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THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XXIIL 



Printed by NicBOLi, Son, uid BxHTLBy, 
Red LiQn FuMge, Fleet Stiect, London. 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: 

CONTAINING 

AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

or THE 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

OF THE 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 
particularly the british and irisht 
fkOM the earliest accounts to the present time. 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F; S. A. 



/ 



VOL. XXIIL 



LONDON: 

raiKTBD rOR J. MICHOLS and son; F. C. and J.RIVINGTON; T. PAYNE; 
OTBIDGB AND SON; G. AND W. NICOL ; G.WILKIE] J.WALKER; R. LEA; 
W. LOWNDES; WHITE, COCHRANE, AND CO.; T. EGERTON; LACKINOTON, 
AI«LEN, AND CO.; J. CARPENTER; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND 
"BROWN; CADELL AND DA VIES; CLAW; J.BOOKER; J. CUTHELL ; CLARKE 
AND SONS; J. AND A. ARCH; J.HARRIS; BLACK, PARRY, AND CO.; J. BOOTH; 
J. MAWMAN ; GALE, CURTIS, AND FENNER; R. H. EVANS } J. HAtCHARD ; 
J. MURRAY; BALDWIN, CRADOCK> AND JOY; E. BENTLEY ; J. FAULDER ; 
OGLE AND CO.; W. GINGER; J. DEIGHTON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE; CONSTABLE 
AND CO. EDINBURGH; AND WILSON AND SON, YORK. 

1815. 



A NSW AND iSENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 






J\^VIUS (Cneius), of Campania, an ancient Latin podtr/ 
was bred a soldieri but quitted the profession of arms, in: 
ofd^er to apply, himself with more Leisure to poetry. Ac*: 
cordingly, be prosecuted that art with great diligence, 
and f aye tbe first specimen of a heroic poem in Latin, in' 
a description of the first Punio war, and the liiad of Cy«> 
pru9, mentioned b;^ Cicera He tyrete also some tragedies^ 
a few fragmenta of which ar^ extant^ y«^ith Livius Androni- 
cits, and so»6 eofsediea, the firist of which appeared in 
the year 235 B.C., but this, it.^is ^aid, when played at 
Rome, so highly incensed Metel^sjb^ the satirical strokes 
ill it, that this nobleibany whoilWs '\hjbn very powerful, 
procured him jto be banished from the city. In this con- 
dition, he retired to Utica in Africa, . where he died in the 
year 203 >B. C. We have only some fragments of his 
works; unies^, Mil' epitaph, which is said to have been 
<H>mposied.b)r hiinself, may be ranked among them. Of 
these fraginents there is an edition by. Hehlry Stepbeni^ 
Paris, l:56d, jBKO.f ... 

NAIN DB TXLLEMONT. See TILLKMONT. 

NALSON (Jobm), an historical writer,, was born proba-^ 
bly about ISSS^t and educated at Cambridge, of which he 
became LL. D. We have discovered very few particolara 
of his life. , lie .appears iohave been zealous in the royal 
cause during the. usurpation, and became rector of Dod* 
diugtoA c»m March^ in tbe Isle of Ely. He was also in 
1684 eoUated to a prebend in that cathedral. Wood and 
Benthali^ ;ay that he died. March 24, 1685-6, aged forty- 

1 Yqm. d» Poet. Ut.-<*Fi^ric. BibL Lat.~€lark'a BibU Diet. 

voL.xxin. ' B 



2 N A L S O N. 

eight years, and was buried in Ely cathedral. If Bentbain 
did not copy this date from Wood, but took it from the 
registers of Ely, we know not how to reconcile it with a 
letter from Dr. Nalsod, printed in Gntch's ** Collectanea/* 
and dated f ^88« at the time the bi^shops were sent to the 
Tower by the infatuated James II. Be this as it may, he 
published *^ An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs 
of State, from the beginning of the Scotch rebellion in 
1639, to the murder of king Charles I, &c." Lond. 1682-3, 
2 vols. fol. This collection was intended as an antidote to 
that of Rushwortb, whose prejudices were in favour of the 
parliament ; and contains many authentic and curious cir- 
cumstances not to be found in other writers. Nalson^s 
statements are reviewed by Roger Coke, esq. in his 
" Treatise of the Life of Man," 1685, fol. Besides thi& 
historical collection^ Dr. Nalson wrote, 1. ** The Counter- 
mine: or, a short, but true discovery of the dangefrous 
principles, and secret practices of the dissenting p£irty, 
especially the presbyteriansj shewing, that religion is pre- 
tended, but rebellion intended," &c. Lond. 1677, Svo. 
2. ^^ The Common Interest of King and People, shewing 
the original, antiquity, and excellency, of monarchy com- 
pared with aristocracy and democracy, and particularly of 
our English monarchy ; and that itbsolute, papal, and pres- 
byterian popular supremacy are utterly inconsistent with 
prerogative, property, and liberty;" ibid. 1678, Svo. S. 
** A True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of Jus- 
tice, for the trial of Charles I. as it was read in the 
House of Commons, and attested under the hand of Phelps, 
clerk to tliat infamous court,'' with an intnidiiccion, ibid. 
1684, fol. He also translated Maimbo«4^*s ^History of 
the Crusade," &c. ibid. 1685, fol.* 

NANCEL (Nicholas de), so called {roMtbe village of 
Nancel, his native place, between Nayon and Soisson^ 
was born in 1539. He studied at the coilege de Presles 
at Paris, and was employed to teach Greek %nd Latin there 
when scarcely eighteen years of age, probably by the in-' 
cerest of Peter lianius, principal of the qollege, who eon-' 
calved veryiiighly of his tal^iuts. H«^ was afterwards pro- 
f<:i.ssor ill the university of Douay, where he made two 
ft|jrt?fch/es ** On liiit: excellence and importance of the Greek* 
Liiit^uage'" Being invited to return to P)amy ho wa^ 

^ lienihttin'tf Eljr.-^Ath. Ox. art Euibwortb* 



N A N C E L. 3 

again profes&or in the college de Presles^ and took a rdoc« 
tor^s degree in physic. He went afterwards to practise at 
Soissons,; but . principally at. Tours, which he found an 
eUgible situation. He was lastly appointed physician to 
the abbey of Fontevrauld, in 1587 ; and died there in 1610, 
leaving a son, who wrote, sone sacred tragedies. His 
principal works are, 1.. ^^Sticbologia Graeca Latinaque in^ 
formanda et reforoVanda,'* 8vo. In this work he endea- 
vours to subject the French poetry to the rules of the 
Greek and Latin, i'or the purpose, as he says, of render- 
ing it more di£Scultand le^s common; a whimsical project, 
which, it may be supposed, did not succeed. 2. A treatise 
"On^the Plague," 8vo.= 3. " Tr. de Deo, de immorta- 
litate antmffi contra Galenum, et de sede anims in cor- 
pore," 8vo. . 4. ^^ Declamationum Liber, eas compjectens 
orationes quas vel ipse juvenis habuit. ad populum, vel 
per discipulos recitavit," &c. 8vo. 5. *^ Petri Rami vita," 
8vob This Life is curious and interesting, and the best of 
Nancel's works. \ 

NANGIS (William of), a French historian, who flou- 
rished in the fourteenth century, was a Benedictine monk 
of the abbey of St. Denis, and supposed to have taken his 
name from the place where be was born. He wrote th^ 
lives of St. Lewis, and of Philip le Hardi, and two chroni* 
cles; the first from the creation to .1300, the second a 
chronicle generally of the kings of France. The lives- 
wei?e printed, for the first time, in Pitliou^s collection in 
1596, and the chronicle from 1113, in the ^^ Spicilegium" 
pf D^ Luc .d^ Archery. The life of St. Lewis was again re- 
printed along with Joinville's history of the kame prince, 
with a glossary, &c. by J. B. Mellot, Ch. Sallier, and J. 
Capperonier, at Paris in 1761, fol.' 

NANI (John Baptist),, a noble Venetian, and proctor 
of St.. Mark, was the son of John.Nani, once possessed of 
the same post, and born Aug. 30, 1616.- He studied po* 
lite learning under Peter Renzoli of Arezzo, a secular 
priest; and went through his course of philosophy among 
the Dominicans of St. Paul and St. John at Venice. His 
brother, Augustine Nani, being made commandant of Vi* 
cenza^ he. followed him to that city, and continued, bis 
studies there. . Upon his return to ^s own country^ ia 

* Niceron, vol. XXXLX.— iMoreri. 

' Moreru—Niperon io QuUleauiiie.— Fabric. BiU. Lat. >!eU. 

3 2 



4  N A- N t -• 

• 

1 SS7, he was one of the thirty who are drawn every year 
by lot, to assist at the election of magistrates. His father^ 
who was a person, of good abiKlieS) formed his sod for ba** 
siness himself ; and, in. that view, carried him to Rome, 
where he went taibassador front the repubKc of Venice to 
Urban VIII. That pontiff, a .man of discernment, pre- 
dicted, that John Baptist Nani would make an* extraor* 
dinary person : and his Jioliness's. prediction was verified. 
Me was admitted into the college of senators in 1641; apd 
not long after went ambassador to France, which character 
he sustained at Paris £or the space of five years, with great 
repntation. Mazarine, who then was prime minister there^ 
had frequent conferences with him, and received same* 
excelltot advice from him, upon the afiairs discussed in 
the treaty of Munster, which was concluded in 1648; iit 
which year Nani returned home, having obtained frrai 
France considerable succoors^ both of men and mfoney^^ f<Mr 
carr3?ing on the war against the Turks in Candia. His 
merit raised him soon after to be a member of the grand 
council of the republic, in which he was lippointed super- 
iotendant of the marine and the finances. In 1654 he was 
sent ambassador to the imperial court of Germany ; did 
t&e republic considerable services; and made a second 
journey to that court, upon the election of the emperor 
Leopold.. While he was here, he received orders to go 
again to France, in 1660. He was there at the marriage of 
Lewis XIV. after the Pyrenean treaty^ and obtained fresh 
succours for the war of Ciindia. The Venetian senate were 
greatly, satisfied with his conduct, and appointed him ptoc^ 
tor of St. Mark. Not lotig after, in 1663, the great coun* 
cil nimiinated bim captain-general of the marine ; but, the 
air of the sea not at all agreeing with his constitution, if 
was resolved not to expose a life so valuable^ and even 
necessary to theTepubiic, to such' imminent danger; and 
the nomination was withdrawn. 

He continued, however, to serve his country upon* many 
considerable occasions, and was appointed by the senate 
to Write the <^ History of Venice ;V. an employment which 
is given only to the principal nobility of that republic. He 
published the first part ; ,and the secotid was in the press, 
when he died, Nov. 5, 1678, in his 63d year. His *^ His-^ 
tory of Venice^' was much esteemed, and translated into ^ 
French. There is an English translation of the first part^ 
by sir Robert Honey wood, 1673, fol« There are some 



N A N L ,S 

» 

IMMTtiftUties in his history^ and bk stjrle is considerably em- 
barrassed with parentbeseS) but it is still a favourite widi 
liis countrymen. He also published ** An Account of his 
•ecQud Ambassage. into. France in 1660/* and compo$ecl 
other pieces, which are^extant in manuscript only. Seve- 
rdi totbors have spoken advantageously of him.' 

NANNI. iSee UDINO. 

NANNI, or NANNIU8,or in bis native language, NAN- 
j<?INGH (Pi^TBft), a very learned philologer, and general 
#cb(^, was .born €Kt Alcm^er, in Holland, in 1500; he 
Atadied at Louvain, and then was -employed in the private 
^education of some young mien until the death of Conrad 
C^oclenius, when the university unanimously appointed 
him to pronounce a funeral oration on that eminent telacher, 
atid to succeed him as Latin professor. In this oflSce he 
gave such satisfaction, that all his scholars, who were ex- 
oeediagly numerous, ever preserved the highest respect 
fiMC him, aud acknowledged that the care he took was the 
^Nindatton of their future advancement and fame. He 
was also much esteemed by the cardinal de Giranvelie^ and 
by Nicholas Everard, president of the great council of 
Mechlin. The cardinal preferred him to a canonry in his 
<burch of Arras, and the president placed his children 
under hi^ care, and rewarded htm munificently. With the 
patronage of these two personages, he was so satisfied ad 
to refuse many liberal offers to remdve to Italy, and re* 
mained the whole of his life at Louvain. He was a most 
industrious writer, as well as teacher^ and in the numerous 
list, given by Foppen of his publicatioDs, we find commen- 
taries on Cicero, oh Virgil^ mnd Hotace^s Aft of Poetry ; 
paraphrases on the $ong of Solomon^ and on the Proverbs; 
annotation^ on civil law, of which he acqiiii^d a profound 
knowledge; translations of some part of Demosthenes, Sy- 
1IC8IUS, Apollonius, ^t^lutarch, St. Athanasius, St. Basil, 
Cfafysostcm ; prefaces introductory and illustrative of Ho- 
sier, and Demosthenes, ^b. He also translated the Psalms 
into Liatin verse, and, in the opinion of his contemporaries, 
with equal elegance and fidelity. Among bis separate 
publibationt his *^ Miscellaneoi^m decas," a collection of 
critic^ x^aiarkii,^)a ancient authors, and bis *' Dialogismi 
Heroin^fWh^ were much esteemed. This eminent scho- 
lar died at Louvain* July 21, 1557, 'and was buried in the 



6 N A. N N I. 

church of St Peter, where one of his scholars, Sigismond 
Frederic Fugger, placed a monument to his memory. He 
is mentioned in terms of the highest praise by Mirseiis, 
Thuanus, Melchior Adam, Gyraldus, Huet, and many 
other learned men. * 

NANTUEIL (Robert), ai celebrated engraver, wasb6rn 
in 1630, at Rheims, where his father kept a petty shop, 
suitable to bis fortune, which was small,' but suflBci^nt to 
enable him to give his son a liberal education. Accord- 
ingly, Robert was put to the grammar-school at a proper 
age ; and, as soon as he had made the necessary projgness 
in classical learning, went through a course of philosophy. ^ 
He had, from his childhood, a strong inclination to draw- 
ing; and he applied to it with such success, that being to 
maintain, according to custoni, his philosophical theMs at 
the end of two years, he drew and engraved it himself. 
As he continued to cultivate his genius, his productions 
became the delight of the town. But finding more fame 
than pro6t at Rheims, and having married while young, he 
was under the necessity of seeking a situation where his 
talents mieht be more amply rewarded. With this view he 
left his wife and repaired to Paris, probably without intro- 
duction to any friends, as we are told he had no better 
way to make himself known, than the following device : 
Seeing several young abb^s standing at the door of a 
victualiing-house, near the Sorborine, he asked the mis- 
tress if tiiere was not an ecclesiastic of Rheims there ? 
telling her that he had unfortunately forgot his naniie, but 
that she might easily know him by the picture that he had 
of him, shewing her at the same time a portrait, well 
drawn, and which had the air of being an exact likeness. 
This drew the attention of some of the abb^s, who were 
profuse in their praises of the portrait. *^ If you please, 
messieurs^" said Nantueil, *^ I will draw all your pictures 
for a trifle, as highly finished as this is/' The price which 
he asked was so moderate, that all the abb^s sat to him 
one after another ; and then bringing their friends, cus- 
tomers came in so fast, that he took courage to raise his 
price : and having in a short time acquired a considerable 
sum, he returned to Rheims, disposed of hjs little property 
there, and brought his wife to Paris, where ht^^bftracter 
;$ppp became established. i 

f BqUarL*8 Academie des Sciences, yol. I. — V6ppen's Bibl. Belg. where it the 
mo6t complete list of his works.— Blount^s Censura.— Saxii Onomast. 



^ N A N T U E I L. 7 

' He applied himself particularly to drawing portraits 
in crayons, which he afterwards engraved for the use of 
the academical theses ; and succeeded beyond all his pre- 
<^essors in that branch. He never failed to catch the 
likeness; and ev^n pretendjfsd that be had certain rules 
which ascertained it. His portrait of the king, as large as 
life^ w«hioh he afterwards engraved, so pleased his ma- 
jesty that he rewarded hiitA with a present of a hundred 
louts d^ors, and made, him designer and engraver to his 
cabinet, with a salary of 1000 livres per annum. Nantueil 
afterwards did the portrait of the queen- mother in the 
sahie manner, as also that of cardinal Mazarine, the duke 
of Orleans, marshal Turenne, and others. The grand 
duke of Tuscany hearing of his fame, requested to have 
Nantueil's own portrait by -himself, in crayons, in order to 
place it in his gallery. His works eonsist of 240 prints, 
including the portraits of almost all the persons of the first 
rank in France. Of his filial affection we have the follow- 
ing anecdote. As soon as he had made an easy fortune, 
his first object was to invite his father to share it ; and the 
manner in which he received him, which, happened to be 
before' many witnesses, drew tears of joy from all. From 
this time the son^s greatest happiness was to comfort the 
declining years, and supply the wantp, of his father. Nan- 
tueil died at Paris, Dec. 18, 1678, aged forty-eight 

Carlo Dati, in the life of Zeuxis, speaking of our en- 
graver^s works, says, ^^ These words of Apollonius remind 
us to contemplate the astonishing art of the prints of the 
niodern gravers in France, where every thing is repre- 
sented so naturally, the quality of the drapety, the colour 
of the flesh, the beard, the hair with the powder upon it, 
and, what is most important, the age, the air, and the 
lively resemblance of a person, thoug-h nothing is made 
use of besides the black of the ink and the white of the 
' paper ; which not:only make the light and the shade, but 
do the office of all the colours. All this is seen and ietd- 
mired above all others, in the excellent portraits of the 
illustrious Naiitueil." This artist was a man of pleasing 
manners and address, had some share of learning and wit, 
and bis conversation recommended him much to people of 
fashion. He was well respected at court ; and Mazarine, 
then prime minister, retained him as his designer and en- 
graver, and honoured him with the title of Monsieur. But 
lie never was anisoonomist ; . and of upwards of 500,000 



-S N A N T U E I L. 

crjdwot \vMch he had gained, he Ie£t oiily. 8O|OO0 ^ his 
' heir$. The portraitty by tfai^ eflccellent artist ^re i^.ell^i^>W1l9 
and ahbougii Strtttt has given a ^hort list of the b^t^ ^e 
allows that it is npt easy to say with any dcigree of ffr^- 
cision, among so many beantifui ones^ which sure, the best*' 

NANTlGNI (Louis Chazotd£), a celebrated genealo- 
gist, was born in 16^2, at Saulx le Due in Burgundy. He 
studied at Dijon and Paris, and at the latter city, be was 
iSDtnusted with the education of s^me young men of ranjk. 
His general torn for history settled at last in the genealo- 
gical branch, and be employed all his leisure in drawing 
up genealogical tables. From 1736tol738fae published 
a work entitled ^' Genealogies Historiques des Rois, des 
Empereurs, et de toutes les Maisons Souveraignes/' 4 vols. 
4to. He also published ^^ Tableites Geographiques," 1725, . 
12mo $ '^ Tablettes Historiques, .Genealogiques, et Chrp- 
nologiques/' 1748^ &c. 9 vols. -2410; and <^ Tablettes de 
Themis/^ 1755, 12mo. He supplied many acticle^.for 
the Supplement ofMoreri of the edition of 1749, and 
during his latter years re-wrote the genealogical part of 
that dictionary, and of the Mencuie. He died Dec. 29, 
1755, after having been deprived of his sight for the three 
preceding years.* 

NAOGEORGE, or KIRCHMAER (Thomas), a cele- 
brated protestant divine, born in 1511, at Straubingue, in 
Bavaria, acquired considerable celebrity by his satirical 
Latin verses against several customs of the catholic church, 
and died in 1578. His most celebrated poem is entitled 
^ Regnum papisticum," 1553,* and 1559, 8vo. The for- 
mer'is the mpst rare edition, but not so complete as that 
of 1559, which sometimes contains two other pieces, the 
"Sylva^ Carminum,'* and ** Syivula Carminum/;" ** Pa- 
machius Tragedia,^* 1539> 8vo; *^ Incendiasive Pyrgopo* 
Unices Tragedia/' 1538, -Hvo ; '^ Agricultura sacra," 1551, 
8?o; " Hieremias Tragedia," 1551, 8vo; *^ MercatorTrage- 
dia,^' 1560, 8vo. There are two editions of the French 
translation of the f' Converted Merchant/' 1558, 8vo, and 
1561, 12mo, and a third 1591^ 12mo, in which is Beza's 
*< Com^die du Pape malade." All the above are scarce, and 
highly priced by oolleotors. Naogeorge also left commen- 
taries on Si. John^s Epistles, and several other works*' 

t Perrnult Let HoqupM lU^sirei. — Stfntt*9 Dict-^BKsao.— Diet His)t. 

« Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

> Moreri. — Diet; Hht-^-Sttii Onomist — Bniiict3l»Bi|Ql du t4brair«. 



NAf lER, or NEPER (Jo]^n), b^mi of M/erpfafi^toD jn 

Scotland^ and the celebrated inventor of the Liqg^ritbiiiSy 
wa$ the eldest son of sir Archibald Napier of Mi^rcbi^^, 
and born in i$5P. After going through the ordinary f^oi^^rse 
. pf education at the university of St. Aod^ew^s, he made tbe 
tour of France^ Italy, and Germaixs^.. . On hi^ reuirn he 
applied hiniself chiefly to the study o(^ iuatheinatic% ^o 
which he joined that pf the Scriptures ; and in bp^h dj^ 
covered the most extensive knowledge and profound pen^< 
^ration. Hi^ *' Essay ^pon the bo9k of thi^ Appcalypsf** 
indicates the most acutjs investigation ; though tim>^ h^a 
discovered that bis calculation^ concerning particular evei\ts 
bad proceeded upon fallacious data. But what his fame now 
solely rests upon is bis gr^at and fortunate discovery of Ip* 
garithms in trigonometr}^ by which the ease and ei^peditipn 
in calculation have so wonderfully, assisted the science of 
astronomy and the art^ of practical geometry and uaviga- 
. tion« Napier, having much attachipent tq astronomy, and 
spherical trigonometry, bad occasion to make many nume- 
ral calculations of such triangle^, with sines, tangents, 
&c. wbich being expressed iif Urge numbers, occasioned 
a great d^al of labour and trouble : To spare themselves 
p^rt of this labpur, l^^api^r, a^"d other authors about bis 
time^ (endeavoured to find out pertain short modes of cal- 
culation^ as is evident from ipany of ih^is writings. To 
this necessity, an4 these endeavours it is, that we owe seve- 
ral ingenious contrivances; particularly the computation 
by Napier's I^s, or Bones, as they are called, and sevf- 
ral other carious and shprt tpetbods that are given in bjs 
. ^' Kabd9logia ;''• and at length, af^^r trials of many other 
loeai^s, tbe mP^t poopplete on^ of Ipgarithmis, in the actual 
constru^rtion of a large t^bl^ of numbers in arithmetical 
progressioU) adapted to a set of as many others, in geome- 
trical progression. The property of spcb numbers had 
befen long known, viz. that tbe addition of the former an- 
swered to the ipultipUcatioQ of thje }atter, &c. ; bjut it 
wanted tbe necessity of such very tropb^ofine calculations 
j^ tbo^e aboveiQentioneds joined to an ardent disposition, 
to make such a use of that property. Perhaps aUp this 
.disposition was urged into action by cei^in attenopts of this 
kind ivlijcfa it se^ms were made eUewh^e ; such as 'Jtb^ fpl- 
lowing, related by Wood in bis ^^^^^hena^ Qxppieiises/* 
yn^er tbe article Qriggs, on tbe aMtbority of O^gbitred aad 
. W^ngatp, m. << Ti^ tm^ {Xr. Ciaig, ft SuMfkbimny Homing 



10 N A P I E R. 

tdxt of Denmark into hi« own^ country, called upon John 
Neper baron of Marcheston near Edinburgh, and told him, 
'among other discourses, of a new invention in Denmark, 
' (by Longomontanus as His said) to save the tedious muV 
tiplrcation and division in astronomical calculations. Neper 
' being solicitous to know farther of hinrr concerm6g' this 
' matter, he could give no other account of it, than that it 
' was by proportionable numbers. Which hint Neper taking, 
he desired him at his return to call* upon him again. Craig, 
after some weeks had passed, did so, and Neper then 
shewed him a rude draught of that he called ^ Canon Mi- 
' rabilis* Logarithmorum.' Which draught, with some al- 
terations; he pri\ited in 1614; it came forthwith into the 
bands of our author Briggs, and into those of William Ought- 
red, from whom the relation of this matter came.'' 

Whatever might be the inducement, however, Nipier 
published his invention in 1614, under the title of *' Lo- 
garithftiorum Canonis Descriptio," &c. containing the con- 
struction and canon of bis logarithms, which are those of 

• the kind that is called hyperbolic. This work coming pre- 
' sently to the hands of Mr. Briggs, then Professor of Geo- 
' metry set Gresham College in London, he immediately gave 
' it the greatest encouragement, teaching the nature of the 
' logarithms in his public lectures; and at the same time re- 

* commending a change in the scale of them, by which they 
might be advantageously altered to the kind which he after- 

^ wards computed himself, which are thence called Briggs's 
Logarithms, and are those now in common use. Mr. Briggs 

- also presently wrote t6 lord Napier upon this proposed , 
change, and made journeys to Scotland the two following 
yearis, to' visit Napier, and consult him about that altera- 
tion, before he set about making it. Briggs, in a letter 
to archbishop Usher, March 10, 1615, writes thus: "Na- 
pier lord of Markin^on, hath set my -head and hands at 
woric with his new and admirable logarithms. I hope to see 
him this summer, if it please God; fori never saw ab'o6k 
which pleased me better, and made me more wonder.^* 
Briggs accordingly paid htm the visit; and staid a month 
with him. 

The following passage, from the life of Lilly the astrolo- 
ger, contains a<:urious account of the meeting of those two 
illustrious men. **I will acquaint you,** says Lilly, •* with 
ojhe memorable story related unto me by John Marr, an ex- 
ceUent 'm^tbeio^ti^ian and- geometrician, whom I eon- 



NAP I E A. U 

« 

ceiVe you remember. He was servant to king James and 
Charles the First. At first when the lord Napier, or Mar- 
chiston, made public his logarithms, Mr. Briggs, tben 
reader of the astronomy lectures at Gresham college in 
London, was so surprised with admiration of them, that be 
• could have no quietness in himself Until he bad seen that 
noble person the lord Marchiston, whose only invention 
they were : he acquaints John Marr berewitb, who went 
into Scotland before Mr. Briggs, purposely to be there 
wbeh these two so learned persons should meet. Mr. Briggs 
appoints a certsun day when to meet at Edinburgh ; but 
.failing thereof, the lord Napier was doubtful he would noc^ 
come. It happened one day as John Marr and the lord 
Napier were speaking of Mr. Briggs ; ' Ah, John,' said 
Marchiston, < Mr. Briggs will not now come.' At the very 
instant one knocks at the gate ; John Mait basted down, 
and it proved Mn Briggs, to bis great contentment. He 
brings Mr. Briggs up into my lord's chamber, where al* 
most one quarter of an hour was spent, each beholding 
other almost with admiration before one word was spoke. 
At last Mr. Briggs began : ^ My lord, I have undertaken 
this long journey purposely to see your person, and to 
know by what .engine of wit or ingenuity you came first to 
4hink of this most excellent help into astronomy, viz. the 
logarithms ; but, tny lord, being by you found out, I won- 
•der no body else found it out before, when now known it 
is so easy.' He was nobly entertained by the lord Napier; 
And every summer after that, du^ring the lord^s being alive, 
.this venerable man Mr. Briggs went purposely into Scotland 
to visit him," , 

Napier madte also considerable improvements in spheri- 
cal trigonometry, &c. particularly by his Catholic or Uni- 
versal Hule, being a general theorem, by which be resolves 
all the cases of right-angled spherical triangles in a manner 
very sinyple, and easy to be remembered, namely, byn^bat 
be calls. the Five Circular Parts. His construction of Loga- 
rithms too, beside the labour of them, manifests the greatest 
ingenuity. Kepler dedicated bis Ephemerides to Napier^ 
whicb wer-e published in 1617 ; and it appears from many 
passages in his letter about this time, tbat be accounted Na-* 
pier to be the greatest man. of bis age in the particular de- 
partment to which he applied bis abilities, . 

The last literary exertion of this eminent person was 
the publication of his ^< Rabdology and Promptuary," in 



12 N A P I E |L ' 

1617 ; soon after which he died at MarcbiKon, the 3d ef 
April in the same year, in the 6Sth year of his age* The 
list of bis works is as follows : I . '^ A Plain Discovery of 
the Revelatiori of St. John/' 1593. 2. ** Logarithmorum 
Cauonis Descriptio," 1614. 3. ** Mirifici LogamhoQorVim 
Canonis Constructio ; et eoram ad Naturales Ipsorum ni^ 
nieros habitudines; una cum appendice, de alia eaque 
pra^tantiore Logarithmorum specie condenda. Quibus ac- 
cessere propositiones ad triangula sphaerica faciliore calculo 
resolvenda. Una cum Annotationibus aliquot doctissimi 
D. Henrici Briggii in eas, et .memoratam append icem.'* 
Published by the author's son in l6l9. .4. ^< Rabdologia^ 
seq Numerationis per Virgulas, hbri duo," 1617. This 
contains the description and use of the Bones or Rods ; 
with several other short and ingenious modes of calculation. 
5. His Letter to Anthony Bacon (the original of vrhicb is 
in the archbishop's library at Lambeth), entitled^ ^^Se- 
^* cret Inventions^ profitable and necessary in these days 
for, the Defence of this Island, and withstaodiiig strangers 
enemies to God's truth and religion;" dated June 2, 
1596." 

NARpi (James), an Italian historian, was born of a no- 
ble fam^y of Florence, in 1476. Having espoused the 
cause of the liberties of bis country, when the Medici fa-* ^ 
mily gained t^he ascendancy, he was banished, and bier pro- 
perty c.ottfiscated. tie then went to Venice, where he 
passed the rest of bis days in composing his various work&, 
particularly bis history of Florence, '* L'Istorie de Firenze, 
dal 1494 sino al 1531," &c. 1582, 4to, which bears a great 
character for style ; but, from his being the decided ene- 
my of the house of Medici, must probably be read with 
some caution ; nor was it published until fifty years after 
his death. He acquired ^reat reputation also by his trans^ 
lation of Livy, which is considered as one of the best ver- 
sions of the ancient authors in the Italian language. It was 
iirst printed in 1547; but the best editions are those of 
1554 and 1575, in which last there is a supplement to the 
. second decade by Turcbi. Apostolo Zeno laments, that 
after Nardi had been banished his country, his works should 
also be banished from tlie vocabulary della Crusca. Tbesf 
academiciaus quote i^iip but once, under the word pronuuv 
jiiare. He certainly deserved not such contempt, if it wa^ 

1 Huttou'« Pictiooary« — Accoant of his IM^ And Writings \^y lord Buohan. . 



N A It D i; 13 

out of cot^tempt they neglected him. N^rdi, in bis yoxithf 
bad distinguished himself as a soldier, and shows great 
knowledge and experience in military affairs, in a Life of 
the celebrated commander Malespini, printed at Florence, 
1597, 4to, He was the author of several other works, 
both in prose and verse, an;i is supposed to have given the 
first example of the vcrst scioltt, or Italian blank verse. 
He is thought to have died about 1555, far advanced in 
age. * 

NARES (James), <ioctor of musio, an eminent compo- 
ser and teacher in that science, under whom some of the 
firet fnusictans of the present day received the whole or 
part of their education^ was the son of Mr. Nares, wha 
was, for many years, steward to Montague and Willoughby, 
earls of Abingdon. He was born, as well as his brother, 
the late Mr.. Justice Nares, at Stan well in Middlesex ; the 
former in 1715, the latter in 1716. His mtisical educa- 
tion be commenced under Mr. Gates, then master of the' 
royal choristers ; and completed it under the celebrated 
Dr. Pepusch. Thus prepared, he officiated, for some time, 
as dep#ty to Mr. Pigott, organist of Windsor; bpt, on 
the resignation of Mr. Salisbury, organist of York, in 
17S4^, was chosen to succeed him, being then only nine- 
teen. It is related, on undoubted authority, that, when 
the old musician first saw his intended successor, he said, 
ratBer angrily, "What! is that child to succeed me ?*^ 
which being mentioned to the organist-elect, he took aa 
early opportunity, on a difficult service being appointed,, 
to play it throughout half a note below the pitch, which 
brought it into fi key with seven sharps; and went through 
it without the slightest error. Being asked why hie did so„ 
he said, that " he only wished to shew Mr. Salisbury what 
a child could do.'' His knowledge in all branches of 
his profession was equal to his practical skill in this in- 
stance ; and, during his residence at York, where he 
was abundantly etnployed as a teaciier, and where he 
married, Mr. Nares, by his good conduct, as well as 
professional merit, .obtained many powerful friends. 
Among the foremost of these was Dr. Fontayne, ' the 
late venerable dean of York ; who, when Dr. Green died, 
towards the latter end of 1755, exerted his interest so 
successfully, that he obtained for him the united places of 

» Tiraboschi Roscoe's Leo. — BareHi'e Italinw Library. 



U N A R E S. 

organist and composer to his tnajesty. ' He removed, 
therefore, to London in the beginning of 1756; and, 
about the same time, was created doctor in music at Cam- 
bridge. 

On the resignation of Mr. Gates, in 1757, Dr. IsTares 
obtained also the place of master of the choristers ; which, 
having been, for a long time, without increase, notwith« 
standing the increase of expences attending it, was, by 
royal favour, augmented about 1775, first with the salary 
of the violist, and, on the revival of that place for Mr. 
Crosdill,. in 1777, with that of lutanist, which was an- 
nexed to it for ever. It was in this situation, that Dr. 
Nares superintended the education of many pupils, who 
have since become famous ; particularly Dr. Arnold, who, 
though with him only for a short time, was highly distin- 
guished by him for talents and application. The anthems 
and services which Dr. Nares produced, as composer to 
the royal chapel, were very numerous; many of t;heai 
have since been printed, and many which exist only in 
MS. still continue to be performed in the choirs with much 
effect. Having been originally a musician rather by acci- 
dent than choice, with very strong talents and propensities 
also for literature, Dr. Nares was particularly attentive to 
express the sense of the words he undertook to set ; and 
was the first who attempted to compose the Te Deum, for 
the choir- service, in such a manner as to set off the senti- ; 
ment9 it contains to advantao:e. Before his time, it had 
been set rather to a regular strain of cbaunt than to any . 
expressive melodies. The merits of Dr. Nares were not. 
overlooked by his royal patron s^ whom he had occasionally , 
the honour fto attend in private, though not a part of his 
regular duty. To manifest his respect and gratitude for 
them^ he composed his dramatic ode, entitled ^^ The . 
Royal Pastoral/' the words of which were written by Mr. 
Bellamy,, author of a book entitled ^^ Ethic Amusements.*' ^ 

In July 1780, Dr. Nares was obliged, by declining 
health, to resign the care of the choristers, in which place 
he was succeeded by Dr. Ayrton, his pupil and valued friend. 
In his sixty-eighth year, a constitution, never robust, gave 
way, and he died on Feb. 10, 1783, deeply regretted by 
his affectionate family, of which the present representa- 
tive, the rev. Robert Nares, archdeacon of Stafford, is 
well known in the literary world, and not more known than 
respected* Testimony has been borne to the merits of Dr. 



NARE.S. la 

Nares \>:f several writers^ bat more particolarly by Mr. 
Ma^n, in bis preface to a book of aiuhems^ printed for 
the use of York-catbedral y and, in bis laie Essays oo , 
Churcb Music, p. 1 38. The late lord Momington, so well • 
known for musical talents, frequently consulted him ; and 
sir John Hawkins .derived advantage fmcn bis acquaintance, . 
in the prepress of bis '^ History of Music.*' Tbroughout . 
life, be was not less respected as a man than admired as a 
musician ; he bad a vivacit}' that rendered bis society al* . 
ways pleasing ; and a generous, contempt for every thing 
base, that manifested itself on ail proper occasions, and 
very justly commanded esteem. 

His printed works are these : 1. ^^ Eight sets of Lessons, 
fpr the Harpsichord; dedicated to the right honourably; 
Willpugbby earl of Abingdon.: printed in 1748, reprinted 
in 1757," 2, <* Five Lessons for the Harpsichord, with a 
sonata in score for the harpsichord or organ ; dedicated to 
the right honourable the countess of Carlisle ;" published 
in 1758 or 1759. 3. ^< A set of easy Lessons for the Harp- 
sichord,*' three in number; with a dedication to the pt\b-> 
lie, signed J. N. 4. ** A Treatise on Singing," small size,, 
5. *^ ]1 Principio;" or ** A regular introduction to playing, 
on the Harpsichord or Organ/' This was the first, set of 
progressive lessons publisbed on a regular plan. 6. ^* The- 
Royal Pastoral, a dramatic ode ; dedicated to. bis royal 
highness the prince of Wales \ printed in score, with an 
overture and choruses. 7. ^' Catches, Canons, and. Glees ^ 
dedicated to the late lord Mornington." 8. ^^ Six Fugues, 
with introductory voluntaries for the Organ or Harpsi- 
chord." 9. ^^ A concise and easy treatise on Singing, with 
a set of English Duets, for beginners ;" a different work 
from th^ former small treatise. lOr*^- Twenty Anthems, 
in score, for one, two, three, four, and five voices ; com- 
posed for the, use, of his majesty's, chapels royaj/' 1778. 
11. '^ Sis: easy Anthems, with a favourite Morning and 
Evening Service," left . for publication at his death, and 
published in 1788, with a portrait and a. concise account of 
the author. Of ^hese compositions the following short 
character is given by an eminent musician, to whom they 
are ;all well known. ^^ The Lessons are composed in a 
masterly and pleasing style ; free from those tricks and 
unmeaning successions of semitones, to which a good ear 
and sound judgment never can be reconciled. Tbetreatises 
on singing contain duets composed for the use of the cbil- 



1« NAKB'S/ 

drcrn of the royal ebaptls, 8iip€^iar to my dritig ;^t ptfb^ 
li'shbd) M(l such as every teacher oaght to peruse.^' Iti» 
cfttcbesy canons^ arid glees, are mturat aild pleMing ; 
especially the glee to all Lovers of Harmony, which gain^ 
th4 pfize-fDedal at the catch-dlub in 1770. The Royai- 
Pastoral is^ composed throughout ia a very tt»d(sterly mail* 
net ; particularly the choruses^ with which eaoh part eon^- 
ckides. This ode^ oontavniiig IQS pages, wsts written,- an<t 
all th6 vocal and irvstrumental parts transcribed for; per- 
forming, within twelve days. The six fugues^ with inli^' 
d>u<:tory voluntaries fox the orgaiY, contain the strongest 
proofs of ingenuity and judgment ; few, if any, have ever 
been written that can be preferred to thim. In both sets 
of the antbemi, the same charaeteristic^s appear ; and the 
sef^ioe'.in tiie IaU>er very jointly acquired the title of fa^ 
voume ; nor can there be any doubt -tbctt th'6 works of this 
author will be- admired as long a^^ a taste for mtifiic sheill 
subsist.'* 

Besides the pieces above mentioned, a complete set of 
church services, in the key of F, and three full anthems, 
were published in 1790, by Dr. Arnold, in his " Collec- 
tion of Cathedral Music,*' vol. III. In these services the 
doctor first displayed his great skill in setting words. Se- 
veral other compositions of much merit still remain in 
manuscript. The chief of these are an <^ Ode on the Death 
;-of Handel, in score, with choruses;" and a great part of 
t)r. Brown's *^ Cure of Saul," composed as a regular era* 
tofio ; from which work Dr. Nares desisted out of regard 
to bis- friend and pupil. Dr. Arnold, by whom it was also 
undertaken, and completed in a masterly manner.' 

NARY (Cornelius), an kish Roman catholic divine, of 
great learning, was tibrn in the county of Kildare in 1660', 
and educated at Naas, in that County. In 1684 he received 
*priest's orders in the town of Kilkenny, and the year fol^ 
l(^ing went to Paris to pursue hi^ studies in the Itish tol" 
lege, of which he was made afterwards provisor for abon^t 
seven years. He took the decree of LL. D. in 1694, in 
the college of Cambray, and returning to London two 
years after, was appointed tutor to the earl of A-ntrim. 
Be was afterwards made parish* priest of St. Michan's in 

Dublin, in which station he continued till his death, March 

' . • * . 

1 Written ^for Uie last edition of this Dictionary from private and authentic 

jnforuiaiiou. 



. 



3, itSd. ' His prjnciparwork^ rather tiuftiei'dds, vitete of 
the controversial kind, in defence of popery against Mr. 
Clayton and others, who aclcnowledged his learning as 
well as Ihe pblitenessof his style and moderation of his 
sentiments. It was this quality which enabled him to hs^ve 
his works printed both at Dublin and London without mo^ 
lestation. Those that are not strictly of the controversial 
kind were, 1.' «* The N6w Testament translated into Eng- 
lish from the Latiti, with margmal notes," Lond. 1705, 
1*^1 S, 8vo. 2'. ** A new History of the World ; containing 
an« historical and chrotiological account of the times and- 
transactions frott) the creation to the birth of Christ, ac- 
cording to the computation of the Septyagint,*' &c. Dub* 
lih, 1720, fol. ' 

NASH (Richard, esqj) a very extraordinary persondge, 
was born at Swansea, in Glamorganshire, Oct* 18, 1674* 
His father was a'^entleman, whose principal income arose 
from a partnership in a glass-house : his mother was niece 
to colonel Poyer, who wajj killed by Oliver Cromwell, for 
defending Pembroke-castle against the rebels. He was 
educated at Carmarthen-school, and thence sent to Jesxis 
college, Oxford, in order to prepare him for the study of 
the law. His father had strained his little income to give 
his son such an education ; and from the boy'a natural vi- 
vacity, he hoped u recompence from his future preferment. 
In college, however, he soon shewed, that, though much 
might be expected from bis genius, nothing coiild be 
hoped from his industry. The first method Nash took to 
distinguish himself at college was not by application to 
study, but by assiduity in intrigue. Our hero was quickly 
caught, and went through all the mazes and adventures of 
a college intrigue, before he was sevente^^ he offered 
marriage, the offer Was acceptexl ; but, the: affair conning 
to the knowledge of his tutors, bis* happiness, or 'perhaps 
misery, was preventedy aiid he was^ent bomefmiB college, 
with necessary advice to him, and proper instructions t^ 
his father. He now purchased a pair of colours, com* 
menced a professed admirer of the sex, aiul dressed to the 
very edge of his finances ; but sOon becoming disgusted 
with the life of a soldier, quitted the army, entered his 
name as a student in die Temple-books, and here went to 
thl3 very summit' of second-rate luxury. He spetit some 

^ 1 Moreri. — Harris's edition of Ware. 

Vol, XXIII. C 



18 N A S If. 

yean about lowni tilt at li^t, bi^ genteel appetraneei hit 
qont^taot civility, and still mpre bis assiduitji gained him 
the aoquaintanqe of several peraoni^ qualified to lead the 
fashion both by birth and fortune. He brought a person 
getiteelly dreased to every asaembly ; he always made one 
of those who are called good oocqpany ; and susaqrance gavie 
bim an air of elegance and ease. 

When king William was upon the throne Na^ waff a 
member of the Middle Temple. It bad been long cus-*- 
tomary for the inns of <onrt to entertain our monarcbss 
upon their accession to the crown, or any remarkable occ^* 
sioB, with a revel and pageant. In the early periods of 
our history, poets were the conductors of these entertain* 
ments; plays were exhibited, and complimentary verses 
were then written; but, by degrees, the pageant alone 
was continued^ sir John Davis being the last poet that 
wrote verses upon such an oocasion, in the reign of J^mes 
I. This ceremony, which has been at length totally dis-^^ 
continued, was last exhibited in honovir of king William ^ 
and Nash was chosen to conduct the whole with proper 
decorum. He was thto but a very young man ; but at an 
early i^ he was thought proper to guide the amusem^ntSk 
of tws oottfitry, add be the arUier ehganiiarum of his tioae* 
In condneting this entertainment he had an opportunity of 
exhibiting all his abilities ; and king Wijfli^ni was so nr^l 
aitbfied with his perfoniianoe> that he made him an oiFfr 
of knighthood. This, hov^ver, he thought proper to re<^. 
&B^ wliicfa, ia a person of his disposition, seems stmoge. 
^ Please your majesty,*' replied be, <^ if you intend to 
make me a knight, I wish it may be one of your poor 
knights of Windsor ; aad then I shall have a fortque^ at 
least able to auppeft my title.'*' Ye^ we do not fiad tbf^t, 
the king took iktt hint of increasing his fortujue ; pi^^pa 
he ebnld not ; he had, at that time, numbers to oblige^ 
and he Mever caced to give money without important 
services. 

Bat thoagb Nash acquired no riches by his late ofice^' 
he gained many friends ; or« what is mere easily pbtaii^ed^ 
many aoquaintances, who tiften aoaww tihe end as wdl}^ 
and, besides bn assuranoe^iie had in reality iome merit and 
seme virtues. He was, if not a briUiant, at least aft 
agveeaMe eompanimi. He never forget good mMnem, 
even in the highest warmth of femiliarity, and, as we 
hinted before, never went in a dirty shirt, to disgrace 



if A S H. 19 

ilm iMe 0f U« patMi or hift friend. '< These qu^ifica- 
tH>DH'^ sajrs hk btograf^ber^ ^^ BHgbt infdi« tbe furpiture of 
bia I^eftd $ bat, for bU b6»itty that Memed ao aveinblage 
qC the ▼inucMi wbicbi "display an bonet t benevolent mind ; 
vilh tbiQ vkea wbicb qpring from too mticb good nature.'* 
He b«4 pity for e^povy afostttre'i dbtMni but wanted pri^ 
doRoe in tbe applkation.of bis benefits H.e,bi4 genero- 
sity for the wretched w the bigbeat degree^ «i w time when 
bis oreditcNCS compbine4 of bis justice ^. An instance of 
bis bwne&iiyis told us in ihe ^^ Spectalory" though bis 
name is not mentioned. When he was to give in his ae* 
CQiusta to the masters of the Temple^ among other articles^ 
be charged, ^^ For making one men happy, IQi, Being 
questioned about the meaoipg; of so strange an item, be 
frankly declared^ thalt, happening to over-^l^r 3*.poor maii 
dfoelare to his wife and a larye fomily of chiklren,< that lOi^ 
would make him happy, he oonid not avoid. trying thia 
experiment. He^ added, that^ if they did not ebase to 
ai^nieace in bis charge,, he was ready to refund the money. 
The masters, struck with audi aa unoommon: insitance of 
good oatmre, publicly thanked him for bta beaevole^eei 
and desired that the sum might be deubLsdiy as a proof of 
their satisfactiipn. 

Nash was now fabdy for hfe entered intoi a« n^w eoune 
of ;gaiety and dissipation, and steady in nothWNg. hut in the 
pursuit of variety. He was tbidrty yeaxjs old, wi^out fes- 
tane, or usefol talents to acquire ooev He had hithertp 
only led a life of eKpedieefts ; he thanked choice alone for 
his support I and, having been loQg precariously sup* 

* AgCQtleman told him* "he had piirpMe," Nash instantly went to his 
joft come from ^ing the most pitlftil bureair, mid'gaf« him the cash, at the 
tffht hie ^c« eTer-heheld,.a ^ooiiaiui. nae tiaie prestmg bin to nftslm sdl 
imd bit wile smronttded with m^eu possible^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ sudden 
helpless infimts, afmost all perishing oissotBlion of the miserable family. 
fbr vant of fo^d^ vaiment, andMginf;^ ^ F omi watf fgfUm** sayi the fritSd, 
tbf ir lysiMwwl waa as. dreary as Ibe smlli*t, Md po^^iaa ^® wam? ioto 
ftieet itself* from the weather Sreabiag; his pocket ; ** you know you have owed 
hi upon thenr at all qnarteiv; that me this money k Jong^ while, that I 
sipon^ iaqsiry ha fosmd the. paMntftr h«P« dnnojO*. jpeii i>« i« for steam tA no 
Here hmie^t sittd sober, and wished 19 aumner of purpose s excuse me, there- 
be industrions if they had eihploy- i6re, that I have thus imposed on your 
ne«l; Ikat ke hfld eakntMSd the ei- f6^iftgr% Ml being abl^ to/stnt* pur 
penoe ^ msbine tbji) wbole lamlbr jsitieew ^r there arerne' such onsets 



enm^ortable and happy .** '<How medi as I have described, to my knowledge : 
oiBiney,'^ exctanns Imh, *' would i«- the story^ it- ar fiction from beghininr (o 



Uive tibeoa aaA malm th«Mhaippy»?'^ end^ yen vm m dupsN not'^.jnies?> 

«4boq(b ten gaimias*" veplM the bwtof your own Asonani^jc;" 
friend*, <*' would be soJQdent for the . 

C 2. 



20 



N A S B. 



ported^ be becathe, at length, totally a stranger to^ prii-' 
'dence or precaution. Not to disguise any part of bis 
character, be was now, by -profession, a gaaiester; and 
went on from day to dayy feeling the vicissitudes of rap- 
ture and anguish in- proportion to the fluctuations of for- 
-tune. About 1 703 the ^iiy of Baith becanfie^ in some mea^ 
sure^ frequented by people of distinction. The company 
^was numerous enough to form a oountry^dance tipon the 
bowling-green ; they were amused with & fiddle and haut- 
boy, and diverted with the romantic walks round the city. 
They usually sauntered in fine weather in the grove, 
between two rows of .sycamore treesw Several tearned 
physicians, Df. Jordan and others, had even then praised 
the salubrity of the wells; and the amusements were put 
under the direction of a master of the ceremonies. Gap- 
tain Webster was the predecessor nf Mr. Nash. This gen- 
tleman, in 1704-', carried the balls to the town^hall, eaeh 
man payiiHg half *ti- guinea each ball. One of the greatest 
physieians of his age conceived a design of ruining the 
c'ty/ ^y writing against the efficacy of the waters; 'and 
accordingly published a pamphlet, by which, be isaid^ "he 
•would cast a toad into the spring." > 

In this situation things were when Nash first came into 
the city ; and', hearing the threat of this physiciam, he 
humourously assured the people, that if they wqtild give 
him leave, he would charm a Way the poison of the doctor^s 
toad, as they usually charmed the venom of the carantula, 
by music. He therefore was immediately empowered to 
-set up a band of music against the > doctor's reptile:; die 
company very sensibly increased, Nash triumphed, and 
the sovereignty of the city was decreed to him by every 
rank of people. None could possibly conceive a person 
more fit to fill this emjployrnerit than Nash : he bad some 
wit, but it was of that sort which is, rather happy than per- 
manent. He was charitable himself, and generally shamed 
his betters into a similitude of sentiment, if they were^not 
naturally so before. His first care, when miade master of 
the ceremonies, or king of Bath, as it is called, Vas to 
promote a music subscription, of one guinea eaqh, ; for a 
band, which was to consist of six- performers, who were tx> 
jreceive a guinea a week each for their trouble. He allowed 
also two guineas a week for lighting and sweeping the 
rooms, for which he accounted to the subscribers by re- 
ceipt By his direction, one Thomas Harrison erected a 



NASH. 21 

handsome' li^eoibly.^lioQse for these parposes* A better' 
band of gnusic was also.procurec^ and the former subscript. 
tion*<^. one guinea was raised to two. Harrison bad three, 
guineas a week for tbe room and candles, and the music, 
two guineas a man.'. The money Nash received and ac« 
counted for with the utmost ejtactness and punctuality; 
Tbe balls, by his direction, were to begin at six, and to 
end at eleven. Nor would be aiiffer tbem to continue a 
mooietit longer, lest invalids might commit irregulacities, 
to counteraQt the benefit of the waters. Tbe city of Batb,* 
by such assiduiiy, '$oon became the theatre of summer, 
amii&enients for all people of fashion ; and the manner of. 
spending: the .day there must amuse any but such as dis- 
ease or spleen had made uneasy to themselves. In this 
manner every amusement soon improved under Nash's 
administration. The magistrates of the city found that it 
was necessary and useful, and took every opportunity of: 
paying the same respect to his fictitious royalty, - that is 
generally extorted by real power. His equipage was 
sumptuous, and he used to travel to Tuubridge in a post- 
chariot and six greys, with out-riders, footmen, French^ 
horns, and e\^ry other appendage of expensive parade. 
He always wore a white bat ; and, to apologize for this 
singularity, $aid he did it purely to secure it from being 
stolen ; his dress was tawdry, and not perfectly genteel ; 
be might be considered as a beau of several generations ; 
and, in bis appearance, he, in some measure, mixed the 
fashions of a former age with those of his own. He per- 
fectly understood elegant expeqce» and geoerally passed, 
his time in the very best-company, if persons of the first 
distinction deserve that title. 

Buf perbfips the reader, may demand, what finances were 
to support all this finery, or where tbe treasures that gave 
him such frequent opportunities of displaying his bene- 
volence, or bis vanity ? To answer this, we must now enter 
upon anotlier part of his character, his talents as a game- 
ster; for, by gaming alone, at the period of which we 
speak, he kept up so.very genteel an appearance. Whereyer 
people of fashion came, needy adventurers were generally 
found in waiting. With such Bath swarmed, and, among 
this^ class, Nash was certainly to be numbered in the be- 
ginning; only with this difference, that he wanted the 
corrupt heart, too commonly attending a life of el^pedients; 
for be was generous, humane, and honourable, even tbougb 



2t NASH: 

by professioa « i^iiMster. But, wbatover'dctlt Nub mi^t 
have aicquirad by laiig practioe in^ plfty^ be was never 
formed by natHra for aeocoessftil gameftter. H« was cott'- 
ali^tioQally pas$tona<ie and generotts. While ^bers laibde 
considerable fortunes at the gaming-table, be was ever in 
the power of ohsraoe ; nor did even tbfe intimacy with 
which he was received by the great, place him in a state of 
independence. 'Hie considerable inceniveniences that wer^ 
fpiind to result Arom a permission of gaming, at length 
attracted the attention of the legislature; dmd, in the 
twelfth year of his late majesty, the most prevalent game* 
at that time were declared firaudulent ^nd unlawfel. The 
£0 was at first set up at Tunbridge, and was reckoned 
extvemely profitable to the bank, as it gained two and a 
half per ipent. on all that was lost or won. As all gaming' 
iras suppressed but this, Nash was now utterly dedtitute of 
any resource from superior skill and long «:ftperience iii 
the art. The nftmey to be gained in private gaming is at 
best but trifling, and the opportunity precarious. The 
minds of the generality of mankind shrink with their etr* 
ciunstances; sind Nash, upon the imniediaCe prospect of 
poverty, w«is now mean enough to Mter ifyto a base con-* 
fedj^raGy to evade «he law, and to ^are the plui^der. K«b1i 
bad hitherto enjdyed a fluctuating fortune; and, had he 
taken the advantage of the present opportunity, he might 
have been for the foture not traly above want, but even iii 
ciroumstances of opulenee. In the mean time, as the EO 
table thus succeeded at Tunbridge, he was resolved to 
introduce it at Bath ; and previously asked the opinion of 
several lawyers, who declared it no way iHegal. The le^ 
gislature thought proper to suppress these seminaries ot 
vice. It was enacted, that, after the 24^b of June 1745, 
none should be permitted to keep a bouse, room, or place 
for pkying, upon paom of such forfeitures as were declared 
in former acts instituted for that purpose. 

By this wise and }ast act, all Nash's future hopes of 
succeeding by Hhe tad>les were btbwn up. FiFom that tihie, 
we find him involved in contimial disputes, every day ca* 
lumniated with some new slander, and continually endesH 
vouring to obviate its efkcts^ Nature had by no means 
formed him tor z.beipwgm'gon: hb person was duitisy, too' 
large, and awkward, and his features harsh, strong, and 
peculiarly irregular ; yet even with those disadvantages he 
. made love, became an universal admirer of the sex, and 



9 A a K. ft» 

WIS MtTCMAtty adiaiiwd. ll« whs poisMed; at leaaCi of 
sottie reqmittts of a lovar. Re had aMlchiity, flutterf, fine 
i#oth8% and as aHicb wit as Che hkdm be sddtessed. tVit, 
flattery) aod fine tfetbes^ he afled to lay, were enoaffb to 
debauch a aaimcty. He did not long continue M uni- 
▼eraal gallant; but, in the earlier years ^ his reign^ en>- 
^vely gave up bis endeavours to deceive the sex, in ordeir 
to bqooaie the honest protector of tbeir innocencei the 
guardiain of their reputatioUi and a friend to their vtrtae. 
This was a character he bore for many years, and sap- 
ported it with integrity, assiduity, and success; and be 
BOt only took care, during his administration, to protecit 
die buttes fnwi the insuHs of oor sex, but to guatd them 
from the slanden of each other* He, in the first place, 
prevented any animosities that might mwe from place and 
preoedenee, by being previously acquainted with the rank 
aod quality of almost every family in tbe British deminioM. 
He Mideafoured to render scandal odious, by maiking h 
as the result of envy and folly united. Whatever might 
haiw been bis other exceHence84 there was one in which 
few exeeeded him, his extensive humanity. None fek 
pi^ more strongly, and none made greater ethtU to retie^fe 
distress. << If we were,*^ says bis biographeri <* to name 
aay reigning aftd fashionabie virtue in tbe present age, it 
diould be charity. We know net whetbi^r it may not be 
spreading ibe influeoee of P^asb seo widely, to say, thsM; 
he was one of tbe principal causes of iutrodociDg tins 
noUe emulation among the nc4^; but certain it is^ nd 
private man ever relieved the distresses of so many as he.^ 
Before gaming was suppressed, and in the meridian of 
Us life and fortune, bis beaefaetioiis were generaliy found 
to equal his other expenoes. ^e mon^ be got without 
pain, lie gave away wiAout reluotance ; and^ when unable 
to relieve a wretch ^0^ sued for assistance, he has been 
often seen to shed tears. A geatleman of broken fortune, 
eae day staikding behind bis chair, as be was playing a 
gaine of piquet for 200/. and observing with what indifibr- 
enee he won the money, could not avoid  whispering these 
words to another who stood by, ^^ Heavens I how happy 
would all that money make me V^ Nasb, overbearing bins 
eiapped'tbe money into bis band, and cried, ^' Go, and b# 
baj^/' In' the severe winter of 1799/ his eharity was 
great, useful, and extensive. He fipequently, itt that sea^ 
mom of ^ealamitv, entered tbe houses of the poor, whom he 



41 



24 . N A a a 

tfaaoghl too j^rottd to bog, and generoiHily reli^yed tbem. 
But. of ail tbe iostances- of Nasb-s bounty, none does bim 
more real honour, than the paios.be took in. estabtishtag 
an hospital at Bath; in which :benelfactioo, however. Dr. 
Oliver had a great share. This was one of those weU* 
.guided charities, dictated by reason, and .supported by 
prudence, cbie6y by the means of Dn Oliver and Mr* 
Nash ; hut not without the assistance of Mr. Allen, who 
.gave tbein the stones for building, and other benefactions. 
As Nash grew old^- he grew insolent, and seeooed not 
aware of the pain bis attempts to .be a wit gave others* . He 
grew peevish and fretful; and they, who. only saw the 
;remnant of a man, severely returned that laughter upon 
,bim, which he b$d once lavished upon others. Poor Nash 
was no longer the gay, thoughtless, idly industrious crea* 
tore he oppe was ; he now forgot how to supply new modes 
of entertajqjoient, and became too rigid to wind with ease 
through the ^vicissitudes of fashion. . The evening of his 
life began to grow cloudy. His fortune was 'gone, and 
nothing. but- .poverty, lay in prospect. . He now began, to 
want that charity, which be had never refused to any; and 
to find, that a life of dissipation, and gaiety is ever termi- 
nated by n^isery and regret. He was now. past the power 
of giving or receiving pleasure, for he was poor, old, and 
tpeevish ; yet still he was incapable of turning from his. for- 
mer pann^ of life to pursue happiness. An old man thus 
striving after pleasure is indeed an o^^t of pity; but a. 
man at once .old and poor, running on; in this pursuit^ 
might excite astonishment. ^ 

A variety of causes. coucurred to embitter his departing 
life. His health began to fail. . ;He had. received from 
nature, a robust and happy constitution, that was scarcely 
even to be impaired by intemperance. For some time be* 
fore his decease, nature gave warning of his approaohing 
dissolution. The worn maehine had run itself down to an 
utter impossibility of repair ; be &aw that he must die, and 
shuddered at the thought. Fortitude was not among the 
number of his virtues. Anjcious, timid,, his thoughts still 
hanging on a receding world, he desired to enjoy a little 
longer that life, the miseries of which he had eiEperienced 
so long. The poor, unsuccessful gamester husbanded the 
wasting moments with an increased desire to contrnue the 
game; and, to the last, eagerly wished for one yet more 
happy throw. He died at his house in St. Jphu^s courl, Baleby: 



^ N A » Ifv 25 

fA^ 3, .1^61, aged S7. His death wasr sincerely' regretted 
J)y the city, to which be bad been, so long and so great > 
baoefa^tor. After the corpse had lain four days, it was 
conyeyed to the abbey-church in that city, with a so- 
iemmty peculiar to his character. The few things he was 
po^essed of were left to bis relatiozis. A small library, o^ 
well-chosen books, some trinkets and pictures, were his 
only, inheritance. Among, the latter were, a gold box, 
given by the late countess of Burlington, with lady Euston's 
picture in the lid; an agate etui, with a diamond on the 
top, by the princess dowager of Wales ; and some things 
pf no; great value. The rings, watches, and pictures, which 
be formerly received from others, would have come to. a 
considerable amount; but these his necessities had oblige4 
him to dispose of: some family -pictures, however, rer 
maine^y which were sold by^advertisement, for five guineas 
each, after his decease* • 

In domestic life^ among hi^ servants and dependants, 
where no gloss was required to colour his sentiments and 
disposition, nor any mask necessary to conceal his foibles, 
he was ever fond of promoting the interests of his servants 
and dependants, and making them happy. In his own 
bouse, no man was perhaps more regular, cheerful, and 
beneficent. His table was always free. to those who sought 
his friendship, or wanted a dinner. As his thoughts were 
.entirely employed in the affairs of his government, he was 
seldom at home but at the time of eating or of rest. His 
jtable was well served^, but his entertainment consisted 
principally of plain dishes. He generally arose early in 
the morning, being seldom in bed after five; and, to 
avoid disturbing the family, and depriving, his servants of 
tbeir rest, he had the fire laid after b^ was in bed, and, iq 
the u^orning, lighted it himself, and sat down to read some 
of bia.few, but welUchosen books. His generosity and 
charity in private life, though not so conspicuous, was as 
great as that. in piiblic, and indeed far more considerable 
than has little income would admit of. Such is nearly the 
jaccount given of this singular character in the preceding 
editions of this Dictionary, the omission of which might 
perhaps.be felt by some of our readers, while others m^y 
justly doubt if the life of such a man has fair claims on our 
attention. It contains, however, some portion of amuse- 
ment, .'aod ' some of moral tendency. . Oiir accoiint is a 
very brief abridgment of the Life of Nasbj published by 



M MASH. 

GMdsmitli, whb, it has been observed, tortured his geAnft 
to give stibftticnoe to inanity, and strained to describe ttie 
gi&udy hue of a butterfly, the glittering tinsel of a beiau, 
the sentiments of a man devoid of all reflection, and the 
ptinciples of an idler, whose walk of life never transgressed 
the eternal circle of gallantry, gambling, and the insipid 
i^onnd of faBbionable dissipation. This account; however, in 
perhaps not more a satire on Nash, than on the age in 
ii^hich he lived. ^ 

NASH (Thomas), a dramatic poet and satirist of quee« 
Elizabeth's reign, was bom at the sea-port town of LeostofF, 
in Suffolk, probably about 1 564, and was descended from 
t family whose r^idence was in Hertfordshiire. He r^«> 
tcived his education - at St. John's college, Gambridge^^ 
where he took the degree of B. A. 1585. If we may judge 
froim his pamphlet^ entitled <^ Pierce Penniless,"** which, 
though written with a considerable spirit, seems to breathe 
the sentiments of a man in the height of despair and rage 
against the worid, it appears probable that he had met 
with many disappointments and much distress, which, from 
the character of his companion Robert Greene (see 
Gli£E)q*B), it is most likely arose from his own indiscre- 
tions; his ** Pierce Penniless'* might be no less a ptctune 
cV himself, than the recantation pieces we have noticed in 
bur account of Greene. It appears fironi a vety scarce 
pamphlet, entitled << The Trimming of Tho. Nashe, gen*^ 
ifleman, by the high tituled patron Don Richarda de Me« 
dico Campo, Barber Clhirurgeon to Trinity college in Cam* 
bridge,** 1597, 4to, lliat Nash was, that year, m confine^ 
ment on account of his having written a pfay, vailed, '* The 
I^le of Dogs ;** that while he was at Cambridge, he wrote 
p^rt of a show, called *' Terminus et non Terminus,** for 
Wbitih the persbn, who was concerned with him in that 
tOfhposition, was expelled; that Nash left his college 
when be was seren years standing, and before be had 
taketi his master^s degree, abbut 1587 ; and that after hh 
arrival in London, he was often confined in diilbrent gaols. 

He died either in 1600 or 1601 ; for he published onb 
of his plaimpblets in 159d, and he is spoken of as dead in 
iJti old comedy, called " The Return from Parnassus^** 
"vriiich was written in 1602. But before 1600, he seems to 

1 Lift bf QoldimiUi.-^WaiU»r^s Hift, of Bitti 4p. 3S5), m city mUeh mifua* 
tiomAly tmt^ mucb lb Naih^ JufUBioas-«liniskitr«tioa «f Its ^teunrei. 



If A S H. 8? 

# 

ha|ve »kered the course of bis life, and to ba?e biBoome a 
penitent. lu a pamphlet, entitled ^' Chriat'sTeart over Jerai 
judetti,'' printed before tbe end of tbe sixteenth century^ be 
says, in a dedication to lady Elizabeth Cary, '^ A hundred un« 
fortunate farewels to fantasticali satirisme* In those vainei 
heretofore I mis»spent my spirit, and prodigally conspired 
againit good houres. Nothing is there now so much in 
my vovres as to be at peace with all men, and make sub* 
missive amends where I have most displeased.«^Again« 
To a little more wit have my increasing yeeres reclaime4 
mee then [ had before : those that have beene perverted 
by any of my worfces, let tbem reade this, and it shall 
thrice more benefit tbem. The autumne I imitate, in 
sheading my leaves with tbe trees, and so doth the pea- 
cock shead his taile,'' kc. 

As a satirist, his nDOst virulent paper^war was carried oir 
with Gabriel Harvey, particularly in bis traot^ entitled 
^ Have with you to Saffron-Walden,^' which was Harvey*i 
residence. His dramatic pieces were only three t ^* Dido^ 
queen of Cartbage,^ a tragedy^ 1594, 4to ; 2. '' Sumii 
mer's^Last Will and Testament^-' a comedyi l$W^ 4to4 
and ^^ The Tste of Dogs,'* above-mentioned, not published; 
He engaged on tbe side of tbe church against Mftrtih Mar* 
prelate ; and the following are supposed to have formed 
bit share of this Controversy: '^ A CMnterouffe given t0 
Martin, jonior,**^ &c.; ^< Martin's month^s minder'* "The 
Returoe of the renowned cavaliero Pasquill of England,'^ 
&c. all published in 15S9, 44o, and analyzed^ with ap^« 
eimens, in vol. II.. of the " Bifbliograpber." Nash wrote 
with considerable ease, harmony, and energy, yet MiJone 
says, that ^ of all tbe writers of the age or queen Eliaa* 
beth, Nash is tbe most licentious in his language ; {Perpe- 
tually distorting words from their primitive i^igniflcation^ 
in a manner often puerile and ridiculous, but more fre- 
cpiently' incomprehensible and absurd." He pleased hii 
own age, however, for we find tbat bis " Have with yoU 
to Sainon-Walden," passed through six editions ; and aii 
eminent poetical critic and antiquary thinks that Malone 
must bave formed his severe censure of Nash iVom thiv 
pteee, which was imervded to ridkrute the inflated and 
turgid language of jSarvey, in his astrological tracts. TbH 
style of "Pierce Penniless," adds sir E. firydges,, is very 
dissinxilar, and his '^ Address to the two Uoiversities,*' pub^ 
lished in 15§9, is written %a a vetsi^ of spirited and judi* 



38 NASH. 

cious criticism, of which the English language has no con- 
temporary example. 

The late hbtorian of Worcestershii'e, Dr. TreADWAY^ 
RussELNash, appears to have been a descendant, or. some*: 
how related t6 Thomas Nash, but of himself few memo- 
rials have been given to the public. His "History of 
Worcestershire" was published in 2 vols. foi. 1781 and 
1784 ; and his edition of " Hudibras," in 1793, 3 voi8..4to. 
He.wAs of Worcester college, Oxford, M. A. 1746, and B. 
andb. D. 1758. He died at his seat at Bevere, near 
Worcester, Jan. 26, 1811, in his eighty «sixth year. ^ 

NASMITH (James), a learned divine and antiquary, 
was born in 1740, at Norwich, of reputable parents. His 
father, who was of a Scotch family, had his son's gram- 
matical education completed. at Amsterdam. Thence he 
was reifnoved to Bene't college, Cambridge, where his in- 
getiuous and open temper gained him the love and esteem^ 
pf the whole society, who elected him a fellow, after he 
bad taken his. degree of B. A. in 1764. In 176.7 he took 
the degree of M. A. and was .frequently honoured for his- 
application and proficiency in every branch of academic 
studies. Having entered into holy orders, he served the 
sequestration of Hinxton in Cambridgeshire for some years, 
tQ which he was presented by bishop Mawson, and was 
junior proctor of the university in 1771. He was after- 
wards elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
became one, of his majesty's justices of peace for the 
county of Ca.mbridge. In this situation he was eminently 
cons^picuous for his correct knowledge and mild admini- 
stration of the laws ; and he filled tb^e office of chairman at 
the sessions of Cambridge and Ely with moderation, jus- 
tice, and impartiality, at once distinguishing himself as 
(be gentleman, the lawyer, and the divine. 

Having been early engaged to a daughter of Mr* Salmon,' 
a: clergyman near Norwich, and sister to Mr. Salmon, a 
fellovjT of his own college, and' then chaplain to one of our 
factories in the East Indies, he accepted the rectory of St. 
Mary Abchurch in London, in 1773, which Mr. Forster 
bad vacated by preferment in Devonshire. This, however,, 
he held only about a year, when, by permission of the col- 
lege and the bishop of Ely, he exchanged it for Snailwell 

> Biog.. Dram. — Warton^s Hist, of Poetry ; see Index. . Phillips's Theatrum 
Poetaram, by sir E. Brydges. — Censora Lheraria, vol. If. — Bibliographer, toL 
II.— l>'Ur»eli's Calamities.r-Nichols's Bowyer, vol. VIU. 



N A S M I T H. 2d 

in Cambridgeshire, with Dr. John Warren, afterwards bi- 
shop of Bangor. ' He took his degree of D. D. hi 1797. 
His last preferment was the rectory of Leveringtop, in the 
Isle of Ely, where he died Oct. 16, 1808, in the .sixty- ^ 
eighth year of his age. 

Besides an "Assize Sermon" preached at Wisbeacli, 
• 1796 ; an admirable charge " On the Duties of the Over- 
seers of the Poor," delivered by him as chairman of the 
quarter sessions in 1799; and "An Examination of the 
Statutes now in force, relating to the Assize of Bread,** 
1800, 8vo, the learned world has been indebted to him. for 
some works of much utility. After haying with great skill 
aod industry ranged and methodized the MSS. in art:h- 
bishop Parker's library at Behe't college, he printed at the 
university press, in 1777, a catalogue of them, in 4to, 
with a Latin |[)reface, and an etching of the archbishop by 
his friend Mr. Tyson. The college bore the expence of 
this very correct and useful catalogue. In 1778, Dr. Nias- 
mith published an edition in octavo of the "Itineraries of 
•Symon, son of Simeon, and William of Worcester," with 
a tract on Leonine verses, from Parker's MSS. About ten 
•years afterwards he completed his new edition of Tanner's 
** Notitia Monastica," to which he made very considerable 
additions, but blended with Tanner's labours in such a Wafy 
as to prevent our discovering the new from the old, nor is 
it entirely free from errors. It is, however, upon the 
whole' a- very considerable acquisition tb the public, and 
has of late years, risen in value. It is somewhat t-eriiark- 
• able that he laments his not being able to avail himself of 
Mr. Cole's MSS. which were then locked up in the BritisTi 
Museum, and in which he would have had ihe pleasure of 
reading th6 greater part of the account we have now giveii 
of his life and Works. ' 

NATHAN'(ISAAC), a learned rabbi, who flourished in the 
fifteenth century, was the first Jew who compiled a He- 
brew concordance to the bible, principally, as he allowed, 
from Latin concordances. It was entitled " Light tb the 
Path," or " Meir Netib,'- and Was first printed at Venice 
in 1524, reprinted afterwards in a more correct state, with 
a Talmudical index, at Basil, in 1581, &nd at Rome, by 
Calasio, in 1622, in four volumes folio. Biixtorf the elder 
published at Basil in 16^2 another, and the best edition j 

1 Cole'iMSAtheneioBrit. Mas.— Gent. Mag. vol.LXXVUI. 



after wbieh it was edited by Mn Boipaine and hid coftidja^ 
ton, M we have noticed in our account of Calasto. Wb<$n 
Nathan^ died is, not specified. He was employed on bis 
concordance from 1438 to 1448.* 

NATTA (Mark Antony), an Italian Uwyer> wbp flou- 
rished about the middle of the sixteenth centuryf was born 
pf a noble family, at Asti, and studied law at Pavia. He 
made so gr^at progress hi literature, as to receive the 
academical honours of his profession before be bad reached 
his twenty-fourth year, and was at the same time advanced 
to be senator at Casal. Pavia ofiered him the professor- 
ship of civil law, but be preferred his studious retire- 
ment at Genoa, where he prqbably died. His principal 
works are "DePulchro;" " De Peo," in fifteen books;" 
" De immortalitateAnimi ;*' "De Passipne Domini." Each 
pf these makes a fo]io» printed 1 $53—^1587** 

NAUDE', or NAUDiEUS (GABRif;L), a learned French 
writer and bibliographer, was born at Paris in the begin- 
ning of February 1600, and having discovered a strong 
inclination in his earliest years for reading, his parents 
determined to give him every bene6t of educatiop. After 
studying Latin, and being initiated in the principles of re- 
ligion, in a community of the religious, he was sent to the 
university, where he made sqch proficiency in . huDaarlity 
,and philosophy, as to be admitted to the degree of master 
of arts much before the usual age. He then, principally 
by the advice of his friends, began to study with a view to^ 
the church n but this was not agreeable to bis sentiments^ 
which were more free in matters of religion than consisted 
with a cordial profession of the prevailing tenets. He 
therefore soon preferred the study of medicine^ and in 161(6 
attended the lectures with suph application as to acquire a 
name in the world. Henry de Mesmes, presideot-a-mor- 
tier, hearing of him^ appointed him to that for which it 
appeared afterwards he was best qualified, the office of li- 
brarian ; and it was for this patron's vse that he wrote bis 
excellent little work, entitled *^ Aris pour dresser una 
Bibliotheque," printed at Paris in 1697, and again In 
1644, with Louis Jacob's << Traits des plus bellea BibUd- 
theqiies." 

According to Nicerop, he went in 1626 ta study at Pa- 
dua } but others think this was in 1 624,. aad that on his 
return he printed one of his most curious works, his 

> Diet Hift s Tiraboitthi.— Mofcriy-Dict Hist 



N A y D £'• $1 



*^ Apolcgi^ poor le9 grfiQcts.hooime^ s^up^o^n^s ^f 
H9i^ Svo. AUhottgb we GEQiiQi sigr^e witt^VQltair^y.^h^l; 
tl)ia ifk the only oqc| pf bi» vforks which cpntinii^s .to b^. 
ready it n perhaps Uie most generally knowpi and sh^WA 
thatii^ had riseix Gonsiderably abpvQ the prejudices of hia 
tiipe9. The eoiiDent chargcterf accused qf dealing ip oia- 
g^, whpoi he defends in this work, ,are, Zoroasteir^ Or«^ 
pheH«9 Pytbi^raas Numa Pompiliiis, ])emocritq8y £mpe*{ 
docles^ ApolloQiiui> Socrat^ Ari^tQtle, Plotinus, Porphyry,^ 
Jamblichnsy Chipi|a» Jiditts Csesar Scaliger, Cardaims, Al^ 
cbiDdu9, Geber^ Artephiuf, Thebit, Anselfniis Parinen$isi^ 
Raymond Lully» Afnaldu3 Villanovaqus^ Peter ab ApcAO^ 
Partcelsasi CorneUu.9 Agrippa, MerHn» 8aTonarpla» No9r. 
^adamus, Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon, Bnngey> Mi^ 
chael Scotupy Joa^ifies Pijcufy Tritheniius, Roberins Lin*^ 
eolniea^, Albertus Magnus^pope Sylvester 11, pope Gre^* 
gory Vlf . Joseph, S<dottion, the wi^e m^n of the East who 
c^m^ to worship Jesus Christ, and Virgil, . 

While at Padua he lost bis father, which obliged faiin to 
icetnrn to Paris to settle his affairs. In 1^28^ the faculty of 
qnediciae chose bijn to male the ordinary harangues at the 
admission, of licentiates, which he performed entirely toi 
their satisfaction. . One of tbese^ in Latin, ^n. the origin 
and dignity of the medical school ajt Paris, was printed 
there in 1628, in oetavo. He was then recommended by 
one of hift friends, to cardinal Bagoi, who appointed him 
ilia librarian and Ij»tin secretary. He took him also to 
RomeinK^Sl, and Naud^badan opportunity of forming, 
an acquaintance with the. celehrated Peiresc, as the cardinil 
txaveUed by the way of Beaugensier^ on purpose to see bia 
eld friend, who complimented him ?efy warmly :on h&ving^ 
acquired for a librarian a young ms,p.of Naadi's extensive 
knowledge of books. While oa this journey, Naud6 wenH 
to Padua, where, in 1633, he raceived the degree of 
doctoor of pbiloBophy and medicine, in order to support 
the ehsuraoter of physician to LoUis XIIL with which. b# 
had beieii honoured* On the death of cardinal Bagni, ia 
1640, be intended to return to France, but had so many: 
libaval offers to ren^ain in Italy, that he changed bis qiiady 
and determined lo attach himself to cardinal Barberini. 
There ia omoh difference of dates amongst his biographers 
respecting his return firom Paris. AU we can decide is^ 
that be acted there as librarian io cardinal Mazarine, and 
that im eeUeeted foe him a library of 40,000 voIuims, the 



33 N A U D- E^. 

greatest that had then appeared in France. Butrthe car^ 
dinal died in 1642, and be consequently could not 'have 
long been in his service. Perhaps he was ectiplbyed to 
make purchases for this library when in. Italy, &ci -^Vhe 
cardinal appears not to have rewarded him with much libe-* 
rality, and in 1648 we find him complaining of being 
neglected. He had, libwever, a greater mortification, t^' 
undergo in 1652, when this fine collection was sold by- or- 
der of the parliament. He is said to have been greatly ir-' 
ritated ori this occasion, and bought all the medical books' 
it contained for 3500 iivres Isaac Vossiiis now rectHn*^ 
mended him to Christina queen of Sweden,- with wbooy 
he resided a few months as librarian, or rather to 611 up 
that station in the absence of Vossius, who was at- this time 
in disgrace. Naud6, however, neither liked the employ**' 
ment nor the people, and took an early opportunity to give? 
in his resignation ; on which occasion the queen^ andsotme! 
other persons of rank, testified their regard for him by va-" 
rious presents. The fatigue of his journey on returning 
brought on a fever, which- obliged him to stop at Abbeville^ 
where he died July 29, 1653. Naud6 was a man of great- 
learning, and in his pH^ate conduct, correct, prudent, andh 
friendly. His -sentiments, as we have noticed, wer6 orv 
some subjects, very liberal, but on others he deserves ies^ 
praise. While he played the freethinker so far as tb despise 
some parts of the belief of his church, he could gravely 
vindicate the massacres of St. Bartholomew, as a measure 
of political expedience. His works are very numerous. 
To the few. already mentioned we may add, 1. *^ Le, Mar* 
fore; ou Discours contre les libelles.'' Paris, 1620, &vo. 2. 
^Instruction i, la France sur la verit^ de I'histoire de» 
freres dela'Rose-croix,"ibid. 1623, 8vo. The Rosecruciaus 
he considers i^s impostors. 3. ^^ Addition h Thistoire de 
Louis XL" ibid. 1630.' 4. ^^Consider^tion politique ^sur 
les coups d'Etat, par G. N. P."^ Rome, (i. e^ Paris), 1638, 
4to. It is in this work he vindicates ^be massacre' of Sc 
Bartholomew; but he appears to have published it^witk 
great caution, and it is said that this first edition consisted 
of only twelve copies. It was, however, reprinted in 1 667, 
1673, and in 1752, 3 vols. 12mo, with notes. and reflec* 
tions by Louis du May. 5. ^^Bibliographia Politica,** 
Leyden, 1642, 16mo, a learned work, but not very cor- 
rect. 6. ^^Hieronymi Cardani vita,"' Paris, 1643, 8va 
6« << Jttgement de tout ce qui a et^ imprim^ contre le car* 



/" 



N A U D E* Sf 

ditial Mazarin depnls Jan. 6^ jusqu^au 1 Avrili 1649/' 
Parts, 1649^ 4to. This curious work, which is of great rarity j^ 
16 sometimes called *^ Mascurat/' and consists of a dialogue 
between St. Ange, a hbrarian, i. e. NaQd6, and Mascorat, 
a printer, i. e. Camusat. 7* ** Avis a Nosseigneurs do 
parlement sur ia vente de la Bibliotheqoe du cardinal Ma« 
sarin,*' 1G52, 4to. 8 *^Nund»ana et Patiniana/' Paris^ 
1701, in which are many of his sentiaients^ and somepar^ 
ticulars of his history^ 

NAUDE' (Philip), an able tnathematiciari, was born- 
in 1654, of p or parents, at Metz. He retired to Berlin 
after the revocatiao of the edict of Nantes, and there form-' 
lug a friendship with LangerBeld, mathematician to the 
court, who taught the pages, succeeded him in 1696, was 
admitted into the society of sciences at Berlin in 1701, 
and into the academy of thQ princes, as professor of 
roatheoiatics, in 1704. He died in 1729, at Berlin. His 
parttcutar study was divinity, on which he has written much 
more than pn mathematics; his only work on that science 
being a system of geometry, in German, 4to, and some 
other small pieces in the *^ Miscellanea," of the society at 
Berlin. His theological works are, *< Meditationes Saintes," 
12mo« ^' Morale Evangelique," 2 vols. 8vo. '< La souve- 
raine perfection de Dieu dans ses divins attributs, et la 
parfaite int£grit6 de TEcriture prise au sens des anciens 
r6form6s,'* 2 vols. 8to, against Bayle ; ** Examen de deux 
Trait6s de M. de la Placette,** 2 vols. 1 2mo. His eldest son- 
distinguished himself as his successor, and died 1745. He* 
was a skilful mathematician, member of the societies of 
Berlin and London; and several memoirs of his may be 
found in the '* Mii»cellanea Berolinensia.**' 

NAUNTON (Sir Robert), a stetesman in the reign of 
James L was of an ancient family in Suffolk, and educated 
a fellow-commoner of Trinity-college, Cambridge, whence 
he removed to Trinity hall, and waa chosen a fellow. 
When his uncle, William Ashby, esq. was sent ambassa- 
dor from qoeeq Elizabeth into Scotland in 1589, he ac-* 
companied him, probably in the office of secretary ; and 
was sometimes sent by him on afiairs of trust and impor- 
tance to the court of England, where we 6nd him in July 
of that year, discontented with his unsuccessful dependauce- 

1 Cbmnfepie.— 'Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medioine.— >NiQeTOii» vol. IX. tod X.«i*^ 
Moreri«— Dibdin't BiMiomania. « Chatt^I>i9.^Pict. Hilt. 

Vol. XXin. D 



t4 N AUNT ON. 

ot) courtiers, and resolved to hasten back to his uDck, fOh 
wfapnei be returned in the beginning of the month follow- 
ing, and continued with him till January 1589, when Mn 
A&by wa3 succeeded in his embassy by. Robert Bowes, esq. 
Mr. Naunton was in France in 1596 and 1597^ whence he 
GOtrr^^ponded {re(|uently with the earl of Essex, who doe» 
not app^ear to have had interest enough to adrance him to: 
any civil post ; for wBicb reason it is probable that, after 
his lordship's disgrace, Mr. Naunton returned to college,; 
and,' in 1-601, was elected public orator of the university. 
Lioyd obsisrves, that his speeches, ^'both while proctor 
and orator of Cambridge, discovered him more inclined to. 
)»ublic accomplishments than private studies.'' A speech 
which he hadi to deliver before James I. at Hinchiabroke^ 
is said to have pleased the king very much, and paved the 
ivay to his obtaining eraplpyaient at court. Accordingly. 
he )vas .first made master of the requests, then surveyor erf** 
the court of wards, by the interest of sir Thomas Overbory, 
and sir Greorge Villiers, and, in January 161.8, was ad-^ 
vanoed to be secretary of state. He was lastly promoted tot 
be master of the court of wards, which office he resigned < 
iti March 1635, and died in the same month; He was bu* 
ried in the church of Letheringham in Suffolk ... 

' Sir Robert Naunton, for so he was created by James I., 
was a ma» of considerable learning, and well quatified for 
political af£iirs ; and his letters contain many curious facts* 
and just obadrvations on the characters and parties of his 
day. His '^ Fiagmenta Regalia" cratinuea to preserve his 
memory. This tract, printed first in 164'1^ 4ta, contains 
some interesting observations on queen Elizabeth, and. her 
principal courtiet-s, apparently wvitten with impartiadtty ;. 
tint in ati oricoiith aod ragged style. ^ 

NAVAGERO, or NAUGERIUS, (Andrew,) a.learned. 
Italian scholar and poet, was born at Yemce, of a partriciani. 
fwiily, ij!i 1483, and was instructed in Latin and Greek ak. 
VeittG^and Padua, under SabeUicus and Marcus Musmras* 
(n the Latin language and compositioa he acquired gresti 
fkcUity and taste, as appeared by bas subsequent prrodno-> ) 
tions; and also culiivasted italian poetry, ia bis youtb,i 
with equal i^ccessw He appears to have eaibttrked both: in. 
miitteiry and political |ife« He attended his friend Liyaniusy 
the Venetian general, in some of his expeditions; and 

1 Birch^t Memoir's of treen Elizabeth.— Uoyd'i Meniteir».—FaHer*» Wor* * 
tbie5«— Nichols's LeicesU hire. , ►.w 



NAVAGfER'O. 4^ 

on^ of 'hib most eiegaht Lktth poedn^ WcLs a IPUneral elegy 
bh thut ofiicer. His political mletits ^ei^hifcti^dded bim f6 
tb^ tiffid« of Venetian ambassador at the cburt of ChaHi3§ 
V. wb^n the Itldiati S^ate6'b^f^ to take the alarm at tbtft 

dfte)!niv^l:d8 4tepate<i on a sikniiar mi^inh X6 Francis K ; btlt 
too g^ekt solicteude on this otK^sibn" is 8£ip|)09ed to teivft 
bfe^ fetal to bitti. After ttftvelting witb g¥eat.st>eed t^ 
tVattce, ii^ facul ^(carce paid bis f^petts to the ^o^aireb wben 
he was seieed with a feVer, at mok, and died in 1529, iii 
bis fotiy-sixrii year. 

In 1515, be was nominated by the senate of Venice his* 
lonog^apber of his native country, and was(. kt that tiihi 
tieemed the most 'Megant Latin writer that Italy could 
boa^. He appears however to have b^en s5 fastidious a§ 
to be ¥arely Isati^fied with any thing he iVr6te, and is sup^ 
pos^ tQ( have destroyed ti^n bodks of the history of V^ici 
a fe^ bc^urs before bis death. Many of b)^ poetn^ shared 
the same f^te, eitb^ because they fell ^horfc cif that staJh- 
tlahd of e^^etl^tice which he had fbritied in bis 6w^ inind> 
or had b^tm bompos^ itft^r models lirhich he d^efh^d illf 
chosen. If he could be thus severe to himself^ we c^tin^t 
wonder that be should be ^u^Ily so to 6tbef^. It is said, 
dial he every year biartit a cop^ of Martial, ^ a corrupter 
t>f that pufe^ ta^te ii^iich distingtiished th^ wH^i^s of tb4 
Aiigiiitati age. Natagerb's Latvn po^^s ifr@ tioiv tbnsel- 
QQ^ritly fei4r. ifi mimber, but ^uffiictc^t to jti§tiFy tbe t^hkracV 
«ei/ beftdw^d by his cduntrymeii, atid the ieftte^ni in whidk 
tbay heiki him. They ^ere printed in 1590, ulfider the title 
^ Andffeaci Naugerii Patf i6il Vehdti Oratlbnes duae, Carmi- 
i!iaque hb^n^lla,'' Venice^ folid. €oiisfd^i^ble addi|tons 
wfere ma^e by VutpiifSi although improperiy called '*<ipt*ri(t 
^Camtf^ and printed at Padua, in quafto, 1718. 

Navagero Wets ako diitih^uiihed fotbi^OreekIiteratu)r^, 
and W^ streb an atlmi^r of Pindar that he l^nseHbed bifs 
woi4[»' nior^ tb^i$ djbde. H^ was h great encbui-agerof tb& 
iiiAotfra of Aid«rs Msinuttn^, and' ^ligently raised add ct^^ 
ip^dtedAe t^ils «f Lucretius j Virgil, Horjlee, Tifttililii, 
litdintiiiaf^, and ' ^^ei^iaily. of Cieero. tit tnTicti^hg ib 
Navagero, by a mostinteresiting preface, tfievoUi^a^ which 
eomprizesr the ** Rfaetbriea Cicerbnis,^' printed at Yenidb 
Iti 1514,. 8vo, Aldu^ testified the high sense wlircH 1^6' En- 
tertained of these obligations. ' « 

1 Life prefixed by Valphis ti tMe Pidoa edftioD.— Gressvell's Men)»irB of 
PoUtian^ &c. — Koscoe's I^o. 

D 2 



36 N A V A R E T E. 

NAV ARETE (Juak HerKahP£Z)> a Spaaisb painteri 
was born iq 1562 at LogroDQO^ atid becoming, in bis tbird 
jrear, both deaf and dumb| is generally known qnder tbe 
pame of ** £1 Mudo.' His talent fur tbe art was not, how- 
ever,, affected by tbis misfortune ; a rapid progress in tbe 
scbool of Fn Vicente soon enabled bim to travel to Italy^ 
and to form bimself at Venice upon tbe works of Titian* 
After bis return toMadrid, bewas, 1568, nominated painter 
to tbe k4ng, and gave a proof of bis great talent by, a small 
picture representing tbe baptism of Cbrist, still preserved 
in tbe Escurial ; which is indeed the repository of bis most 
distinguished works, especially of tbe celebrated Presepio, 
in which tbe principal light emanates from tbe Infant ; the 
S. Hippolytus in nocturnal quest after tbe body of S. Lor 
I'ensso, where silence, secresy, and fear, appear personir 
fied; and what is commpnly considered as his master* 
piece, a Holy Family, not less noticed for tbe characteris- 
tic singularity of the accessories * than the beauties of tbe 
groope. To these his works at Valencia, SaUnianca,. i^nd 
Estrella are little inferior; all distinguished by a^ ci^lonf 
which acquired bim tbe title of the Spanish Titian. He died 
in 1579," 

NAVARRE. See AZPILCUETA. 

NAVARETTA (Ferdinand), a Spanish Dominican friaff 
bom in Old Castile, is said to have been an eloquent 
preacher. He quitted Spain in 1646 on a minion to China, 
.where be did not i^nriye till 1659. He was be^id ipf tba 
mission ip the province of Chekiang when tbe persecution 
arose, and was c^xpelled with the rest of the missionaries. 
J[n 1672, be returned to Spain ; and soon after wept to 
Rome to give tbe pope an account of bis conduct, whicb 
savoured more of the zeal of Loyola than of St. Paul. la 
1678 Charles II. raised bim to. the archbishopric of $t. 
Domingo, in America, where be resided till bis death, in 
,1689. He spoke tbe Chinese language fluently^ and po 
person, perhaps,. undersM>Qd better tbe a;ffairs of China* 
JEEe wrote a work entitled ** Tradados Histpricos, Politicos^ 
Ethicos, y Relieiosos, de la mpnarcbia de China.": Tbe 
^firli^ volume, folio. Mad. 1676, is scarce and curious^ but 

' *- A ttAt m do^, «d4 a partridge, aimilar tnl^eeti. The ^wordt of Ibe 

•They ^ere jj^erhapt tbe' caote why he ocuHraot are : *• Yen lat.diebai |i«Bin- 

wat cmMtrained to bind himself in a ras nen ponga gato, ni perrQ, ni ofra 

"contract made by order of Philip 11. figure que sia deshoneita." ' ' 
not to iiHrodttce cats, jm$. again in 

r. » Pilkington by Aisdi. 



bii 



N A V A R E T T A. 37 

has been inserted in Cfaurcbtirs Voyages; the' second was 
suppressed by. (he inquisition^ but has been so often quoted 
by the JesiiitSy that it is thought the inquitttors gave away 
a few copies before they destroyed the impression; the 
third never was published. N)3ivarettajs said also to have 
written some religious tracts in the Chinese language.^ 

NAYLER (James), a remarkable person of the society 
called Quakers, was born at Ardsley, near Wakefield, in 
Yorkshire, about 1616. His father was a husbandman, 
who had some estate of his own, and gave to bis son suck 
an education as enabled him to express himself with facility 
in his native tongue. James married and settled in Wake<* 
field parish about 1638; and, in 164t, became a private 
soldier in the parliament army^ in which he was. afterwards 
made a quarter*maater under major-general Lambert, but 
quitted it^ oil account of sickness, in 1649. Being con* 
viiiced of the doctrines of the people called Quakers, by 
the means of George Fox, in 1651, the next ytor he be<^ 
lieved himself divinely required to quit his relatiotis and 
into the West, not knowing what be was to do there; 
iit when b6 came there he hud it given him what to declare ; 
and thus he continued, not knowing one day what he watf 
to do thenelt; but relying on thut divine aid which be 
believed himself to receive. 

He was a man of excellent natural parts, and acquitted 
himself so well, both in word and writing,- that many 
joined the society through his ministry. He came to Lon- 
don towards the beginning of 1655, in wbicb city a meet- 
ing of Quakers had been established by: the ministry of 
Edward Bufrough and Francis Ho wgill, two en^inent Qua- 
kers from Westmorland. Here Nayler preached with so 
mu<rb applause, that the distinction Which he acquired oc- 
casioned his fall ; for, some inconsiderate women setting 
him up in their esteem above Howgill and Burrough, went 
so far as to disturb them in their public preaching. Thesd^ 
men giving to the women a deserved reproof, two of them 
complained of it to Nayler, who, although at the first he 
was backward to pass censure on his brethren^ yet, at 
length, suflering himself to be wrought upon by the re- 
iterated and passionate complaints of one Martha Simmons 
(the chief engine of the mischief), he became estranged 
from them, and gave ear to the flatteries of his unadvised 
adherents. 

1 Moreri.—Echard script, ord. Fratnim Predic, tqI. \L 



tt N A Y L E R. 

i 

■' in.'16i5% hetufiiered imppisonmentjat Exeter ;' mA abooi 
lliss ti^ae seyeral deluded perstMis addressed ^ him by leUc» 
m terms of gr^t extravagance. He wias called ^^ the* ever-* 
lasting Sen of Righteousness, Prince of Peaoey the only 
hegottc^n Son of God, the Fairest of Ten Thousand )V and 
during bis confinement in Exeter gael scuheMVoinen knelt 
l^fiive him and kissed bis feet. About this tiime George 
Foxr returning out of the West, where he bad faiatself saf'^ 
feved a rigorous imprisonment, called dn James NBjler id 
ike prison at Exeter, and gave him some reproof for hie 
(Refection and ^EtravagHiice* This Nayler sUgfated, bafe 
nevertheless vi^outd have, saluted Fox with a kisfr; bufi 
George rejected bis salutation, alleging that <^ b^ had 
turned against the power of Qod^' 

- $00 A after bis releiise lirom Exeter, we. find hioi entering 
BriBl;o)$ accompanied by his wild adherents. ^ One of ^en^ 
^ man, went before biin bate-headed ; a wonian led bis 
horse, and three others sfMr^ad tbeir scarves and handkeiw 
dbiefs before him ; while the copnpany sang '^ hofy, boly^ 
holy, is the Lord God of Hosts, hosanna in the bighestii 
hol^y holy^ holy, is- the Lord God of Israel" For this 
lfoyle« and his. attendants were examined by the magistrates^ 
a»d he was aent to London soon after to be examined by the 
parliament. After referring the matter fefv a committee, the 
liouser resolved f< t^at James >byleff ia guilty of hoa*id 
'hjasphemy^ aipd that be is a grand impostor and seducec 
of the peoptob'' Nine days after this, the business having 
been daily brought forwant, the parliament gave the foU 
tbwiog sentence : .^^ That James Nayler be set oci the pii-> 
lory, with his head i^ the piHory, in the Paiace^yard, 
Westminster, during the space of two bours^ en TfauFsday 
nextj and be whipped by the hangman tbraugh the streets 
lirpm Westminster to the Old Exchange, London; and 
then likewi^ be set ontbepiUocy, mth hiabead in the piU 
Ibry, for |he i^pace of tv» hours, betiween the hcHirs of 
eleven and one on Satnpday next, in each place wearing a 
paper containing an iHscriptiot> of his crimes; and that at 
the Old Exchange his tongue be bored through with a hot 
iron ; and that he be there also stigmatized in the forehead 
with the letter B ; and that he be afterwards sf nt to Bristol, 
and be conveyed into and through the- said city en horse- 
back, with his face backward; and there also pobliely 
whipped the next market-day after b^ comes thither ; and 
that thence be be committed to prison in Bridewell, Lon- 



NATXt:R. c^ 

rdo»« 9fi4 tbece itatrained.ffQin the society ixf aH peopliT'; 
fund tibore to labour hard till be ahall be released, by par- 
liament ; and during that time be debarred ^be use of pen, 
ink, .and paper, and aball have no relief but what he earns 
.by his daily lahour*'- 

There are a .fes¥ tlut>gs observable in the treatmem of 
4his ca$e. One is^ ibatNaykr waa declared to. he guilty 
of horrid blaspbemyt wben it does not appearithat he bim- 
■self uttered any worda iir that traasactleia for whk:h ha w^ 
jsppnehended. Afiofther is, the great severity of the 'Ntv- 
;tence, viz. exceasisre whipping, twa pilloryitiga of two 
hours each, boring the toogue with an hot iron, and bratnd- 
ting the forehead; at Bristol a second whipping) and, 
tdnally, a solitary confinemral; with hard htiovar^ sine dtk. 
Bol: a third thing to be observed is, that the active pensoiis' 
in the business, the raoting women, received no share of 
;the puuishnieiit, except, sooie coDfinement. From tbe^ 
circaaistances it would seem that the object of the jparlia* 
<n>ent waa to. brii^ the Quakers into diseredit, by letting 
4he weight of their censure fall on Nayler, who bad been 
«o eminent among them ^ although letters found on: him at 
Bristol from some of them^ shewed that they .disclaimed fel- 
lowship with bis disonierly proceedings. 
( The 20th of Deceaiber Nayler suffered a partofhrs sen- 
tence, standiag two hears in the pillory and receis^ng at a 
.cart's tail S 10. stripes. He was so nuich reduced, by this 
Aeverity that the execution of the remainder was .respited 
^ill the 27th, when he vas. again piiloi:se4, bored, asvd stig- 
matized : after, which he. was sent to Bristol, and whipped 
from the middle of Thomas-street to the middle. ctf Broads 
street, and then sent to his prison in BndewelL . 

Notwithstanding the prohibition of ismplementb i>f ^ writ- 
ing, ,Nayler found means to. procvre tbeea in his coi^e^ 
ment^ and wrote many tUogs coiiulem,n]ng his .past conduct 
The following, addressed ta bia firiends, . the HjuBk^^ is 
an 'extract of one of them^: s^. Dfean boethren,. my faeairttis 
brokian this day foe the offence that I have oo/Dasjiahedt tso ^ 
God' A trutb and people, and. especially .to you, who ia 
dearlonre followed me, seeking jr^e ia.iatthfuliiess. taGud, 
which 1 rejected, being bouad whereie I eouLd not domle 
forth,, ttil Qad's haad brought me,, to whose love .1 how 
confess. And, i beseech yuu, forgive wherein i evil re4 
quited your love in that day. .God Jenowa . my Mirow for 
it, since I ^ee it, that ever I should offend that of God in 



40 NAYLER. 

-ariy^ or rqect bis cduusel; and I greatly fiear farther to 
.6ff(and, or do amiss, whereby the innocent truthi or people 
of iGod, should suffer, or that I should disobey therein." 

He was confined about two years ; and after he was set 
«t liberty he went to Bristol, where, in a public meeting, 
.be made confession of his offence and fall, sO as to draw 
tears from most of those who were present : knd, reston^- 
tion to humility of min«i and soundness of judgment being 
apparent in him, he was restored to the esteem and fellow* 
ship of his friends. He quitted London finally in 1660, 
intending to return to his wife and children at Wakefield ; 
but was found by a countryman one evening in a field near 
,Holm and King's Rippon, in Huntingdonshire, having beeti 
(as was said) robbed^ and left bound. He was taken to 
Holm, and his cloaths shifted, dn which he said, <^ Y^u 
have refreshed my body ; the Lord refresh your souls :" 
not long after which he died in peace, and his remains 
were interred inn King's Rippon, in a burying-ground be- 
iotiging to Thomas Pamel, a physician there. About two 
hours before his close, he spoke these words : ** There is 
a spirit which I feel, that delights to do no evil, nor to re- 
venge any wrong, but delights to endure all things, in 
hope to enjoy its own in the end. Its hope is to outlive 
all wrath and contention, and to weary out all -exaltation 
and cruelty, or whatever is of a nature contrary to itself. 
It sees to the end of all temptations. As it bears no evil 
in itself, so it conceives none' in thoughts to any other. 
If it be betrayed, it bears it ; for, its ground and spring 
are the mercies and forgiveness of God. Its crown, is 
meekness, its life is everlasting love, unfeigned ; and takes 
its kingdom with entreaty, and not with contention, and 
Iteeps it by lowliness of mind. In God alone it can re- 
joice, though none else regard it, or can own its life. It*s 
eonceived in sorrow, and brought forth without any to 
pity it : nor doth ii murmur at grief and oppressioii. It 
never rejoicetb but through sufferings; for, with the 
world's joy, h is nlurdered. I found it alone, being for- 
saken I I have fellowship therein with them, i^bo lived in 
deris and dfssolate places, in the earth ; who through death 
obtained this resunection, and eternal holy life." Nayler's 
writings were collected into an octavo volume, printed in 
)7 1 6, which may still occasionally be found. ' 

N^ZIANZ£N. See GREGORY. 

^ ]|iof . Brit-x-Sewell'i Hist of the Quakers. 



N E A L. 41 

' NEAL (Daniel), an eminent digsenting divine, and the 
iiistori^n of the Puritans, was born in London, Dec. 14, 
1^8, and educated at Mercfaant<-Tajr1orH' school, of which 
•he was head scholar in ldi7. He appears to have then 
decHned proceeding to St. John's, Oxford, and deter- 
'mined to enter as a student in a dissenting academy, under 
the direction of the rev. Thomas Rowe. Three years after 
'he removed, for the farther prosecution of hid studies, to 
-Holland, where he heard the lectures of Grsevius and Bur- 
man, during two years, and afterwards passed a year at 
Leyden. Soon after hi^s return to London, in 1703, he 
began to offic^iate as a preacher, and in i706 succeeded 
Dr. Sii!)gIeton as minister to a congregation at Loriners* 
Hail. ' Of this congregation, which, for want of room, re- 
moved aftervvards to a more commodious meeting in Jewin* 
street, he remained pastor for thirty-six years, and was 
esCcemed one of tUe most useful, laborious, and learned 
divines of his communion. 

Although assiduous and indefatigable ill the discharge 
of the duties attached to the ministerial office, he found 
leisure for writing those works which gained him much 
fame among the dissenters during bis lifetime, and have ren- 
dered his a name of importance in our own days. His first 
production, which appeared in 17^0, was bis ^* History o( 
New England ; being an impartial account of the civil ayd 
ecclesiastical affairs of the country, with a new map, &c.^ 
2 vols. 8vd. This met with a very favourable reception in 
America, and procured him the degree of M . A. from one 
of the American universities, and although perhaps less 
interesting in this country, contains many curious particu- 
'lars of the establishment of that colony, with biographical 
memoirs of the principal persons in charch and state. 
■■' In 1722 he published a pamphlet, entitled *\A Letter 
to the Rev. Dr. Francis Hare, dean of Worcester, occa- 
rioned by his reflections on the Dissenters, in bis late visi- 
^^tibn Sermon aiid Postscript,*' 8vo. In the same year he 
published a tract whiqh excited considerable attention from 
fcfae novelty and importance of its subject, ^* A Narrative 
of the method and success of inoculating the Sioall-pox, in 
Nefi'Engiand, by Mr. Benjamin Colman ; with a reply to 
^llie objections made against it from principles of coh- 
Bcience, in a letter from a ministet at Boston. To which 
is now prefixed, an historical introduction.'* This pro- 
cured him an intervie\f with their royal highnesses the 



42 N E A L. 

-prince s^ud priiic^&9 of Wales, afterwards Cfearg^II. and 
queeii Caroline. 

FrofQ this time be published only fi?e oc^a,$ional ^x^ 
rinpnsy xHi I73^f ^hmtbe f\rst voluine of bisf^^ Hifi^iwy 0^ 
\\}^ Puritws'^ appeared > Md cond^ued to be pubUftbedy 
•the second volume ia 1733, tbe third in 173:6, and' the 
fourth in 1738, in Svo. Of tbe impartiality of tbid work 
¥ariou$ opinipu9 wer^ tb^ and are still enterjtaiiied. We 
h^ve had repeated .oceasioas to examine it, and we tbiok 
\t exhibits a^ much impartiality as could have been ex- 
pected from a writer vbo^e object was to elevate tbe cha- 
racter of the puritaQs and non-confermists» at tbe expence 
of tb^ members of the established church. And when it 
was disf^overed that be represented the church of England 
as almojiit uniformly a persecuting cb)ir<?b, it was not sur- 
prizing he should meet with fmswers from tbo«e who, in 
surveying the history of tbe puritans, when they became 
known by the name of non-conformists, considered that 
. the ejected were at One time the ejectors ; tbe right of the 
usurping powers in CroimwelPs time to throw down tbe 
whole edifice of the church, being the main principle on 
which the controversy binges. Mr. NeaPs representation of 
that event, and of the suiferings of his brethren, ftrst called 
forjth the abilities of Dr. Maddox, bisbop of St. Asaph, 
;who published " A Vindication of the Doctrine, Disci- 
'pUiie,, and Worship of the Church of England, as esta^ 
.bli^hed in tbe reign of queen Elizabeth, frpm tbe iqJMrious 
reflection^ of Mr. NeaPs first volume," &c. 8vo. To this 
.Mr, Neal replied in ** A Review of the Principal Facts <d>- 
jected to in tbe first.volume of the History of tbe Puritans." 
Tbe subject was then taken .up by Dr. Zachary Grey, in 
^' An Impartial Examination of the second volume of Mr. 
Daniel Neai's History of the Puritans. In whicb the re- 
fleciriqns* of that author, upon king James I. and king 
Charles li are proved to be groundless ; bis misrepresei>- 
tations of the conduct of tbe prelates of those times, fuUy 
d/etected ; and his numerous nsustakes in history, iand unfair 
way of quoting his authorities, exposed to public view," 
I736jj ?vo. In 1737 and 17.39, Dr. Grey published two 
.ipore volumes, containing tbe same kind of .Examination of 
tbe third and fourth volumes; of Neal's History. Although 
Mr. Neal lived seven years after the appeadranice of Dr. 
Grey> first volume in 1736, we are: told that it was b«s 
declining state of health which prevented hin^ironlpub^ 



N £ A L. 4» 

Hsiiing a Tindt cation. This task has been since attennpted 
by Dr. Joshua Toulpin of Birmingbam, in a new edition of 
Neal begun in 1793^ and completed in 1-797, 5 vols. 8vo ; 
but we may. repeat the opinion given in our account of Dr. 
Crrey, that his and bishop Maddox^s volumes are atill ab- 
dcdutely necessary to an impartial consideration of the 
Subject* 

- During the interval that elapsed before the appearance 
<^f the nemiaining parts of his history, Mr. Neal was con- ' 
eern^d in carrying on twocourses of lectures, the one at 
the meeting in Berry ••street, the other in that at Salter's 
liaU, which have been since pirinted in 2 vo\$, 8vo each* 
But so mtfch applieatioii to his public duties and private 
stndies, at length produced a chronic disorder, ivbich 
€4!»liged him, in 1742, to resign«his pastoral charge; and 
he died, at Bath, April 4, 1743, in the sixty-fifth year of 
kis age, to the great and lasting regret of his family and 
friends^ by whom he was highly esteemed as a man of great 
probity, piety, and usefulness. His son, Nathaniel Nea), 
an attorney^ and secretary to the Million bank, was the 
author of '^ A free and serious remonstrance to Protestant 
Di8sentingMinisters,on occasion of the Decay of Religion,'* 
and of some letters, in Pr^ Doddridge's collection, pub« 
ftshed by Mr.'Stedman.^ 

NEAL, or N£LE , (Thomas), an Oxford divine, was 
born at Yeate, in Gloucestershire, in 1519, and was edu* 
feated under the care of bis nnole Alexander Belsire, who 
Was afterwards first president of St. John's college, at 
Winchester school. From this he was removed to New 
lioUege, Oxford, in 15Sa, and admitted fellow in 1540* 
He also took his degree of M. A. and six years, afterwards 
was admitted into holy orders. He was reckoned an able 
divine, but was most, noted for hi^ skill in Greek and He*- 
brew, on wbi^h account sir Thomas White, the founder 
of St; Johfi^s eoHege, encouraged him by a yearly pen- 
«tonbf<len pounds. His adherence to the popish religion 
fndnced bin& to go to the university of Paris, durihg king 
Edward the Sinfth's reign, where he took bis degree of ba- 
ebefer of divinity. On his return during Malay's reign, he 
held the rectory of Thenford in Northsimptonshire, and 
became chaplain to bishop Bonner ; but on the aeeessidn 

1 Wilscm^ H^9t: of DisseDtito^ Cbim!be9.->^FoB«ral Sermon, by Jennings.** 
Pfot Diss. Magazroe, vol. I. 



4* N E A L. 

of qaeen Eiisatietb^ according to Dodd, he iBuffered hitn^ 
self to be deprived of his spiritual ities, retired to Oxfor^^ 
and entered hinu^elf a commoner in. Hart-hall. He bad 
not been long here before he professed conformity to the 
newly^established religion, and in 1559 wad appointed 
Hebrew professor of the foundation of Henry VIIL iii> 
which office he remained until 1569. When first appointed 
he bnilt lodgings opposite Hart-hall, joining t6 the west* 
end of New college cloister, which were for some tiotie 
known by the name of NeaPs lodgings. During queen 
Elizabeth's visit to the university in 1566, be presented to 
her majesty, a MS. tiow in the British Museum, entitled 
*' Rabbi Davidis Kimhi commentarii super Hoseam, Joel* 
leni, Amos, Abdiam, Jonam, Micheam, Nahum^ Habacuc, 
6t Sophonian ; Latine redditi per Thomam Nelum, Heb. 
lingusB profess. Oxooii; et R. Eiizabethse inscripti.'' He 
presented also to her majesty a little book of Latin verses, 
containing the description of the colleges, halls, &c.; and a 
few days after exhibited a map of Oxford, with small views 
very neatly drawn with a pen by Bereblock. These views ^^ 
with the verses, were published by Hearne at the end of 
^* Dodwell de parma equestri." The verses are in the 
form of a dialogue between the queen and the earl of Lei^ 
cester, chancellor of the university, and are not wanting 
in that species of pedantic flattery so frequently offered to 
her majesty. ,Neal, however, was never a conformist in 
bis heart, and in 1569 either resigned, or being known to 
be a Roman catholic, was ejected from his professorship, 
and then retired to the village of Cassington near Oxford, 
.where he lived a private and studious life. Wood can 
trace him no further, but Dodd says that he was frequently 
disturbed while at Cassington on accouiit of his 'reiigioriy 
and being often obliged to conceal, or absent himself, 
went abroad. The records of Doway mention that one 
.Thomas Neal, ati ancient clergyman, who had suffered 
much in prison in England^ arrived there June! , 1579, 
and returned again to England January 7, 1580. How 
long he lived afterwards is uncertain* He was certainly 
alive in i 590, as appears by an inscription he wrote for 
himsjelf to be put upon his comb-stone, in Cassington 
church, which also states that he was then seventy^oue 

* Tbey first were eDgraved as borders to Af gasU map of Oxford, but ve 
considerably different from what they appear in Hearoe's edition. 



N E A L. 45 

years old. In the British Museum, amx>ng the rojal MS$. 
is another MS. of bis, entitled *^ Rabbinics qusedam Obr 
servationes ex pnedictis cooimentariis/' Wood speaks of 
one of his names, of Yeate in Gloucestershire, who dying 
in 1590, his widow had letters of administration granted, 
and adds, <^ whether it be meant of our author I canno^ 
justly say, because I could never learn that he was fnar- 
ried." But nothing can be more improbable than the mar* 
riage of a man who had suffered so much for a rehgion 
l\kSLi prohibits the marriage of the clergy, and who was so 
inveterate against the reformed religion, that we are told 
the fable of the Nag's-head ordination was first propagate4 
by him.* 

NEANDER (Michael), one of the most learned men 
of the sixteenth century, was born at Sorayir, a town in 
Lower Silesia, in 1525, where his father was a merchant. 
He received his ^arly education under Henry Theodore, 
who was superintendant of the churches of the duchy of 
Lignitz. He then studied principally at Wittemberg^ 
where, among other able men, he vras instructed by Me- 
lanchthon, and became conspicuous for his critical ac- 
quaintance with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and his know- 
ledge of the eminent authors in these respective languages. 
In 1549, he was invited to Northusen, an imperial town o( 
Thuriugia ; and being appointed regent of the school, ac- 
quired the esteem of the senate. He was of the reformed 
Religion, and Thomas Stahgius, the last abbot of Isfeld. 
who was of the same sentiments, having, by the advice of 
Luther and Melanchthon, turned his abbe}" into a college, 
Neander was appointed regent, and taught there with 
great reputation for forty-five yfears, producing many able 
scholars. He died at Isfeld, May 6, 1595, in the seven- 
tieth year of his age. 

From his works he appears to have deserved the high 
character he enjoyed during his life-time, and which some 
critics of modern times have revived. He was one of th^ 
very few in those days who turned their thoughts to the 
jtiistory of literature. His first publication was ^' Erotema 
Qrascae Linguae, cum prsefatioue Philippi Melanchthonis 
de iitilitate Grsecae linguse,*' Basil, 1553, and 156S,8vo. In 
a subsequent edition Neander gives a list of the works h^ 

1 Atb. Ox. Tdl. I.— Wood's Colleges and Halls, and Aimals.— Dodd^s Clr. Hist. 
VOL II;-«>I^ prefixed to his verses by Hearae.«— Oottgh's British Topography. . 



*B N E A N D E R. 

had pabltHhed, or whith he had projected, ahd aihOtig th6 
latter vras an universal historry of aiithors, " l*andetJt* va- 
riorum auctorum et s6riptorum." From the sketdh hfe had 
given 6f the proposed contents of this ^ofk, thefe is gjreat 
reason to regret that he did riot coniplfet6 it ; irt tbe secbnd 
edition of his " Erotemata" he has given a spcciorfen of 
what he could have d6ne, in a disstertatibn oft ancient \U 
braries, on books that are lost, and 6ti the libraries of hi^ 
own time which contained the most vdluable MSS. and ari 
account of the principal Gre)6k and Latin authors, whos^ 
works have been published, with a minuteness of descrip- 
tion which would hiaive rdlected credit on a tnoderh biblio-' 
grapher. The last edition of his " Erotemata" was edit^ 
at Leipsic in 1589, 8vo, by hm disciple^ John Voll&tid. 
Neauder*s other woi-ks are, 2. " Grsecafe Lingute Tabulae/* 
Basil, 1 564, and Wittemberg, 1 58 1 > 8va. 3. ** Linguse He^ 
bresB Erotemata, Cum veterum Rabbiiiorutn testitnoniis de 
Cbri$to, apophthegmatibos veterum Hebra;oru«i et notitisl 
de Talriaude, Cabbala, &c.*' Basil, 1556, 8 vo; oftetl re^- 
printed. The preface to this work is oti the Satne phirf 
with that to the " Erotemata Gtdec* Linguae,** coiitainitig 
notices of the most eminent Oriental schttlars, the writing^ 
of tlie rabbijis, the editions of the Bible, &c. 4. " Aifis- 
tdlogia Pindarica Gr*co-Latina, et Sent^ntisfe nfirvefai VytU 
corum,'* Basil, 1656^ 8vo, with ptolegomerta on the lifextf 
-Pindar, the Greek games, &c. 5. ** AHstologia Or«Cd- 
Latina Euripidis; argumenta qtloqtie singuiis tragosdiii 
pr^missa surit,"^ ibid. 1555, 4to. 6. " Anthologicuth GHaef- 
co-Latinum,*' ibid. 15^6, 8Vo. Thi6 h a collection of 
sentences from ftesibd, Theognes, and otbet aticieht p-ofety, 
with three books of similar extracts from Pfato, Xenopkoti^ 
Plutarch, &c. but is by no means, as some bibliograptterls 
have called it, a new edition of the Greek Anthology, t'. 
*^ Gnomonologia Greeco- Latina, sive inslgnior6s setiteTrtiae 
philosophorum, poetarum, oratotum, et historicorum, e^ 
magno Anthologio Joaiinis Stobdei excerpts^, et in Idc6i 
supra bis centuiti digestae,** ibid. 1558, 8vo. 8.^*'Opu4 
aureum et Scholasticum,'^ Leipsic, 15'?7, 6r,- accbtding to 
FabriciuSf 1575, a Collection somewhat like tbid fbtmerr, 
but with some entire pieces, as the poetn 6f Ctiluihus oH 
the rape of Helen, that of Tryphiodorii^ oh the dciitf jJcttoft 
of Troy, and three books of Quintus Calaber, which last 
arje translaled intoX.attn prose by Lawrence RhodOiAM),.oiie 
of Neander's pupils. 9. " ^ententiae Theologicae selec- 



N E AJN PER. 47 

tiores^ Gr^&ccr-Latiitte," BsL^il, la/Hi 8vo. 10.:^^ Catec^be- 
«is patfra Manibi liutberL GraBco^Latioa/' &c, ibid.. 1564 
and 1&6^7, dvo.. 11. ^^ LocicomaiunesiPhUosophici Graeci/' 
Leipsic, 1588, 8vo, a work by Volland/ abovQ^oaentionedjiy 
wi&b notes by Neaoden 12. ^^ GaomonpIogiaLacinaex 
omnibus Latiois i retustis ac probatis autoribus, recentiorU 
buftetianft aliquot, in locos commanes digesta,^* Leipsic^ 
1581, and 1390, 8vo.' 13. ^^ Phraseologia Isocratis Grteco- 
Latina^^* Basil, 1558^ 8to« 14. [^ Joannis VoUandi de re 
Pootiea Grsecorom libri quatuor, e notatiooibus.et bib<- 
liotheca Mich. Neandri collect!,'^ Leipsic, 1582, 1592, and 
1613, Svo. 15. << Argonautica, Thebaica, Troica, IliaK 
parvU; >poeinatia Grasca anonymi (Laur« Rhodomaui) pri«- 
mun edita cum argumentis a Mich. Neandro/* Leipsic, 
1588, 8vo. Some other works have been attributed to 
Keander, on less ciertain autiK>fUy> which are nientiDiied 
by . Fabiicius- and Baillet; and. more ample infonsation 
respecting him may probably be found iu a work which we 
have not seen, a life of bim by Volborth, in? Geroiaii, 
published at Gottingen in 1777. There flouri^ed about 
the same time with our autfaor,^ a physician of the saiae 
names, who was born in 1529, and died in 1581, whose 
Jorgotten works, however, cannot easily be; mistaken for 
those, of the learned Greek professor. ' 

NECHAM, NECKHAM, oi^NEQUAM (Alexander)^ 
^/iuy flourished in the twelfth century, was probably boniy 
aoid certainly educated at St. Alban's abbey, of wbicb ^e-^ 
riod of his life be speaks with pleasing recoUeclioo in hia 
poem >' De Laude sapiential DivinsB.*' He compie^ bis 
education at Paris, and took the order of St. Augustine. 
He became the friend^ associate, and correspondent o£ 
Peter of Blois^ or Petrus Blesensis, and was afterwards 
abbot of Cirencester, in- which office he died in 1217. He 
was much attached to the studious repose of the monastic. 
Kfe, yet be frequently travelled into Italy. His compo- 
sitions are various, and, as Mr. Warton observes, crowd 
the department of MSS. in our pablic libraries. He. has left 
numerous treatises of divinity, philosophy, and morality, 
and' was also a poet, a philologist, and a grammarian. He 
wrote a tract on -the inythology of the anciefit poets, Eao^^. 
pian fables^ and a system of grammar and rhetoric, Mr. 

> Chaafepie.— Morhoff Polyhist— Baillet.— Fabricii Bib!. Grseci et Hist.—' 
NicefODi yA^ XXX.*— Saxii Ooomast. 



48 N E C H A M. 

Warton, who examined his elegiac poem ** De ^^itfi ma^ 
tiastica," says it contains sonoe finished lines; but gives 
the highest praise to the poem already mentioned^ f* Dc 
divina sapientia.^' ' 

NECKER (Charles Frederick), professor of cinl.law 
at Geneva, about 1724, was created a. citizen of Geoevi( 
in 1726, and died there in 1760. He. published ^^ Four 
letters on Ecclesiastical Discipline,'MJtrecht,.1740;:'^ A 
description of the Government of the Germanic Qody,^' 
Geneva, 1742, 8vo, and a few other professional tracts. 
His eldest son, Louis Necker, a pupil of D*Atembert'$, 
became professor of mathematics at Geneva in 1757^ but 
quitted that city for Paris, where be entered into pa^qership 
with the' bankers Girardot atid Haller, the son of the cele*; 
brated physician ; iand iu 1 762 settled at Marseille^ whenca 
in 1791 be returned to Geneva. In 1747 he published ' 
<< Theses de Electricitate,"' 4to, and wrote in the French 
Encyclopaedia, the articles of Forces and Friction. There 
is also a solution of an algebraical problem by him in the 
<< Memoirs des savans etrangers,*' in the collection of the 
Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. He died about the 
end of the last century. * ^ 

NECKER (James), a celebrated statesman and financier, 
of France, brother to the preceding Louis Necker, was 
born at Geneva in 17.32* After such an education a$ might 
qualify him for business, he was in his fifteenth year, sent* 
to Paris, where be was employed, first in the banking-* 
house of Vernet, and then in that of Thelluson, of wbicl^ 
last he became first cashier, iand afterwards a partnert 
Upon the death of Thelluson he established a bank of his 
own, in partnership with Girardot and HaUer, in whicb» 
we have just noticed, his brother had a concern. In 1776, 
when the French finances were in a disordered state, he waa 
appointed director, and soon after comptroller-general of 
that department. Besides his reputation for fiuanpial 
knowledge and probity, which was now at its height, he 
had in the reign of Louis XV. adjusted some differenceit 
subsisting between the East India company and the crown 
in such a manner as to obtain, what rarely occurs in. such, 
cases, the approbation of both parties. His appoiotmeot 
to the comptroUersbip of tbe finances was bailed as an . 
instance of enlargement of mind and liberality of senti- 

I TamMr.— Wtrton't Hiit of Poetry. ^ Diet. Hitt. 



N E G K E R; ; id 

tneht, and ^ as honourable to the feigrt of Lewis !k VI.; 
Necker being the first protestant since the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes, who'bad held any important place ill 
the Frenbh administration. Of the wisdom of his plans, in 
this critical situation, various opinions have been enter- 
tained, which this is not the place to examine, but it seems 
generally agreed that his intentions were pure, and his 
conduct disinterested. He refused all ednolument for his 
services, and advanced a large sum to government from 
his private property, which he never drew from the public 
funds. His administration was generally popular, but ht 
had enemies at court, and after having filled the office of 
minilster of finance for five years, he resigned. Previously 
to this be had published his ^^ Compte Rendu,^' in eicpla- 
nation of his financial system, which was followed by a' 
work entitled '' De rAdministration des Finances." This 
was read and citculated with great avidity, and unhappily 
scattered opinions on matters of government, by which 
the people knew not how to profit. M. Calonne, who was 
his successor, made an attack, before the assembly of 
notables, upon the veracity of his statements. Necker 
drew up a reply, which he transmitted to the king, who 
intimated that if be would forbear making it public, he 
should shortly be restored to his place. This he refused, 
and appealed to the nation by publiisbiug his defence, 
which was so displeasing to the court, that he was exiled 
to his country-seat at St. Ouen, at the distance of 1 20 
miles. from the capital* During his retreat be wrote his 
work entitled ^'De Tlmportance des Opinions R^Jigieuses," 
in which he speaks of religion like one who felt its power 
operating on his own mind, and who was fully convinced of 
its importance both to individuals and society. Calonne, 
however, and Brienne, another minister, finding it impos- 
sible to lessen the deficiencies ^of thie revenue, they re- 
signed in their turn ; and in August 1788, Necker was 
reinstated in his former post, to the apparent satisfaction 
of the court, as well as to the joy of the people ; but the 
.acclamations of the latter couldnot banish from his mind 
the difficulties with which be had to struggle. He was 
av^re that de Calonne andthe archbishop of Sens had both 
sudk under the public distress, and the impracticability of 
raising the necessary supplies ; and he well knew that the 
evil was n0t diminished, and unless some expedient could 
be hit on to. re-establish public credit, he. foresaw his 
Vol. XXIII. E 



50 N E C K E E. 

own fate must .be siiQilafito that of his predecessors. 'His 
first intentions lVQre^'to reoal the banished mieanbers of the 
parliament of Paris^ -and to restore that body to its func- 
tions ; to replenish the' treasury^ which he found almost 
empty ; and to relieve; the scarcity of corn under which the 
kingdom, and the capital in* particular, then laboured. 
His next plan was the convocation of the states-general, ! 

which had been already premised 'by the king, and which, 
in fact, proved the immediate fore-runner of the revolu- i 

tion. Necker was particularly blamed for having consented i 

that the number of members of the tiers etat should be | 

equal to that of the nobles and clergy united, as the no- ' 

bility and clergy would* very naturally insist on voting by 
orders, while the, tiers etat would contend with equal 
obstinacy for a plurality of voiceis. The consequences 
were therefore exactly such asf had been foreseen. When" 
the assembly, of the states; opened^ Necker addressed them 
in a studied speech that pleased no party; even the tiers 
etat, already taught the sentiments of democracy, resented 
his saying that the meeting was the eifect of royal favour, 
instead of a right. Nor was he more successful in the plan 
pf governpient which he drew'up,'and which the king was 
to recommend in a speech, for this underwent so many 
alterations that he absented hiniself when it was delivered. 
At this time the prevaietice of the democrdtic party was 
such as to induce the king to assemble troops around Paris^ 
which measure Necker opposed, and on July 11, 1789, 
was therefore ordered to quit the kingdom within twenty- ' 
four hours. This he imknediately, obeyed, ind went to 
Brussels. As soon as his- absence' was Ichown, the popu- 
lace assembled, destroyed Ibbe Bastille, and proceeded to 
such other outrages, that the king tho(ught-it necessary to 
recal Necker to appea^e^f their fury. - He accordingly re- 
turned in triumph^ but hia triumph^ was short. The- popu- 
lace was no longer to beflattteved with dectamations-oh their 
rights, npr was Necker prepared to' adopt the sentiments 
of the democratic leadecs^/ while it became now bis doty to 
propose financial expedients that were obnoxious to the 
people, lie that had j ust before been hailed as the friead 
pf the people, was now< contideredras an aristocrat, and bia 
personal safety was endangered. ' In this dilemma he -de- 
sired to resign, offering to leave, as pledges for his htte-^ 
grity> the money which he > had advanced to government^ 
tis* aboui:8Q,000/. sterling, and his house and farniture. 



N E C K E R. 51 

His resignation being accepted, he left Paris^ kn6 in hid 
retreat be vvas more than onte insulted by the very people 
who, but a few months before, had considered bihi as theit 
saviour. Gibbon, who [Massed four days with him at this 
period, says, '^ I could have wished to have efxhibited him 
as a warning to any aspiring y6uth possessed ^iih the 
demon of ambition. With all the ttieans of private hap- 
piness ih his power, he is the most miseriable of human 
beings ; the past, the present; add the future, are equally 
odious to him. When I suggested some domestic amcise- 
ments, he answered, with a deep tone of despair, ^in the 
^tate in which I am, I can feel nothing but the blast which 
has overthrown nie.* '* Shortly after this, hfs mind was 
diverted from public disappointment by the more poignant 
grief of domestic caUmity; his wife died, after a long ill-^ 
ness, in which he had attended her wijth the most affecr 
tionate assiduity. He now had recourse to his' fdTv'otiiite 
occupation of writing, and several works of different kihids * 
were the product of his solitary hours. HiiS principal 
pieces are entitled " Sur rAdmlnistration de M.'Neckei^ 
par iui-m^me ;" ** Reflections," &c. vfhidii were intended 
to benefit the king during his captivity a6d trial; "^^Dil 
Pouvoir Ex^cutif," being- aft essay that contaiited his oWn 
ideas on the executive part of government ; .^* Demises 
Vu€s de Politiques, -et de Finahcei"- of which the chief 
object was to discuss what was the best' form of governm'ent 
France was capable of receiving;^ Besides these, 'he pnb- 
lished a *^ Course of Religiouil Morality," "and a novel^ 
written at the suggestion Of his daughter; entitled '^ The 
fatal Consequences of a single Fault." * Though deprived 
of three-fourths of his fortune, he bad'suficiirnt for ^11 his 
wants, and also to indulge his benevolent dispositibn. ISe 
had been placed on the list of emigratitil/but the directory 
unaniniously erased his name, and when the French army 
entered Swisserland, he was treated by* die generals with 
every mark of respect." His talents and eotfducrha^e been 
alike the subject of dispute; and perhaps ' the titne is not 
yet come when the latter cati 'be^ fully iinderstobd. It ii 
well known that all ^hoBuffei^ed by the rieVolntiot) blamed 
Nicker as a principal cause of th^t event ; but it m^y be 
questioned whether any talehfs; guided by the Utmost pro-' 
bhy and wisdom., Coiild have averted thi^ evils that ll^d 
been prepared by so long a course of infatuation. Nepk^r 
passed the latter years of his life in the rational pi^rsuits of 

E 2 



*2 N £ C K E R. 

a philosopher and a man of sound judgment and true taste^ 
His only daugl^ter, who married the baron de Stael, am* 
bassador from Sweden to France, and who has made herr 
self known to. the literary^workl by several publications, 
published some ^^ Memoirs of the Character and Private 
Life of her Father," written in a high style of panegyric' 

NEEDHAM (John Tuberville), a philosopher and 
divine of the Roman catholic persuasion, was born at Lon- 
don Sept. 10, 1713. His father possessed a considerable 
patrijTOony at Hilston,. in the county of Monmouth, being 
of the younger or oatholic branch of the Needham family, 
but died young, leaving only a small fortune to his four 
children. Our author, his eldest son, studied in the Eng« 
lish college of Douay, where he tqok orders, and taught 
rhetoric for several years, but was particularly distin- 
guished for his knowledge of experknental philosophy. 

In 1740 he was employed by his superiors on a mission 
to. England, and had the direction of the school erected at 
Twyford, near Winchester, for the education of the Ro- 
inan catholic youth. In 1744 he was appointed professor 
of philosophy in the English college at Lisbon, where, oti 
account of his bad healthy he remained only fifteen months. 
After his return he passed several years at London and 
Paris, chiefly employed in microscopical observations, and 
in other branches of experimental philosophy. The results 
of these observations and experiments were published in^ 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London in 1749, and in a volume in 12aio at Paris in 
1730; and an account of them was also .given by Buffon, 
in the first volumes of his natural history. , There was an 
intimate connection subsisted between Mr. Needham and 
this illustriouii French naturalist : they made their experi- 
ments and observations together; thpugh the i^^ults and 
systems which they deduced from -the same objects and 
op^erations were totally different. 

Mr. Needham was elected a member of the royal society, 
of London in 1746, and of the society of antiquaries some 
time after. Fro^ 1751 to 1767 he was chiefly employed 
as a travelling tutof to several English and Irish noblemen. 
He then retired fVom this wandering life to the English 
seJninary at Paris, and in 1768 was chosen by the royai 
aoademy of sciences in that city a corresponding, member*. 
\  . ' • . . . , 

1 ^nnual Register.^— Adolphus'g Mem. of the French ReTQlutioD.w^ketcb in 
Keei's'Cyclopaidia, &c. Akc Ice. 



N E E H A M. 5S 

When the regency of the Austrian Netherlands, for the 
revival of philosophy and literature in that country, formed 
the project of an imperial academy, which was preceded 
by the erection of a smalTliterary society to prepare the 
way for its execution, Mr. Needham was invited to Brussels, 
and was appointed successively chief director of both these 
foundations; an appointment which he beld^ together with 
some ecclesiastical preferments in the Low Countries, till 
his death, which happened December the 30th, 1781. The 
abb£ Mann, from whose account of Mr. Needham we de- 
rive the above particulars, says, that <* his piety, tem- 
perance, and purity of manners, were eminent ; his attach- 
ment to the doctrines and duties of Christianity was invio- 
lable. His zealous opposition to modern infidels was in- 
defatigable, and even passionate. His probity vras un- 
tainted. He was incapable of every species of duplicity : 
his beneficence was universal, and his imsuspicious can- 
dour rendered him often a dupe to perfidy." Thesame 
writer, however, adds, that '^ bis pen was neither remark- 
able for fecundity nor method ; his writings are rather the 
great lines of a subject expressed with energy, and thrown 
upon paper in a hurry, than finished treatises.'* 

Mr. Needham^s papers inserted in the Philosoyhical 
Tranaactions were, 1. Account of chalky tubulous concre- 
tions, called Malm ; vol. XLII. 2. Miscroscopical observations 
on Worms in Smutty Corn ; vol. XLII. 3. EFectrical 'Expe- 
riments lately made at Paris ; vol. XLIV. 4. Account of M. 
BufFon's Mirror, which burns at 66 feet; ibid. 5. Obser- 
vations upon the generation, connfposttion,'and decompo- 
sition of Animal and Vegetable silbstances ; vol. XLV. 6. 
On the Discovery of Asbestos in France;* vol. LI. His 
works printed at Paris, in 'French j are, 1. ** New Micro- 
scopical Discoveries,** 1745. 2. "The same enlarged,'* 
1750. '3, " On Microscopical, and the Generation of Or- 
ganized Bodies,'* 1769, 2 vols.* Besides these he had a 
considerable share in the contfoversy that was carried on 
about sixty years ago at Paris and Rome respecting the 
origin of the Chinese. • He had seen a famous bust at Turin, 
on the breast and forehead of which several characters were 
visible, which so^e antiquaries supposed to b^ Egyptian. 
Mr. Needha'm having compared them with the characters 
of a Chii^se dictionary in the Vatican, printed at Pekin, 
in 26 vols; (entitled Cbing Zu. Tung) perceived a. striking 
resemblance between the two. He drew from this resem- 



54 N E E D H A M. 

bbtnce an argument in favour t>f the opinion of the late De 
Guignes (see D£ Guignes), concerning the origin of the 
Egyptians, Phenicians, and Chinese, or rather concerning 
the descent of the lattei- fVom the former, and pronounced, 
without hesitation, that the bust was Egyptian, The pro*- 
jcess of this discovery, or rather opinion, be published 
in 1761,.4n a paoiphlet entitled '* De Inscriptione quadam 
^gyptiaca Taurini inyenta^et charaoteribus ^gyptijs olioi 
ef:. SinU communibus exarata; idolo cuidam antiquo in 
regia universitate servato, ad utrasque acad^mias, Lon^^ 
dinensem etPioriaiensem, rerum antiquarumiavestigationi 
praepositas, data Epistola,*' 8vo» Several qther^ subscribed 
19 this, opinion, but it is more generally thought that the 
conclusipn respecting the descent of the Chinese from the 
Egyptians does not follow from the premises.. The very 
candid and ^ir manner, however, in which Mr» Needham 
proxpeeded in bis cpmp^rison of the characters on the bust 
with those in the dictionary, was acknowledged in an attes« 
tatio^i very honourable to. his probity^ sigped by several of 
the literati at Rome, ^nd by:two of our countrymen then 
Resident the.re^ ^^. Richard Lyttel ton and the late duke of 
Grafton.* 

NEEDHAM, or I^EDHAM (Marchamont), an English 
political writer^ and a . model of political prostitutes, wa$ 
born at Burford, in Oxfordshire, in. August 1620. His 
mother was dfiughter to an inn-keeper at Burford, and 
married to Mr. MatchamQptNeedh{im» an Oxford student, 
lie ^ied,in 1621, and Mrs« Marchamont, bis mother, the 
next year if^^m^arried with Christopher Glynn, vicar of 
Burford, and, master o£ the firee*school there*. This gen- 
tleman, pei^c^iving b|s step-sop tp have very pregnant parts, 
took Bin^. under hi^,Q)prn tuition; apd, at the age of four- 
teen» b^ wM^nt tp All- Spuls college. Here, being made 
pneof die^cbi^iristyrs, b^e continued till 1637; when taking 
^he degi;ee of B*.^. which was inconsistept with bis cho- 
f^^t^rts place^ }if| retired to St Mary's Hall, and in 1640 
tvpcaa^fth^rdpnd^ir-infistf^r. of Merchant Taylors* School. 
T!i^\9o ^hoyfOfyeXr, b4e^^ie$ign/B4in;l6.42, and his next employ- 
me,nt^^s.;that of a writer tiOaaattorney in Gray's Inn, but 
thi^ .tQQ .he< sppn </]uitt^, . and commenced his political 
^are^r in a^.WQ^ly. paper under the tide of <^ Mercurius 

* 1 hik by tbeabbd Mann, in the Memoirs of the myal Academy of Scieocte 
^ BmsftHt, IB Month. Reir. vol. L)Qt.-->flutton'8 Diet 



N £ E D H A M. 56 

Britdnnieus,-' on die side of parliament. This procufed 
biooi/. popularity,, apparently without respeot, 'as he wah 
fnoiiii^rly knojvn among the populace by the name of cap- 
^in Needham^ of Gray^s Inn« - Inthis publieation be pre^ 
tended, to comiiiuaicate ** the affiiir* of Great Britain, fot 
the better, information qf the-f^eople." - It began about the 
middle of Augmit 1643, awd oame out On Mondays in one 
jsheett to. the Jauer end p£l646, or beginning of 1647. 
Perhaps our author .might take tbe^aide from a ^tragi- 
comedy called ^* Mercurius Britannious, or the English 
IntelUgeitcer/'. reprinted in* 1641,. in 4tp, Wi^itten by Ri^ 
chajrd Brathvirayte. 

About this time he studied physic, and,* iti 1645, began 
to practise; by which, and 'hfts^poUtiieal writings, he con* 
trived tosubsist^ until, in jconsequisn^e of some affront, he 
suddenly left bis party; and,r>obtaining the favour of a 
royalist, was intr^iduped into ^the binges |)resen^e at Hamp^ 
ton-court }n k 647, . aqd» asking pardon Upon his knees, 
readily obtained it. Being ^vir^ admitted tO' the king^s 
favour, he wr6te soon, afj^r another tpaper, entitled ** Mer-> 
curius Pragmatious ;V which b^ng* equally witty with the 
former, as satirical Against the presbyterians, and full of 
loyally, made bim.known> and admired by the wits of that 
side. These .papers professed-to '*^ communicate inteili- 
geocefrom all, touching all affairs,- designs^ humours, and 
conditions, throughout, the kingdom, especially ftom West- 
minster and the bead, quarters.*' 'Th^rewere two parts of 
them, and tb^ came ocit weekly, in one, sheet 4 to. The 
6rst piart commenced Sept. 14, i647, and ended Jan. 9; 
1648. The other part, which was entided^ ^^Mercuriui 
Pn^maticos for king Charles II." &c* began April 24, 1 649j 
bat qnickly ended. . : , 

Having now rendered himself obnoxious to the popular 
party^ he found it necessary to leave London, and for a 
time lay concealed at the house of Dr« Peter Heylin, at 
MinHer^Lovei^ near Bucford; till, «t^ length being dis- 
covered, he was> imprisoned in^Newgate, and would pro- 
bably: have been executed, had. not Lenthal,tbe speaker of 
the boose of commons^, who knew him and his relations 
well, and Bradshaw, president of the- high court of justice, 
obtiioed his pardon. Thinking bis talents useful, and 
earing little whom \they . eikiployed, they made such pro- 
mises as easily .indaced . him; to< -write on the side of the 
ittjdbpendeftts. Needham had no scmples as ta principle^ 



*« N E E D H A M. 

'and after accepting their offers, immediately publishedh a 
third weekly, paper, called " Mercurius Politictis," wb^ch 
.came out every Wednesday, . in two sheets, 4to, com- 
jnencing. with the 9th of June 1649, aud«ending with 6ttl 
of June 1650, which being Thursday, be began again with 
Number I. from Thursday, June 6, to Thursday, June 13, 
4650, beginning, '^ Why should not the commonwealth 
bave a fool, as well as the king had,'' &c. This paper, 
.which contained many discourses against monarchy, and 
in behalf of a free state, at least,* before Cromwell was 
made protector, was . carried on without any interruption 
till about the middle of April 1660, when it was prohibited 
jby ail order of tbie council of state, and Needbam fled the 
kingdoiD, justly dreading what never was inflicted on him; 
for after the restoration, by means of a hired courtier of 
as little principle as himself, he obtained his pardon und^ 
the great seal. After this he practised physic, chiefly among 
the dissenters, and contrived to support himself, and keep 
up his fame for scurrility by some controversies with the 
faculty, until his death, which happened suddenly in 1^7 S, 
. Needbam's .character may be gathered from the pre- 
ceding short account He bad natural parts, ^nqt much 
improved by education, and wrote in that coarse and vul- 
gar style of obloquy, which was suited to his readers^ and, 
as we have seen in our own times, willfind readers eriough 
to reward the grossest prostitution of talents. Besides the 
** Mercuries^' already mentioned, he published, a greal 
number of other things, the titles of which are worth tran- 
scribing, as a specimen of the. style in which pditical con- 
troversy was then carried on : 1. '^ A Check to the Checker 
of Britannicus,^' &c. 1624 ; 2. A sharp libel agahist his Ma- 
jesty^s late meissage for Peace, anno 1 645 ; in answer to 
which was published ^' The Refusers of Peace inexcusable, 
by his Majesty's command," 1645 ; one sheet 4to. 3. ^^ A 
Hue and Cry after the King, written after the King's De- 
feat at Naseby, in 1645." 4. " The Case of the Kingdom, 
stated according to the proper interests of the several 
parties engaged," &c. : The third edition in 1647. 5< 
^^ The Levellers levelled ; or the Independents' Conspi-* 
racy to root out Monarchy, an interlude," 1647. 6. '* A 
Plea for the King and Kingdom, by way of answer to a late 
Remonstrance of ihe Army," 1648. 7.^* Dighus Dei ; or 
God's justice upon treachery and treason, exemplified inp 
the Life and Death of the late James duke of RamiltoDi^^ 



N £ £ D H A M. Si 

&ic. 1640. S. Th€ year before cattie out a book entitled 
*^ The manifold. Practices and Attempts of tbe HamiltonS| 
&c. to get tbe Crown of Scotland/' 1648, probably written 
by Needliamy as th€ 'whole of it is contained in the ^' Di- 
gitus Dei." 9. " The Public Intelligencer," &c. ; these 
came out weekly on Monday,, but contained mostly the 
same matter that was in the V Political Mercuries." \0, 
'^ Tbe Case of the Commonwealth of England stated," &c. 
1649. 11.*' Discourse of the excellency of a Free State 
above Kingly Government," 1650, pjiblished witb the 
former, and reprinted in 1768, by Richard Baron, a poli- 
tician of the republican stamp. 12. <* An Appendix added 
out of Clandius Salmasius's Defensio Regis^ and Mr. Hob- 
hes's de corpore politico." 1 3. '< Trial of Mr. John Good- 
win, at tbe bar of religion and right reason," &c. 1657, 
'in reply to this, Goodwin took occasion, in a piece en- 
titled '* The Triumviri," to characterize our author as hav- 
ing a foul mouth, which Satan hath opened, &c. 1658. 
15. '^ Interest will not lye, &c. in refutation of * The In- 
terest of England stated," 1659. 14. ** Tbe moderate In- 
former, &c. communicating the most remarkable transac- 
tions, both civil and military, in the Commonwealth of 
England/' &e. It commences with the ) 2th of May 1659, 
but- was not carried on above two or ihree weeks. Need- 
ham^ it seems, was dismissed from bis place of writing the 
weekly news, in the time of Richard, by the influence of 
the Preabyteriaus, and John Can put in bis room ; yet^ in 
spite of opposition, he carried on the writing of bis *' Mer<i 
curies." 16. '* News from Brussels, &c, in a Letter dated 
10 March, 1659;" but. said to be written by our author 
against Charles II. and his court, and conveyed to thepress 
by Praise-God fiarebones. It was answered about a week 
after, in '^ The late News, or Message from Brussels un-* 
masked;" 17. ^^ A short History of the English Rebellion 
completedy in* verse," 1661 ; a collection of all such verses 
«8 be had printed before each of his ^' Mercurii Pragmatici." 
To it he prefixed *^ The tnie Character of a rigid Presbyter;** 
and added the coat of arms of sir John Presbyter : but the 
character was not .of his writing^ It was reprinted in 1680, 
4to. 1 8; << Discourse concerning Schools and School-mas- 
lers," 1*663« 19. << Medela MedicinsB," &c. 1665 ; answered 
ky two doctors of that faculty, fellows of the college of phy- 
sicians, viz. John Twisden, in his ^'Medicinaveterumvindi* 
cata," &c« and, Robert Sprackling, in his *' Medela Igno- 



» NEE D HA M. 

IMtiaSt^? -20; **Aii epistolary Discourse" before 'MUedictnk 
Iii9taurata> &c. by Edward Bolnest, M. D.'* 1665. 21. *< A 
Pac<}u<^t >of ^Advices and Amtaiadverslons^ &(C« occationed 
by ^'LeUerlrom a* person, of quality to bis friend in. tbe 
country, .written by lord Shaftesbury^" 1676^. 23. *^ A 
secjood Pacquet of Advicds, &c. in answer to some Consi-* 
4eratidD» upon t tbe Question whether 'the Parliament be 
dissolved by its Prorogation for Fifteen Months ?" and 
ajnethert entitled *< Tbe Long Parliament dissolved," wrtt^ 
ten by] Deozil lord Holies, but owned by his chaplain, a 
nonconformist, named Carey, or Carew, who wa? cohk 
mitted prisoner to tbe Tower of* London in tbe beginning 
of February, 1676. 23. ^^ A Letter from a person newly 
cb€»dn to nit in this Parliament, to a Bencher in the Tern* 
pie/*; &c» '24. *^ A Narrative of tbe cause and manner of 
tbi^.Iinprtsonment of the Lords now close prisoners in tbe 
Tower of London/* Needbam is said to have been encbu-^ 
raged to write these two Pacquets by lord Danby. 25» 
*^ Cbris^i^nissimus Chrisdanandus ; ' or Reasons for the Re- 
duction of France to a more Christian sta;te in Europe," 
1678. 26« << A Preface lo < A new idea of tbe Practice of 
Pbysic, written iby Francis dela Boe Sylvius,^ " 1675. ; 

Our author ako' translated into English, Sdden's ^^ Mare 
Claosum/' printed in 1662, or thereabouts, in folio; ifi 
which he foisted the name of commonwealth, instead of 
the kings of England,; and suppressed the dedication to the 
king.' ^He also added an: appendix to it, cbnee/ning tbe 
sovereignty of tbe kings of Great Britain on the sea, en- 
titled <^ Additional Evidences/' which be procured, as it 
is thoogluty of president Bradshaw. He also made com* 
meats and glosses on tbe book ; but after the restoration: 
the copy was corrected, and restored by J. H. gent; (James 
Howeli), and 'printed in 1662, folio. ^ 

NEEFS (Peter), a celebrated paintiernf architecture, 
was 'horn, as is supposed, at Antwerp, in 1570, and was 
a disciple of Henry Stenwyck. His favourite objects were 
tiews of tbe interior of <ihnrches, conv^its, splendid balls, 
kcj Of tbese he described tbe riob dec6rations, and every 
member, of the architecture, with'- uncommon neatness of 
penfiilling, but with such attention to* the most minute 
parts, as must have required a vast deal of patience, .and 
has indeed in ^ some oases made them bbjects of wonder 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. 11. 



N £ £ F S. 59 

rather than of imitation. The coluinnSy capitals, or the 
ornai^eutal paintings of the churches he represents, are 
all marked with the utmost precision, and finished with an 
exquisite touch, and a light clean pencil. It is said, How- 
ever, that he sometimes took liberties \9ritb the originals by 
introducing objects that he thought improved them to th^ 
eje. This was making a pleasing picture,, but was a vio« 
lation of truth. As he designed figures but indifferently, 
other artists assisted him in these, particularly Velvet 
Breughel and Tenders. He did in 1651, aged eighty -^ne^ 
leaving a son, called I'he Youngs who painted the same 
subjects, but with inferior skill. ' 

NE£R (Arnold ViiNDER)^ a landscape painter, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1619, and is well known to the con- 
uoisseurs in painting, by a peculiarity of style, and also by 
the handling and transparence of his landscapes. His sub<4 
jects are vievm of villages, or the huts of fishermen, on the 
banks of rivers and canals, by moon-alight, generally finished 
with a remarkable neatness of pencilling. ^ His touch i« 
extremely light, free^ and clean> and his imitation of na<* 
ture i;rue'; particularly in the lustre of .his skies about the 
niopn, tod the reflection of the beams, of that luminary on 
the. s(]rface of the water. His figures are usually well 
designed, and their actions and attitudes are well adapted to 
their employments and occupations. In all parts of Europe 
his pictures are still in good esteem, but are seldom found 
uuinjqred, owing to the simplicity of his manner, and his 
painting very thiti. This artist died in 1683, leaving a son, 
Eqlon Hemdrick YAKi^£R NeEA,. who was born at Am- 
sterdam in 1643. He was at fii'st a pupil to his father, and 
afterwards of Jacob Vanloo^ He bad an extensive talent, 
and executed subjects, drawn from various branches c^ the 
art, with au equal degree of merit. His portraits, in large 
and smdl, ane well :colQuredy and touched with spirit and 
delicacy; in history he designed !with correctness, and 
composed with ingenuity ; his conversations have the man* 
ner^ the breadth, and the finish, of Terburg ; bis land- 
scape is Vttried apd well chosen, du£ too much loaded, and' 
too anxiously discrimioated in the fore-grounds. The por- 
trait of this artist, painted by himself^ and inscribed '* Eg** 
Ion Hendfic Vender Neer f. 16<96,'^ has a place in the gal* 
lery of Florence. He' died in 1703,' aged sixty. ' 

1 D'AigeoTille, ▼«). JII>4ttDe8ciMmiM, tqI. !.«— PUkSngton. 

* JD'Argenville, toI. 111.— Detcbamps, vol. III.— Pilkinstoo, by Foieli. 



s 



60 N E E R C A S S E L. 

\ NEERCASSEL (John de), a celebrated bishop of the 
catholics in Holland, known by the title of bishop of Cas- 
toria, was born at Gorcum in 1626. He entered the con- 
gregation of the oratory at Paris, and, having finished his 
plan of education there, went to be professor of philosophy 
at Saamur, then of divinity lat Mechlin, and was afterwards 
archdeacon of Utrecht, and apostolical provincial. James 
de la Torre, archbishop of Utrecht, being dead, M. de 
Neercassel was elected in his place by the chapter, of that 
ipity ; but, Alexander VH. preferring M. Catz, dean of the 
i:hapter of Harleo^, they agreed between them, as a means 
to preserve peace, that M. Catz should govern the diocese 
pf Harlem under the title of archbishop of Pbilippi, and 
M. de Neercassel that of Utrecht, under that of bishop of^ 
Castoria. This agreement being approved by the nuncio 
of Brussels,, they were both consecrated in the same day at 
Cologn, September 9, 1662; but, M. Catz dying a year 
after, M.de Neercassel remained sole bishop of all the 
catholics in Holland, of which there were above four hun- 
dred thousand. He governed them with great prudence, 
and, after having discharged the duties of his office in the 
most exemplary manner, died June 8, 1686, aged sixty, 
in consequence of the fatigues attending the visitation of 
bis churches. This prelate left three tracts in Latin, the 
first " On reading of the Holy Scriptures;" to which he 
has added a dissertatioqi ^^ On the Interpretation of Scrip- 
ture ;" the second '^ On the vyorship of the Saints and the 
Holy Virgin ;" the third, entitled "Amor Poenitens.*' This 
last is a treatise on the necessity of the love of God in the 
saccament of penitence. - The two first have been trans- 
lated into French by M. le Roy, abbot of Haute- Fontaine, 
2^ vols, dvo, and the third by Peter Gilbert^ a Parisian, 
1741, 3 vols. 12mo. The best Latin edition of ^< Anoor 
Poenitens^' is that of 1684, 2 vols. 8vo ; the second part of- 
the Appendix, which is in this edition, was written by M. 
Arnauld, and only approved by M. de Neercassel. The 
above three tracts having some expressions whidi^ were 
thought to favour the errors of Jansenius, an attempt was 
made to get the " Amor Pcenitens^' condemned at Rome; 
but pope Innocent XL to whom the application was ad- 
dressed,, declared that '< the book contained sound doc- 
trine, and the author was a holy man.*'^ 

1 Moreri. — ^Dict. Hist.->*FDppen Bibl. Belg. 



NELSON. 6 1 

NELSON (Horatio), one of the bravest,- and the most 
sucGessfal naval commander that ever appeared in the 
world, the fourth ^on of the rev. Edmund Nelson, rector 
of Burnham-Thorpe, in the county of Norfolk, was borrt 
in the parsonage-house of that pat^sh, September 29, 1738. 
His father's progenitors were originally settled at Hilsbo- 
rough, where, in addition to a small hereditary estate, they 
possessed the patronage of the living, which Our herd's? 
grandfather enjoyed for several years. His father married, 
in May 1749, Catherine, daughter of Maurice Suckling; 
D. D. prebendary of Westminster, whose grandmother had 
been sister to sir Robert Walpolc, earl of Orford*- By this 
lady he had eight sons: and three daughters. Horatio, &o 
called after the late earl of Orford, was placed at the 
bighwscbool of Norwich, whence he was removed to North- 
Walsbam, both within the precincts of his native coutity; 
In his twelfth year, the dispute having taken place betweei^ 
the courts of St. James's and Madrid, relative to the pos- 
session of the Falkland Islands, an armament was imme- 
diately ordered, and captain Maurice Suckling, bis mater- 
nal uncle, having obtained a ship, young Nelson' was, at 
his own earnest request, placed on his quarter-deck as s 
midshipman, on board the Raisonable; of 64 guns. But 
in cotisequence of the disptite b^ing terminated, and capt. 
Suckling being appointed to a guard-ship in the Medwaiy, 
Nelson was sent a voyage to the West Indies,' and on bis 
return he was received by his uncle on board the Triumph, 
then lying at Chatham, in the month of July 1772. It was 
obsecved, however, that although his voyage to the East 
Indies'had given him a good practical knowledge of sea- 
manship, he had acquired an' absolute horror of the royal 
navy ; ^nd it was with some difficulty that captain Suck*^ 
ling was enabled to reconcile him to the service ; but m 
inherent ardour, coupled with an unabating. spirit of entei^- 
prize, and utter scorn of danger; made him at length atn- 
bitious to partake in every scene where knowledge was to 
be ob^iained or glory earned. 

An opportunity of this kind soon presented itself, and 
appeared admirably calculated to satiate that romantic taste 
for adventure which, from the earliest periods of his life, 
seemed at once to fill and to agitate the bosom of our youth- 
ful bero« — ^When captain Phipps, afterwards lord MuU 
grave, sailed ; June ^,. 1773, towards the North Pole, ort 
board the Raceboffie^captain Lutwidge commanded another^ 



I 



62 NELSON. 

bomb-vesl^l called dbe Carcass, both of wbich>U^ been 
fitted put CO purpose to ascertain to what degree of latitude 
it wast possible to peneti^ate. On board the latter of these 
vessels Mr. Nelson was admitted with great difficulty, and 
in consequence of his own pressing solicitation, it) the 
humble capacity of a cockswain; for, in consequence of 
an order from the admiralty, boys were, not permitted to be 
received on board. • 

, After paasing Shetland^ tbey came in sight of S|>itsber- 
gen,, and afterwards 'proceeded to Moffen island; beyond 
which they discovered seven other isles, situate in 8 1 deg. 
21 min. When they had sailed a little further North, they 
became suddenly fast wedged in the ice, on the 31st of 
July ; so that the passage by which the ships had entered 
was suddenly and completely blocked up,' while a strorng 
current set in to the Eastward; ' In thiS' critical situation 
they remained five whole adays,^ during which peridd their 
destruction appeared inevitable ; but the young hero, in- 
stead of being depressed, actuated by that filial love, and 
passion for enterprize,! which weri^ ever uppermost in his 
breast, ventured on the ice during a fine moon-light^ wllh 
another daring ship^mate,' and wefnt ip pursuit of a ^ear, 
but failed in the attenipt, after bein^brongbt into the niost 
imminent danger. On being interit^^^gated somewhat roughty 
by his commander, as to wliat txiotive be codtd have for 
hunting a bear, he replied, *^ That he. wished to obtain the 
$kin for his father.** 

Soon after his return, his uncle- recommetided him to 
captain Farmer of the Seahorse/of 20^ guns, then going to 
India, in a squadron. under sir Edward Hughes. In this 
ship be was rated as a midsfaipmiin ; butiil India he daugbt 
one of those malignant disease^ so frequently fatal to 
European habits, which totally deprived ftim of the use of 
his limbs, and nearly brought him' to- the grave. 

On the 8th of April 1777, he passed the usual ex* 
amination before the. board for the rank -of lieii tenant ; 
and on the subsequent day received his commission as 
second of the LowestofFe, of 32 guns. In this vessel he 
cruised against the Ameritins, and hafioi^nihg-to^ cap- 
ture a letter of marque belonging 'to th^ Cotoilies, then 
in a state of insurreciion, the fitst Heilteft«nt|)h>ved tin- 
able to take possession of befr, xk et>ns€fquente Of it *mo^l^ 
tremendous sea, that seemed to inttrdiotv^all approach, 
Thb captain, piqued ati this cirCumstttneei a^ ^dtsiroutl 



91 £' L & O N. 63 

of effecting the object of bis Wishes, iiltjQired^ ^^ Whelher 
be bad not an officer capable of bdarding the -'prbfce ?^* 
Oq hearing . this, lieutenaot-Nelsonitnin^diatellf jumped 
into the boat, and told the rndster, who wished t6 hare 
anticipated bioi) ^^Tbat if he came back.witboilt^Cc^s 
It would be bis turn.-' - - 

: In 1778 be was appointed to the Bristol^ afid^l^seby 
seniority, to be first lieotenant. In- the eooj^se nf ' the*^ sfic->> 
ceeding year (June* 11^ i779y) be obtain^* the' rank of 
post<captain> on which occasion he 'was appointed^^ the 
command of the HinGbinbroke. Having sailed In 'this r^- 
sel for the West Indies, b,e repiured to Port RdyatMt^ th\i 
island of Jamaica; and an attack upon thfitt island be(ng' ex-i 
pected, on the part of * count D^Escaing^s fleets and amffr. 
Nelson was intrusted^ both by the adifntral tihd'generd^ 
with the command of the 4>attedes' at 'P(>rt-Royar, the 
mpst important post in* the whole island. Apian was nfext 
formed for taking fort San Juan» on 'the river St; John; in 
the gulf of Mexico ;f and Captain Nelson wars appointed to 
the command of the naval department/ • His business- was to 
have ended when he had convoyed the forces, 'aboiH'500 
men, from Jamaica, to the SpanMh main ; but it was found, 
that not a man of the whole party had ever been up th<^ 
river: he therefore^ with his usual intrepidity,' quitted his 
ship^ and superintended the transporting of the troops; -iri 
boats, 100 miles up, a river which, ^ since- the thhe of 'the 
Buccaneers, none but; Spaniards* had ever -navigated; * Of 
all the services in which he had been engaged, this was the 
most perilous, it was the latter end- of ^he dry seasoti r the 
river was low, full of shoals, and sandy beaches ; and the 
men were often obliged to quit the boats, afnd drag -them 
through shallow channels, in which the natires weik'b^fdre^ 
to explore. This labour^- and that of forcing th^ rafiid?,' 
were chiefly sustained by the sailors, 'who, for seven oi^ 
eight hours during the day, were exposed to a burning son, 
and at night to heavy dews.' On the 9th of April they ar- 
rived at a- soiall island, .called 8t Bafrtholomew,' vHiicfa 
commanded the river in a rapid and difficult part, and 
was defended by a battery mounting nine.or ten swiveh* 
. Nelson, putting himself at the hitod of a few saiiloi^, leaped 
on the be^hj and captain Despard,^ since executed 'for 
high treason, having gsdlantly supported hint; tb^y defeated 
the Spaniards witb their own guns. Two days afterwards, 
having <;Qme in sight^of the castle of San Juan,- they 



64 N E L S O N. 

begi^n to besiege it on tbelStb, and it siirrendened ob tbe 
24tb. But jail that this, victory procured them was a ces« 
sation from toil : no. supplies were found, and the castle 
itself was worse than a prison. ; The hovels, whiofa were 
used 9iS a1i hospital, weris^ surrounded with putrid hides;; 
and when orders were obtained from the commanderin 
chief tp bu^ld one, the ;sickness arising from the^ climate 
had become so genera),, that there were no hands to work; 
at it. The; rains co^nunped, with few intervals, from April 
to October, when they abandoned their conquest ; andib 
was then reckoned that of ISOO who were sent to.di£Eerent 
posts upon this scheme, only: .'1^80 returned. Nelson nar^ 
rowly escaped. His advice had been to carry the castle 
by assault; instead of which, eleven days were spent in 
the fprmalities of a siege. He returned before its aurren* 
def, exhausted with fatigue, and suffering under a dysen** 
tery, by which his health became visibly impaired; but he 
fortunately , received an appointinent tp tbe Janus pf 44 
guns, in which be reached Jamaica in such a state of sick-< 
ness, that althougji much was done to remove it, he was soon 
compelled to return to England, in the Lion, commanded 
by the hon. William CornwaUis, through whose attention a 
complete recovery was effected. 

In August 1731, captain Nelson was appointed, to tbe 
command of the Albemarle of 28 guns, and sent into the 
North seas. During this voyage he gained a considerable 
knowledge 'of tbe Danish coast, and its soundings, which 
afterwards proved of great importance %o his country. Oa^ 
his return be was ordered to Quebec with a convoy, under 
the command of captain Thomas Pringle. From Quebec 
he sailed with a convoy to New York, in October 1 782, where 
he joined the fleet under sir Samuel Hood, and became 
acquainted with prince WilliamrHenry, now duke of Cla- 
rence, who, was at that time serving as a midshipman in 
the Barfleur. His highness, after a description, rather ludii 
crous, of his dress and manner, said, that even at this time 
there, was something irresistibly pleasing in his address 
and conversation, and. an enthusiasm, when speaking oo 
professional subjects, which shewed that he was no common 
being. In November, captain Nelson sailed with sir Sa- 
muel Hood to the West Indies, where he continued actively 
employed till the peace. 

After his arrival in England, in 1783, he went on a trip 
to France, but returned in the spring' of 178^, and .was 



N £ L S O N. 9S 

»fi^Qkited t^ the cdavqiftnd of the Boreaa frigate of 2S guns^ 
Qjidered to the Leeward Isliinds. Wbile here, be akoved 
the utmost 9eftl and activity in protecting tbe commerce of 
Gfeat Britain, 4it that time menaced by a misunderstaading 
mtb the Amerieans, respecting their right to trade with tb^ 
West India Islands* Hia co&duct on this occasion occupies 
a eomiiierable $pace in the work from which we borrow 
our information 9 but may be omitted without injury in. a 
sketch that mu«t necessarily be confined to his greater ac** 
tion3« It is to be regretted, however, that bis services on 
this occasion were overlooked and neglected, for which 
be harboured a resentment that soon after appeared. 

From July 17B6, tillJune 1787, captain Neleon conti* 
mied at tbe Leeward Islands, when at length he sailed for 
England. He bad, duriag his stay in this quarter of the 
world, became acquainted with Mrs. Nisbet, the widow of 
Or. Nisbet of the island of N^vis, then only in ber eigh«^ 
teeutbyear, and married heron die llth of March 1787, 
prince William* Henry standing father on the occasion. Oa 
biK return to, England, the fiotieas frigate was for nearly 
five fBontbs kept at tbe Nore, as a dop and receiving ship ; 
a cire«im$tance that noused the indigoationof its comman** 
der» and without Sicarcely ever quitting tbe ship, he was 
observed to carry on the duty with a strict but sullen «t«- 
tention. When orders were received for his ship to be paid 
off at Sbeerness, be expressed bis joy to the senior officer 
m the Medway, saying, '^ It is my determination never 
again to set my foot on board a king's ship. Immediately 
after my arrival in towu, I shall wait on the first lord of 
the admiralty, and resign my commission^" The officer^ 
finding it in vaia to reason with him> against this resolution 
in tbe preseut state of bis feelings, u^d bis secret inter* 
ference with the first lord of tbe admiralty to, save Nelsoar 
from taking ^ step so injujrious to hioiself, a«d which would 
ubjma^y have been so mischievous to bis country. Lord 
Howe look Jbhe hint, sent for captain Nelson^ smd having 
had a long conversation with bim,> desired that he 
might, oo the first levee-day, bave the honour of present- 
in^ lli(n 'to bis japtajesity. This was a wise measure, for he 
was moat gracioiusly receiv/ed atooAict^ and his aresentment 
was ^iFectuatly xeinoved. He now xeticedy to enjoy the 
pl^asiures of domestic happiness a>t the parsonage^house at 
BiVrnham Tborpte, which his father gave bim as a place of 
residi^iKie. Rut tbe affair of the Ameri^sao oaptares «rai 

Vol. XXin. F 



60 N E L SON. 

not teY'minatclcl : he had, while amusing himself in bi9 
little farm, a notification that he was again to be sued for 
damages to the amount of 20,000/. This circumstance, 
as unexpected as it was unjust, excited his astonishment 
and indignation. '< This affront,*' be exclaimed, ^M did 
not deserve ; but I will -no longer be trifled with. I will 
write iinmediately to the Treasury, and if government will 
not support me, I am resolved to leave the country.'* He 
accordingly informed the treasury, that unless a satis- 
factory answer were sent to him by return, of post, he 
would immediately take refuge in France : an answer, 
however, was returned by Mr. (now the right hon. George) 
Rose, that he would assuredly be supported. 
- On the commencement of the late eventful war, he was 
delighted with the. appointment to the Agamemnon of 64 
guns, bestowed on him in Jan. 1793, and was very soon 
after placed under the orders oflord Hood,' tlien appointed 
to conunand in the Mediterranean, who always placed such 
confidence in captain Nelson, as manifested the high opi- 
nion which he entertained not only of his courage, but of 
his talents and ability to execute the arduous services with 
which he was entrusted. If batteries were to be attacked, 
. if ships were to be cut out of their harbours, if the hazard- 
ous landing of troops was to be effected, or diflBcult pas- 
sages to be explored, we invariably find Nelson foremost 
on the occasion, with his brave officers, and the gallant 
crew of the Agamemnon. During the time that. Nelson 
had the command of the Agamemnon, and previously to 
the commencement of hostilities with Spain, he put into 
Cadiz to water ; and on beholding the Spanish fleet, ex- 
claimed, ^* Hiese ships are certainly the finest in the world. 
Thank God ! the Spaniards cannot build men, as they do 
ships!" It was observed in the Mediterranean, that be- 
fore captain Nelson quitted his old ship^ he had not' only 
fairly worn her out, there not being a mast, yard, sail, nor 
any pairt of the rigging, but was obliged to be repaired, the 
whole being cut to pieces with shot, but had exhausted 
himself and his ship's company. AtToulon, and the ce« 
lebrated victories achieved at Bastia and Calvi, lord Hood 
bore ample testimony to the skill and unremitting exer- 
tions of captain Nelson^ ^* which," said his lordships *< I 
cannot sufficiently applaod." During the memorable siege 
of Bastia, he superintended the disembarkation of the 
troops and stores, and commanded a brigade of seamen. 



NELSON. 6T 

who served on shore at the batteries. Lord Hood had sub- 
mitted to general Dundas^ and afterwards to his successor 
D'Aubert, a plan for the reduction of Bastia ; but he could 
obtain 6nly a feW. artillery-men^ and began the diege with 
less than 1200 soldiers, artillery^men, arid marines, and 
250 sailors. With these, which Nelson said were ^' few, 
but of the right sort/^ a landing was effected on the 4th 
of April, underMjIi^l Villetes and Nelson, who had ob- 
tained from tb^^^^r the title of brigadier. The sailors 
dragged the gu^^^v the heights, which was a work that 
could probably have been accomplished only by British 
seamen, and the soldiers behaved with the same spirit. 
The siege continued nearly seven weeks, and on the 19th 
of May a treaty of capitulation was begun ; and' 1000 regu- 
lars, 1 500 national guards, and a large body of natibnal 
troops, laid down their arms to 1000 soldiers and marines^ 
and 200 seamen. The siege of Calvi was parried on by 
general Stuart, and Nelson had less responsibility here 
than ai Bastia, but the business was equally arduous ; <^ I 
trust," said he to lord Hood, " it will not be forgotten, 
that twenty-five pieces of cannon have been dragged to the 
different batteries, and mounted, and all, but thriee, fought 
by seamen." It was at this Isiegie of Calvi, that be lost an 
eye, and yet bis name did not appear, in the Gazette, 
among the wounded. Of this neglect he could not help 
complaining, and on one occasion said, '< they have not 
done me justice ; but never mind : Fll have a Gazette of 
my cntmC^ and on another occasion, with a more direct at- 
tempt to prophesy, he wrote to Mrs- Nelson, " One day 
or other I will have a hmg Gazette to myself. I feel that 
such an opportunity will be given me. I cannot, if I am 
in the field of glory, be kept out of sight." 

Daring the month of December 1796, being liow raised 
to the rank of commodore by sir John Jervis, he hoisted 
his broad pendant on board La Minerve frigate, captain 
George Cockbume, and was dispatched with that ship and 
La Blanche to Portd Ferrajo, to bring the naval stores left 
there to Gibraltar; and on bis passage thither captured a 
Spanish frigate, La Sabina, of 40 guns and 286 men. In 
this action the captured ship had 164 nlen killed and 
wounded^ and lost the 'mizen, main, and fore-masts; and 
La Minerve had- seven men* killed, 34' wounded^ and all her 
masts shot, through. Commodore Nelson's letter, on ' this 
occasion, to the admiral^ sir John Jervis, has been justly 

F2 



68 NELSON. 

regarded as a noble example of a generqus and modest 
spirit, for be assumes no merit to himself) but gives all to 
tbe captain, bis officers, and crew. 

In Feb. 1797, he fell in with tbe Spanish fleet, but was 
enabled to escape from tbeoi and join admiral sir John 
Jervis off Cape St. Vincent, on the 13*tb of that month, in 
time to communicate intelligence relative to the state and 
force of tbe Spanish iieet^ and to shift his pendant on 
board his f<)rm.er ship, the Captain, 74 guns. Before »un-* 
set, tbe signal was made to prepare for action. At day- 
break, the enemy vnere in sight. The British force con-» 
sisted of two ships of 100 guns each, two of 98, two of 90^ 
eight of 74, and one of 64y with four frigates, a sloop, 
and a CMtter. The Spaniards had one ship of 136 guns^ 
six of 1 12 guns each, two of 84, and eighteen of 74 guns, 
v^ith ten frigates. The disproportion was very great, but 
sir John Jervis, following the new system of naval tactics^ 
determined ^o^ break theOine of tb& enemy; and before, 
th'e Spanish admiral could form a regular order of battle, o{ 
which he seemed yery desirous, sir John, by carrying a 
press of sail, tame up with them> passed through the fleet^ 
then tacked, and thus cut off nine of their ships from tbe 
n()ain body. These, in their turn, attemptfed to form on 
their larboafd tack, either with a design of passing through 
the British line, or to the leeward af it, ^nd thus rejoining 
their frietids. One (>{ the nine only succeeded ; the others 
were so Warmly receited, that they took to flight, and did 
not appear in action till the close. The admiral was now 
enabled to direct his whole attention to the enemy^s main 
body, still sup^srior to his whole flc^et* He ijiade signal tQ 
tack in succession. Nelson^ whoi^e jstation was in th^ fear 
of the British line,, perceiving that the Spanish fleet wa^ 
bearing up befoi^ tbe wind, with an intention of forming 
their line, joining tbeir separated Iships, or %iUg; deter-* 
mined to prevent either df these schemes frotn taking effect, 
and a<tcordingly, without a iDomem^s hesitation, disobeyed 
the signal) and ordered bis ship to be wore. This at Qnc# ^ 
brought bim'into totion with iseven of the lltrgest shipa 0f 
the enemy^s fleets among which Wetie the Santissima of 
)3^^ gun^, and two odiers of 1 12. : Captain Trowbridge, in 
the CttUoden, iiobiy supported him; and the Blenbtonii 
eaptnin Frederick^ came Vo their assistance. The Sftlvacb^f 
d^iiMundo and the &^ti Isidore dropped astern, adtd wem 
feed into by the Excellent, dapiain CoUiAgwtpod, to tyhom 



N e L S Q N. «ff 

xhn latter ftfuck. f^ But ColliDgwooc),^' says Nelson, " dia* 
datniog the parade of taking possession of beaten enemieti 
most galleudy pushed up witb every sail set, to save kii 
old friend and mess-mate^ who was to all appearance in a 
very critical sitaatioo.'' The Captain was at this momeot 
fired upon by three first rateS; and the ^n Nicholas and a 
74 were within pratoUshot The Blenheim was a-head, 
and the Cnlloden crippled a-atern. Collingwood ranged, 
parsed within ten feet of the San Nicholas^ and giving h^r 
a most tremendou^ broadside, pushed on for the ^antissiosa 
Trinidad. At this time the Captain had lost her fonp-topi- 
mast, had not a sail, shroud, or r6pe left, her wheel wasi 
shot away, and thus left incapable pf farther service in the 
line or the chase ; her nobl^ commander, Nefson, instantly 
resolved on a bold ai^d decisive measure, end deternyined^ 
Urbatever. might be the event, to attempt his oppoi^nt 
sword in hand ; and directed captain Miller to put the 
helm A-star-board, and the boarders were summoned. Th^is 
gentleman, the commodore's captain, (who was afterwards 
in the battle of ^e Nile, where he gained great honour, 
iMEid was alain in the Th^eus, nnde^ sir Sidney Smith), so 
judiciously directed the course of his ship, JthEthe laid her 
aboard the star-board quarter of the Spanish B4 ; her sprit- 
sail-yard passing ovet the enemy's poop, and -hooking in 
lier mizen shrotids : when the word to board being given, 
the -officers and seamen, destined for this perilous duty, 
headed by lieutenant (now sir Edward) Benry(wiio was. after- 
wards lord Nelson's captain in the Vanguard, in the battle 
^f the Nile), together with the detachment c^ the 6dth re- 
.giment, commanded by Heutenant Pearson, then doing 
duty on board thie Captain, passed with rapidity on board 
the enemy's ship, and in a short time the .ll^an JJicbolas was 
in possession of her intrepid assailants. The commodore's 
firdoor would not permit him to remain ^n inactive specta- 
tor of this scene. He was aware that the attempt was ha- 
zardous, and he thought his presence might animaite his 
jbrave companions, and contribute to the success of this 
J^old enterprise. He, therefore, as if by magic impulse, 
accompanied the party in this attack ; passing from the 
fore-chains of his own ship into the enemy's quarter^^gal- 
iery, and thence through the cabin to ^he quarter-deck, 
where be arrived in -time to receive the sword o( the dying 
•commander, who had been mortally wounded by the 
thoarders* . The English were at this time in possesion of 



70 N E L S O N. 

r 

every part of the ship, and a fire of musketry opened upon 
them from the stern-gallery of the San Josef. Two alter*, 
Datiyes now presented themselves, to quit the prize, or in- 
stantly to board the three-decker ; and, confident in the 
bravery of his seamen, he determined on the latter. - Di« 
recting, therefore, an additional number of men to be sent, 
from the Captain on board the San Nicoolas, Nelson 
headed himself the assailants in this new attack, exclaim- 
ing, " Westminster-abbey, or a glorious victory !" Suc- 
cess in a few minutes, and with little loss, crowned the 
enterprise. For a moment, commodore Nelson could 
scarcely persuade himself of this second instance of good 
fortune ; he, therefore, ordered the Spanish commandant, 
who had the rank, of brigadier, to assemble the officers on 
the quarter-deck, and means to be taken instantly for com* 
municating to the crew the surrender of the ship. All the 
officers immediately appeared, and the commodore had 
the surrender of the San Josef duly confirmed^ by each of 
thecp delivering his sword. On.thb occasion Nelson had 
received only a few bruises. . The Spaniards had stiU 
eighteen or twenty ships, which had suffered little or no 
injury; but they did not think right to renew the battle. 
As soon, as the actipn was discontinued. Nelson went on 
board the admiral's ship, who received him on the quarter* 
deck, took him in his arms, and said he could not suffi- 
ciently thank him. Before the news of the action had ar- 
rived in England, Nelson had been advanced to the rank 
of rear-admiral; and now for his gallantry, on the 14th of 
February, he received the insignia of the Bath, and the 
gold medal from his >sovereign. He was also presented 
with the freedom of the city of London in a gold box. 

In April 1797, sir Horatio Nelson hoisted bis flag as rear 
admiral of the blue, and was detached to bring down the 
garrison of Porto- Fenrajo, and on May 28 he shifted his flag 
from the Captain to the Theseus, and was appointed to 
the command of the inner squadron at the blockade of 
Cadiz. During this service, bis personal courage was, if 
possible, more conspicuous than at any other period of bis 
former history. In the attack on the Spanish gun-boats, 
July 3,. 1797, be. was boarded in his barge, with only its 
usual complement of ten men and the coxswain, accom- 
panied by captain Freemantle. The commander of the 
Spanish gun-boats, Don , Miguel Tregovia, in a barge 
rowed. by Si^ oars, having 30 men, including. officers, made 



I \ 



NELSON. 



71 



a most desperate effort to overpower sir Horatip ^elsoili 
aincl his brave companions; but after along and doubtful 
conflict, the whole of the Spaniards were either, killed or 
wounded, and Nelson brought off the Jaunqh. On. the 15th 
of July, he was detached with a small squadron to make 
an attack on the town qf 3&nta Cruz, ip the island of Ht'e- 
neriffe, where it was iqoagined a Manilla ship had landed 
an immense treasure. The rear-admiral, on his arrival 
before the town, lost no time in. directing 1000 men, in^ 
eluding marines, to be prepared for landing from the sbips^ 
under the direction of captains Trowbridge,. Hood, Thom- 
son, Freeniantle, Bowen, Mi)ler, and Waller, who volun« 
leered their services. The boats of the squadron being 
ma.nned, the landing was effected in the .night, and the 
party, were in full possession of Santa Crt^z in about seven 
hours ; but, finding it impracticable to storm the citadel, 
they prepared for their retreat, which was allowed by^the 
Spaniards unmolested, agreeably to the stipulations made 
with captain Trowbridge. It was on this Ojccasion that our 
gallant hero, in stepping out of the bpsit, received a shot 
through the right elbow, which rendered amputation ne« 
cessary. . 

He was now obliged to go to England for medical adr 
vice, where honours awaited him sufficient to recover his 
accustomed -spirit, and he received assurance from his surr 
geons, more gratifying than all, that he would, soon be fijt 
ror active service. Letters were addressed to him by the 
first iord of the Admiralty, the earl Spencer, and by his 
steady friend the duke of Clarence, to congratulate him 
on his return. The freedom of the cities of London and 
Bristol was'conferred upon him ; he was invested, with the 
order of the Bath, and on his first appearance at court, 
his majesty received him in. the mos| gracious and tender 
manner, expressing his sorr^ow at the loss which the noble 
admiral had sustained, and at his impaired state of health, 
which might. deprive the country of his future services. 
*f May it please your majesty,'* replied the admiral, *^ I 
can jpever think that a loss, which the performance of my 
duty has occasioned ; and so long as I have a foot .to^ stand 
on, J will combat for my king and country.". An\ong 
other marks of national gratitude, it was intended to be- 
stow a pensio^i of lOOO/. a year on him, and etiquette re- 
' quiring that he should give in a memorial of his services, 
previous to such a grant, he accordingly presented the fol- 



Tt N £ L S K. 

lowing, #Mcb, Ukt the general cburad df his wonderful life, 
hM no parallel in ntval history : 

'^ To the King's Most Exceltedt Majesty. 
« The Memorial of 8ir Horatio Nelson, K. B., and a 
Rear-^Admiral in yoiir Majesty's Fleet. 
' <^ That during the present war yoor Memorialist b^B 
l>eeti in four actions with the fleets of the enemy, yrz. on 
the 13th knd' 141b of March, 179j;; on the I3th of July^ 
ITQS'j and dn the 14th of February, 1797 j in three actions 
#ith frigates ; in six engagements against batteries ; in 
ten actions in boats employed in cutting out of harbours ; 
in destroying vessels, and in taking three towns. Your 
Memorialist has also served on shore with the army four 
ftiontfas, and commanded the batteries at the sieges of 
Bai^ia and Calvi. 

< *< That -during the war he has assisted at the capture of 
ieten sail of the line, six frigates, four eonrettes, and 
tfeleren privateers of diflferent sizes; and taken and destroyed 
neijir fifty sail 6f merchants-vessels ; and your Memorialist 
has actually been engaged agaii^st the enemy upwards of 
^ne bundled Md twenty times. 

<< In which services your Memorialist has lost his rigfa't 
eye and aran, and been severely wounded and bruised in 
liii body. Alt ef whicb services aiid wounds your Memo- 
fiiriist ibost hmssMy submitisi to your Majesty^s most gracious 
isonstderaiioh. Horatio Neijson. 

. « Octobtr^ 1797.'» '^ 
^ In Apfit 1798, sir Hdrallio Nelson hoisted his flag in the 
Vanguard, and ^ soon as he bad rejofned eaii St. Vincent, 
!« wa^ dispatched to the MedHerratrean, that he might 
iweertaim the eili^ct of the gt^eat e!itped]tion fitting out at 
Touten. He sailed with a dmall squadron from Gibraltaf, 
on the 9<lb of May, %o Wateh this armament. On the 22d, 
It sudden ste^rm in the gulph of Lyons carried away ^11 the 
aop-masits of the Vanguard ; the fone-mast went into three 
pteees, and'ltie bow-sprit was sprung. Captain (afterwards 
sir Alexander) Ball todtt the iship in tow, to carry her into 
St. Pietros, Sardinia. Nelson, appfebensinre that this at- 
tempt might endanger both vessels, . ordered him to cast 
iaS\ but that excellent oflBeer, possessing a spirit very like 
4fat of his commander, replied that he w^ confident he 
could save the Vanguard, and by God*s help be would db 
it. Previously to tbis^ there had been a coolmess between 
these Brave seamen ; but from that moment, Netsoii be- 



KELSON. 73 

^ntoe foUy lensible of the extraordinkry merit of captain 
Bail^ and a sincere friendship subsisted between tbeoi dur- 
ing the remainder of their lives. Being compelled to refit, 
the delay enabled him to secure bk junction with the rct- 
inforeetnent which lord St. Yinoont had sent to join bias, 
under commodore. Trowbridge. That officer brought with 
him no instructions to Ne]|K>iiy as to the oourse be was to 
«teer, nor any potittre account of the enemy's destination : 
every thing was lefi to bis own judgment. The first news 
"Was, that they had surprised Malt^. He formed apian for 
attaching them while at Gosso; but on the 22d, iatelli^ 
g«fiee reached him that they bad left that island on the 
16th, the day after their arrival. He then pursued them 
to Egypt, but he could not learn any thing of tbem during 
-his voyage ; and when he reached Alexandria, the eneiny 
^ere not there. He then shaped his coarse for the coast 
of Caramania, ainl steered from thence along the southern 
dide of Candia, carrying a pr4es8 of sail both night and day, 
wHh a contrary wind. Irrkated that they ahould hare 
eluded his vigilance, the tediousness of the night made 
bim impatient, -and the officer af the watch was repeatedly 
^led upon to declare the hour, and convince bis admi^ 
ral, who measured time by his own eagerness, that it was 
nm yet break of day. <^ It would have been my deligbt,^' 
fiaid he, ** to have tried Bonaparte on a wind.'* Baffled 
in his pursuit, Nelson returned to Sicily, took in stones at 
%racese, and then made for the Morea. There, on the 
S8^ of July, be learnt that the French had been seen 
about a month before, steering to the ^utb>east from 
-Candia. He resolved to reill)rn, and immediately, with 
every sail set, stood again for the eeaat of Egypt. On the 
Istof Augnst, they came in sight of Alexandria ; and at 
four in t^e afternoon, captain Hood, in the Zealous^ joiade 
signal for the French fleet. For several preceding days, 
the admiral bad scarcely taken either food <Hr sleep : he 
"no^ Ordered bis dinner to be served, while preparations 
were making for battle; and when his officers rose from 
table, and went to their separate stations, be said to tbem^ 
"** Before this time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage 
•or Westminster- abbey.'^ It has never been explained, 
^hy Bonaparte, having effected his landing, should not 
hwe ordered the fleet to return. It is, however, certain, 
•that it was detained by bis ;express command ; though after 
Ibe death ^f Brneye, he accused him of having lingeceil 



7* N E L S O N. ^ 

' • * 

there, contrary to bis received orders. That admiral, not 
being able to enter the port of Alexandria, had moored 
his Deet in Aboukir bay, in a strong and compact line of 
l)attle; the headmost vessel being, as close as possible to 
a shoal on the north-west^ and the rest of the fleet forming 
a land of curve along the line of deep water, so as not to 
X be turned by any means on the south-west. The French 
admiral had the advantage of numbers in ships, in.guns^ 
and in men: he. had thirteen ships of the line and four 
frigates, carrying 1196 guns, and M,230 men; whereas 
the English had the same number of ships of the line, and 
one 50 gun ship, carrying 1012 guns, and 8068 men. 
They had, however, Nelson for chief-in-command, who, 
in all cases, was a mighty host in himself. During the 
whole cr\iize, it had been Nelson^s practice, whenever cir- 
cumstances would admit of it, to have his captains on board 
the Vanguard, and fully explain to them his own ideas of 
the best modes of attack, whatever might be the situation 
of the enemy. His officers, therefore, were well ac- 
quainted with his principles of tactics ; and such was his 
confidence in their abilities and zeal, that the only plan 
arranged, in case they should find the French at anchor, 
was for the ships to form as most convenient for their mu- 
tual support, and to anchor by the stern. When he had 
fully explained his intended plan, captain Berry exclaimed 
with transport, ^* If we succeed, what will the world say ?'* 
^^ There is no if^'* replied the admiral ; *Uhat we shi^ll suc- 
ceed is most certain : who may live to tell the story is a 
very different question.'^ 

The position of the enemy presented the most formida- 
ble obstacles, but the admiral viewed these with the eye of 
a seaman determined on an attack ; and it instantly struck 
him, that where there was room for an etiemy's ship to 
swing, there was room for one of ours to anchor. No 
further signal was necessary than those which had already 
been made. The admiral's designs were as fully known to 
bis whole squadron, as was his determination to conquer 
or perish in the attempt. The action commenced at sun- 
set, at half past 6 o'clock, with an ardour that cannot be 
described. The Goliath, captain Foley, and the Zealous, 
captain Hood, received the first fire from the enemy. It 
was received with silence. On board every one of the 
British ships, the crew were employed aloft in furling sails, 
and below in tending the braces, and making ready for 



NELSON. 79 

I 

anchoring ; a wretched sight for the Freocb,. who, with all 
their advantages, were on that element upon which es^ 
cape was impossible. Their admiral, Brueys/was a. brate 
and able man, yet he had, in a private letter, .boasted that 
the English had missed him, ^Vbecause, not finding them* 
selves superior io numbers^ they did not think it prudent 
to try their strength with bioi.*^ The moment was now 
come in which he wais to be fatally undeceived. The 
shores of the bay of Aboukir were soon lined with specta- 
tors, whb' beheld the approach of the English, and .the 
awful' conflict of the hostile fleets, in silent astonishment. 
The two first ships of the French line were dismasted within 
a quarter of an hour after the action, and the others suf« 
fered so severely, that victory was even ixow regarded ai 
certain. The third, the fourth, and the fifth, were taken 
possession of at half past eight. In the mean time. Nel- 
son had received a severe vyound on the head from a piece 
of iron, called a langridge shot; the skin of his forehead, 
being cut with it at right angles, hung down over his face* 
A great effusion of blood followed ; but, as the surgeon pro- 
nounced there was no immediate danger, Nelson, who had 
retired to the cabin and was beginning to write his dis-' 
patches, appeared again on the quarter-deck, and the French 
s^ip the Orient being on fire, gave orders thatboats should 
be sent to the relief of her men. Her commander Brueys 
was dead of his wounds, and the ship soon after blew up. 
The firing recommenced with the ships to the lee- ward of 
theceiitre, and continued until three in the mprning. At 
day-break, the two rear-shipr. of the enemy were the only 
ships of the line that had their colours flying, and imme- 
diately stood out to sea, with two frigates. The Zealous 
pursued, but as there was no other ship in a condition to 
support her, she was recalled^ These, however, were all 
that escaped-; and the victory was the most complete and 
glorious in the annals of .naval history, uniting indeed, as 
was, said in the House of Comnions, all those qualities by 
which other victories liiad been most distinguished. 

Congratulations, rewards, and honours of every kind were 
now showered upon the gallant admiral, by all the foreign 
princes and powers to which this splendid conquest was 
beneficial. At home he was created baron Nile of the 
Nile, and of Burnham Thorpe,, with a pension of ^2000/. 
for his own life^ One peculiar feature in Nelson's charac- 
ter was a conseiousness of the importance pf his servicesy 



T6 NELSON. 

and a babit of fi»rBiing an exact estimate of what tbey were 
worth according to the accustomed scale of natioaat re* 
wards. He was not therefore > satisfied with this barony, 
because he conceived that the superior peerages given to 
sir John Jervis and admird Duncan, were given for ser*- 
vices less decisive and important than he had performed. 

He went on however in his career, and it is to be deeply 
vegretted that the proceeding which immediately followed, 
has been thought to detract from the glories of his former 
life. He now set- sail for Sicily, and on his arrival at 
]^aples, was received as a deliverer by their majesties and 
^le whole kingdom. But soon after the subject^ of that 
monarch, discontented at his conduct, and supported by 
the FreiKrh, drove him from his capital, after which they 
established, or rather proclaimed, '^ The Parthenopean 
Republic.'* The zeal of cardinal RufFo, however, who suc- 
eessfuUy mingled the character of a soldier with that of a 
priest, proved signally efficacious towards the restoration 
of the exiled monarch. Having marched to Naples at the 
head of a body of Calabrians, he obliged '* the patriots,'^ 
as they were termed, who were in possession of all the 
forts^ to capitulate ; and to this treaty the English, Tur- 
Icisb, and Russian commanders* acceded. On the ap- 
fDearanee of lord Nelson, however, Ferdinand publiely 
^disavowed 'Vthe authority of cardinal RufFo to treat with 
aubjects in rebellion,'' and the capitulation was accordingly 
violated, with the exception of the prisoners in Castella 
Mare alone, which had surrendered to the English squa- 
dron under commodore Foote. For this part of lord Nelson'^a 
<;onduct much has been pleaded, but the general opinion 
was that it could iiot be justified; 

On the ninth of August lord Nelson brought his Sicilian 
majesty safe to his court, having kept him some weeks in 
luis ship, out of the reach of peril ; and on the thirteenth the 
^king presented him with a sword most magntfioeotly en^- 
ricbed with diamonds, and conferred upon him the title of 
duke of Bront6, and annexed to the tide an estate supposed 
to be worth 3000/. per annum. Besides the presents 
;)ust mentioned, he received from the East India company 
10,000/.; from the Turkey company a piece of plate of 
great value ; from the city of London a sword of exquisite 
workmanship and great worth ; from the grand seignior a 
diamond aigrette, or plume of triumph, valued at 2000/ ; 
•also a rich pelisse valued at 4*000/., and from the seigiiier^ 



NELSON. n 

ftiGther a ro^ $6t with diamond? of equal value ; from tb« 
emperor of Russia and the king of Sardinia boases set with 
diamonds worth 3700/. : besides many other presents of lesf 
value, but costly^ and expressive of a high sense of grati-^ 
tude in the donors. 

After the appointment of lord Keith to the command v4 
the Mediterranean fleet, lord Nelson made preparations txf 
return, and proceeding in company with sir William and 
lady Hamilton, to Trieste, he travelled through Germany 
to Hamburgh, every where received with distinguished 
honours. He embarked at Cuxhaven, and landed at Yar- 
mouth on the sixth of November 1 800, after an absence 
from his native country of three years. In the fpllowiitg 
January he received orders to embark again, and it waa 
during this short interval that he formally separated from 
lady Nelson. -Some of his last wordr to her Were, *' I eatt 
God to witness, that there is nothing in yc»i^ or your con- 
duct, that I wish otherwise.'^ He was now raised to 'the 
rank of vice-admiral of the blue, and soon after hoisted 
his flag on board the San Josef of 112 gujis, his oi^Ji 
prize at the battle of cape St. Vincent. About thistimi^ 
the emperor Paul of Russia bad renewed the northern 
confederacy, the express and avowed object of which w^is 
to jiet limits to .the naval supremacy of England. A te^ 
solution being taken by the English cabinet to attempt itt 
dissolution, a formidable fleet was fitted out for the Noith 
Seas, under sir Hyde Parker, in which lord Nelson c<^n- 
sented to go second in command. Having shifted his 'flag 
to the St. George of 98 guns, he sailed with the fleet in 
the month of Mafch, and on the 30th of that same month 
he led the way through the Sound, which was passed with^ 
out any loss. But the battle of Copenhagen gave occasioQ 
for an equal display of lord Nelson^s talents as that of the 
Nite. The Danes were well prepared for defence. Upwards 
of two hundred pieces of cannon were mounted upon the 
crown batteries at the entrance of the harbour, and a line 
of twenty-five two-deckers, frigates, and floating batteries, 
was moored across its mouth. An attack being determined 
upon, the conduct of it was entrusted to lord Nelson ; th« 
action was fought oa the second of April ; Nekon had with 
him twelve ships of the line, with all the frigates and smalt 
craft, the remainder of the fleet was Mth the commander 
ifl chief, about four miles ofE The combat which duc-^' 
^ceeded was one of the mtxst terrible on reoord. Nelson 



78 NELSON. 

himself said, that of all the engagements in which he hid 
borne a part, it was the most terrible. It began at ten in 
the morning, and at one victory had hot declared itself. A 
shot through the main-mast knocked a few splinters about 
the admiral : <^ It is warm work,^* said he, '' and this may 
be the last day to any of us in a moment ; but, mark you, I 
would not be elsewhere for thousands;'' Just at this^ 
moment sir Hy^e Parker made signal for the action to 
cease. It was reported to him, but he continued pacing 
the deck, and appeared to take no notice of it. The sig- 
nal-lieutenant asked if he should repeat it. "No," re- 
plied Nelson, " acknowledge it."- Presently he called to 
know if the signal for close action was still hoisted, and 
being answered in the aflBrmative, he said, " Mind you 
keep it so." About two o'clock, great part of the Danish 
line had ceased to fire, and the victory was complete, yet 
it was difficult to take possession of the vanquished ships, 
on account of the Bre from the shore, which was still kept 
up. At this critical period, with gre^t presence of mind, 
be sent the following note to the crown prince of Denmark : 
^^ Lord Nelson has directions to spare Denmark when no 
longer resisting ; but, if the firing is continued on the part 
of Denmark, lord Nelson must be obliged to set on fire all 
the floating-batteries he has taken, without > having the 
power of saving the brave Danes who bad defended them." 
Thii immediately produced a treaty, which ended the di^ 
pute, and annihilated the northern, confederacy. For thi& 
service lord Nelson was raised to i\ie rank of a viscount. 
His last effort, in this war, was an attack on the prepara* 
tions making at Boulogne, for the invasion of England ; 
but, after the loss of many brave men on our side, the 
enterprize proved unsuccessful, from the situation of the 
harbour. 

During the peace which followed, he retired to an estate 
lately purchased by himself, at Merton in Surrey ; but no 
sooner was this short peace dissolved, than his lordship was 
called upon to take the command of the ships in the Medi** 
terranean. He accordingly repaired thither, on board the 
Victory, May 20, 1803, and formed the blockade of Tou- 
lon with a powerful squadron. Notwithstanding all the vi* 
gilance employed, a fleet escaped out of this, port on the 
30th of March, 1805, and shortly after formed a junction 
with the Cadiz-squadron, sir John Orde being obliged to 
retire before such a superiority in point of numbers. 



NELSON. 75 

The gallant Nelson no sooner received intelligence of 
this event, than he followed the enemy to the West-In- 
dies ; and such was the terror of his name, that they re- 
turned without efiecting any thing worthy of mention, and 
got into port after running the gauntlet through sir Robert 
Caldeir's Squadron. The enemy having thus again eluded 
his pursuit, be returned almost i'ficonsolable to Etigland ; 
and hearing that the French had joined the fleet from Fer- 
rol, and had got safe to Cadiz, he again offered his ser- 
vices, which were readily accepted by the first lord of the 
aldmiralty, who gave him a list of the navy, and bade him 
choose his own officers. He accordingly reached Ports - 
moutli, after an absence of only twenty-five days ; and 
such was his impatience to be at the scene of action, that, 
although a strong wind blew against him, he worked doWn 
channel, and, after a rough passage, arrived off Cadiz, on 
his birth-day, Sept. 29, on which" day the French admiral, 
Villeneuve, received orders to put to sea the first oppor- 
tunity. In point of preparation the two fleets were sup- 
posed to be on an equality ; but in respect to force, the 
French were the stronger in the proportion of nearly three 
to two, they having thirty-four ships of the line of 74- ^uns, 
and under lord Nelson there were but twenty-four of the ; 
same rank : in frigates they out-numbered him in a similar 
proportion. Early in the month of October, lord Nelson 
received. information which led him to imagine the enemy 
would soon put to sea. He had already arranged a plan, 
according to which he determined to fight. He was aware, 
of the nnischief of too many signals, and was resolved never 
to distract the attention of his fleet on the day of action 
by a great number of them. Oh the 4th of October he 
assembled the admirals and captains of the fleet into the 
cabin of his ship, the Victory, and kid before them a new 
and simple mode of attack. Every man comprehended his 
method in a moment, and felt certain that it must succeed. 
It proved irresistible. ' 

• Lord Nelson did not remain directly off Cadiz with his 
fleet, or even within sight of the port. His object was to 
induce the enemy to come out ; with this view he stationed 
his fleet in the following manner. TheEuryalus firigate was 
ifithio half a mile of the mouth of the harbour to watch the 
enemy^s movements, abd to give the earliest intelligence. 
At a still greater distance he had seven or eight sail of the 
line. ' He himself remained off Cape St. Mary with the rest 



so N E L 5 N» \ 

i 

of tiie-fliset, and a line of frigate$r €xtepded and comoiuni^ 
cat^d between \ji\m and the seven or eight saii off Cadiz* 
The advantage of this plan was, that he could receive ampl^ 
S!Uj>pHes and reinforceiiients off Cape St. Mary, wftbout 
the eneniy being ioforaied of it, and thus they always r^* 
mained ignorant of the real force under his command : ViU 
leneuve had also been misled by an American^ who de- 
clared that Nelson could not possibly be with the fleer, a». 
he liad se0n him in London but a few days before. Bely^ 
ing on tbiS| the highest compliment they could pay Nel- 
son, and on their own superiority, they put to sea on the 
19th, and on the 2 1st lord Nelson intercepted them off 
Cape Trafalgar, about sixty miles east of Cadiz. Whea 
his lordship found, that by his mauti&avreS| be had placed 
the enemy id such a situation that they could not avoid an 
engagement, he displayed much aninrvation, and his usual 
confidence of victory. " Now,'* said he, " they cannot 
escape us; I think we may make sure of twenty of them; 
I shall probably lose a leg, but that will be purchasing a 
victory cheaply." He appears, however, to have had more 
gloomy presages, for on this morning he wrote a prayerJn 
his journal, and solemnly bequeathed lady HamiUon, as a 
legacy, to his king and country. ' He left also to the bene* 
ficence of his country his adopted daughter, desiring tbikt 
in future she would use his name only. *^ These," said be, 
'^^are the only favours I ask of my king and country at thia 
moment, when I am going to fight their battle*^' He had 
put on the coat which he always wore in action^ and k^pt 
for that purpose with a degree of veneration : it bore (be 
insignia of all his orders. ** In honour," saidhe^ ^'I^aioed 
them, and in honour I will die with them.^* The last or* 
der which his lordship gave, previously to action, was shorty 
but comprehensive, ^' En^i^anp expects bV££Y mam TO 
DO Hts DUTY," which was received with a shout of applause 
throughout the whole fieet ^^ Now," said the admirai^ 
^^ I can do no more ; we must trust to the great Disposer 
of all everits, and the justice of our cause. I tbaokGod 
for this opportunity of doit^ my duty." It had been re* 
presented to him sostrongly, both by captain filackwoo^i 
and bis own captain, Hardy, bow advimtageous it would Ihi 
for him to ke^ out of the action as lofe^ as -posgible;, tk0$ 
he consented that the Temeraune, which was tb^n saiUnf 
abipeast of the Victory, should be -ordered to pass ia«-he8id» 
and tb^ Leviathan also« They axM, i\Qk j^m\i\y 4o tjM 



NELSON. m 

\( the Victory continued to carry all her sail ; and yet so 
far was Nelson from shortening sail, that he seemed to take 
pleasure in baffling the advice to which he could notbu^ 
assent. He had determined himself to fight the Santissima 
Trinidada; and it is worthy of remark, that he gained the 
highest honour in grappling with this ship in the action 
off Cape vSt. Vincent, She was the largest ship in the. 
world, carried 136 guns, and had four decks. The Vic- 
tory did not fire a single shot till she was close along-side 
the Trinidada, and had already lost 50 men in killed and 
wounded. Lord Nelson ordered his ship to be lashed to hi^ 
rival, and in this labour the commander of the Trinidada 
ordered his men also to assist. For four hours the con- 
flict which ensued was tremendous. The Victory ran on 
board the Redoubtable, which, firingher broad*sides into 
the English flag-ship, instantly letdown her lower deck 
ports, for fear of being boarded through them. Captain 
Harvey, in the Temeriaire, fell on board the Redoubtable on 
the other side; another ship, in like manner, was on boaid 
the Temeraire, so that these four ships, in the beat of bat- 
tle, formed as compact a tier as if they had been moored 
together, their heads lying all the same way. The lieu- 
tenants of the Victory immediately depressed their guns^ 
and fired with a diminished charge, lest the shot should 
pass through and injure the Temeraire : and because there 
was danger that the enemy ^s ship might take firp from the 
guns of the lower-deck, whose muzzles touched her side 
when they were run out, the fireman of each gun stood 
ready with a bucket of water, which, as soon as the gun was 
discharged, he dashed at the hole made in her sides by the 
shot. In the prayer to which we have already alluded, ^od 
which Nelson wrote before the action, he desires that hu- 
manity, after victory, might distinguish the British fleet* 
Setting an example himselfj he twice gave orders to cease 
firing upon the Redoubtable, supposing she had struck, be«- 
cause her great guns were silent ; and as she carried no flag^ 
there were no means of ascertaining the fact. From this 
ship, whose destruction was twice delayed by his wish- to 
spare the vanquished, he received his death. Captain Hardy, 
on perceiving frequent showers of musket-balls fired on th^ 
Victory*s quarter-deck^ requested lord Nelson to take off 
the insignia by which he was exposed, as a mark, to th^ 
sharp shooters placed in the main-round-top of the enemy^s 
ships. He answered, he would when- he^ had time^ but 
Vol. XXIIL Q 



«* N E L S O N. 

paid no farther attention to bis safety. 1ii a minute after** 
wardsy his secretary, Mr. Scott, who stood near him, was 
hilled. A musket-ball entered bis head, and be fell dead 
instantly. Captain Adair of the marines endeavoured to. 
remove the mangled body, but it had attracted the notice 
t( the admiral, who said, ** Is that poor Scott who is gone?** 
Afterwards, whilst he was conversing with captain HardVi 
on the quarter-deck, during the shower of musket-balls 
and raking fire that was kept up by the enemy, a double* 
headed shot came across the poop and killed eight of the 
marines. In a fftw minutes, a shot struck the fore-brace- 
bits on the quarter-deck, and passing between lord Nelson 
and captain Hardy, drove some splinters from the bits about 
them, and bruised captain Hardy's foot. They mutually 
looked at each other, when Nelson, whom no danger could 
affect, smiled and said, *^ It is too warm work, Hardy^ to 
last." The Redoubtable had, for some time, commenced 
a heavy fire of musketry from her tops, which, like those 
of the enemy's other ships, were filled with riflemen. The 
Victory, however, became enveloped in smoke, except at 
intervals, when it partially dispersed, and, owing to the 
want of wind, was surrounded with the enemy's ships. 

The last scene was now approaching. At fifteen minutes 
past one, and a quarter of an hour before the Redoubtable 
Mruck, lord Nelson and captain Hardy were observed to be 
Walking near the middle of the quarter-deck : the admiral 
had just commended the manner in which one of his ships 
near him was fought, captain Hardy advanced from him to 
give some necessary directions, and he was in the act of 
turning near the hatdi- way, with his face towards the stern, 
when a musket-ball struck hira on tbe left'^shoulder, and 
^entering through the epaulet, passed through the spine, 
and lodged in the muscles of the back, towards the right* 
side. Nelson instantly fell with his face on the deck, in 
the very place that was covered with the blood of faii se- 
cretary, Mr. Scott. Captain Hardy, on turning round^ 
vaw the sergeant of marines. Seeker, with two seamen, 
raising hitn from the deck : ^ tiardy," said his lordship,. 
^* I believe they have done it at last; my back-bone is shot 
^ through." 

Some of the crew imnoediateTy bore the admiral to the 
cock-pit, and oh his observing that the tiller ropes, which 
were shot away early in the action, had not been replaced^ 
hecahnly desired a midshipman to remind capt. Hardy of 



NELSON. IS 



if, iiiA to ifequest that' new ones migbt be 
fDve* He then covered his face and slars with his hand-' 
kerchiefi that he might be less observed by his men; 
Being placed on a pallet in the midshipman's birth on thtf 
larboard side, Mr. Beatty, the surgeon, was called, ^ud 
bis lordship's cloaths were taken off, that the direction of 
khe ball might be the better ascertained. <^ You can be of 
no use to me, Beatty," said lord Nelson, '* go and attend 
those wbese lives can be preserved." When the surgeon 
bd executed his mdancholy office, bad expressed the 
general feeling that prevailed on the occasion, and had 
again been urged by the admiral to go and attend to hk 
duty, iie rductantly obeyed, but continued to return at 
iiuerwrals. As the blood flowed internally from the womtd^ 
the lower cavity of the body gradually filled : lord Nelson 
thenefore constantly desired Mr. Burke to raise him, and 
complaiotog of ^n excessive thirst, was supplied by Mr; 
Scott (the chaplain) with lemonade. In this state of suf- 
fering, with nothing but havoc and death and misery 
aronnd bivkf his mind continued intient on the great object 
that was always before him, fais duty to his country : he 
therefore anx^oosly inquired for cape. Hardy, (to know 
iriaetber the annihilation of tbe enemy might be depended 
en ; and it b^ng upwards of an hour before that oflicer 
could leave the deck, lord Nelson suspected he was dead^ 
and coald not easily be persuaded that it was otherwise. 
The prpw of the Victory were now heard to cheer, when 
teotenant Pasco, wbo lay wounded near him, said that one 
of their opponents had struck. A gleam of joy lighted up 
the countenance of Nelson; and as the crew repeated their 
cheers, and marked the progress of his victory, his satis* 
faction visibly increased. Mr. Bulkley, the captain's ai4 
de camp, then came below, and in a low voice commum* 
cated td the surgeon the particolwr circamstances wfaidi 
had deJtaiaed . capt Hardy. The excessive heat of the 
codcptty from the numbers of the dead and wounded, in* 
eii^ased tbe faintoess of the dying admiral, and his sight 
became dim : ^* Who brought the message ?^' said he feebly. 
** ByAUey^ my lord.** " It is his voice,", said Nelsoi^ 
^* remember me, Bulkley, to your father." Capt HardjT 
s66n afterwards came down from tbe deck, and anxiously 
strove to conceal the feelings with which he bad' been 
struggling. '^* How goes tbe day with us, Hardy ?" " Ten 
s1^tj[>s, mylord^ have struck." *^ But none of ours, I hpp^.** 

2 



t* NELSON. 

"There is no fear, my dear lord, of that. Fiveof&ejr 
van have tacked, and shewn an intention of bearing dowD 
upon us ; but I have called some of our fresh ships round 
the Victory, and have no doubt of your complete success.^' 

' Captain Hardy th^n found himself unable any longer to 
suppress the yearnings of a brave and affectionate hearty 
and ..hurried away for a time to conceal the bitterness of 

, bis sorrower 
. .The firing continued, and the cheers of the men were 

\^ occasionally heard amidst its repeated peals. With a wish 
to ..support his spirits, that were in some degree shaken 
by having. seen the friend he so sincerely regarded,, and 
from the increased pain under which he bad to endure the 

. agonies of excessive thirst, and the great difl&culty of re- 
spiration, Mr. Burke said, ^/ I still hope, my lord, you 
mil carry this glorious news home." " Don't talk.non- 
9en3e," replied the adiniral, '^ one would, indeed, like to 
live, a little longer, but I know it to be. impossible : God's 
will be done, I have performed my duty, and I devoutly 
thank him for it" A wounded seaman was lying near him 
on a pallet, waiting for amputation,, and in the bustle that 
prevailed was hurt by somre person passing by: Nelson, 
weak as he. was, indignantly turned his head, a^id with his 
usual authority reprimanded the man for not having more 
humanity^ Sometime afterwards he was again visited by 

. the surgeon ; <^ I (ind,"^£aid he, ^^ something rising in ny 
breast,, which tells me I shall soon be gone. God be praised 
that I have done my duty. My pain, is so severe that I 

, devoutly wish to be released." 

When the firing from the Victory had in some measure 
ceased, and the glorious result of the day* was accom- 
plished, capt. Hardy immediately visited the dying chief, 
and reported the entire nuoiber that had struck : ^^ God be 
praised. Hardy I bring the fleet to an anchor." Capt. 
Hardy was returning to the deck, when the admiral called 
him 1>ack, and begged him to come near. LordrNelsbik 
then delivered his last injuuctioi^, and desired- that his 

m 

* The €na1'eTent of this action was considered as at an end : the fleets of 

^ the capture df eighteen men-of-war, of the enemy were not merely defeated, 

Ihe French commander-in-chief, and they were as good a» annihilated, and 

twODther fla'g^fficers, with a general, with them the spirit of the French ma- 
It was a. blow (o the maritime strength ' rine so completely depressed, as to 

of the two hostile powers that entirely forbid the hope of a reviyal* till a new 

ruined <thehr present projects, and last- race of men should- aris(^, upon whon» 

ingly crippled their exertions. Th^ the terror of the name of Nelson would 

maritime war might from this day ha cease to operate, ... 



NELSON. B$ 

!»<idly might be carried home to be buried, unless his so-' 
Tereign . should otherwise desire it, by the bones of his 
father and mother. He then took capt. Hardy by the hand, 
and observing, that he would most probably not see htm 
again alive, the dying hero desired his brave associate tc 
kiss him, that he might seal their long friendship with that 
affection which pledged sincerity in death. Capt. Hardy 
stood for a few minutes over the body of him he so truly 
regarded, in silent agony, and then kneeling down again; 
kissed his forehead. ^^ Who is that ?" said Nelson. *^ II 
is Hardy, my lord." ** God bless you. Hardy,'* replied 
Nelson, feebly ; and afterwards added, ^^ I wish I had not 
left the deck, I -shall soon be gone :" his voice then gra- 
dually became inarticulate, with an evident increase of 
pain ; when, after a feeble struggle, these last words were 
distinctly heard, ^^ I have done my duty, I praise God for 
it.'* Having said thi6, he turned his face towards Mr. 
Burke, on whose arm he had been supported, and expired 
without a groan, Oct. 21, 1805, in the forty-seventh year 
of his age. 

Perhaps, in no country, have higher public honours beien 
paid to the memory of a public benefactor than those that 
were justly and enthusiastically given to lord Nelson. His 
body was brought home for interment ; it was exhibited for 
several days in the proudest state at Greenwich ; from 
thence it was conveyed to Westminster ; and finally buried 
in the cathedral of St. Paul's, Jan. 8, 1806. The funeral^ 
made at the' public expence, was the most solemn and 
magnificent spectacle ever beheld in this country, and waft 
duly honoured by the presence of seven of the sons of his 
majesty, and a vast number of naval officers, peers, and 
conamoners. Honours and rewards were munificently be- 
stowed on his relations, and an earldom was perpetuated in 
the family of Nelson, of which his brother was the first 
possessor. A monument was afterwards voted by parlia- 
ment, and many of the principal cities and. towns of the 
united kingdom have voted a similar memorial of his un- 
paralleled merit. 

In lord Nelson's professional character were' united the 
greatest bravery, the most ardent zeal, and the mo^t con- 
sunimate wisdom; all prompted, even from bis earliest 
days, by a consciousness of superior talents, and a fore- 
thought that they would one day immortalize his name. 
His actions, however, even as imperfectly detailed in the 



U N E L S O N. 

p^eetiing TOLrxBtive^' m\l form t&e best illnstrlif ion of 'hi^ 
ebkrict^r. In one respect only he has interrupted that 
ttain of delightful recollactions which ninst ever accom-^ 
pally the name of Nelson ; we allude to his unhappy at-^ 
tachinent to lady Hamilton, into which he appears to hav6 
bec^ at first betrayed by gratitude, but which he permitted 
St kst to increase with such violence, as to alienate biiif 
from hts wife, to whoni he had been for so many year^ 
fondly devoted. Reduced at last by her vices and extras 
tagane^, the woman to whom he had thus sacrificed bii 
thkfiLCter, closed her worthless life by the base disclosure 
|yf his confidentiat correspondence. ^ 

NELSON (RoB£niT), a learned and pious English g^n^^ 
tleitian, w^s born June 22, 1656, at London. He was the 
iron of Mr. John Nehon, a considerable Turkey merehatit 
Drf that city, by Delicia his wife, sister of sir Gabriel Ro-& 
berts, Also a London merchknt. His father djdng w&etf 
be wad but two years old, he was committed to the care 
l^f his mother, and her brother sir Gabriet, who was'ap^ 
pointed his guardian. His first education was at St. PauPs 
School, London; but, after some time, his mother wish- 
ing to have him more under ber eye, took him home td 
ber house at Dryfield, near Cirence^er, in Gloucester^ 
shire, and procured the learned Dr. George Bull, theti 
rector of Suddington in that neighbourhood, to be hi^ 
tdtoy. As soon as he was fit for the university, he was sent 
to Trinity college, Cambridge, first as pensioner, anrd 
Afterwards was admitted a fellow commoner. It is not im- 
probable, that Dr. (afterwards archbishop) Tillotson v^as 
consulted on this occasion, as he was intimately acquainted 
With the guardian, sir Gabriel Roberts : however, it h 
certain that Mr. Nelson was early known to that eminent 
iilivine, and very much esteemed by him. 

In 1680 he was chosen F. R. S. probably by the intrb^ 
duction of his friend and school-fellow. Dr. Halley, foir 
%faom he had a particular regard, and in whos^ company 
be set out on bis travels the same year. In the road to 
Paris they saw the remarkable comet which gave rise t^ 
the cometical astronomy of ^sir Isaac Newton ; and our 
author, apparently by the advantage of bis fellow*tra- 
i^eller^s instructions, sent dean Tillotson a description df 
it. Before he left Paris he received a letter from a frittii 

> Uk of Melfim by dsaU and M'AftlHur, abridged, 1810, Sro. 



NELSON. 87 

• 

io the English court, suggesting to him to purchase a place 
there, and promising bis assistance in it But although 
Nelson bad a great affection for king Charles and the duke 
of York, and wai^ at first pleased with the thoughts of at- 
taching bioiself to the court, on which, however, at that 
timey be was more likely to confer honour, than to derive, 
any from it, yet he could not resolve upon an affair of 
§i|cb consequence without the approbation of his mother 
^d uncle. He. first, therefore, applied to Tillotson to 
obtain their opinion, with assurances of determining him- 
^If by their and the dean^s advice ; but, finding no encou* 
ragement from either of the parties, he relinquished bis 
intention, and pursued bis journey with bis fellow-traveller 
to Rome, . Here be became acquainted with a lady con- 
siderably older than himself, the lady Theophila Lucyj^ 
widow of sir Kingsmill Lucy, of Broxburne, Herts, hart. 
mi4 second daughter of George earl of Berkeley, who soon 
discovered a strong passion for bim, which concluded in a 
marriage, after his arrival in England, in 1682. His dis« 
appointment was, however, very great, when he found 
that she bad deceived bim in one very essential point, that, 
of ber having been won over to the popish religion while 
on this tour; and it was some time before she confessedi 
this change, which was owing to her acquaintance with 
Bossuet, and converjsations at Rome with cardinal Philip 
Howard, who was grandson of the ^arl of Arundel^ the 
collector of the Arundelian marbles, &c. and hiid beea 
raised to the puriDle by Clement X. in May 1675. Nor 
was this important alteration of her religious sentiments 
confined to ber own mind, but involved in it her daughter 
by her first husband} whom she drew over to her new reli- 
gion ; and her zeal for it prompted her even to become a 
writer in one of the controversies so common at that time, 
§be is the supposed authoress of a piece printed in 1686, 
ftp, under the title of <^ A Discourse concerning a Judge. 
p{ Controversy in matters of Religion, shewing the neces* 
^ty of such a judge." 

This misfortune touched her husband very nearly, and 
he employed not only bis own pen, but those of his friends 
Tillotson «nd Hickes, to recover her. Tillotson addressed 
a long letter to her on the subject; and. Hickes, on her 
account, published <^ A Collection of bis Letters," which 
passed between him and a popish priest in 1675, 8vo ; in 
which is inserted, p. 328, ^ letter tp an £n^li3h priest of 



M N-l> L S O K- 

the Romish communion at Rome, written by Mr. Nelsofl 
for his lady's use. But all proved ineffectual, and she 
continued in the communion of the church of Rome tiit 
her death, in 1705. She was a person of considerable 
talents and sense. Dr. Tillotson particularly laments her 
case on that account ; and even seems not to be entirely 
free frotn all apprehensions of the influence she might have 
upon her husband in this important affair. But Nelson's 
teligion was too much the' result of his leurning and reason 
to be shaken by his love, which was equally steady and 
inviolable. Her change of religion made no change in his 
affections for her ; and, when she Irelapsed into such a bad 
state of health as required her to go to drink the waters at 
Aix, he attended her thither in 1688 ; and being dissatis- 
fied with the prospect of the revolution, and the removal 
of James 11. from the crown, he proceeded td Italy a se- 
cond time with his lady, and her son and daughter by hejr 
former husband. He returned through Germany to the 
Hague, where he^stayed some time with lord Dursley, who 
was married to his wife's sister. 

From the Hague he arrived in England in 1691, con- 
firmed in his dislike of the change of government. He had, 
while abroad, shewn his regard for king James by holding 
A correspondence with the earl of Melfort, his majesty's 
d.mbassador to the pope, after the revolution ; and now 
declared himself a nonjuror, and left the communion of the 
chulrch of England, although, we thii|k, without being 
fully decided. He had, indeed, consulted Tillotson, and 
followed his opinion, who thought it no better than a trick, 
detestable in any thing, and especially in religion, to join 
in prayers where there was am/ petition which was held to 
be sinful. On this subject, however, we shall soon find 
that Nelson changed his opinion. The friendship between 
him and Tillotson remained the same ; and the good arch- 
bishop expired in his friend's arms in 1694, after which 

. Nelson was very instrumental in procuring Mrs. Tillotson's 
pension from the crown to be augmented from 400^. to 

, ' 600/.' per annum. * 

^ See hJfl letter to lord Somers on bishop's ppstburaqus sennbDS,. to cpn- 

this oocasion, in Tillotson's Life. It suit our author on that occasion, 

is very remarkable, that the great re- Among' the manuscripts, ' there wai ^ 
gard he had always shewn to Tillotson, • found one discourse wb^ the arch-' ^ 

added to )iis own reputation for learn- bishop took occasion to complain oC 

ing, judgment, and candour, induced the usage which he had received from 

,J)ir. Barker^ who published the arch- the^noifjariog party, and to^expose,-kl 



NELSON. 



a# 



Mr. Nelson's new character unavoidably threw him into 
l>ew connections, among whom wafe Mr: Kettlewell, who 
bad resigned his living at Coleshill in Warwickshire, on 
account of the new oaths, and afterwards resided in Lon- 
dofi. This pious' and learned divine was of bis opinion aft 
to leaving the communion of the established church ; yet 
persuaded him to engage in the general service of piety 
^d devotion*; obserNMhg to him, that he was very able to 
Compose excellent books of that kind, which too would b6 
apt to do more good, as coming from a layman. * This recofla- 
dation Was highly agreeable to Mr. Nelson ; and indeed it 
was their agreement in this, rather than in state-principles; 
that first nriade Kettlewell admire our author, who, in rec- 
tum, is said to have encouraged Kettlewell toproceed in 
that soft and gentle manner, in which he excelled, in ma^ 
waging the nonjurors' controversy ; and animated bim be^^ 
sides to begin and prosecute some things for the public 
good, which otherwise would \\ot have seen the light. Mr. 
Kettlewell died in 1695, and left Mr Nelson his sole exe^* 
cutor and trustee ; in consequence of which be published 
his posthumous piece entitled *^ An Office for Prisoners,'* 
&c. in 1697. He also published five other of his friend's 
posthumous pieces,' and furnished the chief materials for 
the account of his life afterwards. 

At the samef tinle he engaged' zealously in every public 
Scheme for propagating the faith, and promoting the prac* 
tice of true Christianity, both at home and abroad ; and 
waseAfiinently active in forwarditig the building, repairing, 
and endowing churches, and establishing charity*school9y 
then a matter of very great importance in counteracting 
the seductions of the popish party. NeUon, we have re- 
marked, was not fully decided in quitting the communion 
of the church of England; and upon the death of Dr. 
Lloyd, the deprived bishop of Norwich, in the end of 1709^ 
he returned to it again. Dr. Lloyd was the last survivor of 
the deprived bishops^ except Dr. Kenn, by whose advice 
Mr. Nelson was determined in this point. It had beeti a 



V 



return,, ihe loconsistency of their own 
Coudluct i remarking particularly, that, 
Qpoo a just comparisou of thoir prta- 
tipie of Qoo-resistauce with their ac- 
tual uon-assistaoce to king James II. 
tbey had little reason to boast uf their 
loyalty to bim: and yet, severe as this 
discourse, was upon that party, Mr, 



Nelson/noi withstanding bis attachment 
to them, was rery zealous to have it 
printed, alleging, that they deserved 
such a rebuke for their unjust treat* 
ment of so good a man. The sermon, 
however, was after all suppressed, and 
is now probably lost. 

Life of Tillotsou* 



90 



NELSON. 



cjMe in vievr aeme time, and bad been warmly argoed on 
both aides, whether the continuance of their separation 
from the church ibould be schismatical or no ; and our 
author had some coiiferences upon it with Dr. Hickes, who 
waa for perpetuating the nonjuring church, and charging 
ibe schism upon the church established *. 

Mr. NelsoQ^s tutor, i)r. George Bull, bishop of St Da** 
¥id's, dying before the expiration of this year, he was 
ciisily prevailed upon, by M^at prelate's son, to draw up an 
account of his father's lilf and writings. He had main* 
lained a long and intimaie friendship with the bishop^ 
which gave liim an opportunity of being acquainted with 
bis solid and substantial worth ; had frequently sate at his 
feet, as he was a preacher, and as often felt the force 
of those distinguishing talents which enabled him to shine 
in the pulpit. But, above all, he had preserved a grateful 
remembrjince of those advantages, which he had received 
from him in his education ; and be spared no pains to em^ 
balm his memory. The life was published in 1713. He 
bad, for some time, laboured under an asthma and dropsy 
in the breast ; and the distemper grew to such a height 
soon after the publication of that work, that, for the be^ 
pefit of the air, he retired at length to his cousin's, Mrs^ 
Wolf, daughter of sir Gabriel Roberts, a widow, who lived 
at Kensington, where be expired Jan. 16, 17 1 4- lii, aged 
fifty-nine f. 

He was interred in the. cemetery of St. George^s chapei^ 
now a parochial church, in Lamb's-Conduit Fields, where 
a monument is erected to bis memory, with a long and 
elegant Latin inscription, written by bishop Smalridge* 
He was the first person buried in this cemetery; and 



* See an account of this dispute, 
#ith some letters that passed between 
them on the occasion, in '* The Con- 
fftitiition of the Catholic Church, and 
ibe nature and consequences of Schism 
set forth, in a collection of papers writ- 
ten by the laU George Hickes» D. D.** 
17 J 6, 8vo. 

f Mrs. Berkeley, in her preface to 
her Son's. Poems, p. 448, says, "she 
has frequently heard Mr. Cherry re* 
Ute the following, she thinks, curious 
anecdote of her excellent intimate 
friend Robert Nelson, Esq. When 
dying, he lay several hours speechless, 
perfectly composed, taking no nou- 
rishment, shewing no signs of life, but 



it was perceptible that he continued to 
breathe. Aboot four in the afternoon 
the day preceding bis death, be •%&* 
denly put back the curtail, raised bif 
head, and uttered the following sen« 
tence : ' There is a very great 'fire \d 
London this night;' tbendosed bisoy^s^. 
and lay someiew hours as before.'^ 
It appears that there was about this 
ffime a fine in Tbames-«treet, near tb^ 
Custoih-house, which narrowly esciiped* 
It began in the night of the thirteenth^ 
and continued burning till noon next 
day. It was of vast extent ; but 
whether Mr. Nelson saw, or dreamt ol 
a fire, our readers must determine. 



NELSON. ^I 

bf ing done to recoocile others to the place, who bad taken 
an insurittountable prejudice against it, it had the desired 
efieet. H^ published several works of piety, and left his 
whole estate to pious and charitable uses, particularly to 
-eharity'Scbods. . A good portrait of hicn was given by Mf. 
Nichols, in 1779, to the Company of Stationers, and fs 
placed in the parlour of their public hall. After the death 
of sir Berkeley. Lucy, Mr. Nelson^s library was sold by 
auction in 1760, together with that of sir Berkeley, fornv* 
ing, united, a most extraordinary assemblage of devotion 
and infidelity. .. Several < of Mr. Nelson's original letters, 
highly characteristic of his benevolence, may be seen in 
,the *^ Anecdotes of Bowyer.*' 

His publications were, 1. ^* Transubstantiation contrary 
to Scripture; or, the Protestant's Answer to the Seeker^s 
Request, 1688." This was at the same time that his lady 
.engaged on the popish side of the controversy. 2. *^ A 
.Companion for the Festivals and Fasts, 1704," 8vo, and 
large impressions of it several times since. 3. '< A Letter 
on Church Government, in answer to a pamphlet entitled 
The Principles of the Protestant Reformation,*' 1705, 8vo. 
4. "Great duty of frequenting the Christian Sacrifice," &c. 
1707, 8vo. Dr, Waterland observes, that, in thi^ piece, 
our author, after Dr. Hickes, embraced the doctrine of a 
oiaterial sacrifice in the symbols of the eucharist, which 
was first stated among the protestants in 16S5, by the fa<^ 
^)ons Mede, and, having slept for some 3*ears, was revived 
by Dr. Hickes, in 1697. Waterland's «« Christian Sacri- 
fice explained," &c. p. 37, 42d. edit. 17S8, 8vo. 5. « The 
Practice of true Devotion, &c. with an office for the Com- 
munion," 1708, 8vo. 6. ** Life of Bishop Bull," &c. 1713, 
Svo! 7. "Letter to Dr. Samuel Clarke," prefixed to " The 
Scripture doctrine of the most holy and undivided Trinity 
vindicated against the misrepresentations of Dr. Clarke,'* 
1713, 8vo. To this Clarke returned an answer; in which 
be highly extols Mr. Nelson's courtesy and candour ; which 
.be bad likewise experienced in a private confereif^ce with 
bim, upon this subject, i. " An Address to Persons of 
Quality and Estate," &c. 1715, Svo. 9. ** The. whole Duty 
of a Christian, by way of question and answer, designed 
for the use of the charity-schools in and about London.^' 
10. " Thomas a Kempis's Christian Exercise." 1 1. *< The 
archbishop of Cambray (Fenelort's) Pastoral Letter.". 12. 
** Bishop Bull's important points of Primitive Christianity 



d2 N E M E S I A N U S. 

maint^ifi^d ;'' and other posthumous pieces of that leardeJl 
prelate-' 

NEMESIANUS (Aurelius Olympius), a Latin poet, 
was born at Carthage, and flourished about the year 281, 
under the emperor Cirrus, and his sous Carinus and Nu- 
merian ; the last of whom was so fond of poetry, that he 
contested the glory with Nemesianus, who had written a 
poem upon fishing and maritime affairs. We have stiU 
.remaining a ]>oem of our author, but in an imperfect state, 
called *' Oynegeticon," and four eclogues; they were 
publisihed t>y Paulus Manutius in 1538; by Berthelet in 
JGi3, and at Leyden, .in. 1653, with the notes of Janus 
Vlitias. Giraldi bath preserved a fragment of Nemesianus, 
which was communicated to him hy Sannazarius; to whom 
.u'e are obliged for all our poet's works: for^ having found 
them written in Gothic characters, he procured them to be 
p»t into the Roman, and then sent them to Paulus Manutius. 
Although this pqem has acquired some reputation, it is 
greatly inferior, to those of Oppian and Gratian upon the 
>ame subject; yet Nemesianus's style is natural, and not 
without some degree of elegance. Such was the repu- 
tation of this poem in the eighth century, that it was read 
among the classics in the public schools, particularly in 
the time of Charlemagne, as appears from a letter of the 
celebrated Hincrnar, bishop of Rheims, to his nephew, of 
Laon. There was another poet of the same name and 
century, who wrote a piece termed ** Ixeutica," published 
Ju the *' Poetae Rei Venaticae,'* but of far inferior merit. • 

NEMESIUS was a Greek philosopher, who embraced 
Christianity, and was made bishop of Emesa in Phoenicia, 
where he was born about the year 370, We have a piece 
.by bimy entitled " De Natura Hominis;" in which, he re- 
futes the fatality of the Stoics, and the errors of the Ma« 
nichees, tlie Apollinarists, and the Euhomians: but he 
espouses the opinion of Origen concerning the pre* exist- 
ence of souls. Brucker calls this treatise one of the most 
^elegant specimens, now extant, of the philosophy which 
prevailed among the ancient Christians. The writer re- 
lates and e;camines the opinions of the. Greek philosophers 
on the subject of his dissertation with great perspicuity of 
thought, and correctness of language. But the treatise is 

« BiQg. Brit.— Birch's Tillotson.— Life of Kettlewell.— Koighl'* Life of ColcU 
. *^'Nichol8*8 Bowyer. — Seward's Anecdotes. 

.^ Morerl^-Saxii Oapma&t. , . . ' 



N E M E S iV S. 93 

chiefly curious, as it discovers a degree of acquaintance 
with physiology, not to be paralleled in any other writers 
of this period, firucker adds, that he treats cleariy con- 
cerning'tbe use of the bile, the spleen, the kidneys, and 
other glands of the human body, and seems to have had' 
some idea of the circulation of the blood. But Brucker 
was not aware that his knowledge of this last discovery has 
been sh^wn to be a mistake by Dr.Freind, in his ^^ History 
of Physic." This treatise was translated by Valla, and 
printed in 1535. Another version was afterwards made of 
it by EUebodius, and printed in 1665; it is also inserted 
into the " Bibliptheca Patrum," in Greek and Latin. The. 
last and best edition was published at Oxford, in 1671^ 8vol^ 
NENNIUS, an aacient British historian, abbot of Ban- 
gor, is; generally said to hjive Sourished ^boi>t the year 620,. 
and to have taken refuge at Chester, at the time of. the. 
massacre of the monks at that monastery. This, however, 
has been controverted by Lloyd, who says that he flourished 
about the beginning of the ninth century; and bishop Ni- 
colson says, that from his own book he appears to have 
written in that century. He was author of se^ral works, 
but the only one remaining is his " Historia Britonum," or. 
^^ Eulogiui^Q BritanniaiV' which has been printed in Galons 
Hist. Brit. Scrip. Oxon. 1691. Great part of this work is 
supposed to have been compiled, or perhaps transcribed, 
from the history of one Elborus or Elvodugus. There is a 
MS. of it in the Cottonian library, in the British Museum.* 
NEPOS (Cornelius), a Latin historian, flourished in 
the time of Julius Caesar, and lived, according to St. Je- 
rome, to the sixth year of Augustus, about the year of 
Rome 716. He was an Italian,. if we may credit Catullus, 
and born at Hostilia, a smalltown in the territory of Ve* 
rona^ in Cisalpine Gaul. Ausonius, however, will. have 
it that he was born in the Gauls ; and* they. may both be in 
the right, provided that, under the name of Gaul, is com- 
prehended Gallia Cisalpina, which is id Italy. Leander 
Alberti thinks Nepos's country was Verona ; and he is sure 
that be was born either in that city or neighbourhood. He 
was the intimate friend of Cicero and Atticus, and wrote- 
the lives of the Greek historians, as he himself attests- 
in that of Dion, speaking of Philistus. What he says 

ft 

1 Cure, ▼ol. T. — Brucker. — ^Chaufefiffe.^^xii Onoin. 
P Tftoner. — ^JLeiand.— Bale and Pits. 



S4 N E P O S. 

in the lives of Cato and Hamnibal^ proves, thai tie had also* 
wriuen the lives of the Latin captain^ and hi^lorians. Uts 
wrote some other exceiient works, which are' lost. 

Ail that we have left of bis at present is, ** The Lives of 
the illustrious Greek and Roman Captains ;'' which were a' 
long time ascribed to JEmilius Probus, who published them,' 
as it is said, under his own name, to insinuate himself into' 
the Juvour of the emperor Tbeodosius ; but, in the cotirse" 
of time, the fraud was discovered. Tb^ first edition, under 
the name of JEmilius Probus, was that at Venice, 147 1, foK' 
Since that the most valued editions are that of Aldus, 1522, 
12mo; Longolius, 1543, 8vo; Lambinus, 1569, 4tb; Bo- 
sltts, 1657 and 1675, 8vo; the Variorum, of 1675, 8vo^* 
at Oxford, 1697, 8vo; of Staverenus, 1773, 8vo ; ofHeu- 
siiiger, 1747, 8vo; of Fischer, 1806, 8vo; and of Ox- 
ford, 1803, 8vo.' 

NEQUAM. SeeNECHAM. 

NERI (St. Philip de) founder of the congregation of 
priests of the Oratory in Italy, was born July 23, lis 15, of 
a noble family at Florence. His piety and zeal acquired 
him uncommon reputation. He died at Rome, 1595^ s^ged 
eighty, and was canonized by pope Gregory XV. 1622. 
The congregation founded by St. Philip de Neri was con'« 
firmed, 1674, by pope Gregory XIIL and took the name 
of the Oratory, because the original assemblies, which 
gave rise to its establishment, were held in an oratory of 
St. Jerome's church at Rome ; but it diflPers from the con-^ 
gregation of the Oratory founded by cardinal de Berulle, in 
France. Its members take no vows ; their general gbvernsf 
but three years ; their office is to deliver such instructions 
every day in their chorcii as are suited to all capacities. 
Each institution has produced great numbers of men who*' 
iMive been celebrated for their learning, and services to the 
Komish church. It was at St. Philip de Neri's solicitation 
that cardinal Baronius, who had entered his congregation, 
wrote his Ecclesiastical Annals. ' 

N£RLI (Philip de), a celebrated historian, was born at 
Florence in 1485, of one of the most conspicuous families. 
of that city, mentioned by Dante, in the fifteenth canto 
'^ Del Paradiso,*' where, speaking of the parsimony of the; 
yi(>rentines, he gives two instances of it in two of the most 
illustrious families of his days, the Nerli and the Vecchi ; 

1 VoflSx de Hist Lat— Fabric. Bibl. Lat« — Saxii OoOBlast. 
» Moreri. — ^Dict. Hist. 



N E R L I. 9l 

^^ £ vidi quel di Nerli, e quel del Vecchio 

Eaier contenli alia pelle scoyerta» 

£ le sue donne al fiiso, ed al peBnechio." 

We are iafornied, by Florentine historians, that this family 
bad borne the highest posts of the state from the year 900^ 
vhen it was raised, with five others, to the dignity of Fa* 
miglia Cavalleresca, by the faoious Ugo, marquis of Tu8« 
cany. The education of Philip de Nerli was superintende4 
by Benedetto, a disciple of Poliiian ; and in his youth hm 
formed an intimacy with the most distinguished scholars of 
Florence. In the beginning of duke Alexander's govern- 
ment, in 1532, he was chosen among the first to be of the 
quarantotto, or forty-eight magistrates, who were after- 
wards called senators. He governed the chief cities of 
Tuscany, in quality of commissary, which title is bestowed 
pnly upon senators ; and the opinion which Alexander en- 
tertatoed of his judgment, made him be always employed 
upon public afiairs, and nothing important was transacted 
without his concurrence. From this intimacy with political 
events^ we may suppose him enabled to transmit to pos- 
terity the secret springs which gave them birth. He was a 
great favourite, and nearly related to the femily ot Me- 
dicis, which created him some enemies. He died «t Flo- 
rence, Jan. 17, 1556. His ^< Common tari de Fatti Civili,^* 
containing the affairs transacted in the ^city of Floreiice 
from 1^15 to 1537, were printed in folio, at Augsburg, in 
1728, by Settimanni. As the author every where betrays 
bis partiality to the Medici, they may be advantageously 
compared with Nardi's* history of the same period, who 
was equally hostile to that family. ^ 

N£SBIT, or NISBET (Alexander), was the youngest 
son of lord- president Nesbit, of Dirlton, and born at EkUn- 
burgb in 1672. He was educated for the law; but bk 
genius led him to the study of antiquities, in which h« 
made very great proficiency, as appears from hi^ eKcelleat 
book on heraldry, which has never yet been exceeded by 
any treatise on the same subject in the English language* 
It was published at Edinburgh, 2 vols. fol. 1722—42, and 
has been reprinted there within these few years. He wrote 
^* A Vindication of Scottish Antiquities," which is now in 
MS. in tbe ,adv6cates* library at Edinburgh, and published 
^ Heraldical Essay on additional figures and marks pf 

\ Tini1ioiebi«-ii*i.ift preflxtd ts kii *' Commeiitari."— Roscoe's Leo Z. 



96 N E S S E. 

Cadency,^' 1702j 8vo;'and ^^An Essay on theanciept and 
modern use of Armories/* Lond. 1718, 4to. He died at 
Dirlton, 1725^ aged fifty-six.' 

' NESSE (Christopher), a non-conformist divine of con- 
siderable learning, was born at North Cowes, in.the^ast 
Riding of Yorkshire, Dec. 26, 1621. He was educated at 
St. Jobn^s College, Cambridge, where he resided seven 

..years, and, appears to iiave taken orders, as he preached 

.«oon after in various parts of his native couiity, and in 16S0 
succeeded Dr. Winter in the valuable living of Cotting- 
ham, near Hull. He appears also to have been iPor some 
years a lecturer at Leeds. In 1662 he was ejected for 
non-conformity, and after preaching occasionally in York- 
shire^ for which he incurrei! the penalties of the law, he 
removed to London in 1675, and there preached privately 
for; thirty years, to a congregation jn Salisbury^eourt, 
Fleet^street. He died on his birth^day, Dec. 26, 1705, 
aged eighty-four, and was interred in the dissenters' bury* 
ing-ground, Buuhill Fields. He published a considerable 
variety of small treatises, mostly, of the practical, and some 
qf. the controversiat ^ind, the latter against popery and 
Armiiiianism ; but the work for which he is best known, is 
his "History and Mystery of the Old and New Testanpent, 

. logically discussed, and theologically improved,^' 1690,4 
vols. fol. To this Matthew Henry, in compiling his " Ex- 
positipn,** is thought to owe considerable obligations. The 
$tyle is indiiferent, but, as Granger allows, " the reader 
will find some things well wortji his notice.''* 

NESTOR (a monk of the convent of Petchersti at Kiof 
in Russia, whose secular name is not known) was born in 
1056, at Bielzier ; and, in his twenty-ninth year, assumed 
a monastic habit, and took the name of Nestor. At Kiof 
he made a considerable proficiency in the Greek language, 
but seems. to have formed his style and manner rather from 
Byzantine historians, Cedrenus, Zonaras, and Syncellus; 
than from the ancient classics. The time of Nestor's death 
}s not ascertained ; but he is supposed to have lived to an 
|idyap.ced age, and to have died about 1115. His great 
v^rk is his '^ Chronicle ;" to which he has prefixed an 

, igtroduction, which, after a short sketch of the early state 
of the world, taken from the Byzantine writers, contains, a 

1 Precediog edition of this Diet.— Pref. to the new edition of his Heraldry. 
9 Calgmy. — Wilson's Hist of Pissentin^ Churches,-— Qrang^er, vpl. II)». 



NESTOR. 97 

^gBOgeaphieal deaoripl^idn of Eiusta and ibe adjacent gouiy- 
iUi^'f an account jof the .Sclaifoniaiiiyjfiatiotts, their inat>* 
nera^ ih^irein^radcois fiom the banks of die Danube^ their 
dispersion, and settlement in several countries, in whicfa 
4h£ir; defendants > are noiv.estaM^^d. He then enters 
mpoo a ebronologiicaL series of the Russian annals, from the 
^yfiar 85B.to about 1113. His style is simple and un- 
ddosned^ aueh as .soits a mere recorder of facts ^ but his 
•iihroootogical exactness, though it renders his narrative 
'dry and tedious, contributes to ascertain, the aera and au* 
'theatic^y of the events which he relates. It is remarkable, 
'that an author of s.ucb importance, whose name frequently 
rOecurs in the isarly Russian books, should bavie renoatned 
ia ebscartty above 600 years ; aid been scarcely known to 
«his jxiodera countrymen, the origin and actions of whose 
^moeistors he records with such circumstantial exactness. 
A copy of bis ^^ Chronicle^' was given, in 1668, by prince 
•Eadzivil, to the library of Konigsburgb, where it lay iin> 
AMkice^ untrt Peter the Great, io his passage through that^ 
town, .ordered a transcript of it to be sent toi Petersburg. 
But it stiH was not known as the .performance of Nestor; 
ior^ when Mailer, in 1732, published the first part of a 
•German translation, he mentioned it as the work of the 
abbotTheodosinsof Kiof| an error, which' arose from the 
following circumstance : the ingenious editor, not being at 
ttbat time sufficiently acquainted with the Sclavonian tongue, 
employed an interpreter, who, by mistaking a letter in 
die title, supposed it to have beeq written by a persoh 
whose name was Theodosius. This ridicuious biund^ 
spas soon circulated, and copied by many foreign writers^ 
fiven long after it had been candidly acknowtedged and 
corrected by MuUer. 

. Nastor was successively followed by three annalists ; the 
£rst was' Sylvester, abbot of the convent of 8t. Michael as 
Kiof, and bishop of Perislaf, who died in 11 2S; he com«> 
saences bis ^Chronicle" from 1115, only two years pos» 
Ittiior to that of Nestor, and continues it to 1423; from 
whicii |>eriod'a monk, whose name has not been delivered 
dfMvn te posterior, carries the history to 1157 ; and anothery 
squally unknown^ to 12jOS. With respect (o diese^per* 
formaaces, ^r. Muller informs us, ^ ihe labours of Nestor, 
and his three xontinuators, have produced a connected 
ferfes of the Russian history SQ completie, that no nation 
can boast a similar treasure for so long and unbroken a 
VouXXIIL H 



99 NESTOR 

period/* We may add» likewise, from the same authority, 
that these annals record much fewer prodigies and monkish 
legends than others which have issued from tbe cloister io 
times so unenlightened;'' 

NESTOR (DiONYSius), one of the contributors to tbe 
restoration of classical learning, was a native of Novara, a 
lawyer, and of tbe Minorite order. He flourished in tbe 
fifteenth century, but oo particulars of his life are uptm 
record. He dedicated his lexicon, or vocabulary of the 
Latin tongue, in a copy of verses addressed to the duke 
Ludovicos Sforza, which are printed by Mr. Roscoe iu the 
Appendix, No. XX. to bis Life of Leo X. This work waa 
first printed under the title of *^ Onomasticon,** at Milan, 
in 1483, foL an edition of great rarity and price ; but such 
was its importance to the study of tbe Latin language in 
that age, that it was reprinted four times, in 1488, i4d6y 
1502, and 1507. This last, printed at Strasburgh, con* 
tains some pieces by the author, ^^ de octo p4rtibus ora* 
tionis," ^* de compositione eleganti,*' and. ^^ de syllaba- 
rum quantitate." He quotes as authorities a great many 
of his learned contemporaries and predecessors. * 

NESTORIUS, from whom t lie sect of the Nestorians 
derive (heir name,. was^ born in Germanica, a city of Syria, 
in- the fifth century. He was educated and baptized at 
Antioch, and soon after the latter ceremony witbdrew him- 
self to a monastery in the suburbs of that city. When h^ 
had received tbe order of priesthood, and began to preach, 
he acquired so much celebrity by his eloquence . and un^ 
Spotted life, that in the year 429 the emperor Theodosius 
appointed him to the bishopric of Constantinople, at that 
time tbe second see in the Christian church. He had not 
been long in this office before he began to manifest an 
extraordinary zeal for the extirpation of heretics, and. not 
above five days after his consecration, attempted to demo- 
lish the church in which the Arians secretly held their 
aasemblies. In this attempt he succeeded so far> that the 
Arians, grown desperate, set fire to the church themselves^ 
and with it burnt some adjoining houses. This fire ex- 
cited great commotions in the city, and Nestorius was ever 
afterwards called an incendiary. ' From the Arians be 
turned against the Novatians, but was interrupted in this 

> Con^ TnTelf throag h Rotiia, vol. II. p. 185.— Scbloeter, .Rais. Auii^pw 9S. 
• Fabric. Bibl. Medis et Inf. LaUiw— Rofooe'i Leo X. 



N E s *r O ft I tJ S. &9 

mH;&:k by the emperor. He thefn began to persecute those 
ClUrtstians of Asia, Lydia, and Caria, who celebrated the 
fea^t of Easter upon the 14th day of the moon ; and for 
this unimportant deviation from the cafholic practice, many 
of these people were murdered by his agents at Miletiirti 
and at Sardis. The time, however, was now come when 
he was to suffer by a similar spirit, for holding the opinion 
that *' the virgin Mary cannot with propriety be-called the 
mother of God." The people being accustomed to heat 
this expression, were much inflamed against their bishop, 
as if his meaning had been that Jesus was a mere man. 
For this he was condemned in the council of Ephesu^, 
deprived of his see, banished to Tarsus in the year 435, 
whence he led a wandering life^ until death, in the year 439, 
released him from farther persecution. He appears to have 
been unjustly condemned, as he maintained in express 
terms, that the Word was united to the human nature in 
Jesus Christ in the most strict and intimate sense possible ; 
that these two natures, in this state of union, make but one 
Christ, and one person ; that the properties of the Divine 
and human natures may both be attributed to this person ; 
and that Jesus Christ may be 'said t& have been born of a 
Yirgin, to have suffered and died : but he never would 
admit that God could be said to have been born, to have 
suffered, or to have died. He was not, bowevier, heard in 
Ills own defence, nor ailowed-'to explain his doctrine. The 
zealous Cyril of Alexandria (see Cyuil) was one of his 
greatest enemies, and Barsumas, bishop of Nisibis, one of 
the cliief promoters of his doctrines, and the co-founder of 
the sect. In the tenth century the Nestorians in Chaldsea, 
whence they are sometimes called Chaldseans, extended 
their spiritual conquest beyond mount Imaus, and intro*- 
diiced the Christian religion into Tart^ry, properly so 
called, and especially into that country 'called Karit, and 
bordering on the northern part of China. The prince of 
that country, whom the Nestorians converted to the Chris- 
tian faith, assumed, according to the vulgar tradition, the 
name of John, after his baptism, to which he added the^ 
surname of Presbyter, from a principle of modesty ; whence 
it is said, his successors were each of them called Prester 
John, until the time of Jenghis Khan. But Mosheim 
observes, that the Camous; Prester Jcihti did not begin t6 
reign in that part of Asia before the conclusion of the 
eleventh century. The Nestorians formed, so considerable 

H 2 



100 NBSTORIVS. 

a body of Christians^ that the tnisaionariea oi Rome were 
industrious in their eodeavours. to reduce them under the 
papal yoke. Innocent IV. in I34€i| and Nicolas IV. in 
1278, used their utmost efforts for this purpose, but with- 
,out success. Till the, time of pope Julius III. the Nes*- 
torians ackuowledge4. but one patriarch, who resided first 
fit Bagdat, and afterwards at Mousul ; but a division arising 
among them in 1551, the patriarchate became divided, at 
{east for a time, and a xiew patriarch was. consecrated l^ 
that pope,, whose auccessora fixed their residence in the 
city of Ormus, in the aM>untainou8 part of Persia, where 
they still continue distinguished by the name of Simeon ; 
and so far down as the seveuteenth century, these pa» 
triarchs persevered in their communion with the church of 
Rome, but seem at .preseut to have withdrawn theoiselves 
from it The great Nestoriao pontiffs, who form the op- 
posite party, and look with a hostile aye on this little pa- 
triarch, have, since 1559, been diatinguished by the ge- 
neral denomination of Eli|is, and reside constantly in the 
city of Mousul. Their spiritual dominion is. very extiensive, 
takes in a great part of Asia, aud compreheods also within 
its circuit the Arabian Nestorians, and also the. Christians 
of St, Thomas, who dwell along the coast of Mahlbar. It 
is observed, to the honour of the Nestorians, that of all 
the Christian societies established in the East^ t(key have 
been the most careful and successful m avoiding a multi- 
tude of superstitious opinions and practices that have in- 
fected the Greek and Latin churches. About the middle 
of the seventeenth century the Romish missioiiaries gained 
over to their communion a small, number of Nestorians, 
whom they formed into a congregatiou or church, the pa- 
triarchs or bishops, of which reside in the city of Amida, 
or Diarbekir, and all assume the denomination o£ Joseph. 
Nevertheless, the Nestorians in general persevere, to bur 
own times, in their refusal to enter into the communion of 
the Romish church, notwithstanding the earn^est entreaties 
and alluring offers that have been made by. the pope's 
legate to conquer their inflexible consliancy.^ 

NETSCHER (Gaspard), an emineiu painter, was bora 
in 1639, at Prague in Bohemia. His &tfaer dying in the 
Polish service, in which be was an engineer, hia mother 
<wia9 constrained, oo account of the catholic religion, which 

1 CaTe» vol. I.^Mosbeiiii. — Eacycl* Brit^-Pupin, 



J 



N E T S C H E It 101 

she professed, to depart suddenly from Prague with her 
three sons, of whom Oaspard was the youngest. At some 
leagues from the town she stopped at a castle, which was 
afterwards besieged; and Gaspard's two brothers were 
famished to death. The mother, apprehensive of the same 
fate, found means to escape in the night-time out of the 
castle, and with, her son in her arms reached Arnheim, in 
Guelderland, where she met with some relief to support 
herself and breed up her son. A physician, named TuU 
kens, a man of wealth and humanity, became the patron 
of Netscher, and put him to school, with the view of edu^ 
eating him to his own profession ; but Netseher's decided 
turn for the art he afterwards practised, induced bis pa« 
tron to place him with a glazier to learn to draw, thi» 
being the only person at Arnheim who could give him any 
instructions* As soon as he bad leattied all this man could 
teach, he went to Deventer, to a painter, whose name wis 
Gerhard Terburg, an able artist, and burgomaster of the 
town, under whom he acquired a great conimand of his 
pencil ; and^ going to Holland, worked there a long time, 
for the picture-merchants, who> abusing his easiness, paid 
him very little for his pieces, which tfa^y sold at a godd 
price* ' 

The subjects he chose, when his talents were matured^ 
were generally coovetsation-^ieclbs, with figures selected 
from among the better ranks of his <^ountrymen. These, 
while he touched and finished them with great neatness, 
be treated with a breadth unknown till then among the 
Flemish painters. He finished all the parts of his pic«» 
tures with great perfection, and the most characteristic imi^ 
tation of nature. The rich silk and sattiti dresi^es of his 
figures, the gold and silver utensils, carpets, &c. &c. which 
he introduced in his compositionsy are exquisitely wrought, 
and with uncommon brilliancy and lustre. He painted many 
portraits of a small size, but they exhibit too much of thid 
restraint which belongs to portrait painting. He was in- 
vited to England by sir William Temple, and recommended 
totheking^ Charles H. but did not stay long here. Ver- 
tue mentions five of his pictures ; one, a lady and dog^ 
with his name to it : another of « lady, her handb joined^ 
oval, on copper ; the third, lord Berkeley of Stratton, hi^ 
lady, and a servant, in one piece, dated 1676. The others, 
lord Orford says, were small dvals, on copper, of king; 
William and queen Mary^ painted just before the Kevo- 



103 NETSCHER. 

lution, which) however, is impossible, as' Netecher died 
four years before that event. These must have been the 
production of his son, Theodore. Gaspard died in 1684. 
' Th£ODORE, his son, was his father's pupil from.Jiis 
earliest years, and at the age of nine was accounted a very 
extraordinary performer. In his eighteenth year, he was 
solicited by count D'Arvaux to go to Paris, where be 
was greatly admired and encouraged. His principal occu- 
pation there,, where he continued fqr twenty years, was 
)>ain ting the portraits of the principal persons about the 
court, for which he was very highly applauded and hand- 
somely rewarded ; but the taste they were executed with 
is by no means of the highest class, nor do the minds of his 
subjects seem much to have engaged his thoughts. He died 
in 1732, at the age of 71. 

CoNSTANTiNE, another son of Gaspard, who was born 
at the Hague in 1670, also practised the art of painting 
under the tuition of his father, whose works he carefully 
studied ; and though be never was able to equal them, yet 
he arrived at no mean degree of skill in his profession. His 
principal practice was in portraiture, in which he was much 
encouraged; but b^ing of an infirm habit of constitution, 
he was much interrupted in his labours, and died in 1722, 
^t the age of fifty-two. * • 

NETTER. See WALDENSIS (Thomas). 

NETTLETON (Thomas), a physician and miscella- 
neous writer, ^le son of John Nettleton, was born in 1683, 
at Dewsbury, and settled at Halifax, in Yorkshire, where 
be practised physic for several years with great success, 
having taken the degree of M. D. at Utrecht, H« and 
Mr. West, of Underbank, near Penniston, in Yorkshire, 
were the first who instructed professor Sanderson in the 
principles of matheonttics ; and Dr. Nettleton used to say, 
that the scholar soon became more knowing than bis mas- 
ter. We find several communications from Dr. Nettleton 
in the Philosophical Transactions, as ^^ An account of the 
height of the Barometer at different elevations above the 
surface .of the earth ;^* and two papers on the small *pox. It 
appears i that, he had inoculated sixty-one persons, when 
tkie whole amount, of persons inoculated by other practi^ 
tioners was only one hundred and twenty-one. In- 1729, 
• • • 

1 D'Arseoyille, vo^i 11^— rDecca^ipf, volt. Hi. iind IV.-^Wa^le't Amct 
^l^tes.-r-Ries's Cyclopsdia* ^ ^_ ^ 



N E T T L E T O N. ^ 103 

be published a pamphlet, entitled *< Some thoughts con- 
cerning virtue and happiness, in a letter to a clergyman,'' 
UvOy which he afterwards much enlarged. It was re- 
printed at London in 1736 and 1751, both in small octavo, 
hut the former of these is the most valuable, because it 
had the author's finishing hand. The design is to shew 
that happiness is the end of all our actions; but that it 
must be founded on virtue, which is not only the support 
and ornameBt of society, but yields the greatest pleastire, 
both in its immediate exercise, and in its consequence and 
effects. Dr. Nettleton^ married, in March 1708^ Eliza- 
beth Cotton, of Haigb-hali, by whom he had several 
children. He died Jan. 9, 1742, at Halifax, and' was bu- 
ried at Dewsbury, with a Latin epitaph on the south wall 
of the church. To the account of his pnblications, not 
noticed in our authority, we may add his thesis on taking 
his degree, '^ Disput. de Inflammatione^" Utrecht^ 1 706 ; 
and bis ^* Account of the success of inoculating the Smiill- 
poxJ** Lond. 1722, 4to; neither of which his biographer 
appears to have seen..^ . • . . ^ . 

NEUMANN (Caspar), an eminent chemist, the son o^ 
an apothecary, was born at Zullicbau,^ in< the duchy' of 
Crossen, July 11, 1'682. Caspar was educated under his 
father, and commenced practice at Unruhstadt, in Poland ; 
but after a short residence there, he went to Berlin in 170^, 
and was employed several years as traveller for the phar* 
maceutic estiaJ[)lishment of the king of Prussia* In conse* 
quence of the ability which he manifested in the perfor- 
mance of this duty, the king sent him to prosecute bis 
studies at the university of Halle, and subsequently de- 
frayed the expences of a journey, ifor the purpose of ac- 
quiring chemical information. He commenced this che- 
mical tour in 1711 by visiting the mines of Germany; and 
thence went to Holland, where he profited by the instruc** 
tions of the celebrated Boerhaave. He then visited England, 
and while here had the misfortune to lose his royal patron, 

* Tbe following story is told of Dr. Oliver, by cbsinguig the 21 into 12; 
Nettleion, that being io company with and then, taruiog hastily to the doc- 
several gentlemen, one of tbeii\ was tor, nsked him, ** Wbatcotiid .be tb^ 
laying greiat stress on the popular ac- devil's motive for so doing ?" The doc* 
cbunt of Cromwell'f! selling himself to tor, Without" hesitation,' aoswe^d, 
the devil before, the battle of Worces? '^Tbat be could ndt tell what wa^r \yh 
ter ; affirming-, that the bargain was motive, unless Ue was in a hurry about 
intended to be for twenty-one years, the Restoraiion t** 
but tbattbe devil bad pot a trick upon 

^ Watson's Hist, of Halifax. 



10* NEUMANN. 

^r6dein<ik L^ by deaths His taVents and chaifacter, iiotr- 
eyer, soon afforded bim relief from this temporary embair-' 
rassment; for,, on his return ta the continent he was de-^ 
tained at Franeker by Cyprianus, who employed- bim id tbe 
execution of many chemi<:al experiments ; and be was at the 
same time invited to Berlin. At that time> bowerer, be 
preferred accompanying George I., king of England^ ta 
Hanover, whither he went in 1716. He subsequently vi-* 
sited Berlin, for the purpose of settling some private affelrs, 
where he obtained the friendship of Stahi, through whose 
influence at court h^ was again sent on a tour gC chemrcaL 
investigation, through England, France, and Italy,^ Wh^e 
.he was introduced to all the celebrated chemists of the day.' 
On his return to Berlin, he was appointed apothecary to 
the court ; and in 1723, when the king instituted the Royal 
College of Medicine and Surgery, be was nominated pro--' 
lessor of practical chemistry, and was elected a member of 
that body in the following year. In 1725, be was 'chosen a 
feUow^ of tbe Royal Society of London ; and in 1727, was 
honoured with the degree of M. D. by tbe university of: 
Halle. In tbe course of the same year, he travelled tbrougb 
Silesia and Moravia to Vienna; and on bis return tbrougb* 
Bohemia be visited tbe batbs of TDplitz, and examined the» 
mines, in passing by tbe way of Dresden and Freyberg, 
with all the attention of « chemical phiiosojdier. 

Neumann, liketirise obtained oth^r bonoursi which were 
due to his scientific character ; having been elected arnem^ 
ber of the aqademy Naturss Curiosorum in 1728, and of 
tbe Institute of Bologna in 1734. The king also conferred 
on him the dignity of aulic counsellor. He died at Berlm 
October 20, 17-37, and left several memoirs, which were 
published in the eollectiolis of the societies ofwhicbiie was 
a member, and some separate treaties, relating to cbemi-i 
cal subjects ; especially dissertation^ on the qusdities of the 
fixed alkalis of camphor, castor, aimber^ opium, alcohol, 
iic. His ^' Chemical Works, abridged and methodized,*' 
were published in English by Dr. Lewis in 1759, 4to, with^ 
large additions. ' 

NEVE (Timothy), an English divine, was born at 
Wotton, in the parish of Stanton Lacy, near Ludlow in 
Shropshire, in 162^4, and was educated at St. John's col* 
lege, Cambridge, Where he took his degree of B. A. in 

1 Eloy, Dici Hist, dc Medicioe.— Rett's CyclopsBdU. — ^Lewif*f Preface* 



NEVE. lOS 

1714. Her appeftts then lo have left college, and became' 
fcboolmaister of Spaldiog, and uiinor-canon of Peterbo-: 
rough, where be was a joint-founder of ^^ The Gentieman's 
Society/' and became its secretary. He was afterwards 
prebendary of Lincoln, archdeacon of Huntingdon in 1747^ 
and reotor of Alwalton in Huntingdonshire, where he died 
Feb* 3, 1757, aged sixty-three. There is an inscription to 
his memojfy against the West wall of the North transept, 
in which he is styled D. D. In 1727, he communicated to 
the Spalding Society M An Essay on the invention o£ 
Priming and our first Printers," and bishop Kenneths do'- 
nation. of books to Peterborough cathedral. In the first 
leaf of the. catalogue (3 vols, in folio, written neatly in 
the bishop- s own hand) is this motto: ^^ Uppn.the dung<- 
hill was found a pearl. Index, librorum aliquot vetustiss.. 
quos in commune bonum congessit W. K. dec. Petribnrg# 
1712.'* These books are kept with dein Lockyer's, in the 
library of Lady-chapel, behind the high altar, in deal 
presses, open to the vergers and sextons. In a late repair 
of tlas church, which is one of the noblest monuments of 
our early architecture, this benefactor's tomb-stone way 
thrust and half-covered behind the altar, and nothing marksi 
the place of his iiiterment. Mr. Neve was chaplain to^ 
and patronised by Dr. Thomas, bishop of Lincoln^ and> 
published one sermon, being his first visitation-sermon, 
entitled ** Teaching with Authority ;*' the text Matth. vii. 
28, 2^. Dr. Neve bore an excellent character for learning 
and personal worth. He married, for his second strife, 
Christina^ a daughter of the rev. Mr. Greene^ of Drink-' 
stone, near Bury, Suffolk, and sister to lady Davers of 
Rttsbbroolt. His sou TiJdOTHV was born at Spaldihg, Oct. 
12^ 1724,. and was elected soholar of Carpus Ghrisci col- 
lege, Oxford^ where be proceeded M. A. l744; and in. 
1747 was elected fellow^ In 1753, he took bis degree of 
B« D. and that of D. D. in 1758, and on being pre- 
sented by the college to the rectory of Geddington in Ox- 
fordshire, resigned his fellowship in 1762. He was also 
presebted by Dr. Green, bishop of Lincoln, to the rectory 
of Middleton Stoney, in the same county; On the death 
of Dr« Randolph (father to the late bishop of London), in 
1783, be was eleieted Margaret professor of divinit}^ at 
Oxford, aftd wa6 initalled prebendary of Worcester in ( 
April of that year. He was early a member of the Literary 



106 NEVE. 

t 

Society of Spalding. He died at Oxford Jan. 1, 1798, aged 
seventy-four, leaving a wife and two daughters. 

Dr. Neve was an able divine and scholar, and had long 
filled his station with credit to himself and tlie unii^ersity, 
of which he remained a membei" more than sixty years. In 
private life, the probity, integrity, and unaffected simpli* 
city of his manners, endeared him to his family and friends, 
and reudeted him sincerely regfetted by all who knew'him. 
He had accumulated a. very considerable collection of 
books, particularly curious pamphlets, which vrete dis* 
persed after his death. Most of them contain MS notes 
by hin«, which we have often found of great value. His 
publications were not numerous, but highly creditable to 
his talents. Among them was a sermon, on Act-Sunday, 
July 8, 1759, entitled ^^ The Comparative Blessings of 
Christianity," the text Ephes. fv. 8. *^ Animadversions on 
Philips's Life of Cardinal Pole, Oxford, 1766," 8vo. 
<^ Eight Sermons preached at the Lecture fbunded by the 
late Rev. John Bampton, M. A. Canon of Salisbury," 1781, 
8vo ; and after his death appeared ^^ Seventeeji Sermons on 
various subjects," 1798, 8vo, published by subscription for 
bis family.' 

NEVILE, orNEVYLE (Alexander), an English poe- 
tical writer, was a native of Kent, descended from the 
ancient and honourable fkmily of Nevil, was the sen of 
Richard Nevil of the county ot Nottingham, esq. by Aune 
Mantel, daughter of sir Walter Manltel, of Heyford in 
Northamptonshire, knight. He wks born in 1 544. If not 
educated at Cambridge, his name occurs as having received 
the degree of M. A. there, along with Robert earl of Essex, 
July 6, 158 1 . He was one of the learned men whom arch* 
bishop Parker retained in his family, and was his secretary 
at his grace's death in 1575. It is no small testimony of 
bis merit and virtues that he was retained in the same of- 
fice by the succeeding archbishop, Grindal, to whom^ as 
well as to archbishop Parker, he dedicated his Latin if ar- 
rative of the Norfolk insurrection undet* Kett To this 
be added a Latin account of Norwich, accompanied by an 
engravied map of the Saxon and British' kings. These 
were both written in archbishop Parker's time, who assisted 
Nevile in the latter. The title is, ^^Kettus, sivede furo- 
ribus Norfoiciensium Ketto duce," :L6nd: 1575^ 4tQ. re- 

1 NichoU'f Bowyer. 



N E V I L E. lOr 

printed both in Latin and English the same year, in Latin 
in.l582, and in English in 1615 and 1623. Prefixed are 
«ome verses on the death of archbishop Parker, and the 
epistle dedicatory to Grindal, with a recommendatory 
Latin poem, by Thomas Drant, the first translator of Ho- 
jrace. His ^* Norvicus/' published with the preceding, is 
the fiirst printed account of Norwich ; the plates are by 
R. Lyne and Rem. Hogedbe'rgius, both attached to the 
household of the learned and munificent Parker. There 
are copies of almost all the preceding cfditions in Mr. 
•Godgh^s library at Oxford. Strype hals published, in the 
iappendix to his Life of Parker, an elegant Latin letter from 
Nevile to Parker, which is prefixed to the '^ Kettus.'* 
The first Latin edition, printed in 1575, is dedicated solely 
to Parker: and the second, of the same year, which has 
the two dedications, has also a passage, not in the former, 
and probably struck out by Parker, which gave offence 
to the Welsh. It occurs at p. 132, *' Sed euim Kettianl 
rati," &c. to '^ Nam preeterquam quod,*' jcc. p. 133. 

Nejrile published the Cambridge verses on the death 
t>f sir Philip Sidney, in 1587, and projected a translation 
of Livy, but never completed it. Another work of his is 
entitled ^* Apologia ad Wallis proceres,*' Lond. 1576, 4to. 
Doubtless an apology for the passage abovementioned, 
which had given offence. He also translated, or rather 
paraphrased, the ^* CEdipus," in his. sixteenth year, as part 
of a translation of Seneca^ tragedies translated by Stud- 
ley, Nuce, Hey wood, &c. and printed in 158(. Warton 
says, that notwithstanding the translator's youth, it is by 
far the most spirited and elegant version of the whole col- 
lection, and that it is to be regretted that he did not uu- 
dertake all the rest. He died Oct. 4, 1614, <and was bu- 
ried in the cathedral at Canterbury. ' . 

NEVILE, orNEVIL (Thomas), dean of Canterbury, 
and an eminent benefactor to Trinity college, Cambridge, 
brother to the preceding, was born in Canterbury, to which 
city bis father, who had spent bis younger days at court, 
had, in his declining years, retired. He entered early at 
Pembroke>ball, Cambridge, of which he was elected a 
fellow in November 1570. In 1580, he was senior proctor 
of the university, and in 1582 was presented to the master-. 
' • ■) , 

* Wartoo'8 Hist, of Poetry. — 1?estituta, vqI. T,--Stry|>e'« P«rker, p. 502.— 
ptr^pe's Griodal, p. 190.— Gou^h's Topography, 



108 N E V I L e; 

ship of Magdalen -college by the then patron of that office, 
Thomas lord Howard, . first earl of Suffolk. In 1587, the 
queen, to whom be wa9 chaplain^ conferred on him the se^ 
cond prebend in the churqh of £ly, at which time he waa 
also rector of Doddington cum March, in the isle of Ely, Ih 
1588, be was elected vice-chancellor of the University, bat 
relinquished the office, in the following year, to Dn Pres- 
ton, master of Trinity^ball. While he presided in this 
station, .be took the degree of D. D. During, his being 
vice*cbanceUor, it is only recorded, that he had ocoasioa 
to repress the freedoms which two of the university preach*- 
ers tc>ok when speaking in their sermons of the establisbed 
church. 

lo 1590, Dr. NevUe was promoted by her majesty to the 
deanery of Peterborough. In 1592, be joined with the 
other deans and prebendaries of the. late ereeted church^ 
in a resolution to solicit an act of parliament for the con* 
firmatian of their rights. It was necessary, indeed, to 
check the designs of those who pretended that their rere*- 
nues arose from concealed lands, and that, therefore, they 
belonged to the crown ; and in resisting these yexationa 
they were supported by archbishop Whitgift. In February 
1593, Dr. Nevile quitted the mastership of Magdalen, in 
consequence of being promoted by her majesty to that of 
Trinity-college, and in March 1.594, resigned the rectory 
of Doddington, on being presented to that of Te?ershaii| 
near Cambridge. 

In 1595, be was concerned in the controversy, which 
originated at Cambridge, from the public declaration of 
William Barret, fellow of Caius college, i^ainst the doc^ 
trine of predestination, and falling from grace. On these 
points the general persuasion being then favourable to the 
system of Calvin, Barret was called before some of the 
heads, and compelled to retract his opinions. The dis- 
pute, however, which was referred by both parties to arch- 
bishop Whitgift, occasioned the welUknowu conference 
of divines at Lambeth, where they agreed on certain pro- 
positions, in conformity to Calvin's principles, commonly 
called the Lambeth articles. Dr. Nevii, and bis brethren, 
soon after had to complain of Dr. Baro, lady Margaret^s 
professor of divinity, for maintaining some doctrines re^ 
specting universal salvation, diametrically opposite to 
those of the Lambeth articles; in consequence of which 



N E V I L E. 109 

lie wsLfk removed from his station in the uaiverstty; (See 
Baro).' 

The chafacter of Nevile was how held in fjuth estitnatton 
by queen Elizabeth, tbatj on the death of Dr^ Rogers, she 
promoted him to the deanery of Citnterbury, in which he 
was installed June S8, 15^7. On her majesty's death, he 
was sent by archbishop Whitgift into Scotland to address 
lier successor, in the name of all the clergy, with assur- 
ances bf their loyahy and affection. He was also com- 
missiomed to inquire what commands his majesty had 
to enjoin as to causes ecclesiastical ; and, at the same 
Cfme, to recommend the church of England to his favour 
and protection. To this message James returned an an- 
swer, declaring, that be would maintain the government 
of the church as Elizabeth left it. The king afterwards, 
when on a visit to Cambridge, in 1615, was entertained at 
Trinity-college, by Dr. Nevile, who was then much en- 
feebled by the palsy, and did not long survive the royal 
.visit. He died at Cambridge May 2, 1615, advanced 
in life, but his age we have not been able to ascertain. 

B^ bis munificence to Trinity-college, Dr. Nevile has se^ 
cured to himself the gratitude and admiration of posterity. 
He expended more than 3000/. in rebuilding that fine qua- 
drangle, which to this day retains the name of NeviVs-court. 
He was also a contributor to the library of that college, 
iand a benefactor to Eak-bridge hospital in his riative city. 
B^ ^sts; not less a generous patron of many scholars who 
became the ornaments of the succeeding age. He was bu* 
tied in Canterbury-cathedral, in the ancient chantry in the 
South aile, which he had fittied up as the burial-place of 
his family, and which was afterwards called NeviPs chapel. 
Here be placed a monument to the memory of his fiather, 
mother, and uncle ; and another was erected to himself : 
but in 1787, when the cathedral was new paved, the cha- 
pel itself was removed, and the monuments, in taking down, 
almost entirely destroyed. The inscription to' the dean 
only remains, and is placed between two mutilated figures 
of himself and his elder brother Alexander, in the chapel 
«f the Virgin Mary . * 

NEVILE, or NEVILLE (Henry), a republican writer, 
the second son of sir Henry Nevile, of Billingbeare, in 
'Berksbire. v^as bord in 1 620, and became a commoner of 

1 Todd's Aecoont of the Deani of Canterbury. 



no 



N E V I L E. 



Merton college, Oxford^ in 1635, but appears to have left it 
without taking a degree. In the beginning of the rebellionf, 
he travelled on the ccfntinent, but returned in 1645, and 
became an active agent for repubticani»ai. In November 
1651, he was elected one of the council of state, but' when 
be found Cromwell aspiring to the crown, under the pre^ 
tence of a protectorate, he retired. He caballed with Har^ 
rington and others for their imaginary commonwealth until 
the Restoration, when he was taken into custody, but soon 
after released. From this time he lived privately until his 
death, Sept. 20, 1694, at Warfield in Berkshire. The only 
one of his publications worthy of notice was, his ^^ Plato 
Bedivivus : or a Dialogue concerning Government,'* 1681, 
which Mr. Hollis, in his republican zealj reprinted in 1763. 
His other works were, 1, " The Parliament of Ladies,'* 
1647, 4to, a kind of banter on.sir Hdnry Blount, for cer<- 
tain loose sentiments respecting the female sex. 2. ^^ ShiifF- 
ling, cutting, and dealing, in a game at Piquet,'' 1659, 
4to, another satire on Cromwell. 3. "The Isle of Pines t 
or a late discovery of a fourth island near Terra australh 
incognita^ by Hen. Cornelius Van Sloetten," Lond: 166S, 
4.to. He was also the editor of Machiavel's works, and 
the defender of his principles. Wood says he wrote some 
poems, inserted in various collections. One in Mr. Ni- 
chols's collection, vol. VII. p. 1, gives us no very favour- 
able idea of his genius or decency. * 

NEWBOROUGH, or NEWBURGH (William of), 
commonly known by his Li^tin name of Gul. Neubrigensis, 
an early English historian, was born at Bridlington in 
Yorkshire, in the first year of king Stephen's reign, 1 136, 
and educated in th^ abbey of Newborougb, of which he 
became a member. Besides the name of Neubrigensis, 
which he derived from his abbey, we find him called Parvqs, 
or ^^ Little;" but whether this was a surname or nickqame, 
is somewhat dubious. Tanner notices him under the name 
of Petyt; and Nicolson says, that his true surname was 
Little ; and that he calls himself Petit,, or Parvus. Hearne 
allows that others called him so ; but does not remember 
where he styles himself so. Mr. Denne thinks it remark- 
able, that with allusion to himself, he twice uses the word 
^* Parvitas," thereby insinuating how little qualified he 
was to discharge the ofiice of a historiographer, or to hastily 

^ Ath. Ox. Tol. II.— Nichols's Poems.-^Biof . Dram. 



NEWBOROUGH. ill 

fomi. tt judgment of the actions of so great a man as 
Becket. 

Neubrigensis's history, published at Paris, with Picard's 
notes, 1610, 8vo, then by Gale, and lastly, and more 
correctly, by Hearne, 3 vols. Oxon. 1719, 8*vo, begins 
with the Norman conquest, and ends with the year 1197, 
and is written in a good Latin style. He has, however, 
not escaped the credulity of his times and his profession ; 
and perhaps his want of correctness may be attributed to 
his writing this history in advanced life, when the events 
of former years were beginning to fade from his memory. 
Henry compliments him for. ** regularity of disposition ;'* 
but to that he seems to have paid very little attention, and 
it is the desultory method in which he ranges his mate- 
rials that affords a strong presumptive proof that he de- 
pended most on bis own resources/ and bad not before him 
any connected chronicle of the times. We have noticed 
his high respect for Becket, but he had nothing of this for 
Geoffrey, of Monmouth, whose veracity he attacks with 
great severity. Some writers attribute this to his disap- 
pointment in not succeeding Geoffrey in the bishopric of 
£t. Asaph. Hence, says Nicolson, he ^' fell into a mad 
humour, of decrying the whole principality of Wales/ its 
history, antiquity, and all that belongs to it.'* • Whatever 
his motive, some of his strictures on Geoffrey are not-with-^ 
out foundation.^ 

NEWCASTLE. See CAVENDISH. 
NEWCOMB (Thomas), M. A. son of a worthy clergy- 
man in Herefordshire, and great grandson, by bis mother's 
side^ to the famous Spenser, was born in 1675, and was, 
for some time, educated at Corpus Christi college, Ox- 
fqrd ; but we do not fii)d his name among the Graduates. 
He was afterwards chaplain to the second duke of Rich- 
mond, and rector of Stopham in Sussex, in 1734, whern 
he published a translation of *^ Velleius Paterculus.** For 
some time before this he lived at Hackney, in rather dis- 
tressed circumstances. So early as 1718, he was author 
of an excellent poem, under the title of ^< Bibliotheca,*' 
which is preserved .in the third volume of Nicholses '^ Se- 
lect Colliection of Miscellany Poems,'* and on which Dr. 
Warton thinks Pope must have formed his goddess Dul- 

^ Tanner.— Nicolioo.««Hean)e«—Arch»o1osiay voL IX,— Henry's Hist.. of 
<S^reat Britain. 



11.2 N E W C O MB. 

»e$Sy in tfa^ *^ Dunciad/' Be»idis$ the many proiJufttioM of 
Dr. Newcomb reprinted in that collection, he was author df 
several, po^ms of merit ; particularly of f.rrbe last Judgment 
of Men and Angels, in twelve books,, after the oiEinuer of 
JMliltpn/* 1723, foliQ, adorned with, a fine inetzotinto por- 
trait ; of another, ^^ To her late majesty queen Anne, upon 
the Pe^ce pf Utrecht ;'' '^ Aa Ode to the memory of Mr. 
Kowe v" And aiH>th@r, ^* To the memory of th^ countess of 
iBerkeley/* He also translated fieveral of Addison's Latin 
poepi^, and Pbilips's ^* Ode to Mr. St. Jbhn.'^ 

After Di^. Young bad published his celebrated satires, 
Mr. Newcomb, who was v«ry intimate with him, printed, K 
" The. Manners of the Times, in seven Satires." 2. " An 
Ode to the Queen, on the happy accession of their Miyesties 
to the, Crown/' 1727. 3« " An Ode to ibe Right Honour-' 
able the Earl of Orford, on Retirement,'' 1742. 4. ^^ A 
Collection of Odes.and Epigrams, &c. occasioned by the 
3uccess of the Britbb and Confederate Arms in Germany," 
1743* 5. *^ An Odje inscribed to the Memory of the Uit/e 
jparl of Orford,'^ 1747. 6. " Two Odes to his Royal 
IJigbness the .Duke of Cumberland, on his retuvn from 
Scotland, and on bis Voyage to Holland," 1745. 7« ^^ A 
Paraphrase on some Select Psalms." 8. ^' The Consume 
mation, a Sacred Ode on the final Dissolution of the World, 
inscribed to bis Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury," 1752, 
4to. 9. ** A Miscellaneous Collection of Original Poems^ 
Odes, Epistles, Translations, &c, written chiefly on political 
and moral subjects ; to which are added. Occasional Letters 
and Essays, formerly published in defence of the. present 
government and administration," 1756, a large voluqie in 
4to. 10. ^^ Vin4iQta Britannica, an Ode 00 the Royal Navy, 
inscribed to the King," 1759, 4to. 1 1. ^' Novus Epigram^ 
matum Delectus, or Original State Epigrams and Minor 
Odes, suited to the Times," 1760, 8vo. 12. "The Retired 
Penitent, being a poetical Version of one of the Rev. Dr. 
Young's Moral Contemplations. Revised, approved^ and 
published, with the Consent of that learned and eminent 
Writer," 1760, 12mo. 13. <^ A oongratuiatory Ode to the 
Queen^ on her Voyage to England," 1761, 4to. 14.' << On 
the .3uccess of the Pritish J^rtos. A congratulatory Ode 
addressed to his Majesty," 1763, 4to. 15. ^ The Death 
of Abel, a Sacred Poem, written originally in the German 
langbage, attempted in the style '6f Miiioh," I7i63, 12mo. 
16. In 1757, be published *< Versions of two of Hervey^s 



N E W C O MB. lis 

JiCedit'dtioiiB/* in blank verse. ' Arid^ in 1764, t^e whole af 
them i^ere printed in two roiumes, l2moy inscribed to the 
rrgbt hon. Arthur Onslow, sir Thomas Parker,, and ladj 
Juliana Penn. Mr. Nichols also sapposeis, that Dir* New- 
comb was the author of '*A Supplem;ent to a late excellent 
poem, entitled Are these things so?'' 1740; and of ^< Pre- 
existence- and Transmigration, or the new Metamorphosis; 
A Philosophical £ssay on the Nature and Progress. of the 
•Soul ; a poem, something between a panegyric and a sa- 
tire," 1743. Dr. Newcomb died probably about 1766j in 
^hich year his library was sold, and when he tntist have 
been in his ninety-first year. " 

NEWCOME (William), an eminent prelate, descended 
from a noh^confbrmist iamiiy, was born at Barton-le-Glay, 
jn Bedfordshire, April 10,1729, and educated at Abing- 
don school. In 1745 he entered of Pembroke collegei 
'Oxford^ but removed some time after to Hertford college, 
where he' took his degree of M. A. in 1753^ and became a 
tmorof considerable eminence. Among other pupils who 
preserved a high respect for his memory, was the late hon« 
Charles James Fox. In 1765 he took his degrees cffB; ]>. 
and D* D. and was appointed chaplain to the earl of Hert- 
ford, then lord lieutenant of Ireland, who conferred on 
bioi, withih a year, the see of Dromore. In 1775, he was 
translated to Ossory, and in 1778 produced his first wdrk^ 
^' An Harmony of the Gospels,'' which involved him in a 
controversy^ with Dr. Priestley respecting the duration of 
our Lord's ministry. Dr. Priestley confining it to one year^ 
while the bishop extended its duration to three years and 
a half. In 1779 Dr. Newcome was translated to the see of 
Waterford; aod>inl7d2 published " Observations on our 
Lord's conduct as a divine Instructor^ and on the excel- 
lence of his moral chai'atter/' This was fdllowed, in 1785, 
by ^* An attempt towards an improved version, a metrical 
arirangement, and an* Explanation of the Twelve Minor 
Prophets," 4to, and in 1788, by ^^An atteoapt towards an 
improved version, a metrical- arrangement, and an expla-* 
nation of the prophet Ezekiel^" 4to. He published alsb 
About the same time '^ A Review of the chief difficulties in 
the Gospel history respecting our Lord's Resurrection/' 
4to, the^purpose of which was to correct some errors in his 
••^ Harmony," .In 17d2 he pablished at Dublin one of liis 



.1' Nichols's Poems. 

Vol. XXIII. I 



)U NEW GO M E. 

most ttsefid . works, ** Avl hLtitxxrical view:.of,the EngUsii/ 
'Biblical tvandatioiis ^ t^e expediency o£, revising by; au^ 
ifnoiity ow present traaBtatio^:; and tke meaais of.execiAipif; 
«(icli ft work/\Rv0. Concemiiig thJe latter part td this 
^fekfei»e tbef e^ ave majBy diffiereDces of opinidzi, and in dw 
learned pitekte's zeal to e^eec a new transbifcton, .he i|i 
theught, both in this and bis:£Drm(0rp«bIieation8^ .tQ^ha?« 
been too general in bis: striciares on the oldi. He livedo 
however, to witness, Dr. Geddes^s abortive attempt townrdft 
ct new tninslatipn, and. the danget of such a work falling 
inta improper h^ds» Fpr the hUtprtcal part, the;bi:iho{i 
is chiefly indebted to Lewis, but his arrangement is belter^ 
hnd his lis^t of editions more easily to be consulted,. and 
ll^refore more usefuK Except' a very valnable Ohacge^ 
tj^is wias' 4he tastiof Dr. ^^wcdnpte's . pnhli^ions ^whicb apt- 
pearedin-'bislife^time. In January 1795 hewaatraaslalsd 
to. . the ' aurchbiihepri o of Araaa^ He died at his house im 
fit Stephen^s Green, iDubBn,; Jan. 11, liSOO,v in the ae« 
<renty^first year> of his. age ; asid was interred m the near 
4rfaapel^ of Trinity college.  Soon after his ^eath. was pvhr 
Kshedbis ^') Attempt. towards.ieirising oar EngUsb Traiisla^ 
lion ol 'the Greek' Soi&ptuoee,.' or dbet New Gotenant of 
JesiM Christ/' &e. , The writer of hia life in dne Cycle* 
peedia says that this^ work ^^ basfbeeBotniadetbeibatsis of. ao 
f^ InypiK)vied Version of, the. New Testaoiem^ puUUshed by 
a Society Cor the Promotion !of; Christian Kjnowledge,i&c.'^ 
hiuch to the mortifiicai^on, asl weiHav^ilheiurd, 'o£>8emefQf 
the archbishop's relatives ;'^ nor; will our readeris'! fail to 
sympathize with 'them, whenlhley. ameboid thak-tbis:'^: Im^ 
proved version'^ is tbat which has beenisb ably and justly 
censured and exfiosed by* the' ^lev:. Edward Nfites^.itnhiS 
<< Remarks on the yersiou. of the New Testament: latelj" 
Mited by the Unitarian^/' &r. ' 1<8(HQI^) firo. Archbiafaop 
Newcomers interleaved BtM^y in fdur vohinies foUo, is in 
the^ library at Lambeth<*pabce. He was, unquestionably, 
an excellent scholar, and wqlUqualified fojr iHblieal criti^v 
eism ; but either his ^eal for a new veisioo, or bis views of 
liberality, led him to give too much, encoucagemeot to the 
attempts of those witj^ whom be never eould havecordoaUy: 
agreed, and who seem to consider every deviation frooi 
what the majority hold sacred, as. an improvement. ^ *. 
• NEWCOURT (Richard), author of that very valuable 

work the ^^Repertorium Londinense,*' deserves some notice^ 

• ' - • I 

> Gent Mag. vol. LXIC.— Rces's Cyclopa^M. 



N E WC O U RX II? 

akbotTgh wd have been aMe to recoTer rery tew patti^ 
oifara of bim. We have^ however^ on his own aatboritj^ 
tbat be i^ras one of the proctott general of the coart of 
lurches, from Trinity term 1 &6$. He probably waa the 
^^Bichard Newcourt, gent.V wbo assisted in publi^btng 
'^An exact Delineation of London^'* &c. hi 1658, and if so^ 
Ms of Somerton, in the county of Somejrset. He was for 
twenty-seven yean principal registrar of the diocese of 
Cantetbiiry, and notary public, and generally resided in 
DoctoTi* Commons, bat died at Greenwich in February 
J716, cdnsiderably advanced in life, if the preceding datea 
af^ correct. His ^^ Repertorium Ecclesiasticnm ^Parocbiale 
Londinense,'* was pnbtiahed in 2 vob. fol.; tbeftrst iii 1708^ 
and the second in ITIO. It would be quite unnecessary to 
eniifge on the merits of this most useful work*^ 

NEW016ATE (Sia. Roger, Bart.), of Arbnry in \Var-. 
iricltsbire, an elegant scholar, and an eminent benefaelor 
to the university of Oxibrd, was bern May 30,. 171 9. Hf 
wa« the seveatb and youngest son of.sir Ricliard'Newdigata, 
bart. by his second lady Elizabeth, daughter of sir Rogcar 
Twi#den^ bart. In his sixteenth year he succeeded, in 
title and estate, bis elder brother, sir Edward. Sir R(^l: 
was at that tinofe a lying's scholar at Westminster school, 
where by his own choice he continued three years, and 
then entered of Ufiiversity college, Oxford. Here he was 
created M. A. ih May 1?38, and afterwards set out on one 
of those continental tours winch his classical knowledge 
and fine taste enabled him to turn to the best advaotage^ 
by aecumulatiug a vast collection df monumental antiquities, 
and drawings of ancient ruins, buildings, statues, &c. Of 
these Ust there are two ample folios in his library at Ar* 
bery, the produce of his ind^atigable and accurate 'pencil* 
He also brought honie some curious antique marbles and 
vases of exquisite workmanship (some of which are engmved 
in Ptranfiesi,' where his name occurs several times), casts 
from the most admired statues at Rome and Flprence, and 
copies of many celebrated paintings, particulaiiy a fine 
OA^ of the famous Transfiguration^ by Rf^hael^ which 
adolvis the magnificent saloon at Arbory« 

Shortly after his^ return in 1742, he was nvankwMialy 
elected knight of the shire for the county of Middlesex ; 
but in the next parliament he wa», on lord Cornbury's 
' - ' • ■-. • . . .. 

1 Ko^IeV l^uBpl. to Grf n^en-^oogfa's Topogra|4iy.«7*Ljrsons's Environc. 

12 



H6 N E W D I G A T E. 

being called up to the house of peers, elected in 1751 -ili^ 
succeed him as representative for the university of Ox* 
ford, an honour which few men knew better how to appre-* 
ciafte. In no place, and on no occasion, is the purity of 
election more sacredly guarded than in the choice of mem-* 
hers to represent that university, where to. make declara-^ 
lions, to canvass, to treat, or even to be seen within ibe 
limits of the utiiversity during a vacancy, would be,^in any 
i^andidate, almost a forfeiture of favour. ' In . the case of 
our worthy baronet, he remained ignorant of beibg pro- 
posed and elected, until he received a letter ffom tlte vice- 
thancellor, Dr« Browne, master of University college, by 
one of the esquire beadles. In the same independent man- 
ner he was re-elected in 1754, 1761, 1761^, and 1774, da- 
ring which last year, he was in Italy. On the dissolution 
of parliament in 1780, being advanced in years, ami de- 
sirous of repose, he solicited his dismission, retired from 
public life, and was succeeded by sir William Dolben. 
.He died at bis seat at Arbury, Nov. 25, 1806, in tke 
eighty-seventh year of his age. 

He married :twice, first in 1743, Sophia^ ditugbter of 
Edward Conyers, of Copt-ball, in Essex, esq, who died in 
1774; and secondly, in 1776, Hester, daughter of Edward 
Mandy, of Shipley, in Derbyshire, esq«; but having no 
issue by either, the title became extinct. 

Although be retired from public life in 1780, bis ample 
and richly-stored library appears to haye afforded faina 
sufficient employ metrt, and he preserved his critical taste 
and acumen to almost the last period of his life. Among . 
bis emplojrments, not many yeart before bis death,, was an 
examination of Wbitaker^s account x)f Hannibal's passage 
over the Alps. He bad himself twice crossed these stci* 
pendons mountains, and was much dissatis&ed. with some 
parts of the route which Whitaker had assigned to Hanni- 
bal, particularly where that author leads him frQm Lyons 
to Geneva (eveiry step^ as sir Roger said, out of h^s way) 
and therefore be jdrewup a succinct account of the maroh 
of the Carthaginian, conducting him from Lyons up ibe 
river to Seissel, thence to Martigni,. and ^o to the great $t« 
Bernard, andtoAouste (Auguste) of whicbin his own tour 
he had inany drawings. Such bild been l>is, early applic^^ 
tion, and siicb hia^ powers of men^pxjT, that the b^t qlas^i^ 
seemed as familiar to him when be was past fourscore, as if 
just cooie from Oxford or Westminster. But these were 



N E W D 1 G A T E. Ifl 

mot his only studies. He was well acquainted with th^o^ 
logy, particularly the writings, of our c^der divines^ an(| 
was himself a man of a devout habit, andjunremitting^ io 
religious duties. One of his latest works was the com* 
posing of a ** Harmony of tho Gospels/' divided into short 
sections ; but he never considered tliese works as moro 
than the amusements of retired life, and they were conse* 
quently seen only by his frieads, among whom were Drs* 
Winchester and Townson, and th^ present worthy archr 
deacon Churton, to whose pen we owe .iihe most valuable 
part of this skelvb. 

, To the university of Oxford he was a steady ; friend an(| 
frequent benefactor. The admired cast of the Floreotioe 
boar in Queen's college library, the Florentine museumi 
and other books in the library of University college, Pi? 
ran^si's works in the Bodleian;, and those exquisite spe^ 
cifoens of ancient sculpture, the Candelabra in the. Rad- 
cliflfe library (which cost ISOOL) were some of. hi|s dojia^t 
lions. In 1755 he was honoured .by the countess. dowager 
of Pomfreft (who was aunt to the first Jady Newdigate) witfa^ 
a conuBkiiisnion to intimate to. the university her ladyship's 
intention. of presenting them with what. are no^ called the 
Arundeliati marbles. . In 1S05 sir Roger, ii|ade an offer to 
the university of the sum of 20002. fc^r th^ purpose of res^ 
moving them to the RadcliSe library, but soma unexpect^ 
difficulties were started at that time,.wbith pK!eMented the 
plao from being executed^ although it is to be bopedy it is 
not finally abandoned. .He gave aUorlOOO/. to.be veiBte^ 
in. the pubiu: funds, in. the name of the vice*^haii^ellor an^ 
the master of University college, for .the time. being* iff 
trust, part of it to go fi>r an annual prize for English vers^$ 
on ancient sculpture, painting, and ar0hitectHre,..i^Dd tl^ 
remainder to accumulate as a fund towards ^the amendf 
ment of the lodgings of :the master of University college. 
His charitable beoefactipns in the neighbourhood of fail 
estate were extensive^ and have proved highly advanta^ 
geous, in ameliorating the state of tbe poor, and furnish* 
ing them with education and the means of industry. But 
we mustArefer to. OUT authority for these and other ii^.^ 
terestiug particulars of this worthy baronet. ^ 
- N£\^ LAND (Peter), a D.utch author, was the son of 
a carpenter -at Dimmermeer, near Amsterdam, and was 

1 Life by Mr. Archdeacoo ChurtoB ia Gent. Mag. vol LXXVII.— Betbam's 
l^aronetage, corrected by Beatson'a index to the House of Commons. 



II» NEWLAKD. 

borh in 17^4. In fais ehikihood he evinced evttaoidtnitrf 
proofs of genius, and at the age of ten yeani produced 
mme excellent pieces of poetiy, and waSf even tben^ abl^ 
to scdve problems in mathematics without having had any 
instruction from a master. The Batavian goriernment ap* 
pointed him one of the commissioners of longitude^ wad be 
was successively profi^sor of mathematics and pfailosopfaj 
St Utrecht ai|d Amsterdam. He died in 1794. He was 
author of several works, among which may be m^tioBed ^ 
the following: 1. Poems in the Dutch languagfe; d« A 
tract OQ the means of enlightening a People ; 3. On the 
general utility of the Mathematics ; 4. Of the Syntem of 
Lavoxsier} and 5. A tre^ise on Navigation. To these may 
}ie added treatises on the form of the globe ; on the course 
ef comets, and th^ uncertainty of tKeir return; atfd on 
the m^^thod of ascertilintng the latitude at sea* ^ 

NEWTON (JOHK), an eminent English mathematician 
and divine, the grandson ef Jofati Newton, of Axmoiith, in 
Devonshire^ ftnd the son of Humphrey Ne^rton of Oundie, 
sH Nortbampeonsbirie, wHs bom feit Oundie in 1622, Md 
ivas Entered a comiponer of St. f^mond*^ hal), Oxford^ 
in 1^37. Be t^ok the degree of 9* A« in 1641 ; and the 
jeax following, was created mltster, in precedence to se^* 
veral genttemen that belonged to the king and court, tbeii > 
k»iding in the univerrity, on account of bis distinguisfaed 
tadlsnfii in fk^ higher brfinob^s oF science. His genius 
feiug fnetitieil to ast^enpmy and the matbematicsB, he noade 
br^iit pvoficleiiey in these sciences, which he found of ser* 
▼icie durillg the timet of the murpatibn, when he cont 
^hiued stedflat to his legal sovereign. After the restora-*' 
tlDn he WU ctMt^ D/D« it Oxfoid, Sept. 1661, was 
isade one of the feiltg^s lehaplMns, and rector of Ross;, ii| 
HerefordshiriB^ in the place of Mr. ^ohn Toombes, fleeted 
tat non-ebnfermity. He held thit Kving till his deaths 
irhich happen«i4 i^t Rbst, Dee. Sd, 16T^. Mr. Wood gi?ek 
kirn the cnarlActer of 9 capilcioot and kumeursome per^ 
son ; but whatever miiy be ttt this, his writings are sufficient 
tnonumentt 6f his genius and skill in the matkesiaticft 
These are, l. << Asironomia Britannic% iu. in three parts,'* 
1656, 4to. 2. '< Help to Calculation ^ with titles of deelf4 
hation, ascension, &c." 1<57, 4tp. 3. '^ Trigonemetrii Bri« 
fannica^ in two books,'^ 166% folk) ; one bomppsed ky euf 

? pi«t. Hitt.r»R«et*k Cyclbpcdiil 



•ttlbdr) tl)di]ie ^li^r transited from the Latin of Henry 
GelUbraad. 4./^Cbiliades ceiuum Logaritbfmorijiii/^ printr 
ed wiUi» S. ** Geoiaeirical Triganomeuy/' 1^59. 6. *^ MaT 
tbeolatical filenieiik9t three part^* i660| 4tp. 7. *> A pari 
petual Dtarjr^ or Ahoaitac," 1662» a. << Description of 
the use of the Carpenter's Rule/' 1667. 9. << EpbemerideSi 
•bevtring^ the IjitereH aod Rate of Money at six per cent.'' 
&& 1667. lOi Chiliades ceAtUm LogaritbGQoruaii et ta-r 
b«la paittum proportionalium," 1667. ll. <^ Tfae Rule of 
Interest, or the case of Decimal Fractions^ &c. part U*'- 
]€6S^ 8vo« 12. ^* Scbool-Pastime far young Children,'? 
ko. lB69i 8v0i 13. << Art ofpraetical Gauginj^" &i:. 1669* 
I4i << Introduction. to the art 4f Rhetoric/' 167K 15. '^tb^ 
act of Natoral Aritfameljoi in whf>}e numbersi atid fraction? 
viiigar and ^eeimaV 1671^ Svo. 16. <^ The English Acar 
denky/' 1677^ 8vo. 1 7. ''Cosmography." 18^. << Intrbdiic^^t 
tion to AstronodBiy*" 19> '/ lalroduetioii to Geographyi'* 
i67», «yoi» 1 

NEWTON (J0HN)> an English clergyman, whose ej(-r 
iriKirdioafy history hjis long been before |ke public, wan 
batn in London^ July Qii 173$. His father was manj^ 
yekrs niastier of a ahip itf ibe Mediteriuneaa trad^ and in 
1748 went out as goyernor of Yo»k Fort| in Hudsoip's fitgiry 
wbere he died in 174fO. His mother^ who died wbe4\. bii 
waa only senen .years old^ bad fpvw. biiB such religioi^^ 
uisfc^Hctioit as sui(«d his capacity, whkrb was* apt and good;^ 
By school edttostion he profited Utile* He appepura indee4 
to have been ati a tehool at Stratford, ip Bsse^^ about tj^o, 
years, and acquired some kiioxivledge. of the Latin, butlii% 
master's method b^ing too precipitati^^ be apon l^st all ^ A 
had leanied. At the age of eleven be waa tflc^n to spa by 
his father, add before 1742 had made, several ^^qy«€Os, a^ 
dooatderable inMrvaU^ wbi«:h wer4 olMofly rspfist^ in ^b^ 
oottotry, excepting a few months in his fifjteefi^ yo^ir^ 
whod he waa placed with a very advantageous prospect' a^ 
Alicant, < where^ aa be says^ ''he might bave done weU,,,4| 
he bad behaved weii." For about two years something like 
naiigious refoiMMition appeared in hinft, bul; ^ adds, " i| 
was ^ pent religioti^ aitd only tended to make bim gloamy^ 
stiqM^ untocialy aiad uifelesli" and from tbiibe was.se-» 
dueddiiito ibe 6bntrak?y e]^treaie» by perust% some of tbq 
w(rilini0S of ShafiieskuKy, which be found in a pic^tty shop 9J^ 

H ieHoIlsiod. 

1 Atb. 6x. vol. 11.— Mmrim't Biog. i>hir. 



12« NEWT O N. 

Til 1742, vvben his father proposed to leave off going t<| 
sea, be endeavoured to provide his son with a situation, 
and an eligible one occurred of bis going to Jamaica ; but 
happening to meet with the lady who became afterwards his 
wife, he abhorred the thouorht of living from her at such a 
distance as Jamaica, and that perhaps for four or five years, 
and therefore absented himself on a visit to Kent, until (be 
ship sailed without him. His father, though highly dis* 
pleased, became reconciled, and in a little time Mr. New* 
ton sailed with a friend of his father^s to Venice. In this 
voyage, being a common sailor, and exposed to the com- 
pany of some profligate comrades, he began, to relax from 
the regularity which he had preserved in a certain degreie, 
for more than two years; and in this and his sohse^ent 
voyages, represents himself as -extremely thoughtless, vi*« 
cious, and abandoned. The consequences of this coaduct 
led to those adventures which he has so interestingly de- 
tailed in his life, published in 1764, and to which we- must 
refer as to a worl^ that does not admit of a satisfactory 
abridgment If his vices were great, his sufferings seem 
also to Have amounted ta the extremes of misery and dis- 
grace; but at length, about 1747, he was rescued by his 
father from this state of wretchedness, and in 1746, ap- 
pears to have been for the first time awakened to a proper^ 
sense of his past life, which gradually improved into a 
real reformation. After this he was employed in ships 
concerned in the African slave-trade, and acquired tbac 
knowledge which many years afterwards enabled him to 
contribute, by his evidence before parliament, to the abo-i 
Ktion of that detestable traffic. 

Jt is remarkable, that in all his miseries and-wretcbed* 
ness, and even when most profligate -and apparently 
thoughtless in his conduct on board of ship, he preserved 
an anxiety to learn, and at his leisure hours, acquired a 
considerable knowledge of the mathematics, in his later 
voyages, he 'endeavoured to revive his acquaintance with 
the Latin language. How scanty his means were, appears 
from his own account • '*He had seen an imitation of one 
of Horace^s odes in a magaaine, and wished to ba able to 
read that poet, but bad no other help than an old English 
translation, with Castalio*s Latin Bible. He had the D^l^ 
phin edition of Horace, and by comparing the.odea witit 
the interpretation, and tracing such words as he 'Qiulec«. 
§mod from place fo place by the index, tc^ether with wha^ 



NEWTON. m 

MBiilnce be could get ffom tbe. Latin fiilile, be tfaus, by 
4iDt of bard iiidostry, lu^de some progress. He not ooLy 
tinderstood the sense of many odes, and some of the 
eptstkes, but << I began/* be says, '< to relish the beautiea 
of tbe composition ; acquired a spice of what Mr.- Law calls 
classical enthusiasm ; and, indeed, by this means, I bad 
Horace more adunguttni than some who are n>asters of 
the Latin tongue. For my helps were so few, that I ge* 
nerally bad tbe passage fixed in my memory before I couid 
furUy understand its meaning." In a. future voyage which 
be commenced from Liverpool in August 1 7 SO, as com^ 
maiider, be made stilt greater progress in Latin ; providing 
taasself with a dictionary, and adding to Horace, Juvenal^ 
Livy, Caesar, &c. His conduct in all respects was now 
•become regular. He allotted about eight hours for deep 
and meals, ^ight hours for exercise and devotion, and eight 
hours to his books. In a Guinea trader, sucb a life per-r 
baps has no parallel. 

At length a variety of circumstances, concurred to wean 
him from the sea, and after having been for some time 
•placed' in a situation as tidewaiter iat Liverpool, he applied 
with -great diligence to his studies, and ^acquired a com- 
petent knowledge of tbe sacred laCkguages, witb<a view to 
take-orders in- the church. In i7&8 he bad received. a title 
to' a curacy, but on applicauion to the arcbbishop.of York^ 
J^r, Gilbert, was refused ordinatiooj as it appeared that he 
had been guilty of some irregularities, • such as preaching 
in dissehting meetings, or other places, without ordination 
of any kind. In April 1764, however,: by dint of strong 
recommendaiion, and a professed attachment, which be 
ever most carefolly preserved, to the doctrines and dis« 
cipliile' of the church, he was ^ordained by Dr. Gceen^ 
bishop of Lincoln, to the curacy of Olney, and admitted 
into priest's orders in June. 1765. The living of Olney was 
at this time held by. the celebrated angler, Moses Brown 
(^e bis article), a man who maintained the same evangelical 
•entiments asMr. Newton, but. bad been under pecuniary 
difficulties, and was glad to accept the chaplaincy of Morr 
den college, Bhabkheath, leaving the charge of bis flock at 
Olney to Mr, Newton, who remained heye for sixteen 
years. 

At Olney Mr. Newtoa.be^me acquainted with two gen- 
tlemen 'Whose friendship gave an important interest to bis 
^iire life, Ae beoevolent Johfa Tlw?nton, esq. and JJ^^iW 



IS* NEWTON. 

Ham Cowper^ the celebrated poet. The fonaelr, «ciic^ivf 
Silg'a high idea of the integrity and usefutoesi af Mis. 
Newton in this parish,' determined to allow him a certain 
turn (200/. a year) with which he wished him to keep opee 
house for socb as were worthy of entertaiomenti and lo 
help the poor and needy. Mr. Newton reckoned thai he. 
had received of Mr. Thornton upwmrds of 3000/. im tfaii 
Way during his residence st Olney^ a snm which, however 
gfeai, will not surprise those who knew the extent of Mr* 
Thornton's liberality. His intimacy with Gowper fotms 
one of the most interesting periods of that poet's life. . Td 
MPhat is said in our account of Cowper {voh X. p. 40^^ &0() 
we have only to regret in this place that much infolrinatidil 
has been loiit to thd public by the suppression of Mr. New^ 
ton's letters to his afflicted frieild. These letters moslb 
hare bcl^n in Cowper's possession ; but what b^caos^ of 
theti after his death has never been explained* Had they 
appeared, they probably would have established beyond att - 
pow^t of contradiction, that no part of Cowper's deplorable 
melancholy was attributable to his connection with Mr. 
Newton, or with men oi bis principles. Mr. Newton was 
himself a man of remarkable cheerfulness of dbposilion) 
and bad a particular talent in administering oonsolatioQ to 
those whose uneasiness arotie from religious affections, ilor 
was be easily mistaken in separating real concern from af* 
fectation. It appears that Mr. Newtoti was once iu po^^- 
sesston of a Ufe of Cowper, written' by himself, at th^ 
calmest period of his life ; some facts from this haVe beeti 
communicated to the public by hitf biographer, but mote 
remains, which we have been told wodld have thrown ad<f 
ditional light on Mr. Cowper's remarkable history. 

In 177^ Mr. Newton was removed from Olftey M be 
Sector of the united parishes of St Maiy Woolnofih tod « 
St. Mary Wookhure^ Haw, Lbmbard-^syreet^. on the pre«» 
seniation of his steady friend Mr. Thomtdn^ tad conlimied 
bis labours in this place daring Ufa. Few m^n bad n^oi^ - 
the art of attracting friendship ; and hisi congregaUons 
which increased i^ery day, became attached to hifenifl h 
degree which time has not yet abated. One trait, in bk 
Character ddded nincb to bia usefulness; his benevoleiiM 
was most extensive ; bis house was open to the afflicted 9f 
every description ; griisCitttda ap))fears to bavii been his pre- 
dominant virtue; be never for a moment fdvgot this 
wreirh^d stete from n^Vith Prdvideiice had raised b)m^ and 



NEWTON. 128 

tilts thankfiiloels coiuimiaUy operated in €DdefrToiirli 
ta relieve the wants of o^liers. He never Icnew how to 
refuse applications from the distressed, and bis syoipatbj 
often drew snch nearer hitn than a man more studious q€ 
domestiG qniet would have wished* However- liberal in 
affording an asylum to poor persons of whon^ he bad a good 
optfiion, he wasi like Dr. Johnson, often the only person 
in bis bouse who exhibited a contented mind and a thank* 
fal heart. Among l>is other services of no small import^* 
aoce^ was bis kind patronage of young men intended for 
the church. Some of these he bad frequently about bim^ 
aod assisted tbem either from iiis own scanty weans^ or by 
recommending tbem to his opulent friends/ with whom 
Mr. Newton^s recommendations were decisive. It tnay 
now be mentioned, that the world owes the character and 
services of the late Dr. Claudius Buchanan to Mr. Newtoui 
as will appear more particularly when the life of that gen^ 
ilemaH sb&H be exhibited to the world. The early part of 
it was almost aa unpromising as that of Mr. Newton himseif« 

Mr. Newton died Dec. 31, 1807, and was buried in tbe 
rector*a vault of bis church. His faculties experienced 
some decay during the last two or three years, but bis 
C0Bvefiatiini at times exhibited his usual powers, and that 
origitsai turn of tbtnking and expression wbicb, in his 
ibmMr -days, rendered bis company equally pleasant aod 
edifying. In 1750 be dsarried Ma^y, the daughter of Mr. 
G^ai^Catletj of Cfaatbatn, in Kent, who died in 1790^ 
but btdad issue by her. His principal works, of which a 
conipfatte edition was poblisbed soon after bis deatbf con- 
•ist of sermon^ preached and published at various times ; 
tbe naviAtive of his life, published in 1764 ; <* Review of 
Eeclesiestical Hiti^ory," on tbe plan which Mr. Milner af« 
terwards fsorsuied ; '^ Hymns," some of which are by Cow-i 
per) ^^Cardtpbqoia;'? aiid tbe '^Messiah/' a series of 
aeriBomi on tbe words of the celebrated oratorio. Hia 
^< iifis'* was written by the late ler. Aiehard Cecil, and is 
|NsbHsfaad in 1 £mo.-»^To this we owe tbe above sketch. ^ 

N£WTON (Sift IsaAt^ the diobt splendid genius thai 
bas yee adorned human nalMse^ aild by universal consent 
fAacwd at the bead of inatbomaAiies and of science, waa 
boirn on Cbfiatnias«-day,.QL8. 1^6*12^ at Woolstborpe, in the 
jpariMp^CjMrtiifWMtb^ in ^dam eeaauy of LiaRsobi. Wfaea 

* ' • • • 



124 N E W T N: 

born he was so little, thkt his mother used to say be mrgbt 
have been put into a quart mug,Bnd so unlikely to live, that 
two women who were sent to lady Pakenham's, at North 
Witbam, for something for him, -did not expect to find 
him alive at their return. He was born near three months 
after the death of his fjather, who was descended from the 
eldest branch of the family of sir John Newton, hart, and 
was lord of the manor of Woolsthorpe. The family came 
originally from Newton, in the county of Lancaster^ from 
which, probably, they took their name. His mmfaer was 
Hannah Ayscough, of an ancient and honourable family in 
the county of Lincoln. She was married a siicond time to 
the reV.Barnabas Smith, rector of North Witham, a rich oM 
bachelor, and ha4 by him a son and two daughters. Pre- 
viously, however, to bet marriage, she settled some land 
upon Isaac. He went to .two little day-schools at Skilling-^ 
ton and Stoke till he was twelve years old, when he was 
sent to the great school at Grantham, under Mr. Stokes/ 
who had the character of being a very good schoolmaster. 
While at Grantham he boarded in the house of Mr. Clark, 
an apothecary, whose brother was at that time * usher of 
tbie school. 

Here he soon gave proofs of a surprizing genius, and 
astonished his acquaintances by his mechanical contrivaBcea^ 
Instead of playing among other boys, he always busied 
himself in making curiosities, and models of wood of dif-^ 
ferent kinds. For this purpose he got little saws, hatchets^ 
hammers, and all sorts of tools, which he knew how to use 
with great dexterity. He even went so far as: to make a 
wooden clock, A new windmill was set up about diia time 
near Grantham in the way to Gunnerby. Young Newton^s 
imitating genius was excited, and by frequently prying into 
the fabric of it, as they were making it, he contrived to 
make a very perfect mbdel, which was considered at least 
equal to the workmanship of the original.* This sometittes 
be set upon the house-top where be lodged, andrclotbiog 
it with sails, the wind readily turnedt it. He put a OMXCMie 
into this machine, which he * called 'bis ^mii^fi^, and be 'eon- 
trived matters so- that^the mouse. would^turn round the mill 
whenever he thought proper. He used to jobe too about 
the miller eating the i^orn' tbat was pot^ into the nulL 
Another of his contrivances was .a wttter^clack,^ wbich^Jie 
made out of a box that he begged from the brother of bis 
landlord's wife. It was about four feet in height, and 



NEWTON. 125- 

Iff a proportional breadth. « There was a diaUf^Ia^te at tdp 
with figures for the hours. The index . was turoed by a 
piece oT wood- which either fell or rose by water dropping. 
This stood in the room where he la}% and be took ca^ra 
«very morning to supply it with its proper quantity . rf 
water. 

'These fancies sonoetimes. engrossed so ratich of his 
thoughts that:he was apt to. neglect . his book, and dull 
boys were now and then put over him in his form. But 
this made him redouble his pains to overtake them, and 
such was hi^ capacity that he could ^oon do it, and out* 
strip them when he pleased: and this was taken notice of 
by his master. He used himself to relate that he was very 
negligent at school, and very low in it till the boy above 
faini gave .bim a kick which put him to great pain. Not 
content with having threshed liis adversary, Isaac could 
not rest till he had got before him in the school, and from 
that time be continued rising until he was head-boy. Still, 
no disappointments of the above kind could induce, him ^ 
lay aside his mechanical inventions;, but during holidays, 
and every moment allotted to play, he employed himself 
in knocking and hammering in bis lodging-room, pursuiqg 
the strong bent of his inclination, not only in things serious, 
but in ludicrous contrivances, calculated to please Jiis 
school-fellows as well as himself; as, for ^xample^ paper 
kites, which he first introduced. at Grantbam, and of which 
he took, pains to find out their, proper proportion apd 
figures, and the proper place for fixing the string to th^em. 
He. made lanterns of paper crirppled, which he used to go 
to school by in winter mornings with a candle, and he tied 
them to the^tails of bis kites ip a dark night, which at first 
frightened the country people exceedingly, who took bis 
candles for comets. He was no less diligent in observing 
the qfiotion of. the sun, especially in the,yard of the house 
where he lived, against the W4II and roof, wherein he drove 
pegs, to mark the hours and half hpurs made by the shade. 
These, by some years', observation, he made so exact that 
aiiy body knew.what o^clock it was by Isaac's dial, as they 
isiuajly called it. 

' His.tutn for drawi|ig, which he acquired without any 
assistance^ was equally remMirkable with his , mechanical 
inventions. lie filled bis^ whole room with. pictures, pf his 
own making, copied partly from prints, and partly from 
iihe .life. Aiiipfig others: w^re portraits of several pf^the ^ 



12f NEWTON- 

kingSf of Dr^ Donne, and of Mr. Stokes, hi» selioolma«ter» 
He informed Mr. Conduitt, his nephew, that be bad also a 
fecility in making verses. This is the more remarkable, as 
be bad been beard to express a contempt for poetry. 
Hence it is. probable, that the following lines, which be 
wrote under the portrait of Charles I. were of bis own 
eomposition. They were given by Dr. Stukely, from Mrs. 
Vincent, who repeated tbem from memory : ' 

" A secret art my soul requires to try. 
If prayers can give me what the wars deny. 
Three crowns cUstiaguished here in order do 
Present their objects to my knowing view. 
£arth*s crown> thus at my feet, I can disdaiA> 
'Which heavy is, and, at the best, but vain. 
But now a crown of thorns I gladly greet: 
Sharp is the crown, but not so sharp as sweet. 
The crown of glory tfiat i yonder see. 
Is full of bli88> and of eternity." . 

If Newton wrote these lines, it must be remembered that 
they were written when he vras only a boy at school. 

Mrs. Vincent was neice to tbe wife of sir Isaac's land* 
lord at Granthao^, and lived with him in the same house; 
According to her account, be very seldom joined with his 
scbool-feilows in their boyish amusements, but chose ra« 
ther to be at bo^ae, even among the girls, and would ire-* 
qoently make little tables, cupboards, and other utensils, 
for her and her play-fellows to set their babies and trinkets 
in. She nientioned likewise a cart, which be made with 
four wheels, in which he would sit, and by turning a wind- 
lass about, make it carry him round the bouse wherever he 
pleased. He is said to have contracted an attachment to 
Mrs. Vincent, whose maiden name was Storey, and would 
have married her, but being himself a feilow of a college^ 
with hardly any other income, and she having little or no 
fortune of her own, he judged it imprudent to enter into 
any matrimonial connection. But he continued to visit 
her as long as he lived, after her marriage, and repeatedly 
supplied her with money when she wanted it. 

During all this time the mother of sir Isaac lived at 
North Witbam, with her second husband ; but. upon hitf 
death, she returned to Woolsthorpe, and in order to save 
expences as much as she could, she recalled her son frona 
school, in order to makehim serviceable at Woolsthorpe^ 
in managing the farm and country business. 'Here he waa 
employed in superintending the ^lage, grajsing, ami faar^ 



U B W T Q N. «f T 

imt^ and he tbsm finrqutiilly sent 4in Sfttjutrdiijr^ M Qtwir 
bam imurket, with corp and odi^r conMSOcUtie^ la istU, iBp4 
to carry borne iduit n^cesaariea weve pmpei! to W bwgbl 
ftS; a market towqi for a iagatly ; Imi^ oq ^Gcoufit oi^ ^ 
..^jfouth, bis modiar used tA teod a trosty Qld servaot along 
witk hiniy to put him in the way .of bugiii«flB. Their inn 
wa0 at the Saiacen^s head» in West«gate, wliere».a«r,sow: m 
they had pat up thdr.hocsfiS) I^aac geiperajly left tbe^ I9M 
to manage the marketings and, Ketirtog to Mc* CUrk*4 
garret, where he tiied to Lodgei entertained hiJUtelf .with a 
parcel of old bopks tili it waa time to go home again $ oc 
else he would stop by the way, between hoate and Graiit* 
bom, and lie uiider a hedge studying^ till the man.inentta 
loiA^a and didtbe btmnesa, and called iipon him ia bit way 
badt. When at home, il bifi mother orderet hioatinilfkttoe 
fields to look aftear the sheq^ the com^ xx upon any otltef 
rarol employment, it went on veiy besirity under hia m»« 
nagement. Hta cfaief delight waa to sit under a. tree w.ith 
« book in bi&bands^ or to bu^ himself with hie knife ia 
cutting wood for mbdeU of somewb^ or other that stsock 
bis fancy^ oi^ he wbuld get to a stream and make miU-wbeeUf 
This conduct of her son induced his mother tcsendhiai 
to Grahtiham,. school again for nine .months; and then to 
f^cioity (ioUegOy Cambridge, where be was admitted Jiiiie 
Sy 1660, and where he was soon noticed, by Dr« baao 
Barrow, who perceived his talents, and contraoted agr^at 
iriendsbtp for him. The progress of his studies here was 
qf men comqiofi kind. He always informed himself before-* 
biand of the books wkii^b his tutor int^dedto read, and 
whea be came to the lectures he found he knew mareoC 
fiaem than his tntor .htmseUv The first hooka «rbtch her 
read fbr that' purpeee were Saunderson's Logioy and K^.*^ 
ler's Optics. A desire Ip know whedier there was any 
thing in judicial astrcdogy, first pmt him upon studying 
mathematics. He discovered the emptiness of that study 
as soon. as hid erected a figure ; for which purpose he made 
use of two or three problems in Euclid, which he turned 
to by means, of an index. He did not then read tbe rest,. 
looking upon it as a book containing only plain and obvious 
things. This neglect of the ancient mathematicians, we 
are tpld;by Dr. Pemberton, he afterwards regretted, The 
modem books which he read gave his mind, as he con^^ 
ceiiY^dy a wropg bias, vitiated his taste, and prevented }iim 
ftiott attaining that elegance of demonstration which, be 



1^8 



N E WTO K. 



admired in the ancients. The ftrtt mathematscal book 
he read was Des Cartes's Geometry, aud be tnade himself 
master of it by. dint of genius and application^ witiiout 
goin^ through the usual steps, or having the assistance of 
any persoiu His next book was the *^ Arithmetic of In* 
finites/' by Dr. Wallis. On these books be wrote. Gom« 
ments as be l?ead them, and reaped a rich harvest. of di«« 
coverieS) or more properly, indeed, made almost all his 
mathematical discoveries as he proceeded in their perusal. . 
•In 1664 he bought a prism, as appears by some, of ius 
own accounts of expences at Cambridge, to try some ex« 
periments upon Des Cartes's doctrine of colours, and. soon 
satisfied' himself that that philosopher's hypothesis, was 
. destitute of foundation ; and the further prosecution of the 
subject satisfied him respecting the. real nature of light and 
coiourti. He soon after drew.up an account of ^lisdoctrine^ 
which was published in the Philosophical Transactions, and 
unfortunately gave origin to a controversy between him 
and some foreign opticians, which produced an. unhappy 
effect on his mind, and prevented him from publishing his 
mathematical discoveries, as be > had originally intended. 
He communicated them^ however, to Dr. Barrow, who sent 
. an account of them to Collins and Oldenburg, and by that 
means they came to be known to the members of the roj'al 
society. He laici the foundation of all his discoveries- be* 
fore he was. twenty -four years of age. . 
• In contemplating' his genius, it becomes a doubt whidh 
of these endowments had . the greatest share, sagacity, 
penetration, strength, or diligence ; and^ after all, the maids 
that seems most to distinguish it is, that he himself made 
the justest estimation of it, declaring, that, if he had done 
the world a^ny service, it was due to nothing but industry 
and patient thought ; that he kept the subject under con* 
sideration constantly before him, and waited till the first 
dawning opened gradually, by little and little, into a. full 
and clear light ^. And hence no doubt arose that unusual 



* It is Mid that when he had any 
ndatbematicat problems or solntioos in 
Iris mindi be would never quit the sub- 
ject on any acoouat. And his servant 
has said, when he has been getting up 
in a morning, be has sonieiinies began 
to dress, and wjlh one leg in his 
breeches, sat down again on the bed. 
Where he has remained for hoars be- 
fote he has got his ctoth«f»oo: and 



that dinner has been often three, hl^urt 
ready for him before he couM he 
brought to table. Upoa this head ae^ 
veral little anecdotes are related ^ 
among which is the following : doctor 
Sktikety coming in accidentally o«ie 
day, when Newton^s dinner was hh 
for him upon the table, covered vp, 
as usual, to keep it warm till lie cooM 
find. it conyeDient to cent to taMtL^ 



N E W T O N. ,129 

*kind of horror which be bad for all disputes $ a steady 
unbroken attention, free from those frequent recoiliogs 

• inseparably incident to others, was his pecaliar felicity; 

• he knew it, and he knew the value of it. No wonder then 
: that controversy was looked on as his bane, wbeti some 
objections, hastily made to his discoveries concerning light 

and colours, induced him to lay aside the design he had of 
.publishing his optic lectures; we find him reflecting on 
that dispute, into which he was unavoidably drawn thereby, 
in these term^s : ** I blamed my own imprudence for part- 
ing with 80 real a blessing as my (]|uiet to run after a sha- 
dow." It is true, this shadow, as Fontenelle observes, did 
oot escape him afterwards, nor did it cost him that quiet 
which he so much valued, but proved as much a real hap- 
piness to him as his quiet itself; yet this was a happiness 
of his own making ; he took a resolution, from these, dis-^ 
jputes^ not to publish any more about that theory, till he 
bad put it above the reach of controversy, by the esactest 
experiments, and the strictest demonstrations; and, ac- 
cordingly, it has never been called in question since. 

In 1665, when he retired to his own estate on account 
of the plague, the idea of his system of gravitation first 
occurred to him in consequence of seeing an apple fall 
from a tree. This remarkable apple-tree is still remaining, 
and is usually shown to strangers as a curiosity. At that 
time, not being in possession of any accurate measure of 
the earth's surface, he estimated the force of gravity erro- 
neously, and found, in consequence, that it was not ca- 
pable alone of retaining the moon in her orbit. This in- 

the doctor lifting the cover, found un- lion to find that Diamond having over- 

der it a chicken, which be presently let a lighted candle amoug some pa- 

. ate, putting the bones in the dish, and pen, the nearly finished labour of 

replacing the corer. . Some time after, many years was in flames, and almost 

. Kewton came into the room, and after consumed to ashes. This loss, as sir 

the usual complhnents sat down to Isaac was then very far advanced in 

.i^i dinner; but, on taking up the co- years, was irretrievable; yet^ without 

irer, and seeing only the bones of the once striking the dog, he enly rebuked 

Ibwl left, be observed, with some little him with this exclamation, ^ Oh Dia- 

.anrprise, *' I thought I had not dined, mond ! Diamond ! thou little knowest 

bi9t I now find that I have."~^f the the mischief thou hast done !'' He was 

mildness of his temper, the following indeed of so meek And gedtle a dispo- 

.instaiiee has been 'gtwn. ^ir Isaac sition, and so great a lover of peace, 

/ikd a favourite little dog, which he that he would rather have chpsen to 

called piamond. Being one day called remain in obscurity, than to have the 

out of his study into the next room, calm of life rufl9ed> by those storms 
Diamond was \eSt <bebiBd. When sie , and disputes, which geoius. and leam- 

Isaac returned, having been abient but ing always draw Upon those tbat are 

a few minntes, he had the mortiflca- the ndoii eminent for them- 

vofc. xxin. K 



130 NEWTON. 

duced bim to dismiss his hypothesis at that tiine as ^effd- 
neous. But afteiTwards, when Picard had meiisured a de- 
gree of the earth*s Surface with tolerablie .accuracy, be 
^as enabled to make a mote pteeise 6stim'a1fe, -attd fetind 
that the forte of gravity exactly accounted for tbe ftidon's 
motion in her oi^bit. He applied his doctrine to the planets 
and the whole solar system, and found it to account, in 'a 
sntisT^ctory manner, for the whole phfeuohiefta of the mo- 
tions of these bodies. 

In 11664 he took his bachelor's degree, andih 166T'be 
was elected fellow of Trinity college. Tbe fdHowiug y^ar 
h6 took his masters degree, and in 1669 Dr. Barrow re- 
signed his mathematical professorship to him. In I6TI 
he was elected fellow of the royal society, ft has bee^ 
asserted that at this 'time he was so poor that he was 
obliged to apply to thp society for a dispensation from the 
usiial contribution of a shilling a week, which all the fel- 
lows of the society regularly paid. But this, in the opinion 
of his excellent biographer, whom we prinorpally follow, 
seems doubtful. His estates, for he had two, were wortb 
about 80/. a year, which, added to his fellowship and pro- 
fessorship, must have bedn sufficient for such a trifling 
espence. He had indeed his motfher and her family t^ 
support, but when we consider the expence of living rft 
this time, Mr. Newton, with abbdt 200/. a year, trs pi^o^ 
bable income, could not be reckoned a poor ^mtin. In ' 
1675 h& h^d ^ dispensation from king Charles H. to retain 
his felldwshi'p without taking drders. In 1687 he wa*i 
chosen one of the de/leg^tes to represent the university df 
Cambridge, before the high commission court, to answer 
for their refusing to' admit father Francis master of arts 
Upon king James's mandamlis, witho&t bis taking the oaths 
prescribed by the statutes; and M'as greatly instrumental ih 
persuading his colleagues to persist in the maintenance of 
their rights and privileges. So strenuous indeed was the 
defence whiFch be made, that James, infatuated as be was 
at this timie, thought proper to drop 'his pnetensions. in 
1688 be was chosen by the university of Cambridge, mem- 
ber of the convention parliament, and was again choven in 
1701. In 1696, the earl of Halifax, at that time Mr. Mon:- 
tague, and chancellor of the exchequer, who was a great 
patron of the learned, wrote to him that he bad prevniteA 
on the king to make him warden of the mint, a place worth 
five or six hundred pounds a year, and which JMr. Mod* 



NEWTON: 13^ 

tague etaied would luoit require more ftttendatice than b» 
covdd ispare. In this office he did signal serviice in the 
great re^^Goiaage which took place soon after, and is said 
to ha/iBe sa^^d fke oation 80,000^ In 1699 he wasmade 
nia«ter 4mk1 worker «of ,tbe naint, in which situation he con-r 
linued until his death, and behaved hitnsdf with an uni« 
loereai character of iaiegrity and disinterestedness. He 
had freqaenjt«>|»portumues of employing bis skill inmatfae-* 
matics and ohemstry, psrticaiariy in his '^ Tabie4)f Assays 
of Fareigfi Coins," which is printed at the end of Dr. AX'^ 
bmbnot's book of coins. 

iai 1701 he made Mr. Whiston his deputy professor of 
laatbeflttatios at Ca«i»bridge, and gave him all the salary 
froip dusit time, though he did not absolutdy resign the 
profesBoadiif) till 1703, in which year he was chosen pre^* 
siileot of tJ!i.e royal society, and continued to £jlthatha» 
nocirable sitnation till the time of his death. On April 
16, ilOSy he was knigbted by queen Anne, at Trinity 
cciiege lodge, damfaridge. 

While at the university, he spent the greatest part of 
bis time in his closet^ aod wbini he was tired with the 
severer studies of philosophy^ his relief and amusement 
was going to some other study, as history, chronology, 
divinity, chemistry ; all which he examined with the great- 
est attention, as appears by the many papers which he 
left behind him on those subjects. After his coming to 
London *, all the time he could spare from his business^ 
«nd from the civilities of life, in which he was scrupulously 
exact and complaisant, was employed in the aame way ; 
and he was hardly ever alone without a pen in bis hand, 
and a book before him : and in all the studies which he 
undertook, he had a perseverance and patience aquall lo 
ills sagacity and invention. His niece, afterwards married 
to Mr. Condoitt, who succeeded turn as .master of the mint, 
liv^ed with him about twenty years during his residence in 
London. He always lived in a very handsome, generous 
iBMiner, though without ostentaction or vanity ; always hosr- 
jpitaUe, and, upon proper occasions, be gave splendid 
entertainvients. He was .generous and oharitable witbouft 
bounds ; and ihe used to say that they sviio gave away 

* Uia London reud^nce |V9S chiefly .^mall bb^enntory. This was. fift^> 

at a ,hou»e at the corner of Long's warde occupted for many years by the 

totirt, HI (St Martin's street, Leiooster- ')fl((«vi9AeraUe>Dr. Bpruey. 
fifkii, 0|i .tlveniQf of wbi<^ lie b^iillta 

K2 



1S4 



NEWTON. 



krngs, trpon wliich be was persuaded, witb eonsid^raUe 
difficoltyy to take a house in Kensington, wbere he bad, ht 
his eighty^foarth year, a fit of the gout, for the second 
time, having had a slight attack of it some yeftrs befofe< 
This fit left him in better health than he had enjoyed for 
several years. In the winter of 1725, be wanted to resign 
bis sitnation as master of the mint to his nephew, Mr. Con- 
duitt, but this gentleman would not permit his resignation^ 
but offered to conduct tbe whole business in his place : and 
for abofft a year before bis death sir Isaskc hardly ever weol 
ti> the Mini, trusting entirely to the management of bia 
nephew. 

On Ttiesday, Feb. 28, 1727, be went to town, in order 
to attend a meeting of the Royal Society. Next day Mr^ 
Conduitt paid him a visit, and found him apparently in 
better health than be bad enjoyed for several years. Sir 
Isaac was sensible of it himself, and told his nephew, smil- 
itig, that he had slept tbe Sunday before from eleven at 
night till eight in the moriftng, without waking. But bis 
fatigue in attending the Soeiety, and in paying and re- 
oeiving visits, brought bis old complaint violently upon 
bim *. Dr. Mead and Mr. Cheselden were carried out to 
Kensington to see hibfi, by Mr. Conduitt. They immedi« . 
ately pronounced his disease to be the stone in tbe bladder^ 
and gave no hopes of his recovery. The stone was pro- 
bably removed from the place where it lay quiet, by the 
great motion and fatigue of bis last journey to London. 
From this time be bad violent fits of pain, with scarcely any 
intermission : and theugh tbe drops of sweat ran down his 
face with anguish, he never complained, nor cried out, iid^r 
shewed tbe least sign of peevishness' or impatience; and, 
dnrifng the short intervals from that violent torture, would 
smile and talk witb his usual cheerfulness. On Wednesday 



* Dr. Pear«e, afterwards bp. of Ro- 
chester, had an interview with sir IsHac 
a few.dayH before liiideaib|Wb«ti be read 
to tbe doctor a part of bis Chronology 
for Dpar an hoar. Happening to speak 
of sdme fact, he conld not reeotieei 
tbe name of the king in whose reign it 
httppened, and therefore complaioed 
qf his memory beginning to fail him ; 
but he added immediately, that it was 
in snch a year jof sncb an olympiad, 
naming them both yery exactly. Ds« 
Pearce very justly considered the ready 
mention of suqh chrvMtpgiciii d«ittS|; 



as a greater proof of bis memory not 
failing bim, than the naming of the 
king Wdnld have been. Newton'a 
Cbnnology, edit. 1770, p. 10, wbere 
this account was first published, in 
c^^ntradiction of a report that our great 
philosopher's faculties had failed him 
some time before bis death. It is highly 
plwper that such a report should ba 
contradicted ; but some decay of foeol- 
ties in a man whose mind had been on 
tbe stretch for seyeoty years, would 
not liibT««beea vooderful* 



N E W T O N. 



ISS 



M^rchl^ he. w^s somewbajt better^ aud fallacious hopes 
wer^ entertained of hi§ recovery. On Saturday March 18 
be r^ad the new&pap^r^, s^od held a pretty long couver-- 
SJ^tion with Dr. Mead, and had all bis sens.^s perfect; but^ 
that evening at si^^^ and ^11 Sunday^ he was insen&ible^ 
and died on Monday March 2Q., 1727^^ between one and 
t%vro o'clock in the morning; having reached th^ ag^ of 
^igbty-fo^r years and a few mon^^s, and retained all hi^ 
senses and faculties to the end of his lifeji stropg, vigurouis, 
and lively. He continued writing and stuctying many hoars^ 
every day, till tbe period of his last illne&s. Althoi^gh he 
had lived with great splendour and liberality, and had Qri-> 
ginally but a stnall property, he accumulated 32,QO0L of 
pergonal estate: which was divided between bis four ne^ 
phew$ ai^d nieces of half-blood *. The land which, he hacjl 
pf t^i^ father and mother descended to bi$ heir of the whol^i 
bloQ^, J^n Newton^ whose gr^at grand-father was sir 
Isa^c'^ uncle. 

Sir. Isaac wais rernarkably liberal to all bis relations, par-, 
ticularly to his mother'^ family by ^^r. Sipitb| giving to 
one jiOQ/. to another an estate of 4000/. or tb^reabouts, to 
make up a loss occasioned by the imprudent iparriage of 
one of them, and to prevent a lawsuit among themselves. 
This was done many years before his death. He had a 
half-sister^ who had a daughter, to wbgrn be gave the best 
of educations. Thi^ was ^' the famous witty Miss Barton," 
who marrjed Mr« Conduitt; ^ir I^aac bought an estate of 
70^^ or 30/. a-year^ smd gave it to their daughter Miss 
Copduitt, then very young, who was ;ifterwarda married to 
the eldesi son of lord Lymiugton^ froo) wbQ(9 the present 
earl of Pqrtsmoutb is descended. He ly^^QU^Ily l^ind tq 
his mother's re^l^tions, the Ay^coughs, sppae qf whom had 
been imprudent, and needed bis help. To one he gavq 
800/.' to another 200/. aud many other i^um^, apd fre<* 
quently became security for tbenn* He is ^aid never to 
have sold the copies of any of his works, but gave then) 
frf;ely to the booksellers. Mr* Seward appears therefore, tp 



^ It appears that t|iese nepbew$ 
a«d -uteces be»tow€d certain uvirn^ ia 
charity, as th^y tbQiight i?ou)d «U? qr^' 
<)it to Iheir ancle; particularly we 
find' 40/. given by ihem to the poor 
•f Weolptborpe. aod CQlsterwortb, m 
l^iocolpshire. Sir T8%|ic had contri- 
buted about two years before his death' 



to (he erection of a gallery iq Colster- 
worth church. Se^ bis correspondenoi 
09 the subject in G^nt. M^g. vol. UX4 
p, 775. In the same vol. p. 1076, is 
his pedigree, written by himself ; and 
on the }^4ter pppofUe p 798, is »49^m 
simile of bis i^ M/f (^ou(kuitt's h^Mr 
writing. 



136 NEWT ON. 

bave been greatly mistaken in imputing a desire of gain 
to sir Isaac because he bad some concern in the South-- 
Sea bubble, and lost, according to his niece's report, 20,000/. 
Even this loss made no alters^tion in his liberality, and in 
point of fact, it appears that the greatest instances of his 
(indness to his relations and friends occurred after the year 
1720. The John Newton above mentioned, who inherited 
his real estate, died in 1737, at the age of thirty. He is 
said to have been illiterate and intemperate* With him the 
family of Newton became extinct. 

Sir Isaac Newton was buried with great magnificence, at 
the public expence. On March 28, he lay in state in the 
Jerusalem-chamber, and was buried from thence in West-^ 
minster -abbey, near the entry into the choir. The spot 
is one of the most conspicuous in the abbey, and bad 
been previously refused to different noblemen who had 
applied for it. The pa(l was supported by the lord high 
chancellor, the dukes of Montrose and Roxborough, and 
the earls of Pembroke, Sussex, and Macclesfield, being 
fellows of the Royal Society. The hon. sir Michael New-* 
ton, knight of the Bath, was chief mourner, and was fol- 
lowed by some other relations, and some eminent persons 
intimately acquainted with sir Isaac. The office was per-* 
formed by the bishop of Rochester, Dr. Bradford, attended 
by the prebendaries and choir. A magnificent monument 
was afterwards erected to his memory, in the abbey, and, by 
the munificence of the late Dr. Robert Smith, master of 
Trinity college^ the antichapel of that college contains an 
admirable full-length statue of sir Isaa^, by Roubilliac 
Medals also were struck to his memory, one by Croker of 
our mint ; one by Dassier of Geneva ; and another by Roet« 
tiers in France. The only portrait for which he ever sat was 
by Kneller, and is, if we mistake not, in the collection of 
the duke of Rutland. 

Thel first life of this illustrious man which appeared was 
drawn up by Fontenelle, from materials furnished by sir 
Isaac^s nephew, and published in the memoirs of the French 
Academy. Why none of his countrymeq executed such 
an undertaking we shall not inquire.' This, however, is 
the life from which all succeeding biographers have ex- 
tracted their materials, and it formed the ground-work of 
the long, but somewhat confused account, that has hitherto 
appeared in this dictionary. But, lild^ almost all the; 
eloges^ published in the ipenioirs of the French Ac^demyi 



NEWTON. 137 

it seeins better calculated to display the abititiesi and an^ 
«wer the private views of Fontenelle, than to convey ac-» 
curate information. Mr. Edmund Tumor has lately fa* 
voured the world with the original life of Newton, drawn 
tip by Mr. Conduitt, for the information of Fontenelle, 
and with a most interesting letter of Dr. Stukely on the 
same subject, from the MSS. in the possession of the earl 
of Portsmouth. But although Mr. Tumor's " Collection* 
for the Town and Soke of Glrantbam," the work to which 
we allude, was published in 1806, Dr. Thomson was the 
first who availed* himselF of it, to enrich his valuable 
"** History of the Royal Society." In the preceding ac* 
count, therefore, we have generally followed Dr. Thom- 
son, who has unquestionably the merit of giving tbie pub- 
lic the most accurate and elegant account of the personal 
history of sir Isaac, a man, said Dr. Johnson, who, had he 
flourished in ancient Qreece^ would have been worshipped 
as a divinity. 

Any investigation of his mathematical discoveries, or a 
laboured analysis of his philosophy, called, by way of dis-> 
tinction, the Newtonian, would be out of place in a work 
of this kind, and to be satisfactory would exceed all bounds. 
Dr. Keill said that if all philosophy and mathematics were 
considered as consisting of ten parts, nine of them would 
be found entirely of his discovery and invention. *^ Does 
Mr. Newton eat, drink, or sleep, like other meu?'* said 
the marquis de 1* Hospital, one of the greatest mathema- 
ticians of the age, to the English who visited him. *^ I re- 
present him to myself as a celestial genius entirely dis« 
engaged from matter.^* Of his philosophy, properly so 
called, the great principle is the power of gravity: this 
bad been hinted' at by Kepler^ but the glory of bringing 
it to a physical demonstration was reserved for Newton. 
It was first made public in 1686, but republished in 1713^ 
with considerable improvements. Several other authors 
have since attempted to make it plainer^ by setting aside 
many of the. more sublime mathematical researches, and 
substituting either more obvious reasoning, or experifiients, 
in lieu of them ; particularly Whiston, in his ^^ Praslect. 
Phys. MatHemat. ;";S'Gravesande, in " Element, et Instit.** 
Pr. Pemberton, in his "View;" and Maclaurin, in his 
excellent work, entitled-^* An Account of sir Isaac New-^ 
ton's philosophical Ptscbveries.*' 



|3» NEWTON. 

. NotwitfastandiDg the great merit of this philosophy, itnd 
the uaiversal reception it has met with at home,| it gained 
ground at its first pubhcation but slowly abroad, and Car-*' 
tesi^nism^ Huygenianism, and Leibnitzianism, maintained 
their ground^ till the force of truth prevailed. It ia^ now, 
however^ held in the utmost veneration both.athooae and 
libroad. The philosophy itself is laid down principally in 
ii\e ihird book of the Principia. The two preceding book^ 
^e taken up in preparing the way for it, and laying down 
such principles of mathematics as have the nearest relation 
lo philojiopby : such are the laws and conditions of powers^ 
And these, to render them less dry and geometrical, th« 
author illustrates by scholia in philosophy^ relating chieflj 
to the density and resistance of bodies, the motion of light 
imd sounds, a vacuum, &c. In the third book he proceeds 
to the philosophy itself; and from the same principles de* 
duces the structure of the universe, and the powers of 
gravity, by which bodies tend towards the sun and planets^ 
9ind from these powers, the motion of planets, and comets, 
the theory of the moon, and the tides. This book, which 
he calls '^ De Muudi Systemate/' he tells us was first 
written in the popular way ; but. considering, that such a^ 
are unacquainted with the said principles would not conr 
ceive the force of the consequences, nor be induced to lay 
aside their ancient prejudices, be afterwards digested the 
f»um of, that book into propositions, in the mathematical 
manner ; so as it might only come to be re^d by such a^ 
bad first considered the principles ; not that it is necessary 
a man should master them all ^ many of them, even the first- 
rate mathematicians, would find a difficulty in getting 
over. It is enough to have read the definitions, laws of mo« 
tion, and the three first sections of the first book : after 
^hich the author himself di^rects us to pass on to the book 
♦* De Systemate Muiidi." 

Newton's opinion of God is well expressed by Br^cker : 
^' pod governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but 
as the Lord of the universe. The Supreme Deity is an 
eternal, infinite, and absolutely perfect Being, omnipotent 
and omniscient: that is, his duration extends from eterr 
nity to eternity, and his presence from infinity to infinity; 
be governs all things, and knows all things which e:xist, or 
cgn be known. Heis not eternity or infinity, but eternal 
and infinite : he is not duration or space, but he endure^i, 
and is present; he endures for ever, and is present every 



NEWTON. W« 

I 

vbere. Siivce (every porticm of space is always, And every 
indivisible onomene of duration is every where, certainly 
the Maker and Lord of all things cannot be never or iiq-» 
where. God is Qoinipresent not virtually only, but sub« 
stsintially^ for power cannot subsist without substance. In 
biln all tbiogs are contained and mave» but without re-^ 
ciprocal affection : God' is not affected by the motion of 
bodies, nor do bodies suffer resistance from the dmnipre^ 
senceofGocL 

^* It is universally allowed, that God exists necessarily; 
4»id by the same necessity be exists always and evecy 
where. Whence he is throughout simitar, all eye, all ear^ 
all brain, all arm, all power of perceiving, understand-v 
ing, and acting ; but in a manner not at all human ; in a 
maoner not at all corporeal ; in a manner to us.altogethet 
unknown. As a blind man has no idea of colours, so we 
bave no idea of the manner in which the Most Wiae God 
perceives and understands all things. He is entirely 
without body and bodily form, and therefore can neither 
be seen, nor heard, nor touched ; nor ought he to be wor*« 
shipped under any corporeal representation. We h^ve 
ideas of his attributes, but what the substance of anything 
is we are wholly ignorant. We see only the figures aj>d 
colours of bodies ; we hear only sounds ; we touch only 
toternal superficies; we smell only odours; we taste only 
savours ; of their internal substances we have no knowledge 
by any sense, or by any reflex act of the mind : .mueb 
less have we any idea of the substance of God. We know 
him only by bis properties and attributes, by the most wise 
and excellent structure of things, and by final causes ; and 
we reverence and worship him on account of his dominion^ 
A God without dominion, providence, aod design, is not 
thing else but Fate and Nature.'' > 

While many learned mathematicians, and celebrated 
writers, have attempted to illustrate and explain different 
parts of the writings of Newton, some have ventured to 
call in question the ground of his philosophy. It has been 
objected, that attraction, the first principle in the Newto<t> 
uian philosophy, is in reality one of those occult qualities 
which Newton professes to reject. But to this it is satis# 
factorily replied, that the power of gravity is not an un^ 
known cause, since its existence is proved from the phas* 
Bomena. The Newtonian philosophy does not require, that 
the cause of gravitation should be explained. It merely 



146 N fi W T O N* 

ftssuineii an incontrovertible fact, that bodies gravitate! t6^ 
wards each other according to a known law, and, by the 
help of geometrical reasoning, deduces from this fact cer-^ 
tain conclusions. Newton himself expressly asserts; thai 
it is enough for him that gravity realty exists, though it«: 
cause be not certainly known. In truth no words can be 
more explicit than those in which Newton disclaimB all re- 
liance upon hypothetical principles, or occult qualities, and 
makes experience the only foundation of his philosophy. 

Dissatisfied with the hypothetical grounds on which for- 
mer philosophers, particularly Des Cartes, bad raised tbe^ 
structure of natural philosophy, Newton adopted the man* 
ner of philosophising introduced by lord Bacon, and de-^ 
termtbed.to raise a system of natural philosophy on the 
basis of experiment. He laid it down' as a fundamental 
rule,' that nothing is to be assumed as a principle, which' 
is not established by observation and experience, and that 
no hypothesis is to be admitted into physics, except as » 
question, the truth of which is to be examined by its 
agreement with appearant*es. " Whatever," says he, " id 
not deduced from phaenomena, is to be called an hypo*^ 
thesis : and hypotheses, whether physical or metaphysical,' 
whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no places 
in experimental philosophy.*' In this philosophy^ propo-^ 
aitionrs are drawn from phs^nomena, and are rendered 
general by induction. This plan of philosophising he pur- 
sued id two difFeirent methods, the Analytic and the Syn-^ 
tbetic ; collecting from certain phasnomena the forces of 
nature, and the more simple laws of these forces ; and then 
prociaeding, on the foundation of these, to establish the 
rest. In explaining, for example, the system of the world/ 
be first. proves, firom experience, that the power of gravi- 
tation belongs to all bodies: then, assuming' this as an 
established principle, he demonstrates, by mathematical 
reasoning, that the earth and sun, and all the planets; 
mutaally attract each otb^r, and that the smallest parts of 
matter in each have their several attractive forces, which 
are as their quantities of matter, and which, at different 
distances, are inversely as the squares of. their distances; 
In investigating the theorems of the ^* Principia," Newton 
made use of his own analytical method of fltfxions; but, 
in explaining his system, he has followed the synthetic 
method of the ancients, and demonstrated the theorems 
geometrically. 



NEWTON. Hi 

. The foDowiog^ we presume, is a correct list of the works 
iifNewton, published before or- after his death. 1, Seve* 
ral papers relating to his ** Telescope,'' an^ his ^\ Thegry 
of Light arid Colours/' printed in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, numbers 80, .81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 96, 97, 110, 
121, 123, 128; or vols. YI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XL 2. 
^^ Optics, or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, and 
Inflections, and the Colours of Light," 1704, 4to; a Lsi^tin 
translation by Dr. Clarke, 1706, 4to; and a^ French trsuis- 
lation by Pet. Coste, Anost. 1729, 2 vqls. 12ino^ beside 
several English editions ip 9vo., 3. '^ Optical Lectures,^* 

1728, 8to ; also in several Letters to Mr, Qldehburg, se* 
eretary of the Royal Society. 4. '^ Lectipoes Optica,'* 

1729, 4to. 5. '^Naturalis Philosophise Principia Mathe- 
laatica," 1687, 4to; a second editiqn in 1713, wjth a Pre- 
face, by Roger Cotes ; the third edition in. 1726, under 
the direction of Dr. Pembertqi^; an English translation, by 
JMotte, 1729, 2 vols. 8vo, printed in several editions of hi* 
works, in different nations, particularly an edition, with a 
large Commentary, by the two learned Jeauits, Le Seur 
and Jacquier, in 4 vols. 4to, in ,1739, 17'40, and 1742. ^» 
** A System of the World," translated from the Latin ori- 
l^inaj, 1727, 8vp ; this was at first intended to make the 
third book of his Principia ; an Engliish translation , by 
Motte, 1729, 8vo. 7. Several Letters to Mr. Flamsteed, 
Dr. Halley, and Mr. Oldenburg. 8. <^ A Paper concern- 
ing the. Longitude,", drawn up by order of the House of 
Commons, ibid. 9. *^ Abreg6 de Chronologie," &c. 172^, 
under the direction of the abb6 Conti, together with some 
'observations upon it. 10. ^^ Remarks upon the Observa- 
tions made upon a Chronological Index of Sir I. Newton," 
&Cw Philos. Trans, vol. XXXIII. §ee also the same, voL 
XXXIV and XXXV, by Dr. Halley. 1 1. " The Chrono^ 
Jpgy of Ancient Kingdoms amended," &c. 1728, 4to. 12. 
*^ Arithmetica Universalis," &c. under the inspectipn of 
Mr. Whiston, Cantab. 1707, 8vo. Printed, Dr. Hutton 
thinks, iwithout the author's consent, and even against his 
.will : aa offence .which it seems was never forgiven. There 
are also English editiqns of the same, particularly one by 
Wilder, with a Commentary, in 176^, 2 irols. 8vo^ and ^ 
JLatin edition, with a , Commentary^ by Castilion, 2:|rol9. 
410, Amst. &c. '13. ** Analysis per, Quantitatuoi Series, 
Fltt^^iones, et Differentias,. cum Enunieratione Lin^arum 
Tertii Ordinis," ,17il, 4to, under the inspection 9f;W^ 



1455 N E W T O K. 

Jones^ e^q. F. R. S. ; the last tract had been pub^isbecl be^ 
fore, together with another on the Quad-ratufe of Carves^ 
by the method of fluxions, under the title of ** Tr««tatu6 
dtio de Speciebus & Magnitudine Figurarum Curviiinea*- 
ruui/' subjoined to the first edition of his Optics in 1704 ; 
and other letters in the Appendix to Dr. Gregory*^ Catop;- 
tries, &G. 1735, 8vo; tinder this head may foe ranked 
** Newtoni Genesis Curvarum per Umbras/' Leyden, 1740. 
14. Several Letters relating to his Dispute vrith Leibttitz, 
upon his right to the invention of Fluxions ; printed fa tht 
** Commercium EpistoHcum D. Johannis Collins & alionitil 
de Analysi Promota, jussa Societatis Regise editum,*' a 7 12, 
Svo. 15. Pdstscript and Letter of M. Leibnitz to th* 
Abbe Contd, mth RemaHcs, and a Letter of bis own to that 
Abb^, 1717, 8vo. To which was added, Raphson*s His* 
tory of Fluxions, as a Supplement. 16, ** The Method of 
Fluxions, and Analysis by Infinite Series," translated into 
EDgtisfh from the original Latin ; to which is added, a Per- 
petual Commentary, by the translator Mr. John Colson, 
17S6, 4to. 17. " Several Miscellaneous Pieces, ami Let- 
ters," as follow : I. A Letter to Mr. Boyle upon the sub^- 
ject of the Philosopher's Stone. Inserted in the General 
Dictionary, under the article Boyle. IL A Letter to Mr. 
A^ton, containing directions for his travels, ibid, under 
our author's article ; HI. An English translation of a Latin 
Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews., Inserted 
among the miscellaneous works of Mr. John Greaves, vol. If. 
published by Dr. Thomas Sirdh, in 1737, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Tikis Dissertation was found sub^oiwed to a work of sir 
Isaac's, not finished, entitled •^^ Lexicon Propheticum ;** 
IV. Four Letters from sir Isaac Newton *to Dr. Bentley, 
containing isome ai^uments in proof of a Deity, 1756, 8vo, 
very acutely reviewed by Dr. Johnson in the Literary Ma- 
gazine, and afterwards inserted in his works ; V. Two Let- 
ters to Mr. Clarke, &c. IfJ. " Observations on the Pro- 
pbecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John,'* 1733, 
4tt). 19. ** Is. Newtoni Elementa Perspectivae Univer- 
saiis,'^ 1746, 8vo. 20. " TaWes fer puh^hasing CoHegfe 
Leases,'' 1742, l2mo. 21. " Cordlhiries,** by Whiston. 
22.' A collection of several pieces of otn* «uthor*s, under 
the following title, " Newtoni Is. Opuscula Mathemattca 
Philos. & Philol. eollegit J. Castilioneus/' Laus. 1744, 4to, 
8 tomes. 23. ** Two Treaftises of the-Quadrattrre of Curves, 
and Analysis by Equations of an Infinite Nuniber of Terms, 



N Ei W T O N. 1*3 

explttitied : translated by John Stewart, wiih .a Jarge Co«- 
xnentary," 1 745, 4to. 24. " Description of an Iii$tru(ne»t 
for obs^erving the Moon's Distance from the Fixed Stars at 
Sea/' Phites. Trans, vol. XLII; 25, Newton also pub- 
lished *' Bartow's Optical Lectures," 1699, 4to; and " Bern. 
Varetiii Geographia,*' &c. 16^1, ^vo. 26. The whole 
works of Newton, published by Dr. Horsley^^ 1779, 4tD, 
in 5 vo/lumes. , 

Besides the above, he teft a vac^ quantity of mam^cripts 
a:nd papers relative to chmnology and cimrrcli history, many «f 
which^re copies x)ver and over agaim, often with little or no 
variation ; the whole number being upwards of 40OQ sheets 
in foHo, or 8 reams of folio paper. Of irfaseae there have 
been pubirslied only the •* XJfarondogy," and "Obter- 
vatnons on the Propfaectes df Daniel and /the Apooatjrpae 
of St. John."* 

NEWTON (RfCHARID), D. D. femider of Hertford col- 
lege, 'Oxford, was descended from a femily diat had het^g 
heeti d considerable reptrte, and <3ff good >£(iftane, bitt 
mtrch injured during the civil wairs. His father ^enjoiped ;a 
tnoderstte estate ttt Lavendon -Grange, in Bucks, (wbioh is 
now in the family,) and lived in aiboose jdf lord NonthiMitp- 
ton'*s in Yardly-chase, where Dr. Newton is said to bane 
been bom about 1€76. He was educated at Wiestmimster* 
school, and elected from that foundalhon in 1694 Ao a sttt- 
dentship of dhrist-^cburch, Oxford^ where he execiijbed the 
office of tutor vety much t^ his own amd tlie college's 
honour and benefit. Here he ^became M. A. April i2, 
1701.; and B. D. March 18, 1707. He was inducted jprviA- 
cipai of Hart-hall, by Dr. Aldrioh, in I7i0, and toojc tiato 
'degree of D. D. Dec. 7, that yesjt. He was received inu> 
lord Pelham*s family, to superinteiad ahe educatsion of the 
late duke of Newcastle, tbe (minister, and his brother Mr. 
Pelham, who ever retained a most affectionate regard far 
him. Of this, however, be was long without any substan- 
tial proo&. '^Being a man of too independent and libett^l 
principles ever to solicit a -favour for binoael^ ^he .was (Otvex- 
looked by these statesmen, till, in 1752, a -short time be- 
*fove his death, %vhen he was promoted to a canonry of 
'Ohrrst-church, which he held with his principaJship of 
EFertford-coHege. 'He 'was honoured with <the esteem of 

i*^homKin<8'tIiHnr]r^<^ the Royal 9octetT4>^Biof. Brit-^Gen. pict^Aanu^l 
iftegiiter'fojTj n76i—Brttcker, 



144 N E Vt O N. 

the late lord Granville, than whom none at that time vvus 
abetter judge of merit and men of learning. He was al- 
lowed td be as polite a scholar and as ingenious a writer as 
any ef the age. In closeness of argument, and perspicuity 
and elegance'of langdage, he had not his iequaL Never 
was any private person employed in more trusts, or dis- 
charged them with greater integrity. He was a trqe friend 
to religion, the university, and the clei*gy ; a man of ex« 
' eiiiplary piety, and extensive charity.- No one man was 
called forth so often to preach, in the latter end of queen 
* Anne's time, and in the beginning of king George L a» 
Dr. Newton^ 

Bp. Comptoh^ who bad a kind affection, and just esteemf 
for him^ collated him to the reQtdry of Sudbury in North*^ 
amptonshire, where, during a residence of some years, he 
discharged the duties of bis office with exemplary care and 
fidelity. Amongst othi^r pSirticulars, be read the evening-^ 
: prayers of the liturgy at bis church on the week-day even- 
ings, at iseveii of the clock, hay- time and harvest excepted, 
for the benefit of such of his parishioners as could then 
assemble for public devotions. When be returned to Ox-« 
ford, about 1724, be enjoinefd his respective curates suc- 
cessively, to keep up the same good rule ; which thejr 
•faithfully observed. He everted also bis biest endeavours^, 
from time to time, to prevail with the succeeding bishops 
' of London (Gibson particularly) to bestow this rectory cm 
his curate for the time being, and ou each successively, 
and be would resign the charge; but these applications 
were without success. His lordship^s successor, Bp. Sher- 
lock, however, readily consented to Dr. Newton^s propo- 
sal; and Mr. Saunder3, one of his curates, accordingly 
succeeded the doctor' in the rectory. Dr. Newton died at 
Lavendon Grange, April 21, 1753, aged about seventy* 
seven. 

The MSS. of Mr. Jones, published in the Gentleman^s 
Magazine for 1783, have furnished the following detached 
memoranda concerning him: *' Avery sensible, thoughtful, 
judicious, and a truly honest man. His writings shew his 
learning, judgment, and integrity ; and his life exempli- 
fied every Christian virtue. He was my very good friend ; 
and a promoter of my studies. I entirely loved and re- 
spected him living, and I shall always revere his memory 
now he is dead. Most orderly and exact in his family. at 
Lavendon Grange (where I often visited him)> as well as 



N B W TO If. 14^ 

10 hifl college.'. Discreet and punctual in evdry part of bii^ 
conduct* Highly and justly esteemed by all the wise* and 
good. He lamented the indolence and inactivity, and was 
grieved to observe the seculai^ views and ambitious schemes^ 
of some of tbe heads of colleges and balls ; but he, for hisi 
jpwn parti resolved to do bis duty, as became a good go*- 
veroor, and ;a friend to useful discipline and learning. An 
example of temperance and decency in every part of .bis 
behaviour; and of great moderation lilso, in respect of the 
different sentiments of his fellow^protestants. He valued, 
and occasionally visited, and would converse, and some-^ 
times dine with, Dr. Doddridge, when he came to North-* 
ampton.^' He^ saw that they both aimed at the same great 
and good end, in fitting up hopeful young students for the 
Christian ministry. He usually made excursions, in the 
long vacations, into various parts of the kingdom, most 
commonly taking with him, for company and improvement; 
one or more young gentlemen of fortune in his college, at 
the ^request, and with the approbation, of tbeir parents. 
He was himself, in every respect, a gentleman, and a maa- 
of refined good breeding. You might see this in every 
part^of his conversation. - At evening, upon such journeys, 
he would, a little before bed** time, desire his young pupils 
to indulge him in a short vacation of about half an hour^ 
for bis own private recollections. During that tittle inters 
val they were, silent, and he would smoke his pipe ^ with 
jgvezt composure, and then chat with them again in aib 
useful manner for a short space, and, bidding them a good 
night, go to his rest. 

** He. died at Lavendon Grange, extremely lamented by 
aU the poor of that neighbourhood, to whom he was a kind 
benefactor, and by all his friends and acquaintance through-^ 
Qut the kingdom. Upon his death-bed, he ordered all his^ 
writings to be destroyed, as his worthy widow informed 
me; and she was a conscientious person. His friend, Dr» 
Bunt, advised her to be cautious, and to be sure she did 
not mistake his. meaning, especially with regard to some 
articles. I also, to whom she paid a favourable regard,* 
presumed to suggest the same caution. -How far that 
good lady proceeded in the proposed destruction of the 
worthy doctor's papers, I am not able to say; but do hi-* 
therto suppose she reduced them to • ashes *. Upon a 

' * Hit Senoonk were sxeeptedi and some of then publlthed after bis death, as 
wiU be hereaftet noticed. . -; 

voL.xxin. . L 






146 Jl E W T N. 

• \ 

m 

▼aicancy of the public ordftor*^ pbci^ aft Oxford, Ni^toA 
o£Rered himself a candidste ; bat Digby Cotes^ theti^ feHo# 
of All Souls- college^ and afterwards prtncipaf of Imgderen*^ 
Jiall, carried the point against bim. Newfeotfs fihiendi 
thought hiov to be by for the more qualified persofi for thte^t 
emiilent post; though orator Digby ^as a4«o, i thifnk, tL 
man of worth as well as reputatioii. Newtfbn suri^ved Kiftf. 
Dr. Newton was well. skilled in the modeilr^ fbteftgn' lan*^ 
guages, as well as in the ancient Oneself Gteeee and Romiei 
A welUpotished gentleman, and, at the saiike tiilde^, a- snn^ 
cere Christian. He carried dignity iri bis aspect, but 
sweetened with great modesty, hunnility, and fireedotn of 
conversation. This I know, having carefully observed 
him, and having always found bim even and uWiforol, botK 
in his temper and in his conduct. One- thing comes- nov^ 
into my mind, fielng a gaest< for a night or two it Bni 
bouse at Lavendon, in the suntrtfier 1749^ and in ttiy vfkf 
to Oxford a«id London, &c. I had much familiar and f¥ed 
discourse with bim, and partiiSularly upon the subject' of d 
yeasonable reform in soofie paFticuUrs relating to our eccte-^ 
aiastical establishment; a reformy to which be wais a hearty 
weli^wisher. One evening, there being present bis wbrW' 
thy vice-principal Mr. Saunders, and aa irtgentous youngf 
gentleman of fortune, a- pupil of Saunders, the doctot 
was pleased to propose to u^ this question : What share are 
we to allow to Commen Sertist wiA Reason^ in matters of Re^ 
ligionf Those two gentlemeti and' myself being silent, b0 
addressed himself particulaEly to me, who Was, in point of 
age, superior to them both. I freely answere^d, that, iti^ 
my poor opinion, the due exercise of commot^ sense and 
ileasoU) and private judgment ra all matters df.>eIi^gron>' 
ought to be allowed to all Christians. He said, he was* ot 
the sarnie mind. He read prayers in his i^mrly at Laveli-*^ 
don, morning and evening, being select parts of the pub*'' 
Ire liturgy. Oa Wednesdays and Fridays the litany only.' 
He appointed to his studious guests several separate apart** 
ments (being parlours) for private study, with pen,.inkV 
and paper, for each, and tbe use of his library, which waif 
neair those apartments, &c. Wh^n Pelhatafi wtis minist^ 
tiiat station corrupted the man, artd made hxtti^ Tdke otheir 
ministers ; for when he Was asked why he did not place, in 
proper station, the able and'mefitorions Dr. Newton, hre 
said, ' How could I do it? he never asked oie v* ^getdivg 
l^is tutor. Mr. Pelham more than once employed Dr/ 
Newton to furnish king^s speeches." 



i(^mw tetxMkbitted^ W^s' ath mrfbriirnatte spl^cukfticm. ft 
^p^&s pV^ced^d- by ftoin^ phaBlicatidntf cralbtikt^eff. to itikk 
llmWfi ttifrbj^tiions on &(^ad«3iti26 ^diit^sttiM. Tlife flrit df 
t&^M, #b)dl' sppetti^ed iv 1 7^, waid etititle^ *^A Sciemb of 
IHft^ifitHie,- #ltii Stotut^ ii^hd^d id be estabti^^^ct by' ^ 
Tbysil diiar««lr fex" thU ^Utiitim a( ybtiVt itt H^t^^h^il ;'* ^nd 
to <7«5, h^ itew up the stattfi^rf of tf^MotfA^tiAUgk'^ 

Ksbed hw « Uiikei'sity Edtfai«6rf/* irhich ebid!jr Avi 
tl» ifa^ Hiikovsit ot ^ttidenttf ft'onf ^t^ cdlje^e to aiYottf^r^ 
without the leave of their, respectiW gbt^rn6'n, c* (xf ^tife 
dMh<^^k>r. Tb)^ sj^dars id HaVe ini^oWed hiM iti ^dme 
«»^l^^Hi«lr aIter<6^«foti>»' fi4t1r m Bretbren; Ru ^ti^ifTitfatfiorA 
Mr g a^tttiet t& idle H^rt-Kall from utrder the jutisdHctio^ 
§f Bi6tef-66llege, tod erect it into ta iftdepetfdent t6tt6g^ 
•^^teS^^nred d cdht^6T'et$y ]|»a^e6ti Aim a^hd Dr. d6;^6^f^. 
«edf rector of^Eite^, aM ^ti^r^i^d^ b)^bop' 6f Biistdt and 
cteiN^ 6f G^mt-c^Burch. Itf *iigli^ lr4t). fiWev^^, hfe obi 
tained tb^ clla(i*tei^ Ibt rai^^ H^t-b^li itito a; tidtpdiUii 
college, far tlse tivaal studM ^ iM fWteilf ttf (SMsTst of a 
priucipal, four ^^Sl^i^fr felbiifi^ 6>^ ttKtii^^^ ^r^ jtiiiior fellows 
0t9Bn9imt^y e^^{iro^a«loiiai7^«tuxt6fit»y tw^fl^fo^t M^ 
tiMkl.stiidentii^ aad'foM fftUblftsj lie) oofitributtfd iki M^ 
levity ol 5^5^ ei, M/ issudog^ isM df Iki^ h<»lisV Mr LiittguMdrii 
and other' latds in tfaai pailisb^ tb« te dfi enddwriienfi foif tM 
{bar senior f<edi6v#» at thd rate of iSA 0^; 8A tMlkyMrltl 
■e then pnreltaed som^ bout^tf nb IJM liei^Mkxwhtiddl of 
floit-bril f4r its eniargeifiibt/ MA ^MdMh tfbiut tiSOOft 
Ml bilildHrg tbd eln|iel and putt ^ a» itfii«d^^iid# ^uM 
Affangfe; ¥epy £iw HeneiaMtQtfg ali«r#ardb ftf^fpi^i^ fi 
«(implete tbe CitablftkiMnil^ WhMi)/ lii>f ib^ M df itactd^^tl^ 
deot neabeHK Mbiined lor sotfiei y^ttt^ teti Iteii of taft^ 
gradual^ faHeii offy anpd id to but>t»^n tih^ fkvf moAth^ 
tliatit a Mforceisoi^ mpM be' fcaitfd^ 1oM)h6 h«<» |ftrM6iplilDi^; 
Bdrmrd Hodgswi #lie dli«^ iitf 1 iw.^ ]6r> N4iWtoll^^ i!i^ 
eiS ejobit iff dvawiitg tip^ tfce' sedttit^^^ ^Hs 'fixing*^ fbejf 
iftmd a6 epen^ thing sk m Aittbdutt^ Md thu^du^^i^tillfy 
etoflooiiiTd thm pt^efh^ 6t tb6 iMrkMlV «f #^]| irsi fliU 
jM^lte of somety« H^ liJeetiM itfd^M f6 Hfi^sibliM 'itoe»« Mlj 
tiM oiv eMcUilBbiii^ a nefaoidi tfj^tt^ «ig^ and «^iit)i^4 
puiicij^reB^ tiwva c^ftege ^idhy «MA dqaafV af^atnlag^ i^ 
point of education, should keep, pace with ih^ growing 
Mberality tedieflfiiement of the age. " 

L2 



14^ NEWTQN. 



sotiie single sermons, Dr. Newton p^bUshe4 19 
answer '10. the .learned Wharton on pluralities, 1^ volume 
enutled ^* Pluralities . indefensible/' 1744 ; and in I759t 
issued ** Proposals for printing by si^bscription 4000 copies 
of the Characters of .Theophrastus, for the benefit of Hert- 
Tord*CQllege,;** but this did not appear^ until a year after 
bis death, when it was published by his successor Dr. WiW 
liam Sharp, in an 8vo volume. .The. produce to the college 
is said to have anaounted ^ 10pc/.,> which we much doubt^ 
us the price. wa» only si& shillings each copy. -In 1764, a 
VQluone. of his ^* Sermons'' was published, by bis grandson^ 
3. Adfims, LL. B. Svo.* 

NKWTON (Thomas), a Latin poet, divine, schoolmas* 
ter,, and physician, of the sixteenth cetitury, was the eldest 
son of Edward . Newton,, of Butley, near Presbury iii 
Cbetihire. He was educated at Macclesfield in the sanm 
county, under Brownswerd, a. schoolmaster of considerable 
fame. Newton preserved so great a regard for him, as to 
erect a monument, to his memory in Macclesfield cborcb> 
with ah iuscriptioh wfaicli concludes with these .lines r 

'' Alpha poetanim« CknyphflBUs gremmaticonmi> 
Flos pieds^gfigum^H hac sepelitur humo 3*' 

and comniemorates him also in bis ^* Encomia'* in equally 
high terms. Fromi this, school Newton w*as first sent in his 
thirteenth :y€»r to Trinity-coUege, Oxford, but removed 
soon after to Queen's college, Cambridge. In his return 
tot his native country, be.stoptrat Oxford for a consider* 
able time, and was re-adihitled to Trinity-coltege, and took 
prders. 'He was patronised by Robert earl of Essex, and^ 
probably through his influence, '• was elected master of the 
jfr&mmar-scbool . at Macclesfield. He likewise practised 
physic, and published some treatises on that subjects In 
l5dS b^p left Macclesfield, on being instituted to the rectory 
of Little Ilford in Essex, where he. taught school, con- 
tisued thcr practice of physio,, and acquired considerable 
property. Ifere, he died in 1607, and was buried in hia 
cburcb, to which he left a legacy for ornaments. > At 
Cambridge he bQctmie eminent for Latin poetry, and was 
iega|?46d |)y ^olars as one of the best poets in that lanr* 
gil|^;^.(pei?taioly o^eof the purest of that period. . 
. i Ue wrptet l* ^^lA nolaUe history of the Sair»cenat &c. 
^mfm out of Aug. Curioi ip three hoolsy*' Loud. 1575| Ate, 

' ^^ .L i Gen, Msft Ns liidex.<»CbalBim*fl Hiit. sf OxMU 



NEWTON. l*i 

S. •'A Suoiraary, or brief Chronicle of the Sarac^ens and 
Tijrks," &c. printed with the former. 3. "Approved tne« 
dicihes and cordial precepts, with the nature and symp« 
toms/' &c. ibid; 1580, 8va. 4. " Illustrium aliquot An- 
glorum encomia/^ ibid. 1689, 4£o, at the end of Leland^s 
<^ Encomia.'* 5. " Atropoion Delion : or the death of 
Delia, with the tears of her funeral. A poetical Discourse 
^f our late Elizabeth,'* ibid. 1603, 4to. 6. "A pleasant 
|iew History: or a Fragrant Posie ihade of three flowers : 
.Rose,t Hosalynd, and Rosemary,** ibid. 1604. He also cor« 
^ected " Embryon Relimatum,** written by Jcihn Stam« 
liridge, but he was not the author of the two parts of Ta- 
BierUne the great Scythian emperor, which were written 
1^ Marlow. He translated the following works: 7-. •* A 
direction for the Health of -Magistrates and Sttidents,** 
/rom Gratarolus, Loud. 1574, 12mo; of this a copious ex^ 
tract may be seen in the Bibliographer, vol. IK 8. '* Com* 
inentary on the two Epistles geireral of St. Simon and SC 
Jfiide,** from Luther, ibid. 1581, 4to. 9. "Touchstone of 
Complexions," from Levinus Lemnius, ibid.' 1581, 8vd^ 
noticed.in the ** Censura Liieraria," with an extract, vol. VT. 
10. ** The third tragedy of L. An. Seneca, entitled Tbe- 
Jbais,*' ibid. 1581, published with the other translated 
plays, by Stiidl-ey, Nevile, jtc. Dr. Pulteney thinks that 
the *VHerbal to the Bible," printed in 1587^ 8vo,' wais by 
liim ; and this is hot improbable, as it is only a translation' 
tif t^Levint Lemnii ex:piicatio similitudinum qu^' in Bibliis 
px herbis et arboribus sumuntur.*' He conceives also that 
Kewton was the writer of the commendatory lines prefixed 
^o Lyte's Herbal, iii which, after complimenting the an* 
llior for his judicious selection of useful knowledge fromi 
Ibrndier writers, he ha» versified, in less than' two pages^ 
the names of more than two hundred worthies in medical 
fcience, from th€i earliest antiquity to his own times. War- 
ton observes that most of thie ingenious and learned men'6f 
t(iat iage courted his favours as a polite and popular* en- 
comiast. Warton also infers that he was a partizan of the 
jfliritatisi from no better authority than his having writtetl 
"^ Christian frifihdship, with an invective against dice-play 
and ^other profane 'games,** LohdVl586.* 
.y^^VVTON (TH0MA6), an ertnnent English prelate, was 

boril at Lichfield Jan. I, 1704, -N.S. His father, Jdha 

"- . '  • 

• 1 Ath. O*. vol. 1.— Warton'* tlist. of Paetry.— PhHips's Theatniia, by sir 1^ 
llrydges,— »Lysoas'ft£uTiro»s^ voU IV.— Pulteney 's iikeiches. 



I 

I 



a inan of much industry aoid integrity ; 1)19 mptb^ w»« i)]f 
daughter of ]Vfr. Ebpfjes^ n plergymap, and di^4 ^\^^ 4^% 
ber only son, was abofit.a j^ear qlld. Be received. the $|M 
p9rt of \^\$ educa^op in tlie fr^erSfchool of Licbfi^I4, wMlfTil 
ft tb^t time ^ov|f jsb^4 gff1^% upd^r ibe direction of |f r» 
|li^nter, and af aU JtimeK ^s «ent forfi) j^ev^rfil p^spus p( 
ewn.ence. frpia bislipp Sfpfi^ridga to ipn Jol^nfo^f Wbw 
be >ya$ of an age to ba s^p^ out mU> the world, \^\9 fatb<^ . 
njarfi^d a s^confl wife, t^e daiigbte^r of the rev. }Hr. T<Wv 
bjsp^ ipf Worce$^er| fod ^isler to Dr. Trebi^ck^ ^bf fir^ 9m%i 
tor of St. G^oTgs% Hf^qoyejr-square } ^tpd by xim ady^m^ 
|!)r. Trpbieclfy and the ^ncoursfgemept of bishop SpialrifliKflb^ 
yogns Newton wjas rer^pyed frqm Licb^eld to Wegtaaiiistfir 
scbopl in 1717. Here 1^ was placed ^t thp 4oivef-Qi|4 of 
tl)e fpprtb form^ ftr)4 the year following bec^fi f t^ing'l 
ficbplaCf being adpiittpd ^Pto ti^e college by tbe iion^i^agm 
of bisbpn ^alrfdg^ 

Ji/Lt. ISew^ €ontini|ed si^ ypars f t Westmif^gUff-sc^Ml^ 
^yp of which be pasaed in college, bavipg stayed one yem 
io boi::aptaip. ^e always thought the o^ode of fidlic^liiia 
in cell^g^i apd the taste whi^h prevailed ther^, as far sur 
perioir to thai pf the acbooi| fM Uiat of the schap| dvhh: Mi 
any country school. At the election in I709t b^ w^t M 
Cambridge, kapw^ng, as be candidly eonfeififl^ ^9^ ibd 
fellowships of Trinify-eoUege were n^ucb ipoiie. Yajuabla 
than the studentships of Chris^<.cburcb« |Ie a^^QC^i ng|yt 
applied to Pr. Beptley to be by him ^ected f^nt tfi Cam*^ 
bi^idge^ with which Bentley complicid^ ^^ ^x. Newt^p.ooiw 
stantly resided there eight inonths M least in f^^tf yeaf^ 
^ill he had taken his bachelor of arts degree, which ira« in 
1726. He tpok his degree of M, A. in }730; aod, fb^M 
after he was chosen fellow of Triof^^ be came tp setde in 
London. This appeara to have been pre?!^^ ^ hi^ ^skieg 
the last^mentioned degr^^f aa be was qr4ai|ied d«aem 
Dec. 21, 1729, and priest Ui tbe febrpa^y foltpv^ieg, ^ 
bishop Cibsop, 

His 6rst appearance as a pveacbeir wia^ in 9l Qeeigtri^ 
Hanoveir^Muare, where be o^S^ciated % a f^boivt. liom aa 
curate, and afterwards as a^^^i^^ preacher to Ikf^ Tvin 
beck, whose ilUhealth disikble4 bioa fropi pMbrming bia 
duty. His first regular epsployqiem i;^ tbat. pf teadetf 
and afternoon preacher at Grosvenor-chapel in South- 
Attdley-^street By tbifl appointment, be biec^e w^ 



NEW T O >i: 151 

klio^ti in ^Mf ptrish, and was soon taken into lord Carpeil» 
ler'-^ fftiniiy to be tutor to bis son, aifterwards created earl 
of TjHroonnel. Of this family he speaks with much grati-^ 
tude, «8 a stouation in which be lived very much at bis 
ease *< with not so mach as an unkind word, or even a 
eooi kkok ever intervening ;** and, he tells us, that living 
at no "bind of expense, he was temf>ted to gratify and in* 
Aulge bis taste in the puncbaae of books, prints, and pic* 
lures, and made tbe beginnings of a collection which was 
ebntinuaily receiving considerable additioos and improve-* 
sieftls. Here he pemained, however, for some time, witfa-^ 
out any promotion; but in 17S8, Dr. Pearce, afterwards 
bishop of Roobester, but then vicar of <St. Martin's, widt 
whoin he had tio acquaintance, sent to bim^ requesting be 
tpould preach on a Certain day at the chapel in Spring-gar- 
den) ai^ immediately after offered to appoint him morning 
preacber m this cbapeL This be gladly accepted, and it 
became the means oif a useful and valuable connection witk 
Dr. Pearoe. * 

About lMs<t<ime be was iiidueed by Mrs.- Anne Deanetf 
Bevenish, an aoquaincance whose friendship proved after- 
wards -of great importance to him, to saperintend an edition 
, of Mr. Rower's works, who had been her first husband. 
This edition was executed at the request of the Prince of 
Wales, who was very partial to that poet, and who honoui^ed 
Mrs. 'Bevenish with his friendship ; and it.^as tbe means of 
Mr. 'Newten*s being made known to im royal highness* 
Nor was this tbe only obligation be owed to the good ser- 
^oes of Mrs. Devenish,' as she first introdoced him to tbe 
acquaintance of Mr. Pulteney, who, when lord Bath, ap- 
-pointed >hfm his chaplain. Mr. Newton, in his life, gives 
a curious detail of that famous political revolution whicii 
Occasioned tbe resignation of sir Robert Walpole. This lie 
appears Co have written at the time, and it is no small 
jM^oof of the. authenticity 'Of the facts, that Mr. Coxe, in 
Im exeellent Life of sir R. Waipole, aeems disposed to ad« ' 
mit it. k is indeed written with every internal mark of 
Mttdoup and honesty .• 

« In fheapring of 1744)'Mr.*Newtoa, through the interest 
fft his pa«ron, the earl of Baitb, was pr^ferreti to the rec- 
tory of St Mary-le-^Bow, Cheapside, *^ so that,'* as he ob<- 
iN»rves, <* he was forty years o4d before he obtained any 
living;" Upon this preferment, be quiued the chapel in 
CfNTbigt garden. - His feUowsbip ^bo became vacant, and 



1 



W3 N E W TO N; 

at tb^ coQiiDeQcenieat in 1745 be took bis degsefe of doel^r 
in divinity. The rebellion in. Scotland breaking oat. soon 
after, he was in. all bis sermons, and discourses so. strenuous 
in tbe cause c^ bis king and country, that he received 3enie 
threatening, letters, which lord Bath advised him. to lay be^^ 
fore the secretary of state. One or two of his sermooa 
upon this occasion he published by desire,. as well as that 
which was .preached on the i8th December, in the same 
y^r, before.the House of Commons. In the. beginning of 
the fallowing spring, 1746, he was. honoured with additions^ 
proofs.of the friendship and confidence of the. earl of ;Batb» 
being intrusted by his lordship with the relation of somja 
aecret transactions at court, .of which .an account may be 
seen in his life. The king requested that lord Bath woukl 
avenge his cause on bis servanta who had deserted him, by ' 
writiug.a full account of the whole transaction,. which 1^ 
appears to have shown to his chaplain* His majesty also 
desired it might be printed, at a couvenieiit season ; but it 
perished among the other papers which lord Bath burnt 
.^fter his [|on^& death. In the spring 1747, Dr. Newton 
jvas chosen lecturer of St. George's, Hanover*square, in tbe 
room of Dr. Savage, deceaseds In the month of August 
fpUowinff he married hia first wife, Jane, the eldest daugh^n 
ter of the rev.. Dr. Tr^b^k ; with this lady be lived very 
happily nfear seven years. As they had no children, they 
boarded in the parsonage-bouse, with Vr. Trebeck; Dr. 
Newton had the best apartipent for bis pictures, and by the 
good managonent of Mrs^ Trebeck was freed, from the care 
wd trouble of houfle-keeping, to which h^ seema to have 
always had an aversion. 

In 1749 he published bis edition of *^ Milton's Paradise 
Lost/' which was jso favourably received by the public aa 
to go thrpugb, in bis life-time, eight editions. The title 
of this work was, *^ Paradise Lost^ a Poem, in twelve books* 
7he author^ John Milton : a new edition, with, notes of 
various authors, By Tboma* Newton, D. D.*' 1749, 2 vob. 
4to. Tbe type of the teat is remarkably larger and fcba 
whole printed with much elegiCnce. It is dedicated lo tlm 
earl of Bath, who, the editor states, was entitled to this 
mark of respect, '< as it was undertaken chiefly at his de^ 
sire, and in some measure carried on at hia e^pepee," fak 
'lordship having contributed the engravings, The wbolei 
dedication is in a style of ' respect evidently dictated Hy 

gratitude; it paoQOt be accused of direct .flattery, or at 



NEWTON. isi 

m 

leastitifl ft fliffteiy which we could wish there were ofteiier 
jeau9e tO'imiiftte. His lordship is complitnented *'oii his 
4opeQ profession df the trndi of the Christian reve}^ion; 
his regard for our' established church, and regular attend* 
ance upon publie worship." Dr. Newton's design in thfi 
edition was to publish the *' Paradise Lost," as the wbi4t 
^^^aclas^c author, cwn notis •QarioTum^ and his first cure 
was to print the text correctly, according to Milton's own 
editions, that is, the two printed in his life-time. In'hii 
preface^ be criticisjBs with freedom, and generally, in our 
opinion, with justice, Milton's annotators and 'editors^ 
J^atrick Hume, Dr. Bentley, Dr. Pelirce, who, with the earl 
pi Baiii, 'first engaged him in this undertaking, and gave 
•him much assistance ; Richardson the painter, Warburtoni 
and. some Anonymous commentators. He was assisted, of 
ii^ng authors, by Dr. Heylin, Dr. Jortin, \>t. Warburton^ 
a copy of Bentley's edition with Pope's MS notes, Mr. 
Richardson, jun. Mr. Thjrer of Manchester, and some 
.'l^ers. The notes ane of.Tarious kinds, critical and ex- 
4>lanatory; some to correct the errors of former editions^ 
to discuss the various readings, and to establish the ge- 
nuine text; some to illustrate the sense and.meaning, t6 
^iot out the beauties and defects of sentiment and cha- 
fmcter, and to commend or censure the conduct of th^ 
pocnn i some to remark the peculiarities of style and lans 
^uage, tp clear the syntax, and to explain the uncommon 
words, or common words used in an uncommon significa- 
tion ; some to consider and examine the numbers^ and to 
display the versification^ the variety of the pauses, and the 
adaptness of the sound to the sense ; and some to show his 
imitations and allusions to other authors, sacred or profane, 
ancient or modem. The preface is followed by & life of 
Milton, compiled firom the best authorities^ and with ft 
defence of Milton's religious and political principles, as 
'^ as in Dr. Newton's opinion they are capable of being 
defended. This is followed by Addison's excellent papers 
911 the ^^ jParadise Lost," taken from the Spectator, and a 
nost copioMs list of neariy a thousand subscribers; The 
plates were designed by Hayman, and ^ngraved by Grig- 
•Bion^ &c. and have very considerable merit; What per- 
Obaps dislingttishes this edition from all others^ is an da« 
borate verbal index; which w^ compiled by the inde->. 
jstigable Mn Alexander Crudeh, author of the CSonc6r« 
^laocif to the Gible. Sometime after^ Dr« Newton wa^: 



l#4 Iff I W T OK. 

{Hnevittled npmr i0 ^vk^A the '' Paradise fto^iied/ mi 
|Mll^>n^ (jOiBlter poefiw" upon the tatnefulaiiy Nvitich tit^ 
iifwiiagly ^jkpeMved in one inoknue ^to, 17^52, tnit tbt< istiot 
acqoffipsinied by a verbal ioddx. '^These things,'* iie says, 
f* delaii>ed bim too loBg fjRom ctber more material 0iudies> 
idftiMigb be bad tbie good fortune to gain more "by tbem 
ibaa Milton did by aU bis works together/' Hegauied 
735/. Among other advantages, fa6 estimates very highly; 
Abi^ir having procured bim tbe friendship and intinlacy of 
%w» siicb man as bishop Warburton and Dr. Jorti««' 
/ In June i7Si, be^lost bis fiitber at the age-'of eighty-^ 
timet by a •gradual, gentle decline ; and witbin a few daya 
bis wife^ at the age of fiftyi-eight, by a soddeti and viotertt 
inflammation of the bowels. These itrials together iitmo#t 
'<yverwbelmed bim with affliction. But at this time, ht 
9ays, be was engaged in. writing bis ^ Dissertatiotia'on the 
Prophecies ;** and ^^ happy it was for bim, for in any aflKc^ 
^on he never found a better or more effectaal remed^ 
tfafm plunging deep into study, and fixing hts thoughts a^ 
Ijalenaely as be possibly could upon other subjec^s/^ The 
first volume of ** Dissertations on the PrpphecieSj-whicli 
kave remarkably been fulfilled, and are at this time fuU 
fiHing by tbe world,*' 8vo, was published in the winter of 
H.i4. This is the most interesting, and by far the, most 
'popular of all his works, and that, indeed, by which prin« 
OfsiaUy bis name will be banded down to posterity. In iKii 
publication, be bad the advantage of bavingit perused and 
corrected by bishop Pearce, Dr. Warburton, and 'M^/Jor^^ 
ttn; aod its aucoess was very great. Six large edttiont^ 
were publislied in bit life-time, and its popubMrtty* seeimr 
bttely to have heen revvved, altbouffh many works have' 
been published since on the same subject, with dlfTerenf 
YiewB and oonclacrions. Soon after ^e appearance of these 
^ Dissertations,'' they wfere translated into the Daitisrh anA 
^mea Jangtuages. Tbe second and third volumes were 
set published until 175S, atvd as an encouragement to tbe 
work be was in the interim appdntfed 4»> preach kbe'lBoyA^fi 
Leotures, wbieb be adverts to in tbecompoiencement of tb<( 
second Tolome. 

* In 1766 be was appointed one of the king^s chaplains^ 
andl 'permitted at tbe same time by her royal highness the 
princess df Wales to retain that rank in iier service i and b^ 
held both stations during tbe rest of that reign and the be-^ 
gponing of the ue$t. la^be api^ng 1759 be^wes taiade^ 



f 

fc 



NEWTON. %^8 

j^pebepd^y pf Westminster, and M the same tiine sub** 
^JoiopeFy by this interest of Dr. Gilbert^ arcbbisbop of York, 
wbo held the ot&ce pf lord alnooBer, and wbo likewi^ con* 
jferred pn him the precjeotorship of the church of York, ob# 
q{. ^l>e o^ojst v^lgable piepes of prefermeat belonging to it. 
^Is ^cpouot of his ^cond marriage, and the reasons wbieii 
]e4 to it^ w^ sj^all give in his own words, principally for 
fke outline he has dr^wn of a clergyman's wife, which w^ 
|)P|)e wjll suit qaany of our feipale readers, 

«' As long as Pn Trebepk lived, Dr. Newton coiniinue4 
'fo bpard in the family^ from his old principle of avoiding 
jf^ ippph as possible tbe trouble of bpusekeeping : butupo^ 
l^e de^th of Dr. Trebeck, which bs^ened in 1759^ and 
jiippn the breaking yp pf the f^mily» he was tinder the ne^ 
cessi^y pf looking out for a house, and for the present toqli 
Q4)e reafly furnished in Mount-street This naturally enr 

raged him to think seriously again of matrimony ; for b« 
puud his time and attention much divided even: by tb^ 
c^res of his little family ; the study pf sacred and classia 
authors iU agreed wi(h accounts of butcherV and bakera! 
i^Uls, and by daily experience he was convinced ^lore and 
9)ore that it was not good for man to live alone without 
^n help ipeet for himr And especially when he bad somo 
ptrospept pf a bl^hppric, fresh diSfculties and trouble* 
ppened tp his view } there would be two houses at least to 
l^e furnished,, tberp would be a greater -number of servant* 
to be taken, there would be a b^ter table and public daya 
if> be kept ; and he plainly foresaw that he must either 
£aU a pr^y to servantsji or must look out for some clevesc 
*ertsible wpquan tP be bis wife, wbo had some knowledge 
4i|d experience of the world ; wbo was capable of s^perin«* 
tendiug stnd directing his afEairs ; who was a prudent ma* 
nag^r ^ind •ceconomist, and could lay out his money to the 
best advantage ; who^ though she brought no fortUQey yelt 
Qiigbt ^ave pne^ 9nd be a fortune in herself; wbo could 
wppty bis table handsomely^ yet not expensively, and d^ 
^e hpQoiirs pf it in a becoming manner ; who bad no more 
^Aste and lave xif pleasure than a reasonable woman should 
l^ve ^ who vtroj^ld be happier in staying with her husband 
at bpiae than iu perpetually gadding abroad ; whe would 

^ c;aiH^f ul an4 ^nder of his health, and in short be a friend 
^(id.companipnat aU hours.V 

Such qualities, it appeiMTS^ be found in EUaabetby daugb- 

(p. f f ^ifo^ k»simfiffm iM4>«r4e^ vbp v^ »t ibis dme 



/ 



1S« NEWTON. 

the widow of the rev. Mr. Hand. They were married Sept* 

6, 176J, and on the 18th of the same month, he kissed his 

niajesty's hand on his promotion to the bishopric of Bristol* 

'and the residentiaryship of St. Paul's. On this he resigned 

the prebend of Westminster, the precentorship of York, 

the lectureship of St. George's, Hanover-square, and the 

ofSce of sub-almoner, so that he was not upon the whole 

^uch a gainer by the exchange. In 1768, however, hp 

was promoted to the deanery of St PauPs, and then re* 

signed both the residentiaryship, and his living in the citjr. 

which latter he had held twenty-five 'years, and might stiii 

have held it, but, as he says, ** he thought it not propi^ 

nor becoming his character and station to be so tenacious 

of pluralities." His health now also began to decay, and 

he was frequently interrupted from the duties of his pro* 

fessibn by violent (its of illness. For several of the last 

^ears of his life, his health would not permit him to attend 

the House of Lords : he never, indeed, was a constant at* 

tendant, unless debates of consequence were expected^ 

and he never attempted to speak. Once, when strongly 

prompted by a desire to oppose the bill for the relief of 

the protestant dissenters, he committed his sentiments to 

the press, and caused a copy to be sent the day before the 

c]|ebate to eviery lord of parliament. It is in the appendix 

jto his Life, along with, a paper oh the same subject which. 

%e printed in 1778. In 1780 also he published in the same 

inanner, ^* A Letter to the new Parliament, with bints of 

some regulations which the Nation hopes and expects from 

them." This he considered as the last duty that he should 

ever be able to pay to his country ; nor did he long survive 

it. His faculties remained perfect to the last, but he suf-- 

fered much by a complication of disorders and weaknesses^ 

from which he was released on Feb. 14, 1782. He was in-r 

terred in the vaults of St. Paul's, immediately under the 

southvaile, arid it was the intention of his widow tp erect a 

monument in the church to his memory; but* on applying 

to the triistees of the fabric for their permission, she found 

that the introduction of monuments into the cathedral waf 

not then agreeable to them. Bow church was then fixed 

upon^ and a fine piece of monumental sculpture, by Banksjj^ 

was accordingly erected in the chancel, near the south side 

of the comnaunion table, with a prose ins|cription, and 

some lines in poetry by Mrs. Carter. 

A complete edition of bis works iras published in 1782^ 



N E W TO N. IJI 

.• > ,  •  

S vols. 4t09 rtprioted iq 1787, in 6 voU. 8v*o, to wbich h 
fnrefixed ** Some accoant of bis life, and anecdotes of se- 
veral of his friends, written by bimself>^' a narrative whicii ] 
well deserves to be printed separately, as containing much 
ecclesiastical and political information, and many striking 
traits of character. The contents of the volumes are: 1, 
^^Dissertations on the Prophecies," the only part of bis 
works which has since been reprinted separately ; *' Thirty . 
Hissertations, chiefly on some parts of the Old Testament;"* 
'^ Nine occasional Sermons;'* "Five Charges ;" antl ** Sixty , 
dissertations, chiefly on some parts of the New Testament.**. 
These dissertations, although they can never obtain the 
]>opularity of his work on the prophecies, contain many in* 
genions and acute remarks, but in a few of them his opi*, 
nions are not strictly in unison with those of the churchy as 
be se^ms inclined to the doctrine of universal redemption, 
4and in endeavouring to maintain this, perplexes himself, 
its others have done, on the awful subject of the decrees ' 
of God.» 

V NlCAISE (Claude), a celebrated French antiquary in 
the seventeenth century, was descended of a good family. ' 
at Dijon, where his brother was proctor-general of the 
chamber of accounts, and born in 1623. Being inclined^ 
to the church, he became an ecclesiastic, sLnd was made a 
^amon in the holy chapel at Dijon ; but devoted himself 
wholly to the study and knowledge of antique monuments,. 
Having laid a proper foundation of learning alt home, be 
designed his canonry, and went to Rome, where he resided 
many years ; and, after his return to France, he held a,' 
correspondence with aln^ost all the learned men in Europe. 
Perhaps there never was a man of letters, who had so fre-. 
quent and extensive ai commerce with the learned men of 
bis time as the abb6 Nicaise, nor with men of high rank. 
The cardinals Barbarigo andtfbris, and pOpe Ciemeiit XL 
were antong his regular corrielpondents. This learned in«; 
tercoiirse took up a great pare of his time, and hindered' 
bim from enriching the public with any large works; but 
lhe< letters wbtcfa he wrote himself, and t^hose which he re* 
cetved from others, would make a valuable "Commercium 
JEptstolicum.'* The few pieces which he published are, a 
Latin dissertation *• De Nummo Pantheo," dedicated to 
Mr. Spanbeimi and printed at Lyons in 1689. The same 

[ Life prefixed to ha Works. 



fie^r 1^ pcibMfaed ah estp^ficatton- df skf MmfSe iMtixmiiA 
fMndftt Guientte, in tke diocese (st Akchi but thd jHi^tii 
Which hiade the greatest nt)iise was •* Le* Sircfircfs, 6(ir dfe- 
tsdarsi sur leur forme et figtxre," Paris, l©fi^!, 4to ; •* A disf- 
tf^urse upon the forto and figure of thef Syrians/' in whrrdfl 
MVowiug the opimon of Huet, bishop of AuvfatrclieS, to 
Unfdeitook to prbve, that ther were, iti tetlhy^ Wrds, and 
ilot fishes, or sea-monstersf. He tta6§\^ei ittto tf^dtil 
from the Italiarr, a piece of Bellori, cointaiining a def^(5rtp^ 
Hon of the pictures in the Vatieaw, to which he added, 
^^ A Dissertation upon the Schools of Atfc^*nis tttid Parnas^ 
ios,'* two of RapfaaePs pictures, tie wiijte also a fewlert;^ 
terft id the literary journals^ and a nvAiM tradt opon: itid 
aftcient music ; and died wbite he was labouring to pre^6ii4 
f9te publie with the explanation of Hbat antiq,Lr^inscriJ)ttehf£ 
which begins « Mercurro et Minervae Arneliafc^ &e.** w6icfr 
was found in the village of Villy, where hi die^d i* Odtl 
1701, agedrs."^ ' 

NICANDER of Colophon, a celebrated grantmarfah^i 
j^et, and physician, flourished irt the' I6btn bfytfip'iad^ 
Afmt 140 B. C. in the reign of Attains j dr, uecoMitt^ttt 
ioime, in the time of Ptpkmy Philfadeffrtiisl^: Surif^ eel!^ 
M> that be was the sofn of Xenophon of Cdldphbn, k toii^d 
in loiriar; and observe^ that, according ta others, be w^i^ 
^ ntkhtt of ^tolia ; but, if we may beKete Nitiander hM- 
sdlf, he was born in the neighbourhood of the teiiiple of 
Apollo, at CFaros, a little town io Ionia, tite&r Colophon' ; 
yet the name of his father was Da«iph«forf*. He v^ratf 
itelted aiV ^tolian, tHtly because be lived ttiaity y^eaW iti 
tbat dothitry, and wrote a history of it A great n%mbetf 
df i^ritirtgs ar^ aseribed to him, of which #e bati^ fem'ain- 
ittg only two: one entitled "Theriaca;^' dei^crtbing, riT 
verse, the accidents which attend wounds mafde by vetr6i)tf- 
onsbefeksts, with the proper Remedies; tbie other, ^Aie^- 
pllttrmaca ;'* in which he treats of pois^on^ awrf theSr" atiti\ 
^en, or cfounter-'poison'S^t r these ate bottr ett6\\eni 

• TbettNitnifs ir i» I1ie> bnfioDiii^ f Aooag tiiet^ hk latMtibm <]My( 

of ooe of his poens^ where he says« tvo that were extracted fronrminejrAlsw 

thVC h6 Wi£{ ]iei|{hbouf to' Apollo of tb'd i)thiirgeaAd t^'ecerase, which shewa^ 

Ctarol^s aiiif Siudal» t^lls Os, thAt ther tUbteM waV aof o(9ier kiiowti at iKM tniie'l, 

t^mpte of Ci«tos,. wbtfre- that f[oA^ gav& »11' the. re«t were etetraoted either ff«l^- 

liia oracles, was very near Colophon ; plants or animals, of which tha^ Witki 

w'tfiHt'his' birth mifht 6e atf Cblophoil^ peimieibtrtrwaa' that CaH^ I'oxicditfi*- 

and act actually at Claros. not described by the botanists, be- . 

» llforerf.*«-iHct Ifisf, ' ^ 



NI C A ND Kll. 



|iiii}itS; of Laodicea, wrote coiDmc&taries^ Upon lk» titst\ 
and we have still extant reiy learned Gi^eek ^ Seli^lte?^ 
upon bolby. tbe author of which is not kno^n f though Voif* 
sins imagines they were made byrDipfaiki^ ja$t mentioiiedl 
tie wrote also ^^ Ophiaca/' upon serpents j ^< Hyaeiathiai^*^ 
i collection of remedies^ auid a oomaorentary upon tM 
<< Prognostics of Hippocrates*' in vdriiet Tbe Scholiast of 
Nicander cites the two first of cbese^ and Suidaa afievrf ioM 
two others. A<then»us^ also eit^) in sei^ev^ places^ somd 
j^erical wforka of our auibor upotvagrieolttirey* called' iA§ 
'^GebrgicV' which were known Hta^wise to Cnrio. Be^ 
aides tbese be coiti posed five books of *< Metamorphose^^ 
some verses' of which are copied by TzetaM, and the '^Afev* 
tembrpboses*' of An^omps Liberalia were apparently ta&enr 
firoa» ebose of Nicanden Hecomposedabe several histd'' 
yical works, among wbieh ^The Historf of Golophoii,^ 
bia birkli-pJace^ is eked by AUienseas ; we me told Kk^«» 
wiae of his hbtory o^ J&toHa^ Boeotia, and Tbebes> Md of 
^^ A History and description of Eofrope in general.^ 9€f 
waa iKKtombtedly an author of n^eri^ and deserves thosef 
eal6gi«i«ia^ which are given of ham in seme epigrams in tbef 
^ Antbof ogia." This Nicttnder has beefi confimnded witb 
iKiCKoder tbe igtammatrianv of Thyatira, by Ssephaniis Bf^ 
zaotiua: ai>d Vossiifs, in giring the titles of die book^ 
wriftten by bptb these Nicanders^ does noe distingvisb them' 
very cl^rly. Meriatv, in his essay on the influence df tbtr 
seien>cetf on poetry (in the Memoirs of tbe royal academjr 
of Berlin for 1776), mentions Nicander to show the anti-^ 
pacfay that there i» between the lapgodge of poetry aod tbe* 
atibjeets which he treated* He considers Nicander as M 
tfaert^ieutie bard, who versified for the apothecaries, nr 
grindef.of anecdotes, who siing of scorpions, toads, and*; 
^idets. Tbe ^* Theridx^a?' and «« Alexipharmaca^ ar6 itt^ 
serted in tlie Corp. Poet. Oresc. Of separate editiotts, the' 
Iwst ia that of Aides, lB^2; of the "Theriaea,"^* that of 
Baisdini, 1 tG4, 9v€^ Atid ^ tbe ^ Alttipbarmaca,^' that crip 
Sehfieider^ 1799, ^vo.^ 



caastf, no ^abt, tdcfyknew nol from 
yfatcfa ptant it' was extracted, or indeed 
w/tM f« was; tHo«i|rh • they were bo^ 
•IvsniKefa W '1^ Wh eWcpU, of it. Asd 
Ibe same, thing is sn^eq at this day, in 
r^tt^'tb sottr< dfdgtf irhlch Are wed 

' < V^srinis <fe toet. 'Orwc.<'»¥M»ria. 
Montb. atT..roL tXL 



in physic^ while^tfobody knowft wHtotfear 
they are derived from plants or ani- 
tttals, of hov tbey are ^ prtpit^, g^ 
c mm\ t i$ horn Jmi^a dtfttniariMU Nl^ 
cander ranks opium amonc th» foi*^ 
Bfkks, Le Clerc, H»U>de'Med«' 

Or«c««>4il0f mdL 4tf M««cin.^ 



|#(^ N I ceo L L ' 

NICCOLI (NrccoLo, Lat. NitSotAus), a very eraiiteiil'' 
contributor to the restoration of liteiraiture, and founder of 
the library of St. Mark at Floret»ce» was tbe son of Bartho" . 
Iqm^w Nicolas, a merchant of Florence, and was born in 
1363,, He was intended, and as some say, for a time eO'* 
gaged, in mercantile pursuits, but preferring tbe cultiva** 
tipp of the liberal arts, J be placed himself, on the death of 
his father, under Marsigli, or Marsilius, a scholar of con- 
siderable fame. So ardent was his love of le^arning^ that 
when he)iad attained a competent knowledge of the LatiiY 
language, be went ta Padua, for tbe express purpose <rf 
transcribing the compositions of Petrarch. To this labo^ 
ripos task he was compelled, according to Tiraboscbi/ by 
the mediocrity ol bis fortune, which prevented his pur^. 
cbasipg manuscripts of any great vs^ue. > . His fortune, how^i^' 
ever, such as it was,' and his whole time, he devoted to the 
collection of manuscripts or making transcripts, and accu-t 
mulated about eight hundred volumes of Greek, Iloman,i 
and oriental authors. . What he copied^ was executed witb 
great accuracy, and he was one of the first who corrected' 
thcf 4.efec^« and arranged the text of the manuscripts m^ich/ 
h^had an opportttsiity of studying. His bouse was the- 
constant resort of scholars, aud students, who had free ac-' 
cess to bis library, and to Qiany of whom h^ was a liberal, 
patron. Poggio Bracciolini valued him highly in.thb cba-: 
racter, and on Niccoli's death, Jau..23, 1437, published a* 
funeral oration, in which he celebrated his prudence^ be*; 
nevolence, fortitude^ &c. He was not, however^ without', 
his faults, and bad disgusted some eminent, scholars of his 
time by his sarcastic wit and irritability of temper. By his 
will he directed that bis library should be devoted to the. 
Use of the public, and appointed sixteen curators, ampng- 
whom was Cosmo de Medici ; but as he died in a state of; 
insolvency, this legacy would have been lost,' had not: 
Cosmo offered tp pay his^ debts pa condition of obtaining a* 
right to dispose of the books. . Ti^i^ being agreed to, he* 
deposited them in the Dominic|Ln mon^tery of St. Markt 
at Florence. This collection was the foundation of. ano-. 
ther celebrated library in Florence, known by the name of 
the Bibliotheca Marciana, or library of St. Mark, which is]. 
yet open to the inspection of tbe learned, at the distance 
of ihiee centuries. It does= not appear that he was tbe 
author of any literary work, except a short treatise on the, 
orthography of the Latin lapg^age, ia which be attempted 



N I d £ P H O It u s. " m 

t6 nettle vaHdbs disputed points 6n this subject, by the au-^ 
tfaority of ancient inscriptions.* 

NICEPHORUS (GregoRAs), a Greek historian^ was 
b6ril Bhoti% the close of the thirteenth century, and (lou<^ 
risbed in the fourteenth, under the emperors Androntcus, 
John PalsDologus, and John CanfaCuzenus. He was i 
gt^eac favourite of the elder Andronicus, who mside hioi 
librarian of the church of CbdStahtinople, and sedt him 
ambassador to the prince of Servia. He accoitipanied An^ 
drdnicus in hii misfortunes, atid attended at his death; 
After which he rep;aired to the court of the younger Atidro- 
nidtis^ where be ilppeitrs to hav6 been well received ; arid, 
it is eertilin, that, by his influence over the Gr^eM, thai 
church was previAiied on to reject any conference v(^ith the 
legates of pope John XXIL But, in the dispute which 
«ros^ &^#een Barlaafn atid Pblamos, happening id tak6 
the^ part df th^ former, he n^aintitined , it So. zealously iA 
ihH edvkncii th^t was held at Constantinople in I J5i, thai 
b^ Wa^ dttst intd prisoti, and continued there till tUe return 
€tf Joh^ Paleeologus, who released him; ailer which he 
held •& disputation with Palamos, in the presence of thai 
eitfperbr. Ht Compiled the By^antitie liistory in a bar- 
barouSf styt^, and very inaccttrAtely, ftoth 1204, When Conf 
stantinopie was taken by the French, to the death of Ah- 
drai^iiclls the yotfnger, fh i34i. Besidl?s this Wcn*k, he is 
the ^tht^ df sothe others. Hi^ history, with a L^tin trans- 
lation ^f Jerome Wotf, was priffted at Basil in 156^, and 
ftgaffi M iSt^nevt in leiB. We hav^ also a riew Version of 
It, artd H new edition triore eorrect than any of the pfe- 
cediri^, printed at the LouVre irt itosr, by Boivin th6 
yoOttg^f, the French king's librarian, 2 Voll fol, "fhi^ 
edition c6niai^s, iii th^ first tolunle^ the thirty-eight books 
)6f Cyregdtis, wfai^b end with the year 134 1 ^ and In th6 
eeei^rtd aif^ the thirteen following, whii^h cdutain a historjr 
of Utti y€M. "Irbere ^re still fourteen remdining to be 
pablislted; as also fourteen other pieces of Oregora^. 
Gregoras also Wrote SthoKa iipon ** Synesius d6 Insoh]« 
biitf,** published by iTurnebus in 155S; the version of 
which, by John Picbotl, is printed among the Works Of the 
skdfie synesius. ^ 

>.Sbfpberd'« Poggpio Br»ccio]ini, p. 40, 314, &c.— Rotcoe's LorcAsow^M 
Tiraboichi. 

« -Kf Oreri.-«Vossiuft 4e Hift QriBC-^Cat«, vol. Uw-^axii OmbimAi 

^OL.XXUI. M 



162 N I E P H O R US. 

. NICEPHORUS (St.) a celebrated patriarch of Cans^n- 
tinople, of the ninth century, was distinguished for hi9 
zealous defence of the worship of images, against the em- 
peror Leo the Armenian, wiio banished , him in the year 
815, to a monastery, where he died in the year 828, aged 
seventy. His works are, " An Abridgmeiit of History,** 
from . the death of the emperor Mauritius to Constantine 
Copronymus, printed at the Louvre, 1648, fol« It forms 
part of the Byzantine history, and has been translated into 
French by president Cousin. It is said to be accurate, 
but written in a dry and concise style. An ^'Abridgment 
of Chronography,'* which is at the end of Syncellus ; and 
several other works in Greek, which may be found in P. 
Labbe's Councils, or the Library of the Fathers. Car- 
dinal Baronius has inserted this patriarch^s << Confession 
of Faith" in torn. XL of his Annals. He is supposed by 
Lardner and others, to have been the author of '^ The 
Stichometry,** a catalogue of the books of sacred scripture, 
which, ifof no other use, at least shews that the Jewish 
canon was generally esteemed sacred by Christia^ns, and 
that the other books of the Old Testament, which are now 
deemed *' Apocryphal,*' were not of equal authority, though 
sometimes read in the churches, and quoted by Christian 
writers.* 

NICEPHORUS (Blemmides, or Blemaiyda), a priest 
and monk of Mount Athos, flourished in the thirteenth 
century. He refused the patriarchate of Constantipople 
from his partiality to the Latin church, and being more 
inclined to peace than any of the Greeks of bis time. In 
this spirit he composed two treatises concerning ** The 
Procession of the Holy Ghost ;** one addressed to James 
patriarch of Bulgaria, and the other to the emperor Theo- 
dore Lascaris, in both which he refutes those who deny 
that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. 
These two tracts are printed in Greek and Latin, by Alia- 
tins, who has also given us a letter, written by Blemipides 
on his expelling from the church of her convent the mis* 
ttess of the emperor John Ducas. There are several t)ther 
pieces. of our author in the Vatican library. • 

NICEPHORUS (Callistus), the son of Callistus Xan- 
tbopulus, a learned monk of Consiantinople, is placed by 
«. ' . • » • ,  

1 Moren. — Lardner's Work«. 

* Mvreri.— JOupio.—- Cave, ^o1. II. — Fabric Bibl. Graec. 



N I C E P H O R U S. Hi 

Wbarton at 1333, but by Lardner in 1325. tie wrote in 
Greek an ^'.EGclesiastical History/Vin twenty-three books, 
eighteen of which are still extant, containing the transac- 
tions of the church from the birth of Christ to the death of 
the emperor Phocas in the year 610. We have nothing 
left besides the arguments of the five other books, from the 
commencement of the reign of the emperor Heraclius to 
the end of that of Leo the philosopher, who died in the 
year 911. He dedicated this history to the emperor An- 
dronicus Palseologus.the elder : it was translated into Latin 
by John Langius, and has gone through several editioqs, 
the best of which is that of Paris, in 1630. There is only 
one manuscript of this history, which was said to be for- 
merly in the library of Matthias, king of Hungary,, and 
now in that of Vienna. Nicephorus was no more than 
thirty years of age when he compiled it, and it is said to 
abound in fables, and therefore has been treated with con- 
tempt by Beza, and by Gesnen Some other pieces are 
ascribed to oUr author. Labb^, in his preliminary discourse 
prefixed to the '^ Byzantine Historians," has given a ca- 
talogue of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, 
composed by Nicephorus. His abridgment of the Bible 
in ijEtmbic verse was printed at Basil in 1536, and Dr. Hody 
has attributed to him a small piece which he published in 
Greek and Latin, during his controversy with Mr. 0od«^ 
well, under the title of ^^ Anglicani Schismatis Redar- 
gutio.^* His homilies on Mary Magdalen are also inserted 
in Bandini <^ Monumenta,'* J 762, vol. 111.^ 

NICERON (John Francis), an able mathematician^ 

was born at Paris in 1613. Having finished his acadeniical 

studies with the roost promising success, he entered into 

^ theojrder of Minims, took the habit in 1632, and as usiml^ 

* changed the name given him at his baptkm for that 

of Frstncis, the name of his paternal uncle; who was also a 

"] Minim, or Franciscan. The inclination which he bad for 

- mathemutics appeared early d uring his philosophical studies ; 

and he devoted to this science, all the tim^ He could spare 

from his other employments, after he had completed his 

studies in theology. All the branches of the mathematics^ 

however,, did not equally engage his' attention ; he con* 

' fined himself particularly to optics, and studied the rest 

jonly as they were subservient to his more favourite pursuit. 

> Cave, vol. It.— Lardner'i Works.— Fabric* BibU Gr«c.— -Moiheinu 

M 2 



itfi N I C E ft O ST. 

tie iriforiM u» in ih^ ptet&ce to bis *f TKaiimatargHt Op^ 

ticady*^ tfafat he v^eht twice ta Koine ^ ind that, o& bift re*^ 

turn botne, he was appdinied tetitii»et of tbecdogy. He w«t 

Aftetv^afcls chosen td aeeoftip^ny fatber Francift de lil Nose^^ 

Ticstr-general of the drdfe^, ifi his- vimutibii df the copTenttf 

ihroug^hotlt alt Fmtree. Amidst s6 imaifiy etnploymeivts^ ii 

is f<ronderfuI that he found so liliach tidie tb setidy, for his 

life w&s short, atid must have been laboridui. Being taken 

sick at Aix, in Provence, he died there^ Septeifabfer 22; 

1646, aged only thirty- three. He \ta9 an intiitiate ae^ 

quaintance of Des Cartes, who had a high esteem for bim^ 

mid presented hioi t;<ritb his Workd. I4!cerim's writings arre/ 

I. *^ L' Interpretation des CbiflFres, oil Regies pour bieit 

dnterf dre et expliquer faeileuent tenter sortes deii Chif&ei 

iSlimpleV &c. Paris; 1641, 91^0. This Was only 4 nransla^ 

tioA on the art of decyphering, «^rittert by Gosfpi in Italian^ 

But (s much improved by t^ieeron, who justly conceived it 

to be a wort of utility. 2f. *• La Perspeetive ttirieuse, oti 

Afagie artificielle des ettdis marveilletist de I'Optiqiie, Ca« 

treptique, et Dioptriqne,'* irftended ai ail introduction te 

his, 3. <^ Thaumaturgus Optidurs : sive, Admiranda Optices^' 

tiatoptrices, et Dioptrice^, Par^ priiha, &c/' 1646, fol; 

He iiiteiided to add two other pdrt^^ bdt wai^jff evented by 

death. * 

NICERON (John PET£ft),one of the uioit ilsefiil French 
biographers, was born at Paris, M^rch (l,'Id85. He wai 
of afi ancient and noble family. Who were in very high 
repute about 1540. He studied Wifh sidceess in the Ala*^ 
zarine college at P^ris, atid afterwards at the college Du 
Plessis. He appears to have beeti of a i^erious turn otf 
inind, and of great modesty, and froih h dread df the 
^snares i6 whith he fnight be e^tposed 1ft the Wbrld, de-^ 
termined to quit It for a reiigioUs Hffei. On th!^ subject he 
consulted one of his uncles, who belddged to the order of 
£arhabite Jesuits. This utlcle exaiuifted hitnj aad, not 
diffident of hi^ election, introduced hlin a^ a probationer 
to that society at Paris. He Was feeel^ed there irf 1709> 
took the habit in 1703, and made hi§ fom iti 1704, at th^ 
lige of nineteen. After be bad professed himself, be WAI 
seiit to lilbnt^rgis, to study pMlesdphy and theology^ i 
course of both which he Went through With eredit^ althbugK 
lie confesses th&t he neter cduld relish ihd schotestic jhfs%6iA 

i Kictron, tol. VII Had X'-^n«tillepie;'^Moreri. ' 



N I C E R a N. J6f 

then in vogue. Hi3 supi^riorjs ^mp 9atU&ed mtb his pro^ 
|ciexu:y and taleotS| siept bipi to Lophejs, in Touraipe, tp 
teacb ^ claji^iG^ and rhetoric. Hf^r^ b^ derout bebavipur 
find exAeM^oJt coadi^ct as a tjeacber, madie bUo be xbough^ 
wortby pf Jtbe priesthood, whicb be rec^ivi^d at Poitiers in 
^708, ^aod as be was not arrived at tbe age to as^ngnj^ thif 
prder^ a dispensation, which bis unjcouan^on pi^tJ h$^d me- 
rit^di ifras obtained in bis fovour. The college pf Mohr 
fjargis b^^^K r^ci^lled bini^ he was their professor pf 
rbetori/: 4uring twp years, and philosppby during four^ 
% 3pit^ of all tbe$^ avocations^ be was hiumanely .atteottv/^ 
to ev^y icall and worH of jebarity, and to the instruction qf 
l^s f(eU^*cr$ature'S niany pf whom beard his esiqell^^^ 
^erippns^ pure a^ unadpnaed in style, but yaUiabl^ ifi 
ftiatt^r, w^icji Jie d/?Uv,ered qot only from the pulpits /^ 
n^ost of tb^ churches within the province, but even frp^ 
t^os^ jpf P^risi. 1q 17.16 his superiors invited him to tba( 
city, ibat b$ JQighjt have an opportunity pf following, wiitf 
the mpre cpoveni^npe, those studiies for iwbich be alw^ay^ 
ba4 e^ressed the gfeat^^t inciinatioQ. He not only uo^ 
d|arstpod tb^ suiciept, but abnost all the modern langui^gesf ' 
a circu^\$tanc^ o/ infinite advantage in the oomposi^pQ of 
thps^ wprks which be has given to the public, and if^bicbi 
be carried pn lyitb great assiduity to the time of his death; 
which happened after a short illness, July 8, 173?, at tbQ 
ag^. of , fifty rtbree. I^i« works are, 1. ^^ Le Grand F^ri* 
tuge} pr, a dissertation (o prove that coiyijciipu Wate^r ia 
the best remedy in f ev,ers, and even in thie Plag^d^ ; trans^ 
lated frpqi this E^glishof John tiancock, minister of St. 
Margaret'^, l^ndpn, in 12mo.'' This treatise made i^ts 
9p.pe.araQJCe, amongat other pieces relating to this subject^ 
(n I72Q; and ^^ attended with a aucces§ which carried it 
through tbrie^ ediJMpns; tb^ last cap^e out in 1730^ in 2 
vols. 12mq, ^i[ititled ^^ A Treatise on common Water ;^' 
l^aris, printed by C^v^lipr. 2. "The Voyages of Joha 
Ouvington^ to Surat, and divers parts of Asia and Africa j 
f pntainiog'tb^ .History of tbe ^evplution in t^e kingdom of 
Golcouday ^nd some obs^^^rvatipns vppn SiUk-Wprjaas,^' Pa* 
ris^ ^7?^.' ^ 7^'^* ^^QQo* 3. /^ Tb.e Coover$ion of £ng* 
]fnd ^o Christianity^ compared with its pretended Beform- 
^n^*' fk work ti;an^ted from the English, and written by 
9M E^pglish catholic, Paris, 172^, 8vo. 4. <^ TIjie. Natural 
history of the Earth, translated from the English of Mr. 
Woofllviurd, by Mons. Nogues, doctor in physic ; with an 



166 N i C E R O N. 

t ' 

answer to tbe objections of doctor Camerarius : containing^ 
also, several letters written on the same subject, and a 
methodical distribution of Fossils, translated from the Eng«i 
lish, by Niceron," Paris, 1735, 4to. 5. " Memoirs of Men 
illustrious in the republic of letters, with a critical Account 
of their Works, Paris," 12mo. The first volume of this 
great work appeared in 1727 ; tbe others Were given to the 
public in succession, as far as tbe thirty -ninth, which ap-^ 
peared in n:iS, The fortieth volume was published after 
tbe death of the author, in 1739. Since that event three 
others were added, but in these are many articles of which 
Kiceron was not the author. It is not easy to answer all 
the objections which may be offered to a work of this kind. 
The author himself, in one of his prefaces, informs us that 
some of his contemporaries wished ^for a chronological 
order ; some for the order of the alphabet ; some for class- 
ing the authors according to the sciences or their pro<^ 
fessions, and some according to the countries in which they 
Were bom. As bis work, however, appeared periodically,' 
he thought himself justified in giving the lives without any 
particular order, according as he was able to procure ma- 
terials. That the French critics should dwell upon the un« 
avoidable mistakes in a work of this magnitude, is rather 
surprizing, for they have produced no such collection 
since, and indeed Niceron has been the foundafion, as far 
as he goes, ef all the subsequent accounts of the same 
authors. Cbaufepie only treats him with respect while 
he occasionally points out any error in point of date or fact." 

NICETAS (AcHOMiNATES, or Choniates), a Greek his- 
torian, was born at Chone, or Colossus, a town in Phrygia. 
He. flourished in tbe thirteenth century, and was employed 
in several considerable affairs at the court of the emperors 
of Constantinople. When that city was taken by tbe French 
in 1204, he withdrew, together with a young French captive, 
whom he afterwards married at Nice in Bitbynia, and died 
there in 1206. 

He wrote a ** History, or Annals, from the death of 
Alexis Comnenus in 1118, to that ofBaudouin in 1205,'^ 
entitled ^< Nicetse Acominati Cboniate Hist. Gr. et Lat. 
ed. C. An. Fabroto,*' Paris, 1647, the best edition ; but it 
had been printed with a translation, by Jerome Wolf, at 
Pasil, in 1557, and again at Geneva, in 1593. It bai 

1 liift \fj the «bb^ Go«f«t, ia tqL XU pf the MeiBQin.««>Giiaiijfiitpie« 



N I C E T A S. 167 

«nce been inserted in the body of the '^ Byzantine Ris- 
tofians/* printed at the Louvre at Paris. This i» considered 
as one of the most valuable pieces in that collection, but 
the style is not good. Father Morel of Tours, in the six- 
teenth century, translated the five first books of a piece 
entitled " The treasure of the Orthodox Faith," ascribed 
to Nicetas, printed in 1580, 8vo, and inserted since in 
the twelfth volume of the " Bibliotheca Patrum" of Co- 
logne. We have also a fragment of the twentieth book, 
concerning what ought to be observed upon the conversion 
,of a Mahometan to Christianity. Michael Choniates, our 
.author^s brother, composed several *' Monodies upon his 
death," which are thinslated by Morel, and also composed 
sotne other discourses, particularly one upon the *' Cross,** 
Che manuscript of which is in the public library at Paris.^ 

NICETAS (David), a Greek historian, a native, as 
some relate, of Paphlagonia, flourished about the end of 
the ninth century. He wrote the " Life of St. Ignatius^ 
Patriarch of Constantinople,^' translated into Latin by Fre- 
deric Mutius, bishop of Termoli, and made use of by car- 
dinal Baronius: but we have another version, by father 
Matthew Raderi, printed at Ingoldstadt, in 1604. This 
Nicetas composed also several panegyrics, in honour of the 
apostles and other saints, which are inserted in the last 
continuation of the '^ Bibliotheca Patrum,** by Combesis. 
There are several authors of this name mentioned by Ges- 
ner and Leo Allatius.* 

NICETAS (surnamed Serron), deacon of the church 
of Constantinople, and contemporary with Theophylact in 
the eleventh century, and afterwards bishop of Heraclea, 
composed several ^^ Funeral Orations upon the death of 
Gregory Nazianzen ;" as also a " Commentary,'* which is 
inserted in Latin among the works of that father. There 
is ascribed to him a ^^ Catena upon the Book of Job," com- 
piled of passages taken from several of the fathers, which 
was printed by Junius at London, 1637, in folio. We 
have also, by the same author, several ^^ Catenx upon the 
Psalms and Canticles,** printed at Basil in 1552. There is 
likewise a " Commentary upon the Poems of Gregory 
Nazianzen,'* printed at Venice, under the name of Ni- 
cetas of Paphlagonia, which is apparently'the same author.^ 

;• 1 Moreri.x-.Dict. Hist.^^-Saxii Ooomast-^Blouni's Censura. 
** Moreri. — Diet. Hist,— Vossius de Hist. Graec— ^Saxii OnomasV 
•3 Ott]^ia.— ^oreri.— CaTe,.Tol. ll.-^SaxiiOaojnast, . - -*. 



i6$ NICHOLAS. 

NICHQI^AI^ V. pqp^, and the onlypontiff of tbift ^9mk9 
pi^cb deserving of notice, wn^ priginally haoi^d Tl^maf 
•pf Sarss^qa, fipd w^$ bqrn in 139S. lie lyas th^ son of 
iPArtb* .d€|i PftreQtiiceUi, a professor of arts and medic^^^ 
in Pis^, Hi$ mother, An^reolai ws^ a native of Sara^nai .^ 
fv^i\ town oil th^ borders of Tu$ca|iy, and the pepubU^ pf 
penpal whence be df ri«ed bis svirnaqfie. In ^bis sev^uib 
year bis f9,ther ^ifid, sii^d his mother marrying, again, a Hflfm 
who bad no affeption fpr her offtspring, his yqupger dayj 
were ^mbitterqd by dpqiestic neglect and harsbnes^. H§ 
9bj;aiped a friend, b^wever, in cardinal Njcbplas Atberga|i» 
who. tOQ^ \nm lender bis protection, and supplied him witb 
^vhf^tev^r wd>s necessary for pursuing bis studies at tb^ 
uuivjarsity of Ifologn^. At the age of twenty- four be pnvr 
rolled himself iq the priesthood, but continued to live m 
t]ke family of his patron i^ntil the death of the latter, when 
))is les^rning and v^rtue^ procured him another friend ill tbi 
c^ardjual Gerard Andriani, By his means be. wa^ intrpt 
d(iced tp (bf cppft of Cugenius IV. ^nd eqiployed in aU 
tbe.die^putes between the i.^tips aqd Greeks at the cpunviU 
9f F^rrara and Flprence, fpr bi^^ admirable manageff^ent of 
jwhich he was rewarded in 1445 by the bi^hopriq of fipr 
}pgi)?k- Ip 4446 be was promoted (0 the purple, and ia 
]VI?^rch 1447 he was elevated to the pap^l thronei op wbipb 
pcca,sion be assum.ed the name of Nichol^Ls V. The %emr 
ppr<^lties of the holy see being in a lamenti^ble $ts^te Qf 
disorder, he had uncommon difficulties to strgggl^e witbt 
]0fbich, bpw^ver, he enqountered by a wise and teinperate 
ppQduet. It Yfs^% , first bis object to i^estore the {iuanpe% 
9lhd to cultivate the $irts of peace, vvbieb furnished bio) ^i(b 
the noeans of gratifying his passion for the encoqr^gefneii^ 
pf learning. Fpstered by bis patronage, the $phql»r4.pf 
Italy no Ipnger had renson to complain that tbey wene 
doomed to. obscurity and contempt. Niphplas. invited 10 
bis court all those who were : distinguished by their pror 
liciency in ancient literature ; and whilst hp afforded tbcm 
full scope for the ^i^ertiqn of their talents, be reqnit^il 
tbeir labours by liberal remunerations. Poggio waa.Qne of 
those who experienped bis kindest patronage* 

In 1453 Nicholas received intelligence of the capitu|i0 
qf Constantinople by Mahomet II. wbiph some bifttoriani 
mention as the greatest affliction that befel the pope ; but 
Gibbon, speaking on the subject, says, ** Some states w^.re 
top jraetk^ and otber« too remote ; by «pmQ tbQ danjj;^ \«m 



»l Q H Q t A «. iW 

MMideped u imiiginftry, by mbets m i^evltfiliil^ : tii# 
wesurn princas were iuvolvad in thmv endle^ ^i)4 domeHU^ 
qttatreU ; ^nd the Rom^ pontiff wati exA8per4ted by ibe 
^liiiebood or obstinacy of the Greeks. Instejid pf enfiploy^ 
^11^ in tbeir favour tbe amif and treasures of lulyt N^cbor 
JairV bad foretold ibeir. approaching ruin, acid, bis honour 
seemed engaged in the accomplishment of his prophecy. 
Perhaps he was softened by.ihe last extremity of tbeir 
AhkreUf but his eooipassion was tardy : bi^ cfforta urece 
laiot and unavailing; and Constantinople bad fallen befor# 
the squadrons of Genoa and Venice pould sail froo) their 
harboiics." Froai this time he spent the remainder of hit 
pontificate in endeavours tp all^y the civil wars and coio^' 
motions which took place in Italyt to reconcile the Chrtsr 
tian princes who were then at war with oue another^ an4 
io unite them in one league agaiast the enemies of the 
Christian church. But ail bis efforts being unsuecossful^ 
tbe disappointment is said to have hastened bis deatb^ 
which happened M^rch 24, 1455. ^' The fame of Nicholas 
V.^' says Gibbon, who aeems to have formed a just estimate 
of the character of this pontjif, <' has not been adequate 
to bis meritf. From a plebeian origin, he raised himself 
by his virtue and learning; the character of the man pre* 
vailed over the interest of the pope ; ^nd be $barpene4 
^ose weapons which were soon pointed against the Romau 
pburcb. He bad been the friend of the most eminent 
scholars of the age ; be became tbeir patron ; and such 
Npvas the humility of his manners, that the change was 
soarcely discernible either to them or , to himself. If he 
pnessed the acceptance of a. liberal gift, it was pot as ths 
saeasure of desert, but as the proof of benevolence ; and 
when modest merit declined his bounty, 'accept.it,' be 
vosild say, with a consciousness of bis own worth, .^ yon 
will not always have a Nicholas among you/ The ihflueoce 
of the holy see pervaded Christendom ; and be jexertad 
that influence in the search, ,npt of benefices,. but of books^ 
From the ruins of the Byzantine libraries^ from the, dark* 
est monasteries of Germany and Britain, be oollefited. tlMi 
dusty ihanuscripts of the writers of aotiqiiity ; and wherevct 
ifae original could not be remoiwd, a faithful copy was 
tsaoscrtbed^ and transmitted for .use. ^be Vatican, the 
old repository for bulls and legends, for superstition and 
forgery, was daily replenished with more preciojus furni* 
Ijore } and such was the industry jof HitokokBp that ia a 



176 N I C H O L A S, 

reign of eight years he formed a library of 5000 volumei^ 
To bis munificence the Latin world was indebted for the 
versions of Xenophon, Diodorus, Polybius, Thucydides, 
tierodotusy and Appian ; of Strabo's Geography ; of the 
Iliad ;. of the most valuable works of Plato and Aristotle ^ 
of Ptolemy and Tbeophrastus, and of the^ fathers of tht 
^j^reelc church* ' 

NICHOLAS DE CUSA. See CUSA. 

NICHOLAS (EYMERicas), a celebrated Dominican, wan 
bom at Gironna) in Catalonia, about 1320. He was made 
inquisitor general by Innocent VI. about 1356, and after- 
wards chaplain to Gregory XL and judge of heretical 
causes. He died Jan. 4, 1399^ leaving a precious monu^ 
ment of inquisitorial tyranny, entitled ** Directorium la-i 
quisitorium,*' or the Inquisitor's Directory, the best edi<» 
tions of which are those with corrections, particularly that 
'^ cum comment. Fran. Pegnse,'* printed at Rome, 1587, 
fol. This book, says L*Avocat, contains the most prer« 
nicious and horrible maxims, according to which, not only 
private persons, but princes and kings, may be condemned 
secretly by the inquisition, without being permitted to 
apeak in their own defence, and afterwards put to death 
by poison, or other means. It is astonishing, adds this 
liberal ecclesiastic, that a work which inculcates such de- 
testable principles should have been printed at Barcelona^ 
afterwards at Rome, and at Venice. The commentary, 
lie says, is as pernicious as the text. The French have an 
abridgment of the work, by the abb6 Morellet, 1762^ 12mo.' 

NICHOLS (Frank), a physician and anatombt of 
eminence, was born in London in 1699, where his father 
was a barrister. After receiving the rudiments of bis edu-^ 
cation at a private school in the country, whete his docility 
and sweetness of temper endeared him to his master and ' 
scliooUfellows, he was in a few years removed to West- 
minster, and thence to Oxford, where he was admitted a 
commoner of £xeter college, under the tuition of Mn 
John Haviland, in 1714. He applied himself to the usual 
academical exercises with great assiduity, and took: hia 
degrees in arts at the accustomed periods, that of M. A. in 
172 1. He paid his greatest attention to natural philosoplkyt 
and after readii^ a few books on anatomy, engaged in 

1 Bower's Hist of the Popes.— Tir&bosohi. — Gibbon's I}ist.^— Shepherd's Uh 
of Poggio, p. 381, 409, 462.— Life by Georgi, Romei 1742, 4to. 
3 Mov«n.<^X>ict. HifU de L'AYOcat. < 



NICHOLS. 171 

dissections, which he pursued with so much reputation as 
to be chosen teader of anatomy in the university in 1726, 
about two years after taking his degree of B. M. In^ this 
office he used his utmost endeavours to introduce a zdal 
for this neglected study, and obtained a high and well 
merited reputation. His residence at Oxford, however, 
was oiily temporary; for at the close of his course he re* 
turned to London, where he bad determined to settle, after 
having made a short trial of practice in Cornwall, and a 
subsequent visit* to the principal schools of France and 
Italy. At Paris, by conversing freely with the learned, 
he soon recommended himself to their notice and esteem* 
Winslow's was the only good system of physiology at that 
time known in France, and Morgagqi^s and Santorini^s, of 
Veriice, in Italy. On his return to England he resumed 
his anatomical and physiological lectures in London, and 
they were frequented, not only by students from both the 
universities, but by many surgeons, apothecaries, and 
others. His reputation rapidly extended, and in 1728 he 
was elected a fellow of the royalisociety, to which he com- 
municatied several papers, which were published in the 
Philosophical Transactions, especially some observations 
on the nature of aneurisms, in which he controverted the 
dpinion of Dr. Freind ; and a description of a singular dis« 
ease, in which the pulmouary vein was coughed up. He 
eko made observations on a treatise by Helvetius, on the 
lungs. In 1729, he received the degree of M. D at Ox« 
ford, and became a fellow of the college of physicians in 
1732. In 1734 he was appointed to read the Gulstoniaa 
lectures at the college, and chose the structure of the 
heart, and the circuidtion of the blood, for his subjects. At 
the request of the president. Dr. Nichols again read the 
Gulstonian lectures in 1736, choosing for his topics the 
urinary organs, and the nature and treatment of calculous 
diseases; and inl739 he delivered the anniversary Harveiaa 
oration. In 1743 he married one of the daughters of the 
celebrated Dr. Mead, by whom he had a son and daughter, 
both living. 

' In 1745 Dr. Nichols left Oxford finally, and was 8uc« 
ceeded in his professorship by Dr. Lawrence. In 174S 
he was. appointed lecturer on surgery to the college, and 
Vegan his course with a learned and elegant dissertation oa 
the '* Anima Medica,'* which was published as a separate 
ivork ia 1750. While he wds proceeding with his course^ 



llPweF/^9 ht rjpcpxY^i what be coosidf red ap ImhU from 
tbe .cpVlega, who c^ose a junior fellow «s ayi el^ctp oo thf 
di?»tb of Dr. Cpniogba;^, in preference %o l^iii), without 
fkDy uppfirent rea^oq , and be indignantly resigned hit 
Iepiture9bip9 never aft^i'wardft attending the meetings of tJbf 
fellows, except when matters of thejutmp&t iifiportaACft 
were in agitation. In 1751 be took some revepg^ in an 
t^QuymwA pamphlet, entitled ^< The Petition of the nnr 
born Babes to the Censprs of, the Jlpya} College of Pby? 
*ieiaiis in London/' in which Dr* Ne^hitt, Dr. MauJe* Hf* 
^arrowby priDeipallyy ai^d sir Williapi BrcMfpe» ^r Edward 
Hiilf^ and the Scots, were ]tbe objects of bi# satire* 

On the death of sir Hans Sloane, in 17^3, Br. Niehok 
iBas Uppointed his sticcessor a^ ope of the IcipgV physicians :; 
M office which be held till, the death of his majesty |o 17§Q, 
jwheq the n^ost skilful were superseded to make way fojr 
one wbo, hb bipgr^pher ^ays, was not long before an 
array surgeon of the lowest order. On this ocpasion an 
•ffer of a pension was made to Dr. Niphols, which Jt was 
suggested be might baye if be womM ask fpr it, but h# 
rejected it with disdain. In 1772 he published a ^^ccMid 
edition of his treatise <^ De Anima Medica/' to which was 
aubjoined a dissertation <^ De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in 
Hbmine fiaio et noo nato/' inscribed to hi^ learaed friend 
and coadjutor the late Dr. Lawrence. 

Weary at leogth with his profession, and with » rdcsi* 
dence in Loodoo, and also wishing to superintend the edut 
cation of his son at Oxford, he removed to that city, where 
be had spent some of the most agreeable yesn? of bis 
jroDtk^ But when the study of the law reeaUed bm son 
(afterjwafds Ajnember of parliament) to London, the doeilQr 
took A house at Epsom, wher/e he passed the remaioder of 
bis; life in a liteorary retirienaeat, . varying bis recreations^ by 
an attention to the recent, botanical researches pf Linoseusi 
and by .aome agriculttural inquiries. His /constitution had 
nerer been rohust; be jvas eonstantly subject to sc^vere 
catarrhal affections, and .an aathoutic comgh, trfaich, oat 
turning with great violence January 7, 1778, deprix^ed tbd 
world of this yaluahle man, in the eagbtretfa year jof jbis 
age. iln IT6O his friend Dr. Thomas Lawreace, wrote Aif 
life iji.jebgant Latin^ for distribution amaaghif frieodf; 
He igiv«s bis character as Yery amiable. ^ 

Ortoa's t^tt'enr, vol. II, p. 260, in a letter from sir Jamed StoohOiue, ^art. M. D, 



NICHOLS: Hi 

NiCliOLS; or Nl€COLS (RicJHAltD)^ wbom Mr. RetidJ 
ley GOifsrdetls ai si podt of great deganee md imaginati^^ 
^id ene of the orti&aients of the reign of ^i^itbeth, w^' 
bom in London, of genteel parenc^, )n 15)^4. In fiOa bef 
^teriM' a- stodent of Magdalen collegi^i Oitldrd, 4^b^6nce,^ 
tfft^r a short timei he remc^red to Magdalen ball, Md tdolif 
<tfd dej^ee of B. A. in 1606. After femainitigf ai tile bnii 
tersicj some years, and being e^t^m^d among the mosC 
kigenrous men of fai^ day, alccording to l^Ood, he qukted 
Othrd for London, t^here he ^^ obtain^ an eoiploym^nt 
suitable to his faculty.^ What this empIoynM^nt w^, vfH 
are left to conjecture. The tim6 of hi^ death is also un- 
certain, but he appears to baref b^eAf A\\i^t at least fti .1616, 
fixki was then but young. The most material of his ^6ik% 
«re bis aldditions to << The Mirror f&t Magistrates/' a b6ok 
laost popular in its tiilie (see HiaoiNd), codtaifling k i^rlei 
^ pieces by SackviHe, Bildwyne, Ferrers, Churdh)fa^d^ 
l^faayer, Higgins, Drayton. It was i^ltimately cOd^pleied^ 
ted its cdutents neie arranged by Nichols, whose supple-^ 
ttent to the edition of 1610 is entitled '« A Winter Ntgbt^ii 
Vision;'' To this likewise is improperly subjoined «* Ebf^ 
land's Eliza; or the Victorious and triumphant reig^eof that 
tirgin Empress, &e. Elizabeth, qiieen of England/'* fte^ 
His other writings are, "The CiickoiV, k Poem,'* LondkiH; 
1607 i ** Monodi^, or Wakham's complaint upon the A^tk 
df the most vertuous lind noble lady, late deceased, ttii 
lady Honor Hiy," ibid. 1615 ; a play called "The T#yllnei 
iTragedye" is attributed to bito ih the feil^g. Drami; biit >^€ 
can, on better authority, add « Ldhdbn's Artillery, brtefly 
Containing the noble practice of that Wortlrie Soeiety," ftei 
ftc. 1616, 4to; "The Three Sisters' Tears^ shed at tM 
late solemne Funerals of the royal Hehryj ptincd of Wiles,'' 
Uc. 1613, 4to ; and << The Furies, ^ith Verttie's eneddliilMi 
Stc. in two books ojp epigrammes, satirical and eh^e^ 
fiiiastic," 1614, 8vo. Ample specimens ^ Ms poel^ AM 
gliren in Headley^^ "BeaiJties," and tHe ** BibliogrAph^h*'^ 
NICHOLS (William), ah Edglish dtviifte of ^H 
learning and merit, was the son of John Nichols, ei^Doh*^ 
bigton, in Bucks, an eminent eoohseltbr, afnd ^a$ borA 
in 1664. He was educated at 6t Paul's school, Lond(}h, 
#henoey^ in 167^^ he went to Magdalen hull. Oxfordi He 

. 1 Atli. Ox.«T9l. I.^niof. Pcam.-^.WartoQ's Hi«t of Poetry.'^Iitaaiqr'l 
BeauUef.— The Bibliographert toI. L— BiblioUieca Angto-Poetica. 



174 MICHOtft 

' temoi^d afterv^ards to Wttdbam cdlkge, whet e be tubk 
the degree of B. A. ^ov. 27, 1683; but being admitted 
probationer-fellow of Merton college in October 1684, he 
completed his degree of M.A. there on June 19, 16&S, 
About that time he entered into holy orders, becafne 
chaplain, to Ralph earl of Montague, and in September 
1691, rector of Selsey, near Chichester, in Sussex. He 
was admitted B. D. July 2, 1692, and D^ D. Not. 29^ 
1695. After a life entirely devoted to piety ai>d study, 
we find faim^ in the close of-it, thus describing his situation, 
in a letter to Robert earl of Oxford -. 

" Smith-street, Westminster, Aug. 31^ 1711. 
'^ May it please your lordship, 
. ** I was in hopes that her majesty would have bestowed! 
the prebend of W'estmin^ter upon me, being the place 
where I live, and that I might be nearer to books, to &nish 
my work on the liturgy and articles, for which she was 
pleased to teli to me, with her own mouth, sbe^ would 
consider me. My good lord, I have taken more paius iii 
this ihatter than any divine of our nation, which I hope 
may bespeak the favour of a churcb-of-England ministry. 
Therefore I most humbly beseech your lordship for your 
interest for the next prebend of that church (if thffi be 
disposed of) that shall be void ; for if I had merited no- 
thing, my circumstances want it. I am now forced on the 
drudgery of being the editor of Mr. Selden^s books, for a 
little money to buy other boo'ks, to carry on my liturgical 
work. I have broken my constitution by the pains of 
making my collections myself throughout that large work» 
without the help of an amanuehsis, which I am not in a 
condition to keep, though the disease of my stomach (being 
a continual cholic of late, attended by theruptureof a vein) 
might plead pity, and incline my superiors not to suffer 
B^ all my days to be a Gibeonite in the dhurch without 
any regard or relief. Pray, my lord, represent my case 
to the queen ; and I shall never be wanting t6 make my 
pnost ample acknowledgment for so great a favour. I could 

^ long since have made my way to preferment withouttaking 
all this pains, by a noisy cry for a party ; but as ; this, has 
been often the reproach, and once the ruin of our clei^t 
so I have always industriously avoided it, quijStly 4oiilg 
what service I could to the church I was born in| aftd 
leaving the issue tberebf to God^s Providence, arid to tlie 
kind offices of some good maui who some time or otiler 



j^ I C H o L.s. ns 

flight , befriend me in getting some little thing fot me to 
^ake my circumstances easy^ which is the occasion ibaX 
your lordship has the trouble of this application, from, . 

My lord/ 
Your lordship's most dutiful, most obedient. 
And most humble servant. 

Will, Nichols.'* 
. That he deserved more attention, wiir appear from the 
following list of his useful publications. 1. '^ An Answer 
%o an Heretical Book called < The naked Gospel,' which 
was condemued and ordered to be publicly burnt by the 
Convocation of the University of Oxpn, Aug. 19, 1690, 
with some Reflections on Dr. Bury's new edition of that 
book^" 1691, 4to. 2. " A short History of Sociniaoism,'* 
printed with the answer before-mentioned; and dedicated 
to his patron the earl of Montague. S. *^ A Practical 
Essay on the Contempt of the World," 1694, 8vo,, in- 
scribed to *^ sir John Trevor, master of the rolls," to whom 
the author acknowledges his obligations for ^< a consider- 
able preferment, bestowed in a most obliging and generous 
manner." 4. ^^ The Advantages of a learned Education," 
a, sermon preached at a schooUfeast, 1698, 4to. 5.^^ The 
Duty of Inferiors towards their Superiors, in five praotical 
.discourses; shewing, I. The Duty of Subjects to their 
iPrinces. II. The Duty of Children to their Parents. 
III. The Duty of Servants to their . Masters. IV. The 
Duty of Wives to their Husbands. V. The Duty of Pa^ 
rishioners and the Laity to their Pastors and Clergy. To 
which is prefixed a dissertation concerning the divine 
right of Princes," ,1701, Bvo. 6. "An Introduction to a 
Devout Life, by Francis Sales, bishop and prince of Ge- 
neva; translated and reformed from the Errors of the 
Romish edition. To. which is prefixed, a Discourse of the 
Rise and Progress of the Spiritual Books in the Romish 
Church," 170 L, Svo. 7. *' A Treatise of Consolation to 
. Parents for the Death of their Children ; written upoi^ the 
. occasion pf the Death of the Duke of Gloucester ; and ad- 
dreiised to the most illustrious Princess Anne of Denoiarl;," 
,' 1701, 8vo. 8. " God's Blessing on Mineral Waters;" a 
Sermon preached at the chapel at Tunbridge Wells,^^ 4 702, 
4to. 9. "A Conference with a Tbeist, in five parts ^ de- 
: dicated to the Queen^s most excellent Majesty," 1703, 
. Svo; of which a third edition, wiih the addition of two 
\ Goofereoces, the one with a Machiaveliaa. the other with 



1T6 Nicholas* 

M Alh^sty all cafef ull J" revised And pt€fMed (dt tfie pfeM 
by the author, Was published in 1729, 8 vols. 8 vo; Thif 
was partieuJarly designed^ says Leiartd, by the.le&rrted ttnd 
ingenious author, in oppositioti to the '^ Oracles of Rea- 
son/' published by Btount; and he has not left aity mate- 
rial part of that Work unanswered. 10. ^^ A Practical £s^ 
say on the Cbrttempt of the World ; to which, is pfc^ 
Hxedi a Preface to the Deists ai)d vicious Libertines of the 
Age,'* 1704, 2d edit. 8vo. 1 1. /^The Religibnof aPrincej 
shewrng thai tl>e Precepts of the Holy Scriptures are the 
best maxiois of Govch-nirient,'^ 1704, 8vo, in oppb^itidn to 
Machiavel, Hohb^s^ &c. and written wiled the queen gav^ 
Ml the tenths and first fruits to the inf(^rtor clergy, 12, 
'^Defensio EcclesisB Angticariaftj" l707j 12ino. ISi ** A 
i^araphrase bh the Common Prayer, with Notes on tbd 
Sundays and HoHdays," 170Sr, tvo; U. >' Afflictions tH<d 
lot of God's children, a Sermoft. eii the l^eaffa 6f pHrice 
George,*' 1709, «vo. 15. "A Coihrtietit ori tbfe Book 6t 
Comttibn Pf^yer, and Admirtistratfon of the Sacramtints,** 
lie. 17 10^ folio. This volunie has th« royi9il licence pre^ 
filled, and a list of more than 900 subscribers. Iti fai^ 
dedid&tfon 16 the queen, he notic^^ as what faieVer bap* 
|>ened bfefbre, that aH the copies were bespoke or piAd fot 
before the day of publication. It still dontiiiue^ tb b0 
fMhted in 8ro. The late sir James Stotlhouse, in i ]et%et 
to the rev. Thomas Sted man, dated 1793, says of tfai$ 
work, ^*r would have you recommend ik tb every family 
ih your parisTh-^as it will shew them the use of the comitiort 
ptayet and psalms, as read, in our thurcbes, aud be i 
tffcslttdsird book from father to'son.'' 16. <* A Supplement 
tb the Commentary, on the Book of (iotftroon Prayer,'* 
1711, foMo. In the preface to this stipplement, Dr. Nir* 
Mfols mentions *^ a long fit of illness with Which Got! had 
^le^^d fo visit bim, and a very unestabiish^ stat^ of 
k^alth both before ftnd after it.'' This illness appeiir^ soon 
H^hive Glided in his death. 17. << Historian SicrcB Libri 
Vll. Et Antonii Cocceii Sabellici Eneadibus concinhatunf^ 
in ustim iScbolarumet Juventutis Christianse," 1711, l2mb. 
18 •* A Cominentary oh the first fifteen, anti part of thi 
aixtefentb Articles of the Church of England,'^ 1712, foj; 
19. ^ A Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of ihtf 
Cburich'of England ; first written hi Latirt, for the use of 
Ibfeiguers, by William Nichols, D.D. and translated ifitd 
English by himself^" 171 5, iS!mo. Br. Ntehob was fciet^ 



N I C a O L a. 177 

(lioMsd ft v«ry excellent scholar, and. was known abroad as 
well as at home hf the learned correspondence be kept 
'Witk'feyeigbers of eminence. A vplunie of soch cprre*^ 
«|Mindeficie with jAblonski, Oster^vald, Wetstein, &c. was 
'|>rbsen€^ by his widow Catharine Nichols to the archbishop 
iof Caffitet^ury, (M. 2S, 1712, to be deposited either inr^ 
^^amb^th 'or St. Martin's library, and is* now among the 
tjwaluiible MSS. at LakiVbeth, No. 676. He died in the end 
«f' Aj^ril 1712, and was buried in St. SWithin's church 
^iiay 5: It may not be improper to distingnidi this pious 
^vi«^ frbm his Aame-sake WilliaaI Nichols, M. A. and 
4«(ctdr of Stockpdrl, • in Cheshire, who was a student 
'i»fCbi^i^t church, Oxford, and published, 1. ** De Literis 
4ikiirel;^is' Libti set ; dd illustrissimun^ Principem Thomam 
-filerber^m, Peofthroki&e Comitem,^^ &c. 1711, 8vo. 2* 
^* 0#iitio e^ram venerabili Societate promoyenda R'eligione 
<2iiriMian& habita Londini, Dec. 29, 17 15,'* 12mo; and, 
9. «*nEPt APXftN Libri Septem. Accedunt Litur^ica,'* 
t1l7, l2mo.^ 

* NICOLAI (John), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, 
fttui Dominican, was born in 1594, at Monza, a village 
in the didicese of V^dun, near Stenay. After taking a 
doctorVdegree in 1632, he taught theology in the house 
of bi% order at Paris, fhr about twenty years. He was 
tlteied prior in 1661, and died May 7, 1673, aged seventy- 
•igllt. He was the editor of a good edition of the *^ Sum- 
aoary'^ of St. Thomas, with notes, and of all that doctor^ 
workSy Lyons, 1660, i9 vols. fol. He also published five 
Dissertations on several points of ecclesiastical disciplinei 
agaiilBl M« dd Launoi, 121:^0; *' Judicium, iseu censoriunl 
tiiffragiuin de pi^positione Antonii Arnaldi,^* &c. 4to^ 
Wbich last he likewise published in French by the title of 
f^ Avis d^lirberatif," &c. 4to. This relates to the much 
fOfitested proposition of M. Arnauld, that ^< Grace failed 
kt: St. Peter^'* and it was answered by M. Arnauld, Nicole^^ 
and de la Lane. He was the author of other works, in 
iiriMieh are some singular opinions, but Which are juow o{ 
Kttle consequence* He must, however, be distinguished 
from 9WLIP Nicolai,* a learned divine, who died in 1608^ 
and fVom Melchior Nicolai, a celebrated professor ot 
iMtiiiy at Tubingen, who died in 1659. Both ihes^ 

Vl Knigfat's Life of Co)et.---Atb. Ox. vol. 11.— LeUnd'f Peittical Writ»8»<*^ 
HicfaoU'B Bowyer.— Orton'i Lettlsn, toI, II. p, dS3. 

Vat.XXnL N 



178 NIC O L A V & 

^rote commentaries and controversial treatises, noticed id 
*' Freheri Theatrum," and our other authorities.' 

NICOLAUS (Damascenus), a native of Damascus, in 
Syria, who flourished in the time of Augustus, was a man- 
of extensive learning, and an illustrious ornament of th^ 
Peripatetic school. Herod the Great made choice of him 
for his preceptor in philosophy; and whei) be sailed to 
Rome for the purpose of visiting the emperor, took him as 
his companion in the voyage. Afterguards that prin^ 
prosecuted historical learning under Nicolaus^ who at bib» 
request undertook to write a Universal History^ and being 
introduced by Herod to Augustus, he was admitted toh^ 
intimate friendship, and received from him many valqahU 
tokens of regard. The integrity and generosity of hi^ 
spirit, and the urbanity of his manners, obtained him uni- 
versal respect. Nicolaus wrote several treatises. o4i the 
philosophy of Aristotle ; '^ A Dissertation on the manners 
of various Nations ;'' Memoirs of Augusitus.;'* and his 
own ** Life." Of these some fragments are preserved: by 
Valesius, and a complete edition was published in 1804^ 
by J.. C. Orellius, under the title ** Nicolai Damasceoi* 
Historiarum excerpta et fragmenta quse supersunt, Gr^^ 
Lat." 8vo. * , < ^ 

. NICOLE (Francis), a very celebrated French, mathe? 
roatician, was born at Paris, December 23, 1683. HisearljF 
attachment to the mathematics induced M. Montmort to take 
the charge of bis education, and initiate him in the higbar 
geometry. He first distinguished himself by detecting the 
fallacy of a pretended quadrature of the circle. A M. Mai^ 
thulon was so confident that be bad discovered ^tbis quad-* 
rature, as to deposit in the hands of a public notary at 
Lyons, the sum of 3000 livres, to be paid toanypersoa 
vt^ho in the judgment of the academy of sciences, should 
demonstrate the falsity of ius solution. M. Nicole haviog 
undertaken the task, the academy's judgment was,, that he 
had plainly proved tbijit the rectilineal figure which Matbu*) 
Ion had given as equal to the circle, wasi not only unequal 
to'ity but that it was even greater tbati^the polygon oft 32i 
sides circumscribed about the circle. It was the.lQV0 of 
ccience, however, and not of money, which inspired Ni^ 
cole on this occasion, for he pres^ented the prizet of 30CKI. 
livres to the public hospital of Lyons. The academy 

* Moreri. — ^Oict. Hiirt. - 

^ Bru«ktr^-*-¥ossMi8' de Hist. Gr»c.«— Chaufei>ie.---Saxii Onomast* 

I • . • '•  r 



N I C O L E* I?9 

Dtmed,' Nicole eleve-mechanician, March 12, 1707; ad- 
junct in 1716, associate in 1718, and pensioner in 1724^ 
which he continued till his death, which happened January 
1-8, 1758, at seventy-five years of age. 

His works, which were all inserted in the different vo* 
lomes of the Memoirs of the academy of sciences, are : 
1. A general method for determining the nature of curves, 
foraied by the rolling of other curves upon any given cMrve; 
io the volume for the year 1707. 2, A general method for 
rectifying all roulets upon right and circular bases; 1708. 
3. 'General method of determining the nature of those 
curves which cut an infinity of other curves given iu posi« 
tton, cutting them always in a constsint ang4e, 1715. '4. 
Solution*. of a problem proposed by M. de Lagny^ 171 6, 
5. Treatise of the calculus of finite differences, 1717. 6^ 
Sei^dnd part of the calculus of finite differences, 1723. 7. 
Second section of ditto, 1723. .8. Addition to th^ twd 
foregoiiig papers, 1724. 9. New proposition in Elemen- 
tary Geometry, 1725. 10. New solution of a problem 
proposed to the English mathematicians, by the- late M. 
Lieibnitz, 1725. 11. Method of summing an infinity of 
new series, which are not summable by any othei^ known 
method, 1727. 12. Treatise of the lines of the third or* 
der, or the curves of the slecoud kind, 1729. 13. Exa-» 
' mination and resolution of some questions relating to play, 
1730. 14. Method of determining the chances at play. 
15. Observations upon the conic sections, 1731. 16. Man- 
ner of generating in a solid body, ail the lines of the third 
order, 1731. 17. Manner of determining the nature of 
roulets formed upon the convex surface of a sphere ; and 
of determining which are geometric, and which are recti-' 
fiable, 1732. 18. Solution of a problem in geometry, 1732, 
19. The use of series in resolving many problems in the 
ii^Terse method of tangents, 1737. 20. Observations on 
the irreducible case in cubic equations, 1738. 21. Ob« 
seirvations upon cubic equations, 1738. 22. On the tri- 
section of an angle, 1740. 23. On the irreducible case 
in cubic equations, 1741. 24. Addition to ditto, 1743. 
25. His last paper upon the same, 1744. 26. Determina- 
tion, by incdmmensurables and decimals, the values of the 
side$ and areas of the series in a double progression of re-^ 
guiar polygons, inscribed in apd circumscribed about » 
circle, 1747.* 

> HattoD'f Diet.— Diet Hiit. 
N 2 



ltd IS t C O L £. 

NICOLE (JOHM)^ father of the celebrated Peter Nieoici 
]vas deficeoded of & reput^le faoiily, and horn at'CKartres, 
\n Oiot, 1€Q^. JHe applied faiaiself to the law, and made 
a good proficiency in it ^ so that he became an advocate id 
parliament, aed judge official to the bishop of Chartres. 
A« a pleader, hovrever, he is said to have been more flowery 
ihaa solid, and be injured his* rieputation by interspersinj 
\m pleadiogs witfa verses and scraps of romances, whicl 
m$ $00 toQk care aftenvards to burn. It does not appear 
(bat be pubiisbed much, unless part if not the whole of a 
French trapsijation of Quintilian, printed at Paris, in 1642f^ 
a)>4 dedicated to Mr. Seot, bishop of Chartres. The abbe 
de MaroUe^ says that he bad several times received verses 
10 L^tip and French from bur e^dvQcate, whp died at Char^ 
tiesip 1§78.* 

. NICX>.L£ (Claitde), cousin-german of the preceding, 
Wl(9 son (^Kipolas Nicole, receiver of the town of Chartres, 
w.bere b^ was born Sept. 4, 161 1 ; and becanie one of the 
king^s council, add president in the elections of Chartres< 
H^ died Nov. 22, 1685. He waa a. good Greek, Latin, and 
Italian scholar, and had a talent for French poetry ; which, 
howevier, he s^bused, the greatest part of his poems being 
grossly indelicate. Of these he published a collection at 
Pliri^ 1^60, in 2 vols. 12mo, with a dedication to the king, 

indef the title 6f **The Works of the President Nicole.** 
his cplIectioR appeared again after his death,' enlarged 
wi|h seiFeral ne>¥ pieces, some of which are upon subjects 
of piety, in 16Q8, at Paris. They consist chiefly of trans- 
lationsi of several works of *^ Ovid," " Horace," ^^Persius,'* 
^. Mafti^l," ** Seneca the Tragedian,^* <* Claudian,** and 
Qtberf) ^* A Translation of an Elegy and Ode of Anacreon," 
and 9f ^^ A Poem upon the Loves of Adonis, by tbe<savii- 
l^iea? Marin, itc."- ' . . 

NIQOLE (Peteb), a celebrated French divine, wa» 
bQrn ^1 Chartres, Oct. 6, 1625. He was- the son of John 
il^IicoIf| above mentioned? who, discovering him to be a 
;y^u^h of promising talents, gave him bis first instractibtDs 
^B. grfin^otar, and. ao grounded him iA classical knowleid^e^ 
that at ^ age of fourteen he was qus^iflfed to go to Paris, 
and qommence a course of philosophy ; and at its cqmp)e«* 
tiop,, \i\ about two years, be took the degree ^f M. A. July 
93„ 1^4. He. afterwards studied divinity ^t the Sorbonhe^ 

.  • ' * « 

 *  

» Mofcri. . » Ibid. 



N I c a L »: Ml 

in 1 645 and IM6 ; idiid, 4uf ing t^' course, learned B^ 
brew, improved hioiself iiairtber in Greek, acquired a know« 
lodge of Spanish and Italian. He aho devoted part of hie 
tioie to. the instruction of the yotrtb put under the care of 
messieurs de PortHrbyaK As soon, as he hod complteted* 
three yeb^rs, tt^e usi^l period, in the study of divinity, he 
proceeded b^cbeior in. that iiiculty in 1649, on which ois^ 
catsioii be maiotaioed the theses called the Teutati<ve. R# 
afterwards prepared himself to proceed a licentiate ; huH 
w^ diverted from it by the dn^ute which arose about the^ 
&Re failious propositions of Jainsenius,: added to his eon^ 
nections wifdi Mr. Arhauld. By this means he was at mors^ 
liBiifttre to cultivate his atccpiaintdnce with gentlemen of tbei^ 
Portriroyal, to which tnatise be now retired, and assisted 
Mr« Aroauld in several pieces, which tha(t celebrated diw 
vine published in his own defence. . They both went to 
M. Varei*s hoqse at Chatillon near Paris, in 1664, and therd 
^ntiQued to ^rite in concert Nicole afterwards resided 
at several' places, sometimes^ at Port»royal, sometiipes aa 
Paris». &d. , He^was solicited to take holy Orders ; but, aftea* 
an examination of three w^eks, and consulting with M* 
paviQoi^; bishop of Aleth, he remained only a tonsured 
priest It has been asserted by some, that having failed U$ 
answer properly when examined for the subdeaconship, ha 
^Ooaidered .his being refused admission to it, as a warning 
from heaven. He ooMinued undisturbed at Paris till 1677^ 
ivhen a letter wbich he wrote, for the bishops of St. Pon« 
and ArraSf .to pope Innocent XI. against the relaxations of 
lijbe casuists, dk!e# upon him a storm, that obliged him to 
withdraw. He went first to Chartres, whei^ his father was 
lately dead ; and, having settled his temporal afikirs, ho 
fepair^d to Beauvais, and soon after took his leave cS tfa€f 
l^ingdom, in 1^79. He retired first to Brussels, then went 
ifx Liege, and, 4fter that, vi8i4;ed Ot^vaU and several othei' 
places. A letter, <dated Jilly 16, 1679, which he wrote to 
Hadaiy atichbishop of Paris, facilitated his return to France i 
and Eoberty canon of the church of Paris, obtained leav^ 
af ihat archbishop, some time after. Cor Nicole* Mb come 
back .privately to Chartires. Accordingly- he repaired im<* 
mediately. to that city, under the name of M. Berci, and 
iQfisuhiied Us usual employments. The same fi^end after«* 
wftrdtf solicited a permission' for hiih to return tb Pdris^ and 
baviDgp Obtained^ it at length in 1:68:3^ he employed his 
time ia thia eoaipositlon'of various w^ woiki. In 19$^ 



18» » NIC O L E. 

perceiviug himself to be grown considerably infirm^ be re* 
signed a benefice^ of a very moderate income, which he^i 
bad at Beauvais; and after remaining for about two years 
iuore in a very languishing state, died of the second stroke 
of an apoplexy, Nov. 16, 1695, aged 70 years. • 

He lived all his life with great simplicity, loved retire- 
ment and quiet, and was very little versed in the manners 
ef the world, in which, however, he acquired great fame 
for his excellence in metaphysics. His judgmedt was 
solid ; and he was more than commonly learned. Yet he 
is said to have been so credulous, that he believed eve^ 
thing he heard, howeveir improbable, being unable ta ima- 
gine that any one would deceive him. His conversation 
was agreeable, but notprompt; he was slow in producing 
reasons for what he advanced. This occasioned him to say 
of M. de Treville, a man of genius, and ^a fluent spe.aker, 
<' He is too hard for me in the chamber, but by the time I 
get to the stairs'foot, I have puzzled him.'' Nicole was 
jalso a man of such timidity, that he scarcely dared to stir 
from his house, for fear of unforeseen accidents, by which 
thousands, he said, had been killed or woupded. 

His arduous application to polite literature enabled him 
to imitate the style of the best Latin authors, particularly 
that of Terence ; but he is most admired as an elegant 
writer in his owii language. ' In France he suffered tiiuch 
by. undertaking the defence of Jansenius, whose opinions 
were condemned by the Sorbonne, the clergy of France, 
and indeed the whole church. His works are very nume-* 
rous, consisting of not less than an hundred articles : th^ 
principal are, 1. '^ Moral Essays," 14 vols. 12m6, among 
which are three volumes of ^^ Letters and Reflections on 
the Epistles and Gospels,'' 5 vols, which joined to the 
•' Theological Instructions on the Sacrament," 2 vols. ; 
•*oo the Creed," 2 vols.; "on the Lord's Prayer," 1 vol.; 
f* on the Decalogue," 2 vols. ; . and the ** Treatise oil 
Prayer," 2 vols, form the 23 volumes of what are calted 
^* Moral Essays." 2. " Lettres imaginaires et visionaires," 
1667, 2 vols. 12mo. 3. The small "Perpetuity of the 
Faith," with a defence of it. 4. The large " Perpetuity,'* 
written in conjunction with M. Arnauld, 3 vols.* 4to, btit 
almost entirely by M. Nicole. 5. " Les Pr^juges Mgitime^ 
comre les Galvinistes," 12moi 6. "Tr.de TUntt^ dtf 
I'Eglise,"' against Jurieu. 7; " Les Pretendes R6form6s 
l^>nvaiQCUs.d^ Schisipae i R^futat^n des principales erreurs 



N I C O L t 183 

ffcs Qui^tistes.*^ Besides many other controversial pieces 
in defence of Jajisenius and M. Arnanld, he published a 
selection of Latin epigrams,. entitled '^Epigrammatum. De- 
lectus,'* 1659, 12mo, and a Latin translation of the "Pro-, 
vincial Letters," with notes, &c. under the assumed name 
of W'endrock. A history of the life and writings of Rf* 
Nicole was published in 1733, 12mo.' 

NICOLINO (Grimaldi), commonly known by the name, 
of Nicolini, a great singer, and still greater actor, arrived 
iti England in 1708, which, says Dr. Burney, forms an era 
ip the annals of our lyric theatre ; as he was the first vocal 
performer of the highest class from Italy that trod our 
stage, and promoted a taste both for fine singing and'fine 
acting. He was a native of Naples -, his voice was at first 
a soprano^ but afterwards descended into a full and rich 
4k>ntralf(K The first operas in which we have met with his 
name in Italy were " Tullo Ostilio," and "Xerse," two 
drainas composed by John Bononcini for Rome, in 1694, 
In 1697 and 1698 we find him the principal singer in the' 
Ntepoiitan operas ; and in 1699 and 1700 again at Rome. 
From this period till his arrival in England, he sung at Ve- 
nice^ Milan, apd other cities of Italy, where the .musical 
drama was established. When he arrived in England, 
where geniuses of this description are alwiays more fondly 
odressed than any where else, the opera prices were raised 
to l$s. for the boxes on the stage, half a guinea the pit 
and other boxes, and first gallery five shillings. Nicolini 
ihdeed appeared a phenonienon worthy of occupying the 
attention of the whole nation ; not only sir Richard Steele 
celefbrated the majesty of his appearance on the stage ia 
the " Tatler;** but' Mr. Addison, who on othet occasions^ sq 
justly ridiculed the absurdities of the Italian opera, cele^ 
brated the abilities of Nicolini as an actor in the Specta** 
tor. No, 13. In 1712 be went abroad, but returned to 
England, and in the year 1715 we find him performing ia 
Handers opera of ** Rinaldo," and receiving his accus* 
tomed apf^lause. . According to the ideas which traditioi\ 
gives us of the abilities of this performer, his part in " Ri- 
naldo'* must have drawn out all his powers both 9^ a singer 
and actor. He continued here till 1717, when he returned 
to Italy for the last time ; but <:ontinued in favour there aa 
gnactor^ after his vocal powers were faded, and a new styl^ 



X.' , 



' J?ipe|OB| tqI. xiCIX.wMoreri,— Gen. Diet, 



184 N I C O L I NO- 

of singing was established ; for io 1723 we 9till find him ait 
. Rome with the Tesi, in Leo^s " Timocrate." * 

NICOLO. SeeABBATL 

NICOLSON (William), a learned English prelate wd 
antiquary, was both by the father and mother^s side oi 
Cumberland extraction. His grandfather was Josepb ^i*^ 
colsoh, of Averas Holme in that county, who married R9k 
digunda Scott, heiress to an estate at Park Brooni, in the 
parish of Stanwix ; which estate descended to Cacherine^ 
eldest surviving daughter of our prelate. His father, wiho 
married Mary daughter of John Brisco of Crofton^ esq. was; 
a clergyman, of Queen^s college, Oxford, and rector of 
Orton near Carlisle. He was born at Orton in 1655, aiid, 
in 1670 was entered of Queen^s college, under the tuitiM: 
of Dr. Thos. Barlow, afterwards bishop of Lincoln,^ w^- 
fook his degree of B. A. in 1676. While here he becaoi0. 
known to sir Joseph Williamson, th^n secretary of staU^y 
the great benefactor to Queen^s college, and the pairon ot' 
pnany of its scholars, who in 1678 sent him to Leipsic to* 
learn the septentrional languages. While there he tran«^ 
lated into Latin an essay of Mr. Hookas, containing, a proal 
of the motion of the earth from the sun^s parallax, wbi^b^ 
was priiYted at Leipsic by the professor who had rcK^omK 
mended the task. 

After a short tour into France, be returned ta college 
and completed his degree of M. A. July 2:^, 1679, and in« 
the same year was elected and admitted fellow of QuaenV 
college. He received dea^on*s orders in December. In: 
1680, he furnished an account of the kingdoms of Poland^ 
Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, for the first volume o£ 
Pitt's English Atlas, and be compiled also the principal 
part, if not the whole, of the second and third volumes*. 
In February of the same year, he was sent by the vice* 
chancellor to wait on George Lewis, pripce of Brunswick,- 
afterwards George L who was then at Tet&worth, in bis wajp 
to the university, where next day his. highness was coia** 
plimented with the degree of LL. D. In Sept. 16.81, JAr^ 
Nicolson was ordained priest, and was in that year cot-n 
lated by bishop Rainbow to a vacant prebend in the eath||i^ 
dral church of Carlisle^ and also to the vicarage of Torp^O'*' 
how, and in the year following to the ar^^hdeaconry of C^i^ 
lisle, vacant by the resigqation of Mr. Thomas Musgrave*. ^ 

} By Dr. Baniay in Rees'i Cy€lop«iia,«-»TftU(r and ^peotebr j see Itidexef • 



N I C O L S O N# 18$ 

HU attaoIiineDt to th^ study of antiquities began -to ap«^ 
pear early, and althougb we cannot minutely trace the 
progress of bis studies at Oxford, it is evident from his cor- 
x^spondence, that in. addition to the ordinary pursuits o£ 
classical, philosophical, and theological information, he 
had accumulated a great stock of various learning. He 
bad, among other branches, studied botany with much at« 
tention, and had paid particular attention to the natural 
bisto]-y of the eartb, the effects of the deluge, the author 
irity of the scripture account of that event, and other sub- 
jects, connected with it, which at that time were agitated 
by Dr. Woodward and his contemporaries. He made also 
great proficiency in ancient northern literature ; and ia 
matters of antiquarian res4sarch, had a great portion of thajt 
enthusiasm, without which no man can form an accpm* 
.^lisbed or successful antiquary. In one place we find him 
speaking of a journey to Scotland, where ** he met with a 
most raoishing Runic monument ;*' and it indeed appears 
that be spared neither labour or expence in investigating 
the remains of antiquity wherever they could be found. 
In 1685 he wrote a letter to Mr. Obadiah Walker, master 
of University college, Oxford, concerning a Runic in- 
scription at Bewcastle in Cumberland, which is printed in 
the Philosophical Transactions, No. 178, and in Hutcbin- 
son^s, Hist, of Cumberland, with the opinions of subsequent 
antiquaries. He likewise sent a letter to sir William Dugw 
dale, printed in the same numl)er of the Transactions^ 
concerning a Runic inscription on the font in the churcb o£ 
Bride-kirL Dr. Hickes, in the preface to bis ^' Thesau* 
rus,'' acknowledges the able, polite, and prompt aid he 
received from Mr. Nicolson in .preparing that great work.; 
In ^696 he published the first part of his << English Histc^ 
rical Library,'* a work intended to point out the sources^ 
whence all information respecting English history and an« 
tiquities^ whether printed or m man\iscript, was to be de-> 
irived. The whole, in three parts, was completed in \699^ 
and wa^ followed by a similar " Library" for Scotland, ift 
1702; and for Ireland in 1724. These were published 
|X)gether in ^olio, and more recently in whar, if not ther' 
best, is the ^^ost conveniient t^dition, in 1776, 4to,, by T. 
Evans. Of jthe controversy which arose from this worku 
some notice vi^ll be taken hereatter. 

In 1702,. o^ ,lhe eve of Ascension day, our author w^ 
electee^ bishop of Carlisle^ coofiroKed J^iae 3^ aad consa^ 



18« N I C O L S ON. 

crated June 14, at Lambeth. This promotion he owed to 
ihe interest of the house of Edenhall. On Sept: 15, .1704,* 
the celebrated Dr. Atterbury, who had reflected with 
much harshness on some parts of the " Historical LibnAry,** 
waited upon bishop Nicolson at Rose, for institution to th^ 
deanery of Carlisle ; but the letters patent being dirc^cted 
to the chapter, and not to the bishop, and the date thereof 
being July 15, though the late dean (Grahme) did ftot re- 
sign till the 5th of August, and some dispute also arising 
about the regal supremacy, institution was then refiised. 
The bishop, however, declared at the same time thai the 
affair should be laid forthwith before the queen ; and t^at, 
if her majesty should, notwithstanding' these objections, be 
pleased to repeat her commands for giving Dr. Atterbury 
possession of the deanery, institution should ' be giveiti 
which was accordingly donein consequence of her intima** 
tion to the bishop through the selcretary of state. This 
preferment, however, was followed by many unpleasant 
consequences, as we shall have occasion to notice, after 
enumerating the remaining productions of our learned pre- 
late. 

• In November 1705, bishop Nicolson was elected F.R.S. 
and published his '^ Leges Marchiarum, or Border Laws ; 
with a preface, and an appendix of Charters and Records 
relating thereto,'* Lond. 8vo, reprinted in 1747. In 1713 
he wrote an essay, or discourse, to be affiled to Mr. 
Gbamberlayne's collection of the Lord's prayer in one hun» 
dred different languages. Dr. Hickes bestows the highest 
praises on this essay : ** I know not," says he, ** which is 
iSiost to be admired in it, the vast variety of reading, or 
the putting all bis observations together in so short, clear,.' 
and easy a discourse, which mightily confirms the history 
of Moses, and refutes the vain cavils which atheists, and' 
deists, and latitudinarians are wont to make against the 
truth of it.'* In 1718 he wrote a preface to the third edi- 
tion of Dr. Wilkins's " Leges Anglb-Saxonicae.'* This' ap- 
pears to be the last of his literary performances, to the list 
of which may be added seven occasional sermons, pub-<c 
lished in the course of bis life. 

• In 1715, George I. appointed bishop Nlcohoh lord high 
almoner ; an oflSce which was resigned in his favour by his 
friend archbishop Wake. Oh March 17, 1718, he was no- 
niinated to- the bishopric of Perry in Ireland, but was al* 
Wed tol^ continued bidbop of Carlisle and lord almoiko^ 



N I C O L S O N. 187 

till after Easter. On Feb. 9, n27y he was Iranslated to 
the archbishopric of Cashel, but died suddenly, on the 
14th of that month, and was buried in the cathedral at 
Derry, without any monumental inscription. - He married 
Elizabeth youngest daughter of John Archer, of Oxen* 
holme near Kendal, esq. by whom he had eight children. 
One daughter, Catherine, was living unmarried in 1777, 
but this family is probably now extinct. He had a 
brother, who was master of. the Apothecaries company^ 
and died in J 723. 

' " The archbishop left three MS volumes, fol. to the dean 
m4 chapter of Carlisle, consisting of copies and extracts 
from various books, MSS. registers, records, and charters^ 
relating to the diocese of Carlisle, from which many arti- 
cles in the << History of Cumberland,'* by bis nephew 
Joseph Nicolson, esq. and Dr. Richard Burn, were trans- 
ftribed. There is also a large octavo MS* of his, contain- 
ing miscellaneous accounts of the state of the churches^ 
parsonage and vicarage houses, glebe lands, and other 
possessions, in the several parishes within the diocese, col- 
lected in his parochial visitation of the several churches in 
1703, 1704, and 1707, which, in 1777, was in the pos- 
session of his nephew. Bagford, in his catalogue preBxed 
to Gibson^s edition of Camden's *' Britannia," 1695, ad- 
vertised, as ready for the press, but still remaining in the 
dean and chapter's library at Carlisle, a description of the 
ancient kingdom of Northumberland, by bishop Nicolson, 
when archdeacon of Carlisle, consisting of eight parts; 
but although no man was more capable of executing such a 
work, we are assured by Mr. Wallis in the preface to bis 
account of Northumberiand, that all that can now be found 
in the Cariisle library is only a compendious ecclesiastical 
view of that diocese in a parochial method. The truth ap- 
pears to have been, that instead of making a separate pub- 
lication of his account of Northumberiand, he made other 
uses of his collections, as in his ^^ Leges Marchiarum,'* 
where we find much information respecting the ancient 
State; of Northumberland, but we are not permitted to 
doubt that a separate work was his original design. In 
1692 he ipeaks of his having hopes that his <^ Essay on the 
Kingdom of Northumberiand," would be completed in a 
few months ; and that Mr. Ray had promised (in the pre- 
ftee to his late collection of English wordst)^ that it should 

flMttnly be published* He informs us also that he was the 



lU N I C O L S O N. 

f uthor of the '^ GloasariuB> Nortkaahyflpbricom/' la Ray^t 
work. 

The publication of the Brst (lart of his ** Historical L^-* 
brary'' iuTulved bioi iii the first literary controversy ifi 
which he was engaged. Two of his antagonists were Dr* 
Hugh Todd^ and Dr. Simon Lowth,' s^gaiinst whom he ap^ 
pears to have defended himself with much reputation^. 49 
they were both far beneath him in tajents and learnipi^ 
In Atterburyi who likewise attacked him|. he had an auta^ 
gonist more worthy of his powers; but even against; him: he 
was very successful, although not very temperate, in the 
long letter addressed to Dr. Kennett, which wa4i originally 
a separate publication, and has since been prefixed with 
some alterations to the various editions of the ^^ Historical 
Library." This, howeve^t pevhaops laid the foundation foe 
that degree of animosity which prevailed between our pre- 
late and Dr. ^Atterbury. The latter, unfortunately fqt 
both parties, considenng their hostile tempers, was mad0 
dean of Carlisle while Nicolson was bishop. In aiiy otheif 
arrangement of preiferments^ theipr passions might have had 
leisure to cool, but they were now brought together j> with 
no personal respect on either side, and the consequences 
were what might have l;veea expected^ Nicolson, it ixvusfe 
be allowed, had some reason to complain,, or some apology 
&r his feelings concerning Atterbury : Atterborry had .made 
an attack on his ^^ Historical Library^' iti very contemp'- 
tuous language; but what was worse, Atterbury appeals 
to have been the cause of Nicolspn'.s being for some .tia)e 
refused a degree at hrs owa univei^sity, when, on his pro^ 
motion to the bishopric of Carlisle, he applied for ths(t of 
D. D; For an explanation of this we must refer to the 

Erinciples of the times, as well as of the men; and both per- 
aps will be sufficiently illustrated by the following pap^r 
which was sent to Mr. Nicolson (in answer to hi^ reqiaesl 
of having a. doctor's degr^ee by diploma) by the vice-cdiao^ 
cellor, Dr. Mander, *^ Whereas the members of the uai*? 
versity of Oxford, in a very full convocation held the (fifth) 
day of (March) 1701, did unanimously agree to confer tbo 
degree of Doctor of Divinity upon the reverepd Mf* 
Francis Atterbury, as a testimony of the sense which they 
had of the signal service be had done the church# by his 
^cellent book entitled ' The Rights^ Powers, and Privi<P 
Jeg0s of an English Convocation,' j&a (SeeAT7?£aBl^ir^ 
>oLUI. p* ii3^ &iQ.), Afid wheneas W. Nicokdn^ wneb* 



N I C O L S O N* 1«» 

4eacon of Carlisle, in a pampblet, entkled ^ A Letter to 
Dr. White Ketinett, in defence of the English Historical 
I^ibrary against the unmatinerly and slanderous objections 
of Mr. Francis Atterbury, preacher at the Rolls/ &c. and 
printed in 1702, doth, in and through the said pamphlet, 
term the said doctor Mr, Atterbury only, in a seeming 
contempt of the honour done him by the said university ; 
And whereas the said archdeacon (in the thirty-fourth page 
of the said pamphlet) hath these words : viz. ^ I need not. 
Sir, acquaint you what a toil and expence the very col- 
lecting of those materials hath brought upon me ; nor how 
much trouble I have had in the composure. And it is but 
a disconragiff^ prospect (after all) to see so many men of 
gravity and good learning, to whom 1 thought my labours 
might have been chiefl}^ useful, caressing an empty mis- 
representer of our antiquities, histories, and records, and 
patronizing an ambitious wretch in his insolent attempts 
against our ancient and apostolical church-government^ 
which words are conceived to contain a severe and unde- 
cent reflection upon the proceedings of the university y it 
is humbly proposed to Mr. Vice-chancellor, by several 
members of your venerable convocation, whether it can be 
Qonsistent with the honour of the univlersity to bestow any 
mark of favour upon the said archdeacon, before he shall 
have made suitable totisfaction for so high an indignity, 
and open an affront, a^ he hath hereby put upon her.** 

The vice-chancellor, who communicated this paper ta 
bishop Nicolson, added that he would notwithstanding 
propose the degree, if ^' he would please to order him what 
to say in answer.*' Nicolson, however, irritated at the 
superiority thus given to his antagonist, determined to send 
no answer. His own words on this occasion are: ''^^r. 
Vice-cbancell6r not having acquainted me who the masters 
or m'embers'of the venerable convocation are, that pre- 
sented this libellous inemorial to him : the most civil treat- 
ment, which (as I thought, by advice of my friends) could 
be given to it, was, to take no manner of notice^ of its 
coming to my hand.'* He accordingly applied to Cam- 
bridge, where the degree in question was readily granted ; 
andi what ftiust have been yet more gratifying, he received 
th^ satne honour from the university of Oxford, on July 25 
'following. The former refusal seems to have been that of 
a party, and not of the convocation at large. In one of 
\^% letters written at this time to Dr. Charlett, master of 



l$q N I C O L S O N. 

Univeraity-coIIege, he enters upon a defence 6f his villdl[«»^ 
cation of the ^^ Historical Library,'* and not unsuccessfully. 
The objection that he had called the doctor Mr. Atterbury 
was certainly trifling and unjust^ for he was Mr, Atterbury 
wheabe^wrote against Nicolson. He also alludes to the 
icparse treatment of himself in the above paper, where he 
is styled only WUliam NicolsoUy although at that time a 
bishop elect. But whatever may be thought of bishop Ni* 
colson's conduct, or that of . these members of the convo-* 
cation, it was not to be expected that when Atterbury was 
made dean of Carlisle, there could be much cordiality be-^ 
tweeii them. Nicolson knew to whom he had been in<^ 
debted for the aifront be had received from the university ; 
and Atterbury was equally out of humour with the bishop,^ 
in addition to his usual turbulence of disposition. In 1707y 
when the bishop found that Atterbury was continually rais<« 
ing fresh disputes with his chapter, be endeavoured to ap-- 
pease them once for all, by visiting the chapter iu putsu^ 
ance of the. power given by the statutes of Henry VIIL at 
the foundation of the corporation of the dean and chapter^ 
But Dr. Todd, already mentioned, one .of the prebend-- 
aries, was instigated by Atterbury to protest against any 
such visitation, insisting upon the invalidity of Henry 
VIIPs statutes ; and that the queen, and not the bishop, 
was the local visitor. Nicolson, conscious of his strength '^ 
in a point which he had probably studied more deeply thaa 
finy of the chapter, during the course of his visitation 
' suspended and afterwards excommunicated Dr. Todd ; on' 
which the latter moved the court of common pleas for a 
prohibition, and obtained it unless cause shown. Jn the 
mean time such proceedings alarmed the whole bench of 
bishops; and the archbishop of Canterbury, Tenison, wrote 
a circular letter on the subject to all his suffragans, con-^ . 
sideriug the cause of the bishop of Carlisle as a commoa 
cause, and of great concern to the church, which, he added^ 
*^ will never be quiet so long as that evil generation of meur. 
who make it their businei^ to search into little flaws in an* 
cient charters and statutes, and to unfix what laudable 
custom hath well fixed, meet with any sucbess.'^ Soon 
ai^terwards a bill was carried into parliament, and passed 
into a law, which established the validity of the local sta- 
tutes given by Henry VIH. to his new foundations. Bishop 
Nicolson published on this occasion, ^^ Short Remarks oiit 
a paper of Reasons against the passing. of a bill for avoiding 



N I C O L S O N. 191 

fOf doubts and questions touching the statutes of divers ca* 
tbedlrtals and. collegiate churches/' 4to, in one half sheet, 
without date. His triuinph was now compleat,. and a few 
years afterwards, ,when • Atterbury was preferred to^the' 
deanry of Christ-church,, his old friends of .the univerMy 
of Oxford had resison to change their sentiments of him.. 

In some accounts of bishop Nicolson it has been said 
that he was deeply engaged in the Bangorian controver3y'* 
In one sense this could not be true, for although his opi- 
nions, were in opposition to those which produced that mer 
mprable controversy, we cannQt find that he wrote any 
thing expressly op the subject. In another sense he may 
be said to have been too deeply concerned, for on the 
very ; commencement of the controversy, he became in-^ 
volved in a dispute with Dr. Kennett, which threatened to 
affect his^ veracity, and from, which it certainly did not 
escape without some injury. We have already noticed 
that he addressed his letter in vindication of his ^^ Histori- 
cal Library'* to Dr. Kennett, and it may be added that they 
had lived for rnany years in habits of mutual respect and 
friendship, which were now to be dissolved by violence. 
nit is not necessary to enter into a long detail of this affair ; 
referring, therefore, to Newton's Life of bishop Kennett, we 
shall confine ourselves to the following simple statement of 
the fact. Bishop Nicolson had asserted that sooie words in 
Dr. Hoadly's memorable sermon were not originally in it, 
J>ut were inserted by the advice of a friend, and by way of 
caution ; and upon being called upon to give up his au- 
thority, mentioned Dr. White Kennett, not only as his au^ 
thority,, but as the person who advised Hoadly to leaVe out 
the objectionable words. Dr. Kennett, ip the most solemn 
and positive manner, denied, either that he had given Dr. 
Nicolson such information, or that he had ever seen Dr. 
Hoadly's sermon. before it was preached, or that it had ever 
been submitted to his correction. In rejoinder, Dr. Ni^- 
colson re-aflSrmed as before in the most decided manner. 
Many letters passed between the parties (in the newspa- 
pers) which our prelate published in 1717, under the title 
of ^^A Collection of Papers scattered lately about the 
town iu the Daily Courant, St. James's Post, &c. with 
some remarks upon them in a letter to the bishop of, Ban- 
gor," 8vo; and after this he determined to take no farther 
notice of the matter. His antagonists came at length to 
Uie conclusion that he stood convicted at least of forgetful- 



198 N 1 C O L SO 14. 

tiess ^ in ohargtng a fact upon tKe bishop of Sangor wkidt 
nvas not true^ and quoting a witness for it who knew no- 
thing of the matter.^' And this b certainly the conelustoa 
which every one will wish to draw ^ho tespects his charac- 
ter, or forms a judgment of it from his "Letters" lately 
published by Mr. Nichols, a coUectiont to which we have 
been greatly indebted in drawing up our account, and 
rectifying the errors of bis preceding biographers* Many 
of his sentiments are given without disguise in these letters, 
and prove him to have been a steady fAttii to the civil 
tnd ecclesiastical government of his coiintry, and a man pf 
liberality and candour. That he Was not uiiiformly accu- 
rate in his historical researches has been often repeated, 
but he appears to have been always ready to correct what 
errors were pointed out. In one letter, 9.her defending so^ne 
apparent mistakes noticed by his correspondent; he adds, 
^* but nothing can be pleaded, except ignorance, in ex- 
cuse for the rest.'' It must still be admitted, what is 
(equally evident from' his correspondence, that his temper 
was somewhat irritable, and that, living in days of bitter 
controversy, be admitted in his disputes too much of that 
atyle which has in all ages been the reproach of literature.' 
NICON, an eminent Russian prelate, was born in a vil- 
lage under the government of Nishnei Npvogordd, iti 
1613. His parents were so obscure that neither their 
names nor stations are known. He was educated under 
the care of a monk in the convent of St. Macarius, and 
here be imbibed a strong and increasing prejudice in fa- 
vour of the monastic life. In compliance, however^ with 
the wishes of his family, he married, and was ordained a 
aecular priest. The loss of his children by death disgusted 
him with the world, and he persuaded his wife to take the 
veil, whilst he became a monk.* He retired into an islanji 
in the White Sea, and instituted a society in this solitude 
Temarkable for its great austerities. He had not been iii 
this place many years before he was made, after a seriei 
of ecclesiastical dignities, archbishop of Novogbrod ; and, 
finally, patriarch of Russia. He was hot only eminent as 
m priest, but discovered the great and energetic talents df 
41 statesman ; and to them be fell a, victim. la 163fi! he 
waa compelled to abdicate his dignity of patriarc^^ on 

> letters above mentioneri— Bioiff. Brit. — Harris's W«re» t*l« J.'-llifMi^ 
Attcrbvry.-^Appendix to Ncwton^s Life of S if hop KjemMtU^ 



N i C N. I9S 

H^iob he returned to his cell, and lived ovet his former 
•austerities; but his degradation did not satisfy the malice 
of his enemies, who procured bis imprisonment. He ob- 
tained, after a number of years, his release, with permis- 
sion to return to his favourite cell ; but, whilst on the road 
-to this spot, he expired in his 66th year, in 1681. Nicon 
did not spend his whole time in the performance of useless 
austerities^ but occasionally employed himself in compiling 
•a regular series of Russian annalists from Nestor, the ear- 
liest historian of that country, to the reign of Alexey Mi- 
chaelovitch. This collection is sometimes called, from its 
author, ** The Chronicle of Nicon,'' .and sometimes, from 
the place where it was begun and deposited, '^ The Chro-* 
nicle of the Convent of Jerusalem.'' It is considered as a 
work of authority. * 

- NICOT (John), a learned Frenchman, was born at 
•Nismes in the beginning of the sixteenth century. He catnt 
to Paris early in life, and acquired the esteem of the learned 
men of that time. He wa$ also so favourably received at 
court, that in 1559 he was made master of requests in di9 
king's household, and the same year was sent as ambassa- 
dor to Portugal. Of the nature of his embassy, or his ta- 
lents in executing its duties, we have no information ; but 
he was the means while in that country of introducing the 
use of tobacco in Europe. Of this herb, then called Petun, 
he received some seeds from a Dutchman, ^ho had them 
from Florida. It then became an object of cultivation or 
importation in France, and the name Nicotiana was given 
to it in honour of him. This, it has been observed by Dr. 
^Johnson, is a proper compliment, for a plant is a monument 
of a more durable nature than a medal or an obelisk; and 
iyet, he adds, <' as a proof that even this is not always suf- 
ficient to transmit to futurity the name conjoined with 
them, the Nicotiana is now scarcely known by any othec 
term than that of tobacco^ 

*■' After his return from Portugal, in 1561, Nicot retired 
from public, and devoted himself to literary employment 
'Jti 1567 he published an edition of the life of Aimon, a 
Benedictine of the abbey of Fleury, which Dupin has im- 
properly attributed to Pichon. He also iniproved Aimar 
de Rangbnhet's French Dictionary, -so as to render it al- 
most a new work. It did not appear,^ however, until after 

1 CQid^g Trarelf id Poland^ RuttUi| fcc. 

Vol. XXIII. O 



194 N I C T. 

his death, when it was entitled ** Trewr de la Ungae Fmt>- 
^aise tant ancienne que moderne»*' 1606, foL and was re- 
printed at least four times. Nicot died at Paris May 5, 
1600. He left several MSS, particularly a kind of history 
or dictionary of navigation.^ 

NIEUWENTYT (Bernard), an eminent Dutch philo- 
sopher aiVd mathematiciani was born Aug. 10, J654, at 
Westgraafdyk in North Holland, of which place bis father 
was minister. He discovered a turn for .learning in his 
first infancy, and his father designed him for the ministry.; 
but when he found him averse from this study, be suffered 
him to gratify his own taste. He then applied himself to 
logic, and the art of reasoning justly ; in which be grounded 
himself upon the principles of Des Cartes, with whose 
philosophy he was greatly delighted. Thence he pro^ 
ceeded to the mathematics, where he made a great profi- 
ciency ; and added so much to his stock of various know* 
ledge, that he was accounted a good philosopher, a great 
mathematician, a celebrated physician, and an able and 
just magistrate. Although naturally of a grave and serious 
disposition, yet his engaging manner in conversation made 
him be equally admired as a companion and friend, and 
frequently drew over to hia opinion those who, at first, 
differed very widely from him. Thus accomplished^ he 
acquired great esteem and credit in the council of the 
town of Purmerende, where he resided ; as he did ktUo io 
the states of that province, who respected him the more, 
as he never interfered in any cabals or factions^ His dis.- 
position inclined him to cultivate the sciences^ rather than 
to obtain the honours of the government ; and he therefora 
contented himself with being counsellor and burgomaster 
of the town, without wishing for more bustling preferments^ 
which might interfere with his studies, and draw him too 
-much out of his library. He died May 30, 1718, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. His works are, I* ^' Consider 
aratiooes circa Analyseos ad Quantitates infinite parvas ap« 
plicatsB principia,'' &c. Amst. 1694, 8vo. 2. *^ Analysis 
infinitorum seu curvilineorum Proprietates ex Polygonorum 
natura deductse,'' ibid. 1695, 4to. 3. << Coosideratiooes 
•secundsB circa differentialis Principia, & Responsio ad Vi- 
rum nobilissimuni G. G. Leibnitium,'* ibid* 1696, 8vo. Thin 
pieM was attacked by John BernouilU.and James Herraanl^ 

1 WLomu^IH. J«teioa'i I*ifs of Moria. 



N I E U W E N T y T. 193 

celebrated geometricians at Basil. 4. '^ A Treatise upon 
A New Use of the Tables of Sines and Tangents.'* 5. ** Le 
veritable Usage de la Contemplation de PUnivers, pour la 
conviction des Ath^es & des Incredules,^' in Dutch, This 
is bis most esteemed work ; and went through four editions 
in three or four years. It was translated into English by 
Mr. John Chamberlaine, and printed three or four times 
under the title of the *^ Religious Philosopher/' &c. 3 toIs. 
Svo. This was, until within these forty years, a very popu- 
lar book in this country. We have also, by our author. 
One letter to Bothnia of Burmania, upon the 27th article 
of his meteors, and a refutation of Spinosa, 1720, 4to, in 
the Dutch language.^ 

NIEUWLAND (Peter), professor of mathematics and 
natural philosophy at Leyden, was born at Diemermeer, a 
village near Amsterdam, Nov. 5, 1764. His father, by 
trade a carpenter, having a great fondness for books, and 
b^ing tolerably well versed in the mathematics, instructed 
his son himself till he attained his eleventh year, who ap- 
pears to have exhibited very extraordinary proofs of genius 
long before that time. When only three years old, his 
mother put into his hand some prints, which had fifty 
verses at the bottom of them by way of explanation. These 
verses she read aloud, without any intention that her son 
should learn them, but was much surprized some time after 
to bear him repeat the whole from memory, with the ut- 
most correcttiess, on being only shown the prints. Before 
he was seven years old he had read more than fifty different 
books, and in such a manner that he could frequently re* 

eeat passages from them both in prose and in versl^. 
l^hen about the age of eight, Mr. Aenese of Amsterdam, 
one of the greatest calculators of the age, asked him if be 
bduld tell the solid contents of a wooden statue of Mercury 
which 9tood upon a piece of clock-work. '* Yes," replied 
young Nienwland, <^ provided you give me a bit of the 
satne wood of which the statue was made ; for I will cut a 
ttibic inch out of it, and then compare it wttii the statue.'^ 
Poems which (says his eulogist) display the utmost liveli- 
ness of imagination, and which be composed in his tenth 
yeHr, while walking or amusing himself heat his father's 
Ihouse, wei^ receiv<ed with admiration, and inserted in dif<*- 
ferent poetical coUections. 

i tOemB, vol XIII.<-»Martia'B Biog. Phil-^Huttoa's pi^k.^-^Moreii 

02 



196 N I E U W L A N D. 

. Such an uncommon genius must soon burst through 
those obstacles which confine it. Bernardus and Jeronimo 
de Bosch, two opulent gentlemen of Amsterdam, became 
young Nieuwland*s patrons, and he was taken into the 
house' of the former in his eleventh yeai*, and received 
daily instruction from the latter for the space of four years. 
While in this situation he made considerable progress in 
the Latin and Greek languages, and studied philosophy 
and the mathematics under Wyttenbach. In 17 S3 he 
translated the two dissertations of his celebrated instruc- 
tors Wyttenbach aud de Bosch, on the opinions which the 
ancients entertained of the state of the soul after death, 
which had gained the prize of the Teylerian theological 
society. From September 1784 to 1785 he studied at 
Leyden, and afterwards applied with great diligence at 
Amsterdam to natural philosophy, and every branch of the 
mathematics, under the direction of professor Van Swin- 
den. He had scarcely begun to turn his attention to che- 
mistry, when he made himself master of Lavoisier's theory, 
and could apply it to every phenomenon. 

One of his great objects was to bring the pure mathe- 
matics nearer to perfection, and having t.urned his thoughts 
to the improvement of the methods of determining the la- 
titude of a place at sea, he wrote, in 1789, a paper on the 
subject, and transmitted it to Lalande at Paris, who greatly 
approved of it, and after Major von Zach and Nieuwland 
had reconsidered the method, this paper was published by 
von Zach, with Nieuwland's name, in the first supplement 
to Bode's << Astronomical Almanack,^' Berlin, 1793. This, 
however, was not the only service which Nieuwland en- 
deavoured to render to astronomy. It had been observed 
by Newton, Euler, De la Place, and others, that the axes 
of the planets do not stand perpendicular, but inclined, to 
the plane of their orbits. Nieuwland attempted to account 
foe: this phenomenon, and his paper on the subject was 
printed, for the opinion of the learned, in the supplement 
to Bode^s >^ Almanack/' for the same year. His success 
in thiflf, however, according to the biographer we follow, 
seems dpubtful. 

Nieuwland's talents and diligence recommended him to 
the notice of his country. In 1786^ he was appointed a 
member of the commission chosen by the college of ad- 
miralty at Amsterdiitti, for determining the longitude, and 
improying marine eharts. On this labour he was employed 



N- 1 E U W L A N D. 197 

I 

^ight years, and bad also a considerable share in preparing 
a nautical almanack. While at Amsterdam, where he had 
been invited to give lectures on mathematics, he wrote his 
useful and excellent treatise on navigation, the first part 
of which was published there in 1793. In 1789 he was 
chosen member of a learned society, distinguished by the 
motto of Felix Mentis, whose object was chemical expe- 
riments ; and contributed many very valuable papers to it* 
In July 1793 he was invited to the university of Leyden^ 
to be professor of philosophy, astronomy, and the higher 
mathematics) in the room of the celebrated Damen; and 
the admiralty of Amsterdam requested him to continue his 
nautical researches, which he did with great assiduity till 
the period of his death. The only variation which he now 
made in his studies related to natural philosophy, for ynth 
the mathematics he was already sufficiently acquainted. 
He applied himself, therefore, to the experimental part, 
and spared no pains or labour to become perfect in it ; 
which would certainly have been the case, had he not been 
snatched from science and his friends at the early age of 
thirty. He died of an inflammation in his throat, accom- 
panied with a fever, Nov. 13, 1794. 

In his external appearance, Nieuwland was not what 
might be called handsome, nor had he ever been at pains 
to acquire that ease of deportment which distinguishes those 
who have frequented polite company. His behavi6ur and 
conversation were, however, agreeable, because he could 
discourse with facility on so many subjects, and never 
wished to appear but under his real character. On the 
first view one might have discerned that he was a man of 
great modesty and the strictest morality. His father was a 
Lutheran, and his mother a Baptist ; but he himself was a 
member of what is called the reformed church, i. e. a Cal- 
Tinist, and always shewed the utmost respect to the Su- 
preme Being, both by his words and actions. His atten- 
tio,n appears to have been directed to three principal pur- 
suits, which are seldom united ; poetry, the pure mathe- 
matics, and natural philosophy. In the latter part of his 
life he added to these also astronomy. Among the poems 
which he published, his "Orion'* alone has rendered his 
name immortal in Holland. Of the simall essays which he 
published in his youth, the two following are particularly 
deserving of notice, 1. " A comparative view of the value 
of the different branches of science ;'' and, 2.^^ The best 



l§8 N I E U W L A N D. 

means to render general, not learning, but soundness of 
judgment and good taste.*' * 

NIFO. See NIPHUS. 

NIGIDIUS FIGULUS (Publius),. one of tbe most 
learned authors of ancient Rome after Varro, flourished ia 
tbe time of Cicero, was his fellow-student in philosophy^ 
and tbe counsellor with whom be advised in affairs of state; 
s^ud, being praetor and senator, be assisted tbe orator in 
defeating the conspiracy of Catiline, and did him many 
services in the time of hi3 adversity. Cicero acknowledged^ 
that it was in concert with ,Nigidius, that hq took those 
important measures which saved the commonwealth under 
his consulship ; ^nd, wbe6 Cicero went to his government 
of Cilicia, Nigidius, who was returning to Rome, aftet 
paving exercised a public employment in Greece, waited 
for him at Epbesus ; where these two friends had long 
philosophical conferences with Cratippus the Penipatetia 
Nigidius w^s a professed advocate for the doctrine of Py^ 
thagoras, Cicero speaks of him as an accurate and peuetra^ 
ting inquirer into nature, and ascribes to him the. revival 
of that philosophy, which formerly, for several ages, f)ou« 
rished in the Pythagorean schools, both in Italy and Sicily^ 
fie was a considerable proficient iu mathematical ,and 
astronomical learning, and, after the example of his master, 
applied his knowledge of nature to the purposes of impos-* 
ture. In civil affairs, be attached himself to the party of 
Pompey ; and, upon Csesdr's accessiou to the supreme 
power, he was banished from Rome. After his time, the 
Pythagorean doctrine was much neglected ; few persona 
being then able to decypher, with accuracy, tbe obscure 
dogmas of this mysterious sect. Of the impostures pracr 
tised by Nigidius, there are some anecdotes told, but 
scarcely worth repeating. It has been thought, that these 
deceptions were tbe cause of his banishment ; but this ap^ 
pears npt to have been tbe case^ nor did he dare to return 
to Rome after Julius Csiesar bad possessed himself of 'that' 
city. He died 45 B. C« His works were entitled, <^ Da- 
jAkUgurio private," " De Animalibus," " De Extis,." " De 
Vento ;'' and ^^ De Diis.'' He also wrote ^^ Commentaries 
vpon Grammar.'' Fragments of these only remain, which 
were collected and pviblished by James Rutgersius, who 
has aUo inserted aniong them the Greek translation of 

V 

f Pr. GIf ig's Si^ppljeqaent to t|ie Encycl^ Britanpica,— Diet. I^ist. 



N I P H U S. 199 

^ A Treatfise ci Nigidius," by John Laurentius of Phila- 
delphia. ^ 

NIPHUS (Augustine,) a learned Italian^ was born at 
Sesga, in the kingdom of Naples, in 1473. About 1500^ 
he wall appointed professor of philosophy at Padua, where 
be composed a treatise *^ De Intellectu et Duemonibus,'* in 
ivfaich he maintained that there is but one soul, which ani-* 
mates all nature. This raised many opponents, and he ws^ 
forced to publish his treatise with amendments in 14951^ 
foK reprinted 1503 and 1527. He afterwards gained so 
fnucb reputation by his other works, however insignificant 
they may now appear, that the most celebrated universities 
of Italy o>Bered him professorships with large stipends ; and 
he had a sakiry of a thousand crowns in gold, when pro* 
lessor at Pisa, about 1520. Pope Leo X. had such a 
value for Niphus, that be made him count palatine, per* 
mitted him to quarter his arm« with those of the Medici 
family, and granted him powef to ereate masters of arts^ 
bachelors, licentiates, doctors of divinity, civil and canoil 
law, to legitimate bastards, and to ennoble three persons. 
The letters patent which conveyed these singular privileges, 
Predated Jane 15, 152^]. Niphus wa^ a philosopher in 
theory only, being remarkable even in old age for levity 
avid ifntrigue. He also loved high living ; and sttch were 
the charms of his conversation, that he bad easy access to 
the nobility and ladies of rank. I'he year in which he died 
is not exactly known, but it is certain that he was living in 
1545, and dead in 1550*, and that he was above seventy 
at the time of his death. He left Commentaries in Ltlitin: 
6n Aristotle and Averroes, 14 vols. foK; some smaller 
#orhs on subjects of morality atid politics, Paris, 1645^ 
4to ; a treatise '* on the Immortality of the Soul,^ against 
Pompqnatius, Venice, 1518, fol. ; ** De amore, de pulchro, 
Veneris et Cupidinis venales," Leydae, 1641, 16to, &c.* 

NITHARD, a French historian of the ninth century, 
the son of An gilbert, abbot of St. Riquier, and of Bertha, 
daughter of Charlemagne, was born before the year 7^0, 
and was probably educated at the court of his grandfather. 
He appears to have been distinguished both as a soldier and 
politician, and was occasionally employed by Charies the 
Bald^ king of France, as a negociator. His history con** 

1 VossiuB de Scient. Math.— Fabric. Bibl. Lat. — Brucker.«-£ssay on his Life 
by Burignv, in Hist. Act. Reg. Inscript. toI. XXIX. 
* Gen. Dicl&-*0icu Hiflt««-XiraboachL— Roicoe'f L 



4 



aoo N I T H A R D. 

tains an account of the divisions between the sons of Louis 
le DebonnairCy^in four book^, of which the first three werd 
wriJtten in the year 842, and the fourth is lost. It was 
published in 1.594, by M. Pithou, in his ^^Annaliuai et 
Historian Francorum Scriptores,'' &c. ; and has since been 
translated by Duchesne and Bouquet, in their collectioa 
of French Historians, and by Cou^iu in his ^^History of 
the Western Empire.** * 

NiVELLE DE LA CHAUSSEE {Peter^ Clauds), a 
French academician and dranaatic write'r, was born at Paris 
in I6d2. Being the nephew of a farmer-general, he oiight 
)ia?e a<;quired opulence, by so valuable a connection, but 
he preferred the study of polite literature. His first work 
was a criticism on the fables of La Motte, who was his 
friend, but who never objected to any liberties of that kind 
which his friends might take witti him^ When La Motte 
advanced his famous paradox on the inutility of versification 
in tragedy, &c. Nivelle joined la Faye as one of his oppo- 
nents, and published an ^^ Epitre a Clio,'* 1732, 12mo> 
which w^s much admired, and in which he has taken con- 
siderable freedoms with La Motte. As a dramatic writer,* 
Nivelle brought into fashion what the French call the 
con^edies larmoyant'es, or comedies in which there are more 
scenes of tenderness than of wit and humour. Of these 
his " Prejug6 k la mode ;'* " Ecole des Amis," and " Me- 
lanide,*' are still much admired in France ; as are his 
'^ Ecole des Meres," and *^ La Gouvernante," although 
not received at first so favourably. He wrote many other 
dramatic pieces, with moderate success, which with his 
other works, were published at Paris, in 1762, 5 vols. 
12mQ. La Harpe ranks him among the authors who have 
done honour to the French theatre. He died May .14,. 
1754, in the sixty-second year of his age.* 

NIVERNOIS (Louis-Jules Mancini, Duke of), was 
"bornat Paris, JQec. 16, 1716. After he had served in the 
army some ticpe, he was appointed ambassador to Rome,- 
then to Berlin, and lastly, in 1763, was entrusted witk 
the important negociation of the definitive treaty of peace 
at London, where he was highly respected, as a prudent 
and enlightened minister, who united amenity of rmanners 
with the dignity of bis station. After his return to Parisj, 
be devoted himself entirely to letters, and by some public 

* Moreri. — I>tct Hist. 

9 BiQ(. Univ, ^rt Cluuiisfte.««>J>ict. Hist.— D'AIembert's £lo|^ei, 



^ 



N 1 V E R N O I S. 201 

cftttoas he obtained an achnission into the French acadeinj, 
and that of inscriptions. This worthy and excellent man 
lived to be a sufferer from the revolution, and was conn- 
mitted to prison during the tyranny of Robespierre* in 
which he was forced to remain till 1796. He died Feb. 
25, 1798, at the age of eighty^two. Of his works, hit 
<^ Fables" have not been thought to preserve the reputation 
they had originally, when handed about in private* Many 
of them, however, equal any of the French productions of 
that class. An English translation, very ably executed^ 
was published in 1799. The duke's reflections on the ge* 
nius of Horace, B^eau, and Rousseau, ar« highly es- 
teemed ; and his " Dialogues of the Dead,*' ^^ Moral Let* 
ters,** '* Lives of the Troubadours," &c. are distinguished 
proofs pf an acute and well-cultivated mind. . He was 
very conversant in English literature, and translated -Pope's 
<< Essay on Man," and Horace Walpole's ^< Modern Gar- 
dening," of which, in imitation of Walpole, he printed only 
a few copies for friends. Didot, while the author was 
alive, printed a 6ne edition of his works, in 1796, 8 vols;. 
8vo, the demand for which, according to Brunet, is not 
great * 

. NIZOLIUS (Mariuj^), an eminent Italian scholar, was 
bom in 1498, at Brescello, on the Po, in the duchy of 
Modena. He appears to have been first patronized by the 
counts Gambara of Brescia, with whom he lived for some 
years, -amply provided .with the means of study and im- 
provement. When his writings had made him known, he 
was invited by the princes Farnese to Parma, to give 
public lectures on rhetoric, which he continued for many 
years. Prince Vespasian Gonzaga, a great patron of lite- 
rature, having founded an university at^ Sabionetta, ap- 
pointed Nizolius chief director or principal. In 1562 
this university was opened, at which ceremony Nizolius 
delivered a speech, which was printed at Parma the fol- 
lowing year. Some years after/ being now advanced, he 
lost bis sight, and retired to his native place, where he 
died in. 1575. 

The work for which he is chiefly entitled to notice, was 
bfs dictionary of the words that occur in Cicero, commonly 
called ^^ Thesaurus Ciceronianus ;'' but the first edition was 
entitled " Observationes in Ciceronem," 1535, 2partsfoL 

1 Diet. Hi8t.-*-Blog. Modenit. 



202 N I Z O L I U S. 

It afterwards bad the title of ^' Thesaufos,'' and was re* 
peaieA)y reprinted, and at last with such improTements as 
to make it a complete lexicon. There is one printed at 
Padua, as late as 1^734, fol. The other most valued edi« 
tkms are the Aldine, 1570, 1576, and 1591, »nd that by 
Cellarius, at Francfort, 1613. Hertry Stephens and Ve- 
meret have spoken harshly of this work, but without much 
injrury to its fam<e. Nizolius was an enthusiastic admiret 
of the purity lind eloquence of the style of TuUy ; and it 
..was to promote a taste for correct and elegant literature, 
that he compiled this ^* Ciceronian Treasury/* By a ita* 
tural association, he eictended bis attachment to Cicerd 
fhKti bis language to his philosophy, and maintained si 
otrenuous contest in favour of Cicero, with several learned 
men. In the course of the dispute he wrote a treatise 
^^De verfS Principiis et vera Ratione Philosophandi,** in 
which he vehemently censured the followers of the Stagy- 
rite, and particularly the scholastics, chiefly for the cor* 
ruptions they had introduced into the Latin language, and 
die many ridiculons opinions which they held. LeibnitsS 
was so fttruck with its solidity and elegance, that to expose 
the obstinacy of those who were zealously attached to 
Aristotle, he gave a new edition of it, with critical notes 
of his own, 1670, in 4to.* 

NOAILLES (Lo0is Antony de), cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Paris, domwander of the order of the Holy Ghost; 
proviseur of the house and society of the Sorbonne, and 
toperior of that of Niavarre, was' the second sow of Ann^ 
duke de Noailles, peer of France, and born May 27^ 1651. 
ftt consequence of his birth, he became lord of Aubrach, 
commander of tlie order of the Holy Ghost, duke ef St. 
Cloud, and peer of France. He was bred with grtdl care, 
and his inclination leading him to the church, be took holy 
orders; and proceedin-g in the study of divinity, he per- 
formed his exercise for licentiate in that science with re- 
putation, and was created D. D. of the Sorboifjue, March 
14», 1676. Three years afterwards the king gave him the 
bishopric of Cahors, whence he was translated to Chalon^r 
dn the Marne, in 1680. He discharged the dutiesof both 
fbese dioceses with a distinguished vigilance, and a truly 
pastoral charity ; so that, the archbishopric of Paris be- 
eoming^ vacant in 16^5, by the death of Francis de Har* 

I TirabQicbi.«^fphe»'8 7he$aaiii8.-«Moreri. 



N O A I L L E a 308 

Hj,^ his ips^esl^ chose the bishop of Chalons^ to .fill tb^t 
importaut aee. Invested with this dignity^, he applied 
himself wholly to the affairs of it, and made excellent rules 
for the reformation of the clergy« 

. As he considered that one principal branch of the episr 
copal ^province is to maintain, sound doctrine^ and to keep 
the flock committed to his care from beinflr tainted !with er- 
roneous opinions, he vigorously opposed the growing errors 
of Quietism, which he had before^ condemned at Chalons ; 
and now made it his business to root out of the capital of 
France. He proceeded against them, not only by judicial 
sentences, but likewise by instructions in his pastoral 
ipharges. Among these he printed, in 1697, <^ A Pastoral 
Letter upon Christian Perfection, and the interior Life,^* 
figainst the illusioni^ of those mystics. At the Siame timep 
he testified an eqpial zeal against the errors of Jansenism ; 
and in order to preserve his flock from that infection, he 
0rew up a pastoral letter upon the questions th^n agitated 
concerning predestination and grace, cautioning them oa 
one hand against the errors which wefe condemned by the 
popes, and explaining to them at large what was the rule 
of faith in relation to mysteries, according to the principles 
of St^ Austin, and the fathers who embraced his doctrine. 

By another ordinance, in 1703, he likewise condemned 
the resolution of the " Case of Conscience,'* which had 
been sigiied by forty doctors of the Sorbonne, in favour of 
jansenius, the same year, respecting the distinction between 
the fact and the right These maintained, that the five 
propositions, though rightfully condeaxned by the decrees 
of the popes, yet were not in fact taught by Janseniu% as 
was declared in those decrees. In the same spirit of pas^ 
toral vigilance, he[ did not content himself with preserving 
^he sacred deposituai of faith inviolate among the^ full-con- 
firmed Catholics, but made it his business sdso to insjbruct 
the new coqvert^ by a letter addressed particularly to 
them. With the lil^eqare, when Mr. Simon, an author o£ 
great, fame, published bis French version of the '^ New Tes-* 
tiament,*' with a paraphrase and note% which were thought 
l^y our prelate of a bad tendency, be considered himself 
bound in duty.to prohibit the reading of that book, in order 
to prevent the ill effects it inight occasion by falling inta 
the hands of the simple and utfwary. In June 1700 be 
was cireated a cardinal, at the nomination . of the Frenchr 
^ing^ ai|d assisted in the Conclave held that yeafi ill whicli 



204 N O A I L L E S. 

Clement XI. was elected pope ; having, a little before, in 
tb6 sam^ year, sat president in an assembly of the clergy^ 
^bere several propositions, concerning doctrine and man- 
ners, were condemned. He also presided afterwards in se- 
ireral of these general assemblies, both ordinary and extra- 
ordinary. In 17 15, he was appointed president of the coun- 
cil of conscience at Rome, notwithstanding he had refused 
to accept the constitution Unigenitus. 

This celebrated bull brought our cardinal into a great 
deal of trouble on this account. Pasquin Quesnel, one of 
the fathers of the oratory, publishing his New Testament, 
with moral reflections upon every verse, in 1694, our car- 
dinal, then bishop of Chalons, gave it his approbation, and 
recommended it to his clergy and people in 1695; and, 
after his redioval to Paris, procured a new edition, cor- 
rected, to be printed there in 1699. But as the book 
contained some doctrines in favour of Jansenism, the Jesuits 
took the alarm, and, after writing several pieces, charg- 
ing the author with heresy' and sedition, obtained, in 1708, 
a decree of pope Clement XL condemning it in general. 
Although thi? decree could neither be received nor pub- 
lished in France, not being conformable to the usage of 
that kingdom, the book was condemned, without men- 
tioning the decree, by some French bishops, at whose so- 
licitation Lewis XIV. appliied to hi^ holiness to condemn it 
by a constitution in form, which was granted; and, in 
1715, appeared the famous constitution ^* Unigenitus/* 
condemning the "Moral Reflections,*' and 101 propo- 
sitions extracted from the work. The pope also qondemned 
ftM su«h writings as had been already published, or should 
hereafter be published in its defence. But the king's let- 
ters patent, for the publication of this b^U, were not re« 
gistered in the parliament without several modifications 
and restrictions, in pursuance of a declaration made by a 
great number of bishops, that they accepted it purely and 
simply, although at the same time they gave some expli- 
cations of it in tj^ieir pastoral instructions. Cardinal No- 
ailles, and some other prelates, not thinking these explica- 
tions sufficient, refused absolutely to accept it, till it should 
be explained by the pope in such a manner as to secure 
from all danger the doctrine, discipline, and liberty^. bf 
the schools, the episcopal rights, and the liberties of the 
Gallican church. The faculty of divines at the Sorbonne 
declared, that the decree which was made March 5, 1714, 



N O A I L L E S. 205 

for accepting the bull, was false. The four bishops also, 
of Mirepoix, Sen6s, Montpelier, and Boulogne, appealed, 
from it, March 4^ 1717 ; and the same day the faculty of 
divines at Paris adhered to their appeal. This example was 
fbllowedby several faculties of divines, monasteries, curates^ 
priests, &c. ; and cardinal deNoailles, having appealed, about 
the same time, with the four bishops, published his appeal ia 
1718. However, he retracted this appeal, and received the 
constitution some time before his death, which happened in 
his palace at Paris,'May 4, 1729. 

Hisi corpse was interred, according to the direction of his 
last will, in the grand nave of the metropolitan churcli in 
that city, before the chapel of the Virgin Mary, where a 
monument of black marble was erected, with a Latin in- 
scription to his memory. Some notion of the character of 
the cardinal de Noailles may be collected from the pre- 
ceding circumstances : and we are farther told by his bio- 
graphers, that his conduct through life discovered exem- 
plary piety, and attention to the promotion of learnings 
good conduct, and regularity of the clergy ; for which pur- 
pose he zealously maintained ecclesiastical discipline. He 
was mild, affable, as easy to the poor as to the rich, and very 
charitable. ^ 

NOBLE (EusTACHB de), one of the most indefatigable 
writers of his time, was born in 1643, at Troyes, of agood 
family. He soon made himself known in thejiterary world 
by ingenious pasqmnaies, and other jeux d" esprit. He wa^ 
once attorney-general to the parliament of Metz ; but his 
bad conduct having involved him in difficulties, he was 
accused of drawing up false acts for his own advan- 
tage, confined at the Ch^telet, and there sentenced to 
make amende honorablcy and to be banished nine years* 
From this.sentence he appealed, and being removed to the 
' Conciergerie, became there the' lover and advocate of 
Gabrielle Perreau, commonly called la belle Epiciere (the 
handsome grocer's wife), whom her husband had shut up 
in that prison for her irregular conduct, and wrote several 
memoirs and other pieces in her favour, which were much 
read. Le Noble finding means to get out of the Concier- 
gerie, 1695, lived a long time concealed with this woman, 
who bad escaped from a convent to which she had b^en 
transferred^ and had three children by her \ but^ being re- 

1 Moreri.—- Dictt Hut* 



fStOS NOBLE. 

taken, Was condemned^ notwithstanding his eloquent speecfr 
to his judges, while at the bar, March 24, 1698. The 
sentence passed upon him was for forgery, and condiemned 
him to make an amende seeker privately, in the hall of the 
Cb&teletj and to be banished for nine years. He left his 
prison four days after, and obtained a^ repeal of the sen- 
tence of banishment the next year, on condition that he 
should exercise no judicial office. His mistress was tried 
in May following, and le Noble was charged, by her sen- 
tence, with the three children, who were declared bas- 
tards. He died at Paris, January 31, 1711, aged 6 S, so 
poor, that the alms-house, in the parish of St. Severin, 
was obliged to bury him. His works have been printed at 
Paris, 19 vols. 12mo. The principal are, *^ Dialogues sut 
les affaires du Tems.'* •' Le Boucher de la France, ou les 
Sentimens de Gerson et des Canoiiistes touchant les difle- 
rends des Rois de France avec les Papes.*' A prose ** Trans- 
lation of the Psalms.'* " Relation de I'Etat de Gfines.'* 
*^ Hist, de PEstablissement de la R^publique d'Hollande.** 
This is little more than an extract from Grotitis. He wrote 
also tales and fables ; and romances, or historiettes, founded 
on facts; " L'Ecole du Monde," 4 vols. ]2mo, consist- 
ing of twenty-four dialogues ; and published a translation 
of the " Travels of GemeUi Carreri," Paris, 1727, 6 vols. 
12mo. * 

NOETUS, an heresiarch, who appeared in the thir4 
century, was a native of Smyrna, originally an obscure 
znan, and of mean abilities. He affirmed, that the Suprem^ 
God, whom he called the Father, and considered as ab- 
solutely indivisible, united himself to the man Christ, 
whom he called the Son, and was born, and crucified with 
him. From this opinion, Noetus and his followers wero 
distinguished by the title of Patripassians, i. e. persons, 
who believed that the Supreme Father of the universe, and 
not any other divine person, had expiated the guilt of the 
human race. For these opinions he and his followers were 
expelled the church.* 

NOGAROLA (Lewis), a learned Italian, was born at 
Verona, of a family that had produced several men of let- 
ters about the beginning of the sixteenth century. In early 
life he became introduced to John-Matthew Giberti, bi- 
shop of Verona, at whose house he had an opportunity o^ 

A Mdreri.-^Dict, Hltt. < Lardner*s Works, toU lIL-^Mosheiiiu 



N O G A R O L A, «f7 

profiting by the conversation of Variouis learned men, Ttfe 
Greek appears to have been- his favourite study, nod his 
fame was established by his able translatioits fiom that lan- 
guage. In September 154<5, he was employed, ^itb two 
other persons of consequence at VeronA, to furaidb proi^ 
visions for that city, .at a time when a scarcity was appre- 
hended; but not long after we find him at llieeotincil df 
Trent, where he delivered an harangue that was publisibed 
at the end of his ^^ ^postolicas Institutiones.^' In 1554, he 
was one of the ambassadors deputed by the city of Veroim 
to compliment the doge of Venice on his accesvion ; and 
on this occasiorn he was created a knight of that republio. 
On his return home, he was appointed president of the 
jurisdiction of silk-manufacturers, a corporation which was 
then established. He enjoyed the favour and esteem df 
many Italian princes, but of none more than uf Guy Ubaldi, 
duke of Urbano, whom he accompanied to Rome, and was 
made commander of the ecclesiastical troops by p^pe Ju- 
lius III. Here he had begun a translation of Ocellus Lucai^ 
nusj when he was seizejd with a disorder which interrupted 
his studies and his attendance at court ; but he was enabled 
to complete his translation in 1558, and it was printed the 
year following, in which year he died. 

He published, 1. *^ Joannis Damasceni libellus de hi!^, 
qui in fide dormierunt, ex Gr. in Lat. versus,'' Verona, 
1532, 4tb. 2. ^' Apostolicse Institutiones in parvum libel- 
lum coUectflB." Venice, 1549, 4to. 3. ** De NiK incre*- 
mento dialogus,'' ibid. 1552, 4to. This edition became 
so scarce that when Frederic Nogarola wished to publish 
a second, he could not find a single copy, and was there- 
fore obliged to print from the author's original mannseript. 
This second edition was printed at Milan, in 1626, 4to^ 
under the title ** Timotheus, sive de Nilo.*' Timotheus is 
•one of the four interlocutors in the dialogue.' 4. ^^ Platonic* 
<:» Plutarchi questiones;'' translated into Latin, with notes^ 
Venice, 1552, 4to. 5. <^ Ocelli Lucani de universa natura 
iibellus, L. N. interprete.'* Venice, 1559, 4to, reprinted in 
■octavo, at Heidelberg^ 1598, and at Cambridge in 1671.' 
Kbgarola, however^ was fiot the first who translated this 
author. There is a translation by Chretien, of 1541, and 
one by Bosch, of 1554. 6. ^< £pistola ad Adamum Fume- 
fiinB canpnicum Veronensem super viris illustribus genere 
Italis, qui Graece scripserunt.'' This appeared first with 
his translation of Lucanrus^ and was reprinted in Gale^s 



SOS N O G A R O L A. 

^' Oposcula/* 1671, and afterwards by Fabricios in bis 
*^ Supplemental* to Vossius. 7. ** Scholia ad Tbemistii Pa- 
raphrasim in Aristotelis^ Librum tertium de anima/* Ve« 
.nice, 1570, fol. with a translation. 8. ^^Dis])utauo super 
i^ginae BritanDorum divoriio," 4to, Henry VlIFs queen.— 
Freher also mentions a work entitled *' Oratio pro Vicen- 
tinis ad Maximilianum." ' . 

NOIR (John lk), canon and tbeologal of Seez, the son 
of John le Noir, counsellor to the presidial of Alen^on, 
was a celebrated preacher at Paris, and in the provinces, 
about the middle, of the seventeenth century ; but, having 
had a quarrel afterwards with M. de Mendavi, bis bishop, 
in consequence of the boldness with which he censured 
not only the doctrine, but the conduct of his superiors, 
be was banished in 1663, confined in the Bastille in 1683, 
.and condemned April 24, 1684, to make amemie honorable 
.before the metropolitan church at Paris, and to the gallies 
fox life. This punishment, however, being changed to 
perpetual .imprisonment, M. le Noir was afterwards carried 
to St Malo, then to the prisons of Brest, and, lastly, to 
.those of Nantes, ^here he died April 22, 1692, leaving 
severisd works, which are curious, but full of intemperate 
abuse. The principal are, A collection of his Requests 
;and Faotums, folio; a translation of ^^ L'Echelle du Clot- 
ire ;*^ ^' Les A vantages incontestable de TEglise sur.les 
.Calvinistes,'V8vo ; ^^ L*ll6r€sie de la Domination Episcopate 
qu*on ^tablit en France,*' 12mo; >^Les nouvelles Lumieres 
politiques pour le Gouvernement de TEglise, ou TEvangile 
jftouveau du cardinal Palavicini dans son Hisloiredu Concile 
de Trente,'* Hpll. 1676,- 12mo. This work occasioned 
the French translation of cardinal Palavicini's history to be 
suppressed.* 

NOLDIUS (Chkistian), an eminent Danisli divine, waa 
born June 22,' 14326, at Hoybia, in Scania ; and, after ai> 
quiring some grammatical and classical knowledge at Lun«^ 
den, was removed to the university of Copenhagen in 
,1644, and continued there till 1650j when he was made 
rector of the college at Landscropn. • He took the .degree 
of master of arts the following year^ and, in. 1654, for 
farther improvement, made the tour of Germany, .visited 
.several universities there, and became acquainted with the 
most learned persons of that time. From .Germany he coi^ 

^ Niccroo, YoWXII. and XX.— Moreri. ' Diet. Hist. — ^Morari. 



NO L D I U S. 209 

tinued bis route to Holland, £nglaud, and France, and 
returned to Denmark in 1657. Hence, after a residence 
of only three months^ be went to pursue bis studies at Ley* 
den and Fraileker. In 1660, the lord of Gerstorff, roaster 
of the palace of Denmark, appointed him tutor to bis 
children ; and, in 1644,' be obtained the chair of professor 
of divinity at Copenhagen, probably by the interest of this 
ttobletnan. Noldius, entering into holy orders, was made 
ninister, and obtained the professor's chair of divinity at 
Copenhagen, in which city be died, Aug. 22, 1683. He 
wrote several books, as << Concordantite particutarum He- 
breeo^Chaldaicarum Yeteris Testament!,'* an excellent 
work^ the best edition of which is that of Jena, 1734, 4to« 
^^ Historia IdumsBa, seu de Vita et gestis Herodum Diatri- 
bse.^' ^< Satrarum Historiarum et Antiquitatum Synopsis.'* 
^^ Leges distinguendi seu de Yirtute et Vitio distinctiones*'' 
<*Logica," &c.* 

NOLLET (John Anthony), a French abb^, and mem<> . 
ber of most of the literary societies of Europe, was born 
at Pimpr^, in the district of Noyon, Nov., 19, 1700. Not* 
withstanding the obscurity in which bis finances obliged 
him to live, be soon acquired fame as an experimental 
philosopher, M, Dufay associated him in bis electrical 
researches; and M. de Reaumur assigned to him his la- 
boratory ; and these gentlemen may be considered as 
his preceptors. M. Dufay took him along with him in a 
journey he made into England; and Nollet profited so 
well of this opportunity, as to institute a friendly and li-. 
lerary correspondency with sonile of the most celebrated 
men in this country. The king of Sardinia gave him an 
invitation to Turin, to perform a course of experimental 
philosophy to the duke of Savoy. From thence he tra- ' 
yelled into Italy, where he collected some good observa- 
tions concerfiing the natural history of the country. In 
prance be was master of philosophy and natural history to 
tiie royal family ; and professor royal of experimental pbi« 
)oiM>phy to the college of Navarre, and to the schools of 
artillery and engineers. The academy of sciences ap- 
pointed him adjunct-mecbanician in 1739, associate ia . 
1742, and pensioner in. 1757. Nollet died the 24tb of 
April, 1770, regretted byall his friends, but especially by 
bis relations, whom he always succoured with an affec- 

1 Moreri.— Diet Hist. 

voL.xxnL p 



99 



210 N OXL E T. : 

tiqnate attention ; but his fame^ as an electrician, in whicf/ 
character he was best known, did not survive him long.- 
Hijf works are, 1. " Recueils de Lettres sur rEiectricit6 ; 
1753, 3 vols. 12 mo. 2. ". Essai.surl' Electricity des corps; 
1 vol. 12nip. 3. Riecherches sur les causes' partiiculieres 
des Phenomenes Electriques,", 1 vol. 12mo. 4. " L*Art 
des Experiences," 1770, 3 vols. 12 mo. In these. are con-' 
taioed bis theory on electricity, which he maintained with* 
the most persevering obstinacy against all the arguments' 
of his antagonists, who were perhaps all the eminent elec- 
trical philosophers of Europe. It is no easy matter to 
form a very adequate notion of this theory, which has been' 
long since abandoned by every person. When an electric 
is excited, electricity fiows.to it from all quarters, and 
when thus effluent (as he termed it), it drives light bodies 
before it. Hence the reason . why excited bodies attract.' 
When- the electricity is effluent, the light bodies are of 
course driven from the electric, which' ih that state appears 
to repel. .He conceived every electric to be- possessed o^ 
two different Jsinds of pores, one for the eunission of the 
electric matter, and the other for its reception. Besides 
his papers in the " Memoirs of the Academy qf Sciences'* 
from 1740 to 1767, we'have in our " Philosophical. Trans- 
actions," the result of a great number of experiments, made 
by the abb6 NoUet, on the effect produced by electricity 
on the flowing of water through capillary tubes; on the 
evaporation of liiquids ; the transpiration of vegetables ; 
and the respiration of animals. /These last experiments 
have been often repeated since, but- the results drawn by 
the abbe are not considered as estaiSlished. \ ' 

NOLLIKINS (Joseph Francis), an artist of Antwerp, 
came and settled in England 'when young, and studied 
under Tillemans, and afterwards copied Watte^u, and 
Panini;. conversations, landscapes, and- children's anfose- 
ments, were his chief works. Lord Cobham, at Sto^^e, 
and the earl of Tilney, employed him at their mansions. 
He died Jan. 21, 1748, leaving. a son, who has long enjoyed 
the. welUearaed reputation of. ah admirable statuary. * • 

NONIUS (Marcellus), was a grammarian and peri- 
patetic plulosopher/of Tivoli, by whom we have l treatise 
(^ De Proprietate Sermonis, sive .de varia .sigriifkatiode 

• : • . '• .^^ •' ^ • ' .'V 

1 Le Nccrologe des Hommes Cel«b'res for 1772.— Diet. Hist — ^TbooMOD's 
Hiit. of Lbe Royal Society.— Pri^^tlejr's Hist, of-El^iricity. 
s Walpole's Anecdote*. 






N O N I U S. 211 

irerborum.** ' He is supposed to hav^' flourished in the 
fourth century; His work is valuable only because be in- 
troduces several fiagoilenjts of ancient writers riot to be 
found elsewhere; The best edition. is that by Mercer, 
printed at Paris, 1614, 8vo, with notes. ;The first edi-^ 
tions) of 1471, and 1476, and 1480, are of great rarity, but 
all in the Spencer collection. * 

' NONIUS, or NONNIUS (Lewis), a learned physician 
at Antwerp, who flourished in the seventeenth century, 
was the author of a curious treatise, entitled ^^ Djeteticon, 
sive deRe cibaria;*' containing several remarks illustrative 
of those passages in the Latin Roman poets, . particularly 
Horace, Juvenal, and Persius,. which relate to the luxury 
of the old Roman tables. It was published in 4to in 1646, 
at Antwerp. He renewed the opinion of the ancient phy 
fiicians, who have written *^ De salubri Piscium alimento, 
or the wholesomeness of a fish diet ; and endeavoured to 
shew, that, according .tp them, fish is especially a proper 
a;Iiment for sedentary persons, for the aged, sick, and such 
as are of a weak constitution, as ijb generates blood of a 
jnpderate consistence, which suits their habit. In tfaisf 
work Nonius complains of the Arabians, who, in trans- 
lating the Greek physicians, have omitted all passages 
relating to fish; because the .Arabs eat little of this kind 
of aliment, which in that hot and dry country is rarely to 
be met with. Nonius also printed a very Is^rge com-r 
mentary in 1620, upon the Greek medals, and those, of 
Julius ^CsDsar, Augustus, and Tiberius,, which had been 
engraved abQ^t fifty-fiVe years before by Goltzius, and 
published in folio at that time by. James de Bye^ another 
celebrated engraver. Besides these, he wrote ** Hispania; 
seu de Oppidis Fluminibusque HispaniaB,*' 1607, 8vo; 
.^* Ictbyophagia, seu de Usa Piscium," and " EpiceBdium 
Justo Lipsio," &c.* I • 

, ; JJONIUS, or NUNEZ (Peter), a very eminent Pprtur 
guese mathematician and physician, was born in 1407, at 
AJcazarin Portugal, anciently a remarkable city, known 
by the name.of Salacia, from whence be was surnamed 
Salaciensis. ..He was professor, of mathematics in the uni- 
versity of Coimbra,^ where he published some- pieqes which 
procured ,him gre^t reputation; He. was mathematica} 

1 Vo«9ias de Philologia.^Fabric, Bibl. Lat— Saxji Onomast.— DibiliB'sBilil. 
gpenceriana. •■ =.•••:• ' ■'' \ •' ' 

'. Foppeo.—- Bib]. Belg.— MorerL-^Saxii Onomast 

P 2 



212 NONIUS. 

preceptor to Don Henry, sod to king Emanuel of Portugal, 
and principal cosmographer to the king. Nonius was very 
serviceable to the designs which this court entertained of 
carrying on their maritime expeditions into the East, by 
the publication of his book " Of the Art of Navigation," 
and various other works. He died in 1577, at eighty years 

of age. 

Nonius was the author of several ingenious works and 
inventions, and justly esteemed one of the most eminent 
mathematicians of his age. Concerning his " Art of Navi- 
gation," father Decbales says, *< In the year 15 SO, Peter 
Nonius, a celebrated Portuguese mathematician, upon 
occasion of some doubts, proposed to him by Martinus 
Alphonsus Sofa, wrote a treatise on Navigation, divided 
. into two books ; in the first he answers some of those 
doubts, and explains the nature of Loxodromic lines. In 
the second book he treats of rules and instruments proper 
for navigation, particularly sea-charts, and instruments 
serving to find the elevation of the pole ;" but says he is 
rather obscure in his manner of writing. — Furetiere, in 
his Dictionary, takes notice that Peter Nonius was the first 
who, in 1530, invented the angles which the Loxodromic 
curves make with each meridian, calling them in his lan- 
guage Rhumbs, and which he calculated by spherical 
triangles. — Stevinus acknowledges that Peter Nonius was 
scarce inferior to the very best mathematicians of the age* 
And Schottus says he explained a great many problems, 
and particularly the mechanical problem of Aristotle on the 
motion of vessels by oars. His Notes upon Purbach*s 
Theory of the Planets, are very much to be esteemed : he 
there explains several things, which had either not been 
noticed before, or not rightly understood. 

In 1542 he published a treatise on the twilight, which 
he dedicated to John III. king of Portugal ; to which b^ 
added what Alhazen, an Arabian author, has composed on 
the same subject. In this work he describes the method 
or instrument erroneously called, from him, a Nonius. 
He corrected several mathematical mistakes of Orontiiis 
FinsBUs. But the most celebrated of all his works, or that 
at least he appeared most to value, was his ** Treiatise of 
Algebra," which he had composed in Portuguese, but 
trimslated it into the Castilian tongue when he resolved 
upon making it public, which he thought would render 
his book more useful, as this language was more gene« 



NONIUS. ais 

• 

rally knoWD than the Portuguese. The dedication to 
his former pupil, prince Henry, was dated from Lisbon, 
Dec. 1, 1564. This work contain^ S4] pages in the Ant-^ 
werp edition of 1567, in 8vo. The catalogue of his works, 
chiefly in Latin, is as follows: \.** De Arte Navigandi, 
Itbri duo," 1530. 2. « De Crepusculis," 1542. 3. " An- 
notationes in Aristotelem.*' 4. <^ Problema Mechanicum 
de Motu Navigii ex Remis.'* 5. " Annotationes in Pla- 
netarum Theorlas Georgii Purbachii," &c. 6. ^* Libro 
de Algebra en Arithmetica y Geometra,** 1564. We 
have said that his name was erroneously given to the me- 
thod of graduation now generally used in the division of the 
scales of various instruments; for Vernier was the real 
inventor. The method of Nonius, described in his treatise 
*^ De Crepusculis," consists in describing within the same 
quadrant, 45 concentric circles, dividing the outermost 
into 90 equal parts, the next within into 89, the next into 
88, and so on, till the innermost was divided into 46 only. 
By this means, in most observations, the plumb-line or in- 
dex must cross one or other of those circles in or very near 
a point of division : whence by calculation the degrees and 
minutes of the arch might easily he obtained. This me« 
tbod is also described by him in his treatise '^ De Arte 
Navigandi,*' where he imagines it was not unknown to 
Ptolomy. But as the degrees are thus divided unequally, 
and it is very difficult to attain exactness in the division^ 
especially when the numbers, info which the arches are 
to be divided, are incomposite, of which there are no leas 
than nine, the method of diagonals, first published by 
Thomas Digges, esq. in his treatise '* Alse sen Seals Ma- 
thematics,*' printed at Lond. in 1573, and said to be lUr 
vented by one Richard Chanseler, a very skilful artist, 
was substituted in its stead. However, Nonius's method 
was improved at different times; but the admirable division 
now so much in use, is the most considerable improvement 
of it. « 

NONNUS, a Greek poet, surnamed PANOPLITES, 
from the place of his birth, was born at Panopolis, in Egypt, 
in the fifth century. He is the author of two works of a 
very different character; one a miscellany of heathen 
mythology and learning, in heroic verse, entitled ** Diony- 
-siacoram iibri xlviii." which was printed by Falkenburgh, 

» HarUo't Biog. Pbtl.^Hutton't Diet, 



214 



N O N N U S. 



from&MS. in the library of John Sambucb, at Antwerp,: 
in 1569, 4t09 and afterwards translated into Latin by Eil* 
bard Lubin, professor at Rostock, who reprinted it at 
Hanover in 1610, with the notes of various persons, Svo.* 
There is also an edition printed at^Eton,' 1610,' 4to. This 
is one. of the most irregular poems extant, both with regard 
to the style, sentiments, method, and constitution : nothing 
is natural, nothing approaching to the purity of Homer ; . 
nothing of the^free, easy manner, and beautiful simplicity,^ 
of the ancients. In short, this piece is as much beneath, 
as his other, work, his *^ Paraphrasis," is above, censure. 
In his paraphrase in Greek verse, upon the Gospel of St. 
John,. the diction is perspicuous, heat,' eleg^nt^ and pro-^ 
per for.the subjeict. Hence he is styled by Isaac Casauboii 
^^ poeta eruditissimus>.'V Heinsius, indeed, reproaches him' 
with leaning to Arianism i but he appears to hold the same= 
sentiments concerning the Trinity with Gregory Nazinn-- 
zen and St. John Chrysostom. The first edition of this' 
piece is that of Aldus Mauutius at Venice in 1501^ 4]to ;- it. 
has since gone through several -editions, the last of which, 
and the best, is that by Heinsius, Gr. and Lat. 1627, 8 vo. 
His various readings, which are deemed important, have 
been selected by Mill, Bengelius,Wetstein, and Griesbach.V 
NOQDT (Gerard), a celebrated civilian, was born Sept. 
4, 1647, at Nimeguen, where his father, Peter Nci6dt, 
lield a law office in the corporation^ * He was first educated- 
at the school at Nimeguen ; and, haying gone through the 
usual classes, removed, in 1663, to the university which: 
then subsisted, although in a decayed state, in that city *. 
Here he began his studies with history and polife literature 
uiider Jqhn Schulting, professor of eloquence and history.' 
Besides these, he applied himself to philosophy and the* 
mathematics, which, be would have made his principal- 
study, had he not been diverted by Mr. Arnauld Coerman, 
German counsellor of the duchy of Quelderland, &c. who 
prevailed upon him to apply himself to law, as likely to b^ 

* Vossius de Poet GnEC— Fabric. Bibl. Gr»c.-rCave, vol. I, 

pos«4 Jthis establishment, apd the so- 
vereign coDrt of the province refused 
to admit as advocates tbos« who had 
taken their degrees aC Nimeguen. This 
university therefore soon fell into 
decay, artd in 1648 that of Harder* - 
wyk was founded by universal ooq« 
sent. 



* Barbeyrac informs us that the 
States of the division of Nimeguen 
])ad established an university in that 
city about the middle of the preceding 
century.' Six professors were appointed, 
w|)o taught thf3. usual .sciences,, and de- 
grees were conferred; but the two other 
divisiOiis of Qaer4erlaiid always op- 



N O O D T- 215 

of more advantage to himself ai>d to the public. • Comply- 
ing with this advice he studied law three years under Peter 
de Greve; duripg which time he maintained two public 
theses with un.coip.mon , reputation. ^ The second of these, 
^M)e acquirenda, et retinenda, et amittenda possessione^^^V 
which was of jhis own composition, he defended .with §uch 
masterly knowledge, that the professor had not occasion to 
say a word throughout the whole •disputation. As soon as 
lie had completed his course of study here, he visited the 
ptiier universities of. Leyden, Utrecht, and shortly after 
Franeker, where lie \yas created LL, D. in June 1669. He 
th^n : returned to his own country, and entered upon the 
practice of. his profe^ion, ;n which he soon had an oppor«« 
tunity of acquiring faiiie by his 'defence of two criminals^ 
T^ho were, accused of murder in 1671. . Noodt appeared 
advocate for them, by the special appointment of the ma- 
gistrates of Nimeguen^; and he exerted hip^self so well in 
their behajf, that one of them was entirely acquitted^ and 
the Qther only sentenced to banishment for two years. This 
cause established, his reputation, and, the* same year^^ he 
was elected prqfessor of law: in ordinary in the university of 
Nimeguen, although only in his twenty-fourth year. 

During the congress held there in 1677, his talents be^. 
came known to several of the foreign ministers, and the 
plenipotentiary from the elector of- Brandenburg tempted 
him with the offer of a professorship in the university o{ 
Duysbourg, which he refused, although that of Nimeguea 
v^as. approaching to dissolution. William de. Hare n, how-' 
ever, third ambassador plenipotentiary, from the States 
General, succeeded afterwards in inducing him to accept 
the law- professor's .cha^r at Franeker. Of this, accord- 
ingly, be took possession in 1679, and made his inaugura- 
tion-rspeech Oct. 6. In 1683 his increasing reputation pro- 
cured him an offer from the magistracy of Utrecht of a 
professprship there which, after some demur, he accepted, 
agd made. his. inauguration-speech in 1684^ " De causis 
cprruptae Jurisprudentias." In 1686 he married ; and, the 
same year,, complied' with aiv invitation from the, curators 
of the univ^rsityof Leyden, where he fixed for life, and 
published several treatises. In 1,698 he was made rector 
of that university ; in 1699 he lost his wife, with which he 
was greatly affected, and sought to console himself by em- 
ploying hi? thoughts upon th^t important question relating 
to the practice of exposing children, in use among the 



216 N O O D T, 

Greeks and Romans. In 1705 be was^ a second time 
chosen rector of the university, and continued bis dili- 
gence in writing and publishing books in bis profession* 
During the last three years of his life, his health and 
strength continued to decay, although without any visible 
disorder or pain, and after some slight attacks of tlie 
apoplectic kind, from which he was relieved by the skill of 
the celebrated Boerhaave, he sunk under one of greater 
violence^ Aug. 15, 1725, aged almost seventy-eight. 

He published a collection of his works in 1713, 4to, 
containing, 1. ^'Probabilia Juris,'* in three books ; the first 
of which was printed in 1674, and the other two in 1679, 
and again, altogether, in 1691. 2. <' De civili Prudentia 
Oratio inauguralis, 1679." 3. ^' De causis Corruptse Juris-* 
prudentiae, Oratio inauguralis,'' 1684. In this speech he 
opens his method of studying and explaining the Roman 
law. 4. Two tracts, one entitled " De Jurisdictione et 
Iiiiperio ;" the other, " Ad Legem Aquileiam Liber sin- 
gularis;" both subjoined to a new edition of his " Pro- 
babilia Juris," 1691. 5. *^ De Foenore et Usuris," 1698. 
In this piece he shews that money lent out to usury is 
neither against the law of nature or nations. 6. *^ De Jure 
summi Imperii et Lege regia, Oratio habita," 1698. 7. 
** Julius Paulus ; sive, de Partus Expositione et Nece 
apud veteres, Liber singularis," 1699. 8. " Diocletianus 
et Maximianus; sive, de Transactione et Pactione Cri« 
ininura," 1704. 9. " De Religione ab Imperio Jure Gen- 
tium libera Oratio," 1706. 10. ** Observationum Libri 
duo," 1706^ 11." De Forma emendandi doli mali in con- 
trahendis negotiis admissi apud Veteres," 1709. 12. Two 
treatises; one, **de Usufructu;" the other, "dePactiset 
Transactionibus," &c. 1713. Another edition of his works 
was published in 1724, in 2 vols, folio ; containing, besides 
those in the former edition, the following pieces : 1 . ** Com- 
mentaria in Pandectas, in 27 Libros," 4 of which had been 
published in 1716. 2. "Arnica Responsio ad Difficultates 
in Julio Paulo, sive Libro de Partus Expositione, motas I 
Viro amplissimo Van Bynkersboek," 1722. Our author 
also wrote, in Flemish, " An Opinion upon a case relating 
to Matrimony," which was translated into Latin by M. 
Alexander Arnold Pai^enstecher, and printed in a treatise 
of that translator, entitled, " Imperius injuria vapulans." 
A third edition of his works was published in 1735, 2 vols. 
foJ. by Barbeyrac, with a life of the author, which Bar* 



N O O D T. 217 

beyrac had originally published in 1731. There is also an 
edition printed at Naples in'1786y 4 vols. 4to. Noodt is 
said to have been a man of great probity, and of a placid 
disposition. He was free from conceit and arrogance, and 
iiever engaged in any controversy except one with M. 
Bynkershoek, who complained that he had been a little 
too free in his expressions. The character of his genius is 
seen in his works ; which shew that he quitted the com- 
mon method of the civilians, treading in the steps of Cuja- 
cius, and introduced much of a liberal and philosophic 
spirit into the law, although perhaps with too great a ten- 
dency to theory, or to what is practicable only in theory. 
He lectured at all the academies to which he succeeded, 
on Grotius " De Jure Belli et Pacis.** * 

NORBERT. SeePARISOT. 

NORDBERG (Joran), the biographer of Charles XIL 
of Sweden, was born at Stockholm in 1677. After entering 
the church, he was appointed an army chaplain, and accom- 
panied the troops for some years. There is little else in the 
accounts of him that is interesting. Having had many op- 
portunities of acquiring the necessary knowledge and in- 
formation, he was selected to write the life of Charles XII, 
which was published at Stockholm in 1740, in 2 vols, folio, 
and afterwards translated into the German and French lan- 
guages. The author of it died in 1744. Voltaire, who 
also wrote a life of Charles XII. speaks with little respect 
of Nordberg's labours ; and indeed the work seems rather 
a collection of useful materials than a well-digested nar- 
rative.* 

NORDEN (Frederick Lewis), an eminent geographer 
and traveller, was born at Gluckstadt in Holstein, Oct. 22, 
1708. His father was a lieutenant-colonel of artillery, and 
liimself was bred to arms. Being intended for the sea-ser- 
vice, he entered, in 1722, into the corps of cadets; a 
royal establishment, in which young men were instructed 
in th^ arts and sciences necessary to form good sea-officers. 
Here he is said to have made a great progress in the ma- 
thematics, ship-building, and drawing, especially in the 
last. He copied the works of the greatest masters in the 
art, to form his taste, and acquirt their manner; but he 
took a particular pleasure in drawing from nature. The 

* 

* Life by Barbeyrac. — Chaufepie.— ^Burman Traj. Erudit.— Saxii Oaomast. 
'^ Diet. Hitt, 



218 N O It D E N. 

first person who noticed this rising genius, was- M. d<j 
Lerche, knight of .the order of the elephant, and. gi;and 
master 4)fvthe ceremonies. ' This- gentleman put intp his 
hands a collection .of charts and . topographical plans, be- 
longing; to the king, to be re touched and amended; in 
which Norden shewed grpat skill and, pare; but, consider^ 
ing his p/eseQt employment 5 as .foreign to. his profession, 
de Lerche, in 1732, pnqsenied him to .the king, and pro- 
jcured him, not only leave, but a pension to enable him to 
.travel : the king likewise n^ade. him, at the same time, 
,second lieut,eofint- ..Itt,was particularly recommended to 
bim, to. study .the construction of ^ ships,. especially sqcn 
gallies^nd rowing ves^ls as are used in the M«diterr^neai>. 
Accordingly he set;out for Holland, where he;Soon became 
acquainted with the admirers of antiquities and the polite 
arts, and with several.distinguished artists, particularly De 
Reyter, who took great pleasure in teaching him to en- 
grave. , From Holland he went to Marseilles, and thence 
to Leghorn; staying in each, place so long as to inform 
.himself in every thing relating to the design of his voyage.. 
At this last port he got modeU n;kade of the different kinds 
of rowing vessels, which are still to be seen at the chamber 
of niodels at the Old Holm. In Italy, where he spent near 
three years in enlarging his knowledge, his great talents 
drew the attention of persons of distinction, and procured 
him an opportunity of seeing the cabinets of the /curious, 
and of niaking his advantage of the great works of painttQg . 
and sculpture, especially at Rome and Florence. At Flo- 
rence he was made a member of the drawing # cademy, and 
while in this city he received an order from the king to go 
into Egypt. 

Christian VI. was desirous of having a circumstantial 
account of a country so distant and so famous from an in- 
telligent man, and one whose Bdelity could not be ques- 
tioned ; and no one was thought more proper than Norden. 
He was then in the flower of his age, of great abilities, of 
a good taste, and of a courage that no danger or fatigue 
.could dishearten ; a skilful observer, a great designer,, and 
a goqd mathematician : to all which qualities may be added 
an enthusiastic, desire of examining, upon the spot, the 
wonders of Egypt, even prior to the order of his master. 
How he acquitted himself in this business appears amply 
from his "Travels in Egypt and Nubia." In these coun- 
tries he stayed about a year ; and, at his r^eturn^ when, the 



N O R D E N. 219 

count of Danneskiold-Sainsoey who was at the bead o^ the 
marine^ • presented him to his majesty, the king was much 
pleased with the masterly designs he bad made of the ob- 
jects in his travels, and desired he would draw up an ac- 
count of his voyage, for the instruction of the curious and 
learned. At tbis time he ^as made captain-lieutenant^ 
and soon after captain of the royal navy, and one of< the 
commissioners for building ships. 

When the war broke out between England and Spaing 
count Danneskiold-Samsoe proposed to the king, that se- 
veral of his officers of his majesty^snavy should go as vo« 
lunteers into the service of the powers at war ; and chose 
Norden in particular, to accompany his o.wn nephew, 
count Ulric Adolpbus,' then a captain of a man of war,- ini 
such expeditions as should b^ undertaken by the English. 
On their arrival in London, Norden, whose fame had pre- 
ceded him, was received with distinguished favour; seve-J 
ral of the most considerable men at court, and even the 
prince.of Wales, hearing of the designs he madein Egypt, 
werie curious to see them, and shewed him great kindness* 
The following summer, he accompanied the count on an 
expedition under sir John Norris ; and, in 1740, he^gain' 
went on-board , the fleet destined to America, under the 
command^ of sir Chaloner Ogle, with a design to reinforce 
admiral Vernon. After this, >forden spent about one year 
in Lqddori in great esteem, and was admitted ajnember of 
the Royal ^Society. On this occasion he' gave the public 
an idea of some ruins aind colossal statues, entitled; ^^^Draw« 
ings of some. Ruins and Colossal Statues, at Thebes of 
Egypt; with an account of the same, in a Letter to the ^ 
Royal Society," 1741. This essay, with the plates ' b^- 
longingto'it,* heightened the' desire which men of curio- 
sity had before. conceived of sieeing that work entire, of 
which this iriade only '.a small part. About this time h^ 
found his health declining'; and proposed to the count to 
take a tour to. France, and to visit the coasts and ports of 
that kingdom, in hopes a change of climate might have 
been a means of recovering his health: but be died* at 
Paris in 1742, much regretted as a person who had done 
honour to iiis country; and from whom the world had great 
expectations. His "Travels" were translated from 'the 
Danish into French by Des Roches de Parthenais, and 
published at Copenhatren in 1755, 2 vols. fol. This was 
followed by an English translation, both in fol. and 8vo, 



230 N O R D E N. 

by Dr. Peter Teoipleman. This edition was decorated 
with the original plates, which are extremely numerous, 
and were procured by Mr. Lockyer Davis.* 

NORDEN (John), an industrious topographer, classed 
by Walpole and Strutt among engravers, seems to have 
been born in Wiltshire about 1548, and admitted of Hart- 
hall, Oxford, in 1564. He proceeded A. M. in 1573. He 
bad patronage, but little else, from the great Burleiigh; 
and in bis old age obtained jointly with his son the place 
6f surveyor to the prince of Wales. He lived in narrow 
circumstances at Fulham and Hendon, and died about 
1626. Wood ascril;>es to him fifteen devotional pieces, 
though he doubts if they were really written by him, and 
Granger, who describes a print of him, thinks they must 
have been bis father^s. As a topographer, however, we are 
more certain of his productions. He surveyed the countj^ 
of Essex in 1584, and Hertfordsire and Middlesex in 1593; 
and besides these, he executed the maps of Cornwall, 
liampshire, Surrey, and Sussex, all which, except those 
of Herts and Hants, were copied, with* additions, into 
<^ Speed's Theatre.^' He was the first that inserted the 
roads. His map of , Surrey was much larger and more 
exact than any of his others. Among bin published works 
are, ^< England ; an intended guyde for English trayailers, 
&c.'' Lond. 1625, 4to; *' Speculum Britanniser, a topogra-^ 
phical and historical description of Cornwall," 1728, 4to. 
It was published from a very old MS. in the Britisfi Museuiii, 
MSS. Hari. 6252. Mr. Gough says that the better part of 
this most finished of Norden*s works is a mere transcript of 
Carew ; from the other parts very little of moment is to be 
learned ; and no stress is to be laid on his drawings. Nor-* 
den wrote also an account of the estate of the dutcby of 
Cornwall, the right by which the duke holds his estates^ 
and many of the customs of the manors ; which was once 
deposited in the duchy office. Another of his publications, 
is ^^ Speculum Britanniae, or an historical and cborogra- 
phical descriptioB of Middlesex and Hertfordshire," 1573^ . 
4tp, reprinted 1637, and 1723. The Middlesex part was 
the first of his labours ; there is a copy of it among the 
Harleian MSS. No. 570, supposed to be in Norden's own' 
writing, which differs from the printed books both in the 

Life prefixed to his Travels.— Bnwet mentions another French edition, 
1795, ,3 vols. 4to, with notes by M. LaogUs, and probably a life^ but we have 
not seen it. « 



N O R D E N. 22 i 

«Yrangement and the additions iiiade to it The last of 
this kind was bis ^* Speculum Brit, pars altera, or a delinea*' 
tion of Northamptonshire/' Lond. i720| 8vo. This is the 
most superficial of all bis surveys, except in a fetv towns ; 
nbr were the map and plans of Peterborough and North- 
ampton referred to in it ever engraved. Norden was not 
only a practical surveyor, but wrote a good treatise on the 
subject, entitled '* The Surveyor's Dialogue, &c.'.' 1607, 
4to« Of this an account, with extracts, is given in the 
Cens. Lit. vol. L There are 9ome MSS. by Norden in the 
British Museum and other public libraries. * 

NORES. See DENORES. 

NORGATE (Edward), an ingenious artist, was the soa< 
of Robert Norgate, D. D. master of Bene't college. Cam* 
bridge, and in his youth shewed a great inclination to he- 
raldry and limning, in both of which he became very emi-* 
nent, but bis talent in illuminating the initial letters of pa-* 
tents, was chiefly admired. His judgment in paintings also 
was considered very great, for which reason he was em* 
ployed by the earl of Arundel, that celebrated collector of 
antiquities, to purchase pictures for him in Italy. Re« 
turning by Marseilles, and by some accident being disap* 
pointed of the remittances be expected, and totally un« 
known there, he was observed by a French gentleman, who, 
after inquiring into his circumstances, furnished him with 
the means of returning to his own country on foot. He 
was afterwards one of the clerks of the signet to Charles I. 
and as such attended his majesty to the North in 1640. 
He was also made Windsor herald for bis great skill in he* 
raldry, in which office he died, at the heralds' college, 
Dec. 23, 1650, and was buried at St. Bennetts, Paul'sf 
Wharf, leaving the character of an honest, amiable, and 
accomplished man. Lloyd tells us that he left manuseripttf 
to several of his friends to be published, but his intention 
in that point has not been executed. His letters, giving 
an account of the expedition against the Scotch in 1639, 
are among Dr. Birch's " Historical Letters," 3 vols. MS- 
in the British Museum, Ayscough's catalogue. As an illu- 
minator, the evidence of his abilities is a curious patent 
discovered some years ago. The late earl of Stirling re- 
ceived from a relation an old box of neglected writings, 
among which he found the original commission of Chs^rles L 

* Ath* Ox. Tol. I.— Googh'sTopog.— StTUtt's Dict.-^Walpolc's Engravers. 



222 NO R G A T E. 

appomtiag his lordsfaip's' predecessor, Alextinder earl al? 
Stirling, the celebrated poet, commander in chief bf Nova 
Scotia, with the cpnfirmation of the grant of that province, 
made by James F. In the initial letter .are the portraits of 
the king sitting on the throne, delivering the patent tp the 
earl, and round the. border representations in miniature of, 
the customs, huntings, iishtngs, and productions, of tbe« 
country, all in the highest preservation, aod so admirably 
executed, that it was believed of the pencil <of:Vaiidy.ek*. 
But Mr. Walpole ascribes it to Norgat6, who was allowed, 
the best illuminator of that age.'': * 

NORIS (Henry), one pf the most celebrated scholars 
of the seventeenth century, was born at Verona, AUg. 29, 
1631. ,His baptismal name was Jerom, which hexhanged> 
to Henry, when he. entered tbe order of th^ Augustines. 
His family is said to have .been originally of, England^ 
whence a branch passed into Ireland,, and even to Cyprus/ 
When this island was taken by tbe Turks, a James/^oris^- 
who. had defended it as general of .artillejy,. settled after-* 
wards at Verona, and it is from this persqa that the.sjubject 
of the present article descended. ' His fslj^^er-s. name wa» 
Alexander, and, according, to Nicerpn, published several 
works, and among them a History of Germany, i jMaffei^ 
however, attributes this work only to him, which is not a 
history of Germany, but of the. German war from 1618 to 
the peace, of Xubec, translated from the Italian by Alex- 
ander ;Noris. His son discovered, from ' his infancy, aa 
excellent understanding, great vivacity, and a quic^ ap-*. 
prehension. His father, .having. instructed him^ in the ru-< 
diment;s of grammar, procured an. able professor of Verona 
to be his preceptor. At fifteen, he. Wjas admitted/ a pen- 
sioner in the Jesuits^ college at Rimini,; where he studied 
philosophy ; after which, he applied himself to the writings 
of the fathers of the church, particularly those of St. Au- 
gustine ; and, taking. the habit in the convent of Augustine 
monks of Rimini, he so distinguished himself amopg that, 
fraternity, . that, as soon as he was out of his noviciate, tbe. 
general of the order sent for him.tq.Ronie,- in order to 
give him an oppor:tunity of improving him^lf in;tbe^xDore 
solid branches of learning. , Here he indulged his favpurite 
propensity for study to the utmost, and spent whole days^ 

1 Fuller's Worthies.— Lloyd's Memairs.— Master's Hisf . of C. C. C. C. p. HS/ 
-— Walpole's Anecdotes pf Paintioj^, 



N R I S. 223 

knd even nights, in the library -of^ his order! at Rpme. His 
daily couirse of reading- was fourteen hours,- arxd this prac- 
tice he continue^ till he becanie a cardinal. . It. is easy to 
6onceive that a student of su<!h diligenee, and whose me- 
mory and comprehension were equally great, must have' 
accumulated a vast stock of knowledge. But for some 
time his reading was interrupted by. the duties of a. regent 
master being imposed on him, according to the usu9;l prac' 
tice; and we find that- for some time^he Yaught at PesarD^- 
and teifterwdrds at Perugia, where he took his- degree of 
doctor of divinity. Proceeding then to Padua, .he applied 
himself to finish his " History of Pelagianism," which lie 
had begun at Rome, when he was no more than twenty-*. 
9iK': and, having now completed his design, it was printed 
* atFlorbhee in 1673. The great duke of Tuscany iavited. 
him, .the following year, to that city, made him his cbap«. 
kiin, and professor of ecclesiastical history, iri the ui:\iversity 
of Pisa, which the duke had founded with that view, ^ 

His ^* History of Pelagianism," however, although ap- 
proved by many learned. men, and in fact, the origin of his 
feture advancement, created him many enemies. In it he 
bad defended the condemnation pronounced, in the eighth 
general council, against Origen and Mopsuesta, the first 
authors of the Pelaijian errors: he also added "An Ac- 
countof the Schism of Aquileia, aiid a Vindication of the. 
Books written by St. Augustine against the Pelagians and: 
l^mi -^Pelagians.'* A controversy now arose, which was, 
carried on between him and various, antagonists, with much 
violence on their part, and with much firmness and repu- 
tation on his, and his book was ai* last submitted to the 
sovereign tribnnarof the inquisition; but, although it was 
exaniined with the utmost rigour^* thl^ author was dismissed 
withoQt the least censure. It was reprinted twice after- 
wards, and Noris honoured, by Pope Clement X. with the 
title of Qualificator of the Holy Office. Notwithstanding 
this, the charge was renewed against the " JPelagi^ His- 
tory,'* and it was brought again, befdre the inquisition, La 
1676; and was again acquitted of -any errors that affected 
the church. He now was left for sixteen ! years to the  
qiiiet enjoyment of' his studies, and taught ecclesiastical 
history at Pisa, till he was called to Rome by Innocent XIL 
who made him under-librarian of the Vatican, in ,1692. 
These distinctions reviving the animosity of his opponent^, 
they thi*ew out such insinuations, :as obliged the pope to 



224 N p R I Hk 

appoint some learned divines, who had the' characUf< of 
impartiality) to re*examine father Noris's books, and maku 
their report of them; and their testimony was so much to 
the advantage of the author, that his holiness made hial 
counsellor of the inquisition. Yet neither did this hindet 
father Hardouin, one of his adversaries, and the most for* 
midable on account of his erudition, from attacking bioi 
warmly, under the assumed'title of a ^^ Scrupulous Doctof 
' of the Sorbonne/*^ Noris tried to remove these scruple^ 
in a work which appeared in 1695, under the title of •*' Am 
Historical Dissertation concerning the Trinity that suffered 
in the Flesh;'* in which having justified the monkit of 
Scytbia, who made use of that expression, he vindicateil 
himself also from the imputation of having attacked :the 
pope's infallibility, of having censured Vincentius Liri»eo«t 
sis, and other bishops of Gaul, as favourers of Semi«*'PeIa4 
gianism, and of having himself adopted the errors of tfaci 
bishop of y pres* i 

> His answers to all these accusations were so much to the 
satisfaction of the pope, that at length his holiness honour^sil 
him with the purple in 1695. After this he was in all the 
coogrfsgations, and employed in the most important affairsy 
much to the hindrance of his studies, which be used .deepljf^ 
to regret to his friends. Upon riie death of cardinal Casa-* 
nati, he was made chief librarian of the Vatican, in 1700;^ 
and, twa years afterwards, nominated, among others, to rer: 
Ibrm the calendar: but he died at Rome, Feb; 23, 1704^ 
of a dropsy.. He bad the reputation of one of the most 
learned men in the sixteenth century, which seems jusii.^ 
fied by his many able md profound writings on subjects o£ 
ecclesiastical history and antiquities. Of the latter th)ft 
most celebrated are, 1. ^^ Annus et EpochsB Syro-Mace«t 
donum in vetustis urbium Syriae nummis prssertim Medi*^ 
ceis expoals," Florence, 1691, fol. and 2. '^ Cenotapluar 
Pisana Caii et Lucii Cssarum dissertationibus illustrata^'^ 
Venice, 16S1, fol. The whole of his wbrks are comprized 
in 4 vols. fol. 1729 — ri732. Some authors mention a fifth 
volume, but Fabroni gives the contents of only four. They 
indicate much study of theology, the belles-lettres,, sacrea 
and profane history, antiquities and chronology. His His-^ 
tory oJf Pelagianism, as it. procured him. the most repUta^' 
tion, occasioned also the only uneasiness witli whtohihis 
literary life was disturbed. He had written it with a good 
deal of caution, and confined himself mostly to historioilf 






N O B 1 & MS 

cUteii, mixing ▼ery tittle disofiustioti. The Jesuits, how^ 
ever, took occasion to reproatb him with Jatisenisni, and 
it must be allowed that while he rejected some particular 
notions of Jansenius, be leaned not a little to the doctrine 
of St. Augnsttne.' 

NORRIS (John), a learned English divine and Platonic 
philosopher, was born in 1657, at CoUingborne-Kingston, 
in Wiltshire, of which place his father, Mr. John Norris, 
was then minister. After being educated in grammar, jtc. 
at Winchester school, he was entered of Exeter college in 
Oxford in 1676; but was elected fellow of All Souls in 
1660, soon al^er he bad taken his degree of bachelor of 
arts. . From his first application to philosophy, Plato be- 
came his favourite author; by degrees he grew deeply 
enamoured with beauties in that divine writer, as he 
thought him, and took an early occasion to communicate 
bis ideal happiness to the public, by printing an English 
translation of a rhapsody entitled ** Effigies Amoris/* but 
which he called *<The Picture of Love unveiled/* in- 1662. 
H6 commenced master of arts in 1684, and the same year 
opened a correspondence with that learned mystic Dr. 
Henty More, of ChristV college in Cambridge, and with 
those leariied females, lady Masham, and Mrs. Astell. 

He resided at his college, and had been in holy orders 
five year«i, when he was presented to the rectory of New« 
ton St. Loe, in Somersetshire, 1689 ; upon which occasion 
he married, and resigned his fellowship. In 1691, his 
difttingnished merit procured him the rectory of Bemerton, 
near Sarnm. This living, upwards of 200/: a«.year, came 
very seasonably to his growing family ; and was the more 
flicceptable, for the easiness of the parochial duty, wbicb 
gave him leisure to make an axldition to his revenues, by 
the fruits of bis genius ; the activity oT which produced a 
kirge harvest, that continued increasing till 1710^. But 
he seems to have died a martyr, in some measure, to this 
activity ; for, towards the latter end of his life, he grew 

. * 9«eh it thf> informfitiop •( the Bio- me, jthe dear income of «iy panoaagQ 

mpbia Britaopica. Bjr « letter of his not being much above three-score and 

0««i, howerer, addrmted to Dr. Char- ten pounds a-year, all thing! dis- 

lett of Oxford, we {ean^ a very differ- charge i.>* 8«a tba whole of thif in- 

tmt nocoaot. ** i misbt be glad per- teresting letter in <* Letteri written by 

baps to 5e a little easier in the world, emineoi Persons,*' 1813, 3 vols. Svo. 
which indeed is bot strait and hard with 

' 1 -ral»Nmi, tol. Vl<**Niceftm, vols. Ill and X.— Chauiepte.-«»Lc CIcre'i Bibl. 
CboisiOt vol, lV.«^MalS»> Verona Uliutrata/ 

Vol. XXHL Q 



226 N O R R I S. 



\ 



very infirnif and died 171 i, in his 55th year, at Bemerton*^ 
He was interred in the chancel of that cbun^b, where there 
is a handsome marble monument erected to his niemory, 
with the foltowing inscription : ** H. S. £. Johannes Norris^ 
parochise hujus rector, ubt annos viginti bene latuitcnrae 
pastorali & Uteris vacans, quo in recessu sibi posuit late 
per orbero sparsa ingenii paris ac pietatis monumenta. • 
OWit An. Dom. 1711, statis 54." 

As .to bis character, he had a tincture, of enthusiasm iir 
iiis composition, which led him to imbibe the principles 
of the idealists in philosophy, and the mystics in theology 4 
and the whole turn of his poetry shews that enthusiasnx. 
made him a. poet^ As ati: idealist, he opposed 'Locke, and 
adorned Malebranchei's opinion, of seeing ati things in 
God, with all the advantages of style, and perspicuity of 
expression. A late writer wbo appears to have studied his. 
works with almost the same enthusiasm that inspired ihetn, 
says, that ** in metaphysical acumen, in theological learn^ 
ing, and in purity of diction, Mr. Morris acknowledges no . 
superior. Mr. Locke, the reputed discoverer of fbe true 
theory of the mind, does not rank higher in that peculiar 
branch of science than our penetrating divine ; for if his* 
reply to Locke's Essay on Human Understanding be criti- 
i^lly considered, it will be found to de^tect tnany fimda- 
mental errors in that celebrated treatise* 

*^ The piety of Norris wa^as conspicuous as bis learning, 
and abilities. The extreme, fervour of devotion which ap«:. 
pears throughout his works, may be termed enthusiasm, 
in this age, when moral precepts, elegantly dressed, con- 
stitute clerical compositions. 

" The * Theory of the Ideal World* may be considered. ' 
as tl^e capital work of Norris. The depth of thought, and ' 
the acuteness of logic, which he displays in this treatise on " 
a very abstruse subject, justly entitle him to clainl a high ' 
rank among metaphysicians. His philosophical pieces^ ' 
with a peculiar vigour of mind, display a closeness of style^ - 
and a nice but just discrimination of causes and effects ; ' 
and though in a treatise professedly on the subject, he ' 
decries the value of scholastic learning, yet he every where ' 
proves his familiarity whh every branph of it ; and perhaps . 
he has made a more frequent and better use of logic, thart ~ 
iny writer in the English language. 

" As the pious and sincere Christian/ as the fervent and 
zealous divine, Norris is above praise. The pure morality ; 



K ft R I S. , 227 

which bri^aihes ihrougb bis discoursei^ the seraphic fire 
wbicb glows in his aspirations, may be too refined, may~ 
be too warm for tbe. cool and rational taste of the present 
day i but tbe ardency of this divine heat is a strong proof 
of the natural sensibility of- his heart, and of the sincerity 
of his religious professions. Nor is the genius of Norris^ 
ad a poet, at all inferior to that of his contemporaries; 
specimens of genuine poetry, whose fire and . sublimity 
are barely excelled by the Paradise Lost, are displayed in 
his Miscellanies.'* . ' 

In much of this panegyric We cordially agree, bdt doubt 
whether the revival of Mr. Norris's works would be bene« 
ficial either to religion or philosophy^ It caniiot, however, 
be denied,, that inen of a similar cast of mind may^ be; 
greatly betiefited by some of his works ; and we know that , 
some of our most eminent divines have formed their theb'* 
lo|^icaI studies upon them. Mr. Norris left a widow, two 
sorid and a daughter^ His eldest son was rector of Little 
Langford, and vicar of the two Chilterns, in' Wiltshire. 
His second son, Thohias, was also a clergyman, and some 
time tiiirtister of Stroud, in Gloucestershire. They have 
both long been dead, as well is their ixiotber, who died at 
the house of Mr. Bowyer, vicar of Martock^ in Somerset- 
shire, who married her daughter. -. " 

Bid works were, 1. **The picture of Love unveiled,'^ 
already pentioned* 2. ^* Hiero(iles upontbe-goldeti verses 
of the Pythagoreans," Oxford, 1682, ^vo. 3.** An idea 
of Happiness, in a letter to a friend, inquirihg wherein the 
greatest happiness attainable by man in tbis life doth con- 
sist,'* London, 1683, 4to. '4. ^* A Muriiival of Knaves ; 
or Whiggism plainly displayed and burle$qu^ out of coun*- 
teiiance,'* London, 1683, 4to. 5. " Tractatus adversui 
Jleprobatiouis absolute Decretum, nov& methodo & sue- 
cinctissimo cotnpendio adornatus, & in duos libros di- 
gestus,*' London, 168a, 8vo. What follows in thiis treatise 
after the thifd chapter of the second book, is a declama- 
tion spoken in the public schools, commending the Roman 
sepate for banishing all mathematicians out of their domi« 
nions. 6. " Poems and discourses occasionally written,** 
Lond. 1684, bvo. 7. An English translation of the four 
last books of " The ittsti'tution and Iif6 of Cyrus," from 
Xenophon^ Lotid. 168.5, 8 vo. The four first books were 
trs^n&iated by Mr. Franeis Digby, of Queen's college, 
8. "<^ A collection of lW*cellarties, cdmisting of Poems, 

Q 2 



2*1 N Q K»I $. 

E9«iy«» PiiQpuiMBy mid Letters occasioiiially written,** Qv- 
fqr^i 16379 9!irQ. Tbe fifth edition^ carefully revised*, cor- 
recte4i ^v4 ip9proye4 by ^h^ author, was |>rinted at Lpn- 
dpp, 1710, in SvQ, This has been the most popular of all 
h^ fforliUf apd affords the picture of a truly aciiiable mind. 
9. ^< The tlieory and regulation of Love, a moral essi^y/* 
QxfQrd^ 1688, ftvo. 10. <^ ReasoD and R^iigtpo ; or the 
gjrouiKJls and me^SMres of De)^tioo considered from the na- 
ture of God an/i the nature of man, in several contempla* 
tions. With exercises of devotion applied to every con- 
templatjioif,** Lond. 1689, 9vo. 11. ** Reflections upon 
the copduct of human life with reference to the study of 
learning and j^nowli^dge ; in a letter to the excellent l^dyy 
the lady Masbam,*' Lond. 1690, 8vo, To -which is sub* 
joined a ** Visitation sermon pn John xi. 15. preached at 
the Abbey Church at Batb» July the 30th, 1689. The 
^ Reflections*' were reprinted with large additions, in 1.6$t, 
8.yo. 12. 'VCbristian blessedness ; or/ discourses upon tbe 
Beatitudes of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ,*' Lond. 
1690y 8vQ ; to wbicb be subjoined, <' Cursory reflections 
upon a l)ook called ^ An Essay concerning Human Under- 
standii^g.'" 13. ^< The charge of Schism continued; 
being a justification Qf the author of ^ Chnstiao Blessed- 
ness,' for his charging the Separatists witk Schism, noi- 
widi#tap4^pg tbe toleration. In a letter to. a ci|y fiiend,'' 
Lond. 1691, 12|9Q, 14* ^* Practical discourses upon se- 
veral divine subjects, Tola.lIf atni III.** Tbe third voiuaie 
was printed in 1693, 8vo. 1^. ^< Two treatises concerning 
the divine ligblL The first being an answer to a letter of 
a learned Q^i^ker (Mr. Vickris), which he is pleased to call 
A just repi:ebeiisi.on to John Norris for bis unjust reflections 
on tb^ Quakers in his book entitied Reflections upon tbe 
'conduct b{ bumap life, &c. The second being a discourae 
c^onceming the gross^ess of the Quakers^ notion of the 
light wijtbin, with their confusion and inconsistency in ex- 
plaining it,'* Lond. 1692, 3vo. 16. *< Spiritual counsel; 
or the father's advice to his children/' Lond. 1694, avo; 
which was at first composed, as he observes in the Adver- 
tisement before it, for tbe use of bis own children. 17. 
^* Letters concerning the Love of God^ between tbe author 
pf ti)e * Proposal to tbe Ladies,' and Mr. John .Norria ; 
wher/etn bt9 1^^^ disconrse, shewing that it ought to be 
intire and exclusive of all other loves, is further cleared 
and justified," Lond« 4^9i, 8«o, The second edition. 



N O R R I S. 229 

edlreeted by the authors, with sottie few things added, wal 

{Printed at London, 1705, Svo. The lady, whose li^tteri 

are published in this collection, was Mrs. A sr el). 18. 

" Practical Discourses; vbl. IV/' Lond. 1698, 8vo. To 

which be saljoined ** An Adtrioniljon concerning two late 

b6ok$, callfed * A Discourse df the Love of God,*'* ftc. 

Id. ** An Essay towards the Theory of the Ideal or Ihtel- 

tigible World ; considering it absolutely in itself. Part L*' 

Lond. 1701, 8vo. ** The Second Part, hieing the rela- 

i\v6 part of it ; wherein the intelligible World is considiered 

;w]th relation to human undei'stiandinn; ; whereof sometic*- 

count is here attempted And proposed/' was printed at 

I^tldon, 1704, 8vo. 2(). ^* A Philosophical Discourse 

^dbncerning the Natural Immortality of the Soul, wherein 

the great question of th^ Sotirs Imtnorrality is endeavoured 

^to be rightly stated and cleared,*' Lond. l70M, 8vo. Mr. 

Oodwdl returned an Answer to this piece, in the Appen* 

dix to his book entitled <* The natural Mortality of th^ 

UuHiati S6iil8 clearly demonstrated from the Holy Scnp«> 

tnfes, and thii concurretit Testimonies of the Primitine 

Writer*/* Lond. 170s, 8v6. 21. "A Treatise coticerning 

Christian Prudence ; or the Principles of Practical Wisdom 

fitted to the use of Human Life, designed for the better 

itegoUtiOn of it,^' Lond. 1710, 8to. 22. <<A Practical 

Treatise concerning Huilniiity ; designed for the Fufther- 

Attiiei aind ImprovefiieHt of that great Christian Virtue, both 

ill the Minds ^nd Lives of Men,'* Lond. 8vo* Therl^ are 

^6<ne of hi$ letters to Mrs. Thonuks, in ** Pyladeu and C6«^ 

riiiM,** vbl n. p. 1 d9. * * 

NORTH {DuDLltY, THikb LoEO), who appearn t^ W 
(he fim of thi^ fkmily entitled to notiee in a work of thU 
descriptioti, was bbrn itt 1581, ktid subceeded bis grtAd*' 
fetber Roger, ^eeotid lerd North, iti 16(X>. Frdtn t6e 
lrrog>apfaer of the family, we Iea>n thi^t " be waii a j^fsM 
fkfH of spirit and diihie, yet tfttr be bad eoesiitiied the 
^p^eatest paift of bis estate in the gallantries of king JaiMif*ft 
(^Otirt, iof rather hrs^em, pri^o^ Mehty's, retii^, andlitM 
liidre t)<6tioorably ih the eountry, upon what wa^ left, llllitt 
fe^r he Iliad done before.** He is said, however, in M&i 
iSftt inVthoVity, to hstve carried itilo the toentry with hiil^ 
:<bfe dnegA'd^ liti did eOurtSer, and waa e^pricious, vtolefii, 
vindictive, tyrannical, and unprincipled. In 1645 he 

. ^ Biof . Brit. — Letter iu Ettiop. Mag. for May, 1197. 



230 NORTH. 

pears to have acted with the parliament^ and w^ npoiV' 
nated by them to the admioiairation of the admiralty, i^i 
conjunction with the great ^arls of Nprthumb^rlandy Essex^ 
Warwick, and others. He died. Jan. 16, 1666, being then 
eighty^five years of age, and was buried at Kertliqg, or 
Curtlage. He lived to see his grandchildren almost ^U 
growinup, and Francis, the second of them^ beginning to 
rise at the bar. He was the author of a.miscellany in prose 
and verse, entitled ** A Forest of Varieties, first part," 
4645 ; a.second part had the title of ^^ £3(oneratioa&i'* and 
a third part included ^^ Privadoes, or £xtravagants«^' 
The whole were reprinted in 1659. The prose, saya li^ 
Orfordy'Which is affected and obscure, with inany qupta- 
tions and allusions to Scripture and the classics, con^sts 
of essays, letters, character^ in the manner of sir Thomas 
Overbury, and devout meditations on his misfortunes^ 
The verse, though not very poetic, is more natural. Sir 
E. Brydges, in his ^^ Memoirs of the Ekiglish Peerage?, 
has given considerable extracts from this publication, ^* as 
4t is by nomeans cpnunoii, and as it lays open m.any traits 
of the noble author^s^life and character, with much energy, 
feeling, ability, and eloquence."' He appears likevrlse 
from. these essays and letters to have been perfectly, cob» 
'acious of the> errors of his early life, although he might not 
bi( able to conquer his temper inold age.' 

NQRTi^ (Dudley FOURTH Lord), son of the preceding, 
bad a learned education in the| university of Cambridge* 
He bad been n^ade knight of the Bath aS' early as 16^6, 
at the creation of Charles prince of Wales, and. had stood 
as the eldest son of a peer, , at the state in the house of 
lords, at sixty-thre^, and was an eminent instance of filial 
duty to his father, before whom he wo,uld . not . put . on his 
liatj^ -or sit down, unless enjoined to do it. He was bc^^ 
in the best manner; for besides the court, and choicest 
company at home, he was sent to travel, and then into the 
acoiy, and served as a captain under sir Francis t^Vere. 
Beisatin.many parliaments, until secluded by, thajt ^vhich 
oondemoed the king. After thiahe lived 'priva^ly.in £]|e 
oountry,.at Tostock, in Suffolk; and towards the latter 
end of' his lif^i en^ertained^himself with ju^tipe-bu^ii^^s, 
bppkff, and, (asa very numero^s issue requiredj ceccmoioy. 

'< Coliins's Peerage; by sir E. Brydges.—- PaWsi edition of tbe Royal aad 
Noble Amhors. 



NORTH. 2Sl 

tte piiblish(ed a Iittl« tract, on (bat subject^ entitled ^' Ob- 
servations and advices CEcdnomicaV Lond. 1669, r2mo. 
Afterwards he published another tract, entitled ^* Passages* 
violating to the Long Parliament,'* with an apologetic, or 
I'atlier recantation preface ; for he liad at first been active 
against the King, fle wrote also the '^ History of the 
Life of Edward Lord North, the fir&t Baron," Lord Or- 
Ibrd says, "sensibly, and in a very good style,*' though 
this Critic seems to think he fails in impressing (be reader 
with much respect for his ancestor. After his death ap- 
peared a volume of essays, entitled ^' Light in the way to 
Paradise; with other occasionals," Lpnd. 1682, Svo. These 
essays shew that he was steadfast in his religion, that of the 
established church, and led an exemplary life. He out- 
Sved his father ten years, and died June 24, 1677. By his 
wife Anne, daughter and co-heir to sir Charles Montagu, 
be had a numerous family, of which six sons and four 
daughters lived t6 maturity. Three of his sons form the 
siibject of the ensuirig articles,' 

• NORTH (Francks), lord Guilford, lord keeper of the 
great seal in the reigns of Charles H. and James IL was the 
second son of the preceding, and was born about 1640. 
He had his grammar learning, in which he was a great pro- 
iifeient, at Bury-school, whenee he w'as admitted a fellow- 
commoner of St. John's college, in Cambridge, io l&SS^ 
His conversation is said to have been remarkably i^eeable 
and facetious, while his diligeut advancement in bis atudiesf 
afforded him more solid claims on the esteem of the so-^ 
ciety; But, as he was originally designed for the li^w^ 
af^er two or three years spent at the university, be was re- 
moved to the Middle Temple. Here he applied with great 
diligence to the main object, yet continued to improve 
himself in history, classics, and languages. He acquired 
French, Italian, Spanish, and Dutch, and became not 
only a good lawyer, but was esteemed very accomplished 
in mathematics, philosophy, and itousic. He used to say,' 
that, if he had not diverted his attention by these studies, 
and by the practice of music particularly, be should never 
have be^n a lawyer. He used to spend much of his early 
vacacionis with bts grandfather, who lovM to hear him tillt 
(tf pbilosopby, and the news of London. The biographer 

; * CoHint's Teengt, by sir E.- Brydf^es.— • Park's editioa of the ]toy»l apilf 
Nobk Aatbors. ^ . . 



S3« N O R> T H. 

of the Norths infernis us that be made \&ak <^ pky at back- 
gamqion^ an^ fiddle, whenever he thought fit ; aind the 
course of life altc^ether was not displeasing to a youtfg 
person, for here vras fishing, billiards^ buntings visiting, 
and ali the country aoiusements." 

• Oq commencing business at the bar, the friendship and 
instructions pf sir J efFery Palmer, attorney-general, and 
4lbe Hydes, greatly contributed to bis proficiency, and ad^^ 
vanced his practice. By means of the first named gentle* 
man be had a. favourable opportunity- of shew iiig bis 
abilities. The story of tbe five members in king Gbarles* 
the First^s time, is well known, who, beipg prosecoted- 
for the riot committed in the house of commons, in holding' 
the speaker down in his chair, were convicted. . After the 
restoration, the commons thought that the records of ifaic 
conviction might be prejudicial to the privilege of thai 
house, and ordered a writ of error to be brought ; and' 
Mr. Attorney was to find counsel to argue for tbe king) 
against the lord Hollis, who was one of tbe five, and first 
named in the record. Mr. Attorney being an assistant in 
tbe house of lords^ could not argue, nor could he prevail 
upon< any of the se^eants, or other practisers to do it ; for 
they said it was against tbe commons of England, and tbey 
durst not undertake it At last he appointed Mr. North, 
who prepared his argument^ which was delivered at the 
bar of the house of lords ; and though the cotnmons car*' 
ried the cause, yet his argument was approved, and par-> 
ticular notice was taken of his cpmdy youth, and of bis 
/modest but forcible reasoning. The duke of Yorl( was 
pleased to inquire who that young gentleman was, who bad 
argued so well ; and prevailed with the king to eocQurjage 
bim.by making him ose of his counsel. 

He usually attended the Norfolk circuit, and was soon 
employed as counsel in every important cause* When th^ 
great level of tbe fens was to be divided, be was app9inted^ 
chairman in the commission^ and directed theeMcution 
in such a manner. 9^ greatly to augtiieiil bia fame* Dn 
l^ne, then bishop, likewiseconaiitoted htm judge of the 
roy^l franishise of .Ely; a creditable employment, wbieb 
increased bis business in the country. He yras also ap^ 
pointed to assiat tbe earl of Oxford^ lord chief justice in. 
eyre, in a formal iter, or justice-seat of the forests, which 
was of great pecuniary advantage to him, and gave hki 
an idea of the ancient law in the immediale practice of it. 



NtO RT H. dSS 



Be WAS proBioted to ba the .king^» solictUNrTB^Mmlj'in 
room o£ sir Edward Turner^ made lord, chief iMifon^ Md 
mm knighted the same day, May 33, 1671. He now 
diDpt the circuit, and was chosen to represent the borough 
of Lynn, in ttie bouse of commons. In 1673 he wAs ap^ 
pointed attorney-general, on the promotion of sir Heneag<^ 
Finch to tbe great seal. In former times, when be ap« 
plied close to bis studies, and spent his days in bis chitiM 
ber, be was subject to the spleen, and apprehensive of 
many imaginary diseases ; and by way of prevention, wonS 
warm cloathing, and leather skulUoaps, and inclined much 
lo. quackery; but as business flowed in, his compIaiDts 
vaoiabed, and bis skull* caps were destined to lie id a clrawer^ 
and receive bis money. Thoagh his profits were now very 
great, while tbe king approved bis judgment and fidelity; 
and t^e chiefs of tbe law were mostly bis friends, yet be 
soon grew weary of bis post, and wished for another, though 
less profitable, in a calmer region. The court was sunk 
in pleasure and debauchery ; averse to, and ignorant i>f 
all business^ Tbe great men were many of them corrupt, 
fslsoy and treacherous; and were continually tormenting 
him with improper projects and unreasonable importunities. 
. Among all the preferments of tbe law, his thoughts 
were most fixed upon that of lord chief justice of the com^^ 
moB pleas; tbe business there being wholly matterof poi^ 
law, and having little to do in crimiinal causes, or court 
intrigues : and, on thedeath of lord chief justice Vaogfaan 
in 1674 be succeeded to bis wishes. While he presided in 
tins 'Court, be was very attentive to regulate wbAt was amis* 
in the law, arising either firom the nature of things cbaiig-^ 
ing, or from the corruption of agents: when any abuse or 
necessity of regulation appeared, be noted it down, and 
afterwards digested bis thought, and brought it into th6 
form of a tract, • from which he might prepare acts of par- 
liaoient, as be bad encouragement and opportunity. He 
had a great hand in ^* The Statute of Frauds and Peiju^ 
ries,** of which tbe lord Nottingham said, that every line 
was worth a subsidy. In 1 679, the king* being under great 
difficulties from tbe parliament, in order to bring tbeUi to 
better temper, and that it. might not be said be wanted 
good counsellors, made a reform of his privy-council, dis«^ 
suhred.tbe old, and constituted a new one^ which took iu 
the lord Shaftsbory as president, and the heads of tbe op- 
pesitkm hi butb houses f but that he mi|;htnol be entirely 



au N o E T h; 

ikt tbeir mercy, be joined some of bis friends, in wbese 
fidelity ajoul judgment he had an entire cKynfidenee^r among 
whom lord chief justice North had the honour to be ooei 
Not long after this, he was taken into the cabinet, that be 
kpigbt be assistant, not only in the formal proceedings of 
the privy-council, but also in the more private coosoita*' 
tions of his majesty^s government. He was also often 
obliged to fill the office of speaker, antl preside in die 
House of Xqrds, in the room of the chaneellor Nottiag- 
bam, who, towards the latter end of his time, was mu^ 
afflicted with the gout and other infirmities. From bis in^ 
terest with the king he was considered as probable success 
spr to Nottingham, and accordingly, on his death, in 1683, 
the great seal was committed to his custody, on which oc- 
casion be was created a peer, by the title of lord GioiU 
ford, baron of Guilford, in the county of Surrey, by pabent 
bearing date Sept. 27th, 1683. 

The. death of king Charles involving him in much busi- 
.ness, >nd bis enemies Sunderland and Jefferies acquiring 
considerable influenqe in the new court, be took a reso- 
lution to quit the seal, and went to lord Rochester to ]n<o 
tercede with < bis majesty -to accepit it. But that noble 
lord, who considered his opposition to the popish iaclina- 
tiqns of the court as of great importance, diverted him 
from bis purpose; but, as. bis health was visibly impaired, 
lord Rochester obtained of the king,. that lord Guilford 
might retire with the seal ipto the country, with the pro- 
per. officers attending, Jn hopes that, by. proper regimen 
and fresh air, be itiight recover bis health against the wio- 
. ter. He died, however, Sept. 5, 1685, at his seat at 
Wfoxton, near Banbury. Burnet and Kennett have given 
.po very favourable character of him; and the author of 
/^ The- Lives of the Lords Ghancellors" accuses him of 
yielding too much to court "^measures.- If we may credit 
bis biographer^ however, he appears to have exerted coor 
siiderable independence of mind, and to have disapproved 
of many of the measures both of Charles IL and James; 
but such were his, notions of loyalty, as to prevent him 
from an avowed opposition, e^en when be felt, and, to' £^ 
friends expressed, most disgust. While his private charac- 
ter whs strictly virtuous and unexceptionable, he did not, ac- 
cording, to his brother's account, want zeal to promote, the 
good of. his couutry, which, he thought would most effect 
, tually be done, ,by supporMHg the^ Church and Ciown of 
England in all doe and legal prerogatives ; and from ibese 



N R T H. 284 

praiciples he never swerved. He wrote, 1. "AaAlpha- 
jbetical Index of Verbs Neater,'* printed with Lilly's Gram- 
mar : ^compiled while he was at Bury school. 2. A paper 
^ o\\ the Gravitation of Fluids considered in the Bladders 
of ^i^fis/* printed in Lowthorp's Abridgment of the Phi- 
lasofihical Transactions, vol. II. p. 845. It appears that 
im Jordship's hint was approved, and pursued, by Mr. 
9oyle and Mr. Ray, whose papers on that subject are en* 
teted in the same collection. 3. *^ An Answer to a paper 
jof Sir Samuel Moreland oh his Static Barometer.^' This 
was never published; but we may observe, to his honour, 
ttHit.it )vas through his means that barometers were first 
publicly sold in shops, which before were very rare. 4. 
.*f A Philosophical Essay on Music, 1677." Dr. Burney 
aays, that. though some of the philosophy of this essay has 
b^n .since found to be false, and the rest has been mope 
clearly illustrated and explained, yet, considering the 
.small progress which had been made in so obscure and 
jiubtil a subject as the propagation of sound, when this 
book was written, the experiments and conjectures must 
be allowed to have considerable merit. The Scheme, or 
:Table of Pulses, at ,the beginning, shewing the coinci- 
dence of vibrations in. musical concords, is new, ,and con- 
veys a. clear idea to the eye, of what the ratio of sounds, 
i^ nun^bersy only .communicates to the intellect. Theiie 
-coincidences, ,\upon which ,the degrees of perfection in 
poiicords depend, being too rapid. for the sense of hearing 
to enable us to count, are here delineated in such a manner 
aa explains the doctrine of vibrations even to a person that 
js deaf* This pamphlet, containing .only 35 pages, was 
published without the name of the author ; but afterwards 
.acknowledged to have been the work of lord keeper 
North.' His delineation of the harmonical vibration of 
vtrings/seems to.faave been adopted ^yEuler, in bis ^'Ten- 
tamen novsB Theoris musicse." The keeper was. said, in 
jOur last edition, to have composed several concertos in two 
.and'three parts ; but no composition, in fewer than four 
or^five parts, is ever honoured with. the. title of concerto; 
joor was this title given to instrumental inusic during the 
. life, of lord keeper North. Besides the. above, we have from 
5bis*pf!PSQme political essays and narratives, published in 
Mirbole or/part, in his Life by Roger North, and in. his >^ £x- 
MoBDy^ lord SiQmqiers': tracts, . &c« ' 

 ' ^Vfilfeby Itoger Npnh.— rCotlini's Peerage, by 8ir.»E#'Brydge8.—*Wa!|M}l«^ 
', JRroyftl fiDd NoMe Authors by Park; 



JS6 NORTH. 

NORTH (JOHV), foorth son of Dadiey lord North. aUd 
brother to the preceding lord GoUford, was born in JLon^ 
don, Sept. 4, 1645. In his joath he was of a deiicatto 
constitution^ and serious tdrii of mind, circumstances which 
are said to have determined bis parents in the choice of 
the church as a profession. He received the first prin- 
ciples of education at Bury school, and afterwards, while at 
home, his father initiated him in logic and metaphysics^ 
In 1661 he was admitted a fellow-commoner of Jesus col«* 
lege, Cambridge, but on the barony descending to his 
father, he appeared in the academic garb of a nobleman, 
akhoogh without varying from bis plan of Study, or the 
punctual obedience he gave to every part of college dts- 
cif^ine. He is laid to have been particularly attentive ib 
the public exercises and lectures, but was one of the firA, 
who conceived that the latter mode of instruction wasi less 
useful since students had more easy access to books. The 
collection of these was one of his earliest passions, and we 
learn from his brother that he had the usual predilections 
of a collector for th^ best editions, fine printing, and elegat^ 
bindings, and bought many editions of the same authof, 
and many copies of the same editioii, and in this way soon 
became master of a very valuable library, particularly rich in 
GrediL authors, that and the Hebrew being his favourite 
studies while at college. After taking his degree of fi. &. 
he was admitted fellow of Jesus, Sept. 28, 1666, by the 
king's mandate. He afterwards took his master's degree, 
and was incorporated in the same at Oxford, June 15, 1609. 
In 1671 he was admitted to holy orders, and preached hk 
first, or one of his first sermons, before Charles II. at Nevn- 
market, which was published the same year. About tb^ 
aame time he assisted Dr. Gale with the ** PythagoricA 
firagmenta,'' published in that learned author^s ** Opus- 
€ula," who handsomely acknowledges the favour in hik 
preface. 

In November 1672 he was elected Greek professor iSt 
Cambridge. The first church preferment be had WKs tte 
sine^^cure of Llandinon in Wales, given him by avchbishef^ 
Sheldon ; on this he quitted his fellowship, Und procuyefd 
liireself to be admitted of Trinity college, for the sake tX 
being nftdre nearly connected with the master, Dr. Isam: 
Barrow, for whom he had the greatest esteem* Abbot tbib 
lime he was appointed clerk of the cloiet to C^arhfi 11. 
who also bestowed oo him a fM'ebend iit'Westmitisftriii 



NORTH. «l» 

Jm. 16.73^ md on bis majecrya visit to Cambridga lie was 
creaud D. U. opt of respect loi tbe duke of Lauderdal#| 
whose chaplain be then was, , and whose character his 
brother has very weakly endeavoured to defend. Among 
bi% official duties, it is recorded that in 1676, Dr. North 
baptised Isabella, second daughter of James duke of York 
and Mary D'Este. ' . 

On the death of Dr. Barrow in May 1677, be was ap^ 
pointed in his roofo, master of Trinity college, and fancied 
he bad now attained a place of honour, ease, and usefnK 
n/ess ; but bis solicitode for maintaining good order and 
strict regularity in the society, and the opposition he met 
with from the senior fellows, soon convinced him, of his 
mistake. His conscientious integrity in college eiectiops 
e2|M)8ed him to many affronts and disagrieeable importu* 
nitie^. But by pre-elections he £Dund means to obviate 
and break the custom of court-mandates ; which he sus** 
pected some of his fellows were instrumerital in obtaining, 
and which were very common at his first coming, to the 
great prejudice of real merit. While he continued master 
of the college he finished the fine library begun by his 

Eedecessor. As his constitution was naturally weak, his 
lalth was soon impaired by too close and eager applica- 
tion to his studies, without proper remissiong and due ex- 
ercise. . He had a stroke of an apoplexy ; and a dumb palsy 
following, deprived him in a great measure of the use of his 
understanding; iu which deplorable condition he lived 
Wween four and five years. His miseries being increased 
by epileptic fits, one of them put an end to his life in April 
L6S3. He was buried in the auti-chapel of Trinity college, 
with no other, memorial than a small stone op which the 
initials J. N. are inscribed. 

Dr. North appears to have been a man of great probity 
and learning, but, upon the whole, to have been better 
qualified for private than public life. Although his conver* 
aation was flu^ot, and he possessed much of the wit that is 
so observable in his descendants, be had an uncommon 
timidity of temper; and there i&much reason to think that the 
iingoverdable state in which he found Trinity college, and 
the viexatioiis insolence of some of the fellows, had a ten«» 
dency to produce that imbecility which rend^ed his lajit 
years useless. His only publication, except the sermon 
above-mentioned, was an edition of some piejpes of Plato, 
Ayhoi»e philosophy be preferred to that of Artaiotle, as more 



«a N O R T H- 

coDSonint to i>Jbiristian ihoraKty. These wereT pnM€d nf 
Cambridge in 1673, 8vo, under the title " PlAtenis der 
rebus divinis Dialogi selecti, Gr. et Lat. Socratis Apologia^ 
Crito^ Phsedo, e libb. legum decimus, Alcibiades se- 
cundus." ' I ' 

NORTH (Roger), brother of the preceding, and sixtK 
son of Dudley lord North, was likewise brought up to the 
lawy and w^s attorney-general to James II. And steward of 
the courts to archbishop Sheldon ^. He published an '* Ex- ' 
amen into the credit and veracity of a pretended complete 
History," viz. Dr. White Kennett's History of England, 
and also the lives of his three brothers, the lord keeper ' 
Guilford, sir Dudley North, and the rev. Dr. John North, 
In these pieces little ability is displayed, but there is much ' 
curious and truly valuable information; and which' would 
have been yet more valuable had not the author's pre- 
judices led him to defend some of the worst measures and 
worst men of Charles II.'s reign. He was also, says Dr.- 
Burney, a dilettante musician of considerable taste and 
knowledge in the art, and watched and recorded its prb- 
gress during the latter end of the seventeenth, and begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century, with judgment and discri- 
mination ; leaving behind him at his decease a manuscript^ 
entitled ** Memoirs of Music,'* which Dr. Burney found of 
great use in the history of English secular miisic during^ 
the period to which his meitoirs are confined; He lived 
chiefly at Rougham, in Norfolk, where his life was ex- 
tended to the age of eighty-three. lie died in. 1733. He- 
bad an organ, built by Smith> for a gallery of 60 feet long, 
which he erected on pui;pose for its* reception. There was 
not a metal pipe in this instrument, in 1752 ; yet its tone 
was as brilliant, and infinitely more sweet, than if the pipeil 
had been all of metal. ^ 

NORTH (Frederic, second Earl of Guilford), more- 
familiarly known as Lord North, was the eldest son of 
Francis, first earl of Guilford, and was born April 13, 1732. 
He commenced his education at Eton school, and com- 
pleted it at Trinity college, Oxford^ of which his father 
had been a member,, and which the family haVe generally 
preferred, from their relationship to the foAirider,.sir Tho- 

* See part of a letter from him ou his services under Sheldon, in Gotch'*. 
•* Collect anea,'' toI, I. xxxvr. 

*» Nortb»s Lives 6f the Nor' hs.—Biog. Brit. 
' * CoUios'8 Pettrage.-^Rfif 8*8 Cyctopaedia, by Dr. BarDey» 



\ 



N O Bf T'B. a^d 1 



mas Pope. At school and coHege, where he toiok both bisi 
degrees in arts (that of M. A. in March 1750) he obtained 
considerable reputation for his proficiency in classical ii«^' 
terature ; and was not less respected for the vivacity of his 
conversation, and bis amiable temper, qualities which he* 
displayed during life, and for which his famijy is stilt dis* 
tinguisbed. He afterwards made wba£ used to be called' 
the grand tour, and applied with much assiduity to the 
acquisition of diplomatic knowledge. He sdso stbdied'with 
great success the Germanic constitution, under the* cele<^' . 
brated Mascow, one of the professors of Leips^c, whose 
lectures on the droit publiqtie were at that time much fre- 
quented by young Ejiglishmen of fortune and*political am* 
bition ; and this mode of education being much a favoi^rite 
with George II. courtiers .thought it a compliment to his 
majesty to adopt his sentiments in this branch of their sons* 
accomplishments. Celebrated, however, as professor Mas- 
cow once was, when we came to his name we were not able 
to discover any biographical memoir of him, or any in- 
formation, unless that he outlived his faculties for some 
years, and died about 1760. 

On lord North's return home, he commenced his par- 
liamentary career in 1754, as representative for the family 
borough of Banbury, in Oxfordshire. On June 2, 1759, 
dttiring the administration of Mr. Pitt, afterwards lord 
Ghatbam,^ be was appointed one of the commissioners of 
the treasury, and continued in that ofBce until 1769^, iW 
which last year Mr. George Grenville succeeded the earl of 
Bute, as first lord. In the same year lord North began to 
' contribute his more active services, as a statesman, by 
taking the management of the measures adopted in conse^ 
quence of the publication of Mr. Wilkes's ** North Briton," 
and other parts of that gentleman's political conduct, to 
his final expulsion from the House of Commons.. It must 
be confessed that these measures afford but an inauspicious 
commencement of his lordship's political career, for witbr 
out answering their purpose, or suppressing the spirit of 
faction, they served only to give that fmportance to Wilkes 
which he then could not otherwise have attained. In the 
same year lord North was a supporter oi the right of tax- 
ing American commodities, and of the memorable stamp act. 
, In. 1765, on the dissolution of Mr. Grenville's adminisif 
tration, which was . succeeded . by that of the marquis of 
RockiDgham, lord North retiiied frOm office with his col* 



3*0. NORTH. 

Iti^iMy but persifted tn bis tentiiiiems retptcting tbetav« 
ation of tbe colonieSf and divided uritb the minority agminsi 
thiQ repeal of tbe stamp act. Tbe Rockingham adminiftra- 
tioo scarcely survived this weLUintentioned measpre, and 
when succeeded by that of tbe duke of Grafton, lord 
North wasy in August 1766, appointed joint receiver (with 
George Cooke^ esq.) and paymaster of tbe farces ; and in 
Dec* 1767, was appointed chancellor of the exchequer, 
and a lord of tbe treasury. The talents he had already 
displayed were thought to qualify him iu an eminent de» 
gree for those situations, especially that of chancellor of 
the exchequer ; and his abilities for debate were often dt»^ 
played to advantage. During a period of considerably 
political turbulence, be was advanced Jan 28, 1770, to the 
place of first lord of tbe treasury, which he. held with M>at 
of chancellor of the exchequer during the whole of bis 
eventful administration, whibh finally terminated in March 
17«2. ^ 

To detail bti lordship^s political conduct during these 
twelve years would be to give tbe voluminous history ci 
the contest with America, and the war with France, Spain, 
and Holland, and tbe Northern confederacy, which arose 
from it. With every part of this series of difficulties, 
every step which led to them, and every measure by which 
they were to be opposed, bis lordship was intimately con«^ 
nected, either as^ prime mover, or defender. It has often 
indeed been said, that in some of the worst parts of bis; 
administration, where his measures appeared most erro-^ 
neous, and his obstinacy in defending them most unac^ 
countable, he: acted under a certain ^lecies of secret in<* 
fluence, or controul. Whether this w;as intend^ as » 
compliment to his understanding at the expence of hip 
independence, or was one of those insinuations, very com« 
Qion during his administration, against the first personage 
of the state, has not yet been decided ; and as the beat 
informed seem to be of opinion that the private history of 
his administration, which on all occasions is difi^erent from 
that which appears on the surface, is not yet ripe for dt«« 
closure, we may be excused from entering on the dia» 
cyssion. 

Some facts, however, may be added, which are ad* 
milted on all sides, and on which ftitnre information can 
throw very little new light. It may be added that lord 
North entered upon the war with America upQu a priacipl* 



n O B T H' Hi 

ytcognised not only by the mast decMed mnjerilies 1ft p^r^ 
liMMnt) but by the voice of the natioiL To this last ther^ 
\fM no.exception but in the proceeditigis of a party in tb<i 
metropolis^ whose dissatisfaction ardse from other causes^ 
and who embiteced this favotirable oppofttinity to mi^t 
•omethij^g iiational with the petty concei'tis of John Wilkes^ 
On the other handj no minister had erer to oontehd with 
So inahy difficulties ; a qqestion of right, which many dis* 
|>uted ) the disaffection of the colotii^s^ which was ap^ 
plauded aiid encouraged within his hearing in the house of 
IDOtniBons t an army which^ even if it had appeared at once 
in the field of battle, had to encounter physical difficolli^s ; 
)|tit which was sent out l^ith hesitation^ and in such divisions 
0iat the portion to be assisted was generally defeated before 
that which was to assist had arrived ) a na^y likewise in*' 
capable of coping with the numerous Eui'opean enemies 
that combined agaihit Gr«at Bjritain^ and as yet in the in^ 
fancy di^y of that glory to wfaiish we have seen it alrrive. 
Added to these, iotd Nonh had to contend in pariiament 
ivith ati opposition more ample in talents and personal con*- 
sequence than perhaps eve# appeai'ed at ohe time, and 
\yitit the uninterrupted hostility of the cotporation of Lon^ 
don to all hia measures^ and to the court itself. For i^uch 
k fot'ce. of opposition lord Korth was not iti all respects 
duatifiedt Even fiurke, whose irritating language during 
ine American war seemed beyond all endurance, ^ould 
allowi that ^^ lord North wanted something of the vigilance 
and s^rit of command that the time required." Yet witfa^ 
all these discouragements^ it was only the actual fkilure of 
the measures of subjugation that lessened bis majorities, 
4nd turned the tide of populat sentiment. It was not 
tienvictioe) but disappbintmMt^ which made the %rai- bb- 
noxious; and the ^^ right of laxatit>n," the '* ingtatitude . 
%f the colonies/* ** unconditional subttrission,** and eveil 
t|he epithet ^* rebellion/' applied bo their resistance, nevel: 
eeased tobe urged until repeated failures ptescribed a dif«- 
fsjlerit language, and made thetlsand§ questioh the prin- 
ciple as well as the policy of the war^ Who at its commence- 
tiiebt did not entertalti a doubt ^n the subject. It Was 
how that the ministry of lord North wa^ chai^d With mis^ 
tietkdu^t and incapacity ; and such misconduct and ifica^- 

Scity being but toe obvious in the blundeirs of those who 
d to execute his orders, it was not woudeVful that the 
aupp0rtersof the war should gradually desert the ministerial 
VoLXXIII. R 



2« N R T fit. ^ 

standard, md that ministers should sink under the aceu^ 
mulated height of parliamentary and popular odium. Afteir 
a few faint efforts, therefore, to which he seemed rather 
impelled than inclined, lord North gave in his resignation 
in March 17S2. That he had lately acted imder the in^ 
fluence to which we formerly aUuded, seemed to be about 
this time more generally betieved, for sonoe of the last 
endeavours of the opposition to procure his dismissal, had 
the ** influence of the crown^* fov their avowed object ; and 
as they approached nearer the accomplishment of their 
wishes, their threats to bring this guilty minister to his 
trial became louder. When, however, he made way for 
his successors^ they not only granted him full indemnity 
for the p^st, but at no great distance of time, associated 
with him in a new administration, a measure to which the 
public could never be reconciled. The coalition which 
placed lord Northand Mr, Fox in the same cabinet was 
more repugnant |f general feeling than any one^ or per-* 
baps the^ aggregate, of lord North's measures, when m the 
plenitude of his power. When the voice of the natiopi 
and the spirit of its sovereign, had dismissed this adminis- 
tration, lord North returned no more to power, and took 
no very active part in politics, except on two occasions, 
when he maintained the consistency of his former political 
life, by opposing, the repeal of the test act, and a scheme 
for the reform of parliament. In 1790 he succeeded bis 
father in the earldom, but survived him only two years, 
during which he had the misfortune to lose his sight. He 
passed his last days in ttie calmness and endearments of 
domestic privacy, to which his cheerful and benign temper 
was peculiarly adapted. His lordship died August 5, 1792. 
He was at this time, ranger -and warden of Bushy Park ; 
chancellor of the university of Oxford ; a knight of the 
garter; lord lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the county 
of Somerset ; recorder of Gloucester and Taunton, one of 
the elder brethren of the Trinity-house ; president of the 
Foundling-hospital and the Asylum, and governor of thi$ 
Turkey company and Charter»house. 

In^March 1756, he married Anne, daughter and co-heir 
of George Speke, of White Lackington, in the county of 
Somerset, esq. by whom he had a numerous issue. He was 
succeeded in titles and estate by his eldest son, George 
Augustus,, who dying without male issue in 1794, was sue-- 
ceeded by bis brother Fraocisi present and fourth earl oi 
Guilford. 



i 



NORTH. 243 

Of the talents of lord Nortb, mudh was said during bis 
administration, and it is perhaps his highest praise, that 
against such a force of opposition, he could act so well upon 
.the defensive. With many personal defects, he contrived 
to exhibit a species of eloquence which seemed easy and 
.habitual, and always commanded attention. On subjects 
of finance, his abilities were generally acknowledged ; he 
reasoned closely ; and he replied with candour and temper, 
.not unfrequently, however, availing himself of his wit. 
But; ^s an orator, there were men of far more brilliant ta- 
Jents opposed to him ; and as a statesman in general, he 
cannot be compared to his successor Pitt. He perhaps ap« 
proaches the nearest to sir Robert Walpole, and like him 
seldom displayed the commanding energies of mind, but 
.was content to follow the track of official duties, and to de- 
fend individual measures, arising out of temporary necesr 
sities, without professing any general system applicable to 
all occasions. But whatever were the errors or defects in 
lord North's public conduct, there lies no impeachment on 
his integrity. He neither enriched himself nor his family, 
nor was he ever accused of turning ministerial information 
or influence to the purposes of pecuniary emolument. To 
the last moment of his /life, he reviewed his conduct and 
his principles with satisfaction, and professed his readiness 
to defend them against any inquiry that could be instituted. 
What such inquiry can produce, must be the subject of 
future discovery. All we know at present is, that the mo- 
ment he resigned, his public accusers became silent 

The private character of lord North has ever been the 
subject of praise and admiration. Among all his political 
opponents, he never had a personal enemy. Although 
during his whole administration the subject of the bitterest 
calumny ajid malignity, he never retorted but in conversar 
tion. His uncommon sweetness of temper, the vivacity of 
his replies, his ready and playful wit, created a diversion 
in his favour, if we may use the phrase, .amidst the fiercest 
of his political contests. His charaater in general, indeed, 
cannot be concluded in more comprehensive terms than 
those of Burke : — *^ He was a man of admirable parts ; of 
general knowledge ; of a versatile understanding, fitted for 
every sort of btisiness ; of infinite wit and pleasantry ; of a 
delightful temper, and with a mind most disinterested.*" . 

' rf^ Annaal Regijter^ pMsim.— Brydgea*f edition of Collios's Peerage, fcc. &c.' 

R 2 > 



< - - -^ 



m *i 6 ft f tf. 

NORTH (GEbRGE); ah English antiquftiy, ^^S the son 
bf Gcoi-ge Nbrth^ bltizen of Lbnddh, krid Wai bbf-ti in ITiO, 
He received his edUcatiori at St. Patil'fe ^cliodi, whehcej in 
1725, h6 went to ^eM\ boHige in Cftrtibridgftj Where hfe 
took hia dbgree* of B. A. itt 1728^ and M. A. in 1744. Ih 
M2^ hfe Wis adttiitlfea iritb dfedcori'^ brtffefs, dtld WKht tb 
bfficiat^ as curake at Cbdlicblfe, S itball village ttfear Wfelwyii, 
ih Herts. In 1741 he published, Without bis naitiej <<ATi 
Ansv^bi* tb a karidaloas WbeU ebtiti^d Thb liti^ertii^ehbb 
larid Imposture bf Modei-n AtitititiAribs displayed;'* Thfe 
*< scaridalaiis libel," i quarto p^tiiphlefci |ii-ofessfed to be k 
«* refiifcatidn bf the fev. Mi*. Wife*^ Letter t6 Dr. Mead, 
fconbeiriting the <vhite hdrsl^, knd other libtiqtiities iii Sefk- 
yiire," and WAs written by the tfe\r. Will. Asplib, vif^kf: bf 
BahbUryi ahd had a t^reface addfed to it by Willlkni BdW- 
Steald of Upton, co; Wairwick, bsq. fdriia^rly thb febpbl-dArgb 
bf the pHrice Frederic, Ea^l Indikfitatt. Mr. No^tfc'a rifefir- 
tition atid cfensure of the peirt aVVbgaHcfe bf Mbiirs; A^ptif^ 
^\\A Bumste^d rbcbmmetlded hi^ not only tb the nbtitr^ 
atid esteem bf the getitlethab Wholly cau^ tie hdd s^ g^^ft(^^ 
i'ously espbused (to whom h\6 Wis ikl tfiit Mdib fei p^rffeit 
istVanget), but also bf itveral dtghifi^ metfabbi^l of the Sb^ 
tiety of Abtiqiianes, into wiiich hfe Wai^ elee^ted feirly ih 
1742, antl sooli distinguished himself as A V^i-y bsbftll tfietti^ 
ber, and diieW up in that yii^ar, fei catilbf tie bf tfr6 «ftii bf 
Oxford's tbins, for tbe pobllb ^Ife ^bf \Mm. 
• In 174S he wais presetitfed to the vicarage bf Codifcbt^, 
and in 1744 Was appointed leh^pl^iti ^6 IbVd Catflb^Vt. Itt 
the isame yeir Hie to6% kis degrbe bf M. A. kM dfreW bp a 
featalogbe bf Mr. WeSt-s serifes of cbinti^ iAtbbdlng a ptelh'- 
kory account bf themj ahd d catalbjgub bf t)p. Dtibarersj 
English coitiS. With thii last getttlemto he cbrttih»e?d hiiJ 
correfepofidibnc'e in 1748 and l?49j cbpioi^i^ e^ti<a(6tlj frpift 
which ai^ given in bur kbtftbrity. Iti thfe ^^m^ bf 1750 
he made a tour it^to thfe West; itt* on Mi Vieturtt 'eOdrrnitii- 
t^icated Vety freely to Dr. Duci^rel hii^ Idfeiis bf the prdceefli. 
ings respecting d chartet, thfen in kgilktibh &t th-e Sbfefeky 
bf AntrqulBiries, iahd of which he afpi^i^ars tb h^tVe enteitait^d 
Very groundless fekrs. By bub of his letters, ih Atiguist 
1750, it appears that he hi<d inbk ^i^byed thVbe days of good 
bealtfa for more than a year ; and Was thien l&bbUiIng ^tt&et 
several bodily cbm^laints, and ippVehehsivb bf Art e^iilefi^y. 
He continued, however, as often as he was able, to indulge 
in literary pursuits, and extefid bis researches into every 



N Q 1* T ift ?45 

n^ji^f pf fiqMq^^i'J ^b^t engaged the attjep^ion of \n% con* 
tp[|&pQr§rie|» ai^d cprri^^poD^^nts. In 115 ly xi^^ r^v. Cji^rlea 
Cl^rk^, pf 8alio| ppll^gjB, Oxfqrid, p^blis^^ed ^* ^on^e Con^. 
j^ctqr^fi r/^UMFe to ^ vpry antient Pi/sqe pf lldoupy I^ly 
faund ftt Elth^fl^ ip If ej^, ^n^e^ouTJng Itq f^norp it t.o tbf^ 
pl^p^ i^ q^erit^ ii> (l)p fi\mp]i^ie^l\ of Etig^i^h Coii^$, au4 ^Q 
pro?e i|: f^ coin of Q^ipbar^ ^ho first jk^ng of ^Bgl^nil pf tba^ 
A^oije. Tq lyhjch ^re ad.4ert> ??fiV? Bpip^rk? PP ?^ disser)t^- 
tjon (Ifttjsjy publi^b^cl*) oij Qri^^ (^e pupppfed lyif^ of 
^^r^usjus, ^nd on (t^e Kpi^aQ cp^ns tb^fp papntipne.^/' 
175 1, 4tp. TPq this Mr- Nqi'tl? pybli^be^ §)n ^M9\yer, i^n- 
Utlf^d ^* Reroai^ks qn sopjp C?opjpctu.re?, ^c. ftheyvjpg tji? 
icnprpVability of \\ie nq^m ti^efpiiv ^idvapeed, jha^ flip ac- 
gVk.^epM proclnpecf in supppft of ^t ^rp ^ncopclusiye qx irre^ 
latiyp to ^he ppin^ in qupstipo," 17^2, 4^q. }n tbi3 ws^fpr, 
nrjiicfe ifTji^ fhp ftr^t piece pwbjishpc} ^y ?^Ry of tb^ soiciety 
lifter thpir incqrpor^tipo, l^r* N^r^^ coqsiidered ai large thp 
|tapdar4 ftpd pprtty pf pyr ^po^jt ^npippt EngUsli cpinf, tbe 
ft^tfjpf tbeniint^, and tlie |E)^innipg of ^|f^r/iV?^, frpm ^bp 
public rpcords ; ^pfl $^<^4pd to if, ^' 4p Epistolary PissprT 
tatipn (fd^i^^ssi^d tq Mr. Vpr|iie) on sotpp ^pppp^ed Saxop 
gold coips ; ripad b^fpvp fUe ^ocipty of Antiquaries^ Dec* 19> 
ji7^L" Np IP9P copld bp be|tpr qu^ifipd fpr this t^s^ 
tj^f^n IVfr. Nprjth, who, by bi§f intinificy ^ith IJflr. Pplrppi^ 
and Mr. Folkes (the latter of whom he mentions ip th^ 
(ligbes^ tprpip), b^c^rpe perfpctly ^cqps^iptpJ witji the re- 
CQrdfi( apd whole sta^p and bis|:pry of tt^p |)pglisb coinagp, 
Jtfr. Cl^arlep Cl^rkp? howpver, a ipppibpr pf the Society^ 
sjpQppnped a design of prpving IVJf. Npr^l? ^rong in his 
" Ppistpl^ry Elissemtiqn >" bpt lpcki)y for bjiuseif, di§co- 
¥ere4 ih^ bis pvn premi^ps yvpujd pot ?pppor^ apy ^ucb 
cpopip^ipn, a^»4 therefpre hi? ppblipfttipp ppyer ^ppearpd. 

In 17^3 M^Nor^b hftd paadp a popsideri^blp progress ^p 
^f RpW^rks on the Mpnpy of Hpury JH.*' which had thep 
^ng^ged his ittiipntiqn for piorp than tferpp ^ears, and fov 
Wfeicb fep ha.d ^ctp^Jly pngrared X^o pl^J^e^, ?pd ^qped tq 
b^y^.it reftdy fpr ppblic*tion in the ensping winter; but 
Dpj^ipg OP Jhp fipbjep* Ytm foppd ^a?opg bj^ MS§. ^fter bif 
4p§^h. Thp p)a|e§, hpwpvpr, which WPre |?prcfciase4 a^ 
Dr. Loft'rt sale ^?y Mr. Gppgb, who wprked off ^ fpw iptr 
pi(§9gipps fpr Uis fri^n^*, jiip ppw ip thp ppsfiessioii pf thp 

* Biy Dr. Kenoedy, who as^ert^cj |l^t Qriuoa was piat emperor.*t guardian 
gaddessi See^his articie, vol. XIX. '' ' 



246 NORTH. 

rev. Rogers Ruding, F. S. A. vicar of Maldon in Surrey, 
from whdm the public may soon expect a very elaborate 
work on English coinage. In 1752 Mr. North was involved 
in law suits with his parishioners, some of whom had not 
paid him for tithes or offerings for many years, and obliged 
him to take the harshest steps to obtain justice, which viras 
the more hard upon him, as his living was a very small one. 
On this painful subject he bad frequent occasion to consult 
with Dr. Ducarel, to whom he also this year addressed 
several letters relative to the proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries ; and others respecting tlie tour which Dr. 
Ducarel made to Normandy, for the purpose of inspecting 
its antiquities. In this correspondence, much of which is 
inserted in Mr. Nichols's valuable work, the reader will 
find many curious remarks on subjects of architecture, 
and on scarce books and coins. To such matters his 
whole attention was devoted, except in one instance, in 
which he appears to have been under the influence of a 
more tender passion, and addressed some lines entitled 
** Welwyn Spaw," lamenting the cold disdain of some ap- 
parently real Celia. These are inserted in the Literary 
Magazine for 1755, p. 209; in which year also he drew 
tip the catalogue of Dr. Mead^s coins for public sale ; and 
in the following year meditated some account of the Crom^ 
well family. 

Soon after this period he was afflicted with disease and 
melancholy, which seem to have interrupted his accus* 
tomed studies, as we hear no more of him until 1766, when 
be addressed to the earl of Morton, then president of the 
Royal Society, some valuable observations on the intro- 
duction of Arabic numerals into this kingdom. These 
were afterwards communicated to the Society of x\ntiqua« 
ries by Mr. Gough, and are printed irt the Archaeologia, 
vol. X. In 1769, when this society determined to publish 
their transactions, application was made to Mr. North for 
his materials towards compiling a history of its foundation. 
With this he complied, but the greater part of bis collec- 
tions for the purpose had been burnt, with his other pa- 
pers, by himself, during a dangerous illness about four 
years before, " from a conviction,** he says, " how unge- 
nerously such things are commonly used after a person's 
death.*' 

Mr. North died June 17, 1772, having just completed 
bis sixty-fifth year, at his paC9onage-house at Codicot^ 



NORTH. «47 

^Here he had resided from the time of his taking orders, 
4¥ithout any other preferment than this small vicarage, 
which did not produce him above 80/. a year, in addition 
to which he had a small patrimony. He was buried at the 
east end of the church-yard of the parish, in which he had 
lived in as much obscurity, as his asbes now rest. That 
such a man should have been neglecti^d in the distribution 
of preferments, reflects no credit on the patrons of his time. 
He was learned, able, and industrious, beyond most of his 
ix>ntemporarie8 ; and his correspondence gives a very fa« 
voOrable idea of his private character. He left his library 
and his collection of English coins to Dr. 4skew and Dr. 
Lort, the latter of whom, on the death of Dr. Askew, got 
inore pf the books, which, on the .sale of his library in 
1791, fell into the hands of Mr. Gough. Among these 
was a MS account of Saxon and English coins by him, with 
drawings by Mr Hodsol, now in possession of Mr. Ruding.^ 

NORTON (Thomas), esq. an inhabitant, if not a native, 
t)f Sharpenbaule, or Sbarpenhoe, in Bedfordshire, was a 
i>arrister at law, and a zealous Calvinist in the beginning 
of Elizabeth's reign,.as appears by several tracts, printed to- 
gether in 1569^ &vo. He was counsel to the Stationers* com- 
pany, in whose books we find accounts of the fees paid to 
him set down, the last of which was between 1583 ana 1584, 
within which period we imagine he died. He was contem- 
{lorary with Sternhold and Hopkins, and assistan;t to them 
in their noted version of the Psallns, twenty-seven of 
which he turned into English metre, and in all the editions 
of them, the initials of his name ,are prefixed. Hei also 
translated into English, an epistle from Peter Martyr to 
Somerset the protector, in 1550 ; and under th6 same pa- 
tronage, Calvin's Institutes. Being a close intimate and 
fellow -.student with Thomas Sackville, esq. afterwards earl 
of Dorset, he is. said to have joined with him in the com- 
posing one dramatic piece, of which Mr. Norton wrote the 
three first acts, entitled " Ferrex and Porrex ;" afterwards 
reprinted, with considerable alterations, under the title of 
<^ Gorboduc ;" biit Mr. Warton ^eems to doubt his having 
any, or at least much share in this drama.^ 

NOSTRADAMUS, or NOTRE DAME (Michel), a 
physician and celebrated astrologer, was born Dec. 14, 

I Niehols*s Bowyer. — Co]e*8 MS Atb«DS in Brit. Mns. 
* WartoD*s Hist, of Poetry.— Biogr. Dram.^-Eilis's Specimens, voU 11. p, 136* 
r-Strype*f Life of Patker, p. 364, 375.— Scryp^'s Life of Whiigifi, p, ^8. 



Ml NOSTRADAMUS. 

# 

150$, al 8t Remv, in the diocese of Avignoii. Wis father 
W^a a i^otary pabhc, and bis graiid£a|h«r a physician, who 
instructed him ip tb« ekncnts of tiie ra^thematb^. He 
afterwards completed his courses of humanity and pbtlof- 
sophy at Avignon, and studied physio at Montpelier ; but 
the plague raging in Hi 5, he became a trairelUng pbyr 
sician for five years, aiid underioek all aock patients as 
were willing to put themselves under bis care. After this 
ke returned to Montpelier, and was created doetor of his 
iaculty in 1520, and then revisited the places where he 
]|ad practised physic before. At Agen, he eontraeted en 
acquaintance with Julius C®sar Scaliger, which induced 
him to make some stay in that town; w^ere he esarrted ; 
but upon the death of htl wife^ four years after, be went 
first to Marseilles, and then, in 1544, to Salon, where he 
married a second time. 

In 1546, Aix being aflioted with the plague, he vent 
thither, at the s^olicitation of the in^ahitante, and was of so 
great service, by a powder ef his own invention, that the 
town gf^te him a considerable pension for several years after 
the contagion ceased. H^ appeacv to h^w€ been equally 
successful in 1547, when the city of'LjM^ns, being visit^ 
with the same diste«f>ei^, had .reooursie to him ; biit iipon 
bis return to Salon, found that his popaiarity had d^craaeed^ 
This occasioned bis having loore hnsitre tp apply to his 
studies ; afid now he began to think himself inspired, and 
miraculously illuminated with a prospect into fnftuptty, nor 
tions which he had partially entertained ler some timoi 
When these preteGlded illuminations discoviered tx> ktm any 
fiiture event, he entered it in wrjtiag^ in prose, bet he 
afterwards thought the sentences weald savour mere nf a 
prophetic spirit, if they were expressed in vers^. This 
opinion deterflHiaed him to throw them all into quatcainii^ 
and he afterwards ranged them into centuries* When' ihia 
was done, he resolved to print them, with a dedtcati^o adi- 
dressed to his son Cassar^ an infatit onlj^ so'iyie months eU» 
in the form of a letter, or preface. This firs|: eidtti^i 
which is inelnded ih seven centuries, W9s printed by Ri- 
gault at Lyons in 156^, Hvo, He pvefigced bis nam^ is 
Latin, but gave to his son Ciesar the tmme as it is pro- ' 
nonnced, Notradame. This work f^ repriol^d iwiee in 
the same, year, and . while soa\e considered him as an im- 
postor, there were others^ and among them persons of cop- 
aiderable rank and influence, who believed bioa to lie r«^ly 



NOSTRA DAMUfl, 



9*9 



> j^n^iied with the supen^^lural gift of prophecy. However^ 
U^nfy II* and queeo Gatlianne of IViedicis, hb mo^hev^ 
V#ry graciously r«c:eiF«d him at court ; and, besides other 
jq»Arks of reject paid to him, he r«oeiv^d a present of 
9QQ QVQwns* He was sent afterwards to Blois, to visit hi» 
.mf^f^ty-^ cbildfen there, and report what he should be ablB 
\Q disiCQYifV oaueerntng their destinies ] and thence he re» 
.4urn^d to Salon loaded with hoBOurs and presents. Anir 
.Qi^t^d with this suceef s, he augmented his work from 3O0 
-HH^I^raifis io the number of a complete milliade, and pub- 
Mshed it wiih a dedication to the king m 1^58. That princa 
4iyH9g the neKt yejir of a wound wbtob he reoeived» as is 
vr^ll known, at a tournament, the book of mxf prophet wafs 
I9l0)^diately consuked ; and thia nnfortutiste eveut wa^ 
fpp94in the d5ih quatrain of the first century, in.tbese 
Hnes; 

'^ Le Ken jeune Ic vicux surmonteraj 
£n champ beUiqus par singuUer duel^ 
Da|)3 qigfi d'or les jrieux lui crfevera, 
Dem;: c)afi6e$ une ppM pour|r, V9PXi pruelje/* 

Sp remarkable a prediction not a liule increased the 
€rf(d|ilHy pf the public, and be was honoured shortly after 
3vith 2^ visit from Emanuel duke of Savoy, and the priocew 
Margaret of France, his consort. Charles IX. coming to 
Sialan, being eag^r to see him, NostradaJnus Qomplained of 
ti^e \\{tle f steem his countrymen had for him, on which the 
jBiioRiirph publicly declared, that he should bold the ene- 
I9i#s of Nostradamus to be his enemies. In passing, not 
long ftfter^ through the city ^ Aries, he sent for Nostra- 
iiUlPUSf presented him with a purse of 200 crowns^ toger 
th^r wilh a brevet, constituting him his |»hysician in ordi* 
9)9ry9 with ihe saoie appointment as the rest. But our 
prof^bQt einjpyied these b<>nours only for the space of simtfieq, 
mfintbh for hft died July 3, U6$, at Salon. Besides his 
^* C^HMkri^/' we Jiave some other pieces of his coa^>osl- 
ti^i) *, and bis pmpfaetical works have been translated intp 
^ngliOi. 



* these are, " ^ Tr?j|tif c ^ hm^- 
fneas ifc de fenteurs/^ 15^2. A book 
ff iBegsISfjeseipta, ** pouf oBtretenir 
la sante dti corps," 1556. A piece 
•• 4|}s PoaStnrffs/' 15*7. *f A Vreooji 
translatioQ of t,}^ l^t\n pf <3ftl«!i> F%- 
raphrate, exhorting Menedotus to study, 
especially to tt)^t of physic," 1537. 



S<m^ yeaj:^ V^fpre ^is death, he pub- 
lished a sfnal) instruction for husband* 
men, «he<ri«ig thabeit sdisoas for their 
ceyeral labours, which he entitled 
*' Tint A4»a»W of JJoitij»dwflm$-^» 
J^astly, )|ft«r bis 4«atl}, there c^me xvi|t 
« Tib» el#«^b wd ||W*jfth PejfiU^ 
riei of \^\s Quatr^ins^" adde^ to the 



B50 NOSTRADAMUS. 

He left three sons and three daughters : John, his«ecoii4 
son, exercised with reputation the business of a [iroctor in 
the parliament of Provence: he wrote the "Lives of the 
ancient Provengal Poets, called Troubadours,^' which was 
printed at Lyons in 1575, 8vo. C^sar, the eldest son, 
was born at Salon in 1555, and died in 1629 : he left a 
•'< Manuscript giving an Account of the most remarkable 
events in the History of Provence, from IQSO.to 1494,*' in 
whi( h he inserted the lives of the poets of that country^ 
These memoirs falling into the hands of bis nephew Caesar 
Nostradamus, gentleman to the duke of Guise, he under* 
took to complete the work ; and being encouraged by a 
present of 3^00 iivres from the estates of the country, he 
carried the account up to the Celtic Uauls : the impression 
was finished at Lyons, in 1614, and published uhder the 
title of " Chronique de THistoire de Provence." The next 
son of Michel is said to have imitated his father, and ven- 
tured to predict, that Pouzin, which was then besieged, 
would be destroyed by fire. In order to prove the truth of 
his prophecy, he was seen, during the tumult, setting fire 
to all parts of the town ; which so much enraged M. De 
Saint Luke, that he rode over him with his horse, and 
killed him^ But this story has been justly called in ques* 
iion.* 

JJOSTRE, or NOTRE (Andrew le), comptroller of 
the royal edifices of France, and an eminent planner qf 
gardens, was born at Paris in 1613. We know little of 
him, except that he was brought up as a gardener under 
his father, until about 1653, when he was first employed 
by the superintendant Fouquet, to lay out the magnificent 
gardens of Vaux-le-Vicomte, celebrated by La Fontaine 
in his poems. In this work he was the creator of those 
porticoes, covered walks, grottoes, labyrinths, &c. which 
ti^ien were thought the greatest ornaments of gardens, and 
particularly gratified the taste of Louis XIV. who employed 
him in the decoration of his favourite residences at Ver- 
sailles, Trianon, Foniainbleau, ^&c. Le Nostrewent to 
Rome in 1678, and afterwards travelled thro.ugh Italy ; and 
it is said he found nothing in the most celebrated gardens 
equal to what he had himself executed. While at Rome, 

former ten, which had been printed authors " Centuries'* are found withi* 
three timeii in two separate parts. It out alterations, additions, dec. 
is only in these first editions, that our 

1 Moreri.— Eloy, Diet. Hist de Medicine. — Hutton's Dictionary. 



NO S T R E. 251 

pope liinocent XI. was desirous of seeing le Notre, and 
gave faim along audience, at the conclusion of which the 
kitter exclaimed, " I have now seen the two greatest men- 
in the world ; your holiness, and the king, my master !" 
^*There is a great jJifFerence between them," replied the 
pope ; ** the king is a great and victorious prince, and I 
t3Btk a poor priest, servant of the servants^ of God.'^ Le 
Notre, delighted with this answer, and forgetting by whom 
it was made, clapped his hand on the pope^s shoulder^ 
'"^y*"?! " My reverend father, you are in good health, and 
will bufy all the sacred college ;" and Le Notre, more and 
more charmed with the sovereign pontiff's kindness, and 
the particular esteem he expressed for the king, fell upoa 
his Deck, and embraced him. It was his custom thus to 
embrace all who praised Louis XIV,; and be emb^'aced that 
prince himself every time be returned from the country. 
He was some time in England, and, probably on the invi^ 
tation of Charles II. laid out St. James'i^ and Greenwich 
parks. In 1675, when he was again in France, his long 
services were rewarded by letters of noblesse, and the cross 
of St. Michael. The king would have given him a coat of 
arms, but he replied that he had one already, ^^ consisting 
of three snails surmounted by a cabbage.'^ At the age of 
four-score he desired permission to retire, which the king 
granted him, on condition that he would sometimes come 
and see him. He died at Paris, in 1700, at the age of 87. 
He is said to have had a fine taste for the arts in general, 
especially for that of painting ; and some pieces of his exe« 
cution are mentioned as existing in the royal cabinet.^ 

NOUE (Francis de la), sumamed Bras de Fer (Iron 
Arm), a celebrated warrior, was born in Bretany, in 1331, 
In his youth he served in Italy, and, returning to France, 
joined the Calvinists, and rendered them the most impor- 
tant services by his courage, prudence, and integrity. He 
took Orleans from the catholics, Sept. 28, 1567 ; com-r 
manded the rear at the battle of Jarnac in 1569, and made 
himself master of several strong places. His left arm be- 
ing broken at the taking of Fontenay in Poitou, it was cut 
off at Rochelle, and he had an iron one made, which he 
used with great ease, and was from thence surnamed Bras 
de Fer. In 1578, La Noue engaged in the servipe of the 
Netherlands, gave them great assistance, and made count 

1 MoFeri*— Chaufepie. 



3lf N Q U E. 

Xgniqnt prisoner ^t the qapjuFe of Ninq^p ; biit wpB bim* 
•elf taken pri$Qn0r in l58o, pind liQl; exchangipcj for the 
«ouiittiU U8jf. LftNoue CQnM»H^(i to s^rv<3 with greftl 
glory uftder king Heory IV. b^it wap; piQrt;*|ly wo|)f>ded in 
the bead, by ^ musketrb^l, ^t tb^ sif gf pf l^mb^i^ in 
159i, ^nd died » f0w day^ after Pe Ipft " piscpurst P^U^ 
tiques,'^ Geneva, 15§7, 4to, JIj^ fop, Q^Jet de la Npm^ 
who dipd between J6ll and 1620, iya§ a)i|hor of mxM 
•^ Poesies Cbrptlennes,'' G^nisva, 1504, Svp.* 

NQURBY (NiPH0i-AS Lp), 9 learnpd Bet^^dicfine €>f 
tbe (songfegation of St, Mapf, wa^ bor*} atl)fjepp^ in I647f 
and devoted bis early year^ to the study of eccl^^^isMcai 
antiquities, in wbiab he was. aUov^ed tp ba^e ^t|;||in^d yery 
great knowledge. His first Vit^v^ry en^plpym^plt wa9 on as 
edition of the works pf C^ssiodorus, which be prepared foe 
tbe press in oonjun^tion with father G$ir^t, contribiiting 
ihe life, prefacest an4 tables. . H^ yf^^ n^xt engaged on 
the works of St. Aiahroae, published in |686-r-I69l. His 
post important work was his ^^ Apparatus ^d QibUotb^pai^ 
»ax. veterun) Patrum/' Paris,^l7l5, 9 yols. folio, inteoded 
as a supplement to Despont^s ^^ Bibl. Patrnm,*' 27 vols, 
fplio, but which is not always found with }%. It cpntaiDs 
a number of curious and leai'oed dissprti^tions op tb|g Hvesf 
lirrttings, and septiments, of tbe fathers, with illustrations 
of many obscure passages. In 171.Q, N^iirry published 
f^ Lucius CflBcilius de mortibus perseci)tort}m," &vo, which 
be contended was net the production of 'Lactantiu^ (see 
Lactantius) ; but although he has siippUed n»apy i|sefii) 
notes and comments on this work; ' he failpd in making con? 
▼erts to this last opinion. Nojurry died »t P^ris, M4rcb 24, 
)724, agpd seveuty-seviSB.^ 

NOVARf NI (Lew;s), a learned Italian mp^ky was borqi 
^t Verona, in 1594. He entered ^naong the Theatins wb^i^ 
be was about eighteen years of age, and after passing bis 
Boyioii^te at Venice^ took the vows in 1614, He after? 
wards studied philosophy and divinity, was ordainjed p^ie^ 
in 1621, and exercised the various fun^^tion^ of jj^i^ o^pe 
and.order, applying at his leisure hours to study* IM)d yvrntr, 
ing the many works enumerated by bis Uograpbi^ilS. The 
principal of these are, ^^ Comment, in quatuqr ^Kangel. ^ 
Acta Apostol.^' in 4 V0i§. £olio ; ^^ Ad^gia SanptorUio P»r 
trom,^' in 3 vols, folio ; ^^ Ebseirjii Sacra, in qpibu$ ^ui ^k 

1 Moreri. s VhaoKm, yol. I. and X.— -Dupin. — ^Moreri. 



N y A R I N I. Z5i 

/ 

LatihO; Gr*co, Htebraicb, et Chaldaibo fdntCj qua fei M^ 
titJuJs Hebfaeoftitn, P^H^tbtii, Gfebcorutti, Romttti6*Uift, 
^iiaruitiqae Gentium jritibus^ quasdatn divin« Striptilf^ lodet 
novit^r expiicahtur et illtistiratitut*/' in 3 voh. f6ll&. HtSi 
died at Verona J^n. 14, 1650, aiged fifty-sii.* 

NOVAT, oi- t^OVATUS, a pfiest of the chui'ch bf 
fcartbagfe, floiirishfed iii Uife, third cetHiJfy, atid wfes the 
Silithor of a remarkable ^thisrh ddlled afli^ir bis tilime^ tVr 
ikther aFtfet the name of bis asisqclatfe Novation j i^bd, hoir- 
^Ver^ is also cftll^d t»JoVatil6 by many ancient i^ritiirs. it^ 
is fi^pi'es^ntied by the orthoddit a^ a ^^rson sclaridalo\)S and 
ifofam6us for JjfeHSdy, adaption, atrogance, atld 6o sto^ 
didly covetous, that bte eren suffer^ his bWrt father to 
jlerish with huttger, and spdrfed hot to pillag^ the gcNxls 
tif the church, the poof, and the oi'phans. It veks in b^- 
di^r to eiscape thfe p^hishmtent dute tb thefee fcriib^s, and tb 
^tipport hihis^lf by I'aisitlg disturbances, that be rfesolved 
to fohti k schism ; dnd to that end enteted into a cab^l 
ivith Felicissimus, art AJfrican priest, who 6p]i)osed St. Cy- 

{)fiati Novatus ^ks sumhiohed to tippear befoi^ the ^re- 
ate in the yfedr 249 j but the persecution, begtiti by Decii!» 
the following yiear, obliging rfiat saint t6 i^etim f6r his b\*h 
^safety, Novatus Was delivfered from tbe iatiget of thafprb- 
cess; and, not lotig after as^drciating himself i^'ith Ffeli- 
tissi^tks, then a d bacon, with hiib thaintained tbe dbctiirn^^ 
•that the kpsed btigbt to be teceived irtto the bottittibtiidn 
bf the fchurch without any fbrrti bf p^tiitfehce. Ih lh6 year 
251, hfe t^eht to Rbthe, about tbife timb of the fetectiort bf 
po^ib Cornelius. There he ttiet with Nbtatiati, a prf^^f,. 
trtro had atqiilred a trputarion for eteqliente, arid presently 
fbfitted art alliahee with hittJ ; and, rithbtjgh theit* 4b(vtt- 
ittbnts with tfegard to the la^ed were diamfetritally oppb- 
**iti^, tlitey agreed to publish the most atitodoiiis crfuifitjies 
^gaihst the koihah iclergy, whibh thby tiokMlit^ bvei- sb 
liirfuHy, tiiat iiiirty Were dbceiV^ arid jt)ined tbteit- p^y. 
iThis dbhe, they prbctired a cbngl-eg^atioto toi^iafiitig of 
thnee bbscure, feiitiple, kttd i^btatit biihbps 5 aitd, pHi^^ 
Xhietti Well with wihe, pvevaited 'upon tb^tn to ete<il NWa»- 
llah brshop of kbme. After this ii-regofelr etedtidh, NbVa- 
tian addressed letters to St. Cyprian bt Catthagte, to.Fa^ 
bius of i\ntiocfa, and to tMonysius of Ate^andria; but St. 
Cyprikn refused fco opftn hislettet-, ant! excbmmlirtrcated 

I Niedrot>i vol. Kh. 



S*4 N O V A f. 

bis deputies : be had likewise sent to Rom^ before, iff 
order to procure the abolition of the schism. Fabius made 
himself pleasant at Novatian's expence ; and Dionysius de- 
clared to him, that the best way of convincing the world, 
that his election was made against his consent, would be to 
quit the see, for the sake of peace. On the contrary, 
Novatian now maintained his principal doctrine, that such 
as had fallen into any sin after baptism ought not to.be re* 
ceived into the church by penance ; and be was joined ia 
the same by Noratus,, although he had originally main" 
tained the contrary while in Africa. Novatian had been 
a Pagan philosopher before bis conversion to Christianity, 
and it does not appear that he and his party separated from 
the church, on any grounds of doctrine, but of discipline, 
and it is certain, from some writings of Novatian still ex- 
tant, that he was sound in the doctrine of the Trinity. Her 
lived to the time of Valerian, when he suffered martyr- 
dom. He composed treatises upon the ^'Paschal Festival,' 
or Easter," of the " Sabbath,*' of <* Circumcision," of the 
" Supreme Pontiff,'! of " Prayer," of the "Jewish Meats,'* 
and of " the Trinity." It is highly probable, that the 
treatise upon the "Trinity," and the book upon the 
^* Jewish Meats," inserted into the works of TertuUian,* 
were written by Novatian, and they are well written. There 
is an edition of his works by Whiston, 1709; one by 
Welchman;'and a third, of 1728, with notes, by Jackson. 
With respect to the followers of Novatian, at the first se- 
paration, they only refused communion with those who bad 
fallen into idolatry : afterwards they went farther, and ex- 
cluded, for ever, from their communion, all such as had 
committed crimes for which penance was required; and at 
last they took away from the church the power of the 
keys, of binding and loosing offenders, and rebaptised 
those who had been baptised by the church. This sect 
subsisted a long time both in the east and west ; but chiefly 
became considerable in the east, where they had bishops^ 
both in the great sees and the small ones, parish- churches^ 
and a great number of followers. There were also Nova- 
tians in, Africa in the time of St. Leo, and in the east some 
remains continued till the eighth century. ^ 

NOVIOMAGUS. See GELDENHAUR. 

NOWELL (Alexander), an eminent English divine, 
and the last surviving father of the English Reformation, 

^ Dttpin.— M(Mibeini«*^Milaer.-^Lardner| Ice. 



N O W % h t. 2ii 

deseended from an ancient family af Norman origin, waf 
the son pf John Nowell, esq. of Read, in the parish of 
Whalley^ and county of Lancaster. This gentleman, who 
was twice married^ had, by bis first wife, Dowsabel, daugh^ 
ler of Robert Hesketh, esq. of Rofford, in Lancashire, am 
only son, Roger Nowell, whose issue male, in a direct line^ 
enjoyed the family estates for more than two centuries. , 
By bis second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Kay of 
Jlachdale, he had four sons, Alexander, the subject of this 
article, Laurence, Robert, and Nicholas; and several 
daughters. Alexander was born in 1507 or 150^, at Read«» 
hall, anciently Rivehead or Riverhead, a mansiou on tho 
Calder, a tributary branch of the Ribble. A view of thii 
his birth-place, as it stood in 1950, is given in Mr. arch- 
deacon Churton^s ^' Life of Alexander Novell," a work 
which has furnished the substance of this sketch. 

H€ was educated at Middleton, about six mrles from Man* 
Chester; but who was his preceptor there we have not 
learnt. That his elementary progress was rapid, we may 
reasonably presume, as he was deemed ripe for the uni^ 
yersiiy, where, however, early entrances were then more 
frequent, at the age of thirteen.^ Respecting this number 
a singular coincidence is mentioned, whether -it were the 
resi|lt of choice, or of accident. He became a member 
Qf Brasen-nose college at the ag*e of thirteen : he resided 
there thirteen years ; and be afterwards bestowed on the 
society thirteen scholarships^ He is said to have been 
chamber-feUow with Fox, the martyrologist, and had per- 
haps the same tutor, Mr. John Hawarden, or Harding^ 
who was afterwards principal of the college. We are as* 
sured that he was a public reader of logic in the univer- 
sity, and taught the famous book of Rodolphus Agricoia, 
when he was in the twentieth year of his age. He was then 
(and there seem to be examples of the same delay at that 
time), only an undergraduate, and was not admitted B. A, 
uiitil May 29,' 1536, when he was of ten or twelve years 
standing. He was elected fellow of the college shortly after- 
wards, and proceeded M. A. June 10, 1540. 

He had directed his intent to the church ever since he 
was sixteen years old ; but it is not known when or by 
whom be was admitted into holy orders. When he left 
the univdrsity he came to London, and obtained the office 
of second master of Westminster-school, on the new foun- 
dation, appointed in 1543. While he filled this important 



a5« 1^ O W E L L 

p06t^ he h sliid to hav« been diligt^m in t^Clhing his )>n|)tti 
|)ure lADgtiBge And true rfeliglort : using fdt the ronHef ptir*- 
po^e Ti^reneei . and for ih^ latter St Liike'^ Gosfiel and tbfe 
-Actd ef the At>09tl^, In the t>l'igitial Gr^ek. H^ at^()ekrs 
to have b^^n fi^^nsed as a pf^ather in i650^ but whef^ h^ 
exetcilred his talent Wb ^te not })^rtici)larly informed : ^x^ 
eept that he pr6a«jbed, d«rihg this reigfi, ** in setafe of th^ 
iiotabl^st plates atid auditories ot the r^lm.'' The fim 
production Of bis p^n that ViNe hiivo tii^t with ^ais sbmi^ ttMl 
in honoar bf the toeoaory of Bu^or, wbodi^d a% OamferMge 
in l^lil^ ^hich feihew th^t he Was of eongetiial setiii^idm^ 
on the aybjeet of reil^ion Withthil b^I^b^ated r^forno^r ; 
and (he saMe yeai* he beid an itvtehestiiig ^otiflerr^ne^ vrith 
lledttiayne/ riiastef of .Trihi^y college^ CaAbi-idgfe, th^ 
to hii de^th^bed, ^^(^ectiOg Ih^ pHhcipfetl iskniicfes whidh 
separated the Eogtii^ ftottt thi6 Roftirsh tihni'th. In that 
yeai:ai§o he at}^t^4?d^d Redtfi^^yo^ a^ 'Oti^ of Ih^ pheb^nda- 
tm of Westttii^slfei'. . 

In the fil^t'])atliartiait tJf qtj^ti Mftry, itt 1*51 Nd^t 
waa returned mtf 6f the bufg^^sses for Led, iti tfbfnw^dV} 
but 9i eotttolilt^E^O b^ihg ap|)dinted to int}\^ire intdth^ Vaii^ 
dity of the teiurn^ they reported Ihit ** Ale^aWiet NoW^lt 
being si preb^hdai-y 6f WestrtiilWtfer, and tfcefeby having k 
Toice itI ^e OOhtOcfttiOn-hOiis^^ earit^o^ be a foethbi^i* t)f 

ihib house/* and a tiew wtit wds diheieted to b« i^u^d ae^ 
coEfdingly* N^wdi quieay s«ibroitt€d t^ iWs decistoil, a^ 
though ii whs hot c6rrect as %0 ih% lliW; for Htioe 
below ih^ digHtty Of dean 01* ^rchdt?d<r6n Wei^ bbOttd to 
personal a{>peamn6^ io the coni^deatiOh ; Mk th^6e W^tt 
nottime^for ni^n de^ifotls Of retiiitUtlg p^te a(id A gbod 
eonsoi^nt^ei to insi^ rigidiy oli theiij' Hghr, kg<»n^ ike pr^<» 
vaUing pafty ; und he »6oti flf^ei^lttd^ found it Oc^ct^d^ry to 
joitt faia Oo^nti'ytiien who w^it^ ^itilai kt Gdi^&iry, fixM 
the persecuting spiHt of pbfj^fy. <^f Chls ign^ent We ai^ 
oAly t(M, that Botinet, hating intt^ilded hitn ts on« of Vid 
Yictiib^^ l>e W2i^ assirstt^ in h\^ escape by Panels BoWy^i^ 
at that time a naefchAnt, and aftertrafdfl sheriff of Loiidoo. 
In 1554, we find hitn at Stt-fesbargb, Witfe Jewell, Poin^/ 
Gri»dal> Sandys, andothttr mett 6f futuf^ fetriineriai iti (he 
Boforined Church. lo the uhformnaie di^tite^ Wblell 
aftOrwftrdd Ijook piaee ^mong thi^^ eiciieti, rc^pficting cMifeh 
dhoiplini^, Nowdl took a tnodertttfe patt^ soilietitlt^Sj t&t 
thesdkeof p^ao^, fc0hc6ding to t%e pfesBytfcrtatl pkftyy 
bac^tlaiil, Whh^tjal wli^dx)tti and i^iWtie^, pi>Hii6g iHif^ 



N P WE L L. 257 

in eilsentials, and submission in. sipaller matters to autborit;^ 
.duly appointed and legally exercised. 

Oti tbe accession of queen Elizabeth, Now^ll retaraed 
..to England, and. was soon fixed upon, with Parker, Bill, 
Whitehead, Pilkington, Sandys,. &c. to be promoted to 
.the chief preferments then vacant. His first employment 
seems to havel'been that of one of the commissioners for 
visiting tbe various dioceses, in order to introduce such re* 
.gulatiops as miglit establish tbe Reformation. One of these 
^commissions, Jn which Nowell's name appears, was dated 
yuly 22,, 155.9. In. December of that yisar, he was ap- 
rpointed chaplain to Crindal, and preached tbe sermon on 
ttbe consecration of; that divine to the bishopcic .of Lon- 
don, Freferments now began to 6ow in upon Him. On 
Jan. .1, i55d-60, Grinda) collated. hiin to the archdeaconry 
•of Middlesex ; in Februaiy, archbishop Parker gave him 
the rectory of Saltwood, with th^ annexed cbapel of Hy the^ 
in. Kent, and a prebend of Canterbury. Saltwoojd he re- 
signed within the year, as he did a prebend of St. Peter's 
Westminster, then erected intp a collegiate church ; but 
was. promoted .to tbe deanery of St. Paul's in November 
;1560, and about the same time was collated to the prebend 
of Wildland or Willand. in tbe same church. 

He now became a frequent preacher at St. Paul's cross^ 
and on one occasion, a passage. of his sermon was much 
talked of, and grossly misrepresented by the papists^^ as 
•savouring ,of an uncharitable and persecuting spirit. He 
iiad little difficulty, however, in repelling this cbaf'ge, 
(which at legist shews that his words were considered as of 
no small importance, and were carefully watched. One of 
his sernions at St. Paults cross was jireacbed.the Sunday 
following a very melancholy event, the burning of St Paul's 
cathedral by lightning, Jqne4, 1561. Such was. his repu- 
tation now, that in September of this year, wlfen archbishop 
•Parker .visited Eton college, and ejected the provost, 
Richard Brsieroe, fpr nonconformity, he i^comm^nded to 
•secretary Cecil. the choice of several persons fit to, supply 
,the place, with thi^ remark,. ^Uhat if the queen would have 
a marned minist;er, none comparable, to Mr. Nowell." The 
.bishop of Ijondon also seconded this recommendation ; but 
the, queen's prejudice against the married clergy inclined 
her tp give the place, to; Mr. Day, afterwards bishop of 
;Winchester, who was a bachelor, and in all respects worthy 
> lef the. pron^otioi^. 

VouXXin. S 



258 N O W E L U 

« 

In tbe eouTSfe of the ensuing year, 1562^ KoveTl mw 
frequently in the pulpit on public occasions^ before large 
•aditories ; but bis labours in one pespeet commenced a 
little inauspiciously. On the nevv-year*s dayi before tbb 
festival of the circumcision, he preached at St« Paulas, 
whither the queen resorted. Here, says Strype, a I'e^ 
markable passage happened, as it is recorded in a great 
man^s memorials (sir H. Sidney), who lived in those times. 
The dean having met with several iine engravings, repre** 
seating the stories and passions of the saints and martyrs, 
had placed them against the epistles and gospels of theif 
respective festivals, in a Common Prayer«book ; which he 
caused to be richly bound, and laid ^on the cushion for the ; 
queen's use, in the place where' she commonly sat ; in* 
tending it for a new-year*s gift to lier majesty, and thinking, 
to have pleased h^r fancy therewith. But it had a quite 
contrary effect. For she considered how this varied fioift . 
her late injunctions and proclamations against the soper^ 
slitious use of images in churches^ and for the taking away 
all sqch reliques of popery. When she came to her plaoe, ; 
mud had opened the book, and saw the pictures, she frowned 
and blushed ; and then shutting the book fof which several 
took notice) she called for the verger, and bade him bring 
jier the old book, wherein she was formerly wont to read. \ 
After sermon, whereas she used to get immediately oe 
boi^eback, or into her chariot, she went straight to the 
Testry, and applying herself to the dean, thus she spoke 
to him : ^^ Mr. Dean, how came it to passj that a new ^r- 
vice*bbok was placed on my cushion M* ^To which the dean 
Answered, ^* May it please your majesty, I caused it to be . 
placed there.'* Then said the queen, ^< Wherefore did 
you soP' ^*To present your majesty with a new year's., 
gift.*' ** Yon could never present me jvith a-worse.** ** Why 
uOf madam V* <* You know I have an aversion to idolatrj^, 
to images, and pictures of this kiqd.^* ^ Wherein i§ the . 
idolatry, may it please your majesty V^ ^^ In the 'cuts rcK : 
sembHng' angels and saints ; nay, grosser absurdities, pit^ 
tores reftembling the blessed Trinity." ^ <^ I ftieint nk. 
barm ; nor did I think it would offend your majesty. When 
I intended it for a new-year's gift.*^ << You must nelnfi.^ 
be ignorant then. Have you forgot our proclamatioe j 
against images, pictures, and Romish reliquesi in the;, 
churches ? Was it not read in your deaner^ f*^ ** It wai [ 
read. But be your majesty assured I meant no faffm whe^ 



N O W £ L L. i$» 

I cAQsed'tfae co& to be boaod with the sarvice-book."' ^' Yoii 
miiBt Deeds hie very ignorant to do this after o:ur prohibitioii: 
ol tbem.^' *^ It being my ignorancev your majesty may- the 
better pardon me.'' *^ I am sorry for it ; yet ghtd to hear 
it was your ignorance rather than ' your opinioD«'' '^ Be* 
your majesty assured it was my igqorance.'' *^ If so, Atr. 
dean, God grant you his spirit, and more wisdom- for the 
future." " Amen, I pray God.'* " I pray,. Mr. Dean.^ 
how came you by these pictures ? who engraved them ?• 
f'fl know not who engraved them; I bought them.'* ^* ftoai- 
whom bought you them ?" ** From a Geihaian.'* '* It is 
well it was from a stranger. Had it been any of our sub^ 
jeets, we should have questioned the matter. Prity let'ni^ 
mole xf( these mistakes, or of this kind, be' committed 
wiiliin tb^ churches of our realm for the future.*' ^* There- 
shall not^.'* IStrype adds to this curious dialogue, that it 
eitisett all the cjiergy in and about London, and the church- 
wardehs' of each parish, to search their, churches^ and 
ctepels ;- and to wash out of the walls all paintings thai 
se^fmed to be: Romish apd idplatarous; in lieu 'whereof, 
aaitable texts of Hcdy Scripture were writtenf. 

Towards the close, of 1562, his patron Grindal), bishoji 
of London, collated him to the valuable rectory c^ Great 
Hadbam^ ia Hertfordshire, where the ample tithe-barn 
which he built still remains. Nowell was one of those emt^ 
ntet ' men mentioned by Isaac Walton, who were fond of* 
angling,; a&d to enable him more cominodiously to indulge 
in- this amusement, Qr. Sandys, the succeeding bishop oJT 
London, conferred on him a grant of- the custody of the 
nver,. within the inanov of Hadbam, with leave to take tish./ 
audio ctt< down timber, to make pits and dams, free of 
all «xpence whatsoever. When the memorable convoca-* 
titity in which the .Articles of Religion were revised and 
sobeCribed, met in 1563, Nowell w^s chosen prolocutor of 
tbA/lowiar hJDibse;' Among >other more importarot matterSf 
ijbies and ceremoBies were warmly agitated in this house. 
Ouptbis'oee^sioii, ^ow<ell, with about thirty others^ chiefly 

sudrasfliad been' exiles during queen Mary*s reign, pro** 

.* • • • . .• . 

, ^. Ifa)*etloffeD((«d the. queen on ano- occasion her majesty quite confounded! • 

lber'dccasion« while preachiug, by ex- the poor dean, by calling abud to him 

jniiiinj waito ^slake of the sign of the from her closet windoir, commandlnqr 

Tt^fHit SfpOfdina ^ somey hnt» at bit him "to retire from that ungwlly dii» 

hiographer thinks, by some allusion, to gression, and to return tq his text." 
tMNMiMm which reittiiined for some Churtoii's Life of Nowell, p. HO, 

tiMllik^iMit fnasa^ chaptk Oa this . 

8 9 



■260 N O W E L L. 

po^ed that some other long garment should be used lnBt€fad 
of the'surplice, or that the minister should, iti time of dirirfe 
service, use the surplice only ; that the sign bf the cross 
should b^ omitted in baptism, and that kneeling ar the 
holy communion should be left to the discretion of the 
ordinary ; that saints' days should be abrogated, and organs 
removed. But the aiajority would allow of no alteratkm 
ip the liturgy or rules of Edward the Sixth's sefvide-boAk 
(knowing the wisdom/ deliberation, and piety, with which 
It had been framed) as it was already received and enforced 
by the authority of parliament, in the first .year of the 
queen. During the plague, the ravages of which this year, 
were very extensive, he was appointed to draw up a hoitrify 
suitable to the occasion, arid a form of '^ prayer fer general 
use, both of which were set forth by the queen's special 
commandment, July 10, 1563, • ' - 

Nowell, who continued to be a very frequent, and one 
of the most approved oi the public preachers ^at PanI- s 
Gross, introduced iu one of his sermons, Harding's ahavi^er 
to Jewell, reading some paiss'ages of it, and dohfuting 
them. This was.no uncommon practice in those days, 
during; the activity of the popish party, and befoi'e matters 
of controversy could be usefully committed to the press. 
In the same year he noticed, in anotlier of his sermons, 
Bprman's answer to Je«yell, and appears from this time to 
have employed his leisure in preparing a more formal an- 
swer to that heap of misrepresentations. It was in 1 5^69 
that Jevi^ell made his famous challenge to the papiatsi that 
none of the peculiar and discriminating dogmas of popery 
could be proved, either by warrant of scripture, or by ati* 
thority of the fathers or councils, during six hundred ^yeiu^ 
from the birth of Christ. Attempts were made to answer 
this challenge by Rastell, and Ha/ding, (see thieir articles) 
and now Mr. Dorman published what he* called *^ A Proof 
of certain articles in Religion, denied by Mr. Jewel}.'* 
Against this, Nowell published, ** A Reproof ^of a bo6k, 
^entitled ^ A Proof,' &c." 1565, 4to^ reprinted^ with soihe 
additions, in little mpre than a month. In the same year 
appeared Dprman's " Disproof of Nowell's Reproof," fol- 
Towedin 1566 by Nowell's " Continuation of bis Repirbdf," 
and in 15^7^ by his ^\ Confutation as ^weil of Mr. Dormi^'s 
Ifist book, intituled ^ a Disproof,' &c." a^^ also of Dr. 
S^tiders's causes of Transubstaptiation," &c. In tlHsbbn- 
if'overf^y Nowell's learning and deep knowledge of-^e^efe* 



N O WE L L; 261 

statical history were not more conspicuous than the can-' 
^our with which he treated his adversaries. He appeafst 
to hatre had the aid of the bishop of London and other high 
qharactdrs of . the time in the f publication of these wocks, 
which appeared to his learned contemporaries to be of such 
importance to the cause of the reformation and the cha-? 
'^acter of the reformed church, as to merit their utmost 
care, even in the minutiae of typographical correction.' 
7bta circumstance, says his biographer, shows ^* howso-^' 
Ucitous the persons to whom, under God, we in great 
pleasure owe the final reformation of our church, were 
ut. Veritas ipsa limaretur in disputationCy that genuine truth 
jpaight be fully known, and accurately expressed." 
J .NowelPs preaching as well as writing, appears to have 
greatly assisted . the reformation. In 1568 we find him- 
among his friends in Lancashire ; where, by his continual 
rprea^hing in divers parts. of the country, he brought many 
|o . conformity ; and obtained singular commendation and 
praise, even of those who had been great enemies to his 
religion. So Downham, bishop of Chester, who this year 
irisited his whole diocese, and therefore had the better op-^ 
portunity of informing himself, reported the matter ta 
secretary Cecil ; desiring him to be a mean»to the queen, 
and to her honourable council, to give the dean thanks for 
vbis great pains, taken among his cpuntrymen. 
. ^; I'be principal rempnning monument of Nowell's fame is 
, his celebrated ** Catechism," of the history of which and of 
oatechisms in general, his biographer has given a very in- 
«ter:esting detail.. The precise time when he wrote it has 
not.b^eea discovered ; nor whether, as is not improbable^ 
be first devjsed it (or some such summary) for the use of 
his puptls in Westminster-school. It is, however, cer** 
tain that it was composed, and in readiness for publication, 
before the convocation sat in 1562, for, among the; mi- 
nutes of matters to be moved in that synod, we find two 
■memorable papers, both of them noted by the arphbishop 
<of Canterbury 's hand (Parker), and one of them drawn up 
l^y one of his secretaries, in both of which there is express 
. mention of NowelPs catechism. For the proceedings of 
the convocation on the. subject, we (must refer to his ex* 
cellent biographer. . ^The work was not published until 
June 157.0, -4to.. This is what is called his " Larger Ca- 
. tepbism/' and. in the. preface it is announced that he in* 
.5^^4etl to pufatUsb it^: reduced into a si^QFter comp%sS| as. 



463 N W E L L. 

soon as posiiible. The abridgment acoofdingly came oiril 
^e same year, and both in Latin. They were soon after,- 
for the sake of more extensive usefulness* translated into 
English, by Thomas Norton, of whom we have lately taken 
njotice, and into Greek by. the. Dean's nephew, Whitaker, 
but the Greek trj9inslation of the Urger, which was first 
printed (along with the Latili) did not appear until 157S^ 
and that of the smaller in 1575. His biographes gives 
som^ account of a third Catiechism, attributed to Kowell^' 
but its history seems involved in some obscurity.' There 
seems reason to think that this was, in whole or in piart; 
what is now called " The Church Catechism.** NowdPs 
other catechisms were in such request as tb go through a 
great many impressions,, and long continued to be used in 
schools, and the use bf them appears td have been 'fre-^ 
quently ^njoindd by !the founders of schools, and men- 
tioned Expressly in the statutes drawn up for such semi* 
iiaries. What public authority and private influence could 
do^ was riot wanting to recommend these catechisms as 
the foundation of religious knowledge. In fact, the church 
catechism,' the homilies, and NoweIl*s catechisms, appeal^ 
to'lHLve long bedn the standard books, which were quoted 
as authorities for ail that the church of England be-^ 
lieved and taught; and NowelPs'were within these few 
years reprinted in the " Enchiridion Theologicum,** by 
Vr. Randt>lph, late bishop of London^ and by Dr. Cleaver^ 
late bishop of St. Asaph. 

In 1572 he completed the endowment at one and thd 
same time, of a fre^- school at Middleton.in Lanoasbirey 
and' of thirteen scholarships in- Brazen-nose college ; and 
as these benefactions were both of them established by 
royal patent (her majesty also of her free bounty encou- 
raging and assisting him), he chose that the school should 
be <;aUed queen Elizabeth's school, and the scholars ^ueeri^ 
Elizabeth's scholars. This benefaction to the coUe^ge was 
peculiarfy seasonable, as in consequence of a severe piagu6 
at Oxford^ in the preceding year, and for Want of exhibl*^ 
tibns to assist them in iheir studies, some of the scholars 
were compelled to go about requesting alms, ttaviiig ti- 
cence ^o to do, as an act of parliament required, undei^ 
the coifomoh seal of the university. Idowell was at all: times* 
a z^dalous psitron of learning, and was much looked up td* 
in that chara;cter^ as: appears not only by'liis being fre-' 
quently consulted on schen^a for tb6 promotion of nberal' 



N O W E L U 863 

afiucalion, bot also by the numerous dedications of lestrned 
books to faim. Books that had a tendency to inculcate the 
principles of the reformation were also frequently published 
under the protection of his nam^, as one acknowledged 
'^ to be a learned and faithful preacher of God*s word, and 
an earnest furtherer of all godliness." In 1580 the queen 
igpranted him a licence of non-residence for thre^ month.s 
and fourteen days, that he might visit his scholars of Bra* 
8en-:nose, and the school at Middleton, her majesty << hav- 
ing long, by sure proof, known his experience and skill in 
business, as well as earnest desire and constant solicitude 
for .tl|e training up of youth in leariiing and virtue/' It 
\ya^ indeed his great success as a preacher, an^ his emiT 
pence as an opponent of popery, that procured him the 
honour of having his works pi;oscribed in the *^ Index libro*. 
rtidi.prphibitqrum;'' and his name, together with that of 
1^0X9 Fleetwood the recorder, and others, inserted at Rome 
in, a '^.bede-roll,'' or list of persons, that were to be dis- 
patche;d} and the particular mode of their death, as bj 
tnirning or banging, pointed out. Campion, the great 
e.missary from. Rome^ being apprehended, Nbwell, and May 
dean of Windsor, held, in August 1681, a conference with^ 
biqi in the Tower, of which an account was afterwards 
{lublished under the title of ^' A True Report of the dispu- 
tation or rather private conference had in the Tower of 
Ifiondon^with £d. Campion Jesuite, &c." Lond. 1583, 4to^ 
In 1588 Nowell quitted the preb^qd (Willand) he bad. 
so iong held in St. Paul's fpr another, that of Tottenham 
]Q ^he same church, and upon this occasion resigned hi^ 
living of Hadham. In the following year the queen gave 
him the next presentation . to a cauonry qf Windspr, ** in 
consideration of bis. constapt preaching of the word of God, 
4^ring the space of almost forty year^;'' and because be 
had lately resigned the rectory of Hadham and prebend of 
^iUand, as being, through age ^nd imbecility of body, 
upt oqual to the duties of them ; nor likely, on a;Ccount of 
bis extreme age and, infirm, health, long to enjoy either bii^ 
presept or any future preferment.. He jived, however, tO' 
SHccj^ed to a canonry of Windsor in^. 1594. In 1595^ pa 
the death of Mr. Harris, the fourth principal of Braseur 
nose college, Nowell was chosen to succeed him^ Tbisf 
deption pf a man now on the verge of ninety, was perhaps ; 
intended or accepted rather as a compliipent^ tiian with a 



V- 



i«i K O W E L L. 

vi^w to the performance of much aictail service, and ae^' 
cofdingly be resigned it in a few months. 

Dean Noweli died Feb. 13, 1601-2, in the niBety-fifth' 
year of his age, almost forty years &fter he had began to* 
reckon himself an old man. <' But notwithstanding his very 
great age and frequent sicknesses, such was the original 
strength of his constitution, and such the blessing of pro<«^ 
vidence on a life of piety> peace, and temperance, that** 
ifeither his memory nor any of his faculties were impaired;*' 
and to the last, it is said, he was able to read the smallest* 
print without the help of glasses." He was interred in St, 
Mary^s chapel, at the back of the high altar in St. Paal'S), 
in the same grave where^ thirty-three years before, he bad-, 
buried his beloved brother Robert Noweli. He was twice 
inarried, but bad no issue by either of his wives. 

For the minutiae of his character, the reader will find'- 
ample gratification in the elaborate life lately published by- 
Mr. Archdeacon Cburtoii. It concerns a long period ot. 
our ecclesiastical history, anditi every history indleed men-* 
tion is made of NowelPs eminent services in promoting and? 
establishing the reformed religion. Endowed, says Mr,- 
Churton, with excellent parts, he was- soon distinguished by 
the progress he made in the schools of Oxford; where be* 
devoted thirteen years, the flower of his life and the best 
time for improvement, to the cultivation of classical ele*** 
gance and useful knowl<ddge. His capacity for teachings 
tried first in the shade of the university, beca(me more con* 
spicuous when he was placed at the head of the first se-i 
minary in the metropolis ; and at the same time his talentft 
as a preacher were witnessed and approved by some of the 
{Principal auditories of the realm. Attainments such as 
these, and a life that adorned them, rendered him a fit 
object for Bonner's hatred; but Providence rescued him 
from the fangs of the tyger, in the very act of springing 
upon his prey. Retirement, suffering, and study, in the 
company of Jewell, Grindal, and Sandys, stimulated by 
the conversation and example of Peter Martyr, and ether 
famed divines of Germany, returned him to his native land,, 
with recrciited vigour and increasing lustre, when the days 
of tyranny were overp^t. Elizabeth, and her- sage coun«5 
9f llor Burghley, placed him at once in an eminent situa-* 
tjioii among those of secondary rank in the churcb> and 
accuinulated other preferments upon him ; and would pror 
^ablv biave advanced him to the episcopal bencb> had n/^ 



N o wl; L L. ies 

ys rei^ modesty, together with the consciousness of ap<* 
pfoaohing old age, been known to have created in him a 
fixt determination not to be raised to a station of greater 
dignity : which, however, all things considered, could 
scarcely, in his case, have been a sphere of greater useful- 
iwisk Near to his fViend and patron, the excellently pious 
and prudent archbishop Parker, and not distant from the 
ecHiit, he was an able coadjutor to each and to all, in 
bringing forward and perfecting, what they all had at 
heart, the restoration of true aad pure religion.^ 
. NOWELL (Laurence), younger brother to the pre- 
oedkig, and dean of Lichfield, was entered of Brasen-nose 
college, Oxford, in 1536, the same year in which his 
elder brother in the same college became B. A. After a 
little while. Wood says, he went to Cambridge, was ad« 
likitted to the degree of B. A. in that university, and re- 
incorporated at Oxford in July 1542, where he proceeded 
M. A. March 18, 1544. In 1546 he was appointed master 
of the grammar-school at Sutton Colfield^i in Warwickshire ; 
but was not yet, as Wood makes him, in sacred orders ; 
for he was not orHained a deacon till 1550. He was not 
suffered to continue long in quiet possession of the school ; 
for articles of complaint were exhibited againsthim by the 
oorporation, as patrons of the school, in the court of chan- 
^0^9 upon a pretence of neglect of duty ; though the real 
ground of offence appears to have beenrhis zeal for the re- 
f<Mrauition ; and therefore, on appeal to the king in council, 
be justified his character and conduct so well, that letters 
were issued to the warden and fellows of the King*s town 
of Sutton, not to remove him from his place of school- 
Blaster, nor to give him any farther molestation or disturb- 
ance. 

Daring the ^troubles in Mary's days he was concealed 
for some time in the house of sir John Perrot, at Carew-^ 
eastle in Pembrokeshire ; but before the queen died, he 
went to bis brother Alexander and the exiles in Germany, 
On bis return he was made archdeacon of Derby and dean 
of Lichfield, in April 1559 ; had the prebend ofFerring in 
the cathedral of Chichester in August 1563, and of Am- 
pleford in York in 1566, and the rectory of Haughtoii and 
Drayton Basset, in the county of Stafford. He died in 
or aboutf the month of October, 1576. 

} Uie, 3pc. as above-by Mr. ArobdeaconCbortOQiOxford^ 1809, Svo. 



. He wi% M Wood jilftlj obccrves, '' a most 
ifea^cbeir.UHoi venerable antiquity." He haj also thu pe« 
culiaf meriti that he revived and encouraged the i^glected 
iindy of the Saxon language) so essential, to the accurato 
|ii5>wiedge of our legal antiqui[ties, as well as to the eluci-* 
dation of ecelesiastical and civil history. In these studies^* 
vhilq be resided, ^s is si^id, in the chambers of his brotbec 
Bobe^ Nowell (the qu^en^s attomey-geneijal of th0 court 
of wards), he had the celebrated William Lambard^ ior bit 
pupil, who: availed hi^iaelf pf bis uot^^. and assistance iife 
composing .his learned work on the ancient laws of England. 
Be wrote a Saxon vocabulary or dictioQary, still extant m 
pa^i^scripty :Which he gave to hi^ pupil ^ambard^, from* 
i^hom it passed to Somner, the learned antiquary 'of Caii^ 
terbury, who made use of it in compiling his Saxon 4ic« 
Ijonary. It then came into the bands of Mr. Selden, and 
i^ now, with other bopks of that great man, pjrinted and 
ipanuscript, reposited in the Bodleiap library at Oxford. 
Mr« Tbpresby, the historian of Leeds, bad a quarto AIS. 
entitled '< Polycbronicon,*' > miscellaneous coUectioa, at 
it seems, containing, perambulations of forests and other 
matters, in the hand-writing of Lawrence Nowell, 15'65« 
Th^re are also ^* Collectanea'*' by him, relating chiefly to 
ecclesiastical affairs, in the Cottpn library. He appears ta 
I)ave been in learning, piety, and meekness of spirit, the 
worthy brother of the dean of St. Paul's. ' 

NOY (WiLUAM), attorney-general in the reign of 
Charles L the son of William Noy, of St. Burian, in Cornv 
vfatly gent; was born in 1577.. In 1593 he was enteted of 
Exeter^college, where he continued three years in close 
appUcatiop to his studies. Thence be was removed to 
Lincoln's-inn, to study the common law, in the knowledge? 
of which he became very eminent. He. was^cbtisen .to re-* 
present the. borough of HeUton in his own country, to«r 
wards the end of Jameses reign, in two parliaments ; io^ 
both of which he shewed himself a professed enemy to the 
king's prerogative. In 1625 be was elected a burgess for- 
^t. Ives, in which parliament, and another folldwing, he> 
continued in the same sentiments, until he was made at*-* 
tprney-general in 1631, which {Produced a total change in* 
bis views, and be became not only a supporter of the pre«- 
rogative where it ought to be supported, bat carried hit* 



I Life of Novell, by Arebdeaoon Cttliirtedtf 



't 



N o y. wt 

Hf^tiooft of this power so &r as to »dTide the niMsute of 
tbip-monej, a tax levied without consent of psrliament 
He was unquestionably a man of great abilities^ but flat« 
tered so much upon that account, ^at Clarendon says he 
thought '^ he could not give a clearer testimony that his 
knowledge in the law was greater than all other men's, than 
by making that law, whiph all other men. believed not te 
be so. So be moulded, framed, and pursued the odious 
and crying project of soap ; and with hi^ own habd'drew^ 
|tnd prepared the writ for ship-money ; both which will be 
^e lasting monuments of his fame. In a word,'' adds thiib 
excellent historian^ *^ he* was '^ an- unanswerable instance^ 
bow necessary a good education and knowledge of men ia 
to make a wise man, at least a man fit for busirie^.*' No}r^ 
l^owever, did not live to see the full effect of his measures; 
In 1634 his health was much impaired by the faitigu^ aris^ 
pkg from his professional duties, aY)d he I'etired to Tun* 
bridge Wells, where he died in August, and was buried 
at New Brentford. His will, which is dated June 3, about 
a month or six weeks before his death, contains the fol<^ 
lowing singular clause : *^ All the rest of my estate I leave 
^ my son £dward (who is executor to this my will), to be 
squandered as he shall think fit : I leave it him for that 
purpose, and I hope no better from him." Steele, in the 
Tat}er, No. 9, observes that this ^' generous disdain, and 
refiection uponr how little l)e deserved from so excellent a 
father^ reformed the young man, and made Edward from 
an arrant rake become a fine gentleman." No such effect 
bowever followed ; and within two yearii he was killed in 
i^duel. 

^ The king is said to have been much iaffected with attor** 
x^y^gevieviX Noy's death, and Laud paid him this compli** 
ment in bis '^ Diary :" <* I have lo^t a near friend of himj 
and the Church the greatest she had of his condition, since 
rile nfeeded aViy such." But the commons in geiieral re^^ 
jbiced; and the vintners, says 'Wood, or rather Howell^ 
drank carouses, in- hopes to dress meat again, and sell to<^ 
badd.O, beer, &c. which' by & siilien capncto Noy restrained 
theni- from. The players too, for whom he had done nd^ 
kitldmcfss, intrbditc^d him on the stage, and tnad6 him the 
subject of ridicule, in a, comedy entitled, '< A Projecto^ 
lately dead, &c." He was allowed, however, to'hate been* 
a very profound lawyer*.' This charticter 6'f him appbars 

* Uoyd informs that it was Koy wbo graziers. /'Tbnte graziers at a fair 
llccidsd the carious case of the three had left their money with their bosteti 



MS 



Nov. 



jpstifiable from tbe writings he left behind, and from th<^ 
following books afterwards published, mostly- during tfcte' 
commoib-wealth, When theii* dierit only could have recom^ 
fhended them. 1. " A Treatise of the principal Grounds 
and 'Maxims of the Laws of England," 1641, 4to, after- 
wards Svo, and i2md. 2. ** Perfect Conveyancer ; or^ se- 
veral select aAd choice Precedents,'* 1655, 4t0. "Re-* 
ports of Cases in the time of Queen Elizabeth, K. Jamesj 
and K. Charles the First; containing the most excellent 
Exceptions for all manner of Declarations, Pleadings, and 
Demurs,' exactly examined and laid down,^' 1656, foL and 
reprinted in 1669. 4. " Complete Lawyer; or, a Trea- 
tise concerning Tenures and Estates in Lands of Inherit- 
ance for Life,^ and other Hereditaments and Chattels re^l 
and personal,'' &c. 1661, 8vo. 5, "Arguments of Law 
and Speeches." '* 

He also left behind him several choice collections that 
he had made from the records in the Tower of London, re-i 
duced into two large paper books of his own halnd^writing: 
one confined collections coi\cerning the king's maintain-* 
iog his n&val power according to the practice of his ances- 
tors ; ^lid the other about the privileges and jurisdiction' 6f 
^olesiastical courts. ^ 

' NUCK (Anthony), a distinguished Dutch physician 
and anatomist, but a German by birth, was greatly dis- 
tinguished by his anatomical labours, both at the Hague 
iand at Leyden, in. the latter part of the seven teeilth' cen- 
tury. He filled the office of professor of anatomy-aiid 'sur- 
gery in the univer^ty of Leyden, and was also president of 
the college of surgeons. He pursued his dissections fi^itli 
* great ardour, cultivating both human and comparative 
anatomy at' every opportunity. In these pursuits, within 
fight years he dissected above sixty human bodies, be- 



«b ile they went to market ; one of them 
ealls for the money and runs away ; 
the oUier two came upon the woman, 
and sue h^r for- delivering that which 
^he had received from the three, before 
the three came and demanded it. Ttie 
cause went against the woman, and 
judgment was ready to be pronounced n 
when Mr. Noy being a stranger, wish- 
etb her to give him a fee, because he 
could not else plead f and theo raovei 

1 Aih. Ox. I. 594.-«^Clatendon'8 Hist.— L]loyd*s State :Worthtef.«*-Fitl^r'« 
.Worthies — ^Howell's Utt^, Book L Sect. V|. Utter ^Vd. 



io arrest of judgment,, that he was-rr* 
tained by the defendant, and that tbe 
case was this: the defendant had re- 
ceived the money of the three together, 
and confesseth was not to deliver .it 
until the same three demanded it; and 
therefore the money is ready : let the 
three men come, and it shall belaid; 
a motion which altered the whole pro- 
ceedings.**' ■■'■'• ^ 



\ 



N U C K. 269 

8^69 Ibo^e oftbe animal , creation, and made many dis^ 
Goveriies by means of injections, . but at ttuit time this art 
bad not attained its full perfection, quicksilver being the 
only substance used*. He died about 1692. The follow- 
ing is. a catalogue of bis publications : ^^ De Yasisaquosis 
Qculi,*' Leid. 1635; ^f De Ductu salivali novo, Saliv&, 
ductibus aquosis et bumore aqueo oculorum,^' ibid. 1686, 
^oipe subsequent editions of this work were entitled *^ Sia- 
lographia, et duc^uumaquosorumAnatome nova;'' /<Ade<* 
nogmpbia, curiosa, et Uteri foeoiinei Anatome nova, cum 
J^pistola ad.Aoxicura de I>nyentis..novis,'* ibid. Idd2, &c. 
^^ Operationes et £xpei:imenta Cbtrurgica,'* ibid.. 16 92, and 
freque^ntly reprinted. The three lastr mentioned . works 
were published together in 3 vols. 12mo, at Lyons, in 1722. 
There • are some MSS.. under bis ,name in the. British Mu- 
seum, in Ayscough's Catalogue, but they do not appear 
to be. originals.,^ < . , 

. NUGENT (Robert-Craggs, Earl), a nobleman. of 
poetical V celebrity, was. a descendant from the Nugentsof 
Carlanstown, . in the 'county of Westmeath, and viras a 
younger son of Michael Nugent, by. Mary, daughter. of 
Bobert lord Trimleston. , He was chosen M. P. for St. 
Mawes, in Corawall, in 1741; appointed- comptroller of 
the. household of Frederick, prince of Wales, in 1747.; a 
lord of the treasury in 1 7 5 4 ; . one of. the irice- treasurers ,of 
Ireland in ,1759 ; and a lord of trade in 1766. In .1767 be 
was created baron Nugent and viscount Clare, and in. 1776 
earl Nugent,: with: re^iainder to his son-in-law,. the late 
marquis of Bi^ckingham. His lordship was. thrice, married ; 
hia sf^Qond- wife was Anne, sister and heiress to secretary 
.Craggs, the friend of .Pope and .Addison, by whom be 
acquired: a large fortune. She was at the time of her 
jparriage to him, in ;L73$, in her secoqd. widowhood, having 

been first tbe wife of Newsham,e9q. of Chadshunt, in 

War\nckshire, and^aecondly of John Knight, esq. of Bel- 
lowes, or Belhouse, or Gosfield-ball, in Essex. . Mucb 
of Papers correapondence .with this lady Js inserted in the 
imppletueptary vplume qf the h^st edition of that poet's 
\rorks. . Earl Nugent died. Oct. 43, 1788.. 
,. Earl. Nugent .cultivated literature .not unsuccessfully, 
]^ad agreeable talents for poetry, but never rose to great 
eminence as a politician. Yet he was a steady friend to 

< V Moi«ri.—- Eloy Diet* iltit. de fifedecinf. 



rto N U O E M T. 

hU country (Ir^Iachd), and alvirays a poi^erfiil pleaidet (of* 
b«r interests. This be evinced rather wbimsically on one 
occasion in l?75, by addressing ** Verses to the Qdeeiit* 
with a New Year's Gift of Irish Manufacture/* a 4to poeiii,' 
accoqipanietf by a present of Irish grogram. The wits of 
^e timcasserted that her majesty was graciously pleased to' 
thank the noble author for both his pieces of stuffl Lord 
Qrford says that Earl Nugent ^* was one of those men bt 
parts whose dawn was the bri^hteat moment of a long life;- 
and who, though possessed of different talents, employed 
tbem in depreciating his own fame^ and destroying aU 
bpiuion of ' bis judgment, except in the point of raising' 
himself to bononn. Re was first known by the noble od^ 
op his awn conversion from popery ; yet, strong as was the 
energy and reasonings in it, his arguments operated but 
temporary conviction 01^ himself, for he died a memh^ of- 
the church he had exposed so severely." So much was this^ 
ode admire^ that, its be waa ktiowh to assbcfate with the 
wits of Pope's circle, and those who adorned lliie' court of 
Frederick prince of Wales, he was supposed to have been 
assisted by some of them ; but for this there beems n<!». 
reasonable ground. Mai>y of bis poeti;^2Cl productions are 
good, and be was oer^takily known to be capable Of the 
best of Cheih,c while be could at the same time descend to^ 
the worst, incooscious of their inferiority. A vojuihe of 
his paetns was published anonymously by Dodsley, and 
Entitled << Odes and Epistles/' Lond« 1739, 8vo, 2d. edit 
This contains the ode above mentioned 011 bis religion^' 
which is addressed to William Pulteney, esq. There are 
also other pieces by him in Dodsley's collection, and the 
^ New Foundling Hospital for Wit.'* His <• Verses to tb^ 
Queen,*' and his *< Faith, a poem,** were the only bnet 
published separately, the latter in 1774, and the former 
in 1775. The latter was a strange attempt to dverturn thd 
Epicurean doctrine by that of the Trinity^ anil was cer- 
tainly one of those productions by wliich, as lord Orford 
observes, be depreeiated'bts o«vn ihtme;^ ' 

NUGENT (Thomas), a miscellaneous writer and trans-» 
lator of the last century, was a native of Ireland, who' 
merits some notice, although we have not been abfe'to 
recoTor many particulars of his^ history. He appears to 



1 Walpole'i Royal ana Noble Aatbora io his WorkiM— Park's edition of ditta. 
—Swift's W^rks, ?ol. XVIll.— Sowks's ^fe$ Wwkf, vol. X. 



Jf U GENT. Sfi 

h^v4 resided the greater part of^his life in Liondoti,- ^tia. 
employed bis pen on various works for the booksellers, 
pirinoipally translations. In 1765 be received the degree 
of LL. D. from the university of Aberdeen. He died at 
his apartments in Gray's Inn» April 27» 1779, with the 
character of a man of learning, industry, and contented 
temper. The first of his translations which we b^ve met 
Witb» was that of Burlamaqui's ^^ Principled of Politic Law,*^ 
1752, 8vo. This was followed by the abb6de Gondiltac^s 
" Essay on the origin of Human Knowledge,** 1756, dvdi 
Macquer's " Chronological abridgment of the Roman His* 
tory/*' 1759, 8vo; and Henault's " Chrbhological abridg^ 
meut of the History of France,'* 1762, 2 vols. 8vo, . lit 
17^ be travelled on this continent fot the purpose of coU 
lecting materials for his ^^ History of Vandalia," which' h^ 
eompieted in 3 vols. 4to, in 1776. This tour also occa* 
sioned his publishing ** Travels through Germany,*^ &c. 9 
vok^ 8vo. We find him afterwards appearing as eomptief 
or translator of a " History of France ;** ** New ObsemU 
tions on Italy ;** *^ The present state of Europe ;** ih6 
'< Life of Benvenuto Gellini ;** Grossley*s « tour to Lon^ 
Jon ;^' a French I>ictionary, &c. &c.. His translatbos wer^ 
generally admired for elegance and accuracy'; his prih^ 
cipal failur^e was inihe translation of Rousseau's <^ Emilius,^. 
but it seems doubtful wbether he translated this,, or onljf 
permitted bis name to be used. 

this Mntleman has often'been confounded 'with Chris'^ 
tbpher Nugent, WE. D. and F. R. S. who died Nov. la, 1775,' 
and whose daughter became the wife of the celebrated Ed^ 
arand Burke. Sir John Hawkins says he was ai^ ingenious^ 
li^nsible, and learned man, of easy conversation,' and elegaiii 
manners. Dr. Johnson had a high opinion of him, ami 
atwi^s spoke of him in terms of great respect. We knoW 
6t only onef publication front bis pen, which iappeitred in 
1753, an ** Essay on the Hydrophobia." * , ' 

. NUtsTEZ, 01^ NUNNEZ {F£RDiNANt>y, one of th* re-' 
fttorers of literature in Spain, flourished in the sixteenth 
century^ and was -born at Valladolid, in Latin Pincium^ 
ivhenee he was sometimes called Pincianus. His father, 
of the illustrious family of Guzman, was superinteodant of 
Ihe finanees, or treasurer to Ferdinand the catholic. ' At' 
entitled by birth, he received, when of proper age^ the 



072 N U N £ 2.- 

^onour bf kni^hood of St. Jago ; but ih^ eafliast ta8$4 
being decidedly for- literature^ be (put himself uddec a 
regular course of instruction for that purpose, ancLhavttig 
a particular desire to become acquainted with the Gre^fc 
language, .then little known in Spain, after some elemenrn 
tary instruction jn^ grammar under Antonig Lebrixa, ha 
went to Bologna, and applied with the greatetst ardour tq 
Greek and Latin under Jovis^p of Pelopqnesus, and PhiUfi^ 
Beroaldus. Having learned what, these celel^rat^d masters 
were able to teach, he determined to improve hipMJEslf by 
every means^ and laid out large sums in tbe-p^ehasex>f 
Greek books and MSS. with which he returned to Spawy 
and devoted the* whole of his time and attentiou to the. 
studies he had begun with so much success. He a p pca^pf r 
to have been, first employed .by- cardinal X.iip^ne^ oa hi^, 
celebrated Polyglot, and executed, the greater pfirt of the 
Latin version. He then succeeded Demetrius Luca q{ 
Crete, as Greek professor in the university of Alcala* tben. 
founded by the cardinal ; but some dilates, which oc*^^ 
curred in Ibis university obliged him to seek a situation of 
more tranquillity. This he found at Salams^nca, tbe -jmost; 
famous i|niversity pf Spain, where he was ap[)pii)ted Greek 
professor, and also taught rhetoric, and lectured^ on Pliny's 
natural history. Here he formed many distinguished scho- 
lars^ acquired the esteem of the. learned men.- of bis time,^ 
and was for many years the great patron and teacher of 
dfMsical studies. He assisted- likewise in, the correetion 
and revision of some of the ancient authors. He died 
nbout the age of eighty, in 1 555, according to. Aotcknio,. or 
1552, according toTbuanus and others,^ bequeathing bis 
valuable library to the univ^^rsity of Salamanca, and hi^ 
other property to the poor. . His private character appears, 
to have been estimable ^ be kept a plain, but hospitably, 
table, at^ which he loved to see his friends and s<;bolarS| 
whom he delighted and edified by his conversation. Amot^g. 
his works are, 1. '* Annotationes in SeuiQC^B Philosophi 
Opera/' Venice, 1536, which Lipsius calls a modeKof just 
criticisiti. 2, '^ Observationes in Pomponiutn Melain/' Sar, 
lamanca, 15^3, 8vo. 3. ^^ Observationes in loca qbscjim;^. 
et depravata Hist. Nat. C. Plinii, cum retractationibuit. 
quorundam locorum Geograpbice Pomponii Melse, locisavi^ 
aiiis non .poucis in diversis utriusque liuguas authoriEu^ 
castigatis et expositis,'' Antwerp,! 547, fbl. Antonio thinks 
there was a prev^oijis edition at Salamanca in 1^44, as^tfaere 



N.UNEZ. rm 

* I 

Inikkifiiyi Wfti a subk^oent one at Fraliefort' ip IMtf, fol^ 
tut Saxius cs^ls. the Antwerp edition aaaetavo* 3* ^ Glosa 
fobt-e- tas obras de Juan de Men V* Saville^ 1 SM^ foL ai^ 
Toledo^ 1541 f-foh This h a oommantltfy in tbe^ Spanish 
JaYigrQdge on the works 6f John de'Mena^ a poet of OcMxlo¥a;r 
4/A cotleetiion' of Sfianish proTerbn, began in hiaoid age»> 
and published under the tide ^^ Riofraoies^.o Provevbi€»en' 
lhmiatice,V Salamasca, (ol.l&Sl^* Of this ectttionitherfc 
IS a copy in the British Museam #ith MS notes« It waa 
reprinted at Madrid iti 1619, 4to,* 

t- NUNEZ, Pero. SeeNONNIUS* I- : ; 

i NiUTT.(Jo8EPH)»' a very ingenious man^ wasi tkeiJoai 
of Robert and Sarah rNott, and bonir at Hinckley in Sep^ 
tinnberiTOO^ '• He was educated at the free gramaiar-scbool 
in .that town, where he made a very constderaMe progress 
in learning; and at a. proper age» was put apprentice to 
Mr.: John Parr of HineUey, an en»ineht apiotbecary;. in 
Which statiqn, by his dilq^nce at)d industry, he gained 
great confidence and respect froin bis odastjetr and tbd wboto 
^inily. After this, he attended the hospitals in London ; 
and on bis ripjtiirn'to Hinckley, carried on for ; many years 
a considerable business with reputaltian.aod sucj^esi/ SkMne 
time about the mijddfe of life he was ektosen one of the sur* 
veyors of the highways for the parish, when be adopted a new 
xnethod foi^improvingthe,same,.by tnrning over the roads the 
water that came from the town ; which being considerably 
enriched by iwasbing the streets and public smksy what b9 
could spare from the roads, or rather after it jKid done the 
business tb^re, he conveyed upon the landa of those who 
fscp^royed - of bis prdceedingsu The consequence was, the 
Jaild^was greatly enriched.. The efiect of the water ujp^a 
sthe'.road, in that part below the town that is now the Co- 
Ten txy turnpike^road, was, that it served like a boakingf-. 
iTOiU V ^be mnddy foul partd upon the land being, carri^ 
.ofl^ and the sandy, gravelly, and stony parts, remaining by 
-tbidir owhrgnaviiy,! wore Itftffirai;'^ for the road was sofie* 
tknes wet, and sometinle^ dry, as be let it out of a rOser« 
' toir.-fo|: :tbat porpose ^t pleasure. , % this method it bcf* 
^came good for saddle and pack-horses; the last of which 
.Wer^puch used. upon the roads at that tidie, the pit-cofil 
from the Warwickshire mines being' brought by themi in 
eonsMterable quantities. It -was also nracfa b^^er for tlia 

1 Aqtonio Bibl. Hitp.--Chaufepii^--Ssxii OpQjW^ 

Vol. XXIIL T 



9r4 N U T T. 

dinaft boi^^s;' though when mach used by these, evpecMlf 
to the ct>al boBiness, the wheels of these carriages being at 
tjbat time ?ery narrow, and generally lading on great ioads^ 
were apt to disturb and cut the roads; for the materlaU 
used were cdmmonly sand dug by the road side, which was 
done at a moderate expence. If upon this more gravelly 
or stony materials had been applied, there is no dottbt, 
liiough the expetice would have been greaitef,' the road 
would have been mueh better. This, being a new way of 
proceeding, met with a difference of reception in the pa«r 
rish; and some enemies were ready on every occasion to 
insult and ridicule their surveyor. He spent n)uch of his 
time in the valuation of land, and many persons eitter» 
tained a good opinion of his abilities in this branch,- partt^ 
eularly sir Dudley Ryder, when attomey-*generai> the an** 
cestor of the present lord Harrowby. * 

Mr: Nutt lived in terms of great friendship with the inv 
genioQs author of the Fleece, (rev. John Dyer, LL; B^) ia 
which he thus takes occasion to celebrate his usefiil talmtf r 

** Various as sether in the pastoral care : 
Through slow experience^ by a patient breast. 
Hie whole long lesson gradual is i^tain'd ; 
By precept after prec^, oftteoeiv'il 
With deep attention ; such a^ Niiceus sipgs - 
To the full vale wear Soar> * enpwour'd brook, 

^ While all is silence : sweet Hincklean swain ! 

Whom rude obscurity severely clasps : ' 
The muse^ howe'er, will detk thy simple eeH 
With purple violets and primrose lowers, 

i "Well-pleas'd thy £iithfiil Jesoons to npay;' 

He testified in his last will, bis desire of doing good to 
*his'niltive town where he lived, lyy giving (oppn eonditteh 
ilhat a fiew school should be built within 40 years after hh 
decease) five oak-trees then standing die best in' the 
hedg^-fow, except on^ which he willed and directed should 
^ot he felled, or cut down, or lopped within 100 years. 
-^He died in 17T5. Since then this tree has not been lop- 
-J>ed ; and is now standing (C812).^ . • - 

NUVOLONE, is the name of W family of painters, of 
whom Panfilo, the fattier, a Cremonese. wias the l^vou- 
rite scholar of Trotti, and for some time the Imitator of hia 

' ' 'Soar, a rlv«r in teiceatecrti&iB. 

> Mr. Nioho1i*s History of teicestersUire ; comtnunieatcd te this voik If 
Isbn Ward, ctq. ^ Hiacfcleyi^ 1«18. 



N Uy O.L.O N E* fTi 



k» bul mt^Twudh reUqquiabed it for 900 ii|f>r« sdid^ 
though le^a ftUuring. PlaoeQMa aod Mil«Q PW^W bif bjl«t 
works. He floiuriahed about 1.60S. Hjs e)^^st 900, Charki 
Franob^ was born 10 1608» fit Milw» wd If ft; tbn J^iwir 
plot, of 6. C. Procaecioo for (b« graqe^ of Qmio wiA » 
iuecQia fehat ^ill ioaurea him. tbd ai^mo of ^be LtOmbMi 
Gi^ido. More tihoine iban fopiA^s in oompoiiuofh ht 
fioruM. his figures with graae and deUc^qy, ftiid svyMtiy 
^imatea dieir oountqaaoces ; btoco bis JMj^donnaii ftlwnyf 
9€<iup7 a diatiaguiabed pla/ee ia gall«ri6«i« He diflid ift 
)6ll. His youAger brqtber, Jos^b» . if ho was bom in 
1619, with more, fire atid fAUoy* deUgb^ed m nuoiflCQiiP 
oQoiposiiioiiy and saprificf d cboioe and delicacy to roiurgy 
aed effect He painted much more than bii brother, . net 
only in I^imhardy, but through the Ven^tiw 9t«t9 wid m 
yaridus churches of Brescia. The Urge picture of A deei 
9iaa jreimaoitated by S. Dominic, at Cfemonaf fQr e^preST 
sion and maghifioefice of arrangement ui$y be f^oiiaidered 
as oae of his most powerful pxod|iQ|iona-^totaUy ei^^mpl 
from those symptoms pf decay wbioh disftgu^e QV dtbUitate 
many of bis later works ; for he lived to a gr^al agtf» add 
continued to paint till death fiutpiiflsd km in ]7Qa.^ . 

auzzi (Maeio), coeiioouiy bnowp by the name of Ma^ 
rio da' Fieri, a flower-painter, was born in I60i, at Pea oat 
in the kingdom^ of Naples;. He wa9 educated oader hit 
uncle Tomaso Salini, and being an ^ns^Qt obf^erfer ef nar 
tore, be employed himself in eopying the . finrnt floiren^ 
by which a dealer 4nade a" extraordinary prpSt in selUng 
them again. . Mario, informed of this cireQ9iS<:anfle» ani 
also learning that his perifotmaiiQes sold still hfgber a^ 
Homey resolved to visit that Qapital Here.he q«iokly , row9 
to a high degree of reputatipe> apd applied himself mosf^ 

diligently to attain perfeistion in bis braneb of tboart* Hif 
fepreaentatiOQs of nature were equally e^<^ and elegapt 1 
be chose his subjects with laste, handled bis peneil wilb 
wonderful lightnesf, and eoloured with aingular beagty } 
but, aceordiag to Fuseli« ^^ the ehaif« whieb Marie spread 
over bis flovsers was aot a permaeeni one : the impurity of 
t;be vehicle sqpo absorbed the freshness aed the bloom of 
bis g|b«ings, and left a squalid surfaee," Henoe bis pie-t 
tpvet did net long maintain the ei^traordinary priees al 
wbtch thi^ wore purchased* He wa«i e^ct^d a roeml^etr of 
St. Lobe, and died in 1673^ at the age of seventy.' 

I PiUciastonrbr Vmeii. * Ibid^-^iy^rKeaviUs^ iml.II. 

T 2 



9n .uiy.H,* 

< NYE (BnQiffViti iSiq^'iiMccmfefml^ mii ^ mnKm 
«f. Sussex, (teibended of m fott N^ l ^ywity tber?, «fiA4»ai 
i^boui 1596; After a proper fomidelifiQ %% |ba gfi^inimfw 
•tsbool^ be «Y«f sent lo Oxfor^j aad ctot^fred « eammtiiier qS 
^razeiF-ndse ^iodiege in I6l5^iidbehtw be^i:il|)0fe4 i^^ 
little time 10^ Mfngctdbn-ball, for ib^ sa&a! efi ii; pmriltiqicil 
tutor to wboni he «M^s gremly eitftc^ed^ -- |^ imi %\^ itht 



graee iii g^ti in 1619 tod l^^S v «^ut ^| d^HW 
entered into holy ordei% snd vMt$ VQine Min^ Jh^ ' tjjjltfls 
ftdmiiiisd lo offi€iate» lv4oe» iimiik]|^e«r in 'ii^^ 
in St Mte1^ii[bF$ ebpi«l|y ti«Q^ Herf ^Tin^ 

(distitosed MifDe of il^ee^piiiioM erfiiob iiweiioitiHi td Idf 
constiHtttion of tbe Camndi'ol fiiq^iiii^ be beqmie o||1im# 
toMtotWeeosnMi'ctf^tkeejpliMM^eei^ IQ Ai^id «i^iMi» 
lib went) witb others of bii (lefiwatfiQin, ^Ot P«^ in V*H<<^ 
H^ continued for the tiiott fii^rtre^ ATllhi^%^^ 
tia 1640; when, bif p4flgK gebiing ih« Mcmdeii#i' i^ ^ 
ibncying thiit ht« serfi^ wo^a HQt m)y b» i^fefi)l^^«||| 
iafe, he returned home, ae4 vms 4<H(II lifMNP pi4i «iin«ti| 
i^f Kimbbltoni in Huntiagdonibtn^ by idmnA mH W 
H'a^iGbester. - ► • ' • .•.•:. • •.'; 'jI 

In ie43i bewaaappiHiitfdone of 1^MiK|b^9f d^ntf^ 
Wcaine a j^f^at 6bftai|pli^t>f the Ppelhylei4«n<t m4 !f lit»^ 
loUd assettor of ^^ tol^^ lei^gue end covenant f ei^dlwif 
aent^ M^tlt S^pb;^ >Alitribail, wbott dmght^ bti^i4(l ^ftji 
ried, the aatne yejtr^ to prOQlii*e the eisbtaaoe of ilie See|tf%f 
and join wittT them in tneif favoufite oovenm^t : iin4 ^w^fti|f; 
after hid return,, both hbusei of jperliainent tooli^tl^^Tf ^ 
isant in ^t. Margaret*! churebi Wevtininsterv ^be W9« tHer 
|)ei%oa Who read itfromtbe pulptti end |>r^<ikcho4 e ifmnPioii 
indeCen^e of itj sHewing its f^ir^ht f|0tii soriptiirei JMl4 
was rewarded for bis ^lod serrice -With ihereetpw^fti 
Aoton near tonddn. He' was also one of tibe 4^oiiNnib(|e# 
who drew up the preface to the <* Diif cioryi'' wb^fi wee 
ordered to be subMtuiedibrtbeBeok of Cqm^ 
Vut, when the mejorkf ^f the as«»n^j^ pf ^itftl^ 4^1^- 
intned on establiabing ibe -Fniji^eriaa for^ of efendb*^ 
eoiFemmeiit) he dissented froftt; ^m ; Mid, eio«n|^ mill' 
the Independent when tbey became the resgniM^ fiM}|iM^' 
paid bis ocwt to tbe grandees of tbe^afo^, wJK ^ q& gffijrf^^ 
ose of bis adfice. In Decein^f |647» ho was sent'^o|P 
j^hem, with Stephen IMtaieban, to die Uog, atri^T^sJ^rodk**^ 
leasrie, in tbe Isle of Wight» in ■i>iin#in' e wpoe tihe oim-^. 
nissioMiQi then eppeimed to eeiriy te ;(Mur livite^^ 



1 1 



•»♦ ■» 



iof ibatMiififofiialiV i«fere polillpiitiig foe oniu > In AjkU c^ 
4li^ tifixt ymi^> be uTMjepii^lfOjwli as well •» Maohall nod 
JflKi«|i)) Qaiy), ' by ; tbe to$l«p«ode^|i, ^ to lovUe Iba aeoludod 
msM^iiH fl0/ lU ?iii»:&0^b2)inQ5ag«iQi< ibut< without «ucoe«i^ 
iB: 4 $i$«; 4t«^/vwi|i| ippoioV&df i^fb^of : Ijbe^ ti^tC for ^ j^iprow 
i^f^onqlpiil^crpn^oliertj; ia'^.ii^Hi^ <)ffio«^ ti^ QiDt.oQf|r 
|m0trt0d i ht$ 9Qii lor b^ «];^''b.«t, MChi th^.aii8yiRfMia xof 
m« AitbeN94«Lw, 6bt4a4^}f^,WQEUMSf tltorlivmg'ofiSt :^^ 

mm^'ymodmik) ^fd^lBr<» 9etMmo» "^aM^i; Clark, W» 
ii*a«4y«i9i^'<)tMI»}i ^^^g^kik. i^fi^ph Caryl, s^tc, .as Jia 

t^^tc*^ucb a4 wj^ 'tb^n ealkilrsclindalQus acid igtiorai^ 
iliiiii|Kir»!ai»d sisibopjl-dsayliefs i» the city of London, i AMt 
<}h^f 1^9 \tbe 8,0Mr^()^# ri^tioration^ in if 60, h^mu ejecta^^ 
;flHin9 tbo likingtpf $i« B&iftbolomay^^' Ekcbangej andtivai 
^van iklsbfliisit^^tj^ boating parliament^ foriaeyeralbouri 
jlQgiftbefi wibet^di^ b^i John Goodwin^ .at)d J^ugb Patent 
•bonld bar excepted fpt Uf<^ : battb^ retult was, that if 
Philip Nyo, clork, jh^uldi .tfltr duo Ttt^ o/ Sesptamb0r,i it^ 
l^e same vear 1660, accept, or aicercise, ihiy 6ffi^<^ sen^ 
«la«lMtic(il, cWll, or militiMFyy be ttdcAajr Ai^ atl latt^W 1^ 
purposes lo law, smd a« if be bad bea& totally exceptiid 
lorlife. 

ifia died in tbe pari«l| of St. tViebad, Cdrnbi^l, London, 
in Sept 87, 1672, aiid was bui'ied Intbe upper vault or 
tbe said cburcbf Wood xi^presents him^ to bave been 4 
liangerous and seditious pei^son, a politic pulpit-drirer o€ 
lodepend^C}'! an insatiable esufient after ridy^s, and what 
not, to taile a family, and t4 heap tip wealth i and hia 
j^iends, wbile they g^e bia^ tbe pruse lof eotisideraiyl^^^ 
iiaroing aad abtlitie»i allow diat be int^ged mfire Jii,po(t« 
ties ^an becaiue bis profession* 'Cdboiy im^s btu |i#^^ m 
favour of bis character. Hfa works werei^, "It .*^4 Lett^ 
from Scfiff^aryd, to bis Bretbf«ai in Englif^'cafnWt^ 

1 TtMN« pere, 1. Ta aciEsowMgA /laifii^c^bf tfc^tMtKaiia^ 4. T0 8«* 
the «»r rafw4 mgtkvm bim to be just. ^^aUkea idt ii|i|ft tbat haid adhered to 



#. To tbolish epi6eop«c|^. 3« lo^attk* ...liiai^ 

4 



fig N Y R 

saceess of afbirt tbere^*^ 164^. Stephen Mafshtirs nam^ 
ii also Bubscribed to it 2. << Exhortation to the takiog of 
the Solemn LeagttO and Covenanty ftc." 16M« 3. <*The 
eK<teUeticy akid lawfoinen <of the Solemn Leagqe atid Cove«* 
fiant/' 1660, !2nd edit. 4« : " Apol6getioaI Narrtitioti) §uh«^ 
emitted to the honourable Hoistes of Patitaitieot,'' ie^9. 
iTo this there eame out an Mi^^r^ entitled <5 An Anatomy 
ef Independeney^'^ 1644. d. << An E()i»6lary Discourse 
about Toleration^'' 1644. 6i «< The Keys of the Kingdom 
ef Heateii and Power tbe»eof>'' &e* 1664* 7. '<Mr. Ati^ 
thony Sadler es^amiin^d/' &o. ;by our author's ^n, aMist«A 
Iby his fethery 1634. s. <<The Prinelples of Faith pre^ 
aeeved by Thootaa Goodwin, PhiHp Nye, &c« to the Com^ 
fttUtee ef PGirliaieent for Religion^" ^e. 1654^ 9. << Beaelfr 
of Fontic^ LigfaV' &Cw I660w 10. ^ Case of great and f>re<- 
tentUsey'' letr. ii^ ^< The La«rfolne9S of the Oath of 
fiupremacy amd P^trer ef the King in Beelestastteal Affidr^ 
urith queto Elisi^th's admonition;'' ttt. 168$. it inptti 
theri reprinted, «ndy h^ktg prnlted again In 1^87) WM 
Aedieated by Henry Nye» ^Mr eethor's son, to Jamea It 
is^ ^ Viiidication 4^ Dissenters," &c. printed with €ta6 
preoedingi in i^as* is. «< Some aocouht of the NatijJlAi^ 
Gouscifctttion, ahd Powet> of E^^elesiastical Coerts," primed 
li^so with the fimner^ in 1^83, and other tracts', i 
NYSSENUS^ 6RSOORV. , See GR&OORY, 



( 279 ) 



< 



o. 



V/ATES (Titos), a very singular character, who flou^ 
riafaed in the seventeenth century, was bom about 1619. 
Ha. was ^ the son of Samuel Oates^, a popular preacbec 
among the. baptists, and a fierce bigot. His soq was edu-* 
QaAed . ai Merchant Taylors' school, from whence be re^ 
Oioradfo Caaibridg04 (When. he left the university, ha 
obtained, orders in tha cburph of England, though in his 
youth be bad been a member of a baptist church in Vir-r 
giaiae«treet, Ratcliffe Highway, and even officiated some 
timejtt assialant to his fadber ; he afterws^rds officiated as ^ 
euraleJn Kent and Sussex. In 1677, after residing some 
U«iein:tbe duke of Nqrfolk's family, be became a convert 
tathe church of Komef ^.d entered himself a member of 
the society of Jesuits, -with a viaw, as he professed, to be^ 
Iray tbem. Accordingly ,( he appeared as the chief informer 
in what was called the popish plot, or a plot, as he pre-« 
landed tt> prove, that was promoted for the destruction of 
the protestant religion in England, by pope Innocent XL; 
cardinal Howard; John Paul de Oliva, general of tha 
Jesuits at Rome ; De Corduba, provincial of the Jesuits ii^ 
New Castille ; by the, Jesuits and seminary priests in Eng* 
land ; the lords Petre, Powis, Bellasis, Arundel of War* 
dbur, Stafford^ and other persons of quality, several of 
whom were tried and executed, chiefly on this man^s evi- 
dence ; while public opinion was for a time very strongly 
in his favour. For this service he received a pension of 
12K)0L per annum,, was lodged in Whitehall, and protected 
by tha guards ; but scarcely had king Xames ascended the 

* There was another Samuel Oates \ng " Aa ExpYanatioo of the General 

orOteSj of Norfolk, who was of Corpus Epistleof St. Jude," which was pub- 

Ctaristi college, Cambridge, and retitor lisbed hy bis too Samuel, in J.6S3« fol. | 

«f Marahsm and South Keppes, in his but it does not appear that be was re* 

native county. He died in the early lat^d to Oates the baptist, 
part of the seteateentb century, ieav* 



2B0 O A T E ^- 

thircm^, when he took ampla rev^ngir ol the AoSevioM 
which bis inforcnation had occasioned tQ ibe .monarOAS 
friends : he was thrown ipto prison, and tried for p^rjj^ry 
with respect tcf what he had asserted as^ to that ploi. Bei«g^ 
convicted, he was sentenced to stand in the piUory. five 
times a year during his life, (p^be whipl from Aldg^fblo 
Newgate, and from tbeiice to Tyburn ; which seni^nKe^ 
says Neal, was exercised with a severity unknown to ibe 
English nation. ^^ The impudence of the man/' say f the 
historiaq Hume, ^^ supported itself under the convictigo^ 
and bis courage under the punishm'eiit. He made.sul^ma 
appeals to heaven, and protestations of the veracity of jiis 
testimony .' Though the whipping was s0 cruel that it vmid 
evidently the intention of the court to put htm to deaiik.b^ 
that punishment, ' yet he was enabled by the care>^ of im^ 
friends to recover, and be lived 'to king Williant's r€(ig9,i* 
tvben a pension of 400/. a year was settled upon bi«ii* • A) 
considerable number of persons adhered to him 'm bisdif-t; 
tresses, and regarded him as a martyr to the proiestaatK 
cause." He was t^ii questionably a very infamous cbaract^rif 
and those who regard tbe pretended popish plot as a mete 
fiction^ say that he contrived it out of revenge to the Je««f 
suits, who had expelled him from their body. After having 
left the whole body of dissenters for thirty years, he ap^ 
plied to be admitted again into the communion of |;he 
)f>aptlst9, having first returned to the church of- £nglao<(^ 
tiid continued a member of it lElixteeri year&, Inie^S^i^ir 
1699, be was restored to bis place an|04;ig the baptisl|y 
frpin whence he was excluded in a few momhs as a disoi'* 
derly person and a hypocrite: he died in 1705. He^Jis 
described by Granger as a man *^ of cunning, mere effron* 
tery/ and the most consummate falsehood." And H^a^ 
describes him as << the ih6st infamoas of inankind ;. tfa^t in 
early life he bad been chdplain to colonel Pride; was^^^l^^ 
jnrards chaplain on board the fleet* whence he had heeia 
ignominiousty dismissed' on complaint of some unnatural 
practices ; that he theii biedame a convert to the. Catholics^ 
but that be afterwards bosisted . that bis cofiversion was a 
mere pretence, in order to get ioto their secrets and ta 
petray them." ' It is certain that his character appears ^ 
fiave been always such as ought to have made his .ev^ideiM^' 
be received with great caution ; yet the suceesa of ~ 
coveries, 'and the credit given to him by the natiob^' 
the parliamenty by the courts of laW, &e. and the ^4v 



O A t E S. : 4»l 



^ 10' Wbbh be m^ resMred after |]ie ref olaHo^;, are eireanlr 
sUHfc» wtaieli require ta be carefully weighed before «rdr 
can-j^rdntd^moe tbei»hole of hit evidence a fiction, aod M 

OBERLIN (Jbremjah James), an eminent dassic^t 

#cl»eiinp, editor; and anth^iimiy^ die son of a schoolmaster 

t^ -Stiaabvi^, . wa8> born in thai city Aqg. 7, 1735. JEIe 

(Mitereihtiie tmiversity. in. 1750, and applied yf^ith grea^ 

AMtd^iiity to 'tbenvttal studies, hut his particolar attention 

. mei ibrafetisd to' the lecturer of the celebrated Scl^oepflin^ 

'^«AfO>wa9 so wdl pleased witii his ardour for instrucjUon^ 

that be^peibiitted bim the use of 'bis excellent library, a^4 

Ms cabinet of anl^iqoities, and there be imbibed that ta8t(9 

viar«^Mil^fiSkigthe monuments of ancient times, whicb)^ 

llife<^me tbe ruKng passion of bis life. . In 1757 he aflForde4 

tile first indication of this, by sustaining a thesis on tb€^ 

'itncvetit rites in 'burial, ^* Dissertatio pbilc^ogica de' yeterumt 

tito'condiendi mortuos." ..During three subsequent yeara 

lie bodied theology, but apparet^tly rather as a philploger 

than a divine; and when Or. Kennicott was endeavourinsr 

to procure the variations of the Hebrevr text of the Old 

Installment from all Europe, Oberlin collated for him foujr 

:irtaafiMicripts i|i the library^ of the uoivctrsity of Strasburgh^ 

Of which be afterwards, in his ** Miscellanea Literaria A|cw 

^nloraii6mia,"'p(ibKsbed a desorijf^tion with specinieose 

in 173^ be be«came assistant to .his fa:ther in tbe school 

'^ich- he taught iat Strasburgh, aed' afterwards succeeded 

irim tn^ that situation, butlus. ambition was a professorship 

iti the university, which, however, notwithstanding bif 

igmawing -reputation; be did. not obtain fur many years. 

^'^Itf th^ meantime,>ln I763,.be was^appmntedlibrariaiqt^ 

^I6b tb<e university, a post highly agreeable to him on .ac* 

.'«ottnt of tbe advantages ittlffbrded him4p his4)terary purr 

ifrit^ ahbough it augmented bis labours. In the sam^ 

'^Mr pei^milMion was granted him of.opening a public course 

%f 4ectUreson Latin st^le,/ add at length, in 1770, he was 

fibmifiated adjunct to M. Lorisnz, in the chair of Latin elo- 

^Mte; In this station he not only. continued the lecture 

^bifc mentioned, but opened courses on antiquities, ancient 

^l^eogtttpfay, di^Oinatics, &c. whiob were attended by conr '. 

wl^iibte alienees. For the use of ibis pupils be published 

imteie vainiAl&pl^^ lia(i€4B of these sciences, which w»o 



%'' 



i| > Mfim^0 |aiM.--CoHi«r and ]Zchard.-^Wil80ii*t Hiit. of Merchsat Taylon> 



ati O B n B t IN. 

•Aoptedj for th^ir great titiUty^ in otber ooirenikie^. Aoimg 

these we may notice his ** Rituum RomaQocukD tnjbulfi/! 

^' Orbki antiqiii> monumeiub suls illuHrati* priaae liaeer'i'' 

^< Artis diplomatics prioiaB lineie;" " LitemciuaoaiDis evi 

Ak«/* Ac* / . . 

Attoidg the dissertatioos which the duties^ of his.proii^Stt 
M^hip^required) were> foar curious ones,. coutAioing a 
llistlirieiil vi^w of the atteidpia oftade in .all agea to unite 
iths ami riverft by means of c^nal^. T^e^e were published 
ebUeetitety in if 75^ under the title of <^ Jungendoruaa 
itiirtiilttl fluniinutiique oannis svi molimina*^' Another; of 
tAh primed disitertationi^ printed in i773» bad- for its subi^ 
jeet ^^De L^itinie lingue medii evi mira barbarie.'^ Otfaett 
eppeared it) the ^^ Miscellanea Argentoratensia," wbiah-be 
eonducted frofti 1770 to 1773, particularly a treirtiae oik 
the vidue of money among the ancient Romans, in whieb 
be entered into a rigorous exatniiiaiion of Eisettscbmid's 
eaiculations of the coins, weights, and meaaures of aatir 
qolty. Dutiog a visit to his brother in the mountains of 
Lormii), he amused himself with studying Jthe .patois ef the 
natives, and in an ^^Essai sur le Patois Lorrain,'' &c. 177^^ 
I'itAOy showed its derivation from the language of the an- 
cient Romans, and its relation to the other paiois^ and ta 
the old French. 

In 177 S be obtained a release from the labours of his 
father's school, by being appointed professor extraordinskry 
in the university, with a salary which indemnified Iiim.for 
the loss of his other place v and in March 1782,. he suor 
eeeded to the chair of logic and metaphysics, which office 
he retained as long as th|^ old university existed. To bis pubr 
fic^ttohs be added between these years, an edition of <^ Yil 
Bttrs Sequester de fluminibus, fontibufl^".&c. 1778, 8vo; aa 
edition of Ovid's *^ Tristia f' ^^ Glossarium Germaaiffum 
itiediimvijpotissimumdialectiSuevicie,'? 1781 — 1784,2 vois» 
fbl. from the papers of professor Sherz, with illustrations and 
several dissertations on subjects of German antiquity ; und 
a splendid and correct edition of Horace, 1788, 4to. In 
17 SO he first printed bis Strasburgh almanack^ and an air 
fnanack of the department of the Lower Rhine* Soon after 
the French republicans had begun their di^organiatog 
tvork, Oberlin suffered in the calamities inflicted uponius 
native city, which he bore with resignation. In his Utter 
days, life passed in more tranquillity, and during some 
visits he made to Paris, he was received as his great mer^ 



O H £ E L I N. SSI 



deserved. H^ died at Strasburgb, Oct 10, 1806, ia 
se^enty-second year* 

He Was a aiati 4yf gteat simplicity of character^ cheef fuU 
tonevolent^ and virtuous. His whole life was a coarse of 
anititermitted oocupation, which he rendered easy to him^ 
self by an exact or<ier in the minutest concerns, and the 
tegular distribution of time and business. He was never 
ep^lent, but by a prudent (Economy was enabled to liireua 
in decent competence. Literary honours were justly be*- 
itdW6d on him. He was a corresponding member of thie 
French' acadelny of inscriptions and belles lettres, and of 
the acadettiies of Rouen and CortoHay the Societies of 
Amiquaries of London and Cassei, and of the National In* 
ititilte) &c. 

^ 'Tothe wot-k^ alr^dy mentioned, we may add his m* 
%ellent editioiiB of "Tacitus" and " Caesar's Commentay 
lit^s,'' arid his " Annals of the Life of John Guttemb^g^^ 
the inventor of printing,'* in which he endeavoured to cdi^ 
4^Fate ail the objections that had been brought against 
itehosp Bin's assertion that Guttemberg was the first who em« 
ployed moveable types. * -. 

' OBRI^CHT (Ulric), a learned German, was descended 
from a family, ^^hich came originally.from Schlestadt, and 
iad been raised to nobility in the person of his great-grand-«p 
father « by the emperor Rodolpbus Ih in 1604. Ulrie 
ti^s born, July 23, 1 646, ai; Strasburg, where he had the . 
first part of his education, and then proceeded to. study 
the sciences at Mo^tbeiiiard and Altorf. He inherited both 
«he inclination and taste of his ancestors, who were all 
distkigttished by the posts they held, either in tbe nniver** 
aiiy, or in the senate ^f Strasburg. The study of the 
ijHtin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues was almost the first' 
atousemehc of hii infancy ; atud he learned, with equal 
^Miility, French, Spanish, and ItaiiaYi. At fifti&en^ he w>a| 
$o good a rhetorician, that he composed and pronounced 4| 
taiin speech in public, with universal applause. The me- 
tiiod pi^escribed by his preceptors was, to suffer him te 
read only the ancieiit authors, and to derive the principles 

^^ It is perhaps Thomas Obrecht, nies used by him on the creation oilF ^ 

Vhosb insttumetit of creation as count John Crustas, poet-laoreftt, hi Stnift*> 

Msthictiair be seen. in Sel4ea*s ** Ti- hutglh. Here, also, quc count was n 

des of Honour ;" where there is a cu- professor of law in 1616. 
lions extract of the forms and ceremo- 

\, * Ffomliis Life by "Winckler in Ihe Athenaeim, voU It.— Piot. fltet.<— Sli(S 



t8» O B R E C H tl 

Quintilian, Longinus, &c. He also parsaed the.saiR^eptta^ 
ih his coursed of ph\lo%apb^^ I^htb^ Arktotle, and Pytba* 

focasy being principally rOGoiD:une()ded to him.: His gen^mt 
nbwtadge at length settled in jurisprudence »nd bistorj : 
in;bbth w^ioh be excelled, and filled the chairs (tf beUiim , 
the university with great distinction, being adiiiiresd> ik>( 
more f of the great, extent of bis knowledge, than -for b» 
^perspicuity in communilcating it*. He ga^e an accounl: of 
ail' ages as if he had lived in them; aod of all laws aa if 
lie had .been the maker of them. With all this, be spok<» 
of such subjects as be knfevr hest» like a oian.wfao sought 
rather to be informed. than to decide.. As soon as he'bwd 
taken his licehtiate^s degree, be reserved to travetl.for farttor 
jlnprovieiiient. In this view> 4}e went 'first to .Yiepoa in 
lA^stria, whh Mr. K^llertsan, the. Muscovite ambasfadf^i^ 
i^iid visitiBd the libraries and learned mi^fi^iirh^rav^ h'cr 
cam^ He commenced au thcur at'pinei09O» \whiea. be < {>i^«* 
liaheda kind of:<^Coo(lmenl;ary;iup0n Seipio!8 Dlreaads^'Vaodf 
^* A Dissertation upon the PrincipltA of Gml^an^ PoIMmI 
Prudence,-* ^, ,,, i • . •; 

At his' retorn from Italy,^ b^ ^n\«sded.'4t Straaborg Ib^ 
daughter ^ oli Bbeipler, . the famoiis^. prefessor .of eloqiiene^ 
ai»l history, orboEoliQtaaccttedad'aftc^ tbftt station ; 

and ^e afeo cbUectidId the nioirtr finished pieces of bia father^ 
in^la^J Among others, he ^obli^ed .^^ Aiiimad ver^i^ws m 
Dissertatiooem.de; i;ati0o« ^uilli9'iit,Hnpepio/V&c* a coneiiiS' 
fieie of critictsili .iipoti.a: baiAyiwhich hadiioi^ A'^i^ 
n^ise in' Germs^, imdertbe iortt^os mmp off Hy^ff^ltttti 
of Pierpe ii wbewilk(^ ^kiixi]kn:M^Axp 
the house. ;o£Au£|itia ,|ff:d^Qgellotid, 4nd:4^€ip ^filial,*. t<K^Am 
libi^rti^s'i>£^iti^ ta^ive^: T^ fb^efore, acjetioirf 

Iedg^dfiih»r/oyfgaidoos tq Obtreoht; &»r ' ?ii|4iqMJi«^.tb0ii| 
£roin iB^ in}ttrio«]'saait9pkioii.;:af)4<Hiii^ fiUcii 

jmght engage hia9!in:thieiri.ii(et^t::; ' ..-' •» 

- In the mean ttme^tbis gfomiig' rpp^tnttoii kicraas^d tbf 
uttmberof htsscbotafrs from :^^na.^GanBaiiy, towlmii 
he read ie(Sfcurea in lavraiul/b^i^y^ Wk»:^safihymemtlfiS^ 
him few spare mom^ts to his owe. studies; and he never 
lV<>ught pf offering anytbing to the piibKc but from nooea^ 
ai«y, ^er 4n e<tapUaDce witb tfaeiiitaeatieB'of his friemdaT 
Having n&de great proficii&ncy in tbe study of meMl^ 
there wte presented to him a very cnrtcHis one of B^mka^ 
upon the reverse of which' app^n^d a gc^^teait vSi^^M 



'1 



Q B R £ C H T. 98* 

«4tojtofsQMd t0 lie ^figure of I»is ; and on thii oeeaskiii lii^: 
pohlis^d bis ^* ConjeictureV' i^ "l^'^^i whli :the; tkl# ot 
/5|ipUi6)atde Najjfiw Bomkiani.Isiaoo.^' A&er titk^ be 
turned bisthot^ts feo^ the *^ AugQstan History," and «ol^ 
]^yd*and;^^Bumaged^a^ its mitdrsiRiaiTew edition, iu^^ 
^da^AnMiyAiix iimfoifi^ .iipeojodtngly, the piece' 

^pe>red\ in ^iwA^ mnAnr ctbe . ^e* ef f ^ Pmiroiniis ittmor 
AUaticaonn^" in X^Mi. It ms» indeed, oiily an inmxkic^ 
l^on to, a larger .work wbiah be wiajBieditattctg^^nfMm Al^ 
iace, in order to diiclMiec '^iIns oiagio» lioiits^ rig^bts^ . cns^ 
%sioii, wmnt i^evolutiekisy -Su^-.- ot tbat; coontry.;. Iittt itbe- 
p,i,l«pHclty of b» e^ridbfiatnte obKgM fa>«. ta %:tbi» 
4«tde. He printed^ bowifMiv nteamtacbBd: treati^^ as.^ 
that nponitb^ ri|^ <rffaiffiiriw|;the siiwlaid of tibeemiMce^ 
^ De V^iU^ Imperii ;'* ito urineb ban<mr the republic o£. 
$tra8burg dlaiiiied an equal share .wt^ the dnties of Wir- 
tisiinberg^ who w^se in possessspir o( it He publtj||ied «te6 
anoiNr - pm!% oooceming the lii^Mes whi^h the itataa. 
and princes of tbe:eiiipire maheiii ilieir.own naaie8» ** Bet 
Imperii. Germantti: ejua^e^Statonei^ fip^d^ribus;^^ mnd^ 
la^dy, one n)(»re upon :tfae»Fig]^;ofw40^ 
of peace^ /SDe'}nre;faeil^ !ei iqx»RSf riii»^ fMoil^V \ f 
, Hiiberio Obeitcljitibad pi«AiMfriii^ ; 

W th^ hx^g' xihVtBmieii^mxk'^^.m of 

Stcasbufgi ^ was iiidi>f^> «by^qpri^ of tbd^^e^ 
aoits, who were estabUsbed at i8^|Hriii«rf by Itewds XIV. to 
ai^ute bis reiigioit in J MS^, atr Farisi. : Vpoh his return - to 
StKaaburg, b^ resumed bia pfofipm^ii: if» the'iaj^r ; 4i^nd. i& 
was aboat this titoe«Miatbewf«:rt9tfaia to 
in JsK^e editions of « Grains, *^ Ike jtirec^iR ]lK^pftd9C'^ III 
ltf95i $ba lung, of fiiwaHBe'.iiem««rd him/t^ m 

hii^ m^h%tfs w^ ailBii^^ JStr^ ^i^b the 

tifle i>f«^plriekar-ro va^ in fmimiaistd ih^ old Roohhis ; aii4 

aiSMts« )Tbe jni)g^S'i9f Sti'asbui^,: aococ^ to the priiici- 
j^ QHhi ip(^mfi^re!^Qhf ^li^ei^elnfiQiveried toi^isolve 
ipMfriigi^siu9«^ ofjkduhi^^ 

ts0. 'josurr^' ; a^'^* In i cippositiQn ttx> tbtl^ i cnsf out, Obrecbfc 
tcanslated, iiito tite Geraan £ottgue,.6t. A^stinU book of^ 
^j^tfahnis f»arriag:fa; and obtai^.ed. Jrom the king a pro« 
llll^itieQ, npoa^pain of dieatb^ ^b'er to tolerate or soleta^- 
iiiise -All niarriage, .foi? tbe f«^re, of any persons that were 
sepaiaAedoir^ divorced fQr,.adiihery. > This edict was made 
iaJL^»?; mdf in le^Si Obrecb| translated inti^ High 



Its a BR EC KT. 

Pfltoh the treatise of Father Dez Priinier; refator oCtHm 
Jesuits at Strasburg, entitled ^^ The Ke-union of. the 
Protestants of. the Church of Strasburg to the Catholic 
Church." 

- Although, by the rights of his prsstorsbip, every thtogf 
done in the senate must necessarily pass through his hands^ 
yet he was so expeditious, and so good a. manager of time,, 
that there was some left for his . studies, which served tou 
.blin as a* relaxation front public business. . During these 
intervals he published aa edition of <^ Dictys Cretenftis/^ 
with notes, in 1691. He. afterwards intended to give a 
move correct edition of '^ Quiotilian,'^ by the hi^p of aft 
excellent manuscript which he had recQvered. He finished 
i|^ and bad prepared the notes for the press, which were 
afterwards added, to Burmann's valuable edition of 1720, 2- 
vols. 4to. In 1698, Obrteht was deputed to the court of 
France, to manage the interests ^of the city of Str^tburg, 
and the king appointed him in 1700 hb commissary, aiul 
envoy to Franofort, upon affairs relating to the suceeision 
Qf the duchess of Orleans. Her^ also be undertook a m(M 
arduous task, respecting this eventual accession of the 
duke of Anjou to the crown of Spain; and made it \ih 
business to collect all the pieces that had been written, 
either by civilians or historians, upon the snbjeot of esta** 
Uishing or regulating the rights of succession tQ |:hat vast 
monarchy : all with a design to prove that the pretentions 
of the house of Austria were not well founded. The title 
of his work was *^ Exc^rptorum historioorum et juridioofjin 
de natura succe«sionis in Monarchiam Hispaniss, oaense 
Dec. 1700,^* in 4to. Our autiior likewise drew up the 
plan of a particular treatise upon the supcessian .to the 
duchy of Milan : the impression of which waited oply for 
the publication of the emperor^s manifesto. His li|st pub-^ 
ItcatioR was ** A Translation of the life of Pythagoras,'* 
from the Greek of Jamblicbus. The multiplicity of these 
hbours at length impaired his health, and after be bad 
passed sentence upon the rights x)f the duchess of Orlea&s, 
be ordered himself to be conveyed to Strasburgb, where 
he died Aug. 6, I7ai.. 

- Ameug his other publications, not iiitherto mentienedf 
were, ** Dissertatio de abdicatione Caroli V. imper^toris;*' 
^De electione Imperatoris Romana Germanici;^' ^''fie 
imitate reipublicse in sacro Romano imperio;'* ^^DeCi^- 
nodiis S. Rooi. Imperii;*' ^< Oe legibus agr^riis PoprRo* 



O B R E OUT. $«T 

«Mini*;"'<^D© Ter« philosophic originr;^ <*.Dq plploBOn 
ph'im Celtica;'' " De ^Ktroordin^riis popuU liom^^r^i^dii^ 
perils;'' " De ratioiie bdli ;^' ** S^oraT^rmioi; ^* D^^cw* 
an Aagusti ;^' *^ De legione fiilmioatrice M, Aqtopini PhiU 
Imperatoria." All these were publUh^d together in If76|^ 
4to. > To these we may add bis edition of Qrotiirs '^jQiQ 
June Belliy'Vfol. 1696| &c. He left a &ud, whoi «t tkfi 
time of his father's death, w^s twenty-j^i^ y^ra of agfSf 
and succeeded him in the post of prastor^rpyat of SUiiShurg* 
by the appointment of the French kingt ^ 
' OBSEQUENS (Juuus), a Latin autbor. who floprishedg 
as is conjectured, a little before the tiipe of tb^ irmpftKW 
Honorius, about the year 395, wrote a bool^ '^ 0^ Pnn 
digiis," whence he is thought to be a ?9gan. ThiA 
work, which was only a list of sucb prodigios as are in^* 
serted in Livy, ends about the year of Rome 743, wh^r^ 
LiFy ends his f^ Decads.;" wbo9e words Ob)^Quens pft^H 
borrows, as well as his credulity. We hare only a partoC 
the work, published by Aldus ftlanutius in 1503, of wbicli 
there are several editions. Conrad Lycosthenes made soiUQi 
Additions to it, which were published witli tb^ t^xt at 
Basil, in:1552; he marked hi") Editions with a^^risoisi 
^ut the whole was published the foUowit^g year, withovA 
any distinctions, by John de Tourn^^s. Front that Uiqc( 
the book of Obsequens, and the ^uppUmopt, appeared ^4 
done by the same hand; till Sheffer, in 1679, pul^lisb^d 
an edition, in which he printed what waa coinpile4 by 
Obsequeiis in the Roman letter, and tha suppl#mant q( 
Lycosthenes in Italic. The best editions are that by 
ilearne in 1 703> and that of Leydeo, 1 7209- 8?o« * 

. OCCAM, or OCKHAM (WlLUAM ov), sq called from 
the village of Ockham in Surrey, where he was borni msk 
according to Wood, a fellow of Mef ton iw\W8i^ Oxford^ 
in the thirteenth century, and was a ranowf^od to^ah^r af 
the Kbolaatio doctrines at that university- Ha blld tbi 
0Ser of the archdeaconry of Stow in %\m diocese of: Linr 
cein in January 1300, but tefused it* In l$Q2 howaf 
eollated by bishop D'Alderby to ibe prebend of Bedfo^ 
soiyof is that eburoh; and havingthougbt proper to aQ<7^p^ 
4he arobdaaconry on a second offer^ was €oUat9d to JftMajT 
15,' 1305,. bat seems to have vacated it about th^ Istt^ 
and. of 131^. He was a pupil of Dans Sootusi ajid waa 



hMe inrfeAor f o'his inast^ in subtletyi ' Tfae sofidftl df tbe 
Scotists bad, till biiitime; followed the porpiiUr opiitidn of 
tfae realisU; but Oceato/ probably from an ambition ol 
becoming ih6 bead of a jiepalrate famy, revivied the Ofltifiona 
ef thie hboiinalistiiy and formed a sect iirider tbii name of 
Occaniists, wbicb vebemently opposed the ScotiiUi .tipoif ^ 
the abstract quc^stiOiis conoemrng uoivdrsals, %blcb pail* 
been formerly ihti^^duced by RosbeUne. ^ 

• He wias styled by tbe pope ** The inTincible doctor j*^ b#. 
others **The venerable preceptor;*? "The singular doctor j'*- 
and <^ The unparalleled doctor.*' He was choseiri tnlnister 
^ronnctal of the frtatv minors of England| and afterw4rdt 
dfffinitor of ^he whole order of St. Francis, and in tbat ci^ 
]|>ilctty was presents the general chapter h«ld at Pe)^usi(ilX| 
inTiiscatly in 1322, where the fathers declared their ad''^ 
fierence to tbe decree of pope Ntefaolaa Ui. malntaiaiM 
tit^ poverty of Christ and his aposdes^ and tbit they tnia 
^ nihil propria:** This doctrine gave rise to tbat pleaaaoii 
illdesttofi' called the bread of the Cordeliers; which coq-i^ 
aisted in determining^ whether the dominido of things cw^ 
aunied-in the usifng, such as bread and. wine^ belotig^d^ 
tbem, or oikiy the simple use of them^ without. the iii^ 
minion ? Their rule not permitting them to have any tb)n|| 
aipropei'ty, pope* Nicholas HL who bi^d been oftl||# 
tbird^,' deviifed a method to enrich tbem, without l^eulkl 
tbeir rule.' To this end he made an ordtn0nee»: that:tfa#j 
should have^ only the usufruct of the estates wbicb ib6vi\ 
be i^iven to th^m*, and .that the soil and fund of all ii 
ddnltiobs^'sboiild belong to the church of Ronif. By t| 
tneans be put thein iiito possession of aninfiniM uumliil 
bf Stated in >^tbe niUie of tbe'cbiircb of Romifc: but^ >^| 
4bat reasonVp6peNichdlas*s bull was revoked by ^ohhXXHi 
mh0 '• c^fidemtij^ • the use • widiout :th^ doihimon, by b|i 
^< Extifavaga^itii ad Conditovem.!* He also coudettmedt ^jr 
tooiiiier ^^'Ext^tagantafcmn'inlter,** tbe doctrine e6iteftr||i 
ibg^ tK(&' possesfAon ^of 'estst^s> by Christ aod his iiftim 
O^ctfin, bowei'er, persisted in tlefeudihg bis opifaioriSf"^ 
iH> greatly offended ^e < pope ttait he wasioWigttd.tdfly 
from Avigtion, in' 1328, to l^wis of Bavaria^ whoAsstttti^ 
^b^titke' of eiuperorj and refusing tbe pope^s' order ti 
'return; wai extotnbiunioated in >k3g9. Lewis^, bis: |1M-' 
^EMtor, jfiAs juad^r the saitie c)rauiiisiancei, and i>Qcarti tf 
reported to bf^ve said to him, 'fOh emperor, defend mo 
Vfiili your sword, and I will (iefeud yoa witimry ped/^'He 




O. C C AM. ^M 

at last, it is saiid,. returafidtoljiip duty, and w^s a^b|M>lT^4. 
lie died at Municb, the c^itj^l of Bavaria, fuid was bur)a4 
in the convent of his order, as appears by the following 
inscription on his tomb in the choir, o» the rjght h^n^ of 
the altar ; viz. "Anno Domini 1347, 7mo Aprilijs obijt ex- 
imius Poctor Sacr^e T^eplogi^ Fr. GnUelpqus dictus Oca- 
ham de Anglia." He wrote a Cpmipentary uppa the Prei- 
dicabl^s of Porphyry, and the Categpri^s of Aristotle, |n^ 
inaoy treatises in schplastic ,tbeplpgy and ecclesiastical 
law; Which, if they be.adinired fpr their ingenuity, mus^t 
9t the siame ti(ne bi^ censured for th^ir extr^m^ subtlety 
and obscurity. But whatever may be thought of ^bese, b^ 
deserves praise for the courage ^Ith which hp opposed this 
tyranny of the papal over the civil power, in his bpok ".D^ 
pQtestate Ecclesiastics^ et Secular^," Of this, pr a part of 
it, " A dialogue between a knight and a clprke, conceruiji^g 
the Power Spiritual and Temporal,'' the. reader will find an 
account in Oldys's " t.ibrarian,*' p. 5. It was printed by 
Berthelet, with Henry VlII.'s privilege. Fox, in his Mar- 
tyrology, says that Occam was " of a right sinqpre judg^ 
ment, as the times \vpuJd then either give or sjifFer." Hp 
wasthp onlv schoolman whom, Luther studied,. prkppt ip 
his library. ^ 

OCCO (Adolphjjs), pne of a fa,mily of physiqians of 
considerable eminence, was born at Augsburgh, Oct, 17^ 
1524. When he had finished his medical studies under 
his father, a physician of Augsburgb, who dipdip 1572^ 
and at the university, he sppu bpcajme noted ^^ a prac*- 
titioner, and lu 1564 was apppinted inspectpr of the apo- 
thecaries, and pprpetual vicar tp the dean of the college o^ 
physicians. He aied in 160$. He published a " Phar- 
macopoeia'' in 1574, which pontinued tp be reprinted ^ 
late as 1734; and '* Imperatorum Rpnianprum Numisipata 
a Ppmpeio M. ad JHeracliuro,'* gtrasburgh, 4tp and folio. 
This ^s an excellent book. pf general rpferencp, being ^ list 
of all the coins in evpry rpigp, digestjed i^tp the yeai^s in 
which they were apparently, struck. It. was .first printed 
in 1579, and again in 1600, which is tl^e be$t edition. 
'One afterwards published by Mezz^abarb^ i^ .not 5P highly 
Valued, as this editor's additipos ^r^p pf dq^btful authority. 
Among Gpsner's letters is a le^roed '^^pistojia Qr^ca df^ 

^Tkuiier.—- ILeland, feifd, ana* Pits.— 15ruckcK—Maiiniiig itnd^ray's flisf, df 
Sarrey, toU UI.— Fuller's WorUiiet.— Mobeims's Ch. HisU— Waod>.An*al». * 



290 O C C O. ' 

Oxymeli helleborato, aiiisqcie ad rem medicam tipectanti- 
bus/* written by Occo^ who was an excellent Greek 
scholar. ' 

OCCLEVE. See HOCCLEVE. 

OCELLUSy surnamed LucANUS, as being a native of 
Lucania, was a philosopher of the Pythagorean school, and 
lived about the time or soon after Pythagoras first opened 
bis school in Italy, 500 B. C. He wrote a book ^' On the 
Universe/' which is still extant, and from which Aristotle 
seems to have borrowed freely in his treatise on generation 
and corruption. It is not, indeed, written after the usual 
manner of the Pythagoreans, in the Doric dialect ; but pro- 
bably it has undergone a change, and, at the period when 
the writings of the Pythagoreans became obscure'on ac- 
count of the dialect in which they were written, was con- 
verted, by the industry of some learned grammarian, from 
the Doric to the Attic dialect. That it was originally writ- 
ten in the Doric, appears from several fragments preserved, 
by StobsBUs. Little attention, therefore, Brucker thinks 
is due to the opinion, that this book was compiled from the 
writings of Aristotle, and is to be considered only as an 
epitome of the Peripatetic doctrine concerning nature. 
Whatev^r^ Aristotelian appearance ihe treatise in its present 
form may bear, is to be ascribed to the pains taken by 
transcribers to elucidate the work. If its doctrine be 
carefully compared with what has been advanced concern- 
ing the Pythagorean system, there will be little room left 
to doubt that it was written by a disciple of Pythagoras. 
The fundamental dogmas of Ocellus perfectly • agree with 
those of the Italic school. His subtle speculations con- 
cerning the changes of the elements- are consonant to the 
manner of the Pythagoreans, after they exchanged the 
obscure method of philosophising by numbers into a less 
disguised explanation of the causes of r^tural phaBnomena* 
As this book passed out of the hands oi Archytas into those 
of Plato, it is ^indent that it was in being before the time 
of Aristotle ; and it becomes probable that the Stagyrite^ 
after his usual manner, borrowed many things from OcelIu!l, 
but in a sense very different from that of their first author. 
This remnant of philosophical antiquity is therefore to be 
received as a curious specimen of the Pythagorean doc- 
,t/ine, mixed, however, with some tenets peculiar to tibe 
author. 

1 Moreri«^£lo7, Diet Hist, de la Mediciiie. 



. OCELLUS. 291 

w * 

- Ocellas^s work was firsts printed in lj>3d, arid editions 
buve since been givdn by Commeliny Visanius, Gale^ the 
abb^ Batten X, and the tnarquis D'Argens. Of these, the 
best is that by Gale in his ** Opuscula/* with the Latin 
translation of Nogarola. ' 

OCHINUS (Bernardin), a celebrated Italian, was born 
at Sienna in 1487,, and first took the habit of a Cordelier ; 
but throwing it off in a short time, and returning into the 
world, applied himself to the study of physic, and acquired 
the esteem of cardinal Julius de Medici, afterwards pop^ 
' dement VII. At length, changing his mind again, he 
resumed his monk's habit, and embraced, in 1534, the 
reformed sect of the Capuchins. He practised, with a 
most rigorous exactness^ all the rules of this order ^ whichy, 
being then in its infancy, he contributed so much to im« 
prove and enlarge, that some writers have called him the 
founder of it. It is certain he was made vicar-general of it, 
and became in the highest degree eminent for his talents 
ill the pulpit. He delivered his sermons with great elo^ 
qoepce, success, and applause. His extraordinary merit 
procured him the favour of pope Paul III. who, it is said, 
made him his father-confessor and preacher; and he was thus 
the favourite of both prince and people, when, falling into 
the company of one John Valdes, a Spaniard, who had 
imbibed Luther's doctrine in Germany, he became a pro- 
selyte. He was then at Naples, and began to preach in 
favour of protestant doctrines with so much boldness, that 
be was summoned to appear at Rome, and was in his way 
thither, when he met at Florence Peter Martyr, with whom, 
it is probable, he had contracted an acquaintance at Na-- 
pies. This friend persuaded him not to put himself into 
the pope's power; and they both agreed to withdraw into 
some place of safety. Ochinus went first to Ferrara, where 
be disguised himself in the habit of a soldier ; and, pro- 
ceeding thence to Geneva, arrived thither in 1542, and 
married at Lucca, whence be went to Augsburg, and pub- 
lished some sern^ons. 

Itt 1547 he was invited, together with Peter Martyr, into 
England by abp. Cranmer, to have their joint assistance in 
cariying on the reformation. T/hey arrived in December 
that year; and, repairing to Lambeth, were kindly re* 
cmved by Cranmer. They, were entertained there for 

1 Fabiic. Bibh 0r»c.<*-Blount*s CensuHi.-^Bnicker. 

U 2 



«92 O C H I N U ft 

* .  * 

1 

I 

some time ^ong with Buce^, Fagius, and others; und 
bchinus, as w^ll as Martyr^ was ipade a prebendary sd 
Canterbury. He laboured heartily in the business of the 
Reformation ; and bis dialogue^ uppn the unjust usurped 
primacy of the bishop of Rome, «va9 translated into \JiJsx\k 
by Ponety bishop of Winchesterp and published in i.d49. 
Bnt, upon the death of Edward V{. beii^g forced, as well 
)is JVJartyr, to leave England, b^ retired to Stra«burg with 
that friend^ where tliey arrived in 1553. In his absence 
he was, among other persQiis who had preferments in CaA- 
^erbpry, declared contumacious. From Strasb^rg h^ we<U 
^o BasiJ, and was called thence^ in 1555, to Zurich, to be 
piinist,er of an Italian church which wa^ forming there. 
This church consisted pf jspjone refugees from Locarno, one 
of the four bailiwics which the SiViUers possess in lialy, 
who wer^ hinclered from the pjublip ex^-cise of the re^ 
formed religiou by the opposition <of the popish cantons. 
Ochinus made no di^cuUy to subscribe the articles of faith 
agreed upon by the church of Zuriph, and governed thia 
Italian church till 1563 ; when b^ ^^& banished thence by 
the magistrate^ of ibe town, on acqpug^ of soi»e dialogues 
be published, in which be mainlined the doctrine pf po^ 
jygamy. He is said to have been prpoipted to this hj ^he 
inndplity of his wife. From 2^rich, be went t9 J^asil ; 
hut, not being suffered to stay ther^ he Sed in great dis- 
tress into Moravia, where be fell jn with the Bociniaa§9 
and joined them. Signklans L^bienietski, tb0 great pa- 
tron of this sect, gives the following apcou^t of hi^ last 
days, in bis ^^ Hist. Beformat. Pploii/' Oehinu«» saya h^ 
retired into Moravia, and into Polaodi and even there be 
was not out of th^ reach pf Calvin's lett^ers- H^ returned 
into Moravia^ after l^ing Sigismund^s edict ; who, in 1&64^ 
punished with banishment all tbosf that were oalled Tfi^ 
theistsi. Atheists, ^c. Sm^e gentlevien endeavoured to 
keep him in Poland; but he answered^ that eien must 
obey the ma^gistrates, and that be wo<4ld obey thein, evea 
were he to die among the wolves in the woodi^ Dming 
bis travels, he feU sick of the pls^gne a^ Pinckspw^ and re- 
ceived th^re all possible offices of kindness from pae of the 
brethren^ named Philippovius. His daught^aod two sonfiy 
whom he carried along with him, died of the pl^gne ; Ixit 
' he had buried bis wife before he had left Zuficb. Aa for 
hinaself, he continued his journey to Moravia, and witbia 
three weekadied at Slakow, in 1564, aged 7t. 



O C h i N U 1^. i99 

His character is vatriously representcid by diflferetit a«i- 
thof^, iitd ceftarnty appears wot to Itave^ been* tefy eon-' 
sisteiit. Bayfe cbstrveSf that the confessitpn h^ fihfade ptib-' 
licfy, on the change of his religion, i^ ri^markarble. He 
a^^knov^ledged, rnr a prefece, that, if he could have con- 
tintred, v^ithout danger of bi^ life, to preslch thd truth,' 
after the manner he hsid pr^cbed it! for soitre yeslrd, h6 
^oirlrf never have Faid dot^n (be batWt of hrs order ; but, ai 
be dtd not find mthln hiriifself that courage \*bich is requi- 
site to tifnfdergo^ m^rtyrdonni, he totrft sanctuary rrf England, 
Inhere he probaA'Fy tnight have renfwiined in reputation, bad 
itot the reformation been dht^rbed on the jfcceisrion of 
Mary. Abroad*, after he hafd givep offence to the CdU 
vinistg, the Socrnians aflforded hittt docne protection for a 
tiHiile, but even to tbemr he became obnx>3cious, aind at fast 
sunk mto a species of betesy wbtch tfte boasted chafrity of 
Socfnianism itself coald tiot toterate. They cfa^s him, 
however, anftong their writers, aJs appeats fry S^ndiusV' 
*^ Bibl. Anti-trinitariofuiff.*' His wtrtins^ are rather nu- 
nfieroui thati bntky. Besides the *< DiaTogufes,*' there are 
" Italian Sernrons," rn 4 verts, printed 1543 ; afn ^* Italian' 
tetter to the Lords of Sienna, containing an Account of 
bis' Faith and I>acCriAe;" another, " Lettier to Mutio of 
Justrnopolis^ containing the reason of his dep'sirture from 
Italy ;'^* " Sermons npon St. Paul's Eprstle to the Gala- 
tians," in Italian ; "Air Exposition of St. Paul's Epistle 
to the Romans," in Itahan ; " Apologues^ against the 
ttbtrses, errors, &c. of the PapiaCl Synagogue, their Priests, 
Monks, &c." in Italian, and translated into Lathi by Cas- 
talio ; a^ v^er^ hts ** Ditflogu^es," &c. &c. which last, it 
may be mentioned, were answered by Beza. ' 

' OCKLEY (SiitfON), an eminent Orientalist, and pro- 
fessor of Arabic in Cambrid'ge, was of a gentleman's fa- 
ttiily,. at Gveat EUinghatfi* in J^^orfolU, where his father 
lived ; but was accidentally born at E^^eter in 1678. After 
a pi^oper foundation laidf jn school-learning, he was' sent, 
in 1693, to Queen's coffege in Cambridge, where he soon 
distitiguisbed himself by great quickness of pa;Tt« as well as* 
intense appfication to literature ; to the Oriental languages 
more particularly, fbr his nnconmion skill in which he 

afterwards became famods. He took, at the usual time, 
the degrees in arts, and that of bachelor in divinity. Hav- 

* Gen. Diet,— Moreri.— *StrypeVUfc of Cr^otn^. 



G C K L E Y. 

ipg taken orders also, he was, in 1705, through the in*' 
terest of Simon Patrick, bishop of Ely, presented by Jesus 
college, in Cambridge, to the vicarage of Swavesey, ia. 
that county; and, in 1711, chosen Arabic professor of the 
university. These preferments he held to the day of his 
death, which- happened at Swavesey, Aug. 9, 1720, imma- 
turely to himself, but more so to his family. 

Ockley had the culture of Oriental learning very much 
at heart ; and the several publications which he made were 
intended solely to promote it. In 1706, he printed, at 
Cambridge, an useful little book, entitled, *^ Introductio 
ad Lipguas Orientales, in qua iis discendis via munitur, et 
earum usus ostenditur. Accedit index auctorum, tarn illo* 
rum, quorum in hoc libello mentio (it, quam aliorum, qui 
hargm rerum studiosis usui esse possint.^* Prefixed is a 
dedication to his friend the bishop of Ely, and a preface,^ 
addressed to the Juventus Academical whom he labours to 
excite by various arguments to the pursuit of Oriental 
learning ; assuring them in general, that no man ever was^ 
or ever will be, truly great in divinity, without at least 
some portion of skill in it : '^ Orientalia studia, sine quo^ 
rum aliquali saltem peritia nemo unquam in theologia vere 
magnus evasit, imo nunquam evasurus est.'* There is a- 
chapter in this work, relating to the celebrated controversy 
Ijetween Buxtorf and Capellus, up6n the antiquity of the 
Hebrew points, where Ockley professes to think' with Bux- 
torf, who contended for it: but he afterwards changed his 
opinion, and went over to Capellus, although he had not 
any opportunity of publicly declaring it. And indeed it 
is plain, from his manner of closing that chapter upon the 
points, that he was then far enough from having any settled 
persuasion about theip : ^^ his in prsesentia assentior ; nolo 
tamen aliquid temere affirmare, quod, si posthac senten-* 
tiam meam mutate mihi visum fuerit, noUem ut quispiam 
ea qus hie scripsi mihi exprobret'' 
^ In 1707 he published in }2mo, from the Italian of Leo 
Modena, a Venetian Rabbi, ^^ The History of the present 
^ews throughout the world \ being an ample, though suc- 
cinct, accoi^nt of their customs, ceremonies, and manner 
of living at this time ;'' to which is subjoined a ^' Supple** 
ipent concerning the Carraites and ^Samaritans, from the 
French of Father Simon.'' In 1708, a little curious book^ 
entitled ^* The Improvement of Human Reason, exhibited 
in the Life of Hai Ebn Yokdban^ written abovd 500 years 



OCKLEY., 394 

1"* 

5 go, by Abu Jaaf^r Ebn Topbaih^* translated fram the 
Lrabic, and illustrated with figures, 8vo. The design of 
the aiithor, who was a. Mahometan philosopher, is to shew, 
bow human reason may, by observation and experience, 
arrive at the knowledge of natural things,, and thence to 
supernatural, and particularly the knowledge of God and 
a future state : the design' of the translator, to give those 
in{ho might be unacquainted with it, a specimen of the 
genius of the Arabian philosophers, and to excite young 
scholars to the reading of eastern authors. This was the 
point our Rabbi had constantly in view; and, therefore, 
in his ** Oratio Inauguralis/' for the professorship, it was 
with no small pleasure, as we imagine, that he in'sisted 
upon the beauty, copiousness, and antiquity, of the Arabic 
tongue in particular, and upon the use of Oriental learning, 
in general ; and that he dwelt upon the praises of Erpenius, 
Golius, Pocock, Herbelot, and all who had any ways con- 
tributed to promote the study of it. In 1713, his name 
appeared to a little book, with this title, ^' An Account of 
South- West Barbary, containing what is most .remarkable 
in the territories of the king of Fez and Morocco ; written 
by a person who had been a slav.e there a considerable 
time, and published from« his authentic manuscript : to 
which are added, two Letters ; one from the present king 
of Morocco to colonel Kirk ; the other to sir Cloudesly. 
Shovell, with sir Cloudesly's answer,'* &c. 8vo. While 
we are enumerating: these small publications of the pro- 
lessor, It will be but proper to mention two sermons : one,^ 
** Upon the Dignity and Authority of the Christian Priest- 
hood," preached at Ormond chapel, London, in 17)0; 
another, ^^ Upon the Necessity of instructing Children in 
the Scriptures,'* at St. Ives, in Huntingtonshire, 1713. To 
these we must add a new translation of the second '^ Apo- 
cryphal Book of Esdras," from the Arabic version ot it, as 
that which we have in our common Bibles is from the vul- 
gar Latin, 1716. Mr. Whiston, we are told, was the per- 
son who employed him in this translation, upon a strong 
suspicion, that it must needs make for the Arian cause be 
was then reviving; and he, accordingly, published it in 
' one of his volumes of " Primitive Christianity Revived.'* 
Ockley, however, was firmly of opinion, that it could sei've 
nothing at all to his purpose; as appears from a printed 
letter of his to Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Thirlby,'in which are 
the following words : ^^ You shall have my / Esdras' in a 



29# O C K L E Y.' 

Kttle time ; 26o of i¥hich I reserved, when Mf. Whiitoii^ 
reprinted his, pdrely upon this accoiitit, because I tvaff 
loth that any thing with my name to it should be extant 
only in his heretical volumes. I only stay, tiU'the learned 
author of the ^ History of Montaiiism'^ has finished a dis« 
ffertation which he has promised me to prefix to thitbook*.'* 
A learned Letter of Ockley's to Mr. W. Wotton is printed 
among the ** Miscellaneous Tracts of Mr. Bowyer, 1784.''' 
• But the most considerable by far of all the pfofessor'9 
performances is, ** The History of the Saracens ;" begon 
from the death of Mahomet, the foudder'of the Saraceni-^ 
cal e<inpire, which happened in 632, and carried down 
thrtjtigh a succession of Caliphs, to 705. This " History,** 
which illustrates the religion, rites, customs, and manned 
of living of that>arlike people, is very curious and enter- 
taining ; and Ocktey was at vast pains in collecting mate-' 
rials from the most authentic Arabic authors, especially; 
snanuscripts, i^ot hitherto published in any Eiirqjpean lan- 
guage ; and for that purpose resided a long time at Oxford, 
to be near the Bodleian library, where those manuscripts 
wdre reposited. It is in 2 vols. Svo; the first of which was 
published in 170$ ; the sticond/ in 1718: and both tvere 
soon after republished. A third edition was printed, in the 
same size, at Cambridge, in 1757; to Which is prefixed, 
** An Account of the Arabians or Saracens, bf the Life of 
Mahomet, and the Mahometan Religiori, by a teatned 
hand :^' that is, by the learned Dr. Long, master of Pern-? 
broke-hall, in Cambridge. 

While at Oxford, preparing this work, be sent ^ letter 
to his. daughter, part of which is worth transcribing, atf 
characteristie both of him and his labours. *^ My condi-j 
tion here'' IS this : one of the most useful and necessary au- 
thors t have is written in such a wretched hand, that the 
very reading of it is perfect decyphering. I am forced 
sometimes to take three or four lines together, and theit 
pull them all to pieces to find where the words begin and 
end; for oftentimes it is so written, that a word is divided 
as if the former part of it was the end of the foregoing 
word, and the latter part the beginning of another ; be- 
sides innumerable other difficulties known only to those 
that understand the language. Add to this the pains of 

• This letter, dated Oct. the 15tb» in the Bodleian tibrtfrsr, eontravertwl 
1712, is entitled, '* Aa /tccount of the between Dr. Grabp abd Mr. Wbwtan.'? 
authority of the Arabic Maauicripti 1712, 8?o. 



O C K L £ iri i9i 

 • I ... I 

thtidgingf eofnfpsirittg antfaor*, selefctiiig proper mstmals^ 
dtid th6 like, which in a remote and copioils language^ 
ibotthdtng with difficuhie^ t^om^times ifisuperable, make it 
eqaivalent at least to the perforoiing of six tiiAes so mcrch 
in Greek and Latin. So that if I continne in the same 
contst in which I am engaged at present, that is, from the 
time I rise in the morning till I can see no longer at night, 
I cannot pretend once to entertain the least thought of see^ 
ing home till Michaelmas. Were it not that there is some 
satisfaction in answering the end of my profession, some in 
making new discoveries, and some in the hopes of oWig* 
ing my country with the history of the greatest empire the 
world erer yet saw, I would sooner do almost any thing 
fban submit to the drudgery. 

** People imagine, that it is only understanding Arabic, and 
then translating a book out of it, and there is an end of the 
story : but if ever learning revives among us, posterity will 
Judge better. This work of mine (in another way) Is 
almost of as different a nature from translating out of the 
Greek or Latin, as translating a Poet from one language to 
another is different from prose. One comfort I have, that . 
the authors 1 am concerned with are very good hi their 
kind, and aflbtxl me plenty of materials, which will cleat 
up a great many mistakes of modern travellers, who* passing 
thrtrugh the Eastern countries, without the necessary 
knowledge of the history and ancient customs of the Ma- 
hometans, pick up little pieces of tradition from the pre- 
sent inhabitants, and deliver them as obscurely as they 
receive them. One thing pleases me much, that we shall 
give a Very particular account of Ali and Hosein, who are 
reckoned saints by the Persians, and whose names you 
must have met with both in Herbert and Tavetnier ; for 
the sake of whom there remains that implacable and irre- 
coneileable hatred between 'the Turks and Persians to this 
very day, which you may look for in rain in all the English 
books that have hitherto appeared. It would be a great 
satisfaction to me, if the author I have were complete in 
all bis volumes, that I might bring the history down five 
or six hundred years : but, tflas! of twelve that he wrote, 
we have but two at Oxford, which are large quartos, and 
from whence I take the chief of my materials. 

<< I wish that some public spirit wbuld arise among us; 
imd cause those books to be bought in the E^ast for us 
which we want. I should be very willing to lay out my 



?9» O C K L E. Yi 

pains for the service of tbe public^ If we cdiild but pron 
cure 500/. to be judiciously laid out in the East, in such 
books as I could mention for the public library at Cam- 
bridge, it would be the greatest improvement that could. 
be conceived : but that is a happiness not to be expected 
in my time. We are all swallowed up in politics; there is 
no room for letters ; and it is to be feared that the next 
generation will not only inherit but improve the polite ig« 
norance of tbe present/' 

; In the mean time, Ockley was. one of those unfortunate 
persons, whom Pierius Valerianus would have recorded^ 
in his book ^M)e iufelicitate literatorum." In his.'Vlnau<« 
gural Oration/' printed in 1711, he calls fortune venefica 
and noverca, speaks of mordaces cura as things long fami- 
liar to him; and, in Dec. 1717, we find him actually under 
confinement for debt. In the introduction to the second 
volume of his ^^ Saracenical History,*' he not only tells ut 
so, but. even stoically dates from Cambridge-casile. His 
biographer thus accounts for his unfortunate situation : 
Having married very young, he was encumbered with a 
family early in life ; his preferment in the church was not 
answerable to his reputation as a scholar ; his patron, the 
earl of Oxford, fell into disgrace when he wanted him 
most ; and^ lastly, he had some share of that common in- 
' firmity among the learned, which makes them negligent of 
ceconomy, and a prudential regard to outward things, 
without which, however, all the wit, and all tbe learning, 
in the world, will but serve to render a man the more mi- 
serable. 

As to his literary character, it is certain that he was ex- 
tremely well skilled in all the ancient languages, and par- 
ticularly the Oriental ; so that the very learned Reland 
thought it not too much to declare, that he was '^ vir, si 
quis alius, harum literarum peritus." He was, likewise, 
very knowing in modern languages, as in the French, 
Spanish, lulian, &c. and, upon the whole, considered as 
a linguist, we may presume that very few have exceeded 
him. * 

ODINGTON (Walter), .or Walter of Evesham, a 
monk of that monastery in Worcestershire, was eminent io; 
the early part of the thirteenth century, during the reign, 
of Henrj^ III. not only for his profound knowledge lu 

> Orisinally written for this worki by Dr. Heathcote. 



O P I N G T, N. 99* 

music, but astronomy, and matberoatictf in general. The 
translator and continuator of Dugdale's Monasticon, jipeaks 
of him among learned Englishmen of the order of St. Be- 
nedict in the following manner : . 

'f Walter, monk of Evesham, a man of a facetious wit, 
who applying himself to literature, lest he should sink 
under. the labour of the day, the watching at night, and 
continual observance of regular discipline, used at spare 
hours to divert himself with the decent and commendable 
diversion of musie, to render himself the more cheerful for 
qther duties." This apology, however, for the time he 
bestowed on music, was needless ; for it was, and is stil), 
so much the business of a Romish priest, that to be igno- 
rant of it disqualifies him for his profession. And at all 
times, where an ecclesiastic thought it necessary to trace 
the whole circle of the sciences, music having the second 
or third rank, could not be neglected. But what this au- 
thor adds farther concerning Odington is still less defehsi^ 
ble : ^ Whether," says he, " this application to music 
drew him off from other studies I know not, but there ap- 
pears no other work of his than a piece entitled * Of the 
Speculation of Music\" Yet we are told by Pits, Bale, 
Tanner, Moreri, and all his biographers, that he wrote 
'^ De Motibus Planetarum, et de Mutatione Aeris," as 
well as on other learned subjects. His treatise on music is 
preserved in the library of Bene't college, Cambridge, and 
is, in the opinion of Dr. Burney, so copious and complete, 
with respect to every part of music when it was written, 
that if all other musical tracts, from the time of Boethius 
to Franco and John Cotton, were lost, our knowledge 
would not be much diminished, if this MS. was accessible. 
The musical examples, adds Dr. Burney, as 'usual in old 
manuscripts, are incorrect, and frequently inexplicable, 
owing to the ignorance of music in the transcribers ; but if 
this tract were corrected, and such of the examples as are 
recoverable, regulated^ and restored, it would be the most 
ample, satisfactory, and valuable, which the middle ages 
can boast ; as the curious inquirer into the state of music 
at this early period may discover in it not only what pro- 
gress our countrvmen bad made in the art tbiemselves, but 

the chief part of what was then known elsewhere.^ 

/ 

t ^ •  

1 Barney's Hist, of Music. 



S<Jtf O D (J. 

0"DO (SaTKT), tW iecoftd abbiJt of Clagri? m France; 
$lliis«rk>ii» fof his teaming and piety, and eertainly ay 
hnt^neeF and pio«s as the ignoranee and superstition of the' 
times would permit, was bom at Tours in B79. He was* 
edfucated by FottiqMs, dount of Anjon, and became a 
G^lvMn of St. Martin, at Tours;, at nineteen years of age,' 
aiftet wliieh he went to Pam, and was the discipfe of St 
Ikemy e! Attntrre. He was fond of solitude, and took the 
monfc's habit in the convent of Beamne, in the diocese of 
Besan^otv. After w^hich, be became prior and abbot of St. 
Clugwi^ if* 9^7, where he introduced a new disciplitie, or 
set of ceremonies of a severe and rigorous kind, which, 
hoirever, with the sanctity of his life contributed greatly 
to increase the congregation of Clngni ; aiid such was the 
ii^ftu>ence of bis personal character, that popes, bishops, 
and secular princes, itsually chose him for the arbitrator 
of tbeir disputes, and the order or discipline of Clugni at- 
tai^n^d a very high degree of eminence and authority. He 
dte^ about 943^. He applied himself to study as we IT as to 
the aggrandizing of his order ; but his original: works aref 
fU>(ed with the grossest superstitions. While he was canon, 
he abridged the " Morals of St. Gregory," and the " Hyrtns; 
in honour of St. Martin.'* While a simpFe monk, be com- 
posed three books of " The Priesthood ;" and another upon 
the ** P^opbeey of Jeremy," dedicated to Tarpioff bishop 
of Limoges, which bore the title of " CoWations or Goti- 
ferences, or Occupations." After he became abbot, he' 
wvote the " Life of St. Gerard," Md of " St. Martiat of 
Limoge*," and' several sermons, antf a " Panegyric upon' 
Sc Benedict." All these are printed in the " Bibliothequ^ 
of Chfgni," together with some " Hymns upon the Sacra- 
ment," atid *^ The Magdelaiii ;"' but the ** History of Sc 
Martyn*s Translation" is improperly ascribed to him. It 
appears aVso that he understood music ; atid besides some 
hymn», ehauntsr, and anthems, still preserved in the Romish 
cbwch, there are two copies of a MS tract on mti^c, of 
his Writing, in the royal library of Pisiris, and one in Bene't 
college, Cambridge. This i^ noticed by Dr. Burney in 
his History of Music' 

ODO (Cantianos), or of Kent, so called because he 
was a native of that county in England j where Be flourished 
in the twelfth century, was a Benedictine monk, of which 

' Moreri.— Papin.— -Mosbeim. 



o P o. aoi 



ling and eloquence raised bim to he priaC 
t of St. Saviour^s, and afterwards of Battl^e*- 



order his learni 
and abbot, first 
abbey. He died in March 1200. Thomas ^ Becket was 
his friend, and his panegyric was made by Joiin of Salis^ 
bury. He composed several works, as " Commentaries 
upon the Pentateuch ]" ** Moral |leflections upon th^ 
Psalms, the Old Testament, ahd the Gospels ;" a treaiis^ 
entitled, ** De onere Philistini ;*' another, " De moribus 
ecclesiasticis ;'* a third,^^ De vitiis & virtutibus anim^c,*' 
&c. !3esides these, a *^ Letter to a brother novitiate,'^ 
in the abbey of Igny, is printed by Mabillon in the first 
tome of " Analects ;'* and another *^ Letter to Philip earl 
of Flanders," about 1171, upon the miracles of St. Tbo^ 
mas, is in the ^^ Collectio amplissima veterum monumeu«- 
toriim,'' p. 882, published by the fathers Martenue bj^ 
Durand, Benedictines.* 

' OECOLAMPADIUS (John), a German divine^ md 
eminent among the reformers of the church, was born in 
1482, according to Dupin at Auschein in Switzerlaiodl^ 
but others say at Weinsberg in Franconia, which is fxkorc 
probable, as it is only five miles from Heilbrun, . where be 
went to school. His father intended to breed him a mer*- 
ichant; but, changing that resolution, devoted him to l^t^* 
tersi He was sent first to the school of HeilbrirU} aod 
thence removed to the university ojf Heidelberg^ where U^ 
took the degree of bachelor of philosophy, at fourtew 
yaars of age. He went nes^t to Bologna; but, the air of 
Italy not agreeing with him, be returned in six wsoBih». t9 
* Heidelberg, and applied himself diligently to divinity- 
He turned over the works of Aquinas, Biebard, and Ger*^ 
son: but did not relish the subtleties of Scotuii, and th^ 
scholastic disputations. He soon, however^ acquired a te^ 
putation for learning, which, with his personal virtue^, 
induced prince Philip, the elector Palatine, to chuse bim 
preceptor to his youngest son: after digchargiag vfbich 
office some time, he became tired of the gaieties of a co^rt, 
i^nd resuoied his theolpgical sti^dies. On his return home^ 
^e was presented to a benefice in the church ; but, not 
then thmking himsdf sufficiently qualified ior . such ^ 
charge, he quitted it, and went to Tubiiv^Dt »«^. af^r- 
"war<6 to Stiitgard, where he improved himself in the Greek 
wder lUochUii, having learned HebriTw bekne at H^idel- 

1 Leland and Tanner. 



802 OECOLAMPADIUS. 

l>erg, and after this ventured to take possession of hia» 
living. 

He was afterwards invited to Basil in 1515, where hi9 
erudition procured him so high a reputation, that they 
honoured him with the degree of D. D. About the same 
time Erasmus came to Basil to publish his annotations on 
the New Testament, and confesses that he profited by the 
assistance of Oecoiampadius, who, when Erasmud^s work 
was finished, went to Augsburgh, but did not remain thjere 
long, for having conceived a favourable opinion of the re- 
formation, partly to avoid the necessity of declaring his 
sentiments before they should be fully matured, and partly 
from the'Hove of retirement and study, in 1520, when he 
was thirty-eight years old, he entered into a convent near 
Augsbourg. Here, in the first instance, be stipulated with 
the brethren to have liberty both for his faith and studies, 
and then informed Eroismus of his change of life. Eras- 
mus, in his reply, wished his new situation might be au-^ 
swerable to his hopes, but was afraid he would, find him- 
self disappointed ; and such indeed proved to be the case, 
when Oecolampadius began to speak his sentiments with . 
freedom. He, had not been there long^ before he wrote a 
letter to a friend, in which he says,^ ** I will now speak my 
mind freely of Martin (Luther], as I have often done be- 
fore. I am so fully persuaded of the truth of several of his 
doctrines, that I should not be driven from my opinion^ . 
even though an angel of heaven should contradictit'* He ' 
proceeded even to publish a book on ^' Confession,*' con- 
taining such doctrines as were not well relished by his fra- 
ternity ; and he had not been among them much more than 
a year, when the stipulated liberty was denied him. Upon 
this, he quitted the convent ^, and arrived safe at Basil in 
1522. 

Here he translated ^' St. Chrysostom^s Commentaries : 
upon Genesis'* into Latin, and was made professor of di- 
vinity and city-preacher J)y the council ; by whose consent 
he began the execution of his trust, with abolishing several 
usages of the Roman church. In particular, he com- 
manded the sacrament of baptism to be administered ih the 
mother-tongiie,'.and that of the Lord's supper to be re- 

* Capito tellf us, that hit book of brought him into great dangar i waA 

** Confession*' gave particular ofi'ence upon that acooont, at the solicitattoa 

to Glassio, a Franciican, and chap- of his friends, and by the consent of 

lain to the emperor Charles V*. who his fraternity, he deparM is safety. 



OECOLAMPADIUS. 303 

celved in both kinds. He taught that the mass was not a 
sacrifice for the living and the dead, or for those who were 
in purgatory, but that perfect satisfaction was made for all 
believers by the passion and merits of Christ. He dis^ 
suaded them from the use of holy water, and other super- 
stitious observances, and was thus employed when the dis- 
pute about the Eucharist commenced between Luther and 
ZuingUus. In that controversy, be strenuously defended 
the opinion of the latter^ in a piece entitled, ^* De vero 
intellestu verborum Domini, Hoc est' corpus meum,"' 
which did him great honour. But although he agreed with 
Zuinglius in the nature of the doctrine, he gave a different 
sense of our Lord^s words. Zuinglius placed the figure of 
these words, " This is my body," in the verb i>, which he 
held to be taken for signifies, Oecolampadius laid it upon 
the noun, bodyf and affirmed that the bread is called, the 
iodj/f by a metonymy, which allows the name of the thing 
signified to be given to the sign. Such were the argu- 
ments by which transubstantiation was combated at that 
distant period. The Lutherans in Sjuabia and Bavaria, de- 
cried the doctrine of Oecolampadius in their sermons, 
which obliged him to dedicate a treatise upon the words of 
the institution of the Lord's supper to them, printed at 
Strasburg in 1525. Whether this was a different work 
from the " De vero, &c.*' or only a new edition, does not 
appeaf, as bis biographers have not affixed dates to all his 
publications. Erasmus, however, speaking of this book, 
says, ^* That it was written with so much skill, such good 
reasoning, and persuasive eloquence, that, if God should 
not interpose, even the elect might be seduced by it.'' As 
«oon as it appeared, the magistrates of Basil consulted two 
divines and two lawyers, to know whether the public sale 
of it might be permitted. Erasmus, who was one of these 
divines, s^ys, " That, in giving his answer upon the point, 
be made no invectives against Oecolampadius;*' and so 
the book was allowed to be sold. The matter, however, 
did not rest so. The Lutherai^s answered our author's book 
in another, entitled " SvYigramma ;" to which he replied 
in a piece called " Antisyngramma." In proceeding, he 
disputed publicly with Eckius at Baden, and. entered also 
into another dispute afterwards at Berne. 

In 152.8 be entered into the matrimonial state, and tha 
same year entirely finished the reformation of the church a^ 
Basil ^ as he did also, jointly with others, that of Ulm. In 



304 O E C P L A M P A D I U S. 

15p9y ))e assisted in the conference at Marspurg; and, re- 
turning thence to Basil, fell sick, and died, December 1, 
1531, aged 49. His disorder was the plague; and, fropi 
the mooient he was seized, he shewed sentiments of solid 
and consistent piety, in the presence of many ministers, 
who attended him at his dissolution. He was interred ia 
the cathedral of Basil, where th^re is a monument to his 
memory. He died in poor circumstances, leaving a son 
and two daughters. His wife, who had b^en the widow of 
Cellarius, according to Hoffman's account, was afterwards 
married to Wolfgaiigus Capito, and to Martin Bucer, all 
men of great eminence. 

His writings evince a vast compass of learning. Among 
the principal are, *^ Annotations on many books of tb9 
JJoly Scriptures." His controversial treatises "on the real 
presence.^' " An exhortation to the reading of God's 
word.'* ** Of the dignity of the Eucharist." ** Of the joy 
of the Resurrection." " A speech to the Senate of Basil.'* 
** A Catechism.'* " Annotations on Cbrysostom." . ** £»• 
cbiridion to the Greek tongue." " Of. Alms-deeds*" 
."Against Julian the Apostate." ** Of true faith in Christ." 
" Of the praises of Cyprian." " Of the life of Moses.'* 
'* Against usury ;" with many controversies against the 
Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Anabaptists, who ap- 
peared in bis time under Stork and Muncer, and created 
|)ot only a controversy, but a rebellion attended with deso- 
lation and bloodshed. He published also a great many 
translations from the Fathers ; a^d his own w<)rks, originally 
in Latin, were translated by bis friends into German. He 
left several manuscripts behind him, which are probably in 
some of the German libraries. His e^^position of Qaniel, 
and two or three small tracts, were translated into EngUsh 
iu the sixteenth century. He appears to have been beld 
in bigb estimation even by some of his adversaries, as he 
bad the proper temper as well as the abilities and zeal of a 
reformer.* 

OECUMENIUS, an ancient Greek commentator on the 
Scriptures, was bishop of Trica in Tbessaly in tbe tenfb 
century, but of his personal history nothing is knowp. 
,His commentaries upon the Acts of tbe Apostles, and tbe 
fourteen epistles of St. Paul, and the seven Catbolic epis- 

1 Melchior Adam,— Dupin.— Chaufepie.) — ^Mosheun and Milner's Ch. Bist— 
'SeMB loooes. 



O E C U M E N I U S. 305 

ttes, contain, besides bis own remarks and notes, a com-» 
piiation of the notes and observations of Cbrysostom^ Cyril 
of Alexandria, Gregory Na2ianzen, Tbeodoret, and others. 
He is thought also to have written a commentary upon the 
four gospeis, but this is not now extant. The works of 
Oecumenius were first published in Greek at Verona in 
1532, and in Greek and Latin at Paris in 1631,' in two 
volumes folio. To the siecond volume of the Paris edition 
is added the ** Commentary'^ of Arethas upon the book of 
Revelation. * 

OEDER (George Christian), an eminent botanist, was 
born at Anspach, Feb. 3, 1728, and studied physic, but 
t>articularly botany, at Gottingen, under the celebrated 
Haller, through whose recommendation he was appointed 
professor of botany at Copenhagen. While in this station 
the ** Flora Danica" was intrusted to him, of which he 
completed three volumes, containing 540 plates, when he 
resigned the chair, and the work was consigned to Mulier, 
and afterwards to Vahl. He was induced, by the patron- 
age of the unfortunate Struensee, to quit his situation and 
pursuits in 1773, Struensee having procured for him a 
considerable appointment in the college of finances, but 
on the 4eath of his patron soon after, he left this place. 
He was afterwards appointed to the office oi landvogt at 
Oidenburgb, which. he retained until his death, Feb. 10, 
1791. His other botanical publications are, *^ Elementa 
Botanica," published at Copenhagen, in two parts, iu 
1764 and 1766; <^. Nomenclator Botanicus,'' 1769; and 
** Enumeratio Plantarum Flors Danicee," 1770. The Oe- 
derOj of Linnseus, was so called in. honour of him. ' 

OESER (Frederic), professor of painting, and director 
of the electoral academy of painting at Leipsic, was born 
at Presburgh in Hungary, in 1717. He became a student 
in the academy of painting at Vienna, and his ** Sacrifice- 
q{ Abraham** \ won the first prize, when he was in his 
eighteenth year. " He learnt modelling of Raphael Douner, 
the sculptor. In 1739 be went to Dresden, and acquired . 
some celebrity by his historic pictures. When the acade- 
my at Leipsic was founded by the elector Christian, Oe^er 
was appointed director; and his best works are in St. Ni*' 
cholas churah in that city, where he died'March I85 1799. 

1 Cave, vol. II.— Lardner't Works*— Fabric. Bibl. dnsc.*— Bboul'tf Censura. 
— Saxii Onoina:sr. 
* Gent Mag. vol, LXI.— Hees'i Cydopsdia* art. Oedera. 

V0L.XXIIL ' X, 



loe Q E S E K. ^ 

Fusdi is of Qpiaion tb^t^ b94 h^ $eeii Il^ly, M»died iIm 
antique with grater a^^iduity^ and subopitiit^ 1^99 itQ tb«i 
dastard itaste of bis «gf, h^ pjr^Wbly would b9/¥i9 more tbto 
rivalled Mengfs wb^^ be exc«ll^d in iQv^piipQ -wd .6ffe 
Winkleinan, with wbpm be be^ftme acquaii)l9d isit Dresdra> 
^pp^^s t9 bavj0 bf^en ju^d^blled U^ him fof tb^ formftUoii 0$ 
bis t£^9te. .O|e$0r b9« fti^bod $otn9 of his ov^n aooip^silioiif 
m 9 £ree and picturesque manner. ^ 

OFIHELY (Mauwce)^ archbisbop of Tuam, waiiQtbcivr 

wise xalled Maurice de Portu, from having been born 

near the port of Baltiofi^r^, in the county of Cork^ tboilgti 

others &ay he was born at DowOf or Galw^y. He wm- 

aooie time a stvdent at Oxfordy where be became a Fmor* 

ciscan. He a&erwards traveled to Italy, 9gxd siiidied pbb 

l[>sopby, and school-divinity ai Padua. Aboujt 1430 bcr 

removi^d to Yenif^e, where he was employed by Qctaviaoi 

Scotty and Locatelli, as correptor of the press* which wm 

t^eil considered ay an employment worthy of ibe greatest 

scholars. In 1506, after be had uken his degree ^ D* D^' 

at Padua, pope Julius II. n^ade him arcbbi&top of Tuam 

w Irelaitd. In U12 he assisted at the first, two festionsTt^f 

the Lateran council, and in the following year: set out for 

Ireland, but died at Galway, May 29, lil3, where, be 

landed, before be could take possession of bis. ai3chbisbop-i 

ric He was at this time noi quite fifty years of age. Ha 

was buried in a church at Gal way, where: bis tuimbie mo-* 

Qument is yet shown. He was a learned, piou^, and amia-' 

ble prelate, and held in such venemtion' by some author^; 

that they have given him the name of ^' Flos Mundi^^* the 

flower of the world. His works are, 1. <^ Expositia in qnea>». 

tiones dialecticas Divi Joan. Sooti in laagogen Porphyrii,^' 

Ferrara, 1499; Venice, 1512, £qL 2. ^< Comflsemaria 

doct subtilis Joan. Scoti in XII. lib. metaphyst^m ▲ri9lo^y 

telis," &(^. Yenet. 1507, foi. ^3. ^* Epitbemata ininsigiko 

formalitatum opus de meote doctoris siibtiU«," &c. Venice, 

11514, fol. This is what Possevin calls '^ Theorems for ijm 

ejcplanation of the sense of Scotus.** 4. ^' XHctipnarawga 

sacrce scripturse," &c. Venice, 1603, fel^ which reaches nst 

farther than the word cstinguere, but there is said to be* 

complete MS. of it in the Bodleian, as far as tb^ word 

Z0m. 5. << Encbiridioa fideiy" 1509^ 4to. &c. &c.^ ^ 

* PilkiDgtOD, by Faseli. 

' Atb. Ox. Yol. J. uew edlt.«*Harris'8 edition of Ware."— Tannec 



O 6 D is It 801 

' OGD£N (fiAMUEL)) i^Q £ngltsh cUvitie, was horn ai 
KmQcbei^ter, in 17)6, and was edueated Jut the free-school 
tb^r^^ In 1733 he was adimUed a poor scholar of Kiiif^a 
<io\legfy CMabrklge, whence he rempved for a Manchester 
^xl^WiUMi to St. JohQ*«.in 1796. In the following year he 
took the: degree of B. A. and in 1739 was elected fellow* 
Vi& W9S ordained deacon at Chester in 1740 ; and in the 
foUowijig year he took his degpree of M . A. and was or- 
4?^ifiad priest by the bishop of Lincoln. In 1744 he waa 
^ected master of the fi«e<«chool at Halifax in Yorkshire. 
In 1759 he resigned his school, and went to reside at Caiti- 
blidge; and at the ensuing commencement he took the 
degree of D. O. ' The late duke of Newc^tle^ who was 
cihaQcellor of the university, having been present at the 
Qicercise he performed for the degree> was so much satis* 
fied wilh it, thai; he soon after presented him with the vi^* 
qarsg;e of Damerham in Wiltshire, which was tenable widt 
hb fellowship. In 1764, Dr. Ogden was appointed Wood- 
i«u:dian professor. In June '1766 he was presented to' the 
ri^tory of Lawford in Essex, and in the following month 
that of StansEdd in Suffolk. He died March 23, 1773, 
ii| the sixty'-second year of his age, and was bui*ied in St. 
Sepulchre's church, Cambridge, of which he had the cure,^ 
ajud where he pceached most dT his published sermons. In 
<{omnion life there was a >real or apparent rusticity attend- 
ing Dr. Ogden'a address, which disgusted those who were 
straageiB. to his character; but this prejudice soon wore 
ofl^ as the intimacy with him increased ; and, notwitfa- 
standing the sternness, and even ferocity, he would seme- 
times .tkrow: into his countenance, he was in truth one of 
t^ most humane and tender-hearted men ever known. 
'fo his relations who wanted <his assistance, he was re-^ 
markably kind in his life, and in the legacies he left tbem 
at his ddatiL His father and mother, who both lived tk> an 
exceeding old age, owed almost their whole support to bis 
ptely. During the latter part of I^. Ogd^'s life he Ia« 
bpiared under much ill health. About a year bef<Mre he 
djfed he was seized with a paralytic fit as he was stepping 
iijtio' his chariot) .and was judged to be in i^mnediate and 
extreme danger, but lie sustained this shock with cheer »« 
fulness, and calmly gave the necessary ordei-s on the event 
of his dissplution. Such. is the character given of Dr. Og-^ 
den by his learned friend Dr. (afterwards bishop) Halifax, 
briginally prefixed to an edition of his ^* Sermons, with a 

X 2 



508 O G D E JN. 



n 



Vindication of .his Writings against some late Objecifons, 
1780, 2 vols. 8v'o.  It seems to be fully confirmed by tfae 
testi'mony of two Cambridge jgentlemen of very opposite 
sentiments, Mr. Cole^ to whom we ace so often indebted 
&r memoranda of the eminent, men of that, university, and 
Mr. Gilbert Wakefield.. i.The iatter,. who heard Dr. Og- 
den preach. most of the discourses sinoe ' published, says 
that ^< his person, .ihanner, and character of composttion, 
were exactly suited to each oiber.. He; exhibited a large 
black, scowling, grisly figure, a. ponderous body with a 
lowering visage, embrowned by . the horrors of a sable 
perriwig. His voice was growling and. morose; atid bis 
sentences 4esultory, tart^ and snappish.** . Mr.. Wakefield 
adds that his ^^(uncivilized appearjince, and bluntness of 
demeanour^ were the grand- obstacles to his elevation in 
the chnrcb.*' y.T.ht duke, of Newcastle would. have brought 
kimto court to prefer .him ; but found, as he expressed it, 
that the doctor was not a produciblti '.m^n. < Jn all these par- 
ticulars Mr. Cole agrees, as in some other &ingulariti9& 
Mr; Cole informs us that .Dr. Qgde^'s father<bad been in 
t^e army, and when he retired lived at Mansfield, where 
he mai'Tied. Sometime before bis death he went to Mans- 
field^ and. put up a monu^nent. to. his father, in gratitude 
for having given him a good education,, as he expressed it^ 
and left the^ bulk of bis fortune .to; the family into which 
his father married. His Arabic/ books: he left to >Mr. 
Craven, of St. John's, 'the Arabic professor^ who very <lis- 
interestedly refused thte residuary legateesbip, which Dr. 
Ogden had long designed for .him; . Dr. Qgden's .reputa- 
tioD as a divine rests on twosniall.volumes.of sermons, ^ col- 
lected by. Dr; Halifax, wbose. ^/ Vindication** of them, 
above menUoded, respects .the remarks of Mr. Main waring, 
in a^^^Dissertation'* on ttm qomposition of $ sermons, pre- 
fixed to bis ownsc^rinoQs, 17$0, Svo. . Dr. Halifax* s^vin^ 
dication. is warm, zealous^ laod frifendly,<>like his character' 
of Dr. Ogdeu, but .not\altogetbttr:satis£eictory as to the 
principal objections to the style of bis author ; and even if 
allowed to be elegant^ Dr« Ogden's .sermons are of very 
slight. texture, and rather hortatory tbaa instructive or 

: OGILBf (John), a very industrious adventurer in li« 
temry spteutations, was bom in or near Edinburgh. in 

> PrefiAce by Dr. Hsltia%«-Wakeficid'ji MewoiraJ^Colc's MS Athens m 

»rit Mm; ^ . . * 



O G I L B Y. 80» 

^November' 1600. 'He was 6f an ancient: family in thai 
conmry ; 'but his father^ having spent the estate, became 
a pnsouer in the King's Bench, and could giv6 his son hut 
little educatbn. The youth, however/ being very* indus** 
trious, acquired some little knowledge of Latin grammar; 
and a^fterwards got so much money, as not only to release 
his fiuher:from the gaol,' but also to bind, himself appren- 
tice to one Draper^ a dancing-master in London. • He had 
hot been long under this master before he made himself 
perfect in the art, and by his obliging behaviour to the 
scholars, acquired money enough from them, to buy out 
the remainder of bisniine. He now began teaching on hii 
own account,, and being soon accounted one of the best 
luiistersin the profession, h^ was selected to dance in tba 
duke of Buekingham's great masque $ in which, by an un- 
lucky step in- high capering, the mode of that time, he 
hurt the instde of his legy which occasioned some degree 
of lameness,' but did not prevent his teaching* Among 
t)thers, he taught the sisters of sir Ralph, afterwards lord 
Hoptoo, at Wythain in Somersetshire; and at leisure hours 
lie rleamed of- that accomplished knight how to handle the 
pfte and musket. In 1633,^ when Wentworth earl <of Staf- 
fo»l: became lord deputy of Ireland, he took him into bis 
family to teach bis children ; aiKi Ogilby, writing an. ex- 
cellent hand^ was frequently employed by the earl to tran- 
scribe papers for him. - ^  p 
' While in this family he first gave a proof of his inclina- 
tion rather than genius for poetry, by translating some .of 
*^ ^isop^s Fables'' ioto English verse : and', being- then one 
of the troop of guard belonging to his lord, «he composed a 
humourous piece, entitled ".The character of a Trooper.'? 
As a poet, however, he ranks among the very lowest. About 
that time he'was appointed.dejputy-master of th6 reVelsin 
Ireland; built a little theatre innDublin, andwasmucli 
encouraged; but, uponthe breaking out of the rebellion 
in 1 641, this scheme was interrupted, and h^ lost alibis pro- 
perty. To add to his misfortune he was sbiprecked iu his 
passage from Irelatid, and arrived in London 'in a roost 
destitute condition. He bad an enterprizing spirit, how^ 
ever, and was not easily discouraiged. After a short stfeiy 
in London he went 6n foot to Cambridge ; w|3^rib his great 
industry, and greater love of learning, being dis«cover<id^ 
be was encouraged by several scholars trt that university; 
^y their assi^tat^ce he becSime so complete a master of 



sm 



O G I L B Y, 



Latin/ tbal beltrmmlated the «' Works df Vifgtl/* ^d ^pnebl 
fished them with his portmit in a largie octatOTotane^ 
London, 1649-50^^ with a dedication to William marquis 
ef Hertford) viiiom he calls his nuBt noble .patron. Wood 
observes that thereb'y he obtttmed a considesaUe sua; of 
money in his pockiet Thus «ncouiaged, he proceeded to 
print ^'jEsop's Fables'' in verse, in 1651 f. TbiiB was pab^ 
lisbed in 4to; and, as Wood archly observes^ fnroouned 
Imn a degree among tbe minor poets, being reeommended 
iti some verses for the parpoise, both by sir WiHaam Dm* 
tenant and James Sbidey . 

. About 16(54 be learned tbe Greek toosgise of ooie of bis 
country men, David Wbitford, or WUit<£ekl, at that tivMS 
usher to James Shirley, who then taught 8cho4>l in White 
Friers^ This was a remarkable instance of indefatigabCi 
industry at his age ; and be made the best use of his netii^ 
acquisition, by translating into English venrse '^ Homer'i 
Jliad and Odyssey'' | *, in wfaocbi bowever, he was assisted 
by his friend Shirley. This was printed >m a osost (lompout 
manner^ with a dedication to Charles IL in 166€ ; abd At 
same year he edited at Cambridge, witb tbe assbrtaoce of 
Dr. John Worthiogton, and otheri karn^d men, a. filler 
edition of the ** English Bible" than had been extant be4. 
fore. This be adorned wkh cborogvqidMbid a«d bther 
scntpturesy and presented a snnifmioos copy of it- to bis 
majesty, on his first coming to the royal jtbapd at White* 
badl* He prbsentdd another c6py to the liouae of Cem* 
bions, for wbieh be teceived a gratuity of 50/« from that 
house; as be did' also, not improbaUy^* from tbe^bovocit^ 
tion,' to whoflii be pretentevt a petitlony with the kiog'a 
iecommendatory lettefi conterniog the exjienee «f pcioti 



* It wa« reprinted in 1654, in a 
royal folio'; and" Wood says* was tbe 
fiirdst editi«n thai tk« fii^filh p^esS 
^ver produced. It bat his pictnri be* 
fore it, as most of bis boolts have. 
He also ptbUstted^ a bediitiful edition 
of it in I«athi,in 1658, foUo; add ignin^ 
frith scalpturcs and( annoUtlipnf, in a 
brge 8?o. 

t It wmt in 4to^:wilbthis title, « Fa* 
bles of <£lop paraphrased) in verse, 
C^c'* add in 166!l, a second to1ame» 
frtth Bttiwni of hlf o«rn, in folia Boib 

««we «H » iff ^ filtWDH?t a? p, m^ 
16^3-4. 



%. The V Iliad" was published ia 
1B60, and Ae <« Odyssey^ in 11655, 
botb on i^petriaff pap^, 'adonM viUi 
tn^vings by Hollar and other emir 
n|Bnt engrnvers; which recommended 
the "Iliad'* t6Pope, then a boy at 
tebobV ^ho, M SpoaceLinlbratfiis,.faQr 
reading it, was inspir^ flat wjth a reliaa 
for poetry, though he anerwards aai4 
it Was beneath eritioitin; aMridieoM 
Ojgil^y in thf Bunoiadk Pope, as f 
child, miglit haye been pleaised wttk 
thii pictutes, but it is hardly conceiy^ 
ahio taaC M could, as! Granger aiyti^ 
difoeni. tbe maj^ty of tbe OreeiaM 
p)'et throngh 0|ilb^>f mifjfsrable liMif, 



O'O I LB r* 



Hi 



wSg ^e faodk. H^ vho |)edt{on6d thk Hftniis of Cbmittdni 
tbftt: his Bible ^^ might l;re r^eomtEvendi^d to be tnada u^ 6f 
in all churches.'* It was printed by Field. 

Iri thdiftine year (16&I) he received orderi from the 
GomjDlissiotiers for the seleayniny of bi» iMJesty's coronai^k 
tion^ i6 oofiduet tb6 poetical pirt^ vi2. the speech^sr^ eni'^ 
blems^^tiiottdesy ind ins^riptiem ; upon «rhiob bedrew up 
'^ The r^laidfoii of bis M^jefiify's Ent«rtaiilteent, pftssii^g 
tirongb the city of London to Ini Coronaitiorij trith ft de^ 
soriptuliYof the triateiphalAfcrbes and Sototnfyity;*^ ihteh 
sheets foHo. Thisi lie also pnbHsbed, by.bts iilajeity^s 
€»Mniii6iiid^ in a Uttgm folio tolume^ 011 roj^&l piper, ^%k 
fine mgnivifigJi, and speecbes at \wtg^^ in 1652 s anfd it 
bail: b^en mado tis^ of in suceeedin^ eiMrotfacloris. Hik 
iatefest Ws now^ 90 powi&rfal witb ibd kingi that he' ob^ 
t«ned tbisf year thd pafem for mAseer of tbe r^v^ti iif her 
UaaAi against sir Wil&am Davetiartt^ irba watt hi^ competitor^ 
This. p9si darried bim once iii6re intd that kifagdofu ; atidi, 
l^ia formef diei^tris in Dtibfin b«kig destroyed in tbe trouble, 
1» buik 3 nie w otfe> at the exjpence of . i OOCtf. On fai^ i-etarA 
td London be continoed dic^em^ployinetit of tftusiaung itnd 
oompcsing book^ in poetry % tlN tbe fire of London in 
1666,. in which bis hoase ill Wfaiti^ FHei) ^a$ cbnsudfieiJ^^ 
arid his #)iDle fortftte, eiticepi to the vaMeaf 5L destroyed. 
He sooltiy howi^Ter^ proeiirtd bi9 house no be re-^bailt, set 
up:- a |irintiDg-^l»9use^ was appoiifted hia majesty'^ eoiSfn!6** 
gmpher and geographic printer^ and priftfed se^mv^t g^eat 
works^ traesUted or doUeeied by bims^f Md his a!»^sta.tlcef ; 
aU ^bich were printed on honpi^ri^l fmpBty adorned i^ith 
maps and carious, engrsrririgsy byH#Hir andiHbdrsy and 
were carried oa by way of (rfopbsals and landing lotteries* 
The scheiiie of one ef bis lotteri^^ t tvry cUrioQs article, 
was lateiy pnblished in the Gent Magi toh LXXXfV, 
Part L page a46. He died Sefiteibbdr 4y itie, atid wa^ 



* Tbe^e were, the *< Ephesian Ma-* 
tiroh.'J and tHe ** Roman Slave," two 
'Imlpdfd pcfBtkt. 3. AiV c^o poeth^ en- 
iiite<l< ** Carolieil," id tMke l|o<^f \a 
honour of Cha/les I. but this was en- 
tttibi^ i^Bi \h tiife fir^ i^h\(k <A5nsttaie^ 

• f These were,, hw " Atlas," com* 
pf lied in severalfolio volumes ; <' t*he 
TMtvMhBr^i 0M^ or a itidtt eto4ct 0^. 
tGri|Aioti .of the Roads, &c. 1674,'' 
fotioi Skftsiwarda mgr^veA >r iobn 



Bowen, Under the title of " Britannia 
Pepicfa, &c." in 1731, 8vo. Thefe 
gae9 9.H6 ill hk liMie i. u«# itaap if 
tbd e^ty of LoBfcAi, as it w»» li^w built« 
in one sheet folio; and, jointly with 
Wilifanit Morgan, bi6 grandson an'd 
aueoeisor at cosnratgrafriier, 'te mMle 
a new and accurate m^p* of the city of 
London, distinct 'froAi Westthiiistef add 
SoUthWarfil HAd A Sttr^^y cf ^iii^ 
with the roads, having the arms of iiM 
gentry 4m the bordevs. 



312 O GIL B Y.^ 

ioterred iii St Bride's cbiircfa, Fleet-street, leaying the 
pbar^qter of a very industrious, enterprizing, and honest 
man, I 

. 0CLE1;H0RPE (James Edward), a distinguished Eng- 
lish offiuer, was the .fourth and youngest son of sir The<y- 
philu^ Oglethorpe, of Godalmin, in the. county of Surrey, 
hy Eleonora his wife, daughter pf Richard Wall, of Rogane, 
in Ireland* He was born in the parish of St. James, in 
1698, and admitted of Corpus Cbristi college, Oxford, in 
1714, bqt it would appear that his destination in life was 
soon changed, as in the same year we find he was captaio* 
lieutepant in the first troop of the queen's guards. > He af* 
terwards employed himself in acquiring the art of war 
under, the famous prince Eugene, of Savoy, and other 
eminent commanders, among whom the great duke of Ar» 
^yle, his patron, . may be named. In his severar cam- . 
.paigns in Germany , and Hungary, having been recom* 
fended by John duke of Marlborough, he acted assecre* 
.tary and aid*de-camp to the prince, and stored up much 
ujseful knowledge ^ and if we are not mistaken, he received 
spme preferment in the Getean service,, in which, he 
might have continued with as great advantages as his com* 
paoion, the Veldth Marshal, afterwards obtained.. But 
,with a man of his sentiments, the obligations due to bis 
native country, and the service3 it required, could not be 
dispensed with : he . quitted his foreign engagements, and 
long exercised the virtues of the unbiassed senator at home. 
In the parliament which tnet May 10, 1722, he was re- 
turned member for Haslemere;.as he was again in 17 27> 
1734, 1741, and 1747 ; and during that period many re- 
gulations in our laws, for the benefit of our trade, <&c. were 
pro^posed and promoted by him in the senate. In the coin- 
.mittee of parliament. for inquiring into the ^tate of the 
jails, formed in Feb. 1728, and of which he was chairmaii^ 
he was enabled to detect many horrible abuses in some of 
the jails of the metropoliis. But he w^s most instrumental 
in founding the colony of Qeorgia, situate betw.een South 
Carolina and Florida, which was established by a royal 
charter; the fund for settling it wa9 to arise from cha- 
ritable contributions: coUectipns were made tbronghout 
the kingdom, the bank contributed a handsome sum, and 
(he parliament gave 10,000/. which enabled the trustees, 

I Btpf, Britv«-Ath. Oi. Toh 11. ia art Shirley^-^ibber'a lives, . 



OGLETHORPE. til 

<^«whofn general Oglethorpe waaonje^ to entertain niany> 
poor fanofilies, and provide for tbeir accommodation and 
removal to America. 

In the month of November about 100 persons embarked 
at Gravesend on . board the Anne of 200. tons, .commfiinded 
by capt* ThQma$, atid with them . Mr. Oglethorpe. Th^, 
>urrived at Carolina on the 15th January following^ fVoiii 
whence they sailed to Port- Royal, and Mr. Oglethorpe 
iwent up the. Savannah River,, and pitched upon a conve- 
nient spot of ground .to form< a. settlement. He. then went 
to, Charles-Town, to solicit assistance for his colony, iii 
which he bad success, and returned to Savannah,; where 
be was met by the chiefs of the Lower Creek nation; .who . 
€laimed from the Savannah riveras far as St. Augustine, 
<and.up^ Flint river, which runs into the bay of Mexico. , A 
treaty of alliance and commerce, was made and signed witb 
them. He also concluded a treaty with the two .nations of 
the Cberokees and Chickesaws, relating to their. part of 
the same province; and a provisional treaty with the gover- 
nor of Augustine and. general of Florida, relating 'to the 
boundaries between the English and the Spaniards, until 
;tbe sentiments of the two crowns could be known. In 1734 
Jie. returned to England, and brought with him some of 
the Indian, chiefs, particularly TomoChiqui and his family, 
who were graciously i:eceived by the .king, well entertained 
.by the trustees, and returned to their native country .full 
<n the utmost respect for jtheir British friends and allies. . 
On the 5th May, 1736, Mr. Oglethorpe embarked again 
for Georgia, with 300 passengers. The colony continued 
to flourish under his direction, materials were provided for 
building a church, and a wharf for. landing of goods, as 
lilso for. finishing the fortifications, and clearing the roads.. 
;A town called New Ebenezer was erected by the Geroaaa 
settlers, under, the direction of Mr. Oglethorpe, who next 
visited the Scotch at Darien, and then went to the island 
qf Saint Simon, which is in the n^outh of the river Alata* 
.maha, about thirteen miles long, and twenty leagues north 
of Saint Augustine. He also discovered Amelia . ishtnds^ 
.^about 236 miles by watei;Arom the month of the Savannah 
iriver> and caused the town of Augusta to be built there. 
Soon afterwards Mr. Oglethorpe again returned to £ng-f 
-land; but differences arising between the Spanish .and 
£ng)ish courts, he was preparing to go to Anaeri.ca, w^beji 
jdPD. Thomas Geraldino^ the Spanish ambassador at the 



SI* OGLETHORPR^ 

eoort.of Londmiy presented a memofiat In 1797^ AenKatnA^ 
Jng.aU the hnd to 35 degrees and 30 munueg of nof th Ib*: 
tkude ill North America, and requiring the gbvern^etit to 
(hrdesr the Engtisb tubj^cts to withdraws but if tbia cMmld 
hoi be denve, insigting that no troops tffaoukl be ietic tbc^r^ 
add particularly f^raonstrating agalnfti the tetaril df Mt« 
Oglethorpe. Advices being dt^he same time received thut 
tho Spatri&fds wet*^ meditating hostilities, no regard nm 
paid to the recluisition of their court. Mt. Ogleth«»rpe 
waa appointed general and commander in chief of tke 
Cngiifth forees in Carolina and Georgili.. HewagOfd^re4 
accordingly to raise ii regiment, and repaii^ thitbir^ Ott 
tbe25tb. Aogtfftt he had a coobmission as colonel itfadeoiit^ 
and arrived just in time to prevent the exectttioh of the 
flpatfish designs^ altbough a considerable nuoftber of ttieir 
tMDfm iMid already got to Augustine^ 

Wben reprisals were known to have been published hf 
Itis Britannid majesty against the king of Spain^ a pa^ty oif 
the garrison of St Augustine c^me up^ and surprised tn^ 
iiighlanders upon the island of Amelia, cut off their heada, 
Htvd mangled their bodies with gresit inhumanity. GeM^ 
HI. Oglethorpe immediately went in pursuit of thelh^ bwi^ 
I^Mgh he followed them by land and water above lOO 
O^les in twenty-four hours, they escaped. He^ howeveiV 
^wiy of retaliation, passed the river St. Mauheo or 1^. 
iJohtl^s in Florida^ drove in the gdards of Spanish hot^ 
posted upon ihe river, and advanced as fsir as a plade 
tfcalled the Cavallas ; be also took other meashres ft>r re- 
€Of)noitring the country^ which he apprehended would \ik 
atteiided with advantage hereafter. 

On his return ,to Frederiea iif January, be met eapiaii^ 
ftlTtertvards sif Peter, Warren^ who was lately arrived with 
4he Sqhirrel man of war. Wben their cotisuhation was 
•leoneiodedi the daptain went and cruised off the bay ^ Si. 
'Aegnstlrte^ white the g^ners4 with it detachment of trdopii 
im board of the boats, and some artillery, went op tb^ 
likes of Florida^ and attacked and took the forts of Pieka- 
«|^A Md St. Franbis* 

Efteour&ged by this )5tieee^, lind by the information^ froth 
somfe prisoners of the weak eondiiioii of Aogusiine^ he 
n^editatdd the reductfon of that place ;. mA iideordiogly 
'went to Charles-Town to d&^itt assisiMce of the peo^Ae of 
'CareliM. His plati^ at first, WM to Mdck up the pU^ 
befoHi the Spanlatds coold re^ervt^ protidofus Md reliof 



o G L E T H o a p a ^IS 

I 

irom Ciiba. He also spirited vip'thi Creek Indians to jtnii 
him, and entered into a cortespofadence* trttfa some disi- 
contented chiefs in tfae service of Spain, lie soon after' 
acqoatnted the Assembly of Carolina, that if they toold, 
by March fellowing, join th^ troops upon the rirer St. Mat- 
tbeo or St. John with 600 i^hite men, a troop of horstf, 
Biiother of rangers^, and €00 negroes for pioneers, with a 
prbper train of artiilery, knd necessaries, there aronld be 
a probability of taking the place, cft Ht least of preventing 
die Spaniards from undertaking anything against Carolina, 
l^rovided the men ot war weotd Mock up the ports frtmi 
i^eiving succours by sea. 

The first hiterruption this plan met with, was from the 
sopineness of the Assembiy of Carolina, who delayed th>s 
assistance they had pttmiised, tin til the garrison of Angus- 
tine had received both men and provi9ions from the Ha- 
Tannah^ This deUy bad almost occasioned the destruccicAi 
of captdin WsrretiP, who, not knowing of the succours which 
the place had obtained, Went and lay off it to pilevent their 
coming in ; but, in the dark df a calm night, was dttacki^ 
by six half galiies, whoth be engaged with gfeat spirii; ; 
and in the etid sonk due, and drove the ri^st into port. 
Geneval Ogleib€^pef, disgusted at the inactivity of the peo- 
ple of Carohna, left Charles-town in order to make the 
best disposttiofi he cnuld amongst his own people ! he 
crossed St. Jobli's rivor with a. party of his regiment, and 
landed in Florida on the lOth of May. He immediately 
invested and took Fort Diego, ibout three leagues from 
Attgustine. Soon ^erwards 400 men arrived froib Cam- 
' lina, bat without any horse; rangerU, negroes, or pi^^neeiii. 
About the same^ time came a b6dy of Cbefokee Indians, as 
abo captaih IMiibar^ with a party of Chidte^ws, and she 
rangers and highlanders from Georgia, under eaptaiti 
M^Intdsh/ 

The fleet, in the mean while, arrlt^ed off St. Mattheo br 
Si Johif s rivet*, to Assist upon the expedition. The gene- 
ral went on board tild domtnoddre, Wliere a consultation 
Was held, and it wass agreed to aii43hor off Augastine, aiid 
im atteinpt an entry into the harbdtir. The general imme- 
diately marched by land, and in three days arrived At 
Moosa, a fort built by the S(paniards fot the deserted fli!- 
groes firom CareiiAa : from hence be ient d small detacU- 
IW&ilt IN^ tak^ pdsiiestfion uf ^e tbmv having bad a private 



3115 OGLETHORPE. 

iutimation that.it would be delivered up: to ;him ;' but tiris 
scheme, by an untimely discovery, was frustrated. < 

In the mean time* the commpdore found that there was 
a battery upon the inland of Anastasia, which defended tb« 
entry of the harbour. This, obliged the . general to marcb 
.to the coast with a party of 200 men. He had befoie seat 
the highJanders, rangers, and a party of Indians under 
colonal Palmer, with orders to lie in the woods, near Au«- 
gustine, and hinder the, Spanish : parties from coming . put 
by land ; but with positive orders not to come to. any g^ie* 
.ral .action, uor lie two nights in the san^e place. The 
general then came up to the commodore, and held acoui- 
sultation : a landing was determined to be attempted, and 
captain Warren, who on this occasion had a commissioB 
given him to command as lieutenant-colonel, offered b|s 
aervice. Anastasia was imnnediately attacked and takea; 
.for it was soon found that the river which runs between 
that island and the castle, near which the lo.wn lay,.«va» 
too wide to batter in . breach. It was then resolved to air 
tempt to cross the riyer, and land near the town ; but npw 
the balfrgallies were a floating battery, so that there waiB 
no possibility of landing without first taking or driving 
them away. This, however, the general offered to attempt 
niiith the, boats of the squadisou : but so many obstacles arose 
to impede the progress of the siege, that general Oglei- 
thorpe finally failed in his principal aim, although he suc^ 
ceeded in his other views, which were to intimidate . the 
. Spaniards from invading Qeorgia and Carolina. They re- 
n^ained inactive within their own territories tintil.174^, 
. when they collected a body of troops and entered Georgia, 
where they comoiitted many ravages ; but they were obliged 
to quit their enterprize with disgrace, by the. bravery and 
conduct of general Oglethorpe. ? 

The general continued in his government until March 
, 1743, when, having received information that the Spaoisurds 
of St. Augustine were making preparations, for a secoiid in- 
vasion of Georgia, he set out at the head of a body of 
Indians, a detachment of, his own regiment/ the higb* 
landers, and Georgia, rangers, and, on the 6th of the aaine 
month, landed at Mattheo, or St. John's river, from whe^tc^ 
he proceeded forward to St. Augustine, the Spaniards rc^- 
tiring into the town on his approach ; b.ut^ after epcam(]^-« 
ing some days, finding the enemy would not venture out 



OGLETHORPE. 3l7 

ia the field, and being in no condition to undertake a siege 
be had before miscarried in, be returned to Frederica, and 
ip September following he arrived in England. ' 

The ill success of the attack on St. Augustine was as* 
t^ribed to different causes, as the interests and passions of 
several of the p^sons CQncerne<i' in the business operated. 
By sooie it was imputed to treachery: by others, to the* 
misconduct of the general. A controversy, carried on with 
much acrioiony, ensued ; and, on the general's return to 
England, nitieteen articles of complaint were delivered ki 
against him by lieutenant- colphel William Cooke, on wfaidi 
% board of officers sat a considerable time, when, after 
Ijiearing the evidence, they, on the 7th of June, 1744, dts^ 
misled the chafges as groundless and malicious, and de* 
blared the accuser incapable of serving his majesty. Iti 
' thje month of September in this year the general married 
the only daughter of sir Nathan Wright, hart, of Craioham- 
bail, in Essex. 

* On the 30th of March, 1745, he was protiioted to the 
tank of major-general; and the rebellion breaking out in 
that year, we find hitn in December with his regiment verjr 
actiyely employed in following the rebels,; but though he 
iras frequently close to them, he did not overtake them, 
a^d in February 1746 he arrived in London. His conduct 
again became th'e subject of inquiry. On the 29th of Sepr-^ 
tember his trial came on at the Horse Guards, and ended 
the 7th of October, when he was again honourably ad- 
quitted; and the Gazette of the 2 1st of that month de- 
clared, that his majesty was graciously pleased to confirm 
the sentence. • ; 

. Here his military character seems to have ended ; for we 
do not find that he was any way employed in the war o( 
1756. On the establishing the British Herring Fishery ia 
1750, he took a very considerable part, and. became one 
q{ the council ; in which situation he, on the 25tjb of Oe- 
tober, delivered to the prince of Wales the charter of in- 
corporation, in a speech printed in the journals of that 
jear. In. 1754 he was candidate for the borough of Ha-: 
sl^fXiere, which he had represented in former parliaments ; 
bat on the close of the poll the numbers were found to be, 
for J, More Molynpux 75, Phil. Carteret Webb 7€, Peter 
Burrel 46, and for himself only 45. 
- It has been said, that after this period he was reduced 
to great difEcultiies inr his fortune, artd to the necessity of 



31S OGLETHORPE. 

pniotising in some ofianner the science of physic as a pro* 
fiessiop. We knovr, however, of no authority for this as* 
sertton. On Feb. 22, 1765, he was advanced to the rank 
of general, and lived to be the oldest officer in the king's 
service. He died at Cranham, June 30, 1785. 
. . He is represented to have been a man of great bene- 
iBoleiioe, and has been immortalized both by Thomson and 
Pope. He was at once, says Dr. Warton, a great hero 
and a great legislator. The vigour of Ms mind and body 
has': seldom been equalled. The vivacity of his genins 
cBontinued to a great old age. The variety of bis adven- 
tures, and the verv different scenes iff which he had been' 
engaged, merit a more fait narrative than we have beerr 
able to furnish. Dr. Johnson once offered to write his life, 
if the general would furnish the materials. Johnson had a 
great regard for him, for he was one of the first persons 
that highly, in all coolpanies, praised* bis <^ London.^'^ 
But the greatest lustre of bis life was derived from bis 
benevolent and judicious settlement of the colony of 

OlSEL, or OUZEL (JAMfis), ^ learned civilian, wa9 
born at Dantzie May 4, 1631. His father originally in-* 
tended him for commercial life, and ^nt him to Holland 
with that viefv ; but as he betrayed a stronger incliniation 
to study, and employed all his leisure hours in acquiring^ 
knowledge that could be of no use in trade, he was per* 
mitted to enter upon a regular course of academic instruct- 
tion at Leyden. At this university, which he entered ia 
J650, he was enabled to pro£t by the instructions of those 
learned contemporaries, Salmasius, Daniel Heinsius, Bdx^ 
homius, Golius, &c. ; and he had not been here above two 
years before he published an excellent edition of Minutius 
Felix, in quarto, dedicated to Christina queen of Swe- 
den. Both Nioeron and Morfaoff accuse him of plagia- 
rism in this work ; but Chaufepie defends him, and ap- 
parently with justice. Besides the belles-lettres, be stu- 
died law, both at Leyden and Utrecht, and took his doc- 
tor's d^ree at the former in 1654. Next year he visited 
England and France, and meant to have proceeded to 
Italy ; but hearing at Geneva that the plague raged there, 
he went a second tiitie to England aiid France, and re- 

^ Europeao M«igsiuiie for 17f5.— tMa^ning «Dd Bray't Hiat of Suriey.-^i- 
ohols's Bowyer — ^Bo^weir^ Ufe of Johoion.-r-Geiit. Mag' »«:e la^^ 



O I 8 £ L. - S19 

tiirned to Holland in 1657. He afterwards resided, partly 
at Utrecht, and partly at Leyden and the Hague, until 
1667, when he. was appointed professor of laW at Gfo- 
ningen. The eonformity of' bis ideas with those of Paf- 
fendorf occasioned a great intimacy between them. Oiset 
dceumulated a large library, a cafialogue of which was 
published about the time of his ded^, which happened 
Jane '20, 1686. "His other works were principally an edi^ 
tioii of Aulus GelliUs^ Leyden, 1666, 8vo, and a treat^sq 
entitled ^^ Thesaurus selectorum numisinatutn antiqdoruoi' 
«re expressoruni," Amst. 1677, 4to, a curious and bcJEttce 
perforniance ; but originally suggested to hinfi by soitoa 
booksellers who had purchased the plates of a similar work 
in German by Joachim Oudaan, alid requested Oisel td 
illustrate them' in the Latin language. He had a liephew 
Philip Oisel,' a divine, who published some works 6n thie 
Hebrew accents and on the Decalogue. * 

OKELY (Francis), a learned, but somewhat enthusi- 
stitic divine, was born in 1718, and educated at the Char-* 
ter-faouse, and at St. John^s college, Cambridge, where 
lie proceeded Q. A^ 17^9. At this'time he appears to have 
cdnceived those notions which interrupted bis regililar ad^ 
vancement, and was ordained deacon in the Moravian 
dbureh. He afterwards offered himself as a candidate for 
priest's orders in the ehureh of England; but, wh6u the 
bishop intimated the invalidity of bis first orders, Mr. 
Okely would not be ordained priest on such terms, and 
therefore adhered, through life, to the Moravian congre-' 
gstfions, and was highly esteemed by the few wha lived in 
communion with him, on account of his piety, benign 
temper, and liberal sentiments. He died at Bedford May 
9, 1794, in his seventy-sixth y^ar. The peculiar tiirn of 
his mind may be understood from the titles of hi^ publi- 
cations : 1. A translation from the High Dutch,' of ^Twen- 
ty^^one Discourses, or Dissertations, upon the Augsburgh 
Confession, which is also the Brethren's Confession of 
Faithy delivered by the ordinary of the Brethren's Churches 
before the seminary," &c. 1754, 8vo. 2. ^' Psalmorum 
aliquot Davidii Metaphrasis Graeca Joannis Serrani,^' &c. 
I7'/0, '12mo. 3. ^* The Nature and Necessity of the new 
creaturef in Christ, stated and described, according to the 
heart's experience and tru6 practice^ by Johanna Eleanora 

> Chaufepie.— NiceroD, vol, XLH.-vMoriBri. 



S20 K E L Y. 

de Mellari : translated from the German/' 1772, 8vb. 4^ 
*' The divine visions of John Englebrecht/' 17dl, 2 vois:^ 
8vo. 5. '^ A faithful Narrative of God's gracious dealing* 
with Hiel," 1781, 8vo. 6. " A Display of God's Won- 
ders, done upon the person, &c. of John Eoglebrecht,'* &e» 
1781. 7. ^^ The indispensable nepessity of Failb^ in order 
to the pleasing God; being ^ substance ^f a discourse 
preached at Eydon in Northamptonshire," 17S1, 8vo. ' 
. OKOLSKI (Simon), a Dominican, was a native of Rus«» 
»ia, and became provincial of his order ki Poland|>in 164^* 
He pMblished, in 1 641, at Cjracow, a work entitled ** Qr«f 
bis Polonus," in three volumes folio, beiog a history of tb^ 
Polish nation, to which, the author is somewhat partial,, 
with leHrned resefirches conceruing the origin of the Sav* 
matians. The work is rare, but of no high value. He wa» 
author also of a work entitled *^ Preco divlni verbi Aibei^ 
tus episcopus Ratisponenis," printed at Cracow in 1649. ^ 
. OLAHUS (NicuoLAS), a learned prelate, was bom a^ 
Herinanstadt, in 1493« A^ter various preferments^ be wa» 
nominated by Ferditxand, king of Hungary, bishop of Z^ 
grat, and chancellor of the kingdom. ^ He was afterwardf- 
elevated to the see of Agria, and being present af, the £»» 
mous siege of that town by the Turks in 1552, he contri^ 
buted greatly to the spirited and successful defence made 
by the inhabitants. In 1553 he was^ appointed archbishop 
of Strigonia, and held two national councils at Tyrpau,. the 
acts of which were printed at Vienna in 1 560, and was in- 
8trun>ental in founding the first Jesuits*, college in Hungary 
at Tyrqau. In 1562 he was created palatine of the king* 
dom, in which quality he crowned Maicimilian as king of 
Hungary. He died at Tyrnau in 1568 f leaving behind 
him, as monuments of his industry and learning, *^A Cbro** 
nicle of his own Times ;'* " A History of Attila,". Presb, 
1538, and *^ A Description of Hungary.'* His life is given 
in father Muszka^s history of the Palatines of Hungary^ 
printed in 1752, folio.' 

OLAUS MAGNUS. See MAGNUS. - 

OLDCASTLE (Sir John), called the good lord Cob- 
ham, the first author, as well as the first martyr, among 
our nobility, was born in the fourteenth century, in the 
reign of Edward III. He obtained his peerage by mar- 
rying the heiress of that lord Cobbam, who, with so much 

> Nicholi*t Bowyer.^-^Oent Mag. vol. LXIV, 
* Moreri ^ Ptct. Hist. 



OLD .C.A S T Li!. Mi 

^rttt^ and patriotkm opposed the tyranny of Richard IL 
and, with t^e estate and title of his father-iii-Iaw, seeims 
also to have taken possession of his virtue and independent 
ftpirit. The famous statute against provisors was by his 
means revived^ and guarded by severer perlalti^s. He was 
oiie of the leaders in the reforming party, who drew up a 
Qumber of articles against the corruptions which then pre- 
vailed among churchmen, and presented them, in the form 
of a remonstrance, to the Commons. He was at great ex- 
pence in collecting and transcribing the works of WicklifF, 
which he dispemed among the people ; and he maintained 
% great number of his disciples as itinerant preachers in 
many par^s of the country. These things naturally awak- 
ened the resentment of the clergy agamst him. In the 
reign of Henry IV. he had the command of ail English 
army in France, which was at that time a scene of great 
confusion, through the competition of the Orlean and BuV« 
gundian factions ; and obliged the di|ke of Orleans to raise 
the siege of Paris. In the reign of Henry V. be was ac- 
otised of heresy^ and the growth of it was particularly 
attributed to his influence. The king, with whom lord 
Gobham was a domestic in his court, delayed the prpsecU"* 
tion against him; and undertook to reason with him him^ 
6elf, and to reduce him from his errors. Lotd Cobbam^s 
answer is upon record . " I ever was,'* said he,^ " a dutiful 
subject to your majesty, and ever will be. Next to God, 
I profess obedience to my king; but as to the spiritual 
dominion of the pope, I never could see on what founda-' 
tion it is claimed, nor can I pay him any obedience. • It is 
sure as God's word is true, he is the great a:ntichrist fore- 
told in holy writ.'' This answer so exceedingly shocked 
tbe king, that, turning away ih visible displeasure, be with-* 
^kew his favour from him, and left him to the censures of 
the church. He was summoned to appear before the arch<« 
bishop; and, not appearing, was pronounced contuma- 
cious» and excommunicated. In hopes to avoid the im- 
pending storm, he waited upon the king with a confession 
of. bis faith in f^riting, in his hand ; and, while he was in 
h\% presence^ a person entered the chamber, cited biin to 
appear before the archbishop, and be was immediately 
harried to the Tower. He was soon after brought before 
the archbishop, and read his opinion of the&e articles, t)n 
wbichhe supposed he was called in question, viz. the Lord'« 
supper^ penance, images^.and pi}grhnages« Hewastbld^ 

- vou xxiii: Y 



^3 Q-V. I) C A S? T L E> 

that in Moae pai^U be had iHot bees ouffieiootly e^plidij 
tbiLt on all the«e points holy church had id^temuied ; by- 
which di^teraiinatiogs all Chrutiam o«ig)it to ilbide ; and thiUj 
these determinations should be given hiiiiiis a direction qf 
his faith ; aad in % few days h^ 'sotist appear ilgain md give 
his opinioD. At the time, be ^d amo&g cMiber thin^, 
^' that be knew none holier 4ban Christ and the apostm < 
and that these determinalioali were surely none of itheirs/ 
as they were against seriptiire:^ In conclusiohj be was^ 
condemned as an heretic^ and remanded to the Ttnrey^; 
from which place he escaped, and lay concealed in Wa)es« 
The clergy, with great zeal for the royal persbn^ infoiine^ 
th^ king, then at Eitham, that i20/X>0 LdUards were as* 
sembled at St. Giles's for bis destruction, with lord Cob^ 
bam at their head. This pretended conspiracy, though 
there were not above 100 persons found, 3Ad: tfabse poor 
Lollards asscimbled for devotion, was entirely credited i^ 
the king, and fully ariswered the designs cf the clei^y ; but 
there is not the smallest authority fdr it, in any aodier^kf 
reputation. A bill of attainder passed against lord Oqb^ ' 
bam ; a price of a. thotisand marks was set upcm liis head) 
and a perpetual exemption from taxes promised ito my 
town that should secure hiih. Alter be had been ibnr year^ 
in Wales, he t^s taken at last by the vigilance of 'his ene- 
mies, brough.t to London in irlmkiph, and dragged to ex-: 
ecution in St. Gileses-fields. As at traitor, and a heretic, -be^ 
was bung up in chains alive upon a gaUow^^ and, 'fir^ 
being put under him, was burnt to ^ieath, in December,* 
1417. 

He wrote, '^ Twehre ConditsioDs addressed to the par^ 
liament pf Englaiid." At the end of the first book he vnot^ 
some monkish rhymes in Latin, which Bale bas preserved^ 
and wbiph, he says, ^' were eopyed out by dyvitrse neny 
and set upon theyr wyodowes, gates, and dores, whidl 
were then knowen lor obstynate bypocrytes'and fieMym 
livers, which made the prelates madde." Bale pablitlMwt 
'^ A brefe Chronycle concemynge the filtajnynacymi ami 
deatbnOf ite blessed martyr of -CbnistysyrJehan OldeaaoAi&t' 
the lorde Cobha«i," whioh was Mrprmted 'utider the catf£ 
of Mr. Levvis, of Margate, in 1729. His li£e bas been * 
since elegantly written by Mr. Gilpitt.. ^^Lord CbUMkny'^ 
says this biographer, '* bad beldn mmA coayersaQtia A9 
world $ and had probably been cagagad in tbe«aiiy pait 
of bis Jif^ in the Ikencie of it. SUm rdigino, itoftnnMi 



O L D C A S t LB. m 

|Mil « thormigh Matraint upon a dispcjuitioa ««luraRy in* 
ctined to the alliirevMiits of pkasurc; He wa^ a man of a 
very high spirit, aiid warm temper; neither of which bis 
Miffefioga could ftihdiie. With very little temporiaing blB 
inigbt h«ee escaped the indignitiei he reeeiifed ifrom the 
clergy, wlio always cpiundered bim as an object beyond 
^em ; V^t the greatness of his spul could not brook eon- 
cession, ki all his exantinitioos,* and through th)e wbole 
of his behaviour, we see iin authority and (fignity in his 
flsaoner^ which speak him the griaat man in atl his afflic- 
tions. |i^ was % person of uncommon par|s, and very 
extensive talents % well qualified either for the cabinet or 
die fields tn oenversation he was remarkable for his ready 
and p(Hgnanl wit ilis acquirements were equal to bht 
parts. No species of learning wUoh was At that time in 
teteem bad escaped his attendon. It was his thirst of 
j&nowledge, indeed, which first brought him acquainted 
with the opinions of Wickliff. TM novelty of them eft* 
ffi^d hb curiosity. He examined them as a phMoisiophef, 
and in the course of his examinatiou became a Christian.*^^ 
OLDENBURG (H£NRT), who wrote his name some- 
times GRUBENDOL, reversing the letters, Was a learned 
German, and borh in 1626, in the duchy of Bremen, in 
the Lower Saxony, being descended from the counts of 
'Oldenbufg, in Westphalia^ whence his name. Di^g thfc 
4ong EngUsb parliament in Ghaarles I/s time^ lie was ap- 
^poiot^ icensui for his countrymen, ia which post he c^b«- 
tipued at . London after the usurpation of Cromwell ; but, 
being discliarged fropi that eo^iploymene, be w^ txx^i^ 
^utor to the lord Henry Obrien, an Irish nobleman,, whom 
^ ^ttende^ tp th^ university of Oxfqrd^ wd in ^^46. ipn; 
tered bimseif a student, ^iiie&y foe tbeai^e of adaussiofi 
to the Bpdleiati library. He was afterwards tutor tp Wil- 
li^ lord Ciivepdi^, apd w^is aQq»s4iit^4 svith Milttu)^ 
Among whose '^ Epistohs £Euxuliares/* are four letters to 
Old^nj>urg. During .bis r^si^e^ice ^t Oxford Jie t)e<?fti:)piij 
idsQ Acquainted, with the members .of that Utile assoeiation 
frhich, gave birth to theroy^l society; knd, ^pon ttie fQun- 
4i(tian .0^ this laUer, be! was el^oiied fieiUQ^ ;^»i»d, wWthe 
apeiety found it necessai^ to have two seenetartes^ he was 
cIh^j^ . #wsm3tt to Pn l^iljiins. He .)94)pUf54 twwelf wUb 

 

. V.99pffl'«]i^;(•.--^Fox'sActsJndMon^nQ|e^ s«dlfcililt 

AiabMf, by l>ailL-*a«|B>« M^ii .g4roiiicl^.r-M^r>f ffi^^ Hi|t. ,<jfti|», U cm 
twfJCV. vol IV. part. I^ 

"  Y 2 * 



334 



O L D E N B U R G. 



.extraordinary diligence to the business^ of this <)ffice, and 

» begj^n the publication of the ^* Pbiiosopblcal TraniactionSf' 

.Wi4| No. 1. in 1664. In order to discha^rge this task with 

greater credit: to himself and the society, he heId:acor« 

respondence with more than seventy learned persons, and 

:others, upon a vast variety of subjects, in different patts 

.of the world. Thi» fatigue would have been insuppor table, 

had be not, as he. told. Dr. Lister, ans veered every letter 

.the moment he received it, a rule which cannot be too 

warmly recommended, whether in cases of business, lite«- 

rature, «Dr pleasure. Among Oldenburg's con^pspoudente 

may be mentioned tbe celebrated Robert Boyle, with 

whom he bad a very intimate friendship; and he translate 

.several of that gentleman^s works into Latin ^. ' i 

About 1674 he was drawn into a dispute witK Mr. Ro^ 
\bert -Hooke ; who conoplained, that the secretary had not 
.done him justice in the .^^ Transactions,'* w:ith respect ta 
.the invention of the spiral spring for pocket-watches. .Tbe 
contest was carried on with great ' warmth on both sidei 
*for two years, when it was deter miniefd, mu^b to Olden- 
burg's honour,, by a delaratipn of tbe council of the royal 
society,, Nov. 20j 1676, in these words: " Whereas tbe 
publisher of tbe Philosophical Transactions hath raadte 
complaint to the council of the royal society, of/soa^e 
passagm. in a late book of Mr. Hooke, entitled ^ Lampas/ 
.&:ic. and printed by the printer of ^the said society, reflect- 
ing on the integrity apd faithfulness of the said publisber, 



* It appears that .in 1667 he was 
taken up on suspicioni and imprisoned 
in the Tower. lo a letter dated Loph 
don, Sept. 7, of that . year, he writes 
Ihas : ** I was so stifled hy tbe prison- 
air, that a* soon lis 1 bad m^ ^nlai^^ 
inent from the Tower, I - widen'd . it, 
and took it from London into the Con- 
try, to fann myselfe for some days In 
jlhe good air of Craferd in Kent. Being 
now -returned, and having recovered 
my stomach, whfcb I had in a manner 
quite lost, I intend, if God, will, to 
fall to myxoid trade, if I hare any sup. 
iidit to follow it. My late misfortune, 
I feare, will miich prejudice tne ; 
inany persons unacquaiiited with me, 
and hearing me to be a stranger, be- 
ing apt to derive ^.suspicion upon me. 
Kot a few came to the Tower, merely 
to enquire after my critne, and to see 
Hm warrant) iu which • when they 



found,^ that it was for dangerous :det- 
Seins Und practiciss, . they spredl ii over 
Loi^doB, and made others have no 
good opinion. of: me.. Ineartera autkit' 
fet, tefnptr aliqutd, Jueret. Betore I 
went Info the contry, I waited on djr 
• lord Arlington, ,kissing the rod..i 
hope, t shall live fully to satisfy hit 
majesty; and all honesd Englishmen, 
of my integrity,' "and of my reall setl 
to spend .t^e remainder of my life in 
doing faithfull sernce to the nationV.to 
the very ntlnost of my abilities. I 
have learned, during this- commitiMQli 
to know my reall friends. 6od Al- 
mighty hlesse them, and enable mc 
tocoovince them all.ofmy.graritadfe" 
By his other correspondence, 4>jpart of 
which is -prini^ in the « General Dic- 
tionary including Bayle," we learn tbst 
he was always poor, and ill irewaidcd 
^hittervicef. 



O L D E N D B U ft G. S«* 

ia his managemeot of the intelligence of tlie snid society;^ 
this council had thought fit to declare, in the behalf of the 
pufali$lier aforesaid, that they knew nothing of the pubii* 
<;atioQ. of.the. said book ; and farthfr^ that the said pub^' 
lisher hath, carded, himself faithfully and honestly in the 
management of the intelligence of the royal society, and' 
gi$«n. no ji&t cause for such reflections.^' ' 

, Mn. Oldenburg continued to publish thq Transactions as^ . 
before,, to, No. cxxxvi, June a^S, 1677 ;• after Which the* 
publication .was discontinued tillJan. following; then re- 
sqopied . b)? his successor in the secretary's office, Mr. Ner 
^emiab Grew, who cat'ried it on till Feb. 167^. Our author 
dying at his house at Charlton, near Greenwich,, in Kent, 
iov August that year, was interred there. Besides the 
iprorksi already; mentioned, he translated^ into English, 1.* 
f,^. The Prodromcis to a Dissertation by Nich. Steno, con- 
cetning Solids naturally contained within Solids," &c.l671,^ 
^8?Q..2. << A genuine explication of the Book of Revela- 
iio^s," &C. 1671,*8vo, written by A. B. Piganius. "The 
]pfe of the Duchess of Mazarine,'^ in 8vo, translated from 
ibe French. He left a son, named Rupert, from prince 
Rupert bis godfisither, and a daughter, named Sophia, by 
bis wife,, who was tlaughter and sole heir to the famous 
John Dury, a Scotch divine;^ 

OLD£tNBURGER (Philip Andrew), an eminent pro- 
fessor of law-and history at Geneva, died in' that city in 
1678, leaving a great number of valuable works, some of 
them published under feigned names, particularly Bur-- 
gdUensis. The. following are the principal: 1. '^Tbesau- 
vu»/rerum pubKcarum totius orbis,'? Geneva, 1675, 4 vois« 
8voy a useful and curious book for the knowledge of the 
new monarchies and their interests. 2. <^ Limnseus enu- 
eleatus,!' ibid» 1670, folio; a. work in high repute, and 
; necessary for those who study the law of the empire. 3. ^^ No- 
titia Itiiperii, sive.xii^cursus. in instrumenlum pacis Osna- 
hrqgo-Mooasteriensis," under the name. of Phil. And. Bur** 
goldensis, 4to. 4. ** Tractatus de Rebuspublicis turbidi^ 
ill tranquiUum stattim reducendift, in ebque conservandis.'* 
5. *^ Tractatus de quatuor elementis juridice consideratis 
et notis iliokratus." 6. <^ Manuale principum Christiano* 

rum de vera eorum felic|tate.V 7. "Tractatus Juridico-. 

.■ • • 'J -  • - ' ' 

^^ t Gen. Diet.— Martiii>t Bto^. PMI.--'Ai1l Qx. voK II.^W«nL>s G/eftb^m 
\ Profesiors. % 



»# 



Q L D r I E L D. 



f^olklcai de seeuritate jiirisy pmbUci ic {nrivati.'* t; ^< Bk 
Qcigiiie 6t prbgressii juris Hbmani,*' &c.' 
. OLDFI£LD (Akne)) >a celebrated Englisb actress, and 
]n6st accomplished woman, Was bora in Pail-raittl/ Londof), 
io 1683. Her father, bnc^ pbitsessed of a eompeitm es- 
tate^ was then an officer in the guisurds ; bat^ btsiiig iinptty* 
vident, left his faniily,' at lus death, almost destitute. Iti 
these circumst&tees, the widoW was forced to live witli^ 
sister, who kept a tavern in St James's Dsarket ; and tbe 
daughter was placed with a' senipstresi in Kifi^stnei^ 
Westminster. Miss Oldfield, in the mean ttme^ eonceivi^ 
an extraordinary taste for the drama, and was entertmuitig 
her relatioBii at a tavern by reading;, or attempting to act, 
when her voice chancfed to rcaeh the ear of fiir<|ub«r, tbei 
celebrated dramatic irriter^ who happened to dine in the 
same house. On being introduced, he was struck with 
l^r agriie&blk person and carriage, and pies^mly pfo- 
Bohnced ber admirably formed fer ihe stage. This co^* 
eurririg with her owh ihclhiatiotis, her mdthet open^ ibe 
natter to sir John Yahbnrgb, a friend of the family, who 
having the kame feVbiirable opinion of her talents, recom- 
mended her to Mr. Rich, then patentee of the kin^a 
theatre. She remained, hbwever, in comparative obacv- 
rity, till 1703, when she firit appeared to advantage in 
the part of LiM)nora in ^' Sir Courtly Nice ;*' and ^ta- 
Wished hel^ thfeatrioal reputatimi,  the following year, in 
tbat of Lady Betty Modish in the <^ Carfileis Husband.'^ 
. A little before this time, she fbrmed an illicit comiec- 
tion with Arthur JMaynwarin];^, esq. who interested himself 
greatly in the figure she. made upon the «tage ; and it was 
in some measure owing to the pains he took iti improving 
ber natoral tdanti, ^at she bcbame, as sbe soon did, tbe 
delight and chief ornament of it. After the death of this 
genttenian^ wUch happened in Nov. 17 IS, she eoga§^ 
in a like commerce with biigadier^en. Charles Churchill, 
•sq. * Shehiid one son by Maynwariiig i and another by 



, * George II. and qiieen Caroline^ 
when prince and princeis of WiUes, 
dEmdetoended sdmationcfl to isdsviene 
with ber at their ieveef. One day^ 
the princeii asled her, if afs» was mar* 
rtsd 10 gciiera) CbnrehiU? ''So it i» 
'said, may it please your highness, but 
w» havs fwt oiNifd Jt jkL^* It may 



appear ainsular, to qaotethe late piooa 
sir Jaitoes stonhoose for anecdotes of 
Mrs OlMeld, yet in one of his letiwe^ 
we are inforined that she always weoi 
to Uie house io the same dress she had 
worn at dinner in her visitft to thia 
houses of great people ; for she was 
mtteh oarcBsed oa aceoaiil ofkor' p^ 



I MoreriiT-rJIioty Hift« 



0kut€hiOf wbo aftetwMni& mxniedthe lady Aoiia littiMi 
Wnifo^ Bfttarid; daughter af tk» eark of Chtfard, Abocit 
If L8^ Savage, the iraety betog i^dused to extrema aeces- 
aityt bis Ycry smgular case a» aflboted Mrs. Otdield, ffknt 
she settled on bu» a penirioo of 50k par aiHiuiii, wb^cbt was 
isegalatly paid as long as aba lived. TUsy added l»odier 
generaor actions, together with a distinguished taste in 
e|eganoe of dses^ eonTevsation, aa^ BMimers, have gene- 
»U]r been spread gis a veil over her faitiags } and such wa^ 
kisr refHitatioDi that upon ber deatb^ wbi^ happened Oct. 
5^, ITiOy ber oerpae was cairied (mm her bouse in Gres^ 
ymaoumxeet to the Jeruaaten? Cbambipr, and after lying in 
. s«sle^ waa conreyed to Weatasinstier abbey, Ae pall beimg 
aapported by load De k Wanr, lord Hewey, the right haii. 
George Bubb Doddington, Chavlea Hedges, esq. Walter 
Garey^ esi). «jiid captain Elliot^ her eldest son Artkur 
Haynwariiig, esq. being ehief viearoer* She was intierf ed 
Awards the w^t end of the seatb atle, between the monu^ 
llieeta of Craggs and Congrere* As her own desire, she 
^pas elegantly dressed in her caSkif, with a tery fine Bpus^ 
ads laced head, a Holland shift, with a tackea and d«^idl»)e 
nifflqs of the same laoe, a pair of new kid glovfs, aiid her 
body wrapt np in a windiog-sbeet. On this account, Po^ 
introdnceKi her, in the pharaeter of Karcissi^ in Epistle L 
Hne 34>5, 

''Odiansi in woollen f 'twoidd a saipt provoke/* &c. 

j^he left the bulk of her substance to her son SJaynwaritig, 
fhMfn wbds^ father she had receivecji it'^ without neglecting^ 
however, her other son Churchill, an^ her own relations. 
'In her person, we are told by l^er coii^ihnoraries, tba^ 
she was of a stature just rising tp that i^eignt' wl^er^ the 
graceful ^aa only begin to shew itself; of ii lively aspect 
and domnband in hei* mieUi Nature had giv^Q her this 
j[>ecultar happiness, that she looked and inaintainj^d the 
agreeable at a time of life when other fine wopien only 
raise admirers by their understanding. The qualities she 
bad acquired were the genteel and the elegant ', the one 
in her air, the p%bier in her dress. The Tatler , taking nor 
tice of herdre«v says, U That, whatever clwacter she re- 

f«p^oii«t m^rit, Aii4 kei^ 0oiim«<Imi don>fp»lM^Biiy of the «fltt>ir«3r'«ii^ 

with Mr. Churchill, the dake of Marl- was allowed a Bum of money to ^^uy 

ipiWug)!i>i b|odN»;j3N»t ili^ iii«dr Ao Ke# #im iMJim^ Uitioft fi«ka the 

go tb the >lay. house in a chair, frtr iwer^^. Ocl09* aed \hmms<^ m hStfm* 

tended hy two footmeu ; that ihc'teU houae« tof. IL p. 950. 



ita O L D T I E L D. 

presented, %he was alwiiyg well dressed. The OMike of her ? 
mind very much contributed to the ornament of bar body. . 
This made every thing look native about her ; and her 
i;lothes were so exactly fitted, that they appeared, ! a^ k 
were^ part of her person. Her most el^ant deportineiit . 
4vas owing ' to her manner, and not to her habit* . ' Ho 
beauty was full of attraction, but more of aUuremeBt. 
There was such a coibposure iu her looks, and pr4>prieta^* 
in her dress, that you would think it impossible she sboiild ^ 
pbange.tbe garb you one.day saw her in for any thing lo 
becoming, till you next day saw her in another. Ttiena 
was no. other mystery in this, but that, however she was 
apparelle^, herself" was the same ; for, ' there is. an imme^ , 
diate relation between our thoughts and gestures,. thatvS^ 
woman must think, well to look well.'^ ^ 

OLDHAM (HuoH),:ai) English prelate, and an enuoeiift . 
benefactor to Corpus college^ Oxford, is supposed to ban ' 
been bom at Manchester, or more probably at Oldhatm, ' 
Dear Manchester. He was eclucated at Oxford, whence^ 
after 'realigning some time, he removed to Cambridge, 
completed bis studies, and took the degree of D. D. Ill: 
1493, .Margariet countess of Richpiond, whose chaplaia 
be Wa$9 presented him to t^e rectory of Swinshead in Lia*^ 
cplqsbire, an,d in July 1494, to . the . valuable Jiving of 
Cbeshunty of which he was the last rector, as it was appro< 
priated; shortly after to the convent of Westminster. In 
thesame year we find him prebendary of CoUwich in tbe 
church of Lichfield, and of Freeford in that church in 
'1501. Ifi 1497^' be was prebendary of Leigbton-Bosarii 
in thie church of Lincoln, and in 1499 prebendaryof SpuUi 
Ciive' in York. In 1 504, he was, by the interest of his pHr 
troness tlie countess of Richmond, advanced to the see. of 
Exeter, in which he sat till bis death, June 15, 1519. He 
\s said not to have been a man of profound learning, bu^ 
a great encpur&ger bf it Wood says that he had an in- 
tention of joining with bishop Smyth in the foundation qC 
Brazeurnose college^ but mentions no authority, yet $ince; 
his arms were disiplayed in the windows of tbe original 
library of that college, there can be ho doubt that he con^y 
tributed' to finish or furnish the room. His principal be»i 
nefactions, however, 'were bestowed on the contempor^^^ 

I Life pttblitbcd onder the nime of Egertoo, 1791, Svo.-*Biof . BrtjU-iTaU 
Itr, STOcdit. 1806»T«I.I. p.t04; IV. 15S. ' ^ ^f 



O L D H A M/ S2d 

• • • . ' ' . 

^Mindation of Corpus Christi college, f be design of Fo^, ^ 

die founder of Corpus, originally went no farther than to 

found a college for a warden, and a certain number of 

monks aud' secular scholars belonging to the priory of St. 

SiRtbin in Wiuisbe8lier;^but our prelate induced him to 

coUurge bis jdan to. one of more usefulness and durability. 

He is Baid to have addressed Fox thus : /'What, my iord> 

riiaU'we build houses, and provide livelihoods for a com* 

pany of monks, whose end and* fall we ourselves may live. 

CO see ! No, jio : it is more meet a great deal that we 

ibottld "have care to provide for the increase of learning, 

sad for such as who by their learning shall do gbpd.to the 

efaurcti and commonwealth.'' This wise and liberal advice 

heing taken, Otdham became the second great benefactor 

to. Corpus, by contributing siK thousand marks, besides^ 

laiids, . He also founded the grammar-school of Manches* 

tevy stUl a flourishing seminaiy, and connected with th^* 

three colleges of Corpus and Brazen-nose in Oxford, and 

St. John's in Cambridge/ 

. OLDHAM (John), an English poet, was born Aug. 9,. 

1653, at Shtpton, nearTedbui'y in Gloucestershire, where 

his father was a nonconformist minister, and had a congre^ 

gation. He educated his son in grammar-learning, and 

afterward? sent him to Tedbury school, where he spent 

about two years. In June 1670, he was admitted of Edr 

mtind-hall, Oxford, where he was soon distinguished for .a 

good Laiinist, and made poetry and polite uten^ture his 

efaii^f study. In May 1674, he proceeded B. A. but soon 

ilter iWas called home, much against his inclination. He 

continued > some time with his father, still cultivating his 

muse: one of the first fruits of which was ^\A Pindaric 

Ode^" the next year, upon the death of bis friend and con* 

stant companion^ Mr. Charles Morvent. Shortly after this, 

be bec^ime usher to the iVee-school at Croydon in Surrey, 

;^t found leisure to compose several popies of verses ; some 

of whicbj being seen in MS. by the earls ofRocbester and 

Oolyet, sir Charles Sedley, and other wits of distinction^: 

wisre so much admired, that they surprised him with an* 

uffexpeeted visit at Croydon. Mr, Shepherd (then niasw 

ter of the school) attributed the honour of this visit to him* 

^eif$ but they soon convinced him, that he was not the 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. r.— Dodd'8 Qh. Hni. vol. I.— WilUt*8 Gathedrdt.— Cbartoq*! 
|4Ves ^ the Foqpi)er8,-a-Wj0Qd*f Co|leg«s and ifalls, l^c. 



9$Q O L ]]| R A M* 

cA^ect of tbcir tiario^ky. The vmt, faoweirer^ bcMigiii 
OldbwB jicquaiol^d wUb other persona of. wit iiod.di^iiCH 
tjoD, and pnobaUjr hy tlnur. meaiisi he. was, io H7Sy jre« 
meved from Croydoo, and . appouited tutor to the tin 
gruDdfOna of m Edward Thurjaod^ n, judge, near Rygate 
i» Surrey. He cottlimied in this family tUl 1681 ; whei^ 
l^eiDg out of employ noeot, be passed soaoe tioae in. Loodon 
aaKMig the wits, and wa3 afterwards engaged as tutor to a 
aoB of sir William Uickes. This gentleman, living near 
London, wastntimately acquainted with Dr. Richajrd Lowei^ 
9^ eoHoent physician there, and who encoura^ad OldbaiD 
to atody physic, in which be made fliooie progress ^ but ba 
bad BO relish for protracted study, and preferred thcfoc* 
Muonal exercise of his pen on temporary subjects^ Hafv. 
ing discharged his trust, in iqualifyiog. young Hi(;fce9 for fo^ 
leign trarels, be declined, though earnestly pr^sed^.to.go 
abroad with him^ and . took, leave of the feniily. With, a 
anaUsum of money which he had saved, be no^ hastened 
to London, where coqipany seduced him into intemperance, 
yet in other respecjts be neither degraded nor disgraced his 
character. Before be had been long in the metropolis,, he 
was found out by the. noblemen who bad visited him at 
Ccoydbo, and who now brought him acquainted with l>ry- 
den, who highly esteemed him, conceived. a very great 
opinion of his talentf, and honoured bis memory with some 
very pathetic and beautiful lines* 

/ But what turned to bis greater advantage was,, his being 
made known to the earl of Kipgston, who became his pa-* 
tron, and entertained: him with great respect at his -acMJt 
at HoIme^PierpoiiU.; sppacently in the view of making 
bim bis chaplain,, if he would qualify bia^elf for it by en- 
tering into orders. But he had .the utmost aversion for 
that office, as appears from his *' Satire,*' addremed to a 
friend, who was about to leave the university, and come 
abroad into the world ; in which be lets him know^ that be 
was deterred from the thought of such an office by the 
servili^ too often expected from it. He remained^ bow^ 
ever, an inmate in tbe earl's house, till his. death,, wbieb 
was occasioned by the small-pox, Dec. 9, 1683, in bis ZQfii 
year. He was buried in the chui;ch of Holme'^Pierpointf 
the earl attending as chief mourner, who soon after erected 
a monument to his memory, with an inscription expr^- 
itig his etoge in Latin^ to this' effect : ** No poet was more 
inspired with the sacred furor, none more sublime in sen* 



L D H A; H tSI 

limenti, non^ iMre happily boM in cxpvesrioD, than he.'' 
\tk his person^ be was tall of stature, very tbini loDg-visaged^ 
with a high nose and pf^mineDt^ his aspcfst unpromising, 
hut satire wasib his eye. . His constitutioa was tender, aiul 
incliaed to a cenfsumptiofi ^ and not a little injured by ap<« 
lidation to learned authom, in whom he was well versed^ 
His genius lay chiefly to satire^ where, however^ he did 
not always keep within the bounds of decency. 

Hid works have been frequently printed in one volunief^ 
8vo; in 1722| in 2 vols. 12aio, with the ^'Aulhor's Life;'* 
iand lately, under the kispection of captain Tbomsony in 3 
vols. 1 2m(>. They consist of no less than fifty pieces ; the 
thief of iiHiicb are^ ^ The Four Satires upon ^e Jesuits," 
written in 1679. In 1681 he published ^^ Spfne new pieoes*' 
by the adthor of the Satires upon the Jesuits, Sva The 
frme he acquired by these satires procured him the titler 
^f the English Juvenal, Bnd although his language is fre- 
^ilently tmrslr and coarse, there are naany passages of vi- 
gour and elegance, and muchvivacity of description* Pope 
used to say, ^^ Oldham is a very indelicate writer; he haa 
strong rage, but too much like Billingsgate^ Lord Roches-^ 
tef bad roudh more delicacy, and more knowledge of man« 
kind. Oldham is too rooghand coarse. Rochester is the 
medium between him and the earl of Dorset^ who is the 
befet."* / 

OLDI8WORTH (WiLaAM)i a writer well known 
in the reigns of queen AAne and George L but of 
whom little is remefldbered, unless the tides of some few 
bf bis literary productions. Oiie of his names took the 
degree of M. A. at Hart-hail^ Oxford, in 1 67a He waa 
one of the original author* of <^ The Examiner," and con- 
tinued to write in thit paper as long as it was kept up. He 
published, <f A Vindication of the Bishop of Exeter" {^t^ 
Bbckall), against Mr. Hoadly. 2^ A volume called << State 
Tracts ;" ami another called ^' State and Miscellany Poenug 
by the author of the Examinet*," 1715, Svo. He trans-* 
lated, 3. The '^ Odes,' Epodes, and Carmen Seculare^ of 
Horace;'' wrote, 4. The " Life of Edmund Smith," pre-^ 
^xed to his works, 1719; and, 5. ^< Timothy and Phila- 
theus, in which the principles and projects of a late whim<* 
aical book, entitled The Rights of the Christian Church, 
l^€. are fairly stated and answered in their kind, &c. By 

4 Kof . IVit.— eviranl*! Aoecdotev, vol. It.— Spence'f Anecdote*, MS. 



4S« O L i) I S W O R T H. 

aLayman,^' 1709,1710, 3 rbU. 8vo. This is tte «rork to "^ 
which Pope makes Lintot the borokseller allude, in their 
pleasant dialogue on a journey to Oxford, and which per** 
haps: may also convey one of Pope*s dedicate sneers at . 
Oldiswortfa's poetry *. He also published a translation of 
** The Accomplished Senator,*^ from the Latin^ of Gozlii^ki, 
bishop of- Posnia, 1733, 4to. In the preface to this woi4i 
he defends his own character as a writer for the prerogative 
nnA the ministry, and boldly asserts his independence, 
while he admits that he wrote under the earl of OxfordL 
He insinuates that some things have been published' under 
his name, in which he had no hand, and probably tbe 
above-noentioned <' State and Miscellany Poems** were of 
that number. His attachment to tbe Stuart family occft« 
tioned a report that he was killed at the battle of Preston 
in 1715; but it is certain that he survived this eUgagenaem 
many *y ears, and died Sept. 15, 1734.' 

OLDMIXQN (JoHXJ), ridiculed in the Tatler by the 
name of Mr. Qmicrop, " the Unborn Poet,** descended 
from an ancient family of the name, originally seated at 
Oldmixon, near Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, > and was 
born in 1673. Where he was educated is not known. He 
appears ^o have been early a writer for the stage; his first 
production was ^* Aroyntas,** a pastoral, and his second, 
in 1700, an opera, neither of much merit or success. He 
soon, however, becacDe a violent party-writer, and a se-* 
vere and malevolent critic. In the former li^ht he was a 
strong opponent of the Stuart family, whom be has, oii 
every occasion, endeavoured to vilify without any regard 
to that impartiality which ought ever to • be tbe essential 
characteristic of an historian. As a critic he was perpeta-^ 
ally attacking, with evident tokens of envy- and .malevo- 
lence, bis several contemporaries; particularly, Addison^^ 
Eusden, and Pope. -The last of these, however, whom he 
had attacked in different letters which he wrote in ^' The 
Flying Post," and repeatedly reflected on in his *• Prose 
e8says>on Criticism,'' and in his ^^ Art of Logic and Rhe« 
l;oric,'V written in imitation of Bouhours, has introduced 
him into bis ^ Dunciad,'' with some veny« distinguishing 
marks of eminence among the devotees of dulness. In the 
second book of that severe poem, where the dunces ace 

* ** Pll say that for Oldisworth (though man in the kingdom." Bowles's caditioa 
I knt by his Timothys) he translates of Pope, vol. VII. p. 37a. « 

ai^ ode of Horace tbe quickest of any 

* Nicbola's Bowyer. 



r 

L 



O L D M I X p N. SiS 

^Dtendipg for tbe prize of diildess, by diving in .the nlad 
jof Fleet-^ditcb, be represepts our .au.th6r as moaniing tbe 
^des of a lighter, in order to enable him to. take a" more 
je6Bcacious' plunge. Oldmixon's lAalevoleflce of abuse ea- 
titled biQ» to the above-mentioned honour ; and, tQ tbe 

'disgrace of the statesmen of that tiniei bis seal as a vlns* 
^nt party-writer procured bin) tbe place of collector < of 
the customs at tbe port of Bridgewater,. but be died at Ua 
bcHise in Ore^t Putteney-streetyaged sixty-oine, July 9,, 
a742. He left a daughter, who died in 17^, at Newiaml 
in Gloucestershire, aged eighty-four. Another of bis 
daughters sung at Hickford's rooms in 1746. He liea 
buried in Ealing cburch. 

Mr. Qldmixon, though rigid to others, is &r from ua^ 
.blapieable himself, in the very particulars concerning which 
Jie is so free in his accusations, and that sometimes even 
without tbe least regard to truth ; one remarkable iostanbe 
of this kind was his infamous attempt to charge three emi^* 
,&ent persons with interpolation in Lord Clarendon's *^ Hiis- 
tory." This, however, waa fully end satisfactorily dis-* 
;pix)yed by bp. Atterbury, the only survivor of them ; and 
tb^ preteaded interpolation, after a space of almost ninety 
years, was produced in bis .lordship's own band-wntiiig« 
Vet, notwithstandi^ig Oldmixon's indignation against this 

- .pretended cripe, it is a fact that when employed by bishop 
Keonet in publishing tbe historians in his ^^ Collection,'^ 
he made no scruple to. pervert ^^ Daniel's Chronicle" tit 
numberless places, which renders Kennet's first edition of 
Jittle value. His principal works were, the ^^ History of 
the ^Stuarts," folio^ and *^ the Critical History of England;^* 
besides which he wrote, 1 . ^^ Reflections on Dr. Swift^ili 
Letter to the Earl of Oxford about the English Language," 
J712, 8vo. 2. <f A volume of Poems," 1714. ^. " The 
l,\ie of .Arthur May n waring, esq." whose '^Posthumous 
\Vorks" were collected by Mr. Oldmixon in 1715, and 
.whom he had considerably assisted in '^ The Medley.'' 
4. "The Life of Queen Anne." 5. « A Review of Dr. 
Grey's Defence of our .ancient and modern Historians." 
He wrote, also a tragedy, an opera, and two pastoirals; and. 
his nanae is to one of Curll's infamous publications, called 
^. Court tales, >' or a History of tbe Amours pf the present 
Nobility^'^ of which ^ second edition was published ih 
1731.^ 

t. ^ Gibber's Lives. — Biog. Dram.'— ISwift and Pope's Works; see Indaes,—^ 
LyiODs's Enyirons^ toI.'II. 



%U O L 1> Y S. 



OLDYfll (Wiixiam), s biUiogrmpher of great mdnttrf 
mud accoracy, was hpm Jaly 14, 1696. He was the natu- 
sal flon of Dr. WiUiam OUh/m, chancellor of Lioedn, com- 
mlssary of St. Cathariiie^ official of St. Albao^ and ad''- 
¥ocate of the Admiralty, by a wooian who was maintakied 
by her keeper io a very penmrious and private manoer^ 
and whose son, it is probable, had but little assistance in 
his education from parents so circumstanced. 

This Dr. Oklys, who was connected witb Dryden and 
others in a translation of Plutarch's lives, 4o which he ooit« 
tribttted the life of Pompey, was advocate of the Admit- 
ralty to Jatnes' 11. and served king William in the same 
department, though he was not fully coimnced of the va^ 
lidky of tbat prince's claiin to the crown. When be wu 
ordered, in 1693, to prosecute those seamen- as* ptrMes 
who had attacked the English ships by virtue of a commisw 
•ion from James, he refused to obey ; alleging, when h^ 
was examined by a oommititee of the privy council, tbift 
they were not tmitovs or pirates, that they had only acted 
ammo hogiUi^ not ammo jwrnnAi ; that, though James wais. 
supposed In England to have abdicated the throne, his 
authority was still believed to be legitimate by those who 
had followed him in his exile, as well as by the- people of 
tbat country from wbich the commissions bad issued ; and 
that, ey^n if his pretensions were false, a reputed power 
was equivalent to a veal one, according to an • established 
maxim communis tfrrof Jack jus. Sir John TrenchaiNJ, the 
secretary of state, declared, that these reasons amounted 
to higb treason ; bi>t Dr. ^Idys would not retract bis opi«- 
nion, in which sir Thomas Pyilfold readily concurred. 
The doctors Littleton and Tindal^ on the contrary, main* 
tained that James had no ri^t to grant such commission^ 
and that all who acted under then were pirates. Oldys 
was now deprived of his office, which was given to Little* 
ton, and some of the prisoners were condemned and exe« 
cuted. Though not a favourite at <K>urt, Dr. OMys con- 
tinued to practice as an advocate with great reputation and 
success, until his death in 1708. As a scholar, he. was 
respectable; as a civiflian, be was learned; as a pleader^ 
eloquent and judicious. 

Of'the earfy part of bis son^s lifo little is 'known, except 
that he lost bis parents soon, «nd, probably, was. left to 
make bis way in life unassisted by every thing but bis own 
talents. Captain Grose says he socm squandered amy % 



O L Dt 9. MS 

smaU pttrimonj^, iind ftfter«mrd« becinne <al^ tftt^ndisititvon 
lord ChEford'ft Hbrary, of ^hicb, after Wanleyls deadly M 
1726)- it may be conjectured, be had the prtnctpal carei 
Duriivg' this period -he pfodaoed bis meet valuable -irbrks j 
aAd, while in this situation, hsA every opportunity of gnU 
' tifyihg his pastion for ancietit and curious books. On-ifl»6 
death of lord Oxford, in 1741, his valuable library feH 
into the hands of Osborne the boqkseller, who dispersed 'it 
bjfr a caidogae) in the Ibraiatioo. of which Mr. Oldys was 
employed, as he was also in the selectioiiiBade from the 
pamphlets, in a work in eight volumes 4to, Entitled ^ The 
Harieiau Miscellany/* In compiling the catalogue^ it H 
supposed he proceeded only to the end of' the second ve^ 
l««ie. Dr. Johnson was afterwards employed. ' 

His cireumstances through life seem to have been atlhs 
kest'times moderate, and often iqiproaching tonecessitousi 
At otae period, which, sir Johii Hawkins says, was while h^ 
wai employad on Osborn^^s cataUgue, he was confined tii 
the Fleet-prison, and acquired «uch a liking for the cMw 
pany be found there, that to the end of Us life, he used 
to spend his e#ningii in; a house within the rules,: wilb 
poKOns «rho, though confined within a certain district^ 
weie exempted from actual imprisonment. The only post 
he ever held was that of Norroy king- of arms, given hioi 
by the duke of-Nprfotk, in return for the pleasure he had 
received £rom bis Life of sir Walter Raleigh, -which is un-^ 
doubtediy his* best' biographical work. The chief part of 
his iiubAiMerice was derived firom the booksellers^ by whom 
he appears' to have been eonstantiy employed. He seems 
to. have had but little classical learning, and bis styloid 
very mcooth, but his knowledge of English books hai 
hardly been exceeded. 

Captain Grose, who was acquainted with him, imys he 
W9M a man of great good-nature, honour, and integrity; 
particularly in his character of an historian. '^Nothing,** 
adds be, ^ I firmly belijeve, would evier have biassed hini 
t09nA^t any fact in bis \^ritings -he did not believe, -or to 
suppress any he did. -Of this delicacy h€ gave an instance 
at a time whjen he was in great distress. After his publi- 
cation of the Life of sir Walter Baieigb, some booksellers, 
thieking his namo wouM seH a piece they veere publishing^ 
offered him a considerable sum to father it, which he re-- 
jectod with the greatest indignation.*' 



«3« OLD y & 

.FrQtti the same'acitbority we karn, that Mr. Oldyii^ ifi 
the. latter part of bis life» abandoned himself: to.driuking^ 
and was almost continually in a state of intotxication. . At the 
funeral of the princesa Caroline he was in such a situation 
as to be scarcely able to walk^ and actually reeled about 
with a crown on a cushion, to the great scandal of hia 
brethren *^ He is said also to have been much addicted 
to low company. . 

His excesses, however, jseem not to have sborteoed im 
life, though they might render bis old age unrespected ^ 
be died April 15, 1761, at the age of sisty-ftve, and was * 
l^uried the 1 9 tb following in the North aisle of the charcb ' 
of St. Bennet, Paul's-wharf, towards the upper end of the 
aisle. He left no will ; and the property he possessed was 
barely sufficient to defray his debts and funeral espences : 
administration therefore was claimed by, and granted to, a 
creditor. Dr. Taylor, the oculist, to whose family hevwaai 
under obligations for acts of kindpess to him beyond tbe 
loan of the money, for which he was indebted. 
. Of the writings of iAr. Oldys, some ctf which were anony* 
laous, the following account is probably very imperfect: 
1. In the JBritish Museum is Oldys's copy of ^' Langb6ine*9 
Lives,'' &c. not interleaved, but filled with notes written 
in the margin, and between, the lines, in an esfremely 
small hand. It can^e to the Museum as a part of tbe library 
of Dr. Bircb, who bought it at an auction of Oldys's booka 
and papers for one guinea. Transcripts of tbi^ have been 
made by various literary gentlemen. 2. Mr. Ggugh, in 
the first ycJume of his ^* British Topography,'' p. 567, tells 
us, that he had *^ been favoured, by George Steeveiis, esq, 
with the use of a thick folio of titles of books and pamphlets 
relative to London, and occasionally to Westminster and 
Middlesex, from 1521 to 1758, collected by. the late Mx. 
Oldys, with many others added, as it seems, .in anot^ier 
hand. Among them," he adds, << are many purely bisto* 
rical, and many of too lovv a kind to rank under the bead 
of topography or histpry. The rest, which are very Uu« 
merous, I have inserted, marked O, with corrections, &c. 
xf those I had myself collected. Mr. Steevena purcbaM^ 
, this MS. of T. Davies, who bopgbt Mr, Oldys's Ubr^^.. 
it had been in the hands of Dr. Berkenbout, who bdui a 

1. , . . , • 

* This story is doubted by Mr. No* funeral occftikros, is uliiajs canied by 

ble, who says thai the crown, on such darenceax, not Norrojr. ^ • 

 



O L D Y & aST 

(jTcisigo of publUhiug an EngUdiTopogviiphery and may 
possibly have inserted the articles in a different band. It 
afterwards became tbe property of sir John Hawkins*'^ 
i. *^ Xhe British Librarian, exhibiting a compendious Re- 
viety pf all unpublished and valuable books, in all sciences,*' 
which was printed without his name, in ITS?, 8vo, and 
aft^r having been long neglected and sold at a low prioe, 
is now valued as a work of such accuracy and utility de* 
$pJeye^, 4. A /^ Life of sir Walter Raleigh," prefixed to 
bis <* History of the World,-' in folio. 5. ** Introduction 
^o Hayward's firitish Muse (1738);" of which he says, 
^< that the, penurious publishers, to contract it within ai 
ftbeetr. left put a third part of tbe best matter in it, and 
made morft faults than were in the original." In this he 
was aiBsi&ted by Dr« Campbell. 6. ^^ His Observations 6u 
the Cure of William Taylor, the blind boy at Ightham, in 
Kent, by John X^y^or, jun, oculist, 1753," 8vo« The title 
of the. pamphlet here alluded to was, *^ Observations on 
the Cure of William Taylor, the blind Boy, of Ightham^ 
in .Kent„ ^^o, being born with cataracts in both eyes, was 
at eight years of age brpught to sight on the 8th of Octo-< 
berj 1751^ by. Mr. John Taylor, jun.. oculist,. in Hatton-* 
garden; couuiuing bis strange notions of objects upon the 
nr^t enjoyment of his new sense ; also, some attestations 
thereof; in a letter written by bis father, Mr. William 
^aylor, farmer, in the same parish ; interspersed with se* x 
veral curious examples, and remarks, historical and philo- 
9ophic$il, thereupon. Dedicated to Dr. Monsey, physician 
^o tbe Royal hospital at Chelsea. . Also, sotqe address to 
tb? public, for a contribution towards the foundation qf au 
hospital for the blind^ already begun by some noble per- 
sonages," 8vQ, 7. Various lives in the ^^ Biographia Bri- 
tannica^" with the signature G, the initial letter of Gray's- 
Inn, where he formerly, lived; He mentions, in his uot^s 
on {^angbaine, his life of sir George Etherege, of Caxton^ 
of Thomas May, and of Edward Alleyn, inserted in that 
work. Hq composed the *^Life ofAtherton^" which, if 
i( ever deserved to have had a place in that work, oughc 
Opt to have been removed from it any more than the ** Life 
of Eugene Aram," which is inserted in the second edition* 
That the publishers of .the second edition meant no indig* 
iiity to Oidys, by their leaving out his *^ Life of Atherton," 
^pppars ff pm tneir having transcribed into their work a 
aiuch superior quantity of bis writings, consiitiBg^of note^ 
VouXXHI. Z ^ 



33« O L D Y S. 

and extracts from printed books, styled " Oldys's MSS." 
Of these papers nQ|/Other accouht is given than tbat. *' they 
are a large and useful body of biographical materials ;" 
but we may infer, from the known industry and nai*rowr 
circumstanc.es of the writer, that, if they bad been in any 
degree prepared for* public consideration, they woiild not 
have so long lain dormant. 8. At the importunity ofCurll, 
be gave him a sketch of the life of Nell Gwin, to help out 
his " History of the Stage." 9. He was 'concerned with 
Des MaizeauK in writing the ** Life of Mr. Richard Carew," 
the antiquary of Cornwall, in 1722. 10. " Observations, 
Historical and Critical, on the Catalogue of English Lives." 
Whether this was ever printed we know not. 11. "Tabled 
of the eminent persons celebrated by English Poets.*' 
This he seems to quote in a manuscript note on Laiigbaitley 
butit does not appear to have beeii printed. 12. H^ men- 
tions, ibidem^ the first vdume of his " Poetical Character- 
' istidS," on which we may nqiake the sameremark* If these 
two works continued in MS. during his' life-time, it is pro- 
bable that they were not finished for publication, pr that 
no bookseller would buy them. l5i Oldys seems to have 
been concerned likewise as a writer in the "General Dic- 
tionary," for be mentions his having been the author of 
" The Life of sir John Talbot," in that work ; and in Efirch's 
MSS; is a receipt from him foi- l7. 5b, for writing the arti- 
cle of Fastolf 14. He mentions likewise, in bis notes on 
Langbaibe, that he was the author of a pamphlet against 
Toland, called *• No blind Guides." 1 5. He says, tbidem^ 
that he communricated many things to Mrs. Cooper, which 
she published in her ** Muse's Library." 16. In 1746 was 
published, in> 12mo, '^ Health*s Improvement; or. Rules 
comprising the nature, method, and manner, of preparing 
foods used in this nation. Writften by tliat e^er famous 
Tboinas Moflfett, doctor in physic ; corr^cteid and enlai^ged 
by Christopher' Bennet, doctor in physic, arid fellow of 
the Cbllege of Physicians in London. To wbidb is noifr 
prefixed, a short Vievi^ of the Author's Life and Writings, 
by Mr." Oldys; and art Introduction by R. James, M. D." 
17. In the first volume of British Tdpbgraphy," page 31, 
•mention h made of a translation of" Camden's Btitaniria," 
m 2 vols. 4to; **by W. O. esq." which Mt. GoiigU, witb 
great probability,- astrib^s to Mr. Oldyij. 18. AmoUg the 
MSS. in the British Museum, described in' Mr. Ayscoiigh^ 
Catalogue, we firid p. 24, <' Sbmd Considet-atidns upbn the 



>; p-L D Y Si /93© 

pabljpation. of- sir TJb|ama5,.Rpe'6 Epist(^ary^ Collections, 

3uppo$ed to, be written by Mr. Oldys, and by him tei^dered 

x^ Saas. BproMghsy ,e^q. with proppsais, and some ]>ote$ of 

Dr.Birch,!* 19. In p. 736, ", Memoirs of the. family of 

,01dys*." ^O, In p. 741, "Two small pocket books of 

^bort Biographical Anecdotes pfqiany Persons/' and "s(^me 

^fragments of Poetry," perhaps collected by Mr. Oldys? 

* .21. In p. 750, and p. 780, are two MS letters " of Mr. 

QJdys," 1735 aQd.1751. 22*. It is said, in a MS paper, 

by Dr. Ducarel, who kn^w him wt^li, tbat.Oldys^bad by 

.jbipo, at the time of bis,, death, some qoUeetions towards a 

,*.* Life of Sbakspeare f/' but not digested .into any orijler, 

ja& be told the doctor a few days before he died. 23. On 

the same authority he is said to be ft ^writei; io^ pr the 

w^riter of, " The Scarborough Miscellanys ' 1732# ai?d 1734. 

,24. ," The Universal Speqtat<:^r,". of .which he, was some 

^.time the publisher, wa^;a' newspaper,, a ,wc^]^ly^.j[purnal, 

^said, on, the top of tbe^ pap^r,, which appeared origi^^lly in 

.single sheets, to be " by Henry Stgneqatsrie, inNpijtlivm- 

.berlanc|»'' l.730T-rl732, It was . afterwards coil^ct^dl .into 

two voiuqies 8voj to which, a third fiQ^d fourth yyerp added 

in 1747. In ope .of his MSS. we find thfi fpJilQwingA weU- 

;tarned anagram : , . ,. ; , ^ , ., 

W. O. > , 

i In word and wi;ll i am a IKend to you. 

And one friend .oi4P,is.wortJi an huiidr^ mw. * 

OLE A RI US (Adam), a learned traveller, wdiose Ger- 
man name was Gblschlager^ wus born in- I59d, dr^ 1600, 
at Aschersleben, a small town in the prinicipality of Anhalt. 
His parents were very poor, *^and scarcely able to maintain 
fhim, yet by some means he was enabled* to enter as a^ stu- 
dent at Leipsic, where be lOok bis degrees in arts- and 
philosophy, but never was a professor, as s6me biogfipbers 

 i 

* These memoirs iiream^ng the* f It appears, from the edition of 

Birch M^S, No. 4240^ and contain an^ Sh'akspeare,'l778, vol. f p. 223;*that 

accoiintof (he famiy, drawn up by W; Mr.Steeven»;had»9een ihe-f 'papersi 

• Ql<iy« himwif- A«'theT, a»e too long . a^B th?t |fentlema,[| q,iiv^^ ?'^ora them, 

.fpr.oor limkiL, and .witl n<.»t bear an with a cornpUment to JMr. Oidys'B 

ab'ridgmenl, we rt^fei* our i ei»d<»rsto the •* Veriicityi" the iSrst sianza of a •" sa- 

MS. itself iu. the Biiiish MaseumV lirieal bailed" by Sha)cspe9re. f»i his 

Alexander pldy», called * The Little old friend aij-.Thonsas I^ucy, the dia- 

;r Poet,V and tionetimes '• The English gistrate, who punished "him for defi^ 

ScarroB,*' appears by thi". MS. to' have stealing/ ' ,r <■ * ^ • - " " 

^eeiv> relation of PUP Qijdys. . ^ '... , ,.. - • 

^^** .hj^i9r*Pt«n>li>&T^fi«t- Mag< LIV. ai«lI/Vj ,see'lnde;ies,— Cpote's data- 
bgue of Ci^ilfiins.'— Noble's College of Arms. — Grose's " Olio.** 

2 2 



uo OLE A R ru a 

hai'e asserted. He quitted Leipstc for Holstein, where the 
duke Frederic, hearing of his merit and capacity, wished to 
employ him. This prince having a wish* to extend the 
commerce of bis country to the East, determined to send 
ah embassy to the Czar Michael Federowitz^and the king of 
Persia, and having chosen for this purpose two of bis coun- 
sellors, Philip Crusius and Otto Bruggeman, he appointed 
Otearius to accompany them as secretary. Their travels 
lasted six years, during which Olearius collected a great 
fund of information respecting the various countries they 
visited. The Czar of Moscovy on his return wished to 
have retained him in his service, with the appointment of 
astronomer and mathematician ; not, however, his biogria^ 
phers t€41 us, so much on account of his skill in these 
sciences, as because the Czar knew that Olearius had very 
exactly traced the course of the Volga, which the Russians 
then wished to keep a secret from foreigners. Olearids 
bad an inclination, however^' to have accepted this offer, 
but aJFter his return to the court of Holstein, be was dis- 
suaded from it, and the duke having apologized to the 
Czar, attached him to himself as mathematician and anti- 
quary. In 1643, the duke sent him on ar commission to 
Moscow, where, as before, his ingenuity made him be 
taken for a magician, especially as on this occasion he ex- 
hibited a camera obscura. In 1650 the duke appointed him 
his librarian; azMl keepexiof his curiosities. The library be 
enriched with many Oriental MSS. which he had procured 
in his travels, and made also considerable additions to the 
duke's museum, particularly of th^ collection of Paiudanus, 
a Dutch physician, which the- duke sent him to Holland to 
purchase; and he drew up a description of the whole, 
which was published at Sleswick in 1666, 4to. He also 
constructed the famous globe of Gottorp, and an armillary 
sphere of copper, which was not less admired, and proved 
how much mathematics had been his study. He died Feb. 
22, 1671. He published, in German, his travels, 1647, 
1656, 1669, fol. Besides these three editions, they were 
translated into English by Davies, and into Dutch and 
Italian. The most complete translation is that, in French, 
by Wicquefort, Amst. 1727, 2 vols. fol. who also translated 
Olearius's edition of Mandelso's ** Voyages to Persia,*' && 
fol. Among his other and less known works, are seme 
lives of eminent Germans ; " The Valley of Persian Roses,** 



_ J 



O L i: A R I U S. 341 

from the Persian ; ** Ad abridged Chronicle of HoUtein/' 
&c.." .... 

OLEARIUS (Godfrey), the most considerable of a 
{iamilj of teamed men of this name, originally of Saxony, 
was born at Leipsic July 23, 1672. He was the son of 
John Olearius, professor of Greek and theology in that 
university, and the grandson of Godfrey Olearius, aJearned 
Lutheran divine. From his earliest years he discovered a 
thirst foreknowledge, and a capacity, which enabled him to 
inake a distinguished figure during his studies. When his 
academic course was completed, in his twenty*first year 
be v«ent to Holland, and then to England, attracted by 
tbf reputation of the university of Oxford and the Bodleian 
library, to which he gained admittance, and pursued his 
learned inquiries there a year. On his return home he was 
appointed professor of Greek at Leipsic ; and in 1 708 suc- 
ceeded to the theological chair. In 1709 he obtained a 
canonryat Meissen;. was appointed inspector of the stu-» 
dents maintained by the elector, and in 1714 assessor to 
the electoral and ducal consistory. He died Nov. 1 0, 1 7 1 5, 
when only forty-tbree years of age. He was an able di- 
vine and philosopher, and particularly distinguished for a 
critical knowledge of the Greek language. AniOng his' 
works are, I .. *^ Dissertatio de miraculo Piscinse BethesdaB," 
Leipsic, 1706, 4to. 2. '^ Dissert, de adoratione Dei Patris 
per Jesqm Christum,*'. ibid. 1709, 4to, against the Soci- 
niaiis, 3. *.^ Introduction to the Roman and German his- 
tory, from the foundation of Rome to the year 1699," ibid. 
1699, 8vp, in German. 4. A Latin translation of sir Petef 
king's "History of the Apostles' Creed," 1708, 8vo. 
5. An edition, reckoned the best, of ** Philostratua," Gr. 
& Lat. Leipsic, 1709, fol. 6. A translation of Stanley's 
'* History pf Phtlo9ophy,'' ibid. 17 Id, 4to, with valoable 
notes and corrections, which were cohsultied in the reprint 
of the original at London in 1743, 4t6. 7. "Observationes 
sacrsB in Evan gel i urn Matthaei,'' Leipsic, 1713, 4to. He 
left.variQusMSS.* ^ 

' O^LEARY (Arthur), a Roman Catholic clergyman, 
was a native of Ireland, whence, when young, he embarked 
foe France i studied at the college of St. Malo,^ in Britanny, 
apd at length entered into the Franciscan brcl^r of Capu- 

 Chaufepie.— NiecroD, toI. XL.*-See George Andereon, fol. II. of ibis vorl^, 
p. 179. t CbaQfepie.— KiceroD, ?ol. VIL 



342r O'L E A R T. 



r\ 



chins. He then acted, for some time, "as diaplain to che^ 
English prisoners during the seven years war, for which h» 
received a^^mall pension from the Frerich government, 
which he rdtained till. the French* revolution; Having ob» 
tained permission to go toltreland, be bbtSLined^ by his 
talentSy the notice and vecompence ofv the frisfa govern- 
ment ; 9>nd took an early (Opportunity of shewing the su^ 
periority of » his. courage and genius, by pritictpaily attacfc<A 
iiig the heterodox doctrines^ o£ Mictaaet Servetus, revived 
at that^itime by a Dr. Bkiir, of the city of Corkj After 
this, i.B 178(2, when there ^as a disposition to relax thtf 
rigour. of the penal lawsagaipst the: Roman Cathblics^ and 
establish a; sort of test«'0ath$ he- pubhshed a tract eutitled 
" Loyalty asserted^^or the Test-Oath vindicated," inwhich^ 
in opposition to mi>st of his brethren, be dtideavoored to 
prove that the Roman Catbofics of Ireland might, con-^ 
sistently with, their i^eligion, swear that the pope ^(^osse^sed 
there no t&mporal authority, which, was the chief *poiiHoi» 
which the oath hinged; aud in other fe^pect^ he evinced 
bis \ayalcy^ and his deiure to restrain the.'impetuou» bigotr^ 
of his bretlu-en. His other productions were of a various 
and miscellaneous nature ; and several effusions are sup- 
posed to have jcome from his pen which he did not thitik it 
necessary or perhaps prudent tb acknowledge. '- He .was a 
man siogulariy gifted with natural humour, «nd possessed 
great acquirements.. He wrote on polemical subjects with* 
out acrimony", and on politics with a spirit of 'Conciliation^ 
Peace indeed, seems to have been. much his object. Some 
year^ ago^ when^a considerable riumber of nocturnal insure 
gents, of the Romish persuaiSidn, committed great excesses 
in the county of Cprk,, p^r^oularty towards the ttthe-;proc- 
tors of the protestaut clergy, be rendered himself ex- 
tremely useful,, by his various literary addresses to ihe de- 
luded people, in bringing them to a .proper sedse ^f their 
error and insubordination. > This laudable conduct did not 
escape the^ttentipn of the Irish government ;- and -induced 
them, when he quitted Ireland, to reconimend him to men 
of power 'in this country. For many years he resided in 
London^ as principal of the Roman Catholic chapel in 
Soho-squace, where, he was highly esteemed by -people* of 
his religion. In his private character he was always 'cfaeer** 
ful, gay, sparkling with wit, and full of anecdote. He 
died at an' advanced age in January, 1802| and wks interred 
in St. Pancras church-yard.  



O ' L E A R Y. p43 

His works are, 1. /^ Several Addresses ,to.tt}e'CJ^llp}ios 
of Ireland^" 2. " Remarks on Mr. Wesley's DefeRce of 
the Protestant Association. '' 3. " Defence of his conduct 
in the-afFsur of the insurrection in Munster,'* 1787. 4, " Re- 
view of the important Controversy between Dr, Carrol and 
the rev. Messrs. .Wharton and Hopkins." 5. " Fast sermon 
at St. Patrick's chapel, Soho, March 8, 1797." 6. A Collec 
tion of his Miscellaneous Tracts, in I Vpl. 8yo. 7. ** A De- 
fence of the Conduct and 'Writings of the rev. Arthur 
O'Leary, &c.; written by himself, in answer to the ill- 
grounded insinuations of the right rev. Dr. Woodward, 
l^hop of Cloyne," 1788, 8vo. The bishop, in bis con- 
troversy ^itb Mr. O^Lesory, , acknowledged that l?e. repre- 
sents, vovatters strongly and eloquently; and that, *' Shak- 
j^pearejlike,' he is xweil acquainted with the avenues to the 
human heart;" and Mr. Wesley calls him an "ajrch apd 
lively writer.". His style was certainly voluble, bold, ^n(i 
figurative;. but deficient in grace, manliness, perspicuity^ 
and sometimes grammar; but be was distinguished as a 
friend to freedom, liberality, and toleration ; and wa/^ 
highly complimented on this account by M^s$rs..Crattan, 
FJood, and other members of.the Irish parliament^ in tbeijr 
public, speeches. ' 

OLEASTiER (Jerome), a leartied Portuguese Domini- 
can of ,th^^ ^xteenth century, was born at Azambuja. In 
1545 heatte|ided the council of Trent,, as Theologian ixoax. 
Jx>hn III. . king of Portugal. He refused a bishopric at bis 
return^; b^V^^onsented to the apppir^tovent of inquisitor of 
tJEk^ fakh, acid held the principal offices of the Dopcii^icap 
G^4^if ivk his :province. .He die^ in 1563.. He l^as left 
^' Conuao^aJtarieaonvthe Pejitateucb,", Liiibon, \55^^ i^i^j 
5 parts ia one volume, fp.l.andon 'Msaiah," Paris, 162.3^ 
foL fjro^ whic^ it s^fjears that he was^n able Latin, ^^^^ 
.and Hebrew scholar.' . ... 

. OLEY. (Ba^na3AS), M. a. president of Clare-tball in 
.C^iabri^ge9>and vi^ar of Gr^at Gransden in^HuntingdoUf 
4ihi^)vWUS(l>or^ iat Tbofp,, near Wakefield J|n; Yorkshire ^f 
which ."pJaae. bis fa^tic^ iias .vr«ar^,.,apd was prootor pf t^e 
uniyer^ty*jia 1635. On the bn^aking out of the ];et!ieIlion, 
l^^.was T^^ry. actiye in. coUectii^g the, university ^pJate, and 
IB9^ i^^^BK^in ci»iiyqying.itto,the king at Nottingl^am, ii;L 
A^gust^ 1642 ; but for th^, arxd ott^er acts of ^ if(ya)ty;, b^ 

was turned out of his fellowship by the earl of Manche<^e;r^ 

• • • • '» » 

A G«nt. Mag. vol. LXXII. ' Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 



34* ' "OLEY; • 

April S| 1644>9 and forced to quit bis vicarage; After 
having suffered much durin'g* the usurpation/ he was, in 
16609 restored both to'his feUowship aad Ticaragei and 
Sept. Ay that year, installed prebendary of Worcester ; and 
bishop Gunning (to whom he had formerly been tutor); 
collated him to the archdeaconry of Ely, Nov. 8, into which 
he was inducted, by proxy, Nov. 17, 1679. This dignity, 
however, after a little more than a year's po^ession, he 
voluntarily resigned, not thinking himself, in fats great hu* 
itiility, sufficient to discharge the duty of it. He was a 
learned man, and no less eniinent for his piety and cbari« 
ties. He published ** Dr. Jackson's works," ^nd Mr. Her- 
bert's " Country Pardon," to jeach of which he preftxed a 
preface. ' He di^d Feb. 20, 1G86, and w;as interred in 
Great Gransden church, ^here is an inscription to his me- 
mory, recording his various charities. ' 

OLIVA (Alexander), general of the Augustin monks, 
and a celebrated cardinal, was born at Saxoferato, in 1403, 
of poor parents. He was admitted young amongst the 
monks of Augustin, and studied at Rimini, Bologna, and 
Perugia: in which last place he was 6rst made professor of 
philosophy, and afterwards appointed to teach divinity. 
At length he was chosen provincial, and some time after 
accepted, not without reluctance, the post of solicitor-ge- 
neral of his order. This oflBce obliged him to go to Rome^ 
where his learning and 'virtue becanle greaVfy admired^ 
notwithstanding he took all possible methods, out'' of an 
extreme humility, to conceal them. The cardinal of Ta* 
rentum^ the protector of his order, could not prevail upon 
him to engage in 'any of the public disputations,' whepe 
every body, wished to see his great erudition shine ; they 
had, however, the gratification' to hear his frequei^t ser- 
mons, which were highly applauded. He applsared^ in the 
pulpits of the principal .cities in Jtaly, as Rome, Naples, 
Venice, Bologna, Florencie, Mantua, and Ferrara;^ was 
elected Qrst vicar-gen^f^l, ^nd tl^en general of bis order, 
ial459; iind ^t last created cavdinal, in 1460, by pope 
Pius II. This learned pontiff gave him afterwards the bi- 
shopric pf Cainerino, and made use of his abilities on se- 
veral occasions. Oiiva died shortly after at Tivola, where 
the court of Rome then resided, in 146S/ His corpse was 
carried to the church of the 'Augustin monks at Rome, 

> ^cii|haiii*8 £ly.— Walker's Siifferhif^ of the Clergy.— Barwick't Life. 



O L i V A;' 345 

where there is ijt marble n^onumetity with an epitaph, and 
a Latin tetrastic by way of eulogium. His-works are^ " Dt 
Christi ortu sermones centum ;'' ** De ccefia cum apostolis 
facta ;*' '* De peccato in spiritum sanctum; Orationeft ele« 
gantes/*' 

OLIVA (John), an Italian antiquary, was born July 1 1, 
16S9, at Rovigo, in the Venetian state. Having been or- 
dained priest in 1711, be became professor of ethics at 
'A2Z0I0, which oflBce he 61led for eight years, and -went to 
Rome in 1 7 1 5, where Clement XI. received him very kindly. 
After this pontiff's decease, OHva * being made secretary 
to the conclave, obtained the notice of cardinal de Rohan, 
who patronised him, and in 1722 appointed him his lihra- 
rian, which he held till his death, March 19, 1757, at Paris. 
'He translated the abb£ Fleury's << Tr. des £tud6s,*' into 
Italian, and left a dissertation, in Latin, '< On the "^neces- 
sity of joining the study of ancient medals to that of his- 
tory ;*' another, ** On the progress and de^ay of learning 
'ftmong the Romans ;" and a third, '* Oii a monument cf 
the goddess Isn.*' These three, under the title of << (Euvres 
di verses,'' were printed at Paris, 1758, 8vo. He also 
published an edition of a MS. of Sylvestri's, concerning an 
ancient monument of Castor tad Pollux, with the author's 
Life, Svo; an edition in 4to, -of ^several Letters written by 
Poggio, never published before; and formed' a MS cata- 
logue of cardinal de Rohain's library, in 25 vols, fol.^ 
' OLIVER (Isaac), one of the first English mimature 
painters, was born in this country in 1556, and studied 
'under Billiard, but received some farther instructions from 
-Frederick Zucchero^ and became a painter of great emi- 
nence. His principal employment was in portraits-, which 
he painted for the most distinguished pefBonages of his 
ttfoe ; but he likewise attempted historical subjects with 
iiuccess, He was a good designer, and very correct; his 
touch was neat and delicate ; and although he generally 
worked in miniature, yet he frequently painted in a large 
suee. ' His drawings are highly finished, and exceedingly 
Talued, many of them being copies after Parmigiano. Se-^ 
vera! very fine miniatures of ^ this master are to be seen in 
th^ collections of the English nobility and gentfy. Dr. 
Vs collection was very rich in them: some of them 



1 Moreri.— Diet Hi»t. 

* M«rtri.-r»^ile pn|bM to lib <E«ff«iI>j?enef, 175S, 



346 O L I V E R. 

pre. poitrailfl^ Qif ^himselfjr other/^of .queen. Elizabeth, Mmjr 
qaeen. of,. Septs, prince Henry, and Ben Jonson, which 
are adoiif^a^Iy finished. ; There is aUo a whole length of 
sir Philip Sidney^ of g^eat, merit. These are now in the 
king's collection. At Strawberry-hill are some fine spcr 
oimeqs^ and in the closet of. queen CaroUne at Kensington^ 
there is acapital drawing of Oliver's,, of which the subj^eqt 
is, the. placiijig of Christ in. the. Sepulchre ; and a^nqther 
drawinigafter Raphael's design of the Murder of the Inno- 
cents,, which has a great deal of meriu He di^d in 1617, 
aged sixty one, and was buried in St. ^^nne's^^ BJiackfriars^ 
wberf hi^i.spn erected a monumept to bi^ memory, .which 
was destroyed in the. great fir^r. He .wrote a treatis^.pfi 
limning, partly printed in Sanderson's '^ Graphice." ^ < 
ptiyER (P£T£?)9<sop ,and dis9ipLe.of the preceding, 
was born ii^ t.^01,, and, by the precepts. and example of hb 
fathei^, h€t;arrived at a, degree of perfection in miniature 
portrait |)aintii)g,cQnfe^e^]y superior to. his instructor, or 
any of his i90(>teniporaries, . a^ h^ did not confine his sub«- 
lects toabead only. ^..Hii^ pictqres, like his father's,, are 
^read among the houses of the noblbty and gentry, and 
are . ajik e justly esteemed . . The ^orks which , he executed 
upon a larger scale are oiiic^ more valuable. than^ those of 
hisfatb^l*, and are, hIso iiiQre numerous, though npu.very 
frequently . to be met with. Lord Orford .mentioos .tb^t 
there were tbirt^n works of Peter Oliverin.tbe cpUeption 
,of Charles I. and.of. James IL ; and that seven of theqi are 
preserved in qu^n Caroline's clpset at Kensington ;. and be 
also speaks of a portrait of Mrs. Oliver by her b.usiiaad, in 
possess^ion. of. the duchess of PortIan4f . as |iis finest work. 
Xord Orford thinks it extraprdinary. that moce of the vfork^ 
4>f th^s. excellent master are not kn^wn/, as bq coimjaionly 
jaaade duplicates of his pictures, reserving pn^ of :^^ach for 
bimself. Qn. tl^i^ subject, he s^dds, that; Russel the painter^ 
related to oir qonpected witji the Olivjei^s, jtold Yertuea r<er 
lOiarkable; fiqry. The. greatejc. par^ of i|be.'C^llec|ipn ,^ 
Jdqg Chau4es L being dispersed in (b^ ^^blie^y amoqg 
which -were several, of the Olivers, Charles.IJ.^ w1]k> rem^mr 
bered,» and was desirous of recovering tb^BQ} .nui4Q Wim 
mqui.riesrS^hofit them after the Restara^iqn;.at ja^t» b^ pafi 
Jkold bygone Rogers of Isleworth, . that b9th the ltli^tb^,,ai|d 
son were dead, but that the son's widow was living at Isle- 



O L I V E:R »47 

worth) ' wtl bad many of, their works. . The king' went veVy 
privately and unknown with Rogers, to see them; .the 
widow shewed several finished and unfinished ; with many 
of which the kingbeing pleased, he asUed if she would sell 
them; she i replied she had a blind the king s;()<nild se& 
them first, and if he did not purchase them, .she sfaouldi 
think of disposing of them. The king xjisdoirered liimseif ; 
on which she produced some more pickures, whichr she sei-^' 
dons shewed. The kihg desired her to. set a price; sbe< 
said she did not care to make a price with his majesty ; sfac^ 
would leave it to him ; but promised to idok Over. h«r bos-'' 
band's books, ^nd let his majesty know what prices hi» 
fkther, tbelate kin^, had paid. The king took away wh«itt 
be lifked/and sent Rogers to Mrs. Oliver with the bpiioh 
%f i'OOO^. ot an annuity of 300/. for her life* She chose 
the latter. Some* years after wB;rds it happened that ^he 
king>s'nJii$tre6ses liaving begged all or most of these pie-^ 
f^es*, Mrs. Oliver said^^on hearing it, -that if she had thbugbi 
the king would have given them to such whdrek and^truiti*^ 
pet^ arid bastards,' he tiever should have had them* This 
rifacbed the court, the pooi woman's salary Uras stopped^ 
and ^4i tfrever received it afterwiirds. The rest of- th^ 
hmniflgs which the king had not taken, fell inttD the hdnds^ 
of Mrs. Russet's father. Peter Oliver is supposed to hktt 
died before -the restoration, probably about 1654« tsaac 
Oliver, the glass-painter, ' appears to have been olF this fa«* 
mily." 

OLIVET (XosEPH THOULiEit d'), an elegant Freifch 
writer; and classical editor, was the son of a contisellol^ of 
the parliament of Besan^on,' and bom at Salins, March 
30, 1^S2. After having finished his early' ^tudiies with 
much applause, he entered the society of the Jesuits, but 
left then^, to their great regret, at the age of thirty-three'. 
Before this they had conceived so high an opirtiori of his 
merit, ^as to recommend him to be tutor to the prince of 
Asturias, but the^abb^ pt'efevred'a life of independence &nd 
tranquMlity. Sotne tiftie after, be came tpt^rt^, and pro*^ 
fited by itbe convetsaticln of the few enlinbht sdri^iVors bf 
the age^Df Louis XIV.' On his arrival here he feiirrd the 
men oi^titerature engaged in the famous disjpote i^elUtttetb 
the comparative nrerits of 'the ancients and liiodertis/'but 
tad the^^dd lense to disapprove of Che sen tfme^ts and pa^ 



(' 



> Walpofe*! Anecdotes. 



348 O L I V E T. 

iradoxesof Pemiihi aad Terrasson, . La Motbe, and :F<>ntd:' 
nelle.. His first object appears to have been tbe study of 
his own language, which he wrote in great purity. In 
1723 be was. elected a mejoiber of tbe ITrench . academy, 
and from this time devoted himself to the lite of a man of 
letters. , 

. His first publications were bis translations from .Cicero- 
and Demosthenes, which have supported their reputation 
through various editions. That of <' De Natura Deorum/- 
*^ Entretiens de Ciceron sur la nature des Dieux," was first 

!>ublished in 1^726 In this, and in some other of bis traiisf* 
ationsy he was assisted by the president Bqubier, but is 
thought, in France, to have excelled him in grammatic^ 
knowledge, and in transfusing the spirit of hi^ author. 
Encouraged by the success of this work, D'Olivet published 
in 1727 tbe Philippics of Demosthenes, and Ciceru'js ora^ 
tioQs agamst Cataline. Of all these translations, he pub* 
lished for the last time, an elegant edition, at the press of 
Barbou, in 1765 and 1766, 6 vols. 

His next employment was a continuation of the hbtory 
of the French academy, from 1652, where Pelisson left off^ 
|o 1700. This. he. published in 1729, 4to, and tbe fol- 
lowing year, i^ 2 vols. l2mo. Having been always a dili- 
gent student of tbe grammar of the French language, he 
puhlished some works on that subject, .which were much 
approved in France, although, like a few other of his de- 
tached pieces, they are less interesting to an English 
reader. He had however, long meditated what has ren- 
dered his name dear to scholars of all nations, his edition 
pf Cicero, which has served as a standard of correctness 
9nd critical utility. It appeared first in 1740, 9 vols^ 4to, 
splendidly printed at tbe expence of tbe French govern* 
mentf U is formed on the editions of Victorius, Manu- 
tins, Laoibinus, and Gruter, and hw the *^ Clavis Ernes- 
tina.*' This truly valuable edition was reprinted at Ge- 
peva, 1758, 9 vols^ 4to, and at Oxford, with tbe addition 
of various readings from twenty -nine manuscripts, collated 
hy Hearne, and others more recently examined, 1783, lO 
vojs. ^-to. The abb6 Olivet, whose personal character ap- 
pear^ to have been as amiable as bis labours were valu- 
jftUe, died of a fit of apoplexy, Oct. 8, 1768.^ 

OLIVET AN (Robert), a person of whose history little 
is known; was a relation of the celebrated Calvin, and the 

} MUii^ by IVAlembertf-JMoU Hist, 



O L I V E T A N. 349 

first who translated the Bible into French, which he printed 
at Nt^tifcfaatt'l, in 1535, fol. His translation is not very 
Accurate) but it was improved in subsequent editions- by 
Calvin, Beza, and others, ^nd formed the foundation of 
what was called the Geneva translation. The edition of 
1540, 4to, called ^VLa Bible de TEpee,^* is very scarce. 
Olivetan died in 1538, in consequence, as some say, of 
having been poisoned at R<>me.'' 

OLIVEYKA (Francis Xavier DE), knight of the mili-* 
tary order of Christ, and ' gentleman of the king of Portu* 
gal's household, was born at Lisboti, May 21, 1702. His 
tatiter, Joseph de Oliveyra e Souza, held a priifcipal post 
in the exchequer of Portugal, and was fur twenty fVve 
yei^rs secretary of embassy at the courts of London, the 
Hague, and Vienna. No expence was spared on the edu* 
cation of his son, whom he procured to be admitted into 
the exchequer at an early age, and who, in recompense 
for his own as well as his father's services, was in. Dec. 
1729, invested with the order of knighthood. In 1732 he 
visited Madrid, and was introduced at the Spanish court. 
On his father's death, which happened at Vienna in 1734^, 
he was appointed to succeed him as secretary of embassy, 
BXkd during his residence in this city, first began to per- 
ceive the absurdities of the popish superstition, from the 
difficulty that he found (as he has himself expressed) in 
defending it from the attacks of some Lutheran friends ia 
occasional conversation. 

Soon after this, some' disputes between him and count de 
Tarouca, plenipotentiary at the imperial court from that 
of Lisbon, induced him to give up his post as secretary. 
What the nature of these disputes were, we are* not in- 
formed, but it appears that they exposed him to the hos- 
tility of a powerful party of that nobleman's relations and 
friends at the court of Lisbon, while his growing attach- 
ment to Protestantism making him less guarded in his ex- 
pressions, the inquisition of Lisbon found a pretence to 
censure him. Accordingly, when the first volume of the 
^' Memoirs of his Travels" was published at Amsterdam id 
1741, though much esteemed by the Portuguese in ge*- 
neraJ, it was soon prohibited by the inquisition ; and the 
three volumes of his ** Letters, familiar, historical, poli- 
tical, and critical,*' printed at the Hague, in '1741 and 



UO OLIVE YEA. 

1742, ufiuJerweRtthe same fate« Tboise works beti^^wrilr 
ten in the Portuguese Jang^age^ a stopf wajs thus put lb. tb« 
sale of them ; but bis ^^ MemoicesisoDcernant^ Ppjclaigal^" 
Hague, 1741 — 1743, 2 vols. 8yq, iu the French language, 
tviere well received by the public, and galaed hioi g^ieat 
reputation. • 

^ After four yeajrs residence in HoUand, having obtained 
but a partial redress from the coiirt of Poirtugal in Jthe mat- 
ter of bis dispute with count. de Tarouea, he came in 1744 
to London, to avail himself of the interest of tbePortuv 
guese. eavoy; Mons. ,de Carvsdhoy iifterwards nj^rquis of 
Ponibal, but although this gentleman professed ita admit 
the ju&tice of his claims, he did him no substantial seriric& 
The, chevalier, however, had another affair at this time 
more at heart, aqd after conrefully weighing ,aU tb^ crase- 
quences of the step he was about to tak^, he deter.«ained 
to sacrifice every thing to the dictates of his conscience 
juid accordingly in June 1746 he publicly abjured! the 
Roman caiholic religion, and embraced that of the c^orch 
of England. As he was now cut «>ff from ^ILhis.rre^iirQi^ 
in Portugal, be for soine time encountered many diffi^ 
unities; but that Providence it^ which he alwi^ys trusted, 
raised him se^emt friends in- this country,' and to the in- 
terest of ^ome of these it is supposed he owed :the penision 
granted hiia by the laite Frederick, pnitiice of Wales!,, wbicb 
was, continued by the princess dowager, ^nd afte^ her 
decease, by the present queen. He also acknowledges^ bis 
obligations to Dr. Majeodie, lord Grantham, lord Town»- 
:iiend, the duchess do:wage£ of Somerseij^ and: tbe.arcb^ 
.bishops Seeker and Herring. / i 

His mind becoming easier by degrees, ' he retmrned to 
•bis favourite studies, ^nd through the course of the year 
i75J, be published his* ^^ Amusements Periodiques,'' . a 
•monthly .pobHcation^ in which he entered with gtea^t K:ee- 
-dom into the con^roii^rsy between the pratestant and Ro- 
mish iohiirches, and they wSere therefore, soon probftiketl 
i)(ith<in Povtogal and Rome. In 17^3^ ke retired to- a bouse 
ivt JECientisb town, 'where he divided his: timef bi^tweeu tbe 
•care of a small garden,' the pursuit of bis^ studies^ taod tbe 
jconversa^tion of several learned :fHiend^ who frequently ▼!- 
«ited bim. When the news asriified of the dpeadfo) earth- 
iquakj^at: Lisbon .in December 1 7 55^ be' published his VDia* 
cours Pathetique" early in 1756, addressed to his coun- 
trymen, but particularly to the king of Portugal. The 
rapid sale of several .editions of this work, both in French 



O L I V E Y R. A. 3*|. 

and Englisbi in the course of a few weeks', wds noitieoiH 

aiicieiAble proof of its ti»erit^' but. while it made hioi 'more 
kiaown. and esteemed in this and other countries^ it drew 
upon him the resentment of some of his countr^aien^ and 
particularly of the mquisitoi^, who now laidia piiobibition 
en all his works in general. £v^n his brother, Thponiis de 
Aqoinas,^ a Benedictine mohk^ wrote to eitiiort him to 
cetraet his errors. This occasioned 'the chevalier to pub- 
kish Hi second pavt, or ** Suite de DisKSOui^s patbetiqiie,** 
1757, -in wbichihe not only answered 'the objections made 
to the " Disooors," but inserted his^rotherV \e%tiety with 
a spitable answer. " 

Here the con tesi between the chevalier and the ihqui- 
skton seemed to rest^ but tbat'tribunal Mihas at- the same 
Irtme proceeding seoretljr with >a4l' its force «gaiti^c hini. A, 
discontinuance of the " Acts* of Faith,** a^that hdrVfd ce- 
temony is impiously ealled, for a white pr^veht^d their 
proceedings from* appdariDg, but at length, at the ** Act 
06 Faith'* celebrated' at Lisbon iw- Sept. 1762, he was de- 
clared an heretic, ami sentenced to be' burnt in effigy .^ As 
soon as be heardtof this hep^blisbed a small tract entitled 
** Le Chevalier D'Oliveyra bi*ul6 eh ^tSgie^comme Here- 
tique^ comment et pourquoi? Anecdote^ et Reflections 
sar cc'svijet donn^saupttblic par lui meine,'' Lond. 1762. 
In the introductioiv toahis Work the chevalieir gives some 
Itecount of bis life, and exposes the irregnlafk'ity iof the 
proceedings ef- the inquisitioiv againsthitn.^ 
- About this tioaie h6 renwved from Kentish town to 
Knightdb ridge, for the convenienee of his friends; but 
time having robbed him of a numb^ of these, he left that 
situatioiT' in 1775 to reside at Hackney, ' where he con- 
tinned to piirsue his studies, constantly employing the 
mornings in writing, and the evenings in reading. Be<«- 
^des the works already mentioned, he occasionally pub- 
lished several others, ' not of less merit, hbougii idf l^ss im- 
portance t^ the. memoirs of his life. The tAanuscifipts he 
Jeft were very mimerous,^*and' their ^subjects ad various. 
Among- tfaem> are what he caMs^* Oliveyratia, ^tm M^moires 
historiques^ litteraires," &c. which,' in 27'v5l«. 4to, con- 
tain, as he often mentioned, the fruits of 'his reading and 
idbservatiiins for the space of twenty -flt^ years/ The^^e 
<vere,i iw 17^4, intbe possessiofi of hts^ widow,' an Englisk 
lady, whom he married in 1746, and who survived him^ 
but how long we have not discovered. The chevalier died 



552 OLIVE Y R A. 

^Oct L8th|. 1783, and was interred in the buriftl ground of 
tbe parish' of Hackney, with a privacy > atiitabTe to. bia 
worldly circumstances, but much, below bis merit, virtuea, 
apd piety, ' . 

OLIVIERI. (Hannibal), a learned Italian antiquary, 
honorary chamberlain to Clement the XIII th, and perpe- 
tual secretary of the academy of Pesaro, in the Marche q£ 
Ancoha, was born in that city on the 17th of June, 1708^ 
of an ancient and illuatrioua family. His lively and active 
disposition, and an uncommon thirst for information,, gav^ 
an early promise of his subsequent prc^ess in. the career 
of literature. After receiving at home the rudiments .of 9, 
learned education^ he went ^through the usual, studiea of 
polite literature, at the. college of noblemen at Bologiia. 
He then applied himself to the study of the civil and canon 
law at tbe, university of Pisa, iioder the tuition of the illus- 
tfioiis civilian and literator A>erant, until 1 727, when he; 
went to Rom^ in order to practise at. the bar. 
. Having gone through a regular course of studies^ he 
returned to his native place in 1733, »d soon after married 
a lady pf the same town, of the name of Belluzzi, a fami^ 
illustrious as his own. He had scarcely attained his twenty- , 
eighth year when he published his capital work ^' Marmora 
J'esauriensia notis illustrata,'' 2 vola* folio, which, for its 
depth of research, judgment, information, and utility, 
ranked him amongst the greatest antiquaries of his age» 
and gained him the. highest esteem from his. illustrious 
contemporaries,^ Mac^dOn, MaiSei, Gojri, Zeno,: Lanni| 
Quirini, Antonelli, .Garaoipi, and others. After the pub-^ 
lication of this excellent work,, it appeared that he had re;- 
linquished his favourite pursuit, as nothing else of the 
kind appeared for thirteen years. He however presented 
to the public many valuable memoirs, and dissertations on 
literary history, in the celebrated collection of Cologera, 
v^fao, from respect and - gratitude, dedicated to him the 
volume of the collection which appeared in 1750. 

During, this interval, however, he was far from being 
^^le in .other respects, as he was employed in collecting 
materials for his successive works. Be had formed with 
infinite labour, an ample collection of inscriptions^ diplo« 
mas, . and ^manuscripts of every kind, many of which, by 
permission of pope Benedict XIV, he .had , obtained, from 






* 0eDt. Mag. ToU LIV,—- Ly$ooi*i £n?ironf, Yol. II. 

J*. 



. . . , . . . " 






O L I Y I E B t Iff 



^le^/MV^nd ftrebkes Qf the pipal doOtioions. In the vesti- 
b«le mA hall of bU palace he had collected a Vast number 
of statues, bust^, marbles, and other monuments^ of eivil 
and ecclesiastical history ; and bad arranged in bis niu<* 
seQtn .an immense quantity of coins, seals^ cameos, en- 
graved stones, pieces of glass and ivory, and other curious 
vorics i3il antiquity ; and it is worthy of remark, that tha 
whole of this collection related in some measurie to his own 
b'ative city, Pesaro, to the illustration of whose history fan 
liad devoted his talents. At length, in 1774, lie pubif 
)isfaed, in 4to, his <* Memoirs of the ancient Port of Pesaro,*^ 
of which an bcmourable account was given by Tiraboscfai^ 
in the new Uterary journal of Modena, as^tending to iHas#^ 
irate many impbrtant particulars in the history of the lattcir 
period'of the Roman empire. ^^ 

' From the six^*ei^hth to the seventy-eighth year of hie 
Ubf a period when the geneirality of learned men withdraif 
from the public, M. OliTien published no less than sixteen 
works on different subjects, thoagh all in the line of his 
^vourite pursuit EicclesiaMical annals, feudal vici^sitmlesi 
public law, ehvrches, castles, abb^s, eminedt persons, ai^d 
i)thei; particulars relative to die city and territory of Pesaro^ 
were ail respectivdy illustrated. The best were cbnsi^ 
4ei9ed to b^ <^The History of the Church of Pesarb dnring 
(he thirteenth century,'* and the Memoirs of his illustrioui 
friend and predecessor l^asseri, published in 17&0; r 
; The chevalier Olivieri died oh the 2Sth Sept. 1789, in 
1^ eighty>seeond year of his age; no less respected for 
bis moral than for his mental c^iialifiei^ons. He was one 
of the warmest promoters in bis province, of sciences, arts^ 
biahufactureis, and agriculture; and so benevdeiit, that tbf 
greatest part of his annual income was employed in relieve 
ii^ the wants of others. He bad no issiie, iso that his faf 
ooily became e^ioet at his death. His fortune didvolved 
po twd aepbews o£ tiie family of Macbirelli ; b«t wishing 
to be of some service to bis city, even after hh death, ms 
te(^tteathed to it hit magnifieent palace, toigetber with the 
library • and museumt and a suitable revenue^ for their sup» 
port. In gratitude his townsmed ereeted a statue to him 
<m the ground floor of his Own palaee, mtAi ad iasi^iptiom 
hy the ceiebrat^ Abb4 Laozi. Great honours were also 
to him by ^arioas littrary societies. ^ 



> Veocbiettj'i •« ^^IMscs Pktna,'' in ti^e IMentf JoamsL— >pict 
auiiODookStt. . 

Vou XXIIt A A 



3» O L Y M P I O D OH U S. 

OLYMPIODORUS, a peripatetic philosopher df Ates- 
andria, lived under Theodosius the younger, about the 
year 430, and wrote Commentariea on part of Aristode, 
1551, fpl. and a Life of Plato, which contaitis many par-.- 
ticulars not to be met with in Diogenes Laertius. Jamas 
Windet has translated this Life into Latin,, and added notea 
to it. It seems probable, however, that the commentator 
on Aristotle, and the author of the life of Plato, were dif- 
ferent persons ; and there is a third Olympiodorus, a Greek 
monk, who lived in the fifth or sixth century, and Idft 
short and elegant Commentaries on Job and Ecclesiastes^ 
which may be found in the library of the Gre^k fathers. 
The little that is known of eitberof these may be seen in 
our authorities. * 

OLZOFFSKI (Andrew), an eminent Polish dmn^. 
was descended from an ancient family in Prussia, and born 
about 1618. In the course of his studies, which were passed 
at Kalisch, he applied himself particularly to poetry ; for 
which he had an early taste. After he bad finished his 
courses of divinity and jurisprudence, he travelled to Italy; 
where he visited the best libraries, and took the degree of 
doctor of law at Rome. Thence he went to France, and 
was introduced at Paris to the princess Mary Louisa ; who 
being about to marry Ladislaus IV. king of Poland, Ol"* 
zoffski had the honour of attending her tbithqr. On his ar- 
rival, the king offered him the secretary's place ; buthe de-^ 
dined it, for the sake of following his studies. Shortly after 
be was made a canon of the cathedral church at Guesne^ 
and chancellor to the archbishopric: in which post he* ma- 
naged all the affairs of that see, the archbishop being very 
old and infirm. After the death of this prelate, he was called 
to court, and made Latin secretary to his majesty ; which 
place he filled with great reputation, being a complete mas^ 
ter of that language. In the war between Poland and Swe* 
den, he wrote a piece against that enemy to his country, 
entitled '^ Vindiciae Polonicse.*' He attended at tb^ elec- 
tion of Leopold to the imperial crown of Germany, ia 
quality of ambassador to the king of Poland, and went after* 
wards in the same character to Vienna,- to solicit the with^' 
drawing of the imperial troops from the borders of the Po« 
iisfa territories. Immediately on his return. he was invested 
with the high office of prebendary to thecrown, and .prQ'- 
moted to the bishopric of Culm. 

1 Ca?e; vol. I.--*Lardner'fi Works.--^ii OnoiOMtiiMH^ , . 



OLZOFFSkl. 2St 

- r -V <^ 

 M 

•Afleir tbe death of Ladislaus • be fell into'didgrdce witti 

tbe queei>, because he opposed the design she had of setf 

ting a prince of Frafice upon the tbrotie of Poland ; h6w- 

eTor, tbisdid not hinder himfrotti' being made vice-ehan- 

7 -eellorof the"^ crown. He did atl in bis power to dissuade 

V 'Casrmir II. from renouncing the crown ; and, after tbe rfe-i 

signation of that king, several competitors appearing to fill 

^ tbe*vacancy, OtzoflPski oh the occasion pubtished a pi^ee^ 

. called "Censura," &c^ • This was aflsWered by aiiother^ 

' entitled <' Censura Censuras Candidatorum ;*! at^d the 1i-^ 

r berty which our vice-chancellor bad takeiiin his "C^nsilra^* 

brought him into some danger. It was chiefly levellcrd 

against the young prince of Museovy, who was one of the 

competitors, :thou^ nomore than eight years of age ; klrkt 

tbe/c23r was highly incensed^ and made loud complaiotd 

> and menaces, unless satisfaction were/given for the offeiicei 

Upon the election of Michel Koribut to the throne, 6l-> 

. Eoffski was dispatched to Vienna^ to negotiate a match be- 

" tween the iiew««leoted king an4 one of the princedses^of 

' Au$tria ; and, on his return from that embassy, was madO' 

grand cbancellof of the ^crdwn.' He did not approve the 

peace concluded with die Turks in 1676; and wrote to th^ 

grand vi^ir in terms of which the grsend seignor comptain<ed 

' to the king of Poland. . '  

. After the death of Koribut, OlzofFski had a principal 

abarein procuring the election of John Sobieski, who mad6* 

Inm ardibishop of Guesne,. and private of the kingdom ;' 

and be would have obtained a cardinaPs hat, if he had not 

. publicly declared against it. However, he had not b^eri 

. long possessed of^he primacy before his right to it was 

disputed by the bishop of Cracow ; who laid claint al^ to 

other prerogatives of the see of Guestie, and pretended to' 

. make the obsequies of the Polish monarchs. On this (|>1-^ 

. s^fTski. published. a piece in defence of the rights and pri'* 

vileges of bis arehbisbopric. He also some tiqie afterwards 

published another piece^ but without putting his nan>e to 

it, entitled '^Sitigularia Juris Patronatus R. Polonise,^' in 

•upport of* tbe'king of Poland's right of nomiilation to the^ 

abbeys. In 1678, going by tbe king^s command to Dant-^ 

z^y in order to' compose certain disputes between the se* 

nafce^and people of that city,: be was seized with a disorder ' 

which carried bim off 4n three days, .aged nbout 60.' He* 

was^particulariy distinguished by eloquence, and love fot 

' AA 2 



i5S 1 Z O F FS K I. 

bis country ^and Us deacb wa$ laaaented tfaroughoitf ^1 the 
palatinates.^ 

ONKELOS, surnftmed the Proselytq, a famous Bablu 
of the first c^utury, and author of the Chaidee Targiup fNi 
the Pentateuch, flourished in the time of Jesus Christy ac<* 
cording to the Jewish writers ; who all agree timt be vm^Bt 
least in some part of his life, contemporary with Jonathm 
]3en yza^el, author of the second ^* Targumi upon the Fro* 
phets.'* Prideaux thinks^ he was tbeeldcr of the*twjo» fpt 
several i^asoos ; the chief of which is the purity of the style 
in bb ''Targum/' coming nearest to that part of Dnntel 
ind Ezra which is in Chaldee* This is the truest suedard 
of that language^ and consequently the most an ueat ; simpe 
that languiigei as well as others^ was in a constant fl»X| and 
continued deviating in every age from ihe original : iior does 
there seem any reason' why Jonathan Ben Ua^iel, when be 
understood his ^*Targum,** should pass over the law, e^ 
begin with the prbphets, unless that be found Onkelos Ited 
done this work before bite> and im^itb a success atbioli lie 
eoold not exceed. 

Asarias, the author of a book entitled ^ Meor Enwkim^^ 
pr the Light of the Eyes, tells us, tfaat Onkelos was a {mo^ 
^yte in the time of Hiliel and Sfunnai, and lived td see 
Jonathan Ben Uzziel one of the prime scholars of Hilld; 
These three doctors flouiished twelve years befiore CJhrist^ 
according to the chronology of Gauz ; who adds^ that On« 
IloIos was contemporary with Gamaliel the elder, St. Faid^a 
paster, who was the grandson of Hiliel, whia Kved twemgr* 
eight years after Christ, afid did not die till eighteen yeira 
before the destruction of Jerusalem. However, the eefne 
0#uz, by his calculation, places Onkelos 100 yeam aAet 
Christ ; and, to adjust his opinion with that of Asartaa^ ex* 
tends the life of Onkelos to a great length. The TahM* 
6htA tell us, that he assisted at the funerJEil of GeniaUdt* 
und 5vas at a prodigious expMce to BKake it mest jmagnifi'* 
cent. Some say, be burnt on the occasiojn goods jusdef^ 
^Bcts to the value of 7000 crowns; others, thathe provided 
seventy pounds of frankincense^ which was burnt i^ the 
solemnity. 

Whai^rer may be in these reports, we may oheerfe|| 
from Prideanzy that the ^< Targum'^ of Onkelea is rather 
a version than a panqpbrase ; since it lendem 'the HijkmW' 

> Moreri. ' . . ^ 



.: O N K IE L O a SIT 

':imxi ^9ftd for irord^ and for the most part accumtefy and 
exactly, and is by much the best of all this sort. It baa 
liierefure^ always been held in esteem among the Jews, 
much above all the other Targoms; and, being set to the 
Mme musical notes with the Uebrevr tezt^ it is thereby 
made capable of being read in the same tone with it in their 
^nblic assemblies. That it was accordingly there read al- 
ler^iately with the text (one verse of which being read first 
in the Hebrew, the same was read afterwards in the Obaldee 
interpretation) we are told by Lerita ; who^ of all the Jewa 
4bat have handled this argument, has written the most ac« 
corately and fully. He sayis ^^at the Jews, hpfdiiig them* 
ifelves obliged every week, in theirsjmagogues^ to nesd that 
parashab or section of the law which was the lesson of the 
week) made nse of the ** Targum'* of Onkelos for this pur« 
'pose ; and that this was their usage even down to his tiom^ 
^vhiefa. was about the first part of the 1 6th century. And 
far Au reason ; that though, till the art of printing waaio- 
t«nted| there were of the other Targums scarce above 
one or two of a sort to be found in a whole country, yet 
«hen the ** Targom" of Onkelos was every where among 
laem# 

From the excellence and accuracy of OnkeIos*s ^Twt* 
gum^'^ Prideaujt also concludes him to have been a native 
Jew; since, without being bred up fi-oin his birth in dra 
Jewish religton and learning, and long exercised in all the 
rites and doctrines thereof, and also thoroughly skilled in 
both' the Hebrew and Cb^ldee languages, as far as a native 
Jeweould be, he can ifcarce be thought thoroughly ade»" 
^uate to that work which he performed ; and that the re« 
pre^nting him as a proselyte seems to have proceeded 
from^ the error of taking him to have been the same with 
Akilas, orAquila^ of Pontus, author of the Greek ^'Tar<b 
gum,^ or version on the prophets and Hagiographia, who 
was indeed a Jewish proselyte. The first Laitin version of 
the Targum of Onkelos was by Zamora, and published in 
the^ Complutensiao Polyglot, whence it was copied into 
e^erst and is in Walton's.' 

ONOSANDER, a Greek author, and a Platonic philo^ 
wq^hef, wrote commentaries upon Flato'a ** Politics,*' 
fViiich^ are* lost ; but hijs name is still known by his treatise 
' 'Mttttsd' ^ StrfltageticuSyV on the ^Qty ancL virtues of the 

i Pridsam' C«lasQtisasiP«i>Wolii BM. aslM-*Cbaafepi«. 



V 



t 1 • 



858 ONOSANDER. 

general of an army, which has been translated into LaHn; ' 
Italian, French, and Spanish. The first edition in Greek 
was published, with a Latin translation, by Nicolas Rigault, 
at Paris, 1599', 4to; bat the reprint of this in 1600, 4to, 
with the notes of ^milius Portus, is preferred* There is 
also a good edition by Schwebelius, Nuremberg, 1762, fol. 
-The time when our author Bourished is not precisely fixed, 
only it is certain that he lived under the Roman emperors^ 
His book may determine the point, if Q. Veranius, to whom 
it is dedicated, be the same person of that name who ih 
mentioned by Tacitus^ who lived under the emperors CJau^ 
•dius and Nero, and died in the reign of the latter, being 
then Legatus BritannisB : but this is not certain. ' 
..ONUPHRIUS. See PANVINIUS: 
- OPIE (John), a very excellent artist and professor of 
painting in theRoyal Academy, wa^ born in May 1761, at 
.St. Agnes in Cornwall, a village about seven miles distant 
from the town of Truro. In his earliest years he was re^ 
markable for the strength of l^is understanding, and the 
rapidity with which he acquired all the learning that a viU 
lage«scbool could afford him. When ten years old, be wte 
not only able to solve several difficult problems in Euclid^ 
but wiais /thought capable of instructing others : and when 
be had scarcely reached his twelfth year, be established 
an evening school at St. Agnes, and taught writing and 
•arithmetic. His father, a carpenter, was desilroiis to bring 
him up in his own business; but this was by no means 
suitable to one whose mind had attained som^ glimpses of 
■science, and still more of art. He was formed a paint^^ 
by nature ; and ,had not this been the case, he would pro- 
.bably have excelled *in some branch of science or lilera« 
ture :- with much comprehension and acuteness, his^ thirst 
4>f information was insatiable, and his ambition -to excels 
.unbounded. But painting was his destination, and after 
many early and rude efforts, he had bung his father^s boose 
with portraits of his family and friends in an 'improved 
lityle, when he became acquainted with Dr. John Woleot^ 
then residing at Truro, and since soiwell known by the 
name of Peter Pindar: who, having himself a taste icur 
drawing, and a strong .perception of character, saw the 
'Worth of our artist, and was well qualified to aiford biiki 
instruction in many requisite points. He also recommended 

' .V . I Fabric^ Biblf Q|ectii!«^szii OaMiMtf > > ^ 



iiim SO effectually that be commenced professed portrait^ 
painter, and went about to the neighbouring towns with 
letters of introduction to the principal families resident in 
tiiem, «nd henceforward entirely supported himself by his 
iMvn^ exertions. 

\ At lengthy in 178 Ij; he came to London, still under the 
aospicies of Dr. Wolcot, whose powerful pen was not si* 
lent in bis cause ; and his wooks becoming the theme o£ 
Aisbionable conversation, he was soon employed to paint 
the portraits of persons of the highest distinction, who were 
caught by the novelty, and struck with the. force of his 
representations. His talent, however, being more solid 
than showy, was not calculated to insure him long that 
exclusive favour which his outset had promised : without 
taste for elegance and fashionable airs, he could not often 
please the womea;' and the men, whom he could hot sup- 
ply with dignity or importance, soon became indifferent to 
one whom the women did no longer protect, Opie re« 
Biained the pajnter of those only who sought characteristic 
resemblance, stern truths and solidity of method. But his. 
parts wisre not limited by portrait; he had long and ofteii 
with felicity represented the incidents of rustic and corn- 
jiion fife, in picturesque groups; and the plans of historic 
painting, contrived by commerce at that period, . called 
forth what was latent in him of historic power ; the speci- 
piiens which he had given in the Royal Exhibition were 
auoceeded by a numerous series of religious and dAmatic 
subjectSji painted for the Boydell and Macklin galieries*^ 
3y the establishment of the former, in 1786, Opie was 
iirst fully made known to the public, and the latent powent 
jof his iniod were called forth. For this gallery he paintedl 
£v& large pioturesi, of which' the finest was from the Win* 
ter^s Tald ; Leontes administering the oath t0 Antigonus 
|;o take charge of the child., But he produced, about the 
8ame time, a work of far more excellent quality in effect 
and colour, viz. the assassination of James I. of Scotlahd, 
now in the Common Council room at Guildhall, a work 
which, for hue and colour, challenges competition with 
Jthebest, find is wrought }vith the greatest boldness and 
force. 

/ Of Op.ie*s style, the more engaging characteristics are 
breadth, simplicity, and force; its defects are want of 

frace and variety of invention; and of elegance and re- 
nemieiPt in j^xpression |in4 execution. The pbject^ of bis 



S«0 O F 1 1^ 

chaioe ware «(na8g tlie striking «nd terribly i«lh«f-0ili 
the agreeable and beautiful^; and the materiakibe inim^ 
diieed were more accordant to bis idea8;0!f tbe picuire«qiie 
ibai^ tbe pro{>er.. He frequent! jr Ttolated eostumey npt for 
want of knowledge! so oiucb as from an insatiable d^aice of 
joontrast ; and spmetiines from oonveniency. His taste Jay 
ia the representation of natural objects wijthcStrong.e6feet t 
he tberefore made use of airmour,. or of draperies wbicb h^ 
ttad in his study.,, and, like Rembraadt, .sdcipted tbem aa 
bia antiques^ and used tbem according as be fdt tkej 
would best promote .bis immediate end*. Tbese defoatt 
are redeemed, to tbe well-inforuied eye» by tbe absolute 
trutb of imitation in.wbicb tbey are wrougbt, by dieex^ 
preasion . 0f hia beads, particularly of old men^^. or o£ 
strongly^marked characters, wbicb are exceedingly imprca*' 
aive» by tbe energetic actions of bis priucipal figures^ i§f 
tbe broad and dsring execution of his. pencil, and bj^ iba 
Biagic force of bis cbiaro-scuro* la tbe lalter; pcaak q# 
artist ever excelled himu His figures project fromitbe eaii». 
Tas in tome of bis best works ; and if seen upderfsmucaf' 
ble eircumstai^ces, would be absolutely illusive *.; 

• ' • • / .  . i i, . * 

# This cbaracter of Opie'« paintings, tcuro^ in wbicb be toaetimef ^Biy|p 

ir« take from hit biographer in tbe Cy« Caravaggio, and, like him loo,* nif- 

<HopMdta. Mr. Fute|t*B opinkm, in bit questly dapenda Ibr <hipreiiieS m4 

last aditifptof |*Hkiqgton't dictionary, character on tbe ^eru^ility of fealmi^ 

^ems not lets worthy of attention, or feelings of one i^odel. Astbesamia 

^ Brsadlb, Sfoiplidtt, bud ttllidity 'of face toppl|ed tbe ItalmiK with tbe fea. 

Snetliod, tdisttngfritb tbe style of f^ie ; tares of S. ic^M and of the eiovatieMtfV 

but bis brcadtb often de£|enerated to of a pilgrim and a robber, so in (b|p. 

abeety emptiness, especitlly m dra- scenes of Opie^ the assassta of Jamea 

^ry; rntikity ofNsSer than nai?eli only tbfiows>efffaJs plaid tdatsooietlia' 

piten4s bi| simplieity,^ and tbe solidity cowl of Ffiar- Lawrence, cr tbur IHag^. 

of bis method it not teldom allied to and scarlet of Wolsey. The same 

iBoarseness. Not learned in design, re- monotony nfarKs tKeir woitea: tbeii' 

dueed to what correotaeas be could dis« Madonnasi Magdale^y aonrer-f irla, J *• 

eoTer in bis Qiodel^ be soon became a ditbs, Juliets, and Hobnelias, geoe^ 

mannerist in terms; and to aioid being rally resemble each other too' closely, 

Sninute Or meagre, often iuTolved i^arta eten for sklers& ' As tbe tide ttf hiitorib 



pnd Outline in a doughy mass* Nature commissions paasad* his ooneeptieii 

had endowed him with an etquisite tank again to those scenes of common 

eye f6r colour; tba f ixlantsque toiie life that had first lAtlnuAed it; but, fed! ^ 

SbatdisUngnisbedbiaiDuvderof Jaaea made to dandle a hid, be painted la '*' 

h. remains uarivalled among tbe pro- large biftoricproportioot, misses elop^ ^ 

duct ions of his contemporaries^ an4 ing, beggars, fortune-tellers, cottageb. * 

wnanot, perbajys, eqaalied by any ef >naits»a»d whateommooly re coa t m e^d t * 

his subsequent performances; for-tbe itself to tbe cabinet or parlanr bf  

dictates of practice are seldom those smallness of siae and elaborate ^aiah; 

6f nature. His hiteiitba is hess ia- an hlooidgrbity wbi(!h it has atnee beaa^ ^ 

^ii^d by. the most important moment found eaaieir to adop|fc, than to faaitiia i 

of the subject thau what appeared to tbe master-tmits and the felicity if ,. 

Iiim the most picturaaque, and the execution, by whicli, lih^ Mbn!h>^ la 

lihelMigt la ditpla; «(Ml»pMts aH sbiMtt- iii|ff»yadaeiatdiafolailsl tfMa^ ^ ; Jr.Jl 



; vli!ni6ii' the lUte of bhtoric eoHmiifliloM siilMidedy Opie 
Mipk^ed biouelf in representing sondes of comoion life^ 
es. well as in portraits. Cottage visits, an old soldier at an 
•Ice- bouse door^ &rtiitte-tellersy and that class of materials 
which the Dnteh and Flemish masters have recommended 
by high finish and convenient neatness of siae» he painted 
upon a kfge scale. The repotation so justly doe to his 
talents had now become steadily attached to him, and he 
bad no longer to complain of the unfeeling caprice of 
fapbion, for he enjoyed an uninterrupted source of employe 
ment, in portraiture at least, till bis death, and generally 
disposed of the faacy pictures with which he chose to in« 
tertperse bis labours. These were very numerous, for he 
was eBi^edingly industrious, and his principal delight iras 
in the practice of his prefession. 

ppie having been admitted an associate of the Royal 
Aeademy in 1786, and an academician in the year follow* 
ingf Upon the dismissal of Mr. Barry from the body, aspired 
tO'tbe honour of being professor of painting, but resigned 
his pretensions in favour of Mr . Fuseli, who was chosen« 
When that gentleman was appointed to the station of 
keeper in 1805, be again advanced his claim, and was 
noahimously received. He bad previously tried his power 
in liteipary composition, with no slight degree of success; 
first irt the life of sjr J. Reynolds, in Dr. Wolcot's edition 
of Pilkington> dictionary, and again in the publication of 
a plan far the formation of a national gallery, *' tending at 
once to exalt the arts of his country and immortalize its 
glories.'* ^ He afterwards, in 1804, read two lectures on 
paemting at the Royal Institution, which were fraught with 
instructions, and were received with applause ; though it 
bas been observed by a judicious critic, that the style in 
w&ich they were composed was *' abrupt, crowded, and 
frequently unmethodical ; rather rushing forward himself, 
than leading his auditors to the subject.*' Nevertheless, his 
exertions on this occasion drew upon him- respect, the 
Biere> perhaps, as he was not generally known to be a man 
fond of literature ; and the world were the more surprised 
to^bearrefined sentiments in easy and even elegant lan*^ 
guaige^ from one who was not unfrequently represented aa 
ccQurae ai^i vulgar in mind and manner. In fact, Opie by 
no meaiis merited such an unfavourable report; be was 
pllin and unaffected, and spoke his mind freely; wfaa 
manly and energeiic, yielding little to folly or caprice^ 



562 O PI El 

atid by no means aclapted to gratify tbe Irain anil ignbik^nt; 
but be was not wilfully offensive, and coudemned warand^ 
those wbo were so. 

He possessed a tenacious memory, and readily quoted in 
conversation the authors be had read, particularly the 
poets^ and was a playful and entertiaining companion, when 
be found his company agreeable to him, capable of er^oy- 
ing' his humour, of benefiting by his information, or of 
eliciting reflection in his own mind; and' it was seldom 
that a thinking man could be in bis society without feeling 
roused by his energy. 

- I'he lectures which he delivered at the Royal Academy 
are published to the world, it is therefore not necessary to 
enter upon their merits ; but it will be justice to their au- 
thor, earnestly to recommend the perusal of them to all 
^bo wish to understand the principles of tbe art on which 
tbey treat. Unhappily the Course was incomplete, asi be 
only gave four lectures of the six prescribed to each pro^ 
fessor. The world were deprived all filirther benefit from 
bis powerful intellects by his death, which occurred, af^er 
a lingering illness, in April 1807. He was honoured by 
an interment in St. PauPs cathedral, near the grave df sir 
Joshua Reynolds; and his funeral was most respectfully at-* 
tended by almost all the members of the Royal Academy, 
and many of tbe nobility and gentry of tbe country.' 

OPITIUS (Henry), a learned Lutheran dii^ine, wav 
born Feb.' 14, 1642, at Altenburg, in Mi'snia. After some 
sclibol education, he studied at Jena and Kiel, and ac- 
quired great knovirledge of the Oriental languages, undet 
the instruction^ of Matthias Wasmuth. Still ambitious to 
add to bis stock of learning, h^ pursued this object at 
Utrecht under Leu^den, at London under Edmund CasteU 
and Matthew Poole, and at Oxford under Pocock. Oa 
his return to Germany in 1671, be failed as a candidate 
for the place of assessor of the faculty of philosophy at 
Kiel ; but was more successful the following year at Jena, 
^bere he took his degrees in philosophy, and taught the 
Oriental languages. Jn 1675 he was invited to Kiel to be 
Greek professor, on the recommendation of Wasmuth, bit 
old ooaster; whom, in 1678, he succeeded in the. chair ef 
'Oriental languages, and held with it his Greek professoiv 

1 Memoirs by Mrs. Opie and othen, prefixed to bii IiecCttres.«-Reea.'8: Q^ 
e)opiBdui.«— PilkiDgton, by Fuseli. ' 



O P IT I U S. 8«S 

•hip iintil 1683y* when be resigned the latter to Daniel 
HasenniQller. In 1689 he took his degree of doctor, and 
became at the same time professor of divinity ; but bis re* 
:put3tion rests chiefly on his skill in the Orienltal languages ; 
4ind this he might have enjoyed without diminution, had 
be not adopted the whimsical opinion of bis master Was- 
flDuth^ and maintained the relationship between the Greek 
•ahd the Oriental languages, and the connection which the 
tlialeots of the one have with those of the other. Tbischi- 
•merical scheme of subjecting the Gre^ek to the roles of the 
Hebrew, be defended in a small work, entitled *^ Grsecis- 
41I11S facilitati suse restitutus, methodo nov&, e&que cum 
praeceptis Hebraicis Wasmuthianis et suis Orientalibus^ 
•quam proximo harmonica, adeoque regulis 34 succinct^ ab« 
'solotus,'* Kiel, 1676, 8vo. This was twice reprinted, but 
.raised bim many enemies, not only on account of the 
•cbeme itself, but of bis extravagant praise of Wasmutb, 
4U the expence of Buxtorf, and other imminent scholars. 
'' Opitiiis*s last preferment was that of ecclesiastic coun- 
sellor to the court of Holstein.' He died January 24, 17 1 2^ 
in his seventieth year. He was unquestionably one of the 
ablest and most, industrious Oriental scholars of his time, 
as an enumeration of his works will show: I. ** Atrium 
LingilsB.Sancta?," Hamburgh, 1671, 4to. 2. *' Disputatio 
de Davidis et Saiomonis Satellitio, Crethi et PJethi, ex 
Ubris Samuelis et Regum,*' Jena, 1672, 4to. 3. ^* Synop- 
41$ Linguse Chaldaicse," ibid. 1674, 4to. 4. ^* Atrium Ac- 
eentnationis S. Scripturse Veteris Test. Hebraicse,*', ibid. 
^674, ^to. 5. *^ Disputatio de usu Accentuationis geminas 
in gemina diyisione Decalogi,** Kiel, 1677, 4to. Opitius, 
it must be observed, vxas a supporter of the antiquity and 
tfiuthority of the Hebrew accents. 6. ^' Syriasmus facili- 
itati et integritati suae restitutus,^' &c. Leipsic, 1678^ 4to. 
7« ^^CbaldaismusTargumico-Rabbinicus," &c. Kiel, 1682, 
4to. 8. << Novum Lexicon Hebrseo-Cbaldaeo-Biblicum,'* 
I^ipsic, 16^2, 4to. 9. *^ Bibiia parva« Hebrso-Latina,** 
^Hamburgh, 1673, 12mo. 10. << Biblia Hebraica,^' Kiel, 
•1709, 4to. This edition bad engaged bi^ attention, morie 
4)F:less, for almost , thirty years. Opitius published also 
some dissertations on subjects of divinity and Oriental cri- 
ticism^ of less note than the aboVe, and it is no inco^isider- 
able proof of the esteem in which he vi^s held, that all the 
ipr^rks we have eoumerkted went through several editions^^ 

I Cbaufepie. 



zti OP I T ». 

OPITS (MaiItiN), in Latin Opitius^ rtfdeon^ the fth 
ther of German poetry, was born at Butfzlaii, in SiiesU, 
■1597* His parents bad but a moderate fortune; but bis 
father, observing bis genius, educated bim cwefuHy in 
grammar, in whicb he soon made great proficiency : and, 
atter some time, went to Breslaw for farther improvement, 
and thence tx> Francfort upon the Oder. He spent a year 
in that university, and then removed to Heidelberg, where 
he studied with remarkable assiduity: but the fame of the 
•celebrated Bernegger drew bim, after some time, to Strata 
bourg ; and Bernegger was so struck with the learning and 
wit of Opits, tiiat he pronounced be would one day bep 
cmne the Vtrgil of Germany. At length be returned, faiy 
the way of Tubingeh, to Heidelberg ; but, the p4ague be- 
ginning to appear in the Palatinate^ thi^ together with 
tbe troubles in Bohemia, disposed our student td tra^ 
with a Danish gentleman into tbe Low Countries; atid 
thence be went to Holstein,. where he wrote bia books of 
^* Constancy/* As soon as the troubles of Bohemiawc^fe 
a little calmed, be returned to bis own eountry ; and, that 
be might not live in obscurity, be frequented the court 
Betblem Gabor, prince of Transiivania, having^ founded' a 
•rbool at Weissenberg, Opits was recommended by Caspar 
Conrade^ a famou^^ysician and poet at Bnestaw, to that 
prince, who aop^nted him the school* master i of prafessor^ 
and there he read lectures upon Horaca and Seneca. - 

During his residence in Transiivania, be ih({Utred 3lfta 
the original of the Daci, and the Rootian antiqultiea them 
Hei made also exact researches after the ancient KoAiia 
inscriptions, which he sometimes recovered^ and aent'^ticillbi 
to Gruter, Grotius, and Bernegger. Some lime after las 
return home, he was meditating a jourtrey to Franefe, wbcia 
a burgrave, who was in the emperor's servite, made biba 
bis secretary, in which office! he contrived to keep up a rc^ 
gular correspondence with Grotius, Heinsins, SatmaaicM^ 
Kigaltius, and other learned mep ; and bis employer ^mr«- 
ing not only consented to, but furnished bim with jail lie 
necessaries for his journey to 'prance, be beeanoe intmiike 
with Grotius, who then resided at Paris, and in thia j«M* 
ney atso be collected a good niindber of manuacriptaaadl 
curious medals. --.-.-. 

Upon the death of his patron the bnfgrave^be 9»tefi^ 
into the service of the count of Ligniu, and contimiei 
there some time } but at lastj replying to retirej be chose 



O P I T 8. 96$ 

jjfok bif reudencft the tovrn of Dantzic, vthtre he Kaishei 

Jiis work of the ancient <* Daci/* and died of the piague, 

1639. He wrote many other pieces besides the above* 

|nenlioned| the titles of soaie of which are, ** Sylvaruoa 

. libri dupV '' Epigr^mmatuoi liber unus;*' ''Vesuvius^ 

Poema Germanicum ;*' ^^Barclay's Argenis/* translated 

joto.GerniaQ verse; a German translation of '* Grotius de 

.Yeritate,** &c.; " Opera po^tica;*' " Prosodia GermanU 

£ea;"^^The Psalms of David/' translated into Geroiaa 

^ Verse. His poems, in correctness and elegance of verst* 

; ficattooi were so ouich superior to those of his predecesson, 

._ as to obtain for him the title of father of German poetry^ 

but it does not appear that bis example was for some time 

. fallowed.' 

> OPORINUS (John), a famous German printer, was 

hipro at Basil, Jan. 25, 1507i. His father, John Herbst^ 

, Wat a painter; who had been deserted by his father for 

^ attachment to bis art, and had settled at Baail . in very in^ 

5 different circumstances. He contrived, however, to give 

: his sao some edueation at home, and afterwards sent hioa 

rtp Strasbourg, where be received the provision allotted to 

poor students. Here he studied Latin and Greek, and 

apoke and wrote die former with purity aqd fluency. With 

these acc^HonpKshments he would hiaLve returned home, but; 

having no prospect of employment there, he went to the 

idibey of St. Urban, in the Canton ol Lucerne, and wa^ 

\ a|q>ointed raarter of the school. In this house, he formed 

eim. iti|iimacy with the canon Xylotectus, who aft^erwarda 

r^ilted hia preferment, became a protestant, and married* 

, f^^rinui, sJso disliking a monastic life, followed his friend 

to Basil, and gained a livelihood by transcribing the w<orkS' 

oftheGreek authorapublished by Frobenius. On the death 

of hiairiend Xylotectus, he married his widow in 1527, st^ 

yroman of a capricious temper, who rendered his life very 

liiieaay. He nad been for some time appointed schoOU 

inaster here, but exchanged an employment of mu^h- 

^If^g^-di^d liltle reward U>r the study of medicine, which 

be hoped would be more profitable. The noted Paracelsus 

Wfpf at this time at Basil, and engaged to teact^ him atl the. 

. secfiets. of his ar.t within the space of a year. Oporii^u;^ 

rejoiced at the prospect of becoming as wise ^9 .bip xnj^^p * 

wiUii^lysubf9itted,tP be bia pup^lt hisaermmt^ hisama^ 

^ tf ortru-^]E>ictp Hiit 



^66 OPORIN'US. 

i. 

I 

nuensiSy and bore with all his eccentricities witb great pa* 
tience, accompanying liim even to Alsace, until finding Uiat 
he was egregiously duped by this quack, he returned to 
Basil, to encounter another disappoiniment. - His wtfe> died> 
from whom he, expected great riches, but she left him only 
debts. . ' ' . ^ 

About this tiime Grynseus, the Greek professor at Basils 
and an intimate friend of Oporinus, procured, him to be 
appointed one of the professors, and he gaye a course of 
lectures on the lives of Plutarch ; but,^ the governorsicf 
that republic obliging all the professors in their universttjr 
to take the degree of M. A. Oporinus, who was then past 
thirty, refused to submit' to the usual examinatioQi resigned 
bis office, and took up the trade of a printer. In this. bu-« 
siness he joined in partnership with Robert Winter,, ^and 
changed his family name of Herbst, ^according to. the.ha« 
mour of several learned men at that time, for Oporiniisjr.a 
Gfeek word, signifying Autumn ; as Winter also, for the 
same reason, took that of ChimeripUs ^. The partners^, 
however^ met with considerable . losses ; so that Winter 

' died insolvent; and Oporinus was not abl,e tosuiiqpat^rt 
himself without the assistance of his friends, in- which con« 
dition he died July 6, 1568. He had six presses constantly. 

' at work, usually employed above fifty men, and published 
Ho book which he had not corrected himself.- iNo|;with«. 
standing his great business, he died above;1500 iivresin 

debt.-' ' ^ ' • '^.  •. • . • ...•..■•.•:■; 

As Oporinus understood manuscripts .very wdl, he;tx)qk: 
care to print none but the best He left sooie works :of 
his own, as, " Notas in Plutarchum ;'* ** Palybiftt9r» scho- 
lia in priora aliqua capita Solini;'' ^} Darii Tiberii epitome^ 
Vitaruin Plutarchi ab innumeris mendis repurgata;** ^^ School 
lia in Ciceronis Tusculanas qu^sstiones ;'^ -^^ A^liota^iooeai 
^x diversis doctorum lucubratiooibus colle<^t6& -in DenaiM^' 
henis praitiones ;*' ^^ Propriorum nominjam Oupmastiem^^^. 
He al^o made notes to some authors,/ and large .tables of 
contents to others; as Plato, Aristotle, Pliny^ ;&c* ^andse* 
veral letters of bis may be seen in a coUee^ioniof letters 
printed at Utrecht in 1697. , An account of bJalifpi.wM 



▼ Those names were apparently assumed, to humour the two foUowiiw lines 
IfartiaPs Ep. IX. xiil. 1. .. '7*:: 



*■* 



<< Sidaret AnituatousmiiiiDQimen/otfw^vtf etsems * '^ 

£lorricla si Bnims si4era, x'^^'^'ir^'*'' • 



-o p.o ft IN s/ s#r 

* ' * 

nmtletf kfyAnArew Looiscus^ iu an pration^ ^^ De vita ec 

.^ftbltu Oporini.'" / 

• OPPIAN, a Greek poet and grammsician, who flourisfaecf 
about the year 200 undet tha eo^peror Caracalla, was a 
native of Aoazarba in Ciiicia. We have of tbis.autbdr fiver 
books of fishing, entitled ^' Halieutics;'* which be pre*-^ 
sented tp Caraoalla, in the life-t^me of bis father the em- 
pepor Severus : as also four books, of. buntings presented 
likewise to Caracalla after the death of Seyerus. Caracalla 
was so^nHlcb pleased with Oppian'^ poemsy that be gave'a 
Cfown of gold for .^ very line ; whence^ it is said^ they fjbt 
tbe. title of Golden verses,, altboogb others have, suppo^jsd 
tbey merited that, appellation for their elegance. Soaie 

' modaern critics say,, be was a particulac favourite of the 
Muses; be excels in. sentiments. and similitudes, but is 
particularly distinguished by the great erudition . whicb 
supports bis verses* He composed, other pieces, ,wbtck 
are4o9t; for instance, ^' A. Treatise upon Falponry.'* He 
died i|) bis. ownxountry, of the plague, at thiny years of 
age; . and astatue was erecte^d. in honour of bim by his fei« 
low-citizens; who also placed. an epitaph upon his tomb^ 
importing, • that the gods, took bim out of the world,. be'*> 
cause be excelled all mortals. .The best editions of bis 
poems are those of Leyden in 1597^ 8vo,' with notes. by 
Rittershusius; to which is prefixed an account of his life^ 
and that of Schneider, 1776. His work upon ^^ Fishing'* 

s was translated into. English heroic verse by Jones and 
others^ of St. Jobn's co|l^e, in, Oxford, and planted tbere 
|u 17.22, 8 vo, with his. life pre6x4L^ , , / ; ; 

. OPSTRAET (Joim)f an eminent divine,, was born Oct^ 
3, 165l,at Beriogberi, a'smalltowain the county of Liege* 
He was admitiied a licentiate ia divinity at Louvain.in 168.1^ 

.and afterwards taught. tbeqlogy iatbe college of Adrian, 
and at the seminary, of Maliues ;, but. .was driven frooi 

^ thence by Humbert.de Precipiano, archbishop of that city, 
for.bis.attacbment to the Jansenists; and was banished in 
1704, bavini^ declared, himself one of Steyaert^s principal 
advier^aries > but,, after two year^, Louvai^ becoming part 
bf .the emperprN.dominipns, M. Op&traet. was appointed 
principal of the college de Faucon, .which office he held 
till bis: deafb^ Novepober 29, 1720. His Latin w6rks. are 

^>*v'-.^ ^« .4.-. •. - .* ^4-.*» 

'•' 1 Chaafepie.-^Portratts det hommev illustres de la Suisse, par Meister*— -NU 
etron, tol. XXV 11. '* Vossius de Po^, Grsbc.— -Saxii Onoaustn 



S8S O F S T B: A: B T. 

siimefOB^ Md in rcquiast .an^oDg the diteiplAi H inst^ 
xiius and Father Quesnel, buti are rather scarce in France* 
The priocipal ure, *^ A Tbeolo^eal Diaserfea^ion on the 
Method of administering the Sacrameot of Penitence^** 
mgainst Steya^rt; '^ Vara Doctrina de.Baputofeo lAbi^aii^ 
tium," 3 vbls. 12mo, against St^aert ; . '* Tbeidog^cal ler 
structiona &r young brines ;'* >* The. good Shepberd^*' 
which treats on the dmies of pastorst and. has been trana** 
Uted into French^ 2 yoIs. 12ino; <*The GbriatSan Diviae^'^ 
translated into Fmch by M« de S. And»6 de BeauohlBe^ 
under the title of, ^^ Le Directeor d*un jenne ThMogiee,'^ 
17239 12aio; ^< Theological Ifastmotions concerning bat« 
Bian Actions," $ vols. 12aio; *^ A System of doginatical» 
moral, practical^ and scbolastio Theology," in 3 vols, wttk 
others enooiersted in oiir authorities.' 
. OPTATUS^ bishop of Melevia, a tQwa of Numidia M 
Africa, . flourished in the focurth e^itury, under the empira 
of Valentinian and Videos. He wrote his very able.aul 
Jodicious treatise on the schism of the Donatista jdiottt the 
year ^70, against Parmenian, bishop of that see*. We 
know nothing of the particulars, of bis Kfie* He. ia eooi*« 
molded by Austin, Jerom, and Felgeatiua. In Jerooife 
time his work was dividdd into six books, le which m ae« 
Tenth was subjoined, from the additions which Optatae 
bad made to hu other books* This author has been pub« 
lished several times : the last, in 1 700, by Dupin, urho has 
settled the text Irom four manuscripts* He has also pm 
short notes, with various readings, at the - botiom of the 
page ; and at the end inserted the notes of Badoubin, Ca4 
saubon, Barthios, and other former editors, ti^ther with 
a collection of all the acts of councils and ^scopal cDn« 
forences, loiters of bishops, edicta of emperars, pvocoai 
sular acts, ai^ acts of martyrs, which any way fegard the 
liiscory of the Dooatists, disposed io a cbroodogical ordcf^ 
from the first rise of the sect to the time of Gregory the 
Great. There is also a preface, containing an account of 
the writings of OptaCas, wkh their severs! edttioiis ; aal 
two dissertations, one containing the ^* History of the Do** 
teicists,*' and the other upon ^< The sacred Geogtaphy of 
AfricsL," This is the best edition of Optatos, whoso wofrii 
chews him to have been a man of parts, ilDsprQ^vMbyatiidtfi 
and had ^e chosen a more useful subject, would have jpro* 



WWf fppgwej^ ^-gyv^^if v^y*"^?»^ wei«« f^« «^rite» 9f 

his age.* 

, X?^Jp;pI^§;(4u<3j^TiW3), a learned cardinaj, was born 
fiV Flqrf fli^ ^0 1577. H« V^^^ l'^^ ^Vv^y^ ?^^ Rome,, apd te^- 
9^5d ^a ^ .^Oli^ll Ip9afjijf qg^hou^e \^ th'9 city, yi/jhere he ex-^ 
pie^^«!D(c^ the .9fw](ie ^ippuuoii fis tj;if patriarch Joieph dWf, 
jfipd .x:i9minu^<;l no )e38 fj^Uifgi:t9 his duty. C^r^inal Bel* 
}s^Tja;npe ^eing nflj^e acfluaiatpd .wij^ this young pan's Vi^- 
jtypi^ pl^Gfiji hiip p a qoJlegjefoV education* Oregius wj^ 
afterwards employed by cardinal Barberini. to * exapiih^p 
J^^^lf^f f entiment^ co^ciejrmng the immortality of the 
i»fiji^f J^hfit t^e Bope might prphil^it Jthe reading of lecture^ 
pp tj^s philosoj^^ier's ^^01^:9,' jif ^t appeared that his writing^ 
^^re q90jtrfiry to tfa^t jfu^fiajpental article of reli^j^on. Ore* 
^ius pr^pji;mc^4 ji^iai i^opcent, and published on th^t'si^h- 
i^t^ji^n 163ji) b\s bpok ^ntitl^d ^^ Api^totielis vi^ra de rap 
^on^is j^{n^ im/|^or^lUaJte pententta/' Mq. Bar;berin^ at 
Jeogtb becoaiing pope, by t^e name of Urbfin YIII. createil 
rjbim icar^ipal in l/>34^ and g^ve him the archbishopric qf 
JBenexenip, whei^ebe died j^n 1635, aged fifty reight. H^ 
J/Bft tracts « de i;)eo^** « c)e trinitate," '' de Angefis/* « dp 
J0|i^e^^,^ierufn,*' and pther works printed at Aome, iji 
1637 and l^^f2, folio. Caxdinal Bellarmine ca^leij Oregii^s 
^lis ** piviiie>*' and poffi l^rhau Vlil. called him his ^* Set- 
latmine.'* A complete edition of this cardinal's wqjtks was 
rBH!l>U^I^4 by NlcboU$ Oregiusi his nephew, in 1637, l 
,|i(ol.,folio.« 

,0;RjE^]yf;E .(^ichqjlas, or Nicole)^ a learned doctor ^f 

fj^he .^ffrbonnf^, si^i^d grand master of tbe;CoIIege de Navari^e 

jin tiie foiirtieeii)^ ce^nturyf waa a native of Caen, and pre- 

jc^ptor 40 .Cbades V/ who noade hijn hial^c^ of Lisieux in 

1377. ^e ^^ed in 1382. His principal!, worKs are, 1. *^ A 

ptiscfmrse op ^h^ I)is;qrdjera of tjbe C^urt of Rome/' 2. An 

.^(^eil^nt,^rfa»t|iae V Jip Cofnmunicf^tioqe Idioniatum.'' p. 

A.tn^qtqn.cpinage^ ^n \h/^ library of the Fathers. ^. A 

^^ajr^f^d.and curi9Ui t|[^fiti|fe *^pe Antichristp,*' printed \n 

fffm.lX. crf;P« M^^ji®** " Amplissima tollectio/' &c. ^ 

French ^tr^n^atipn of the 9ijt>le u ^Iso attributed to biip^ 

fittt :^)ially so ip ip^gl de Prpale, and to Ouyars'des Mp^i- 

j^nf* iG^et^nfl^tedAnV^ /'^^^pch^ ^7 P^der of Charles V, 

4^riatatle> bp^kjii " 4e .Coeip'* .^nd ^\Ae Mundo,'* his 

* Cave, ToL L«-DapiDi « Gen. Diet.— Mor^rL—fDict. Hist. 

V0L.XXIIL Bb 



370 . o ft 1 B A s r u s. 

«< Ethics'* and "Politics ;" and also Petrarch " dei RimecH 
delPuna et I'Altra Fortuna." * 

ORIBASIUS, Jjjlian the Apostate's physician, was bora 
either at Pergamos or. Sardes^in thebeginningt)f thefourtb * 
century. He first studied in the school of Zeno the Cy- 
prian at Sardes ; and then went to Alexandria in Egypt, 
where he finished his studies, and afterwards became an 
eminent professor there, about 150 years after the death* 
p{ Galen, and was esteemed the greatest scholar and phy- 
sician of his time. 

He wrote 70 books of collections, which he chiefly com- 
piled from the works of Galen, and the other physicians 
who preceded him, and his own experience, at the desire 
of Julian the emperor, about A. D. 360 ; of which the first 
15 are now only remaining, and two' more on anatomy. Of 
these his works he made an epitome, for thexise of bis son 
Eustathius, in nihe books. His ** Theory of Diseases^' is 
that of Galen, from whom he principally took it ; yet some- 
thing new may be found in bis works, not mentioned by 
any author before him ; and both he and £tius have pre- 
served several useful fragments of antiqiiity from Archi- 
genes, Herodotus, Leonides, Eunapius, Poaidonius, Apol- 
lonius^ and Antyllus, and some-others. There is a good 
edition of his ** Anatomica^' in Greek and Latiii, 4to,^ iL 
Dundcfts, L. Bat. 1745.' 

ORIGEN, an illustrious father of the church, and a man 
of great parts and learning, was born at Alexandria in 
Egypt about the year 185; and afterwards obtained the 
surname of Adamantius, either because of that adamantine 
strength of mind which enabled him to go through so many 
vast works, or for that invincible firmness with which he 
resisted the sharpest per3ecutions. Porphyry represents 
him as having been born and educated a -heathen ; but 
Eusebius has clearly proved, that bis parents were Chris- 
tian. His father Leonides took him at first xinder his own 
management, a*nd trained him at home for some time :' he 
taught him languages and profane learning, but bad a pai*- 
ticuiar view to his understanding the Holy Scriptnres ; 
some portion of which he gave him to learn .and repeat 
every day. The son^s inclination suited exactly with the 
father's design, so far as that he pursued his studies with 

* Moreri. — DicL Hist. 

« £loy» Diet. Hist, de U Medicine.— ?reind'8 Hist, of i^hjsic. 



O R I GEN. lili 

ttib^t eztrsordinary zeal and ardour : but being endued Willi 
a quick apprehepsion and a strong imagination, would not 
content binnielf with that sense which at first presented it- 
aelf, but further endeavoured to dive into mysterious and 
allegorical expitcations of the sacred l^ooks. This probably 
suggested to his father that he might fall into that mode of 
interpreting, which in fact, proved afterwards the source 
of all his errors, and he therefore cautiously advised him 
nat ^o attempt to penetrate too far in the study of the Holy 
Scriptures, but to content himself with their most clear, 
abvious, a^id natural sense. But it appears that from a 
forward conceit of his talents, he was already deeply in-* 
fected with that ^f furor allegoricus," as a learned modern 
.calls it ; that rage of expounding the Scriptures allegoric 
cally, which grew afterwards to be even a distemper, and 
•carried him to excesses which can never be excused. 

After be bad been some time instructed by bis father, 
ether preceptors were sought out for him : he had, for his 
master in philosophy, Ammonius, the famous Christian phi- 
losopher; and in divinity the no less famous Clement of 
Alexandria. From the former he imbibed that Platonic 
philosophy, with which he afterwards so miserably infected 
his Christianity, and gave birth to those many singular and 
benetical opinions which have distinguished him above all 
the primitive writers ; but amidst these philosophical and 
jtbeoibgical pursuits, he found time to cultivate several 
arts and sciences : and so universal and powerful was his 
genius^ that, as Jerom relates, he acquired very great skill 
jB^d knowledge in geometry, arithmetic, music, grammar, 
.rhetoric, &c. . He was not above seventeen years of age 
lyben the persecution under the emperor Severus began at 
, Alexiuidria in the year 202 : and, his father being seized 
.and imprisoned for his faith in Christ, Origen would also 
have offered himself to the persecutors, out of the great 
3eal he had. to suffer martyrdom. This his mother reso- 
Jiutely opposed ; but when he found he was detained against 
his will, he wrote a letter to his father to exhort him to 
martyrdom, in which he expresses himself thus : *^ Stand 
.jptedfast, my father, and let.no regard to us alter your opi- 
.'liion, or shake you;ihre0olutioo ;'' foi" he had six sons besides 
.Origen. Leonides, animated by bis son, resolved to per- 
sist even to martyrdom, and was. accordingly betieaded soon 
.after : and though his family fell into extreme {)overty9 his 
goods being immediately confiscated, yet Origen, applying 

B B 2 



972 O R I G E N. 

km^f soon after ^eottrdy to hunan Irarning, iiy teacfaiiig 
grammar mado a ahift tp maifHain himself^ bis lyipiber, and 
^sJbnelbreD. 

Wbil« be feUiOwed this pro£nsioo, tbe chair of the school 
at AieKandria besoming iraoaat by tike retreat of Cienieut, 
and by tbi? flight of all those who were ditpersed by the 
perse^ulipn, some ctf the bec^tbens, who were wiiltng to be 
epnverted, made idbetr application to him, though he was 
OPt then abp(?e eighteen years of age: and at length, tfafio 
rep«itatioo and number of his converts increasing OTeiy 
day, Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, coofiipied him in 
the employment of catechiit, or profisssor of sacred learn* 
ing, in that church. He then left off teaching grammar, 
41^ sold all bis. books of profiuie Ifeearning ; contenting hUn- 
s^lf with a small daily allowance of four ciiali, which wene 
allowed him by the person who boagfat them. He now 
Ukowise becaa to lead a most strict and severe Ufe, which 
eK^ntribntedno less than his learning to draw a great num- 
her of duciples about him ; although a violent perseculton- 
was then begun at Alexandria under the governmont of 
liiet^i, and was continued with equal fury under that of 
Aquila his sucosssor. Several of bis disciples suifered 
martyrdom there, and he bimielf was exposed to the rage 
of the besihens, when he went, as he oonstafitly did, to 
the assistance and eneoursgement of the martyrs. He ^en 
praetised all kind of austerities, and parried the doctrine 
of mortification so far as even to commit an unnatural act 
upon his person, taking, contrary to bis nsoal practice, the 
following ^ext literally, ^^ There be some who make tbeoi* 
selves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven :^' but be lived 
io be convinced of his ervor, and afterwards condemned it.* 

It was about this timi», uithe beginning of Caraoalla^ 
reign, that h^ went to Rome, under the pontjfioato of Ze- 
pherinus; and began that great celebrated work, called 
the '^ Tetrapla." This was a Bible, in which, by the side 
of tbo Hebrew text, he had transcribed in difforeqt columns 
four translations, distinguished by verses ; namely, the 
translation of the* Seventy, that of Aquila, that of Syinms^ 
chtts, and that of Theodotion.- He afterwards added two 
other versions, without any author's tmme, and a> seventh 
upon the Psalms only, which he found at Joricho : and 
these versions, with the Hebrew, which is written in Oreek 
SM yreU as fiebrew characters, make up what is called Oti* 
geofs ^* Qexapla,*' which was ihe first attempt to compile 



a It I X> E N; »Tf 

those Polyglots to wbidi tile Obristito workl km hetvi td 
nuicbindd^ecl.. He hud frequenjt occusioik afterwards fc^i 
leav6 AleKitndriay first in coDseqoeDce of tb^ invitatioh of 
an Atakiafi priQ06 to cohm aod inslrucfe hiiki. A listlo 
white faftjer# the oity of Alexandria being! oitserably ha«» 
rassed by ibe eaaperor Garacalla - for somo afiVont put ispon 
bimi he retired into Palestine ; atid,i seidring in th^ city of 
(Jesarea^ the bisbops^ ^S that provinoo deiiired JMnb). ibougb 
he was not yet a .priest^ to expouad the! Seciptiirea pob« 
lioly ia that cburtsb) lind :t6 instebet tbcj.pliople.ip thei|{ 
presoMO ; with which request he oemplied. But whether' 
his bishop JDemiitrius secretly eavied bimi this honeor, on 
WAS really persuaded that tbey had violated the rules of the 
ehiircb, her wrote to these prelates^ tod told tkeliiy ^^ it was 
a Ufing Hob^surd of^ and had never been |Mraciised till ibaoy 
that laymen should preach in thie pnadenee of bisbopar :'* u$ 
which Alexander of Jernsaleini a<iid TbeoctiatusVvefeeback^ 
that ^f this had been often practised/' DemelriiDi^ l^oiw^ 
ever, ordered Origen homey who obeyedyiawdiyetookhiimA 
self to bis first emfrioynienl^ Sonde time aftelr^ he lak 
again diverted ftom it by order of the pirincese Mammoela^ 
who invited him to Antiocb,. that she might see and dis-f 
course with him : but he shortly returned to Alesaadlrtai; 
where he cdotinued till the year MS, He thefn went agaia) 
to Gflssarea about somd eecl^iastical affairs ; and,, as fad 
passed through Palestine, was ordained priest by Alexan-* 
der and Theoetistus./ This ordifMtion of Origep by foreigaa 
bishops so oJEtremelv incensed his diocesan Demetrius. tha& 
Irottk this time bis conduct towards Ori^n was marked by 
the most deternlined enmity. Howeveri Origoi^ returned 
to Alexandria^ where he cootinoed, as he bad long ago» 
begun, to write ^' Commeatariea upon tkt HojV Scrip* 
tores I*' and he then published five books' of. ** Comment 
,taries upon St John's Goapel/' eight upbn " Geneasj'' 
^ Conmenuries upon the fii^st 25 Pssdms,*' and upoil the 
:** Lamentations of Jeremiah ;" his books ** De Prinoipiiy,''^. 
and bis *^ iStvomata.'' 

AU 4his while th^ bishop of Mexalidria continued to per*-' 
secute hiof as fietdely as ever. The truth is^ Demetriua 
.had k>Bg conceived envy and ilUwill agasttsl him, on* ac« 
cottnt ef bis* abiniitg merHI and extensive reputation,' and 
took tbia opportunity of giving it full vent. He wrote 
letters ev^ry where against him-; he reproached him with 
^the yiokiice^ he bad committed oa :his (MtsoiH wdiich bei 



1376 o iki6t U. 

iNfflcoU f^ao^s. Thes^ two Vitld^ of Wdrki ^et^ r^tber fei^ 
tte iise of the learned tbail bf the pebpti^ ; bill the ^^ Ilo- 
itiilief^y*' which the Latins ball iTreatises^ tod w^ Sermons^ 
Were moral lectures upon ihe holy Scri^ttire^. We have 
non^ of the ^* Schdiia" r^oiftiniilg, i^or hkrdly arijr of tb^ 
'< Ilomilieb'' ih Grieek ; tod those which w^ ha^e iii Latin, 
ki'0 ^transkted f>y Buffinus, arid othe^, with So mtich It- 
bfedce, that it is difficult if not fddfoos^ible, to discefii 
t)rigen's oWn {vom what has been fo»t<sd iii by his inter7 
j|)r^t6rs. A griesit jpiKrt likewise bf bis << tTommentaries^* 
kt^ losi The btber Treatises bf OHgen are not near so 
itn^riy in ntiihbier as his woil^ upbh the Scriptures, ahd yek 
ihey wfer^ ter^ ooiksi'derdbte; iTbr, tibtito ib'entioti tiis << Coni^ 
ih^htiari'es Upon the ** (Philosophers/' wfaibb Eusebius speaks 
bfy h^ wrote two bobki upon the '< Resurr^i^ciion ;'' a trea-. 
tise ^ Dfe Principii^," in four bobVs; ten biP *< St^bknatS;'^ 
kn ^< Exhbrtation tb Martyfdom ;'* eig^bt bboks agaihsk 
^* petsuft ;*• « A l^reatise tipon PraVfer ;'* *« A Litter to 
Africahus coiic'erhihg itieilm^Ty bf Siisa^hili,'^ &c. 
' Alt Oiij^ett'lB works, wlifcn i^emaih oiil^ iU Latin, were 
collected by MerlihilkiB, iiiiA ^f^^rwards by Era'smiis, and 
hrinted at Pari^, in ISii^ ai^d at b^sil in 15il6, ih 2 vols, 
folio. Gen^ebrard has since made a larger cbllectibn. which 
was priiited at Piris, in 16^4, 16^04, l'6i9, ^ vols, folio. 
All the 6rbek fragnients ojf Origeh upbh the iScri^tdrea 
were pUbli^ed, with a LaUh trtoslatioii by Huetius", and 
printed in 1668, 1679, and 1685, 2 voU. foliro; tb ii^bicb 
fnre prefixed by the editor larg^ Pi'olegoml^na, \\nd^t 'tke 
title of ** Origehiaria,^' in wfilch are given, in thre^e bbbkd, 
» viery copibtts and teailied ^ct^oui6t of thb life, the 'doct- 
iiTiefs, ^rid die writings of Ori'g^en. iiie eight b'obkd against 
«* Celsus,'*^ an Epic'urean philosopher, which aVe by ifar the 
tnoit valuable of lii^ wbrks, Vere ptiblislht^d li^ iSre^k, With 
fbe " TranslatibVi o^ Gelenius," and the ^' Nbtes bf fite's-. 
chelitisf," in 1605, 4to; aiid afti^r^ards vferN^ doiVectly at 
Cambridge, ih 1658, 4'to, by WifflaAi Spender, felted of 
^rinfty-cbllege^ who connected thfe tran'slaH6*rt, and Atso 
iidded notes of bis oWn. To this edition are subjoined th$ 
** PhilocJalia, rivb de ohscuris sacr^ iscViptbr^B '16cis," of 
Origen. Wetsteih, (^r^ek^prof^s&or at S^sil, (Caused \6 Ue 




0Ekd Origen^ cOni^rniitig the <* Hinory of Snannafa: and 
l^tljy ibid btok << Dt Oratione/' was published at London^ 
IB 1718^ 4tO) with notes by Dr. Ashton and Mr. Reading. 
An edition of all Origen's Works was undertaken by Charkft 
Delaltie, a Benedictine monk, who began to publish it at 
Parity in 1733) fdlio; and though the fobr rolames he has 
given vs do not complete his plan, yet they conuin the 
best, and indeed the only part of Origen's works worth any 
attention. This wds reprinted by Obertbur^ in 1730, 15 
volsi 8iro. The celebrated Montfaticon has published in 2 
vols, folio^ some remains and fragonents of bis ** Hexapla,'* 
and more i-ecently Bahindt published at Leipsie the Hex* 
aplaj 176d, in 2 vdls. 8Vd. 

£telbsiastical history, as Fabricius observes, ^nnot fur* 
kiish another inttahi:e of a bian who has been so fiamoas, 
through good report and ill report, as Origen. The quar* 
1*6)8 hnd disputes which arose in the church after his death 
bn Account of his pei-son ahd writings, are scat^cely credible 
to any who have not examined the hiitory of those times. 
^h^ universal church was split into two parties ; and these 
parties fought as furiously for and against Origen ss if the 
Cllristiftn reiigion bad itself beieil at stake. Huetius has 
^Mplbyed th^ second book of his ^^ Origetiiana,^' which 
^cbnkists of above 200 pages in foiio^ in pointing out and 
dtiimadverting on sudh dogmas of this illustrious father as 
lalre either quite iUdefensible or eKceptiouable ; and it i^ 
conf(6teed by all, that be swerved egregioosly from the 
orthodox faith. Cave has collected within a short compass 
the principal tenets whith rendered him obnoxious; and 
thence we lehm, that OHgen was accused of maintaining 
idifferent degrees of dignity among the persons of the Holy 
Triuity ; a^, that tb^ Son was inferior to the Father, and 
the Holy Spirit inferior to both, in the same manner that 
rays emitted frofn the sun are inferior in dignity to the sua 
liiinself ; that the death of .Christ was advantageous, not to 
Infeu only, but to angels^ devils, nay, even to the startt 
a^ other insensible things, which he wildly supposed to 
be possessed of a rational soul, and therefore to be capable 
bf sin ; that all rational natures, whether devils, humaa 
^btils, or any otber^ were created by God from eternity^ 
vaA wdie ertgiiially pure intelligences, but afterwards, kc*- 
t^rUMg't'6 the various iise of their free will, dispersed 
toidhg the various orders ttf 'angels, mM, or devils ; that 
iab^k, aud btbar sUperoatui^ beings, wetfe j^iothed #itk 



374 O R I 6 E N. 

« 

bad formerly extolled as flowing from tHe greatest prtiiJ 
dence, zeal, and piety; and in a council- which he as* 
sembled in the year 231, it was ordained that Origen 
should not desist only from teaching, but even quit the' 
city. Banished thus from Alexandria, he retired to Cse-^' 
sarea, his ordinary place of refuge ; where he was kindly 
received by Tbeoctistus, bishop of that city^ and by Alex- 
ander bishop of Jerusalem, v^ho undertook to defend him, 
and commissioned hiui to expound the Scriptures publicly, 
hearing him all. the while as if he had been their master. 
The encouragement he received at Csesarea, seems to 
have exasperated Demetrius still more ; who, not satisfied 
with the first judgment given against Origeh, accused him 
ia a council of the bishops of Egypt ; and having cau^eii 
faim to be deposed, and even excommunicated, according^ 
to Jisrom,' wrote at the ^ame time to all parts against him, 
to procure his being expelled the catholic* cburch. How- 
every ^the* bishops of Palestine, Arabia, Pbcenicia, and* 
Acbaiai; who were particularly acquainted with bis high 
merits bnd many of them very intimate with him, deter- 
mined to support him to the utmost, and encouraged by 
their zeal and friendship, he continued to explain the 
Senptnres kt Cassarea with great reputation, both in the 
kfe^time and after the death of Demetrius, who did not 
Hve long after he had condemned Origen. ' All sort^ of 
persons, not only from that province, but even ftom re- 
ipote countries, came to be his disciples ; the most famous 
of which were, Gregory, surnamed afterwards Thauma* 
turgus, and his brother Athenodorus. But though, after 
Demetrius's death the persecution he had raised against 
Origen abated a little, yet Origen was always considered' 
by the Egyptians as an excommunicated person ; and the^ 
sentence given against him by Demetrius continued under 
bis successors, Heraclas and Dionysius, although the for- 
mer bad been bis disciple, and the latter had a great regard 
for him. * 

After the death of Alexander S^verus, under whose 
reign all this happened, his successor^ Maximinus stirred 
up a persecution against the church in the year 235. Ori- 
gen concealed himself during this persecution, and retired 
for some time to Athensj where he went on with his '^ Com- 
mentaries upon the Scriptures.'* Under the reign of Gbr- 
dianus, which began in the year 238, Beryllus, bishop of 
Bostra, in Arabia, fell into a very gross errors affirming,* 



O K I^ G B N. 375 

tliat our Lord had no eKistence before bis incarnatioo; 
upon .which^ soq[)e bishops gathering themselves together^ 
caused Origen to come thither also ; who convinced him of 
his error so effectually, that the bishop not only publicly 
acknowledgjed it, but ever after retained. 9^ kindness for 
Origen. Aft,erwards he was called, under the reign of 
Philip, to another assembly of bishops, which was held 
against somq Arabians^ who maintained that the souls of 
men died and were raised ag^^in with their bodies. He 
,was theii about, sixty years old, yet pursued his i$tudie$ 
with his. usual vigour; and not only com]K)»ed several 
books, but preached almost daily to the . people, and for 
the n^ost part without any preparation at all, yet his dis- 
courses were so highly esteemed^ that they were taken 
down from his mouth, and after\yards published. . Under 
the persecution of D.ecius, he suffered with great constancy 
for the faith. He was seized, put into prison^ loaded wi^b 
irons, had his feet in the stocks for several, days, whera 
they were cruelly extended beyond their natural dimen- 
sions. He. was threatened to be burned alive, racked with 
various tortures ; but he bore all with resolution and Brm** 
ness. Being released from prison, he held several con- 
ferences, and behaved in every respect like a confessor of 
Jesus Christ ; and lastly, after having laboured so much^ 
and suffered with such credit and glory, he died at 
Tyre, in the reign of Gallus, aged sixty-nine, according 
to Eusebius. 

Though what we have at present of the works of Origen 
made several considerable volumes, yet they are. but an 
inconsiderable part of what he wrote. Jerom> speaking 
of Origen, says, '^ Who is there among you that can read 
as many books as he has composed ?*' We may distinguish 
his works into two kinds ; the one upon the ;iacred Scrip* 
turesy the other into separate treatises upon different sub- 
jects. Not to mention his " Tetrapla" and " Hexapla,'' 
which were rather a collection than a work of his own, he 
composed three sorts of books upon the Scriptures ; and 
these were '* Commentaries,^' " Scholia,'* and " Homi- 
lies." In his ^^ Commentaries," he gave himself wholly 
up to all that heat and fire, all that genius and force of 
fancy, which was natural to him ; the better, as he thought, 
tp reach the height and depth of the Scriptures, and their 
naost recondite and mysterious.interpretation. His ^^ Scho- 
fia'^ wercj oh the contrary^ only short notes, to explain the 



MO O R I G E N, 

9ny4f that ^^ Origen albtie^ bad ^e but his wititiiigs entkto^ 
would be able perhaps to give us ni0re light and datiafao-^ 
tioD in the bustii^ss we are now up6D, than all the irest^ 
We havfe but Tery little of him left lus, and tbegreiktest 
|>art of that too, most miserably abused and corrupted ) 
thd most leatned and almost innumerable writiAgft of tki^ 
great and incomparable parsed not being able to withstand 
the yi(»lenbe of time, nor the envy and malice of meili 
who have dealt nbuch worse with him than so many agaa 
and centuries of years that have passed from his time daWn 
to us," This (Corruption of his writings isapoidt, which 
bis apologists have always insisted on strongly : Ritffiaiis 
particuUrlyt in has defence against J^rom. Nay^ Origen 
hitaself heavily com[>lained of this usage in his life-limd } 
uncertain,, as it should seem, whether he was ao served by 
Ihe ortinxlox, with a view of being made more odioudy or 
by the lieretlcs, Who were desirous to vent their heteroN 
doxies utider the gfekt authority of bis name. 

We will conclude our account of this etninent father 
with what a learned and candid* critic of our oWn has de* 
livered concerning him. Origen, says Jortin^ << was very, 
learned and ingenious, and indefatigabiy industrious. His 
whole life, from his early years, was spent in examintngf 
teaching, and explaining, the scriptures; to which he 
joined the 6tudy of philosophy, ilnd. all polite liiera^ture. 
He was humble, modest, and patieat undler great in|firie^ 
^id cruel treatm^nt^ which hie receive from Christians 
and Pagans : for, though he ever had a considerable Hum«. 
ber of friends and admirers, on. account of bis amiabto 
qualities and accomplishm^ents, he was persecutesd and 
calumniated by men, who had neither his learning uor hi* 
tirtiie, degraded from the order of presbyters, driven from 
bis home, and excommunicated by one Demetrius, bish<^ 
of Alexandria, who envied him, says Eusebius^i for the re-< 
pvitation which he had gained. His inquisitite genius, and 
his mixing philosophy with Christianity, led him, perhaqp»^ 
into some learned singularities and ingenious reverie } bat 
he was by temper far from dogmatiaing in auob poiritsi 
from fomenting schisms, and setting up himself for the 
head of a party. He^ lived in times when Christians wet^ nott 
ao shackled with systems and determinations as they wet6 
afterwards, 'nor so much exposed to disingenuous and illi^' 
beral objections; and had more libisrty to pursue thoir 
itiquides^ acfd to speak their mind. Be Was tver ^xiUNralely 



O R I G E N^ 381 

sober and exemplary^ practising what be preached to 
others; and he lived and died poor, and destitute eveti 
of coaamon conveniences.*' It may be necessary to add, 
that there was a sect of ancient heretics, who iretefnv 
bled, and even surpassed, the abominations of the Gnos-* 
ties: they were called Origenians, but appear to have 
derived their name from some person totally distinct frona 
tbe preceding Origen, whose followers were called Ori- 
ffenitfts. ' 

ORLANDINI (Nicholas), a learned Italian Jesuit, was 
bora at Florence in 1554, and descended from a noble 
iamity; He entered the society in 1572, wherie he was 
disi^inguished by the purity of his morals, and his general 
proficiency in literature, particularly in the Latin tongue. 
Having finished his studies, he took his master's degree 
with great credit, and for some time was Latin tutor, until 
bis tender health rendered the labours- of teaching insup^ 
portable, and he was preferred to the easier offices of 
reetor pf the college at Nola» and afterwards president of 
the seminary for novices at Naples, In 1598 he was in- . 
viced to Rome, where he undertook to draw up a history 
of the Jesuits ; but died ia 1606, when he had completed 
only the first volume of that work, which was published at 
Rome in 1615, folio, under the title of *' Historian Socie*- , 
tetis Jesu Pars prima, sive Ignatius," and continued by 
fathers Francis' Saccbini, Everard, Jouvency, and Cordara, 
the last of whom published his continuation in 1750. It 
makes in all 7 vols, bound usually in six, but is rarely 
found complete. Orlandini was also the author of ^* An- 
nuas LittersB Societatis Jesu,^* for the years 15S3, 1584, 
end 1586 ; and also of «< Vita Petri Fabri Soc. Jes.'* &c.' 

ORLEANS (Lewis Duke - of), a learned and pious , 
prince of the blood royal of France, was the son of Philip 
duke of Orleans, afterwards regent, and of Mary Frances 
of Bourbon. He was born at Versailles, Aug. 4, 1703^ 
and appeared first at court at the time the prince his father 
became regent of France* After the death of the regent 
he married Augusta Maria, of Baden, in 172^; a princess 
whose ainiable qualifications made her death justly la« 
mented by her censor^ and people of all denominations. 
She died in 1726, having been married only two years. 

1 p«T«.-^)[)apiD.— Mq^hfim 9nd MHner's Ecol.'Hisf^ries.— ^Li^rdper's V^'prkt. 
•WT-Hoetii Origeniana. — ^Joitin's Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, 
f Moreri;-^AIeg8mbe BiU, Script. 



•382 O B L E A: N S. 

Tbis prince^ deeply affedted with bis Ibsft, ttnd setisibli^ of 
the infelicity of titles^ pre-emineDcey and all eartbly en- 
joy ments^ sought for that comfort in tlie exercises of reii* 
gion which courts cannot bestow. . In 1730; be took, in 
the abbey of St. Genevieve, an apartmeut mean. and in- 
convenient, and in a manner sequestered from^/ the world. 
He first retired to it only at the soleoin festival, but resided 
in it more frequently after 1735; and, when he left the 
court in, 1742, took up his constant residence there, nor 
returned more to his palace, except to attend the council, 
from which he seldom absented himself* In .his retiremedt 
he practised the most rigid austerities ; slept on a rough 
straw bed, rose early, passed several hours id prayer', 
fasted, drank nothing but water, apd constantly deprived 
bimself of the convenience of fire, even in the most incle- 
ment seasons ; and was, in all his actions, an e;caniple of 
severe self-denial. His charitable disposition led him to 
relieve the indigent of every nation, found several public 
charities, and send missionarie;i to the remotest parts of 
the world. 

.When Orleannois was laid waste by the overflowing of 
the Loire in 1733, the duke, by .his speedy help, saved a 
multitude of men who were perishing in the water, and 
furnished even the necessary grain for sowing the lands. 
It is universally known that, in 1739 and 1740, his li- 
berality had no bounds but. the people's wants. He ex- 
tended his alms not only to the poor catholics in Berlin, 
and throughout Silesia, but to those of the Indies and 
Aqaerica. This great man also founded charity-schools in 
several places, and comniunities of men and women for 
the instruction of youth ; a college at Versailles ; adivinity 
chair in the Sorbonne, for explaining the Hebrew text of 
the holy scriptures. At Orleans he established foundations 
of midwives, and of surgeons for cutting for th^ stone* 
He purchased several very useful secrets, which he made 
public; and his gardens were filled with scarce and va- 
luable simples from the most renoote climates, for the relief 
of the sick. Anxious about the public good to hi&last 
moments, he bequeathed to the seminary of the Trente- 
trois, a sum sufficient for the re^establishment;of the scho- 
larships; and from that time the young. divines c^. this 
seminary have been taught Hebrew in the Sorbonne. These 
charitable occupations did not prevent his acquiring great 
learning. He' applied with incredible success to the study 



ORLEANS. 393 

of St. TboBias, Estius^ the mmt valuable treatisea in de« 
fence of reiigioii, the fathers, the best ecclesia3tical au-/ 
tbors, the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Greek languages, 
that he might have the satisfaction of readiag thie. holy 
scriptures in the original text. He also devoted. some time 
to. studying history, geography, botany, chemistry, natu* 
ral philosophy, and painting. So rapid was his. progiess, 
that, in the last seven or eight years.of bis.life, he cited 
texts of scripture almost always from memory, with .the 
variations of the Hebrew^ Greeks and Vulgate. Tbe Greek 
fetfaers were as fiamiliar to him as the Latin ; and be. ex- 
plained with facility Plato^s Dialogues, and other profane 
authors. The duke of Orleans, honoured the literati with 
bis patronage, and encouraged them by bis bounty^ pre^ 
ferring those whose researches contributed to tbe glory of 
/eiigion, or the public welfare. In the codicil of his wiU, 
be leaves an annuity to the abb^ Francois, and. explains 
bis motive in the following terms: ^^Being desirousto.take 
upon myself to return the obligation which the p^iblic, are 
.under to S. abb6 Francois, author of a late work onttbe 
proofs of our religion, and to enable him to contiuoe such 
useful labours, I give and bequeath to the foresaid S..Abb<£ 
Frangois, five hjandred livres anuual-rent and< aonuity.V 
Notbwithstanding the immense sums which this prince 
spent, both in France and in foreign oountries, be disr 
charged tbe accumulated debts of bis own house, restured 
its exhausted finances, and considerably, increased its.dpr 
.mains. Though humble and plain in bis private life, 
he was grand and noble on public occasions. It is well 
known with how much magnificence he, went into Al- 
sace to espouse tbe queen in his majesty's name; bo>v 
Jiberal he was to the soldiers while colonel-general of the 
.French infantry, and in what manner be celebrated the 
dauphin's birth, the marriage of the duke of Chartres,' &o. 
Gay and lively in conversation, he became serious tbe mo- 
ment that any one began to talk to bim on business. His 
austerities and application to study having brought on a 
long and painful illness, he waited for the approach of 
death with an incredible firmness and courage, speaking of 
it with the greatest tranquillity. He died February 4, 1752, 
..aged forty-eight years and six months, universally re- 
.gretted. He left many works in manuscript, principally 
literal translations, paraphrases, and commentaries on part 
of tbe Old Testament ; a literal translation of the Psalms , 



3S4 6 R L £ A IS S. 

from itke Hc^rev, with a fMrapbra^e, and j^ytes; sever ki 
dissertations against die Jews ; a literal tsanslation of St; 
Paul's Episdel from the Greek, witli a paraphrase, Qotes, 
and pious reflections, and several other cttripos treatises 
and dissertations on different sobjeels. His modesty would 
not permil: him to print any of his writiings : he l^«q^eatfaed 
tiieiii, w^tb his library, to the Dominicans. ^ 

ORLEANS (Peter JodEPH D'), a Jesuit who aoqi:^nred 
a considerable reputation in bis own country as a bis4 
torian, was born .at fiourges in 1644. He was a teacher 
of <the belles lettres in diferent colleges ibr several ycMn, 
and became a celebrated preacher. Some separate live^ 
wihich he published, in an agreeable style, and with ju* 
dic^us reflections, first attracted ithe public attention, but 
fais reputation chiefly arose >from his historical writings^ 
Voltaire says that father D'Orleans was «^e first who chose 
revolutions for bis subject, and adds, that the idea was 
not more happy than the ezecntion. His ^' History of the 
Revoloti<His of England^' met with the universal approba^* 
tion of the French critics, and would have been, says &^ 
PalisM^t, a perfect model, had the author concluded wit|i 
the reign of Henry VIU, but after that be was no longer 
allowed to be impartial. English critics, however, have a 
less favourable opinion of fais qualifications for writing such 
a history ; and Echofd, who translated part of the work> 
^* History of the Revoluti<His in England under the family 
of the Stuarts, from 1603 to 1^90/' 1711, Svo, has vety 
properly ci^utioned ''^ his readers against •the author's pre* 
judioes. Father D'Orleans, whose private character is m^ 
presehted as very amiable, died in the prime of life in 
1^98» His works are, 1 . the history already mentioned^ 
** Histoire des 'Revolutions d*Angieterre,'' Paris, 1693, 3 
vols. 4to, afterwards reprinted in 4 vois. 12mo, with heads. 
Francis Turpin published a continuation in 1786, in 2 vols. 
Bvo. 2. ** Histoire des 'Revolutions d' Espagne," ibid. 1734^ 

^ Pict:His.t.,de L;^voc^t. 

* Ecbard $%y9, tyt " fbe,gnvitTji- ^nex^^, we ojc^bt to cai^tipahim wi|h 

rieties and wonderful changes in these relation to the educatibii and religUin 

reigns are here judiciousfy comprised of the author* For, though be has 

ip a,npoderate yQlMine with no less per- fff^t m^r|ui .of a geoerqvs .oapvloi^* 

spfcuiiy than strictness, s|nd wit|i a and a laudable deference to all snpe- . 

beautiful mixture of short characters, riors, yet he is to be consuierea in all 

nice reSections, and jioble aenteMceSy plac^as onetti;£aToar.withkbeFr«j^ 

wbidi render the whole ,«g;c^able ai^ JMng, and fiot only a ^iift ^l^^* bfit 

inFtructive. But, while the reader is a oomptele «/«raiA'*' 
entertained with so much ikill and 



O R Lt A fr S. MS 

iwh, 4to, Thin, left iitoomplete I7 flieM^or^ wss fi^ 
dished by Bruinoy iand Roaill£, but it bad not fine sum 
miocess as bis rev^olutions of England, wbtab his coumi^.*' 
.men are willing to idipiite to the sohjec;t being lietsio^ 
Iferestirig.' ' 3. *< Histoire de M. Coosiance^ premier ml^^ 
Ulster Ah rot de Siam, et de la derniere revolotioii de bet 
etat,^' ibid. 1692, 10II1O. 4.^^ Histoire dee deux ooqq«e<fc 
i^iits Tartfires Oblmcbi et €aiiihi, qui ^ht subjugu^ Ift^ 
Chine,^' ibid.- 1689-,'^vo. 5. The lives, published r«ep«« 
irately, of Spill^i^ l€d3, ISmo; of P. CottoiH 1689, 4ta; 
bfRiecij 1693, 121110; of Mary of Sav^ artd^the infaiitil 
Isabella, 1^96, ISino, aadof Stanislaus Koi«ka^' 1712) ire* 
pointed ih 1727^ mfSi the life of Louis deGonBH^ga. • *^ 
^ Sermons ei instructibns Ohretiennds sat divat^ ma^ 
ti^fes^V 1 ^9^^ « vols. 12iiDk>. » 

ORME (RoBEikT)^ aa eminent historian, the son at Dt: 
Alexander Ormej a physician and surgeon in the nerviee of 
tke'East India cdimpaHy, was born at Anjeng;0, *in the Tra« 
vatitore country, in' 1728. He was sent td England for hi# 
education, and was entered at HarroW-siefaool when he 
#as ^nfly six yea)rs' of age. After he left school, he Was^ 
a year in the t>ffice of the adcomp tan t^ general of th^ Afri-^ 
can cdmpany, to be initiated ih eommelpeial trans^tipnsf 
and then embarked for Oidcutta, where he arrived ill ^74^.- 
As soeti as be engaged in the company's service, he ac* 
quired the highest reputation for the sseal with which he^ 
Entered into their intei'ests, and at the- same time ao« 
<|uired sueh knowledge of the institutibns, manner»,> and 
Customs of ttie' natives of India, that, in 1752, When Mtnef 
regulations were thought necessary in the" police of €al-^ 
emta, hie was- desired' to give his opinion on the^ubjecti 
He accordingly drew up the greater part .6f ** A general 
idea of the Government and Pev>pl^of Indostan.*' In 175$- 
lie returned to England^ and was frequently condillted by 
men in- p6#er on Indian aflaiiS^ and respecting ptans, atf 
Aat time in agitation, for supporting the British interest 
10 flindoostan. Mr.' Orme revisited India in 1754', on 
Iteing appointed by the court of diretcors a metirtier of the 
<HDuncil at Fort St. George, and contributed much to tbosflp 
Ateasures which finally gaV6 to the English the. superiority 
ih India which tbisy have evier since possessiefd. Mn Orme* 
held the office of commissary and accomptant- general 



!• Vmw* art d'Orl0SQs.-T-Dict Ui$\n 

VoIm XXIII. C c 



38$ , O R M E. 

during the yean 1757-8, but in the latter year his b^^altk 
obliged him to embark for England, where he arrived in 
the autumn of 1760, and'settling in Loudon, employed him^. 
self lu preparing ''The History of the Military Transactionf . 
of the British nation in ludostan, from the year 1745," tber. 
first volume of which, bringing down the history to 1756^. 
was published in 1763, atid extremely well received by 
the public. The East India company, duly sensible of hit 
meriu, and of the importance of his historical researches, 
not only gave him free access to all their records, but^ap-* 
pointed him to be their historiographer, with a salary of 
40QL per annum. To obtain the most accurate informal 
tion .respecViog the war which was to be the subject of 
the second volume, he went over to France in 1773, wher^ 
he was furnished liberally with various authentic docur 
ments, but it was not till 1778 that the work was brought 
to its completion. This contained all. the events which, 
took place in the English settlements in India from 1756* 
to 1763, with an investigation of the rise apd progress of 
the English commerce in Bengal, and an account of the. 
Mahommedan government from. its establishment in 1200. 
In 1782 Mr» Orme published a work entitled ^^ Historical 
Fragments of the Mogul empire of the Marattoes, and of 
the English concerns in Indostau from the year 1659." 
This, which was an octavo volume, was. his last publica- 
tion, for though his literary pursuits were unremitted, yet 
his health was unequal to the exertions required for the 
com ppsi tion. In 1792 he left the metropolis to enjoy in 
retirement the society of his friends, and the recreatioa 
afforded^ by a well- assorted library. The place ef his re- 
tirement was Ealing, where he was . often visited by his 
friends, who appear to have loved him with great ^ffectioo* 
Amongst these may be mentioned general Richard Sniith, 
Mr. Robarts, one of the court of directors, Mr. Dalrymple» 
sir peorge Baker, and the late Mr. Owen Cambridge. 
3ut his books were his chief companions ; and such wa» 
the active ppriosity of his mind, that at the age pf seventy 
he found in them a constant source of amusement. < He 
continued his studies to the last month of his life, and a 
great many of his books bear interesting evideuce of the 
strict attention with which he perused them;, for their 
margins are filled with observations in his own band wri(« 
ing. In the beginning of January 1801, he fell into. a 
state of weakness and languor that prognostiofted bk 



O Br M B. isi 

 t 

ipeed3rdi8So1ation; and be expired on th6 14th of that 
inonth, in the seventy^tbird year of bis age<> 

Mr. Orme was not known to be married, even to those 
who were most in bis confidence; but in a letter from hini 
to a particular friend, which, agreeably to the directions 
he left, was delivered according to its address, after bia 
death, he acknowledges bis marriage.: and, in consequence 
of that acknowledgment, the court of directors settled a 
small annuity on his widow. He left no children. 

Mr. Orme was somewhat above the middle stature, and 
his countenance expressed much shrewdness and intelli-* 
gence. In his personal habits be seems not to have had 
any striking peculiarities. His general manner was sensi-^ 
ble, easy, and polite. Of the qualities of his heart, those 
who knew him long and intimately thought very highly. 
He was zealous in the service of those whom be really 
)oved : but as it was not his custom to make professions of 
friendship, his acts sometimes surpassed expectations. His 
powers of convexisation were very considerable ; and such 
^as the extent of' his knowledge, the readiness of bis 
thoughts, and the facility of bis expression, that he gene-^ 
rally illustrated, in a pleasing, often in a forcible, manner, 
whatever subject be talked on. Ancient literature was 
one of his favourite topics ; and he conversed on it with no 
common degree of learning and critical exactness, yet 
without any sort of pedantry or affectation. He loved to' 
talk of music and painting, and was a good judge of both. 

With respect to his intellectual character, it would ap-* 
pear, from his life as well as his writings, that the princi- 
pal features were good sense, sagacity, and judgment 
^ These qualities were, assisted in their operation by an active 
spirit, a solicitous curiosity, and a cultivated taste. A 
mind thus constituted readily acquired that power of com- 
bining circumstances in lucid order, and of relating them 
with compressive force, which distigguisbes the writings of 
Orme. Few historians have connected the events of their 
story with more perspicuity, or related them with more 
conciseness. If he is sometimes minute, be is never re- 
■dundant, and never tedious. Every incident is so distinctly 
stated aii^d clearly arranged ; every new nation or individual 
'is introduced with so compendious an explanation ; all the 
observations arise from the facts with so much propriety^ 
■^ and zte in themselves so forcible and just ; and the gene- 
ral sfyte has so much Kmplicity and terseness ; that eV^ry* 

cc 2 



^ 



iM O RU t. 

reader of discernment and ta^te must feel a strong interest 
in perusing his history. It is not^ indeed, illumined with 
philosophical views of society, or manners, or civil insti- 
tutions, or arts, or comtnefce ; nor is it adorned with any 
fine delineations of character ; bat it is, nevertheless, a 
work of great merit, and must continue to bold a high 
place in the second rank of historical compositions. 

He bequeathed to his friend and executor, Mr. Robarts, 
all his MSH. and a Variety of other valuable historical ma-^ 
terials, with a wish that he would present theni to the East 
India company, which has been done, and the following 
catalogue drawn up by Mr. Wilkins, the Company^s li« 
brarian : 1. Printed books.*— Fifty-one volumes, containing 
one hundred and ninety tracts on the subject of India, and 
the H6nourable Company's afikirs, from about the year 
1730 down to the year l78B. 2. Manuscript books. — Two 
hundred and thirty-one volumes of various sizes, cbiefiy 
bound in vellum, containing a vast body of information upon 
the subject of India, in copies wbieh Mr. Orme had per<^ 
fiiission to make from the records and collections of others, 
^nd in original documents, common-place, &c. with many 
useful Indexes. 3. Eight hundles of letters, chiefly Irom 
Madras and Bombay, upon the subject of the Company's 
transacti6ns in India. 4. Printed maps, charts, plans, and 
views ; twenty rolls, consisting chiefly of foul add spar^ 
impressions of the plates used for Mr* Orme's history. 5. 
Twenty rolls, containing sundry maps and plans. 6. Thirty- 
five books, containing maps, plans, and views. 7. Four 
port folios^ ditto ditto. 8. Manuscript plans and maps; 
seventeen rolls of plans and maps, chiefly the originals of 
tliose engraved for Mr. Orme's History. 9. Hindoo idols; 
^ix figures in brass, representing some of the principal 
Emblems of the divine attributes, according to their my- 
thology. After his death his ** Historical Fragments'' were 
reprinted in a quarto volume, with the addition of a paper 
On the ^* Origin of the lEnglish Establishment, and of the 
Company's Trade,"' and another, containing "A General 
Idea of the Genius and People of Hindostan." To thlk 
tolume is prefixed an account of the life and i^ritings of 
the author, to which our readers are referred for .farther 
information.' 

' • * • 

1 Life as above.— Aiiatic Anuaal Register, to]. IV.«*G«tit. Ifag^viBt 

LXXai.— B^swell'B Johnaon.-. l^icbolt's ^ewyer. 



O R Wf E R O D. 3i9 

r* ORMEROD (OuvEit)» a polemical writer pf the time ^f 

James I. wiis descended paternally fron> a Lancashire fa- 
.mily, wbich assumed, the name of an estate in that county, 
. in the reign of Henry III* of w^ich it still continuea tl[e 

possession. His grandfather, John Ormerody a yonnger 

brother of this kouse) married a Lancashire lady of ^e 
' name of Whitaker, who from the contiguity of the estate 
-of Ormerod and Holme, was most probably of the family 

of the Whitakers of the latter place. It is not unlikely 
'that this relationship to tbe learned diyiniiy-professor of 

Cambridge, mig^ht influence the subject of this article in 
"bis choice of bis university, and in iiis theological studtea^ 
He was admitted of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, 

Jiine £9 1596, and in 1605 published, while a resideat 
fthere, a small quarto entitled ** I'he Picture of a Puritaa, 

or 9 relation of the opinions, qualities, and practices of 
"ihe Anabaptists in Germanie, and of the Puritans in Eng- 
land.'' In this work be traces the affinities of the sects, 
^oA defends the protestaat establishoient of Elizabeth, ia 
<a series of dialogues, written with all the quaintness of tbe 
Amy, but uniformly displaying a vigorous understanding, 
«nd mcasionally rising into a strain of considerable lofti- 
'^niess. . The work is repliste with classical allusions, and b|s 
^notes exhibit a deep knowledge of the fathers, schoolmen^ 
iBind other abstruse writers. 

The next year he published ^* The Picture of a Papist," 
jti the same style, deducing tbe superstitions of the Romish 
chnroh from the riles of paganism. In this work he de- 
nies himself to be the author of a book called ^^ The double 
PP* or the picture of a.traiterous Jesuit :'' as also of some 
other things, which tbe papists had fathered upon bim^. . 
fThe work is dedicated to^Robert earl of Salisbury, cbancel- 
4or of the university, and. both were reprinted together in 

160e, 8vo/ 

.His labours were rewarded by the valuable rectory of 
fiuntspill in Sopneraetabire : where he continued resi- 
tleot, at the visitation of that county by the proxies of 
Canden in ia2S. In this plac^ he died, in 1626, leaving 
issue :one son Richard, born in 1619, and three daughters^ 
hy his. wife Johanna, daughter of Richard Hinckson, es(^ 

* He «ddS| '* Were I worthy to giv^ double PP is, should hare for their 

pyne advice to those that are in autho- pains, either a single Greek Tl, oral 

jrity, those that did publish any~ifuch th« least nigrum tketa /»> 

pbantastical books 'hereafter, as' the ' 



5M O It O B I O. 

of Gobam in Kent, who surviyed htm to 1638. Their willi 
are extant in the Prerogative office in London.^ 

OROBIO (Balthasar, or Isaac), a famous Spanish 
Jew, was carefully educated in that religion by his parents, 
who were Jews, though they outwardly professed -them«' 
selves Roman catholics ; abstaining from the practice of 
Judaism in every thing, except only the observation of the 
fast of expiation, in the month Tisis, or September. Our 
author studied the scholastic philosophy as it was thea 
taught in Spain, and became such« an adept that he was 
' made professor of metaphysics in the university of Sala- 
manca : but, afterwards applying himself to the study of 
physic, he practised that art at Seville with success, till, 
oeing a<icused of Judaism, he was thrown into the inquisi^' 
'tion, and suffered the most dreadful cruelties, in order to 
force him to confess. According to his own account, he 
was put into a dark dungeon, so straight, that he could 
scarce turn himself iii it ; and suffered so many bardsbtps, 
that his brain began to be disturbed. He frequently askied 
himself, *< Am I indeed that Don Bait hasar Orobio, who 
walked freely about in Seville, who was entirely at ease, 
and had the blessings of a wife and children V* sometimes 
imagining that his past life was only a dream, and that the 
dungeon where he then lay was his true birth-place, and to 
all appearance would prove the phice of bis death. At 
other times, be used to form metaphysical arguments, and 
resolve them, acting the three different parts of opponent^ 
respondent, and moderator, at the same time. In . this 
whimsical way he diverted himself from time to time, but 
when examined by the inquisitors, constantly denied that 
be was a Jew. At length he was put to the torture, in the 
roost cruel manner, yet without extorting any confession 
f^om him, and his tormentors, after three years* confine* 
ment, finding themselves baffled by his perseverance, or- 
dered his wounds to be cured, and so discharged him. As 
soon as he had got his liberty, he resolved to quit the Spa- 
nish dominions ; and, going to France, was made professor 
of physic at Thoulouse. The theses, which he made as 
candidate for this place, were upon putrefaction ; and he 
maintained them with such a metaphysical subtlety as em« 

I Obligingly communicated by a descendant, who gives the foUowing autho- 
rities : Wbitaker's '* Wballey," Vifit. Somerset. 1623, and Ormerod pedigree m 
Cell. Arm. Cole's Admisiioiis.— Cole MSS, tqI. L. snd iiS Atbea* Cwab, is 
the Britiib Muieum. 



O R O B I O. Ml 

liarrassed all his competitors. He continued in diis city 
some time, still outwardly professing the popish religion : 
but at last, growing weary of dissembling, he repaired to 
Amsterdam, where he was circumcised, took the name of 
Isaac, and professed Judaism ; still continuing here also to 
practise physic, in which he was much esteemed. Upoa 
the publication of Spinoza's '^ Tractatus Theologico-Poif- 
licus,'* he saw its fallacy, but did not think it worthy of 
mn answer, until Bredenbergh, who had at one time writ- 
ten a confutation of it, published another treatise as ob- 
jectionable as that of Spinosa's. Orobio then took up his 
pea against both the authors, and published a piece to 
that purpose, entitled ^^ Certamen pbilosophicum adversus 
J. B. principia,?* 1684, 4to. But the dispute which he held 
owith the celebrated Philip Limborch against the Christiad 
^religion (see* Limborch), did him most credit, on the 
^^core of acuteness, moderation, and temper. The, three 
papers which he wrote on the occasion were afterwards 
ijHinted by his antagonist, in an account which he pub- 
^{tshed of the controversy, under the title of '^ Arnica col- 
iatio cum Juda^o, &c.*' Orobio died in 16B7.* 

ORONTIUS. See FINiEUS. 

 « 

OROSIUS (Paul), a learned Spanish ecclesiastic, flou- 
rished in the fifth century, and was born at Tarragona in 
Catalonia. He was a disciple of St. Augustin ; and, in the 
year. 4 14, was sent to Africa by Eutropius and Paul, two 
Spanish bishops, to solicit Augustin*s assistance against 
heretics who infested their churches. He continued a year 
'• with this doctor, and in that time made a great proficiency 
• in the knowledge of the Scriptures. In the year 415, 
' Augustin dispatched him to Jerusalem, to consult St. Jerom 
upon the origin of the sonl ; and Orosius on his return 
' brought into Africa the relics of the martyr St. Stephen ; 
whose body, as well as those of Nicomedes, of Gamaliel, 

- apd his son Abiba, had been found during Orosius*s resi- 

- dence in Palestine. At length, by the advice of Augustin^ 
our author undert(iok the history we have of his in seven 

' bpokst under the title, as is said, of '^ Miseria humana;'^ 
containing an account of the wars, plagues, earthquakes, 
floods, conflagrations,, thunder and lightning, murder, and 
other crimen which had happened from the beginning of 
ih^ world to the year of Christ 4 1 6. The purpose <$ Jt 

1 Cbaufepie««^Itforer|| 



o Rcrsi U 8. 

WHS to ih&^ff against s om^ heatben dbjeetdr^ tbat tiiesd 
calamities had not been more frequent^^ after the gcmd-h 
ineuceinent of Christianity, than before; and fartb^r^ thsi 
it was owing to^ the Christiaii religion, that tbe Roma^ 
comoioawelilth, which did not desen^e to continue, noft 
9jevertheles8 then still sabsisringw It has gone throagh se^ 
¥el?al editions; as, Paris, 1506, 1524, and 1526, AiUo ; Ccn 
logne, 1536, 15412^ 1561, and 1572, 8yo, with the '' Ape« 
logia de Ai4)itrii libettate r^ at Mentz, in 1615, and lastlj 
by HaFercamp at^Leyden, 173d, 4to, and 1767^ the aain# 
edition with a different dat^. We have an Anglo-^Baxoii 
yersion by. king Alfkred, which was published with an £iip» 
lisb trtmslatioB by the hon. l>aines Barritigton, in I71fl| 
9to¥  

Oi'osiUs alisKo wrote ^^ A Defence of Free Will/' atgainst 
Pelagius, in which he inserted piCrt of St. Augostin?8 book 
<^ De natura & gratia :'* he also wrote a tract in the form^ 
a letter^ addressed to Augustin^ against the PrisoilUanists 
and Origeilists. The time of hi^ death is not knowu. . Ca> 
saubon gives him tbe character of a very good man, and 
very zealonsfor the house of God ^ but censures him as 
too easy of belief, and creduk>us, having advanced many 
particulars in his history without foundation.' 

QRPH£US, the most celebrated of all the Qreeks it 
tiae fabulous ages, was distinguished as a teacher of lehgioil 
and philosophy, and his name became as Ulustriolis among 
the Greeks, as that of Zoroa