical Itinerary,*' Madrid, 1657, 2 vols. 4to. 

2. " Meditations on every tlay of the year,*' 1660, 4 vols. 
16mo. 3, " The lives of illustrious Jesuits/* 1666 — 7, 2 
vols. fol. &c. " 

ANDRADA (Anthony) was born about 1580, entered 
when very young, as we find was usual, into the society 
of the Jesuits, and became noted for his missionary zeal 
in India and Tartary. Whatever religion owes, geogra- 
phy is in some respect indebted to his labours. In 1624 
he went to Thibet, which was probably visited by Mark 
Paul in the thirteenth century, but had been till now to- 
tally forgotten by European travellers. On his return to 
Goa, his superiors employed him in some affairs of im- 
portance, and he died Marbh 16, 1634, as it is said, of 
poison. The chief merit of his travels, published at Lis- 
bon, 1626, consists in their affording the first description 
of Thibet, but they contain many mistakes and fabulous 
matters ; nor has the state of that country ever been faith- 
fully delineated, unless by our countryman Turner. An-^ 
drada*s work, which was written in Portuguese, has been 
twice translated into French : the last translation is that of 
Peron and Billecocq, in their ** Recueil de voyages au 
Thibet,** Paris, 1796. » 

ANDRADA (Diego de Payva d*), or Andradii/s, a 
learned Portuguese, was born in 1528, at Coimbra, and 
distinguished himself at the council of Trent, where king 
Sebastian sent bim as one of his divines. He preached 
before the assembly the second suhday after Easter in 
1562 : nor was he contented with the service he did in 
explaining those points upon which he was consulted, but 
he employed his pen in defence of the canons of the 
council, in a treatise entitled ^^ Orthodoxarum explica- 
tionum, lib. x.'* Venice, 1564, 4to, a very rare edition^ 
and more correct than /that of Cologn of the same date. 

* Biographie UniTerselle. * Ibid.«— BibI-. Script Societ. Jcsu* 

s Ibid.— Moreri. 



A N D R A. D. A. X9i 

I 

h forms a reply to a book published by Chea^nitius, against 
\he doctrine ot the Jesuits before the closfe of the council 
crfTr^ent; and as Chemnitius took this 'opportunity of 
writing a very lArge work, entitled " Examen concilii Trir 
ilentini,'* Andrada thought hirnsclf obliged to defend hi^ 
first piece ags^inst this learned' adversary. Hq composedi 
therefore' a' book, which his two brothers putjlished aftet 
his death, at Lisbon, in 1578, 4to, entitled ** Dieferisio 
Tridentinit fidci catholicae quinque libris comprehensa, 
^versus haereticorum calumnias, ' et praesertim Martiiii 
tJheinnitii.'* This work is likewise very difficult to be met 
with. There is scarce any catholic author who has beeii 
inore quoted by the protectants than he, because he main-* 
tained the opinions of Zuinglius, Erasmus,' &c. corfcerri- 
ing the salvation of the heathens. Andrada was esteemed 
iwi excellent preacher: hiS sermons were published in 
three parts, the second of which was translated' int9 Sjpa- 
nish by Benedict -de Alarcon. The Bibliotheque of the 
Spanish writers does not mention all his works ; the book 
he wrote concerning the pope*s authority, during the 
council (** De conciliorum alitoritate,") in 1562, is omit- 
ted. The pope*s legates being very well pleased with this 
work, Sent it to cardinal Borromeo ; the court of Rome 
klso approved it extremely, and the pope returned th<J 
author thanks in a very obliging manner; from which 
circumstances it will not be difficult td appreciate iti» 
merits. He stands indeed very high among popish writers, 
and many encomiums have been bestowed lipon him: 
Osorius, in his preface to the ** Orthotlbx explanations of 
-Andradiug,'' gives him the character of a maii of wit, vast 
Upplicatian, great knowledge in the languages, with ail the 
«eal and eloquence necessary to a good preacher*; and 
•Rosweidus says," that he brought to the' council of Trent 
the understanding of a most profound diviiie,' and the elo* 
iquence of a consunimate orator. * . ' 

ANDKADA (Francis d'), historiograj^her to Philip lit 
king of Spairf, vvrrote the history of Jdhn tll.'kin^g of Por- 
tugal : t'&is \york, in the Portuguese tongue, H^aS published 
9t Lisbbn lii' 1'525, 4to. He was' brother to ^lie preceding 
theologian, arid left a sbn'DiEdX), w'bo'dicd in 166O, at 
the age of eightyyfour, and is known inP'ortugar as the 
linthor of a poem on the siege of Cbaoiil, and hf An '*^ Ek? 



«<-> 



poem 

^ Qen. Diet.— -Moreri, — Aalonii BiUl. Hispaa. 

Vol. II. • o ' 



ih A ^ b R A D A. 

amination 6f tbe antiquities of Portugal/* 4to; which is a 
criticism on Bernard Brito's "Portuguese monarchy^* 
lie also published in 1630, a moral work, of which there 
}iay^ been many editions; under the title of *^ Casamento 
perfecto,'* or the perfect marriage. * 

ANDRADA (Thomas b'), another brother to I^iego^ 
styled in h^s order Thomas of Jesus, who began the reform 
^f the barefoot Augustines, and followed the king don Se* 
bastian in his, unfortunate expedition in Africa. The in« 
fidels shut him up in a cave, where he composed in Por^ 

Juguese his famous book, entitled ^^The Sufferings of 
esus;*^ translated into French in 2 vols* 12mo. His 
sister, Yolande d'Andrada, countess of Lignerez, < sent 
him money to purchase his liberty ; but he chose rather to 
employ himself in his captivity, in consoling the Christian^ 
that suffered with him. He died in 1582.^ 

ANDRE (St), See St. ANDRE. , 

ANDREJE (John Gerard Reinhard), a German apo* 
thecary of considerable learning and excellent character^ 
was born at Hanover in 1724; studied first at Berlin, and 
afterwards passed a few years in the principal German and 
Dutch universities. He resided likewise some time in 
England, and formed an acquaintance, in the course of bif 
various travels, with the most eminent physicians and che^ 
mists of the age. On his return to Hanover, he succeeded 
to his father's business, who was an apothecary ; and pub^o 
lished from time to time, in the Hanoverian Magazine, 
many learned and useful dissertations on medical and che^ 
mical subjects, and formed a very fine museum of natural 
history ; of which, at his death, he left a catal(^^e rai^ 
spnn6. In 1765, by desire of his Britannic majesty, he 
tmdertook an examination of the different kinds of earth 
in the electorate of Hanover, and published the result ia 
1769, under the title of <^ Dissertation on the earths which 
compose the soil, &c. and their uses in agriculture.'' He 
died in 1793, particularly regretted by the poor, to whom 
lie always tendered his services gratuitouslyi, Zimmermai^ 
speaks in the highest terms of his learning and virtues. ' 

ANDREANI (Andrea), an eminent engraver, wa^ a 
native of Mantua ; for which reason he frequently addfs^ 
to his name or monogram Intaguat* Mantuajio, whic^ 
Kas led some to mistake* him for Andrew Mantegna. 

" Gen. Diet.— Mmri-^Antonii Bibl. Hitpaii. « Ibid. « Biof • UniyentUe. 



A N B R £ A N t 198 

Otbers called him Akdreassi ; and othen, from a resem^ 
bianco in their monograms, haye confounded him with 
^Itdorfer. The time of hi^ birth does not appear ; but he 
died in 1 623) at a very advanced age. He engraved in wood 
only, in a peculiar style, distinguished by the name of 
ehiro^scurOf which is performed with two, three, or more 
blocks of wood, according to the number of tints required, 
and these are stamped 'upon the paper one after another, 
•e as to (Produce the effect of a washed drawing ; but the 
invention was not his, Hugo da Carpi & Antonio da 
Trenlo having preceded him. He carried, however, the 
mechanical part of the work to a far greater degree of per- 
fection, and we often find in his prints a correct and de- 
termined outline. His great merit as an artist is acknov* 
ledged by all who are conversant in prints ; and his draw-p 
ing is excellent, executed with great spirit, and in a veiy 
masterly style. The heads of his' figures, though slight, 
mre . characteristic and expressive; and he bias displayed 
great judgment in the management of his various tints. 
His works are justly considered as admirable transcriptf 
from the sketches of many of the greatest painters. 

To this high character it is with regret we add, that it 
i$ sometimes difficult to distinguish hb prints, from a cir- 
cumstapce that reflects no great honour on him. He pro*- 
cured many other engravings, the works of differenir 
masters, and sold the impressions with his own name, after 
(facing the name of the true artist, to substitute his own 
with more security. Such are the tricks which artists are 
aometimes tempted to practise, when they exchange their 
flsore honourable employment and rank for that of dealer. ^ 

ANDREAS {John), bishop of Aleria in Corsica, has 
established a name in the literary world, not so much by 
his original compositions, as by the care he bestowed in 
superintending many valuable works, when the invention 
ai printing was introduced at Rome, by those celebrated 
{Hdnters Conrad Sweignheym, and Arnould Pannart^. 
His family name was Bussi, or Bossi, and he was born at 
Vigevano in 1417 : after having resided for many years at 
Rome in a state of poverty and neglect, he obtained the 
jwtroiiage of the canlinal de Cusa, who prmsured for him 
.die place of secretary to the Vatican library, and then the 
l»idiopric of Accia^ in the island of Corsica j from which 

& Strutt's DtctioQary. 

a 2 



196 A N t) ft E A S. 

lie Wds translated not long after to that of Aleria. Som^ 
biographers, mistaking him for John Andfeas^ the canons 
ist, hav^ attributed to him writings on the Decrfetals^ -we 
have nothing of his, however, that can be deemed orJgifiaJ, 
except the valuable prefaces prefixed to the editions wbicfei 
he corrected and superintended! in the press. He died in 
J 475. He was particularly instrumental in introducing 
the art of printing into Italy, and fixing it at Rome. The 
printers above-mentioned were, under his immediate pro* 
tection, and in his prefaces he considers them as under 
bis care. The works he superintended were, in 1468 — 9^ 
1. EpistolfiB Ciceronis ad Ifamiliares. 2. Hieronymi Epis*- 
tola;* 3. Julius Caesar. 4. Livy. 5. Virgil. 6. Lucan. 
7. AalusGdlius. 8. Apuleius; and in 1470 — 1, 9. Lacs- 
tantius. 10. Cicero*s Orations. 11. S. Biblia. 12. Cypri- 
unus. 13. S. Leon. Mag. Sermones et Epistolre. 14. Ovidii 
Metamorph. 15. Pliny. 16. Quintilian. 17. Suetonius^. 
18. Ciceronis Epist. ad Attic; and Lyra in Biblia, and 
Strabo, without date. Mr. Beloe, who has abridged many 
of Andreas's prefaces, justly observes,, that when this 
length of time is considered, which at the present day 
would be required to carry any one of the preceding wbrks 
through the press, it seems astonishing, and hardly credi- 
ble, that so much should have been accomplished in S9 
Tery short a period, * " 

• ANDREAS (James), a celebrated Lutheran divine of 
the sixteenth century, was born at Waiblingy a town in 
the duchy of Wirtemberg, March 25, 1528. HisfatheFy 
whose name was James Endris, was a smith. He applied 
himself to letters with great success for three years ; but 
his parents, being poor, had resolved to bring him up to 
some mechanical profession, and had agreed with a ekt^ 
penter for that purpose, when several persons of distinc- 
tion, who discovered marks of genius in him, contributed 
to support him in the prosecution of his studies, in which 
he made a considerable advance. 1^1545, he took his 
master's degree at Tubingen, and studied divinity and 
the Hebrew language at the same university. ' In 1546 he 
ivas appointed minister of the church of Stutgard, the me- 
trc^olis of the duchy of Wirtemberg; and his sermons 
were so well approved of, that his fame reached the duke^ 
who ordered him to preach before him, which he performed 

> BiQg, Univftraelle.— Diet Hist->BeWs Anecdotes, rol III. p. 274.— bu^ 
IMiacipally Marchand'i Diet-Historique. 



f 

-■I 



A N D II E -<L. S. »3» 

I 

with -great appl^us^. The s^me year: hje n|arried a wjfe at. 
Tul^ingcn, by whom he had nine ^pa^.ancl nine .daughters, 
Qine^ of which children survived turn. During the war in 
which Germany was about the same time involved, he met 
with great {Civilities even from tJbe emperor's party, till he 
wa^ obliged upon the publication of the Interim to retire 
to Tubingeiv vvhere he exjecuted the function of minister. 
In the year 1553 he took his degree of doctor of divinity, 
and was appointed, pastor of the church of Gopping, and 
superintendant of the jieigbbouriug churches. He was 
afteovards sent for to several parts; and^in 1557 he went 
to the diet of RatLsbpn with Christopher duke of Wirtem- 
berg, and was appointed one of the secretaries at the con- 
ference at Worms between the papists and the divines o^ 
the Augustan confession, TliQ same year he published hif 
first work on the Lord's Supper, in which he proposed a, 
method of agreement upon that difficult point of contro- 
versy. In June the same year he went with the duke 
above-mentioned to Francfort upon the Maine, where he 
preached a s^ernion, though he wa$ publicly opposed by a 
Romish priest. la 15^8 he rqplied to Staphylus's book 
against Lu tiler, which was entitled *' Kpitome trimembris 
Theologia; Lutheranae," and in which he. had collectejd the 
opinions of several sects, ai^djiscribed them all to that re* 
former, a3 the orimual author of them. In 1559 he was 
sent to Augsburg, where the diet of ^xe empire was held; 
and, during the same, preached two sermons before all the . 
princes pf the Augustan confession, one on j ustihcat.ion, 

' the other on the Lord's supper; both printed at Tubingen, 
and very populii^r. In 1561 he was. sent .to Paris, in ord^r 
.to be prcjsent.at the conference of Pojss,i, which was broker^ , 
up before be came thither. Some time afjlj^r his return he 

* was. made chancellor and rector of the university of Tubin- 
gen. , Jn the beginning of the year 1563 he went to Stras«» 
burg, where JeromZancliius had propagated several opipion^ 
accounted new, and particularly this, that t|;ie regenerate and 
Ijelievers could not possibly fall ag2^in from grace, or Ipse 
the faitb, though they had committed sin^ against the. Ughlt 
of tKcir consiicience. Our author at last engaged him tq 
sign a form of confession, wliich he had drayi^n up. Ip 
1665 he was invited to establish a. clmrch at .Hagenaw, ail 
imperial city, where he preached a great m^ny sermotif 
t$pon the prinqipal poiiits of the Christian religion, whiph 

'were afterwards pi:inited. In 1568 he assisted Julius, duk^ 



15» A N D It E A S. 

of Brunfiwict:, in tefcMrihing bis churches. In 1569 ht 
took a journey • to Heidelberg and Brunswick^ and into 
I>enmark.- In 1570 he went to Misniaand Prague^ where 
tlie emperor Maximilian II. bad a conversation with; him 
tipon the subject of an agreement in religion. In 1571 h6 
^ent to visit the churches at Mompdgard ; and upon his 
return bad a conference with Flaccius lUyricus at Stras* 
burg, in which he confuted bis paradoxical assertion, that 
sin is a substance. He took several joumies after tliis, 
^nd used bis utmost efibrts to effect an union of the 
churches of the Augustan confession. In 1583 he lost his 
fir^t wife, with whom he had lived thirty-seven years ; and 
about an year and half after he married a second wife, who 
had voluntarily attended her former husband, when he wa9 
obliged to leave his country on account of religion. Aboat 
the same time he wrote a controversial piece, in which he 
maintained the ubiquity or presence of the whole Christ, 
in his divine and human nature, in all things. In 15(16 he 
^as engaged in a conference at Mompelgard with Theodore 
Beza concerning the Lord's supper, the person of Christ, 
predestination, baptism, the reformation of the popish 
churches, and Adiaphora or indifferent things ; but this had 
the usual event of all other conferences,, which, though 
<lesigned to put an end to disputes in divinity, are oftetl 
the occasion of still greater. In 1587 he was sent for to 
Nordling upon church affairs; and upon bis return fell 
^ick, and published his confession of faith, in order to ob- 
viate the imputations of his adversaries ; but he afterwardi 
recovered, and was sent for again to Ratisbon, and then to 
Onolsbach by Frederick marquis of Brandenbourg. Upoii 
the publication of the conference at Mompelgard above*^ 
mentioned, he was accused of having falsely imputed some 
things to Beza, which the latter had never asserted; be 
therefore went to Bern to clear himself of the charge. His 
last public act was a conference at Baden in November 
1589 with John Pistorins, who then inclined to Calvinism^ 
imd afterwards revolted entirely to the Papists. He had a 
very early presentiment of his death ; and when he found 
it drawing near, he made a declaration to several of his 
friends of fats constancy in the faith, which he had asserted, 
lind shewed the most undoubted signs of cordial belief, till 
be expired on the seventh of January 1590, being sixty- 
ohe years and nine months old. His funeral -sermon was 
preached by Luke Osiander, and afterwards published. 



ANDREAS. 199 

Several false reports were propagated concerning bis deatlu 
The Popish priests in the parta adjacent publicly declslred 
from the pulpit, that before his death he had recanted ancl 
condemned all the doctrines which he, had maintained in 
word or writing. Besides, there was a letter dif^ersed^ 
in which they affirmed, with their usual assurance, that h^ 
desired very anxiouWy before his death, that a Je&uit loigh^ 
be sent for immediately, to administer the sacraments t^ 
him ; which request being denied him, he fell into despair^ 
and expired under all the horrors of it. Of this not a syl^ 
lable was true, his dying words and actions entirely coin« 
ciding with his life and doctrines. J^is works wer^ 
extremely numerous, but his biographers have neglecte^^ 
to give a list, or to notice any but his " Treatise on Con* 
cord," 1582, 4to. His life was written by .the subject c^ 
the next article, 1630. * 

ANDREAS (John Yalentjlne), grandson, or according 
to Saxius, nephew, to the preceding, was born at Herren^- 
berg, in the duchy of Wirtemberg, in 1536. , After study- 
ing at Tubingen, and travelling in France and Italy, he 
.was promoted to several ecclesiastical offices i^ his own 
country, and at the time of his death in 1654, was abbe of 
Adelberg, and Lutheran almoner to the duke of Wirtem* 
berg. Being much concerned to see the principles of the 
Christian religion employed only in idle disputes, and thp 
sciences subservient only to the pride of curiosity, he passed 
much of his life in contriving the sfieans by which both 
should be rendered of more practical utility to mankind* 
In particular, he employed the influence he had with his 
jsovereign smd with the duke of Brunswic- Wolfenbuttel, in 
procuring a reformation of the state of public instruction in 
their dominions. The propensity to mysticism in all these 
patriotic efforts, his extensive knowledge, and his rn^rp 
extensive correspondence, and the frequent mysterious al-^ 
lusions, capable of many senses, which occur in his works, 
have occasioned an opinion that he was in reality thfi 
founder of the famous order of the .Rosicrucians* The latp 
M . Herder has discussed this question in the German mu- 
seum for 1779, and determines against Andreas ; but two 
learned Germans, M. Chr. G.de Murr (in his history of the 
origin of the Rosier uciaus,. printed at Sulzbach, 1803} Syo), 

1 Geo. Diet principally from Melchior Adam.*<*Moreri««-»Fttlltr't Abtl Rd- 
diTiTU8.««<!ltiaiifepie.<«-SftxiipB«mMtiooiw 



L... 



20b ANDREAS. 

and M. J. G. Buhle (in a dissertation read in 18015 beforei 
the Ro^al Society of Gottingen^ on the same subject, and 
published in 1804, in German), are of opinion, that if 
Andreas was not the founder, he at least gave that new or* 
fifanizatibn to the Rbsicru^ians which identified them witH 
the free-masons, in whose societies the memory of Andreas 
is still held in veneration. And if we find noproofs of the 
fact in the life which he left of himself^ and which Seybold 
published in 1799, in the second volume of his Autobio- 
graphy, it must* on the other hand be confessed, that in 
the works which he published in his life-time, he is perpe- 
tually reasoning on the necessity of forming a society 
solely devoted to the regeneration of knowledge and man- 
lifers'. ' The question, however, is not yet absolutely deter- 
mined, nor, except in Germany, will it perhaps appear a 
matter of much consequence. There is nothing in the 
history of the Rosicrucians to excite mlich respect for it& 
founder, ' or for those who fancied they improved upon it 
by the late more mischievous society of the Illuminati. 

Theworks of Andreas ard" said to amount to a hundred, 
;the titles of part of which are ^iven by Adelung, and the 
whole by: M. Bark, pastor of Weiltingen, and printed in a 
pamphlet at Tubingen, in 1793!, 8vo. Some of the prin- 
cipal are, 1. " De Christiani Cosmoxcni genitura judi- 
cium," Montbelliard, 1612, 12mo, a satire on astrology* 
2. " Collectaneorum mathematicorum decades XI." Tu- 
bingen, 1614, 4to. 3. "Invitatio-ad fraternitatem Christi,** 
1617, p^it II. 1618, l2mo. 4. " Rosa florescens, contra 
Menapii. caliim"nias," 1617,'Svq. 'This disfence of the Ro- 
sicrucians is signed Florentinus de Valentia, a name some* 
times given to Andreas^, as well as that of Andreas de Va- 
lentia, \\\i it is not qUite certain that he was the author 
(See Walch's Bibl. Theol.). 5. " Menippus : Dialogorutii 
Satyricorum centuria inanitum nostratium Speculum," 
'Helicone juxta Pamassum, 1617, 12mo. It is in this work 
that Andreas is said io display a mind suj^erior to the age 
In which he lived, by pointing out the numerous defects 
which prevent religion and literature from being so useful 
as they might under a better organization. 6. " Civis. 
Christianus, sive Peregrini quondam errantis restitutiones," 
Strasburgh, 1619, 8vo. 7. " Mythologiae Christianse, sive 
Tirtttum et vitiorum vitae humanpe imaginum, libri tres,'* 
Strasburgh, 1619, 1 2mo. 8.. " R^publicaj Christiano-poliT 
tanjp descriptio J Turris Babel; Judiciorum de fraternitjtli^ 



^ 



ANDREAS. 201 

RosaceoB Crucis chaos ; Christianne socibtatisidea;'* pubi 
lisbcd together at Strasburgh, 16J9, 12rno. They contain 
very evident proofs of his design to cstublis^ a secret so- 
ciety; It is impossible not to perceive tWt he is alway^ 
aiming at something of the kind, and this, with some othei* 
works attributed to him, seem to confirm the opinion of 
Messrs. Buhle and Murr. Some also appeal to his fre- 
quent travels, as ha\4ng no other object. Whatever may 
be in this, Andreas is allowed a very high rank among thd 
writers of German. At a time when that language had re- 
ceived very little cultivation, when mo*t learned men wrote 
in Latin, and when the idiom of the country was only to 
be heard in famihar conversation, he gave his verses, for 
he was likewise a poet, a particular ease and grace. They 
arc not perhaps remarkable for elegance, correctness, or 
harmony, but they frequently "discover a poetical" fancy, 
and a very happy use of the dialect of Suabia. * • 

ANDREAS (John), a famous canonist of the fourteenth 
century, born at Mugello, near Florence, He vvas very 
young when he went to Bologna to pursue his studies, and 
would have found great difficulty to maintain himself, had 
he not got a tutor's place, by which means he was enablec^. 
to apply himself to the study of tne canon law, in vvhicli 
he made great progress under the professor Guy de Ba'if. 
He had always a particular respect for this professor, pay- 
ing as great deference to his giosscs as the text itself. Guy 
de Ba'if, perceiving that Andreas, for want of money, could 
not demand his doctor's degree, procured if him gratis," 
which Andreas himself acknowledges. The same prbfessor 
urged him to stand for a professorship, which h<§ ob- 
tained, and vvas professor at Padua about the year 13^^30; 
but he was recalled to/ Bologna, where he acquired the 
greatest reputation. We are told wonderful things con-^ 
cerning the austerity of his lifcj that he macerated hii 
body with prayer and fasting, and lay uponthe bare ground 
for twenty''years together, covered only with a *bear-skih : 
but according to Poggitls, he was not afterwards so ex- 
tremely rigid in discipline or moriils. 

Andireas had a beautiful daughter, named Novella, whom 
he is said to have instructed so well in ajil parts of learnings 
that when he was engaged in any affair, which hindered 
bim from reading lectures to. his scholars, he sent ||is 

1 Bio^. UniYerseHe.-^Saicii Onotn'astiCoM, 



It' 



tot A N D B £ A & 

daiaghier in his room y when, lest her beauty should prei* 
vent the attention of the hearers, ^he had a little curtail 
drawn before her. To perpetuate the meaiory of thii^ 
daughter, he entitled his commentary upon the I)ecretals 
of Gregory X. " the Novellae.'* He married her to John 
Calderiuus, a learned canonist. The first work of Andreas 
was his Gloss, upon the sixth book of the Decretals, Rome 
147j6, and five editions afterwards at Pavia, Basil, and Ve- 
nice^ This work he wrote when he was very young. He 
wrpte also Glosses upon the Clementines, Strasburgh, 1471, 
and Mentz, Rome, and Basil, four times ; and a Commen- 
tary in Re^ulas Sexti, which he entitled '* Mercuriales/* 
because he either en^ged in it on Wednesdays, diebus 
Merpurii, or because be inserted his Wednesday's disputes 
in it. He enlarged the Speculum of Durant, in the year 
1247, but this is taken literally from Ostradus. Andreas 
died of the plague at Bologna in 1348, after he had 
been a professor forty-five years, and was buried hi the 
church of the Dominicans. Many eulogiums have been 
bestowed upon him: he was called archidoctordecretorum; 
in his epitaph he has the title of ^^ Rabbi doctorum, lux^ 
censor, normaque morum ;'' or, rabbi of the doctors, the 
light, censor, and inile of manners ; and it is said that pope 
Boniface called him ^^ lumen mundi,'' the light of the 
world. Bayle objects, that Andreas followed the method 
qf the Pyrrhonists too much ; that he proved his own qpi- 
^ion very solidly when he chpse, but that he^ often rather 
related the sentiments of others, and left his readers to form 
their own determination. * 

ANIJ)KEAS (John), was born a Mahometan, atXativa, in 
the kingdom of Valencia, and succeeded his father in the 
dignity of alfaqui of that city. He embraced Christianity on 
being present at a sermon in the great church of Valencia the 
day of the assumption of the blessed Virgin, in 1487. Upon 
this be desired to be baptised, and in memory of the call- 
ing of St. John and St. Andrew, he took the name of John 
Andreas. ^^ Having received holy orders,^' says he, ^* and 
from an alfaqui and a slave of Lucjfer becqqie a priest and 
minister of Christ, I began, like St. Paul, to preach «nd 
publish the contrary of what I had erroneously believed and 
fisserted; and, with the assistance of almighty God, I con« 
:wted ^t first a great many soul^ of the Moors, «(ho we];e 

I Gep. Dict-*Moren*— Care, vol. II.««tSaxn Onomasttcon* 



ANDREAS. sot 

ia dai^er jof heU, and under the dominion of Lucifer, and 
conducied th^n into the way of salvation. After tbi^, I 
was sent for by the most catholic princes king Ferdinand 
and queen Isabella, in order to preach in Grenada to the 
Moorft of diat kingdom, which their majesties had conquered; 
and by Ood's blessing on my preaching, an infinite number 
of Moors were brought to abjure Mahommed, and to turn 
to Christ. A little after this, I was made a canon by their 
graces; and sent for again by the most Christian queen 
Isabella to Arragon^ that I might be employed in the con- 
version of the Moors of those ^ngdoms, who still persisted 
in ^beir errors, to the great contempt and dishonour of tJhr 
crucified Saviour, and the prodigious loss and danger of all 
Christian princes. But this excellent and pious design of 
her majesty was rendered ineffectual by her death.'* At 
the debire of Martin Garcia, bishop of Barcelona, be un.- 
dertook to translate from the Arabic, into the language of 
Arrd^on, the whole law of the Moors ; and after having 
finished tiiis undertaking, he composed his famous work of 
^^ The Confusion of the Sect c^ Mahommed ;'' it contains 
twelveobapiers, wherein he has collected the fabulous storiei^ 
impostures, forgeries, brutalities, follies, absurdities, and con^ 
tradictions, which Mahommed, in order to deceive the simple 
people, has dispersed in the writings of that sect, and espe* 
cially in the Koran. Andreas tells us, he wrote this worJ^ 
that not only the learned among Christians, but even th^ 
common people, might know the different belief and doe« 
trine of the Moors; and on the one hand might laugh at 
and ridicule such insolent and brutal notions, and on the 
other might lament their blindness and dangerous con- 
dition.--— This book, which was published at first in Spanish 
at Seville, 1537, ^to, has been translated into several lan-» 
guages, and is frequently quoted as authority in writiogs 
against the Mahometan religion. ' 

ANDREAS, or ANDREA (Onuphrius), a NeapoliUn 
|>oet, flourished about the year 1630, and died in ij&47.. 
Although be is not free from the prevailing corruption of 
«tyle in his time, Crescembini and Le Quadrio rank .him 
'among the best poets of the seventeenth century. £Le 
wrote two poems : ^^ Aci,'' in ottava rima, Maples, 1&2£|^ 
12mo, and ^^ Italia liberata," a heroic poem, Naples, 1626, 
t|2mQ; two theatrical pieces, *< Elpino, favola.hoscb^ec« 



id* ANDREAS. 

cia," and ** La Vana gelosia," a eollectioii of lyrisi poesifl^' 
in two parts^ and ^' Discorsi in prose" otivdiffexent subjects 
of naorality and philosophy, Naples, 1636-^ 4to. ^ i '; . 
* ANDREAS (Valerius), ja biographjer, to whom, works 
of this description are highly indebted, was borii/NoY- 25, 
1588, at Desschel, a small town in Brabant, fronii which he 
has-been sometimes called Desselius; He studied pojite 
literature, first in his own country,, under Valerius Hon-j 
tius, a very able teacher, and afterwards for three years sl% 
Antwerp, under Andreas Schottus, a learned Jesuit, who 
taught him Greek ; and he was taught Hebrew at th^vsame 
time by John Hay y. a native of Scotland, and likewise ono 
of the society of Jesuits. After having attended a course of 
philosophy at Douay, he was appointed Hebrew professor 
at Lou vain in 1612. In 1 62 1. he .was. created LL* D. In 
1628 he was appointed regius professor; iofcivJL law, and, ia 
1638, keeper of the newly-founded university, library. . Hia 
life appears to have been principally devoted, to .thecompor 
sition<}f bis numerous works, and the. care of the pre^si in 
publishing other works of celebrity. He died at Louvain, 
^ 656, leaving behind him the character of a man of aipi^bie 
manners and extensive learning. 

His principal works are, 1. M Orthographic ratio,, et de 
ratione interpungendi ac distinctionum notis,'* X)puay^ 
J610, 12mo. 2. " Clarorum Catalogus Ijlispania? Scripto^r 
rum," Mentz, 1607, 4to. .3. " Imagiues .doctorum viro-f 
rttm e variis gentibus, elogiis brevibus. illustratae," .Ant.«. 
Werp, 1611, 12 mo. These two. last .he appears, to have 
undervalued, as he did not insert them in the list of hif 
writings in the BibL.Belgica. ; 4.. ^^ De. initij^ ac pjrpgressu 
dollegii Trilinguis Buslidiani, deque, vita ^t scriptis profesr 
sok'um ejusdem coUegii,'* 1614, 4to^ 5. ".D.e Lingua Her 
braiodD laudibusy antiquitate^ &c." ibid,/. 6. " Di^sertatiQ 
de Toga et Sago, sive de litterata armataque militia,',* 
Gologn, 1618, 8vo. 7. " Topographia Belgica.'' 8. ^* fasti 
Academici Studii GeneraHs Lovauiensis^" 1635, 4to, .and 
in:1648y an improved edition ; but afterwards a much mor^ 
correct edition was published under the jitle of " HistQrisL 
TJniversitatis Lovaniensis.!' . 9. " BibiiotheCiBs Lpvaniei>si$ 
primordia," 1636, and in 1638, with a Qatalogue of the li- 
brary, .His other works were on the subject of the c^nop 
•la% and some editions of the canQnists.\yitl^ imprpv^^li^^; 

a 



J AN P R E A S^ fdf 

{but tJiat'Which entitles, him clii^fly to aiplace ber$ is hU 
." Bibliotheca Belgica," containing the Unres of the eminent 
.men of the Netberianda, and lists of their wprks» This y^a.% 
first published in ^623^ 8vo» This edition excited a literary 
war between the author and FraoCiis Swertz, who in 162$ 
published his ^^ AthensEs Belgicas!, sive Nomenclator Scrip-* 
lorum inferioris Germauia^" . foK In this he accuses An* 
Jreas-of, haying interfered with his. design, and violated the 
jTuleSivQf fciendshipi &C; Andreas, who had continued tq 
•in^pneTle hisHfork, and published it a second time atLa* 
.taii^ id l€^$y 4to,, answered these accusations vei'y modestly 
in his preface, and asserted the priority of his design. 
This last edition is preceded by the " Topographic Bel* 
gka'? aboy/e-menrioned. The best ^edition of the Biblip* 
iheca, JbowevejCy , is th^t published . by Foppen in 1739, 
2 vols. 4to, elegantly printed, and illustrated by a series of 
'et^gr&vM^gs, which,,ow.i<ng to the robberies: of portrait-deal- 
*ers and collectors, is rigfw seldom found complete. It has 
been ol|jected that Fpppen omitted many partiojilars i:e- 
•corded by And;:eas> but after a careful inspection, we. have 
been able' to discover- very little omittied that is of import-. 
ance^.V ; ,: . . ^ 

^ ANDREINI (Francis), of Pistoia, an Italian comedian 
,of the .sijcteenth centiiyy, deserves some notice on account 
^of his mfyj a womati of considerable talents, and his son^ 
tWhose history is in one i^espect connected with that of our 
immortal Milton.) This Fmncis appears to have been ^ 
.specie$ of buffoon stroller. In. 1609, he published a, work 
entitled ^'. I*.e Bmvure del capitan Spavento, Venice,". 4to, 
•which consists of dialogues between the captain and his. 
.man Trappola. Prefixed to it is a serious lamentation oyer 
the death of his wife, the subject of our next article. He 
afterwards published other dialogues in prose, " Ragiona- 
iQenti fantastic! posti in forma di dialoghi rappresentativi,'* 
V.eni^e, 1612, 4to, He also is the author of two dramatic 
piecei!, ' ** L' Alterazza di Narciso," Venice, 161 1, . 1 2mo ; 
a^d •" L'lDgajnn9.ta Proserpina," ibid, same year. He was 
•r<?marl^ablj3 ibr the powers of memory, and spoke, with 
.great fajcility, French, Spanish, Sclavouian, modem Greefe, 
"jind i?yeft the-Tu^kipManguage. He was living in 1616, a^ 
appears by the dat^ of. his edition of his wife's works^ and 
jk is thought that )^e died soon after that publication* * : 



Foppqn^s Bibl. Be!^. ' * Biographie Universell*. 



« 



iM A N D R E 1 N I. 

ANDREINI (Isabella), wife to the preceding, wag 
born atPiaduain 1562, became an actress of great fame, 
and was flattered by the applauses of the men of wit and 
learning in her time. She is described as a woman of ele- 
gant figure, beautiful countenance, and melodious vowre, of 
taste in her profession, and conversant with the Freifieh and 
Spanish languages; nor was she unacquainted with philo« 
^phy and the sciences. She was a votary of the muse», 
and cultivated poetry with ardour and duccess. The Ift- 
• t^nti, academicians of Pa via, conferred upon her the 
honours of their society, and the titles of Isabella Andrei* 
na;> Comica Gelosa, Academica Intenta, detta fAcce^a* 
She dedicated her works to cardinal *Cinthio Aldobfandini 
(nephew to Clement VIIl.), by whom die was greatly 
esteemed^ and for whom many of her poems were com- 
posed. 

In France, whither she mede a tour, she met with tli« 
most flattering reception from the king, the queen, and the 
court. She composed several sonnets in praise of her royal 
patrons, which are inserted in the second volume of her 
poems. She married Francis Andreini, whom we have just 
noticed, and died at Lyons, June 10th, 1604, in conse^ 
quence of a premature delivery during a state of pregnancy, 
in the forty-second year of her age. Her husband, whonot 
her loss overwhelmed with afBiction, had her interred iti 
the city in which she expired, and erected a monument to 
her memory, on which he caused an epitaph to be in^ 
«cribed, enumerating her virtues, her piety, and her ta« 
lents. Her death was lamented in many Latin and Italian 
elegies and panegyrics, and even a medal was struck to her 
memory, with the inscription, *' Sterna Fama." The jus- 
tice of the^ high praises may still be appreciated by It 
perusal of her works : 1. " Mirtilla, favola pastorale,*' Ve- 
rona, 1588, 8vo, and often reprinted. She is said to hav^ 
begun this in her infancy, but it does not appear to have 
been very successful on the stage. 2. ** Rime,** MitaQy 
1601, 4to; Paris, 1603, l2mo, &c. Most of these had 
appeared in various collections, and there are others of her 
writing in ** Componimenti poetici delle piu illustriiima- 
trici d'ogni seculo," Venice, 172€, )<2mo. 3, ^*Lettere,** 
Venice, 1 607, 4to. These letters are mostly on love sub- 
jects.' - It has been remarked as somewhat singular in bib- 
liography^ that the dedication of this work to the duke of 
Savoy, as well as the title-page, bears date 1 607, three « 



A N D R E I N I. 50t 

yeiirs after ihe author's death. 4. " Fragmenti d^alcun^ 
scritture,*' &c. a collection of i^agments, dialogues, &c, oa 
love subjects, published by her husband, Venice, 1616, the 
date of the preface, but in the frontispiece, 1625, 8vo. * 

ANDREINI (John Ba1»tist), the son of the two pre- 
ceding, was born at Florence in 1578, and was also a cq** 
median, and wrote several pieces for the theatre, and some 
poems. They once had a temporary reputation, but such 
as have survived to our times, are indebted to particular 
circumstances, independent of their merit. They are all ia 
that bad style of Italian poetry, of the seventeenth century, 
peculiar to the school of Marino, and most of them, in the 
plot and conduct, are irregular and fantastic, and demon* 
strate a wretched taste in the public. The only piece 
worthy of our notice is his " Adamo,'' a sacred drama ia 
five acts, with chorusses, &c. Milan, 1613 and 1617, with 
prints designed by Carlo Antonio Proccachini, a celebrated 
landscape painter of his time, and of the school of the 
Carracci, but in a wretched style, paradise being repre-* 
sented as full of dipt hedges, square parterres, strait walks, 
&c. But what is more interesting, Voltaire, in his visit to 
England in 1727, suggested that Milton took his hint of the 
Paradise Lost from this drama. This obtained little credit 
at the time, and was contemptuously rejected by Dr. John- 
son in his life of Milton. Mr. Hay ley, however, has re- 
vived the question, and with considerable advantage to 
Voltaire's supposition, and it seems now to be the opinion 
that the coincidence between Andreini's plan and Milton's 
is too great to be the effect of chance. We have no ac« 
count of Andreini's death. * 

ANDRELINI (Public Fausto), or Publius Faustus 
Andrelinij[S, a modern Latin poet, was born at Forli, in 
Romagnia, about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Having composed in his youth, at Rome, four books of 
poetry under the name of ** Amours," he was honoured 
with the poetic crown ; in 14S8 he came to Paris, and the 
following year was appointed professor of poetry and phi« 
losophy, and Lewis XII. of France made him his poet-lau-* 
reat He was likewise poet to the queen. His pen, how« 
fever, was not wholly employed in making verses, for he 
wrote also moral and proverbial letters in prose, to which 

* Gen, D»ct.—Moreri.-i— Biographic Univerielle* 

> BiogMi>hiei;iav«Nt9e.<^Hifl€y «ad S]nodnons> lift Of Milton,^W«iWB's 
Etiayon Pope. 



?«? A.NDRELlNt. 

Beattis.<Ehenanu5 added a preface^ and comm^trds ttuittt 
f^ as learned, witty, and useful; for though^" says^he, 
)^' this author, in some of his works, after the manner qf 
poets, is a littJe too loose and wanton, yet here he appears 
like a modest and elegant orator.*' John Arboreqs, a di- 
vine of Paris, published comments upon theni. Andreli- 
iii wrote also several poetical distichs in Latin, which 3vero 
printed .with a commentary by Josse Badius Ascenscius, 
and translated verse for verse into French by one Stephen 
Prive. John Paradin had before translated into French 
stanzas of four verses, an hundred distichs, which Andreli- 
iu had addressed to John Ruze, treasurer-general of the 
finances of king Charles V.IIL in order to thank him for a 
considerable pension. 

The poems of Andrelini, which are chiefly in Latin, 
are inserted in the first tome of the " Deliciae poetarum 
Italorum.'* Mr. de la Monnoie tells us, that his love- 
verses, divided into four books^ cptitled " Livia," from the^ 
"name of his mistress, were esteemed so fine by the Roman 
academy, that they adjudged the prize of the Latin elegy 
to the author. — It is upon this account, that when he printed 
his Livia, in quarto, at Paris, in 1490, and his three books 
of Elegies four years after, in the same city, he took' 
upon him the title of poet-Uureat, to which he added tha.t 
ot " poeta regius et regine.us," as he was poet to Chai^les 
yilt. Lewi* XlL aiid queen Anne IV. The distichs of 
Faustus (continues the same author) are not above two 
hundred^ ^tM consequently b.ut a very small part, of his 
poems, since^ besides the four books of Love,/ and three 
books of Miscellaneous Elegies, there are twelve Eclogues 
pi his. printed in octavo, in 1^49, in the collection of thirty- 
eight Bucolic Poets, published by Oporinus." The death 
of Andrelini is placed under* the year 1518. The letters 
which he wrote in proverbs have been thought worth a new 
edition at Helnistadt in 1662, according to that of Cologn 
of 1509. The manner of life of this author was not very 
exemplary; yet. he was so fortunate, says Erasmus, that 
though he took the liberty of rallying the divines, he was 
"never brought into trouble about it. * 
"^ ANDREW (surnamed of Crete, because he was bishop 
of Aleria in that isle ; or the Jerusalemjte, frorpi hia 
having retired to a monastery at Jerusalem), was of Da-^ 

" ■ - .» 



A N' » K K MT- £09 

tuascitf^ and died in the year 720} or, according to others, 
iQ'723« He has left commentaries on some books of scrip- 
ture, and sermons. Pere Conibesis gave an edition of 
them, with a Latia translation, a!nd nbtes, together with the 
works of St. AmphiloGus and Methodicos, Paris, 1644, 
folio. » 

■ ANDREW, or more properly ANDREA PISANO, an 
eminent sculptor and architect, was born at Pisa in 1270, 
at)L time when Arnolfo di Lapo, John de Pisa, and others, 
following the designs of Cimabue and Giotto, had renounced 
the Gothic style, and were introducing those purer models, 
which promised a revolution in architecture, sculpture, 
and painting. Andrea, entering into their ideas, had 
some peculiar circumstances in his favour, as at that time 
his countrymen, who were powerful at sea, traded with 
Greece, and brought thence ancient statues, bas-reliefs, 
and valuable marbles, which they employed in the orna- 
ment or construction of their public edifices, particularly 
the cathedral and the Campo Santo. By studying these, 
Andrea acquired a portion of that taste which was after* 
wards so conspicuous in Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Ghi- 
berti. His first attempts were so favourably received, that 
he was invited to Florence to execute, from the designs of 
Giotto, the sculptures on the facade of St. Marie del Fiore, 
the most magnificent edifice of that time. He began with 
the statue of Boniface VHI. the protector of the Florentines, 
which he followed by those of St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
other saints. In 1586, when it was determined to repair 
this fayade upon a more modern plan, these were all re- 
moved, and when that design was not approved of, they 
were put up in the church and in other places, and some 
were deposited in the Poggio imperiale, a country-house 
belonging to the grand dukes of Tuscany. There was also 
a Madona and two angels in the church of the Misericordia, 
which are said to have been executed by Andrea at the 
same time. On the death of Arnolfo di Lapo, the re- 
public of Florence employed Andrea in all the great works 
constructing in their territories* As an engineer, he built 
the fortifications round Florence, wd the strong castle of 
Scarperia. During more peaceable times, he employed 
himself in making figures in bronze ; and the Florentines, 
who were ambitious of rivalling the magnificence of the 

Vu II. P 



«i« A N ]> K^ E \r, 

wcifttU in dwr templet, eoqriojred bkn to •meMte ^ 
£<»^ture lof lihe gatCB of the bAptistery, from 4esigtt8 hj 
<ji«ttQ. T/Kse gates imir juxocdiiigly ccMiieited «ri£ ti&s<^ 
cetieffi, refn'eseotijig dae ivfcole history of Jkitm «he Baptist. 
The cQfnfiQsitiosi is escellewt, «uid the mttitudels of the 
figures natural and expressive, although with some de g r ee 
of stilfeasBy Ibuft die inint^te part& are e^?0cuted mth great 
9iM. These gaAes, svlucb ^eve begim in ISSl, were 
fifiisbedy poUriied, and gilt in' eight years^ 'and at first 
ti^are fiiioed at the principal ««itniiK;e, but 4^ey were after* 
wands neisuyed to ooe &i the eiAe entranees, where they 
now are, and the admiinble gates of Laurent Ghiberti 
mbstitoiked in their room. Andrea aiso execula^ inlHronze 
the tabernacle of San Giovanm, the bas retieft, and statues 
beiongiog to the campanile of St. Marie del Fiore, atid 
{»any others. At Venioe, his works we, the sculpture on 
the &9ade of the chuncfa &i St. Mark ; the model of the 
h^Tt$tiery of Pistoia, executed in 13S7 ; «id the tomb of 
Cioo d^Angibolgi ; and he was employed in many fertifi- 
catbns by Gaukier de Brtenne, duke ef Athens, during 
his usmnpation at Florence ; bat Andrea did not suffer by 
tbe duke's disgrace tit 1S43 ; «an4 <l3ie Flerentities, who 
looked ooly to his merit, admitted bm a ckhsen of Florence^ 
wfaeoe be died iii 1345^ aod was b«nried in St. Marie del 
f^o«e. His son Nino, also a acvlptor ef ^^msidefvible note, 
epecAed a monument to his memory. ^ 

AN3>«EW, or more property ANDREA DEL SAKTO, 
so called frasn Aria fiufaer^s U-adle, chat of a tailor, but whose 
fatnily oame w&s V&NUCCI, was bom at Florence in 
14^B, aad at fimt ifistirttcl?ed in fats airt by Barile, a mean 
painter, with whom be apetit thpee years, at the end of 
which Bartte placed him with Peter Cosily, then ac- 
QOUAted (Hse of the best painters in Italy. Under farm, he 
mode astoniahiiig pvofioieaey, and liis abilities .began to be 
adknowledged, but Ccmeaofs morose temper obliged him 
to leavie him, and secik im^tniction in the works oif otber 
artists. As he had, while with Cosimo, employed himself 
in dksignioig after Viiict, Raphael, and Buonaroti, to whose 
works he had aecess art PJorence, be persisted in i3ie same 
practice, formed an adfmirable taste, and excelled his 
young rivals at ikome or a;broad, in cortectati^ss, coburitig, 
adid kaowledipe «f his art. fiav-ing contracted a fiiendshtp 

1 9i^, IMwrtcde. 



^^ VtBJMi6i60 Blgio, thiej determined to li^e together^ 
aod paiatcd a great many works in the churches and con«> 
vents of FJoveace, jointly, but Audrea*tl reputation began 
lx> predonuHatey aad seemed fixed by hi« representation 
ii£ the preaching of St. Johni executed for the Carmelites 
at Florence, Sooie time after this, he went to Rome to 
Atudy the models of art in that city, but it is thought he 
did not remain there long enough to reap all the benefit 
which be might. The excellence of his pencU, and his 
power of imitation, were remarkably displayed in the copy 
be made of Leo X. between cardinal Medici and cardinal 
Kofli, the head and hands by Raphael, and the draperies 
by Julio Roamio* The imitation was so exact, that Julio^ 
after the most minute inspection, and being told that it 
w€m a copy, could not distinguish it from the original* 
Hifr superior talents might have raised him to opulence^ if 
his imprudence had not reduced him to shame and po« 
veity* The French king, Francis I. who was. extremely 
partial to his works, invited him to his court, defrayed the 
expeooes of his journey, and made him many valuable 
presents* For a portrait, only^ of the Dauphin, an infant, 
he rec^red tl^ee hundred crowns of gold, and he piunted 
many other pictures for the court and nobility, for ^ich 
he wm UberaHy rewardedL While employed oti a picture 
of St. Jerome, f^r the queea dowager, he received letters 
from his wife, soliciting his return to Florence, and, to 
indulge her, of whom he was excessively fond, he asked^ 
and obtained a £ftw months absence. It Was on this occa* 
fion that the king, crnifiding in his integrity, made him 
several prineely presents, and intrusted him with large 
sums of money to purchase statues, paintiags, &c. ; but 
AfidfM inafcead of executing his comtnission, squandered 
away not only his own, but the money intrusted to him, 
Vccame poor, and despised, and at last died of the plague, 
ia bis forty^secoad year, abandoned by his wife, and by 
ali tliose friends who had partaken of bis extravagance. 
Hia principal vForks were ait Florence, but there were for* 
eierly apecimens in many of the palaces and churches ijit 
ItaAy wd France. AU the biographers and critics of 
painters^ except perhaps BeMiiracci, have been lavish in 
Aeir praises of Andrea. Mr. Fuseli, in his much improved 
edition of Filkington, observes, that, on .companng the 
merits of his works, they seem to have obtained their full 
share of justice. As a Tuscan, says that judicious critic, 

p 2 



, 



212 ANDREW. 

the suavity of hii tone, and facility of practice^ contrast 
more strikingly with the general austerity and elaborate 
pedantry of that school*, and gain him greater praise than 
they would, had he been a Bolognese or Lombard. It 
cannot, however, be denied, that his sweetness sometimes 
borders on insipidity ; the modesty, or rather pusillanimity 
of his character,, checked the full exertion of his powers 5 
his faults are of the negative kind, and defects rather than 
blemishes. He had no notions of nature beyond the models 
and concentrated all female beauty in his Lucrezia (his 
wife), and if it be true that he sacrificed his fortune and 
Francis I. to her charms, she must at least have equalled 
in form and feature his celebrated Madonna del Sacco;^ 
hence it was not unnatural that ,the prop<»rtto«s of Albert 
Durer should attract him more than those of Michael An* 
gelo. His design and his conceptions, which seldom rose 
above the sphere of common or domestic life, kept pace 
with each other y here his observation was acute, and his 
ear open to every whisper of social intercourse or emotion. 
The great peculiarity, perhaps the great prerogative, of 
Andrea appears to be that parallelism of composition, which 
distinguishes the.best of his historical works, seemingly as 
natural, obvious, aad easy, as inimitable. In solemn 
effects, in alternate balance of action and repose, he excels 
all the moderns, and if he was often unable to conceive 
the actors themselves, he gives them probability and im- 
portance, by place and posture. Of costume he was- ig» 
norant,. but none ever excelled, and few approached him 
in breadth, form, and style of that drapery which ought 
to distinguish solemn, grave, or religious subjects. * 

ANDREW, or ANDREAS (Tobias), professor of his- 
tory and Greek at Groningen, was born at Braunfels, in 
the county of Solms, August lOth, 1604. His father was 
minister to count de Solms-Braunfels, and Inspector of 
the churches which belong to that county, and his mother^ 
daughter to John Piscator, a famous professor of divinity 
at Herborn, in the county of Nassau. He performed his 
faumanity^atudies at Herborn, and then studied philosophy 
at the same place, under Alstedius and Piscator, after 
which he went to Bremen, where he lived seven years. 
He was one of the most constant auditors of Gerard de 
Neuville, a physician and a philosopher ; and, as he had 

S FUkin^on. «-*y atari ~Abreg4 des Vies d«8 Peiatrts, toL I|-^&c. 



A N D.R E W. 213 

4 

a desire to attain a public professorship^ he prepared 
himself for it by several lectures which he read in phi- 
losophy* He returned to his own countr}^ in 1628, where he 
did not cpntinue long, but went to Groningen, on the, 
invitation of his kind patron, Henry Alting. He read 
there, for iiome time, lectures upon all parts of philosophy, 
after which Alting made him tutor to his sons, and when 
they had no longer occasion for his instruction, he procured 
him the same employment with a prince Palatine, which 
lasted for three years ; part of which he spent at Leyden, 
and part at the Hague, at the court of the prince of 
Orange. He was called to Groningen in 1634, to succeed 
Janus Gebhardus, who had been professor of history and 
Greek. He filled that chair with great assiduity and re- 
putation till his death, which happened October 17, 1676. 
He was library-keeper to the university, and a great friend 
to Mr. Des Cartes, which he shewed both during the life 
and after the death of that illustrious philosopher. He 
married the daughter of a Swede, famous,, among other 
things, for charity towards those who suffered for the sake 
of religion. 

His friendship for Des Cartes was occasioned by the 
law-suit against Martin Schoockius, professor of philosophy 
at Groningen. This professor was prosecuted by Mr. Des 
Cartes, for having accused him publicly of Atheism. 
Though Mr. Des Cartes had never seen our Andreas but 
once in his life, yet he recommended tlus affair to him, 
from the attachment which he professed. Mr. De la 
Thuillerie, ambassador of France, and the friends of Mr. 
Dts Cartes^ exerted themselves on one side, and the ene- 
mies of Voetius at Groningen on the other ; and by this 
means Mr. Des Cartes obtained justice. His accuser 
acknowledged him to be innocent of his charge, but was 
allowed to escape without punishment. He also wrote in 
defence of him against a professor of Leyden, whose name 
was Revius, and published a vigorous answer to him in 
1653, entitled ^^ Methodi Cartesian-de Assertio, opposita 
Jjgicobi Revii, Praef. Methodi Cartesianae considerationi 
Theolcgicae." The second part of this answer appeared 
the year following. Rewrote, likewise, in 1653, in de-* 
fence of the remarks of Mr. Des Cartes upon a Programma, 
which contained an explication of the human mind. He 
taught the Cartesian philosophy in his own house, though 
his professorship did not oblige him to that, and even whea 



. «» 






914 ANDREW. 

hit «ge bad quite weakened him. Sudi weft Ae prei* 
judicei of tk^t age» timt De» MareU, who acquMM 
us with these particuUrv, mentiona a Swisa student, 
who dared not veuture to attend upoa Ibe |ihik>9ophyeal 
lectures of Tobiaa Aiicbreas, for fear it should be known in 
)ua own country, and be an obstacle to his promotion to 
the ministry. ^ . 

ANDR£W» orANDREE (YvcsMaby), aFreneh Je* 
in^t, born May 2S, 1615^ at Cb&teaabn in the coiote do 
CoruouaiUesi the countiy which produced tbe pere 
Ardoiiin, and p^e Bougeamt, and like them was vecaeived 
Into the ordef of Jesoita. He settled himself at Caen, in 
the chair of professor regins of the mathematicsy wbieli 
be filled from 1700 to MSB; when, having attained 
the age of eigfai^^-foiiry he found it neeeasary to seek rer 

Sose. His laborkius I^ was terminated Feb. B€, 1764^ 
[ature had endowed him with a happy constitution, and 
be preseryed iit unimpaired by the regularity of his Kfe, 
and the gaiety of bis temper, No qiecies of literaftwre 
W<ia foreign to him; be snccieeded in tbe a»atbematiea| 
chair, and be wrote lively and elegant verses ; but be ia 
ebie&f known by *^ Essai sur le Beau/' of which a i>ew 
edition was given in tbe collection of bis wovka in 1766, 
$ vols* 12m0v edited by the abb6 Guyot. ' It is com* 
posed with order and taste, has noveky in its suiagect, ^^ 
Bjuty in its slyle, and force enough in its argument. Muek 
psteem ia bestowed on bis <^ Traite sur PHomme,*' in wllick 
be pbiloflopbises concerning the union of tbe soul witb the 
bodyv in a manner which made bim be suspected ef an 
ina^virattng iq^irit. He was a great admirer of Matlebranebe^ 
atid cerreaponded witis bim for many yeafc. ^ 

ANDREWS (Jamis Pettit), a miscellaneous writer ef 
aensiderable learning and talents, was tbe younger sen ef 
Joseph Andrews, esq. of Shaw-bouse, near Newbury^ 
Berks, and was bpm therein 1737. He was educated by 
a pirivate tutor^ die rev. Mr. Matthews, rector qf Shaw,^ 
to Barks, and early distinguished himself by bis appliea- 
tion IQ li^rature and the fine arts. At the age of eighteei^ 
or Aineteen, he went inte tbe Berkshire militia, on tbe 
fifnt calUug^ out of that body of men, and held tbe rank ef 
lieulieoaut mwtil tbe regiment was disbanded. 

His ficatpublscat^oa^ was a work of unoprnmon plMsamtry 
sM bnoBQwr, It waa entitled ^* Anecdotes ancient awl 

I Oen. Diet— Moreri. $ Biog, UmTenellc.— Diet Hist 



A N D R £ W Si »n 

iMd9i% ivitb oliterralaQM,'* 1789^ Svo^ and «^ tfuppfo^ 
mei»t to it^ 1790. Tfaia tviem rafiidlf dMnoogh stn^eMfl 
6dkioai»<; pfeiixtfd ia a portorMe, bearing mnm ftstinbta«i<se 
Ifl bimedf,, of ar msjt disbtlliii^ anecdotea from an nkemlMe. 
Ttm waa dcwigKd hy Mr. AadraxM, dramnn by Grinmy aiMl 
aBg^vied by Maoby. Tbe yolttme k inacribtd no kk 
brother, sir Joseph Andrews, and he ackoacvAcdgaa ISMMimg 
iteeiired aisistanvi} from Mr. Pye, ite* pment lacn^t, 
d^taaiBi Grwey and advert, in th& Maassyem he i« said^^ 
bat vro- belkte wkboiit aathovitjr, ti» ha«e wntten; a sifittH 
paaa^lc^ eotMed. ^ Adsviee tia tbr Prince of Wale^'* 
Hid ^ext worii waa entitled. *^ The Hiaiorj of Gaeaa Britain, 
eoiiBeetedi wkir tbe CbeoRologj of Extiope ;. with notes-, 
&c. containing anecdotes of the times, lives of tAM 
laarnod^ and ipeciaiens of thek aiorbf, toK I. from 
Cttaar'a mvasion to die dcposltiont and daaib of RtabMsdi II.'* 
1794y 4tiOL in diia wosk he proved Umsetf a nerf MeiBt* 
rate and indiisttrious coUaotor of facti, the saanlt of a long 
canraa of diligent leftdiAg. Thromghant the* paai of tbe 
wofb wbieb ia sudctiy bistorieal^ the bbnorres* of England 
and. of tbe rest of Earopff- axe eavried. on eoHaterally, a 
caatain portioii of tbe former being grven ia ooa page,- ai^ 
a corresponding portion of the latter on the opposite page; 
The Engitab story ia coticisely teld, with a careful attention 
to the inaeation of minute cireaantancea. The ^^rre- 
spooding page of general cbvonology ia extended^ to com-* 
IMPebend tbe annala of every European^ siate^ bat aefctboi 
waadara into odier paat& ef tbe globe, except when led 
by eireomatanees eloseLy connected ^vith the affiuvs'of Eu^ 
rope. In order to condense as much matter a». possible 
into his 'vohime, he carefully avoida unneceasairy am^bfiu 
catioiiy and expreaaes himself with a happy,, yet forcible 
brevity. The netea coutaia a greait vaviety of otuious^and 
aauiaing particulars net imraediatelf^ comiected witb die 
tnain sixMpy. To tbe bistloncal uarrajtive are addady at proper 
intervals, appendixes of tmo' kinda; the firsts containing 
a^ttcma of auchi incidente aa could not properly be* thrown 
inter tbe notes, and biogBapbieal sketches of diatinguished! 
Baitiah writers, widi speciaena of poetieal productions ;< 
tbe second presenting an< analysia of the times, under the 
reapectlve heads of religion,, government, inanaers, arts, 
sciences^ binguage^ conuneme, &c. There ave^ oth^r ar* 
nngvments auio|£eAby the aotbor,. which render the work 
not less useful for reference^ than< for continued reading; 
ia 1795^ be puUithed a second volume, or radier a ae* 



21S A N DREW S/ 

cond part to to]. I. continuing his plan from *^ Tbe depo« 
^ition and death of Richard II. to the accession of Edward 
VI.^' It is much to be regretted that he did not live to 
complete this plan. It may^ indeed, be undertaken by 
another, but there is always a certain portion of enthu- 
siasm in the original contriver of a scheme, which it is im- 
possible to impart 

Mr. Andrews appears to have been for a time diverted 
from his own work, by being engaged to continue Henry^s 
-History of Great Britain, which was published accordingly, 
in 1796, in one volume 4to, and 2 vols. 8vo, and formed 
an useful supplement to the labours of the Scotch his- 
torian, but one more corresponding to Henry^s plan is yet 
wanting. 

Besides these elaborate works, Mr. Andrews displayed 
his antiquarian knowledge in <' An account of Saxon Coips 
found in Kintbury church-pyard, Berks,^' which was printed 
in the 7th volume of the ^chaeologia ; ^^ The account of 
Shaw,'* in Mr. Mores's Berkshire Collections. He translated 
also ** The Savages of Europe,'* a populstr F^nch novel, 
illustrated with prints from his own designs. To the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine he was a very liberal and intelligent 
contributor. 

On the institution of the new system of London police, 
Mn Andrews was appointed one of the commissioners for 
the district of Queen's square and St. Margaret's West- 
minster, and discharged the duties of that office with great 
industry and integrity, until his death, which happened 
at his bouse in London, August 6, 1797, in his sixtieth 
year, He was buried at Hampstead. He marrried Miss 
Anne Penrose, daughter of the rev. Mr. Penrose, late 
rector of Newbury. By this lady, whom he survived 
' twenty years, he had two spns and a daughter : one of 
the former is dead ; th^ other in 1800 succeeded to the 
title and estates of his uncle, sir Joseph Andrews, bart 
a man of a most amiable and exalted character. 

Since writing the above, we learn from Mr. Lysons's 
Supplement to bis " Environs," that Mr. Andrews's first 
publication was a humane pamphlet in behalf of the chim- 
ney-sweepers' apprentices, in 1788, which led to the act 
of parliament, passed not long afterwards, for the purpose 
of meliorating their condition, Mr. Andrews had a large 
circle of literary acquaintance, who frequently met at his 
hospitable table, at Brompton-row, in the parish of Ken- 
sington, where he resided many years ; and he had the 



A N B n E W S. dif 

happiness of being able to enjoy his friends and his library^ 
which contained a very valuable and entertaining collection 
of books, almost to the last moment of his existence^ ^ 

ANDEEWS (Lancelot), an eminent divine, and bishop 
of Winchester in the reigns of James I. and Charles I. waa 
born at London, in 1555, in the parish of AUhallowa 
Barking, being descended from the ancient family of the 
Andrews in Suffolk. He had his education in grammar- 
learning, first in the Coopers' free-school at Ratcliff uader 
Mr. Ward, and afterwards in Merchant Taylors^ school at 
London, under Mr. Mulcaster. Here he made such a pro« 
ficiency in the learned languages, that Dr. Watts, resident 
tiary of St PauPs, and archdeacon of Middlesex, who about 
that time had founded some scholarships at Pembroke hall 
in Cambridge, sent him to that college, and bestowed on 
him the first of those exhibitions. After he had beea 
three years in the university, his custom was to come up 
to London once a year, about Easter, to visit his father 
and mother, with whom he usually stayed a month ; during 
which time, with the assistance of a master, he applied 
himself to the attaining some language or art, to ^hich he 
was before a stranger : and by this means, in a few yeajr% 
he had laid the foundation of all the arts and sciences, and 
acquired a competent skill in most of the modern lan« 
guages. Having taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he 
was, upon a vacancy, chosen fellow of his college, in pre- 
ference upon trial to Mr. Dove, afterwards bishop of Peter- 
borough. In the mean time Hugh Price, having founded 
Jesus college in Oxford^ and hearing much of the fame of 
young Mr. Andrews, appointed him one of his first, or 
honorary fellows on that foundation. Having taken the 
degree of master of arts, he applied himself to the study 
of divinity, in the kuowledge of which he so greatly ex- 
celled, that being chosen catechist in the college, and hav-» 
ing undertaken to read a lecture on the Ten Commaud^ 
ments every Saturday and Sunday at three o'clock in the 
Itfternoon, great numbers out of the other colleges of the 
university, and even out of the country, duly resorted to 
Pembroke chapel, as to a divinity lecture. At the same 
time, he was esteemed so profound a casuist; that he was 
often consulted in the nicest and most difficult cases of 
conscience ; and his reputation being established, Heniy, 
earl of Huntingtouj^ prevailed upon him to accompany him 

> Gent. Mag. 1797 and 1801.*— Lysons^s Sapplement to KoTiroDS, 1811. 



OTS A >r D R E W ». 

kvio the Kortk, of which he was president ; Inhere, by his 
^igent preaching, and pmate conferences, in which he 
used a due mixtiife of zeal and moderation, he converted 
■everal ? ecusaDts, priests, as well as others, to the prates- 
taAt reUgion. From that time be began to be taken notice 
of by sir Franeis^ .Walsittgham, secretary of state to queen 
Efizabesh. Thai minister, who was unwtUiiTg so flne a 
geniutf should be buried in the obsetirity of a country bene^ 
fiee> bis intent being to make him reader of controversies 
in the university of Cambridge, assignerd him for his m^n.* 
tenance the lease of the parsonage of Alton in Hampshire, 
and afterwards procured for btra the vicarage of St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate, in London. Afterwards he was chosen a pre- 
bendary and residentiary of St. PanPs, aff also pilebendary 
of the collegiate church of Sontbwell. Betng thus pre- 
ferred to his own contentment, he distinguished hhnself as 
a diligent and excellent preacher, acnd read divinity lectures 
three times a week at St Paul's, in term time. Upon the 
death of Dr. Fulke, he was chosen master of Pfembroke- 
ball, of which he had been scholar and fellow^ a place of 
more hononr than profit, as he spent more upon it than he 
reeeived from it, and was a considerable benefactor to that 
c^lege. He was appointed one of the chaplains in ordi- 
nary to queen Elizabeth, who took such delight in his 
preaching, that she first made him a prebendary of West- 
minfiter, in the room of Dr. Richard Bancroft promoted to 
the see of London ; and afterwards dean of that church, in 
the room of Dr. Gabriel Goodman deceased. But he re- 
fused to accept of any bishopric in this reign, because hcs 
wo^ld not basely submit to an alienation of the episcopal 
f^evenwe *. Dr. Andrews soon grew into far greater esteem 
ivitb her successor king James I. who not only gave him 
the preference to all other divines as a preacher, but like- 
wise made choice of him to vindixrate his sovereignty 
against the virulent pens of his enremtes. His majesty 
halving, in his ^^ Defence of the rights of Kings,** asserted 
the authority of Christian princes over causes and persons 
fleclesiastieaU cardinal Bellarmin, under the name of Mat- 
thew Tortus^ attacked him with great vehemence. The 
king requested bishop Aifdrews tp answer die cardinal, 
whi^h he did with ffent spirit and judgment, in a piece 

f 6e« Ml' aiK««r to a letter writteii! and the Mvewiti theno(, 4tD pam^ 
at Oxford, and superscribed to Dr. phiet, paf e 33. Cranger, rolume I, 
Samael Turner, coocerains tM (burdi page 347. 



A N DILE W a. 819 

enddeA m ToftiBra Torii : st?e, ad MatdiflBi Torti librviin 
yespoiwio^ qui nuper editus contra .A^iokigiMn •tfenissiaii 
potentiflBimique priocifns Jacobiy Dei gratia Maglftv Bri* 
p^nmf Franei», & Hiberaise Regu» pro jurainetito fide* 
litatis/' It was printed at London by Hoger Barker, the 
thing's printer^ in 1609, in (jitarto, contaiiiing 402 pages; 
and dedicated to the king. The aubMuice of what the 
biflhop advances in this treatise, with great strength of rea^ 
flOB and evidence, is, thai kings have power both to caH 
synods and confirin them ; and to do all other tlmgs, which 
the eiajperoBs heretofore diligently perforoied^ and which 
the bishops of those times willingly acknowledged of right 
to belong to them. Casanbon gives this work the charac- 
ter of being written with great accuracy and research; That 
kiAg nesLt prooaoted bin to the bishopric of Cbsohester, to 
whieh he was consecrate^ November 3, 160iS. At the 
same time he made him hia lord aknoner, in whioh place 
0f gteat trust he behaived with singular fidefety, disposing 
0f the royal bcsievolence in the most disinterested mann^ 
and not availicig himself even of those advantages that he 
might legally aod fairly have taken. Upoathe vacancy of 
the bishopric o£ Eiy^ he was advanced to that see, and 
aonsecvaled SeptesG^ber 2fi, 1609. He was also nominated 
OBO of bis majesty's privy coansellors of England; and 
^terwards of Scottaad, when he attended the King in hiv 
jotttfoey to that kingdom. After he had sat nine years in 
that see, he waa advanced to the bishopric of Winchester^ 
and deanery of the king's chapel, February 18, 1618; 
viiieh two last jproferments he held till his deaths This 
great prelate was in no less reputation and esteem with, 
hioff Charles L than he had been with his predecessors. 
At length he departed this life^ at Winchester*house in 
Seuthwatk, Septendier 25, 1626, in the seventy-first year 
af his age ; and was buried in the parish cbutch of St. Sa^ 
ittQar% Sottthwarii ; where hia enecutovs erected to him ^ 
vefy fitiir monument of marble and alabaster, on which is 
aa elegant I^atiA ioscriptioo, written by one of his chap- 
lains *• 

The chaivicter of bishop Andrews, both in public and 
private bfe» was in every respect great aad singular. Hi» 
jBoatempoBariea and biographers celebrate, in particnktr, 

* Not nauy y«ari ago, hit bones and hit tilktn cap, were taand vmi^s 
«cre dispersed, to maMe rooni for cayed in the remains of bis coffin, 
I GorpMi J apd lie Mr of biabaard. 



t29 ANDREWS. 

bis ardent zeal and piety, demonstrated not only in his 
private and secret devotions between God and bimseif, in 
wbich tbose, who attended hini) perceived, tbat he daily 
spent many hours ; but likewise in bis public prayers with 
his family in his chapel, wherein he behaved so humbly, 
devoutly, and reverently, that it could not but excite others 
to follow his example. His charity was remarkable even 
before he came to great preferments ; for, while he con- 
tinued in a private station of life, he relieved his' poor 
parishioners, and assisted the prisoners, besides his con- 
stant Sunday alms at bis parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate. 
But when his fortune increased, his charity increased in pro- 
portion, and he released many prisoners of all sorts, who were 
detained either for small debts or the keeper*s fees. In all 
his charities, he gave strict charge to his servants, whom 
he intrusted with the distribution of them, that they should 
not acknowledge whence this relief came ; but directed, 
tbat th^ acquittance, which they took from the persons 
who received such -relief, should be taken in the name of 
a benefactor unknown. Other large sums he bestowed 
yearly, and oftener, in clothing the poor and naked, in 
relieving the necessitous, and assisting families in the time 
of, the infection,, besides his alms to poor housekeepers at 
his gate. 80 that his private alms in his last six years, over 
and above his public, amounted to above thirteen hundred 
pounds. He left in his will four thousand pounds to pur- 
chase two hundred pounds per amium in land for ever, to 
be distributed by fifty pounds quarterly in the following 
manner : To aged poor men, fifty pounds ; to poor widows, 
the wives of one husband, fifty pounds ; to the binding of 
poor orphans apprentices, fifty pounds ; and to the relief 
of poor prisoners, fifty pounds. Besides he left to be di^ 
tributed inunediately after his decease among maid-ser- 
vants of a good character, and who had seiTed one master 
or mistress seven years, two hundred pounds ; and a great 
part of his estate, after his funeral and legacies were dis- 
charged, among his poor servants. To this virtue of his 
we may add his hospitality. From the first time of his 
preferment to the last moments of his life, he was always 
most liberal in the entertainment of persons who deserved, 
respect, especially scholars and strangers, bis table being 
constantly furnished with provisions and attendance answer- 
aUe. He shewed himself so generous in his entertain- 
ments^and so gravely facetious, that his guiests would oft^ 



ANDREWS. 



221 



' profess, that they never came to any maif s table, where 
they received more satisfaction in all respects. He was at 
a prodigious expence in entertaining all sorts of people in 
Scotland, when he attended king James thither; and it 
cost him three thousand pounds in the space of three days, 
wh^n that king came to visit him at Faniham castle^ the 
principal seat belonging to the bishopric of Winchester. 
He was unblemished both in his ordinary transactions, and 
in the discharge of his spiritual and temporal offices. He 
was always careful to keep in good repair the houses of all 
his ecclesiastical preferments, particularly ^he vicarage-* 
house of St. Giles, Cripplegate, the prebend's and dean's 
bouses of Westminster, and the residentiary's house of 
St. Paul's. He spent four hundred and twenty pounds 
upon the palaces belonging to the bishopric of Chichester ; 
above two thousand four hundred and forty pounds upon 
that of Ely ; and two thousand pounds upon those of Win«« 
Chester, besides a pension of four hundred pounds per an^ 
numy from which he freed that see at his own charge* 
With regard to his pastoral and episcopal charge, he was 
the most exact in the execution of it, promoting, as far as 
he could judge, none but men of character and abilities to 
the livings and preferments within his gift. For which 
purpose he took care beforehand to enquire what promising 
young men there were in the university ; and directed his 
chaplains to inform him of such persons, whom he encou- 
raged in the most liberal manner. iHe used to send for 
men of eminent learning, who wanted preferment, though 
they had no dependance upon him, nor interest in him, 
and entertain them in his house, and confer preferment 
upon them, and likewise defray their charges of a dispensa^ 
tio!^ or faculty, and even of their journey. If we consider 
him in those temporal affairs, with which he was intrusted, 
we shall find hioi no less faithful and just. He disposed of 
very considerable sums, which were sent him to be distri- 
buted among poor scholars and others at his discretion, 
with the utmost care, and exactly agreeable to the donor's 
intent* Of his integrity in managing those places, ic^ 
which be was intrusted for others jointly with himself, 
Pembroke*hall, and the church of Westminster, were suf* 
ficient evidences. For when he became master of the 
fomier, he found it in debt, having then but a small en- 
dowment; but by his care he left above eleven hundred 
t^ouads in the treasury of that college. And wheu he was 



£22 AKDE£WS. 

dean of the lattisr, he left it free itmn all ddbU (ncl 0»» 
firoachflEientsr; and took saoh caureof tke sckool, that the 
Bchoixn were much improFed not onljr by ius direction and 
supmntendance, but even by his personal laboura among 
tbeai« And at by Tirtue of his deanery of Weslniin«t«r| 
kirn mastevship of Pembioke-hali^ and hit bishopric of Ely, 
the election of scholars into Westaiinflter«school, and fvom 
thence into the two anivemtids, and of many fi<iK>lar6 and 
isllows iBto Pembrohe-liali; some in Peter-bouse, and some 
in Jesus coUefie) nvere in his pofter and disposal^ he was 
always so just, that he waved all letters from great per-* 
sonages fior insuftcient seholaiSy and <ttv<ested himself of ail 
partudity, and cfaoae only soch as he thought bad most 
merit. Beings likewise often desited to assist at the elec-^ 
tion of scholars from the Free-schools of MercboTit TViy* 
Ion, St. Panl's, and the Mereer's, and peiuei^ing £a?rdur 
and interest soaaetimes overbadancing merit with diose to 
wimm the choiee beiongedy and that divers good schohnrs 
were omitted, and others prefenped, he freqm^dy took 
care of soch as wsens negleeted, and sent them to the uni» 
versity, where he bestowed preferment upon them. Nor 
was he less diiftinguished for his fideMty ki dtat great place 
of trust, the ahnonersbip. He never would suffer any part 
of what arose to him from that place to be mingled with 
his own rents or revenues, and was extremely exact in dis^ 
posing of it. When he found a surplus over and above the 
ordinary chaifres, he distributed it in t^e relief Of the ixK 
digent and distressed; tlu^ugh it was in had power to have 
applied this to his own use (his patent being ^tue com* 
puiojj and no person could have questioned him concern^ 
ing it. He gave a neat many noble instanees of his gfa* 
titade to those who had befriernded trim when yeung. -He 
bestowed upon Dr. Ward, son to bis first schooknasteVi 
the living of Waitbam in Hampshire. He iftiewed the 
greatest regard for Mr. Muleaster, his other scbool^master, 
in all compaaiesi and always pkeed him at the «pper end 
of his taUe, and after bis death caused his^ picture (though 
he had but few others in his house) to be set over his stu^ 
door. Besides these external marks of gratitude he sup- 
plied his necessities privately in a very tiheral manner, and 
left his son a valuable legacy. He inquired very careftMy 
after the kif^red of Dr. Watts, who, sis already notided^ 
had eent him to Pembroke- haH, and having found out one, 
he conferred upon him preferments in that college. Nor 



A N D & S W 8. 22S 

did laud finget hid p»tfon Dr. WaUs ip hb will; fcr lienor* 
dered there, that oui of the scholarships of hts foondbitioiiy 
the two fellowships, which himself had founded iu diat 
coUege^. shouUl be suppliedi if the candidates should be 
fit for tbemu T^ omit the legacies which he left to the 
parish of i^. Giles, Chpplegate, St. Maitia, Lndgmte, where 
he had lived, St. Andrew's, Holbom, St. iSavioiir's, Sooth- 
warl^ Allhallows, Barkiag, wheve he wi» bora, and oAers; 
he gave to Peaibi;oJke-hAll one thouasad pocinds to pur- 
chase lauds for two fellowships, and for other uses in that 
college, expressed in his will ; besides three hundred such 
folio books of hid owu as were ncH in the librarj there, 
with sevecsl other valuable gifts. His huaiaaiiy extended 
to every person who conversed with htm ; so that he was 
admired Bot only by the men of learokig and others in this 
kiiig4oiQ, but even by foreigners of ihe greatest eminence, 
particuliu;ly Coisaubon, Cluverius, Yossius, who cornespond^ 
^d w'Uh huaai by letters^ Gretius, Peter ^u JVtouUn, Barclay, 
the author of the Argtmif and Eqpeniust to .whom he of* 
f^ed an aanual stipend to read lectures at Gambndge in 
the oriieotal tongues, the professors of which he encouraged 
very liberaUy, and particularly Mr. Bedwell, to whem he 
Lve the vicaragie of Totrerfiam in Middlesex. His mo- 
^sty was m remiurkable, that though the whole Christian 
world admired his profound learning, and particideirly hia 
knowledge of the es^tem languages, Greek, Latin, and 
many modera languages, he was ae far from being elated 
with the opinion of it, that be often complained of his de- 
fects 9 aoid when he w«ts pref^red io febe bishopric of Chi- 
chesty, amd • urged )m own insufficiency for mieh a charge, 
be caused these words of St. Paul, Et idAtfc qme idonms f 
i. 0. ^^ And who is s^ificient for these things f" to be en« 
gi:aven abwt his episcopal seal. One imstanoe of his mo^ 
de;sty uMJ(ed with his humanity may be added, that afber 
bds ohaplains had preached in bis chapel birfwe him, he 
would aQmetimes privately request them, that he might 
have a sight of their notes, and encourage them in the 
kindest tenns imaginable^ 

Nor did he in the highest dftgnitaes, wUch he posaetsed^ 
r^mit of hi^ applioation to aUidy. Eneu in tbese dag^s, 
when it aoiif bt hat^e been ««q>pofed that he wooU have ee- 
laxod fromh^s former dihgence^ yietirom the hour hoTOio 
(his prin^ale devotaons being finiahed) to the time Jie w«» 
c^d t» 4iskv^g which^ by hb onm order, iwas not 



M I 



S24 A N D It £ W S, 

twelvie at noon at the soonest, he continued at his studie9| 
and would not be interrupted by any who came to speak 
to him, or upon any occasion, public prayer excepted So 
that he would be displeased with scholars, who attempted 
to speak with him in the morning, and said^ that he doubt- 
ed they were no true scholars who came to speak with 
hvax before noon. After dinner for two or three hours 
space he would willingly pass the time, either in discourse 
with his guests or other friends, or in dispatch of his own 
temporal aifairs, or of those who by reason of his episco* 
pal jurisdiction attended him. Haying discharged which, 
he returned to his study, where he spent the rest of the 
fiftemoon, till bed-time, except some friend engaged him 
to Supper, and then he ate but sparingly. 

He had a particular aversion to all public rices, but es^* 
pecially to usury, simony, and sacrilege. He was so far 
from the first, that when his friends had occasion for such 
a sum of money as he could assist them with, he lent it to 
them freely, without expecting any thing in return but the 
principal. Simony was so detestable to him, that by re- 
fusing to admit several persons, whom he suspected to be 
simoniacally preferred, he suffered much by law-suits, 
choosing rather to be compelled to admit them bylaw, 
than voluntarily to ^ do that which his conscience made a 
scruple of. With regard to the livings and other prefer-^^ 
ments which fell in his own gifts, he always bestowed them 
freely, as we observed above, upon men of merit, without 
any solicitation. It was no small compliment that kin^ 
James had so great an awe and veneration for him, as ia 
his presence to refrain from that mirth and levity in which 
he indulged himself at other times. What opinion lord 
Clarendon had of him appears from hence, that, in men* 
tioniug the death of Dr. Bancroft, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, he remarks, that ^^ if he had been succeeded by 
bishop Andrews, or any man who understood and loved 
the church, that infection would easily have been kept out 
which could not afterwards be so- easily expelled.'* Our 
great poet Milton thought him worthy of his pen, and 
wrote a Latin elegy on his death. 

In conversation, bishop Andrews discovered a fatetiou^ 
turn, which was not more agreeable to his private friends 
than to his royal master James, who frequently conversed 
very freely widi the learned men of his court. In all pre- 
vious accounts of the bishopi a story to this purpose has 



fllNDHirW& S!25 



beett t0M> ftam die life of Waller^ wUch we ihM imii aiifS- 
|»rcfs8, although tbe Isltter pshrt of it is Imt a sorry rtpartee 
4IH the part of the monarch.':— Mr. Walter bating been^ 
iciiteeii into the last parliament of king ivme^ I. in which 
he ietved as burgess for AgmondeshacB in Buc^ngfaam- 
lAlire, and that^ pai'tkbrient being dissalved, on tbe day df 
its dissodation ke went out of curiosity or respect to see the 
Ung sit dinner^ with vrhom Were our bisbop of Winehest^^^ 
and Dr. N^al, bishop of Darbam, statiding behind tUe. 
kmg's obaifi There happened something tiery ex^raor^ 
dinary in the eehversation which those prelates had with 
the l&ing, on wbieh Mr. Waller often reflected. We shali 
relate it a» it is represented in his hfe^ His majesty 
ashed tbe btsbops, *' My lords, cannot I take my subject^ 
money when I want it, withont ail this formality in parlia* 
JDent?*^ Tbe bishop of Dm'beim readily answered^ ^^ Ood 
foii>fd, 1^, but you shasld; you are the breetth q£ oifr- 
nostriW*^ Whefe^opon the king turned, and said tetiie 
lisfaop of Wincbestet, " Wdl, my lord, what saj yen ?*T 
** Siry ' replied tbe bishop, " I have nof skiU to judge of 
pftiUdistet^i^ oases.' ^ The king an^swered^ '< No pu<Mxfis^ 
my lord ^ afiswer me p^esetitly." ^^ Tbeny sir," said he^ 
** I think k lawful fcft you tor take my brother NeaPs 
money, for he offers it." Mr. Waller said the company 
itras pteeteied with tbis answer^ and the wit of it seemed to 
afieot the hitigi For a eertain lord coteing iw so«>r a^bei^ 
kM mage^ty etiei out, *^ O nfiy lord, they say you Lia with 
my lady.'* **No, sir," says his lordship ih confusion, " bojt 
I like her o^ntp&fSy because she has so much wit." '* Why 
thc^'* says the king, ^^^ do not ^ou liq vi^itb niy lord of 
Wkichen ter there ?' ' 

The works of this leanaed prelate, which afe tKm best 
lMewi», are, I. *^A yolMiie of ^rmotis," Londpn, 16^29^ 
9mA \eil^ folio, consksthig of fi^inety-si^, upon the fteMr^ 
iis^ralsy #r M tbe ftiove impe^ts^nft doctrines of Ghri^ 
tiiteiity. d>. ** The Moi^^ Law eKpO'Mdedf,^ or Lectcnres on 
tbe Ten Commandments, with nineteen S^itiM^ oh 
prayier/' 1649, M. S. ^* Collection of posthtvmous and 
alrpmm LeetMiresi deKvet^d m St. Paul's and St. Gite#s,*'V 
LoAde\iy 1657^ M. These were the mostpof^bu; of adl 
his productions, and although very exceptionable in point 
of style, accorcUng to the modern criteria of style, they 
aiMNind in leaf ned' and acute Remarks, and are by no mea^ 
so full bf putt dfnd (juibbfe, as some writers, from a super-^ 

Vol. IL Q 



226 ANDRE 



wi 



ficial Yxeif of them, have reported. His other works wer^ 
his " Manual of Devotions," Gr. and Lat. often reprinted^ 
and translated by dean Stanhope, 12mo; and several Con* 
ciones ad Clerum, or other occasional sermons preached 
before the university, and at court — " Responsio ad Apo«> 
logiam CaBdinalis Bellarmini, &c." 1610, 4to. — "Theolo- 
gical determinations on Usury, Ty thes." — " Rcsponsiones ad 
Petri Molina'.i Epistolas tres." — " Stricturae, or a brief 
Answer to the eighteenth chapter of the first booke of car* 
dinall Perron's Reply, written in- French to king James his 
Answer written by Mr. Casaubon in Latine." — " An Answer to 
the twentieth chapter of the fifth book of cardinal Perron's 
Reply, written in French to king James his Answer, writ- 
ten by Mr. Cass^bon to the cardinall in Latine." — " A Speech 
delivered in the Starr-chamber against the two Judaicall opi- 
nions of Mr. Traske.'* The two Judaical opinions advanced 
by Mr. Traske were, 1 . That Christians are bound to ab- 
stain from those meats, which the Jews were forbidden in 
Leviticus.. 2. That they are bound to observe the Jewish 
Sabbath. — " A Speech delivered in the Starr-Chamber con- 
cerning Vowes, in thecountesseof Shrewesburiescase.'* This 
lady was convicted of disobedience, for refusing to answer 
or be examined, (though she had promised to do it befote), 
alleging, that she had made a solemn vow to the contrary. 
The design of > the bishop's speech is to shew, that such 
vows ^ere unlawful, and consequently of no force or obli» 
gation upon her. These pieces were printed after the 
author's death at London by Felix Kyngston, in 1629, 4to, 
and dedicated to king Charles L by Dr. William Laud 
bishop of London, and Dr. John Buckridge bishop of Ely.* 
ANDROMACHUS, a native of the island of Crete, and 
physician to the emperor Nero, A. D. 65, has been handed 
down to posterity, as the inventor of a medicine named 
theriaca, which is now deemed of little use. It however 
set aside the mithridate^ which till then had been held in 
great esteem. Andromachus wrote the description of his 
antidote in elegiac verse, which he dedicated to Nero*. 
His son, of the same name, wrote this description in prose. 
Damocrates turned it into Iambic verse in a poem, which 
he wrote upon Antidotes. Galen informs us that Andro^ 




Unea Cunotdy voi II. p. 19, ^0, &c.-<-Coie'i MS Athens ia Brit Mus. 





N^ R O 



M A C H U S. 227 



machus the father wrote a treatise '^ De Medicamentis 
Compositis ad afFectus externos,'* and that he was a man of 
great learning and eloquence. Erotion dedicated his 
Lexicon to him, and some writers say he was a good astro- 
loger. He was the first who bore the title of archiater. ' 

ANDRONICUS, of Rhodes, a peripatetic philosopher, 
lived at Rome in the time of Cicero, 69 years before the 
Christian sra. He was the first who made the works of 
Aristotle known at Rome, which Sylla had brought thither. 
He had formerly been a professor of philosophy at Athens, 
but quitted it when the taste for philosophy departed from 
that city. There is a work, of doubtful authority, ascribed 
to him, entitled " Andronici Rhodii et Ethicorum Nicho- 
macheorum Paraphrasis,'^ Greek iand Latin, Cambridge, 
1679, 8vo, a very scarce book, and one of the authors 
" cum notis variorum?^ There is, however, a Leyden 
edition of 1 6 1 7, which is reckoned more correct. St. Croix", 
in his " Examen des Historiens d' Alexandre," says that 
there is a manuscript in the imperial library of Paris, which 
ascribes this work to Heliodorus of Pruza, * 

ANDRONICUS, of Thessalonica, was one of the Greek 
refugees who brought learning into the West in the fif- 
teenth century. He was considered as the ablest pro- 
fessor next to Theodorus Gaza, and, perhaps, he exceeded 
him in the knowledge of the Greek tongue, for he had read 
all the authors in that language, and was well skilled in 
Aristotle's philosophy. He taught at Rome, and lived with 
cardinal Bessarion.. The stipend which was given him was 
lio small, that be was obliged by poverty to depart fronv 
Rome; upon this he went to Florence, where he was a 
professor a long time, and had a vast number of auditors, 
but upon the expectation of meeting with more generous 
encouragement in France, he took a journey thither, where 
.he died in 1478, in a very advanced age.' 

ANDRONICUS, of Cyresthes, a Greek architect, is 
celebrated for having constructed at Athens the Tower of 
die Winds, an octagon building, on each of the sides of 
which was a figure, in sculpture, representing one of the 
winds. He named them Solanus, Eurus, Auster, Africa^ 
iius^, Favonius, Corns, Septentrio, and Aquilo. On the 
top of this tower was a small pyramid of marble, which 

^ Haller Bibl Med. Pract.— Gen. Diet. 

> Gen. D1ct^— Biog. UDiTerseHe.-<^Faliric. Bibl. Gr.-*Saxli Oapmasticon. 

» Ibid. 

a 2 - 



228 andbonicIjs. 

supported a pie^e of meehanism somewhat like the modem 
weathercock. It conaif ted of a brass Triton, wbieh tufoed 
on a pivot, and pointed with its rod to the side of the tower 
on which was represented the wind that then happened to 
blow. From the bad style of the architecture oi the figure^ 
it is supposed to have been ccmstructed posterior to the 
time of Pericles. Being built of large blocks of marble it 
has withstood the ravages of time, and the upper part only 
is destroyed, but the whole has sunk about twelve feet. 
As each of the sides had a sort of dial, it is cosjecla»ed 
that it formerly contained a clypsedra, or water-clock. 
The roof was of marble, shaped in the form of tiles, a mode 
which was invented by Byzes, of Naxos, in 580 B. G. It 
BOW serves as a mosc^ue to some dervises. Spon,« Wheeler, 
l.ei^i, and Stuart, have given amf4e descriptions of this an- 
cient structure. * 

ANDfiONl'CUS LIVIUS is said to have been the first 
who wrote theatrical pieces, or what were called regular 
j^ys, for the Roman stage, abont the year 240 B. C. It 
is also said^that be was a slave, of Greek ortgiu, and that 
he received his name from Livius SaUnator^ whose children 
he- taught, and who at length gave him bia liberty. His 
(bramatic productions were probably rude both in plan, and 
style. Livy, the histonon^ ascribes to him the barboKMis 
invention of dividing the deciaraation and gestares^ or 
8f>eaking and acting, between two persons, which was 
never thought of by the Greeks. Andrenicus^ who was a 
player as well as a writev, it is supposed,, adopted it to save 
InmsesH' the fetigue of singing io his €>wn piece, to which 
ke^ bke other authors of his time, had been aecustomedl 
But being often encored, and hoarse with repeating his 
eai^tic'le or song^ he obtained pennission to transfer the 
vocal psdTt to a young performer, retaining to faimsdfi eirlj 
the acting : Ducfosy however, and after him Dr. Barney, ave 
iaclined to think that the words of the historian mean' no 
move than that the singing W9» separated froaii the dancing 
a thing credible enoi^fav but absurd in the highest degree^ 
wheu applied to sp^^ng and aetiog* Aiidronicus also 
composed hymns in honoinr of the gods. There^are frag- 
ments of his versesy collected from the gramnaarians and 
critics, in the ''Comaci Latani,." the ^^ CfMrpua p6Ctara[%'* 
and the " Collectio Pisaurensis." * 

^ Biog". tTnirerscHfe, and authors mentione<f in the text. 
« Voisius de Poet. Latin.— Fabr. Bibl. Lat.— Barney's Hist, of Music, Tol. I. 
— Biog. Univ«rrsdle.— -JMoreri. 



ANDROUET. M9 

4 

' ANDROUET-DU-CERCEAU (James), ah emioent 
French architect, was born at Orleans, or, according td 
some, at Paris, in the sixteenth century. Cardinal d'Ar-* 
magnac was among the first who patronised hira, and fur- 
nished bim with money for the expenoes of his studies in 
Italy, The triumphal arch, which still remains at Pola in 
Istria, was so much admired by him, dnat he introduced 
an imitation of it in all bis arches. He began 4hePoii€ 
Neuf, at Paris, May 30, 1 57^, by order of Henry IIL bHt 
the civil wars prevented bis finishing that great work, which 
was reserved for William Marchand, in fhe reign df Henry 
IV. 1604. Androuet, however, built the hotels of Car* 
navalet, Fermes, Bretonvilliers, 8ulty, Mayenne, and otbeil 
palaces in Paris. In 1596, he was employed by Henry IV. 
to continue the gallery of the Louvre, which had been be« 
gun by order of Charles XI. but this work he was obliged 
to quit on account of his religion. He was a zealots prH>f 
testant, of the Calvinistic church, and when the perse^U-* 
tion arose he left France, and died in some foreign coun«> 
try, but where or when is not known. Androuet is not 
more distinguished for the practice, than the theory of his 
art. He wrote, 1. " Livre d' Architecture, contenant les 
plans et dessins de cinquante Batiments, toiis differents,'* 
1559, fol. reprinted 1611. 2. ** Second livre d*ArcbitectiiTe,** 
a continuation of the former, 1561,fol. S. << Les plus exceU. 
lents Batiments de France," 1576, I607,fol. 4. "Livred' Ar- 
chitecture anquel sont contenues diverses ordonnanees de 
plans et elevations de Batiments pour seigneurs et autres 
qui voudront batir ^ux champs," 1582, fol. 5. *' Les Edi- 
fices Romains," a collection of engravings of the anti- 
quities of Rome, firom designs made on the spot, 15S3, fol. 
i. ** Lemons de Perspective,*' 1576, fol. He was also bis 
own engraver, and etched his plates in a correct but s:ome- 
what coarse style. ' 

ANDRY (Nicholas), sumamed BaT9-RE6AKD,a French' 
physician and medical writer, was born at Lyons in 1658^ 
and came to Paris without any provision, but defrayed the 
expenses of bis philosophical studies in the college of 
the Grassins by teaching a few pupils. He was at length 
a professor in that college; and, in 1687, became first 
known to the literary world by a translation of Pacatus* 
panegyric on Theodosius tl^ Great. Quitting theology; 

1 Morf f l-p-Biof, UmTerieUe.*»4Stn|U*f piclipnaiy. ^ 



13Q A N D R Y; 

however, to which he had hitherto applied, he turned t^ 
the study of medicine, received his doctor's degree at 
Rheims, and in 1697 was admitted of the faculty at Paris. 
Some share of merit, and a. turn for intrigue, contributed 
greatly to .his success, and he became professor of the 
Royal College, censor, and a pontributor to the Journal 
des Savants ; and, although there were strong prejudices 
against him. on account. of the manner in which he contrived 
to rise, and his satirical humour, which spared neither 
friend or foe, he was in 1 724, chosen dean of the facnlty* 
His first measures in this o£5ice w^re entitled to praise ; 
convinced of the superiority of talent which the practice of 
physic requires, he reserved to the faculty that right of 
inspecting the practice of surgery, which they had always 
enjoyed, and made a law that no surgeon should perform 
the operation of lithotomy, unless in the presence of a 
physician. After this he wished to domineer over the fa- 
culty itself, and endeavoured to appoint his friend Hel- 
vetius to be first physicie^n tq the king, and protector of 
the faculty. But these and oth^r ambitious attempts were 
defeated in 1726^ when it was degided, that all the decrees, 
of the faculty should be signed by a majority, and not be 
liable to any alteration by the; dean. After this he was 
perpetually engaged in disputes with some of the members, 
particularly Hecquet, Lemery, and Petit, and many abusive 
pamphlets arose from these contests. Andry, however, 
was not re-elected dean, and had only to comfort himself 
l>y somQ libels against his successor Geoifroy, for which, 
and his general turbulent character, cardinal Fleury 
would no longer listen to him, but took the part of the 
university and the faculty. Andry died May 13, 1742, 
aged eighty-fpur. His worksi were very numerous, and 
many of them valuable : 1. " Traite de la generation des 
Vers dans le corps de Thomme," 1710, often reprihted, and 
translated into most languages. It was severely attacked 
by LeI^ery in the Journal de Trevoux, in revenge for 
Andry's attack on his ** Traite des Aliments ;" and by 
Valisnieri, who fixed on him the nickname otHonio vermis 
^ulostiSj ^s be pretended to find worms at the bottom of 
every disorder. Andry answered these attacks in a publi-^ 
cation entitlfid ^* Eclaircissements sur le livre de genera- 
tion, 2cc.'' 2. ^^ Remarques de medicine sur differents 
0ujets, principalement siir ce qui regarde la Saign6e et la 
Purgation,*' Paris, 1710, i2mo. 3. ^f Le Regime du Ca-* 



A N D R Y. 231 

ireme,** Paris, 1740, 12mo, reprinted 1713, 2 vols, and 
cifterwards in three, in answer to the opinions of Hecquet. 
4. ** Th6 de PEurope, ou les proprietes de la veronique,'* 
Paris, 1712, 12mo. 5. " Examen de ' difFeretits points 
d*Anatomie, &c," Paris, 1723, 8vo, a violent attack oii 
Petit's excellent treatise on the diseases of the bones. 

6. " Remarques de chemie touchant la preparation de cer- 
tains remedes," Paris, 1735, 12mo, another professional 
and personal attack on Malouin's " Chimie medicale.'*! 

7. ^^ Cleon a Eudoxe, touchant la pre-eminence de la 
Medicine sur la Chirurgie.'* Paris, 1738, 12mo. 8. " Gr- 
th(^edie i ou Tart de prevenir et de corriger, dans les 
enfonts,* les DifFormites du corps," Paris, 1741, 2 vols. 
fie published also some theses, and his son-in-law, Dionis, 
published a ti*eatise on the plague, which he drew up by 
^rder of the regent. * 

ANEAU, in Latin ANULUS (Bartholomew), a man 
of eminent learning in the sixteenth century, was born at 
Bourges in France, and educated under Melchior Volmar, 
a very able instructor of youth. He made great advances 
under him in polite literature, and imbibed the principles 
of the protestant religion, which Volmar professed, and 
Aneau afterwards embraced. The great reputation which 
he soon gained by. his skill in the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages^ and poetry, induced some of the magistrates of 
Lyons, who were his countrymen, to offer him a professor- 
ship in rhetoric in the college which they were going to 
erect in that city. Aneau accepted this offer with pleasure, 
and went thither to take possession of his place, which he 
kept above thirty years till his death. He discharged his 
professorship with such applause, that, in 1542, he was 
chosen principal of the college. - In this situation he pro- 
pagated the doctrines of the reformation among his scholars, 
which was done secretly for a long time, and either was not 
perceived, or was overlooked ; but an accident which hap- 
pened on the festival of the sacranaent in 1565, put a 
period to all his attempts in favour of protestantism by a 
very fatal catastrophe. Upon that day, 21st of June, as 
the procession was passing on towards the college, ther^ 
was a large stone thrown from one of the windows upon the 
host and the priest who carried it. Whether Aneau wa« 
the author of this insult or not, is not certain, but the 

I Bioip. Universelle.-^HalUr BiM. Med. Praot. 



\ 



m A N E A U. 

people^ being ^ori^cfd at it^ brobe inta |he icollf ge ia f 
body, aifd assassinated bim ^ tbe gif ilty person, and tbf 
college itself was sbut^ up the next day by ocder of tb^ aity. 

Aueau wrot!^ a gre^t many verses in Latin and GrjB^ 
9.nd other wor]is ; this prinicipal of wbicb are, 1. ^^ Chant fifi^T 
tal/* containing the mystery pf the nativity, Ly^Rs, 1539, 
4 to, and 1559, with the title ^^Qisnetbliac musical et hi^ 
torical de la Co^cfiption et Nativite de J. C." ^. ^* Lyon 
marchand/' a French satire, or drapua qf tb^ hi^tpriqi^ 
l(:ind> 1^42, 4to. 3. '^ Alciati's emblems tr«^nsl^te4,'' Lyoi\% 
.1549, 8vo, 155$, 16B1P. 4. ^^ Picta poesis/' (l^yder), IM9$ 
8vo, a collection of embl^oys, witb Gree^ and t^atin wf^m* 
5. J^ translation of {(ir Thomas Mpre's ^ U^opim'' ¥'W§ 
andi Lyons. 6. '^ Jl^lectox ; on le Coq," ^ fy\}nloij^ h}9l^y» 
pret^ndedly from a Greek fragment, Lypns, 15^0. > 

ANELLO (Thomas), commonly called A^a^s^niello, quo 
of the names introduced in biographical collections, aU 
tbougb more prpperly belonging to history, if as ^ fisiievn 
man qf Naples, ^nd the author of ^, teniporary fevolulioq^ 
lybich ended as such tumultuous measur^a generally mkd^ 
i^ithout meliorating the state of the peqpl^ vtrbo h^^ve be^ii 
induced to take ap aptiv^ part in them. In ^6^3, ivbeii 
tbis map wail bom, the kingdom of Naples w^ siil^^ot Uk 
th^ house of Austria, and governed by a viqerpy. TllA 
Neapolitans had supported the government in this bqvif 
with great loyalty and liberality, and submitted then^aielve^ 
to many voluntary impos^ions and burthenso^np laiPpes hsL 
support of it But; in 1646, the necessities of (bfi J^ng- 
requiring it, e^ new dpnative was projeiBted, and a djdsigti 
was formed to lay a fresh tax upqn fruits, ^mpreb^ding 
all sorts, dry or greeq, s^t far ^ mulberries girape^ figs, 
appleSj^ pears, ^.c. The people, being thus deprived of 
their ordinary subsistence^ took i^ resolution to disburden 
t^mselveSi not only of thi^^ but of all other inciuppi^rtj^hte 
exactions forn^erly imposed. They made their grieviineet 
known to the viceroy by the public orias aind ^^n^ent^ti^m 
ojt women and children, as he passed through the mark^ 
pl^ce, and petitioned him, by mf ans qf the carditial F^o« 
marinp, tbe archbishop, and oth^rs^ to taj^e o(F the said tax, 
He promised to redress the grievance, and ^nveaed pr«T 
per persons to find out some n[)ethod to ta^e off the tax qb 
ip^tfi. But the farmers, be^^se i| w^pr^udicial lo theitf 



A N E t L D; t^S 

jift^^ti fmm^ fiptnfi Aircret mAins io irustnrte iiis «tideiu- 
v^)irfl, sm4 dl)ipii«id«4 bim from perfofmiBg his promisa t# 
tb^ peQpi^ ; r^reBefllipg to biin> that all the cbnnoitr wof 
loiM^ by 0. wr^cbed rabble onIy> aot woilii rdgarding. 

T^PIPP^ An^Iloi or Maasaiikrlb, now in the 24th y^ar of 
bis nge^ 4w^lt i» A eonier of the great market-place at 
K#|^le8. {if» wa9 atoiity el* a good eountenance^ and a 
191(141^ 9tiat|iY0« He wore iinen slops, a blqe waistcoat, and 
W§0^ balRdfQ^t, with a mariner's oap. His profemoQ waa 
to Wgle lor little fish with a cane, hook, and line, as als^ 
tp bpy fiih and to retail tfae«. Thi3 man, having observed 
the iSlirmnring^ up and down the city, wept one day very 
angry towards his house, and met with the famous Bandito 
J^rroiie ^nd bisjeompanion, as he passi^d by a church where 
thf y had fit^ f^r refuge. They asked him, what ailed hioi* 
Q«) answered in gr^at wrath, ^^ I will be bound to be 
bifti^ed» but I wiU vi^bt this oity.'^ They laughed at hia 
WQIidft saying) ^^ A proper squire to right the city of 
Nip^ !" Masaauiello replied, ^^ Do not laugh : I swear 
^ G^, if I bad two &c three of my humour, you should 
9^t wb«t I eould do. Will you join with me?" Tb^Y 
^fi^w^red, " Yea.'* ♦♦ Plight Hie then your faith :*' whicll 
th#y having done, be departed. A little after, when his 
fiib w^ taken from him by some of the court, because be 
kft4 QK>( P^id the tax, be resolved to avail himself of the 
mwmurings of the people againat the tax on fruit. He 
Vifpt stmong the fruit*shops tbat were in that quarter, ad- 
yising them that the neKt day diey should come a)! united 
t^ PW^ket, with a resolutimi to tell die country fruiterers 
thftt tb^y would buy no mere taxed fruit. 

A nUAiber of boys u^ed to assemble in die marketplace 
t^ pi^k up web fruit as fieU. Afeu»anieiio got among these^^ 
IjKlHgjh^ ibem some cries and clarno^trs suit^ to his purpose, 
ly^ e^roUed such a numher of them between J 5 and 17 
ywm of age, that they came to be 500, and at last 2t)00, 
Of tbb militia be made htnMielf general, giving every one 
of tbec) iu their hands a Uttle weak cane. The shoo* 
keepers observii^ bis instvuetions, there happened the 
next day a gi^at tumuk between them and the fruiterers, 
wjiicb the regent of the oily sent Anaclerio, the elect of 
the people, to quieil. Among the fruiterers was a eousify 
of Mafaaniella's, who, according to the instructions given 
him, began more than w^yto inflame the people. He sttw 
tbftt.h^ eould sell his fruit but ^t a low priee^ whiebi wb^fi 



M^ A N E L L L 0/ 

the tax was paid^ would not quit cost. He pretended t# 
listll into a great rage, ttirew- two large baskets on the 
ground, and cried out, ^^ God gives plenty, and tiie bad 
government a dearth : I care not a straw for this fruit, let 
every one take of .it." While the boys eagerly ran to ga- 
iher and eat the fruit, Massanieilo rushed in among them^ 
crying, ^^ No tax ! no tax !" and when Anaclerio threaten- 
ed him with whipping and ):he gailies, not only the iruit** 
erers, but all the people, threw figs, apples, and other 
fruits with great fury in his face. Massanieilo hit 'him on 
the breast with a stone, and encouraged his militia of boys 
to do the same, which obliged Anaclerio to save his life 
by flight. 

Upon this success, the people flocked in great numbers 
tp the market-place, exclaiming aloud ' against the into* 
lerable grievances under which they groaned, and pro-» 
testing their resolutioil to' submit no longer to them. The 
fury still increasing, Massanieilo leaped Upon the highest 
table that was among the fruiterers, and harangued the 
crowd ; comparing himself to Moses, who delivered -the 
Egyptians from the rbd of Pharaoh ; to Peter, who was a 
fisherman as well as himself, yet rescued Rome and the 
world from the slavery of Satan; promising them a like 
deliverance from their oppressions by his means, and pro- 
testing his readiness to lay down his life in such a glorious 
cause. Massanieilo repeated these and such like words 
until he had inflamed the n^inds of the people, who were 
soon disposed to co-operate with him to this purpose. 
. To begin the work, fire was put to the house next the 
toll-house for fruit, both which were burnt to the ground, 
with all the books and accounts, and goods and furniture. 
This done, every one shut up his shop, and, the numbers 
increasing, many thousand people uniting themselves went 
to other parts of the city, where all the other toll-heuses 
were: them they plundered of all their writings and books, 
great quautities of money, with many rich moveables ; all 
which they threw, into a great fire of straw, and burnt to 
ashes in the streets. The people, meeting with no resist-, 
ance, assumed more boldness, and made towards the palace- 
of the viceroy. The first militia of Massanieilo, consisting 
of 2000 boys, marched on, every one lifting up his cane 
with a piece of black cloth on the top, and with loud cries 
excited the compassion, and entreated the assistance of • 
their fe^ow- citizens. Being come before the ps^aoe, th^ 



A N E L L O. S3S 

tried out that they would not be freed of the fruit*tar 
oidy, but of all others, especially that of corn. At last 
they entered the palace and rifled it, notwithstanding the 
resistance of the guards, whom they disarmed. The vice-i 
roy got into his coach to secure ^himself within the church 
of St. Lewis, but the people, spying kim, stopped the 
coach, and with naked swords on each side of it threatened 
him, unless he would take off the taxes. . With fair pro- 
mises, and assurances of redress, and by throwing money 
among the multitude, which they were greedy to pick up, 
he got at last safe into the church, and ordered the doors 
to be shut. The people applied to the prince of Bisignano, 
who was much beloved by them, to be their defender and 
intercessor. He promised to obtain what they desired ; but 
finding himself unable, after much labour and fatigue, to 
restrain their licentiousness, or quell their fury, he took 
the first opportunity of retiring from the popular tumult. 

Afi:er the retirement of the prince, the people, finding 
themselves without a head, called out for Massaniello to 
be their leader and conductor, which charge he accepted. 
They appointed Genoino, a priest of approved knowledge, 
temper, and abilities, to attend his person ; and to him thej 
added for a companion the famous Bandito^Perrone. Mas- 
saniello^ by his spirit, good sense, and bravery, won the. 
hearts of all the people, insomuch that they became willing 
to transfer unto him solemnly the supreme command, and 
to obey him accordingly. A stage was erected in the mid- 
dle of the market-place, where, clothed in white like a 
mariner, he with his counsellors gave public audience, re- 
ceived petitions, and gave sentence in all causes both civil 
and criminal.' He had no less than 150,000 men under his 
command. An incredible multitude of women also appeared 
with arms of various sorts, like so many Amazons. A lis^ 
was made of above 60 persons, who bad farmed the taxes, 
or been some way concerned in the custom-houses ; and, 
as it was said they had enriched themselves with the blood 
of the people, and ought to be made examples to future 
ages, an order was issued, that their houses and goods 
should be burnt ; which was executed accordingly, and 
with &o much regularity, . that no one was suffered to carry 
away the smallest article. — Many, for stealing mere trifles 
from the flames, were hanged by the public executioner in 
|he market-place, by the command of Massaniello. 
. While these horrid tragedies were actipg, the viceroy 



f3«' A N E L L O/ 4 

dsRi^ of eterj method to appease the people^ nni ^n^ 
^01 to aaftcoaininodation. He applied to tbe archbishops 
ef whose attachment to tbe goi^rnment be waa weil as^* 
sored, and of whose paternal-eare and affection far tbem 
the people bad no doubt. He gave him the original char- 
ter of Charles V. (which exen^pted them from all taxes^ 
and upon which they had all along insisted) ronfirmad by 
lawful authority, and Ukewise an indulgence or pardon for 
a{i offences whatsoever committed. The bishop found 
Hieans tp induce Maosaniello to convoke all the es^itaina 
atid chief commanders of tbe people together, and g^eat 
bopes were conceived that an happy accommodation would 
ensue. In the mean time 500 banditti, all armed on boT8e>* 
btock, entered the city, under pretence that they came 
fcr the service of the people, but in reality to destroy 
Bf assaniello, as it appeared afterwards ; fur they discharged 
several shot at him^ some of which very nairowiy missed 
Ikim. Thia put a stop to the whole business, and it was 
SKSspected that the viceroy had some hand in tbe conapiracy. 
The streets were immediately barricaded, and orders were 
given that the aqueduct leading to the castle, in which 
were the viceroy and family, and all the principal offioera 
of state, should be cut off, and that no proviaions^ except 
wostne few roots and herbs, should be carried thither. The 
viceroy applied again to the ajrcbbishop, to assure the 
fteople of his sincere good intentions towards theni, Ina 
abhorrence of the designs of the banditti, axid his reeoiit* 
tioD to use all his authority to bring them to due punish* 
nent* Thus the treaty was again renewed, and sogn eom<« 
pleted ; which being done> it was thought proper that Msa« 
aaniello should go to the palaoe to (visit tixe viceroy. Sm 
gave orders that all the streets leading to it should be cleiA 
swept, and that all masters of fsunities should bang their 
windows and balconies with their richest silks mkA ta- 
pestries. He threw off .his mariner^s habit, and dressed 
himself in eloth of silver, with a fine piunie of feathers in 
hia bait ; and mounted up6n a prancing steed, with a dvawfi 
sword iu his hand, he went attended by 50,000 of. tbe 
j^eople- 

While he was in eonferenee with the viceroy in a bal** 
oony, he gave him siurprising proofs of tbe ready obedience 
of the people. Whatever ery he gave out, it was imofee^ 
diately echoed ; when he put his finger upon his motitb, 
there wassuch a profound umversid sileoce, that acarcea maa 



A M C L L O. nn 

was bdftrd to brealhe. At last h^ ordered that tibey riioiddl 
aU r^tix^e^i which was punctually and preseutly obeyod^ as 
if they had all vanished away. On the Sunday follawing 
the ca|^i4:ulation9 were signed and solemnly sworn to in. tkm 
cathedral church to be observed for ever. Masisauieilo de^ 
clared^ that now, having accomplished his honest designs^ 
be would retiirn again to his former occupation. If be bad 
kept this resolution^ he might, perhaps^ have been ranked 
among the benefactors of his country ; but either tbrougk 
the instigations of his wife and kindred, through fear^ or 
allured by the tasted sweets of rule and power, he sttU con- 
tinued bis authority : and exercised it in such a capricious 
and tyrannical manner, that his best friends began to be 
afraid of him. 

He seems indeed to have fallen into a frensy, whicb 
might naturally enough be occasioned by his sudden eie* 
vation^ hts care asid vigilance (for he setdom either ate or 
slept during the whole transaction), and by his imaiodeiMr 
drinking of strong wine, wbicb excess he gave into oti ttifs 
happy event. Four persons took ttn opportunity of, assaak- 
sinattng him. As he fell, he only cried out, *^ Ungrateful 
traitors!'* His head was thrown into ovse ditch, and hjs 
body into another. The tumult, however, did not subside 
until the Nea{)oiitan8 were entirely fireed from the yojie of 
Spain. ^ 

ANF09SI (Pascal), an emhsent Italian maisiciany wsts 
bom about the year ]73€, and studied bis art at Naples 
under the greatest masters. In 1771, Piceini, who had a 
£fiendship for him, procured him an engagemeot as cena^ 
poseif for the theatre delta Danoe, at Rooie; Hefre Im first 
attempts were not very successful; yet he persisted, and in 
ll'iB, esfcabUshed bis reputastion ctooopl^tely fay kis '* In* 
conrnoe persecutes ;'' ^ La Finta Gdardiniera j" and " II 
Gebso in cimento >" the merit of all vrtiieh operas was 
amply acknowledged. The foidtnre^ howereir, of his ^ Olya^^ 
ptside/' and sosae other unpleasant circumstanees^ deter^ 
mined fahu to tnwrel. A^ecordingly, be visited the prio-* 
cipul citites of Italy, and caine to Pasis, with tbe title of 
mswter of the conservaitory at Venice. He presented to 
tbe royal academy o£ mussehis ** Iwconnue persecut^e," 
adapted to French words,, but it had net tbe same succeas 
ai in iuly. In; 17»2 ki^ came ta London^ te cake tkt» 

. • I ^^Mkrii U«i«9ri(it Uimryr ^^ XXV. 



S38 A N F O S S t 

direction of the opera : but, as Dr. Bumey observes, he 
arrived at an unfavourable time ; for as Sacchini had pre-"- 
ceded him, and as the winter following was only rendered 
memorable at the opera-house by misfortunes, disgrace, 
and bankruptcy, his reputation was rather dinunished than 
increased in this kingdom. In 1787, he finally settled at 
Home, where his reputation was at its height, and con« 
tinued unabated to the day of his death in 1795. Besides 
bis operas, he composed some oratorios from words se- 
lected by Metastasio. * 

ANGE DE St. Joseph (le Pere), a barefoot carmelite 
of Toulouse, whose real name was La Brosse, lived a long 
while in Persia in, quality of apostolic missionary : the li- 
terty he enjoyed in that country, gave him an opportunity 
to acquire the language. He was also provincial of &is 
order in Languedoc, and died at Perpignan in 1697. The 
knowledge he had acquired in the East, induced him to 
undertake a Latin translation of the Persian Pharmacopoeia, 
inrhich appeared at Paris in 1681, 8vo. There is also by 
bim, ** Gazophyfacium linguae Persarum," Arast. 1684, foL 
He there explains the terms in Latin, in French, and in 
Italian, in order, that his book hiay be of service to the en- 
lightened nations of Europe in general. His reputation as 
a Persian scholar was considerably great in his own country, 
until our learned Dr. Hyde published his " Castigatio in 
Angelum a St. Joseph, alias dictum de la Brosse." The 
reason of this castigation was, that La Brosse had attacked 
the Persian gospels in the English Poly^t, and the Latin 
version of them by Dr. Samuel Clarke. Dn Hyde imme- 
diately vnrote a letter to him, in which he expostulated with 
him, and pointed out his mistakes, but received no answer. 
At length, in 1688, La Brosse came over to England, went 
to Oxford, and procured an introduction to Dr. Hyde, 
without letting him know who he was, although he after- 
wards owned his. name to be La Brosse, and that be came 
over to justify what he had advanced. After a short dis- 
pute, which he carried on in Latin, he began to speak the 
Persian language, in which he was surprised to find Dr. 
Hyde more fluent than himself. Finding, however, that 
he could not defend what he had asserted, he took his leave 
with a promise to return, and either defend it, or acknow- 
ledge his error; but, as he performed neither. Dr. Hyde 

A Biog. Universelle.— Barney's Hist, of Music, tqU IV* 



A N G E. 23* 

]|lublished the '^ Castigatio.'' In this he first states La, 
Brosse's objections, then shews them to be weak anti trifling, 
and arising from his ignoiunce of the true idiom of the iPer- 
sian tongue. As to his ^^ Pharmacopoeia,'' Hyde proves 
that it was really translated by father Matthieu, whose 
name La Brosse suppressed, and yet had not the courage 
.to place his own, unless in Persian characters, on the title* 
-This appears to have sunk his reputation very considerably 
in France. ^ 

ANGE D£ St£ Rosalie, a barefoot Augustine, and a 

learned genealogist, whose family name was Francis Haf- 

.fard, was born atBlois in 1655, and died at Paris in 1726. 

He was preparing a new edition of the History of the Royal 

Family of France, and of the great Officers of the Crown ; 

b<^un by pere Anselm, the first edition of which appeared 

in 1672, 2 vols. 4to, and the second in 1712, improved by 

M. de Foumi. But he was suddenly seized by death, leaving 

behind him the memory of a laborious scholar ; le pere 

Simplicion, his associate in this work, published it in 9 vols. 

foL Pere Ange also composed " TEtat de la France," in 

5 vols.^ 12mo, and republished in 17^6, in 6 vols, a very 

rCurious and useful work on what may now be termed the 

ancient history and constitution of France. * 

, ANGEL (John), an English clergyman and nonconform 

iQEiist, was bcHrn about the latter, end of the sixteenth cen* 

.tury, in, Gloucestershire, and admitted of Magdalen halh, 

Oxford, in 1610. After taking bis degrees in arts, he went 

into the church, and became a frequent and popular 

preacher. Ip 1630 he preached a lecture at Leicester^ 

but, in 1634^ was suspended by the dean of the arches for 

preaching without a licence. In 1650, the Independents, 

who then were predominant, obliged him to leave Leicester, 

because he refused to subscribe to their engagement. On 

this the Mercers^ company chose him lecturer of Grantham 

in Lincolnshire, where he remained until his death in 1655, 

an event which was deeply lai^ented by his Hock. He 

wrote " The right government of the Thoughts," London, 

1659, 8vo, and " Four Sermons," ibid. 8vo. ^ 

. ANGELI (Bonaventure), an Italian historian of some 

reputation, was born at Ferrara in the sixteenth century. 

lie was an able lawyer, and had the management of the 

J Diet Hislorique. — Biog; Uaiverselle.— Bio^. Britannica, art. Hyd«, 
< JBioy. tlnittncUe,"— Moreri. , ^ Ath, Ox, vol. 11, 



940 A N G E L L 

affaira of the duket of FiKrrafa. Bd afterwso^ secdM St 
Parmfty and became tbe kistoKiaa of the placOi GkmeHty 
i» his '' JUbiiotheqne curieuse^" informs nay that itevj^cii 
iMiTtog oollecced materials from aotaat ^bservatioB vibpMa- 
ktg tbe gNegpraphy of Italy^ Wttb » view to cormot A^ «i^ 
. Tars of PtoloBacy^ PKny, and the modern gmigft^ber^ took 
Paroia in his waj, and was reqoa»teid to write its btecofy. 
For this puf pose Erasmus Vietto, tbe booksetier, aeeommd- 
dated him with his library, and the history Wsts finished 
within six monlbsf^ but was no€ pabli^hed liifitil afiei^ his 
death, if be died in 1576, as is assei*ted by Baruflbldiy id 
the supplement to his history of the Hfiiversity of VevftM, 
and by Mazzucbelfi in his ^^ ScrittMi UatiatYi" Tbe woric 
was emided " Istoria dertla eitta d» Fiairmae dkescrizi^fie del 
Fiume Parma, lib. Yill." PaRrma^ \59\^4t0. Eadb book 
ist dedicated to some ode of the principal lords of Parmsy 
whose pedigree and kdstory i9 included in the de€Hdtili<^tL 
7he copies- are mm beeoiae scarce^ aad espeeially tboi^ 
which happen to -contain, ^me passives respecting P< L. 
Fatnese,. which were cancelled in tbe i^estof the i«tspressi<^tf. 
The year before, a work by the same author Wiis^ puMistf €9d 
which ought to be joined with bis^ history, tfn^^e* She ti^ 
<^ Descrizione di Pasaia, svKvi JE^'iiiini, e larger terrttorid^" H^ 
wrote abo the <^ Ltfe of LadoTico Catti/"^ ajawyer,' 1^4, 
and some other tireadses^ ** De nOK sepeiieffdi^ itfortais f 
*^ Gli dogi degb eves Estentd^" mA *^ Oi^corAl kiio#M 
rorigine de Gardiimli,'' 1505.' 

/ ANGELiCO (Fra GicrrAKVPf), ^ Fiesdlor ^ ciO^ 
fKHA the place vdnere he was h^f in 1387. H^#te tti 
first the diseiple of Giotftiao, but afteriMrA b€k:»aie s( Do^ 
aoamcaii friar, and in that station. wa# as mu>6hadtfiii^ for 
bts: piety ass fads paintings His devout mafihfi^ ftbttfteA 
him the iiaane of Aagelico, e« tbe an^Ue pstbilir, Ai^ it 
18 said that he never took ap bis petioil witbotil a fnrayei^ 
and had h» eyes Medwith Kfeifs wfaeo re|Svei^6li€ifig tM 
sufferings of our Satiow^. Niebotas V. empfoiyed h^ lift 
.bia chapel, to paint hissoricadi sublets Oiif a l»rg^ sdA\dyit§A 
prevailed on him soon after to deeoriMe several b<Mc4s ^kk ' 
Boriniatore paiintingiK Altbeugh there are^ itf ki:^ &<69t psAn th- 
ings considerable de&c«s, yet be was a sriost skillel Hi#mie- 
tor, and bis aoviabte temp«ir ptfeca^ed binl' ttMinf s#llM«M 
He always painted religious subjects^ and it is given as a 

1 Biog. 



A>I GEL I b O. Ul 

IHibof bt bis €»itni€hrdiRary humiUty, that be refused the 
uaithkb&pnc of Florence when tendered to him by Nicholas 
V. ad Kbe ireward of his talents. With respect to the ob- 
jections iiHide to his pictures, we are farther told, that he 
purposely left some great faiilt in them, lest his self-love 
might be too mueh flattered by the praises that would have 
been beslowed ; a practice, however absurd in an artist, not 
tiBsfiitable to monkish ideas of mortification. He died in 

ANGELIERI (Bonav£NTURE), a writer of the seveta- 
feenth oentury, was a monk of the order of the minorites 
of St« Francis, and a native of Marsalla in Sicily. He was 
ilso viear*general of his order at Madrid, and became af- 
terwards one of the fathers of the Observance. He was 
Uvitig in 1707, as in that year Mongitore speaks of him, 
among living authors, in his ** Bibl. Sicula.*' I'his monk 
published two volumes, the nature of which may be judged 
from the titles : the first was called '< Lux magica, &;c. 
ocblestiura, terrestrium, et inferprum origo, ordo, et subor- 
dinatioeunctorum, quoad esse, fieri, etoperari, viginti qua- 
tuor voluminibus divisa,^^ Venice, 1685, 4to. This he 
published under the assumed name of Livio Betani, but; 
prefixed his name to the second, entitled " Lux magica 
aoademioa, pars secunda, primordia rerun) naturalium, sa- 
nabilium, infirmarum et inourafailium continens,*' Venice, 
1987, 4to. These, as appears by the first, were to be fol- 
lowed by twenty^two more volumes on the same subjects.* 

ANGEUO, or DEGLI ANGELI (Pet«), an eminent 
ttiJtati scholar and Latin poet, was bom in 1517, ^t Barga 
in Tuscany, and thence surnamed, in Italian, Bakoeo, and 
in Latin, BhHQMVS. He received hi^ early education un- 
der an unde, an able linguist, and was mad^ acquainted 
with Greek and Latin when only ten years old. It was at 
first intended that he should study law at Bolp^ia^ but his 
taste for ttteralore was decided, and when h^fouiia that hi^ 
unetes'woald not maintain him there, if he oontinued to 
Mttdy the belles lettres, he sold his law books, and jub- 
ilated OH what they produced, until |t rich iBolognese, 6f 
the family of Pepolt, offered to defray the expence of his 
edttoatioA. Ht» poetical turn soon appeared, and while at 
the university, he formed the plan of his celebrated poetp 
on the ehise, but having written soi^e satirical vetses at the* 

1 PilkiDgton.-«I>ict. Htit. « Bnp. V^tmllt^ 

Vol. IL R 



a^t A N O E L 1 ©^ 

request of a noble lady, with whom he was in love^ Ii^ 
dreaded the consequences of being known as the autho?^ 
and quitted Bologna. At Venice, whither he now repaired>> 
he found an asylum with the French an^bassador, who en** 
tertained him in his house for three years, and employed 
him to correct the Greek manuscripts, which Francis I. had 
ordered to be copied for the. royal library at Paris, He 
afterwards accompanied another French ambassador to 
Constantinople, and with him made the tour of all the 
places in Asia Minor and Greece that are noticed in the 
works of the classics. In 1543 he was on board the Aee% 
sent by the jgrand seignior to ^e environs of Nice, against 
the emperor, and commanded by the famous Barbarossa ^ 
and he was with the above ambassador at the siege of Nice 
by the French. After encountering other hardships of war^ 
and fighting a duel, for which he was obliged to fly, he found 
means to return to Tuscany. At Florence he was attacked 
with a tertian ague, and thinking he could enjoy health 
and repose at Milan, to which place Alphonso Davalps had 
invited him, he was preparing to set^ut, when he received 
news of the death of that illustrious Maece^ias. 

He now endeavoured to console himself by cultivating 
his poetical talent, an employment which had been long in* 
terrupted, and resumed his poem on the chase, for whichk 
he had collected a great many notes and observations ii> 
the East and in France. In 1546, the inhabitants of {leg* 
gio chose him public professor of Greek and Latin, with a 
handsome allowance, and the rights of citizenship. In this 
office he continued about three years, after which the grand 
duke, Cosmo I. invited him to be professor of the belles- 
lettres at Pisa. After filling this chair for seventeen years, 
he exchanged it for that of moral and political science, and 
lectured on Aristotle's two celebrated treatises on these sub- 
jects. Such was his attachment to that universi^, and to 
the grand duke, that during the war of Sienna, when Cos*-* 
mo was obliged to suspend payment of the professors' sala* 
ries, Angelio pawned his furniture and books, that he 
might be enabled to remain at his po»t, while his brethren 
fled. And when the Siennese army, commanded by PeteY 
Strozzi, approached Pisa, which had no troops for its de-» 
fence, our professor put arms into the hands of the stu-? 
dents of the university, trained and disciplined them, and 
with their assistance defended the city until the grand duke 
was able to send them assistance. 



A N G E L- 1 O. 243 



- In 1575,' the ictirdinal Fei»dinflnd de Medicis^ who watf 
afterwards grand duke, took Angelio to Rome with him^ 
settled a large piension on him^ and by other princely marks 
of farour, induced him to reside there, and encouraged 
him to complete a poem, which he had begun thirty years 
before, on the conquest of Syria and Palestine by the 
Christians. Aiigelio caused all his poems to be reprinted 
^ Rome in 1585, and dedicated to this cardinal^ who re- 
warded him by a present of two thousand florins of gold; 
When he became grand duke, Angelio followed him to 
Florence, and there at length published his " Syrias/^ 
He was now enriched by other pensions, and was enabled 
to pass his declining years, mostly at Pisa, in opulence and 
ease. He died Feb. 29, 1596, in his seventy-ninth year, 
and was interred in the Campo Santo, with great pomp ; 
and a funeral oration was read in the academy of Florence^ 
and, what was still a higher honour, as he was not a mem-' 
ber, in that of Delia Crusca. 

• Angelio's published works are, 1. Three •* Funeral 
Orations," in Latin, one on Henry II. of France, read at 
Florence in 1559, the second on the grand duke Cosmo, at 
Pisa in 1 574, and the third on the grand duke Ferdinand, 
his libeml patron, at Florence, 1587. 2. " De ordine le-^ 
gendi scriptores Historiee RotnansB,'' twice printed sepa- 
rately, and inserted in Grotius ^^ De studiis instituendis.'* 
3» " Poemata varia, diligenter ab ipso reoognita,'* Rome, 
1585, 4to. This collection, the greater part of which had 
been printed separately, contains the poem on which hia 
reputation is chiefly founded, the ** Cynegeticon," or the 
Chase, in six books ; and the ** Syrias," in twelve books, 
on the same subject as Tasso's " Jerusalem delivered.** 
4^. ** De |)rivatorum "publicorumque urbis Romse eversori- 
bus epistola,'* Florence,* 1589, 4to, printed since in the 
4th volume of the " Thesaurus antiquitatum Romanarum.'* 
B, " Poesie Toscane,** published with a translation of the 
CEdipus of Sophocles, Florence, 1589, 8vo. 6. Letters in 
Latin and Italian in various collections. 7. ^^ Memoirs of 
bid life," written by himself, and published by Salvini in 
the " Fasti Consolari" of the academy of Florence, sftid 
abridged in the present article. * 

ANGELIS (DoMiNico de), author of several pieces 
relating to the history of literature, was born the 14th of 

} Bioj. Uniyersellc.«-»Mw.cri. 

a 2 



/ 



944 A N Q EL I 6. 

October X^lSf 9X Leecey tiy^ cslpit4 of Oferanto in the 
kingdom of Naples^ of one of the noblest and most con<* 
aiderable families in that city. He began his studies al 
Lecee, aiKl at seventeen years of age went to finish tbem aft 
Naples, where he ^plied very closely to the Greek lan-^ 
guage and geometfy* He went afterwards to Maoerata^ 
where be was admitted LL. D* His desire of improvement 
induced him also to travel into France and Spain, wbene 
be acquired great reputation. Several academies of I^y 
were ambitious of procuring him as a member, in oonse* 
queiice of which we find his name not only amongst thos0 
of the Transformati and Spioni pf Lecce, but also in that 
of the Investiganti of Naples, in^the academy of Florence, 
and in that of the Arcadians at Rome, into the last of which 
be was admitted the 8th of August 1698. He went into 
orders very early, and was afterwards canon and grand pe- 
nitentiary of the church of Lecce, vicar general of Viesti, 
Gallipoli, and Gragnano, first chaplain of the troops of the 
kingdom of Naples and of the pope, auditor of M. Nicho- 
las Negroni, and afterwards of the cardinal his uncle. 
Whilst Philip V. of Spain was master of the kingdom of 
Naples, he was honoured with the title of principal histo- 
riographer, which had likewise been given him when he 
was in France, by Louis XIV. ; and he afterwards became 
secretary to the duke of Gravina. He died at Lecce the 
^th of August 1719, and was interred in the cathedral of 
that city ; or, acoording to another authori^, Aug. 7, 1718. 
His works are, i. *' Dissertazione interna alia patria di 
Ennio,'' Jlome, 1701, Florence in the title,, but really at 
Naples, 1712. In this he endeavours to prove that Eonius 
was born at Rudia, two miles from Lecce^ and not Rudia 
near Tarento. 2. ^ Vita di monsignor Roberto Caracciolo 
vescovo d' Aquino e di Lecce, 170S.*' 3. ^^ Delia vita di 
Scipione Ammirato, patrizio Leccese, libri tre,*' Lecce, 
1706. 4. " Vita di Antonio Caraccio da Nardo." 5. " ViU 
di Andrea Pescbiulli da Corigliano.*' These two are not 
printed separately, but in a collection entitled ^' Vite de^ 
Letterati Salentini.*' 6. *^ Vita di GiacoB»o Antonio Fer- 
rtiri,** Lecce, 1715. 7. <' Vita di Giorgio Baglivo^'* Lec- 
cese. 8. '^ Lettera discorsiva al March. Giovani Gio- 
seffio Orsi, dove si tratto deir origine e progressi de signori 
s^ccademici Spioni, e delle varie lorb lodevoli applicazioni," 
Lecce, 1705, 8vo. 9. ^^ Discorso historico, in cui si tratta 
deir origine e delle fondazione della citta di Lecce e d'Al- 



A N G E L I & jiM 



cmme nigfiori e piu prineipati ncniMe 4i cii^Mty*' Lecee, 
1 705. 1 0. '< Le Vite de letterati Salentini^ ftLtte V The 
lives of lAitt learned men of Terra d^Otranto, part I. Flo- 
renee in the title^ but really Naples^ 17 lO. The seceiMl 
part was publislied ait Naples, 17 13, in 4te. II. *' Ora- 
akme funel>re recitata in occasione della morte delP imp^** 
radore Giuseppe- nel vescofval donoo 4i Gallipoli/' Nap4eS| 
i7t6. 12. ^ Scritto istorieo legs^ sopra le ragieni detU 
suspensieiH del' interdetto locale generate della chiefa di 
Leece e sua dioeesi/' Rome, 17 19. 1 S. ^ Tre lettere le- 
gtie.^ These thi^e letters were vrntten ill ^lefenoe of the 
right of the^ovcti ^f Leece. 14. He wrote likewise se* 
iverat poeniS) portiGularly seven sonriets, vrincti are published 
ill die sdcottd part-of the ^ Rtmo 9celte del «ign. Barto* 
lommeo Lippi,** printed ait Looca, 1 7 1 9. * 

ANGELJS (]|^t£(i), apaintet^ of considerable note in 
die last oenttiry, was born ait Donfaii^ in I^S, and visiting 
Ftaaders and Gemiaiiy in cbe coarse of his ^Indies, made 
the longest stay kt Dusseldorpe, enchanted v^h tWe trea<* 
snres of painting in thateicy. -He came to England abcwt 
the year 1712, and soon became a favourite painter; but 
in the year I^S4, 4ie set oot for Italy, where he «pem three 
years. At Rome his pictures gave greet sertisfaction, l^nt 
being of a reseived temper,' and ^ol ostentations of -his 
merit, he dii^^led several hy the reJ'Actance with wtnA 
be exhibited Ms works; hi)» itndious and sober tenvper 4ii* 
dining him mot>e'to the pcHisnit of his art than tie the -ad^ 
iBantage of his fortune. Yetiiis attention to the laitter 
prevented his Tetami ng to CwgVand, as be intended ^ ^oi^ 
stopping-at) Rennes ¥11 Brelagne, a rich and pai4ia«ienttS!rf 
town, be was so immediately ^overwhehnecl with empley^ 
mrnit theve,^ ihat^be settled 9Htb«it cky, arM died therein* 
short time, ih 1784, when he %vas not alnyve f\9rty^niifie 
yea^rs of age. He eKecH^tied <v)nversations and lands^T^apei 
wHh small '%nres, which he was iond of enriehi^ng with pe«- 
pvesentations of frnit and iish. His manner was a mi?ctuf^ 
of Teniers and Wattean, wi^ more grace than 4be formeri 
and moi>e natnre than the latter. His pencil was ea^^ 
bright, and flowing, bat his colouring too faint »ad newe^ 
less.. He afterwards adopted the habits of R'cd^eAs and 
Vandyeh, more pictaresqne indeed, bnt 'not so pi^er'lo 

< ■ - . 

1 Gen. Diet.— Biograpl^ie eniverselle. 



24S A N G E L I S. 

improve his pi*o.duclions in what their chief beauty consist* 
ed^ familiar life. ^ . , ^ 

. ANGELIS (Stephen de), an Italian mathematician^ 
was educated under BonavenUire Cavalieri, the most emi<« 
nent Italiaii scholar in that, science in the seventeenth cen« 
tuiy. He was at first a Jesuit, but that order being 
suppressed in 1668, he applied closely to the study <^ ma* 
tbematics, and taught at Padua with great success, pub-^ 
Jishing various works, and carrying on a controversy on ther 
opinions of Copernicus with; Ricqioli and others. Moreri^ 
from a manuscript account of the learned men^ of Italy^ 
written by father Ppissop, gives a nifuuerous list of his 
publications, some of which were an Latin, and some in 
Italian. We have only seen his ^^ MisceUaneum hyperbo-r 
licum et parabolicum,'\Venice> 16B,9, 4to, and "Delia 
gravitadeir Aria e Fluids, DialogiV." Padua, 1671-^2, 
4to. His controversy on Copernicus wa,j5.'beiguB in " Con-^ 
fiiderazioni sopra la forza d'alcune cagioni fisicbe; matema-" 
tiche addote dal Pad. Ricoioli, &c." Venice, i667, 4to, 
and continued in a second,. third» and fourth part, 1668 — 9^ 

ANGELO. See BUONAROTI — CARAVAGIO^^ 
CAMPIDQGUO. 

ANGEILO, ANGELICO, or ANGIOU (Jamss), a Flo- 
feutin^ writer of the fourteenth and fifteeath centuries, waa 
bom ^ Scarperia, in the valley of MugeUc^ and. studied 
Koder John de Ravenna, Yargerius, Scala^^ P^ggio, and 
other learned v^n* After studying math0mMicii for some 
time, hp wept to Con^jtantiuople, whe?i$;;he resided nine 
years, and whence h^ sent a great number o£. letters to 
£mmanuel Cbrysoioras at Florence.. Ji^re likewise he had 
im oppprtunity of studying tb$ Greek language, and ac-, 
quired such an accurate knowledge of it as tp attempt va-* 
rious translation^. On bis return he went to Rome, and 
was a candidate fpr the place pf the pope^3 secretary, which 
^t that time Leonard d'^ez;?o obtained, but Angelo ap« 
pears to have held the oifipe in; 1410, from this time we 
)iave no account of him, except that be is said to have died 
in the prime of life. He translated from Greek into Latin^ 
1. " Cosmogjraphi^ PtQjomaei, lib. VUL" 2. ** Ptolo-^ 
nisei quadripartiti^m." 3. *^ Ciceronis vita,*' from Plutarch, 
4* The lives of Pompey, Brutus, Marius, and Julius Csesari 

I Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 
f Morex'U'9f'B9jvo?9 3ii>Uoteca Itali^ip^. 



\ 



A N G EL O. 247 

^o' trom Plutarch, but not printed. There is likewise a 
work entitled ** Jacobi Angeli historica narratio de vita, 
i^busque gestis M. Tullii Ciceronis,'* Wirtemberg, 1564, 
Berlin, 1581 and 1587, which Fabricius, in his BibL Lat, 
Med. ^v. says is a diflPerent work from the translation from 
Plutarch. * 

ANGELONI (Francis), a learned antiquary of the 
seventeenth 'century, was born at Terni, in the duchy of 
Spalatto, and became secretary to the cardinal Hippolito 
Aldobrandini, and apostolic prothonotary. He was also a 
member of the academy of the Insensati at Perugia, and 
made so extensive a collection of curiosities of art of every 
kind, that it was thought worthy of the name of the Roipan 
museum. ' The marquis Viticenzo Giustiniani engaged An- 
geloni to publish his series of imperial medals, which ac- 
cordingly appeared under the title ** L*Istoria Augusta da 
Giulio Cesare Costatino il magno," Rome, 1641, dedi- 
cated to Loui^ XIII. As he was considerably advanced 
in age, when he undertook this work, many defects were 
found, and pointed out with some severity, which in- 
duced him to prepare a new, enlarged, and corrected 
edition, but this be did not live to finish, dying Nov* 
29, J 6 52, It was at length published by J. P. Bellori, his 
maternal nephew, in 1685, fol. Rome, enriched with addi- 
tional plates and ttie reverses of the medals which Angeloni 
bad neglected, and which, his own collection being now 
^old and dispersed, were taken from the museum of Chris- 
tina, queen of Sweden. Angeloni published also the his- 
tory of his native country, " Storia di Terni,** Rome, 1646, 
4to, and 1685, with a portrait of the author; and wrote 
9ome letters and dramatic pieces, not in m^ich estimation.* 
• ANGELUCCI (Th^dore), in Latin Angelutius, an 
Italian poet and physJHan, who flourished about the end 
of the sixteenth century, was bom at Belforte, a castle 
near Tolentino, in the march of Ancona. He was a phV-- 
sician by profession, and, on account of his successiul 
practice, was chosen a citizen of Trevisa, and some other 
towns. He acquired also considerable reputation by a li- 
terary controversy with Francis Patrizi, respecting Aristotle. 
Some writers infoi^m us that he had been one of the profes- 
sors of Padua, but Riccoboni, Tomasini, and Papadopoliy 
|be historians of that university, make no mention of hifOU 

I Marchand Diet. Hist— Biog. UDiyerieUe.«*Saxii OaoiustictOt 

II Biog. Universelle.— Diet UlsU 



243 A N G £ L U C C I. 

We learn from himself, in one of his dedicatjwasi that lift 
resided for some time at Bx)me9 and that in 4593 he wa& at 
Venice, an exile from his country, and in great distres<| but 
he says nothing of a residence in France, whierei, if acoMrd-* 
ing to somey he had been educated, we cannot suppose he 
Would have omitted so remarkable a circumstance in Ipi^ 
history. He was a member of the academy of Venice, and 
died in l&OO, at Montagnana, where he was the principal 
physician, and from which his corpse was brought for intM*-; 
ment at Trevisa, He k the authov of, l . << Seateoda 
quod Metapbysica sit eadem que Physica,'^ . Venice^ 15$4^ 
4to. This is a defence of Aristotle against PatrUi, whoi 
preferred Plato. Patrizi answered it, and Aogelucci fe}* 
lowed with, 2. ^^ Exercitatioaum cum Patricio liberi" Ve* 
nice, 15S5, 4to. 3. ^' Ars Medica, ex Hippocnatas et Gale^ 
ni thesauris potissimum deprompta," Yeoice, li^93, 4to> 
4. '* ^e natura et ouratione maligass Febris,'' Veaicf^ 
1593, ito. This was severely attacked by DonateHi 4# 
Castiglione, to whom Ang^cci replied, in the same ye^fi 
in a tract entitled ^^ Bactria, quibus rudens quidam ac £4-t 
sus criminator valide repercutitur.'' 5. ^^ Deus, ^aDaonl^ 
spirituale di Celio ntagno, &c. con di^e Lezioni di T> Au-^ 
gelucci/' Venice, 1597, 4to. $^ ^^ Capitolo in ledf deUa 
paszia^^^ inserted by Garsoni, to whom it was addressed 
in his hospital of fools, << Oaipitale de pazzi/' Venice, ISM 
and 1601. 7. ^' lEneide di Virgilio, tradotto in v&tMO sci-» 
plto,** Naples, 1649, 12mo. This, which is the only edi^ 
tion, is very scarce^ and highly praised-by the Italian critics^ 
but «ome have attributed it to father Ignatio Ang^ucci, a 
Jesuit ; others are of opinion that tgnatio left no woork whieb 
can ipduce us to believe him capable of »ucb a translaticMi,. ^ 
ANGELUS (Chri$toph£k), a learnedGreek ef the seven- 
teenth century, author of several learned and curious work^ 
was born at F^ofponnesus in Greece, and obliged by th# 
Turks to abandon his country on account of ^ TeUgioui 
fot which he suffered a variety of torments. He -came af<* 
terwards to England, where he was supported by the bishop 
of Norwich and several of the clergy. Qy this prelate's 
reaommendation, he went to Cambridge, and studied about 
three yeara in Trinity college. In Whitsuntide 1610, faf 
lemoved to Oxford, and studied at Baliol college, where 
lie did great service to the young scholars of the umversi^^ 

. « mag. Itehrmctta^^^lMer ek Manfet. BiM. Mel. 



A M Q S L V 9. t4t 

^y intlxii^ftii^ tbem im A^ Greok Ungm^ ; in iifbicb ami** 
nor ^Q Bii|ploy«4 hkit^f uQ bid dMdi» whtob iMqppMied on 
A^ m of F^Uroitty i«sa. He wii$ buried iti :8U £bbe*» 
chviKdi or ch«rcb*y«r4» Oxfoidr 

. To libis brief Accovnt from Wood's Atfaeineiy we Me vom 
enabled to add mstoy p^vtieuUYs, gtea^od fivom bis wfnkm 
by • loora^d oaireaiKaJadeAt of tbe GentlMnn's MagMine. 
It appt^w^^at be W99 a Craek Gbiisdan^ a naUfe of Pe-^ 
lojpooaoMV^ that be travelkid throng Oreooe io qitett ^f 
seligioiis tru^ and instmction ^ and dmt ivbea be came to 
Atibeii% tbo Turkiib gOTernor thvew him into priioii| said 
inflac^d 4be «ev«reat ennriues U|MHi biiii» beonuae be wonld 
not «]^)«re CMstiMicy,, m^ impeacb tbe Atbeniaii iBeis 
obant% wbo tbea trafficked widi Veoto^, of baving sent 
bi«^ P9 betray Athena to die Spaniards ; an ii!ipeacbn»nt 
sdki^ed for the purpose of throwing odium on the Athe^ 
liiaa CbnstiaiMSy md of enabling tbe governor to arenge 
bips^ fer oertain oamplBiBts tbey bad preferred against 
bioi W ^ .««ibUne Parte. These cu^uolties be anrvived) 
and haying been lete^sed £rom pnaon on tbe i o t en ccs si on 
of fiOm^ men of tank and influence^ be escaped by tbe 
first €0fiiFe}Wiee ^ £iig)aiid« He lat«ded at Yarmootfa m 
1608^ %iMi fmn <A|e bishop (Dr. Jegoo) luid tleip^of Nor* 
fqlk^ vmbo cwtribnted liberally to his telief^.be reoeirad 
letiofs of ^oaiftmendatsoR to the beirds of tbe university ,of 
Daoibfidge^ After a year's residenoe there^ be ramoFod 
for .4ibe >ake of bis heallb /to Oldbrd, wbeiie, in 1617, be 
IHibi^EAifefd ibia story of bis. perseootion at Adieos, and of bis 
kiM receplioii in EngVsnr4> to wbioh oouatry and its inba^ 
biNwta be SD^i^oieed. a sihort address of panegyric This 
workf^bicfe is in Qreek ai>d £T>g(tsb, As entitled *^ Of tbe 
many stripes and tofsoeals inilioted on him by the Tucks, 
fw tbe. faith w bicb be bad in Jesus Cbcrist" 

Wff^ 0;rfoFd nest year be seems to hanre ffetnmed «a 
Cambndge, as ia \€19 he published <^ An Eacomion of 
tbe faiHko^s kii^dom of Gsreat Britaine, and of the ttm 
flourisbiqg sister universities of Cambridge and Oxford,^ 
pjiso GreSfi and £nglirii. The Greek in tibia, aa in Us 
otb^r w]QHing$» tbou^ not perfectly chaste, is elegant and 
perspicuous, c^nd the ^n^ of compositiQii faecening tjhe 
genius of Oieeoe^ except pecbaps in certain byperhotes of 
panegyric, which seem, however,* to have sprung from tbe 
generous ardour of gratitude rather than from tbe base ser* 
vility of adulation. His next work^ tbe same year as tbe 



450 A N O E L U S. 

above, and from th^ tiniTersitj«^pres8, is a curious account of 
the rites and ceremonies of the Greek church. This is in 
Greek and Latin. " Enchiridion de institutis Grifecorum.** 
Of this there were afterwards two editions by Fehlavius, 
Francfort, 1655, i2mo, and Leipsic, 1676, 4to. The for- 
mer appears to (lave been the Latin only. 

His fourth work, published atLondon, 1624, Sti Gr. and 
Lat. is entitled ** Labor C. A', de Apostasia Eccl^i®, et 
dc Homine peccati, scilicet AntichristOj &c.'* The' object 
is, in the first insuince, to establish a distinctioh "^betwixt 
the apostacy and iAie man of sin in 2 Thess. ii.' 3 ; to prove 
that the apostacy, predicted as necessary to take place be- 
fore the coming of Antichrist, was fulfilled inthe^tirrender 
of the temporal powers to pope Boniface by the emperor 
Phocas, and that * Mahomet; who appeared within eleven 
years after, was the Antichrist; and lastly, to demonstratei 
by somev ingenious calculations, which are also applied to 
6ther subjects of prophecy, that the destruction of the last 
of the Mahomets, to all of whom he attaches the title of 
Antichrist, will happen in the year 1876,* ^ 

ANGERIANO (Girolamo), was an Italian poet of the 
sixteenth century, of whose history we have nb particulars. 
His poems, which are in Latin, were printed for the first 
thne at Naples, 1 520, 8vo, under the title of " De obitii 
Lyd^ ; de vero poeta ; de Parthenope.'* His Efc^iiFmymp, 
which is a collection of love verses, dedicated notwithstand- 
ing to the archbishop of Bari, was reprinted at Paris in 
I5i2j 12mo, 'with the poetry of MartiUus and Johannes 
Secundus, to both of whom, however, he is inferior. There 
was another edition in 1582, 12mo. Many of his works 
are also inserted in the ** Carm. illust. Poet. Italdrum.*** 

ANGERVILE. See AUNGERVILLE. 

ANGHIERA (Peter Martyr d'), an Italian scholar, 
was born in 1455, at Arona, on the Lake Major. 'His fami- 
ly, one of the most illustrious in Milan, took the name of 
Anghiera, from the same lake, which is partly in the county 
of Anghieca. In l477, he went to Rome, and entered 
into the service of the cardinal Ascanio Sforza Visconti, 
and afterwards into that of the archbishop of Mildn. 
During a residence there of ten< years, he formed an ac^ 

quaintance with the most eminent literary men of his time, 

(■ . 

1 Wood's Athenae, vol. I. — Gent. Mag. vol, I^XIV. 
tBtog. UiiiTer8«Ue.«->Roscoe's Leo. 



A N 6 H I E R A. SSI 

and anumg odiers, with Pomponio Leto. In 1487, he 
went into Spain in the suite of the ambassador of that 
court, who was returning home. By him he was presented 
to Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen, and served in 
two campaigns, but quitted the army for the church, and 
was appointed by the queen to teach the belles iettres to 
the youD^ men of the court, in which employment he con«^ 
tinued for some time. Having on various occasions shown 
a capacity for political .business, Ferdinand, in ISOl, em- 
ployed him on an errand of considerable delicacy, to the 
sultan of £g3rpt, in which he acquitted himself greatly to 
his majesty^s satis&ction. While engaged in this businesi^,' 
he took the opportunity of visiting some part of Egypt,* 
particularly the pyramids, and returned to Spain in the 
month of August 1502. . From this time he became vlU 
tached to the cour*t, and was appointed a member of the 
fdouncil for the aflairs of India. IHie pope, at the king*^ 
request, made him apostolical prothonotary, and in ISaSy 
prior of the church of Grenada, with a valuable benefice* 
After the death of Ferdinand, Anghiera remained as ihncfa 
in favour with the new king, and he also waii presented 
by Charles V. to a rich abbey. He died at Grenada ini 
1526, leaving several histcMdcal works, which are often 
quoted by the name of Peter Martyr, aa if that were his 
femily name; and in the Diet. Hist, he is recorded under 
Martyr. His principal works are, 1. <^ Opus Epistolarum 
Petri Martyris Anglerii, Mediolanensis,** 1530, foL re- 
printed mbre correctly in Holland by Elzevir, 1670, fol. 
with the letters and other works, Latin and Spanish, of 
Ferdinand de Pulgar. This work, which is much esteemed, 
is divided into thirty^eight books, comprehending the whole 
of his political life from 1488 to 1525, and contains many cu- 
riousUifitoricalparticularsnot to be found elsewhere. 2. ^ De 
rebus Oceanicis et orbe novo Decades," a history of the dis- 
covery of the New World, compiled from the manuscripts of 
Columbus, and the accounts he sent to Spain to the India 
council, of which our author was a member. These Decades 
were at first printed separately : the first edition of the whole 
is that of Paris, 1536, fol. which has been often reprinted. 
3.. '^ De iosulis nuper inventis et incoiarum moribus,'' Ba- 
sil, 1521, 4to, 15^3, fol. 4. ^< De legatione Babyloi^ica, 
Jibri tres,*' printed with the Decades, which contains an ac- 
PQunt of his embassy to the sultan of Egypt. Some other 



tn A N G H 1 E B A. 

I 

works, but rathar oh .dovd^fal autharitj, h^reimnatM* 
bated to bim. ' 

ANGILBERT (St.), abbot of Centula, or St. Riguwr, 
in the oiatii centoryi was descended from a oobie family of 
Ne^stria. He wa$ educated at the court of Cbariemagne, 
where he studied the languages with that prinoe and tiie 
otb^ courtiers, under the learned Alcuiuus, who sfterwards 
^nsidered him. as bis son. Charieiuagne, having caused 
bis son Pepin to be crowned king of Italy, made Angilbert 
that prinoe^s first ikiinister : he then went with iiira iolo 
Italy, and returned some yeais afber to Fr^ce, wbca 
C!hMrleiiiagnit ^te him his daughter Berdia in marriage ; 
^ttt «ome historians say that this marriage was rendeicd ne* 
oeBsary by ^ lady's being delivered previously of 
Whatever truth may be in this, An^lhert, being how 
in-law to Charlemagne, was made duke or govexmor of the 
coast of France from the Scheldt (to the Seine, and the kiog 
also made him his secretary and prime niinister; .fant Al^ 
owniis, abbot of Coibie, prevailed on him to tiecome a 
monk in the monastery of Centula,. or St. Ricpiicir, with the 
Moaent bo|h of his wife and the king. Notwithstanding 
his lovie of soh^ude, he was frequently obliged to leave the 
monastery, and attend to the aiEairs of the diunchand ataie, 
and was three flimes seat to the court of Rome; he also 
acoompafiicd Cfaariemagtie thither, in the year iftOO,. when 
that prince was cnown^fd in that city emperor of the West, 
lie died on the ISth of February 814. Angiibevt liad micli 
a luste ibr poetry, that Charlemagne called him has Hcmier. 
There are but £aw of his works remaiiung, exe^t s bistory 
pf faismonastevy, which Mabiltonhas inserted in his ^Ayh- 
nidiea de Ttirdne de St Benoit." As to the ^ flisteire de 
premieres expediticms de Charlemagne pendant sajcuoesse 
ttavavit soQ regne,^ 1741, 8vOy with the title nf ficxner, 
given htm by Chaclemagne, either because bm delighted in 
ihat fwet, or because he was himself a poet ; it is. in fact a 
vomanoe waritleB by Dufresne de Francheville.* 

ANGIOLELLO (John Maaio), wlm was iborn at Vi* 
MAZa, composed in Italian and the Turkish iaftigiiage the 
^^ History of Mahomet 11/* which he dedicated to him. ~ It 
waa ytry kindly received by that haughty suItaB, who, bje* 

1 Biog. UDkerselle. — Diet. Hist, iioder Martyr.— Cave, tqI. Xi,-^abziGii BiM. 
IM. Med. — '"Saxn Onomaeticon. — Chaufepie, under Martyr. 
« Amv* «]MwrMUe.**-«ci. Kit.. 



A N G r O L i: L L O. ' Srss 

•ides file civilities which he shewed to AogioleUp, bestowed 
on him Tery considerable proofs of his liberality. The 
author had been an eye-witness of what he related ; for^ 
being one of the slaves of the young sultan Mustapha, h<r 
followed him in the expedition to Persia in 1473, which 
Mahomet carried on in person with almost 200,000 soldiers 
into the dominions of Ussun*Cadsan. It is somewhat sur« 
prising that Angiolellp, who knewjvvithout doubt the haughty 
disposition df ^is emperor of the Turks, should venture to 
repeat the abusive terms, which Ussuii-Cassan used in re-i* 
proaching him with his illegitimate birth, when he viewed 
the army of the enemies from a' hill upon the bank of the 
Euphrates. It is certain, however, that Angiolello^s book 
was not the less kindly received, or the less amply rewarded* 
There was printed at Venice in 1553 a piece of 6to v. Mario 
Angkilello, ** Delia vita et fatti di Re di Persia;*' and be 
wrote also '* Relatione della vita e de' fatti del signor 
Ussun-Cassan," inserted in the second volume of Ramusio'tf 
Voyage, 1559, fol. By this it appears that he was living in 
1524, and probably old, as this was fifty-<one years after the 
battle on the Euphrates, at which he was present.^ 

ANGLIC US (GILBERTUS), aVy as Bale, PiUs, and Tan-, 
ner, call him^ Gilbertus LsotBUS, was priiysician to Hu- 
bert, archbishop of Canterbury, in the time of king John» 
or towards the year 1210. Leland makes him flourish 
later ; and from some passages in his works, he must have 
lived towards the end of the thirteenth century. The me- 
moirs of this medical writer are very scanty: Dr. Freind 
has commented with much impartiality upon his Compeu'* 
dium of Pbysicy which is still extant, and appears to be the 
earliest remaining writing on the practice of medicine 
among our countrymen. That elegant writer allows him a 
ibare of the superstitious and empirical, although this will 
not make him inferior to the medical writers of the age in 
which he lived. His ^^ Compendium'* was published at 
Lyons, 1610, 4to, and at Geneva, 1608.* 

ANGLICUS, RICHARD. See RICHARD. 

ANGLUS, THOMAS. See WHITE. 

ANG08CI0LA, or ANGUSSOLA (Sophonisba), an 
eminent Italian paintress, was born at Cremona in 1533, of 

1 Oen. Diet.— >M«rtri.<*-Biog. Uaif ertdle. 

* Leland, PitU» Taaner.-^Freind't Hist. rol. II.— •Mailer Bibt. Med.-^Aikia'^^ 
Bio;. MMiQirff d# Mc^icini. 



I 



2S4 A N G O S C r O L A. 

a distinguished family. The author of the Museum tto* 
rentinumis guilty of a very remarkable anachronism, ii| 
regard to Sophonisba; for he fixes her birth in 1559, inr 
which year it is absolutely impossible she could have beeit 
born. This appears incontestably from Vasari, who tell^ 
MS, that she paitited the ^portrait of the queen of Spain, by 
order of Pope Paul IV. in 1561 ; and to prove this fact, he 
inserts the letter which she sent along with the picture to 
the Pope, and also the Pope's answer, both dated in 1561 j 
Sophonisba's from Madrid the 16th of September, and the 
Pope's from Rome the 1 5th of October ; at which time, ac- 
cording to the Museum Florentinum, she could have been 
only two years old, if born in 1559. The first instructor of 
this eminent paintress was Bernardini Campo of Cremona ; 
but she learnred colouring and perspective from Bernardo 
Gatti, called Soiaro. One of her first performances was 
the portrait of her father, placed between his two children, 
with such strong characters of life and nature, with a pen** 
cil so free and firm, and so lively a turn of colour, that hex 
work was universally applauded, and she was acknowledged 
an incomparable painter of portraits. Through eveiy part 
of Italy she is distinguished by no other name than that of 
Sophonisba. But although portraits engrossed the greatest 
part of her time, yet she designed several historical subjects^ 
with figures of a small size, touched with abundance of 
spirit, and with attitudes easy, natural, and graceful. By 
continual application to her profession she lost her sight } 
and it is recorded that Yandyck, having had an opportunity 
of conversingjwith Sophonisba, used to say, that he*receive<( 
more beneficial knowledge of the two principles of his ar^ 
from one blind woman, tha^i by studying all the works o£ 
the greatest masters of Italy. At Lord Spencer's, atWim-* 
bledon, there is a portrait of Sophonisba, playing on the 
harpsichord, painted by herself; an old woiiian appears as 
ber attendant; and on the picture is written, Jussu Patris^ 
And at Wilton, in the Pembroke collection, is the marriago 
of St. Catherine, painted by Sophonisba. One of her sis-* . 
ters, named Lucia Angusciola, painted portraits, and 
gained by her performances a reputation not inferior to 
Sophonisba, as well in regard to the truth and delicacy of 
her colouring, as the justness of the resemblance. And 
another of her sisters, named Europa Angusciola, fronj 
her infancy manifested an extraordinaiy turn for paintingi 



A NO O S C I O t A. 9SS 

gnd shewed such tast^ and elegance in her manner of de- 
sign, as to procure a degree of applause almost equal to 
Lucia or Sophonisba. 

A portrait of .one of these sisters, by Sophonisba, a circle 
in pannel, was sold in 1801, at the sale of Sir William Ha- 
milton's pictures. An engraving of Sophonisba was given 
in the Gentleman^s Magazine for October 180], from a 
miniature in Mr. Gough^s possession, painted by*herself. 
Round the monogram is this inscription, ^' Sophonisba 
Angussola, virgo, ipsius manu ex speculo depicta Cre- 
monae." * 

ANGOULEME (Charles de Valois duke d'), the na- 
tural son of Charles IX. and Maria Touchet, was bom 
April 28, 1575, and distinguished himself by his bravery 
during the reign of five kings. Being intended from his 
infancy for the order of Malta, he was, in 1587, presented 
to the abbey of Chaise-Dieu, and, in 1589, was made 
grand prior of France. Catherine de Medicis having be- 
queathed him the estates of Auvergne and Lauraguais, he 
quitted the order of Malta, with a dispensation to marry; 
^nd accordingly in 1591, married Charlotte, daughter of 
the constable Henry of Montmorenci. In 1606, Margaret 
de Valois applied to parliament,' and set aside the will of 
Catherine of Medicis, and the estates were given to the 
jdauphin, aftery^rards Louis XIII. Charles, however, con- 
tinued to take the title of count d' Auvergne, until 16] 9, 
when the king bestowed on him the duchy of Angouleme. 
He was one of the first to acknowledge Henry IV. at St. 
Cloud, and obtained great reputation for his services in the 
battles of Arques, Ivry, &c. In 1602, being implicated in 
Biron's conspiracy, he was sent to the Bastille, but obtained 
his pardon. Being, hoyirever, afterwards convicted of a 
treasonable attempt in concert with the marchioness de 
Verneuil, his uterine sister, he was arrested a second time 
in 1604, and next year condemned to lose Kis head, which 
Henry IV» commuted for perpetual imprisonment; but in 
1616, we find him again at large, and, in 1617, at the siege 
of Soissons. Being appointed colonel of the light cavalry 
of France, and created a knight by order of the king, he 
was, in 1620, sent as t£e principal of an embassy to the 
emperor Ferdinand II. the result of which was printed in 
1667, undex the title of " Ambassade de M. le due d*An- 

^ PHkingt9B's Dlct.^i-Gent. Mag. laoi.-^iog. Univereeile. 

». ■ ■ • 



s5« A N G o i; L £ M e: 

gooleme, &c.^ fol. The narrative i* 9cHi)6wiiat dry, fciit it 
tontains tiiany particulars of considerable interest in the 
history of that time. In 1 628^ the duke opened the famouii 
and cruel siege of Rocheile, where be had the chief com* 
matid until the arrival of the king. He also bore a part io 
liie war of Langaedoc, Germany, and Flanders. He dietl 
at Paris, Sept 24, 1650. Frangoise de Nargonne, whoni 
lie married for his second wife, In 1644, died one hundred 
and forty-one years after her father-in-law Charles IX. 
on the 10th of August 1715, aged ninety-two. The duke 
d^AngouIeme wrote, 1. " Memoires tres-particuliers du 
due d'Angouleme, pour servir a l*histoire des regnes de 
Henri III. et Henri IV.'* ie6«, l2mo, Bineau, the editor 
of this work, has added to it a journal of the^negociations 
for the peace of Vervins,- in 1598. The duke^s meiiioirs 
also form tiie first volume of the ^* Memoires pafticuliers 
pour servir iTHistoirede France," 1756, 4 vols. 12mo, and 
the third volume of ** Pieces fugitive* pour servir, &c.** 
published by theinarquis d*Aubais et Menard, 175S^, 3 vols. 
4to. 2. ^* Les^ harangues prononcees en Fa^semblie de 
M. M. les princes Protestants d*Allemagn^," 1620, Svq. 
8. ** Le ffcnerale et fidele relation de tout ce <jui s*est 
pass6 en r Isle de Re, &c.'' 1627, Svo. 4. A translation of 
Diego de Torres* history of the kingdoms of Morocco, Pet, 
&c: Besides these, Bouthillier, bishop of Troyes in th6 
beginning of the eighteenth century, hsiid a folio volume of 
manuscript letters, written by the duke d*Angouleme, from 
1633 to 1643, and another collection by his son, Lo^is 
jEmmanuel de Valois, count d'Alais, and, after his father'^ 
death, duke d*Angouleme, who died in 1653.* 

ANGRIANI, or AYGNANI, or AIGNAN <MiCHAEt)^ 
commonly called Michael of Bologna, a Romish divine 
of distiiiguished learning in the fourtcienth century, was 
bom at Bologna in Italy, where he entered of the order of 
the Carmelites; but studied afterwards in the university- of 
Paris, and there received the degree of doctor. In the 
general chapter of his order, which was held at Ferrara 
in 1354, in that of Bourdeaux in 185S, and in that of 
Treves in 1362, he was named regent of the convent at 
Paris. After arriving at other honours in the Romish church, 
he fell under the displeasure of the pope Urban VP. and 
retired to the coirvent of Bologna, where he wrote a great 

> Bkiv- UaiverseHf ,**History of f^faoce. 



A N G R I A N I. ^57 

many tiooklB, «id where he died Nov. 16, 1400, aecord- 
iug to fiitber Lewis de Sainte Terese ; or Dec. 1, 1416, 
according to Trithemius and Du Pin. The editors of the 
General Dictionary, incline to' the 'former date. Of bis 
works, there were published, ^ Super Sententias libri IV.** 
Milan, 1510; and Venice, 16S2, fol. << Commentaria in 
Psalmos,** which was first published at Alcala in 1524^ 
tinder the name of Ignotus, as the author was not then 
known ; and republished in the same manner at Lyons in 
ljf88 and 1603. These and commentaries by him on 
other parts of the holy scriptures were afterwards pub«p 
lished with his name, fifst at Venice, in3vols. 4to; and 
at Paris in 1626, in two vols, folio ; and at Lyons in 1652 
and 1673, in the same form. The manuscripts he left be- 
sides are very numerous, and were preserved with great 
care. One of them was a dictionary of the words occur- 
ring in the Bible, which was unfinished.* 

ANGUIER (Francis and Michael), the sons of a me- 
chanic in the town of Eu in Normandy, became very emi- 
nent for their skill in sculpture; and after pursuing their 
studies at Rome, embellished Paris with many of their best 
works. Of these, Francis executed the altar of Val de 
Grace, the fine marble crucifix of the high altar of the 
Sorbonne, the mausoleum of cardinal de BeruUe in the 
church of St. Honorius; and ^specially that of the duke of 
Montmorenci at Moulins, and the four figures on the tomb 
of the diike de Longueville at Paris ; the figure of Pra« 
dence is esteemed a ^hef-d'ouvre ' of graceful expression* 
This artist is said to have exercised bis art in Endand^ 
but we do not find him noticed by Walpole. He died at 
Paris in 1699, in the 95th year of his age. Michael, who 
was the younger brother, born in 1612, executed the tomb 
of the grand prior of Souvre, the ornaments on the gate of 
St. Dennis, the figures on the front gate of Val'-de-grace, 
Amphitrite, &c. He assisted his brother likewise in some of 
his works, and died in 1686, aged 74. They were both 
buried at St. Roch, where they are honoured with an epi- 
taph.' 

ANGUILLARA (John Andrew de), one of the most 
celebrated Italian poets of the sixteenth century, was bom 
about 1517, at Sutri in Tuscany, of viery poor parents. 
Afiber feceiving such education as he could afford, he came 

* Oen. Diet, « Bhg. Univcndlle.—Dict. Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol. IL S 



25S • A N G U I L L A R A. 

to Rome, and engaged hilnself as a aorrector of the preM ^ 
but an intrigue with his master's wife, in which he was de- 
tected, obliged him to leave Rome,^,witb a little money and 
a few cioatbS) of which be was stripped by robbers. He 
then begged his way to Vienna, and there got immediate 
employment from Francescbi, . the bookseller ; and, while 
with him, wrote his translation of Ovid, and some of his 
original works. He then returned to Rome, which his re- 
putation as a poet had reached, but his misfortunes also 
followed hini ; and after having lived for some time oh the 
sale of his cloaths and books, he died partly of hunger, and 
partly of a diseas6 contracted by his imprudent conduct, 
in an inn near Torre de Nona. The exact date of his 
death is not known, but it appears by a letter addressed to 
him by Annibal Caro, that he was' alive in 1564. His 
translation of the Metamorphoses still enjoys a high repu- 
tation in Italy, and V^archi and some other critics chuse to 
prefer it to the paginal. This is exaggerated praise, but • 
undoubtedly the poetry and style are easy and elegant ; 
although from the many, liberties he has taken witK the 
text, it ought rather to be called an imitation than a trans- 
lation. The editions have been numerous, but the best is 
that of the Giunti, Venice, 1584, 4to, with engravings by 
Franco^ and notes and arguments by Orologi and Turchi. 
He also began the iEneid, but one book only was printed, 
1564, 4to ; soon after which period it is supposed be died. 
His other works are: 1. " CEdipo," a tragedy, partly ori- 
ginal and parUy from Sophocles. It had great success in 
representation, and was played, in a magnificent temporary 
theatre built for the purpose by Palladio in 1565. 2. 
** Canzoni," addressed to the dukes of Florence and Fer- 
rara. 3. " Poetical arguments for all the cantos of Orlando 
Furloso. 4. Four " Capitoli," or satires, printed in vari- 
ous collections of that description. It appears by these 
last that he was gay and thoughtless in the midst of all his 
misfortunes. * 

ANGUILLARA (Loujs or Aloysio), a learned Italian 

physician and botanist in the sixteenth century, was born - 

. at Auguillara, a s1n9.ll town in the ecclesiastical states, from 

. which he took his namp. The republic of Venice, in con- 

, sideration of the character be acquired during bis travels, 

bestowed on faiiu the title of.Simplicista, or chief botanist, 

1 Bip^. -UniverseHe. 



A N O U- 1 L L A R A. * 25$ 

and appointed hinu director of the botanidsil garden of 
Padua. This office he appears to have held from 1540 to 
1561; when, disgusted by some intrigues formed against 
him^ he retired to Florence! and died there in 1570. We 
have very few particulars of his private history, except 
what can be gleaned froca the only work that has appeared 
with his name. His studies, facilitated by a knowledge .of 
the ancient languages, were principally directed to bo« 
tany ; in pursuit of which science he travelled through 
Italy, Turkey, the islands in the Mediterranean, Crete, 
Cyprus, Corsica, Sardinia, and part of Swisserland and 
France. The knowledge he acquired in these journies 
occasioned his being consulted by the most eminent bo- 
tanists of his time ; and a collection of his letters on botani- 
cal subjects was published, with his consent, by Marinello, 
under the title of " Semplici dell' eccelente M. Anguillara, 
li quali^in piu pareri a diversi nobili nomini scritti appajouo 
et nuovamente da M« Giovanni Marinello mandati in luce,'* 
Venice, 1561, 8vo. In the same year a second edition 
was printed, which is preferred on account of its contain- 
ing two plates of plants not in the first. This work, al- 
though far from voluminous, scfemed to establish his repu- 
tation, and is particularly valuable on account of his 
learned researches into the ancient names of plants. ^ 

ANICH (P£T£r), astronomer, geopietriciafl, and me- 
chanic, was the son of a labourer employed in agriculture. 
He was born Feb« 22, 1723, at Oberperfuss^ a village 
about 12 miles from Inspruck, and died Sept. 1, 1766. 
While engaged in the menial employments of labourer 
and shepherd, he f^lt an irresistible impulse towards astro- 
nomy and geometry. Pere Hill, a Jesuit, professor in the 
university of Inspruck, discovered his talepts, and enabled 
him to cultivate them with such success, that in a short 
time he became an able astronomer, and one of the best 
mechanics in Europe. He made a pair of globes for the 
university of Inspruck, which are acknowledged to be 
masterpieces in their kind* He constructed and completed 
a great variety of mathematical instruments, and drew 
maps and charts of admirable accuracy and neatness. 
JSnatched away in the flower of hi9 age from the arts and 
scieaces, he was deservedly lamented by persons of real 
knowledge^ . . The empress-queen, whose subject he was. 



26b A N X. C H". 

and who had granted him a pension pf 200 florins, wfatcb 
he enjoyed hut two months, settled a pension of 50 florinai 
on bis sister, to testify her consideration for the deceased. 
The maps which he left were puhlished at Vienna in 1774, 
'^ Tyrolis chorographia ddineata e Petro Anich et Blasio 
Hueber, curante Ign. Weinhart.'* Hi» life was published: 
in German, at Munich, 1767, with a portrait. ' 

ANICHINI (Lewis), a Venetian engraver, is said to 
have acquired s& much precision and delicacy in executing 
small objects, that Michael Angelo, in whose time he ap- 
pears to have flourished, considered him as having attained 
the very perfection of his art : he principally engraved 
medals ; and his engravings of the medals of Henry II. 
ling of France, and of pope Paul III. which has on the 
reverse, Alexander the Great kneeling before the high 
priest of Jerusalem, are greatly valued by connoisseurs* 
Strutt mentions another Anichinv, an Italian artist, who 
Nourished about 1655, who appears to have been an en- 
graver of some note ;: but we have no account of his life.' 

ANISIO. SeeANYSIUS. 

ANNA-COMNENA, a lady of extraordinary talents in 
an age of barbarism, was the daughter of the emperor 
Alexius Comnenu's I. and after his death in 1118, con- 
spired to dethrone his brother John, and {dace the crown^ 
on the head of ber husband Nicephorus Briennius; but 
while she displayed the spirit and intrigue of the most po« 
litre of the male sex, her designs were baffled by the want 
of vigour, and the efieminacy of her husband. She ap* 
plied hei*self, however, to such studies as could be prose* 
cuted in that age, and associated much with the learned 
men of Constantinople, whose fame she endeavoured ta 
rival by the " Alexiad," or **Tbe life of the emperor Alex- 
ius Comnenns,'' her father, which she wrote in a style 
that was much admired. It i& divided into fifteen bodks ;; 
and, making some allowance for the flattering portrait 
given of her father, her frequent digressions, and inaccvi- 
racy as to dates, contains a very curious assemblage of 
facts, and many spirited remarics on the Roman pontiff^ 
whose pretensions to spiritual sovereignty she treats with 
very little respect; iidr does she ever mention the French 
nation but as a barbarous pec^le, whose name would de-» 
file the beauty and elegance of history. The prestdefit 

' Diet. H1«t.— Biog. Umrewelle. 

t I^id»«-FelibieD lur let Vitt d«i Peii|tre8,<-Mor€ri.— Strutt'i DieU 



\ 



\ 



4. N N.A-e Q M N.E N A. 261 

Cousin* however, published a very correct and elegant 
French translatiqu of the life of Alexius, which is in the 4th 
rolume of the Byzantine historians. There was also an 
edition printed at the Louvre, with the learqed notes of 
David Hoeschelius, 1651,fol. Her husband died in 1137 ; 
but th«( time of her own death has not been ascertained. ^ 

ANNiEUS. See CORNUTUS. 

ANNAND (WuLLiAM), dean of Edinburgh in Scotland, 
the son of W>lliam Annand, minister of Air, in Airshire, 
was born in that town in 1633.. Five years after, his father 
was obliged to quit Scotland with hi^ family, on account of 
their loyalty to the king, and adherence to the episcopal 
government establi^d by law in that country. In 1^51, 
young Annand was admitted a scholar ia Vniversity-coU 
I^gGy Ojcford ; and though he was put under the care of a 
Ptesbyteriaa tutor, }ret he took all occasions to be present 
at the sermons preached by the loyal divines in and near 
Oxford. In 1656, being then bachelor of arts, he re- 
ceived holy, orders from the hands of Dr, Thomas Fulwar, 
bishop of Ardifert, or Kerry in Ireland ; and was appointed 
preacher at Weston on the Green, near Bicester, in Oxf 
fordshire ; where he met with great encouragement from 
air Francis Norris, lord of that nianor. After he had taken 
his degree of M. A. he was presented to the vicarage of 
Leighton^Buzzard, in Bedfordshire; where he distinguished 
himself by his edifying manner of preaching, till .1662, when 
be went into Scotland, as chaplain to John earl of Mid- 
dleton, the king's high commissioner to the church of that 
kingdom. In the latter end of 1663, he was instituted to 
the Tolbooth church, at Edinburgh; and from thence was 
removed some years after to the Trone church of that 
city, which was likewise a prebend. In April 1676, he was 
nominated by the king to the deanery of Edinburgh ; and 
in 1685 he commenced D. D. in tike university of St. An- 
drews. He died June 13, 1689, and was honourably in« 
tei*red in the Grey-friars church at Edinburgh. As his 
life wai$ pious and devout, so hia sickness and death af- 
forded great consolation to those who attended him in his 
)a$t moments. 

His works are : ^^ Fides Catholica, or the doctrine of the 
4CathoUc,church, &c." Lond. 1661 — 2, 4to. ** PanemQuo- 
tidianum/' in defence ofset forms and of the book of Com* 

1 (Sen. Dict.«-«M«r«ri.«-Sa3LU OnomasticoiL 



J62 A N N A N D. 

mon-prayer/' 1661, 4to. ^^ Pater Noster,^^ a treatise on the 
Lord*8-prayer, Lond. 1670, 8vo. " Mysterium Pietatis," or 
the mystery of godliness, &c. Lond. 1672, 8vo. " Doxo* 
logia," or the Doxology reduced to glorifying the Trinity, 
Lond. 1672, Syo. ^^ Dnalitas,** a two-fold subject, on 
the honour, &c. of Magistracy, Edin. 1674, 4to. ^ 

ANNAT (Francis), confessor to Lewis XIV. was born 
EtRouergne, in 1590. He became a Jesuit in 1607^ and 
professed the fourth vow in 1 624. He taught philosophy at 
Toulouse six years, and divinity seven ; and having dis- 
charged his duty in each of these capacities with great 
applause, he was invited to Rome, to act as censor-gene- 
ral of the books published by the Jesuits, and theologist to 
the general of the society. Upon his return to his own 
province, he was appointed rector of the colleges of ,Mont- 
V pellier and of Toulouse. He assisted as deputy of his 
^ province at the eighth congregation-general of the Jesuits 
held at Rome in 1645, where he distinguished himself in 
such a manner, that father Vincent Caraffa, general of the 
Jesuits, thought no person more fit to discharge the office 
of assbtant of France, which had been vacant for som^ 
time. The ninth congregation gave him the same post, 
tinder Francis Picolimini, general of the society, upon 
whose death he was made provincial of the province of 
France. Whilst he was engaged in this employment, he 
lyas chosen confessor to the king 1654; and after having 
discharged this office 16 years, he was obliged to solicit 
his dismission ; his great age having much impaired his 
hearing. Father Sotueil, from whom these particulars are 
taken, gives him the character of a person of great virtues, 
perfect disinterestedness, modesty, and humility ; exact in 
practising the observances and discipline of his order ; ex«' 
tremely cautious in using his interest for his own advan- 
tage, or that of his family ; and of uncommon zeal for re- 
ligion. ^^ He was the hammer of heretics," says he, 
^^ and attacked particularly, with incredible zeal, the new 
heresy of the Jansenists. He strenuously endeavoured to 
get it condemned by the pope, and re-strained by the au- 
thority of the king. Besides which, he confuted it with 
such strength of argument, that his adversaries had no- 
thing solid to reply to him.*' There are many (says Mr. 
Bayle) whom father Sotueil will never convince in this last 

1 Atb. Ox. yolf IL — Bipgraphia Britanntca. 



A N N A T. 263:; 

point ; but he seems to agree with him in the character of 
disinterestedness which he gives to Annat, who stirred so 
littte for the advancement of his family, that the king is 
reported to have said, he knew not whether father Annat 
bad any relations. 

Father Annat wrote several books, some in Latin, which 
were collected and published in three vols; 4to, Paris, 
r666 ; and others in bad French, mostly upon the disputes 
between the Jesuits and Jansenists. lie died at Paris in 
1670.* 

ANNE. See BOLEYNE, CLEVES, &c. 
* ANNESLEY ' (Arthuh), earl of Anglesey, and lord 
privy seal in the reign of Charles II. was born July 10, 
J 6 14, at Dublin, and continued in Ireland till he was ten 
years old, when he was sent to England! At sixteen he. 
was entered fellow commoner at Magdalen college, Ox- 
ford, where he pursued his studies about three or four 
years. In 1634 he removed to Lincoln^s Inn, where he, 
studied the law with great assiduity till his father sent him* 
to travel. He made the tour of Europe, and continued 
^ome time at Rome, whence he returned to England in- 

i640, and was elected knight of the shire for the county of 
Radnor, in the parliament which sat at Westminster in No- 
vember of the same year ; but the election being contested, 
he lost his seat by a vote of the house, that Charles Price, 
esq. was duly elected. In the beginning of the civil' war, 
Mr. Annesley inclined to the royal cause, and sat in the 
parliament held at Oxford in 1643 ; but afterwards recon- 
ciled himself so effectually to the parliament, that he was 
taken into their confidence, and appointed to go as a com- 
missioner to Ulster in 1645. There he managed affair^ 
with so much dexterity and judgment, that the famous 
Owen Roe O'Neil was disappointed in his designs ; and the 
popish archbishop of Tuam, who was the great support of hi4 
party, and whose counsels had been hitherto very success- 
ful, was not only taken prisoner, but his papers werd 
Seized, and his foreign correspondence discovered, whereby 
vast advantages accrued to the protestaut interest. The 
parliament had sent commissioners to the duke of Ormond, 
for the delivery of Dublin, but without success ; and the 
state of aflairs making it necessary to renew their corre- 
spondence with him, they made choice of a second com- 

^ Gen. Diot— 'Moreri. 



264 A N N E S L E Y. 

TX&tteef and Mr. Annesley was placed at the head of this 
commission. The commissioners landed at Dubhu the 7th 
of June 1647 ; and they proved so successful in their ne- 
gotiations, that in a few days a treaty ,was concluded with 
the lord lieutenant, which was signed on the 19 th of that 
month, and Dublin was put into the hands of the parlia« 
ment. When the commissioners had got supreme power^ 
they were guilty of many irregularities : Mr, Annesley dis- 
approved of their conduct, but cpuld not hinder then) from 
doing many things contrary to his judgment : being there- 
fore displeased with his situation, he returned speedily to 
England, where be found all things in. confusion. After 
the death of Cromwell, Mr. Annesley, though he doubted 
whether the parliament was not dissolved by the death of 
the king, resolved to get into the hou^' if possible; and 
h^ behaved in many respects in such, a manner as shewed 
what his real sentiments were^ and how much he had the 
resettling of the constitution at heart. In the confusiou 
which followed he had little or no share, being trusted 
neither by the parliament nor army. $ut when things 
began to take a different turn, by restoring the secluded 
members to their seats, Feb. 21, 1660, Mr. Annesley was 
chosen president of the council of state, having at that 
time opened 'a correspondence with Charles II. then iir 
exile. 

Soon after the restoration, Mr, Annesley was created 
earl of Anglesey ; in the preamble of the patent notice is 
taken of the signal services rendered by him in the king's 
restoration. He had always a considerable share in the 
Iiing's favour, and was heard with great attention both at 
council and in the house of lords. In 1667 be was made 
treasurer of the navy ; and on the 4th of February 1 6 7f , 
his majesty in council was pleased to appoint the duke of 
Buckingham, the earl of Anglesey, the lord Holies, the 
Jowl Ashley Cooper, and Mr. secretary Trevor, to be a 
committee, to peruse and revise all the papers and writings 
concerning the settlement of Ireland, from thq first to the 
last ; and to make an abstract thereof in writing. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 12tb of June 1672, they wade their 
report at large, which was the foundation of a commission^ 
dat^d the 1st of August 1672, to prince Kupert> the dukes 
of Buckingham and Lauderdale, earl of Anglesey, lords 
Ashley and Holies, sir John Trevor, and sir Thomas 
jChicheley, to inspect the settlements of Ireland^ and all 



▲ N N £ S t £ T. 265 

procetdings thereunto. lii I6'}3, the earl of Anglesey 
bad the office of lord ptiVy seal conferred upon him. tot 
October 1680, his lordship was charged by one Dangers- 
field in ah information delivered upon oath;^ at the' bar of 
the house of commons, with endeavouring to stifle evU 
dence concerning the popish plot, and to promote the 
belief of a presby teriaii one. The uneasiness he received 
from this attack, did not hinder him from speaking his 
opinion freely of those matters in the house of lords, par* 
ticularlyin regard to the Irish plot. In 1680, the earl of 
Castlehaven wrote Memoirs concerning the affairs of Ire- 
iand, wherein he was at some pains to represent the ge* 
neral rebellion in Ireland in the lightest colours possible, 
as if it had been at first far from being universal, and at 
last rendered so by the measured pursued by such a^ ought 
to have suppressed the insurrection. The earl of Anglesey 
having received thede memoirs from their author, thought 
fit to write some animadvoniohs upon ilhem, in a letter t6 
the earl of Castlehaven,' Whereih he delivered his opinion 
freely in respect to the duke of Ormond and his manage- 
ment in Ireland. The duke expostulated with the lord 
privy seal on the s^ubject,' by letter, to- Which the earl re- 
plied. In 1682, the earl drew up i.very particular remon- 
strance, and presented it to king Charles II. It was very 
warm and loyal, yet it was far from being well receivedl 
This memorial was entitled. The account of Arthur earl of 
Anglesey, lord privy seal to your most excellent majesty, 
of the true state of your majesty*s government and king- 
doms, April 27, 1682. In one part whereof he says, "the 
fatal cause of all our mistiUipfs, present or apprehended^ 
and which may raise a fir&, which may burn and consume 
us to' the very foundation's,' is the unfeappy perversion of 
the duke of York (the nekt heir to the^fcrowii) in one point 
of religion ; which Tlaturaliy raises jealqusy of the power, 
designs, and practices, of the old enemies of our religrbn 
mid liberties, and undermines and emasculates the courage 
and constancy even of tho^e and their posterity, who have 
been as faithful to, and suffered $ls much for the prown, 
1^ any the most pleased or contented in our impending 
miseries can pretend to have dooe.'^ He concludes with 
these words: "Though your majesty is in your own person 
above the reach of the law, and sovereign of all your 
people, yet the law is. your master and instructor how to 
govern i and that your subjects assure themselves you wilt 



S€6 A N N E 8 L E Y. . 

never attempt th^ enervating that law by which you are 
king, and which you have not only by frequent declara- 
tions, but by a solemn oath lipon your throne, .been 
obliged,, in a most glorious presence of your people, to 
the maintenance of; and that therefore you will look upon 
any that shall pi^opose or advise to the contrary, as unfit 
persons to be near you ; and on those who shall persuade 
you it is lawful, as sordid flatterers, and the worst and 
most dangerous enemies you and your kingdoms have* 
What I set before your majesty, I have written freely, 
and like a sworn faithful counsellor; perhaps not like a yirise 
man, with regard to myself, as they stand : bv\t I have 
discharged my duty, and will account it a^ fewftr(r,.if your 
majesty vouchsafe to read what I durst i^^t but write^ ^nd 
which I beseech God to give a blessij^ to.*' 

It was not however thought pt^op^f to temove him from 
bis hiffh office on this account;: butrtbe duke of Ormond 
was prevailed upon to exhil}|(,a charge against him, on 
account of his reflectiQi^;.qn jttie. earl of Castlehayen's 
Memoirs. This product a. sharp .contest betwixt tliese 
two peers; which ended in the earl of Anglesey's losing 
his place of lord privy seal, tliougb his enemies were 
forced to confess thjf,t he was. hardly and unjustly treated. 
After this disgrace, be remalnei^ pretty much at his 
country seat at Blechingdonuin Oxfordshire, where he de- 
voted his time to his studies, and meddled very little with 
public affairs. However, he got into favour again in the 
reign of James II. audit is generally believed hp would 
have been appointed lord cbanpellor of England, if not 
prevented by bis de^^h, which happened April 6, 1686, 
in the 73d year of his .^ge. He was perfectly versed in the 
Qreek and iloman history, and well acquainted with the 
spirit and policy of those nations. He had studied the 
laws of bis country with such diligence, as to be esteemed 
a great lawyer. ^ His writings which are extant, are proofs 
of his learning and abilities ; but the largest and most 
valuable of all his. works was lost, or, as some say, de* 
stroyed. This was " A History of the Troubles in Ireland 
from 1641 to 1660.^* He was one of the firsf English 
peers who distinguished himself by collecting a fine library^ 
which he did with great care, and at a Urge expence* 
But after his decease, all his books were exposed to sale. 
At this sale the discovery was made of the earrs famous 
memorandum, ip the blank leaf of an EfK^yBa^ixucn; ac-« 



ANNESLEY. 267 

tprdhg to which/ it was not Charles I. but bishop Gauden^ 
ii4io was author of this performance. This produced a 
loo^ contcoyersy^ which will be noticed in the life of that 
prelate^ 

The eail of Anglesey has been very variously characterised; 
Anthony Wood represents him as an artful time-server ^ 
by principle, a Calvinist; by policy, a favourer of the 
Papists, Burnet paints him as a tedious and ungraceful 
orator, and as a grave, abandoned, and corrupt man, whom 
no party would trust. Our account is taken from the 
Biog. Britannica, which steers an impartial course. Lord 
Orford, iii his '^ Noble Authors," is disposed to unite the 
severities of Wood and Burnet, but what he asserts is ra^ 
ther flippant than convincing. 

His lordship published in his life-time the following 
pieces: 1. *^ Truth unveiled, in behalf of the Church of 
England ; being a vindication of Mr. John Standish^s ser^ 
mon, preached before the king, and published by his 
majefity^s command,^' 16769 4to. To which is added, <<A 
short treatise on the subject of Transubstantiation.'' 9,4 
^^ A letter from a person of honour in the country, written 
to thet<earl of Castleha%n ; being observations and re« 
flections on his lordship's. memoirs isoucerning the Warft of 
Ireland," 1681, 8vo. 3. '^ A true account of the whole 
proceedings between James duke of OrnSond, and Arthur 
earl of Anglesey^ before the king and his council, &c." 
1682, fol. 4. " A letter of remarks upon Jovian," 1683, 
4to. Besides these, he rwrote many other things, some of 
which were published after bis decease ; as 5. <* The Pri- 
vileges of the House of Lords and Commons, argued and 
stated in two conferences between both houses, April 
19 and. 22, 1671. To which is added, A discourse, 
wherein the Rights of the House of Lords are truly as- 
serted ; with learned remarks on the seeming arguments 
jand pretended precedents offered at that time against their 
lordships." 6. ^* The King's right of Indulgence in Spi- 
ritual matters, with the equity thereof, asserted," 168S, 
4to. 7. ^' Memoirs, intermixt with moral, political, and 
historical Observations, by way of discourse, in a letter 
to sfar Peter Pett," 1693, 8vo. * 

, 1 Biog. Bnt^Ath. Ox» rol 11.— Bonnet's Own Times.i^Orford'i Royal and 
Koblii Anfhort, hj P»rk, vol. IIT, 



Mi A N N E S L E y. 

ANNESLEY, or ANELEY (SamuAl), a rery aniMfil 
nonconformist minister, was the son of John Aneiey> of 
Hare ley, in Warwickshire, where his family were pes* 
sessed of a good estate, and was bom about the year 16170. 
In 1635 he was admitted a student in Queen's college, Ox- 
ford, where he took his bachelor^s and master's degrees. 
At the university he was distinguished by extreme fjem-^ 
perance and industry. His inclination leading him to the 
church, he feceived holy orders, but it is uncertain whe-» 
ther from the hands of a bishop, or according to the Pres- 
byterian way ;' Wood inclines to the former, and Cakmy 
to the latter. In 1 644, however, he became chaplain to 
the earl of Warwick, then admiral of the parliament's fleet^ 
and afterwards succeeded to a church at Cliffe, in Kent, 
by the ejectnaent, for loyalty, of Dr. Griffidi Higges, who 
was much beloved by his parishioners. On July 26, 1648, 
he preached the fast sermon before the bouse of cbmmons, 
which, as usual, wa^ ordered to be printed. About this 
time, also, he was honoured with the title of LL. D. by 
the university of Oxford, or rather by the peremptory 
command of Philip earl of Pembroke, chancellor of the 
university,, who acted there with boundless authority^ 
The same year, he went to sea with the carl of Warwick, 
who was employed in giving chase to that part of the 
English navy which went over to the then prince, after- 
wards king Charles II. Some time after this, he resigned 
his Kentish living, although he had now become popular 
there, in consequence of a promise he made to his pa- 
rishioners to '^ resiorn it when he had fittied them for the 
reception of a better minister.'* In 1657, he was nomi- 
nated by Cromwell, lecturer at St. Paul's; and in 1658 
was presented by Richard, the protector, to the vicarage 
of St. Giles's, Cripplegate. But this presentation be-* 
coming soon useless, he, in 1660, procured another frond 
the trustees for the approbation and admission 6f ministers 
of the gospel, after the Presbyterian manner. His second 
presentation growing out of date as the first, he obtained, 
in the same year, a third, of a more legal stamp, from 
Charles II. ; but in 1662, he was ejected for nonconfor- 
mity. He was offered considerable preferment, if he 
would conform, but refused it, and continued to preach 
privately during that and the following reign. He died 
in 1696, with a high reputation for piety, charity, and 
popular talents. His works, which are enumerated, ^y 



A N N E S L E Y. ' 26d 

C^Aamy, cotisist of occasional sermons, and some funeral 
sern^ions^ with biographical memoirs. He was the prin-^ 
cipal suppcMTt, if not the institutor, of the morning lecture, 
or course of sermons preached at seven o* clock in the 
morning, at vartous churches^ during the usurpation, and 
afterwards at meeting-bouses, by the most learned and 
able nonconformists. Of these several volumes have been 
printed, and of late years have risen very much in price. 
Collectors inform us^that a complete set should consist of 
six volumes.' 

ANNICERIS, a Greek philosopher of the Cyrenaic 
sect, and who gave the name of Annicerians to his dis- 
ciples, was born at Cyrene, and scholar to Paraebates. 
When Plato, by the command of Dionysius the tyrant of 
l^icily, was sold as a slave at uSgina, our philosopher hap- 
pened to be present, and redeiemed him .tort twenty, or, 
according to others, thirty minoe, and sent him to Athens 
to his fnends, who immediately returned the money to 
Anniceris ; but he Irefused it, saying, that they were not 
the only persons who deserved to take care of Plato. He 
was particularly emineiit for bis skill in chariot-racing, of 
which be one day gave a proof before Plato, and drove 
many courses round the academy so exactly, that his 
idieeis never went out of the track, to the admiration of 
all who were present, except Plato, who reproved him for 
bis too great attention to such affairs, telling him, that it 
was not possible but that he, who employed so much pains 
about things of no value, must neglect those of greater 
. importance. He had. a brother who was named Nicoteles^ 
a philosopher, and the famous Posidonius was his scholar. 
The Annicerians, as well as the rest of the Cyrenaic phi- 
losophers, placed all good in pleasure, and conceived 
virtue to be only commendable so far as it produced plea- 
sure. They agreed in all respects with the Hegesians^ 
except that they did not abolish friendship, benevolence, 
duty to parents, and love to one's country. They held, 
that though a wise man suiFer trouble for those. things, 
yet he will lead a life not the less happy, though he enjoy 
but few pleasures. That the felicity of a friend is not de- 
sirable in itself; for to agree in judgment with another, 
or to be raised abov6 and fortified against the general 

» Bio^. Brit.— Ath, 0«. yoI. H.-rCalamy.— Walker's Sufferinss.— Duaton't 
tiltf, p. 330. DuAton was bis lon-in-law. 



t70 A N N I C E R I S. 

opinion, is not sufficient to satisfy reason ; but we mu^ 
accustom ourselves to the best things, on account of our 
innate vicious inclinations. That a friend is not to be 
entertained only for useful or necessary ends, nor when 
such ends fail, to be cast off, but out of an intrinsic good 
will ; for which we ought likewise to expose ourselves to 
trouble and inconvenience. Although these philosophers, 
like the rest of that sect, placed the chief end and good 
of mankind in • pleasure, and professed that they were 
grieved at the loss of it, yet they affirmed, that we ought 
voluntarily to subject ourselves to pain and trouble out of 
regard to our friends. * 

ANNIUS, or according to his epitaph, which Bayle 
follows, NANNIUS (John), commonly called Annius of 
Viterbo, where he was born about 1432, was a Dominican 
friar, and highly respected among his brethren for his 
extensive knowledge of Greek, Listtin^ and the oriental 
languages. He was also a zealous preacher, and his re- 
putation having reached Rome, he was invited . thither, 
and received with great respect by the members of the 
sacred college, and the popes' Sixtus IV. and Alexander 
VI. This last conferred upon him in 1499, the honour- 
able situation of master of the sacred palace, vacant by 
the promotion of Paul Moneglia to the bishopric of Chios: 
Annius, however, had some difficulty in preserving the 
favour of characters so profligate as Alexander,^ and his 
son Csesar Borgia ; but the duchess de Valentinois, wife 
ta CsBsar, and as virtuous as he was abandoned, rendered 
Annius every service in her power. Her husband, pro« 
bably on this account, and tired with the advice and re- 
monstrances presented to him either by her or by Annius, 
determined to get rid of the latter, and, it is thought, 
.procured him to be poisoned. Whatever may be in this 
report, Annius died Nov. 13, 1502, in his seventieth 
year. 

Annius left a great many works, two of which were 
thought valuable ; the one, *^ A treatise on the Empire of 
the Turks,*' and the oth<&r, /* De fiituris Christianorum 
triumphis in Turcas et Saracenos, at Xystum IV. et omnes 
principes Christianos,*' Genes, 1480, 4to, a commentary 
on the book of the Revelations, part of which had been 
the subject of some sermons he preached in 1471. He 

> Qen. Dwt.— Staoley's Lives pf the Plinotophen,^-Bnicker. ■ 



A N N I U S. 271 

published also ** Super mutuo Judaico et civili et dtvino,** 
1492) 4to, without place or printer^s name ; and the Har- 
leian catalogue ascribes to him a commentary on Catullus, 
TibuUus, and Propertius, Paris, 1604. But the work 
which has rendered/him best known in the literary world, 
is the collection of antiquities which he published at Rome 
in 149^, entitled ^* Antiquitatum variarum volumiha XVII. 
cum commentariis fr. Joannis Annii Viterbensis," foL 
reprinted the same year at Venice, and afterwards several 
times at Paris, Basil, Antwerp, Lyons, &c. sometimes with, 
and sometimes without his commentaries. In this collec- 
tion Annius pretends to give the original works of several 
historians of the highest antiquity, as : ** Arcbilochi de 
temporibus Epitome lib. I. — Xenophontis de iEquivocis 
lib. I. — Berosi Babylonici de Antiquitatibus Italiae ac totius 
orbis lib. V. — Manethonis ^gyptii supplementa ad Be- 
rosum lib. I. — Metasthenis Persae, de judicio temporum, 
. & Annalibus Persarum lib. I. — Philonis Hebrsei de tem* 
poribus lib. II. — ^Joannis Annii de primis temporibus, & 
quatuor ac viginti regibus Hispaniae, & ejus antiquitate 
lib. I. — Ejusdem de antiquitate & rebus Ethruriae lib. I.--^ 
Ejusdem Commentariorum in Propertium de Vertumno 
sive Jano lib. I. — Qi. Fabii Pictoris de aureo seeculo, & 
origine urbis Romie lib. II. — Myrsili Lesbii de origine 
Italiee, ac TurrhenisB lib. I. — M. Catonis fragmenta de 
originibus lib. I. — Antonini Pii Csesaris Augusti Itinera- 
rium lib. I. — C. Sempronii de chorographia sive descrip- 
tione Italic lib. I. — Joannis Annii de Ethrusca simul !l 
Italica Chronographia lib. I. — Ejusdem Quaestiones de 
Thuscialib. I. — ^Cl. Marii Aretii, Patricii Syracusani, de 
situ insulae Siciliae lib. L— Ejusdem Dialogus in quo His- 
pania describitur.^' The author dedicated these books to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, because they had been found 
when their majesties were conquering the k|n{Tdom of 
. Granada, He pretends, that be met with them at Mantua, 
whilst he was there with his patron Paul de Campio Ful- 
goso, cardinal of St. Sixtus. But they had not been 
published long, before doubts began to be entertained of 
their authenticity. This provoked a controversy, in the 
. course of which it was very clearly proved that they are 
entitled to. lijttle credit, but the precise share Annius had 
in the imposture was a point long undetermined. The 
*«cContehdihg writers on the subject may be divided into four 
classes. The one of opinion that Annius really got pos* 



it2 A N N. I U 8. 

possession of certain fragments of the ancient authors, but 
that he added to these a nuiuber of fables and traditioDS. 
Another class think that the whole coUection is. a forgery^ 
but that Annius was himself deceived^ and published what 
he really thought to be genuine. A tliird class are be- 
lievers in the authenticity of the %vhole> and oooie of these 
were themselves men of credit and reputation, aa Ber* 
nardino Bakli, William Postel, Albert Krant2, Sigonius, 
Leander Aiberti, (see vol. I. p. 3:^0), and some others. 
Alberti is said td have discovered his error, and ,to have 
deeply regretted that he admitted into his description of 
Italy, the fables which he found in Annitis. A. fourth 
class of critics on this work attribute the whole to the 
imagination of the editor ; and among these we find tlie 
names of Anthony Agostini, or Augustine, Isaac Casaubotl> 
Mariana, in his Spanish history, Ferrari, Martin Hanckius> 
Fabricius, Fontanini, &c. The learned Italiails,'&lso, wko 
were contemporaries with Annius, were the first to detect 
the fraud ; as Marcus Antonius Sabellicus, Peter Crinitos^ 
Volterre, &c. ; and Pignoria and Maffd were of the «ame 
opinion. In the sixteenth century^ Mazsa, a dominican^ 
revived the dispute, by publishing at Verona, in 1623, fol. 
a work entitled " Apologia pro fratre Giovaani Annio Vi- 
terbese.^' His chief design is to prove, that if there be 
any fraud, Anniuis must not be charged with it But he 
goes farther, and asserts, that these works are genuine^ 
and endeavours to answer all the objections urged against 
them. This apology having been censured, father Ma- 
cedo rose against the censurer, not indeed with a design 
to assert that the Berosus, &c. published by Annius was 
the genuine Berosus, but to shew that Annius did not forge 
those manuscripts, A more, modern apologist pretends 
both. He calls himself Didin^us Rapaligerus Livianus« 
He published at Verona in the year 1678, a work in folk), 
entitled ** I Gothi illustrati, overo IstoriA de i Gothi an-* 
tichi,'^ in which he brings together all the arguments he 
can think of, to shew that the writings published by Anniua 
are genuine ; and that this dominican did not forge them* 
The question is now universally given against Annius, 
while we are left to wonder at the perseverance which con- 
ducted him through a fraud of such magnitude. ' 

1 Gen. Diet— Moreri.— Ginguene Hist, Litteraire dUtalM^ vol. UL p. 40j>. 
«4ios* VmTerMlle.«-8aiii On<piutic»a. 



A N Q U E T I L. 273 

ANQUETIL (L&wis-Peter), a French historian, and 
political writer, was born at Paris, Jan. 21, 1723. Hayings 
in his seventeenth year entered the congregation of St Ge«- 
nevieve, he distinguished himself by the ability with which 
he afterwards discharged the office of teacher in theology 
and literature. His residence at Rheims, as director of 
the academy, seetns to have suggested to him the first 
idea of writing the history of that city. In 1759, he was 
appointed prior of the abbey de la Roe, in Anjou, and 
soon after, director of the college of 'Senlis, where he 
composed his work entitled *' L* Esprit de la Ligue." In 
1766 he obtained the curacy or priory of Chateau -Renard, 
near Montargis, which, about the beginning of the revolu- 
tion, be exchanged for the curacy of La Villette, near Paris. 
During the revolutionary phrenzy, he was imprisoned at St. 
Lazare, and wrote there part of his ^* Histoire universelle.'* 
When the Institute was formed, he wa^ chosen a member of 
the second class, and was soon after taken into the office of 
the minister for foreign affairs, whom he thought to oblige 
by his ** Motifs de$ traites de Paix." Enjoying a strong 
constitution, the fruit of a placid and equal temper, ana 
aversion to the luxuries of the table, he was enabled to 
study ten hours a day ; and undertook, without fear or 
scruple, literary undertakings of the most laborious kind. 
Even in his eightieth year, he was projecting some new 
works of considerable size, and was apparently without 
a complaint, when he died, Sept. 6, 1808, in the eighty- 
fourth year of his age. On this occasion he said to one of 
his friends, *^ come and see a man die who is full of life.'* 
His principal writings are ! 1. '* Histoire civile et po- 
litique de la ville de Reims," 1756 — 7, 3 vols. 12mo; 
a virork in the true spirit of antiquarian research, which he 
wrote in concert with one Felix de la Salle, and when they 
were about to publish, they cast lots, as to whose name should 
be prefixed, and the lot fell on AnquetiL Towards the 
end of his life, he said, '^ I have been reading the history 
of Rheims^ as if it did not belong to me, and I have no 
scrapie in pronouncing it a good work.'' 2. ^^ Almanach 
de Rheims,*' 1754, 24mo. 3. << L'Esprit de la Ligi\e ; 
ou histoire politique des troubles de France pendant fes 
.16 et 17 siecles,"' 1767) 3 vols. 12mo. This has been 
often repi^inted, and is accurate and curious as to facts, 
but not thought profound in reasoning. 4. ^^ Intrigue du 
cabinet sous Henry IV. €t sous Louis XIII. termin^e par 
Y»u II. T 



r 



Hi A N ia U E T I L. 

la Fronde,'' 1780, 4 vols. 12ino« $. ^^ Louis XIV. sa 
cour et le regent/' 1789, 4 vols. 12mo, 1794, 3 vok. 
i 2mo, translated likewise into Englisli* It is a kind of 
sequel to the preceding, and a collection of anecdotes 
wi^out much order, which has lost its value smce the 
memoirs have been published from whence it was formed. 
6. ** Vie du marechal Villar^, ecrite par lui-meme, suivie 
du journal de la cour de 1724 a 1734," Paris, 1787, 4 
vols. 12mo, and 1792. 7. " Precis de FHistoire nni* 
verselle,'* 1797, 9 vols. 12mo, the third and* best edition^ 
corrected by M. Jondot, 1807, 12 vols. 12mo« This work 
has been translated into English, (1800,) Spanish, and 
Italian. It has not been very successful in this country ; 
his French biographer calls it merely an abridgment 
#f the English universal history, and says that it must be 
read with caution. 8. ^^ Motifs des guerres et des tndtes 
des paix de la France, pendant les regnes de Louis XIV. 
XV. et XVI." 1798, 8vo. This work was adapted to the 
state of the French government at the time it was written, 
but the author lived to find his theory overturned by the 
accession of a monarchical constitution. 9. ^* Histoire de 
France, depuis les Gaules jusqu'a le fin de la monarchie,^' 
1805, &C. 14 vols. 12mo, a performance of which his 
countrymen do not speak in very high terms. Besides 
these, he wrote a life of his brother, the subject of the 
following article, and several papers in the memoirs of 
the institute. ' 

. ANQUETIL-DUPERRON (Abrahab^Hyacinth), bro- 
ther to the preceding, was born at Psiris, Dec. 7, 1731. 
After having studied at the university of Paris, where he 
acquired an extensive knowledge of the Hebrew, he was 
invited to Auxerre by M. de Caylus, then the bishop, 
who induced him to study divinity, first at the academy in 
his diocese, and afterwards at Amersfort, near Utrecht ; 
but Anquetil had no inclination for the church, and re- 
turned with avidity to the study of the Hebrew, Arabic, 
and Persian. Neither the solicitations of M. de Caylus, 
nor the hopes of preferment, could detain him at Amers- 
fort longer than be thought he had learned all that was 
to be learned there. He returned therefore to Paris, 
where his constant attendance at the royal library, and 
diligence in study, recommended him to the abb6 Sallier, 

* Bips. UBiT«ri«lle« 



A N a U E T I L. 27S 

keeper of the tnEnaistcnjlts^ who made him known to his 
fzietlds^ and furnished turn with a moderate maintenance, 
luidex the character; of student of the Oriental languages. 
The accidentsuly meeting with some manuscripts in tlie 
Zend, the language in which the works attributed to Zo- 
xoaster are written, created in him an irresistible iuclina« 
tion to visit the East in search of them. At this time 
an expedition for India was fitting out at port POrient, 
and when he found that the applications of his friends wiNra 
not sufficient ta procure him a passage, he entered as a 
common soldier; and ^on Nov. 7> 1754, left Paris, with 
his knaf»sack on his back. His friends no sooner heard of 
this wild step, than they had recourse to the minister, who 
surprized at so luicommon an instance of literary zeal, 
ordered him to be provided with a free passage, a seat at 
the captain's table, and other accommodations. Accord-* 
ingly, after a nine months voyage, he arrived Aug.. 10, 
1755, >at Pondicherry. Remaining there such time as was 
necessary to acquire a knowledge of the modem Persian, 
he went to Chandernagoi:, where he hoped to learn the 
Sanscrit.; but sickness, which confined him for some 
months, and the war which broke out between France and 
England, and in which Cbandernagor was taken, dbap* 
pointed his plans. He now . set out for Pondicherry bjr. 
land, Mid after incredible fatigue and hardships, perfcMrmed 
the journey of about, four hundred leagues. in about aa 
l^uudred days. At Pondicherry he found one of < his bro« 
th^s arrived from France, and sailed with him for Surat^ 
but, landing at Mahe, completed his journey on focyt At 
Suiat, by perseverance and address, he succeeded ia 
procuring and .translating some manuscripts, particulariy 
the ^' Vendidade-Sade," a dictionary ; and he was about 
to have gone to Benares, to study the language, antiqui<* 
tiesj and liacred laws of the Hindoos, when the capture <>f 
Pondicherry obliged him to return to Europe. Accordingly, 
he came in an English vessel to London, where he spent 
some time, visited Oxford, and at length arrived at Paris 
May. 4, 1762, without fortune, ortbewishto acquire it; 
but rich in an hundred and eighty manuscripts and othe( 
curiosities. The abb6 Barthelemi, however, and his 
other friends, procured him a pension, with the title and 
place of Oriental interpreter in the royal library. In 1763, 
the academy of belles-lettres elected him an associate, 
and from that time he devoted himself to the arrangement 

T 2 



2T6 A N; a tr E T r L. 

and pubHcatidn of the valuable materiab he had collectcxir 
In 1771, be published his ^* Zend-Avesta/' 3 vols. 4t0y 
a work of Zoroaster, from> the original. Zend^ with a cu- 
rious account of his travels, and a life of Zoroaster. In 
1778 he published bis ^^ Legislation Orientale/' 4tb, itt 
which, by a display of the fundamental {principles of go^^^ 
vernment in the Turkish, Persian, and Indian dominions, 
he proves, first, that the manner in which most writers 
have hitherto represented despotism, as if it were absolute 
in these three empires, is entirely groundless ; secondly,* 
that ill Turkey, Persia, and Indostan, there are codes of 
written law, which affect the prince as well as the sMibject ; 
aod thirdlyv that in these three empires, the inhabitants 
are possessed' of property, both in movable and immovable 
goods, which they enjoy with entire liberty. In 1786 
appeared his ^^ Recherches historiquea et geographique» 
sar rinde," followed in 1789, by his treatise on the dig* 
liity of Commeree and the commercial state. During the 
revolutionary period, he concealed himself among bis 
boCidLs, but in 1798 appeared again as the* author of 
/^L'lndeau rapport avec I'Europe," 2 vols. 8va In 1804y 
he published a Latin translation from the Persian of tbo 
^^'Oupnek^ hat, or Upanischada*" i. e. ^^ secrets which must 
not be revealed," 2 vols. 4to. Not long before his death 
he' was elected a member of the institute^ but soon after 
gave in his resignatibn, and died at Paris, Jan. 17, 1805« 
Besides the works already noticed, he contributed many 
pivpevs to the academy on the subject of Oriental language^ 
and antiquities, and left behind him the character of on^ 
of the ablest Oriental scholars in France, and a man of 
great personal worth and amiable manners. ' His biogra4 
pher adds, that he refused the sum of 30,000 livres, whiob 
was offered by the English, for his manuscript of the Zehd^ 
Avesta; * 

. AN S ART (Andrew Joseph), a French historian, and 
ecclesiastical Writer, was born in the Artois, in 1723, and 
became a Benedictine, but being appointed procurator of 
one of the houses of that order, he disappeared with the 
funds intrusted to his care.. How he escaped aftQrward% 
his biographer does not inform us, but he attached him<» 
self to the order of Malta, became an advocate of parlia^ 

1 Bio;. UnWerselle. — Moatb, Ser, toI. LXI.-— Diet, Hkitorique, •— Saxii 
OnomasticoD^ toU VIII. 



A N S A R T. . » 277 

tBent, frtid doctor of laws of the faculty of Paris. He was 
ftfterwards made prior of Villeconin, and a member of the 
^ademies of Arras and of the arcades of Rome. H# died 
about 1790^ after having published : 1- ^'Dialogues sar 
Futility des moines rentes," 1768,. igmo. 2. "Exposition 
«ir le Cantique des Cantiques de Salomon," 1770, 12mo. 

3. « HistOire de S. Maur^ abb^ de Glanfeuil," 1772, 
1 2mo. The first part contains th© life of St. Maur ; the 
6econd and third give an account of bis relics ; and the 
fourdi is a history of the dbbey of St. Maur-des-Foss^s. 

4. *^ Eloge de Charles V. empereur," from the Latin ^f 
J. Masenius, 1777, 12mo. 5. " Esprit de St. Vincent de 
PauV* proposed as a pattern to ecclesiastics, 1780, 12mo. 
6. '^ Histoire de Sainte Reine d'Alise, et de Tabbaye de 
Flavigny," 1783, 12mo. 7. « Histoire de S. Fiac're," 1784, 
}2mo. 8. " Bibliotheque litteraire du Maine," Chalons 
surMarne, 1784, Svo^ in which he has revived the me- 
mory of above three hundred authors. The work was in- 
tended to consist of eight volumes, but no more was 
printed than this. 9. ^* La Vie de Gregoire CorteZj Be- 
nedictine, eveque d'Urbin, et cardiaaV 1786, Ansart, 
according to his biographer, was both ignorant and idle, 
and took the substance of all the works he published widi 
ibis name, from the archives of the Regime^ formerly at 
Germain-des-Pres. * ? 

ANSCARIUS, one of the early propagators <^ Christi* 
wity, and the first who introduced it into Denmark and 
Sweden, and henee called the apostle of the north, was 
bom at Picardy, Sept. 8, in the year 801. He was edu- 
cated in a Benedictine convent at Corbie, from whence 
he went to Corvey, in Westphalia, where ha made suc^ 
progress in his studies^ that, jin the year 821, be was ap- 
pointed rector of the school belonging to the convent. 
Harold, king of Denmark, who had been expelled from 
his dominions, and haxl found an asylum with Lewis, the 
son and successor of Charlema^^ne, who bad induced him 
to receive Christian baptism, was .about to return to. his 
joountry, and Lewis enquired for some pious person, who 
might accompany him, and confirm both him and his at<r 
tendants in the Christian religion.^ Vala, the abbot of 
Corbie, pointed out Anscarius, who readily undertook the 
|i|^riIous task, although against the remom$rances of hU 

> Bios. U»ivewelle» 



216 A N S C A R I U S. 

ifriend$. Aubert, a monk of noble birth, offered to be bli 
' companion, and Harold accordingly set out with thenj^ 
but neither he nor his attendants, whp were rude and bar- 
barous in their maimers, were at all solicitous for the 
accommodation of the missionaries, who therefore suffered 
much in the beginning of their journey. When the com-r 
pany arrived at Cologne, Hadeb^ild, the archbishop, coni-» 
miserating the two strangers, gave them a bark, in which 
they might convey their effects ; but, when they came to 
the frontiers of Denmark, Harold, finding access to his 
dominions impossible, because of the power of those who 
had usurped the sovereignty, remained in Friesland, where 
Anscarius and Aubert laboured with zeal and success, both 
among Christians and Pagans, for about two years, when 
Aubert died. In the year 829, many Swedes having ex- 
pressed a desire to be instructed in Christianity, Anscarius 
received a commission from the emperor Lewis to visit 
Sweden. Another monk of Corbie, Vitmar, was assigned 
as his companion, and a pastor was left to attend on king 
Harold, in the room of Anscarius. In the passage, they 
fell in with pirates, who took the ship, and all its effects. 
On this occasion, Anscarius lost the emperor^s presents, 
and forty volumes, which he had collected for the use'of 
the ministry. But his mind was determihed, and he and 
his partner having reached land, they walked on foot a 
long way ; now and tbep crossing some arms of the sea in 
boats. At length they arrived at Birca, from the ruins of 
which Stockholm took its rise, though built at some dis- 
tance from it. The king of Sv^eden received them favour- 
ably, and his council unanimously agreed that they should 
renlain in the country, and preach the gospel, which they 
did with very considerable success. 

After six' months, the two missionaries returned with 
letters written by the king^s hand, into France, and in- 
formed Lewis of their success. The consequence was, 
that Anscarius was appointed first archbishop of Hamburgh; 
i^nd this city, being in the neighbourhood of Denmark, 
Was hencefoi^ colisider^d af the metropolis of all the 
countries north of the Elbe which should embrace Christ 
tianity. The mission into Dendaark was at the same time 
attended to; and GausbeKt| a relation of Ebbo, arch- 
bishop of Rheims, who, as well as Anscarius, was concerned! 
fn these missions, was sent to reside as a bishop in Sweden; 
where the number of Christians increased. Anscariasi 



A N S C A R I U S. «• 

mm, by order of the emperor Lewis, went to Rome, that 
he might receive confirmation in the new archbishopric 
of Hamburgh. On his return, he applied himself to the 
business of conversion, and was succeeding in his efforts^ 
when, in the year 845, Hamburgh was taken and pillaged 
by the Normans, and he escaped with difSculty, and lost 
all his effects. About the same time, Gausbert, whom he 
had sent into Sweden, was banished through a popular in« 
surrection, a circumstance which retarded the progress of 
religion for some years in that country. 

Anscarius, , however, although reduced ta poverty, and 
deserted by many of his followers, persisted with uncom* 
moQ patience in the exercise of his mission in the north of 
Europe, till the bishopric of Bremen was conferred upon 
him, and Hamburgh and Bremen were from that time 
considered as united in one diocese. But it was not with- 
out much pains taken to overcome his scruples, that he was 
induced to accept of this provision for his wants. Having 
still his eye on Denmark, which had been his first object^ 
and having now gained the friendship of Eric, the king, 
be was. enabled to plant Christianity with some success at 
Sleswick, a port then called Hadeby, and much fre* 
quented by merchants. Many persons who had been 
baptized at Hamburgh resided there, and a number of 
Pagans were induced to countenance Christianity in some 
degree. At length, through the friendship of Eric, he was 
enabled to visit Sweden once more, where be established the 
gospel at Birca, from whence it spread to other parts of the 
kingdom. After his return to Denmark, he died Feb. 3, in 
the year 864. Without being exempt from the superstitions 
of his age, Anscarius was one of the most pious, resolute, 
indefatigable, and disinterested propagators of Christianity 
in early times.^. The centuriators only bear bard on his cha« 
racter, but Mosheim more candidly allows that his la- 
bours deserve the highest commendation. His ablest de- 
fender,, however, is the author of the work from which this 
account is abridged. 

Anscarius wrote many books, but none are extant, ex- 
cept some letters, and ^^ Liber, de vita et miraculis S. 
.Wilohadi,'* printed with the life of Anscarius, Cologne,^ 
1642, 8vo, and often since. Anscarius^s life is also in the 
*^ Scriptores rerum Danicarum,'\ No. 30, of Langebek.^ 

* Mnner*8 Chuirch Hiftoiy, toI, III. p. S58, principally from Fleuiy, Allwi 
m^tieri afi<} U)e Cent. Ma^.^Hist. Cimbri« Literarise Molleri.— Moreri. 



*8Q ANSEGISUS. 

ANSEGISUS^ abbot of Lobies, an old Benedictinie ino<^ 
iiastery upon the Saiubre^ in the diocese of Cambray, lived 
in. tbe ninth century. Pithaeus, Antonius^ AugustinuSy 
Valerius, Andreas, and others, being too implicit in {oU 
lowing Trithemius, have made this Ansegisus and another 
of that name^ arcbbisbop of Sens, the same persons. Our 
Ansegisus of Lobies was in great esteeni with the bishops 
and princes of /his time, and his learning and conduct de-r 
served it. In the year 827, he made a collection of the 
capitularies of Charlemagne, and Levids his son, entitled 
*^ Capitula seu Edita Garoli Magni & Ludovici pii Impera- 
torum." We have several editions of this worfe ; one 
printed in 1588, by Pithaeus, with additions, and notes of 
his owa upon it : it was afterwards printed at Mentz in 
1602, and by Sirmundus at Paris in 1640, to which he 
added a collection of tha capitularies of Charles the Bald. 
Lastly, in 1676, Baluzius furnished a new edition of all 
these ancient capitularies, with remarks upon them, two 
volumes in folio* But Baluzius^s impression differs con* 
diderably from those before him ; for, besides a great many 
different readings, there are the 39th, 52d, 67th, 68th, 
74th, and 79th chapters of the first book wanting: there 
are Hkewise added^ the 89th and 90th chapters of the third 
hook; and also the 76th and 77th chapters of the fourth 
book, which yet, as Le Cointe observes, are the same with 
the 29th and ^th chapters. There are three appendixes 
annexed to the four books in the Capitularies, the first of 
which, in the old editions, consists of 33 chapters, but in 
theBaluzian there are 35. The second, in the old edi^ 
tions, has 36 chapters, but the Baluzian impression reaches 
to 38. The third appendix contains 10 chapters ; with 
these appendixes, several constitutions of the emperors 
J»otfaarius and Charles the Bald are mixed. He died in 
the year 834. * 

ANSELM, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of 
William Rufus and Henry I. was an Italian by birth, and 
born in 1033 at Aost, or Augusta, a town at the foot of the 
Alps,, belonging to the duke of Savoy. He was descended 
of a considerabje family : his father's name was GunduU 
phus, and his mother's Hemeberga. From early life his 
religious cast of mind was so prevalent, that, at the age of 
fifteen, he offered himself to a monastery, but was refused^ 

> Mor^ri.— Care, tqI. II. — Saxii Onomasticciiu 



A N S E L M. Ml 

lext his father should bai^e been displeased. After, how- 
ever, he had gone through a course of study, and travelled 
for some tune in France and Burgundy, he took the mp<n 
nastie habit in the abbey of Bee in Normandy, of which 
Lanfranc, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, was then 
(irior. This y^as in ^060, when he was twenty-seven years 
old. Three years auer, when Lanfranc was made abbot of 
Caen, Anselm succeeded him in the priory of Bee, and oa 
the death of the abbot, was raised to that office. About 
the year 1092, Anselm came over into England, by the 
invitation of Hugh, earl of Chester, who requested his as- 
sistance in his sickness. Soon after his arrival, William 
Rufus, falling sick at Gloucester, was much pressed to fill 
up the see of Canterbury. The king, it seems, at that 
time, was much influenced by one Ranulph, a clergyman, 
who, though a Norman and of mean extraction, had a great 
share in the king's favour, and at last rose to the post of 
prime minister. This man, having gained the king's ear 
by flattering his vices, misled him in the administipationy 
and put him upon several arbitrary and oppressive expe^ 
dients. Among others, one was, to seize the revenues of 
a church, upon the death of a bishop or abbot ; allowing 
the dean and chapter, or convent, but a slender pension 
for maintenance. But the king now falling sick, began to 
be touched with remorse of conscience, and among other 
oppressions, was particularly afflicted for the injury he had 
done the church and kingdom in keeping the see of Can* 
terbury, and some others, vacant. The bishops and other 
great men therefore took this opportunity to entreat the 
king to fill up the vacant sees ; and Atiselm, who then 
lived in the neighbourhood of Gloucester, being sent for 
to court, to assist the king in his illness, was considered 
by the king as a proper person, and accordingly nominated 
to the see of Canterbury, which had been four years vacant, 
and was formerly filled by his old friend and preceptor Lan<» 
franc. Anselm was with much difficulty pretcaiied upon to 
accept this dignity, and evidetitly foi*esaw the difficulties 6f 
executing his duties conscientiously under such a sovereign 
^s William Rufus. Beforehis consecration, however, hegain- 
ed a promise from the king for the restitution of all the lands 
which were in the possession of that see in Lanfranc's time. 
And thus having secured the temporalities of the arch- 
bishopric, and done homage to the king, he was conse- 
crated ^ith great solemnity on the 4th of December, I0d3« 



062 A N S E L M. 

JSooh after his consecration, the king intending to wresi 
the duchy of Normandy from his broth (Br Robert, and en- 
deavouring to raise what money he could for that purpose^ 
Anselm made him an offer of five hundred pounds ; which 
the king thinking too little, refused to accept, and the arch- 
bishop thereby fell under the king's displeasure. About 
that time, he had a dispute with the bishop of London, 
touching the right of consecrating churches in a foreign 
diocese. The next year, the king being ready to embark 
for Norjoiandy, Anselm waited upon him, and desired his 
leave to ccHivene a national synod, in which the disorders 
of the church and state, and the general dis^lution of 
manners, might be remedied : but the king refused his 
request, and even treated him so roughly, that the arch* 
bishop and his retinue withdrew from the court, the licen* 
tious manners of which, Anselm, who was a man of inflexi- 
ble piety, had censured with great freedom. Another 
cause of discontent between him and the archbishop, was 
Anselm's desiring leave to go to Rome, to receive the pall 
from pope Urban II. whom the king of England did not 
acknowledge as pope, being more inclined to favour the 
party of his competitor Guibert To put an end to this 
ihisunderstanding, a council, or convention, was held at 
Bockingham castle, March 11, 1095. In this assembly, 
Anselm, opening his cause, told them with what reluc* 
tancy he h&d accepted the archbishopric; that he had 
made an express reserve of his obedience to pope Urban ; 
jmd that be was now brought under difficalties upon that 
score. He therefore desired their, ad vice how to act in 
such a manner, as neither to fail in his allegiance to the 
king, nor in his duty to the holy see. The bishops were 
of. opinion, that he ought to resign himself wholly to the 
king's pleasure. I'hey told him, there was a general 
.complaint against bim, for intrenching upon the. king's 
prerogative ; and that it would be prudence in him to wave 
bis regard for Urban ; that bishop (for they would not call 
him pope) being in no condition to do bim either good or 
harm. To this Anselm returned, that he was engaged to 
be no farther the king's subject than the laws of Chris- 
tianity would give hini leave ; tliat as he was willing <^ jto 
Tender unto Caesar the^ things that were Caesar's/' so ha 
must likewise take in the othe^ part of the precept, and 
" give unto God that which was God's." Upon this VVil- 
Hami bishop of Durham^ a court prelate, who had inflaAigd 



A N S E L ML 91$ 

the difFeretice, and managed the argument for theking, 
insisted, that the nomination of the pope to the subject 
was the principal jewel' of the crown, and that by this pri- 
vilege the kings of England were distinguished from the 
rest of the princes of Christendom. This is sound doc- 
trine, if that had really been the question ; but, whatever 
may be now thought of it, Anselm held an opinion in 
l/rhich sucfceeding kings and prelates acquiesced, and in the 
present instance, there is reason to think that William 
Rufus's objection was not to the pope, but to a pope. Be 
this as it may, the result of this council, was that the ma- 
jority of the bishops, under the influence of the court, 
withdrew their canonical obedience, and renounced An- 
selm for their archbishop, and the king would have even 
had them to try and depose him, but this they refused. In 
consequence of this proceeding, Anselm desired a pass- 
port to go to the continent, which the king refused, and 
would permit only of a suspension of the affair from March 
to 'Whitsuntide; but long before the expiration of the 
term, he broke through the agreement, banished several 
clergymen who were Anselm's favourites, and misa'abljr 
harrassed the tenants of his see. Whitsuntide being at 
length come, and the bishops having in vain endeavoured 
to soften Anselm into a compliance, the king consented to 
receive him into favour upon his own terms ; and, because 
Anselm persisted in refusing to receive the pall from the 
king's hands, it was at last agreed that the pope^s nuncio, 
who had brought the pall into England, should carry it 
«lown to Canterbury, and lay it upon the altar of the cathe- 
dral, from whence Anselm was to receive it, as if it had 
been put into his hands by St. Peter himself. 

This may appear trifling ; but as we have already said 
that the king's objection was to a pope, and not to the pope^ 
it is necessary to prove this by a circumstance which oc- 
curred during the interval above-mentioned, especially as 
this part of Anselm's conduct has been objected to by some 
late biographers more acquainted with the opinions of 
their own time, than with the opinions and state of so- 
ciety in that of Anselm. During the above interval, Wal- 
ter, bidK>p of Alba, was sent by Urban into Engfand, at« 
tended by two clergymen, who officiated in the king's 
chapel. Tl^ese ecclesiastics had been privately dispatched 
po Rome, to inquire into the late election, and examine 
Tvhicii of the two pretenders, Guibe^^t or Vcban, wa« 



284 A N S E L M. 

canbdically chosen, and finding the right lay in Urhav, 
applied to him, and endeavoured to persuade him to send 
the king tlie archbishop of Canterbury's palL This was 
the king^s point ; who thought, by getting the pall jiito 
hia poss^ession, he should be able to manage the archhisbopt 
The pope complied so far, as to send the bishop of Alba 
to the king with the pall, but with secret orders ooncem- 
ing the disposal of it. This prelate arriving at the £0g- 
lish court, discoursed very plausibly to the king, making 
him believe the pope was entirely in his interest; in conse-^ 
quence of which William ordered Urban to be acknow- 
ledged as pope in all his dominions. After he had thus 
far gratified the see of Rome, he began to treat with, thet 
legate about the deprivation of Anselm ; but was gneatly 
.disappointed, when that prelate assured him the design 
was impracticable. As therefore it was now too late to go 
back, he resolved, since he could not. have his reven^ 
upon Anselm, to drop the dispute, and pretend himsdf 
reconciled. Matters being thus . adjusted, the archbishop 
went to Canterbury, and received the pall with great so- 
lemnity the June following. And now it was generally 
hoped, that all occasion of difference between the king 
and the archbishop was removed : but it appeared noon 
after, that the reconciliation on the king^s part was not 
sincere. For William, having marched his forces io^ 
Wales, and brought that country to submission, took thM 
ppportunity to quarrel with Anselm, pretending he vng 
not satisfied with the quota the archbishop had furaishMl 
for that expedition. Finding therefore his authority too 
weak to oppose the corruptions of the times, Anselm re-* 
solved to go in parson to Rome, and consult the popiev 
But the king, to whom he applied for leave to go mxt of 
the kingdom,, sealed surprised at the request, and gair« 
him a flat deniaL His request being repeated, the king 
gave his compliance in the form of a sentence of banish- 
ment, and at the meeting of the great council, Oct. 1097, 
commanded him to leave the kingdom within eleven days, 
without caiTying any of his effects with htm, and declared 
at'the 3ame time that he should never be permitted to re- 
tum« Anselm, nowise affected by this harsh conduct, 
went to Canterbury, divested himself of his aochiepiscopal 
robes, and set out on his journey, embarking at Dover, 
after his baggage had been strictly searched by . the king's 
officers. As soon as the king heagrd thf^t he had crtosed the 



A N S E L M. 285 

cbalinel, he seized upon the estates and revenues of thife 
archbishopric, and made erery thing void which Anselm 
haA done. The archbishop^ however^ got safe to Rome^ 
ao4 was honourably received by the pope, and after a short 
stay in that city, he accompanied the pope to a country 
seat near Capua, whither i^is holiness retired on account 
of die Unhealthiness of the town. Here Anselm wrote a 
book, in which he gave an account of the reason of our 
Saviour^s incarnation. The pope wrote to the king of 
£i^laad in a stram of authority, enjoining him to re« 
iostatft Anselm in all the profits and privileges of his see; 
and Anselia wrote into England upon the same subject. 
The king, on the other hand, endeavoured to get Anselm 
discountenanced abroad, and wrote to Roger, duke of 
Apulia, and others, to tiiat purpose. But, notwithstand- 
ing bis endeavours, Anselm was treated with all imaginable 
lespect wherever he ciame, and was very serviceable to 
the pope in the council of Bari, which was held to oppose 
the errors of the Greek church, with respect to the pro- 
cession of the Holy Ghost. In this synod Anselm an- 
sweired the objections of the Greeks, and managed the 
argufxient with so much judgment, learning, and pene- 
trattcm, that he silenced his adversaries, and gave general 
sausfiaction to the Western church. This argument wa» 
afterwards digested by him into a tract, and is extant 
among his other works. In the same council Anselm 
generously interposed, and. prevented the pope from pro- 
nouncing sentence of excommunication against the king 
ef Eng^aAd, for his frequent outrages on religion. After 
the synod of Bari was ended, the pope and Ans^lni re* 
turned to Rome, where an ambassador from the king of 
bigllmd was arrived, in order to disprove Anselm's alle* 
gations and complaints against his master. At first the 
pope was peremptory in rejecting this ambassador; but 
the latter in aiprivate conference, and through the secret 
influence of a large sum of money, induced the court of 
Rome to desert Anselm. Still the pope could not be reso* 
lute; for when the archbishop would have returned to 
JLjojQS, he could not part with him, but lodged him in a 
noble palace, and paid him frequent visits. About this time 
tile pope having summoned a council to sit at Rome, An- 
•ekn had a very honourable seat assigned to him and his 
yucceators, this being the first appearance of an archbishdp 
<rf Ca|itei1>ury in a Roman synod. Nor was this all, for 



286 A ]!9 S E L M; 

the bishop of Lucca, one of the members, adluddd tb Ah^ 
selm's case in a manner so pointed, that the pope wat 
obliged to promise that matters should be rectified. Whetv 
the council broke up, Anselm returned to Lyons, vfh^ff 
he was entertained for some time by Hugo the archbishop^ 
and remained there until the death of king William and 
pope Urban in 1100. Henry L who succeeded WiUiam, 
having restored the sees of Canterbury, Winchester, and 
Salisbury, which had been seized by his predecessor. An- 
telm was solicited to return to England, add on bis arrival 
at Ciugny, an agent from the king presented him with «i 
letter of invitation to his bishopric, and an excuse for his 
majesty^s not waiting until Anselm's reti|rn, and receiv- 
ing the crown from the hands of another prelate. 
. When he came to England, September 1100^ be was^ 
received with extraordinary respect by the king and peo^^ 
pie, but it being required that he should be re-inveSted hy 
the king, and do the customary 'homage of his predeces«> 
sors, he refused to comply, alledging the canons of thtf 
late synod at Rome about investitures. This synod eiccom^ 
inunicated all lay persons, who should give investitures for 
abbies or cathedrals, and all ecclesiastics receiving inves- 
titures from lay hands, or who came under the tenure of 
homage for any ecclesiastical promotion, were put under 
the same censure. Displeased as the king was with Aii« 
selm*s adherence to this law, he was not sufficiently estab- 
lished on the throne to hazard an . open rupture, and it was 
therefore agreed that the dispute should rest until Easter 
following, and in the mean time both parties were to send 
iheir agents to Rome, to try if they could pevsuade the 
pope to dispense with the canons of the late synod in rela« 
tion to investitures. About this time, Anselm summoned 
a synod to meet at Lambeth, on occasion of the king*s in« 
tended marriage with Maud or Matilda, eldest daughter of 
Malcolm king of Scotland, and in this synod it was deter^i* 
mined, that the king might lawfully marry that princess, 
notwithstanding she was generally reported to be a nun^ 
having worn the veil, and had her education in a religious 
house. Soon after the marriage, which Anselm celebrated, 
he was of signal service to king Henry against his brother 
the duke of Normandy, who had invaded England, and 
landed with a formidable army at Portsmouth, as he not 
only furnished the king with a large body of men, butwai 
very active, likewise, in preventing a revolt of the great 



A N S E L Ma 2Sr 

men from him. To engage the primate to perform these 
services^ we are assured by Eadmer, bis friend, secretary^ 
and biographer, that the king solemnly promised to go* 
Tern the kmgdom by his advice, and submit in all thing* 
to the will of the pope, a promise which he seems to have 
kept no longer than danger was in view. 

The agents, sent by the king and the archbishop to 
Rome, being returned, brought with them a letter from 
pope Paschal to the king, in which his holiness absolutely 
refused to dispense with the canons concerning investi- 
tures. The king, on his part, resolved not to give up 
what for some reigns had passed for part of the royal pre- 
rogative, and thus the difference was continued betweea 
the king and Anseim. In this dispute the majority of the 
bishops and temporal nobility were on the court side ; and 
some of them were very earnest with the king, to break 
entirely with the see of Rome ; but it was not thought ad- 
viseable to proceed to an open rupture without trying a 
Darther expedient ; and therefore fred^ agents were dis- 
patched by the king to Rome, with instructions to offer 
the pope this alternative ; either to depart from his former 
declaration, and relax in the point of investitures, or to 
be content with the banishment of Anseim, and to lose 
the obedience of the English, and the yearly profits ac« 
eruing from that kingdom. At the same time, Anseim 
dispatched two monks, to inform the pope of the menaces 
of the English court. But the king's ambassadors could 
not prevail with the pope to recede firom his declaration ; 
his holiness protesting he would sooner lose his life than 
cancel the decrees of the holy fathers, which resolution he 
signified by letters to the king and Anselor. Soon after, 
the king, having convened the great men of the kingdom 
at London, sent Anseim word, that he must either comply^ 
with the usages of his father's reign, or quit England ; but 
^e agents disagreeing iu their report of the pope's an- 
swer, Anseim thought proper not to return a positive an- 
swer till farther information. And thus the controversy 
slept for the present. The next, year a national synod 
was held under Anseim at St. Peter's, Westminster ; at 
]which the king and the principal nobility were present, and 
in which several abbots were deposed, for simoayi and 
many canons were made. By one of these the mtfrted 
^^Tfy ymre commanded to put away their wives^ and bjr 



I 



288 A N S E L M. 

ftRother it was decreed that the soi^s of priests* sbontd not 
l;e heirs to their fathers' churches. 

. The king had an interview with the archbishop about 
mid-lent, 1 103, in which he laboured both by threats and 
promises, to bring him to do homage for the tem;)oraliti69 
ef his see, but when he found him iuflexiblej he joined 
with<the bishops and nobility in desiring Anselm to take a 
journey to Rome, to try if he could persuade the pope to 
relax, and Anselm accordingly set out, April 29. At the 
same time, the king dispatched one Williain Warelwast to 
Borne, who, arriving there before Anseim, solicited for 
the king his master, but to no purpose, as the pope per- 
sisted in refusing to grant the king the right of investiture. 
Bat, at the same time, his holiness wrote a very ceremo- 
/ftious letter to ,the king of England, entreating him to 
vave the contest, and promising all imaginable compliance 
in other matteri^. Anselm, having, taken leave of the court 
of Rome, returned to Lyons, where he received a sharp 
and reprimanding . letter from a monk, acquainting him 
with the lamentable condition of the province of Canter- 
bury, and blaming him for absenting himself at such a 
critical time. During the arphbisbop^s stay at Lyons, the 
king sent another embassy to Rome, to try if he could 
prevail with the pope to bring Anselm to a submission. 
But the pope, instead of being gained, excommunicated 
some of the English court, who had dissuaded the k^ng 
from parting with the investitures, yet be declined pro* 
Qouncing any censure against the king. Anselm, per* 
ceiving the court of Rome dilatory in its proceedings, re- 
moved from Lyons, and made a visit to the countess Adela^ 
the conqueror's daughter, at her castle in Blois. Thin 
lady inquiring into the business of Anselqi^s journey, he 
told her that, after a great deal of patience and expecta-* 
tion, he^must now be forced to excommunicate the king 
ef England. The countess was extremely concerned for 
her brother, and wrote to the pope to procure an accom^ 
Biodation. The king, who was come into Normandy, 
hearing that Anselm designed to excommunicate him, de- 
sired his sister to bring him with her into Normandy, with 
a promise of condescension in several articles. To this 
Anselm agreed, and waited upon the king at a castle 
called L^Aigle, July 1105, where the king restored to 
l^im the revenues of the archbishopric^ but would Diot4)er'' 



A N S E L M. 289 ' 

mit htm to come into England, unless he would comply in 
the affair of the investitures, wbich Anselm* refusing, con-^ 
tinned in France, till the matter wa^ once more laid before 
the pope< But now the English bishops, who had- taken 
part with the court against Anselm, began to change their 
minds, as appears by their letter directed to him in Nor-*. 
mandy, in which, after having set forth the deplorable 
state of the church, they press him to come over with all 
speed, promising to stand by him, and pay him the regard 
due to his character. This was subscribed by Gerrard 
archbishop of York, Robert bishop of Chester, Herbert 
bishop of Norwich, Ralph bishop of Chichester, Sapi- 
son bishop of Worcester, and William: elect of Win^ 
Chester. Anselm expressed his satisfaction at this conduct, 
of the bishops, but acquainted them that it was not in hia 
power to return, till he was farther informed of the pt<i*. 
ceedings of the court of Rome. In the mean time, being 
told, that the king had fined some of the clergy for a . la^e. 
breach of the canons respecting marriage, he wrote to hia 
highness to complain of that stretch of his prerogative^. 
At length the ambassadors returned from Rome,- and 
brought with them a decisiop more agreeable. than the for* 
mer, for now the pope thought fit to make ^ome advances 
towards gratifying the king, aud though he would not 
give u|> the point of investitures, yet he dispensed so far 
as to ,giv^ the bishops and abbots leave to do homage for 
their temporalities. The king, who was highly pleased 
witlx this condescension in d)e pope> sent immediately to 
ipvite A^^^e.lm to England ; but the messenger finding him 
sicks ^^ kt^ himself went over into Normandy, and 
.visit^4, hinoi at.tlye abbey of £ec, where all differences be* 
twj^en thfi^ were completely adjusted. ; As soon as Anselm 
Xecoyere4^, h^ epnbarked for England, and landing at Do* 
ifer, .was.jff^l^ived with ej^traordinary marks of welcome^ 
tl^e quefin.berself travelling before him upon the road, to 

Jijco^de (or. his. better jentertainment. From this time very 
ittlef^pp^ued in the life of thi^ celebrated • prelate, ex* 
cept;i^g o^ly his., contest with Thom^s^ archbishop ele^pt of ^ 
Vorjko/.whpi endeayouried.to di$engag,e himself .froqi a de* 
I^'^PfrJ^.^Pc^^ s^e. of .Canterbury ^ but although. Ansj^lni' 
dlfa;be^rej^^^ was ojbligg^itf^ 

comply, ana' make his ;iu|>wia0ioc)L as.^ual to rt))e w^r 

Vol. IL U 



2»0 A N S E L al» 

thb ««v#nty-^i^th yeat of hie ^ig^ Md tke iiev^ttteeiiih «f 
JuBprekey^ April ei, HOD. 

Aitt^lm'ft chamt^l^T) in his own titnes, Appears to httv^ 
b^N^ tbut of a mftn of ardent pidty, extensive lenming^ 
dtid ^reat firmtiess and constancy in pursuing the measures 
whieh he tHonght most conducive tp the interests of th^ 
dhuft^fa. tid«r far he acted right in his adherence to the 
]l^apal dotninic^n, cannot be judged from what is now 
th.6ught nn that <»ubjecl, but what was tlien either law or 
|kitiH:iee. There can be no doubt that in the early ages of 
^b^ English churchy the pope had a kind of patriarchal 
pMrtt in England, aod although we find instances of dis* 
putes between some of our kings and the couit of Rome On 
thia subject^ we generally also find that they ended in thes 
svlbmission 6f the former, or in such a compromise as th^ 
HHitual intereitii of the contending parties required for a 
teitaporary truce. Never until the reformation was the 
l^iht completely settled, although it svas, until that pt'^ 
liod, a perpetual source of litigation, and sometiittes, it 
rtUst be eoUfessed^ our monarchs shewed a firmness that 
ihighthave deprived the court of Rome of her boasted 
supremacy, hftd they not beeli thwarted by the supersti* 
fiouft fears Of thfei'r subjects. 

m^ private life is allowed -to have been pious, humble, 
and ^xemplaty^ and his works, which are partly schdastical^ 
and partly devotional, prove that he was a" man t)f first 
ifeattiing andgehius in his time. Like Augustihe,- whom 
he neeink to have followed as his model, and whose ** Medii. 
tatiOAfl,** as ifcey are cfeHed, are chiefly abstracts from Ah^ 
Smith's WWks, heabouftds'both in profound arg;^ttmetitiition oA 
the rtiost abstrtrsfe %.f»d difficult subjects, and in tievout stenti*- 
Iftehl^ onpi^actical religion. Brucker, after tertjarfclirg th^; 
1*^ apfplied the subttety of logic to theology, giVe?i a:s an eit^ 
i^#ple of h^Vefit^^ttten t, his argunients for thebrfAg' bf Gbff, 
flferivea floih thb Abstract idea of the deity, fefterwafdb i^- 
Wttifea by iWs Cirtes. His 'writings on theVill bf©^ 
oft Jfre^ vtill^' tfittb, the eonsifetency of the doct^Jft^ ij^ditine 
j>r|?Sei6n^. with that of predestlfiation, knd ' dttifer .^Mmls, 
.iftilch Kbotirid "ih logl<ial an^ inetajphysical ibslractlotil, 
es'fittehiift to tlhe honour df-havfeg kfgelf ^ct^tit^ribut^ tbl 
«^ifeft::ii«^j^fi«g'fte4ay fer «te «:helaftic^sv^sfeiti/^^?fcfe 

^' HiiHSr6?fe4»4veSb^'^ft<-tl^Peprint4a.'''1^^ SSSb^ 



A N S K L M. «»1 

is tbat of Nuremberg, 1491^ fd.' The best k said to bf 
that of Gerberon, Paris, 1675, reprbted in 1721, and a^aiii 
at Venice^ 1744, 2 vols, folio. In the library. ef hyont* 
there is a beautiful manuscript of his Meditations an4 
prayers. His printed works consist of, U ^* Epistolami^ 
Jibri iv." 2. ^ Monobgium, seu soUloquium.** $. •* Pro- 
sologium, seu alloquium.'' 4. '< Liber incesrti autoris pro^ 
insipiente adversus Anfelini Prosologium." S-4 ** Uiamr 
contra insipientem, seu apologeticus adversus UkMOim pre^ 
cedentem." 6. *« Dialogus de vefitate." 7. *^ Dialpgup 
de libero arbitrio.*' 8. '^ Diaiogus de casu diaboH/' 
9. '^ Disputatio dialectica de grammatica.*' 10. ^^Trao* 
tatus de sacramento altaris, seu de corpore et sanguine 
Domini." 1 1. " Liber de fide, seu de Incarnatione Ver|)i/' 
12. " De Buptiis consauguineorum/* 18. " Libri ii. <:oa- 
tra gentiles, cur Deus homo.'' 1 4. ^^ De processione Spi«- 
ritus Sancti, contra Graecos." 15. '* Dp conceptu Vir^» 
ginali active, et peccato priginali.'* 16. ** Fragmenta va^ 
riorum Anselmi tractatuum de conceptu Virgiaali pa^sivo.'^ 
17. ^^ De tribus Walleranni questionibus ac proBseitim de 
fermento et azymo." 18. " De sacramentorum diversi** 
tate." 19. *^ Concordia prescientise, prsedestinationis, et 
jjratisB cum libertate." 20. *^ Liber de voluntate Dei." 
21. " Meditationum libri x." 22. " Liber de saiuJte ani^ 
maj.'* 23. *^Meditatio ad sororem de beneficiis Dei.** 
24« ^^ Meditatio de passione Christi.'' ^5, ^^ Alloquia 
•caslestia, rivet faculas pix)ruma£Pectuum,^' &c, 26^ ^'Mao^- 
iissa meditationum et orationum ia quinque partes tributa.*f 
27. '* Hymni et psalterium in commemoratione DeipBrad.*^ 
38. ^* Liber de excelientia gloriosse Virginis Mai^ise.** 
S9. ** Liber de quatuor virtutibus B. Mariac, ej usque mb^ 
limitate.'^ 30. *^ Passio S8. Guigneri sive Fingaris, Pialap, 
«t Sociorum.'' 31. ^^ Liber exbortationum ad contenoptum 
temporalium et derideriuQi aeternorum." 32. ^' Adfoouitjo 
pro moribundo.*' 83. *^ Parsenesis ad virginem Ispsam.*' 
8#. ^ Sermo sive liber de beatitudine." Z6, ** Hooulia 
in illud, Introit Jesus in quoddam castellttm.*^ 36. '< H0« 
mdiias in aliquot Evangelia." 87. *^ Carmen de contempta 
mundi, et alia carmtna." Theoe. ane some othet pieoe$ 
ascribed to Anselm in the edition of Cologne,, 1612 ; and 
in the edition of Ly6ns, li^Spj bvjit; th^ ace., generally-' 
thought supposititLousi. 

It yet remains to be noticed that Aftselflpi- Mfas eanoni^edt 
in the xeigo of Henry VII. at the mstapqe of cardii^Mor* 

V 2 



292 ANSEL M. 

toD, theti archbishop of Canterbury, a singular m&rk of 
Teiieration for one who bad been dead so long. His life 
was written by Eadmer, the historian^ his secretary, and 
by John of Salisbury, but the account given by the latter 
is deformed by many supposed miracles.^ 

ANSELME DE St. Mary (or Peter de Goibours), 
commonly called father, of Paris, of the Augustine order, 
died^at Paris, in the 69th year of his age, in 1694. He 
was the author of a very elaborate work, entitled *^ His- 
toire genealogiqUe et chronologique de la maison de France, 
et des grands officiers de Ja couronne,'* 1673, 2 vols. 4t0. 
The second edition was published with considerable addi- 
tipns in 1712, by M. du Fourni, auditor of accounts, who 
did not, however, put his name to it. In 1725 father 
Ange, an Augustin monk, and Simplicien, of the same 
order, projected a continuation of this work which extended 
to nine vols. fol. and appeared in 1726 and the following 
years. It contains a vast stock of historical information, 
derived from sources not easily accessible, and much bio- 
graphical matter. Bayle mentions that Anselme had made 
preparations for a general history of the sovereign house of 
Europe, part of which h^ left in manuscript. * 

ANSELME (Antony)> a celebrated French preacher, 
was born at Isle-en-Jourdain, a small town of Armagnac, 
Jan. 13, 1632; and first distinguished himself by odes and 
other poetical compositions, which were afterwards less 
esteethed. Being appointed tutor to the marquis D'Antin 
l>y his father 'the marquis Mentespan, Anselme removed 
to Paris, and acquired great fame in that metropolis by 
his sermons, and especially by his funeral orations. It 
was observed, however, that although elegant in style, 
they wanted much df that fervency which touches the 
heart. His noble pupil caused to be revived the place of 
historian of buildings, and bestowed it on Anselme; and 
the Academy of Painting, and that of Inscriptions and 
belles lettres, admitted him a member. Towards the 
close t)f life he retired to the abbey of St. Severe in Gas- 
cony, where he enjoyed the pleasures which his books and 
fais garden afforded, and became a public beni^factor r pi*o-> 

. tpaj-iccr de.J^ntiq. Britan. £colc8.-«-Wbaiton'f Anglia Sacra. — Eadiqen 
Hist.<--Tamier BIbl. who'givei a lilt of hfs MSS. and th9 libraries In which they 
are to be found.— Biog, Britanaica.— Henrjr^s Sist. of Great Britain, vol. V. 
p.^80.>rol. VI ^ p. )2S^.«^3odvia de Pretalibus 4 RicbardtoQ.-^AralMolofia, 
viiK i,' p. 5;^.r-Mitner*t Churqk Hist vol. II f. pw 335.r-SaxiL Onomatticon. 
' > l^u^t. Hist -bMem. of Lkerature. to!. X/*«'Morerl«-<-Bio(: UfiiirarMlle« 



A N S E L M E. 393 

jecting new roads, decorating churches, founding hoipitals, 
and by his discreet interposition, adjusting the di(£ereii-« 
ces which fell out among the country people. He died' 
Aug. 18, 1737, in his ninety-sixth year. His works are a- 
collection of ^^ Sermons, Panegyriques, & OraisoM Fune« 
bres,'* 7 vols. 8vo. The ** Sermons" h&ve been reprinted' 
in 6 vols. 12mo. He has also several '^ Dissertations" in 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions, from the 
year 1724 to 1729. » 

ANSELME (Antony) of Antwerp, a very eminent law- 
yer, died in his 80th year in 1668, and left several works 
on civil law, written with method and perspicuity. These 
are, ** Codex Belgicus,*' Antwerp, 1649, fol. <<Tribuni-. 
anus Belgicus," Brussels^ 1663, fol. A collection of 
^< Edicts," 1648, 4 vols, fol.; and another of <^ Consulta- 
tions," published at Antwerp in 1671, fol. All his works 
are written in Latin. ' 

ANSELME (George), a Latin poet of the sixteenth- 
century, was bom at Parma, of a very ancient family, and 
was afterwards eminent as a physician, and a man of general 
literature. The volume which contains his poetry, an^ is 
very scarce, is entitled ^^ Georgii Anselmi Nepotis Epi* 
grammaton libri septem: Sosthyrides : Palladis Peplus ; 
Eglogae quatuor," Vfenice, 1528, 8va He took the title 
of Nepos to distinguish himself from another George An- 
selme, his grandfather, a mathematician and astronomer, 
who died about 1440, leaving in manuscript ^< Dialogues 
on Harmony," and *^ Astrological institutions." Our au« 
thor wrote, besides his poems, some illustrations of Plautus, 
under the title of ^^ Epiphyllides," which are inserted in 
Sessa's edition of Plautus, Venice, 1518; and had before 
appeared in the Parma edition of 1509, fol. He wrote 
also the life of Cavicco or Cavicio, prefixed to his romance 
of ^^Libro de Peregrino," Venice, 1526, 8vo, and 1547. • 
He died in 1528. 

ANSLO (Reiner), a Dutch poet of considerable cele- 
brity in his own country, was. born at Amsterdam in 1622. 
In 1649 he travelled to Italy, where he acquired great re** 
putation as a writer of Latin verse. Pope Innocent X. 
gave him a beautiful medal for a poem which he had com« 
posed on occasion of the juhilee cetebrated in 1650, an^ 
queen Christina g^ve him a gold chain for a poem in Dutcli 

^ Moreri, — pict Hist— Biog. UniTeinelle, 

I Pict, Hittw-'-Feppcn Bibl. Belf . 9 J^iQg, Unifen^Qo, 



!2M A N S L 0« 

which he addressed to bsr. Some have discorered in his 
p<iems an inclination for the Roman catholic religion* He 
died at Peroose in Italy> May 16, 1669. The collection 
of his works was printed at Rotterdanii 1715, 8vo; and 
contains the ** Crown of St Stephen the martyr/' pub«» 
lished in 1646; and his tragedy of the '^Parisian miptiak^ 
or the massacre of St» Bartholomew^" which first appeared 
ia 1649.^ 

ANSON (George), an eminent naval commander, and 
disiin|^ished nobieman> of the eighteenth century, was 
descended from an ancient and respectable family, which 
had long been settled in Staffordshire. He was bom at 
Shngborough manor, in the parish of Colwicbi in that 
dounty, on the2Sd April, 1697, being the third son of 
William AnsM, esq^ by Eli:^abeth, eldest daughteV and 
ooheir of Robert Carrier, esG^. of Wirksworth in Derby- 
shire. The navy being Mr. Anson^s choice, be went early 
to sea; and on the 9th of May 1716, was made second 
Itetstenanl of his majesty's ship the Hampshire, by sir 
John Nonis, commander in chief of a squadron sent to the 
Baltic. In the following year, he was again in the Baltic, 
in the fleet commanded by sir George Byng ; and on the 
15th of March, 1717<8, was appointed secood lieute* 
Bant of the MoniUigu, belonging- to sir George Byng's 
squadron, ia the expedition to Sicily ; and was present in 
the celebrated action near that island, by which the Spanish 
fleet was effectaally destroyed, and the designs of the 
king of Spain against Sicily received a very considerable 
check. On the 1 9th June 1 722, he was preferred to be 
master and commander of the Weazel sloop ; and on the 
first of Febrnary 1723-4, be was raised to the rank of 
post-captain^ and to the command of the Scarborough 
nail of war. In this ahip he was ordered to South Caro* 
Kna, in which station he continued above three years; 
and while he resided in that province, he erected a town, 
Anton Boorgh, and gave name to a bounty, which is still 
called Anson toonty. Being commanded home in Octo- 
ber 192T9 he returned to England in the foUowing springs 
and was paid off in May 1728. On the 1 Ith of October, 
m the same ye^, he was appointed captain of the Garlaad 
mm of war, and went out in her to South Canrfina ; from 
ishenoe he was ordered hack, m December 1729» a^d the 

' Biof. UnvtoMne* 



A N 3 O N. ei< 

$bip was put out of commissiofn at She^rness. He did not| 
bowe?er| .remain long out of employ, for oh the IStb or 
May I73l» the command of the Diamondi one of .tb# 
tquAdron iu the Dowqp, was bestowed upon bini| vihiok 
be held about three months, when the Diamond was paid 
off. On the 2 ^th January 1731-2, he was again called 
into public service, and appointed captain of the Squirr^} 
aaaa of war ; in which ship he was orderedi in the follow*, 
ing April, for South Carolina. This was the third time of 
his being placed upon that station, and it was probably 
peculiarly agreeable to him, on account of the property bf 
bad acquired, and the settlement he had made in the pro» 
rince. Here be continued till the spring pf the year ni9$ 
when«» in consequence of an order given in Oecembef 
1734, be returned to England; and, in the month of Juoei 
was paid oflf at Woolwich, In these several f mployme];kts 
he conducted himself with an ability and discretion which 
gave general satisfaction. On the 9tb of December ]17S7, 
be was put into the command of the Centurion^ aod^ iii 
February following, ordered to the coast 9f Quinea $ ao4 
returned home in July 1739. In this voyiige fa9 execut^ 
with great prudence and fidelity^ the directions of govern^ 
ment *, and obliged the French to desiat from their atti^mM 
to hinder our tnuie on that coast, without coming tp ai^ 
action, at a time when it would have been v#ry iiicgave* 
Bient to the British court to have had an <^ea rtq^ttrii vfitk 
France- 
Mr. Anspn^s conduct, in his various situations a^d em- 
ployments, had produced so favourable an opinion gS hia 
capacity and spirit^ that when, in the war which broke out 
with Spain in 1739, it was determined to attack the Spa« 
Aish American settkmentt in the great Pacific Qceao^ and 
by this means to afiect them in their most senuble parts^ 
he was fixed upon to be the commander of the fleet which 
was designed for that purpose. As the history of thia ex^ 
pedilion, which laid the foundation of ]m fvvture fortunesy 
ha^ in cooaequcuce of the excellent accoiint of it, wri^ttea 
by the late Mr. Robins, aud the curioua a^d interesting 
oaturse of the subject, been more read than perhaps any 
work ^ the kind ever publiidied, it is not pocessary ta 
^ive a detail of it htm. It may suffice to aay» that hk de« 
pavtuse fattkig nnacoountably delayed some saotHfaft beyond 
the pnaper aeaeoui he sailed about die middle of Septem^^ 
Vo M4^; and towrards the vernal equino:ii;^ io thid miosi; 



296 ANSON. 

tempestuous weather, arrived in the latitude of Cape Horn, 
He doubled that dangerous cape in March 1741, after a 
bad passage of 40 days, iii which he lost two ships, and by 
the scurvy four or five men in a day. He arrived off Juan 
Fernandes in June, with only two ships, besides two at« 
tendants on the squadron, and i35 men. He left it iti 
September, took some prizes, and burnt Paita ; and staid 
about the coast pf America till May 1742. He then 
crossed the Southern ocean, proceeding with the Centurion 
only, (he other ships having been destroyed in Angust. 
Having refreshed his crew at Tinian, he sailed in October 
for China; staid there till the beginning of 1743 ; waited 
for the galleon at the Philippine islands, met her on the 
20th of June, and took her. Having sold the prize in 
China, he set sail for England, December 1743, and on 
the 15th of June 1744, arrived at Spithead. 

It may be necessary, however, to mention some circum* 
stances in this expedition, which more immediately relate 
to the personal character of Mr. Anson, and which indicate 
the turn of his mind. Before his departure, he took care 
to furnish himself with the printed journals of the voyages 
to the South-seas,* and the best manuscript accounts he 
could procure of all the Spanish settlements upon the 
coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, which be afterwards 
carefully compared with the examinations of his prisoners, 
and the information of several intelligent persons who fell 
into his hands ; and, through the whole enterprize, he 
acted with remarkable discretion, and with a calmness 
which particularly distinguishes his character. When he 
was ready to depart from St Catherine's, and considered 
that his own ship might possibly be lost, or disabled from 
getting round Cape Horn, he gave such directions to the 
other commanders, as would have prevented the under* 
taking being abandoned, even in that case. His humanity 
was displayed at the island of Juan Fernandes, in his as- 
sisting with his own labour, and obliging the officers, with*^ 
out distinction, to give their helping hand in carrying the 
sick sailors, in their hammocks, to shore; At the same 
place he sowed lettuces, carrots, and other gaiden plants; 
^nd set, in the woods, a great -variety of plumb, apricot, 
and peach-stones, for the better accommodation of his 
eountrymen who should hereafter touch there ; and he bad 
afterwards pleasing intelligence of their growth from Spa« 
nish navigators. Frpm a like attention, commodpre Ansos' 



A N S O I^, S9t 

was particularly industrious in directing the roads and 
coasts to be surveyed, and other observations to be made,, 
to facilitate future voyages in those s^s. His integrity 
and generosity in the tvtatment of some female prisoners 
who had fallen into his hands, and his care to prevent 
theit meeting wi^ any degree of rudeness, from a set of 
sailors who had not seen a woman for nearly a twelvemonth, 
are greatly to his honour. There was, indeed, nothing 
from which he derived greater credit, or which reflected 
greater glory on the English nation, than his behaviour to 
his prisoners in general, and particuljtrly to the women. 
Though his force was rendered very weak by the sickness 
and death of great numbers of his men, and by the sepa* 
ration or loss of the larger part of his small squadron, he 
was always intent upon contriving some scheme, by which, 
if possible, the design of his expedition might be answered* 
When no purpose was likely to be effectual, but the tak- 
ing of the Acapulco ship (the galleon above-mentioned), 
he pursued that plan with the greatest sagacity and perse- 
verance. In no instance was the fortitude of his mind 
more tried, than when the Centurion was driven out to 
sea, from the uninhabited island bf Tinian ; himself, many 
of the officers, and part of the crew, being left on shore. 
In this gloomy and disconsolate situation, he preser^^ed 
his usui^l composure and steadiness, though he could not 
be without his share of inward disquietude. He calmly 
applied to every measure which was likely to keep up the 
courage of his men, and to facilitate their departure from 
the island. He personally engaged in the most laborious 
part of the work which was necessary in the construction 
of a vessel for this purpose ; and if was only upon thie 
pleasing and unexpected news of the return of the Cen- 
turion, that, throwing down his axe, he by his joy broke 
through, for the .first time, the equable and unvaried cha- 
racter which he had hitherto preserved. Commodore 
Anson, when he was at Macao, exerted great spirit and 
address in procuring the necessary aid from the Chinese, 
for the refitting of his ship. In the scheme of taking the 
Manilla galleon, and in the actual taking of it, he displayed 
united wisdom and courage; nor did the accustomed 
calmness of his mind forsake him on a most trying occa- 
sion, when, in the moment of victory, the Centurion was 
dangerously on fire near the powder-room. During his 
subsequent stay at Canton, he acted, in all respects, with 



»a A N S O N. 

the greatest spirit, and finnly mauitamed the priviU^ 
and honour of the British fiag. The perlb witU which ^ 
bad been so often threateoed^ pursued him tq tb&,.,k^^ 
for on bis arrivsl in England, be found th^^t ha ha4 9»ilt^ 
ibrough the midst of a French fleet than cruising ii\ thj^ 
channel, from which he had the wbolo time been pon» 
celled by a fog. 

Mn Anson, a few days after his return int<^ bis own 
country^ was made a rear-admiral of the biue^ and in a 
irery short time» he was chosen member of ' parliament 
foir Heydon in Yorkshire. On the 27ib December 1744| 
when the duke of Bedford was appointed first lord of the 
admiralty, he was appointed one of the commissioner^ 
of the admiralty ; and on the 2 ad of April, in the follow- 
iiig year, was made a rear-admiral of the white. On tho 
)4th of July 1746» he was raised to the rank of vice-ad<* 
sural ; and in the latter end of that year, ao4 beginning of 
1747, be commanded the squadron in the channel service, 
and bore the inconveniencies of a long, and tenopestu^us 
ivinter navigations with bis usual patience and persever* 
anoe. Nothing wpuld have frustrated tlie Success of this 
expedition, but the accidental inteUigence which was 
given, by the master of a Putcb vessel, to the duke cf 
P^Arville's fleets of admiral Anson*s station and intention. 
jHoweVer, being employed again early in ^the ensuing 
spring, be had an opportunity of rendering a very signal 
service of bis country. Being then on bmrd the Prince 
George, of 90 guns, with rear-admiral Warren, in the 
jDevon&bire» and twdve ships more under bis command^ 
he intercepted, on tbe 3d of May 1747, off Cdfe fU 
nisterre, a considerable fleet, bound from FraMe to the 
^East and West Indies, and laden with mercbendise, Ireik 
sure, and warlike stores i and took m men of war^ w4 
four East Indiamen, not one of tbe eaemy's vessels cf w^ 
escaping* By this successful exploit, be defeated tbe 
pernicious designs of two hostile expeditions^ and made e 
considerable addition to tbe force and riches of our own 
kingdom. M. St George, captain of the Invincib]e| in 
allusion to the names of two of the ships which ba4 .been 
taken, and pointing to them at tbe same time^ said, when 
he presented bis sword to tbe coni^ueror, ^^ MonsieuiTt vous 
avez vaineu l^Inioincible^ et la Gioire vous sui^t.** Oo t^ 
1 3th of June following, tbe king raised him to tbe bonoupr 
ef an English peerage^ by tbe style and title oi lord Anson, 
baron of Soberton, in the county of Southampton; and 



A N S Q N. 9B^ 

hh lordship made choice of a motto^ ^ very happily suited 
to biss perils and his successes, Nil desperandum. Oa 
the f25th of April 1748» he married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Philip lord Hardmckey at that time lord high 
chancellor of Great Britain; but his lady died without 
issue en the ist of June 1760. 

On the 12tb of July 1749, bis lordship was made vice* 
admiral of Great Briuin, an appointment that. is more of 
a civil than a military nature ; but which^ nevertheless, is 
always given to a military man. On the 12th of June 
1751, he was preferred to be first commissions of the 
admiralty^ in the room of the earl of Sandwich ; and in 
the years 1752 and 1755, be was one of the lords justices 
of the kingdom, during his majesty's absence. The aflair 
of Minorca occasioned him to be much blamed by the 
party writers of the time, in his character of first lord of 
the admiralty ; but when this was inquired into, the reso* 
Itttionsof the House of Commons acquitted him and his 
colleagues of any neglect of duty. Ou the 16th of No«» 
vemb^ 1756, upon a change of administration, he re* 
signed his office in the admiralty ; but, having been in 
the interval made an admiral, he was again placed at the 
head of the board, where he continued during the remain* 
der of his life. He came in >with his old friends, the duke 
«f Newcastle and the earl of Hardwicke, and in the most 
hcmourable manner ; for he resumed his seat with the con- 
currence of every individual in the ministry, Mr, Pitt re- 
turning the seals aa secretary of state, and with the parti- 
cidar approbation of king George I). All the rest of bia 
condtici, as first commissioner of the admiralty, was crowned 
with success, under the most glorious administration which 
this countjry ever saw. The last time that be commanded at 
sea, was in 1758, to cover the expedition against the coast 
of Fmnceu Being then admiral of the white, and having 
koisted bis flag on board the Royal George, of 100 guns, 
he sailed from Spithead, on the first of June^ with a for-» 
ntdaUe fleet, sir Edward Hawke serving under him ; and 
by cruising coAtinually before Brest, he protected the de^ 
Qceeta whidii were made that summer at St. Malo\ Cher*< 
Wiftpg, &c The French fleet not venturing to come out^ 
he kept hia own squadron and seamen in constant exercise ; 
a thing which be thought bad been too much disregarded^ 
On the SOth of July 1761, bis lordship was raised to the * 
iigaky of a4mind and commander in chief of the fileet ; 



SOO A N S O N, 

\ 

txii in a few days be sailed from Harwich, in the Charlotte 
yacht, to convoy her present majesty to England. In 1762, 
he went to Portsmouth, to accompany the queen's brother, 
prince Charles of Mecklenburgh, and to show him the 
arsenal, and the fleet which was then upon the point of 
sailing,, under the command of sir George Pocock, for the 
Havannah. In attending the prince, however, he caught 
a violent cold, that was accompanied with a gouty dis«- 
order, under which he languished two or three months. 
This cold, at length, settled upon his lungs, and was the^ 
immediate occasion of his death. He died, at his seat at 
Moor Park, in Hertfordshire, on the 6th of June 1762j 
and was buried in the family vault at Colwich. His cha- 
racter may be justly estimated from the particulars we have 
given. In his official department, he acted with great 
judgment, and was a steady friend to merit. Of his pri^ 
vate virtues, it is a sufficient test that he was never the 
object of slander or blame. It has, indeed, been asserted 
that he was addicted to gaming; but the author of the life 
we have followed in this account denies the chargie, admit- 
ting only that he played for iamusement. He left his for« 
tune to his brother Thomas Anson, esq. who was mdmbei^ 
of parliament for Lichfield, a gentleman well known fop 
his liberal patronage of, and his exquisite skill in, the {\M 
arts« On his decease, the united fortunes of the family 
devolved to his nephew, by his eldest sister, George 
Adams, esq. who assumed the name of Anson. 

The history of lord Anson^s voyage, although published 
tinder the name of Mr. Walter, we have attributed to Mr: 
Robins. A general and uncontradicted report bad fop 
many years prevailed, that the work was drawn up. by MtL 
Robins, nor was this % vague report, but grounded onr 
positive testimony. Dr. James Wilson had publicly as-*' 
serted the faet, in the short account of Mr. Robins, which 
he prefixed to bis edition of the mathematical tracts of 
that ingenious writer \ and Mr. Martin in the life of Robina 
in his <^Biographia Philosophica,'' speaks positively to 
the same purpose, although probably on Dr. Wilson's k\\^ 
thopity. iSoon after the publication, however, of the first; 
volume of the Biographia Britannica, in which the. same 
assertion was repeated, the widow of Mr, Walter . ad-» 
dressed a letter to the editor of that work, maintaining Mr, 
Walter's claim as author of the work ; but in our opinion 
]ber proofs are far from affording more than a 'probay[>iUw>( 



ANSON. 301 

In our article of Robins this dispute Mrill be* ndreirted to 
more particularly. ^ 

ANSON (Peter Hubert), a miscellaneous French 
writer, was born at Faris, July 18, 17.44^ and at first was 
in practice as a lawyer, but afterwards was taken into the 
office of'thecontptroller general of finances, and becaoie 
successively receiver-general for Dauphiny, a member of 
the central Committee of receivers-*general, a deputy of 
the constituent assembly, and farmer of the post, which 
last place he filled until his death, Nov. 20, 1810. During 
the reign of terror, he was long concealed in the bouse of 
one of the members of the Jacobin club, to whom he pro- 
mised a pension for this service, which he afterwards paid 
most punctually. He was considered as an able financier, 
and a man of much taste in literature. He wrote, 1 . ^' Anec- 
dotes sur le famille de Le Fevre, de la branche d'Ormesson,** 
printed in the Journal Encyclopedique for 1770. 2. " Deux 
memoires historiques sur les villes de Mi(ly et de Nemours, 
printed in the ** Nouvelles rechercbes sur la France," 1766, 
2 vols. l2mo. 3. ** Les deuK seigneurs, ou TAlcbymiste,** 
sT comedy, 1783, partly written by M. L.Th. Herissant. 
4. A translation of Anacreon, 1795, :i vols. 12mo, of which 
the notes are thought preferable to the text. 5. A tranria*- 
tion of Lady Montague^s letters. 6. Several Reports to the 
Constituent Assembly, short pieces in various collections, 
and songs, &c.* 

ANSTEY (Christopher); an ingenious poet of the 
eighteenth century, was born Oct. 31,1 724. He was the son 
of the Rev. Christopher Anstey, D. D. by Mai'y, daughter 
of Anthony Thompson, esq. of Trumpington, in Caih«^ 
bridgeshire. He was first educated at Bury St. Edmunds^ 
under the Rev. Arthur Kinsman, Skd thence removed to 
Eton, where he was distinguished for industry and taients% 
In 1742 he succeeded to a scholarship of King^s College, 
Cambridge, and soon added to his fame as a classical 
scholar by the Tripos verses which he wrote for theXIIatn- 
bridge commencement, while an undergraduate in the yeiscr 
1745. In the same year he was admitted fellow of Kipg^ 
College, and in 1746 took his bachelor's degree. He was,. 
however, interrupted in his progress towards his master's 
degree by having engaged in an opposition to what he 

> Biographia JftriUnnica^^Wilson'tf Lift oi Robins.— ^^icholi's Uff of BowyV/ 
▼ol. n. p. 205. 
' 3iog. Uaiv«rs«U«. 



S0« A N $ T I S. 

easional conformity : for which bis name appeured amongst 
the ^^Tackera'* in the prints of that time. He wasap* 
pointed in 1703 deputy-general to the auditors of imprest^ 
but he never executed this o£Sce ; and in the second ^ear 
of queen Anne^s reign, one of the principal commissioners 
of prizes. His love of, and great knowledge iU'the science 
of arms so strongly recommended him, i\^^t April 2, 17149 
the queen gave him a reversionary patent for the place of 
Garter. Probably this passage in a MS letter to the lord 
treasurer, dated March 14, 1711-12, relates to his having 
the grant. He says, *^ I have a certain information it 
would be end^d forthwith, if the lord treasurer would honour 
me by speakine to her majesty at this time, which, in be- 
half of the duke of Norfolk, I most earnestly desire, and 
luimbly beg your lordship^s assistance therein. If it be 
delayed for some days, I shall then be back as far as thp ' 
delivery of my petition. I am obliged to attend this morn« 
ing at the exchequer, about the tin affair, and thereby^ 
prevented from waiting upon your lordship.** If it doei^ 
relate to the reversionary patent, it is evident that he lon|^ 
wished, and with difficulty obtained it. In the last parlia** 
ment of Anne he was returned a member for Dunh^ved, or 
Launceston, and he sat in the first parliament of George I. 
He fell under the, suspicion of government, as favouring: 
a design to restore the Stuarts, was imprisonedj and at 
this critical: time Garter's place became vacant, by the 
death of the venerable sir Henry St. George* He imme* 
diately claimed the office, but his grant was disregarded ; 
and, October £6,1715, sir John Vanbrugh, Clarenceux, 
had the appointment. Unawed by power, fearless of dan- 
ger, and confident in innocence, he first freed himself 
from all crimiuality in having conspired against the suc« 
cession of the illustrious house of Brunswick, and then proT 
secuted his'^]aim to the office, of garter, pleading the right 
of the late queen to give him the place. It was arguedi 
that in ^ contest about the right of nomination in the reign 
ol' Charles II: the sovereign gave it up, only^^tainin^ the 
confirjEQatioQ V ^ the. earl mar^hars choice :. .Mr«> An^tis 
urgejl, tbQt.Cliarlesjonly waved hisxlaio^^^ The matter 
canje to a hearing- April 4, 1717, and tbe^^^mpetitojcs 
claime4 under their ^()i^eveht grants ^ but.t^e^^nitroversy 
did not end until April ,20, 171S^ wb^cf '.t^jf;^ht beij% 
acknowledged to be in Mr. Anstis, he was creat^ Carter, 
He had, for some time previour to this didcisioa in his 



ftrour^ tref^ided in tb^ college, and by degi'ee^ gained tbd 
good opinion and favour of the gbverninecftl. He even 
obtained a patent under the great sea^ giving the* office 
^f garter to hiniy and bis son John Anstii junior, esq*, and 
to the suf'vivor of tjiem : this passed June 8, 1727, only 
two days before the death of George I. He died at liiii 
feat, at Mortlake in Surrey, on! Sunday, March 4, 1744-5; 
and was buried the 23d of that month, in a vault in th0 
Jiarish' church of Dtilo in Gbrnwall. In hi to, it is said, were 
joined the learning of Camdeti and the industry, without the 
inaccuracy, of sir William Dugdale. ' lie was certainly almost 
indefatigable and able officer at arms ; and though he lived 
to the age of seventy- six, yet there is room to wonder at 
the extent of his productions, especially as he was a persoa 
of great consequence, and busied with many. avocati9na 
Out of the college. In 1 706, he published d ^* Letter cbn- 
eerning the honour of Earl Marshal,'* 8vo. ** The form 
Of. the Installation of the Garter'* 1720, 8v6. *' The' 
Register of the most noble Order of the Garter, usually 
failed the Black-Book, with a specimeh of the Lives ot 
Ae Knights Companions," 1724, 2 vols, folio. " Obser^ 
vations introductory to an historical Essay on the K nighthooCf 
of the Bath,'* 1725, 4to, intended as an introduction to the 
history of that order, for whicii it is there said the' Society' 
of Antiquaries had begun to collect materials. His ** As-' 
pilogia," a discourae on seals in England, with* beautiful 
draughts, nearly fit for publication, from which Mr. Drake' 
read am abstract to the Society in 1735-6, andtwofbliQ 
volumes of Sepulchral Monuments, Stone Circles, Crosses^ 
and Castles, in the three kingdoms, from which there are 
e^racts in the Archaeolpgia, vol. XIIL were purchaiied^ 
with many other curious papers, at the sale of Mr. Anstis's 
library of MSS. in 1768, by Thomas Astle, esq. F. R. and 
A. S. Besides these he left five large folio volumes^ on the 
^< Office, &c. of Garter King at: Arms, of Heralds and; 
Pursuivants, in this and other kingdoms, both royal, prince- 
ly, and such as belonged to our nobility," now in the pos*-' 
•^ssioq of George Nayler, esq. York herald, and genealo*- 
gi«t of the Order of the Bath, &c, '^ Memoirs of the 
Families of Talbot, Carew,'Granvile, and Courtney." " The 
Antiquities of Cornwall," <' Collections, relative to the 
Parish of Coliton, in Devonshire," respecting the tithes^ 
owing to a dispute which his son, the Rev. George Anstis, 
the vicar, then bad with the parishioners, in the court of 
\ou IL X 



906 A N S T 1 S. 

cxchc^quer in 1742. The Itte Dr. Pucstrel 'possessed it< 
<* Collection* relative to All SouU*^ college, ift Oxford.'* 
These were very considerable, and purchased by the col- 
lege. Sixty-four paged of bis Latin Answer to *^ the Case . 
of Founders' Kinsmen/' were printed: in 4te, with many 
coats of arms. His ^' Curia MiUtaris, or treatise on the 
CQurt of Chivalry, in three books :" it is supposed that no 
more than the pre&ce and contents were ever published* 
Mr.) Reed had those parts ; the whole, however, was 
printed in 1702, Svo : probably only for private friends^ 
Mr. Prior mentions this Garter in an epigram : 

^ But coronetswe owe to crowns. 

And lavour to a court's affection ; 
By nature we are Adam's sons* 

And sons of Anstis by election.*' 

In the picture gallery at Oxford is a portrait of him $. 
there is another in the' hall of the College at Arms. In^ 
the copy of his letters concerning the honour of the Earl 
Marshal, purchased by George Harrison, esc).Norroy, foe 
1/. 2^. at the sale of George Scott, of Woolston hall, esq.. 
ijrere many MS letters of Mr. Anstis to Dr. D.erham. In 
Gutch's Coll. Curiosa is a curious history of visitatioa 
books, under the title of ^' Nomenclator Fecialium qui 
Anglian et Wallise Comitatus visit&runt, quo anno et ubi 
autographa, seu apog^pha reperiuntur, per Johannem. 
Anstis, Garter, principal. Regem armorum Anglicanorum,** 
taken from a MS. in the library of All Souls' college in 
Oxford. He married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Mr. 
Richard Cudlipp, of Tavistock in Devonshire, by whom 
he had, I. John Anstis, jun. esq. who succeeded him. as 
garter; 2. the Rev. George Anstis, vicar of CoUton, in 
Devon, who became heir to his eldest brother ; 3, th^ Rev, 
Philip Anstis, born in the college, and the same day^ 
December 15, 1717, baptized and registered at St Bennetts 
Church, Paul's Wharf*; 4. Mary; 5. Catherine; and 6. 
Rachael, born in the college, May 17, and baptized June 
^1, 172ll, at iSt Rennet's. ' 

* Out of the «bove brothers, who sex, November 8/1736, resi|paed it 

was in the churoh, died at Axraioscer Maroh 24, 1731, to another Qetmge 

in 3oiiierdetohire, October 14, 1758. A»atis, B.LL. He resigned, March $6,. 

Ooe of thJE^m married Elizabeth, daugh* 1739, to Henry Anstis, B.LL. who like- 

I4f of iir William Pole,^Of SkaU in wise resigned it June 26, 1746. H€^ 

Deyonsliiref i^art. There w{is,« ^eorge died hUTh Noyember 3, 1766, in Fleet' 

Aoftis, B.LL. rector of 3rad well jn £s« street, liondoi)^ 

I MchoU'f Bowf^j vpL Y. p^ 86d^T*NobU'f C9lle|^ of Anvs* 



lA N S !r |I $. ; SQT 

ANSTIS (John), esq.,LL,.D.i and F^A^S, /eldest spn aad. 
Ireir of the preceding, succeeded by yirt<ue. of; the grant , 
^as^edin 1727. He hs^i been educ^ed ss a gentleman.; 
commoner at Corpus. Christi college in Oxford* At the 
reviva;l of the order of the Bath he was- n^atie genealogist 
and registrar. He was presented by Dr. Brookes, regius 
professor of civil law in Oxford^ with the degree of LL.D. > 
April 22, 1749, being the opening of the Radcliffe Library. 
July 21, 1736, he had beea elected a member of the 
Society of Antiquaries. The margrave of Anspach, when, 
invested with the order of the garter, presented him with 
SOD ducats, the gold^hilted sword his highness then wore^ 
and gave him 100 ducats in lieu of his upper rp^e, wbichi 
Garter claimed as belonging to him, by virtue of his office* ^ 
He spent most of his time at Mortlake, wbere^ indulging . 
himself too freely with wine, it shortened his life, dyings 
there December 5, 1754, aged only forty-si](. . He was 
undoubtedly a man of abilities, but harsh ip his tempei^ 
especially towards the meo^bers of the coUegev Never . 
having married, his brother, the Rey» Geprge Ai^ati$,^ l;>e-« 
came his heir. The manuscripts and welUchosf n ppUectiouL ' 
of books which had been possessed by his father weredis* 
posed of at his death. * ' ♦ * . .t 

ANTELMI ( Josepq) a French ecclesiastic and antiquftryj^ 
wa5 born at Frejus, July 25, 1648. Whfen he had fipis^jed^ 
bis studies, he succeeded an un^ple, in a canppry of the 
cathedral of ths^t city, and wrote a treatise ^^ De; peri^ulis 
Canonicorum,'* on the dang/ers to which the lives of canons ^ 
are liable : this curious piece his brother Chafles intende4. 
to publish, but.it remains in manu^criptr In 16 80, he 
published, what W9^ {Recounted more valuable, a Latin dis« 
sertation on the foundation of the church of Frejus, audits . 
history, liye^ of the bishops, &f.. ;This vs[ajs. .landed as an 
introduction to. a complete history of th^ city. and church, 
of Frejus^ which is still in manuscript lju,16S4, on ihe 
recommendation of father X«a Qhai^e* uud^r whom he had ^ 
Studied theology at LyoRS, h^.wa^s^pointed grand-vicar . 
aodpfficia] to J. B» de Yertham^^^^rbi^hpp of Pfimiers,^ who 
employed him in restoring pefice ,ts> -hi^ diocdse, which had 
been disturbed by the reigale^^ a 7'ijght ,so called in Eranqe^ 
bv which the French king, uppu the deaith of abishopi^ 
claimed the revenues, and fruits of his se6* and thexoUa* 

1 Klcho1s*8 Bowyer, vol. V. p. 269— Noble^ MIegt cf Am«« 

X 2 



' '* •«- •» *'t.t * 



308 ANT E L M I. 

tiettof^att benefices racani in tihe diocese, befbra the ap« 
poiBtmenl^ <^ a new biskop. Antelmi was so ^uccessAd 
in this underlakkig, iA^t the bishop on his arrival found hi& 
diocese in perfect tranqHilUty. He then continued to pro- 
aecate his studies, and wrote i^veral works, particularly his 
disquisition' coneeming the genuine writings of Leo the 
Great, and Prosper Aquitanus, ** De veris operibus, &c.*^ 
1689. In this he maintains that the Capitida concerning 
the grace of €rod,^ the Epistle to Demetrius, and the two 
books of the Cidling of the Gentiles, ascribed te-Leo,, were 
really written by Prosper. Father Quesnel was hisepponent 
cm this suMect, and was the first who ascribed these book^ 
to* Lea, while Baronius, Sirmond, Labbe, and Noris, con- 
jec!ttired that pope Celestine was the author. Quesnel an- 
swered Anteliipii, and, in M. du Pin's opinion, with suoeess, 
AnteIiAi''S other and more interesting work, was on the 
authorship of Ae Athanasian Creed, *^Nova de Symbi^ 
Athanasiatny disquisitio,'* Paris, 1693, 8yo. Quesnel as^ 
cribpd tliis creed to Virgilius or Vigilius Thapsensis, an 
Afiioafii bbhop.in the ^SLtb century ; Antelmi, and Pitbon 
before fatm, to a French divine. The Greneral Dictioaary 
gives a sutnmary- of the arguments on both sides. 

Of Antel^i's other works, the titles may suffice: I. '^ De 
a^nctife m9,xitttBs: Virginis CalUdiantin Forojuliensi dioecesi 
cultu et patna, Epistola ad- V. CI. Santelem Papebjio- 
chium/' ' 'This letter is published in tbe- Antwerp edition of 
the Acta Sanctorum^ 16th of May. 2. *^ De braiiskitione 
cbrporis S. Auxilii, Epistola ad V. CI. Ludovicum Thomas^ 
sinfim de Mazaoge." The bishop of Grasse^ vfho raen« 
tion^ this letter, does- not tell us when it was printed^ 3. ^< De 
iEtat^ S; Miirtini'Turonensis Episcopi, et quorundam ejus 
gestorqm, ordii^e, anno mortuati, nee non de S. Priccio 
successoi:e, Epistola ad R.P. Ant. Pagium,'* Paris, l^^S, 
9V6« Anteltni and tather Pagi laboured in conjunction 
d^i tbis work; ' one of them engaged in die examination of 
Gregory Tuxpnensis, and the other in that of Sulpicius 
SererusV '"^^^ibsertio pro unico S. Eueherio^ Lugdanensi 
Epistopp^ Opus posthuinum. Accedit Concilium Bie^ 
giense sub Rbstagno Metrop. Aquensi anni 1285, nunc 
priixto prodit integrum et notis iUustratum opera Car. An- 
telmi desijgi^ati' Spisc. Grassens. Ptnpos. Foroj.*' Paris, 1726, 
41o. -This work was the only one found entirely finished 
among 9tir ^tb<ij(|s MSS. to which the editor has added a 
Preface, and a^ short acc9ui\t of the life and writings of 



ATU T %LVLh eot 

Autelmi's brother, the author. ABtelnti died ^ Frejus^ 
Jane $1^ 1697, leaving the character of aman^f aeutenwi^ 
iearning, aad integrity, but credulous, and loo ready to 
deal in conjecture*/ 

ANT£$IGNANUS(P£TEa),aii iaduatrioiisgramteamiii 
was born at Rabaateins in the Idth, jcenlniry. Hti Gireak 
l^rammar went through several edittons, aod he aflenvardi 
published an universal graoimar^ .which proved l6fi» useMl 
from the confused arrMgeinenlNi We haif e likewise hf 
him an editios o£ Terence, whieh proves him to have beesa 
a writer of a very l^iorious tuion* He published die eo^ 
medics of this poet in three different methods t ^first^ with 
abort notes, aiid< the arguments of eveiy seenb, and he 
marked the accents. upon ei»sry word which bed more than 
two syllables^ < and likewise at the side of every, verse th^ 
Jdianner of scanning it In the second place, he pablsihed 
thear vrith the i entire notes of almost all the audiort who 
hkd written* upnt Teisenoe : and lasldy, he pubUihed them 
with new. marginal notes, and a French translation and 
paraphiiisp of ? the three' first comedies. He puts between 
crotchets whatever is in the translation, and not earpressed 
an the originals and marks with letters all the references 
from the translation to the paraphrase. The various read- 
ings have likewise each their parentheses, and their notes 
of referenca This edition, which is not noticed by Dn 
Harwobd, appears to have been printed at LyonS| by 
Matthew Bon^^homme, about the yearl 5S6.* 
' ANTHEMIUS, an eminent architect of the sixth ceil* 
tury, was born at Thdles in Lydhai . His fetber had five 
sons^ Olympius; a lawyer^ Dioacovus Und Al6xSiader,t pby^ 
aicians, MetrodorOs, a grammariasii tad our Antbemius, 
wbo was an! eatcelletit mathematidHui, and availed btmselF 
of that science in the works which he ertetedi It^appeaHi 
lifcewiiie i£at he >was acquainted with the more modem 
•eeicts of pbilosfrphy and. d^iemistry, as hi^rians infonh 
«s ^athh could iftritate thunder and lightning, and even 
th^'shoch of anearthquske* In oonaeqnence of n ttiAitig 
jdiipnte withSQena^ hie netghbour^ reapeettngthe iwallt Or 
winddvffs af-tbeir oontiguoaa koaseay in which Zeno*a|ikk 
fieared to JNve the advantdge^ Antbemiiis playeii^ Mm a 
tribk, whidi is thbs deaaribed : be arranged sev^ev^ ^etteh 
QX cauldrons of water, each of them covered by the vv^f 

) Gen, Pict^^MertTi. ! IUid« 



510 A N T H t M I U S. 

bottom of a leathern t^e vrhich rose to a naf row top, and 
was artifieiiAy conveyed among the joists and rafters of 
(he adjacent building. • A . fire was kindled beneath the 
cauldron, land the steam of the boiling water ^cended 
tkroogfathe tubes : tbe- bou^e was- shaken by the efforts of 
Ae imprisoned aior, and'the trembling inhabitants wondered 
that«ttecit^ was uQCOOScioiis of an earthquake which they 
iek. Attanother time- the ftiends of Zeno, as they sat at 
isble, were d^zisled by tber intolerable light which flashed 
sa their eyes itom the lefleetiiig mirrors ^ Anthemius; 
(bey were astonished by the noise which he produced from 
ft collision of certain minute and sonorous particles : and 
Zeno declared to tbe senate, that a mei^ obortal must yield 
to the power of an antagonist who shook tbe earth with 
the trident of Neptune, and imitated the thunder uid light- 
ning of Jo^e.'himself. But the genius of Anthemius ap- 
«peared to mosti advantage in the erection of the iiewt:burch 
of St. SopUia at Xionstantiaoplei. This be undertook by 
order of 'the . pemperor Jusltinian, and^was assisted by ten 
thousand-workmen, whose payment, we are told, doubtless 
:as a hiptttomodera^urveyGTO, was made in fine silver, add 
'never delayed beyond tbe evemitg. It was completed in 
five yeaor, eleven months, .aftd:ten 4ays. Gibbon bas giveh 
a splendid description of tbis edifice, now*; the principal 
.Turkish mosque, which continues to excite tbe fond ad- 
miraticn of the i Greeks,^ and the more nusoual curiosity of 
European travellers. Anthemdrus died, about the year 5^4. 
'He is said to iiave written on the sid>jectof machinery, 
and Diipwf,!. secretary to the. French academy' of inscrip* 
■ttons^ published a firagment of his in 1777, on mecfaaoies 
.and diopttics, in vhicii Aatbemius eodeavours<to exjplain 
Jibe lMiriiaiig.mim>Es employed by Archimedes in destroying 
;lhe Bomto ships, ^ 

n ANTHONY (St.) tfae^ insitstutor of monastb life, was 
fbei^o in £gypt^ in the year 2ir I . Haviog understood some 
^a3sa|pe8 ip ourSaviouris-ipireeepts in their' liiieral senses he 
:4Mposed of a large prc^rty which he rinherited, divided 
tbepioduioe among the: poor, and retired Stern the world, 
40 SI solltudie. where be issadd to haire been tempted by tbe 
jflevit iii>a great.. variety of sbarpesy ^stories* which ace too 
^bsiurd ! to be.^UMT revived Itkadded, fabweve^ that for 

^ ) Bibf. Ui|irerM)le.-^ibbon'*f Roman Hist, and uic sntbort tliere qi|OtML--t 
furii OnosMitticos. . ' ' . . ' i 



XN T H O N T. 811 

r t 

twtnty ytears resistaQce» Anthony received the gift of 
miracles ; a vast number of disciples began now to crowd 
abojat him, and he was obliged ito erect many monasteries 
in the desert to which he had retired. Here his followers 
glassed their time in praj^r^ and other acts of devotion, 
and In manual labour, and were encouraged and supported 
by the example and precepta he gave of mortification ;ind 
humility. He is said to have quitted this retreat only 
twice; once during the persecution under Maximinus in 
the year 3i2> when he endeavoured to assist tb^ Christians 
who were then suffering martyrdom for the gospel : and a 
second, time, in the year S3 5, at the request of St. Atha« 
nasiusi when his object was to defend the faith against the 
Arians^ who had accused him of being of their opinion. 
When at Alexandria, all the city came out to see him;, 
even the Pagans crowded to touch htm,' and he converted 
manyof Uient to Christianity* Constantine and his family 
wrota to him 'as to a father, and expressed their fervent 
desire to be favoured with his correspondence, which he 
complied with. He was frequently visited by the Pagan 
philosophers, some of whom endeavoured to perplex him 
by arguments against Christianity, but he oonsttihtly re« 
futed them, and maintained the superiority of that religion 
over Paganism. His death is fixed on the 17 th of 
January, in the year 356, in the 1 06th year of his age. 
Much supeipstitious reg^d was paid to his body, which is 
said to have been transported into Yienne, in Daupbiny, in 
the eleventh century. Tb^6 are seven letters of his ex« 
tant in the fiibl, Patfum, Hki life was written by St, Atba^ 
nasius. -. ■ 

Tradition has eonnected the name of* St. Anthony with 
that of a very painful disorder, ' the erysipelas. Hence he 
is sometimes represented with a fire by his side, .signifying 
^at »he relieves persons from the inflammation called by 
koa name S ^^t he is always accompanied by a ho^, pn ad* 
count lof \i\% having^ured the disorders of that animal. To 
do ^im ili# g're^ter honoui;, die Romanists in seyeval places 
keep at coiiimon chaises a bog denominated St. Anthony's^ 
h^ (whenc)e<our vulgarism of Tantony pig) fq^ which they- 
have 'gr€»t' veneratiop,' 8ome have St. Antbony^s picture' 
on tlie walls oftfabii? kou^^esy hoping by that to be preserved' 
froni the plague : ^nd. the l^t^Ii^ns^ who ^o not know t^e 
tfue significiltidti of the flr^ painted at the side of tb^Gt 
f ftio^i coqpiud^ tbat h^ preserves houses from being burnt| 



nt A JIT HO NX 

^nd invokjB h}ii^ on spch occasipus. In 19^9 5^ 9^ or4er »( 
religious was founijed in Fr.anp^, callfid th^ prder.of Sfc 
Anthony, the ipt^mber^ of which were to take cu0 of p^r^ 
pons afflicted with St. Anthpny's fifie.' 

ANTPONY, or ANTpNY (Dr- Francis), ^, noted em^ 
pine and chemist i^ the l$itt^r,end of the ^ixte^ntb^qd the 
jb^ginning of the sev^nteei^jtb centuries, w^s the son of aa 
eminent goldsmith in the city pf l^ondpn, who had an em<v 
ployment pf considerable value in the jewel-^office under 
the rpign gf queen Elizabeth. He was born April 16^ 
1550; and having been parefuUy instructed in the first 
rudiments of learning while at home, was, about the year* 
1569, sent to the university of Caipbridge, where he stUf 
died with great diligence and success, and ^ome time in 
the year 1574 took the degree of master of arts. It^p*- 
pears fropi his , own writings, that he applied himself fof 
many y/^ars in that university, to the theory and praotico 
of chemistry, with sedulous industry. H^ came up to 
London, probably before hiP attained d^e ag<) pf fojrty, and 
^egan soon after his arrival tp publish to the world the 
effects of his chemical studies. In thp year 1^98, he sent 
abroad bis first treatise, (Concerning the exisellency of a 
medicine drawn from gold ; foivt, not having taken the ne-^ 
cessary precautions . of applying to the college of physi- 
cians fpf their U)E^eoce, he was, spme time in the year 1 600, 
9ummone4 before the president and cen^prs. Here he 
cqnfessed that he had praqtispd physic in London at least 
Qipre than six. months, and kad cured twenty persons of 
several diseasje^, tp "whpm he a%4 given purging smd vomitr» 
ing physic, and to others, a diaphoretic medicine, pre-f 
po^r^d.from gold af|d mercury,. 2^ their case required ; but 
apknowledged th(|t he had no UgePQe, and being examined' 
in several parts of physiis, and fonnd inpii^p^rt, he.wasin^ 
terdicted pn^^tjce, About a month after, he waei com-^ 
Dpitted tp the Cpunterrprison, m\d fined in the sum of &w^ 
pounds ^^ propter Ulic^dm ptH:»mi^ that is, for presoribinff 
phytic against the i|t$^tntefi and privilege of the college ; 
hut upon hiip application to tb«i U>i?d chief justice^ he wai^ 
«^t f|t liberty, >yhich gave SQ gFO^t umbriHa(e to the ooll^^ 
thftt the president and pne of the qensprp wiiited on the 
chief jnsUcp, tp reqnest bis favour in de£teding and pre^. 



^ M«rerl.^MilAer>f Chareh Hist, Tok I. f. 594,— -Cave^ vol. t^-^^ii Onih 



ANTHONY. Si3 

nerving the college privileges ; upon which Mr. Anthony 
aubmitted hiinself^ promisea to pay bis fine, and was for«- 
biddep practice. Si^not long after be was accused agaiii 
of practising physie, and upon jbis own confession was 
jfined five pounds; which, on hii| refusing (Q pay it, was 
increased to twenty pounds, and he cpmnutted to prison 
till he p^id it ; neither were the college satisfied with this, 
but couimenced a suit at law against hirn in the name of 
the que^n, as well as of the cpllegei in which they sue* 
needed, and obtained judgment against him; but after some 
time, were prevailed upon by the intreaities.of his wife, t^ 
remit their share of the penalty, as appes^rs by their war*- 
rant to the keeper of the prison for bis discharge, dated 
under the college seal, the 6th of August, 1602. After 
his release, .be seems to bjEt^e met with considerable pa- 
trons, who ^ere able to protect him from the authority of 
the college ; and though Pr. Gbpdall tells us, that this 
ieariied society thought him weak and ignorant in physic, 
yet he contrived to obtain the degree of doctor of physic 
in $ome university. This did not hinder new complaints 
being brought against him, by Dr. Taylor, and another 
physician, who grounded their proceedings chiefly on hid 
giving a certain nostrum, which be called ^^ Aurum pota-f 
Jilff,^^ or potable gold^ and which he represented to the 
world as au universal niedicine. There were at this time 
ftlso several things written agaiust* him, and his manner of 
practice, insinuating that .he was very inaccurate in his 
method of philosophizing, that the virtues of metals as to 
physical uses were very uncertain, and that the boasted 
effects of his medicine were destitute of proof. Dr. An-^ 
thopy, upon this, published a defence of himself and his 
Aurum pptabile in Latin, written with a plausible display 
of skill in chemistry, and with au apparent knowledge of 
thq theory and history of physic. This book, which he 
published in 1610, was printed at the university press of 
Cambridge, and entitled ^* Medicinae Cbymicss, et veri 
potabilis Auri assertio, ex lucubrationibus Fra. Anthonii 
{xipdiuensia, in Medicina Doctoris. Cantabrigias, ex 
oigSkcipa Cantrelli Legge celeberrims^ Academies Typo-^ 
fTfipbi/' 4tp. It bad a very florid dedication to king Jaoiesk ' 
j^f^fiyed^ lie, likewise, itnnexed certificates of cures, un-? 
^ tfa^ hfknd^ of several personss of extinction, and some 
ef the &iculty ; but bis book was quickly answeredi and 



31* X N T H 6 N T, 

the eontroversy abotit Atirutn pot^Ue grew so warm, that 
he was obliged to publish anotber apology in the English 
languagei which was also translated into Latin, biit did not 
answer the doctor^s expectation^ in conciliating the opidioh 
of the faculty^ yet, what is more valuable to an empiric, it 
procured the general good- will of ordinary readers, and 
contributed exceedingly to support and extend bis prac- 
tice, notwithstanding all the pains taken to decry it. 'What 
chiefiy contributed to' maintain his own reputntion, and 
thereby reflectied credit on his medicine, was that which is 
rarely met with among quack's, his unblemished character 
in private life. Dr. Anthony was z man of unaffected pietj^ 
untainted probity, of eady address,; great modesty^ and 
boundless charit)' ; which procured him many friends, and 
left it not in the po^r of bis enemies to attack any part of 
fcift conduct, except^ that of dispensing li medicine, of 
which they had no opinion. And though much has' been 
f^id to disOre4it the use of gold in medieine^ yet some very 
able wd ingenious men wrote very plausibly in support of 
those principles on which X>r. Anthony^s practice was 
Ibunded, and ai^ong thes^ the illustrious Robert Boyte. 
The process of making the potable gold h given ki Ihe 
Biog. Britannica, but in such a confused and ignorant 
manner that any modera chemist ipay easily detect the 
fnilaoy, and be convinced that gold does not enter into th^ 
preparation. The time in which Anthony flourished, if 
that phrase may be applied to him, was very favourable to 
bis notions, chemistry being then much admired and very 
little understood^ He had therefore a most extensive and 
betieficial practice, which ^labled him to live hospitably 
at bis house in Bartholomew* close, and to be very liberal 
in his alms to the poor. Hc'died May 26, 1623, and was 
buried in the church of St. Bartholomew the Great, where 
a handsome monument was erected to his men^Ory. His 
jprincipal antagonists w^re, Dr. Matthew Gwinne, of th§ 
college of physicians, who wrote *>* Aurum non Aurum^ 
sive adversaria in assertorem OhymisEi, sed verae Medicinsa 
desertorem Franciscuro Antbonium,^^ Lond. 16tl, 4U>y 
and Dr. Cotta, of Northampton, in 1 628, in a woik en« 
* titled, <^ Coits, contra Antonium, or an Ant*Antony^ or aii 
Am-Apology, manifesting -Dr. Anthony his ApoK>^ for 
Aurum potabile, in true and equ^l balance of right ttesoii| 
to be false aiid c^unteffeit,^' Ozfordy 4t04 -' - ^ 



t f t 4 ' •* 



A N t tt K T. 



3)S 



Dr. Anthony by his second wife had two sons ^ Charkfli^ 
a physician of -character at Bedford^ and John, the subject 
^ the fbllowing article* * 

ANThONY (John), son of theiabove, to whose prac^ 
tice be Succeeded, made a handsonre living by the sale kS 
his faither^s medicine called Aiirum potabile. He was^ta^ 
•authot 'of " Lucas redivivus, or The gospel physiciai^ 
•prescribing (by way of meditation) divine physic to prevent 
'diseases not yet entered upon the soul, and to cure thost 
inaladies which have already seized upon the spirit," 165^ 
4to. He died April 28, 1655, aged 70, as appears by %b^ 
tnontiment erected for bis faither and himself in the churca 
'f^ St. Bartholomew the Great in London. * , 

ANTIGONU8 ^Carysthius), a philosopher and bis- 
4torian, who Aourtshed under the reign of the two Ptolemiefi^ 
fbecame £a.mottt for his writings. He wrote a history <dP 
philosophers, of which Diogenes Laertius made much use^ 
and which 4s quoted by Eusebius. Athenaeus speaks lof 
another work of his, entitled '^ Historical Commentaries^^ 
and Hesychius makes mention of two others, the first on 
animals, the second on the voice, but we have no remains 
of any of his works, except a collection of remarkable anA 
not very probable stories, *^ Historiarum mirabilium coU 
lectio,*' quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium. It was 
j)rinted by Meursius in 1619, and an excellent edition by 
Beckmann, with learned notes by himself and others^ 
Xeipsic, 17i^l, 4to, <arreek and Latin. But it is thought 
rathar to belong to some grammarian of the lower empirei^ 
than to a writer of the. age of the Ptolemies. There are 
two other Antigonus^s, who were writers of a description 
of Macedonia, and of a histor^^ of Italy, but it is tincertaia 
who they were, or what their share in these works. ' 

ANTIGONUS SOCHiEUS, a Jew who was born at 
Socho, on the borders of Judea, about three hundred years 
before Christ, was president of the sanhedrim at ^erctsa^ 
iemy and teacher of the/law in the principal divinity school 
•of that city. Having often, in his lectures, inculcated to 
his scholars that they ought not to serve God in a servile 
manner, but only out of filial love and fear, two of fail 
scholars, Sadoc and Baithus, thence ioferr^, that there 
were no rewards at all after this life, and therefore sepa« 

• » aiog. Brit. « Ibid.— Granger, 

A Moreri.— BJog. Universelle.— -Saxii QnomastfcMu 



316 A N T J G N U S. 

jrating firora the school of their inM^er^ they tbdueht there 
was no resurrection nor future state, neither angel n^r spi- 
rit: hence arose the sect of the Saklducees. They seem to 
agree in general with the Epicureans, diflPering, however^ 
IB this : that though they denied a future state, yet they 
aJlowed the powet of God to create the world, which the 
followers of Epicurus denied. It is said also, that they ire- 
jected the scriptures, except the Pentateuch; denied pre-* 
4lestination ; and taught, that God had made man absolute 
xnaster of all his actions, without assistance in what ia 
good, or restraint from evil. * . . 

ANTIMAiCHUS, one of foilr; poets of the same nanae 
mentioned by Suidas, was a native pf Claros, according te 
Ovid, and of Colophon, according to' ethers. The aAony<« 
mous author of the description of the olympiads makea him 
contemporary with Lysander, and even vdth Plato, who^ 
when a youth^ is said to have been present when Antima<« 
chus^s poem the ^^ Thebaid*' was read. The leaitoed 
Author of the travels of Anacbarsis places him. in the fifth 
century B. C. Whenever he lived, we must ■ regret thai 
acarcely any of his writings have descended to posterity, 
as he had such reputation as to be accounted neit to Ho* 
mer, and it is said that the emperor Adrian preferred hkn 
to that illustrious poet. Besides the ^< Tbebaid,^' he wrote 
the ^^ Lydian/* Being violently enamoured of Chryseia, 
he followed her into Lydia, her native country, where she 
died in his arms. On his return hoKie, he perpetuated hia 
affliction in a poem to her memory, and called from her 
name, which is praised by Ovid. We find a fragment of 
Antimachus in the Analects of BruBck, and Schellenberg 
published what else remains, in 1786, uuder the title <* An* 
timachi Colophonii. Reliquias nunc .primum conquirere et 
ejcplicare instituit C. A. G. ScbeUenberg^ Accessit Epistola 
frid. Aug. Wolfii." * 

ANTIMACHUS (Mark- Antony), or ANTIMACO, 
one of the most celebrated Greek professors in Italy in the 
sixteenth century, was bom at Manti|^,'abouft the year 1473k, 
After learning Greek as far as it could be taught iipi his owt 
<)o^n^, be went into Greece, and improved his i^p(}uaiiit«« 
fince with that language tinder the ^lest masters during % 
residence there of five years, and wrote and spoke Greek 
as easily as (^atin or Italian, On his retura tQ Maptua^ h^ 

1 Bnicker.«^Bki^. UniTencite. 

s Vosciaf«-«-Fabric, Bibl. Onec-^axii Onoiaasticoa^ 



A N T I M A C H U S. 317 

engaged in teachiDg the Greek language, and lectured on 
that and oft Greek literature* In 1532 he was invited ta 
Ferrara^ where he became professor of the same sttKiies^ 
and held the office until his death in 1552. He transkted^ 
GemistUd Ptethon, and part of Dionysius of Halicarnas'sus^ 
&c. under the title *^ Gemisti Plethonis de ge&tis Grseco* 
rum post pugnaoi ad Mantineam per capita tractatro duobu^ 
libri» explicata, M. Antonio Antimacho interprete. Ad base 
Dio»y^ii Halicarnassei prcecepta, &c." Bale, 1540, 4to, 
He wrote also many Latin poemsj which are mostly unpub- 
lished. Some have attributed to bim eight books of Greek 
epigrams, and there are several by him, both in Greek*' 
and Latin, in a collection of letters addressed to Vettori,' 
and published by Bandini^ at Pavia, 1758,^ > 
. ANTINE. See D'ANTINE. 

. ANTIOGHUS of Ascalon in Palestine, was the discipte 
of Philo, the founder of the fourth academy of the Platonic 
sehool^ and founded himself a fifth, which procured bim 
the name of Antiochus the Academician. He attempted to- 
reconcile the tenets of the different sects, and maintained 
that the doctrines of the Stoics were to be found in the 
writings of Plato. Cicero greatly admired his eloquence, 
and the politeness of his manners; and Lucullus took him 
as his companion into Asia. He resigned the academic 
dKair in the 157th olympiad, or B. C. 80, and was the last 
preceptor of the Platonic school in Greece. After his time 
the professors of the Academic philosophy were dispersed 
by the tumults of war, and the school itself was transferred 
to Rome. • 

ANTIOCHUS, a monk of Seba, in Palestine, lived in 
the beginning of the seventh century. He was the author 
of ^' PandectsB divinas Scripturse,'' and of an hundred and 
ninety homilies. He speaks in his preface of the taking of 
Jerusalem by Chosroes, king of Persia, and of the cruelties 
inflicted on the monks of Palestine* To this is added a 
poem, in which he deplores the loss of the real cross which 
the Persians carried away among the rest of their booty, 
and celebrated the restitution of it in another poem written 
in Italian. The former, in Greek and Latin, is inserted in 
the supplement to the Bibl. Patrum. ^ 

ANTIPATER (Lalius C«liu&), a Roman historian, 
lived' in- the time of Gracchus, and wrote a history of the 

» Thraboschi.— Bibg. tMiverselte. 

s Bnieker.—Bioir.^Uluv^rsellc. * CRVe» vol. !• 



tt* A N T I P A T E R. 

aecond Funic war,, of which Brutus made an ahridgmenV 
^wccordiiiig to Cicero> who. frequeatly mentions Antipater. 
The emperor Adrian, of whose taste we have jusi giyea a; 
sample (in art. Antimachus), preferred Antipater to Sal- 
bisty a& he did Ennius to Virgil. Riccoboni,. in 1568, 
published the fragments of Antipater, which have been re« 
lurinted by Ant. Augustine, 1595, and by Ausonius Pa- 
pona,. and they are likewise added to Havercamp^s edition 
of Sallust, 1742, and to. other editions of the same author. ' 

ANTIPATER, of Sidon, a Stoic philosopher, who wrote 
poems, that were much praised by Cicero, according to 
whose account he appears to have possessed the talents of 
fixe, improvisaiori, Valerius Maximus and Pliny record of 
lilm that he had every 3rear a return of fever on the da^ 
which wa& that of his birth, and happened to be that of his 
death*. He flourished about one hundred and forty years 
ftw C Some of bis epigrams are ia the Antholbgy.* 

ANTIPHANES, one of the several ancient Greek comic 
Boeta of the same name mentioned by Suidas, Athenseus, 
Stiabojt, and others,, waa either of Rhodes, Caristia, or 
Sbiyma» and lived in the time of Alexander. Thisi mdnarch 
expressing little taste for his^ comedies^ the author took the 
liberty to inform him,, that in order to enjoy them, he must 
he better acquainted with the nature of the subjects and the 
scene; from which it haa been inferred tliat he described 
depraved manners. This, howeVer, did not prevent his 
carrying off the {)rize three times. He composed three 
hundred and sixty-five, or at least two hundred and eighty 
eomedies^ of which Fabricius has given a list from Herte- 
lius,. Koenigft Vossius, and Meursius, who often mention 
these pieces of Antiphanes ; and Gronovtus, in his ** Ex*^ 
eerpta Comicorum,^^ has given the fragments found in 
Athenasus and other authors. The leanied Koppiers has 
be&towed great pains on these fragments in his ** Pbilolo- 
gica observata,*^ Leyden, 1771, 8vo. But this poet is 
often confounded with' others, of the same name, and of 
Qjther names disfigured by the blunders of transcribers. * 

ANTIPHON, an Athenian oratqr, called the Rhamnu- 
sian from the place of his birth, Rbamnus in Attica, is 
said to have been the first who reduced eloquence to an . 
«irt, and who taught and harangued for hire. Thucydide» 
waa one of his disciples. He wrote several works*. Six-* . 

. ^ Vossiusi.-»-Moreri. — ^Biog. Unhrerselle.-^axn Onottasticott* ^ HVftfk > 
t F«br, Babl. QnecfWSavU Onomasticon*— Bio|(. UnlverMlle* 



A NT I P HO K* 



8}» 



tjten of faid orations were printed in tbe collection of the 
ancient Creek orators by Stephens iu 1575, foK and before 
that by Aldus in 1 5 i 3^ foL His death is said to have i^en 
plaoe in the year 4il B. C. He was condemned to die 
for fa^^ouring the p^trty. of the four hundred tyrants at 
Athens^ and on this occasion made an able but unsuccess-^ 
ful defence of liis. conduict. ^ 

ANTiaUARIUS (JLames), a heara^d Italian of the fif- 
teenth ceoturyj^ was a native of Perugia, and of a family of 
some rank^' He was the scholar of Joannes Antonius Cam* 
paousy and published tiie first and perhaps only entire edi<* 
tioa of Campanus' works^ 1495^ Michael Ferhus, a Milan* . 
ese schQlaar>; at. his request superintended the press, and 
enriched the publication with a copious life of Campaniis, 
and a variety of elaborate prefaces addressed to various 
persons. That which is addressed to Antiquarius himself 
beats ample testimony to his literary reputation. - On quit«- 
ting his native city, Antiquarius obtained a political office 
of consequence and responsibility at Bologna. About i 460 
he removed to Milan, where his erudition enabled him to 
secure the favour and patronage of Giovanni Galeozzo and 
Lud. Maria Visconti, dukes of Milan, to whom he was se-^ 
cretary and prime minister, and employed his influence ia ^ 
the patronage of literature. As he was in the church he 
obtained some rich benefices from pope Alexander VL 
Many teamed works, the publication of which he had en- 
couraged, were dedicated to him, but we have nothing of 
his own, except an '^ Orauo^" Milan, 1509, 4to, and a vo» 
lume of Latin letters, 1 S 1 9, 4to. He died at Milan in 
1512.* 

, ANTISTHENES, a Greek philosopher, and founder of 
the sect of the Cynics, was born at Athens in 423 B. C^ 
His father wa^r of the same name with him, and his mother 
was either a Thracian or a Phrygian, but he appears to 
liave .despised the honours of £eimily, and made them the 
topicstof ridicule, a practice not uncommon with those 
wiboa^ origin is jn^au or doubtfuL He appears to have 
served in the army, and behaved with. great courage in the 
battle of XdJaagra. His first preceptor was Gorgias the 
orator,, from whom he imbibed a florid and showy manner^ 
but ;ati«aiRed afterwards much < eminence under Socrates, 
aiid advised his^ischolarstoi become his fellowMlisciples io: 

» Pabr. Bibl. €hiBc.*— ^'i^tti Onotnaflicdtil^^og. I7niy*rs«lle. 

* UrcMiveirs Remain of PQlitiaa.—^Biog. Uaiverselic-^Saxii Onommticoii. 



S20 ANTISTHENES. 

the school of that celebrated philosopher. Laiertiife htforms 
us that there wer^ ten volumes of his works ; hot' a collect 
tion of apophthegms only remain, some of which are excels 
lent. Modem wit perhaps aflbrds few better hits than 
what he bestowed on the Athenian^^ when he advised them 
to elect asses to be horses* This tfaiey said was absurd; 
** and yet," he replied, " you chuse those for general* 
virha have nothing to recommend them but your votes.*' 
Antisthenes is said to have been a man of great austerity^ 
and a most rigid disciplinarian. Some of his contempora- 
ries give him a very high character in other respects, and 
his life, upon the whole, appears to have escaped the im^ 
putation of the sensual vices practised by many of the 
ancient philosophers. ' 

ANTONELLI (Nicholas Maria), count of Pergola^, 
who rose through various ecclesiastical promotions to that 
of cardinal, was born in 1697, and died Sept. 24^ 1767^ 
esteemed for his learning, modesty, and other virtues. Hef 
published, I. ^^ De titolis quos S. Evaristus Romanis pres« 
byteris distribuit," Rome, 1725, 8vo. 2. " Ragioni della 
Sede apostolica sopra il Ducato di Parma e Piacenza es- 
poste a* sovrani e principi Catbolici dell' Europa," Rome,^ 
1742, 4 vols. 4to. 3. " S. Athanasii interpretatio psalmo-- 
mm,'* Rome, 1746, folio, which he printed, for the first 
time, from a uianuscript in the Barberini library, with a^ 
Latin translation and notes. 4. ^^ Vetus Missale Roma* 
num, prsefationibus et notis illustratam,*' Rome, 1756, 4to. 
He also cultivated Italian poetiy, and there are several at 
his pieces in the tenth volume of the poems ^^ Degli Ar«' 
eadi di Roma," 1 747, 8vo. Other works by him, separately 
printed, were collected and published in a folio vol. Rome^ 
1756.^ 

ANTONELLO. See ANTONIO DE MESSINA. 
-* ANTONIANO' (Silvio), a man of great learning, vAsof 
x^ised himself from a low condition by his merit, his pfaureuts 
being so far from able to support him in his studies,< that 
they themselves stood in need of charity, was bom at Rome 
in 1540. He made a quick and most surprising progress 
in his studies ; for when be was but ten years olc^ he could* 
make verses upon any subject proposed to him ; aird these so 
excellent, though pronounced extempore, that it was com- 
monly thought th^ exceeded those of the most studied, 

* Biof . Univcrselle, 



A N T O N I A N O. 321 

preparation. A proof of this was at the table of the cardi- 
nal of Pisa, when he gave an entertainment one day to 
several other cardinals. Alexander Famese, taking a nose- 
gay, gave it to this youth, desiring him to present it to him 
of the company whom he thought most likely to be pope : 
he presented it to the cardinal of Medicis, and madg an 
eulogium upon him in verse. This cardinal, who was pope 
some years afterwards^ under the name of Pius IV. imagined 
it all a contrivance, and that the poem had been artfully 
prepared before-hand, by way of ridicule upon him. He 
therefore appeared hurt at it, but the company protested, 
that it was an extempore performance, and requested 
him to make a trial of the boy : he did so, and was con- 
vinced of his extraordinary talents. According to Strada, 
as the cardinal of Medicis was thinking upon a sub- 
ject for this purpose, the clock in the hall struck; which 
was the occasion of his proposing a clock for the subject 
of his verses. The duke de Ferrara coming to Rome, to 
congratulate Marcellus II. upon his being raised to the 
pontificate, was so charmed with the genius of Antoniano, 
that he carried him to Ferrara, where he provided able 
masters to instruct him in all the sciences. From thence 
he was sent for by Pius IV. who recollecting the adventure 
of the nosegay, made inquiry fbr the young poet; and 
having found him, invited him to Rome, and gave him an 
honourable post in his palace, aad some time after made 
him professor of th« belles lettres in* the college at Rome. 
Antoniano filled this place with so much reputation, that 
on the day when he began to explain the oration pro Mar« 
CO Marcello, he had a crowd of auditors^ and among these 
no less than twenty-five cardinals. He was afterwards 
chosen rector of the college; and after the death of Pius 
IV. being seized with a spirit of devotion, he joined him- 
self to Philip Neri, and accepted the office of secretary to 
the sacred college, offered him by Pius V. which he exe- 
cuted for many years with the reputation of an honest and 
able man. He refused a bishopric which Gregpry XIV. 
would have given him, but he accepted the office of secre- 
tary to the briefs, offered him by Clement VIII. who made 
him his chamberlain, and afterwards a cardinal. It is re- 
ported, that cardinal Alexander de Montajto, who had be- 
haved a little too haughtily to Antoniano, said, when he 
saw him promoted to the purple, that for the future he 
would not despise a mw of the cassoc a^d little band, 
VOL. II. Y 



3123 A N T O N I A N O, 

however low and despicable he might appear; since it 
might happen that he whom he had despised, might not 
only become his equal, but even his superior. His intense 
application is said to have hastened his death, Aug. 15, 
I603i His printed works are, 1. " Dele* Educazione 
Cristiana de Figliuoli libri tre,*' Verona, 1584, 4to, reprint- 
' ed at Cremona and Naples. This work on education he 
wrote at the request of cardinal Borromeo. 2. <' Orationes 
tredecim," Rome, 1610, 4to, with a life of the author by 
Joseph Castalio. 3. Various discourses, letters, pieces of 
poetry, both Latin and Itahan, in the collections. ^ 

ANTONIDES (John), an eminent Dutch poet, sur- 
tiam^d VANDER GOES, from the place in Zealand 
where he was born, April 3, 1647, of parents who were 
anabaptists, people of good character, but of low circum* 
stances. They went to live at Amsterdam,^ when Antonides 
was about four years old ; and in the ninth year of his age 
he began his studies, under the direction of Hadrian Juni- 
us and James Cocceius. Antonides took great pleasure in 
reading the Latin poets, carefully comparing them with 
Grotius, Heinsius, &c. and acquired a considerable taste 
for poetry. He first attempted to translate some pieces of 
Ovid, Horace, and other ancients ; and having formed his 
taste on these excellent models, he at length undertook 
one of the most difficult tasks in poetry, to write a tragedy, 
entitled, " Trazil," or the ** Invasion of China,** but was 
so modest as not to permit it to be published. Vondel, 
who wsui then engaged in a dramatic piece, taken also from 
some event that happened in China, read Antonides*s tra- 
gedy, and was so well pleased with it, that he declared, if the 
^uthor would not print it, he would take some passages out 
of it, and make use of them in his own tragedy, which he 
did accordingly; and it was reckoned much to the honour 
pf Antonides, to have written what might be adopted by so 
great a poet as Vondel was acknowledged to be. ^ Upon 
the conclusion of the peace betwixt Great Britain and 
Holland, in the year 1697, Antonides wrote a piece, en- 
titled " Bellona aan band," i. e. Bellona chained ; a very 
elegant poem, consisting of several hundred verses. The 
applause with which this piece was received, excited him 
. to try his genius in something more considerable ; be ac« 
cordingly wrote an epic poem, which he entitled Th^ River 

> Geo. 2>kt.«^oreri« 



A N T O N t D E a S23 

Y. The description of this river, or rather lake, is the 
subject of the poem, which is divided into four books ; iii 
the first the poet gives a very pompous description of all 
that is remarkable on that bank of the Y on which Amster* 
dam is built. In the second he opens to himself a larger 
field, beginning with the praises of navigation, and describ- 
ing the large fleets which cover the Y as an immense fo- 
rest, and thence go to every part of the world, to bring 
home whatever may satisfy the necessity, luxury, or pride 
of men. The third book is an ingenious fiction, which 
supposes the poet suddenly carried to the bottom of the 
river Y, where he sees the deity of the river, with his demi- 
gods and nymphs, adorning and dressing themselves for a 
feast, which was to be celebrated at Neptune^s court, upon 
the anniversary of the marriage of Thetis wiii^ Peleus. In 
the fourth book he describes the other batik of the Y, 
adorned with several cities of North Holland ; and in the 
close of the work addresses himself to the magistrates of 
Amsterdam, to whose wisdom he ascribes the riches and 
flourishing condition of that powerful city. This is a very- 
short abridgment of the account of this poem given in the 
General Dictionary, according to which it appears to have 
contained many other fictions that s&vour of the burlesque. 
Antonides's parents had bred him up an apothecary^ but 
his genius for poetry soon gained him the esteem and 
friendship of several persons of distinction ; and particu- 
larly of Mr. Buisero, one of the lords of the admiralty at 
AQisterdam, and a great lover of poetry, who sent him at 
his own expence to pursue his studies at Leyden, where he 
remained till he took his degree of doctor of physic, and 
4hen his patron gave him a place in the admiralty. In 1 678 
Antonides married Susanna Bermans, a minister's daugh- 
ter, who had also a talent for poetry. In the preface to bis 
heroic poem, he promised the life of the apostle Paul, 
which, like Yirgirs Mneidy was to be divided into twelve 
books ; but be never finished that design, only a few frag- 
ments having appeared. He declared himself afraid to 
hazard his reputation with the public on theological sub- 
jects, which were so jcommonly the subject of contest 
After marriage he did not much indulge his poetic genius ; 
and within a few years fell into a consumption, of which he 
died on the 1.8tb of Sept« 1684. He is esteemed the most 
eminent Dutch poet after Vondel, whom be studied to 
imitate, and is thought to have excelled in sweetness of ex- 

Y2 



324 A N T O N I D E S. 

pression and sr^oothness of style, but in accuracy and lof- 
Uness he is greatly inferior to his original. His works have ' 
been printed several times, having been collected by his 
father Anthony Jansz. The last edition is that of Amster- 
dam« 1714, 4to, which, however, contains several miscella** 
neous pieces that add but little to the reputation he 
acquired. The editor, David Van Hoogstraten, prefixed 
his life to this edition. ^ 

ANTONINE (De Forciglioni), St. archbishop of Flo- 
rence, was born in that city in 1389, and became a domi- 
nican, and afterwards superior of ^ numerous society, who 
devoted themselves to a life of austerity. He appeared to 
advantage at the council of Florence, where he was ap- 
pointed to dispute with the Greeks. In 1446, he was, with 
much reluctance on his side, promoted to be archbishop of 
Florence, and from the moment of his installation is said to 
have shewn a bright example of all the virtues ascribed to 
ihe bishops of the primitive ages. He practised great tem- 
perance, preserved a simplicity of garb and manner, shunned 
honours, and distinguished himself by zeal and charity, 
particularly during ^e plague and famine with which Flo- 
rence was visited in 1448; and died, much lamented, in 
1459. Cosmo de Medicis bestowed his confidence on him ; 
pope Eugene IV. wished he might die in his arms; Pius 
II. assisted at his funeral, and Adrian VI. enrolled him in 
the number of the saints, in 1523. His studies had been 
chiefly directed to ecclesiastical history and theology, and 
his principal works are, 1. ^^ Historiarum opus seu Chro- 
nica libri viginti quatuor," Venice, 1480; Nuremberg, 
1484; Basil, 1491, 3 vols. fol. 2. <' Summa theologize 
moralis^^' Venice, 4 vols. 4to, often reprinted, and in the 
edition of Venice, 1582, entitled " Juriii Pontificii et C»- 
saraei summa.'' Mamachi published an edition, in 1751, 
at Venice, 4 vols. 4to, with prolix notes. This work is still 
consulted. 3. <^ Summula confessionis,*' Venice, 1473^ 
one of the earliest printed books. * 

ANTONINI (Annibal), brother to Joseph Antonini, 
who wrote the history of Lucania, was born at Salernum, in 
1702. He studied first at Naples, under the direction of 
his brother, and afterwards at Rome. He then travelled in 
England, Holland, and Germany, and at last settled at Pa- 
ris, where he taught Italian for many years^ fie died, how* 

* Gen* DicU-x-Moreri. * Moreri.-<»Biog« Uaiversellt* 



A N T O N I N I. 325 

ereVf in his oWn country, in August 1755. During his 
residence at Paris he published an Italian, French, and 
Latin, and Latin, French, and Italian dictionary, 2 vols. 
4to, 1735, often reprinted, and esteemed the best until 
that of Alberti appeared ; an Italian grammar ; a treatise 
on French pronunciation ; some good editions of Ariosto, 
Tasso, and other Italian authors ; and an excellent collec- 
tion of Italian poetry, 1729, 2 vols. 12mo. * 

ANTONINUS PIUS (Titus Aureuus Fulvius'Boio- 
Nus Antoninus), was born at Lanuvium in Italy (of parents 
originally of Nismes) in the eighty-siicthyearof the Christ* 
ian era. He was first made proconsul of Asia, then gover- 
nor of Italy, and consul in the year 120, and displayed the 
same virtues in these employments as he did afterwards on 
the imperial throne : he was mild, prudent, moderate, and just. 
In the year 138 he succeeded the emperor Adrian, who had 
adopted him, and the first step of his government was to 
release a number of persons whom his predecessor had con* 
demned to die. The senate, charmed with such a com- 
mencement of authority, decreed him the title of Pius, and 
ordered that statues should be erected to his honour. 
These he appears to have amply merited. He set about 
diminishing the taxes, und preventing the litigious and 
oppressive exaction of them ; and bestowed much of his 
private fortune in charity. Such conduct made his name 
as much respected abroad as at home. Several nations 
sent embassies to him, and others besought his counsel in 
the appointment of their sovereigns : even kings came to 
pay homage to his exalted virtues. This must have been 
highly gratifying to him, as his object was to render his 
name respected by cultivating the gentler arts of peace, 
rather than by extending his dominions by war. Rome, 
accordingly, and her provinces, never enjoyed such days 
of honour and tranquillity as under his reign. Besides^ 
redressing the wrongs, and alleviating the calamities which 
happened to fall upon any part of his dominions, he displayed 
his taste by the erection of several noble and usefuVpublic 
edifices. In short, in every respect of public or private cha- 
racter, he is celebrated as one 'of the greatest and best 
characters in ancient times. Whatever is amiable, gene- 
rous^ and magnanimous, has been ascribed to him; but 

> Biog. Uoiveneller— Memoirs of Literature, vol. XII. p. 116» 



326 ANTONINUS. 

what ought to endear bis memory even to the present day, 
was his conduct towards the Christians. 

In his days the enemies of the Christians had no preten* 
slons to support persecution but the grossest misrepresent- 
ations. These were probably offered to Antoninus as they 
had been to other sovereigns. To repel them Justin Mar- 
tyr presented his " Apology" to Antoninus about the third 
year of his reign, in 140, -and not in vain. Antoninus was 
a man of sense and humanity, and open to conviction. 
Asia Proper was still the scene of Christianity and of per- 
secution, and thence the application was made to Antoni- 
nus, and earthquakes had then happened, with which the 
Pagans were much terrified, and ascribed them to the ven- 
geance of heaven against the Christians. This will explain 
some circumstances in the edict sent by our emperor to the 
council of Asia, which is one of the most remarkable pro- 
ductions of pagan wisdom, and evinces an uncommon spirit 
of liberality. No apology, we trust, can be requisite for its 
insertion in this place. 

<* The Emperor to the Council of Asia. I am quite of 
opinion, that the Gods will take care to discover such per- 
sons. For it much more concerns them to punish those 
who refuse to worship them than you, if they be able. But 
you harass and vex the Christians, and accuse them of 
iatheism and other crimes, which you can by no means 
prove- To them it appears advantageous to die for their 
religion, and they gain their point, while they throw away 
their lives, rather than comply with your injunctions. As 
to the earthquakes, which have happened in past times, or 
lately, is it not proper to remind you of your own despon- 
dency, when they happen; and to desire you to compare 
3'our spirit with theirs, antd observe how serenely they con- 
fide in God ? Ill such seasons you seem to be ignorant of 
the gods, and to neglect their worship ; you live in the 
practical ignorance of the supreme God himself, and you 
harass and persecute to death those who do worship him. 
Concerning these same men some others of the provincial 
governors wrote to our divine father Adrian, to whom he 
returned answer, * That 'they should not be molested, un- 
less they appeared to attempt something against the Ro- 
man government' Many also have signified to me con- 
cerning these men, to whom I have returned an answer 
agreeable to the maxims of my father. But if any person 
\ will still persist in accusing the Christians merely as such-^ 



\ 



ANTONINUS. 327 



let the accused be acquitted, though he appear to be a 
Christian; and let the accuser be punished.'* 

Eusebius infbrms us, that this was no emp^ty edict, but 
was really put in execution. Nor did Antoninus content 
himself with one edict. He wrote to the same purpose to 
the Larisseans, the Thessalonians, the Athenians, and all 
the Greeks. It may be therefore concluded that the Christ- 
ians enjoyed complete toleration during his reign, which 
lasted twenty- three years. He died March 7, 161, aged 
seventy-three. His death was a public calamity, and his 
memory w^s honoured by every testimony of public grati- 
tude. For a century afterwards^ all the Roman emperors 
assumed the name of Antoninus, from its popularity. 
Many curious particulars of his private and public life may 
be seen in the authors referred to in the note. * 

ANTONINUS Philosophus (Marcus Aurelius), the 
Roman emperor, was born at Rome, April 26, in the year 
121. When he was adopted by his grandfather by the fa- 
ther's side, he received his name, M. Annius Verus ; and 
Adrian the emperor, instead of Verus, used to call him Ve- 
rissimus, on account of his rectitude and veracity. When 
he was adopted by Antoninus Pius, he assumed the name of 
M. ^lius Aurelius Verus, because Aurelius was the name of 
Antoninus's family, and ^Elius that of Adrian's, into which 
he entered. When he became emperor, he left the name 
of Verus to Lucius Commodus, his adopted brother, and 
took that of Antoninus, under which he is generally known 
in history. But he is distinguished from his predecessor 
Titus Antoninus, either by the name of Marcus, or by the 
name of Philosophus, which is given him by the general 
consent of writers, although we do not find this title to have' 
been conferred by any public act or authority of the senate. 
Adrian, upon the death of Cejonius Commodus, turned his 
eyes upon Marcus Aurelius; but as he was not then eight- 
een years of age, and consequently too young for so im- 
portant a station, he fixed upon Antoninus Pius, whom he 
adopted, on condition that be should likewise adopt Mar-r 
cus Aurelius. The year after this adoption Adrian ap- 
pointed him quaestor, though he had not yet attained the 
age prescribed by the laws. After the death of Adrian, 
Aurelius married Faustina, the daughter of Antoninus Pius^ 

1 Gen. Dict.*^Univer8al Hist.— Eusebius's Hist. Eccl, lib. IV. cap. 13. — ^Mo- 
sbeim. — Milner's Church History, vol. I. p. 206. — Lnrduer's Works, vol. VII. 
vhere there is an excellent defence of the authenticity of t^e above edict. 



MS ANTONINUS. 

by whom he had several children. In the year 139 be was 
investecf with new honours by the emperor Pius, and be* 
haved in such a manner as endeared him to that prince 
and the whole people* 

Upon the death of Pius, which happened in the year 
161, he was obliged by the senate to take upon him the 
government, in the management of which he took Lucius 
Verus as his colleague. Dion Cassius says, that the reason 
of doing this was, that be might have leisure to pursue his 
studies, and on account of his ill state of health ; Lucius 
being of a strong vigorous constitution, and consequently 
more fit for the fatigues of war. The same day he took 
upon him the name of Antoninus, which he gave likewise 
to Verus his colleague, and betrothed his. daughter Lucilla 
to him. The two emperors went afterwards to the camp, 
where, after having performed the funeral rites of Pius, 
they pronounced each of them a panegyric to his memory. 
They discharged the government in a very amicable man- 
ner. But the happiness which the empire began to enjoy 
under the two brothers, was interrupted in the year 162, 
by a dreadful inundation of the river Tiber, which destroyed 
a prodigious number of cattle, and occasioned a famine at 
Rome. This calamity was followed by the Parthian war, 
and at the same time the Catti ravaged Grermany and Rhse- 
tia ; and an insurrection was apprehended from the Britons, 
against whom Calphurnius Agricola was sent, and Aufidius 
Victorinus against the Catti. But it was thought proper 
that Lucius Verus should go in person to oppose the Par- 
thians, while Antoninus continued at Rome, where his 
presence was necessary. During this war with the Par- 
thians about the year l63 or 164 he sent his daughter 
l-ucilla to Verus, having before promised her to him in 
marriage, and attended her as far as Brundusium, resolving 
to have conducted her to Syria, if it had not been objected 
to him by some persons, that his design of going into the 
east was to claim the honour of harinor finished the Parthian 
war ; upon which he immediately returned to Rome. The 
Romans having gained a victory over the Parthians, who 
were obliged to abandon Mesopotamia, the two emperors 
triumphed over them at Rome in the year 166, and were 
honoured with the title of fathers of their country. But 
this year was fatal on account of a terrible pestilence which 
spread itself over the whole world, and a famine, under 
which Rome laboured. The Marcomanni; and many other 



ANTONINUS. 



329 



people of Germany! likewise took up arms against the Ro« 
mans ; but the two emperors having marched in persoa 
against them, obliged the Germans to sue for peace. The 
war, however, was renewed the year following, and the two 
emperors marched again in person ; but Lucius Verud was 
seized with an apoplectic fit, and died at Altinum. 

In the year 170 Antoninus made vast preparations against 
the Germans, and carried on the war with great vigour^ 
During this war, in the year 174, a very extraordinary 
event is said to have happened, which, t according to Dioa 
Cassius, was as follows : Antoninus's army being blocked up 
by the Quadi in a very disadvantageous place, where there 
was no possibility of procuring water ; and in this situation^ 
being worn out with fatigue and wounds, oppressed with 
l&eat and thirst, and incapable of retiring or engaging tha 
enemy, instantly the sky was covered with clouds, and 
there fell a vast quantity of rain. The Roman army were 
about to quench their thirst, when the enemy came upon 
them with such fury, that they must certainly have been 
defeated, had it not been for a shower of hail, accompanied 
with a storm of thunder and lightning, which fell upon the 
enemy, without the least annoyance to the Romans, whoi 
by this means gained the victory*. In the year 175 Anto- 
ninus^ made a treaty with several nations of Germany. 
Soon after, Avidius Cassius, governor of Syria, revolted 
from the emperor : this insurrection, however, was sup<« 
pressed by the death of Cassius, who was killed by a cen« 
turion named Anthony. . Antoninus behaved with great 
lenity towards those who had been engaged for Cassiur; 
he would not put to death, nor imprison, nor even sit in 
judgment himself upon any of the senators engaged in this 
revolt ; but he referred them to the senate, fixing a day for 
their appearance, as if it had been only a civil affair. He 



* The Pagans as well as Christians, 
according to M. Ti)lemont, p. 621, art. 
XTi. have acknowledged the truth of 
this t^rodigy, but have greatly differed 
«8 to the cause of such miraculous 
event, the former ascribing it, some 
to one magician, and some to another : 
In Antoninus*s Pillar, the glory is as- 
cribed to Jupiter the god of rain and 
thunder. -Sut the Christians affirmed, 
that God granted this favour at the 
prayer of the Christian soldiers in the 
Emnan army, who are said to have 
compoied the twtiCtbi or the Melitene 



legion ; and, as a mark of distinction^ 
we are told that they received the titlft 
of the Thundering Legion from Antooi* 
nus. (Euseb. £ccles. Hist. Jib. v.capu.. 
5.) Mr. Moyle, in the second volum# 
of his works, has endeavoured to ex» 
plode this story of th« Thundering Le* 
gion, which occasioned Mr. Whistou to 
publish an answer in 1726, entitled, 
'« Of the Thundering Legion)" or, Of 
the miraculous Deliverance of Marcus 
Antoninus and his Army, upon the 
X'rayer* of the Christians. 



33« ANTONINUS. 

wrote also to the senate, desiring them to act with indul- 
gence rather than severity ; not to shed the blood of any 
senator or noble, or of any other person whatsoever, but tc 
allow this honour to his reign, that even under the misfortune 
of a rebellion, none had lost their lives, except in the first 
heat of the tumult: " And I wish," said he, " that I could 
even recal to life many of those who have been killed ; for 
revenge in a prince hardly ever pleases, since, even when 
just, it is considered too severe." In the year 176 Anto- 
ninus visited Syria and Egypt ; the kings of those countries, 
and ambassadors also from Parthia, came to visit him. He 
staid several days at Smyrna, and after he had settled the 
affairs of the east, went to Athens, on \khich city he con- 
ferred several honours, and appointed- public professors 
there. From thence he returned to Rome with his son 
Com mod us, whom he chose consul for the year following, 
though he was then but sixteen years of age, having ob- 
tained a dispensation for that purpose. On the 27th of 
Sept. the same year, he gave him the title of imperatpr; 
and on the 23d of Dec. he entered Rome in triumph, with 
Commodus, on account of the victories gained over the 
Germans. Dion Cassius tells us that he remitted all the 
debts which were due to himself j^nd the public treasury 
during forty-six years, from the time that Adrian had 
granted the same favour, and burnt all the writings relating 
to those debts. He applied himself likewise to correct 
many enormities, and introduced several excellent regula- 
tions. He moderated the expences laid out on gladiators j 
iK)r would he sutfer them to fight but with swords which 
were blunted like foils, so that their skill might be shewn 
without any danger of their lives. He endeavoured to clear 
up many obscurities in the laws, and mitigated, by new 
decrees, the severity of the old laws. He was the first, ac- 
cording to Capitol inus (Vit. Anton, dap. xxvii.) wjio 
appointed the names of all the children^ born of Roman 
citizens, to be registered within thirty days after their 
birth ; and this gave him occasion to establish public re- 
gisters in the provinces. He renewed the law made by 
Nerva, that no suit should be carried on against the de^id^ 
but within five years after their decease. He made a de-. 
cree, that all the senators should have at least a fourth part 
of their estate in Italy. Capitolinus gives an account of 
several other regulations which he established. In the 
year 171 he left Ron:e with hit son Commodus, in order to 



A,N T O N I.N U S. 331 

/ 

\ 

go against the Marcomanni, and other barbarous nations; 
and the year following gained a considerable victory over 
them : he would, in all probability, have entirely subdued 
them in a very short time, had he not been taken with an 
illness, which carried him off on the 17 th of March 180, 
in the fifty-ninth year of his age, and nineteenth of his 
reign. The whole empire regretted the loss of so valuable 
^ prince, and paid the greatest regard to his memory ; he 
was ranked amongst the gods, and every person almost 
had a statue of him in their houses. His book of " Medi- 
tations'' has been much admired. It is written in Greek, 
and consists of twelve books ; there have been several edi* 
tions of it in Greek and Latin, two of which were printed be- 
fore the year 1 635, when the learned Meric Casaubon, pre- 
bendary of Canterbury, published a second edition of his 
translation of this work into English, dedicated to Laud, 
archbishop of Canterbury. It was also translated, in a very- 
inelegant style, by Jeremy Collier. There was an edition 
afterwards printed at Glasgow, which is more correct ; but 
the best is that published by the rev. R. Graves, 1792, 8vo. 
Of the learned Gataker's two editions, Cambridge, 1652, 
4to, Gr. and Lat. and London, 1697, the former is pre- 
ferred. It is perhaps unnecessary to remark, that the 
valuable ** Itinerary," called Antoninus's, does not belong 
to this, or any emperor of the name. 

In Dacier's, and some other lives of this emperor, in 
which he is celebrated as possessing every virtue that can 
adorn public and private life, and doubtless he had many, 
the edict which we have given in the life of his predecessor 
Antoninus Pius, in favour of the Christians, has been 
ascribed to Marcus. Lardner has very ably stated the 
arguments usually brought to prove a fact so incredible* 
Marcus, it is certain, during his whole reign, was an impla- 
cable persecutor of the Christians, and this not from mere 
ignorance of their moral character, for he knew them, 
hated them, and shewed them no mercy. He allowed and 
encouraged the most barbarous treatment of their persons, 
and was yet himself a person of great humanity of temper, 
just and beneficent to the rest of mankind, free from re- 
proach in his general conduct, and in several parts of it was 
a model worthy of the imitation of Christians. Mosheim 
remarks, that, if we except Nero, there was no reign under 
which the Christians were more injuriously and cruelly 
treated, than under that of the wise and virtuous Marcus 



t$2 ANTONINUS. 

Aurelius ; and yet there was no reign under which such 
nt^merous and victorious apologies were published in their 
behalf. Those which Justin Martyr, Athenagoras and Ta- 
tian wrote upon this occasion are still extant Among the 
victims in his reign were the above Justin Martyr and Po- 
lycarp. Lardner, Mosheim, and Milner, have many excel- 
lent observations on this inconsistency of character in the 
successor and admirer of Antoninus Pius. ' 

ANTONINUS, or ANTONIUS LIBERALIS, a Greek 
author, who made a collection of " Metamorphoses^' taken 
from Nicander and other authors. Some think he was the 
same with Antonius Liberalis, who lived in the first century, 
whom Suetonius enumerates among the most celebrated 
rhetoriciuns, and who is also mentioned by St. Jerome. 
They appear, however, to be different, as the one wrote 
in Latin, and the other in Greek.' 

ANTONIO (DA Messina), so called because he was of 
that city, was also named AntoN£LLO. He was born in 
1426, and died in 1475. He wa^ the first of the Ita- 
lians who painted in oil. Having seen at Naples a pic- 
ture which king Alfonso had just received from Flanders^ 
he waSi so struck with the liveliness, force, and softness of 
the colours, that he quitted his business to go and find out 
John Van £yck, who he had been told was the painter of 
it. The consequences of this- journey were, that Van Eycfc 
communicated to him bis secret ; and on the return of An- 
tonio to Venice, Bellin artfully inveigled it out of him, and 
published it abroad. In the mean time, Antonio had in- 
trusted it to one of his scholars, named Dominico. This 
Dominico, being called to Florence, gratuitously imparted 
it to Andrew del Castagno, who, actuated by the basest 
ingratitude and the greediness of gain, assassinated his 
friend and behefajctor. All these incidents happening in 
rapid succession, occasioned the mystery of painting in oil 
to be quickly spread over all Italy. The schools of Venice 
and Florence were the foremost to adopt it; but that of 
Home did not hesitate long to follow their example. Al- 
though we have given 1426 and 1475 as the dates of bis 
birth and death, they are not absolutely settled by any of 
bis biographers. Gallo is of opinion that he was born in 

' Ge.n* Diet.— Mosheim.— Mllner. — Lardner's Works, rol. VII.— Brockcr. 
^ Fabric. Bibl, Gr«ec.<— Yosiius*— >Moreri.—- Saxii OaoDiasticon. 



ANTONIO. i33 

1447, and died in 1496« Vasari leaves the matter in 
doubt. * 

ANTONIO (Nicholas), a very learned and useful 
Spanish biographer, was born at Seville in 1617. His fa* 
dier was made president of the admiralty established in that 
city by Philip IV. He received his early education among^ 
the dominican{», and studied philosophy and divinity after- 
wards at Salamanca, under the ablest masters, particularly 
Francis Ramos del Manzano, who was afterwards preceptor 
to the king and preceptor to Charles II. He then returned 
to Seville, and entirely devoted to study, passed the whole 
of his time in the Benedictine convent, where Benedict 
de la Serra, the abbot, had collected a very copious librazy, 
and where Antonio first planned and composed his valuable 
^' Bibliotheca Hispana." When considerably advanced in 
this work, hd brought it with him to Rome in 1659, at 
which time he was sent thither by Philip IV, in the cha- 
racter of agent-general of affairs concerning the crown of 
Spain, the two Sicilies, and the inquisition, and he conti- 
nued in this office twenty-two years, at the end of which 
Charles II. recalled him to Madrid, and made him a mem^ 
ber of his council. Notwithstanding these profitable em-' 
ployments, be was so charitable to the poor, as frequently 
to be in want himself, but was considerably relieved by a 
canonry of Seville, which pope Alexander VII. be^owed 
upon him, on the recommendation of the cardinal of Ara- 
gon. He died at Madrid in 1684, and was then a knight 
of the order of St. James. It is said that among kk 
> papers was found a commission appointing him OTse 
of the supreme council of justice, but it is ceriala 
that he never filled that office. He left no property, but 
a .library of thirty thousand volumes; His publications 
were, 1- " De exilio, sive de exilii poena antiqua <3t 
nova, ezsulumque oonditione et juribus, libri tres,*^' Ant-* 
werp, ^659, fol. The editor of the Biog. Universdle 
speaks of a previous edition, 1641 ; but this we do not find 
in the author's account in his ^^ Bibl. Hispana.^* This i% 
said to have been written when he was only twenty-three 
years old* 2. ^^ Bibliotheca Hispana Nova,'^ Rome, 16 7^, 
2 vols. fol. and lately reprinted by Francis Perez Ba^er^ 
of Valentia, at Madrid, 1783, 2 vols. fol. In this work, 
Antonioj according to the custom of the time^ arrangea bb 

^ Vanrl— Bioff. Uai¥«r$eUe«-«PilkJngtoa'g Diet . 



/ 



334 A N T O N I Oi 

authors in the alphabetical order of their Christian naibes^ 
a fault not conveniently remedied by his indexes, which 
are intended to divide his authors into classes. The coUec* 
tion is unquestionably creditable to Spanish learning and 
industry, but many of the persons here recorded have long' 
been in the land of oblivion, and among these we may 
surely reckon the greater part of an hundred and sixty 
authors who have written on the immaculate conception. 
3. ^' Bibliotheca Hispana vetus, complectens scriptores qui . 
ab Octaviani August! imperio usque ad annum M. florue- 
runt,'* Rome, 1696, 2 vols. foL The M. in this title should 
be M. D. Antonio having left no means of defraying the 
expence of this publication, cardinal d^Aguirre took the 
whole upon himself, and employed Emmanuel* Mars, a 
learned Valentian, as editor. The authors are here ranged 
in chronological order, with proper indexes, &c. The 
^^ Bibliotheca Nova,"' although published first, is in fact a 
sequel to this last, which has also been reprinted by Bayer 
at Madrid, 1788. Baillet prefers Antonio's work to every 
thing of the kind, and Morhof considers it as a model. 
David Clement prefers it to all the Bibliothecas except 
ihat of Quetif and Echard. He thinks him blameable^ 
however, for not giving the titles of books in their proper 
language, an objection to which other biographers, and 
particularly the French, until lately, have been justly li<» 
able. One other publication of Antonio was printed for 
the first time so lately as 1742, at Yalentia, under the title 
of ^^ Censura de historias fabulas, obra postuma," fol. or* 
namented with plates, and published by D. Gregoire May- 
ans y Siscar. We know not whether this be part of a work 
in which Antonio tells us he was long engaged, and which 
was to be called ^^ Trophseum historico-ecclesiasticum 
Deo veritatis erectum ex manubiis pseudo-histbricorum, 
qui Flavii Lucii Dextri, M. Maximi, Helecse, Braulionis, 
Luitprandi, et Juliani nomine circumferuntur ; hoc est, 
VindicisB verse atque dudum not» Hispanarum rerum his- 
torife, Germanarum noistrse gentis laudum non ex GrermaAo*- 
Fuldensibus chronicis emendicatarum in libertatem et 

Euritatem plena assertio,'' a work which Bayle thinks would 
ave been of dangerous consequence, as people seldom 
like to be set right as to the fabulous stories which have 
long flattered their vanity. \ 

I 9tn. Dkl^Life in bis Bib?^ Hiipt art NkvIas.^-iBiof. VmT«n«U€* 



A N T O N I U a 3SS 

ANTONlUS (Godefroy), a celebrated German law- 
yer, was born at Frendenberg in Westphalia, and died in 
1618, at that time professor of civil law, and chancellor of 
the university of Giessen, of which he was one of the 
founders, I'he landgrave Lewis had a great esteem for 
him, and employed him in various confidential matters. 
On the subject of the constitutional rights of the emperor 
of Germany, his opinions were more favourable to his im- 
perial majesty than those of -Herman VuUejus, with whom 
he was c6nsequently drawn into a controversy. He wrote 
a great many treatises on almost every branch of the civil 
law, of which a catalogue is given in Witten^s ^ ^ Memorise 
Jurisconsultorum,'' and in Strieder's ** Hesse savante.^' 
His principal works are, 1. " Disputationes Feudales,'* 
Marburgh, 1604, 4to, of which there have been six edi- 
tions: that of Stryke, published at Halle, 1699, 4to, is the 
best. 2. " De Camerse imperialis jurisdictione," which 
involved him in the dispute with Herman Vullejus, and 
produced, 3. " Disp. Apolog. .de potestate imperatoris 
legibus soluta ;*' and 4. '^ Disputationes anti-Vullejanse,** 
Giessen, 1609, 1610, 4to; but Vullejus she^^ed more mo- 
deration in this controversy than his antagonist. ^ ^ 
ANTONlUS (Marcus), a Roman orator, highly cele- 
brated by Cicero, after rising successively through the se- 
veral preparatory offices in the commonwealth^ was made 
consul in the year of Rome 653; and then governor of 
Cilicia, in quality of proconsul, where he performed so 
many great exploits in the army that he obtained the 
honour of a triumph. In order to improve his talent for 
eloquence, he became a scholar to the greatest men at 
Rhodes and Athens, in his. way to Cilicia and on his return 
to Rome. Afterwards be was appointed censor, and dis- 
charged the ofiice with great reputation ; he carried his 
cause before the people against Marcus Duronius, who had 
preferred an accusation of bribery against him, in revenge 
for Antonius*s having erased his name out of the list of 
senators; which this wise censor had done, because Duro- 
nius, when tribune of the people, had abrogated a law, which 
restrained immoderate expence in feasts. He was one of the 
greatest orators ever known at Rome; and it was owing to 
Him, according to Cicero, that Rome might be considered 
ftji a rival even to Greece itself in the art of . eloquence. 



336 A N T O N I U & 

He defended, amongst many others, Marcus Aquilius ; and 
moved the judges in so sensible a manner, by the tears h# 
shed^ and the scars he shewed upon the breast of his client, 
that he carried his cause. Cicero has given us the cha- 
racter of his eloquence and of his action. He never would 
publish any of hi8^pleadings, that he might not, as he said^ 
be proved to say in one cause, what might be contrary to 
what he should advance in another. He affected to be a 
man of no learning, which Bayle supposes he did not so 
much out of modesty as policy ; finding himself established 
in the reputation of a great, orator, he thought the world 
would admire him more, if they supposed this eloquence 
owing entirely to the strength of his natural genius, rather 
than the fruit of a long application to the study of Greek . 
authors. And with regard to the judges, he thought no- 
thing more proper to produce a good effect, than to make 
them believe that he pleaded without any preparation, and 
to eonceal from them all the artifice of rhetoric. But yet 
he was learned, and not unacquainted with the best Gre- 
cian authors, of which there are proofs in several passages- 
of Cicero. This appearance, however, of modesty and 
his many other qualifications, rendered him no less dear ta 
persons of distinction, than his eloquence made him uni- 
versally admired. He was unfortunately killed during the 
disturbances raised at Rome by Marius and Cinna ; and hi» 
head was exposed before the rostrum, a place which he 
had adorned with his triumphal spoils. This happened in 
the year of Rome 667. 

He left two sons, Marcus and Caius, of whom Bayle says, 
that they ** were more worthy to be the father and uncle 
of Antonius* the triumvir, than sons of the great man who 
gave them life.'* The elder Marcus, surnamed Creticus, 
never raised himself beyond the praetorship, but executed 
that office with 'a prodigious extent of authority, having 
the same commission which Pompey had afterwards, for im- 
porting corn and exterminating the pirates, which gave him 
the whole command of the seas. He committed great ex- 
tortions in the provinces, particularly in Sicily. He in- 
vaded Crete without any declaration of war, on purpose to^ 
enslave it; and with such an assurance of victory, that he 
carried with him more fetters than arms. But he met with 
the fate that he deserved: for the Cretans totally routed 
him in a naval engagement, and returned triumphant into 
their ports, .with the bodies of thelFsieaue* hanging OB 



A N T O N I U SL 



3S7 



their masts. He died soob after this disgrace^ infemous in 
his character, ** nor in any respect a better man/* says As*» 
coiiius, ^' than his son.'* 

His brother Cains bore arms under Sylla in the war 
against Mithridates, and raised such disturbances in Achaia^ 
that for this and other crimes be was afterwards expelled 
the senate by the censors. However, he was raised by 
Crassus and Cssar to the consulship with Cicero; when 
the Catilinarian conspiracy breaking out, he was appointed 
to head the forees against Catiline. He did not go in per- 
son, being either really or pretendedly sick ; some say he 
pretended sickness, apprehensive lest Catiline^ if he ap« 
peared, should make discoveries against him. He after- 
wards governed Macedonia for three years with such ex«» 
tortion and violence, that the senate recalled, tried, con- 
victed, and banished him. ^ 

ANT.ONIUS (Marcus), the triumvir, was son of Anto* 
nins Creticus, by Julia, a noble lady of such merit, that 
Plutarch affirms her to have been ^^ comparable to the wis- 
est and most virtuous ladies of that age ; but she was by no 
means happy in her husbands ; for, after the death of An* 
tonius, she married P. Cornelius Lentulus, an accomplice 
in Catiline's conspiracy^ and punished with death for that 
crime* She was also as little fortunate in her sons, who 
were three ; for Caius and Lucius seem to have had (Lu- 
cius especially) all the vices of their brother Marcus^ 
without any of his virtues. 

Anthony, losing his father when young, launched at once 
into all the excess of riot and debauchery, and wasted his 
whole patrimony before he had put on the manly gown. 
His comely person, lively wit, insinuating address, made 
young Curio fond of him, who involved himself on his ac* 
4:ount in a debt of 50^000/. which greatly afflicting old 
Curio, Cicero was called in to heal the distress of the fa- 
mily ; who advised the father to discharge the debt of the 
son, but to insist upon it as a condition, that he should 
have no farther commerce with Anthony. Afterwards An- 
thony went abroad to learn the art of ymxx under Gahinius^ 
who gave him the command of his horse in Syria ; where 
he signalized his courage in the restoration of Ptolemy 
king of Egypt Anthony shewed, on this occasion, that 
lie had a tender and compassionate disposition } for Pto- 



VOL. II. 



. z 



\ 



in A K T O N I U 8. 

lemy was so enraged at the inhabitants of Pelusium for 
their revolt, that they had all been put to death by his 
order, if Anthony's intercession had not saved them. He 
performed afterwards some noble exploits, which gained 
^im high reputation as a commander. 

From Egypt, instead of coming home, where his debts 
very probably might not suffer him to be easy, he went to 
Caesar into Gaul ; and after some stay there, being furnished 
with money and credit by Ccesar, returned to Rome to sue 
for the questorship. In this suit he succeeded ; and after- 
wards obtained the tribunate ; in which office he was zea^ 
lously active for C^^ar, But finding the senators exaspe* 
rated against this general, he fled in disguise to Csesar's 
camp ; complaining, when he arrived, that there was no 
safety at Rome, nothing right done there, and that the tri«- 
bunes could not perform their office but with danger of 
their lives. Csesar upon this marched immediately into 
Italy, which made Cicero say, that Anthony was " asmuch 
' the cause of the ensuing war as Helen was of that.of Troy.'* 
But this was said in a professed invective, which must not 
be interpreted too literally : the flight of the tribunes gave 
CaBsar a plausible pretext for beginning, and seemed to 
sanctify his attempt; but hi^ real motive, as Plutarch says, 
was the same that animated Cyrus smd Alexander to dis* 
turb the peace of mankind — the unquenchable thirst of 
empire, and the wild ambition of being the greatest man 
in the world, which was not possible till Pompey was de- 
stroyed. 

Csesar, having made himself master of Rome, gave An« 
thony the government'of Italy, with the command over the 
legions there^ and he gained the love of the soldiery; to 
preserve which, he used to exercise an^d eat with them, 
and make them presents when his circumstances permitted. 
But ivhat was more to his honour, he assisted Caesar so 
successfully on several occasions, that twice particularly^ 
when Caesar's army had been put to flight, he rallied the 
scattered troops, and gained the victory ;- this raised his re-> 
putation so much, that he was reckoned inferior only to 
Caesar. After the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalia, Caesar^ 
as an acknowledgment of Anthony's great services, made 
him master of the horse, but in this office he behaved most 
oppressively. For though he assembled the senate, and 
maintained a shadow of liberty, yet he exercised himself 
upon all occasions arbitrarily and tyrannically; and this- 



ANTON I U a 899 

behaviour, together with his dissolute life (for he was de- 
bauched to the last degree), was the reason, as Plutarch 
says, why Caesar the next year did not admit him his col« 
league in the consulship^ although he admitted him two 
years after. 

Upon the death of Caesar, Anthony was alarmed, and 
hid himself during the night under the disguise of a slave; 
but, hearing that the conspirators were retired to the Capi- 
fol, he assembled the senate as consul, ta deliberate upon 
the present situation of the commonwealth. Here Cicero 
moved for a decree of a general amnesty, or act of oblivion, 
for all that was passed ; to which they unanimou^y agreed. 
Anthony dissembled well;^ seemed to be all goodness; 
talked of nothing but healing measures ; and,, as a proof of 
Jbis sincerity, moved, that the conspirators should be in- 
vited to take part in their deliberatious, and sent his son as 
an hostage for their safety. Upon this they all came down 
from the Capitol ; and to crown the joy of the day, Brutus 
supped with Lepidus, as Cassius did with Anthony. An- 
thony is said to have ask^d Cassius, during supper| ^^ whe- 
ther be. still wore a dagger under his gown?** "Yes,** 
replied Cassius, ** and a very large one, in case youinvadd 
the sovereign power," 

This was what Anthony continually aimed at ; and, as 
the event shewed^ he pursued his measures with the great* 
est address. He artfully proposed a decree for the con- 
Brmation of Caesar's acts; and getting Caesar's register into 
his power, proposed as Caesar's acts whatever suited his 
purpose. He procured a public funeral for Caesar, and 
took that opportunity of haranguing the soldiers and po* 
pulace in his favour, and inflamed them so against the 
conspirators, that Brutus and Cassius were forced to leave 
the city. He made a progress through Italy, to solicit the 
veteran spldiers, having first secured Lepidus, who had the 
army, to his interests ; he seized the public treasure ;* and 
he treated Octavius, upon his arrival, with superciliousness 
and contempt, though the adopted son and heir of Julius 
Caesar. The patriots, however, with Cicero at their head^ 
espousing Octavius, in order to destroy Anthony, the lat- 
ter was forced to change his measures, and he endeavoured 
to extort the provinces of Macedonia and Syria from Bru- 
tus and Cassius ; but not succeeding, resolved to possess 
himself of Cisalpine Gaul, and besieged Decimus Brutus 
in Mutina. This siege is one of the most memorable events 

2 2 



340 A N T O N 1 tJ S. 

of the kind in history, and in Conducting which Anthony^ 
though defeated^ gained great reputation; the consuls 
Hirtius and Pansa were both slain ; and nothing but supe- 
rior fotcfe could haire left Octavius master of the field. 

Anthony fled in great confusion, wanting even the ne-*- 
cessaries of life; and this very man, who had hitherto 
wallowed in luxury and iiltemperance, was obliged to live 
for some duys upon roots and water. He fled to the Alps, 
and was received by Lepidus, with whom, and Octavius, 
he formed tlie second triumvirate, as it has usually been 
edited. When these three conferred, they would easily be 
persuaded, that the patriots wanted only to destroy Jiem 
all, which could not be done so effectually, as by clashing 
them against one another. They therefore combined, pro^ 
scribed their respective enemies, and divided the empire 
among themselves. Cicero fell a sacrifice to the resent* 
ment of Anthony, who indeed was charged with most of the 
Inu^rders then committed ; but they were rather to be put 
to the account of his wife Fulvia, who, being, a veoman of 
avarice, cruelty, and revenge, committed a thousand enor-« 
n)ities of which her husband was ignorant, insomuch that, 
his soldiers once bringing to him the head of a man killed, 
as they supposed, by his order, he denied that he had ever 
seen or known him. 

Upon the defeat of Brutus and Cassius by Octavius and 
Anthony at Philippi, which was owing chiefly to the mili- 
tary skill and bravery of the latter, Anthony obtained the 
Sovereign dominion ; nnd here he presents us with a most 
iincommon picture of human nature, when we consider 
how he was roused at once by Caesar^s death from the 
midst of pleasure and debauch, formed the true plan of his 
interest, and pursued it with a most surprising vigour and 
;^ddress, till, after many and almost insuperable difficulties, 
he accomplished at length what be all along aimed at. 
After the battle at Philippi, Anthony went into Asia, where 
he had the most splendid court that ever was seen. The 
kings and princes of Asia came to his levee, and acknow- 
ledged no other sovereign in the east but him. Queens 
^nd princesses, knowing him doubtless to be a man of gal- 
lantry, strove who should win his heart; and the famous 
Cleopatra of Egypt succeeded. The rest of Anthony's 
histpry, his most luxXirious and effeminate manner of living 
with this princess, and his ignominious death (for such it 
Ynay be justly called), are all minutely and copiously r^-* 



ANT O N I U S. 341 

lated in the article' of Cleopatra, to which we refer the 
reader. We shall only add a short account of Marcus Ju?- 
nius Antonius^ his son by Fulvia. 

This Antonius, after the death of his father> and the 
conquest of Egypt, was so favoured by Octavius, u6w 
Augustus, that from one office to another he was raised to 
the consulslnp in the year of Rome 744. fie married 
Marcella, daughter of Octavia, the sister of Augustus, by 
which he became next in his favour to Agrippa ; but provt- 
ing ungrateful to the emperor, for he was one of the first 
who debauched his daughter Julia, and being also sus- 
pected of a conspiracy against him, he killed himself, as is 
saidj to prevent the infamy of being copdemned. It is to 
him that Horace addresses the second ode of the fourth 
book ; and the ancient scholiast upon this ode relates, that 
Antonius wrote a poem of twelve books in heroic verse,, en* 
titled " Diomedea." He left one son very young, hamed 
Julius Antonius, in whom seems to have ended this ancient 
family; an illustrious one, says Tacitus, but unfortunate: 
^' Multa claritudine generis, sed improsper^." * 

ANTONIUS ^LIUS NEBRISSENSIS, or Antony of 
Lebrija or Lebrixa, was born in 1442^ at Lebrixa, a town 
iu Andalousia. At the age of fourteen he went to the 
university of Salamanca, and five years after studied at 
some of the most celebrated schools in Italy, and such was 
his application, that within ten years he had run through 
the whole circle of sciences. He was an able Hebrew, 
Qreek, and Latin scholar, and on that account, on his re- 
turn to Salamanca, was promoted to the classical chain 
During the twenty years that he filled this station, he 
published various works on the loarued languages, the 
belles lettres, mathematics, medicine, grammar, jurispru- 
dence, and sacred criticism. He had the farther honour 
of suggesting to cardinal Ximenes, who had invited him to 
the newly-founded university of Alcala, the plan of his ce- 
lebrated Polyglot, and assisted in the publication. He 
finished his labours by inquiries into the history of his 
xsountry, and intended to have written the lives of the kings^ 
of Spain, being appointed historiographer to his majesty, 
but was too far advanced in life for the undertaking. He 
died at Alcala de Henarez, July 11, 1522. His eloge, 
proposed by the academy of Madrid, was published so 

1 Gen. Diet. 



344 ANT 6 N I U S. 

« 

lately as 1796, by D. I. B. M\inoz. The list of his works 
in the' " Bibl. Hispana nova," is said to be erroneous and 
defective, yet we know not of a better. Among his works^ 
may be mentioned, 1. ^^ Two decades of the history of Fer- 
dinand and Isabella,*' Granada, 1545, fol. 2. " ^^exicon; 
Spanish and Latin, and Latin and Spanish, of which, ac- 
cording to D. Clement, there have been eighteeh editions, 
the first and most rare, Alcala, 1532, fol. 3. Explana- 
tions on the Holy Scriptures, in the Critici Sacri ; Oom- 
mentaries on many ancient authors, &c. His Latin poems 
were published at Vivamo, 1491. * 

ANTONY (St.) See ANTHONY. 

ANTONY, or ANTONIUS (St.), of Padua, or of Por- 
tugal, of the religious order of St. Francis, and the Thau- 
xnaturgus ,of his age, was the son of Martin Bulhan or 
Bonillan, and of Mary of Trevera, and born at Lisbon in 
the year 1195, He first joined the community of the 
canons of the cathedral of Lisbon, and then associated with 
the regular canons of St. Vincent in the suburbs of that 
city, where he lived a retired and austere life, and after- 
wards became one of the order of St. Francis. He left off 
his baptismal name of Ferdinand, and adopted that of An- 
tony. Conceiving the design of going to Africa, he em- 
barked for that continent ; but his vessel being blown back 
to Messina, he found himself obliged to remain in Italy, 
where he studied theology, and preached with much repu- 
tation. He afterwards visited Montpellier, Thoulouse, and 
Padua, and made many converts by the earnestness of his 
preaching; and his discourses, we are told, were confirmed 
.by ipiracTes. Pope Gregory IX had so high an opinion of 
him that he named him '^ The Ark of the New Testament, 
and the secret Depository of sacred learning." His long 
stay at Padua procured him the surname by which #he is 
distinguished. In this place he died, June 13, 1231, in 
the thirty-sixth year of his age, and was canonized in the 
following year by pope Gregory above mentioned. His 
body was placed in the superb church which bears his 
aame. There are several sermons of this saint extant, and 
some other works. Father Jean of the Hague, a' religious 
of the same order, and professor of theology, printed a new- 
edition of his works in 1641, to which be added those 
ascribed to St. Francis, and a life of Antony. These works. 

1 Vossiiis de Scient. Mathemat. — Card, vol. |I.— »Bibl. Hispaf^n.^-^Bioj;:. U(\h 
Vefselle.'— iSaxii 090J3EU^5ticoq.*^Moreipi. 



ANTONY, 343 

are entitled, " Sernioneu dT>mmicales adrentus^ qaadrarre- 
simaey ac reliqui omnes de tempore. Sermones de Sanctis* 
Interpretatio vel expositio cnystica in sacram Scripturam. 
Concordantise morales sacrorum biblioruai." This last \^ 
divided into five books. * 

ANVARI. SeeANWERY. 

ANVILLE (John-Baptiste Bourignon d'), first geo- 
grapher to the king of France, member of tlie academy 
of inscriptions and belles lettres, and of the society of 
antiquaries, London, and joint-geographer of the academy 
of sciences, was born at Paris on the llthof July, 1697. 
His father's name was Hubert Bourignon, and bis mother's 
Charlotte Vaugon. 

M. d'Anville discovered a taste for geography from his 
earliest years, excited by meeting accidentally with a cliart 
when about twelve years olcl^ and throughout the course of 
his youthful studies, he paid less attention to the language 
or sentiment of a classic than to the maps of the countries 
treated of, which ^ he endeavoured to delineate, and to 
trace the sites of battles, and the march of generals. He 
had so improved himself in this branch that, at the age o£ 
twenty-two, he published some charts which obtained the 
approbation of 'the abbe de Longuerre, whose opinion was. 
then considered as highly honourable. In these charts, it 
has been said that he exhibited every thing that was 
kno^n, and was ignorant in nothing, but that of which it 
was impossible for him to have acquired a knowledge at. 
the time he delineated them. 

To the study of modern geography, M. d'Anville joined 
that of ancient geography and of the middle ages, which 
unites the two. He perused with care thei works of geo* 
graphers, philosophers, historians, orators, and even poets, 
soleljL with a view to the object of his researches ; but iu 
the study bf ancient geography.iie bad to encounter with 
miany difficulties. Such was the state of science when he 
undertook the task, that he had no guid^ but a few very 
inaccurate astronomical observations, and no geometrical 
determination of positions and distances. He was likewise 
obliged to take an infinite deal of pains in ascertaining the 
kinds of measurement employed by the ancients, some:« 
times because the same measurei^ went under different 
names, -and sometimes, although bearing the same name$^ 

* Moreri.«»Sa;U€t Vies des SaiDts.-^Ci^T(3^ tpU IL 



344 A N V 1 L L E. 

because they differed according to the country or age in 
which they were adopted. In a word, this study was so 
much in its infancy when M. d' Anville began his researches, 
that he had innumerable difficulties to surmount, of which 
they who have profited by his labours and by the advanced 
state of knowledge, can have no idea. 

In the pursuit of all his studies he had every advantage 
of nature and disposition, a strong memory, an indefati- 
gable ardour, and a depth of judgment which enabled him 
to compare, select, and decide upon the most accurate 
principles. While thus employed, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the academy of belles lettres, whose volumes he 
enriched with many valuable papers. The accuracy of 
M. d'Anville's maps will, perhaps, appear the more ex- 
traordinary when it is considered that he had never tra- 
velled, and knew very little either of geometry or astro- 
nomy« When the question of the oblate figure of the earth 
was debated among the astronomers, he endeavoured to 
resolve it from the geographical knowledge he had ac- 
quired, and published a work entitled ^^ Mestire conjee- 
turale de la terre^ous Tequateur,*' and his result was con- 
trary to thfit which had been founded on astronomical ob- 
servations. 

In 1773, the academy of sciences appointed him joint- 
geographer, and although he was now enfeebled by age^ 
he wished to testify his respect for the honour, by pre- 
senting the society with some memoirs. In the first and 
most important of these, he corrected an egregious error 
which bad appeared in every map, respecting the situation 
of Mesopotamia, and this he had been enabled to do by 
examining the astronomical observations of the Arabians. 

M. d' Anville had made an immense collection of maps, 
which he had an opportunity to increase by the rep(|tatton 
he enjoyed in foreign countries, and his correspondence 
with men of learning, navigators, and statesmen of liberal 
and enlightened minds ; every one, indeed, who cultivated 
the study of geography, was desimus to obtain his opinion, 
and happy to add to his collection, as to a general fund for 
the benefit of mankind. This collection was purchased by 
the late king of France in reversion, and the last employ* 
ment of M. d'Anville's life was to arrange and methodize 
the various articles, that they might be consulted with easQ 
as well as advantage : he had no sooner finished this labour 
than bis faculties rapidly decayed, and he died of age and 



AN.VILLE, 345 

I 

infirmity on the 28th of January 1782. Hia countiymea 
have spoken in high. terms of bis character and accomplish- 
ments. He appears to have been an ardent enthusiast in 
his favourite study, and to have relished no branches of 
science that had not some distant connection With it. In 
conversation he maintained the opinions he had formed 
with resoluteness, and did not bear tamely to be contra- 
dicted by those who, he knew, had not taken equal pains 
to attain knowledge : oh other occasions he was mild and 
unassuming. . 

His constitution was delicate, and yet, until he was 
Bearly sixty years of age, he studied at the rate of fifteen 
hours a day : his habits of temperance, and regularity, and 
the pleasing varieties of a study which i was every day be-* 
coming easier, and every day becoming honourable, ncr 
doubt made such excessive application more safe than it 
might have proved under less prudent, management, or less 
favourable circumstances. In 1730 he married Mad* Tes- 
tardy by whom he left two daughters ; one of them took 
the veil, and the other was married to M. de Hauteclair, 
treasurer of France. His wife died about a year before 
him, but such was his imbecility of mind at that time, that 
be was incapable of being made acquainted with his loss. 

Besides his numerous maps, he published the following 
treatises, ^' Geographie ancienne ?ibreg6e," 1768, 3 vols, 
12mo. ** Trait6 des Mesures itineraires anciennes et mo- 
dernes,*' 1769, 8vo. " Dissertation sur I'etendue de Tan- 
cienne Jerusalen^i," 1747, 8vo. " Memoir sur TEgypt an- 
Yiienne et moderne, avec une description de Golpfae Ara- 
bique,'' 1766, 4 to. " Etats formes en Europe apres la 
chute de I'empire Romain en Occident," 1771, 4to. *^ No- 
tice de I'ancienne Gaul, tir^e des monumens Romains,*' 
1761, 4to. '^ Proposition d'une mesure de la terre dont 
il resulte une diminution considerable vers sa circonference 
^ur les paralleles," 1735, 12mo. '^ Mesure conjecturale de 
la terre sur Tequafccur, .en consequence de Tetendue de la 
tner du Sud," 1736, 12mo. ** Analpe geographique de 
ritalie," 1744, 4to. ^^ Eclaircissement sur la carte du 
Canada," 1755, 4to. ^< Memoire sur la carte des c6tes d^ 
la Greee," 1751, 4to. " L'empire Turc consid^r^ dans 
sonetablissmentet sesaccroissemens," 1772, 12mo. ^* L'era* 
pife de Ru^sie, consid^^re dans son origine et ses accroisse- 
Tnens,'* 1772, 12mo. " Memoires sur la Chine," 1776, 8vo, 
^^ Memoires sur la mer Caspienne^ sur le cour de TEuphrate 



ii^ A N V I L L E. 

*i du Tigre, su r la Mesopotamie et V Irak/' 1774. Besides 
these^ he was the author of two Memoirs in the academy 
of sciences^ and of thirty-seven in the volumes of the 
roy^l academy of inscriptions and belles lettres, beginning 
with vol, XXVI. His " Compendium of Ancient Geogra- 
phy*^ was translated into English, and published in two 
volumes 8vo, in 1791, illustrated with maps, and with very 
Qsefml prolegomena and notes by the translator. ' 

ANWERY, or ANVARI, one of the most celebrated 
poets of Persia, was born in the twelfth century, and wa» 
incited to turn poet from the honotirs bestowed on that 
class by the sultan • Sandjan He presented a composition* 
to that sultan, who ado^itted hin^ ^to his court, and here 
Raschidi was his rival. These two poets were for some 
time of opposite parties ; Anvari was in the camp of Sangiar 
when he attacked Alsitz, governor and afterwards sultan of 
the Kouarasmians, with whom Raschidi had shut himself 
up. Whilst the two snltans were assailing and repulsing 
each other, the two versifiers were skirmishing in their 
own method, reciprocally throwing at one another rhymes 
fastened to the end of an arrow. Our poet was at the 
same time an astrologer; but in his predictions he was 
particularly unfortunate, and his enemies took advantage of 
this to injure him with the sultan, and he was obliged to 
retire to the town of Balke, where he died in 1^00. This 
Persian bard corrected the licentiousness that had been 
customary in the poetry of his country, but nothing of his 
remains except two small pieces, one of which is inserted 
in the Asiatic Miscellany, No. I. 1786, and translated by 
capt. Kirkpatrick; the other, translated into German by 
Chezy, was published in the secoud number of the Oriental 
Mine, a journal printed at Vienna, under the patronage 
and at the expense of count Rzewuski. ^ 

ANYSIUS (Janus, or Giovanni Aniso), a modern La- 
tin poet, was born at Naples about the year 1472, and to 
oblige his father studied law ; but, . from an irresistible in« 
clination, devoted himself to. poetry, travelling frequently 
to different parts of Naples, and to Rome, where he formed 
an intimacy with several member^ of the academy, and^ 

* Elogas des Academiciens, toI. lU, edit, 1799.— Diet. Hist, the editors of 
which say t)iat d'Anvilie was brother to the celebrated Grairelot, the engraver, 
and that neither of them would use the name Bourgnignon, becaue it was the 
frequent name of footmen. In 180^>M. de Maime publiihed his Eloge, with a 
<oniplete list of his charts and works, 8ro. 

s D*Uerbelot.*-Biog, Universelle.— 'Asiatic Miscellaiiy, No. 1% 



A N Y S I U S. Uf 

iceorciing to a v^ry common practice then, assumed fhe 
classioal'name of Janus Anysius. He is ss^id to have been 
an ecclesiastic, but we have no account of him in that pro- 
fession. As a Latin poet he acquired great reputation, 
which, it is thought, he would have preserved in the opinion 
of posterity, had he been more select in what he published. 
Ccetio Calci^nini, however, bestows thd highest praise on 
him, as inimitable, or rarely equalled. He died about the 
year 1540, His works are entitled, 1. *'Jani Anysii Po- 
emata et Satyrse, ad Pompeium Columnam cardinalem,** 
Naples, 1531, 4to; but in this title we ought to read 
** SententisB*' instead of " Satyrae," which no where ap- 
pear. His ^^ SententisB,*' in iambic verse, were reprinted 
in ^^ Recueil des diversauteurs sur I'education des enfans,"** 
Basil, 1541, and his Eclogues in '^ Collection des auteurs 
bucoliques,'' ibid. 1546, 8vo. 2. " Satyr» ad Pompeium 
Columnam cardinalem,'' Naples, 1532, 4to. 3. ** Proto- 

fenos," a tragedy, Naples, 1536, 4to. The hero is Adam, 
ut the piece is prolix, and in a bad style : the opposition 
it met with occasioned his next publications. 4. ^^ Commen* 
tariolus in tragcediam : Apologia : EpistoIsB : Correctiones,'* 
pieces printed without date. 5. " Epistolse de religione, et 
epigrammata,*' Naples, 1538, 4to. Anysius had a brother 
Cosmo, a physician by profession, and also a Latin poet. 
His works published at Naples, 1537, 4to, consist of dif-^ 
ferent pieces of poetry, satires, epigrams from' the Greek, 
and a commentary on the satires of his brother Janus. ^ 

ANYTA, the name of a Greet lady, author of some 
verses in the collection entitled ** Cajrmina novem poeta^ 
rum fceminarum,*' Antwerp, 1568, 8vo, reprinted at Ham- 
burgh, 1734, 4to« In this last edition there a^re but eight 
poets, Sappho being printed separately, London, 1733, 4tOr 
To these two volumes has b^en added a third : " Mu- 
lierum GreBcarum quae oratione pros& usset sunt, fragrhenta 
et elogia, Graec. et Lat." Gottingen, 1739, 4to. These 
three volumes were edited by J. Christian Wolff. * 

APACZAI, APATZAI TSERE (John); a man of sin- 
gular character and learning of the seventeenth century^ 
was born in TraosylVania, in the village of Apatza, ana 
was sent at the expense of the government of his country 
to Utrecht, where he studied the Oriental languages, tbeo« 

1 Biof . Uniterselle.— Carm. llliist* Poet.. Ital. II f. 6t, 
-t X)i«t. Hist.— •Vossius.-^Saxii Onomasticeii. 



94$ A P A C Z A r. 

)Qg}% and philosophy, with such distinguished socoess m 
fo be offered the rank of professor. But this he refused 
out of regard to his country^ to which he returned in 165S. 
He was then appointed to. teach geography^ natural phi- 
losophy, and astronon^, in the college of Weissenburgfa, 
but having declared in favour of the philosophy of Descartes, 
and many of the opinions of the reformed church, hh 
enemies were so inveterate as to sentence him to be thrown 

« 

from the top of a high tower. By powerful intercession, 
however, they were induced to change his sentence to 
banishment. He now went to Clauseuburgb, and taught 
for some time, but a fresh persecution arose, in which he 
would probably have been sacrificed, had he not died a 
natural death in 1659. Rewrote ^' Dissertatio continens 
introductionem ad philosophiam sacram,'^ Utrecht, i650« 
fi, ** Magyar Encyclopediat, &c." an Encyclopedia in the 
Hungarian language, Utrecht, 1653. 3. ^^ A system of 
Logic," in the same, Weissenburgh, 1636. 4. ^*Oratio 
de studio sapientiae," Utrecht, 1655. 5. ^< Dissertatio de 
politia ecclesiastica," Clausenburgh, 165S.* 

APEL, or APELLUS (John), a lawyer, the contem<^ 
porary of Luther, was one of the professors of the univer- 
sity of Wittemberg, and assisted in the reformation. He 
was born at Nuremberg,* in 1486, of which place his father 
was a citizen. Having married a nun while canon of Wurz- 
burgh, he was arrested by orders of the bishop, but pro- 
tected by an imperial regiment in the garrison of Nurem- 
berg. He was, however, obliged to resign all bis prefer* 
ments, in lieu of which he was afterwards appointed advo- 
cate of the republic of Nuremberg, and counsellor to the 
elector of Brandenburgh. He died at Nuremberg in 1536. 
He published a defence of his marriage, addressed to the 
prince bishop of Wurzburgh, entitled L^^DefensioJo. Apelli 
pro suo conjugio," with a preface by Luther, Wittemberg, 
1523, 4to. 2. ^^ Methodica dialectices ratio, adjurispru- 
dentiam accommodata,^^ Norimb. 1535, 4to. This is a 
treatise ou the Roman law, or rather a system of logic ap-> 
plicable to that study, and divested of the rage for allegory 
which had long prevailed in the schools. Reusner re- 
printed it in bis " Cynosura." 3. ^* Brachylogus juris ci- 
viUs, sive corpus fegum,'* an abridgment of the civil law» 

^ Bioga Unit en«Ue« 



A P EL. »4# 

which was long thought to be a production of the sixth 
centuiy, aad was even attributed to the etnperor Jus* 
tiaian. ^ 

APELLES, one of themost celebrated painters of an* 
tiquity, was bom in the isle of Cos, according to PHhyi 
but Lneian and Strabo assign* Ephesus as the place of his 
birth, and Suidas, Colophon* He fioarished in the fourth 
century B. C. and in the time of Alexander the' Great. He 
was in high favour with this prince, who made a law that 
no other person should draw his picture but Apelle^ : ' he 
accordingly drew him, holding a thuhderbolt in his haikl, 
and the piece was finished with so much skill and dexterity, 
that it used to be said there were two Alexanders ; one in* 
vincible, the son of Philip, the oth^ inimitable, the pro- 
duction of Apelles. Alexander gave him likewise another 
remarkable proof of his regard i foi*' when he employed 
Apelles to draw Campaspe, one of bfs mistresses, having 
found that he had conceived an affection for her, he re«> 
signed her to him ; and it was from her that Apelles is said 
to have drawn his Venus Anadyomene. This prince went 
often to see Apelles when at work ; and one day, as he 
was oveiiooking him, he is said to have talked so absurdly 
about painting, that Apelles desired bim to hold his tongue; 
telling him that the. very boys who mixed the dolc^urs 
laughed at him. Freinshemius, however, thinks it incre- 
dible that Apelles wonld make use of such an expression 
to Alexander; or that the latter, who had so good an edu* 
cation, and so fine a genius, would talk so impertinently 
of painting : nor, perhaps, would Apelles have expressed ' 
himself to this prince in such a manner'.upon atiy other 
occasion. Alexander, as we are told, having seen his 
picture drawn by Ap^H^s, did not commend it so much a^ 
it deserved : a little after, a horse happened to be brought, 
, which neighed at sight of the horse painted in the same 
picture : upon which Apelles is said to have addressed 
Alexander, *^ l^r, it is plain this horse understands paint« 
ing better than your majesty." Bayle, with some reason, 
doubts the truth of these anecdotes, and thinks, if true, he 
must have been a capricious buffoon, which is not con- 
iistent with the character usually given of Jiim. ^ 

One of Apelies's chief excellences was the making his 

* Biog, Uaiv«rseile.— WiUs's Oictionary of the learned men of Nurmbevy.'-* 
Prebrmanu^i Suppl. to the Hiit. Dictionary of Qrohman. 



> 



S50 A P E L L E S. 

pictures so exactly resemble the persons represented^ 
that, the pbysiogooimsts were able to form a jodgment ebs 
readily from liis portraits, as if they had seen the ori^nals. 
His readiness and dexterity at taking a likeness was of sin^ 
euiar. service in exti'icating him from a difficulty in which 
he was involved at the court of Egypt. He bad^ not the 
good fortune to be in favour with Ptolemy^ but a stdrm 
forced him to take shelter at Alei:andria) during the reign 
of this prince ; where a mischievous fellow went to him, 
and in the king's name invited him to dinner* Apelles 
went; and seeing the king in a violent passion, told 
him, by way of excuse, that he should not have come to 
his table but by his order. He was commanded to shew the 
man who had invited him ; which was. impossible, the per- 
son who had put the trick upop him not being present : 
Apelles, however, drew a sketch of his image upon the 
wail with a coal, the first lines of which discovered him 
immediately to. Ptolemy. 

Apelles left many excellent pictures, which are men- 
tioned with great honour by the ancients ; but liis Venus 
Anadyomene is reckoned his mastervpiece. His Anttgohus 
has also been much celebrated : this was drawn with a 
side-face, to hide the deformity of An tigoniis, who had lost 
an eye. His picture of Calumny has also been much no- 
ticedy and is thus explained by Lucian : Antiphilus the 
painter, being piqued at the favour shown to Apelles at 
the court of Ptolemy^ accused him of being an accomplice . 
in the conspiracy of Theodotus, governor of Phcenieia : 
he affirmed that he had seen Apelles at dinner with Theo<- 
dot^s, and whispering to him all the time of his entertain-* 
mem. Ptolemy was also informed by the same person, 
^hat by the advice of Apelles, the city of Tyre had re- 
volted, and that of Pelusium was taken. Although it was 
certain that Apelles had never been at Tyre, and that he 
was not acquainted with Theodotus, Ptolemy was so en- 
raged, that, without examining into the affair, he deter- 
piined tp put to death the person accused ; and if one of 
the conspirators had not convinced him that this* was a 
jnere calumny of Antiphilus, Apelles must undoubtedly 
have suffered death upon this accusation. Sut as soon as 
Ptolemy knew the, truth of this affair, he condemned An- 
tiphilus to be a slave to Apelles^ and gave the latter a hun- 
dred talents. Mr. Bayle remarks upon this' account of 
Lucian, that he has fallen intq a great anachronism \ for 



A P E L L E 3. S5t 

the conspimcy of TbcodoCas was in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philopater, whieh did not begin till an hundred years after 
the death of Alexander the Great ; and for what he asserts^ 
he quotes the audiority of Polybius (fib. iv. and v.) " We 
inuft therefore/' says he, ^f suppose one or other of these 
two things ; either that Lucian speaks of an Apelles, dif« 
ferent froin him who was in such reputation at Alexandria ; 
or that he has confounded some plot which was contrived 
.under Ptolemy^ Philadelphus, with the conspiracy of Theo* 
/ dottts/' 

To this account of Apelles, taken principally from Bayle^ 
it may be necessary to add the opinion of a very superior 
critic, who observes, that *^ The name of Apelles in Pliny 
is the ^ynonime of unrivalled and unattainable excellence^ 
but the enumeration of his works points out the ihodifica* 
tion which we ought to apply to that superiority : it neither 
comprises exclusive sublimity of invention, the most acute 
discrimination of character, the widest sphere of Gompre** 
beosion, the most judicious and best balanced composition^ 
nor the deepest pathos of expression : his ^reat preroga- 
tive ponsisted more VP the unison than in the extent of his 
powers : he knew better what he could do, what ought to 
be done, at what point be could arrive, and whatlay be« 
yond his reach, than any other artist. Grace of conception 
and refioement of taste were his elements, and went hand 
iO'hand with grace of execution and taste in finish, power- 
ful and seldom possessed singly, irresistible when united: 
that he built both on the firm basis of the former system, 
not on its subversion, his well-known contest of lines with 
Protogenes, not a legendary tale, but a well-attested fact, 
irrefragably proves; what those lines were, dmwn with 
^neariy miraculous subtlety in different colours, one upon 
.the other, or rathet within each other, it would be equally 
.unavailing and useless to inquire ;. but the corollaries we 
inay deduce from the contest, are obviously these : thai 
the scboob of Greece recognized all one elemental prin- 
ciple ; that acutenesss and fidelity of eye and obedience 
of hand form precision, precisioti proportion, proportion 
beauty : th;at it is the * little more or leys' imperceptible 
to vulgar eyes, wbi^h constitutes grace, and establishes the 
superiority of one artist over another ; -that the knowledge 
of the degrees of things, or taste, presupposes a perfect 
knowledge of the things themselves : that colour, grace, 
and taste, are ornaments, nor substitutes of form, expres-r 



152 A P E L L E & 

sion, arid cbAracter, and when they osurp that title, dege<t 
nerate into splendid faults. Such were the prineiples on 
which Apelles formed his Venus, or ratbar the personifi^ 
cation of the birthday of love, the -wonder of art, the de^* 
spair of artists ; whose <>utline baffled every atteiilpt' at 
emendation, whilst imitation shrunk from the purity, the 
force, the brilliancy, the evanescent gradations of bef 
tint^."» 

APELLES, an heretic of the second century, was n 
native of Syria; whence coming to Rome, he was cor-i 
nipted in "his doctrinei by a woman, who wa$ called Phi- 
lumena, and pretended to prophetic illunnnations. He 
became a rigid disciple of Marcus, but, being excommu-> 
nicated for bis incontinence, he fled to Alexandria, where 
he broached a new heresy, which chiefly diffused itself 
through Egypt and Asia. TertuUian speaks thus : *' The 
Holy Ghost foresaw an angel of {Reduction in a certain i^ir-^ 
gin named Philumena^ transforming itself into an angel of 
light, by whose delusion Apelles should be taught a new 
heresy." By the oracular responses of this demoniac: vir- 
gin, be learned to deny the veracity of the prophets^ the 
resurrection of the body, to reject the law of Moses, and 
in many writings to blaspheme the divine oracle> Deceiv^ 
by her diabolical possession, he wrote the revelations which 
he learned from her. The book was entitled ** The ftro- 
phecies and Revelations of Philumena,*' but no part of bis 
works is extant, and indeed ihuch of his history is doubtfuk 
Apelles lived to be very old, and iUv^ his latter days ap^ 
peared very grave and rigid. Du Frcsnoy places thi» sect 
A.D. 175; Echard, A.D. 180; Dansus, 181. They were 
called Apellites, Apelleians, or Apellicians. * 

APER (Marcus), one of the finest orators of his tioie, 
was a Gaul by birth, and flourished in the first century. 
His inclination leading him to travelling, he extended'hifii 
journey as far as Britain, but afteiwards returned to Rome^ 
where he fixed his residence, attended the bar, anfd ac^ 
quired great reputation for wit and elocj[uence. Although 
considered at Rome as a foreigner, this circumstance did 
not prevent his rising tb the highest offices, as he became 
senator, questor, tribune, and praetor ; but none of these 
promotioiHs had charms so attractive to him as his original 

< Geo. Diet. — Fu8eli*s Lectures. 

' Lardaer's HUl of Heretics.-— Card, vol. I. 



A'F e.r;. w* 

proCesjAou* He ii mOBt celebr^tefd for hid ^^ Dialogue oiir 
the corruptioa of eloquence," tbe object of wbidb^ is tp) 
prefer tbe modern to the ancient eloquence* This dialogue; 
i^ .suppose^- to haife been written in tbe 16 th year of ye$ a 
pasiaii^ or they^ar 74 of our a&ra, and bis death has been, 
fixed at the year.^3« Tbedialogue, however^- h^s'been at-, 
tributed to Qi^ntiliau and to Tacitus, and is usually printed 
in their v^orks^^ but modern critics are of opinion it was nofc> 
written by eit^b^r^ ,and D. Rivet, from whom this artiste. i% 
t^en, attributes it^ in his dilteniiy hi$t0r y of J^ranoe, to Aper> 
auid. ad\[ances sucb..p9!opfa as appear )tQ hftve^,gi?eait.weigbtis 
Aq ekcellant dissertation on it mity .be seie^ ip Murphy'a 
traiM»laJtion of Tacitus^ . vdL IV. p.^ 445* ' . ij 

APHTHONiUS, of. Antio«?K a ,©elebmted rhet^ricjao.. 
^d. sophist, who lived in the third ceoti^ry,. wiH^e ip^Gree]^ 
a:t^^tise on rbetoiri^ whipb ha? tle)sceuided to us^ ^ni SQO^ 
other works. . Hi& rhetoric has be|en.tran$lated into Ls^« 
The best edition \)^as printed by ^e Elzivirs ^j^iAf^slt^tdBm^ 
lig45,J2mp,,uad^ the title ^VAphlhonii Progyng^^mata^ 
partiin a Jlodolpho Agricola, partim a Joadne^Mar^a Ca4 
t^n»o lajtinitfkte dQnjati^, cumiSfboUi^ R. Lori^Iui." ' • 

APIC1U3. r Th^e were.tbreie an<^ient Rctmans of thia 
liaqr^e, all v^ryilluBtriona^ npt fbr gepiu?,,jfpi^Jvir!fcMe, ft>r 
gre^t, oi: gQpd , qualit;iies, .but for gluttony.; ^^r,, if , we may 
solten }^e term ineomplaisMceito the Rowing ta$te.of the 
times we write Xn^ for the art -of refinin^g^ in tji0 ^pieupe of 
eating. The . first . lived uvd^r i SyUa, the secpi^ .. uqtdef 
Augustus w4 Ti^rius, .^n4: idi^ thkd, under Trajiinv .The 
lecopd hpwevje^ is the mq^t. Ulni^iQlis :pevsoni^^j9if th^ 
three, and is doubtless the. )»a|n&. of wbpm Sei^c% If Uq^i 
Juvenal, Martiail, ^p. so my^hj&peak* . Aihens^s^^pdU^es 
him under Tibpripf, ^pd. telte>i|9,'.ith«tt he speg|tj|$BiQien$0 
aums in- gratifying. his a^p|pQtit^.,^^i4 inventsd fivers spisll 
§:£ cake?, which Mb$»e his jnam^v iVI^e ieftr^jfipWk.SeiieQai 
Jth.at.iie»live4 ip hi$ tm(^i.mA,k^ miife w^^m,^ sj^qoI g| 
gluttony: at Bja^mi© j.,th^fe.fe^^pepiA?i!eO(fl^ ajB,hrtf 

la entertc^inasl^n^ ;r|ha^ finckii|g,hip^*df ^r^ry.piiu^in d^btt 
h^ was force^ »t: length to l^fiikMq tb^^tatftjqjjfc^^ffajr&j 
and that, seeing be had but 250,000 crowns r^fj^§.v^gfi h^ 
p^gii^ned hwaelf^from m ^mbi^mop oi hms^0f^t9^ 
15^ such a su^ip, ,pipp .r^l^ji^ t!^^: SIWR^ .s^^rLj^M^IT 

"l Chaufepie.^tavkisfeft.Llttl v^l.4?pS%i-iWi— M6r4f^ ^ -: -aH t 
* Moreri* — Suidai in Aptb»— ^axiLOnomasU . 

Vol. II. A a 



:fi!4£ A'PEH. 

liientions very frequently the ragouts hiB ioventecl) and 
caiU him the complelest glutton l^at eve^ appeared in the 
vTorid : ^' nepotum omnium altissimus gurges/* The third 
Apidus lived Under Tra)an : he had an admirable secret to 
preserve oy&ter^^ which lie shewed by sending Trajan some 
as for as Partbia, very ftesh when they arrived^ 
• The name of Apibiu^ wa6 applied long after to several 
^rts of meat : it made iflttsO a i$ect among the cooks: There 
i^ extant a treatise, <* De r<^ c^inaria^^' under the name of 
C*liu9 A{yicia«, which- i»' judged by the critics to be' very 
ancient, though fhby do n^t suppose it to be written by any* 
^i ):be above three. A fair- edition of it was given by Mar- 
tin Lister, with the difle of ^^ t>e obsoniis et condimentis, 
tfiVe de arte coquinarift,'' Lo^oidon, 1705^8vo, and reprinted 
at Am^terdtoi in 1709y 12^mo. Bemhoid published a new 
editioiV at Lubeck, in 1 79 1 , 8 vo. It was humdumusly ii«' 
diculed by Dr. King in his « Art of Cookery.'? » 

APIAN,^of APPIAN (Pbtbr), called in X>erman Bi- 
FNRWIT^, &: celebrated lietrouomer and mathematician, was 
born at Leisnig or Leip&ic'in Misoia, 1495, and made 
professor of mathematics at Ingolstadt in 1534, where he 
diediu I55£^ aged Moj-^m^^ He Wl»ote treatises upon 
Aviny i6f the ihathematicifeil* scieiidei^, and gready improved 
tbemi' es^eeiatly astronomy ^nd aerology, wfateh in th^ 
ag^'Were iKkiieh the fiafue thing: also geometry, geo- 
gfs^hy^i tirithndetic. H^ patrteularly enf^iched astronomy 
with toMiy instruments^ add 'Observations of eclipses, co-« 
ftiets, &t« His princip«Ll W^ik Was the ^* Astronomicum 
Ceesk^emA," published iti foUo M: Ingobtadt in U40) and 
Wlvich G^nlainS a number' df interesting observations^ witb 
the^^s^Hptioiis and^iviMoUs Of instrOmeDts. In this work 
h^ predicts ' eclipses, ^nd' adhstrucfas 'the figures of* them 
iin^piafio. ' In the seck)Ad ^ai^ of 1^ wOrk^ or the ^^ Meteo** 
i^scdpiiite Plaliu^,'^' ¥e g^s the desctiption Of the most 
lM;(iurafe- fts«i^6fiH)iiiie«l ^ll^htnt, and hs^ uiies. To it ai^ 
Mdeid*oVservuti6n^<)f fiv^difl^i'entcomet§,vi0. in the y^tun 
i53^ 1582: 1533, 1588^^^iid 1539 r where he first sbowl 
that the'^MM of^a'cometii^e ill Ways projecited -in a directioik 
fpOB^fW^unv 

- Apkij 'al«b wrote a li^e^ttoe, entitled ^* Ooininograpbfa,^ 
<Qf Which Ih^^'ba^ been ^Hkteiy- editions, from 1529, when 
Frisius published it in 4tpj» to 1575. In J 533 he made, .at 

^ Gen. Diet*— Fabric' Bib].' Latk—Saxii Ooioinajticoiu 

r. A 



APIAN, 355 

>J'orimberg| a curious instrvm^t;, which from its figure hoi 
called Folium PopuU^ yfhicYi^ by.^he suuVt^^^ v^^wed: 
the hour in all parts of the eartb| and e^ve^ the unequi^t 
hours of the Jews, In 1534 he published his ^^ Inscrip-^ 
tiones sacro-sa^ctae Vetust^tis variae^'' Ingost. foL apd in. 
thf same y^ar, his ^Mnstvumeutum Sinuumi siye^ Primi: 
Ajlobilis/' foL with 100 probleqis; and was the a^tl^or of 
many other wp^ks; among which may be nientiaAed,.tha; 
Sphemerides from the year 16 $4 for several years, fM^d hpoks^ 
upon Shadows, Arithmetical Centilpgues; books upo^.^^rithrt 
metic, with the ru)e of Coss {Algebra) demonstrated $ upon; 
Guagin^ ; Almanacks, with Astsologicfil direct tiqns; a bookr 
upon Conjunctions; Ptolemy with very cprre^ct figures^; 
qrawu in a quadrangular form ; Ptolemy's work^ in Greek i; 
books . of Eclipses ; the works of Azpph, a . very ancient 
astrologer ; the works of Gebre ; the perspective of yitellp^ 
of Critical Pays, and of the Rainbow ; a new Astronomical 
and Geometrical Radius, with various uses of 3ines and; 
chords; .Universal Astrolabe of Numbers; maps of th^ 
world, and of, particular countries, &c* r 

Apian lefj^ a son, Philip, who jnany ye^rs afterwa|rdsi 
taught mathematics at IngoLstadt, and at Tubing, Tyqh^ 
has preserye4 hi^ letter to the landgrave of Hes^e, in whicl|. 
be gives ap. opinion on the new star in Cassiopeia, of the^ 
year 1572. |He died at Tubing in 1589. Qne of tbq 
comets obsedTved by the elder Apian, viz. that of V532, had 
its elements nearly the sHme as of one obsferved 12B year% 
and a quarter after, viz. in 1661, by Hevelius and other 
astronomers ; frf3m hence Dr. Halley judged that the^ 
were the same comet, and that therefore it mighi; be ex^t 
pected to appear again in the beginning of 178$. ^ut it 
Ffs not found that it returned at this period, although tbq 
astronomerf th^n looted anxiov^ly for it : aqd it is doubt^ 
ful whether the disappointment might bq owing tp its pa^s^t 
ing uqiobserved, or to any e^rprs in tjae observations o^ 
Apian^ or to itff pef-iod being disturbpd a^d greatly altered 
by the actipni^ of the superior planet^. ^ . ; ; . . 
' APION, ^ ^wous. grammarian, bprn at Oasis in Egypt^ 
lyas a professppr at Rome in Tiberius'sreign. l\^ was uu-* 
deniably |9< n^a of learning, had made the most diligent 
inquiries into the a^tj^usest s)ibj.ects of antiquity,; a^d waf 

; * Hutton's Mathematical bicti(mary.*^ea. Plct.*-MaDy yaluable refer«noei 
|i Saxii OaoitatiUoon. ' 

. A A 2 



ifiastcff or till those points ivhich give to erudition the cha«* - 
radtef of acburatcy and variety. But he appears to have^ 
often been ah arr6gaht boaster, and most importantly bu-* 
8ted in d^ifficult and insignificant inquiries. Bayle quotes* 
Jiilius Africanus, as catling him ^* the iriost minutely cu- 
riidiis of all grammarians V'- and he might'havip applied to; 
0im>' what Strabo has to a pedant^ •^ #ho Vainly trifles 
About the* readihg of a pas^^,'* though the sense was 
exactly the same, sts far as they were concerned with* 
k$ whichever wdy it was read. An idea may be formed of ^ 
this writer from his imagining that he had performed some-» 
thing Extraordinary, when he discovered that the two first 
liters of the liikd, taken numerically, made up 48 ; and 
Ihat Homer chose to begin'his Iliad with a word, the two. 
first letters of which would shew, that his two poems would' 
contain 48 books. 

Apion iised to boast, with the greatest confidence, that' 
he gave immortality to those to whom he dedicated hir 
#orks, but none of these works remain ; aiid his name and' 
person had long ago been buried in 6blivion,*if other writer^ 
bad not made mention of them. One of his chief works 
was " The Antiquities of Egypt,*' in which he takes occa^ 
Bion to abuse the Jews ; and not content with thisj he com* 
^osed a work expressly against them. He had before shewn 
his malice iigainst this people : for, being at the head of 
i,n embassy, which the Alexandrians had sent '%o Caligula, 
to complain of the Jews in their ^ity, he accused them of 
several crimes ; and insisted principally upon H point, the 
inost likely to provoke the empe^er, which was, that, while 
all the other people of the empire dedicated tem'^les and 
altars to him, the Jews refused. With regard to his writ- 
ings against them, Josephus thought' himself obliged to 
confute the calumnies contained in 'them. He did not 
however write, bn purpose to confute' Apion, but several 
critits having attacked his Jewish Antiquities^ he defends 
himself against them, and against Apioh among the rest^ 
Apion was not living when this confutation was published; 
for it relates the mantierof his death, which Was singular 
etlough^ Ht Ifeast in regard to Apion> who^ having greatly 
ridiculed Jewish celremonies, and cird^imcisibn ih particu- 
lar, was seised at length with a dis^sise, which required an 
operatipn of that nature ; and which^ though submitted to, 
could not prevent him from dying under the mosjt. agonizing 
tortures. He boasted, that he had roused the soul of 



•» *k 



. .-^. p 1 0/N; a 557 

Homer from the dead, to inquire concerning his country 
and ffiraily ; and we. learn from Seneca^ that he imposed 
Tery much upon Greece, since he was received in every, 
city as a second Honner : which shews, . as Bayle ohs(erves^ 
that ^^ a man, with some learning, and a good share of 
impudence and vanity, may easily deceive the mass of the 
people."* . r 

APOLLINARIS (Caius Sulpitius), an eminent gram- 
inarian, was born (as is said), at Carthage, and lived under 
the Antonines. Helvius Per^tinaXf who had been his scho« 
lar, was his successor in the profession of grammar, and at 
length became emperor. He is thQ supposed author of 
the verses prefixed to the comedies of Terence, and con^ 
taining the argument of them. The lines by him written 
upon the order Virgil gave to burn his yEneid ; 

Infdix alJo cecidit prope Pergamon igne^ ' • 

£t pene est alio Tixua cremata rogo : &o. ^ 

snake us regret the loss of his other verses* Aulus Gellius, 
who studied uyder him, gives the highest idea of his learn- 
ing : and adds, that he had nothing of that pedantic arro« 
jgance, nothing of that magisterial air, Vhich but too often 
makes learning so very disagreeable, and raises emotions 
of contempt and anger towards men, even wheu aiming at 
our instruction. * 

AP0LLINARIU8 (Claudius), bishop of Hierapolis in 
Phrygia, about the year 1 77, presented to Marcus Aure- 
lius an apology for the Christians, which was praised for 
its eloquence and truth. He wrote other works against the 
heretics of hia time, and especially the Montanists, but 
these are all lost. Eusebius mentions Five books against 
the Gentiles; two books of Truth; and two against the 
. Jews. As he bad spoken in his Apology of the victory of 
Marcus Antoninus, which happened in the year 174, and 
of the thundering legion, Lardner places him at the year 
176 or 177, though possibly he was then in the decline of 
life. There are two fragments ascribed to him in the pre«- 
face to the Paschal, or, as it is often called, The Alexan- 
drian Chronicle, but these are doubtful. * 
- APOLLINARIUS, the elder, a grammarian and divine, 
was a native of Alexandria, and flourished about the mid* 

^ 1 Gen. Dict^Workt of the Le^me^, 1740. 
' • Auius Gelliufl, Noet. Ait. lib. 18. cap. 4.— Ota. Diet* 
> tardoer's W«rki.-^Pupiii.r-C|ivc, 



854 A P O L L I N A R I U S. 

die of the fdarth century. When, under the reign of Ju- 
lian, the Christians were prohibited the tfee of the Greek 
and Roman classics in tbeit schools, he drew up a grammar 
in a Christian forfti^ and translated the books of Moses, 
and the whole history of die Hebrews down to the time of 
Saul, in Greek heroic verse, dividedj in imitation of Ho^ 
mer, into twenty-four books. He translated other parts 
of the Old Testament into verse, which Sozomen has 
praised, but of which it is now impossible to form a judg^* 
Bient. He was the father of the Apollinarius in the next 
article.' 

APOLLINARIUS, the younger, is mentioned by Je- 
rom, in his Catalogue of Eoclesiastidal writers, as bishop of 
Laodicea in Syria. Jerom adds that he employed his 
younger days chiefly in grammatical studies, and after- 
wards published innumerable volumes upon the hbly scrip- 
tures, and died in the time of the emperor Theodosius ; be 
mentions his thirty books against Porphyry, as being then 
extant, and esteemed the most valuable of his works. 
Apollinarius is placed by Cave as flourishing about the year 
370, but Tillemoiit thinks he was bishop of Laodicea in 
the year 362, at the latest. Lardner thinks it certain that 
he flourished in the time of the emperor Julian, and after- 
wards ; and it seems probable that he died about the year 382* 
He wrote commentaries upon almost all the books of holy 
scripture, none of which haye. descended to our time ex- 
cept a ** Paraphrase on the Psftlms," which has been often 
reprinted in Greek and Latin, and of which an account 
may be seen in Fahriciud. In his early days, he wrote and 
preached the orthodox faith, but afterwards swerved so 
far from it, as to be deemed a heretic, and thus became 
the founder , of a sect called the Apollinarians. This sect . 
denied the. proper humanity of Christ, and maiatained that 
the body which he assumed was endowed with a sensitive 
and not 9. rational squI ; but tjiat the divine nature supplied 
the place of the intellectual principle in man. Their doc- 
.trine was first condemned by a council at Alexandria in 
the year 362, and afterwards in a more formal manner by 
a council at Rome ii\ the year 375, and by another council 
in th<5 year 378, which deposed Apollinarius from his 
bishopric. He is . said to have held the doctrine of the 
MHlenium, or the personal reign of Christ on earth for 

* Lardner's Works.— Dupin.— Care. 



A P O L L J N A IR-I U k «J^ 

n thousand years. The reAderroay ftftd'd^ ^ery elaboratte 
account of him and of bis writings in Dr. Lardqer's wotkS| 
vol. IV. p. 380—397. 

APOLLINARIUS SIDONIUS. See SIDONIUS. 

APOLLODORUS, a celebrated Athenian painter^ 
flourished about the year 408 before the Chr}«»tian sera. 
He applied the essential principles of his predecessor 
Polygnotus to the delineation of ihe species, by investi- 
gating the leading forms that discriminate the various 
classes of human qualities and passibns. The acuteness 
of his taste led him to discover that as all men were con^^ 
nected by one general form, so they were separated each 
by some predominant power, which fixed character^ and 
bound them to a class : that in proportion as this specific 
power partook of individual peculiarities, the farther it 
was removed from a share in that harmonious system which 
constitutes nature^ and consists in a due balance of all its 
parts : thence he drew his line of imitation, and personified 
the central form of the class, to which his object belonged-; 
and to which the rest of its qualities administered without 
being absorbed: agility was not suffered to destroy firm- 
ness, solidity, or weight; nor strength and weight agility: 
elegance did not degenerate to effeminacy, or grandeur 
swell to hugeness. Such were his principles of style ; his 
expression extended them to the mind, if we may judg« 
from the two subjects mentioned by Pliny, in which he 
fieems to have personified the characters of .devotion and 
impiety : the former, in the adoring figure of a priest, per- 
haps of Cbryses, exptoding his gratitude ^t the shrine of 
the God whose arrows avenged his wrongs and restored his 
daughter : and the latter; in the figure of Ajax wrecked, 
and fixHn the sea-swept rock hurling defiance unto the 
murky sky. As neither of these subj^ts can present 
themselves to a painter's mind without a contrast of the 
most awful and the most terrific tones of colour, magic of 
light and shade, and unlimited command over the tools of 
art, we may. with Pliny and with Plutarch consider Apollo- 
dorus as the' first assertor of the pencil's honours, as the 
first colourist of his age, and the man who opened the gates 
of Art which Zeuxis entered.* 

APOLLO DORUS j a celebrated grammarian of Athens, 
flourished in the l6Hh Olympiad, or about iQ4 years be- 

i Fuselt's Lectures. 



9M ;A P O L L O D O R U,Si 

fore ibt Chfi^tiEn jera> nj^dfit the reign pf Plotemy Eixet^ 
getes, king of Egypt. He was the soa of Asclepiades, and 
the disciple of Aristarchus the grammarian, and of the pbir 
losopfaek* Pancetius. He. composed i^ very voluminous work 
(on the origin of the gods, of which Harpocration has quoted 
the sixth hook, Macrobiua the fourteenth, and Hermolaus 
•the seventeenUi. Besides this .work he wrote a ^^ Chro^ 
nicle^'^ a ^^ Treatise on legislators,'* another/' on the phi^ 
losQpbical sects^" and others which we find mentioned in 
the writings of the a,ncients. There is, however, only now 
jextaut, an abridgement of his book on the origin of the 
gods, Rome, 1555, and Antwerp, 1565, of which M. le 
Fevre of Saumur (Tanaquil Faber), published a Latin 
translation, under the title of <' Apollodori Atheniensis 
bibliotbecsB, siye de Diis, libri tres." Imperfect as this 
abridgement is» it is very useful in illustrating^ fabulous 
J)istx>ry. It C(»nmenees with Inachus, and comes down to 
/Thefieus, prince of Athens, conseq^ently comprising the 
€paceof 622 years, from A, M. 2177 to A. M. 2799. But 
we owe a very superior edition to the labours of that emi« 
nent classical scholar and critic, Heyne,; who published 
in 1782, '^ Apollodori Atheniensis BibliotbecaB Libri tres. 
Ad codd. MSS. fidem recensiti," Gottingen, 8vo, and the 
following year, '^ Ad Apollodori Atheniensis Bibliothecam 
Notee, cum commentatione de ApoUodoro argumento et 
consilio operis et cum Apollodori fragmentis," ibid. 2 vols. 
:8vo. Four years before the first of these publications, 
Mr. Heyne gave a course of lectures on ApoUodorus, which 
became veiy popular and interesting to young scholars. 
At the c(»nmepcemept of this undertaking, be found that 
.the editipQs pf ApoUodorus were very scarce, and Gale\ 
•although the best, yet very inacpurate. He determined 
therefore to publish . one hin^^elf, in executing which he 
-was assisted by three Qianuscripts, one formerly belonging 
to Oorville, a second prepared for the press by Gerard 
jjames Vanswinden, and a third in. the king's library at 
Paris. None of his .works do Heyne more credit, and his 
notes are highly valviable and entertaining to students of 
^mythology. • . . 

APOLLODORUS, a famous architect under Trajan 
and Adrian, was born at Damascus ; and bad the direction 
pf that ino^( in^gnificent bridge, which the former ordered 

1 Moreri.—- Saxii ODomisUcoiid— >Biog. Uiurerwll*^ 



A P L I- O D O R U S. |6| 

to be built over the Danube, in the year 104. Adrian^ 
whq always valued himself highly upon his knowledge of 
arts and sciences, and hated every one of whose eminence 
in his profession he had reason to be jealous, conceived a 
very early disaffection to this artist, upon the following 
^occasion : As Trajan was one day discoursing with Apol* 
iodorus upon the buildings he had raised at Rome, Adrian 
gave his judgment, but shewed himself ignorant : on which 
the artist, turning bluntly upon him, bid him ^^ go paint 
pitruls, for that he knew nothing of the subject they were 
talking o.f :^' now Adrian was at that time engaged in 
painting citruls (a yellow kind of cucumber), and even 
boasted of it. This was the first step towards the ruin of 
ApoUodorus ; which he was so far from attempting to 
retrieve, that he even added a new offence, and that to9 
dfter Adcian was advanced to the empire. To shew ApoU 
iodorus that be had no absolute occasion for him, Adrian 
«ent him the plan of a temple of Venus ; and, though he 
asked, his opinion, yet he did not mean to be directed by 
it, for the temple was actually built. ApoUodorus wrote 
his opinion very freely, and found such essential faults 
with it, as the emperor could neither deny or remedy. He 
shewed, that it was neither high nor large enough ; that 
the statues in it were disproportioned to its bulk; "for,^* 
jsaid he, ^^ if the goddesses should have a mind to rise and 
go out, they could not do it." This irritated Adrian, and 
prompted him to get rid of ApoUodorus* He banished 
him at first, and at last had him put to death; without 
stating the true cause, of which he would have been 
.ashamed, but under the pretext of several crimes, of which 
Jie procured him to be accused and convicted. * 

APOLIyONlUS, a Greek writer, born in Alexandria, 
tinder the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes king of Egypt, was 
a scholar of Callimacbus, whom he is accused of having 
Jbreated with ingratitude ; by which he drew upon himself 
the indignation of this poet, who gave him the name of 
Ibis, from a bird of Egypt, which used to purge itself 
with its bill. ApoUonius wrote a poem upon the expedi^ 
.tion of the Golden Fleece ; the work is styled " Argo- 
Dautica," and consists of four books. Quintilian, in his 
/^ Jnstitutiones Oratoriae,'' says diat this performance is 
written ^^ sequali qu&dam mediocritate :^* that the author 

1 Geo. Diet, 



i6i A P b L L'O N I U S. 

observed an exaot medluni between the sttblitne and low 
style in writing. Longinus says also that Apollonius nevei 
sinks in his pbem, but has kept it up in an uniform and 
equal manner : yet that he falls infinitely short of Homers 
notwithstanding the faults of the latter ; because the sub- 
lime, though subject to irregularities, is always preferable 
to every other kind of writing. Gyraldus, speaking of 
this poem, commends it as a work of great variety and 
labour : the passion of Medea is so finely described, that 
Virgil himself is supposed to have copied it almost entirely, 
vand to have interwoven it with the story of Dido. 

Apollonius, not meeting at first with that encourage- 
ment which he expected at Alexandria, removed to 
Rhodes, where he set up a school for rhetoric, and gave 
lectures for a considerable time ; thence acquiring the 
name of Rhodius. Here it was that he corrected d.nd put 
the finishing hand to his Argonautics, which being pub* 
' licly recited, met with universal applause, and the author 
was complimented with the freedom of the city. He is 
said to have written a book ** Concerning Archilochus," a 
treatise " Of the origin of Alexandria," " Cnidos," and 
other works. He published his poem of the Argonautics 
at Alexandria, upon his return thither, when sent for by 
Ptolemy Euergetes, to succeed Eratosthenes as keeper of. 
the public library. It is supposed that he died in this 
office, and that he was buried in the same tomb with his 
master Callimachus. The ancient Scholia upon hb Argo- 
nautics are still extant : they are thought to be written by 
Tarrhaeus, Theon, and others. 

• Of late years his reputation has rather increased in this 
country. Mr. Hayley has bestowed great praise on him. 
•" His poems," says this excellent critic, ** abound in ani- 
mated description, and in passages of the most tender and 
pathetic beauty. How finely painted is the first setting 
forth of the Argo ! and how beautifully is the wife of Chi- 
ron introduced, holding up the little Achilles in her arms, 
and shewing him to his father Peleus as he sailed along 
the shore ! But the chief excellence in our poet, is the 
spirit and delicacy with which he has delineated the pas- 
sion of love in his Medea. That Virgil thought very highly 
of his merit in this particular, is sufficiently evident from 
-the minute exactness with which he has copied many ten- 
der touches of the Grecian poet." The best editions of 
Apollonius are those printed at Oxford in 4to, by Dr. Johu 



A P © t t 6 ^ I tJ S. 36S 

Bbaw, fellow of Magdalen college, 1777, and by the same in 
8vo, 1779, that of Brunck, Argentora, 1780, 4to and 8vo; 
thatof Flangini,Roine, 4to, 1794, and of Beck, LiBipsic,1797, 
2 vols; 8vo. ThiB princeps editio is a quarto, dated Florent. 
1496, a copy of which sold at the Pinelli sale for seventeen 
^guineas. Several English poets have contended for the 
honoardf transfusing the beauties of ApoUonius int6 our 
language. Dr. Broome published many years * ago, the 
Loves of Jason and Medea, and the story of Talus. Mr. 
West also published some detached pieces. In 1771, Mr. 
Ekins translated the third Book of the Argonautics, and a 
part of the foiirth, 4to, with very valuable preliminary 
tnatter. Iri 1780, two translations of the Argonautics ap- 
peared, the one, a posthumous work of Fawkes, the other 
by Edward Burnaby Green ; and in 1803, another transla- 
tion was published in 3 vols. 12mo, by Mr. Preston. * 

APOLLONIUS, of Perga, a city in Pamphilia, was 
a celebrated geometrician who flourished in the reign of 
Ptolemy Euergetes, about 240 years before Christ ; being 
about 60 years after Euclid, and 30 years later than Archie 
medes. He studied a long time in Alexandria under the 
disciples of Euclid ; afid afterwards he composed several 
curious and ingenious geometrical works, of which only 
his bboks of Conic Sectipns are how extant, and even these 
not perfect. Fbr it appears from the author's dedicatory 
epistle to Eudemus, a geometrician in Pergamus, that this 
work consisted of eight books ; only seven of which how- 
ever have come down to us. * 

Frofai the collections of Pappus, and the commentaries 
tjf Eutocius, it appears that ApoUonius was the author of 
various pieces in geometry, on account of which he ac- 
quired thetitle of the Great Geometrician. His Conies was 
the principal of them. Some have thought that ApoUo- 
nius appropriated the writings and discoveries of Archi-. 
medes; Henaclius, who wrote the life of Archimedes, 
affirms it; though Eutocius endeavours to refute him. 
'Although it should be allowed a groundless supposition, 
that Archimedes was the first who wrote upon Conies, not- 
withstanding his treatise on Conies was greatly esteemed ; 
yet it is highly probable that ApoUonius would avail him- 
self of the writings of that author, as well as others wh6 
"had gone before hini ; and, upon the whole, he is allowed 

\ Geo. I>iot«-*Fabr. Bit>l. JGlrcc.— VoMios*— ^ann >OnOflia8ticoiK<— DibdiniB 
daisies, vol. I. 



964 A P O L L ^ N I U S. 

the honour of explaitiuig a difficult subject better thttt 
had been done before ; having made seve)*al improvements 
both in Archimedes's problems, and in Euclid, His work 
upon Conies was doubtless the most perfect of the kind 
among the ancients, and in some respects among the mo- 
deras also. Before ApoUonius, it had been customary^ a$ 
yfG are informed by Eutocius, for the writers on Conies to 
require three different sorts of cones to cut the three dif*- 
ferent sections from, viz. the pari^bola from a right angled 
•conCy the ellipse from an acute, and the hyperbola from 
an obtuse cone; because tbey always supposed the sec- 
'lions made by a plane cutting the cones to be perpendicu^i' 
lar to the side of them : but ApoUonius cut his sections all 
from any one cone, by only varying the inclination or posi- 
tion of the cutting plane ; an improvement that has bee& 
followed by all other authors since his time. But that Ar^ 
chimedes was acquainted with the same manner of cutting 
any cone, is sufficiently proved, against Eutocius, Pappus, 
and others^ by Guide Ubaldus, in the beginning of h» 
commentary on the second book of ^irchimede^'s Equif* 
ponderants, published at Pisa in 1588." 

The first four books of ApoUonius^s Conies only have 
come down to us in their original Greek language; but 
the next three, the fifth, sixth, and seventh, in an Arabic 
version ; and the eighth not at all. These have been com- 
mented upon, translated, and published by various authorsii 
Pappus, in bis Mathematical Collections, has left some ac^p* 
count of bis various works, with notes and lemmas upon 
them, and particularly on the Conies. And Eutocius wrote 
a regular elaborate commentary on the propositions of 
several of the books of the Conic^. 

The first four books were badly translated by Joan, Bap* 
tista JVIemmius. But a better translation of these m Latin 
was made by Commandine, and published at Bononia in 
1566. — ^Yossius mentions an edition of the Conies in 1650; 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh books being recovered by Golius. 
— Cls^ude Richard, professor of mathematics in the impe^ 
rial college of his order at Madrid, in the year 1632, exr 
plained, in his public lectures, the first four books of ApoU 
lonius, which were printed at Antwerp in 1655, in folio.— r 
And the grand duke Ferdinand the second, and his brother 
prince Leopold de Medicis, employed a professor of the 
Oriental languages at Rome to translate the fifth, sixth, 
.«Qd seventh books into L^tin. These were published at Fk»« 



APOLLONIUS. S6S 

ffencein 1B61, by BoreHi, with his own notes, who also, 
maintains that these books are the genuine production of 
Apollonius, by many strong authorities, against Mydorgiu« 
and others, Who suspected that these three books were 
not the real production of Apoilonius. 
• As to the eighth book, some mention is made of it in a. 
book of Golius's, where he had written that it had ndt' 
been translated into Arabic, because it was wanting in the 
Greek copies, from whence the Arabians translated die. 
others. But the learned Mersenne, in the preface to Apol- 
lonius^s Conies, printed in his Synopsis of the mathematics, 
quotes the* Arabic philosopher Aben' Nedin for a work of 
his about the year 400 of Mahomet/ hi which is part of 
that eighth bookj and who asserts that all the books of 
ApoUoniusare extant in his language, and even more than 
are enumerated by Pappus ; and Vossius says he has read 
the same ;' De Scientiis Mathematicis, p. 55. — A heat edi- 
tion of the fiirst four books in Latin was published by Dn 
Barrow, at London 1675, in 4to. — A mag^iificent edition of 
all the eight books, was published in folic, by Dr. Halley, 
at Oxford in 1710; together with the lemmas of Pappus, 
and the commentaries of Eutocius. The first four in 
Greek and Latin, but the latter four in Latin only, the 
eighth book being restored bv himself. 

The other writings of Apoilonius, mentioned by Pappus, 
are, 1. The Section of a Ratio, or Proportioiial Sections^ 
two 'books. 2. The? Section of a Spdce, in two books* 
3. Determinate Section, in two books. ' 4. The Tangen- 
cies, in two books. 5. The Inclinations, 'in two booksL 
6. The Plane Loci, in t\v6 books. Tli^ cfantewts of illf 
these are mentioned by Pappus, and many lemmas are: 
delivered relative to them ; but none, or Very little of these 
books themselves, have descended down to the hiodernsi 
From the account, however, that has been given of their 
contents, many restorations have been made of these works, 
by the modern mathematicians, as follow: viz. Vieta. 
Apoilonius Gallus. The Tangencies, Paris, 1600, in 4to. 
Snellius, Apoilonius Batavus. Determinate Section. Lugd. 
1601, 4to.' Snellius; Sectio Rationis & Spatii. 1607; 
Ghetaldus; Apoilonius* Redivivus. The Ihrftnations. Ve- 
nice, 1607, 4tp. Ghetaldus, Supplement, to the Apoilo- 
nius Redivivus. Tangencies, 1607. Ghetaldus, Apollo* 
nius Redivivus, lib. 2, 16131. Alex. Anderson, Supplem. 
iVpoL Redivivi. Inclin, Paris, 1612, 4to. Alex. An^er- 



366 A P O L L O N I U S, 

son. Pro Zetetico ApoUoniaoi problematis a se jam pri*-^. 
dem editioin Supplemento ApoUonii Redivivi. Pari^^ 1615, 
4to. Scbooten, . Loca Plana restituta. Lug. Bat 1656* 
Fermat, Loca Plana, 2 lib. Tolos. 1679, folio. ,Halley, 
Apol. de Sectione Rationis libri duo ex Arabico MS. La- 
tinp vfirsi duo restituti. Oxon. 1706, Svo. Simson, Loca 
£iana, libri duo. Glasg. 1749, 4to. Simson, Sectio De-' 
t^rminat. Glasg. 1776, 4to. . Horsley, ApoL Inclinat. 
libri duo. Oxon. 1770, 4to. Lawson, The Tangencies, 
in two books, Lond. 1771, 4 to. Lawson,. De^rminate 
Section, two books. Lond. 1772, 4to. Wales, S^termi* 
Bate Section, two books. Lond. 1772^ 4to.. jBurrow,. 
The Inclinations. Loud. 1779, 4to»^ . * 

APOLLONIUS {Dyscolus, or the meagre, from kis, 
starved appearance), was a native of Alexandria,. and flou-> 
rished about the year 138 B.C. He passed his life at 
Bruchium, a quarter of the city wh^re several men of 
learning were lodged and oi^ntained ajt the ezpence of 
the kings of Egypt, but some agcoui^t^ say tl^atrh^ lived in 
great poverty. He was the first ;^ho reduced grammar ta 
a system, and wrote many works on the subfect,. which are 
not now extant, but of which Pri;5cian availed l^imself in 
writing his Latin grammar. We have, however, 9. treatise 
on " Syntax," by AppUonius, which has been often, 
printed. The best edition is that of Frederic Sylburgius, 
with the Latin translation and notes of Portus, JFraiKfort^ 
1590, 4to. In Reltzius^s edition of ]\|attaire's Greek Dia-^ 
lects, 1738, and in Sturtziusi's edition, 1867, are several 
extracts from ApoUonius's graoi^iar,^ which Vossius copied 
lirom a MS. in the royal library of Paris, but this nuuiu- 
«cript is more full, and deserves printing at large. Ano. 
ther work, entitled " Historiae Mirabiles," Gr^ and Lat. 
of which Meursius published the best edition, Leyden,' 
1620, 4 to, is attributed to ApoUonius, but upon doubtful 
authority. ApoUonius was the father of Herodian, the 
grammarian.^ 

APOLLONIUS TYANEUS, a noted impostor, was a 
native of Tyana, in Cappadocia, and born some years be- 
fore the Christian aera. He studied the philosophy of 
Pythagoras in his infancy, and professed it dunng his 

1 Gen. Diet. — Martin's Biog. Philosophica.— Hutton's Mathe;m&tical Pict-^ 
Saxii Ooomastioon. 

* VoMius de AUt. Gr«6c.— Falnr, BibU Gfaec—^Bios, Uiuf«cseile,— Baxii 
Onoinastiooa. 



A P O L L O N I U S* 367 

Whole life. He practised every tigid precept of abstinence^- 
gave bis [nroperty to.tbe poor, lived in the temples^ quelled 
seditions, and instructed the people with persuasive force 
and suavity. . He affected a preciseness and mystery when * 
be spoke, which made a- wonderful impression on the vui-. 
g9Jt ; all the world, we, are told, followed him : artizans 
<}uitted their employments ; cities sent deputations to bim^. 
and even die oracles chiaunted his praises. He made dis« 
cipfes everywhere : be conversed with the brachmans of 
India, the magi of Persia, and the gymnosophists of Egypt^ 
compelliug all to ^admire him. At Nineveh, at Epbesus, at 
Smyrna, at Athens, at Corinth, and other cities of Greece^, 
be preached his djck:trines, condemning amusements, visits 
ing the temples, coj^rectiug the public morals, and recom- 
mending the reforsoation of all abuses. At Romej where 
be said he can^e to see. what sort of an animal a tyrant was^^ 
he inyeighed .against the bagnios: with great severity.,; 
Having accidentally met the funerd of, a young lady of 
consular family,. be approached the bier^ atul after sp^ak-. 
ing some wt>rds in a.lpw voice, the dead arose and went 
back to h&: ftl^ber^rs bQuse* Her; parents offered him a 
large sum, whl^b ke refused. Here alsc^ he pretended to 
Htter- pcopbecios. The emperor V/^pasian was so much 
bis dupe, as to ask bis advice, which be gave in his usual 
iniposif^ manner. .This be had done at other courts, and 
most •absurd stories are ijOld of his wisdom and prophetic 
gifu, Domitiaii, bowe^'er, confined him for some time ia 
prison, -and after bis rele^e he died, about the end of the 
fest century. Sitatue^ were erect^i, and divine honours 
paid to bim» One JDapis, the part^^r. in bis impositions^ 
inrote his life, but it was more fully; written by Philostratus^ 
who lived 200 years aften It is among Philostratus's 
works, with . aome letters attributed to ApoUonius. The 
b^thens wej}e feed of opposing tbe.pi^etended miracles 
of this man to tbo^ie of .our Saviour :; «and , by a treatise 
Whacb Eusebiua wrote iagai^nst one Hierpcles, we find that 
the drift of the latter, in the treatise iwjuch Eusebius re^^ 
fiites^ had been to idi^aw^ a'pai*sdlel bel^^iKt Jesus Christ and 
ApbUoniiis, in w^ii^^e give^ .the^{)<feference to this phi- 
losopbex^ 

• Mr. Du Pin has w)?itten a confutation of ^* Philostratus's 
Life of ApoUonius," in which he proves, 1. That the bis? 
toty/i :ofi!d)is philpsopber is destitute of such proofs as can 
bd crenfited. 2. That PhilostFat^£f hs^s pot written a his* 



toty, bat ^ romance. 3. That the miracleil aseribed ta- 
Apollonius carry strong marks of falsehood ; and that tliere ' 
is not one which may iiot be i^nptited to chance or Uttifieeb 
4. That the doctrine of this philosopher is iii m^y partW 
cnlars opposite to right sense and reason. 
• Apolionins is said to hare written four books on judicial: 
astrology, and a treatise npon - sacrifices, which ar^ notf 
lost. His general character seems to have been that he 
added the arts of an impostor to the learning of a pfarlo«'* 
■opher. Those who are curious^ however^ in bis hiatcny,. 
may meet with copious information in his Life by Pbilo* 
•trattis, in Bayle, Brucker, Lardner, and Du Pin. A new 
edition of his life was recently published by the rev. Dr, 
Edward Berwick of Ireland, 1810, 8vo. ' 

APONO, or ABANO (Peter), a physiciaa and astro-i' 
loger, was boru in 1250, at the village of Abano near 
Padtia, of which the Latin name is Apoiiuft, and hence he 
is frequently called Petrus de Apono, or Aponbwsis. Ha 
is also sometimes called Petros de Padua. When young, 
he went, with a view to study Gredk, to Constantiiiople, 
or according to others, to some of the islands belonging ta 
the Venetian republic. Having afterwar<ls a desire to study 
medicine and mathematics, he returned^ and spent somie 
years at Padua, and at Paris, where he was adoiitted to 
the degree of doctor of philosophy and medicine^ He wasy 
however, recalled to Padua, and a professorship of inedi* 
eine founded for him. He attained great reputation as 4^ 
physician, and is^said to have been very exorbitant in hia 
fees. We are not told what his demands were in theplao^ 
of his residence, but it is affirmed that he would not at- 
tend the sick in any other place under 150 florins a dayi 
and when he was sent for by pope Honoriiis IV. he de^ 
manded 400 ducats for each day*8 attendance. > Bat these 
reports are. thought to have been exaggerated, as perbapa 
are many other particc^lars handed down to us, rach as hia 
abhorrence of milk, which waa so great, that he &mted if 
be saw any person drink it. 

' His works shew that he had read every thing which ap- 
peared before his time, bn the subject of medicine, but 
unfortunately he mixes, with a great deal of real koow« 
ledgCj all the reveries of judicial astrology, and caused the 
dome of the public school at Padua to be painted witii 
above four hundred astrological figures, and when de« 
utroyied by a fire in 1 420| they were replaced by the eelo* 



A P O N O. S«» 

>ibrated^Giotlx>4: 0k attachmeot to. astarofbgtcalipttrsnite, 

and a superior acqiiaiutaiice 'i«>itb ntitural pliiiosppby and 

mafcheaaaitiofl)' procared^hi^l the >charac€er of a magiciaBf 

ahdi Ji».wa$ accused of hetesy. , Tim acousatioii, of which 

he had cleared himself at Pearls, was twice r4Bnewed at Fa« 

ibia^ b^ the >£&^ultj.aiid others whoii^^re jiaaloai c^his re* 

|iiitation, and it iMas saifl he owed his extraordinary skill to 

aeves familiar spirits whom he kept inclosed in ^a •bottle. 

'By. means of some- powerful frieods, he escaped the in<|ui^ 

sition on one oecasion, and was about to have been tried a 

.aeqiBidtim^ but died before the process was fiaisheidy in 

ABilSv la spite* o^ the professioh^ which hp* made before 

isritnessesy* when dyilig, of his. adherei^ce ico the cathohq 

,£uth>'aiid which he/ likewise soleohily expressed in his wiU^ 

the inquisitixm' f6kiqd him guilty of h^esjp^ aiid^ ordered 

.libe Jnagistrates of/Badua to take, his body np^> audi bum it, 

A female s^rvaat, boiiiEever» oo hearing this order, con-r 

slariired, in the mgl^ * to have the body removed t^ Another 

^tifcLl The iftquisitors wcmld bay# - pvoce^ded against 

'^fae persons- 4c:o&oeriied in tbis^iafiairi but wei^ -at'l^hgtb 

-siktik&ed: W9th buiHiing-the -deceased- in effigy. • J A cettuiiy 

.afterwssffds)' hif ieUow^'Cicizeos placed a bu^tl tioi b&s) m^- 

«iory *in the pmUic ^pailace. His; principal rWO^ks^-were, 

dj ^^ Conciliatoi: differeutiaram' philosophoiuoM ^^f»cipue 

jnedieprum/.' Venice, .1471 , 'a work often rffnrittted, and 

Hfhieh 'ppociired* him- the tide of Conciliator.-- He oftea 

quotes A^ervoeSi and was t^e first Italiaa wiuistndi)ed his 

(wbrk9.^:v 2, ^* OeViBtieiMS, eoramque rea»edii$)'' also often 

i<C|i#intedy . but now very scarce. 3. ^^ £xpositi0 pro- 

tienai»m>Ari8totelis/V Mantua, 1^7 5, 4to^ of which them 

liaTO .heea mKoy editions. 4.> ^^liU Fisionomi^ dn ooti^ 

^iitajtdr Pierre de Apono," Padua, 1474, Svo^iand in Latin, 

<^ I^tecisiones physioBomicsD/' 154S^ Svo. . In the imperial 

lifanry of fivi8,.i8 a mannsoript <^athe same ^ub^ect, which 

iat miQ$» during his residence' in that city. 5.^ ^ Hippo* 

jiQSRalast deniedicorum astrologia Itbellu^,'^ from the Gi^ek 

iato; Latin, Venice,- 14^5, 4tx>« 6. ^^ Quss^iones de fer 

ihaiam,'*' Padna, i4$if a > manusonpt in the imperial li> 

i3«ry. % Jf Tektua Mesues iiovit^r^mendatus, ice;'*' Ver 

:iii6e^ 1505, Sto. 8» ^^ Astrolabium plenum in tabi^Iis as« 

.eciftdens, continens qoalibet bora atque minuta o^patioiies 

domorum coeli,*' Venice, 1502, 4to. 9. ^^ Geomanti^," 

Venice, 1549, Svo. 10. " Dipnocides dige&tus alphas 

betica ordioe/' Lyons, 1512, 4to. U. '^ G^eni tractates 

Vol. II, . B b 



<- 



'370' Jl^OKO. 

tarii a. P«tro Padiisno latioilate donsty a weoiiseKipt ^ 
tbelibTsuy c>£ ScMark^ Venice. 12*. A LaUa.tnimlaibim 
jof seven asti^logical treatiBes writieu by^ tbe ceWH^tod 
Spanish jcabbi ii)eQ*£ara, and usually printed wkb his 
tfeadsie on critical days.' .r a* > . . . 

APQSTOUUS (MiCHAEt), a leacned Giedk, a i^atite 
ofiCbn^tantinople, caine into Italy about dieiiuiddle of tlfe 
iifteenth icentuiy, but being unfia?oui»dbly treated by >car- 
dinal Bessarion whom be visited, he jse turned to the island 
>of Cretei and wrote some books > onexif them entitled 
<^ Imta, ortheViolet-l^ed," a collection of ^popbthegmai 
has not been published, but of his collectsontof provililbs, 
an epitonie was published .at Basil,' 1538, in 6va^ and 
afterwards the whole in.Gr.and Lat. by-Pootimis, Leydeo, 
1619, ^tOy^ndat tbe^ame place, by P. Baulious, i6£l, 
i4to. The epitome published at Basil ds a very xace bock, 
but a cdpy is'in the British 'Museiun.? . 

APPIAN, aaemineot hifitoriaD, who.wroleTthe £oHi»r 

history in .the Greek language, flourished uadei' the resgw 

of Trajan and Adrian abcmt the year 128 A^Dcaad speaks 

of the d^truction of Jerusalem, as of an eveiA that hap* 

pened i in. his time. He was born of a good £unily . im 

Alexandria, from whence he went tp Boem| «id there <dia» 

tinguished himself so niuch at the bar, that lie was chosen 

one of the procurators of the emparor, and the govern-* 

ment of a.proviuce was committed to him. He wrot»iihe 

Boman history in^a very peculiar method ; Jiot' .cfoia|iilii|g 

it in a continued series, after the manaer ofXivy, hut 

-giving distinct histories of all the nations 'thaVhfid.bfcii 

.eonqufiired by thq Aom^n^ and plying. every thisgiyalft* 

-tive to those nations in one c^mnecl^ and lunmibBtrfaiptsM 

uarrative. Jt was. divided into three voluilies, which can^ 

taiued trwenty-four bpokis, or twenty riv^. aecordtn^l tb 

. Charles Stephens, Volatermnus, • and : Sigimins.. i Pbodiis 

tells ;us,' tliere were Jttnie: books cowerning the etlKiiwafli, 

though ther^ are butfit^ now extant • ThisKperforniaiuse 

*has^ been oba/ged with uuKny errors and amperfedtioas^ 

*but Ph(9ldus is.of opinieu,iie wrote? .with tbeuttaoitanagfiKd 

-tp, truth, > and has -shewn gi^eater kDonded^ of militBigr 

»;^ffair9 then any of the historiana, and depiictshattle^tand 

:9tber .great events witli^the skill of au aitisc But his dMti 

► ■■■, * ' .' *.«' 

I Geii. Dipt.— 1»J0£;. Universelle.-^Manget and Halkr in 4rL Aba|io.«-T&uGU 
'QaoOUffiticon. ' ' ^ 

* . «vi9^ii.'Pirt-*Cfaatffefie«-^l^abdc. BiU«<Jitec«««^«ui, vqLIX. 



. .A-fe'l?"i.*A J»i. A crc 

4 

talent ^ (toiilsiiuesi4ib«t ailtMr) ^» ^pbjredr in Im oatdand^ 
in which h^ producer aistiodg ^ffe^t^ontJlepasgion^^eitlsar' 
in anifsatkig. the resolution of the atcyu;^. oip'rep9#fein^ tfaii^ 
impetuoflity af the pi»cipitftt&« In tbe-pri£m| Ijtegiv^jaf 
general denrippon of the Eomasr ismplt1e^ ' !:.•>' ■ n ^ : : t 
. He tells iiS'f this empire w^s hfiHU!i4eAo9i ^he.eMt^jyt^ei 
riter Euphratee, mount GaUc&9]ib,i the/'^jhreatirJbm^nie^t 
and^Cokbis^ andton the narfeh fc^t^thr BiUDube.; bejrbBdt 
which, 'however, thte Bomaas {p6l|Sef«4'»33aQ)ii^va3/3l^^r^iD 

several othdr nations b^bnid^tbefillhiJB^' (Tbe}^>wc«ie itf^^ 
ter9' of ahovethalf of Brit^ini; bdtiiiegielQleA the-.r^t,- ^she 
iafocmi m^ tb^caliseat wasitof no^^ej^ d^m^; an4.the5rfrer 
ceHred but' littlariiailirafiiUag^ii&dmtiwhat th^: possessed; 
There were several other^cmtntisles, 'v^hidi 'Ortrt moiie thanr 
they gained i^daeio^^ttfc tbey*tbaughtiitidi^ht)t|MirabIe.to 
^andoii'tbdHi.1 This oeosaioned^ thw» to^oegk^ttheidp^n 
portunities of malfiimg'^tbemaelvmt tna^t^ of; many dtfaosr 
nations^ ^d'to satisfy then^elvesrjwilihfrgifiiig.themkmgSy' 
as they did'to the f&oeaiteft Arm^i^;i) tteEM&ui«s .«^ iike«». 
wise^that hd satvutRosie^ iambA^adoraiboiN^ sey^ld^pOfua^ 
tries of tbeihiai^bariani, wh^ jdesired to siiy^miti^ to.iile AoiimB; 
empitey bbt.wdrei.rejected j)y:the,e|[9f}erQr!b)ec3iise thegn 
were poor^ ' .i^d/ so adwuatiagfts ; eouldi Isiei expected, firoor 
them.' 1- 1.'"./-. r ,»•/'. '■ ' ••'-'V '• * - • ^s 

Of alii this ^olttminouis work, thesce . remnias oliiy .irbat; 
treats ofi the Punio^. Syma^.^X^hiany 'Mitbadat^e>; aiui? 
Spanish <wadrS|^wtt^ those a^aiast Halimbai^ : the icavU wUr^ 
^nd this wales :in IUymu0^^add seme fhagm^ts. $>£ the CeiU 
tic o£ (Bailha wars. ^.Appian wltapuhli^d hy JHei>ry Ster 
phena(wil)h,a Latiiiiteesii()ife^ ^€.lQeneva> M^^y infoti^;. hats 
the best J^diiMNasf are; those* x)£ToUius9,i<Sr jHSl hfLU2 vola. 
SyO) .Amst.M 16110, 02)4 o£:i$dhw^i^bemc^r|. Lips* 17349 
:i. vols* SvOt of whiMfbJast the. editor jof the. Bibliographicid 
I>ictionaryi]as giv^n a very paorUaidAr bceount..^ 

ApimE£C£.or RUE$Q.'(JidttK),.an IQngUsh writai oi 
thft mteeoydi A^GMtmy, ,<de»$en4ed Aroai: an aucient wA 
hoiaoara^le>famify in Wah^s./ He was educated, at Qxfoj»l^ 
butih what^faaUior oolkgetjis mucerl^ain : pmbablyinrthe 
aaqieiit faotel) 'nbw Pemb/oke cafiege> in which several oi 
his.'naiiiiifwereieducated about tbo sq^e period^ . lir 1534/ 
]ba«:i^vaa ^mitl^A bachelor of civil law. Patronised bjf 
WiUliaiB'eadl idf'PemhipkfSi^ihe pursued his studies wij^ 

\ Gen. Diet. — Su^ Qsi0nKi>t,r'r<^lio0rai>hIpU I^ct.— <aiifi JDib4in'» Clas«icg« 

BB ^ 



373. A P P REE C E. 

akcrilsf ) mui > becaan^ emineotly liMtrned, pai^ularly uni 
tbebfttory and. antiquities of bis own country. Wood says, 
that ki 1546<;7 be was knighted, with many ottiers, by Ed- 
ward, lord protector of England, and tbat be died in tbe 
reign of queen Mary. Pitts gives him the character of a 
learned and elegant writer. He wrote, 1. <^ Fides bisto* 
siar Britannia, > contra Pdyd^ Virgilium/* a manuscript in 
tbe Cotton libmry* S. ** Defensio regis Artburi.^* 3. ** His* 
toriffi BritannisB defansio," 1573* 4. ^' Cambriae descrip- 
tion-? corrected and augmented by jHiumpb. Lbuyd, and 
translated in«a English by David Powel, Oxon. 1663, 4to. 
5. I>e Variis anttquiti^bas^-^Traetatum de Eiicbaristia-— 
of tbe restittitioa of tbe Coin, written in 1533, all in ma- 
suiscript in New College library. ^ ^ 

APROSIO (ANGeLico), bom^ tt Ventiiniglia, in the np- 
publiO'Of G^noa, l§01^ was a< man of great reputation. in 
the learned' world, and wrote several books. At fifteen 
years oi age he entered into tbe order of tbe Augustins, 
where be isieoame so much esteemed, thilt he was appointed 
vicar-g^ieral of the congregation of our Lady of Conso* 
lation at Genoa. As soon as be bad finished his studies, 
he taught philosopbyi which he continued- to do for five 
years; after. whi<^ he traveUi^d hito several parts of Italy, 
and settled at Venice in 1639, in the convent of St. Ste-^ 
phen; What rendered him most fismous was . tbe library of 
tbe Ao^ttstins at V^itinHg^ia, which being chieBy collected 
by him, /was a proof of Us ardoair for learning, and bis ex* 
cellent taste. He pubUsbed a bode concerning this library^ 
which is much sought after by the cprious. Morhof men- 
tions Uiis work in several places of his PolybistcH*, published 
in 1688 (p. 38| 39), and always as if he thou^t it bad 
not been yet published ; nevertheless Mr: Bay le discovered 
that the ^ Bibliotheca Apiosiana^* was printed at Bologna 
in 1673 ; and that Martin FogeKus, or Vogelius, professor 
at Hamburgh, had a copy pf ^ it.«^He used to disguise 
himself under ficdttous names in the title-pages of his 
books-; which conduct might, perhaps, be owing to the 
subjects he wrote upon, tiiey not being always suited to- a 
religious life ( such, foriastance, as the Adonis of tbe ca*« 
valier Marino, &q. And if we consult the authors who 
ha^e given us a catsJogue of the writers of Ltguria^ we find 
that he assumed sometimes the name of ^Masoto Galistoni^ 

1 B^le^^^a»<^Tmmf.'^Aau.Os. vol I. 



APROiSIO.' ITS 

ilmnetiiiies tfiat of Culo Oftlfotbni, Sdpfo GfatrMno, Sapri* 
eio Saprici, Oldauro Scioppio, &Ci TheroanrddierStTgKMii 
having published the book of ^ TOchMe/^ or the Sp^^ 
tacles, which » ft severe censure on the <^ A^ok/* hewti 
attacked on^ all sides; but amongst all the • advocated far 
Cavalier Marino, nobody -shewed more zeal for the AdonM 
than Aprosio: the pieces he wrote in defence of it catiMl 
abroad with the following titles : '^ Ochiali stritolato di 
Scipio Glareano per risposta al Signor CaVttUere Fra To^ 
maso Stigli'ani }**— The Spectacles broken, by Scipio Gla*- 
riano, being an Answer to signor cavalier Fra Tomaio 
Stigliani% ** La Sferva poetica di 'Saprido Saprici, lo 
tcantonata accademico heteroclito per risposta alia pridia 
censura dell' Adone del cavalier Marino, fiitta del cavalier 
Tbttiaso ^Stigliaiii;*' — The poetical scOurge of Sapricio 
8aprici, being an Answer to the first Censure of th^ eai^a* 
Her Marino's Adonis, by eavaiief Tomaso Seiglianl. *< Del 
veratro, apologia di Sapricio Saprkci perrispi^sta alia fle« 
conda censura dell' Adone dell cavalier Martno, (atta del 
c:iv'alier Tomaso Stigliani f — Hellebore, or aft Apology of 
Sapricio Saprici, being an answer to the second C^sure of. 
'Cavalier Marino's Adonis, by cavalier Tomaso Stigliani. 
This treatise consisted of two parts,, one of which was 
printed in 1645, and the other in Idi?. 

Apro^io's life is written in the book-^bove mentioned^ 
La Bibliotheca Aprosiana^. Several authors have bestowed 
upon him very great encomiums, some of whom have been 
perhaps rather too extr^va^a^t. He- was admitted as a 
member into various academies, particularly that of Gli 
Incogniti of Venice, as appears by the book entitled ^ Le 
glorie de gli Incogniti, overo gli Hnomini lUustri dell* 
academia de* i signori incogniti di Venetia,** 164T, 4to» 
where there is a very high eulogium on him. The Biblio-* 
theca Aprosiana is a very scarce bo6k, and contains, be-^ 
sides many particulars of the author's life, a list of persons 
who presented him with books, and the titles and some cu- 
rious ttotices respecting those books, in an alphabetical 
order, which however reaches no farther than letter C* 
There is a posthumous wot% of his, full of anecdotes of the 
pseudonymous writers of tiis time, which is not less rare. 
It is entitled '< La Visiera alzata hecatoste di scrittori.^ 
Aprosio died in 168!.* . 



jn A.© U^OEJ c a 

illj^>lh^|j$0($i^d -cen^urf, uWerrt^e Anfeonmea^ ^ ^ms born at 
M%^mi.^ Bi^ Bi6m^ colony tin Africa. With ability be' 
HfiMieiii if^die&ligablev iitdusNtry^; jwheooe hei became ac- 
qj;t^i9^<3ed. with ^almoatthe wbole circle of sciences aadlf 
^terti)3iire. * His owi>jaocoUnt«f himself is, libaib be not ODiy 
i(fMtfiA.^{ the cu|^ of 4iiteratujve xind^t gramoiariaps and rbe« 
lorleians at Carthage, but at Athens dl^nk freely of the 
8i|ere(i<fauiil:aiti of poesy ^ the clear stream of geometry^ 
the sveet waters of musici the rough current of dialectics, 
^d tb0 iie^tarious but unfathomable d^ep of philosQphy; 
aid. Hl short, that, with mqre.good will indeed than genius 
bi^ paid equal, homage .to every ivitise. He was oertaialy a 
9)^n of a curious and kfquisitive disposition, especially m 
^%iotts niaiteiiS) which pi?oniptea him to take sevecat 
jp»nftie?j.j and. tp' enter into several societies of religion, 
fle^had a s^otig di^sire to be acquainted with their pre- 
tended mysteries, and for this reason got himself initiated 
into them. He spent almost his whole fortune in trayeU 
(ing; so that,, at- his retnr^Ei to Rome, when he was about to 
dedicate bimoelf'to the service of Osiris, he had not money 
enough to defray the e^pe^ce attending tlie ceretnonies of 
bis reception, and was obliged to piavm his clothes to raise 
tlie necessary sum. ' He supported himself afterwards by 
pleading causes^ and, ts he was both eloquent and acute, 
many considerable causes were trusted to him. But he 
l>enefited himself more by a good marriage, than by his 
pleadings: a widow, named Puden|}lla» who, was neither 
young nOr bandspme, but very rich, accepted his hand, 
Thi» marviage drew upon him a.troubl^sonie law-suit; the 
relatipns of the lady pretended be made use of sorcery to 
gain her heart and money, and accordingly accused him of 
being a m<'i^ician, before Claudius Maximus, proconsul of 
Africa* Apuleiu§ w^s ujider no great difiipulty In making 
his defence ; for as Pudentilla was determined, from con« 
siderations of health, tq enter upon ' a second marriage, 
l^en befoi^e she had seen this pretended magician, the 
youth, deportment, pleasing conversaticoi, vivacity, and 
other agreeable qualities of Aptileius, we^e charms suffi- 
cient to engage her heart He had the roost favourable 
opporjbunities t^ .of gaining her friendship, for he lodged 
some time at her house, and was greatly beloved by Pu- 
dentilla^s eldest son, who was very desirous of the match, • 
(and solicited him in favour bf his indtfaer. Apuieius also 



A P u E K hu St > ar; 



s. 



t0ertA to prtrve'f by b» mamnge^cOtitraQt, thai: be wcrold 
gain- bat a moderate sum by it. * Hi» apology is still >Q2iii 
lant; it is reckoned a performance- of considerable merit, 
and contains examples of tbe shameless artifices which the* 
HUshood of ikn impudent calumniator is capable of practis- 
ing. There were many persons who took for a true history 
all that be relates in his femous work, the ^* Golden Ass/^- 
St A^igustio was even doiibtful upon this bead, nor did he* 
eenainiy know that Apuleias had only given this book as a 
m>mance. Some of tbe ancients have spoken of this per- 
iformance with great contempt, In tbe letter which the^ 
emperor Severua wrote to the senate, Therein he complains 
of fthe honours that had. been paid to Claudius Albinus, 
amongst which they had' given him the title of Learned, 
he expresses great indignation, that it should be bestowed^ 
on a man, who had only stuffed his bead with idle tales 
and rhapsodies taken from Apuleius. Macrobius has al- 
lotted the ^* Golden Ass,'* and all such romances, to the 
perusal of nurses. Bishop Warburton, in the second edi- 
tion of his ^'Divine Legation,** supposes that the ^^ Golden 
Ass** is an allegory, intended nbt only as a satire upon the 
▼ices of the times, but as a laboured attempt to recommend 
tbe mysteries of the Pagan religion, in opposition to Christ- 
ianity, to which he represents him as an inveterate enemy. 
In confirmation pf this opinion, he points out the resem- 
blance between tbe several parts of the story and the rites 
of initiation^ ' both in the greater and lesser mysteries ; 
and explains the allegory of C^ipid and Psyche, which 
makes a lopg episode in Apuleius, upon the same prin- 
ciples. This opinion, however^ has been contested by Dn 
Lardner (Works, vol. VIL p. 462.) 

Apuleius was extremely indefatigable in his studies, and 
Composed seTeral books, some in verse, and others in 
pt0^; but Most of them are lost* He took pleasure in 
declaiming, and was heard generally with great applause | 
wben be declaimed' at Occa, the audience cried out with 
0|ie voice, that they ought to confer upon him the honour 
of citizen* Tbe oitizens of Carthage heard him with much 
satisfaction, and erected a statue to him ; and several otlier 
cities did him thesaih^ honour. The time of bis death is 
not known, but after his Apolog}"^ took effect, he is said to 
have passed his- days quietly in study. 

His printed vyorks have gone through forty-three edi- 
tions, nine of which appeared in the fi.fteeutlx. pentury^ 



arfi. A P u L E 10 S* 

T^e ftrst^ ^hich is very, rare) ftod was not mutilated by thi 
Inquisitioi)^ was printed a^ Rom^ by order of carUioal Bes^ 
sarioni and Andrea,, bishop of Aleria^.was editor, 1469|» 
fi>l. This volume consisted of, J • The " Goldeij Ass, . 
Qu which his reputation chiefly rests, and of whi^h ther^i 
have been many separate editions and translations inta 
French, Italian, Spanish, German, £nglish (by William 
Adlington, 1571, &c.) Of the episode of Psyche, ther0 
have been an equal number of separate editions and tr^ns-* 
lations, and some French ones superbly ornamented with 
engraving. 2. His Apology, entitled *' Oratio de Magia,** 
Heidelhefg, 1594, 4to, &c. 3. ** Florida," or fragments 
of his speeches, some on history a^ud mythology, Stra^-* 
burgh, 1516. 4. '^ Three books on philosophy^ entitled 
** De habitudine doctrinarum et nativitate Pla^onis.^' 
5. ^^ Oe Deo Socratis,*' which St. Augustiae refuted, Pa« 
ri.H, 1624, 16mo. 6. <^ De Mundo,*' which has beeil 
considered as an exact translation of what Aristotle wrote 
on the same subject, Memmiiigen, 1494, fol. and Leyden^ 
1591, 8vo, with that of Aristotle in Greek. Another iisfc 
of works has been attributed to him on doubtful autbo<* 
rity,*asa Latin translation of Asclepips. ^^ De Natura De^ 
orum ;*' a book ^' De nomiuibus, virtutibus, seu medica* 
minis herbarum ;^' another, ^^ De notis adspirationis, et de 
diphthongis ;^* ^' De ponderibus, metisuris, acsignis cujius* 
que;'' " Anechonienos,'* a heroic .poem, and *^ Ratio 
Spherse PythagoricsB.'* Besides these a great number of 
his writings, on almost every subject, are said cp nave been 
lost Daniel William Mo]ler published an essay on his life 
and works, y\ltdorf, 1691, 8vo. ' 

AQUAPENDENTE. See FABRICIUS. 

AQUAVIVA (Andrew Matthew), Duke of Atri in 
the kingdom of Naples, and son of Julius Aquaviva^ count 
of Conversano, added to the splendour of his birth a greal 
jihare of learning) which rendered him very illustrious to-* 
wards the end of tbe fifteenth^ and beginning of the six- 
teenth century. He was at first addicted to the military 
art, and distinguished himself by his bravery, although he 
was unfortunate, and in the last battle in which he fought^ 
was woiinded and taken prisoner. When released he ap- 
pears to have devoted his linse to study and the conversa* 
tion of men of letters, by whom he was highly esteemed* 

* Gen. Diet— Fabric. Bibl. Gnec.«i-yos8iu8 de Hist. Lat — Brucken—Biof* 
CFniverielie.'^SAxii ODOoiasticoiu - 



A aU A V J V.A. $7f 



Alexander ab AleiKtiidra dedicated to; Uim Uf ^^.DtatiGe* 
HiaW^ and ^^ Pontana^'* two of hi* yrorkst He died in 
1528^ aged seveiity'^twb: years. Hiaivi^orks w^re^raii f^Enn 
cylopsdia/^ ' left vei^ ioifierfect ;>and Bayle aays he cms** 
pbsedabook ^^De re Equestri^v. :His best Jsiuowh iworitt 
is ^* Disputationes de Virtute iliorali/' Helenop. 1 60d> 4tiEi^ 
which it seemsidoubifal whether ; Bay te ev/tfc' sliw;; His 
Inrbther Belisarios also became an author, and pubiuhed &> 
treatbe ^ T>i Venatione^?' and >:otbers >f De Aucupio^'* 
'* De Principum liberis edotandiV and.^^ De Certamine 
Singnlari.'' These were first priirited at ^Naples, 1519, foL 
and reprinted at Basil, ISl^-^vOj by Leunclavias, with 
Mauuel Palaeologns on the fi^ducation.of Kings. ^ 

A dU A VIVA (ClaCdius), son to John Jerome, duke of 
Atri, was born at Naples in 1542, aiid in 1581 was elected 
general of the Jesuits, ih which station, he conducted him* 
self with great mildness and prudence, and died Jan. 31^ 
1 6 15. ' He left several religious works : among others^ ** Iq- 
dustria? ad curandos animae morbos," Paris, 1603, BVoyand 
Rome, 1 606, 8vo. A French translation of this was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1776, 12mo, under the title of ^^ Manuel 
^s 8uperieurs.*' He wrote also Meditations in Latin, oii 
the forty ^fourth'* and ninety-third Psalms. . His most cele- 
brated work drawn up for the use of . bis order, entitled 
*^ Ratio Studiorum," anid pubiishedat Rome in 1586, 8vo, 
was suppressed by the Inquisition^ and .much displeiased 
the Jesuits and Dominicans, by containing more liberal 
tentitnents than were consistent with tbeif interest. It was 
republished in 1591, but in a mutilated state; Another 
work of his, less known, was ^^. Epistolas Prspositorum Ge«* 
neralium, ad Patres et Fratres societatis Jesu. Instructio ad 
augendum spiritum in societate,'' Rome, 1615, 8vo.' 

AQUILA, of Sinope in Pontus, lived in the time of the 
emperor Adrian in the second century, by whom he is siaid 
to hare been sent to assist in the rebuilding of Jerusalem, 
where he embraced Christianity; but, his attachment to ju- 
dicial astrology having subjected him to censure among the 
Christians, he became a Jew^ and was advanced to the 
rank of Rabbi. He now employed himself in acquiring 
a perfe.ct knowledge of the Hebrew language, and trans-* 
lated the Old Testament into Greek. But although he 
made this apparently a literal translation, he is said to have 

1 Gen. Diet.— Diet. Hiitorique. * Diet. Historique.<^Biof. UnivenfUe. 



t7t ^AiOtV I VA: J 

S'vin some pmaugesi i-eBpectin]^ Jesw ClarfetatacB-mor;^ 
roumble to the Jewashpri^ttdiccs. than the Septuagiatt 
tif&ibsItLtion*' ' Fra^mento only'^ tjiis trsnslation of Aqirib^^: 
hsw 'descended to 119. rr. Some piiiiticalars o£ him may her 
Ibutid in Gahre, aind ih the ecclesiastical htstoriafis. of hiir 

AQUILANO (SEftiFiKO)^ so ealted from Aqnila^ a.oitjr 
id Abruzzo in the kingdom of .Naples^ was. liorn there iti 
li&Sy and gained oonmderable fame by his kalian poeoMi, 
but more by his talents as.aa-.improviaatdri^ wbidi were in* 
high esteem with the pODces aad. patrons of literatnre in 
Us country. He was the contemporary and rival of Te* 
baldeo di Ferrara^ and together they cpntribitfed ^not-.a 
little to the refinement of Italian poletry^ but their rc|>«ta- 
tion sunk before that of Sannazarius and Bembo* Aqiiilano 
died at Rome, Aug. 10, 15lt>0. . His poems, connstiiigof 
soanets, eclogues, epistles^ j&c. were printed at Bion»e. in 
1503, Svo, but the best edition is that of the Giuati, 151:6.? 

AQUILANUS (Sebastiahus), or Sebahtian d'Aouijua^ 
his true name being unknown, an Italian physician, bora sil 
Aquila, a town of Abruzzo in. the kingdom of Naples, pnon 
fessed bis art in the university of Padua. He was id 
rq>atatioa at the time of Louis de • GonsAiga, bishop of 
Mantua, to whom he inscribed a book. He died in 154-5. 
We have of .his a treatise " De Morbo Gallico^" Lyciis^ 
1506ty 4to, with the<fworks of other pJiysicians, Boulogne, 
1517, 8vo; and ^* De.Febre Sanguinea^" irt the ^ Practinar 
de Gattinaria,'* Basle, 1537, in Svo; and* Lyons, li53d^ 
4to. Aquilanus was one of the most zealous: di^f^mdera olf 
Galen, and is said to have been one of tbe firstiwbo. em^ 
ployed meroury in the cure of the venereal disease,; whitit^ 
however, he administered in very small dosesu^ 
* AQUINAS (St. :Thomas),< commonly called tbe AageU 
ical Doctor, of the ancient family of the counts pf Ai}iiinoi 
desceiuled ftom the kings of Sijcily and Arragon^ W9^ horn 
in the oastle of Aquino^ in the I'evra di Lavoro^ in Italjr^ 
about the year L234. . At 6ve years of age ha wiasi coqamil^ 
ted to the care of the monks of Mount G^^inoy with whom 
he remained till he was sent to the university of Naples^ 
In the year 1241 be entered into the ordeif of the preaeh<- 
■ ' ^ .t . . 

* Gen. Diet.— Cave, vol. I.-rLirdiiPT's Wor|6R. — ^Saxii Onomasticon. 

• Biog-. Universatle. — Ginguene Hist. Lit. d'ltalie, vol. IIL 544.— Roscoe's 
Leo.— Tiraboschi. 

^lliiltar and Mangftt — aieg. Univerftelle. 



S a,U: r N A; &. W« 

Kig fn$j^ at Kap}^s,.i^khoiiJt. |b«i)ai^wledge!oC hmpueiktnj 
His iQotber, bfsitigjn^mied of tbiS) > need', her utmottef*^ 
fort^ tpj induce hinlvto leave tU^societ^^ to pceinentwbich^ 
the Doinioicans removed ^im tajTeiracina, and from ithenoel 
to AnagBa, . and at la&t to , Borne*. His inotjier foliowed > hiaD 
tbitfb^Yf and when sbe could iH>t obtain leave of the monkv 
to see him, by the assistance of her tivo eider sbns, she seised 
the yoQth in his journey to Paris^ to which he was sent by die 
monks of bis prder, and caused :hmi to be shut up in her 
9astle; whence, after a ^confinemeiitof two years, ho made 
his escape, and fled first to Naples, and tben to Rome* 
In 1244 he went to Paris with Jobiiy^he master of the Teu^ 
tonic order, and froo^ thence removed to Cologne, to hear 
the lectures of Aibertus Magnus. Here he remained till 
he was invited again to Paris, to read lectures upon the 
^^ Book of Sentepces,^' which be did witb great applause, 
)>efore a very large audience. In the year 1255 be watf 
created D. D. at Paris* He returned to Italy about the 
year 1263, and was appointed definitor of his order, for 
the provinpe of Rome ; and. having taught school divinity 
in fnpst of the universities of Italy, he re-settled at last 9/t 
Naples, where he received a penaion from king Charles; 
Here he spent his time in study,, in reading of lectures^ 
and exercises of pi€^ty ; and was so far from' any views of 
ambition or profit, that he refused tbe archbishopric d^ that 
city when it yr^s offered him by .Clsemenjb IV*. In 12.74 be 
was sent for to the second. |(^f>uncil of « Lyons, by pope€kie«»^ 
gory.X, that he might read before tbem the. book he. had 
written agaipst tbo Grei^ks, ^t jtbe .cpi^mand. of Ulrbari IV.; 
but he feU s^ck^on his jcHirneyy at th0, jnonsfiitery of Fessaf 
nova, nev Terrao^nfi,. wl^efe be died onjiihei?tb>of March, 
age4 fiftyjy^ar? . .' .. • i -i •'• > ••;• '-m.ih ,: ■■ i . » •-'*"' 
The wjji9le, W^s>:era vcffl^i a^fter bis/ c^ec^ase^ .began to* 
-load the.fi^y^oryof.TbQmaft'AquifiaS'witb bpn4trs. Th^. 
Dominican^ firat^rnitj ];^Q»Qyed his, body'stOnTbo^iouisirr;{ 
pope John XXIL canom:$gd. him.; })^ius»Ar. giwe bbn^tbc) 
title of tbe fifth Doctor of.tl^eCburpb^ tb^'laaisaed world 
honoured him with the. appellation ^f The Uiiaversal and 
theAngelip Doctor; apd JSUbptus.SanensiS'. tells us,, thals 
he approached: so nearly tio St.. Augustin in the knowle<^ 
of true djvinitys and penetrated so deeply into the most 
abstruse meanings of that father, that, agreeably to. .the 
Pythagor^s^i mq^mpsychpsi^.it; was a conuixm expression 
atQpng fSAl ffx&o^ of [ea|:;QiQg, . that Sts AugAlstiu's so^l hadr 



AQXJTK A S^ 

transmigrated into St. Tliomai Aquinas.- ftapin flfpeaks also 
of iiim with high honour, and represents him as one of the 
great improTers of scfaool^innitjr. Lord Herbert of Cher-* 
bury/ in his Life and Reign of Henry VHI. tells as/ that 
one of the principal redsons, ivhich induced this king to 
write against Martin Luther^ was, that the latter had spoken 
contemptuously of Aqutilas« The authority of Aquinas in- 
deed has been always very great in the schools of the Ro- 
man Catholics. But notwithstiinding all the extravagant 
praises and honours which hare been heaped upon this 
saint, it is certain that his leaniing was' almost wholly 
confined to scholastic theology, and that he was so little 
conversant with elegant and liberal studies, that he was not 
even able to read the Greek language. For all his know*» 
ledge of the Peripatetic philosophy, which he so liberally 
mixed with theology, he was indebted to the defective 
translations of Aristotle which were supplied by the Ara^ 
bians, till he obtained, froth some unknown hand, a mord 
accurate version of his philosophical writings. Adopthig 
the general ideas of the age, that theology is best defended 
by the weapons of logic and metaphysics, he mixed the 
subtleties of Ariistotle with the language of scripture and 
the Christian fathers t and, after the manner of the Ara- 
bians^ framed abstruse questions, withdut end, upon vari- 
ous topics qf speculative theology. He excelled, therefore-^ 
only in that subtile and abstruse kind of learning which 
1^8 better calculated to strike the imagination, than to im-^ 
prove the understanding. He maintained what is com* 
mm\j called the doetrine of free-will, though he largely 
quoted Augustifi, and retailed' 'many of his pious and de- 
votional sentiments. ^His Ari^stotelian subtleties enabled 
him to give a specious colour to the absurd doctrine of 
traiisubstantiatioo, which- jn him 'found a vehement de- 
fender. He held many CftHefemyn^eous opinions^' but it^ 
must be acknowledged,' there ate in his writings, and par- 
ticularly in the account of his' discourses during his last 
sickness, traces ^ gi^eat de^dtidn, ahd a strain of piety very 
similar to thial! of ht. AugostiR. . Aquinas left a vast num- 
ber of worlcs, which were priited in seventeen volumes in 
folio, at Venice in 1490: at Nuremberg in 1496; Rome 
1570; Venice 1594; and Cologne 1612; and many times 
after. 

The five first volumes contain his Commentaries upon 
the w^rks of Aristotle. I'he siltfi and seventh a dm- 



A a Ul N A S. ttt 

i&enlUiiy upon the four Books of Seoteticeii. The ei]ghth 
eoi^ists Ol Questions in Divif^ity. The ninth volume cdn-t 
taios tbe.iSum of the Catholic Faith, against the Gentiles ^ 
divided into four bdoka. The .tenth, elerventh, and twelfth^ 
the Sum tof Divinity, with the Commentaries of cardinal 
Cajetanus* The thirteenth consists of several* Commenta* 
Ties upon the Old Testament, particularly a Comttoentary 
upon the! Book of Job,* a literal and analogical Expositioili 
upon tbe.nrst fifty Psalms, an Exposition upon the Can« 
tides, which he dictated upon his death*bed, to the monks' 
of Fossanova i Commentaries, upoii the Prophecies of ibalah 
and Jeremiah, and uppn the Lamentations. ' The fourteen th 
contains the Commentaries upon the gospels of St. Matthew 
and St. John; the former > is said to have been written 4)y 
Peter Scaliger, a dominican iViar 'aiid bishops of Verona. 
Tlie fifteenth volume contains the Catena upon the fou( 
Gospels^ extracted. from the fathers, and dedicated to pope 
Urban IV. The sixteenth consists of the Commentary 
upon St. Paulas Epistles, and the Sermons of Aquinas 
preached 'on .Sundays and the festivals of saints. The 
seventeenth contaiins divers tracts in Divinity. 

There have been ako published separately^ under his 
natme, several* other commentaries upon tlie^scriptures^ 
particularly upon Genesis^ Lyons, 1573, in Svo ^ upon the 
{MTophecy of Daniel; upon the book of the Maccabees, Paris, 
1596, Svo; upon all the canonical Epistles, Paris, 1543^ 
8vo» We have likewise a commentary upoh Boethius^s 
Conflation, of Philosophy, published under Aquinas*^ 
aame,: at Louvain in 14S7, in folio. 

: Several difficulties have been raised in regard to his 
*^ SummaTheoIogisB,'' whicii have occasioned some authors 
to: doubt whether be was really the author of it. Thefe is 
a very. accurate examination of these difHcullies in CasiMit 
Oudins* '^ Commentarius de scriptoribus ecclesise antiquis 
eorumque scriptis ;^' wherein he determines, that Thomas 
Aquinas is the real author of the ^* Summa Tbeologiae.'*' 
* Of aU these, in Bracker*s opinion, the most celebrated are, 
his ** Sumnia Theologi®," Heads of Theology — of which 
^e second section, which treats of moraU, may be read 
with advahtagre ; his commentaries upon the 'a-naly tics, in^^ 
tapHysics, and ethics of Aristotle, and upon his book ••* t)€ 
Inteipretatiaae." * ' • 

•' ' ' 

*^«i?.''Ditt!.-^ave,'vol. [.— Brucker. — ^Du Pin.— Moreri.-^aiU OnoniasU* 
CQn.-— MiineHy Church ilist. vol. IV, p. SS. 



3M AQUINO. 

AQUINO (GHAitLfi8DB}yft'niiscdlMeousi«>ritJi$rpf con* 
siderable fame, was born at Naples in l€S4^ '^«n^ died at 
{tome ill 1740. He was of 'this order of JdsuitSy ami ace*, 
iebrated teacher of chetorijc. His workss, which dkcoYef 
tnuch learning and taste, ace wiitten.in Latiti. ' The prfn-^ 
cipal are, " Votmaiviy* Rome, \1(^^ 3 vds^ ; i" Oratione^,'* 
1704, 2 vclsi 8voV* ** Lexicon Militate," in 2i vols., folio, 
1724. This contains, under some, of the articles^ v^'y 
learned dissertations on die n\ilttary art. Another lex^ 
IPCMi^ entitled ^^ <Nonienclator Agriculturse,** 1736, 4ta, is 
not held in the same esteem. He published also, ^^ His-^ 
Morical Miscellanies^" 172i^ and an interesting ^* Uist^y 
of' the war in. Hungary,". 1726, ISmo, undeivthe title of 
<< iFragmenta historica de bello Hungaritc^*^ * , i ' . 
. AQUINO, or, AQUIN (Louis:CLAiJtD&DE),»^eefebrated 
French musician, was born, at Paris, July i 4/ .1694»,^ where 
he died June \5^ 1771^. . He was so remafirhaUe £or qatly 
gi^nius, .that at, the age <if six heiperfiormed on the ba^i-psi*^ 
uixord before Louts XIV; at eight yecir^'old theiceleb rated 
jBertiier declared he could teadx him* nothing m^ ; and 
at twelve he was made organist at the church of Petit St. 
Ant<Hde^ i^ometime after, beobtiiined a trimmph highly 
^t|;eriug to. ]a person of his poofesston, by suceessfelly 
contending for the place of organist at the chnrcti of* SL 
^aul, against Rameau, who at that time wished to be eatah* 
U^hed ui Pscris. . Wonders are told of the powevs ^f exe* 
cution and taaite which Aquino displayed, and it is said 
tj^t Handel visited France on purpose to hear him« He ii 
celebrated also for his simple and amiable manners, and his 
a^t&cbment t^ religion. Two onlyof his works have been 
fi^ngraved, the one a collection of pieces for the^ harpsi- 
chord, and the other some carrols with ^variitions; but he 
]fify to hi3 son a considerable number of manuscript per« 
form^nceS}.^ - -* 

. AQUINO PE Chatrau Lyoj< {Peter Louis), son' ^ 
the preceding, and a bacbdbr of medicine, was a miscel}a« 
^pus writer At Paris, where he died about the year 1797, 
inritbopt leaving 4 reputfition equal to that of his father* 
Yet. some of bis publications were useful. la the list we 
find) . L ** CoMes mis en vers pjix un.petit c9U6dn de Ra- 
^flais,'* 1775, QvQ. 2t ^^ L^ttres sur ies hommes celebres 
dans Ies sciences," 1752,. 2 vols. re-i)ubli&bed. in 1753, 

. ^ Diet. Illst.— Biog. UHiveneUe. s xticU Hj&t--^BMls;.U^WeiMl|^ 



L 



' AQUINO. tm 

juuferrtbe ittle o£ <f::fiittcfeUtte/a»De<€le (Louis XVJ" 
j?i. ** Se*aioe Litteraire;^ Vr59, 4.T0I5. ISmo.^ 4.'*! A*. 
jnmPiacb litterair^ ou £tvehnes d'ApoUoiiy'^ nn-^S^Qyi.ltlf 
|?i^o)^^<^«coUectipaof tDiaeeliaaieB in inroseimd i^ecisev He 
^ilbUsk^ SQfue.ptlieviworiiS'With JeBsisUxroessiy^andU'qsdii 
1^ l^ S9i4^ ia aUmiofi- todtts* facher^e pvofesaiony ' ' : ; 

./• ,1 '«tO»soufta^<MirM|feWJ;Onsiffl8(;poarl6'flfe."«^ • 

' AQT^INO' CPhiup 'd% ' a Mrned ' 't^bbi' of Carpentras^ 
wWse^pl'dper riame^w^s Mardocai/or' Mar'do'cHeus, was.'ex- 
l^ijifed ifrtim the'syhijgdgtie of ATignoii, in 16^ d, on'aCpOunt 
af'Btiachmiht'tb CtristSamtyl On this he weht to the 



rotdd himself ptinqipklly to'teaching Hebrew, and Lolui's 
XTIf. kppohtted Jilin professor in the Royal (?olIdge,;dnd 
H'febrew' interpreteri which honourable^iation heiXeidf iJiStil 
his dfektfi in"i65a, at whirch tlmfe he>vlis'preparirf^*;a hew 
/wrsion tAf the New Testament, with'"iiotQs on Str *P^ur? 
* tJpistlesJ 'Le Jay al^* ewiployett him ffi ' co^-rettfu^ ' the 
B^breir^ud Chaldee parts of ^i^ P|:)ij^!5t. . l^is pf|ridipal 
sprinted wdrit^ Hife*^ • 1. ** Dikioter^iafp* tffebrao-dhfstldao- 
'Talmiiaieb^l^bbinicatti,'" 'Peri's, 'l62l?i'^. 2.^^ jftactne^ 
de'laiarigue Mritey'''VMis,i62d/i6\: i/ « Ekplicatiop 
ttes tt^;tfe moyenyti6nt'se'servai€fftt iWi^bbmspb^^ enteri- 
arele'Pe^iteuqii^, retoteilUs du T^mud.*' 4/ *'Ari Jt'a^ 
flttil^ll^khsIaHon of *ihe'ApOphth^gijas of thcj'ancieW'Jdv^isli 
AfctorS." "5r. ^^ Latrrifai^S in obitum'fllust. cardinal de B^^' 
rtH$," Wif'patrotl:-^ eT^ fikamen rtiaiial/*'-^7. '**DiSCoiirs 
dtt tslBeritacle'et ati'e&m des IsrkefiteC*' Paris,'. 162^, 
4t6.' '^. "Voces 
16tad, -arid others: 
«S'|;*et|t3an idept asiift^felher in Hhd'Orretitai tongues, left 
V^birfd hitti 'seV^rai Ta)ibimt4i^w0rks.— Anto4ne i>*A^iic 
fitit physicidn t6' Lcfiiis XIVII who diefibih 1096, at Vlchi} 
A^^*sohWthela?£iminHonedLdtiis.« . • :.- iujI 

' ARA:M;LDA^^(Sl*tJARt), ; comtaonly 'called the la'dyArai 
bidla, was'So bften tirlkfejl of for a' qlicfen, that cdstdtn secerns 
**KaV^''g}\fdn hfeVrfi?|!tt\i fin article In this mann^^uiVdei* 
h^ ClirfttWh^ ria«*; ^'^%t' liy ^hJcla bpif historians 'dik^^ 
iWiguSsl^Oier. ' Sfi«'«ri^ tll^diu^toi^bfqhaTle^ Stuart, '^^^^^ 
of -Lelio*, who it^At^WWi»^i? btoth^r io^leVy'lotdDarnley^ 

• -i, ,1 v '.' f ' ' '. :ij:^itV 'U ' ''JIK. ,f.. • . .• ••. • 



<Sn A. a A B £ L L A. 



'faitber Jto kibg James VI. of Scotland, and First of 'England, 
t»y Elizabeth^ daughter of sir William Cavendish, knt. She 
9fas born, as: near as can be computed, in 1577, and edu« 
dated at Lbndon, under the eye of the oM countess of 
Lenox, her grand-mother. She was far from bein^ either 
J>eautiful in. her person, or 'from being distinguisned by 
any extraordinary qualities of mind; and yet she met with 
maDjr admirers, on account of her royal descent^ and near 
relation to the crown of England. Her father .dying in 
1579, and leaving her thereby sole heiress, as some under* 
stood, of the bous^ of Lenox, several matches were proi- 
jectea for her at home and abroad.. Her cousin, king 
James^ iDclined' to have married her to lord Esme Stuart, 
whoni he hail created duke of Lenox, and whom before his 
marriage he considered as his heir; but this match was 
prevented by queen Elizabeth, thouen it was certainly a 
very 6t one in all respects. As the English successiofi, was 
at this time very problematical, the great powers , on the 
Cohtine^njL speci^latQcl on many husbands for the. lady Ara- 
bella^ , such a$ the, cl^uke of Savoy, a prince of th^ house of 
Farpese, an4 others. • la the mean time, this lady had some 
tliought^ of marrying herself at home, as Thuanus relates^ 
to a SOB .of .the earl of Nortbumberlau^, but it is not ere* 
dible thtat: this took) e^ept, though he says it did privj^tely. 
The very, att^^ip^prooifred her queen Elizabe^hTsdisplea- 
sur^j whp confined heir for it. In the i^ean . timje ^er title 
t^ the crown, sych ias it was, became the subject|^(aaipng8t 
ihapy <^tlier^^ of father iPersons^s fao^ous book, whejc^in ape 
all' the arguments for and against her,, and which serv^ to 
divufge'hec.hame and descent all over Europe^ and yet 
ibis book wps not y^ry fayoiirable to her interest.. On' the 
death of the <j,ueen,. some malconte^nts, framed an odd dc^ 
•igh o£ •Jist^irWi.g >be ;p^^^^^^ and amonigpt .pther 

branches of their dark schej^^ one was to seize the ladj 
Arat>ella, and to. cover their proceedings by the sanction of 
her title, intending also to have married her to some 
English nobleman, the mor^ to injcrease their interest, and 
the better to please the people. • But this conspiracy was 
fatal to none but its authors, an^ !^9^. who conversea with 
them; l>eing speedily defeated, ipfany^keiii and some w-^ 
ecuted. As for the lady Arabelfa^, it does not appear that 
ihe had any knowledge of thia eng;^^ent ^i ^er^ behalf, 
whatever it was ; for domestic writers are perplexed, and 
foreign' historians mis into absurdkieSf -^hen they endea^ 



A R A B E L L Ap SW 

deivour to explain It. She ; continued at liberty, an^ ia 
apparent favour at court,, though her circumstances were 
liarrow till the latter end of the year 1698, wh^n by 
spme means she drew upon her king Jameses displeasure. 
However, at Christmas, when mirth and good-humour pre- 
vailed &t court, she was again taken into favour, had a ser- 
vice of plate presented to her of the value of two hundred 
pounds, a thousand marks given her to pay her debts, and 
9ome addition made to her annual income. This seems to 
have been done, in order to have gained her to the interest 
of the court, and\o put the notions of marriage, she had 
entertained. out of her head; all which, however, proved 
ineffectual ; for in the beginning of the month of February 
1W9,' she was detected in an intrigue with Mr. William ^ 
Seymour, son to the lord Beauchamp, and grandson to the 
earl of Hertford, to whom, notwithstanding, she was pri- 
vately married some time afterwards. Upon this discovery, 
they were both carried before the council, and severely re- 
primanded, and thej?i dismissed. In the summer of 1610, 
the marriage broke out, on which the lady was sent into 
close custody, at the house of sir Thomas Parry, in Lam- 
beth ; and Mr. Sevmour was committed to the Tower for 
his contempt, in marrying a lady of the royal family with- 
out the king's leave. It does not appear that this confine* 
ment was attended with any great severity to either ; for 
th^ lady was allowed the use of sir Thomas Parry's bouse 
and gardens, and the like gentleness, in regard to his high 
quality, was shewn to Mr. Seymour. Some intercourse 
they had by letters, which after a time was discovered, 
and a resolution taken thereupon to send the lady to Dur- 
ham, a resolution which threw her into deep affliction. 
Upon this, by the interposition of friends, she and her 
husband concerted a scheme for their escape, which waa 
successfully executed in the beginning, though it ended[ 
unluckily. The lady, under the care of sir James Crofts^ 
^as at the house of Mr. Conyers, at Highgate, from whence 
she was to have gone the next day to Durham, on which 
she put a fair countenance now, notwithstanding the trouble 
she had before shewn. This made her keepers the more 
easy, and gave her an opportunity of disguising herself, 
which she did on Monday the 3d of June,, 1611, by draw- 
ing over her petticoats a, pair of large French-fashioned 
hose, putting on a man's doublet,^ a peruke^ which covered 
her hair, a hat, black cloak, russet boots with red tops, and 
Vol. IL C c • 



3S« ARABELLA. 

a rapier by her side. Thus equipped, she walked out be^* 
twten three and four with Mr. Markham* They went a 
mile and half to a little inn, where a person attended with 
their horses. The lady, by that time she came thither, was 
so weak and faint, that the hostler, who held the stintip 
when she mounted, said that gentleman would hardly hold 
out to London. Riding, however, so raised her spirits^ 
that by the time she came to Black wall, she was pretty Unel) 
fecovered. There they found waiting for them two men, 
a gentlewoman, and a chambermaid, with one boat full of 
Mr. Seymour^s and her trunks, and another boat for their 
persons, in which they hasted from thence tQwards Wool- 
wich. Being come so far, they bade the watermen row on 
to Gravesend. There the poor fellows were desirous to 
land, but for a double freight were contented to go on to 
Lee, yet being almost tired by the way, they were forced 
to lie still at Tilbury, whilst the rowers went on shore to 
refresh themselves ; then they* proceeded to Lee, and by 
that time the day appeared, and they discovered a ship 
at anchor a mile beyond them, which was the French 
bark that waited for them. Here the lady would have lain 
at anchor, expecting Mr. Seymour, but through the impor- 
tunity of her followers, they forthwith hoisted sail and put 
to sea. In the mean time Mr. Seymour, with a peruke and 
beard of black hair, and in a tawny cloth suit, walked alone 
without suspicion, from his lodging out at the great west 
door of the Tower, following a cart that had brought him 
billets. From thence he walked along by the Tower- 
wharf, by the warders of the south gate, and so to the iron 
^te, where one Rodney was^ ready with a pair of oars to 
receive him. When they came to Lee, and found that the 
French ship was gone, the billows rising high, they hired 
a fisherman for twenty shillings, to put them on board a 
certain ship that they saw under sail. That ship they 
found not to be it they looked for, so they made forwards 
to the next under sail, which was a ship from Newcastle. 
This with much ado they hired for forty pounds, to carry 
them to Calais, and the master performed his bargain, by 
which means Mr. Seymour escaped, and continued in Flan- 
ders. On Tuesday in the afternoon, my lord treasurer be- 
ing advertised that the lady Arabella had made an escape, 
sent immediately to the lieutenant of the Tower to set 
strict guard over Mr. Seymour, which he promised, after 
hksyare mnnnet, " he would thoroughly do, that he would;** 
but, coming to the prisoner's lodgings, be found, to bis gfeat 



ARABELLA. 



38t 



am^aeidenty tliat be was gone from thence one whole day 
liefore. A pink being dispatcbed from the Downs inter 
Calais road^ seized the French bark^ and brought back the 
lady and those with her; but, before this was known^ the 
proclamation issued for apprehending tbeuL As soozr as 
idle was brought to town, she was, after exaixunation^ Qom^ 
mitted to the Tower, declaring that she was not so sorry for 
her own restraint, as she should be glad if Mr. Seymboi^ 
escaped, for ^hose wel&re, she af&rmed, she was more con« 
cerned d&an for her own. Her aunt, the countess of Shrews^ 
bury, was likewise committed, on suspicion of. having 
prompted the lady Arabella, not only to her escape, but to^ 
other things, it being known that she had amassed upwardly 
of twenty thousand pounds in ready money. The earl of 
Shrewsbury was confined to his house, and the bid earl of 
Hertford sent for from his seat. By degrees things greW 
cooler, and though it was known that Mr. Seymour con-^ 
tifiued in the Netherlands, yet the court made no £nrther 
applications to the archduke about him. In the begin^^ 
ning of 1612, a new storm began to break out; for the 
lady Arabella, either pressed at an examination, or of her 
own free will, made some extraordinary discoveries, upon! 
which some quick steps would have been taken, had it no€ 
shortly after appeared, that her misfortunes had turned her 
head, and that, consequently, no use could be made of her 
evidence. However, the countess of Shrewsbury, who be* 
fore had leave to attend her husband in his sickness, wa^ 
very closely shu^ up,> and the court was amused with' abun-' 
dance of strange stories, which wore out by degrees, and 
Ae poor lady Arabella languished in her coniinem^it tilt 
the 27th of September, 16 15,- when her life and sorrows 
ended together. Even in her gvave this poor lady was not 
at peace, a report being spread that she was poisoned, be«- 
cause she happened to die within two years of sir Thomas 
Overbury. Sir Bull. Whitlocke has put this circumstance 
in much too strotig a light ; for it was a suspicion at most^ 
and never had the support of thei least colour of proof. As 
for her husband, sir William Seymour, he soon after her 
decease, procured leate to return, distinguished bimselC 
by loyally adhering to the king during the civil warsy 
and, surviving to the time of the Restoration, was re«« 
stored to his great-grandfather's title of duke of • So<^ 
m^rset,- by ap act of parliament, which entirety cancelled^ 
his attainder ; and on the giving his royai assent to this ^ct, 

c c 2 



3&$ ARABELLA. 

king Charles IL was pleased to say in full parliament^ wbaft. 
perbaps was as honourable for the family as the title to 
which they are restored. His words were these: " As this 
b an act of an extraordinary nature, so it is in favour of a 
person of_n6 ordinary mierit: be has deserved of my father^ 
and of myseifi as much as any subject possibly could do ; 
and I hope this will stir no man's envy, because in doing it 
I do no more than what a good master should do for such a 
servant." By his lady Arabella, this noble person had no 
i«8ue: but that he still preserved a warm affection for her 
meinory, appears from hence, that he called one of hi& 
daughters by his second wife, Frances, daughter and co- 
heiress of Bobert Devereux, earl of Essex, Arabella Sey«> 
mour.' 

Mr. Ballard has given a place to the Jady Arabella, ih 
his Memoirs of British Ladies,^ who have been celebrated 
for their writings or skill in the learned languages, arts, and 
sciences. His reasons for so doing are, that Mr. Evelyn, 
in his Numismata, has put her in his list of learned women, 
and Mr. Philips, in his Theatrum Poetarum, has introduced 
her among hit modern poetesses. Though no works of this, 
lady have appeared, which can serve to shew on what 
foundation her literary reputation is built, yet it i^ not 
probable that Mr. Evelyn and Mr. Philips should, without 
cause, have assigned her the raqk they have done. Three 
letters of her^s are transcribed, by Mr« Ballard, from a MS 
Tolume in Mr. Ashmole's study, which prove her to have 
been a woniian of good understanding. It also appears, 
froni Mr. Oldys^s manuscripts, that she had, at least when 
young, a far greater share of beauty than is above repre- 
sented^ From a picture of her, which was drawn at full 
length in wiiite in 1589, when she was thirteen years and a 
half old, it appears that she was, at that time, very beautiful 
in her person. Her complexion was fair as alabaster; she 
had sweet large grey eyes and long flaxen hair, flowing al- 
most to . her waist, and . finely curled at top. Mr. Oldya 
says that she was born in 1 575. * 

AEAB-CHAH (Ahmed Bw), an Arabian historian of 
the fifteenth century, is principally known as the author of 
a life of Timour^ or Tamerlane, entitled " The wonder- 
ful effects of the divine decrees in the affairs of Timour,'* a 
work in which there is a considerable display of eastern 
fluicy^ but xnatiy obscurities of style. It was published by 



A R A B-C H A H. S8» 

GoliiiS) at Leyden, 1636, and by Manger, with a Latin 
translation, 1767, and 1772, 2 vols. 4to. The i|nperiai 
library at Paris contains two excellent manuscripts of this 
work. The author died in 145oV 

ARAGON (TuLLiA d'), a celebrated poetess of Italy^ 
ill the sixteenth century, was the natural daughter of Peter 
Tagliava d'Aragon, archbishop of Palermo, and a cardinal^ 
himself an illegitimate descendant of the royal house of 
Aragon. Her father made a settlement on this daughter 
sufficient to enable her to live genteelly.. She was beauti- 
ful in her person, and highly accomplished by taste and 
education. She spoke and wrote in Latin and Italisin with 
the ability of the most eminent scholars^ and enjoyed during 
life great reputation for the elegance of her manners and 
writings. The most distinguished scholars of the time ce- 
lebrated her praises, and were proud to be ranked among 
her admirers. She resided mostly at Ferrara and Rome, 
and when advanced in age, went to Florence under the 
protection of the duchess Leonora of Toledo, and at that 
place she died very old, but the time is not mentioned* 
Her workc, which have not preserved the high character 
bestowed by her admirers, are, 1. " Rime," Venice, 1547, 
6iro, and often reprinted. 2. ^^ Dialogo dell' infinita d'A- 
more,-^* Venice, 1547. 3. " II Meschino, o il Guerino, 
poema,'* in the ottava rimi3i, Venice, 1560, 4to. * 

ARAM (£ug£Ne), memorable for his erudition^ and for 
superior Abilities disgraced by an enormous crime, was borii 
at Ramsgill, in Netherdale, Yorkshire, and received but ^ 
mean education, as it appears that all his mental acquire- 
ments, which were prodigious, were the result of indefa- 
tigable diligence and application, assisted by uncommon 
talents. His father was a gardener at Newby, whom hQ 
lattended in that occupation, and where his propensity to 
literature first discovered itself.. Mathematics now engaged 
his attention, and he soon understood quadratic equations, 
and their geometrical constructions. Prompted by an ir- 
resistible thirst of knowledge, be determined to make himr 
«elf master of the learned languages. He got and repeated 
all Lilly's grammar by heart. He next undertook Cam- 
den's Greek grammar, which be also repeated in the same 
manner. Thus instructed, be entered upon the Latin 
classics, and at first pored over five lines for a whole day ; 
never, in all the painful course of his reading, leaving ^ny 

^ P* Herbelot.— Biogp. Uaireraelle. * Biog* UiiiTerMlle««->Ro9coe*s Leo» 



SdO ARAM. 

passage till he thought he perfectly comprehended it 
Having accurately perused all the Latin classics, both his<» 
torians and poets, he went through the Greek Testament, 
and then applied to^esiod, Homer, Theocritus, Hero- 
dotus, Thucydides, and all the Greek tragedians. In the 
midst of these literary pursuits, he went, in 1734, on the 
inTitation of William Norton, esq. to Knaresborough, where 
lie became much esteemed ; and here, with indefatigable 
diligence, he acquired the knowledge of the Hebrew tongue. 
In April 1744 he came again to London, and taught both 
Latin and writing, at Mr. Painblanc's, iii Piccadilly, above 
two years. He next went, in the capacity of writing- 
master, to a boarding-school at Hayes, in Middlesex, kept 
by the Rev. Anthony Hinton! He at length succeeded to 
several other places in the south of England, making use 
of every opportunity for improvement. He was afterwards 
employed in transcribing the acts of parliament to be re- 
gistered in Chancery, and about the beginning of Decem- 
ber 1757, went down to the free--5chool at Lynn. From 
his leaving Kn'aresborough to this period, which was a long 
interval, he had attained the knowledge of history and an- 
tiquities, and also of heraldry and botany. Few plants, 
cither domestic or exotic, were unknown to him. Amidst 
nU this, he ventured upon the Chaldee and Arabic, but 
had not time to obtain any great knowledge of the latter. 
He found the Chaldee easy enough, on account of its con- 
nection with the Hebrew. He then investigated the Celticj 
as far as possible, in all its dialects; began collections, 
and made comparisons between that, the English, the 
Latinj the Greek, and even the Hebrew. He had made 
tlotes, and compared above three thousand words together, 
and found such a surprising affinity, that he was determined 
t^ ptoceed through the whole of all these languages, and 
form a comparative lexicon. He was also far ^om being a 
contemptible poet. 

With this immense stock of learning, acquired withont 
the assistance of a master, and the most extraordinary ta<» 
lents> which might have made him shine in any station of 
life, it is to be lamented that he was guilty of an action in* 
consistent with every principle of humanity ; for, in 1758, 
he was taken up at Lynn, in Norfolk, for the murder of 
Daniel Clark, a shoe*maker of Knaresborough, who had 
keen missing upwards of 13 years, and removed to York 
castle, where being brought to bis trials on the third of 



A R A M. 391 

August 1759, he read a most admirable di^fence, in whith 
he displayed equal modesty, good sense, and learning; but 
was found guilty, and the next morning confessed the 
justness of his sentence, acknowledging to a clergyman, 
that his motive for committing the murder was his suspect- 
ing Clark of having - unlawful commerce with his wife. 
When he was called from bed to have his irons tak^n off, 
he refused to rise, alleging that he was very weak* On 
e:xamination it was found that he had attempted to take 
awisty his own life, by cutting his arm in two places with o 
razor. Though weak, he was conducted to the gallows of 
York, and there executed, and hung in chains in Knares* 
borough forest. ' 

ARANTIUS (Julius C^sar), a celebrated Italian ana- 
tomist, was born at Bologna, about the year 1530. He 
studied under Vesalius and his uncle Bartholomew Maggius, 
took his doctor's degree at Bologna, and was soon after 
appointed professor of surgery and anatomy, which office 
■ he h$ld for thirty-two years, and until his death, April 7j 
IS^S9. He studied with most attention the anatomy of the 
m^scles, and arrived at some knowledge of the doctrine of 
the circulation of the blood. He wrote, 1. ^* De humano 
fcetu liber,*' Venice, 1571, 8vo, Basil, 1579, and Leyden, 
1664. In this work he explains at great length the struc- 
ture of the uterus, the placenta, &c. ^The Venice editions 
of 1587 and 1595, 4 to, have the addition of some anatomi- 
cal observations, and an essay on tumours by Arandus. 
a, ^^ In Hippocratis librum de vulneribus capitis commen- 
tarius brevis, ex ejus lectionibus coUectus," Lyons, 1580, 
Ley^en, 1639, 1641, 12mo.* 

ARATOR, the secretary and intendant of finances to 
Athalaric, and afterwards subdeacon of the Romish church, 
fiouri^ed in tlie sixth century, and, according to some 
accounts, was born in the year 490, but the place of bisbirtk 
has been contested. He certainly was pf Liguria, but in 
his time Liguria comprehended a great part of Lo'mbardy, 
and Milan was the chief city. He was educated under 
Laurentius, archbishop of Milan, who died in the year 504. 
Arator is said to have died in the year 556« At first h^ 
employed his poetical talents on profane subjects, but af- 
terwards on those which were of a more serious kind. In the 
y^ar 544, he presented Pope Vigilius with the Acts of the 



J92 A R A T O R. 

Apostles in Latin verse, with which the pontiff wag so much 
pleased that he ordered the work to be read in the church 
of St. Peter ad Vincula, and it met with universal appro- 
bation. We find in it many of the allegories which the 
venerable Bede introduced in his commentary on the Acts. 
It was printed with other poetry of the same description, 
lit Venice, 1502, 4to, Strasburgh, 1507, 8vo, Leipsic, 
1515, 4to, and in the Bibliotheca Patrum, Paris, 1575, 
1589, &c. Father Sirmond published at the end of his 
edition of Ennodius, a letter in elegiac verse, which Arator 
wrote to Parthenius. * 

ARATUS, a Greek poet, celebrated for his poem en- 
titled the Phenomena, flourished about the 127th olym- 
piad, or near 300 years before Christ, while Ptolemy Phi- 
ladelphus reigned in Egypt. Being educated under Dio- 
nysins Heracleotes, a Stoic philosopher, he espoused the 
principles of that sect, and became physician to Antigonus 
Gonatus, the son of Demetriusr Poliorcetes, king of Ma- 
cedon: The Phenomena of Aratus gives him a title to the 
character of an astronomer, as well as a poet In this work 
he describes the nature and motion of the stars, and shews 
their various dispositions and relations ; he describes the 
.figures of the constellations, their situations in the sphere, 
the origin of the names which they bear in Greece and in 
Egypt, the fables which have given rise to them, the rising 
•and setting of the stars, and he indicates the manner of 
J^nowing the constellations by their respective situations. 

The poem of Aratus was commented upon and translated 
by many authors : of whom, among the ancients, were 
Cicero, Germanicus Caesar, and Festus Avienus, who made 
Latin translations of it ; a part of the former of which is 
itill extant. Aratus must have been much esteemed by the 
ancients, i»ince we find so great a number of scholiasts and 
commentators upon bim ; among wh6m are Aristarcbus of 
Samos, the Arystylli the geometricians, Apollonius, the 
£v8eneti, Crates, Numenius the grammarian, Pyrrhus of 
Magnesia, Thales, Zeno, and many others, as may be seen 
in Vossius, p. 156. Suidas ascribes several other works to 
Aratus. Virgil, in his Georgics, has translated or imitated 
many passages from this author : Ovid speaks of him with 
admiration, as well as many others of the poets : And St 
Paul has quoted a passage from him ; which is in hi^ 

^ Mor««i<— CaTe.-*Biog. Umveihselle.^Larchier's Works, 



A R A T U & 393 

speech to the Athenians (Acts xvii. 2S.) ^here he telb 
them that some of their own poets have said, ^^ For we are 
also his offspring,'* these words being the beginning of tha 
5th line of the Phenomena of Aratus. 

His modern editors are Henry Stephens, who published 
.bis poem at Paris in 1566, in his collection of the poets, in 
folio, and Grotius, who published an edition of the Pheno- 
mena at Leyden in 4to, 1600, in Greek and Latin, with 
the fragments of Cicero's version, and the translations of 
Germdiiicus andAvienus; all which the editor Iras illus- 
trated with curious notes^. The edition of Aratus published 
at Oxford by Fell, 1672, Svq, with the scholia^ is much 
esteemed ; but the best is that recently published by J. Th« 
Buhle, at Leipsic, 1793 — 1801, 2 vols. 8vo, which is en- 
.riehed by additions from manuscripts. ^ 

ARBAUD (Francis), Sieur de Porcheres, one of the 
first paembers of the French academy in toe seventeenth 
ceiitury, was born in Provence, and was, descended from 
the ancient family of Porcheres. He was the scholar and 
follower of Malherbe. and imitated him in the turn of his 
verse, and was also tutor to the son of Mr. de Chenoise, 
^nd afterwards to the son of the count Saint- Heran. The 
abb6 Bois-Robert^ who was particularly eminent for the 
generous use which he made of his interest with cardinal 
Richelieu, procured him |l pension of six hundred livres 
from that great man. On March 10, 1636,. he spoke aa 
oration in the French academy upon the ^^ Love of the 
Sciences*" He retired at last into Burgundy, where he 
married, and died in 1640. He wrote a gre^t number of 
verses, which were never printed. But there are others, 
which were ipublished, as particularly his ^< Pai^phrase 
upon the Psalms of Degrees," to which are added his 
** Poems upon divers subjects," Paris, 1633, 8vo. He 
had a brother, John, who had likewise a talent for poetry, 
and translated several of the Psalms into French verse, two 
editions of which have been publishet/d) the former at Gre- 
noble in 1651, and the latter more complete at Marseilles 
in 1684.' 

ARBUCKLE (James, A. M.), was boru in Glasgow, 1700, 
jand educated in the university of that city, where h^^took 
his degrees, and afterwards kept an academy^ iti the north 
of Ireland. He wrote several poems, which have been 

rOea.Dict^VoMiusv— Fabr^BlbUGriec. * Gen. Diet. 



39^ A E B U C K L E. 

pablished in one vol. 1 2mo ; and undertook a translation 
of Virgil, but did not live to finish it* He was a person of 
fine taste, and much esteemed by the learned iu general. 
He died 1734, aged 34. * - . 

ARBUTHNOT (Alexander), principal of the univer* 
sity of Aberdeen, was the son of the baron of Arbutfanot, 
and was born in the year 1538. He studied philosophy 
and the classics in the university ctf Aberdeen, and civil 
law in France, where he was five years under the care of 
the famous Cujacius. Having taken the degree of licen* 
tiate, he returned home in 1 563, and appeared very warmly 
in sAippo^ of the reformed religion. At this time queen 
JAary was resident in her kingdom ; but the earl of Murray 
having the supreme direction of all things, the reformed 
church of Scotland was iu. a very flourishing condition* 
The friends of Mr. Arbuthnot prevailed upon him to take 
orders, but whether be received them from a bishop or 
from presbyters is unceritain. In 1^6S, he assisted as a 
member of the general assembly, which was held in the 
month, of July at Edinburgh. By this assembly he was 
intrusted with the care of revising a book which had ^iveii 
offence, entitled '^ The Fall of the Roman Church,'* print* 
ed by one Thomas Bassenden, in Edinburgh. The ex- , 
ception taken to it was, that the king had the style of the 
supreme head of the cburc^ : at the same time there was 
another complaint against this Bassenden, for printing a 
lewd song at the end of the Psalm booL On these mat>» 
ters an order was made, forbidding the printer to vend 
any more of his books till the offensive title was altered, 
and the lewd song omitted. The assembly also made an 
ordeir, that no book should be published for the future, till > 
licensed by commissioners of their appointment. 

A little after, he was appointed minister of Arbuthnot and 
Xogy-Buchan. The year following, viz. 1569, on a vi- 
sitation of the King^s College at Aberdeen, Mr. Alexander 
Anderson, principal, Mr. Andrew Galloway, sub-pnnci* 
pal, and three regents,' were deprived. Their sentence 
was published on the third of July, and immediately Mn. 
Arbuthnot was made principal of that college. He wa& 
a member also, of the geaeral assembly which sat at St. 
Andrew^s in 1572, when a certain scheme of church-govern«- 

1 Introduced in the last editiea of tbjs Dictionary, we know not on wl>at va» 
thoritj. 



A R 9 U T H N O T. S9S 

ment was pfoposed and called the Book of Policy, an in« 
vention of some statesmen, to restore the old titles in the 
church, but ivith a purpose to retain all the temporalities 
formerly annexed to them, amongst themselves. The as-' 
^embly, being apprized of this, appointed the archbishop 
of St. Andrew^s, and nineteen other commissioners, o£ 
whom Mr. Arbuthnot was one, to confer with the regent 
in his council ; but these conferences either came' to no«* 
thing, or, which is more probable, were never held. In 
the general assembly which met at Edinburgh the sixth o£ 
August 1573, Mr. Alexailder Arbuthnot was chosen mode- 
rator. In the next assembly, which met at Edinburgh the 
$ixth of March 1574, he was named one of the commis- 
Itioners for settling the jurisdiction of the church, which 
seems to be no more than had been before done about the 
book of policy. This business required much time and 
pains, but at last some progress was made therein, and a, 
plan of jurisdiction proposed. In the general assembly, 
which met ^ Edinburgh the first of April 1577, he was. 
again chosen moderator. At this time the assembly were 
persuaded, upon some specious pretences, to appoint a 
certain number of their members to confer in the oiuorning 
with their moderator, in order to prepare business. This 
Committee had the name of the Congregation, and in a 
abort time all matters of importance came to • be treated 
there, and the assembly had little to do but to approve their 
resolutions. At the close of this assembly^ Mr. Arbuth- 
not, ^ith other commissioners, was appointed to confer with 
the regent, on the plan of church policy before mentioned. 
In the general assembly held at Edinburgh the twenty-fifth 
of October ^578, he.was agaia appointed of the committee 
for the same purpose, and in the latter end of the year, 
actually conferred with several noblemen^ and other lay^ 
commissioners, on that important business. In 1582, Mn 
Arbuthnot published Buchanan's History of Scotland, in 
which, though he acted only as an editor, yet it procured 
him a great deal of ill-will, and in all probability gave his 
majesty king James VI. a bad impression of him. The 
practice of managing things in congregation still subsist-* 
ing, the king forbad Mr. Arbuthnot to leave his college at 
Aberdeen, that he might not be present in the assembly, 
or direct, as he was used to do, those congregations which 
directed that great body. This offended the ministers very 
fnuch^ and they did not fail to remonstrate upon it to the 



»« A R B U T H N O T- 

king, who, however, remained firm. What impression this, 
might make upon Mr. Arbuthnot's mind, a very meek and 
humble man, assisting others at their request, and not 
through ai>y ambition of his own, is uncertain ; but a little 
sfter be began to decline in his health, and on the 20th 
of October 1583, departed this life in the forty-fifth year 
of his age, and was buried in the college church of Aber^ 
deen. His private character was very amiable : he was 
learned without 'pedantry, and a great encourager of learn- 
ing in youth, easy and pleasant in conversation, had a 
good taste in poetry, was well versed in philosophy and 
the mathematics, eminent as a lawyer, no less eminent aa 
a divine ; neither wanted he considerable skill in physic. 
In his public character he was equally remarkable for bia 
moderation and abilities, which gained him such a repa-^ 
tation, as drew upon him niany calls for advice, wl;iich made 
him at last very uneasy. As principal of the college of 
Aberdeen, he did great service to the chiircb in particular;^ 
and to his country in general, by bringing over many to 
the former, and reviving that spirit of literature which waa 
mudh decayed in the latter. These employments took up 
so much of his time, that we have nothing of his writing, 
except a single book printed at Edinburgh, in 4to, 1572, 
tinder this title, ** Orationes de origine etdignitate Juris;'' 
** Orations on the origin and dignity of the Law.*' It waa 
esteemed a very learned and elegant performance, as ap-t 
pears by a fine copy of Latin verses on its publication, by 
Mr. Thomas Maitland, who was equally admired as a poet 
and a critic. Arbuthnot's countryman and contemporary^ 
. Andrew Melvil, wrote an elegant epitaph on him, (Delit* 
Poet. Scot. vol. II. p. 120.) which alone would have been 
sufficient to preserve his memory, and gives a very just ide% 
of his character. ^ 

- ARBUTHNOT (Dr. John), a celebrated witandphy^ 
sician in queen Anne's reign, was the son of an episcopal 
clergyman of Scotland, nearly allied to the noble family 
of thsLt name. He had his education in the university of 
Aberdeen, where he took the degree of doctor of physic. 
The revolution deprived the father of bis church prefer^ 
ment ; and though he was possessed of a small paternal 
estate, yet necessity obliged the son to seek bis fortune 
abroad. He came to London, and at first, as ' it is said^ 

1 Bio^. Briunnica.—' Mackeiuie'8 Scotch Writersi vol. Ill«p* 18^ 



AJRBUTHNOT. 



297 



for hU support taught the mathematics. About this tim^^ 
viz. 1695, Dr. Woodward's *^ Essay towards a natural 
history of the Earth'* was published, which contained such 
an account of the universal deluge, as our author thouglit 
inconsistent with truth : he therefore drew up a work, en^ 
titled ^' An examination of Dr. Woodward's account of 
the Deluge^ &^. with a comparison between Steno's phi'- 
' losophy and the doctor's, in the case of marine bodies dug 
up out of the es^rth, &c." 1695, ^vo, which gave him n^ 
small share of literary fame. His extensive learning, and 
facetious and agreeable conversation, introduced him by 
degrees into practice, and he became eminent in his pro- 
fession. Being at Epso.m when prince George of Den- 
mark was suddenly taken ill, he was called in to his as« 
stst^nce. His adyice was successful, and his highness 
recovering, employed him always afterwards as his phy- 
sician. In consequence of this, upon tlxe indispqsition of 
Dr. Hannes, he was appointed physician in ordinary to 
queen Anne, 1709, and admitted a fellow of the college^ 
as he had been some years of the Royal Society, 

His gentle, manners, polite learning, and excellent ta« 
(ents, entitled him to an intimate correspondence and friend^* 
ship witfi the celebrated wits of his time. Pope, Swift, 
Gay, and Parnell, whom he met ia.s a member of the Scrib- 
lerus club- . In 1714 he engaged with Pope and Swift'in a 
design to write a satire on the abuse of human learning in 
every branch, which w^ to have been executed in the hu- 
morous manner of Cervantes, the original author of this 
species of satire, under the history of feigned adventures. 
But this project was put a stop to by the queen's death, 
when they bad only drawn out an imperfect essay towards 
it, under tlie title of the first book of the " Memoirs of 
Martinus Scriblerus *.!' " These Memoirs," says Dr. John- 
son, ** exbend only to the first part of a work, projected in 
concert by Pope, Swift, and Arbuthnot. Their purposie 



* Dr. Warburton tells us, that the 
travels of Gulliver, the treatise of the 
profound, of literary criticism ob Virgil, 
and the memoirs of a Parish Cleric, are 
^nly fo many detached parts and frag- 
ments of this work; The same writer 
deeiares, that polite letters never lost 
more than by the defeat of this scheme, 
in which each of this iUostrions trium- 
virate would have found exercise for 
tils own peculiar talent, besides con- 
^lUit em|»loyment for that they all had 



in common. Arbuthnot was skilled in 
every thing which related to science. 
Pope was master of the fine arts, and 
Swift excelled in the knowledge of th« 
WQi'ld : wit they had in equsil measure^ 
and that so large, Chat no age perhapc 
ever produced three men on whom mu 
ture had more bountifully bestowed itg 
or art brought it to higher perfection; 
See War burton's note» to these Me- 
moirs. . 



39S A R B U T H N O f . 

was to censure the abuses af learning by a fictitioixs life 
of an infatuated scholar. They were dispersed ; thcf de^ 
sign was - ne^er completed ; and Warburton laments itsr 
miscarriage^ as an event very disastrous to polite letters. 
If the whole may be estin(iated by this specimen, whicb 
seems to be the production of Arbutbnot, with a few touches 
perhaps by Pope, the want of more will not be much la^ 
mented ; for the follies which the wrher ridicules are sa 
little practised, that they are/ not known ; nior can the satirer 
be understood bu4; by the learned ; he raises phantoms of 
absurdity, and then drives them away; ' He cures diseases 
that were never felt. For this reason, diis joint prpduction 
of three great writers has never attained any notice from 
nankindJ' 

: The queen's death, and the disasters which fell upon his 
friends on that occasion, deeply affected our author's spirits ; 
and to divert his melancholy, be paid a visit to his^brother^ 
a banker at Paris. His stay there, however, was but very 
short; he returned to London, and having lost his former 
residence at St. James's, took a house iri Dover-^street. In 
1727, he published "Tables of ancient Coins, Weights,^ 
and Measures," 4to. He continued to practise physic with 
good reputation, and diverted his leisure hours in writing 
papers of wit and humour. / He^ contributed in 1732 to- 
wards detecting and punishing the scandalous frauds and 
abuses that had been carried on under the specious name; 
of the *' The Charitable Corporation." The same year he 
published his " Essay concerning the nature of Aliments, 
the choice of them, &c." which was followed the year after 
by the "Effects of Air on Human Bodies." He was ap- 
parently led to the subjects of these treatises by the con- 
sideration of bis own case ; an asthma, which gradually 
increasing with his years, became shortly after desperate 
and incurable. In 1734 he retired to Hampstead, in hopes 
of finding some small relief for this aflliction, but died at his 
house in Cork-street, Burlington-gardens, Feb. 27, 1.734-5. 
He was married, and had children, particularly George 
and ^nne; the former enjoyed a place of considerable 
profit in the exchequer-office, and' was one of the exe*, 
cutors to Pope's will, and the other a legatee. 

Pope, in a letter to Digby, dated Sept. 1, 1722, tells 
him, that the first time he saw the doctor, Swift observed 
to him, that he was a man who could do every thing butr 
waik. He appears to have beeu in^ all respects a most ac* 



ARBUTHNOT. i99 

complished and amiable person. He has shewn himself 
equal to any of his contemporaries, in humour, vivacity, 
and learning ; and he was superior to most men in the 
moral duties of life, in acts of humanity and benevolence, 
,** Arbuthnot^" says Dr. Johnson in his life of Pope, " was 
a man of great comprehension, skilful in his profession, 
. versed in the sciences, acquainted with ancient literature, 
. and able to animate his mass of knowledge by a bright and 
active imagination ; a scholar with great brilliance of wit; 
a wit, who, in the crowd of life, retained and discovered 
a noble ardour of religious zeal.'* Dr. Warton also is very 
copious in his praise, and says, that he had infinitely more 
learning than Pope or Swift, and as much wit and humour 
as either. His letter to Pope, written as it were upon his 
death-bed, and which no one can read without the ten- 
derest emotion, discovers considerable fortitude of mind at 
the approach of his dissolution. In 1751, came out, in two 
vols. 8vo. printed at Glasgow, " The miscellaneous works 
of the late Dr. Arbuthnot^'* which are said to comprehend, 
with what is inserted in Swift's Miscellanies, all his pieces 
of wit and humour : but the genuineness of many piece* 
in that collection is more than apocryphal ; and a collec- 
tion of his works, as well as a life of the author, are still 
desiderata. Several of the pieces in the above miscellany 
were written by Fielding, Henry Carey, and other au- 
thors, who are known ; and some of them were written after 
Dr. Arbuthnot's death, or when he was too ill to compose 
such trifles. * 

ARC-JOAN. See JOAN. 

ARCERE (Louis Etiennr), priest of the oratory, born 
at Marseilles, in 1698, died Feb. 7, 1782, at an advanced 
age, is less known by his^ having borne away the prizes 
for poetry, at Toulouse, at Marseilles, and at Pan, than 
by his " History of the town of Rochelle, and the country 
of Aunis," 1756, 2 vols. 4to, and in 6 vols. 12mo. This, 
work had